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Edited by 
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POLD), bom in Paris in 1818, died 
at Argenteuil, March 29, 1869. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Delaroche. Medal, 
1867. Works: Niobe and her Children 
(1842) ; Oood Samaritan (1847) ; Bacchus 
and Ariadne (1848), M. Gbury, Belleville ; 
St Sebastian (1851) ; Phryne before the 
Areopagus (1852); Punishment of Queen 
Brunhilde (1853), Bouen Museum ; Epi- 
sode of Campaign in Egypt (1855), Bor- 
deaux Museum ; Campaign in the Crimea, 
Horde of Barbarians (1857) ; War in the 
Crimea (1859), Ministry of State ; Attila 
massacring his Prisoners (1861), belonged 
to Napoleon HI; Fete of Heliogabalus 
(1863) ; Joshua commanding the Sun (1863), 
Ministry of State; Convoy of Woimded 
(1864), Saumur Museum; Hyperides de- 
fending Phryne (1865); Solferino (1866); 
March from Saragossa (1867) ; Burning of 
Scutari (1868).— BeUier, n. 537. 

TABOR, MOUNT, Claude Lorrain, Gros- 
venor House, London; canvas, H. 5 f i 6 
in. X 8 fi 5 in.; signed, dated 1656. Called 
by Waagen, Sermon on the Mount Liber 
Veritatis, No. 138. Sketch, Duke of Devon- 
shire. Engraving in Ghrosvenor Gallery. 
Companion to Odden Calf. Painted for 
Signer Monpiore ; bought of W. E. Agar in 
1806.— PattiBon, Claude Lorrain, 218, 235 ; 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 171 ; Smith, viii 266. 

(1464-90). Lombard school He and his 
brother Filippo described in a decree of 
1464 as famous painters of Cremona, wor- 
thy of praise for their success in painting 
the loggia of the public palace. A Ma- 
donna by Francesco, dated 1489, National 
Ghdlery, London, shows a tendency to imi- 
tation of the Vivarini ; but in his pictures 
on the shutters of the organ of S. Marco, 
Venice (1490), now in the lumber room, the 
style is feeble Squarcionesque. — C. & C, 
N. Italy, ii 439 ; Siret, 901 ; Burckhardt, 

TACKE, LXJDWIG, bom at Brunswick, 
Dea 6, 1823. Architecture painter, pupil 

of Dasseldorf Academy (1849-61), and in 
Munich of Piloty. . Works : Gtethic Arcades 
of City Hall in Brunswick, Halberstadt 
Cathedral (1850) ; Literior of Cologne Ca- 
thedral (1851), Bamberg Gallery; The 
Entrance Hall of a Westphalian Peasant 
House (1851), Darmstadt Museum ; Mediae- 
val Council Chamber, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Mediaeval Council Boom (1854) ; 
Council Meeting in Thirty Years' War 
(1856) ; Faust in his Study (1863) ; Choir 
of Boman Church near Brunswick (1867) ; 
The Imperial Councillors thrown from the 
Window in Prague in 1618 (1869), KOnigs- 
berg Museum ; Nuremberg in DOrer's Time. 
— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviL 865. 

TADEMA, ALMA. See ^Zmo-Tadema. 

TAFI, ANDREA, of Florence, bom in 
1213 (?), died in 1294 (?). According to 
Vasari's doubtful account, he went to Venice 
and induced one ApoUonius, a Greek, to re- 
turn with him to Florence to teach him the 
art of mosaic. The Baptistery there was 
adorned by them in common, one figure 
alone, the colossal Saviour in the cupola, 
being the unaided work of Tafi. It shows 
that he was a feeble artist, who combined 
the defects of the Italo-Byzantine school of 
the period. — C. & C, Itidy, i. 195 ; Meyer, 
Ettnst-Lex., L 690 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., L 
281 ; Burckhardt, 488. 

TAGPRET, PETEB^ flourished at Ba- 
vensburg, Wtlrtemberg, about 1489. Ger- 
man school ; history painter in the manner 
of Zeitblom ; severed of his works are in all 
probability attributed to other masters. 
Works: St. John the Evangelist, Nicode- 
mus and a Bishop, Pope Gregory the Great, 
Joseph of Arimathea and Mary Magda- 
len, Stuttgart Museum. — Nagler, xviiL 88 ; 
Schnaase, viiL 460. 

at Blaye (Gironde) in 1746, died in Paris, 
Nov. 11, 1809. History painter, pupil of 
Vien ; won third grand prize for painting 
in 1769 ; went to Bome in 1778 and re- 
mained there four years. Member of Acad- 
emy, 1784. Works : Birth of Louis XTH. 


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(1782) ; Ulysses and Neoptolemus (1784), 
Louvre, Paris ; Virgil reading the -Sineid to 
Augustus, M. Dufresnoy ; Sabinus and Epo- 
nina discovered by Soldiers of Vespasian 
(1787) ; Cleopatra (1791) ; Sappho, Nero 
saves the Wife of Seneca (1793), Nantes 
Museum ; Leander and Hero (1798) ; Olym- 
pias (1799) ; Andromache (1800) ; Ehada- 
mistus and Zenobia (1806). He was the 
author of several works on ari — Bellier, ii. 

at Livesey Hall, near Liverpool, Aug. 6, 
1819. Landscape and animal painter, pupil 
of Boyal Institution, Manchester, but chiefly 
self-taughi Went to New York in 1850, 
and was elected N.A. in 1858 ; visited Eu- 
rope in 1874 Studio in New York City. 
Works : Duck and her Young (1868) ; Gor- 
don Setter, Charles Stewart Smith, New 
York; Snowed In, Judge Hilton, ib.; Halt 
on the Carry (1871) ; Racquette Lake (1873); 
There's a Good Time Coming (1878); 
Thoroughbreds (1879) ; October Sport, A. 
R Orr ; Intruder — Motherly Protection 
(1880), G. D. Cochi-an ; Still-Hunting in the 
Adirondacks, Anxious Time — Study from 
Nature (1881), C. K Flint; Good Hunt- 
ing Ground — Adirondacks (1882) ; Tres- 
passers (1883) ; Buffed Grouse at Home, 
Summer, Little Pets, Happy Family at 
Home — Adirondacks, Maternal Affection 
— Summer in the Adirondacks (1884) ; 
Our Pets, Pleasant Memories of the 
Adirondacks (1885) ; Woodcock Shooting 

cinnati, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1834. Landscape 
painter; graduated at Bethany College, 
Virginia, in 1852, and spent the following 
three years in Europe, chiefly in Florence ; 
visited Europe a second time in 1859, and 
studied at Dtlsseldorf under August Weber 
and Andreas Achenbach until 1871 ; made 
a third visit in 1873, and worked several 
years in the Bavarian Tyrol and in Munich 
under Adolf Lier and Hermann Baisch, 
under whom he studied cattle painting. 

He spent altogether fourteen years in Ger- 
many, during which his pictures were dis- 
posed of at the cyclical exhibitions. Medals : 
1871, 1872, Cincinnati Exhibition. Studio 
in Baltimore. Works : Waterfall in Pyre- 
nees, James Caird, Gourock House, Green- 
ock on the Clyde ; Meyringen, James Staats 
Forbes, Wickham Hall, Kent ; Waterfall, 
Prince Heinrich XVHL of Keuss ; Lake of 
Wallenstadt, William Groesbeck, Cincin- 
nati; Westphalian Landscape (figures by 
Ludwig Kuaus), C. S. Wol^ Philadelphia ; 
A Mill (figures by Munkacsy), William H 
Davis, Cincinnati ; Evening in Norway, 
George R Vickers, Baltimore ; Evening on 
the Lake, Tyrolese Idyl, Summer (1876); 
Willowy Brook (1879); Cattle Resting, 
Watering Place (1880) ; After the Shower, 
Fisher Huts— Sconsett (1882); Summer 
Afternoon — Upper Potomac (1883). 

TAMAGNO. See Vincenzo da San Gimi- 

TAMAE^ Alexander Cabanel, Luxembourg 
Museum ; canvas, H. 6 ft X 8 ft 1 in. Il- 
lustration of episode described in 2 Sam- 
uel xiiL Tamar, daughter of David, having 
been outraged by her brother Amnon, goes 
to her other brotiier Absalom and complains 
of the crime. Tamar, her hair dishevelled 
and her garments in disorder, is seated on 
a divan beside Absalom, across whose knees 
she has thrown herself in despair ; Absalom, 
who is dressed in a white tunic embroidered 
with gold, and a green and red turban, is 
raising his right hand in anger. A negress, 
standing with her head against the wall, ap- 
pears to partake of her mistress's shame and 
grief. Salon, 1876. — ^Larousse, xv. 43. 

ert Leslie, South Kensington Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 1 ft 8^^ in. X 2 ft 4 in. Petruchio 
thrusts back tiie gown to the frightened 
tailor ; Katherine sits at left ; Hortensio in 
background. One of Leslie's best pictures. 
Royal Academy, 1832. Replica, Petworth. 

Dapper, bom in Hamburg in 1658, died in 
Vienna in 1724. German school ; fruit and 


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flower painter, papil of Theodor van Boeeten 
and Johann Pfeiffer. Studied in Borne un- 
der Mario Nuzzi, and when called to Vienna 
painted for the imperial court, in the style 
of Jan Weenix and Melchior Hondecoeter. 
Works : Flower-Piece, Flowers and Fruits 
(3), Dead Game and Dog (1706), Poultry 
and Eabbit, Himtsmen with Booty, Muse- 
um, Vienna ; Flower- and Fruit-Pieces (1715 
[3]), Dead Fowl (1706 [2]), Dead Game 
(1707, 1716 [2J, 1717), nine others, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, ib.; Doves, Hen with 
Ohickens, Dead Woodcock and other Birds, 
Pheasants and Dove, Dresden Gallery ; 
Turkish Duck attacked by Fox (1718), Dead 
Fowls (2), Turtle Doves Feeding, Fruit- 
Pieces (2, one dated 1712), Gotha Muse- 
um ; Fruit-Piece, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg ; Dead Birds (2, 1706), two others, 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Doves Billing (1724), 
Schwerin Gbdlery. — Kugler (Crowe), iL 633 ; 
Wurzbach, xliii. 37. 

sina, near Naples, in 1838. History painter, 
pupil of Mancinelli in Naples ; went in 1869 
to Florence, where he competed for the first 
historical prize. Order of Italian Crown. 
Works : Camoens with his Negro in Prison ; 
Buoso da Duero insulted by his Fellow- 
Citizens (1868), bought by the State ; Ad- 
miral Caracdolo hanged by Order of Nelson, 
King of Italy ; Ferdinand IV. of Naples re- 
turning from the Chase. — Jiflller, 616. 

Knille, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, 
H 8 ft 10 in. X 9 ft 3 in. ; signed, dated 
1873. Tannhauser, the minnesinger, hav- 
ing become sated with pleasure during his 
visit to the Venusberg, determines, notwith- 
standing the entreaties of Venus, to return 
to Lisaiira, whose love he had won at Man- 
tua. He is represented as starting up from 
the flower-strewn couch in the crystal 
grotto, with one hand on his lyre and the 
other pressing his forehead, while Venus, 
rising nude from her draperies, endeavours 
to detain him by seizing his shoulder; 
above, two cupids hold him by his mantle ; 

at lef t^ one dioots an arrow at Tannh&user, 
while another gazes reproachfully, and in 
front a fifth has rolled off the couch ; in the 
background, all manner of enchanting splen- 

TARAVAL, HUGUES, bom in Paris in 
1728, died there, Oct 19, 1786. History 
painter, son and pupil of Thomas Raphael 
Taraval (portrait painter to King of Sweden, 
died at Stockholm in 1760). He won the 
1st prix de Rome in 1766 ; member of 
Academy, 1769; professor, 1786; sub-in- 
spector of the Gobelins. Works : Job re- 
proached by his Wife (1756), Marseilles 
Museum ; Venus and Adonis (1766), Comte 
de Ereutz ; Repast of Tantalus (1767), Cha- 
teau de Belle-Vue; Triumph of Bacchus 
(1769), Gallery of Apollo, Louvre, Paris; 
Marriage of St Louis (1773), Chapel of 
!^cole Militaire; Triumph of Amphitrite 
(1777), Louvre; Cumroan Sibyl (1781), 
Chapel of Fontainebleau ; Artist's Portrait^ 
Stockholm Museum. — Bellier, iL 64L 

Cochin, bom in Paris, Sept 3, 1766, died 
there, April 3, 1830. History painter, son 
of Jacques Nicolas Tardieu (engraver, 1716- 
91), and pupil of J. B. Regnault Won 
2d grand prix de Rome in 1790. Works : 
Tarquin and Lucretia (1793) ; Death of 
Correggio (1806) ; Napoleon receiving the 
Queen of Pi-ussia at Tilsit (1808), Henry IV. 
before Paris, Halt of French Army at Syene 
in Egypt, Versailles Museum ; AUegory on 
Birth of Due de Bordeaux (1822), Rouen 
Museum ; Trophenius and Agameda, Be- 
san9on Museum; Ulysses recognized by 
Euryclea, Marseilles Museum ; Susanna at 
the Bath, Havre Museum. — ^Bellier, ii 643. 


werp, March 7, 1651, died there. Sept 29, 
1725. Flemish school; history and genre 
painter. Master of the guild in 1690, dean 
in 1701. For the guild room of the dia- 
mond polishers he painted eight scenes 
from the lives of SS. Peter and PauL In 


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the Antwerp Museum is a capital genre 
scene: The Philosophers. — Cat du Mus. 
d'Anvers, 379 ; Van den Branden, 1037. 
OCTAVE, bom in 
Paris, July 26, 1800, 
died there, by sui- 
cide, April 22, 1874 
History and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
Pierre Girard, Guil- 
len Lethi^re, and of 
the il^cole des Beaux 
Arts. Medals: 2d 
class, 1838; Ist 
class, 1849 ; 3d class. Exposition universelle, 
1855. Works : Death of Correggio (1834) ; 
Vicar of Wakefield (1835) ; Death of HeloXse 
(1838) ; Diana at the Bath (1842) ; Christ 
in the Garden of Olives (1844) ; Erigone, 
Slave Merchant (1846) ; Temptation of St 
Anthony (1849) ; Unhappy FamUy (1849), 
Luxembourg Museum ; Gardens of Armida 
(1850); Conmiunion of Early Christians 
in Catacombs (1852), Bordeaux Museum; 
Sleep of Jesus, Son of Louis XVL in the 
Temple (1855) ; Magdalen, Pygmalion and 
Galatea (1857) ; Funeral of Dagobert in St. 
Denis (1838), Louis X., Portrait of Gaspard 
de Saulx, do. of Charles le Blanchefort, do. 
of PhiUppe de Comines, Versailles Muse- 
um ; Heaven and Hell (1850), Artist's Por- 
trait, Ariadne, Convalescent Mother, Young 
Woman with Glass of Wine, Painter's Studio, 
Suicide, Return of Prodigal Son, and others, 
Montpellier Museum. Alexandre Dumas 
has forty-five of Tassaert's pictures and 
sketches, and many others are owned in 
Paris.— aaretie, Peintres, etc. (1882), i. 25 ; 
Bellier, iL 544; Gaz. des B. Arts (1886), 
xxxiiL 28. 

TASSI, AGOSTINO, bom in Perugia in 
1566, died in Bome in May, 1644 Boman 
school Beal name Buonamici, but adopted 
that of the Marquis Tassi, whose page he 
had been ; pupil of Paul Brill, under whose 
care he became an excellent landscape 
painter. He was a man of infamous char- 

acter, who paid the penalty of his crimes 
in the galleys at Leghorn ; when the part 
of his sentence condemning him to hard 
labour had been remitted, he soon made 
himself known throughout Italy as a paint- 
er of marine view& After his liberation he 
was employed in painting frescos in the 
Quirinal and in the Palazzo de' Lancel- 
lottL Tassi was the master of Claude Lo]> 
rain. — Tjanzi, L 484 ; Ch. Blanc, £)cole om- 

sia, about 1813. Battle painter, son of a 
serf in the Borissov Government ; attracted 
by his sketches the attention of his mas- 
ter, who educated him, but was forced by 
the successor in the estate into the army, 
where he served fifteen years ; in 1854 took 
part in the Crimean War ; drudged for his 
livelihood until 1870, when a tourist, who 
saw his sketch-book, induced him to paint 
some pictures for the Exposition in Moscow 
in 1873. These, which represented scenes 
in the Crimean War, brought him into prom- 
inence, and they were bought for 60,000 
rubles for the Winter Palace of St Peters- 

ronne (Somme) ; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, and engraver ; pupil of O. 
Crauck, Lepic, Jules Lefebvre, and Bou- 
langer. Medals : 2d class, Paris and Mu- 
nich, in 1883. Works: Herring Fishing, 
Coup d'epaule (1879) ; Retum from Fish- 
ing (1880); Femme aux ^paves. Artist's 
Portrait (1881) ; We are Lost, Landing the 
Herrings (1882) ; The Moumers at [Staples 
(1883) ; Convalescent (1884). 

Paris, Feb. 10, 1755, died there, March 20, 
1830. History and landscape painter, pupil 
of Brenet, Casanova, and L6picie. Won 
grand prix de Rome in 1784, and spent 
three years there with the help of his 
patron, M. Angiviller. Won grand medal, 
and became member of Academy in 1796. 
Medal, 1803; L. of Honour; Order of 
Christ in Portugal Li 1816 he went with 


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'Lebreton and Montigny to found an Acad- 
emy of Art in Rio de Janeiro, and returned 
in 1824 Works : Si John Preaching, Mili- 
tary Hospital in Italy (1789), Peter the Her- 
mit preaching First Crusade, Taking a City 
(1800), Louvre, Paris ; Battle of Nazareth, 
Crossing the St Bernard, Napoleon L enter- 
ing Munich, Battle of Ebersburg, Halt on 
the Slope of the Alps, Bonaparte visiting 
the Battle Field of Lodi, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Woman taken in Adultery, Grenoble 
Museum ; Ball Play, Village FSte, Shepherds 
Reposing, Montpellier Museum ; Shepherds 
competing for the Prize of Pan, Clorinda 
with the Herdsmen, The lion of Androcles, 
Brother Philip's Qeese, Proclamation of 
Henry of Burgundy as first King of Portu- 
gal (Lisbon and Rio ^^ 
de Janeiro) ; Military ^ Ha^u^yty% 
Camp, Hermitage, St ^y 
Petersburg. Many of KJOUUJAXX^ 
his works have been / 
engraved. — ^Bellier, ii 
646 ; Ch. Blanc, t^\e 
fran9aise ; Biog. uni- 
verselle ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; Jal, 1176 ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 138. 

TAtJRISCUS, painter, date unknown. 
Pliny names (xzxv. 40 [144]) among his 
works a Discobolus, a Clytaemnestra, a Pan, 
a Polynices claiming the Sovereignty, and a 
Capaneu& Possibly identical with Tauris- 
cus of TraUes, the sculptor. — ^Pliny, xxxvi 
4 [33] ; SiUig, 434 ; Brunn, ii. 287. 

TAVARONE, LAZZARO, bom in Genoa 
in 1556, died there in 1641. Genoese 
school ; favourite pupil and assistant of 
Luca Cambiaso ; went vnth his master to 
Spain, and continued in the Escorial the 
works left unfinished by him at his death 
(1585). Returned to Ghenoa in 1594, and 
painted many frescos in the cathedral and 
other churches, and in various palaces, espe- 
cially the Palazzo Adomo, where he exe- 
cuted a fresco on the ceiling. The Doge 
Adomo receiving the Pope. He left but 
few oil pictures. — Lanzi, iii. 248 ; Ch. Blanc, 
!l£cole g^noise ; Lavic^, 89. . 


TAVERNIER, PAUL, bora in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Animal, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Cabanel and GuiUaumet 
Medal, 3d class, 1883. Works: Caf6 in 
Algiers (1878) ; Arabs Bathing Horses in 
the Sea (1879) ; Hallali (1880) ; The Model 
(1881) ; An Liquiry (1882) ; Stag Hunt, The 
Chase (1883) ; Bat Teau, Wild Boar Hunt 
(1884) ; The Stag at Bay, A False Start 
(1885) ; Amazone aux 6coutes, Rentr6e des 
poulini5res (1886). 

drecht in 1777, died in Rome in June, 1857. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Michiel Ver- 
steeg, of Jan Eelderman (1741-1820), and 
of Arie Lamme ; then studied in Paris imder 
David in 1808-9, and thence went to Rome. 
He ranks among the more esteemed of 
modem landscape painters. Order of Lion, 
1839. Member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works: Italian Landscape (1823), Falls of 
Tivoli (1824), Amsterdam Museum; View 
of Aricia near Rome (1855), New Pinako- 
thek, Munich. — ^Immerzeel, iiL 129 ; Kramm, 
vL 1606. 

Brunswick in 1812. Historical genre paint- 
er, pupil of DOsseldorf Academy in 1834--36, 
after having studied while travdling in Hun- 
gary, North Italy, and Tyrol His pictures 
show great feeling for noble forms and fine 
grouping, but are rather weak in drawing 
and colouring. Works: Albrecht DCirer 
painting (1834) ; Singer on the Battlement 
of a Castle (1835) ; Auerbach's Cellar, Wood 
Gatherer by Forest Chapel (1836) ; Portrait 
of Emperor Otto H. (1836), Romer, Frank- 
fort ; Greek Prisoners guarded by Mame- 
lukes (1837), Mr. Geisberg, Monster ; Libera- 
tion of Christians through Crusaders (1837); 
Henry the lion taking Leave of his Wife ; 
Scene in Hamlet (1840) ; Richard Coeur de 
lion taking Corsair's Ship (1840) ; Charles 
y. denying Exhumation of Luther (1845) ; 
Last Banquet of the GKrondists (1849), 
Stettin Museum. — Cotta's KunstbL, 1835- 
45 ; niustr. Zeitg., 1849 ; Nagler, xviiL 


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TELEPHANES, painter, of Sicyon, early 
period. Mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 5 [16]) 
in connection with Ardices of Corinth as 
first to use shading lines within outline 
drawings. — Sillig, 436 ; Brunn, ii. 4 

W. Turner, National GWlery, London ; can- 
vas, a 2 ft 11 in. x 3 ft 11 in. The T6m6- 
raire,a three-decker, mounting 98 guns, capt 
ured from the French in 1759, had acquired 
the title of " Fighting " before she took so 
conspicuous a part at Trafalgar. She was 
put out of commission soon after the peace 
of 1815, and, being condemned as unservice- 
able, was sold in 1838 and towed to Bother- 
hithe to be broken up. The picture repre- 
sents her in tow of a tug, the sun setting in 
a blaze of glory behind. One of the finest of 
Turner's later works. Boyal Academy, 1839. 
Engraved by J. T. Willmore. — Art Journal 
(1864), 108 ; Hamerfcon, Life ; Cat Nat GaL 

at Leeuwarden in 1622 or 1623, died in 
Amsterdam, May 13, 1672. Dutch school 
Real name Abraham Lambert Jacobse. Por- 
trait painter, pupil of his father, Lamberts 
Jacobse, and in Leyden of Joris van Schoo- 
ten, but followed more the later manner of 
Van der Heist A light and pleasing colour- 
ing and broad treatment characterize his 
pictures. Works : Three Portraits, Amster- 
dam Museum ; Portraits of Man and Wife 
(1660), Hague Museum; Regents of the 
Orphan Asylum (1669), Three Allegories, 
Leyden Museum ; Portraits of an Admii*al 
and his Wife (1671), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Portrait of Hendrik van Westerhout, Man 
and Wife in their Park, Berlin Museum ; 
Female Portrait, Cassel Gallery; Dutch 
Patrician Family (1672), Hamburg Gallery. 
— ^Immerzeel, iiL 130 ; Eramm, vL 1607 ; 
Eugler (Crowe), ii. 362 ; Havard, A. & A. 
hoU., iL 85, 180 ; Burger, Musdes, ii 124 ; 
Jahrb. d. preusa Eunstsammlg., iv. 

TEMPERELLO, Hu See CaseUi, Oristo- 

bom in Florence in 1555, died in Rome, 

Aug. 5, 1630. Roman school ; pupil of 
John Stradanus, and of Santo de Titi ; af- 
terwards worked in company with CigolL 
About 1575 went to Rome and painted in 
the Vatican, the Palazzo Giustiniani, and 
other pubUc buildings. Painted chiefly 
battles, cavalcades, himting scenes, and 
other figure pieces; and left more than 

1,500 etchings. — Ch. Blanc, ]^ole ombri- 
enne ; Burckhardt, 185, 757 ; Siret, 905. 


NIUS, Joseph M. W. ISimer, Mr. Goupil (?) ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft 9 in. x 7 ft 9 in. The Tem- 
ple of Jupiter at iQgina restored on the 
general plan of the Athenian Acropolis, 
which is seen in the distance, at left ; in 
foreground, peasants dancing the Romaika. 
Royal Academy, 1816. Bought by Moon, 
Boys & Graves, who sold it to Wynn Ellis ; 
at his sale (1876), £2, 100. Engraved (1828) 
by John Pye ; J. B. Allen, in Turner Gal- 

gelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceil- 
TENTERS, DAVH), the elder, bom in 

Antwerp in 
1582, died 
there, July 
29, 1649. 
s c h ool ; 
genre, and 
pupil of his 
elder brother Juliaen (1572-1615), of Ru- 
bens, and in Rome of Adam Elsheimer ; 
master of Antwerp guild in 1606 ; painted 
chiefly peasant scenes, combined with land- 


Digitized by 




scape, but occasionally biblical and mytho- 
logical subjects ; his earlier works are hea^y 
in tone and crude in colour, while in his 
later pictures he approached, in freedom of 
treatment and harmony of colour, the man- 
ner of his famous son. Works: Bocky 
Landscape, Conversation, Playing at Bowls, 
National Gallery, London ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Seven Works of Mercy, St Paul's, 
Antwerp; Transfiguration (1615), Church 
at Dendermonde ; Landscape, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; do. with Castle, Brunswick Gbllery ; 
Bleachery, Interior of Peasant Eoom, Bam- 
berg Gallery ; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Berlin Museum ; Peasant's Frolic by a Tav- 
ern, Cassel Gallery ; do., Darmstadt Muse- 
um; Dutch Eirmess (2), Landscapes (4), 
Dutch Bleachery, Dresden Gallery ; Smoker 
and Tippler, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Rocky Ravine with Figures, Peasant carry- 
ing a Pole, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Tav- 
ern Interior, Oldenburg Gkdlery ; Tempta- 
tion of St Anthony, Gypsy Women in a 
Ravine, Schwerin Gallery ; Smoking Room 
(2), Stockholm Museum ; A Painter at his 
Easel (1641), Two Landscapes, Hermitage, 
St Peteraburg ; Pan with Nymphs and Sa- 
tyrs, Vertumnus outwitting Pomona, Juno 
demanding lo of Jupiter, Mercury putting 
Argus to Sleep (1638), Landscapes (4), Vi- 
enna Museum ; Physician with a Bottle, 
XJflfizi, Florence ; Temptation of St An- 
thony, Dutch Kitchen, New York ,^^ 
Museum. — F. J. van den Branden, Vn 
752; Ch. Blanc, ifecole flamande; -**^ 
Immerzeel, iiL 130 ; Eramm, vi. 1608 ; vii. 
145 ; Michiels, viL 428 ; Rooses (Reber), 
385 ; Van den Branden, 750. 

TENIERS, DAVID, the younger, bom 
in Antwerp, baptized Dec. 15, 1610, died at 
Perck, near Brussels, April 25, 1690. Flem- 
ish school ; genre, landscape, and portrait 
painter, son and pupil of David the elder ; 
developed under the influence of Rubens, 
and especially of Brouwer. Master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1632, its dean in 1644-45, was 
made court painter to Archduke Leopold 
Wilhelm, governor of the Netherlands, and 

settled, between 1648 and 1652, in Brus- 
sels, where he was received into the guild 
in 1675. He 
was the prime 
mover in the 
foundation of 
the Antwerp 
Academy in 
1663. Equally 
favoured by ,^ 
Leopold Wil- '/"\ 

helm's suc- 
cessor, Don ^" -'.^^ ' 
Juan of Austria, who is said to have studied 
under him ; he received important commis- 
sions from Philip IV. of Spain, and marks 
of esteem from Queen Christina of Sweden 
and the great in England and other coun- 
tries. The Count of Fuensaldana sent him 
to England to buy works by the Italian 
masters. He holds the first position among 
the genre painters of Flander& Picturesque 
arrangement, exquisite harmony of colour- 
ing in all details, and a light and sparkling 
touch characterize his pictures, in which 
two periods may be distinguished—the ear- 
lier, up to 1640, in which a somewhat heavy 
brown tone prevails, gradually attaining, up 
to 1644, a luminous golden tone, and the 
later, up to 1660, in which he changed into 
a cool silvery hue ; after that he again 
adopted a decided golden tone. In 1660. 
he published in Brussels a work containing 
about 200 engravings of pictures of the 
Italian and Flemish schools in the Arch- 
duke's gallery, executed from small copies 
made by himself from the originals. Of 
these copies 120 were sold in the Blenheim 
Palace sale (1886) for £2,002 10a Works : 
Music Party, Boors Regaling, The Money- 
changers, Players at Tric-Trac, eleven oth- 
ers. National Gkdlery, London ; Boors Danc- 
ing (1645), Frolic in Village Courtyard 
(1649), Detachment of Civic Guard (1657), 
seven others, Buckingham Palace, ib.; Al- 
chemist, Village Festival, five others, Bridge- 
water Grallery, ib.; Landscape (1649), Farm- 
er's Family, two others, Grosvenor (Jallery, 


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ib. ; Witch before Cauldron, Group of Ducks, 
Stafford House, ib.; Village Fete, Apsley 
House, ib.; Seven Works of Mercy, Artist's 
Portrait^ three others, Lord Ashburton, ib.; 
five, Mr. Baring, ib.; do., Mr. Holford, ib.; 
three, Mr. Phipps, ib.; do.. Lord Colbome, 
ib.; two. Lord Ward, ib.; Marriage of Ten- 
iersy Alfred de Rothschild, ib.; Prodigal Son 
(1644), Denial of St Peter (1646), Seven 
Works of Mercy y Temptation of Si An- 
thony (2), twenty-nine others, Louvre ; Fish 
Market, Mendicant, Comte Henri de Gref- 
fulhe, Paris; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Lille Museum; do., Eirmess (masterpiece, 
1652), The Five Senses, Interior of Arch- 
duke Leopold William's GhJlery, fo\ir oth- 
ers, and (with Lucas van Uden) Preparing 
for the Market, Brussels Museum; Pano- 
rama of Valenciennes, four others, Antwerp 
Museum; Guard Room (1641), Eirmess, 
Rustic Pursuits, four others, Amsterdam 
Museum ; The Good Table (1644), Alche- 
mist, Hague Museum ; Musicians in a Tav- 
ern, three others, Basle Museum ; Smoker, 
Mus^e Rath, Geneva ; Mountainous Land- 
scape, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; 
Daniel in Lions' Den (1640), Soldiers at 
Dice, Aschaffenburg G^ery ; Repast (1630), 
Temptation of St. Anthony (masterpiece, 
1647), Flemish Eirmess, Artist with his 
Family, four others, Berlin Museum; Al- 
chemiist^ four others, Brunswick Museum ; 
Supper in the Bam (1634), Doctor's Visit 
(1640), Country Physician, Carkruhe Gkd- 
lery ; Barber Shop, Entry of Archduchess 
Isabella into Vilvoorden, do. into Brussels, 
five others, Cassel Gallery ; Temptation of 
St Anthony, Gallery, Copenhagen ; do., 
and Rustic Flemish Interior (1640), Do- 
mestic Occupation (1660), Unpleasant Dis- 
covery (1667), Eitchen Interior (1674), 
Moltke Collection, ib.; Old Scholar (1637), 
Darmstadt Museum ; Village Fair (1641), 
Peasants playing Dice (1646), Peasants at 
Dinner (1648), twenty-one others, Dresden 
Museum ; Landscapes with Figures (3), St 
Jerome in the Desert, three others, Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Peasant's Frolic, five 

others, Gbtha Museum ; Interior with Peas- 
ants, Landscape by Moonlight, Eunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Eitchen Interior, Ferdinande- 
um, Innsbruck ; Landscape, Eonigsberg 
Museum ; Gypsy Family (attributed, but 
probably by David, the elder), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Tavern Scenes (6, three dated 1643, 
1645, 1650), Peasant's Wedding (1651), Al- 
chymist (1680), Great Fair near Florence, 
Views in the Gallery of Archduke Albrecht 
at Brussels (4), fifteen others. Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Village Festival (1649), Ol- 
denburg GbUery ; Guard Room (1642), 
Archers of Antwerp (1643, masterpiece), 
Eitchen Interior (1646), Village Festival (2, 
one dated 1648), Wedding Dinner (1650), 
Flemish Amusements (1654), thirty-three 
others, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Fifteen 
Scenes in life of the Virgin, Holy Family, 
Schleissheim GhJlery ; Company in Artist's 
House, Daniel in Lions' Den (1649), six 
others, Schwerin Gallery; Peasants at the 
Inn, Stuttgart Museum ; Peasant Wedding 
(1648), Robbers plundering Village (1648), 
Shooting at the Shawfowl in Brussels (1652, 
masterpiece). Village Festival (masterpiece), 
Abraham's Sacrifice (1653), Room in Gallery 
of Archduke Leopold William at Brussels, 
thirteen others, Museum, Vienna; Tavern 
Scene (1670), thirteen others, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, ib.; sixpictures,HarrachGkdlery,ib.; 
three, Czemin Gallery, ib.; two, Schonbom 
Gallery, ib.; four, Stockholm Museum; St 
Peter Weeping, Uflfizi, Florence; Peasant 
Wedding (1637), History of Rinaldo and 
Armida, and forty-one others, Madrid Mu- 
seum ; Marriage Festival, Judith with Head 
of Holofemes, Museum, New York ; Incan- 
tation Scene, Village Fete (2), Boors Regal- 
ing, Charles V. leaving Dort, Parable of the 
Labourer, Landscape, Historical Society, ib. 
His brother Abraham (1629-71) and his son 
David m. (1638-85) were his pupils and 
imitators. By Abraham are, in the Madrid 
Museum : A Guard Room, and a Depository 
of Arms ; in the Hermitage at St Peters- 
burg : A Prelate's Library ; in the Harrach 
Gallery at Vienna : Monkeys as Shoemakers 

Digitized by 


9 J 

Digitized by 


,j' ^^> "^ .*^.<f ■•'''-' 4.''^^<-t'v<^ 

Digitized by 



in the Shop, and do. as Tailors ; in the Tu- 
rin Gallery : A Guitar Player.— Ch. Blanc, 
£cole flamande ; Cat _- w^ 

du Mus. d'Anvers, Je/rtUAjS.^- jy 
382;Dohme, lL;Im- " 

merzeel, iii. 130; 

Journal des B. Arts 

(1864), 171 ; Kramm, 

yL 1609 ; Tii. 145 ; 

Kugler (Crowe), ii 

321; Messagerdes 

sciences hiEit;. (1854), 

381 ; (1868), 263 ; (1878), 331 ; Michiels, 

vii. 441 ; viii 3 ; Rooses (Reber), 385 ; Van 

den Branden, 981 ; Vermoelen, Teniers le 

jeune, etc. (Antwerp, 1865) ; Ylaamsche 

school (1864), 173 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 


iers, Alfred de Rothschild Collection, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 2 ft 3 in. x 2 ft 10 in. ; 
dated 1651. A pleasure garden, adorned 
with trees, bowers, and a fountain, through 
which Teniers and his bride are being con- 
ducted to their chdteau by a procession of 
about twenty persons, attended by youths 
bearing^refreshments ; at left, a man playing 
a guitar. Collection of Paignon Dijonval, 
1821 ; sold to T. Emmerson ; then in collec- 
tion of John Lucy, Esq., Charlcote. — Art 
Journal (1885), 242 ; Smith, iii. 382. 


Emanuel Leutze, Amos Binney, Boston, Mas& 
The attack by Cortes on the great teocalli 
or temple of Huitzilopotchli, in the city of 
Mexico, as narrated by Prescott in his " Con- 
quest of Mexico " (v. cap. 2). It represents 
the Spaniards forcing their way up the great 
stone steps of the pyramid in spite of the 
heroic valour of the Aztec& Loaned to 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1883. 

TEPIDARIUM, IN THE, Laurenz Alma- 
Tadema, A girl, nude, reclining on a mar- 
ble bench covered with a wild beast's skin 
and with cushions, in the tepidarium ( warm- 
^ing room) of a Roman bath, resting before 
proceeding to the calidarium, or hot bath ; 

in one hand she holds a feather fan, in the 
other a strigillus for scraping the skin ; at 
her feet is a pot of flowers. Painted in 1881. 

TERBRUGGHEN (Terbrttggen), HEN- 
DRIE, bom at Deventer in 1588, died at 
Utrecht, Nov. 1, 1629. History and genre 
painter, pupU of Abraham Bloemaert, then 
studied in Italy, where Rubens knew him ; 
in 1614 he was in Milan and returned in the 
same year to Utrecht, where he became 
master of the guild in 1616. Works : Four 
Evangelists (1621), Town Hall, Deventer ; 
Two Flute Players (1621), Cassel Gallery ; 
Man at Breakfast (1627), Augsburg Gallery ; 
Esther and Yashti (1628), Cologne Museum ; 
Christ Crowned with Thorns, Gallery, Co- 
penhagen ; Angel appearing to St Peter in 
Prison, Moltke Collection, ib. ; do. (1629), 
Schwerin Gallery. — Immerzeel, iiL 132 ; 
Eramm, vi. 1613 ; Schlie, 624. 

TERBURG (Ter Borch), GERAEtD, bom 
at Zwolle, 
b et ween 
1613 and 
1617, died 
at Deven- 
ter, Dec. 
8, 1681. 
genre paint- 
er ; received his first instruction from his 
father, Geert Terburg (1584-1662, who 
had studied in Rome), then formed himself 
in Amsterdam and especially in Haai*lem, 
where he entered the guild in 1635, under 
the influence of Frans Hals, and through 
independent study of the masterworks by 
Titian, Rembrandt, and Velasquez; trav- 
elled through Germany, Italy, Spain, Eng- 
land, and France, and painted everywhere 
portraits and genre pieces. In 1646-48, at 
Manster, he became, through the favour of 
the Spanish envoy, the painter of the diplo- 
matic circle and executed the famous por- 
trait group of the Peace Congress ; followed 
the Spanish envoy to Madrid, where he 


Digitized by 



painted the king and many courtiers and 
ladies ; returned via England and France to 
his native country, and settled at Deventer, 
where he obtained the citizenship in 1655, 
and afterwards became burgomaster. He 
was^the inventor of the interiors, and of the 
satin gown, so much used by Mieris and 
Metsu ; a first-rate and thoroughly original 
master. Works : Peace of Munster (1648), 
Guitar Lesson, National Gallery, London ; 
Girl reading Letter to her Mother, Girl at 
Table inviting Gentlemen to drink, Buck- 
ingham Palace, London ; Paternal Counsel, 
Bridgewater Q^ery, ib. ; Girl with Guitar 
and Two Gentlemen, Lord Ashbuiion, ib. ; 
Military Man by Fireside, Officer Writing, 
Music Lesson, Mr. Hope, ib. ; Group of 
Three, Girl Drinking, Mr. Munro, ib. ; Girl 
Writing, Girl Drinking, Mr. Baring, ib. ; 
Officer and Girl, Music Lesson (1660), Con- 
cert, Assembly of Priests, Reading Lesson, 
Louvre, Paris ; Mandolin Player, Antwerp 
Museum ; Paternal Advice, Boy with Dog, 
Portrait of Artist and his Wife, Museum, 
Amsterdam ; Card Players, Van Loon Col- 
lection, ib. ; Musical Couple, Six Collec- 
tion, ib. ; Two Portraits, Haarlem Muse- 
um ; The Dispatch (1655), Artist's Portrait, 
Hague Museum ; Large Group Poiirait, 
Town Hall, Deventer ; Lady at Toilet, Gbth- 
ic Church Interior, Suermondt Museum, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; Players at Tric-Trac, Bre- 
men Gallery ; Portraits of Man and Wife, 
Old Widow Lady, Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Young Lady with Lute, Music Lesson, Cas- 
sel Gallery ; Paternal Exhortation, Knife 
Grinder's Family, Smoker, Consultation 
(1635), Fo\ir Portraits, Berlin Museum; 
Officer Writing, Young Woman washing 
her Hands, Music Lesson, Lady Standing 
by Table, Dresden G^allery ; Young Woman 
with Glass of Wine, Stadel Gallery, Prank- 
fort ; Messenger waiting for Answer, Gk>tha 
Museum ; Portrait of a Burgomaster of Am- 
sterdam, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck; Boy 
with Dog, Trumpeter bringing letter to a 
Lady, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Glass of 
Lemonade, Musical Jew, Rustic Messenger, 

\JB* ]r^ iCxs. 

Lady reading Letter, Duet, Barmaid, Por- 
trait of a General, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; Two Couples (1658), Young Man read- 
ing, Violin Player, Schwerin Gallery; Young 
Woman peeUng Apple, Museum, Vienna; 
Portraits in Liechtenstein and Czemin (2) 
Galleries, ib. ; do. in Stettin, TJffizi, Flor- 
ence, and Turin Galleries (2) ; Artist's Por- 
trait, Museum, New York ; Portrait of Will- 
iam of Orange, two others. Historical So- 
ciety, ib. ; Degustation 
(Narischkine sale, 
Paris, 1883). — Ch. 
Blanc, il^ole hoUan- 
daise ; Bode, Studien, 
176, 614 ; Burger, 
Musses, i. 118, 244 ; 
ii. 102, 256 ; Dohme, lii. ; Immerzeel, iii. 
132 ; Jahrb. der KongL pr. Kunstsammlg., 
ii. 144 ; Kramm, v. 1612 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
ii. 394 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 141 ; v. Ill ; 
vii. 196 ; X. 36 ; xii. 84 ; xviii. 350, 370, 406 ; 
Gaz. des B. Arts (1886), xxxiv. 388 et seq. 

TERNITE, WILHELM, bom at Neustre- 
litz, Mecklenburg, in 1786, died in 1871. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of Gros 
in Paris after having been an officer during 
the wars of independence, 1813-15 ; went 
in 1823 to Bome and Naples, where he made 
excellent copies of the frescos at Pompeii. 
He was aulic councillor and, from 1826, in- 
spector of the Royal Gallery at Potsdam. 
Works : St John the Baptist, Schloss Belle- 
vue, Berlin ; Poiirait of Emperor Francis 
I of Austria (1837), Royal Pakce, ib. ; do. 
Queen Louise in Riding Habit (1827) ; do. on 
her Death-Bed ; do. of the Composer Spon- 
tini ; do. of Prof. Ottfried MaUer.—Cotta's 
KunstbL, 1829-38 ; Nagler, xviiL 248. 

Snip, bom at The Hague in 1649, died in 
Berlin, Jan. 21, 1717. History painter, pu- 
pil of Nicolaas Wieling (died in Berlin in 
1689), and of WiUem Doudyns (1630-97), 
then studied for six years in Rome and Ven- 
ice after Raphael, Titian, and Tintoretto, 
and after his return, via Germany, painted 
many ceilings and other decorative works 


Digitized by 



with subjects from Ovid, and from history, 
sacred and profane. In 1682-83 he did 
much towards the reyival of the Academy 
of Design at The Hague, and in 1690 was 
called as court painter to Berlin, where he 
decorated the electoral palaces, helped to 
found the Academy, and became professor. 
In the Eoyal Palace at Berlin is his Death 
of Adonis. His brothers and pupils, Ell- 
as (1651-1729) and Matheus (1670-1757), 
painted— the former, flowers and animals at 
The Hague and in Home, where he died ; the 
latter, history and portraits, studied also un- 
der Doudyns and Daniel Mytens, then as- 
sisted his brother in Berlin, and completed 
his studies in Bome and Venice. — Lnmer- 
zeel, iiL 134 ; Eramm, vi 1615 ; Nagler, xviii. 

TESCHENDORFF, EMTTi, bom in Stet- 
tin in 1823. History, genre and portrait 
painter, pupil in Munich of Piloty ; at first 
painted realistic scenes from life of Luther, 
then in Berlin portraits ; executes especial- 
ly single figures in pictiuresque attitudes. 
Assistant secretary at Berlin Academy since 
1877. Works : Conradin's Farewell of his 
Mother (1868) ; Husband's Bequest ; Juliet 
with the Potion ; Cleopatra ; Ariadne ; 
(Edipus and Antigone (1879) ; Pastime 
(1880).— Mailer, 516 ; Dlustr. Zeitg. (1881), 
il 257 ; Land und Meer (1883), ii. 700. 

Berlin in 1816, died there, Aug. 9, 1878. 
History painter, pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Herbig, with Wach, after whose death 
he devoted himself to religious art in the 
style and under the influence of Cornelius ; 
visited Bome in 1857. Great gold medal of 
HohenzoUem, 1865. Works: Ecce Homo 
(1853), church at Perleberg ; Piet^ (1878), 
Emperor William, Berlin; cartoons for 
stained-glass windows in Cathedrals of Mag- 
deburg, Stralsund, Aix-la-Chapelle, etc. — 
Rosenberg, Berl. Malersch., 247. 

TESTA, PIETRO, bom in Lucca in 1611, 
died in Rome in 1650. Florentine school ; 
supposed pupil at Lucca of Pietro Paolini 
Went to Rome when young, and studied un- 

der Domenichino and afterwards under Pie- 
tro da Cortona. He was of a morose and 
melancholy dispo- 
sition, and made 
many enemies by 
his adverse criti- 
cism of the works 
of other painters. 
His body was 
found floating in 
the Tiber, but 
whether he was 
^ murdered or committed suicide 

MJ ' is unknown. Among lus works 
I are: Joseph sold by his Breth- 

^^ ren, Capitol Museum, Rome; 
Death of Dido, Uffizi.— Lanzi, i. 236 ; Ch. 
Blanc, £cole florentine. 

umph of Religion, Oarofdo, Ferrara Gal- 
lery ; fresco transferred to canvas, H. 21 ft 
4 in. X 26 ft 11 in. A quaint allegorical 
composition, illustrating the victory of Chris- 
tianity over the Mosaic dispensation. In 
the middle is Christ on the cross ; at his 
right hand is the New Testament, at his left 
the Old, the latter placed on an ass ; from 
the cross proceed arms, which place a crown 
on the New Testament, hold the keys of 
Paradise, deliver the patriarchs from hell, 
and slay the Old Testament. Through the 
hands of a figure representing religion flow 
streams of blood, which fall on the sacra- 
ments, and opposite to these are seen the 
sacrifices of the Old Testament Solomon's 
temple has also a place in the composition, 
and opposite to it is the preaching of St 
PauL Over the whole is the Almighty seated 
on a rock. Painted in 1524 on the wall of 
the refectory of S. Andrea, Ferrara ; trans- 
ferred to canvas in 1841 by the painter Pel- 
legrino Succi, by order of Gregory XVL — 
Yasari, ed. Mil., vi. 466 ; Baruflaldi, L 332. 

TESTEUN (TetteHn), HENRI, bom in 
Paris in 1616, died at The Hague, April 17, 
1695. French school ; history and por- 
trait painter, brother of Louis Testelin, and 
pupil of Youet He became one of the 


Digitized by 



founders of the French Academj in 1648, 
secretary in 1650, professor in 1658 ; bore 
the title of first painter to the king, with 
lodgings in the Gobelin factory, of which 
he was superintendent until the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes (1681), when, being 
a Protestant, he fled to Holland. Works : 
Portrait of Louis XIV. (2), do. of Pierre 
Siguier, Versailles Museum ; Time clipping 

the Wings of Love. — Bellier, ii; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole fran9aise ; Biog. universelle ; Jal, 
TESTKTjTN (Tettelin), LOUIS, bom in 
Paris in 1615, 
died there, Aug. 
19, 1655. French 
school; genre 
painter, pupil of 
his father Oilles 
Testelin (court 
painter to Louis 
TTTTT.), of Vouet, 
and imitator of 
Le Brun. Did 
much decorative work in the Palais Royal, 
the Luxembourg, Fontainebleau, and other 
public and private buildings. Member of 
Academy, 1648 ; professor, 1650. Works : 
Resurrection of Tabitha (1652), Rouen Mu- 
seum ; Flagellation of St. Paul and St Silas, 
Notre Dame, Paris ; Passage of the Rhine 
in 1672, Keys of Marsal delivered to the 
King, Marriage of Louis XIV., Cloture of 
Dole in 1668, Versailles Museum ; Magda- 
len, Qrenoble Museum ; Syrinx and Pan, 
Rennes MuseuuL — Bellier, iL; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole fran9aise ; Jal, 1179. 

Amsterdam in 183L Architecture and land- 
scape painter, son of the engraver Johan 
Baptist Tetar van Elven ; pupil of Jacobus 
R J. van den Berg, then studied in Paris, 
where he settled, after having lived for 

several years in Turin. Italian Order of 
Maurice and Lazarus. Works: View of 
Westminster ; Interior of the Lateran in 
Rome; View of Genoa; Interior of St. 
James's, liege ; Place de TOp^ra in Paris 
(1880), Amsterdam Museum. By his father 
(bom in 1805) : Old Skipper with Bottle, 
Ruins of Church at Lisbon (1870), Ham- 
burg GhJlery. — Kramm, vi 1618; Kunst- 
Chronik, xviiL 578. 

bia, died at Innsbruck, Nov. 9, 1741. Oer- 
man school Real name Weber^ translated 
into Latin. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, then set- 
tled at Innsbruck; he was an unusually 
gifted artist of great versatility, and painted 
in the manner of the best old masters, so 
that many of his works were taken for pro- 
ductions of Callot, Brueghel, Teniers, etc 
Works: Seven Works of 'Mercy, Pair in 
Holland (2), Genre Scenes (2), Card Players, 
Dice Flayers, Conversation (3), Peasants' 
Frolic, Monkeys at Cards, Monkeys at 
School, Still-lives and Landscapes (10), 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck. — Nagler, xviii. 
289; Wurzbach, xliv. 104. 

THALES, painter, of Sicyon, mentioned 
by Diogenes Laertius (L 38) as a man of no- 
ble birth.— R R, Schom, 414 ; Sillig, 438. 

THANN, MORITZ VON, bom at O'-Becse, 
Hungary, in 1828. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Fahrich and Rahl, visited Belgium and 
Paris in 1855, then studied in Rome (18^6- 
59) ; greatly influenced by Cornelius, Over- 
beck, Riepenhausen, and Wagner ; returned 
to Hungary, and with Karl Lotz painted 
frescos in the Museum, besides others in 
public buildings, at Pesth. Order of Fran- 
cis Joseph in 1867 ; medal, Vienna, 1873. 
Works : Episode in Conquest of Szolnok in 
1552 (before 1855) ; Ulysses and Nausicaa, 
Ulysses and Penthesilea (1857-59), Baron 
Sina, Vienna ; Angelica and Medor, Tragedy 
of Man, Fata Morgana (1867), Recruiting, 
Meeting of King Ladislaus IV. and Rudolph 
von Hapsburg after Battle at Marchegg, 


Digitized by 



King Emerich taking his Brother Prisoner, 
St Cecilia, and others, Pesth Museum; 
Scenes from Hungarian Legends, The Four 
Great Bivers of Hungary, Attila's Banquet, 
Bedouten Saal, Pesth. In fresco: Episodes 
in Hungarian History, National Museum, 
ib.; Portraits of Emperor Francis Joseph 
and Empress Elizabeth (1868), Council 
Boom, ib.; Portrait of Francis Deak (1877), 
Academy of Sciences, ib.; many altarpieces 
for churches in Hungary. — Wurzbach, xliv. 
168 ; Graph. K, v. 16 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
xii (Mittheilungen, y. 12). 

in Boston, Mass., Aug. 12, 1849. Animal 
and landscape painter, pupil in Boston of 
Henry D. Morse, in Brooklyn of J. B. 
Whittaker (1867-68), and in Paris in the 
£cole des Beaux Arts tmder Lehmann and 
Gerdme (1876-79). Studio at Comwall-on- 
Hudson. Works : Young Lions of Central 
Park ; Cows coming from Pasture ; Feeding 
the Cows ; Boy and Dog ; Shamming Sick 
(1876) ; Autumn Cornfield ; View on the 
Seine ; Aldemey Herd in Guernsey ; Moun- 
tain Pasture; Sleep, Childhood (1878); 
Autumn Morning on the Housatonic, Por- 
trait of O. E. Palmer (1880). 

ter Dietrich, flourished in Prague during 
the reign of the Emperor Charles IV. (1348 
-78), as one of his court painters. German 
school Probably of Czech rather than Ger- 
man origin, judging from the pictures attrib- 
uted to him, which are of a Bohemian type. 
His name is mentioned as master of the guild 
as early as 1348, and again in a document of 
1367. He evidently had a long and influ- 
ential career, and may be considered as one 
of the founders of the school of Prague. 
Works: St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, Vi- 
enna Museum ; series of one hundred and 
twenty-five half-length figures of Saints, 
Apostles, etc. Chapel of Earlstein, near 
Prague; two half-length Saints, University 
Library, Prague. — Kugler (Crowe), L 38 ; 
Schnaase, vL 438 ; W. & W., i 396 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1873), viL 148. 

THEODORUS, painter, of Samoa or 
Ephesus (?). Mentioned by Theophanes in 
his essay on painting, according to Diogenes 
Laertius (ii. Anst, xix.). Two other paint- 
ers of this name are spoken of by Diogenes, 
one as mentioned by Polemo and the other 
by Menodotus as of Athena — Sillig, 439. 

THEODORUS, painter, of Samos, pupil 
of Nicosthenes, mentioned by Pliny (xxxv. 
40 [146]) as of some reputation. — Sillig, 

THEODOTUS, Greek painter of common 
subjects, lived at Rome first half of third 
century a a Mentioned in a comedy by 
Nsevius as the painter of a rude picture of 
the Lares at play on an altar. — Nsevius, in 
Festus (p. 250, ed. Mailer) ; Bninn, ii 503. 

THEOLOGY, Raphael, Camera della Se- 
gnatura, Vatican ; fresco, medallion on ceil- 
ing. Allegorical figure seated on clouds, 
with book in left hand. Two little genii, 
on either side, holding tablets, inscribed 
"Knowledge of Divine Things." Painted 
in 1512 ; shows hand of a pupil Engraved 
by B. Audran ; R. Morghen. — Passavant, ii. 
88 ; Mttntz, 311, 316, 350 ; Perkins, Essay, 

See, also, Dispvie of the Sacrament. 

THEOMNESTUS, Greek painter, 4th 
century b.c. Pliny says (xxxv. 36 [107]) 
that Mnason, tyrant of Elatea, paid twenty 
minse apiece for his pictures of the heroes. 
— ^Brunn, ii 256. 

THEON (Theorus, Theodorus), painter, 
about 360 ac. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40 
[138]) among his works : A Man anointing 
himself ; Murder of -3Egisthus and Clytem- 
nestra by Orestes ; Cassandra, in the Tem- 
ple of Concord, Rome ; Leontium, Mistress 
of Epicurus, in Meditation ; King Deme- 
trius ; and a series of pictures of the Trojan 
War, in the Portico of Philippus at Rome. 
Brunn (ii. 255) thinks him probably identi- 
cal with Theon of Samos. 

THEON, a famous Greek "painter, of Sa- 
mos, contemporary of Apelles, 4th century 
B.C. Pliny mentions (xxxv. 40) among his 
works. The Frenzy of Orestes — which Plu- 


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tarch Bays (De And. Poet, 3) represented 
Orestes slaying his mother— and a Thamy- 
ris playing the Lyre. Qnintilian (xiL 10, 6) 
gives him credit for a prolific fancy, and 
.Mian, speaking (V. H., iL 44) of his picture 
of a Soldier rushing to Battle, says that 
Theon sought theatrical effect by having 
trumpets blown before drawing the curtain 
from before ii 

THEORUS, painter. See Theon. 


THERBUSCH. See Liscewska, Anna 

THERIMACHUS, painter and sculptor, 
about 350 aa No works known. — Pliny, 
xxrv. 36 [78] ; Sillig, 198. 

THESEUS, picturea See Arisiolaus, Eu- 
phranor, Micon, Panamas, Parrhasiua, 

THJEVENIN, CHARLES, bom in Paris, 
July 12, 1764, died there, Feb. 21, 1838. 
History painter, pupil of "^^nceni In 1793 
won the 1st grand prix de Eome ; was direc- 
tor of the French School of Art in Eome for 
a number of years, and later keeper of Prints 
in Royal Library, Paris. Member of Acad- 
emy, 1825 ; L. of Honour, 1825. Works : 
Capture of the Bastile (1793) ; Auguereau 
on the Bridge of Areola (1798), Versailles 
Museum ; (Edipus and Antigone (1799) ; 
General Hey taking Gbeta (1800) ; Passage 
of Si Bernard (1806); Preparations for 
crossing St Bernard (1808) ; Battle of Jena, 
Attack on Ratisbon, Taking of Ratisbon 
(1810), Surrender of Ulm (1815), Versailles 
Museum ; Henri IV. giving Audience to the 
Professors of the Royal College (1827); 
Martyrdom of St Stephen (1827), S. fiti- 
enne du Mont; Joseph recognized by his 
Brethren, Angers Museum ; Justification of 
Susanna, Douai Museum. — ^Larousse ; Bel- 
li er, ii 557 ; Cotta's Kunstblatt (1838). 

botn at Lyons; contemporaiy. Portrait and 
figure painter, pupil of L6on Cogniet and 
of Joseph Paris. Medals: 3d class, 1849, 
1859, 1861. Works : Flora Mac Ivor and 
Rose Bradwardine (1848) ; Portrait of Abb6 
Jacquet (1859) ; Portrait of a Lady (1881). 


bom in Paris; contemporary. Genre and 
portrait painter, pupil of £mile Bin, Caba- 
nel, and of Lequien fils. Medal : 3d class, 
1885. Works: Death of Antigone and 
Hsemon (1878) ; After the Bath (1882); Mis- 
ery (1883) ; Portraits (1884) ; Le dejeuner, 
A Philosopher (1885) ; Portrait (1886). 

THIELE, ARTHUR, bom in Dresden, 
June 11, 1841. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of Dresden Academy, then of 
Julius Habner and of Ludwig Richter ; 
studied also in Munich, and in 1868-72 at 
DOsseldorf. Works: Deer on Autumn 
Moming; Deer in Winter; Stag before 
Hunter's Statue ; Dead Hare (1864), Winter 
Hunt, Wood Clearing with Deer (1881), 
Dresden Gallery. — Kaulen, 251. 

ANDER, bom at Erfurt, March 26, 1685, 
died in Dresden, May 22, 1752. Landscape 
painter ; at first a soldier ; studied from nat- 
ure, and painted in water-coloura After- 
wards instructed in oil painting by C. L. 
Agricola and Manyocki, and settled in 
Dresden, where, in 1747, he was appointed 
court painter to Sang Augustus of Poland. 
Works : Landscape with Cattle and Herds- 
men, Aschaffenburg Oallery ; Castle on Fire, 
Bamberg Gallery ; View in Saxony (1740), 
Qotha Museum; Evening Landscape, Eunst- 
halle, Hamburg; Landscapes (15, three 
dated 1745, 1746, 1749), Views of Dresden 
(3, one dated 1747), View of Meissen (1747), 
Two Views in Mecklenburg (1750), Herd 
driven through River, Schwerin Gallery; 
Landscapes (2), Rocky Cavern with Monu- 

ments, Animal-Pieces (3), Weimar Museum. 
— Kugler (Crowe), ii 566 ; Schlie, 625. 

Rigouldts, bom at Mechlin, baptized April 


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1, 1618, died at Boisschot in 1667. Flem 
ish school ; flower painter, pupil of Theodor 
BomboutSy and of Daniel Seghers in Ant- 
werp, where he was master of the guild in 
1641. like Seghers, he painted garlands and 
flowers to enframe subjects by other artists. 
Works much esteemed by the King of Spain. 
Works : Bouquet, Lille Museum ; Gh^rland, 
do. with Madonna (1667), Antwerp Museum ; 
Flowers around Statuette of St Jacob, Ma- 
drid Museum; Madonnawith Garland (1648), 
Rowers (2), Vienna Museum ; Flower-Pieces 
in Amsterdam and Hermannstadt (1661) 
Museums, and fi\f\n. ,, 
Liechtenstein J/^X Oh^tb^ liOO 

(Crowe), ii. 347 ; Immerzeel, iii 137 ; 
Kramm, vi 1623 ; Van den Branden, 1132. 

DRE, bom at Lyons, March 11, 1789, died 
there, April 17, 1870. Genre, landscape, and 
flower painter, pupil of RevoiL Medals : 2d 
dass, 1817, 1822. In 1827 became professor 
in Lyons, and gave up painting. Works : 
Interior of Old Cloister of St Andr6-le-Bas 
(1817) ; Bunch of Flowers (1820) ; Recrea- 
tion ; Soldier Retreating ; Religious Festi- 
val ; Funeral of a Monk (1827). — Larousse. 

Smt), bom in Paris, March 13, 1812, died 
there, Oct 11, 1866. Landscape painter 
and decorator, pupil of Qr^ later of Phi- 
lastre. He is best known as a scene paint- 
er in partnership with Cambon, at the Grand 
Op^ra and the Op^ra Comique. Medals : 
3d class, 1844 ; L. of Honour, 1863. Works : 
Party of Workmen picking up a Drunkard, 
Police Patrol (1853) ; Edge of a Forest, Car- 
avan Road (1855) ; Wandering Jew (1857) ; 
The l^ry (1859) ; Arrival of the Wedding 
Party, Fairies' Kingdom (1863) ; Ruins of a 
Temple (1865); Faust (1866).— Laroi^sse ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 275, 417, 510. 

THIERSCH, LUBWIG, bom in Munich, 
April 12, 1825. History and genre paint- 

er, pupil of Munich Academy, at first in 
sculpture under Schwanthaler, then in paint- 
ing imder Heinrich Hess, Schnorr, and es- 
pecially under Earl Schom ; went to Rome, 
and in 1852 to Athens, where he painted 
frescos in St. Nicodemus ; returned in 1855 ; 
the year following was called to Vienna to 
decorate the Greek church there, and in 
1860 to Si Petersburg to paint pictures in 
the chapels of Grand Dukes Nicholas and 
Michael and in St Catharine's Church. 
Member of St Peteraburg Academy ; Ba- 
varian Order of St. Michael ; Greek Order 
of the Redeemer ; Russian Order of Stanis- 
lau& Works: Sakuntala (1848) ; Camisard 
Scene ; Charon, Entry of Bacchus into Grove 
of Colonos, Lament of Thetis, Baron Sina, 
Vienna ; Daughter of Jairus, Christ at Geth- 
semane (1865) ; St Paul Preachmg (1866), 
City Hall, Athens ; Christ at Pool of Be- 
thesda ; Ceres seeking her Daughter ; Christ 
in the Desert (1874) ; Alaric as Victor in 
Athens (1879); Temptation of Christ— Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xviL 894 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xvii 435. 

Paris, May 19, 1839. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Picot, Fromentin, and 
CabaneL Paints chiefly religious pictures 
His work is admired for good modelling 
and fine colour. Medals : 1866, 1868, 1869 ; 
2d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1872. Works : 
Death of St Mary the Egyptian (1863), Li- 
sieux Museum ; St. Sylvoin (1864), Tours 
Museum ; The Levite of Ephraim cursing 
the City of Gaba (1865), Perpignan Muse- 
um ; St Vincent (1866), Bordeaux Museum ; 
Perseus (1867) ; St Paul the Hermit and 
St Anthony (1868) ; St Severin distribut- 
ing Alms (1869) ; Eruption of Vesuvius 
(1872) ; Judith's Return to BethuHa (1873), 
Tours Museum ; Rebekah at the Well (1874); 
St Sebastian (1875), Ministry of Fine Arts ; 
Joan of Arc (1876) ; Euterpe (1880) ; Orien- 
tale (1881); Poet at the Source (1882); 
L'ifipave du vengeur (1883) ; Napolitaine 
(1884) ; Exposure of Moses (1885), Luxem- 
Museum. He has painted also mural 


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pictures in the Church of the Trinity and 
decorative panels in the Ministry of War. — 
L'Art (1878), xiii. 144 ; BeUier, ii. 565. 

Incredulity of St. Thomas, Cima da Conegliano, Venice 

TfflSBE, Edwin Long, Gibbs Collection, 
England. Thp tragic amour of.Pyramus 
and Thisbe, in Bablyon, has been immortal- 
ized by Ovid in his "Metamorphoses" (IV.), 
and burlesqued by Shakespeare in "Mid- 
summer Night's Dream." :Royal Academy, 
1884; at William Graham sale, London, 
1886, to Gibbs for 840 guineas. Engraved 
by G. Bertinot (1886). 

United States; contemporary. Landscape 
and genre painter, pupil in Paris of ifidou- 
ard Fr^re ; fii'st exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, London, in 1864. Works: Re- 
turning from the Wood (1864) ; Love in 
the Kitchen ; Return of the Conscript ; Go- 
ing to Church, Christmas Eve (1876) ; Le 
jour de la Toussaint (1878) ; Watering his 
Horse, Morning Ride (1880) ; Rustic Sport, 

Summer Afternoon (1882); Old Farm House, 
South River, River Bank (1884) ; The Pets 

THOMAS, ADOLF, bom at Zittau, Sept 
28, 1834. Landscape painter, pupil of Dres- 
den Academy and of Ludwig Richter ; then 
studied in Munich, where he was greatly 
influenced by Lier. and Friedrich Voltz^ 
Works : View near Brannenburg (1866), 
Dresden Gallery ; Landscape (1867) ; Even- 
ing in Capri (1872); Landscape with Mytho- 
logical Figures. — Mttller, 519. 

medy, Belgium, in 1820. History painter, 
pupil of Dttsseldorf Academy. Officer of 
Order of Leopold. Works : Judith ; Chil- 
dren of Edward ; Solomon's Judgment ; 
Descent from the Cross ; Judas on Night 
before the Crucifixion (1854), Barabbas at 
the Fpot of Calvary (1857), Bmssels Mu- 
seum.— Muller, 519. 

in Paris; contemporary. Still-life painter, 
pupil of Leclaire. Medal, 3d class, 1886. 
Works : June Flowers (1880) ; Comer of 
the Conservatory (1881) ; The Cellar of P^re 
Jacquemin (1882) ; Gay Moming (1883) ; 
Still-life (1884); At the Studio (1885); Eve 
of Festival (1886). 

in London, Dec. 17, 1824, died at Boulogne, 
France, July 21, 1868. History and por- 
trait painter, began as a wood engraver in 
London and afterwards in Paris, whence he 
went to New York to aid in illustrating a 
pictorial journal. Li 1848 he returned to 
Europe and went to Italy to study ; was in 
Rome during its siege by the French, of 
which he furnished sketches to the Blus- 
trated London News ; and represented that 
paper in the Crimea in 1854. On his re- 
turn to London he obtained the patronage 
of the Queen, for whom he painted Mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales at Windsor, 
Marriage of the Princess Alice at Osborne, 
The Princess Royal at the Coronation of 
the King of Prussia, Distribution of the 
Victoria Medals, and others. He illustrat- 


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Digitized by 



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ed, among other books, Wilkie Collins*s 
" Armadale " and Mra Stowe's " Uncle Tom*s 
Cabin. " — Redgrave. 

Incredulity af St Thomas, Guercino, Vatican, Rome. 

THOMAS, JAN, bom at Ypres, baptized 
Feb. 5, 1617, died in Vienna in 1673. Flem- 
ish school ; history and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Rubens ; master of Antwerp guild in 
1641 ; visited Italy, and in 1662 became 
court painter to Emperor Leopold I. Works: 
St. Francis adoring Madonna, Carmelite 
Church, Antwerp ; Madonna and Penitent 
Sinners, Ypres Museum; Painter's Studio, 
Physician in his Study, Ootha Museum ; 
Triumph of Bacchus (1656), Museum, Vi- 
enna; Alchemist, Liechtenstein GhJlery, ib.; 
Beaching for the Purse (2, 1661), Harrach 
Gallery, ib.; others in Berlin and Kiel Gal- 
leries. — Immerzeel, iii. 138 ; Eramm, iv. 
1625 ; Michiels, viii 239. 

(John, zx. 25). 

By Cima da Conegliano, Venice Academy ; 
wood, H. 6 fi 10 in. x 4 fi 7 in. Christ, 
standing under an arched portico, with St. 
Thomas touching his wound ; on other side, 
Si Magnus ; background, landscape with a 
horseman. Formerly in the Scuola de' Mu- 
ratori at Venice.— C. & C^N. Italy, L 242 ; 
Zanotto, Pinac. dell' Aoca<C, PI. 16 ; Vasari, 
ed. Mil., iii 665. 

By Ouercinoy Vatican, Bome ; canvas, life- 
size, half-length. Thomas placing his finger 
on Christ's wound ; in background, three 

disciples. Carried to Paris; returned in 
1815. — Landon, Musee, xii. PL 4 ; Pistolesi 
Vaticano, vi. PL 67. 

By Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Beresford 
Hope, London; canvas, H 10 ft. x5 fi; 
signed, dated 1851. Christ and Si Thomas, 
figures life-size, standing in a landscape, 
with a mountain in background ; the for- 
mer, with arm uplifted, is speaking to Si 
Thomas, who approaches reverently but 
doubtingly. Painted for Church of St. 
Thomas, Leeds, but not giving satisfaction 
was sold for £300 to present owner. Ex- 
hibited at Boyal Academy in 1853, and at 
the Manchester Exhibition in 1857. — Atkin- 
son, 79. 

By Bembrandt, Hermitage, Si Peters- 
burg ; wood, H. 1 ft. X 11 in. Painted in 
1634. — Waagen, Hermitage, 176 ; Vosmaer, 

By Cecchino del ScUviati, Louvre, Paris ; 
wood transferred to canvas, H 8 ft. 10 in. x 
7 f i 6 in. Christ, at right, standing amongst 

Incradulity of St Thomas, Cacchino dal Salviati, Louvre. 

the apostles, shows his wounds to Si Thom- 
as, who kneels before him. Carried to France 
by Tommaso Qiiadagni, and placed in Chap- 


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el of the Florentines at Lyons. — ^Villot, Cat. 
Louyre ; Landon, xiv. PL 4L 

Subject treated also by Girolamo Muzi- 
ano, Lourre, Paris ; Simone Cantarini, Mu- 
nich Gallery; Gerard Honthorst, Madrid 
Museum ; Bernardo Strozzi, Palazzo Bri- 
gnoli sale, Genoa ; Padovannino, Eremitani, 
Padua ; Salvator Rosa, Church della Morte, 
Yiterbo ; Santi di Tito, Cathedral of Borgo 
San Sepolcro ; Cayaliere Calabrese, Dresden 
Gkdlery ; Anton van Dyck, Hermitage, Si 
Petersburg ; Bubens, Antwerp Museum ; 
Cima da Conegliano, National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Alphonse Masson (Salon, 1839) ; Louis 
Lamotbe (1855). 

OP, Benozzo Qozzdiy Louvre ; wood, H. 7 
ft 6 in. X 3 ft 4 in. Above, Christ in glory, 
surrounded by cherubim, with St Paul at 
his right holding a book and a sword, Moses 
at his left with the tables of the law, and 
the Evangelists in front ; in the middle, St 
Thomas seated between Aristotle and Plato, 
with Guillaume de St Amour, doctor of the 
University of Paris, below them, overcome 
by St Thomas's eloquence ; in lower part, 
Pope Alexander IV., assisted by two cham- 
berlains, presiding over the assembly held 
in 1256, concerning the mendicant orders, 
which were attacked by St Amour and de- 
fended by Thomas Aquinas. — ^Vasari, ed. 
Mil, iii 50 ; Villot, Cat Louvre. 

rillo, Lord Ashburton, London ; canvas, H 
6ft3in. x4ft9in. The saint, represented 
as a boy six or seven years old, is taking 
off his garment3 to supply the wants of 
four ragged boys ; background, a street with 
buildings and figures. ' Painted about 1678 
for Convent of St Augustine, Seville ; sold 
by Monks to the Prince of the Peace, who 
presented it to General Sebastiani; pur- 
chased in 1814 by Mr. Baring, an ancestor 
of present owner. One of the finest Muril- 
los in England. Sketch, Lord Ashburton, 
The Ghrange, Hants. Copies : Cadiz Cathe- 
dral ; Due de Montpensier ; Condesa de la 
Mejorada ; Don Bodrigo de Quirios, Seville. 

— C. Bermudez, iL 60 ; Buchanan, Memoirs, 
ii 264; Ponz, Yiage, ix. 136; Jameson, 
Monastic Orders, 202 ; Curtis, 269 ; Waa- 
gen, iL 101. 

By MuriUo, Earl of Northbrook, London ; 
canvas, H 4 f t 3 in. x 2 ft. 5 in. The saint, 
wearing a mitre and accompanied by an at- 
tendant with a crozier, stands in an archway 
giving alms to a kneeling beggar, who is 
surrounded by other beggars; above, the 
Virgin, seated on clouds, with Jesus in her 
arms and two children clinging to her lap ; 
on left, a church, seen through an opening. 
Painted about 1678 for Chapel of St Thom- 
as in Convent of St Augustine, Seville. 
Louis Philippe sale (1853), £710, to Thom- 
as Baring, uncle of Earl of Northbrook. 
Ford calls it '* one of the finest sketches of 
Murillo in existence." Lithographed by A. 
Pin9on.— Curtis, 270; AthensBum (1853), 
655 ; Oaz. des B. Arts, April, 1875 ; Ch. 
Blanc, £cole espagnole. 

By MuriUo, Seville Museum ; canvas, H. 
9 ft 6 in. X 6 ft 4 in. The Archbishop of 
Valencia, with mitre and pastoral 8ta£^ 
standing front under a Grecian portico, 
dropping a coin into the hand of a kneeling 
beggar ; in foreground, on left, an old wom- 
an seated, with a boy standing at her knee ; 
at right, two other beggars and a nun ; at 
left, an open book on a table ; background, 
architecture, with columns wreathed above 
with a curtain. Painted about 1676 for 
Capuchin Convent, Seville. Murillo called 
this his own picture, and it is one of his 
finest works. — Curtis, 268 ; Jameson, Mo- 
nastic Orders. 

By MuriUo, Sir Richard Wallace, Bart, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft 11 in. x 5 ft The 
saint, wearing a skull-cap, is giving money 
to a half-naked beggar sitting on a stone ; 
he is attended by an ecclesiastic holding a 
mitre, and another holding a;crook ; before 
him, a boy examining a coin ; at right, a 
group of beggars ; and at left, architecture. 
Second manner. Bought by Mr. Irvine 
from Capuchin Convent, Gtonoa, and sold 
to Mr. Wells, of Redleaf, for £1,000 ; sold 


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at William Wells sale (1848) to Marquis of 
Hertford for £2,992 10s.— Curtis, 270. 

THOMPSON, ALBERT, bom at Wobum, 
Ma8&, in 1853. Landscape and animal 
painter ; pupil of W. R Norton. In 1872 
and in 1874 he visited Europe, travelling 
through Great Britain, France, and Italy, 
and studying in the art galleries of the Con- 
tinent Exhibits at the Boston Art Club. 
Works : Landscape and Cattle ; Summer 
Afternoon ; Apple Orchard — Summer ; Cat- 
tle on a Hillside ; Lake Winnipiseogee from 
Wolf borough; Wood Literior; Study of 
Italian Boy. 

bom in Middleborough, Mas&, Aug. 3, 1809. 
Portrait and figure painter, son and pupil of 
Cephas Thompson, but mostly self-taught 
He has painted in Boston, Providence, Phil- 
adelphia, New York, and in other cities in 
the United States. In 1852 visited Lon- 
don, Paris, Florence, and Bome, where he 
spent seven years. In 1860 he returned 
to America^ and has since lived in New 
York. An associate of the National Acad- 
emy. Works : Guardian Angel, C. H. Bog- 
ers. New York ; Prospero and Miranda, Mr. 
Wales, Boston ; St Peter delivered from 
Prison, Ex - Governor Padelford, Provi- 
dence; Spring and Autunm, C. Sprague. 
Portraits : Sebastian Cabot (after Hans Hol- 
bein), Charles Fenno Hoffinan, Historical 
Society, New York; Dr. Francis; Haw- 
thorne ; Dr. Matthews, New York Univer- 
sity ; Henry T. Tuckerman ; William C. 
Bryant ; Mrs. Bryant 


THOMPSON, HARRY, bom in London ; 
contemporary. Gtenre and landscape paint- 
er, pupil in Paris of Charles Fran9ois Mar- 
chal and Charles Busson. Medal, 3d class, 
Paris, 1884. Works : Tea^ la russe (1876) ; 
Sheep (1878)^ Sheepfold, View at Allery 
(1879); Flock in Valley of the Somme, 
Landscape (1880) ; Comer of the Orchard, 
Cross Road (1882) ; Among the Dunes 
(1883) ; Old Road in Picardy, A Calvary- 
Sheep (1884) ; Comer of the Fortifications 

of Paris (1886) ; Old Cemetery at Hooquin- 
court (1886). 

THOMPSON, JEROME, bom in Middle- 
borough, Mas&, Jan. 30, 1814, died at Glen 
Gardner, N. J., May 2, 1886. Landscape 
and figure painter ; studied for a short time 
under his father, Cephas Thompson, and 
with Morse and Jarvis. Elected an A.N.A. 
in 1850. Painted in England and France in 
1851-52. Works : Land of Beulah ; Voice 
of the Great Spirit ; Woodman, spare that 
Tree (1871) ; Valley of Baca (1875) ; Dakota 
Cafion (1880) ; Gates Ajar (1881) ; Spring 
Trap (1882) ; Fallen Oak (1883) ; Indian 
Prayer (1884) ; Study from Nature (1886). 

Baltimore, Md., May 26, 1840. Genre and 
history painter, pupil of Charles Gleyre, 
Lambinet, and Passini, in Paris, 1861-64. 
Has sketched in Morocco, Algiers, and 
Spain. Elected an A.N.A. in 1873 and 
N. A. in 1874. Studio in New York. Works : 
Moorlands of Au-Fargi (1865); Annapolis in 
1776, Academy of Fine Arts, Buffalo ; View 
of Mi Etna (1869); Desolation (1873); Mid- 
summer's Day on Long Island (1876) ; By 
the Sea— Mentone (1877); Review at Phila- 
delphia in Aug., 1777 (1878) ; The Depart- 
ure — Episode of Colonial life in Virginia 
(1879) ; May-Day in Fifth Avenue — New 
York (1880); Halt of aDiligence (1881); Pass- 
ing the Outposts, Union League Club, New 
York ; Old Stone Church— Sleepy Hollow 
(1882), T. R Clarke, ib. ; Market Place— 
Biskra» Moorish Hunters returning to Tan- 
gier (1884) ; Winter Morning's Ride, Ad- 
vance of the Enemy (1885) ; In the Port of 
Algiers (1886). 

THOMSEN, AUGUST, bom at Glttcks- 
burg, Sepi 3, 1813, died at Copenhagen, 
Sepi 6, 1886. History painter, pupil of 
Copenhagen Academy, where he won medals 
in 1837 and 183a Works : Presentation in 
the Temple (1841) ; Christ among the Doc- 
tors (1843); Hans Tausen preaching the 
Gbspd, Church of the Holy Ghost, Copen- 
hagen. — Weilbach, 676 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xxi 750. 

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THOMSON, HENRY, bom at Portsea, 
July 31, 1773, died there, April 6, 1843. 
Son of a purser in the navy ; pupil of Opie 
and student in 1790 at Boyal Academy ; 
travelled and studied in Italy, and in Vi- 
enna and Dresden in 1793-99; became 
A.RA. in 1801, and RA. in 1804 In 1825 
succeeded Fuseli as keeper of Academy, 
but resigned in 1827, Painted historiod 
and fancy subjects and portraita Works : 
The Dead Robin (1809), National Gallery ; 
Christ raising Jairus's Daughter (1820) ; Mi- 
randa's First Sight of Ferdinand (1822); 
JuHet (1825).— Art Union (1843), 147 ; Cat 
Royal Academy ; CL Blanc, £cole anglaise ; 
Redgrave ; Sandby, L 326. 

THOMSON, Rev. JOHN, bom at Dailly, 
Ayrshire, Sept 1, 1778, died at Dudding- 
ston, Oct 20, 1840. Called Thomson of 
Duddingston. Amateur landscape painter, 
pupil of Alexander Nasmyth ; first exhibited 
in 1808, with the Society of Associated Ar- 
tists, Edinburgh, to which he contributed 
one hundred and nine pictu;res, from 1808 
to 1840, inclusive. He was made an hono- 
rary member of the Royal Scottish Academy, 
having refused actual membership on ac- 
count of his profession. Work: Loch-an- 
Eilan at Rothiemurchus — Inverness-shire 
(1835), National Gallery, London. — ^Art 
Journal (1883), 78. 

THON, SIXT ARNIM, bom at Eisenach, 
Nov. 10, 1817. Genre painter, pupil of 
Leipsic Academy, then in Weimar of Prel- 
ler, with whom he visited the Isle of ROgen 
(1837), the Thuringian Forest (1840), Nor- 
way, and the Netherlands ; afterwards 
studied for one year in Antwerp, and after 
his return to Weimar became instructor at 
the Grand-ducal School of Design and at 
the Sophienstift Works : Adventure of 
Travel in Norway ; Gleaner Woman ; GKrl 
with Pitcher ; Two Citizens of Antwerp ; 
Musicians in Winter ; Sleeping Boy, Chris- 
tiania (Jallery. — Andresen, iv. 62. 

THORBURN, ROBERT, bom in Dum- 
fries, March, 1818, died at Tunbridge 
Wells, Nov. 2, 1885. Portrait and figure 

painter, pupil of Royal Institute, Edin- 
burgh, and of Royal Academy, London, 
where he first exhibited in 1837 ; elected an 
A.RA. in 1848. Was a successful minia- 
ture painter, having among his sitters the 
Queen (1846) and other members of the 
royal family, but on introduction of photog- 
raphy painted life-size portraits and ideal 
figures. Works : The Orphans (1866) ; Un- 
dine, Country Life (1869) ; John Baptist, 
Catherine of Aragon (1870) ; Concealment 
of Moses (1871) ; Rebekah at WeU (1873) ; 
In the Meadow on the Hillside (1874); 
Christian descending the Hill Difficulty 
(1876); Slough of Despond (1878); The 
Two Marys at the Tomb (1879) ; Redi- 
viva (1880) ; Bonbons, The Fates, Eastern 
Water Carrier, AngeFs Whisper (1882) ; 
Queen Catherine on the Eve of her Di- 
vorce, Babes in the Wood, Gkune of Chess 
(1883).— Athen., Nov. 7, 1885, 610 ; Sand- 
by, ii 221. 

THOREN, OTTO VON, bom in Tienna 
in 1828. Animal and landscape painter, 
studied in Brussels and Paris, taking up 
painting in 1857, after having served in the 
Austrian army in the campaigns of 1848-49 ; 
returned to Vienna in 1865 and afterwards 
settled in Paris. One of the best of living 
animal painters. Member of Vienna and 
Si Petersburg Academiea Medals : Paris, 
1865 ; Munich, 1869 ; Vienna, 1882. Order 
of Francis Joseph ; Russian Order of Vladi- 
mir. Works : Death of Gtistavus Adolphus 
at Ltltzen (1856) ; Horse in Stable, Cleaning 
the Horse (1857); Mare with Foal (1858), 
Konigsberg Museum ; After Battle (1859) ; 
Cows at Pasture, Horses Ploughing (1861) ; 
Cattle Thieves, Horse Thieves (1865) ; Au- 
tumn Morning in Flanders, Ploughing Oxen 
in Slovenia (1866) ; Near the Wolf (1870), 
Vienna Academy ; The Forsaken Ones, Ap- 
proaching Storm, Too Late (1867) ; Pasture 
in Normandy (1873); Cows attacked by 
Wolves, Museum, Vienna; Wood Land- 
scape with Hungarian Oxen, Two Him- 
garian Peasants on Horseback, Czemin Gal- 
lery, ib.; Equestrian Portrait of Emperor 


Digitized by 



Francis Joseph (1866). — Wurzbach, xliv. 
261 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iv. 114 ; vL 213 ; 
ix. (Mittbeilimgen, ii. 11). 

in Boston in 1825. Landscape and marine 
painter; studied in Paris in 1847. Pro- 
fessional life spent in Newport. An associ- 
ate of tbe National Academy, but rarely 
exhibits. Works: Lily Pond; Swans in 
Central Park ; The Dumplings — Newport ; 
Wayside Lin ; View near Stockbridge — 
Mass.; Long wood Marshes (1885). 

THORNHILL, Sir JAMES, born at Mel- 
combe Regis in 1676, died at ThomhiU, 
near Weymouth, May 13, 1734. Pupil in 
London of Thomas E^ghmore ; was patron- 
ized by Queen Anne, who made him her 
sergeant painter. When foreign painters, 
such as the Riccis, Laguerre, and La Fosse, 
were patronized, and native talent decried, 
he decorated waUs and ceilings of public 
and private buildings with mythological 
and historical compositions, for which he 
was but poorly remunerated at so much per 
square yard. Of these the most important 
are eight compartments of the cupola at St. 
Paul's, the great hall at Blenheim, the ceil- 
ing and walls of the hall at Greenwich 
Hospital, and a saloon and hall at Moor 
Park, Herts. His Finding of the Law, an 
easel picture, is at All Souls' (College, Ox- 
ford. Hifl portrait of Sir Isaac Newton in 
his Old Age belongs to Lord Portsmouth. 
In 1720 he was knighted by George L, the 
first native painter, it is said, to receive that 
distinction. In 1724 he endeavoured to 
found a Royal Academy of Art, and failing, 
opened a drawing ac^emy in his own 
house. — Taylor, Fine Arts in Great Britain 
(London, 1841) ; Redgrave ; Sandby, i. 13 ; 
Portfolio (1872), 66. 

THREE AGES, Lorenzo Lotto, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 2 ft. x 2 ft 6 in. 
Three figures, half-length, the middle one 
a youth in a black cap, with a sheet of music 
in his hand ; to right, a middle-aged bearded 
man ; to left, a bald-headed, gray-bearded 
man. Look like portraits; handled with 

Giorgionesque skill — C. & C, N. Italy, ii 
502 ; Gal. du PaL Pitti, i PL 47. 

By Titian, Bridgewater House, London ; 
canvas, figures less than life-size. A shepherd 
lover beneath a tree is taught by a maiden 
crowned with flowers to place his fingers on 
the stops of the reed-pipe ; in the middle 
ground Cupid stepping over the forms of 
two sleeping children ; in the distance an 
old man dreaming over a pair of skulls on 
the ground. Painted about 1518 for Gio- 
vanni di Castelli, a gentleman of Faenza ; 
passed through the hands of the Cardinal 
of Augsburg into the collection of Queen 
Christina of Sweden ; thence into the Or- 
leans Collection, from which purchased by 
the Duke of Bridgewater, Copies in Pa- 
lazzo Doria and Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; 
another belonging to Earl Dudley. En- 
graved by Ravenet. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vii 
435; C. & C, Titian, L 204; Waagen, 
Treasures, ii 31 ; Cab. Crozat, ii PL 145. 

THREE VIRTUES, Raphael See Pru- 
dence. Fortitude, and Temperance. 

THUILLIER, PIERRE, bom at Amiens, 
June 17, 1799. died there, Nov. 19, 1858. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Watelet and 
of Gudin, and a close student of nature. 
Medals : 3d class, 1835 ; 2d class, 1837 ; 1st 
class, 1839 ; L of Honour, 1843. Works : 
Valley of the Drac, Ruins of Castle of 
Champ (1835), Amiens Museum ; Entrance 
to a Forest in the Ardennes (1836), Lyons 
Museum ; Rocks of Freilly (1836), Amiens 
Museum; Timber near Chateau Renard, 
Boulogne-sur-Mer Museum ; Ancient Abbey 
of Done (1837), Due d'Aumale ; Castle and 
Bridge of Voute-sur-Loire (1838), Puy Mu- 
seum ; Ancient Tiburtine Road near Tivoli 
(1843); The Puyen-Velay (1844); River 
Duralle near Thiers (1845), Lyons Museum; 
Elbiar near Algiers, Spring in the Moun- 
tains of the Var (1848) ; Pasture in the 
Mountains of Dauphiny (1853), bought by 
Napoleon ILL ; Lake of Annecy (1854), 
Geneva Museum ; Valley of Thuily in Dau- 
phiny. His daughter Louise (Mme. Mor- 
nard), bom at Amiens in 1829, is also a 


Digitized by 



landscape painter. Medal, 3d class, 1847. 
Works: Entrance to Desert; Views in 
North Africa ; Fog on Coast of Normandy 
(1857) ; Portraits of Arab Sheiks. — Meyer, 
Gesck, 767. 

VAN, bom at Bois-le-Duc, baptized Aug. 9, 
1606, died there about 1676. Flemish 
school; history and genre painter, pupil 
of Abraham Blyenberch and of Rubens ; 
master of Antwerp guild in 1625, its dean 
in 1639-^ ; spent some time in Paris 
(about 1632-34 and 1647), worked at Lux- 
embourg and Fontainebleau ; returned to 
Antwerp in 1635, and married the daughter 
of Henry van Balen ; called to The Hague in 
1648, to decorate the Palace in the Wood. 
Works: Christ appearing to the Virgin, 
Louvre ; do. (1660), Copenhagen GWlery ; 
Time and the Fates, Mystical Subject (1647), 
Ghrenoble Museum; Martyrdom of St 
Adrian, St Michael's, Ghent; Mother's 
Jewels (1647), Museum, Toumay ; Christ on 
his Way to Calvary, Cathedral, ib. ; Two 
Sketches for Triumphal Arch, Antwerp Mu- 
seum; Christ at the Pillar, Flemish Wed- 
ding, Brussels Museum ; Triumph of Qala- 
tea, Berlin Museum ; Oame Vender, Peasant 
Woman with Fruit Basket (both with Jan 
Fyt), Darmstadt Museum ; Marriage of St 
Catherine, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; 
Thetis wreathing Peleus (1664), Amalien- 
stift, Dessau; Finding of Moses, David 
bringing the Head of Goliath to Jerusalem, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Reconciliation of Jacob 
and Esau, Visitation, Allegory (1654), Muse- 
■ ■ , , > _» T ™a» Vienna ; A Tri- 
Js,^/! , fvl umphal Progress, 
—I- nnc» c» Herodias with Head 

TvT. fVj.'ff-vV. of St John, liech- 

T^CUiTUujUen. tensteinGaUery.ib.; 

fO\/\* ' iCjZ. Christ in the House 

rC i T'l /I **' Simon, Wiesba- 

i.^an J h<4.Ue4^ den Gallery ; Or- 


,/\*^- l6s>i pheus charming the 

Animals, Discovery 
of Purple, Madrid Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 
£cole flamande ; Eramm, vi. 1620 ; Eugler 

(Crowe), ii. 811 ; Michiels, viii 116 ; Van 
den Branden, 771 ; Zeitschr. 1 b. K, xiv. 
THUMANN, PAUL, bom at Bschacks- 
dorfy Lusatia^ Oct 5, 
1834 Gtenre painter and 
illustrator, pupil of Berlin 
and (under Julius Htlb- 
ner) Dresden Academies ; 
worked in Leipsic as an 
illustrator in 1860-63, 
then studied in Weimar 
under Pauwels; visited 
Italy (1865), England 
(1866), and France (1867), 
and became professor at the Weimar Art 
School in 1866, at Dresden Academy in 
1872, and at Berlin Academy in 1875. Gold 
medal, Berlin, 1879. Works : Departure of 
the Bride (1868) ; Luther's Wedding, Bam- 
berg Art Union; Squire George with the 
Swiss Students at Jena ; Four Scenes in 
Life of Luther, Wartburg near Eisenach ; 
Return of the Germans after Battle in Teu- 
toburg Forest (1883), Baptism of Wittekind 
(1884), Gymnasium, Minden ; Inattentive 
Scholar, Stettin Museum; Illustrations to 
Goethe's "Wahrheit und Dichtung," Cha- 
misso's and Heine's Poems, Voss's "Luise," 
Shakespeare's *' Midsummer Night's Dream," 
Tennyson's "Enoch Arden." — Rosenberg, 
BerL Malersch., 314 ; Graph. K, ii. 49, 94 ; 
Eunst-Chronik, xxi. 4 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
xix. 19 ; xxi 38. 

THUSNELDA, See Germanicus. 
THYS (Tyssens), PEETER, the elder, 
bom in Antwerp in 1624, died there between 
June 2, 1677, and Feb. 14, 1679. Flemish 
school ; history and portrait painter, in man- 
ner of Van Dyck, pupil of A. Deurwaerder. 
Master of the guild in 16 4 4 4 5, and dean 
in 1660. His historical pictures also show 
the influence of Gaspard de Craeyer. Was 
painter to the Emperor Leopold. Works : 
Appaiition of Christ, Apparition of the Vir- 
gin, St. Francis receiving Indulgence, Icarus 
and Deedalus, Two Portraits, Antwerp Mu- 
seum ; Adoration of the Host, St James's 


Digitized by 



Church, Antwerp ; Martyrdom of St Bene- 
dict, and Portrait, Brussels Museum ; Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony, Conversion of St. 
Hubert, Consolation of Si Sebastian, Ghent 
Museum ; Piet^ Basle Museum ; Marriage 
of St Catherine, Copenhagen G^ery; 
Achilles with Lycomedes, Stockholm Muse- 
um ; Portrait of David Teniers the young- 
er. Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Venus bewail- 
ing Adonis, Vienna Museum; Vulcan and 
Venus surrounded by various Weapons, Va- 
rus with do., Hermannstadt Museum ; Mer- 
cury and Herse (1664), Worlitz Gallery. 
His son, Pieter Paul (bom, 1652), was also a 
painter. — Eramm,vi 1629; Kugler (Crowe), 


ii 309 ; Michiels, ix. 13 ; Booses (Beber), 
329 ; Van den Branden, 934 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiv. 319. 

logna, March 20, 
1677, died there, 
Feb. 8, 1668. Bo- 
lognese school ; pu- 
pil in Bologna of 
Prospero Fontana, 
and of Bartolom- 
meo Cesi ; fled, on 
account of a quar- 
rel, to Florence, 
where he studied 
with Passignano and assisted Poccetti. Af- 
ter painting in Pisa, Pescia, and other places, 
returned to Bologna, and improved his style 
by studying the works of the Carracci His 
Miracle of St Dominic, in S. Domenico, and 
his Presentation in the Temple, in S. M. de' 
Servi, established his reputation, and he soon 
had many commissions in Beggio, Modena, 
Cremona, Ferrara, and other cities, which 
brought him fame and fortune. His early 
pictures are in the style of Passignano ; 
his later ones show the influence of Lodo- 

vico Carracci. He was of a melancholy dis- 
position, and his subjects are generally pa- 
thetic and treated in sombre colours, but 
admirably harmonized. Among his best 
easel pictures are : Marriage of St Cather- 
ine, St. Catherine in Ecstasy, Madonna in 
Glory and Saints, Deposition, Bologna Gal- 
lery ; Deposition, Brera, Milan. — Malvasia, 
iL 119 ; Lanzi, iii. 117 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 
bolonaise ; Burckhardt, 764, 785, 788, 791 ; 
Lavice, 16, 154. 

Valdelsa, bom at Val- 
delsa, near Milan, in 
1532, died in Milan in 
1592. Bolognese 
school ; real name 
Pellegrino di Tibaldo 
de' Pellegrini ; some- 
times called Pellegri- 
no da Bologna; son 
of a poor mason, who 
removed to Bologna when his son was young. 
After studying in Bologna, Pellegrino went 
to Bome in 1547 and assisted Perino del 
Vaga in the Castle of St Angelo, and Da- 
niele da Volterra in Trinity de' MontL He 
studied carefully the works of Michelangelo, 
and imitated his style so successfully that 
he was called by the Carracci, Michelagnolo 
Biformato (the reformed Michelangelo). In 
1550 he returned to Bologna, where he ex- 
ecuted some admirable works in the Palazzo 
Pozzi (now Palazzo dell' Instituto) and in 
various churches, and won reputation both 
as a painter and an architect In 1586 he 
went, on the invitation of Philip H, to 
Spain, where, during the following nine 
years, he executed a great number of mural 
paintings in the Escorial, the pictures of 
Federigo Zucchero having been expunged 
to make room for them. He returned to 
Milan wealthy and ennobled by the King. 
Domenico Tibaldi (1541-83), painter, en- 
graver, and architect, was his brother, and 
not his son, as Malvasia says. Works : St 
Cecilia, Museum, Vienna ; Adoration of the 
Shepherds, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Mar- 


Digitized by 




riage of St Catherine, Bologna Qallery. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil, viL 416 ; Malvasia, i. 133 ; 
Burckhardt, 68, 761 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole bolo- 

TIBERIO D' ASSISI, beginning of 16tli 
century. TJmbrian school ; probably pupil 
of Perugino, but not mentioned by VasarL 
A painter of less power than Eusebio di 
San Giorgio. His best fresco, a Madonna, is 
in S. Martino, near Treiri He painted also 
a Madonna and Saints (1510), in S. Fran- 
cesco, Monte&lco, and a Madonna with An- 
gels and Saints, in S. Domenico, near Assisi. 
The latest date connected with him is 1524. 
— C. & C, Italy, iii. 342 ; Ch. Blanc, fejole 
TIDEMAND, ADOLF, bom at Mandal, 
Norway, Aug. 14, 1814, 
died in Christiania, Aug. 
25, 1876. Genre paint- 
er, pupil in 1832-37 of 
Copenhagen Academy, 
then of DQsseldorf Acad- 
emy under Hildebrandt 
and Schadow; went in 
1842 to Munich, thence 
to Home, and returned 
during the same year to Norway, where 
he especuted several orders from the King, 
and painted portraits for the University of 
Christiania; in 1846-48 he lived again in 
Ddsseldorf^ where he settled permanently 
in 1849, spending the summer months usu- 
ally in Norway. Contributed essentially by 
his excellent works to the fame of the Dtts- 
seld«rf school, and was made professor. 
Member of Christiania, Stockholm, Copen- 
hagen, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, Amsterdam, 
and Rotterdam Academies. Medals in Ber- 
lin, 1848 ; Paris, 1855 ; Be8an9on ; Vienna, 
1873, etc. Swedish Order of Vasa ; Nor- 
wegian Order of Olaf ; Prussian Order of 
Red Eagle ; L. of Honour. Works : Gus- 
tavus Vasa addi*es8ing the Dalecarlians, 
(1841); Norwegian Christmas Custom, Fam- 
ily Scene, Peasants' Church (1846) ; Catechis- 
ing in Country Church, Sad News, Domestic 
Scene (1847) ; The Haugians (1848), DOs- 

seldorf Gallery ; replica (1852), Lonely Old 
Couple (1849), Christiania Gallery ; Bridal 
Sail on Hardanger Fjord (1848), Christiania 
Art Union ; replicas. Lord Ellesmere, Lon- 
don, and Dr. Lessing, Berlin; Norwegian 
Peasant Life (cycle of ten, 1850), Castle 
Oscarshall near Christiania; Evening on 
Norwegian Lake (1851), National Gallery, 
Berlin ; Farewell of Norwegian Emigrants 
(1851), Leipsic Museum; Night Fishing 
(1851), Vienna Art Union ; Funeral on Sogne 
Fjord (1852), Marquis of Lansdowne (last 
three, together with Hans Gude) ; Neigh- 
bour's Advice, Letter from America (1852) ; 
Norwegian Sunday (1851), Wolf Hunter re- 
lating his Adventures (1853), Funeral in 
Norway (1854), Raven6 G^allery, Berlin ; 
Wolf Hunter (1855), Hamburg Gallery; 
Grandmother's Tale, Wounded Bear Hunter 
(1856), Vienna Museum ; Visitation of the 
Sick (I860), Christiania Gkdlery ; Adorning 
the Bride (1860); Grandmother's Spectacles 
(1861) ; I^st Communion of Old Norwegian 
Peasant (1863), Eonigsberg Museum ; Duel 
at Wedding Feast (1864) ; Grandmother's 
Bridal Crown (1865), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Fa- 
natics (1866) ; Baptism of Christ (1869), 
Trinity Church, Christiania; Four Scenes 
from Popular Life (1870) ; Resurrection 
(1871) ; Farewell of a Dying Man (1872) ; 
Wedding Procession crossing Brook (1873), 
Mr. Forbes, London ; Laplanders hunting 
Reindeer (1873); Christ (1875); Landing 
of Colonel Sinclair at Bomsdaelen in 1612 
(1876, the landscape by Morten Mtiller). — 
Blanckarts, 117; Cat. Christiania Gbllery 
(1885), 98 ; Ulustr. Zeitg. (1876), ii. 337 ; 
Eunst-Chronik, xii. 5 ; Graph. K, i. 60 ; 
Land und Meer (1874), ii 766 ; Wolfg. MtU- 
ler, Diisseldf. K, 305 ; Springer, Gesch., 
165 ; Wiegmann, Zeitschr. 1 b. K, xiv. 393. 
TIDEY, HENRY F., bom at Worthing, 
Jan. 7, 1815, died in London, July 21, 
1872. Portrait and subject painter in wa- 
ter-colours; son and pupil of John Tidey, 
who kept an academy at Worthing. Began 
as a portrait painter in oils, having among 
his sitters members of the royal family and 


Digitized by 



other noted persons ; afterwards devoted 
himself to water-colours, and in 1858 be- 
came an associate and in 1859 a full mem- 
ber of the Institute of Painters in Water 
CJoloura Works: Feast of Roses (1859, 
bought by Queen); Queen Mab (1860); 
Dar Thule (1861) ; Christ blessing Little 
Children, Saxon Captives at Rome (1863) ; 
Night of the Betrayal (1864) ; Sardanapalus 
(1870) ; Seaweeds, Flowers of the Forest 
(1871); Casties in the Air (1872). His 
brother, Arthur Tidey (bom, 1808), is a 
miniature painter. 

in Venice, April 16, 
1696, died in Ma- 
drid, Mar. 27, 1770. 
Venetian school; 
pupil of Gregorio 
Lazzarini ; after- 
wards influenced by 
Giovanni Battista 
Piazzetta, and still 
more by Paolo Vero- 
nese, whose equal he 
was reputed to be, in the decadence of Vene- 
tian art, though he was very far from being 
so as a colourist But he has been rightly 
called the last great decorative painter of 
the Venetian school After painting frescos 
in Milan and other Italian cities, he went to 
Wurzburg in 1750, and on his return to 
Venice (1753) was appointed first director 
of the Academy of Painting. In 1761 he 
was called to Spain by Charles HL, became 
a favourite at the court of Madrid, and exe- 
cuted, with the assistance of his son, Gio- 
vanni Domenico (bom, 1726, died after 
1777), frescos in the royal palace with such 
success as to excite the jealousy of Raphael 
Mengs, then court painter. Tiepolo pro- 
duced some showy pictures, of which one of 
the best is the Banquet of Cleopatra, Her- 
mitage, Si Petersburg. Other works : Last 
Supper, Louvre ; Martyrdom of St Agatha, 
three others,Berlin Museum; Christ institut- 
ing the Eucharist (1753), Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Baptism of Clovis, Darmstadt Muse- 

um ; Presentation in the Temple, Dresden 
Museum ; Wedding of Noble Lady, Stadel 
Gkdlery, Frankfort ; Adoration of the Magi 
(1753), Two Scenes in the Story of Iphige- 
nia, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Conception, 

Last Supper, Car of Venus, Madrid Muse- 
um ; Glory of Spain, Eoyal Palace, Madrid ; 
Triumph of Aurelian, Turin Gallery ; Crown- 
ing with Thoms, Triumph of Ferdinand 
IIL, New York Museum ; Finding of Moses, 
National Gbllery, Edinburgh; Saints in 
Adoration, Verona Gkdlery ; Ferdinand over- 
throwing the Moors, Buda-Pesth Gallery ; 
Diana and Apollo on Clouds, Diana on 
Clouds, Angels floating on Clouds, Dul- 
wich Gkdlery. — Ch. Blanc, ificole venitienne ; 
Dohme, 2iii.; Burckhardt, 270, 751, 776, 
799; Cat Dulwich GaL (London, 1880), 
164 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xi. (Mittheilungen, 
iv. 43) ; xiv. 161, 198 ; xviii. 232. 

bom at Idser, Esthonia, Jan. 10, 1837, died 
in Munich, Nov. 24, 1876. Marine painter, 
pupil ill Munich of Millner, then of the 
Academy and of lier. Works: Sea Har- 
bour at Nightfall, Stuttgart Museum ; Ebb- 
Tide ; Norse Night ; View in Heligoland ; 
Coast of Esthonia; Agitated Sea; Bomar- 
sund; Ebb in North Sea. — niustr. Zeitg. 
(1876), iL 488 ; Kunst-Chronik, xil 364. 

New York, Feb. 18, 1848. Figure, land- 
scape, and decorative painter pupil of, In- 
ness, Colman, and in Paris of Jjkm BeUy ; 
he has sketched and painted in Spain, Italy, 
Switzerland, Africa, France, and England. 
Member of Society of American Artist& 
Elected an A.N.A. in 1871 ; N.A., 1880. 
Studio in New York, where he devotes 
himself largely to decorative painting. 
Works in oil : Dock Scene— Yonkers (1869); 


Digitized by 



Fruit Vender — under the Sea- Wall at Nas- 
sau (1870) ; Street Scene in Tangier (1872); 
Mai-ket Day outside the Walls — Tangier 
(1873) ; Study at Quimper— Brittany (1877); 
Duane Street — New York (1878) ; Algerian 
Caravan, F. Harper, New York ; Harvesting 
(1879) ; Bow-Zarea— Algiers ; Gray Day— 
Mentone (1880) ; Reaper (1881) ; Old Fort 
— St. Augustine, Study at St. Augustine 
(1883). Water-colours : Meditation (1872) ; 
Merchant of the East (1874); Shop in 
Switzerland, Old and New Mosques at 
Cairo, Lazy Life in the East (1876) ; Pal- 
ace of the Pasha Ali Ben Hassein — Algiers 
(1877) ; Cobblers at Boufarik, Market Day 
— Morlaix (1878).— Sheldon, 177. 

TILBORCH (TUborgh, Tilburg), EGIDI- 
US or GILLES VAN, bom in Brussels in 
1G25, died about 1678 (?). Flemish school ; 
genre painter, supposed pupil of David 
Teniers the younger ; master of the Brus- 
sels gmld in 1654, its president in 1663 
-64. He was a close imitator of Brouwer. 
Works : Cavalcade of Princes, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; Village Fete, Lille Museum ; Repast 
of Painters, Hague Museum ; Flemish In- 
terior, Rotterdam Museum ; Cobbler's Re- 
past, Copenlmgen Ghdlery; Boy stealing 
Purse from Man's Pocket, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Dutch Wedding, Dresden Ghdlery ; 
Bagpiper, Hautboy Player, Qoiha, Muse- 
um ; Peasants at the Inn (1657), Eunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Tavern Scenes (2), Old Pinako- 

iliek, Munich; 
Repast in Open 
Air, Oldenburg 
fy^ ^"^ Ghdlery; Guard- 

I m /2/ Room ; Company 

ww'w^i/'/ y y* Smoker, Rustic 

^' J ^ cy Meal, Hermitage, 

- St Petersburg ; 

Old Woman with Basket, Czemin Gallery, 
Vienna. — Charles Blanc, ificole flamande ; 
Kramm, vL 1633 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii 329 ; 
Michiels, ix. 183. 

TILENS (Tilen), JAN, bom in Antwerp, 
baptized April 6, 1589, died there, July 25, 


1630. Flemish school ; landscape painter, 
in the manner of Lucas van Uden, probably 
identical with Hans Tielens, master of Ant- 
werp guild in 1612. Works: Valley vnth 
Diana and Nymphs, Berlin Museum ; Moun- 

H_^ I TK# tainous Landscape, 
I '^ *^* Vienna Museum. — 
Meyer, Gemalde kongl. Mus., 463 ; Van den 
Branden, 657. 

TILIUS, JAN VAN, bom at Bois-le-Duc, 
beginning of 17th centurj^ died after 1681. 
Dutch school ; genre painter, pupil of P. 
van Slingelandt and of Caspar Netscher. 
Works : Woman offering a Rose to a Man, 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck; Bagpiper (1680), 
Vienna Museum ; Young Woman Sewing 
(1681), Dresden Gallery.— Kramm, vi 1633. 

TILTON, JOHN ROLLIN, born in Lou- 
don, N. H, in 1833. Landscape painter, 
self-taught Professional life spent in Italy, 
where he has studied chiefly the Venetian 
masters. Has exhibited in London (1871), 
New York; and Boston. Studio in Rome. 
Works : Venetian Fishing Boats ; Palace of 
Thebes (1873) ; Lagoons of Venice (1876) ; 
Como, Venice, Martin Brimmer, Boston ; 
Rome from the Aventine (1878), Corcoran 
GaUery, Washington ; Island of Philse, Sam- 
uel Hawk Collection, New York. — Tucker- 
man, 558 ; Graves, 234. 

TTM/FiNETUS, pamter, date unknown. 
His pictures of a Wrestler, and a Water- 
Carrier, in a building near the Propylsea^ 
Athens, are mentioned by Pausanias (i 22, 

TIMAGORAS, Greek painter, of Chalcis, 
latter half of 5th century a a He defeated 
Panceniis in a pictorial competition at the 
Pythian Games, and celebrated his victory 
in a poem. — Pliny, xxxv. 35 [58]. 

TIMANTHES, a celebrated Greek paint- 
er, contemporary and rival of Zeuxis and 
Parrhasius, native of Cythnus, about 400 
Pliny says (xxxv. 36 [74]) that his pict- 


ures suggested more than they actually ex- 
pressed, and showed a genius even greater 
than the art with which they were paint- 
ed. Five only of his works are known : The 


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Contest of Ajax and Ulysses for Arms of 
Achilles, with which he won the prize in 
competition with Parrhasius ; The Death of 
Palamedes ; a Hero preserved in the Tem- 
ple of Peace at Borne ; Sleeping Cyclops, a 
small picture in which the subject was made 
to appear gigantic by the introduction of 
some satyrs measuring his thumb with a 
thyrsus ; and the Sacrifice of Iphigenia, one 
of the most famous of ancient paintings. In 
this picture, which was painted in competi- 
tion with Colotea of Teos, the artist repre- 
sented Agamemnon veiled, because, most 
critics say, he felt a father's grief to be be- 
yond the power of his art; but it seems 
more reasonable to believe that he did so 
in obedience to that truly Greek sentiment 
which demanded a certain dignity and re- 
serve in treating the most tragic subjects. 
The features of the King, distorted with 
grief, would have violated this feeling, and 
an impassive countenance would have ex- 
posed the painter to the charge^f coldnesa 
Wisely, then, he hid it from sight and left 
its workings to the imagination. This pict- 
ure is spoken of by Cicero (Orat, 22), by 
Quintilian (ii 13), and by Valerius Maximus 
(viiL 11, ext. 6). Timanthes probably took 
the hint of veiling Agamemnon from Euripi- 
des (Iphig. AuL, 1650). A supposed imita- 
tion of this picture was fotmd on a house 
wall at Pompeii (Mus. Borb., iv. 3). 
» TIMANTHES, painter, of Sicyon, 3d cen- 
iiixj B.a Plutarch praises (Arai, 32) his 
picture of the Battle of Pelleni, in which 
Aratus won a victory over the ^tolians 
(240 Rc). 

TIMARETE, painter, daughter of Micon 
the younger. She painted a Diana, pre- 
served at Ephesus, said by Pliny (xxxv. 40 
[147]) to have been in a very ancient style 
of art. 

Paris in 1822, died there, Nov. 20, 1880. 
Sacred history painter, pupil of Drolling. 
Medals : 2d class, 1848, 1857, 1859 ; 1st 
class, 1861 ; L. of Honour, 1864. Works : 
Christ carried to Tomb, Virgin and Magda- 

len at Foot of the Cross (1848) ; Christ's 
Agony on Mount of Olives (1849); St. John 
the Apostle at Ephesus (1851); Captive Jews 
in Babylon, Resurrection of Jairus's Daugh- 
ter (1852); Madonna (1853); Christ bearing 
his Cross, and Portrait of Cardinal Donnet 
(1855); The Church Triumphant, Pierrefitte 
(1857) ; Obsequies of a Christian Martyr 
(1857) ; Madame d'OseviUe, and Virgin at 
Foot of Cross (1858) ; Mass at St. Peter's 
(1859); St John at Ephesus, Lyons (1860) ; 
The Studio (Princess MathUde), St Rose of 
Viterbo (1861); Chapel of St Genevieve at 
St Sulpice (1862-64) ; Chapel of the Cate- 
chism at St £tienne du Mont (1865) ; A 
Venetian (1865) ; The Muse and the Poet 
(1866), Louvre ; The Agony of our Lord 
(1867), Luxembourg Museum ; mural paint- 
ings (1873-76), Church of the Sorbonne ; 
four pictures (1877), Chapel of the Novi- 
tiate, Rennes ; Burial of our Lord (1878) ; 
Presentation of the Virgin, Church of Incar- 
ville, Eure; Portraits of Vicomte Delaborde, 
Church Leveque, £mile Saisset, Duke and 
Duchess de la Rochefoucauld, Duchess de 
Mirepoix, and M. G. des Seguina — ^Meyer, 
Gesch., 364 ; Larousse ; L'Art (1880), xxiii. 
216 ; CL Timbal, Notes et causeries sur TArt, 
with a notice of his life and works by the 
Vicomte H. Delaborde (Paris, 1881). 

Dovienichino, Louvre ; canvas, oval, H. 3 ft 
9 in. X 4 ft 11 in. Alexander, on a throne 
before a tent, surrounded by guards, gives 
her freedom to Timoclea, who is led be- 
fore him by a Thracian soldier, and re- 
stores her children to her ; in background, 
at right, Alexander's troops entering Thebes 
(Bceotia). Collection of Louis XIV., who 
bought it in 1685. Engraved by Delignon. 
— Villot, Cat Louvre ; Mus^e frangais, i. 
Part 1 ; Filhol, ix. PI. 643 ; Landon, Vies, 
PL 111. 

TIMOMACHnS, a famous Greek painter, 
of Byzantium, probably 1st century B.a, 
though some place him earlier. Pliny says 
(xxxv. 40 [136]) that Julius Caesar bought 
his two pictures, Ajax, and Medea, for 


Digitized by 



eighty talents, and placed them in the Tem- 
ple of Venus Gtenetrix. The Ajax depicted 
the hero in his madness, in a sitting posture, 
contemplating suicide (Philos., Yit ApoL, 
ii. 10 ; Ovid., Trist, ii. 525). In the other, 
which is highly praised by the ancient writ- 
ers, Medea was represented meditating the 
murder of her children, but hesitating be- 
tween the impulses of revenge for her wrongs 
and of pity for her offspring. Other works 
of Timomachus mentioned by Pliny (L c.) 
are an Orestes (Anthol. Gr., iv. 183, 306), 
an Iphigenia in Tauris, a Lecythion, and 
the Gorgon (Medusa slain by Perseus). 


TD? OSO, EL. See Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary, St 

about 1560, died before 1620. Lombard 
school; pupil of Orazio Sammacchini, but 
studied Pellegrino Tibaldi, and when he 
returned to Parma took as his models the 
works of Oorreggio and of Parmigianino. 
He was the last of the painters of the old 
school at Parma. Works; Magdalen, Parma 
Gallery ; Mystery of the Passion, Louvre. — 
Lanzi, ii 412 ; GL Blanc, &ole lombarde ; 
Lavice, 256. 

TINTORETTA, LA, bom in 1560, died 
in 1590. Venetian 
school Marietta Bo- 
busti, daughter and 
pupil of Jacopo Ro- 
busti, called Tinto- 
retto. Acquired a 
considerable reputa- 
tion as a portrait 
"' ^ painter. — Eidolfi, 

Marav., iL 259 ; OL Blanc, !^cole v^niti- 

Venice in 1562, died there in 1637. Vene- 
tian school; son and pupil of Jacopo Robusti, 
called Tintoretto. Followed in his father's 
footsteps, but was inferior to him in inven- 
tion and in colouring. More successful in 
portraits than in historical painting, but 

called n Tintoretto. 

executed some large commissions in the 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; among them, Naval 
Battle at Salvore, Conquest of Constantino- 
ple by Cmsaders (1204), and Surrender of 
Zara. — Ch. Blanc, ficole venitienne. 
TINTORETTO, JACOPO, bom in Venice, 

Sept. 29, 
1518, died 
there. May 
31,1594 Ve- 
netian school. 
Real name 
Jacopo Ro- 
busti; son of 
a silk dyer 
Pupil of Titian, who 
is said to have discharged him because he 
feared in him a future rival ; but this is not 
probable, as Titian was nearly sixty years 
old at the time. Adopting as his motto 
Titian's colouring and Michelangelo's draw- 
ing, Tintoretto won a reputation second 
to none in his time ; but whether he actu- 
ally attained the high standard of excellence 
which he had set for himself is a question 
on which critics are divided. AH, however, 
imite in regarding him as one of the great- 
est of masters in composition, drawing, and 
colour, and Ruskin places him above Titian 
and beside Michelangelo. Recognizing the 
unequal merit of his works, the Venetians 
said that there were three Tintorettos— one 
of bronze, one of silver, and one of gold ; 
and Annibale Carracci said that, if some- 
times equal to Titian, he was often inferior 
to Tintoretto. With a rapidity of execution 
which procured him the nickname of H Furi- 
oso, he covered walls and ceilings with vast 
compositions, some of which are so slight 
in treatment and wanting in finish that they 
are little more than decorations, though 
often grand in design and marvellous in ef- 
fects of light and shade. His Paradise, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale, is the largest picture on canvas 
in existence. One of his most famous pict- 
ures is the Miracle of St Mark, in the Venice 


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Academy. Tintoretfco often treated sacred 
themes with a coarse realism unworthy of 
religious art, as in The Pool of Bethesda, 
and The Last Supper, in the Scuola di S. 
Bocoo, Venice ; but his mythological pict- 
ures are conceived more in harmony with 
their subject& He was fond of paintiDg the 
nude, and his female figures are charming. 
His portraits are masterly, rich in colour, 
and (those of old men especially) life-like. 
Many of the pictures assigned to him in 
European galleries are not genuine. Venice 
contains many undoubted originals, among 
which are : Bacchus and Ariadne, Mercury 
and Ghraces, Minerva repelling Mars, Forge 
of Vulcan, SS. Andrew and Jerome, St. 
George and Dragon, Siege of Zara, Triumph 
of Venice, Battle of Lepanto, Paradise, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale ; Death of Abel, Expulsion from 
Eden, Academy; Annunciation (2), Ascen- 
sion, Assumption, Pool of Bethesda, Christ in 
the Garden, Baptism of Christ, Circumcision 
of Christ, Christ before Pilate, Temptation 
of Christ, Procession to Calvary, Crucifixion, 
Ecce Homo, Elijah at Brook Cherith, Ezeki- 
eVs Vision, I\jII of Man, Flight into Egypt, 
Sacrifice of Isaac, Jacob's Dream, Jonah, 
Joshua, Last Supper, Baising of Lazarus, 
Magdalen, Adoration of Magi, Fall of Manna, 
St Mary of Egypt, Massacre of Innocents, 
Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, Moses strik- 
ing the Bock, Plague of Serpents, Resurrec- 
tion, St Roch, St Roch in Glory, St Roch 
in Heaven, St Sebastian, Adoration of Shq)- 
herds. Visitation, Scuola di S. Bocco ; Mar- 
tyrdom of St AgneSf Last Judgment, Moses 
on the Mount, Presentation of Virgin, do. 
of Jesus, S. M. dell' Orto ; Temptation of 
St Anthony, Last Supper, S. Trovaso ; As- 
cension, Christ with Saints, S. M. Zobenigo ; 
Baptism of Christ, S. Silvestro ; Christ wash- 
ing Disciples' Feet, S. Mois6 ; Presentation, 
Circumcision, S. M. del Carmine ; Discovery 
of Cross, S. M. Mater Domini ; Crucifixion, 
Resurrection, Descent into Hades, S. Cassi- 
ano ; Crucifixion, Madonna with the Camer- 
lenghi, SS. Giovanni e Paolo; Martyrdom 
of SS. Damian and Cosmo, Fall of Manna, 

Last Supper, Coronation of Virgin, Resur- 
rection, IkWtyrdom of St Stephen, S, Giorgio 
Maggiore; St. Demetrius, S. Felice; En- 
tombment, S. Francesco della Vigna ; Land- 
scape, St Roch in the Desert, St Roch in 
Campo d' Armata, Finding Body of St Roch, 
St Roch in the Hospital, St Roch before the 
Pope, Church of S. Bocco ; St Mark res- 
cuing a Saracen, Bemoval of Body of St 
Mark, Libreria Vecchia ; Marriage at Cana, 
S. M. della Salute. Among the works of 
Tintoretto in other cities are : Baptism of 
Christ, Procession to Calvary, St. Jerome, 
Muses on Parnassus, Susanna at the Bath, 
Vienna Museum ; Christ on the Cross, Tu- 
rin Gallery ; Concert of Women, Fallen An- 
gels, Knight and Two Women, Madonna 
with Saints, Madonna with Saints, Muses 
and Graces on Parnassus, Woman taken in 
Adultery, Dresden Gkdlery ; DeposUion from 
Cross, Madonna, Resurrection, Venus with 
Cupid and Vulcan, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
Entombment, Parma Gallery ; Ecce Homo, 
Munich Gallery; Esther and Ahasuerus, 
Muses in Olympus, Hampton Court, Eng- 
land ; St George and Dragon, National 
GWlery, London ; St George and Dragon, 
Birth of John Baptist, Perseus and Androm- 
eda, Hermitage, St Petersburg; Joseph 
and Potiphar's Wife, Finding of Moses, 
Judith, Baptism of Christ, Tarquin and Lu- 
cretia, and portraits, Madrid Museum ; Leda 
and Swan, Norton Collection, England ; 
Luna and the Hours, Madonna, St Mark, 
Berlin Museum ; Milky Way, Cobham Hall, 
England ; Paradise, Susanna at the Bath, 
Tintoretto (portrait). Louvre, Paris. Tinto- 
retto painted many fine portraits, one of 
the best of which is that of a young Vene- 
tian in the gallery at CasseL — ^Vasari, ed. 
Le Mon., xi 331 ; xiiL 109 ; ed. Mil., vi 
587 ; Dohme, 2iiL; Ch. Blanc, £cole v6- 
nitienne ; Burckhardt, 743, 761 ; Buskin, 
Stones of Venice ; C. & C, Titian, L 437 ; 
Seguier, 170 ; Bidolfi, Maraviglie, il 171 ; 
Galanti, Tintoretto, Venice (1876); Osier, 
Tintoretto, London (1879); Nord u. Sttd, 
xi 141 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vii 366 ; xiv. 22a 


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TINTORETTO, JACOPO, portrait, Tin- 
toretto, Louvre ; canvas, H. 2 ft x 1 ft 8 in. ; 
signed. Full face, short hair, and long white 
beard ; in a black dress bordered with fur. 
Painted in his old age. — Villot, Cat Louvre 
(1875), 214 ; Filhol, v. PI. 299. 

DAUGHTER, L6on Cogyiiet, Bordeaux Mu- 
seum. Tintoretto, his hair white with age, 
his eyes filled with tears, is painting the por- 
trait of his dead daughter, Maria Robusti, 
whose beautiful features and blonde tresses, 
lighted by a lamp concealed behind a red 
curtain, make her appear rather asleep than 
dead. The face of Tintoretto is from his 
portrait in the Louvre, but that of Maria is 
much more beautiful than her portrait pre- 
served at Florence. Engraved by Achille 
Martinet. Lithographed by Aug. Lemoine. 
— Larousse, xv. 218. 

in 1842. Genre and landscape painter, 
pupil of Accademia di S. Luca, where he 
at first studied sculpture and won fourteen 
medals ; in 1873 took up painting. Medals : 
Rome, Vienna, ChiH. Works : Cattle Mar- 
ket in the Campagna ; Railroad Accident ; 
Buffalo Team, Trieste Museum ; Harvest in 
the Campagna, New York Museum ; Land- 
scape (1878) ; The Charlatan, Sheep, View 
near Rome (1879) ; Hermit in the Campa- 
gna, Buffalo Fight, Bufiido Herd in Swamp 
(1880).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii 920. 

Rostock, Mecklenburg, in 1805 or 1806. 
Genre painter, pupil of Cassel Academy, 
then studied in Dresden and Munich, at the 
latter place in 1832-37 ; he went thence 
to Italy, spent some time in Venice, and 
afterwards settled at Trieste. Works : Al- 
pine Cowherd and Huntsman in Bavarian 

Highlands (1831), do. (1833), Domestic 
Scene, ib. (1836), Young Peasant Woman 
in a Gothic Church (1835), Tyrolese Girl 

Praying (1845), Schwerin G^allery. — Schlie, 

(AUGUST), bom at Maestricht, March 9, 
1750, died at Heidelberg, June 12, 1812. 
Portrait painter, pupil at first of his brother 
Wilhelm, then in Cassel of his imcle, Johann 
Heinrich Tischbein the elder. Went to 
Paris in 1780, and thence to Italy. On his 
return he became court painter to the 
Prince of Waldeck, and in 1800 professor 
and director of Leipsic Academy. In 1806 
-09 he was at Si Petersburg, where he 
painted the imperial family. Works : Por- 
traits of Princes and Princesses of Orange- 
Nassau (9, one dated 1789), Amsterdam 
Museum ; do. (2), Hague Museum ; Lute 
Player (1786), National Gallery, Berlin; 
Portraits of Man and Wife, Stadel Gkdlery, 
Frankfort ; Portrait of Schiller (1804), Leip- 
sic Museum ; Family Groups of Princes of 
Nassau, of Prince of Orange, Baron von 
Amim, etc. ; Portrait of the Painter and his 
Family, Dr. Pinder, Berlin. — Immerzeel, iii 

elder, bom at Hayna, Hesse-Cassel, Oct 3, 
1722, died in Cassel, Aug. 22, 1789. His- 
tory and portrait painter, first instructed by 
the court painter, Freese, in Cassel ; went 
to Paris in 1743 and studied five years un- 
der Carle van Loo, but was also greatly in- 
fluenced by Boucher and Watteau. In 1748 
he went to Venice, where he studied under 
Piazzetta, and after visiting Florence, Bolo- 
gna, and Rome, returned to Germany in 
1751 and became court painter to the land- 
grave William VHL of Hesse. In 1776 he 
was appointed director of the Academy of 
Arts, then founded in CasseL Works : Por- 
trait of Katharina Treu, Bamberg Gkillery ; 
Portrait of Lessing (about 1760), National 
Gkdlery, Berlin; Augustus and Cleopatra, 
Antony dying before Cleopatra, Jupiter and 
Callisto, Acis and Galatea, Venus adorned 
by her Maids, Cassel Gallery ; Resurrec- 
tion of Christ, Church of St. Michael, Cas- 
sel ; Ecce Homo, Catholic Church, ib.; The 


Digitized by 



Triumph of Arminins, Ch&teau Pyrmont ; 
Heraclius (1776), Democritus (1784), Ar- 
chimedes (1786), Belisarius (1786), Olden- 
burg Gallery; Portrait of a Landgrave of 
Hesse, Sohleissheim 
Gallery ; Hermit in a 
Grotto (2), Schwerin V ^-^ 
Gallery ; Portrait of a ?• / / • /, 
Lady (1777), do. oi/lSCPOtLn p 
Young Girl (1778), ^7^^ 

Weimar Museum. — Eugler (Crowe), ii. 564 ; 
niustr. Zeitg. (1883), ii. 419. 

na, Feb. l5, 1751, died at Eutin, June 26, 
1829. History, portrait, and landscape 
painter, nephew and pupil in Cassel of Jo- 
hannHeinrich Tischbein the elder; went 
in r766 to Hamburg, where he restored 
old pictures, copied after Berchem and 
Wouwerman with great truthfulness, and 
then devoted himself to portrait painting ; 
in 1771-73 studied in HoUand after the 
old masters, returned to Cassel, went to, 
Berlin in 1777, and to Rome in 1779. Two 
years later we find him in Zarich, mak- 
ing drawings for Lavater, in 1782 at Milan, 
and in 1783 again in Rome, whence he went 
with Qt>ethe to Naples in 1787, and was 
made director of the Academy there in 1789. 
After the invasion by the French in 1799 
he returned to Cassel, then moved to Ham- 
burg, and in 1808 settled at Eutin, where 
he painted much for «his patron, the Duke 
of Oldenburg. Works : Arminius Deliverer 
of Germany; Conradin of Suabia hearing 
his Sentence (1784), View near Frascati, 
Portrait of a Warrior, Qotha Gallery ; GK>tz 
von Berlichingen ; Entrance of General 
Benningsen into Hamburg (1816), Hamburg 
Gallery ; Portrait of himself, do. of Young 
Man, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Ama- 
zons setting out for the Chase (1788), Bash- 
kirs on Horseback (1814), Italian Landscape, 
Idyls (43, 1819-20), Gallery, Oldenburg; 
Rape of Helen, Hector and Andromache, 
Hector's Farewell, Achilles and Penthesilea, 
Ajax and Cassandra, Ulysses and Nausicaa, 
Amazons setting out for Battle, Christ and 

the Children, St Cecilia, Sicilian Landscape, 
Grand-Ducal Palace, ib. ; Hermit in Cave, 
Hermit Kneeling, Grand -Ducal Palace, 
Schwerin ; Portrait of a Painter, do. of a 
Boy, Weimar Museum. — F. von Alten, Aus 
T.'s Leben (Leipsic, 1872); Andresen, ii 1 ; 
N. NecroL der D. (1829), 516. 

TISI, BENVENUTO. See Garofalo. 

TISSOT, JAMES, bom at Nantes, Oct. 
15, 1836. Genre painter, pupil of Flan- 
drin and Lamothe ; at first' imitated the 
Dutch mastera His later works are good 
in colour and composition, and carefully 
executed. Has not exhibited in the Sa- 
lon since 1870. Studio in London. Medal 
in 1866. Works: Meeting of Faust and 
Marguerite (1861), Luxembourg Museum ; 
Young Woman in Church, Confessional 
(1866) ; Young Woman singing accompa- 
nied by Organ, Confidence (1867) ; Break- 
fast, Retreat in the Gkrden of the Tui- 
leries (1868) ; Young Women looking at 
Japanese Articles (1869); Giii in a Boat, 
Party of Four (1870) ; Interesting Story, 
Farewells (1872) ; Captain's Daughter, Last 
Evening, Too Early (1873) ; London Visit- 
ors, Waiting, Ball on Shipboard (1874) ; 
Bunch of Lilacs, Hush! (1875); The Thames, 
Convalescent (1876) ; Faust and Marguerite, 
Mra H. R Maynard, Boston ; In the Louvre, 
Morgan sale. New York (1886), $1,600.— 
Meyer, Gesch., 665 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 

Landseer, private gallery, England. Scene 
from Shakespeare's "Midsummer Night's 
Dream." Titania is fondling Bottom's ass's 
head, on which is the coronal of flowers 
with which she has crowned him mon- 
arch of her aflfections; before him stands 
Mustard-seed ; on the right. Pease-blossom 
rides on a supernatural white rabbit, while 
Cobweb, Moth, and other fairies are in at- 
tendance. Boyal Academy, 1851 ; sold to 
Mr. Quilter (1884), £7,000. 

TITIAN or TIZIANO, bom at Pieve di 
Cadore in 1477, died in Venice, Aug. 27, 
1576. Venetian school Beal name Tiziano 


Digitized by 



Vecelli or Vecellio. Learned rudiments of 
painting at Gadore, where a Madonna in 
fresco, at the Gasa 
Yallenzasco, is 
pointed out as his 
first work; went to 
Venice at the age 
of nine or ten, and 
was apprenticed by 
' his uncle, Antonio 
Vecelli, to an un- 
known artist, per- 
haps Seb. Zuccato. 
After frequenting the workshops of Oentile 
and Giovanni Bellini, where he met Palma 
and Giorgione, he began to decorate house 
fronts and to paint Madonna& A small 
Madonna of this time, in the Vienna Muse- 
um, though eclectic, is individual, while the 
Man of Sorrows, in the Scuola, and the 
Ghrist bearing his Gross, in the Ghurch of 
S. Rocco, Venice, show that Giorgione then 
influenced him, as Palma Vecchio did when 
he painted the Sacred and Profane Love 
(1503 ?), Palazzo Borghese, Rome. Other 
early works are : Madonna with St Anthony 
(1511), TJflazi, Florence; and portraits of 
the Doge Niccol6 Marcdlo (1505-8), Vatican 
Gallery, Rome, and of Marco Barberigo, 
Palazzo Giustiniani, Padua. In 1508, either 
in competition or in association with Giorgi- 
one, Titian decorated the Fondaco de* Te- 
deschi, Venice, with now destroyed frescos, 
of whose style dwi^^idea may be formed 
from the rapidly exe?fftted, masterly, and 
brilliant frescos of Joachim and Anna^ in the 
Scuola del Carmine, and of Three Miracles 
by St Anthony (1511), in the Scuola del 
Santo, Padua. In this year Titian entered 
the service of Alfonso L, Duke of Ferrara, 
for whom he painted the Christ of the 
Tribute Money (1514), Dresden Gallery, and 
the Bacchus and Ariadne (1523), National 
Grallery, London. Between the frescos at 
Padua and the Bacchus, he also produced 
the Madonna with Saints (1512), in the 
sacristy of the Salute, Venice ; Assumption 
(1518), in Venice Academy ; Annunciation, 

in S. Niccol6, Treviso, and the Scuola di 
S. Rocco (1525), Venice ; a Madonna with 
Saints (1520), S. Domenico, Ancona ; Al- 
tarpiece of Brescia, in fite compartments 
(1522), SS. Nazaro e Gelso, Brescia; Mor 
donna di S. Niccol5 (1523), Vatican Gallery, 
Rome ; and the Entombment, Louvre, Paris. 
This and the St Peter Martyr are examples 
of Titian's powers at their height. The life 
of Titian was not marked by any striking 
incidents or vicissitudes, and was spent in 
imceasing labour in Venice, Mantua, Fer- 
rara, and Padua, etc. In 1530, and again in 
1532, he went to Bologna, where he met 
Charles V.,who created him Count Palatine 
and Knight of the Gk)lden Spur by letters 
patent, bestowed many high privileges upon 
him, and then, as afterwards, sat to him for 
his portrait The finest among his pictures 
of the Emperor is Charles V. at Mohlberg 
(1548), Madrid Museum, once one of the 
great masterpieces of painting. Among 
Titian's earlier works are: Flora (1520), 
Uffizi, Florence ; Laura Dianti at her Toi- 
let (1523), Louvre; Madonna di Gasa Pe- 
saro (1526), a M. de' Frari, Venice ; Mag- 
dalen (1531 ?), Bella di Tiziano (1534), Pa- 
lazzo Pitti, Florence ; Venus of the Tribune 
(1537), UffizL In 1537 Titian decorated 
the great Hall of the Ducal Palace with the 
Battle of Cadore (burned in 1577) ; in 1639 
he painted the Presentation of the Virgin, 
Venice Academy, and in 1545 produced the 
Danae of the Naples Museum. When paint- 
ing, Titian covered his canvas with low- 
toned opaque colour, glazed everything, and 
in some instances spent years over a pict- 
ure. '' Unlike the early Flemish painters, 
he and the other great Venetians," says 
Hamerton, " worked independent of drawn 
lines, and in this gave evidence of greater 
technical advancement They took things 
by the middle and developed them in mass, 
with a thorough study of modelling in light 
and shade." Taken in their totahty, Titian's 
pictures fairly entitle him to be called the 
greatest of all painters; for while others 
may have surpassed him in single qualities, 

Digitized by 



none have equalled bim in general mastery. 
In landscape as in figure painting, in sacred 
as in profane subjects, in ideal beads as in 
portraits, in frescos as in oils, be is ''facile 
princeps;" and wbetber we cbiefly prize 
grace, tenderness, cbaracter, and dramatic 
power, or drawing, composition, texture, 
colour, and cbiaroscuro, we are sure to ob- 
tain tbe bigbest satisfaction in studying bis 
works. Tbe following are works not previ- 
ously mentioned : Annunciation, Transfigu- 
ration, S. Salvatore, Venice ; Pietro Aretino, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; do., Palazzo Gius- 
tiniani, Padua ; do.. Historical Society, New 
York ; Ariosto, Cobbam Hall, England ; 
do. (?), National Gallery, London ; Assump- 
tion, Duomo, Verona; Bacchanal, Madrid 
Museum; Beccadelli, XJffizi, Florence; Bel- 
la di Tiziano, Hermitage, St Petersburg; 
do., Palazzo Pitti, Florence; do., Palazzo 
Sciarra, Bome ; do., Vienna Museum ; Pie- 
tro BemJbo, Palazzo Barberini, Bome; do., 
Nardi Collection, Venice ; Twelve Ccesars ; 
Charles V., Madrid Museum; do. (1548), 
Old Pinakotbek, Municb ; Supper at £m- 
maus, Louvre; Christ in tbe Gkirden, Es- 
corial, Spain; Christ bearing tbe Cross, 
Scuola di S. Bocco, Venice ; Christ appear- 
ing to Virgin, S. Maria, Medole; Christ 
crowned witb Tboms, Louvre; do.. Old 
Pinakotbek, Municb ; Cbrist of Tribute 
Money, National Gkdlery, London ; Caterina 
Comaro, Uffizi, Florence ; Giorgio Comaro, 
Castle Howard, England ; Comaro Family, 
Alnwick Castle, England; Luigi Cornaro, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Crucifixion, S. 
Domenico, Ancona; Danae, Madrid Muse- 
um ; do., Naples Museum ; Allocution of 
Alfopsod'w^txiZo^, Madrid Museum; Alfonso 
d' Avalos, Louvre ; Cleopatra in a Grotto, 
Holy Family, Alfonso d' Avalos, Cassel Gal- 
lery ; D' Avalos and bis Page, Hampton 
Court; Diana and Actseon, Bridgewater 
House, London; Diana and Callisto, ib.; 
St Dominick, Palazzo Borgbese, Bome ; 
Ecce Homo, Madrid Museum ; do., Scuola 
di S. Bocco, Venice ; do., Vienna Museum ; 
Entombment, Alfonso d' Este, Madrid Muse- 

um ; Isabella d' Este Gonzaga, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Europa, Bape of, Cobbam Hall, 
England ; Alessandro Famese, Naples Mu- 
seum ; Pier' Luigi Famese, ib. and Palazzo 
Beale, Naples; La Fede, Palazzo Ducale, 
Venice ; Francis 1, Louvre ; do., Palazzo 
Gtiustiniani, Padua ; Nicbolas Granvelle, 
Besan9on Museum ; Antonio Grimani, An- 
drea 0}^ti, Palazzo Giustiniani, Padua; 
Holy Family, Louvre ; Homme au Gant, 
Louvre; Empress Isabella, Madrid Museum ; 
St James of Compostella, S. lio, Venice ; 
Jansenius, Palazzo Doria, Bome ; St Jerome, 
Brera, Milan ; do.. Louvre ; John Freder- 
ick, Vienna Museum; St John tbe Alms- 
giver, S. Giovanni Elemosinario, Venice ; 
St John in Wilderness, Venice Academy ; 
Jupiter and Antiope, Louvre ; Last Supper, 
Escorial, Spain ; Martyrdom of St. Lauy 
rence, ib.; do., S. M Assunta dei Gesuiti, 
Venice ; do.. Historical Society, New York ; 
Allegory of Lepanto, Madrid Museum ; Lu- 
cretia, Vienna Museum ; Madonna of An- 
cona, S. Domenico, Ancona; Madonna of 
Burleigb House, Burleigb House, England ; 
Madonna of Cadore, Cburcb of Cadore ; 
Madonna of tbe Cberries, Vienna Museum ; 
Madonna del Coniglio, Madonna witb Saints, 
Louvre ; Madonna witb SS. Jobn and Catb- 
erine. National Gallery, London ; Madonna 
witb Boses, XJffizi, Florence ; Madonna witb 
S. Bridget, Madrid Museum ; Madonna di 
S. Niccolb, Vatican ; Madonna witb Saints, 
Vienna Museum ; do.. Louvre ; Madonna of 
Serravalle, S. Andrea, Serravalle ; Madonna 
of Zoppe, Cburcb at Zopp6 ; Cristoforo Ma- 
druzzo, Salvadori Collection, Trent ; Magda- 
len, Hermitage, St Petersburg; do., Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; Adoration of Magi, Eoiigbt 
of Malta, St Margaret, Madrid Museum ; 
St Mark, S. M. della Salute, Venice ; Mater 
Dolorosa, Madrid Museum; Ippolito de' 
Medici, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; Giovanni 
Moro, Berlin Museum ; NativUy; St Nicho- 
las, S. Sebastiano, Venice ; Noli Me Tan- 
gere. National Gkdlery, London ; do., Ma- 
drid Museum ; Omnia Vanitas, Accademia di 
a Luca, Bome ; Pope Paul EL, Paul TO. 


Digitized by 



and his Grandsons, Naples Museum ; Jacopo 
Fesaro, Antwei-p Museum ; Philip IL, Pa- 
lazzo Giustiniaui, Padua ; do., Madrid Mu- 
seum ; do., Naples Museum ; Pietd, Venice 
Academy ; Marc Antonio Bezzonico, Spedale 
Maggiore, Milan ; Eleonora della Bovere, 
Francesco della Bovere, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Salome, Madrid Museum ; Fabricio Salmre- 
siot Vienna Museum ; Saviour , Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; St Sebastian, Harracb Collection, 
Vienna ; do., Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; 
Filippo Strozzi, Vienna Museum; Summer 
Storm, Buckingham Palace ; Supper at Em- 
maus. Louvre ; Tarquin and Lucretia, Hert- 
ford House, London ; Three Ages, Bridge- 
water House, London; TUian (portrait), 
Berlin Museum ; do., Madrid Museum ; 
do., Vienna Museum ; Titian's Doctor, Vi- 
enna Museum ; Titian s Uncle, Hampton 
Court ; Tobias and Angel, S. Marcellino, 
Venice ; Transfiguration, Marc Antonio Tre- 
visard, Sterne Collection, Vienna ; Trinity 
or La Gloria, Madrid Museum ; Benedetto 
Varchi, Vienna Museum; Lavinia Vecelli, 
Berlin Museum ; do., Dresden Gallery ; 
Venus of the Tribune, UflSzi, Florence ; 
Venus and Adonis, Alnwick Castle, Eng- 
land ; do., Madrid Museum ; Venus Anadyo- 
mene. Bridge water House, London ; Venus 
and Cupid, Uffizi, Florence ; Venus equip- 
ping Cupid, Palazzo Borghese, Home ; 
Darmstadt Venus, Darmstadt Gallery ; 
Toilet of Venus, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; Venus with Organ Player, Madrid 
Museum ; Venus Worship, Madrid Museum ; 
Andrea Vesaliv^, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; 
Woman in Adult- 

TiZidA/O^^ / Brescia.— C. & C, 

r' Tt+* Life of Titian ; 

tC I a/vu5 J iil^t/lr Burckhardt, 714, 
'Pi-ri^^r ^722; Lermolieflf, 

J ITlANl//£:^CXl4;Vasari,ed.Ma, 
CW. 'f / Ml ' vii 425 ; Womum, 
J ^ ^ Epochs, 250 ; Ch. 

Blanc, ]^le v^nitienne ; P. G. Hamerton, 
Art Essays, Atlas Series, No. 14 ; Northcote, 

Titian (London, 1830) ; Bergmann, Tizian 
(Hanover, 1865) ; M. F. Sweetser, Titian, 
Artist Biographies (1877) ; R F. Heath, Ti- 
tian (1879) ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie deU* Arte 
(Padua, 1835, 1837) ; Eastlake, Five Great 
Painters (London, 1883) ; Graph. K., iii 79 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xii. 601 ; xviL 286 ; xviiL 
110 ; xix. 624 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 196 ; xiL 
9 ; xiii. 257, 305 ; xix. 102 ; Art Journal 
(1886), 85, 132. 

TITIAN, portrait, Titian, Berlin Museum ; 
canvas, H 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft 5 in. Half- 
length, in a close-buttoned doublet, with 
shoulders covered by a pelisse of brown 
cloth with fur collar, and black skull-cap. 
Painted later than the Vienna picture. In 
bad condition till regenerated in 1874 by 
Pettenkofer process. Probably the original 
of the portrait in the Uffizi, from the en- 
graving of which by Agostino Carracci the 
common pictures of Titian are taken. — C. & 
C, Titian, ii 60 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 446, 458. 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 2 
ft 10 in. X 2 ft 1 in. Almost in profile to 
the left; dressed in doublet, pelisse, and 
black skull-cap, his beard and hair white. 
Painted in 1562 (?) ; was in the Alcdzar, 
Madrid, as early as 1621. Engraved by 
Alphonse Fran9ois from a replica in Paris. 
— C. & C, Titian, ii 62. 

By Titian, Vienna Museum ; wood, H. 1 
ft 7 in. X 1 ft 4 in. Bust picture, in fur 
pelisse and black skull-cap. So repainted 
as to show no trace of Titian's hand. Copy 
by Teniers at Blenheim. Engraving by Vors- 
terman in Teniei*8*s Gallery ; another in 
Haas's Galerie de Vienne. — C. & C, Titian, 
ii. 60. 


TITIAN'S DOCTOR, Titian, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H.3ft6in.x2ft7in. A 
beardless old man in black-silk robe& Per- 
haps picture called Parma by Ridolfi in his 
Maraviglie (i. 220). A masterly portrait, 
but treatment unlike that of Titian. En- 
graving in Teniers's Gallery. — C. & C, Ti- 
tian, ii 425. 


Digitized by 



TITIAN'S MISTRESa See Bella di Ti- 

ariti^ Laura. 

TITIAN'S UNCLE, Titian, Hampton 
Court ; canvas, H. 3 ft 9 in. x 3 ft. 2 in. 
Half-length, dressed in black, standing at a 
table, a book in one hand, a golden apple in 
the other. Named as above between 1842 
and 1854, but for what reason is not appar- 
ent Perhaps a portrait of Partenio, a poet 
and friend of Titian, who wrote verses on 
his pictures. — C. & C, Titian, ii 429 ; Law, 
Hist. Cat Hampton Court, 38. 

TITIAN, VISIT TO, Daniel Huntingtany 
Samuel Hawk Collection, 
New York ; canvas. Clem- 
ent Vn. and Charles V., 
seated in centre, with court- 
iers standing behind ; at 
right, ladies seated ; at left, 
Titian standing, uncovering 
his picture of the Entomb- 
ment, now in the Louvre ; 
in background, through the 
window, are seen the tow- 
ers of Bologna. Scene in 
1530, when Titian went to 
Bologna to paint the por- 
traits of the Pope und the 
Emperor. — Art Treasures 
of America, u. 25, 28. 

SIAN, TRIUMPH OF, GiuHo Romano, 
Louvre, Paris ; wood, H. 4 ft x 5 ft. 7 in. Ti- 
tus and Vespasian, crowned with laurel, in a 
chariot drawn by four horses, marching in a 
procession which is passing under the tri- 
umphal arch erected to commemorate the 
conquest of Judea ; above, the Goddess of 
Victory flies down to crown them ; in front 
of the chariot a Roman officer holds by the 
hair a Jewess — ^the personification of con- 
quered Judea ; he is preceded by a soldier 
bearing the seven-branched candle-stick. 
Painted for Duke of Mantua, from whom 
acquired by Charles L of England ; sold af- 
ter his deatii to Jabach, who sold it to Louis 

XIV. Engraved by Reindel ; L. Desplaces ; 
A. Girardet — Musee royal, i. Part 1 ; Fil- 
hol, X. PI. 704 ; Landon, Mus^e, xiv. PI. 61 ; 
Villot, Cat Louvre ; Ch. Blanc, £cole ro- 
maine ; Cab. Crozat, i. PL 50. 

TKADUK See Kadlik, 

bom at Higuera, near Aracena, in 1678, 
died in Madrid in 1758. Spanish school ; 
pupil in Seville of Juan Antonio Fajardo, a 
mediocre painter ; afterwards improved his 
style by copying the works of Murillo, and 
became the most noted of his imitators. 
Probably much of his work passes under 
the name of his great exemplar. In 1720 

Triumph of Titus and Vespasian, Giulio Romano, Louvra, Paris. 

he became a familiar of the Holy Office, 
and in the same year executed for the Ca- 
thedral of Seville his most famous original 
work, Nuestra Senora del Consuelo (Virgin 
of Consolation), which won him the favour 
of Philip V. and the appointment (1729) of 
court painter. Other works : Madonna, Vir- 
gin appearing to St. Francis, Academia S. 
Fernando, Madrid ; Virgin in Contempla- 
tion, Portrait of an Infanta, Heirs of Don 
Sebastian, Pau ; St Joseph and Infant Je- 
sus, Berlin Museum. Copies after Murillo : 
Portrait of Murillo, Museo del Prado, Ma- 
drid ; Virgen de la Faja, Cadiz Museum ; 
Good Shepherd, Infant St John, S. Isidoro, 

Digitized by 



Seville; Boy blowing Soap Bubbles, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg. — Stirling, iiL 1302 ; 

CIl Blanc, £cole espagnole ; Yiardot, 227 ; 
Curtis, 333 ; Madrazo, 677. 

William C. Cartwright, Aynhoe, Northamp- 
tonshire, England ; canvas, H. 2 ft 9 in. x 
3 ft. 7 in. The angel in a plum-coloured 
robe, Tobias in a yellowish cloak with a fish 
in his left hand, both bearing staves, walk- 
ing in a rocky landscape beside a river ; a 
dog looks up at the angeL — Curtis, 124. 

TobJM and tne Angel, Salvator Rosa, Louvr*, Paris. 

By Antonio Pollajuolo, Turin GWlery; 
H. 5 ft. 11 in. X 3 ft 10 in. The archangel 
clad in antique costume, and Tobias in cap, 
mantle, buskins, and hose; a shaggy dog 
trots before the archangel ; in background, 
a city and castle, near a river, and two naked 
men preparing to bathe. Painted for Or* 
S. Michele, Florence. — ^Vasari, ed. Mil, iii. 
292 ; C. & C, Italy, ii. 393. 

By Salvator Bosa, Louvre, Paris ; wood, H. 

11 in. X 8 in. The angel Raphael, with a wand 
in his hand, commands Tobias to seize the 
fish, which the latter, kneeling, is taking 
from the water. Engraved by €tuttenberg. 
— Mns^ fran9ais ; Landon, Musee, viL PL 
7 ; Filhol, ii PL 111. 

By Andrea del Sarlo or his school, Vienna 
Museum ; wood, arched, H. 5 ft 8 in x 4 ft 
10 in. The angel Raphael leading Tobias 
by the hand ; on other side, St Lawrence 
and a kneeling donor ; above, Christ with 
his cross, in clouds. — C. & C, Italy, iiL 680 ; 
Galerie de Vienne, L PL 11 ; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole florentine. 

By Titian, S. Marcellino, Venice ; canvas, 
figures life-size, seen to elbows. The angel 
and Tobias moving toward the foreground ; 
a spotted dog in front of them ; St John 
Baptist kneeling at foot of a tree. Painted 
in 1539. Old copy in Dresden Gallery. — 
Vasari, ed. MiL, viL 430 ; C. & C, Titian, IL 

TOBLER, VIKTOR, bom at Trogen, 
Switzerland, Jan. 13, 1846. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Munich Academy, 
and of Wilhelm Lindenschmit Studio in 
Munich. Works: Disputation of Zwingli 
at ZOrich ; Checkmate ! (1877), Berne Mu- 
seum ; Market Scene (1879) ; Wedding in 
Amper Valley, Zttrich Gallery ; Cradle Song 
(1885).— Mttller, 523. 

TOCQUfi (Tocquet), LOUIS, bom in Par- 
is, Nov. 19, 1696, died there, Feb. 10, 1772. 
French school ; portrait painter, son of an 
architecture painter, pupil of Nicolas Bertin 
and Nattier. Member of the Academy, 1734; 
councillor, 1744 Invited to St Petersburg 
by the Empress, and remained there from 
1757 to 1758 ; then visited Stockholm and 
Denmark, and returned to Paris in 1760. 
In 1769 he revisited Denmark, and was 
elected associate of the Copenhagen Acade- 
my. Was an excellent painter of stufb, 
good draughtsman, and agreeable colourist 
Works : Maria Leczinska, Louis of France 
(1739), Mme. de Graffigny, M. Dumarsais, 
Louvre ; Due de Richelieu, Rothan Gallei^y ; 
Empress Elizabeth and Royal Family, Co- 


Digitized by 



penhagen Gallery; Empress Elizabeth of 
Russia, four others, Versailles Museum ; oth- 
ers in Marseilles, Nantes, Amiens, and Ba- 
yeux Museums. — Bellier, ii 578 ; Ch, Blanc, 




ificole fran9aise; Jal, 1186; Villot, 
Louvre ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 364. 

TOJETT^ VIRGIIJO, bom in Rome, 
Italy, in 1849. Figure painter ; studied in 
Paris under G6r6me and Bouguereau. Re- 
moved to America in 1870. First exhibited 
at National Academy in 1881. Studio in 
New York. Works : Richelieu (1881) ; Sleep- 
ing Cupid, Sorrow (1882) ; Veiled Prophet 
of Khorassan (1883) ; Out of the Gates of 
Paradise (1884) ; Love's Temptation (1886) ; 
The Favourite, A Little Accident (1886). 

TOKEN, LAST. See Last Token. 

TOL, DOMINICUS VAN, bom at Bode- 
graven between 1631 and 1642, died at Ley- 
den, buried Dec. 26, 1676. Dutch school; 
genre painter, nephew and pupil of Gerard 
Dou, whose manner he imitated so closely 
that his pictures were frequently attributed 
to that master. He is, however, generally 
colder in colour. Works: Three Children 
with Cat and Mouse Trap, Family Scene 
(after Dou), Male Portrait (1673), Amster- 
dam Museum; Woman frying Pancakes, 
Leyden Museum ; Herring Seller, Old Man 
lighting Pipe, Portrait of Gerard Dou, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Old Man eating Herring, 
Old Woman winding Yam, Dresden Gallery ; 
GKrl with Chicken, 

Study, Copenhi 
gen Gallery; Two 
V Children vnth 

Birds' Nests, Lace Maker at Cradle, Hermit- 
' age, St Petersburg. — Kramm, vL 1636 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 412. 

TOLEDO, Capitan JXJAN DE, bom at 
Lorca in 1611, died in Madrid in 1665. 

with Chicken, ^^ ^y 

isel Gallery; c^ ) Xl ^ 
lolar in his 7JV. ^^^' 

z BV-ToC. 

Spanish school ; pupil of his father, Miguel 
de Toledo ; became a captain of cavalry in 
the wars in Italy, and made there the ac- 
quaintance of Michelangelo Cerquozzi, un- 
der whom he finished his artistic education. 
Established himself at Granada, on his re- 
turn to Spain, and painted many military, 
marine, aud battle scenes, and some relig- 
ious subjects, in which he was less success- 
ful The last part of his life was spent 
in Madrid. Works: Three Naval Engage- 
ments, Madrid Museum. — Stirling, il 817 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ]^le espagnole ; Viardot, 140 ; 
Madrazo, 578. 

York ; contemporary. Portrait, genre, and 
still-life painter ; pupil of P. P. Rothermel in 
Philadelphia, of the National Academy and 
Cooper Institute in New York, and for two 
years of Luminais in Paris ; vice-president 
of the Ladies' Art Association. Exhibits at 
the National Academy ; studio in New York. 
Works : Cottage Door (1877) ; Portrait of 
Linda Gilbert ; In Memoriam (1878); Chrys- 
anthemums (1883). 

TOM, JAN BEDYS, bom at Boskoop, 
March 4, 1813. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Andreas Schelfhout Works: On the 
Heath (1866), Museum, Amsterdam; Flat 
Country with Cattle, Museum Podor, ib. 

TOM DIECK, AUGUST, born at Olden- 
burg, March 23, 1831. History painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Adolf 
Wichmann and Julius Schnorr ; went in 
1857 to Italy ; studied in Florence after the 
old masters, then for four years in Rome. 
Works : St Cecilia (1854) ; Two Marys at 
the Sepulchre (1859) ; Christ on Mount of 
Olives (1862); Crucifixion (1863); Group 
by the Cross (1871) ; Transfiguration of 
Christ ; St Cecilia (1877), Dresden Gallery. 
—Mailer, 623. 

Vienna in 1792, died there in 1845. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. 
Works: Rocky Landscape vnth Peasants, 
Woodland with Two Boys (1831), Vienna 
Museum ; Views in the Prater (1834, 1835) ; 


Digitized by 



The Watzmann near Bercbtesgaden (1836) ; 
The Great Eiger in Switzerland (1839); 
View on the Danube (1841). — Wurzbach 
xlvL 34. 

TOMMASI, NICCOIA, of Florence, 14th 
century. Florentine school ; his name ap- 
pears, with that of Andrea Orcagna and 
others, in 1366 in the list of the council of 
S. Maria del Fiore, and in 1371 in the guild 
of painters, Florence. His picture of Si 
Anthony, dated 1371, in S. Antonio Abate, 
Naples, shows that his style was not unlike 
that of Orcagna.— C. & C, Italy, i. 335, 

viso, lived latter half 14th century. Bolo- 
gnese school ; though a feeble second-rate 
painter, he was the first of any note in Mo- 
dena ; style, a mixture of the Gubbian and 
Bolognese. A St. Catherine in the Venice 
Academy, dated 1351, ascribed to him, is 
of the close of the 15th century (C. & C). 
An altarpiece by him, in six parts, in the 
Modena Gallery, is much repainted. In 
1357 Tommaso went to Prague, where he 
painted a Madonna with Saints, now in the 
Vienna Academy. He is supposed to have 
decorated the Castle of Carlstein for Charles 
rV., after 1357, and an Ecce Homo and a 
Madonna, still there, are attributed to him ; 
also an altarpiece in the Modena Gkdlery, 
and a wall painting in S. Niccold, Treviso. 
— C. & C, Italy, ii 218 ; Burckhardt, 519. 


bom in Washington, D. C. ; contemporary. 
Portrait and figure painter, pupil of the 
School of Design and of Bonnat in Paris. 
Has exhibited at the Paris and Brussels 
Salona Works : Little Musician (1876) ; 
Rosa— la fileuse, little Artist (1878). 

TOMYMS, Rubens, Earl Darnley, Cob- 
ham Hall, England ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 8 in. 
X 11 ft 9 in. Seventeen figurea Tomyris 
commanding the head of Cyrus to be im- 
mersed in blood (Herod., i. 205). The 
Queen, in a white-satin robe embroidered 

with gold, accompanied by a lady on her left, 
and three others and two pages behind her, 
stands at right on a dais, observing the 
executioner, who, bending on one knee, 
h^lds the head of Cyrus over a golden 
charger filled with blood ; several courtiers 
and soldiers look on. Orleans Collection ; 
bought by Earl of Daraley for 1,200 guin- 
eas. Engraved by P. Pontius ; Bagot ; Du- 
change; Launay. — ^Waagen, Treasures, iiL 
23 ; Smith, ii. 207. 

By Rubens, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 8 
ft 8 in. X 6 ft 6 in. The Queen, in a satin 
robe and mantle lined with ermine, on a 
throne at right, with two female attendants 
at her left, an elderly female behind, and 
a minister of state and two soldiers at 
her right ; on the opposite side, an execu- 
tioner holding the head of Cyrus over a 
brazen vase, and a man in a crimson robe 
looking on. Valued in 1816 at 100,000 
franca — Cat Louvre ; Smith, ii. 117. 

den in 1641, died there in 1719. Dutch 
school; history, genre, and portrait paint- 
er ; studied in Leyden and in Eome, whith- 
er he went in 1670 ; also lived for several 
years in Venice. Works : Old Woman Spin- 
ning (1667), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Butcher 
Shop (1677), Museum, Vienna; Men with 
Books (6, five dated 1675, 1677), Man be- 
fore Mirror (1676), two others (1679), sev- 
eral, Liechtenstein Gtallery, ib. ; Woman 
Singing and Organ Grinder (1678), Fish- 
Seller at Window (1679), Jew with Book, 
Man giving Flower to Woman (attributed), 
Dresden Gallery ; Company of Four witii 
Books, Brunswick Gallery ; Peasant hold- 
ing Vessel, Woman looking out of Window, 
Cassel Gallery ; Peasant between two kinds 
of Wine, Moltke Collection, Copenhagen ; 
Benediction being read in a Synagogue, The 
Curse do., Christiania Gallery ; Soldiers at 
Cards (1682), Old Woman placing Candle 
in a Lantern, Darmstadt Museum ; Old Man 
with Book, Gotha Museum ; Melon Vender, 
Poultry Vender, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
The Quack Doctor, Schleissheim Gallery; 


Digitized by 



Smoker, Landsknecht on Guard, Schwerin 
Ckdlery ; Holy Family, Young Man in Cui- 

J. Lor^^^^ /' 

rass, Hermannstadt Museum. — Eramm, vi. 
1640 ; Quellenschnf ten, xiv. 349. 

at Leeds, Yorkshire, April 16, 1808, died 
at Cordova, Spain, March 31, 1877. His- 
tory and landscape painter, in oil and water- 
colours; began in Leeds as an engraver; 
removed in 1829 to London, and became 
a member of the Society of Water-Colour 
Painters in 1848. He drew his subjects 
chiefly from Ireland, Scotland, Spain, and 
Italy. Works: Deserted Village, Rustic 
Bridge— nkley (1843); Pilgrims to the 
Holy Well— Ireland (1846) ; Mavoumeen I 
MavoumeenI (1846); St Patrick's Day 
(1847) ; Irish Courtship ; Spanish Gypsies; 
Welsh Cabin; Preparing for the Fight, 
Waiting by the Stile (1872) ; Bird's Nest, 
Love Letter (1873) ; Leaving Church — 
Charity (1874) ; Wayfarers, Welsh Stream 
(1876) ; Blackberry Gkttherers, Haymaking, 
Loiterers by the Sea (1876) ; Venetian 
Water Carriers, Eve of the Festa (1877).— 
Art Journal (1876), 210; (1877), 187; 
(1880), 21 ; C. Carr, Essays, 198. 

TOPHAM, FRANCIS W. W., bom in 
London in 1838. History painter, son and 
pupil of Francis William Topham, and 
pupil of the Royal Academy ; has lived in 
Italy and France. Works : Fall of Rienzi 
(1876) ; Relics of Pompeii ; Dinner Time 
(1877) ; Drawing in Italy for Military Ser- 
vice (1878); Taming the Shrew, Home after 
Service (1879) ; Renouncing the Vanities by 
Order of Savonarola (1881) ; Content, Mes- 
senger of Gk>od Tidings (1882) ; Roman 
Triumph, Love and Labour, First Com- 
munion (1883) ; Thank Offering, Sonata, 
Festa dei Morti (1884) ; Sunday in Pom- 
peii, Queen of the Tournament (1885) ; 
God and Mammon, Rest, Quiet Harbour 

TORBIDO, FRANCESCO, first half of 
16th century; living in 1546. Venetian 
school ; commonly called II Moro. Ac- 
cording to Vasari, he went as a youth to 
Venice to study under Giorgione, but in 
consequence of a quarrel had to return to 
Verona. He gave up his profession for a 
time, but finally became a pupil of Libe- 
rale, who made him his heir. Throughout 
his career he imitated various painters, 
though always revealing himself. Second- 
rate when most original. In his Venetian 
style he resembles Pomponio Amalteo or 
Cariani ; and when he works on Giulio Ro- 
mano's cartoons he is Raphaelesque. Among 
his works in Verona are a Maclonnar*with 
Saints, in S. Zeno, altarpieces in S. Eufemia 
and S. Fermo, and the frescos of the Na- 
tivity, Presentation, and Assumption of the 
Virgin (1534), in the choir of the Duomo. 
The latter are from cartoons by Giulio Ro- 
mano. Torbido was also an engraver. — C. 
& C, N. Italy, L 508 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
vi 107 ; vii 87 ; ix. 170, 180 ; Burckhardt, 
192, 607, 746. 

seilles ; contemporary. Portrait and fig- 
ure painter, pupil of Couture. Medal, 3d 
class, 1875. Works: Bacchante (1864); 
The Repetition (1872) ; Death (1875), Mar- 
seilles Museum ; Vierge au lis (1876) ; The 
Test (1885) ; Investigation about Trichinse, 
Man's Head (1886). 

TORRES, MATIAS DE, bom at Espino- 
sa de los Monteros in 1631, died in Madrid 
in 1711. Spanish school ; pupil in Madrid 
of his uncle, Tomas Taurino, an obscure 
painter, and of Herrera el Mozo ; painted 
chiefly large, coarse pictures for processional 
decorations, but was quite successful in 
landscapes and battlea— Stirling, iii. 1024. 

Stockholm, Sweden, Feb. 10, 1838. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Stockholm Academy, 
then in Dtlsseldorf of Gude, and studied 
nature in Dalecarlia, Lapland, Austria, and 
Tyrol (1864), and Norway (1874). Fellow 
of Stockholm Academy in 1869. Works : 

Digitized by 



View in Stockholm Sharengarden ; View in 
Lapland ; Saturday Dance in Dalecarlia. — 
Mttller, 524 

TOUDOUZE, £D0UAKD, bom in Paris 
in 1844. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Auguste Leloir, Pils, and of the £cole 
des B. Arts, where he won the grand prix 
de Rome in 1871. Medals : 3d class, 1876 ; 
2d class, 1877. Works: Pirates Embark- 
ing (1867) ; Death of Jezebel (1868) ; Tort- 
ure of Brunhilde, Two Friends (1869); 
Eros and Aphrodite (1874); Murder of 
Agamemnon by Order of Clytemnestra 
(1876); Lot's Wife changed into Salt 
(1877) ; Beach at Yport (1878) ; Guardian 
Angels (1879), Caen Museum ; Country 
Recreation (1880); Coquetry (1881); Di- 
ana's Triumph (1882). — ^Larousse, Supple- 
ment . 

Nantes, Sept 21, 1829. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Gleyre. Subjects generally piquant 
scenes from daily life; paints satins and 
velvets with great skill Medals : 3d class, 
1852, 1859 ; 2d class, 1861 ; 3d class, 1878 ; 
L. of Honour, 1870. Works: Curl-Papers 
(1849) ; Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, A Girl 
(1852); After Breakfast (1853), Princess 
Mathilde ; First Step (1853), Empress Eu- 
g6nie ; The Lesson (1855), Nantes Museum ; 
The Terrace (1855) ; A Kiss (1857) ; Prayer, 
A Lesson, Card-House (1859) ; First Cha- 
giin. Sleep, Watch, Letter (1861) ; A Snub, 
At Rest, The Hearth (1863); Confidence, 
The Day after the Ball (1864) ; Forbidden 
Fruit (1865), Sir Richard Wallace, London ; 
First Visit (1865) ; A Marriage for Conveni- 
ence (1866), K Matthews; White Lilacs, 
Waiting (1867) ; Last Glimpse, A Festival 
(1868) ; Love-Letter, Morning Toilet (1869) ; 
The Appointed Time, Woman Reading 
(1870) ; Winter (1873) ; Serious Book, The 
Reply (1874) ; Flirtation, Summer (1876) ; 
The Rose (1878); The Letter, In the 
Grasp (1883); Tete-i-Tete (1884); In the 
Library, The Adieu, W. H. Vanderbilt Col- 
lection, New York ; Hour of Return, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, ib.; In the Garden, Love- 

Letter, Forbidden Fruit, New York, William 
Astor, ib. — Bellier, ii 582 ; Meyer, Gesch,, 
681, 696. 

TOUR See La Tour. 

CHER DE, bom at Toulon, Oct 25, 1814, 
died there, Dec 22, 1873. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Isabey. At first painted 
views of Brittany and Normandy. In 1854 
he went to the East, after which his pict- 
ures were chiefly of Oriental subjecta As- 
sistant custodian of the Luxembourg ; L. of 
Honour, 1853. Works: Souvenir of Con- 
cameau, River Oust (1846) ; Environs of 
Vannes, Low Tide, Sunset (1847) ; Breton 
Horsemen, A River, A Meadow, A Brook 
(1848) ; Batz, Low Tide at Croisic, Breton 
Pasture, Environs of St Martin (1849) ; A 
Village, Low Tide (1850) ; Beach in Brit- 
tany, Environs of Croisic, Pasture near 
Smyrna (1852) ; Beach at Low Tide, Bretons 
driving Cattle (1853) ; Girl Tending a Flock, 
Turkish Shepherd, The Danube (1855); 
Turkish Cafe, The Road to Smyrna, Turkish 
Horsemen, Lake on the Borders of Tu- 
nis, Souvenir of Asiatic Turkey (1857) ; De- 
parture of Caravan, Dwellings near Ada- 
lia. Souvenir of Tyr-Syria (1859) ; Cafe at 
Adalia, Views on Lower Danube (3), Envi- 
rons of Rosette — Egypt (1861) ; Gambols of 
Fishing Birds in Egypt (1863) ; DweUing 
at Adana — Asia Minor (1863), Prefecture, 
Nantes ; Promenade of Turkish Women 
(1863), Montpellier Museum ; Street leading 
to Bazaar at Chabran-el-Kebir (1865), Toulon 
Museum ; Return from the Chase in India 
(1868), Marseilles Museum ; Festival in In- 
dia, Hunting Episode in Africa (1869); 
View of Luxor during Inundation (1870) ; 
Elephant attacked by Lions, Sacred Lake in 
Hindostan (1872) ; Ruins of a Temple in 
Central India, Camp in Asia Minor (1873). — 
Athenseum (1873), L 66 ; Bellier, ii 683 ; 
Claretie, Peintres (1874), 278. 

GENE, bom in Banthouzel, Oct 6, 1809, 
died in Paris, June 26, 1867. G^nre paint- 
er, pupil of Marshal in Metz. Medal, 3d 


Digitized by 



class, 1843. Works : Hall of Oypsy Fam- 
ily (1852), Meiz Museum ; Point d'orgue 
(1859), Grenoble Museum; Faust and Wag- 
ner (1861) ; Solitude (1864) ; Gypsy Woman, 
Sunset (1865); Castle of Godfrey de Bouil- 
lon, Gk>od Adventure (1866). He published 
several volumes of poetry. — Bellier, ii 584 ; 
bom at Ifs, near 
Caen, in 1668, died 
at Caen, May 18, 
1752. French 
school ; genre and 
portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Lucas de la 
Haye and of Bon 
Boullogne. Made 
rapid progress in his 
art; admitted to 
Academy as portrait painter in 1702, and as 
history painter in 1716. Became assistant 
professor in 1725, but after a quarrel with 
his colleagues retired to Caen in 1750, and 
gave up painting. Works: Daughter of 
Dibutades drawing the Portrait of her 

j OlJifUijitrtM 

Lover (1716), 
Louvre; Portraits 
of Racine and 
Chapelle,' Caen; 
others in Ver- 

sailles and Nantes Museums. — Bellier, L 
1041 ; Ch. Blanc, I^le fran9aise; Yillot, 
Cat Louvre. 

Clarkson Stanfidd, Senior United Service 
Club, London ; canvas. Scene in centre 
of combined fleet, at half-past two o'clock, 
about an hour and a half after Nelson 
received his death-wound ; the Victory, the 
flag-ship, is in the act of disengaging herself 
from the Redoubtable, French 74, at that 
time lashed alongside the Tem^raire, British 
98, at the moment when the Fougueux, 
French 74, became the prize of the latter. 
Royal Academy, 1836; original sketch in 
National Gallery, painted in 1833. En- 
graved by J. Cousen, in Art Journal — Art 

Journal (1851), 287 ; Cat Nat GaL and R 

TRAINI, FRANCESCO, 14th century. 
Florentine school Yasari calls him a pupil 
of Andrea Orcagna, but he was already a 
full master when he entered Orcagna's work- 
shop in 1349. The earliest record of him 
is of 1341, and his only extant pictures are 

Transfiguration, Lodovico Carracci, Bologna Gallary. 

the St Thomas, in S. Caterina, Pisa, and the 
St Dominick (1345), in the Pisa Academy. 
In these he shows a mixture of the Floren- 
tine and the Sienese manner. — C. & C, It- 
aly, i. 455 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iL 136 ; 
Burckhardt, 497, 511 ; W. & W., i. 459 ; 
Bonaini, Memorie inedite intomo alia vita, 
etc, di Fr. Traini (Pisa, 1846). 

Mark, ix. 2 ; Luke, ix. 28). 

By Giovanni Bellini^ Naples Museum ; 


Digitized by 



wood, H. 5 f t 8 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. ; signed. 
Christ, between the prophets Moses and 
Elias, is rising from the ground ; below, 
the wonder-stricken apostles just roused 
from sleep. Painted about 1475-80; for- 
merly in Famese Collection, Parma. — C. & 

Transfiguration, Raphael, Vatican, Roma. 

C, N. Italy, i. 169 ; Meyer, Kflnst. Lex., iii. 
415 ; Museo Borbonico, iii. PI. 34. 

By Lodovico Carracci, Bologna Gallery ; 
canvas, H. 13 ft. 4 in. x 8 ft. 2 in. Christ 
in glory, between Moses and Elias ; below, 
three apostles gazing upward in awe. For- 

merly in Church of Convent of S. Pietro 
Martire, Bologna.— Pinac di Bologna, PL 
11 ; ReveU, x. 656. 

By Baphael, Vatican, Home ; wood, H. 13 
ft. 4 in. X 9 ft 3 in. In two parts : 1. The 
Transfiguration. Christ floating in a glory 
of light, with Moses on his 
right and Elias on his left ; 
below them the summit of 
a mountain (Tabor?), on 
which lie prostrate Peter, 
James, and John, dazzled 
by the light from above; 
at left, SS. Julian and Law- 
rence, kneeling in adora- 
tion, supposed to have been 
added at the request of 
Giulio de* Medici in hon- 
our of his father and uncle, 
who were named after 
them. 2. The Demoniac 
Boy (Matt, xvil 14 ; Mark, 
ix. 14 ; Luke ix. 37). At 
the base of the mountain, 
at right, a confused crowd 
of men and women is bring- 
ing a boy possessed of an 
evil spirit to be cured by 
the disciples, the remain- 
ing nine of whom are 
grouped at left, expressing 
by various gestures their 
inability to aid the sufferer, 
who is held by his father. 
Raphaers last work, begun 
in 1519 for Cardinal Giu- 
lio de* Medici, who intend- 
ed it for the Cathedral of 
Narbonne, France, in his 
bishopric, and who ordered 
at the same time the Rais- 
ing of Lazarus, from Se- 
bastiano del Piombo. Raphael finished 
only the upper part ; the lower part was 
painted by Giulio Romano from the mas- 
ter's designs, after his death. The picture 
hung over Raphael's body, as it lay in 
state, and was carried to the Pantheon in 


Digitized by 



the funeral processioD. Cardinal de' Med- 
ici, who became Clement YIL in 1523, 
sent Sebastiano's picture to Narbonne and 
placed the Transfiguration over the high 
altar in S. Pietro in Montorio, whence the 
French took it in 1797 to Paris, where it 
was cleaned and restored ; returned in 1816 
and placed in Vatican, where it hangs oppo- 
site the Last Communion of St Jerome, by 
Domenichino. Many reproductions ; copy 
in black chalk, by Casanova, in South Ken- 
sington Museum. Many studies ; several 
sketches in Oxford Collection. Engraved 
by J. Chereau ; C. Cort ; N. Dorigny ; A. 
P. Tardieu ; B. Eredi ; R. Morghen ; S. 
Thomassin ; S. Vallu ; Desnoyers ; and oth- 
era — Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 371 ; Passavant, 
ii 290 ; MOntz, 537 ; Jameson, History of 
Our Lord, i. 342 ; C. & C. Raphael, iL 486 ; 
Springer, 359 ; Ltlbke, Rafael, 142 ; Gut- 
bier, i. PL 91 ; Pilhol, x. PL 715 ; Mus6e 
fran.9ais, L ; Landon, Mus^, iii PL 69 ; 
Perkins, 189 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole ombri- 

By Titian, 8. Salvatore, Venice ; canvas, 
figures life-size. Christ just leaving the 
earth, which his right foot still touches ; 
Moses on left, Elias on right, and three 
apostles watching in foreground. Painted 
about 1565. Shows marks of assistants ; 
injured by repainting. — Vasari, ed. MiL, 
viL 449 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, L 267 ; C. & 
C Titian, iL 352. 

TRAUT, HANS, 15th century in Nurem- 
berg. German school ; mentioned in the 
burgher roll of 1477. He was a follower 
of Wolgemuth, though his style differed 
less than his from that of the earlier Nu- 
remberg BchooL Work : St. Sebastian, Uni- 
versity of Erlangen. — Thausing (Eaton), L 
91 ; W. & W., iL 123. 

at Zweibrflcken in 1713, died in Frankfort 
in 1769. German school; history, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of F. F. Bellon, 
then in Frankfort of Schlegel and of Eiese- 
wetter ; became court painter to the Elec- 
tor Palatine in 1761 ; painted jolly peas- 

ant scenes in the manner of Brouwer, Ostade, 
Teniers, etc., and bearded heads in Rem- 
brandt's style. Works : Conflagration, Male 
Head with Turban, Female do., Cassel Ghd- 
lery ; Conflagration, Stadel GWlery, Frank- 
fort; do., Augsburg Gallery. — Nagler, xix. 

TRAVI, ANTONIO, bom at Sestri, near 
Genoa, in 1613, died in Genoa in 1668. 
Genoese school ; sometimes called from his 
deafness H Sordo di SestrL Colour-grinder 
to Bernardo Strozzi, who gave him instruc- 
tion; afterward studied under Gottfried 
Waals or Waels, a Flemish landscape paint- 
er settled in Genoa. Acquired considerable 
reputation as a landscape painter in Genoa, 
where most of his works are. — Lanzi, iiL 
272 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole g^noise. 

bom in Paris in 1824 
Genre painter, pupil 
of his father and Le- 
quien. Paints fami- 
ly scenes in which 
the heads are of su- 
perior merit Med- 
als : 3d class, 1853, 
1855. Works : Last 
Bunch of Ghrapes, 
Empty Basket, Last 

Look, Interiors (1848) ; Shakespeare listen- 
ing to the reading of one of his Plays in 
the Crown Tavern, Leonardo da Vinci and 
his Pupils (1850); Girl Sewing, Woman 
Spinning, The Lesson in Embroidery 
(1853) ; Sewing School, Too much Work 
(1855) ; Retinue, Grain Market (1857) ; Se- 
renity (1859) ; Tapestry, Prayer, Anxiety 
(1861) ; First Sighs, Public Garden (1863) ; 
Gathering Mussels at Dieppe (1864) ; Inte- 
rior in Savoy, Twins (1865) ; Pancake Seller 
(1866), Luxembourg Museum; Alphabet 
(1868) ; Girls' School, Two Sisters (1869) ; 
Sisters of Charity (1870) ; Seamstresses of 
Pont-Aven (1872) ; A Little Sunlight (1873) ; 
Seamstresses (1874) ; Young Woman and 
Child (1875); Tr^port Fishwives waiting 
for Low Tide (1879) ; Dozing (1882) ; Con- 


Digitized by 



cameau Cloth Shop on Market Day (1883) ; 
At Concarneau (1884) ; Rag Market (1886) ; 
Young Lady cutting her Nails, Raven6 Gal- 
lery, Berlin. — Bellier, ii. 588 ; Meyer, Geseh., 
635, 693. 

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome ; fresco 
on ceiling. 

Yardley, Bucks County, Penn., Sepi 16, 
1859. Figure painter, pupil of the Penn- 
sylvania Academy, where he was awarded 
the first Charles Toppan prize in 1882 and 
the Temple silver medal in 1883. Studio 
in Philadelphia. Works: United States 
Cavalrymen, T. B. Clarke, New York ; Bat- 
tery en Route (1882), Pennsylvania Acad- 
emy, Philadelphia ; The Pursuit (1884), Je- 
rome B. Wheeler, New York ; Battery — 
Halt ! (1886), Mr. Gibbons, ib. 

TRETOLER, ADOLF, bom in Berlin in 
1846. Genre painter, pupil of Berlin Acad- 
emy under Daege, and of Julius Schrader ; 
won the prize for Rome in 1872, and trav- 
elled in Germany and Italy in 1873-74. 
Medal, Vienna, 1873. Works: Electress 
Elizabeth taking Communion after Protes- 
tant Rite (1872) ; Francis L declining Con- 
ditions of Peace by Charles V. (1877) ; In 
Ischia (1884) ; Love Song (1885).— Rosen- 
berg, Berl. Malersch., 250 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, ix. 64 ; XX. 41 ; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 748. 

TREML, FREEDRICH, bom in Vienna, 
Jan. 8, 1816, died there, June 13, 1852. 
Military genre painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Fendi ; worked from 1849 
almost exclusively for the Emperor Francis 
Joseph, who possesses his best pictures. 
Works : Procession of Corpus Christi (1841) ; 
Marching out of Garrison (1844) ; Reception 
of Consecrated Church Bell (1846) ; Smug- 
glers in danger of Discovery (1847) ; Old 
Peasant dreaming of Battle of Aspem 
(1849), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Recruit 
(1851) ; Return from Golden Wedding 
(1852) ; Old Peasant dreaming of Battle of 
Aspem, Munich GWlery. — Wurzbach, xlvii. 

TR^MOLLIERE (Trimoli^res), PIERRE 
CHARLES, bom at Cholet in 1703, died 
in Paris, May 11, 
1739. French school ; 
genre painter, pupil 
of Jean Baptiste van 
Loo. Won the sec- 
ond grand prix de 
Rome in 1726 ; after 
living in Rome six 
^ years returned and 
painted altarpieces 
for Lyons, and met 
with much success. Became a member of 
the Academy (1737), and assistant professor. 
Works : Adoration -~ JP. C* 

of the Shepherds, lRjEi\AOLU£R£ 

Lyons Museum; TYl 9 • />, 
Springtime, Au- u!)^ ^^/nx^^ure 
tumn, Hermitage, ^ y ^/} 8 
St. Petersburg. — 'D r f p. 

Bemer,ii590;Ch. i.<- . IremoCUU 
Blanc, il^cole fran9aise ; Mariette^ Abeceda- 
rio, V. 345. 

in Prague in 1824. History painter, pupil of 
Ruben at Prague and Vienna Academies, also 
influenced by Rahl, then studied in Rome, 
1856-62, after the masters of the 15th cen- 
tury ; became director of Prague Acjidemy 
in 1865 and professor at Vienna Academy 
in 1872. Member of Vienna Academy in 
1866. Order of Francis Joseph, 1879; 
Papal Order of Gregory. Works : Peasants 
in Flight (1845), Scene in Peasants' War 
(1848), Gallery, Prague ; Death of Charles 
XH. (1847), Count Qam-Gallas, ib. ; Battle 
of Lippa (1849) : SS. Cyril and Methodius 
(1861) ; Annunciation and Assumption, in 
Missale Romanum for Pope Pius IX. (1863) ; 
Defence of Last Wagon-Bulwark by the 
Hussites (1868) ; Entry of Leopold the Glo- 
rious into Vienna in 1219 (1872), Vienna 
Museum ; Transfiguration of Christ ; Life 
of Mary (1883). In fresco : Arrival of St 
Adelbert's Relics in Bohemia (1852), Abdi- 
cation of Vladislav (1854), Foundation of 
Prague University (1855), Battle of the Hus- 


Digitized by 



sites (1862), Belvedere, Prague ; Christ in 
Glory, Mary with the Apostles, Scenes in 
Life of St. PaacaHs (1864-66), Burial Chapel, 
Baron Bevoltella, Trieste ; Theological Vir- 
tues, and Fathers of the Church (1865-67), 
Academic Gymnasium, Vienna ; Cycle (1869 
-77), Earolinenthal Church, Prague. In 
tempera : Development of •Worship of Mary 
(1883-85), Choir Chapels, Votivkirche, Vien- 
na, — ^Wurzbach, xlvii. 156 ; Eunst-Chronik, 
xix. 59 ; XX, 380 ; Oesterr. K Chr., i 23, 
152 ; ii 26 ; iii. 14. 

born at Bamberg in 1734, died at Wtirzburg 
in 1786. German school ; history and por- 
trait painter, son and pupil of Marquard 
Treu, then in Paris pupil of Carle Van Loo 
and of Pierre ; returned to Wtlrzbuj^, then 
spent several years in Bome, where he painted 
Pope Pius VI. and won a prize of the Acade- 
my of San Luca. Court painter at Wtirzburg. 
Works : Bomulus killing Bemus, Little Boy 
firing Pistol, St. Francis in Prayer, Portrait 
of his Sister Katharina, Child with Fruits 
and Bouquets (flowers and fruits in last two 
by Katharina), Bamberg Gallery ; Abraham 
and Sarah, Dominican Church, Wtirzburg ; 
do., and Judith before Holofemes, Gallery, 
ib. — Nagler, xix. 73. 

Bamberg in 1739, died there in 1798. Ger- 
man school ; landscape and marine painter, 
son and pupil of Marquard Treu. Having 
won considerable reputation at Stuttgart in 
1765, he was called to Bruchsaal by the 
Prince Bishop von Hutten, for whom he 
painted at the castles in the principality of 
Speyer; then studied, travelling in Germany, 
Flanders, and Holland ; became court paint- 
er to the elector at Cologne, returned to 
Bamberg in 1771, and in 1780 was made 
inspector of the Pommersfelden Gallery. 
Works : Kiver Landscapes with Cattle, etc.. 
View of the Bhine near Bingen, Harbour 
vrith many Vessels, Dead Birds in a Land- 
scape, Bamberg Gkdlery. — Nagler, xix. 72. 

TKETJ, KATHAIONA, bom at Bamberg 
in 1742, died at Mannheim in 1811. Ger- 

man school; flower and still-life painter, 
daughter and pupil of Marquard Treu 
(1712-96), painted already at ten years of 
age, then studied at the Dtisseldorf Acad- 
emy, became court painter to the Elector 
Charles Theodore at Mannheim in 1769, and 
professor at Dtisseldorf Academy in 1776. 
Works : Fruit and Flower-Pieces (5), Bam- 
berg Gallery; Fruit-Piece, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; do., Darmstadt Museum ; do., Stutt- 
gart Museum. — Nagler, xix. 71. 

TREU (Trey), MARQUARD, bom at 
Bamberg in 1712, died there in 1796. Ger- 
man school; history, portrait, landscape, 
animal^ and still-life painter, pupil of Niko- 
laus Grooth (died in 1797), and of Lorenz 
Theisinger ; became inspector of the Pom- 
mersfelden Gallery in 1766. Works: Grapes 
and Flowers, Augsburg Gallery; Three 
Chemists around a Table, Three Scholars 
instructing a Boy by a Globe, Bamberg Gal- 
lery. — ^Nagler, xix. 73. 

Capo dlstria, April 9, 1656, died in Rome, 
July 30, 1746. Yenetian-Roman school; 
history and portrait painter, son of Antonio 
Trevisani (architect), and pupil at Venice of 
Antonio Zanchi. He went to Rome about 
the close of the 17th century and lived there 
the remainder of his life. Works : Sleep of 
Jesus, Louvre, Paris; Repose of Diana, 
Rennes Museum ; The Dead Christ carried 
by Angels, Vienna Museum; Massacre of 
Innocents, Holy Family, Repose in Egypt, 
Madonna and St John, Madonna and St 
Elizabeth, Christ in Garden of Olives, St 
Anthony of Padua, St Francis in Ecstasy, 
Dresden Museum ; Magdalen Penitent, Leip- 
sic Museum ; St Sebastian, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Holy Family, Oldenburg 
Gallery ; Diana and Endymion, Triumph of 
Galatea, do. of Venus, Artist's Portrait, Cassel 
Gallery ; Archangel Michael overthrowing 
Satan, Portrait of a Bishop, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery; Madonna, Uffizsd, Florence; Antony 
and Cleopatra, Palazzo Spada, Rome. — Ma- 
riette, Abecedario, v. 348 ; Reale gall, di 
Firenze, iv. 147. 


Digitized by 



portrait, Titian, Sterne Collection, Vienna ; 
canvas, H. 3 f t 3 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. Painted 
in 1553 ; replica of original, burned in the 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice, in 1577.— C. & C, 
Titian, ii. 226. 

TR]6ZEL, PIERRE F&JX, bom in Paris, 
June 16, 1782, died there, June 16, 1855. 
History painter, pupil of Lemire and 
Prud'hon, in whose manner he painted some 
large pictures. Medals : 3d class, 1822 ; 
2d class, 1830 ; L. of Honour, 1855. Works : 
Death of Marcus Aurelius (1806), bought by 
State ; Death of Zopira (1808) ; First-Bom 
(1810); Hector's Parting from Andromache 
(1819), Bordeaux Museum ; Death of Moth- 
er and Sister of Gustavus Vasa (1822); 
Thetis plunging her son Achilles into the 
Styx (1830) ; Portrait of the Seigneur de 
Lautrec, Versailles Museum; Cain fleeing 
after his Crime (1855) ; Pheedra judged in 
Hell, Angers Museum ; St. John writing the 
Apocalypse, Church of St John, Toulouse ; 
Souls in Purgatory rising to Heaven, Cathe- 
dral of Toulouse. — Bellier, ii. 590 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 163 ; Larousse. 

TRIBUTE MONEY (Matt., xxiL 19; 
Luke, XX. 24). 

By Rembrandt, Hope Collection, England ; 
canvas, H. 1 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft 7 in. ; dated 
1645. Interior of a temple ; in foreground 
twelve persons, among whom is a Pharisee 
showing Jesus a piece of money. Robit 
Collection (1801), 8,850 francs ; sold in 1840 
for 600 guineas. Engraved by McArdelL — 
Vosmaer, 469 ; Smith, viL 47. 

By Rubens, Mr. Emerson, England (?) ; 
wood, H. 5 ft. X 6 ft. Nine figures, life- 
size, seen to knees. Christ holds the piece 
of money in his left hand and raises the 
right above his head. Van Loo Collection, 
Amsterdam (1713), 1,150 florins ; Lord Cour- 
tenay Collection (1816), 490 guineas ; John 
Webb (1821), 441 guineas ; G. J. Cholmon- 
deley sale (1831), 252 guineaa 

By Titian, Dresden Gallery ; wood, H. 2 
ft 8 in. X 2 ft ; signed. Cristo della Moneta. 
Christ, full-face, tums towards the question- 

ing Pharisee, who stands in profile with the 
coin in his hand. A masterpiece of the ar- 
tist Painted, according to Vasari, about 
1514, for Alfonso I. of Ferrara, on the panel 
of a cabinet; afterwards in gallery of the 
Duke of Modena, whence it passed in 1746 
to Dresden, Restored by Palmaroli ; no 
original replica, but copies in the galleries 
of Dresden and Parma, in the Uflfizi, the 
Grosvenor Collection in London, and in the 
Accademia di S. Luca, Rome. Engraved 

Tribute Money, Titian, Dresden Galteiy. 

by G. Eilers— C. & C, Titian, i. 116 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vii. 435 ; Htlbner, Dresden 
GaL, L 11. 

By Titian, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft x 3 ft ^ in. ; signed. 
Christ, tumed to left, points upwards with 
right hand as the Pharisee presents the 
coin ; behind the latter is a man wearing 
goggles. Bought in 1852 at sale of Mar- 
shal Soult, who brought it from Spain. 
Perhaps the picture painted in 1568 for 
Philip XL, but crude and unsatisfactory in 
treatment (C. & C). Engraved by Martin 


Digitized by 



Rota. Acquired by National Gallery in 
1862.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 388. 

By Valentin, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 
9 in. X 5 ft At right, Christ with right hand 
extended, as if speaking; at left, a Phari- 
see, wearing spectacles, presents the piece 
of money, to which a second one, standing 
in centre, points interrogatively. Figures 
half-length. Collection of Louis XIV. En- 
graved by Baudet ; by Claessens in Mus^^e 
fran9ais. — R^veil, vi 424. 

TRIEBEL, KARL, bom at Dessau in 
1823, died at Wernigerode in the Hartz, 
Sepi 16, 1885. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Beck, then in Berlin of 
Karl Schidz, Krause, and 
Biermann ; visited repeat- 
edly Bavaria, Tyrol, Swit- 
zerland, and North Italy. 
Court painter to Duke of 
Anhalt, 1851 ; made pro- 
fessor by King of Prussia, 
1855. Works : On Si Gbth- 
ard Road ; EKntersee in the 
Ramsau ; The High GoU ; 
Thun Lake ; Landscapes in 
the Hartz Mountains ; Lake 
of Brienz ; The Dachstein ; 
The Kyffhauser in Thurin- 
gia ; Alpine Landscapes (2, 
one dated 1854), Leipsic 
Museum ; Landscape, Stet- 
tin Museum ; Swiss Land- 
scape, Lake of Luzerne, 
Wiesbaden Gallery.— MoUer, 526 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xxi. 34. 

bom at Dordrecht, Oct 22, 1829. Genre 
painter. Works: Service in Lutheran Church 
in Norway (1866), Baptism in Norway (1875), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Last Days of Eras- 
mus (1879), Rotterdam Museum. 

TRINITY, Mariotto AUbertineUi, Florence 
Academy ; wood. Christ on the Cross in 
a glory of angels ; above, the Dove and 
God the Father, with right hand in act of 
benediction and left holding an open book, 
with the Alpha and Omega upon ii Paint- 

ed about 1510 for S. Giuhano, whence re- 
moved to Academy. — ^Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 
222 ; C. & C, Italy, iu. 488 ; GalL Accad. 
di Firenze, PL 56. 

By Rubens, Munich Gallery; canvas, H. 
10 ft 5 in. X 3 ft 7 in. The Father and 
the Son, represented by majestic figures, 
the former with a sceptre, the latter with 
a cross, both seated on clouds, with their 
feet on a globe borne by three angels ; 
above, the Dove, hovering in a flood of 
light. Formerly altarpiece in the Augus- 
tin Church, Munich. Engraved by Voster- 
man, and anonymous. Lithographed by 

Tribute Money, Valentin, Louvre, Peris. 

Piloty. Same subject, with saints below, 
in England.— Smith, ii. 75, 267. 

By Titian, See Gloria. 

Dilrer, Vienna Museum ; wood, arched at 
top, H. 4 ft 4 in. X 4 ft ; signed, dated 
1511. Gbd the Father enthroned, with the 
Dove above in a glory of seraphim, holds 
before him Christ crucified ; on each side 
is a choir of angels with the instruments of 
the Passion, and below them the saints — 
on the left the martyrs of the New Testa- 
ment, led by the Virgin, on the right the 
heroes of the Old Testament, led by John 


Digitized by 



Baptist ; below, the members of the Church 
Militant — on the left the Pope and the 
clergy, on the right a cardinal encouraging 
the donor Landauer, who kneels with the 
female members of his family behind him, 
and the Emperor and laity ; at the bottom, 
a coast landscape, with the figure of DOrer 
himself standing at righi Painted for an 
altarpiece for the chapel of the Landauer 
Cloister, Nuremberg, which was dedicated 

Adoration of the Trinity, Albracht Diirar, Vienna Museum. 

to All Saints ; hence the picture is some- 
times called All Saints. Sent by Nurem- 
berg Council in 1585 to Emperor Rudolph 
n. at Prague, whence removed to Vienna. 
Original carved frame, made by DUrer, still 
in Nuremberg. Copy by Johann Christian 
Ruprecht at Chateau of Laxenburg, near Vi- 
enna. Engraved in K FOrster's Denkmaler 
der deutschen Eunst (vL 13) ; lithographed 
by Jutie Primisser. — Thausing (Eaton), ii. 
29 ; Fdrster, vi 

del Sarto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, 
a 6 ft 3 in. X 6 ft 6 in. ; signed. SS. Au- 
gustine, Lawrence, Peter Martyr, and Fran- 
cis, standing, and SS. Sebastian and Mary 
Magdalen (likeness of Andrea's wife), kneel- 
ing ; above, the symbol of the Trinity in 
the clouda Painted about 1517 for the 
convent of S. Agostino without the San 
Ghdlo gate ; removed to S. Jacopo tra' 
Fossi in 1529, where it was 
damaged in the inundation 
of 1555 ; transported to 
Pitti in first half of 17th 
century ; copy by Ottaviano 
Vannini substituted for it 
in S. Jacopo. Engraved by 
Lorenzini; Marri. — Vasari, 
ed. Mil, v. 27 ; C. & C, It- 
aly, iii. 562 ; Gal. du PaL 
Pitti, iv. PL 112 ; Rosini, iv. 

flourished in Paris and at 
The Hague, second half of 
18th century. French 
school ; portrait and figure 
painter, pupil of Largilli- 
ere ; was received into the 
guild at The Hague in 
1767; rejected twice by the 
Academy in Paris ; exhibit- 
ed there as late as 1793. 
Works : Portrait of Young 
Lady with Music Leaf 
(1774), Berlin Museum; 
Portrait of Washington 
(1779) ; Promenade in a Park, Two Women 
and a Man in Doric Temple before Statue of 
Cupid, Morning, Afternoon (1782) ; Oath to 
Cupid, Oflfering to Cupid, Mother Reproach- 
ing Young Man (1785) ; First Kiss of Cupid 
(1787); Conversation in a Landscape, Couple 
offering their Child to Cupid (1791) ; Senti- 
mental Conversation in a Park, Lessons of 
Young Mothers (1793).— Bellier, iL 592; 
Eramm, vL 1644; Meyer, Gtem^de der 

kongl. Mu& (1883), 466, 563. 


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TRISTAN, LUIS, bom near Toledo in 
1586, died in Toledo in 1640. Spanish 
school ; pupil of El Gh*eco, whom he excelled 
in design and equalled in execution. In 
1616 he painted a series of pictures for the 
Church of Yepes, considered his best works. 
Velasquez greatly admired him and left the 
studio of Pacheco to study his pictures, 
many of which are in Toledo. Works : Si 
Anthony and others, Cathedral; St. Louis 
giving Alms, S. Pedro Martir ; Last 
Supper, Convent de la Sisla ; Male 
Portrait, Madrid Museum ; Portrait 
of Lope de Vega, Hermitage, St Pe- 
tersburg. — Stirling, L 439 ; Viardot, 
169 ; Ch. Blanc, !l^le espagnole ; 
Madrazo, 579. 


PhiHpp VeU, Stildel Institute, Frank- 
fort; fresco, H 9 f t 4 in. x20 ft; 
wings, each, H. 9 f i 4 in. x 6 f t 3 in. 
The introduction into Germany of 
Art through Christianity. In centre, 
a female figure representing Chris- 
tianity, with an angel behind holding 
an open book, offers a palm branch 
to the people at right, who are lis- 
tening to Si Boniface, who stands 
with one foot on the Druid oak, just 
felled ; in front a bard, the strings 
of his harp broken, is sitting deject- 
edly, turning his head from Chris- 
tianiiy ; at the left, a group repre- 
senting Chivalry, Poetry, and Music, 
with children learning to read ; and 
behind. Architecture, Sculpture, and Paint- 
ing ; the city in background is Frankfort, 
where the German emperors were elected. 
— Fttrster, ix. 25. 

GERMANY, Josef Filhrich, Schack Gallery, 
Munich ; canvas, H 6 ft. 5 in. x 8 ft. 8 in. 
The introduction of Christianity into Ger- 
many. In centre, between two great trees, 
a statue of the Virgin enthroned, holding 
the child, with the inscription lux in tene- 

BRis on the pedestal ; at the base, seated 
on a stone, a pious hermit teaches chil- 
dren ; in front, kneeling, a knight in adora- 
tion ; at left, two German warriors stand- 
ing, a huntsman reclining asleep, and a 
woman cooking, and in background, the 
chase ; at right, monks engaged in plough- 
ing and in felling trees, and in background 
a church and other buildings. — Fttr^ter, z. 

Dispute of th« Trinity, Andrea del Serto, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 

JEycky National Museum, Madrid ; wood, H. 
5 ft. 6 in. (independent of central projection) 
X 5 ft In three parts. In the upper part 
the Almighty, enthroned imder a Gbthic 
canopy, holds a sceptre in the left hand and 
raises the right in benediction ; on one side 
sits the Virgin reading, on the other St. John 
the Evangelist writing ; at the foot of the 
Almighty lies the Immaculate Lamb. Be- 
low, a stream of water, in which sacramental 


39762^ B 


Digitized by 


wafers are floating, representing the ofBering 
for the sins of the world, flows into the sec- 
ond part, representing a flower garden, where 
six angels play on musical instruments ; be- 
yond these, on each side, are singing angels 
under Gbthic canopie& In the third or 
lower part, the water finally flows into a 
Gothic fountain in the centre foreground, 
with the blessed on one side, headed by the 
Pope, who directs the attention of the Em- 
peror, kneeling beside him, to the fount as 
the source of salvation ; on the other side, 
the High Priest, his eyes bound and holding 
a broken standard, endeavors to prevent a 
kneeling Jew from paying adoration ; beside 
these are other Jews, in attitudes of horror 
and despair. Dr. Waagen ascribes this 
picture to Hubert van Eyck, but the pre- 
ponderance of opinion is against him. It is 
called also the Fount of Salvation. — Eugler 
(Crowe), i. 68. 

Crescenzio, Antonio. 


TRIUMPH OF LOVE, Damenichino, 
Louvre ; canvas, H 4 fi 3 in. x 3 f t 4 in. 
Love, seated in a chariot, drawn by doves, 
holds a bow in his right hand and drives 
with his left; near him a cupid scatters 
flowers, while another takes them from the 
crown of Love ; the whole surrounded by a 
garland of flowers, painted by Daniel Se- 
ghers. Came from Villa Ludovisi, Rome, to 
Due de Mazarin; thence to collection of 
Louis XIV. When placed in the gallery at 
Versailles the garland was detached from the 
main picture, and it was long supposed to 
be lost, but it was foimd in 1858 and is now 
restored to the picture. Engraved by C. 
Randon ; Potrelle. — Villot, Louvre ; Mus^e 
fran9ais ; Filhol, iz. PL 591 ; Landon, Vies, 
PL 59. 


of the Sacrament ; Testament, Old and New. 

ARTS, Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Stadel 

Gallery, Frankfort ; canvas, H 14 ft x 12 fi 
The Madonna, with the Infant in her arms, 
sits enthroned in mid-heaven, surrounded 
by prophets, evangelists, and saints ; on the 
earth below are some sixty painters, sculpt- 
ors, and architects ; in the centre a foun- 
tain, its upper waters rising into the sky, 
emblematical of the heavenward direction 
of Christian art as opposed to the idea of 
the ancients, who represented the stream as 
flowing downward from Parnassus, its lower 
waters falling into two basins, one of which 
reflects heaven, while the other receives 
earthly objects, thus indicating the twofold 
character of art Sometimes called the 
Christian Parnassus and the Magnificat of 
Art Painted in 1831-1840; cartoon in 
Cai'lsruhe Gallery. Engraved by Amsler. — 
Atkinson, 65 ; Overbeck, Religion Glorified 
by Fine Arts (translated by Macray, Oxford, 
1850) ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1864), xviL 135. 

SIAN. See TUus. 

TIOVA, ANTONIO, bom at Reggio in 
1626, died at Munich in 1699. Lombard 
school ; history painter, pupil of Guercino, 
whom he imitated successfully ; distin- 
guished himself in various cities of North 
Italy, including Venice, and finally was 
called to Munich by the Elector Ferdinand 
Maria of Bavaria, for whose castles he 
painted mythological and historical pict- 
ures; is said to have worked with either 
hand equally well. Work : Cupid wiping 
the Feet of Venus, Dresden Museum. — 
Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 364 ; Nagler, xix. 10. 

TROGER, PAUL, bom at Zell, Tyrol, 
Dec 30, 1698, died in Vienna in 1777. 
German school ; history and portrait paint- 
er, pupil at Fleims, South Tyrol, of Giuseppe 
Alberti (1664-1730), then studied in Venice 
and Bologna. Piazetta, G. Crespi, Solime- 
na, and S. Concha are named as his masters. 
Probably about 1728-30 he went to Vienna, 
where his works at once attracted attention 
and he was made court painter. Temporary 
director of Vienna Academy in 1761-59. 
Works : Christ on Mount of Olives, Vienna 


Digitized by 



Museum ; St James, St Philip, Christ and 
the Adulteress, Solomon's Judgment, Salz- 
burg Museum; Solomon's Idolatry, Abi- 
gail, Christ and St John as Children, Cor- 
pus Christi, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; St 
Fiimcis in Prayer, Hermannstadt Gallery; 
Many altarpieces and fresco paintings in 
churches at Vienna, Salzburg, and in abbeys 
of Lower and Upper Austria ; Portraits of 
Imperial Family, of Eaphael and Mathias 
Donner. — Tyrol K Lex., 252 ; Wurzbach, 
xlvii. 227. 

TROOST, CORNELIS, bom in Amster- 
dam, Oct 8, 1697, 
died there, March 
7, 1750. Dutch 
school; genre and 
portrait painter, 
pupil of Arnold 
Boonen, but owed 
his development 
principally to his 
own studies after 
good masters and 
from life. Excelled in genre, guard-house, 
and private-life scenes, and in illustrations 
of plays of the time. Painted chiefly in 
gouache and pastel Was called the Dutch 
Hogarth. Works : Portrait Group of Four 
Children with an Ape (1723), Eegents' Piece 
with Six Portraits (1724), do. with Eight 
(1729), Anatomy Lesson (1728), Three Mem- 
bers of Surgeons' Guild (1731), Alexander 
the Great in Battle on the Granicus (1737), 
Artist's Portrait (2), Amsterdam Museum ; 
Portraits of Man and Wife (1744), Haarlem 
Museum ; Nine Scenes from Dutch Comedies 
(1737-41), Five Convivial Scenes (1739-40), 
Epiphany Singers, Love Song (1745), Ar- 
tist's Portrait (1745), EEague Museum ; Ly- 
ing-in Boom in Holland, Botterdam Muse- 
um ; Victory of Constantine over Maxen tins. 
Naval Battle, Bamberg Gkdlery ; Eating his 
Breakfast (1740), Schwerin Gallery.— Ch. 
Blanc, ]^ole hollandaise ; Burger, Musses, L 
285 ; Immerzeel, iii. 144 ; Kramm, vi. 1644. 

VAN, bom at Amsterdam in 1782, died 

there in 1810. Landscape, animal, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Juriaan Andriessen 
(1742-1819), -but studied chiefly from nat- 
ure, and was much influenced by the mas- 
ters of the 17th century, notably by Potter. 
Works : Landscapes in Gelderland (2), Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Landscape with Animals, 
Rotterdam Museum. — Immerzeel, iii. 146; 
Kramm, vi. 1648. 

in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 4, 1827. Animal 
painter ; had no special master, though he 
derived aid and instruction from William 
T. van Starkenborg, cattle painter, at The 
Hague ; studied chiefly from nature in this 
country. Has painted in Boston and in Phil- 
adelphia, where his studio now is. Works : 
The Fading Race (1877), owned in London ; 
Wounded Bison pursued by Wolves, The 
Last Stand, After the Combat, Grizzly Bears 
on the March, Indian Camp near Powder 
River, painted for Gen. William T. Sherman 
for War Department, Washington ; Bison 
Fighting, Herd of Elk in Winter, A. Padel- 
ford, Philadelphia; Pictures (3) represent- 
ing progress of transportation in Pennsyl- 
vania during fifty years, Henry H. Houston, 
Pennsylvania Railroad; Fifty Years Ago, 
El Mabdi (lion asleep). In the Soudan (lion 
and lioness), owned in Philadelphia ; Jersey 
Beauties (1880) ; Elk and Twins, Rocks at 
Newport (1881) ; September (1883) ; Victo- 
rious (1886) ; Range of the Bison (1887). 

liere, bom in Cremona in 1555, died after 
1607. Lombard school; called II Malosso 
because when Agostino Carracci painted in 
competition vrith him, at Parma, he said that 
he had found a hard bone (mal osso) to crack. 
Favourite pupil of Bernardino Campi, whose 
niece he married and of whom he became 
the heir. Studied also Correggio and Ber- 
nardo Ghitti, whose manner he exaggerated. 
He had a rich imagination and great facility 
of execution, and painted many works for 
churches in Cremona, Piacenza, and Parma. 
His most noted works are frescos in the 
Palazzo del Giordino, and in the cupola of 


Digitized by 



S. Abondio, Parma, and Entombment, Bre- 
ra, Milan. His nephew, Cavaliere Euclide 
Trotti, was his pupil and imitator. He was 
convicted of high treason when young, and 
is said to have died of poison in prison. — 
Lanzi, ii. 445 ; Ch. Blanc, !^cole lombarde ; 
Lavice, 154. 

TROY, FRANCOIS DE, bom at Tou- 
louse in February, 1654, died in Paris, May 
1, 1730. French school ; history and por- 
trait painter, son and pupil of Nicolas de 
Troy (portrait painter at Toulouse in 17th 
century) and brother of Jean de Troy (his- 
tory and portrait painter at Toulouse, born 
1640, died 17 — ) ; pupil also of Nicolas 
Loir and of Claude Lef^bvre. Member of 
Academy in 1674, professor in 1693, direc- 
tor in 1708, and adjunct-rector in 1722. 
Works: Portraits of Duchesse d'Orleans, 
Jules Mansart, and Nicolas Belle, Versailles 
Museum ; Bathsheba, Angers Museum ; 
Woman and Child, Grenoble Museum; 
Woman Reading, Marseilles Museum ; Ariad- 
ne and Bacchus, Montpellier Museum ; Por- 
trait of Duchesse de Maine, Orleans Muse- 
um; Nunc Dimittis, Assumption, Ascen- 
sion, Rouen Museum ; Magdalen, Dream of 
St. Joseph, Guardian Angel, Toulouse Mu- 
seum ; Parting of Hector and Andromache, 
Troyes Museum ; Portrait of Due de Maine 
(1716), Dresden Museum.— Bellier, ii. 597. 

Paris, baptized 
Jan. 27, 1679, 
died in Rome, 
Jan. 26, 1752. 
French school; 
genre painter, 
son and pupil of 
Fran9oi8 de 
Troy. Having 
failed to gain 
\V the prix de 
Rome (1702) his father sent him at his own 
expense to Italy, where he was pensioned by 
the king, for three or four years, and divided 
his time between work and amusement un- 
til he was forced to return home in 1706. 

Member of Academy, 1708 ; assistant pro- 
fessor, 1716 ; professor, 1719 ; in 1727 he 
shared with Lemoine a prize competed for 
by members of the Academy ; in 1737 he 
was appointed secretary to the king, and in 
1738 director of the French Academy at 
Rome. Prince of the Academy of Si Luke. 
Works : Henri IV. holding the First Chap- 
ter of the Order of the Holy Ghost (1732), 
Swooning of Esther (1737), Toilet of Es- 
ther (1738), Male Portraits (2), Louvre; 
Portrait of Marquis de Marignan, two 
others, Besan9on Museum ; Pilate washing 
his Hands, Dijon Museum ; Apollo and 
Diana destroying the Children of Niobe, 
Montpellier Museum ; Diana at the Bath, 
Nancy Museum ; Punishment of Psyche, 
and others, Nimes Museum ; Portrait of 
Abb6 Desfriches, Orleans Museum ; do. of 
Duchesse de la Force, Rouen Museum ; 
Plague of Marseilles, Marseilles Museum ; 
Martyrdom of St Stephen, Christ in the 
Garden, Chapel of St. Suaire, Be8an9on ; 
Lady at Breakfast in a Park (1723), Berlin 
r^ -f^ Museum; Lot and 

£)t * J^ *^ Daughters, Su- 

sanna and the Elders 
(2), Portrait of Ar- 
tist's Wife, Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg. 
—Bellier, ii 597 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole £ran9aise ; Jal, 1207 ; Vil- 
lot. Cat Louvre ; Lejeune, Guide, i. 350 ; 
Wurzbach, 17. 

TROY, WAR OF, ancient pictures of. See 
Calliphon, Cleanthes^ Polygnotus, Theodoras, 
TROY, WAR OF, Peter Cornelius and 
assistants, Glyptothek, Munich ; frescos on 
ceiling and walls of the Trojan Hall (Tro- 
janischer Saal). Ceiling : Centre picture, 
circular. Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, 
painted by Schlotthauer ; around this, in a 
circle, are stucco reliefs, by Schwanthaler, 
of the twelve great gods and goddesses of 
Greece. Beyond these are four pictures of 
similar shape and size : Judgment of Paris, 
Marriage of Menelaus and Helen, Rape of 
Helen, Sacrifice of Iphigenia^ all painted 


Digitized by 



by Schlotthauer and Zimmermann. Beyond 
these are eight pictures of similar size and 
shape : Achilles with the Daughters of Ly- 
comedes (painted by Zimmermann), Mars 
and Venus wounded by Diomed (Schlott- 
hauer), Agamemnon's Dream (id.), Venus 
protecting Paris against Menelaus (Zimmer- 
mann), Ajax overcoming Hector (Cornelius), 
Nestor and Agamemnon awakening Diomed 
(id.), Priam begging the Body of Hector 
(Zimmermann), Farewell of Hector and An- 
dromache (Schlotthauer). The arabesques 
about these pictures were painted by Eb- 
erle and Neureuther. Walls : On the three 
walls are large paintings with colossal fig- 
ures. 1. Assembly of the Greeks and An- 
ger of Achilles ; 2. Combat over the Body 
of Patroclus ; 3 Destruction of. Troy, all 
painted by Cornelius, aided by Zimmer- 
mann and Schlotthauer. Painted in 1825- 

TROYON, CONSTANT, bom at Sevres, 
Aug. 28, 1810, died 
in Paris, Feb. 21 
(March 20, ?), 
1865. Landscape 
and animal paint- 
er, pupil of Rio- 
creux and Poupart 
and influenced by 
Roqueplan to 
study nature, for 
which he showed 
an individual feeling in first exhibited 
works, 1836. Visited Holland in 1847 and 
completed his education. After 1848 intro- 
duced cattle into his landscapes. Rose to 
be one of the greatest, if not the first, of 
modern French landscape paintera Medals : 
3d dass, 1838 ; 2d class, 1840 ; 1st class, 
1846, 1848, 1855; L. of Honour, 1849. 
Works : Colas House at S5vres, Festival at 
Sevres, Bit of Park of St. Cloud (1833) ; 
View at Sevres, Palace of Si Cloud, Slopes 
of Si Cloud (1835) ; View near Argenton 
(1836) ; View at La Fert^Si-Aubin (1837) ; 
St. Cloud, Black Road at Si Cloud, Land- 
scape near Si Cloud, Country Fair in Li- 

mousin (1838) ; Studies of Breton Scenery, 
View near Orleans (1840) ; Tobias and the 
Angel (1841); Women Bathing (1842); 
View near Vannes (1843) ; Forest of Fon- 
tainebleau, Below the Forest (1844) ; View 
near Fontainebleau, View at Caudebec 
(1845) ; Valley of Chevreuse, Clearing in the 
Woods, A Poacher, Beneath the Woods at 
Fontainebleau (1846) ; Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau, HoUow Road in Normandy, Envi- 
rons of Amsterdam, Environs of The Hague 
(1848) ; Suzanne, Village of CorfeHa, The 
Mill, Studies of Sheep, Landscape near 
Paris (1849) ; Flock of Sheep, Drinking- 
Place (Montpellier Museum), Cattle Mart, 
Storm at Monton-Gluine (1850) ; Cows in 
Pasture (1851), Leipsic Museum ; Valley 
of La Tonque (1853), Comtesse Lehon ; 
Drinking-Place at La Tonque (1853), Mont- 
pellier Museum ; Hollow Road (1853) ; 
Dogs in Leash (1854), Cattlepiece (1855), 
Raven6 Gallery, Berlin ; Cattle and Sheep 
driven across Meadow (1855), Kimsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Oxen going to Work (1855), 
Louvre ; Cows at a Drinking-Place, Dogs 
Running, Dogs Let Loose, Dogs in Leash, 
White Cow, Red Cow (1855) ; Return to 
Farm (1859), Louvre ; Going to Market, 
Cow in Pasture, Cows going to Fields, 
Study of Dog (1859) ; View in Park of Neu- 
illy, Amiens Museum ; Labouring Oxen, 
Bordeaux Museum ; Flock of Sheep in a 
Landscape, Simset, Havre Museum ; View 
in Forest of Fontainebleau, Lille Museum. 
Works in United States: Autumn Woods 
with Cattle, Cattle, On the Road, Cows in 
Landscape, William H. Vanderbilt, New 
York ; Cow at Brook, Charles F. Woerishof- 
fer, ib.; Sheep, T. A Havemeyer, ib.; Hol- 
land Landscape and Cattle, Cow, Miss C. L. 
Wolfe, ib.; Cattle Drinking, do. Grazing, 
Water-Cart, A Belmont, ib.; Normandy 
Cattle, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Cow and Sheep, 
R Hoe, ib.; Coming Storm, J. P. Morgan, 
ib.; Under the Master's Eye, William Astor, 
ib.; Repose, W. T. Waters, Baltimore ; 
Cattle, Feeding Chickens, Borie Collection, 
Philadelphia ; Crossing the Ford, H C. 


Digitized by 



Gibson, ib.; Landseape, Q. A* Shaw, Bos- 
ton ; do., Boston Museum ; and many 
others. Sales: The Bridge (16,000 francs, 
Everard sale, 1881); The Pond (31,500 
francs, Wilson sale, 1881); Shepherd and 
his Flock (25,500 francs, ib.); A Pasture 
(40,600 francsi ib.) ; Drinking-Place (80,000 
francs, Narischkine sale, 1883); Way to Mar- 
ket (42,500 francs, ib.). At the Morgan 
sale, New York, 1886, were sold: Return 
from the Farm (1852), $6,550 ; Cow chased 
by Dog, $9,100 ; Cattle and Horses, $1,050 ; 
Coast near Villiers, $8,100; The Pasture, 
$7,100, Knoedler & Co.; Going to the Fair, 
$2,550; Pasturage in Normandy, $6,350, 
Mr. Kimball, Boston.— Bellier, ii. 598; Ch. 
Blanc, Artistes de mon Temps, 313 ; Hamer- 
ton, French Painters, 46 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
757 ; Larousse ; Lecleroq, Caract^res, 195. 

TRUMBULL, GUKDON, bom at Ston- 
ington. Conn., in 1841. Landscape painter, 
pupil of F. S. Jewett in Hartford, and of 
James Hart in New York. He is noted for 
his paintings of fish. Studio in Hartford. 
Works: Plunge for Life, Over the Falls 
(1874); Critical Moment (1876); Moorish 
Watch-Tower on the Coast of Spain. 
TRUMBULL, JOHN, bom at Lebanon, 
Conn., June 6, 
1756, died in New 
York, Nov. 10, 
1843. History 
and portrait 
painter; served in 
the War of Inde- 
pendence in 1775 
y^S^^^^r-^^^^v^N as aide-de-camp to 
/ "^^vK \^ Ax Washington, and 
^^ ^ ^ in 1776 as deputy 

adjutant - general 
under Gkttes ; retired from service in 1777 
with rank of coloneL Went to London in 
1780 to study under Benjamin West, but 
was imprisoned eight months, and returned 
home in 1782 ; went again on the conclu- 
sion of peace and resumed his studies. His 
Battle of Bunker Hill (1786, engraved by J. 
G. Mailer) was the first of a series of his- 

torical works illustrating the War of the 
Revolution. It was followed by the Death 
of Montgomery (engraved by F. Clemens), 
and the Sortie from GKbraltaor (engraved by 
Sharpe). Returned to America in 1789, ac- 
companied Mr. Jay to England in 1794 as 
secretary of legation, and was engaged sev- 
eral years in diplomatic work ; painted in 
England in 1808-15, and was engaged in 
1817-24 in painting four pictures (H. 12 
ft X 18 fi) for the rotunda of the Capitol 
at Washington, for which he received $32,- 
000. Trumbull was president of the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts in New York from 1816 
to 1825. Most of his pictures (54) are in 
the Art Gallery of Yale College. Works : 
Declaration of Independence, Surrender of 
Burgoyne, Surrender of ComuxUlis, Resig- 
nation of Washington at Annapolis, Capi- 
tol, Washington ; original sketches of these. 
Battle of Bunker Hill, Death of Montgom- 
ery (1781), Battle of Princeton, Battle of 
Trenton, Death of Qeneral Mercer, por- 
traits of Washington (1792), do. (1793), Ham- 
ilton (1792), Governor Trumbull, Rufus 
King (1800), Duke of Buckingham, Duke 
of Wellington, and others, Yale College 
Art Gallery.— Amer. Art Rev. (1881), 181, 

at Aix (Bouches-du-Rhone), Jan. 23, 1836. 
Genre painter ; pupil of S. Comu, H. Flan- 
driu, and Henner. Medal, 3d class, 1884. 
Works: Education of Daphne (1865); 
Young Christian Martyr (1874), C. Hayera ; 
Fawn frightened by a Viper (1875), F. Caire ; 
Marguerite's First Step (1879) ; Pupils of 
Communal School at Chatillon-sous-Ba- 
gneux exercising with the Chassepot (1880) ; 
Ploughing at Chatillon (1881) ; Wedding at 
Chatillon (1882) ; Manual Labor in School 
(1883); Singing Lesson in Public School 
(1884) ; Cutting and Sewing at Girls' School 
(1885) ; Breakfast in Public School (1886). 
—Bellier, ii. 600. 

TRUTH (La V^rit^), Jules Joseph Lefib- 
vre, Luxembourg Museum, Paris; canvas, 
H8ft7in. x3ft8in. A female figure, 


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full-length, nude, standing in a dark rocky 
niche or cell, the symbolic well, with water 
and flags at her feet, the left hand grasping 
a rope extending from above, the right 
raised on high above her head holding a 
mirror which blazes with light Salon, 
1870. Beplica in small (18 in. x 7 in.), S. A. 
Ooale, Jr., Si Loui& Photogravure in Art 
Treasures of America. — ^Art Treas. of Amer., 
iii. 51. 

New York, Aug. 13, 1849. Landscape and 
figure painter ; pupil of Jacquesson de la 
Chevreuse, Daubignj, and A. Guillemette 
in Paris. Sketched in Holland, Italy, and 
the Channel Islands. Studied abroad, 1876- 
81. Studio in New York, where he first 
exhibited in the National Academy in 1872. 
Works: On the Maas — Holland, Harvest 
Time in Normandy (1881) ; Hay Making — 
Westchester; Dordrecht on the Maas 
(1883) ; Twilight — Connecticut, Early 
Idoming — Dartmouth, October Evening 
(1884). Water-colours : Twilight — Brit- 
tany, Waning Moon, Connecticut Valley 
(1884) ; October Afternoon, Qtbj Day in 
October (1885). 

OtiNEE, bom in Brussels, May 26, 1815. 
Animal, landscape, and genre painter, pupil 
of K Yerboeckhoven ; excels in represent- 
ing the horse, which plays a prominent part 
in his pictures. Painted in London and at 
Oxford in 1848-50. Gold medal, Brussels, 
1845. Order of Leopold, 1851; OflScer, 
1875. Works : Labourers at Rest (1845) ; 
Mowers (1851), Cow Doctor, Royal Collec- 
tion, Osborne ; Cart Horses before Tavern 
(1854), Leipsic Museum ; Transportation of 
Horses (1855) ; Flemish Wedding in Seven- 
teenth Century (1855), Neuchatel Museum ; 
Mail Coach in tiie Ardennes (1862), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Smugglers on Franco-Belgian 
Frontier; Episode on Battlefield, South 
Kensington Museum ; Post detained by 
Snow, Flemish Team (1867) ; Before the 
Storm (1878) ; Rest at Blacksmith's Shop 
(Latham sale, New York, 1878).— Art 

Journal (1866), 334; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xix. 941. 

Brussels in 1818, died there. Sept 5, 1873. 
Genre and animal painter, brother of pre- 
ceding, pupil of K Yerboeckhoven ; espe- 
cially successful in characterizing the indi- 
vidual traits of the different animal species. 
Works: Bull Pursuing a Woman (1849), 
Neuch&tel Museum ; Herd Resting, Leipsic 
Museum ; Paul Potter Studying (1850) ; 
Mounted Freebooters in Ambush (1851); 
Giotto drawing Sheep (1852); Herd in 
Storm (1861); New-Bom Lamb (1862); 
Sheep at Pasture, Horse in Burning Stable ; 
Arabs marching with Cattle; Anatomy of 
Cattle (100 water-colours, 1865); Resting 
Herd, Leipsic Museum. 

low, Brandenburg, Dec. 21, 1843. Paints 
exclusively subjects from German legends 
and fairy tales ; pupil of Schrader in Berlin, 
where he settled after having visited Rome. 
Works: Sleeping Beauty (1872); Snowdrop, 
Titania and Oberon (1874) ; Undine (1876) ; 
Cinderella (1879).— Rosenberg, BerL Ma- 
lersch., 321. 

Massachusetts; contemporary. Landscape 
and marine painter ; pupil of William M. 
Hunt, Boston, and studied in Pari& Rarely 
exhibits. Studio at The Hague since 1882. 
Works : Beach at Hastings, U. S. Frigate 
Constitution escaping from British Fleet 
in 1812 (1876) ; Dutch Fishing-Boats beach- 
ing in a Gale (1882). 

TULDEN. See Tktdden. 

TUNICA, HERMANN, bom in Bruns- 
wick, Oct. 9, 1826. History painter, son of 
and first instructed by the portrait painter 
Johann Christian Tunica, then pupil of 
Brandes; studied the horse from nature, 
then in Paris, copying Horace Yemef s bat- 
tlepieces ; visited Brussels, Berlin, Dresden, 
and Munich, and finally settled in Bruns- 
wick. Works : Portraits and battle scenes 
in life of Brunswick Princes, Grand-ducal 
Palace, Brunswick; Great Parade near 


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Nordstemmen ; Eeception of Henry the 
Lion by Sultan of Iconium. 
TURA, COSIMO (Cosm6 or Gosm6), bom 
in Ferrara between 
1420 and 1430, died 
between 1494 and 
1498. Lombard 
school. Passed the 
greater part of his life 
in the service of the 
Duke of Ferrara, who 
made him his court 
_^^ _^ painter in 1458. Va- 

"^" '""^^ sari calls him the pu- 

pil of Qftlasso, who worked with him at the 
ducal seat of Belriguado, where Tura deco- 
rated a chapel in 1471. Previously he had 
furnished patterns for tapestry, and worked 
in the ducal studio (1457). His works of 
1456 and 1468 have disappeared, but the 
doors of the orgism (1469), representing 
the Annunciation, and St George and the 
Dragon, now hang in the choir of the 
Duomo, Ferrara. Other works by Tura are 
SS. Jerome and Girolamo, Costabili Collec- 
tion, Ferrara ; Pieta, Correr Museum, Ven- 
ice ; Entombment, Madonna Enthroned, St 
Jerome, The Virgin in Prayer, National 
Gtdlery, London; and a Madonna with 
Saints, Berlin Museum, which exhibits all 
the marked peculiarities of his style, such 
as extreme length of limb, violent contrasts 
of colour, sharp and angular drapery folds, 
and eccentric ornament Tura recalls Man- 
tegna and Piero della Francesca in his use 
of perspective, his treatment of architect- 
ure, and his extravagance of gesture, but he 
has neither the refined elegance and passion 
of the first nor the delicate quaintness of 
the second. He was an accomplished, vigor- 
ous, and painstaking artist, but he had a 
taste for ugliness which displays itself in 
forms and features. — Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
iiL 42 ; ed. Mil, ii. 143 ; C. & C, N. Italy, 
L 516; Cittadella, Ricordi, etc.. Vita di 
Cosimo di Tura (Ferrara, 1869). 

na in 1582, died in Rome in 1650. Vene- 

tian school Commonly called L*Orbetto, be- 
cause when a child he had served as guide 
to a blind man ; or, 
as some say, be- 
cause he was blind 
of one eye. Also 
called Alessandro 
Veronese. Pupil in 
Verona of Brusa- 
sorci the younger, 
afterwards in Ven- 
ice of Carletto 
Cagliari. Later he 
visited Rome, where by studying the great 
masters he formed a mixed style, combining 
Roman design with Venetian colouring. Of- 
ten compared by his contemporaries to An- 
nibale Carracci, but inferior to him. Most 
of his pictures are small ; some painted on 
marble and highly finished, equal care being 
bestowed on all the figures. Works : Death 
of Cleopatra, Deluge, Samson and Delilah, 
Woman taken in Adultery, and Marriage of 
St Catherine, Louvre ; Nativity, Simeon in 
the Temple, Venus finding Adonis Dead, 
do. with Body of Adonis in her Lap, Judg- 
ment of Paris, four others, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Death of Portia, Leipsic Museum ; 
Forty Martyrs, S. Stefano, Venice ; Dead 
Christ, La Misericordia, Venice ; Madonna 
della Neve, Magdalen Reclining, Brera, 
Milan; Madonna and St. Joseph, S. Lo- 
renzo in Lucina, Rome ; Magdalen, Salome, 
Madrid Museum ; Christ bearing the Cross, 
Bacchus and Ariadne, Hermitage, St. Pe- 
tersburg ; Samson and Delilah, Saturn, 
Mars, Venus, and Cupid, Stuttgart Muse- 
um ; Christ in Purgatory, Entombment, 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Descent from 
the Cross, Vienna Museum. — Ch. Blanc, 
.!^cole v6nitienne ; Bemasconi, Studii, 363. 
in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 25, 1850. Figure 
painter, pupil of National Academy and Art 
Students' League, New York ; later studied 
under Laurens, Munkacsy, and Bonnat in 
Paris. First exhibited at National Academy 
in 1882 ; elected an A.N.A. in 1884. Studio 


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in New York. Works: Scene on Grand 
Canal — Dordrecht, Nooning (1882) ; Merry 
Milkmaid, T. B. Clarke, New York ; Gone 
a-Milking, Harvest Meal, Preparing for 
Yearly Meeting (1883) ; Woman tending 
Mowers in a Gkurden, Sunday Afternoon, 
Ruth Huckaback, Courtship of Miles Stan- 
dish (1884) ; Half Hours with the Poets, 
Emblem of Mortality (1885) ; Bridal Pro- 
cession. Queen of the Montauks (1886). 

lAM, bom in London, 
April 23, 1775, died 
there, Dec. 19, 1851. 
Son of a hairdresser, in 
whose rooms his draw- 
ings were first exhib- 
ited; entered schools 
of Royal Academy in 
1789, studied perspec- 
tive under Thomas 
Malton, and architect- 
ure drawing with 
Hardwick ; also worked with Girtin and 
others, in house of Dr. Monro, the art pat- 
ron, for whom he made drawings. He fre- 
quently made excursions into the country, 
[fetching views and making studies of riv- 
er scenery, many in water-colours, but some 
in pencil. In 1799, when he became an 
A.RA., he had exhibited works from twenty- 
six different counties in England and Wales. 
He became an R A. in 1802, and about the 
same time visited Scotland, France, and 
Switzerland. Some of his best pictures in oil 
were exhibited after his return. In 1807 he 
became professor of perspective in the Roy- 
al Academy, and began his Liber Studiorum, 
a book of sketches in monochrome, in imi- 
tation of the liber Yeritatis of Claude, in 
emulation of whose style he painted about 
this time. Turner visited Italy three times — 
in 1819, in 1829, and in 1840. After a life 
of almost unrivalled success, in which he 
won all the honours his art could give, and 
accumulated a large fortune, he died un- 
married, leaving his pictures to the nation 
and his funded property to found an institu- 

tion for decayed artists. Thus the National 
Gallery came into possession of more than 
a hundred of his finished pictures, two of 
which, Sun rising in a Mist, and Dido 
building Carthage, were bequeathed on 
condition that they be hung between two 
Claudea Previous to 1802 Turner was 
most remarkable in water-colour painting, 
the development of which is largely due to 
him. Between that time and his second 
visit to Italy he was distinguished for 
masterly execution and brilliant colouring. 
Most of his finest works belong to this 
period. During the last twenty years of his 
life he sacrificed form to colour ; light, with 
its prismatic variations, seeming to have 
engrossed all his attention. '^He went," 
says Ruskin, '' to the cataract for its iris, to 
the conflagration for its flames, asked of the 
sea its intensest azure, of the sky its clear- 
est gold." Turner exhibited 257 paintings 
and drawings at the Boyal Academy, besides 
which he left many sketches, etchings, and 
book illustrations. His "Southern Coast 
Scenery," ''England and Wales," "Rivers 
of France," and "Rogers's Italy," are mon- 
uments of his genius and taste. /Works: 
Moonlight (1797), Buttermere Lake (1798), 
Morning on Coniston Fells (1798), iBneas 
with the Sibyl (1800), Mountain Scene 
(1800), View in Wales (1800), Fishing Boats 
in a Breeze (1801), portrait of himself 
(1802), Clapham Common (1802), Tenth 
Plague of Egypt (1802), Jason in search of 
Golden Fleece (1802), Calais Pier (1803), 
Holy Family (1803), Destruction of Sodom 
(1805), Shipioreck (1805), Goddess of Dis- 
cord (1806), Blacksmith's Shop (1807), Sun 
rising in Mist (1807), Death of Nelson 
(1808), Spithead (1809), Garreteer's Peti- 
tion (1809), London from Greenwich (1809), 
Harvest Dinner (1809), Bligh Sand (1809), 
St. Mawes (1809), Rum (1809), Abingdon 
(1810), Windsor (1810), Apollo killing Py- 
thon (1811), Hannibal crossing the Alps 
(1812), Cottage destroyed by Avalanche 
(1812), Frosty Morning (1813), Deluge 
(1813), Dido and Mneas (1814), Apuleia in 


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search of Apuleius (1814), Crossing the 
Brook (1815), Dido building Carthage 
(1815), Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius 
(1816), Decline of Carthage (1817), Field of 
Waterloo (1818), The Meuse (1819), Rich- 
mond TTiH (1819), Rome from the Vatican 
(1820), /?or?ie— Arch of Titus (1820), Bay 
of BaixB (1823), Carthage (1828), Scene from 
Boccaccio (1828), Ulysses deriding Polyphe- 
mus (1829), Loretto Necklace (1829), Orvie- 
to (1829), Vision of Medea (1829), Regulus 
(1829), Pilate washing his Hands (1830), (7a- 
ligula's Palace and Bridge (1831), Watteau 
Painting (1831), Lord Percy {1%^1\ ChUde 
Harold's Pilgrimage (1832), Landing of 
Prince of Orange at Torbay (1832), Shad- 
rach, Meshach, and Abednego (1832), Venice 
—the Dogana (1833), do., Canal of the Giu- 
decca (1834), Lake Avemus (1834), Heidel- 
berg Castle in Olden Time (1835), Apollo 
and Daphne (1837), Parting of Hero and 
Leander (1837), Phryne going to the Bath 
as Venus (1838), Landing of Agrippina 
(1839), Fighting Temeraire (1839), Bacchus 
and Ariadne (1840), New Moon (1840), 
Venice — ^Bridge of Sighs (1840), Burial of 
WiMe (1842), Exile and Rock Limpet 
(1842), Snow -Storm (1842), Shade and 
Darkness (1843), Light and Colour (1843), 
Opening of the Walhalla (1843), Approach 
to Venice (1843), Sun of Venice (1843), 
Fishing Boats and Disabled Ship (1844), 
Rain, Steam, and Speed (1844), Venice 
(1844), Venice Quay (1844), Venice at Noon 
(1844), Whalers (1845), Venice at Sunset 
(1845), do. at Evening (1846), do. in Morn- 
ing (1846), Whalers (1846), Whalers in Ice 
(1846), Queen Mab's Grotto (1846), Undine 
giving Ring to Masaniello (1846), Angel in 
the Sun (1846), Hero of a Hundred Fights 
(1847), ^neas relating his Story to Dido 
(1850), Mercury sent to admonish .^neas 
(1850), Departure of Trojan Fleet (1850), 
Visit to the Tomb (1850), and others. Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; Landscape (1821), 
East Cowes Castle (1828), Vessels in Dis- 
tress oflf Yarmouth (1831), St Michael's 
Mount (1834), Line-Fishing off Hastings 

(1835), Venice (1840), South Kensington 
Museum, ib. ; Venice — Grand Canal, Earl 
Dudley, London ; Sea Storm, Bridgewater 
Gallery, ib. ; Fin/o^e at Macon (1803), Wreck 
of the Minotaur (1810), Lord Yarborough, 
ib. ; Echo and Narcissus, Jessica, Thames at 
Eton, do. at Weybridge, do. at Windsor, and 
others, Petworth House ; Views of Lowther 
Castle (2), Earl of Lonsdale ; Van Tromp's 
Shallop (1832), Holloway Institute, Egham ; 
Scene on French Coast (1831), Staffa (1832), 
Lenox Library, New York ; Norham Castle, 
Fountain of Indolence, William H. Vander- 
bilt, ib. ; Slave Ship, Thornton Lothrop, 
Boston ; Cicero's Villa (1839), Hermon sale, 
1882, £1,890.— Monkhouse, Turner (1883) ; 
Burnet, Turner and his Works (London, 
1853) ; Watts, Liber Fluviorum, etc. (1853) ; 
Art Journal (1856), 297 ; (1857), 1, 33, 226 ; 
Athenaeum, Dec, 1851 ; Jan., 1852 ; Red- 
grave ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole anglaise ; Dutton 
Cook, 317 ; Ruskin, Mod. Painters, v. 303, 
358 ; G. W. Thombury, Life (1862) ; Ham- 
erton. Life ; Portfolio (1876), 28 et seq. ; 
(1877), 44 et seq. ; (1878), 2 et seq. ; Sandby, 
i. 316 ; Waagen, Art Treasures. 

TURPILIUS, Roman painter, of Venetia, 
1st century a.d. He was a knight, and 
Pliny mentions him (xxxv. 7 [20]) as an ex- 
ception to the low condition in life of the 
painters of his day. He painted with his 
left hand. 

THEODORE, Comte de, bom in Paris in 
1781, died there in 1859. Landscape and 
architecture painter, son of the Marquis de 
Turpin, who, forced by the Revolution to 
leave France, died in America, leaving his 
family without resources. Lancelot took up 
painting, and after studying in Rome re- 
turned to Paris, where he was patronized by 
Napoleon and Josephine and by Prince Eu- 
gene. He formed an art collection which 
he bequeathed to the Angers Museum. 
Works : Temple of Vesta at Tivoli, Angers 
Museum ; Views of Tivoli (2), Dijon Muse- 
um ; View at Roquebrune, Marseilles Mu- 
seum; Entry of Emperor of Austria into 


Digitized by 



Yenioe, Grand Canal, Nantes Museum ; Pom- 
peii, Temple at Paestum, Lyons Museum. — 
Bellier, ii 602 ; Larousse, xv. 598 ; Nagler, 
xix. 166. 

Nuremberg in 1705, died at Copenhagen in 
1751. German school ; history painter, pu- 
pil of Johann Daniel Preissler (1666-1737), 
then studied in Italy; went in 1741 to 
France, Holland, and England, where he 
made the acquaintance of the Danish trav- 
eller H. yon Norden, for whose work on 
Egypt he made 158 etchings ; this brought 
him in 1743 to Copenhagen, where he be- 
came court painter and 
professor at the Academy. 
Work: Sappho and Cupid 
(1748), Copenhagen Gal- 
lery. — ^Nagler, xix. 171 ; 
WeUbach, 718. 

bom in Catalonia ; con- 
temporary. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Fortuny in 
Rome, whither he went 
in 1864. First prize in 
Madrid in 1865 ; medal, 
1871. Works : The Beggar 
(1865) ; Field Labourers 
(1871); Farm Yard (1875) ; 
Arab before his House; 
Lady undressing after 
Ball ; Women at the Well 
— La Hustracion, 1877. 

TWACHTMAN, JOHN H, bom in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Aug. 4, 1853. Landscape 
painter, pupil of Duveneck, of the Academy, 
and of Professor Loefftz in Munich in 1875 
-77 ; studied in Venice one year. Visited 
Europe again in 1880. Member of Society 
of American Artists. Studio in New York. 
Works : Italian Scene (1878) ; Dry Docks at 
Venice, Campo Marti — Venice (1879); South 
Cove— Jersey (1880) ; Boat Yard (1882) ; 
Summer (1883) ; Meadow Brook (1884).— 
Am. Art Rev. (1881), 45. 

TWELFTH NIGHT, Jacob Jordaem, Vi- 
enna Museum ; canvas, H. 8 ft X 9 ft 7 in. 

Called also Feast of the Bean or of the 
Bean King, and The King Drinks (Le Roi 
boit). A company of men and women 
around a well-spread table, at one end of 
which the crowned king of the feast is seat- 
ed in an arm-chair. The repast is nearly 
ended, but the drinking is at its height 
Other representations of the same subject, 
by Jordaens, are in the Louvre, Paris, 
lille Museum, Munich Finakothek, Bnms- 
wick Museum, Cassel Gallery, and Berne 

TYR, GABIOEL, bom at Saint-Paul-de- 
Mons (Haute-Loii-e), Feb. 19, 1817, died at 

Twelfth Night, Jacob Jordaens, Vienna Museum. 

Samt-:fitienne (Loire), Feb. 16, 1868. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Victor 
Orsel, whom he aided for twenty years in 
the decoration of the Chapel of the Holy 
Virgin at Notre Dame de Lorette. Works : 
Old and New Testament (1850), Ministry of 
the Interior ; Guardian Angel (1855), Christ 
among the Doctors, Puy Museum ; Girl 
with Sistrum (1859), Head of Christ, Si 
£tienne Museum. — ^Bellier, iL 603 ; Gaz. des 
R Arts (1860), viiL 345; (1863), xiv. 283; 
Rev. des Deux M. (1851). 
TYSSENa See Thys. 


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UBERTI. See Farinaio. 
Bacchiacca, bom in Florence, March 
1, 1494, died there, Oct 5, 1557. Floren- 
tine Bchool ; called after his father, Frances- 
co d* TJbertino ; family name, Verdi. His- 
tory painter, pupil of Pietro Perugino and 
of Francia Bigio ; further developed under 
the influence of Andrea del Sarto ; visited 
Borne, probably after 1524 ; excelled in pict- 
ures with numerous small figures. Works : 
Baptism of Christ, Berhn Museum; The 
Three Pretenders to the Throne, Dresden 
Gallery. — Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 454 

in Florence in 1396-97, died there, Dec. 11, 
1475. Florentine school ; real name Paolo 
Doni or di Dono, but called TJccello from 
his fondness for painting birds. Appren- 
tice of Lorenzo Ghiberti the sculptor, who 
began his career as a painter. Paolo de- 
voted himself to the study of perspective 
vnth passionate fervour, and like Mantegna, 
whom he knew at Padua, pushed its use 
to the verge of excess. He drew vnth 
a hardness of line which shows familiarity 
with sculpture, but his studies are corrected 
by the study of nature ; and though his 
works show the crudeness of early art, they 
had a very great influence upon his contem- 
poraries and successors. In his frescos in 
S. Maria Novella, Florence, principally sub- 
jects from Genesis, he imitated bas-relief by 
the use of dead colour and by the distribu- 
tion of the scenes into distinct parts vnth 
in given spaces. Of easel pictures by him 
there remain three out of four panels rep- 
resenting battle scenes one in the Louvre, 
one in the XJffizi, Florence, and one in the 
National GtJlery, London; the last, The Bat- 
tle of St. Egidio. In the Louvre is also a 
portrait group, and in the Duomo, Florence, 
a portrait of the English Condottiere, Sir 
John Hawkwood, painted about 1436. The 
pictures attributed to XJccelli in the Munich 
and Prato Ghilleries are not genuine. — C. & 
C, Italy, iL 283 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iii. 
87 ; ed. MiL, iL 203 ; Burckhardt, 494, 636, 

576, 622; Ch. Blanc, l^cole florentine ; 
Gaye, Carteggio, i. 146. 
UCHTERVELT. See Ochlervell. 
UDEN, LUCAS VAN, born in Antwerp, 
Oct. 18, 1595, 
died there, Nov. 
4, 1672. Flem- 
ish school; land- 
scape painter, 
son and probably 
pupil of Artus 
van TJden (master 
of Antwerp guild 
in 1587, died in 
1627-28); devel- 
oped under the influence of Bubens, in 
whose pictures, as well as in those of Ten- 
iers, he often painted the backgrounds, 
while both masters supplied his landscapes 
vnth figures. Master of the guild in 1626- 
27. Van Dyck painted his portrait Works : 
Mountainous Landscape, Bocky do. vnth 
Hebe and Jupiter's Eagle (figures by Jor- 
daens), Madrid Museum ; Bape of Proser- 
pine, Ceres and Cyane, Louvre ; Landscape 
in picture by Teniers, Brussels Museum ; 
View of St Bernard's Abbey, MiU, Land- 
scape vnth Figures, Antwerp Museum ; Five 
Female Figures in a Landscape, Apollo, 
Marsyas and Midas, Aschaffenburg Gallery ; 
Castle on High Bock, Brunswick G^ery ; 
Hilly Landscape (figures by Teniers the 
elder), Berlin Museum; Woodland Scene 
(vnth figures by Teniers), Christiania Gul- 
lery; Landscape with Biver (1656), two 
Landscapes with figures by Teniers, one 
with figures by Pieter Bout, five others, 
Dresden Gkdlery; Landscape at Sunset, 
Feast of the Gbds before a Grotto, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich; Landscape with fig- 
ures by Teniers, two others. Hermitage, St 
Petersburg; Banquet 
of the Gbds, Christ 
on Lake of Tiberias^ 
Landscapes (4), 
Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, Vienna ; others in Cassel, Darmstadt, 
Frankfort (2), Schleisaheim, and Weimar 



Digitized by 



(2). — Cat Antwerp Mas. ; Ch. Blanc, iScole 
flamande ; Eramm, yi. 1654 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
u, 299 ; Michiels, viiL 180 ; Booses (Beber), 
263 ; Van den Branden, 687. 

da Udine. 

See Oiovanni di Martini da Udine. 

da San Daniele. 

UFFENBACH, PHTTJPP, bom in Prank- 
fort in 1570, died in 1640. German school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil of Adam 
Grimmer; formed himself after the old 
German masters, and was 
the teacher of Adam Els- 
heimer. Works : Ascension 
(1599), City Hall, Prank- 
fort ; Annunciation (1600), 
Vienna Museum. — Nagler, 
xix. 212. 

See Oggione, Marco d*. 

UGOIiINO, Sir Joshua 
BeynoldSy Earl Amherst, 
Enole Park, England. Sub- 
ject from Dante's " Divina 
Commedia." Count Ugo- 
lino della Gherardesca, who 
had betrayed the Pisans in 
their struggle with the Gen- 
oese, was overcome in 1288 
by the Archbishop Buggie- 
ro Ubaldini, and imprisoned, with his sons 
and grandsons, in Pisa in the Gualandi 
tower (afterwards called Torre di fame. Fam- 
ine Tower) and left to starve to death. 
Painted in 1773 ; sold to Duke of Dorset 
for 400 guineas. Engraved by J. Dixon ; 
A. Baimbach.— Art Journal (1860), 359; 
Northcote, L 278 ; Beechey, i. 196. 

UGOMNO DA SIENA, 13th and 14th 
century, died in 1339 (?). Sienese school ; 
probably identical with Ugolino Neri, who 
appears in Sienese documents in 1317. Dis- 
ciple of Duccio. Vasari says he painted 
many pictures and decorated various chapels 
in different parts of Italy ; and that he al- 

ways followed the manner of Cimabue rather 
than that of GUotto. No authentic picture 
by him is left in Italy, but an altarpiece in 
seven compartments, executed for S. Croce, 
Florence, afterwards in the Ottley Collection, 
England, and now scattered among private 
owners, shows a colour and technical ex- 
ecution like those of Duccio and Simone. 
A colossal Madonna, in the tabernacle of 
Or San Michele, formerly supposed to be 
his work, is more Florentine than Sienese 
in style. The wonder-working Madonna^ 
which he painted on a pilaster of the origi- 
nal granary which Orcagna transformed into 

Ugolino, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Earl Amhertt, Knole Park, England. 

a church, probably perished in the fire of 
1370. A Betrayal of Christ, and a Proces- 
sion to Calvary, are in the National Gallery, 
London. — C. & C, Italy, ii. 53 ; Vasari, ed. 
Le Mon., ii. 20 ; ed. MU., L 453 ; W. k W., 
i. 433. 

bom about 1764, died in 1825. History 
and genre painter, pupil of Lossenko, after- 
wards professor and rector of St Petersburg 
Academy. Works: Conquest of Easan, 
Accession to the Throne of the Romanoff 
Family, Hermitage, St Petersburg. 

XJHDE, FRTTZ, bom at Wolkenburg, 
Saxony, May 22, 1848. Histoiy and genre 


Digitized by 



painter, pupil in Paris of Munkacsj in 1879 
-80, having until 1877 served as officer in 
the Saxon cavalry; studied industriously 
the Dutch masters of genre painting, and 
settled in Munich. He paints in the man- 
ner of the modem French realists. Medal, 
Paris, 3d class, 1885. Works : The Singer, 
(1880) ; Family Concert (1881) ; Wise Dogs 
(1881) ; Seamstresses (1882) ; Dutch Tavern 
Boom ; Arrival of the Organ Grinder, Drum 
Practice of Bavarian Soldiers (1883) ; Christ 
and the Children (1884), Leipsic Museum. 
— Allgem. K Chr., ix. 585 ; L'Art (1882), 
iii. 62-70 ; Kunstf. Alle, i. 207, 219 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xviii. 673 ; xxiL 10 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., XXL 920 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K., xvii. 100, 
143; xix. 260; xx. 93. 

XJITEWAAL (Uytenwael, Wte Wael, 
Wttewael), JOACHIM, bom at Utrecht in 
1566, died there, Aug. 13, 1638. Dutch 
school ; history painter, pupil of his father 
Antonie Wttewael, and of Joost de Beer ; 
painted mythological subjects in the manner 
of Bartholomeus Spranger, and of Cornells 
van Haarlem, but on account of the reduced 
scale more pleasing than either. At Padua 
he made the acquaintance of the Bishop of 
St. Malo, in whose service he remained four 
years in Italy and two in France. Works : 
Meeting of David and Abigail (1597), Am- 
sterdam Museum; Mars and Venus sur- 
prised by Vulcan (1603), Hague Museum ; 
Fruit Seller, Portraits of Artist and Wife, 
Utrecht Museum ; Lot and his Daughters, 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Be- 
past of the Gods (1602), Brimswick Gallery ; 
St John Preaching (1618), Copenhagen Gal- 
lery ; Lot and his Daughters, Berlin Muse- 
um; Parnassus (1596), Dresden Gallery; 
Madonna (1608), Gotha Museum ; Ceres, 
Bacchus, Venus and Cupid, Hermannstadt 
Museum ; Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Diana and Actaeon 
(1607), Adoration of Shepherds (1607), Vi- 
enna Museum ; do., Madrid Museum ; Judg- 
ment of Paris, Historical Society, New York. 
— Immerzeel, iii 149 ; Eramm, vi 1656; 
Biegel, Beitr£ige, ii 170. 

ULFT, JACOB VAN DER, bom at Go- 
rinchem in 1627, died there after 1688. 

Dutch school; 
landscape and 
painter, chiefly 
painted views in 
and about Rome, 
numerous and 
v^ell-grouped fig- 
ures, also Dutch 
scenery; com- 
bined good draw- 
ing with warm and powerful, though some- 
times heavy, colouring. Execution free and 
spirited. Probably studied under Both ; 
visited Italy, where he painted many land- 
scapes and ruins. Works : Roman Ruins, 
Mr. Hope's Collection, London ; Square with 
Antique Buildings, Fortified Town, Louvre ; 
Roman Troops Marching (1671), Hague Mu- 
seum; Italian Harbour, do. City, do. Mar- 
ket, Museum, Amsterdam ; View of New 
Town Hall of Amsterdam (1667), City Hall, 
ib. ; Forum of Nerva — Rome, Haarlem Mu- 
seum ; Continence of Scipio (1674), Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Trajan's Forum in Rome 
(1671), Berlin Museum; Seaport, Chris- 
tiania Gallery ; Roman Buildings, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Landscape with Ruins and 
Figures, Dresden Gallery ; View in Roman 
Campagna, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; Dutch 
Harbour, Oldenburg Gallery ; Triumph of 

U '^/' qI 

Scipio, Hermitage, St Petersburg. — Immer- 
zeel, iii. 150 ; Eramm, vi 1658 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii 510. 

UTiLTK, HUGO, bom in Prague in 1838. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Prague Acad- 
emy under Haushofer ; worked as a deco- 
rative and scene painter at Pilsen, Prague, 
and Pressburg, then was instructor at the 
industrial school in Prague, and settled at 
Munich in 1874 ; has repeatedly visited the 


Digitized by 



Bavarian Highlands, Tyrol, and Switzerland. 
Works : Oaks (1860) ; View of Bdsig (1868) ; 
View in the Bamsau ; do. near Buhpolding ; 
Eyening on the Lake, etc Many in private 
collections in Prague and other cities of 
Bohemia. — ^Wurzbach, xlix. 1. 

ULMANN, BENJAMIN, bom at Blotz- 
heim, Alsace, May 24, 1829, died in Paris, 
Feb. 26, 1884. History, genre, and portrait 
painter, pupil of Drolling and Picot Won 
the grand prix de Borne in 1859. Medals : 
dd class, 1859; medal, 1866; 2d class, 
1872 ; L. of Honour, 1872. Works : Dante 
in Hades (1855); Junius Brutus (1859), 
Melun Museum ; Sylla and Marius (1861) ; 
Patroclus and Amphidamas, Le Mans Mu- 
seum ; Samson and Delilah (1863) ; A De- 
feat (1864); Ora del Pianto 4 Pipemo 
(1867), Marseilles Museum ; Ariadne (1869) ; 
Betum of Charles V. to Paris (1870) ; The 
Bell-Bingers of Nuremberg (1872), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; El Ochavito del Jueves k 
Burgos, Education (1873) ; Gitanos of the 
Albaycin of Granada (1874) ; Cain's Be- 
morse (1875) ; Lorelei on the Bhine, The 
Great Battle of Nuremberg during the Ab- 
sence of the Bells on Holy Thursday (1878) ; 
Sylla and Marius (1878), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum; Cato dragged from the Senate 
(1879) ; Marguerite in Prison (1881) ; three 
decorative paintings for the Palais de Jus- 
tice, and one for the Palais Boyal. — Bel- 
lier, iL 604 ; Bevue des Deux Mondes (1859) ; 
Claretie, Peintres, 213, 335, 386 ; Meyer, 
Gesch., 604 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 349, 397. 

XJLBICH, lay brother in the monastery 
at Maulbronn, early part of the 15th cen- 
tury. German school ; executed in 1424 two 
large wall paintings in the church at Maul- 
bronn, in which the life-size figures are well 
modelled and the expression of the Virgin 
and Child is pleasing. — Schnaase, vi 467. 

in New York, Oct 8, 1858. Figure painter, 
student of the National Academy ; later, 
pupil of L5fftz and Lindenschmidt in Mu- 
nich. Studied abroad in 1873-81. Elected 
an AN. A. in 1883. Member of Society of 

American Artists. Studio in New York. 
Works: The Engraver, Spinner (1882); 
Glass Blowers, Amateur Etcher (T. B. 
Clarke, New York), Carpenter at Work 
(1883) ; In the Land of Promise— Castle 
Ghurden (William T. Evans), Symphony 
(1884); Belies of Bygone Days, Waifs 

ULBICH, HANS JACOB, bom at Andel- 
fingen. Canton Ztirich, about 1798, died at 
ZOrich in 1878. Marine, landscape, and 
animal painter ; was at first a merchant, but 
took up art in Paris, and thence went to 
Italy in 1828 ; having won reputation and 
success at Naples, where he was made hon- 
orary professor at the Academy, he returned 
to Paris in 1831, visited England and the 
Netherlands, and subsequently became pro- 
fessor at the Polytechnic Institute in Ztirich. 
His pictures are distinguished for beautiful 
light effects, and supplied with well-drawn 
and characteristic figures. Works: View 
of Botterdam Harbour at Evening (1844), 
Berne Museum ; Morning on Sea Shore, St. 
Ghdl Museum ; Coast at Trouville, Forest 
Brook, Garda Lake, Marine (last work), 
Ztirich Gkdlery ; Burning Steamship on 
Stormy Sea, lake of Lucerne (1845), Leip- 
sic Museum. 

ULYSSES, ancient pictures. See AthC" 
nion, Euphranor, Nicomachus, Pamphilus, 
Parrhasius, Polygnotus, Timanthes, 

rain, M. H Amot, Elmira, N. Y. ; canvas, 
H. 2 ft. 5 in. X 3 ft 3 in. ; signed, dated 
Bome, 1658. A seaport ; on right, trees, 
and beyond, part of a city with a fleet at 
anchor ; in foreground, centre, Nausica£i, 
her attention arrested by Ulysses, who is 
issuing cautiously from behind a tree 
(Homer, Od., vi). Painted for Francesco 
Alberici ; passed to M. Famese, Humphrey 
Morris, Earl of Ashbumham, and Duke of 
Hamilton; Hamilton sale (1882), £840. 
Engraved by P. Vivaria liber Veritatis, 
No. 139. Picture called also Bacchus and 
Ariadne. — ^Hamilton Cai, 149; Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain, 78, 218. 


Digitized by 



By Rubens, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, 
H. 4 ft 1 in. X 6 ft 6 in. A mountainous 
landscape, with the palace of Alcinotls at 
left, and the city of Plueacia at right, near 
the sea ; in the foreground, Ulysses, nude, 
partly concealed by a bush, imploring aid 
of Nausicaa, who is passing with several 
women and attendants, two of whom are 
taking clothing from a car ; above, Minerva, 
protector of Ulysses, complaining to Jupi- 
ter of the persecutions of Neptune. Taken 
to Paris; returned in 1815. Engraved 
by ParbonL — Smith, ii. 144 ; QuL du PaL 
Pitti, i. PL 86. 

Joseph M. W. Turner, National Gtallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 3 in. x 6 fi 7 in. 
Ulysses, whose galley is on the point of put- 
ting oflf from the island where Polyphemus 
dwelt, is deriding the monster, who is 
sprawling his huge bulk on the top of the 
cliff, tearing his hair with impotent rage. 
Close in shore are the remains of the fire 
where Ulysses and his companions heated the 
staff with which they put out the one eye of 
the Cyclops. Royal Academy, 1829 ; Turner 
Collection. Engraved by E. GoodalL — 
Hamerton, Life ; Cai Nai (raL 

ULYSSES, RETURN OF, Primaticcio, 
Castle Howard, England. Penelope relat- 
ing to Ulysses what has happened to her 
during his absence. One of the most im- 
portant works of the master ; the charac- 
ters are noble, the drawing and modelling 
correct and careful, but the colouring fee- 
ble. — Waagen, Treasures, iii 322. 

UMBRICHT, HONORS, bom at Obemai, 
Alsace ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Bonnat, Feyen-Perrin, and 
Hector Leroux. Medal, 3d class, 1884. 
Works: Portrait of the Artist, do. of his 
Mother (1880) ; St. Sebastian (1881) ; In the 
Vosges Mountains (1884) ; Li the Woods in 
Lorraine (1886) ; Old Wheelwright (1886). 

MAN, Charles Robert Leslie, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 2 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 
10 in. The two seated in the sentry-box ; 

Unde Toby, said to be a portrait of Bannis- 
ter the comedian, examining the widow's 
eye. Royal Academy, 1831 ; replica (1832), 
South Kensington Museum. Engraved by 
Danforth; L. Stocks. — Cat Nat Gal; 
Blackburn, Pictures at S. Kensington ; Art 
Journal (1853), 33. 

UNGER, JOHANNA, bom in Hanover, 
March 6, 1837, died in Pisa, Feb. 11, 187L 
History and portrait painter, daughter of the 
etcher William Unger, pupil in Dttsseldorf 
of Karl Sohn and of Rethel, then of Leutze ; 
went to Munich, where she followed the 
school of Piloty and was also active as a 
teacher. Works : Sleeping Beauty (1863) ; 
Jephthah's Daughter ; Two Marys at Christ's 
Tomb (1864) ; Joan of Arc ; Deborah ; Cin- 
derella's Sisters. — Blanckarts, 18. 

HINDRICK D', bom in Stockhohn, May 5, 
1829, died in Dttsseldorf, March 24, 1866. 
Genre painter, pupil of Dttsseldorf Academy 
under Karl Sohn, then studied in Paris and 
Amsterdam. Honorary member of Stock- 
holm Academy ; Swedish court painter ; pro- 
fessor. Gold medal, Amsterdam. Works : 
Policeman's Report (1857), National Gkllery, 
Berlin; Female Prestidigitator astound- 
ing Peasants, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; 
The Toast ; Custom House Ofl&ce ; Circus- 
Rider's Wardrobe ; Waiting Rooms of 1st, 
2d, 3d, and 4th Class ; Playroom. — Jordan 
(1885), ii 54 

at Cavalese, Tyrol, May 27, 1732, died in 
Rome, Jan. 25, 1798. German school ; his- 
tory and genre painter, nephew and pupil of 
Franz (1706-76), and in Vienna of Michael 
AngeloUnterberger; won first prize in 1753, 
then studied in Venice and under Cignaroli 
in Verona ; went in 1758 to Rome, where he 
became a pupil of Raphael Mengs, studied 
especially after Domenichino and Pietro da 
Cortona, assisted his master in the decora- 
tion of the library in the Vatican, and be- 
came one of the most celebrated artists in 
Rome ; employed by Pope Clement XIV. 
and Prince Borghese. Works: Madonna 


Digitized by 



with Si Jolin, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; 
Martyrdom of Si Pontianus, Spoleto Cathe- 
dral; Assumption, Loreto Cathedral; Si 
Julian, Si Agnes, Brixen Cathedral ; Kitch- 
en Scene, Cellar Scene, Cleopatra, Liechten- 
stein GkJlery, Vienna. — ^Wurzbach, xlix. 79. 

bruck, Aug. 15, 1838. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy, then in Milan of 
Albert Zimmermann and in Dttsseldorf of 
Andreas Achenbach; in 1860 visited Nor- 
way, and settled in Brussels, where he fol- 
lowed the Belgian school, and whence he 
visited Southern France and Italy and 
several times the coasts of England and 
Scotland. Several medals. Order of Fran- 
cis Joseph. Works: View near Chiavenna 
(1859) ; Sogne Fjord in Norway (1861) ; 
View near Innsbruck (1862) ; Norwegian 
Landscape (1863) ; Moonlight (1864) ; View 
in Oetz Valley (1865) ; View near Naples 
(1868) ; View in Capri (1870) ; Achen Lake 
in Tyrol (1872); Palermo (1878).— Wurz- 
bach, xlix. 83. 

lese in 1748, died in Vienna, Dec 4, 1797. 
German school ; history and genre painter, 
brother and, in Rome, pupil of Christoph 
Unterberger, having at first been instructed 
by his uncle Franz in his native place. In 
Rome he was benefited by intercourse with 
Mengs, Battoni, Maron, and others, but 
was especially influenced by the works of 
Correggio, whose style he imitated so suc- 
cessfully that some of his copies were taken 
for originals, even by competent judges, and 
sold as such by art dealers. In 1776 he 
returned home, and thence went to Vienna, 
where his exhibited works were well re- 
ceived and he was made a member of the 
Academy, and subsequently court painter. 
In great favor with Prince Kaimitz, he 
received numerous commissions both at 
home and abroad. Works : Picture of Ma- 
donna carried by Angels^ Italian Church, 
Vienna; two Pictures with Genii, Palais 
Auersperg, ib. ; Nativity ; Hebe oflfering 
Nectar to Jupiter's Eagle (bought by the 

Emperor Francis) ; Hymen ; Allegory on 
Peace and Love; Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, Kdniggr&tz Cathedral; Portrait of 
Count von Heister, Ferdinandeum, Inns- 
bruck. — ^Wurzbach, xlix. 84. 

bom at Cavalese, Aug. 12, 1695, died in 
Vienna, June 27, 1758. German school ; 
history painter, pupil of Giuseppe Alberti, 
then in Venice of Piazetta ; painted for 
some time at Passau, and in 1738 went to 
Vienna, where he amassed a considerable 
fortune, was much esteemed by the Empress 
Maria Theresa, and from 1751 was director 
of the Academy alternately with Paul Tro- 
ger. Works : Expulsion of Hagar (1739), 
Vienna Academy (?) ; Si Anthony of Padua 
receiving into his Arms the In&nt Christ, 
Si Stephen's, Vienna; Si Anthony of 
Padua and Si Michael, Si Michael's, ib. ; 
Death of the Vii-gin (1749), Brixen Cathe- 
dral; Diana and Endymion (?), Ferdinan- 
deum, Innsbruck. — Wurzbach, xlix. 93. 

Paul LaurenSf John G. Johnson, Philadel- 
phia. Pope Urban VI, in his purple cape 
embroidered with gold, stands in a dungeon 
or torture-chamber, grimly gloating over 
the blood-stained bodies of the cardinals 
who had plotted against him in 1384, 
which, clad in their red gowns, lie in a 
ghastly row against the walL 

See Rovere. 

URLAUB, GEORG, bom in Si Peters- 
burg in 1845. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Si Petersburg Academy, where he 
won a gold medal, then in Berlin of Alexan- 
der von Werner. Member of Si Peters- 
burg Academy. Works : Job's Sufferings ; 
Daughter of Jairus ; Merry Company (1882). 
— Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvii 232, 336. 

URLAUB, GEORG KARL, bom at Ans- 
bach, Bavaria, in 1749, died at Marburg, 
Hesse, in 1809. Genre, battle, and portrait 
painter, studied in his native town, then 
travelled extensively ; lived successively at 
WOrzburg, Schweinfurth,Hanau, and finally 


Digitized by 



at Marburg, where he grew blind in 1804. 
Works: Taking of Frankfort by Hessian 
Troops in 1792, Cassel Gallery ; House- 
keeper's Account (1798), Stadel Gallery, 

Claude Lorraiu, National Gallery, London ; 
canvas, H. 3 ft 8 in. x 4 fi 11 in. Seaport, 
with ships ; at left, the saint and her vir- 
gins coming down the steps of a magnifi- 
cent temple, for the purpose of embarking. 

cation after Death, H. 12 ft. 1 in. x 12 fi ; 
signed, dated 1491. 3. Her Dream, H. 8 ft 
10 in. X 8 ft 8 in. ; signed, dated 1495. 4. 
Interview with the English Prince, H. 9 ft. 
X 20 ft. ; signed, dated 1495. 5. Parting 
Audience of English Envoys with King 
Maurus, H. 9 ft x 8 ft. 1 in. ; signed. 6. 
Return of Envoys to England, H. 9 f t 9 in. 
X 17 ft ; signed. 7. Meeting of Ursula 
and Virgins with the Pope, H. 9 ft 9 in. x 
10 ft ; signed. 8. Reception of English 

Emb«rfc«tion of St. Ursula. Claude Lorrain, National Gallery, Londort. 

Painted in 1646 ; Liber Veritatis, No. 54. 
Engraved by Armytage, in National Gallery ; 
by J. Fittler (1787), in Angerstein Gallery ; 
and by Le Eeux (1839). — Waagen, Treas- 
ures, i. 339 ; Cat Nat GaL ; Pattison, 
Claude Lorrain, 44, 228 ; Reveil, xi. 749. 

Carpaccio, Venice Academy ; nine canvases. 
Scenes from legend of St. Ursula, painted 
without regard to chronological order of 
legend. 1. Arrived at Cologne, H. 9 ft x 
8 ft. 4 in.; signed, dated 1490. 2. Glorifi- 

Envoys by King Maurus, H. 9 ft x 19 ft ; 
signed. 9. Death of Ursula, H. 9 f t 2 in. 
X 11 ft 8 in. Begun in 1490 ; painted for 
Scuola di S. Ursula, Venice. These works, 
painted on canvas with an oil medium, 
show Carpaccio's great skill in perspective, 
his ability in managing large compositions 
containing many groups and figures, with 
rich architectural landscapes and back- 
grounds, and illustrate his affinity to Gen- 
tile Bellini, whose lead he followed. En- 
graved by Giovanni del Pian; GalibertL 


Digitized by 



Injured by restorations made in 1623 and 
1752.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 199 ; Vasari, ed. 
Mil., iii 640 ; Zanotto, L PI. 24 

By Hans MenUing, Hospital of St John, 
Bruges. A series of pictures on the Shrine 
of St Ursula, a Gk)thic chapel in miniature. 
The long sides (H. 1 f t 8 in. x 3 ft) are each 
divided into three arched spaces, containing : 
1. The Fleet arriving at Cologne. 2. Dis- 
embarkation of St Ursula and her Maidens 
at Basle. 3. The Pope receiving them at 
Rome. 4. The Pope accompanying them 
back to Basle. 6. Gnie Attack upon them on 

1849 - 1853 ; afterwards visited Egypt 
Member of and professor at Florence Acad- 
emy. Medal: Of Honour, Paris, 1867; 
medal, Vienna, 1873. Works: Good Sa- 
maritan (1843) ; Death of Bayard (1846) ; 
liaising of Lazarus (1849); Expulsion of 
Duke of Athens (1867), National Gallery, 
-Florence ; Departure of Great Caravan for 
Mecca (1873), Khedive of Egypt ; Scene in 
Dante's Vita Nuova ; Marco Visconti with 
the Standard ; Bianca Capello*s Attempt to 
poison Cardinal de' MedicL — Mtlller, 629; 
Land und Meer (1869), ii. 842. 

Reception of English Envoys, History of St Ursula, VKtore Carpaccio, Venice Academy. 

the Banks of the Ehine. 6. Martyrdom of 
St Ursula. Gables (H. 1 ft 8 in. x 1 ft.) : 
1. St Ursula sheltering theVirgins under her 
Cloak. 2. The Virgin worshipped by Nuns. 
Six medallions on the cover contain : Cor- 
onation of the Virgin, Glory of St Ursula, 
and four angels. Painted about 1486. Well- 
composed groups, great minuteness of fin- 
ish, rich and well contrasted in colour. 
"More precious than a shrine of silver," 
says Van Mander. — W. & W., il 50 ; Van 
Mander, 205 ; C. & C, Flemish Painters, 283. 
USSI, STEFANO, born in Florence in 
1822. History painter, pupil of Florence 
Academy under Pollastrini ; won prizes in 
1843, 1846, and 1849, studied in Bome in 

Antwerp, Jan. 12, 
1599, died there, 
Oct 5, 1652. 
Flemish school; 
still-life and poul- 
try-yard painter, 
pupil of Harmen 
de Neyt ; master 
of Antwerp guild 
in 1625, travelled 
extensively in 
France, Italy, and Germany, and was much 
employed by the German Emperor and the 
King of Spain. Works: Still-life (figures by 
Jordaens), Dead Game and Fruit, Fruits 


Digitized by 



and Vegetables, Madrid Museum ; Kitchen 
Interior, Brussels Museum ; Still-Life, Mu- 
seum, Antwerp ; Arrival of Cardinal Infant 
Ferdinand, City Hall, ib. ; Fish - Seller's 
Shop, Ghent Museum ; Cock Fight, Lille 
Museum ; Table with Fruit and Provisions, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Poultry-Yard (1643), 
Berlin Museum ; Lady among Kitchen Sup- 
plies and Utensils (figure by Thulden), Carls- 
ruhe Gtallery ; Still-Life, Cologne Museum ; 
Fruit and other Eatables (1647), Dresden 
Gallery ; Poultry (1652), Leipsic Museum ; 
Kitchen Interior (1629), Cassel Gallery ; do., 
Weimar Museum ; Fruit-Piece (1647), Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; do.. Hermitage, Si Pe- 
tersburg; Dead Ghune, Leuchtenberg Gkd- 
lery, ib. ; Breakfast -Table (2), Schwerin 
Gallery ; Fruit Festoon (1644), Vienna Mu- 

seum. — Ch. Blanc, £cole flamande ; Burger, 
Musses, iL 157 ; Kramm, vL 1661 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), iL 338 ; Michiels, ix. 187 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 422 ; Van den Branden, 1082. 

Utrecht in 1491 (or 1498?), died at Lisbon 
in 1550 (or 1557). Dutch school ; history 
and portrait painter, supposed pupil of An- 
tonis Moro (?), with whom he is said to have 
gone to Spain, and thence to Lisbon, where 
he painted altarpieces for churches, and 
highly-esteemed portraits, and was much 
honoured by John HL of Portugal — Kramm, 
L 232 ; Nagler, xix. 268 ; Raczynski, Arts 
en Portugal, 255. 

UTRECHT, JACOB VAN, flourished at 
Utrecht about 1523. Dutch school; por- 
trait painter, possibly the same who was re- 
ceived master of the guild at Antwerp in 
1506. Signed himself Jacobus Trajectensis. 
Works : Male Portrait (1523), Berlin Muse- 
um ; do. (1524), Baron Minutoli's Collec- 
tion, Schloss Fridersdorf, Silesia. — ^Meyer, 
Gemalde der kongL Mus. (1883), 471 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, xxi. 324 

UWmS, THOMAS, bom at Pentonville, 

near London, Feb. 25, 1782, died at Staines, 
Aug. 25, 1867. Apprenticed to an engraver, 
but became a student at Royal Academy in 
1798 ; began as a water-colour painter and 
illustrator of books. In 1814 he visited the 
South of France and took up subject paint- 
ing in oils ; studied in Italy in 1826-31, and 
on his return established a reputation by 
his Italian scenes ; became A.R.A. in 1833, 
RA. in 1838, librarian in 1844, surveyor of 
the Queen's pictures in 1845, and keeper of 
the National Gallery in 1847. Works : Vin- 
tage in South of France, Chapeau de Brigand, 
Sir Guyon fighting for Temperance (Faerie 
Queene, ii. 12), National Gallery. — Aii Jour- 
nal, Sept., 1847; Oct, 1857; Cat. Royal 
Acad. ; Redgrave ; Ch. Blanc, £cole anglaise ; 
Sandby, ii 157 ; Mra Nevins, Recollections 
of T. U. (London, 1858). 

UYTENBROECK (Wtenbrouck), MO- 
Z£S VAN, sumamed Little Moses, bom at 
Delft about 1590, died in The Hague about 
1650. Dutch school ; landscape painter, in 
the style of Elsheimer and Bril, supposed 
pupil of Poelenburg ; master of the guild at 
The Hague in 1620 ; its dean in 1627 ; en- 
livened his pictures with scriptural and 
mythological scenes, which show a vivid im- 
agination, great skill in grouping, and knowl- 
edge of chiaroscuro. Works : Juno and 
Argus (1625), Augsburg Gallery; Raising 
of Lazarus, Aschafifenburg Gallery ; Feast 
of Bacchus (1627), Jupiter and Mercury re- 
ceived by Philemon and Baucis, Brunswick 
Gallery; Triumph of Bacchus, Landscape 
with Mars and Venus (attributed to Elshei- 
mer), Cassel Gallery ; Moonlight, Copenha- 
gen Gkdlery ; Bacchus and Ariadne, Prague 
Gallery; Landscape with dancing Shep- 
herds, do. with Nymphs, Museum, Vienna ; 
do. with Herd, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; 
do. (attributed to Elsheimer), Pesth Muse- 
um ; Lot and Daughters (1627), Count Bel- 
giojoso, Milan; Landscape with Cascade, 
Uffizi, Florence.— Bode, Studien, 337 ; Im- 
merzeel, iii. 151 ; Eramm, vi. 1663 ; Riegel, 
Beitr^ge, iL 213 ; Vosmaer, Rembrandt, see 
pr^curseurs, 98. 


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VACCARO, ANDREA, born in Naples 
in 1598, died there in 1670. Nea- 
politan school; pupil of Girolamo 
Imparato ; followed first the style of Cara- 
vaggio and later that of Guidg. After the 
death of Stanzioni he was considered the 
best painter in Naples, until Luca Giordano 
came to maturity. Pictures in churches in 
Naples, and Massacre of the Innocents, Bap- 
tism of Si Candidus, Naples Museum ; Christ 
appearing to Mary, Dresden Gallery ; Christ 
at the Column, Infant Christ sleeping in the 
Arms of St John, Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Christ on the 
Cross, Germanic Museum, Nu- 
remberg; Magdalen Penitent^ 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg. — ^Lanzi, iL 42 ; 
Ch. Blanc, &ole napolitaine ; Burckhardt, 
768, 792 ; Lavice, 224. 

VACHE BLANCHE (The White Cow), 
]fimil van Marcke^ Samuel F. Barger, New 
York ; canvas. A fine study of a white cow 
in a pleasing landscape, which, however, is 
subordinate to the figure. 

Brussels, baptized April 8, 1605, died there, 
buried Aug. 10, 1655. Flemish school ; 
landscape painter, seems to have been in 
Italy and studied Titian. Master of the 
guild at Brussels, 1628. Excelled in ren- 
dering early morning mist and effects of 
light Approached Rubens in richness and 
vivacity of colour. Works: Woodland 
Scene, Darmstadt Museum; Two Land- 
scapes with Figures, Ferdinandeum, Inns- 
p bruck ; Horsemen 

kothek, Munich ; Landscape, Stockholm 
Museum. — Immerzeel, iii 152 ; Eugler 
(Crowe), iL 341 ; Kramm, vL 1665 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xxi 523. 

VAENIUS (Venius), OTHO, bom at Ley- 
den in 1558, died in Brussels, May 6, 1629. 
Flemish school Real name Octavio van 
Veen. History and portrait painter, pupil 
at Leyden of Isack Claesz Swanenburg, 
called Nicolai, and at Li5ge (1572) of Lamp- 

sonius, then in Rome (1575-80) of F. Zuc- 
chero; returned to Li^ge and in 1584 to 
Leyden; went 
to Antwerp in 
1593 ; master of 
the guild there 
in 1594, its dean 
in 1602-3; be- 
came court 
painter to Al- 
brecht and Isa- 
bella, governors 
of the Nether- 
lands, who called him to Brussels as super- 
intendent of the mint; received into the 
guild there in 1620. He was the master of 
Rubens, and a good poet and scholar. 
Works : Portraits (2), Madrid Museum ; 
Artist and his Family (1584), Louvre ; Cru- 
cifixion, Christ bearing the Cross, Marriage 
of St. Catherine (1589), Brussels Museum ; 
Raising of Lazarus, Ghent Cathedral ; Ser- 
pent on the Fig-Tree, Calling of St Mat- 
thew, Charity of St Nicholas, Miracle by St 
Nicholas, St Paul at Csesarea, Portrait of 
Jean Miraeus, Museum, Antwei*p ; Christ and 
the Repentant Sinners, The Virgin nursing 
Infant Christ, La^l Supper, Raising of Lam" 
ru8, Raising of Widow's Son, Entombment, 
Cathedral, ib. ; Martyrdom of St Andrew, 
St Andrew's, ib.; Twelve Scenes in History 
of the Ancient Batavians (1613), Amsterdam 
Museum ; Descent from the Cross, Aschaffen- 
burg Gallery ; Allegory on Fall of Man, Bam- 
berg Gallery ; Assumption (1608), Brunswick 
Gallery ; Minerva protecting Youth, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Unadvised Youth, Cologne 
Museum ; Minerva and the Muses, Berlin 
Museum ; Triumph of Catholic Church (6), 
Fifteen Scenes in History of Christ and the 
Virgin, Schleissheim Gallery ; Rape of Pro- 
serpine, Stuttgart Museum ; Holy Family, 
Portraits of Archdukes Aibrecht and Ernst, 
Vienna Museum. — Ch. Blanc, ficole fla- 
mande ; Van den Branden, 401 ; Lnmerzeel, 
iii 157; Kramm, vL 1679; Messager des 
sciences hist (1868), 328; (1877), 313; 
Michiels, vL 352, 468 ; Rooses (Reber), 148 ; 


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Van den Branden, 401 ; Ylaamsche school 
(1862). 152. 

GTJSTIN, bom in Paris, Dec. 19, 1777, died 
there after 1838. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of J. B. Regnault ; in 1824 he 
restored some of the paintings in the gal- 
leries at Versailles, and in the gallery of 
Diana in the Tuileries ; decorated several 
churches and palaces in oil and fresco. Court 
painter to the Due d' Orleans Medal, 1824 
Works : Last Honours to Bertrand Dugues- 
clin (1806), Rennes Museum; Column of 
Rosbach (1810), Versailles Museum ; Electra 
and Orestes (1814), Dijon Museum ; St. Mar- 
garet cast off by her Father (1817), Sainte 
Marguerite, Paris ; St. Ambrose saving an 
Arian Priest (1819), Saint Ambroise, ib.; 
Pythagoras inspired by the Muses (1819), 
Versailles Museum ; Death of Si Louis, 
(1819), Burial Chapel of Orleans Family, 
Dreux ; Henri IV. in Notre Dame on Day 
of his Entry into Paris (1819) ; Ulysses and 
Nausicaft (1822) ; Last Benediction of Bishop 
Bourlier of Evreux ; Communion of Mary 
Stuart ; Henri IV. and the Abbess of Mont- 
martre (1824).— Bellier, iL 606. 
..VAGA, PERENO DEL, bom in Florence 
in 1500, died in 
Rome, Oct. 14, 1547. 
Umbrian school. 
Real name Buonac- 
corsi, but called del 
Vaga from a Floren- 
. tine painter of that 
name who had given 
him instruction 
Sometimes called 
also Pierino. Pupil 
of Andrea de' Ceri, of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, 
and of Vaga, who took him to Rome. Em- 
ployed there by Raphael on the frescos in 
the Vatican, where he painted history of 
Joshua and of David. After death of 
Raphael, he aided Giulio Romano and B 
Fattore, whose sister he married, in com- 
pleting their master's works. Painted also 
in S. Marcello the Creation of Eve, which 

shows influence of Michelangelo. After the 
sack of Rome (1527), he went to Gtenoa, 
where he decorated Hie Palazzo Doria with 
frescos, now mostly destroyed. About 1542 
he returned to Rome, where he painted 
frescos in Trinity de' Monti and in the Cas- 
tello S. Angelo. His later works were only 
designed by him and finished by his pupils. 
He was buried beside Raphael in the Pan- 
theon. — ^Vasari, ed. Mil., v. 587 ; Ch. Blanc, 
ficole ombrienne ; Burckhardt, 8, 177, 179, 

LUle, baptized May 30, 1623, died in Am- 
sterdam, Aug. 28, 1677. Flemish school ; 
portrait painter, pupil in Antwerp of Eras- 
mus Quellin ; painted in 1658 at the Coro- 
nation in Frankfort the Emperor Leopold, 
and then many sovereigns of Germany. 
Went with the Marshal de Grammont to 
Paris, where he painted the Queen, and 
many persons of distinction ; returned home 
after four years, and settled in Amsterdam. 
His brother and pupil, Jacob (1628-1670), 
commonly called Leeuwerik (lark), was a 
successfid history and portrait painter at 
the court of the Elector in Berlin ; most of 
his pictures are in the royal palaces of Ber- 
lin and Potsdam. "Works : Portraits of 
Man and Wife (1674), Lady with two Chil- 
dren, Amsterdam Museum ; Managers of 
Orphanage (1671), Orphan Asylum, Amster- 
dam ; Portrait of Great Elector, Brunswick 
Gbllery ; do., Roysd Palace, Berlin ; Sacrifice 
of Iphigenia, Cassel GaUery ; Board with 
Letters Attached (1658), Dresden Gkdlery ; 
Male Portrait, Oldenburg Gallery. — Bellier, 
ii. 607 ; Lnmerzeel, iii 152 ; Kramm, vi. 


1667 ; Kugler, ii 332 ; Riegel, Beitrage, 
ii. 279. 

VAINI, PIETRO, bom in Rome in 1847, 
died in New York in 1875. Subject and 
portrait painter, studied and painted in 


Digitized by 



Italy before settling in New York in 1872, 
where he committed suicide. His morbid 
nature shows itself in the sombre character 
of his more important works. Works : 
First Grief; After the War ; Veronica gaz- 
ing upon the Face of her dead Bival; 
Othello and the Handkerchief , Palette Club, 
New York. 

in Paris, Oct 6, 1826. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Drolling, Cogniet, and 
Henri Lehmann. Medal, 3d class, 1880. 
Works: Brother and Sister, Two Friends 
(1874) ; Bouquet Seller (1875) ; Artist's Por- 
trait (1878), Orleans Museum ; During a 
Funeral Service (1879); Charity (1881), 
Ministry of Fine Arts (1881) ; Mary Magda- 
len (1883) ; A Diogenes, Poor Man's Bevel 
(1884); Bevery (1886); At Church, Old 
Man (1886).— Bellier, ii 608. 

bom at Mechlin about 1570, died at Nurem- 
berg in 1623. Flemish school ; genre and 
landscape painter, son and pupil of Lucas 
van Valckenborch, whom he accompanied 
to Nuremberg in 1566. Works: Annual 
Fair (1694), Kirmess Festival (1596), Vien- 
na Museum ; Woodland Scenes (2, 1622), 
Christiania GkJlery ; Woodland with Nymphs 
and Animals, Ftirstenberg Gallery, Donau- 
eschingen. — Kramm, vi 1670. 

VALCKENBOBCH (Valkenburg), LU- 
CAS VAN, bom at Mechlin about 1530 or 
1640, died in Germany about 1626. Flem- 
ish school ; landscape and portrait painter ; 
master of Mechlin guild in 1564 ; went in 
1666 to Antwerp, where he seems to have 
studied under Pieter Brueghel, then with 
his brother Marten, and with Jan Frode- 
man de Vries to Aix-la-Chapelle and Li^ge, 
where they sketched many landscapes on 
the banks of the Meuse. In 1670 he fol- 
lowed the Archduke Matthias to Linz; 
painted for him several years, was after- 
wards associated with Joris Hoefnagel, for 
whom he made drawings at Frankfort in 
1594, and in 1697 was settled at Nuremberg, 
where Sandrart knew him in 1622. Works : 

The Mines, Smithy, Camel Drivers, Arch- 
ducal Palace at Brussels, Madrid Museum ; 
Winter View of Antwerp (1669), City View 
(1693), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort; Bocky 
Landscape with Mill (1696), do. Landscape 
with Mineral Spring (1596) Brunswick Gal- 
lery; Eirmess in Flemish Village (1574), 
Gotha Museum ; Tower of Babel (1668), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; View of Linz on the 
Danube (1594), Oldenburg Gallery ; Peas- 
ants' Brawl, Count of Burgau in Boman 
Armour (1680), Mountainous Landscapes 
(3, 1580, 1586), Summer (1686), Winter 
(1686), Ladies and Gentlemen in^ a Park 
(1587), Archduke Matthias Fishing (1590X 
Tavern Scene (1698), Museum, Vienna ; Cily 
on Biver in Mountainous Landscape, Liech- 
tenstein GWlery, ib. — F^tis, Artistes beiges 
k I'etranger, ii. 136; Kramm, vi 1671; 
Michiels, vi 146; Neefs, i 223; Biegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 21. 

VALCKENBOBCH (Valkenburg), MAB- 
TEN VAN, bom at Mechlin in 1533 or 
1642, died in Frankfort Flemish school ; 
landscape, genre, and portrait painter, 
brother of Lucas, with whom he went to 
Germany ; afterwards settled in Frankfort 
Works : Burning of Troy, Mardi Gras, Four 
Seasons, Frankfort Museum ; Flat Country 
with Waggon, Gotha Gkllery ; Tower of Ba- 
bel (1595), Dresden Gallery ; Kirmess, Mu- 
seum, Vienna; Landscapes (11), Ambras 

Collection, ib. ; Gillis van Valckenborch, 
painter of the Defeat of Sennacherib (after 
1600), in the Brunswick Gtallery, was prob- 
ably his son. — ^Kramm, vi 1671 ; Nagler, 
xix. 310. 

at Amsterdam first quarter of 17th century. 
History and portrait painter, supposed pupil 
of Hendrik Gk>ltzius, in whose manner he 
painted ; circumstances of life unknown. 
Works : Four Members of Merchants' Gtiild 
(1622), Four Begents of Lepers' House 
(1624), Three do.. Military Organization 


Digitized by 



(1625), Reception of Children into Orphan- 
age (1626), Distribution of Money and 
Clothes by Regents of Orphanage (1627), 
three others, Amsterdam Museum; Christ 
and the Children, St. Catharine's (1620), 
Utrecht; Mocking of Christ (1620), Uni- 
versity Library, Copenhagen. — Immerzeel, 
iiL 155 ; Eramm, vL 1672. 

Cordova in 
1631, died in 
Seville, Oct 
14, 1691. 
school; pupil 
of Antonio del 
Castillo, but 
did not imi- 
tate his style ; 
removed to 
Seville and became in 1660 an original mem- 
ber of the academy founded by Murillo, and 
afterwards (1663-66) president After Mu- 
rillo's death Yaldes was the principal paint- 
er in Seville, and executed many religious 
compositions Works : Constantine Pray- 
ing, Christ and the Doctors, Presentation of 
the Virgin, Madrid Museum ; Miracle of St. 
Basco de Portugal, Dresden Gallery ; Ado- 
ration of the Shepherds, Baptism of Christ, 
Descent from the Cross, Young Woman, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg. His wife, Isabel 
Carasquilla, his son Lucas (1661-1724), and 
his daughters Maria and Luisa were also 
painters. — Cean Bermudez; Stirling, iii. 
1093 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole espagnole ; Viardot, 
204 ; Madrazo, 581 ; Washburn, Spanish 
Masters, 161. 

da Valentia. 

VALENCIENNES (DevaUenciennes), 
PIERRE HENRI, bom in Toulouse, Dec. 
6, 1750, died in Paris, Feb. 16, 1819. His- 
tory and landscape painter, pupil of Doyen. 
Studied Claude and Poussin in Italy. Style 
theatrical and wanting in nature. Nearly 
all the landscape painters during the Empire 
were his pupils. Member of Academy in 

1787. L. of Honour, 1815. Honorary mem- 
ber, Toulouse Academy. Works : View of 
Trdcene, Vale of Tempe ; Cicero discover- 
ing the Tomb of Archimedes (1787), Lou- 
vre ; Historical Landscape, Toulouse Muse- 
um.— Bellier, ii 609; Ch. Blanc, £cole 
fran9aise ; Villot^ Cat Louvre. 
VALENTm, LE, Jean de Boullongne, 
called, bom at 
(Seine - et-Mame), 
in January, 1591, 
died in Rome, 
Aug. 7, 1634 
French school; 
history and genre 
painter, whose 
^ real name was for 
^ ^ a long time un- 
known, and who was supposed to have been 
a pupil of Simon Vouet, with whom he was 
in Rome ; he formed himself, however, 
rather after Michelangelo and Caravaggio, 
and under the influence of Poussin. He 
ranks among the best French painters of his 
time. His career was cut short by a prema- 
ture death, caused by an ill-timed bath in 
the Tiber. Works : Recognition of Susan- 
na's Innocence, Judgment of Solomon, 7H6- 
uie Money, A Concert (2), Fortune Teller, 
Tavern Scene, Louvre ; Soldiers at Play, 
Besan9on Museum ; St John, St Peter and 
the Angel, Dijon Museum ; Disciples at Em- 
maus, Nantes Museum ; Conversion of St 
Matthew, Rouen Museum; Judith with 
Head of Holofemes, two others, Toulouse 
Museum ; others in Museums of Avignon, 
Metz, Montpellier, Lille, Toulon, Tours (6), 
Valenciennes (2), and Versailles (2) ; Peter's 
Denial, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle ; do., Brunswick Museum ; A Prophet 
with a Folio Volume, Carlsruhe Gtallery; 
David with Head of Goliath, Cologne Muse- 
um ; Carnival Scene, Copenhagen Gtallery ; 
Musical Party, Darmstadt Museum ; Blind 
Old Man playing Viol de Gamba accompa- 
nied by Boy singing, Dresden Museum ; 
Christ crowned with Thorns, Soldiers quar- 

Digitized by 



relling over Qsme of Dice, Herminia and 
the Shepherds, Old Pinakothek, Munich; 
Three Apostles in Conversation, Oldenburg 
Gallery ; A Eepast, National Museum, Pesth ; 
Christ driving the Money Changers from 
the Temple, Peter's Denial, Soldiers at Dice, 
A Concert, Hermitage, Si Petersburg ; St. 
John the Baptist in Meditation, Stockholm 
Museum ; Moses with the Law Tables, Mu- 
seum, Vienna; Musical Trio, Liechtenstein 
GWlery, ib. ; Si Cecilia with two Holy 
Women and an Angel, Czemin Gallery, 
ib. ; " You see the Beam in your Neigh- 
bour's Eye," etc., Guitar Player, Mountain- 
ous Landscape with Figures and Animals, 
Uflfizi, Florence; Christ and the l)octors, 
Pinacoteca Capitolina, Bome ; Martyrdom of 
S. Processa and Martinian, Vatican, ib. (copy 
in mosaic, by Cristofori, Si Peter's, ib.) ; 
Joseph interpreting the Dreams, Palazzo 
Borghese, ib. ; Peter's Denial, Palazzo Cor- 
sini, ib. ; Boman Charity, Si John, Palazzo 
Doria, ib.; Beheading of Si John, Bome Tri- 
umphant, Palazzo Sciarra, ib.; Holy Family, 
Palazzo Spada, ib. ; Christ at the Column, 
Turin Gallery ; Martyrdom of Si Lawrence, 
Madrid Museum. ^ - ^ . • 

— BeUier, i. 141 ; /KL . VCXJu2/?iJuuri 
Ch. Blanc, :ficole # \ iC^o 
francaise, L; \ / Z^,^-/** , .. 
Dauvergne. Le yaLenUTl /''^ 
Valentin (Alma- ^ 

nach du d^partm. de Seine-et-Mame, 1862), 
116 ; Emeric-David, Nai hisi sur les chefis- 
d'oeuvre de la peinture, etc. (Paris, 1854), 
278 ; Mariette, Abecedario, v. 357. 

VALENTINIAN L, Boman Emperor (a.d. 
364-375), was an amateur painter and mod- 
eller. — AureL Vici, Epii de Cses., 45, 7; 
Ammianus Marcellinus, xxx. 9, 4 ; Over- 
beck, Schriftquellen, 2135. 

VALE OF BEST, Sir John EL Millais, 
Bari, H. Tait, Streatham, England ; canvas. 
Blustrating an ancient Scottish superstition, 
that when a coffin-shaped doud is seen in 
the sky it is a symbol of approaching death. 
Scene in a convent garden, at sunset; 
amongst the hillocks of graves, with gray 

headstones looking sad in the waning light, 
are two women, one, a novice, up to her 
knees in a grave from which she is vigor- 
ously throwing out the earth with a spade ; 
the other, an older nun, sitting on a pros- 
trate headstone holding a rosary, her face 
showing that she has seen the coffin-shaped 
cloud which hangs over the setting sun. 
Boyal Academy, 1859. Graham sale (1886), 
£3,000. Indian ink sketch (1858), H. V. 

VALEBO, CBISTOBAL, bom at Albora- 
ya, Valencia, died at Valencia, Dec. 18, 1789. 
Spanish school ; history and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Evaristo Munoz (1671-1737), 
then in Bome of Sebastiano Conca ; after his 
return he became a priest, and soon after 
director of the newly erected Academy of 
S. Barbara (1754), which was afterwards 
made a royal institution under the name of 
S. Carlos (1768), with Valero as its presi- 
deni Honorary member of San Fernando 
Academy, 1762. Works : Two Scenes from 
Don Quixote, Madrid Museum ; pictures in 
S. Francisco, S. Julian, S. Andrea, the Cap- 
uchins, the Trinitarians and the Mfnimos, 
Valencia; Portraits of Prelates, Archbish- 
op's Palace, ib. 

VALKENBUBG, DHtK, bom in Amster- 
dam in 1675, died there in 1721. Dutch 
school ; still-life and animal painter, pupil of 
Jan Weenix, whose style he acquired so suc- 
cessfully that his pictures are frequently 
mistaken for his master's ; was also a good 
portrait painter, and in 1695 went to Ger- 
many, where he was employed by different 
princes, and long resided. Works: Dead 
Hare and Poultry (1704), Stadel Gallery, 
Frankfort ; Bear attacked by Dogs (1703), 
Gallery, Copenhagen ; Dead Qsme and Im- 
plements of the Chase, Moltke Collection, 
ib. ; Hunting Booty (4), Liechtenstein Qel- 
lery, Vienna; do. (5), Harrach Gallery, ib.; 
Immerzeel, iiL 154 

VALLANCE, WILLIAM F., bom at Pais- 
ley, Scotland ; contemporary. Marine paint- 
er, pupil of Bobert Scott Lauder and of the 
Boyal Scottish Academy. Studio in Edin- 


Digitized by 



burgh. Elected an A.RS.A. in 1875, and 
K.S.A. in 1881. Works : Sunday Morning ; 
Leisure Hours ; Loch Fine ; Largo Bay ; 
Fresh Breeze ; Reading the War News, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh. 

VALLEY FARM, John Constable, Nation- 
al Gallery, London ; canvas, 4 ft 9 in. x 4 
ft. 1 in. A farm house on the bank of the 
Stour, near East Bergholt, Suffolk, property 
of the painter's father. Called Willy Lott's 
house i^om its former possessor. Painted 
in 1835. Vernon bequest, 1847. Engraved 
by J. C. Bentley.— Cat Nat Gal. ; Brock- 
Arnold, Biog. Great Artists, 107. 

VANAISE, GUSTAVE, bom in Ghent ; 
contemporary. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Ghent Academy and of CanneeL 
Mention honorable, Paris, 1883. Works : 
Louis XL and Olivier le Daim (1879) ; A 
Mother, The Painter Willem Key over- 
hearing Alva's Order for Execution of Eg- 
mont (1880) ; Magdalen at Christ's Tomb 
(1881) ; Young Girl at the Mirror (1882); 
St Lievin (1883) ; Sunday Evening, (ramin 
with Pigeon (1884) ; Good Samaritan, Por- 
trait of C6sar de Cock (1885). 

New Jersey in 1855. Landscape painter, 
pupil of A. H. Wyant Studio in New 
York. Works: Landscape (T. B. Clarke, 
New York), Cedars at Saddle River (1880) ; 
October Landscape (1881) ; Jei-sey Road- 
way (1882), Midland Meadow (1883) ; Mid- 
summer (1884). 

VANDERLYN, JOHN, bom at Kingston, 
N. Y, October, 1776, died there, Sept 23, 
1852. Portrait and history painter, pupil 
of Gilbert Stuart in New York. Studied in 
1796-1801 in Paris, where he painted from 
1803 to 1816. Medal at Paris (1808) for his 
Marius among the Ruins of Carthage. 
Other works : Murder of Jane McCrea by 
the Indians ; Ariadne in Naxos, estate of 
Aflher B. Durand, Orange, N. J.; Landing 
of Columbus, Rotunda of the Capitol, Wash- 
ington ; Portraits of Washington, Monroe, 
Madison, Calhoun, and Clinton ; Zachary 
Taylor, City Hall, New York; Study of 

Head, Corcoran GWlery, Washington. He 
became involved in pecuniary difficulties by 
the exhibition of panoramas in a building 
erected by himself in City Hall Park, New 
York, and died in poverty. 

VAN DYCK, Sir Antony. See Di/ck. 


VAN ELTEN. See Kruseman van Elten. 

VAN MARCKR See Marcke. 

VANLOO. See Loo. 

VANNI, ANDREA. See Andrea di 
Vanni. ' 

VANNI, FRANCESCO, Cavaliere, bom 
in Siena in 1563, died there, Oct. 25, 1609. 
Sienese school Probably a pupil of his 
half-brother, Ventm-a Salimbeni ; went when 
sixteen years old to Rome, where he studied 
with Giovanni de* Vecchi. Afterwards 
worked at Parma, where he studied the 
works of Correggio and adopted the manner 
of BaroccL On his return to Rome he en- 
joyed the favour of Clement VlLL, who 
made him a knight. His pictures are in 
several of the churches of Siena, especially 
in S. Quirico, S. Spirito, SS. Concezzione, 
and S. Agostino. Other examples : Repose 
of the Holy Family, Martyrdom of St Irene, 
Louvre, Paris ; Holy Family, Dresden Gkil- 
lery ; St Francis in Ecstasy, Pitti, Florence ; 
Sons of Jacob buying Wheat of Joseph, 
Uffizi, ib.; Holy Women at Tomb of Christ, 
Madrid Museum ; Linocence, Hermitage ; 
Fall of Simon Magus, St Peter's, Rome (one 
of the few oil paintings in that basilica). — 
Lanzi, i. 314 ; Ch. Blanc, ]^ole florentine. 

VANNI, TURINO DI, bom in Pisa; 
flourished close of 14th century. Floren- 
tine school A Madonna and Angels, signed 
by him, is in the Louvre ; an altarpiece, 
signed and dated 1397, in S. Paolo k Ripa, 
Amo ; and a Virgin with Angels and Saints, 
in the Convent of S. Martino, near Palermo. 
Had a brother, Nello di Vanni, who finished 
the history of Job, begun by Giotto in the 
Campo Santo. — ^ViUot, Cat Louvre. 

del Sarto. 

VANNUCCl See Perugino. 


Digitized by 



bom in Rome ; contemporary. G^nre 
painter, pupil in Vienna of Wurzinger, af- 
terwards in Paris of Heilbuth. Medal : 
Paris, 1864 Works : Carnival in Venice ; 
Oabrielle d'fistroes ; Italian Danae ; The 
Night ; Agreeable Beading ; Procession in 
Venice ; Novices in a Soman Church, Trio 
in the Garden (1883). 

VAECm, BENEDETTO, portrait, TUian, 
Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft. 8 in. x 3 
ft Painted about 1550. Repainted about 
the face.— C. & C, Titian, ii. 426. 

VARGAS, LUIS DE, bom in Seville in 
1502, died there 
in 1568. Spanish 
school; pupil of 
Diego de la Bar- 
rera ; went to It- 
aly about 1627, 
according to Cean 
Bermudez, and y^ 
studied with \ 
Perino del Vaga 
(?) ; returned to 
Seville after an absence of twenty-eight 
years. He is remarkable for grandeur and 
simplicity of design, and for the purity and 
grace of his female heads ; his drawing too 
is correct, and his colouring good. Works : 
Nativity (1656), and La Gamba (1561), Ca- 
thedral of Seville.— Stirling, i. 307; Ch. 
Blanc, £cole espagnole. 

VARIN, QDENTIN, bom at Amiens in 
1580, died about 1645. French school; 
history painter, pupil of Gktgex and Bona- 
Ventura in Amiens and Beauvais, and then 
went to Paris, where he became an able 
painter, and the master of Nicolas Poussin. 
Works : Christ in the Temple, Si Germain 
des Pr^s, Paris ; St. Charles Borromeo, St 
Jacques de la Boucherie, ib. — Ch. Blanc, 
£cole fran9aise. 

VARLEY, CORNELIUS, bom at Hack- 
ney, near London, Nov. 21, 1781, died at 
Highbury, Oct. 2, 1873. Landscape paint- 
er in water-colours, brother and pupil of 
John Varley ; exhibited first at the Royal 

Academy in 1803, and in the following year 
was one of the foundation members of the 
Water Colour Society. He painted chiefly 
views in Ireland and Wales and classical 
scenery. A younger brother, William Fleet- 
wood Varley (1785-1866), was a water-col- 
our painter and teacher of drawing at Ox- 

VARLEY, JOHN, bom at Hackney, near 
London, Aug. 17, 1778, died Nov. 17, 1842. 
Landscape painter in water-colours; stud- 
ied first under a portrait painter and then 
with an architectural draughtsman ; exhib- 
ited first, in 1798, View of Peterborough 
Cathedral. He exhibited at the Royal Acad- 
emy until 1804, when he became one of the 
foundation members of the Water Colour 
Society. He painted many views in Wales 
and on the Thames, was a successful teach- 
er, and the author of several drawing-books 
and other works. His son, Albert Fleet- 
wood Varley (1804-76), was also a water- 
colour painter and teacher. 

VARONI (Varonne, Varrone), JOHANN, 
bom at Bellinzona, Canton Tessino, Switzer-w 
land, in 1832. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy and of Josef H5ger ; set- 
tled in Vienna, whence he made frequent 
study trips into the Austrian Alps, to Italy, 
and Switzerland. Works : View of Ariccia, 
do. in Roman Campagna, do. near Olevano, 
Ruins of PfiBstum (1855) ; Pine Woods near 
Frascati (1856) ; Well in the Campagna, St 
Gotthard (1858) ; Well near Grotta Ferrata, 
View of Vienna (1860) ; Nassfeld near Gas- 
tein. Temple of Concordia near Girgente 
(1861); Si Bemardino, Switzerland (1862); 
Views in Austria, Salzburg, Tyrol, and Swit- 
zerland (1863-73) ; Koltschach Valley near 
Gastein (1877).— Wurzbach, xlix. 287. 


VASARI, GIORGIO, bom at Arezzo, 
July 30, 1511, died in Florence, June 27, 
1574 Florentine school ; pupil of his fa- 
ther, Antonio Vasari, and afterwards of An- 
drea del Sarto and of Michelangelo. Went 
to Rome with Cardinal Ippolito de' Medi- 

Digitized by 



ci, and laboured there several years with 
Francesco SalviatL He afterwards painted 

in Florence, Pi- 
sa (1529), Bolo- 
gna (1639), Ven- 
ice (1542), and 
Naples (1544). 
In Florence he 
was patronized 
by the Medici, 
for whom he 
execated many 
works, both ar- 
chitectural and decorative. But he is best 
known by his ** Vite de' pill eccellenti pit- 
tori, scultori, ed architetti " (Florence, 1550, 
2d ed. 1568) — the first important history 
of modem ari As a painter he was a 
weak imitator of Michelangelo. He left 
many pictures, among which are : Ma- 
donna in Glory and Saints, Arezzo Gal- 
lery; Supper of St Gregory (1540), Bo- 
logna GaUery ; Conception, Lucca Gallery ; 
Holy Family, Palazzo Corsini, Home ; Por- 
trait of Cosimo L de' Medici, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Piet^ Dresden Gallery ; Holy Fam- 
ily, Leipsic Museum ; do. (2), Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; do. (1), and Christ driving 
out the Money Changers, Vienna Museum ; 
Three Graces, National Museum, Buda- 
Pesth ; Angel's Salutation, Louvre ; Cari- 
tas, Madonna and Angels, Madrid Muse- 
um ; Three Saints, Liverpool Institute. — 
Ch. Blanc, £cole florentine ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., i. 57; Burckhardt, 94, 157, 221; 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 562. 


VASTAGH, GYORGT (George), bom at 
Szegedin, Hungary, in 1834 G^nre and 
portrait painter, pupil of Vienna Academy, 
after having fought as a honved in the revo- 
lutionary war of 1848-49, and then wan- 
dered about under great privations, paint- 
ing portraits and studying national costumes 
and manners. His pictures, exhibited in 
Vienna in 1870, immediately attracted at- 
tention, and forthwith he won fame with 

his scenes from gypsy life, for which he 
made studies in Transylvania and Rou- 
mania ; thence he moved to Pesth, where 
he has since become the favourite por- 
trait painter of the Hungarian aristocracy. 
Works : Group of Children (1871) ; Decla- 
ration of Love at the Hedge, Turkish Gyp- 
sies by a Bridge (1872) ; Gypsies resting in 
a Church Buin, Boumanian Gypsies, For- 
tune Teller, Boumanian Gypsy Girl gather- 
ing Mushrooms (1873) ; G^sies dancing 
and playing in Boumanian Peasant Boom ; 
Moldavian Gypsies crossing Brook ; Woo- 
ing in Boumania ; Peasant Girl about to 
sell her Hair ; Gypsies at Cards in a Hut ; 
Sunday in Wallachia ; Portraits of Count 
Pechy (1872); Archduke Joseph; Arch- 
duchess Clotilde ; Archduchess Maria Doro- 
thea (1885).— Allgem. K. C, ix. 306, 622 ; 
Land und Meer (1873), ii. 504 ; (1875), L 
69 ; iL 690 ; (1877), L 29 ; (1879), ii 964 ; 
(1880), ii. 949 ; N. illusi Zeitg. (1873), No. 
43 ; Wurzbach, L 1. 

Alfonso d'. 

GUSTE, bom at Passfy (Paris), March 7, 
1802, died in 1873. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Abel de Pujol and of Her- 
sent ; won the second prize in 1827, and 
the grand prix de Bome in 1829. Medals : 
2d class, 1831 ; 1st class, 1846, 1861 ; L. of 
Honour, 1861. Works : Portraits of Mar- 
shals Prince Poniatowski (1834), Due de 
Choiseul (1835), Due de Croy, of General 
Lecourbe (1836), Capitulation of Magde- 
burg in 1806, Versailles Museum ; Death of 
the Virgin (1837) ; Martyrdom of Si Do- 
natus and Si Bogatus (1839), Ministry of 
Interior ; Battle of Ocana in 1809 (1839) ; 
Christian Charity (1846), Amiens Museum ; 
Man sustained by Beligion (1868) ; Mode- 
ration, Power favouring the Gteod, Pru- 
dence hindering Evil, Palais du Senat, 
Paris ; Invocation of the Holy Spirit, Chap- 
el of do.; Prophets Daniel and Ezekiel, 
Jeremiah and Isaiah, Saint-Germain TAux- 
errois, Paris; Decoration in Chapel of Si 


Digitized by 



Agnes, Saint Eustache, ib. ; Decorations of 
one of the grand salons de reception in the 
H6tel de Ville (burned under the Commune) ; 
Ceiling of Victory in the Palace of the Tuil- 
eries (destroyed under the Commune). He 
made also designs for Gobelin tapestry for 
the Apollo Gallery, Louvre. — Bellier, ii. 


VAXJTIER, BENJAMIN, bom at Morges 
on Lake Geneva, April 24, 1829. Genre 
painter, pupil at Geneva of Hubert and of 
Lugardon, then (1850) in Dtlsseldorf of the 
Academy and of Jordan ; studied peasant 
life in ^e Black Forest and in the Berne 
Highlands, then attracted by Knaus went 
in 1856 to Paris, and six months later 
settled in DQsseldorf, where he at once 
achieved a brilliant success with his Church 
Scene, exhibited at the historical exhibition 
at Munich in 1858, and has since attained 
a position by the side of Knaus as one of 
the great painters of popular life. He has 
made also masterly illustrations to works 
by Auerbach and Immermann. Member of 
Berlin, Vienna, Munich, Antwerp, and Am- 
sterdam Academies. Professor in 1866. 
Gold medals: Berlin, 1864; Paris, 1865, 
1866 ; 2d class, 1867 ; 1st class, 1878. Or- 
der of Francis Joseph, 1868 ; Order of Red 
Eagle; Order of St Michael, 1869; L. 
of Honour, 1878. Works: Church Scene 
(1858) ; Auction in Old Castle (1859) ; Sun- 
day Morning Toilet ; Women coming from 
Church find their Husbands at the Inn 
(1862), Leipsic Museum ; Sewing School ; 
The Tutor ; Peasant and Broker, Involun- 
tary Confession, Basle Museum ; Saying 
Grace, Berne Museum ; Peasants at Trial, 
Sick Mother, Musee Bath, Geneva ; Sunday 
in Suabia ; Peasants in a Picture Gallery ; 
Young and Old ; The Sisters ; Bepast after 
Funeral, Cologne Museum ; First Dancing 
Lesson (1868), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Antiquary in Peasant's Cottage ; Sail over 
Brienz I^e to a Funeral ; Farewell of Dy- 
ing Peasant Woman ; Interrupted Brawl 
(1869) ; Entrapped Bat, Stettin Museum ; 
Toast to the Bride (Bococo Costume, 1870), 

Hamburg Gallery ; Buse for Buse, Public 
Dinner (1871); Burial (1872); Consulting his 
Lav^er, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; Visit at 
the Fireside (1873); Quarrel at Chess; Invi- 
tation to the Dance ; Departure from Home 
(1875) ; Before the Meeting (1876) ; Little 
Barefoot; Intermission at Alsatian Wed- 
ding (1878), Dresden Gallery ; The May- 
or's Annual Dinner (Exi)osition universelle, 
1878), John G. Johnson, Philadelphia ; Wait- 
ing Boom at Post Station ; Arrest of Usurer 
(1879) ; Visit of Young Couple (1880) ; Ob- 
stinacy (1882), Dtlsseldorf Gallery ; Bota- 
nist, Alsatian Woman (1882). — ^Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1878), ii 463 ; (1879), ii. 274 ; (1881), ii. 
10 ; (1882), ii 531 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 229 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, L 85 ; v. 94, 143 ; vi. 119 ; 
viii. 60, 627, 807; ix. 450, 578, 820; x. 139, 
459 ; xi. 74, 273 ; xvii. 337 ; xviiL 740 ; Land 
und Meer (1869), i. 54 ; Br. Meyer, stud. u. 
Krit, 246; MtiUer, 531; Pecht, iii. 351; 
Beber-Pecht, iii. 341 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iii. 
166, 279 ; iv. 17, 177 ; vL 148 ; ix. (Mit- 
theilungen, ii. 28); xii. 259 (Mii, v. 50). 

VAYSON, PAUL, bom at Gordes (Vau- 
cluse) ; contemporary. 
Genre and flower 
painter, pupil of 
Gleyre and Laurens. 
Medals: 3d class, 
1875 ; 2d class, 1879 ; 
L. of Honour, 1886. 
Works : Hay Making 
in Provence (1868); 
Sheep in Provence 
(1879); Departure of the Herd (1880); 
Herds coming dovm from Mountains (1881) ; 
Herd Beturning (1882) ; Fair of Si Trinity 
in Provence (1883) ; Threshing Com ; 
Hunter of Camargue ; Sleeping Shepherd- 
ess ; Spring (1884) ; Truffle Gatherers, Bull 
in Pasture (1886). 

1605, died there in 1678. Venetian school ; 
pupil of Alessandro Varotari, who imitated 
the style of Giorgione and of Pordenone so 
successfully that some of his pictures have 
been attributed to them. Most of his works 


Digitized by 



are in Venice : In S. Caterina, two scenes 
from the Legend of St Catherine and the 
Triumph of Virginity ; in S. Giustina, Si 
Justina, one of his best works ; in S. Maria 
del Fianto, a Madonna and Saints ; in S. 
Bartolommeo, the Death of the Virgin ; in 
S. Lione, a Crucifixion ; in S. Giovanni 
Evangelista, four pictures ; and in the Acad- 
emy, a Christ and the Money Changers. 
Portraits by him in Louvre and Dresden 
Gallery ; Young Man and Young Woman, 
Berlin Museum. — Ch. Blanc, ificole veniti- 

VECCHIETTA, IL, bom at Castiglione 
di Valdorcia in the Sienese territory in 
1412 (?), died in Siena, June 6, 1480. 
Sienese school Real njime Lorenzo di Pie- 
tro di Giovanni di Lando ; called H Vecchi- 
etta (the little old man), perhaps from the 
age of many of his habitual models. De- 
spite the dryness of his style he was highly 
esteemed during his lifetime, and stands 
among the best painters of the later Sienese 
school His masterpiece, an altarpiece in 
the Cathedral at Pienza, painted about 
1447, is a noble work. It represents the 
Ascending Virgin, our Lord, Saints Cather- 
ine and Agatha, Popes Calixtus and Pius H 
(who ordered the pictiire), and in the upper 
part, six saints, patriarchs, or prophets. 
"In this work," says a late writer, " Vecchi- 
etta joins to the sweetness of the Sienese 
school a severity of drawing and a dramatic 
force worthy of Florence." Among his 
other works are frescos in the Hospital at 
Siena (1441) and a relic press (1445), also 
the decoration of several ceilings and part 
of the tribune of the Sienese Baptistery 
(1449-50), as well as an altarpiece, in the 
Sienese Academy and a Madonna and 
Saints in the TJffizi, dated 1457. Vecchietta 
also painted frescos in the Palazzo Pubblico, 
Siena, of which a St Catherine (1460), and 
a Virgin of Mercy sheltering the people 
under her mantle and attended by saints, 
still survive. Much gilding, stamped and 
cut out in patterns, according to the fashion 
of the time, marks these works, which are 

most carefully elaborated in a precise, for- 
mal, and dry manner. This is also notice- 
able in Vecchietta's bronze and marble 
works, of which he executed many. He was 
also an architect and a goldsmith. — C. & C, 
Italy, iiL 59 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., iv. 209 ; 
ed. Mil., iii. 75, 87 ; MUntz, Tour du Monde 
(1882), No. 1117; Mtlntz, A travers la Tos- 
cane, 342 ; Perkins, Hist. Handbook Italian 
Sculpture (London, 1882), 67. 

at Cadore about 1475, died in 1560. Vene- 
tian school Brother, probably younger, of 
Titian ; went about 1487 to Venice, where 
he studied first under Zuccato, and later 
with Giovanni BellinL Having left the 
school of the Bellini to become a soldier, 
he returned to Venice after the League 
of Cambrai and studied with his brother, 
whose jealousy he is questionably said to 
have aroused. His earliest picture is a Ma- 
donna, in the Genova Chapel at the Pieve di 
Cadore, which shows that he began to paint 
with almost as much promise as Titian him- 
self, but his later eflforts proved that he 
was not of the stuflf of which great painters 
are made, and he finally settled down to 
commercial pursuits at Cadore. In his Ma- 
donna with Saints, in S. Vito di Cadore, his 
style is vastly below that of Titian'a His 
frescos in S. Salvatore, Venice, and his pict- 
ures on the shutters of the organ (1530) 
show more power, more freedom of hand- 
ling, and greater spirit than any other of 
his extant works ; but they lack distinction, 
and the figures are strained in action and 
overweighted in muscle. His Nativity, in 
Casa Ponte at Fonzaso, near Belluno, has 
been assigned to Titian. Other pictures by 
him are in the Venice Academy and the 
galleries of Modena, Dresden, and Berlin. — 
C. & C, Titian, ii. 476 ; Ch. Blanc, ficole 

VECELLI, LAVINIA, portrait, Titian, 
Berlin Museum ; canvas, H. 3 ft 3^ in. x 2 
ft. 7^ in. A robust girl, dressed in a yel- 
lowish flowered silk, raises with both hands, 
to the level of her forehead, a silver dish of 

Digitized by 



fruit and flowers, as she glances back at the 
spectator. Painted about 1555 for Niccolo 
Grasso ; bought in Florence, in 1832, for 
5,000 thalers, from Abbate Celotti, for Ber- 
lin Museum. Beplica in Lord Cowper's 
Collection, London, with a casket, instead 
of fruit and flowers, on the silver dish ; from 
the Orleans Gkdlery. — C. 4; C, Titian, ii. 
136 ; Waagen, Treasures, u. 497 ; Kidolfi, 
Marayiglie, L 253, 259. 

By Titian, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, H. 3 
ft 8 in. X 3 ft 1 in. A young girl, dressed 
in white damask silk, her yellow hair strewed 
with pearls, and with ear-rings and necklace 
of pearls, tucks up the train of her gown 
with one hand and waves a palmetto fan 
with the other. Painted about 1555 ; came 
to Dresden from Modena; transferred in 
1827 to a new canvas; fairly preserved. 
Copy in the Cassel Museum ; another by 
Rubens in Vienna Museum ; study in Al- 
bertina Collection, Vienna. — C. & C, Titian, 
iL 135. 

By Titian, Dresden Ghdlery ; canvas, life- 
size ; signed. A lady of mature years, in 
dress of green velvei^ standing in a room, 
waving a fan of plumes. The features are 
different from those traditionally known as 
Lavinia's, and resemble those of Venus with 
the Whispering Cupid, in the TJffizi. Paint- 
ed in 1558 ; sold with the Modena Collec- 
tion to the King of Saxony. A masterpiece 
of poi-traiture (C. & C). Engraved by Ba- 
san. Transferred to a new canvas in 1826. 
— C. & C, Titian, iL 267. 

VECELLI (VeceUio), MARCO, caUed 
Marco di Tiziano, bom at Venice in 1545, 
died there in 1611. Venetian school ; his- 
tory painter, grand-nephew and favourite 
pupil of Titian, whom he accompanied in his 
journeys to Germany and Rome, and whose 
style, both in composition and colouring, he 
imitated most successfully, whence his sur- 
name. Works : Allegory on Peace of Bo- 
logna in 1529, Doge Leonardo Donato 
kneeling before Madonna, Victory of the 
Venetians in the Morea in 1148, several 
others, Palazzo ducale, Venice ; Christ illu- 

minating the World, SS. Giovanni e Pao- 
lo, ib.; Altarpieces in several other churches, 
ib. ; Crucifixion and two Episodes in Life of 
St Catherine, Parish church at Cadore. His 
son Tiziano VeceUio, the younger, called 
Tizianello (bom in 1570), degenerated under 
the influence of the mannerism prevailing 
at the beginning of the 17th century, but 
was much esteemed as a portrait painter. — 
Lanzi (Roscoe), ii. 168 ; Nagler, xix. 494 

VECELLI (VeceUio), ORAZIO, bom in 
Venice, 1515, died there in 1576. Venetian 
school ; second son and pupil of Titian, 
whom he served constantly as an assistant. 
He accompanied his father to Rome, where 
he painted Battista Siciliano, a celebrated 
violin player, and other persons. His por- 
traits are praised by Vasari, but he no 
doubt had aid and advice from his father. 
Being rich, dissipated, and indolent, he 
painted but little, and gained little distinc- 
tion. His Battle of Castle Sant' Angelo, 
painted in competition with Tintoretto and 
Paolo Veronese for the Great Council Hall 
in the Palazzo Ducale, Venice, was burned 
in 1574. His only known pictures are the 
shutters of the altar in S. Biagio of Calalzo, 
near Cadore. — C. & C, Titian, ii. 484 ; CL 
Blanc, £cole vonitienne ; Vasari, ed. Le 
Mon., XL 322 ; xiii. 36; Burckhardt, 739. 


VEDDER, EliTHU, bom in New York, 
Feb. 26, 1836. Genre 
painter, pupil of T. 
H. Matteson, Sher- 
boume, N. Y., and 
of Picot in Paris. 
In 1856 he went to 
Italy, where he has 
worked many yeara 
Occasionally exhibits 
at the National Acad- 
emy ; elected N. A in 1865. Studio in Rome. 
In 1883-84 Vedder made a series of 56 
illustrations for the Rubaiyat of Omar 
Khayyam (Boston, 1884). Works: Ques- 
tioner of the Sphinx; The Lost Mind; 
Identity ; Lair of the Sea Serpent, Boston 


Digitized by 



Museum of Fine Arts ; Young Medusa, 
Death of Abel (1869) ; Ideal Head (1871) ; 
Scene on the Mediterranean, Fete Champe- 
tre (1874) ; Greek Actor's Daughter (1876) ; 
Young Marsyas, Cumaean Sibyl, A Pastoral 
(1878) ; Sleeping Girl ; Venetian Model ; 
Golden Net, Waves oflf Pier Head (1882) ; 
Le Mistral— The Strong North-West Wind 
(1884); Nausicaa and her Companions, J. 
P. Morgan, New York ; Maiden, E. D. Mor- 
gan Collection, ib. ; Genius and Fisherman, 
Martin Brimmer, Boston. — Am. Art Rev. 
(1880), 325, 369 ; Mag. of Art (1885), viii. 
VEEN, MARTIN VAN. See ffeemskerk. 
VEEN, OCTAVIO VAN. See Vaenius. 
Bex, Canton Wallis, Dec. 29, 1834. Land- 
scape painter, pupil in Geneva of Diday, 
studied in Paris and Rome and travelled in 
Switzerland, Holland, and Egypt ; lived two 
years in Venice. Works : Lake of Brienz 
(1866), Berne Museum ; Evening in Venice, 
Basle Museum ; View at Brunnen, Zurich 
Museum ; Two Views on Lake Geneva ; 
Evening on Banks of the Nile ; Arabian 
Camp ; Lake Geneva, Evening near Cairo 
(1882).— Mttller, 532 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 
703, 741. 
VEIT, PHHiTPP, bom in Berlin, Feb. 13, 
1793, died in Mentz, 
Dec. 18, 1877. His- 
tory painter, pupil of 
Dresden Academy un- 
der Matthai, then went 
to Vienna to his step- 
father, Priedrich von 
Schlegel; in 1813 
he entered the German 
army as a volunteer, 
fought in the battles 
of Dresden, Culm, and Leipsic, and was 
decorated with the Iron Crosa In 1815 
he joined in Rome the circle of Corne- 
lius, Overbeck, and Schadow, with whom he 
painted the frescos in the Casa Bartholdi 
and Villa Massimi ; in 1830 made director 
of the Stadel Institute at Frankfort ; re- 

signed in 1843 and settled at Sachsenhau- 
sen, whence, in 1853, he moved to Mentz 
as director of the Gkllery. One of the chief 
representatives of the religious-romantic 
school. Works : Triumph of Religion, Vat- 
ican Gallery, Rome ; Madonna in Glory, 
S. Trinitil de' Monti, ib. (cartoon in Darm- 
stadt Museum) ; Judith ; Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Naumburg Cathedral ; Clirist 
knocking at the Door ; Presentation in the 
Temple (1829); Simeon in the Temple ; Ger- 
mania ; Magnificat ; Repose in Egypt, Maiy 
and Elizabeth, Portrait of Abb4 Noirlieu, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Assumption 
(1846), Cathedral, ib. ; Charlemagne, Otto 
the Great, Frederic H, Henry VTL, Romer, 
ib. ; The Two Marys at Christ's Tomb, Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin ; St. George ; Good 
Samaritan ; Egyptian Darkness. In fresco : 
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Allegory on the 
Seven Fruitful Years, Casa Bartholdi, Rome 
(cartoon in Stadel Grallery) ; Pictures to 
Dante's ''Paradise," Villa Massimi, ib. ; Al- 
legory on Restoration of Coliseum, Museo 
Chiaramonti, Vatican, ib. ; Triumph of 
Christianity, Italia, Germania (1838), Stadel 
Institute, Frankfort (cartoons in Carlsruhe 
Gallery) ; Cartoons of Cycle (executed, 1868, 
by Settegast, Lasinsky, and Hermann), 
Mentz Cathedral His elder brother Jo- 
hannes (died in Rome in 1852), studied in 
Vienna and from 1811 in Rome, where he 
was allied with Cornelius, Schadow, and 
Overbeck, and took especially Perugino for 
his model. In the Caiiiolic Church in Ber- 
lin is an Adoration of the Shepherds by 
him. He painted also excellent portraits. 
—Art Journal (1865), 70 ; Dohme, K u. K. 
des xix. JahrL, i. and ii ; Forster, iv. 221 ; v. 
351 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 229 ; Kaulen, 31 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 19 ; Nagler, xx. 1 ; 
Reber, iL 223 ; Riegel, Gesch. des Wieder- 
auflebens. der d. K, 322, 345; Zeitschr. f. 
b. K, iv., 62 ; xv. 29, 73. 

VELASCO, LUIS DE, died in Toledo, 
March 11, 1606. Spanish school Was 
living in Toledo in 1564 ; became painter to 
the Chapter there in 1581. Best works: 


Digitized by 



Incarnation, Madonna with Saints and An- 
gels, St. Damian, and St. Cosmo, the last 
three executed in 1585 by order of Cardinal 
Quiroga, whose portrait he painted. His 
son and pupil, Crist6bal de Velasco, was 
painter to Philip IIL; he also left a son, 
Matias de Yelasco, who painted some pict- 

/)e Ve.^ 

CO tjv} 

ures of merit atValladolid. — Stirling, i. 275 ; 
ilL 1360 ; Cean Bermudez. 

VELASQUEZ, portrait, Velasquez, Uffizi, 
Florence ; canvas, H. 5 ft 10 in. x 4 ft. 10 
in. Bust, three-quarters right ; with mous- 
tache, and long hair on shoulders, wearing 
a small skull-cap on back of head ; wide 
linen collar over dark habit Engraved by 
G. Rossi ; C. Colombini — Curtis, 81 ; Stir- 
Hng, 1401. 

By Velasquez, Uflfizi, Florence ; canvas, H. 
3 ft 3 in. X 2 ft 8 in. Sixty years old, half- 
length, standing, in black coat and cloak, 
white collar, and sword ; a medal with cross 
of Santiago on his breast ; left hand rests 
on a table ; right partly conceals a key in 
his girdle. Probably painted in 1659. En- 
graved by F. Cecchini ; with changes. Bias 
Amettler ; H. Adlard ; bust only, J. Min- 
gnet — Ch. Blanc, &ole espagnole ; Stirling, 
1401 ; Curtis, 81. 

By Velasquez, Valencia Museum ; less than 
life-size. Bust, turned partly to right ; al- 
most identical with bust of Uffizi picture of 
1659. Etched by Fortuny for the Baron 
Ch. Davillier's "Memoire de Velasquez" 
(Paris, 1874).— Curtis, 82. 

See Arfists, Meeting of. 

Glara, St; Francisca; Velasquez, Family of. 

SILVA Y, bom in Seville, baptized June 
6, 1599, died in Madrid, Aug. 7, 1660. 
Spanish school ; pupil of Herrera el Viejo, 
and of Francisco Pacheco, whose daughter 
he married in 1618. Examples of his first 

manner are the Water Carrier, at Apsley 
House and the Adoration of the Shepherds, 
National Gallery, 
London, in the style 
of Ribera. In 1622 
he went to Madrid, 
hoping, but in vain, 
to be allowed to paint 
the king's portrait. 
After some months' 
study at the Prado 
and the Escorial he 
returned to Seville 
and painted a portrait 
of the poet Gongora, which attracted atten- 
tion. In 1623 the Di^e of Olivares called 
him back to Madrid, presented him to the 
king, whose equestrian portrait he painted, 
and by whom he was appointed court 
painter. In the same year Velasquez paint- 
ed a portrait of Prince Charles of England, 
never finished, and now lost The visit of 
Rubens to Madrid, in 1628, excited the 
young painter's desire to visit Italy, for 
which he obtained the royal consent, and 
after finishing the famous picture of Los 
Borrachos, he embarked at Barcelona, July 
22, 1629. After passing a year in Rome 
and some time in Naples, where he became 
intimate with Spagnoletto, Velasquez re- 
turned to Madiid early in 1631, to remain 
for the next eighteen years, during which he 
painted many of his finest works. In 1649 
the king sent him to Italy to collect pictures 
for the royal galleries, and for the Academy 
which he wished to found at Madrid. With 
his faithful servant and pupil Pareja, Velas- 
quez successively visited Genoa, Milan, Pa- 
dua, Venice, Parma, Rome (where he painted 
Innocent X.), and Naples, returning home in 
1651. In the following year the king ap- 
pointed the great painter quartermaster- 
general of his household, an office which he 
held for eight years. During this period he 
painted, among other famous works, his 
pictures of Las Meninas (1656), and Las 
HUanderas ; attended to the laborious duties 
of his office ; superintended the placing of 


Digitized by 



pictures in the Boyal Palace, Madrid, the 
Escorial, etc. ; accompanied the French am- 
bassador on his artistic journeys in 1659, 
and created a new school of painting with 
the magical works of his third style. In 
1660 a meeting of the French and 8x>anish 
courts was fixed to take place on the Isle of 
Pheasants in the Eiver Bidassoa, to celebrate 
the nuptials of Louis XIY. and the Infanta 
Maria Teresa. In March Velasquez was 
sent to erect a paviUon on the island, itnd 
prepare the Castle of Fuenterrabia for the 
royal reception. The fatigue consequent 
upon his great labours proved too much for 
his constitution. After his return to Ma- 
drid, July 31, he became alarmingly ill, 
and a week later, Friday, Aug. 7, breathed 
his last The corpse lay in state for two 
days, habited in the full dress of a Knight 
of Santiago, and was then carried by night 
to the parish church of San Juan, where it 
was buried in the vault below the family 
chapel of the Fuensalida& Works : Adora- 
tion of Magi, Christ on the Cross, Corona- 
tion of Virgin, Anthony the Abbot and Paul 
the Hermit, Los Borrachos, Forge of Vulcan, 
Las Lanzas, Las HUanderas, Las Meninas, 
Mercury and Argus, Portrait of Philip III, 
do. of Margarita of Austria, do. of Philip IV. 
(7), do. of Isabel of Bourbon, do. of Don Bal- 
tasar Carlos (3), do. of Conde de Olivdres, 
do. of Infanta Dona Maria, do. of Don Car- 
los, do. of Don Fernando, do. of Doila 3Iari' 
ana of Austria (3), do. of DoSa Maria Teresa 
of Austria, do. of Luis de Gongora, do. of 
Dona Juana Pacheco, do. of Francisca — 
daughter of Velasquez, do. of Antonio Alon- 
80 Pimentel, do. of Martinez Montanes, do. 
of PabHUos de Valladolid, do. of Pemia, do. 
of Don Juan de Austria, do. of El Primo, do. 
of SdxLstian de Morra, do. of Don Antonio, 
do. of El Niilo de Vallecas, do. of El Bobo 
de Coria, .^op, Menippus, Mars, portrait of 
Alonso Martinez de Espinar, and other por- 
traits. Arch of Titus, Villa Medici (2), 
Fountain of Tritons, Lake at Buen Betiro, 
and other landscapes, Madrid Museum ; 
Coat of Joseph, Escorial; Water Carrier, 

Boyal Palace, Madrid ; Saint with Palm 
Branch, Portraits of Philip FV., his Queen, 
and seven others, two Landscapes, Salaman- 
ca C^ery, ib. ; Portrait of Dofia Antonia de 
Haro, Duke of Alva, ib.; Nativity, Still-Life 
(2), Landscape, Portraits (2), Seville Muse- 
um ; YouDg Cavalier, sketches for portraits 
of Philip rV. and Conde de Oliv&res, Mont- 
pensier Gallery, ib.; Portrait of Velasquez, 
Valencia Museum ; Portrait of Infanta Ma- 
ria Margarita, do. of Philip IV., do. of Don 
Pedro de Altamira, Meeting of Artists, Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Portrait of Don Baltasar C&rlos, 
Landscape, Hague Museum ; Portrait of 
Don Baltasar Carlos, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Portrait, Brussels Museum; Portrait of 
Alessandro del Borro, do. of Mariana — sist^ 
of Philip IV., Berlin Museum ; Portrait of 
Conde de Olivdres, Personages of Court of 
Philip rV., two male portraits, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Portrait of Cardinal Borgia, do. of 
Infanta Margarita Teresa, Stadel GkUery, 
Frankfort ; Portrait of Infanta Maria Tere- 
sa, do. of Velasquez (?), Male Portrait, Mu- 
nich Gallery ; Laughing Idiot, Family of 
Velasquez, Portrait of Philip IV. (2), da of 
Don Baltasar Carlos, do. of an Infanta, do. 
of lufante Don Philip Prosper, do. of In- 
fanta Maria Teresa, do. of Infanta Margarita 
Maria, Vienna Museum ; Portrait of PhUip 
IV. (2), Conde de Olivires (2), Pope Inno- 
cent X., Peasant Laughing, Hermitage, St 
Petersburg ; Portrait, Leuchtenberg Collec- 
tion, ib.; Portrait of Philip IV., Stockholm 
Museum ; Portrait of Philip IV., do. of Ve- 
lasquez, two Male Portraits, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; Portrait of PhUip IV., do. of Ve- 
lasquez, Baochanalian Scene, Uffizi, ib.; Ma- 
donna, Palazzo Cataneo, Genoa ; Portrait of 
Innocent X., Palazzo Doria, Rome ; Portrait 
of Philip IV., Turin Gallery ; Portrait of 
Philip IV. (2), Adoration of Shepherds, Boar 
Hunt, Dead Warrior, Praying Children be- 
fore Ecce Homo, National Gallery, London ; 
Portrait of PhiUp IV., Dulwich Ghdlery, ib.; 
Portrait of Philip IV., do. of Queen of 
Philip rV., Hampton Court Palace, ib,; 
Water Carrier, Fair with Gypsies, Fortified 

Digitized by 



Town, Portrait of Innoocnt X., do. of Velas- 
quez, do. of Francisco de Quevedo, do. of a 
Cardinal, Apsley House, ib.; Portrait of In- 
nocent X., Marquis of Bute, ib.; Landscape 
(2), Portrait of Philip IV., Bath House, ib.; 
Portrait of Philip IV., do. of Velasquez, do. 
of Son of Conde de Olivares, Bridgewater 
House, ib.; Portrait of Philip IV., do. of 
Don Baltasar Carlos, Grosvenor House, ib.; 
Lady with Fan, Boar Hunt, Portrait of Don 
Baltasar Carlos (3), do. of Infanta, do. of 
Philip rV., do. of Conde de Olivdres, Sir 
Richard Wallace, Hertford House, ib.; St. 
Clara, Dona Juana Pacheco, Dudley House, 
ib.; Field Marshal in Armour, Holford 
House, ib.; Duke of Oandia, St. Charles 
Borromeo, St. Francis Borgia, Landscape, 
Stafford House, ib.; St. John Evangelist, 
Bartle Frere Collection, ib.; Slag Hunt, 
LordAshburton,ib.; Portrait of Don Adrian 
Pidido Pareja, do. of Juan de Pareja, do. of 
Velasquez, Longford Castle, Wilts; Portrait 
of Don Adrian Pulido Pareja, male portrait, 
Wobum Abbey ; Portrait of Philip IV. (2), 
Virgin in Ecstasy, Miles Collection, Leigh 
Court; Portrait of Pedro Alcantara, Duke 
of Northumberland ; Head of Girl, Earl 
Spencer, Althorp ; Portrait of Oliyares, do. 
Innocent X. (?), Portrait of Velasquez, Child 
in Bed, Landscape with Cavaliers (2), Mar- 
quis of Lansdowne, Bowood ; Las Meninas, 
Portrait of Cardinal Gksparde Borja, do. of 
PhiUp IV., Banks Collection, Kingston 
Lacy; Lot and his Daughters, Northvnck 
Park, Worcestershire ; Finding of Moses, 
Juan de Pareja, Earl of Carlisle, Castle 
Howard; Portrait of Philip IV., Isabel of 
Bourbon, Conde de Olivdres, Mrs. Henry 
Huth, Wykehurst, Surrey ; Deliverance of 
St. Peter, Francis Cook, Eichmond ; Venus 
and Cupid, Robert Morrit, Rokeby Park, 
Yorkshire ; Portrait of Mariana of Austria, 
H. B. Brabazon, Battle, Sussex ; Incident in 
Life of Pope Sixtus V., National G^allery, 
Edinburgh; Supper at Emmaus, Earl of 
Breadalbane, Perthshire ; Portrait of Don 
Baltasar Carlos, Henry G. Marquand, New 
York; Knight of Santiago, Aspinwall sale 

(1886), ib.; Knight of Santiago, William P. 
Douglas, ib.; PhiUp IV. as David, Portrait 
of Infanta Margarita, Landscape, Still-Life, 
Portrait of Cinq Mars, St John Baptist, 
Lady and Children, Historical Society, ib.; 
Fruits, Metropoli- x -i n*) 
tan Museum, ib. — i^ u J^ajBouQua:^ 
Sir W. Stirling- T\ \ ^1 ^ 
Maxwell, Annals of Jj Jj. /duOLfcii^ 
Artists of Spain; ^ /^o>^/<— ^ 
Baron Davillier, ^ ^ 
Mcmoire de V. (Paris, 1874) ; W. Bttrger, 
Tr6sor d'Art en Angleten-e (Paris, 1868); 
Waagen, Treasures ; Madrazo, 586 ; G^az. 
des B. Arts (1879), xix. 416 et seq.; Quar- 
terly Rev., Oct, 1872; Stowe, Velasquez, 
(London, 1882) ; Curtis, Velasquez and Mu- 
riUo (New York, 1883); Washburn, Spanish 
Masters, 109 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 175 ; 
Zeitschr. f . b. K, v. 229 ; xi. 160 ; xviiL 

Vienna Museum ; canvas, H. 5 f t x 5 ft. 7 
in. In a well-lighted room are twelve fig- 
ures, two-thirds life-size, commonly called 
FamDy of Velasquez ; in foreground, his 
wife Juana, seated, with two children stand- 
ing at her knee ; on left, his daughter Fran- 
cisca with three other children ; on extreme 
left, J. B. M del Mazo, husband of Fran- 
cisca, with a young man called a younger 
brother of Juana ; in background, in an al- 
cove, Velasquez, his back to the spectator, 
painting a portrait of a lady, and a servant 
and child. Curtis thinks this depicts the 
family of Mazo instead of Velasquez. En- 
graved by J. Kovatsch ; etched by W. lin- 
ger. — Stirling, il 671 ; Haas, Gbd. de Vi- 
enne ; Curtis, 15. 

VELATA, LA See Donna Velata. 

Amsterdam in 1636 or 1636, died there, Jan. 
21, 1672. Dutch school ; landscape and an- 
imal painter, son and pupil of Willem van 
de Velde, the elder, then pupil at Haarlem 
of Jan Wynants ; showed even as a boy an 
eminent talent, and after having left Wyn- 
ants, studied figure drawing under PhiHp 


Digitized by 



Wouwerman, and further developed under 
the influence of Paulus Potter ; is almost 

equally import- 
ant as a painter 
of figures in 
the landscapes 
of famous con- 
like Van der 
Heyden, Wyn- 
ants, the Ruis- 
daels, Hobbe- 
ma, Frederik 
Moucheron, etc. Painted some religious 
and mythological subjects. Works : Farm 
Cottage (1658), Forest Scene (1658), Frost 
Scene (1668), three others, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Hilly Landscape with Shep- 
herdess (1659), Seashore at Scheveningen 
(1660), Hunting Party (1666), four others 
(1664, 1666, 1668), Buckingham Palace, ib.; 
two, Lord Ashburton, ib.; do., Mr. Hope 
and Mr. Munro, ib. ; Rendezvous de Chasse, 
Mr. Baring, ib.; Strand of Scheveningen 
(1660), Three Landscapes with Animals 
(1661, 1664), Shepherd's Family (1668), 
Frozen Canal (1668), Louvre ; Landscape 
with Sheep, Antwerp Museum ; Herd Rest- 
ing (1665), Arenberg Gallery, Brussels ; 
Landscape with Animals (1663), View of 
Scheveningen (1665), Hague Museum ; The 
Ferry (1666), Artist and his Family in the 
Country (1667), Hunting Party (1669), The 
Hut (1671), Landscapes with Cattle and 
Shepherds (2), Amsterdam Museum ; View 
of Haarlem, Haarlem Museum ; Landscape 
with Animals, Smithy (1658), Rotterdam 
Museum ; Cows and Sheep, Basle Museum ; 
Pastoral Scenes (3, 1662, 1669, 1671), Carls- 
ruhe Gallery ; View near Scheveningen at 
Ebb Tide, Landscape with Cattle, Cassel 
Gallery ; Grazing Cows (1658), Wood Land- 
scape with Herd (1668), River Landscape, 
Berlin Museum ; Cottage and Grazing Cat- 
tle (1659), Woman Drinking (1661), Land- 
scapes (2, 1665, 1667), Winter Scene (1669), 
Cattle and Sheep, Dresden GhiUery ; Deer 
iJrazing (1658), Stag Hunt (1666), Shep- 

herds with Flock by a Well (1668), Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Horsemen starting from 
Lm, Leipsic Museum ; Herdsman driving 
Cattle (1660), Ferry with Peasants and Cat- 
tle (1667), Idyllic Landscape (1669), two 
others (1670, 1671), Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Cattle driven by Herdsman in Rainy 
Weather, Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Ro- 
man Ferry Boat (1659), St. Jerome in a 
Landscape (1668), Herd resting by a Brook 
(1670), Schwerin Gallery ; Officer question- 
ing Peasant (1659), Worlitz Gallery ; oth- 
ers in Galleries of Aschaffenburg (2), Gotha, 
Hamburg (1650), Innsbruck, Schleissheim ; 
in Museum, Vienna (2, one dated 1664), 
Liechtenstein (3, two dated 1663, 1665), 
and Czemin Galleries, ib.; Baron Roth- 
schild's Collection, ib.; in StroganofF Gal- 
lery (5), St. Petersburg ; Landscape with 
Animals, Historical Society, New York. — 
Jl m ^ jf\ Ch. Blanc, 

ger. Musses, L 135, 266 ; ii. 88, 259 ; Doh- 
me, lii.; Havard, A. & A. holl., ii. 183; 
Immerzeel, iii. 162 ; Kramm, vi. 1686 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii 441 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, 
vi. 331. 

sterdam about 1590, died at The Hague, 
buried Nov. 18, 1630. Dutch school ; land- 
scape and battle painter. Entered the Haar- 
lem Guild in 1612, and that of The Hague 
in 1618. Works : Diner Champetre (1614), 
Hague Museum ; Surrender of Bois-le-Duc 
(1629), Frolic on the Ice, Prince Maurice 
" bell-ing " the Cat (copy ?), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Wooded Landscape, Haarlem Mu- 
seum ; Nocturnal Combat between Dutch 
Cavalry and Spanish Infantry (1623), Man 
on Horseback, Rotterdam Museum ; Cav- 
alry Skirmish (1622), Suermondt Museum, 
Aix-la-Chapelle ; Bulwark on Canal, Offi- 
cer's Portrait (?), Berlin Museum ; Sacking 
of ViUage at Night (1620), Moltke Collec- 
tion, Copenhagen ; Buildings and Ruins on 
Mountainside (1625), Christiania Gallery ; 
Two Battle-Pieces, Amalienstift, Dessau ; 


Digitized by 



Two Skirmishes, Dresden Museum ; Battle 
of Prague, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; Land- 
scape with Cattle (1625), Winter Landscape 
(1629), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Winter Scene 
with Skaters (1615 or 1635 ?), Leipsic Mu- 
seum ; Pleasure Party on the Ice in a City 
Moat (1618), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Cav- 
alry Fight, Museum, Vienna ; Stag Hunt, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, ib.; Siege of Bois-le- 


Due, SchSnbom Gkllery, ib. — Ch. Blanc, 
ificole hollandaise ; Burger, Musses, ii 203 ; 
Dohme, liL ; Kramm, vi. 1687 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), ii. 358 ; Van der Willigen, 305 ; 
2ieitschr. f. b. K, TiL 154. 

VELDE, JAN VAN DE, the younger, 
bom in Haarlem about 1598 (?). Dutch 
school ; landscape, animal, and still-life 
painter, pupil of Jacob Matham, entered 
the Haarlem guild in 1614, probably visit- 
ed Italy ; better known as an etcher and 
engi^aver. Works : Still-Life (1655), Brus- 
sels Museum ; Landscape with Tobias and 
the Angel, Brunswick Gallery ; Landscapes 
with Figures (2), Christiania Gallery; do. 
(1), Gotha Museum.— Bode, Studien, 322 ; 
Havard, A. & A. holL, iv. 157 ; Eramm, vL 
1689 ; Eep. f . Eunstwissenschaft, y. 245 ; 
Van der Willigen, 303. 

VELDE, WILLEM VAN DE, the elder, 
bom at Leyden in 1610, died at Greenwich, 
England, buried in London, Dec. 16, 1693. 
Dutch school ; began life as a sailor, but 
soon became known as a nautical draughts- 
man, in which capacity he was employed 
by the States of Holland. Charles H, who 
had known him in Holland, invited him to 
England in 1675 *' to make draughts of sea 
fights," with a salary of £100, which was 
continued by James IL There is a series 
of twelve naval battles and seaports by him 
at Hampton Court He was known in Eng- 
land as Old Vandevelde, to distinguish him 
from his son Willem, the younger. In the 

Hermitage, St Petersburg, are two Views 
of a Roadstead in Holland, by him. 

VELDE, WILLEM VAN DE, the young- 
er, bom in Am- 
sterdam in 1633, 
died at Green- 
wich, April 6, 
1707. Dutch 
school ; marine 
painter, son and 
pupil of Willem 
elder, and pupil 
of Simon deVlie- 
ger. Accompanied his father on his sea 
voyages, and entered with him, in 1675, 
the service of Charles IL of England. In 
1686 he returned for a short period to 
Holland, but was called again to England 
by James II He is the greatest marine 
painter of the Dutch school. Works : Ship- 
ping in a Calm (1657), Coast Scene (1661), 
Storm at Sea (1673), twelve others. National 
Gallery, London ; Sea Coast (1669), Fish- 
erman Putting off (1671), two others, Buck- 
ingham Palace, ib.; Dutch Coast (1656), 
Scene from Naval Battle, five others. Bridge- 
water Gallery, ib.; La petite flotte. Lord 
Ashburton, ib.; two, Mr. Hope, ib.; four, 
Mr. Munro, ib. ; two, Mr. Baring, ib. ; Fish- 
ing Boats in a Calm, Engagement between 
English and Dutch Fleets, National Gal- 
lery, Edinburgh ; Flag-Ship, Dutch Fleet, 
Calm Sea with Vessels, Louvre ; Calm Sea, 
Antwerp Museum ; View of the Zuyder 
Zee, Brussels Museum ; View of the Y, 
Calm Sea with Vessels, Hague Museum ; 
Flag-Ship Prince Royal striking her Col- 
ours, Four Men-of-War in same Action, 
Agitated Sea with Sailing Vessels, View of 
Amsterdam (1686), Calm Seas (3), Coast of 
Scheveningen, Breeze, Ship firing Volleys, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Harbour of Texel 
(1673), Rotterdam Museum ; Four Vessels 
(1653), Cahn Sea, Cassel Gallery ; do., and 
Marine View with Storm passing off. Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Dutch Frigates, Man- 
of-War Firing, Berlin Museum; Agitated 


Digitized by 



Sea with Vessels, Darmstadt Musenm ; do., 
Dresden Qallery ; do., and Calm Sea, St&- 
del Gallery, Frankfort ; Calm Sea with Ves- 
sels, Gk)tha Museum ; do. (1653), two oth- 
ers, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Storms at 
Sea (2), Landscape at Night, Hermannstadt 
Museum ; Calm Sea, Leuchtenberg Qsl- 
lery, ib. ; Calm Sea with many Vessels 
(1661), four others, Weimar Museum ; oth- 
ers in Germanic Museum, Nuremberg, Stutt- 
gart Museum, Wiesbaden Gallery, Vienna 
Academy, Czemin, Harrach, and Schonbom 
Galleries, Vienna; Marine Views (3), Ar- 
rival of Dutch Fleet at Amsterdam, His- 
torical Society, New York. His son, Cor- 
nelius, also a marine painter, is remem- 
bered only as a 
7jJ0/^/^-J^^ copyist. — Ch. 
)y yeMCJloSS Blanc £cole hol- 

Musees, i. 155, 
274 ; iL 148 ; Dohme, lii.; Immerzeel, iii 
160 ; Eramm, vL 1691 ; Eugler (Crowe), ii. 
497; Kunst-Chronik, xviL 283; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, vi. 331 ; xi. 215 ; De Stuers, 174. 

V£LY, an at OLE, bom at Ronsoy 
(Somme), Feb. 20, 1838, died in Paris, Jan. 
11, 1882. History and genre painter, pupil 
of Valenciennes Academy, and in Paris of 
Signol, and the £cole des Beaux Arta Med- 
al, 3d class, 1874 ; 2d class, 1880. Works : 
Death of Abel (1866); Mater Dolorosa 
(1868) ; Temptation (1869), Amiens Muse- 
um ; Country Women ; Magdalen (1872) ; 
Speaking WeU (1873), New York Museum ; 
Lucia di Lammermoor (1874), Narbonne 
Museum ; Meditation (1875) ; First Step 
(1876) ; Love and Money (1878) ; Awaken- 
ing of the Heart (1880).— Bellier, ii. 646 ; 

TINOPLE, G^entile Bellini, Louvre ; canvas, 
H 3 ft 10 in. X 6 ft 7 in. The embassy re- 
ceived by the Grand Virier, who sits on a 
divan in the court of his palace ; on steps 
to right and in the court are groups of tur- 
baned persons, some of whom are on horse- 
back, with tame deer and an ape. Painted 

in 1479-80, during Gentile's visit to Con- 
stantinople. Carried into France by Raph- 
ael Dufresne.— 0. & C, N. Italy, L 127 ; 
Villot, Louvre ; MOndler, 36. 


fazio Veneziano. 

menico Veneziano. 

W. Turner, National Gallery, London ; wood, 
H 1 ft 8 in.X 2 ft 8 in. Showing the Do- 
gana. Campanile of S. Marco, Palazzo Ducale, 
Bridge of Sighs, etc Royal Academy, 1833. 
Engraved by J. T. WiUmore ; T. A. Prior. 
—Art Journal (1849), 260 ; Monkhouse, 125. 

VENIER, Paolo Veronese, Palazzo Ducale, 
Venice. " An unrivalled Veronese ; far finer 
even than the Europa." — Buskin, Stones of 
Venice, iil 297. 

VENICE ENTHRONED, Paolo Vertmese, 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice. The Apotheosis of 
Venice, in Sala del Maggior* Consiglio. 
" One of the grandest pieces of frank colour 
in the Palazzo Ducale.*' — Ruskin, Stones of 
Venice, iii 297 ; Zanotto, 140. 

W. Turner, Earl Dudley, London. The canal 
covered with gondolas and gaily dressed 
shipping ; at right, S. M. dell' Salute ; at 
left, Palazzo Ducale and Campanile. Sold at 
Mendel sale (1875), to Messrs. Agnew for 
£7,350 ; to Earl of Dudley for 8,000 guineaa 
Another, painted in 1835, in Mimro Collec- 
tion. Another (1844), different view. Na- 
tional GWlery, London. — Art Journal (1850), 
92 ; (1862), 192. 

VENICE, TRIUMPH OF, Tintoretto, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale, Venice. Above, Venice, draped 
in blue, is surrounded by flying figures ; be- 
low. Doge da Ponte and his senators receive 
the homage of the conquered. — Ch. Blanc, 
ficole v^nitienne. 

VENIUS. See Vaenius. 

Delft in 1589, died at The Hague, Nov. 12, 


Digitized by 



1662. Dutch school ; landscape, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of the goldsmith Si- 
mon Yalck, after having received a classical 
and scientific education at Lejden ; master 
of St Luke's guild at The Hague in 1625, 
and one of the founders of the new guild 
in 1656; painted historical and allegorical 
scenes, battles, hunts, conflagrations, into 
all of which he introduced numerous well- 
drawn and finely executed figures, of a por- 
trait-like character in the historical piece& 
Works: Truce Festival (1616), Louvre; 
Peche aux ames (1614), Prince Maurice 
with his Brothers and Cousins on Horse- 
back (1618), Prince Maurice visiting Kir- 
mess at Ryswyk (1618), Prince Maurice and 
Frederik Hendrik on Horseback, King of 
Bohemia and Suite hunting (1627), Meeting 
of Boudewyn van Heusden with English 
Ambassador, Prince Maurice lying in State, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Ronde de Gueux, 
Scuffle between Shopkeepers (1637), Hague 
Museum ; Prince Frederik Hendrik and 
Suite (1635), Rotterdam Museum ; Assem- 
bly before a Castle, Cassel Gallery ; Gypsy 

Venus and Adonis, Gu«rcino, Or«sd«n Giall«ry. 

Family in a Ruin, Brunswick Gallery ; Prince 
Maurice and Brothers on Horseback, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Allegory on Poverty and 
Wealth, Gotha GkiUery ; Summer and Win- 
ter (1614), Berlin Museum ; Market Scene, 

Christiania Gkllery ; Peasant having Tooth 
extracted, Hermannstadt Museum ; Satyri- 
cal Scenes (2), Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck. 
— Archief voor ned. Kunstgesch., ii 108; 
iil 258, 272, 275 ; iv. 59 ; Immerzeel, iil 
166; Kramm, vL 1696; viL 152; Kugler 
(Crowe), i. 246 ; Kunstkronijk (1867), 82, 
83, 85 ; Riegel, Beitr&ge, ii. 207. 

bom in Ghent, Jan. 6, 
1803, died in 1876. 
Genre, landscape, and 
animal painter, pupil 
of Ghent Academy, 
where he won several 
prizes, and in Antwerp 
of Braekeleer ; imitat- 
ed the old Dutch mas- 
ters. Medal, Antwerp, 
1845. Works: Chicken Market, Interior 
with Figures (1837) ; Musical Party (1839) ; 
Peasants after the Chase (1842), Afternoon 
Nap (1844), Toper (1846), Konigsberg Mu- 
seum; Dutch Peasant Scene (1847), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Card Players, Jolly 
Peasant, Stettin Museum; Card 
Players (1860), Ghent Museum.— 
Immerzeel, iii. 165. 

VENUS, ancient pictures. See 
Apelles, Artemidoru8, Dorotheus, 

VENUS, Giovanni Bellini, Vi- 
enna Museum ; wood ; H 2 ft. 2 
in. X 2 ft. 4 in. ; signed, dated 
1515. Figure seen to knees, seat- 
ed on a cushion covered with a 
Turkish carpet. Engraved by J. 
A. von Premier ; J. Popel& — C. & 
C, N. Italy, i. 193 ; Meyer, Ktlnst 
Lex., iiL 419. 

By William Bage, W. Bullard, 
Boston; canvas, life-size. Full- 
length, standing in a shell which is 
drawn over the sea by doves. Painted in 1859. 
By Palma Vecchio, Dresden Museum; 
canvas, H 4 f t. x 6 ft 6 in. Venus, nude, 
lying in a landscape. Bought in 1772 for 
£300.— C. & C, N. Italy, iL 475. 


Digitized by 



VENUS AND ADONIS, Francesco Albani, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 f t 7 in. x 8 ft 3 in. 
A cupid conducts Adonis, holding a dog iu 
leash, to Venus, who lies asleep on cushions 
in the shadow of trees, watched by other 
cupids ; still others bathe in a river, and 
two in the air are supporting a large white 
veil. Collection of Louis XIV. Engi-aved 
by Baudet; B. Audran. — Villot, Cat. Lou- 
vre ; Landon, Musee, 2d Col., iii. PL 64. 

By Guercino, Dresden Gallery; canvas, 
H. 6 ft 7 in. X 8 ft. 3 in. Venus finds the 
dead body of Adonis ; Cupid leads thither 
the boar by the ear. In Guercino's third 

V«nut and Adonis, Rubens, Hermitig«, St. Petersburg. 

manner. Painted in 1647 for Cardinal 
Mazarin, who ordered it as a pendant to 
Cephdus and Procris ; belonged afterwards 
to Prince de Carignan. Engraved by L. S. 
Lempereur. Another (6 ft 7 in. x 8 ft 10 
in.) in Dresden Gkdlery. — Gal. roy. de Dres- 
de, iL PL 23 ; R6veil, vii. 475. 

By Rubens, Blenheim Palace ; canvas, H. 
6 ft 6 in. x 7 ft 10 in. Venus, seated on a 
bank under a tree, endeavours to detain 
Adonis, who, spear in hand and his dogs by 
his side, is anxious to depart ; Cupid clings 
round Adonis's leg. A grand picture of the 
artist's middle period. Presented by Em- 

peror of Germany to John, Duke of Marl- 
borough. Blenheim sale (1886) £7,200, to 
Agnew. — Waagen, Treasures, iii. 131 ; 
Smith, il 245. 

By Rubens, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; 
wood, H. 2 ft 8 in. X 2 ft 11^ in. Venus, 
just descended from her car, drawn by 
white swans, endeavours to detain Adonis, 
who, anxious for the chase with his attend- 
ant dogs, tries to remove her arm from his 
neck ; Cupid aids the goddess by clinging 
to Adonis's thigh. Engraved by Tassaert. 
Similar subject, Hague Museum ; engraved 
by Lerouge in FilhoL— Smith, ix. 302 ; Fil- 
hol, vii PL 470 ; Landon, Musee, 
ii. PL 16. 

By Rubens, Uffizi, Florence ; 
wood, H 3 ft 2 in. X 2 ft. 8 in. 
Venus, seated on a bank at foot of 
a tree, endeavours to detain Ado- 
nis, who, spear i^ hand, is re^dy 
for the chase ; Cupid embraces his 
knees, while the three Graces draw 
aside the crimson drapery which 
conceals her charms; five other 
cupids play with Adonis's dogs. — 
Smith, iL "^143 ; Lasinio, PL 82 ; 
Larousse, xv. 882. 

By Titian, Alnwick Castle, Eng- 
land ; canvas, H. 2 ft 6 J in. x 3 ft 
4 in. Venus, half-lying, half-sit- 
ting, with her back to the specta- 
tor, on a brown-red cloth on a 
mound shaded by trees, clutches 
at Adonis, who, with a spear in one hand 
and a leash of three dogs in the other, is 
striding away to the field. Probably the 
original sketch of this subject, painted 
about 1560; formerly in the Cammuccini 
and Barberini Collections The principal 
copy, long in the Famese Collections in 
Parma and Bome, has disappeared. Oth- 
er copies with variations in Venice Acad- 
emy, Vienna Museum, and at Leigh Court 
and Cobham Hall, England. The Leigh 
Court copy (H. 5 ft. 10 in. x 6 ft 8 in.), 
which once belonged to Benjamin West, 
was bought in at Leigh Court sale (1884) 

Digitized by 



for 1,680 guineas. — C. & C, Titian, iL 

By Titian, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 6 
ft X 6 ft 9 in. Variation of the Alnwick Ve- 
n us, with Cupid asleep under a tree. Paint- 
ed in 1554 as a companion-piece (though 
larger) to the Danae of Madrid, and sent to 
London to Philip, Prince of Spain, with 
Titian's congratulations on his marriage to 
Queen Mary. Philip acknowledged its re- 
ceipt, Dec. 6, 1554, and complained of an 
injury to the canvas, which had been rolled 
and squeezed flat by acci- 
dent. The crease is still 
apparent Titian was prob- 
ably aided by Orazio Ve- 
celli in it, and by others 
in the replicas in National 
Gkllery, London, and in 
the collection of Lord El- 
cho. Modem copies in 
Nostitz Collection, Prague, 
and in Dulwich Gallery. — 
C. & C, Titian, iL 237 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Mil., vii. 451. 

By Paolo Veronese, Na- 
tional Gallery, Edinburgh ; 
canvas, H. 2 ft. x 2 ft 8 in. 
— ^Waagen, Treasures, iii 

By Paolo Veronese, Ma- 
drid Museum ; canvas, H. 
7 ft X 6 ft 6 in. Adonis 
reclining on the sward 
asleep, with his head in 
the lap of the goddess ; Venus looks towards 
a cupid and a beautiful dog, anxious to de- 
part for the chase. Bought by Velasquez in 
Venice for Philip IV. A very fine example 
of the painter. — Madrazo ; Larousse, xv. 882. 

Subject treated also by Moretto, XJflfizi, 
Florence ; Paris Bordone, Vienna Museum ; 
Luca Cambiaso, Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; 
Anton van Dyck, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; 
Cornells Comeliszen, Caen Museum ; Joseph 
Heinz, elder, Vienna Museum ; Abraham 
Janssens van Nuyssen, ib.; Caspar Netscher, 
Louvre, Paris; Giovanni Francesco Boma- 

nelli, ib.; Johann Bottenhammer, ib. ; Ales- 
sandro Turchi (2), Dresden Museum ; Nicolas 
Poussin, Uffizi, Florence, Montpellier Muse- 
um; Fran9ois Boucher, Barker Collection, 
London ; Narciso Diaz (Salon, 1848, 1859) ; 
Victor Muller (Salon, 1865). 

Poynter, South Kensington Museum, Lon- 
don ; canvas, H. 6 ft x 8 in. Venus, attended 
by the Graces, on one of whom she leans for 
support, is showing the thorn in her foot to 
.S^sculapius, who is seated in a garden un- 


j^fiVag^. mkM(F.jMti- 

V«nut and Adonis, Titian. Madrid Mustum. 

der a porch covered with honeysuckle, with 
a dog lying beside him and Hygieia stand- 
ing behind holding a box of medicaments ; 
doves and sparrows are flitting about ; in 
the background a gateway leads into the te- 
menos of the temple, and at right is a foun- 
tain, from which an attendant is dipping 
water for one of the Graces, who is holding 
out her hand for it. Boyal Academy, 1880 ; 
purchased for Chantry Collection. En- 
graved by W. Bidgway. Water-colour 
sketch, J. P. Haseltine.— Art Journal (1885), 
324, 340. 


Digitized by 



from the sea). See Apelles; also, Venus, 
Birth of. 

V«nut Anadyomene, Titian, Bridgewater House, London. 

By Dominique Ingres, Due d'Aumale, 
Chateau de Chantilly. The goddess, yet 
humid with the sea water, in which she is 
standing, is twisting her 
blond locks while cupids 
play around her and car- 
ess her feet and limbs. 
Begun at Rome in 1808 ; 
finished in 1848 for Fr6d- 
eric Reiset, conservator of 
the Louyre. Engraved by 
Morse. — CL Blanc, Life, 
161 ; Larousse, L 311. 

By Titian, Bridgewater 
House, London ; canvas. 
Venus, nude, standing m 
the sea, which covers her 
knees, one arm raised to 
hold her long hair, the 
other combing its tresses ; 
beside her floats a shell, 
from which sometimes called Venus of the 
Shell Painted in Ferrara in 1523. We 
first hear of it in the Collection of Queen 

Christina of Sweden ; thence passed to the 
Orleans Collection, and sold in 1800 to 
Duke of Bridgewater for £800. Engraved 
by Si Aubin ; ReveiL— C. 4; C, Titian, L 
276 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 31, 497 ; Cam- 
pori, Raccolta, 341 ; Larousse, L 311 ; Re- 
veO, xii 841. 

Subject treated also by Giulio Romano, 
Palazzo Spada, Rome; Cornelia de Vos, 
Madrid Museum ; Heinrich Lehmann 
(1855) ; Claude Dubufe (Salon, 1859) ; Jules 
Joseph Meynier (Salon, 1863) ; Amaury Du- 
val (1863), Lille Museum ; Charles Chaplin 
(Salon, 1867) ; £mile Bin (Salon, 1874). 

VENUS, BARBERIGO. See Venus with 
the Mirror. 

VENUS, BIRTH OF, Sandro BotticeUi, 
UfBzi, Florence; canvas^ figures lifensize. 
Venus, standing in a shell in the middle qi 
the sea, is wafted to the shore by two flying 
figures emblematical of the winds ; figure at 
right represents Spring. Painted for Cosmo 
de' Medici*s villa of Castello ; placed in Uf- 
fizi in 1815.— Vasari, ed. Mil, iii 312 ; C. 
& C, Italy, ii. 423 ; Soa Ed. GalL di Fi- 
renze, PL 24. 

By William Adolphe Bouguereau, Luxem- 

Birth of Venus, Sandro Botticelli, \M^, Florence. 

bourg Museum ; canvas, H. 9 ft 10 in. x 7 
ft Venus, full-length, an*anging her hair, 
which falls in a mass below her hips, stands 


Digitized by 



in a shell drawn by dolphins driven by 
loves ; around her nymphs and tritons are 
sporting in the waves, while above, the air is 
filled with a cloud of genii. 

By Alexandre Cabanel, Luxembourg Mu- 
seum, Paris ; canvas, H.4ft3in.x7ft4 
in. The goddess, just bom, is undulating 
upon the foam, stretching, and half-opening 
her dazzled eyes, which she shades with her 
right arm ; above, five genii — ^two blowing 
conch shells, the others hovering over her 
head. Salon, 1863 ; Exposition universelle, 
1867. Two replicas : 
Smaller one, made for 
engraving, H. C. Gib- 
son, Philadelphia ; the 
other, painted last, John 
Wolfe, New York. En- 
^graved by A. Pran9oia 
Etched by L Flameng. 
Photogravure in Art 
Treasures of America. — 
Art Treas. of Amer., L 56, 
67 ; Larousse, xv. 882. 

Lucas Cranachf the elder, 
Berlin Museum ; wood, 
H.5ft.6in.x2ft Ve- 
nus, nude, walking to 
right ; near her, Cupid, 
complaining of being 
stung by bees (Theoc., 
Id., xix.). Another in Berlin Museum, Ve- 
nus walking to left, with Cupid on a pedes- 
tal. — Meyer, Museen, 101. 

By William Etty, Henry Bicknell, Caven- 
dish House, Clapham Common, London ; 
canvas. Venus, nude, recumbent, with 
Cupid near her. — Art Journal (London, 
1872), 91. 

By Ouido Beni, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H 4 ft 5 in. X 5 ft 9 in. Full-length, nude, 
reposing on a couch covered with white, 
with a curtain in background ; she leans 
upon her right elbow, and takes with her 
left hand a dart from Cupid, who stands on 
the couch near her feet Restored by Palen. | 
— Httbner, Dresden GaL, L 19. 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lord Castletown ; 
canvas. Full-length, nude, reclining in an 
arbour under a red curtain in a wooded 
landscape. Cupid peeps in on her through 
the bough& Probably suggested by Venus 
of Titian. Painted in 1759 ; selected by 
Earl of Upper Ossory, when he had, by Rey- 
nolds's will, choice of works in his studio. 
Engraved by Raimbach ; Collyer. — Leslie & 
Taylor, i. 173 ; PuUing, 22 ; Athen., Jan., 
1875, 56. 

By Titian, Palazzo Borghese, Rome ; can- 

V«nut and Cupid, Titian, Palazzo BorghaM, Roma. 

vas, half-lengths, life-size. Venus, sitting, 
binding the eyes of Eros, who leans on her 
lap, while she turns to listen to another 
cupid leaning on her shoulder ; two girls to 
left — one carrying a quiver, the other a bow. 
Painted about 1565 ; well preserved. En- 
graved several times. — Ridolfi, Maraviglie, L 
257 ; C. & C, Titian, ii 355 ; Heath, Titian, 
71 ; Reveil, xiii. 871. 

By IHtian, TJflizi, Florence; canvas, fig- 
ures life-size. Venus, nude, lying on a 
velvet couch (the cloth of which she holds, 
together with a bunch of flowers, in one 
hand), turns her head towards Cupid, who 
whispers as he looks over her shoulder ; a 
little dog at her feet snifb at an owl on the 


Digitized by 



balustrade ; in the distance, a landscape 
with mountains. Paiuted about 1547 ; in 
Urbino Collection. The Venus with the 
Organ Player, Madrid, is in some re- 
spects a repetition of it — C. & C, Titian, 
iL 156. 

By Velasquez, Robert Morrit, Bokeby 
Park, Yorkdiire, England ; full-length, life- 
size. The goddess, nude, her back to the 
spectator, reclining on a purple couch, be- 
hind which hangs a green and crimson 
drapery ; her face is reflected in a mirror 

da Pontormo, Uffizi, Florence ; Antonio 
Bellucci, Dresden Museum ; Jan Brueghel, 
Madrid Museum ; Luca Cambiaso, Palazzo 
Pallavicini, G^noa ; Girolamo Carpi, Dres- 
den Museum ; Carlo Cignani, Turin Muse- 
um ; Lucas Cranach, Palazzo Borghese, 
Bome; Christian Dietrich, Dresden Muse- 
um; Guercino, Accademia di S. Luca, Bome ; 
Eustache Lesueur, Louvre, Paris ; Pietro 
Liberi, Vienna Museum ; Heinrich van Lim- 
borg, Dresden Museum ; Fran9ois Boucher, 
Berlin Museum ; Padovanino, Louvre, Paris ; 

Fettlval of V«nut, Rub«nt, Vienna MuMum. 

held by Cupid, who kneels on the couch 
near her feet In Velasquez's latest man- 
ner. Formerly iu Alcazar at Madrid (1666) ; 
then in possession of Duke of Alva (1776) ; 
bought from the Prince of Peace in 1813 by 
Mr. Morrit for £500. — Buchanan, Memoirs, 
ii. 243 ; Blusi Esp. y Amer., Nov. 8, 1874 ; 
Curtis, 20 ; Bdrger, Tresors, 121 ; Larousse, 
XV. 882. 

Subject treated also by Lodovico Carrac- 
ci, Berlin Museum ; Vienna Museum ; Jaco- 
po Palma, younger, Cassel Gallery ; Jacopo 

Georg Penckz, Munich GWlery; Rem- 
brandt, Louvre ; Andrea Schiavone, Vienna 
Museum ; Paolo Veronese, Bordeaux Muse- 
um ; Palazzo Borghese, Bome ; Adriaan van 
der Werfi^ Dresden Museum ; Joseph Ma- 
zeroUes (Salon, 1861); £douard Toudouze 
(Salon, 1874). 

Raphael, Bath-room of Cardinal Bibbiena, 
Vatican ; frescos on walk. Seven large 
compositions, on a dark red background : 
1. Birth of Venus; 2. Venus and Cupid 


Digitized by 



borne by Dolphins ; 3. Venus, wounded, 
complaining to Cupid ; 4. Jupiter and An- 
tiope ; 5. Venus drawing a Thorn from her 
Foot ; 6. Venus and Adonis ; 7. Vulcan and 
Minerva. Corresponding to these are seven 
smaller compositions on a black back- 
ground, illustrating the Triumphs of Love. 
Designed by Baphael, and painted by his 
pupils about 1514. Engraved, in whole or 
in part, by Marco da Bavenna ; Piroli ; Lan- 

torettOy Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 2 
ft. 6 in. X 6 ft. 4 in. Venus, nude, reclining 
on a green carpet, caressing Cupid ; Vulcan, 
also nearly nude, kneeUng and raising a 
white cloth which partly envelops Cupid ; 
in background, a landscape, with Mars in 
his chariot in the clouds, an allusion to the 
parentage of Cupid. — Gal. du PaL Pitti, ii 
PL 84. 

Toll«t of V«nut, Franc«tco Albani, Louvre, Paris. 

don ; A. Veneziano ; A. Campanella ; Pizzi ; 
Maestri.— Mttntz, 446 ; Passavant, ii. 231 ; 
Kugler (Eastlake), ii. 469; Larousse, xv. 881. 
chinOy Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; copper, oval, 
H. 11 in. X 1 ft 1 in. The goddess, nude, 
lying on a stone, leaning on a cushion with 
one arm, and pressing Cupid to her bosom 
with the other. A figure in the background 
tries to rob the quiver of its arrows, while 
two satyrs look on from the other side. — 
Cat PaL Pitti. 

stadt Gklleiy ; canvas, H. 4 f t. 3 in. x 5 ft 
6 in. A young woman, nude, asleep on 
rose-strewn cushions, with one arm under 
her head, a red cloth, on which she lies, 
partly covering the ground and partly hang- 
ing from an oak tree ; landscape in distance, 
with a couple seated courting. Painted 
about 1523 ; history unknown ; considered 
by some of doubtful authenticity. Copies 
with variations in Apsley House, London ; 
Dudley House, ib.; Fitzwilliam Museum, 


Digitized by 



Cambridge ; Dulwich Gallery ; and Dresden 
Gallery. None of them by Titian. — C. & 
C, Titian, i. 273. 

VENUS, FESTIVAL OF, Bubens, Vienna 
Museum ; canvas, H. 7 f t. x 11 ft Votaries 
present o£ferings to a statue of Venus in a 
grove, while cupids dance around it, and 
others sport among the trees or float in the 
air with clusters of fruit ; at one side, two 
beautiful women advance with offerings, and 
at the other side, nymphs and satyrs daaoe ; 
in background, the temple of the goddess on 
a hill. Engraved by Prenner. — Smith, ii 98. 

VENUS AND MARa See Jfar^. 

nus, Toilet of, Titian. 

Titian^ Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft 6 
in. X 7 ft 6 in. Venus, nude, lying in same 
position as the Venus and Cupid of the Uf- 
fizi, but with different face ; instead of hold- 
ing flowers, she pats with her hand a lap-dog, 
the bark of which disturbs a man playing 
an organ at the foot of the couch. Painted 
about 1547, and probably taken to Augs- 
burg in 1548 and sold to Nicholas Gran- 
velle ; sold in 1600 by the Count of Cante- 
croix to Emperor Rudolf H. ; said to have 
been in Collection of Charles L of England ; 
in Spain since 1665. Repetitions, with 
changes, by followers of Titian, in Madrid 
and Dresden Museums, and in Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge. Other copiea — C, & 
C, Titian, il 158, 185 ; MoreUi, 173 ; Httb- 
ner, Dresden GaL, L 13 ; Larousse, xv. 882. 

VENUS DEL PARDO. See JupUer and 

pi the Tribune. 

■ VENUS OF THE SHfiLL. See Venus 
Anadyomene, Titian. 

VENUS, TOILET OF, Francesco Alhani, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 6 ft 7 in. x 8 ft 
3 in. Venus, seated in front of a Doric por- 
tico on the border of the sea, looking at 
herself in a miiTor held by a cupid ; at left, 
three cupids near a table on which is a vase 
of flowers ; at right a fountain ; in back- 

ground, a palace. Collection of Louis XIV. 
Engraved by Baudet ; B. Audran. — Villot, 
Cat Louvre ; Landon, Mus6e, 2d CoL, iii, 
PI. 61; R^veil, xii. 878. 

By Titian, Hermitage, St Petersburg; 
canvas, H. 4 ft x 3 ft 4 in. Venus^ partly 
draped, seated on a couch, with her head 
turned to look in a mirror held by a cupid, 
who, with his back to the spectator, staggers 
under the load ; Eros, with one hand on his 
mother's shoulder, tries with the other to 
crown her with a garland. Painted in 1562 ; 
came from Pomponio Vecelli to Barberigo 

Toilet of Venus, Titian, Cobham Hall, England. 

Collection, whence passed to Russia. Re- 
plicas made for Philip H. of Spain and for 
Niccold Crasso, but both missing. Copy 
without Eros at Cobham Hall, from Orleans 
Grallery; others in Dresden and Augsburg 
Oalleries^ and an original sketch in Dresden. 
Another, in the Hermitage, classed as a 
school-piece, which came from the Malmai- 
son Collection, presents two cupids hold- 
ing the mirror ; replica lately in Lord Ash- 
burton's Collection, London. Autotype by 
Ad. Braun & Co., Pari& — C. & C, Titian, 
ii. 333 ; Ticozzi, 59. 

Subject treated also by Jacob Jordaens, 


Digitized by 



Ufi&zi, Florence ; Padovanino, Palazzo Bor- 
ghese, Rome ; Theodorus van Thulden, Huis 
ten Bosch, The Hague ; Antonio Triva, 
Dresden Grallery ; Fran9ois Boucher, Stock- 
holm Museum ; Paul Baudry (1859), Bor- 
deaux Museum. 

bune of the Uffizi, Florence ; canvas, life- 
size. Supposed by some to be the portrait 
of a mistress of Guidobaldo H., Duke of 
Urbino. Venus, nude, lies at the foot of 
a green hanging, on a muslin sheet that 
covers a red damask couch, one arm on 
her person, the other on the cushions, 
playing vnth a chaplet of 
flowers ; a little dog is 
curied up on the couch at 
her feet, and handmaids in 
distance are preparing her 
dress. Painted in- Venice 
about 1637 for Francesco 
Maria della Rovere (?), 
Duke of Urbino ; passed 
in 17th century as an 
heirloom to the Florence 
Gallery. Replica in Uffizi 
by a Venetian of Titian's 
time ; adaptations in But- 
ler-Johnstone and Hamp- 
ton Court Collections En- 
graved by P. Soutman ; 
R Gay wood ; A. Nargeot ; 
Strange . — Vasari, ed. 
MU., vii 443 ; C. & C, Titian, i. 389 ; Gotti, 
Gkl. di Firenze, 103 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, L 
225 ; Law, Hisi Cat Hampton Court, 51 ; 
MoUni, GblL di Firenze, i. 49. 

Birth of. 

VENUS AND VULCAN, Francesco Alba- 
ni, Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 f t. 7 in. x 8 ft 3 in. 
Venus lying on a couch, with Vulcan reclin- 
ing at her feet ; two cupids present the god- 
dess a buckler pierced with arrows ; at 
right, cupids forge and sharpen arrows, oth- 
ers make bows ; Diana, in the clouds, at- 
tended by two nymphs, holds a javelin. 
Collection of Louis XIV. Engraved by 

Baudet; B. Audran. — ^Villot, Cat Louvre; 
Landon, Musee, 2d Col, iii. PL 62. 

By Giulio Romano, Louvre, Paris ; wood, 
H 14 in. X 9 in. Vulcan, seated beside 
Venus, embraces her with his left arm, while 
carrying a bundle of arrows on his shoulder 
with his right ; Venus is putting arrows into 
the quiver of a cupid who is bending his bow ; 
another cupid presents her a butterfly, and 
others bear a vase of flowers. Engraved by 
Morace, — Filhol, vii. PI. 451 ; Musee fran- 
9ais, i. Part 3 : Ch. Blanc, £cole romaine. 

By Anton van Dyck, Louvre, Paris ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft 3 in. X 4 ft 9 in. Venus de- 

Venu* of the Tribune, Titian, Tribune of the Uffizi, Florence. 

manding of Vulcan arms for JEneas. The 
goddess, nearly nude, pre^ ^ded by a cupid 
bearing a sheathed swor^l; and sustained by 
a second cupid, ad\ance8 towards Vulcan, 
who has one knee upon a stone ; at left, 
above the hend of Venus, another cupid 
with a bow .ma arrows; in background, 
two Cyclops will} hammera Collection of 
Louis XIV.; f or?. .erly in Luxembourg. En- 
graved by ^ian^^dois; C. Normand.— Cat 
Louvre ; Filnol., iii. PL 170 ; Landon, xi. 
PL 65; Ouif-rey, 254; Smith, iii. 39; Musee 

By Alitor, vjin Dyck, Vienna Museum; 
canvas, H. ' ;i. 3in. x5ft Venus receiv- 


Digitized by 



ing from Vulcan the armour forged for 
-Slneaa Vulcan, seated at right, extends 
his hand to Venus ; a cupid and a cyclops 

Venu* and Vulcan, Giulio Romano, Louvre, Paris. 

hold a breastplate before her bosom, while 
other cupids play with parts of the armour ; 
above, a cupid aims an arrow at Vulcan. 
Called also Minerva and Vulcan. Engraved 
by J. Axman ; BA^ '' —Smith, iu. 27 ; Gal. 
de Vienne, iii. i i. i Guiflfrey, 263 ; La- 
rousse, xv. 882 ; IK.-^ " v'i. 983. 

Subject treated > ^ietro Liberi, 

Dresden Museum ; T.i. i- vV ucher. Lou- 
vre, Paris ; Jan Brueglie , h ^zo Cambi- 
aso, Gtenoa; Charles Joseph > itoire, Lou- 
vre, Bordeaux Museum ; Mr: rjH-iUer Muse- 
um ; Rubens, Brussels Muso;* j 

VENUS WORSHIP, Tifb Ma^irid Mu- 
seum ; canvas, K 5 ft. 8 i <^y ft 9 in. 
Subject from Philostratus »:/ '^nes, i 6). 
Venus, a marble statue on y. ^ i-stal^ with 
two nymphs at her feet, r, , ' gifts ; a 
stream at the base of the pe< i ' /aters the 

edge of an undulating ground on which 
winged cupids swarm, some plucking the 
sacred apples, others tumbling, fighting, and 
dancing. Painted before 1518 for Duke 
Alfonso of Ferrara ; removed in 1598 to 
Rome, by Papal Legate Cardinal Aldobran- 
dini ; was in Palazzo Ludovisi until Cardinal 
Ludovisi sent it to Count Monterey, Spanish 
Viceroy at Naples, as a present to the King 
of Spain ; carried to Madrid by Monterey 
in 1638. Copy by Rubens in Royal Palace, 
Stockholm.— C. & C, Titian, L 191 ; Sains- 
bury Papers, 238, 353. 

VENUSTI, MARCELLO, bom in Mantua 
in 1615, died in 1576 or 1685. Roman 
school ; history painter, pupil of Perino del 
Vaga, afterwards of Michelangelo, whom he 
assisted in his works in Rome and Florence. 
He painted a great deal after that master's 
drawings, and is distinguished by a delicate 

Venus and Vulcan, Anton Van Oyck, Louvre, Paris. 

and neat execution. Works: Christ appear- 
ing to Souls in Purgatory, Colonna Gallery, 
Rome ; Copy of Last Judgment by Michel- 


Digitized by 



angelo, Naples Museum ; Nativity, Vienna 
Museum ; Holy Family (1563), Leipsic Mu- 
seum. — Eugler (Eastlake), ii 386 ; Labke, 
Oescli. itaL MaL, iL 140. 

VERA, Don ALEJO, bom at Vifiuela, Ma- 
laga ; contemporary. Spanish school ; his- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Frederico 
de Madrazo ; studied afterwards in Rome ; 
contributed much to raising art in Spain to 
a higher standard. Medals : 1862, 1871 ; 
Philadelphia, 1876. Works : Burial of St 
Lawrence in Catacombs of Rome (1862); 
Oommunion of Early Christians in the Cata- 
combs ; Pompeiian Lady at Toilet (1871) ; 
Old Roman Woman with Parrot ; Jewelry 
Store at Poibpeii ; Heroism of Numantines 

VERBEECK, PRANS, born at Antwerp, 
baptized Feb. 21, 1686, died there, May 28, 
1755. Flemish school; genre and battle 
painter, pupil of Jan Baptist de Bie ; master 
of the guild in 1710, and its dean in 1724, 
1730, 1737, and 1746. He was also one of 
the directors of the Antwerp Academy. His 
only still known work is a Visit of the Ab- 
bot of St Michael to the Fencers' Guild 
(1713), Antwerp Museum. — Cat du Mua 
d'Anvers, 526 ; Van den Branden, 1193. 

NELISZ), bom probably at Haarlem, flour- 
ished about 1638-50. Dutch school ; ani- 
mal and battle painter ; received as master 
into the guild at Alkmaar in 1635, and at 
The Hague in 1645. Works : Skirmish of 
Oriental Horsemen (1638), Berlin Museum ; 
Man and Woman on Horseback, Groom 
holding Horse, Halt before Tavern (2), Cas- 
sel Oallery ; Horse and Rider at Cistern 
(1642), Moltke Collection, Copenhagen ; 
Saddled Horse &stened to a Hedge, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich. — ^Immerzeel, iii 167 ; 
Eramm, vL 1701. 

SEPH, bom at Wameton, West Flanders, 
June 9, 1799, died in Brussels, Jan. 19, 1881. 
Animal painter, son and pupil of the sculp- 
tor Barth^l^mi Verboeckhoven ; visited Eng- 
land in 1826, Germany in 1828, France and 

Italy in 1841, and settled in Brussels. Mem- 
ber of Brussels, Antwerp, Ghent, Amster- 
dam, and St. Petersburg 
Academies. L. of Hon- 
our; Commander of Or- 
ders of Leopold and 
Francis Joseph ; Bava- 
rian Order of Michael ; 
Portuguese Order of 
Christ; Order of Iron 
Cross (1830). Works : 
Arabian Stallion (1824); 
Horses attacked by Wolves (1836), Land- 
scapes with Cattle (2, 1824, 1825), Muse- 
um, Amsterdam ; Sheep and Lamb, Sheep 
in a Grove, Landscape with Resting Cat- 
tle, Museum Fodor, ib.; Wounded Lion; 
Horses in Roman Campagna ; Return from 
Market ; Market at Ghent ; Shepherd near 
TivoU (1846), Bad Neighbours (1853), Herd 
driven to Pasture (1856), National Gkd- 
lery, Berlin ; Bull in a Landscape (1829), 
Raczynski Gallery, ib. ; Cows in Pasture, 
Raven6 Gallery, ib. ; Sheep Stable, Carls- 
ruhe GaUery; do. (1841), Stftdel GaUery, 
Frankfort; Woodland Scene with Cattle 
(1836), Christiania €hdlery ; Sheep in Pas- 
ture (1838), Sheep Resting, Donkeys and 
Sheep (1839), Eunsthalle, Hamburg ; Man 
with Calf, Ednigsberg Museum ; White 
Horse by Cottage (1837), Peasant Asleep 
with Horse watched by Dog (1839), Sheep 
Pictures (4, 1838, 1840, 1846, 1859), Cow 
and Goat in Stable (1841), Leipsic Muse- 
um ; Sheep Stable (1844), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Landscape wiUi Animals (1846), 
Ghent Museum; Sheep surprised by Storm, 
Souvenir of Roman Campagna, Brussels 
Museum; Shepherdess in the Campine 
(1855) ; Sheep in Downs of Ostend (1878) ; 
Dead Sheep in Scottish Landscape, Scottish 

CUoene j%t/e«ea^ 
(I 183^ 

Ponies, Bouquet (1880) ; Frightened Bull, 
J. J. Astor, New York ; Sheep— Interior, H 



Digitized by 



f\ * Marines in 

E. Maynard, Boston. — Chronique des Arts 
(1881), 52 ; lUustr. Zeitg. (1881), L 143 ; 
Immei*zeel, iii 168 ; ELramm, vL 1702 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xvi 341 ; Michiels, x. 579. 

Wameton, West Flanders, Feb. 5, 1802. 
Marine painter, brother of preceding, first 
instructed by his father, then studied while 
travelling on coast of North Sea. Member 
of Amsterdam Academy. Medals at Brus- 
sels, Cambray, Arras, and Lille. Works : 

Marines in 

Antwerp (1839), and Leipsic (2). — Lnmer- 
zeel, iii. 169. 

VERBOOM( van Boom), ABRAHAM, bom 
at Haarlem, died after 1657. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, imitated J. Ruisdael, and 
influenced by Waterloo. He excelled in 
painting trees, and his richly wooded land- 
scapes are good in aerial perspective, though 
somewhat heavy in colouring. Lingelbach, 
Adriaan van de Velde, and Philips Wouwer- 
man painted the figui*es in his landscapes. 
Works : Wooded Hill, Mi\ Baring, London ; 
Departure for the Chase, Brussels Museum ; 
Wood Landscape with Huntsmen Resting 
(1657), Rotterdam Museum ; do. with Trav- 
ellers (figures by Lingelbach), Eunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Village, Oak Wood, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Village View (1656), Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Landscapes (2), Copenhagen Gallery ; 

do., Schleiss- 

A T / / heim Gal- 

A \/0rO^OJ9t.lery; do., 

Society, New York. — Immerzeel, iii 169 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii 480 ; Kramm, L 121 ; 
vi. 1702. 

at Bruges, Aug. 25, 1756, died there, June 
4, 1831. Gem*e painter, pupil of Hubert 
de Cockq, then at the Bruges Academy of 
Jean Gaeremyn, and finally of Legillon. 
Works: Farm Interior (1790), do., and Sta- 
ble Interior, Bruges Academy. — Weale, Cat. 
Bruges Acad. (1861), 107. 


the elder, bom at Antwerp, baptized Sept. 
8, 1635, died there, April 16, 1681. Flem- 
ish school ; flower painter, pupil of Corne- 
lls Mahu in 1645 ; master of the guild in 
1650. Works : Garland (1670), Lyons Mu- 
seum ; Flowers around Picture, Dunkirk 
Museum; Flower-Pieces (2, 1651, 1679), 
Schleissheim Gallery. — ^Van den Branden, 

the younger, born at Antwerp, April 11, 
1664, died there, buried March 14, 1730. 
Flemish school ; flower painter, son and 
pupil of preceding ; master of the guild in 
1677 ; its dean in 1691 ; worked also at 
The Hague, where he seems to have been 
settled in 1706-23. Works : Flower-Pieces 
in the Louvre, Galleries of Aschaflfenburg 
and Schwerin (2), Museums of Antwerp, 
Cologne (2), Hermannstadt, Lille, Stock- 
holm, and Wiesbaden. — Cat du Mus. d'An- 
vers, 529 ; Immerzeel, iii 170 ; Kramm, vi. 
1703 ; Van den Branden, 1139. 

ALEXANDRINE (nee Perignon), bom in 
Paris, April 29, 1805, died there in 1866. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Gros. 
Works : Reading the Bible (1830) ; Charles 
Vn. and Agnes Sorel (1831) ; Rubens as a 
ChUd (1844); Meet (1846); A Thought, A 
Souvenir (1848). — ^Bellier, ii 647 ; Larousse. 
VERDIER, FRANgOIS, bom in Paris in 
1651, died there, 
June 20, 1730. 
French school ; his- 
tory painter, pupil 
of Le Brun, whose 
niece be married, 
and with whom he 
worked upon the 
decorations of the 
Versailles and Tri- 
anon Palaces and the 
Gallery of Apollo in the Louvre. Won the 
grand prix de Rome in 1668. Member of 
Academy, 1678 ; assistant professor, 1681 ; 
professor, 1684. Works : Assumption, Lou- 


Digitized by 



vre ; Cupid Fighting, Cupid at Rest, Tri- 
anon Palace ; Orithyia carried off by Bo- 
reas, Mercury with the Head of Argus, 
Palais de Compi^gne ; Jupiter and Antiope, 
Nantes Museum ; Flight into Egypt, Ni- 
obe's Children pierced by the Arrows of 
Diana and Apollo, Orleans Museum ; David 
and the High Priest, Rennes Museum ; Last 
Supper, Caen Museum ; Baptism of Christ, 
Mythologi- ^^ 

cal Subject, XT/^ I ' 

Hermitage, / £^ €/ /JLJy^^smm 
St Peters- ^ ^^^ ^ 

burg. — ^Bellier, iL 649 ; CL Blanc, ificole 
fran9aise ; Jal, 1250 ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; 
Lejeune, Guide, L 183 ; iii. 272. 

VERDIER, MARCEL, bom in Paris, May 
20, 1817, died there, August, 1856. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Ingres and 
of the £cole des Beaux Arts. Medals : 8d 
class, 1837 ; 2d class, 1848. Works : Holy 
Family, First Criminal Thoughts (1837); 
Philip baptizing the Eunuch (1840) ; Peni- 
tent Magdalen, Death of Archimedes (1842); 
Women and a Secret, Neapolitan Woman 
(1847); See-Saw, Clairvoyante (1848); A 
Mother after the Revolution of 1848, Man 
between Two Ages and his Mistresses 
(1849) ; St. Lawrence, Flower Girl (1850) ; 
Artist's Discouragement, Conscripts Depart- 
ing (1852) ; Scene of Modem Outlawry in 
Clam^cy (1853), Arras Museum ; Christ 
crowned with Thorns, Female Portrait, 
Montpellier Museum ; Male Portrait, Nimes 
Museum. — Bellier, ii. 649 ; Larousse. 

VERDOEL, ADRIAAN, bom at Over- 
mans in 1620, died in 1681. Dutch school ; 
animal painter ; said to have been instruct- 
ed by Bramer and Jacob de Witte, as well as 
by Rembrandt, whose manner he followed. 
Mentioned as member of the guild at Haar- 
lem in 1649. His compositions are ingeni- 
ous, his drawing is correct, and his colour- 
ing powerful In the Schwerin Gallery are 
two pictures vrith Pigs in a Stable. — TSj^- 
vard, A. & A., iv. 88 ; Schlie, 649 ; Yosmaer, 
Rembrandt (ed. 1877), 232 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xvii. 127. 

ably at Antwerp, died at Avignon, March 
31, 1763. Flemish school; battle painter 
of considerable renown, was director of the 
Art School at Marseilles imtil 1744, when he 
went to Turin, accompanied the King of Sar- 
dinia in his campaigns, and after visiting 
several other courts, returned to France 
and settled at Avignon. Works: Siege of 
Saint Guilhain in 1746, Versailles Museum ; 
Charge of Cavalry (2), Marseilles Museum ; 
Italian Landscape with Herd (copy after 
Berchem), Carlsruhe GWlery ; Army Bag- 
gage attacked by the Enemy, Horse Fair, 
Schleissheim Gallery. — Bellier, iL 650 ; 
Kramm, vL 1707. 

werp, baptized Feb, 10, 1662, died there (?). 
Flemish school ; landscape and animal paint- 
er, pupil of his father, Jacob Verdussen ; 
master of the guild in 1697. Works : Land- 
scape with Battle of Eeckeren, City Hall, 
Antwerp ; Mountainous Landscape, Mu- 
seum Plantijn, ib.; Meet of Huntsmen near 
Roman Ruins, Augsburg Gkdlery. — ^Van den 
Branden, 1080. 

VERELST (van Elst), PIETER, bom at 
Antwerp in 1614, died after 1668. Dutch 
school; genre and portrait painter, flour- 
ished about 1648-66 at The Hague, where 
he settled in 1642 ; was one of the found- 
ers of the new guild in 1656, and is men- 
tioned in documents as late as 1668, when, 
full of debts, he fled from his creditors. 
Works : Farm Interior (1643), Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Portrait of Old Lady (1648), Seam- 
stress, Berlin Museum ; lady's Portrait, 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Card Players, Cassel Ghd- 
lery ; Old Man by Coal Fire, Man Reading, 
Dresden Gallery; Dutch Family (1665), 
Haarlem Mu- 
seum ; Peas- 
ants Carous- 
ing, do. Smok- 
ing, Male Por- 
traits (2), Vienna Museum. — Immerzeel, iii 
171 ; Kramm, vi. 1708 ; Kugler (Crowe), iL 



Digitized by 



VERELST, SIMON, bom at The Hague, 
died in London (?) about 1721. Dutch 
school ; flower, fruit, and portrait painter ; 
perhaps son of Pieter Verelst ; mentioned 
as master of The Hague guild in 1666. 
Works : Female Portrait, Louvre ; Flower- 
Piece, Cassel Gallery ; do., Brunswick Gal- 
lery ; Man in Armour (attributed), Dresden 
Gallery; Still-Life, Old Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Flowers, Schleissheim GWlery ; do., 
New York Museum. — Immerzeel, iii 171 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1707 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 441. 

VAN, born in Antwerp, baptized Feb, 19, 
1640, died there, buried Aug. 11, 1691. 
Flemish school ; still-life painter, son and 
pupil of Willem van Verendael ; approached 
Seghers in careful detail and capital draw- 
ing, but is greatly his inferior in power and 
clearness of colour. Master of Antwerp 
guild in 1656. Works : Eucharist, Ant- 
werp Museum ; Flowers, etc., around Cru- 
cifix (1686), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Dead 
Game and Flowers (figures by Teniers), Mon- 
keys at Table (1686), Bouquet, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Garland around Relief of Madonna 
(1670), Berlin Museum; Festoon (1662), 
Schwerin Gallery ; Garland around Bust of 
Pomona, Fruits around Bust of Flora, Still- 
Life, Hermitage, Si Petersburg ; Four Bou- 
quets around Madonna (1662), Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna; Festoon around do., Na- 
ples Museum ; Flower-Pieces in Museums 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Innsbruck ; Gal- 
lery at Carlsruhe (2) ; UfiBzi, Florence. — 

Eramm, vL 1709 ; Michiels, ix. 210 ; Rooses 
(Reber), 433 ; Van.den Branden, 1141. 

VERESCHAGIN, BASIL, bom at Tcher- 
epovets, government of Novgorod, Russia, 
Oct 14 (26), 1842. Battle and genre paint- 
er, pupil of St Petersburg Academy, where 
he won a medal with his first picture ; after 
a visit to Paris, the Pyrenees, and Grermany, 
went to the Caucasus to study Oriental sub- 

jects, and in 1864 to Paris to study under 
G^Tome and at the £cole des Beaux Arts,, 
spending his vaca- 
tions in the Cau- 
casus and on his 
paternal estates, 
where he studied 
the manners of Rus- 
sian peasantry. In 
1867-70 he accom- 
panied General 
Eauf mann to Turk- 
estan, and after a 
summer spent at Antwerp and Brussels, 
went to the East as far as China ; in 1874- 
76 visited India, and on his return settled 
in Paris. Joined the Russian anny dur- 
ing the Russo-Turkish War, was severe- 
ly wounded, but after recovery reached 
Plevna in time to see the fortress stormed. 
After assisting as secretary in the peace ne- 
gotiations he returned to Paris, whence he 
again visited India in 1882 and 1884. The 
realistic painter par excellence of the ter- 
rors of war, he paints his pictures in cycles, 
which he will not allow to be broken up. 
Divided into two main groups — those treat- 
ing of scenery and genre, and those dealing 
with war scenes — his principal works are 
classified by himself in three sections, deal- 
ing with India, with Turkestan, and with the 
Russo-Turkish War. Works: Unexpected 
Attack ; Opium Eaters ; Before Victory ; 
After Defeat ; Defence of the Citadel ; Look- 
ing at the Trophies ; Assault on Plevna ; 
After the Assault ; Apotheosis of War ; For- 
gotten ; Wounded Returning ; Our Prison- 
ers ; Victors ; Vanquished ; All Quiet at 
Shipka ; Snow Trenches on the Shipka ; 
Cycle from Campaign in Turkestan, do. (20) 
from Russo-Turkish War, Moscow Muse- 
um ; Cycle (20) from History of India. A 
series of large paintings is in the TretjakofiP 
Collection at Moscow ; Frescos in the Church 
of the Redeemer, ib. In 1885 he exhibited 
in Vienna 83 paintings, among which were : 
Suppression of Indian Revolt, Entry of 
Prince of Wales into Jeypoor, Pearl Mosque 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


,^ «/nr A ^fi-*Vs,A 

Digitized by 



at Agra, Reception Hall in Palace at Agra, 
Tomb of Abraham, do. of Joseph, do. of 
Samuel, Dead Sea, Well of Jacob, Gilgal, 
Valley of Esdraelon, Source of Oideon, Cave 
of Endor, Wall of Solomon, Place where 
Christ was Baptized, Road to Jordan, Mount 
Tabor, Mount of Temptation, Hermits on 
the Jordan, Holy Family, Christ in the Des- 
ert, do. on Lake Tiberias, The Prophecy, 
Resurrection. — Allgem. K. C, ix. 833, 855,' 
873, 880, 901, 996 ; Art Journal (1885), 9, 
38; Gaz, des B. Arts (1880), xxi -164 ; H- 
lustr. Zeitg. (1882), i. 71, 111 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xvii. 49, 276, 387 ; xxL'273 ; Kunst J. 
Alle, i. 201 ; Nord u. Sud, xxv. 359 ; Reber- 
Pecht, iii 173 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviL 195." 
VERHAE&T (van Haecht), TOBIA!^ 
bom in Antwerp about 1561, died there in 
1631. Flemish school ; landscape and archi- 
tecture painter, master of Antwerp guild in 
1590, its dean in 1595-96 ; went to Italy, 
where be painted in fresco at Florence and 
Rome. Stable as the first master of Ru- 
bens. Works : Mountainous ,Xandscape 
with River (1613), Suermondt Museum, Aix- 
la-Chapelle ; Hunting Adventure of Emper- 
or Maximilian L (1615), Brussels Museum. 

— Immerzeel, iii. 172 ; Eramm, vi;. 1710 ; 
MichielSj vL 343 ; Riegel,.3eitrage, i. 27^ ; 
Rooses (Reber), 151 ; VandenBranden, 383. 
at Aerschot, March 19, 1728, died at Lou- 
vain, April 3, 1811. Histoiy painter, pupil 
of Antwerp Academy under Beschey, but 
formed himself chiefly by studying the works 
of the great masters, of the 17th century. 
In 1744 he settled at Louvain ; in 1771 ap- 
pointed painter to Prince Charles of Lor- 
raine, and sent to France and Italy by the 
Empress Maria Theresa; well received in 
Vienna on his return in 1773 from Rome, 
where he bad been much distinguished by 

Pope Clement XIV., but could not be in- 
duced to stay, and returned to Louvain. 
He was remark- 
able as a colourist 
Works: Hagar 
and Ishmael, Ant- 
werp Museum ; 
Adoration of Ma- 
gi, Brussels Mu- 
seum,; Presenta- 
tion in Temple 
seum; JSt. Stephen, 
King of ^ungary 
receiving* Envoys of' Pope Sylvester H. 
(1776),^ Vienna Museum.— Ch. Blanc, ficole 
flamande ; Immerzeel,. iii. 173 ; EJramm, vL 
1711 ;.Michi^ls^'x: 492. . 

VERHAS, JAJSr] born at Termonde ; con- 
temporary. Genre painter, especially of 
scenes from child life. , Medals at Philadel- 
phia, 1876 ; Brussels, 1878 ; Paris, 2d class, 
1881; Vienna, 1882; Berlin, ISS^.'ISSG. 
Order of Leopold, 1879 ; L. of Honour, 1881. 
Studio in Brussels. Works; May I como 
in? Mother's Portrait; Seashore at Blan- 
kenberghe(187G); Inundation, Studi9(1877); 
Girl in^ the Comer ; Procession of School 
Cliildren (1880), Brussels Museum ; Preco- 
cious *Master~- Painter, Ghent* Museum ; 
Heyst-sur-Mer. (1883) ; Ride ^n. Shore of 
Sea Resort (1884) ; On tli'e Lancling Bridge 
at Blankenberghe (1885). f His brother, 
Frans, paints in a similar manner. "Work : 
The Liou (1874), Ghent Mii'seum.— MtHler, 
534 ; D. Rundschau, 
XX. 471 ; Zeitschr. 
*f, b. K,xvii. 
born at Louvain, 
Marcl) 18, 1806. 
Genre painter, pu- 
^ pil in Paris of Je- 
rome Langlois. 
Medals: Ghent, 
1844 ; Brussels, 1845 ; Order of Leopold. 
Works : Harvest Festival ; Dealer in Plas- 


Digitized by 



ter Figures ; Parson's Maid ; Young Peas- 
ant Woman ; The Dancers (1842) ; Eaves- 
dropper (1850) ; Gh^pe Thieves ; The Arri- 
val (1860) ; Boys* School ; Girls' School— 
Immerzeel, iii 174 ; Kramm, vL 1712. 

at Utrecht, Dec 22, 1778, died there, buried 
Jan. 16, 1846. Landscape painter, first in- 
structed by Osti, a painter of ornaments at 
TJtrecht; then formed himself chiefly by 
careful study of nature and copying after 
Jan van der Hey den and the two Berck- 
Heyde ; painted mostly city views, which are 
to be found in many private collections. 
Member of Amsterdam Academy in 1822. 
Works: Fish Market in Utrecht (1818); 
Geertekerk in Utrecht, City View, Rotter- 
dam Museum. — Immerzeel, iii. 175 ; Kramm, 
vi 1713 ; Nagler, xx. 106. 

SEPH, bom in Antwerp, Aug. 7, 1824. 
Genre painter, pupil of Leys and of Ant- 
werp Academy. Several Medals. For ten 
years president of section of Fine Arts in 
Cercle artistique at Antwerp. Works: 
Foundation of Brotherhood in Antwerp ; 
Letter to Godfather (1856) ; Card Players 
(1861) ; Weeuix in his Studio ; Return from 
Mexico ; Still-Life (1873).— Mttller, 534. 
VERKOLJE, JAN, bom in Amsterdam, 
Feb. 9, 1650, died 
at Delft, buried 
May 8, 1693. 
Dutch school ; por- 
trait and genre 
painter, pupil of 
Jan Lievens, but 
nevertheless a 
painter of high fin- 
ish. He composed 
with taste, his 
drawing is tolerable, his colour warm and 
clear, and his execution is tender and soft 
Works : Mother and Child (1675), Louvre ; 
Sportsman (1672), Rotterdam Museum ; Mu- 
sical Assembly (1673), Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Portraits of Willem HL. and Consoii 


(attributed), Haarlem Museum ; Lady and 
Trumpeter (1678), Old Emit Vender and 
Boy, Dresden Gallery ; Musical Assembly, 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Lady and Mu- 
sician at Piano (1674), Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Cupid and Psyche, Liechtenstein Gallery, 
Vienna ; Musical Assembly (1673), Vertum- 
nus and Pomona (1678), Worlitz Gallery. — 
Immerzeel, iii. 177 ; Kramm, vi. 1723 ; Ku- 
gler (Crowe), ii 414 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiv. 
in 1673, died in 
Amsterdam, Jan. 21, 
1746. Dutch school; 
history, genre, and 
portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Jan 
Verkolje ;" imitated 
the style of Van der 
Werff in his his- 
torical pictures. 
Works: Proserpine 
culling Flowers, Louvre; Male Portrait, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Declined Booty, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Toilet of Herse, Copenhagen 
Galleiy ; Return from the Chase, Christi- 
auia Gallery. — Lnmerzeel, iii. 178 ; Kramm, 
vi. 1724. 

VERLAT, CHARLES, bora in Antwerp 
in 1824. History, portrait, and animal 
painter, pupil of Antwerp Academy and of 
Nicaise de Keyser ; studied in Paris, became 
director of the Weimar Art School in 1869, 
aftei'wards professor at Antwerp Academy, 
and in 1885 was appointed its director. 
Visited the East in 1875-77. Ranks high as 
an animal painter. Medals: 3d class, Paris, 
1853 ; 2d class, 1855, 1861 ; 1st class, 1878 ; 
L. of Honour, 1868. Order of Leopold, 
1855 ; Officer, 1866. Works ; Godfrey de 
Bouillon in Sight of Jerusalem (1855) ; Ma- 
donna; Mater Dolorosa (1866); Marriage 
at Cana ; Vox Populi, Vox Dei ; Holy Fam- 
ily (1868) ; The Jews Crying for Barabbas ; 
Portraits of Himself, of Friedrich Preller 
(1870), of Franz Liszt (1871), Weimar Mu- 
seum ; of Grand Duchess of Saxe- Weimar ; 

Digitized by 



Rabbit Hunt (1866) ; Dog at Bay (1869) ; 
Avidity ; Bad Neighbours ; Quarrelling over 
the Booty; Wolf Hunt; Monkey shaving 
before L(Grror ; Dogs waiting for the Start ; 
Shepherdess with her Flock ; First Snow ; 
Not Invited I Reynard in Hope ; Reynard 
Deceived ; Storming of Jerusalem, Dog de- 
fending Herd against Eagle, Brussels Mu- 
seum ; BufiGftloes attacked by Tiger, Zoologi- 
cal Garden, Amsterdam ; Dog and Parrot, 
Rooster and Chickens disturbed by Fox, 
Museum Fodor, ib. ; Ecce Homo, Cruci- 
fixion (1885) ; Lost the Track, Boar Hunt 


(Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886).— Ulustr. 
Zeitg. (1870), L 270 ; Kunst-Ohronik, v. 74 ; 
xiiL 329 ; Mtlller, 534 ; Reber-Pecht, iii 95 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K., vL 25, 104 ; xx. 570, 700. 

at Winoxbergen, France, J^uary, 1801. 
History painter, pupil of Bruges Academy 
under Ducq, of Antwerp Academy imder 
Van Br^, and in Paris of Gu6rin ; settled in 
Antwerp, where he became professor at the 
Academy in 1829 ; painted the great tri- 
umphal arch for the Rubens festival in 
1840, for which the city of Antwerp award- 
ed him a medaL Member of Royal Society 
of Fine Arts in Antwerp in 1830, of Royal 
Society of Sciences and Arts in 1834. 
Works: Interior of Studio (1827) ; Death of 
St Louis ; Repose in Egypt ; Christ and 
the Woman of Samaria ; Blind Man led by 
his Daughter. — Immerzeel, iiL 179. 


YERMEER (van der Meer van Delft), 
JOHANNES, bom at Delf fc, baptized Oct 
31, 1632, died there, buried Dec 15, 1675. 
Dutch school ; portrait, genre, landscape, 
and still-life painter, pupil of Earel Fabri- 
tius, and further developed under the influ- 
ence of Rembrandt. Master of the guild of 

Delft in 1653, and was its dean in 1662- 
63 and 1670-71. One of the greatest col- 
ourists, excelling in admirable light effects. 
Works: Music Lesson (attributed to Jan 
Steen), Woman peeling Fruit (attributed to 
Pieter de Hooch), Lord Hertford, London ; 
Lace Maker, Louvre ; Soldier and Laugh- 
ing Girl, Double Collection, Paris; Pearl 
Weigher, Perier Collection, ib. ; Geographer, 
do. (1665), Pereire Gallery, ib.; Portrait of 
Young Girl, Arenberg Gallery, Brussels; 
Guitar Player, Cremer Collection, ib.; View 
of Delft, Hague Museum ; Woman Reading, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Milkmaid, House in 
Delft, Six GWlery, ib. ; Entrance to Forest 
(attributed to Jacob van Ruisdael), Basle 
Museum ; Girl with Wineglass (La Co- 
quette), Brunswick Gallery ; Rustic Cottage 
(now claimed for D. J. van der Laen, 1759- 
1829), Boy blowing Bubbles, Young Lady 
with Pearl Necklace, Berlin Museum ; Cour- 
tesan (1656), Girl reading Letter, Dresden 
Gallery; Geographer (1669), Stadel Gal- 
lery, Frankfort; Woman peeling Apple 
for ChUd (attributed to Terburg), Still- 
Life (1659), Museum, Vienna ; The Prome- 
nade, Academy, ib.; Family Reunion, Artist 
in his Studio (attributed to Pieter de 
Hooch), Entrance to Grove, Czemin Gal- 
lery, ib.; Landscapes (2), Hermitage, St. 
Petersburg ; Tavern Interior with Soldiers 
(attributed to Jan Le Ducq), Borghese Gal- 
lery, Rome.— / ^ . ^ 

daise ; Burger, Mus6es, i. 272 ; iL 67 ; 
Dohme, IiL; Gaz. des R Arts (1866), xxL 
297, 458, 542 ; (1883), xxviL 389 ; xxviii 
213 ; Kramm, vi. 1725 ; Kugler (Crowe), iL 
381 ; Eunst-Chronik, xviiL 68 ; xzL 234 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, iL 167 ; iiL 262 ; iv. 140, 
360; X. 34; xL (Mittheilungen, iv. 11). 

Maldeghem, near Ghent, Jan. 9, 1810, died 
in Munich, May 24, 1852. Architecture 
painter, pupil of Ghent Academy under P. 
F. de Noter ; settled in 1841 at Munich, 
whence he visited Italy several timea 


Digitized by 



Works: Fish Market in Ghent (1826); 
Dominican Church and Monastery, ib. 
(1829); Ruins of St Macarius', ib.; do. of 
St Bavon's Abbey, ib. (1830); Market 
Square at Brunswick ; Views in Bruges, 
Mentz, Limburg, etc.; View in Venice, 
Carlsruhe GaUery ; Harbour View (1842), 
Canal Grande in Venice (1851), City Gate 
of Perugia (1850), Street in Italian Town 
(1845), Tower and Bridge at Andemach 
(1846), New Pinakothek, Munich; City 
Gate and Bridge at Coblentz, Stuttgart 
Museum. — Immerzeel, iiL 180 ; Kramm, vL 
1728 ; N. NecroL d. D. (1852). 
at Ringsted, Zea- 
land, May 12, 1823. 
Genre, landscape, 
and portrait painter, 
pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy ; took part 
in the campaign of 
1848; visited Italy 
in 1855, 1857, and 
1862, Holland and 
France in 1862, and 
became member of Copenhagen Academy in 
1864 and professor in 1873. Danebrog 
Order, 1869. Works: Cobbler in his 
Kitchen; Woman Spinning ; Peasant Wom- 
an bringing Coffee to her Mother (1851) ; 
Bread Seller (1851, 1852) ; Jutland Shep- 
herd (1853); Farewell of Reserve Soldier 
(1849), Street in Italian Town (1857), Sow- 
ers (1859), Domestic Occupation (1860), 
Beggar Children in Farm Kitchen (1861), 
Farmyard (1865), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Portrait of the Painter Sonne (1870) ; Man 
filUng his Pipe (1882); Young Man of 
Eighteenth Century (1883) ; Portrait of 
G^eneral Jonquieres (1883), Frederiksborg 
Gallery.— Sigurd Mttller, 365; Weilbach, 

drecht in* 1763, died at Amsterdam in 1814. 
Landscape and marine painter, son and 
pupil of Comelis Vermeulen (1732-1813) ; 
painted especially winter scenes enlivened 

by many figures, and of pleasing colouring. 
Works : Winter Day on Dutch River with 
Skaters, Copenhagen Gallery ; do. (1800), 
Winter Sunday in a Village (1800), Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Boat with Load of Pigs 
crossing Frozen River, Gotha Museum, 
where is also a Landscape with Cows and 
Sheep by his father. — Immerzeel, iiL 130 ; 
Kramm, vL 1728. 

VERMEYEN (Vermay, Vermayen), JAN 
CORNEUSZ, called El Mayo, and Juan de 
Barbalonga, bom at Beverwyck, near Haar- 
lem, in 1500, died in Brussels in 1559. 
Flemish school ; history, portrait, and land- 
scape painter ; in the service of Margaret of 
Austria in 1529 ; summoned to Spain in 
1534 by Charles V., whom he accompanied 
to Tunis, where he drew the Siege of Tunis 
and other events of the campaign. From 
these drawings he executed several pictures, 
now in the Castle of Coburg, and ten large 
coloured cartoons (for tapestries), now in 
the Vienna Museum. Afterwards he visited, 
with Charles V., Naples, Germany, and 
Flanders. His pictures in the Brussels Ca- 
thedral were ruined by the Iconoclasts, 
and various highly esteemed landscapes, in 
the Palace of the Prado, Madrid, were 
burned in 1608. In the gallery of Marchese 
Mansi at Lucca are : Battle of Pavia (1525), 
Taking of Rome (1527), and Siege of Tunis 
(1535).— Engerth, Gem. der Belvedere Gel,, 
ii. 522 ; Immerzeel, iii. 181 ; Jahrb. der 
Eunsthisi Sammlg. des Allerh5chsten Eai- 
serh., iL 145 ; Kramm, vL 1729 ; Eugler 
(Crowe), L 236; Siret (1883), il 368; Wau- 
ters, Peinture flam., 138. 

Fontainebleau, July 12, 1648, died in Par- 
is, April 9, 1729. French school ; history 
painter, pupil of Le Brun ; received into the 
Academy in 1687, adjunct professor in 1695, 
professor in 1704; travelled for several 
years, painted in 1716 at Bonn for the 
Elector of Cologne, then in Italy, chiefly 
at Padua, where several of his works may 
still be seen. Works: Renovation of the 
Edict of Nantes (1687), Versailles Museum ; 


Digitized by 



Daughter of Jairus (1689), formerly in the 
Louvre ; Si Maurice and Companions, An- 
gers Museum; St Bathilda sold to the 
Mayor of Archambault Palace (1700), Feast 
in Olympus (1709), Bacchus consigned to 
the Nymphs, Bacchus crowning Ariadne 
(attributed), Orleans Museum; Jurispru- 
dence (allegory), Benne Museum ; Immacu- 
late Conception (fresco), San Canziano, 
Padua ; Birth of the Virgin, Presentation of 
the Virgin, St Ann's, ib. ; Nativity, Presen- 
tation of the Virgin, Santa Clara, ib. ; 
Scourging of Christ, The Paradise (ceiling), 
San Gaetano, ib. ; Christ on Mount of Olives, 
San Leonardo, ib. ; Christ on the Cross 
healing a Wound of St Pellegrino Lariosi, 
Servites, ib.; Birth of the Virgin (1720), 
Nativity (1722), Church of Torresino, ib. ; 
Magdalen (2), S. Maria de' Miracoli, Bome. 
— Bellier, iu 652 ; Biog. univ., x]iiL 190. 

(HOBACE), called 
Carle, bom at Bor- 
deaux, Aug. 14, 
1758, died in Paris, 
Nov. 27, 1836. 
History and ani- 
mal painter, son 
and pupil of Joseph 
Vemet and pupil 
of L6pici6; won 
second prize in 
1779, for his Abigail bearing Presents to 
David, and first prize in 1782, for his Prodi- 
gal Son. In Italy he became a prey to 
melancholy and wished to become a monk, 
but being called back to Prance, resumed 
the brush and painted the Triumph' of Paulus 
-aEmilius (1789), in which he broke with tra- 
dition and represented horses as he saw 
them. Under the Directory he painted mili- 
tary scenes ; accompanied the First Consul 
to Italy and painted the Battle of Marengo 
(1804), and the Morning of Austerlilz (1808), 
both in the Vei^ailles Museum ; and under 
the Bestoration produced hunting scenes, 
genre pictures, and landscapes. Member 
of Academy, 1789; member of Institute, 

1809 ; L. of Honour, 1808 ; Officer, 1831 ; 
Order of St Michael, 1827. Works: Char- 
iot Baces at Funeral of Patroclus (1793); 
Conqueror in the Chariot Baces returning 
Home (1800); Bombardment of Madrid 
(1810), Versailles Museum ; Battle of Bivoli 
(1810) ; Exercises at Franconi ; Beview in 
the Place du Carrousel; Imperial Hunt 
(1812); Portrait of the Due d*Angoul6me, 
Louis XVHL hunting at Bambouillet (1818) ; 
Stag Hunt of Due de Berry at Sevres, De- 
livery of Vienna by Sobieski (1819); Due 
d'Enghien's Dog (1821) ; Capture of Pam- 
peluna (1824), Versailles Museum; Deer 
Hunt in Woods of Meudon (1827), Louvre ; 
Greek Horseman fighting a Lion, Amiens 
Museum ; Cossacks in Bivouac, Neuf chatel 
Museum. — Bellier, ii. 656 ; Ch. Blanc, 
!^cole fran9aise, iiu; Durande, Joseph, 
Carle et Horace Vemet (Paris, 1865) ; Jal, 
1256 ; Journal des Artistes (1836), xx. 378 ; 
Larousse, — 399 ; Lemonnier, Notes biog. 
sur Carle et Horace V. (Paris, 1864) ; Meyer, 
Gesch,137;^^ ^ y 

tremere de Quincy, Notice hist sur la vie, 
etc. (Paris, 1837). 

Avignon, Aug. 14, 
1712, died in Paris, 
Dec. 23, 1789. 
French school ; 
marine painter, son 
and pupil of An- 
1753, decorative 
painter), and pupil 
of Adrien Mang- 
lard ; went to Bome 
in 1732 and studied with Fergioni, Panini, 
and Sohmena. He became the first marine 
painter in Europe, and was patronized by 
many com*ts. After an absence qf twenty 
years he returned to Paris in 1753, became 
a member of the Academy the same year, 
and a councillor in 1766. Commissioned 
by the King to paint all the seaports of 


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France, he completed fifteen of the twenty, 
when he became wearied of travelling and 
settled in Paris. Works : Entrance to Port 
of MarseiUes (1754), Interior of do. (1754), 
Gulf of Bandol (1755), New Harbour of 
Toulon (1756); City and Roadstead of Tou- 
lon (1756), Old Harbour of Toulon (1756), 
Roadstead of Antibes (1756), Port of Cette 
(1757), City and Port of Bordeaux (1758), 
do. from Castle of Trompette (1759), Ciiy 
and Port of Bayonne (1761), do. from Bouf- 
fler's Road (1761), Port of La Rochelle 
(1762), Port of Rochefort (1762), Port of 
Dieppe (1765), Cascades of Tivoli, Environs 
of Rome, Environs of Marseilles (2), Bi-idge 
and Castle of St. Angelo in Rome, Ponte 
Rotto in Rome, and many others. Louvre ; 
Hunt on Lago di Patria near Naples (1749), 
Versailles Museum; others in Palais de 
Compi^gne (4), in Museums of Aix, Angers, 
Besan9on, Bordeaux, Caen, Chartres, Cher- 
bourg, Dijon, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Mont- 
pellier (4), Nantes (6), Nimes, Orleans, Rouen 
(3),Toulon, The Hague (2); Shipwreck (1780), 
Basle Museum ; Temple of the Sibyl at Ti- 
voli (1751), Berlin Museum; Fishermen and 
Washerwomen (1 737), Harbour of Marseilles, 
Gotha Museum ; View of an Inlet (2, 1748, 
1760), do. of Imperial Palaces in Rome at 
Evening, Harbour in the Mist at Sunrise, 
Seaport Town burning by Moonlight (1748), 
Storm at Sea (2, 1760, 1770), Old Pinakothek, 
Munich; Italian Seaports (6, three dated 
1758, 1761, 1769), Shipwreck (1763), Storm 
'at Sea (2; 1765, 1778), Death of Virginie 
(scene from "Paul et Virginie," 1789), seven 
others (three dated 1761, 1769), Hermitage, 
St Petersburg ; View of Rome, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; others in Galleries and Museums of 
Aschaflfenburg, Bamberg, Carlsruhe (2), Cas- 
sel, Christiania, Cologne, Dresden, Hamburg 
(2, one dated 1787), Nuremberg, Schleiss- 
heim (3), Stuttgart (2), Madrid (5), Liech- 
tenstein (4), Harrach (6, 1760, 1751, 1752), 
and Czemin Galleries, Vienna ; Uffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Accademia di S. Luca, Rome ; Palazzo 
Borghese, ib. (8) ; National Gallery, Lon- 
don (2), and Dulwich Gallery. — L'Art (1876), 

iii 254, 307; (1877), viiL 73; BelHer, iL 
652; Biog. univ., xliiL 199; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole fran9aise, iL ; Colbum'sNew Monthly 
Mag., cxxxiii. 344; Durande, as above; 
£m^rio-David, Not hist sur les chefis- 
d'oeuvre, etc. (1862), 309 ; Houssaye, Hisi 
de Tart fr. au xviii si^e, 284 ; Jal, 1256 ; 
Lagrange, Jo& V. et la peint au xviiL siecle, 

Joseph 14rtut 

(Paris, 1864) ; Nouvelle biog. g^n., xlvi 3 ; 
Portfolio, iiL 98; Rev. dea Deux Mondes 
(1862), xiv. 109. 
bom in Paris, June 
80, 1789, died 
there, Jan. 17, 1863. 
History and genre 
painter, son and 
pupil of Carle Ver- 
net, and pupil of 
Moreau and Vin- 
cent When fifteen 
years old he sup- 
ported himself by 
his drawing& In 
1810 he exhibited his Capture of a Re- 
doubt, in which he gave up the classical 
style of David and thenceforth represented 
nature with great trutL In 1812 he won a 
first medal by his Taking of an Intrenched 
Camp. In 1814 Napoleon decorated him 
with the Cross of the Legion of Honour for 
gallant conduct at the defence of the Bar- 
ri^re de Clichy, which he subsequently 
painted (1820). Notwithstanding his Bona- 
partist tendencies he received many honours 
after the Restoration, especially under Louis 
Philippe. In 1826 he became a member of 
the Institute ; in 1828-1839 he was director 
of the French Academy in Rome. Visited 
Algeria in 1833-35, St Petersburg in 1836, 
1838, and 1842, Algeria again in 1837, 1846, 


Digitized by 



and 1853, and Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and 
Turkey in 1839-40. Officer L. of Honour, 
1825; Commander, 1842; Grand Officer, 
1862 ; Medal of Honour, Paris Exhibition 
1855. Vemet painted successfully military, 
oriental, and biblical scenes, but after 1836 
he devoted himself chiefly to battle-pieces 
and pieces iUustrative of Arab life in Al- 
geria. With wonderful facility of invention 
and execution, he had little imagination or 
depth of feeling. He is nevertheless to be 
classed among the great French painters on 
account of the change which he wrought 
from pseudo-classicism to that observation 
and close study of nature which characterize 
the modem schools. Works : Taking of In- 
trenched Camp at Glatz (1812) ; Dog of the 
Regiment ; Horse with the Trumpet (1814) ; 
Battle of Tolosa (1817), Versailles Museum ; 
Massacre of Mamelukes (1819) ; Defence of 
Paris in 1814 (1820), Louvre; Battle of 
Jemappes, The Working Soldier, Soldier of 
Waterloo, Last Cartridge, Camoens saving 
his Manuscripts from Shipwreck, Scenes 
from Moli^re's Plays (5), Artist's Studio, 
Death of Poniatowski, Defence of Saragossa, 
Joseph Vemet bound to the Mast (1822) ; 
Beview on Champ de Mars (1824), Versailles 
Museum ; Mazeppa (1825), Vaucluse Mu- 
seum ; Mazeppa (1826), Avignon Museum ; 
Last Hunt of Louis XVL at Fontainebleau 
(1827) ; Julius IL directing the Building of 
the Vatican (ceiling in the Louvre) ; Bridge 
of Arcole; Escape of Lavalette, Edith 
searching for Body of Harold (1828) ; Mag- 
dalen Penitent (1828), Leipsic Museiun ; 
Pope Leo XTT. carried to the Basilica of St 
Peter (1829), Versailles Museum ; Battles of 
Jemappes and Valmy, Brigands and Cara- 
bineers, Brigand Confessing, Hunting in the 
Pontine Marshes, Meeting of Raphael and 
Michelangelo, Arrest of the Princes by 
Order of Anne of Austria (1829) ; Judith 
and Holofernes (1830), Louvre ; Campaign 
in France ; Slave Market (1836), National 
Gallery, Berlin; Soldier as Nurse, Baven^ 
Gktllery, ib. ; Portrait of the Emperor Nicho- 
las, do. on Horseback, Capture of Warsaw 

(1842) ; The Carrousel in May, 1842, Capt- 
ure of Wola (1844) ; Capture of the Smala 
of ^W-el-Kader (1844), Battle of Isly (1845); 
Capture of Bome (1851), VersaUles Muse- 
um ; Joseph sold by his Brethren, Betum 
from Lion Hunt, Hunting wild Sheep in 
Morocco, Mass in Eabylia (1852); Eques- 
trian Portrait of Napoleon HI, Incident of 
Crimean War (1855) ; Battles of Bouvines, 
Fontenoy, Jena, Friedland, and Wagram 
(1836), Siege of Constantine (3, 1838, 1839), 
French Fleet forcing Entrance into the Ta- 
jo. Attack of Citadel of Antwerp (1840), En- 
try of French Army into Belgium in 1831 
(1841), Occupation of Ancona in 1832, 
Taking of Bougie, do. of Fort Saint Jean 
dTJlloa (1841), seven others, Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Expulsion of Hagar (1839), The Dead 
Bide fast, Nantes Museum ; Portraits of 
Marshals Gbuvion Saint Cyr (1824), Molitor 
(1833), Bosquet, Canrobert, Bandon (1857), 
MacMahon, Versailles Museum; Marshal 

Vaillant, Dijon Museum ; General Drouot, 
Nancy Museum. His works number about 
800.— Art Journal (1863), 52; L'Artiste 
(1842), i. 357; (1854), xiv. 62; (1857), ii 
177 ; Les Beaux Arts, vi. 3, 4, & 5, livr. ; 
Bellier, ii. 657 ; Bertholon and Lhote, H V. 
ii Versailles, au Luxembourg et au Louvre 
(Paris, 1863) ; Beul6, :filoge de H. V. (Paris, 
1863) ; Biog. univ., xliii 208 ; Ch. Blanc, 
]^cole fran9aise, iii. ; Claretie, Peintres, etc. 
(1874), 65 ; La critique franyaise, Feb. 15, 
1863 ; Durande, as above ; £tienne de Joux 
and Jay, Salon d*H V. (Paris, 1822) ; Fine 
Arts Quarterly, ii 126 ; Fourcault de Pa- 
vant, H V. (Versailles, 1863) ; Goupil-Fes- 
quet. Voyage en Orient fait avec H V. 
^aris, 1843) ; Hamerton, French Painters, 
30 ; LUlustration, Dec. 25, 1847 ; June 10, 
1848 ; Sept 1, 1849 ; Feb. 21, 1851 ; Jan. 
24, 1863 ; Jal, 1257 ; Jordan (1885), ii 231 ; 
Journal des Debats, Jan. 24, 1863 ; Larousse ; 
Laurent^ L^gendes d'atelier (Paris, 1859) ; 
Lom^nie, Galerie des contemporains, H V. 
(Paris, 1842); Meyer, Gesch., 188, 424; 
Mirecourt, Les Contemporains, H V. (Paris, 
1855-67) ; Moniteur, Jan. 23, 1863; ^{ou- 

Digitized by 



velle biog. g6n., xlvL 9; Pietsch, H. V. 
Album (Berlin, 1864) ; La Presse, Feb. 5, 
1863 ; Rees, H. V. (London, 1880) ; Revue 
artistique et litt6raire, Feb. 1, 1863, seq.; 
Rev. des DeuxMondes (1863), xliv. 76 ; Rev. 
du Nord de la France, iv. 312 ; Silvestre, 
Lettres intimes de H. V. (Paris, 1856) ; La- 
rousse ; Meyer, Gesch., 188 ; Fine Arts 
Quarterly, ii. 126 ; fi. de Mirecourt, Horace 
Vemet (Paris, 1858). 

Paris in 1821. Genre painter, pupil of 
Horace Vemet and L^on Cogniet. Medals : 
3d class, 1846, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 1864. 
Works : Appeal to Neptune, Lille Museum ; 
Agamemnon's Body-Guard ; Ajax ; Job and 
his Friends ; Endiuring and Passing Love ; 
Fellah Girl ; Moorish Girl opening a Pome- 
granate ; Happy Future, Idyl of Mount Li- 
banus (1880).— BelHer, L 958. 

Lons-le-Saulnier (Jura). Landscape paint- 
er and lithographer, pupil of Collette. Paints 
in the style of Corot. Medals : 1869, 1870. 
Works: View near Besan9on, River Ain 
(1864) ; Park of Champigny (1865) ; Street 
in Champigny, View of Champigny (1866) ; 
River I>oubs,RoadintheWoods(1867); Vil- 
lage of Avane, River Loire (1868) ; View at 
Cleron, River Lou6 (1869) ; Farm at Vaucotte, 
Beach near ifitretat (1870) ; Boat No. 774 of 
Yport, Beach of Yporfc (1872) ; Return to 
Yport, Low Tide (1873); The Martigues, 
Dry Dock in Marseilles, Cancale Boats 
(1874) ; Return of the Bas-de-FEau (1875) ; 
Tower of the Weeping Women, Country 
People of Wiessant (1876) ; Boats drying 
their Sails (1877) ; Before the Squall, Farm- 
yard at Attainville (1878) ; Women gather- 
ing Sea-Weed at Yport, The Seine at Bercy 
in Winter (1879) ; Selling Shells (1880) ; 
Gathering Sea-ViTeed at Concameau, The 
Downs of Roscoff (1881) ; Shrimp Fishers 
of Grand Champ, Launch of a Sloop (1882) ; 
Breton Team, The Thames at London (1883); 
Low Tide at Concameau, The Thames at 
London (1884) ; Spring-Tide in ComwaU, 
Moming, ib. (1885) ; Embarking of Fisher- 

men, Return of Vessels in Stormy Weather 
(1886).— Larousse ; UArt (1879), xvi. 310 ; 
Bellier, ii. 661. 

chiy Alessandro. 

fazio, Veronese. 

VERONESE, PAOLO, bom in Verona in 

1528, died in 
Venice, April 
19, 1588. Ve- 
netian school ; 
real name Paolo 
Caliari or Ca- 
gliari, son of 
Gkibriele Calia- 
ri, a sculptor; 
pupil of his un- 
/ cle Antonio 

Badile, according to Ridolfi, and of Giovan- 
ni Caroto, according to Vasari. After paint- 
ing in Verona and in Mantua he established 
himself in Venice, where he executed most 
of his works. In 1563 he visited Rome in 
the suite of the Venetian ambassador, but 
the study of the pictures of the great masters 
there did not affect his style. On his return 
to Venice he gained great reputation by 
many pictures and frescos painted in the 
Palazzo Ducale and in churches, especially 
in S. Sebastiano. As Titian was then very 
old, Veronese shared with Tintoretto the 
most important commissions. He received 
orders from the Emperor Rudolph H, the 
Duke of Savoy, and the Duke of Modena, 
and was invited by PhiUp IL to decorate 
the Escorial ; but preferring to remain in 
Venice, he sent Federico Zuccaro to Spain 
in his stead. With all his skill, splendid 
use of colour, and &cile conunand of the 
resources of painting for decorative pur- 
poses, Veronese seems superficial when 
compared with Titian. He gives us the 
glitter, the pomp, the outward aspect of 
Venetian life, making it the medium for the 
representation of sacred as well as profane 
subjects ; but while he thus fascinates the 
eye he does not^ like Titian, move the feel- 


Digitized by 



ings or reyeal to the mind the hidden springs 
of character. He fills his canvases with 
men and women, in the rich costumes of 
the time, sitting or standing near heavy- 
laden banqueting tables, relieyed against 
modem architectural backgrounds, and sur- 
rounded by musicians, pages, attendants, 
dogs, birds, and other objects, grouped in 
the foreground with masterly effect. His 
children are charming, his women models 
of sensuous beauty, his mytholo^cal sub- 
jects are especially well treated, and his por- 
traits are remarkably life-like. Among his 
works are ; Rape of Europa, Venice En- 
throned, Venice with Justice and Peace, and 
others, Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; Supper of 
St. Gregory, Convent of Monte Berico, Vi- 
cenza ; Venice and Doge Sebastian Venier ; 
Feast in House of Levi, Annunciation, Vir- 
gin and St Dominick, Madonna with Saints, 
Assumption, Venice Academy; Martyrdom 
of Si Sebastian, Martyrdom of SS. Mark 
and Marcellinus, Madonna and Saints, Bap- 
tism of Christ, Two Marys, and others, S. 
Sebastiano, Venice; Fall of Manna, SS. 
Apostoli, ib. ; Marriage of St. Catherine, S. 
Caterina, ib. ; Martyrdom 6f St. Oeorge, S. 
Giorgio Maggiore, Verona; Martyrdom of 
St Afra, S. Afra, Brescia; Martyrdom of 
St Justina, S. Giustina, Padua; Baptism 
of Christ, Separation of Christ, Marys at the 
Sepulchre, Presentation in Temple, St Bene- 
dict, Veronese's Wife, Pitti, Florence ; Martyr- 
dom of St Justina, Annunciation, -ffoZy Fami- 
ly, Esther before Ahasuerus, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Feast in House of the Pharisee, St ATiihony, 
Marriage at Cana, Adoration of Magi, Brera, 
Milan ; Judith, Palazzo Brignole-Sale, Gen- 
oa; Marriage of St Catherine, Susanna, 
Accademia di S. Luca, Rome ; Rape of Eu- 
ropa, Magdalen, Capitol ; Venus and Cupid, 
John the Baptist, Palazzo Borghese; St 
Helena, Vatican ; Queen of Sheba and Solo- 
mon, Feast in House of Simon the Pharisee, 
Finding of Moses, Turin GaUery ; Adoration 
of Magi, Madonna with Saints, Marriage at 
Cana, Procession to Calvary, Stisanna, Find- 
ing of Moses, Centurion before Christy Sup- 

per at Emmaus, Presentation in Temple, Leda 
and the Swan, Dresden Gallery ; Repose in 
Egypt, Adoration of Magi, Death of Cleo-- 
patra, Munich Gallery ; Christ in House of 
Jairus, Adoration of Magi, Annunciation, 
Judith, St. Jerome, Vienna Museum ; Mar- 
riage at Cana, Jupiter destroying Crimes, 
Feast in House of the Pharisee, Supper at 
Emmaus, Bebekah (?), Esther before Ahasue- 
rus, Susanna, Lot and his Daughters, Ma- 
donna with Saints (2), Louvre ; Venus and 
Adonis, Christ and Centurion, Christ and 
Doctors, Magdalen, Madonna with Saints, 
Marriage at Cana, Susanna, Cain and his 
Wife, Finding of Moses, Calvary, Woman 
taken in Adultery, and others, Madrid Mu- 
seum; Repose in Egypt, Pietd, Mars and 
Venus, Holy Family and St Catherine, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg ; Adoration of Magi, 
Vision of St Helena, Family of Darius, Con- 
secration of St Nicholas, National Gkllery, 
London ; Mars and Venus, Venus and Ado- 
nis, National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Meixury 
and Hers6, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge ; 
Hercules led by Wisdom, Veronese between 
Virtue and Vice, Hope Collection, London ; 
Leda and the Swan, Munro Butler-Johnstone 
Collection, ib. ; Death of Adonis, Judgment 
of Solomon, Bridgewater House, ib. ; Supper 
at Emmaus, Stafford House, ib. ; Adoration 
of Magi, Devonshire House, ib. ; Judgment 
of Paris, Earl of Wemyss, ib. ; Happy Love, 
Infidelity, Respect, Disgust, Cobham Hall, 
near Rochester, England. — 
Vasari, ed. Le Mon., ix. 185; 
xL 249, 337 ; ed. MiL, vi. 369 ; 
Baldinucci, ii. 431 ; Ridolfi, Ma- 
raviglie, ii 1 ; Burckhardt, 82, 246, 745, 752 ; 
Dohme, 2m. ; Ch. Blanc, £cole v^nitienne ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, v. 196 ; xii 357 ; xiii. 
388 ; xiv. 64. 

VICE, Paolo Veronese, Hope Collection, 
London ; canvas, H 6 ft 8 in. x 5 ft. 2 in. 
A man, said to be Veronese himself, flees 
from a woman with the hands of a harpy, 
holding a pack of cards, to embrapse Virtue, 
represented by a beautiful woman. From 

loiua jDiau, 


Digitized by 



Orleans Gallery; sold in 1793 for £500. 
Engraved by K Deplaces. — Cab. Crozat, ii. 
PL 23 ; Waagen, Treasures, ii. 113, 498. 

VERONESE'S WIFE, portrait, Paolo 
Veronese, Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, 
oval, H. 2 ft. 6 in. X 1 fi 11 in. Bust, full 
face ; black dress, white embroidered veil, 
and pearl necklace. Half figure. — Cat Pal. 

VERONICA, THK See Ecce Homo, 

VERRIO, ANTONIO, bom in Naples in 
1634, died at Hampton Court, England, 
June 17, 1707. Histoiy painter ; after 
painting for a while at Toulouse, France, 
where he executed an altarpiece for the 
Church of the Carmelites, he went to Eng- 
land in 1671, at the invitation of Charles 
IL, who employed him in the decoration of 
Windsor Castle. He was paid nearly £7,000 
for bis work there, in which he was contin- 
ued by James H. In the great hall of Christ's 
Hospital is a work by him ninety feet long, 
representing the governor with the officers 
and children returning thanks to that mon- 
arch for the hospital charter. At the time 
of the Revolution he refused to work for 
William HE., but after employment at Chats- 
worth and at Burleigh he painted his well- 
known work, the great staircase at Hamp- 
ton Court. — Redgrave. 
Florence in 1435, died 
in Venice, June 25, 
1488. Florentine 
school ; real name An- 
drea da Michele di 
Francesco de* Cioni. 
Like Antonio Polla- 
juolo, he was a gold- 
smith, sculptor, and 
worker in bronze, as 
well as a painter. The 
only example of his pictorial work, the Bap- 
tism of Christy in the Florence Academy, 
shows that he combined the peculiarities of 
Fra Pilippo, of Andrea del Castagno, and of 
Domenico Veneziano. His modelling is 

conscientious, but his drapery is lifeless. 
Verrocchio was the master of Leonardo da 
Vinci and of Lorenzo di Credi. — C. & C, 
Italy, ii. 400 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., v. 139 ; 
ed. Mil, iii. 357 ; Burckhardt, 134, 351, 
357 ; Ltibke, Gesch. itaL Mai., L 316. 

TJS, bom in Antwerp, April 28, 1803, died 
there. May 30, 1863. History, portrait, and 
landscape painter, pupil of Herreyns ; formed 
himself after old French and Italian masters 
in England, France, Germany, especially at 
Munich, and in Italy. Member of Antwerp 
Academy in 1837. Professor ; Order of Leo- 
pold, 1847. Works : Rebekah and Eliezer 
(1836) ; Ruth and Boaz (1840) ; Descent 

C/t/^ i^C^S^'ll^n/F Cross, St Mi- 
4^oy /j chael's, Lou- 
/ * vain ; Annun- 

ciation, Bois-le-Duc Cathedral ; Portrait of 
Herreyns, Antwerp Museum. — Immerzeel, 
iii. 181. 

Gorinchem in 1627, drowned near Dor- 
drecht, April 26, 1690. Dutch school ; bat- 
tle and genre painter, pupil of Dirk Govertsz 
and of Jan Both in Utrecht ; continued his 
studies in Italy, and after his return to Hol- 
land in 1662 frequented armies and camps, 
where he sketched from life and painted a 
number of skirmishes, camps, guard-houses, 
etc., with great truth and felicitous inven- 
tion. Works : Shoeing a Horse (1667), Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Cavalry Skirmish, Bam- 
berg Gallery ; Riding School (1679), Trav- 
ellers attacked by Robbers, Distribution of 
Booty, Brunswick Gallery ; Scene by Sut- 
lers* Tents (1674), Berlin Museum ; Detach- 
ment of Army Starting (1670), Christ con- 
ducted to Golgotha, Dresden Gkllery ; Halt 
of Travellers, Copenhagen Gallery ; Skir- 
mish between Troopers, Christiania Gal- 
lery ; Battle-Piece, Hermannstadt Museum ; 
Piazza Aracoeli in Rome, Leipsic Museum ; 
Dutch Coast View, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Warrior and Peasant busy with Horses, Ol- 
denburg Gkdlery; Ships at Anchor near a 


Digitized by 



City, Schleissheim Gkdlery ; Italian Land- 
scape, Schwerin Gallery ; Stag Hunt, Liech- 
tenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Battle-Piece, Czer- 
nin Gallery, ib.; Cavalry Skirmish, Sea in 
Morning Light, Schonbom Gkdlery, ib.— 

Immerzeel, iiL 184 ; Kramm, vi. 1732 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), iL 433 ; Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 

VERSCHXJIER, LTEVE, bom in Rotter- 
dam about 1630 (?), died there, buried Dec. 
17, 1686. Dutch school ; marine painter, 
pupil of Simon de Vlieger; went afterwards 
to Italy to study nature in its light effects 
upon landscape and water ; painted a great 
number of sea-fights and water-views, en- 
livened with ships and boats. He was an 
imitator of Willem van de Velde. Works : 
Arrival of Charles Stuart in Rotterdam, 
Keelhauling of a Surgeon, Agitated Sea 
with Vessels, Amsterdam Museum ; View of 
Rotterdam, The Old Eastport — ib.. Moun- 
tainous Landscape, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Harbour Scenes (2), Hermannstadt Museum. 
— Immerzeel, iii. 183 ; Bjramm, vi 1733 ; 
Kugler (Crowe) ii. 504. 

sterdam, June 11, 1812, 
died at Vorden, July 4, 
1874. Landscape and 
animal painter, pupil of 
Pieter Gerardus van Os 
and of C. Steffelaar. 
Member of Amsterdam 
(1833) and Rotterdam 
(1862) Academies. Med- 
als: Amsterdam, 1831, 
1832, 1838; The Hague, 
1858, 1859 ; Officer Order of Oaken Crown, 
1862. Works: Sleighing on the Zaan 
(1838), Stormy Weather (1872), Horse Pair, 
Amsterdam Museum ; Halt before Tavern 
(1839); Stable, Horse at Plough (1840); 

Landscape with Horses and Figures (1841) ; 
Dogs resting by Fireside, Freight Waggon 
and Horses in Stable, Museum Fodor, Am- 
sterdam ; Messenger on Horseback with 
Donkey, Goat, coid Dog (1846), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg; Horses in Stable, Leipsic Mu- 
seum. — Immerzeel, iii. 183 ; Kramm, vi. 

VERSPRONCK (Versprong), JAN, bom 
in Haarlem in 1597, died there, buried June 
30, 1662. Dutch school ; portrait painter, 
son of Comelis Engelszen Verspronck (by 
whom a Repast of Archers, 1618, is in the 
Haarlem Museum), pupil of Frans Hals ; 
master of Haarlem guild in 1632. Shows in 
his later pictures the influence of Rem- 
brandt Works: Portraits of Man and 
Wife (1637), Male Portraits (2, 1641), Fe- 
male Portrait (1650), Regents of the Hos- 
pital (1642), Repast of Officers, Haarlem 
Museum ; Portrait (1641), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Female Portrait (1653), Berlin Mu- 
seum ; do., Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Male 
Portraits (2, 1641, 1645), Female do. (1640, 
1641), Oldenbui'g Ghdlery ; Young Couple 
(1634, 1636), WoerHtz Gallery; Portrait, 

Hermitage, Si Petersburg. — Bode, Studien, 
107 ; Van der Willigen, 306 ; Zeitschr. 1 b. 
K, xiv. 320. 

drecht, Aug. 30, 1756, died there, buried 
Nov. 14, 1843. Genre and landscape paint- 
er ; formed himself chiefly by copying the 
works of old masters, and painted at first 
landscapes, afterwards scenes from burgh- 
ers' life by lamp and candle light. In 1811 
Napoleon L and Marie Louise visited his 
studio at Dordrecht. Member of Antwerp 
Academy in 1818. Works: Musical As- 
sembly by Candle Light, Scullery Maid by 


Digitized by 



Lamp Light, Museum, Amsterdam ; Kitchen 
Interior, Teyler's Museum, ib.; Old Wom- 
an Spinning, Botterdam Museum ; others 
in Lille Museum. — Immerzeel, iii 186 ; 
Kranun, vi 1737. 

Hague in 1598, died there in 1657. Dutch 
school ; history and landscape painter ; one 
of the best pupils of Poelenburg, whom he 
imitated most successfully in composition, 
colouring, and execution. Painted falcon 
hunts, bathing women, and dancing maidens 
in attractive landscapes Works: Narcis- 
sus, Cassel Gallery ; Diana and Nymphs, 
Copenhagen Cbllery ; do. (2), Bathing Girls 
surprised by Shepherds, Southern Land- 
scape, Schwerin Gallery ; Landscape with 
Bathing Nymphs, Kunsthalle, Hamburg; 
Landscape with Diana and Dancing Satyr, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Adam and Eve driven 

from Paradise, Dresden Gallery. — Immer- 
zeel, iil 187 ; Siret (1883), ii. 372. 

Bordone, Louvre ; canvas, round, 4 ft 3 in. 
diameter. Life-size figures, half-length, 
standing side by side, embracing. — ^Landon, 
Musee, 2d CoL, iv. PI. 24. 

By Francesco Meizi, Berlin Museum ; 
wood, H. 6 ft. X 4 ft 5 in. Pomona, sitting 
under an elm, in a rocky landscape, turns 
towards Vertumnus, who is disguised as an 
old woman (Ovid., Met, xiv. 623). For- 
merly attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. 
Original sketch at Windsor Castle. — Meyer, 
Museen, 280. 

VEKTUNNI, ACHILLE, Cavaliere, bom 
at Naples ; contemporary. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Fergola ; visited Egypt and the 
East, and paints scenes in those countries, 
as well as in Italy, vrith remarkable power 
and brilliancy of colour. Medals : Vienna, 
1873 ; Philadelphia, 1876 ; L. of Honour, 
1878. Works: Daybreak near Cape Mise- 

no ; Torrent near Temi ; Euins of Roman 
Villa; Pine Forest near Ostia; View in 
Austria ; Pontine Marshes ; Pool in Roman 
Campagna ; Ruins of Psestum, FCirstenberg 
Gtellery, Donaueschingen ; Seashore of Por- 
to d' Anzio ; Castello della Pietra ; Pyra- 
mids of Egypt ; The Sphinx ; Sunset at 
Cape Fusano; On the Nile after Sunset 
(1879) ; Lake Avemus, Paestum (1868), H. 
P. Kidder, Boston, Mass.; Bay of Naples, 
William H. Metcalf, Milwaukee, Wis. — Art 
Journal (1870), 237; D. Rundschau, xx. 

bom at The Hague, Nov. 30, 1813, died 
there, Jan. 5, 1876. Genre and marine 
painter, pupil of Bartholomeus Johannes 
van Hove ; visited the Rhine countries and 
France, especially Normandy, and lived for 
some time in Pari& Medals : Brussels, 1842, 
1851 ; Philadelphia, 1876 ; Order of Leo- 
pold, 1851 ; Officer Order of Oaken Crown, 
1863 ; Order of Lion, 1874. Works : City 
View with Mail Steamship Starting (1836) ; 
Jewish Quarter at Amsterdam (1851) ; View 
of Katwijk-aan-Zee, Ghent Museum ; View 
of Noordwijk-aan-Zee (1865), View of Sche- 
veningen in Rainy Weather (1873), City 
View, Museum, Amsterdam ; Eirmess at 
Scheveningen, Museum Fodor, ib.; After- 
noon at Eatwijk-aan-Zee, Rotterdam Muse- 
um ; Winter Scene (1846), Landscape (with 
animals by Verboeckhoven), Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg. His brother and pupil Elchanon 
(bom at The Hague, April 19, 1826), paints 
similar subjects ; studied also under Her- 
man Ten Kate. Works : Little Smoker, Chil- 
dren with Sleigh, Rotterdam Museum ; Re- 
turn from the Walk (1883). — Immerzeel, iii. 
188 ; Kramm, vi 1742 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 
xviL 944. 

Brussels; contemporary. Landscape and 
animal painter, son of Louis Pierre Verw6e 
(bom in Brassels, 1812), pupil of Eugene 
Verboeckhoven ; paints in Brussels vrith 
great success, and his pictures are to be 
found in most collections in Belgium. 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Medals : Brussels, Paris (1864, 1878), Vien- 
na ; Order of Leopold, 1871 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1881. Works : Banks of the Scheldt ; 
Horses at Pasture ; View in the Ardennes ; 
Zealand Team, Brussels Museum ; St Se- 
bastian's Guild (1881) ; Ox and Bull Fight- 
ing (1884).— Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 998. 

VERWILT, FRANgOIS, bom at Rotter- 
dam in 1598, died there in 1690 or 1691. 
Dutch school; landscape, figure, and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Comelis Dubois, then 
of Poelenburg, whose style he imitated. His 
works are extremely rare. Works : Son of 
Admiral van Nes (1669), Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Magdalen Penitent, Cassel Ghdlery ; 
Repose in Egypt, Czemin Gallery, Vienna. 
— ^Immerzeel, iii. 190; Kunst-Chronik, xx. 

VESALIUS, ANDREA, portrait, TUian, 
Palazzo Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H 4 f t. 3 
in. X 3 ft 11 in. The eminent anatomist, 
author of "De Humani Corporis Fabrica" 
(Basle, 1543), when an old man. Other por- 
traits of him differ from this in features. 
Engraved by T. Ver Cruys ; Paradisi. — C. 
& C, Titian, ii 418 ; GaL du Pal. Pitti, iii 
PL 122. 

VESTAL TUCCIA, Hector Leroux, Cor- 
coran Gallery, Washington ; canvas, H. 4 f t 
6 in. X 8 ft 2 in. Tuccia, a vestal charged 
with want of chastity, stands on the banks 
of the Tiber, raising above her head with 
both hands a sieve, praying to Vesta to al- 
low her to bear it filled with water to her 
temple in proof of her innocence. Salon, 
1874 ; Paris Exhibition, 1878.— Art Treas- 
ures of America, i. 6 ; Corcoran QsL Cat. 

VESTAia, SCHOOL OF, Hector Lermix, 
J. J. Astor, New York ; canvas, H 5 ft. x 
10 ft Scene : Interior of Temple of Vesta, 
Bome ; in foreground, a bronze tripod with 
the never-dying fire, upon which the chief 
priestess pours a libation while a vestal, at 
her left, reads from a scroll ; in front, two 
priestesses of superior dignity sit upon rich 
chairs with footstools, and the novices stand 
around in a semicircle. Salon, 1880. Pho- 
togravure in Art Treasures of America, il 5. 

VESTIER, ANTOINE, bom at Avallon 
(Yonne), April 28, 1740, died in Paris, Dec. 
24, 1824. Portrait painter, pupil of Pierre ; 
received into the Academy in 1786 ; after 
travelling for a long time in Holland and 
England, settled in Paria Works: Por- 
trait of Jean Baptiste Pierre (1786), &ole 
des Beaux Arts, Paris ; Artist's Wife (1787), 
Female Portraits (2), Louvre, ib. — Bellier, 
ii. 665 ; Jal, 1263. 

VETSAJO, Hi. See Bembo, Gian Fran- 

VETTER, nt&tSJFFE JEAN, bom in 
Paris, Sept 21, 1820. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Steuben. Medals : 3d 
class, 1843, 1867; 2d class, 1847, 1848, 
1855 ; L. of Honour, 1855. , Works : Bay- 
ard as a Child (1844); Molidre with the Bar- 
ber of Pezenas (1847) ; Alchemist (1848), 
Angers Museum; Studying by Lamplight 
(1850) ; Quarter of an Hour with Babelais, 
Master of Arms (1855) ; Smoker, Woman 
Reading, The Story (1857) ; Woman Dress- 
ing, Going out Walking (1859) ; Bernard 
Palissy, The Declaration (1861); Molih^ 
and Louis XIV. (1864), Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Mascarille presenting Jodelet to Ca- 
thos and Madelon (1865), Orleans Museum ; 
Mignon playing with a Cup and Ball (1866); 
In the Tavern (1867); Mazarin (1872), Lux- 
embourg Museum ; Flight into Egypt (1874); 
An Exquisite (1875) ; The Letter (18.78) ; 
St John the Baptist, Saint Jacques du 
Haut-pas, Paris; Two Angels, Saint Louis 
d'Antin. — ^Bellier, ii. 665 ; Meyer, Gesch., 
662 ; Larousse. 

in Paris in 1825. Landscape and animal 
painter, pupil of Lefman. Paints both in 
oil and water-colour. Medals: 2d class, 
1872 ; L. of Honour, 1878. Works : Drink- 
ing Cider, Harvesters (1850) ; View at M. 
Hereau's (1852); Manure Carts (1853); Pea»- 
ants going to Fields (1855) ; Peasants din- 
ing in Fields, Gleaners, Meal in Shadow of 
MiU (1857); Tow-Horses on the Seine (1859), 
Pau Museum ; Tow-Horse& in the Morning, 
Harvest near Morlair, Harvest near Paris, 


Digitized by 



Peasants destroying a Stack of Wheat, Black- 
smith shoeing a Horse, Shepherd Besting 
(1859) ; Tow-Horses, A Ferry, Relays of 
Horses, Hai*vest at Ezanville (1861); Drink- 
ing Place at St Bernard Gate ; Horse Ferry, 
Cascarottes au Lavoir (1863); Hoi-ses at the 
River, Fountain at Hendaye (1864) ; Low 
Tide at Grand-Champ, Washerwomen near 
St Jean de Luz, Building Yard, Return to 
the Yard (1865) ; Horses at Drinking Place 
(1866); Ferry at Valvin, Tow-Horses on 
Upper Seine (1867) ; Horses Drinking, Vil- 
lage Blacksmith, Shepherd and the Sea 
(1868) ; Return of Labourers, Watering 
Place at Samois (1869) ; Basque Women 
after the Bath, Village Street (1870) ; Re- 
lays of Horses for Towing, Village Smithy 
(1872) ; Summer, Vegetable Dealer (1873) ; 
Last Sheaves, Cart in a Wood (1874) ; Wa- 
tering Place, The Well, Street Carts in the 
Woods of Fontainebleau (1875); The Little 
Bridge at Samois, Relays of Tow-Horses 
(1876) ; Carri^res k Paves, Horse Ferry for 
Tow-Horses (1877) ; Fair of St Catherine, 
Tow-Horses in Relays (1878) ; Information, 
Market-Dues (1879) ; Tank for Tow-Horses 
(1880) ; Old Horse at Door of Blacksmith's 
Shop, Cock Crowing (1881) ; Early Wheat, 
Blacksmith (1882) ; Cadi's Escort, Arabs 
crossmg the Chelif (1883); The Relay, 
Horse Ferry (1884) ; Arab Horsemen at the 
Fountain, Horse Dealers (1885) ; Vintage, 
River in a Village (1886).— Bellier, ii. 666 ; 
PortfoUo (1875), 162. 

VIARDOT, L:fiON, born at Dijon, Dec. 
1, 1805. History, portrait, and animal 
painter, pupil of Picot and Ary Scheflfer. 
Medal : 2d class, 1835. Works : Corsican 
Woman, Sultan (a dog). Sword of Damocles, 
Roebuck driving away a Fox, Dogs drink- 
ing after Hunt, Head of Little Spanish Dog 
(1836-^5) ; Christ healing the Sick (1849) ; 
Christ and the Samaritan Woman (1859) ; 
Dog shaking a Partridge (1867) ; Hunting 
and Puppies (1868) ; Meeting (1874) ; Head 
of a Spanish Dog (1879); Spanish Dog 
(1882) ; Woman Reading, Head of a Little 
Girl (1883), Head of Setter Dog (1884) ; 

Sweet Thought (1886).— Bellier, il 668; 
Paris, Sept 30, 
1840. Genre 
painter, pupil of 
Picot and Barrias. 
Medals: 1864, 
1867, 1868; 3d 
class, 1878 ; L. of 
Honour, 1870. 
Works : Repent- 
ance, Siesta (1863); 
Narcissus transformed into a Flower (1864), 
Bordeaux Museum ; Christian Martyrs in 
Lions' Den, Dead Sheep (1865) ; Daphnis 
and Chloe (1866) ; Entry of Bull Fighters 
(with Zamacois), Temptation (1867) ; Wan- 
dering Barber, Convent in Arms (1868) ; 
Paying the Tithe, Morning of Wedding 
(1869) ; Persistent (1870) ; Departure of 
Newly Married Couple in Spain (1873) ; A 
Reprimand, Coquelhi as MascariUe, Monk 
picking Radishes (1874) ; Grasshopper and 
Ant, Painter Resting (1875) ; Monseigneur's 
Antechamber (1876); Serenade (1877) ; Toi- 
let of the Madonna, Apotheosis of Thiers 
(1878); Rehearsing Amateur Theatricals, 
Studio in Evening (1881) ; At Rest, Geor- 
gette (1882). Works in United States : Rep- 
rimand, Startling Confession, First-Bom 
(1873), Selling Consecrated Palms, Miss C. 
L. Wolfe, New York ; Spanish Diligence 
Station, First-Bom, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Car- 
dinal's Menu, Morgan sale. New York (1886), 
Mrs. Amott, Elmira, N. Y., for $12,500 ; Old 
Sherry, Calvin S. Brice, ib.; Committee on 
Moral Books, William H. Yanderbilt, ib.; 
Model's Repose, William Astor, ib.; Bou- 
quet, Why comes he not?, W. Rockefeller, 
ib.; Sacred Concert, J. J. Astor, ib.; Pre- 
text for Conversation, R G. Dun, ib.; Pre- 
paratory Sermon, Dealer in Pottery, New 
aerk (1877), On the Ramparts, Smoker, T. 
R Butier, ib.; Standard Bearer, Mrs. Paran 
Stevens, ib.; Theological Discussion, R. L. 
Stuart Collection, ib.; Night Watch, Sharp- 
ening Bull Fighter's Knife, D. O. Mills, ib.; 


Digitized by 



Priest burning State Fftpers, C. P. Hunt- 
ington, ib.; Captain's Letter, R L. Cutting, 
ib.; Missionary's Story (1883), Morgan sale, 
ib., 1886, $26,600 ; The Arrival (1886), W. 
Scbauss, ib.; Palm Sunday (1873), Morgan 
sale, 1886, ^,000 ; Eyeis and Ears, Morgan 
sale, 1886, $3,600 ; Toreadors before enter- 
ing Arena, OuUiver and the Liliputians 
(1870), W. T. Walters, Baltimore; Roll-CaU 
after Pillage (1867), H. C. Gibson, Phila- 
delphia ; and many others. — ^Bellier, ii 668 ; 
Meyer, Gbsch., 602 ; Larousse. 


Andrea Mantegna, Louvre ; canvas, H. 6 f t 
3 in. X 6 ft 3 in. Minerva and other god- 
desses expel the Vices from a garden, and 
welcome the approach of Justice, Force, and 
Temperance from heaven. Painted after 
1492 ; one of a series of pictures for the 
boudoir of Isabella, Marchioness of Mantua ; 
carried ofif by the Germans at sack of Man- 
tua in 1630 ; passed into France ; foratime 
in palace of Due de Richelieu at Richelieu. 
— C. & C, N. Italy, L 408 ; Villot, Cat Lou- 
vre ; Mttndler, 137. 

VICTOR (Fictor), JACOMO, Dutch 
school, 17th century, alive in 1672. Paint- 
ed chiefly birds ; as learned as Hondecoe- 
ter, and even more original Probably con- 
nected with Jan Victors. lived in Venice 
about 1663, and, as Jacob van Ruisdael often 
painted the backgrounds for his pictures, he 
must have been settled in Amsterdam about 
1670. Works : Domestic Birds (2), Stildel 
Gallery, Frankfort; Dove-Cote (landscape 
by Jacob van Ruisdael), Domestic Birds in 
the Woods, Copenhagen Gallery ; do. in a 
Park (landscape by Jacob van Ruisdael), 
Berlin Museum ; Chickens and Dove, Di*es- 
den Gallery ; A Barnyard (attributed to 
Hondecoeter), Old PiDakothek, Munich ; 
Rooster and Doves, Schleissheim Gallery. 
— Eramm, vL 1761 ; Eugler (Crowe), ii 
468 ; Burger, Musses, ii 39, 316. 

VICTORS (Victoor, Fictoor), JAN, Dutch 
school, bom about 1620, died at Amsterdam 

after December, 1672. History, genre, por- 
trait, and landscape painter, pupil of Rem- 
brandt, probably about 1686-40 ; in his bibli- 
cal scenes adhered closely to the manner of 
his master. Works : Tobias blessing his Son, 
Bridgewater Gallery, London ; Isaac blessing 
Jacob, Girl at Casement (1640), Louvre; 
Village Wedding, Antwerp Museum ; Joseph 
explaining the Dream, Pork Butcher (1648), 
Dentist (1664), Museum, Amsterdam ; Mar- 
ket, Six Collection, ib.; Portrait of a Bur- 
gomaster (1661), Haarlem Museum ; Proph- 
etess Anna, Van der Schrieck Collection, 
Louvain ; Lady's Portrait, Death of David 
(1642), Jacob and Labau, Boaz and Ruth, 
Copenhagen Ghdlery ; Halt before Inn, Uni- 
versity, G5ttingen; Esther and Haman 
(1642), Capture of Samson, David anoint- 
ed by Solomon (1663), Brunswick Gallery ; 
Hannah and Samuel with Eli (1646), Berlin 
Museum ; Finding of Moses, Finding of the 
Cup in Benjamin's Sack, Dresden Gallery ; 
Boaz and Ruth, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Peasants in a, flat Landscape, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg; Tobias mocked by his Wife, 
Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; Tobias recover- 
ing Sight (1661), Old Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Cyrus and Astyages, Oldenburg Gallery ; 
Continence of Scipio (1640), Hermitage, St 
Petersburg; Landscape with Peasant Cot- 
tage, Wiesbaden Gktllery ; Mother and Child, 

dan V/ftoors fee 

Historical Society, New York.— Ch. Blanc, 
£cole hollandaise ; Burger, Musees, ii. 29, 
179, 316 ; Immerzeel, iii. 191 ; Kramm, vL 
1762; Kugler (Crowe), il 379; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii 270 ; Vosmaer, Rembrandt, sa 
vie, 101. 

YLDAL, VINCENT, bom at Carcassonne 
(Aude), Jan. 20, 181L Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Paul Delaroche. Paints 
both in oil and water-colour. Medals : 3d 
class, 1844 ; 2d class, 1849 ; L. of Honour, 
1852. Works: Frasquita, N^edjm^ NoSmi, 

Digitized by 



Little Tony (1844) ; Oracle of the Fields, 
Inquisitive Little Girl, Self-Love, Fatinit- 
za (1845); Season for Roses, Satisfaction, 
Woman Listening (1846) ; Season for Fruit, 
Daughter of Eve, Darling Sin, (1847); 
Fallen Angel, Tear of Repentance, Polyhym- 
nia (1849); Flowers and Jewels (1852); 
Poi-trait of the Empress Eugenie, Fancies 
(1853) ; Loves of the Angels (1855) ; Bre- 
ton Poacher, Rain in Brittany, Plouescat 
Peasants returning Home, Muse of Luxury 
(1857); Evening Prayer in Brittany, The 
Muse of Candour, Prayer (1859) ; Broken 
Thread, Flower Girl (1861) ; Farm in Brit- 
tany, Loves of the Angels (1866) ; Breton 
Trooper, Ferns (1868) ; Brittany in Autumn 
(1870); Fever -Stricken Bretons, Hasty- 
Pudding (1873); Edge of a Moor (1874); 
Pond in Quimerch (1875) ; Farm in Finis- 
terre, Pond in Quimerch (1879) ; The Helle, 
Pond in Quimerets (1880) ; Hollow Road in 
Brittany, A Heath (1881) ; Shore of a Pond, 
Mill of Losten-Vir (1882) ; Calm on a Pond, 
Ruins in an old Park (1883) ; Pike's Nest, 
Moor in Brittany (1884) ; Beech-Tree Offal, 
Autumn (1885) ; Glade, Beech-Tree Avenue 
(1886).— Bellier, ii 670; Meyer, Gesch., 
388 ; Larousse. 
VTEN, JOSEPH MARIE, Count, bom at 
MontpeUier, June 18, 
1716, died in Paris, 
March 27, 1809. 
French school; histo- 
ry painter, pupil of 
Giral and of Natoire in 
Paris ; won grand prix 
in 1743, spent five 
years in Rome, and af- 
ter his return became 
member of the Acade- 
my, and adjunct professor in 1754, and pro- 
fessor in 1759. With Regnault, David, Vin- 
cent, and Suvee, he founded the modem clas- 
sical school. Li 1775-81 he was director 
of the Academy at Rome, in 1781 became 
rector and in 1788 chancellor of the Paris 
Academy, in 1789 first painter to the king, 
and in 1795 member of the Institute. Or- 

der of St. Michael, 1775. Napoleon made 
him a senator, count, and commander of the 
Legion of Honour. Works: St. Germain 
and St Vincent (1755), Dsedalus and Icarus 
(1754), Sleeping Hermit (1750), Cupids play- 
ing with Swans, Flowers and Doves (1758), 
Louvre; Miraculous Draught of Fishes 
(1759), Marseilles Museum ; Christ with the 
Disciples at Emmaus (1759), Resurrection, 
Hermit Asleep (study for painting in the 
Louvre), Orleans Museum ; St Germain 
giving a Medal to St Genevieve (1761), 
Saint Louis, Versailles ; Rape of Proserpine 
(1763), Grenoble Museum ; Marcus Aurelius 
ordering Food to be distributed during a 
Famine (1765), Amiens Museum ; St. De- 
nis preaching the Gbspel in France (1767), 
St Roch, Paris ; St Gregory (1767), Sacris- 
ty, St Louis, Versailles; The Magdalen 
(1775), Verdun Cathedral ; Briseis led from 
the Tent of Achilles (1781), Return of Piia- 
mus with the Body of Hector (1785), Angers 
Museum ; Circumcision, Bordeaux Museum ; 
Moses with the Law Tables, Douai Muse- 
um ; Lot and his Daughters, Havre Muse- 
um; Christ healing the Son of the Cap- 
tain of Capernaum, Marseilles Museum ; St. 
Gregory the Great, St John in the Desert, 
Old Man Asleep, Academical Figure, Mont- 
peUier Museum ; Religion, Nancy Museum ; 
Christ on the Cross, Nimes Museum ; 
Anger of Achilles, Rouen Museum. His 
vrife and pupil, Marie Ther^se, n^e Reboul 
(bom in Paris in 1728, died there, Dec. 28, 
1805), was a good miniature painter, and 
received into the Academy in 1757. Their 
son, Joseph Marie (bom in 1762, died in 
1848), was a portrait painter, pupil of his 
father and of Vincent Portraits of himself 
and his wife are in the Rouen Museiun ; a 
portrait of his fa- 
ther is in the Mont- 
peUier Museum. — 
0/'^^\^^w BeUier, iL 672 ; Bi- 
UiK/i ffSn og.univ.,xliii.357; 
^ ^^ f^^ Ch. Blanc, l^cole 
fran9aise, iiL ; ifim^ric-David, Sur Vien (Pa- 
ris, 1809) ; Jal, 1265 ; Le Breton, Not hist 



Digitized by 



sur la vie, etc. (Paris, 1809) ; Nouvelle biog, 
g^n., zIyL 131 ; Eeyue univ. des Arts, xvii. 20. 

donna of the Scalea 

donna of the Bas-Relief . 

donna a la Ceioture. 

of the Cherries. 

na with Rosary. 

Madonna del Cardellino. 

donna of Consolation. 

Family, Domenichino. 

VIERGE COUP:^. See Madonna, Mu- 
rillo, Lord Overstone. 

donna of the Green Cushion. 

della Tenda. 

with Diadem. 

na di Foligno. 


with the Grapes. 

VIERGE AU LAPIN. See Madonna del 

VIERGE AU L^IZARD. See Bepose in 
E gypt 

VIERGE AUMNGE. See Madmnamih 

See Madonna della Casa d'Alba. 

ily of the Palm. 

della Cesta. 

na among the Rocks. 

ily, Murillo, Louvre. 

donna della Vittoria. 

VIERGE AU VOILE. See Madonna with 

VEG^E-LEBRUN. See Lebrun. 

at Argentan (Ome), Oct 25, 1819, died in 
Paris, March 15, 1879. History painter, 
pupil of Monvoisin, Delaroche, and Drol- 
ling; afterwards influenced by Lehmann. 
Works: St Ann and the Virgin (1847), 
Saint Lazare, Paris; The Virgin working 
in the Temple (1850), Saint Jean d'Angel, 
ib. ; Death of Virgil (1857), Langres Muse- 
um ; Christ on the Cross (1864), Palais de 
Justice, Paris; Empress Josephine before- 
the Coronation (1865), Marseilles Museum ; 
Martyrdom of St Denis and his Compan- 
ions (1867), Saint Jacques duHaut-pas, Paris ; 
Pas de Gavotte (1868), Argentan Museum ; 
Les libeUules (1870), Alengon Museum ; Je 
ne pars plus (1870), Unexpected Return 
(1872), Orleans Museum ; Corinne (1873), 
Argentan Museum ; A Visit to St Peter's 
in Rome (1874), Cherbourg Museum ; First 
Distribution of the Legion of Honour in the 
Church of the Invalids, Palais de la Legion 
dlionneur, Paria — Bellier, ii 677. 

VIGNE, FtUX DE, born in Ghent, 
March 16, 1806, died Dec. 5, 1862. Histo- 
ry and genre painter, son and pupil of Igna- 
tius de Vigne (1767-1840), and in Brussels of 
Paelinck ; was very successful in rendering 
the character and costumes of the middle 
ages ; distinguished also as a writer on art 
IVofessor at the Academy and president of 
Royal Society of Arts and Sciences in Ghent 
Order of Leopold. Works : Mary of Bur- 
gundy interceding for the Ministers Hugo- 
net and Imbercourt; Philip van Artevelde 
addressing People of Ghent ; Antiquity Cab- 
inet of H. Goltzius ; Three Stages in Life of 
Woman; Market in 15th Century, Ghent 
Museum ; Wedding of the Painter Van der 
Meere at Ghent; Abrocomas and Anthia, 
Brussels Museum ; Children by a Wine-Cel- 
lar, Pavilion, Haarlem. His brother, i^ou- 
ard de Vigne (bom in Ghent, Aug. 4, 1808, 


Digitized by 



died there, May 8, 1866), was a landscape 
painter, pupil of Ghent Academy and of 
Surmont de Volsberghe; visited Italy in 
1836-38, and England in 1841. Works: 
View of Subiaco, Capuchin Monastery at 
Cava (1838), In the Forest of Alife, Ghent 
Museum. — Immerzeel, iii. 192 ; Kramm, vi. 
1754 ; Sunaert, 109, 131. 

VIGNON, CLAUDE, the elder, bom at 
Tours, May 19, 1593, died in Paris, May 10, 
1670. French school ; history painter, pu- 
pil in Home of Caravaggio, but rather fol- 
lowed the mannerism of his time, neglecting 
the study of nature and of antique models. 

Village Bride, Jean Baptiste Greuze, Louvre, Paris. 

After his return to France, via Spain, about 
1624, he was patronized by Maria de' Medi- 
ci, for whom he bought pictures and statues 
in Spain and Italy, by Louis XTTT. and Car- 
dinal Richelieu. Received into the Acade- 
my and made professor in 1651. Works : 
Baptism of the Eunuch (1638), Notre Dame 
de Paris ; Christ among the Doctors, Gren- 
oble Museum ; Adoration of the Magi, Lille 
Museum ; Christ washing the Feet of the 
Apostles (1653), Nantes Museum ; Martyr- 
dom of St. Catherine, Rennes Museum ; 
Joseph in Prison, Rouen Museum ; Si Ce- 
cilia, Toulouse Museum. His son, Claude 

Fran9ois (1634-1703), studied also in Rome, 
and was received into the Paris Academy in 
1667. By him: The Daughter of King 
Polemon of Armenia delivered by St. Bar- 
tholomew of a Demon (1668), Notre Dame 
de Paris ; and a portrait of his father, in 
the ficole des Beaux Arts. — Bellier, ii. 681 ; 
Memoires inedits, i. 269. 

VILLAGE BRIDE (Accord^e de village), 
Jean Baptiste Greuze, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, 
H. 3 ft. X 3 ft. 10 in. An old man, seated 
at right, gives a purse, the dowry of his 
daughter, to a young man, standing in cen- 
tre ; the mother, seated at left, clasps the 
hand of her daughter, who 
stands beside her husband 
supporting a younger sis- 
ter leaning upon her shoul- 
der ; at right, foreground, 
a notary. Salon, 1761; pur- 
chased by Marquis de Ma- 
rigny for 9,000 livres; at 
his sale (1782), bought for 
16,650 livrea Engraved 
by J. J. FHpart (1770).— 
R^veil, vi. 407 ; Filhol. 

David Teniers, younger, Vi- 
enna Museum ; canvas, H. 
2 ft. 5 in. X 3 ft 8 in. A 
kirmess or fSte in a Flem- 
ish village. Scene in the 
court of an inn, from the 
window of which is dis- 
played a banner bearing the figure of the 
Archduke Leopold, Governor of the Low 
Countries. At the left, in foreground, a nu- 
merous company at table ; in background, 
many jovial drhikers ; in centre, peasants 
dancing ; at right, Teniers himself and his 
family arriving ; in background, another inn 
with a May-pole and dancers. One of Ten- 
iers's best worka Engraved by J. Ph. Le- 
Baa — Reveil, xii. 851. 

By Sir David WilHe, National Gallery, 
London ; canvas, H. 3 ft 1 in. x 4 ft 2 in. 
Formerly called Ale-House Door. Groups 
of villagers carousing in the yard of a vil- 


Digitized by 



lage inn. Many small figoreB. Fainted in 
1811 for J. Angerstein, who paid for it 800 
guineas ; bought with his collection in 1824. 
Engraved by C. W. Marr; O. Mosse; E. 
Smith; W. Pinden; W. Greatbach; P. 
Lightfooi — Cat Nat GaL ; Heaton, Works 
of Sir D. W. ; Cat Angerstein Gal., No. 30. 
VILLAGE LADTF^S (Demoiselles du vil- 
lage), Gustave Courbet, Thomas Wiggles- 
worth, Boston ; canvas, H. 6ft x 7ft Three 
ladies, standing in foreground, giving alms 

bacL— Heaton, Works of D. W. ; Painters 
of Georgian Era, 51 ; Redgrave, Century, 

SEZ DE, bom at Seville in 1635, died there 
in 1700. Spanish school ; pupil of Murillo, 
and though only an amateur, won distinc- 
tion. Becoming a knight of St John of 
Jerusalem, went to Malta and studied there 
under II Calabrese ; on his return to Seville 
joined the Academy and resumed his friend- 

Yillige Fettival, David Teniere, younger, Vienna Museum. 

to a beggar girl ; a dog is beside them, and 
two cows at right ; background, a landscape 
of rolling hills. Painted in 1852 ; Paris Ex- 
hibition, 1855. — Art Treasures of America, 
iii. 84 

Wilkie, Earl of Mansfield, England. A 
group of rustics in heated discussion 
around a table in a kitchen, with others near 
a fire in the background. Royal Academy, 
1806 ; sold to Lord Mansfield for 35 guinea& 
Sketch at Hadzor. Engraved by A. Raim- 

ly relations with Murillo, who died in his 
arms. Painted historical and genre sub- 
jects and portrait& Works : Boys playing 
Dice, Museo del Prado ; Infant Christ bear- 
ing a Cross, Suermondt Museum, Aiz-la- 
Chapelle ; Two Boys playing Dice, Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg.— Stirling, iil 1104; 
Ch. Blanc, £cole espagnole ; Madrazo ; Cur- 
tis, 336. 

VILLEGAS, JOSfi; contemporary. 
G^nre painter, pupil of Marians Fortuny, 
whose manner he follow& Studio in Rome. 

Digitized by 



Works : The Christening, Dream of the 
Arabian Nights, William H. Vanderbilt, 
New York; Armourer's Shop, Miss C. L. 
Wolfe, ib. ; Spanish Scene, August Belmont, 
ib.; Bull Fighters, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Rare 
Vase, Cornelius Vanderbilt, ib.; Turkish 
Shoe-Shop, J. P. Morgan, ib.; Devotional 
Scene, D. O. Mills, ib.; Armourer's Shop, 
R. L. Cutting, ib.; Poultry Market in Tan- 
gier, Cairo Slipper Merchant (1872), W. T. 
Walters, Baltimore ; Marriage of Doge Fos- 
cari (1885). 

bom in Seville in 1520, died there in 1597. 
Spanish school ; supposed to have studied 

Village Politicians. Sir David Wiikie, Earl of Mansfield. 

in Eome, as his pictures are reminiscent of 
Raphael and of the best traditions of the 
Eoman schocrL Among his works, which 
are rare, are : Visitation, Seville Cathedral ; 
St. Lazarus, Hospital of the Lazarists, near 
Seville ; Annunciation, Madonna, S. Lor- 
enzo, Seville. — Stirling, i. 319 ; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole espagnole. 

VILLOLDO, JUAN DE, died after 1551. 
Spanish school ; pupil of his uncle, Alonzo 
Perez de Villoldo, a scholar of Juan de Bor- 
gona. Painted in 1547-48 a series of forty- 
five works on sacred subjects for the Carba- 
jal Chapel in S. Andres, Madrid. — Stirling, 
i. 148. 

Paris, Dec. 30, 1746, died there, Aug. 3, 
1816. History painter, son of Fran5ois 
£lie Vincent (1708-90, miniature painter) ; 
pupil of Vien. Won the grand prix in 1768, 
and studied three years in Bome. Member 
of Academy in 1782, professor in 1792 ; 
chevalier of Legion of Honour, and pro- 
fessor in the £cole polytechnique. Works : 
Belisarius asking Alms ; Alcibiades and 
Socrates; St. Jerome (1777), Montpellier 
Museum ; President Mole seized by Eioters 
(1779) ; Combat of Komans and Sabines in- 
terrupted by Sabine Women (1781), Angers 
Museum ; Coecinna Poetus exhorted by his 
Wife Arria to kill himself 
(1785), Amiens Museum ; 
Henri IV. meeting Sully 
wounded (1786), Zeuxis 
choosing Girls of Crotona 
for Models (1789), Louvre; 
William Tell upsetting the 
Boat conveying Gesler 
(1795), Toulouse Museum ; 
Lesson in Field Labour, 
Bordeaux Museum ; Por- 
trait of Bishop de Jarente 
(1787), Orleans Museum ; 
do. of the Painter Houel, 
Rouen Museum ; David . 
Victor over Goliath, Valen- 
ciennes Museum. His wife, 
Mme. Adelaide Vincent 
(bom, 1749, Labille des Vertus, married 
first M Guyard, and died, 1803), was a por- 
trait painter of repute. — Bellier, ii. 690 ; Ch. 
Blanc, ^ficole fran9aise ; Villot, Cat Louvre ; 
Meyer, Gesch., 55, 78 ; Larousse. 

VINCENT, ST., Era Bartolommeo, Flor- 
ence Academy ; wood. Painted about 1515 • 
for S. Marco, Florence. — ^Vasari, ed. Mil., 
iv. 189 ; C. & C, Italy, iii. 468. 

in San Gimignano, April 10, 1492, died 
there after 1529. Eoman school Real 
name Tamagno, son of Bernardo ; called by 
Vasari a disciple and friend of Eaphael, 
whom he assisted in the Vatican about 1512. 


Digitized by 



Won the commendation of Raphael and 
executed other works in Rome, none of 
which are existing. After Raphael's death 
he returned to San GKmignano, where he 
painted in 1522 a Madonna with Saints. He 
was again in Rome in 1527, when the city 
was sacked, and went thence to Montalcino, 
where he painted for the oratory of the con- 
vent of S. Rocco the Madonna del Soccorso, 
now in the Church of the Soccorso. In 
1528 he painted for S. Stefano d* Ischia^ 
near Orosseto, St. Joachim and St Anna. 
His last known work, dated 1529, is a Ma- 
donna with Saints, in the Chapel of S. Nic- 
col6 di Tolentino. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 489 ; 
Ch. Blanc, &ole ombrienne. 


TISTE), bom in Paris, Aug. 5, 1789, died 
at Ems, Nassau, Aug. 16, 1855. History 
and portrait painter, pupil of Gioacchino 
Serangeli, of David, and the £cole des 
Beaux Arts ; won the second prix de Rome 
in 1813, and the first in 1814 L. of Hon- 
our, 1828. Medal, 2d class, 1855. Works : 
Diagoras carried in Triumph by his Sons 
(1814), !ficole des Beaux Arts, Paris ; Devo- 
tion of young Mazet (1822), Lazaretto, Mar- 
seilles ; Death of Comola (1824) ; Jeanne 
d*Arc (1824), Orleans Museum ; Greek Sub- 
ject (1830), Amiens Museum ; Coronation 
of Charles VIL at Reims (1837), Entry of 
the French into Bordeaux— 1451 (1838), 
Opening of the Session of Chambers by 
Louis XVm. (1841), Enlisting of Volun- 
teers (1849), Two Porti-aits, Versailles Mu- 
seum; Achille de Harlay (1843); The 
States General under Philip the Fair — 1302 
(1846) ; Episode in History of Venice 
(1847), formerly in Luxembourg Museum ; 
Martyrs in the Time of Diocletian (1852) ; 
Achille de Harlay and the Due de Guise 
(1854) ; Grisailles in Salles 4, 7, 8, and 9 of 
Musee Charles X., Louvre, Paris ; Presenta- 
tion of the Virgin, Notre Dame de Lorette, 
ib.; Abundance rewarding Industry, Truth 
exposing Fraud, and six grisailles : City of 
Paris, Agriculture, etc, Palais de la Bourse, 

ib. In fresco : Two Episodes in Life of Si 
Maurice, Angels decorating the Vault from 
which the Souls of the Thebaian Legion 
soar to Heaven (1822), St. Maurice's Chapel, 
Saint Sulpice, Paria — Ballard, Not. sur les 
peint. ik fresque, etc. (Paris, 1822) ; Bellier, 
il 692 ; Meyer, Gesch., 431 ; Rev. univ. des 
arts, i. 475. 

VINCI, LEONARDO DA, bom at Vmci, 
Val d' Amo, 
near Florence, 
in 1452, died at 
the Chateau de 
Clot or Cloux, 
near Amboise, 
May 2, 1519. 
school. Natu- 
ral son of Sor 
Piero d' Anto- 
nio, Florentine notary ; pupil of Andrea del 
Verrocchio, with whom he was associated 
as late as 1476. The bright angel which 
he painted in his master's picture of the 
Baptism of Christ, Florence Academy, the 
Medusa Head, at the Uffizi (if indeed it be 
the original, and not, as has been conject- 
ured, the work of Lomazzo), are the only 
extant works of the earlier period of his life, 
which closed in 1483, when he wrote the 
famous letter to Lodovico Sforza, Duke of 
Milan, whose statement of universal capacity 
was in his case literally true. It led to his 
appointment as court painter, director of 
the newly founded Academy of Arts, gen- 
eral organizer of fetes in whidi art played a 
conspicuous part, and manager of all enter- 
prises in which a knowledge of hydraulics, 
engineering, and general science was neces- 
sary. For the Duke he executed the famous 
wall-painting of the Last Supper (1495-98), 
in S. M. delle Grazie, and modelled an 
equestrian statue, never cast, of his father, 
Francesco Sforza, and with him he remained 
until Lodovico was overthrown by the 
French (1499), and sent to France to die in 
a dungeon at the Castle of Loche& Leo- 
nardo returned to Florence, but soon left it 


Digitized by 



for Venice, and the year after (1502) to visit 
the fortresses of the principal cities of the 
Eomagna as military engineer to Ceesar Bor- 
gia. Between 1503 and 1505 he produced 
the famous cartoon of the Battle of the 
Standard, from which he was to have paint- 
ed a fresco in the great Hall of the Palazzo 
Vecchio at Florence. It hung side by side 
with Michelangelo's cartoon of the Battle of 
Pisa, in the Hfdl, where both were studied as 
miracles of art by all the painters of the time 
until after 1518, though Vasari erroneously 
says it was cut to pieces in 1512. In Octo- 
ber, 1507, Leonardo once more established 
himself in Milan, where he remained, with 
the exception of two short visits to Florence 
in 1511 and 1513, until 1514, when he ac- 
companied Giuliano de' Medici to Eome to 
assist at the coronation of Leo X. Unless 
he had previously visited Home, of which we 
have no proof, Leonardo must at this time 
have painted the admirable fresco of the 
Madonna with Donor, in a lunette in S. Ono- 
frio on the Janiculum. Leonardo went in 
January, 1516, to France, at the invitation 
of Francis L, and spent the last three years 
of his life in the King's service. But one of 
the many sides of this most many-sided of 
great men can be considered hei*e, and that 
very imperfectly — ^namely, his work as a 
painter. Of this, unfortunately, very little 
which can be regarded as certainly authentic 
remains. His great mural painting of the 
Last Supper, at Milan, is in such a degraded 
and repainted condition that it is but a 
shadow of a shade, of the original perfection 
of which we can best judge by the fine 
drawing for the head of Christ, in the Brera, 
and to some extent by the copy by Marco 
d' Oggione, in the Royal Academy, London, 
and the well-known engraving by Raphael 
Morghen. His cartoon survives only in the 
drawing of one of its groups by Rubens, in 
the Louvre, a Flemish copy of which was 
probably used by Edelinck for his engrav- 
ing of the Battle of the Standard. Few of 
the easel pictures attributed to Leonardo 
have stood the test of modem criticism; 

one after another has been assigned to some 
of his numerous disciples, until those beyond 
dispute authentic are the following: La 
Belle Ferroni^re (about 1497), Mona Lisa 
(about 1500), Madonna with St. Anne, Ma- 
donna of the Rocks, Louvre, Paris, and Na- 
tional Gkdlery, London. Other works which 
pass under Leonardo's name are : Bacchus, 
St John Baptist (probably authentic). Lou- 
vre ; Vanity and Modesty, Palazzo Barbe- 
rini, Rome (painted by Luini or Salaino) ; 
Madonna, Palazzo Belgiojoso, Milan ; Ma- 
donna of the Scales, Louvre (Salaino or Ce- 
sare da Sesto); Madonna and Infant St. 
John, Louvre (by Bernardino Luini) ; Por- 
trait of Charles d'Amboise, Louvre (by 
Beltraffio) ; Resurrection, Berlin Museum ; 
Salome with Head of John Baptist, Vienna 
Museum (by Cesare da Sesto); Male Por- 
trait, perhaps of Lodovico Sforza, Dresden 
Museum ; St Jerome, Vatican ; The Gold- 
smith, La Monaca, Palazzo Pitti, Florence (at- 
tributed to Lorenzo di Credi) ; Portrait of Isa- 
bella of Aragon, Ambrosian Library, Milan ; 
Madonixa della Caraffa, Palazzo Borghese, 
Rome ; Portrait of Leonardo (?), Annuncia- 
tion (?), Adoration of the Magi (?), TJffizi, 
Florence ; Madonna, fresco. Villa Melzi at 
Vaprio ; Holy Family, Hermitage, St Peters- 
^ y burg. — Vasari, ed. 

7 //L/ Mil., iv. 17 ; Burck- 

^^J^ hardt, 363, 625; 

y^ • Mttndler, 112 ; Pater, 

/ / 1>/L ^ V studies, 90 ; Dohme, 
L/CK Vi4U>L. 2iii.. ch. Blanc! 

O./;}^ V(/rvM /5'o)^c^l® florentine; 
Houssaye, Hist de 
Leonard de Vinci (Paris, 1869); Kugler 
(Eastlake), ii 347 ; Gallenberg, L. da Vinci 
(Leipsic, 1834) ; Archivio storico italiano. 
Series HI., VoL 16 ; Amoretti, Memoire 
storiche ; Bossi, Cenacolo ; Carl Brun, 
Eunst und EOnstler des Mittelalters und 
der Neuzeit ; Brown ; Heaton ; Richter ; 
Symonds, Renaissance ; Eastlake, Five Great 
Painters (London, 1882); Art Journal 
(1882), 33 ; Jahrbuch der preuss. Eunst- 
samml., v. 293 ; Eunst-Chronik, xx. 201, 


Digitized by 



261 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xvL 133 ; xvii 11 ; 
xviiL 88, 127, 154, 190; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1886), xxxiii 857 et seq. 

Jean Fran9ois Oigoux, Besanyon Museum ; 
canya& The painter dying at Fontainebleau 
in the arms of Francis! Painted in 1835. A 
good picture, but historically incorrect, as 
Leonardo died at the Chateau de Clot, May 
2, 1519, when the King was at St Germain- 
en-Laye. — ^Larousse, xv. 1081. 

By Dominique Ingres, Comte de Blacas, 
Paria The painter dying at Fontainebleau 
in the arms of Francis L Painted in 1819. 
Original sketch acquired by the Louyre in 

VINCK, FRANS, bom in Antwerp ; con- 
temporary. History and genre painter, pu- 
pil of Leys, whose style he adopted. Medals : 
Brussels, Vienna, Philadelphia. Works: 
Passion of Christ (14 pictures with Hen- 
drickx), Antwerp Cathedral ; Triumphal 
Betum of Best Shot ; Flemish Burgher's 
Wife in 16th Century ; Confederates in 
Presence of Margaret of Parma. — ^MtOler, 

YENCK-BOONS (Vinckeboons), DAVID, 
bom at Mechlin in 1578, died in Amster- 
dam in 1629. Dutch school ; history, genre, 
and landscape painter, son and pupil of 
Philip Vinck-Boons (received into the Ant- 
werp guild in 1580, and died in Amsterdam 
in 1601) ; lived some time in Antwerp, but 
most of his life in Amsterdam; painted 
chiefly on a small scale. Bottenhammer 
often supplied the figures in his landscapes. 
Works: Flemish Eirmess, Antwerp Muse- 
um ; Prince Maurice starting for the Chase 
(attributed, but probably by Pauwels van 
Hillegaert), Museum, Amst^am ; Lottery 
by Torchlight, Old Men's Hospital, ib. ; 
Landscape with Tobias and the Angel, Su- 
ermondt Museum, Aix-la-Ohapelle ; Wood 
Landscape with Castle on a Biver, do. with 
Hagar and the Angel, Aschaffenburg Gal- 
lery ; Popular Festival in Holland, Bamberg 
Gallery; Flemish Eirmess (1608), Land- 
scape with Wedding Procession, l^rrolese 

Landscape, Brunswick Grallery ; Cattle sur- 
rounded by Water, Cassel Gallery ; Fair in 
Flemish Village, Hamburg Gallery ; Abra- 
ham and Hagar in a Forest, Copenhagen 
Grallery; Feeding the Poor, Landscape, 
Stockholm Museum ; Woodland Scenes (2, 
one dated 1618), Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg ; do., Winter Palace, ib.; do. (2), Acad- 
emy, ib. ; Feeding the Poor, Berlin Muse- 
um ; do. and Eirmess, Bobbers sharing 
Booty, Dresden Gkdlery ; Great Landscape, 
Darmstadt Museum ; Madonna with Angels 
in a Landscape, FOrstenberg Gtallery, Do- 
naueschingen ; Eirmess in a ViUage, Stadel 
Gkdlery, Frankfort; Annual Fair in Flemish 
Village, Baptism of the Eunuch, Eunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Frolic in Dutch Village, Eonigs- 
berg Museum ; Christ bearing the Cross 
(1611), Old Pinakothek, Munich; Wood 
Landscape (1624), Schleissheim Gallery ; 
Bustic Love Couple (1629), Boys about 
Bird's Nest, Schwerin Gkdlery ; Crucifixion, 
Bepose in Egypt, do. (figures by Botten- 
hammer), St Fulgentius in a Grotto, Muse- 
um, Vienna; Wood Landscape, Liechten- 
stein Gkdlery, ib.; Eirmess in Dutch Town, 
Harrach Gallery, ib. ; Biver Landscape, Wei- 
mar Museum ; Frolic on the 
Ice, TJffizi, Florence. — Charles 
Blanc, ^^cole flamande ; Immer- 
zeel, iiL 194 ; Eramm, vi 1756 ; 
Eugler (Crowe), I 250, 261 ; Michiels, vi 
187 ; Neefs, L 238 ; Biegel, Beitr^e, u. 66. 

VENEA, FBANCESCO, bom at Forli in 
1846. Gtonre painter, pupil in Florence of 
Pallastrini ; paints mostly scenes in the cos- 
tume of the 16th and 17th centuriea Gk>ld 
medal, Berlin, 1886. Works : First Visit 
to Grandmother, Cheers, Three Cheers! 
Capitano Molena (1883) ; C intendiamo. 
Painter before Easel, Cook plucking Hen 
(1884); Italian Dance Party, W. H. Vander- 
bnt, New York.— niustr. Zeitg. (1884), i 
31 ; il 495, 501 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xx. 114 

PEB, the elder, bom in Haarlem, Oct 11, 
1629, died there, Aug. 26, 1702. Dutch 
school ; history, portrait, landscape, and 



Digitized by 



animal painter, pupil of Frans Hals ; en- 
tered the guild in 1649, travelled in 1652-53 
through Germany, Switzerland, and France. 
After his return he painted portraits in the 
vigorous style of his master. As few pict- 
ures by him are known, though he was very 
industrious, it is to be supposed that many 
of his works pass under the name of Frans 
Hals. Works : Organ Grinder, Museum, 
Vienna ; Itinerant Musicians, Old Man's 
Head, Old Woman's do., Liechtenstein Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Male and Female Portraits, New 
York Museum. His son Laurens (1658- 
1729) was a landscape and flower painter, 
pupil of Berchem, whose manner he imitat- 
ed ; the latter's son, Vincent Laurensz the 
younger, bom in Haarlem, June 10, 1686, 
died there, May 16, 1742, painted the same 
subjects. By him : City Hall of Haarlem 
(1729), Haarlem Museum. Vincent Jans- 
zoon van der Vinne (bom in Haarlem, 
Jan. 31, 1736, died there, Jan. 15, 1811) 
was a nephew of the last named. By him : 
Mountainous Land- 
scape with River, 
Haarlem Museum. — 
Gaz.desB. Arts (1872), 
vi 477 ; Immerzeel, iii. 195 ; Kramm, vi. 
1767 ; Su-et (1883), iL 380 ; Van der Wil- 
ligen, 314. 

Baron T. H. W. Schroder, Paris, Scene 
in a sumptuous Bacchic Temple, Rome ; 
in centre, an altar, past which is mov- 
ing a procession led by a beautiful priest- 
ess, followed by maidens playing the double 
pipe, and by dancing girls beating tim- 
brels ; after these march priests bearing 
jars of wine. In the court of the temple 
are more dancers and timbrel-players of 
both sexes. Painted in 1870 ; Philadelphia 
Exposition, 1876. Engraved by Aug. Blan- 
chard.— Art Journal (1871), 147, 166 ; 
(1883), 34. 

Turnery Earl of Yarborough, London ; can- 
vas. Festival at the opening of the Vintage at 
Macon, France. Male and female vintagers 


dancing under a gi*oup of trees on a terraced 
hill-side overlooking a wide champaign, with 
a smooth river flowing towards the left ; in 
the mid-distance, a bridge connecting the 
two parts of the town, which lie on opposite 
sidea One of Turner's best pictures ; re- 
calls Claude and Poussin. Boyal Academy, 
1803.— Athen., Jan., 1875, 90 ; Waagen, Art 
Treasures, iv. 70 ; Hamerton, Life. 

at Bangor, Me., in 1846. Figure and por- 
trait painter, pupil of W. M. Hunt in Bos- 
ton ; in 1875 of Bonnat in Paris ; in 1876 of 
Duveneck, Dietz, and Wagner, in Munich ; 
and later of Jean Paul Laurens. Associate 
of the National Academy, New York. Stu- 
dio in Boston. Works : Celestina (1875) ; 
Italian Girl, Head of Neapolitan Boy, Head 
of Old French Peasant Woman (1878); 
French Peasant Woman, T. B. Clai-ke, New 
York ; Portraits of S. H. RusseU (1880), 
Wendell ^PhiUips (1882) ; Street in Toledo 
—Spain (1884) ; Portrait, T. G. Appleton, 

VIOLANTE, Palma Vecchio, Vienna Mu- 
seum ; wood, H. 1 ft 6 in. X 1 ft 3 in. Bust 
of a beautiful girl, virith rich tresses falling 
upon her neck; dressed in blue bodice, 
showing plaited chemisette, and yellow bro- 
cade sleeves. Same figure, holding a palm, 
in Palma's Madonna (attributed to Giorgi- 
one) at Madrid. From collection of Paolo 
del Sera.-C. & C, N. Italy, ii 480 ; Boschi- 
ni. Carta del Navegar, 368. 

VLOUNIST (Violinista or Suonatore), 
Raphael, Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna, Rome ; 
wood, dated 1518. Bust of a youth, about, 
twenty years old, three-quarters face, wear- 
ing a black cap, from which his brown hair 
falls on his shoulders, and a green mantle, 
trimmed vrith black velvet, with a fur col- 
lar ; holds in left hand a violin bow and 
some laurel leaves and immortellea Passa- 
vant believes it a portrait of Andrea Ma- 
rone, a famous improvisatore of Brescia in 
time of Leo X. Engraved by J. Felsing. 
— Passavant, ii 276 ; MUntz, 532, 636 ; 
Springer, 211. 


Digitized by 



ADOLPHE, born in Paris in 1817, died 
there in 1878. Landscape painter, pupil of 
L6on Fleury and of F. L. Fran9ais. Medals : 
3d class, 1852, 1861 ; medal, 1870. Works: 
Valley of Jouy (1870) ; do. from Heights of 
Metz (1872) ; Isles of Hy^res, Environs of 
Cannes (1874) ; West Entrance to Ferme du 
Mont at :6tretat, East do. (1875) ; Aqueduct 
of Buc (1876); Plateau of Amontat ^tretat. 
Beach at do. (1877). 

VIRGEN DE BELEN. See Madonna de 

la Ceinture. 

donna of the Apple. 

VIRGEN DEL PEZ. See Madonna del 

Madonna de la Servilleta. 

VIRGIN, BIRTH OF, Annibale Carracci, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, arched, H 8 ft 10 in. 
X 5 ft The Eternal, in a glory of angels^ 
presides over the birth of the Virgin, who is 
cared for by women in foreground ; in back- 
ground, St Anna in bed aided by attend- 
ants ; near her, Joachim and two women. 
Painted for church of pontifical palace at 
Loreto ; later in Mus^e Napoleon. En- 
graved by R V. Audenaerd. — Villot, Lou- 
vre ; Landon, Mus^e, xii. PL 10. 

By Domenico Ohirlandqjo. See Virgin, 
Life of. 

By MuriUo, Louvre, Paris; canvas, H 6 
ft X 11 ft 10 in. In a chamber, around a 
copper vessel prepared to bathe the babe, are 
two angels and four women, one of whom 
holds the infant while another brings linen ; 
to left of them two cherubs, one playing with 
a dog ; on extreme left, St Anna sitting in 
bed, receiving St Joachim and others ; on 
right, two women drying linen at a fire- 
place ; above, five cherubs in a glory. 
Painted in 1655 for Cathedral of Seville ; 
carried off by Soult ; bid in at Soult sale 
(1852) at 90,000 francs ; acquired by the 
government in 1858 at 150,000 francs. En- 

graved by A. Martinet ; L Massard ; A. 
Masson ; etched by Damman. — C. Bermn- 
dez, Carta, 59 ; Ford, Handbook, 180 ; Gaz. 
des B. Arts (1875), xL 180 ; Klass. der Ma- 
lerei, ii. PL 66 ; Curtis, 142 ; Reveil, viL 

Birth of th« Virgin, Annibal« Carracci, Louvra, Paris. 


gelico, Louvre ; wood, H. 7 f t x 6 f t 11 in. 
Christ, enthroned, crowning the Virgin in 
the presence of many angels and saints. In 
predella, seven scenes from life of St Dom- 
inick, called the Miracles of St Dominick. 
Painted for S. Domenico, Fiesole, whence 
taken by the French in invasion of 1812. 
Engraved by Temite ; A. Fran9ois (1867) ; 


Digitized by 



chromolithograph by Kellenhoven (1855) ; 
water-colour, J. Journy (Salon, 1861). — Va- 
sari, ed. Mil, ii. 511 ; A. W. Schlegel (Paris, 
1816); C. &C., Italy, i. 584; Larousse, v. 363. 
By Fra Aiigelico, TJflfizi, Florence ; wood, 
small figures. Christ places the crown up- 
on the head of the Virgin in the midst of a 
choir of angels, surrounded by a great num- 
ber of saints, male and female. Painted in 
1433 for S. M. Nuova, Florence, whence re- 
moved to Uflfizi in 1825. A masterpiece, 
magnificently composed. The predella, con- 
sisting of the Marriage of the Virgin, Death 
of the Virgin, and Birth of John Baptist, is 

for S. Domenico, whence removed to S. 
Francesco. — Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 162 ; Ri- 
dolfi, Maraviglie, i. 95 ; C. & C, N. Italy, 
i. 158 ; Meyer, KOnst. Lex., iii. 404, 416. 

By Sandro Botticelli, Florence Academy ; 
wood, H. 12 ft. 2 in. X 8 ft. 2 in. The Eter- 
nal crowning the Virgin in the heavens, sur- 
rounded by a choir of cherubs and dancing 
angels ; below, SS. John Evangelist, Augus- 
tine, Jerome, and Eloy. Painted about 1481 
-84 for S. Marco, Florence. One of Botti- 
celli's best works. Engraved by F. livy. — 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 312 ; C. & C, Italy, ii 
420 ; GaU. di Firenze, PL 45. 

Birth of th« Virgin, Muriilo, Louvr«, Paris. 

now separate in the Uffizi. The Marriage 
is one of the greatest of his compositions. 
—Vasari, ed. Mil, ii 516 ; C. & C, Italy, i. 
586 ; Lasinio, i PI. 30, 105, 106. 

By Giovanni Bellini, S. Francesco, Pe- 
saro ; wood, H. 8 ft 6 in. x 7 ft 11 in.; 
signed. The Virgin and Saviour on a 
throne, the former bending to receive the 
crown ; SS. Peter, Paul, Jerome, and Fran- 
cis. Panel is in a rich frame, with pilaster 
niches on sides containing eight saints, and 
resting on predellas representing : Conver- 
sion of St. Paul ; Martyrdom of St Peter ; 
Nativity ; St. Jerome Penitent ; St Francis 
receiving Stigmata. Painted about 1475 

By Baffaellino del Oarbo, Louvre ; wood, 
H. 9 ft 6 in. X 5 ft 4 in. Within a glory 
the Virgin, seated, receives the crown from 
Christ, while the Holy Spirit hovers over 
their heads ; four angels play a lute, a dul- 
cimer, a harp, and a viol ; below, at left, SS. 
Benedict and Salvi, Bishop of Verona ; at 
right, SS. Giovanni Gualberto Azzini, found- 
er of the brotherhood of Vallombrosa, and 
Bernardo degli Uberti, Cardinal and Bish- 
op of Parma. Painted for S. Salvi, Flor- 
ence ; carried to Paris in 1812. Much in- 
jured.— Vasari, ed. Mil, iv. 238 ; VUlot, 
Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Mus6e, 2d Col., iv. 
PL 1. 


Digitized by 



By school of Domenico Ohirlandajo, S. 
Qirolamo, Narm. Formerly attributed to 
Raphael and to Lo Spagna.— C. & C, Italy, 
iii. 310. 

By Ouido Reni, Bologna Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft 5 in. X 5 ft 9 in. The Virgin, 
in a glory, crowned by the Son and the 
Father, with the Holy Ghost de- 
scending from above ; below, SS. 
Catherine, John Evangelist, John 
Baptist, and Bernard. Formerly 
in suppressed church of S. Ber- 
nardo of the Olivetan monks. 
Engraved by A. Marchi — Pinac. 
di Bologna, PL 68 ; Felsihor, Pit- 
trice, ii. 7 ; Lavice, 13. 

By Quido Reni, National Gal- 
lery, London ; copper, H. 2 f t 2 
in. X 1 ft 7 in. A rich composi- 
tion with refined forms and beau- 
tiful heada Probably of first pe- 
riod. Formerly in Madrid Gal- 
lery, whence pai^ied to Sir Thomas 
Lawrence ; then to Mr. Wells, who 
in 1847 bequeathed it to Nation- 
al Gallery. — Waagen, Treasures, 

By Andrea Orcagna, National 
Gallery, London ; wood, tempera, 
H.9ft7in.xl3ftlin. Altar- 
piece in three parts: in centre, 
Christ crowning the Virgin, with 
two angels standing on each side 
and ten others below, some kneel- 
ing and some playing musical in- 
struments ; in each of side pict- 
ures, twenty-four saints kneeUng ; 
on left is St Peter, supporting on 
his knees the model of S. Pietro 
Maggiore, Florence, for which the 
picture was originally painted. 
Nine other pictures in National Gkllery also 
formed part of this altarpiece.— Cat Nat 

By Baphael, Vatican, Rome ; wood trans- 
ferred to canvas, arched at top, H. 9 f t 2 
in. X 5 ft 2 in. Christ crowning the Virgin 
enthroned in the heavens, surrounded by 

angels with musical instruments, and cher- 
ubs above ; below, the apostles around the 
empty tomb. Painted in 1503 at Citt^ di 
Castello for Maddalena degli Oddi, and 
placed in the Oddi Chapel of S. Francesco, 
Perugia ; carried thence in 1797 to Paris, 
where it was transferred to canvas : re- 

Coronation of th« Virgin, Raphael, Vatican, Roma. 

turned in 1815 and placed in Vatican. En- 
graved by R Stolzel ; Graflfonara ; Couch6 
fila Copy, dated 1518, in church of Civi- 
tella Bemazzone, near Perugia. The pre- 
della, — the Annunciation, Epiphany, and 
Presentation, — also in Vatican, in separate 
frame.— Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 317 ; C. & C, 


Digitized by 



Baphael, i. 141 ; Oiornale di Erud. Tosc, 
235 ; Gruyer, Vierges de Eaphael, ii. 549 ; 
MUntz, 64 ; Passavant, ii 12 ; Larousse, y. 

By Raphael, Giulio Romano, and H Fat- 
tore, Vatican ; wood, H. 10 ft. 6 in. x 7 ft. 
8 in. In upper part, Christ crowning the 
Virgin in the heavens ; in lower, apostles 
around the tomb of the Virgin. Ordered 
of Raphael in 1505 for the Convent of 
Monte Luce, near Perugia, but he had time 
to make only the study for it. Upper part 
finished, after Raphael's death, by Giulio 
Romano, lower by H Fattore. Carried to 
Paris in 1797 ; returned in 1815 and placed 
in Vatican. Engraved by J. CappellL — 
Pungileone, Raphael, 192 ; Passavant, ii. 
309 ; C. & C, Raphael, i. 235 ; Gruyer, 
Vierges de Raphael, ii. 570. 

By Rubens, Brussels Museum ; canvas, 
H. 12 ft. 11 in. X 8 ft. 2 in. The Virgin, 
kneeling upon an inverted crescent, with 
angels in clouds beneath, is crowned by the 
Father and the Son. Painted for Church 
of RecoUets, Antwerp. Carried to Paris, 
1794 ; given to Museum of Brussels in 
1802. Engraved by P. Pontius ; Van den 
Enden. Replica, with variations, Berlin Mu- 
seum ; another, burned in 1718 in Church of 
Jesuits, Antwerp. — Smith, ii. 15 ; ix. 247 ; 
Meyer, Museen, 388 ; Larousse, v. 364 

By Lo Spagna, Church of Riformati, Todi. 
Above, Saviour crowns Virgin under a can- 
opy, in centre of a company of angels, proph- 
et^ and sibyls ; below, SS. Jerome, Louis, 
Bernardino, John Baptist, and others. Imi- 
tated, with changes, from Florentine altar- 
piece at NamL Painted in 1511. Replica 
(1511), with changes, S. Martino, nearTrevi; 
Magdiden and St. Catharine introduced be- 
low, and view of S. Francesco at Assisi in 
background.— C. & C, Italy, iiL 810, 312 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., i. 594. 

By Tintoretto, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Ven- 
ice ; canvaa Above, the Vii'gin is crowned ; 
below are SS. Benedetto, Gregorio, Placido, 
Mauro, and five portraits. — Zanotto, 631. 

By Velasquezy Madrid Museum ; canvas, 

H. 5 ft 9 in. X 4 ft 4 in. The Virgin, en- 
throned in clouds, with her robe upheld by 
two cherubs, is about to be crowned by the 
Father and the Son, while above hovers 
the dove ; beneath are four winged heada 
Painted, probably after second visit to Italy, 
for the Queen's oratory in the palace at Ma- 
drid. Considered the best of his religious 
pictures. Engraved by Massard ; Nargeot ; 
etched and lithographed by several. — Ma- 
drazo ; C. Bermudez ; Jameson, Madonna, 
23 ; Curtis, 3 ; Reveil, xiv. 955. 

Coronation of Virgin, Velasquez, Madrid Museum. 

Subject treated also by Cosimo Rosselli, 
S. M. de' Pazzi, Florence, and Louvre, Par- 
is ; Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Louvre ; Pinturic- 
chio, Vatican ; Girolamo da Santa Croce, 
Berlin Museum ; Giulio Romano and II Fat- 
tore, Vatican ; Marco Palmezzano, Brera, 
Milan ; Girolamo da Udine, Hospital at 
TJdine ; Paolo Veronese, Venice Academy 
and Schleissheim Gkllery ; Annibale Car- 
racci, Duke of Newcastle ; Giovanni Lan- 
franco. Louvre ; Padovanino, Venice Acad- 
emy ; Carlo Francesco Nuvolone, Passione, 
Milan ; Juan de Juanes, Madrid Museum ; 
Hans Memling, Hospital of St John, Bruges ; 


Digitized by 



Hans Holbein, elder, Augsburg Gallery ; 
Hans von Culmbacb, Munich Gallery ; Hans 
Schauffelein, ib.; Hans Baldung Grien, Fri- 
burg Cathedral; Adriaen van der Werffi 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Giotto, Church 
of S. FracTcesco d'Assisi ; Claudius Jac- 
quand, St Philippe-du-Eoule, Paris. 

VIRGIN, DEATH OP, Michelangelo da 
Caravaggio, Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H. 12 ft. 
1 in. X 8 ft The Virgin on her death-bed, the 
apostles and their disciples in affliction ; in 

D«ath of th« Virgin, Michelangelo da Cartvaggio, Louvre, Paris. 

foreground, at right, a woman seated, her 
head upon her knees, weeping. Painted 
for S. M. della Scala in Trastevere, Rome ; 
bought by Duke of Modena, who sold it to 
Charles I of England ; bought by Jabach, 
who sold it to Louis XIV. Engraved by S. 
Valine; H Laurent; Claessens; Oortmann. 
— ^Villot, Cat Louvre ; Mus6e royal, L; Fil- 
hol, viL PL 476 ; Landon, Mus^e, iv. PL 32 ; 
Meyer, Etlnsi Lex., i 615 ; Cab. Crozat, ii. 
PL 91. 

By Domenico Ohirlandajo. See Virgin, 
Life ot 

By Martin SchaffneVy Pinakothek, Munich ; 
wood, H 9 ft 10 in. X 5 ft. 2 in. She kneels, 
supported by two of the apostles, while an- 
other, in priestly raiments, holds before her 
a book ; at the right, two kneeling are read- 
ing from a book and two others are visible 
in background ; at the right, two more are 
bringing a sprinkler and a censer ; above, 
the soul of the dying, borne upwards by 
angels to a glory, where it is received by 
Christ On the reverse : Christ with the 
Apostles, and half of the Departure of 
Christ, the other half being on the back of 
another picture in the Pinakothek These, 
and other panels, formed once the wings of 
the altar door of a convent at Weddenhau- 
sen, near Ulm. They came into possession 
of the Gk>vemment in 1803, when the con- 
vent was broken up. Engraved by J. Bur- 
ger. — POrster, v. 

venety Uffizi, Plorence ; canva& The Vir- 
gin, her hands joined, kneels before her 
mother, who points with her finger to let- 
ters on a paper spread out upon her knees ; 
Joachim leans upon a chair in which St 
Anna is seated ; in background, young girls 
at work ; above, the heads of cherubim smil- 
ing in the clouds. Engraved by Pierre Dre- 
vet Several repetitions. — Larousse, viL 215. 

By MurUlo, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
7ft2in.x5ft5in. St Anna, seated on 
a bench with an open book in her lap, teach- 
es the Virgin, who stands on left ; above, 
two cherubs about to crown the latter with 
flowers; on left, a marble column and a 
basket of linen ; in background, a balus- 
trade. Painted about 1674 ; figures thought 
to be portraits of wife and daughter of ar- 
tist Prom Isabel Pamese Collection. Lith- 
ographed by P. Decraene ; H. Eichens ; Ja- 
cott ; and other& Study, Madrid Museum ; 
sketch, Edward A Leatham, London. — Cur- 
tis, 143 ; Gaz. des R Arts (1875) ; Madrazo, 

By Eiibena, Antwerp Museum ; canvas, H. 


Digitized by 



6 ft 4 in. X 5 ft. St. Anna, seated on a bench 
in front of a balustrade, teaches the Virgin, 
who stands beside her, to read from a book ; 
behind, left, St Joachim, whose countenance 
shows delight at the progress of the pupil ; 
above, two angels with a crown of flowers. 
Painted for the Church of the Unshod Car- 

Education of th« Virgin, Rubens, Antwerp Museum. 

melites, Antwerp. Engraved by Schelte ; 
Bolswert ; C. Waumans. — Reveil, x. 748. 

Simone Cantarini, Bologna Gallery ; can- 
vas, H. 7 ft 5 in. x4 ft 3 in. The Virgin, 
seated upon clouds in a glory of angels, 
two of whom are about to crown her, with 
one foot upon the crescent moon ; below, 
SS. John Evangelist, Nicholas of Tolentino, 
and Euphemia. Engraved by G. Asioli. — 
Pinac. di Bologna, PL 20. 

VIRGIN OF GRIEF. See Mater Dolo- 

VIRGIN, HOLY, Ouido Reni, Uflfizi, 
Florence ; canvas, H. 4 ft 3 in. x 3 ft 1 in. 
Half-length, with drapery over her head 
and shouldera, her hands crossed upon her 
breast, and her eyes turned upwards. En- 

graved by E. Beisson. — Wicar, i. Part 10 ; 
MoHni, GaL di Firenze, i. 141 ; Soc. Ed. 
and Paris, PI. 117. 

Gfdrlandajo, S. M. Novella, Florence ; fres- 
cos on the wall of the choir. Seven sub- 
jects : 1. Joachim's Expulsion from the 
Temple ; 2. Birth of the Virgin ; 3. Presen- 
tation in the Temple ; 4. Marriage of the 
Virgin ; 5. Adoration of the Magi ; 6. Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents ; 7. Death and As- 
sumption of the Virgin. Executed, with 
the aid of assistants, about 1490, by order 
of Giovanni Tomabuoni, to replace the dam- 
aged works of Andrea Orcagna. Engraved 
by Lasinio. — Vasari, ed. Mil, iii. 260 ; C. & 
C, Italy, ii. 476 ; Larousse, xv. 1028. 

By MurUlOy Sir Richard Wallace, Bart, 
London ; canvas, H. 2 ft 5 in. x 1 ft 10 in. 
The Virgin and Joseph, holding each other 
by the hand, accompanied by five male and 
three female attendants, stand before the 
High Priest ; above, the dove in a glory ; in 
background, architecture and a crimson cur- 
tain. — Curtis, 143. 

By Pietro Ferugino, Caen Museum, 
France ; canvas, life-size. Marriage of the 
Virgin and St Joseph by the High Priest, 
in presence of a group of men on one side 
and of women on the other, in front of an 
octagon temple. A modification of the De- 
livery of the Keys to Peter, in the Sistine 
Chapel. Contracted for in 1495 for the 
Brotherhood of S. Giuseppe in Lorenzo, 
Perugia, but not painted until after 1500 ; 
carried to France in 1799 and not returned. 
Raphael probably had a hand in it, and his 
Sposalizio, at Milan, repeats the same con- 
secrated type. — ^Vasari, ed. Mil., iii 581; 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 217; Mttntz, 84. 
^By Raphael, Brera, Milan ; wood, arched 
at top, H. 5 ft 6 in. X 3 ft. 9 in. ; signed, and 
dated 1504 Marriage of the Virgin and 
Joseph by the High Priest in the court of 
the temple ; group of men on one side and 
of women on the other side of priest An 
adaptation from Perugino*s Sposalizio at 
Fano and at Caen. Painted for S. Francesco 


Digitized by 



of Citt^ di Casiello, where it remained till 
June 28, 1798, when the municipal authori- 
ties gave it up to Oen. Qiuseppe Lecchi, 
commander of a French brigade then in the 
town. Lecchi sold it in 1801 to Oiacomo 
Sannazaro, of Milan, from whom the Milan 
Hospital inherited it in 1804 ; purchased 
by the State in 1806 for 53,000 franca Re- 
stored in Milan by Molteni, but somewhat 
discoloured. Copy, of 1506, by 
Giovanni Andrea ^rZKim, in saciisty 
of S. Giuseppe, Urbino ; another in 
S. Agostino, Citt^ di Castello, a 
third in Berlin Museum ; modem 
copy in !lScole des Beaux Arts, Par- 
ia Engraved by LonghL — ^Vasari, 
ed. Mil, iv. 323 ; Pungileone, Raphr 
ael, 282; C. & C, Raphael, L 163; 
Passavant, iL 18 ; Klaa der Maler- 
ei, L PL 31; Grayer, Vierges de 
Raphael, ii. 3, 21 ; MOntz, 81 ; Eug- 
ler (Eastlake), ii 413 ; Perkins, 59 ; 
Reveil, ix. 577. 

donna della Mis^ricordia. 

Paolo Veronese^ Venice Academy ; 
canvaa The Virgin in glory and 
Si Dominick distributing crowns 
of roses to a pope, an emperor, a 
king, a doge, etc. From S. Pietro 
Martire, Murano. 

gen de las Augustias), Anton Van 
Dyck, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 
3 ft 9 in. x3 ft 3 in. The Virgin, 
seated, supports on her lap the 
body of Christ, whose hand the 
Magdalen kisses, while St. John 
stands near by. Larger repetition in Mu- 
seum of Amb^rea — Madrazo. 

Memling, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; wood, 
H. 2 ft 7 in. X 5 ft 11 in. An extensive 
landscape, in the centre of which is Jerusa- 
lem with many tower& In the foreground, 
middle, the Adoration of the Magi, on the 
left the Nativity, on the right the Resurrec- 

tion ; in the background. The Annunciation 
to the Shepherds, the Journeying of the 
Magi and their Re-embarkation on the Sea ; 
their Visit to Herod, the Massacre of the 
Innocents, and the Flight into Egypt On 
the other side the Women at the Sepulchre, 
the Appearance of Christ among the Women 
and Disciples, taking Leave of his Mother, 
his Ascension, the Death of the Virgin and 

Marriage of th« Virgin, Raphael, Brera, Milan. 

her Reception in Heaven, and lastly, on the 
distant mountain peaks, the Three Magi, 
kneeling, gazing on the Star of Bethlehem. 
The title of this picture is misleading, as the 
design includes many incidents in the life 
of Christ and of the Virgin besides those 
called the Seven Joys. Weale calls it Christ 
the light of the World, and Michiels the 
Triumphs of Christ Painted for Pierre 


Digitized by 



Bultjnck, a currier of Bruges, who present- 
ed it to his guild in 1479; dedicated in 
1480 in Chapel of the Tanners, Bruges, 
where it remained until about 1780, when 
it was presented to the Austrian Gk>yemor- 
General of Brabant ; passed in 1813 from 
the Brion family at Brussels to the Collec- 
tion of the Boisseree brothers; acquired 
thence by the Pinakothek Engraved by 
R Schaflfer ; R Peztsch in Porster's Denk- 
niale. Lithographed by Strixner, Frey- 
mann. — Kugler (Crowe), i 97 ; Eastlake, 
Notes, 139. 

Hans Memling, Turin Gallery ; wood, H. 1 
ft 9 in. X 3 ft The story of the Passion, in 
a landscape. In background, the Entrance 
of Christ into Jerusalem ; then the Saviour in 
the House of the Pharisee, and the Last 
Supper ; next, nearer the spectator, the Be- 
trayal by Judas, the Flagellation, the March 
to Calvary, the Crucifixion, the Descent 
from the Cross, the Resurrection, the De- 
scent into Limbus, the Appearance to the 
Magdalen, and the Supper at Emmaus. 
In the foreground, a donor and his wife are 
kneeling. There are hundreds of figures in 
this miniature, all of them delicately finished 
and brilliantly coloured. Probably the cen- 
tral part of an altarpiece, painted in 1477- 
78, by order of WiDem Vrelandt, for the 
booksellers' chapel in Bruges. The donors 
ore supposed to be Vrelandt and his wife. 
The picture was sold in 1624 Saved from 
the plunder of the Dominican Convent of 
Bosco, near Alessandria, Piedmont, in the 
Prench Revolution, and subsequently pre- 
sented to the king. The wings are sup- 
posed to be lost — C. &C.,Plemish Painters, 

VIRGINIA, DEATH OF, G. G. Lethiere, 
Louvre ; canvas, H. 15 ft x 25 ft 8 in. ; 
signed, dated 1828. Virginius, having slain 
his daughter, holds up the bloody knife and 
threatens Appius Claudius, the Decemvir. 
Salon, 1831 ; presented to Louvre in 1848 
by M. Bayard. Original study in Salon of 

VISCH, MATHTAS DE, bom at Reninghe, 
West Planders, in 1702, died at Bruges, 
April 23, 1765. Plemish school; history 
and portrait painter, pupil at Binges of Jo- 
seph van den Eerckhove ; was the first to 
win (1720) the prize at the newly founded 
Academy, went in 1723 to Paris and thence 
soon after to Italy, visiting Rome, Venice, 
where he studied under Piazzetta, then 
Parma and Piacenza; returned to Bruges 
after nine years' absence, established a suc- 
cessful life-model school in 1735, and be- 
came professor at the Academy in 1739. 
Works : Hagar consoled by the Angel, St 
Jacques, Bruges; Allegory of Pine Arts, 
Portraits of Himself (2, one dated 1740), do. 
of the Painter Suweyns (1740), Academy, ib. 
— ^Immerzeel, iiL 197 ; Weale, Cat Bruges 
Acad., 91. 

VISCHER, AUGUST, bom at Waldan- 
gelloch, Baden, in 1822. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Cornelius and Schnorr, and of Antwerp 
Academy under Wappers and Deitmann, 
then of De Block; settled in Munich in 
1850, visited Paris in 1853-64 ; became Ba- 
den court painter in 1864 and professor at 
the Polytechnic Institute in Carlsruhe in 
1870. Gold medal, 1851. Works : Sailors' 
Dance in Dutch Tavern, Scene in Baden 
Revolution, Diana of Poitiers before Prancis 
I (1850); Capture of Olden Bameveld 
(1851), Coligny at St Quentin surprised by 
the Spaniards (1852), Carlsruhe Art Union ; 
Capture of Gotz von Berlichingen ; Capture 
of Prancis L at Pavia (1857) ; Berthold of 
Z&hringen defeating the Milanese at Cassa- 
no in 1158 (1864), Carlsruhe Gallery ; Storm- 
ing of Rome by the Germans (1875). In 
fresco : Storming of Ofen by Elector Max 
Emanuel, Entry of Elector Max Joseph into 
Munich in 1799, National Museum, Munich. 
— Dioskuren (1870), 185 ; Kaulen, 310 ; Re- 
gnet, iL 286. 

VISITATION, Mariotto AlberHnetti, Uffizi, 
Florence ; wood, small figures ; dated 1503. 
Visit of Mary to EUzabeth (Luke i 39). 
The Virgin and Elizabeth meet under a deo- 

Digitized by 



orated portico ; in the predella, Annuncia- 
tion, Nativity, and Presentation in Temple. 
Painted for S. Martino, Florence ; passed 

Vititation, Mariotto Alb«rtinelli. Uffizi, Flor«nc«. 

in 1786 from the Florence Academy to 
the Uffizi. Albertinelli's masterpiece. The 
group is felicitous, the draperies are worthy 
of Fra Bartolommeo, and the low-keyed 
tone of colour is heightened by glazes ap- 
plied with consummate skill Engraved by 
V. deUa Bruna.— C. & C, Italy, iii. 486 ; 
Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 224 ; Molini, Gal. di Fi- 
renze, i 69 ; Lasinio, L PL 21 ; Meyer, Etinst. 
Lex., i 219, 222 ; Etruria Pittrice, i PL 39 ; 
Eosini, iv. 47. 

By Domenico Ohirlandajo, Louvre ; wood, 
H. 5 ft. 7 in. X 5 ft. 3 in. ; dated 1491. The 
Virgin receives the salutation of Si Eliza- 
bethy who kneels in presence of Mary Cleo- 
pas and Mary Salome. Begun for Church 

of GesteUo, now S. M. Maddalena de' Pazzi, 
Florence, by Domenico, and finished by his 
brothers, David and Benedetto. Carried to 
Paris in. 1812, and left to the Mus^ Napo- 
leon in 1815 by the Florentine Commission- 
ers.— Vasari, ed. MiL, iii 258; Villot, Cat. 

By Pdma Vecchio, Vienna Museum ; can- 
vas, H. 6 ft X 11 ft. 9 in. Joseph and Zach- 
arias witness the meeting of Elizabeth and 
Mary at outskirts of a village. — C. & C, N. 
Italy, ii. 471. 

By Sebastian del Piomho, Louvre, Paria ; 
wood, transferred to canvas, H. 5 fi 6 in. x 
4 ft 4 in. ; signed, dated 1521. Visit of 
Mary to Elizabeth ; in distance, a man an- 
nounces to Zacharias the coming of the Vir- 
gin. Painted for Francis I Damaged by 
restorations— C. & C, N. Italy, il 339 ; Vil- 
lot, Cat Louvre ; Filhol, vii. PL 469 ; Lan- 
don, Mus^ Triii. PL 44. 

Vititation, S«t>attian del Piombo, Louvra, Paris. 

By Eaphael, Madrid Museum; wood, 
transferred to canvas, H. 6 ft 7 in. x 4 ft. 9 
in. Elizabeth advances from left to meet 
the Virgin and clasps her hand ; in back- 


Digitized by 



ground, baptism of Christ, with the Eternal 
blessing him from above. Painted about 
1517 for Giovanni Battista Branconio of 

Visitation, Raphael, Madrid Mussum. 

Aquila, who presented it to S. Silvestro at 
Aquila in the Abruzzi ; bought in 1655 by 
Phihp rV. of Spain, who placed it in the 
Escorial ; carried to Paris in 1813 and trans- 
ferred to canvas ; retunied in 1822. Al- 
most wholly by Raphael Engraved by A. 
B. Desnoyers, and others. — Gruyer, Vierges 
de Raphael, iL 63 ; Passavant, ii. 247 ; lila- 
drazo, 189 ; Reveil, L 61 ; Larousse, xv, 

By BemhraTidt, Grosvenor House, Lon- 
don ; wood, H. 1 ft. 9 in. x 1 ft. 6 in. ; signed, 
dated 1640. Elizabeth embraces the Virgin 
at the bottom of the house steps, which the 
aged Zacharias, who is supported by a 
youth, is descending ; behind the Virgin, a 
negress, and farther back a servant housing 
an ass ; beside them a dog, a peacock, and 
a hen with chickens. Formerly in Collec- 
tion of King of Sardinia ; bought in Eng- 

land in 1812. Engraved by J. Burnet 
(1813).— Waagen, Art Treasures, ii. 165; 
Vosmaer, 455 ; Smith, vii. 22. 

By Buhens, Antwerp Cathedral ; wood, 
H. 13 ft. 6 in. X 4 ft. 10 in. The Virgin is 
received by Elizabeth at the entrance of a 
house with a vast portico supported by col- 
umns, while Zacharias greets Joseph, who 
is mounting the steps ; behind the latter, a 
maid-sei-vant with a basket on her head, and 
in foreground a man-servant unlading an 
asa Painted on the interior of one of the 
wings of the Descent from the Cross. En- 
graved by P. de Jode ; Ragot. 

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Ven- 
ice ; canvas. The Virgin and Elizabeth, 
with Zacharias behind them leaning on his 
staflf. " Painted in his very best manner ; 
exquisite in simplicity, unrivalled in vigour, 
well-preserved, and, as a piece of painting, 
certainly one of the most precious in Venice." 
— Buskin, Stones of Venice, iii 332. 

Visitation, Rubens, Antwerp Cathedral. 

Subject treated also by Pinturicchio, 
Vatican ; Cristofano Allori, Palazzo Strozzi, 
Florence ; Federigo Barocci, Vienna Muse- 


Digitized by 



urn ; Carlo Bonone, S. M. in Vado, Perrara; 
Callisto da Lodi, S. M. Calchera, Brescia ; 
Lodovico Carracci, S. Domenico, Bologna ; 
Domenichino, Cappella Nolfi, Fano ; Garo- 
falo, Palazzo Doria, Borne ; Luca Giordano, 
Vienna Museum; Guercino, Bouen Muse- 
um ; Carlo Maratti, S. M. della Pace, Bome ; 
Giovanni Maria Morandi, Ufl&zi, Florence ; 
Bernardino Naldini, Duomo, Florence ; Er- 
cole Procaccini, Naples Museum ; Andrea 
Yicentino, Uffizi, Florence ; Vicente Joanes, 
Madrid Museum, Carlsruhe Gkdlery; Yin- 
cenzo Carducho, Madrid Museum. 

VITALE DA BOLOGNA, early part of 
14th century. Bolognese school A Ma- 
donna signed and dated 1320 is in the Bo- 
logna Gallery. Another, engrayed by D'A- 
gincourt, was dated 1345. A third, signed 
by him without date, is in the Museo Oris- 
tiano of the Vatican. He was a second- 
rate painter, who imitated the affected ten- 
derness and delicacy of the Umbrians and 
displayed the mechanical attainments of a 
miniaturist. — C. & C, Italy, iL 207 ; Vasari, 
ed. Le Mon., iii. 41 ; Ch. Blanc, ^o\e bolo- 
naise, Introd., vi. ; Burckhardt, 518. 

VTTALIS, PAPnUUS, Eoman painter, 
date tmknown. — ^Fabretti, Inscr., 235, No. 
622 ; R.R, Schom, 425. 
V VITE, TIMOTEO, or Timoteo daUrbmo, 
born in Ferrara in 1469, died in Urbino, 
Oct 10, 1523. Umbrian school; son of 
Bartolommeo di Pietro Vite. Brought up 
a goldsmith, but painted with Francia in 
Bologna in 1491-95, and settled as a master 
at Urbino. About 1519, or perhaps a little 
before, he became Baphaers assistant in 
Bome, remaining there until Baphael's 
death (1520), when he probably returned to 
Urbino. The most important of his works 
is the altarpiece (1504), Duomo, Urbino. 
The outline and modelling are precise and 
careful in finish, and the drapery is good, 
but the effect is cold and chilling. Vite re- 
calls Francia and Pinturicchio, though much 
inferior to them. A Madonna with Saints, 
Brera, Milan, is of this period. As he grew 
older he adopted the Baphaelesque style, as 

shown in the figure of St ApoUonia in the 
Santissima Trinity Urbino. As Bapbael's 
assistant he painted the Prophets, in the 
Church of the Pace, Bome, and the draper- 
ies of Baphael's Sibyls below them. The 
Madonna di S. Luca, Academy of St. Luke, 
Bome, attributed to Baphael, is now as- 
cribed to him. To this period also belongs 
his Magdalen, Bologna Gallery. — C. & C, 
N. Italy, L 567, 577 ; Burckhardt, 586, 660, 
684 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., viii 146 ; ed. 
MiL, iv. 489 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole ombrienne ; 
Lflbke, Gesch. itaL Mai., i 453. 

See Antonio da Murano. 

school ; last half of 15th century. Associ- 
ated in 1450 with his brother Antonio 
da Murano, with whom he had probably 
studied, but soon left him and founded 
a separate studio. In his first works he 
signs himself Da Murano, but in 1459, 
when he produced his St John Capistrano, 
now in the Louyre, he had taken the after- 
wards celebrated name of Vivarim. In 
1465 he painted a ifck^onna with Saints, now 
in the Naples Museum, in which Venetian 
and Paduan elements are commingled, but 
the latter predominates in his later works. 
After the introduction of oil-painting into 
Venice by Antonello da Messina in 1470, 
Bartolommeo was the first to adopt the new 
method in two altarpieces, one of 1473 in 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice (in parts, one in 
the transept and one in the sacristy), and 
the other, of 1474, St. Mark between Four 
Saints, in S. M de' Frari, Venice. To paint 
these fine works he must have studied the 
best creations of Mantegna, whom he often 
resembles in accurate execution, though he 
is generally colder in colour. The later 
pictures of Bartolommeo show the hand of 
assistants and are of tmequal yalue. Of 
these, the St Ambrose between Four Saints 
(1477), in the Vienna Museum, is a good 
example. Between this and 1499 he exe- 
cuted many works, but never rose again to 
his best stsmdard, and sank gradually into 


Digitized by 



comparative obscurity. Among his later 
works is St. George and the Dragon (1485), 
Berlin Museum.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 39 ; 
Burckhardt, 589, 590, 623 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole 
T^nitienne ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vi 86, 
102, 126 ; ed. Mil, iii. 666 ; Lermoliefl^ 397 ; 
Lflbke, Qesch. itaL MaL, L 514. 

VIVAKINI, LUIGI or ALVISE, the elder, 
Venetian school, beginning of the 15th cen- 
tury. A Christ bearing His Cross, in the 
sacristy of S. Zanipolo, Venice, has his sig- 
nature, with the date 1414. The picture has 
been so much repaints that the authentic- 
ity of the inscription has been doubted by 
many. Lermolieff and Crowe and Cavalca- 
selle doubt the existence of an elder Luigi, 
and the latter believe it to be the work of 
Luigi Vivarini who lived at the close of the 
15th century, following in this Lanzi and 
others. Charles Blanc, however, who thinks 
the date authentic, and believes in the ex- 
istence of an elder Luigi, is supported in his 
belief by Ridolfi, Zanetti, and Zanotto. 
There are several single figures of saints at- 
tributed to the elder Luigi in the Venice 
Academy.— C. & C, N. Italy, i. 19, 58 ; Va- 
sari, ed. Mil, iii. 159 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole v6- 
nitienne ; Lermolieff, 396. 

VIVARINI, LUIGI, the younger, Vene- 
tian school, last of 15th century, died in 
1503? He was a kinsman of Bartolom- 
meo Vivarini, and probably studied either 
under him or with Antonio da Murano, his 
elder brother. His style for many years 
is marked with the Muranese stamp, but 
when Bartolommeo's powers began to de- 
cline, Luigi crept up gradually to an imita- 
tion of the Bellini, and in many qualities 
soon rivalled Giovanni Bellini. One of the 
best examples of his earlier works is the 
Madonna with Saints (1480), now in the 
Venice Academy. It shows correct aerial 
and linear perspective and the proper dis- 
tribution of figures, and proves that he 
needed but a little more taste for colour, 
more delicacy of selection, and greater ver- 
satility, to equal his rivals. In 1488 he was 
employed with the brothers Bellini in the 

decoration of the Sala del Gran Consiglio, 
but the fire of 1577 unfortunately destroyed 
his work& While engaged in this he also 
executed important private works, the three 
largest and latest of which are a Madonna 
witii Saints, Berlin Museum ; Madonna with 
Saints and Angels (1501), same gallery; 
and the Apotheosis of Si Ambrose in the 
Frari, Venice, finished after Luigi's death, 
by his pupil Basaiti. — C. & C, N. Italy, i. 
52 ; Vasari, ed. Mil., iii. 159 ; Ch. Blanc, 
£cole venitienne ; Lermoliefif, 398 ; Ltlbke, 
Gesch. itaL Mai., i. 517. 

VIVIEN, JOSEPH, bom at Lyons in 
1657, died at Bonn, Dec. 5, 1735. French 
school ; portrait painter, especially in pas- 
tel, pupil of Le Brun in Paris, where he 
went in 1677. Acquired such reputation 
that all persons of note in Europe wished to 
be painted by him. His portraits are excel- 
lent likenesses and of fine execution. Mem- 
ber of Academy, 1701 ; Counsellor, 1703. 
Court painter to Elector of Cologne. 
Works : Adoration of the Magi (1698), Notre 
Dame de Paris ; Elector Max Emanuel of 
Bavaria, Duke of Burgundy, Sculptor Gi- 
rardon, three others, Musee des dessins, 
Louvre ; Portraits of F6n61on, and the En- 
graver Edelinck (attributed), Versailles Mu- 
seum ; Cardinal Joseph Clement of Bavaria, 
Elector of Cologne, Valenciennes Museum ; 
others in Museums at Metz and Bouen ; 
Duke Ferdinand Maria of Bavaria, Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Pension, The Artist, Old 
Pinakothek, Mimich ; Philip V. of Spain, 
Dukes Charles de Berry, Louis of Bur- 
Qf a I. f gundy. Max 

(^/ JrUJiS/ryy Emanuel of 
\J ^Q y^^^J Bavaria (2), 

\JiK%lOj^ |^^g4;f eight others, 
V Lo "^ Y'^''^^^ Schleissheim 

//VV trait of him- 

self, TJffizi, Florence.— Bellier, ii 698 ; Ch. 
Blanc, :ficole fran9aise, iii; JaL, 1278. 

VLEMCK, PEETER, bom at Courtrai in 
1539, died at Toumai in 1681. Flemish 
school; history painter, pupil of Charles 

Digitized by 



dTpres, worked for awhile at Malines, then 
studied at Antwerp tinder Jacob Moris 
(brother of Frans Floris) ; went to Italy 
about 1559, and worked in Venice under 
Tintoretto ; in Borne, where he studied the 
works of Michelangelo, he assisted Girolamo 
Muziano in the Vatican and in the Villa 
d'Este, painting the figures in his land- 
scapes. Having visited Naples, he returned 
home via Germany; but in spite of his 
great skill met with no success, and died in 
poverty. He was the master of Karel van 
Mander, in whose time, even, his works were 
already rare. — Fetis, Les Artistes beiges h 
r^tranger, ii. 360 ; Michiels, vi 125 ; Splen- 
deurs de Tart en Belgique, 117. 
VLEUGHELa See Wleughels, 
VLIEGER, SIMON DE, bom in Rotter- 
dam about 1600, died in Amsterdam shortly 
before 1660. Dutch school ; marine and 
landscape painter, supposed pupil of Willem 
van de Velde the elder ; entered guild at 
Delft in 1634, and became a citizen of Am- 
sterdam. He was the first to represent 
with great truth the ocean tmder its differ- 
ent aspects. He had a pure feeling for 
nature, and excelled in aerial perspective, 
freedom of touch, and softness of execution. 
Works : Coast of Scheveningen, Bridge- 
water Gbllery, London ; Naval Battle on the 
Slaak (1633), Amsterdam Museum ; Slight- 
ly Agitated Sea (163-), Berlin Museum ; 
do. (1632), Baron Minutoli's Collection, 
Schloss Fridersdorf, Silesia ; Storm at Sea, 
Fort Bath on the Scheldt, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Biver Maas with Vessels, Zuyder 
Zee vrith Vessels, Marine (1660), Copenha- 
gen Gallery ; Landscape with Htmters, Ma- 
rines, Stockholm Museum ; Calm Sea with 
Vessels (3, one dated 1654), Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; do. (1649), Museum, Vienna ; Wood 
Landscape (1640), Marines (2), Liechten- 
stein Gallery, ib.; Storm at Sea, Czemin 
Gallery, ib.; Arrival of Prince of Orange at 
Vliessingen, Agitated Sea (1624), Hermitage, 
St Petersburg ; Calm Sea (2), Peterhof ; 
others in the Louvre, in Museums and Gal- 
leries of Antwerp, Augsburg, Basle, Dres- 

den, Frankfort, Gk)tha, K6nigsberg, and 
Weimar. — Ch. Blanc, !l^ole hoUandaise; 
Immerzeel, iii 202; Kramm, vL 1780 ; Kug- 
ler (Crowe), iL 494 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxi. 

(van der), bom at Delft in 1611 or 1612, 
died there in October, 1675. Dutch school ; 
genre, portrait, and architecture painter, 
pupil of his uncle Willem van Vliet, and of 
Mierevelt ; painted church interiors with 
fine aerial and lineal perspective ; also por- 
traits, and genre pictures by lamplight, in 
the style of Schalcken. Works: Lady's 
Portrait (1671), Haarlem Museum ; Interior 
of Protestant Church (1666), Rotterdam 
Museum ; do. (1652), Moltke Collection, 
Copenhagen ; do. (1659), Schwerin Gtallery ; 
Interior of Church in Delft, Hague Muse- 
um ; do. (1654), Amsterdam Museum ; do., 
Stockholm Museum; Merry Old Soldier 
(1647), Copenhagen Gallery ; Monument to 
William of Orange (1663), Amalienstift, 
Dessau ; do., Stockholm Museum ; Betum 
of Jephtha, Germanic Museum, Nuremberg. 
Interiors : Ghent Museum (2) ; Berlin Mu- 
seum ; Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Old Pinako- 
thek, Munich ; Vienna Academy ; Hermit- 

age, St Petersburg. — Burger, Musses, iL 
312 ; Kramm, vi. 1780 ; Kugler (Crowe), iL 
513 ; Stuers, 176 ; Schlie, 667 ; Zeitschr. 1 
b. K, xxL 324. 

Delft in 1586, died in 1644. Dutch school ; 
history and portrait painter, whose works 
are very rare. Works : Portrait of a Jesuit, 
National Gkllery, London ; Male Portrait, 
Brussels Museum ; do. (1632), Leipsic Mu- 
seum; Female Portrait (1624), Liechten- 
stein GkiUery, Vienna. By Jan Joris van 


Digitized by 



Yliet, bom at Delft about 1610, pupil of 
Rembrandt, are portraits in the Museums at 
Rotterdam and Leipsic, and a Baptism of 
the Eunuch, in the Oldenburg Gallery. 

bom in Berlin, March 23, 1776, died there, 
Nov. 1, 1849. Flower painter, pupil of Jo- 
hann Friedrich Schultze, whom he succeed- 
ed as director of the Royal Porcelain Factory. 
Member of Berlin Academy in 1811. Pro- 
fessor and privy councillor. Order of Red 
Eagle ; Hanover Order of Guelph. Works : 
Fruit in Glass Bowl (1827), Flower-Piece 
(1837), National Gallery, Berlin ; Flowers 
on a Table (1820), Raczynski Gallery, ib.; 
Flowers and Fruit (1834), Eonigsberg Mu- 
seum ; do. (1842), Schwerin Gallery. His 
son, Friedrich Wilhehn (1799-1870), distin- 
guished himself in the same brancL Work : 


Flower-Piece (1821), New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich. — Rosenberg, Berl. MalerscL, 351. 

Antwerp, baptized March 14, 1639, died 
after 1691 (?). Flemish school; portrait 
painter, formed himself under the influ- 
ence of Van Dyck, then in Rome imder 
that of Carlo Maratti ; flourished about 
1660-91, chiefly in Rome, under the Popes 
Alexander YH. and Clement IX., in Turin, 
Paris, and Antwerp. Works : Portrait of 
Cardinal Azzolini (1654), Berlin Museum ; 
do. of Pope Clement IX. (1667).— Kramm, 
vL 1782. 

Zwolle about 1670, died in 1745. Dutch 
school ; still-life painter, pupil of his broth- 
er and another unknown master ; entered, 
at the age of nineteen, the service of the 
Earl of Portland, and accompanied him 
several times to England. Finally lived at 
Dordrecht Works : Memento Mori (1741), 
Kitchen Scenes (2), Schwerin Gallery. — ^Im- 
merzeel, iii. 203 ; Scblie, 669. 

at Dresden, April 4, 1759, died there, April 
11, 1816. History and portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Schenau ; invited to Castle Wilden- 
fels in 1780 by his patron. Count Solms, he 
painted there many portraits and family 
groups of distinguished persons. Member 
of Dresden Academy in 1800, professor in 
1814. Was especially successful vnth chil- 
dren's portrait& Works: Two Children 
playing vdth lighted Candle, Christiania 
G^ery; Artist's Children with Picture 
Book, Dresden Museum. — ^Nagler, xx. 491. 

VOGEL, HUGO, bom at Magdeburg, 
Feb. 15, 1855. Historical genre painter, 
pupil of Wilhelm Sohn at Dasseldorf . (}old 
medal, Berlin, 1883. Works : Luther at the 
Wartburg preaching from his Translation 
of the Bible (1882), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Beethoven at the Piano (1883) ; Reception 
of the French Huguenots by the Great 
Elector (1884) ; Duke Emst the Confessor 
taking Communion at Celle — 1535 (1885), 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover. — Eunst^hro- 
nik, xviii. 549 ; xx. 753 ; xxi. 243 ; Kunst 
f. Alle, L; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxi. 256. 

VOGEL, LXJDWIG, bom at Zflrich, July 
10, 1788, died there, Aug. 21, 1879. His- 
tory and genre painter, pupil of Heinrich 
Fuessli and of Konrad Gessner, then of Vi- 
enna Academy ; went in 1810 with Over- 
beck to Rome, and, after having studied, at 
Florence and Orvieto, Perugia, Siena, Pisa» 
etc., the masterworks of Signorelli, Giotto, 
and other Pre-Raphaelite masters, returned 
to Zurich in 1813, and until 1820 studied 
Svnss types on trips through his native 
mountains. Works : Return Home of Swiss 
Warrior in 16th Century (1810) ; Retum of 
Victors at Morgarten (1813) ; Struthan von 
Winkelried fighting the Dragon (1814) ; La 
Benichon (1819); Flight of Charles the Bold 
(1838) ; Xnrich ZwingU as Chaplain (1838) ; 
Arnold von Winkelried at Sempach (1840, 
1856) ; Capuchin Refectory (1852) ; Tell's 
Chapel, Woman of Grisons in Suabian War, 
Prayer at the Grave (1844) ; Reception of 
Zurich into Confederacy, Ztlrich GaUery; 

Digitized by 



Zwingli's Return from Berne (1865) ; Death 
of Gessler (1867). — ^Andresen, ii 260 ; Kunst- 
Ohronik, xviii. 742 ; Nagler, xx. 495. 

bom at Wildenfels, Saxony, June 26, 1788, 
died in Municb, March 4, 1868. History 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Chris- 
tian Lebrecht Vogel (1759-1816), and pupil 
of Dresden Academy ; went in 1807 to Mem- 
el, Dorpert, and St. Petersburg, where he 
painted many portraits, and in 1813 to Italy, 
where he studied and copied after the old 
masters ; in 1820 he became professor at 
the Dresden Academy, and in 1824 court 
painter ; visited London in 1834, Rome 
again in 1840-42, and Venice in 1851-52 ; 
resigned his professorship in 1853, and soon 
after moved to MunicL Member of Berlin, 
Munich, Vienna, St Petersburg, and Flor- 
ence Academies ; ennobled by the King of 
Saxony in 1831 ; Order of Albrecht, 1853. 
Works: Temptation of Christ; Annuncia- 
tion ; Baptism of Christ ; Susanna justified 
by Daniel ; Christ Crucified (1821), Naum- 
burg Cathedral ; St Joseph of Calazans 
with the School Children ; Raising of Laza- 
rus ; Madonna, Portrait of the Landscape 
Painter Miville (1811), Basle Museum ; 
Dante in his Relation to the Divine Com- 
edy (1844), Palazzo Crocetta, Florence ; 
Christian Martyr Perpetua in Prison ; Fran- 
cesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta ; Fran- 
cesca at the Bath (1845-46) ; Scenes from 
Goethe's Faust (1852); replica, Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence ; Portraits of Pope Pius VIL (1817), 
Kings Frederic August (1823) and John 
(1832) of Saxony, Dresden Gallery ; Lud- 
wig Tieck, National Gkdlery, Berlin ; do. 
(1834), and King Frederic August IL, Leip- 
sic Museum ; Portrait of himself UfiSzi, 
Florence ; Thorwaldsen ; Lucien Bonaparte. 
In fresco : Ten Scenes in Life of the Virgin 
(1826-29), Royal Chapel, Pillnitz.— Andre- 
sen, ii 101 ; Blustr. Zeitg. (1868), L 267 ; 
Jordan (1885), il 232 ; Nagler, xx. 481. 

in Paris, Dec. 13, 1822. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Drolling and at the £cole des Beaux 

Arts. His pictures, mostly ideal subjects, 
produce a charming effect at a distance, but 
on a close approach appear heavy in draw- 
ing and colouring. Medal, 1870 ; L. of 
Honour, 1870. Works: Zephyr, Cupid, 
Dream (1859); Gallant Festival, Cupid, 
Banquet of Stone (1863) ; Youth (1864) ; 
The Nest (1868) ; Velleda (1869) ; Grass- 
hopper and Ant (1870); Springtime (1873); 
Woman with Roses (1874); Twilight (1876); 
Innocence in Danger (1878); Revery (1880); 
Recalling the Lovers (1883) ; Fantaisie es- 
pagnole (1884). — Larousse. 

VOIS, ARTE (Adriaan) DE, bom in Ley- 
den in 1641, died there in 1698 (?). Dutch 
school ; history, portrait, genre, and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Nicolas Enupfer in 
Utrecht and of Abraham van den Tempel at 
Leyden ; further developed under influence 
of Gerard Dou and Frans van Mieria He 
painted, with minute finish, chiefly half- 
length nude figures, in landscapes after the 
manner of Poelenburg, animated in concep- 
tion and clear and warm in colouring. A 
rich marriage led him into idleness for thir- 
teen years, until need compelled him to de- 
vote himself again to art The pictures of 
his last period pass for his best. Works : 
Boy with Book, Bridgewater Ghdlery, Lon- 
don ; Woman cutting a Lemon, Two Male 
Portraits, Louvre; Jolly Toper, Brussels 
Museum ; Old Lady, Antwerp Museum ; 
Huntsman, Hague Museum ; Jolly Fish- 
Seller, Violinist, A Lady, Peasant Smok- 
ing, Amsterdam Museum ; Drinker, Cassel 
Gallery ; Storm at Sea, Brunswick Gallery ; 
Old Man's Head, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Venus and Adonis (1678), Berlin Mnse- 
uni ; Lute Player, Gt>tha Museum ; Drinker, 
Smoker, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Man 
looking into a Mum-Glass, Shepherdess, 
Landscape with Nude Figures (1666), Dres- 



den Gallery ; Peasants before their Cottage, 
Schwerin Gallery.— Ch. Blanc, £cole hollan- 


Digitized by 



daise ; Immerzeel, iil 203 ; Eramm, vi 1784 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 413 ; Eiegel (Beitrage), 
ii. 408. 

VOLK, DOUGLAS, bom in Pittefield, 
Mass., in 1856. Figure and subject paint- 
er; son of Leonard Volk, sculptor; pupil 
of GtTome in Paris, and studied in Rome. 
Member of Society of American Artists. 
Studio in New York. Works : Vanity, In 
Brittany (1876) ; Domestic Life in Nor- 
mandy (1878) ; In the Studio — Portrait 
(1880) ; Puritan Girl (1881), T. B. Clarke, 
New York ; Kept In (1882); Charity (1883). 

VOLKERS, EMIL, bom at Birkenfeld, 
Jan. 4, 1831. Genre and animal painter, 
pupil in Dresden of Rietschel and Schnorr, 
and in Munich of Albrecht and Franz Adam ; 
studied the horse in the royal studs of Wftr- 
temberg, and settled in Dttsseldorf in 1857 ; 
Tisited Bucharest in 1867 and Italy in 1869. 
Works: Four-in-Hand of Prince of Rou- 
mania ; Market at Reni ; Tavem Scene in 
Roumania; Roumanian Peasants Resting; 
Market Scene in Bucharest; Scenes from 
Campaigns of 1866 and 1870, Duke of Ol- 
denburg.— MfUler, 539. 

at Herdicke, Westphalia, June 23, 1815, 
died in Dttsseldorf, March 14, 1876. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Dttssel- 
dorf Academy; studied in Italy (1846-47) 
after the old masters. Works : Christ the 
Good Shepherd (1834) ; Fritjof and Inge- 
borg (1836) ; Tancred and Erminia (1837) ; 
Raphael and the Fomarina (1838) ; Murder 
of Rizzio (1841) ; Abdication of Mary Stuart 
(1842) ; Mary Stuart on the Scaffold (1844); 
Leonardo and Blandine (1845) ; Death of 
Admiral Coligny (1846) ; Charles IX. and 
Catharine de' Medici visiting Coligny 
(1849) ; Duke of Alva's Breakfast at Rudol- 
stadt (1850) ; Wallenstein and Seni (1851) ; 
Scene from Peasants' War (1852) ; Death of 
Belshazzar ; Matathias overthrowing Altar at 
Modin. His son Max (bom in Dttsseldorf, 
Oct 17, 1848) is a successful genre painter, 
pupil of Dttsseldorf Academy and of Eduard 
von Gebhardt, then studied in Brussels, Ant- 

werp, Bruges, and Ghent ; in 1878 visited 
North Italy, and in 1881 Holland. Works: 
Bandage Room at Gravelotte ; A Point of 
Honour; Much Ado about Nothing; Au- 
dience at the Burgomaster's ; Improvised 
Dinner Party ; Rejected Suitor (1884). — 
Blanckarts, 102; Cotta's KunstbL (1839), 
43 ; Kunst-Chronik, xL 434 ; Meyer, Conv. 
Lex., xvii. 966; xx. 998; Wolfg. MtiUer, 
Dttsseldf. K, 152 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviii. 36. 

VOLKMAR, ANTONTE, bom in BerHn, 
April 24, 1827. Genre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Julius Schrader, and in Paris (1853- 
57) of Cogniet ; returned to her native city, 
where she won immediate success ; visited 
Italy in 1862-64. Works : Artist travelling 
(1847) ; Sale of the Last Jewel (1858) ; Ger- 
man Emigrants (1860) ; The new (Governess 
(1868) ; Beginning of Artistic Career (1870) ; 
The Schoolmates (1880) ; Grandmother tell- 
ing Stories, Stettin Museum. — Mttller, 539. 

bom at Leipsio in 1708, died at Dresden in 
1769. German school; landscape painter, 
pupil of Alexander Thiele in Dresden ; 
aimed at representing atmospheric effects in 
the style of Christoph Ludwig Agricola. 
Works : Winter Landscapes (3), Landscape 
with River, do. with Ruins (2), Cassel GkJ- 
lery ; Thunderstorm, Rainbow in the Moun- 
tains, Winter in do., River Landscape in do., 
Schwerin Gallery. — Schlie, 671. 

VOLLMER, ADOLF, bom in Hamburg, 
Dec. 17, 1806, died there in 1875. Land- 
scape and marine painter, pupil of Suhr, 
then in Altona of Rosenberg and in Copen- 
hagen of Eckersberg ; studied in Munich in 
1833-39, and travelled in Tyrol and Italy. 
In 1866 he became blind. Works : two 
Views of Heligoland, Woods near Reinbeck 
(1831) ; Harbour in the Baltic (1835) ; Sea 
in approaching Storm (1837) ; Lagoons in 
Venice (1839) ; Hamburg Harbour (1846) ; 

^ ^ Marine (1836); Stangenmtlhlen- 

y^4/ Grand (1852), Hamburg Gal- 

■^ lery ; Coast on Baltic Sea (1864) ; 

The Elbe at Blankenese (1865).— Andresen, 

iii 24. 


Digitized by 



holt, Westphalia, Aug. 27, 1810. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of the Amsterdam 
Academy in 1826-30 ; then travelled several 
years in Germany, studying after nature, 
especially in the valley of the Bhine ; from 
1835 to 1844 studied with Barend Comelis 
Koekkoek, with whom he made many sketch- 
ing trips in the Rhine, Moselle, and Neckar 
VaJleys. Removed to America in 1847 ; 
elected an A.N.A. in 1852. Studio in New 
York. Works : Indian Falls — near Cold 
Spring, N. Y. (1848), painted for G. Kemble ; 
View on the Hudson, J. J. Astor, New York ; 
Holy Shrine at Sunset (1852), (Jeorge L 
Seney, ib. ; Study of Trees (1865), L. M. 
Rutherford, ib. ; Sunset Landscape (1869), 
Adirondack Mountains (1869), F. H. Delano, 
ib. ; The Hudson from Garrison's, C. de 
Rham, ib. ; The Hudson from Hastings, F. 
W. Lasak, ib. ; New York from Weehawken 
Heights (1872), A. Havemeyer, ib. 

VOLLON, ANTOINE, bom in Lyons, 
April 20, 1833. Genre, 
landscape, and 
flower painter, pupil 
of Riboi Colouring 
harmonious ; in other 
respects variable. 
Medals: 1865, 1868, 
1869; 1st class, 1878; 
L. of Honour, 1870 ; 
Officer, 1878. Works: 
Art and Gluttony 
(1864); Kitchen Interior (1864), Nantes 
Museum ; Return from Market (1866) ; Mon- 
key at the Accordeon (1866), Lyons Muse- 
um ; Grapes in the South, Sea Fish (1867) ; 
Old Fisherman, Curiosities (1868), Luxem- 
bourg ; After the Ball (1869) ; Comer of 
my Studio ; Sea Fish (1870), Luxembourg ; 
Luncheon (1871) ; New Year's Day (1872) ; 
The Kettle (1872), Lyons Museum ; Comer 
of the Market (1874) ; The Kg, Armure Fish 
(1875) ; Woman of the Pollet in Dieppe 
(1876) ; Helmet of Henri H., Spaniard 
(1878) ; Pumpkins (1880) ; Birds of the 
South, Pot on the Fire (1883) ; Cruche de 

Marseille (1885); Pottery, View of Treport 
(1886); Still Life, Henry T. Chapman, Jr., 
Brooklyn, N. Y.— -Claretie, Peintres (1874), 
196 ; Meyer, Gesch., 630 ; Larousse. 

stetten, Baden, in 1835. Landscape painter, 
pupil in Carlsruhe of Schirmer ; visited Mu- 
nich and the Bavarian Highlands in 1858, 
Cologne, DOsseldorf, and Belgium in 1861, 
the Swiss Alps and Black Forest in 1865, 
and Paris in 1867 ; instructor at the Carls- 
ruhe Art School since 1855, and inspector 
since 1861 ; resigned in 1874 and settled at 
Berne. Works : Heidelberg Castle ; Spring 
under Oak Trees (1865), Oak Wood with 
Deer, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Storm Landscape 
(1866) ; German Oaks (1867) ; The Wetter- 
horn, Wttrzburg Art Union ; Rosenlaui Gla- 
cier ; Susten Pass in Switzerland ; Ancient 
Germans in Oak Wood. — ^Mllller, 540. 

VOLMAR, GEORG, bom at Mengen, 
Suabia, in 1770, died at Berae, April 27, 
1831. Landscape painter, self-taught by 
study of nature ; painted especially Swiss 
scenery and costume pictures ; visited Italy 
in 1807, and became professor at the Art 
School in Beme. Works: Waterfall near 
Meiringen, Beme Museum ; Mother and 
Child under a Tree near Battlefield, Fdrst- 
enberg Gallery, Donaueschingen. His son 
Joseph (bom in 1795, died in Berne in 1865), 
pupil of Horace Vemet, also became pro- 
fessor at Beme. By him : Boar Hunt, 
Leonore (after BOrger's ballad, 1829), Beme 
Museum. By another son, Rudolf (died in 
Beme, 1844), a View of the Giessbach, ib. 

Yolterra in 1509, died in Rome, April 4, 
1566. Florentine school Real name Dan- 
iele Ricciarelli ; pupil of II Sodoma, after- 
wards of Baldassare Peruzzi. When still 
young he went to Rome, where, after work- 
ing as assistant to Perino del Vaga, he be- 
came the pupil of Michelangelo. His chief 
works are in the Cappella Orsini in Trinity 
de' Monti, Rome, where he spent seven 
years in painting a series of frescos repre- 
senting the history of the Crosa The prin- 


Digitized by 



cipal composition, the Descent from the 
Cross, is ranked among the great pictures 
of the world. As 
it is superior to 
any other work by 
Volterra, many 
think he was aided 
in the composition 
by Michelangelo. 
On the death of 
Del Vaga,m 1547, 
Volterra was ap- 
pointed superin- 
tendent of the works in the Vatican, but on 
the death of Paul IH he lost the position, 
and the rest of his life was devoted chiefly 
to sculpture. After living in Florence and 
other places he finally returned to Rome, 
and was employed by Paul IV. to drape the 
nude figures in Michelangelo's Last Judg- 
ment, in the Sistine Chapel, whence he was 
nicknamed II Bracchettone (breeches-maker). 
Among his works are : Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, Uffizi, Florence ; Madonna and Saints, 
Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna ; Descent from 
the Cross, Madrid Museum ; Beheading of 
John Baptist, Turin Gallery ; David and Go- 
liath, Louvre. — Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xii. 84 ; 
ed. Mil., vii. 49 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole florentine ; 
Burckhardt, 184, 648, 683, 756. 

tine school, 14th century. Supposed dis- 
ciple of Giotto, but long settled in Pisa, 
where in 1346 he had already executed an 
altarpiece for the cathedral. Another work 
is The Crucified, Angels and Saints, Sac- 
risty of Ognissanti, Florence (1350). About 
1370 he painted, according to late authori- 
ties, the great frescos of the Trials of Job, 
in the Campo Santo, formerly ascribed to 
Giotto.— C. & C, Italy, i. 392 ; Burckhardt, 
495, 497, 503. 

VOLTRI, NICCOLO DA Genoese school ; 
worked at Genoa in 1401 on an Annuncia- 
tion, for the Church of the Madonna delle 
Vigne ; also painted an altarpiece for S. Te- 
odoro, Madonna and Child holding a small 
Bird, with Kneeling Donor, inscribed Nico- 

laus da Voltri, deposited in Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston. Shows study of German 
masters. — Soprani, 11 ; Siret, 984. 
VOLTZ, FRTEDRICH, bora at Nordling- 
en, Oct. 31, 1817, 
died in Munich, 
June 25, 1886. An- 
imal and idyl paint- 
er, son and pupil of 
the history and 
genre painter Jo- 
hann Michael Voltz 
(1784-1868); then 
studied at the Mu- 
nich Academy and 
from nature in the Bavarian Alps; visited 
Italy in 1843-45 and in 1872, and the Neth- 
erlajids in 1846, afterwards Paris, Vienna, 
and Berlin. Professor at Munich Academy, 
member of Munich (1863), Berlin (1869), 
and Vienna ( 1870) Academies. Gold medals : 
Berlin, 1856, 1861 ; WOrtemburg medal for 
art ; Orders of Red Eagle and of St Micha- 
el, 1867. Most of his works— nearly 2,000 
— are in private collections. Works : Men- 
agerie (1835), Cows Drinking (1868), Na- 
tional Gtilleiy, Berlin ; Herd on Benedictine 
Wall in Bavarian Highlands (1852), Konigs- 
berg Museum ^ Herdsman and Cows near 
a Village, Leipsic Museum ; Cow Stable, 
Schwerin Gallery ; Simday Morning on the 
Alp, Stuttgart Museum ; Cows by the Wa- 
ter, Harrach Gallery, Vienna; Retui'n of 
the Herd, St Gkill Museum ; First Storks 
(1859), Duke of Oldenburg ; Pasture, En- 
dangered Meal in the Stable (1860) ; Herd 
Resting, Cologne Museum; Idyl (1862), 
Carlsruhe Gallery; Cows in Stable, do. in 
Pasture, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Re- 
turn of Herd to Village (1863), New Pina- 
kothek, Munich ; Cow Stable (1884); Water 
ing Place for Cattle on Staraberg Lake in 
Approaching Storm, Siesta in the Pasture 
(1886).— Dioskuren (1861), 47, 55 ; Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1857), i. ; (1870), L 371 ; Regnet, ii. 
294; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 660; xxi. 652; 
xxii 38 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, iL 209 ; v. 160 ; 
vi. 247 ; xiii (Mittheilungen, vL 35). 

Digitized by 



VOLTZ, LUDWIG, bom at Augsburg 
in 1825. Landscape and animal painter, 
brother and pupil of 
preceding, having 
first been instructed 
by his father, and in 
1843-45 pupil of Mu- 
nich Academy; is es- 
pecially succes s f u 1 
with horse portraits. 
Works: Peasant with 
Ploughing Team, St. 
Gall Museum ; Stags 
Fighting ; After the Chase ; Horses in Past- 
ure ; Harvest Scene, Forester's Daughter 
feeding Deer (1860). 

Hartford, Conn., Sept. 17, 1858. Portrait 
painter; pupil in Paris at the Academic 
Julien, in 1881-82, under Boulanger and 
Lef^bvre, where he won the prize for paint- 
ing the male torso. His portrait of John S. 
Conway, Milwaukee, Wis., was hung on the 
line in the Salon of 1882, and he was award- 
ed a gold medal at the Massachusetts Me- 
chanics' Charitable Association Exhibition 
in 1884. 

VONWYL, JAKOB, bom at Luceme in 
1595, died in 1621. Excellent painter in 
the manner of Holbein ; many of his best 
works were destroyed by fire ; his master- 
piece. The Dance of Death, in seven large 
panels and a small one, vdth twenty-four 
groups, is in the Canton Library at Luceme. 
— Meyer von Knonau. 

VOOGD, HENDRIK, bom in Amsterdam 
in 1766, died in Rome, Sept. 4, 1839. Land- 
scape and animal painter, pupil of Amster- 
dam Academy and of Juriaan Andriessen ; 
went in 1788 to Rome. Member of Am- 
sterdam Academy. Order of Lion. Works : 
Landscape with BufiGaloes, formerly in Pa- 
vihon, Haarlem ; View of the Campagna 
(1809), Gotha Museum. — Immerzeel, iii 
205 ; Kramm, vi. 1788. 

bom at Uithoorn, near Amsterdam, in 1647, 
died before May 12, 1723. History and 

portrait painter, pupil at Qt)uda of C. Ver- 
bout, and at Amsterdam of Johan van 
Noordt; went in 1672 to Frederikstadt, 
thence to Hamburg, and afterwards returned 
to Amsterdam. Works: Annunciation of 
Samson's Birth to Manoah and Wife, Endym- 
ion and Luna, Venus and Cupid on Clouds, 
Good Samaritan (1698), Brunswick Gallery ; 
Lady with little Girl, Amalienstift, Dessau. 
— ^Immerzeel, iii. 205 ; Kramm, vi. 1789 ; 
Riegel, Beitrage, ii. 309. 

Antwerp in 1576, died at Amsterdam, Nov. 
2, 1624. Dutch school; portrait painter, 
probably pupil of Comelis Ketel at Amster- 
dam, where he ranked among the distin- 
guished artists of his day. Works: Re- 
gents-Piece with six portraits (1618), do. 
with five, Archery-Piece with twelve (1623), 
do. with twenty-one, Amsterdam Museum. 
Kramm, vi. 1790. 

bom at Antwerp, baptized April 28, 1714, 
died there, March 28, 1777. Flemish school ; 
history painter, son and probably pupil of 
Joseph van der Voort, or studied under one 
of his relatives, all of whom were artists. 
Dean of the guild in 1751-52. One of the 
directors of the Academy in 1752-62. 
Works : Entry of Prince Charles of Lorraine 
into Antwerp (attributed to Jan Jozef Hore- 
mans, the younger), City Hall, Antwerp; 
Two allegorical Bas-reliefs, Museum, ib. — 
Cat du Mus. d*Anvers, 437 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 1194. 

VORSTERMANS, JAN, bom at Bommel 
in 1643, died about 1699. Dutch school ; 
landscape painter, pupil of H. Saftleven ; 
painted especially Rhine views with numer- 
ous accessories, true in colouring and highly 
finished. Later he went to England, and 
painted a royal summer palace with many 
courtiers for Charles H., for which he de- 
manded so high a price that it was not ac- 
cepted. Works : Landscape with Fortifica- 
tions, Dresden Gtellery ; Two Landscapes, 
Liechtenstein GkiUery, Vienna. — Immerzeel, 
iii 206 ; Kramm, vL 1792. 

Digitized by 



VOS, CORNEUS DE, the elder, born at 
Hulst in the summer of 1585, died in Ant- 

werp, May 9, 
1651. Flemish 
school ; history 
and portrait 
painter, pupil of 
David Bemeeus ; 
master of the 
guild of Antwerp 
in 1608, its dean 
in 1619-20. He 
formed several 
pupils, notably 
Jean dossiers and Simon de Vos, with whom 
he is often confounded. Belongs to the school 
of Van Dyck, whose friend he was, and who 
painted his portrait Works: Episode in 
Life of St Norbert^ Adoration of the Magi, 
Vow to the Virgin, several portraits. Muse- 
um, Antwerp ; Descent from the Cross, Ca- 
thedral, ib. ; Artist and his Family, Brussels 
Museum ; Portrait of Young Lady (1620), 
Suermondt Museum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Alle- 
gory on Biches, Botterdam Museum ; do., 
Bnmswick Museum; Male Portraits (2), 
Cassel Gallery ; The Hutten Family, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Cleopatra before An- 
tony at Tarsus, Portrait of a Lady (1617), 
Oldenburg Gallery ; Two Scenes in Life of 
St George, Stuttgart Museum; Married 
Couple on Terrace (1629), Painter's Daugh- 
ters, Berlin Museum ; Lady and Three Gen- 
tlemen at a Game, Stockholm Museum ; 
Family Group, Hermitage, St Petersburg ; 
Solomon anointed King, Vienna Museum ; 
Portraits of Frans Snyders and Wife, Turin 
Gkdlery ; Triumph of Bacchus, Apollo and 
Python, Venus, Madrid Museum ; Portrait of 
Young Girl, New 
York Museum, 
— Ch. Blanc 

!^cole flamande ; Cat du Mus. d'Anvers, 
133 ; Kramm, vL 1793 ; Michiels, viii. 293 ; 
Biegel, Beitrage, u. 92; Booses (Beber), 
347 ; Van den Branden, 639, 653. 

VOS, MABTEN DE, the elder, bom in 
Antwerp in 1532, died there, Dec. 17, 1603. 

lC/)( Vos 

Flemish school ; history and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of his father, Pieter de Vos (bom 

in 1490), and of 
Frans Floris, af- 
terwards of Tin- 
toretto at Ven- 
ice. On his re- 
turn to Antwerp 
he established a 
school; was re- 
ceived into guild 
of St Luke in 
1559, dean in 
1572. He was one of the most prolific paint- 
ers of his time. Works : Baising of Lazarus, 
Samson and Delilah, Madrid Museum ; St 
Paul stung by Viper, Louvre ; Crucifixion, 
Triptych with Incredulity of St Thomas 
(1574), Temptation of St Anthony (1594), 
thirty others. Museum, Antwerp ; several. 
Cathedral, ib. ; Portraits of Man and Wife, 
Brussels Museum; Holy Family (1585), 
Ghent Museum ; Moses with the L&w Tables 
(1575), Hague Museum ; Jesus on the Sea 
of Tiberias (1589) ; Prophet Jonah cast into 
the Sea (1589), Mythological Allegory, Su- 
sanna and the Elders, Israelites crossing the 
Bed Sea, Carlsruhe Gallery; Crucifixion, 
Schleissheim Gallery; do., and Portrait of 
the Artist, Museum, Vienna; Baising of 
Lazarus, Liechtenstein Gallery, ib. ; Piet^ 
Baptism of Christ, Harrach Gallery, ib. ; 
Hermit in Prayer, Wiesbaden Gallery; 
Earthly Paradise, and several portraits, Uf- 
fizi, Florence. His son, Marten (bom 1576), 
was also a paint- ^ 

er. — Ch. Blanc, -^| ^r^ ^ 

£cole flamande, /tTtAt / ^t 
Cat. du Mus.^ ICf UJ •Jf 
d'Anvers, 122; ^-^ 

Immerzeel, iiL 207 ; Kramm, vi 1797 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), L 239 ; Michiels, v. 420 ; 
Booses (Beber), 101 ; Van den Branden, 

VOS, PAULUS DE, bom at Hulst about 
1590, died in 1678. Flemish school ; ani- 
mal painter ; most successful imitator of 
Snyders, his brother-in-law. Painted a 

Digitized by 



great deal for the Emperor, the King of 
Spain, and the Duke of Aerschot, his par- 
ticular patron. Master of the guild in 1620. 
Van Dyck painted his portrait Works : 
Cats Fighting, Stags and Dogs, Bull pur- 
sued by Dogs, and 13 others, Madrid Mu- 
seum; Death of the Eoe Buck, Louyre; 
Stag Hunt, Brussels Museum ; Boar Hunt 
(figures by Van Thulden), Suermondt Mu- 
seum, Aix-la-Chapelle ; do., and Bear Hunt, 
Aschaffenburg Gkllery ; Dog barking at 
Swans, Cassel Gkdlery ; Fight between Owls 
and Martens, do. between Birds, Still-Life 
(2), Hermannstadt Museum] Bear Hunt, 
The Animals in the Garden of Eden, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Two Dogs Quarrel- 
ling (3), Roe pursued by Dogs, Schleissheim 
Gallery ; Horse pursued by Dogs, Horse 
torn by Wolves, Fight between Bears and 
Dogs, Stag Hunt, Fight between Leopard 

and Dogs, Hermitage, St Petersburg. — CL 
Blanc, ificole flamande ; Kramm, vL 1798 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 335 ; Michiels, ix. 229 ; 
Booses (Reber), 260 ; Van den Branden, 679. 
VOS, SIMON DE, bom in Antwerp, Oct 
28, 1603, died 
there, Oct. 15, 
1676. Flemish 
school ; history, 
genre, and por- 
trait painter, pu- 
pil of Comelis de 
Vos (1615) and of 
Bubens; received 
as master into the 
guild in 1620, when only seventeen years of 
age. Van Dyck painted his portrait. Works 
Portrait of Young Man, Grenoble Museum ; 
Resurrection, Lille Museum; do., Nantes 
Museum ; Portrait of the Painter, Antwerp 
Museum; Male Portraits (2, 1640, 1645), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Punishment of Cupid, 
Berlin Museum ; Abigail and David, Gotha 

Museum ; Stag Hunt, Schleissheim Gkdlery ; 
Spring, Autumn, and Winter (1635); Tavern 
Scene (1640), Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. 

— Ch. Blanc, £cole flamande ; Eramm, vi. 
1799 ; Michiels, viii. 301 ; Booses (Reber), 
327 ; Van den Branden, 899. 

VOUET, SIMON, bom in Paris, Jan. 9, 
1590, died there, 
June 30, 1649. 
French school ; 
history and por- 
trait painter, son 
and pupil of 
Laurent Vouet, 
a mediocre 
painter; then 
studied nature 
and the great 
masters. Even in his fourteenth year he 
showed such skill that he was cklled to 
England to paint the portrait of a refugee, 
— a lady of high rank. Oharles L in vain 
endeavoured to retain him, and he returned 
to France to follow (1611) the French Am- 
bassador Baron de Sancy to Constantinople, 
where he painted Sultan Achmet L from 
memory. In 1612 he went to Venice, where 
he copied Titian and Veronese, and in Rome 
(1613), Caravaggio and Guido Reni. Called 
to Genoa by the Dorias, he remained there 
two years before returning to Rome, where 
he became director of the Accademia di S. 
Luca. In 1627 Louis XTTT. recalled him to 
France, whither sevecalof his pupils accom- 
panied him. As first painter to the king, 
he executed many decorative works for the 
Louvre, the Luxembourg, and the Palais 
Royal, for numerous churches and palaces 
in Paris, and painted portraits of the King 
and many of the nobles of his court Works : 
Presentation of Christ in Temple, Madonna, 
Christ on the Cross, Entombment, Roman 


Digitized by 



Charity, Portrait of Louis Xlll., Allegory 
of Riches, Faith, Eloquence, Susanna and 
the Elders, Louvre ; Dead Christ, Presen- 
tation of the Virgin, Dijon Museum ; St 
Stephen in Ecstasy, Douai Museum ; Temp- 
tation of St Anthony, Repose in Egypt, 
Grenoble Museum ; Entombment, Havre Mu- 
seum ; Christ on the Cross, Lyons Muse- 
um ; Madonna, Marseilles Museum ; Wisdom, 
Montpellier Museum ; Nymph and Cupid, 
Cupids playing with the Arms of Mnens, 
Nancy Museum ; Apotheosis of St Eus- 
tache (ceiling). Peace, Ave Maria, Nantes 
Museum; St Paul Baptizing, Nlmes Mu- 
seum ; Nymph with Grapes watched by 
Touth, Orleans Museum ; Madonna with 
St John, Rennes Museum ; Apotheosis of 
St Louis, Rouen Museum ; Christ sur- 
rounded by Angels, Strasburg Museum ; 
Portrait of a Lady as Cleopatra, Troyes 
Museum ; Finding of the Cross, The Brazen 
Serpent, Toulouse Museum ; St Stephen in 
Prayer, Valenciennes Museum ; St. Charles 
Borromeo interceding for the Plague-strick- 
en at Milan, Brussels Museum ; Allegory on 
Glory of France, Madonna kneeling by a 
Column, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Apotheosis of 
St Louis, Dresden Museum ; Holy Family, 
Martyrdom of St Sebastian, Hermannstadt 
Museum ; Two Portraits of Princesses, Ma- 
drid Museum ; Madonna in a Landscape, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Madonna (2), 
Venus and Adonis, Death of Lucretia, Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg ; Madonna, Schwe- 
rin Gallery ; Annunciation, Uffizi, Florence ; 

Jem on voujVC 

Allegory on Painting, Turin (Jallery. — Bel- 
lier, iL 702 ; CL Blanc, £cole fran9aise. 

VOYAGE OF LIFE, Thomas Cde, Henry 
B. Plant, New York ; allegorical series of 
four pictures 1. The child, with its guar- 
dian angel, in a boat heaped with flowers, 
is floating down the stream ; 2. The youth, 

with hope in his aspect, is taking eommaad 
of the helm ; 3. The mature man, his boat 
hurried onward by the rapids of the river ; 
4. The aged navigator who is again joined 
by his guardian angel as he is about enter- 
ing the ocean of eternity. Painted in 1841 
for Samuel Ward ; purchased after his death 
by the American Art Union, and drawn as 
a prize in 1848 by J. F. Bredt, Bingham- 
ton, of whom bought by Rev. (}orham D. 
Abbott ; passed next to John Taylor John- 
ston and sold at his sale (1876) for $3,100. 
Engraved by James Smillie. Replica, painted 
in 1843, owned in the West 

werp, baptized Jan. 22, 1573, died there. 
May 19, 1647. Flemish school ; history, 
hunt, and battle painter, pupil of Adam van 
Noort, then went to Italy, and probably re- 
turned about 1600, when he became master 
of the guild at Antwerp; vras dean in 
1612. He followed in the path of Jan 
Brueghel and Hendrik van Balen, enliven- 
ing his pictures with a multitude of well- 
grouped figures, brilliant in colouring, but 
somewhat stiff in drawing. Works : Camp 
of Ambrosius Spinola's Army near Osteod, 
Charge of Cavalry, Surprisal of a Convoy, 
Woodland with Vehicles and Travellers 
(landscape in last two by Jan Brueghel), 
Madrid Museum ; Siege of Wachtendonk 
by the Spaniards, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Pillage, Promenade (2), Madonna, Rotter- 
dam Museum ; Attack of Robbers, Caval- 
ry Skirmish, Brunswick Museum ; Skirmish 
about Travelling Coach (? attributed to 
Peeter Snayers), Darmstadt Museum ; Mil- 
itary Camp on Seashore, Cavalry Skirmish, 
three others (attributed), Gotha Museum ; 
Pilgrims encamped near a Town (1622), Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Pharaoh perishing in 
the Red Sea, Hermitage, St Petersburg; 
Surprisal of Travellers, Interior of Jesuit 
Church at Antwerp, Vienna Museum. — 
Kramm, H 609 ; vL 1801 ; Michiels, vil 268 ; 
Riegel, Beitrage, iL 48; Rooses (Reber), 
153 ; Van den Branden, 470. 



Digitized by 



contemporari6& History painters in Brus- 
sels, with an archaic tendency in opposition 
to the realism of the day. Order of Leo- 
pold. Works by Albert : Charles V. at San 
Yuste ; Jacobea of Bavaria interceding for 
her Husband ; Pope Paul HL before Lu- 
ther's Portrait (Munich Exhibition, 1883). 
Works by Julian : Si Elizabeth expelled by 
Inhabitants of Eisenach ; Last Days of Vir- 
gin in Jerusalem, Palace Guard under Kings 
of Judea, Si Cecilia in Prison (Munich Ex- 
hibition, 1883).— Miiller, 541 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xix. 313. 


VMES, ABRAHAM DE, bom at Rotter- 
dam, died at The Hague before or in 1662. 
Dutch school ; portrait painter, active at 
Amsterdam about 1632, when he appears 
to have been influenced by Dirck van Sant- 
voort and Thomas de Eeyser, while after- 
wards he followed the manner of Rembrandt. 
Registered in the guild at The Hague in 
1644 Works : Portrait of David de Moor 
(1640), Amsterdam Museum ; Portrait of a 
Burgomaster (1639), do. of Old Lady (1644), 
Rotterdam Museum ; Portrait, Berlin Muse- 
um ; Lady in Mourning (1692), Old Pin- 
akothek, Munich. — Meyer, Gemalde kdnigL 
Mus., 615 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviiL 346. 

VRIES, ADRTAAN DE, bom in The 
Hague in 1601, died after 1643. Dutch 
school ; portrait painter. The frequently 
false signatures upon his pictures have rob- 
bed him of well-deserved fame. Rubens 
and Van Dyck, who were his friends, highly 
esteemed his talent 
Works: Portraits in 
Leyden, Gotha 
(1643), Dresden 
(1639), New York, and Vienna Museums, 
and Schleissheim Gallery. — (Jaz. des R Arts 
(1872), vi 479 ; Kramm, vi. 1803. 

Leeuwarden in 1527, died in 1608. Dutch 
school ; architecture painter. First appren- 
ticed for five years to the glass painter, 
Reyer Gerritszen, in Amsterdam. Being 
employed in 1569 on the triumphal arch 


for the entry of Charles V. into Antwerp, 
he was led to study the works of Vitruvius 
and Serlio. He then painted in Mechlin, 
Frankfort, Brunswick, Prague, Hamburg, 
Dantzic, etc., many fine perspective views, 
enlivened with well-drawn figures. His 
compositions are ingenious and varied, and 
treated in a delicate, clear tone. Works : 
Ave Maria in a House Interior, Mr. Robin- 
son's Collection, London ; Interior of Ant- 
werp Cathedral (figures by Peeter Brueghel, 
the elder), Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Interior 
of Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, Stuttgart 
Museum ; Gothic Church Interior, Architec- 
tural Pieces (4, two dated 1596), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Allegories, Town Hall, Dantzic — ^Im- 
merzeel, iii. 210 ; Kramm, vL 1804 ; Kugler 
(Crowe), L 262; Engerth, Belved. GaL, ii. 540. 

VRIES, ROELOF (or Reinier) DE, 17th 
century. Dutch school ; landscape painter, 
in the manner of Jacob van Ruisdael, per- 
haps his pupil ; flourished at Haarlem about 
1643-69. Works : The Hunt (with Barend 
Graat), Pigeon House, Coursing, New York 
Museum ; Stag Hunt, Brussels Museum ; 
Rustic Mansion, Amsterdam Museum ; A 
Herd, Hague Museum ; Castle Ruins on a 
River, Copenhagen Gallery ; Wooded Land- 
scape, Brunswick Gallery ; Ruins on the 
Water, Tower by Woods, Wooded Land- 
scape with Herd, Berlin Museum ; Mill in 
the Woods, Old Pinakothek, Munich. Oth- 
ers in Stadel Gallery, Frankfort (4) ; Augs- 
burg Gallery ; Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Fer- 
dinandeum, Innsbruck (?); Leipsic Museum 
(?) ; Schleissheim Gkd- ^ 

lery; Harrach, and ^vy 

Liechtenstein Gal- OJ OKLM 
leries, Vienna ; Turin .^/\\^ \/VCt/^ / 
Gallery (3).— Archief ^ , ^ . / . 
vor nederl. 
gesch., ii. 80 ; Meyer, 
Gem^de konigl Mu&, 516 ; De Stuers, 180 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, viL 278. 

VROMANS, NICOLAAS, called the Snake 
Painter, bom 1655 (?) or 1660, died 1719. 
Dutch school ; painted plants and shrubbery, 
with frogs, snakes, mice, spiders^ etc., with 

-Archief -JTJ , /. 

TVfpvAr ^ 


Digitized by 



great trathfulness and careful execution. 
Work : Snakes, Bojal Palace, Berlin. 

horn in Haarlem, in 1566, died there in 
1640. Dutch school Earliest known 
Dutch marine painter. Being employed by 
his stepfather in painting faience, which was 
not to his taste, he left Haarlem for Hotter- 
dam, visited Spain, traversed Italy in all 
directions^ and profited there by his intimacy 
with Paul BriL From Italy he travelled 
through France and Holland to Dantzic, 
where he studied perspective. After return- 
ing to Holland he revisited Spain, Portugal, 
and England, where he executed for tapes- 
tries ten sea battles between English and 
Spanish vessels, and made a drawing of the 
Defeat of the Spanish Armada for the Earl 
of Nottingham. From 1597 he worked in 
Haarlem. Works: Admiral Heemskerk 
sinking Spanish Gkdleys (1617), View of the 
T, Amsterdam Museum ; Arrival of Leices- 
ter at Vlissingen, 1586 (1623), Burning of 
Spanish Flag Ship in Battle of Gibraltar, 
Ship sailing. View of Haarlem, Haarlem 
Museum ; Seaport with Vessels, Augsburg 
Gallery ; Woodland Scene, Christiania Gal- 
lery; River Landscape (1630), Schwerin 
G^ery. By his son and probably his pupil, 
Comelis (bom at Haarlem about 1600, buried 
there. Sept 16, 1661), is a Wood Landscape 
in the Berlin Museum. By another son, 

Frederik, is 
his own por- 
trait in the 
Museum. — 
Immerzeel, iii. 
211 ; Kramm, vi. 1814 ; Kugler, (Crowe), i. 
261 ; Michiels, vL 207. 

VUEZ, ARNOXJLD DE, bom at Saint- 
Omer, March 10, 1642, died at Lille in 1719 
or 1720. French school ; history and por- 
trait painter, first instructed in his native 
place, then pupil of Claude Fran9oi8 (better 
known as Fr^re Luc 1615-85), in Paris, 
whence, three years later, he went to Venice, 
then to Rome in 1660. His marked success 


there involved him in several duels, which 
caused his flight to Paris, where he assisted 
Le Bmn ; forced to leave in consequence of 
another duel, he went to Constantinople 
with the French ambassador, and after his 
return was sent by Louvois to paint in a 
convent at Lille, which led to his settling in 
that dty in 1692. Was received into the 
Academy in 1681. Works : St. Francis of 
Assisi receiving the Stigmata, Miracle of St 
Anthony of Padua, Scenes in Life of St 
Bonaventura (3), do. in Life of St Augus- 
tine (2), Last Judgment, Christ and the 
Woman taken in Adultery, Judgment of 
Solomon, Death of Ananias, St Gregory the 
Ghreat, and many portraits. Museum, Lille ; 
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, Annun- 
ciation, St Andrew's, ib. ; St ' Francis de 
Paula exhorting Louis XL on his Death-Bed, 
Assassination of Thomas k Becket, Presenta- 
tion in the Temple, King David in Prayer, 
St Roch, St Magdalen receiving the Com- 
munion from St Maximinius, Douai Muse- 
um ; St Francis declining the Tiara, Valen- 
ciennes Museum. — Bellier, \L 705. 
D£, bom in Paris, 
March 2, 1841. Ani- 
mal and landscape 
painter, pupil of 
Hubert and Bonnat 
Medals: 1870; 2d 
class, 1875 ; L. of 
Honour, 1880. 
Works : Coast of 
Grace (1867); Roe 
Bucks on the Snow, 
Deer in Autumn (1868) ; Spaniards on the 
Tagus, Team of Oxen (1869) ; Morning in 
Bas Br6au, Environs of Chailly (1870) ; No- 
vember (1872) ; Queen Blanche's Oaks at 
Fontainebleau (1873) ; Mills in Plain of 
Chailly, Grass (1874) ; AUemagne Street, 
Free Market in Picardy (1875); Tending 
Cows in Cantal, Market Place of Montfer- 
i-and (1876) ; Souvenir of Morvan (1877) ; 
Bad Weather on Cliffis of Dieppe, Bulls and 
Heifers (1878) ; Herd of Cows in Oberland 


Digitized by 



(1879); Return of Herd (1880), Luxem- 
bourg Museum ; Stream (1880) ; Relays of 
Dogs (1881) ; Field of the Fair, Breton 
Moor (1882) ; New Grass, In the Meadows 
(1883), Luxembourg Museum ; Summer 
Morning, Autumn Day 
(1884) ; Sale of Colts 
(1885) ; The Brook, De- 
parture of Colts (1886).— Bellier, ii. 706 ; 

VULCAN, FORGE OF, Tintoretto, Pa- 
lazzo Ducale, Venice ; canyas. *' A meagre 
and vulgar study of common mcklels." — 


Forg« of Vulcan, Velasquez, Madrid Museum, 

Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 297 ; Ridolfi, 
Marav., ii. 216. 

By Velasquezy Madrid Museum ; canvas, 
H. 7 ft 5 in. X 9 ft 6 in. Apollo, partly 
draped, with a wreath on his head, from 
which light scintillates, enters the smithy of 
Vulcan to tell him of the infidelity of Venus ; 
Vulcan and four half-nude cyclops, who are 
aiding him, cease their work to listen. 
Painted in Italy in 1629-31, after same mod- 
els as Coat of Joseph. Engraved by Glairon ; 
Enriquez. Etched by Alabem y Patjo. — 
Curtis, 21 ; Madrazo, 598. 


nich, March 30, 1834. Landscape 
paintcu*, son of Earl Waagen (1800 
-73), and brother of the art historian Georg 
Friedrich Waagen ; pupil of Albert Zimmer- 
mann, whom he followed to Milan ; returned 
to Munich in 1859, and settled at Berchtes- 
gaden in 1869. The finest of his landscapes 
are in the possession of the Russian Prince 
Apraxin ; many, also, are in England and 
America. Other works : The Obersee ; Val 
Sassina ; The High Goll ; View of the Bren- 
ner Railway near Gossensass ; Ruin of Eah- 
bach near Bozen ; Villa 
Carlotta on Lake Como, 
Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. 
— MttUer, 641. 

HELM, bom in Berlin, 
Sept. 11, 1787, died there, 
Nov. 25, 1845. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of 
Karl Kretzschmar and of 
Berlin Academy ; took part 
as an officer in the cam- 
paigns of 1813-15, then 
studied in Paris under Da- 
vid and Gros, and in 1817 
went to Rome, where he 
aided in the revival of 
modem Gterman art; re- 
tumed to Berlin in 1819, 
became member of and pro- 
fessor at the Academy, and established a 
school in Berlin, from which issued more 
than seventy scholars. Court painter in 
1827 ; senator of the Academy in 1829 ; 
vice-director in 1840. Order of Red Eagle. 
Works : Christ with SS. John and Matthew 
(1807) ; Portrait of Queen Louise (1811) ; 
Christ Cracified (1815), GamisonAirche, 
Berlin; St John Baptist (1816), Schloss 
Bellevue, ib. ; Male Head, Madonna En- 
throned (1826), Psyche surprised by Cupid, 
National Gallery, ib. ; Portrait of Countess 
Raczynski (1827), Head of the Virgin, Christ 
and Disciples (1828), Raczynski Gallery, ib.; 
Three Divine Virtues (1828-30), Werder 


Digitized by 



Church, ib.; Kesurrection (1819); Last Sup- 
per (1819), SS. Peter and Paul's, Moscow ; 
The Nine Muses (1820) ; Nymph (1835) ; 
Holy Family ; Judith (1838) ; St. John in 
the Desert ; Introduction of Christianity in 
Pomerania ; Finding of the Cross (1843) ; 
Bishop Otto in Stettin converting the 
Wends, Head Studies (2), Stettin Museum. 
—Jordan, (1885), ii. 234 ; Rosenberg, Berl. 
Malersch., 9. 

Mtihlhausen, Alsace, March 21, 1802, died at 
Versailles, Nov. 11, 1869. Histoiy and genre 
painter, pupil of Gros. Accompanied the 
Orleans princes to Algeria, and was for a 
time professor in the School of St Cyr. 
Medal, 2d class, 1833. Works: Capture 
of Algiers, View at Staouele (1833, bought 
by State) ; Louis XI. and Francis de Paula, 
Politics of the Bar, Bonaparte at Valence, 
The Suicide, An Inundation (1833 to 1840); 
St. Thomas de Villanueva (bought by State), 
Sutler's Wife in Africa, St. Francis Xavier 
preaching in India (bought by State), St 
Louis de Gonzague (1840 to 1847) ; Zurba- 
ran in his Youth, Giorgione (1848) ; Capture 
of theTuaeries(1849); SalvatorRosa (1850); 
Michelangelo in the Medici Garden (1857) ; 
The Green Mamelon the Day after its Capt- 
ure (1859) ; Siege and Capture of Fort St 
Philippe in 1756 (1837), Capture of Fort 
l*Empereur in Algiers (1838), Entry of 
Charles X. into Colmar, Portrait of Due de 
Luxembourg, and two others, Versailles 
Museum ; Spanish Market, Avignon Muse- 
um. — Bellier, iL 707 ; Larousse ; Vapereau. 

FRIEDRICH VON, bom at Balingen, Wtlr- 
temberg, Feb. 29, 1762, died in Stuttgart, 
Aug. 14, 1852. History painter, pupil of 
Stuttgart Art School, then in Paris of David, 
whose classical style he abandoned, under 
the influence of \Carstens, in Rome, whither 
he went in 1789. Having embraced Roman 
Catholicism, he went in 1798 to Vienna, 
where he inspired the younger generation of 
artists, and in 1809 returned to Stuttgart. 
His compositions are distinguished for po 

etical conception, great dignity and noble 
bearing of the figures, and fine grouping. 
Works: Job and his Friends, Choice of 
Hercules, Ship of Life, Bacchus Singing, 
Combat of Centaurs, The Lion in Florence, 
The Muse mourning on Ruins of Athens, 
Bacchus tendering the Cup to Cupid, Eros 
as Founder of Wedlock, Stuttgart Gallery ; 
Ulysses resisting the Sirens ; Belisarius at 
the Gate of Rome; Women at Christ's 
Tomb ; Finding of Moses ; Charon ; Anac- 
reon ; Cato the Elder ; Cimon in Prison ; 
Andromache at Hector's Urn ; Death of 
Socrates ; Julius Caesar in the Plain of Troy ; 
Hecuba ; Mourning Muse on Ruins of 
Greece ; PiettL— Haakh, Beitrage, 10, 313 ; 
N. NecroL d. D. (1852) ; Wagner, L 464. 

WAEL (Waal), CORNELIS DE, bom in 
Antwerp, Sept. 7, 1592, died in Genoa in 
1662. Flemish school; history and battle 
painter, son and pupil of Hans de Wael 
(1558-1633) ; went early in life to Italy, and 
settled at Genoa before 1625. Painted 
scenes from military life after the manner of 
Peter Snayers. Employed by the Duke of 
Aerschot and Philip HI. of Spain. Works : 
Arrival of the Prince Cardinal at Sint Jo- 
rispoort. City Hall, Antwerp ; The Trinity, 
Vision of St. John, St. Gertrude's Chapel, 
St James's, ib. ; Venetian Mountebank, Cas- 
sel G^ery ; Passage through the Red Sea, 
Vienna Museum ; Dentist, Men drinking at 
Table, Nantes Museum ; Peter's Denial, S. 
«^ Ambrogio, Genoa ; Cavalry Skir- 
ruLf mish, Palazzo Rosso, ib. — Immer- 
^ zeel, iii. 212 ; Kramm, vi. 1818 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 340 ; Rep. f. K, vi. 244 ; 
Rooses (Reber), 409 ; Van den Branden, 664. 
Markt-Grafing, Bavaria, in 1774, died in 
Munich, May 12, 1829. Animal and land- 
scape painter, pupil in Munich of Domer 
and Mannlich, and studied nature in the 
Bavarian Highlands. Member of Berlin, 
Munich, and Hanau Academies. Court 
painter and, in 1815, director of the royal 
galleries. Works : View in Bavarian Alps, 
Cows at Pasture, National Gallery, Berlin ; 


Digitized by 



Landscape with Oattle, Saczynski Gallery, 
ib.; Shepherd Family with Cattle and Sheep 
Resting, Similar Subject (1812), Darmstadt 
Museum ; Inn Valley near Niederandorf, 
Ruin of Falkenstein (1828), View in Tyrol 
(1826), Konigsberg Museum; Herd with 
Boy (1823), Leipsic Museum ; Young Bull, 
Landscapes with Figures and Animals (5, 
three dated 1816, 1821, 1827), New Pinako- 
thek, Mu- ^j ^. MA ^ 

nich ; Sheep N^if; -^Vpf^ 
and Cattle. ^^9,5 yo^ f ^ 

Pieces (6, ^^'^' /^^ ^ 

three dated 1810, 1816), View near Munich, 
Schleissheim Gallery. — Jordan (1885), ii. 

WAGNER^ ALEXANDER, bom in Pesth, 
April 16, 1838. History and genre painter, 
pupil in Munich of Piloty. Won fame with 
his first large picture, Isabella Zapolya's 
Farewell to Transylvania, belonging to the 
Hungarian Academy; visited Spain, and 
is now professor at the Munich Academy. 
Works : Episode in Siege of Belgrade, 
Death of Titus Dugovich, Castle Vajda- 
Hunyad with Matthias Corvinus and Hunt- 
ing Suite, Pesth Museum ; Abduction of 
Women (1868) ; Csikos Race at Debreczin ; 
Picadores at BuU-Fight ; Spanish Mail at 
Toledo ; CTiano/ Race (1876), G. Kirchner& 
Co. , New York. Li fresco : Entry of Gusta- 
vus Adolphus into Aschaffenburg, Marriage 
of Otto of Bavaria, National Museum, Mu- 
nich ; Banquet of Attila, Tournament of 
Matthias Corvinus, Redouten Saal, Pesth. 
— ^Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 1013. 

WAGNER, ELISE. See Puyroche. 

Schwabmtlnchen, Bavaria, in 1819, died in 
Augsburg, June 13, 1881. History painter, 
pupil of Munich Academy under Cornelius, 
Schlotthauer, and Schnorr; returned in 
1848 to his native town, painted for differ- 
ent churches in Bavaria, and in succession 
the following works in fresco : Last Judg- 
ment, Church at SchwabmOnchen ; Homage 
of City of Augsburg to Rudolf von Haps- 
burg, Augsburg offering Protection to Louis 

the Bavarian, Foundation of the Fuggerei, 
Anton Fugger interceding for Augsburg, 
Emperor Max at Augsburg (1860-63), Fug- 
ger House, Augsburg ; others at Constance 
(1864), and in the City Hall and Catho- 
lie Church at Breslau (1865-66); Palace at 
Monaco (1867) ; Church at Memmingen ; 
New City Hall at Munich ; Scenes from Life 
of Christ, Church at Friedberg, Suabia. — 
Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 618 ; Mailer, 543. 

sau, Jan. 25, 1847. History and genre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy and of 
Quaglio ; visited Rome, and in 1876 Ven- 
ice ; an artist of great imagination and ex- 
quisite humour, and an excellent colourisi 
Works: ChUdren's Ball, Architect Bar6, 
Hamburg ; Lute Player ; Evening Devotion ; 
Doings of Modem Art. In fresco : Tann- 
hauser Scenes (1873); Walls and Ceiling 
(1874), Rathskeller, Munich ; do.. Cafe Roth, 
ib.; Five Senses (1881); Cycle of 17 pict- 
ures representing Influence of Ancient Gods 
on Aliments (1882) ; Hunting Train (1883), 
Drachenburg on the Rhine ; Two Female 
Figures (1883). — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xviii 
993; Kunst-Chronik, xviL 210, 739; xix. 
183, 447 ; lUustr. Zeitg. (1875), ii 83 ; All- 
gem. K. C, viii. 547. 

bom at Wtirzburg, June 24, 1777, died in 
Rome, Aug. 8, 1858. History painter, pu- 
pil of Vienna Academy (1797-82) under 
Fttger ; won the first prize, and returned to 
Wiirzburg ; went in 1803 to Paris and in 
1804 to Rome, whither he returned in 1810 
after a sojourn in Munich of two years. In 
1812-13 he visited Greece, by order of Crown 
Prince Louis of Bavaria, to buy antique works 
of art Professor and secretary-general of 
Munich Academy. Commander of Order 
of Civil Merit and of Si Michael Works : 
Holy Family, Holy Women returning from 
Christ's Tomb (1802) ; Council of Leaders 
before Troy (1808), Schleissheim Gallery; 
sketch to this in Darmstadt Museum ; Por- 
trait of Artist's Parents, Bearded Old Man, 
Mary on her Journey to Elizabeth, Christ 


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and Apoeiles taking Leave of Mary, Jupiter 
urging Agamemnon to Combat^ WOrzborg 
University. — ^Andresen, L 37 ; Cotta'sKunst- 
bL (1836-47) ; Raczynski, ii 459. 

at Weimar in 1728, died at Meissen (?) in 
1788. German school ; landscape and his- 
tory painter, sister of Christian Wilhelm 
Dietrich, whom she took for her model. 
Works : Valley with Brook and Mill, Dres- 
den Museum ; Landscape with Cottages 
and Figures (2), Gk>tha Museum. Her son, 
Johann Georg (1744-66), was also a land- 
scape painter of merit, pupU of his uncle 
Dietrich, and of Josef Roos. In the Chris- 
tiania Gallery are by him: The Defile, 
and Landscape with Hills and Woods. 

net, Versailles Museum ; canvas. Battle 
fought on July 6, 1809. Napoleon, in the 
saddle, watching through a glass the cav- 
alry charge. Close behind him the horse 
of Bessi^res, Duke of Istria, is struck down 
by a cannon-balL Engraved by J. M. Fon- 
taine. — GaL de Versailles, iv. No. 905. 

in Paris ; contemporary. Genre and por- 
trait painter, chiefly in water-colours ; pupU 
of his father, of Farochon, Lenepveu, Pils, 
and Henri Lehmann. Medal, 3d class, 
1879. Works : Francis I. and the Duchesse 
d':fitampes (1870) ; Etruscan Poet (1874) ; 
Eros, Lion of Si Mark (1876) ; War and 
Peace (1877) ; Education of Achilles, Diana 
(1878) ; Perseus, Dreams of the Cup- 
Bearer, and the Master of the Pantry 
(1879); Orestes (1880); Hesiod (1881); 
Cupid's Quadriga (1882); First Meeting 
(1883, 15tii century scene in Florence) ; St. 
Clara of Assisi (1884); Wedding in St 
Mark's— Venice in 15th Century (1885). 

WAHLBERG, ALFRED, bom in Stock- 
holm, Aug. 6, 1834. Landscape painter, 
pupU of DOsseldorf Academy, and in Paris 
of Corot and Daubigny. Member of Stock- 
holm Academy. Medals: Paris, 1870; 2d 
class, 1872 ; 1st class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 
1874 ; Officer, 1878 ; Order of Vasa. Works : 

Winter Landscape (figures by Wallander), 
View in KolmArden, Stockholm Museum ; 
Moonlight; Sunset on the Coast; Beech 
Wood near Copenhagen ; Harbour of Wax- 
holm at Night ; Coming Storm, Moonlight 
on Biver Bank, Seney Collection, New York ; 
Near Stockholm — Moonlight, Autumn Sun- 
set — Waxholm, Miss C. L. Wolfe, ib.; Coast 
of Norway, J. J. Astor, ib. ; Cascade of Husq- 
vama— Sweden (1884).— MttUer, 543. 

WALCH, JAKOB, bom in Nuremberg, 
beginning of 15th century. German school ; 
excellent portrait painter, not to be con- 
founded with Jacob Walch, called Jacopo 
de' BarbarL Works : Portrait of Emperor 
Maximilian L, Munich Gallery ; do., Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; do.. Emperor Frederic HL, 
and Male Portrait, Liechtenstein Gallery, 

in Berlin, Dec 17, 1847. Landscape paint- 
er, pupU in Munich of Franz Adam and 
of Lier, and in Carlsruhe of Gude ; studied 
nature in Silesia, Bavaria, Tyrol, Switzer- 
land, Italy, and Southern Fnmce, and set- 
tled in DQsseldorf in 1879. Works : Chap- 
el near Amden, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Ziller 
Valley, Strasburg Gallery ; Pegli near Genoa ; 
On Chiem Lake ; Varenna on Lake Como ; 
Villa Andreossy, ib.; View near Nice ; Boad 
near Villafranca; Oaks near Aisching. — 
Miiller, 544 ; Leixner, Mod. K., L 58. 
(GEORG), bom in 
Vienna in 1793, died 
there, Aug. 23, 1865. 
G^nre and portrait 
painter, pupU of Vi- 
enna Academy ; went 
to Presburg to paint 
portraits, thence as 
drawing teacher with 
Count Gyulai to 
Agram, where he mar- 
ried an actress, with whom he wandered 
through the provincial towns until she found 
an engagement in Vienna ; there he became 
professor and the custodian of the Lamberg 


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Gallery, afterwards fused with the Academy, 
and acquired the reputation of the fore- 
most genre painter in Austria. In 1820 he 
visited Italy, in 1821 Dresden, where he 
copied after Euisdael and Gorreggio ; thence 
to Leipsic, where he had great success with 
his portraits (1827); visited Italy and Sicily 
again in 1844 Order of Francis Joseph. 
Works : Old Woman in Arm-Chair (1822), 
Tyrolese Riflemen (1829), Beggar Boy on 
High Bridge in Vienna (1830), Vienna Mu- 
seum ; Child learning to Walk (1831) ; Rabbi 
teaching Girl ; Tyrolese Family Resting 
(1834) ; Travelling Beggar Family (1834) ; 
Return of Husbandman to his Family (1835) ; 
Dog beside Basket with Grapes (1840) ; Af- 
ter School (1841), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Austrian Wedding; New Life in Spring 
(1844) ; Return from Harvest ; Congratu- 
lation of Grandchildren, Pilgrims before 
Statue of Si John (1846) ; Ave Maria ; 
Evening Devotions in Peasant's Cottage 
(1846), Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Sun- 
day Afternoon (1846), Konigsberg Muse- 
um ; Harvest (1846) ; Supper in Peasant's 
Cottage ; Bay of Messina (1847) ; Convent 
Soup, Vienna Academy ; Spring Landscape 
(1862); Portrait of Emperor Francis L 
(1836) ; do. of Centenarian, Pesth Museum. 
—Jordan (1885), ii. 237 ; Nagler, xxi 90 ; 
Wurzbach, IL; Zeitschr. f. b. K, L 35 ; iv. 

WALDO, SAMUEL, bom in Connecti- 
cut in 1783, died in 1861. Portrait paint- 
er, first practised art in Charleston, S. C; 
painted in London in 1806-9, and spent the 
rest of his professional life in New York. 
Pictures in Historical Society, and in City 
Hall, New York. 

WALDORP, ANTOINE, bom at Huis 
in 't Bosch, near The Hague, March 22, 
1803, died in Amsterdam in 1866. Marine 
and city view painter, pupil of Brecken- 
heymer ; visited France in 1833, afterwards 
Germany and Belgium ; lived for several 
years in Amsterdam, and returned to The 
Hague. Member of Amsterdam (1836) and 
other Academies. Order of Leopold, 1845 ; 

Order of Lion, 1847 ; Order of Oaken Crown, 
1849. Works : View of Dordrecht (1836), 
Calm Sea, Museum, Amsterdam ; Draw- 
bridge over City Canal, Harbour in Calm 
Weather, View of Spaarnwoude, Interior of 
Protestant Church, Museum Fodor, ib. ; Es- 
cape of Hugo Grotius from Castle Loeve- 
stein, Rotterdam Museum ; View of Dutch 
City, Leipsic Museum ; do., Weimar Mu- 
seum ; Dutch Fishermen's Boats in Storm ; 
View of Jewish Quarter in Amsterdam ; 
Haarlem Sluice ; Calm in Zealand (1853) ; 
Boats Meeting (1861). — ^Immerzeel, iii. 214 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1823. 

don. May 24, 1840, 
died at St. Fillan's, 
Perthshire, June 6, 
1875. Subject and 
landscape painter in 
oil and water-col- 
ours ; pupil in Lon- 
don of Mr. Baker, 
architect, and of 
the Royal Acad- 
emy; afterwards 
studied two years with Mr. Whymper, wood 
engraver. Exhibited first work. The Lost 
Path, at Royid Academy in 1863. Associ- 
ate of Water Colour Society, 1864; mem- 
ber, 1867 ; A.RA., 1871. Works in water- 
colour : Spring (1864) ; Autumn (1865) ; 
Wayfarers, The Street— Cookham (1866); 
Designs for Miss Thackeray's Jack the 
Giant Killer (1868); Fishmonger's Shop 
(1872) ; The Village (1873) ; The Fireside 
(1876). Works in oU : The Bathers (1867) ; 
Vagrants in the Glen (1868) ; Old Gate 
(1869); The Plough (1870); Harbour of 
Refuge (1872) ; Right of Way (1875). At 
William Graham sale, London, 1886 : The 
Bathers, £2,625; The Vagrants, £1,858; 
The Lilies, £1,365 ; Sunny Thames, £1,218 ; 
Stobhall Garden, £567.— Art Journal (1876), 
300 ; PortfoHo (1870), 35 ; (1875), 117. 

WALKER, ROBERT, died in London 
about 1658. Studied the works of Van 
Dyck and became a portrait painter of great 


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merit under the Commonwealth. He paint- 
ed the Protector and many of his princi- 
pal officers, and is known as '' Cromwell s 
portrait painter." One of his portraits of 
Cromwell is engraved by Lombart, Godfrey, 
and Picart ; another is in the Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg ; a third at Warwick Castle. 
Poi-traits of himself at Hampton Court and 
at Oxford ; of Cromwell, Lambert, Ireton, 
and Faithome, National Portrait Gallery, 
South Kensington ; Lord Brooke, Warwick 
Castle ; Admiral Blake, Wadham College ; 
Sir Thomas Browne, Bodleian Library, Ox- 
ford. — Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 45 ; Btirg- 
er, Tr^sors d'Art, 358. 

in Stockholm, May 15, 1821. Genre painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy ; went in 1851 
to DQsseldorf, whither he returned, after 
having visited France and Italy, until 1856 ; 
became professor at Stockholm Academy in 
1867. Works : Market at Vingaker (1852) ; 
Wedding at Osteracker ; Sunday Morning in 
Silja, Dalecarlia ; Rendezvous at the Gate ; 
Spinning Company at Delsbo ; The Bride is 
Coming ; Moritz in a Strait, Mollberg with 
the Bottle, Ulla at Toilet.— Mttller, 544. 

WALLER, FRANK, bom in New York 
in 1842. Landscape and genre painter, pu- 
pil of J. G. Chapman in Rome in 1870 ; 
sketched in Egypt in 1872 ; student of the 
Art League, New York, in 1874 ; former 
treasurer, and now president, of the League. 
First exhibited in National Academy in 
1866. Works : Tombs of the Caliphs near 
Cairo ; Sta. Maria del Sasso — Lago Maggi- 
ore, Parke Godwin, New York ; Ruins near 
Cairo ; On the Desert ; Harmony, Record 
of the Past (1880) ; Slave of the Shadoof 
(1881); Dream at Rye Beach — N. R 
(1882); Eventide— Venice (1883); On the 
Mediterranean near Alexandria — Egypt, 
Hop Picking at Cooperstovm — N. Y., At 
Coney Island (1884) ; Hop Pickers, Testing 
the Toledo, Lake Otsego (1885). 

Gloucester in 1850. Animal and figure 
painter ; educated at Cheltenham College ; 

pupil in Gloucester School of Art, and stu- 
dent of his father in architecture ; pupil of 
the Royal Academy, London, in 1868. Mr. 
Waller has illustrated many books, and 
has for several years been attached to the 
staflf of the Graphic. Works : Illustrious 
Stranger, Winter's Tale (1870) ; Jealous 
(1875) ; Way of the World (1876) ; Home 
(1877) ; King's Banner (1878) ; Empty Sad- 
dle (1879) ; Suspense (1879) ; Where there's 
a Will there's a Way (1880) ; King's High- 
way (1880); Success (1881); Sweethearts 
and Wives (1882) ; Day of Reckoning 
(1883); The Orphans (1884); Outward 
Bound (1885). His wife, Mrs. Mary L. 
Waller, paints portraits. — Art Journal 
(1881), 117. 

WALSCAPELE (Walskapel, Wals-Kap- 
pel), JACOB, flourished about 1670-80. 
Dutch school ; flower and fruit painter, pu- 
pil of Cornelis Kick ; lived in Amsterdam 
before 1667, and until 1717-18 ; formed his 
style after Jan D. de Heem, whom he so nearly 
approaches in arrangement, harmony, and 
truth of detail, that most of his pictures 
were attributed to that master. Works: 
Flowers, Insects, and Strawberries, National 
Gkllery, London ; Festoon of Fruits and 
Flowers, Berlin Museum ; Bouquet in Vase 
(1677), Fruit-Piece, Stadel GaUery, Frank- 
fort ; two pictures, Schwerin Gallery ; 
Flower-Piece in Glass Vessel, Dresden Gal- 

lery (ascribed to J. D. de Heem). — ^Kramm, 
vi 1825 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 519. 

Berne in 1818, died in 1870. Genre painter, 
pupil of Barthelemy Menn (bom 1815) in 
Geneva, and of Gleyre in Paris. Works : 
Scene from Goethe's Faufi* (1846), Wound- 
ed Rifleman of Berne bringing News of De- 
feat at Grauholz— 1798 (1854), Last Day of 
the old Republic of Berne (1867), Berne 
Museum ; Bernese Soldier of 1798, Neucha- 
tel Museum. 


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WALTHER, WILHELM, bom at Neu- 
hausen, Saxony, in 1826. History painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Julius 
Hubner. Works : Christ appearing to the 
Magdalen (1848), Flight into Egypt, Dres- 
den Art Union, Sgraffito frieze : Festive 
Procession of Saxon Princes (1876), Boyal 
Palace, ib.— Kaulen, 209. 

WALTON, FRANK ; contemporary. 
Landscape painter in water-colours. Studio 
in London. Works: From Unharboured 
Heaths (1877) ; Evening at Dorking ; Near 
the Thames ; Regatta at Bournemouth ; Au- 
tumn, Copse on Furzefield Brow, Brick- 
makers (1881) ; Noontide's Hush, Happy 
Valley (1882); Gentle Autumn (1883); 
Among Whispering Woods, World of Mead- 
ows, Eynance Cove (1884) ; Surrey's Pleas- 
ant Hills (1885) ; Summer Tide of Blos- 
soming (1886). 

Boughton, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; can- 
vas, H. 1 ft. 8 in. x 2 ft 6 in.; dated 1878. 
A young pair are seated under a tree in late 
autumn, the ground strewn with leaves ; he 
is reading a book and carelessly caressing 
his dog, while she is pouting prettily, but 
thinking no pretty things of him.— Royal 
Academy, 1878. 

WAPPERS, GUST AAF, Baron, bom in 
Antwerp, Aug. 23, 
1803, died in Paris, 
Dec. 6, 1874. History 
and genre painter, 
pupil at Antwerp 
Academy of L J. van 
Regemorter (1785- 
1873), then of Van 
Bree and of Herreyns ; 
studied after Rubens, 
Van Dyck, and Jor- 
daens ; then in Amsterdam and The Hague 
the old Dutch, and in Paris the Venetian 
masters ; returned to Antwerp in 1830, be- 
came professor at the Academy in 1832, and 
was its director in 1840-53 ; made court 
painter and baron in 1845 ; settled in Paris 
in 1853. Meeting with great success at his 

first appearance, he influenced modem Bel- 
gian art as the chief representative of roman- 
ticism, and formed many pupils ; his works 
are meritorious in composition, poetical 
treatment, and colouring. Member of sev- 
eral Academies. Many medals : L. of Hon- 
our, 1842 ; Officer, 1855 ; Order of Red 
Eagle, 1847 ; Officer Order of Leopold, 
1855. Works : Van Dyck in Love with his 
Model (1827), View of Citadel of Antwerp 
(1830), Amsterdam Museum ; Self-Devotion 
of Burgomasters of Leyden (1830), Hague 
Museum; Christ at the Sepulchre (1833), 
St. Michaers, Louvain ; The Populace of 
Brussels tearing down the Proclamation of 
Prince Frederick (1835) ; Charles L taking 
leave of his Children (1836) ; Charles IX. on 
Si Bartholomew's Night ; Temptation of St. 
Anthony ; Heloise and Abelard ; Charles 
Vn. and Agnes Sorel ; Execution of Anne 
Boleyn ; Peter 'the Great at Saardam ; Ca- 
moens (1842) ; Genevieve of Brabant (1843), 
Windsor Castle, Defence of Rhodes by 
Knights of St John (1848), Versailles Gal- 
lery ; Death of Columbtia; The Ommeganck 
at Antwerp ; Louis XL at Plessis les Tours ; 
Boccaccio and Joan of Naples ; Louis XVIL 
in the Temple Prison ; Charles L on his way 
to the Scaffold, Episode of September Days 
of 1830, Brussels Museum ; Mother's Joy, 
Museum, Antwerp ; Livocation of the Virgin, 
Si Charles Borromeo's, ib.; Neuvaines of 
the Family of Egmont (1866), Mr. Probas- 
co, CincinnatL — ^Art Journal (1856), 124 ; 
(1860), 142; (1865), 268; (1873), 241; 
(1875), 76 ; Dioskuren (1875), 4 ; Immer- 
zeel, iiL 217 ; Kramm, vi (1826) ; Rooses 
(Reber), 466 ; Van den Branden, 1390. 

WAR, Sir Edwin Landseer, National Gal- 
lery, London ; H. 2 f i 10 in. x 4 f t. 4 in. 
A dying and a dead horse, with their fallen 
riders, lying among the burning ruins of a 
cottage. Companion to Peace. Royal Acad- 
emy, 1846. iigraved by T. L. Atkinson ; 
Lumb Stocka— Art Journal (1854), 144. 

WAR^ HORRORS OF, Rubens, Palazzo 
Pitti, Florence ; canvas, H. 6 ft 5 in. x 9 ft 
3 in. Mars, in armour and with sword and 

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Rome, and after studying fresco painting 
under Cornelius at Munich returned to Eng- 
land and exhibited 
his Cunabue and 
Giotto. His Dr. 
Johnson reading 
the MS. of the Vi- 
car of Wakefield 
(1843) first brought 
him into notice ; 
elected an A.RA. 
in 1846, and RA. 
in 1855. In 1852 

and later, he executed eight historic pict- 
ures, six in fresco and two in water-glass, 
in the corridor of the House of Commons. 
In the National Gallery are : Dr. Johnson 
in the Anteroom of Lord Chesterfield (1845), 
Disgrace of Lord Clarendon (1846), South 
Sea Bubble (1847), James H receiving News 
of Landing of Prince of Orange (1850). 
Other works : Charlotte Corday led to Ex- 
ecution (1852) ; Execution 
of Montrose (1853) ; Last 
Sleep of Argyll (1854); Ma- 
rie Antoinette parting with 
the Dauphin (1856); Na- 
poleon HL receiving Order 
of the Garter (1859); Night 
of Rizzio's Murder (1865) ; 
Earl of Leicester and Amy 
Bobsart (1866); Landing of 
Charles H. at Dover (1873); 
William HL and Mary re- 
ceiving the Lords and Com- 
mons at Whitehall (1874); 
Last Interview between Na- 

Horrore of War, Rubent, Paltzzo PItti, Florence. _ | t js r\ t • 

poleon L and Queen Louisa 

shield, preceded by Plague and Famine and 
dragged on by Alecto bearing a torch, 
rushes from the open temple of Janus, 
trampling down the Arts and Sciences in 
his progress ; Venus, Cybele, and Cupids in 
vain attempt to restrain his warlike ardour. 
Carried to Paris ; returned in 1815. En- 
graved by Avril ; Paradisi — Smith, iL 150 ; 
Landon, Musee, iv. PL 9 ; GaL du PaL 
Pitti, iv. PL 88. 

WARD, EDGAR M., bom in Urbana, 
Ohio ; contemporary. Figure and genre 
painter, younger brother of J. Q. A. Ward, 
sculptor ; pupil of the National Academy, 
New York, of the Ecole des Beaux Arts and 
of Cabanel, Paris. First exhibited in Na- 
tional Academy in 1871, and in the Paris 
Salon in 1876. Elected an A.N.A. in 1876 ; 
N. A. in 1883. Studio in New York. Works: 
Brittany Washerwomeu (1876) ; The Sabot 
Maker, Venetian Water Carriers, Washing 
in Brittany (1878) ; Street Scene— Tr6port 

(1879) ; Normandy Cooper (1880) ; Tobacco 
Field— Old Virginny (1881) ; Feeling the 
Edge (1882) ; Collar Shop (1883), T. B. 
Clarke, New York ; Street in Tr^port — 
Normandy (1884) ; The Cobblers, Resting, 
The Blessing (1886). 

London in 1816, died there, Jan. 15, 1879. 
History painter, pupil of Royal Academy in 
1835; then worked nearly three years in 

of Prussia at Tilsit (1877).— Cat. Nat GaL; 
Jas. Daflfome, Life, etc. (London, 1879) ; 
Sandby, ii. 299. 

WARD, HENRIETTA, bom in London 
in 1832. Genre painter, granddaughter of 
James Ward, RA., and wife of Edward M. 
Ward ; has exhibited at Royal Academy many 
yeara Works : Mary Queen of Scots quitting 
Stirling (1863); Palissy the Potter (1866); 
Childhood of Joan of Arc (1867) ; Lady Jane 


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Grey (1868) ; Fortunes of little Fritz (1871); 
Ghatterton (1873); Defence of Lathom 
House (1874) ; Poet's First Love (1875) ; 
Ugly Duckling (1876) ; Princess Charlotte 
of Wales (1877) ; One of Last Lays of Bums 
(1878) ; Melody (1879). 

WARD, JAMES, bom in London, Oct 
23, 1769, died at 
Cheshunt, Nov. 17, 
1859. Studied en- 
graving under J. R 
Smith, and after- 
wards served an ap- 
prenticeship under 
his elder brother, 
William James Ward, 
mezzotint engraver; 
practised as an engraver several years, but 
soon began to paint, imitating the manner 
of George Morland, his brother-in-law. In 
1794 he was appointed painter and engraver 
to the Prince of Wales, and shortly after- 
wards devoted his talent entirely to the 
painting of animals, especially horses and 
cattle, in which he attained eminence. 
Elected an A.RA. in 1807, and RA. in 
1811; contributed to Academies 287 worka 
His masterpiece is the Alderaey bull, cow, 
and calf (Landscape with Cattle, 1820-22), 
purchased by the National Gallery for 
£1,500, which is said to have been painted 
in emulation of Paul Potter's celebrated 
picture at The Hague. The National Gal- 
lery also possesses by him: Cattle-Piece 
(1807), View of Harlech Castle, Gordale 
Scar in Yorkshire. — Art Journal (1849), 
179; (1862), 169; Kedgrave; Ch. Blanc, 
tcole anglaise ; Portfolio (1886), 8, 32, 45. 

lach, near Munich, in 1769, died there in 
1847. Landscape painter, pupil of Munich 
Academy, and studied nature in Austria and 
Italy. Member of Munich Academy, 1824. 
Works : Beech Wood (1820), National Gal- 
leiy, Berlin ; Morning Landscape, Ruins of 
Hermitage, Castle Falkenstein, Augsburg 
Gallery ; Italian Landscape, two others, 
Schleissheim Ghdlery. — ^Nagler, xxi 126. 

WARRIOR, DEAD, Vdasquet, National 
Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 3 ft 5 in. x 5 
ft 5 in. Commonly called Orlando Muerto 
(Dead Roland). The Paladin Roland, killed 
at battle of Roncesvalles by Bernardo del 
Carpio, is lying in his armour on his back, 
a skull and bones near his feet ; above him 
is suspended a brass lamp, the flame of 
which has just gone out Purchased at 
Pourtal^s sale in 1865 for 37,000 francs. 
Authenticity doubtful. Old copy in collec- 
tion of M. Cremer, Brussels. — Stirling, ii. 
680; Gaz. des B. Arts (1865), xviiL 98; 
Curtis, 17. 

Charles Wilson Fede, Gen. G. W. C. Lee, 
Lexington, Va. Three-quarters length, in 
imiform of a colonel of Virginia militia — 
blue coat with scarlet facings, scarlet waist- 
coat and breeches, and purple scarf over 
left shoulder. Painted in 1772 ; the first 
life-size portrait of Washington. Bust study, 
Charles S. Ogden, Philadelphia. — Johnston, 
Portraits of Washington (Boston, 1882). 

By Charles Wilson Pede, Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington (on deposit). Washing- 
ton at Princeton. Full-length, standing, in 
uniform of commander-in-chief, the left hand 
resting upon a cannon, the right, holding 
his chapeau, placed on his hip ; the conti- 
nental flag, a circlet of stars in a blue field, 
floats over his head, and captured British 
flags are on the ground beside him. Paint- 
ed in 1778-79 by order of Congress, but 
left in the hands of the artist; taken to 
Europe; purchased in Paris by Comte de 
Menon, who returned it. Replicas: H. 
Pratt McEean, Philadelphia ; Earl of Albe- 
marle ; Versailles Museum ; others. — John- 
ston, Portraits of Washington (Boston, 

By Rembrandt Pede, Vice-President's 
room, Capitol, Washington. Bust, citizen's 
dress, head turned to lefi Purchased by 
Congress in 1832. Many copies. — John- 
ston, Portraits of W. 

By Rembrandt Pede, Mount Vernon. 
Washington before Yorktown. Mounted 


Digitized by 



on a white horse, riding to right, accompa- 
nied by his staff, rebuking a subordinate 
oflScer for neglect of duty. Painted for the 
rotunda of the Capitol, but left in the ar- 
tist's hands ; presented by his heirs, in 
1873, to the " Ladies' Mount Vernon Asso- 
ciation." — Johnston, Portraits of W. 

By James Sharpies, James Walter, Lon- 
don. Two bust portraits, one full*face, in 
continental uniform, the other profile, in 
civilian's costume. These, together with a 
portrait of Martha Washington, are said to 
have been executed about 1796 for Kobert 
Gary, of Cary & Co., London, mercantile 
agents for Washington. The full-face pict- 
ure was exhibited in New York in 1854, but 
returned to England ; in 1882 all three were 
taken to the United States and exhibited in 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, 
and other cities. In November, 1886, Ma- 
jor Walter presented to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society the evidence in support 
of the claim of these pictures to authentic- 
ity, with a view to obtain its aid in an ap- 
peal to the Government at Washington to 
purchase them for the nation ; and on Jan- 
uary 13, 1887, the committee of investiga- 
tion reported adversely both to the authen- 
ticity of the pictures and of the letters 
published in Major Walter's " Memorials." 
— Johnston, Portraits of W.; Walter, Me- 
morials of W. (New York, 1887) ; Nation 
(1887), xliv. 49. 

By Gilbert Stuart, William F. Channing, 
Providence, R L Half-length, in citizen's 
dress, head turned to right, showing right 
side of face. Painted in 1795 from a sketch 
made in September of that year (destroyed 
by Stuart) for Col. George Gibbs ; sold to 
his sister, Mra William Ellery Channing, 
and descended to her son. Beplicas : One 
painted for Samuel Vaughan, now in Harri- 
son Collection, Philadelphia ; another paint- 
ed for J. Vaughan and taken to England ; 
a third, owned by Mrs. Rogers, Lancaster, 
Penn. — Johnston, Portraits of W. 

By Gilbert Stuart, Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston, Mass. Bust, citizen's costume, head 

turned to left, showing left side of face. 
The head only is finished. Painted in 1796 ; 
retained by Stuaii, and purchased of his 
widow and presented with its pendant, Mrs. 
Washington, to the Athenseum, Boston, 
whence commonly called the Athenaeum 
picture. About fifty replicas. — ^Mason, G. 
Stuart, 103 ; Johnston, Portraits of Wash- 

By Gilbert Stuart, John Delaware Lewis, 
London ; canvas, life-size. Washington as 
President Full-length, standing beside a 
table, dressed in black-velvet suit and white 
ruffles, the right hand extended, the left 
holding a dress sword ; behind, right, an 
arm-chair ; in background, two rows of pil- 
lars and a drawn curtain. Painted in 1796 
for Marquis of Lansdowne ; sold, at his de- 
cease, to Samuel Williams for £2,000 (an- 
other statement, £540 15a) ; disposed of by 
lottery in 1824, forty tickets at 50 guineas 
each, and drawn by father of present owner. 
Exhibited at Centennial Exhibition, 1876, 
and returned to England. Replicas : Henry 
E. Pierrepont, Brooklyn ; Academy of Fine 
Arts, Philadelphia ; a third, painted for 
Gardner Baker, New York, was stolen and 
carried to England (possibly the one now 
owned by Russell Sturgis, of London) ; a 
fourth. State House, Providence, R L; a 
fifth. State House, Newport, R L; a sixth. 
State House, Hartford, Conn.; a seventh, 
with changes, Lenox Library, New York. — 
Johnston, Portraits of W.; Mason, G. Stu- 

By Gilbert Stuart, deposited by city in 
Musevun of Fine Arts, Boston. Washing- 
ton on Dorchester Heights. Full-length, in 
uniform, standing beside a white horse, 
holding the bridle in his left hand and his 
chapeau in his right Painted in 1806 ; 
presented to town of Boston by Samuel 
Parkman ; long in Faneuil Hall, where re- 
placed by Miss Jane Stuart's copy. — John- 
ston, Portraits of W. ; Mason, G. Stuart 

By John TrumhuU, City Hall, New York. 
Full-length, in imif orm, standing by a white 
horse, leaning his arm upon the saddle ; in 


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background, British ships and boats leaving 
the shore, and Staten Island in the distance. 
Painted in 1790 by order of Common Coun- 
ciL — Johnston, Portraits of W. 

By John TrumbuU, Yale College ; canvas, 
life-size. Washington at Trenton. Full- 
length, military costume ; in background, 
an attendant with white horse. Painted in 
1791 for city of Charleston, but the citizens 
preferring one in civil costume, TrumbuU 
painted them another and retained this. A 
bust portrait by Trumbull, painted in 1793, 
also in Yale College Ghdlery. Trumbull 
painted in 1780 a full-length of Washing- 
ton, in military costume, for M. de Neuf- 
ville, Amsterdam, Netherlands ; supposed to 
be still in Europe. Cabinet portraits of 
General and Mrs. Washington, painted by 
Trumbull in 1794, are in the Patent Off- 
ice, Washington ; and a full-length cabinet, 
painted in 1790, belongs to Edmund Law 
Bogers, Baltimore. — Johnston, Portraits of 
W.; Amer. Art Beview, ii. 190. 

By Adolph Ulric WertmiUlerf Charles A. 
Davis, New York Bust, citizen's dress, with 
lace frill on shiri Beplicas : Mrs. Corne- 
lius Bogart, New York ; office of Secretary 
of Interior, Washington. Painted in 1795. — 
Johnston, Portraits of W. 

Constantino Brumidi, canopy of the rotun- 
da of the Capitol, Washington. In centre, 
Washington seated in majesty, with God- 
dess of Liberty on his right and Victory 
on his left hand ; encircling this group are 
thirteen female figures, personifying the 
original States; and around the border 
are six groups, emblematic of the Fall 
of Tyranny, Agriculture, Mechanics, Com- 
merce, the Marine, and the Arts and Sci- 

AWARE, Emanuel Leulze, Mrs. Marshall O. 
Roberts, New York The general, wrapped 
in his military cloak, standing in a theatri- 
cal attitude in the bow of a boat which men 
are forcing with oars and boat-hooks through 
floating blocks of ice. 


John Trumbidly rotunda of Capitol, Wash- 
ington ; canvas, H 12 ft. x 18 ft Washing- 
ton appearing before Congress at Annapo- 
lis, Dec. 23, 1783, to resign his commission 
as Commander-in-Chief of the Continen- 
tal Army. Among the spectators are Mrs. 
Washington and her grandchildren. Paint- 
ed in 1827 for $8,000. Original study in 
Yale College Gallery. 

Paris, Aug. 25, 1780, died there, June 21, 
1866. Landscape painter ; studied nature 
deeply, and became one of the foremost ar- 
tists of his class. After having visited Italy 
in 1822, he began, with his Lake of Nemi, 
in 1824, a series of exquisite landscapes of 
realistic character, which won him fame at 
home and abroad. He was the master of 
Paul Delaroche, and influenced Troyon, 
Huet, Lapito, Corot, Aligny, and othei's. 
Medals : 2d class, 1818 ; 1st class, 1819 ; 
L. of Honour, 1825. Works : Herdsmen 
(1810); Napoleon in Ludwigsburg (1815), 
Versailles Museum ; Henri IV. in the Forest 
of Ailas (1819), Fontainebleau ; Romantic 
Landscape (1819), Amiens Museum ; St. Je- 
rome in the Desert (1822), Louvre ; Lake of 
Nemi (1824) ; Norman Village (1835) ; Val- 
ley of Gisors (1840) ; Flight into Egypt 
(1842), Palais de Saint-Germain-en-Laye ; 
Views in Tyrol (1848, 1850, 1857) ; View of 
Lyons, Aix Museum ; Landscapes in Muse- 
ums of Bordeaux, Montpellier, Nimes, Neu- 
chatel, KOnigsberg (2, 1835, 1845) ; Rac- 
zynski Gallery, Berlin (1824). — Bellier, ii. 
713 ; Jal, 1296 ; Journal of the Soc. of Arts 
(1866) ; Meyer, Gesch., 732 ; Larousse. 

Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
pupil of Diaz. Medal, 3d class, 1876. 
Works : Artists* Path in Forest of Fontaine- 
bteau (1870) ; Views in Oise (1873, 1874) ; 
Mill at Gamaches, Communal Meadow at 
Bouvaincourt (1875) ; Road of Lesnette 
(1876) ; Willows of Bourbel (1877) ; Port of 
Sevres (1878) ; Views in Gironde, Somme, 
Picardy, and Normandy (1878-86). 


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WATER CARRIER^ Velasquez, Apdey 
House, London ; canyas, H. 3 ft. 4 in. x 2 
ft 6 in. A man in tattered brown doublet, 
with his left hand on a large earthen jar, 
hands a glass of water to a boy who stands 
beside a table on which is a smaller jar ; 
another boy drinks from a pot Earliest 
recorded picture of Velasquez ; painted in 
Seville about 1620. Carried off by Joseph 
Bonaparte in his flight from Madrid, but 
captured in his carriage at Vittoria, and 

Water Carrier, Velaaquez, Apsley Houm, London. 

afterwards presented by Ferdinand VH to 
the Duke of Wellington. Engraved by B. 
Amettler; outline, R Ling^e. — Ch. Blanc, 
£cole espagnole ; Elas. der Malerei ; Qbz. 
des B. Arts (1879), xx. 232 ; Stirling, 1396. 
in Rome, Italy, of English parents, in 1849. 
Went to England in 1854 ; history painter, 
pupil of Royal Academy schools. First ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy, in 1874, Sleep 
and his Brother Death. Revisited Italy in 

1883. Elected an A.RA. in 1885. Works: 
Miranda (1875) ; After the Dance (1876) ; 
Sick Child brought 
into the Temple of 
.Slsculapius (1877) ; 
La Favorita (1879) ; 
Rival Roses, Sum- 
mer's Day (1881) ; 
Diogenes (1882); Fa- 
vourites of the Em- 
peror Honorius, Bub- 
bles (1883); Consult- 
ing the Oracle (1884); 
Si Eulalia's Crucifixion, By-way in Old 
Rome (1885) ; Magic Circle, Flower Market 

WATER MILL, Meyndert ffobbema, for- 
merly in Hamilton Palace Collection; wood, 
H. 2 fi X 2 ft 9^ in. On the right, a thick 
cluster of trees, the foliage of which partly 
conceals the cottages and overshadows the 
mill in the centre ; in foreground, the mill 
stream, fringed with bulrushes and aquatic 
plants, and with two pollard willows on the 
bank ; a man fishing, another looking on, 
and a third crossing a rustic bridge. Hamil- 
ton Palace sale (1882), to Sedelmeyer, Paris, 
£4,252 10s. Another in Dutuit Collection, 
Paris, bought at De Momy sale (1852), 
105,000 francs. A third, Pereire sale, Paris 
(1872), 30,000 francs. Others in Bucking- 
ham Palace, Bute Collection, Bridgewater 
Collection, and National Gkillery, London. 
— Smith, vi 166 ; Larousse, xi. 634 

WATERING PLACE, Thomas Gainsbor- 
ough, National Gallery, London ; canvas, H. 

I f t. 11 in. X 2 ft 6 in. Evening ; a wooded 
landscape, with village church in distance ; 
at left, a figure sitting under a wall ; at 
right, a man and dog, with cattle in a pool. 
Engraved by W. Miller. — Art Journal 
(1853), 184. 

By Thomas Gainsborough, National Gal- 
lery, London ; canvas, H. 4 ft 10 in. x 5 ft 

II in. Evening ; a thickly wooded land- 
scape, with figures to left ; in foreground, 
to right, some cattle and goats standing 
in a pool See, also, Brook. Presented in 


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\ '-- • 

1827 by Lord Farnborough. Engraved by 
W. Miller ; and in Jones's National Gallery ; 
etched by R S. Chattoek in Portfolio. — Cat 
Nat GaL ; PortfoUo (1875), 49. 

By Philips Wouwermany Munich Gkdlery ; 
wood, H. 1 fi X 1 ft 2 in. Men watering 
horses at the side of a river, which is seen to 
a great distance at right ; 
cattle are being ferried 
across. At left, an old wall, 
and a gateway from which \^ - 

a muleteer is issuing. lith- 
ographed by F. Hohe. — ^R6- 
veil, xiiL 898. 

NIE, bom at Lille about 
1618 (?), died at Amster- 
dam after 1673. Dutch 
school ; landscape painter, 
whose works are distin- 
guished for facile treatment 
and faithful representation 
of nature. His atrial per- 
spective is always good; 
trees and plants are correct 
in colour and of great vari- 
ety. Landscapes in Muse- 
ums and Galleries of Am- 
sterdam, Dresden, Gbtha, 
(2), Hanover, Stuttgart, Munich, Wiesbaden, 
/fA\ ,^ and Florence. — Ch. 

ft/l) A A r Blanc, tcole hollan- 
U^w^ry V* j^ig^. Dioskuren 

(1860), 177, 185, 196, 202 ; Havard, A. & A. 
hoL, ii 189. 

contemporary. Landscape and genre paint- 
er. Works : Last of the Shower (1877) ; 
Close of Midsummer's Day (1879) ; Out- 
ward Bound, Bluebells (1881); Home Again, 
Sheep-WaeOiing, Woodland Gleanings (1882); 
Beltein — Midsummer Eve in Cornwall, 
Fisherman's Garden (1883) ; Sand Dig- 
ging, Breezy Tintagel, Shepherd's Return 
(1884) ; Scant Fuel, From the Ferry (1885) ; 
Sunny Hours, Waiting, Rough Sea (1886). 

WATERMAN, MARCUS, bom in Provi- 
dence, R L; died in 1888. Genre painter. 

Worked in New York and Boston before he 
went to Europe in 1878. Was an A.N.A. 
Work : Gulliver in Lilliput (1876). 

WATSON, GEORGE, bom at Overmains, 
Berwickshire, in 1767, died at Edinburgh, 
Aug. 24, 1837. Portrait painter, pupil of 
Alexander Nasmyth and of Sir Joshua Rey- 

Watering Plac«, Philips Wouwerman, Munich Gallery. 

nolds. He settled in Edinburgh, where he 
was long the rival of Sir Henry Raebum. 
From 1808 to 1812 he presided over the 
Society of Associated Artists of Scotland, 
and on the foundation of the Royal Scottish 
Academy, in 1826, he was elected president, 
and held that office imtil his death. Por- 
traits of Benjamin West, Archibald Skirving, 
and of himself. National Gallery, Edin- 

WATSON, JOHN, bom in Scotland in 
1686, died in New Jersey, Aug. 22, 1768. 
Portrait painter, pupil of the Trustees' 
Academy, Edinburgh. He emigrated in 
1715 to New Jersey, where he is said to 
have amassed a property by the practice of 
his profession. 

in Edinburgh in 1796, died there, Novem- 


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ber, 1874. Portrait painter, son and pupil 
of George Watson ; studied also in the 
Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, in the Royal 
Academy, London, and under Sir David 
Wilkie, whom he assisted in the Penny 
Wedding and other works. He was one of 
the original members of the Royal Scottish 
Academy. Work: The Student, National 
Gallery, Edinburgh. 
WATTEAU, ANTOINE, bom at Valenci- 
^ , ennes, Oct. 10, 

-/^"'7C:Z^>-. 1684, died at 
Mame, July 
18, 1721. 
French school; 
genre painter, 
first instructed 
by an obscure 
painter in Va- 
lenciennes ; 
went to Paris 
in 1702, and entered the studio of Gillot, 
where he acquired a taste for the humorous 
subjects for which he was afterwards dis- 
tinguished. After a further apprenticeship 
imder the decorative painter Claude Audran 
3d, he exhibited two pictures for which he 
was received into the Academy in 1717. 
Meanwhile he had continued his studies in 
copying the masterpieces of Rubens and 
Paolo Veronese. His great reputation rests 
on a series of pictures of conventional shep- 
herds and shepherdesses, dancers and com- 
edians, painted with unrivalled freshness, 
grace, and charm. More than 563 plates 
after his pictures were engraved by Thom- 
assin. Cochin, and Cardon. Works : Em- 
barkation for Cythera (1717), Gilles of the 
Gom^die italienne, L'indifif6rent, La finette, 
Assembly in a Park, Juggler, Jupiter and An- 
tiope, three others. Louvre ; Fete Champetre, 
Angers Museum ; Harlequin meeting Panta- 
loon, Pierrot, and Colombine, Foot Soldier 
Reconnoitring, Nantes Museum ; Monkey 
Sculptor, Orleans Museum ; Country Scene, 
Landscape, Troyes Museum ; Conversation 
in a Park, Portrait of the Sculptor Antoine 

I Joseph Pater, Valenciennes Museum ; Con- 
cert Champetre, Two Lovers Surprised, 
Buckingham Palace, London ; Rendez-vous 
at the Chase, Village Fete, Sir Richard 
Wallace, ib.; do., Sir T. Baring, ib.; French 
Pastoral, Fete Champi^tre, Toy Windmill, 
National Gkillery, Edinburgh ; Love in 
French Comedy, do. in Italian Comedy, La 
Colation, Berlin Museum ; Assembly mak- 
ing Merry in a Park (2), Cassel Gallery ; 
Conversation on a TeiTace, Company resting 
on a Lawn, Dresden Museum ; Tender Con- 
versation, Eonigsberg Museum ; Young Girl 
with Sunshade, Schwerin Gallery ; The 
Minuet, The Savoyard, The Serenade, Fa- 
tigues of War, Alleviations of War, Hermit- 
age, St Petersburg ; Guitar Player, Vienna 
Museum ; Lady and Cavaliers in a Gkrden, 
Ufl&zi, Florence ; Marriage Contract and 
Fete Champetre, Assembly in Park of St. 
»P . Cloud, Madrid Muse- 

Wo. J. IV. um.— Art Journal, iil 

t^«r /.(*«/<. l^Mj^ 77 . Bellier, ii. 714 ; 
Cf^t V\/attlau. Bentley's Mag., IviL 
|V^ 304; Ch. Blanc, 

ol/YrT/^ ificole fi-an9aise, ii.; 

^^^^^^^-^^CLCO ao., Les peintres des 
fetes galantes (Paris, 1853); Cellier, Ani 
Watteau (Paris, 1867) ; Cousin, Tombeau 
de W. (Paris, 1866) ; Denaux, Notice sur A. 
W. (Valenciennes, 1834) ; Dohme, 3 ; Du- 
mont. Ant Wat. (Paris, 1866); Goncourt, 
Cat. raisonne (Paris, 1875) ; do., L*art du 
xviii. si^clo, i. 1 ; Hedouin, Watteau, es- 
sai sur la vie, etc. (Paris, 1845) ; Houssaye, 
Hist, 161 ; Larousse, xv. 1287 ; Lecarpen- 
tier, Suite de la galerie des peintres c^l^bres 
(Rouen, 1815) ; Portfolio, iil 18 ; Stothert, 
110 ; Wurzbach, Fr. MaL d. xviii. Jahrh., 21 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xi. 86. 

Paris, Nov. 17, 1800, died there, Nov. 22, 
1868. Genre painter, pupil of Lafond and 
of Gros ; imitated the style of the masters 
of the 18th century, especially Watteau and 
Boucher. Works : Prayer at Church ; Com- 
ing from Church ; Ambuscade ; Ninon de 
LTEnclos ; Entering the Bath ; Dinner in 


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the Bower ; First Spring Day ; From the 
History of Psyche ; Boudoir of Princess 
Gkditzin. — Bellier, ii. 718 ; Larousse, xv. 
1289 ; Meyer, Gesch., 613, 665. 

in London in 1818. 
Subject and portrait 
painter, pupil of Roy- 
al Academy, where he 
exhibited in 1837; 
first attracted notice 
in 1842 by his car- 
toon, Garactacus led 
in Triumph through 
the Streets of Rome, 
for which he was awarded a prize of £300 
in the competition for the decoration of the 
Houses of Parliament. After studying some 
time in Florence, he won a prize, in 1847, of 
£500 for a cartoon of Alfred inciting the 
Saxons to prevent the Landing of the Danes 
by meeting them at Sea. He has painted 
some important frescos, chief of which is 
the School of Legislation, in the dining-hall 
of Lincoln's Lin. Mr. Watts has exhibited 
many ideal pictures, but his chief honours 
have been won in portraiture, in which he 
has few rivala He is also noted as a sculp- 
tor. He was elected an A.RA. in 1867, and 
R A. in 1868. Medals : 1st class, Paris, 1878 ; 
L. of Honour, 1878 ; Ist class, Antwerp Ex- 
hibition, 1885. Among his principal sub- 
ject pieces are : The Window-Seat, Sir Gal- 
ahad (1862); Virginia, Ariadne (1863); Esau 
(1865); Thetis (1866); Lamplight Study 
(1867); Wife of Pygmalion, Jacob and Esau 
(1868); Retumof theDove,RedCrossKnight 
and IFna (1869); Daphne, Fata Morgana 
(1870); The Prodigal (1873); To all Churches 
(1875) ; By the Sea (1876) ; Love and Death 
The Dove, Lady Lindsay of Balcarres 
(1877) ; Britomart and her Nurse, Florence 
(1878) ; Paolo and Franceaca, Orpheus and 
Eurydice, Enid and Geraint, Dorothy (1879); 
Psyche (1880) ; Dean's Daughter, Lucy 
(1880) ; Arcadia, Carrara from Pisa (1881) ; 
Katie, Condottiere of 15th Century, Rider 
on Pale Horse, do. on White Horse, do. on 

Black Horse, do. on Red Horse (1883) ; Love 
and Life, Rain passing Away, IJldra, Alice, 
Happy Warrior (1884); Ararat (1885); Death 
of Cain, The Soul's Prism, Hope (1886). 
Among his portraits are those of Tennyson, 
Browning, Swinburne, William Morris, Car- 
lyle, Stuart Mill, Matthew Arnold, Dean 
Stanley, W. K Lecky, Gladstone, Duke of 
Argyll, Leslie Stephen, Holman Hunt, Burne- 
Jones, Millais, Leighton, Lord Lyndhurst, 
Sir Alexander Cockbum, Viscount Stratford 
de Redcliflfe, Sir C. W. Dilke, Viscount Sher- 
brooke, Mrs. Frederick Myers, Marquis of 
Salisbury (1884), Earl Lytton (1884). A 
collection of his works was exhibited at the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York, in 1884- 
85. Mr. Watts has lately announced that 
he will work hereafter for the nation only, 
and not for private individuals. — ^Meynell, 
225 ; UArt (1882), ii 8 ; PortfoUo (1870), 
65 ; (1879), 129 ; Art Journal (1884). 

bom at Boom, near Antwerp, April 23, 
1811. History painter, pupil of Mechlin 
and Antwerp Academies ; then studied in 
Paris, and in 1836 returned to Mechlin. 
Member of the Amsterdam Academy, 1855. 
Medals : Brussels, 1836 ; Order of Leopold. 
Works: Unhappy Family, Death of Mary 
of Burgundy (1836) ; Episode in History of 
Mary of Burgundy (1839) ; Martyrdom of 
St Lawrepce (1840) ; Glorification of St 
Rombout ; Last Supper ; Peter the Hermit ; 
Crucifixion (1862) ; Calvaert instructing his 
Pupils in Anatomy ; Anniversary of Battle 
of Waterloo ; Entry of Great Council into 
Mechlin ; Fair Edith ; Gentleman compar- 
ing Time on his Watch with Clock, Carls- 
ruhe Gallery. — Immerzeel, iiL 222 ; Kramm, 
vL 1833. 

WAUTERS, :^MTTiFi, bom in Brussels, 
Nov. 29, 1846. History painter, pupil of 
Portaels, then in Paiis (1867) of Gerome ; 
visited Italy and Germany in 1868, and 
Egypt in 1869. Member of Brussels, Vien- 
na, and Madrid Academies. Medals : Par- 
is, 2d class, 1875, 1876 ; of honour, 1878 ; L. 
of Honour, 1878 ; Orders of Leopold and of 


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Francis JosepL Works: Morning after Bat- 
tle of Hastings (1868) ; Mary of Burgundy 
interceding for her Min- 
isters (1870), li^ge Mu- 
seum ; Madness of Hugh 
van der Gbes (1871), 
Museum, Brussels; Mary 
of Burgundy's Oath to 
respect Privileges of the 
Commons (1876, origi- 
nal owned by John G. 
Johnson, Philadelphia), 
Citizens of Brussels de- 
manding Constitution of Duke John IV., 
City Hall, ib.; Scene in Cairo ; Burial of a 
Monk.— MttUer, 547. 

WAVE, THE (La vague), Gustave Cour- 
bety Luxembourg Museum ; canvas, H 3 f t. 
9 in. X 5 ft. 3 in. A strip of sandy, pebbly 
beach in foreground, with two fishing-boats 
drawn up at left ; in background, the sea, 
with a single sail in the offing and a long 
crested wave rolling inward and about to 
break on the shore. Salon, 1870. 

WAY, A. J. H., bom in Washington, 
D. C, in 1826. Still-life painter, pupil of 
J. P. Frankenstein in Cincinnati, of Alfred 
Mttller in Baltimore, and of Drolling in 
Paris (1860). Entered the Academy at Flor- 
ence in 1851. After four years' absence in 
Europe, he opened a studio in Baltimore, 
and became vice-president of the Maryland 
Academy, which he was instrumental in 
founding. Exhibits at the National Acad- 
emy, New York. Works : Christmas Morn- 
ing (1870) ; Purity, Flora and Pomona, Dr. 
Zollicoffer, Baltimore ; Prince Albert Grapes 
(1874), W. T. Walters, ib.; Black Grapes, 
White Grapes, K P. C. Lewis ; Flamme de 
Tokay Grapes — California (1880); Pomona's 
Oflfering (1881) ; Bed Head Duck (1882) ; 
Cherries, Oysters, and Ale (1883); Gros 
Colmo Grapes, Canvas-Back Ducks (1884) ; 
Under the Vines (1885). 

WEBEB^ ADOLPHE, bom at Boulay 
(Lorraine), March 4, 1842. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Laurent Mar^chal, 
of Cogniet, and of CabaneL Medal, 1867. 

Works : Child's Slumber (1866) ; Awaken- 
ing of Psyche (1867), Orleans Museum 
Venus carried by Zephyr to Cyprus (1868) 
Echo and Narcissus (1869), Metz Museum 
Mystical Marriage of St. Catharine (1870) 
Grandmother, Ischys and Coronis — Victims 
of Apollo's Jealousy (1872) ; Cupid and 
Psyche (1880); In the Country (1881); 
Psyche whipped by Order of Venus (1884) ; 
Temptation (1885) ; Legend of St. Herman 
of Steinfeld (1886). 

WEBEK, AUGUST, bom in Frankfort, 
Jan. 10, 1817, died in DUsseldorf, Sept. 9, 
1873. Landscape painter, pupil of Biosen- 
kranz, then in Darmstadt of Schilbach, with 
whom he visited Switzerland ; then studied 
two years at the Stadel Institute in Frank- 
fort, and one year at the Dfisseldorf Acad- 
emy. Cultivated ideal landscape painting 
and formed many pupils at Ddsseldorf, 
where he settled ; made professor by King 
of Prussia. Works: Westphalian Land- 
scape (1868), National Gallery, Berlin ; Ital- 
ian do. (1849), Evening do. (1851), Raven6 
Gkdlery, ib. ; do., Ddsseldorf Gallery ; others 
in Museums of Cologne, Leipsic, Eonigs- 
berg (1855), and Stettin. — Blanckarts, 67 ; 
Cat Cologne Mus., 232 ; Jordan (1885), ii. 
238 ; Wolfg. MuUer, Dttsseldf. K, 327. 

WEBEB^ OTTO, bom in Berlin, killed in 
the war of 1870. Genre, landscape, and 
animal painter, pupil in Berlin of Steffeck, 
and in Paris of Couture ; settled in Milan. 
Medals: Paris, 1864, 1869; Utrecht, 1866. 
Works : Wedding in Brittany (1864) ; On 
the Bleachery ; Colts ; First Snow on the 
Alp (1866) ; In Fontainebleau Forest ; Cat- 
tle Grazing ; The Ploughing, Under the 
Chestnut Trees (1867) ; Deer Quarry, Ren- 
tr6e du Bois de Chauflfage (1868) ; Ox-Team 
(1869) ; Springtime, Annunziata (1870) ; 
Hay Gatherers, F^te in Brittany, Mr. Wal- 
ters, Baltimore. — Hamerton, Painting in 

WEBER, PAUL, bom in Darmstadt in 
1823. Landscape painter, pupU of Lucas, 
and in Frankfort of the Stadel Institute ; 
went to Munich, where he studied chiefly 


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from nature, visited the East in 1846, then 
studied in Antwerp under Deichmann. In 
1848-58 he travelled in America and lived 
in Philadelphia ; after his return, visited 
Switzerland, France, and Great Britain, and 
settled in Munich. Many of his pictures 
are in America. Works : Twilight ; Mill in 
Black Forest ; Storm on Ohiem Lake ; View 
in Catskill Mountains ; Beech Wood with 
Farm House ; Forest Brook (1874), Darm- 
stadt Museum ; Herd returning from Past- 
ure (1880) ; Autumn Morning in Park of 
Darmstadt (1883) ; Morning at Berchtes- 
gaden (1884).— Illustr. Zeitg. (1865); Kunsi- 
Chronik, xviiL 497. 

bom in Leipsic, May 11, 1838. Marine and 
landscape painter, pupil in Berlin of Erause ; 
went in 1856 to Pans, where he studied 
under Isabey, and soon acquired great repu- 
tation ; went to London in 1870, and settled 
in Brussels in 1874. Member of Societas 
Artie et Amicitise, Amsterdam, and other 
European art societies Medals: Rouen, 
1866 ; Havre, 1868 ; London, 1871 ; Phila- 
delphia, 1876. Works: Mont Orgueil in 
Jersey ; Spreewald ; Sea View in Normandy ; 
Coast near l^tretat ; Sassnitz in ROgen ; 
Return in Winter ; Shipwreck near Dieppe ; 
Banks of Seine ; Sunrise on Coast of Brit- 
tany; Rock of L6id6 (1866); After the 
Storm ; Harbour of F6camp ; Ebb at Ostend 
(1875) ; King of Belgium ; Mail-Ship be- 
tween Ostend and Dover ; Shipwreck in Bay 
of Douamenez, Evrard Qallery, London ; 
Arrival of French Mail-Ship at Dover, 
Willis Gkdlery, ib.; la Harbour of Vlissing- 
en, Lemm^ Gallery, Antwerp ; Li Harbour 
of Ostend, Hauff Gallery, Paris ; Shipwreck 
near Tr^port, Avignon Museum ; Twilight 
on Seashore, Thiem Collection, Berlin. — 
Illustr. Zeitg. (1864) ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., 

WEBSTER, THOMAS, bom in Pimlico, 
March 20, 1800, died in 1886. Genre 
painter, student in 1821 of Royal Academy, 
where he took the first prize for painting in 
1825 ; elected an A.RA. in 1840, and RA. 

in 1846; retired in 1877. In his pictures 
children are generally the principal actors. 
Works: Gunpowder Plot (1829); Village 
School (1833); Football (1839); Punch 
(1841); Sickness and Health (1843) ; Dame's 
School (1845) ; Village Choir (1847) ; SHde, 
See-Saw (1849) ; School Playground (1852); 
Hide and Seek (1856); Sunday Evening, 
Grace before Meat (1858) ; Autumn, Win- 
ter (1860) ; PoUticians (1869) ; Volunteers 
at Artillery Practice (1871) ; Odd or Even 
(1872) ; Interested Adviser (1873) ; Wreck 
Ashore (1874) ; Youth and Age (1876) ; The 
Letter (1877) ; Released from School (1879). 
— Sandby, iL 177 ; Art Journal (1886), 351. 

WEDDED, Sir Frederick Leighton, Syd- 
ney Museum, New South Wales ; canvas. 
Two figures walking under the arches of a 
terrace, in glow of orange and purple ; back- 
ground of blue sea and sky. Purchased for 
£1,500.— R Acad., 1882. 

stantin Makovslciy Charles W. Schumann, 
New'^ork ; canvas, H. 8 ft x 13 ft.; signed, 
dated 1883. The wedding-banquet in the 
house of a wealthy Boyar in the seventeenth 
century. The company, gathered around a 
splendidly appointed table, have turned to 
greet the bride and groom, who stand at 
the head of the table at right, and wait with 
filled cups to drink to their happiness when 
the young husband, who now sees his wife 
for the first time unveiled, shall have given 
her the husband-kiss ; at the left, a group 
are making merry over the bride's slipper, 
which they have secured and hidden ; an at- 
tendant is entering with a large dish, and 
others are looking through the doorway. 
Exhibited at the International Exposition, 
Antwerp, 1885, where it was awarded the 
medal of honour. 

William MvUready, South Kensington Mu- 
seum ; canvas, Klft9in.xlft5in. 
Scene suggested by opening passage in 
"Vicar of Wakefield." Royal Academy, 
1846 ; Sheepshanks OoUection. Engraved 
by F. A. Heath.— Art Journal (1869), 4. 


Digitized by 



TORY, Prederik Hendrik Kaemmerer, Jay 
Gk)uld, New York ; canvas. A gay wed- 
ding-party in the time of the Directory 
(1796-99), or government of the first French 
republic. Salon, 1879. Bought originally 
by Thomas A. Howell, Brooklyn, who sold 
it to Mr. Gould. 

WEED GATHERERS, Jules Breton, 
Comte Duchatel, Paris. Sturdy peasants 
gathering seaweed. Painted in 1861. One 
of the painter's most characteristic works. 

WEEKS, EDWIN LORD, bom in Bos- 
ton in 1849. Landscape and figure paint- 
er, pupil in Paris of the £cole des Beaux 
Arts, Bonnat, and Gerome. Sketched and 
painted in Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus, and 
Tangier, and is particularly noted for pict- 
ures of Eastern life. Member of the Bos- 
ton Art Club. Honourable mention, Paris 
Salon, 1885. Works: Jerusalem from the 
Bethany Road ; Cup of Coflfee ; Pilgrimage 
to the Jordan ; Scene in Tangier, T. G. 
Appleton, New York ; Alhambra Windows ; 
They toil not, neither do they spin ; Arab 
Story Teller (1876) ; Moorish Camel Driver 

bom in Amsterdam in 1621, died at Huis 
ter Mey, near Utrecht, before Oct 31, 1664. 
Dutch school; genre, landscape, and ani- 
mal painter, pupil of Jan Micker, then of 
Abr^am Bloemart in Utrecht, and of Nico- 
laas Moeyaert, whom he closely imitated; 
went to Rome in 1643, and was employed by 
Cardinal Pamfili, afterwards Pope Innocent 
X. After his return in 1647 he lived in Am- 
sterdam, then at Utrecht, where he appears 
among the managers of the guild in 1649. 
He represented equally well historical sub- 
jects, genre, landscapes, harbours, archi- 
tecture, and animals, with a warm and 
pleasing colouring and a free and ingeni- 
ous touch. Works : Italian Seaport, Finiit- 
Piece, New York Museum ; Figures among 
Roman Ruins, Stafford House, London ; 
Repulse of Pirates, Louvre ; Dutch Lady at 
Toilet (attributed), Brussels Museum ; Ital- 

ian Seaport, Antwerp Museum ; do., Copen- 
hagen Gallery ; Tobias asleep under a Vine 
(1662), Rotterdam Museum ; Musical Party, 
Roman Ruins with Shopherd, Brunswick 
Gkdlery ; View of Venice, Carlsruhe Gal- 
lery ; Dogs by Fallen Horse, Partridge and 
Duck, Fruit-Piece, Cassel Gallery ; Erminia 
begging for Shelter, Berlin Museum ; Tink- 
er (1674), Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Meet- 
ing of Jacob and Esau, Hen and Dog, Dres- 
den Gbllery ; Peasants near Antique Ruins, 
Still-Life, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Carpet 
Seller, Huntsman with Game (1665 ?), Sleep- 
ing Girl with Tambourine, Knife Grinder, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Kitchen Interior, 
do. (1652), Shepherd Life in the Campagna, 
Merry Company on Seashore, Schwerin Gal- 
lery ; Shepherd resting by Antique Monu- 
ments, Dead Game, Stuttgart Museum ; Sea- 
port, Museum, Vienna; Landscapes with 
Animals, Academy and Czernin Gallery, ib. ; 
Landscapes (2, one dated 1654), Dead Game 
Birds (2), Liechtenstein GkJleiy, ib.; Prog- 
ress of Abraham, Harrach Gallery, ib.; Ital- 
ian Landscape with Sheep, Hermitage, St 
Petersburg; Seaport, Leuchtenberg Gal- 
lery, ib.; Milking a Goat, Dead Game, Pe- 



terhof.~Ch. Blanc, ]ficolehollandaise ; Bode, 
Studien, 174 ; Dohme, lii.; Fetis, Cat Brus- 
sels Mus., 495 ; Immerzeel, iii. 223 ; Kramm, 
vi 1835 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii 453 ; Meyer, 
Gemalde kongL Mus., 522 ; Riegel, Beitrage, 

WEENIX, JAN, bom in Amsterdam, Dec, 
1640, died there, Sept 20, 1719. Dutch 
school ; animal, landscape, still-life, and 
portrait painter, son and pupil of Jan Bap- 
tista, and, like him, painted also seaports, 
architecture, and figures with equal excel- 
lence. In 1702-12 he painted for the 
Elector John William, in his Castle Bens- 
berg, near Cologne, a series of hunting and 
animal pieces which belong to his most 


Digitized by 



admirable productions. Most of them are 
now in Munich. lived several years at 
Utrecht, where he is 
inscribed in records 
of guild in 1664 
and 1668. His dead 
hares are famous for 
fine brush work. 
Works : Dead Game 
and Dog, Hunting 
Scene, National Gal- 
lery, London ; Dead 
Hs^e, Buckingham 
Palace, ib. ; Hare, Swan, Dog, and Parrot, 
Two Companion Game-Pieces, Mr. Hope, 
ib. ; ten first-rate specimens, Sir Bichard 
Wallace, ib.; Seaport in Spain, Game-Piece, 
Blenheim sale, London, 1886 ; Gtime and 
Utensils of Chase (1671), Dog watching 
Dead Game (1696), Seaport (1704), Lou- 
vre, Paris; Dead Game and Fniit (1705), 
Brussels* Museum ; Boe and Swan, Dead 
Game, Hague Museum ; Dead Ghtme (2), 
do. and Fruits (1704), Country House (1714), 
Dogs, Male Portrait (1682), Peacock and 
other Birds (1716), Rotterdam Museum ; 
Dead Hare and Weapons of Chase, Musee 
Bath, Geneva ; do. (1701), Dead Game and 
Dog, Copenhagen Gallery ; Elizabeth Char- 
lotte of Orleans (1697), Dead Game (2), 
Bouquet, Berlin Museum ; Dead Hare and 
Lnplements of the Chase (1681), Portrait of 
Dutch Merchant, Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; 
Dead Qsme Birds (1718), Genre Scene, 
Gotha Museum ; Dead Game (10, six dated 
1665, 1702, 1703, 1706, 1708, 1712), Wom- 
an Asleep watched by Dog, Boar Hunt, Old 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Dead Hare and Birds 
(1691), two others, Hermitage, St Peters- 
burg; do. (1), Leuch- 
tenberg GWUery, ib. ; 
others, principally 
Dead Ghtme-Pieces, 
in Galleries and Mu- 
seums of Bruns- 
T^ick, Carlsruhe (2, 

rr ^^'^ 


1681, 1683), Oassel, Dresden (4, three dated 
1689, 1690), Schleissheim (8, one dated 

1714), Schwerin (2, one dated 1687), Vien- 
na (1690), Wiesbaden ; Academy, Czemin, 
Liechtenstein (4), and Schonbom (3) Gkdler-, 
ies, Vienna. — Ch. Blanc, £cole hoUandaise ; 
Dohme, liL ; Gool, i. 78 ; Lnmerzeel, iil 224 ; 
Kramm, vi. 1835 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii 456 ; 
Stuers, 180 ; Zeitschr. 1 b. K, x. 352. 

WEEPER See Eberhard. 

baix (Nord), May 1, 
1847. History and 
portrait painter, pu- 
pil of Cabanel, Mils, 
and Pils. Medal, 
2d class, 1875; L 
of Honour, 188 4. 
Works : Old Soldier's 
Bepose (1869) ; Nazli 
(1873), Lima Muse- 
um, Fais ce que dois (1873), Boubaix Mu- 
seum ; The Captive (1874) ; Descent from 
the Cross (1875) ; Legend of St. Francis of 
Assisi (1877, bought by the State) ; The Vir- 
gin fainting at the Foot of the Cross (1878) ; 
Assassination of Marat (1880) ; Joseph Bara 
(1882); Death of Joseph Bara (1883) ; St 


Francis of Assisi borne to Santa Maria de 
Porciuncula (1884).— Bellier, ii. 719. 

WEGELIN, ADOLF, bom at Cleve in 
1810, died in Cologne, Jan. 18, 1881. 
Landscape and architecture painter, pupil 
of Dttsseldorf Academy under J. W. Schir- 
mer, then studied in Nuremberg and Mu- 
nich, and in 1836 settled in Cologne, where, 
after 1842, he was especially employed for 
Frederick William IV., by whose order he 
visited Belgium and Holland to paint his- 
torical buildings. Court painter in 1861. 

j^ ijj^ Almost all his works are 
^^f f)^ in the Eoyal Collection at 
Berlin. Works : Mediseval Castles (2), Co- 
logne Museum. — Kunst-Chronik, xvi. 296. 

bom in Dresden, April 20, 1812, died at 
Gruna, near Dresden, July 11, 1879. Ani- 
mal and landscape painter, pupil of Copen- 


Digitized by 



hagen and Dresden AcademiiBS — at the lat- 
ter under Dahl ; afterwards travelled in Ger- 
many, Denmark, France, Switzerland, and 
North Italy. Saxon court painter in 1860. 
Works : Fallow Deer (1847), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Prairie Fire in America (1846), 
Stags crossing Water (1855), Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Principal Christian Feasts at Seasons. 
— Meyer, Con v. Lex., xvii. 991. 

WEGMANN, BERTHA, bom at Soglio, 
Switzerland, Dec. 16, 1847. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil in Copenhagen of Fred- 
erik Helsted and Frederik Christian Lund ; 
went in 1867 to Munich, and there studied 
under Lindenschmit and Kurzbauer, having 
meanwhile spent a year in Florence ; then 
visited Paris. Mention honourable, 1880; 
3d class medal, 1882 ; Thorvaldsen medal, 
Copenhagen. Works: Sick Child (1873); 
Widow with her Child (1877) ; Portrait of 
her Sister (1882) ; Artist's Studio, Young 
Mother with her Child in a Garden (1883) ; 
Portrait of herself (1885).— Sig. Mtlller, 369. 

WEGUELIN, J. R, born in England ; 
contemporary. Genre painter, exhibits at 
Royal Academy and at Grosvenor Gallery. 
Works : Tired Dancer (1879) ; The Vintage 
(1880) ; The Fishers, Roman Acrobat (1881) ; 
Evoe Bacche, Habet ! Feast of Flora (1882) ; 
Maidens* Race, Libation to the Nymph, A 
Secret (1883) ; Herodias and her Daughter, 
The Bath (1884) ; Swing Feast, An Egyptian 
Difficulty in Time of Augustus (1885) ; Ob- 
sequies of an Egyptian Cat, Summer After- 
noon, The Fair Girl (1886). 

WEIER, JACOB, bom in Hamburg (?), 
died there. May 8, 1670. German school ; 
history and genre painter, mentioned as 
master of the Maleramt at Hamburg in 
1648. His works are extremely rare. 
Works : Crucifixion, Falcon Chase, Schwe- 
rin Gallery ; Crucifixion, Provinzial Muse- 
um, Mttnster ; Capture of a Standard, Ky- 
burg Gallery, Switzerland. — Schlie, 687. 

WEIGAND, KONRAD, bom at Nurem- 
berg, Dec. 12, 1842. History painter, pu- 
pil of Munich Academy. Medal, Munich. 
Works : Religious Convei'sation between 

Ulrich von Hutten, Franz von Sickingen, 
and Martin Bucer; Luther's Entry into 
Worms (1879); Robber Knight brought 
captive into Nuremberg in 1472 (1885). In 
fresco : Marriage of Albrecht Dttrer and 
Agnes Frey.— Mtlller, 650 ; D. Rundschau, 
XX. 460 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxii. 14. 
WEm, JOHN FERGUSON, bom at West 
Point, N.Y., Aug. 28, 
1841. Subject and 
portrait painter, son 
and pupil of Robert 
Walter Weir. Visit- 
ed Europe in 1868 ; 
in 1869 became di- 
rector of the Yale 
School of Fine Arts. 
Elected N.A in 
1866. Studio in 
New Haven. Works : Culprit Fay ; Christ- 
mas Bell, D. O. Mills, New York; Gun 
Foundry (1867) ; Forging the Shaft (1868) ; 
West Point, R L Stuai-t, New York ; The 
Confessional (1876); Venice; Tapping the 
Furnace ; An Artist's Studio ; Morning 
(1881) ; Theological Faculty of Yale College 
(1882) ; Portrait of S. Wells Williams, Pro- 
fessor of Chinese Language and Literature 
at Yale College (1883); A Shimmering 
Landscape, Pompilia (1886). — Sheldon, 175. 
WEm, JTILJAN ALDEN, born at West 
Point, N. Y., Aug. 
30, 1852. Portrait 
painter, son and 
pupil of Robert 
Walter Weir, and 
pupil of G6r6me in 
Paris in 1872-76. 
Sketched and paint- 
ed in Spain and Hol- 
land. One of the 
founders of the So- 
ciety of American Artists ; exhibits at Paris 
Salon and National Academy, New York. 
Honourable mention, Paris Salon. Studio 
in New York. Elected AN. A. in 1885, N. A 
in 1886. Ideal works : Scene in the Park 
(1878) ; Good Samaritan (1879) ; Flower- 


Digitized by 



Piece (1881) ; Dutch Peasant (1883), Muse 
of Music, Metropolitan Museum, New 
York ; Breton Interior, The Mother, Flow- 
ers (1884). Water-colours : An Interior ; 
Sunday Morning, Portrait of Sleeping Dog 
(1884). Portraits: Robert Weir (1880); 
Warren Delano (1881); Richard Grant 
White (1883); Peter Cooper (1884); A 
Revery (1886). 

WEm, ROBERT WALTER, bom in New 
Rochelle, June 18, 
1803. History paint- 
er, pupil of Jarvis ; 
began to paint por- 
traits in 1821, and 
in 1824 went to 
Florence, where he 
studied with Ben- 
venuti ; afterwards 
studied nature and 
old masters in Rome 
(1825). Elected N.A. in 1829, and profes- 
sor of drawing at the West Point Military 
Academy in 1837, which position he held 
for forty-two years. Studio in New York. 
Works: Belle of the Carnival (1836) ; Land- 
ing of Hendrik Hudson (1842) ; Embarka- 
tion of the Pilgrims (1845), Capitol at Wash- 
ington ; Evening of the Crucifixion (1867) ; 
Virgil and Dante crossing the Styx (1869) ; 
Titian in his Studio, Christ in die Garden 
(1873) ; Our Lord on the Mount of Olives 
(1877) ; Columbus before the Council of 
Salamanca (1884). 

at Innsbruck, May 11, 1730, died in Vienna 
in 1771. German school ; landscape paint- 
er, studied at Innsbruck, Vienna, and Mentz, 
then in Pans under the engraver Johann 
Qeorg Wille ; visited Italy, and became pro- 
fessor at the Vienna Academy in 1767. Land- 
scapes by him are in the Bamberg Galler}' 
(2), the Ferdinandeum at Innsbruck (2), 
and the Stuttgart Museum. — WurzbacL 

Patschkau, Silesia, May 10, 1847. Gknre 
painter, pupil of Munich Academy under 
Wilhelm Diez ; visited Germany, Austria, 

and Italy ; paints with striking humour and 
keen satire. Works : Visit to Nunnery ; 
Theatre in Eighteenth Century ; Acquitted ; 
Harvest Festival in Silesia ; Defence of 
Monastery ; Full Glasses — Warm Heads ! 
Last Refuge, Dresden Gallery; Church 
Militant (1879) ; Storming of Maidens' Cas- 
tle (1882) ; After the Surprise (1883) ; Plun- 
dering Scene in Thirty Years' War (1884) ; 
Outpost, Hay for the Monastery (Jubilee 
Exhibition, Berlin, 1886).— Allgem. K C, 
viiL 378 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1877), ik 9; (1884),. 
il 37 ; (1885), i 412 ; Kunst-Chronik, xv. 
432 ; xvii. 632 ; xix. 630; xx. 744. 

WEISHATJPT, VIKTOR, bom in Munich, 
March 6, 1848. Animal painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy under Wilhelm Diez, after 
having served in the war of 1870-71. Gk)ld 
medal, London. Works : Cattle Herd by a 
Windmill (1876) ; WHd Bull (1879) ; Water- 
ing Place for Cattle, Herd returning Home 
(Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886).— Illustr. 
Zeitg. (1880), ii. 72; Kunst-Cronik, xxii. 
39 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xv. 224 

WEISS, FERDINAND, bom at Magde- 
burg, Aug. 10, 1814, died in Berlin, Jan. 
23, 1878. Genre and portrait painter, pupil 
of Berlin and DOsseldorf Academies under 
Schadow. Made himself especially known 
through his excellent illustrations for his 
brother Hermann's splendid history of cos- 
tume. In the National Gallery at Berlin is 
by him : The Return of the Knight (1837). 
—Jordan (1885), ii. 239. 

Freising, Bavaria, in 1814. Architecture 
painter, first instructed by his father, an 
amateur, then pupil of Domenico Quaglio 
in Munich. Lived for some time at Si Pe- 
tersburg as court painter to the Duke of 
Leuchtenberg, travelled in Russia, then set- 
tled in Munich. Works : Views in Munich 
(4, 1873, 1877, 1879, 1884, two with miUtary 
groups). New Pinakothek, Munich ; St 
Isaac's in St. Petersburg ; The Kremlin in 
Moscow.— MtUler, 551. 

Hague, March 18, 1822, died there, Feb. 15, 


Digitized by 



1880. Painter of landscapes and city views, 
pupil of Salomon, Leonardus Verveer ; 
travelled in Holland and Belgium. Mem- 
ber of Amsterdam Academy, 1846 ; of So- 
ci6t6 beige des Aquarellistes, 1858 ; of So- 
cieto des Artistes beiges, and of Rotterdam 
Academy, 1862. Medals : Rotterdam, 1844 ; 
The Hague, 1857 ; Brussels, 1859. Officer 
of Order of Oaken Cro>vn, 1861. Works : 
Market Square at The Hague, Stuttgart Art 
School ; St. Mar}''s in Utrecht, Societas Artis 
et Amicitiffi, Rotterdam ; View of Leerdam, 
another City View, Amsterdam Museum ; 
View in Amsterdam, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; 
Courtyard in Old Town ; Copper Gate at 
Amersfoort ; Views of Waudrichem, Boxtel, 
Kuilenborg, etc. — Kramm, vi. 1838 ; Mai- 
ler, 551. 

WEISZ, ADOIiPHE, bom at Budapest; 
contemporary, naturalized Frenchman. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Jala- 
beri Medals : 3d class, 1875 ; 2d class, 
1885. Works: Mendicant Nun, Alsatian 
Fiancee (1875) ; Young Mother watching 
her Sleeping Child, The First Tooth (1876) ; 
Jealousy, Moravian Fiancee (1877) ; Alsatian 
Centenarian, In 1815 (1878) ; Asking for 
Publication of Bans, Fiancee (1880) ; Her- 
cules and Omphale (1881) ; Ren6 and Bob 
(1882) ; Namouna (1884) ; Enamoured Lion 
(1885) ; Nymph Discovering the Head of 
Orpheus (1886). 

in Brunswick, Aug. 8, 1758, died in Berlin, 
May 30, 1828. History painter, son of the 
landscape painter Johann Friedrich Weitsch 
(1723-1803), pupil in Cassel of Wilhelm 
Tischbeiu ; visited Holland and Italy, re- 
turned to Brunswick in 1781, went as court 
painter to Berlin in 1787, and became di- 
rector of the Academy in 1797. In 1808 
called to Stettin to paint Marshal Soult. 
Works: Abbot Jerusalem, Alexander von 
Humboldt as a Young Man (1806), National 
Gallery, Berlin; Portrait of his Father 
(1797), Brunswick Gallery ; do. of the Ar- 
chaeologist Hirt (1785), Fttrstenberg Gal- 
lery, Donaueschingen ; do. of the Poet 

Tiedge (1817), Kunsthalle, Hamburg. There 
are four landscapes (1763-93) by his fa- 
ther in Brunswick Gallery. — Jordan (1885), 
ii. 240 ; Nagler, xxL 268 ; N. Necrol. der 
D. (1828), i. 439. 

LandseeVy private gallery, England. A large 
black dog, with a badger-hair brush in his 
mouth, sits, as if before an artist, a model 
of dignity and self-possession ; by his side 
a fawn-coloui'ed dog is posed with great 
elegance ; in the foreground, several dead 
doves, a pheasant, and a purple-velvet cigar- 
case. British Institution (1864). Coleman 
sale (1881), £5,250.— Stephens, Sir K L., 

at Mannheim, May 29, 1802, died there, 
Dec. 10, 1880. Genre painter, pupil of 
Mannheim Art School, then of Munich 
Academy under Langer ; lived in Rome in 
1825-33, and is now director of the Mann- 
heim Gallery. Works : Peasant Woman at 
her Boy's Sick-Bed, Visit to Prisoner (1835), 
National Gallery, Berlin; Italian Woman 
with Jug, Fortune 
Teller, Carlsruhe Gal- ^Sfn » .»^.^A» 
lery; Italian Field '»W»<-'»^^'7 
Labourers passing Vv/ 

through Old Gate /« >V^ 

(1831), New Pinako- ^^^ 

thek, Munich ; Old Peasant at Olevano ; 
Public Scribe.— Jordan (1885), iL 240. 
London in 1828. 
Portrait and land- 
scape painter ; an 
eminent miniature 
painter, but since 
1860 has contributed 
many large portraits 
and some ideal can- 
vases to the Royal 
Academy. Elected 
an A.RA. in 1866, 
and RA in 1870. Works: Old Stone- 
breaker and Child, The Laurel Walk (1879) ; 
Picnic, Victoria Regina (1880) ; Ethel (1882); 


Digitized by 



Quarry on the Hill, Leaving the Oommon 
(1883) ; Piiends, Loading at a Quarry, An 
Old Crone (1884) ; Quarry Men of Purbeck 
(1885). Mrs. H. T. Wells (Johanna Mary 
Boyce 1831-61) was a genre painter of con- 
siderable skilL 

WELTER, MICHAEL, bom in Cologne 
in 1806. History painter ; studied in Berlin 
and in Paris, and devoted himself to deco- 
rative and monumental painting. Works : 
Frescos in the Temple House, Cologne; 
Choir of St Kunibert's, ib. (encaustic, 
1856-59) ; religious pictures in the Chapel 
and life-size portraits of the old landgraves 
in the Rittersaal of the Wartburg, near 
Eisenach (1859-61) ; Life of St Godehard 
(1861-63), Qodehardi Church, Hildesheim. 
— Mtaier, 551. 

WENCKER, JOSEPH, bom at Stras- 
bourg, Nov. 3, 1848. 
Genre painter, pupil 
of G^rome and of the 
£cole des Beaux Arts. 
Won grand prix de 
Rome in 1876. Med- 
al: 2d class, 1877. 
Works: Intimacy 
(1873); Under the 
Leaves (1874) ; Girls 
putting on Flowers 
(1875); Stoning of St Stephen (1876); 
Priam asking Achilles for Hector's Body 
(1876) ; St Elizabeth of Hungary (1879) ; 
Saul consulting the Pythoness (1880) ; St. 
John Chrysostom Preaching (1882) ; Woman 
Bathing (1883).— Larousse. 

VICH, bom at Nejine (Nezheen) in 1780, 
died in the government of Tver, Dec. 5, 
1846. G^nre and portrait painter, pupil 
and afterwards member of St. Petersburg 
Academy. Works : Young Russian Peasant, 
Hermitage, St Petersburg ; Peasant Girl at 
Communion, Prianishnikof Collection, ib. ; 
Interior of a Bam. 

WENGLEm, JOSEF, bom in Munich, 
Oct 5, 1845. Landscape painter, pupil of 
Munich Academy, of Steffim, and of Adolf 

Lier ; paints well-conceived views in the high 
plains of Upper Bavaiia, treating with es- 
pecial predilection old giant trees on the 
steep banks of the Isar. Royal Professor 
in Munich. Numerous medals. Works: 
Mountain Ridge with Ruin (1875) ; Simsee 
in Upper Bavaria (1877); Spring Song, Lake 
Chiem, Autumn Landscape vnth Hunting 
Party, Winter Landscape on the Isar, Moor 
in Upper Bavaria (1880) ; Temple of Posei- 
don at Paestum (1882) ; Limestone Gather- 
ers in the Isar Bed (1883), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Isar Valley near Baierbrunn (1883) ; 
do. near TOlz (1884), Cologne Museum ; 
Autumn Landscape, In the Moss. (1884). — 
Mailer, 552 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviii. 580 ; xx. 
347; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xix. 159 ; xx. 72. 

WERESCHAGIN. See Vereschagin. 

bacht, near Rot- 
terdam, Jan. 21, 
1659, died in Rot- 
terdam, Nov. 12, 
1722. Dutch 
school ; history, 
genre, and por- 
trait painter, pupil 
of Comelis Pico- 7 //^ ;;^ 
lett, portrait 
painter ; then for four years of Eglon van der 
Neer. At seventeen years of age he painted 
his own portrait, and thenceforth worked 
independently. In the art cabinets of the 
wealthy amateur and collector Flinck, son 
of Gbvaert Flinck, and of the burgomaster 
Jan Six, in Amsterdam, 1692, he became ac- 
quainted vrith many masterpieces of Italian 
art which influenced his taste considerably. 
In 1696 the Elector Palatine John William 
visited his studio in Rotterdam and ordered 
his portrait and the Judgment of Solomon, 
made him court painter, and in 1703 he 
knighted him. Works : Lot and Daughters, 
Boy with Ghiinea-Pig and Girl with Kitten, 
Buckingham Palace, London ; Si Margaret, 
Lord Ashburton, ib.; Magdalen, Incredulity 
of Thomas, Lot and Daughters, Mr. Hope, 


Digitized by 



ib.; Repose in I^pt (1706), Grosvenor 
Ghtllery, ib.; A Burgomaster and his Wife, 
National Gkdlery, Edinburgh ; Chastity of 
Joseph (1710), Dancing Nymphs (1718), 
Nativity (1720), Antiochus and Stratonice 
(1721), Adam and Eve, Finding of Moses 
(1722), Magdalen, Group looking at Antique 
Statues, Louvre ; FUght into Egypt (1710), 
Portrait (1689), Hague Museum ; Entomb- 
ment (1696), Artist's Portrait (1699), Ve- 
nus and Cupid, Holy Family (1714), Shep- 
herd and Nymph (1718), Lovers (1694), 
Amsterdam Museum ; Allegory on Charity 
(1702), Entombment, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Holy Family, Pastoral Scene, Flora and 
Genii, Diana and Endymion, Children Ca- 
ressing, Genii Hovering, Cassel Gallery ; 
Chess Players, Dido Mourning (1687), Adam 
and Eve (1711), Portrait, Brunswick Gal- 
lery ; Young Girl before Flower Vase, Gal- 
lery, Copenhagen ; Fall of Man, Adam and 
Eve after the Fall, Moltke Collection, ib^ ; 
Diana and Callisto, Bamberg Gallery ; Alle- 
gory of Painting (1710), Darmstadt Muse- 
um ; Pastoral Scene, Berlin Museum ; do., 
Artist and Family (1689), Lot and Daughters 
(1694), Venus and Cupid (1699), Hermit 
(1705), Magdalen (1711), Judgment of Paris 
(1712), Infant Christ and John (1715), An- 
nunciation (1718), Diogenes, Abraham cast- 
ing oflf Hagar, Chess Players, Dresden Gal- 
lery ; Girl and Boys with Bird (1687), Ecce 
Homo (1698), Sarah conducting Hagar to 
Abraham (1699), Portraits of Elector John 
William and Consort (1700), Expulsion of 
Hagar (1701), Repose in Egypt (1702,) En- 
tombment (1703), Diana and Callisto (1704), 
Magdalen Penitent (1705, 1707), sixteen 
scenes from Life of Christ and the Virgin 
(1705-15), Allegory (1716), Children playing 
at Night, Male Portrait, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Temple of Fine Arts (1694), Ve- 
nus and Cupid, Solomon's Judgment^ Por- 
trait of Grand Duke Don Graston of Tuscany, 
Schleissheim Gallery; Portraits of Artist 
and his Wife (1679), Game of Chess (1679), 
Samson and Delilah, Schwerin Gallery ; The 
Magdalen, Girl playing Guitar, Stuttgart 

Museum ; Gentleman's Portrait (1694), Mu- 
seum, Vienna ; Entombment, Liechtenstein 
Gkdlery, ib.; Christ and the Woman of Sa- 
maria, Czemin Ckdlery, ib. ; Woman in 
Prayer, Boy playing Cwrds, Schdnbom Gal- 
lery, ib. ; Venus and Cupid, Wiesbaden 
GkJlery ; Artist's Portrait, Engagement Ring 
(1678), Boy with Cat and Bird, Bathsheba 
conducting Abiahag to David, Entombment 
(2), Lnmaculate Conception, Ecce Homo, 
Magdalen (1720), Adam and Eve chased 
from Paradise (1700), Holy Family, Hermit- 
age, Si Petersburg ; Girl Bathing, Leuch- 
tenberg Gallery, ib.; Adoration of the Magi 
(1703), Judgment of Solomon, XJffizi, Flor- 
ence ; Portrait of Duke of Marlborough, 
Palazzo Pitti, ib.; (Enone and Paris (1707), 

Death of Abel, 
Turin Gallery. — 
Ch. Blanc, Ecole 
^Q hollandaise; Doh- 
me, liL ; Immer- 
zeel, iii 227 ; Eramm, vL 1842 ; Eugler, 
(Crowe), iL 426 ; Riegel, BeitrSge, ii 342 ; 
Schlie, 689 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xviL 180. 

Eralinger-Ambacht in 1665, died in Rotter- 
dam in 1718. Dutch school ; history and 
genre painter, brother and pupil of Adriaan 
van der Werfi^ whom he often assisted in 
his picture& While there is much resem- 
blance in the colouring of his works to 
those of Adriaan, they are lacking in feel- 
ing and spirit Works : Si Jerome (1710), 
Girls crowning Statuette of Cupid (1713), 
Girl drawing Statue of Venus (1715), Young 
Hercules, Young Bacchus, Amsterdam Muse- 
um ; Magdalen Penitent, Portrait of Johannes 
TexeUus (1718), do. of himself, two others, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Madonna with St. 
John, Boys playing with Birds, Girls with 

Bvd'Werff fecit 

Flower Festoons, Cassel Gkdlery ; Girl throw- 
ing Mouse out of Window, Men at Table, St 


Digitized by 



Jerome (1707), Dresden Museum ; Lot and 
his Daughters (1721), Schwerin Gallery; 
Venus rising from her Couch, Liechten- 
stein GWlery, Vienna ; Children playing with 
Bird, Uflfizi, Florence. — Immerzeel, iiL 229 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii. 539. 

bom in Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder, May 9, 1843. His- 
tory and genre painter 
and illustrator, pupil of 
Berlin Academy in 1859 
-62, then in Carlsruhe of 
Lessing and Ad. Schrod- 
ter; visited Paris in 1867 
and Italy in 1868-69; 
settled in Berlin, where 
he became director of 
the Academy in 1875. Has furnished mas- 
terly illustrations to the works of Josef Vic- 
tor von Scheffel, to Herder's " Cid," and to 
Schiller's dramas. Member of Venice and 
Caraccas (Venezuela) Academies ; court 
painter ; Officer of Order of Italian Crown ; 
several other orders and many medals. 
Works: Intimate Conversation, Quartette, 
Convent Life, The Suitor, Don Quixote 
with the Shepherds (1864-70) ; Luther be- 
fore Cajetan (1865), Conradin in Prison 
(1866), Archbishop Hanno of Cologne kid- 
napping Henry IV. (1867), Struggle and 
Victory (1871), Symbolic Picture of Battle 
of Sedan, Allegory of German Union, Molt- 
ke before Paris, Moltke in his Study, Proc- 
tarnation at Versailles (1876), Royal Palace, 
Berlin ; Count von Moltke (1872), Kunst- 
halle, Hamburg; Luther at the Diet of 
Worms, Stuttgart Museum ; Baptism in 
Artist's House, Berlin Congress (1878), 
Emperor's Entry into Saarbrttcken (1880) ; 
Moltke at Sedan (1883). In fresco: Lu- 
ther at Worms, Summons of Volunteers in 
1813, Gymnasium, Kiel; Proctamation at 
Versailles, Coronation of First King of 
Prussia (1884), Arsenal, Berlin. — Allgem. 
K C, ix. 292 ; Graph. K, i 65, 68 ; iv. 23 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, ix. 345 ; xii. 430 ; xvi. 481 ; 
xix. 730 ; Eunst 1 Alle, i. 193 ; Land und 

Meer (1875), i. 46 ; Leixner, Mod. K, i. 64; 
Nord u, Sud, xviii. 185 ; Rosenberg, BerL 
Malersch., 234; D. Rundschau, viii. 432; 
ix. 474 ; xiii. 329 ; xxL 146 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, iii.^ 182 ; iv. 16 ; vi. 174 ; xvi. 142 ; xx. 
36 ; xxi. 36 ; xxii. 42 ; Art Journal (1887), 5. 
WERNER, FRITZ, bom in Berlin, Dec. 
3, 1828. Genre painter, 
pupil of Berlin Academy 
under Daege, then of 
Menzel; studied in 1855 
-63 in Paris, and again 
in 1867 under Meisso- 
nier, whose elegant treat- 
ment of stufis and acces- 
sories he adopted, while 
in conception and col- 
ouring he successfully imitated the style of 
Menzel, whose most talented pupil he is. 
Member of, and Professor at, Berlin Acad- 
emy. Medal, Berlin, 1878. Works: Sur- 
prised Chambermaid (1863); Huntsman ar- 
ranging his Traps, Old Gentleman served 
with Coflfee (1864) ; Ornithologist, Prussian 
Grenadier on Guard, Admonition, Picture 
Amateur (1866) ; Fishmonger in Antwerp 
(1867) ; Amateur of Engravings (1868) ; 
Souvenir of Paris, Market Scene in Antibes, 
View of Nice, Old Gentleman feeding Birds, 
Street in Antibes, Picture Dealer, After Din- 
ner, Fortifications in Antibes, Huntsman in 
Tavern, At the Zoological Museum, Gentle- 
man Reading, Soldier Smoking, Would-be 
Politicians, Gentleman at Table, Interior of 
Hunting Castle, Smoker by Tile Stove (all 
of 1868-69) ; Boy with Hare (1870) ; Man 
with Dog and Hare, Trumpeter of Hussars, 
Painter in Studio, Picture-Dealing, Man at 
Draughts, Standard-Bearer, Peasant Hunt- 
ing, Drummer, Child blowing Soap-Bubbles 
(all of 1870-73) ; Smoker and Child, Cava- 
lier jesting with Girl (1873) ; Frederick the 
Great in his Library ; A Conversation ; From 
the Dresden Gallery (1880) ; Ridiculous 
Story (1881) ; Sutler Women between Regi- 
ments of Dessau and Baireuth (Jubilee Ex- 
hib., Berlin, 1886).— Anderson, v. 89 ; Ulustr. 
Zeitg. (1882), i. 10 ; Leixner, Mod. K, ii. 


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100 ; Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 279 ; D. 
Rundschau, ix. 475 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi 
174; xvL 147,272; xxii. 42. 

WERNER, JOSEF, bom at Berne in 
1637, died there in 1710. German school ; 
history and portrait painter, pupil of his 
father and in Frankfort of IVIatthias Meri- 
an ; then studied in Rome under Pietro da 
Cortona and Andrea Sacchi ; devoted him- 
self for a time to miniature painting in imi- 
tation of Carlo Maratti, was called to France 
by Louis XTV., for whom he painted many 
portraits and allegories, as he did also for 
the Elector of Bavaria, having gone to Augs- 
burg in 1667 ; moved to Berne in 1682, and 
was director of the Berlin Academy in 1696 
-1707. Works : Union of Justice and Wis- 
dom, City HaU, Berne ; Experience, Repub- 
lic of Berne, Justice, Gk>lden Age, Caval- 
ry Skirmish in 17th Century (attributed). 
Museum, ib.; Temptation of St. Anthony, 
Augsburg Gkdlery ; Allegory on Avarice, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Tobias burying 
his Countrymen, Vienna Museum. — Des- 
camps (Marseilles ed., 1842), u, 230. 
WERNER, KARL, bom in Weimar, Oct. 
4, 1808. Genre and 
architecture painter, 
pupil of Leipsic Acad- 
emy under Veit Hans 
Schnorr ; went in 1829 
to Munich and in 1833 
to Italy, where he re- 
mained twenty years ; 
visited England in 
1851, Spain in 1856, 
the East in 1862-64, 
and Greece in 1875, making many sketches. 
Ranks among the first painters in water- 
colours. Professor at the Leipsic Academy 
since 1881. Member of Venice Academy, 
of Royal Society of Painters in Water Col- 
ours, Saxon Order of Albrechi Weimar 
gold medal for Art and Science. Works : 
Market Square of Pipemo ; Venice in Pros- 
perity ; do. in Decline ; Return of Andrea 
Contarini ; Scene from Shylock ; Study 
from Pompeii ; Lion Court of Alhambra ; 

View of Beirout ; Isle of Philse ; Mosque at 
Damascus ; Bazaar in Cairo ; Arabian Pal- 
ace, ib.; Jewellery Shop, ib.; Column of 
Memnon ; The Jordan near Jericho ; Tem- 
ple of Isis at Thebes ; Antiquary by Tem- 
ple at Eamak ; Castle Lahneck ; Literior 
of Church at Frankfort ; Gate of Justice at 
Cairo ; Church Interior (1833), Interior of 
Cefalti Cathedral (1838), Palace Interior at 
Palermo (1852), National Gallery, Berlin ; 
Palace of Diocletian, Leipsic Museum ; 
Abandoned Church in Pontine Swamps, 
Schack Gallery, Munich. — Ulustr. Zeitg. 
(1874), ii 31 ; Jordan (1885), ii 240 ; Zeit- 
schr. f. b. K, iiL 104. 

enna; contemporary. History and genre 
painter. Works : Shipwreck of Agrippina ; 
Venus Anadyomene ; Peeping; Fisherman's 
Dream (1880); Coast Watchman ; The Wave's 
Kiss ; Flowers* Revenge ; Fisherman's Dream, 
The King's Breakfast (1884).— AUgem. K. C, 
viii 619 ; Dlustr. Zeitg. (1883), L 375 ; iL 
160 ; (1884), L 554 ; (1885), ii 229. 

bom in Stockholm in 1751, died at Wil- 
mington, DeL, in 1811. History and genre 
painter, supposed pupil of Pilo (1713-94) ; 
went early to France, where he became 
member of the Academy in 1782. Swedish 
court painter in 1787 ; returned to Sweden 
about 1789 ; came to America in 1794 and 
painted several portraits of Washington ; 
went home in 1797, but came back, mar- 
ried, and became a citizen. Works: Ari- 
adne Forsaken, Marie Antoinette and her 
Children (1785), Stockholm Museum ; Por- 
traits of Gustavus UL and his Queen, of 
Gustavus rV., of Bachelier and Oaffieri. — 
Gaz. des R Arts (1874), x. 223 ; Revue univ. 
des Arts, iv. 

WEST, BENJAMIN, bom at Springfield, 
Penn., Oct. 10, 1738, died in London, March 
11, 1820. Began to draw when seven years 
old, and took his first lessons in preparing 
coloiirs from Cherokee Indiana After a lit- 
tle instruction from a painter named Will- 
iams, he set up, when eighteen years old, in 


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Philadelphia as a portrait painter ; thence 
removed to New York, and in 1760 went to 
Italy, where he re- 
mained, studying the 
antique and Michel- 
angelo, until 1763t 
when he settled in 
London. His pictures 
of Agrippina bringing 
Home the Ashes of 
G^rmanicus, painted 
for the Archbishop 

of York, and the Departure of Regulus, 
bought by George HL, won him royal pa- 
tronage and favour, which he long en- 
joyed. From 1769 to 1801, during which 
time he received all orders from the king, 
who made him his historical painter (1772), 
West gained £34,187. The seven pictures 
illustrating Bevealed Beligion, which he 
painted for the Oratory at Windsor, brought 
him in £20,705, and his many portraits of 
members of the royal family were also high- 
ly remunerative. In the Death of General 
Wolfe (1771), now in Grosvenor House, 
and Perm's Treaty with the Indians, West 
had the courage to protest successfully 
against the treatment of modern subjects in 
classic garb, according to the fashion of the 
time. On the death of Sir Joshua Reynolds 
(1792) West succeeded him as president of 
the Royal Academy, of which he had been 
one of the founders in 1768, and, with the 
exception of a few months, held that office 
until 1815. The 400 historical and relig- 
ious pictures which he painted show skill 
in composition and considerable inventive 
power, but they have no real vitality. Tame 
in style, poor in imagination, monotonous 
in colour, they ceased to interest the pub- 
lic when the painter disappeared from view. 
Among the most important of his works 
are : Christ healing the Sick (1802), Nation- 
al Gallery, which he painted for the Quaker 
Hospital in Philadelphia, and sold to the 
British Institution for £3,000, sending a 
copy to America ; Death on the Pale Horse, 
Pennsylvania Academy ; King Lear, Boston 

Museum of Fine Arts ; and Baising of Laz- 
arus, Winchester Cathedral Seventeen of 
his pictures are at Hampton Court ; among 
them the Death of Chevalier Bayard, and 
the Death of Epaminondas, both painted in 
1771, as companion pieces to the Death of 
Wolfe. Alexander the Great and his Phy- 
sician is called by Waagen one of his best 
pictures Many of his ^^ \Pl + 
works were engraved. — ^ 3 • (Rf^^K^ 
Gait, Life (London, i j^t%€% 
1820); Cunningham; ^ Q^^ 
Redgrave, Century, i. 186 ; F. de Conches, 
277; Ch. Blanc, Jficole anglaise; Waagen, 
Treasures ; Law, Hist. Cat. Hampton Court, 
100 ; Art Journal (1863), 218 ; Sandby, i. 
290 ; PortfoUo (1873), 150. 

WESTALL, RICHARD, bom at Hert- 
ford in 1765, died in London, Dec. 4, 1836. 
Subject and landscape painter ; entered 
Academy schools, London, in 1785 ; elected 
an A.R.A. in 1792, and RA. in 1794 ; paint- 
ed in oil and in water-colours, and claimed 
to be one of the founders of the latter 
method. His book illustrations were very 
popular. Late in life he was drawing mas- 
ter to the Princess Victoria. Works : Cas- 
sandra (1797), South Kensington Museum ; 
Esau, Sappho, Mary Stuart going to Execu- 
tion, Elijah, Christ crowned with Thorns 
(altarpiece at All Souls' Church, London). 
His brother William (1781-1850) was an 
A.RA., and painted in both oil and water- 
colours. His illustrated publications con- 
tained his best work. — Redgrave ;. Sandby, 
i 306. 

WET, JACOB DE, flourished at Haarlem 
about 1636-71. Dutch school ; history and 
genre painter, imitator of Rembrandt ; was 
established at Haarlem as early as 1636, 
dean of the guild in 1661, and still living in 
1671. Works : Girl with a Peach, Haarlem 
Museum; Adoration of the Lamb (1647), 
Copenhagen GkQlery ; Expulsion of Hagar, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; The Men in the 
Fiery Furnace, Schleissheim Gallery. — 
Eramm, vL 1845 ; Schlie, 694 ; Van der 
Willigen, 324 



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WET, JAN DE (Johann Dtiwett), bom in 
Hamburg in 1617 (?). Dutch school ; his- 
tory painter, pupil of Rembrandt in Amster- 
dam, whither he went early in life. Like 
his master he painted biblical and mytho- 
logical subjects, well composed, better drawn 
than Rembrandt's, and more finished in de- 
tails. His pictures were often sold under 
Rembrandt's name. He afterwards returned 
to Hamburg. Works : The Seven Works 
of Mercy, Haarlem Museum ; Elijah and 
the Widow, Suermondt Museum, Aix-la- 
Chapelle; Christ in the Temple (1635), 
Burning of Troy, Brunswick G^allery ; Rais- 
ing of Lazarus (1633), Darmstadt Ghdlery ; 
Tobias and the Angel, Kunsthalle, Ham- 
burg ; others in Frankfort, Gottingeu, Han- 
over, and Oldenburg Galleries. — Kramm, 
VL 1845 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 378 ; Riegel, 
Beitrage, ii. 265 ; Vosmaer, Rembrandt, sa 
vie, etc. (1868), 62. 

WETTE, FRANS DE, Dutch school, 17th 
century. This master is exclusively known 
by his biblical subjects on a small scale, in 
the style of Rembrandt, which are remark- 
able for arrangement, and fine expression in 
the heads, but of somewhat brown tone. 
Works: Christ and the Adulteress, Augs- 
burg Gallery ; The Three in the Fiery Fur- 
nace, Raising of Lazarus, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery. — Kugler (Crowe), iL 390. 

let de la Pasture, 
Roger de Bruges), 
bom at Toumay in 
1399 or 1400, died 
in Brussels, June 16, 
1464. Flemish 
school; history 
painter, pupil in 
Toumay (1426) of 
one Robert Campin, 
and master of the 
guild there, Aug. 1, 1432 ; removed to 
Brussels before April 21, 1435, and thence- 
forth his name appears in its Flemish form. 
First mentioned as city painter, May 2, 
1436. He also lived and worked at Louvain, 

perhaps also at Bruges; but whether he 
really was in Italy, especially at Ferrara 
and Milan, as some circumstances seem to 
indicate, and at Rome, during the jubilee in 
1450, is not as yet ascertained. He was the 
founder of the school of Brabant, highly es- 
teemed in his own country, and actively em- 
ployed throughout the Burgundian realm. 
Although in technic and the realism of his 
style Rogier belongs to the school of the 
Van Eycks, with one of whom, Jan, he may 
have had personal relations, he worked with 
a deeper feeling and a rehgious intensity 
which betrayed him into exaggeration of 
sentiment and violence of action. The four 
great pictures which he painted in the gold- 
en chamber of the Town Hall at Brussels 
were destroyed in 1695. Works : Entomb- 
ment (attributed). National Gallery, Lon- 
don ; Alfcarpiece, Grosvenor House, ib. ; 
Portrait of Charles the Bold, Head of Weep- 
ing Woman, Brussels Museum ; eight others 
(attributed), ib.; Triptych with Seven Sacra- 
ments, Annunciation, Portrait of Philip the 
Good, Antwerp Museum ; Descent from the 
Cross, Madrid Museum ; replica (1443), St. 
Peter's, Louvain ; altarpiece with Last Judg- 
ment (before 1450), Hospital, Beaune (Cote 
d'Or) ; Descent from the Cross, Hague Mu- 
seum ; St. John, Rotterdam Museum ; Ma- 
donna with Saints, St John Altar, Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort ; Triptych with Piet^ (be- 
fore 1445), do. with Life of St John, do. 
with Nativity, BerUn Museum; Figure of 
the Virgin, Fttrstenberg Gkdlery, Donau- 
eschingen ; Christ on the Cross, Dresden 
Museum ; Triptych with Adoration of the 
Magi, St Luke painting the Virgin, Munich 
Gallery; Triptych with Crucifixion, The 
Virgin Nursing Christ, St Catherine, Vienna 
Museum; Pieti (attributed), Uffizi, Flor- 
ence. — Ch. Blanc, !l^le flamande ; 0. & C, 
Flemish Painters, 182; Dohme, Ii; F6tis, 
Cat du Mus. royal, 162 ; Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1866), xxi. 201, 349 ; Kramm, vi 1846 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), i. 77 ; Kunst-Chronik, xvii. 
441 ; Meyer, Gemalde kongL Mu&, 528 ; 
Michiels, iii 7 ; v. 451 ; Schnaase, viiL 165 ; 


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- / 

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Van den Brandon, 48 ; Wauters, R y. d. 
W. (Brussels, 1856) ; do., Peinture flamande 
(Paris, 1885), 56 ; W. & W., ii 29 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K., in. 230 ; xvii. 293, 323. 

WEYMOUTH BAY, John Constable, 
Louvre, Paris ; canvas, H 2 ft. 11 in. x 3 ft 
8 in. The bay on the approach of a storm. 
Painted in 1827. Engraved by D. Lucas ; 
presented by John W. Wilson in 1873. — 
Gat Louvre. 

WHARTON, PHHiff P., bom in Phila- 
delphia in 1841, died at Media, July 27, 
1879. Genre painter, pupil of the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy ; studied in Dresden, and in 
the Atelier Suisse in Paris. Professional 
life spent in Philadelphia. Works : Perdita 
at the Sheep-Shearing Festival ("Winter's 
Tale," 1876) ; Waitmg for the Parade (1878), 
etc.— Am. Art Rev. (1880), 503. 

McNeill, bom 
in Lowell, Mas&, 
in 1834. Figure 
and portrait paini- 
er, educated at 
West Point; pupil 
for tviro years of 
Gleyre in Paris; 
settled in 1863 in 
London. Is as well 
known by his etch- 
ings as by his works in oils. Medal, Paris, 
3d class, 1883. Elected in 1886 president 
of the Society of British Artista Works : 
The WhUe Girl (1862), Thomas D. Whistler, 
Baltimore ; Coast of Brittany, Ross Whist- 
ler, ib.; Last of Old Westminster, Westmin- 
ster Bridge (1863) ; Princesse des pays de 
la porcelaine (1865) ; At the Piano (1867) ; 
Portrait of my Mother, do. of Carlyle 
^ (1872) ; Gold Girl, Nocturne in Blue and 
Gold, Nocturne in Blue and Green (1878) ; 
Harmony in Gray and Green (1881) ; Noc- 
turne in Blue and Silver, Blue Girl, En- 
trance to Southampton Water (1882) ; Great 
Fire Wheel (1883) ; Harmony in Brown and 
Black (1884).— Gaz. des R Arts (1881), 
xxiii. 365 ; (1882), xxv. 620 ; (1884), xxix. 

484, 534 ; Scribner's Magazine (1879), xviii 

WHITE, EDWIN, born at South Hadley, 
Mass., in 1817, died at Saratoga Springs, 
N. Y., June 7, 1877. History and genre 
painter ; studied in Paris, Rome, Florence, 
and Dasseldorf in 1850 and in 1869. Elect- 
ed member of the National Academy in 
1849. He lived in Europe many years, but 
returned in 1875 and opened a studio in 
New York. Among his important works 
are: Pocahontas informing Smith of the 
Conspiracy of the Indians (painted for Gen- 
eral Kearney) ; Washington resigning his 
Commission (Annapolis, bought by the 
State) ; Age's Reveiy, Military Academy, 
West Point ; Death-Bed of Luther ; Mil- 
ton's Visit to Galileo ; Requiem of De Soto ; 
Old Age of Milton, Art Union ; First Print- 
ing of the Bible ; Thoughts of Liberia, Old 
Woman Spinning, R L. Stuart, New York ; 
Evening Hymn of the Huguenot Refugees. 
He bequeathed to the Metropolitan Muse- 
um, New York, The Antiquary ; to Amherst 
College, Leonardo da Vinci and his Pupils ; 
and to Yale College, the unfinished picture 
of the Signing of the Compact on the May- 
flower. — Tuckerman, 438. 

WHITE, JOHN BLAKE, born in South 
Carolina in 1781, died in Charleston, Au- 
gust, 1859. History painter ; began the 
study of law, but in 1803 went to London 
and became the pupil in art of Benjamin 
West. Among his works are : Mrs. Motte 
presenting the Arrows ; General Marion in- 
viting the British Officer to Dinner ; Battle 
of Eutaw ; Battle of New Orleans. He was 
also the author of several dramas. 

WHITE GIRL, James McNeiU Whistler, 
Thomas D. Whistler, Baltimore ; canvas, H. 
about 6 ft X 3 ft.; signed, dated 1862. A 
tall girl, with dishevelled hair and dressed 
wholly in white, standing before a white-lace 
curtain on a wolf-skin, the head of which 
lies in front, spread on a parti-coloured rug. 
Never engraved. 

WHITEHORN, JAMES, bom at Walling- 
ford, Yty in 1803. Portrait painter, pupil 


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of the National Academy, New York, and as- 
sisted in his studies by Robertson, Trum- 
bull, Morse, and Dunlap. Professional life 
passed in New York, with the exception 
of two winters, 1844-46, in Washington, 
D. C. Silver medal. National Academy, in 
1827. Elected N.A. in 1833. Studio in 
New York. Works: Silas Wright, City 
Hall, New York ; Henry Clay addressing 
the Senate (design for engraving published 
in 1846) ; Rachel and Bella (1879) ; Family 
Portrait (1881). 

in Springfield, O., 
May 22, 1820. Land- 
scape painter, pupil 
of Andreas Achen- 
bach in Dasseldorf. 
Visited Europe in 
1850, spent four 
years in Rome, and 
travelled through 
England, France, 
Holland, Belgium, 
and Italy. Returned to New York in 1860, 
and elected N.A. in 1861. In 1864 sketched 
in the Rocky Mountains. President of the 
National Ac^emy in 1874. Studio in New 
York. Works: Old Kentucky Home, Coast 
of Rhode Island (1867) ; Home by the Sea- 
side (1872) ; Study of Rocky Mountain As- 
pens ; Old Hunting-Ground ; In the Bernese 
Alps, C. P. Huntington, New York ; View of 
Rocky Mountains from the River Platte, 
Century Club, ib.; Trout Brook, H. G. 
Marquand, ib.; Window, R L. Stuart, ib.; 
Forest Brook, Platte River (1878) ; Catskill 
Brook (1879) ; On the Plains (1880) ; Old 
House by the Sea, Nook on the River 
(1881) ; Twilight on the Hudson, Sunny 
Day in the Woods (1883) ; Old Road to the 
Sea, Pool in the Woods, On the Plains — 
Colorado (1884) ; Sunrise over the Sea, -The 
Old Farm (1885) ; Brook in the Woods, 
Brook among the Hills (1886). 

WIC AR, JEAN BAPTISTE, bom at Lille, 
Jon. 22, 1762, died in Rome, Feb. 27, 1834. 
History and portrait painter, pupil of David ; 

went in 1784 to Florence to make drawings 
of the works in the gallery, for engraving. 
In 1793 he became a member of the Paris 
Conservatory, and in 1796 commissary for 
the art exploration of Italy. Settled about 
1800 in Rome, where he won reputation 
as a portrait painter; in 1805 he became 
a member of the Academy of St Luke, and 
from 1807-10 was director of the Academy 
at Naples. Left his splendid collection of 
drawings by the old masters to his native 
city, where they are preserved in the Mu- 
see Wicar. Works : Portraits of Duke and 
Duchess Torlonia, of Murat, of Pius VIL, 
of himself, Joseph explaining the Dream 
(1784), Concordat between Pius and Napo- 
leon (1806), Youth at Nain (1816), Solo- 
mon's Judgment, Virgil reading the .S^eid 
before Augustus and Livy, lille Museum ; 
Resurrection, Themistocles at the House of 
Admetus^ Marriage of Mary, Peter and 
/^ yn /-! i 9 ^*°^ Perugia Ca- 

P reading the -ffineid 

/ 7 f^r JHuJilxeL toAugustus(1818), 
Coriolanus ; Ores- 
tes ; Pylades and Electra. — Bellier, ii 721 ; 
Dufay, Notice sur la vie de Wicar (Paris, 
1844) ; Larousse. 

WICHMANN, ADOLF, bom at CeDe, 
Hanover, March 18, 1820, died in Dresden, 
Feb. 17, 1866. History and genre painter, 
pupil of Dresden Academy under Bende- 
mann ; then studied in Venice and also 
in Rome (1847-51) after the old masters. 
Gold medals: Dresden, 1845; Berlin, 1851. 
Works : Allegory on Music (1845) ; Come 
Ye that are Heavy Laden (1851) ; Grant- 
ed Request (1853), New Pinakothek, Mu- 
nich ; Pietro Aretino reading at Titian's 
(1865), Dresden Gallery ; Mary and Eliz- 
abeth watching the Sleeping Infant Christ, 
Li^ge Gallery ; Wedding Repast at Frei- 
burg ; Painters' Festival at Titian'a— Eunst- 
Chronik, i. 23. 

in Berlin, March 25, 1828, died in Rome, 
March 17, 1858. Genre painter, pupil of 

Digitized by 



Bobert Fleury in Paris, whence he went to 
Italy to study the later Venetian masters. 
Works : Paolo Veronese in Venice (1856), 
Catherine de' Medici at the Alchemist's, 
National Gallery, Berlin. — Jordan (1885), ii. 

WICKENBERG, PETER, bom at Stock- 
holm in 1808, died at Pau in 1846. Genre 
and landscape painter, pupil of Stockholm 
Academy ; then went to Paris, where his 
genre scenes met with much favour. After- 
wards he painted views in Holland, and 
winter landscapes of realistic conception, 
but with careful execution of details, clear 
and powerful colouring, and beautiful light 
eflfects. Legion of Honour, 1842. Works : 
Mother sewing by her Child's Bed (1839), 
Fishing in Winter (1839), Fisher Family in 
Cottage (1840), Leipsic Museum ; Winter 
Landscape, Museum Fodor, Amsterdam. 

WIDOWER, Luke FUdea, Sydney Muse- 
um, New South Wales ; canvas. Royal 
Academy, 1876; bought by Thomas Tay- 
lor, of Wigan ; Taylor sale (1883), £2,205. 
Etched by L. Flameng. 

WIEDER, WILHELM, bom at Stepnitz, 
Pomerania, Feb. 16, 1818, died in Berlin, 
Oct 15, 1884 Genre painter, pupil in 
Berlin of J. S. Otto ; lived for some time 
in England, three years in Russia, four in 
Paris, one in Antwerp, and twenty-four in 
Italy ; returned to Germany in 1873, and 
settled in Berlin. Works : Mass at Aracoeli 
Church in Rome (1856), National Gallery, 
Berlin; Confession on Holy Thursday in 
St. Peter's, Rome. — Kunst-Chronik, xx. 57. 

WIEGMANN, MARIE (nee Hancke), 
bom at Silberberg, Silesia, Nov. 7, 1826. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of DOs- 
seldorf Academy under Hermann Stilke and 
Karl Sohn ; married the architect and paint- 
er Rudolf Wiegmann, and visited afterwards 
Germany, Holland, England, and Venice. 
Gold medal, Berlin. Works: The Elves 
(1847); Damajanti (1850); The Two Grand- 
mothers (1852) ; Reunion ; Undine (1860) ; 
Portrait of Earl Schnaase, National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; do. of Karl Sohn, Heinrich 


Sybel, Countess Hatzfeld. — Mailer, 

WIEGMANN, RUDOLF, bom at Aden- 
sen, Hanover, April 17, 1804, died in DUs- 
seldorf, April 17, 1865. Architecture paint- 
er, studied in Italy, especially in Rome, in 
1828-34 ; removed in 1835 to DQsseldorf, 
where he became professor of architecture 
at the Academy in 1839. Wrote a work on 
the DQsseldorf Academy. Works : St. An- 
gelo Castle in Rome (1833), Via Sacra (1834), 
Outlook from Vatican (1836), Cloister in 
Bonn Cathedral (1842), Interior of St 
Mark's in Venice (1845). — Andresen, ii. 
157 ; Dioskuren, 1865 ; Wiegmann, 90. 

VAN, bom in Haarlem between 1570 and 
1580, died in 1635. Dutch school ; marine 
painter. Destined for the navy, he made 
several sea voyages before devoting himself 
to art, in which he showed a great talent for 
representing the sea in its various aspects. 
Works: Arrival at Vliessingen of Elector 
Palatine Frederic V. in 1613, Taking of 
Damietta, Haarlem Museum ; Naval Battle, 
Madrid Museum. — ^Van der Willigen, 330. 

Dinant, Feb. 22, 1806, 
died in Brussels, June 
18,1865. History and 
portrait painter, pupil 
of Antwerp Academy 
under Herreyns and 
van Br6e ; then stud- 
ied in the Louvre, won 
the grand prize at the 
Antwerp Academy in 
1832, and went via 
Paris to Rome, where he took Michelangelo 
for his model, as afterwards Rubens be- 
came his ideal, and in 1837 was made mem- 
ber of the Accademia di S. Luca. After his 
return he lived at Liege, and in 1848 estab- 
lished himself at Brussels, where in 1850 
the government built for him, after his own 
design, a large studio, now known as the 
Mus^ Wiertz, and containing his collected 
great works, from which he never allowed 


Digitized by 



himself to realize a farthing, supporting 
himself and his old mother exclusively by 
painting portraits. In his studio he tried 
to bring to perfection a process of painting 
combining the merits of fresco and of oil, 
and really invented a new method, excluding 
reflection, which he called "peinture mate'* 
— unpolished painting. He was an artist 
of undeniable, although undisciplined, ge- 
nius, possessed of great power and individ- 
uaUty of execution, and of deep philosophic 
thought, combined with a fancy, in a marked 
degree, for the horrible, the grotesque, and 
the fantastic. Of his writings on art the 
"Eulogy on Rubens" (1840) and the "Me- 
moir on the Flemish School of Painting" 
were crowned by the Brussels Academy. 
Works : Greeks and Trojans contending 
for the Body of Patroclus (1835) ; The 
Brigand ; Carnival of Rome ; Education of 
the Virgin ; Sleep of the Virgin ; Revolt of 
Hell against Heaven ; Plight into Egypt ; 
Death of St Dionysius ; Christ as Judge ; 
Beacon of Golgotha; Triumph of Christ 
(1848) ; The Present regarded by the Man 
of the Future ; Last Cannon ; Civilizatipn 
of the Nineteenth Century ; Genius of War ; 
A Blow from the Hand of a Belgian Wom- 
an ; The Orphans (1863); Burnt Child; 
Thoughts and Visions of a Head cut off; 
A Second after Death ; Precipitate Inhu- 
mation ; Hunger, Folly, and Crime ; Satan ; 
Suicide ; Scene in Hell ; Power of Man ; 
Pride.— Art Journal (1869), 349, 365 ; Era- 
ser's Mag. (1872), V. 541 ; Harper's Mag. 
(1873), xlvi 823 ; Immerzeel, iiL 232 ; 
Eramm, vL 1859 ; Labarre, A Wiertz 
(Brussels, 1867) ; London Soc. (1872), xxiL 
23 ; PortfoUo (1875), 124, 133, 152 ; Van 
Soust, iiStudes, etc. (Brussels, 1858) ; Wat- 
teau. Cat. raisonn^ du Mus. Wiertz (Brus- 
sels, 1865) ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, L 273 ; Amer. 
Art Review, ii. 13. 

Burgsteinfurt, near Munich, March 14, 
1818, died at DUsseldorf, Dec. 13, 1884. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Diissel- 
dorf Academy in 1834-40 ; painted at first 

biblical scenes, but soon turned to the rep- 
resentation of peasant family life, excelling 
in scenes with children for the principal 
actors. Spent two years in Paris. Works : 
Tobias and the Angel (1839); Liberation of 
Peter (1841) ; Children at the Grave of their 
Parents (1841) ; The Sons of Jacob with Jo- 
seph's Coat (1842); Visit to the Sick (1842); 
Thunderstorm (1844); Children stealing Tid- 
Bits(1845,1847); Pouting, EiaPopeia (1845); 
Domestic Scene in the Morning, Grand- 
mother and Child (1848), Museum Fodor, 
Amsterdam; Paternal Joys (1849, 1852); 
Farewell (1850); Sunday Walk of a Philis- 
tine ; How do you like your little Brother ? 
(1865) ; Convalescent, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover. His son Heinrich (bom at Das- 
seldorf, Oct. 25, 1852), pupil of the Academy 
there under Julius Roting, is also a genre 
painter. Works : Prosit (1873); The Fam- 
ily Uncle (1874) ; Alone at Home (1874) ; 
At the Almsbox (1875) ; Home Devotion 
(1876); Ave Maria (1879). — Dioskuren, 
1865; Wolfg. Mtiller, Dttsseldf. K, 270; 
Wiegmann, 324. 

WIGGINS, CARLETON, born at Tura- 
ers, N. Y., in 1848. Landscape and cattle 
painter, pupil of the National Academy, New 
York ; studied in France in 1880-81. Ex- 
hibited first at National Academy in 1870. 
Studio in Brooklyn. Works : Edge of For- 
est — Barbizon, France, T. B. Clarke, New 
York ; Cattle in Landscape, Evening at 
Grez, Calf in Landscape, Henry T. Chap- 
man, Jr., Brooklyn ; On the Road (1879); 
September Day (1880) ; Hillside near Fon- 
tainebleau (1882) ; October Morning (1883) ; 
Come Bossy, Gathering Seaweed, September 
Harvest (1884) ; Summer Morning (1885) ; 
Three -year -old Heifer, Landscape near 
Meudon (1886). 

WIGHT, MOSES, bom in Boston in 
1827. Genre and portrait painter, pupil in 
Paris of H6bert and Bonnat ; was in Europe 
in 1861-54, went again in 1860, and in 1865 
settled in Paris, where he was still living in 
1884. Ideal works: Lisette; Confidants; 
Old Cuirassier; Sleeping Beauty; Eve at 


Digitized by 



the Fountain; Sixteenth Century; Pet's 
First Cake ; John Alden And Priscilla ; Tete- 
ii-Tete, At her Ease (1879) ; Vieux Docu- 
ment (1884). Portraits: Yon Humboldt; 
Everett ; Sumner ; Agassiz ; Josiah Quincy. 
— ^Tuckerman, 504. 

WILBEKG, CHEISTIAN, bom at Havel- 
berg, Nov. 20, 1839, died in Paris, June 3, 
1882. Architecture and landscape painter, 
pupil in Berlin of Eduard Pape and of Paul 
Gropius, then in Dasseldorf of Oswald Ach- 
enbach ; made several study trips to Italy 
(1871-73, 1875-76), Austria, and Southern 
Germany ; settled in Berlin and won repu- 
tation, especially by his interiors of Italian 
churche& Visited Pergamus in 1880. Med- 
al, Vienna, 1873. Works: Interior of St 
Mark's in Venice (several) ; Doge's Palace ; 
Palazzo Borghese ; Palazzo Colonna ; Tem- 
ple of Juno Lacinia at Qirgenti ; Cappella 
Palatina in Palermo ; Grotto of Egeria ; 
Roman Park ; View in Greece, Eunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Bay of Naples, Bay of Baiae 
(1880) ; View of St. Peter's from Villa Pam- 
fili (1881) ; Memento mori, Dresden Muse- 
um.-^ordan (1885), ii 243 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, ix. 43 ; xvii 543, 560 ; xviii 1, 22 ; 
Rosenberg, BerL Malersch., 349. 

WILDENS, JAN, bom in Antwerp in 
1586, died there, Oct. 16, 1653. Flemish 
school ; landscape painter, pupil of Peter 
Verhulst ; master of the guild in 1604. 
Intimate with, and perhaps pupil of, Ru- 
bens, for whom he painted backgrounds, 
as well as for Snyders and Diepenbeck. 
Subjects well chosen, facile brush, good 
colour, skies and distances light and airy. 
Rubens made him one of the executors of 
his wilL Van Dyck painted his portrait. 
Works : View of Antwerp (1636), Amster- 
dam Museum ; Winter Landscape (1624), 
Dresden Gallery ; Waters of Spa, Hunt, 
Gypsy telling Fortunes, Country Scene, 
Madrid Museum ; Wood Landscape, Bridge- 
water Gallery, London ; Landscape (Holy 
Family by Rombouts), Antwerp Museum ; 
do. (Eliezer and Rebekah by Jordaens), 
Brussels Museum; do. (Allegory by Van 

Balen), Carlsruhe Gkdlery. — Ch. Blanc, £cole 
flamande ; Immerzeel, 235 ; Eramm, vL 
1862 ; Kugler m | ^ 

(Crowe), ii 298; >7 Wfi^OAnA 

Michieis, viii. J rrtcc/ic'r>Q 

174 ; Rooses (Reber), 261 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 683. 

WILES, LEMUEL M., bom at Perry, 
Wyommg County, N. Y., in 1826. Land- 
scape and figure painter, studied under 
William Hart, and with J. F. Cropsey in 
New York. After painting in Washing- 
ton, Albany, and Utica, he settled in New 
York in 1863. Sketched in Panama, Cali- 
fornia, and Colorado in 1873-74 Studio 
at Ingham University, Le Roy, N. Y. (1884), 
where he conducts the department of paint- 
ing. Works : Mt San Jacinto ; Vale of 
Elms, Ingham University ; Reminiscences 
of Travel — 28 small pictures, A R Froth- 
ingham, Brooklyn ; Long Pond — Seneca 
Lake, J. C. Lord, New York ; Moonrise, 
Cardinal McCloskey ; Sunshine and Shad- 
ow (1879); Panama, Across the Moor (1880); 
Meadow Lands (1881); Snow-Bound (1882); 
Camp of the San Diego Indians (1883) ; Si 
Catherine's Window — Dryburgh, Albany 
(1884); Midwinter (1885); Summer-Day 
Sketch (1886). His son, Irving R Wiles, 
is a genre and portrait painter in New York. 


Turner, National Gallery, London ; canvas, 
2 ft 8 in. square. EnUtled Peace : Burial 
at Sea of the Body of Sir David Wilkie, who 
died on board the steamer Oriental, off Gib- 
raltar, on his return from the East, June 1, 
1841. Royal Academy, 1842 ; Turner Col- 
lection. Engraved by J. Cousen ; etched 
by Brunet-Debaines in Portfolio, 1874 — 
C^i Nat. QsH ; H&merton, life. 

WILKIE, Sir DAVID, bom at Cults, 
Fifeshire, Nov. 18, 1785, died in Bay of Gib- 
raltar, June 1, 1841. Studied in Trustees' 
Academy, Edinburgh, from 1799 to 1804, 
and on his return to Cults painted, besides 
portraits, Pitlessie Fair (1804), and the Vil- 


Digitized by 



lage Recruit (1805). In 1806 be went to 
London and entered the Royal Academy as 
a student with a cer- 
tain reputation which 
was acknowledged by 
leading artists. In 
1806 he produced 
the Village Politi- 
cians, which at once 
brought him fame. 
. ^ -^ ^-^ ,v^x, This was followed by 

'^v'^^/ *^® ^^^"^ Fiddler 

' / y^ ' (1807, National Gal- 

lery, London), Alfred in the Neatherd's 
Cottage (1807), Card Players (1807), and 
Bent Day (1808). In 1809 he was elect- 
ed an ARA, and in 1811, RA In the 
latter year he painted the Village Festival 
(National Gallery, London). These works 
are full of character, well composed, and 
carefully drawn, but they are thinner in 
colour and less highly finished than the 
Blind Man's Buflf (1812, Buckingham Pal- 
ace), Distraining for Rent (1814), Duncan 
Gray (1814), Babbit on the WaU (1815), 
Penny Wedding (1818), Beading the Will 
(1820, New Pinakothek, Munich), Chelsea 
Pensioners (1821), Parish Beadle (1822, 
National Galleiy, London), and the High- 
lander's Home (1825), all of which belong 
to his middle and "best period, in which the 
influence of the Dutch and Flemish mas- 
ters is conspicuous. In 1814 Wilkie visited 
Paris, in 1816 Holland, and in 1817 Scot- 
land, where he was entertained at Abbots- 
ford, and painted his group of Sir Walter 
Scott and his Family. In 1832 he exhib- 
ited John Knox preaching before the Lords 
of the Congregration (National Gallery, 
London), one of his most esteemed pictures 
in his second manner ; and in 1835 a series 
of "Irish subjects, a portrait of Queen Ade- 
laide, for the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
and that of William IV., by whom he was 
knighted in 1836, for Waterloo Chapel at 
Windsor. In 1825 Sir David again went 
to Paris, and visited also Italy, Germany, 
and Spain, returning to London in 1828. 

In 1840 he went to the East for his health, 
but grew worse in the following year, and 
dying on shipboard in Gibraltar Bay he was 
buried at sea. In his third manner, the re- 
sult of his Italian and Spanish studies, Wil- 
kie aimed at Venetian eflfects of colour, and 
produced pictures less esteemed than those 
of an earlier time in which subject, concep- 
tion, and technical treatment are in har- 
mony. Other works: The Bagpiper (1813), 
Newsmongers (1820), Wooded Landscape 
(1822), The First Ear-Ring (1834), National 
Gallery, London ; John Knox dispensing 
the Sacrament at Calder House, Pitlessie 
Fau', Portrait of his Sister, National Gal- 
lery, Edinburgh ; Cotter's Saturday Night 
(Moore sale, 1872, 690 guineas) ; Only 
Daughter (do., 630 guineas) ; Errand Boy 
(Knowles sale, 1864, 1,050 guineas); Cut 
Finger ; Sunday Morning ; Jews-Harp ; 
Pedlar ; Village School ; Maid of Saragos- 
sa ; Guerilla Council of War ; Monks in 
Cathedral of Toledo ; Columbus at La Ra- 
bida ; and many portraits. Most of his 

pictures have been engraved. — Cunning- 
ham, Life (London, 1843) ; Redgrave ; Ch. 
Blanc, ificole anglaise ; F. de Conches ; 
Mollet, Biog. Great Artists ; Heaton, Works 
of Sir D. W. (London, 1868) ; Painters of 
Georgian Era, 49 ; L'Artiste (1882), ii 97 ; 
Sandby, i. 336. 

Utrecht in 1613 (?), died there in 1671 (?). 
Dutch school ; marine and portrait painter, 
son and pupil of Adam Willaerts, then stud- 
ied under Jan Bylert, and in Paris under Si- 

mon Vouet ; master of the guild at Utrecht 
in 1624. Works : Portrait of an Admiral, 


Digitized by 



Amsterdam Museum ; Family Group (1659), 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Coast Views with 
Tower (1653, 1662), Brunswick Museum; 
Storm near Bocky Coast (1653), Liechten- 
stein Gkdlery, Vienna. — Immerzeel, iil 236 ; 
Kramm, vL 1863. 

WILLAERTS, ADAM, horn in Antwerp 
in 1577, died in Utrecht before 1662. 
Dutch school ; landscape, marine, and genre 
painter, especially of coast and harbour 
scenes, enlivened with numerous character- 
istic figures ; also burning ships, houses 
and villages, markets and festive scenes. 
Mentioned as member of the guild at 
Utrecht in 1611, among the managers in 
1620-37, as still living in 1649, as dead in 
1662. Works : Two Sea Battles, Utrecht ; 
Festival at Tervueren, Antwerp Museum ; 
Attack of Dutch Fleet in Battle of Gibral- 
tar (1639), Sea Fight between Spanish and 
Dutch Gblleys, Haarlem Museum; Mouth of 
the Meuse (1633), Rotterdam Museum ; Two 
Sea Battles, Utrecht Museum ; Fight near 
Coast between the Dutch and Spanish (1641), 
Copenhagen Gkdlery ; Embarking of Troops 
on Dutch Canal (1624), Germanic Museum, 
Nuremberg ; Marines in Arenberg Gallery, 
Brussels ; in Museums and Ghdleries of Ber- 
lin (1635), Augsburg, Dresden (1620), Gotha, 
Frankfort (1638), Madrid (1627), Vienna 
(Museum, 1631 ; Liechtenstein Ghdlery, 
1616). By his son, Isaac, who was a mem- 
ber of the guild at Utrecht in 1637, and its 
dean in 1666, is a Kiver View in the Rotter- 

dam Museum. — Immerzeel, iii. 235 ; Eugler 
(Crowe), L 261 ; Kramm, vi 1863 ; Riegel, 
Beitr&ge, ii 179 ; Booses (Reber),. 419. 

WILLE, AUGUST VON, bom at Cassel 
in 1829. Landscape painter, pupil of DOs- 
seldorf Academy in 1847-53 ; lived for sev- 
eral years at Weimar, then settled at 
DQsseldorf; his pictures are of poetical! 

conception, and well supplied with fine ar- 
chitecture and many figures, executed with 
great technical skill. Works : Planning of 
Erection of Monastery (1859), Eunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Luther s Arrival at the Wart- 
bui*g by Moonlight, Provinzial Museum, 
Hanover ; Park Landscape ; Elizabeth's 
Well at the Wartburg ; Gate of the Wart- 
burg ; Feeding the Dogs ; Woodland Scene 
with Huntsmen ; Inner Court of the Wart- 
burg with Luther*s Arrival ; Tavern life in 
Seventeenth Century ; City Hall at Bingen ; 
Peasant and Antiquary; Testing Wine in 
Convent Cellar ; Street in Marburg ; Burn- 
ing of DOsseldorf Academy. — Dioskuren 
(1861-65) ; Kunst-Chronik (1870-77) ; Mol- 
ler, 558 ; Wiegmann, 383. 

WILLEBORTS. See Bosschaert. 

WILLEMS, FLORENT, bom at Li^ge, 
Jan. 8, 1823. Genre painter, pupil of 
Mechlin Academy ; studied especially the 
old Dutch masters, and attracted attention 
as early as 1840 ; the great success of his 
picture, exhibited in Paris in 1844, induced 
him to settle there. Medals: Paris, 3d 
class, 1844 ; 2d class, 1846 ; 1st class, 1855, 
1867, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1853 ; Officer, 
1864 ; Commander, 1878 ; Officer of Order 
of Leopold, 1851. Works : Visit to Young 
Mother (1844) ; Musical Pai-ty ; The Widow ; 
Visit of Maria de* Medici to Rubens ; Guard 
Room ; Woman by Spinning- Wheel (1850), 
Eunsthalle, Hamburg ; Auction (1851), Ra- 
vene Gkdlery, Berlin ; Three Ages of Man ; 
Engagement Ring ; Silk Mercer's Shop in 
1660 (1855), Napoleon IH; Adorning the 
Bride, Brussels Museum ; Presentation of 
the Future, The Widow (1863); Going 
Out, LAccouchee (1864) ; Aux Armes de 
Flandre (1877) ; Lady with Lap-Dog, Czer- 
nin Gbillery, Vienna ; Page vnth Dog, Paint- 
er before Easel, Museum Fodor, Amster- 
dam. Works in United States: Victor of 
Crossbowmen (1844), John G. Johnson, 
Philadelphia; tPy ^tais! Sealing the Love 
Letter, Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, ib. ; Judgment 
of Paris, Mrs. T. A Scott, ib. ; Good News, 
W. B. Bement, ib. ; Artist, August Belmont, 


Digitized by 



New York ; Departing for the Promenade, 
Miss C. L. Wolfe, ib. ; Plucking the Rose, 
Israel Corse, ib. ; Betrothal Ring, Mi*s. 
Paran Stevens, ib.; Female Figure, T. A. 
Havemeyer, ib.; Waiting Maid, Robert Hoe, 
ib.; Mirror, John Hoey, ib.; At the Window, 
C. P. Huntington, ib. ; Revery, R L. Stuart 
Collection, ib.; La Bague, J. T. Martin, 
Brooklyn ; Important Response, Health of 
the King, W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; Read- 
ing, J. W. Gurrett, ib. ; Morning Walk, H. O. 
Gibson, Philadelphia; The Letter, W. Mason, 
Taunton, Mass.; Love Letter, Charles Crock- 
er, San Francisco ; Music Lesson, Morgan 
sale. New York (1886), $1,255.— Dioskuren, 
1863-66; D. KunstbL, 1853-57; Immer- 
zeel, iii. 

WILLERS, ERNST, bom at Oldenburg 
in 1804, died in Munich, May 1, 1880. 
Landscape painter, pupil of Dilsseldorf 
Academy under Schirmer ; went afterwards 
to Rome, where he was long aUied with 
Josef Anton Koch ; thence he visited Sicily 
and twice Greece ; finally settled at Munich. 
His works, recalling the heroic landscapes 
of Koch and the ideal style of Karl ]VIark6, 
are of grand conception and poetical colour- 
ing. Among the best are : The Acropolis at 
Athens, Temple of Jupiter, ib. ; View of the 
Piraeus and Isles, Acrocorinth, View near 
Palermo, Grand Duke of Oldenburg ; Valley 
of Egeria near Rome, Grand Duchess of 
Weimar ; The Acropolis at Athens, Schack 
Grallery, Munich ; Outlook towards the Sea 
from Chigi Park near Aiiccia. — Meyer, 
Conv. Lex., xviL 1011 ; Schack, Meine 
Gemaldesammlung, 213. 

TIC HABIT, Guerdno, Bologna Gallery; 
canvas, H. 10 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft 10. William, 
Duke of Aquitaine, having determined to 
renounce the world, presents himself, at the 
head of his warriors, before St. Felix, and 
puts on the monastic habit ; above, in 
clouds, the Virgin and child sustained by an 
angel, and at left, SS. Peter and Paul. 
Painted about 1620 for S. Gregorio, Bo- 
logna ; carried to Paris in 1796 ; returned 

in 1815. A masterpiece of Guercino's first 
period. Engraved by G. Trabalesi ; G. Mi- 
telli ; G. Tomba. — Landon ; Mus^e, xiL PL 
64 ; Pinac. di Bologna, PI. 48 ; Meyer, 
Ktlnsi Lex., iii. 2 ; Lavice, 3. 

WILLIAMS, EDWARD, bom in Lam- 
beth, London, in 1782, died at Barnes, June 
24, 1855. Son of Edward Williams, engraver, 
and pupil in painting of his maternal uncle 
James Ward ; then apprenticed to Mr. Hil- 

St William taking the Monastic Habit, Guercino, Bologna Galleiy. 

Her, carver and gilder, but finally devoted 
himself to miniature and landscape painting. 
For many years his favourite subjects were 
moonlight scenes, and later the scenery of 
the Thames. His six sons were all painters. 
Work : Landscape with Figures by Moon- 
light, National Gkdlery, London. — Redgrave ; 
F. de Conches, 347. 

bom in Boston ; contemporary. Landscape 
and figure painter. Studio in Paris. 


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Works: Scene at Pont Nien, Shepherdess 
and her Flock, The Mame, Farmyard at 
Finistere (1878); Autumn Day — France, 
Fifine and her Geese (1881). His wife, 
Mrs. L. Lunt Williams, paints figure and 
cattle pieces. Work : Mange Done ! (1884). 

WILLIAMS, HAYNES, bom at Worces- 
ter, England, in 1834. Genre painter, pupil 
of the Art School in Birmingham ; went to 
Spain in 1862, and has since painted many 
Spanish subjects, exhibiting in the Boyal 
Academy in 1870 his Desesperados y Ines- 
perados. Works : Prayers for One Wound- 
ed (1872) ; A los Toros (1873) ; Billeted, El 
Saludad (1874) ; Modem Occupants of An- 
cient Homes, ArsLonga — ^Vita Brevis (1877) ; 
Foundlings in Spain in 1790 (1878) ; Con- 
gratulations (1879); The Stepmother (1880) ; 
His First Oflfence (1881) ; The Sermon (1882) ; 
Gleam of Sunshine (1883) ; Called to Court, 
At the Fountain, Going to the Fountain 
(1884) ; Benediction, Interruption in the 
Dance (1885); Cellini awaiting an Inter- 
view with Fran9ois I (1886). — Meynell, 

WILLIAMS, ISAAC L., bom in Phila- 
delphia in 1817. Landscape and portrait 
painter, pupil in Philadelphia of John R 
Smith and John Neagle. Visited Europe 
in 1866-67. Member of the Philadelphia 
Academy. Work : View near Meriden — 
Conn., October (1876). 

WILLIAMS, PENRY, bom at Merthyr 
Tydvil, Glamorganshire, about 1798, died in 
Bome, or Wales, February, 1886 (?). Land- 
scape and subject painter; exhibited at 
Royal Academy first in 1824 ; went to Italy 
in 1827, and thenceforth resided in Bome, 
whence he sent many pictures to England. 
Works: Procession to the Christening (1832); 
FeiTy on the Nynfa (1835) ; Madonna del 
Arco (1837); H Voto or the Convalescent 
(1842); TheFountain— MoladiGaeta(1849); 
Rustic Toilet (1853) ; Neapolitan Peasants 
at Fountain (1859), National Gkdlery ; Mass 
for the Reapers in the Campagna (1860) ; 
Italian Mother and Child (1861).— Art Jour- 
nal (1864), 101 ; PortfoUo (1886). 

WELLIAMSON, JOHN, bom in Scot- 
land in 1826, died at Glenwood, N. Y., 
May 28, 1885. Landscape painter, taken 
to America when a child. Associate of the 
National Academy, New York, in 1861. 
Works : Passing Shower — Connecticut Val- 
ley (1869) ; Hook Mountains (1870); Return 
of the Hunters (1871) ; Reminiscence of 
Berkshire County (1873) ; After the Storm 
—Blue Ridge (1877) ; In the Mohawk Val- 
ley. Sugar Loaf Mountain (1878); Palisades 
—Hudson River (1879) ; Lovers' Walk- 
Glen Lea (18jB0) ; Trout Fishing— CatskiU 
Mountains (1881) ; Long Years Saw Mill — 
Ulster County, N. Y. (1883). 

WILLICH, CASAR, bom at Franken- 
thal, Bavaria, in 1825. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of Berlin Academy under 
Jacob Schlesinger (1793-1855), then in Mu- 
nich (1846) of Karl Schom ; lived in Swit- 
zerland in 1848-49, went in 1850 to Ant- 
werp, studied there for several years, then 
for three years in Pans under Couture ; 
visited Italy in 1858, stayed chiefly in Rome 
until 1861, when he settled in Munich. 
Works : Tribunal during Time of Witches* 
Trials, H. Wesendonk, Zdrich ; Pfityche with 
the Ointment Box ; Sleeping Nymph and 
Faun ; Resting Amazon and Deer ; Young 
Gypsy Girl with Lizard ; Nymph Fishing ; 
Portrait of Richard Wagner. — Dioskuren 
(1866-68) ; MtOler, 559. 

igsberg in 1629, died at a country-seat 
near Leubus, Silesia, Aug. 26, 1706. Ger- 
man school ; history and portrait painter, 
pupil of his father Peter Willmans ; went 
early to Holland, where he formed himself 
under Jacob Backer and Rembrandt ; after 
his return he worked at Konigsberg, Prague, 
Breslau, and Berlin, and was made court 
painter by the Great Elector. Works : Rape 
of Europa (1679), Schwerin Gallery ; Por- 
trait of a Boy, Dresden Museum. — Schlie, 

lach, Carinthia, in IMi . Landscape paint- 
er, self-taught from I860 in Munich and 

" '--.I •' 

. J 


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during travels in Bavaria, the Austrian Alps, 
and Holland ; his pictures show great feeling 
for the picturesque in 
their composition, 
masterly treatment of 
trees, and clear col- 
ouring. Lives in Dtts- 
seldoi*f. Order of Ba- 
varian Crown, 1884. 
Works: Wood Land- 
scape on Lake Ossi- 
ach. Wood Interior, 
View in Upper Ba- 
varia, View on a Lake, View near Munich, 
On the Elbe, Carinthian Landscape, Walk 
to Emmaus (1879) ; Meteorological Station 
in Carinthia (1882) ; Dies irae, Munich Art 
Union. His brother and pupil, Ludwig 
(born at Villach in 1845), is also a landscape 
painter of merit ; lives in Munich, where he 
has done much towards reviving interest in 
the art of etching, and is honorary member 
of the Academy. — Allgem. K C, viii. 48 ; 
Dioskuren (1866) ; Kunst-Chronik, xxi. 62 ; 
Kunst fttr Alle, i. 184 ; MtiUer, 560 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, X. (Mittheilungen, iiL 75). 

bom at Attleborough, Mass., Nov. 11, 1835. 
Genre painter, pupil of the Pennsylvania 
Academy in Philadelphia ; studied at Mu- 
nich under Kaulbach in 1859-62, and in 
1864 at the £cole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 
under Gerome. In 1870 professor . of the 
National Academy free schools ; elected an 
AN.A in 1871, and N.A in 1873. Studio 
in New York. Works: Sparking in the 
Olden Time (1864); Little Pitchers have Big 
Ears (1865) ; An Afternoon at Home (1871) ; 
Guess what Tve brought you? (1873) ; In- 
gratitude (1875) ; Study of Peaches (1877) ; 
Pick of the Orchard (1880) ; Who Wins 
may Wear (1883); Jack's Return, Please 
may I keep Him ? (1884) ; Country Artist 
(1885).— Sheldon. 110. 

WILMS, JOSEF, bom at Bilk, nearDtts- 
seldorf, Aug. 2, 1814. Still-life and genre 
painter, pupil of DQsseldorf Academy un- 
der Schadow and Theodor Hildebrandt ; vis- 

ited Strassburg in 1848 and Amsterdam in 
1862. Works: Peasant Still-Life (1834), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Student enriched 
by Heritage (1838); Punch Service by Lamp- 
Ught (1840) ; Boar's Head (1841) ; Squirrel 
(1842); Revolution in Painter's Studio (1851); 
MQnchhausen (1856) ; Breakfast with Cham- 
pagne. —Mailer, 560 ; Wiegmann, 410. 

WILS, JOHANNES, bom probably at 
Haarlem, died there before 1670. Dutch 
school ; landscape painter, entered the guild 
at Haarlem in 1628, and was one of the mas- 
ters of Berchem, who married his daughter. 
His rare works are compared to those of Jan 
Booth and Jacob Ruisdael. Works : Moun- 
tainous Wood and River Landscape, Chapel 
in the Forest, Schwerin Galleiy. — Schlie, 
WILSON, RICHARD, bom at Pinegas, 
Montgomerys h i re, 
Aug. 1,1713, died at 
Llanberris, Carnar- 
vonshire, May, 1782. 
Landscape painter, 
pupil for six years 
of Thomas Wright, 
a London portrait 
painter of little 
ability. After 
painting portraits 
with some success, he went, in 1749, to 
Italy, where, by advice of Zuccarelli, he de- 
voted himself to landscape painting. Re- 
turning home in 1755, he was disappointed 
to find that his classic style was not appre- 
ciated by the public. Though unfovoured 
by fortune, he continued the struggle, and 
in 1760 his ability attained some slight rec- 
ognition when his picture of Niobe was ex- 
hibited at the Society of Artists, of which 
he was a member ; yet he never became 
popular, and died in comparative indigence, 
a disappointed man. Long after his death 
the popular taste became educated to his 
standard, and he is now regarded as one of 
the greatest of English landscape painters. 
Wilson was one of the original members of 
the Royal Academy, and in 1776 was ap- 


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pointed its librarian. Works : Villa of Msb- 
cenas at Tivoli, Destruction of Niobe's Chil- 
dren, Lake Avemus, On the River Wye, and 
other landscapes, National Gkdlery, London ; 
Apollo and the Seasons, River Dee, Qrosven- 
or House ; View of Tivoli, Dulwich Gallery ; 
Landscape, Earl of Wemyss ; Italian Land- 
scape, R C. L. Bevan ; Landscape with 
MiU, Rev. W. H. Wayne; Italian Land- 
scape, River Scene witii Figures, National 

Gallery, Einburgh.— Cai Nat GaL ; Red- 
grave ; Wright, Life (London, 1824) ; Cun- 
ningham ; P. de Conches, 179 ; Ch. Blanc, 
&ole anglaise ; Sandby, i. 106 ; Portfolio 
(1872), 82. 

Piershil, Holland, Oct. 29, 1659, died at 
Delft in 1733. Dutch school. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Jan Verkolje at Delft, where he 
was repeatedly one of the trustees of the 
guild in 1690-1714. His works show also 
the influence of Ter Borch and Ochterveli 
In the Berlin Museum is one of his princi- 
pal works : Lady and two Gentlemen at 
Game of Draughts. — Kramm, vi. 1870 ; 
Meyer, Q«m. kongL Mua, 536. 

Hampton Court Palace, England ; canvas, 
H 4 ft. 1 in. X 3 ft 4 in. each. Portraits 
of beauties of the Court of Charles H, so 
called because they were formerly hung in 
the queen's bedchamber at Windsor Castle. 
All of them are three-quarters lengths, in 
landscapes, and all of one type — bare-head- 
ed, vdth hair arranged in coquettish curls 
on the forehead, short sleeves, and with 
draperies disposed in graceful negligence, 
freely exposing the busta Lely painted 
eleven originally : 1. Barbara Villiers, Duch- 
ess of Cleveland, as Minerva ; daughter and 
heiress of Viscount Grandison and wife of 
Roger Palmer, afterwards Earl of Castle- 
maine. 2. Frances Stewart, Duchess of 
Richmond; daughter of Captain Walter 
Stewart and wife of Duke of Richmond. 3. 

Mrs. Jane Middleton, daughter of Sir Roger 
Needham. 4. Elizabeth Wriothesley, Count- 
ess of Northumberland ; daughter of the 
Earl of Southampton and wife of Joscelin, 
Lord Percy ; married second, Ralph, Lord 
Montague, but retained her first title. 5. 
Anne Digby, Countess of Sunderland ; 
daughter of the Earl of Bristol and wife of 
Robert Spencer, Earl of Sunderland. 6. 
Elizabeth Bagot, Countess of Falmouth ; 
daughter of Colonel Hervey Bagot, wife of 
Lord Falmouth and afterwards of Lord 
Dorset. 7. Elizabeth Brooke, Lady Den- 
ham ; daughter of Sir William Brooke and 
wife of Sir John Denham, the poet. 8. 
Frances Brooke, afterwards Lady Whitmore ; 
sister of Elizabeth Brooke and wife of Sir 
Thomas Whitmore. 9. Henrietta Boyle, 
Countess of Rochester ; daughter of Rich- 
ard, Earl of Cork and Burlington, and wife 
of Lawrence Hyde, afterwards Earl of 
Rochester. 10. Eliza Hamilton, Countess 
de Gramont, as St. Catherine ; sister of 
Count Anthony Hamilton and wife of the 
Chevalier de Gramont. 11. Madame d'Or- 
leans. This picture is lost. — Law, Hisi Cai 
Hampton Court, 56 ; Mrs. Jameson, Beauties 
of Court of Charles H ; Hamilton, M6moires 
du comte de Ghramont ; Pepys's Diary. 

Stockholm, Sept 21, 1825. History paint- 
er, pupil of Stockholm Academy, where he 
took the first prize in 1857 ; then studied in 
DOsseldorf, and under Couture in Paris; 
went to Rome, and returned in 1863 via 
Munich to Sweden ; became member of 
Stockholm Academy and court painter in 
1864, and professor in 1867. Works : 
Eraka (1862), Hjabnar and Orvar Odd 
(1865), Loke and Sigyn, Thor's Fight with 
the Giants (1868), Stockholm Museum ; In- 
geborg, Gothenburg Museum ; Olof Tryg- 
gvesson and Sigrid I^XUfr&da at Eonghall ; 
Christ on Mount of Olives ; Resurrection ; 
Descent from the Cross. His wife Hanna, 
n^e Sengelin (bom Dec. 4, 1838), is a good 
genre painter, pupil of Boklund and of 
Stockholm Academy. — Mailer, 561. 


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WINGHE (Wingen), JODOCUS (Joost) 
VAN, bom in Brussels in 1544, died in 
Frankfort in 1603 or 1605. Flemish school ; 
history and portrait painter ; went early to 
Borne, where he lived four years at a car- 
dinal's ; after his return became painter to 
the Prince of Parma, and in 1584 went to 
Frankfort, meeting there and in Hanau 
with great success. Works: Banquet and 
Masquerade, Amsterdam Museum ; Portrait 
of Patrician Lady, Stadel Gallery, Frank- 
fort ; Lot and his Daughters, Gotha Muse- 
um ; Apelles painting Gampaspe (2), Vienna 

Jo?uouuS ct MK^ 

Museum. — Immerzeel, iii 239 ; Kramm, vL 
1871 ; Michiels, vi 465. 

WmNE, LEAVEN DE, bom in Ghent in 
1821, died in Brussels, May 13, 1880. Por- 
trait painter of great excellence, pupil of 
Felix Delvigne. Medals: Paris, 3d class, 
1861 ; 2d class, 1863 ; 1st class, 1878 ; at 
Brussels, and London, at the principal ex- 
hibitions h'om 1860. L. of Honour, 1865 ; 
Officer, 1878. Works: Portrait of King 
Leopold L, Brussels Museum ; Prince of 
Arenberg ; Count of Flanders ; Paul De- 
vigne ; Felix Delvigne ; £mile Breton ; Fir- 
min Rogier ; Duchess of Arenberg ; Minis- 
ter Frere-Orban, etc. — Gaz. des B. Arts 
(1859), iii 255 ; Meyer, Conv. Lex., xix. 

WINT, PETER DR See De Wint, 

WINTER, HEINRICH, bom at Frank- 
fort in 1843. Landscape and animal paint- 
er, pupil of Jacob Becker at the Stadel 
Institute ; was induced in 1868, by Adolf 
Schreyer, to visit Hungary, where he studied 
the different breeds of horses on the large 
plains. After his return he took part in the 
campaign of 1870-71 as a volunteer, and in 
1874 visited the East Works: Rendez- 
vous ; Horse Thieves ; Transportation of 
Fi'ench Prisoners through Loigny ; Prison- 

ers and Wounded Soldiers on a Waggon in 
the Snow.— Kaulen, 191 ; Mailer, 561. 

WINTER, LOUIS DE, bom at Antwerp, 
March 23, 1819. Landscape and marine 
painter, pupil at Antwerp Academy of Ja- 
cobus Jacobs and of Jan Baptist de Jonghe. 
Travelled in France and Germany. Gold 
medal, Brussels, 1854. Order of Leopold, 
1861. Works: Fishermen throwing out 
their Nets by Moonlight (1853), Ghent Mu- 
seum ; Coast View by Moonlight (1856), 
Ravene Qrallery, Berlin ; Crossing a Ford ; 
View in the Ardennes ; Simset ; Moonlight 
Scenes and Marines. 
WINTER, Nicolas Poussin. See Deluge. 
bom at Mengenschwand 
in the Black Forest, April 
20, 1806, died in Frank- 
fort, July 8, 1873. Por- 
trait and genre painter, 
pupil of Munich Acad- 
emy and of Stieler ; went 
in 1828 to Carlsruhe, 
where he was made court 
painter ; spent several 
years travelling in Italy, Spain, Belgium, and 
England, and in 1834 settled in Paris, where 
for more than thirty years he was the por- 
trait painter par excellence of royalty and 
of the aristocracy, especially of women. Med- 
als : Paris, 1836, 1837, 1855 ; L. of Hon- 
our, 1839 ; Officer, 1857 ; Order of Red 
Eagle, 1861 ; Wtlrtemberg Crown Order, 
Commander Order of Francis Joseph, and 
many others. Works: Roman Genre Scene, 
Portrait of Grand Duke Leopold of Baden, 
Carlsrahe Gallery; do. of Grand Duchess 
Sophie (1828) ; Mile. Tascher de laPagerie ; 
Louis Philippe and his Queen ; Princes and 
Princesses of Orleans; King Leopold of 
Belgium and Queen ; Royal Family of Eng- 
land ; Queen Isabella of Spain ; Emperor 
and Empress of Russia ; do. of Austria ; do. 
of Mexico; King and Queen of Prussia; 
do. of Wtlrtemberg ; Napoleon m and Eu- 
genie ; Italians in a Landscape, Kunsthalle, 
Hamburg ; Maiden of Ariccia (1835) ; Dolce 

Digitized by 



far uiente, Decameron (1836) ; Fisherman^s 
Family in Mid-day Sun ; Scene at a Well 
near Naples ; Florinde (1852), William R 
Webb, New York; Queen Maria Christina 
of Spain (1841), Marshal Count Sebai^tian 
(1841), Queen Victoria (1842), Duchess of 
Kent, Versailles Museum. — Bellier, ii. 724 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, viiL 835 ; Land und Meer 
(1873), ii. 902 ; Meyer, Gesch., 390 ; Nagler, 
xxi. 546. 

Eisenach, Sept. 20, 
1825. History paint- 
er, pupil of Dresden 
Academy under Ben- 
demann and Schnorr ; 
went in 1853 to Home, 
where he was allied 
with Cornelius and 
other prominent mas- 
ters ; after his return 
in 1857 he lived ten 
years in Weimar, became professor at the 
Art School there in 1866, and at the DOs- 
seldorf Academy in 1868. Works : Abun- 
dance and Poverty (sketch for curtain in 
Royal Theatre), Dresden Gallery ; Myth of 
Prometheus, History of Hercules, Leip- 
sic Museum ; The Four Seasons (1876-77), 
National Gallery, Berlin ; Night and its 
Retinue ; Chari^ (1857) ; Fancy borne by 
Dream-Gods, Schack Gkdlery, Munich ; Ger- 
mania keeping Watch on the Rhine (1874). 
In fresco : Religious Subjects, Grand-Ducal 
Chapel, Weimar ; Cornelia — Mother of the 
Gracchi, Brutus condemning his Sons, Stair- 
case of Roman House, Leipsic ; Cycle from 
History of German Empire (1879^- ), Kai- 
serhaus, Goslar. — Jordan (1885), ii. 244 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, ix. 376 ; xii. 23 ; xix. 155 ; 
XX. 4 ; Miiller, 562 ; Reber (Pecht), ii. 218 ; 
iii 326 ; Schack, Meine Gem&ldesammlung 
(1884), 186; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ii 181. 

WISNIESKI, OSKAR, bom in Berlin, 
Dec. 3, 1819. G^nre painter, pupil of Ber- 
lin Academy ; visited North Italy, and re- 
peatedly Pari& Paints scenes siter poets 
and from history, especially fine costume 

pictures of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. Works: Sophie Charlotte and 
Leibnitz in Park of Ltitzelburg ; Lady Pat- 
roness and the Village Poor ; Dance in 
Open Air ; Wolf Hunt ; Return Home, Page 
and Country Maid (1881), National Gallery, 
BerUn.— Jordan (1885), ii. 245. 

WISSING, WILLIAM, bom in Amster- 
dam in 1656, died at Burleigh, near Stamford, 
England, Sept. 10, 1687. Portrait painter, 
pupil at The Hague of Dodaens, then studied 
in Paris, and lastly in London (1680) under 
Lely, whose manner he imitated. After Le- 
ly's death he became the fashionable rival 
of Kneller, and was appointed by James H. 
his principal painter. Among his sitters 
were the Royal Family and the Duke of 
Monmouth, and he was sent by the King to 
Holland to paint William and Mary, then 
Prince and Princess of Orange. Works: 
Lord Cutts, Duke of Monmouth, Prince 
George of Denmark, Mary of Modena, Mary 
H, National Portrait Gallery, London. — 
Redgrave ; Feuillet de Conches, 62. 

WIT, JACOB DE, bom in Amsterdam in 
1695, died 
there in 1754. 
Dutch school ; 
h i s tory and 
porta^it paint- 
er, pupil of Al- 
bert van Spiers 
and of Jacob 
van Halen, but 
formed himself 
chiefly by study 
of Rubens and Van DycL Painted children 
with much success, and excelled in repre- 
senting white marble and other substances 
en grisaille. His knowledge of anatomy 
and of perspective enabled him to depict 
the most difficult foreshortenings on his 
ceilings in the most natural manner. 
Works, Ceiling and Wall Paintings, Town 
Hall, Amsterdam ; Allegory on Science, 
Museum, ib. ; Sketch for a Ceiling (1744), 
Haarlem Museum ; Faith, Hope and Charity 
(1743), Minerva and Four Children, Rotter- 


Digitized by 



dam Museum ; Portrait of Isaac Newton, 
Carlsruhe Gkdlery ; Four Seasons, two oth- 
ers, Cassel Gkdlerj ; Cbildren with Attri- 
butes of the Chase (1753), Dresden Gallery ; 
Cupid as a Hunter, Allegory on Science and 
Art (1748), Children's Bacchanal (2, 1748), 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Groups of Chil- 
dren at Play (2, 1752, 1754), Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna — Ch. Blanc, £cole hollan- 
daise ; Immerzeel, iii. 240 ; Kramm, vL 
1873 ; Van den Branden, 1212. 

ERICK, bom in London, May 26, 1785, 
died there, April 10, 1865. Student in 
1805 in schools of Royal Academy ; painted 
landscapes with figures and rustic figure 
subjects; works thoroughly English and 
pleasing. Elected A.R A. in 1830, and RA. 
in 1840. Works: The Stepping Stones, 
The Hop Garland, National Gallery ; Hop 
Garden, South Kensington Museum. — Red- 
grave ; Cat Nat GaL ; Sandby, il 164. 

WTTHOOS, MATHIAS, bom at Amers- 
foort in 1627, died at Hoorn in 1703. Dutch 
school ; still-life painter, pupil of Jan van 
Campen ; in company of Otto Marseus van 
Schrieck he went to Italy, where he painted 
rich compositions of flowera and plants, with 
butterflies, spiders, snakes, etc., for Cardi- 
nal de* Medici Works : View of the Vatican 
and St Peter's, Schwerin Gallery ; Roman 
ParkLandscape(1671),MentzMuseum. Jan, 
Pieter, and Frans, sons of Mathias, and his 
daughter Alida, all painted similar subjects. 
— Immerzeel, iii. 243 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii 
5(13 ; Burger, Musees, ii. 320 ; Schlie, 698. 

DubHn, Wayne County, Ind., May 21, 1840. 
Genre and portrait painter. Began to study 
art in Cincinnati in 1862 ; first exhibited in 
the National Academy in 1868. Elected an 
A.N.A. in 1885. Works : Afternoon Nap, 
Rags (1880) ; Queen of the Day, Dreaming 
of the Future (1881) ; Out-Door Luxury, 
One More Spring (1882) ; At Home, Dis- 
graced (1883) ; A Clammer*s Home, Hookey 
(1884) ; Writing to Santa Claus (1885) ; Por- 
trait of Lady and Horse (1886). 

WTTTE, EMANUEL DE, bom at Alk- 
maar in 1607, died in Amsterdam in 1692 ; 
Dutch school ; ai*chitecture painter, pupil 
at Delft of Evert van Aelst, but formed his 
style rather on Aelbert Cuyp; master of 
guild at Alkmaar in 1636, at Delft in 1642 ; 
settled in Amsterdam before 1650. At first 
painted portraits and historical subjects, 
afterwards devoted himself exclusively to 
interiors of churches and other perspective 
views, and brought this branch of art to the 
same perfection as Ruisdael did that of 
landscape, and Willem van de Velde that of 
marine painting. With correct drawing he 
combined a masterly treatment of chiajros- 
curo, and a touch of admirable impasto. His 
figiires are always carefully drawn and are 
introduced with picturesque eflfeci Works : 
Church of Delft, Church Interior (1685), 
Brussels Musevun ; Church Interior (2), Am- 
sterdam Museum ; Fish Market at Amster- 
dam (1672), Rotterdam Museum ; Church 
Interiors (2, one dated 1667), Synagogue of 
Amsterdam (1680), Berlin Museum ; Inte- 
rior of Gothic Church (1656), Brunswick 
Gallery ; do., Gotha Museum ; do. (2, 1667, 
1668), Weimar Museum ; others in Eunst- 
halle, Hamburg (2, one dated 1656), Schwe- 
rin Ghdlery, Stockholm Museum ; Czemin Ghd- 
n "^ V A M ^®^' Vienna ; 
/r Jt \AM RothanGal- 
La U ^ 1^ leiy, Paris; 
1^ ]fN y ^ g ^ National Gal- 

bl'e.Wi.'rtt i^L^c^ 

£cole hoUandaise ; Immerzeel, iiL 244 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), ii 512. 

WITTE, GASPAR DE, bom at Antwerp, 
baptized Oct 5, 1624, died there, March 
20, 1681. Flemish school ; landscape paint- 
er, son and pupil of Pieter de Witte (1586 
-1651), went early in life to Italy, thence to 
France, and returned to Antwerp in 1651, 
when he became master of the guild. Works : 
La bonne aventure (1667), Christ healing 
the Blind (1671), Antwerp Museum ; Wood- 
land Scene, lille Museum ; Mountain Land- 
scape with a Castle, Aschaffienburg Gallery ; 


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Interior of Gbihic Church, Gbtha Museum ; 
Landscape with Buins of Aqueduct, Muse- 
um, Vienna ; Rocky Wood Landscape with 
Fishermen, Liechtenstein Gbllery, ib. ; An- 
tique Buildings, Turin Gallery. — Cat du 
Mu& d'Anvers, 143 ; Booses (Beber), 412 ; 
Van den Branden, 1062. 

WTTTE, PEETEB DE, called Candido, 
bom in Bruges about 1548, died in Munich 
in 1628. Flemish school ; history painter ; 
went early to Italy, and in Florence made 
the acquaintance of Vasari, who took him to 
Bome and employed him as his assistant 
there and later in Florence. In 1578 he 
entered the service of Duke Albert V., and 
after that prince's death that of William V. 
of Bavaria As court painter to the next 
duke, Maximilian L, he made most of the 
designs for the decoration of his newly 
built palace, and painted several ceilings in 
it He exerted considerable influence up- 
on art in Munich. Works: Holy Family 
adored by Angels, Eunsthalle, Hamburg; 
Madonna with Saints, Oldenburg Gallery; 
Hunt, Falcon Chase, Fishing, Daughter of 
Jephtha, two portraits, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; King David playing the Harp, Baron 
Mhiutoli's Collection, Schloss Fridersdorf, 
Silesia ; Death of St. Ursula, Holy Family, 
do. with St Stephen, Vienna Museum. — 
Immerzeel, iii. 244 ; Kramm, vL 1878 ; Eug- 
ler (Crowe), L 242 ; B^, Peter Candid und 
seine Werke (Leipsic, 1885). 

at Bieseubeck, Westphalia, Sepi 29, 1820. 
History painter, pupil in Botterdam of Wil- 
lem Hendrik Schmidt, then of Antwerp Acad- 
emy under DeKeyser ; visited France, Italy, 
Switzerland, and Germany in 1853. Medals 
at Brussels (1845), The Hague, Bruges, Lon- 
don. Honorary Member of Amsterdam and 
Philadelphia Academie& Works : The Dutch 
passing the Winter on Nova ZemJoiA in 
1596 (1845) ; The Jailer (1850), Ghent Mu- 
seum ; Arrival of Hugo Groiius at Bostock 
(1851) ; Betum of the Dutch from Nova 
Zembla (1854) ; King Lear ; Bomeo and 
Juliet; John Parricida's Flight over the 

Alps; The Women of Cr^vecoeur (1857); 
Cruelty of Duke Adolphus of Gueldres to 
his Father (1860); Pariaina (after Byron, 
1876).— D. KunstbL, 1852, 1853; Mailer, 

at Mumau, Bavaria, Oct 15, 1802, died in 
Bome, May 9, 1880. History painter, pu- 
pil of the Miuiich Academy under Langer ; 
went in 1828 to Bome, whence he visited 
Naples in 1831, and accompanied the Crown 
Prince Max in 1833 on a tour to Naples, 
Sicily, Malta, Corfii, Greece, Constantino- 
ple, and Smyrna. He lived afterwards alto- 
gether in Bome, but visited Germany in 1844 
and 1858. Works : Christ Crucified (1826); 
Two Altarpieces (1827) ; Bebekah at the 
Well, Burial of St Catherme (1828); Hagar 
(1829) ; Healing of the Blind (1830) ; Sweet 
Waters in Asia (1835) ; Mbo^ telling his 
Fables ; Antioohus and Stratonice, Homer, 
Flight into Egypt, Six Oriental Views, Cof- 
fee-House in Smyrna, Birth of Si John 
(1843) ; Procession of Pius IX. to the Lateran 
(1846) ; Blessing the ChUdren (1848) ; Ma- 
donna (1849) ; Coronation of Virgin (1858); 
St Ann with Virgin, St. Joseph, St Igna- 
tius (1861); Maria Immaculata (1866); Bur- 
ial of Si Catherine (1851), Birth of St John 
(1862), Adoration of the Shepherds, New 
Pinakothek, Munich. — Andresen, iL 288 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, xv. 627 ; xxL 218 ; Cotta's 
KunstbL, 182^-43. 

WLEUGHELS, NICOLAS, bom in Paris, 
baptized Dec 11, 1668, died in Bome, Dec. 
5, 1737. Flemish and French schools; his- 
tory and genre painter, son and pupil of 
Philippe Wleughels (bom at Antwerp about 
1622, died in Paris, buried March 23, 1694, 
pupil of Comelis Schut) ; then studied un- 
der Pierre Mignard, went to Italy in 1694, 
and after a sojourn of two years in Bome 
and Venice returned to Paris, where he was 
received into the Academy in 1716. Ap- 
pointed director of the French Academy in 
Bome in 1724, and while there made chev- 
alier of the Order of Saint Michel He vms 
very intimate with Watteau, and his works 


Digitized by 



were engraved by such masters as Jeaurat, 
Charles Simoneau, Larmessin, Tardieu, Su- 
rugue, and Cochin. Although his compo- 
sition and colouring often suggest the in- 
fluence of the Venetian school, he followed 
on the whole the \mtrue mannerism of his 
epoch. Works : Apelles painting Campaspe 
(1716), Chateau de Compiegne ; Vulcan pre- 
senting to Venus the Arms for ^neas, Tou- 
louse Museum ; The Levee, Evening Toilet, 
Valenciennes Museum ; Christ in the House 
of Simon (1727), Marriage at Cana (1728), 
Schleissheim Gallery ; Visitation of Mary 
(1729), Holy Family, Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg. — Ch. Blanc, ficole flamande ; Fetis, 
Les Artistes beiges, ii. 226 ; Jal, 1302 ; 
M^moires in^dits, i. 354 ; Michiels, ix. 302. 

WOENSAM (Wonsam), ANTON, called 
Anton von Worms, flourished in Cologne 
about 1528-61. German school ; the only 
painter from the Lower Rhine in whose rare 
pictures the influence of Albrecht Dttrer is 
perceptible. This master drew well, and 
was not without a certain feeling for beauty. 
Works : Carthusian Monks under the Cross, 
Taking of Christ (1529), Museum, Cologne ; 
Madonna, St Severinus* and St Ursula's, 
ib.; do., Darmstadt Gallery; Last Judg- 
ment, Berlin Museum. — Kugler (Crowe), i 
229 ; Merlo, 617 ; W. & W., il 491. 

WOLF, AUGUST, bom at Weinheim, 
Baden, April 22, 1842. History painter, 
pupil in Carlsruhe of the art school, and 
of Hans Canon ; went in 1868 to Dresden, 
and copied there a Madonna by Titian, and 
the portrait of Charles I. by Van Dyck, 
which procured for him a commission from 
Coimt Schack, to copy in Venice the princi- 
pal works of the Venetian masters for his 
gallery in Mimich ; this task, performed 
with a singular understanding for the in- 
dividuality of those masters, occupied him 
for ten years in Venice, where he still lives. 
Among his original works are : Banquet at 
Murano in 16th Century ; Apollo among 
the Muses ; The Three Parcee ; Old Vene- 
tian Wedding Procession ; Resurrection, in 
the Burial Chapel of the Schack Family, 

Schwerin. — Meyer, Conv. Lex., xxi. 975 ; 
Schack, Meine Gemaldesammlung (1884), 

WOLF HUNT, Bubem, Ashburton Col- 
lection, London ; canvas, H. 8 ft 1 in. x 12 
ft 5 in. Three figures mounted, two of 
them portraits of Bubens and Isabella 
Brandt, and five on foot, attacking two 
wolves and three foxes. Painted in 1612 
for the Spanish General Legranes; inher- 
ited by Count Altamira, Madrid ; taken to 
Paris, returned in 1815 ; purchased (1824) 
by Smith, picture dealer, for 50,000 francs. 
Engraved by Soutman ; Van der Leeuw. 
Replica (6 ft 7 in. x 9 ft 2 in.), Methuen 
Collection, Corsham House, England. — Waa- 
gen. Treasures, ii. 102 ; Smith, ii. 273. 

Munich in 1652, died there, April 9, 1716. 
German school ; history painter, pupil of 
his father, Jonas Wolf, an obscure painter, 
and of the scvdptor Ableitner ; took Schon- 
feld and Earl Loth for his models, and 
afterwards studied especially copies after 
Raphael's works. Works : Artist's Portrait, 
Old Pinakothek, Munich ; St. Rupert, Met- 
ropolitan Church, ib. ; Death of St Joseph, 
St Joseph's Hospital Church, ib.; Immacu- 
late Conception, Church of the Holy Ghost, 
ib.; Communion of the Virgin, The Virgin 
on the Globe, Schleissheim Gallery ; St An- 
drew, Freising Cathedral — Nagler, xxii 51. 

WOLFAERTS. See Wolfardt. 

WOLFE, DEATH OF, Benjamin Wesi, 
Grosvenor House, London ; canvas, H. 5 f t 
X 7 ft Battle at Quebec, 1759. General 
Wolfe, lying on the ground in the agonies 
of death, supported by several officers, and 
surrounded by others in various attitudes 
expressive of grief, is told of his victory by 
soldiers running from left, where the battle 
is still raging ; in foreground, an Lidian 
sitting on the ground. Li this picture 
West repudiated the traditions of the clas- 
sical school and dressed his characters in 
the costume of the period represented. 
Painted in 1771. Engraved by WooUett 
Replica at Hampton Court ; several others. 


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— Ch. Blano, !£cole anglaise ; Law, Hist 
Cat Hampton Court, 102 ; R^veil, xiv. 992. 
WOLFFORDT, ARTUS, bom at Ant- 
werp in 1581, died there in 1641. Flemish 
school ; history painter ; entered in 1603 
the guild at Dordrecht, whither he had 
been taken when three months old ; in 
1616 was received into the guild at Ant- 
werp. Enjoyed great reputation in his 
time, and Van Dyck painted his portrait 
Works : Flight into Egypt, Repose in 

-69), in Tyrol and North Italy (1858, 1860, 
1867), in Austria and Hungary, and the art 
centres of Germany. Works: Barbara Cor- 
ner in Breslau (1857), Breslau City Hall 
(1859), City Gallery, Breslau ; Linnen House 
at Breslau (1861), City HaU, ib.; St Mary 
Magdalen's (1867), and Literior of St Vin- 
cent's, (1869), National Museum, ib. 

WOLFVOET, VICTOR, the younger, 
bom in Antwerp, baptized May 4, 1612, 
died there, Oct 23, 1652. Flemish school; 


0««th of Wolft, Btnjamin W«ct, Grotv«nor House, London. 

Egypt, Madrid Museum. His son, Jan Bap- 
tist (bom at Antwerp in November, 1625), 
was a good landscape painter ; he went ear- 
ly to Italy, and afterwards settled in Hol- 
land. By him is a Mountainous Landscape 
with Animals, in the Rotterdam Museum. — 
Rooses (Reber), 379 ; Van den Branden, 

WOLFL, ADALBERT, bom at Franken- 
stein, Silesia, May 9, 1827. Architecture 
and landscape painter, pupil in Breslau of 
Ernst Resch, but principally self-taught dur- 
ing travels on the Rhine and Moselle (1858 

history painter, son and pupil of Victor 
Wolf voet, the elder, then pupil of Ruben& 
Master of Antwerp guild in 1644 Works : 
Visitation (1639), St James', Antwerp ; Head 
of Medusa, Dresden (Jallery. — Kramm, vi. 
1883 ; Rooses (Reber), 318 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 798. 

WOLGEMUTH (Wohlgemuth, Wolge- 
mut), MICHAEL, bom in Nuremberg in 
1434, died there, Nov. 30, 1519. German 
school ; history and portrait painter. After 
receiving instruction in art, probably from 
his father, he, like other apprentices, spent 


Digitized by 



three years in wandering about Oermanj 
and the Netherlands, and then settled at 
Nuremberg, where he 
first appears as a cit- 
izen in 1474. He 
opened a large stu- 
dio, or rather work- 
shop, in which he and 
his numerous ap- 
prentices painted re- 
ligious pictures to or- 
der, and made designs 
for such wood-cuts as 
those which fill the pages of the famous 
" Chronicle of Nuremberg." Rather a skil- 
ful mechanic than an artist, Wolgemuth's 

on the Cross, Coronation of the Virgin, 
Pieta, last three with portraits of donors, 
Aschaflfenburg Gallery ; Death of the Vir- 
gin, Cologne Museum ; four altar wings 
with Resurrection (1465), Crucifixion, Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, Departure of the 
Apostles, Old Pinakothek, Munich ; Pe- 
ringsddrflfer Altar (1488), Christ on Mount 
of Olives, Crucifixion, Portitiit of Old Man 
with Felt Hat, do. of Canon Schonbom, 
Germanic Museum, Nuremberg ; Portraits 
of Ursula Tucher (1478) and Elizabeth 
Tucher (1499), Cassel Gallery ; two por- 
traits of same family, Weimar Museum ; 
Portraits of Man and Wife (1475), Amalien- 
stif t, Dessau ; Old Man's Portrait, Liechten- 

Wom«n taktn in Adultery, Nicolas Poussin, Louvre. 

fame rests more upon the fact that he had Al- 
brecht DOrer as his pupil than upon his ar- 
tistic work. The pictures attributed to him 
are very unequal in merit, probably because 
many of them were for the most part paint- 
ed by his assistants. The best show con- 
siderable di*amatic feeling, and are painted 
in clear, strong colour. Works : Christ be- 
fore Pilate, Louvre ; Entombment, Christ 

stein Ckdlery, Vienna ; The Three Magi, 
Czemin Gallery, ib.; Altarpiece (1479) in 
Church of the Virgin, Zwickau ; do. (1506 
-08) in Church at Schwabach ; four scenes 
from Childhood of Christ, Twelve Sibyls, 
Figures of Emperors (about 1500), City 
Hall, Goslar ; Pilate washing his Hands, 
and Crucifixion, Liverpool Institution. — Ch. 
Blanc, £cole allemande ; Eugler (Crowe), i 

Digitized by 



148 ; do., Kl. Schriften, ii 28 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xxL 218 ; Nagler, xxii. 29 ; Schnaase, 
viii. 382 ; Thausing (Eaton), DOrer, i. 62 ; 
W. & W., ii. 119 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiL 1, 
38 ; xiv. 390 ; xviii. 169. 

WOLTZE, BERTHOLD, bom at Havel- 
berg, Brandenburg, in 1829. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Berlin Academy, where be won 
the grand prize in 1854 ; studied in Home 
in 1855-56, then visited Paris and the 
Netherlands. Works : Moses striking the 
Rock (1854) ; The Oath (1873) ; Into hos- 
tile Life ! (1874) ; Scene of Accident in the 
Mountains (1874) ; Dangerous Operation ; 

riage.— Cat. Louvre ; Landon, Mus4e, L PL 
53 ; Smith, viiL 51 ; R^veil, xiiL 899. 

By Rembrandt, National (Jallery, London ; 
wood, arched, H. 2 fi 8| in. x2 ft 1^ in.; 
signed, dated 1644. Fifteen principal and 
many subordinate figures. The woman in 
teai-s, bending on one knee on the summit 
of steps in a temple, is confronted by her 
accusers before Christ, who wears a robe of 
tawny yellow ; among the group stands a 
Roman soldier ; in background, a splendid 
altar, with priests and worshippera Collec- 
tion of Burgomaster W. Six (1734) ; taken 
to England in 1807 and bought in at Chris- 

Wom«n taktn in Adultery, Tintoretto, Dretdtn Galltry. 

Hurrah, Napoleon Caught ! Gypsy Woman 
in Prison ; Stoppage of Payment ; When 
the Workmen Strike. 

Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 4 ft. x 
6 ft. 4 in. In a public place, decorated with 
fine buildings, the woman, in tears, kneels 
before Christ, who stands surrounded by 
Scribes and Pharisees ; at right, three per- 
sons ; at left, five persons ; in background, 
a woman with a child in her arms. Painted 
in 1653 for M Le Notre ; Collection of 
Louis XIV. Engraved by G. Audran ; C. 
M. Vermeulen ; G. Fonbonne (1709) ; Ma- 

tie's at 5,000 guineas ; sold to J. J. Anger- 
stein (1807), £6,000 ; bought for National 
Gkllery at Angerstein sale (1824). Engraved 
by Burnet ; De Frey ; G. R Philips (1835). 
— Vosmaer, 192, 468 ; Smith, vii. 47. 

By Rubens, Leigh Court, England ; wood, 
H. 4 ft 8 in. X 7 ft 4 in. Five principal and 
seven subordinate figures, seen to knees, 
rather more than life-size. Woman in cen- 
tre, with Christ at her right hand, and a 
corpulent priest and a tall Pharisee on the 
other side, probably not intended for Luther 
and Calvin, as has been suggested. The 
other principal figure is said to be a portrait 


Digitized by 



of Rubens's master, Otto Venius. Said to 
have been painted for family of Van Knyf 
at Antwerp ; in Collection of Canon Van 
Knjf, Antwerp, in 1780 ; bought at Henry 
Hope sale (1816), for £2,000 ; bought in at 
Leigh Court sale (1884), for £1,785. En- 
graved by Mile. Simons and Tassaert ; Car- 
don, in Tresheim's British Gallery ; Brom- 
ley, in Forster Gallery. — Waagen, Treasures, 
iiL 181 ; Smith, ii. 223. 

By £mile Signol, Luxembourg Museum ; 
canvas, H. 4 ft 6 in. x 3 ft. 8 in. The 
woman kneels in contrition at right, at the 
base of a fluted column, her face buried in 
her hands ; at left, Christ, standing, indi- 
cates her with his left hand while turning 
to speak to her accusers, who are not seen. 
Salon, 1840. 

By Tintoretto, Dresden Gallery ; canvas, 
H. 6 ft 2 in. X 11 ft 8 in. Christ, seated in 
the Temple, turns towards the left, where 
the woman, surroimded by her accusers, is 
standing ; at right, another group, and in 
the background many people entering 
through an arched doorway. Painted for 
the Counts Vidmarie ; afterwards in Prague 
Gallery, whence obtained in 1748. En- 
graved by Philip Andrew Kilian. 

By Titian (?), lately in S. Afra, Brescia ; 
canvas, half-lengths, life-size. Christ turns 
to address one of the Pharisees, whilst the 
woman, surrounded by her accusers, to 
right, bends before him ; in distance, a 
grove and a temple ; in foreground, to left, 
two figures standing, probably portraits of 
members of the family for whom the picture 
was painted. Probably by Givdio Campi. 
Engraved by Sala. Copy in Tadini Collec- 
tion, Louvre. The original in S. Afra has 
lately passed into private hand& — C. & C, 
Titian, ii 437. 

WOMAN WITH FAN, Rembrandt, Buck- 
ingham Palace ; canvas, H. 3 ft 5^ in. x 2 ft 
8|^ in.; signed, dated 1641. A lady seen to 
knees, with light hair, in a black silk robe 
attached in front by black ribbons over a 
yellow bodice, and point lace kerchief and 
ru£9es, a pearl necklace and bracelets, a dia- 

mond brooch and a tiara, standing at a win- 
dow, with a splendid fan in her right hand. 
Bought by Nieuwenhuys in Holland in 1814 ; 
sold to Lord Charles Townsend for 1,000 
guineas ; at his sale (1819) purchased for 
the king at 720 guineas. Engraved by J. 
P. Quilley. — Smith, vii. 164 ; Vossmaer, 

bom at Utrecht, Jan. 10, 1780, died at Am- 
sterdam, Jvdy 13, 1852. Genre and por- 
trait painter ; formed himself by study from 
life and after the works of famous masters, 
then in Dttsseldorf (1802-1804), where he 
copied after the antique and the works of 
Rubens and Van Dyck. After his return he 
rapidly acquired reputation with portraits 
and genre scenes treated in the manner of 
the old Dutch masters, and represented 
by lamp or candle light In 1823-31 he 
lived in London. Gold medal, Amsterdam, 
1817 ; member of Amsterdam Academy. 
Works : The Time (1810), Amsterdam Mu- 
seum ; Herring Seller, Rotterdam Museum. 
— Immerzeel, iii. 248 ; Kramm, vi. 1884. 

WOOD, GEORGE B., Jr., bom in Phila- 
delphia in 1832. Genre and still-life paint- 
er, pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy, of 
which he is a member. Works : Freddy 
Flechtenstein's Shop ; Early Spring, Interi- 
or of Mr. Childs*s Private Office, G. W. 
Childs, Philadelphia ; Philadelphia Library, 
George Whitney, ib.; Hunter in Luck; 
Summer (1879) ; Interior (1881) ; Chip 
Gatherer in Dry Dock (1882). 

in Montpelier, Vt., Nov. 12, 1823. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil of Chester Harding 
in Boston ; studied in Paris in 1858-60, and 
visited Italy and Switzerland. He painted 
in Louisville and Nashville before opening a 
studio in New York in 1867. Elected an 
A.N.A. in 1869, and N.A. in 1871. Works: 
Contraband, Recruit, Veteran, Village Post- 
Office (1867), Charles Stewart Smith, New 
York ; Every Man his own Doctor, T. B. 
Clarke, ib. ; No Smoking Here !, H. B. Hurl- 
but, Cleveland; Quack Doctor (1879); 


Digitized by 



Joint Investment, G. N. Moore, Louisyille ; 
Strictly Confidential (1880) ; Uncle Ned and 

I (1882) ; Neglecting Trade (1883) ; Portrait 
of Professor Torrey (1884), Vermont Uni- 
versity ; The Difficult Text, The Jack-o'- 
Lantem (1885) ; Putting on Airs, The Se- 
cret (1886). Water-colours : Dull Times 
(1879); Sunday Morning, Poor White, 
Charles Stewart Smith, New York ; Think- 
ing it Over, Cup that Cheers (1881) ; Local 
Reporter (1883) ; First Business Venture, 
Good Night! (1884).— Sheldon, 109. 

WOODFORDE, SAMUEL, bom at Castie 
Cary, Somersetshire, in 1763, died at Bo- 
logna, Italy, July 27, 1817. Portrait and 
history painter ; student at Royal Academy 
in 1782, and in Italy in 1786 ; elected an 
A.RA. in 1800, and RA. in 1807. Among 
his principal works are: Calypso lament- 
ing the Departure of Ulysses, Diana and 
Nymphs, Charles I. taking leave of his Chil- 
dren, and Spanish Shepherd and Dog. — 
Sandby, L 328. 

WOODS, HENRY, bom at Warrington, 
Lancashire, April 
23, 1846. Genre 
painter; pupil of 
Warrington and 
South Kensington 
Art Schools ; be- 
came a magazine 
illustrator, and was 
long attached to the 
London Graphic; 
in 1876 accompa- 
nied his brother-in-law, Luke Fildes, to Ven- 
ice and has since remained there. Elected 
an A.RA. in 1881. Works : Street in Ven- 
ice, Sunshine (1877) ; Convalescent (1878) ; 
Venetian Ferry, Street Life in Venice (1879) ; 
Three Venetian Sketches (1880) ; At the Foot 
of theRialto — Venice, Gondolier's Courtship 
(1881); Bargaining for an Old Master (Hol- 
brook Gaskell, London), Venetian Fan Seller 
(1882) ; Preparation for First Communion 
(1883) ; In the Sun, Zucca Seller in Venice, 

II mio Traghetto, Venetian Cloisters (1884) ; 
Cupid's Spell (1885) ; Choosing the Summer 

Gown, Water- Wheels of Savassa (1886).— 
Art Joumal (1886), 97. 

WOOL-CAEIDER, Jean Fran9oi8 Millet, 
Mrs. Paran Stevens, New York. A woman 
seated, carding wool ; on each side, a bas- 
ket of wool ; in background, a spinning- 
wheeL Painted in 1862 ; Salon, 1863. 

WOOTTON, JOHN, bom (?), died in Lon- 
don, January, 1765. Pupil of John Wyck 
(died 1702), battle painter ; began as a paint- 
er of race-horses at Newmarket, and later ex- 
ecuted landscapes and hunting scenes. His 
horses are well drawn and spirited, but his 
landscapes are coarse. Works at Blenheim, 
Althorp, Ditchley, and other country houses. 
— Redgrave ; F. de Conches, 341. 

WOPFNER, JOSEF, bom at Schwaz, 
Tyrol, March 19, 1843. Genre and land- 
scape painter, pupil of Piloty in 1869-72, 
having for years endured great hardships 
as apprentice to house painters in Munich. 
In 1872 he first began his studies from 
nature at the Chiem Lake, whither he has 
since returned every summer, and which 
has furnished the motives for his finest pro- 
ductions. Works : Wood Interior ; School 
Children frightened by Boar ; Procession 
on Stamberg Lake ; Fugitive Alsacians look- 
ing back upon their Burning Village ; Hansl 
and Gretl ; Rttbezahl ; Schneewittchen ; 
Daumling ; Das Lachspassen ; Ave Maria 
(25 times) ; Going to Baptism ; Going to 
Communion ; Fishermen Family on Chiem 
Lake ; Pursuit of Poachers on Chiem Lake 
(1884).— AUgem. K C, viii. 222, 531 ; ix. 
877 ; Illustr. Zeitg. (1886), i. 187 ; Kunst- 
Chronik, xviii 419 ; xix. 631, 659 ; xx. 279 ; 
Zeitschr. £ b. K, xx. 74. 

ael. See RaphaeVs Bible. 

WORMS, ANTON VON. See Woensam. 

WORMS, JULES, bora in Paris, Dec. 16, 
1832. Genre painter, pupil of Lafosse. 
Has travelled in various countries, especial- 
ly in Spain. Medals: 1867, 1868, and 
1869 ; 3d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1876. 
Works : Field Forges, Dragoon courting 
Nurse (1859) ; Arrest for Debt (1861) ; 


Digitized by 



Fountain in Burgos (1863), LaTal Museum ; 
Tayern in the Asturias, Departure of Smug- 
glers (1865) ; Kitchen 
in Valencia, Bace in 
Valencia (1866) ; Scene 
in Old Castile (1867) ; 
Romance h la Mode 
(1868), Luxembourg 
Museum ; Welcome 
Visitor, Precocious Tal- 
ent (1869) ; Selling a 
Mule, Box of Letters 
(1870); Sheep-Shear- 
ing in Granada (1872) ; An Aunt by Succes- 
sion (1873) ; Littie Cabinet-Maker (1874) ; 
Sensational News, One's Vocation (1875) ; 
Dancing the Vito in Granada, Gbing to the 
Review (1876) ; Fountain of the Bull in 
Granada (1877), Miss 0. L. Wolfe, New 
York ; Distracted Barber, Every Age has 
its Pleasures (1878) ; Pastoral Tournament 
(1879) ; Before the Alcalde (1880) ; PubHc 
Writer (1882) ; Politicians (1883).— BeUier, 
iL 725 ; Larousse. 

GUST, bom in Vienna in 1829. History 
painter, pupil of Vienna Academy. Works : 
Journey of the Magi with their Retinue, 
Vienna Museum ; Jacob and Rachel at the 
Well (1860) ; Hannibal crossing the Alps ; 
Count Starhemberg on the Earthwork (1871). 
In fresco : The Stations, Arcades of Ceme- 
tery, Innsbruck ; Scenes in Life of Christ, 
Chapel of Castle Ambras, near Innsbruck. 

MUND, bom in Vienna in 1827. Land- 
scape and figure painter, brother of pre- 
ceding, pupil of Vienna Academy under 
Steinfeld and Thomas Ender, and much in- 
fluenced by Ftlhrich ; went in 1855 to Pal- 
estine, then studied for a year and a half in 
Italy, and settled at Innsbruck in 1859. 
Many of his works are in private collections 
there, and several are in possession of the Im- 
perial family. Keen observation of nature 
and strong contrast of colouring are the 
main features of his pictures, and he is 
equally happy in the representation of the 

sunny south and the grandeur of his native 
glaciers. Works: Eight Tyrolese Views 
in tempera. Savings Bank, Innsbruck ; Orvi- 
eto, Ideal Eastern Landscape with Samson 
and the Lion, Ferdinandeum, ib.; Castle 
Tyrol, Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria ; 
Apollo among the Shepherds ; Orpheus in 
Erebus ; Multiplication of the Loaves ; 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; Par- 
cival Cycle (18 cartoons, 1883).--AIlgem. 
K. C, viiL 398, 720. 

VICH, bom in 1787, died in Si Peters- 
burg in 1855. Architecture and landscape 
painter, pupil of Schtschedrin and of Alex6- 
jeff ; visited the East and Italy, and became 
professor at St Petersburg Academy in 
1825. Works: View of Moscow (1818), 
Interior of Armenian Church in Jerusalem, 
Interior of Church of Golgotha (1824), Sub- 
terranean Church at Bethlehem (1838), Her- 
mitage, Si Petersburg ; View of Constanti- 
nople ; The Neva Quay in a Summer Night. 
— Cotta's EunstbL, 1842 ; Raczynski, iiL 

aux blesses), £douard Detaille, Samuel 
Hawk Collection, New York ; canvas. A 
convoy of German prisoners, on foot, pass- 
ing a French general and his escort, mount- 
ed, on the highway ; the latter salute the 
captives with military politeness, the offi- 
cers by raising their caps, the cuirassiers 
by the ordinary gesture. Painted in 1875 
by commission from Mr. Samuel Hawk from 
a sketch submitted by the artist This 
sketch, also in Hawk Collection, represents 
French prisoners escorted by helmeted Ger- 
mans, but the artist finally changed the re- 
spective uniforms out of regard to the feel- 
ings of his friends, who objected to sending 
to America a painting of French prisoners. 
At Detaille's request, the picture was re- 
turned to France for exhibition in the Sa- 
lon of 1877 ; but the objection was again 
raised that it would be ridiculous to exhibit 
in public a scene representing Cterman pris- 
oners, so the artist redressed the captives 


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with water-colours as Austrians, maldng the 
picture an episode of Solf erino. On return- 
ing the canvas to Mr. Hawk, these water- 
colours were washed away, and the picture 
remains now as originally painted. — ^Art 
Treasures of America, it 25. 

WOUTERS, FRANS, bom at lierre, 
Brabant, baptized Oct 2, 1612, died in Ant- 
werp in 1659. Flemish school ; history and 
landscape painter, pupil of Pieter van Avont 
and of Rubens ; master of Antwerp guild 
in 1634 ; went soon after to (Germany, where 
we find him in 1637 as court painter to Fer- 
dinand n., with whose ambassador he went 
to England and there became painter to the 
Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles 11.; had 
returned to Antwerp in 1641, and was dean 
of the guild in 1649. Works : Dance of 
Amorettes, Hampton Court Gkdlery ; Pro- 
metheus Bound, Nude Figure vrith Cbr- 
land, lille Museum ; Venus and Adonis, 
Copenhagen Gallery ; Sacrifice to Priapus, 
Royal Palace, Berlin ; Two Landscapes, Cas- 
sel Gallery; Conflagration in Dutch City, 
Stadel Gallery, Frankfort ; Rape of Europa, 
Gotha Museum ; Diana Hunting (1630), Vi- 
enna Museum. The two pictures, in the 
same museum, representing Si Joachim and 
Si Joseph, formerly ascribed to him, are by 
Magdalena Woutiers, of Mons, Hainault, who 
flourished in the first half of the 17th cen- 
tury. — Immerzeel, iii. 248 ; Michiels, viii. 
192 ; Rooses (Reber), 319 ; Van den Bran- 
den, 805. 

WOUWERMAN (Wouverman), JAN, 
bom in Haarlem, baptized Oci 30, 1629, 
died there, buried Dec. 1, 1666. Dutch 
school ; landscape painter, brother of Phil- 
ips Wouwerman, entered Haarlem guild in 
1655. He painted hilly landscapes, views of 
canals, and wide plains, with strong colour- 
ing and light effects, and enlivened them 
by figures and animals. Very few of his 
pictures exist, and several are probably at- 
tributed to Jan Wynants, whose manner his 
own closely resembles. Works : Landscape 
with Horsemen, Arenberg Gallery, Brus- 
View in Haarlem, Haai*lem Muse- 

um ; Hilly Landscape, Rotterdam Museum ; 
Rocky Ravine with Figures, Liechtenstein 
Gallery, Vienna ; The Halt, New York Mu- 
seum. — Burger, Mus^s, ii. 303 ; Dohme, 
Iii.; Van der Willigen, 341. 

WOUWERMAN, PHHJPS, bom in Haar- 
lem, baptized 
May 24, 1619, 
died there, May 
19, 1668. Dutch 
school; land- 
scape, genre, and 
animal painter, 
first instructed by 
his father Pau- 
wels Joosten, 
then pupil of Jan 
Wynants, whose 
influence is traceable in his backgrounds. 
He introduced groups of horses, hunts, sol- 
diers, in the manner of Pieter van Laer, but 
with far more variety. His figures and ani- 
mals are well drawn and animated, and the 
general tone is tender and harmonious. He 
painted nearly eight hundred pictures, 
including many repetitions of the same 
motive. In his first style the brown tone, 
heavy race of hoi*ses, and angular drawing of 
figures remind one of Pieter van Laer. His 
second style is distinguished by the pure 
golden tone and slender build of horses, and 
the third by the prevalence of a dull silvery 
tone. Works : Belle Laiti^re, Interior of 
Stable, Fishwomen on Seashore, Gathering 
Faggots, Landscape, Stag Hunt, Skirmish, 
Two Vedettes on Watch, National Gallery, 
London ; Two Horsemen and Lady, Coup 
de Pistolet, Farmer attacked by Robbers, 
Hawking Party, six others, Buckingham 
Palace, ib.; three in Bridge water Gallery, 
ib. ; Ferme au Colombier, four others. Lord 
Ashburton, ib.; Hawking Party, Huntsmen 
halting before Inn, Mr. Hope, ib.; Horse- 
Fair, Grosvenor Gkdlery, ib. ; Horseman with 
Hounds, Inn with Tents, Mr. Baring, ib.; 
Racing for the Herring, four others, Mr. 
Holford, ib.; Riding Party, Hawking Party, 
Alfred de Rothschild, ib. ; Woman and Child 


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on a Hill, three others, Mr. Neeld, ib.; six 
in Dulwich Gallery ; Procession of Boeuf 
Gras, Start for Chase, Stag Hunt, eleven 
others, Louvre, Paris ; Start for Hunt, Milk- 
ing the Goat, Brussels Museum ; Chariot ii 
Foin, Battle-Piece, seven others, Hague Mu- 
seum ; Peasants* Brawl, Riding School, Far- 
rier, ten others, Amsterdam Museum ; Sol- 
diers Plundering, Equestrian Portrait, Rot- 
terdam Museum ; Horsemen by a Sluice, 
Basle Museum ; Destruction of English 
Fleet in 1667, Mus^e Rath, Geneva ; Fal- 
coners, Seaport, Battle, nineteen others, 
Cassel Gallery ; Ascension, Brunswick Gal- 
lery ; Landscapes (2), Hamburg Grallery ; 
Stag Hunt, Halt before Inn, Copenhagen 
Gallery ; Riding School, Halt of Hunting 
Party, foui* others, Berlin Museum; Stag 
Hunt, Battle of Nordlingen, Pillage, Water- 
ing Place, twelve others, Old Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Annunciation to Shepherds, St. 
John Preaching, sixty-four others, Dresden 
GkJlery ; Travellers Attacked, four others. 
Museum, Vienna ; others in Academy, Liech- 
tenstein (7), Czemin (2), and Harrach Gal- 
leries, ib. ; nine in Stockholm Museum ; 
forty-nine (3 dated 1650, 1653, 1656), Her- 
mitage, St. Petersburg ; ten in Madrid Mu- 
seum ; others in Galleries and Museums of 
Aschaffenburg, Christiania (2), Frankfort 
(5), Gotha (3), Hamburg (3), Leipsic (3), 
Oldenburg, Schleissheim (2), Schwerin (6), 
Stuttgart (3), Worlitz (2), Turin (3) ; Moltke 
Collection, Copenhagen (4) ; Historical So- 
ciety, New York (5) ; Landscape (£74), 
Skirmish of Cavalry (£320), Storming of a 
Town (£450), Blenheim sale, London, 1886. 
y^^ y^^ — Ch. Blanc, iJcole 

Vv^ Jfy/' (J ^j y/V. hollandaise, Bur- 
W^A^. <16 ^^l/y ger, Musses, i. 126, 
^ffV)^^ w 268 ; ii. 96 ; Doh- 

y>?'/i^W,^ ^e, lil; Immer- 

zeel, iii 249; Kramm, vii. 167; Eugler 
(Crowe), ii. 430 ; De Stuers, 187 ; Van der 
Willigen, 338 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, vi. 48 ; x. 
(Mittheilungen, iiL 44) ; xii. (Mii, v. 35). 

WOUWERMAN, PIETER, bom in Haar- 
lem, baptized Sepi 13, 1623, died in Am- 

sterdam, buried May 9, 1682 (?). Dutch 
school ; landscape, genre, and animal paint- 
er, pupil of his father Pauwels Joosten and 
of his brother Philips, whom he probably 
assisted in his pictures, the gi*eat number of 
which could otherwise hardly be explained. 
Lived in Amsterdam about 1662, and proba- 
bly also in Paris about 1664 Though he 
never attained the silvery tints and brilliant 
colouring of his brother, whose pictures he 
often copied, many of his works pass under 
the latter's name. Works : View of Porte 
de Nesle, Louvre, Paris; Riding School, 
Museum, Brussels ; Falcon Chase, Stag 
Hunt, Arenberg Gallery, ib. ; Assault on a 
City, Hunting Party, Amsterdam Museum ; 
Kirmess, Haarlem Museum ; Broken Milk- 
Pot, Carlsruhe Gallery ; Mowers, Stag Hunt, 
Bargaining for Fish, Rotterdam Museum ; 
three, Cassel Gallery ; View of Pont Neuf, 
Horseman and Beggar Woman, Hunting 
Booty, Brunswick Grallery ; View of Paris, 
Castle on the Cliff, Gallery, Copenhagen ; 
Military Camp, Combat between Polish and 
Swedish Horsemen, Moltke Collection, ib. ; 
Hunters Resting, Huntsman on 'Horseback, 
Stockholm Museum ; Siege of Fortified 
Town, Berlin Museum ; six in Hermitage, 
St Petersburg ; others in Galleries and 
Museums at Augsburg, Gotha (2), Olden- 
burg, Stuttgart, Wiesbaden, New York ; 
Czernin Gkdlei-y, Vienna ; Uffizi, Florence. 
— Ch. Blanc, ]ficole hollandaise ; Dohme, 
IiL ; Van der Willigen, 340. 

Hitzhusen, Holstein, March 12, 1843. Land- 
scape painter, first instructed by an obscure 
painter at Kiel, then pupil of Oswald Ach- 
enbach at the Dasseldorf Academy, whence 
he made study trips to Copenhagen, Hol- 
land, Antwerp, and Brussela After a winter 
spent at the art school in Weimar he visited 
the Isle of Sylt, went in 1871 to Munich, 
studied in the Bavarian Alps and in Tyrol, 
then went to Italy and Sicily, and in 1875 
to Berlin, where he studied figure painting 
at the Academy. Since 1879 he has lived at 
Gremsmtlhlen in Holstein. 


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in Washington, Conn., Dec. 19, 1828, died 
in Hartford, Jan. 29, 1881. Portrait paint- 
er ; after studying in a studio and in the 
life school of the National Academy in New 
York, he settled in Hartford and painted 
portraits for five years ; then studied two 
years in Europe, chiefly in Munich under 
Albert Grafle, but partly in Rome. He 
painted at various times at Springfield, DL, 
and in other Western and Southern cities, 
but worked principally in Hartford, Conn. 
Among his portraits are many of the gov- 
ernors and other prominent men of Illinois 
and of Connecticut, and he was one of the 
first, if not the first, to paint Abraham Lin- 
coln. He was an excellent colourisi 

WRIGHT, JOSEPH (Wright of Derby), 
bom at Derby, England, Sept. 3, 1734, died 
there, Aug. 29, 1797. Went in 1761 to Lon- 
don, and studied under Thomas Hudson, the 
master of Reynolds ; became at first a por- 
trait painter, but afterwards devoted him- 
self chiefly to landscape and genre subjects. 
Was in Italy in 1773-75, and made many 
sketches of flame effects, especially in an 
eruption of Vesuvius^ and with lights in the 
caves at Capri. In 1775 he became a stu- 
dent in the Royal Academy ; in 1781 he was 
elected an A.R.A, and in 1784 RA, but de- 
clined, though he continued to send pict- 
ures to the exhibitions. In landscape he 
was almost equal to Richard Wilson, and in 
portraiture he was a near rival of Gainsbor- 
ough. Works : The Air-Pump (1765), Na- 
tional Gallery, London ; The Orrery, Cor- 
poration of Derby ; The Alchemist ; The 
Forge ; Miravan ; Girl with Doves ; Boys 
with a Bladder, William D. James, Esq.; 
The Gladiator ; The Captive ; Old Man and 
Death, Sir Henry Wilmot, Bari; Edwin 
(Beattie's "Minstrel"), Lord Houghton; 
Maria (Sterne's "Sentimental Journey"), 
William Bemrose, Esq.; Antigonus in the 
Storm ("Winter's Tale"), Haskett Smith; 
Eruption of Vesuvius ; Belshazzar's Feast ; 
Head of TJUeswater ; Dead Soldier. — Red- 
grave ; Ch. Blanc, !^le anglaise ; Art Jour- 

nal (1883), 205 ; Wm. Bemrose, Life of Jo- 
seph Wright (London, 1886). 

WRIGHT, JOSEPH, bom at Borden- 
town, N. J., July 16, 1756, died in New 
York in 1793. Portrait painter ; taken in 
1772 by his mother, a noted wax-modeller, 
to London, where he was aided by Benjamin 
West and by John Hoppner, who married 
his sister. He visited Paris in 1782, and 
returned to America the following year and 
painted General and Mrs. Washington for 
Comte de Solma In 1787 he lived in New 
York, but in 1790 he followed Congress to 
Philadelphia, and in 1792 was appointed die- 
sinker to the newly-established mini He 
painted Mr. Madison and other noted men. 
Work : Portrait of John Jay (1786), Histor- 
ical Society, New York. — Dunlap, i. 312. 

Scotland about 1625, died in London about 
1700. Pupil of Gteorge Jamesone ; went to 
England when about sixteen years old, and 
soon won reputation as a portrait painter ; 
afterwards lived several years in Italy, and 
was elected in 1648 a member of the Acad- 
emy of St Luke, Florence. Painted many 
persons of distinction, among them Prince 
Rupert and the Judges of Guildhall. At 
Hampton Court is a portrait by him of 
Lacy the actor (1675). His nephew, of the 
same name, was educated in Rome and be- 
came a famous portrait painter in Ireland. 
— Redgrave. 

WRIGHT, RUFUS, bom in Cleveland, 
O., in 1832. Portrait and genre painter, 
pupil of the National Academy and of 
George A. Baker in New York. Has paint- 
ed in New York, Washington, and Brook- 
lyn ; elected member of the Brooklyn Acad- 
emy in 1866. Ideal works : Inventor and 
the Banker, Morning Bouquet (1876) ; Thank 
you. Sir ! (1877) ; Concerned for his Sole 
(1878) ; Feeding the Birds (1880) ; Portraits 
of Chief Justice Taney, Secretaries Seward 
and Stanton, Isaac H Read, and othera 

WTE-WAEL See Uitewad. 

bom in Holland about 1610-15, died at So- 


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roe, Denmark, in May, 1683. Dutch school ; 
history and portrait painter ; called to Den- 
mark in 1638 by Christian IV., and went 
there, probably in company with his brother- 
in-law, Karel van Mander, the younger ; was 
court painter for twenty-five years, then re- 
tired to Soroe. Works : Prince Waldemar 
Christian of Denmark, Male Portrait, Co- 
penhagen Gallery ; Female Portrait, Chris- 
tiania Gallery ; Portrait of a Jeweller (1644), 
Darmstadt Museum (?) ; Continence of 
Scipio, Konigsberg Museum (?) ; Christian 
IV. of Denmark, Vienna Museum. — Kramm, 
vi. 1883 ; Nagler, xxii. 122 ; WeUbach, 760. 

WUEST, ALEXANDER, bom in Amer- 
ica ; contemporary. Landscape painter in 
Brussels ; paints mountain views from Scan- 
dinavia and North America, with good col- 
ouring. Medals: Brussels and The Hague, 
1866; Vienna, 1873. Works: Mountain 
Torrent in Norway, New York Museum ; 
The Catskills, New Haven Gtdlery ; Nor- 
wegian Waterfall ; Huntsmen on Sogne 
Fjord ; Life in Canadian Woods. 

Goes, Zealand, in September, 1804. History 
and genre painter, pupil of Ducq and of 
Bruges Academy, then studied in Paris 
(1829-32), and after his return won the first 
prize at Ghent Works : Corps-de-Garde of 
Bmges (1831), Child leaving the Bath, 
Bruges Academy ; Venus at Grave of Adonis 
(1832) ; Foster Brothers (1838), Ghent Mu- 
seum ; Kirmess, Brussels Museum ; Death 
of Admiral Ruyter ; Waking and Sleeping ; 
Christ at Gethsemane ; Maria Consolatrix. 
His wife Clara, nee Rooman, is a good 
genre painter ; medal, Ghent, 1835, for 
Maternal Lesson. — ^Immerzeel, liL 251. 

seldorf, Nov. 10, 1850. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Dasseldorf Academy under Deger and 
Eduard von Gebhardt ; went in 1876 to 
Rome, and became professor at the Cassel 
Academy in 1882. Works : Praying Wom- 
an in Choir of Church ; In the Confession- 
al ; Li the Park ; Lady with Kittens (1878); 
Centaur ; Old Italian IdyL—MttUer, 567. 

WURMSER, NICOLAUS, of Strassburg, 
14th century. German school ; history 
painter, who came to Bohemia in 1348, en- 
tered the service of Charles IV. in 1359, 
and in the year following was appointed 
court painter. His figures are hard in 
tone, and weak in the extremities, but de- 
spite these defects his pictures are notable 
for independent thought, ideality, and pow- 
erful colour. Works : Scenes from the Apoc- 
alypse, Chapel of Burg Karlstein, near 
Prague ; Christ on the Cross, Vienna Mu- 
seum. — Kugler (Crowe), L 38; do., Kl. 
Schriften, ii. 498 ; Schnaase, vi 439 ; W. & 
W., i 394 ; Gaz. des B. Arts (1873), vil 
148 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, x. 366. 

WURZINGER, KARL, bom in Vienna 
in 1817, died at Dobling, near Vienna, 
March 16, 1883. History painter, pupil of 
Vienna Academy ; won the grand prize in 
1845, and went to Rome in 1847, where he 
remained ten years ; afterwards became pro- 
fessor at Vienna Academy. Medals : Ber- 
lin, 1866 ; Paris, 3d class, 1867. Orders of 
Francis Joseph and of St. Michael Works : 
Joseph explaining the Dream ; Death of 
King Ottokar (1847) ; Emperor Ferdinand 
n. refusing his Signature to the Protestant 
Delegation (1856), Vienna Museum ; Saul 
and David; Count Starhemberg wounded 
at Siege of Vienna. — Mdller, 567; Kunst- 
Chronik, xviii. 431. 

Ztirich, May 14, 1741, died there in 1821. 
Landscape painter ; for six years appren- 
ticed to a house painter, then went to Hol- 
land, destitute of means, and at Amsterdam 
was befriended by the portrait painter Ja- 
cob Maurer, of Schaflfhausen, and the art 
patron Ploos van Amstel, who procured for 
him commissions there and in Rotterdam. 
After five years in Holland he spent two in 
Paris, and returned home in 1769, when his 
landscapes found immediately great favour. 
Works : Forest Idyl, Berne Museum ; Even- 
ing Landscape, two others, Zurich Gkdlery ; 
Moonlight, Huts and Oaks by a Brook, 
Aschaffenburg Gallery; Waterfall (1797), 


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Landscape with do., Darmstadt Museum ; 
Two Landscapes, Stuttgart Museum. — 
Faessli, Gesch. der besten Mai. in der 
Schweiz, iv. 180. 

WTJTKY, MICHAEL, bom at Krems, 
Nether Austria, in 1739, died in Vienna in 
1822. Landscape painter, pupil of Vienna 
Academy under Meytens in 1759, when he 
successfully followed historical painting, 
and won four prizes ; later went to Italy 
and, studying especially after Poussin and 
Claude Lorrain, soon established his repu- 
tation as an excellent landscape painter ; 
spent six years (1781-87), chiefly in Bome, 
returned to Vienna, and visited Italy again 
in 1805. Member (1770) of, and professor 
in, Vienna Academy. Works : Eruption of 
Vesuvius, Lake Avemus near Naples, Har- 
rach Gkdlery, Vienna ; Landscapes with Cat- 
tle, Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck ; others in 
Johanneum, Gratz. — Nagler, xxiL 137. 

Port Washington, O., Jan. 11, 1836. Land- 
scape painter ; went abroad about 1866, be- 
came a pupil of Hans Gude in Carlsruhe, 
and student of the works of Turner and 
Constable in London. Exhibited first at 
the National Academy, New York, in 1865. 
Elected an A.N.A. in' 1868 and N.A. in 1869. 
Studio in New York. Works in oil: A 
Storm (1861) ; Staten Island from Jersey 
Meadows (1867) ; Scene on Upper Susque- 
hanna (1869) ; Pool on the Au Sable (1871) ; 
View on Lake George (1875) ; Old Field, 
Morning— Essex County, N. Y., T. B. Clarke, 
New York ; New England Landscape (1878) ; 
Old Clearing (1881), Robert Gordon ; In the 
Township of Greenwich, Scene in the Adi- 
rondacks (1882) ; Anywhither (1883) ; Old 
Stubble -Field, Forenoon — Adirondacks 
(1884) ; Evening, Summer (1885) ; Sunset, 
Near Killamey (1886). Water-colours: 
Scene on Upper Little Miami (1867) ; New 
Jersey Meadows (1870); Sunset on the 
Prairie (1876) ; Beminiscence of the Con- 
necticut (1878). 

WYCK, THOMAS, bom at Beverwyck in 
1616, died in Haarlem, buried Aug. 19, 1677. 

Dutch school ; landscape, marine, and genre 
painter ; registered in the Haarlem guild in 
1642, was its dean in 1660 ; studied chiefly 
in Italy, especially in the enyirons of Na- 
ples, where he made many sketches which 
he afterwards used for his coast Tiew& 
Italian markets, charlatans, alchemists, eta, 
with palatial buildings in the background, 
were among his favourite subjects. He fol- 
lowed in one respect the style of Pieter de 
Laar ; but^ although his pictures are good 
in composition, drawing, and execution, 
they are cold and heavy in colour. Works : 
Boman Euin, Haarlem Museum ; Alchemist, 
Eustic Interior, Amsterdam Museum ; Wom- 
an and Children at Home, Botterdam Muse- 
um; Italian Seaport, AschafFenburg Gkd- 
lery ; do., Bamberg Gallery ; Alchemist (3), 
Cassel GkiUery ; do., and Start for the Chase, 
Brunswick Gallery ; Lane in Italian Town, 
Moltke Collection, Copenhagen ; Italian 
Mountain Scenery, Christiania Gallery; 
Italian Coast Views (3), Hamburg GkiUery ; 
Scholar in his Study, Darmstadt Museum ; 
Alchemist (2), Italian Landscape, Dresden 
Gtdlery ; Buins on Seashore, Old Building 
with Well, Museum, Vienna ; Seaport, Acad- 
emy, ib.; others in Galleries and Museums 
at Augsburg, Copenha- 

at Augsburg, Copenha- ^ m 

gen (2), Frankfort (2), fT^/"^U 
Innsbruck, Kdnigsberg, \Jwr \j C/V 

Leipsic, Munich, Schwe- 
rin (3), Stuttgart ; Her- 
mitage, St Petersburg 
(3) ; Liechtenstein (3, 
one dated 1647), Ozer^ 
nin (2), and Schonbom 
(2) Gkdleries, Vienna ; UfiSzi, Florence. — 
Ch. Blanc, £cole hollandaise ; Immerzeel, 
iii 252 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii. 454 ; Kegel, 
Beitr&ge, ii 373 ; Van der Willigen, 342. 

WYLD, WILLIAM, bom in London; 
contemporary. Landscape and architecture 
painter ; studied mostly in travelling in It- 
aly, Spain, and Algiers, and settled in P^ui& 
His vFater-colours are especially creditable. 
Medals: dd class, Pans, 1839; 2d dass, 
1841 ; Legion of Honour, 1866. Works : 

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Bagn^res de Bigorre ; View of Bayonne ; 
Elcantara in Algiers ; Milan Cathedral ; 
Piazetta in Venice ; Corso Vittorio Emanu- 
ele in Milan ; Strada Nuova in Genoa ; 
Street in Prague ; Forest Border near 
Tours, Ghent Museum ; Mont Saint-Michel 
(1869), Luxembourg Museum ; Ideal Land- 
scape, Berne Museum ; Armenian Convent 
in Venice (1883); Sunset near Tarent (1884); 
Isle of St George— Venice (1885) ; Palm- 
Trees of Bordighera, Bab-a-Zo\m Street in 
Algiera (1886). 

WYUE, ROBERT, bom in the Isle of 
Man in 1839, died in Brittany in 1877. 
Genre painter, brought to America when a 
child ; pupil of the Pennsylvania Academy, 
Philadelphia, by the directors of which he 
was sent in 1863 to France to study. Med- 
al : 2d class, Paris Salon, 1872. Works : 
Reading the Letter from the Bridegroom 
(1869) ; Breton Portune-Teller (1872) ; Bre- 
ton Neighbours reading Hugo's "'93," D. HI 
McAlpine, New York ; Five Brittany Chil- 
dren, J. H. Stebbins, ib.; Breton Group, 
Mrs. W. P. Wilstach, Philadelphia ; Mendi- 
cants in Brittany, Card-Players in Brittany, 
G. A. Drummond, Baltimore ; Death of a 
Vendean Chief (1876-77), Metropolitan Mu- 
seum, New York. 

WYNANTS, JAN, bom in Haarlem about 
1615, died after 1679. Dutch school ; land- 
scape painter, whose pictures are character- 
ized by a certain prosaic ti*uthf ulness, fine 
aerial perspective, silvery toned backgrounds, 
and careful execution of details. Adriaan 
van de Velde, Lingelbach, and Wouwerman, 
also Barent Gael, Schellinks, and Helt- 
Stockade, supplied his foreground figures. 
Works : Landscapes (4), Sandbank in a 
River, National Gkdlery, London ; others in 
Buckingham Palace, and in collections of 
Lord Ashburton and Mr. Baring, ib.; For- 
est Border (1668), Landscapes (2), Louvre ; 
Landscapes (4), Brussels Museum ; do. (2), 
Antwerp Museum ; do. (2, 1659, 1675), 
Hague Museum ; do. (8, one dated 1669), 
Amsterdam Museum ; do. (8, three dated 
1651, 1666, 1672), Munich GaUery ; do. (3), 

Dresden Gallery; do. (2, one dated 1674), 

Vienna Museum ; do. (1666), Liechtenstein 

Gallery, Vienna ; do. (2), Czemin Gallery, 

ib. ; do. (3) Schonborn Historical Society, 

ib.; do. (8, three dated 1666, 1675, 1679), 

J Hermitage, St. Pe- 

/^Vl 0/ tersburg ; others in 

^^^^[Oj Augsburg, Copenha- 

n ^if^ gen (1660), Stock- 

J M/^. r ^^^^» ^^^* (^^^1)' 

^ VIXyy^CUilA Aschaffenburg, 

I AAJ V( I^armstadt (1671), 

J/V^^ruuu)^ and Stadel (1671) 
JO CL Galleries. — Immer- 
•^ zeel, iii. 253 ; Kramm, 

vi. 1891 ; Kugler (Crowe), ii 463 ; Dohme, 
liL; Burger, Musses, L 138 ; Zeitschr. f. b. 
K, xiii. 63. 

1837. Grand-nephew of David Wilkie. 
History painter, pupil in London of J. 
M. Leigh ; exhibited first in 1859, Undine. 
Works : Meeting of Edward IV. and Eliza- 
beth Woodville (1863); Rival Queens (1864); 
Last Days of Elizabeth (1865) ; Death of 
Cromwell (1867) ; Cromwell's First Appear- 
ance in Parliament (1868) ; Rich Widow 
(1869); Communication of Importance (1870); 
Round the Fountain ; Confidences (1871) ; 
Arrest of Anne Boleyn (1872) ; The Ladye's 
Knight (1873); Visit from Inquisitors (1874); 
Queen Elizabeth and Essex (1875); New 
Curate, Market Morning (1876) ; David be- 
fore Saul, Discovery of Gbld in Australia, 
Harvest Decorations (1877) ; Joseph and 
his Brethren, Sunny Hours (1878) ; Ruth 
and Boaz (1879) ; At Traitor's Gate (1880) ; 
Origin of the English Woollen Trade (1881); 
Royal Musician (1882) ; Courtship of Will- 
iam n. of Orange (1883); Last "On dit" 
(1884) ; Fall of Queen EHzabeth Woodville 
(1886).— Portfolio (1871), 84 

WYNTRACK, D., 17th century, bom in 
Drenthe, Netherlands. Dutch school ; ani- 
mal and landscape painter ; very skilfully 
represented poultry, with which he often 
supplied the landscapes of Wynants and 
RuisdaeL His own landscapes are animated 


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with birds true to nature. Works : Farm- 
yard, Louvre; Interior of Dutch Kitchen, 
Hamburg GhJlery ; Autumn Landscape, 
Christiania Museum ; Ducks in Landscape 
by Wynants (1671), Stadel Gallery, Prank- 
foi-t ; Two Village Views, Hermitage, Si 

WYTMAN, MATHEUS, born at Gorinch- 
em about 1650, died about 1689. Dutch 
school ; genre, landscape, and still-life paint- 
er, pupil of Hendrik Verschuuring and J. 
Bylaert in Utrecht, painted elaborate genre 
pieces in the style of Caspar Netscher, with 
carefully executed landscapes for back- 
I ,. grounds. Later 

tA . \\yyTrn^a/n^ he devoted him- 

self successfully 
to fruit and flower painting. Works : Girl 
turning Leaves of Music Book, Dresden Mu- 
seum ; Two Portraits, Schwerin Gallery. — 
Immerzeel, iiL 254. 

W. T. Walters, Baltimore; water- 
colour, dated 1883. Scene from 
"A Question," by George Ebers. "The 
marble seat, on which the young people's 
fate was decided, was called by the grand- 
children of the wedded pair, who lived in 
old age in love and harmony, the bench of 
the question." 

XENO, Greek painter, of Sicyon, pupil 
of Neocles, date unknown. Mentioned by 
Pliny (xxxv. 40 [146]) as of fair reputation. 

bom in Copenhagen, April 1, 1840. Ma- 
rine and landscape painter, pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy, then in Munich of Christian 
Morgenstem ; lived in Copenhagen in 1862- 
68, visited London in 1866, and settled in 
Munich in 1868. Works : Moonlight on 
Lake Stamberg ; do. near Hdgen^ ; do. 
on North Sea ; Coast of Southampton ; 
Mouth of the Thames ; Hamburg Harbour ; 
Isle of Sylt ; Flensburg Harbour ; Moon- 
light on Roadstead of Portsmouth ; do. 
near Hellebeck on the Sound. — Mdller, 
669 ; Weilbach, 764. 

YANEZ, HERNANDO, bom at Alme- 
dina, La Mancha, died between 1660 
and 1660. Spanish school ; painted 
in 1631 a series of pictures on panel for 
chapel of the Albomoces, Cathedral of Cu- 
enca. Their resemblance to the manner of 
Leonardo da Vinci led to a belief that he 
might have studied in his school — Stirling, 
L 162. 

YARMOUTH PIER, John Constable. 
Foreground, a beach, with pier at right ; 
at left, vessels at sea. Royal Academy in 
1831. Engraved by D. Luca& — Brock-Ar- 
nold, 106. 

YARZ, EDMOND, bom at Toulouse; 
contemporary. Landscape painter. Men- 
tion honourable; Medal, 3d class, 1884. 
Works : Under the Apple-Trees, Cross- 
Road (1876) ; Vineyards near Toulouse, 
(Jate of the Louvre (1878) ; Arab Cbrden 
in Morocco (1879) ; Heaths in Bloom near 
Fontainebleau, Fountain of Touarc (1880) ; 
Spring in a Park (1881) ; Entrance to the 
Canal of Giudecca, Autumn Morning (1882); 
Quay of the Slavonians in Venice at Twi- 
light, Night in Venice (1883) ; Entrance to 
Grand Canal, Statue of CoUeone at Venice 
(1884) ; (rardon River, Rocks of Malpas 

bom at Taganrog, 
South Russia, De- 
cember, 1836. His- 
tory and genre 
painter; taken by 
his father, British 
Consul at Tagan- 
rog, to Italy in 
1842-43 ; studied 
in Dresden from 
1843 to 1848, when - 
he became a pupil in London of J. S. West- 
macott and of George Scharf ; in 1862 went 
to Florence, and studied two years under 
Professor Pallastrini and Ra&elle Buona- 
juti; later studied in Rome, and returned 
to England in 1868. Exhibited at Royal 
Academy, in 1869, The Staunch Friend; 


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elected an A.R A. in 1867, and R A in 1878. 
Works : Meeting of Sir Thomas More with 
his Daughter (1863) ; La Eeine Malheureuse 
(1864); The Stepping-Stones, Arming the 
Toung Knight (1865); Queen Elizabeth's 
Reception of the French Ambassador after 
St Bartholomew's Day (1866); Dawn of 
Reformation (1867) ;* Chimney Corner, Lady 
Jane Grey in the Tower (1868) ; Fugitive 
Jacobite, Alarming Footstep^ (1869) ; Maun- 
dy Thursday, Love's Y.oung Dream (1870) ; 
Dr. Harvey and Children of Charles t (1871) ; 
Old Parishioners (1872) ; The Suitor (1876) ; 
Last Bit of Scandal (1876) ; Amy Robsart, 
Wakiiig (1877) ; La Brigolante, When did 
you last see youx Father? (1878) ; Here we 
go round the Mulfeeny Bush, Dolce far 
niente (1881) ; Prmce Arthur and Hubert, 
March Past, Welcome as Flowers in Spring 
(1882) ; TenderThougiits (1883)^ Toast of 
the Eitcat Club, Tpots (188^); Prisoners 
of War in 1805, Dessert (1885) ;, IVfalyina, 
Catastrophe (1886). — Meynell, 116.; Art 
Journal (1874), 97 ; PortfoHo (1871), 81. 

YELLAND, RAYMOND ' D., born in 
London in 1848, and brought to America 
in his third year. Landscape painter, pu- 
pil of the National Academy and of William 
Page, Wilmarth, and Brevoort in New York% 
Elected an AN.iJ of the Califomiji. Art As- 
sociation in 1874, and assistant directgr of 
the School of Design in 1877. Studio in 
San Francisco. Works : Half-Moon Beach 
— Gloucester Harbour ; Seal Bocks — Gul- 
den Gate, San Francisco ; Point Bonita 
from Point Lobos— Golden Gate (1882); 
Mi Hood from Whit6 River Canon — Ore- 
gon (1883) ; Cypress Trees at Monterey — 
California. (1884) ; Seal Rocks— San Fran- 
cisco (1886). 

Thomas Moran, Capitol, Washington. Paint- 
ed in 1872.— Scribner's Mag., v. 499. ^, 

Everett MUlais, Mrs. Henry Hodgkinson, 
London ; canvas, H.4fi8 in.x3ft9in. 
A life-size, three-quarters length figure of 
one of the Queen's Yeomen of the Guard 

in his state uniform of scarlet, embroidered 
with black and gold, with medals and claq>s 
upon his breast, a baldric across his shoul- 
der, a white rufif around his neck, and the 
official cap of black velvet on his head. 
The old man, a veteran,, of Waterloo, sits 
upright in his chair, holding in his right 
hand his staff of office and in his left a 
folded paper containing his last orders. 
Boy^ Acadepiy, 1877 ; Exposition univer- 
splle, Paris, 1878 ; Fine Art Society, Lon- 
don, 1881 ; Grosvenor Gallery, 1886. ...Nev- 
^ jengraved. . Etched by Paul Eajon for 
Cyclopkdu op Painters and PAiNnNos, 
1887. , . , /. ' 

Havre-dfi-Grace, Md., Jan. 20, 1830. Land- 
scape ^d still-life painter, pupil of Thomas 
Hicks in N^w York, and of Couture in Paris. 
Lived several years in Bome. Elected N. A 
in 1880. Studio in New York. Works l 
Venice (1871) ; First Communion, Country 
Girl (1872) ; Senate Chamber— Interior of 
Ducal Palace (1877) ; Carpet Bazaar— Cairo, 
Mosque of Kait-Bey— Cairo (1878) ; Oriental 
Bric-^-Brac, Pulpit in S. Marco — Venice 
(1879); Village Street in Umbria— Italy 
(1880) ; Old Houses near Titian's Birthplace 
(1882); 'On the Bolton Eoad— Lake.Geprge, 
Portrait of, Alexand^^ Mitchell (1883) ; In 
the. Studio (1884) ; Entrance to Old Slave- 
Market in Cairo (1886) ; New Cordial, Old 
Music (1886) ; Young Monk (1886), William 
Walter Phelps. 

YKENS, FKANS, bom in Antwerp, bap- 
tized April 17, 1601, died there, probably 
in 1693. Flemish school ; still-life painter, 
pupil of Osias Beert; travelled in Fitmce 
about 1629, and became master of the guild 
at Antwerp in 1630 ; lived also in Brussels 
about 1666-67. Works : Flower-Piece, Mu- 
seum Plantin-Moretus, ' Antwerp ; Garland 
around Madonna, St. James's, ib.; Still-Life 
(1636), Ghent Museum; Fruit-Piece, Ber- 
lin Museum ; Festoon of Fruits (1662), Carls- 
ruhe G^ery ; Bouquet, Vienna Museum ; 
Game and Fruit, Madrid Museum. — Booses 
(Reber), 431 ; Van den Branden, 1180. 



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TKENS, PEETER^ bom at Antwerp, 
baptized Jan. 30, 1648, died there shortly 
after July, 1695. Flemish school ; history 
and portrait painter, son and pupil of Jan 
Ykens (1613-79, sculptor and painter); mas- 
ter of the guild in 1673, dean in 1689. 
Works : St Catharine disputing with the 
Philosophers (1684), Two Portraits (1690, 
1693), Museum, Antwerp ; Last Supper 
(1687), St. Andrew's, ib.; Portrait of Canon 
Emanuel van Horenbeeck, St James's, ib.; 
Christ giving the Keys to St Peter (1690), 
Church at Wommelghem ; Christ appearing 
to the Husband of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, 
Two Episodes in Life of St Francis Xavier, 
St Mary's Hospital, Mechlin ; Christ ap- 
pearing to St Theresa, Lille Museum. His 
sister, Catharinft (born in February, 1659), 
was a flower and fruit painter, pupil of her 
father, and master of the guild in 1688. In 
the Madrid Museum are by her a Festoon 
of Flowers and Fruits, and a Garland, both 
around small landscapes. His son, Jan 
Peeter (bom in /T\ 
1673), was also a />* * 
good painter. — 
Cat. du Mus 
d'Anvers, 548; Booses (Beber), 431; Van 
den Branden, 951, 1146. 

Montmartre, Paris, ^ , 

Feb. 2, 1836. Land- 
scape painter, pupil 
of Lequien. At flrst 
practised wood en- 
gitiTing, but since 
1875 has painted 
many charming 
views from the en- 
virons of Paris. 
Medals : 3d dass, 1875 ; 2d dass, 1879 ; 
L. of Honour, 1886. Works : Two Views 
near Montereau (1875) ; Branch of the 
Mame, Seine near Gravon (1876) ; Before 
the Bam (1878); Banks of the Mame (1879); 
Canal of La ViUette, Isle-les-Yillenoy on the 
Mame (1880) ; Villerville, Marsh of Cricque- 
bceuf (1881); Biver Eure (1882), Luxem- 


bourg Museum ; San Marco (1882) ; The 
Squall (1883); The Dune, Mouth of the 
Dive (1884); The Meuse at Dordrecht 
(1885); Frog Fishers, The Carp Hole (1886). 
— Bellier, ii. 728. 

bert Stuart Netotorif National Gkllery, Lon- 
don ; canvas,* H. 2 ft 5^ in. x 1 ft 10^ in. 
Interior of a hosier's shop. Yorick pur- 
chasing gloves, the beautiful grisette meas- 
uring them one by one across his hand 
(Sterne's ''Sentimental Journey'^. Boyal 
Academy, 1830. Vernon Collection. En- 
graved by W. Watt ; H. Bourne. 

YOSEMITE VALLEY, Albert Bierstadt, 
Lenox Library, New York. Painted in 
1866. Bierstadt painted also Looking down 
the Yosemite (1865), W. H. Crosby, New 
York ; and Domes of the Yosemite, an al- 
most panoramic picture, formerly owned by 
Le Grand Lockwood. 

By Thomas Hill, Charles Crocker, San 
Francisco. Painted in 1871 ; Philadelphia 
Exhibition, 1876. 

YOUNG BXJLL, Paul Potter, Hague Mu- 
seum ; canvas, H. 8 ft x 12 ft ; signed, 
dated 1647. The young bull, brownish-red 
vrith patches of white, standing on rising 
ground under a tree, beside which a cow 
and a ewe and her lamb are lying down, and 
a ram is standing ; behind a fence is a 
herdsman, vnth one hand on the tree, look- 
ing at the bull ; background, a Dutch dairy 
farm, with cattle. A masterpiece ; the ani- 
mals, of life-size, appear to live and breathe. 
Sold in Fabricius Collection, Haarlem, in 
1749, for 630 florins ; carried to Paris ; re- 
turned in 1816. Engraved by Le Bas ; 
Couche ; Battard ; etched ^ Denon. — 
Smith, V. 118; Ch. Blanc, Kcole hollan- 
daise ; Beveil, xL 789. 

YOXJNG, EDUABD, bom in Prague in 
1823. Genre and landscape painter, pupil 
in Munich of Piloty in 1864, having first 
studied at Linz, Upper Austria, and in Vi- 
enna, then (1855) in Munich, and been in- 
structor in drawing of King Frederick VH 
in Copenhagen, where he received the great 


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gold medal and the title of professor. Med- 1 Children ; Judith praying before her Deed, 
al, Vienna, 1873. Works: Girl on the Alp ; j — Cotta's Kunstbl. (1831, 1832) ; Immer- 
Smugglers ; Wedding Procession in the zeel, iii. 255. 
Mountains ; The Best Shot ; Prize Bull ; 
Return from Rural Festival.— MolJer, 570. 
YOUTH, FOUNTAIN OF, Lucas Cranach, 
elder, Berlin Museum ; wood, H 4 f t x 6 
ft; signed, dated 1546. In the centre a 
water-basin, from which rises a fountain 
with a statue of Venus and Love ; on one 
side old men are bringing, on waggons. 

Young Bull, Paul Potter, Hague Museum. 

wheelbarrows, and stretchers, their aged and 
ugly wives, and dumping them into the 
water-basin, on the opposite side of which 
they are emerging as young and comely 
maidens, who are led away by knights to a 
tent where a feast and a dance await them. 
— Schuchardt, iL 18 ; Jul. Meyer, D. konigL 
Mus. Gemalde, 99. 

Antwerp, Jan. 26,1801. History, genre, and 
portrait painter, pupil of Mattheus van Bree ; 
obtained the grand prize in 1823, spent four 
years in Italy and ten years in Paris ; be- 
came director of the Academy at Bergen in 
1840. Member of Amsterdam (1828) and 
Antwerp (1829) Academiea Medals : Paris, 
1840 ; Brussels, 1842. Order of Leopold. 
Works : Ecce Homo (1828) ; Group from 
the Deluge, Italian Robber Scene (1830); 
Sons of Roman Mother (1832) ; Jealousy 
(1833); Charity (1840); Christ and the 

YUNK, ENRICO, bom in Turin about 
1849, died in Pisa, Nov. 18, 1878. Genre 
painter, pupil of Turin Academy, then in 
Paris of Gerome and of Picot ; after his re- 
turn painted chiefly rural scenes, went to 
Constantinople, afterwards to Spain and 
settled in Rome, but soon left for Cairo 
and finally moved to Pisa. Works : Cana- 
vese Nurse, Canavese Washer- 
woman ; Scenes from Turin 
Theatre. — L' Blustr. italiana 
(1878), No. 48. 

at Eschwiller, Lorraine, Feb. 
1, 1817. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Delaroche. 
Went to Russia in 1843 and 
was sent to the Crimea to 
paint the incidents of the war. 
Medals : 1st dass, 1848 ; 2d 
class, 1856 ; of honour, 1857 ; 
2d class, 1867 ; L. of Honour, 
1855 ; Officer, 1867. Profes- 
sor at the £cole des B. Arts. 
Works : Christ driving out the Money 
Changers (1845) ; Punishment of Judas Is- 
cariot in Hell (1846) ; Battle of Koulikoro 
in 1378 (1850) ; Fallen Angel, Party of La- 
dies (1852) ; First Consul descending Mt 

St Bernard 
^' '^^ (1863), Palace 

of Compi5gne ; 
Marshal Ney 
during Retreat 
from Russia 
(1856), Capture 
of the Malakoff 
(1857), Gorge of 
the Malakoff, 
Curtain of the Malakoff (1859), Versailles 
Museum ; Battle of Solferino, Portrait of 
the Prince Imperial (1861) ; Portrait of Na- 
poleon HL (1868), W. T. Walters, Balti- 
more ; From Solferino (1863), Battle of In- 
kerman (1867), Genius of America (H. 22 


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ft X 36 fi), SmaU RepUca (1867), A. T. Stew- 
art Collection, New York ; Street in Con- 
stantinople, State Secrets (1873) ; Countess 
of Caen, Caen Museum ; Charge of Cuiras- 
siers at Beichsoffen (1875); Christian Legend 
(1882).— Bellier, ii. 729 ; Perrier, Etudes ; 
Larousse ; Hamerton, French Paintera 

ZACHARIAH, Michelangelo, Sistine 
Chapel, Rome ; fresco on ceiling. 
NEST, bom at Radepont (Eure) ; contem- 
porary. Figure painter, pupil of Guillemet 
andMorin. Medal : 3d class, 1883. Works: 
Un vieux bouquiniste (1875) ; Field Flow- 
ers, Evening of Epipluuiy (1876) ; Punish- 
ment of Caiaphas (1877) ; Good Samaritan 
(1878) ; St Jerome, Woman with Pigeons 
(1883) ; Irene and Sebastian (1884) ; Even- 
ing in the Grove (1886). 

ZACHO, CHRISTIAN, bom nearGrenaa, 
Denmark, March 31, 1843. Landscape paint- 
er, pupil at Aarhus of the animal painter 
Goldberg (bom in 1807), then of the Copen- 
hagen Academy ; began to exhibit in 1865, 
went to Italy in 1872, and visited Paris in 
1875-76, and agam in 1878. The winter 
of 1881-82 he spent at Mentone. Medal : 
Copenhagen, 1884. Works: First Snow 
in Brittany (1881), Copenhagen Gallery ; 
Woodland Scene, Coast Promenade near 
Copenhagen (1881) ; View in Deer Park 
(1882).— Sig. MftUer, 373. 

ZACHTLEVEN. See Safl-Jjeven. 

n2^ bom at Cotignola latter half of the 15th 
century, died after 1518. Bolognese school 
Sometimes called Francesco da Cotignola. 
Pupil of Rondinello, but also connected 
with school of Palmezzano. His Madonna 
and Saints, Brera, Milan, dated 1505, shows 
little talent ; but his Si Sebastian of 1513, 
Constabili Gkdlery, Ferrara, and his Madon- 
na with portraits of the Pallavicini family of 
1518, in the Church of the Nunziata, near 
Parma, show greater skill in arrangement 
and better drawing. In the Berlin Museum 

is an Annunciation (1509). Francesco had 
a brother Bernardino, sometimes called 
Bernardino da Cotignola, who was probably 
his assistant, with no claim to rank as an 
independent artist. — C. & C, N. Italy, L 
596 ; Ch. Blanc, ificole bolonaise ; Siret, 

R5nne, Denmark, March 31, 1843. Genre 
and portrait painter, pupil of Copenhagen 
Academy in 1864-68 ; went to Italy in 1875, 
studying in Rome and Siena until 1878, and 
again in 1882 on his way to Greece, whence 
he returned in 1884. Medal : Copenhagen, 
1873. Works : Leonore Christine in Prison 
(1871) ; Christian H. and Sigbrit settling 
Accounts, Scene at Court of Christian VH 
(1873) ; Leonore Christine leaving her 
Prison (1874) ; Roman Fmit Shop, Abbate 
Asleep (1876) ; Sabine Woman by ChUd's 
Cradle (1877) ; Orange Harvest, The Wise 
and Foolish Virgins, Fruit-Vender of Amalfi 
(1878) ; Flower Girl of Florence (1880) ; 
Leonore Christine at Maribo Convent, Death 
of Queen Sophie Amalie (1882), Copenha- 
gen Gkdlery ; Scene from Rome's Period 
of Decline ; Women carrying Lime (1883) ; 
Italian Family Scene.— Sig. Moller, 378. 

in 1842, died in Madrid, Jan. 14, 1871. 
G^nre painter, pupil at Bilbao of Balaco, 
then of Madrid Academy under Federico de 
Madrazo, and in Paris of Meissonier ; treated 
seventeenth century subjects with great suc- 
cess. Medals : Paris, 1867 ; Munich, 1870. 
Works : Enlisting of Cervantes, Diderot and 
d'Alembert (1863) ; Conscripts in Spain 
(1864) ; Entrance of the Toreros (with Vi- 
bert). First Sword (1866) ; Buffoon of the 
Sixteenth Century, Indirect Contribution, 
Jester of the Sixteenth Century (1867) ; 
Good Pastor (1869) ; Platonic Love, Educa- 
tion of a Prince (1870). Works in United 
States : Faust and Marguerite, H. P. Kid- 
der, Boston ; Waiting for an Audience, R 
C. Taft, Providence ; Rival Confessors 
(1868), J. J. Astor, New York ; Message, 
M Graham, ib.; Costume Shop, T. R Bui- 


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ler, ib.; Return to the Convent (1869), R L. 
CuttiDg, ib.; Minion of Henry lEL, Fletcher 
Harper, ib.; The Suitor, C. P. Huntington, 
ib.; Door of Mosque, M. K Jesup, ib.; 
Antechamber, Hunter in the Forest, D. O. 
Mills, ib.; Disputed Game, W. Rockefeller, 
ib.; Puzzled Musician, C. S. Smith, ib.; 
Court Jester (1867 ?), Levying Contribu- 
tions, J. H. Stebbins, ib. ; Court Jesters 
in Antechambers (1867), Begging Monk 
(1877), A. T. Stewart Collection, ib.; Stroll- 
ing Players, J. T. Martin, Brooklyn ; Too 

St. Zanobiut Raising • Dead Child, Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, Uffizi, Florence. 

much Crimson I, Useless Cavalry Boot, 
Trooper attaching his Spurs, Mrs. W. P. 
Wilstach, Philadelphia ; Armourer's Shop, 
Mrs. T. A. Scott, ib.; Gardener, W. B. Be- 
ment, ib.; Decoration, Fairman Rogers, ib.; 
Occupation of Spain by the French in 1812 
(1866), W. T. Walters, Baltimore ; Refec- 
tory of the Trinitaires at Rome (1868), Lu- 
cius Tuckerman, Washington ; Spanish No- 
tary, Judge G. Hoadley, Cincinnati ; Mor- 
gan Sale, New York, 1886, Singing Lesson 
(1866), $6,300, Charles Crocker, San Fran- 

cisco.— Art Journal (1871), 88 ; Qaz. des 
B. Arts (1867), xxiL 632 ; (1868), xxv. 19 ; 
(1869), iL 10 ; (1870), iv. 49 ; La Hustracion 
(1871) ; Larousse, xv. 1461. 
ZAMPIERI. See Domenichino. 
Ghirlandajo, Uffizi, Florence ; wood, figures 
life-size. The body carried by six bishops 
from S. Lorenzo, where it was first buried, 
to S. M. del Fiore ; in passing the Piazza di 
S. Giovanni, a dead elm, which the coffin 
happens to touch, revives and puts forth 
leaves again. Painted about 1612 
for brotherhood of S. Zanobi, Flor- 
ence. One of Ridolfo's best pict- 
ures — Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 637 ; 
C. & C, Italy, iii 627 ; Lasinio, L 
PL 53. 

DEAD CHILD, Ridolfo Ghirlan- 
dajo, Uffizi, Florence ; wood, fig- 
ures life-size. Bishop Zanobius 
kneeling in the street in the atti- 
tude of prayer, surrounded by a 
wondering crowd ; in foreground, 
the child reviving ; at left, the 
mother and other women kneeling. 
Painted about 1612 for brother- 
hood of S. Zanobi, Florence. Mas- 
terly in drawing, modelling, chia- 
roscuro, and warm and rich in 
colour. — ^Vasari, ed. MiL, vi 637 ; 
C. & C, Italy, iii. 627 ; Lasinio, I 
PI. 62. 

ZARA, SIEGE OF, Tintoretto, 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice ; canvas, H. 
15 ft. X 13 ft. " A mere battle-piece, in which 
the figures, like the arrows, are put in by 
the score. There are high merits in it, and 
Tintoret may possibly have made the sketch 
for it" — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 396 ; 
Ch. Blanc, £cole venitienne. 

ZARATO or ZAROTTO. See Morto da 

Loenen, near Utrecht, July 16, 1719, died 
at Wageningen, June 24, 1794. Gtenre 
and portrait painter; worked probably at 


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Utrecht^ and about 1773 at Amsterdam. 
He was a deaf-mute. Works: Peasant at 
Luncheon, Mother nursing Child, Stadel 
Gallery, Frankfort— Kramm, vL 1899. 

ZEEMAN, KEINIEB, bom in Amsterdam 
about 1612, died there after 1663. Dutch 
school ; marine painter ; real name Eemi- 
gius Nooms ; called Zeeman because in his 
youth he was a sailor. He yisited France 
(about 1650) and England, and later is said 
to have resided long in Berlin. Occasion- 
ally painted architecture pieces, but repre- 
sented especially well all kinds of vessels 
and the waves of the sea. Works : View of 
the Ancient Louvre, Louvre, Paris ; Naval 
Battle near Leghorn in 1653, View of Am- 
sterdam, Amsterdam Museum ; Calm Sea, 
Rotterdam Museum ; Calm Sea with Boats 
and Fishermen (2), Berlin Museum ; Two 
Men-of-War, Cassel Gallery ; Italian Coast 
View (1659), Brunswick Gallery ; two Sea- 
ports, Copenhagen Gallery ; Seaport (1663), 
Schwerin Gkdlery ; Marine, Seaport, Land- 
scapes (2), Stockholm Museum ; Storm at 
Sea, Mwrine View with many Vessels, Stutt- 
gart Museum ; Vessels and Harbour, Vienna 

Musemn. — Ch. Blanc, £cole hollandaise ; 
Immerzeel, iiL 258 ; Kramm, vL 1898 ; Ku- 
gler (Crowe), ii 495 ; Nagler, Mon., v. 
422 ; Biegel, Beitr^ge, ii. 355. 

van Boymerswale. 


bom in Antwerp, baptized March 17, 1591, 
died there, March 18, 1651. Flemish school ; 
history and genre painter. Said to have 
studied under Hendrik van Balen and 
Abraham Janssens ; master of the guild in 
1609. Really formed himself in Rome, 
where he was sent by two rich merchants, 
Goetbenck, and studied particularly the 
works of Caravaggio and Manf redL For a 
time employed at the court of Madrid by 

Philip in. Returned to Antwerp in 1620. 
Friend of Rubens and of Van Dyck, who 
painted his 
portrai t. 
Works: Christ 
with Martha 
and Mary, Ma- 
drid Museum; 
St. Francis in 
Ecstasy, Lou- 
vre ; Adoration 
of the Magi, 
Toulouse Museum ; Descent from the Cross, 
Dijon Museum ; St Jerome, Lille Museum ; 
Christ at the Pillar, St Michael's, Ghent ; 
Christ healing the Blind, Raising of Laza- 
rus, St Lievin raising a Woman, Martyrdom 
of St Lievin, Cathedral, ib.; Adoration of 
the Magi (1630, masterpiece), Notre Dame, 
Bruges ; Marriage of the Virgin (master- 
piece), St Louis of Gonzaga, Ecstasy of St 
Theresa, Resurrection, St. Clara, Virgin with 
the Rosary, St Norbert, Museum, Antwerp ; 
St Francis of Assisi, Cathedral, ib. ; Holy 
Family, St Andrew's, ib.; Adoration of the 
Magi, Christ appearing to Magdalen, St 
James, ib.; Erection of the Cross, St Charles 
Borromeo's, ib.; Repast* of the Gods, Ab- 
duction of Europa, Brunswick Gallery ; Be- 
heading of St Dympna, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Madonna (2), Hagar and Ishmael, 
Holy Family (2), Triumph of Silenus, Muse- 
um, Vienna; Adoration of Magi, Liech- 
tenstein Gbllery, ib.; Madonna in Glory, 
Uffizi, Florence. — Ch. Blanc, £cole flamande; 
Cat du Mus. d'Anvers, 554 ; Immerzeel, 
iii 33 ; Kramm, v. 1509 ; Kugler (Crowe), 
iL 293 ; Michiels, viiL 411 ; Rooses (Reber), 
264 ; Van den Branden, 879. 

ished in Ulm, 1484-1517. German school ; 
history and portrait painter, and the most 
eminent master of the school of Ulm ; at 
first studied engraving under Schongauer, 
then painting under Schtlhlein, whose 
daughter he married in 1483. Although 
influenced by the school of Franconia, he 
developed an individual style. We find in 

Digitized by 



his pictures heads pure and truthful in ex- 
pression, natural flesh tones, a deep glow of 
colour, and careful 
execution, together 
with a serious, often 
grand conception. 
Works : Altar Wings 
(1488), Altarpiece 
(1497), Archaeologi- 
cal Union, Stutt- 
gart; Altarpiece 
(1490-95), Stuttgart 
Museum ; Four 
Scenes from Legends of St. Valentine, Two 
Saints, Pope Alexander (1504), Augsburg 
Galleiy ; St. Peter, Tlie Holy Handkerchief, 
Berlin Museum ; Altar Wings with Saints (2), 
Priest at the Altar raising the Host, Carls- 
ruhe Galleiy ; St. Lawrence, Darmstadt Mu- 
seum ; Visitation of Mary, SS. Magdalen and 
Ursula, Pttrstenberg Grallery, Donauesching- 
en ; St. Catharine, Gotha Museum ; St. 
Margaret, St. Ursula, St. Bridget, Old Pina- 
kothek, Mimich ; St. Ann and other Female 
Saints, Mary and St. John, Pieta, Germanic 
Museum, Nuremberg ; The Manna of the 
Old and New Testament, Schleissheim Gal- 
lery ; Eight Scenes in Life of Mary the Vir- 
gin, Hohenzollem Museum, Sigmaringen ; 
St Jago de Compostella, St. Gall Museum ; 
Annunciation, St. John Baptist (2), Visita- 
tion of Mary, Bishop Valentine of Terracina 
raising a dead Boy, St Gregory the Great, 
Nativity (about 1470), Pictures of Saints 
(6), Stuttgart Museum ; Male and Female 
Portrait, Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna. — 
Ch. Blanc, £cole allemande ; Dohme, li. ; 
GrUneisen & Mauch, Ulm's Kimstleben, 42 ; 
Kugler (Crowe), i. 145 ; Schnaase, viiL 423 ; 
W. & W., ii. 111. 

ZELGER, JOSEF, bom at Stanz, Swit- 
zerland, in 1812. Landscape painter, pupil 
at Geneva of Diday ; is very successful in 
representing the grandeur of Alpine nature ; 
execution minute, colouring somewhat cold. 
Works: View near Emmatten, Ruins of 
Castle Unspunnen (1868), Berne Museum ; 
View in Canton Unterwalden, Neuchatel 

Museum; In Albula Pass, View near Lu- 
cerne, Zurich Gallery. — Nagler, xxiL 255. 

ZELLER, KONRAD, bornatffirslanden, 
near Zttrich, in 1807, died about 1857. 
German school; genre painter, pupil of 
Leopold Robert in Rome, whither he went 
in 1832, having for years practised as 
an amateur. Works : Girls at the Bath, 
Shepherd Family in the Campagna, High- 
bora Visitor, Zttrich Gallery ; Saltarello in 
Villa d'Este near Tivoli (1840), Female-Head 
(1851), Leipsic Museum ; Festival of St 
Annunziata near Rome (1846). — Cotta's 
Kunstbl. (1843-46). 
Verona about 1632, 
died about 1592. 
Venetian school ; 
educated in the 
school of Antonio 
Badile, where he 
was a fellow-pupil 
and friend of Paolo 
Veronese. Called 
by Vasari, Battista 
Farinato, whence 
some have supposed him of kin to Paolo 
Farinato. Vasari also numbers him among 
the pupils of Titian. He was a man of 
genius, full of ideas and of imagination, 
and a worthy rival of Paolo Veronese, with 
whom he worked much in collaboration, es- 
pecially in fresco painting, in which he ex- 
celled ; but he was without ambition or 
confidence in himself, and died obscure and 
miserable. Among his frescos, those in the 
Palazzo Ducale, which have been attributed 
to Paolo Veronese, and those in the Library 
of St. Mark are the best Of his pictures 
in oil. The Conversion of St. Paul, and the 
Miraculous Draught of Fishes, Vicenza, 
Duomo, are much admired. — Ch. Blanc, 
l5cole v6nitienne ; Vasari, ed. Mil., vi. 595 ; 
Burckhardt, 749, 750, 754 

viglio (?) in 1436, died in Milan, Feb. 10, 
1526. Lombard school ; , real name Ber- 
nardino Martini. Disciple of Vincenzo 

Digitized by 



Foppa, th© elder, and partner of Buttinone, 
with whom he generally painted in com- 
mon. A few pictures are ascribed to him 
alone, as Madonna in the Ambrosiana, Vir- 
gin with Saints and Kneeling Duke and 
Duchess Sforza, in the Brera (1494-96), 
and Annunciation in the Casa Borromeo, 
Milan ; but Lermolieff says there is no au- 
thenticated picture by him in existence. 
After 1501 he gave most of his time to ar- 
chitecture. In 1616 he became architect of 
Santa Maria sopra San Celso, and in 1619 
of the Duomo, Milan. He wrote a treatise 
on perspective in 1624 — C. & C, N. Italy, 
ii. 33 ; Vasari, ed. Le Mon., vii. 127 ; xL 
271 ; Burckhardt, 608 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole 
milanaise ; Ltlbke, Gesch. itaL MaL, i. 489 ; 
Lermolieff, 469. 

Beuss-Greiz, in 1834 G^nre painter, pu- 
pil in Hamburg of Gensler, then studied in 
Munich and under Jordan in Dasseldorf, 
whence he visited Germany, Switzerland, 
and North Italy. Works : Morning before 
Riflemen's Festival : Grocery Shop ; Recov- 
ery ; Blind Musician ; At the Post-Office ; 
Mouse-Trap Seller ; Summer Theatre ; Sil- 
ver Wedding ; Eaulbach's Arrival in Olym- 
pus, A Burial (1871), Kunsthalle, Hamburg. 
— Mtlller, 571. 

ZEUXIPPUS. See Zeuxis. 

ZEUXIS, one of the most famous of 
Greek painters, native of Herackea (proba- 
bly the Pontic), latter part of 6th century 
B.a Ionic school Called Zeuxippus by 
Socrates in the Protagoras of Plato (Brunn, 
ii. p. 77). It is uncertain whether his mas- 
ter was Demophilus of Himera or Neseas of 
Thasos, but he probably owed more to 
Apollodorus, who was at the height of his 
reputation when Zeuxis went to Athens, 
than to either of them. Pliny says (xxxv. 
36 [61]) that Zeuxis entered the doors of 
art which had been thrown open by Apollo- 
dorus, and Apollodorus himself complained 
in verse that Zeuxis had robbed him of his 
art His characteristics were close imita- 
tion of nature and sensuous charm. In his 

works the highest standard of human beauty 
was reached, and the closest representation 
of those objects in nature which are incapa- 
ble of an ideal representation. But, accord- 
ing to Aristotle (Poet, vi 6), they were want- 
ing in character, or that which elevates the 
moral sentimenta His Helen, in which 
were combined the physical charms of the 
five most beautiful virgins of Crotona, was 
celebrated as the embodiment of the perfec- 
tion of female loveliness. It was consecrat- 
ed in the Temple of Juno in that city, but it 
was probably carried to Rome, as Pliny men- 
tions a Helena by Zeuxis in the Portico of 
Philip. Other pictures mentioned by Pliny 
(1. a) are : The Infant Hercules Strangling 
the Serpent in presence of Amphitryon and 
Alcmena, probably the same as the Alcmena 
which the artist gave to the people of Agri- 
gentum, after he had arrived at the conclu- 
sion that there was no price large enough to 
set on his works ; A Jupiter Enthroned sur- 
rounded by the other Deities ; A Marsyas 
Bound, preserved in the Temple of Con- 
cord, Rome, supposed to have been similar 
in design to a picture found at Herculane- 
um ; a Pan, which he gave to King Arche- 
lads of Macedonia, whose palace at Pella he 
decorated; and a Penelope. Lucian de- 
scribes (Zeuxis, 3) also his picture of the 
Centaur Family or Hippocentaur, a female 
centaur suckling her yoimg in the fore- 
ground, with the male in the background 
holding up a lion's whelp to frighten the 
little one& Lucian saw only a copy of this 
picture, the original having* been lost in a 
vessel off Cape Malea on its way to Rome, 
whither Sulla had sent it from Athens. An 
engraved gem in the Florentine Museum is 
supposed to have been copied from it A 
picture of Eros crowned with Roses is men- 
tioned by the scholiast to Aristophanes, a 
Menelaus by Tzetzes, and a Boreas or Triton 
by Lucian (Timon, 64), as among the works 
of Zeuxis. That Zeuxis elaborated his 
paintings with great care may be inferred 
from his reply to Agatharcus, who boasted 
of the ease and speed with which he worked : 

Digitized by 



'* I confess I take a long time to paint ; but 
I paint works to last a long time " (Plut. 
Per., 13, De Amic. Mult., 5). Pliny relates 
(L c.) that Zeuxis, having entered into a 
pictorial contest with Parrhasius, painted 
some grapes so naturally that the birds 
were attracted to them. Elated with his 
success, he haughtily demanded that the 
curtain should be drawn aside from his op- 
ponent's picture in order that he might see 
it, but was obliged to admit his defeat when 
he found that the curtain itself was Parrha- 
sius's picture. Zeuxis afterwards painted a 
boy carrying grapes, when the birds pecked 
at them as before. This vexed him greatly, 
and he exclaimed : " I have painted the 
grapes better than the child, or the birds 
would have been afraid of him " (Pliny, 1. 
c). Festus relates (s. v. Pictor) that Zeuxis 
met his death by choking with laughter at a 
picture of an old woman he had just paint- 
ed, but the time of his decease is unknown. 
ZEVIO, STEFANO DA. See Stefano da 
ZICHY, MICHAEL VON, bom at Zala, 
Hungary, in 1827. 
History and genre 
painter, pupil of Vi- 
enna Academy and 
of Waldmtlller, on 
whose suggestion he 
was called to St. Pe- 
tersburg to instruct 
one of the grand 
duchesses; left the 
Russian court in 
1850, but returned there in 1856 and became 
court painter in 1859 ; moved to Paris in 
1874 Works: The Prisoner (1847) ; Wound- 
ed Knight at Communion ; Closing the 
Coffin ; Descent from the Cross ; life-Boat ; 
Empress Elizabeth beside Deck's Coffin, 
Pesth Museum ; The Weapons of the De- 
mon of Devastation (1878). — Kunst-Chronik, 
xiv. 180 ; Mailer, 572. 

ZICK, JANTJAEIUS, bom in Munich in 
1733, died at Ehrenbreitstein in 1812. Ger- 
man school ; history and genre painter, son 

of Johann Zick (1702-62), pupil of his fa- 
ther and of Mimich Academy ; went in 1757 
to Basle, where he 
painted pictures in 
Rembrandt's manner, 
and in 1758 was in 
Home, where he is said 
to have studied under 
Eaphael Mengs ; hav- 
ing visited France, he 
settled at Coblentz in 
1761, and became 
court painter to the 
Archbishop of Treves 
in 1764. Works: Old Scholar Reading, 
Bamberg Galleiy ; two Genre Scenes with 
Fauns, etc.. Artist's Poiirait, Gallerj', Co- 
blentz ; Four Evangelists, St. Castor's, ib.; 
Trinity, Hospital Church, Mannheim ; Mag- 
dalen Repentant, Wiesbaden Gtellery. In 
fresco : Justice, etc., Aurora, etc., Four 
Evangelists, Royal Palace, Coblentz ; Wash- 
ing the Disciples' Feet, Marriage at Cana, 
St. Florin's Stift, ib.; Jupiter, etc. (1789), 
Royal Palace, Mentz. — Ch. Blanc, £cole 

ZifiGLER, JULES, bom at Langres 
(Haute-Marne), Mju:ch 16, 1804, died in Di- 
jon, Dec. 29, 1856. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Ingres in Paris ; visited 
Italy and Germany, allied himself to Cor- 
nelius in Munich, and devoted himself es- 
pecially to fresco painting. After his re- 
turn he painted historical subjects and por- 
traits ; subsequently executed the wall 
paintings in the Madeleine, for which he 
was made Officer of the Legion of Honour in 
1838. Appointed director of the Museum at 
Dijon in 1852. His pictures lack expression 
and deep feeling, but they are excellent in 
drawing and colour. Works : Venice at 
Night (1831) ; Giotto in Cimabue's Studio 
(1833), Bordeaux Museum ; Death of Fos- 
cari (1833), Henri IV. and Marguerite de 
Valois, Arras Museum ; Prophet Daniel 
(1838) ; The Dew spreading its Pearls on 
the Flowers (1844) ; Jacob's Dream (1847) ; 
Judith at the Gates of Bethulia (1847), 


Digitized by 



Lyons Museum ; Charles V. having prepared 
his Funeral receives a Portrait represent- 
ing him at the Ceremony (1848) ; Summer 
Shower (1850), Bordeaux Museum ; Peace 
of Amiens (1853), City Hall, Amiens ; The 
Bepublic, lille Museum ; St George slay- 
ing the Dragon, Nancy Museum ; Daniel 
in the Lions' Den, Moonlight at Venice, 
Nantes Museum ; Louis XIV. receiving at 
Fontainebleau the Apology made in the 
Name of Pope Alexander VIL by Cardinal 
Chigi, portraits of Philippe VL, John 11., 
Charles IE. of ^ ^^^t Q 

sailles Museum. C^ 

— Bellier, iL 730 ; Meyer, Gesch., 359, 361 ; 
Ch. Blanc, ficole fran9ai8e ; Kunstlb. (1851- 
67) ; Larbusse. 
ZIEM, FT^JiTX, bom at Beaune (C6te 
d*Or), Feb. 25, 182L 
Architecture and ma- 
rine painter, pupil of 
Art School at Dijon ; 
travelled in 1845-48 
in Southern France, 
Italy, and the East. 
His pictures, particu- 
larly his views of 
Venice, have won for 
him a world-wide rep- 
utation. Medals: 3d class, 1851, 1855; 
Ist class, 1852 ; L. of Honour, 1857 ; Offi- 
cer, 1878. Works : View of the Bosphorus 
(1849) ; Evening in Amsterdam, Hut near 
The Hague (1852) ; View of Venice (1852), 
Luxembourg Museum; Interior of Mar- 
seilles Harbour, Venice at Evening (1853) ; 
Festival at Venice (1854) ; View of Antwerp 
(1855); The Golden Horn at Constantino- 
ple, St Mark's Place in Venice (1857); 
Views of Constantinople (2), Sunset (2, 
1859); Triptych with Si Mark's Place, 
Bridge of Sighs, and Doge's Palace (1861) ; 
Pilgrims embarking for Mecca, View of Trip- 
olis (1863); Cleopatra in Tipper Egypt 
(1865) ; Venice after Bain, Stamboul at Sun- 
set (1866) ; Bucentaur adorned for Cere- 1 

mony of Doge's Marriage with the Adriatic, 
Beheading of Carmagnola (1867) ; Party of 
Pleasure at Venice, View at the Old Port of 
Marseilles (1868) ; Doge's Palace in Venice, 
Eaven6 Gallery, Berlin; do., and Marine, 
Luxembourg Museum ; Banks of the Am- 
stel — Holland, Bordeaux Museum ; View of 
Quai Saint-Jean at Marseilles, Marseilles 
Museum ; Sunset, Montpellier Museum. 
Works in United States : Sweet Waters near 
Constantinople, T. Wigglesworth, Boston ; 
Venice, W. Bichmond, Providence ; do., J. 
A. Brown, ib.; Constantinople, J. J. Astor, 
New York ; F^te-Day in Venice, William 
Astor, ib.; Inundation of Piazza S. Marco — 
Venice, Miss C. L. Wolfe, ib.; Canal Grande, 
August Belmont^ ib.; Dogana, M. Graham, 
ib. ; Morning on the Lagoon, Bobert Hoe, 
ib.; Canal, Israel Corse, ib.; Doge's Palace, 
R L. Stuart, ib.; Suburbs of Venice, M. K 
Jesup, ib.; Canal Grande, D. O. Mills, ib.; 
do., H. V. Newcomb, ib.; Shipping at Ven- 
ice, W. Eockefeller, ib.; Doge's Palace, Quai 
dei Schiavoni, A. T. Stewart Collection, ib.; 
Golden Horn with Pilgrims starting for 
Mecca, Venice by Twilight, C. S. Smith, ib.; 
Across Canal Grande, J. H. Warren, Hoosac 
Falls, N. Y. ; Venetian Doorway, Entrance to 
(Jarden, Fairman Bogers, Philadelphia ; 
Holland (1851), Marseilles (1863), Venice 
(4, one dated 1863), Tunny Fishing, Morn- 
ing, Mid-Day (1868), Evening, W. T. Wal- 
ters, Baltimore ; Entrance to Canal Grande, 
J. W. Garrett, ib.; do., H. L. Dousman, St 
Louis ; Tyrrhenian Sea, Judge G. Hoadley, 
Cincinnati ; Marriage of the Adriatic, Hurl- 
but Collection, Cleveland ; Arsenal — ^Venice, 
Charles Parsons, St. Louis. — Larousse, xv. 
1483 ; Meyer, Gesch., 753 ; Kunst-Chronik, 
xviL 323. 

ZIER, VICTOR CASmiR, bom at War- 
saw, Sept 26, 1822. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Norblin and L6on Cogniet 
in Paris, whither he went as early as 1825. 
With Norblin he decorated in 1868 the 
Chapel of St Susanna in St Boch's, Paris. 
Works : Magdalen Penitent (1844) ; Faith, 
Daniel in Lions' Den (1846) ; St Genevieve 

Digitized by 



(1850) ; The Virgin and Magdalen (1862) ; 
Holy Family (1855) ; Christ appearing to 
the Magdalen (1861) ; St. Francis of Assisi 
receiving the Stigmata (1863) ; Ecce Homo 
(1864) ; St Ann instructing the Virgin 
(1865) ; Departure from Bethlehem (1867) ; 
St Peter healing the Lame (1868) ; Christ 
Entombed (1869) ; Broken Ears of Grain 
(1870) ; Ecstasy of St Paul (1874) ; Glorifi- 
cation of St Leonard (1875) ; Elizabeth of 
Hungary driven from her Palace (1877) ; St 
Margaret of Scotland (1878) ; Flight into 
Egypt, Morning Dew (1879) ; Artist's Por- 
trait (1880) ; Echo bewailing Narcissus 
(1881) ; Psyche, Bibbs (1882) ; Slumber of 
St Magdalen (1883).— BeUier, ii. 730 ; Mey- 
er, Conv. Lex., xix. 1041. 

ZIERMANN, KARL, bom in 1850, died 
at Berka, near Weimar, Feb. 14, 1881. 
Genre and landscape painter, pupil of Wei- 
mar Art School under Gussow and Baur ; 
won at once reputation with his first pict- 
ure, exhibited in 1875, and was especially 
successful in wood interiors, enlivened with 
characteristic figures. Gold medal, Ber- 
lin, 1878. Works : Journeyman afraid of 
Dog (1875) ; The Botanist (1878) ; Broken 
Pitcher ; At the Procession ; Barred Pas- 
sage ; Pinch of Snuff ; The Caught Fowler ; 
Wood-Choppera — Kunst-Chronik, xvL 426 ; 
xvii. 497 ; D. Rundschau, xvii. 313. 

Copenhagen in 1716, died at Hanover in 
1777. German school; portrait painter, 
pupil of his father ; went to DQsseldorf, 
and in 1764 became court painter to the 
Elector of Hanover, in which capacity he 
painted many German princes, among them 
Frederick the Great He took Hyacinthe 
Rigaud for his model. Works : Portraits 
of William V. of Orange (3), and his Wife, 
Hague Museum ; Male and Female Portrait, 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover; Princesses 
of Bavaria (4), Schleissheim Gkdlery. — Na- 
gler, xxii 279 ; Weilbach, 766. 

ZIMBRECHT. See Simbrecht. 

ZIMMER, WILUELM, bom at Apolda, 
Saxe- Weimar, April 16, 1853. Genre paint- 

er, pupil of Weimar Art School under 
Kalckreuth and Hagen ; has made a name 
for himself with his humorous scenes from 
village life, in which the peasant types are 
very characteristic. Works : Unsuccessful 
Sleigh Ride; Jolly Sleigh Ride; Sunday 
Pleasure in the Country (1876); Potato Har- 
vest in Thuringia ; Farm Yard in Thuringia ; 
The Departure (1880); On Furlough (1884); 
Intermission (1886).— Mailer, 573 ; lUustr. 
Zeitg.(1875), i. 167 ; (1877), iL 416; (1885), 
L 513 ; (1886), i. 481. 

tau. Saxony, Sept 20, 1808. Landscape 
painter, mostly self-taught ; studied in Dres- 
den and Munich, became professor at the 
Milan Academy in 1827, and at the Vienna 
Academy in 1859. His landscapes, to a cer- 
tain degree ideal, show grand conception of 
mountain scenery, masterly execution, and 
powerful light effects. Member of Munich 
and St. Petersburg Academies ; Bavarian 
Order of Michael. Works: Jewish Cem- 
et^iy (1834) ; Mountain Landscape vnth 
Torrent, Rocky Landscape with Centaurs 
and Leopards (1850), Landscape with Wa- 
terfall, New Pinakothek, Munich; Faust 
and Mephistopheles on the Brocken, Gol- 
gotha, Schack Gallery, ib. ; Chiem Lake in 
Storm (1841) ; View in T^l after Storm, 
do. in Bavarian Highlands, Stadel Gullery, 
Frankfort ; Historical Landscape (with Fight 
between Centaur Women and Lions, by 
Rahl); Landslide, The High G611, Moming 
Dawn on the Gross Venediger, Partridge 
Him ting. Sunset on Hintersee (1858); Prayer 
of Miners (1861) ; View on Ammer Laie, 
Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Afterglow on 
Lake Piano (1863) ; Moonlight on the Weser, 
The Stony Sea near Berchtesgaden ; Lago 
di Lugano (1869) ; Biblical Landscape 
(1871) ; Spring Landscape with Sheep, 
Dresden Museum ; The Obersee near Berch- 
tesgaden, Stuttgart Museum ; Lake Como, 
R. L. Stuart, New York. His brother and 
pupil, Maximilian (bom at Zittau, July 7, 
1811, died in Munich, Dec. 30, 1878), painted 
landscapes in the style of RuisdaeL Works : 


Digitized by 



Ammer Lake ; Outlook into the Plain ; 
Wood Landscapes (3, 1845, 1848, 1860), 
New Pinakothek, Munich. — Cotta's Kunst- 
blatt (1834-43) ; Dioskuren (1860, 1861, 
1863); KunsirChronik, xiv. 243; Mflller, 
573 ; Sohack, Meine Gemaldesammlung 
(1884), 200 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, ii. 29. 

in Dusseldorf, Nov. 8, 1788, died in Mu- 
nich, Jan. 24, 1869. History and portrait 
painter, pupil of Ddsseldorf Academy under 
Peter von Langer, whom he followed to 
Munich in 1808, to continue his studies at 
the Academy there ; obtained the first prize 
in 1812 ; visited Italy in 1816, and having 
been director of the Augsburg Art School in 
1817-25, became professor at the Munich 
Academy. There he executed frescos in the 
Glyptothek and Pinakothek, after sketches 
by Cornelius, besides several successful oil 
paintings ; was made director of the Central 
Gallery in 1846, and visited Italy again in 
1856-57 and 1859. Works: Mercury and 
Argus (1811); Noah's Sacrifice (1812); The- 
seus and his Mother, Flight into Egypt 
(1814); Madonna, Farewell of Tobias (1817); 
Portraits of King Maximilian L (1820) and 
of Queen Hortense ; Pilgrimage of Italian 
Peasants to Loretto (1820), New Pinakothek, 
Munich ; Joseph sold by his Brothers (1826); 
Marriage of St. Catharine (1829); St. Cecil- 
ia with Angels (1836) ; Farewell of Tobias 
(1837) ; The Three Theological Virtues 
(1840); Cimabue finding Giotto (1841), New 
Pinakothek, Munich ; Mars and Venus 
(1843); Madonna (1846); Assumption (1852); 
Paul's Expedition to Damascus (1867); Por- 
trait of King Louis L of Bavaria, Schleiss- 
heim Gallery. In fresco: Investiture of 
Otto von Wittelsbach with the Duchy of 
Bavaria in 1180, Arcades of Royal Garden, 
Munich. His son and pupil, Julius, bom 
in Augsburg in 1824, studied also in Bome 
and Paris, painted at first portraits and 
genre (Young Musician, 1848), [afterwards 
excellent landscapes in water-colours. 
Works : On Lake Vierwaldstaedt ; Beichen- 
bach Falls ; Boad to Bosenlaui Glacier. — 

Andresen, iii. 145 ; Dioskuren (1869), 59 ; 
Kunst-Chronik, iv. 70 ; Nagler, xxii. 237 ; 
Baczynski, ii. 316. 

Munich, April 2 4, 
1852. History and 
genre painter, son of 
Beinhard Seb^tian 
Zimmermann, pupil 
of his father, then of 
the Mimich Acad- 
emy under Strahu- 
ber and Anschtitz 
and Wilhelm Diez ; 
visited Venice, Paris, 
and Vienna, and has, since 1879, acquired 
deserved reputation as a fine colourisi 
Medals : 2d class, Mimich, 1883 ; Berlin, 
1886. Works : Monk mending Violin ; 
Bope Dancers in a Bam ; Walk of Young 
Princess ; Scenes from Fishermen's Life 
on Lake Constance ; Travelling Menagerie, 
Mrs. D. D. Colton, San Francisco ; Christ 
among the Doctors (1879) ; Game and Fish 
Seller as Business Friends (1881) ; Con- 
founded Dice Playing !, Fish Seller (1882) ; 
Adoration of the Shepherds (1883), New 
Pinakothek, Mimich ; Flute-Player, Ma- 
donna in Bose Bower, Christ in House of 
Lazams (1884) ; Tyrolese Wrestlers (1885); 
Christ and the Fishermen (Jubilee Exhi- 
bition, Berlin, 1886).— MftUer, 573 ; Ulustr. 
Zeitg. (1883), ii. 583, 588 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xviL 306 ; xviii. 386, 402 ; xix. 447 ; 
xxL 60 ; Beber-Pecht, iii. 285 ; Zeitschr. 
f. b. K, XV. 191 ; xix. 132 ; xx. 52 ; xxi 

Diessenhofen, Switzerland, in 1823, died in 
Geneva in 1884. Landscape painter, pupil 
of Calame in 1852-56. Works : AroUa Gla- 
cier in Canton Wallis, White Bock at the 
Prado near Marseilles, View near Geneva, 
Berne Museum ; Ancasca Valley on Monte 
Bosa, Langres Museum ; On the Engstlen 
Alp, Turin Gallery ; Interior of Oakwood, 
Duchess of Genoa; View in Bemer Ober- 
land, Boyal Academy, London. 


Digitized by 



TIAN, bom at Hagenau, on Lake Constance, 
v^ Jan. 9, 1816. Genre paint- 

^f^ er, pupil of Munich Acad- 

emy, where he i^as much 
influenced by Robert 
Eberle; lived in 1844- 
45 in Paris as portrait 
painter, and after visit- 
ing England and Belgi- 
um returned to Munich 
in 1847, and attained 
his first great success 
in 1850 with the humorous Three Magi, 
followed by numerous masterly and charac- 
teristic genre pieces of brilliant execution. 
Member of Berlin Academy, 1886. Gold 
medal, Berlin. Works: Expensive Bill, 
Peasants at the Castle (1853) ; Beggar Mu- 
sicians (1854) ; Interior in Schleissheim Cas- 
tle (1856), New Pinakothek, Munich ; Vac- 
cination Room (1858) ; Love Letter (1869), 
Carlsruhe Gallery ; Anniversary in Munich 
(1861), Cologne Museum ; Fisherman's Hut ; 
Newspaper Reader in Tavern Room (1862), 
New Pinakothek, Munich ; Anteroom of a 
Piince, St Gall Museum ; Quartering of 
French Soldiers ; Circulating Library, Peas- 
ant Wedding (1867) ; Interrupted Game of 
Cards (1869) ; Public Dinner ; News of Vic- 
tory (1875) ; Village Youth as Landwehr, 
Convent School in Ottobeuern (1879) ; Be- 
fore Music Rehearsal (1880) ; Monk Artists, 
Quartette, Scene in Village Inn (1881) ; 
Monastery Oi-phanage (2, 1882). Works in 
United States : Love's Messenger, Betrothal, 
W\ Mason, Taimton, Mas&; Tinker, R L. 
Stuart Collection, New York; Politicians, 
Wine Tasters, John T. Martin, Brooklyn ; 
Musical Rehearsal, Home for Boys, D. W. 
Powers, Rochester; Sudden Storm, J. W. 
Bates, Philadelphia; Discussing the War 
News, J. Carey Coale, Baltimore. — Diosku- 
ren (1860), 365 ; MQller, 674 ; Kunst-Chro- 
nik, xvii. 306, 696 ; Regnet, ii. 306. 

tau, March 2, 1820, died in Munich, Feb. 4, 
1876. Landscape painter, brother and pu- 

pil of Albert Zimmermann, studied after- 
wards under Ludwig Richter ; went in 1838 
to Munich, and afterwards lived for several 
years in Prague. Gold medal, Berlin. Works: 
April Landscape (1842), Leipsic Museum ; 
Shipwreck on the Coast at Carolin (1848), 
Dresden Museum ; Potato Harvest (1862), 
Winter Landscapes (3, 1849, 1863, 1869), 
New Pinakothek, Munich; Winter Night, 
Schack Gallery, ib.; View near Rosenheim 
(1861); Moonlight (1862); Rocky Land- 
scape, Provinzial Museum, Hanover ; Fish- 
ermen on Coast of North Sea (1863) ; Cows 




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La Zingarella, Correggio, Naples Museum. 

and Sheep in Ravine ; The High Goll ; Al- 
pine Snow-Storm, Blacksmith Shop, John 
T. Martin, Brooklyn. — Cottars KunstbL 
(1843-48); Dioskuren (1861-63); Kunst- 
Chronik, x. 439. 

ZINGARELLA, LA (The Gypsy), Cor- 
reggio, Naples Museum. The Virgin, with 
an Oriented turban on her head, sitting un- 
der a palm, bending over Jesus, who sleeps 
in her lap ; above her, among the branches 
and clouds, hover cherubs ; a rabbit in the 
grass, whence called Madonna del Coniglio. 
The Zingarella is commonly supposed to 


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be a portrait of Correggio's wife. Paint- 
ed about 1520 (?). Bought from Famese 
Collection, Parma (where it was in 1587), 
with one hundred other pictures, in 1740, 
by Charles IIL of Naples. Much repainted. 
Several copies. Engraved by Frezza ; Bossi ; 
Bernard; Porporati; Toschi; etc. — Meyer, 
Correggio, 328, 480 ; Kunst Lex., i 000 ; 
Landon, (Euvres, viii PI. 5. 

By Oarofalo (?), Pitti, Florence ; wood, H. 
9 in. X 6 in. Half -figure of a woman, with 
a blue cloth striped with yellow on head, 
a white dress, and red mantle lined with 
green ; gold chains and jewels on forehead 
and neck. " Painted without doubt by Boc- 
caccino " (C. & C.).— C. & C, N. Italy, ii. 446. 

ZINGARO, LO, bom in Venice or at 
Civit^ di Penna, near Chieti, about 1382, 
died in Naples in 1455 (?). Neapolitan 
school ; real name Antonio Solario ; said to 
have been a smith and to have become a 
painter for love of Colantonio del Fiore's 
daughter ; to have studied in Bologna with 
Lippo Dalmasio, and in Venice, Florence, 
Ferrara, and Rome, imder the Vivanni, 
Bicci, Galapo, Pisanello, and Gentile da 
Fabriano. His existence has been doubt- 
ed, but the pictures attributed to him show 
the effect of an Umbro-Florentine training. 
Among them is a Madonna with Saints, 
Museum, Naples ; an altarpiece of the early 
part of the 16th century. Other pictures 
in Berlin, Munich, and Naples, which have 
passed under his name, are now proved to 
be the work of other artists. — C. & C, N. 
Italy, ii 100 ; Burckhardt, 612 ; Ch. Blanc, 
&ole napolitaine ; Lanzi, ii 5 ; Ltlbke, 
Gesch. itaL Mai., L 564 

CESCO. German school Works: Fam- 
ily Concert, Vegetable Market, Group of 
Fortune-Telling Gypsies, Itah'an Peasants 
at a Meal, Mr. Thomas Walesby, London ; 
four pictures in Hampton Court Gallery. — 
Gaz. des R Arts (1859), L 182. 

ZO, ACHTTjTiFi, bom at Bayonne, France, 
July 80, 1826. Genre painter, pupil of Cou- 
ture. Conservator of the Bayonne Museum. 

Medal, 1868 ; L. of Honour, 1886. Works : 
Henry IV. of England and the Prince of 
Wales (1853) ; Adventurers playing Cards 
(1855) ; Gitanos of Monte Sagrado at Gra- 
nada (1861) ; Posada San Rafael at Cordova 
(1863) ; Blind Man of Porta Doce-Cantos at 
Toledo (1863), formerly in Luxembourg Mu- 
seum ; Plaza San Francisco at Seville (1865), 
Marseilles Museum ; Tribunal of Moorish 
Kings at Granada (1868) ; Evening, Jewess of 
Morocco (1869) ; Dream of a Believer (1870) ; 
Ambuscade of Gitanos (1874) ; Siesta^ W. 
Rockefeller, New York.— Bellier, ii 732. 

ZOFPANY, JOHANN, bom at Ratisbon 
about 1733, died in London, Nov. 11, 1810. 
Real name ZaufiEely. Portrait painter, pu- 
pil in Ratisbon of Speer; went to Rome, 
where he remained for twelve years. After 
his return he made an tmfortunate marriage, 
and in 1758 went to England, where at first 
he assisted the portrait painter Benjamin 
Wilson; but he attracted the notice of Lord 
Bute by a portrait of Garrick, and soon 
acquired reputation ; sent to Italy by the 
king in 1775, he painted there his famous 
picture. The Tribune of Florence, and in 
1778, for the Empress Maria. Theresa, the 
Imperial Family of Tuscany, for which jrict- 
ure he was made a baron. After his return 
to England he went to India, in 1783, and 
amassed a great fortune. Member of Lon- 
don, Bologna, Florence, and Parma Acad- 
emies Works : Portraits of Earl of Barry- 
more, King George IDL, and Queen Char- 
lotte with Family, of Gkirrick, Foote, and 
Weston, of all Members of Royal Academy in 
one picture ; Embassy of Hyder Beg (with 
100 figures) ; Cock-Fight; Tiger Hunt; 
Portrait of Archduchess Maria Christina^ 
Vienna Museum. — Redgrave, 496. 

ZOLL, FRANZ JOSEF, bom at Mdh- 
ringen, Baden, in 1772, died at Munich in 
1833. History and portrait painter, first 
instructed by his &ther, a sculptor and 
painter, then by his unde, a fresco painter 
at Trostenberg, Bavaria, and finally studied 
at the Munich Academy under Hauber, and 
Domer, the elder ; painted at first portraits, 

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then yisted Paris and Vienna, and studied 
two years in Borne. In 1821 he became 
professor of drawing at the University of 
Freiburg, and in 1823 director of the gal- 
lery and professor at Mannheim. Works : 
Hercules and Hebe in Olympus, Gallery, 
Carlsruhe ; several Biblical Scenes, Protes- 
tant Church, lb.; Besurrection, Church at 

ZONA, ANTONIO, bom in 1810. His- 
tory and portrait painter, pupil of Venice 
Academy; distinguished for the classical 
style of his paintings, especially his por- 
traits in the manner of the Venetian mas- 
ters of the 16th century. Lives in Venice. 
Works: Farewell of Tobias, Annunciation 
(1844) ; Baphael instructed by his Father, 
Titian meeting Paolo Veronese (1862) ; 
Liberation of Admiral Pisani (1863) ; Gone 
Astray, The Flower Girl Glycera, Our First 
Italian Queen. — Cotta's KunstbL (1844); 
Dioskuren (1863) ; Perseveranza (1863). 

ZOPPO, MABCO, latter half of 15th cen- 
tury. Bolognese school ; pupil in Padua of 
Squarcione, whom he aided probably in 
the decoration of the EremitanL Lived for 
a time in Venice, painted many altarpieces, 
and finally settled in Bologna, where he 
lived until at least 1498. In his earlier ef- 
forts he shows a tendency to imitate the 
stifihess and reflected modelling of brass, 
but he shows a better art in his Bolognese 
pictures. Works: Altarpiece, CoUegio di 
Spagna ; Crucifix, and Altarpiece, Cappucci- 
ni ; Piet^ and Head of Baptist, S. Giovanni 
Evangelists^ Pesaro ; St. Dominic as Insti- 
tutor of the Bosary, National G^ery, Lon- 
don; Madonna Enthroned (1471, master- 
piece), Berlin Museum. — C. & C, N. Italy, 
L 345 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole bolonaise ; Burck- 
hardt, 677, 579 ; Lttbke, Gesch. itaL MaL, i 

ZOEG. See Sorgh. 

ZXJBEB, JEAN HENM, bom at Eixheim 
(Alsace), June 24, 1844 Landscape paint- 
er, pupil of Gleyre. Medals: 3d dass, 
1875 ; 2d class, 1878 ; L. of Honour, 1886. 
Works: Chinese Junk (1870); Nymphs at 

the Bath (1873), Chalons-sur-Mame Muse- 
um ; Marshes of Ferrette ; Mill at Mtihl- 
hausen ; Biver 111 ; Mussel-Hunters of the 
Mame at Low Tide, Evening on Heath near 
Dinard (1876) ; Biver 111 in Alsace, Geese at 
Seppois-le-Haut (1877) ; Dante and Virgil, 
Autumn Evening, De-et-Vilaine (1878); 
Biver Flon at Massignieu, Souvenir of Men- 
tone (1880); Evening, Daytime, Morning, 
Souvenirs of the Comiche Boad (1881) ; 
The Ford (1882); First Bays of Dawn in 
Alsace, Herd of Yieux Ferrette in Alsace 
(1883); Bad Weather, Coming Storm 
(1884) ; September (1885) ; The HoUandsch 
Diep (1885), Luxembourg Museum ; Lost 
Path, After the Harvest (1886). 

ZUBEB-BtJHLEB, FBITZ, bom at Locle, 
Switzerland ; contemporary. History, genre, 
and portrait painter, pupil of Louis Gros- 
daude, Picot, and the £cole des Beaux 
Arts. Works : Infancy of Bacchus (1850) ; 
Dust to Dust and the Soul to God (1850) ; 
Poetry (1851), Neuchatel Museum ; Early 
Education (1853) ; B^veil, Sarah, Gour- 
mandise (1859) ; Visit to the Nurse, Les 
trouble-f^te (1861) ; La reine bacchanale, A 
Farmer-General (1864); Domestic Happi- 
ness (1865); The Golden Age (1875); Numa 
Pompilius and Egeria (1876); Birth of 
Venus (1877); Emancipation of Woman 
(1879) ; Eose Harvest (1882) ; Little Co- 
quette (1883) ; Big Brother's little Christ- 
mas (1884) ; Spring as Doctor (1886) ; The 
Doll, Neuchatel Museum; Award of Idle- 
ness, C. H. Wol^ Philadelphia. 

CO, bom at Pitigliano, Tuscany, in 1702, 
died at Florence in 1788. Florentine 
school ; landscape painter, pupil in Flor- 
ence of Paolo Anesi, then in Bome of Gio- 
vanni Maria Morandi, and of Pietro Nelli ; 
practised at first history painting, and after 
staying for some time in Venice travelled 
in Germany, Holland, and France ; was in- 
duced by the British consul at Venice to 
visit London, where he was employed for 
five years in painting decorations for the 
Opera House, and views on the Thames. 


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After his return to Venice he painted some 
of his best landscapes, but having become 
known and admired in England by engrav- 
ings from his works, he went again to Lon- 
don in 1752, and was largely patronized by 
the royal family and aristocracy, in whose 
collections many of his works may still 
be found. He was a member of the In- 
corporated Society of Artists, and in 1768 
one of the foimdation members of the 
Royal Academy ; returned to Florence in 
1773, and having invested his savings in 
the security of a monastery, which soon 
after was suppressed, he was left indigent, 
and compelled to resume his art. Many of 
his works are in Venice (21 in the Palazzo 
Reale). Works: Landscape with Italian 
Buildings, do. vnth Ruins and Waterfall, 
Aschaffenburg Gallery ; Waterfall with Fish- 
ermen, Basle Museum ; do. with Sheep and 
Girl on Mule, Bamberg Gallery ; two Land- 
scapes, Gotha Museum ; Landscape with 
Horsemen, Kunsthalle, Hamburg ; Land- 
scape, Stuttgart Museum ; do. with Herds, 
do. with Fishermen, Museum, Vienna ; do. 
with Busy Groups of Peasants, Abraham's 
Departure for the Promised Land, Liechten- 
stein Gallery, ib.; Woodland Scenes (4), 
Bergamo Gdlery ; Woodland with Si John 
Preaching, Brera, Milan ; Landscape with 
Horsemen, Fondazione Poldi Pezzoli, ib.; 
do. with Holy Family (2), two others, Venice 
Academy. — Lanzi (Roscoe), i. .562 ; ii. 316 ; 
Nagler, xxiL 323 ; Redgrave, 497. 

bom in S. Agnolo in 
Vado, Urbino, in 
1543, died at An- 
cona in 1609. Ro- 
man school Brother 
of Taddeo Zucchero, 
in whose studio he 
laboured many years 
as pupil and assist- 
ant Taddeo, al- 
though his brother was very useful to him, 
aided him to get commissions of his own. 
Among other work% Federigo painted the 

Grimani Chapel, in S. Francesco della Vi- 
gna, Venice, which Battista Franco had left 
unfinished. Soon after his return to Rome 
his brother died, and Federigo finished his 
works and executed others in S. Caterina 
de' Funari, SS. Apostoli, S. M. dell' Orto, 
and other churches. In 1572 he went to 
France, and soon after to Flanders, Holland, 
and England. He painted several portraits 
of Queen Elizabeth and other distinguished 
personages (21 were exhibited in 1866). In 
1574 Federigo painted the cupola of the 
Duomo, Florence, which had been left un- 
finished by VasarL In 1582 he painted, in 
the Palazzo Ducale, Venice, Barbarossa at 
the Feet of Pope Alexander HI. After 
working a while in Rome, he went in 1585 
to Madrid, at the invitation of Philip H, 
and painted several pictures in the Escorial. 
But his style did not please the Spaniards, 
and he returned to Rome. He founded the 
Academy of St. Luke, was its first president, 
and left all his property to it He was the 
author of a treatise on painting, sculpture, 
and architecture. Among his easel pictures 
are : Deposition from the Cross, Palazzo 
Borghese, Rome ; Galumny, Hampton Court ; 
Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh, Kensington 
Gallery ; The Gk)lden Age, The Silver Age, 
Mythological Allegory, Uffizi, Florence ; 
Descent of Christ into Limbo (1585), Brera, 
Milan. — Vasari, ed. Le Mon., xii. 109, 133 ; 
Ch. Blanc, !^ole ombrienne; Burckhardt, 
185, 235, 754 ; Siret, 1030. 

ZUCCHERO, TADDEO, bom in S. Agno- 
lo in Vado, 
Urbino, Sept 
1, 1529, died 
in Rome, 
Sept 2, 1566. 
school ; s o n 
and pupil of 
Zucchero, a 

poor painter, \^ ?» 

and elder brother of Federigo Zucchero. 
Went to Rome when very young, and after 


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suflfering great privations was brought into 
notice by his decoration of the Palazzo Mat- 
tel Became a popular painter, and was 
buried near Eaphael in the Pantheon. 
Among his best works are frescos of the 
Passion of Christ, in S. Consolazione, and a 
series representing the Glories of the Far- 
nese Family, in the villa built by Cardinal 
Famese at Caprasola. — Vasari, ed. Le Mon., 
xiL 104 ; Ch. Blanc, £cole ombrienne ; 
Burckhardt, 186 ; Siret, 1030. 
ZtJGEL, HEINKICH, born at Murrhard, 
WOrtemberg, Oct. 22, 
1850. Animal painter, 
pupil of Stuttgart Art 
School ; studied in 1873 
in Vienna, and settled 
in Munich. Works: 
Sheep in Alder Grove 
(1875), National Gal- 
lery, Berlin ; Sheep- 
Shearing ; Sheep- 
Washing; Span of Oxen 
(1875) ; Herd fleeing from Storm ; Plough- 
ing Oxen ; Nobody at Home ; Runaway 
Bull; Sheep and Lambs, Knoedler & Co., 
New York.— MttUer, 575; Illustr. Zeitg. 
(1880), L 129 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xiiL 128. 

ZUND, ROBERT, born at Lucerne, 
Switzerland, in 1827. Landscape painter ; ex- 
cels in representing the poetry of the woods, 
and, by a silvery tone, imparts a peculiar 
charm to his landscapes, which are general- 
ly supplied with biblical figures. Lives at 
Lucerne. Works : The Harvest, Prodigal 
Son tending Swine, View near Lucerne, On 
Lake of Lucerne, Basle Museum ; Autumn 
in the Woods (figures by Rudolf Koller), 
Berne Museum ; Near the Battle Chapel of 
Sempach, Oakwood, Zurich Gallery. 

Fuente de Cantos, Estremadura, Nov. 7, 
1598, died in Madrid in 1662. Spanish 
school ; son of simple labourers ; pupil of 
Juan de las Boelas, afterwards imitated style 
of Caravaggio, whence called the Spanish 
Caravaggio. In 1625 he painted a series of 
scenes from the life of St. Peter for the 

Chapel of S. Pedro, Cathedral of Seville, and 
about the same time his Glory of St Thom- 
as Aquinas, his 
best work, now 
in the Seville 
Museum. In 
1633 he signed 
himself painter 
to the king — an 
honour which he 
shared with Ve- 
lasquez. He 
painted in 1650 the Labours of Hercules, in 
ten pictures, for the palace of Buen Retiro, 
now in the Madrid Museum. Zurbaran 
painted several large compositions, but pre- 
ferred simple ones requiring but few figures, 
and generally religious subjects, especially 
those displaying the rigours and austerities 
of monastic life. He is the painter of 
monks, as Raphael is of Madonnas. Other 
works: Miracle of Si Hugo, Si Bruno 
before Urban XL, Madonna de las Cuevas, 
Two Dominicans, Seville Museum ; Sleep of 
Jesus, Vision of S. Pedro Nolasco, Appa- 
rition of Si Peter to S. Pedro Nolasco, 
Si Casilda, Madrid Museum ; Annunciation, 
Adoration of Shepherds, Adoration of Magi, 
Circumcision, Montpensier Gallery, Seville ; 
SS. Peter Nolasco and Raymond de Pegna- 
f ort. Funeral of a Bishop, St. Apollina, Lou- 
vre; Franciscan Monk, National Gallery, 
London ; Holy Family, Suermondt Muse- 
um, Aix-la-Chapelle ; Christ after the Scourg- 
ing, Si Bonaventura, Museum, Berlin ; Ma- 
donna adored by Monks, Raczynski Gal- 
lery, ib.; Si Coelestine declining the Papal 
Crown, Dresden Museum ; St. Francis of 

^C/ 1650 

Assisi in Ecstasy, Old Pinakothek, Munich. 
—Stirling, ii 767 ; Viardot, 75 ; Ch. Blanc, 


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Nicole espagnole ; Madrazo, 545 ; Meyer, 
Oem^de kdngL Mus., 547; Washburn, 
Spanish Masters, 96. 

ZUSTRIS (Sustris), bom at Amsterdam 
in 1526, died in Munich in 1599 (?). Dutch 
school ; history and portrait painter, son of, 
and first insbructed by, Lambert Zustris, 
who is probably the same as Lamberto 
d*Amsterdamo mentioned by Yasari as a 
pupil of Titian in Venice ; then pupil of Jan 
Swart of GrOningen, afterwards went to 
Florence and there allied himself to Yasari, 
who makes honourable mention of him in 
1568 as Federigo di Lamberto Fiamingho. 
Later on he appears as court painter and 
architect to Duke William V. of Bavaria 
Works : Venus and Cupid, Louvre, Paris ; 
Holy Family, Cassel (lallery. — Kramm, iii. 
936 ; Nagler, xviii. 17 ; Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 

ZWENGAUEB, ANTON, the elder, bom 
in Munich, Oct 11, 1810, died there, June 
13, 1884 Landscape painter ; studied from 
nature in the Bavarian Highlands and in 
Southern Tyrol His evening and sunset 
landscapes are especially fine. In 1853-69 
Conservator of Schleissheim Ghillery, since 
1869 of Munich Gallery. Works : Noon on 
the Alp (1841); Chiem Lake after Sunset 
(1847), Harrach Gallery, Vienna ; Evening 

Landscape with Stag (1851), Evening on 
the Alp (1856), New Pinakothek, Munich ; 
Bay of Kochel Lake, Schack Gallery, ib. ; 
Deer on a Lake after Sunset, Leipsic Muse- 
um ; Four Seasons (1858), Swantreep Ghd- 
lery, Christiania ; Evening in the Bushes 
(1861); Sunset in Bavarian Highlands, Basle 
Museum ; Village in the Evening (1863) ; 
Betum of the Herd (1883). His son, An- 
ton (bom June 12, 1850, pupil of Munich 
Academy and of his father), paints in the 
latter's style. Works : View on the Isar ; 
Mill in Nether Bavaria. — Allgem. K. C, viii. 
510 ; Kunst-Chronik, xix. 627 ; MuUer, 576 ; 
Zeitschr. f. b. K, xii 63. 

in Amsterdam or in Leyden, probably about 
1615. Dutch school; portrait and genre 
painter; was in London with Van Dyck, 
and painted so much in the style of that 
master, that he was called Little van Dyck ; 
returned to Amsterdam in or soon after 
1641, is mentioned as living there in 1655- 
58, and painted genre pieces, especially 
merry assemblagea Works : Portraits of 
Alan and Wife, Brunswick Gallery ; Com- 
pany of Ladies and Gentlemen, G^lery, 
Copenhagen; Music Lesson, Moltke Col- 
lection, ib. — Lnmerzeel, iiL 262 ; Biegel, 
Beitrage, ii 291. 


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Containing names omitted, corrections, and additions, to 1887. Articles 
preceded by an asterisk (*) are supplementary to articles in the text. 

*ADAM, Franz, died in Munich, Sept. 
29, 1886.— KunstrChronik, xxii. 19. 

Idlle ; contemporary. Gtenre painter, pupil 
of Pluchard and Colaa Medal, 8d class, 
1885. Works : Old Woman (1880) ; Little 
Girl (1881) ; The Fates (1882) ; Decorative 
Figure (1884); Fortuna (1885); Kaled 

AGGHAZY, GYULA, bom in Hungary ; 
contemporary. Genre painter. Works : 
The Power of Music (1881) ; Market Scene 
(1882), Emperor of Austria ; Village Gossip 
(1883), Hungarian Art Union ; Washer- 
women, Hemp-Roasting, Evening Land- 
scape (National Exhibition, Buda-Pesth, 
1885).— niustr. Zeitg. (1881), i. 103. 

works: Hadrian in England— visiting a 
Romano-British Pottery (1884) ; Reading 
from Homer, My Youngest Daughter, Who 
is it? (1885) ; An Apodyterium, A Foregone 
Conclusion (1886). At the Morgan sale. 
New York, 1886, Roman Lady feeding Fish, 
and Spring, sold respectively for $5,000 and 

MANUEL, died in Paris, Dec 27, 1885. 

enna, Jan. 14, 1887.— Allgem. K. C, xi 90. 

• ♦ANATOMY, LESSON IN, Rembrandi; 
iread Hague Museum instead of National 
Ghdlery, Amsterdam. The picture in the 
'Amsterdam Gallery is a fragment of the 
Lesson in Anatomy of Dr. Deymim, paint- 
. ed by Rembrandt in 1656. It was greatly 
{ damaged by fire in 1723 ; sold in 1842 to 
' Mr. Chaplin, an Englishman, for 660 florins ; 
bought in London, 1882, for the Amster- 
dam Museum for £100. The Hague pict- 
' ure was etched by W. Unger in 1873 ; 
lithographed by C. Binger ; H. J. van den 
Hout ; H. J. Zimmerman ; CCA. Last ; 
J. L. Huijgens. 

^AURORA, Ouercino, Palazzo Ludovisi, 
Rome (voL i., p. 82, line 3). Read Aurora 
instead of Apolla 

Limonest (Rhone); contemporary. €knre 
and still-life painter, son and pupil of Jean 
Antoine Bail. Medal, 3d class, 188a 
Works: Bibelots (1880); The Pig (1881); 
M^re Brune, Violoncello Player (1882); 
Glass of Water, Cooks (1883) ; The Wind 
of the Lamb, Little Dogs (1884) ; Cluny 
Bibelots (1885) ; Bibelots from Museum of 
Cluny and from the Drap6 Collection 

Ballston, N. Y., November, 1886. 


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*BABGTJE, CHARLEa At the Morgan 
sale, New York, 1886, was sold : The Sen- 
tinel (1876, from John W. Wilson sale, 
Paris, 1881), $12,300, J. L. Martin, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

BAKON, TKfiODORE, bom in Belgium ; 
contemporary. Landscape painter. Gbld 
medal, Antwerp, 1879 ; Order of Leopold, 
1880. Works : Pool in Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau in Winter, Summer in Neighbourhood 
of Paris (1888). 

works: The Wood-Gtetherer (an old man 
with fagots and child gathering wild-flow- 
ers), The Mowers (two men in meadow 
partly cut), Edward P. Allis, Milwaukee, 

a 2d class medal for his Decorative Panel 
for the Mayoralty of Saint-Maur, Salon, 

♦BAUDRY, PAUL, died in Paris, Jan. 17, 
1886. A collective exhibition of his works 
was held in Paris in the autumn of 1886. — 
Oaz. des R Arts (1881), xziii 478 ; (1882), 
XXV. 688 ; xxvL 131 ; (1884), xxix. 311, 609 ; 
(1886), xxxiii. 106, 396 ; Claretie, Peintres 
(1884), iL 33; Kunst-Chronik, xxi 279; 
Mag. of Art, ix. 468 ; Zeitschr. f. b. K, xxii 

ed A.N.A., 1886. 

ran, Tyrol, April, 1886. 

♦BELLOWS, ALBERT F., bom at Mil- 
ford, Masa, Nov. 29, 1829, died at Auburn- 
dale, Masa, Nov. 24, 1883. 

♦BENCZURi, GYULA. Work in United 
States : Verlassen, W. H. Metcalf , Milwau- 

SEPH. Add to works: Judith, Justinian 
(1886). The latter picture, a very large 
canvas, representing tiie Emperor Justinian 
seated on his throne among his councillors, 
is owned in St Paul, Minn. The Justice of 
the Ch^rif (Salon, 1886) is owned in New 

♦B^RAUD, JEAN. The Public Ball 
(1880) is owned by T. T. Kinney, Newark, 

BEROH, RICHARD, bom at Stockhohn ; 
contemporary. Gtenre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Stockholm Academy and in Paris 
of Jean Paul Laurens and of K Pers£u& 
Medal, 3d class, 1883. Works : End of the 
Meeting (1884); Li Sweden at Nightfall 
(1885) ; My W ife (1886). 

BERTHELON, EUGlSIE, bom in Paris ; 
contemporary. Letndscape and marine paint- 
er, pupil of Eugene Lavieille and of Beme- 
Bellecour. Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works : 
Coast at Mesnilval near Treport, Near the 
Coast in Thick Weather (1884); Depart- 
ure of the Pilot, Forest of Fontainebleau 
(1885) ; Old Jetty at Tr6port in Stormy 
Weather (1886). 

♦BINET, VICTOR Awarded a 2d class 
medal for his Spring Morning at Saint- 
Aubin-sur-Quilleboeuf, and The Plain at do., 
Salon, 1886. 

♦BISI, LUIGI, died in Milan, Sept 11, 

BLAYN, FERNAND, bom in Paris ; con- 
temporary. Gtenre painter, pupil of Alex- 
andre CabaneL Medal, 3d class, 1886. 
Works : A Rescue, A Poor Reception 
(1880); Old Warrior (1881); Retum of 
Fishermen, On the Beach (1882) ; Low 
Water at Cayeux, Idyl on the Beach (1883) ; 
Burial of a Child in Brittany (1884) ; St 
Francis of Assisi (1885) ; Funeral of a 
Young Girl in Picardy, Retum of the Geese 
—Normandy (1886). 

sane in Munich, June 18, 1886. Works: 
The Schaffler Dance in Munich during the 
Plague, The Foster Child, Carita& 

BOMPARD, MAURICE, bom at Rodez 
(Aveyron) ; contemporary. jQenre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Boulanger and Jules 
Lef^bvre. Medal, 3d class, 1880. Works : 
Study of Birds, Model's Repose (1880) ; D6- 
but at the Studio (1881) ; Jack in the Bowl 
(1882) ; Tunisian Butcher (1884) ; A Studio 
Comer (1885) ; Prayer at the Mosque (1886). 


Digitized by 



Morgan sale, New York, 1886, were sold 
the following : Calf and Cow — Scotch High- 
lands (1876), $12,200 ; Deer in Forest (1867), 
$7,150, Mr. Sutton, New York 

Awarded a 2d class medal for his Death of 
Bishop PrsBtextatns, Salon, 1886. 

♦BOSSHARDT, KASPAR, died in Mu- 
nich, Feb. 10, 1887.— Kunst-Chronik, ttia. 

ADOLPHK Medal of honour, 1885; Com- 
mander of L. of Honour, 1885. To pictures 
owned in the United States add : The Lost 
Pleiad, W. H. Metcalf, Milwaukee; The 
New-Bom Lamb (1873), Return from the 
Harvest (1878), A. T. Stewart Collection, 
New York ; The Bathers, Dr. Judson, ib. 
At the Morgan sale. New York, 1886, Cupid, 
Nut-Oatherers (1882), Italian Mother and 
Child, and Madonna and St John (1882), 
sold for $6,500, $7,250, $3,050, and $9,000. 

BANL Add to works: Martyrdom of St 
Andrew (1886), Convent of Gray Nuns, Mon- 
treal, Canada. 

ber of Institute, 1886. Add to works : The 
Communicants (H 4 ft x 6 ft 2 in.. Salon, 
1884), Morgan sale. New York, 1886, $45,- 
500, to Donald Smith, Montreal, Canada. 
Same sale. Bird Nest (1884), and Returning 
from the Fields (1878), sold respectively for 
$3,600 and $9,500. 

Awarded a 2d class medal for his Wounded 
Peasant, Salon, 1886. 

at Huissen, Guelderland ; contemporary. 
G^nre painter, pupil of Amsterdam Acad- 
emy and in Paris of Lionel Boyer. L. of 
Honour, 1878. Works : Surprise, The Fa- 
vourite (1876) ; The Bath (1878) ; After the 
Departure, Mother and Child (1879) ; Win- 
ter, Autumn (1880) ; In the Country (1881) ; 
Ship Builder, The Duo (1882) ; Farrier, A 
Symphony (1883) ; Sick Sister, Baptistery 

of St Mark's— Venice (1884) ; Fisherwoman 
of Zandvoort, The Cooper of Dives (1885) ; 
The Brook, The Forge (1886). 

BURNAND, EUGiOT!, bom at Moudon, 
Switzerland ; contemporary. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Menu and of G^r6me. Works : 
Dominican Novices (1878) ; Spinning Wom- 
an, Wood Cutter in Prayer (1879) ; Horse 
Drove in Camargue (1882) ; Swiss Farm, 
Shepherd in the Garrigues (1883) ; Old Age 
of Louis XIV., A Day's Mowing (1884); 
Alpine Bull, Proven9al Shepherd (1885); 
Change of Pasture (1886).— N. illustr. Zeitg. 
(1880), ii 790. 

works: Flamma Vestalis, Morning of the 
Resurrection, Sibylla Delphica, Depths of 
the Sea (1886). The last-named picture is 
the first one ever exhibited by the painter 
in the Royal Academy. Philip Bume-Jones, 
son of Edward Bume-Jones, exhibited in 
the Grosvenor Gallery, 1886, An Unpainted 
Masterpiece, representing the studio of a 
poor artist^ suggested by Henry James's 
story, "A Madonna of the Future." 

Frankfort, Aug. 18, 1886. 

CARABIN, JACQUES, landscape painter 
in Brussels ; contemporary. Medals : Lon- 
don, 1878, 1874 ; Dunkirk, 1876 ; Algiers and 
Nimes,1881; Sydney, 1880; Melbourne, Ist 
class, 1881 ; Lyons, 1882. Order of Libera- 
tor of Venezuela. Works: Under the Portico 
del Marocco at Riva, Fountain at Corbole 
(Exposition universelle, Amsterdam, 1883). 

DA (vol L, p. 241, col. 2, line 40). Read 
Gk>od Samaritan instead of St Sebastian. 

bom in Spain; contemporary. Pupil of 
Barcelona Academy. Works : Sappho (1881); 
Catalonian Lace Maker (1882); Patria, Fides, 
Amor (1884).— La Ilustracion (1882), L 282 ; 
(1884), L 395. 

bom in Valencia, Spain, in 1832, died in 
Madrid, Oct 10, 1886. — Kunst-Chronik, 
xxii. 43. 


Digitized by 




bom at Tortosa, Spain ; contemporary. 
Genre painter, pupil at Barcelona of Clau- 
dio Lorenzale and at the Madrid Academy 
of Federico de Madrazo; then studied in 
Borne, and finally in Paris, where he still 
reside& Works : Preparing for a Visit 
(1874), A. T. Stewart Collection, New York ; 
Victims of Pillage (1876) ; Court Favour- 
ites, Temptation (1877) ; Van Dyck at the 
Court of Charles L, Chocolate (1878) ; Mar- 
riage of a Prince, Indiscretion (1879) ; Hero 
of the Fete (1880) ; In the Comer of a 
Garden, Gourmet (1881) ; Episode in Siege 
of Paris— 1590, At Figaro's (1882) ; A ris- 
ing Star (youth of Mme. de Pompadour), 
Always the King (1883) ; The Gourmand 
(1883), at Morgan sale, New York, 1886, 
$1,750 ; Writing his Memoirs, Theologian 
(1884) ; Last Moments of Philip TL of Spain 
(1885) ; St Ferdinand, King of Spain (1886). 

CASTBES, jfiDOUABD, bom at Gene- 
va ; contemporary. Genre painter, pupil in 
Geneva of Menn and in Paris of Zama- 
cois. Medals : Paris, 2d class, 1872, 1874. 
Works : A Collector (1870) ; Japanese Ba- 
zaar; International Ambulance in the Snow 
(1872) ; Prisoner's Narrative (1873) ; Con- 
vent Fountain, Gypsies Travelling, After the 
Shot (1874) ; At Cairo, Eetum from Mar- 
ket, Beggar Monk (1876) ; Gratuitous Con- 
sultation, Caravan (1876) ; Gypsies travers- 
ing Simplon Pass, Game at Quoits on 
Convent Terrace (1877) ; Belays at Hospital 
on Simplon Pass, Japanese Woman at the 
Bath (1878); Intermpted Meditation, A 
Trick (1879) ; Crossing the Frontier, Be- 
tum from Mountains (1880) ; Little Con- 
valescent (1881); The Bivouacs (1882); 
Hamlet on Fire (1883); Christmas Eve 
(1884); Country life (1886); The Con- 
scripts (1886). 

CAVE, JULES CYBTTiTiFi, bom in Paris ; 
contemporary. History and portrait paint- 
er, pupil of Bouguereau and Tony Bobert- 
Fleury. Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: 
A Martyr of the Catacombs, Portrait of 
Mile. Germaine S. (1886). 

♦CESBBON, ACBOLLR Awarded a 2d 
class medal for his Flowers of Sleep and his 
LUac Tree, Salon, 1886. 

♦CHABNAY, ABMAND. Awarded a 2d 
class medal for his Terrace of Chrysanthe- 
mums at Chateau de Ghisthellier, Salon, 

CIABDI, GUGLTELMO, bom at Treviso ; 
contemporaiy. Marine and landscape paint- 
er in Venice. Gold medal, Berlin, 1886. 
Works: Malamocco — ^Venice, Calm in the 
Lagoons, Chioggia (Exhibition, Munich, 
1883) ; Messidoro, Spring Clouds (1886). 

TOB). Add : Medal, 2d class, 1886. 

CLEMENS, WILHELM Genre painter 
in Munich ; contemporary. GK)ld medal, 
Berlin, 1886. Works : Monks Quarrelling 
(1882); Poacher's End (1886). 

at Cadiz, Spain ; contemporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of Art School at Cadiz and 
of Domingo Marques. Works : Cavalier of 
Court of Louis XTTI. ; Sparrow Day at Se- 
ville ; Yolverfin las oscuras golondrinaa — 
La Bustradon (1883), ii 131. 

ALEXANDBE, bom at Lisieux (Calvados), 
Sept 7, 1829. Genre painter, pupil of Pi- 
cot and Couture. Medal, 3d class, 1873. 
Works : Theseus (1866), Lisieux Museum ; 
Man and Fortune (1870); Politics at the 
Palais Boyal— 1793 (1873) ; Chanson de Bo- 
land, Lansquenet (1874) ; Procession of Par- 
don de Ploumanach (1884) ; Adieus (1885) ; 
Dressed for the Procession (1886). 

landscape painter in Brussels ; contempo- 
rary. Order of Leopold. Works: Entrance 
to Gbrge aux loups in Fontainebleau Forest 
(Exposition universelle, Amstei'dam, 1883) ; 
Boad in Heath of Genck, Plateau Belle 
croix at Fontainebleau (Munich Exhibition, 
1883) ; Autumn Landscape (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). 

COBELLI, AUGIJSTO, genre painter in 
Bome ; contemporary. Gk)ld medals : Ant- 
werp, 1885 ; Berlin, 1st class, 1886. Works : 


Digitized by 



Peasants surprised by Thunder-storm; 
Lady in Drawing-Boom, Oriental Costume 
(Munich Exhibition, 1883) ; My Poor Maria, 
Forest God (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 

At the Morgan sale, New York, 1886, were 
sold the following : Landscape, $9,000 ; 
Nymphs Bathing, $4,800; Evening on a 
Biver, $4,050 ; Landscape and Cattle, 
$4,200; Near YiUe d'Avray, $3,500 ; Land- 
scape, $3,300 ; Environs of Lake Nemi 
(1866), $14,000 ; Wood Gatherers (1875), 

Multedo, Italy, Jan. 4, 1884. 

(voL i, p. 348). Listead of CBANK read 

CUBTIS, CALVIN, bom at Stratford, 
Conn., July 5, 1822. Portrait and land- 
scape painter, pupil in 1841 of the National 
Academy and of Daniel Himtington. After 
painting for several years in New York, he 
returned in 1849 to Connecticut, and lived 
in Birmingham and Waterbury until 1859, 
when he settled in Bridgeport. Though 
hampered by disease, he has been able to 
accomplish much good work. Among his 
sitters have been Chief Justice Thomas B. 
Butler, Judge S. B. Beardsley, General 
William N. Noble, Gideon H. Hollister, Bev. 
Nathaniel Hewitt, and William R Seeley. 

ADOLPHE JEAN. Add : Legion of Hon- 
our, 1885. 

♦DANBT, THOMAS (son of Francis), 
died in London, March 25, 1886. 

At the Morgan sale. New York, 1886, were 
sold the following : Boats on the Shore, 
$1,325 ; Cooper's Shop (1872), $6,300 ; On 
the Seine (1873), $6,200 ; On the Mame 
(1873), $5,500. 

Auvers-sur-Oise, in May, 1886. 

At the Morgan sale, New York, 1886, were 

sold the following : Bazaars in Cairo, $2,450 ; 
Walk to Emmaus, $3,100. 

medals : 1st class, 1878 ; Officer L of Hon- 
our, 1878 ; Member of Institute, 1879. 

DELP£b£E, T^^MTTjE, genre and por- 
trait painter in Lidge ; contemporary. Med- 
al, Ghent, 1877 ; gold medal, Brussels, 1871 ; 
Order of Leopold, 1883. Works : Betum 
from the Garden, Portrait of Professor van 
Beneden (Exposition universelle, Amster- 
dam, 1883) ; Interruption of Jubilee Pro- 
cession at Li^e in 1875 (Munich Exhibi- 
tion, 1883). 

♦DESTBEM, CASmiR Awarded a 2d 
class medal for his Buth and Boaz, Salon, 

♦DEVILLY, TH]60D0BE, died at Nancy, 
France, Dec 24, 1886. — Chronique des Arts 
(1887), 5. 

GUJO (vol. i., p. 405, line 30). For Diana 
and Poictiers read Diana of Poitiers. At 
the Morgan sale. New York, 1886, were 
sold the following : Oriental Woman (1865), 
$1,550 ; Lane near Fontainebleau (1865), 
12,500 ; Study of the Nude, 11,375 ; Edge 
of a Wood, $2,750 ; Moonlight Concert, 
$2,400 ; Pool in the Woods (1873), $2,600 ; 
Toilet of Venus (1877), $3,300 ; Flowers, 
$500 ; lie des Amours (1857), $3,900 ; Chil- 
dren and Kid (1860), $2,750 ; Persian Wom- 
en (1860), $2,925 ; Bepose after Bath, $1,600 ; 
Boy with Hunting Dogs (1855), $4,500 ; 
Holy Family (1853), $4,100 ; Sunset after 
Storm (1871), $8,650; Bathers, $2,400; 
Persian Woman and Child, $3,500. 

DILL, LUDWIG, bom at Gemsbach, 
Baden, Feb. 2, 1848. Marine painter in 
Munich ; self-taught Medal, Nuremberg ; 
gold medal, Stuttgart ; Munich, 2d class, 
1883. Works: After the Storm (1882), 
Munich Art Union ; Canal in Venice (1882), 
Stuttgart Museum ; Sirocco, Lagoon Vil- 
lage (Exhibition, Munich, 1883) ; Venetian 
Fishing Boat (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 
1886).— Kunst-Chronik, xvil 8, 386 ; xix. 
447 ; Zeitschi-. f. b. K, xix. 159. 


Digitized by 



bany, N. Y., Feb. 25, 1838, died in Rome, 
March, 1872. Landscape and marine paint- 
er ; served in the civil war on the staff of 
his father. General John A. Dix, and at its 
close went to study in Rome, where he re- 
mained until his decease. Works : Phantom 
Ship ; View of Gibraltar ; Sunset at Capri ; 
Sark Channel Islands ; Coast Scene (1871). 

♦DOREUR, LR Add to bibliography: 
Jal, 1046. 

♦DUBUFE, EDGUARD. Add to works : 
Love's Diversion (1860), Circassian Girl 
(1867), Lady and Parrot (1871), Prodigal 
Son (1867), A. T. Stewart Collection, New 
Tork. The Prodigal Son, the study of the 
larger picture (Exposition universelle, Paris, 
1878, burned in Cincinnati a few years 
later), is in three parts in one frame : cen- 
tre, H. 4 ft x 7 ft 6 in.; wings, each, H. 4 
ft X 1 ft 4 in. 

♦DTJPRfi, JULES. At the Morgan sale. 
New Tork, 1886, were sold the following : 
Stormy Weather, $1,700 ; Driving Cows to 
Water, $1,850 ; Cloudy Day, $2,500 ; Mom- 
ing, $8,050 ; A Symphony, $8,100. 

♦DUPRfi, LfiGN VICTOR, died in Paris, 
Nov. 1, 1879.— L'Art (1879), iv. 168. 

at Marseilles ; contemporary. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Horace Vemet and 
of Ferdinand Wachsmuth. Medal, 3d class, 
1886. Works : Deposition from the Cross 
(1878) ; Providence (1879) ; Jesus Dead on 
the Cross, Butterflies — ^Decorative Panel 
(1880) ; OUve Harvest (1881) ; The Flute 
Prize (1882) ; The Fish and the Shepherd 
that plays the Flute, Onmis Homo (1885) ; 
Resignation (1886). 

ERDTELT, ALOIS, genre painter in 
Munich ; contemporary. Gold medal, Ber- 
lin, 1886. Works : Genre Scene, Two Por- 
traits (Munich Exhibition, 1883) ; At the 
Tailor's, Portrait of the Artist, do. of his 
Father (Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 

FAIVRE, L:60N MAXTMFi, bom in 
Paris ; contemporary. Genre and portrait 
painter, pupil of G^rome and of Boulanger. 

Medal, 3d class, 1884 Works : Interior of 
GerOme's Studio (1877) ; Demi^re victoire! 
(1880) ; WiUiam the Conqueror (1881) ; La 
muse au cabaret (1882) ; Female Portrait 
(1884) ; An Invader in the Stone Age 
(1885) ; Surprised by the Tide (1886). 

FERRY, JULES, bom at Bordeaux, 
France, Jan. 1, 1844 History and genre 
painter, pupil of John Lewis Brown and of 
Alexandre Cabanel. Medal, 3d dass, 1886. 
Works : Astyanax thrown from the WaUs of 
Troy by order of Ulysses (1869) ; Gteme 
Seller (1870) ; Return from Hunting (1873) ; 
HallaU of the Wild Boar (1876) ; Recall of 

Dogs from Boar Chase (1879) ; The Guard's 
Breakfast (1880) ; Market Day— Road to 
Evreux (1884) ; Diana at the Bath (1886). 

♦FILDES, (SAMUEL) LUKE, elected 
R A., 1887. Add to works : The Flower Girl, 
A Daughter of the Lagoons (1886). 

FIRLE, WALTHER, genre painter in 
Munich ; contemporary. Gold medal, Ber- 
lin, 1886. Works : Morning Devotions in 
Dutch Orphanage, Sunday School (Jubilee 
Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 

the Morgan sale. New York, 1886, were sold 
the following: Italian Woman (water-col- 
our), $450 ; Spanish Lady with Fan (water- 
colour), $575 ; The Rare Vase (1870, water- 
colour, J. W. Wilson sale, Paris, 1881), 

FOURlfi, ALBERT, bom in Paris; con- 
temporary. Genre painter, pupil of Jean 
Paul Laurens and of Gautherin. Medal, 3d 
class, 1884 Works: Recreation in the 
Cloister (1879) ; Judith, A Numismatist 
(1881) ; Etienne Marcel and the Dauphin 
(1882) ; First Communion at Crosne (1884) ; 
Last Mourning (1886) ; A Fete-Day (1886). 

stead of Medal, 2d class, 1848; Medal, 
1865, read : Medal, 3d class, 1883. 

♦FRfelffi, (PIERRE) £dOUARD, died at 
]6couen. May 23, 1886.— Athenceum (1886), 

FRIESE, RICHARD, bom at Hamburg, 
Germany ; contemporary. Animal painter. 


Digitized by 



pupil of Berlin Academy. Medal, 3d class, 
Paris, 1885 ; gold medal, Berlin, 1886. 
Works : Brigands of the Desert (Salon, 
1885) ; Hard Fight between Ure-Oxen, End 
of a Noble of the Forest (Jubilee Exhibi- 
tion, Berlin, 1886). 

Awarded a 2d class medal for Picard j Farm, 
Court Yard in Auvergne, Salon, 1886. 

GEBHARDT, KABL, bom in Munich, 
March 23, 1860. History painter, pupil of 
Loefftz and Lindenschmit at the Munich 
Academy, where he won several prizes ; then 
studied in Italy. Medal, Nuremberg, 1879. 
Works: A Bookworm (1877), owned in 
America ; Loki and Sigrun (1878) ; Hero and 
Leander (1879), Kunsthalle, Hamburg; Min- 
nesinger (1881) ; Death of Virginia (1882) ; 
Eve by the body of Abel (1883).— Dlustr. 
Zeitg. (1886), i. 109 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviL 
436 ; xviii 549; xix. 351; Zeitschr. 1 b. K, 
xix. 135. 

GELHAY, £D0UARD, bom at Braisne- 
sur-Vesle (Aisne) ; contemporary. Portrait 
and genre painter, pupil of Jules Goupil 
and of Alexandre Cabanel. Medal, 3d class, 
1886. Works: Atelier of Tony Eobert- 
Fleury (1885); Foundling Asylum (1886). 

♦GfiROME, JEAN L^ON. Add to 
works : (Edipus, First Eiss of the Sim 
(1886). At the Morgan sale, New York, 
1886, were sold the following : Vase Seller 
—Cairo, $4,600 ; The Tulip Folly, $6,000 ; 
Coffee House— Cairo, $4,800. 

Wesel, Prussia, May 5, 1835. History paint- 
er, pupil of Dresden Academy and in Dds- 
seldorf of Mintrop ; studied in Home in 
1866-71. Professor, member, and sena- 
tor of Berlin Academy. Great gold medal, 
Berlin, 1886. Works: Roman Triumphal 
Procession, Four Cardinal Virtues, Re-erec- 
tion of German Empire, Allegory on War, 
do. on Peace, Defence of the Country 
against Foreign Invaders, Union of North 
and South through Prussia (1883-87), 
Arsenal, Berlin ; Decorations on Staircase 
of Ministry of Commerce, ib. — D. illustr. 

Zeitg. (1886), v. 231 ; Kunst-Chronik, xviL 
314 ; xviii 451 ; xix. 730. 

Fkuis ; contemporary. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Alexandre GabaneL Medal, 3d dass, 
1886. Works : A Bad Blow (1882) ; Sun- 
day (1885) ; The Tapestry Mender (pastel, 

♦GmARD, ALBERT. Awarded a 2d 
class medal for his La premie heure — 
Banks of the Seine, Salon, 1886. 

New York ; contemporary. Portrait and 
figure painter, pupil of the i^cole des Beaux 
Arts and of Carolus-Duran. Studio in 
Paris. Works: Portraits of Mrs. C. H. 
Baldwin (1882), of General Cullum (1883), 
Mrs. K S. Higgins, Child of W. W. Astor 
(1884), and Mra Sherwood (1885); Co- 
quetry (1884). 

GRIDEL, JOSEPH •fcMTTiE, bom at 
Baccarat (Meurthe), Oct 16, 1839. Animal 
painter, pupil of Augustin Feyen-Perrin. 
Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works : Wounded 
Boar (1865) ; A Double Blow (1869) ; Re- 
turn from Boar Hunt in the Yosges (1879) ; 
Bosnian Bear Exhibitor (1880) ; Capture of 
a Wild Boar (1886). 

GROLLERON, PAUL, bom at Seignelay 
(Yonne) ; contemporary. History and genre 
painter, pupil of L6on Bonnat. Medal, 3d 
class, 1886. Works: When the Masters 
are Away (1874) ; Game of Piquet (1875) ; 
Each in his Tum (1878) ; When the Cat's 
away the Mice, eta (1879); Episode of 1870 
(1881) ; Combat in 1870 under Walls of 
Paris (1882) ; La partie fine (1883) ; On the 
Look-out, At Buzenval (1884) ; An Inquiry, 
Chatillon— Oct 13, 1870 (1885) ; Episode 
of the Battle of Loigny (1886). 

GUfiTAL, LAURENT, bom at Vienne 
(Is^re) ; contemporary. Landscape painter. 
Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works : La B^rarde- 
en-Oisans (1882) ; Banks of the Drao (1883) ; 
Mont- Aiguille and the Valley of Chichilianne- 
en-Tri^ves in Dauphiny (1884) ; The First 
Snow (1885); Lake of L6chauda in the 
Hautes-Alpes, A Sea in Winter (1886). 


Digitized by 



HAANEN, CECIL VAN, bom in Vienna, 
in November, 1844. Genre painter, son of 
and first instructed by Eemj van Haanen, 
then pupil of Vienna Academy, and for six 
years in Antwerp of Van Lerius and Verlat ; 
having for six months been employed in 
London as draughtsman for leading maga- 
zines, he visited Venice in 1873 and was 
greatly influenced by Passini, and this, in 
connection with Pettenkofen's advice, im- 
parted a new stamp to his style. He is a 
brilliant colourist, with a broad and vigorous 
touch and a fine faculty for composing and 
placing his figures. Medals : Paris, 3d 
class, 1876 ; 2d dass, 1878. Works : The 
Bead Stringers (1876) ; A Water Carrier, A 
Street Wrangle (1877); The First Dip 
(1880) ; Luncheon Time in a Venetian Sar- 
toria. Cobbler's Shop (1881) ; Gypsy Girl, 
Mask Shop in Venice (1882) ; Afternoon 
Coffee (1883); Death of Juliet (1884).— 
Mag. of Art, x. 1. 

MENT), bom at Brussels; contemporary. 
Genre painter, pupil of Jules Lef^bvre, 
Gustave Boulanger, and Portaels. Medal, 
3d class, Paris, 1886. Works: Joueuse 
d'osselets, A Nun (1883) ; Under the Fir 
Trees (1884) ; Candy Sorters, Interior of a 
Candy Shop (1885) ; Li the Fir Forest, 
Souvenir of the Dune (1886). 

HAQUETTE, GEORGES, bom in Paris; 
contemporary. Gtenre painter, pupil of A. 
Millet and of Cabanel. Medal, 3d class, 
1880. Works : Scene at PoUet— near Di- 
eppe (1878); Francine's Muff, Interior at 
Pollet (1879) ; Wandering Musicians in a 
Cabaret Fish Dealer at Dieppe (1880) ; In- 
terior of la m^re Panotte, P6re Mazure 
(1881) ; Departure for Newfoundland, At 
the Wharf (1882) ; Le salut au Calvaire, A 
Baptism (1884) ; Landing from Fishing, A 
Wind Squall (1885) ; Man of the Sea (1886). 

HASLUND, OTTO, bom in Copenhagen, 
Nov. 4, 1842. Landscape, animal, and fig- 
ure painter, first instructed by Frederik 
Helsted (1809-75), then pupil of Copen- 
hagen Academy, of Boed, Marstrand, Si- 

monsen, and Skovgaard ; won a prize in 
1871, and went to Italy in 1873. Works : 
Landscape with Sheep (1867) ; Old Horse 
seeking Shelter behind Boat (1868) ; Land- 
scapes and Animal-Pieces (1869-71) ; Re- 
turn from Market (1871) ; Donkeys on the 
Eoad in Ischia (1874) ; Roman Abbot 
smoking clandestinely (1875) ; Monk start- 
ing out in Rainy Weather (1878) ; Milk- 
maids as^ting one another in writing to 
their Lovers, Two Old People keeping Sun- 
day, Behind a Mill of an Afternoon (1882) ; 
In Tule-Tide (1883).— Sigurd Mtlller, 146. 

Stuttgart of English parents ; contempo- 
rary. Genre painter, pupil of Bouguereau, 
Jules Lefdbvre, and Boulanger. Medal, 3d 
dass, 1881. Works : Potato Harvest, The 
Orphans (1881) ; Lavatory at Ores, Peasant 
Woman and Geese (1882) ; Fisherman's 
Mother, Evening (1883) ; Poor People (1884). 

works : Orpheline, Solitude (1886). At the 
Morgan sale. New York, 1886, were sold the 
following : Sleeping Nymph, $2,075 ; Re- 
pose, $3,100 ; Fabiola ^eroine of Cardinal 
Wiseman's story of same name), $4,100; 
La Source (Salon, 1881), $10,100, Walter 
Watson, Montreal, Canada. 

in Paris ; contemporary. Landscape painter, 
son and pupil of Jean Marie Jacomin (1789- 
1858). Medal, 3d class, 1883. Works: End 
of a Winter Day (1880) ; View in Forest of 
Saint-Germain (1881, 1884, 1885) ; do. in 
Forest of Marly (1881, 1882, 1883, 1886).— 
Bellier, i 809. 

*JACQXJEMART, N&JE (voL ii., p. 328, 
line 10). For Drury read Duruy. 

♦KNAUS, LUDWIG. Add to works: 
The Witch, George L Seney, New York. 
At the Morgan sale, New York, 1886, were 
sold the following : A Farmer's Daughter 
(1884), $2,300 ; Young Satyr, $3,150 ; St 
Martin's Day (1877), $6,700 ; Hunter's Re- 
past (1867), $16,400, Mrs. Amott, Ehnira, 
N. Y. ; Country Store (1883), $10,400, a P. 
Avery, New York. 


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KOVALEVSKI, PAUL, bom at Kasan, 
Russia; contemporar}'. Genre painter in 
St. Petersburg ; professor. Member of Ber- 
lin Academy. Medals : 2d class, Paris, 1878; 
Berlin, 1886. Works : Transportation of a 
Millstone (1877) ; Excavations in Rome 
(Jubilee Exhibition, Berlin, 1886). 

*KRAY, WILHELM. Undine listening 
to the Tale of a Playmate (1879) is owned 
by T. T. Kinney, Newark, N. J. 

Paris ; contemporary. Genre painter, pu- 
pil of Pils, of Corot, and of Carolus-Duran. 
Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works : Banks of 
the Allier at Beaurecueil (1877) ; Idleness, 
Dreaming (1878) ; Under the Olives (1879) ; 
Gitanos of the Albaycin at Granada (1880) ; 
Marguerite (1881); Little Child (1882); 
Edge of the Water, Pierre (1883) ; Susanna 
(1884) ; Two Sisters (1885) ; Revery, First 
Step (1886). 

in Belgium ; contemporary. Genre paint- 
er, pupil of Portaels and of Cluysenaar. 
Medals : Paris, 3d class, 1883 ; 2d class, 
1884 ; do., Berlin, 1886. Studio in Brussels. 
Works: The Intercepted Courier (1882); 
Prisoners of War (1883) ; Equestrian Por- 
trait (1884) ; The Wrestlers (1885). 

LARSSON, KARL, born in Stockhohn, 
Sweden ; contemporary. Landscape and 
genre painter, pupil of the Stockholm Acad- 
emy. Medal, Paris, 3d class, 1883. Works : 
In the Country (1883) ; Petite fille (1885) ; 
In Sweden (1886). 

LATOUCHE, GASTON, bom at Saint- 
Cloud (Seine-et-Oise); contemporary. Genre 
painter, pupil of Corot. Is also a sculptor 
and engraver. Medal, 3d class, 1884. Works: 
Conversation (1880) ; Le trepasse, The View 
(1881) ; Fire in London, Interment of a 
Child at Juvigny-sous-Andaine (1882) ; Mis- 
ery, The Wheedler (1883) ; A Vow, Legende 
du point d'Argentan (1884) ; The Infirm at 
the Monastery of Perron, Solitude (1885) ; 
Wilhelmshohe, Holy Family (triptych, 1886). 

Paris ; contemporary. Portrait and genre 

painter, pupil of Lehmann, Hubert, and 
Merson. Medal, 3d class, 1885. Studio at 
£couen in 1885. Works : Portrait of my 
Mother (1882) ; Clarissa Hariow (1883) ; 
On the Banks of the Brook (1884) ; Annun- 
ciation (1885). 

♦LAWRENCE, Sir THOMAS (voL iii, p. 
39, lines 11 and 41). For Gonsalvi read 

MOND, bom at Lyons, France, Feb. 3, 
1825. History and portrait painter, pupil 
of Michel Martin Drolling in Paris. Med- 
als : 3d class, 1857, 1863 ; L. of Honour, 
1885. Works : Ancient Comedians (1860) ; 
Benedicite (1859) ; Marriage of the King of 
Navarre (1863) ; Antonello da Messina and 
Giovanni Bellini (1872) ; Chateaudun (1885), 
H6tel-de-Ville at Chateaudun. 

in Paris, June 27, 1823. Landscape and 
genre painter, pupil of Horace Vemet and 
of Gros. Medal, 2d class, 1833. Works : 
View of Alexandria, Ruins of Thebes (1831); 
Emigration of Arabs in a Caravan from 
Upper Egypt, Bedouin Camp, Mosque in 
Alexandria (1833); View of BejTOut (1839) ; 
Maronite Monks of Mount Lebanon (1840); 
Valley of the Jordan (1846) ; Plain of Thebes 
(1866) ; Quarries of Silsilis — Upper Egypt ; 
Siesta on the Field of the Dead — Syria 
(1882) ; Siesta in the Harem, Lake of Tibe- 
rias (1884) ; View at Bellevue, Terrace at 
Beyrout (1885). 

MARIE), bom at Lille (Nord) ; contempo- 
rary. Genre and landscape painter, pupil 
of Dubufe, MazeroUe, Harpignies, and Jean 
Paul Laurens. Medal, 3d class, 1886. Paints 
chiefly in water-colours. Works : Environs 
of Tlemcen (1877); Halt in the Desert (1878); 
Blind Man at Door of Mosque (1880) ; Ac- 
tseon (1881); Dance of Nymphs (1882); En- 
virons of Toulon, Environs of Cannes (1884); 
Pool in a Forest (1885) ; Banks of the Loire 
near Beaugency, On the Loire at Baule (1886). 

ville-Champ-d'Oisel (Seine-Inferieure) ; con- 


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temporary. Landscape and genre painter, 
pupil of Gustave Morin, of Zacharie, and of 
Bouguereaa Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: 
Norman Landscape, Paternosters of the Sei- 
gneur de Gurzon (1880) ; Evening at £tre- 
tet (1881) ; Behind the Farm (1882) ; Vale 
of Antifer (1883) ; The Plain (1884) ; The 
Little Valley (1886) ; The Ascent of Benou- 
ville— Jfitretat (1886). 

♦LEROLLE, HENRL Add to works: 
Close of the Day (1886), Henry T. Chap- 
man, Jr., Brooklyn, N. T. 

bom in Paris ; contemporary. History and 
portrait painter, pupil of Alexandre CabaneL 
Medal, 3d dass, 1882. Works : Jesus with 
Martha and Mary (1882) ; Portrait (1883) ; 
Mordecai (1884) ; ' Recreation, Friday at 
Sidi-Abd-er-Rahman (1886). 

*LOIR, LUIGL Awarded a 2d class 
medal for his La fum^ du chemin de fer. 
Salon, 1886. 

bom at Saint-Dizier (Haute-Mame) ; con- 
temporary. Flower and fruit painter. 
Medals : 3d class, 1847 ; 2d class, 1848. 
Works : Offering to the Holy Virgin (1846) ; 
Fruit (1847) ; A Road-side Cross (1848) ; 
Offering to Si Genevieve (1863) ; Chrys- 
anthemums, Tea Roses (1874) ; Noisette 
Roses (1882); Group of Roses (1883); 
Roses near Water, Study of Roses (1884) ; 
Autumn Roses (1885) ; Hundred-Leaf Roses 

bom at Roohefort-sur-Mer (Charente-Li- 
f^rieure) ; contemporary. Genre and por- 
trait painter, pupil of Pils and of Henri 
Lehman. Medal, 3d class, 1884. Works : 
Eclogue (1880) ; Dying Sappho (1881) ; For- 
saken — Souvenir of Venice (1884) ; Sacred 
Spring (1886) ; PortraitofMlle.deV.(1886). 

Ballston, N. Y., May 22, 1823. Portrait, 
genre, and landscape painter ; entered Na- 
tional Academy School, New Tork, in 1843 ; 
studied with Charles L. Elliott in 1843-45, 
and with John Vanderlyn in 1848. He 

painted portraits in Washington until 1852, 
having among his sitters Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Daniel S. Dickinson, Henry Clay, 
James K Polk, Zachary Taylor, and William 
H. Seward. In 1852-70 he painted in New 
Tork ; in the latter year he went to Europe, 
studied under Albrecht Schenck at £couen, 
and spent several years in Paris. Li 1878 
he accompanied William H. Seward to Cali- 
fornia and painted in the Yosemite Valley. 
Among his other works are: The Opera 
Belle (bronze medal. Exposition universelle, 
Paris, 1867) ; Mont Blanc from Chamounix 
(1868), George W. Allen, MUwaukee ; The 
Jungfrau (1871), A. V. H. Carpenter, ib.; 
Emption of Vesuvius (1878), L. R Conrad, 
Philadelphia; and portraits of Presidents 
Pierce (1852) and Buchanan (1856), General 
H. W. Slocum (1866), Thomas C. Durant 
(1868), Alexander MitcheU (1871), General 
Winfield S. Hancock (1880), and RosweU P. 
Flower (1882). 

died at Bar-le-Duc, January, 1887. — Chro- 
nique des Arts (1887), 31. 

MAREST, Mile. JULIA, bom in Paris ; 
contemporary. Gtenre and portrait painter, 
pupil of Charles Chaplin and of Gervex. 
Medal, 3d class, 1885. Works : La Rous- 
sotte (1881) ; Satisfied (1882) ; Far niente 
(1883); Teasing (1884); Marquise Nina 
(1885) ; Portrait of Mme. R (1886). 

MASSARANI, TULLO, bom in Mantua, 
Italy ; contemporary. Genre painter, pupil 
of Induno. Officer of Legion of Honour, 
1878. Studio in Milan. Works : Lifancy in 
Greece, Lady of the Manor and a Vassal 
(1880) ; L'esclave aux colombes (1885). 

At the Morgan sale. New York, 1886, were 
sold the following : A Standard Bearer 
(1857), $15,000, In the Library (1876), 
$16,525, Charles Crocker, San Francisco ; 
The Vedette— 1812 (1883), $15,000, S. P. 
Avery, New York. 

NIN, bom at Toulouse, France; contem- 
porary. History and portrait painter, pupil 

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of Jouffix>y and of Falgui^re. Medal, 8d 
class, 1883. Is far better known as a 
sculptor, in which department of art he 
has received many decorations and is an 
Officer of the L. of Honour (1879). Works : 
After the Funeral — Souvenir of Brittany, De- 
lilah (1881) ; The First Halt (1882) ; Venus 
(1883) ; Leda (1884) ; Michelangelo studying 
Anatomy J1885) ; Blood of Venus (1886). 

MESLE, JOSEPH PAUL, bom at Saint- 
Servan (Lie - et - Vilaine) ; contemporary. 
Genre and portrait painter, pupil of Lton 
Bonnat Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: 
Landscape (1880) ; Breton Girl (1881) ; do. 
and Portrait of Mme. D. L. (1882) ; Little 
Peasant Girl (1883) ; A Mother (1884) ; Two 
Sisters (1886). 

Ton Bremen), died in Berlin, Dec 4, 1886. 

MIOHEL, GEORGES, bom in Paris in 
1763, died in 1843. Landscape and genre 
painter, pupil of Taunay. He was an ex- 
cellent copyist, and was employed in the 
restoration of the pictures of Cardinal Fesch. 
Though he had but little reputation in his 
day, his pictures are now much sought 
after. Works: Horse Market (1791) ; Swiss 
Landscape (1793) ; Military Convoy, Halt of 
Cavahy (1800) ; Rainy Landscape (1808) ; 
Animals going to Drinking Place (figures 
by Taunay), Nantes Museum. Some fine 
examples of his work are owned in this 
country by John W. Mason, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
and Henry T. Chapman, Jr., ib. 

Morgan sale, New York, 1886, wei*e sold the 
following : Shepherdess and Sheep (water- 
colour), $1,525 ; Gathering Apples, $2,575 ; 
Wool Carder, $3,650; Feeding Poultry, 
$4,000 ; Dressing Flax (1854), $4,975 ; The 
Chumer (Laurent Richard sale, Paris, 1878), 
$8,100; Gathering Beans, $6,300; Wood 
Cutters, $5,000 ; Woman in Kitchen, $650 ; 
The Spaders, $3,800 ; The Spinner, $14,000. 

at Granada ; contemporary. History paint- 
er, pupil of Granada Art School, and under 
Federico Madrazo of Madrid Academy (1857 

-60) ; won two competition prizes at Gra- 
nada in 1861 and 1862, and was appointed 
professor of drawing at the royal college of 
San Bartolom^ y Santiago in 1867. Went 
to Rome in December, 1878, and studied 
there for two years. Gold medal, 1875. 
Works: Pieta (1861); Clirist on Calvary 
(1862); St Teresa (1867); Conception 
(1875),' Granada Universiiy; Courtyard of 
the Mosque in the Alhambra (1875) ; Read- 
ing the Bill (1876) ; Scene during First Ex- 
pulsion of the Moors under Philip XL (1877); 
Chamber where Queen Aixa visited her dis- 
graced Son Boabdil (1871) ; San Juan de 
Dios saving from the Flames the Infirm of 
the Hospital at Granada (1880).— La Hus- 
tracion (1881), i 410. 

DK Add to works: Assault on Tel-^- 
Eebir (1883, episode of the war in Egypt), 
Enoedler k Co., New York. 

seilles ; contemporary. Marine painter, pu- 
pil of Yollon. Medals : 3d class, 1885 ; 2d 
class, 1886. Works: Rocks at Tr^port 
(1879); The Mediterranean (1880); Old 
Port of Marseilles, Still-Life (1881) ; Beach 
of the Prado during the Mistral (1882) ; 
Promenade of la Croisette at Cannes (1883); 
Entrance to Old Port of Marseilles, Sea 
Shore at St Laurent (1885) ; Mistral in 
Isle of the Prado— Marseilles, ^paves de la 
Navarre near Marseilles (1886). 

SuUy - sur - Loire (Loiret) ; contemporary. 
Genre painter, pupil of Alexandre CabaneL 
Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: Ecstasy 
(1881) ; Death of Jesus (1882) ; A Widow, 
Fatigue (1883) ; The Scholar of the Village, 
Young Sardini^re (1884) ; Return from Mar- 
ket (1885) ; Wretchedness (1886). 

♦PRINCETEAU, RENfl Awarded a 2d 
class medal for his Return to the Farm 
during an Inundation, Salon, 1886. 

PROUVJfi, VICTOR ^MTTiFi, bom at 
Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) ; contemporary. 
Figure painter, pupil of Devilly and of Ca- 
baneL Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: 


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Adam and Eve (1882) ; Jeanne (1883) ; Rosy 
Visions (1884) ; Sardanapalus (1885) ; Mad- 
eline, Nourmahal (1886). 

RIE) DE, bom in Paris; contemporary. 
History painter, pupil of Bin, DouiUard, 
and Michel. Medal, 3d class, 1886. Works: 
The Monk (1880) ; Comer in the Church at 
Dieppe (1881) ; The Old Vagabond (1882) ; 
A Gave during the Bombardment of Paris 
in 1871 (1883) ; Refugees— Notice posted in 
Paris, Jan. 18, 1871 (1884) ; Volunteer En- 
rohnent— 1870 (1886) ; Legend of St Mary 
of Brabant— 1290(1886). 

works : Road through Fontainebleau (H. 
2 ft 10 in. x3 ft 10 in.), Henry T. Chap- 
man, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

bom in Paris ; contemporary. History and 
genre painter, pupil of Isidor Pils. Med- 
al, 3d class, 1886. Works : De Profundis 
(1870) ; Idyl (1878) ; Breakfast (1879) ; The 
Sense of Smell (1881) ; Surprise of a Hos- 
tile Post by Franc-Tureurs in 1870 (1882) ; 
Leda (1883) ; Comer of the Studio (1884) ; 
Temptation of St. Anthony (1885) ; Homage 
to Admiral Courbet (1886). 

Avignon (Vaucluse) ; contemporaiy. Land- 
scape painter, pupil of Guilbert d'Anelle 
and of L^on G^r6me. Medal, 3d class, 
1886. Works: Cabin at Billancourt in 
Winter (1880) ; Torrent in Woods at Bre- 
nets — Switzerland (1881) ; Evening on 
Banks of the Seine at Billancourt, Morning 
on Banks of the Rhone at Avignon (1882) ; 
End of Autumn at Avignon (1883) ; An- 
cient Road of Chdne-Vert near Avignon, 
November Twilight (1884) ; Evening in 
February at Avignon, The Rhone (1885) ; 
Sunset in Isle of Piot near Avignon, MiH of 
St Cen6ry near Alen9on Q886). 

♦SERVm, AMAD^E ELIE, died at Vil- 
liers-sur-Morin, May, 1884. 

COMPANY. Add to bibUography : Gaz. 
des B. Arte (1887), xxxv. 175. 

♦STONE, MARCUS, elected RA, 1887. 

♦TERBURG, GERALD. Add to bibU- 
ography : Gkiz. des B. Arte (1886), xxxiv. 
388 ; (1887), xxxv. 40, 125. 

in Paris ; contemporary. Still-life painter, 
pupil of Victor Leclaire. Medal, 3d class, 
1886. Works: June Flowers (1880); A 
Comer of the Conservatory (1881) ; Cellar 
of P^re Jacquemin (1882) ; A Gtey Morning 
(1883) ; Comer of Vineyard in Burgundy 
(1884) ; In the Studio (1885); Eve of the 
P^te (1886). 

♦TROYON, CONSTANT. Add to works: 
Going to Market (H 1 ft 2 in. x 1 ft 10 in.), 
Henry T. Chapman, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
Cattle (1856), Landscape and Cattle (H 2 
ft 7 in. x3 ft 8 in.), A. T. Stewart Colleo- 
tion, New York. 

Westport, Essex Counly, N. Y., June 29, 
1847. Landscape painter, studied in Mu- 
nich, Venice, Florence, and Rome. Studio 
in Salem, Mass. Works in oils : A Roman 
Villa (1883) ; La Salute (1884) ; A White 
House Ashore. Water-colours : A White 
Study (1883) ; An Old Garden (1886). 

Awarded a 2d class medal, Salon, 1886. 

SEPH Add te works : Dog tessed by a 
Bull (H 2 ft x3 ft), Henry T. Chapman, 
Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Missionary's Story (1883, Morgan sale, 
1886, $25,500), was bought by C. P. Hunt- 
ington. New York. 

VEMONT, fiDOUARD, bom in Paris, 
Aug. 8, 1846. History painter, pupil of 
Alexandre Cabanel and of Maillet Medal, 
3d class, 1886. Works : CephalusandPro- 
cris (1870) ; The Sirens (1874) ; Lucretia 
(1875) ; St Genevieve (1876) ; The Fable 
and the Tmth (1880); A Gallic Oracle 
(1881) ; Hercules between Vice and Virtue 
(1883) ; St Columba (1884) ; Folly guides 
the Shafte of Lotc (1885) ; ViteUius saluted 
Emperor (1886). 


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DK Add to works : Peasant Boy with 
Oxen at a Roadside Shrine, Henry T. Chap- 
man, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

DE, bom at Bailletd (Nord) ; contemporary. 
History and genre painter, pupil of Alexan- 
dre Cabanel, Jules BrC^ton and Colas. Medal, 

3d class, 1886. Works: St. Sebastian 
(1875); Prodigal Son (1876); Judith (1877) ; 
Old Woman in Prayer (1878) ; In the Fields 
(1880) ; Tryptich— Birth of Christ— Death 
of Christ— Holy Women (1881) ; The Sheep- 
Tender (1884) ; At the Convent (1886) ; At 
the Dispensary (1886). 




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