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Cornell University Library 
DA 670 .L2B16 1888 


History of the county palatine and ducliv 

3 1924 024 699 260 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 








The BIOGRAPHICAL DEPABTMEJfT bij the Late W. B. WEATTOJY, F.B.S., F.8.A.; with 
the Additions of the late JOHM EABLAJfD, F.S.A., and the Eev. BROOKE HEBFORD. 

H IRew, IReviseb, anD Enlargeb B&ition, 

With the Family Pedigrees (Omitted in the Second Edition) Corrected Throughout. 



Vice-President of the Record Society. 

Author of " Historic Sites of Lancashire and Cheshire," " County Families of Lancashire and Cheshire," 
"A History of the Ancient Hall of Samleshury,'' <&c., c&c. 



Deansgatb and Eidgefield, Manchester; 

and 11, Paternoster Buildings, 



£ V, 



A.LF a century has elapsed since Baines's History of Lancashire was first issued 
to the public. Its appearance was hailed with general satisfaction as the first 
attempt to give anything like a complete History of the Palatinate, and it has 
ever since been recognised as the standard topographical work on the county. 
In the coflection and arrangement of his materials, Mr. Baines devoted many 
years of patient industry and scholarly research, but his production was 
unfortunately, disfigured tiy rqany* inaccuracies — the result of the confusing, and oftentimes 
contradictory, evidences of mediasval times, and the occasional acceptance, without verification, of 
the abstracts of other labourers in the field of antiquarian research ; but, in spite of these defects, 
and the huge gaps it was known to present, the original edition became exceedingly scarce, and 
chance copies that foimd their way into the market commanded correspondingly high prices. 

The rarity of the work, and the frequent inquiries for it, induced the late Mr. John Harland, 
about twenty years ago, to undertake the preparation of a new and revised edition, pruning out 
what was redundant and obsolete, and bringing down the chief events in the history of important 
parishes and towns to his own time. More correct versions, in English, were given of the Domesday 
Survey, of the grants and charters to the various boroughs and towns, and of the abbreviated Latin 
documents contained in Mr. Baines's work. Btt it was always considered a defect in this edition 
that the family pedigrees, which formed such an important feature in the original work, were 
omitted, and it has been the regret of every antiquary that Mr. Harland had not the time at his 
disposal to correct the many inaccuracies they undoubtedly contained, and present them to his 
readers in a correct and trustworthy form. Mr. Harland's death occurred just as the first volume 
was completed, and his literary executor, the Kev. Brooke Herford, at the request of the publishers, 
took up and completed with praiseworthy care the task that had fallen from his hand. 

It will be obvious that a county history, and especially the history of such a county as 
Lancashire, could not be written fifty years ago in so complete a form as to satisfy the requirements 
of the student of the present day. In the period that has intervened an enormous mass of 
materials, which were either unknown or inaccessible when Mr. Baines wrote, have come to light. 
The publications of the Chetham and Record Societies, and the Transactions of the Historic Society 
of Lancashire and Cheshire, furnish information of the greatest possible value. The great series of 
calendars and state papers published under the authority of the Master of the Rolls, the ancient 
muniments of the Duchy of Lancaster given by the Queen to the nation in 1868, and the Records 
of the County Palatine transferred to the Public Record Office, London, in 1873, have thrown a 
flood of light on the historical and antiquarian matters connected with the Palatinate and Duchy, 
or indicated the sources whence original information of the greatest consequence might be obtained. 
These several sources have been freely laid under contribution, and, in addition, the text has been 
carefully revised, in some cases amplified, and every known inaccuracy set right. The return 
presented to Parliament by order of the House of Commons in 1879, giving the names of members 
of the lower house "from so remote a period as it can be obtained," has enabled the Editor to 


supply many omissions, and to give a more accurate and complete list of the representatives of the 
county than has hitherto appeared. The rearrangement of ecclesiastical districts consequent 
upon the creation of the new See of Liverpool, and the changes effected in the Parliamentary 
divisions of the county and in the representation of the boroughs under the provisions of the 
Reform Acts of 1884 and 1885, as well as the alterations in the old and the creation of new Courts 
of Law, have been duly noted ; and, in addition, a record is given of the various civil changes that 
have occurred, with such other matters as go to make up the general history of the county since 
the last edition was given to the world. 

A notable feature in the present edition, and one that will be more apparent when the 
hundreds and parishes come under review, is the reintroduction of the Family Pedigrees, to the 
careful revision of which special attention has been devoted, every pains having beentaken to secure 
accuracy by excluding all matter of a doubtful or spurious character, or that cannot be proved by 
trustworthy evidence. 

In the general arrangement of the work, the lines laid down by Mr. Baines have, as far as 
practicable, been adhered to, their elasticity enabling the Editor not only to bring down the 
record to the present time, but, where it was thought desirable or necessary, to add to the 
original text as a substantive part of the continuous narrative, such interesting facts as had 
escaped his notice, or, as is more probable, were unknown at the time he wrote, and also to bridge 
over the many chasms by the interpolation of such authentic evidence as more recent research has 
opened up. The Editor's first duty has, of course, been to verify the statements embodied in the 
two preceding editions, and to correct such errors, whether of fact or of inference, as came within 
his view. "With the exception of the earlier chapters embracing the Roman and Saxon periods 
and the earlier ecclesiastical history, which have been in great part re-written, the text of the 
original work has been maintained in every essential feature, though variations and interpolations 
have been occasionally made where it was thought there might be a gain in lucidity without 
injustice being done to the Author. It may be urged that such corrections and additions should 
have been distinguished by brackets or otherwise from the original matter. Such a course, 
were it practicable, might have been a convenience to the specialist; but a very slight acquaintance 
with the former editions would show the extreme difficulty, not to say impossibility, Mr. Harland 
and Mr. Herford, in the process of condensation, and in the additions and corrections they made, 
having so frequently departed from the ipsissima verba of Mr. Baines, without such distino-uishmo- 
marks, that the text of each could only have been indicated in patchwork pages, that would have 
been perplexing to the general reader. 

Altogether the First Volume has received an accession of over one hundred pao-es, or more 
than one-third of new matter. Every care has been taken to secure accuracy of detail, and to 
make the History of Lancashire more interesting and trustworthy ; at the same time the Editor 
is fully conscious of many shortcomings and imperfections, and of omissions that are, perhaps, not 
altogether inseparable from a work of such magnitude and so wide-reaching in its scope as that he 
has undertaken. Where such have occurred, he will be grateful if they are pointed out to him in 
order that the corrections or additions may be made in the succeedino- volume. 

The pleasing duty remains to the Editor of tendering his thanks for the many offers of 
assistance he has received in the course of his work, and for information which has greatly 
enhanced its value. To the Rev. Henry Parr, Vicar of Yoxford, Suffolk, he is indebted for many 
additional notes and corrections in the earlier lists of Sheriffs of the County ; and he is under 
obligations of no less weight to Robert Gradwell, Esq., of Claughton-on-Brock, for communications 
relating to the Celtic period of Lancashire history; his thanks are also due to J. Brouo-hton 


Edge, Esq., one of Her Majesty's Coroners for the County of Lancaster, for many valuable notes 
concerning the Courts of the County Palatine and the changes effected by the Judicature Act of 
1873. To Henry Alison, Esq., County Treasurer, and Frederic Campbell Hulton, Esq., Clerk of 
the Peace, he is indebted for many of the statistical tables in relation to the valuation, assessment, 
and rating, and also for the corrected list of Magistrates and Public Officers of the County. He 
desires also to acknowledge his obligations to Mrs. Arthur Tempest, of Coleby Hall, Lincoln ; 
Mrs. Fentbn Knowles, of Arncliffe, Cheetham Hill, Manchester; Miss Emma C. Abraham, of 
Grassendale Park, Liverpool ; the Rev. W. Stuart White, of Leyland ; Lieut.-Colonel Sowler, of 
Manchester; Colonel H. Holden, of Askham Bryam, York; John Paul Rylands, Esq., F.S.A., of 
Heather Lea, Claughton, Birkenhead ; Thomas Helsby, Esq., of Lincolns Inn, the learned Editor 
of Ormerod's History of Cheshire ; W. Thompson Watkin, Esq. , of Liverpool, the Author of 
Roman Lancashire and Roman Cheshire; W. A. Abram, Esq., of Blackburn, the Author of the 
History of Blackburn; W. Buncombe Pinl?, Esq., F.R.H.S., of Leigh; W. Hewitson, Esq., 
Manchester; Frederick Openshaw, Esq., Hothersall Hall, Ribchester ; Joseph MaghuU Yates, 
Esq., of Manchester; R. S. Crossley, Esq., Accrington; George Porter, Esq., Fern Bank, 
Blackburn ; and Charles E. Bowker, Esq., Fletcher Gate, Nottingham. He would be as 
ungracious as culpable were he to fail in acknowledging the ready assistance extended to him 
by the officials of the Record Office, London, and also the courteous assistance and the 
suggestions he has received on many occasions from Chas. W. Sutton, Esq., Chief Librarian, Free 
Public Libraries, Manchester, and from Mr. W. R. Credland and Mr. Lawrence Dillon, the 
Librarian and Sub-Librarian of the Reference Library. 

Upton Hall, Prestbury, Cheshire, November, 1887. 



t:i 1- PAGE 

Earliest Notices of Lancashire— The Roman Conquest and Rule iu Britain.— B.c. 55 to a.d. 4i8 1 

The Saxon Period— Invasions, Conquests, and Short Rule of the Danes— Termination of the Saxon and Danish Dynasties of 

England- The Norman Conquest.— a.d. 448 to 1066 12 

WilUam the Conqueror's Suppression of Revolts in the North— His Extension of the Feudal System and Seizure of Church 
Lands and Property— The Domesday Survey and Book— The Honor of Lancaster— Its First Norman Baron, Roger de 
Poictou— Its Grant by the Crown to Randle, third Earl of Chester.— A.D. 1066 to ctj-ca 1120 34 

Territory of South Laneashii-e (between Ribble and Mersey) successively the Possession of the Earls of Chester, of the Ferrers, 
Earls of Derby, and of Edmund Crouchback, first Earl of Lancaster — His son Thomas, second Earl, executed, whose 
brother Henry, third Earl, was succeeded by his son Henry, fourth Earl, created first Duke of Lancaster, and called 
"The Good Duke" — John of Gaunt, second Duke — Creation of the Duchy and its Privileges — The County Palatine, 
its Chancery Court, &c.— a.d. 1128 to 1399 47 


Character of Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Derby and Duke of Hereford — His Quarrel witli the Duke of Norfolk, and 
Banishment — Elevated to the Dignity of Duke of Lancaster on the Death of his Father, John of Gaunt — Returns to 
England — Expels Richard II. from the Throne — Elevation of the Noble House of Lancaster to the Royal Dignity — ■ 
Possessions of the Duchy of Lancaster separated from the Crown Possessions — Establishment of the Duchy Court — 
Abolition of the Duchy Court of Star Chamber — History of the Duchy continued — Its Courts, Chancellors, OSicers, 
&c. — Bucatus Lancastricc, from the Harleian MSS. — a.d. 1380 to 1886 64 


Creation of the County Palatine — Sheriffs from the Earliest Records— Courts of the County Palatine — Ecclesiastical and 

other Courts — Assizes — Public Records of the County Palatine. — a.d. 1087 to 1886 82 


The Earldom of Lanoa,ster possessed by King John — Privileges to the Honor of Lancaster in Magna Charta — Forest Laws 
and Assize of the Forest at Lancaster — Grant of Land between Mersey and Ribble — Large Drains on Lancashire for 
Men and Money for the Wars — Wars of the Barons — Edward II. the Prisoner of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster — Analysis 
of Landed Possessions in the County, from Testa de NevUl. — a.d. 1164 to 1327 99 


Representative History of the County of Lancaster — First Members for the County of Lancaster, and for its Boroughs — 
First Parliamentary Return and first Parliamentary Writ of Summons for Lancashire extant — Members returned for 
the County of Lancaster in the Reigns of Edward I. to Edward IV. — Returns formerly supposed to be lost from 
Edward IV. to Henry VIII. — County Members from 1 Edward VI. to 50 Victoria — The ancient Lancashire Boroughs, 
consisting of Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, and Wigan, resume the Elective Franchise 1 Edward VI. — Newton and 
Clitheroe added to the Boroughs of Lancashire — Representation of Lancashire during the Commonwealth — List of 
Knights of the Shire for the County of Lancaster, from the Restoration to the Present Time — Alterations made in the 
Representation of the County and Boroughs of Lancashire by the Reform Acts of 1832, 1867, and 1885. — a.d. 1295 
to 1886 118 



Laueaahire History in the Reign of Edward III.— Pestilence— Creation of the First Duke of Lancaster— Heavy Imposts on 
the People of the Duchy— Death ot the First Duke ot Lancaster— His Will and Possessions— Administration of the 
First Duke, from the Rolls of the Duchy— Renewal of the Dukedom in the person of John of Gaunt— The Franchise 
of jura refialia confirmed, and extended in favour of the Duke of Lancaster — Continuance of the Royal Bounty to the 
House of Lancaster. — a.d. 1327 to 1377 


Power of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster — The Duke's Expedition to Spain — Larger Measures in Lancashire than any 
other part of the Engdom — Accession of the House of Lancaster to the Throne — Grant of the Isle of Man, first to 
Henry, Earl of Northumberland, and afterwards to Sir John Stanley, Knight — Annals of the Duchy — Charters of the 
Duchy — Will of Henry IV.— Henry V. ascends the Throne — Union of the County of Hereford to the Duchy of 
Lancaster — Battle of Aginoourt — Death of Henry V. — His bequest of the Duchy of Lancaster. — a.d. 1377 to 1422 155 


Scarcity of Records for History during the Wars of the Roses — Marriage of Henry VI. — Claims of the Rival Houses of York 
and Lancaster to the Throne— Wars of the Roses — Henry VI. dethroned by Edward IV. — Henry seeks an Asylum in 
Lancashire — Taken by Sir John Talbot — Sir John's Grant for this service — Catastrophe to the Lancastrian Family — 
Edward V. murdered in the Tower — Coronation of Richard III. — His Warrant for seizing a Rebel's Land in Lanca- 
shire — -The King's Jealousy towards the Duke of Richmond, son-in-law of Lord Stanley, extends to his Lordship — 
Attainder of Lady Stanley, Countess of Richmond — Landing of the Duke of Richmond in England — Battle of 
Bosworth Field— Confiscation of Lancashire Estates — Union of the Houses of York and Lancaster — Sweating Sick- 
ness^Lambert Simnell and Perkin Warbeck, Pretenders to the Throne — Fatal Consequences of the Civil Wars to the 
Duke of York's Family (note) — Sir William Stanley accused of High Treason : condemned and executed^Henry VII.'s 
Royal Progress to Lancashire — Execution of Edward, Earl of Warwick, the last Male of the Plantagenet Line — Death 
of Henry VII.— A.D. 1422 to 1509 174 


The Sixteenth Century— Heury VIII. ascends the Throne — Invasioa of England by the Scots — Battle of Flodden Field — The 
King's Letter of Thanks to Sir Edward Stanley, &c. — Lords-Lieutenant firet appointed — The Reformation — Religious 
Persecution — Visitation of the Monasteries — Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries — Insurrections produced by the 
Dissolution of the Monasteries — The Pilgrimage of Grace — Dispersion of the Rebel Army — They reassemble, &c. — 
Finally dispersed — Renewed Rebellion in the North — Execution of the Abbot of Whalley and Others— Dissolution of 
the Larger Monasteries — First Publication of the Bible in English — Excommunication of the King — List of Lancashire 
Monasteries — Their Revenues administered by the Duchy — Aggregate Value of the Dissolved Monasteries — Bishopric 
of Chester, &c., erected— List of Chantries in Lancashire — Decayed Towns in Lancashire —Privilege of Sanctuary — 
The King's Death.— A.D. 1509 to 1547 196 


Lancashire in the Reign of Edward VI.— In the Reign of Queen Mary— Lancashire Martyrs : John Rogers, John Bradford, 
George Marsh— Muster of Soldiers in the County of Lancaster in Mary's Reign —Lancashire in the Reign of Elizabeth 
—General Muster of Soldiers in Lancashire in 1559— Ecclesiastical Commission, consisting of the Earl of Derby, the 
Bishop of Chester, and others— State of Lancashire on the Appointment of the Commission— Catholic Recusants- 
Mary, Queen of Scots, seeks an Asylum in England- Placed in Confinement- Puritan Recusants— Rebellion in the 
North to Re-establish the Catholic Religion— Suppressed— Meetings of the Lieutenancy— Original Letter of Edward, 
Earl of Derby, to the Queen- Letter of the Earl of Huntingdon to Secretary Cecil, casting Suspicion on the Loyalty 
of the Earl of Derby— Proved to be Ill-founded— Part taken by Lancashire Gentlemen to liberate Mary, Queen of 
Scots- Comparative Military Strength of the Kingdom— Muster of Soldiers in Lancashire in 1574— Declaration of the 
Ancient Tenth and Fifteenth within the County of Lancaster— The Chaderton MSS. relating to the Afi'airs of the 
County of Lancaster— Original Papers relating to the Lanoashire Recusants— Lancashire Contribution of Oxen to 
Queen Elizabeth's Table— MS. of the Lancashire Lieutenancy — Lanoashire Loyal Association against Mary, Queen of 
Scots, and her Abettors— Trial and Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots— The Spanish Armada— Letter from the 
Queen to the Earl of Derby thereon— Preparations in Lancashire to resist— Destruction of— Thanksgiving for National 
Deliverance in Lanoashire — Memorable and Fatal Feud — Atrocious Abduction —Levies of Troops in Lanoashire for 
Ireland-^Suppression of the Rebellion there— Death ot Queen Elizabeth- Loyal Address of Lanoashire Gentry to her 
Successor, James 1., on his Accession to the Throne.— a.d. 154? to 1603 214 


Ancient Manners and Customs of the County— Dress— Domestic Architecture- Food— Coaches- Education— The Church- 
Sports and Pastimes— The Arts— The Laws -Superstition and Witchcraft^King James's First Progress- Lancashire 
Knights— The Plague— The Gunpowder Plot— Letter to Lord Monteagle— Cecil's Account of the Discovery— Fate of 
the Conspirators— Lancashire Baronets- Lancashire Witches— Dr. Dee's Petition— Seer Edward Kelly, the 
Necromancer— History of Lancashire Witchcraft— Duchess of Gloucester— The Stanley Family— Satanic Possession- 
Case of Seven Demoniacs in Mr. Starkie's Family at Cleworth— Dispossessed— The Conjuror Hanged— King James's 
Dcemonologie—Witchea of Pendle Forest— Samlesbury Witches- Second Batch of Pendle Forest Witches- 
Examination of the Lancashire Witches before the King in Council— Deposition of Ann Johnson, one of the reputed 
Witches— Case of a Lancashire Witch in Worcestershire- Richard Dugdale, the Lancashire Demoniac— His Possession 
—Dispossession— Witchcraft Exploded— Progress of King James through Lancashire— The Book of Sports— Further 
Honours conferred on Lancashire Men— Letter from King James to Sir Richard Hoghton, with Autograph— Letter 
from the King's Council to the Earl of Derby, Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire and Cheshire.— a.d. 1603 to 1625 255 

Death of James I.— Accession of Charles I.— Contests between the King and his Parliament— Lancashire Members— Lords- 
Lieutenant — Breaking out of the Civil War in Lancashire — County Meeting— Summons of Lord Strange to 
Manchester — Musters made by him in Lancashire — Impeachment of Lord Strange — Meeting of Loyalists at Preston — 
Blowing-up of Hoghton Tower— Campaign of 1643— Act of Sequestration— Summons by the Duke of Newcastle to 
Manchester — Answer — Military Operations in Lonsdale Hundred — Assembly of Divines — Campaign of 1644— Siege of 
Lathom House ; of Bolton ; of Liverpool — Deplorable Condition of the People of Lancashire — Seal and Patronage of 
the Duchy — Military Possession of the County by the Parliamentary Forces — Catalogue of the Lords, Knights, and 
Gentlemen of Lancashire who compounded for their Estates in 1646 — Classical Presbyteries of Lancashire — Campaign 
of 1648 — Battle of Preston— Execution of King Charles I. — Campaign of 1651— Battle of Wigan Lsne — Fatal 
Consequences of the Battle of Worcester — The Earl of Derby made Prisoner — Tried and Executed — Duchy and 
County Palatine Courts — Summons of Oliver Cromwell of a Lancashire Member — Sir George Booth's Failure to Raise 
the Royal Standard — General Monk's Success — Restoration of Charles II. — a.d. 1625 to 1660 283 


Restoration of Monarchy and Episcopacy — Corporation and Test Acts — Act of Uniformity — Ejected Ministers in Lancashire — 
Five-mile Act — Sufferings of the Nonconformists — Abolition of the Feudal System — Militia Quota for Lancashire — 
Lancashire Plot— Conspiracy of the Earl of Clarendon and others — Rebellion of 1715 ; of 1745 — Lancashire Gentry — 
Lancashire Visitations — Geographical Situation of the County — Climate — Meteorology — Soil and Agriculture — 
Forests — Geology — Lancashire Rivers — Catalogue of the Bishops of Chester from the Institution of the Bishopric, 
33 Henry VIII., to the Present Time — Rate imposed upon the Clergy to provide Horses and Arms for the State in 
.1608 — Ecclesiastical Courts, their Jurisdiction, Fees, and Revenues — Catalogue of the Bishops of Manchester from the 
Foundation of the See — Creation of the See of Liverpool. — a.d. 1660-1745 322 

Lahcashiee Htjndeeds at the time of the Conquest— Mr. Whitaker on the Old Hundreds— Newton and Warrington Hun- 
dreds merged in the West Derby Hundred — Hundreds synonymous with Wapentakes — Institution of Hundreds — 
Made subservient to the Security of the Persons and Property of the Subject by King Alfred— System of Government, 
Ecclesiastical and Civil— Statute of Winton— Enumeration of the Present Hundreds of Lancashire— Order of their 
Arrangement in this History— Representation of the People Act, 1867— Area and Population of County Divisions 
and Boroughs— The Lancashire Boroughs created by the Act of 1867— Changes made by the Act in the Parliamentary 
Representation of Lancashire— The Reform Acts of 1884-5— Changes made in the Parliamentary Representation by 
the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885— Towns and Places included in the several Comity Divisions 368 



Lord Hyde's List of those who have held the Duchy of Lancaster, &o. (abridged) 377 

Perambulation of the Forests (translation) 379 

The Lansdowne Feodary (translation) 380 

A List of Papists who Registered their Estates in 1715 384 

Various Creations of Orders, &c. (Lancashire) 386 

Cotton — Annals of the Cotton Manufacture — The Cotton Famine 388 

Electoral Statistics of Lancashire 401 

The Chetham Society— The Record Society ^03 

Population of Lancashire, its Parishes, Townships, &c., iu 1801, 1811, 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, and 1881— Area 
and Population of Registration Districts, in 1871 and 1881— Births, Marriages, and Deaths, in the Ten Years (1871- 
1880)— Inhabited Houses, Families or Separate Occupiers, and Population of the Civil Parishes or Townships, in 1881- 
Valuation of Property for Assessing the County Rate, in 1854, 1866, 1872, 1877, and 1884— Valuation of the Various 
Poor-Law Unions in the County, 1884— Valuation of Cities and Boroughs having Courts of Quarter Sessions— Valua- 
tion of Boroughs not having Grants of Quarter Sessions, having their own Police, and not Liable to be Rated for 
County Constabulary Purposes— Townships not Liable to Contribute towards the Repair of Bridges— Valuation of the 
whole of the County in Hundreds, including Boroughs having Grants and Quarter Sessions- Urban Sanitary Authorities 
—Poor-Law (and Rural Sanitary) Authorities— County Police Divisions for Petty Sessional Purposes— County 
Magistrates and Deputy Lieutenants, October, 1887— Public OfBcers for the County Palatine— Bridgemasters and 
Surveyors — School Boards— County Courts .^ • •■" 



Portrait of Edward Baines Frontispiece 

Fragment of Wall now existing : Roman Castrum, Manchester i 

Map of Lancashire, showing the Sites of the Roman Stations and Camps, and the Course of the Roman Roads to face i 

Roman Road, Blackstone Edge 7 

Sections of do. 7 

Coin of the Emperor Severus 8 

Bronze Statuette (Jupiter Stator), found at Manchester 10 

Figure of Victory, found at UphoUand, near Wigan 11 

Roman Bulla, of Gold, found near Manchester 11 

Roman Dishes, found in Castle Field, Manchester 11 

Coins of jEthelstan, Harold Harefoot, and Edward the Confessor 32 

Map of Lancashire according to the Domesday Survey (1086) to face 33 

John of Gaunt's Gateway, Lancaster Castle 58 

The Chapel Royal within the Precincts of the Ducal Residence of the Savoy 67 

Armorial Insignia of Henry of Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV., from his Tomb at Canterbury 69 

Seal of the Duchy of Lancaster 79 

Seal of the County Palatine of Lancaster 80 

The Old Bridge, Berwick, between England and Scotland 141 

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 168 

Autograph of Henry V 173 

Badges of the House of Lancaster 178 

Autograph of Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, Mother of Henry VII 193 

Autograph of Henry VIII 205 

Fumesa Abbey 209 

Autograph of Edward, third Earl of Derby 220 

Autographs from the Records of the Lancashire Lieutenancy in the Reign of Queen EUzabeth to face 226 

Autograph of Henry, fourth Earl of Derby 249 

Map of Lancashire in 1598 ^^ j-^^^ 253 

Facsimile of Letter to Lord Mounteagle — Gunpowder Plot 264 

Hoghton Tower gsi 

Blackstone Edge , „„_ 

Tower — Hornby Castle „„„ 

Autograph of Charlotte de la TremoiUe, Countess of Derby qnn 

Sir Alexander Rigby .... 

Greenhalgli Castle 


The Hodder Bridge 


Autograph of Oliver Cromwell 


President Bradshaw 


Arms of the Sees of Chester, Manchester, and Liverpool 

' 359 

Right Rev. James Prince Lee, D.D., F.R.S., first Bishop of Manchester „,, 

Right Rev. James Eraser, D.D., Bishop of Manchester 1870-1885 

Right Rev. James Moorhouse, D.D., Bishop of Manchester 


Right Rev. John Charles Ryle, D.D., first Bishop of Liverpool , , , , ,,. 



Pedigree of Roger de Poictou, Loid of the Honor of Lancaster 45 

Descent of the Earls and Dukes of Lancaster, of the House of Anjou or Plantagenet, from the Conquest to the Accession of 

Henry IV 62-3 

Descent of the Houses of Lancaster and York, from Henry III. to the Union of Henry VII. (of Lancaster) with Elizabeth 

(of York) ioface 194 

A full Index will be given with the concluding volume. 





■Earliest Notices of Lancashire— The Roman Conquest and Rule in Britain— B.C. 55 to a.d. iiS. 

HE County of Lancaster, though not particularly famed for those monuments of 
antiquity which shed a lustre on history, local as well as national, is by no 
means destitute of ancient remains. Its distinguishing characteristics, however, 
consist in the extent of its commerce, the importance of its manufactures, the 
number and value of its modern institutions, and the activity and enterprise of 
its abundant population. In tracing the history of such a county, it becomes 
the duty of the historian to describe with as much brevity as is consistent with 
accuracy the monuments bequeathed to us by our ancestors, Avithout exhausting 
the patience of his readers with prolix details and controversial disquisitions. 

For nearly four thousand years of the world's existence, the history of this county and of this 
country is almost a blank, except so far as it may be read in its geological phenomena ; and it may 
be confidently asserted that before the first landing of Julius Csesar upon our shores scarcely 
anything is known of the people who inhabited this island, or of the government and institutions 
under which they lived. 

According to Ptolemy, the inhabitants of the country between the lofty ridge which now 
separates Yorkshire from Lancashire, and the bay of Morecambe, bore the name of the Setantii, or 
Segantii — the dwellers in " the country of water '' — which district, on the second invasion of the 
Komans, was included in the more extensive province of the Brigantes, extending on the east side 
of the island from the Humber to the Tyne, and on the west from the Mersey to the Solway, and 
comprehending the six counties of Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, 
and Lancashire. This being the most powerful and populous nation in Britain, during the Roman 
sway, it is the most celebrated by the best writers.^ Dr. Henry held the opinion that the Brigantes 
were descended from the ancient Phrygians, who were the very first inhabitants of Europe, and 
that they came over to this island from the coast of Gaul before the Belgse had arrived in that 
country.^ The name doubtless originally meant the dwellers in the hill country, brig and brigant 
signifying in modern Welsh the top or summit, and Brigantwys the people dwelling there. 

Historians are generally agreed that the aborigines of Britain, as Csesar calls our earliest 
ancestors, were Gauls or Gaels, who emigrated from the Continent, and settled in this island ^ about 
a thousand years before the birth of Christ. The more probable conjecture is, as Csesar intimates, 
that the interior parts of Britain, to the north and to the west, and consequently Lancashire, were 
peopled by the earliest inhabitants, and the maritime parts by those who crossed over from 
Belgium, in Gaul, for the purpose of invading it, almost all of whom had their names from the 
tribes whence they sprang, and, on the cessation of hostilities, remained here. 

I Camden, vol. iii., p. 233. 

'■ Hist. Gt. Brit., vol. i,, p. 276, 

» Eich. da Oh'., b. I. cap. ii., sec. 4. 


Before the first invasion of tlie Romans, the inhabitants of this part of the island subsisted 
chiefly by hunting ; and their cattle grazed upon pastures unencumbered by any of the artmciai 
divisions which a state of cultivation never fails to produce. For their clothing, when the severity 
of the season compelled them to submit their limbs to such restraints, they were indebted to the 
skins of animals ; and their dwellings were formed by the pillars of the forest, rooted m the earth, 
and enclosed by interwoven branches, which but imperfectly served to shelter them durmg the 
hours of repose from the conflict of the elements. Their governments, according to Diodorus 
Siculus, the ancient historian, though monarchical, were free, like those of all the Celtic nations ; 
and their religion, which formed one part of the government, was Druidical. Their deities were 
furies ; human sacrifices were offered to them ;' and the eternal transmigration of souls was 
inculcated and universally believed. The manners and customs of the Ancient Britons resembled 
those of the Gauls. They were extremely warlike, eager for slaughter, and bold and courageous 
in battle. Dion Gassius, speaking of the Britons in the northern part of the island (the 
Brigantes), says — ■ 

" They never cultivate the land, but live on prey, hunting, and the fruits of trees ; for they never touch fish, of which they 
have such prodigious plenty. They live in tents, naked, and without shoes ; have their wives in common, and maintain all their 
children. The people share the government amongst tliem, and they practise robbery without restraint. They fight in chariots, 
having small fleet horses ; they have also infantry, who can ran very swiftly, and while they stand are very firm. Their arms are 
a shield, and a short spear, on the lower part of which ia a bell of brass, to terrify the enemy by its sound when shaken. They 
likewise wear daggers. They are accustomed to brave hunger, cold, and all kinds of toil ; for they will continue several days up 
to their chins in water, and bear hunger many days. In the woods they live on bark and roots of trees. They prepare a certain 
kind of food for all occasions, a piece of which, of the size of a bean, prevents their feeling hunger or thirst." ^ 

Pliny says, " the Britons and Gauls wore a ring on their middle finger ;" and Ca3sar describes 
them as wearing long hair.^ They wore, like the Gauls, a particular dress, called bracha, " Like 
the old brachfe of a needy Briton.''* But the description of the manners and customs of the Ancient 
Britons, as given by Caesar, is the most full and clear : — 

"The Britons (says the Roman conqueror) use brass money, or iron rings of a certain weight instead of it. They think it 
not right to eat hares, poultry, or geese, though they breed them all for amusement. Of all the natives, the most civilised are the 
inhabitants of Cautium [Kent], all that country lying on the sea-coast ; and the manners of this people are not very different from 
those of the Gauls. The inland inhabitants for the most part sow no corn, but live on milk and fiesh, and for clothing wear skins. 
All the Britons stain themselves with woad, which produces a blue colour, and gives them a more horrible appearance in battle, 
Thsy wear the hair of their head long, but close and bare on every part of their body except their head and upper lip. They have 
their wives in common among ten or twelve of them, especially brothers with brothers, and parents with children ; but the issue by 
these wives belongs to those who married them when virgins. Most of them use chariots in battle. They first scour up and down 
on every side, throwing their darta, creating disorder among the ranks by the terror of their horses and noise of their chariot- wheels ; 
and when they are got among the troops of horse, they leap out, and fight on foot. Meantime the charioteers retire to a little dis- 
tance from the field, and place themselves in such a manner, that if the others are overpowered by the number of the enemy, they 
may be secure to make good their retreat. Thus they act with the agility of cavalry, and the steadiness of infantry, in battle, and 
become so expert by constant practice, that in declivities and precipices they can stop their horses on full speed, and on a sudden 
check and turn them, run along the pole, stand on the yoke, and then as quickly dart into their chariots again. They frequently 
retreat on purpose, and, after they have drawu our men a little way from the main body, leap from their poles, and wage an unequal 
war on foot. Their manner of fighting on horseback creates the same danger, both to the retreater and the pursuer. Add to this, 
that they never fight in bodies, but scattered and at great distances, and have parties in reserve supporting one another, and fresh 
troops ready to relieve the weary."' 

Though Ca3sar says that the Gauls had different languages, he adds, that it was usual for the 
Gauls, who wished to acquire greater proficiency in the Druidical mysteries, to come over to Britain 
to receive instruction from our Druids ; and Tacitus" says, " The language of the Britons and the 
Gauls is not very different." 

The Romans, in their thirst for universal empire, after subduing Gaul, turned their attention 
towards Britain. Csesar's two expeditions into Britain, in the year 55 B.C., ended in a partial 
conquest of the south and south-east parts of tho island, limited to the districts of the coast and 
those washed by the Thames, and certainly not extending northward to within a hundred miles 
of Lancashire. But the sun of Roman glory had now passed its meridian. Distracted by 
domestic wars, which ended in the establishment of an absolute monarchy in Rome, the 
conquerors had little force to spare for the preservation of distant conquests. The Britons were, 
therefore, for a long time, left to themselves, and, for nearly a century after the invasion of Ca3sar, 
they enjoyed, unmolested, their own civil and religious institutions. 

In the interval between the first and second invasions of Britain by the Romans, the founder 
of the Christian religion had accomplished His divine mission, in a province of the Roman empire, 
but almost without observation at Rome ; and ten years after His death (a.d. 43), the Emperor 
Claudius sent over an army to this country, undor the command of Aulus Plautius, the first 

1 Solmus. (Scotia lUust. p. i. lib. ). c. ^-W.) The plant meant by Sir Robert (for it 

' Sir Robert Sibbald supposes this to bo the root of orobus, or the is not easily identified by tins deacnption) is tlie heath peaseling, the 

wild y(«(rai«i(MS l/ia(tM«, which has a taste like liquorice, and is called by Orobus tuberosiie ol hlnnxns. b Tt a lo r ir'i 

the Highlanders, who chew it for the same purpose at present, karemyU. ' B. G. v. 14. Martial. a, u. v. li. vit. Agr. xi. 


Roman general wlio had landed on this island since the invasion of Julius Csesar. The Emperor 

Claudius, and his generals Plautius, Vespasian, and Titus, subdued several provinces of Britain, 

after thirty pitched battles with the natives, in a.d. 43 and 44. Caractacus, King of the Silures — 

the people inhabiting South Wales — -held out against the invading legionaries for nine years, 

contmuing all the time to harass and oppose their advance ; but being defeated by Ostorius 

Scapula at Caer Caradoc, on the borders of Shropshire, a.d. 51, he put himself under the protection 

of his wife's mother, Cartismandua, Queen of the Brigantes, by whom he was betrayed and 

delivered up to the Romans. It is about this time, or shortly before, that we first hear of the 

Brigantes coming in contact with the Roman army, though they appear to have previously 

contracted some alliance with, or owned some kind of submission to, the Imperial power, for 

Tacitus records, that when Ostorius had defeated the Iceni, and was marching his army into the 

West against the Cangi of North Wales, he was called away by the news of an insurrection 

among the Brigantes, which he immediately quieted. " The Brigantes, indeed, soon returned to 

their homes, a few who raised the revolt having been slain, and the rest pardoned."' Suetonius 

defeated the British under Boadicea in A.D. 61 ; but it was not till the reign of Domitian 

that Lancashire was really invaded and finally conquered by the Romans, under the successor of 

Suetonius, Julius Agricola. At this period the principal and the most able commander amongst 

the Britons was Yenutius, of the state of the Brigantes ; and it is probable that the progress of 

the Roman arms in the country of the Segantii (Lancashire) was arrested by the skill and valour 

of this native general ; but the discipline and constancy of the Roman troops, now commanded by 

Petilius Cerealis, " struck a panic into the state of the Brigantes, which," according to Tacitus, 

"was accounted the most numerous of the whole country, by attacking them with great force; 

and after several, and some of them bloody, battles he reduced great part of Briton by victory, 

or involved it in war."^ Tacitus speaks of many battles being fought, and it is not unlikely, 

therefore, that Cerealis was occupied during the greater part of his tenure of office in the 

subjugation of the Brigantes. To him succeeded Julius Frontinus (circa 75), and in A.D. 75 the 

administration of the province was confided to Cnaeus Julius Agricola, who had served under 

Suetonius at the time of the terrible revolt under Boadicea, the most distinguished of all the 

Roman governors. The summer was nearly over when he landed, but he immediately took the 

field, and attacked the Ordovices, who had defied the Roman power from their mountain fastnesses 

of Denbio-hshire and Carnarvonshire, and fallen upon a regiment of cavalry stationed on the 

confines. ° Having subdued them, he continued his victorious course into Anglesea, and well-nigh 

exterminated the' inhabitants in the Island of the Druids During the winter of that year he 

appears to have made Chester his head-quarters, and on the approach of the succeeding summer, 

advanced northwards into the country of the Brigantes, and as we are told that he" examined 

personally the estuaries," his progress must have been through Lancashire, which, having 

previously partially submitted to Cerealis, was now finally subjugated. When Agricola, who 

added to the bravery of the soldier the skill of the statesman, had alarmed the native inhabitants 

by his severity, he offered inducements to peace by his clemency. By this conduct many of the 

states, and the Brigantes amongst the rest, which till then had stood out, gave hostages, and 

submitted to have a Ime of garrisons and castles drawn round them. This was the origin of our 

Roman stations. 

" ' la order that men who, by their unsettled and uncivilised state, were always ready for war, might be accustomed to peace 
and inactivity bv pleasure, the general privately suggested, and publicly concurred in, the erecting of temples, market-places, and 
houses commending those who showed a readiness to these works and censuring those who appeared remiss. This honourable 
emulation nroduced the effect of obligation. He applied himself to instruct the sons of the chiefs in the liberal arts and appeared 
to nrefer the genius of the Britons to the accomplishment? of the Gauls ; inasmuch as they, who but a bttle time before disdained 
the laneuaee now affected the eloquence of Rome. This produced an esteem for the Roman dress, and the toga came into general 
«BP Bv degrees the Britons adopted the vicious indulgences of the Romans, and the porticoes, the baths, and the splendid 
h»nmiets entered into the number of their enjoyments. This, which they called cultivation, was in effect the appendage of 
slaverv ' 3 Pursuing his victorious career, Agricola carried the terror of his arms to the remotest part of Scotland, and added 
Trtl.Tid to the number of his conquests. At length, having traversed the country from its southern to its northern extremity, in 
fhp short nenod of eight years, he returned to Rome, where the Emperor Domitian, rendered jealous by his renown, received him 
with a cold salute, and then left the conqueror of Britain to mix with the servile crowd of the imperial court. 

From the departure of Agricola (a.d. 82) till the arrival of the Emperor Hadrian in Britain 
(AD 117) the name of the Brigantes scarcely occurs in history. It appears, however, that they 
were subiected to the incursions of their northern neighbours, the Picts, and that the emperor, 
" after correctino- many things, drew a wall eighty miles in length, on the northern boundary ol the 
country of the Brigantes, to confine the ' Barbarians ' within the limits of their own borders."" Nearly 

1 Tacit Annal 1. 12. C. 32 =■ Agricola C. 18. » Tacitus, Vit. Agricolae, xxi. * Vit. AgriouUe, xl. 

' Vit. Had iixni, Scrip. Hist. Aug. p. 51. 




a century had now elapsed since the second invasion of Britain by the Romans, and in the course 
of that period there had risen up in Lancashire the stations' of Manounium (Manchester) f Vera- 
tinum (Wilderspool), on the Cheshire side of the Mersey, opposite Warrington ; Bremetonacum 
(Ribchester) ;- Calunio (Colne) ; Coccium (Wigan), Ad Alaunam — the Longovicus of the Notitia 
(Lancaster) ; Galacimn (Overboeough).^ 

The estuaries into which the rivers that watered these stations fell, though involved in some 
degree of uncertainty, from the vague and indecisive character of the Roman charts, were— The 
Mersey, called Belisama ; the mouth of the Wyre, called the Partus Setantiorum, or the 
Haven of the Setantii, and Moricamhe Estuaria, or The Bat op Morecambe. 

The Lancashire stations communicated with Isuriuvi (Aldborough) and Ehoracum (York), 
the Brigantine capitals, by roads constructed by the Roman soldiery, and with other towns 
enumerated in the Itinerary of Antoninus, and the Chorography of Ravenna. 

It is conjectured that the principal part of the Roman roads in Britain was commenced 
by Julius Agricola to facilitate his conquests. The four grand military Roman ways bear 
the names of Watling Street, Hermin Street, the Fosse, and Ikening or Iknild Street ; but it is 


onxy the first-mentioned of these roads that conies within the scope of this history. Each of the 
stations affords its antiquities : Ribchester abounds with remains ; and Colne, Freckleton, Lancaster, 
Manchester, Overborough, and Warrington, will be found, in the progress of this work, to exhibit 
in succession their antiquarian stores, and to proclaim their ancient alliance with the Mistress ot 
the World. After the lapse of sixteen centuries, the county of Lancaster still presents innumerable 
remams of these celebrated roads. At least four great Roman roads pass through this county- 
two of them from north to south, and two others from west to east, and there are numerous 
military ways of less consequence. 

The first of the Roman routes extends from Carlisle (Luguvallium), in Cumberland, to 
Kmderton (Gondate) in Cheshire : passing through Lancaster it advances pretty nearly due south 
by Galgate and Garstang, then crossing Watling Street, which extended across the country from the 
mouth of the Wyre to York and the east coast, the line continues by Preston, across the Ribbl 

^ Whitaker's History of Manchester, 

' The name or termination Caster, Cealer, or Chester, from Omtm a 
camp, generally indicates a Koman station, ' 

•■' Since Mr. Baines wrote, many discovei-ies have been made in 
relation to the Homan stations and roads in Lancashire and praise- 
worthy efforts have been made by local antiquaries to connect the dis- 
jomted fragments. The ablest writers on the subject have been the Rev 
Edmund Sibson, of Ashton-in-Makerflcld ; Mr. John Just of Bury • Mr 


John Robson, M.D., of Warrington; Rev. W. Thornber, M.A., Poulton- 
le-Fylde; Mr. Charles Hardwick, of Manchester ; Mr. T. T. Wilkinson 
F.B.A.S., of Burnley; Mr. William Beamont, of Orford Hall, Warrineton'- 
Mr. H. CoUey March, M.D., of Manchester; Mr. E. Kirk, of Eccles and' 
Mr. W. Thompson W.itkin, of Liverpool. The most exhaustive account 
will be found in the work ou " Roman Lancashire " from the pen of the 
last-named author. 



and the Darwen to Bamber Bridge, Euxton, and Standish, thence along the Beggar's Walk, near 
Gidlow, through the Mesnes, and across the ford on the Douglas, near Adam's Bridge, to Wigan 
(Goccium). Still keeping a southerly course it leaves Bryn on the left, passes through Ashton-in 
Makerfield, and, running half a mile westward of St. Oswald's Well, continues to Warrington, where 
it crosses the pass of the Mersey at WiMerspool (Veratinum) ; beyond, the line leads through 
Appleton, tends in a south-easterly direction, and, leaving the station of Northwich (Salince) on the 
right, is continued as Kind Street to Kinderton (Gondate). From this great highway a road 
diverges at Wigan, which runs eastward, taking the direction of Walkden Moor, where it assumes 
the name of Staney Street, advances by the Hope Hall Estate, crosses the highway from 
Manchester to Warrington, and, having passed the ford of the Irwell, at the shallow which gives 
denomination to Old Trafford, is continued to Castle Field. A branch from this road proceeds 
through the village of Stretford to the ford of the Mersey at Crossford Bridge, where there was 
a small station ; then, pointing at Altrincham, it passes along the declivity of the hUls, and enters 
Dunham Park. Here it takes the name of Street to Bucklow Hill ; from hence it passes to Mere 
Town, when, leaving Northwich about half a mile to the right, it takes the name of Kind Street 
at Broken Cross, and proceeds to Kinderton, the Gondate of Antoninus, now a suburb of 

The second Roman road extends from Overborough to Slack (Gambodunum), near Hudders- 
field, in Yorkshire. This road passes through Ribchester, across the Ribble ; then, proceeding to 
the east of Blackburn, it crosses the Darwen and continues by the left of Cockey Moor and Black- 
burn Street to Spen Moor, and thence, through Radclifle, Stand, and Prestwich ; it next passes over 
Kersal Moor, and is carried by way of Roman Road Terrace, Bury New Road, and Strangeways to 
Manchester. Traversing that city obliquely, by way of Ancoats, it passes over Newton Heath to 
Failsworth, whence it is continued under the name of Street or Street Lane to Hollinwood, and 
thence by Glodwick and Hey Chapel to the summit of Austerlands, where it enters Yorkshire, 
passes Knoll Hill in Saddleworth, and, crossing the Manchester and Huddersfield road at Delph, 
leaves Marsden about a mile and a half to the south, skirts Golcar Hill, and attains the plot of 
Gambodunum (Slack), where the remains of a station exist. 

The third route commences near Fleetwood, at the mouth of the Wyre — believed to have been 
the Setantian (Sistuntian) Port, or as we should express it. The Port of Lancashire — and con- 
tinues in a southerly direction to Poulton ; thence, crossing the Main Dyke from Martin Meer, it 
goes on by way of Staining and Weeton to Kirkham, at which point it tends eastward, and directs 
its course to Lund Church, near where it is joined by another road, which commences at the Neb 
of the Nese, near Freckleton, and, crossing the Lancaster road, leaves Preston about a mile to the 
right, assuming on Fulwood Moor the name of Watling Street ; hence it proceeds to Ribchester, 
from which station it passes over Longridge Fell, and then, turning to the north, traces the Hodder 
to its source. From this road another branches off at Ribchester, which passes through the 
townships of Billington and Langho, crosses the Calder at Potter's Ford, a little above its 
junction with the Ribble, and continues south of Clitheroe, and by Worston and Downham into 

The fourth Roman road commences at the ford of the Mersey near Warrington, and passes 
through Barton and Eccles to Manchester. It afterwards traverses the townships of Moston, 
Chadderton, and Royton, and keeping about a quarter of a mile to the right of Rochdale, by the 
Oldham road, continues through Littleborough ; afterwards, mounting the British Apennines, it 
sweeps over Rombold's Moor, on the north side of the Aire, and advances to Ilkley, the Olicana of 
Ptolemy, where stood the temple of Verbeia, the goddess of the Wharf 

The Roman Stations in Lancashire occur in the second and the tenth routes of the Itinerary 
of Antoninus, and are thus arranged : — 

Iter. II. 

Ebukaovm (leg. VI. vie.) ... YorJc. 

Calcaeia M.P.M. IS. ... ladcaster. 

CaMBODVNO M.P.M. XX. ... Slack. 

Mamuoio M.P.M. XVIII. ... Manchester. 

Gondate m.p.m. XVIII. ... Kinderton. 

Deva (LEO. XX. vie.) M.P.M. XX. ... Chester. 


Iter. X. 
From Whitley Castle, near Alston, in the county of Durham, to Chesterton, in Staffordshire.' 

A Clanoventa. From Whitley Castle. 

Galava M.p.M. XVIII. ... Kirhby Thore. _ 

Alone m p.m. XII. ... Borrowbridge in Lonsdale. 

Calaovm MP.M. XVIII. ... Orerborough. 

Bremetonaci M.p.M. XXVII. ... Ribchester. 

Cocoio M.p.M. XX. ... Wigan. 

Manovnio M.p.M. XVII. . . . Manchester. 

Condate M.p.M. XVIII. ... ICinderlon. 

Mediolano M.p.M. XVIII. ... Chesterton.^ 

Several other roads, called Vicinal-ways, are to be found in this county, but the routes 
described form the principal military communications. These roads generally consist of a regular 
pavement, formed by large boulder stones or fragments of rock imbedded in gravel, and vary in 
width from four to fourteen yards. It is a singular characteristic of the Roman roads that they 
are not carried over rivers by bridges, but by fords, except where the rivers are impassable, and 
then bridges are thrown over.' 

A remarkable example of the pavement of a Roman way, and perhaps the most perfect of its 
kind in the kingdom, remains exposed to view on the western slope of Blackstone Edge, where 
the Roman road climbs the steep mountain ridge and extends in an easterly direction towards 
Halifax. Some interesting particulars of this ancient highway are given in the Transactions of 
the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society (v. i., pp. 73-86); and in a paper read before the 
Rochdale Literary and Philosophical Society, November, 1879, Dr. H. Colley March thus 
describes the mode of construction : — • 

"The portion of the road is exactly sixteen feet in width. In some places there are distinct indications of a deep trench on 
each side, dug into the earth for the purpose of drainage. The roadway is transversely arched, so that the water would run from 
and not towards the centre. The road is paved with squared blocks. These are laid with great care, and are held by strong kerbs, 
which stand up some two inches above the level of the causeway. Exactly in the middle of the road is a line of massive stones, 
fitted together with great precision, while the other smaller stones, of which the general pavement consists, are of ordinary sand- 
stone. These especial ones are always of the very hardest and densest grit. Along these stones has been cut, by the mason's art, 
a deep and wide trough. The bottom of the trough is slightly, but invariably, convex. The width of the trough at its upper and 
widest part is one foot four inches, its true width across the bottom is one foot one and a half inch. Its depth in the centre varies 
from three and a half inches to five and a half inches. To return to the road in : As before said, its total width, outside all, 
is sixteen feet ; but the kerbstones, being above its level, cannot be counted in. These vary in width from five and a quarter to 
six and three-quarter inches. We may safely consider, then, that the practicable width of the road inside the kerbstone is fifteen 
feet. This causeway of fifteen feet is divided by the central trough into two roads of equal width, the measurement from the inside 
of the kerbstone to the outside of the troughstone being six feet. Each of these two roads is grooved by longitudinal furrows, and 
no one entertains the least doubt that these furrows are wheel- tracks." 

At the top of the hill the trough described ceases, though the square blocks are in places still 
preserved ; but further on, where the descent begins to be steep, on the Yorltshire side of the hill, 
the trough recommences. 

_ The terror of the Roman name, and the vigour of their arms, seemed scarcely able to keep in 
subjection the inhabitants of Britain, who sought every opportunity to shake off the foreign yoke. 
According to Herodian, the proprtetor in Britain addressed a dispatch to the Emperor Severus, to 
the effect that " the insurrections and inroads of the Barbarians, and the havoc they made far and 
near, rendered it necessary that he should either increase the Roman force in this country or that 
he should come over in person." On this intimation, the Emperor, though then advanced in life, 
and sinking under bodily infirmities, repaired to Britain, and established his court in Eboracum 
(York), the capital of the Brigantes. Having collected his force round that city (a.d. 207), the 
Emperor, attended by his sons Caracalla and Geta, marched from York, at the head of a powerful 
army, to the North, where he drove the Caledonians within their frontier and erected or restored 
a stone wall within the vallum of Hadrian. This wall was the great artificial boundary of Roman 
England from sea to sea. It has been customary to ascribe the earthen rampart to Hadrian and 
the stone wall to Severus ; but it has of late years been shown by Mr. Bruce, on what appears con- 
clusive authority, that they are essential parts of one fortification, and the probability is that 
Severus repaired the work of Hadrian. The loss of Roman soldiers in this expedition, accordino' 
to Dion Cassius, amounted to 50,000 men, partly by war and partly in cutting down the woods 

/■The list given above is from Mr. Watkin's Roman Lancashire, and the authority ot MM. Parthey and Finder, the letters nrecedin,^ tho 

It IS very much more correct than either of those printed in the previous numerals should be m.p.m., miiia plus mireits-miles, more or less -r 
editions of this work. The Itinerary is supposed to have been compiled » The Itineraries of Richard of Cirencester relatine to jlni-Jthi^^ 

about A.D. 320. The letters m p. , which occur in many of the copies of this which have appeared in the previous editions of this work are omitf»H Vlfi 

Itinerary, have been supposed to signify miUe passm. a thousand paces, MS. being of very doubtful authority, and beUeved by manv anHnnoVi.. 

uauaUy called Roman miles, equal 4834-28 English feet, the English mile to be a forgery — C. ^ antiquaries 

being 5,280 feet, or 446 feet longer than the Koman mile ; but, as pointed » Galen Ix. c. 8. methodi. 

out by Mr. J. B. Davidson (Archaologkal Journal, v. xxxvli., p. 310), on 



and draining the mosses, for which the north of England, and Lancashire in particular, is to 
the present day distinguished. To commemorate his victories, Severus coined money with the 


2 6 



GrouUenl of sie^A/est joart ofl/ui read- 


inscription, ViCTOBiiE Britannic^. He also assumed the name of Britanxicus Maximus, and 
o-ave to his son Geta the name of Britannicus. 



Mints were established by the Romans at eleven of their British stations, two of which were 
York and Chester ; and it is probable that from these northern mints the coin was circulated over 
Lancashire. No fewer than fifty different Roman coins have been found at Standish, in this county, 
near the ancient Coccium, several of which are from dies struck by the Emperor Severus. 

After the death of Severus at York (February 4, a.d. 211), and the return of Caracalla to 
Rome, a long and profound silence is observed by the Roman historians as to the affairs of Britain, 
and it is not till the reign of Diocletian — when Carausius, himself a Briton, who, being sent by the 
emperor with a fleet to guard the Belgic coast, embraced the opportunity to pass over into this 
island, and got himself proclaimed emperor at York — that any incident appertaining to the subject 
of this history is recorded. 

The usurpation by Carausius of the sovereign power in Britain occurred a.d. 286. After six 
years of dominion, in which the naval strength of Britain was greatly increased, he was betrayed 
and assassinated by his minister AUectus, at Ehoracum, — the second emperor who had met that 
fate in the Brigantian territory. Diocletian and Maximianus refused to recognise the sovereignty 
of Allectus, and sent a powerful force under Constantius Chlorus against him ; and in three more 
years independent Britain was again subjected to the rule of the Caesars, by the defeat of this 
second usurper, and quietly remained under the imperial government of Constantius Chlorus. 
When (a.d. 305) the two emperors, Diocletian and Maximianus, took the singular resolution of 
resigning their authority, these two Ca3sars, Constantius and Galerius, were declared Augusti. In 
the division of the empire, the western provinces fell to the lot of Constantius who came over to 
Britain, but he did not long enjoy the imperial dignity, for, falling sick at Eboracum, on his return 


from an expedition against the Caledonians, he died there, July 25th, a.d. 306, having in his last 
moments declared his son Constantino his heir and successor in the empire. He was the third 
emperor who had died at York, and the honour of the apotheosis or deiAcation was conferred upon 
him by the Roman senate. Constantino, afterwards called the Great, began his auspicious reign 
at York, where he was present at his father's death, and was saluted by the troops stationed in the 
city as emperor, on which occasion, as is said, a golden ball was presented to him as a symbol of 
his sovereignty over the island. Upon his conversion to Christianity he placed a cross upon the 
ball, andever since his time, the globe, surmounted by the cross, has been used as the emblem of 
majesty m all the kingdoms of Christendom. 

^17 I'^-^^i <^.'^^^^^si°'^ of Constantino took place in a.d. 311. The coincidence, says Mr. Thompson 
Watkm is a singular one, that, as from Britain went forth the general (and emperor) who was 
destmed to put an end to the Jewish dispensation (Vespasian), so in Britain the first sovereign 
who embraced Christianity, and was the means of its adoption by the bulk of the ancient world 
assumed the purple; and this latter event took place in Brigantian territory, of which Lancashire 
formed a part The civil government of Britain was remodelled by Constantino, and under his 
beneficent rule the countij seems to have enjoyed profound peace. Christian churches were 
founded, and, according to Gough, there Avas a Bishop of York (the capital of the Brigantes) at the 
Oouncil of Aries, a.d. 315. At his death, which occurred May 22, A,D. 337, the empire was divided 
among his three sons, Constantinus, Constantius, and Constans, Britain falling to the share of the 
last named. Not content with his part of the empire, Constantinus invaded the territories of his 
youngest brother, m which invasion he lost his life, and was succeeded in Britain by Constans who 
thus became sole emperor of the west, including Britain. Constans, after a reign of thirteen years 
having fallen m the village of St. Helena, at the foot of the Pyrenees (whither he had been pursued 

' Eomau Lancashire, p. IS. 


by Ma,srnentius, a.d. 350), his only surviving brother succeeded to the purple; and he was succeeded 
by Julian, nephew of Constantine the Great, in whose rei^n the statue of the Brigantine goddess 
found in the ruins of a temple in Annandale, in the year 1732, is supposed to have been erected. 

One of the most interesting discoveries of Roman remains in Lancashire was made durino- the 
summer of 1796, at Ribchester, by a youth, the son of Joseph Walton, in a hollow, nine feet below 
the surface of the ground, that had been made in the waste land at the side of the road leading to 
the church, and near the bed of the river. It is conjectured that when these antiquities were 
deposited^ in this place the sand was thrown amongst them to preserve them in a dry state, but 
they are in general much defaced by the corrosive effect of sand upon copper during a period of 
nearly two thousand years. These antiquities were purchased by Charles Townley, Esq., of Townley 
Hall, in this county, from the persons who found them, and they are described by that gentleman 
in a letter addressed by him to the Rev. John Brand, secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, the 
substance of which will be found in its proper place in these volumes. It will be sufficient to say 
here that they consist of a helmet, a number of patera, the remains of a vase, a bust of Minerva, 
the remains of two basins, a number of circular plates, and various other curiosities, many of 
which appear to have been appropriated to religious uses. 

"The helmet (says Mr. Townley) deserves the particular attention of the curious as the remains of remote ages ; very few 
ancient ones, decorated with embossed figures, have as yet appeared. The three or four which were preserved in the Museum at 
Portici are esteemed to be the most richly ornamented, and the best as to style of workmanship ; but when this helmet wag in its 
proper state, it must have been equal, at least, to those in point of decoration, and in respect to its having a vizor imitating so 
exactly the human features, I believe it to be the only ancient example of the kind that has yet been discovered. This singularity 
may excite a doubt whether such a helmet was destined for real combat, or only for the enrichment of occasional trophies which 
were erected in the celebration of military festivals, or carried in procession amongst the Greeks and Romans. Trophies of this sort 
are seen on various medals, with the names of the people, whose subjugation such trophies are meant to record, inserted upon them, 
as for example, De S.ikmatis — De Geumanis, on the medals of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. The superior style of work- 
manship of the mask to that of the headpiece is also remarkable. In the former, the beauty of the features, the excellent work of 
the figures in relief, and more particularly by the sharp edges and lines with which the eyebrows, eyelids, and lips are marked, 
after the manner of Grecian art preceding the Cfesars, denote it to have been executed some ages before the headpiece, the coarse 
and heavy work of which corresponds with that of the artists employed in the reign of Septimius Severus, and particularly with the 
sculpture upon the arch of that emperor, situated near the Capitol Hill at Rome. The cheek measures ten inches and a half from 
its junction to the skull-piece, at the top of the forehead, to its bottom under the chin. A row of small detached locks of hair sur- 
rounds the forehead a little above the eyes, reaching to the ears, which are well delineated. Upon the locks of hair rests the bottom 
of a diadem or tutulus, which at the centre in the front is two inches and a quarter in height, diminishing at the extremities to one 
inch, and it is divided horizontally into two parts, bearing the proportionate heights just mentioned.^ The lower part projects 
before the higher, and represents a bastion wall, separated into seven divisions by projecting turrets with pyramidal tops, exceeding 
a little the height of the wall. The apertures for missile weapons of defence are marked in each of the turrets. The two arched 
doors appear in the middle division of this wall, and one arched door in each of the extreme divisions. The upper part of the 
diadem, which recedes a little, so as to clear the top of the wall and of the turrets, was ornamented with seven embossed figures, 
placed under the seven arches, the abutments of which are heads of genii. The central arch, and the figure that was within it, are 
destroyed, but the other six are filled with a repetition of the following three groups : A Venus, sitting upon a marine monster ; 
before her a draped figure with wings, bearing a wreath and a palm branch, and behind her a triton, whose lower part terminates 
in tails of fishes. Two serpents are represented on each side of the face, near the ears, from whence the bodies of these reptiles 
surround each cheek, and are joined under the chin. The union of various characters recalls the Pantheio representations of the 
goddess Isis ; and when the accompaniments of the work are attentively considered, I am persuaded they will be found to represent 
the goddess in her generating, preserving, and destroying capacities, which primitively constituted her universal dominion, and 
characterised her as the Dea Triformis." 

In 1839, while some excavations were being made near the site of the Roman castrum at 
Manchester, a remarkably fine bronze statuette of Jupiter Stator was found. The figure, which 
measures 5J inches in height, had at the time of its discovery a rod in one hand and the 
thunderbolts of Jove in the other. It is now (with a silver coin of the Emperor Trajan, a.d. 98 
to A.D. 117, found with it) in the possession of Mr. John Leigh, of the Manor House, Hale, 

Britain was soon after this period divided into two consular provinces. Maxima Cffisariensis 
and Yalentia, and into three prsesidial districts — Britannia Prima, Britannia Secunda, and Flavia 
Ca3sariensis.' This division was probably made in the reign of Valentinian, after the memorable 
victory obtained by Theodosius over the united power of the Picts and the Scots^_(A.D. 308-9), and 
Lancashire came under the consular government of Maxima Caesariensis, as forming part of that 
province. From this period the Roman power rapidly declined, and the empire was menaced with 
desolation by the Continental barbarians. The inhabitants and troops that were quartered in 
Britain, fearing lest the Vandals should pass over the sea, and subdue them with the rest, revolted 
from their obedience to Honorius, and set up one Marcus, whom they declared emperor ; but they 
soon deprived him of his dignity and his life, placing Gratian in his room, who was a countryman 
of their own. Within four months they murdered him also, and conferred the sovereignty upon 

1 From subsequent information it is ascertained that a Sphinx was = Notitia Imperii, 

found with these remains, wliich the person who discovered tliem omitted „,„ „,o 

to deliver to Mr. Townley, but which, it is judged, served to decorate the ' Echard, vol. m. pp. 272, 273. 

top of the Tinlmet. 





one Constantine, not so much in respect to his courage or his quality, for he was a very inconsider- 
able man in the army, but in regard to his name, which they looked upon as fortunate, hoping he 
would do as much as Constantino the Great had done, who had been advanced to the imperial 
dignity in the same island. This new prince, immediately after his promotion, passed over into 
Gaul, taking with him the very flower of the British youth. After subduing Spain and_ Northern 
Italy, he was assassinated in A.D. 411. His expeditions had so utterly exhausted the military force 
of the island that it was wholly broken, and the country left naked to her invaders (A.D. 448).^ 
Britain, being thus deprived both of the Roman soldiers and of the most vigorous part of her own 
population, became an easy prey to the incursions of the northern invaders, the Picts and Scots, to 
whose inroads the county of Lancaster was peculiarly exposed. The wall of Hadrian, or of 
Severus, though it stretched across the island, and was built of solid stone, twelve feet in height 
and eight feet in thickness, and though it was strengthened by fortresses well supplied with 
munitions of war, no longer formed a barrier against the inroads of the enemy. 

The country was garri- light of Christianity began 

soned, and the conquest .-ii^^^%?^*iRjs *° dispel the mist of 

principally achieved and /r^^^Sl^^T heathenism during the reign 

maintained, during the four ^m/K^^I^^^ °^ Constantius Chlorus, the 

centuries that Britain was !W^^ ^^^^i^ father of Constantine the 

subject to the Roman sway, ^\f- ^ j^ot^MK^?) Great. Constantine erected 

by three out of the twenty- "■*'-V»."*" '^'^^S^"^ the first episcopal see in 

nine Roman legions, namely '^^^^■■n '■'•■^.«, Britain, and the seat of 

— Legio II. ; Legio VI., * Sk^^i ^\ *^^* ^^^^ '^ig'^ity was at 

Victrix, principally stationed Va Sg SL^ ■ ^ ) Eboracum. Constantine not 

in the Brigantian capital of r.^^ ' ** T' oiily favoured the Christian 

Eboracum (York) ; and Legio ^Qwlb. ' t' doctrine, but, to display his 

XX., usually called Valens jS?*^ ■' "X- attachment to Christianity, 

Victrix (mighty and victori- IkW ^''* -aSiP^ ^® stamped upon his coins 

ous), long stationed at M^lir /' "Sri'mL'^ ^^^^ emblem of the Cross, 

Chester." l^L^fL:- J P'^^^^'^S^^ a.d. 311. The progress of 

The manufacture of H'^^ ^^If '\ ^^® *^^® faith was, however, 

woollens was introduced into ulP ■ '^ra j continually retarded by the 

England, and probably into f^m ^^^ j wars with which this 

Lancashire, at an early period l ^ ^B { country was distracted, and 

of the Roman conquest, and f^P '^«^ / ^* ^^^ ^°^ *^'^ ^ ^^*^^ period 

the luxury of dress soon |p. 'Bl)i\ ' °f British history that the 

succeeded the painting of j^ ^W great body of the nation 

the body. After-ages have /W ; W') could be called Christians, 

increased and perfected these 'I'iill/ mfJ^ "^^^ ^^P® °^ sixteen centu- 

useful fabrics, and the ancient / ■ifflfF .wm^i ries, during which time 

country of the Brigantes is mPi''''' . liril ^% generations of men 

still the most famous of all ^SP'/ (JBi / liave passed over the stage 

the districts of England for / W 'Mj of time, though it has 

this invaluable production of ^/ mj consigned to destruction 

the loom. Jft/ hF j numberless Roman remains. 

The religion of the |. JP' I'J has served to bring to light 

Romans consisted, till after ^ 0. ,, 'l|aS>% a great mass of antiquities 

their _ final departure from "--— -Ji4.---;^s===Jl!a^^ in the stations of Lancashire. 

Britain, of the idolatry of bronze statuette— jupimb statoe-found at Hence in Manchester and 
the Pantheon, though the manche^t^b. .^ Lancaster, we have altars, 

statues, coins, and medals. In Ribchester, a rich collection of antiquities, consisting of masks, 
helmets, and domestic utensils, serves to show that this retired village was once an abode of 
the conquerors of the world, besides numerous articles in the precious metals and in bronze 
that have been found at different times at Overborough, Littleborough, Walmersley, Standish, 
and Kirkham, but of these each in its proper place. 

Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. xxvii. c. S. 

A RoQian legion, when full, consisted of about 0,000 infantry and 400 cavalry. 











The Saxon Period — luvasious, Conquests, and Short Rule of the Danes — Termination of the Saxon and Danish Dynasties of 

England — the Norman Conquest— a.d. 448 to 1066. 

HE progress in civilisation made by the Britons during the four hundred years 
that this county and this country were occupied by the Romans, was a,lmost 
obliterated by the six centuries which succeeded, of invasion from without 
and discord within the island. One redeeming event served, however, to 
dispel the night of heathen darkness; and the general introduction of 
Christianity, perverted and contaminated though it was by superstition and 
error, irradiated the gloom of the Saxon, the Danish, and the Norman 
dominion. So fair a country as Britain, suddenly abandoned by its Roman 
conquerors, and possessed by a people without union in the _ government, and without 
reliance upon themselves, naturally became a prize for foreign competition ; and the struggles for 
independence were rather the transient and convulsive efibrts of despair than the dauntless 
energies of patriotic confidence. The ships which transported the legionaries of Rome from the 
shores of Britain had scarcely weighed anchor when the invading hordes of Scots andPicts dis- 
lodged the British troops from their fortresses, and, forcing a passage through, or passing round, 
the Roman wall, penetrated into the counties of Cumberland and Lancashire, and even to the gates 
of York, from whence they menaced the other parts of the island. The state of the country at 
that time, as described by one of the earliest British historians,' serves to show that considerable 
progress had been made in the arts, in commerce, and in agriculture ; and that the people no 
longer painted their bodies, or depended for their food on the precarious resources of the chase. 

" This island of Britain (says this ecclesiastic, writing in the middle of the sixth century) is 800 miles in length and 200 in 
breadth, embraced by the embowed bosoms of the ocean, with whose most spacious and on every side impassable enclosure she is 
strongly defended, enriched with the mouths of noble floods, by which outlandish commodities have in times past been transported 
into the same, besides other rivers of lesser account, strengthened with eight-and-twenty cities, and some other castles, not 
meanly fenced with fortresses of walls, embattled towers, gates, and buildings (whose roofs, being raised aloft with threatening 
hugeness, were mighty in the aspiring tops compacted), adorned with her large spreading fields, pleasantly seated hills, even framed 
for good husbandry, which ever mastereth the ground, and mountains most convenient for the changeable pastures of cattle; 
watered with clear fountains and sundry brooks, beating on the snow-white sands ; together with silver streams ghding forth with 
soft sounding noise, and leaving a pledge of sweet savours on bordering banks, and lakes gushing out abundantly in cold running 

This description of the wealth of Britain, and of its scenery, drawn thirteen hundred years 
ago, was doubtless applicable to the county of Lancaster at the time of the departure of the 

" After this (continues our author) Britain being now despoiled of all armed soldiers, and of her own brave and valorous 
youth (who quitted the island along with the Romans, never returning to their homes), and absolutely ignorant of all practice of 
war, was trampled many years under the feet of two very fierce outlandish nations — the Scots and the i?icts. Upon whose invasion, 
and most terrible oppression, she sent ambassadors, furnished with letters, to Rome, humbly beseeching, with piteous prayers, the 
hosts of soldiers to redress her wrongs, and vowing with the M'hole power of her mind her everlasting subjection to the Roman 
empire, if they would allow their soldiers to return, and to chase away their foes. These letters were mdicted to this purpose — 
' The Lamentations of the Britons unto Agitius, thrice Consul.' ' The barbarians drive us to the sea, the sea drives us back to the 
barbarians. Thus, of two kinds of death, one or other must be our choice, either to be swallowed up by the waves or butchered 
by the sword.' In this deplorable condition, no relief could be afforded by the Romans : the Goths were at their own gates ; and 
to aggravate the miseries of the Britons, a, dreadful famine raged in the ravished country, which obliged many of them to yield 
their necks to the yoke of the invaders for a little food ; and those who had too much constancy to submit to this humiUation were 
constrained to seek refuge in the mountains, or to conceal themselves in caves and thickets."^ 

Repulsed by the Roman government, and without confidence in their own strength, the 
Britons sought assistance from the Saxons, a nation of warriors and pirates. The military renown 
of these people pointed them out as the most efficient of auxiliaries, while their ambition and their 
avarice made them in reality the most dangerous of allies. To avert a present danger, ambassadors 
were sent to the heads of their government, and to this urgent invitation the chiefs of the 
Saxons replied: "Know ye, that the Saxons will be fast friends to the _ Britons, and ready at 
all times to assist them in their necessity, for a suitable return. With joy, therefore, embark 
again for your country, and make your countrymen glad with these good tidings." The Saxons 
were confederated tribes, consisting of the Angles (and hence Anglo-Saxons), the Jutes, and the 

' Gildas. Eptst. of Gildas, cap. i. '■' Epist. of Gildas, cap. xvii. 


genuine Saxons.^ They were settled on the shores of the German Ocean, and extended from the 
Eyder to the Rhine. The etymology of their name is involved in the obscurity of remote antiquity. 
Their leaders are supposed to have bequeathed the appellation to their followers. The first Saxon 
expedition to England, which consisted of 1,000 soldiers, embarked in three vessels, called cyulw, or 
ceols, composed of hides,^ vmder the command of Hengist and Horsa,'' the latter serving under the 
former, and both being in the fourth generation from Woden, one of the principal gods of the 
Saxons. On their arrival in England (a.d. 449) they were directed by Vortigern, the British king, 
to march against the enemy, then spread over the greater part of the country of the Brigantes ; 
and on their arrival in the neighbourhood of York a bloody engagement took place, in which the 
Picts and the Scots were driven out of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and compelled to take refuge 
within their own borders. The Saxon generals, disinclined to finish the campaign by a single battle, 
neglected to follow up this victory, and their troops remained in York and in Manchester, to recover 
from the fatigues of their journey, and to recruit their numbers with fresh levies. Vortigern, held 
by the double tie of gratitude to Hengist and love for the fascinating daughter of Horsa, 
Rowena (Rumwen), became insensible to the danger that menaced his country, and the king closed 
his eyes to those dangerous designs of ambition in his foreign auxiliaries which every day became 
more manifest to his people. Having possession of Manchester and York, the Saxons sent for a 
further supply of troops from Germany, which speedily arrived in seventeen ceols, and were 
encamped in the Isle of Thanet. This measure naturally increased the suspicion of the Britons, 
and they expressed their displeasure by refusing to provide for the fresh levies. A proclamation 
commanding them to quit the country immediately followed, at which Hengist took deadly offence, and 
the Saxons, who had come to expel invaders, now assumed themselves the character of open enemies. 
Further reinforcements, under the command of Octa, the son of Hengist, and Ebissa, the son of 
Octa, soon after arrived, and marched to the north, spreading themselves over the Brigantian 
districts, which were soon to assume another name. The demands of the Saxons rose with the 
concessions of the Britons ; and it at length became clear that nothing short of the full possession 
of this fair island would allay the cravings of their ambition and cupidity. Digusted with the 
blindness and effeminacy of Vortigern, his peopLe drove him from his throne, and Vortimer, his son, 
reigned in his stead. After several battles betAveen the Britons and the Saxons, fought with various 
success, in one of which Vortimer fell, Vortigern again ascended the throne, and Hengist demanded 
a conference between the Saxon chiefs and the British nobility, to arrange terms, as was alleged, for 
the Saxons quitting the kmgdom. This meeting took place upon the plain of Ambrij or Amesbury, 
now called Sahsbury Plain. The unsuspecting Britons came unarmed, but the perfidious Saxons 
had each a short skeine concealed under his cassock. After the conference the horns of festivity went 
round, till the spirits of the assembly had become exhilarated, when, at the terrible exclamation 
of "Nemed Saxes !" out rushed the Saxon weapons. The unarmed Britons fell before the perfidious 
assassins, and three hundred of the bravest chiefs and the most elevated men of the country perished 
on the spot.' Hengist now possessed himself of the southern part of the island, which he erected 
into a principality, under the designation of the Kingdom of Kent, while Octa and Ebissa remained 
settled in Northumbria. The fortunes of the Britons were partially retrieved by Aurelius Ambrosms, 
a Briton of Roman extraction. Under his direction the military spirit of his countrymen was roused 
into action, and after marching from Totnes, at the head of a formidable force, accompanied by 
Uther his brother, surnamed Pendragon, he arrived before the gates of York, when he summoned 
Octa to surrender. A council of war being called, it was determined by the Saxons to surrender at 
discretion, and to cast themselves upon the clemency of the Britons. Ambrosms granted a free 
pardon to the invaders, and, instead of shipping them out of the country, he assigned to them a 
district on the borders of Scotland. Ebissa, who had probably occupied Manchester while Octa was 
stationed in York, encouraged by the success of his kinsman's appeal to the conqueror s clemency, 
came and surrendered himself in the same manner, and met with a similar reception. The gratitude 
of the Saxons did not outlive their merciful conqueror. On the death of Ambrosms who was 
succeeded by Uther the Pendragon (a.d. 449), Octa and Ebissa revolted, and issued from their 
northern retreat by the route of Ribchester and Wigan, both which places they took, as well as 
Manchester and Warrington. On their arrival before York an obstinate battle took place under 
the walls of that city, which ended in the defeat and capture of the two mgrates/ .. . , 
The history of the country between the departure of the Roman legionaries and the rise of 
the Saxon power is so blended with legend and romance that it is almost impossible to distinguish 
fact from fable. The last glimmer of ancient literature is lost m the general darkness, and we 

. With these, it is supposed, were some bodies of Frisians.-H. » About a.^ 42S, aocordiBg to Dr. D. H. Haigh's Conquest of Britain hy 

■'■ Nennius, cap. xxyiii, [really from Gildas]. * NcnS'us, c! xlviij. ' Geof. Mon. Poliohron, etc. 


are compelled to advance in the light of tradition, which reveals nothing distinctly. Many of the 
events of that period are so inextricably interwoven with the mythical legends and poetic imagery 
of the Monkish writers that it is difficult to separate the grains of historical truth from the mass of 
traditional chaff'. Not that the two things are necessarily antagonistic, for the respective lines_ of 
divergence may not be altogether out of harmony with the central verity, but the accounts which 
have been handed down are so bewildering that it is necessary to receive them with the greatest 
reserve. Mr. Fiske, of the Harvard University, in his " Myths and Mythmakers," goes so far even 
as to affirm his belief that the story_ of Hengist and Horsa is unworthy of credit, though admitting 
that it probably embodies an historical occurrence. There is little doubt that the achievments of 
the little band of buccaneers who followed their lead has been greately expanded, and the claim 
made of their being the immediate descendants of Woden gives colour to the suggestion of a 
mythical origin. We may, however, accept the main outlines of the events recorded, though the 
seductive graces of Rowena, the daughter of Horsa, who corrupted the king of the Britons by love 
and wine, is doubtless a later embellishment of the original narrative. 

The son and successor of Uther, born of Lady Igerna, wife of Gorlois Duke of Cornwall, was, 
according to the old chroniclers, the renowned king Arthur (a.d. 467). Trained to arms by 
Ambrosius, under whose commission he for some time fought,^ and animated by the wrongs of the 
Britons, over whom he was appointed to reign, he became himself the leader of their wars, and in 
all of them he came off conqueror. The first of his battles was fought at the mouth of the river 
called the Glem. The second, third, fourth, and fifth, upon another river called the Douglas, in 
the territory of Linuis. The sixth was on a stream which bears the name of Bassas. The seventh 
was in the wood of Caledon. The eighth was at Castle Guinnion (or Caer-wen). The ninth at 
the city of Legion (Chester). The tenth on the banks of the river Ribroit. The eleventh on the 
hUl Agned Cathregonion. The twelfth at Mount Badon (Bath). 

The Rev. R. W. Morgan, in his "Cambrian History," thus localises the Arthurian 
victories : — 

"First, at Gloucester. Second at Wigan, ten miles from the Mersey. (This battle lasted through the night. In a.d. 1780, 
on cutting through the tunnel, three cartloads of horseshoes were found and removed). Third, at Blackrod. Fourth, at Penrith, 
between the Loder and Elmot (the Lowther and Eamont), on the spot still called King Arthur's Castle. Fifth, on the Douglas, in 
Douglas Vale. Sixth, at Lincoln. Seventh, on the edge of the Forest of Celidon (Ettrick Forest), at Melrose. Eighth, at Caer 
Gwynion. Ninth, between Edinburgh and Leith. Tenth, at Dumbarton. Eleventh, at Brixham, Torbay. Twelfth, at Mont 
Baden, above Batli." 

Nennius, it will be seen, speaks of four battles having been fought on the river 
Douglas, but Giraldus only refers to one, which, according to his representation, occurred 
about the year 500, and resulted in the loss of the greater part of both armies, though 
victory remained with Arthur, who pursued his enemy, Colgrin, to York, and there besieged him. 
Mr. Daniel H. Haigh, one of the latest writers who contend for the substantial veracity of the 
statement embodied in the Arthurian romance, in his " Conquest of Britain by the Saxons," says, 

" The river Douglas, which falls into the estuary of the Kibble, is certainly that which is indicated here (the Douglas referred 
to by Nennius), and although it was one of Arthur's tactics to get round his adversaries, so as to be able to attack them when least 
expected (which wiU account for the conflict being considerably to the west of the direct hue from London to York), it is extremely 
improbable^ that he would have gone so far north as the Douglas in Lothian, when his object was to attack Colgrin at York. The 
reading which the Paris MS. and Henry of Huntington give is, I believe, correct, and represents Ince, u, name which is retained to 
this day by a township near to this river, a little more than a mUe to the south-west of Wigan, and by another about fifteen miles 
to the west, and which may possibly have belonged to a considerable tract of country. . . . Neither the Brut nor Boece 
mention more than one battle at this time, but the latter says that Arthur ' pursued the Saxons, continually slaughtering them, 
until they took refuge in York,' and that 'having had so frequent victories he there besieged them ;' and these expressions may 
well imply the four victories gained in one prolonged contest on the Douglas, and another on the river Bassas, i.e., Bashall Brook, 
which falls into the Kibble near Clitheroe, in the direct line of Colgrin's flight to York." 

That some great battles were fought on the banks of the Douglas,^ in early times, 
the remains since discovered abundantly testify, and the balance of testimony seems in favour of 
the hypothesis that the Lancashire river was the scene of the four battles mentioned by Nennius,^ 
and which Mr. Haigh believes to have been one prolonged contest. 

The history of Arthur is mixed up with so much romance as to render it extremely difficult to 
separate truth from fiction. The ingenuity and research of Mr. Whitaker, the historian of Man- 
chester, have placed this subject in so strong and interesting a light, in the second chapter of his 
Saxon History of Manchester, that it may be quoted with advantage, with the exception of thosa 
passages for which the public is indebted more to the vigorous imagination of the author than to 
historical evidence : — 

» Malmesbury, f. i. -- In some copies tlio name is given as " Dubglao," and in others It is rendered " Duggles. ' 

" Nennius, capp. Ixv. Ixvi. 


" The second, third, fourth, and fifth baltleg of Arthur are supposed to have been fought in our own county (Lancashire), and 
upon the banks of our little Douglas.' And the name of the river concurs with the tradition concerning Arthur, and three battles 
prove the notion true. Ou the traditionary scene of this engagement remained, till the year 1770, a considerable British barrow, 
popularly denominated Hasty-Knoll. It was originally a vast collection of small stones taken from the bed of the Douglas ; and 
great quantities had been successively carried away by the neighbouring inhabitants. Many fragments of iron had been also 
occasionally discovered in it, together with remains of those military weapons which the Britons interred with their heroes at death. 
On finally levelling the barrow, there was found a cavity in the gravel immediately under the stones, about Beven feet in length, 
the evident grave of the British officer, and all filled with the loose and blackish earth of his perished remains. At another place, 
near Wigan, was discovered, about the year 1741, a large collection of horse and human bones, and an amazing quantity of horse- 
shoes, scattered over a large extent of ground — an evidence of some important battle upon the spot. The very appellation of Wigan 
is a standing memorial of more than one battle at that place. Wig signifying, in Saxon, a fight, and Wig-en being its plural. 
According to tradition, the first battle fought near Blackrod was uncommonly bloody, and the Douglas was crimsoned with blood 
to Wigan. Tradition and remains concur to evince the fact that a second battle was fought near Wigan Lane many ages before the 
rencounter in the civil wars. The defeated Saxons appear to have crossed the hill of Wigan, where another engagement or engage- 
ments ensued ; and in forming the canal there, about the year 1735, the workmen discovered evident indications of a considerable 
battle on the ground. All along the course of the channel from the termination of the Dock to the point of Pool Bridge, from forty 
to fifty roods in length, and seven or eight yards in breadth, they found the ground everywhere containing the remains of men and 
horses. In making the excavations, a large old spur, carrying a stem four or five inches in length, and a rowel as large as a 
halfcrown, was dug up ; and five or six hundredweight of horseshoes were collected. The point of land on the south side of the 
Douglas, which lies immediately fronting the scene of the last engagement, is now denominated the Parson's Meadow ; and tradition 
reports a battle to have been fought in it. The dispirited Saxons fell before the superior bravery and dauntless spirit of the Britons. 
These four battles were fought upon the river Douglas, and in the region Linuis. In this district was the whole course of the 
current, from its source to its conclusion, and the words ' super fiumen quod vacatur Douglas, quod est in Linuis' (upon the river 
called Douglas, which is in Linuis), show the stream to have been less known than the region. This was therefore considerable ; 
one of the cantreds or great divisions of the Sistuntian kingdom, and comprised, perhaps, the western half of south Lancashire. 
From its appellation of Linuis, or the Lake, it seems to have assumed the denomination from the Mere of Marton, which was once 
the most considerable object within it, and was traversed by the Romans in canoes of a single tree.^ Thus by four successive 
victories had Arthur subdued the great army of the Saxons, which had so often beaten the Britons of the north, and then held the 
Sistuntii in bondage. But Lancashire was not yet entirely delivered. The castles which had been previously erected there by the 
provincials would naturally be garrisoned by the Saxons on their conquest of the country, and the towns and their vicinities more 
immediately bridled by their barbarous oppressors. Tradition asserts Manchester to have been thus circumstanced in particular at 
this period."' 

Here, in the Castle Field, according to this authority, stood the Roman castle, now occupied 
by the Saxon commander Sir Tarquin, who was not expelled till after two desperate attempts to 
carry the fortress, in which the Britons at length succeeded, and Tarquin fell before the victors. 
The traditions of Lancashire still cherish and uphold the memory of Sir Tarquin, the lord of the 
castle, and the knights of the Round Table, many of whom are supposed to have fallen within the 
tyrant's toils, till Sir Lancelot du Lake slew the sanguinary knight, and liberated his captives.' 

Accepting without question the statements of Nennius and Giraldus, the rev. historian of 
Manchester had so much faith in the historic personalty of Arthur and the knights of " the 
noble order of the table round," that he not only fixed the sites of several of their presumed 
exploits in Lancashire, but, following tradition, located at Castle Field, Manchester, the legendary 
fortress of the giant Tarquin, who is represented as having held threescore and four of Arthur's 
knights in thraldom until he himself fell beneath the stalwart arm of Sir Lancelot du Lake. It is 
scarcely necessary to say that, notwithstanding Mr. Whitaker's ingenuity, Sir Tarquin, Sir Lancelot, 
and their knightly compeers, are as much the product of the imagination as are Merlm, Mordred, 
Sir Gawain, or any other of the personages immortalised in the heroic story which Caxton printed 
and Tennyson in later times wrought into verse, and we must be content to treat the traditions oi 
their existence as we treat those which reveal to us the actions of Chronos and Rhea, of Inachus, 
Danaus, and Prometheus. That there was a British chieftain who resisted the invaders during 
some portion of the two or three centuries over which the Anglo-Saxon conquest extended, and 
whose deeds of prowess were the admiration of his contemporaries, is extremely probable ; and it 
is not less likely that the chroniclers of an uncritical age gathered up the floating legends of other 
heroes mythical and real, and crystallised them, so to speak, on a single personage, whose indi- 
viduality in a truly historic sense is lost in the fairy web of fiction that has been spun around him. 

The last of Arthur's victories was achieved at the battle of Badon Mount (Bath) ; and Mr. 
Whitaker contends that these memorable engagements not only checked the progress of Cerdic, 
but annihilated the Saxon army, and that a long interval of repose, extending through seventy 
years followed It appears, however, from the Saxon chronicles, that Cerdic died m the year 5.J4 
[515 or 5161 "and was succeeded by his son Cynic [Creoda, or his grandson Cyneric] m the 
Uvernment of Wessex ; and that he," in the peculiar language of these chronicles, "reigned atter- 
wards twenty-six winters." It is also shown, from the history of our Anglo-Saxon ancestors, that 
Ella and Ida reigned in Deira and Bernicia within thirteen years from the supposed death ot 
Arthur and that the Saxon conquests gradually advanced till all England was subdued, and erected 
into seven sovereign states, under the name of the Heptarchy. The propriety of this appellation 
has been disputed, and the term Octarchy adopted in its stead. The difference is capable ot an 

1 Hidden t) 205 = Leigh's Lancashire, b. i., p. 18. •■■ Whitaker's Manchester, vol. ii., b, u., c. 2, 

iiigacu, p. . ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ tradition attaches to Broughom Castle, m Westmorland.— C. 


easy explanation — Northumbria being considered one kingdom by the advocates for tbe Heptarchy. 
and two (that is, Deira and Bernicia) by the supporters of the Octarchical division. The seven 
kingdoms were — Sussex, Kent, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Mercia, and Northumbria. This latter 
kingdom, which alone concerns the subject of this history, was occasionally divided into two, under 
the names of Deira and Bernicia, but in its integrality it may be exhibited thus, with the succession 
of its Saxon sovereign princes: Northumbria consisted of the counties of Lancaster, York, 
Durham, Westmorland, Cumberland, Northumberland : and its kings were — (1) Ella, or Ida, 
(2) Adda, or Elappea, (3) Theodwald, (4) Fretnulse, (5) Theodrick, (6) Ethelrick, (7) Ethelfrid, (8) 
Edwin, (9) Oswald, (10) Egfrid, (11) Alkfryd, (12) Osred, (13) Kenred, (14) Oswick, (15) Ceolulph, 
(16) Ecgbert, (17) Oswalph, (18) Ediswald, (19) Elured, (20) ^Ethelred, (21) Alfwald, and (22)_ Osred. 
This kingdom existed 379 years, dating its commencement from 547, and its desolation in 926. 
During the Roman period, the largest portion of this county took its name from the Brigantes ; 
but the Saxons, from its local situation to the North of the Huviber, changed its designation to 
" Northan Humber Londe," or Northumberland. The Saxon inhabitants of this kingdom were 
the Angles, who arrived from Anglia, now known as the Duchy of Holstein,^ or Angloen, in 
Pomerania, as early as the year 449 [428], though their kingdom of Northumberland was not 
established till one hundred years after that date. It has been conjectured that Mercia included 
Deira, or that the country between the Mersey and the Ribble was within the Mercian territory. 
But the preponderance of evidence is in favour of the more generally recognised limits, namely, 
that the Humber and the Mersey to the south, and the Solway and the Tyne to the north, formed 
the Northumbrian boundary; and that when this kingdom was divided, the kingdom of Deira 
consisted of the counties of Lancaster, York, Westmorland, Cumberland, and Durham, precisely 
the ancient Brigantine limits, while Bernicia comprehended Northumberland and the south of 
Scotland between the Tweed and the Firth of Forth. Over the beginnings of Northumbria, the 
former territory of the Brigantes, there hangs, if possible, even greater obscurity than over any 
other of the kingdoms which sprang up after the Saxon colonisation. For a century and a half 
thick darkness overspreads the history of the country, and in regard to contemporary events we 
are only able to grope our way to probable conclusions through a bewildering mass of broken 
memories and traditions, and the obscure data of philological research. Assuming it to have 
consisted of the two states, Deira and Bernicia, it is difficult to reconcile the theory with actual 
facts, except upon the supposition that, at the outset, those kingdoms occupied only the tract of 
country between the Humber and the Grampian Hills on the eastern side of the great mountainous 
ridge known in these later days as the English Appenines. This country was colonised by 
innumerable petty chiefs and their clans, who, arriving, some from Scandinavia, some from 
Germany, settled upon the first spot that offered them a resting place.^ Fiercely they contended 
with each other; the weak fell before the stronger, assassination followed assassination, and 
massacre succeeded to massacre. The strife waged between the eaorls and the petty chieftains in 
these two kingdoms of Doira and Bernicia long hindered the full conquest of Brigantium, the 
western side of the island — -the country of the old Sistuntii— remaining for a lengthened period 
after the departure of the Roman legionaries, a part of the great Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde— 
Strathclwdd Wealas, as it was sometimes called — which, maintaining its independence, extended 
eastwards from the Irish Sea to the range of hills that formed the watershed, and stretched south- 
wards from the Clyde to the river Dee, where it joined up to the smaller British states which 
occupied what we now call Wales, Chester forming the connecting link between the two countries. 
Lancashire appears to have been included in the district of Teyrulluug, which embraced the 
territory between Aerven (the river Dee), and Argoed Derwenwyd (the Derwent of modern times). 
The name implies that it was a royal demesne, and as the country was but sparsely populated, 
there being few inhabitants beyond those who had been induced to settle around the principal 
Roman stations, there is good reason to beheve that the more northern parts of the county 
mcludmg the Furness district, were great tracts of forest country, the haunt of the wolf, the wild 
boar, and other animals of prey or of the chase. Eventually the new comers won their way into 
these western parts, though it was only after a long and stubborn resistance on the part of the 
native race, and when the decisive victory at Bangor-Iscoed had been gained, that the country, 
was brought under subjection to Saxon rule. The system of government established by our Saxon 
ancestors had in it the germ of freedom, if it did not always exhibit the fruits. In religion they 
were idolaters, and when they settled in Britain, their idols, altars, and temples soon overspread 
the country. They had a god for every day in the week. Thor, or Thur, represented Thursday ; 
Woden conferred his name on Wednesday ; Friijn,, or Fricge, presided over Friday ; Seater over 

' SaJton Chronicle, a.d. 449, 2 Pnlgravo, English Commonwealth I. 426. 


Saturday ; and Tuisco, the tutelar god of the Germans, conferred his name on Tuesday. The 
attributes of the first four of these deities corresponded with those of the Roman deities, Jupiter, 
Mars, Yenus, and Saturn ; Tuisco s parallel was Mercury ; the Saxons had also their Ermenseul, 
who, like Mercury, was the bestower of wit ; and Heile, a sort of ^sculapius, the preserver and 
restorer of health. Besides thesp gods, the Saxons worshipped the sun and the moon, who each con- 
ferred a name on one of the days of the week ; Sunnan on Sunday, and Monan on Monday. The 
people worshipped the statues of these gods. Thor, the supreme, was seated on a throne, and on 
either side of him stood Woden and Friga (husband and wife). Thor, according to the prevailing 
superstition, bore rule in the air, and governed the thunder, the lightning, and the winds ; he 
likewise directed the weather and regulated the seasons, giving plenty or inflicting famine at his 
will. Woden made war, and ministered rigour against enemies; while Friga bestowed upon 
mortals peace and pleasure. So gross was the Saxon superstition, and so strong their incentives 
to war, that they believed if they obtained the favour of Woden by their valour they should be 
admitted after their death into his hall, and, reposing on couches, should satiate themselves with 
ale from the skulls of their enemies whom they had slain in battle ! This beverage was in high 
esteem amongst them ; and Foster, to whom they sacrificed in the month of April, gave the name 
to Easter, by which the festival of the resurrection is designated in the Christian system. The 
Saxon women were not allowed to contract a second marriage, and a similar restriction applied to 
the men, except those in elevated stations who were childless ; for, amongst such, " to be without 
children was to be without reputation." The most dismal feature of their superstition was the 
custom which they had in war, after a successful enterprise, of selecting by lot, and sacrificing, 
one-tenth of their captives to their sanguinary gods.^ In this spirit they offered human sacrifices 
to obtain success in battle. Revolting as this heathendom was, and debasing in some essentials, 
there were yet manifestations of a spirit which did not walk in the world without believing in 
some presiding influences which governed human actions. Before the arrival of the Saxons, 
Christianity had taken root in England; under Constantino it prospered, and for a time spread its 
healing branches, recommending itself even to the Roman legionaries ; but the invasion of the 
Saxon infidels for a lengthened period obscured, though it did not actually extinguish, the 
light of the Gospel in Britain; and both Gildas and Bede concur in representing the Saxons, 
at that period, as a nation "odious both to God and man,"^ the subverters of altars, and 
the enemies of the priesthood. The sweeping away of whatever remained of Roman rites 
or had been created of Christian worship was a dominant principle in the life of the 
new comers, but at the same time their heathendom possessed some capacity of assimilation 
with that faith before which the classical paganism of the ancient world had retreated, and 
it is a pregnant fact in the history of our Anglo-Saxon progenitors, as Mr. Kemble points 
out, that, at the beginning of the sixth century, " Christianity met with_ but little resistance 
among them, and enjoyed an easy triumph, or, at the worst, a careless acquiescence, even among 
those whose pagan sympathies could not be totally overcome." ^ Before Gregory, surnamed the 
Great, had attained the pontifical chair, he formed the pious design of undertaking the conversion 
of the Saxon Britons. Observing in the market-place at Rome a number of Saxon youths exposed 
to sale, whom the Roman merchants in their tradmg voyages had bought from their British parents, 
beino- struck with their beauty, he inquired to what country they belonged, and was told they were 
Andes, from the kingdom of Deira. Moved by the same spirit that now actuates so many of the 
people of England towards the heathen nations, he determined himself to undertake a mission to 
Britain, to convert the heathen of that country. The popular favour of the monk disinclined the 
people to allow him to be exposed to so much danger in person ; but no sooner had he assumed the 
purple than he resolved to fulfil his benevolent design towards the Britons, and he pitched upon 
the monk Augustine to preach the Gospel in that island. In the year 596, Augustine, at the head 
of about forty missionaries, embarked from Italy, and landed in the Isle of Thanet. His arrival 
was immediately announced to Ethelbert, . king of Kent, who received him graciously, gave him 
liberty to preach and teach in all his kingdom, and eventually became himself a convert, was 
baptised in the lowly church of St. Martin, outside the walls of Canterbury, where the missionaries 
first began to meet, and a multitude of his subjects followed his example. In 604, the neighbouring 
East Saxons were proselytised ; in 627 the East Angles adopted the Christian faith ; and m the 
following year the example extended to Mercia. Thus the flame spread from kingdom to kingdom, 
till the whole heptarchy had become Christian. , ^ ^ , . . . t t? ^ a x. a 

Lancashire as already shown, remained unsubdued long after other parts ot England had 
submitted to the invader, but it was doubtless the scene of many petty invasions and sanguinary 

> Sid ApoU Epist. vi., 1, 8. ' GUdas, Brit. Epist, xxiii.; Bedo 1. i., 22. •■' The Saxons in England, v. i., p. 443. 



encounters, the details of which have become lost in the mists of time, and the sites even forgotten. 
In 607, as the Anglo-Saxon chronicle records, or, according to the annals of Ulster, in 612, 
" Ethelfrith (the powerful Northumbrian king) led his army to Chester, and there slew numberless 
Welshmen ; and so was fulfilled the prophecy of Augustine, wherein he saith, ' If the Welsh will not 
be at peace with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons.' fhere were also slain two hundred 
priests who came to pray for the army of the Welsh." Florence of Worcester puts the number at 
"twelve hundred British priests, who had joined the army, to offer prayers on their behalf," but 
this is, doubtless, an exaggeration. They were the monks of Bangor— the British Oxford from 
whence Christianity had spread far and near— who disdained subjection to Augustine, and had 
refused to join the Italian missionaries. Their house, which Ethelfrith subsequently destroyed, 
had been founded before a.d. 180, and was the ancient Bancorbury, as Bede calls it, but more 
o-enerally known as Bangor-is-y-Coed (the high choir under the trees), or Bangor Monachorum, and 
occupied a position on an island in the river Dee, a few miles south of Chester. Mr. J. R. Green, 
in his " Making of England," thus describes the march of Ethelfrith's army through Lancashire to 
Chester and Bangor-is-y-Coed : " Though the deep indent in the Yorkshire shire-line to the west 
proves," he says, " how vigorously the Deirans had pushed up the river valleys into the moors, it 
shows that they had been arrested by the pass at the head of the Ribblesdale ; while further to the 
south the Roman road that crossed the moors from York to Manchester was blocked by the uncon- 
quered fastnesses of Elmet, which reached away to the yet more difficult fastnesses of the Peak. 
But the line of defence was broken as the forces of Ethelfrith pushed over the moors along the 
Ribblesdale into our southern Lancashire. His march was upon Chester, the capital of Gwynedd, 
and probably the refuge place of Edwine." ' 

In A.D. 620, Edwin, king of Northumbria, one of the best and wisest of the Saxon sovereigns, 
on his expedition against the Sistuntii of the south, subdued the Brigantes of the VVest Riding of 
Yorkshire ; then crossing the moorland ridge separating Yorkshire from Lancashire, he entered 
Manchester, and permanently reduced the town under the dominion of the Saxons. _ Having 
married Ethelburga, the daughter of Ethelbert, a Christian princess, he received Paulinus with 
distino-uished favour; and in the year 627 that ecclesiastic was consecrated archbishop of the 
Northumbrians, his episcopal see being at York, where, as previously stated, there had been an 
ecclesiastical settlement in the time of the Emperor Constantino. Edwin himself embraced the 
Christian religion with his whole court ; and on Easter Sunday, in the year 627, the king and his 
nobles were all baptised at York. The great body of the people followed the example of their 
sovereign and his chiefs, and in one day it is alleged 10,000 persons, besides women and children, 
were baptised by Paulinus in the river Swale, since designated the Northumbrian Jordan.^ Chris- 
tianity now became the prevailing religion. The people of Lancashire, like those of Yorkshire, 
embraced the doctrines of the Cross ; the venerable Paulinus was indefatigable in the discharge of 
the duties of his mission ; and the waters of the Ribble, as well as those of the Swale, were, it is said, 
resorted to for the baptism of his converts. This was not the first occasion, however, that the rays 
of Christian truth had illumined the pagan darkness of this part of Britain. Though cut off from 
the See of York, the diocese of the Northumbrian bishop, Lancashire, whilst an integral part of 
the kingdom of Strathclyde, must necessarily have been included in the diocese of Glasgow, 
where, in the time of Rydderch,' the King of Strathclyde (A.D. 573 to A.D. 601), the saintly 
Kentigern, connected through his mother, Thenew, with the royal family of the Cumbrian Britons, 
sat down on the banks of the Molendinar, a little stream that falls into the Clyde, hung his bell 
on a tree beside the clearing in the forest to summon his savage neighbours, and planted a small 
religious establishment on the spot where, centuries later, his successors reared the present 
cathedral of Glasgow, that became the centre of Christian missionary effort. The diocese presided 
over by Kentigern must have been co-extensive with the kingdom of Strathclyde, which, as 
already stated, reached southwards to the river Dee, and included the whole of Lancashire ; and 
it is recorded that when driven by persecution from his bishopric, in 543, he took refuge in Wales 
with St. David, and while there founded, on the banks of the Elwy, the espiscopal See of 
Llanelwy, subsequently named, in compliment to his follower and successor, St. Asaph. Kentigern 
was afterwards recalled to his home, and resumed his residence at Glasgow. Jocelyn records that 
when Kentigern left Carlisle, on the occasion of his banishment, he went into Wallia (Wales), 
and that when he was recalled from Llanelwy by Rydderch he returned from Wallia. He was 

1 The infant Prince Edwin, son of Ella. incredulity, have explained that the apostle, having baptised ten, sent 

= The improbability of the story is beyond question. Had Paulinus them into the stream to baptise a hundroa, ana so multiplied his assis- 

laboured from dawn to dusk-say for sixteen hours without intermission tints as the rite proceeded, while he prayed on the shore.— c. 

—he must have despatched his converts at the rate of more than ton a •■> " Rodorchus Alius Tothail, qui in retra Uuaithe regnavit." 

minute to complete the ten thousand, saying nothing of the additional Adamw. in V.S. Co! itmda— Skene, unron., Jr-iol. xcv. 

women and children ; unless, as some writers, in their desire to disarm 


contemporary with Columba, the founder of the celebrated monastery of I-colm-kill, the lona 
of modern times, and it is recorded that when the Scoto-Irish monk came to see Kentigern at 
his little church beside the Clyde, they interchanged their respective pastoral staves as a token 
of brotherly affection. Thus the first faint glimmerings of Christian truth broke in upon the 
heathen darkness of Lancashire, the work of evangelisation being carried on by missionaries of 
a religious system of native growth, and devoid of the impressive aspects of Roman civilisation. 

The century which saw the establishment of Christianity among the Anglo-Saxons and that 
which followed it was a period of incessant warfare. The pagan princes were sometimes in the 
ascendant, and at others those who had been converted held dominion ; while, not unfrequently, 
rulers who had listened to Christian teachers and had been baptised, relapsed into paganism. , In 
633 Edwin, king of Northumbria, the friend and patron of Paulinus, was defeated and slain in a 
great battle at Heathfield — the present Hatfield, near Doncaster, in the West Riding of Yorkshire — 
by his rival, Cadwalla, king of the Western Britons — the Brit-Welsh — aided by Penda, king of 
Mercia. The town was destroyed, when Paulinus retired, and, accompanied by the widowed queen, 
Ethelburga, and her children, made his way to the coast, took ship, and sailed for Kent. A great 
slaughter was made of the Northumbrians by the Brit-Welsh Christians, who were jealous of their 
rivals, and hated them with more than ordinary sacerdotal intensity. The victors swept over the 
country, and burned and destroyed in their merciless greed of conquest, and the vanquished were 
maddened in the anguish of a struggle for very life. After this conflict Northumbria lapsed into 
its former state of paganism, and whatever glimmerings of light there might have been as the 
result of the teaching of Paulinus were quickly extinguished. 

Having shattered the power of Northumbria, Penda returned into Mercia to develop his 
schemes of ambition, his design, apparently, being the reduction of all England. Meanwhile two 
princes of the houses of Ella and Ida were raised to the throne ; Osric becoming king of Deira, in 
which Lancashire was included ; and Eanfrid, the son of ^thelfrith, of Bernicia. Their reigns were 
brief, and their deaths inglorious ; Cadwalla slew them both ; the twelve months of their sway 
were' denominated " the unhappy year," and their names were obliterated from the Fasti of North- 
umbria.' To them succeeded Oswald, a man of great piety and valour, who had received his 
Christianity from Aidan, a monk of lona, on whom he afterwards bestowed the island and bishopric 
of Lindisfarne, the Holy Island of the present day. Shortly after his accession, Oswald, with his 
Northumbrian army, encountered the forces of Cadwalla on the plain called Heavenfield (a.d. 635), 
believed to be near Hexham, a little to the south of the line of the Roman wall. In a state of 
indescribable enthusiasm his army advanced against Cadwalla, routed his forces, and killed the 
redoubted king himself, by which the waves of devastation were rolled back to the south. After 
this victory Oswald established himself with great power on the Northumbrian throne, Deira and 
Bernicia were united, and he applied himself to the Christianising and civilismg of his people. On 
his invitation Aidan, with a band of Scoto-Irish monks, came from lona and settled upon the lonely 
sea-washed rock, where the Abbey of Lindisfarne arose, and from whence a religious system ol 
native growth, and unconnected with the Italian mission, gradually permeated through the 
northern and midland districts of Britain. Northumbria hstened to the_ preaching oi these Celtic 
apostles, Teutonic heathenism was subdued, and in a.d. 652 the British bishop, Fman the successor 
of Aidan became the recognised head of the Northumbrian church. Numerous churches arose 
and Christianity, as modified by the influence of the British character, became the prevailing creed 

throughout Oswald's kingdom. . . . , • . • i •. j ■ <.i. 

From that period to the present Christianity has maintained its ascendency m the 
northern parts of Britain; and in 678 the south Saxons, who were the last oi the states to bow 
down to idols, discarded their superstitions, and became the worshippers of the only true God. 
The British churches, which the Saxons had not demolished, had fallen into decay ; but they were 
now repaired, and the heathen temples were many of them converted into places of Christian 
woTship^ with appropriate dedications ; and the Saxon churches in London^ York, and Manchester 
were d^i'stTnguished by the names of St. Paul, St. Peter, and St. Mary The feasts of dedication 
were instituted to preserve the memory of the consecration of the churches; and these annual 
Sdvak which commenced in the evening preceding the celebration of the dedication, were called 
chS wSs which have gradually assumed a secu?ar character, and are now ranked amongst he 
viUage 7estivairof Lancashire. It must not, however, be supposed that this evangelising of the 
countrv or even the baptism of so many thousands at a time, imphed that the mass of the people 
£d adopted anything ^hke an intelligent Christian faith. The old monastic chroniclers may 
disguise ?he trXbut up to this timi heathenism beat in the very heart of the nation. The 

i Hist. Mont. S. Aug., p. 177. Bedo ill., 1. 


mission despatched by Gregory, and the evangelists whom the Celtic church had sent out from 
lona and from Lindisfarne, had each done a great work ; but there was a greater still to be accom- 
plished, which involved the labour of centuries. In only too many instances, when the petty Saxon 
states adopted Christianity, the people merely followed the example of their chiefs, copied their 
ceremonial, and adopted the Saviour and the Virgin, in some vague and distorted ideal, into their 
pagan demonology. 

Coeval with the churches, a number of castles were also erected, or re-edified ; and it is con- 
jectured that not fewer than twelve considerable ones arose south of the Ribble — Wall-ey, Wal-ton, 
Child-wall, and Win-wick, Black-stone, Seph-ton, Stan-dish, and Pen-wortham,' Wig-an, Roch-dale, 
Middle-ton, and Bury. These were, probably, the seats of twelve Saxon chiefs, before the institu- 
tion of parishes ; and became, therefore, the seats of as many parochial churches.^ The victories of 
Oswald served but to inflame the resentment of the pagan Penda, king of Mercia, who fought against 
him and slew him at Maserfeld, according to the Saxon Chronicles,' or, according to the Venerable 
Bede, at Maserfelth. The battle was fought on the 5th of August a.d. 642, but there is a conflict 
of testimony as to the locality of the battle-field — Camden, Pennant, and Sharon- Turner fix the 
site at Oswestry, in Shropshire ; Dr. Ingram, the translator of the Saxon annals, names Mirfield, in 
Yorkshire ; but other authorities, with greater show of reason, give the preference to Makerfield, or 
Macerfield, near Winwick, in Lancashire. The ancient chroniclers agree in representing Penda as 
the assailant, and that he led his forces from Mercia. Oswestry was forty or fifty miles within 
Penda's kingdom, and consequently an unlikely place in which to encounter an antagonist acting 
on the defensive ; while Winwick, in the " Fee of Makerfield," was on the direct route of an enemy 
marching from Mercia into Northumbria, and answers to the expression of Bede that Oswald died 
"pro jiatria dimiomis." A little more than half a mile to the north of Winwick, on the rising 
ground to the right of the old Roman road leading from Warrington, through Winwick and 
Ashton-in-Makerfield to Golborne and Wigan, is an ancient well, still venerated by the inhabitants, 
which has been known from time immemorial as " St. Oswald's Well." Tradition still points to 
Bradley Hall, in the immediate locality, as occupying the site of one of OsAvald's residences, and on 
the south wall of the church of Winwick, which is dedicated to St. Oswald, is a Latin inscription 
that is still decipherable — 

Hie locus, Oswalde, quonda placuit tibi valde 
Nortanhunbroru fueras rex, uuc que polorum, 
Eegna tenes, prato passua Maroelde, Tocato 
Poscimus hinc a te nostri memor esto beate, 

which Mr. Beamont has thus Englished : — 

This place of yore did Oswald greatly love, 
Northumbria's king, but now a saint above, 
Who in Marcelde's field did fighting fall, 
Hear us, oh, blest one, viihen here to thee we call. 

An addition to the inscription sets forth that the wall was restored in 15*0. These evidences 
all point to the probability that the battle in which the great Christian King of Northumbria fell 
was fought at Makerfield, in Winwick parish, and not at Oswestry, as Camden and some other 
writers have afiirmed. Oswald was buried in three places. Lindisfarne received his head ; his 
hands were deposited at Bamborough ; and the monks of Burdency, in Lincolnshire, became the 
possessors of his bones. The superstition of the times clung with marvellous tenacity about these 
relics, and a blaze of miracles were believed to accompany the sacred dust. 

After the battle at Maserfeld the victorious Penda advanced northwards, burning and 
devastating the whole country on his line of march until he reached Bamborough, where Oswy, the 
brother and sucessor of Oswald, was believed to have retired. An attempt was made to burn the 
place, but the wind being unfavourable and driving the flames in the faces of the assailants, they 
withdrew. Relieved of the presence of Penda, Oswy sought to hold the entire kingdom of 
Northumbria, but in A.D. 644 he was compelled to admit a partner in the sovereignty an(f to cede 
Deira to Oswin, a prince of the House of Ella, while he retained the other component part, 
Bernicia. Determined on uniting Northumbria, Oswy collected a force for the invasion of Deira, 
when Oswin, who had endeavoured to conceal himself, was betrayed and put to death by the 
truculent Bernician. Meanwhile another storm was preparing to burst over his kingdom : a fresh 
quarrel had arisen between Oswy and Penda, the old warrior king of Mercia. The implacable 
Mercian had held sway for nearly thirty years, and carried fire and sword wherever his power 
could reach; he was relentless in the pursuit of conquest; five kings had fallen under his hand, 
and his people, partaking of the character of their prince, " squatted like ghouls amid the ruins of 

' Domesday Book, fo. 270. ' ^ jj^ae, lib. ii., cap, 0, s. 3. Saxon Chron. a.d. 642. 


the old Romano-British villages and towns." But his day Avas drawing near its close. In the 
autumn of 655 he gathered his pagan hordes for a last assault upon Christian Northumbria. Oswy 
strove to avert the conflict, and delivered his youngest son Ecgfrith as a hostage into Penda's 
hands, but the sacrifice was useless. Overtures for peace having failed, the Northumbrian 
gathered his forces and prepared for the defence of his kingdom. The two armies met at Winwid- 
heJd, when a fierce battle ensued, in which the Mercian king was slain, and Penda and paganism 
fell together. The site of this battle, like that in which Oswald fell, has been disputed. Most 
authorities assign the neighbourhood of Leeds. Bede says " the battle was fought near the river 
Vmwed (now the Aire), which then, with the great rains, had not only filled its channel, but over- 
tTt ^^u^*^ banks, so that many more were drowned in the flight than destroyed by the sword," but 
Mr. Thomas Baines, in his Historical Notes on the Valley of the Mersey, contends that it was on the 
banks of the stream which joins the Mersey below Winwick, and afiirms that " Penda met his death 
withm two or three miles of the place at which Oswald had fallen;" but this view is dis- 
countenanced by the further statement of Bede, that " King Oswy concluded the aforesaid war in 
the country of Loides (Leeds)." 

After the fall of Penda, Oswy overran the whole country of the Mercians, subjecting every- 
thing to his dominion ; upon Peada, his son-in-law, he conferred the under kingship of the pro- 
vinces lying south of the Trent, and under his fostering care Christianity spread through the 
country of the middle English. The story of the conversion of Peada is full of interest, and one 
that is not altogether wanting in the element of romance. Oswy had a son Alchfrid, who had 
married one of king Penda's daughters, so that the two royal though rival houses were linked by 
marriage. The young princess's brother, Peada, visited the Northumbrian court for the purpose 
of_ soliciting the hand of Oswy's daughter Alchfleda. He was received with kindness, and the 
princess promised to him on the condition of his renouncing paganism. Alchfrid undertook to 
explain the hopes and truths of the Gospel, and his persuasion won Peada over to Christianity. 
He and his attendants were baptised by Finan, the successor of Aidan in the see of Lindisfarne, 
and on his return with his bride to his own kingdom, he took with him Diuma, a Scot, who was 
consecrated by Finan, and three other presbyters of the same church, to instruct and baptise his 
people. Diuma, who was the first bishop of the Mercians or Middle Angles, came direct from 
lona and took up his abode at Repton, near Derby, the then capital of Mercia, his diocese being 
co-extensive with that kingdom. Thus was founded the church of the Middle Angles, and thus 
commenced that long and unbroken episcopal line which, since the days of St. Chad, when the 
seat was transferred from Repton — eleven years after Diuma's death — has had its chief centre in 
the old city of Lichfield, and until the erection of the separate see of Chester, in the reign of 
Henry VIII., included within its spiritual supervision the greater portion of South Lancashire. 
For some years, the people of Lancashire, with the rest of their fellow-subjects of the kingdom of 
Deira, had been in a state of constant hostility with their ancient allies and neighbours, the people 
of Bernicia; but under the rule of Oswy their differences were reconciled, and they united in 
allegiance to one sovereign. It was not, however, until the reign of Oswy's successor, Ecgfrith, 
(a.d. 670-685) that the portion of Lancashire north of the Ribble which had been included m the 
Cumbrian portion of Strathclyde became absorbed in the Northumbrian kingdom. " The Welsh 
states across the western moors," says Mr. J. R. Green, "had owned, at least from Oswald's 
time, the Northumbrian supremacy, but little actual advance had been made by the English 
in this quarter since the victory of Chester (607), and northward of the Ribble the land between 
the moors and the sea still formed a part of the British kingdom of Cumbria. It was from this 
tract of what we now know as Northern Lancashire and the Lake District Ecgfrith's armies 
chased the Britons in the early years of his reign."^ 

A new era was now opening in the ecclesiastical history of this province, the effects of which 
were to be felt through a long series of ages, and to influence in no small degree the future interests 
of the nation. Monastic institutions began to prevail in Northumbria about the middle of the 
seventh century, under the fostering hand of that distinguished prelate Wilfrid, sole bishop of 
Northumberland ; and in a few years a number of such houses sprang up in Lancashire and other 
parts of the province. The practice of introducing relics into the churches belongs also to this age, 
and innumerable were the pilgrimages made to Rome and to the venerable places which had been 
hallowed by the blood of the martyrs, to collect the remains of the saints. By the constitution of 
the western churches, the pope was invested with a patriarchal authority over them ; but the 
Britons had never acknowledged the pontifical jurisdiction. Theodore, the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, having long seen the necessity for afibrding to the people some more extensive means of 

The Making of England. 


religious instruction than they at that time possessed, and for dividing such of the bishoprics as 
were too large for the proper discharge of the episcopal duties, recommended to the king to convene 
a synod in 673, at which Ecgfrith and his Saxon barons were present. By this synod or assembly, 
which met at Hertford, it was provided, by a unanimous decision, that as the number of Christians 
was daily increasing, new sees should be erected; and, as if in anticipation of some formidable 
opposition, a declaration was appended to the decrees, to the effect that whoever presumed to violate 
them should be degraded of his sacerdotal ofEce and excommunicated.^ In virtue of these canons, 
the bishopric of the East Angles was divided into two, and the dominions of the Mercians which 
lay beyond the Severn were assigned to the new see of Hereford. Wilfrid still remained the sole 
bishop amongst the Northumbrians, and his diocese reached from the Firth of Forth to the 
Humber, on the east of the kingdom, and from the Firth of Clyde to the Mersey, on the west. No 
prelate in these early days had aggrandised the church so much as Wilfrid. With influence almost 
unbounded in all parts of the kingdom, and amongst all the upper classes, from the greatest to the 
humblest of the Saxon barons, he was enabled to procure manors and lordships for the erection 
and endowments of churches ; and in his time the precedent was first established of alienating the 
demesnes of the crown to augment the revenues of the church. Wilfrid was munificent and osten- 
tatious, affable and accomplished, ambitious and intractable, pious but proud. By one of the 
decrees of the synod, it was directed that the bishopric of this prelate should be divided into two, 
Deira and Bernicia, of which York was to be the capital of one, and Hexham of the other. The 
haughty spirit of the prelate was wounded by this partition, which he did not hesitate to designate 
as an unjust spoliation. After in vain attempting to induce the king and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to repeal the synod's decision, Wilfrid appealed to the pope in person, and his holiness, 
conceiving this a fit opportunity for establishing his patriarchal power in Britain, set aside the 
sentence of the English archbishop, and decreed the restoration of Wilfrid to the whole of his 
former bishopric, but the mandate was rejected by a convocation of all the English bishops ; 
Wilfrid Avas deprived, his property confiscated, and his person committed to prison. After a 
contest of twenty-seven years, he was reinstated in the see of Hexham, but the Saxon bishops 
refused to admit the authority of the Roman pontiff in any affairs relating to the British 
churches, though, when the angry passions excited by this controversy had subsided, the 
pontifical claim was again advanced. Although the Britons had lived securely in Furness, 
relying upon the fortifications with which nature had guarded them, nothing proved impregnable 
to the Saxon conquerors ; for it appears that in the early part of the reign of Ecgfrith, king of 
Northumberland, that monarch "gave St. Cuthbert the land called Carthmell (the present 
Cartmel), and all the Britons in it," ' which, if the statement is correct, would most likely be in 
the year 685, when Ecgfrith caused Cuthbert to be created a bishop.' Bede, or Beda, a native 
of the kingdom of Northumbria, died in 734, after a life of unparalleled literary labour. 
This venerable ecclesiastic, who was born in the year 672,* ranks the first in the number of early 
British historians, though his works are marred by legendary tales, which serve to show that his 
mind was not free from the superstitions which for so many ages afterwards prevailed in the 
county of Lancaster, to an extent scarcely equalled in any other part of the kmgdom. In the 
time of Bede, but in Avhat exact year is not ascertained, the ecclesiastical divisions of 
parishes were first established, and before the middle of the seventh century, and within 
twenty-five years from the conversion of the Saxon inhabitants of Northumbria to the Christian 
faith, churches were erected in the various districts of this country, to which ministers were 
appointed by the respective founders to dispense the ordinances of religion. 

The Saxon heptarchy was now drawing towards its termination. Ambition agitated all parts 
of the country by its conflicts, and the face of nature seemed to sympathise with the general 
disorder. Dreadful forewarnings came over Lancashire and the other parts of the land of the 
Northumbrians,' which excited general terror amongst the people. Storms were soon followed by 
" a great famine ; and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January (793), the 
harrowing of heathen-men (the Danes) made lamentable havock in the Church of God." " In the 
year 799," adds the Saxon Chronicle, " a severe battle was fought in the Northumbrian territory 
during Lent, on the fourth day before the nones of April, at Whalley ; wherein Alric, the son of 
Herbert, was slain, and many others with him." This is the first time in which the parish of Whalley 
is mentioned in civil history. Simeon of Durham writes : " A league or confederacy was made 

I Bede, lib. iv. c. 5. (Llndisfarno). Then rowed the king himself, Ecgfridus, to the island 

Camden a Unt. voL in. p. 380. (Fame), and Bishop Trumwine, with other pious men, and thev much 

Ti- ^ ^uJ'.i.^ V ^^TSS °i ^'■"'^'""i) an assembly was holden, and besought the saint, bent their knees, and begged with tears, until thev 

icgtnth sat therein, and Theodores, archbishop of this island, with many drew him weeping from the solitude to the synod together with them 

other noble counsellors, and they aU unanimously chose the blessed (Bibl. Bodl. MSS., Bodley, 340, Hom. in Nat. B. Archb. f. 64.) ' 

Cuthbert as bishop. Then they quicldy sent a writ with a message to * At Wearmouth, in tlie bishopric of Durham, 

the blessed man, but they could not bring him from his minster » Saxon Chron. a.d. 793. 


by the murderers of King Ethelred. Wada, leader in that league, went with his forces to fight 
against Eardulph, the Idng, in a place called by the English Billangahoh, near Whalley, and many 
were slain on both sides; and Wada, the leader, fled with his troops."^ 

_ Although we possess but little information respecting the details of this conflict, or of the 
political complications out of which it arose, there is little difficulty in fixing the locality of the 
struggle. " The site assigned to it," says Mr. Hardwick, " has never been doubted. The names 
recordedby the old chroniclers are still extant in the locality, with such orthographic or phonetic 
changes in their descent from the eighth to the nineteenth century as philologists would anticipate. 
The Hwelleage of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as well as the monk of Durham's mediaeval Latin 
Walalega, are_ identical with the present Whalley; while Billangahoh is represented by its 
descendants Billinge, Billington, and Langho. Archseological remains have likewise contributed 
important evidence. Three large tumuli for centuries have marked the scene of the struggle, one 
of which, near to Langho, has been removed, and the remains of a buried warrior exhumed. 
According to J. M. Kemble, and other Anglo-Saxon scholars, Billington signifies the homestead or 
settlement of the sept or clan of the Billings, as Birmingham is that of the Beormings. This rule 
likewise applies to many other localities where the local nomenclature presents similar features. 
Consequently, from legitimate analogy, we learn that Waddington, on the right bank of the Ribble, 
opposite Clitheroe, is the homestead, town, or settlement of Wadda (the chief of the conspiracy 
against Eardulf ) and his dependents ; and Waddow, in its immediate neighbourhood, the how or 
hill of Wadda."" Canon Raines mentions that in 183t) a large mound near the Ribble was removed 
when a Idst-vaen was discovered, formed of rude stones, and containing human bones, and the 
rusty remains of some spear heads of iron. Mr. Abram, the historian of Blackburn, also made an 
examination in 1876, but with only negative results. He, however, inclines to the belief that the 
battle was fought on the line of the Roman road which leads from the Wyre by way of Preston to 
Ribchester, and crossing the Calder a little above the junction with the Ribble, continues in the 
direction of Clitheroe, and to the north of Pendle Hill into Yorkshire. "Eardulf," he says, 
"encountered the insurgent army on the extreme verge of his kingdom (for it seems certain that 
the south side of the Ribble was then a part, not of the Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, but of that 
of Mercia). Wadda and his army had probably been driven upon the neutral territory before the 
decisive battle could be forced upon him." 

Ecgbert, the son of Alckmund, king of Wessex (a.d. 800), having mounted the throne of his 
ancestors, penetrated successively into Devonshire and Cornwall, and ravaged the country from east 
to west. After the conquest of Mercia, Ecgbert marched against Eanred, king of the Northumbrians; 
but this prince, feeling that resistance was hopeless, acknowledged his superiority, and the whole 
Anglo-Saxon heptarchy merged in the kingdom of Wessex, under the sway of Ecgbert, and thus 
was accomplished that consolidation of authority which justified him in taking the title of king ol 
England, though a large portion of the country over which his authority extended was merely a 
kind of nominal " overlordship," which carried very little governing influence. Before Ecgbert 
ascended the throne, the Northmen had commenced their attacks upon Britain ; and so early as 
787 a small expedition, in three piratical galleys, landed in Dorsetshire. The invaders were 
principally, though not exclusively, from the promontory of Denmark, the Gambrica Ghersonesus 
of Tacitus. In 794 a more formidable armament e'ffected a landing in Britain, and spread 
devastation amongst the Northumbrians, plundering the monastery of King Everth, at the entrance 
to the Wear. The resistance made to the invaders was so determined that some of their leaders 
were slain ; several of their ships were shattered by the violence of a storm ; and such of them 
as escaped the fury of the waves fell by the sword. The following year Eardulf, the viceroy 
or king of Northumbria, ascended the throne, and was consecrated in the capital of York.^ In A.p. 
800 Northumbria was again subjected to a Danish visitation, and the immediate cause of this 
invasion is said to have been this : Osbert, the viceroy of Ethelred, having violated the wife of the 
Earl Bruen Bocard, the latter invited Godericke, the king of Denmark, to take possession of the 
country. Godericke received this invitation with great alacrity, and despatched a strong armament 
to Britain. On their arrival in Northumbria, on the coast of Holderness, the Danes fell upon the 
inhabitants with the utmost fury, andmassacred all before them, without regard to age, sex, or condition. 
Marching on to York, they took possession of that city, and slew Osbert, the tyrant, by whose lust 
his country had been involved in so much ruin. Emboldened by their success in the north, they 

I Dr Whitaker suDBOses Billange, or Billinge, to have been at that no remains, unless a large tumulus near Hacking Hall, and in the imme " 

time the namrof the wholl ridge, extending from the mountain near diate vicinity of Langho, be supposed to cover the remains of Alrlc, or 

sSokb^ n"w bearinrthat appdlation, to Whalley. Billangaton will, some other chieftain amongst th. slain.-ffistory of WMUj. book .. cap, 

on that supposition, be the orthography of BUlington, and Billangahoh, ill. p. SO. Ed 1872. „„„.i,f„ „„ ^m i 

or the low hm by Billinge, will leave after cutting off the first syllable ^ Ancient Battlefields m I-itnonshire, pp. 1S3-4, 

the modem village of Langho. Of this great battle there arc, however, » Sas- Chron, 


advanced into Norfolk, and demanded of Edmund, the king of the West Saxons, that he should 
surrender his throne. With this insolent summons he refused to comply ; on which a bloody battle 
ensued, at Thetford, which ended in the overthrow of the Saxons, and in the execution of their 
king, who, because he would not abjure the Christian faith for the errors of paganism, was bound to 
a stake, and shot by the arrows of the Danish invaders. ^ 

The situation of Lancashire, and of the other parts of Northumbria, must now have been 
most deplorable : for forty years the war raged amongst them with remorseless atrocity and varying 
success, ^lla, the governor, like Osbert, fell by the sword, when Inguar, the presumed son of 
Raynar Lodbrok, ascended the throne, and the Danes remained masters of the situation, .^thelred 
for a while kept the field, but at length his life and his power fell before the superior discipline of 
the Teutonic invaders. The Danes, in the fury of their warfare, laid waste every town and place 
that resisted their sway ; but their especial fury was directed against religious houses. The exactions 
they made upon the impoverished people, advanced from £10,000 to £40,000 a year, which sum in 
those days was considered of enormous amount. Lancashire, and, no doubt, other parts of the 
island, were in a.d. 869 visited by one of the most dreadful calamities to which mankind are sub- 
ject — a severe famine, and. its inevitable consequence, a mortality of cattle and of the human race.^ 
Agriculture was but imperfectly understood, and almost every district of the same kingdom was 
left to depend upon its own precarious resources. The contest between the Anglo-Saxons and the 
Danes, in this and the neighbouring counties, had withdrawn the husbandman from his employ- 
ment ; and, having neglected to sow, of course he had nothing to reap. The consequence was, that 
not only many parts of these fair regions mourned in want, but they were absolutely depopulated. 
Merciless and slow-consuming famine devoured its wretched victims, and the small share which 
might have fallen to the native inhabitants was consumed by the ruthless Danes, who, from their 
principal station in York, spread like swarms of locusts across the island, from sea to sea. In the 
year 876 Halfden, one of the sons of the mythical hero Raynar Lodbrok, according to the Saxon 
Chronicle, " appropriated the lands of Northumbria, and they thenceforth continued ploughing and 
tilling them." From which it may be assumed that the newcomers had settled down more as 
emigrants than roving pirates, though always ready to exchange the ploughshare for the sword in 
the prospect of a successful foray on the lands of their Anglo-Saxon neighbours. Both Northumbria 
and East Anglia had now fallen under the sanguinary sword of the Danish invaders, who began to 
aspire to the conquest of the whole island. Mercia next became the object of their attack, and 
Ethelred, king of Wessex, fell in a battle fought with the invaders at Merton. Alfred was now 
advanced to the throne of Wessex; but within a month of his elevation, he was attacked and 
defeated at Wilton (a.d. 871)." A new swarm of Danes soon after landed, under three of their 
princes, Guthrum, Oscitel, and Amund, and proceeded into Northumbria, the favourite seat of their 
power. The husbandmen became the slaves of the invaders, and the thanes were made subservient 
to their purposes of avarice and aggrandisement. The noble spirit of Alfred bent beneath the storm, 
and, finding no security upon the throne, he withdrew from his elevated station, and took up his 
residence in an obscure part of the kingdom, as guest in the family of a swineherd, where occurred 
the incident of his letting the cakes burn. The hospitable rustic, notwithstanding the asperity of 
his wife's temper, obtained the favour of the king. By his advice he applied himself to learning ; 
and Alfred, on his return to power, acknowledged the obligation he had received, by elevating his 
host from the shepherd's crook to the bishop's crozier, and afterwards made him bishop of Win- 
chester.^ The humiliation of Alfred disciplined his temper, purified his heart, and served to 
enlighten his already profound understanding. His measures to regain his throne, and to surround 
it with its only impregnable bulwark, the love and confidence of the people, were judicious and 
exemplary. An auspicious incident at this juncture occurred to fortify his courage, for having, in 
the assumed character of a minstrel, observed the conduct of the Danes in their encampments, he 
suddenly assembled a strong force, and inflicted a signal overthrow upon the invaders, at Eddington, 
near Westbury (a.d. 878), where the Danes were encamped. With a generosity equal to his 
bravery, he gave them their lives, on the condition that they should, through their leader Guthrum, 
exchange paganism for Christianity. The peace of Wedmore followed— Alfred and Guthrum's 
peace, as it was called— when Guthrum was baptised by the name of ^thelstan, and the people 
became gradually one— Guthrum being permitted, with his followers, to colonise East Anglia, on his 
acknowledging Alfred as his over-lord, and the Northumbrians were afterwards put under his rule. 
The sovereignty of Mercia, on the defeat of the Danes, fell into the power of Alfred, and, without 
avowedly incorporating it with Wessex, he discontinued its regal honours, and constituted Ethelred 

> The Danes, like the original Saxons, were idolaters ; their principal " Saxon Chron. a.d. 871. 

god was Thor, and to him they offered human sacrifices. « Malmsb. p. 242, 

2 ^ser, 20, 



Ills military commander, to whom he afterwards married his davighter Ethelfleda To fortify his 
kingdom against hostile attacks, he rebuilt the cities and castles which had been destroyed by the 
invaders ; but his principal care was to construct a navy for the protection of the coast and he has 
ever been considered as the founder of the English marine. In Northumbria the Danes continued 
to govern till towards the close of Alfred's reign, when Anarawd abandoned his power in that kino'- 
dom, and besought the friendship of Alfred. The king received him hospitably; and, to confirm 
the good intentions that he had formed in favour of the Christian faith, he became his sponsor in 
baptism, and his friend in all the relations of life. The state of learning in Lancashire, in the ninth 
century, maybe inferred from Alfred's own declaration— " When I took the kingdom," said he, 
" there were very few on the south side of the Humber, the most improved part of England, who 
could understand their daily prayers in English, or translate a letter from the Latin. I think there 
were not many beyond the Humber ; they were so few, that I cannot indeed recollect one sino-le 
instance on the south of the Thames, when I took the kingdom."' The encouragement given^to 
learning by this enlightened and benevolent monarch was highly exemplary ; he instituted schools 
for the instruction of his nobles in reading and writing, much after the model of the Lancasterian 
schools of more recent times. The invasion of the Danes, and their predatory depredations, particu- 
larly in the county of Lancaster, and the other parts of the kingdom of Northumbria, had almost 
destroyed the ancient police of the kingdom. To remedy this disorganised state of society, Alfred 
changed the ancient provisional divisions of England into counties, and the distribution of these 
into hundreds, which were again subdivided into tenths or tithings. Under these divisions the 
population of the country has been ever since arranged ; and every person was directed to belong 
to some hundred or tithing (tenth), while every hundred and tithing became pledged to the preser- 
vation of the public peace and security in their district, and were made answerable for the conduct 
of their several inhabitants. In consequence of this arrangement, every criminal accused was sure 
to be apprehended ; and it may be supposed that in this part of the kingdom the number of the 
lawless was at first very large. 

In the division of Britain into counties, the south-western portion of the Brigantine territory of 
the Romans, and of the Northumbrian kingdom of the Saxons, was named Loncasterscyre or 
Lonceshire, from the capital of Loncaster, the castle on the Lone or Lune. South Lancashire, then 
included in Cestrescire or Cheshire, was divided into six hundreds — Derby, Newton, Walton, 
Blackburn, Sal-ford, and Leyland — since reduced to four by the annexation of Newton and 
Warrington to West Derby. The designation of each of these hundreds was derived from the 
principal place in the division, in the reign of Alfred ; and those names now serve to indicate the 
mutations to which places as well as persons are exposed. Of the names of the Lancashire tithings 
we have no distinct remains ; but the nearest approximation to them may be found in each ten of 
our modern townships. Hitherto the administration of justice was confided to a species of pro- 
visional prefects, but in the time of Alfred the functions of these ofiicers were divided into those of 
judges and sheriffs. The institution of juries belongs to the same period ; and so tenacious was 
Alfred of the faithful discharge of the judicial office in penal judgments, that he caused forty-four 
justices to be executed as murderers, because they had exceeded their duty, and condemned to 
death unjustly the persons they judged.^ Alfred compiled a code of laws (the DoM-Boc), which he 
enlarged with his own hand. Amongst his other legal institutions, it is perfectly clear that he had 
none corresponding with our Court of Chancery, since it appears that he hastened the decision of 
causes, and allowed no delay exceeding fifteen days." Death deprived the world of this great 
monarch in A.D. 900 at the age of fifty-two years. He was a pattern for kings in the time of 
extremity — a bright star in the history of mankind. Living a century after Charlemagne, he was, 
perhaps, a greater man, in a circle happily more limited.'' 

In the century which succeeded the death of Alfred, there is little to relieve the contests of 
ambition which so generally prevailed. Lancashire and the whole Northumbrian territory had, by 
the clemency of Alfred, become a species of Danish colony. There the resident Danes concocted 
their schemes of ambition and aggression against the Saxon power ; and upon the shores of Yorkshire 
and Lancashire fresh swarms of invaders effected their landing, and found succour and support. 
Edward the Elder succeeded to the power of his father ; but his title was disputed by Ethelwald, 
son of King Ethelbert, who established his head-quarters in York, and was joined by the 
Northumbrians in his rebellion. The insurgents, quitting their stronghold in the north, marched 
into Kent, where a sanguinary battle ensued, and Ethelwald fell in the action, when his followers 
sought their safety in flight. Unsubdued, though vanquished, the Northumbrians penetrated again 
into Wessex, where they were again defeated, and pursued with great slaughter into their own 

1 Alfred's Preface, p. 83. = Mirroir do8 Justices, cap. ii. sec. 3. ^ Mirroir, p. 245. ' Herder's Outlines, p. 245. 



country. Following up his successes, Edward subdued the two next princes of Northumberland, 
Reginald and Sidoc, and acquired the dominion of that province. In his wars between the Mersey 
and the Humber the king was assisted by his sister Ethelfleda, the widow of Ethelbert, Earl of 
Mercia, who, after her husband's death, had retained the possession of the government of that 
province. This princess is extolled by the early British historians as the wisest lady in Britain, 
the very emblem of her illustrious father Alfred. She appears to have been a ruler of the 
Amazonian type, who defended her country against the Danes "with the bravery and fidelity of an 
experienced warrior," and earned the eulogium of Henry of Huntington — " Csesar merited triumph, 
but thou art more illustrious than Csesar." To her munificence the Mercians were indebted for the 
rebuilding of the city of Chester, while her royal brother built the ancient city of Thelwall, on the 
southern bank of the Mersey, and placed a garrison there.' The more effectually to maintain his 
dominion over the province of Northumbria the king collected an army in Mercia, which he ordered 
to march to Manchester, which place he repaired and garrisoned.' 

In the excess of antiquarian disputation, a controversy has arisen, whether, in the era of the 
Saxon heptarchy, the country between the Mersey and the Ribble, comprehending the southern 
part of Lancashire, was included in the kingdom of Northumbria ; and Dr. Whitaker maintains 
that this district, under the heptarchy, formed a portion not of Northumbria but of Mercia. To 
this assertion are opposed the generally-received opinion that the kingdom of Mercia was terminated 
on its north-western boundary by the river Mersey, and the positive fact that in the Saxon 
Chronicle, the highest existing authority perhaps upon this subject, Manchester is said to be in 
Northumbria. The passage is conclusive upon this pomt : " This year (a.d. 923) went King Edward 
with an army, late in the harvest, to Thelwall, and ordered the borough to be repaired, and 
inhabited, and manned. And he ordered another army also from the population of Mercia, the 
while he sat there, to go to Manchester, in Northumbria, to repair and to man it." The country 
now denominated Lancashire had no separate existence as a county until long after the time when 
the others were formed, and it was then made up by adding a portion of Yorkshire and a scrap of 
Westmorland to the district lying between the Ribble and the Mersey, which had previously been 
included in Cestrescire and it is not unlikely that the low-lying lands on the western side of the 
shire were during the Anglo-Saxon and Danish period governed by tributary chiefs — resembling the 
Lords-Marchers of Wales of later date — sometimes under Northumbria and sometimes under 
Mercia, as the changing fortunes of war gave one power or the other the dominancy. 

The ascendency of the Danish power in Northumbria, owing to their colonisation in that 
kingdom by Alfred, subjected this part of Britain to a frequent recurrence of the horrors of war 
when all the other parts of the island were at peace. On the accession in 925 of ^thelstan, the son 
of Edward the Elder, and grandson of the renowned Alfred, Sihtric, the Danish ruler of Bernicia, 
who a few years previously had assassinated his brother Niel, the sovereign of Deira, and seizing 
his country had made himself king of all Northumbria, acknowledged his supremacy or overlordship 
and solicited the hand of his sister Eadgetha in marriage. " They came together," says the Saxon 
Chronicle, " at Tam worth, on the 3rd before the kalends of February, and ^thelstan gave him his 
sister." As a condition precedent the Dane embraced Christianity ; and thus were supposed to be 
united the Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian kings. But the alliance was soon dissolved. Sihtric 
relapsed into paganism, repudiated his wife, and while JEthelstan was preparing to aveno'e the 
wron^, died, or, as is more likely, was murdered. His sons by a former marriage, Guthfric and 
Anlaf fled, the one into Scotland and the other into Ireland, where the Danes had established their 
authority. ..Ethelstan led an army into their country, and quickly annexed the Northumbrian kmo-dom 
to his dominions. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives a pithy summary of the events of this year r926). 
" And Sihtric perished ; and king ^thelstan obtained the kingdom of the North-humbrians : and 
he ruled all the kings who were on this island :— First, Howel, king of the West Welsh (the people 
of Cornwall) ; Constantine, the king of the Scots ; Uwen (Owain), king of the Gwentian people (the 
people of Gwent or Monmouthshire); and Ealdred, son of Ealdulf, of Bamborough • and they 
confirmed the peace by pledge, and by oaths, at the place called Eamot on the 4th of the Ides of 
July, and then renounced all idolatry, and after that submitted to him in peace." Guthfric 
returned the next year in arms to claim the Northumbrian kingdom, but was defeated by 
^thelstan, and, making his submission, was received with kindness. The power which ^thelstan 
had thus won by the sword he retained in peace for about ten years, when a league was formed by 
the Scots, the Cumbrian Britons, and the Welsh, with the object of placing Anlaf, the son of Sihtric 
on the Northumbrian throne, and in a short time the whole of the north was in revolt. In order 
to extinguish the spirit of rebellion, and to give security to his throne, ^thelstan marched into 

Saxon Chron. a.d. 923. 


Scotland, ravaged Caithness, and recrossing the border into Northumbria gained a signal victory at 
iiumanburh (a.d 934), by which the confederacy against the Saxon power wis completely 
overthrown, when he reunited Northumbria to the rest of his kingdom, and in that way acquired 
tne title ot the hrst English monarch, thus eclipsing the fame of Alfred, who had suffered the 
fanes to dmde the kingdom with him by apportioning to them Northumbria and East Anglia.' It 
is somewhat remarkable that so little should be known respecting the decisive conflict at 
crunanburh— the most important in its political and social results of any fought during the Anglo- 
baxon period, and " the bloodiest fight that this island ever saw." The date even is uncertain, and a 
bewildermg confusion exists as to the actual site. The Saxon song says it was at Brunanburh ; 
^.tJielweard, a contemporary, names the place Brunandune ; and Simeon of Durham, Weondune. 
ingulph says Brunlord, and Camden names Ford, near Bromeridge, in Northumberland. Mr. 
Molderness argues with much show of reason that the site is at Kirkburn, a village three miles 
T^tT"*^^! Drittield, near where the highway runs through a township with the suggestive name 
ot Battleburn, and Mr. Hardwick, in his "Ancient Battlefields of Lancashire," believes that he has 
discovered the key that may unlock the mystery in the extraordinary discovery of buried treasure 
m Cuerdale, on the banks of the Ribble, in 1840. This " find " consisted of a leaden chest, 
contaimng ancient coins and treasure to the amount of 975 oz. of silver in ingots, rings, armlets, 
chains, and, besides, about 7,000 coins of various descriptions, dating from 815 to 930 ; and he argues 
that " this great chest was buried near the ' pass of the Ribble,' at Cuerdale, opposite Preston, 
during this troubled period, and probably on the retreat of the confederated Irish, Scotch, Welsh, 
J^andmavian, and Anglo-Danish armies, after their disastrous defeat by the English under 
^thelstan, at the great battle of Brunanburh, in 937." Tradition, which almost invariably has a 
substratum of truth underlying it, has always pointed to this ford over the Ribble as the scene of an 
early conflict. It is very nearly where the line of the great Roman road from the north is 
crossed by the Watlmg Street from the Wyre, running by Preston to York, and Avould thus be 
equally on the line of march of the Scots coming from the north, the Irish journeying from the 
west, and the armies of ^thelstan advancing either from Mercia or Northumbria, whilst the date of 
the greater portion of the coins coincides very nearly with that of Jithelstan's victory. It is very 
evident that the chest was buried after some signal military disaster, to prevent its falling into the 
hands of the enemy, and we have no record of any great military event at this time except the 
battle of Brunanburh, the slaughter at which left ^thelstan at peace for some years, ^thelstan 
among other laws enacted (a.d. 935) that any merchant who should make three voyages over the 
sea with his own manufactures, should have the rank of a thane,= that is, should rank with the 
privileged orders. By this means encouragement was given t-o manufactures and to commerce at 
the same time ; and that agriculture might receive its share ot the royal favour, any ceorl who had 
five hides of his own land, a church, a kitchen, a bell-house, and a separate office in the king's hall, 
also became a thane. 

The Anglo-Danish Northumbrians, still impatient of the Saxon rule, broke out again into 
rebellion, in the reign of Edmund, the successor of iEthelstan, and chose Anlaf, who had returned 
from Ireland, as their king.^ Anlaf, who had been aided by Wulfstan, archbishop of York, being 
victorious, concluded a treaty with Edmund, by which England was partitioned, and all the 
country north of Watling Street abandoned to the Anglo-Danes. But shortly after, the capricious 
Northmen rose in revolt against their prince, when Edmund marched suddenly into the southern 
part of Northumbria (Lancashire and Yorkshire), and again subjected the country to his dominion, 
when, to appease his indignation and to conciliate his confidence, the chiefs offered to embrace the 
Christian religion, and abandon their idolatry. 

From the middle to the end of the tenth century the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles are almost 
entirely occupied by the wars in Northumbria and the changes in the monastic orders, which were 
then taking place under the influence of the ambitious Dunstan, abbot of Glastonbury. Under the 
auspices of Dunstan, the Benedictine rule was introduced into nearly fifty monasteries south of the 
Trent; but, notwithstanding Wilfrid's endeavours in former times, and Dunstan's energies and 
activity in the present day, there was not before the Norman conquest a single monk in all the 
Northumbrian territory.^ The tribute of Danegeld, a tax upon the people to repel the ravages 
of the Danes, was imposed for the first time in the year 991, and Avas at first of the amount of 
£10,000.^ All the land in the county contributed to this impost by a rateable assessment, except 
the lands of the church, which were exempt on account of the efiicacy of the prayers of the clergy, 

' "The truth seems to be," says Sharon Turner, "that Alfred was ' Wilkin's Leges Anglo-Sax, p. 71. 

the first monarch of the Anglo-Saxons, but jEthelstan was the first " Saxon Chron. a.d. 941. 

monaroh of Er.gland. . . . After the battle of Brunanburh /Ethelstan * Sim. Dunelm. a.d. 1074. 

had no competitor : he Was the immediate sovereign of all England. He * Saxon Chron. a.d. 991. 
was even nominal lord of Wales and Scotland." — C. 


whicli were supposed to form an equivalent for their contributions. "The payment of Danegeld 
was first ordained on account of the pirates ; for in their ravages of our country they did all they 
could to desolate it. To check their insolence, Danegeld was levied annually, 12d. on every hide 
throughout the country, to hire men to oppose the pirates. From this tax every church, and every 
estate held in property by the church, wheresoever it lay, was exempted, contributing nothing 
towards this payment, because more dependence was placed on the prayers of the church than on 
the defence of arms."' The produce of this tax, which was at first employed in resisting the Danes, 
was afterwards used to purchase their forbearance. Their irruptions and exactions became 
continually more oppressive, and in the year 1010 the base expedient was resorted to of purchasing 
peace from them by the payment of £48,000. 

It is remarkable that in the whole of the Saxon Chronicles the term " Lancashire " never once 
occurs, though the neighbouring counties in the kingdom of Northumbria are mentioned in those 
ancient annals several times. It is also remarkable that the name of Lancashire is not to be found 
in the Domesday Book of William the Conqueror, though the manors and lands are described in 
that imperishable record with the usual accuracy and precision.^ 

The long and inglorious reign of Jithelred was perpetually distracted by the invasions of the 
Danes, first under Sweyn and afterwards under Cnut, his son and successor ; and in the reign of 
Edmond Ironside the king was obliged to surrender up one-half his kingdom, by awarding to 
Cnut, Mercia, East Anglia, and Northumbria, which he had entirely subdued. The unfortunate 
Edmond survived the treaty by which his kingdom was dismembered only a month, having been 
murdered at Oxford by two of his chamberlains (a.d. 1016); and in this way the succession of 
Cnut the Dane to the throne of England was secured. 

In order to gratify the ambition of the chief of the English nobility, and to attach them to his 
interest, Cnut created Thurkill earl or viceroy of East Anglia, and Edric earl of Mercia, and 
having caused Uhtred, earl of Northumbria, who had been an ally of Edmond Ironside to be 
assassinated, he bestowed that earldom on the Norwegian Jarl, Eric, whom he afterwards employed 
to murder Edric, reserving to himself only the government of Wessex. But this power of the earls 
Avas of short duration; Thurkill and Eric were in 1021 expelled from the kingdom, and Cnut 
became sole monarch of England. Finding himself firmly seated on his throne, he restored the 
Saxoncustoms, to which the people were attached, in a general assembly of the states ; justice was 
administered with impartiality ; the lives and property of all the people were protected, and the 
Danes were gradually incorporated with his subjects. Cnut, though cruel, crafty, and treacherous, 
was the greatest sovereign of his age, and had the fame to reign over six kingdoms.' The impression 
of his character left upon the English mind is not altogether that of a barbarous conqueror. He came 
with a powerful will to make a foreign domination endurable by a show of impartiality, and to 
substitute the strength of despotism for the feebleness of anarchy. When he ceased to be an enemy 
to England he became a real friend. His power was too strong to be disputed, and he therefore 
wielded it with moderation when the contest for supremacy Avas over. The closest connection 
subsisted betAveen Northumbria and Scotland in the reign of Cnut, and even Cumberland atos 
subject to the Scotch king. This division of his kingdom Avas inconsistent Avith the policy of 
Cnut, who, after marching through Lancashire at the head of a formidable army, took possession 
of Cumberland, and placed Duncan, the grandson of Malcolm, in possession of that province, subject 
to the throne of England. 

Cnut, by a treaty with Richard, duke of Normandy (a.d. 1035), had stipulated that his 
children by Emma, the sister of that prince, should succeed to the throne of England ; but, 
in violation of that engagement, he appointed his illegitimate son by Elfgiva, the son of a 
shoemaker, as the scandal of those times assumes— Harold, surnamed Harefoot for his speed, as 
his successor, instead of Harthcnut, the son of that princess. A short and disturbed reign was 
terminated m 1030, by the succession of Hardicanute who appointed Siward, duke of Northumbria, 
along with Godwme, Earl of Wessex, and Leofric, Earl of Mercia, to put down the insurrection 
Avhich prevailed against his government. Edward the Confessor, the son of ^thelred, of the house 
of Cerdic and the Imeal descendant of the Saxon kings, succeeded to the throne in 1041 to the 
prejudice of Sweyn, king of Norway, the eldest son of Cnut. The English flattered themselves 
that, by the succession ol EdAvard, they were delivered for ever from the dominion of the Danes, 
and their rejoicings Avere unbounded; but the court was soon filled Avith Normans, to the prejudice 

2 m!^t?°' ?■ ita I ,, ,- , It is truo there was a Lan-oastro-soire in Saxon times, but the name 

kingdom o?NSumhHa''hvwL°F K'-^^.'^r/' ii "''' 'i'"«'o°of the was given to designate tlie tract ot country that spread roundSe 

fhpfn n ™i„ f^f V™™,*'"?'' by King Ecgbcrt, into shires or eounties, and town of Lancaster, wliere the Saxon ohiofs wore seated after the Roman 

JilfJf^f ° hundreds, wapentakes, or ridings ; but the statement is power had passed away, and not to the present county • the lareer 

exceedingly inaccurate and witliout authority. The Lancashire, .as parishes as well as the' hundreds, at the time, being not unfregueiX 

we know It at the present day, as rrevionsly stated, had no separate denominated " Sliircs."-C ** unircqueimj 

existence as a county until after the time when tbo other* vm-e formed. = Saxo, 196. 


of the Anglo-Saxon nobility, and the language and the fashions of France were very generally 
introduced. This circumstance gave great offence to the native nobles, who, with Godwine at their 
head, supported by his three sons, Gurth, Sweyn, and Tostig, rose in rebellion against the king On 
the death of Earl Godwine (a.d. 1035), one of the most powerful nobles of his time, his son Harold 
aspired to the English throne, and was joined by Macbeth, an ambitious Scotch nobleman, who had 
put to death his sovereign, Duncan, King of Scotland, and usurped his throne. In the wars which 
ensued, the men of Lancashire were deeply engaged, and Siward, Earl of Northumberland, resisted 
the usurper with all his force ; his object being to depose the assassin and raise Duncan's son 
Malcolm, prince of Cumbria, who had married Siward's daughter, to the throne. To defeat the 
ambitious progress of Harold, the king cast his eye towards his kinsman, William, Duke of 
Normandy, as his successor. This prince was the natural son of Robert, Duke of Normandy, by 
Harlotta, daughter of a tanner in Falaise.^ The character of the young prince qualified him for the 
duties of government in the age in which he lived, and to a courage the most intrepid he added a 
severity the most inflexible. During a visit paid by Harold to Rouen, William disclosed to him the 
intentions of Edward, and prevailed upon him, by an offer of one of his daughters in marriage, and 
by other motives of fear and reward, to promise that he would support his claims to the throne of 
England. Not satisfied with a promise, on which he had little reliance, William required Harold 
to take an oath in ratification of that engagement ; and, in order to give increased solemnity to the 
pledge, he secretly conveyed, under the altar on which Harold agreed to swear, the relics of some of 
the most revered martyrs. Notwithstanding this solemn engagement, which Harold considered as 
extorted, and therefore not binding, on his return to England he resorted to every means in his 
power to strengthen his influence. Tostig, a tyrannical prince, the brother of Harold, who had 
succeeded to the earldom of Northumbria, in suppressing disorder in his territory, acted with so 
much cruelty and injustice in the counties of York and Lancaster, that the inhabitants, headed by 
the thanes, rose in rebellion against him, and expelled him from his government. Morcar and 
Edwin, the sons of Earl Leofric, who possessed great power in this part of the kingdom, concurred 
in the insurrection; and the former, being elected chief in the place of Tostig, advanced from York 
with an army collected on the north of the Mersey and of the Humber, to oppose Harold, who had, 
through the royal favour, been appointed governor of Wessex, and who was commissioned by the 
king, on the representation of Tostig, to reduce and chastise the Northumbrians. Morcar, 
" advancing south with all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire, and Lancashire^," 
marched to Northampton. Here they were met by Harold, at the head of the king's forces, and a 
desperate battle appeared inevitable; but Morcar, wishing first to appeal to Harold's generosity and 
sense of justice, rather than to the issue of arms, represented to him that Tostig had acted with so 
much injustice and oppression in his government, that the inhabitants of Yorkshire and of Lancashire, 
with those of Durham, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, being accustomed to the 
government of the law, and being determined to support their birthright, preferred death to slavery, 
and had taken the field determined to perish rather than submit to the iron yoke of the tyrant. 
After communicating with the king, Harold abandoned the cause of his brother, and obtained a 
royal amnesty for the insurgents, who returned to their homes as conquerors, driving before them all 
the cattle they could collect, amounting to many thousands. Morcar was from this time confirmed 
in his government of Northumbria; and Harold, instead of consummating the family alliance 
contracted with the daughter of William of Normandy, married the daughter of Morcar. The 
death of Edward (January 5, 1066) speedily followed the suppression of the great northern 
insurrection, and his body was interred in the abbey of Westminster, "which he had himself 
erected to the honour of God and St. Peter, and all God's saints."' The religious zeal of this 
sovereign, with whom the Saxon line of English kings terminated, procured him the name of 
Confessor ; and his love of justice induced him to complete a code of laws from the works of 
^thelberht, Ina, and Alfred, though those which pass under his name were, according to Sir Henry 
Spelman, composed after his death. This sovereign was the first who touched for the king's evil — a 
superstition which maintained its hold of public credulity through six centuries, and was not 
discontinued till the time of the Stuarts. 

Though, by the will of Edward, William of Normandy was appointed his successor, Harold, 
stepped into the vacant throne without hesitation, having first been crowned at York, where he was 
residing at the time of the king's death, by Aldred the archbishop, nor did he quit this part of the 
kingdom till four months afterwards, when he repaired to London,^ having been everywhere 
received in his progress with the most joyous acclamation. Earl Tostig, who had taken refuge in 
Flanders with Earl Baldwin, his father-in-law, on his expulsion from Lancashire, collected a large 

» Brompton, p. 910. ' Saxon Chron., a.d. 1085, " Saxon Chron. * Saxon Chron. 1006. 


fleet and endeavoured to regain his forfeited possessions by sailing up the Humber and penetrating 
into Northumbria. Finding his jaower ineffectual, he associated himself Avith Harold Hardrada, 
king of Norway, who with 300 ships assembled in the Isle of "Wight, and there remained all the 
summer. On the approach of autumn, Hardrada appeared off the Yorkshire coast with his 300 
ships, and was joined by Earl Tostig, who had replenished his force amongst the Danish 
Northumbrians, and, after entering the Humber, they sailed up the Ouse towards York. On 
receiving this intelligence, Harold, whose army was collected in the south, under the expectation of 
an invasion undertaken by the Normans, hastened to the north by forced marches. But before his 
arrival, Edwin, earl of Mercia, and Morcar, earl of Northumberland, had gathered from Lancashire, 
and other parts of the earldoms, a considerable force, with the intention of repelling the invaders. 
On their arrival at Fulford, a village south of York, a sanguinary battle ensued, in which the 
slaughter was so great that the Norwegians traversed the marshes on the bodies of the fallen,^ and 
in which Morcar and Edwin were obliged to seek safety in flight, leaving the invaders in possession 
of the field. After demanding hostages and prisoners from the inhabitants of York, the 
"Northmen" marched to Stamford Bridge, where they were surprised by Harold (Sept. 27), at the 
head of the largest force ever collected in England. Before the battle commenced, a proposal was 
sent by Harold to his brother, offering to re-instate him in the government of Northumbria, if he 
would withdraw from the field. To which Tostig, in the insolence of his spirit, replied, "Last 
winter such a message might have spared much blood ; but now what do you offer for the king, my 
ally?" "Seven feet of ground," said the Saxon general.^ The die was cast. For some time the 
passage of the bridge was disputed by one of the Norwegians, who, owing to the narrowness of the 
bridge, withstood the " English folk," ^ so that they could not pass. In vain did they aim at him 
their javelins; he still maintained his ground, till a soldier came under the bridge, and pierced him 
terribly inwards, under the coat of mail. Then Harold marched over the bridge, at the head of 
his army, when a dreadful slaughter ensued, both of the Norwegians and the Flemings, in which 
were slain Hardrada, the fair-haired king of Norway, and Tostig, the expatriated earl of Northumbria. 
The fleet of the Norwegians fell also into the hands of Harold, who allowed Prince Olave, the son of 
Hardrada, to depart the kingdom, with twenty of his vessels, taking with him the wreck of the 
Norwegian and Flemish army. This act of generosity, as historians are accustomed to consider it, 
was not unmixed with policy. A still more formidable invasion was approaching, and Harold 
wished to be freed from one body of his enemies before he had to encounter another. The shouts 
of victory were heard across the island, from the Humber to the Mersey ; but scarcely had those 
shouts subsided, before intelligence was received that William of Normandy had landed at 
Pevensy, at the head of 60,000 men, supported by a fleet of 3,000 sail,-* and was constructing a 
castle at the port of Hastings. Harold received the news of William's landing without any emotions 
of dismay, while he was at dinner in his favourite city of York. Hastening to London at the head 
of his army, which had been diminished by the battle of Stamford Bridge, and which was 
discontented by being denied a share of the spoil, he received a message from Duke William, who 
offered Harold his choice of three proposals — to reign in fealty under William, whom he had sworn 
to serve ; or to decide the dispute by single combat ; or to submit the cause to the arbitration of the 
pope : to which Harold replied, that the God of battles should be the arbitrator, and decide the 
differences between them. Yielding to the impetuosity of his own temper, instead of listening 
to the wise counsels of his brother Gurth, he marched from London without due preparation, 
in the vain hope of surprising the Normans in the south, as he had surprised the Norweo-ians 
in the north. ° 

The night before the battle of Hastings was passed by the invaders in preparations and in 
prayer, while the English devoted their hours to festivity and joyful anticipations. The fate of 
England hung on the issue of the day. Before the battle commenced, on the 14th October, 1066, 
William joined in the solemnity of religious worship, and received the sacrament at the hands of 
the bishop; and to give increased effect to these solemnities he hung round his neck the relics on 
which Harold had sworn to support his claims to the English throne." He divided his army into three 
bodies. In front he placed his light infantry, armed with arrows and balistse, led by Montgomery. 
The second division, commanded by Martel, consisted of his heavy-armed battalions. His cavalry, 
at whose head he stood in person, formed the third line, and was so disposed that they stretched 
beyond the infantry, and flanked each wing of the army. The English army, chiefly infantry were 
arranged by Harold in the form of a wedge, meant to be impenetrable. Their shields covered their 
bodies ; their arms wielded the battle-axe. Harold, whose courage was equal to his station, quitted 

1 Snorre, p. 155 ; Ork. Saga, p. 96. < The " Roman de Bou" says 696, which is tuoro probable 

2 Snorre, p. 160. "s WiU. of Malms., p. 101. 
•" Saxon Chron. e quH. Pict,, p. 201. 



Lis horse to share the danger cand glory on foot. His brothers, Gurth and Sweyn, accompanied 
liim and his banner, m which the figure of a man in combat, woven sumptuously with gold and 
jewels, shmmg conspicuously, was planted near him.^ The English, occupying the high ground 
which was flanked by a wood, not only received the discharge of the Norman weapons with patient 
valour, but returned the attack with their battle-axes and ancient weapons with so much effect that 
the toot andthe cavalry of Bretagne and all the other allies of William on the left wing, gave way. 
Ihe impression extended along the whole line, and was increased by a rumour that the duke had 
lallen. -Dismay began to unnerve his army; and a general flight seemed about to ensue.^ William, 
to arrest the progress pi the panic, and to convince his soldiers of his safety, rushed amongst the 
fugitives, and, with his helmet thrown from his head, exclaimed, "Behold me— I live; and will 
conquer yet, with God s assistance. What madness influences you to fly ? What way can be found 
lor youj escape ? They whom, if you choose, you may kill like cattle, are driving and destroying 
you. You fly from victory— from deathless honour. You run upon ruin and everlasting disgrace, 
it you continue to retreat every one of you will perish."^ The Normans rallied, and made a 
desperate onset; but the English, forming a wall of courageous soldiery, remained unbroken. 
\\ ilham, hndmg all his efl"orts to penetrate their ranks fruitless, resolved to hazard a feigned 
retreat A body of a thousand horse were entrusted with this critical operation. Having rushed 
upon the English with a horrible outcry, they suddenly checked themselves, as if panic-struck, and 
attected a hasty flight. The English entered eagerly on the pursuit with apparent success ; for the 
N ormans, having retired upon an excavation somewhat concealed, fell into their own trap ; many 
ot them perished, and some of the English shared the same fate. While this manoeuvre was 
occupying their attention, the duke's main body rushed between the pursuers and the rest of their 
army. The English endeavoured to regain their position : the cavalry turned upon them, and, thus 
enclosed, many of them fell victims to the skilful movements of their adversaries. At length they 
rallied and regained their position, but, uninstructed by experience, they suffered themselves to be 
twice afterwards decoyed by a repetition of the same artifice. In the heat of the struggle twenty 
Normans confederated to attack and carry off the English standard. This service they effected, 
though not without the loss of many of their number.' The battle continued through the day with 
frequent changes of fortune. Harold was more distinguished for the bravery of a soldier than for 
the skill of a general. _ William united the two characters. He had three horses killed under him. 
While Harold lived his valourous countrymen seemed invincible. Fertile in expedients, the duke 
directed his archers not to shoot directly at the English, but to discharge their arrows vigorously 
upwards towards the sky. The random shafts descended into the English ranks like impetuous 
hail, and one of them pierced the gallant Harold in the eye," and, penetrating the brain, terminated 
his life. A furious charge of the Norman horse increased the disorder. Panic scattered the 
English, and the Normans vigorously pursued them through the broken ground. A part of the 
fugitives rallied, and, indignant at the prospect of surrendering their country to foreigners, they 
sought to renew the contest. William, perceiving that the critical moment for sealing the victory 
had arrived, ordered Count Eustace and his soldiers to the attack. The duke, with a vigour and 
energy peculiar to himself^ joined in the final conflict, and secured the victory of Hastings and the 
crown of England. The body of Harold was found by his mistress, Edith, " the Lady of the Swan 
Neck," near those of his two brothers, Leofwine and Gurth, who were also slain in the battle, and 
Avas sent, at the request of his mother, Githa, for interment to the monastery of Waltham, which 
he had founded.' 

The battle of Hastings terminated the Saxon dynasty in England, after a continuance, with 
occasional interruptions, of six hundred years. During this long period the foundations of some of 
the most important of our public institutions were laid, and it may be interesting, even for the 
illustration of local history, shortly to advert to their nature and origin. In the Saxon period, the 
mechanical arts, so closely interwoven with the interests of society, met with liberal encouragement. 
The wisest of their monarchs invited from all quarters skilful and industrious foreigners ; they 
encouraged manufactures of every kind, and prompted men of activity to betake themselves to 
navigation, and to push commerce into the most remote countries. As an indication of an approach 
towards a state of free traffic, and of the increase of commerce, it is mentioned that Cnut, 

* Will, of Malm. p. 101. and that the tomb shown did not mark his last resting-place. Giraldus 
^ Gliil. Pict. 202. Cambrensis, among the older historians, and Sir Francis Palgrave, among 
3 Brompton, p. 960. modern writers, relate a tradition that Harold escaped alive from the 

* Henry ot Hunt., p. 368 ; Will, of Malms, p. 101. field of battle, and lived in seclusion at Chester, where he ended his 

* Though the commonly-received account is that the corpse of Harold days as a monk or lay-brother. The last-named authority considers that 
was carried from the battle-field, and buried at W.altham, the Anglo- the tomb at W.altham was nothing more than a cenotaph, which is cert.ainly 
Saxon people long refused to believe that the last of their kings had at variance with the "Hie Jacet," upon the tomb, and the circum- 
perished at Hastings. They believed that his wounds were healed stantial account given by Fuller in his " Ctiurch History," wherein ho 
amidst friends ; that he waited in some safe seclusion ready to lead his describes the opening of the tomb towards the close of Elizabeth's reign, 
faithful English when the opportunity for deliverance should approach ; when a skeleton was discovered inside it. — C, 




about the year 1028, established mints for the coinage of money in thirty-seven cities and townsof 
Eno-land. A silver penny, coined at York about the year 630, and marked with the name of Edwin, 
the°Northumbrian monarch, is supposed to be the earliest specimen of coinage in this island after 
the abdication of the Romans. The kin^ and his barons enfranchised the principal towns, to 
encourage the progress of manufactures, and Manchester was of the favoured number. 

It must be admitted, however, that whatever progress our Anglo-Saxon ancestors had made in 
commerce and in manufactures since the time of the Roman sway in Britain, this country had 
retrogaded deplorably in the practice of the fine arts. As early as the reign of Severus, the 
sculpture and the painting of Rome had obtained a high degree of perfection ; but in the Saxon 
times these accomplishments were almost extinct in the island, and the coinage of Northumbria, m 
the reigns of iEthelstan, of Harold surnamed Harefoot, and of Edward the Confessor, as exhibited in 
the following specimens, serve sufiiciently to prove the lamentable deterioration : — 

The Anglo-Saxons were divided into four classes— men of birth, men of property, freemen, 
and serviles. Their money was in pounds, shillings, and pence ; twenty shillings constituted a 
pound, and twelve pence a shilling, as at present— with this difference, however, _ that twenty 
shillings weighed a pound troy— and hence the term pound. Guilds, or communities of mutual 
protection, were formed by persons engaged in trade, which sought at once to protect the interests 
of those branches of business, and to provide for the members of their fraternities in sickness and 
old age.' Markets and fairs were pretty generally established ; attention was paid to agriculture; 
and the yeoman was held in deserved estimation. Their monarchy was partly hereditary and partly 
elective ; and the power of their sovereigns not absolute, but limited. Their Witena-Gemot of " wise 
men " formed the great council of the nation, and was a body, the foundation of our parliaments, 
that at once enacted laws and administered justice. Besides the trial by jury, they had the trial 
by ordeal of water and of iron : by the iron ordeal, the accused carried a piece of red-hot iron three 
feet, or nine feet, according to the magnitude of the offence ; in the water ordeal, he plunged his 
hand into a vessel of boiling- hot water up to the wrist in some cases, and to the elbow in others ; 
the hand was then bound up, and sealed for three days, at the end of which time the bandage and 
seal were removed ; when, if the hand was found clean, he was pronounced innocent, if foul, guilty.- 
This was a trial, not a punishment, and it was performed before the priest, in the presence of two 
witnesses, after due preparation. Sometimes the party choosing this mode of trial prepared his own 
hand, to endure the fiery trial ; and sometimes probably prepared the hand of the priest, and thus 
induced him to abate the height of the temperature. There was another ordeal by water : the 
culprit, having a rope tied about him, was plunged into a river two ells and a half deep ; if he sank, 
he was acquitted ; but if he floated, being considered deficient in weight of goodness, he was con- 
demned.' The punishments were various, and consisted of banishment, slavery, branding, amputa- 
tion of limb, mutilation of the nose, ears, and lips, plucking out the eyes, stoning, or hanging. The 
trial by jury was a rational and enlightened inquiry. The Saxons have the merit of having intro- 
duced this invaluable institution into England ; and some authors contend that it originated in the 
time of Alfred, but it is certain that it was in use amongst the earliest Saxon colonists.'' The trial 
by jury did not at once attain perfection, and it is probable that Alfred matured and perfected the 
institution. Originally a man was cleared of an accusation, if twelve persons came forward and 
swore that they believed him to be innocent of the alleged crime.' This was a jury in its earliest 
form. Afterwards it became necessary that twelve men, peers or equals of the litigants, should hear 
the evidence on both sides, and that they on their oaths should say whether the accused was guilty 
or innocent. 

The Feudal System arose in England during the Saxon dynasty, and for many ages exercised 
an influence and control over society, not only in this country, but over the whole of the western 
nations of the world. Though the system was introduced into this country by the Anglo-Saxons, it 
was not till the Norman Conquest that it received its complete consummation. In the heat of the 
battle of Hastings, "William had promised his followers that the lands of England should be theirs 

■ Wilk, Leg, Inas, p. 27. = Textus RofEenais. ' Clack. Com. cap. xxiii. « Turner's Aug. Sax. iv. 337. 

Eden on the Poor Laws, 



if victory crowned their efforts ; and the possessions of Earl Tostig, as well as those of the other Saxon 
barons, between the Mersey and the Kibble, and to the north of tlie latter river, speedily became 
the knights fees of the houses of Lacy and Poictou. In the partition of the spoil, the most consider- 
able share fell to the king. These lands became the subject of feudal tenures ; ' the king conferred 
them_ upon his favourites in capite, on the condition that they should faithfully serve him in war 
and in peace, and on payment of a certain annual fine; and they again granted their Lancashire 
manors to Goisfridus, Willielmus, Tetbaldus, and others, as their feudatories. These thanes had 
their socmen and villeins— in other words, their farmers and their slaves— some holding by military 
and others by rustic obligations ; but all, from the highest to the lowest, under feudal tenures. The 
whole frarne of society was involved in this comprehensive system.^ 

The six centuries embraced in this chapter, considered in regard to their results, constitute 
the most important period in the history of the county and of the kingdom. In that time the 
Britain of the Csesars became the England Ave now know ; and out of the British, Roman, Saxon, 
and Danish stock — the admixture of tribes and blood that then represented the courage, 
enterprise, energy, and self-reliance of Europe— emerged the English people. The Teutonic and 
Scandinavian invasion was more ruthless, more destructive, and more complete than any which 
had preceded it: it submerged every usage and obliterated every trace of existing institutions— 
the laws, the customs, the Christianity, the language of the people, and, to a large extent, the very 
names of places disappeared. The heathen and the stranger came from across the German Sea ; 
wave followed^ wave from the inexhaustible breeding grounds of the north, sweeping away the 
dying civilisation of the Latin world, but depositing in its stead a fruitful soil, from which the 
civilisation of a later time was to spring. The piratical Viking followed in the wake of the 
adventurous Saxon. Pierced by barbarian hordes, torn by internal divisions, and ruled by foreign 
masters, the country was for a long time like a seething cauldron, and the scene of overwhelming 
and crushing calamity. 

The history of these times is full of doubt and obscurity. We know only the general results, 
we know very little of the details, yet it was amid these desolating wars, these internal feuds, 
these fierce conflicts of races, and from these discordant elements, that gradually, and by slow and 
insensible development, there sprang' up a perdurable nation, that has preserved its free spirit 
under every form of alien domination or domestic oppression, a nation that in every conflict, 
whether that of regal despotism or feudal or ecclesiastical assumption, has asserted the right of 
individual liberty, and upheld, with ever- increasing strength, the great principle of the equality of 
all men before the law. Under the stern discipline of these times England developed her national 
character, and by slow process built up the fabric of her law ; for that resulted from the principle 
of growth rather than from that of creation. To the Saxon mind we owe much of the English 
Constitution. Upon their civilisation, rudely developed though it might be, were founded many 
of the principles of government which have retained their vitality through the long centuries 
that have intervened, for the Norman despotism was absorbed by the Anglo-Saxon freedom, and 
feudality could neither destroy the principles of self-government nor weaken the love of personal 
liberty. Their indomitable spirit of independence is wrought into the life-blood of our own 
Saxon-sprung race ; from their customs we derive many of our own ; and it is in the elements of 
their social state that we discover the origin of that of to-day. The humanising influences of the 
Christian religion melted down the rude Saxon, the restless Jute, and the idolatrous Angle, and 
took from them their fierce despotism, their barbarous rites, and their cruel customs ; while their 
mother tongue, terse and vigorous, has gradually formed into a language that is spoken in every 
quarter of the world. 

' Discussions have at various times taken place upon the question, This was the only order of nobility iimong the Saxons. Tlicy corresponded 

" Was the land system of this period feudal?" It engaged the attention to the position of lieutenants of counties, and were appointed for life, 

of the Irish Court of King's Bench in the reign of Charles I., and arose In 1045 there were nine such officers; in 1065 there were but six. 

throuKh the issuing of a " commission of defective titles " in the preced- Harold's earldom at the former date comprised Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, 

ine roiirn In a paper on " The History of Landholding in England " in and Middlesex ; and Godwin's took in the whole south coast from Sand- 

the "Transactions" of the Hoyal Historic Society of Great Britain, Mr. wieh to the Land's End, and included Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, Wili^ 

Fisher says' "In the course of the argument the existence of feudal shire, Devonshire, and Cornwall. Upon the death of Godwin, Harold 

tenures before the landing of William of Normandy, was discussed, and resigned his earldom and took that of Godwin, the bounds being slightly 

Sir Henry Spelman's views, as expressed in the Glossary, were considered. varied. Harold retained his earldom after he became king, but on his 

The Court unanimously decided that feudalism existed in England under death it was seized upon by the Conqueror, and divided among his 

the Anelo-Saxons, and it affirmed that Sir Henry Spelman was wrong. followers. The Crown relied upon the liba-i Hommes, or freimen. The 

This decision led Sir Henry Spehnan to write his 'Treatise on Feuds,' country was not studded with castles filled with armed men. 'ihe Iwtise 

which was published after his death, in which he reasserted the opinion of the thane was an unfortified structure, and while the laws relating to 

that feudalism was introduced into England at the Norman invasion. land were, in my view, essentially /CM(!a(, the government was dilfcreiit 

This decision must however be accepted with a limitation. I think from that to which we apply the term /ttiAUism, which appears to imply 

there was no separate order of nobility under the Saxon rule. The king baronial castles, armed men, and an oppressed people. —0. 
had his councUlors but there appears to have been no order between him ' Mr. Barnes gives here avery long quotation as to the feudal system 

and the Mc^amwt The earls and the thanes met with the people, but did from a MS. of Dr. Kuerden, in the Uhetham Library, which, from its want 

not fonn a separate body. The thanes were, country gentlemen, not of authority and accuracy, loose style, and strange phraseology, is not 

eenators The outcome of the Heptarchy was the earis or ealdermen. deemed worth reprinting. -H. 


C H A P T E 11 III 

William tlie Conqueror's Suppres&ion of EeTolts in the North— His Extension of the Feudal System and Seizure of Church Lauds 
and Property — The Domesday Survey and Book — The Honor of Lancaster — Its First Norman Baron, Roger de Poictou —Its 
Grant by the Crown to Randle, Third Earl of Chester.— a.d. 1066 to circa 1120, 

sooner was th* Norman Conqueror seated, on the throne of England than he 
began to exercise the power of conquest with all the rigour which the jealousy 
of his own mind and the insubordinate disposition of his new subjects dictated. 
The doctrines inculcated by Machiavel, in his instructions to conquering princes, 
were practised by William of Normandy in England five centuries before they 
Avere promulgated by the Italian politican. He left no art untried to root out 
the ancient nobility, to curb the power of the established clergy, or to reduce 
the commonality to the lowest state of penury and dependence. Earls Morcar 

and Edwin, Avho had so successfully resisted the tyrannical power of Earl Tostig, were among the 
first to revolt from the yoke of the tyrant. To give effect to their resistance, they raised forces in 
Lancashire and Cheshire, as well as in the other northern counties, and fixed upon the celebrated 
Northumbrian capital, the city of York, then amongst the first cities in the kingdom, superior even 
to London, as their stronghold. The inhabitants of York rising in arms, slew Kobert Fitz-Richard, 
the governor,^ and besieged in the castle William Mallet, on whom the command had devolved. 
At this juncture two of the sons of King Sweyne, with two hundred and forty ships, arrived from 
Denmark, under the command of Duke Osborne, brother to the king. The troops disembarked on 
the banks of the Humber, where they were met by Edgar Atheling, and Earls Waltheof and 
Gospatric, with large levies of Northumbrians from Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cumberland, and 
Durham, "riding and marching," says the Saxon Chronicle, " full merrily towards York." This 
alarming revolt the Conqueror hastened to subdue ; and such was the violence of his rage, that, on 
his Avay to the north, he swore repeatedly, by the " splendour of God," that he Avould not leave a 
soul of the insurgents alive. The strength of the Saxon barons Avas increased by the junction of a 
large force under BethAvin, king of North Wales. Preliminary to his arrival, William had suspended 
Morcar, and appointed Robert de Coniyn, a Norman baron, to the earldom of Northumberland. 
The orders given to Robert Avere, to subdue the refractory spirit of the people, Avithout regard to 
the shedding of blood ;- and a guard of seven hundred men Avas placed around his person. The 
intrepid Northumbrians, roused by a sense of their OAvn Avrongs, and by the indignity ofiered to the 
Earl Morcar, rose in open insurrection, and put to death the Norman, Avith every individual 
composing his guard. The first measure taken by William, on his arrival at York, Avas to offer 
mercy to the insurgents, on their submission to his authority ; and the chiefs, finding themselves 
unequal to contend Avith the poAver that Avas brought against them, accepted the proffered clemency. 
The Earls Morcar and EdAvin, accompanied by Gospatric, and Edgar Atheling, their laAvful prince, 
fled into Scotland^ under the protection of King Malcolm. Unmindful of that general amnesty 
which he had offered, the Conqueror directed the most severe proscription against the Saxon 
inhabitants of these regions, hundreds of Avhom fell under the cruel inflictions of the Normans. 
To guard against a surprise, the Conqueror caused numerous castles to be erected in the north of 
England ; and in the city of York tAvo castles sprang up under the direction of the Normans. These 
precautions Avere not confined to inland fortifications ; they extended also to the coast, and the 
castles of Lancaster and of Liverpool, on the Lune and the Mersey, Avere both erected during the 
early part of the Conqueror's reign, by Roger de Poictou, one of the most distinguished amongst 
the Norman barons. Notwithstanding the severity practised by William on the suppression of the 
first insurrection, he alloAved the Earls Morcar and EdAvin to retain their estates m Lancashire, 
Yorkshire, and Cheshire, though he extended the rigours of confiscation over the lands of many of 
their followers. The forfeitures, attainders and other acts of Aaolence, soon produced another 
insurrection — the flame of insurrection, lighted up amongst the bravo Northumbrians, spread into 
other parts of the kingdom ; but the king, avcII aAvarc that the most imminent danger existed in 

1 Order. A'ltcd. \i. 612. 

- AVal. Hcuiingtord, Cnuoli of Cisbiu^li. 


the counties of York and Lancaster, determined to march once more against them, and placing 
himself at the heaa of a powerful army, he left London to take his revenge upon the insurgents. 
By common consent. Earl "Waltheof was appointed governor of the city of York by the Saxon 
barons, while the Danish general took up his intrenchments between the Humber and the Trent, 
in order to keep the Normans in check. On the arrival of William and his army before York, he 
sent his summons to the governor, offering him clemency if he surrendered promptly, but threaten- 
ing the most terrible vengeance if he attempted to withstand his authority. He pushed on the 
siege with vigour, and was not less vigorously resisted. A breach having been made in the walls 
by the engines of the besiegers, the governor himself, being a man of prodigious might and strength, 
stood single in the breach, and cut off the heads of several Normans who attempted to enter.' For 
six months the siege was sustained, and the struggle was sanguinary and exhausting ; and it was 
not till "William had reinforced the besieging army again and again that he gained possession of 
the city. Famine at length effected what force could not achieve; and William not only promised 
forgiveness to the governor, but also the most reasonable terms to his troops, on the condition of 
surrender. Under the influence of that admiration which bravery inspires amongst the brave, the 
Conqueror gave to Waltheof his niece Judith, daughter of the Countess Albemarle, in marriage, 
and created him also Earl of Northumberland. The reconciliation was only temporary. William, 
impatient of opposition, brought the gallant earl to the block, on account of another conspiracy, and 
this was the first nobleman whose life was terminated in England by decapitation. Earls Morcar 
and Edwin, no longer able to sustain their own dignity, or to preserve the public rights, quitted the 
seats of their earldoms in Northumbria and Mercia. Edwin, in attempting to make his escape into 
Scotland, was betrayed by some of his followers, and killed by a party of Normans, to the deep 
affliction of the men of Lancashire and Cheshire, where the ardour of his patriotism, and his personal 
accomplishments, had gained all hearts ; while Earl Morcar was thrown into prison, and consigned 
to future obscurity. Lucia, the sister of the Earls Morcar and Edwin, was presented in marriage to 
Ivo Talbois, the first Baron of Kendal, who came over with the Conqueror. This baron was dis- 
tinguished by the favour of his prince, who granted to him that part of Lancashire which adjoins 
Westmorland, as well as the confiscated lands of his wife's brother in Lincolnshire. William viewed 
the inhabitants of Northumbria as the most formidable enemies to his power ; and in order to satiate 
his rage and to prevent further resistance, he razed the city of York to the ground ; and with it fell 
many of the principal nobility and gentry, as well as the humbler inhabitants. Nor did his 
implacable vengeance rest here : he laid waste the whole of the fertile country between the Humber 
and the Tees, a distance of sixty miles, so that, for nine years afterwards, neither spade nor plough 
was put into the ground.^ If any of the wretched inhabitants escaped, they were reserved for a 
more lingering fate, being forced through famine to eat dogs and cats, horses, and even human 
flesh. The towns, villages,' hamlets, and scattered habitations throughout Northumbria were reduced 
to ashes ; all the implements of agriculture — carts, ploughs, harrows — were piled in heaps, and con- 
sumed with fire ; the corn was burnt in the granaries ; horses, cattle, sheep, were slaughtered in the 
fields or at the stalls, in short, everything that could serve for the support of human life was utterly 
consumed. The tyrant gave full sway to all the ferocious passions of his nature, and gloated his 
eyes upon the wasted lands and the innumerable corpses of the slain. His breast was steeled 
against compassion, and whenever a Northumbrian appeared, he was cut down by the sword or 
pierced by the lances of the Normans. So unsparing was the destruction, that the inhabitants 
could scarcely recognise their own lands ; and when the Domesday Book was compiled, though the 
survey was not commenced till ten years afterwards, many townships remained uncultivated, which 
is the reason why Wasta [waste] so often occurs in the Domesday Survey of Yorkshire. In that 
part of this ancient document which concerns Lancashire, the returns are more fully made, though 
not under the head of a distinct county ; and a presumption naturally arises that the Conqueror's 
severity was practised with less rigour between the Mersey and the Duddon than between the 
Humber and the Tees. In the north of Lancashire, included within the ancient limits of 
Richmondshire, several vacancies are found; and in the south-eastern part of the district,_ between 
the Ribble and the Mersey, the scanty return of names may be accounted for by the vicinity of 
that part of Salford hundred to the devoted county of York. 

By a charter remarkable for its comprehensive brevity," William, while at York, granted the 
lands and towns and the rest of the inheritance of Earl Edwin to his nephew, Alan, son of Eudo, 
Duke of Brittany, whom he afterwards named Earl of Richmond, and in this way nearly two 

1 William nf Malmsburv tenant for Ufe. Each estate reverted to the crown on the death of him 

\ M^l^a ,, lO? KnSn Inpilf p. 79. Sim. of Dur. p. 199. who held it ; but, previous to acquiring possession, the new tenant had 

I T^I-f/hStefdoe, not create Serent title, but gives the lands as to cease to be his own " man," and became the 'man "of hjs superior. 

held bv tie former pL^es^rlLm^^^^^ ass'umed^the function of This was called ■•homage"and was followed by " invcsuture. -C. 

the folc-ffeiiiot, but the principle remained -the foudee only became 


tundred manors and townships were transferred by a dash of the pen, and an impression of the 
seal, from the unfortunate Edwin to the trusty follower of the victorious William. The Conqueror 
soon placed all the land of the kingdom under that system of feudal tenure which had already 
been partially introduced under the Saxon dynasty. These possessions, with very few exceptions 
besides the royal demesnes, Avere divided into baronies, which were conferred, with the reservation 
of stated services and payments, on the most considerable of the Normans. The great barons, who 
held of the crown, shared out a large part of their lands to other foreigners, who bore the names of 
knights or vassals, and who paid their lord the same duty and submission in peace and in war 
which he himself owed to his sovereign. The whole kingdom contained about seven hundred chief 
tenants, and 60,215 knights' fees;^ and as none of the English were admitted into the first rank, 
the few who retained their landed possessions were glad to be received under the protection of some 
powerful Norman baron, though at the cost of an oppressive burden on those estates which they 
had received as a free inheritance from their ancestors.^ 

Having broken the spirit of the laity, the Conqueror now proceeded to appropriate a large 
share of the enormous property of the clergy to his own use. The first step he took for the 
attainment of this object was to seize not only all the riches^ and valuable effects which the English 
had lodged in the religious houses throughout the kingdom during the troubles, but even the 
charters, shrines, and treasures belonging to the monasteries themselves, resolving at the same time 
that none of the English monks or clergy should ever be preferred to any of the vacant sees, and 
that those who already possessed them should be stripped of their dignities. In consequence of 
this resolution, Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, was removed from his episcopal office on 
various groundless pretences, but without the colour of justice. Adding cruelty to injustice, 
William imprisoned the deprived prelates, and kept them in confinement all the rest of their lives. 
In this province, the king, during the feast of Pentecost, named Thomas, a canon of Bayeux, to the 
see of York. The principles he had adopted in Normandy he introduced into England, and 
seemed quite ready to act upon the determination he had made in the former country — namely, 
" that if any monk, who was his subject, should dispute his will, he would cause him to be hanged 
forthwith." In Saxon times, the clergy, not only in this province, but throughout the nation 
generally, held their lands and possessions by a different tenure from the laity, called frank- 
almoigne, subject to no secular service, to no rents or impositions, but such as they consented to 
lay upon themselves in their councils or synods, which privilege they had extorted, after some 
resistance, from the superstitious ^Ethelwulf. Their estates, derived from the bounty of the 
Saxon kings and their nobles, were so great, that they possessed more than a third part of the 
kingdom ; the computation being that of the 60,215 knights' fees the clergy held 28,015,* exclusive 
of their plate, jewels, and various other treasures. With such enormous riches at their disposal 
they became unduly powerful ; and William, jealous of that power, and suspicious of their fidelity, 
reduced ah their lands to the common tenure of knights' service and barony. The new prelates 
Avere required to take an oath of fealty, and to do homage to the king, before they could be 
admitted to their temporalities; they were also subject to an attendance upon the king in his 
court-baron, to follow him in his wars with their knights and quota of soldiers, to pay him their 
usual aids, and to perform all the other services incident to the feudal tenures. The clergy 
remonstrated most bitterly against this new revolution ; but William was inexorable, and consigned 
to prison or to banishment all who opposed his will. While the power of the clergy Avas thus 
curtailed, that of the barons, Avho Avere now chiefly Norman, Avas increased. In their manors they 
had absolute jurisdiction ; they gave laAvs and administered justice in their courts-baron to their 
vassals ; and suits betA^een the tenants of different lords Avere tried in their hundred, or county 
courts, Avhile the king's courts took cognisance only of those betAveen the barons themselves.^ 

By a synod held in London (A.D. 1075) the precedency of the bishops Avas settled, according to 
the priority of their consecration, except with regard to such sees as had particular privileges 
annexed to them. " Hitherto the bishops had resided in small toAvns or villages, for the purpose, as 
was alleged, of sacred retirement ; but at this synod it was determined that the see of Lichfield, in 
Avhich diocese the greater part of Lancashire Avas at that time included, should be removed to Chester. 
It was now ordained, for the first time, that no bishop, abbot, or clergyman, should judge any 
person to the loss of life or limb, or give his vote or countenance to any other for that purpose ; " 
and to comply Aviththis canon, the prelates have ever since withdraAvn from the House of Lords in 
such cases, satisfying themselves Avith entering a protest in favour of their right, Avithout 
exercising it.« The activity of William's mind suggested to him a great national work, which Avill 

1 Orderic. A'italis, p. ,'523. .-i g;,,,. of D„r, Ann. of Waver. T. Sprott's Chron. p 114 

"The drenghes mentioned in the Domesday Book, " Newton « T. Sprott's Chron. p. 114. ' Brist. Monost. n 33 ' 

Hundred, wete probably of this number,— B, o Carte's Hiat. vol, 1. p. 421. ' 


be held throvighout all ages as a redeeming feature in his life, and will serve to transmit his 
memory with veneration to posterity. 

" After the synod," says the Saxon Chronicle, " the king held a large meeting, and very deep 
consultation with the council, about this land ; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. 
Then sent he his men over all England into each shire, commissioning them to find out — ' How 
many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what lands the king himself had, and what stock upon 
the land ; or what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire.' Also he commissioned them 
to record in writing, " How much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his 
abbots, and his earls ; what or how much each man had, who was an occupier of land in England, 
either in land or stock, and how much money it was worth.' So very narrowly, indeed, did he 
commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land ; nay, 
moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a 
cow, nor a swine, was there left, that was not set down in his writ. And all the recorded 
particulars were afterwards brought to himv" That nothing might be wanted to render this record 
complete, and its authority perpetual, the survey was executed by Norman commissioners, called 
"the king's justiciaries," consisting of nobles and bishops, acting under royal appointment, and 
associated, probably, with some ot the principal men of each shire. The inquisitors, upon the 
oaths of the sheriffs, the lord of each manor, the presbyters of every church, the reeves of every 
hundred, the bailiffs and six villeins of every village, were to inquire into the name of the place, 
who held it in the time of King Edward, who was the present possessor, how many hides in the 
manor, how many carucates in demesne, how many homagers, how many villeins, how many 
cotarii, how many servi, what free-men, how many tenants in socage ; what quantity of wood, how 
much meadow and pastvire, what mills and fish-ponds ; how much added or taken away, what the 
gross value in King Edward's time, and how much each free- man or soc-man had or has. All this 
was to be triply estimated : first, as the estate was held in the time of the Confessor ; then, as it 
was bestowed by King William ; and thirdly, as its value stood at the formation of the survey. 
The jurors were, moreover, to state whether any advance could be made in the value. The book 
contains, besides these details of property and tenure, many curious reports of the ancient rights 
and privileges of the people, and especially of the towns. The " Laws of King Edward," for which 
our Saxon ancestors so often and so stoutly contended in the earlier years of the Norman conquest, 
are nowhere to be found so clearly set forth as in this work of the very man who, not perhaps 
without reason, was generally accused and suspected of an intention to violate them. 

The exact time occupied in taking the whole survey of the kingdom is differently stated by 
historians; but the probability is, that it was commenced a.d. 1080; and it is evident, from the 
date inserted at the end of the second volume, that it was completed in 1086. It is remarkable 
that in this survey the name of Lancashire does not occur ; but that part of it which lies between 
the Kibble and the Mersey is surveyed under Cheshire, while the northern part of the county, 
includino- Amounderness and the hundred of Lonsdale, north and south of the Sands, is com- 
prehended under Yorkshire. The devastation made by the Conqueror in the three most northern 
counties of England rendered it impossible to take an exact survey of that district; and the 
return in Amounderness, that "sixteen of the villages in this hundred have few inhabitants (how 
many is not known), and the rest are waste," sufficiently indicates that the hand of the spoiler had 
lain heavy upon that hundred. By the Domesday return the king acquired an exact knowledge 
of all the possessions of the crown. It furnished him with the means of ascertammg the strength 
of the country pointed out the possibility of increasing the revenue in certain districts, and formed 
a perpetual register of appeal for those whose titles to their estates might in future be disputed. 
This purpose °it has served ever since its completion; and even now, at the end of eight 
hundred years such is the credit of this document, that if a question arises whether a manor, 
parish or land's be ancient demesne, the issue must be tried by this book, whence there is no 
appeal The two volumes which contain the survey are now, by common consent, called 
Domesday Book from Dome (cenus) and Boc (book). It has, however, borne other designations 
and has been known as Rotulus Wintonice, Scriptura Thesauri Regis, Uher de Wtntoma, and 
Liber Regis. Sir Henry Spelman adds. Liber Jucliciarius, Censualis Anghce, Anglice NotiUa et 
Lustratio, and Rotula Regis} 

... j'i.- „ n<-tor„.if •uToa TO^ H P hc wliaf; has nublished in a separate vol. at a moderate price. We give the translation, 

. In the original edition an =;tt™Pt ™ "^merous peeuliariv arcade from a careful examination of the fac-simile by William 

been called "Domesday type t»^repre9ont the "'J,'"^^^"^ P^^^'-fJ^J Bcamont, Esq., of Orford Hall, Warrington, in his "Literal Extension 

abbreviated Latin worfs in his a^^^^^^^ -e ^e'^beautifuVftc'' and"ran'slat?oA of Domesday Book-Cheshire and Lancashire, etc."-and 

staile o? the Z^nl, Skeii by phn^'co„^aphy under the direction of by his permission. 
S -Col Sir Henri- James, of the ordnance Survey, which has been 



[South Lancashire.] 


In [West] Derby Hundred. 
Surveyed under the head of Cestre-Scire (Cheshire). 

King Edward [the Confessor] had there one manor named Berbei, with six Berewicks} There are four hides.^ The land is 
fifteen carucates.^ There is a forest two leagues'* long and one broad ; and an aery of hawks. 

Vctred held six manors, Habil (Rout), Chelnulveslei (Knowslby), Cherchehi (Kirkbt), Crosebi (Crosby), Magde (Maghull), 
and j^c/teteK (AuBHTON I.) There are two hides [of land]. The woods are two leagues long and the same broad, and there are 
two aeries of hawks. 

Dot held Hitune (Huyton) and Torboc (Taebock). There is one hide quit of every custom duties but the gelt [danegeld*]. 
The land is four carucates. It was worth twenty shillings. 

Bernulf held Slochestede (Toxteth I.) One virgate" and half a carucate of land there paid four shillings. 

Stainulf held Stochestede (Toxteth II.) There one virgate and half a oaruoate of land were worth four shillings. 

Five Thanes held Sextone (Sefton). There was one hide there worth sixteen shillings. 

Uetred held Chirchedele (Kirkdale). There is half a hide quit of every custom but the gelt It was worth ten shillings 

Winestan held Waletone (W.alton-on-the-Hill). There were two carucates and three bovates [or oxgangs] of land worth eight 

Elmces held Liderlant (Lithbrland). There was half a hide. It was worth eight shillings. 

Three Thanes held Hinne (Inoe Blundell) for three manors. There was half a hide. It was worth eight shillings. 

Aseha held Tm'entun (Thornton). There was half a hide. It was worth eight shillings. 

Three Thanes held Mele (Meols) for three manors. There is half a hide. It was worth eight shillings 

Uetred held Ulventune (Little Woolton). There are two carucates of land, and half a league of wood. It was worth sixty- 
four pence. 

Edelmund held Esmedune (Smithdown, now Liverpool). There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty-two pence. 

Three Thanes held Alretune (Allkrton) for three manors. There is half a hide. It wa.i worth eight shillings. 

Uetred held Spec (Speke). There are two carucates of land. It was worth sixty-four pence. 

Four Radmans [Knight Riders] held Cildeioelle (Childwall) for four manors. There is half a hide. It is worth eight 
shilliugs. There was a priest there having half a carucate of land in frank-almoin [free-alms]. 

Ulbert held Wibaldeslei (Windle, Windleshaw, Whiston, Bold, Paebold, and Prescot). There are two carucates of land. 
It was worth sixty-four pence. 

Two Thanes held Uvetone (Much Woolton) for two manors. There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty pence. 

Leving held Wavertreu (Waverteee). There are two carucates of land. It was worth sixty-four pence. 

Four Thanes held Boltelai (Bootle) for four manors. There are two carucates of land. It was worth sixty-four pence. A 
priest had one carucate of land to the church at Waletone (Walton-on-the-Hill). 

Uetred held Achetun (Aughton II.). There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty-two pence. 

Three Thanes held Fornebei (Formby) for three manors. There are four carucates of land. It was worth ten shillings. 

Three Thanes held Elnulvesdd (Ainsdale). There are two carucates of land. It was worth sixty-four pence. 

Steinulf held Holland (Down Holland). There are two carucates of land. It was worth sixty-four pence. 

Ictred held Daltonc (Dalton). There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty-two pence. 

The same Uclred [held] Schelmercsdele (Skblmeesdale). There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty-two pence. 

The same Uetred [held] Literland (Litherland II.) There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty-two pence. 
_ Wibert held Erengermeles (Raven's Meols). There are two carucates of land. It was worth eight shillings. This land wis 
quit [of every tax] except the gelt. 

Five Thanes held Utcgrimele (Orrell in Sefton). There is half a hide. It was worth ten shillings. 

Uetred held Latune (Lathom) with one berewick. There is half a hide [of land]. There is a wood one league long and half 
a league broad. It was worth ten shillings and eightpence. 

Uetred hem Mirletun (Huelbston, in Soarisbrick) and half of Merretun (Martin). There is half a hide. It was worth ten 
shilhngs and eightpence. 

GodeveheldMelinge (Melling). There are two carucates of land ; [and] a wood one league long and half a league broad. It 
was worth ten shillings. ' l j do & 

Uetrecl held Leiate (Lydiate). There are six bovates of land ; [and] a wood one league long and two furlongs broad. It was 
worth sixty-iour pence. ^ l j -o & t, 

u^'flZu Y'^ I^A ^°^^*f 11'''"^ f""" *"° '^^""'■^ i° -^^'''"™^ (Down Holland II.). It was worth two shniings. 
t^c«r.dheldXc«r(ALTOAR). There is half a carucate of land. It was waste. 

rZl^tfunT? ?m°'' '° Down Holland). There is one carucate of land. It was worth thirty-two pence. 

Chtelhfd ffdeshaleCSALSALL). There are two carucates of land. It was worth eight shillings. 

All this land IS rateab e to the gelt ; and fifteen manors rendered nothing to King Edward but the gelt, 
and twn'sHlW. Th'^/e nf ff" vT''^' T^ '^' "^""'^^"''^ ^'^''^' '"''^'''^'^ *» ^'"^ ^'^^"^'''^ ^ farm a rent of twenty-six pounds 
reredTour Jourds and7o7rLrslmS and '^t^^. ^''"' "^'^^^ ^^"'^'^^^ "^ '^^ ^^^^^^ ^'^^ '^^''^ '^^"^' ^^ ^^^ ^'^^^ "^ 

1 The terozcicfc was a small manor beloncrinff to .a aro-or n i*. t^ u .. .... , - . ... 

■^ The hide was an uncertain and variable auantitv nf lan^ „« ti ?} °\ ^?-'^''-S°i^ T'as a tax ongmatmg out of the practice of buying 

= The earucate, carve, or plough-Ian ™was 1 ke t&de til's D^in^h mvaders by the payment of arge sums of money. The 

and variable quantity of laud to the la^tUne but three of the ™v ;T°"l'-,r ™f ^"^ originally one Saxon shUlmg (.afterwards increased to 

of Uerby Hundred, are the words, "In every hid7th6rearp,ivn,.,?„?^ two shiUings) upon every hide of land in the kingdom. The tax was 

of Und." This probably applies to all South Laneashirewfhinw^*! '^* ^'T'S.l'"^ ='*"'"* *'?'> T"'" 9»1'/""1 ^^^ Payment continued until the 

the carucate was the sixth part of a hide whktsoever q?aa^^^^^ 3" ° ^f'^^"* t^" Confessor, when, in consequence of the great dis- 

implies >,r quantity the latter content of the nation, it was remitted ; but in course of time or in the 

- The leuva, here translated league, has often been rendered mile It ofThe^ZnarH^^Jlr " "'""' '" ''"' "'"" ''™""* '° "'" P"™"' P"''P°'"'' 
7:ilfto7^^ltlZZtS',TZi:i^Tr^X^^^^^^ „, .The;i..pte;'oryard-land,wastwobovateaoroxgangs,orone-fourth 

about a mUe Ld a half of our present measure.-\V. bISoot. ^ ' '"' ' " ' """" " ™ quantity. 



All these thanesi were accuBtomed to render two ores^ of pennies for each earucate of land ; and by custom they, like the 
yiUenis made the kmg s (manor) houses and what belonged to them ; and (constructed) the fisheries, aud the hays" and stands^ in 
the wood And whoever came not to these when he ought, was fined two shillings, and afterwards came and worked until the work 
was finished. Each of them sent his mowers one day in August to cut the king's corn. If he failed [herein] he was fined two 

If any freeman committed theft, or forestel,"! or broke the king's peace, he was fined forty shillings 

If any one shed blood, committed rape, or absented himself from the shiremote without reasonable excuse, he was fined ten 

If he absented himself from the hundred court, or came not when there was a plea, and when he was summoned bv the reeve, 
he made amends by five shillings. 

If [the reeve] commanded anyone to go on a service [to which he was bound], and he did not go, he was fined four shillings. 

If any one desired to withdraw from the king's land, he paid forty shillings, and had liberty to go where he would. 

If any one desired to take up the land of his deceased father, he paid for it forty shillings as a relief 

If he was not willing to pay this, the king took both the land and all the father's cattle. 

Vctred held Crosebi (Crosby) and Chircheddc (ICirkdale) for one hide, aud was free of all customs but these six : breach of the 
peace, forestel, heinfare, continuing a fight after oath given [to the contrary], not paying a debt until after judgment given, and 
not keepmg a time. appointed him by the sheriff. The fine for these was forty shillings. They paid the king's gelt however like 
the rest of the country. 

In OtringemeU (Orrell in Sefton) and Herlcsliala (Halsall) and Hirelim (Taeleton\ there were three hides free from the 
gelt of the carucates of land, and from forfeitures for blood or rape ; but they rendered all otiier customs. 

Of this manor of Derhei (West Derby) the following men hold land by the s;ift of Roger of Poictou .-—Goisfrid two hides and 
half a earucate, Hoger one hide and a halt, William one hide and a half, Warm half a hide, Goisfrid one hide, I'etiald one hide and 
a half, Ilobert two carucates of land, [and] Gilehert one earucate of land. These have four carucates in their demesne, and [there 
are] forty-six villeins,8 and one radman,' and sixty-two bordars,^ and two serfs," and three maid-servants. They have among them 
twenty-four carucates. The wood is three leagues and a half long, and one league and a half and forty perches broad ; and there 
are three aeries of hawks. The whole is worth eight pounds and twelve shillings. In every hide there are six carucates of land. 

But the demesne of this manor, which Roger held, is worth eight pounds. In this demesne there are now three carucates and 
six neatherds, and one radman, and seven villeins. 

In Newton Hundred. 

In Nciveton (Newtok), in the time of King Edn-ard [the Confessor], there were five hides. Of these one was in the demesne. 
The church of the same manor had one earucate of land ; and Saint Oswald of the same vill had two carucates of land free of every- 

The other land of this manor, fifteen men called JDrenghes^" held for fifteen manors, which were berewicks" of this manor ; and 
among them all these men rendered thirty shillings. There is wood there ten leagues long and six leagues and two furlongs broad, 
and there are aeries of hawks. 

All the freemen of this hundred, except two, had the same custom as the men of Derleishire [West Derby Hundred], but in 
August they mowed two days more than they on the king's tillage lands. The two [excepted men] had five carucates of land, and 
had the forfeitures for bloodshed, rape, and pannage [in the woods] for their men. The rest were the king's. This whole manor [of 
Netceton'] rendered to the king a farm of ten pounds ten shillings. Now there are six drenghes and twelve villeins, and four 
bordars, who have nine carucates amongst them. The demesne is worth four pounds. 

In "Warrington Hundred. 

Kivg Edward held TValintune (Warrington) with three berewicks; there is one hide. To the same manor there belonged 
thirty-four drenghes, who had that number of manors ; in which there were forty-two carucates of land, and one hide and a half. 
Saint Elfin held one earucate of land, free of all custom except the gelt. The whole manor with the hundred rendered to the king 
a farm rent of fifteen pounds less two shillings. There are now two carucates in the demesne, and eight men with one earucate. 

These men hold land there : Roger one earucate of land, Tethald one earucate and a half, Warin one earucate, Radulf five 
carucates, William two hides and four carucates of land, Adelard one hide and half a earucate, [and] Osmund one earucate of land. 
The whole is worth four pounds and ten shillings. The demesne is worth three pounds and ten shillings. 

In Blackburn Hundred. 

King Edward held Blachebume (Blackburn). There are two hides and two carucates of land. Of this land the church had 
two carucates ; and the church of St. Mary in Wlialky two carucates of land, [both of them] free of all customs. In the same manor 
there is a wood one league long and the same broad, and there was an aery of hawks. 

To this manor or hundred were attached twenty-eight freemen, holding five hides aud a half and forty carucates of land for 
twenty-eight manors. There is a wood there six leagues long and four broad, and [the manors] were all subject to the above 

In the same hundred King Edward had Hunnicot (HuNCOTE, near Dunkenhalgh), two carucates of land, and Waletune (Waltos- 
le-Dale) two carucates, and Peniltune (Pendleton) half a hide. The whole manor, with the hundred, yielded the king a farm-rent 
of thirty-two pounds and two shillings. 

Roger de Poictou gave all this land to Roger de Busli and Albert Greslet, and there are so many men who have eleven carucates 
and a half ; to whom they have granted freedom [from all customs] for three years, wherefore it is not now valued. 

' Thanes were the nobility and gentry. ' Radman : a feudal vassal, attendant on the lord as his guard ; the 

= The ora was not a coin, but money of computation, each ora being moro modem name being retainer. -C. ^^ , , , ^ 

worth twenty pence.-W. B. " Bordars were a class of small, unfree cottego tenants, bound to 

•T Hays • railed or hedged enclosures in the forest. -C. supply the lord with poultry and eggs, and other smaU provisions for his 

* Stahilllurie were the stands, stalls, or stations in the forest, where board or entertainment.— 0. 
the deer might be aimed at and taken with less difficulty.— "W. B. » Bondmen.— C. . , , , , . , ^ », r 

» Forestd fto steal before another) was the assaulting or obstructing •" Drenghes held their lands (manors or bcrcwicks) by f ree-socage, or, 

of any person on the king's highway. Heinfan (qM. hind-departing) was in Anglo-Norman, " frank-ferme ; " the services of which were not only 

a forfeiture for flicht for murder, for killing the lord's servant or hUid, or certain but honourable. According to Spelman they were such as at the 

for enticinir or inveigUng him away. coming of the Conqueror, being put out of their estates, were afterwards 

» Villeins or so named from villa, a country farm, whereat restored thereunto, on their making it appear they were owners thereof, 

thev were dependent to' do service. They were unfree, registered as of and neither in ttuxido or coii«;(io ag-.unst him -C. , ,-u 

the soil and bound to till the lord's lands, holding by the base tenure " Bcrcwicks were villages or hamlets belonging to a manor, of which 

called v'illenage.-C. mesne manors were made.- C. 


In Salfokd Hundred. 

King Edward held alford. There are three hides and twelve carucates of [barren or] waste laud. There is a forest three leagues 
long and the same broad. There are many hays and an aery of hawks there. 

King Edward held Radedive (BADCLirPE) for a manor. There is one hide, and another hide there belongs to Salford. The 
church of St. Mary and the church of St. Michael held in Mamecesire (Manchester) one carucate of land, free from all customs but 
the gelt. 

To this manor or hundred belonged twenty-one berewicks, which so many thanes held for so many manors, in which there 
were eleven hides and a half and ten carucates and a half of land. The woods there are nine leagues and a half long and five 
leagues and a furlong broad. 

One of these thanes, Gamd, holding two hides of land in Secedham (Rochdale), was free of all customs but these six, viz, 
theft, heinfare, forestel, breach of the peace, not keeping the term set him by the reeve, and continuing a fight after an oath given 
to the contrary. The fine for these was forty shillings. Some of these lands were free from every custom except gelt, and some 
were free even from the gelt. 

The whole manor of Salford with the hundred rendered thirty-seven pounds and four shillings. Of this manor there are now 
in the demesne two carucates and [there are] eight serfs and two villeins with one carucate. The demesne is worth one hundred 

Of the land of this manor these knights hold, by the gift of 2iogcr de Poictou : [i.e.] Nigel three hides and half a carucate of 
land, Warin two carucates of land, another Warin one carucate and a half, Goinfrid one carucate, and Gamd two carucates of 
land. In these [lands] there are three thanes and thirteen villeins, and nine bordars, and one priest, and ten serfs : they have 
twenty-two carucates amongst them. The whole is worth seven pounds. 

In Leyland Hundbed. 

King Ed^oard held Lailand (Letlakd). There is one hide and two carucates of land. There is a wood two leagues long and 
one broad, an aery of hawks. To this manor there belonged twelve carucates of land, which twelve freemen held as so many 
manors. In these there were six hides and eight carucates of land. The woods there are six leagues long and three leagues and a 
furlong broad. The men of this manor and of Salford were not bound by the custom to work at the king's hall, or to reap for him 
in August. They only made one hay in the wood ; and they had the forfeiture for bloodshed and rape. In the other customs of the 
other manors aljove [mentioned] they bore their part. The whole manor of Leyland, with the hundred, rendered to the king a 
farm-rent of nineteen pounds and eighteen shillings and twopence. Of the land of this manor Hirard holds one side and a halt, 
Robert holds three carucates, Radulph two carucates of land, Roger two carucates of land, [and] Walter one carucate of land. There 
are four radmans, a priest, and fourteen villeins, and six bordars and two neatherds there. They have eight carucates among them. 
There is a wood three leagues long and two leagues broad, and there are four aeries of hawks there. The whole is worth fifty 
shillings. It is in part waste. 

King Edward held Peneverdant (Penwoetham). There are two carucates of land, and it rendered tenpence. There is now a 
castle there. In the demesne there are two carucates, and six burgesses, and three radmans, and eight villeins, and four neatherds. 
They have four carucates among them all. There is half a fishery. There are a wood and aeries of hawks, as in the time of King 
Edward. It is worth three pounds. 

In these six hundreds, of Derby, Neioton, Warrington, Blachhurn, Salford, and Leyland, there are one hundred and ciighty- 
eight manors. In which there are eighty hides, less one, rateable to the gelt. In the time of King Edward the whole was worth 
one hundred and forty-five pounds and two shillings and twopence. When JRager of Poictou received it from the king ib was worth 
one hundred and twenty pounds. The king now holds it, and has in his demesne twelve carucates, and [there are] nine knights 
holding a fee. Amongst them and their men there are one hundred and fifteen carucates and three oxen. The demesne which 
Roger held is valued at twenty-three pounds and ten shillmgs. Whit he bestowed on his knights, at twenty pounds and eleven 

[North Lancashire.] 

Surveyed under the head of Earuicscire (Yorlcsldre). 


In Prestune (Peeston) Earl Tosti^ had six carucates rateable to the gelt, and to it these lands belong : — 

^sto« (Ashton-on-Ribblb) two carucates ; Zca (Lea) one carucate ; Salcioic (Salwiok) one carucate; Cliftun (Clifton) two 
carucates ; Neutune (Newton with Scales) two carucates ; Frechdtun (Feeoklbton) four carucates ; Rigbi (Ribby with Weay) six 

Ckicheham, (Kirkham) four carucates ; Treueles (two carucates) ; Westbi (Westby) two carucates ; Pluntun (Little Plumpton) 
two carucates ; Widetun (Wbeton) three carucates ; Pres (Preese), two carucates ; Wartun (Warton), four carucates. 

^ lAdun (Lytham) two carucates ; Mcretun (Maeton in Poulton) six carucates ; Latun (Layton with Waebeeck) six carucates ; 
Staininghe (Staining) six carucates ; Oarlentun (Caeletok) four carucates ; Biscopkam (Bispham) eight carucates. 

Rushale (Rossall), two carucates ; Britne (Beininq) two carucates ; Torenton (Thornton) six carucates ; Poltun (Poulton in 
the Fylde) two carucates; Singletun (Singleton) six carucates ; (9rme/io?/(GEF.ENHALGH) three carucates. 

Eglestun (Ecoleston) four carucates ; another Eglestun (Eccleston, Great and Little) two carucates ; Edeleswic (Elswiok) 
three carucates ; Inscip (In.skip) two carucates ; SorU (Soweeby) one carucate ; Aschebi (Nateby) one carucate. 

Michdesecherchc (St. Michle-lb-Wyeb) one carucate ; Catrehale (Catteeall) two carucates ; Clactune (Clauqhton) two 
carucates ; Neuhuse (Newhouse or Newsham) one carucate ; Pluntun (Great Plumpton) five carucates. 

Rrocton (Beoughton) one carucate ; Witinghe/mm {WmtiiNaUAM) two carucates ; Bartim (Baeton in Peeston) three carucates ; 
Gusansarghe (Goosnargh) one carucate ; Ilalctun (Haighton) one carucate. 

Trelefelt (Theelpall in the Fylde) one carucate ; l-fatrim (Wheatley) one carucate ; Ohipinden (Chippinq)^ three carucates; 
Actun (Alston) one carucate ; Fiscidc (Fishwick) one carucate ; Grimesarge (Geimsaegh) two carucates. 

Ribelcastre (Ribchestee)' two carucates ; Bilevurde (Billsboeough) two [or three] carucates ; Suenesat (Swainset) one caru- 
cate ; Fortune (Foeton) one carucate ; Crimdes (Crimbles) one carucate ; Ohcrestanc (Oaestang) six carucates • Rodediff 
(Rawcliffb) two carucates; another Rodeclif {UAMaLiFFE) two [or three] carucates ; a third iJo&ciif (Upper, Middle, and Out) 
three carucates ; ffameltune (Hambleton) two carucates. 

1 Tosti or Tostig was second son of Earl God wine and brother of Harold tlio Confoasor, and succoodcd Siward In the Earldom of Northumberland 
the livst of tho Saxon kings ; he was chief minister of state to Edward He was slain at tlio battle of Stamford Bridge, Septombor ioih 10613.— C 

■■^ Chippinsj and llibcheater are now in JJliiokbum Hundred.— C. 


Stalmine (Stalmink) four caruoates ; Preasovcde (Pkeesall) six carucafces ; Midehope (Mythobp or Mythop) one carucate. 
All these vills belong to Prestune (Pkeston) ; and there are three churches. In sixteen of these vilh there are but few 
inhabitants ; but how many there are is not known. 

The rest are waste. ' Soger de Poictoii had [the whole]. 

[In Lonsdale Valk.] 

In Ualtun (Halton) Manor Earl Tosii had six carucatea of land rateable to the gelt. 

In Aldedif (Aldolii'I-') two caruoates; Tiernun (TaonNHAM) two carucates ; HlUun (Hillham) one carucate; Loncaatn 
(Lancaster) sis carucates ; Cherccdoncastre (Church Lancaster) two carucates. 

Jlotun (Hutton) two carucates ; Keatun (Newton) two caruoates ; Ourctun (Overton) four carucates ; Middeltun (Middleton) 
four carucates ; Bietune (Heaton) four carucates ; Ilessam (Heysham) four carucates. 

Oxencclif (Oxcliff) two caruoates ; PoUune (Podlton-le-Sands) two carucatea ; Toredholme (Torbisholmf) two carucates ; 
Schertune (Skerton) six carucates ; Bare (Babe) two carucates ; SUne (Slynb) six carucates. 

Bodiltnne (Bolton) four carucates ; Chellet (Kellet) six carucates ; Stopdtierne (Stapleton-terne) two carucates ; Ncuhuse 
(Newscme) two carucatea ; Chrenefurde (C.vrnforth) two carucates. 

All these vills belong to Haltune (Halton). 

In Witetune (Whittinqton) Manor Earl Tosti had six carucates of land r. teable to the gelt. 

In Neutune (Newton) two carucates ; Ergune (Akkholsie) six carucatea ; Ghirsinctune (Gressingham) two carucates ; Ilotun 
(Hotton) three carucates ; Canteafdt (Cantsfield) three carucates. 

Irehi (Ibeby) three carucates; Borch (Bdrbow)^ three carucates; Lech (Leok) thiee caruoates [all in Lancashire]. Borctune 
(Bdbtos-in-Lonsdale) four carucates; Bennulfeswic (Barnoldswick) one carucate; Inglestune (Ingleton) [in Yorkshire] six 

Custretune (Casterton) [in Westmorland] three carucates ; Birehrune (Babbon) [Westmorland] three carucates ; Sedberge 
(Sedbergh, in Yorkshire) three caruoates ; Tiernebi (Tiernside, in Westmorland) six carucates. 

All these vills belong to Witetune (Whittingtoh). 

Twelve Manors.^Iu Ovstevvic and Heldetune (Austwick, in Yorkshir.', and Killington, in Westmorland) [there are twelve 
manors — viz.], Clapeham (Clapham, in Yorkshire), Middletun (Middleton, Westmorland), Manzserge (Manseegh, Westmorland), 
Cherchehi (Kirkby-Lonsdale), Liipetun (Lupton, Weatmorland), Preslun (Preston Patrick, Westmorland), Holme (Holme, 
Westmorland), Bortun (Burton, Westmorland), Hotune (HuTTON Roof, Westmorland). 

Wartun (Wabton), Clactun (Claughton), Catun (Caton). These Torjin held for twelve manors. 

In these there are forty-three carucates rateable to the gelt. 

Four Manors. — In Benetain (Bentham, Yorkshire) [there are four manors — viz.] WhUnctune (Wennington), Tathatm 
(Tatham), Parleton (Farlton), Tunestalle (Tunstall). 

Chetel had [these for] four manors, and there are in them eighteen carucates rateable to the gelt, and three churches. 

In llougun Manor (Hawcoat in Dalton, Furness and Furuess Fells) Earl Tosti had four carucates of land rateable to the gelt. 

In Chilrcstrevic (Killerwick) three carucates ; Sourebi (Si werby) three carucates ; Hielun (Heaton) four carucates ; Daltuiie 
(D.vlton) two carucates ; Warte (Swaeth) two carucates ; Neutun (Newton) six carucates. 

Walletun (Walton) six carucates ; Suntun (Santon) two carucates ; Fordebodele two carucates ; Hosse (Roose) six carucates ; 
Hert (Hebt) two carucates ; Lies (Leece) six carucates ; another Lies (Leece) two carucates.' 

Glassertun (Gleaston) two carucates; Steintun (Stainton) two carucates ; VUverton (Cliverton)'' four carucates ; Ouregrhe 
(Obgrave, now called Titeup) three carucates ; Meretun (Marton, alias Martin) four carucates ; Pentiigetan (Pennington) two 
carucates ; Gerleuuorde (Kirkby-Ireleth) two carucates ; Borch (Borrow) six carucates ; Btrrelsclge (Bardsey) four carucates ; 
Wiiinfjham (Wittinghaji) four carucates ; Budele (Bootle, in Cumberland) four carucates. 

Santacherche (Kirk-Santon) one carucate ; Sougenai (Walney) six carucates. All these vills belong to Ilnugun (Furness). 

Nine Manors. In SlircaZand (Strickland) [there are nine manors — viz.] Mimet (Miket), Cherckebi (Kirkby-Kendal), 

Ildsingetune (Helsington), Steintun (Stainton), Boddfurde (Bodelford), Jlotun (Old Button), Bortun (Burton-i.^)-Kendal, 
Westmorland), Daltun (Dalion-in-Kendal, Lancashire), Patun (Patton-in-Kendal, Westmorland). 

GUemichel had these. In them are twenty carucatea of land rateable to the gelt. 

Manor. In Cherchebi (Kirkby-Kendal) [Manor] Duvan has six carucates so rateable. 

Manor'. — In Aldinghame (Aldingham in Furness) [Manor] Ernulf'hd.A six carucates so rateable. 

Manor. — In Ulurestun (Ulverston) Turulf has six carucates so rateable. 

In Bodeltun (Bolton with Ueswick) there are six carucates ; in Dene (Dean) one carucate. 

The King's Land in Craven, West Riding, Yorkshire. 

In Mellinge (Melling), Hornebi (Hornby), and Wenningelun (Wenington) [Manor], f//had nine carucates rateable to the gelt. 
In Berewicc (Borwiok), Orme had one carucate and a half so rateable. 

The Land of Roger op Poictou. 

In the two Manors of Lanesdale and Cocrekam (Lonsadle and Cockerham) Ulf and Machel had two carucates rateable to the gelt. 

In the three' Manors of Estun (Ashton), Ellhale (Ellel), and Scozforde (Sootforth) Cliber, Machern, and Ghilemichd, had tix 
carucates liable to the gelt ; [j.e., in Mstun two carucates] in Ellhale (Ellel) two carucates ; in Scozforde (Scotforth) two caruoates. 

In Bicdun Manor (Bbetham, Westmorland), Earl Tosti had six carucates rateable to the gelt ; Roger of Poictou. now has them, 
and Emuin, a priest under him. In Jalant (Yealand Conyers) four carucates ; in Fardlun (Fableton) four carucates ; in 
PmiMrt (Preston Richard, Westmorland) three carucates. „,.,■,>. . ■ r 7 • /ti 

In 5cremcc( Borwick) two carucates; in //en»ecas(re (Hinoaster, Westmorland) two carucates ; m Eureshaim (HEVEBSHai, 
Westmorland) two carucates ; in Lifuenes (Levens, W estmorland) two carucates. ° 

1 Tl,. Mlnwini/ townshics aiuJ hamlets are not mentioned in the ' Under the heads " Yorkshire, the Land of Gospatrio West Riding," 

1, L,,\;(- rn^Tph Hnd in this part lay waste, viz., Barimm wiih and "The King's Land m Yorkshire," Mr. Beamont has nitroduced the 

above aco"""" m^,,n„,, Rrockhola KMamcnih, Cabus Ctevety, Puliwood, following two entries, which are not found in this part of the Domesday 

IT!,%T nt'd^rl^Uh Sewto° HoHM^Iloltnall, Kirktar^, Warbr.,k, Survey, as photo-zineographed, but whieh undoubtedly relate to Ulvor- 

ThMleton 'J' f™™X "JSm PiMnO, MMlJon, Wray, Wyeridale, stone, the capital of Furness, in Lancashire: "In t^fi-atone [Ulverston] 

1,^01 a;ul Coitom Xi ^f Xr «», V««, B^^'tdl with aUsJorth, and manor, Gospatrio had six carucates of land rateable to the gelt The land 

Larbrick, Esprech, f°»""^J' *!''';" p' ' is three carucates. There are bow there four villeins, but they do not 

other places, all in Arnoundemess. v. plough. The vUl is a league long, and half as broad. In King Edward's 

I ^^ 1 Jl''^'fr' H.vf iTid one or two of the Leeces, were all on the time it was worth twenty shillings, now ten shillings." " In Ulvestime 

I ^"nf^iMVohwe bin washed away by the sea.- W. Beamo,il. [Ulvebstone] manor, Oospatric held six carucates rateable to the gelt, 

™''*' Sfverton, th°ch stooSon the banks at the lower end of Cartmel, The land is two carucates." 

has been washed away by the sea. 


Of the different ranks of men mentioned in the Domesday Survey, it may be stated briefly 
that the barons were of two classes — the greater, or king's barons, who held directly of the crown; 
and the smaller barons, or those of the county who held under the earl. Thane was the Saxon 
equivalent for the Norman baron. At the period of Domesday Survey thanes were, however, of 
three classes : (1) the king's thanes, holding directly from the crown ; (2) those holding under 
nobles, lords of mesne manors, or vavasors; and (3) franklins, freeholders, or yeomen, called 
thanes, from their lands being hereditary and their tenure free. Again, there were two classes of 
thanes — the ecclesiastic, called in Saxon mass-thanes, and the temporal or secular thanes. Both 
of these were again divided into two classes ; the greater thanes were next in rank to earls, being 
the king's thanes, and called Barones Regis. The inferior the Saxons called the less thanes, with- 
out any addition, as the smaller barons, such as lords of manors, the less valvasores, or vavasors, 
and freeholders. After the invasion of the Normans, many military men of that rank and appella- 
tion, endowed with the title of knight, were called by the name of thanes, and afterwards of milites 
or equites — knights. Freemen were all holders of land by free, as distinguished from servile, 
tenure. Radmans, or road-men, were probably riders or horsemen, not always free ; drenghes were 
a sort of allodial tenants, between the freemen and the villeins, rendering services to the lord, but 
personally exempt from the performance of them, which was done by the villeins holding under 
them. Bordars held their small portion of land by the service of supplying the lord's board or 
table with poultry, eggs, and other small articles of food. The neatherds (hovarii) or hinds tended 
the cattle, etc., and were less servile than the. villeins, whose tenure and service were servile, and who 
Avere either regardant, or attached to the land, or in gross — i.e. attached to the person of their lord, 
who was able to sell or dispose of them at his pleasure. The serfs (serui) were bond men and 
women employed only in and about their lord's house. The villeins appear to have corresponded 
to the Saxon ceorls, as the serfs did to the Saxon theows or slaves. 

The great baronial proprietors, both Saxon and Norman, of the " Honor of Lancaster " were 
amongst the most unfortunate of their order. The Earls Morcar and Tostig had suffered the fate so 
common to men in exalted stations in those turbulent times ; and Roger de Poictou, the third son 
of Roger de Montgomery, though endowed with three hundred and ninety-eight manors, as the 
reward of the services rendered by his family to the Conqueror, was doomed to surrender them all 
as the price of his rebellion. The proprietors, at the time of taking the survey, had greatly 
increased in number, and the manners and customs of the people, as developed in the survey of 
the six hundreds between the Mersey and the Ribble, form the most valuable feature of this 
ancient record.^ The tenure by which the thanes held the land in the hundred of Derby was— 
two ores of pennies for a carucate : this must have been most indulgent as far as the rent was 
concerned, but the obligation to build the king's houses, to attend his fisheries, to repair his fences, 
and to reap his harvest, would add not a little to the pressure upon the thanes. Such was the 
inequality of the laws in these times that in some districts— Orrel, Halsall, and Everton, for 
instance— the occupiers were exempt not only from the principal tax (dane-geld), but they were 
exonerated from the punishment justly due to some crimes of the greatest enormity ; while, in 
other places, the offence of rape, and of the tenant absenting himself from the shire-mote or 
hundred court, were to be punished with the same severity— viz., a fine of ten shillings ' It appears 
also that there were m these six hundreds one hundred and eighty-eight manors, and that their 
annual value, when Roger de Poictou received them from the king, was scarcely equal to that of a 
small estate m our times. The contrast between the nature of landed possessions in this district, 
m the time when the dane-geld tax was enforced in 1086, and the time when the property-tax 
existed in 1814, is the most striking; in the former all the lands between Mersey and Ribble were 
valued at f 120-in the latter at £2,569,761. Allowing for the difference in the value of money at 
the two periods, the statement will stand thus : — 

Annual value in 1086, £120x110 = £13,200 
In 1814 2,569,761 

Increased value ... £2,556,561 

The Saxon titles consisted of Etheling, Heretog, Ealderman, and Thane, but they all merged at 
tlie Conquest into the more general and comprehensive title of Norman Baron. At the head of the 
Capttanei Regm, or chiefs of the realm, in the earlier of these periods, stood the Ethelings. These 

following SfcafpTop^Jc^t-'"''''-^'' '""' '""'"'"y ^'™" '" *^'" '™<^'' -^l " '« celebrated aa a place o£ security in troublesome times, in the 

" When all England is alofto, 
Safe are they that are in Cliristis Crofte ; 
And where should Christis Crofte bo 
But between Bibble and Mersey." 



were noble persons of the first rank, as princes sprung from the blood royal, and were endowed 
accordingly with great fees and offices in the kingdom. Of this description was Edgar Etheling, but 
the Conquest deprived him of his inheritance. Amongst the Saxons were certain magistrates called 
aldermen. These were princes and governors of provinces, earls, presidents, senators, tribunes, 
and the like. They were of different ranks, as Aldermannus totius Anglice (the alderman of all 
England), in later times imagined to be capitalis Anglice Justiciarus (chief justice of England) ; 
Aldermannus Regis (king's alderman), so called because he was constituted by the king, or that he 
exercised regal authority in the province committed to his charge ; Aldermannus Comitatds (of a 
county), sometimes taken pro Schyreman et ipso Comite (for the shireman and the comes or earl 
hiniselt)._ The office of alderman was to inspect the county's arms, and to raise forces within his 
jurisdiction ; to repress the refractory, and to promote public justice. The bishops were nobles 
inferior in rank to earls. By the laws of Alfred and iEthelstan, the lives of the dignitaries, both in 
the church and state, were valued, and the rate at which their heads were estimated serves to show 
their relative dignity. The head of the archbishop, the earl, or satrap, was valued at 15,000 
thrymses ; the bishop and alderman, at 8,000 ; the Belli Imperator et summus prcepositus (the 
commander and chief officer ol war), or vice-comes (sheriff), at 4,000 thrymses. From which it 
appears that the alderman held the middle station between the earl and the sheriff. After the 
Conquest, the alderman's office grew out of use, and was superseded almost entirely by the sheriff. 

Honors were hereditable before the Conquest by earls and barons, and for the most part to such 
as were of the blood-royal ; hence the honor of Lancaster had been possessed successively by earls 
Tostig and Morcar. By the Norman law, honors became a feudal patrimony of any of the high 
barons, generally adjoined to the principal seat of the baron. The great baron of Lancashire, 
Roger de Poictou,_so called from having married Almodis of Poictou, ranked amongst the Capitales 
Barones, holding immediately from the crown. The barons who held of him were called Barones 
Comitatus (barons of the county), and held free courts for all pleas and complaints, except those 
belonging to the earl's sword. The ancient barons in their lordships or baronies took cognisance 
of litigation and robberies, and enjoyed and used the privileges which are called sac, soc, tol, 
theam, infangthef, fairs, and markets.^ The distinction between an honor and a manor consists 
principally in the much greater extent for the former, and in the courts held in each. A manor 
was composed of demesne and services, to which belong a three weeks' court, where the free- 
holders, being tenants of the manor, sit covered, and give judgment in all suits that are there 
pleading. But an honor has either a castle, as at Lancaster, or at least the site of a castle, or some 
principal house of state, and consists of demesnes and services, to which a number of manors and 
lordships, with all their appurtenances and other regalities, are annexed. To every manor a court 
baron is attached. In an honor, an honorable court is kept once every year at least, and oftener 
if required, at which court all the freeholders of all the manors which stand united to the honor 
make their appearance, and in which suitors do not sit, but stand bareheaded. Over that court 
should be hung a cloth of state, with a chair of state, upon which chair should be laid a cushion 
made of cloth of gold, or what is becoming and decent for a place of honour, and upon which there 
ought to be embroidered the arms belonging to the honor. 

The barons of the honor of Lancaster, in the time of the Conqueror, are thus set forth in 
Kenion's MSS. :— 

"List of Babons Cum. Lanc. under Roger de Puictuu. Godefridus, bis sheriif of Derby — Yardfridua, Baron of Widnes— 
Paganu3 Villers, Baron of Warrington— Albertus Grelle, Baron of Manchester— Buruu [Byron], Baron of Ratchdale and 
Totington— Ilbert Lacy, Baron of Clitheroe— Warinus, Baron of Newton— Warinus Bushli or Bushel, Baron of Penwortham— Roger 
de Montbegon, Baron of Hornby— William Marshall, Baron of Cartmel— Michael Flemingus, Baron of Glaston— William de 
Lancaster and Robert de Furness, Barons of Ulverston— Wil. de Lancaster, Baron of Nether Wiresdal- Theobaldus Waller, Baron 
of Weeton." — N.B. — Another copy says, " Theob. Pinctrna " {i.e. the Butler). 

Roger Montgomery, or Roger de Poictou, as he is more commonly designated, the grantee of 
the greater part of what afterwards became the county of Lancaster, and the richest and most 
powerful of all the Conqueror's feudatories, forms such an important figure in the history of 
Lancashire in Norman times as to render some notice of him necessary. The members of the 
House of Montgomery took a leading part in the affairs of France and Normandy during many 
generations prior to the fight at Hastings, and French as well as English chroniclers have given 
many, though sometimes confusing and contradictory, statements concerning them. They were 
descended from one of the fierce Scandinavian adventurers, who, under Rollo and previous 

1 Sm was the power o£ administerinR justice ; Soe, of hearLng and at pleasure. Spelman calls it a right of trying tlieir bondmen and serfs. 

determininK causes and disputes, with the power of levying forfoiturea Infangthef w^s the privilege of trying thieves taken within their lord- 

and flne™loran acquitbrnce from payment of duties or tolls in every ship ; Ov.tfar,gthef, a royalty granted by the king, with power to try and 

?:,rt-nf the kiDedom-r;<t.«w, a royalty granted over their villein tenants, punish a thief dwelhMg out of the baron s hbcrt/v or fte, for a theft 

L well as over their Wives and children and goods, to dispose of them committed out of his jurisdiction, if he Ixj taken withm it. 


invaders, settled in the province of Neustria, and gave its new name to Normandy, and appear to 
have derived their patronymic from their fief or estate— Mons Gommerici or Montgomery in the 
department of Calvados. There is a charter contained in the chartulary of Troarn which is said 
to have been founded by Roger Montgomery, son of Roger Magnus, or the great Roger, and the 
great grandfather of Roger de Poictou, in 1022, in which he somewhat arrogantly describes 
himself as Rogerius ex Northmannis Northmannus Magni antem Rogerii filius— 'Roger a 
Norseman among the Norsemen— indicating that he was a Northman rather than a Norman, 
and consequently of the older race of the wave which flowed from the North prior to the time of 
Rollo. The interests of the family were largely advanced by a fortunate marriage made by Hugh, 
the eldest of the five sons of Roger Montgomery, a descendant of the haughty Norseman, with 
Joscelini, one of the nieces, or an illegitimate daughter, as has been suggested, of Gunnor, 
wife of Richard I., Duke of Normandy. The eldest son of the marriage carried the fortunes of 
the family to still greater heights, and laid the foundation of his territorial influence by his 
marriage with Mabel, daughter and eventually heir of William Talvace, Earl of Belesme and 
Perch, an alliance by which his position Avas at once established— the house of Belesme being, as 
there is evidence to believe, a branch of the ducal house of Normandy. Through his wife, this 
Roger represented the greatest family in Normandy, next to that of the ducal house, and it was 
possibly m right of his wife that he ranked among the earls. The marriage is stated by Mr. 
Planche, though on what authority does not appear, to have taken place in 1048, and a dozen 
years later he had conferred upon him, on the forfeiture for treachery by Turstin, the viscounty of 
Exmes or Hiesmois, a district or county Avhich in early times was held as an appanage by the sons 
of the Norman dukes. Mr. Freeman relying very much upon the testimony of Wace, affirms that 
this Roger was one of the companions of Duke William at Hastings, in 1066, and_ that he 
commanded one of the divisions of the army engaged in that famous conflict. Wace gives some 
minute particulars as to his share in the fight, but his name does not occur on the roll of Battle 
Abbey, and Orderic Vitalis states distinctly that at the time of the expedition he was left Avith 
Matilda, the duke's wife, as governor of Normandy. Mr. Planche has expressed a doubt as to the 
reliability of Wace's statement, and still more recently Mr. Howorth has endeavoured to shoAv that it 
Avas not Roger Avho married the heiress of Belesme, but his younger son of the same name — Roger de 
Poictou, the grantee of Lancashire ; but if Mr. Planche's statement is correct that the marriage 
Avith Mabel of Belesme took place in 1048, the third son of that marriage must have been 
too young in 1066 to have been entrusted Avith the command of an important division at Hastings. 
Whether Roger, the father, Avas at Hastings, or left at the head of Matilda's council in 1066, 
certain it is that at the end of the folloAving year he attended the Conqueror on his return to England, 
and then had conferred upon him the earldoms of Chichester and Arundel, as he had subsequently 
those of ShrcAvsbury and Montgomery — the last being the only Norman name given to a county 
in this island. By his marriage Avith the rich heiress of William Talvace, Earl Roger had five 
sons and four daughters. Robert, the eldest, became Count of Belesme. Hugh, the second, 
succeeded to the earldoms of Arundel and ShreAvsbury ; but it is Avith the third son, Roger, that Ave 
are more immediately concerned. He married Almodis, Countess de la Marche, in her OAvn right, 
Avhich title Avas used by Roger and his descendants as Count de la Marche in Poictiers, from Avhich 
circumstance he Avas commonly knoAvn as Roger of Poictou, and it Avas on this Roger Avas conferred 
the vast possessions in Lancashire, Avith lands in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and 
Leicestershire, in all 398 manors. Like many a proud noble, both before and since his time, 
Roger de Poictou had his head turned by the extent of his possessions, and rebelled against his 
sovereign. Having toAvards the close of William's reign espoused the cause of Duke Robert of 
Normandy, the Conqueror's eldest son, he Avas, for his defection, deprived of his honours and 
estates, Avhich passed into the possession of the CroAvn. On the accession of William Rufus they 
Avere restored to him, in the hope that he Avould support the claim of the usurper, Avhich he did ; 
but on the death of the king he declared for the real heir, Robert, against Ihe recognised 
successor, Henry, Avhen he Avas again deprived of his possessions and banished the kingdom, his 
princely inheritance passing to the king. 

In tracing the barony of Lancaster, avc find the founder of this illustrious house to have been 
Ivo de Talebois, otherwise Taillebois, otherwise Talboys, of the house of Anjou, Avho came over with 
the Conqueror, and Avho, in virtue of his marriage Avith Lucy, the sister of the Saxon Earls EdAvin 
and Morcar, seconded by the favour of his prince, obtained a large portion of the north of Lancashire, 
and so much of Westmorland as comes under the designation of the barony of Kendal. The 
Richmond Fee, the Marquis Fee, and the Lumley Fee, formed portions of this barony, and William, 
the great-grandson of Ivo de Talebois, first caused himself, by royal licence, to be called William de 
Lancaster and Baron of Kendal, before the kins' in Parliament. 





Roger de Montgomery, son of Rogerus Magnus ; founder of Troarn (1022) ; exiled in Paris 1037 =• 

I I \ -' 

Roger. .«obert Hugh de Montgomery = Joceline, niece of Guuuor, 

lmngi,,1060. | Duehess of Normandy. 

I I 

M'illiam, killed by Gilbert, killed by 

BarnodeGlotie, Barno de Glotis, 

1060. 1060. 

(1) Mabel, dau. and even- = Roger de Montgomerj 

tually heir of William 
Talvace, Ct. of Belesme 
mar. c. 1048; died 1086 

Viscount of Exmes , 
created Eai-1 of Arundel, 
Chichester, Shrews- 
bury, and Montgomery; 
died 1094. 

(2) Adeliza, dau. of 
Everard de Pusay, 
standard bearer 
of Robert Curt- 
hose, Duke of 

Gilbert, poisoned 
by his sister-in- 
law, Mabel 

Other issue. 

Everard de Montgomery, chaplain to 
King Henry I. 


Robert de Montgomery, 
Count of Belesme, 
Earl of Arundel, 
Shrewsbury, fee, 
1098 ; forfeited his 
English earldom in 
1102 ; imprisoned at 
Wareham by Henry 
I., 1113 ; married 
Agnes, daughter and 
heir of Guy, Count 
of Ponthieu ; 1 st son. 

Hugh, Earl of 
Arundel and 
1094; slain in 
battle in 
A n g 1 e s e a, 
1098; died 
childless; 2nd 

Roger, surnamed = Almodis, dau. of 

of Poictou, 
Earl of Lan- 
caster, Count 
de la Marche 
in right of his 
■wife ; banished 
in 1102 ; 3rd 

Audebert, 2nd 
Count de la 
Marche, in 
widow of . . . 

Arnold, Earl of 
mar. the dau. 
of the King of 
Leinster; ban- 
ished with her 
brothers Robt. 
and lioger in 
1102; died 

Philip died 
at the 
siege of 

^ Ti r I 

1. Emma, Abbess of 


2. Maud, wife of 

Robert, Earl of 
Mortain, half- 
brother of 
William the 

3. Mabel, wife of 

Hugh de Neu- 

4. Sybil, wife of 

Robert Fitz 
Hamon, Lord of 
Corboil, in Nor- 
mandy, and in 
Glamorgan, of 

Audebert, 3rd Count = Oungarde. 
de la Marche ; died 1 

I I 

Eudes. Boson. 

Ponce, wife of Walgrave, 2nd Count 
of Angouleme. 

Audebert, 4th Count= 
de la Marche. I 


Margaret, wife of Guy, Viscount 
of Limoges. 

Sybil, wife of 
de Reigni. 


Audebert, 5th Count de la Marche. Sold his county to Henry II., King of England, 1177. 

" Succession of the Barons of Lanoashihe.— 1. Sheriff of Derby, Godfrid, Peverel, Ferrers. 2. Castellan of Liverpool, 
Molineux. 3. Barony of Widness, divided between Lacy and Grelly. 4. Barony of Warington, Paganus, afterwards Butler. 5. 
Barony of Newton, Langton. 6. Barony of Manchester, Grelly [La VVarre], West, Mosley. 7. Barony of Rochdale, Baldwin Teu- 
tonicus, afterwards Byron. 8. Barony of Cliderow, Lacy, the Crown, Monk, Montague. 9. Barony of Penwortham, Bussell, Lacy, 
the Priory, Fleetwood. 10. Barony of Hornby, Roger de Montbegon. 11. Barony of Furnes, Michael Fleming. 12. Barony of 
Wiresdale, Wm. de Lancaster. 13. Barony of Weeton and Amounderness, Theobald Walter."' 

"Stations of the Ancient Bahons.^ — Roger de Poictou, Earl of Lancaster, prudently stationed his barons in the most 
vulnerable places, to preserve his earldom in quiet. 1. He built a castle at Liverpool against the passage over the water from 
Cheshire, and there placed his trusty friend, Vivian Molineux, to be governor and castellauus in the utmost limits of his earldom ;^ 
and for his greater assistance he placed near him, at Derby, his vice-comes, Godefridus ; and not far above, at or opposite Runcorn, 
being another passage out of Cheshire, he fixed Yardfrid, another baron, at Widnes ; and a little above that, at Warrington, another 
passage, and near unto the church, was the seat of another barony, given to Paganus Villers, to defend the ford at Latchford, before 
a bridge was made at Warrington ; and a little distance, at Newton, was the seat of the Banisters, a barony in King John's time, to 
strengthen the former, and opposite a high ford or boat called Holyn Fare Passage, out of Cheshire, at Straitford, as well as to keep 
guard against another Cheshire barony, called Stockport, he placed Albertus Grelle, an eminent baron ; then approaching the billy 
mountain from Yorkshire, at a different pa3.sage from Ratchdale, an ancient barony, afterwards succeeded by Lord Buryn, the present 

* From Percival's MSS. Tlie barony of Cartmel appears to be omitted. 

2 From Kenlon's MSS. 

' A castellanus is the prefect or governor of a castle, acting there in 
place of the lord, and sometimes called castaldus, gastaldius ; his office is 
called castaldia, caatallanea being first the name of an office and after- 
wards of a dignity. These castellans were appointed by dukes and earls, 
who enjoyed vast territories, and in some fortified places stationed 
tnilitary guards or garrisons to repel enemies. They wore civil judges, 

to determine the disputes of the people. Having become powerful, and 
the sons often succeeding to the fatber's ofiice, they at last obtained from 
the lords the right of holding ofiice in fee ; and by little and little passing 
the bounds of their jurisdiction, they transformed the wand of an inferior 
justice into the sword of the superior, making the force of the dignity to 
consist more in the fulness of baronial power than in the mere name of 
baron. Bpelman, p. 128, voce Castellanus. 


baron thereof ; then ascending easterly among those hills at Clidero, he placed Ilbert Lacy a baron, near the adjacent P^^^i"*" 
Yorkshire : and more northward, not far from his own castle at Lancaster, at Hornby he placed Roger de Mot.tbegon. Then upon 
the northern boundary, from the Scots in Cumberland, was placed at Gleston, M chael Flandrensis ; and shortly after the abbot of 
Furness (4th W. Rufus, 1090-1), placed upon the west part, possessing the Foldra and Walney, who convened with William de 
Lancaster; and long afterwards the king bestowed the same upon Ingelianus de Guyas m marriage with h,s sister ; afterwards it 
was alienated, and cSme to the possession of the families of Kirkby and Tells. From thence returning southward to Kartmel, which 
11 Ong John's time came to William de Marshall, governor to King Henry IIL, and proceeding southward on the river Wyre, one 
side guarded by William de Lancaster, lord of that part of the barony of Netherwyrsdal belonging likewise to the lords of turness, 
and the other side environed with the barony of Weeton, which (temp. W. Rufus) was an appendant to the barony of Penwortham, 
and bestowed upon Abardus Bussell, brother of Warinus Bussell, and continued m the renowned noble family of Thobaldus Pmcerna, 
from whom proceeded the Duke of Ormoad. And lastly, on that famous estuary of Ribble at Penwortham, where remained au 
ancient castle from the time of the Saxons, here was placed the barony given to Warinus Bussell, who had this place bestowed upon 
him temp. William the Conqueror, though it had then no baron. Leyland and great part o Amounderness did anciently belong to 
the Bussells, for in the survey temp. Will. L, I find one Rog. de Busli and Albert Greslet, who had Blackburn hundred, and 
afterwards, upon division between them, Greslet had part of Leyland hundred, as Brindle, Worthmgton^ etc. . . and a knight s 
fee in Dalton, Wrightington, and P. . . .' which he gave in marriage with a daughter to one Orm^ the son of Edward o 
Ashton-under-LineT Montbegon had another part of Leyland hundred, which he held as annexed to Hornby, as most part of 
Croston parish- viz. Croston, Madeley, Chorley, Haskenmore, Tarlton ; and Hole, formerly part of Warinus s barony, belonged to 
the ViUers, and afterwards to Montbegon, as likewise Sherington, Welsh Whittle, and ChernocGogard Adhngton, and Duxbury 
belonged to Greslet. N.B.—'Vhe baron of Warington had divers territories in Derby hundred to be assisUnt to the baron of Derby, 
and a fee or two in the hundred of Amounderness, as the baron of Manchester held divers fees iu the hundred of Leyland ; the 
baron of Newton a knight's fee in Blackburn hundred," etc,'-' 

The more particular succession of the barons of Lancashire will be most advantageously treated 
in the hundreds to which the baronies belong ; but the rise of the honor into a duchy, and the 
achievements of the noble and royal house of Lancaster, from the Conquest to the period when they 
attained the consummation of their dignity, by giving a sovereign to the throne of England, belong 
to this portion of our history. 

The castle of Lancaster, built by Roger de Poictou, not only served as a military^ fortress to 
preserve the power of his royal benefactor, but it was used also as the baronial residence. It 
appears from the " Baronia de Manchester," that Robert Busli held Blackburn hundred on a 
temporary tenure only for three years, hence it was not appropriated before Lacy was its lord ; and 
the probability is that he held under De Poictou. In the reign of Rufus, Roger de Poictou granted 
a charter to our Lady of Lancaster, to which Albert Greslet, the first baron of Manchester, was a 
witness.' In the interval between the first division of property, under the Norman dynasty and the 
Domesday Survey, the possessions of Roger were forfeited to the crown, by his defection from the 
royal cause. The honor of Lancaster was, however, restored to him in the time of William Rufus, 
but it was finally alienated on the banishment of Roger, in 2 Henry I. (1102). Fromthat 
time it remained in the crown till it was bestowed on Ranulf de Bricasard (styled also De Meschines), 
the third Earl of Chester. The precise time when this grant was made, and the circumstances 
which called for so strong a manifestation of the royal bounty, are not ascertained ; but the following 
translation of an almost illegible charter in the British Museum sufficiently authenticates the fact^ :— 

"Rakulf, Earl of Chester, to his constable, dapifer, justiciaries, sheriffs, and bailiff, that are betwixt Ribble and Mersey, and 
to all his men, French and English, greeting : — Know me to have granted and confirmed to the Abbot of Evesham, and the monks 
there serving God, all possessions, lands, aud tenements, and all liberties given and granted by Warin and Albert Buissel in all 
things ; and also that they may have their courts in Hocwice of all their tenants, as truly as I have mine at Penwortham, for him 
and all his tenants, housebote and haybote, for building or burning, and useful for all other his necessities, without disturbance of 
me, or of any in my name, or of any other whatsoever. I also will and firmly command, that no man against the same monks, 
concerning my grant and confirmation, shall interfere upon any occasion, exaction, or confirmation. I will warrant the aforesaM 
abbot, convent, and their successors, without fine or demand, for fear of my forfeiture, but they shall hold the same freely and 
honourably in all places ; and I, Ranulf, and my heirs, the aforesaid concession and confirmation to the aforesaid abbot and their 
successors will warrant and without fine. — Teste meipso." 

1 ProbaWe Parbold. " Kuerdcn's MSS., folio 271. 

^ It is riglit to Mfctte that these lists of baronies and barons, derived 
from the MSS. of Kenion and Percival, have no satisfactory authority.— H. * lIai-1. MSS., cod 73S6. 


Territory of South Lancashire (between Ribble and Mersey), successively the Possession of Earls of Chester, of the Ferrers, Earls of 
Derby, and of Edmund Crouchback, first Earl of Lancaster-His son Thomas, second Earl, executed, whose brother Henry, 
third Earl, was succeeded by his son Henry, fourth Earl, created first Duke of Lancaster, and called " The Good Duke'- 
John of Gaunt, second Duke-Creation of the Duchy and its Privileges-The County Palatine, its Chancery Court, etc- 
A.D. 1128 to 1399. 

URING the disturbed reign of Stephen, Ranulf or Handle, surnamed "Do 
Gernons, from the place of his birth,' the fourth Palatine Earl of Chester 
alter having surprised the castle of Lincoln, and taken the king 
prisoner in the decisive battle fought there, February 2, 1141, possessed 
himself of a third part of the whole realm of England,^ and amongst his 
possessions were the lands ceded to his father, Handle de Meschines, between 
the Ribble and the Mersey. From Ranulf or Randle, the son, they descended 
(1153-55) to Hugh de Kevelioc, and in 1180 to Ranulf or Randle, surnamed 
" De Blimdeville," son of Hugh, and grandson of the second Randle. Ranulf de Blundeville 
surnamed " The Good," in 13 Henry III. (1228), had a confirmation from the king of all his 
lands between the Ribble and the Mersey, and was made chief lord, under the king, of the 
whole county of Lancaster, with all its forests, hays, homages, and other appurtenan'c'es. At 
the same time he executed the office of sheriff by his deputies in the third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, and ninth years of that king. Ranulf paid down forty marks of silver for these lands 
to Roger de Maresey, and afterwards two hundred marks more ; and agreed further to render 
annually, at Easter, a pair of white gloves, or one penny, for all services whatsoever. This 
earl, who built the castle of Beeston, in Cheshire, and founded the abbey of Dieu-la-Cres, 
near Leek, in Staffordshire, after enjoying his possessions for many years, died at 
Wallingford, Nov., 1232, and was_ buried at Chester. Having no legitimate issue, his whole 
inheritance was shared by his four sisters and co-heiresses. Maud, the eldest, married David, Earl 
of Huntingdon, brother to WilUam, King of Scots, and by him had John, surnamed "The Scot," 
who succeeded to the earldom of Chester f Mabil, the next, married William de Albini, Earl of 
Arundel ; Agnes, the third sister, married William, Earl Ferrers, the sixth in lineal descent from 
Robert de Ferrers, raised by King Stephen to the earldom of Derby, for his prowess at the Battle of 
the Standard, in the third year of his reign (1137). The heirs of the first Earl of Derby Avere 
usually called Earls Ferrers, though they were likewise Earls of Derby. This Agnes had the 
manor and castle of Chartley, in Staffordshire, and the lands in that part of Wales called Powis ; 
and also the manor of West Derby, and all Earl Ranulfs lands between the Ribble and Mersey ; 
with Buckbrock in Northamptonshire, and Navenby in Lincolnshire. In the eighth Henry III. 
(1223-4) William, Earl Ferrers, was constituted governor of the castle and honor of Lancaster ;■* and 
the next year he executed the sheriff's office for this county for three parts of the year, as he did 
likewise for the whole of the tenth and the eleventh years of the king's reign (1225-7). In addition 
to £50 for the relief of the lands of his wife's inheritance, he and she were bound to pay yearly a 
goshawk, or fifty shillings, into the king's exchequer, as had been usual for lands lying between the 
rivers Ribble and Mersey. In 26 Henry III. (1241) he gave a fine of £100 to the king for the 
livery of the three hundreds of West Derby, Leyland, and Salford, which had been seized into the 
king's hands for certain misdemeanours of his bailiffs. This earl died on the 20th of September, 
1247, and his countess survived him only one month — they having lived together as man and wife 
seventy-seven years. William, Earl Ferrers, son and heir of the above earl and countess, had 

• Gemon, or Vernon, in Normandy, the letters G and V in the begin- 
ning of words being indifferently used. — C. 

'■' Nichols's Leicestershire, to which we have been much indebted 
for the historical materials relating to the illustrious house of Lan- 
ca.ster. — B. 

■■■ This John, the seventh palatine earl, married Helen, daughter of 
Llewellyn, Prince of North Wales. He died childless in 1237, having, as 
is beheved, been poisoned by his wife, when his possession should by 
right have devolved upon his sisters, but Henry III., unwilling, as he 
said, "that so great an Inheritance should be divided among distafiEs," 

took the earldom into his own hands, and gave them other lands instead, 
of these sisters, Margaret, the eldest, was grandmother of John Baliol, 
who became a competitor for the crown of Scotland. Isabella, the second 
sister, married Robert le Brus, Lord of Annandale, and grandmother 
of the heroic Robert Bruce — the "Bmce of Bannockburn." — C. 

* Uugdale's Baron, ex Pat. 8, n. 3, m. 12. There were eight Earls of 
Derby of this family, whose name seems to have been spelled Ftrrara; 
whilst that of their descendants, of Chartley, Tamworth, and Groby, i^ 
usually spelled Ftrrers.—'H. 


livery of his lands and castle in the year 1247; and the next year he obtained a mandate to the 
sheriff of Lancashire for the enjoyment of such lands between Ribble and Mersey as his uncle 
Ranulf, Earl of Chester, formerly possessed. He also obtained a charter for free warren, for himself 
and his heirs, in all his demesne, throughout his lordships in Lancashire and elsewhere. Three 
years afterwards he procured a special grant from the king of such officers, for conservation of the 
peace between Ribble and Mersey, as Ranulf, Earl of Chester, formerly had, which officers were 
maintained at the expense of the inhabitants. By Margaret, his second wife, one of the daughters 
and co-heiresses of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, he had two sons. Robert succeeded him 
in the earldom of Derby, and settled at Groby, in Leicestershire. This unfortunate earl took part 
with Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, in the rebellion, and was in consequence deprived of 
his earldom and all his estates in 1265, among which were all his lands between Ribble and 
Mersey. These possessions Henry III. united with the honor of Lancaster, and gave to Edmund, 
surnamed " Crouchback,"^ his youngest son, who, by that king's favour, was created first Earl of 
Lancaster in 1267 ; and thus terminated the connection of the great families of the Earls of 
Chester and Ferrers with the county. 


Edmund Crouchback was the distinguished favourite of his father ; and on St. Luke's Day 
COctober 18), in the year 1253, the king convened many of his nobles, along with the Bishop of 
Romania, who came to him from Pope Innocent IV., and having brought a ring from his Holiness, 
used it as a symbol to invest Edmund with the dominion of Sicily and Apulia, whereupon he had 
the title of King of Sicily. This grant produced some of the most important events in our history ; 
amongst others, the association of the barons against Henry III. ; the appointing of conservators of 
the peace in this and the other counties of England ; and the settling of the democratical part of 
our constitution on a permanent basis by Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, while the king was 
his prisoner. Prince Edmund, about the same time that he took the title of King of Sicily, was 
made Earl of Chester. Upon Innocent's death, Alexander VI. confirmed Prince Edmund in the 
grant of the kingdom of Sicily in due form, but he never obtained possession ; but Pope Urban VI., 
by a bull in 1263, having revoked the deed, Edmund renounced the claim to the crown of that 
kingdom. The prince was amply compensated for the loss of that imaginary power, for on the 4th 
of August, 1265, his brother Edward having defeated the Earl of Leicester and his adherents, in the 
battle of Evesham, the king, by his letters-patent bearing date the the 25th of October, created 
him Earl of Leicester, giving him therewith the honor of Hinckley and the stewardship of 
England. The next year he received from his royal father the honor, town, and castle of Derby, 
with all the effects belonging to Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby. In addition to other grants he 
received also the honor, earldom, castle, and town of Lancaster, with the forests of Wyresdale and 

The_ following year (1267) the king announced to his knights, vassals, and other tenants of the 
honor of Lancaster, that he had given to his son Edmund that honor, with the wards, reliefs, 
and escheats attached to it. In the same year, during the king's residence at York, he issued a 
declaration, from which it appears, that although he granted the possessions in the county of 
Lancaster to his son Edmund, for his.sustentation, that grant was not to operate to the injury of 
Roger de Lancaster. The royal bounty was still further extended in the following year by a grant 
from the king of possessions forfeited by the treason of Simon de Montfort.' In the year 1284 

1 Edmund Crouchback was so named, not, aa is commonly supposed, of Surrey ; Humfrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex ; Philip 

from any Mtormity of person, but from hi3 having worn a cross upon his Basset ; Roger de Soinery ; Alan la Rusche ; Stephen de Eddeworthe ; 

back in token of a crusadmg vow . ,,, ^ . , Bartholomew da Bigod, and others. Given by our hand at St. Paul's, 

' In a footnote on this page Mr. Baines gives the substance of various Londou, 30th June, in the 51st year of our reign [1267] 
royal gr.ante, &o., to Edmund Crouchback, in the original Latin, for = Three more Latin documents are appended in notes to tliis page, of 

which we liave substituted an English translation of the essential parts which the following is the subsfcmee •— 
of these documents :- ,^^^ ,,, 1- (52 Henry IlL 1268). -The king, to the knights, freemen, and all 

1. (ol Henry HI. 1260-67) -The king grants to Edmund, his son, his other tenants of the honor of Lancaster, greeting. Whereas we have 

?n ,^,S„So„H '/° "t ,° ™"^ ha^e'rec cliace and free warren in lately given to Edmund our son the aforesaid honor, with wards, reUefs, 

all demesne lands and woods belonging to the castle. escheats, and all other things appurtenant and belonging to that honor, 

.,.n„ i T'' r -^^ ^ ?? ?*,*'"' *"™'™'«1 Edmund the honor, &c. We command that to the same Edmund and his heirs, in all things 

castle, and manor of Monmouth with appurtenances. that to the same honor belong, ye may be attentive (or maintenant) and 

rrnl;,v!S~«Vi!,„f fi,^™.^ n," *'"> '°''™a™<=d idmund the castles of answering. Witness the king at Westminster, 8th February, 52nd year 

Gro3,3emunde Skenefnth, and Blaunch-astel. of his reign. [8th February, 1268.] 

^„v"fj' i.t?''^ 1 *l P-"^™"^;, ^^^' *,''■' t'^nts, &o., to 2. (52 Henry IIL 1268). -The king, &o. : -Wlieroas we formerly (or 
our most dear son tdmund, the honor, earldom, castle, and vill of L.m- lately) committed to our beloved and faitliful Roger de Lancaster our 
taster, with the vac.aries and forests of Wiresdale and Lonsdale, and county of Lancaster, with appurtenances, that he might have its keeping 
JNewoastle-under-Lyne : and the manor, castle, and forest of. Pickering ; while he lived, so that he rendered to us yearly one hundred marks [£66 
and our yill of Uounemecestr [Godmanchester] ; and the rent of our vill 13s. 4d.] to our exchequer ; and afterwards that county, with its appur- 
ot Huntingdon, with all appurtenances. To have, &o., with knights' tenances, wo granted to our most dear son Edmund towards his main- 
lees, adyowsons of churches, charters, liberties, customs, and all other tenance : Wo, willing in this respect to the same Roger, make our special 
tnings, to honor, earldom, castio, vills, demesne, vacearics, forests, promise to him in good faith, that in the premises we will preserve him 
and rent aforesaid, appertaining, &c. Witnesses— John de Warren, Earl free from any injury to which he may be liable at times. Witness tb« 


Edward I., in an inspeximus, dated at Lincoln on the 18th of August, confirmed the grant of the 
honor of Lancaster made by Henry III. to his brother Edmund, and forbade the sheriffs of Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Lincoln, Nottingham, Leicester, Derby, York, Rutland, and Stafford, or their officers from 
entering the honor of Lancaster.^ 

These vast possessions laid the foundation of the future greatness of the house of Lancaster, 
the power and influence of which increased to such a magnitude as ultimately to seat the family 
on the throne of these realms. In 21 Edward I. (1291) Prince Edmvmd procured licence to make 
a castle of his house in the parish of St. Clement Danes, in the county of Middlesex, called the 
Savoy ; and he founded that house of nuns of the order of St. Clara called the Minoresses, without 
Aldgate, in London. He also was the chief builder of the Grey-friars house in Preston, in this 
count)'. This great earl, by Blanche, his second wife (his first wife, Aveline, daughter and heir of 
William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, died childless in the year of her marriage, 1269), 
daughter of Robert, earl of Artois (third son of Lewis VIII., King of France), and widow of Henry 
of Navarre, had three sons — Thomas, Henry, and John — and a daughter. In 24 Edward I. (1296), 
being sent with the Earl of Lincoln and twenty-six bannerets into Gascony, they sat down before 
Bordeaux ; but, seeing no likelihood of its surrender, they marched to Bayonne. Here their army 
began to dissolve, on accoimt of their treasure being exhausted, and Prince Edmund became so 
much affected by the embarrassments of their situation that he fell sick and died, about the feast 
of Pentecost (May 13), 1296. 

Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, the eldest son and immediate successor of Prince Edmund, did 
homage in 26 Edward I. (1297-8), and had livery of his lands, except the dowry of Blanche, his 
mother. After this ceremony, he marched into Scotland through Lancashire, the king himself 
beino' in the expedition. Being sheriff' of Lancashire by inheritance, he appointed Richard de 
Hoghton his deputy in that office. In the next year he was summoned to Parhament by the king. 
In 4 Edward II. (1310) he married Alice, the sole daughter of Henry de Lacy, Earlof Lincoln, 
and, in virtue of that marriage, became possessed of the castles and lands belonging to that 
distinguished house With this accession of property the Earl of Lancaster became the most 
opulent as well as the most powerful subject in England, and possessed in his own right, and that 
of his wife, no fewer than six earldoms, attended Avith all the jurisdictions and power which in that 
awe, and under the feudal system, were annexed to landed possessions. In the following year he 
■wks the chief of those nobles who entered into a combination against Piers de Gaveston, the king's 
Gascon favourite, who had bestowed on him the nick-name of " The Old Hog," with the avowed 
intention of defending the religion of the state, and restoring the people's liberties. Being made 
choice of by the barons for their general, the Earl of Lancaster sent messengers to the king, 
requiring the delivery of Piers into their hands, or that he should be banished the realm. Such 
was the inveteracy of the nobles against the royal favourite that it is said that Henry de Lacy 
charged his son-in-law, the Earl of Lancaster, upon his deathbed, that he should maintain his 
quarrel against Gaveston. This injunction the earl faithfully obeyed, and, alter a protracted 
struo-crle with the king, the Earls of Lancaster, Hereford, and Arundel, having seized Gaveston m 
the Sastle of Warwick, conveyed him to Blacklow Hill, a little knoll on the road near Guys Cliff, 
where his head was struck off without the formality of a trial (1312). The king soon after 
hearkened to terms of accommodation, and granted to the Earl of Lancaster, and to the other 
delinquent barons, pardon of their offence, stipulating only that they should, on their knees, ask 
his forcriveness in public.^ With these mild conditions they very cheerfully complied, and having 
made their submission they were again received into the royal fayour. Gaveston was succeeded 
in the royal confidence by Hugh le Despenser, or Spenser, and by his father, a venerable nobleman, 
whose wisdom and moderation were not sufficient to check the opposite qualities m his son. No 
sooner was Edward's attachment declared for the Spensers, than the turbulent barons, headed 

kin,, at York, 15th Septexnber, 52nd year of his reign. [15th September, Hen^ '^-S.^rSfe'^^^lSy i?fl.f oi lltl^TIlt^^'^^^eTo 

1268.1 , „, , • J. „ii v,!o T,.,Hnfi-= Urn • \frhprpii our dcarest brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, in thesewords : "Henry, 

8. (53 Henry III. 12e9).-The king to aU his barlifft, &o. . Wherea^^ &" , to the sheriffs of the counties [named in the text] and to all other 

by our charter we have given and granted *? °"' ^ffj^"'"" of the same sheriffs and stewards in whose bailiwicks the honor of Lancaster exists, 

i-ffl, and castle of Leicester, andaU the lands and tenement of the same ^f™^ '\, „ j^ reciting the grant of the honor, &c. , this confirmation 

honor, with knights' fees, and other its ^PP^^f «a^f ».^^>°?' '°™?J^y Kd" the sheriffs enumerated%ither to enter themselves or to send or 

belonged to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Le cester "L-Jhrwa? which he permit their baihffs to enter or intermeddle with any tiling belonging to 

according to the law and custom of O"-: '''°8'i™v''/ *hich at Evesham thithonor, or to the men of the honor, unless requ red to do so by the 

excited against us in our kingdom, and by the ^^t«"" 7^J°° ^1^™^'^^^ baniffs of his said son. If any of them or their bailiffs should find or 

he, our enemy, was slain, became forfeit ™d. escheated to us-to have ^^^™^^°"^ thing of those which to that honor belong, they are without 

&c , to the same Edmund for ever : We, '';''"« '°?^°JXeSw"ich Sy to render it to the bailiffs of his said son. They are not to distrain 

fully to the same son, grant to him the stewardship of England which ^elay to re. ^^^^^^ required by the bailiffs of the eari.] 

the same Simon formerly had, to have &o. '/"/t^e whole of his^life with on^rgKi,^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^_ 1^^ ^^ , 

all things pertaining to the "^^^ ^^''"'^ft'Pv,,"/. veir of Ws ?e?m our rd™." [18th August, 126S.]-We accept these letters [patent] for 

Witness the king, at Windsor, 9th May, in the j3rd year of his reign. ^J^^j'^f^^^^'^^^ ^eirs in the form aforesaid, &c. 

^''^^ThislnspLimus of Edward I. recites the original grantof his father = Eyley, p. 538. 



again by the Earl of Lancaster, concerted plans for their ruin, and manifested their discontent by 
withdrawing from Parliament. One gross act of injustice so alarmed the Earl of Heretord thathe 
complained to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who thereupon mustered a number of the barons with 
their adherents, at Shireburne, and from thence marched, armed and with banners, to bt. Albans, 
on their way plundering the manors of the elder Spenser as they previously had those of 
the son and with the determination to reform the administration of the government. The 
barons 'next, marched to London with all their forces, stationed themselves in the 
neic^hbourhood of that city, and exhibited before the Parliament, which was then sitting, 
charees ao-ainst the Spensers, who were both of them at that time absent from the country. 
These charo'es the lay-barons declared to be proved, and passed a sentence of attainder and 
perpetual exile against the ministers as enemies of the king and his people (1321). The 
Commons, though now an estate in Parliament, were yet so little considered, that their assent was 
not required ; and even the votes of the prelates were dispensed with on the present occasion. To 
secure themselves against consequences, the barons obtained from the king an indemnity for their 
illeo'al proceedings.' The following year the king raised a powerful army, with which he marched 
into Wales, and so far recovered confidence in his own strength as to recall the Spensers. Many of 
the barons,' considering their cause hopeless, sent in their submission ; but the Earl of Lancaster, in 
order to prevent the total ruin of his party, summoned together his vassals and retainers, and, 
having received the promise of reinforcements, advanced with his forces against the king.who had 
collected an army of thirty thousand men. The earl, being aware of the inferiority of his own 
force, despatched into Lancashire Sir Robert de Holland (whom he had advanced from the humble 
office of his butler to the dignity of knighthood, with a stipend of two thousand marks [£1,333] 
per annum), to bring up five hundred men out of that county. The required force was raised 
without difficulty, but the knight, it is commonly asserted, instead of bringing them to the earl, 
conducted them to the king. The statement is, however, unsupported by any reliable evidence. 
Sir Robert de Holland, after the defeat at Burton- on-Trent, surrendered to the king and escaped 
the penalty of death, but the whole of his vast possessions were confiscated to the crown. There 
was a belief that he had acted faithlessly to the Earl of Lancaster, and in consequence he incurred 
such hatred from the people that, being found in a wood near Henley-on-Thames (2 Edward 
III., 1328), he was seized and beheaded on the nones (7th) of October, and his head sent 
to Henry, Earl of Lancaster, then at Waltham Cross. The charge of treachery has, however, 
never been established, and Avas, in all probability, devised by the adherents of Earl_ Henry 
to secure his removal, and thereby prevent his becoming repossessed of the manors which had 
been conferred upon him by Earl Thomas. This is evident by the efforts made by Earl Henry 
to prevent the restoration of the confiscated lands. On the l7th February, 1 Edward III. 
(1327), the sheriffs were directed to seize into the king's hands all the confiscated estates, in 
order that they might be restored to their owners.'^ In the same year Robert de Holland, and 
Matilda, his wife, complain, by petition, that the king's writ of December 2nd has not been obeyed 
by the sheriffs, and they pray for an Exchequer certification of their property then in the king's 
hands.^ The certificate was granted, on which Sir Robert was opposed in council by the Earl of 
Lancaster, who alleged that the writs directed to the sheriffs for livery of lands in their possession 
were contrary to form and laAv, and prayed that they might be revoked.'' The proceedings in this 
case are at great length, but Sir Robert was finally reinstated. The Earl of Lancaster marched 
to his castle at Pontefract, the ancient seat of the Lacys. Having called a council of the barons 
by whom he was surrounded, Avhich sat in the Black -friars in Pontefract, they advised him to 
march to Dunstanburgh, in Northumberland ; but this advice he declined, and resolved to remain 
at Pontefract, whereupon Sir Roger de Clifford, one of his knights, drawing out his dagger, swore 
that he would plunge it into the breast of the carl if he would not submit to the counsel that had 
been given to him. Under the influence of these cogent arguments the earl quitted Pontefract 
and marched to Boroughbridge, where, finding the country-people in arms, and William, Lord 
Latimer, then governor of the city of York, and Sir Andrew de Harcla, warden of Carlisle and the 
Marches, ready to encounter him, the battle commenced without delay. The first discharge of 
arrows from the archers of the royal army proved so fatal to the Lancasterian force that the earl 
betook himself to a chapel, which he refused to yield to Harcla, though he saw his force partly 
dispersed and partly destroyed. Looking on the crucifix in the chapel, he said : " Good Lord, I 
render myself to Thee, and put myself into Thy mercy." His prayers were unavailing : the royal 
forces entered the chapel, and the earl was made prisoner. To add indignity to his misfortune, his 

■ Tottle's Cullcct., part ii., p. 64. = Rot. Parlt. v. ii. p. 1, c( .srj " ibid, p. 29. 1 Ibid, p. IS. 



enemies took off his coat of armour, and putting upon him one of his men's liveries, they 
earned him hrst to York and afterwards to Pontefract, where he was pelted by the mob 
and cpnhned in the tower of the castle. "Being brought into the hall, in the presence of 

Kino* ho hoH C1nl-»^-/^■l-./^,-» ^f .-l^.-. + l, 1^ — il ' i' •* -n-.n-r^ ■, -. ^ ^^ ^ 

Without answer ? After quitting the court he was exposed to fresh insults, and being set 
upon a wretched horse, without bridle, he was paraded through the streets with a friar's 
hood upon his head. On his way to the place of execution, he cried, 'King of heaven, 
have mercy on me ! for the king of the earth noios ad guerthi (hath abandoned us).' Having 
arrived at a hill without the town, he knelt down towards the east, until Hugin de Muston 
caused him to turn his face towards Scotland, when an executioner from London cut off his 
head (March 22, 1322)." A number of the earl's followers were afterwards condemned and 
executed, others fled beyond the seas, and, for a time, the public tranquillity was restored. His 
character is differently estimated. His partisans represented him as a saint ; his enemies as a 
sinner, and that of no ordinary magnitude. By the former he is said to have wrought miracles 
after his death; by the latter he is described as a turbulent subject, an arbitrary master, and 
a faithless husband. The just way to estimate his character is to make due allowance for the 
prejudices both of his friends and his enemies, and the conclusion will then be that he was a 
munificent benefactor to the poor, a devoted adherent to his own order, and a man of more than 
ordinary mental powers ; while, at the same time, he was ambitious, incontinent, and disloyal. 
Many miracles were reported to have been wrought at the tomb of this Earl of Lancaster ; and 
the people flocked in great numbers to the place of his execution, till the king, at the instance 
of the Spensers, set guards to restrain them. So great indeed was the veneration paid to him 
that they worshipped his picture, which, with other things, was painted on a tablet in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London, till the king, by his special letters to the bishop, dated from York, 
in June, 1323, inhibited them from so doing. Notwithstanding this inhibition, the memory 
of the deceased earl was cherished with the deepest veneration ; and it was generally believed, 
in that age of superstition, that, in addition to other miracles, blood issued from his tomb. 
In the reign of Edward III. the king, in compliance with the wishes of his subjects, presented 
a petition to the pope, beseeching him to grant canonisation to the departed earl Thomas;' 
but it does not appear that this saint was ever added to the calendar. 

Ancient slander asserts that Alice, the wife of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was repu- 
diated by her husband, on account of her familiarity with Sir Ebulo le Strange, a younger 
son of Lord Strange, of Knockin. However this may be, after the deatli of her husband she 
was married by Sir Ebulo without the king's licence ; and all the lands of her inheritance, 
which were held of the king in capite, were seized and detained. This confiscation was not 
relaxed till she delivered up those lands which lay in the counties of Lancaster, Chester, and 
York, and gave the castle and lordship of Denbigh, in Wales, and also the castle of 
Bullingbrook, in the county of Lincoln, and lands m other parts of the kingdom, unto 
Hugh le Despenser, the royal favourite. After being divested of these immense possessions, 
the lands which she still held amounted to no less a sum in annual value than 3,000 
marks (£2,000). At the death of this lady, which occurred in 1348, all the lands of 
that great inheritance, which descended to her from Henry de Lacy, late Earl of Lincoln, 
by virtue of the grant made by her father and by the grant of King Edward I., came to 
Henry, Earl of Lancaster, afterwards the Duke of Lancaster, which lands lay in the 
Blackburn hundred, Rochdale, Tottington, and Penwortham, in the county of Lancaster; 
Halton in the county of Chester ; Bowland and Snaith, in the county of York ; and divers 
other parts of the kingdom. 

A household book of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, preserved in the records of Pontefract, 
and quoted by Stow, exhibits a curious illustration of the manners and customs of_ the 
early part of the fourteenth century. This book, kept by Henry Leicester, his cofferer, 
shows the amount of the disbursements of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in his domestic expenses, 
for the year 1313, which were no less than £7,359 13s. Of d. At that time silver _ was of 
the value of one shilling and eightpence the ounce, or 20s. the pound troy. His total 
expenses, therefore, in one year, amounted in our money to about twenty-two thousand 
pounds — an immense amount, when the great disparity in the price of provisions between 
that time and this is considered. 

1 Eot. Rom. et Franc. 1 Edw. III. [1337] ii. 4 in Turr. Lond. 




Household Book of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in the Year 1313. 

£ s. d. 

Charge of the pantry, buttery, and kitchen 3405 

To 184 tuns 1 pipe of red or claret wine, and two tun.s of white wine 104 17 6 

To grocery 180 17 

To 6 barrels of sturgeon 19 

To 6,800 stock-fishes, so-called, and for dried fishes of all sorts, as lings, haberdines [salted cod], &c. 416 7 

To 1,714 pounds of wax, vermihon, and turiientine 314 7 4J 

To 2,319 pounds of tallow-candles for the household, and 1870 of lights for Paris candles called 

perchers 31 14 3 

To charge of the earl's great horses^ and servants' wages 486 4 3 J 

To linen for the earl and his chaplains, and for the pantry 43 17 

To 129 dozen [skins] of parchment, and ink 4 8 S^ 

To 2 cloths of scarlet for the earl's use ; one of russet for the bishop of Anjou ; 70 of blue 

for the knights ; 28 for the esquires ; 15 of medley for the clerks ; 15 for the officers ; 

19 for the grooms ; 6 for the archers ; 4 for the minstrels and carpenters, with the 

sharing and carriage for the earl's liveries at Christmas 460 15 

To 7 furs of variable miniver, or powdered ermine, 7 hoods of purple, 395 furs of budge'' for the 

liveries of barons, knights, and clerks ; 123 furs of lamb, bought at Christmas for 

the esquires 147 17 8 

To 65 saffron-coloured cloths for the barons and knights in summer ; 12 red cloths for the clerks ; 

26 ray cloths for the esquires ; 1 for the oificers ; and 4 ray cloths'* for carpets in the hall. 345 13 8 
To 100 pieces of green silk for the knights ; 14 budge furs for surcoats; 13 hoods of budge for 

clerks; 75 furs of lambs for liveries in summer, with canvas and cords to truss them 72 19 

To saddles for the lord's summer liveries 51 6 8 

To 1 saddle for the earl, of the prince's arms 2 

To several items [the particulars in the account defaced] 241 14 IJ 

To horses lost in the service of the earl 8 6 8 

To fees paid to earls, barons, knights, and esquires 623 15 5 

To gifts to knights of France, the queen of England's nurses, to the countess of AVarren, 

esquires, minstrels, messengers, and riders 92 14 

To 168 yards of rus5et cloth, and 24 coats for poor men, with money given the poor on Maundy 

Thursday 8 16 7 

To 24 silver dishes ; 24 saucers ; 24 cups ; 1 pair of paternosters ; 1 silver coffer ; all bought this year 103 5 6 

To diverse messengers about the earl's business 34 19 8 

To sundry things in the earl's chamber 5 

To several old debts paid this year 88 16 Of 

The expenses of the countess at Pickering, in the pantry, buttery, kitchen, &c 2S5 13 4^ 

In wine, wax, spices, cloths, furs, &c., for the countess's wardrobe 154 7 i\ 

Total £7359 13 oj 

_ A maximum on the price of provisions was established by royal proclamation in 1314, by 
■which the following rates Avere fixed : — 

ij o'^l^? ^^f grass-fed ox alive, 16s. ; the best grain-fed ox, £1 4s. ; the best cow alive and fat, 123. ; the best hog of two years 
old 3s. 4d.; the best shorn mutton, Is. 2d. ; the best goose, 3d. ; the best capon, 2Jd. ; the best hen, 1 Jd. ; the best chickens, 2 for 
1 jd. ; the best young pigeons, 3 for Id. ; 20 eggs, Id. This maximum, after existing for twelve years, was repealed in the year 1 326." 

Henry, brother and heir of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, obtained a grant of the custody of the 
castles and honors of Lancaster, Tutbury, and Pickering, 20 Edward II. (1326) ; and in the first 
year of Edward III. (1327) an Act was passed for reversing the attainder of his unfortunate brother ; 
whereupon he became possessed of all the lands and lordships which had been seized on the death 
ot his brother, namely, the earldoms of Lancaster and Leicester, and all the other lands of Avhich 
Jlidmund his father and Thomas his brother were formerly possessed. This document, which is 
preserved m the national archives in the Tower of London, serves to shed much lio-ht upon the 
local history of the age.^ The life of this earl was not remarkable for any great p°olitical event 
connected with the house of Lancaster. He died in 1345, leaving issue, by Maud, his wife, daughter 

' Lamb"lSn'd?e<,*,'^d wUb ^ZT T^ f "''^"y »'^°»t L^OO. Geoffrey dr Werbubton, sheriff of Lancashire. 

» sCned c?oths " ™'«''"-'^''' JOHK DE Kylvvnton, custodian of tlio lienor of Vykeryng. 

- Acr of Rest.tutiovt Zttebury ™"'' '="''°'*'™ °^ Melbourne & farmer of the honor of 

^^fo^^^Z^:^!^.^^^^:^^^^:^^, 'Tol^Zrf ?™-^^ - ^r Sx^-J^armer of the vill of Rolloston. 
Lancaster and Leice-stcr: brother md hdr ofllinma? ^S ^ } f «""■"" "" ^^If''"-^- '-"'"ler of the lu^uor of Barton. 
Lancaster, deceased, for all laXandtSementawliirlTb^^n™^^ "' Richakd de Wvthenhull, Nicholas de Salopia, & their folbws, 

SS&xi?iSsr.5S?SS'HSS «=S5— — . * - — ■ — °' - 

t^ '=.^hlS^^^^MB€tB^^^BB '-7^"-jF|~^ * their fellows, farmers of the mano. 
JoHs DE Lancaster, custodian of the honor of Lancaster. •' membeis. 



and heir of Sir Patrick Chaworth, Knight, Lord of Kidwelly, Henry, his son and heir, and six 
daughters : Maud, married (1) to William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, hy whom she had an only 
daughter, Elizabeth, who married Lionel, Duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III. and (2) 
Ralph son and heir of the Earl of Sufiblk ; Blanche, to Thomas Lord Wake, of Lydell ; Eleanor (1) 
to John de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan, (2) to Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, having the 
pope s dispensation for the same, on account of their affinity, and likewise because in his tender 
years he had contracted matrimony with Isabel, the daughter of Hugh le Despenser, his kinswoman 
in the second degree of consanguinity ; Isabel, abbess of Amesbury ; Joan, married to John, Lord 
Mowbray of Axholme ; and Mary, to Henry, Lord Percy. 

-7 -cj'^^^j'^TTT^^ ^^^ ^^'^^ °^ Henry, surnamed Grismond, from the place of his birth, obtained, in 
7 Edward III. (1333), a grant from his father, dated at Kenilworth, 28th December, of the castle 
and town of Kidwelly, with the whole territory of Carnwathland ; as also of the castles of 
Oggemor, Grossmont, Skenefrith, and the Manor of Ebboth. In 9 Edward IIL (1335) he was 
in the expedition to Scotland, at which time he gave such proof of his valour and military skill 
that he obtained from the king a grant of certain lands at Berwick-upon-Tweed, which had 
belonged to Peter de Kymeringham. On the 7th of April, 1336, he was made captain-general of 
the king's army in that realm ; and in May following he received the title of banneret. Two 
years afterwards he was advanced to the title and dignity of the Earl of Derby ; having besides 
the annual fee of £20 per annum (usually given in lieu of the third penny of the pleas of the 
county, which the earls anciently had), a pension of 1,000 marks (£666 13s. 4d.), to be received 
yearly during his father's life, out of the customs of London, Boston, and Kingston-upon-Hull, 
until the king should otherwise provide for him in lands, or rents, of that value. Shortly after 
this. King Edward, designing to clear the Isle of Cadsant of the garrison which the French had 
placed there, sent over this earl with considerable forces ; where', upon the first encounter, the 
gallant Earl of Derby advanced so far that he was struck down, Avhen, by the valour of the 
famous Sir Walter Manney, he was raised up, and placed out of danger ; the gallant knight 
crying, " Lancaster for the Earl of Derby. "^ 

In 16 Edward III. (1342) the earl was in another expedition into France, having with him of 
his retinue 5 bannerets, 50 knights, 144 esquires, and 200 archers on horseback ; and had for his 
wages in that service an assignation of a hundred and eighty sacks of wool, taking for himself 
eight shillings per diem, for every banneret four shillings, every knight two shillings, every 
esquire one shilling, and every archer sixpence. He had also the same year an assignation of 
1,000 marks for guarding the marches of Scotland. In 18 Edward III. (1344) the Earl of 
Lancaster was engaged in another expedition to the south of France ; and, according to Walsing- 
ham, after taking the strong town of Brigerac, he subjected no less than fifty-six cities and places 
of note to the dominion of King Edward ; and such was the terror of his name that the cry of 
"A Derby!" "A Derby!" carried dismay into the enemy's camp. In this year of his great 
exploits his father died, as already mentioned, on which the Earl of Derby succeeded to the 
honor, castle, and earldom of Lancaster, and was made the king's lieutenant in Aquitaine. 

The famous Order of the Garter was first instituted in 1349 ; of which, next to the king. 
Prince Edward was the first knight-companion, and the Earl of Lancaster the second.- 

After the siege of Poictiers, of which the Earl of Lancaster, Derby, and Leicester was the hero, 
he was appointed" by the king, together with William de Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon, Renaud de 
Cobham, Sir Walter Manney, William Lovell, and Stephen de Consintone, to hear and determine 
all disputes relating to arms. At this time he had of his own retinue 800 men at arms, and 2,003 
archers, with 30 banners, and kept such hospitality that he spent a hundred pounds a day. After 
the truce, it was found also that he had expended, in those wars of France in which the battles 
of Crecy and of Poictiers were fought, about seventeen thousand pounds sterling, besides the pay 

John de Ktnardeseye, Walter Walteshef, fc their fellows, farmers of ' Sir John Froissart's Clironicles, liv. i. chap. 30. 

the wapentake of Wirkesworth & Asseboume, with the members. ' The number received into this order consists of twenty-five persons 

Lauf.ence Coterell, <fe his fellows, farmers of the lead-mines of the same besides the sovereign ; and as it has never been enlarged, except as 

wapentake hereafter stated, the value of this badge of honourable distinction 

Nicholas de h'unoebford, farmer of the quarry of Eoweclif. continues unimpaired. The particular cause of its origin is unknown ; 

Thomas de Eadeclive, Henry de Bek, farmers of the manors of Spondon. but a story prevails, that the mistress of Kmg Edward, at a court ball, 

William Cokknv, farmer of the borough of Assheboume. dropped her garter, and the king, taking it up, observed some ol the 

Gilbert Henry de Yoxhale, farmer of the hundred of Grescleie. courtiers to smile significantly, as if they thought ho had not obtained 

Edmund de Assheby keeper of the fees of the honor of Lancailter in the the favour by accident ; upon which he exclaimed, Horn soit (jtu wmt y 

counties of Lincoln, Notyngham, Stafford', & York, & of the manors ;i«Me" (Evil be to him that evil thinks), which was adopted as the 

of Wadinton & Alkeborugh motto of the order. By a statute of January 17th, 1S06, it was ordained 

John de Wyvill, farmer of the manor of RideUnton. that the order should consist of the sovereign and twenty kmghts 

ElCHARD DE Whatton, lato farmer of the courts of BothemcshuU & Crop- companions, always including in their number the Prince of Wales, 

hull in the county of Notingham. together also with sueh lineal descendants of George HI. as might be 

MARY^^'ointe^ of Pembroke ll the manor of Hegham. elected from time to time. Special ^""'T^ISf,"??.^ oTwho^ hai°e' 

WILLMM Trussel, escheator on this side [i.e. south of] Trent, the admission of sovereigns and extra knights, f^^ 'f ^^ °^^^Z^tl> 

Simon de Grymesby, escheator beyond {i.e. north of] Trent. however, always been incorporated into the number of the Companions 

Odo de Stok, late keeper of the castle of Kenilworth. on the occasion of vacancies.— C. 


"vvliich he had from the king. In consideration whereof he obtained a grant, bearing date from 
the camp before Calais, 21 Edward III. (1347), to himself and his heirs-male, of the castle and 
town of Brigerac, which was one of the places he had taken by strong assault ; likewise of all the 
lands and goods which he had taken at St. John d'Angelyn, until their ransom were satisfied ; and 
soon after he procured another grant to himself and his heirs-male, of Horeston Castle, in the 
county of Derby, and the annual rent of forty pounds issuing out of the town of Derby. Soon 
after this he was constituted the king's lieutenant and captain-general in the parts of Poictou ; 
he then bore the titles of Earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Lincoln, Derby, Grismond, and Ferrers ; he 
was made by David Bruce, King of Scotland, Earl of Moray, and, to crown his dignities, and to 
rcAvard his merit, the title of Duke of Lancaster was conferred upon him by special charter bearing 
date March 6th, 26 Edward III. (1353). 


Henry, the first Dulce of Lancaster, having received his title to the dukedom by the general 
consent of all the prelates and peers then sitting in Parliament at Westminster, for his hfe, he was 
invested therewith by cincture or girding of a sword, with power to have a chancery in the 
county of Lancaster, and to issue out writs there, under his own seal, as well touching pleas of the 
crown as any other relating to the common laws of this realm ; as also to enjoy all other liberties 
and " Jura Regalia " belonging to a county palatine, in as ample a manner as the Earl of Chester was 
known to have within that county. Under the term " Jura Regalia," says Sir Thomas Hardy, 
the late Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records, " the Duke of Lancaster had the exclusive 
administration of justice by his Courts of Equity and Common Law in the Duchy and Palatinate of 
Lancaster. These courts (closely analogous in their construction and in their practice to the King's 
Superior Courts) consist of a Court of Chancery, a Court of Common Pleas for the decision of civil 
suits, and a Court of Criminal Jurisdiction. The judges of the Common Law Court are appointed 
by royal commission under the seal of the County Palatine, the judges selected being now the 
Crown Judges appointed for the northern circuit, and the practice in the court resembles, as 
nearly as circumstances will admit, that of the Court of Common Pleas at Westminster. By the 
operation, however, of the Judicature Act, 36 and 37 Vict., c. 66, s. 16, the jurisdiction of the 
Court of Common Pleas at Lancaster has been transferred to the High Court of Justice. The 
Court of Criminal Jurisdiction in no way differs from that of the Queerr's ordinary court."^ 

In the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum' a document is preserved, containing the names 
of some of the principal and subordinate officers of the Duchy of Lancaster, with a list of the 
salaries paid for their services, of which the following is a translation : — 

Fees and Wages op the Ofpioees within the King's Duchy op Lancaster, made in 

THE 22nd op the Eeign op Edward IV. (1482). £ g. d. 

Richard, Duke of Gloucester, head-steward there, per ann 6 13 4 

Thomas Mohneux, constable of the castle of Liverpool !..!!"".!!!!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 13 4 

The same, head-forester of Simon's Wood, and King's parker of Croxteth .' .'..'.".'..'.'..'."'.' 3 10 4 

The same, high-steward of West Derbyshire and SaKordshire .'..'.','..'.'......'...'..'.'.'.'.'.' 5 

Thomas, Lord Stanley, receiver of the county of Lauo. per ann .'...,.'.'.'.'..'.'.,'. 6 13 4 

Hugh Worthington, forester of Quernmore 4 11 

Two foresters of Wire.sdale, each of them per ann. 30s. 4d ..'.'.'.'.......'..'.....'........'.......'.,.'.'.......'.'.','.'. 3 8 

Richard Pilkington, keeper of the park of Hyde and Fulvvood, per ann.... .'.'...'.,'."..'. 1 10 4 

Thomas, Lord Stanley, parker of the park of Toxteth '......!...!!..!.'.".'. 3 8 

Thomas Richardson, one forester of the wood of Mirescough !..!...!!!!!"!!!!!!]!!! 3 8 

John Adamson, another forester of the same wood, per ann 3 8 

Two foresters in Blesedale, per ann ' ' 1 10 4 

Sir James Harrington, knt., seneschal of Lonsdale and Amounderness!!!!..!.......!!.'.'...!!."]!.".','.'.'.'.'.' 4 4 

The same Sir James, keeper of the park of Quernmore, per ann. . 2 5 6 

Thomas Thwayte, chancellor of the county p.ilatine of Lane .'.'!!!!!."!!!!!!.','!!!!! 40 

Sir H. Fairfax, knt., chief justice of the king at Lane, per ann !!!!!!!!!.!!! 26 13 4 

Richard Pigot, another king's justice at Lane, per ann 23 6 8 

John Hawardyn, king's attorney-general at law there, per ann'.' !!!!!.!!!!.!"..'! 6 13 4 

John Lake, clerk of crown pleas "00 

John Bradford, clerk of common pleas 2 

John Lake, William Bradford and John Bradtord;'cierk3''of''kle''cro'w'u'in''co;'La'no'.'in'time''of''s'essio'ns; 

ortheirwagesfor 40 days, eachof them 23. perday ... 6 

Ranulphus Holcrof te, baron of the king's bench at Lancaster, per ann. 4 

Ihomas Bolron.cner of all sessions and courts of the king within the county of Lane., per anu 2 

Ihomas Ratchff, Esq., constable of the king's castle of Lancaster, per ann. 13 6 8 

IhomasBarowe, master-mason of the king's castles within the counties of Lancaster and Chester 12 3 4 

Peter Wraton, king s carpenter at Lancaster, and clerk of the king's works there 7 3 8 


.£200 1 2 

' Thirty-fifth Report, p. viii. = Cod. 433. fo. 317 a. 



Clyderowb, with its Members. £ ^^ ^^ 

Eichard, Duke of Gloucester, steward of the lordship of Penwortham 10 

Thomas, Lord Stanley, receiver of the lordship of Clyderowe '..',...........'...... 6 13 4 

Brian Talbot, constable of the castle of Clyderowe 10 

Roger Bauaster, porter of the castle there, per aun 2 8 

John Cays, parker of the park of Musbury, per aun 1 10 4 

John Talbot, parker of the park of IghtenhuU, per ann ,,,[ 2 8 

Robert Harington, parker of the park of Radam, per ann '....'............"..'. 1 10 4 

John Hunter, keeper of the chaoe of Trowdon, per ann ] 2 8 

Richard Shrobury, keeper of the park of Lathegry ne, and paler of the same 2 5 6 

Total £29 1 6 

The Duke of Lancaster, deeply imbued with the chivalrous spirit of the age in which he lived, 
obtained a licence from the king to proceed to Syracuse to fight against the infidels. To guard 
against the possible consequences of this crusade, he obtained a royal grant, providing that, in case 
he should depart this life before his return, his executors should retain all his estates, castles, 
manors, and lands in their possession, until his debts were discharged. On his journey he was 
taken prisoner in Germany, and constrained to give three thousand scutes of gold for his liberty.^ 
This surprisal was made at the instance of the Duke of Brunswick ; and learning, before he came 
to his destination, that the Christians and the pagans had made a truce, he returned to Cologne, 
where he observed " that it did not belong to a person of the Duke of Brunswick's rank to deal 
with a stranger in the manner that the duke had dealt with him ; that he had never offended 
him ; and that if the duke thought proper to interfere with his concerns he would find him ready 
to play a soldier's part." This conversation having been communicated to the Duke of Brunswick, 
he sent the Duke of Lancaster a letter of challenge to meet him at Calais in single combat. The 
Duke of Lancaster accepted this challenge with alacrity, and taking with him fifty knights and a 
large retinue, he proceeded towards the scene of action. A rencounter between two personages of 
so much distinction excited the deepest interest both in France and England ; and great efforts 
were made, but without success, to reconcile the combatants Avithout an appeal to arms. On the 
appointed day they entered the lists, and having taken the usual oaths, mounted their horses for 
the combat. In the moment of trial, the courage of the Duke of Brunswick failed him, and he 
quitted the quarrel, and submitted himself to the award of the King of France. The king and his 
court, who were to have witnessed the combat, now became the mediators, and at a great feast 
reconciled the dukes to each other. 

Henry, who, for his deeds of piety, was styled " The Good Duke of Lancaster," out of his 
devout respect to the canons of the collegiate church at Leicester, permitted the priests to enclose 
their woods, and stored them with deer out of his own parks. After this time he received special 
command from the king to keep a strict guard upon the sea-coasts of Lancashire, and to arm all 
the lanciers who were raised in his territories for the public service. In 31 Edward III. (1357) 
John, King of France, having been taken prisoner by Edward the Black Prince, was brought into 
this country. The captive monarch became the guest of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, in his stately 
palace in the Savoy, which he had completed at the expense of fifty two thousand marks (£34,666), 
obtained at the taking of Brigerac. The Duke of Lancaster, having terminated his career of 
military renown, devoted himself to works of piety, and 

" By a deed, bearing date the second of January, in the 35th of Edward III., he gave to the monks at Whalley, in this county, 
and to their successors, two cottages, seven acres of land, one hundred and eighty-three acres of pasture, two hundred acres of wood, 
called Ramsgrove all lying in the chase of Blackburn ; likewise two messuages, a hundred and twenty-six acres of land, twenty-six 
acres of meadow' and a hundred and thirty acres of pasture called Standen, Holcroft, and Grenelache, lying within the townships 
of Penhulton and Clitheroe, with the fold and foldage of Standen, to support and maintain two recluses m a certain place within the 
churchyard of the parochial church of Whalley, and their successors recluses there ; as also two women-servants to attend them 
there to pray for the soul of him the said duke, his ancestors and heirs ; that is to say, to find them every week throughout the 
year 'seventeen loaves of bread, such as usually were made in their convent, each of them weighing fifty shillings sterling ; and 
seven loaves of the second sort, of the same weight ; and also eight gallons of their better sort of beer ; and threepence for their 
food Moreover every year, at the feast of All Saints, to provide for them ten large fishes, called stock-fish ; one bushel of oatmeal 
for Dottaee • one' bushel of rye ; two gallons of oil for their lamps ; one pound of tallow for candles ; six loads of' turf, and one load 
of faeeots for their food ; likewise to repair their habitations ; and to find a chaplain, with a clerk, to sing mass, in the chapel 
belonging 'to these recluses, every day ; and also all vestments, and other utensils and ornaments, for the same chapel ; the 
nomination of successors, upon deaths, to be in the duke and his heirs." 

This " Good Duke of Lancaster," by his will bearing date, at the castle of Leicester, the 15th of 
March 35 Edward III. (1361), wherein he styles himself Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, 
and Leicester Steward of England, and Lord of Brigerac and Beauford, bequeathed his body to be 
buried in the Collegiate Church of our Lady of Leicester. He only survived the making of this 

1 The scute was oj the value o( half a noble, or 3s. 4cl., so that 3,000 .scutes represent £500. 


testament nine days. At that time a plague raged in England, which, in allusion to the great 
plague in 1349, Barnes calls the " second plague, nothing near," says he, " so dismal and universal 
as the former, but much more destructive to the nobility and prelacy." Thus died the great, 
valiant, and liberal prince, Henry Plantagenet, March 24th, 1361. He left issue by Isabella, his 
wife, daughter of Henry Bellmont or Beaumont, lord of Folkingham, two daughters, his heirs, 
Maud, twenty-two years old, first married to Ralph, son and heir of Ralph, Lord Stafford, and after 
to William of Bavaria, son of Lewis the emperor ; and Blanche, nineteen years old, married to John 
of Gaunt, Earl of Richmond, fourth son of King Edward III. Maud, the elder, had for her moiety 
an assignment of the manors in the counties of Berks, Leicester, Northampton, Rutland, and 
Huntingdon, and also the lordship of Beauford and Nogent in France. 

" And to John, Earl of Eichmond, and Blanche his wife, whose homage was then taken by reason of issue between them, the 
castle and town of Pontefract ; the manors of Bradeform, Almanbury, Altofts, Warnfeld, Rothewell, Ledes, Eoundehay, Scoles, 
Berewyck, Kepax, Aberford, Knottiiigley, with the mills there ; Beghale, Kamsale, Ouston, Elmesdale, Akworth, and Stainoros ; 
the bailiwick and honor of Pontefract ; a certain rent called castle ferme, with the pleas and perquisites, also the manors of Kriteling 
and Barlay ; except such lands therein as were held for life (the reversion to the said duke), the castle of Pickering, with the soke 
and all its members ; the manors of Esyngwold and Scalby, with the members, all in the county of York ; the wapentakes (or rather 
hundreds) of LeyJand, Amunde.rness, and Lonsdale; the manors of Ovea-[? Ulues]-walton, Preston, Singleton, Biggeby, and Wra, 
Overton, Skirton ; the towns of Lancaster and Slyne ; the royal bailiwick of Blackburnshire, the office of master-forester beyond 
Ribbel ; the vaccary of Wyresdale, like«ise the manors of Penwortham, Totyngton, and Eachedale ; the wapentake of Clyderhowe, 
with the demeuae lauds there ; the lordship of Bowland, the vaccary of Bowland and Blackburnshire ; the forest of Blackburnshire 
and the park of Ightenhull, with the appurtenances in Blackburnshire, all in the county of Lancaster. The castle and manor of 
Dunstanburgh, with the manors of Slioplaye, Stamford, Burton, and Emeldon ; also the fishing of Tweed, in the county of Nor- 
thumberland. The manor of Hinckley, with the bailiwick there, in the county of Leicester ; the castle and manor of Kenilworth, 
with the pool and mill there ; the manors of Wotton, Shrewle, Radesle, and Ashtul, with their appurtenances, in the county of 
Warwick ; the manors of Halton, Eonkore, More, Whitelawe, Congleton, Keleshole, and Bedestan ; the bailiwick of Halton ; the 
town of Wyndenes [Widnes], sergeanty of Wyndenes, in the county of Lancaster. In addition to these great lordships and lands, 
there was a further assignment made unto the Earl of Eichmond, and Blanche his wife, of the manors of Coggleshul, Cridelyng, 
Bailey, Kilbourne, Toresholme, Marthesdon, Swanyngton, Passenham ; likewise certain lands in Daventre and Hinkele, with the 
mills of Lilleborn ; also the manor of Uggele, in the county of Essex." 

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, was born at Gaunt (Ghent), in Flanders, from whence he 
derived his surname, between the 2.5th and 31st of March, 1340 ; and on the 20th of September, 
1343, he was created Earl of Richmond, having therewith a grant in tail general of all the castles, 
manors, and lands belonging to that earldom, and all the prerogatives and royalties which John, 
late Duke of Britany and Richmond, enjoyed.^ In 135.5 he attended the king, his father, on an 
expedition into Flanders, and in 1357 had a grant in special tail of the castle and lordship of 
Lydell, in the county of Northumberland. Having obtained (May 19, 1359) a dispensation from 
Rome, he was married at Reading, in Berkshire, to his cousin, the lady Blanche, second daughter 
and co-heir of Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster. In 1361 he obtained a special charter for 
divers privileges to himself and his heirs by Blanche, his wife — namely, return of writs, pleas of 
Withernam,'' felons' goods, etc., in all the lordships and lands whereof he was then possessed, with 
freedom for himself and his heirs, and all the tenants and residents upon the lands, and fees which 
belonged to Henry, Earl of Lancaster, from all manner of tolls of what kind soever throucrhout 
the whole kingdom. The same year having issue by his wife, and doing his homage, he had an 
assignation of her property in all the lands whereof her father died possessed. And, by virtue of 
the king's licence, he obtained a further grant from John, Bishop of Lincoln, Richard, Earl of 
Arundel, and^ others, to himself, his wife, and their issue, of the castle of Bolingbroke, with the 
park, knights' fees, and advowsons of the churches thereto belonging, together with other manors 
in the counties of Stafford, Northumberland, and Derby. In 1362, upon the death of Maud, the 
widow of William, Duke of Bavaria, without issue, he had, in right of the said Blanche, the sister 
and heir of Maud, all the possessions appertaining to her moiety of the estate of Henry, Duke of 
Lancaster, deceased. Whereupon he was in Parliament declared Duke of Lancaster,^ in rio-ht of 
his wife Blanche ; and the king girt him with a sword, and set on his head a cap of fur, and a 
circlet of gold with pearls therein ; and created him Duke of Lancaster, with all the liberties 
and regalities of an earl palatine ;* as also Earl of Leicester, Lincoln, and Derby, with the office 

', S?;f '■ '" S?'^ "^ '?"°"'*'' ''"!i°^\''''i?u i , our own hand in full Parliament, at Westminster, 13Ui November 36th of 

2 When a distress IS removed out of the county, and the sheriff, upon our reign [13621. ">.aLmiubn,r, ijui i^ovemoer, aomoi 

a replevin, cannot make deUverance to the party distressed. « "Counties mlatinp " oinn. T(Ia^VatnT,o "„r^ =« «„ii„.i „ „ ;»*■„ 

^ By the deed of ereation, dated 36 sf ar^dlll. (1362), the king, in because the o;ne?sthere'of (III ^f":t"^ist.r"':i,.TBU^^oi^:Z^ 

consideration of the growing activity and praiseworthy deeds of hia and the Dulco of Lancaster) had in those counties Mm wS as tuUvTa 

dearest son, John, Earl of Lancaster gives to the carl the name and the king hath in his palace ; r,gah-,.i ^oLta °ra/Bractr e" breiw ^^^^ 

honour of duke, and appoints him to be Duke of Lancaster, and invests Anciently palatinates took very much the charicterordistiuct sovereign- 

him with the same title and honour by girding him with a sword, and ties, and not unfrequently local writers, when referring to E^sS 

the placing of a cap of dignity on his head To have and to hold the same spoke of it as " another country," standing much in the lame S?on 

title and honour of Duke of Lancaster to him and to his lawful heirs- to a palatinate as, s.ay, for example, Lancashire, that Franee^fd to Nor 

male for ever. Thw grant is witnessed by Simon Archbishop of Canter- mandy, and Normandy to Brittany " must, howeverrbe understood 

bury, Wilhara of Wmehester, chancellor. S. of Ely, treasurer, bishops ; that the county palatine and the duchy of Laniiisterarenot conterSus 

Richard, Earl of Arundel Robert of Suffolk, Thomas de Vere, our clian- or identical in jurisdiction, the latter comprising much tcrritov that ito 

cellor of Oxford earls ; Edward le Despen.ser, Ralf do NeviU, John do at a vast distance from the county.-C. * ^ * ' 

KeviU, John atte Lee, steward of our household, and others. Given by 


of high-steward of England. In 1366, after having been empowered to vest several of his estates 
in feoffees, in order to make a settlement on his lady, and to discharge some pecuniary 
incumbrances, the Duke of Lancaster joined his brother. Prince Edward, at Bordeaux, on behalf 
of Don Pedro, King of Castile, Avho, owing to an insurrection of his subjects, fled into Gascony for 
aid. On breach of the truce, in 1369, he was sent with a considerable force to give battle to the 
French, being retained to serve the king for half a year, with 300 men-at-arms, 500 archers, 
3 bannerets, 80 knights, and 216 esquires; but the King of France would not allow a battle to be 
risked which might terminate as other great battles had done; and so suffered Lancaster to 
march through the northern provinces without molestation. On his return from Calais to 
England, at the close of the year, he found that his wife, the lady Blanche, had been taken off" 
by the great pestilence, and that she had been interred with great funeral pomp in St. Paul's 
Cathedral in the month of September previously. 

In 1370 the Duke of Lancaster was again engaged in an expedition into Gascony; and 
Peter the Cruel, King of Castile and Leon, whom Edward, Prince of Wales, had invested in his 
kingdom, having left at his death two daughters, who, to avoid the usurper, their uncle, had taken 
refuge in Gascony, he married Constance, the elder of the sisters, and gave the hand of the other, 
Isabel, to his younger brother Edmund, Earl of Cambridge and Duke of York. Soon afterwards he 
assumed the title of King of Castile and Leon, and supported his claim by force of arms, but without 
success. He impaled also the arms of Castile and Leon with his ducal coat. On his return to 
England, in 1372, the duke was empowered to surrender to the king his father his earldom of 
Richmond, with all the castles, manors, &c., to the same belonging, in exchange for numerous other 
manors in the counties of York, Norfolk, Suffolk, Huntingdon, and Sussex. Soon afterwards he 
headed two formidable expeditions against France, both of which failed. In 1377 he obtained the 
manors of Grenested, Seford, and Leighton, with several privileges in the same, and the castle and 
honor of Tikhill. He had licence also to give his lordships of Gryngeleye and Wheteley to 
Catherine Swynford, his concubine (widow of Sir Hugh Swynford, knight, and daughter of Sir 
Paen Roelt, knight, a native of Hainault, and Guienne king of arms), for life. 

During this year he procured the grant of a chancery in his dukedom of Lancaster, with all 
other royalties pertaining to a county palatine, to hold in as ample a manner as the Earl of Chester 
ever enjoyed the same ; with an obligation of sending two knights to Parliament as representatives 
of the commonalty of the county of Lancaster, with two burgesses for every borough within the 
said county.^ He had licence also to coin money for the space of two years, from the 12th of June 
(1377), in the city of Bayonne, or the castle of Guyssen, or any other place within the seneschalcy 
of Landere, of gold, silver, or any other metal whatsoever. 

In this year (1377) John Wycliff'e, the most eminent of all the Lollards at that time — the 
" Morning-Star of the Reformation," as he has been beautifully called— being convened before the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, John, Duke of Lancaster, and Lord Percy, at the 
Blackfriars, in London, the duke had the magnanimity to speak in favour of Wycliff'e, and to 
make some strong observations upon the bishops. So unusual a departure from the orthodoxy of 
the day gave great offence to the episcopal bench, and produced so much discontent among the 
citizens that they rose in tumult, and determined to murder the duke, and to set fire to his house 
in the Savoy. This tumult Courtenay, the Bishop of London, much to his honour, succeeded in 
quelling ; but the Duke of Lancaster was obliged to seek safety in flight, and it was not till 
after the death of his father that a reconciliation was effected between him and the citizens of 
London, under the mediation of Richard II. After the death of Edward III., consultation being 
had about the solemnity of the coronation of King Richard II., John, King of Castile and Leon, 
Duke of Lancaster, appeared before the king in council, and claimed, as Earl of Leicester, the office 
of seneschal of England ; as Duke of Lancaster, the right of bearing the principal sword called the 
curtana, on the day of the coronation ; and as Earl of Lincoln, to carve for the king sitting at table 
on the day of his coronation. Diligent examination being made before certain of the king s council 
concerning these demands, it sufficiently appeared that the duke, as holding by the law of 

1 Rv tliia </ranf- the kinir after praulng the proweas in war and appurtenant to the county palatine, as entirely and freely as the Earls of 

^if'^^p^'^^l£^z:,rt^^^^i>:^^ .^„^-oiLr";u^o4'^;rdrutid^eti;re^s^m?nti^^-ofr^^^ 

DukeTfLlnSf &c°'and befng deai^oifSj reSLd tSso high meX; tenths and^ther quoUs by the'clJrgy of the same we grant and impose 

of his ceS knowtto and cheTrful heart, with the assent of his as the same are granted and imposed ^y theApostohe See ; and pardons 

^r^l^tp/riTrtnnhlpTrow assembled ^ Parliament at Westminster, grants for hfe and members, m cases where, in that county for any offence life 

prelates and nobles now asseniDiea in jriiiiai.. within the or limb is forfeit, &c. Our same son, at our mandate, shall cause to be 

to the same John for the -^hol^ ^'■'^Itl'^wWtun^f^hisIearas record 8=nt to our Parlikments and councils two knights for the commonalty of 

the same 




Encrland after the death of Blanche his wife, had estahhshed his claim ; and it was agreed that he 
Sotid iercise the offices by himself, or proper deputies, and receive the fees thereunto belonging. 
Accordingly on the Thursday before the coronation, which was on the Thursday fo lowing, by 
otder of the king, he sat judicially, and kept his court m the Whitehall of he kings palace at 
Westminster, anS there received the bills and petitions of all such of the nobi ity and others as by 
reason of their tenure, or otherwise, claimed to do service at the new king s coronation and to 
■eceive the accustomed fees and allowances.^ He was also, with Edmund, Earl of Cambridge, and 
certain bishops, appointed one of the protectors of the king during his mmority. t 


In 2 Kichard 11. (1378-9) the duke obtained authority to establish a treasury, with barons and 
other proper officers, within his duchy of Lancaster.^ 

1 A portrait of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, in this capacity, 
is preserved in the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum. 

2 Though it is stated in the text that this grant was made in the 
second regnal year of Richard H., it appears by the deed itself that it 
■was in his thirteenth year ; and therefore not in 1379 but in 1390. After 
reciting by inspeximus the charter of Edward 111., granting to our dearest 
uncle John the title and honour of Duke of Lancaster, &c., Richard gi'ants 
to his said uncle that he may have a chancery for life within the county, 
and in short confirms all that is granted by the former charter. It 
enla'-ges the gi-ant by authorising the duke to have approved faithful and 
efficient men fur collecting the tenths, fifteenths, subsidies, «fec. And 
that he may have justices itinerant, and for the pleas of tUo forest within 

the said county. And further that ho may have hia exchequer in the 
said county, and barons and other necess;xry officers in the same excliequer, 
as well as whatever jurisdiction, executions, and customs are reasonably 
used in the exchequer of England. The duke and his heirs to have and 
hola all and siogular liberties and the appointment of justices for the 
pleas of the forests, excepting those pleas in which the king is a party, 
and all tenths, fifteeuths, <tc. Witnesses : the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Bishops of London and Winchester (the chancellor) ; the Dukes 
Edward of York, Thomas of Gloucester (our uncles) ; the earls Richard of 
Arundel, William of Salisbury, Henry of Northumberland. Richard le 
Scrope, John Devereux, steward of our household, and others. Given at 
Westminster, by our hand, IG February, 13th of our reign [1390.] 


In this early period of our history, personal slavery prevailed to a greater extent in England 
than m any other country of Europe.' The barons had struggled for liberty, and had, to a certain 
extent, secured its possession from the crown by the deed of Magna Charta, extorted from Kino' 
John and confirmed by Henry III. and Edward I. But this liberty was almost exclusively enjoyed 
by the privileged classes, who themselves exercised despotic power over their vassals. The lio-hts 
of those who tilled the ground and performed the other duties of humble citizens were imperfe'ctly 
understood and subject to daily violation ; and so unequal was the pressure of taxation that the rich 
and the poor were confounded together in one indiscriminate mass, and called upon (1378) to pay a 
poll-tax, amounting to three groats on every individual throughout the land, male and female, 
above_ the age of fifteen years. The collection of this unequal and odious impost produced a 
rebellion, excited by John Ball, a popular preacher, and led by Wat Tyler, Jack Straw, and others. 
The Duke of Lancaster, one of the king's ministers, and who was supposed to be his principal 
adviser, became extremely unpopular ; and the insurgents, having broken into the city of London, 
burnt down the Duke of Lancaster's palace of the Savoy and also the Temple, sacked the palace of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, demohshed Newgate, and cut off the heads of a number of gentle- 
men who attempted to resist their lawless outrages, amongst whom was Simon Sudbury, the 
primate and chancellor of England, and Sir Robert Hales, the high treasurer. This insurrection 
was suppressed by the determined conduct of Walworth, the lord mayor of London, who resented 
the insolence shown towards the king on the part of Wat Tyler, by a violent blow with his sword, 
which brought him to the ground, where he was soon despatched by others of the king's attendants 
(1381). Richard, taking advantage of the temporary panic, contrived to conciliate the people, 
and, by his wisdom and moderation, prevailed upon them to disperse. During this insurrection, 
the Duke of Lancaster fled before the popular hatred over the Border, and took refuge in Scotland, 
where he occupied himself in negotiating a peace, in which he happily succeeded. On this occasion, 
William, Earl of Douglas, with a degree of generous forbearance which seldom fails to obtain its 
reward, told the duke that he had been acquainted from the first with the distracted state of 
England, but was so far from wishing to take advantage of the critical situation in which the dulce 
and his country were placed, either for carrying on the war or extorting more favourable terms of 
peace, that he might remain in Scotland, as their guest, until the insurrection should cease ; or, if 
he chose to return, he might have an escort of five hundred horsemen. The duke expressed his 
acknowledgments, but declined the offer. On his return to England, being excluded from Berwick 
by Sir Matthew Redman, governor under the Earl of Northumberland, he accepted the earl's pledge 
of honour, and returned into Scotland, where he remained until the popular tumult had subsided. 
So extensive was the popular indignation against the measures of the king and his ministers, and 
so intense the feeling against the Duke of Lancaster during the rebellion of Wat Tyler, that the 
Lady Constance, wife of the duke, hastened from Leicester to the castle at Pontefract for refuge, 
expecting security there, but when she arrived, her own servants dared not permit her to enter the 
place, and she was constrained to go seven miles by torchlight to Knaresborough Castle, where she 
continued till the violence of the storm subsided and till the duke returned from Scotland. In 
1384 the Duke of Lancaster was despatched, with a powerful military and naval force, to Scotland, 
to avenge the injuries which the English had received during the war with France,^ and to prevent 
a repetition of them, by some memorable act of chastisement. The duke advanced to Edinburgh, 
and at the same time the fleet was despatched to ravage the coast of Fife. His soldiers strongly 
urged him to burn the capital, but the duke, cherishing a grateful remembrance of the hospitality 
which he had experienced three years before, preserved the city from destruction.' A little before 
Easter, in 1384, John Latimer, an Irish Carmelite friar, charged the Duke of Lancaster with an 
intention to destroy the king and to usurp the crown; but on being summoned to meet this 
accusation, the diflie completely established his loyalty, when he demanded that the slanderer 
should be committed to safe custody. Sir John Holland, a Lancashire knight, and son-in-law_of 
Lancaster, undertook the charge, and the next day Latimer was found dead, having, it is said, 
been strangled by his keeper. The king, being under the guidance of evil counsellors, resolved 
upon the death of the Duke of Lancaster ; but private information having reached him from one 
of those that were in the plot, he retired to his castle at Pontefract, and through the mediation of 
the Princess Joan (the " Fair Maid of Kent "), mother of the king, a perfect reconciliation took 
place. The next year he desired leave of the king, and also of the lords and commons in Parliament, 

> Froi^iairt liv ii chaD 74 BngLmd nnd France should bo determined by single combat between 

2 In connection with the' war an incident occurred that, whHo himself and the French king, Charles VI., who was then in his fifteenth 

Btrongly characteristic of the age, gives lo the quarrel an air of the year. There is no evidence, however, that John of Gaunt gave any 

ludicrous There Is preserved among the public records a letter from encouragement to this precocious bernism.-O. 

Eichard who was then a youth of seventeen years, to the Duke of » Duohanan : Eerum bcotiarum Uistoria, hb. ix. cap. 4j. 

Lancaster, in which he gravely proposes that the quarrel between 


to go into Spain for the recovery of his wife's inheritance ; and ordained his son, Henry, Earl of 
Derby, his heutenant of all he had in England, placing around him a safe and judicious council. 
When he took his leave, the king presented him with a coronet of gold, and the queen gave another 
to his wife ; orders were also given that he should he addressed by the title of " King of Spain." 
His train consisted of no less than a thousand spears of knights and esquires, two thousand archers, 
and a thousand tall yeomen. Having landed in Britany, near the castle of Brest, he was resisted 
by two of the forts, in the assault of which he lost many of his men ; but he ultimately triumphed, 
and, having sailed Avith his fleet to the Garonne, he marched to the Spanish frontier and carried 
the town of Bayonne. After this, the King of Castile sent to him to treat of a marriage between 
his daughter and the dulvc's son ; and through the mediation of the Duke of Berry a truce was 
concluded. In 1388 the duke was appointed lieutenant of Aquitaine. 

The disputes which had so long existed in Spain concerning the right to the kingdom of 
Castile and Leon were at length amicably settled, by an agreement that Henry, eldest son of John, 
King of Castile and Leon, and of Portugal, should marry Catherine, the duke's only daughter, by 
his wife Constance ; and that the duke should quit his claim to Spain on condition of receiving, for 
his own and daughter's life, a yearly payment of 16,000 marks, and in case his wife should survive 
him, that she should have annually 12,000 marks (£8,000). The duke returned to England in 
November, 1389, with much treasure ; for it is said that he had forty-seven mules laden with chests 
of gold for his second payment, and several great men of Spain, as guarantees for his future annuity. 
On his return he relieved Brest, in Britany, then besieged by the French. In the following year 
(1390) he was created Duke of Aquitaine by the consent of the lords and commons of England, on 
which occasion a splendid cap was put upon his head, and a rod of gold was given to him, to hold 
his new dignity of the king of England as king of the realm of France. In 13 Richard II. (1390) 
he obtained a further confirmation of the privileges of his duchy of Lancaster, in the appointment 
of a chancery court there, with the power to issue writs under his own seal ; likewise an exchequer, 
with barons and other necessary officers, and power to make justices itinerant for the pleas of the 
forest, etc' His attachment to his favourite Catherine Swynford remained unaltered, notwith- 
standing the disparity of their stations ; and, after the death of his second wife, Constance, he 
married her at Lincoln, on the octaves of the Epiphany (1395), at which, say the Chroniclers, there 
was no little admiration in regard to her low birth. 

"ThU woman was bom in Henault, daugliter of a knight of that country. She was brought up in her jouth iu the Duke of 
Lancaster's house, and attended on hia first wife, the Duchess Blanche of Lancaster; and in the days of his second wife, the 
Duchess Constance, he kept the aforesaid Catharine as his concubine, who afterwards was married to a knight of England, named 
Swinford, that was now deceased. Before she was married the duke liad by her three children, two sons and a daughter. One of 
the sous was named Thomas de Beaufort ; and the other Henrie, who was brought up at Aken, iu Almaine, proved a good lawyer, 
and was afterwards Bishop of Winchester. For the love that the duke had to these his children, he married their mother, the said 
Catharine Swinford, being now a widow, whereof men marvelled much, considering her mean estate was far unmeet to match with 
his highness, and nothing comparable in honour to his other two former wives. And indeed, the great ladies of England, as the 
Duchess of Gloucester, the Countess of Derby, Arundel, and others, descended of the blood royal, greatly di.sdained that she should 
be matched with the Duke of Lancaster, and by that means be accounted second person in the realm, and preferred in room before 
them, and thereof they said that they would not come in any place where she should be present, for it should be a shame to them 
that a woman of so base a birth, and concubine to the duke iu his other wife's days, should go and have place before tliem. The 
Duke of Gloucester also, being a man of an high mind and a stout stomach, misliked his brother matching so meanly ; but the Duke 
of York bare it well enough ; and verily the lady herself was a woman of such bringing up and honourable demeanour, that envy 
could Dot in the end but give place to well deserving."* 

In 1396 the king negotiated a marriage with Isabella, daughter of Charles VI. of France, 
then a child eight years old, with, as he said, the approval of his two uncles, Lancaster and York. 
The two kings, accompanied by hundreds of nobles and knights, with all the pomp of the 
gorgeous ceremonials of that age, met between Calais and Ardres, and there embraced and drank 
wine together out of jewelled cups. On a subsequent day they met again at the boundary of 
their two camps, when the child-queen arrived with a cavalcade of golden chariots and silken 
litters, with ladies wearing garlands of pearls and diamonds. She was presented by her uncles to 
Richard, who promised to cherish her as his wife. The Duchesses of Lancaster and Gloucester 
then received her, and she set forward to Calais, where the marriage Avas celebrated on the 4th of 

Three years after the Duke of Lancaster's third marriage, in a Parliament convened at 
London, he procured an act for legitimatising the children whom he had by Catherine Swynford, 
the legitimation having been preceded by a similar act of the Pope ; and in another Parliament, 
held in September m the same year, called the Great Parliament, the Earl of Arundel was, by the 
Duke of Lancaster, who sat that day as high steward, condemned of treason on charges of which 

' See note 2, page 6S aiipra. ! Holinohod, p. 4S5. 


he had previously received the Royal pardon, and beheaded on Tower Hill, September 21st, 1397. 
During this Parliament the duke's eldest son, the Earl of Derby, was created Duke of Hereford. 
In 1396-97, the Duke of Lancaster had a renewal and amplification of the privileges of his duchy 
of Lancaster.' He also obtained the hundreds of Southgrenhow and Laundishe, in the county of 
Norfolk, which had come into the king's hands by the attainder of the Earl of Arundel. In 1398, 
at^er obtaining from the king an ample renunciation of all claim on any part of his inheritance, 
with a confirmation of the dower of the castles of Knaresborough and TickhiU to Catherine his wife, 
and a settlement of the manor of Bradford and Almondbury on his eldest legitimatised son, John 
Beaufort, Marquis of Somerset and Dorset, he was constituted lieutenant in the marches towards 
Scotland, from the beginning of the twenty-eight years' truce between that country and Eno'land. 
In October, Henry of Bolingbroke, the duke's son, received sentence of banishment ; and from 
that period this disgrace produced the most pungent sorrow in the mind of his venerable father, 
who was soon afterwards seized with a fatal illness and died. His death, which occurred February 
3rd, 1398-9, was much lamented by his friends ; but neither the king nor the people sympathised 
in their sorrow. He was interred with great funeral pomp near the body of Blanche, his first wife, 
for whom and for himself he had erected, soon after her decease, a sumptuous monument, 
surmounted with the ducal arms. 

An inscription was afterwards placed on a pensile tablet, which, after enumerating his various titles and honours, states that 
he was thrice married, first to Blanche, daughter and heir of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, by whom he received a most ample 
inheritance; secondly to Constance (who is buried here), daughter and heir of Peter, King of Castile and Leon, in whose right he was 
entitled to use the title of king, etc. She bore him one daughter, Catharine, who had children by Henry, King of Spain. His third 
■wife was Catharine, of a knightly family, and a lady of extraordinary beauty, who bore him a numerous progeny, of which stock, by 
the mother's side, Henry VIL, most prudent king of England, married one, whose felicitous marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of 
King Edward IV. of the house of York, united the royal families of Lancaster and York, and restored peace to England. This 
illustrious prince John, named Plantagenet, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester, Lincoln, and Derby, 
Lieutenant of the king in Aquitaiue and High Steward of England, died in the 22ud year of the reign of Richard II. and a.d. 1399. 

The bequests of John, Duke of Lancaster, were munificent ; but the largest portion of his 
estates descended to his only surviving son and heir by Blanche of Lancaster. Throughout his life 
the Duke of Lancaster surpassed all the great men of his age in power and fortune ; but he was 
not so universally respected as his brother the Black Prince, the good Duke of Lancaster, or his 
eldest son, Henry of Bolingbroke, Earl of Derby. Some defects in the moral character of John of 
Gaunt, his haughty carriage towards inferiors, and his public support of Wyclifi'e the reformer, 
added to his want of success in arms, contributed to lower him in the public estimation ; though 
his readiness on all occasions to apply his ample fortune in the discharge of his public duties, and 
his zeal in the cause of his country, served to rank him amongst the most illustrious of her 

The ducal family of the house of Lancaster had, by its marriage alliances, become connected 
with many of the most powerful barons of the kingdom, and Henry of Bolingbroke, the 
representative of this house after the death of his father, John of Gaunt, impelled partly by his 
wrongs, but principally by his ambition, wrested the sceptre from the feeble hands of his royal 
cousin, and ascended the throne of England almost without a struggle. By this act of usurpation 
the seed was sown for the long and sanguinary intestine wars between the rival houses of Lancaster 
and York, which served for so many years to deluge the country with blood. 

• This is an excmpliflcation and full confirmation of preceding chattel? of felons aud fugitive.?, tlie return of all writs, summonses and 

charters, as in 1st BicLard II. And further, for the greater security of precepts of the king, etc., and their execution, so that no officer of the 

the duke, the king declares and grants to him that he may have all fines king be injured thereby. And it it happen that the officers of the duke 

for trausgressioneretc, for agreeing to grant licence, and all issues and he .amerced m the king s courts for negligence, etc. such fines and 

foifeitures of all men, tenants and residents in his lands, and fees, and amercements may be to the duke. And that he may have the di.attels 

whatsoever fines, "year, day, and waste," in wh.atsoever courts of the [or cattle] called "waif and stray, deodands tre.asure-trovo, and the 

kin.^, and what by the hands of his otBcers may be levied for fines and chattels called " mauu opera, etc. [This last term has two ineanmgs 

amercements aforesaid. And that he may have, in the aforesaid lands (1) Stolen goods taken upon a thief, apprehended in the fact and 

and fee"^8iseof bread, wine, and ale, etc., ind other things which (2) Cattle, or any implements used to work m husbandry. Most probably 

belong to the office of clerk of the markets, and fines, etc., so that the it is here intended in its former sense.]— H. 
clerk of the king's markets be not injured. And that he may have the 
































































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02 W 


Character of Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Derby and Duke of Hereford— His Quarrel with the Duke of Norfolk, and 
Banishment— Elevated to the Dignity of Duke of Lancaster on the Death of hia Father, John of Gaunt— Returns to England- 
Expels Richard II. from the Throne— Elevation of the noble House of Lancaster to the Royal Dignity — Possessions of the 
Duohy of Lancaster separated from the Crown Possessions— Establishment of the Duchy Court — Abolition of the Duchy 
Court of Star Chamber — History of the Duchy continued — Its Courts, Chancellors, Officers, &c. — Ducatus Lancastrice, 
from the Harleian MSS.— a.d. 1380 to 1860. 

ENRY PLAXTAGENET, snrnamed of Bolingbroke from the place of his birth, 
the only surviving son of John of Gaunt, by his first wife, Blanche, daughter and 
sole heir of Henry, first Duke of Lancaster, Avas in character diametrically the 
reverse of his sovereign. King Richard II. His talents were of a superior order ; 
his manners were popular, and even fascinating ; and his ambition led him to 
aspire to a higher station than that of the first subject in the realm, which his 
father had so long occupied. 

In the second year of the reign of Richard II. (1378-9), Henry, though only 
eleven years old, was thought of age to receive knighthood, and in 1380 he was betrothed, with 
the consent of the king, to Mary de Bohun, the younger daughter and coheiress of Humphrey de 
Bohun, K.G., late Earl of Essex, Hereford, and Northampton, and hereditary constable of England. 
In 1385 he was summoned to Parliament by the title of Henry, Earl of Derby. In the eleventh 
year of the reign he was engaged with the Duke of Gloucester in the combination, professedly for 
the removal of the king's favourites, but in reality to retain the control over the sovereign, who 
had then just come of age, at which his majesty took great offence, but having subsequently made 
full confession of his improper conduct, and sued for pardon, Richard was reconciled to him, and in 
the 21st year of his reign (1397-8) we find the king on the last day of the session (September 29) 
" sitting in Parliament in royal majesty, holding in his hand a rod, and making his cousin, Sir 
Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, a duke, by the title of Duke of Hereford." This reconciliation, 
was, however, short-lived, a violent quarrel having arisen between the Duke of Hereford and the 
Duke of Norfolk with reference to some alleged treasonable expressions regarding the conflict at 
Radcot Bridge in 1388, which terminated in an appeal to arms. The Parliament in which the 
charge was made was sitting at Shrewsbury. Hereford and Norfolk were both ordered into 
custody, and the dispute was referred to the Court of Chivalry, which decreed that the quarrel 
should be determined by wager of battle at Coventry on the 16th September following. On the 
day appointed the combatants entered the lists, but when the heralds had made proclamation the 
king, with, as was said, the advice of his council, of which the Duke of Lancaster, father of 
the Duke of Hereford, was at the head, sent them both into exile : Hereford for ten years, 
Norfolk for life.^ In some of the versions relating to this memorable duel, it is represented that 
Henry, Duke of Hereford, lodged the information against Thomas, Duke of Norfolk; but Sir 
John Froissart, a contemporary writer, states the matter differently, and more probably, by repre- 
senting that the secret of the confidential conversation between the Duke of Hereford and the 
Duke of Norfolk was divulged by the latter ; and this construction is supported by the more 
severe sentence passed upon that duke, "because he had sowen sedicion in this realme by his 
woordes, whereof he could make no profe."- 

1 A pompous description of the Lists of Coventry is given in flail's 

* The following is Hereford's written account of the conversation 
between himself and Norfolk as they were riding between Brentford and 
London, as given in the Rolls of Parliament : — 

Norfolk: " We are on the point of being undone." 

Hereford ; ' ' Why so ? " 

Norfolk : " On account of the affair at Radeotbridge." 

Hereford : " How can that be, since he has granted ns pardon and has 
declared in Parliament that we behaved as good and loyal subjects." 

Norfolk : "Nevertheless, our fate will be like that of others before us. 
He will annul that record." 

Hertford : "It will be marvellous indeed if the king, after having said 
BO before the people, should cause it to be annulled." 

Norfolk : " It is a marvellous and false world that we live in." 

Norfolk then related a plot of certain of the king's eouncil to undo 
six other lords, amongst whom were Lancaster, Hereford, and himself. 

Hereford; "God forbid! It will be a wonder if the king should assent 
to such designs. He appears to make me good cheer, and has promised 
to be my good lord. Indeed, he has sworn by St. Edward to be a good 
lord to me and the others." 

Norfolk: "So has he often sworn to mo by God's body, but I do not 
trust him the more for that." — Q. 



The nation was hig-hly incensed by the kmg's behaviour to the Duke of Hereford, who was 
the diarhng oi the principal peers, ot the city of London, and of the people. They held that he 
had committed no crime, and had been condemned without trial; that by his banishment thev 
were deprived of their best protector; and they thought themselves by that event exposed to all 
the malice and indignation of an incensed and vindictive tyrant. As the duke passed through the 
city ot London on horseback, on his leaving the kingdom, he was followed by more than 40 000 
people, who cried after him, and bewailed his fate and their own in the most moving manner ' He 
was accompanied on this occasion by trumpets and instruments of music, and with the more melting 
sounds ot universal lamentation. The Mayor of London, and others of the principal citizens, followed 
him to JJepttord ; and some accompanied him as far as Dover, on his way to Calais where he 
arrived October 3rd, 1398, and on landing was received by the Dukes of Orleans and Berry, of 
Bourbon and Burgundy. On the duke's arrival at Paris he was very graciously received by the 
Court of France, where he was soon offered in marriage the widowed daughter of the Duke of 
Berry, uncle of Charles VI., Mary de Bohun, the mother of Henry of Monmouth, and of five other 
children being then dead. To prevent this union. King Richard sent the Earl of Salisbury, his 
ambassador, to the Court of France, where the earl represented the Duke of Hereford as a person 
guilty of traitorous designs against his prince ; upon which the treaty of marriage proceeded no 
further. After his departure, he received letters from his father, advising him rather to go into 
Castile than into Hungary ; but the Duke of Lancaster becoming sick, his son continued in Paris, 
where the news reached him of his father's death. The king, availing himself of the exile of the 
Duke of Hereford, now become Duke of Lancaster, seized the possessions of his father, John of Gaunt, 
into his own hands, and lavished them with his usual profusion upon his favourites.' Shortly after 
this time, the king was obliged to embark for Ireland, to suppress a rebellion which had arisen in 
that oppressed country. _ He set sail from Milford on the Ith June, 1399, and, during his absence, 
England fell into great distraction. In this exigency, the people of London sent for their favourite 
Henry, who had then become Duke of Lancaster, promising him their assistance, if he would accept 
of the government.- With such encouragement, and aided by the Duke of Britany, he took ship 
at Le Port Blanc, and landed at Ravenspur, at the mouth of the Humber, in Yorkshire, in July, 
when he was met by a number of nobles in the north, and their followers. On his arrival at 
Doncaster he found himself at the head of a considerable army, and the common people in all 
places greeting his return with enthusiasm. The injustice practised towards him by the king, in 
first banishing him from the realm without proof of guilt, and then seizing upon his patrimonial 
inheritance, in violation of his letters-patent, excited the indignation of the nation towards the 
oppressor, and their sympathy and enthusiasm in favour of the oppressed. His march through the 
country was a triumph ; everywhere the castles yielded to his summons, and on his arrival at Bristol 
his forces were augmented to 60,000. To oppose this formidable force, the Duke of York, who had 
been left viceroy of the kingdom during the king's absence, assembled an army of 40,000 men at 
St. Albans ; but their attachment to the royal cause was so lukewarm that they went over to the 
Duke of Lancaster, on his representation that he sought not the subversion of the throne, but the 
recovery of his paternal possessions, which the king had seized, on the death of his illustrious 
father. The intelligence of this invasion reached the king while he was leading his army among 
the bogs and thickets of Ireland, on which he hastened back into England, and landed in Wales, 
near a place called Barkloughly Castle ;" where, finding that he was almost totally forsaken, he went 
on to Conway Castle, in the county of Caernarvon.^ The duke, on hearing of the king's arrival, 
marched to Chester, which city he entered on the 9th August. From thence he despatched the Earl 
of Northumberland to the king at Conway, who proposed that a Parliament should be called, to 
remove the grievances of which the country complained, and particularly to arbitrate between the 
king and the Duke of Lancaster. Richard, scarcely aware of the danger by which he was menaced, 
consented to an interview, at Flint Castle, with the Duke of Lancaster, who, it was represented, 
would there ask pardon on his knees on condition of the estates and honours of his family being 
restored. While journeying to Flint, Northumberland, who had a large force concealed behind 
the rocks, seized the king's bridle. In this way he became his prisoner, and was, under various 
pretences of friendship and loyalty, after a sojourn of three days at Chester, conducted to London, 
where the cavalcade was met by the mayor and principal citizens, the people shouting, as it passed, 

^ This procedure was in direct contravention of the king's pledge, ^ He went first to Harlech or Harddlech Castle, thsnce to Carnarvon, 

for before the departure of Hereford he had promised and confirmed, by afterwards to Beaumaris, and finally to Conway, where he arrived at 

his letters patent that in case any succession should happen in his daybreak. It is difficult to say which of these castles has been corrupted 

absence for which' he ought to do homage, that he might, by his attorney, into Barkloughly. The Monk of Evesham maintains that Harlech was 

be permitted to prosecute, and have liberty of succession or heritages, the place of the king's landing, and a recent writer in the Archmologia 

and that his homage and fealty might be respected.— 0. Cambrenais, while affirming his belief that the king landed at Barmouth, 

1 Froissart ^ of opinion that Harlech is the Barkloughly named. See Traison et 

3 Holinshed i99 Mart Richard II., 189 and 282, and Areh. Camll., January, 1858, p. 10.— 0. 

10 ' 


" Long live the Duke of Lancaster." To give an air of justice to the ultimate designs of the duke, 
he caused a Parliament to be convened under the authority of Richard, by which Parliament the 
king was, on the 29th September, declared to have forfeited his throne by extortion, rapine, and 
injustice. Being thus deposed by the suffrages of two estates of the realm, the throne was declared 
vacant, and the head of the noble house of Lancaster ascended the throne of these realms, by the 
style and title of Henry IV.^ On receiving this dignity before the assembled Parliament, the new 
monarch crossed himself on the forehead, and, calling upon the name of Christ, said — 

" la the name of Fadher, Son, and Holy Ghost, I, Henry of Lancaster, challenge this rewme of Yngland, and the croun, with 
all the members, and the appurtenances ; als I that am descendit by right line of the blode, coming fro the gude lorde King 
Henry therde, and throghe that right that God of his grace hath sent me, with help of kyn and of my frendes to recover it ; the 
which rewme was in poynt to be ondone by defaut of governance, and undoing of the gude lawes." ^ 

A tradition had prevailed amongst the vulgar that Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, 
son of Henry III., was really the eldest brother of Edward I., but that, owing to some deformity 
in his person, he had been supplanted in the succession by his younger brother; and as the 
present Duke of Lancaster inherited from Edmund by his mother, this genealogy constituted him 
the true heir to the throne. This was, however, a topic rather to be insinuated than declared, 
and the best grounds of Henry's claim were the misrule of his predecessor, and the aflE'ections of 
the people over whom he Avas himself called to govern, ^ for the posterity of Lionel, Duke of 
Clarence, third son of Edward III., had a prior claim to that of the heir of John of Gaunt, the 
fourth son. At the time of Richard's deposition the hereditary claim of the Clarence branch was 
vested in Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, who was the grandson of Phihppa, the daughter of 
Lionel, but he was then only ten years of age. When the Parliament deposed Richard and chose 
Henry in his stead the Archbishop of Canterbury preached a sermon, taking for his text the 
words, " A man shall reign over my people," and in the course of his address he enlarged upon 
the theme that when the King of kings threatened his people He said, " I will make children to 
rule over them," his remarks being evidently aimed at the youthful Earl of March. When in 
1385 Roger Mortimer was declared presumptive heir to the throne, John of Gaunt asserted that 
his own son Henry was the true heir, as descended from Edmund Crouchback, the eldest son, as 
he incorrectly affirmed, of Henry III., Avho, he alleged, had been set aside on account of 'his 
deformity. Henry of Lancaster's claim by blood as " coming fro the gude lorde Kyng Henry therde " 
would have been of little avail, had he not been at the head of a powerful army, and known 
to be a man of vigour and abiHty, supported moreover by the chief nobles. Edmund Mortimer, 
whose claim to the crown was set aside by the enthronement of Henry lY., died without issue in 
1424. He had a sister Anne, who married the second son of Edmund Langley, Duke of York, and 
in her son arose the pretension to the crown of the House of York. 

Henry, Duke of Lancaster, being now seated upon the throne of England, the unfortunate 
Richard was sent to the duke's castle at Pontefract. Here he was detained in confinement for 
some time; but so short is the distance between the throne and the grave of a deposed monarch, 
that his life was speedily terminated, either by the hand of the assassin or the more protracted 
misery of famine. Richard's reign being thus terminated, his successor turned his attention to 
the appointment of his new officers. The office of high steward, which he possessed in right of 
his earldom of Leicester, derived from the Lacys, he conferred upon his second son, Lord Thomas, 
whose incapacity, from his nonage, was supplied by the Earl of Worcester ; while the office of 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster was given to John de Wakeringe, a divine of considerable 
influence with his royal master. Mr. Justice Blackstone, in his Commentaries,'' observes, that "the 
county palatine, or Duchy of Lancaster, was the property of Henry Bolingbroke, the son of John 
of Gaunt, at the time when he wrested the crown from King Richard II. and assumed the title of 
King Henry IV : and he adds, he was too prudent to suffer this to be united to the crown, lest. 
It he lost one, he should lose the other also. But this is a mode of expression at variance with 

th= BuktorlJ;t"^lti'"°"^Z^tni!r^^ '■ ,"t°'' " ^f"" t^ of deposition was solemnly pronounced by eight commissioners, 

baronrand Shteand of X notaMesf m™ nf /^^^ prelates earls, Henry then approached the throne, and having challenged his right to 
goS towns rtKthe Tower L7the^^^^^ ?,"h ""V™"* "t,*- t'"^ ""^ "i^r"' T^ ^"^ ^^ *'^<= Archbishops of Canterbury and York to the 

sceptre m his hand, and his crown on his head. Then lie stnorl nn ■ilmif, 3 it i^ ;,,;i 1 1 ' » i i . ?^ 1 ' :"7' , ,..„,. i 

not holdeu nor staved bv no man inr? «L°,i-l pin,,/ ' t i ? "P.'"""", ' n j^ said that John of Gauut put forward a claim in Parliament 

Sngki d Duke of Aquitetorand Lord oMrelnnd n'b™ if 'fT '^'"^ °* V '''"''"'■'* "' "^'** "^ =°" Henry should be adjudged heir to the king- 

on the 30th Sentember in Westmin^ Ir HnM ■ ll,. T^ P'"'''™'^"' ^"^ " Crouchback." The claim appears scarcely probable, as it not only set 

I^^SKSf/?^^^^^^^^ in^e^^kL-^^Jj^d-rtrp-fd^i^^^^^^^^^^^ 

^J?rrdirg''thTtrUcfesTjS^eS1nt^Sy^^^.:S^^^^^^^^^ ' ^'"'- ' '^'^ -=• '■^- "«' 




the usual accuracy of that distinguished writer's style, and would seem to imply that the county 
palatine ot Lancaster and the duchy of Lancaster are co-extensive, and that the terms ai-e 
convertible. This, however, is by no means the case— the county palatine beim? confined to the 
county, while the duchy of Lancaster, as we have already intimated, and, as we shall speedily 
show more specifically, comprehends not only ■ the county of Lancaster but many other portions of 
Uie kingdom. It has been justly observed by Plowden'in the celebrated "Duchy of Lancaster 
Case, 4 Elizabeth (lob2), and by Sir Edward Coke^in his fourth Institute, that the new monarch 
was well aware that " he held the Duchy of Lancaster by sure and indefeasible title, but that his 
title to the crown was not so assured : for that, after the decease of Richard II. the ri<Tht of the 
crown was m the heir of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, third son of Edward III. ; John °of Gaunt 


father of Henry IV"., being but the fourth son." One of his first measures after ascending the 
throne was, therefore, to pass an Act, sanctioned by Parliament, ordaining that his eldest son 
Henry should have and bear the name and title of Duke of Lancaster, in addition to his other 
titles (of Prince of Wales, Duke of Aquitaine and Cornwall, and Earl of Chester) ; and that 
neither the inheritance of his duchy of Lancaster, or its liberties, should be changed, transferred, 
or diminished, through his assumption of the royal dignity ; but that they should retain their 
distinctive character and privileges, and be adminstered and governed in like manner, as if he 
had never attained the royal dignity. It was further directed that all ecclesiastical benefices in 
the said duchy should be conferred by himself and his heirs, so that the (lord) chancellor, 
treasurer, or other officers of the state, should not interfere, by reason of their respective offices. 


with the collection or preservation, or even with the visitation, of benefices within the duchy ; 
and that all receivers, bailiffs, and other servants of the duchy, etc., should appear before certain 
special auditors and ministers, and not before the treasurer and barons of the king's exchequer, 
and account and answer for profits and benefits of the duchy, without any interference of the 
treasurer and barons. (See Rot. Pari III. 428.) . , i • i , 

Steadily pursuino- the principle here laid down, it was by a subsequent Act^ ordained that 
the ricfht of succession to the duchy of Lancaster after the king's death should belong to his eldest 
son Henry, Prince of Wales, and his heirs ; and in default of heirs to Thomas, his second son, and 
that the ancient rights, statutes, and customs of the duchy, should be maintained and observed 
inviolate. Having thus fixed the succession to the property of the duchy by all the force of 
legislative enactments, the next care of the king was to establish a court, called the Duchy Court 
of Lancaster, in which all questions of revenue and council affecting the duchy possessions might 
be decided. ' This court is now held at the duchy office, Lancaster Place, Strand, London, W.C. ; 
thence issue all patents and commissions of office or dignities, all orders or grants affecting the limits 
and revenues, and all acts of authority within the duchy. It was also a court of appeal from the 
chancery of the county palatine of Lancaster, which court, as previously stated, was a court of equity 
for matters of equity arising within the county of Lancaster, until the passing of the Judicature Act, 
36 and 37 Vict. c. 66, s. 16, by the operation of which the jurisdiction of the Court of Common Pleas 
at Lancaster has been transferred to the High Court of Justice. The Court of Criminal Jurisdiction 
in no way differs from that of the Queen's ordinary court. The record office of the duchy of 
Lancaster, where the deeds are deposited, has been frequently changed : within living memory, 
Gray's Inn, Somerset House, and Great George's Street, has each in succession afforded them a 
depository ; but the office of the duchy now seems permanently fixed within the precinct of the 
ancient ducal residence of the Savoy, in Lancaster Place, Waterloo Bridge, London,^ of which 
bridge the northern arch abuts against Her Majesty's inheritance of the duchy of Lancaster, 
and the southern against her inheritance of the duchy of Cornwall. The duchy chambers at 
Westminster being within the precincts described in old statutes as a royal residence, the 
proceedings are dated before Her Majesty, " at her palace at Westminster,'' and not, as other 
royal acts, at the personal residence of the monarch. In this court she is not only presumed to 
be present, as in others, but to be personally acting by the advice of her chancellor, and other 
ministers, for the affairs of her duchj'-.' 

When that intolerable nuisance, the court of Star Chamber, existed, in contravention of the 
provisions of Magna Charta, which direct that no freeman shall be deprived of his liberty or 
property but by lawful judgment of his peers, the duchy of Lancaster had also its Star Chamber, 
and the chancellor of the duchy and council of his court punished without law, and decreed 
without authority ; but this power was swept away by the Act 16 Car. I. (1640-1), which ordained 
that from the first of August, 1641, this power should be abolished in every court within the 
realm, and that from henceforth no court should exercise the jurisdiction of star-chamber.'' 

Two years after the succession had been settled upon Prince Henry and his heirs, the manor 
of Brotilby, and fee of La Haye, in the county of Lincoln, with the wardship of the castle of 
Lincoln formerly in the possession of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and which then remained in the 
hands of the king, through the forfeiture of Thomas, son of Thomas, Earl of Kent, was incorporated 
with his inheritance of Lancaster, as parcel of the duchy ; and it was ordained that it should 

* 8 Henry TV. 1406-7. vicissitudes a great portion of tlie building was taken down in 1819 to 

2 Tlie site of tlie palace of tlie Savoy, the iincient residence of the form tbe road from the Strand to Waterloo Bridge. The Savoy Church, 

Dukes of Lancaster, was gi-anted, 80 Henry III. (1245-6), by tlie king to which is a "royal peculiar," and, conhequently, in many respects, free 

Peter, Earl of Savoy and Richmond, uncle to his Queen Eleanor, who from episcopal control, was formerly the chapel of the hospital ; it was 

erected his palace upon it. This stately residence was given by Peter de destroyed by fire in 1864, but rebuilt in 1866, at the cost of the Queen, in 

Savoy to the fraternity of Mountjoy, of whom it was bought by Queen memory of the Prince Conport. — C. 

Eleanor for her second son, Edmund Crouchback, Earl ot Lancaster, ■' In 1868 Her Majesty graciously presented the whole of the ancient 

After the execution of her son. Earl Thomas, in 1322, the Savoy became muniments of the Duchy of Lancaster to the nation. This munificent 

the property of his brother and successor, Earl Henry, who enlarged it at gift was followed, five years later, by the transfer, pursuant to a request 

.an expense of 52,000 marks, making it ao magtiificent that, according to ot the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, dated 25th July, 1878, of the 

Knighton, there was no mansion in the realm to be comp.ared with it in records of the Courts of Equity and Common Law, which until then were 

beauty and stateliness After the decease of the earl's son, Henry, first deposited in the record rooms of Lancaster Castle, and in the charge of 

Duke of Lancaster, John of Gaunt, who had married his younger daughter, three several persons : (1) The Registrar of the Court of Chancery of the 

Blanche, became, in consequence, the possessor of the Savoy. Within its County Palatine, the custodian of the Chancery Records ; (2) The Protho- 

walls he received and entertained the captive King John of Prance after notary, who had the charge of the Records of the Court of Common Pleas ; 

the victory at Poictiers. John of Gaunt lived at the Savoy in almost (3) The Clerk of the Crown, in whose custody were the criminal proceedings 

regal state ; and here, Geoffrey Chaucer, who had married Philippa, a of the Palatinate ; and the whole of these original evidences are now 

lady of the Duchess Blanche's household, and the sister to Catherine carefully preserved in the Public Record OlEce, on the Rolls Estate, at 

Swynford, whom the duke married for his third wife, waa a frequent the back of the old Rolls Chapel— C, 

visitor, and is said to have written several of his poems while residing « In the Act for dissolving the Court of Star Chamber and taking tiway 

within the palace. During John of Gaunt's occupancy, the Savoy was the whole of its powers, all the ancient statutes, including the Great 

twice pillaged by a mob ; the first time in 1376, when the duke had made Charter, which declare that no freeman shall be imprisoned or condemned 

himself obnoxious by his bold speech to the Bishop of London, in but by the judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land, are recited, 

St Paul s, .at the citation of John Wyclifte ; the second occasion being in and it is affirmed that the authority of the Star Chamber, under tbe 

1381, when the insurgents, imder Wat Tyler, reduced it to a heap of ruins, statute of Henry VII., has been abused, and the decrees ot the Court 

in which condition it remained until 1605, when Henry VII. had the site have been found "to be an intolerable burden to the subjects, and tbe 

cleared and commenced building thereon a hospital of St. John the Baptist, means to introduce an arbitrary power and government. "— C. 
' to receive and lodge nightly one hundred poor folks." After various 




descend to his heirs, and that all the tenants of these possessions should he governed in the same 
manner and by such officers as the other lordships and manors of the inheritance.' Henry IV., 
Duke of Lancaster, died on the 25th March, 1413, in his forty-seventh year, and was buried at 

Soon after Henry V. ascended the throne (in 1414) he confirmed the acts of his royal father 
with regard to the Duchy of Lancaster ; and it was directed, with the sanction of Parliament, that 
all the liberties and franchises of this duchy should in all things be maintained and exercised for 
ever, according to the tenor of the charters already granted, and that the seal hitherto used in the 
duchy, and all matters under that seal which had hitherto been given and granted, should have 
force, without the reclamation of the lung or his officers ; and that the seal of the duchy should be 
used for ever in transacting the business of the duchy. As several honors, castles, and manors, 
which were the inheritance of Mary, one of the daughters and heiresses of Humphrey de Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, whose heir 
the king was, had descended to him by hereditary 
right, the king separated all these possessions from 
the crown, and incorporated them with his duchy of 
Lancaster, appointing that they should be administered 
by the officers of the duchy, as they had been 
accustomed to be ; and that the vassals and tenants 
of this inheritance, and the resiants within the same, 
should enjoy the liberties and franchise of the duchy. 
He also ordained that all ecclesiastical benefices 
attached to the duchy inheritance should be conferred 
under the seal of the duchy, without the interference 
of the chancellor and treasurer of England. To 
render this ordinance complete, it was further directed 
that all the castles, honors, and lands which had come 
into possession of the king's father, Henry IV., m con- 
sequence of a grant made in the first year of his reign 
(1400), as to escheats, forfeitures, and recovery, should 
be incorporated with the duchy, and that any other 
honors, castles, or manors which had come by escheats, 
forfeitures, or recovery should also be joined to the 
duchy, and that they should be ruled and governed 
by the officers and ministers of the duchy, under the 
sanction of the duchy seal. ^ 

In the third year of the reign of Henry V. (1415) 
it was directed that two of the chief seneschals (stewards) 
of his inheritance for the time being, besides the number 
of guardians limited by form of statutes, should act in 
all the counties of the kingdom, and that they should 
exercise their office of seneschal in all commissions of 
the peace, and that no donations, pardons, or releases, 
which concerned in any manner the duchy of Lancaster, 
or that emanated therefrom, should be valid except 

under the seal designed for the duchy. Two other Acts, -, • ., ^ . p xr ^rx 

the first passed in the ninth year of Henry V. (1421) and the second ni the first of Henry A 1. 
(1422-3) annex other possessions of the Bohun family to the duchy oi Lancaster. 

It was the misfortune of Henry VI. to be deeply involved in debt ; and his expectation that 
two Lancashire knights would remove all his embarrassments, by the discovery of the philosopher s 
stone 1' was not sufficient to prevent his creditors from urging their demands m a tone little suited 


> Act of 10 Henry IV. (1409). 

= The belie? m aichemy was widely prevalent at this time. In 1438 
the king eommisaioned three philosophers to make the precious metals, 
but, as mightT expected, he received no returns from them m either 
eold or silvlr. His credulity, however, seems to have been unshaken by 
dSanDOlntoent for in the twenty-fourth year of his reign (1446) he issued 
hrraval licence to Sir Edmund Traflord and Sir Thomas Ashton two 
LanSwre Mghts, authorising them to make gold V^X^Ttt^To^er 
of which the following is a translation, was found by Fuller m the lower 
of London- "Thrmng to all whom, &c., gi-eeting,-Know ye that 
whereas our beloved and loyal Edmund de Trafford, knight, and Thomas 
Shton kSght hive! by a certain petition shewn unto us, set forth that 
nuKhthCTwf/e willing, by t^e art and science of philosophy, to 
?r™?5e ftoansmute) ^perfect metals from their own kind and then to 
Ssubstlntotrthim by their said art or science, as they say, into 

perfect gold or silver, unto all manner of proofs or trials, to be expected 
or endured as any gold or silver growing in any mine ; notwithstanding 
certain persons ill-willing and maligning them, conceiving them to work 
by unlawful art, and so may hinder and disturb them m the trial ot the 
said art and science : We, considering the premises, and willing to know 
the conclusion of the said work or science, of our special grace have 
eranted and given leave to the same Edmund and Thomas, and to their 
servants, that they may work and try the aforesaid art and science law- 
fullv and freely, without any hindrance of ours, or of our officers, what- 
soever; any statute, act, ordinance, or provision made, ordained, or 
provided to the contrary notwithstanding. In witness whereof, &c., the 
King at Westminster, the 7th day of April." When Henry granted this 
licence he was overriding the provisions of the Act 6 Henry IV., cap. 4, 
which made it felony for any of the king's subjects "to multiply gold or 
silver, or to use the craft of multiplication," &o.— the only Act, it is said, 
which has never been violated.— C. 


to the refinement of a court. To satisfy these demands he was driven to the expedient of 
morto-ao-ino-, for five years, the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall, and the terms 
of this mortgage, as given in the 18th Henry VI. (1440) sufficiently indicate the importunity of the 
royal creditors, and the petulaney of the king under their demands. 

The revenues of the duchy having reverted to the king, as Duke of Lancaster, an Act was 
passed in the 39 Henry VI. (1460-61), appointing that there should appertain to the duchy one 
chief steward and one auditor in the northern parts, and one other chief steward and one other 
auditor in the southern parts, with one chancellor, one receiver-general, and one attorney -general 
in and of all the duchy, with one chief-steward, and one attorney -general in the county of palatine 
of Lancaster. While the mortgage existed, several new offices had been created, but by this Act 
those offices were abolished as burdensome in fees and unnecessary for use. Hitherto the archives of 
the duchy had been lodged in the church and priory of St. Bartholomew, in "West Smithfield, 
London, much to the annoyance of the prior and his convent. On a representation that the church 
had become much occupied and encumbered with " divers great chests containing the books" of 
the duchy of Lancaster, and that divine service was interrupted by the entrance of ministers, 
under colour of an examination of the books, and that no little disturbance was created thereby, the 
king directed that the prior and convent, and their successors, should be exonerated from the 
custody of the said books and documents ; and the officers of the duchy were ordered to remove 
their chests, Avith their contents, out of the priory into the Tower of London, or into such other place 
as might be found convenient to deposit them (1460).^ 

Although the court of the duchy of Lancaster was instituted in the early part of the reign of 
Henry IV., no post-morte'ni inquisitions are registered in this court earlier than the first of Henry V. 
(1413). The duty of collecting and arranging the inquisitions has been performed by the direction 
of the Commissioners of Public Records, and a list of these inquisitions is published along with a 
list of the pleadings, consisting of bills, answers, depositions, and surveys, relating to the suits in 
that court, in two volumes, entitled Ducatus Lancastrice. These volumes are thus described by 
the persons charged with the duty of collecting and arranging the materials : — 

" According to the returns made to the select committee of the House of Commons in the year 1800, the Inquisitions Post 
Mortem in this repository then found amounted to 2,400, beginning with the first year of King Henry V. (1413), and ending with 
the eighteenth year of King Charles the First (1642). A more recent investigation has shown their number to amount to 3,569 ; 
which it has also been found necessary to put in a better state of arrangement, and to clean, repair, and bind them in volumes. 
The Pleadings consist of bills, answers, and depositions and surveys, in suits exhibited in the duchy court, commencing with the 
first year of King Henry VII., and are continued to the present time. (Signed) " R. J. Hahpee. 

John Calet. 
Dated " Office of the Duchy of Lancaster, 1823." \Vm. Minchin." 

The Inquisitions and Pleadings contain a great fund of local information ; but they would, in 
the most condensed form, occupy an inconveniently large space in our county history ; and the 
necessity for_ their insertion is materially diminished since the Bucatus, thanks to the liberality of 
Parliament, is presented to many of the public libraries in this kingdom, and is therefore easily 
accessible ; suffice it to_ say, that the records, of which the Bucatus exhibits little more than an 
index, are to be found in the Record Office, in London, and their number, as far as regards the 
county palatine of Lancaster, stands thus : Inquisitions Post Mortem, in vol. i 2,105 ; in vol. ii. 
{Nil). Pleadings in vol. i. 1,594 ; in vol. ii. 1,589. Total 3,183.' 

The hostifity of the house of York to the house of Lancaster did not extend to the revenues of 
the duchy,_ for no sooner had Edward IV. ascended the throne than he confirmed all the charters 
and liberties of the duchy of Lancaster, in a manner the most ample, except that he joined the 
duchy inheritance to the crown," Henry VII., not to be outstripped by a member of the rival 

1 39 Henry VI. (14(30). ^, . ^ of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and of the Commons, being in 

Since the removal ol the muniments of the Duchy and Palatinate this present Parliament, and by the authority of the same, that the 

of Lancaster to the Pubhc Eecord Office, a very comprehensive list of the same Henry, late called King Henry the Sixth, for the considerations 

various classes of documents, illustrated by numerous examples, and of the great, heinous, and detestable matters and offences before 

containing valuable lists both of persons and places, has been edited by specified by him, committed against his faith and ligeance to our 

Mr. Walford D. Selby, of the Record Office, and issued by the Beoord said Liega Lord, King Edward tho Fourth, his true, righteous, 

Society (vols vu. and viu.). Volume vii. deals with (1) the Records of and natural liege Lord, offended and hurt unjustly and unlawfuUy 

the Duchy of Lancaster, with special reference to the Lancashire and the Royal Majesty ol our said sovereign Lord, stand by the advice 

Cheshire manors belonging to it (2) the Records of the Palatinate of and assent couvicted and attainted of High Treason. And that it 

Lancashire, and (3) those of the Superior and Abolished Courts as far as bo ordained and established by the same advice assent, and authority, 

they relate to the two counties, the vtilue of such class of records being as that he the same Henry forfeit unto the same our Liege Lord Edward 

far as possible shown by examples of the various and important docu- the Fourth, and to his heirs, and to the said Crown of England, 

ments they contain. Volume vin deals with the various Indices to the all Castles, Manors, Lordships, Towns, Townships, Honors, Lands, Tene- 

Records which have from time to time been compiled, together with such ments, Rents, Services, Fee-Farms, Knights' Fees, Advowsons, Heredi- 

special classes of documents as Special Commissions, Liceijces and Pardons, taments, and Possessions, with their appurtenances which he or any 

Royalist Composition Papers, Ac, &c., aU ol which throw much new other to his use had the third day of March last past, being of the Dutchy 

Ught on the past history ot the two counties, and indicate the best of Lancaster, or that were any parcel or member of the same Dutchy, or 

sources of information to be consulted by those working at either local or thereunto annexed or united in the first year of tlie reign of Henry, late 

family history.— C. called King Henry tho Fifth, or at any time since. And that it bo 

-'AN ACT FOR INCOHPORATINO AND ALSO FOR CoNFiscATiNa THE Ordained and established by the same advice, assent, and authority, that 

Ti^'^Vj'is ^f.^T'^^'^™ ''° THE Crown of England for Ever (1 Edward the same Manors, Castles, Lordships, Honors, Towns, Townships, Lands 

IV.— 14bl).— It is declared and adjudged by tho assent and advice Tenements, Rents, Services, Fee-Farms, Knights' Fees Advowsons 


house, enacted in the first year of his reign (1485) that all the lands of the duchy of Lancaster 
which had been alienated from that inheritance in the reign of Edward IV. should be re-invested 
in the king and his heirs for ever, as amply and largely, and in like manner, form, and condition, 
separate from the crown of England, and possessions of the same, as the three Henrys, or EdAvard 
IV., or any of them, had and held the same. Ever since the period when Henry IV. mounted the 
throne of England, the duchy of Lancaster has indeed always been considered by the reignino' 
monarch as one of the richest gems in the crown, though for state purposes it has been kept 
separate and distinct from the regal revenues and possessions. When the Act for regulating the 
order of Avards and liveries was passed, a special proviso was introduced, to guard against the 
royalties, liberties, and jurisdictions of the county palatine and the duchy of Lancaster suffering 
prejudice ; and when Henry VIII. had impaired the revenues of the duchy of Lancaster by a 
number of gifts,_ grants, and sales, indemnity against the consequences of these alienations was 
found for the king, as Duke of Lancaster, by a grant from Parliament (in 1545) of the manor of 
Ripon and its dependencies in the county of York, and of the vaccary in the forest of Ashedowne, 
with its rents and manors in the county of Sussex, both of which were attached to the duchy, and 
the revenues received and accounted for as duchy lands. The example set by the father was 
closelyand speedily imitated by his children; and in the time of Philip and Mary the duchy 
possessions were restored to their former extent by an Act expressed in these very significant 
terms : — 

"An Act for thenlaegyxg of the Duchie of Lancastre. 

" Forasmuch as the Kyng and Queue our sovereigne Lorde and Ladjie, considering and regarding the state of the Duchie of 
Lancastree, heing one of the most famous Princeliest and Stateliest peeces of our said Sovereigne Ladie the Queues auncyent 
Enheritance, doo pceyve and consider that the Possessions and yerely Revenues of the said Duchie arre and have been of late 
greatlye diminished, as well by reason of Sundry Giftes, Grants and Sales, made by the late Kinges of famous memorye, Henry 
theight and Edoarde the Sixte, late Kings of Englaude, Father and Brother to our said Sovereigne Ladie the Queues Highues, as 
also by reason of sundries Exchainges made wth dyvers their loving Subjectes, of Sundry Manors, Landes, Tentes, Possessions, and 
Hereditaments, lately belonging to the same Duchie ; and the Manors, Landes, Tentes, Possessions, and Hereditaments, being 
receyved and taken in recompence of the said Exchangee, bee not annexed to the said Duchie, but been in thorder svey and 
governance of other Courtes and Places, so by theyr Highnes taken and receyved in Exchange ; And forasmuohe also as theyr 
Maties doo mynde and intende to preserve, avaunce, mayntaine, and contynue thaunoient and honourable Estate of the said Duchie ; 
Our said Sovereigne Lord and Ladye therefor bee pleased and contented that yt be enacted, ordeyned, and established by their 
Maties ^fb thassent of the Lordes Spuall and Temporall, and the Comons in this pnte pliament assembled, and by thauctoritee of 
the same. That all Honors, Castels, Lordeshippes, Manors, Landes, Tenementea, Possessions, and Hereditamentes vpthin this 
Kealme of Englande, wcli at any tyme synce the xxviijtli daye of Januarie, in the first yere of the Reigne of our saidelate Sovereigne 
Lorde Kynge Edoarde the Sixte (1547), were pcell of the Possessions of the said Duchie of Lancastre, or wch were united and 
annexed to the said Duchie by aucthorite of pliament hes Patentes or otherways, and wct at any time since the sayd xxviij daye of 
Januarie, have been given, granted, alyenated, bargayued, solde, exchanged, or otherwayse severed from the said Duchie, by our 
said late Sovereigne Lord King Edoarde the Sixte, or by our Sovereigne Lady the Queue that now ys, or by our Sovereigne Lorde 
and Ladie the King and Queues Maties that now bee, to or wth any pson or psons, and wob sayd Honors, Castles, Lordshippes, 
Manors, Landes, Tentes, and Hereditamentes, since such Giftes, Grants, Alienacons, Bargaynes, Sales, Exchanges, or Severance 
thereof so made as is aforesaid»been, comon, or returned agayn to thandes of our said late Sovereigne Lorde King Edwarde the 
Sixte, or to thandes of our said Sovereigne Ladie the Queue, or to thandes of our Sovereigne Lord and Ladie the King and Queue, 
or to thandes of her Mtie, her heires, and successors, in Possession, Revercon, Remainder, or other ways, and wch now bee or remain 
in thandes of our saide Sovereigne Lord and Lady the King and Queues Maties, of any estate of inheritance, shall from the time 
the same came reverted agayn to thandes of our said late Sovereygne Lorde Kinge Edward the Sixte, or to thandes of our said 
Sovereigne Lady the Queue, or thandes of our said Sovereyne Lord and Ladye the King and Queue, by aucthoritee and force of 
this Acte bee united and annexed for ever unto the sayd Diichye of Lancastree, and shalbe adjudged, domed, and taken for ever 
for, and as peels and membres of the said Duchie of Lancastre," etc. 

In the following reign a systematic return was made of the fees, privileges, writs, and 
advowsons attached to the duchy of Lancaster and its officers, a copy of which has been 
preserved, and is as follows : — 

Hereditaments, and Possessions, with their appurtenances in England, governance of the same Dutchy, and of the particular officers, ministers, 

Wales, and Calais, and the Marches thereof, make, and from the said day tenants, and inhahitants thereof, m as great, ample, and large form as 

of Ma^ch be to the said Dutchy of Lancaster corporate, and be called the Henry, callmg himself Henry the Fifth, at any time therein had, use, 

Dutchy of Lancaster. And that our said sovereign Lord, King Edward and enjoy lawfully. And by the same authonty the said offleers and 

the Fourth have seize take hold, enjoy, and inherit all the said Manors ministers, and also the said tenants and inhabitants of and in the same 

and dSles and othi?' the Premisses with their appurtenances, by the Dutchy, have, use, exercise, and enjoy such and all Liberties Privileges, 

^menrme of Dutch? froL all other his inheritances separate, from the and Customs, as the officers, ministers, tenants, and inh.*itants of the 

saw fouJth dav of SchTo h m and to his heirs Kings of England per- same Dutchy had, used, exercised, or enjoyed lawfully m the time of the 

netuallv and that the County S Lancaster be a county Palatine : And same Henry, calling himself King Henry the Fifth ; and that also in the 

that our Lie J and SovereTm Lord King Edward the Fourth, and his same Dutchy be used, had, and occupied a 1 such Freedoms, Liberties, 

heiiTave a^s narcel of the^^^ same County of Lancaster Franchises, Privileges, Customs, and Jurisdictions as were used therem 

and Conntv PaEe and a Sell Chance lor. Judges, and Officers for the lawfully before the said fourth day of March And the ofhcers, ministers, 

same- anFaflmaS^er of UbSMes.cS^t^ms Laws Royal, and Franchises tenants, and inhabitants of or m the said Dutchy be entreated and 

i^Th^' fnmprn^X Palatine Cwf^V and rightfully used, and over that demeaned according to the same Freedoms, Liberties Franchises, 

anoHier few caTed tte SeaTof the D^^^^ of Lancaster, and a Chancellor Customs, Privileges, and Jurisdictions, and not distrained, arcted, nor 

f°r the keeping thereof, Officeis and Counsellors for the guiding and compeUed to the contrary in anywise." 





Which is known by the name of and Treating of the Fees, Privileges, Writts, Advowsons, and 
OTHER Officers that belong to the Duchy and County Palatine op Lancaster ^about 1588]. 


The chancellor's fee of the Dutchy £238 16 4 

The attorney of the Dutchy 66 5 4 

The auditor for the north partes 68 13 i 

The auditor for the south partes 68 13 4 

[Besides to both of them murrey cloth, green cloth in the whole amount to £641 3 i 

for their tables and for their lying in London, as 

An Estimate of the Revenues of the Duchy op Lancaster, collected by the particular Receivers of the 
Honors belonging to the said Duchy, and yearly paid by the Receiver-General. 


much more as makes both their salaries amount 
to £76 : 17 : 3] 
The sum of all the payments which are paid to all 
the officers, or allowed as salarys in the dutchy, 
in the whole amount to £641 

The receiver of Cliderhow and Haltou, payeth to the 

general Receiver of the dutchy £1700 

The receiver of Pomfrett and Knasbrough, com. 69 annis 1800 

The receiver of Tiekhull 500 

The receiver of Pickeringleigh 350 

The receiver of Duntanborough 80 

The receiver of Tutbury, p. ann 1500 

The receiver of Longberington 80 

The receiver of Leicester £400 

The receiver of Furness 1000 

The receiver of BuUingbroke 900 

Augmentation of Lancaster 400 

The receiver of the coUedge and chantry rents in the 

county of Stafford and Derby 40 


south division. 

The receiver of Higham Ferars £800 

The receiver of Norfolk and Suffolk 200 

The receiver of Sussex 300 

The receiver of the south parts 1000 

The receiver of Essex and Hartford £1000 

The receiver of the marches of Wales and Monmouth ... 100 
The receiver of Kilwaldid 100 


So that the whole receipts of the general receiver of the Dutchy one year with another amounteth to '£14,000 

The receiver is to pay to the treasurer of his Majesties most honourable chamber £4000 

And to the cofferer of his Majesties household 7000 

For fees to the court officers 641 3 4 

For expenses of the mass songs, and others, per ann 100 

Total disbursements 11,741 3 

So that remains communibus annis, in the custody of the general receiver, to be disposed of according to his majesty's 
use, upon Mr. Chancellor, Sir Francis Walsingham* 2258 16 


The accounts of the duchy, as brought up to December 31, 1885, are as follo-vvs : The balance 
in hand at the commencement of the year was £23,566. The net rents and profits accruing to 
Her Majesty were £45,047 ; royalties, rents, &c., £14,926 ; dividends of stocks, £3,072 ; producing, 
with various items of minor importance, a total gross income of £99,347, but of this only 
£88,832 was paid. The arrears on the 31st December amounted to £10,515. On the disbursement 
side £45,000 was paid to Her Majesty; in various payments, £22,507, including a payment of 
£2,000 to the Chancellor ; leaving a balance of £21,525. The revenues of the duchy have in 
thirty-eight years increased from £29,000 in 1847 to £65,265 in 1885, the net payments to Her 
Majesty at these two periods being respectively £12,000 and £45,000. 

A Declaration of all the Forests, Chases, and Parkes, 
the Chancellor, Attorney-General, Receiver-General, and 

In Lancashire. 

The forest of Holland. 
The forest of Wiersdale. 
The forest of Bleasdale. 
Legrame parke. 
Miersoough parke. 
Toxteth parke. 
Quernmore parke. 

In Cheshire. 
Halton parke. 

In Staffordshire. 
Yoxalward parke. 
Agardesley parke. 
Rolleston parke. 
Marchington ward. 
Tutbury parke. 
Hockeley parke. 
Rowley parke. 
High Lenis parke. 

belonging to the Dutchy 
two Auditors, are to have 

In Derbyshire. 

High Peak forest. 
Shattell parke. 
Melbure parke. 
Mansfield parke. 
Morley parke. 
Posterne parke. 
Ravensdale parke. 

In Leicestershire. 
The forest of Leicester. 

OP Lancaster, out of which 
deer, summer and winter. 

Castle Donnington parke. 
Barnes parke. 
New parke of Leicester. 
Tonley parke. 
Pekelton parke. 

In Wiltshire. 

Loxley parke. 
Alborne ohace. 
Everley parke. 

' It may be presumed that the statement of Revenue this year is 
not equal to the average year, as the figures do not correspond with this 

" Sir Francis Walaingham was chancellor in 158S.— (See Ust). Tliia 
fixes the period when this account was taken, or the rates afiBxed, con- 
ciin-ing with the Entry of the Fees of the " Justices of the fiueen's 




Parkbs and Chases. 

In HamsUire, Kiugsombunie parke.— The chaoe of Hult, and the Parke, Dorsetshire.— Kirby par 

Ferrers, in Northamptonshire. 

In Yorkshire. 
Poulf ret parke. 
CridUnge parke. 
Kepax parke. 
Blausby parke. 
Pickeriugly forest. 
Billon parke. 

The old parke of Wakefield. 
Hay parke. 

Havery parke. 
Conisbrough parke. 
Altafts parke. 

Acworth parke, and the New 
parke of Wakefield. 

In Sils.ex. 
Hunsde parke. 
The forest of Ashdowne. 

Weecks parke. 

Two other parkea there are in Suf- 
folk. Eyste parke there also. 

In Essex. 

The Kreat parke o£ Plashey. 
The little parke there. 
CoppedhuU park6. 
Highester parke there. 

e, in Lincjlnihirs. — Higham 

In Ilei-tfordshire. 

Hartingfordbury parke. 
Two more parkes in do. 
Kingslaugby park, do. 

Oldney park, Buckinyliamaldre, 
Hungerford park, Berkshire. 

Fees due per Annum to these Ofpiceus. 

Bailifle o£ the manor of Salf ord 

Bailifie of Derby wapoutake 

BaiUffe of manr of West Derby 

Mr of the forest of Wiersdale 

M'' of Amounderness forest 

The escheator of county palatine 

The sheriff of Lane, hath for allowance 

The constable of Liverpool castle 

The maister of Symonwood forest, and keeper of 

Toxteth parke hath for his fees, per annum 

Steward of the wapontake of Derby and Salf ord 

The receiver of the CO. palat 

Porter of Lancaster castle 

Steward of Amounderness 

Steward of Lonsdale 

Keeper of Quemmore parke 

Mr of the forest wood of Myerscough 

Maister of Wiresdale et Quernmore 

The chancellor's fee of the county palatine, per annum 
The justice of the queen's bench for his office in county 


And for dyett 

To another justice for his office in county palatine, 

and dyett too 

Atty of County palatine 

Clerk of y^ crown for county 

Clerk of the common pleas 

Clerk of crown and pleas 

Barons of the exchequer there 

Cryer of the sessions at Lancaster 

Master of BoUand forest 

Steward of ponds for his fee 

Eeceiver of Clitheroe 

Steward of Blackburn, Tottington, and Clederhow, for 

his fee 

Constable of Clitherow castle 

The keeper and porter of the gaole in the castle of 


Messenger of the Dutchy 

The keeper of the parkes' fees 

Fee of the bailive of Ormskirk 

Bailif of Burscough fee 

£ s. 
6 13 


1 10 



6 13 



6 13 

4 11 

2 5 
4 11 


36 13 
13 6 

6 13 


6 13 

15 13 

3 6 


2 5 
2 13 

d. £ 8. d. 

4 The under steward of Ormskirk appointed by the Earl 

8 of Derby 2 

8 Fee of the clerk of the court there 1 13 4 

The fee of the auditor 28 

The fee of the receiver per annum 15 

The reward of the said receiver 13 6 8 

The fee for Fumess 6 

4 The baylives of Dalton'a fee 2 

The ditto of Hawkshead's fee : 2 

The ditto of Beamond and Bolton 2 

Fee of all the manors pertaining to Furness 

4 monastery 26 

Fee of the receiver there 20 

Clerk of the court there 6 

Baylive of Furness liberty 4 

6 Keeper of woods in plane of Furness 2 

Reward of the auditor 6 

8 The stipend of a clerk to serve in the chapel at 

Farnworth 3 

The stipend of a clerk to serve in the chapel at 

4 Litherpoole , 4 

8 The fee of a clerk and school mr of Walton, per 

annum 5 

The clerk's stipend at Blackrodes 4 

4 The clerk of Clitherow stipend 3 

The stipend of the clerk of Padiham Chappel 6 

The Chaplin's fee in the chappel of Harewood, per 

annum 4 

The clerk in the chappel of Whalley 4 

The stipend of a clerke to serve in tiie chappel of 

4 Rufford, per annum 3 

The stipend of a clerke and school maister at 

4 Manchester, per annum 4 

Clerke of Beokonshawe chappel 2 

8 The stipend of a clerk and school-master at Leyland 3 

The stipend of a clerk and school- master at Preston 2 

Clerke and steward of Wigau 5 

8 The clerke of Croston's stipend 3 

The payment made unto seven weomen praying 

8 within the late colledge, called Knowle's Alma 

house, per annum 35 

4 Payd to two persons and the surveyor thereof 5 

13 4 


13 4 

13 4 

13 4 

12 10 
17 5 

13 4 
4 U 
9 1 

19 2 

8 11 
2 2 


16 5 

17 10 

18 2 

19 9 


A Note of all the Benefices and Spibitual Livings belonging to the Dutchy op Lancaster. 

{r) for rectory- 

Comil. Berks. £ a. 

Henton Rectory 23 7 

In Oomitat. Ebor. 

Methley (r) clare 25 8 

Darrington (■») per ann 

Ackeworth (;•) per ann 22 1 

Croston (r) per ann 10 

Slaitbome (r) per ann 

Kirkbram (with r) 12 18 

Ouston (d) per ann ' 2 

Castleford (r) per ann 20 13 

Bradford W 20 

Berwickes of Elemitt ^^ '■'' 

In Com. Essex. 

Stamford rivers (r) 

Munden (v) 


26 13 

12 12 








-{v) for vikarage. 

Dedham (v) per ann 

Essex W per ann 

Longton {v) per ann 

Laugham (t> or »•) 

Tiberton (r) 


Saint Andrews with St. Nicholas 

In Com. Lincoln. 


Ounley (r) olere 

Whittingham (r) — 

Hantley ()•) per ann 

Stoopings parva (r) 

Norcot ()•) 

jE s. d. 



18 3 8 


7 16 
12 1 


9 3 4 

18 6 8 

6 4 6 

9 19 4 

12 10 


KSrr.!:^::;;::::;:;;::;:::;;;:::;::::::::::::::::: S ] \ iSXia<;,::;;;::;:;;::::::;:;::;;;;;;;::::;::::::;::::;:::;: 1 S S 

Salt Thetby (r) I ^n i In Comit. Northamp. 

Southreston (r) q s 4 InohesterM 8 

Morningerby (r) cor Passenham (r) 20 

ThoreBby(r) b y b Preston (v) 15 4 

In Comit. Lancastiie. Widd (d) 3 6 10 

Pennington Don clear (r) BethomeW clear 13 17 4 

Dalton M and clear 17 6 8 MiUome W 8 5 8 

^' r ^ T ■ , Urswick ( J)) sunt Eichmondsha 7 17 4 

In Com. Leicester. 

Hathurend(f) 12 In Com. Stafford. 

St. Peter, Leicester (f) ^ 5 Tudbury M 7 

DesfordW 2 9 7 Rolston (r) 13 9 6 

Whitwickevic 9 I't * Tatenhill M 26 

Viccaria de pembe valet, per ann 6 6 8 Wolstanton {r) 32 3 9 

Mandeoallocke seue [sive] Monobon W 9 13 4 In Com. Suffolk. 

SwafieldW « io i ClareW 4 18 8 

Mamelly vie. valet, per anu q 1 q Eyken (i)) 6 13 4 

ShibdenW « * ^ Holmesett W cleare 

Tranche ()■)••■ -^" ^° * Stratford 13 " 

Southropes W k ^a n Somersham ()•) 8 

Sydestrond (r- R Tn (i 
Northrope (r) 
Mondesley ()•) 

Sydestrond (r) n n n Hunden (v) 7 13 4 

Northrope (r) 

' ■ - 8 9 9 -^1 Oo. Wilts. 

'," /^ 'v Af 7n Poole (»•) 17 12 5 

In Comit. Norfolk. Ashley (r) 9 16 4 

Themmgham rector faOU ^ ^ „r . , , 

Withrope(r) 5 5 2 In Co. Westmorland. 

Malilaske(r) .' 5 Orton (ii) 16 17 4 

" The valuation o£ some parsonages and vicarage.9 within the dutchy appeareth not in the records remaining in the dutchy 
office, but may be found in the office of the first-fruits, where the same are best known."— ^ircA's MSS. 

From the time of Queen Elizabeth to the reign of Charles II. no material change took place 
in the duchy court of Lancaster, with the exception of the abolition of the duchy court of 
Star Chamber already noticed; but in the 12th Charles II. (1660) the last remaining vestige of 
the feudal system, after having existed in this country for at least six hundred years, was swept 
away, ^ and with it the privileges of wards and liveries attached to the duchy of Lancaster, 
although those privileges had been thought worthy of special protection a century before. The 
progress of knowledge had burst the bonds of vassalage, and although the system introduced, or 
completed, by the Norman conquerors, had taken deep root, and identified itself with the whole 
frame of society, the tenures in capite, and knights service, were now declared " more burthen- 
some, grievous, and prejudicial to the kingdom than beneficial to the king," and they were, 
therefore, for ever abolished. During the interval between the year 1642, when the public 
treasury passed into the hands of the Parliament, and the year 1660, when Charles II. obtained 
the royal inheritance, the revenues of the duchy of Lancaster were applied to the exigences of 
the state, first under the administration of Lord Newburgh, and subsequently under the 
chancellorships of William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commons, John (President) 
Bradshawe, Thomas Fell, and Sir Gilbert Gerard, Bart. ; the latter of whom was displaced at the 
Restoration by Francis Lord Seymour, who, as a mark of the royal favour, obtained this 
lucrative appointment for his attachment to the House of Stuart. To facilitate the proceedings in 
the duchy court, an Act was passed in the 16th and 17th Charles II. (1665), empowering the 
chancellor of the duchy to grant commissions for taking affidavits within the county palatine of 
Lancaster, and other places in the several counties of the kingdom within the survey of the duchy 
court, whereby the same validity was given to those affidavits as if they had been sworn, as 
hitherto, in the duchy chamber at Westminster, and to render these proceedings, in the incipient 
state, as little burthensome as possible, it was directed that the very moderate fee of twelve pence, 
and no more, should be received by the person empowered to take the affidavits. 

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is an officer of considerable eminence, changing 
with the Government, and frequently having a seat in the Cabinet. He holds his office by letters 
patent, and, if a peer, takes precedence according to his rank in the peerage ; if not, he takes 
precedence next after the Chancellor of the Exchequer and immediately before the Lord Chief 
Justice of the Queen's Bench. He formerly sat as judge of the duchy court of Lancaster held at 
Westminster, in which all causes any way relating to the revenue of the duchy were tried, another 
branch of the same court being established at Preston, called the Court of the County Palatine of 
Lancaster, for the same purpose in that county as the other was at Westminster, The duties of 

» Rot. Pari. 12 Citr. II. p. 3. nu, i, 


the office are no^y nominal. The chancellor has the appointment to forty-one livings in various 
parts of the country, and of all the borough magistrates within the county of Lancaster. In recent 
years he has acted as Vice-president of the Committee of the Privy Council on Agriculture. 

From the first creation of the duchy of Lancaster, in 1351, to 1886, there have been one 
hundred and thirteen chancellors of the duchy. The following is a complete list of those 
officers : — 

Chancellors of the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster, from the first Creation of the 
Dukedom in 1351, to the present time, December, 1886. 

34 Edward III Sir Henry de Haydok Chancellor of Henry, first duke, 1360. 

46 Edward III Ralph de Ergham, clerk Bishop of Sarum, 1372. 

51 Edward III Thomas de Thelwall, clerk Created Chancellor of Co. Pal., 16th April, 1377. 

1 Richard II Sir John de Yerborongh, clerk 

6 Richard 11 Sir Thomas Stanley November 10th, pro temp., 1382. 

6 Richard II John Scarle November 29th, 1382. 

7 Richard II Sir William Okey October, 1383. 

1 Henry IV John de Wakering 1399-1400. 

1 Henry IV William Burgoyne, Esq 1399-1400. 

6 Henry IV Sir Thomas Stanley May 15th, 1405. 

11 Henry IV John Springthorpe, clerk March 30th, 1410. 

1 Henry V John Woodhouse 4th April, 1413. 

1 Henry VI John Woodhouse, contd 20th January, 1423. 

2 Henry VI William Troutbecke, Esq 10th June, 1424. 

9 Henry VI Walter Sherington, clerk 16th February, 1431. 

17 Henry VI William Troutbeck 7th May, 1439, Chancellor for life. 

20 Henry VI William Tresham 3d July, 1442, Chancellor in reversion. 

26 Henry VI William Tresham 1st November, 1447. 

27 Henry VI John Say, Esq .'.. 10th June, 1449. 

1 Edward IV John Say, Esq. 16th June, 1461. 

11 Edward IV Sir Richard Fowler, Kt 10th June, 1471, also Chan, of Excheq. 

17EdwardIV Sir John Say, Kt 3rd November, 1477. 

18 Edward IV Thomas Thwaitea 2nd April, 1478, also Chan, of Excheq. 

1 Richardlll Thomas Metcalfe 7th July, 1483. 

1 Henry VII Sir Reginald Bray, Knt 13th September, 1485. 

19 Henry VII Sir John Mordant, Knt 24th June, 1504. 

21 Henry VII Sir Richard Empson, Knt 3rd October, 1505. 

1 Henry VIII Sir Henry Marny, Knt 14th May, 1509. 

14 Henry VIII Sir Richard Wingfield, Knt 14th April, 1523. . r- i i 

17 Henry VIII Sir Thomas More, Knt 31st December, 1525, made Chancellor of England. 

21 Henry VIII Sir William Fitzwilliams, Knt 3rd November, 1529 (after Earl of Southampton). 

35 Henry VIII Sir John Gage, Kut 10th May, 1543. 

1 Edward VI Sir William Paget, Knt 1st July, 1547. 

6 Edward VI Sir John Gate, Knt 7th July, 1552. 

1 Queen Mary Sir Robert Rochester, Knt 1553—54. 

4 & 5 Philips; Mary.. Sir Edward Walgrave, Knt 22nd June, 1558. 

1 Elizabeth Sir Ambrose Cave, Knt 1558—59. 

10 Elizabeth Sir Ralph Sadler, Knt 16th May, 1568. 

19 Elizabeth ..Sir Francis Walsingham, Knt 15th June, 15/7. 

32 EUzabeth Sir Thomas Henage, Knt 1590. 

37 Elizabeth Sir Robert Cecil, Knt !*?,.^cP J'^\ i«m 

43 EUzabeth Sir John Fortescue, Knt 16th September, 1601. 

13 James I Sir Thomas Parry, Knt., and John 

Daccomb, Esq 27th May, 1615. 

14 James I Sir John Dacoombe, Knt 5th June, 1616 

15 James I Sir Humphrey May, Knt 23rd March 1618. 

5 Charles I Edward, Lord Newburgh 16th April, 1629. 

Feb. 10th, 1644 William, Lord Grey of Wake, and WiUiam 

Lenthall, Esq. ,. TCio 

1649 John Bradshawe 1st August, 1649. 

1655 Thomas Fell .,\^ iacn 

1659 ::: sir GUbert Gerard, Bart It^.^^^'-ifn 

12 Charles II Charles, Lord Seymour of Trowbridge -9tli J^iY' il"; 

16 Charles II Sir Thomas Ingram, Knt ^i'*'',?^?' ^®^*'i«vi 

23 Charles II Sir Robert Car^r, Knt. and Bart fl^l'^'TJ' ^^'^■ 

32 Charles II Sir Thomas Ingram, Knt. Feb- 14, 1680 

34 Charles II Sir Thomas Chicheley, Knt ^I\' 2°"^ i fiio 

1 Wmlam and Mary..Robert, Lord Willoughby of Eresby ^Ist March 1689. 

9 William III .Thoma.«, Earl of Stamford 4th May, 1697. 

1 Q-- ^-<= ^^-^ 'tr,YLZ''oo::^\^'l.'^^ May, 1702. 

I tZtZ :..::;^«^^^Sfeof-st;a^.n::-S;^S jno. 

1 GeorKe I Henage, Earl of Aylesford ^^t^T'f^h], 

oGeorl! I Richard, Earl of Scarborough 12th March, 1715. 

3 Georle I. Nicholas Lechemere, Esq. (afterwards 

a ueorge ^^^^ Lechemere forlife) 19th June, 1717. 

1 George II Joli°. Duke of Rutland 17th July, 1727. 



8 Georee II George, Earl of Cholmondeley May, 1735. 

16 Georfe II. Richtrd, Lord Bdgecumbe 22nd December, 1742. 

34 George II Thomas Hay, Viscount Dupplm (after- 

6i ixeorge ^arda Earl of Kinnoull) 27th February, 1760. 

3 George III James, Lord Strange .......13tli December, 1^62 

11 George III Thomas, Lord Hyde (afterwards Earl of 

^ Clarendon) 1**^ J""?; \^J}^ 

22 Georselll John, Lord Ashburton 17th April, 1782 

fsSe III. :::::":-Edward, Earl of Derby 29th August 1783. 

24 George III ...Thomas, Earl of Clarendon 31st December, 1783. 

27 George III Charles, Lord Hawkesbury (afterwards w 17S7 

^ Lord Lirerpool) 6th September, 1/87. 

44 George III Thomas, Lord Pelham (afterwards Earl 

^ of Chichester) 11th November, 1803. 

44 George III Henry, Lord Mulgrave 6th June, 1804 

45 George III Robert, Earl of Buckinghamshire 11th January, 1805. 

45 Georgelll Dudley, Lord Harrowby (afterwards Earl 

of Harrowby) 10th July, 1805. 

46 Georgelll Edward, Earl of Derby 12th February, 1806. 

47 George III The Right Hon. Spencer Perceval (after- 

wards First Lord of the Treasury)^ 30th March, 1807. 

52 Georgelll Robert, Earl of Buckinghamshire 25th May, 1812. 

52 George III The Right Hon. Charles Bathurst 23rd June, 1812. 

4 Geora-e IV Nicholas Vansittart (afterwards Lord 

*^ Bexley) 13th February, 1823. 

9 George IV George, Earl of Aberdeen, K.T 26th January, 1828. 

9 George IV The Right Hon. Charles Arbuthnot 2od June, 1828. 

1 William IV . .. Henry Richard, Lord Holland 25th November, 1830. 

5 WilliamlV Charles Watkin Williams Wynn 26th December, 1834. 

5 WilliamlV Henry Richard, Lord Holland (again) 23rd April, 1835. 

4 Victoria Geo. William Frederick, Earl of Clarendon. .Slst October, 1840. 

4 Victoria Sir George Grey, Bart 23rd June, 1841. 

5 Victoria Chas. Henry Somerset, Lord Granville ...3rd September, 1841. 

10 Victoria John, Lord Campbell (appointed Lord 

Chief Justice, K.B.. 1850) 6th July, 1846. 

13 Victoria Geo. Frederick Wilham, Earl of Carlisle ...6th March, 1850. 

15 Victoria A. Christopher 27th February, 1852. 

16 Victoria Edward Strutt (afterwards Lord Belper) 28th December, 1852. 

18 Victoria Granville George, Earl Granville, K.G. ...January, 1855. 

18 Victoria Dudley, Earl of Harrowby, K.G 10th February, 1855. 

19 Victoria Matthew Talbot Baines December, 1855. 

21 Victoria James, Duke of Montrose, Knt 25th February, 1858. 

22 Victoria Sir George Grey 18th June, 1859. 

24 Victoria Edward Card well (afterwards Viscount 

Cardwell) July, 1861. 

27 Victoria George William Frederick, Earl of Claren- 
don, KG April, 1864. 

29 Victoria George Joachim Goschen January, 1866. 

30 Victoria William Reginald, Earl of Devon July, 1866. 

30 Victoria John Wilson Patten (afterwards Lord 

Winmarleigh) June, 1867. 

32 Victoria Colonel Thomas Edward Taylour September, 1868. 

32 Victoria Frederick Temple, Earl of Dufferiu December, 1868. 

35 Victoria Hugh Culling Eardley Childers August, 1872. 

36 Victoria John Bright September, 1873. 

36 Victoria Colonel Thomas Edward Taylour 21st February, 1874. 

42 Victoria John Bright 28th April, 1880. 

45 Victoria John, Earl of Kimberley, pro iem July, 1882. 

46 Victoria John George Dodsoii (afterwards Lord 

Monk Bretton) December, 1882. 

47 Victoria George Otto Trevelyan October, 1884. 

47 Victoria Henry Chaplin June, 1885. 

48 Victoria Edward Heneage 7th February, 1886. 

48 Victoria Sir Ughtred James Kay-Shuttleworth, BtMaroh, 1886. 

49 Victoria Lord John James Robert Manners August, 1886. 

Wo have thus sketched, with a rapid hand, principally from official documents, a connected 
and authentic history of the duchy of Lancaster, one of " the most famous, princeliest, and state- 
liest of inheritances." The connection of the duchy with the ducal and royal House of Lancaster 
is too close to admit of separation. They serve to illustrate and to ennoble each other, and to have 
exhibited them apart would have derogated from the dignity of both. In each successive reign, 
from the period when Henry of Bolingbroke ascended the throne of this kingdom to the present 
time, with the exception of the interregnum of the Commonwealth, the sovereigns of England have 
enjoyed the title of duke and the revenues of the duchy of Lancaster, both of which are now in 

' When Mr. Percovat became First Minister of tlie Crown in 1800, he ChanceUor of tho E.<ohecluor, the only instance on record of the tliree 
continued to bold the office of Chancellor of the Diichy of Liincaster con- ofBces having been united In the same individual.— 0. 
jointly with the two superior offices of First Lord of tho Treasury and 



possession of our gracious sovereign, and will descend as an inalienable inheritance to the successors 
01 tne present monarch. 

The proceedings of the duchy court, during a period of over four hundred and eighty years 
are lull of interest m all the counties of the kingdom to which the duchy extends, but in the 
county palatine of Lancaster they have a pecuhar claim to that distinction; and it may tend 
essentially to the convenience of those who at present, or in future times, may have occasion to 
consult the records of that duchy, to be presented with the following authentic information, both 
as to their nature, and as to their places of deposit : 

The Ducht Eecords. 

"Eetum from the Deputy- Clerk of the Council, and Keeper of the Eeoorde in the Duchy of Lancaster, to the Committee ou the 
PuMio Records of this Kmgdom, made m virtue of an order from the select Committee, with an answer to the enquiry, 
Whether all the Becorda of the Duchy are open to public inspection ? i J' 

" In obedience to your Order of the 21st February last, I herewith return answers to the several Queries put to me, with respect 
to the Recoi;d3 of this Office, under the Custody of the Clerk of the Council, and the two Auditors, to whom I, in this respect, act 
as deputy ; but beg leave at the same Time to state, that such only are considered as public, and open for public Inspection, as in 
any w^e relate to, or concern Judicial Proceedings, the remainder being collected for the purpose of better managing and improving 
the Inheritance of his Majesty's Possessions in right of his Duchy of Lancaster ; and the Ofacers of the Duchy think themselves at 
liberty to withhold them from public inspection, except for the purposes before mentioned, or by command of his Maiesty, as Duke 
of Lancaster, signified by his chancellor of the Duchy. 

" The Answer to the First Question is contained in the following list of Records in the Office of the Duchy of Lancaster :— 
Account of the purchase Money arising from the Sale of Rents under the several acts of Parliament,— 19 Geo. III. 1779 to the 

present time [i.e. 1800]. 
Awards for inclosures, in which the Duchy Property has been concerned,— 27 Geo. II. 1754, to the present Time. 
Bills and Answers and Depositions in the Duchy Court of Lancaster, and of such as have been transmitted from the County Palatine 

to be heard in the Duchy Court, — 1 Hen. VII. to the present Time. 
Charters and Grants of various Kings under the Great Seal, as well as of private Persons (remaining in Boxes), to the King's Sons, 

and to Ecclesiastical Persons, of Lands within the Surveys of the Duchy,— 1 King Stephen, 1135, to 10 Queen Elizabeth, 

1558. (? 1568) 
Charters and Grants in Fee Farm, some of which are enrolled in the Office, and others remain ou Parchmeut, with the Royal Sign 

Manual. The original Charters of the Duchy and County Palatine to the King's Son, and Grants of Lands to Individuals of 

the possessions of the Duchy, — 51 Ed. III. 1377, to 1 Queen Anne, 1702. 
Court Rolls of such Manors as formerly belonged to the Duchy, and have since been granted away, and of such as are at present 

demised by Leases under the Duchy Seal, — 1283 to the present Time.^ 
Decrees of the Duchy Court inrolled in Books, and some drafts with the Attorney General's Signature,— 1 Hen. VII. to the 

present Time.^ 
Grants of Rents under the several Acts, to enable the Chancellor and Council to dispose of the Fee Farm and other Rents, and to 

enfranchise Copyhold Estates, — 20 Geo. III. 1780, to the present Time. 
Inquisitions Post Mm-lem, consisting of 2400 of various Lands and Tenements, within aU the Counties in England, — 1 Hen. V. J413, 

to 18 Car. 1, 1642.3 
Leases, Drafts, and Inrolments, of such as have passed the Duchy Seal, of Land and Tenements, Parcel of the Possessions of the 

Duchy, — 1 Hen. VIII. 1510, to the present Time. 
Ministers and Receivers Accounts of the Rents and Revenues of the Duchy, — 1135, to the present Time. 
Patents of Offices granted under the Duchy Seal, — 1 Hen. VIII. 1510, to the present Time. 
Presentations to Livings under the Duchy Seal, — 1 Hen. VIII. 1510, to the present Time. 
Rentals and Particulars of Lands belonging to the Duchy, collected together in Bags and Presses, and consisting of various other 

documents, of such Descriptions, that they cannot be comprised under one Head, registered into Counties, and in the Catalogue 

are the Names of places alphabetically arranged, — 51 Ed. III. 1377, to the present Time. 
Registers of Leases, Warrants, Grants, and other Documents, under Royal Signs Manual, inrolled in Books, of John, Duke of 

Lancaster, in the Time of Edw. the Third, and of various Kings, relating to the Possessions of the Duchy, — 51 Edw. III. 1377, 

to 8 Hen. VI. 1430. 
Revenue Proceedings in Duchy Court inrolled in Books, — 6 Car. I. 1630, to the present Time. 

Special Commissions of Sewers, and to survey estates belonging to the Duchy, — 23 Eliz. (1581), to the present Time. 
Privy Seals and Bills, being the particulars prepared previous to the granting any Leases or Offices under the Duchy Seal, — 1 James 

I. (1603), to the present Time. 

" The Building wherein the Records are kept is situate on the East Side of Somerset Place,* is in good Condition and Security, 
with respect to the Rooms where the Records are deposited ; but many of them have been obliged to be lately removed from the 
lower part on account of the Dry Rot, which has affected the Basement Story. As the Records yearly increase, more Room will be 
wanted at some future Period, for the Accommodation of them. The Office was appropriated to the use of the Duchy of Lancaster 
under the Act for erecting the Buildings at Somerset House, and is therefore public Property. But this office was given to the 
Duchy in consideration of Accommodations and Concessions made by his Majesty in right of his Duchy, from such parts of the 
manor of Savoy as belonged to the Duchy. The Records, except those of very ancient Date (which were, in some degree, destroyed 
by the vermin in the late office), are in good preservation ; and such as are not contained in Books are arranged in Presses, according 

1 These documents, wliicli at the present time are under arrange- the Orders and Decrees enrolled Is, by the ancient calendars, .alpha- 

ment include rolls for the foUowing places in Lancashire ; Accrington betically arranged, under the name of Plaintiff and Defendant. — C. 
Manor Amoundemess Wapentake, Beamont in Bolton, Blackburnshire, ' The IwniAsitiona pout mortem were taken either before the 

Poseeasions of Burscough Priory, Possessions of Cartmell Priory, Esoheator of the County Palatine or before special Commissioners, by 

Chatbume Manor Clitheroe, Colne Manor, Colton, Possessions of virtue of Writs of Diem clamit extrenuim, or commissions emanating 

Conishead Priory 'Great Crosby Manor, Dalton Manor, Flookborough, from the Court of Chancery of the Palatinate. They begin before 

Possessions of Fa'mess Monastery, IghtenhuU Manor, Liverpool Lord- Henry V., the earliest being of the reign of Edward I., and they eome 

shin Lonsdale Hundred Ormskirk Manor, Pendleton Manor, Penwortham down to the time of Charles I., though only a very small portion are 

Manor Bochdale Hundred, Salford Wapentake, Tottington Manor, of an earlier date than the reign of Henry VIL They are all arranged 

Ulverston Barony West Derby Htmdred and Worston Manor.— 0. and bound in volumes, the references being by means of the printed 

« The Decrees and Orders made in Suits originated in the Duchy calendar.— C. ,,„„,,.„ j r>o5 n 

Chambers are enrolled in 47 thick volumes, beginning in the reign of ♦ The Records are now removed to the Public Kecord umoe.— U. 

Edward IV. and coming down to the present time. The reference to 


to their Dates, tied up with paper and string, and numerically indorsed ; and in the course of every summer a person is employed to 
remove the Dust from them, and put new paper and string to such as want it. The Books are deposited in Closets, indorsed 
according to their dates and Subjects. There are correct general Indexes, Repertories, and Calendars, of all the Records in the 
Office with reference to the particular Subjects which they contain ; and as fresh Records are transmitted to the Office, they are 
continued to be entered in existing Calendars ; and these additions are minutely attended to, without any Expense on that account 
being borne by the Ifing as Duke of Lancaster. Several Years ago, according to what I have been informed, a Fire happened at the 
Duchy's Office, Gray's Inn, by which accident several Records were destroyed, and some are supposed to have been stolen. Some of 
these have been recovered from persons who have voluntarily surrendered them ; and some few Indexes and Catalogues, which had 
been made for the use of the officers who had the care of the Records ; but I know of none now existing in any place, from whence 
they are likely to be regained ; and such ample Repertories have since been made, and the Records arranged in such order, that 
they would hardly be of use if recovered. I am employed in the arrangements of the Records myself, and a clerk assists me in 
placing and replacing them, for which no Salary or allowance whatever is paid, but a fee of 8s. 6d. is charged for the production of 
each Record, which is the sole allowance, as well for the trouble and producing them, as for arranging them and keeping them in 
proper preservation, and for making the Indexes, Repertories, and Calendars, and the further sum of Is. is charged per folio for 
Copies, or 16d. if there is any considerable difficulty arising from the Antiquity or Language of the Record. Attendance with the 
Records themselves is so seldom demanded, that no Fee has been regularly settled for that purpose ; but if in London, a charge is 
made of one guinea, besides the coach-hire ; and if in the country, two guineas a day, with the travelling charges, and all other 
expenses, would be expected. No account has been kept of the profits derived by searches for public records, independent of those 
where fees have been received for other searches, from whence any average can be taken. The answer to the Sixth Question is, I 
presume, contained in the answer to the foregoing questions. I am not apprised of any regulation that can be made for rendering 
the use of the said Records more convenient for proper Inspection. 

" May 8, 1800. " R- J- Haeper, Deputy-Clerk of the Council." 

"Several Fee Farm Rolls of this Duchy have been lately transferred to this Office from the Augmentation Office." 

" Return to a further Question to the Clerk of the Council and Keeper of the Records of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

" Query. — Are there in your custody, as such Officer, any Calendars, or Indexes to the Inquisitions Post Mortem mentioned in 
your Return to this Committee, and upon what plan are they formed — and are they in a state sufficiently correct for pubUcation, if 
it should be thought to conduce to the benefit of the Public to have the same printed ? " 

" Answer. — 'There are, as stated in my former Return, several Inquisitions Post Mortem, Traverses, and other Inquisitions of 
divers kinds, remaining in this Office under my care, commencing in the beginning of the Reign of Henry V. and finishing 18 Charles 
I., amounting to nearly 2,400 in number, some of which consist of many large Skins of Parchment put on Files, in several bundles, 
secured from future injuries by strong covers, and to which there is a regular Alphabetical Index and Calendar, in one Volume 
divided into the several Reigns of the Kings before mentioned, and containing the names of Persons, and all places mentioned in 
each Inquisition, omitting none that are legible. The first directing immediately to the several lands each person died possessed 
of ; the other referring to each Inquisition, in which any particular Lands are to be found. I know of no objection to publishing 
the above Index, if it should be thought conducive to the public benefit ; and understand it will fill about 90 Pages when printed. 

"June 27, 1810. " R. J. Hakpeb, Deputy-Clerk of the Council." 

Through the munificent gift of Her Majesty the Queen, the nation acquired in 1868 the ■whole 
of the valuable private muniments belonging to the duchy of Lancaster. This collection of records, 
commencing even before the creation of the palatinate, contains innumerable documents of extra- 
ordinary age and variety, relating not only to the county palatine as a subordinate regality, but to 
the government and jurisdiction of the entire dominion of the duchy, with its possessions in almost 
every county in the Idngdom. These archives -were transferred from the Duchy Office, Lancaster 
Place, to the Public Record Office, between the 30th November and 8th December, 1868, and are 
fully described in the Appendix to the Thirtieth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, 
pp. 1 to 43.^ In this report they are arranged under thirty-three divisions or classes, the contents 
of which are given in a condensed form in the following summary : — 


1. Pleadings or proceedings by bill, and answers 12. Privy seals and bills for patents, and grants 

in the Chancery of the Duchy of Lancas- of lands and manors, Henry VII. to 1767.. 

ter, Henry VII. to Elizabeth, arranged and 13. Draft patents, Philip and Mary to 1760 

bound in separate volumes 213 vols. 14. Draft leases, Henry VIII. to 1760 

2. Bills and answers in bundles, 1603-1809 207 bundles. 15. Counterparts of leases, Edward VI. to 1758... 

3. Depositions, examinations, surveys, &c., 16. Draft presentations to churches, Elizabeth 

Henry VIII. to Philip and Mary, arranged to George I 

and bound in volumes 81 vols. 17. Draft warrants and commissions to survey. &c., 

4. Depositions, examinations, surveys, &c., 13 Elizabeth to 1785 '. 

in bimdles, Elizabeth to 1818 198 bundles. 18. Books of surveys of lands, manors, etc 

5. Books of orders and decrees enrolled, 19. Books of surveys of woods 

Edward IV. to 1825 47 vols. 20. Judges' commissions, &o., 1675 to 1774 

6. Draft decrees, Henry VIIL to George I, in 21. Sheriffs' bills, 1684 to 1758 

bundles 139 bundles. 22. Draft commissions of sewers, &o., 30 Elizabeth 

7. Inquisitions post mortem, Edward L to to 1800 

Charles L, bound in volumes 30 vols. 23. Inquisitions or extents for debt, Ehzabeth to 

8. Draft injunctions, 12 James I. to 1748 23 bundles. Charles II 

9. Affidavits, reports, certificates, orders, peti- 24. Security bonds, Henrv VIIL to 1716 

tions, &c., 2 Ehzabeth to 1800 26 „ 25. Large collection of miscellaneous records in 

10. Several boxes containing original charters drawers, distinguished by letters of the 

and grants under seal alphabet, A to Z, and AA to HH 

11. Registers, cowchers, and books of enrolment 26. Miscellaneous records, catalogued and de- 

of patents, leases, &c 115 vols. scribed 43 

43 bundles. 
47 „ 
104 „ 
61 „ 

3 „ 

80 bundles. 
30 vols. 
13 „ 

9 bundles. 

5 „ 

5 „ 

7 „ 

' Jhi^ general inventory was prepared by Mr. William Hardy, the prpsent Danuty Koopor of the Publio Records, who had the custody of 
these documents provioua to their transfer from the Duohy of Laucastur Office.— C. 




27. Misoellaneoua (undescribed) 11 bundles. 

28. Ministers' accounts, viz., of the wardrobe and 

treasurer of the household, receiver 
general's accounts, and valores or states 
of revenue, Edward III. to 1771 23 „ 

29. Ministers' accounts of honors and manors, 

Edward I. to 1760 455 „ 

30. Court rolls, Edward I. to 1760 85 bundles, 

31. Old plans and maps contained in a large box, 

numbered respectively 1 to 117 

32. Oliver Cromwell's surveys 

33. Calendars and indices to many of the above 

60 vols. 

The Seal of the Duchy of Lancaster is as ancient as the duchy itself ; as is also the Seal of 
the County Palatine. The seal of the duchy remains with the chancellor of the duchy at West- 
minster ; that of the county palatine is kept at Preston, in the office of the keeper of the seal. 
All grants and leases of land, tenements, and offices, in the county palatine of Lancaster, in order 
to render them valid, must pass under the seal of the county palatine, and no other ; and all 
grants and leases of lands, tenements, and offices out of the county palatine, and within the survey 
of the duchy, must pass under the seal of the duchy, and no other seal.^ The custom, however, 
is to seal all deeds of lands, &c., within the county palatine with both the duchy and the county 
palatine seals, and all without the county, but within the survey of the duchy of Lancaster, with 
the duchy seal only. These seals are essentially the same as those that have been used since the 
days of John of Gaunt, but new seals are engraved in each successive dukedom. Those at present 
in use are extremely splendid, and may rank amongst the first effijrts of art in this department. 

The Duchy Seal. 

Represents the Queen seated on her throne, in royal robes, wearing the Collar of the Most Noble 
Order of the Garter, and the Imperial Crown. In her right hand she holds the Royal Sceptre, and 
her left hand supports the Orb and Cross. On the dexter side, with the arm resting upon the 
throne, is an allegorical figure of Law, holding the sword by the point in one hand and a book in 


the other Supporting the throne, on the sinister side, is the figure of Justice, holding the balance 
on one hand and the sword on the other. In the two outer compartments there are, on the dexter 
side a Lion seiant, crowned with the Imperial Crown, and supporting between the paws a Banner 
of Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ; and, on the sinister side a Unicorn 
seiant and addorsed, gorged with a Prince's Crown, and supporting a Banner of Arms of the Duchy 
of Lancaster viz nules, three lions passant guardant or, a label of three points, each charged with 
three fleurs-de-lis. In the rear of the throne is a winged figure representing Fame, with two trum- 
pets, and round the Seal is the Royal style— 

VicTOKiA • Dei • Gratia • Britanniarvm • Begina • Fidei • Defensor. 
On the reverse is a Shield of the Arms of the Duchy, placed in pale, between two ostrich 
feathers erect ermine, each issuant from an escrol. Above the Shield is a ducal helmet, from 

' Sir Edward Coke's Fourth Part of the Institutes of the Lawa of England, fo. 210. 




which flows the lambrequin, and on the helmet rests the crest, being upon a chapeau, turned-up 
ermine, a lion statant guardant, gorged with a label of three points, each charged with three 
fleurs-de-lis. The Seal is circumscribed with the inscription— 




The County Palatine Seal. 

Represents the Queen on horseback, upon a mount in base, with the Royal sceptre in her right 
hand On the dexter side is a rose, ensigned by a prince's coronet. Beneath the mount is a 
talbot dog courant, gorged with a collar, and the whole is circumscribed with the Royal style— 

ViCTOHiA Dei Grat : Beitanniaeum Regina Fid : Def : 

The reverse of the Seal bears a Shield of the Arms of the Duchy as above described, surmounted 
by a helmet with the lambrequin. On each side of the Shield is an ostrich feather erect, ermine, 
issuant from an escrol. The Seal is circumscribed— 



Although the offices of the duchy and the county palatine, except that of the chancellor's, 
are little subject to political changes, the list of ofiicers is frequently varying by the inevitable 
operations of time. In December, 1886, these lists were as follows: — 

Officers of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Chancellor — The Right Hon. Lord John James Robert Manners, 

G.C.B., M.P. 
Vice-Chancellor — Henry Fox Bristowe, Esq., Q.C. 
Attorney-General — Henry Wyndham West, Esq., Q.C. 
Receiver-General — General the Right Hon, Sir Henry Frederick 

Ponsonby, K.C.B. 

Auditor — Francis Alfred Hawker, Esq. 

Clerk of the Council and Registrar — John Gardner Dillman 

Engleheart, Esq., C.B. 
Coroner — Samuel Frederick Langham, Esq. 
Clerk in Court and Solicitor — Francis Whitaker, Esq. 

Officers of the County Palatine.^ 

Chancellor — The Right Hon. Lord John James Robert Manners, 

G.C.B., M.P. 
Lord Lieutenant — The Right Hon. the Earl of Sefton. 
High Sheriff (1886) — Sir Andrew Barclay Walker, Baronet. 
Attorney-General — (In abeyance.) 

Comptroller, Chancery of Lancaster — W. E. Sanger, Esq. 
District Registrar of the Chancery of Lancashire — Alexander 

Pearce, Esq. 
Clerks to the Lieutenancy — Messrs. Wilson, Deacon, Wright, 

and Wilsons. 

Under Sheriff— W. T. Sharp, Esq. 

Acting Under Sheriffs — Messrs. Wilson, Deacon, Wright, and 

Constable of Lancaster Castle — The Right Hon. Lord 

Seal Keeper and Clerk of Assize and Associate — Thomas 

Moss Shuttleworth, Esq. 
Clerk of the Peace — Frederick Campbell Hulton, Esq. 
Deputy Clerks of the Peace — Thomas Wilson and Samuel 

Campbell Hulton Sadler, Esqs. 

• For a list of various other County OtBoers— as Chief and other Constables, Keopora of Gaols, Bridgomasters, Surveyors, etc.— see Appendix No. III. 




Laurence Holden— Lancaster. 
Frederick Price — Salford. 
James Broughton Edge — Bolton. 
F. N. Molesworth— Rochdale. 

Coroner for the Liberty and Manor of Furness, Ulverston— 

John Poole. 
Coroner for the Manor of Walton-le-Dale— William Ascroft. 


Henry John Robinson— Blackburn. 
Samuel Brighouse— Ormskirk. 
Dr. Joseph B. Gilbeitson— Preston. 

Coroner for the Manor of Prescot— Frederick Smith 
Coroner for the Manor of Hale.— John R. Buoton. 

• t J .? 1 7'^^*^^^7 °f the duchy of Lancaster, seals were, no doubt, in use, and the words 
in the act already quoted, serves to prove that it was not now introduced for the fi;st time 

In the British Museum^ there is a manuscript entitled "Ducatus Lancastri^," on the^subiect 
of the honors and dignities of the dukedom of Lancaster, written in the a<.e of Elizabeth and 
attributed to Sir William Fleetwood, recorder of London, one of the worthLSf Lancashire which 
supphes a hiatus m the early period of the history of the honor of Lancaster, wherein the earned 
civilian scrutinises the claims of Edmund Crouchback to the title of Earl of Lancaster with as little 
ceremony as he was accustomed to use in scrutinising the representations of the suitors in the 
recorder s court. 

Ducatus Lakcastri^,- 

Lancaster is an ancient honor ; ite dukedom being made of a number of honors. Honors were dignities before the Conauest. 
as may be seen by the agreement made between Kmg Stephen and Henry, Duke of Normandy, son to Maude the empress for suc- 
cession of the crown. Stephen was son to Adela, daughter to the Conqueror. After Stephen's death, Henry Plautagenet (son of 
the empress) was Kmg of England and had issue Henry, whom he crowned king in his lifetime ; after his death, Richard Cceur 
de Lion, who created hm brother John (Comte Sans Terra, Earl Lackland), Earl of Lancaster, and the town and territory of Bristol 
and the counties of Nottingham Devon, and Cornwall. Richard died without issue, leaving young Arthur and his sistir, children 
ot Cxeottrey, his next brother [older than John] and heir. John, nevertheless, was crowned King of England who had issue Henrv 
and Richard and four daughters. Henry (IIL), his eldest son, is crowned king, and grants to his brother (Richard) the earldom of 
Cornwall, with great possessions. Li the 26 Henry IIL (1241-2) came into England a nobleman. Piers of Savoy, who because of 
his wisdom and prudence, was of the king's council in all things. To him the king gave the whole earldom of Lancaster parcel of 
which earldom is the Savoy, a place without the bars of the new Temple, London, which in those days was known as a Vwnafona 
since named " Maner Mori Templi," at this day the Savoy, parcel of the possessions of the dukedom of Lancaster. Piers of Savov 
built him a house there, calling it by the name of the country whence he came, the Savoy. This Piers, Earl of Lancaster being of 
great age, and his son being an alien born, and therefore not capable of inheriting the earldom, it escheated to the king and was 
vested in the crown. Henry III. had six sons and two daughters— John, Richard, William, Henry (who died without issue) 
Edward, afterwards king by succession, and Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, of whom is descended the family and noble house of 
Lancaster ; for the king, to the exalting of his blood, by letters patent, dated Lincoln, 8th August, in his 22d year (1237-8) granted 
to hia dearly beloved son Edmund the honor of Lancaster, with all men, wards, reliefs, escheats, rents, and all other things pertaining 
to the honor, to be to him and the legitimate heirs of his body for ever. He also gave him and his heirs the honor of Leicester 
etc., on 17th June, 55th year (1271). There is not any record or proof extant that this Edmund was created either Earl of Lancaster 
or Leicester ;' but an earl natural is evermore a king's son, who, by his birthright, is an earl born, etc. As King John, on King 
Richard granting him the honor of Lancaster, was named Earl of Lancaster, not by creation but by birthright, so Edmund Crouch- 
back had the two aforesaid honors granted him, and so was named Earl of Lancaster and Leicester. The honor of Lancaster as by 
record appears, extends chiefly into Lancashire, Middlesex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, York Rutland, and 

Staffordshire, etc. Edmund Crouchback, second son of Henry IIL, being advanced to these honors and dignities, had two sons ■ 

Thomas and Henry. This Thomas was erroneously attainted in a Parliament of Edward II. by the policy of Hugh le Despencer 
the father and his son, and was put to death at Pontefract ; but in a Parliament 1st Edward III. (1327) this judgment was reversed' 
and the earl's dooms and possessions restored to the next heir, his brother Henry, who was not only Earl of Lancaster and Leicester 
by lineal descent, but also heritor to divers other earldoms, honors, &c. This Henry was afterwards created Duke of Lancaster 
by Edward III. He had issue only one daughter, Blanche, afterwards married to John of Gaunt, by means whereof the said 
John of Gaunt was created Duke of Lancaster, and by the assent of the Lady Blanche, his wife, all the possessions of the dukedom 
were lawfully conveyed to the said John the Duke, the Lady Blanche, and to the heii-s of the body of John, etc. After which the 
said John had issue of the said Blanche, Henry of Bolinbroke, afterwards king by the name of King Henry IV., who had issue 
Henry V. The latter had issue Henry VI., which king had issue ; after whose death the right and title to the dukedom, by force of 
the said entail [passed] unto John, Earl of Somerset, son of the said John, Earl of Lancaster, by Catharine Swynford, third wife of 
the duke ; which John, Earl of Somerset, had issue Margaret, the Countess of Richmond and Derby ; which Margaret had issue 
Henry VII., who married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV., by whom he had issue Henry VIII., who had issue, our 
sovereign lady the Queen Elizabeth, in whose sacred person are contained the two houses of Lancaster and York, etc. 

1 HarL CoU. No. 2077. 

= The original document being long and verbose, and full of contracted 
words, we give the above as its substance. — H. 

•'' Serjeant Fleetwood is in error : Prince Edmund was created Earl 
of Leicester by letters patent of 49 Henry III. (12(34-5), and Earl of Lan- 
caster 51 Henry III. (1206-7), both which patents are still extant. 



Creation of the County Palatine— Sheriffs from the Earliest Records— Courts of the County Palatine— Ecclesiastical and other 
Courts— Assizes— Public Records o£ the County Palatine— a.d. 1087 to 1886. 

LOSELY connected with the duchy of Lancaster are the courts and privileges of 
the county palatine. Upon the subject of the palatinate privileges, Selden 
observes " that the counties of Chester and Durham are such by prescription or 
immemorial custom, or at least as old as the Norman Conquest ; but that Lanca- 
shire, as a palatine county, is of more modern date, and was so created by Edward 
III., after it became a duchy, in favour of Henry Plantagenet, first Earl and then 
Duke of Lancaster, whose heiress being married to John of Gaunt, the king's son, 
the franchise was greatly enlarged and confirmed in Parliament, to honour John 

of Gaunt himself, whom, on the death of his father-in-law, the king had also created Duke of 


Upon this subject the authorities are conflicting : Jjancashire appears to have enjoyed palatine 

jurisdiction under Earl Morcar, before the Norman Conquest ; but after that event, which changed 

the whole frame of society, these privileges remained in abeyance till they were partially revived 

in the early part of the twelfth century, and fully confirmed in the time of the " Good Duke of 

Lancaster " and of John of Gaunt. 

We give an extract from an original letter from Dr. "Kuerden, in his own hand," dated 

Preston, 20th Jan., 1664, to his brother, both in law and in pursuits, Mr. Randle Holme, in the 

Harleian Collection in the British Museum : — = 

"Mr. Townly and myself are in hott pursait of our coutryes affaires, and in retriuiug the glory of our Palatinate out of monu- 
metal ashes, and are able by this time to prove our county a Palatinate Jurisdiction under Rog. Pictavensi-s, before the grand survey 
of Doomsday's Record in ye Echqr and forfeted before that time, restored again in Will the second's time, forfeited againe ty 
Piotavensis at the battell of Teueichhuy, [Tewkesbury] in the beginning of Henry I., bestowed then on Stephen before he was king, 
and coatinuated for his reigne in his son, W. Comes Bolonise et Moritonite, till about the 5tli of Richard the first, then given to 
Jo Earl Moreton, afterwards to P. of Savoy, and by Henry 3^ conferred on Edmund Crouohback, our first earl by charter, though 
some of these latter had not their Jura Regalia as at first.'' 

Counties jsalatine are so called a palcitio, because the owners thereof, the Earl of Chester,^ the 

Bishop of Durham, and the Duke of Lancaster, had in those counties jura regalia as fully as the 

king had in his palace ; regalem j)otestatevi in omnibus.* The peculiar iurisdiction and form of 

proceedings of the courts of law in the county palatine of Lancaster are the result of those privileges 

which were granted to its early earls and dukes, to induce them to be more than ordinarily 

watchful against the predatory incursions from the Scotch border, and to prevent their tenants 

from leaving the territory defenceless and exposed to hostile aggressions, while seeking redress at 

the more distant tribunals of the realm.'' Law was to be administered by the officers and ministers 

of the duke, and under his seal, and anciently all offences were said to be against his peace, his 

sword,_ and dignity, and not, as now, " against the peace of our lord the king, his crown, and dignity." 

The king's ordinary writs for redress of private grievances, or the punishment of offences between 

man and man, were not available within the county palatine — such writs then ran in the name of 

the duke ; but in matters between the king and the subiect the palatine privileges could not 

contravene the exercise of the sovereign power, and the prerogative writs were of force, lest injuries 

to the state should be remediless. Since 27 Henry VIII. (1535) all writs have run in the name of 

the king,_ and are tested before the owner of the franchise. Hence it is that all ordinary writs out 

of the king's court at Westminster, for service in this county, are addressed to the chancellor of 

the duchy, commanding him to direct the sheriff to execute them, and that all processes to that 

officer, out of the chancery of the county palatine, are not tested before the king or his justices at 

Westminster, as in other counties. The franchise and revenue of the duchy being under different 

> Tit. Honoiu, part il. sec. 8. p. 677. 

» Cod. 2042. 

= The Palatinate of Chester was abohshed in 1830, when the whole of 
the offices of purely palatinate origin and jurisdiction were dissolved. — C 

* liracton, lib. iii. c. 8. sec. 4. 

' Upon this account there were formerly two other counties pala- 
tine— border counties as they were called t Pembrokeshire and Hexham- 

sliire, tlie latter now united with Northumberland; but these wera 
abolished by Parliament— the former, 27 Henry VIII. (1536) ; the latter, 
14 Elizabeth (1672). By the first-mentioned of these Acts tbe powers of 
owners of counties palatine ware much abridged, the reason for their 
continuance having in a manner ceased, though still all writs are 
witnessed in thoir names, and all forfeitures for treason by the common 
law accrue to them. 


guiding and governance from those of the crown, all honours and immunities, and all redress 
withm this county, with very fcAv exceptions, must be derived from the chancellor of the duchy, 
as the principal minister of the king, in his capacity as Duke of Lancaster. Until the passing of 
the Judicature Acts justices of assize, of gaol-delivery were, and justices of the peace are still, and 
eversmce the creation of the county palatine of Lancaster have been, made and assigned by com- 
mission, under the seal of the county palatine,' and the sheriffs for the county of 'Lancaster are 
appointed in the same way. The election of sheriff for this county palatine, in 1824, formed an 
exception to the general rule. The practice is to date the writ before his majesty, " at his palace 
at Westminster ; " but on this occasion, when John Entwistle, Esq., of Foxholes, was appointed, 
that document was dated from " the palace at Brighton." Anciently, sheriffs, like coroners, were 
chosen by the freeholders f but popular elections growing tumultuous, this practice was abolished. 

The choice of the sheriffs in the palatine counties is conducted in a different manner from that 
of the choice of these officers in the other counties of the kingdom. The usual mode of election is 
for the judges, having met in the Exchequer chamber on the morrow of St. Martin (Nov. 12), to 
return for each of the counties, not palatine, the names of three persons, resident in each county, 
to the king — and for the king, with a small instrument, to prick the name of one of the three, 
usually the first upon the list, as sheriff. But for the county of Lancaster, the chancellor of the 
duchy selects the three names, which he submits to the king, as Duke of Lancaster, usually on 
some day between the 1st and the 20th of February in each year ; and the king chooses one of the 
three, generally that at the head of the list. In the early periods of British history, the sheriffs 
continued in office for a number of years, as will be seen in the following list, and some for the 
whole term of their life _; but since the 28th Edward III. (1354), the office can only be held legally 
for one year. Nor was it unusual in early times to elect to this office the most exalted peers of the 
realm. Before the Conquest, the county of Lancaster, with some other jurisdictions, was committed 
to the Earl of Northumbria, in the large sense, and sometimes to the Earl of Deira, being the more 
southern part of that kingdom or province. The last of these earls in the Saxon times were Earls 
Tosti and Morcar, whose possessions are noted in Domesday Book. 

The following list is compiled from the manuscripts of Mr. Hopkinson, compared by the late 
MatthoAV Gregson, Esq., with that of the late George Kenyon, Esq., which we have collated with 
and corrected from a MS. (No. 259) in the British Museum, endorsed, " Nomina Vicecomitum 
collecta ex Rotulis Pellium recepta apud Westmonasterium. De Termino Michaelis, anno prime 
Regis Edwardi primi " (1273) :—' 

Sheriffs of Lancashire from the Earliest Records to 1886. 

NoKMAN Line. 1178 ) 

to > Ralph Fitz-BerDard. 

Will. II. 1087-1100. 1183.) 

1087. Geoffrey was sheriff, and the only one named until 1156. US*- Gilbert Pipard. 

Probably the person called Goisfrid in the Domesday 1185. Gilbert Pipard and Peter Pipard for him. 

Survey. " Inter Ripa 7 Mersham." 1186. Idem. 

No sheriffs are named during the reigns of Henry I. and 1187. Idem. 

Stephen. 1188. Gilbert Pipard. 

Plaxtagenet of Anjou. EicHAED I. 1189-1199. 

TT n--iion 1189- Gilbert Pipard. 

Henry II. lloo-1189. j^gO Henry de Gornhill. 

1156. Ralph Pigot, for four years. 1191. Idem. 

1160. Robert de Montalt, for three years. 1192. Ralph de Gornhill. 

1163. Hugh de Owra. 1193. Idem. 

1164. Galfr. de Valoines, Baron of Derby. 1194. Theobald Walter, o£ Preston, and Wm. Radoliffe for him 

1165. Idem. (Theobald Walter, K.) 

1166. William de Vesci. 1195. Theobald Walter and Benedict Garnet for him. 

1167. Idem. 1196. Mem. Idem. 

1168. Rogerus de Herlebeck (William de Vesci, K.) 1197. Theobald Walter and Robert Vavasour for him. 

1170. Idem (Herlebeck, K.) 1198. Theobald Walter and Nicholas Pincerna or le Boteler 

1171. Idem. for him. 

1172. Ralph Fitz-Bernard. jgjjj, 1199.12I6. 

1173. Idem. 

1174. Idem. (Rad. de Glanvill, K.) 1199. Theobald Walter. 

1175. Idem. 1200. Rob. de Tattershall. 
1176.' Idem.' (K. Rob. H.) ' 1201. ) 

1177. Robert (probably in error for Ralph) Fitz-Bernard (Ralph 1 202. > Richard Vernon. 
Fitz-Bernard, K.) 1203. ) 

.Co|.e;s4tYnstitute.p.205. ^^^r '^^'^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^ 

I le^^yL^'d^ffrC'&e' L of appointment ;Hopkinaon from the lenyon, H. ™U^^^^^^ ^^o^Z Stcl'tr!^ 






120fl 1 

to } 

1216. ) 








Eoger Lacy, o£ Clitheroe. 

Roger de Lacy and Adam de Lacy for him. 

Eoger de Lacy and Robert Wallensis, Gilbert Fitz- 

Reynfride, and Adam Fitz-Roger for liim. 
Gilbert Fitz-Reyufride and Adam Fitz-Roger for him ; 

(Gilbert fil. Reinford, K.) 

Gilbert Fitz-Reynfride and Adam Fitz-Roger for him. 

Henkt in. 1216-1272. 

Ranulph, Earl of Chester. 

Ranulph, Earl of Chester, and Jordan his son for him. 

. Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 
. Idem. Idem. 

William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, William de Ferrars 
and Robert Montioy for him. 
. Idem. Idem. 

Wilham de Ferrars and Gerard Etwell for him. 

Adam de Eland, of Rochdale. 






Sir John Byron. 

William Lancaster, of Lancaster, and Simon de Thornton 
for him. 

Idem. Idem, 

Robert de Lathom, of Lathom, 

William de Lancaster and Simon de Thornton for him. 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 

WiUiam de Lancaster and Richard le Boteler for him. 

Idem. Idem. 

William de Lancaster and Wilham and Matthew 

Idem. Idem. 

Idem. Idem. 
/ Wilham de Lancaster and Matthew Redmayne. 
\ Robert Latham (half-year). 


Idem for seven years further. 

Patrick de Ulnesby. 


William Pincerna (or le Boteler, as he is named in the 
writ), of Bewspy. 

Geoffrey de Chetham, of Chetham (as Fermor). 

Geoffrey de Chetham. 

Geoffrey de Chetham and Ralph de Dacre. 

Geoffrey de Chetham and Adam de Montalt. 

Adam de Montalt and Robert de Lathom, K. 

John de Cancefield. 

Ranulph de Dacre. 

Edwabd L 1172-1307. 

1273. Thomas Travers. 

1274. Wilham Gentyl (Henry de Lea, H.) 

1275. Ranulph de Dacre. 

1276. Nicholas de Lee. 

1277. Henry de Lee. 

1278. Gilbert de Clifton, of Clifton. 

1279. Roger de Lancaster, of Lancaster. 

1280. Ralph de Montjoy. 

1281. Thomas Banister. 

1282. Richard de Hoghton, of Hoghton. 

1283. Thomas de Lancaster. 

1286. Robert de Latham and Gilbert de Clifton for hira, 

1287. Gilbert de Chfton, of Clifton. 

1288. Robert de Leyborne. 

1289. Gilbert de Clifton. 

1290. Roger de Lancaster, of Lancaster. 













Ralph Mountjoy (to 1297, K.) 
Richard de Hoghton, of Hoghton. 

^ Ralph Montjoy. 

Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, and Richard de 
Hoghton for him ; Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, by 
inheritance ; and Richard de Hoghton for him. 

Richard de Hoghton, of Hoghlon. 


Thomas Travers, of Nateby. 

Edwabd II. 1307-1327. 

-Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster. 

William Gentyl. 

Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster. 

Richard de Bickerstaffe. 

Gilbert Southworth, of Southworth (Wm. le Gentyl, K.) 

John d'Arcy. 

Geoffrey de Warburton. 

Edward IIL 1327-1377. 

William Gentyl. 

John de Hambury. 

John de Burghton. 

John de Hambury and Sir Geoffrey de Warburton. 

John de Denam. 

Robert Foucher (others say Toucher). 

William Clapham. 

Robert de Radcliffe, of Ordsall. 

Stephen Ireton. 

John le Blount. 

John Cockayne. 

Richard de Radclyffe, of Radclyffe Tower. 

WiUiam de Radclyffe, of Radclyffe Tower. 

John Ipree, vice Sheriff (no Sheriff's name found). 

William de Radclyffe, of Radclyffe Tower. 

John Ipree, vice Sheriff. 

Geoffrey de Chetham, of Chetham. 

Richard Towneley, of Towneley. 

Richard II. 1377-1399. 

Richard de Towneley, of Towneley. 

Thomas de Bobbeham. 

Nicholas Harrington, of Farlton, for six years. 

Ralph Radclyffe, for three years. 

Robert Standish. 

Sir Ralph Standish, of Standish. 

Sir John Butler, of Rawoliffe, for three yeai-s. 

Richard Molyneux, of Sephton. 

House of Lancaster. 

Henry IV. 1399-1413. 

Thomas Gerard, of Bryn. 

[ John Boteler, of Rawcliffe. 

Sir Ralph Radclyffe. 

■ Sir John Bold, of Bold, four years. 

Sir Ralph Stanley. 

Henry V. 1413-1422. 

Sir Ralph Stanley and Nicholas Longford. 
William Bradshaw and Robert Longford. 

Robert Urswick, of Urswick. 

Robert Lawrence, of Ashton. 

Richard Radclyffe, of Ordsall. 




Heney VI. 1422-1461. 
2403 1 

1426. J I^'<='i'"''i Radclyffe, of Ordsall. 

1429'. 1 ■^°^^'"'' Lawrence, of Ashton. 

1441 1 

1442 f^'"^ John Bjron, of Clayton. 

1459. Nicholas Byron, of Clayton. (Idem John, H.) 
House or Yokk. 








Edward IV. 1461-1483. 

John Broughton, of Broughton. 

!■ Thomas Pilkington, of Pilkington. 

Sir Robert Urswick, of Urswick. 
Thomas Pilkington, of Pilkington. 
Thomas Molyneux, of Sephton. 
Thomas Pilkington, of Pilkington. 

House of Tudor. 

(union of YORK AND luiNCASTER.) 

Henry VII. 1485-1509. 
j Sir Edward Stanley, of Hornby. 

Henry VIII. 1509-1547. 

ISir Edward Stanley, of Hornby; afterwards Baron 
I Monteagle. 

Edward Stanley, Baron Monteagle, of Hornby. 

Sir Alexander Osbaldeston, of Osbaldeston. 
Sir John Towneley, of Towneley. 
Sir Thomas Southworth, of Samlesbury. 
Sir Alexander Eadclyffe, of Ordsall. 

Edward VI. 1547-1553. 
Sir Alexander Kadclyffe. 
Sir Thomas Gerard, of Bryn. 
Sir Robert Worsley, of Worsley. 
Sil Peter Legh, of Haydock. 
Sir John Atherton, of Atherton. 
Sir Thomas Talbot. 
Sir Thomas Gerard, of Bryn. 

Mary. 1553-1558. 

Sir Marmaduke Tunstall, of Thurland. 
Sir John Atherton, of Atherton. 
Sir Thomas Langtou, of Newton. 
Sir Edmund Trafford, of Trafiford. 
Sir Thomas Gerard, of Bryn. 

Elizabeth. 1568-1603. 
John Talbot, of Salesbury, Esq. 
Sir Robert Worsley, of the Boothes, Knt. 
Sir John Atherton, of Atherton, Knt. 
Sir John Southworth, of Samlesbury, Knt. 
Sir Thomas Hesketh, of Rufford, Knt. 
Thomas Hoghton, of Hoghton, Esq. 
Edmund TrafFord, of TrafiFord, Esq. 
Sir Richard Molyneux, of Sef ton, Knt. 
Sir Thomas Langton, Knt. 
Edward Holland, of Denton, Esq. 
John Preston, of the Manor, Esq. 
Thomas Boteler, of Bewsey, Esq. 
Edmund TrafFord, of Trafford, Esq. 

John Byron, of Clayton, Esq. (Francis Holt, Esq., Fuller). 
Richard Holland, of Denton, Esq. 
William Booth, of Barton, Esq. 
Francis Holt, of Grislehurst, Esq. 
Richard Bold, of Bold, Esq.^ 
Robert Dalton, of Thurland, Esq. 
John Fleetwood, of Penwortham, Esq. 
Ralfe AsshetoD, of Middleton, Esq. 
Sir Edmund TrafFord, of Trafford, Knt. 
Sir John Byron, of Byron and Clayton, Knt. 

1582. Richard Holland, of Denton, Esq. 

1583. John Atherton, of Atherton, Esq. 

1584. Edmund Trafford, of Trafford, Esq. 

1 585. Thomas Preston, of the Manor, Esq. 

1586. Richard Assheton, Esq. (and Richard Bold, E.sq ) K. 
1687. John Fleetwood, of Penwortham, Esq. 

1588. Thomas Talbot, of Bashall, Esq. 

1589. Sir Richard Molyneux, of Sephton, Knt. 

1590. Richard Bold, of Bold, Esq. 

1691. James Assheton, of Chadderton, Esn. 

1592. Edward Fitton, Esq. 

1593. Richard Assheton, of Middleton, Esq. 

1594. Ralph Assheton, of Great Lever, Esq. 

1595. Thomas Talbot, of Bashall, Esq. 

] 596. Richard Holland, of Denton, Esq. 

1597. Sir Richard Molyneux, of Sephton, Knt. 

1598. Richard Asheton, of Middleton, Esq. 

1599. Sir Richard Hoghton, of Hoghton, Knt. 

1600. Robert Hesketh, of Rufford, Esq. 

1601. Cuthbert Halsall, of Halsall, Esq. 

1602. Sir Edmund Trafford, of Trafford, Knt. 

House of Stuart. 
James I. 1603-1625. 

1603. John Ireland, of Hutt, Esq. 

1604. Sir Nicholas Moseley, of Anooats, Knt. 

1605. Ralph Barton, of Smithells, Esq. 

1606. Edmund Fleetwood, of Rossall, Esq.^' 

1607. Sir Richard Assheton, of Middleton, Knt. 

1608. Robert Hesketh, of Rufford, Esq. 

1609. Sir Edmund Trafford, of Trafford, Knt. 

1610. Roger Nowell, of Read, Esq. 

1611. John Fleming, of Coniston, Esq. 

1612. Su- Cuthbert Halsall, of Halsall, Knt. 

1613. Robert Bindloss, of Borwick, Esq. 

1614. Richard Sherburne, of Stonyhurst, Esq. 

1615. Edmund Stanley, Esq. 

1616. Rowland Mosley, of Hough End, Esq. 

1617. Sir Edmund Trafford, of Trafford, Knt. 

1618. Richard Shuttleworth, of Gawthorpe, Esq. 

1619. John Holte, of Stubley, Esq. 

1620. Leonard Ashawe, of Asshawe, Esq. 

1621. Edmund More, of Bank Hall, Esq. 

1622. Gilbert Ireland, of Hale, Esq. 

1623. Sir George Booth, of Ashton-under-Lyne, Knt. and Bart. 

1624. Sir Rafe Assheton, of Whalley, Baronet. 

Charles I. 1625-1649. 

1625. Richard Holland, of Heaton, Esq. 

1626. Roger Kirkbye, of Kirkbye, Esq. 

1627. Sir Edward Stanley, of Bickerstaffe, Baronet. 

1628. Edmund Asheton, of Chadderton, Esq. 

1629. Edward Rawsthorne, of Newhall, Esq. 

1630. Thomas Hesketh, of Rufford, Esq. 

1631. Richard Bold, of Bold, Esq. 

1632. Nicholas Townley, of Royle, Esq. 

1633. Ralph Assheton, of Middleton, Esq. 

1634. Ralph Standish, of Standish, Esq. 

1635. Humphrey Chetham (The Benefactor), of Manchester, E&q. 

1636. William ffarington, of Worden, Esq. 

1637. Richard Shuttleworth, of Gawthorpe, Esq. 

1638. Roger Kirkbye, of Kirkbye, Esq. 

1639. Sir Edward Stanley, of Bickerstaffe, Baronet. 

1640. Robert Holte, of Stubley, Esq. 

1641. Peter Egerton, of Shawe, Esq. 

1642. Sir John Girlington, of Thurland, Knt, 

1643. Gilbert Hoghton, of Hoghton, Esq. 

1644. ^ 

1645. I John Bradshawe, Esq. (No Sheriffs elected during the 

1646. j Civil Wars — Gregson). 
1648. j 

Commonwealth. 1649-1660. 

1648. Sir Gilbert Ireland, of the Hutt, Knt., until May, 1649. 

1649. John Hartley, of Strangeways, Esq, until December, 16J9 

1 Fuller, in Ma Worthies, has a different order of succession for the 
four years 1672-75— viz. 1572 (14 BlizaUeth), Francis Holt ; 1673, Eich.ard 
Hi)lland ; 1574, William Booth, and 1575, Francis Holt ag.uii ; omicting 
John Byron. 

2 Fiillor omits John Ireland, and gives the three following 
Nicholas Mosley, Knt., Thomas Baker, Esq., and Edward Fleetwood, Esq. 












Edward Hopwood, of Hopwood, Esq. 

Henry Wrigley, of Cbamber Hall, Esq. 

Alexander Barlow, of Barlow, Esq. 

John Parker, of Extwisle, Esq. 

Peter Bold, of Bold, Esq. 

John Atherton, of Chowbent, Esq. 

John Starkie, of Huntroyd, Esq. 

Hugh Cooper, of Chorley, Esq. 

Piobert Bindlosse, of Borwick, Esq. 

Sir Richard Hoghtou, of Hoghton, Baronet. 


Charles II. 1660-1684. 

George Chetham, of Turton, Esq. 

^Sir George Middleton, of Leighton, Baronet. 

John Girlington, of Thurland, Esq. 
Thomas Preston, of Holker, Esq. 

^ William Spencer, Esq. 

John Arden, Esq. 

^ Thomas Greenhalgh, of Brandlesome, Esq. 

Christopher Banister, of Bank, Esq. 
Sir Henry Sclater, of Light Oaks, Knt. 

hSir Robert Bindlosse, of Borwick, Baronet. 

Sir Peter Brooke, of Astley, Knt. 

Alexander Butterworth, of Belfield, Esq. 

Alexander Rigby, of Layton, Esq. 

Sir Roger Bradshaigh, of Haigh, Bart. 
William Johnson, of Kishton Grange, Esq. 
Lawrence Rosthorne, of Newhall, Esq. 

Thomas Leigh, of Bank, Esq. 
Peter Shakerley, of Shakerley, Esq. 
James II. 1684-1688. 
Peter Shakerley, of Shakerley, Esq. 

William Spencer, Esq., two years. (Peter Shakerley, K.) 
Thomas Richardson, of Rawnhead, nominated but not 
sworn in. 

William and Mary. 1668-1702. 

James Birch, of Birch Hall, E-q. 
Peter Bold, of Bold, Esq. 
Alexander Rigby, of Layton, Esq. 
Francis Livesey, of Livesey, Esq. 
Thomas Rigby, of Gorse, Esq. 
T homas Asshurst, of Asshurst, Esq. 
Ri chard Spencer, of Preston, Esq. 
Thomas Norreys, of Speke, Esq. 
Roger Manwaring, of Morley, Esq. 
William West, of Middleton, E.sq. 
Robert Dukinfield, of Dukiufield, Esq. 
Thomas Rigby, of Middleton, Esq. 
William Hulme, of Davy Hulme, Esq. 

Anne. 1702-1714. 
Roger Nowell, of Read, Esq. 
Peter Egerton, of Shawe, Esq. 
George Birch, of Birch Hall, Esq. Succeeded by his 

brother, Thomas Birch. 
Richard Spencer, of Preston, Esq. 
Christopher Dauntesey, of Agecrof t, Esq. 
Edmund Cole, of Lancaster, Esq. 
Miles Sandys, of Graythwaite, Esq. 
Roger Kirkby, of Kirkby, Esq. (died in office). Succeeded 

by Alexander Hesketh, Esq. 
Roger Parker, of Extwistle, Esq. 
Sir Thomas Standish, of Duxbury, Bart. 
William Rawsthorne, of Newhall, Esq. 
Richard Valantine, of Preston, Esq. 
William ffaringtou, of Werden, Esq. 

House of Brunswick. 

George I. 1714-1727. 

Jonathan Blackburne, of Orford, Esq. 

1716. Thomas Crisp, Wigan, Esq. 

1717. Samuel Crooke, of Crooke, Esq. 

1718. Richard Norreys, of Speke, Esq. 

1719. Thomas Stanley, of Clitheroe, Esq. 

1720. Robert Mawdesley, of Mawdesley, Esq. 

1721. Benjamin Hoghton, Esq. 

1722. Benjamin Gregge, of Chamber Hall, Esq. 

1723. Sir Edward Stanley, of Bickerstaffe, Bart. 

1724. WilKam Tatham, of Over Hall, Esq. 

1725. Miles Sandys, of Graythwaite, Esq. 

1726. Edmund Hopwood, of Hopwood, Esq. 

George II. 1727-1760. 

1727. Daniel Wilson, of Dalbam Tower, Esq. 

1728. Joseph Yates, of Peel, Esq. 

1729. William Greenhalgh, of Myerscough, Esq. 

1730. James Chetham, of Smedley, Esq. 

1731. WnUam Leigh, of West Houghton, Esq. 

1732. John Parker, of Breightmet, Esq. 

1733. John Greaves, of Culcheth, Esq. 

1734. William Bushel, of Preston, Esq., M.D. 

1735. Arthur Hambleton, of Liverpool, Esq. 

1736. Sir Daroey Lever, of Alkrington, Knt., LL.D. 

1737. Thomas Horton, of Chadderton, Esq. 

1738. Samuel Chetham, of Castleton, Esq. 

1739. Sir Ralph Assheton, of Middleton, Bart. 

1740. Roger Hesketh, of North Meols, Esq. 

1741. Robert Dukinfield, of Manchester, Esq. 

1742. Robert Bankes, of Winstanley, Esq. 

1743. John Blackburne, of Orford, Esq. 

1744. Robert Radclyffe, of Foxdenton, Esq. 

1745. Daniel Willis, of Red Hall, Esq. 

1746. William Shawe, of Preston, Esq. 

1747. Samuel Birche, of Ardwick, Esq. 

1748. George Clarke, of Hyde (Co. Chester), Esq. 

1749. Rigby Molyneux, of Preston, Esq. 

1750. Charles Stanley, of Cross Hall, Esq. 

1751. James Fenton, of Lancaster, Esq. 

1752. Richard Townley, jun., of Belfield, Esq 

1753. John Bradshaw, of Manchester, E.-q. 

1754. Thomas Hesketh, of Rufford, Esq. 

1755. Thomas Johnson, of Manchester, Esq. 

1756. James Barton, of Peuwortham, Esq. 

1757. James Bailey, of Withington, Esq. 

1758. Robert Gibson, of Myerscough, Esq. 

1759. Edward Whitehead, of Claughton, E-q. 

1760. Samuel Hilton, of Pennington, Esq. 

George IIL 1760-1820. 

1761. Sir William ffarington, of Shaw Hall, Knt. 

1762. Thomas Braddyll, of Conishead, Esq. 

1763. Thomas Blackburne, of Hale, Esq. 

1764. Sir William Horton, of Chadderton, Bart. 

1765. John Walmesley, of Wigan, Esq 

1766. Edward Gregge, of Chamber Hall, Esq. 

1767. Alexander Butler, of Kirkland, Esq. 

1768. Thomas Butterworth Bayley, of Hope, Esq. 

1769. Doming Rasbotham, of Birch House, Esq. 

1770. Nicholas Ashton, of Liverpool, Esq. 

1771. Sir Ashton Lerer, of Alkrington, Knt. 

1772. William Cunliffe Shawe, of Preston, Esq. 

1773. Thomas Patten, of Bank Hall, Esq. 

1774. GeolFrey Hornby, of Preston, Esq. 

1775. Sir Watts Horton, of Chadderton, Bart. 

1776. Lawrence Rawsthorne, of Newhall, Esq. 

1777. Samuel Clowes, of Chorlton, Esq. 

1778. Wilson Gale Braddyll, of Conishead, Esq. 

1779. John Clayton, of Carr Hall, Esq. 

1780. John Atherton, of Walton Hall, Esq. 

1781. John Blackburne, of Orford, Esq. 

1782. Sir Frank Standish, of Duxbnry, Bart. 

1783. James Whalley, of Clerk Hill, Esq. 

1784. William Bankes, of Winstanley, Esq. 

1785. John Sparling, of Liverpool, Esq. 

1786. Sir John Parker Mosley, of Ancoats, Bart, 

1787. William Bamford, of Bamford, Esq. 

1788. Edward Falkner, of Fairfield, Esq. 

1789. William Hulton, of Hulton, Esq. 

1790. Charles Gibson, of Lancaster, Esq. 

1791. James Starky, of Heywood, Esq 





































William Assheton, of Cuerdale, Esq. 
Thomas Townley Parker, of Ciierden, Esq. 
Sir Henry Philip Hoghton, of Walton, Bart. 
Robinson Shuttlewortli, of Preston, Esq. 
Richard Gwillym, of Bewsey, Esq. 
Bold Fleetwood Hesketh, of Rossall, E?q. 
John Entwisle, of Foxholes, Esq. 
Joseph Starkie, of Redvales, Esq. 
James Ackers, of Lark Hill, Esq. 
Sir Thomas Dalrymple Hesketh, of Rufford, Bart. 
Robert Gregge Hopwood, of Hopwood, Esq. 
Isaac Blackburne, of Orford, Esq. 
Thomas Lister Parker, of Browsholme, Esq. 
Meyrick Bankes, of Wiiistanley, Esq. 
Le Gendre Pierse Starkie, of Huntroyd, Esq. 
Richard Legh, of Shaw Hill, Esq. 
Thomas Clayton, of Carr Hall, Esq. 
Samuel Clowes, of Broughton, Esq. 
William Hulton, of Hulton, Esq. 
Samuel Chetham Hilton, of Moston Hall, Esq. 
Edmund Greaves, of Culcheth, Esq. 
Wilham ffarington, of Shawe Hall, Esq. 
Lawrence Rawsthorne, of Penwortham, Esq. 
, Le Gendre Pierse Starkie, of Huntroyd, Esq, 
William Townley, of Townhead, Esq. 
Robert Townley Parker, of Cuerdeii, Esq. 
Joseph Feilden, of Wittou House, Esq. 
John AValmesley, of Castle Mere, Esq. 

George IV. 1820-1830. 
Robert Hesketh, of Rossall Hall, Esq. 
Thomas Richard Gale Braddyll, oE Conishead Priory, 

James Shuttleworth, of Barton Lodge, Esq. 
Thomas Green, of Slyne, Esq. 
John Entwisle, of Foxholes, Esq. 
John Hargreaves, of Ormerod House, Esq. 
James Penny Maehell, of Penny Bridge, Esq. 
Charles Gibson, of Quernmore Park, Esq. 
Edmund Hornby, of Dalton Hall, Esq. 
Henry Bold Hoghton, of Bold, Esq. 
Peter Hesketh, of Rossall Hall, Esq. 

William IV. 1830-1837. 
Peregrine Edward Towneley, of Towneley, Esq. 
George Richard Marton, of Capernwray, Lancaster, Esq. 
Sir John Gerard, of New Hall, Bart. 
Thomas Joseph Trafford, of Trafford, Esq. 
Thomas Clifton, of Lytham, Esq. 
Charles Standish, of Standish, Esq. 

Victoria. 1837. 

Thomas Bright Crosse, of Shaw Hill, Esq. 
Wilham Blundell, of Crosby Hall, Esq. 

1839. Charles Scarisbrick, of Soarisbrick, Esq. 

1840. Thomas Fitzherbert Brookholes, of Brockholes, Esq. 

1841. Sir Thomas Bernard Birch, of the Hazels, Liverpool, 


1842. Thomas Robert Wilson Franca, of RawclifFe Hall, Esq. 

1843. William Garnett, of Lark Hill, Salford, E,sq. 

1844. John Fowden Hindle, of Woodfold Park, Esq. 

1845. Pudsey Dawson, of Hornby Castle, Esq. 

1846. William Standish Standish, of Duxbury Park, Esq. 

1847. William Gale, of Lightburne House, Ulverston, Esq. 

1848. Sir Thomas George Hesketh, of RufTord Hall, Bart. 

1849. John Smith EntwLsle, of Foxholes, Rochdale, Esq. 

1850. Clement Royds, of Mount Falinge, Rochdale, Esq. 

1851. Thomas Peroival Heywood, of Claremont, Pendleton, Esq. 

1852. Thomas Weld-Blundell, of Ince Blundell, Esq. 

1853. John Talbot Clifton, of Lytham Hall, Esq, 

1854. Richard Fort, of Read Hall, Clitheroe, Esq. 

1855. John Pemberton Heywood, of Norris Green, West Derby, 


1856. Robert Needham Philips, of The Park, Prestwich, Esq. 

1857. Charles Towneley, of Towneley, Esq. 

1858. George Marton, of Capernwray, Esq. 

1859. Sir Robert Tolver Gerard, of Garswood, Bart. 
1S60, Henry Garnett, of Wyreside, Lancaster, Esq. 

1861. Sir Humphrey de Trafford, of Trafford Park, Bart. 

1862. Wm. Allen Francis Saunders, of Wennington Hall, Esq. 

1863. Sir William Brown, of Richmond Hill, Liverpool, Bart. 

1864. Sir James Philips Kay-Shuttleworth, of Gawthorpe, 

Burnley, Bart. 

1865. William Preston, of EUel Grange and Liverpool, Esq. 

1866. Sir Elkanah Armitage, Pendleton, Manchester, Kuight. 

1867. Thomas Dicconson, of Wrightington Hall, Esq. 

1868. Le Gendre Nicholas Starkie, of Huntroyd, Esq. 

1869. Benjamin N. Jones, of Lark Hill, Liverpool, Esq. 

1870. Henry F. Rigge, of Wood Broughton, Grange-over-Sands, 


1871. Sir James Watts, of Abney Hall, Cheadle, Knight. 

1872. Thomas Wrigley, of Timberhurst, Bury, Esq. 

1873. Sir James Ramsden, of Abbot's Wood, Furness Abbey, 


1874 Richard Smethurst, of Ellerbeck, Chorley, Esq. 

1875. John Pearson, of Golborne Park, Newton-le-Willows, E^q. 

1876. Oliver Ormerod Walker, of Chesham, Bury, Esq. 

1877. George Blucher Heneage Marton, of Capernwray, Esq. 

1878. Nathaniel Eckersley, of Standish Hall, Wigan, Esq. 

1879. William Garnett, of Quernmore Park, Lancaster, Esq. 

1880. Ralph John Aspinall, of Standen Hall, Clitheroe Esq. 

1881. William Foster, of Hornby Castle, Lancaster, E sq. 

1882. George M'Corquodale, of Newton-le- Willows, Esq. 

1883. Thomas Ashton, of Ford Bank, Didsbury, Esq. 

1884. Thomas Brooks, of Crawshaw Hall, Rawtenstall, Esq. 

1885. James Williamson, ofRyelands, Lancaster, Esq. 

1886. Sir Andrew Barclay Walker, of The Grange, Gateacre, 


The county palatine of Lancaster is parcel of the duchy of Lancaster, and the sovereign has 
a seal, chancellor, and other officers, for the county palatine, and others for the duchy, both of 
"which are managed separately from the possessions of the king.^ It is one of the privileges of a 
county palatine that none of its inhabitants can be summoned out of their own county, except 
in case of treason, or error by any writ or process." In the early periods of the palatine privileges 
in Lancashire, these distinctions of law were not so well understood as at present ; hence a 
number of legal harpies were in the daily habit of seizing the inhabitants and their property, 
and conveying them away under form of law, though they had no jurisdiction whatever m the 
county. These violent and illegal proceedings kept those parts of the county wherein they were 
practised in a continual ferment. Large assemblies of the people rose to resist the intruders; 
and riots, and even murders, frequently ensued. So intolerable an evil called for a strong remedy, 
which the law had not then provided, but in the 28 Henry VI. (1449-50) an Act was passed by 
which it was ordained that if any "misruled" persons, under colour of law, made a distress 
where they had no fee, seigniory, or cause, to take such distress in the counties and seigniories in 
Wales, or in the duclay of Lancaster, they should be adjudged guilty of felony, and punished 
accordingly." An ancient petition to Parliament from the inhabitants of this county has been 

' Plow. Com. p. 219, on the Duchy of Lancaster case, so elaborately 
argued, by which it was decided that a lease under the duchy seal 
of land, parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, made by Edward VI. in his 

nonage, to commence after the end of a former lease in esse, was good, 
and not avoidable by reason of his nonage. 
2 Coke's 4th Institute, p. 411. 


preserved, wherein that protection was loudly called for, which the legislature were not slow to 
grant A most extraordinary piece of legislation, relating to the county palatine of Lancaster, 
took place four years after this, by which an Act, made for a temporary purpose, was declared 
perpetual. By this Act it was ordained that if any person should be outlawed m the county 
palatine of Lancaster he should forfeit such of his land and goods as were found m that county, 
but in no other ;' 31 Henry VI. (1453), and that this should be the extent of his punishment, 
however aggravated might be his offence. The effect of such a kw was to encourage crime to an 
alarmino' extent, for if any " foreigner " came into the county palatine of Lancaster, and committed 
any treason, murder, or robbery, or made and violated any contract, the sole redress for the 
injured party was against his lands and effects in the county, which generally were of no value. 
The pernicious consequence of this law soon became too palpable to be endured, and two years 
after it had been made "perpetual" it was repealed, in 33 Henry VL (1455).' The defeat of this 
insidious measure did not prevent its repetition in the seventh year of the reign of Henry VII. 
(1491-2), when, in the absence of the " knights of the shire, and other noble persons of the county," 
an Act of Parliament was obtained, at the instance, and by the influence, of a single individual, 
probably one of the adherents of the deposed tyrant Richard, by which it was ordained that 
persons residing out of the county should neither be liable to process in the county of Lancaster 
nor should forfeit for their offences in the county any goods but such as were to be foundwithin 
its limits. It may easily be conceived that no long time was necessary to discover this legislative- 
error; and accordingly, we find that, in the very same Parliament, an Act was passed (1491-2) 
which, after reciting " that the Countie of Lancastre is and of long tyme hath byn a Countie 
Palantyne, made and ordeyned for grete consideracion, and within the same hath byn had and 
used Jurisdiccion Roiall, and all things to a Countie Palantyne belonging', in the dayes of the 
noble Progenitours of our soverayn Lord the King, unto the begynnyng of this present 
Parliament," proceeds to enact, " that the said County Palatyne, and every parte of the 
Jurisdiccion thereof, be in every poynt touching all Processes, Forfaiture, and other thinges, 
as large and of like force and effecte, as it was the day next before the first day of this present 
Parliament, and as if the said Acte had not bin made." 

The bitter rivalry between the partisans of the houses of York and Lancaster still agitated 
the country. The madness of party raged with its utmost violence, and though the strength of 
the baronage was broken, there still remained men of fortune and influence accustomed to 
equip their retainers in liveries, and to furnish them with badges of distinction indicating to 
which house they belonged. Their power lay in the posts of disorderly dependents who swarmed 
round their houses, ready to furnish a force in case of revolt, while in peace they became centres 
of outrage and defiance to the law. The natural consequence of this condition of things was to 
increase the general agitation and to embarrass the general administration of the laws. The wars 
of the Roses showed that the power of the nobles was too great for the comfort or safety of the 
sovereign. Henry, therefore, to destroy their physical influences, determined on rigidly putting 
down retainers. Edward had ordered the dissolution of these military households in his Statute 
of Liveries, and the statute was made more penal by Henry, and enforced with the utmost 
severity.^ It is probable, also, that there were local feuds mixed up with these elements of general 
discord, which so far exceeded the corrective power of the police that a law was enacted, by which 
it was declared that no person should give liveries or badges, or retain, as their menial servants, 
officers or men learned either in civil or ecclesiastical law, by any oath or promise, under the 
penalty of one hundred shillings per month for every person so retained, to be recovered before 
the justices at their usual sessions of oyer and terminer, or before the king's justices in the coun- 
ties palatine of Lancaster and Chester.^ The palatine privilege had, in the reign of Edward VL, 
, been perverted to the injury of the inhabitants, by subjecting them to the consequences of outlawry 
without their knowledge. As the king's writ of proclamation awarded upon an exigent against 
any inhabitant of Lancashire, in any action involving the process of outlawry, did not run in Lan- 
cashire, it was necessarily sent to the sheriff of an adjoining county, and the consequence was that 
many persons were outlawed without their own knowledge. When the trade and commerce of the 
county began to be extended, this grievance manifested itself so frequently that an Act was passed 
(6 Edward VI. , 1552) whereby it was enacted that whenever any writ or exigent from the Court 
of King's Bench or Common Pleas should issue against any person residing in Lancashire, a writ of 
proclamation should be awarded to the sheriff of the county palatine of Lancaster, and not to the 

1 statutes of tha Realm, vol. ii. p.'s56. Lord," said Henry on his departure, " but I may not endure to have my 

'' Statutes of the Realm, vol. ii. p. 366. laws broken in my sight. My attorney must speak with you," the earl, 

= On a visit to the Earl of Oxford, one of the most devoted adherents as the consequence, being fined £10,000.— C. 

of the Lancastrian cause, the king found 5,000 of his host's retainers in ■* Statutes of the Refilro, vol. ii. p. 12(5. 

livery drawn up to receive him. " 1 tiauk you for your good cheer, my 


sheriff of any adjoining county ; and that the sheriff of Lancashire should make and return the 
proclamation accordingly. 

During the civil wars between prerogative and privilege, when Charles I. had the nominal 
authority of the sovereign, but when the two houses of Parliament exercised the royal functions, 
the powers of the Duke of Lancaster, like those of the King of England, were assumed by the 
promoters of the Commonwealth; and an ordinance remains upon record (of 10th February, 1644), 
by which John Bradshaw was appointed to discharge the duties of sheriff of this county, which 
position he retained for four successive years, in contravention of the Act of 28 Edw. III. (1354), 
till the king was deposed, and until he, the acting sheriff of the county palatine of Lancaster, in 
the capacity of president of the Parliamentary tribunal, consigned his monarch to the block. In 
1648, Sir Gilbert Ireland, of the Hutt and Hale — the partisan and friend of Cromwell, who was 
also member of Parliament for Liverpool, and governor of Chester Castle — was appointed by the 
Parliament, and retained the office until May, 1649, after which the appointments were made 
annually under the seal of the Commonwealth. With the Restoration, in 1660, the authority and 
the revenues of the Duke of Lancaster reverted to the king. In order to secure the ducal prero- 
gatives and the ancient privileges of the county, a number of courts have, in the succession of 
ages, risen up in Lancashire, involving the jurisprudence of the county. The reason of these 
immunities, as assigned by Sir Edward Coke, is, "for that the county of Lancaster is a county 
palatine, and the duke," at its institution, " had jura regalia," or royal prerogatives, within the 
county — " to exercise all manner of jurisdiction, high, mean, and low." " This county palatine (of 
Lancaster)," adds Sir Edward, "was the youngest brother, and yet best beloved of all other, for it 
hath more honors, manors, and lands annexed unto it than any of the rest, by the house of Lan- 
caster, and by Henry VIII. and Queen Mary, albeit they were descended also of the house of York, 
viz., from Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Edward IV." The nature of the courts in the duchy 
and county palatine of Lancaster, ecclesiastical, civil, and criminal, may be thus stated : — 

The Ecclesiastical Courts are — 

The Prerotrative Court of York, within which province this county lies ; the Courts for the Dioceses 
of Manchester and Liverpool ; and the Court for the Archdeaconry of Richmond. Probates of wills 
and letters of administration, of persons dying within the county of Lancaster, have ceased to be 
o-ranted by the ecclesiastical and diocesan courts of Manchester and Chester, and are now, under 
the Probate Act of 1847, granted by her Majesty's Courts of Probate, of which there are three in 

Lancashire one at Manchester for the city of Manchester and the hundred of Salford ; one at 

Lancaster for the county, except the hundreds of West Derby (diocese of Liverpool) and Salford, 
and the city of Manchester (diocese of Manchester); and one at Liverpool for the hundred of West 
Derby (within the diocese of Liverpool). Until the institution of the bishopric of Chester (32 
Henry VIII 1540), at the period of the Reformation Lancashire lay within the dioceses of Lichfield 
and Coventry and wills proved from this county, at that time, were deposited at Lichfield, where 
those wills now remain, though some early wills were proved in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
burv as the old diocese of Lichfield and Coventry was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury These are now preserved at Somerset House, London. After the erection of the 
See of Chester wills in the northern part of Lancashire were usually proved at Richmond, m 
Yorkshire, and these were a few years ago removed to Somerset House. Prior to the passing 
of the Judicature Act, 1873^ 

The Courts of Law weue— 

( *The High Court of Chancery. 
I *The Kxchequer. 
I The Chancery of the Duchy. 
I The Chancery of the County Palatine. 
SUPEBIOR Courts. •! *The Queen's Bench. 

*The Common Pleas at Westmmster. 
The Common Pleas at Lancaster. 
The .Tudgea' Commission of all manner of Pleap. 
I, The Commission of Oyer and Terminer. 

The Courts marked thus * have a general jurisdiction, and are not peculiar to this county. 

f th. Tiarticulars relating to the changes effected by the Judicature Act, 1873, the Editor is indebted to the courtesy of llr. J. 
Brough°to'nTil EsqoSe'^J HeTM'SesV' Coroners for the County of La„caster.-C. 





Of Record 

Inferior Courts. ■{ 

Not of Record. 





For Honors. 

For Manors. 

Sessions for the County and for Boroughs. 

Coroner's Court. 

For the County and for Boroughs. 

Leete for Hundreds and for Manors. 

Borough Courts. 

Piedpoudre Courts. 

Courts of Requests. 

By Justicias. 

By Replevin. 

By Plaint. 

By Replevin. 

By Plaint. 





By Plaint. 

The High Court of Chancery and the Court of Exchequer 

had concurrent jurisdiction in this county with the chanceries of the duchy, and the county 
palatine, in all matters reauiring the interference of equity to remedy the defects, or mitigate the 
rigours, of law. But in affairs where the authority is derived by statute, or commission from the 
crown, as in bankruptcy and matters of a fiscal nature, the lord chancellor has an exclusive juris- 
diction, and the barons of the exchequer paramount authority. 

The Chancery of the Duchy of Lancaster 

has been for many years practically obsolete, but not abolished. It used to be a court of appeal 
for the chancery of the county palatine ; but now all appeals from the latter go to the Court of 
Appeal. It has a nominal jurisdiction in reference to the estates of the duchy, which lie in various 
counties, and are generally called " Duchy Liberties."' 

The Chancery of the County Palatine of Lancaster 

is an original and independent court, as ancient as the 50th of Edward III. (1376), and the pro- 
ceedings were carried on by English bill and decree. The chief office is at Preston, and the court 
was formerly held four times a year — namely, once at each assize at Lancaster, and once at 
Preston in the interval of each assize. This court is now appointed to be held at Preston, Liver- 
pool, and Manchester, at all of which places there are now registries. The business at Preston, 
however, is so light, that, by arrangement, there is seldom a court at Preston ; the Preston business 
being taken at Liverpool or at Manchester, as more convenient to the bar, etc. The process of the 
court was formerly by subpoena, attachment, attachment with proclamations, commission of 
rebellion, sequestration, and writ of assistance, etc. ; now the general practice of the court, except 
in some particular cases where it is governed by its own particular rules, is similar to the practice 
of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice in almost everything, except in despatch 
and expense. The chancery of Lancashire has concurrent jurisdiction with the High Court in 
all matters of equity, whether concerning lands lying within the palatine or concerning transitory 
suits, its cognisance of which depends on the person or lands of the defendant being amenable to 
the process of this court ; but its jurisdiction is exclusive of all other courts of equity, when both 
the subject of the suit and the residence of the parties litigant are within the county ; and in such 
case a defendant may insist on his right to be sued in this chancery by demurrer or plea to any 
other equitable process. 

The court, in point of fact, exercises a concurrent jurisdiction with the Chancery Division of 
the High Court in all matters of equity within the county palatine, particularly in matters of 
account, fraud, mistake, trusts, foreclosures, tithes, infants, partition, and specific performance of 
contracts and agreements. It formerly interfered to restrain parties from proceeding in actions at 
law, and for that purpose granted the writs of injunction. And it now issues injunctions to stay 
waste and trespass in cases where irreparable mischief might arise, unless the parties were imme- 
diately restrained from doing the acts complained of. It was likewise auxiliary or assistant to the 
jurisdiction of courts of law, as by removing legal impediments to the fair decision of a question 
depending, either by compelling a discovery which may enable them to decide, or by perpetuating 
testimony when in danger of being lost, before the matter to which it relates can be made the 
subject of judicial investigation; but as all the branches of the High Court have now power to grant 

T5 , l-^" ^0 James 1,(1624-5) an order was made "thatnoe Cause above £10 value, of either reall or personall, shalbo determined in the County 
i-alatme ot Lancaster ; but to be heard before the Chancellor of the Duchy at Westminster." Booke of Orders, Division v., No. 29, 20 Jac. 1, 


injunctions and to compel discovery, in causes depending in it, these powers are no longer peculiar 
to courts of chancery. It also has jurisdiction, on ex parte applications, in appointing guardians 
for infants, and m allowing them a competent maintenance out of their property, and in enablino' 
them to make conveyances of their trust and mortgaged estates for the benefit of the parties 
beneficially entitled. Although the bills are addressed to the chancellor of the duchy, the vice- 
chancellor of the county palatine is the judge of the court, and the causes and all motions and 
petitions are setdown and heard before him. The chancellor of the duchy, assisted by the two 
judges in commission for the county palatine, used to sit to hear causes at Westminster, either 
commenced originally in the duchy chamber, or which had been transmitted there by way of 
appeal from the court of chancery of the county palatine, but now this jurisdiction is exercised by 
the Court of Appeal as hereinafter mentioned. 

The Court of Queen's Bench and the Court of Common Pleas at Westminster 

had concurrent jurisdiction with the court of common pleas for the county palatine of Lancaster in 
almost all cases, and could enforce their jurisdiction over personal actions, unless conusance of the 
cause was claimed, or the palatinate jurisdiction pleaded, or error was brought, after judgment by 
default, with the venue laid in Lancashire, and the want of an original was assigned for error. In 
the two first instances, the superior courts could not refuse to allow the privilege when properly 
claimed ; and in the last, the want of jurisdiction became apparent, from the circumstance of there 
being, in the chancery at Westminster, cursitors for the issuing of writs into every county but the 
counties palatine ; and therefore, upon a cause of action arising in Lancashire, there was no proper 
officer from whom an original could have been obtained to warrant the subsequent proceedings in 
the court at Westminster. The cases where the jurisdiction of the courts above was excluded, and 
that of the common pleas at Lancaster adopted, were chiefly pleas of lands within the county, or 
actions against corporations existing in Lancashire. All writs out of the courts at Westminster 
(except Habeas Corpus and Mittimus) were directed to the chancellor, and not to the sheriff, in the 
first msiance ; and, where execution of them had to be done by the sheriff, the chancellor issued 
his mandate to that officer, and, on receiving his return, certified in his own name to the court 
above that the writ had been duly executed ; and if the chancellor returned that he commanded 
the sheriff, and had received from him no answer, the court above would rule the sheriff to return 
the mandate. There was only one franchise in the county having the execution of writs by its own 
officer, viz. the Liberty of Furness, to the bailiff of which the sheriff directed his precepts, and 
received from him the requisite returns. 

The Court of Common Pleas for the County Palatine of Lancaster 

was an original superior Court of Record at Common Law, having iurisdiction over all real actions 
for lands, and in all actions against corporations within the county, as well as over all personal 
actions where the defendant resided in Lancashire, although the cause of action might have arisen 
elsewhere ; but this court had no iurisdiction beyond the limits of the county. The judges of this 
court were appointed by commission from the king, under the seal of the duchy of Lancaster, but 
in the name of the king, pursuant to the statute of 27 Henry VIII. (1535). The judges,_ according 
to usage, were only two, being the judges appointed on the northern circuit, whose commission con- 
tinued in force so long as the same judges continued to be appointed to that circuit. Its returns 
were on the first Wednesday in every month. The office of the prothonotary was at Preston, 
where the records for the preceding twenty years were kept, those for previous years being deposited 
at Lancaster, where the court sat every assize before one of the two judges of the courts at West- 
minster who had chosen the northern circuit, and who were half-yearly commissioned, the _one as 
the chief justice, and the other as one of the "justices of the common pleas at Lancaster." The 
patent of 'the judges for the common pleas at Lancaster also appointed one of the judges "_chief 
lustice, and the other, one of the justices o jail manner of pleas within the county palatine ' and 
under this the causes sent by mittimus from the courts at Westminster were tried at bar ; but as 
there was no clause of nisi prius in the jury process by mittimus to Lancaster (it being out of the 
ordinary circuit of the judges), they could not be assisted by a serjeant on the civil side as m other 
counties By the same commission were tried at bar all pleas of the crown, whether removed by 
ceHiorari, or otherwise directed so to be tried. This court was a great advantage to the commercial 
county of Lancaster, as well because its process for arrests to any amount reached to all parts of 
the county, and might be had without the delay of sending to London, as from the celerity and 
excellency of its practice. A great majority of the causes tried at Lancaster, as well as at Liverpool 
and at Manchester, were brought in the common pleas of the county palatine, and in point ot 


importance were equal to those sent down for trial there from the courts at Westminster. In this 
court, actions might be brought within about three weeks from the time of _ holdmg the assizes ; 
and execution might be had after trial, as soon as the assizes terminated, without waiting till the 
following term, which, at the summer assizes especially embraces a considerable penod. ihe 
advantage of this promptitude in legal processes in Lancashire was so strongly felt that the 
prmciple is now extended to the general law of the country ; and still further improved by an Apt 
of Parliament passed in the early part of 1831, for the more speedy judgment and execution m 
actions brought in his Majesty's courts at Westminster ; and the proceedings in the court ol common 
pleas of the county palatine of Lancaster were facilitated by making all writs of inquiry or damage 
returnable on the first Wednesday in every month (m addition to the first and last days of each 
assize), in lieu of being returnable, as formerly, on any of the return days m Easter and Michaelmas 
terms respectively. The general official business of the court of common pleas m Lancashire was 
transacted by the deputy of the prothonotary. The office of prothonotary was a patent office, in 
the gift of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster. Henry Wyndham West, Esq., QC, is 
(1886) the Attorney-General. , t^ t 

Previous to every assize, commissions of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery were 
formerly issued, under which the senior judge presided in the crown court, and delivered all the 
gaols within the county. The official proceedings in criminal cases within the county were 
conducted by the clerk of the crown, or his deputy.' The office of clerk of the crown was in the 
gift of the chancellor of the duchy for the time being, but is now in that of the lord chancellor. 
The office is held at Preston. At the end of the assizes, three copies are made of the calendar of 
the prisoners; one of which is signed by the senior judge, and delivered to the clerk of the crown, 
in whose custody it is kept ; another copy is signed by the clerk of the crown, and kept by the 
judge; and a third, signed by the same officer, is left with the hi^h sheriff or the gaoler. Under 
this authority, and without any special warrant, all executions take place. The judge_ writes the 
word "reprieved" or "respited," opposite to the name of each convict sentenced to_ die, but not 
left for execution ; and such as have not either of these words written opposite their names are 
hanged. On behalf of those who are reprieved, the judge addresses a letter, called "the Circuit 
Letter " to the crown, recommending them to mercy on the grounds therein specified, which letter 
is transmitted to the office of the secretary of state, and generally, indeed invariably, produces a 
commutation of punishment. 

The assizes were formerly held half-yearly, and at Lancaster only. But great changes and 
improvements have been made in this respect since 1830. After a royal commission in 1829, 
various reports of committees of county magistrates, and several numerously-signed petitions and 
memorials from populous towns in South Lancashire, it was determined to hold assizes for the 
criminal and civil business of the two hundreds of West Derby and Salford, at Liverpool ; and 
accordingly assizes have been held there from the year 1835 in the Sessions House, Chapel Street, 
and from the 8th December, 1851 in St. George's Hall. Still the business of the assizes increased 
so greatly, and the inconvenience of jurors, suitors, prosecutors, witnesses, and others, having to 
travel thirty or forty miles to the assizes, and many of them to remain there for a number of days, 
at a great distance from home, led to a growing requirement that the hundred of Salford 
should have assizes for its business. Accordingly assizes for that hundred Avere held for the first 
time in the splendid- new Assize Courts at Manchester in July, 1864; and this county now has three 
places of assize — at Lancaster, for the hundreds of Amounderness, Blackburn, Leyland, and 
Lonsdale; at Liverpool for the West Derby hundred; and at Manchester for the hundred of 
Salford. Besides the usual periods of spring and autumn, or Lent and Michaelmas, it has also been 
deemed necessary to have a Avinter assize, both at Liverpool and Manchester, chiefly for the 
delivery of the gaols of prisoners committed too late for trial at the August assizes, and who would 
otherwise be incarcerated before trial till the following March, and of late four assizes have been 
held in each year, 

_ By section IG of the supreme court of Judicature Act, 1873 (36 and 37 Vict., c. 66), the 
jurisdiction of the superior courts above-mentioned, with the exception of that of the chancery of 
the duchy and that of the chancery of the county palatine, were transferred to the high court of 
justice constituted hJL that Act. And by section 18 of the same Act the appellate jurisdiction of the 
duchy and palatine courts were transferred to the court of appeal also constituted by that Act. 
By section 95, however, the Act was not, except so far as is therein expressly directed, to afiect 
the offices, position, or functions of the chancellor of the county palatine, and consequently the 
jurisdiction of the county palatine chancery still remains. The present vice-chancellor, H. Fox 
Bristowe, Esq., Q.C., by giving up the whole of his time to the duties of the office, and by 

* Appendix to EvauB ou tlivi Court of Commou Ploas of the County raUtine of Lancaster. 


appointing regular fixed sittings, has very much increased the business of that court, and the 
complaints of former times as to the delay arising from its procedure, cannot now be justly brought 
against it. 

There are also registries of the high court of justice at Manchester, Liverpool, and Preston, in 
which proceedings can be taken in as full and ample a manner as in the Master's office in London. 
The present registrars are, at Manchester, Mr. H. J. Walker ; at Liverpool, Messrs. T. E. Paget and 
Francis D. Lowndes ; and at Preston, Mr. T. M. Shuttleworth. 

The Coukts of Inferior Jurisdiction 

are either Courts, which, upon recording their judgment, can award that the party condemned 
shall be fined or imprisoned, or they are Courts not of record, and consequently not possessing 
the power to make such an award. Of the former class, some are more conversant in matters of 
criminal, and others of civil nature. The Criminal Courts of Record are — the General Sessions, 
held annually and quarterly, before the justices of the peace for the county. The Annual Sessions 
are held in July, at Preston, and afterwards, by various adjournments, until the numerous county 
afiairs, placed by various statutes, under the peculiar cognisance of this court, are transacted. 
These are annually accumulatmg ; and the matters of county finance have now become so much 
the objects of magisterial care and public interest, that its sittings bear no very distant resemblance 
to those of Parliament. 

The General Quarter Sessions, 

called the "County Sessions" to distinguish them from those of boroughs, are held, according to 
statute, at Lancaster, the first week after the 11th of October ; the first week after the 20th of 
December ; the first week after the 31st of March ; and the first week after the 24th of June, m 
each year; and thence, by adjournment, at Preston, Kirkdale (Liverpool), and Salford. At these 
three places intermediate sessions are also held midway between the winter sessions. The multi- 
farious matters under the cognisance of this court are too well known to require enumeration. A 
very considerable number of barristers attend the last adjournments; and many judicious arrange- 
ments have been made, which evince the anxious desire of the magistrates to reduce, as much as 
possible, the time consumed, and the enormous sums annually expended, in the prosecution ot 
offenders. The bench have the power, and frequently exercise it, to effect a further saving ot both, 
by dividing the sessions, and trying indictments and appeals in different courts at the same time. 

Similar sessions are held in the boroughs of Manchester, Bolton, Blackburn Wigan, and 
Liverpool, before the Recorders of those boroughs, agreeably to the respective charters or to 
immemorial prescription, which presupposes such a charter anciently granted, and now lost or 

^^''Tnother court of record of criminal judicature is the coroner's court, rapidly assembled on the 
discovery of any dead body, and composed of the ofiicer and a jury selected by the constables ot 
some of the four townships next adjoining to that spot on which the corpse was ^J^^ f°™J- / J^ 
name of the officer is supposed to be derived from the circumstance of ^is examination of the 
witnesses, and pronouncing of sentence, being in a ring or circle of people f ^^^J-^^J J°™^ *^^^ 
deceased, or in corona populi. Others derive the name coroner ixov^ '°Z Z:.,hTZ}c~ 
placita coroncB, or pleas of' the crown, and the chief justice of the Queen s Bench is the chief coronei 
of England He is elected by the freeholders, upon a writ reqmring the sheriff to hold a county 
curttr the election, and Returned into chancW In this county ^.l^^^^.^^^^Jf^^^^^^^f;^^;^^^^^^ 
of whom has full power to act throughout Lancashire ; but the exercise f^^«^\^^ .P^ ^^'^Z^?^^ ^^ 
by order in Council to certain districts therein named unless during ^^^^^^^f^l a^ in such 
absence of the coroner from one district, when any other coroner of the county may act m such 
district The coroner is bound by law to discharge his office m person, or by a deputy lawtuuy 
t^^J^yZZToZXne. ap/roved by the Lcfrd Chancellor, to come when --t ^o^' -^.^^^ 

t£e body ii the presence of the jury ; and if the corpse ^^^^^^^^^^^^'^'ilXe There are 
He must also inquire of every death in prison, whether naturally or by misfortune i^ere are 
other duties attached to the office, such as the execution of process whe^e the sheriff J^ P^' ^^^^ 
contempt; the taking and entering of appeals ot murder, rape, f^^/ W^o^Srs'of kssSen 
on the writs of outlawry; the inquests of wreck and treasure-trove ^^d others ot ess neqi^uu 
oiSrei^^^fLd leLpubfic concern'ment,. than its ordinary painful a^^^^^^^^ 

is of high antiquity, ind great public utility, -^^^^ ^^^^^/f^f^^^^^^^^^^^ 

of its original institution. The coroner is a conservator of the P^^^f 'f^Y°7°^ p' .j^^^^^ tlie sheriff 

The remaining court of record, for the punishment ot otiences. is the Leet. ioimerLy 


perambulated the county, and held his criminal court in every hundred. This was called the Torn, 
or Tourn ; but when the delay, inconvenience, and expense of that officer " taking a turn " through 
so extensive a district became manifest, this court was made stationary in every hundred, and was 
held, as at present, before the steward of the hundred. 

A sinc^ular instance occurs, as early as the time of Edward II., of the exactions to_ which the 
inhabitant's of Lancashu-e were subjected by the itinerant visits of some of the ostentatious sheriffs 
in their periodical tourns through the county; but to these grievances they did not tamely submit, 
as appears from an ancient indictment presented by the grand jury, of which the foUoAving is a 
translation : — ^ 

" wri A aTPT? / '^^^ Grand Jury of the Wapentake of West Derby present that ' Wtllielmus le Oentil,' at the time when he 
' LANCASTER, -y ^^ sheriff, and when he held his Towrn in the said Wapentake, ought to have remained^ no longer in the 
Wapentake than three nights with three or four horses, whereas he remained there at least nine days with eight horses, to the 
oppression of the people ; and that he quartered himself one night at the house of ' Dns de Turbat,' and another night at the house 
of one 'Jioiaiws de Bold,' another at the house of ' Bohcrtus de Qrenlay,' and elsewhere, according to his will, at the cost of the 
men of the Wapentake." 

For this ofi'ence, and for another of a more extraordinary kind, which will be exhibited in the 
parliamentary history of the county, the sheriff was placed in duress ; but the record adds, that 
" the said ' Willielmus Gentil ' is enlarged upon the manucaption of four manucaptors." 

At the period when the comites or earls divested themselves of the charge of the counties, that 
duty devolved upon the sheriff's, as the name shire-reeve, or bailiff of the shire, imports ; and, in 
like manner, when the hundredors ceased to govern the divisions styled hundreds, their office was 
supplied by the steward — i.e. stede-ivard, or governor of the place. This officer is one of those 
conservators of the peace who still remain such by virtue of his office. The six hiindreds in 
Lancashire — viz. Lonsdale, Amounderness, Blackburn, Leyland, West Derby, and Salford — were 
anciently styled shires. Thus Leland, temp. Henry VIII. speaks of Manchester standing in Salford- 
shire ; and, in common with all the hundreds north of the Trent, they bear the synonymous name 
of wapentakes, from the ancient custom of the heads of families assembling armed, upon the summons 
of the hundredor, and touching his weapon, to testify their fealty. In many parts of this county, 
lands and manors are held by suit to the hundred leet, of which service this was probably the sign 
and symbol, and such are called hundred lands. The leet must be held at least twice in every 
year, and within a month of Easter and Michaelmas respectively. It is held before the steward of 
the hundred, or his deputy, and a jury impanelled by him. The amercements are limited only by 
the assessment of at least two men, according to the measure of the fault, agreeably to a provision 
of Magna Charta. Anterior to the statutes which have given to the sessions concurrent jurisdiction, 
its duties embraced every offence, from eaves-dropping and vagrancy, to high treason ; but, although 
contrary to several very learned dicta, every statute affecting it has preserved, and none has 
diminished, its powers ; which are seldom called into exercise, except to abate nuisances, punish 
deficient measures, and appoint the high and petty constables, and other municipal officers. Its 
proceedings have two singular characteristics — the entire absence of fees and lawyers. The increase 
of population and the influence of feudal lords gave rise to manorial leets (which were granted to 
obviate the necessity of the tenants of a particular manor being obliged to attend the torn, or general 
leet of the hundred), held before the stewards of the several lords of manors, or their deputies ; 
and, by custom, the leets of several manors may be held at once in some certain place withia one 
of the manors. 

The Inferior Courts of Kecord of Civil Judicature 

are — (1) The Courts of Boroughs, usually held before the principal corporate officer, and the 
recorder or steward, and having jurisdiction, in personal actions, to an unlimited amount. Such 
is the Court of Passage at Liverpool, the Court of Record at Manchester, the Borough Court of 
Preston, and others, as numerous and as various as the respective charters or prescriptions. (2) 
The Piedjjoudre Court is a court of record, having unlimited jurisdiction over all contracts arising 
within a fair, before the lord or owner, or his steward or clerk of the fair. It was the lowest and 
most speedy court in the realm, except one now extinct, called the Court of Trail-baton, Avhere the 
judge was bound to decide whilst the bailiff drew his staff or trailed his baton round the room. 
(3) The Court of Requests in Manchester, as elsewhere, has been superseded by the County' 

The Inferior Courts, not of Record 

are all calculated for the redress of civil, and not of criminal, injuries. It has been seen that the 
sheriff had a court-leet called the torn, which was the criminal court of the county he had also 

' Rot. plao. coram K. 17 Edw. II. m. V2 (1323-4). 


his court-baron or civil court, which formerly travelled round the county in the same manner as 
the torn. The same complaint of expense, delay, and inconvenience attended this rotary process ; 
and long before the torn was localised in the hundreds, the County Court, or Sheriff's Courti 
became stationary in the county town, and its jurisdiction was limited to those suits in which the 
parties dwelt in several hundreds. In both hundred and county courts matters to any amount 
were originally determined, until the statute of Gloucester directed that no suits should be com- 
menced without the lung's writ, unless the cause of action did not exceed 40s. 

The Hundred Courts 

have concurrent jurisdiction with the County Court in certain personal actions under 40s. in value, 
and are held from three weeks to three weeks, before the steward of the hundred, or his deputy, 
and a jury, within the respective jurisdictions. No suit can be removed by the defendant, before 
judgment, without bail, to the satisfaction of the court; nor by the losing party, after judgment, 
without similar security in double the amount of the judgment. 

There is in this county one Honor or Superior Manor, having numerous dependent manors 
under it. It is the Honor of Clitheroe, the jurisdiction of which is very extensive. It has courts 
in the nature of courts-leet, at which the lords of the inferior manors owe suit ; and others in the 
nature of copyhold courts, for the admittance of tenants by copy of court-roll under the various 
forfeited manors within the honor.' 

There are also numerous other manors in various parts of the county ; some of which have 
copyhold courts, and others only courts-baron for the redress of the tenants' grievances ; some have 
courts-leet, and some few courts for the recovery of debts and damages under 40s., held according 
to their various local customs. 

It has been complained of as a defect of the superior courts, that their sittings and offices are 
at too great a distance from the centre of business and the mass of the population. The evil of 
the inferior judicatures of a civil nature is, that, owing to the restrictions upon the amount of the 
sums sought to be recovered, and the diminished value of money, the time of respectable juries 
and professional men is wasted upon trifling suits, when it might be advantageously applied to 
ease the superior courts of those matters which are too small to deserve their cognisance, and yet 
too great to pass remediless, save at the risk or ruin of individuals. Several unsuccessful attempts 
have been made to remedy both these grievances. The answer to such has been, that it is dan- 
gerous to render more easy, cheap, and speedy the administration of justice, lest the people 
should contract a love of litigation, which would injure them more than the delay or denial of 

It should be stated that although the Hundred or Wapentake Courts and the old Borough 
Courts are not abolished, they do not dispose of much business, with the exception of such courts 
as the Court of Record for Salford Hundred and the Manchester City Court of Record, which are now 
amalgamated by the Salford Hundred Court of Record Act, 1868. The smaller courts are virtually 
superseded by the County Courts, established under the County Courts Act, and which are held all 
over the kingdom. 


The principal pubUc records connected with the jurisprudence of the county palatine of Lan- 
caster may be classed under three heads :— (1) Those which were in the department of the Deputy 
Clerk of the Crown at Lancaster. (2) Those which were in the department of the Prothonotary 
of Her Majesty's Court of Common Pleas for the county of Lancaster; and (3) Those which were 
in the department of the Registrar of the Court of Chancery of Lancashire. The records of these 
Courts of Equity and Common Law are now deposited in the Public Record Office, London, pur- 
suant to a request of the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, dated 25th July, 1873. Soon after 
the appointment of the Commissioners of Public Records, issued in virtue of a recommendation of 
the two Houses of Parliament, in the year 1800, the commissioners instituted inquiries into the 
nature of these records and the places of their deposit ; and from the answers returned to those 
inquiries it appears — 

. mv ^ 1 ^ _(. t *v,„ T.„lro nf Riirvlpnch and Oueonsberrv for The Halmot Court and Courts Baron for the several Manors of 

the ;eve4?rnoJs''and* fes\''w^hto fte"^^^^^^^ Acerington Old-hold and Aeerington New-hold, at the Court House iu 

usually holden as Allows =- . ^j ohatburn, ""Thf Haimot Courts and Courts Baron for the Manor of Colne, and the 

-SSSS:iS?:^^the Manor of Tottfn.ton, at ^tf^^^^Z^^Z^^^... of Peudlo, at the 

"' Se'SmotSourt fnd"^oSltTaron of the Manor of Ightenhill, at the %he Audit^ afterwards_hdden at CUtheroe Castle. Hutcy of muUle,, 

Court House in Burnley. '■ "■ P- ''^ • ' ■ 




First —That the public records, rolls, Instruments, and manuscript books and papers iu the custody of the clerk of the crown for 
the county palatine of Lancaster, consist of instruments, and other criminal proceedings in the crown office for the county palatme ; 
the records of such instruments and proceedings, and different books of entries, though not very numerous, are supposed to be all 
that have been preserved. These records (except the proceedings at two or three preceding assizes which are kept in the office of 
the deputy-clerk of the crown in Preston) are deposited in the new office or room that has been fitted up in Lancaster Castle for the 
reception of these and other records of the county ; Lancaster Castle being supposed to be the property of the crown, m right of the 
duchv of Lancaster. For eighty or ninety years past, the indictments, etc., are so far arranged, that any proceeding inquired for may 
be easily referred to ; antecedent to that period, such as have been preserved are promiscuously placed together m no regular order, 
but are in tolerable preservation. All the proceedings at each assizes within the period first mentioned are entered or docketed m 
books by referring to which the proceedings in each prosecution may be known ; but there are no indexes or catalogues except 
that upon some of the older rolls, the contents are endorsed. All searches are made by or m the presence of the deputy-clerk of 
the crown or his confidential clerks, who are employed in the custody and arrangements of the records, and give attendance as 
occasion may require without any remuneration from the public. Office copies of records are charged after the rate of eightpence 
for each sheet, consisting of seventy-two words, and the usual fee upon a search is 6s. 8d., and the deputy-clerk of the crown charges 
for attendmg at Lancaster during the assizes with a record, a, guinea. The searches in this office are very rare, and, of course, the 
fees upon them very inconsiderable. _ i , j, j.i_ j x it, 4. , 

Second.— The public records, rolls, instruments, and manuscript books and papers in the custody of the deputy prothonotary of 
the court of common pleas, in and for the county palatine of Lancaster, consist of fines and recoveries, records, writs, minutes, 
papers, and proceedings in real, personal, and mixed actions, instituted in this court, along with some few enrolments of deeds ; and 
they are supposed to be the whole of the records or papers relating to this court since its creation. These records and other 
documents, for a period of upwards of fifty years, are lodged at the office of the deputy prothonotary, which (with other 
principal law officers of this county palatine) is held at Preston, on account of its central situaton. All the early records and 
documents are now lodged in an ancient tower or chamber within the castle of Lancaster, which has been very commodipusly fitted 
up for their reception at the expense of the county. The records and other documents are methodically arranged in separate 
compartments, according to their dates, and are in general in very good preservation. There are docket rolls or indexes to all the 
records, containing the names of the parties to the fines, recoveries, and suits recorded at each assizes. As the records of this court 
are kept at a distance of twenty-two miles from the office, a person is appointed at Lancaster by the deputy prothonotary, vulgarly 
called custos rotulorum, who is entrusted with the care of the records, etc., whose duty it is to attend every search, and to take care 
that every record be duly and safely restored to its proper place, for which a fee is due.^ 

Third. — The public records, etc., in the custody of the registrar of the court of chancery of the county palatine of Lancaster, 
consist of bills, answers, and other pleadings, depositions, order-books, decrees, decree-books, and other books for entries in causes, 
and other matters instituted in that court ; and are supposed to be the whole of the records or papers that have been preserved 
since its creation. These documents, anterior to the year 1740, were kept in a room or chamber in the castle of Lancaster ; such as 
are subsequent to that period are at the office of the deputy-registrar in Preston, which is the private property of the deputy- 
registrar. The old records are deposited in an office fitted up iu the early part of the present century in Lancaster Castle for 
their reception, at the expense of the county. The bills, answers, and depositions, etc., are upon difEerent files, with the respective 
years in which they are filed marked upon labels affixed to them ; but neither these, nor the other books or proceedings, appear 
ever to have been well arranged ; many of them are much defaced, and almost, if not wholly, unintelligible. The bills, answers, 
depositions, etc., have usually been indexed (or entered in a pye-book) when brought to the registrar's office to be filed : there are no 
indexes of the other proceedings, and many of the indexes first mentioned have been lost, and the remainder are not accurate. 
Various circumstances have caused these records or papers to be at difiereut times removed. All searches in this office are made 
by, or in the presence of, the deputy-registrar or his confidential clerks, who are employed iu the custody and arrangement of the 
records, and give attendance as occasion requires, without any salaries or emoluments paid by the public. There are charges for 
copying proceedings, etc., and fees for search, also for a journey of the deputy-registrar from Preston to Lancaster, and his expenses. 
Owing to the irregular state of the records, few searches are made. 

The places of deposit of the records of the county palatine^ may be summarily stated as follows : 

Records and other Instruments. 


Where hept. 

County Palatine of Lancaster. 
Chancery : 

Bills, Pleadings, Depositions, Orders, and Decrees \ 

1740 to 1800. Dates want- 
ing before 1740 ; 1135 
to 1558 

\ Register of the County Palatine 
1 Duchy Office (now in the Record 
r Office). 

^' ^ ' ' \ 

Charters and Grants of various kinds 

1136 to 1558 

Common Pleas : — 
Fines and Recoveries, Writs, Minutes, Proceedings in 

Actions, and Inrolment of Deeds J 

The Records before his present Majesty's Reign 

Geo, III 

jProthonotary's Office at Preston 
\ (now in the Record Office). 

Dates wanting 

About 50 years before 180O 

8 Edward III 

Pleas of the Crown : — 

Indictments and other Criminal proceedings, and Books of) 

1 Castle, Lancaster (now in the Record 
f Office). 

Collectanea relating to the History and Antiquities thereof,) 
made by the three Holmes [ 

Collection of Names of the King's Castles, Mansions, Parks,, "| 
Forests, Chases, etc., within the survey of the Duchy of - 
Lancaster J 

Iter ForestEC 1. 

British Museum. 

University Library, Camb. 

Lincoln's Inn Library. 
King's Rememb. Office. 
First-Fruits Office. 

Nona Roll 

15 Edward III 

26 Henry VIII 

Ecclesiastical Survey (a copy) 

Survey of Estates therein not granted in Fee-farm 


Temp. Interregni 

University Library, Camb. 

Catalogue of Charters throughout England and Wales 

Fee-farm, Rolls of 

Augmentation Office. 

1 Return made by ■William Cross, Esq., deputy prothonotary to tlio 
Commissioners of Public Records. 

2 A very comprelicnsive account of the Records of the Palatinate of 
Lancashire, and those of the Superior and Abolished Courts preserved in 

Her i\Iajc:ity's Public Record Office, from the pen of Mr. Walford D* 
Selby, will be found in volumes vii. and viii. of the publicutions of tUo 
Record aocieby. — C. 



The archives of the ecclesiastical courts, so far as they concern the county of Lancaster are to 
befoundat Lichfield from the earliest period of their preservation up to tL year 1590 in the 
custody of the registrar of the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry; and since that period i?t he 
custodyof the deputy-registrar of the diocese of Chester, the deputy-registrar of thrconsStorv 
court of the archdeaconry of Richmond ; and the deputy-registrar^fthe^five several deaneries of 
t^StZTeids-:^ ' ''""'^'''' ^'''^'''' ^"'^ ^"^™"- '^^''^ depositories may be ckssed 

except that there are -so^echaL/in several of the bto^ T^ ^V""^'?- ■•°°? ""^^ ^'^^ 1296, 

yica]^, and some entries of appropriations of rectort: at^e^ndotrnts^of^^L'Srin ZeX^^^^^^^^ Tht^ltXl^t^^f The 
judicial proceedings m causes in the court, from about the year 1450 Original wills and ^r»nt.^ /rf,^'^^'^ f ^° 0°°^ of the 

'""s™° 'Sreti^^dto:^ d"^^^^^^^ 

the s'errMa?o^h7st:; ari^^'erpU'-Th^-^our/r^^^^^^^^ tfitrr""*" *^^ T*^"". ^"=-T^^^ °^ 

from the y^r 1590, to the present^ time, -<i.bonds'givenX pe-nratS^^^^^^ 

Sundry pl«idmgs and proceedings exhibited_ in causes in the consistory court of Chester, and books o'^^^thTacts ?f the same 
causes. Nine foho volumes, commencing in the year 1525, containing entries of sentences of consecrations of churchr 
chapels, and burial-grounds in the diocese, faculties for rebuilding and improving churches, chapels, and parsonage-house ' 
confirmation of seats, and other ecclesiastical commissions and faculties. Proceedings on the instdlat ons of Spf mtents 
of the officers of the vicar-general and official principal commissaries; rural dians, registrars, proc ors and^apparitoi^ 
Three books, commencing m 1500, contaming entries of presentations or institutions to ecclesiastical benkces wTthin th^ 
diocese. Four books commencmg m 1752, containing entries of institutions, Hcenses to curacies, ordinations, and other 
episcopal acts. Several books of subscriptions to the liturgy and the articles of the church of England by persons orda?ned and 
clergymen admitted to benefices or cures. A volume usually called .BrW^man's iecZ^«-, having been chiefly collected by Dr John 
Bridgman, who was appomted Bishop of Chester m 1619, containing copies of various appropriations, endowments, compodtions 
gr^ts agreements, leases, charters, orders by the crown, rentals of synodals, procurations, pensions, tenths, and subsidies ; patents 
and statutes of grammar schools. A volume, usually called Gastrdl's Notitia, being compiled by Dr. Francis Gastrell fleeted 
brd bishop of Chester in 1714 containing an account of the then population of each parish, number of families. Catholics 
Dissenters, families of note, patrons, wardens, schools, endowments, charities, and several other particulars of each parish and 
chapelry m the diocese ; entries of licenses of marriage ; probates of wills, and letters of administration ; names of the clerev • 
church and chapel wardens ; account of exhibits at episcopal visitations, and correction books ; original presentation to benefices' 

papers deposited therem. The records and papers are, in general, in good preservation, except the most ancient part • from time oi 
mevitable accident, they are m many parts imperfect before the year 1650, and for ten years following quite deficient From 
that period, the wills, and most of the registries and entries, are regular and correct. There are complete indexes to the wills 
registries, and entnes of institutions, from their commencement, except in the parts before mentioned to be deficient. There are 
several manusoript_ volumes in the possession of the bishop of the diocese, containing a particular account of the extent and 
population of the diocese, number of Catholics and Dissenters, state of parsonage-houses, residence of clergy, schools, charities and 
several other particulars relative to the diocese, being answers to queries addressed by different bishops to the clergy of the diocese. 
The number of parishes in the diocese of Chester was, in the year 1800, two hundred and sixty-two. 

Thibd. — The records, instruments, and papers, in the custody of the deputy registrar of the consistory court of the arch- 
deaconry of Kichmond, formerly in the diocese of Chester, consist entirely of original wills ; bonds taken upon the issuing of letters 
of administration, tuition, and curation ; affidavits and bonds relative to marriage-licenses; proceedings in ecclesiastical suits; 
enrolment of faculties for pews and galleries in churches and chapels ; terriers and duplicates of parish registers ; and such other 
matters as relate to the office and jurisdiction of the commissary of the said archdeaconry of Richmond, but do not comprehend 
any record or instrument of any other nature or description. From the most ancient of the said records, to the year 1750, they 
comprise the wills, administration and tuition bonds, which have arisen from every part of the said archdeaconry of Richruond • 
but since that year a division took place, and the wills and other papers and records not relating to such business as is usually 
called contentious, arising within the five deaneries of Amounderness, Kendal, Copeland, Lonsdale, and Furuess, part of the said 
archdeaconry, are deposited in the parish church of Lancaster, under the custody of another officer there. From the most remote 
period, the duplicates of parish registers, terriers, and all other records, proceedings, and papers (except those of a contentious 
nature, and the wills, etc., of the period first before mentioned) of the five deaneries, are also deposited at Lancaster ; whilst all 
other wills, papers, and records, arising within this archdeaconry have continued to be deposited, and remain in the registry of 
the consistory court at Richmond. The registry at Richmond is part of the ancient chapel, called Trinity Chapel, in the centre 
of the market-place of the borough of Richmond, sufficiently large aud commodious, and in most respects secure ; but having 
several dwelling-houses and shops, wherein fires are directly underneath, as well as adjoining to it, it is in some measure exposed to 
danger. The state of preservation of the records, etc., at Richmond, is in general very good, though some few of the ancient wills 
have sufiered by the access of moisture in certain places, particularly in the corners of the roof, which are now perfectly repaired, 
and all increase of decay is prevented as much as possible. The wills are arranged alphabetically in bundles of ten years each ; the 
terriers and parish registers in parcels, according to the difierent parishes ; and all the rest of the records, with sufficient regularity 
to answer the purposes of those who require searches to be made. There is no regular catalogue, schedule, or repertory of the 
records, nor any index, except of the terriers and faculties, aud of such of the wills and administrations as have arisen within the 
present century, within the three deaneries of Richmond, Catterick, and Boroughbridge, commonly called the three Yorkshire 

FooRTH. — The original wills within the five deaneries of Amounderness, Copeland, Lonsdale, Kendal, and Furness, within the 
archdeaconry of Richmond, preserved and kept at Lancaster, proved and approved before the worshipful commissary (for the time 
being) of the said archdeaconry or his surrogates, or before the vicar-general or his surrogates respectively, since the first of Novem- 
ber, 1748, are registered, deposited, and kept in a convenient room, called the registry of the east end, of and within the parish church 
of Lancaster, where are also deposited all bonds taken on granting letters of administration, curation, tuition, and marriage licenses 

' In 1847, by virtue of the Act 10 and 11 Vic, o. 108, the coUegiate ' Bishop Gastrell's Notitia Cestriensis has been edited by the Rev. 

church of Manchester was elevated to the dignity of a cathedral, and Canon Raines, and printed for tlie Chetham Society, in 4 vols, viii. 

made the seat of a bishop, and in 1880 the See of Liverpool was xix. xxi, and xxii. oi the Society's series.— H, 
created.- 0. 





within these five deaneries. And in the same place are also deposited and kept copies o£ the parochial registers delivered in by the 
church and chapel wardens within the five deaneries at each visitation. The register or place of deposit is deemed very secure, and 
well accommodated for the keeping of the several instruments. The several wills and instruments are well preserved, and the wills 
and administration, curatiou, and tuition bonds belonging to each of the said deaneries, are kept separate and apart from each other ; 
and those of each deanery arranged annually, and also decennially, in alphabetical order. The bonds on granting marriage licenses 
are arranged in numerical order. There are distinct alphabetical books for each of the deaneries, called " Act Books," in each of 
which are entered schedules containing a short entry of the probate of each will, and of every administration, curation, and tuition, 
granted within each of the deaneries respectively ; to each of which act books is prefixed or annexed an alphabetical index of 

The following exhibits a condensed view of the places of deposit of the records and other instruments connected with the 
ecclesiastical affairs of the county of Lancaster : — 


Records and other Instruments. 


Where Jcept. 

Diocese of Chester and of Manchester — 

Installations of Bishops, Patents of Officers, etc 

Terriers and Parish and Chapel Registers 

Presentation to Benefices, Nominations to Curacies and 

Appropriations, Endowments, Compositions, Grants, Agree- 
ments, Leases, Orders, etc 

Licenses of Marriage, Probates of Wills, and Letters of 

Proceedings in causes, and Books of Acts of the Consistory 

Presentations and Institutions to Ecclesiastical Benefices ... 

Consecrations of Churches, Chapels, etc , and Faculties for 
rebuilding Churches 

Original Wills, or Copies of ^ 

Population of Parishes, Account of 

Richmond Archdeaconry, Consistory Court — 

Wills, Original 

Bonds on granting Letters of Administration, etc 

Marriage Licenses and Affidavits thereon 

Parochial Eegisters, Copies of 

Act Books, containing Entries of Probates 

Proceedings in Suits 

Inrolment of Faculties tor Pews, etc 


Duplicates of Parish Registers 

Wills, Original 

Administration, Curation, an d Tuition Bonds 

Act Books, containing Entries of Probates 

The earliest date — ■ 


Lichfield and Coventry Diocese — 

Ecclesiastical Survey 

Terriers of Rectories and Vicarages 

Registers containing Institutions of Rectors and Vicars, 
Appropriation of Rectories, and Endowments of Vicarages 

Judicial Proceedings in Causes 

Wills and Grants "i 

Administration, Letters of J 

Licenses ■» 

Registers of Parishes J 

Commencing 1500 

1590 y 
1714 J 

to the present 

Bishop's Registry of Chester, or of 

Manchester or Liverpool, 

as the case may be. 

1748 to the present 


26 Hen. VIIL .. 

1296 to the present time, 
with chasms. 


to present time. 

Consistory Registry, 

Commissary Registry, 

Registry, Chester. 
First Fruits Office. 

Bishop's Registry, 

■ As to tlie wills of persons resident, or haying property, within the 
county palatine o£ Lancashire, much interesting Information has been 
printed of late years. Especially deserving of notice are four vols 
eutitled "Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and Inventories," edited by the 
Rev. G. J. Picoope, and Mr. J. P. Earwaker, B.A., vols, xxxiii., li. and 
liv old series, and vol. iii. new series of the Chotham Society's series • 
embracing the wills of persons of various ranks and grades within the 
period A.D. 1480-174S. Of wills relating to Lancashire, but lodged in reois- 
tries in Durham and Yorkshire, much information will be found in the 
foUowing works, published by the Surtoes Society : Vol. ii , " Wills and 
Inventories illustrative of the history, manners, etc., of the Northern 
Counties of England from the nth century downwards" (chiefly 
from the registry at Durham) ; edited by Dr. Raine ; vol. xxxvui., a 
continuation of vol. ii " WiUs from the registry at Durham." edited by 
the Rev. W. Greenwell ; and vol. xxvi., " Wills and Inventories from the 
Register at Richmond," edited by Rev. J. Raine, jun Vol iv 
lestamenta Eboracensia : Wills illustrative, etc., of the province of 

York, from A.D. 1300 downwards." Vol. i. edited by Dr. Raine ; vol xxx. 
(vol. ii.), 1429-1462, edited by the Rev. J. Raine; vol. xlv. (vol. iii.), 
"Wills from the registry at Y'ork " (1395-1491). At the end of this 
volume are " Dispensations for Marriage, Marriage Licenses," etc., from 
the registers of York, Durham, and Richmond, 1374-1531. In addition to 
these works, Mr. J. P. Earwaker has edited for the Record Society, vols, 
ii. and iv. : " An Index to the WlUs and Inventories now preserved in 
the Court of Probate, at Chester, from 1545 to 1650 " together with (1) "A 
List of the Transcripts of Early Wills preserved In the Consistory Court, 
Chester." (2) "A List of the Wills printed by the Chetham Society." 
(3) " A List of the Wills seen and noted by the Revs. J. and G. J. Picoope 
and not now to be found at Chester." (4) " A List of the Wills presei-ved 
in Harl. MS. 1991 in the British Museum." (5) "A List of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1650- 
1660," and (6) "A List of the Lancashire and Cheshire Administration 
granted in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 1660-1660."— C. 


The Earldom of Lancaster possessed by King John-Privileges to the Honor of Lancaster in Magna Charta-Forest-Laws and 
Assize of the Forest at Lancaster-Grant of Land between Mersey and Ribble-Large Drains on Lancashire for Men and 
Money for the Wars-Wars of the Barons-Edward IL the Prisoner of Thomas Earl of Lancaster-Analysis of Landed 
Possessions in the County from Testa de Nevill.— a.d. 1164-1327. 

ESUMING the chronological order of our history from the period at which it had 
arrived when we commenced the history of the dukes and duchy of Lancaster, 
it is proper to correct an error into which the learned Selden has fallen, when he 
says, " That Lancashire, till Henry III created his youngest son Edmund Crook- 
back earl of it (a.d. 1266), I think was no county; for in one of our old year 
books a learned judge' affirms that in this Henry's time was the first sheriff"s 
turn held there." 

That sheriffs were elected for this county upwards of a century before 
Henry III. ascended the throne of these realms is already abundantly clear. In the Domesday 
Survey of the_ date of 1086, the county of Lancaster, as we have already seen, is surveyed as por- 
tions of the adjoining counties of York and Chester, but it is not named in that survey ; and after 
a diligent examination of the public records, the first mention we find of the county is in the Pipe 
KolF in the Exchequer Office, seventy-eight years after that survey was completed. The Pipe Rolls 
commence with 5 Stephen (a.d. 1140), and contain returns from a great number of the sheriffs of 
other counties, but the name of Lancashire does not occur till the 11th Henry II. (1165), after 
which the returns for Lancashire seem to be regular under every year, at least for some time. It 
is thus manifest that Selden is in error in supposing that Lancashire was " no county " till the time 
of Henry III., and that it had no sheriff till 1266, when Edmund Crouchback was created Earl of 
Lancaster. The records of the duchy of Lancaster are stated by Mr. Harper to be of as early a 
date as the first of Stephen, but those do not of course apply to the duchy, which was not created 
till more than one hundred years afterwards. In the Chapter House at Westminster there is, 
amongst its immense circular documental storeys, a bag of Lancashire fines, marked " Lancastria," 
in which several ancient deeds are deposited, of the date of 7 Richard I. (1195-6), relating to 
ecclesiastical affairs. 

In the reign of John, the men of Lancashire complained that their privileges were infringed 
by Roger Poer, who had deprived them of more than a hundred acres of wood and forest land, 
which they had been accustomed to enjoy as common of pasture.' The complaint of the men of 
Lancashire was made with peculiar propriety to King John, who, though he was surnamed Sansterre, 
or Lackland, possessed the earldom and honor of Lancaster, which were conferred upon him as an 
inheritance, while he was Earl of Morton or Mortaigne, by his brother Richard I. in the excess of 
his bounty. The death of Richard soon after opened the way to the throne for John, who hastened 
to assume the crown, and to secure his possession, as is alleged, did not hesitate to imbrue his 
hands in the blood of his nephew Arthur, who, as the son of Richard's brother, Geoffrey, third son 
of Henry IL, had a better title, had the crown descended by strict hereditary succession.'' During 
the reign of Richard, the spirit of crusading had been at its height ; not only the flower of the 

' Thorp, 17 Edward III. (1343) fol. 666. 

2 The Great Roll of the Exchequer, or Rotulus An'ocUis, called the 
Pipe, was the record of the account of the Court of Exchequer, formerly 
containing the accounts of the whole revenues of the Crown, digested 
under the hands of the several counties, and aunually written out in 
order to the charging and discharging of the sheriffs and other accountants. 
The earliest Pipe Holl preserved is assigned to the 31 Henry I. (1130), and 
is the most ancient record of the Court of Exchequer with the exception 
of Domesday Book. In the Appendix to the Thirty-first Report of the 
Deputy Keeper of the Public Records (pp. 299-302) the names are given 
of the Lancashire accountants from the earhest period to the reign of 
Edward I., and at the commencement of the list is this note: "The 
following names are given because the title ' Viceoomes ' is frequently 
applied to the officer who returns an account de honore. But Lancaster 
does not appear to have been always on the same footing with other 
counties before it became a county palatine by patent 25 Edward IH. 
In the earlier years it seems to have been included in Northumberland. 
It is, however, distinctly called a county in 8 Henry III." (1221).— 0. 
" Abbrev. Placlt. Hot. 1. p. 24. 

* Over the precise circumstances of the fate of Arthur there hangs a 
terrible mystery, and the statements that have come down to us rest 
very much upon the authority of popular tradition. One writer says 
that Arthur vanished in a manner unknown to all, while another says 
the king was suspected of having killed him with his own hand. A more 
circumstantial account says, he took Arthur into a boat, stabbed him 
twice with his own hand, and threw the dead body into the river, about 
three miles from the castle. That he was murdered, and if not actually 
by the hand at least by the instigation of John, there is little doubt, for 
there was nothing in his nature to lead him to stop short at assassination. 
"Foul as it is, hell itself is defiled by the fouler presence of John." was 
the terrible verdict of his contemporaries, and this has passed into the 
sober judgment of history. There ia, however, a passage on the Patent 
Rolls (p. 38) which throws a curious and interesting side-light on the 
events of this period. In a " safe-conduct," granted by the king, and 
dated on the 24th of August, at Ohinon, he says to Alan Fitz-Count and 
others who were desirous of seeing him, as he had been informed by 
"Furmie, servant of Arthur, our nephew," — "We command you, 
however, that ye do naught whereby evil may befal our nephew 
Arthur. "-C. 


most distinguished families in Lancashire, but in every part of Christendom, embarked in these 
holy wars with the utmost enthusiasm ; and though a few splinters from the wood of the real cross 
were purchased by the sacrifice of more than 300,000 men, such was the excitation of the times, 
that a knight-templar seldom failed to rank amongst the first of public benefactors. To these 
wars future ages are indebted, if not for the introduction, at least for the development of the science 
of heraldry and coat armour, by which the incased knights were distinguished on the plains of 
Palestine, and since which time illustrious families have used them to adorn their pedigrees. 

When the great bulwark of British freedom, Magna Charta, was wrested from King John on 
the field of Runnymede (1215), by the intrepid barons, special privileges were granted to the honor 
of Lancaster by name ; and it was provided in the articles appendant to that charter, that " if any 
one should hold of any escheat as of the honor of Walingeford, Notingeham, Bologne, or Lankastr', 
or of other escheats which are in the king's hands, and are baronies, and he die, his heir shall not 
give any other relief, or perform any other service, to the king, than he should perform to the 
baron ; and that the king hold it in the same manner as the baron." The Charter of Forests was 
scarcely less appreciated in Lancashire than Magna Charta. The number and extent of the forests 
in this county made the severity of the laws by which they were protected oppressive in the 
extreme (though the rigour of the laws had already been relaxed in their favour), and the immu- 
nities conferred on the people by these memorable charters would have immortalised the memory 
of the king had they flowed spontaneously from the royal bounty, instead of having been dictated 
by an imperious necessity over Avhich he had no control. 

The Forest-Laws are of great antiquity in this country ; they are of Saxon origin ; and, like 
the laws of Draco, they are written in blood. 

A charter of forests was granted by Canute, in the year 1016, called '• The Charter and Constitution of Forests," introduced by 
this royal declaration : " These are the Constitutions of the Forest, which I, Canute, king, with the advice of my nobles, do make 
and stablish, that both peace and justice may be done to all the churches of our kingdom of England, and that every offender may 
suffer according to his quality, and the manner of his offence." By this charter, four of the best freemen {Pagened, Verderors) were 
appointed in every province of the kingdom, to distribute justice, called "The Chief Men of the Forest." There were placed under 
each of these four men of middle sort {Lespegend, Regardors), to take upon themselves the care and charge by day '' as well of the 
vert as of the venison." ^ Under each of these, two of the meaner sort of men {Tinemen, Foresters) were appointed to take care of 
the vert and the venison by night. These officers were supported at the cost of the state, the first class receiving a stipend of two 
hundred shillings a-year, the second of sixty, and the third of fifteen each, with certain equipments and immunities. " The Chief 
Men of the Forest " were clothed with royal powers in the administration of the laws of the forest. If any man offered violence to 
one of these chief men, if a freeman, he was to lose his freedom and all that he had ; and if a villein, his right hand was to be cut 
off, for the first offence ; for the second he suffered death, whether a freeman or a slave. Offences in the forest were punished 
according to the manner and quality of the offender : any freeman, either casually or wilfully chasing or hunting a beast of the 
forest, so that by swiftness of the course the beast pant for breath, was to forfeit ten shillings to the king ; if not a freeman, twenty ; 
if a bondman, to lose his skin ! If the beast chased be a royal beast (a staggon), and he shall pant and be out of breath, the freeman 
to lose his liberty for a year, the bondman for two years, and the villein to be outlawed. A freeman or a bondman killing any beast 
of the forest, to pay double its value for the first offence, the same for the second, and for the third to forfeit all that he possesses. 
Bishops, abbots, and barons, not to be challenged for hunting in the forests, except they kill royal beasts, and then to make restitu- 
tion to the king. Every freeman to be allowed to take his own vert, or venison, in the purlieus of the forest, or when hunting in his 
own ground, but he must refrain from the king's venery. Freemen only to keep the dogs called greyhounds, and the knees of those 
dogs to be cut before the chief men, unless they be removed, and kept ten miles from the bounds of the royal forest. Velterana,* or 
Langerans, small dogs, as well as Ramhundt, might be kept without cutting their knees. If a dog became mad, and bit a beast of 
the forest, the owner was required to make a recompense according to the price of a freeman — that is, twelve times two hundred 
shillings ; but if a royal beast was bitten by a mad dog, then the owner was to answer as for the greatest offence in the forest — 
namely, with his own life ! Such substantially were the forest laws of Canute the Dane. 

WiUiam the Norman, another royal Nimrod, did not relax the severity of these laws ; but, by 
afforesting large tracts of land, very much extended the field of their operation. Though the 
Conqueror displayed a large share of his sanguinary and rapacious character in the north, there is 
no reason to suppose that he deprived any man of his possessions to enlarge the forests of Lanca- 
shire. It is said of him, however, by Mapes, perhaps with some monkish exaggeration, that in 
afforesting the New Forest, in Hampshire, for the free enjoyment of the chase, " he took away 
much land from God and man, and converted it to the use of wild beasts and the sport of his dogs, 
for which he demolished thirty-six churches, and exterminated the inhabitants."^ The retribution 
which followed was speedy and signal ; three of the immediate descendants of the great spoliator 
lost their lives while engaged in the chase in this forest, amongst whom was William Rufus, who 
fell by the arrow of his bow-bearer, Sir Walter Tyrrell. 

Richard I. was much addicted to the pleasures of the chase, and, as one of the highest favours 
he could bestow upon his brother John, Earl of Morton, he gave him, as we here learn, the honor 
of Lancaster, and the royal prerogatives of forest in this county. John, having received so much 
from his sovereign, felt disposed to allow the knights, thanes, and freeholders of the county of 
Lancaster to share in the royal bounty ; and for this purpose he granted them a charter, whereby 

1 The virt is covert, the trees, and the herbage of tho forest ; ani, = A kind of terrier. Langeran is a corruDtiou of a Danish word, and 

according to Sir Edward Coke, whatever beast of the forest is for tho should more likely be Langrun or Longsnout C, 

fuod of man is venison. a Lib. (je Script. Brit. 1S7. e. 159. 



StL^vw-n .l^'7' ^^i^^^^t/ballenge of him and his heirs, were allowed to fell, sell, and give, 
Lll W^'V ' Kvf ^°°?«',]"thout being subject to the forest regulations, aAd t^ hunt^Id 
take hare foxes, rabbits and all kinds of Avild beasts, except stag, hiSd, and roebuck, and wild 
ten'ln tlr Tw Y forests beyond the demesne hays of the county/ This charter he con- 
firmed to them in thefirst year of his reign (1199), before the celebrated "Carta de Foresta " (1224) 
for ameliorating the rigours of the forest laws was sketched; and his successor, Henry III. con- 
firmed these franchises to the lieges of Lancashire four years after he had signed that charter. 
These grants so ratified and confirmed, were not sufficient to protect "the lieges" against the 
annoyance of the royal foresters and on the 18th of Edward II. (1324-26) we find them presenting 
a petition to the king, praying that they may enjoy their chartered privileges without molestation" 
The answer to this petition was-" Let them come into the Chancery, and show their charters and 
confirmations ; and then—" Le Roi se avisera ; " which was a form of refusal. 

ihe parks, forests, and chases' of Lancashire, in the time of the Edwards, according to the 
records in the duchy office were : Wyresdale, Lonsdale, Quernmore, Amounderness, Bkasdale, 
Derbyshire (West Derby) Fullwood, Symoneswood, Lancaster, Croxteth, Toxteth; and included 
m the general term of the Forest of Lancaster were the forests of Bowland, Blackburnshire, Pendle, 
Irawden, Accrmgton, and Rossendale ; in a word, the high region on the eastern side of the county, 
the successive possessions of the houses of Lacy and of Lancaster. 

Though the "Carta de Foresta,"^ and the "Assisa et Consuetudines Forestae," of the 6th 
Edward 1. (1278) had so far relaxed the rigour of the forest-laws as no longer to allow the life of a 
man to be put on a level with the life of a stag, yet assizes of forests were statedly held in this 
county, at which the Justices in Eyre north of the Trent presided, and where ofiences committed 
against " the vert and the venison " were visited with heavy penalties. 

A record of the Forest Assize held at Lancaster, 15 Edward I. (1286),' discloses pretty fully 
the system of forest jurisprudence. We have therein the Justices in Eyre, " Justiciarii Itinerantes," 
north of the Trent, assisted by the Foresters of the Fee, in their ministerial capacity, for they had 
no judicial office. To these were added the Viridors, who presided in the forest courts of attach- 
ment and swainemote as a kind of initiative tribunal, leaving it to the judges to ratify or to annul 
their decisions. To complete the judicial array, there were added twenty-four Regardors, or jurors, 
knights of the forest, chosen by virtue of the king's writ, and elected, like the Viridors, by the 
freeholders in full county. The presentments for killing and taking deer are in the usual style, 
and amounted at this assize to forty-eight in number. The most remarkable is the plea set up by 
Nich. de Lee, who, in justification of his conduct in hunting in the king's forest, urges the 
chartered privileges (those granted by King John especially) of the knights and freeholders of 
Lancashire," of whom he was doubtless one. These proceedings show that the sanguinary character 
of the forest-laws had been gradually ameliorated ever since the time of Canute, by the charters 
of King John, Henry III., and Edward I. ; and, instead of expatriation and death, we find the 
heaviest punishments inflicted at this memorable assize to consist of fines and imprisonment, and 
those of a very moderate nature. In a word, the forest-laws, so severely condemned, were less 
rigorous under the Plantagenets than were the game-laws of more modern times. 

The Lancaster forests, in days of yore, answer with great accuracy to the description given by 
Manwood, the elaborate writer on the Forest-Laws, when he says — " A forest is a certaine territory 
of woody grounds and pastures, privileged for wild beasts and fowls of forest, chase, and warren, to 
rest and abide in under the protection of the king, for his princely delight and pleasure." The 
forest-laws, as administered at the assize of the forests of Lancaster and of Pickering, are quoted 
by this authority as the most perfect model of forest jurisprudence. " The Earl of Lancaster," says 
he, " in the time of Edward II. and Edward III. had a forest in the counties of Lancaster and York, 
in the which he did execute the forest-laws as largely as any king in this realm did. And even at 
this day (a.d. 1580) there are no records so much followed as those which were executed by the 
said earl in his forests." ' 

* Duchy Rolls, Rot. f. 12. fi*om the king with as much difficulty, as those of Magna Charta itself. 
' Ex Pet. in Pari,, 18 Edward II., No. 17. By this charter, confirmed in Parliament (9 Henry III.), many forests 
^ The legal distinction between & forest and a cliase is this— the latter were disafforested or stripped of their oppressive privileges, and regula- 

is under the common law, the former under the forest-laws. Blackstozie tions were made in the regimen of such as remained ; particularly, 

sa^s, •' A forest in the hands of a subject is properly the same thing (cap. 10) killing the king's deer was made no longer a capital offence, but 

with a chase, being subject to the common law, and not to the forest- only punishment by a fine, imprisonment, or abjuration of the realm, 

laws. But a chase differs from a 'park, in that it is not enclosed, and also And by a variety of subsequent statutes, together with the long 

in that a man may have a chase in another man's ground as well as in his acquiescence of the Crown without exerting the forest-laws, this 

own, being indeed the liberty of keeping beasts of chase or royal game prerogative is now become no longer a grievance to the subject."— 

therein, prohibited even from the owner of the land, with a power of Blackstone Com. ii, p. 416. 
hunting them therein. "—Com. ii, 38, = Due. Rot. 15 Edw. I. f. 12. 

* ** The cruel and insupportable hardships which the forest-laws " See John's Charter, p, 99, 

created to the subject occasioned our ancestors to be as jealous for their ' See Manwood on the Forest laws, p. 72, a work which may bo 

reformation as for the relaxation of the feudal rigours and the other consulted with advantage by those who wish to obtain more than a 

exactions Introduced by the Norman family, and accordingly wo find the popular acquaintance with this subject, 
immunities of Carta de Fm-eata as warmly contended for, and extorted 


In much later times we have had an English monarch displaying his solicitude for the pre- 
servation of the " vert and venison" in the forests of Lancashire. The following royal warrant, 
addressed to the Master Foresters, Bow-bearers, and Keepers of the Forests, Parks, and Chases, in 
the county palatine of Lancaster, and in other parts of the duchy, bearing the signature of King 
William III., and countersigned by the chancellor and auditor of the duchy, will form a not mapt 
conclusion to this digression : — 

WILLIAM R. T. . „ c /^ T. 

SEtiiertaa Complaint has been made to Us that Rreat Destruction has been made of Our Deer m several! of Our iorrests, 
Chaces & Parks within Our Duchy & County Palatine of Lancaster, and that some of you have refused to give an Account 
thereof ■ Our Royall Will and Pleasure is, that you and every of you, do from time to time, as often as it shall be required of 
vou eive a true and just Account To Our Right Trusty and Right Well-beloved Cozen & Counsellor, Thomas Earle of Stamford, 
Chancellor of Our Duchy & County Palatine of Lancaster, or Chancellor for the Time benig, Of All Our Deer within the 
Forrests Chases & Parks where you are respectfully concerned, and of what Destruction has been made thereof. And at the 
Close of' every Season you also give a particular and true account what Number of Our Deer have been killed, by whom, for 
whom and by whose Order or Authority, and of what Stock is or shall be remaining in Our Forrests, Chases, and Parks 
wherein you are concerned as aforesaid, that all abuses and ill practices may be remedied, and Our Deer better preserved for 
the future And hereof you are not to faile, as you will answer the contrary at your Perill.— Given at Our Court at Kensington 
the 23d day of December 1697, and in the Ninth year of Our Reign 

By his Majesty s Command. blAJttiOKD, 

p Jo. Bennett, Atid. 

Enrolled in the Office of the Auditor of the Lord the King that now is, of his Duchy of Lancaster, in the South Parts, 
20 Dec. 9 Wm. III. 1697. 

The act of Magna Charta, so recently granted by John, was confirmed and ratified by 
Henry III., to whom an aid of one-fifteenth of all the movables of his people was given by Parlia- 
ment in return for this favour, with the reservation that those only who paid the fifteenth should 
be entitled to the liberties and privileges of the charter. To give increased stability to the 
obligations of this engagement between the king and his people, all the prelates and abbots were 
assembled, with burning tapers in their hands, and the great charter being raised in their presence, 
they denounced the sentence of excommunication against all who should henceforth violate this 
fundamental law. Then, throwing down their tapers on the ground, they exclaimed — " May the 
soul of every one who incurs this sentence so stink and corrupt in hell !" To which the king, who 
took part in the ceremony, added — " So help me God. I will keep these articles inviolate, as I am 
a man, as I am a Christian, as I am a knight, and as I am a king crowned and anointed."^ 

The trial by ordeal, introduced by the Saxons, and continued through so many successive ages, 
to the outrage of justice and the scandal of the nation, could now no longer be tolerated. The 
Church of Rome, never prone to innovation, was the first to protest against a standard so fallible. 
And accordingly we find royal letters of the reign of Henry III. (1219) addressed to the itinerant 
judges in the counties of Lancaster, Cumberland, and Westmorland, the north-western circuit of 
that day, announcing to the judges that because it was not determined previous to the opening of 
the circuit what form of trial they should undergo who were charged with robbery, murder, arson, 
and the like, " since the ordeal of fire and water had been prohibited by the Roman Church," it 
had been provided by the king in council that the jtidges should proceed in the following manner 
with persons accused of these crimes, viz., that those charged with the greater crime, and to 
whom violent suspicion attached, should be held and safely confined in prison, but not in such 
a manner as to incur peril of life or limb ; that persons accused of other crimes, and to whom, had 
it not been prohibited, the ordeal of fire and water might have been sufiicient, should be required 
to quit the realm ; and that those charged with minor offences should be liberated on bail. These 
directions, it was felt, were very vague and general ; but as they were all that the council could at 
the time provide, the judges were left at liberty to follow their own discretion, and to act according 
to the dictates of their consciences. 

In this reign the undisputed possession of that great mass of Lancashire property, the lands 
between Ribble and Mersey, was conveyed by the family of Roger de Maresey to Randulf or Randle, 
Earl of Chester, in virtue of a compact of which the following is a translation : — 

This agreement is made between the Lord Randle, Earl of Chester and Lincoln, and Roger de Maresey, viz., that the said Earl 
and Roger shall deliver to Sir Ralph de Bray, one forty marks [£26 : 13 : 4], and the other the charter which the said Roger makes 
to the lord the earl of the sale and demise of all his lands which he had or may have between the Ribble and Mersey ; to wit, so 
that Roger shall go without delay between Ribble and Mersey, to the dispossessing himself of the said lands, and to the causing of 
all those (who held of him there) to do their homage to the said lord the earl, or their fealty to his bailiffs appointed in his place. 
Which done, the said Ralph de Bray shall render to the oft-named earl the charter already named, and to the same Roger the said 
forty marks. If the tenants refuse to do homage, etc., the earl or his bailiffs shall compel them to render it. And the said Roger, 
at the cost of the lord the earl, shall jouruey together with the earl's bailiffs, so far as this business requires, so that what is afore- 
said may be consummated. And for the greater security, each of them to this writing in the form of a chirograph hath set his seal. 
Witnesses : the Lord Walter, Abbot of Chester, Sir William de Vernon, Justiciar of Chester, Ralph de Bray, Walter Dayvill, 
Richard de Biron, John de Lexington, Simon and John, clerks. 

[Prom the Couchir Book of the Duchy Office, London, tome i. Comitatua Lancastrice, fol. 77, num. 70.] 

* Fcedera, vol. i. p. 1413. 


Notwithstanding the ratification of Magna Charta, the nation continued much agitated by the 
intrigues of the nobles within, and the hostility of the bordering countries from without, To meet 
this emergency a proclamation was issued to the sheriffs of the counties of Lancaster, Cumberland, 
and Westmorland, ordering them to assemble all those in their respective jurisdictions who held of 
the king in chief to the amount of a knight's fee, to be prepared with horses and arms, to march 
with the king from Chester on an expedition into Wales against Llewellyn, and other rebels. The 
barons, in the meantime, more anxious about the redress of their own grievances than the incur- 
sions of the Welsh, assembled in supreme council at Oxford under Simon de Montfort, Earl of 
Leicester, and, after insisting upon the strict fulfilment of the articles of Magna Charta, demanded 
that four knights should be chosen by the freeholders from each county in the kingdom, to make 
inquiries into the complaints of the inhabitants, and to present them at the next Parliament. They 
also resolved that three Parliaments should be held in every year, including burgesses, as well as 
barons and ecclesiastical dignitaries, the two latter of whom had alone been hitherto summoned ; 
that the sheriffs should be annually chosen in each county by the freeholders ; that the sheriffs 
should have no power to fine the barons ; that no heirs should be committed to the wardship of 
foreigners ; that no new warrens or forests should be created ; nor the revenues of any counties or 
hundreds let to farm. The king, feeling that the tendency of these extensive measures of reform 
was to abridge the royal power, strenuously opposed their introduction, and the matter was finally 
referred to the pope, by whose decision the great charter was ratified, but the ordinances of the 
supreme council of Oxford were annulled. The barons did not hesitate to resist the award of his 
holiness by force of arms, and Robert de Ferrars, earl of Derby, was amongst the most distinguished 
of the insurgents (a.d. 1263). An association was formed in the city of Worcester, consisting of the 
populace and the leaders of the insurgents, amongst whom were eighteen of the great barons, 
headed by the Earls of Leicester, Gloucester, and Derby, with Le Despenser the chief justiciary. 
By the terms of their compact they were never to make peace with the king, but by common 
consent, and with such securities for their liberties and privileges as those which were contained in 
the convention of Oxford. A long and sanguinary civil war ensued, and on the 14th May, 1264, 
Henry saw his army completely routed at Lewes by the valorous De Montfort, and himself, his 
son Prince Edward, and the king of the Romans made prisoners. On the following day a treaty, 
known as the mise of Lewes, was entered into, and the king was obliged to ratify the obnoxious 
convention of Oxford. Subsequently, Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, fell in the contest at 
Evesham, August 4th, 1265, and at the same time the Earl of Derby was taken iprisoner. This 
struggle was, however, essentially conducive to the establishment of the public liberties, and laid 
the foundation of our representative system of government, for after the battle at Lewes, De Mont- 
fort called a great council of the nation, to which were summoned not only the barons, prelates, and 
abbots, but also two knights from each county, two citizens from each city, and two burgesses from 
each borough. Thus was the democratic element — the foundation of the Houseof Commons — first 
introduced, the council being that in which we first distinctly recognise the Parliament of England. 
The defeat of the barons elevated the house of Lancaster. The forfeited title and possessions of 
Simon de Montfort devolved by royal favour upon Edmund Crouchback, the second son of Henry 
III and the estates of Robert de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, were also conferred upon him by the king, 
with a grant of the possession of the county of Lancaster, but not to the prejudice of Roger de 

Llewellyn Prince of Wales, had been deeply implicated with the barons of England in their 
wars against their sovereign, Henry III., and when Edward I. ascended the throne, one of the first 
acts of his government was to summon the Wesh prince to do homage m person to the new kmg 
With this mandate Llewellyn refused to comply, except upon the condition that the king s son, and 
other noblemen should be delivered to the Welsh court as hostages for his sale custody. Edward 
was in no temper for parley, and accordingly we find a summons from the king calling upon Roger 
de Lancastre to attend upon his majesty, to proceed agamst the Welsh, who are represented as 
having risen in rebellion. This royal order was followed by a writ of military summons (dated 
Windsor 12th Dec 5 Edw. 1., 1276) from the king to Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, and the sheritt 
of the county, announcing that Llewellyn, son of Gryffydd, Prince of Wales, and hip rebellious asso- 
ciates had invaded the land of the lieges in the Marches, and committed homicides and other 
enormous damages and commanding that the sheriff do forthwith assemble all that are capable ot 
bearing arms in the hundreds, boroughs, and market towns of his shrievalty to march to 
Worcester in the octaves of St. John the Baptist, prepared with horses and arms.' The war was 
continued, with some intermissions through several_ successive years ; .^''^'''Zr^^^^to^^^^^^ 
passage into Wales, it appears that a mandate was issued by the king in the year 1^8^ to tne 

1 Rot. Claus. 6 Ed. I. m. 12 d. in Turr. Load, 


sheriff of Lancashire, ordering him to provide two hundred woodcutters {coiipiatorihus) to cut 
away the wood, and thereby to open passes into Wales. These men were to be powerful and active, 
and each of them was to come provided with a large hatchet to cut down the trees. They were to 
be chosen in the presence of William de Percy, who was sent specially into the county for that 
purpose, and were to muster at Chester, on Saturday, on the octaves of the Feast of St. Peter. For 
this service the sheriff was to pay, from the issues of his bailiwick, into the hands of each hewer, 
threepence per diem for his wages. ^ At the time when these Lancashire husbandmen, of extra- 
ordinary powers, were receiving threepence a day for their labour, the price of wheat was ninepence 
per bushel, and taking the average of wages in England for the six hundred years following, it will 
be found (unfavourable seasons apart) that the wages of labour have generally been in the propor- 
tion of a peck of wheat per day. In large towns the price of manufacturing labour has often been 
higher, and in some cases, especially amongst the weavers, much lower ; but as a standard, none 
can approach nearer than the one which is here suggested. Much obscurity is thrown over his- 
torical and topographical works on the subject of money, for want of some standard of value to 
which the sums mentioned in different ages may be referred. No standard will be found so uner- 
ring as the prices of wheat and of labour, which, on being compared in times past with the price of 
those articles in our day, will always convey to the mind some definite notion, when sums of money 
are mentioned, of the value of those sums at the period under consideration. With this view the 
following table, extracted from the records in the exchequer, and collated with Paris, Walsingham, 
Stowe, Fleetwood, and others is constructed : — 



A.D. £ B. d. 

1202. Wheat (rainy season) per quarter 12 

1248. Thirty-seven Sheep for the King 18 4 

1253. Wheatfellto per quarter 2 6 

1256. Brewers ordered to sell three gallons of Ale in the country for a penny. 

1272. A Labourer's Wages per day 1.^ 

A Harvest Man do 2 

1274. A Bible in nine vols., with a Comment 33 6 8 

1275. Rent of the Lord Mayor's House a year 10 

1280. The Chancellor's Salary do. 40 

1283. An English Slave and his Family sold for 13 4 

1285. Grinding Wheat per quarter OJ 

1286. Wheat, after a great storm do. 16 

1288. „ fellto do. 18 

1294. Wheat (a grievous famine) do. 10 

Wheat, average in the 13th century, about do. 6 

1300. Wheat and Barley do. 3 4 

Oats do. 18 

A Primer for the Prince of Wales, now 15 years 11 months old 2 

1302. ACow 6 

A fat Sheep 1 

A Cock or Hen each IJ 

1309. APairof Shoes 4 

1314. Prices fixed by Parliament — A fat Ox 16 

ACow £0 12 

A fat Hog 3 4 

Pair of Chickens 1 

A Sheep 12 

A fat Goose 2 J 

Eggs per dozen Oi 

This maximum increased the scarcity which it was intended to remove. The growers would not bring in provisions, and what 
was sold was dearer than before. The Act was therefore repealed in 1315. 

A.D. £ g. d. 

1315. Salt (an unheard-of price) abushel 2 6 

1326. Yearly Rent of Arable Land in Kent per acre 3d. to 6 

Pasture Land do 1 

Meadow Land do 4d. to 10 

1338. Allowance from Edward III. to 32 Students at Cambridge per diem 2 

Wool taken by the King (a forced price) per stone of 14 1b. 2 

1342. Wine per gallon 4 

1347. King's Apothecary (a pension for life) per day 

1348. A year of pestilence — a Horse 6 8 

a fat Ox 4 

a Cow 10 

a Heifer 6 

1357. Ransom of David King of Scotland 100,000 

1360. of John King of France 500000 

A Horse for military service ' 1 o 

A Master Carpenter, 4d.— his Journeyman per day 2 

1379. Wine, white, 6d.— red per gallon '. 4 

Foedera, vol. ii. p. 611. 




1385. Assistant Clerk of Parliament a year ... 5 

1390. Kendal Cloth ..Z'.'.'.'.Z..'. ...Za -piece '.'.' 

Wheat, average in the 14th century, about per quarter 

1407. Salt per bushel... '.'.'. !'.'.'.!. 

A Plough 

Wages of a Thresher per (jay 

1414. A priest's stipend, with cure of souls a year 5 

without 4 

1482. 220 Draught Horses for ',,, ..'!!."!!"!".... ".'.'.'.['.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 100 

1495. Allowance to Edward the Fourth's Daughter a week 1 

for her eight servants a year 51 

Oats a quarter 


Wheat, average in 15th century, as estimated for rent, about 

1547. Income of the poor churches in York a year 1 

1562. Wheat, conversion price per quarter 

Ale, when malt was 8s. per quarter per gallon 

1576. Beef and Mutton a stone 

Veal 8d. to 

Wheat, average in the 16th centui-y, about per quarter 1 

Labour of a husbandman per week, in the 1 6th century 


























From 1611 to 1620 £2 1 U 

1621 to 1630 2 5 2"" 

1631 to 1640 2 6 104 

1641 to 1650 3 12 8 

1651 to 1660 2 10 

1661 to 1670 2 8 lOJ 

From 1671 to 1680 £2 10 84 

1681 to 1690 119 14 

1691 to 1700 2 16 104 

1701 to 1710 2 3 24 

1711 to 1720 2 4 11 

1721 to 1731 2 11 

Labour of a husbandman per week, in the 17th century 9 

These prices of wheat are from the Eton Books, and are for the best grain ; the measure also is above the legal standard, so that 
7-9ths of the preceding quotations will form about the average price of aU England. 


Wheat. Barley. Oats. 

From 1732 to 1740 £1 8 10 £0 15 14 £0 12 5 

1741 to 1750 1 5 84 14 3 12 4 

I751tol760 1 13 3 17 11 14 104 

1761tol770 113 114 12 15 114 


From 1771 to 1775 £2 10 

1776 to 1780 1 19 

1781 to 1785 2 9 2 

1786tol790 2 5 10 

1791 to 1795 2 12 11 

1796 to 1800 3 12 34 

Labour of ahusbandman per week, in the 18th century 110 

In each period of fire years from 1801 io 1885 inclusive, from the Official Returns. 


£16 9 



£0 16 104 

16 64 

1 4 44 

16 10 

1 3 54 

17 04 

1 10 lU . 


1 17 8 

1 5 2 

From 1801 to 1805 £4 

1806tol810 4 7 11 

1811 to 1815 4 14 3 

1816 to 1820 4 10 

1821 to 1825 2 17 3 

1826 to 1830 3 17 

1831 to 1835 2 12 8 

1836tol840 3 12 

1841tol845 2 14 9 nil 

Labour of a husbandman per week, in the 19th century 

From 1846 to 1850 £2 

1851 to 1855 2 

1856 to 1860 2 

1861 to 1865 2 

1866 to 1870 2 

1871 to 1875 2 

1876tol880 2 

1881 to 1885 2 
















For a further illustration of the Scale of Prices in successive ages, it is necessary to show how many pounds shillings and 
pennii have been coined out of a pound troy of silver at different times in England ; and also the degree of fineness of the standard, 
and the times at which the several alterations have taken place. 

Fine Silver. Alloy. 

oz. dwt. 

Before a.d. 1300 a pound of standard silver contained. 11 2 

1300. 28 Edward I || ^ 

1344. 18 Edward III {| ; 

1346. 20EdwardIII ^j ^ 

1353. 27 Edward III ^^ ; 

1412. ISHenrylV '■^ ^ 










Value of the 


3f Silver. 

























Value of the 

lb. ( 

af Silver. 




























Fine Silver. Alloy. 

^j)^ oz. dwt. oz. dwt. 

1464. 4EdwardIV H 2 

1527. 18HenryVIII H 2 

1543. 34HenryVIII 10 

1545. 36HenryVIII 6 

1546. 37 Henry VIII * 

1549. SEdwardVI 6 

1551. SEdwardVI 3 

1551, end of 1552. 6 Edw. VI 11 1 

1553. 1 Mary H " 

1560. 2 Elizabeth H 2 

1601. 43EUzabeth 11 2 

1816. 56 George III H 2 

These rates of English money, except the last, are taken by Mr. Folkes from the indentures made with the masters of the 
Mint, and consequently may be depended upon as authentic ; the last is from the Act 66 George III. cap. 68 (1816). 

The mines of Lancashire were yet unexplored ; and the most important of all_ its minerals, as 
constituting the principal source of its manufacturing greatness, had lain undisturbed in the 
bowels of the earth till the reign of Henry III., when coals, except as far as they might have been 
employed by the Romans, were, for the first time, used as fuel in England.^ From that period to 
the present the great coalfields in the south and in the centre of the county of Lancaster have 
continued to be worked, but the full extent of their capacity and utility was not shown till the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when the agency of steam began to be brought into general 
operation under the powerful genius of Bolton and Watt, and the inventive faculties of Kay, Har- 
greaves, Arkwright, Crompton, and Cartwright, aided by the skill, enterprise, and capital of Peel, 
and a hundred other names that might be mentioned. 

In the early ages of our history the honour of knighthood, with the military services to which 
it was incident under the feudal system, was often forced upon the subject, and hence we find 
that, in the year 1278,' a writ was addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire, commanding him to dis- 
train upon all persons seised of land of the value of £20 per annum, whether held of the Icing in 
capite, or of any other lord, who ought to be knights, and were not, and all such were ordered 
forthwith to take out their patent of knighthood. Fourteen years after this a writ was issued, 
wherein the qualification was raised to double the amount, and a writ, dated the 6th of February, 
1292, was issued to the sheriff of Lancashire, along with other sheriffs, proclaiming that all persons 
holding lands in fee, or of inheritance, of the value of £40 per annum, must take the order of 
knighthood before Christmas in that year. One of the prerogatives of the crown was to relax and 
to vary these services, and hence a writ, addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire, was issued, reciting 
"that the commonalty of England having performed good services against the Welsh, the king 
excuses persons, not holding lands of the value of £100 per annum, from taking the order of 
knighthood ;" but in this writ it was directed that all holding above that amount, and not taking 
that order before the Nativity of the Virgin, are to be distrained upon. Subsequently, injunctions 
were addressed to the sheriff, commanding him to make extents on the lands of those who refused 
to take the order of knighthood, and to hold them for the king until further orders. It must not 
be supposed that this honour was always declined, or that no man's ambition led him to aspire to 
the distinction. Such a conclusion would be erroneous ; for we find a writ to the sheriff of Lanca- 
shire, of the date of the 6th of April, 1305, directing him to proclaim that all who should become 
knights, and are not, must repair to London before Whit-Sunday next, to receive that distinction, 
if properly qualified.* 

While the contest continued between England and Wales, a number of public oflacers were 
appointed, called commissioners of array {arraiatores), whose duty it was to array the troops 
engaged in thewar, to preserve the peace in the midst of so much agitation, and to communicate 
the views and intentions of the government to the people. Roger de Mortimer, who enjoyed a 
large share of the royal favour, received the appointment of conservator of Lampaderoour (Lampe- 
ter), in West Wales, which appointment was announced by letter to the prelates and clergy, in 
Lancashire, through the medium of Reginald de Grey, the captain in Chester and FHntshire. 

I In 1816 the pound of buUion was first coined info sixty-six (Stat, de niiUt. 1 Edward II.) amounted to £20 per annum, was obliged 

shillings, of which, however, only sixty-two were issued ; four shillings to bo knighted, and attend the king in his wars, or fine for his non- 

bemgkeptatthemintasasoignorage. complianoo." Considerable foes accrued to the sovereign upon the per- 

One of the earliest notices of coal m Lancashire is found in a formance of this ceremony, and hence the desire on the one hand to exert 

deed among the muniments at Arley Hall-an assignment of dower the prerogative, and the reluctance manifested in many instances on 

made at Wamngton 6 Edw,ird III. (1830), which, tnta- alia, mentions the other to accept the honour. Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth 

mineracarhonum as then existmg at Burnhill, in Ashton-in-Makerfleld.-O. appointed commissioners to compound with all persons who had lands 

4 [■ ' •■ Sr"^' ,, J J^: ^' '}: ^""'' '"?°'^' '» t^"^ extent of £40 a year, and who declined the honour and expense 

* Knights were caUed mihira, becauae they formed a part of the of knighthood. The exorcise of the prerogative bv Charles I., as an 

wn'^f nt^RlLvlJ^ f f }n'''' S"^,''' ^^^X'"'.', S"'^ Condition of which expedient to raise money, gave great offence, though warranted by 

was, as Blackstone states (Con. B 1. p. 404), " that every ono who held positive statute and the recent example of Queen Elizabeth. The pre- 

a knights fee immediately under the Crown, which, in Edward Il.'s time rogativo was abolished by 10 Charles I. c. U -C 


The necessities of the public treasury, in 1282, obliged the king to demand an aid by way of 
loan from the religious houses, and from all the merchants in the kingdom, and John de Kirkeby 
■was enpowered to declare certain difficult and important matters with which he was entrusted, 
explanatory, no doubt, of the king's necessities, to the people of Lancashire. Speedily afterwards, 
letters patent were addressed to Robert de Harington, John Byron, and Robert de Holland, 
appointing them conservators of the peace, pursuant to the statute of Winton, and writs of Venire 
were issued for that purpose.^ 

In the spring of 1282 the fancied security of the English Government was disturbed by a 
general outbreak of the Welsh people. On the night of Palm Sunday, David, the brother of 
Llewellyii-ap-Gryffydd, Prince of Wales, surprised the castle of Hawarden, in Flintshire, captured 
the justiciary, Roger de Clifford, who is described in the Welsh annals as a cruel tyrant, and carried 
him off prisoner to the mountain fastnesses of Snowdon, his whole retinue of knights and atten- 
dants being at the same time put to the sword. The old national feeling of the people prevented 
them willingly adopting the English usages, or of tamely submitting to the imperious decrees of 
the proud justiciaries and bailifls who claimed dominion over them. During the contest, several 
summonses for military service were issued in Lancashire, the number of which was probably 
increased by its vicinity to the seat of war. On the 6th April, 10 Edward I. (1282), as appears by 
the Parliamentary writs,= William le Boteler, described as " de Werington," was summoned to 
meet the king at Worcester, prepared with horse and arms, to march against the Welsh rebels ; 
and on the 26th of May following a writ was sent to the sheriff, reciting an ordinance in council, 
whereby every person holding land or rents of the value of £30 a year was required to provide 
himself with a horse and suitable armour, and to join the king's forces against the Welsh, and even 
persons unfit for military service were required to find and equip substitutes. On the 30th of 
July, in the same year, a docket of commission issued from Rhuddllan, commanding all bailiffs and 
others in the county of Lancaster to aid and assist William le Boteler, de Werenton, in raising or 
pressing a thousand strong and able men {ad eligendos viille hoviines fortes et potentesf to serve in 
the Welsh wars, from which it would appear that the obnoxious practice of impressing men into 
the navy in latter times extended then to the army. The contest with Wales was now at its 
crisis. On the 24th of November, a writ was addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire, requiring him 
to send all men capable of bearing arms to march against the Welsh ; and Edmund, Earl of Lan- 
caster, was required to furnish from his lands in Lancashire 200 soldiers. Early in the following 
year another levy was called for ; and the earl, on the summons of the king, was required to repair 
with horse and arms to Montgomery. A similar summons to arms was also addressed to Roger de 
Lancastre ; and to supply the necessary ways and means for this vast expenditure of the govern- 
ment, a commission was issued, constituting Henry de Newark and others collectors of the previous 
levy. The skill and perseverance of Edward, seconded by the zeal and constancy of his subjects, 
at length reduced the Welsh nation to the greatest extremities. Llewellyn, finding all his 
resources exhausted, his country almost depopulated by the length and severity of the contest, 
and famine rapidly completing the destruction which the sword had commenced, was obliged to 
submit to the conqueror ; and the ancient Cambrians, after having for 800 years maintained their 
national independence, passed under the English yoke. The title of " Prince of Wales " was 
shortly afterwards conferred, for the first time, on a " foreign prince," and the eldest son of the 
sovereign of England has ever since that period borne this designation. 

The wars of the Crusades, in which England took so large a share, had served to dram the 
treasury, and the cost of these holy contests seemed especially to belong to the Church. ■ Pope 
Nicholas IV to whom, as claiming to be the feudal lord of the church, and to whose predecessors 
the firstfruits and tenths of English benefices, though not generally acquiesced m, had m several 
dioceses for a long time been paid, granted to King Edward I. the tenth of these benefices for 
six years towards defraying the expenses of the Crusades. In order to ascertam the full value oi 
the livings, a taxation by the king's precept, usually called " Pope Nicholas's Valor, ' was begun 
in 1288 Ind completed in the province of Canterbury in 1291, and m the provmceof York m 
the following year, under the direction of the Bishops of Winchester and Lincoln. Ihis valuable 
and curious document is still preserved ; and its contents, so far as regards the county_ oi 
Lancaster, will be introduced in that department of our work which relates to the ecclesiastical 
history of the county How far this exhibition of the wealth of the Church of England influenced 
the mind of the king it is impossible now to ascertain ; but in this reign the celebrated Statute 

> By the statute of winton (Winchester), passed 13 Edward I (1285) ^^^ 1,,f lf| P^P^J-^^f^iytCe^oa^sf^^^^^^^^ 

it is, amongst a number of other important enactments provide^ that pyf '''. '° ^"f vear sometimes called the " Norwich Taxation," that 

eve:^ hun&ed shall be answerable for the robberies and other offences ^^Jf^f^^^l^U^^J^r^^' the claim was first submitted to, and 

""?jS^a^e'Srfw^riS!'pf 222, 223i.-C, sometimes "Pope Innocent's Valor.-_C. 

■"■ Idem, p. 223.— C, 



of Mortmain was passed, by wliich the clergy were prevented by law from making new acciuisitions 
of land for the use of the church without inquiry before the Escheator and a licence in 

mortmain' being first obtained. _ i • u -^ i. 

The conquest of Wales left the king with an impoverished exchequer, and to replenish it he 
had recourse to the practice of issuing quo warrantoa, a kind of writ, so named from the first two 
words These writs which were issued in 1292, appear to have been sown broadcast, lor no less 
than fiftv-ei<^ht of them were despatched into Lancashire, and took more than a month at Lancaster 
to'trv the obiect beino' to reap a harvest of fines from such as had usurped any franchise or had 
inadvertently exceeded powers of the charters they held. This county had scarcely recovered 
from the drain made upon its blood and treasure by the war with the neighbouring principality of 
Wales when it was called upon, in common with the other parts of England, to engage in another 
contest still more formidable, against the combined power of Scotland and France. The causes of 
these lono- and sanguinary wars it is not the province of this history to investigate. On the break- 
ino- out of the war m 1293, writs of military service were issued to the sheriffs, announcing that the 
kino- was about to set out for Gascony, to protect his inheritance from the King of France ; and all 
the°kni<xhts, abbots, and priors, holding in chief by military tenure, or serieanty, were required 
to meet'the king at Portsmouth, to embark in this expedition. In the same year, letters-patent 
were sent to the knights and freeholders in Lancashire, announcing that collectors were appointed 
of the tenths in aid of the war ; writs were issued in the early part of the following year, to sixty- 
eio-ht persons about to embark with Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, to Gascony, exempting their 
o-oods from the payment of this impost ; and, as a matter of precaution, orders from the king were 
fssued to the sheriff of Lancashire, reciting that, through some religious foreigners, as Avell Normans 
as others, residing in this kingdom, and dwelling on the sea-coast, not a little danger had arisen 
to the safety of the state. He was therefore commanded to cause such persons to remove to the 
interior without delay, and to give up their places to religious English. The sheriffs were also 
commanded further to draw to land all their ships and boats, wherever they might find them, in 
the sea or any other water, and to cause all their furniture and cargoes to be wholly removed, so 
that the vessels might be of no use. 

The commissioners for assessing and collecting the tenth and the seventh in 1296 were, "Magr 
Rich, de Hoghton, clerk," and " Rad. de Mansfield, clerk;" and that the returns might be duly 
made. Rich, "de Hoghton and John Gentyl were earnestly required to appear in their proper 
persons before the treasurer and the barons of the exchequer, on the octave of the feast of St. 
Nicholas ensuing, to do and execute those matters which should be more fully explained to them ; 
and this they were to do as they regarded the king's honour, and their own loss of all things, both 
lands and tenements, goods and chattels, and as they would avoid the king's perpetual wrath.^ The 
exactions of the king to carry on the war became burdensome in the extreme ; the first peers of 
the realm murmured against his demands upon their purse, and upon their personal services f 
and to such an excess di"d their altercations arise, that the king, in requiring the reluctant services 
in Flanders of his constable Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and one of the founders of the 
duchy possessions, and Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, turned to the latter and exclaimed — " Sir 
,earl, by God you shall either go, or hang ! " and was answered by the earl with equal determina- 
tion — "By God, sir king, I will neither go, nor hang!"* The clergy were not more disposed to 
acquiesce in the arbitrary exactions of the king and his ministers, than the laity ; in consequence 
of which, numbers of them were put out of the protection of the law ; but in order at once to 
stimulate their loyalty, and inflame their fears, writs were issued to John de Lancastre, and to the 
sheriffs, empowering them to appoint commissioners to reverse the recognisances of such of the 
clergy as wished to receive the king's protection, and to arrest and imprison all those who had 
promulgated excommunications and ecclesiastical censures against his ministers. 

At this early period of our history newspapers were unknown, but in the 25 Edward I. (1297) 

^ The common law of England attached certain conditions as in- for the intending grantor to cause a writ ad quod damnitm to be issued to 

separable from the holding of land, such a thing as irresponsible being the Escheator of the county wherein the land lay, when a jury of twelve 

absolutely unknown, and, in fact, repugnant to the spirit of the English good and "law-worth" men was summoned to inquire if the proposed 

law, which, until comparatively recent times, never recognised a right grant or alienation would be to anyone's injury, or impose any burden 

without the accompanying responsibility and obligation. To the posses- upon the country ; and if they found that no harm would arise, and that 

eion of all landed property was attached the triple condition — the sufficient land would still remain in the hands of the intending donor or 

trinoda necessrltm, as it was called — viz., military service, works for the grantor to insure the discharge of his obligations, the grant would not be 

defence of the realm, and the maintenance of highways and bridges. It against the law, and a licence for alienation would thereupon issue, and 

was held that these obligations could only be discharged by the living all licences in mortmain so obtained were recorded on the Patent Rolls, 

luLwl of a man, and hence land alienated to a corporate body, or to an being matters that concenied the whole State. 

ecclesiastic unable to discharge the obligations or services due, was said " Rot. Glaus. 24 Ed. I. m. 3. d. Dated Bury St. Edmunds, 15th 

to be alienated to what was, in effect, a dead hand {inort viain). The law November, 129G. 

having been evaded and grants of land having frequently been secretly ^ Their feudal tenures did not bind them to foreign service, and their 

made to such "dead hands," it became necessary, in the interests of the protest against the war and the financial measures by wliich it was 

State, to set forth in a declaratory enactment (1279) the conditions carried on, took the pi-actical form of a refusal to follow him in his 

attaching to the holding of land, and the forfeitures that might follow expedition,— 0. 

on such alienation without licence in mortmain first obtained from the * Rymer's Fcedera, vol. ii., p, 783. 
chief lord of the fee. To obtain this, it was necessary in the first instance 



i?l^ fA S ? ^.^^^^^^^^ to John de Lancastre, sheriff of the county, announcing that his 
Majesty had learnt, that newsmongers ('trovenrs de novelles," as they are called) were going abou 
the country, sowing discord amongst the prelates, earls, and barons: as well as others of h'!s sub- 
jects, endeavouring thereby to disturb the public peace, and to subvert the good order of the 
realm ; which said offences the sheriffs were required to inquire into, and to ta& order for bring- 
ing the delinquents to justice. From enemies the Welsh had been converted into allies- and 
while the king was engaged m the French war an army from Wales was appointed to march 
against the Scots to carry hostilities into their country. That no interruption might be given 
to that force letters were addressed by the king to the sheriffs of Lancashire and Yorkshire 
as well as to those of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, directing them, at their peril, to take care 
that all bakers and brewers should have a sufficient supply of bread and beer in the towns throu^^h 
which the Welsh army had to pass, on their march " against the Scottish rebels." In the course 
of this year, no fewer than three rates were imposed : the first, of an eighth ; the second, of a fifth • 
and the third, of a ninth of the movables of the subject; and Robt. de Hoyland, Allan le Norreys' 
John Gentyl, and Hugh de Clyderhou, with the sheriff of the county, were appointed assessors and 
collectors lor the county of Lancaster.^ To reconcile the people to these accumulated impositions 
*^^.*2 'issuage the popular discontent, letters were addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire and the 
shentis ot_ the other counties, directing them to take means for the redress of public orievances 
the most intolerable of which probably was that of excessive taxation. ^ 

At this time the resources of the government were principally derived from the landed 
possessions of the people ; but commerce and manufactures, to which in future ages the state was 
to stand so much mdebted for its supplies, now began to dawn upon the country, and the estab- 
lishment of the famous commercial society of "Merchant Adventurers" (in 1216), with the partial 
introduction of the staple manufacture of woollens, both in the west and in the north of England, 
laid the foundation of those mighty resources which in modern days distinguish the county of 
Lancaster from all other districts of the world. 

In the time of the Edwards of the Plantagenet line the population of Lancashire must have 
been very considerable, for in this year the commissioners of array, in their precepts to Will, de 
Ormesby, the king's justiciary, directed that a levy of three thousand foot soldiers should be raised 
in Lancashire, and sent to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by the feast of St. Nicholas, to be placed under 
the command of Rob*, de Clifford, warder of the Scotch marches, adjoining to Cumberland. The 
following year a writ was directed to John de Warren, Earl of Surrey, directing him to march 
forthwith to Scotland, at the head of the troops raised in Lancashire and in the neighbouring 

The war with France having been brought to an end by the mediation of his Holiness the 
Pope, and the peace consummated by a double marriage, that of Edward himself with Margaret, 
the sister of Philip, King of France, and that of the Prince of Wales with Isabella, the daughter of 
the same monarch, the king was left at liberty to turn his undivided attention to the conquest of 
Scotland ; and for the purpose of infusing fresh vigour into the operations against that country, 
Edward determined to place himself at the head of the English army. No fewer than three succes- 
sive writs of military summons were issued during the year 1296 to the authorities of the county 
of Lancaster ; the first to the sheriff, the second to Thomas, Earl of Lancastre, and the third to 
Henry, Baron de Lancastre, calling upon the levies to meet the king at Carlisle, and appointing 
Robt. de Clifford the king's commandant (" cheventain ") of Lancashire, Cumberland, and West- 
morland. The spirit of Scotland sank under the mighty array that was proceeding against that 
country, headed by a monarch accustomed to conquer. Robert Bruce, father and son, along with 
several other nobles, made their submission to Edward ; but John Baliol, the king, assembled the 
flower of the Scotch nobility, together with a large portion of the military force of the kingdom, 
hoping by one mighty effort to expel the invaders and to liberate their country. For this purpose 
they made a general and simultaneous attack upon the English, under John Warrenne, Earl of 
Surrey, who were at that time besieging Dunbar with a force of twelve thousand men. Undis- 
mayed by superior numbers, the English general advanced to receive them, and a sanguinary 
battle ensued, which issued in the total defeat of the Scotch army with a loss of twenty thousand 
men. One of the first consequences of this victory was the surrender of Dunbar, April 29th, 1296, 
when Sir Patrick Graham and ten thousand men were slain ; Roxburgh, Edinburgh, and Stirling 
opened their gates, and the other fortresses of Scotland soon followed the example. Baliol, the 
king, despairing of his country's cause, resigned his crown into the hands of the English monarch,^ 

^ Rot. Pari. 25 Edward I. p. 2, m. holding a white rod in his hand, resigned, witli his crown and sceptre, 

^•Fordun, the Scottish historian, describes the ceremony as one in all the right he had, or mi*ht have, in the Icingdom of Scotland, into the 
which the humiliated monarch, pulling o£E his royal ornaments, and hands of the king of England.— C. 


who, on his return from Scotland, conveyed with him the ancient stone of inauguration,' which had 
for so many ages been deposited at Scone, and to which tradition attached the belief, that wherever 
that stone was placed the monarch in possession of it would govern Scotland. 

Though subdued, the spirit of the Scotch nation was not wholly broken. The severity of the 
English justiciary Ormesby, and the exactions of the treasurer Cressingham, rendered the yoke of 
the conqueror intolerable; and William Wallace, the descendant of an ancient family, whose 
valour and skill will be remembered through all time in Scotch history, reanimated the spirits and 
rallied the forces of his country. The English army under Warrenne, who had been made regent 
of the subjected kingdom, consisting of forty thousand men, having obtained a victory at Annan- 
dale, pushed forward to Stirling, where they were encountered by Wallace on the banks of the 
Forth, September 10th, 1297, and the greatest part of their number was pushed into the river at 
the edge of the sword. After this signal victory, Wallace, in his turn, became the invader, and 
the north of England, as far as the borders of the county of Lancaster, was laid waste with fire and 
sword. In December, writs of military summons were issued, requiring the tenants of the crown 
to attend the muster at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to perform military service against the Scots. The 
king, on receiving the disastrous news in Flanders, hastened back to England, and having placed 
himself at the head of one hundred thousand men, of which Lancashire furnished its full comple- 
ment, he chased the invaders into Scotland, and inflicted upon them a signal overthrow at Falkirk, 
July, 1298. Wallace, aided by the son of Robert Bruce, still kept the field, and, by a kind of 
predatory warfare, rendered the conquest of Scotland anything but secure. 

No cessation was allowed to the efforts, military and pecuniary, of the inhabitants of the north 
of England; for, in the two following years, 1298-9, eight writs of military service were issued, 
appertaining to the county of Lancaster. The first directed the sheriff to proclaim the prorogation 
of the general military summ.ons of the 26th September preceding ; the second was a writ of 
military summons to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, requiring him to appear at York on the morrow 
of St. Martin (Nov. 12) ; the third, addressed to the commissioners of array, ordering them to raise 
two thousand foot soldiers in Lancashire, to meet at Newcastle-upon-Tyne on the eve of St. 
Katharine (Nov. 24), to march against the Scots ; the fourth was a writ to the commissioners of 
array, indicating the deteriorated^ state of the coinage, in which it was announced that if the 
soldiers levied by the preceding commissions should be unwilling to march on account of the bad 
money then current, or from the severity of the weather, the commissioners were to provide them 
a premium in addition to their pay ; the fifth was a summons to Henry, Earl of Lancaster, to repair 
to the army ; the sixth, a writ to Thomas de Banastre to raise two thousand infantry in Lancashh-e, 
to meet the king at Berwick-upon-Tweed ; the seventh, a writ to the sheriff of Lancashire, directing 
that all prelates and other priests, and all widows and other women holding of the kino', should 
send substitutes to Carlisle ; and the eighth, a summons to Thomas, John, and Henry de Lancaster, 
to meet the king, to proceed against the Scots. 

In the following year (1300) commissions were addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire, 
empowermg him to summon all persons holding lands or rents of the value of forty pounds per annum 
and upwards, to meet the king at Carlisle ; and in the same year the commissioners of array called 
by various writs upon Robert de Holand, Mathew de Redman, Allan Norreys, John Gentyl, and 
Robert de Norreys, to raise in Lancashire, by separate levies, three thousand men, to meet the 
kmg at Carlisle on the Nativity of St. John Baptist, and on the day after the Assumption. The 
oppressive nature of these ancient conscriptions may be collected from the royal proclamations of 
the same period by which Jehan de Seint Jehan (the king's commandant " cheventayne ") in all 
matters relating to deeds of arms in Lancashire, etc., was empowered, along with the Earl de 
Abingdon, to amerce those refractory persons who refused to perform services, either in defence of 
the marches or to act against the Scots. These frequent summonses to attend the Idno- at places 
distant and oftentimes far apart from each other must have been very harassing, at a time when 
m Lancashire especially, the roads were bad, the rivers often without bridges, and the country in 
many places almost inaccessible ; and it is probable the vassals to whom they were addressed not 
unfrequently echoed Falstaff's queruUus complaint— " It were better to be eaten to death with 
rust than scoured to death with perpetual motion." 

_ The writs to the sheriff of Lancashire, in the two following years (1301 and 1302) relate prin- 
cipally to the assessment and collection of the fifteenths, which both the clergy and the laity were 
called upon to pay to the knights appointed to make the collections. 

Jehan de Seint Jehan having been superseded in his command in Lancashire by John 
Butterte, letters of credence were addressed to the inhabitants, clerical and laical, requiring them 


togije full faith, to the king's clerk, Ralph de Mounton, and to Richard le Brun, who were com- 
missioned to declare to them certain weighty matters touching the safety of the country, not 
explained in the letters of credence, but which, it appears, related to the king's determination to 
undertake a fresh expedition against Scotland. One of the first consequences of this confidential 
communication was a call upon the commissioners of array, William de Dacre, Henry de Kyo-heley, 
and Robert de Hephale, requiring them to raise seven hundred men in Lancashire, and to send 
them to Lancaster after the feast of the Invention of the Cross (May 3, 1303) ; and all prelates, 
women, and others unfit to bear arms, but Avho were willing to pay the fine (twenty pounds for a 
Imight's fee, and so on in proportion to their possessions), for the services done to the king in Scot- 
land, were to appear before the treasurer at York on the morrow of the Ascension (May 17), or 
otherwise by substitute, with horse and arms at Berwick. Aided by a large army, and a no less 
powerful fleet, Edward marched victoriously through Scotland, and laid the country at his feet. 
Amongst his trophies, the gallant William Wallace became his prisoner, and instead of obtaining 
that respect to which he was entitled by his courage and patriotism, he was conveyed in chains to 
London, where he was tried and executed as a traitor, August, 1305. The head of the great 
patriot, crowned in mockery, with a circlet of oak leaves, as a king of outlaws, was placed upon 
London Bridge. The execution had been determined on before the mock trial, and it Avas the 
one blot on Edward's clemency. 

The disorganisation of society produced by so much intestine war exhibited itself on every 
hand. Crimes were greatly multiplied, and Peter de Badbate, Edmund Deyncourt, William de 
Vavasour, John de Island, and Adam de Middleton were judges under a commission of Trailbaston 
appointed to hear and determine all offences against the peace in the counties of Lancaster and 
Westmorland, as well as in eight other counties. The numlDer of offenders rendered necessary the 
utmost proraptitude in the administration of justice; and the proceedings of the judges, under 
these commissions, are said to have been so summary as not to exceed the time in which their staff 
of justice, or baston, could be trailed round the room.^ 

One formidable enemy still remained in Scotland — viz., Robert Bruce,^ the grandson of that 
Robert who, in the time of Baliol, was a competitor for the crown. Animated by those principles 
of resistance to foreign sway which had inspired the breasts of so many of his countrymen, this 
arabitious young nobleman collected a strong army in Scotland, by means of which he was enabled 
to expel a large portion of the English from that country, and to drive their principal army across 
the borders. Edward, roused to desperation by this renewed revolt, when he considered his 
conquest secure, determined to take signal vengeance upon the Scottish nation. On his march to 
the north he took the route of Lancashire, and for some time fixed his head-quarters at Preston. 
From this place the king addressed a letter to his Holiness the Pope, comriaining of the wrongs he 
had sustained from the Archbishop of Canterbury, and claiming redress. The tidings of a new war 
were communicated to John de Lancastre, by a writ, dated the 5th of April, 1306, which recites 
that " Robertus de Brus," late Earl of Carrick, and his accomplices, have raised war against the 
king, with the intention of usurping the kingdom of Scotland. To resist this aggression, Henry 
de Percy was appointed commander-in-chief under the king, and John de Lancastre was required 
to assist him with all the horses and arms in his power. At the same time two writs were addressed 
to the sheriff of Lancaster: the first requiring him to make purveyance of corn, &c., for the 
king's army, at the pubUc cost ; and the second a letter to the sheriff, archbishops, and other 
prelates, as well as to women who owed military service, ordering them to send their substitutes to 
Carlisle, in fifteen days from the Nativity of St. John Baptist (i.e., before 9th July), or to appear at 
the exchequer and make fine for the same. In the midst of all this hostility tfie Scots and the 
English were not indisposed to indulge in their ancient games of the jousts and the tournaments. 
The indulgence in these pastimes was thought by the king to indicate a degree of levity and 
famiHarity inconsistent with the relative situation of the two countries ; and hence two proclama- 
tions were addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire, requiring him to announce that any persons who 
should engage in these sports until the Scottish war Avas terminated Avould be liable to arrest, and 
that their lands and goods would be seized into the king's hands. From Preston the king marched 
at the head of one of the most poAverful armies ever seen in Lancashire, to Carlisle, and from thence 
into Scotland. The final conflict now approached. Bruce met the English army at Methven, in 

' According to Sir Edward Coke, tlio judges of trailbaston were a by means of which inquisitions some were punished with death, many 

sort of Justices in Eyre ; and it is said they had a baston or staff deli- by ransom, and the rest flying the realm, the land was quieted, and the 

vered to them as a badge of their office ; so that whoever was brought king gained riches towards the support of his wars. (Mat. Westm. anno 

before them was traili ad haston, traditus ad baculum ; Whereupon they 1305.) A commission of trailliastm was granted to Koger de Way ana 

had the name of iustices de traU baston, or justiciarii ad tradendum offen- others his associates, in the reign of King Edward Ul.—kpctm. 

denies ad baculum vel baston. Their otBce was to make inquisition ' Robert Bruce, the idol of the Scottish people, was the grandson ot 

through the kingdom on all officers and others touching extortion, Bobert le Brus, lord of Annandale, by IsaheUa, younger sister and coheir 

bribery, and such like grievances ; of intruders into other men's lands, of John Scott, last Norman Earl of Chester. John Baliol was grandson 

harrotors, robbers, and breakers of the peace, and divers other offenders; of Margaret, eldest slater of John Scott. -^0. 


Perthshire, where a general engagement took place, which ended in the entire overthrow and 
dispersion of the Scots. A number of the most distinguished men in the country were taken by 
the Eno-lish, and executed by order of Edward as traitors ; but Robert Bruce escaped with his life, 
and to(?k shelter, along with a few of his followers, in the Western Isles. To complete the conquest 
of Scotland, Robert de Lathum, Nicholas de Leyburn, Will. Gentill, Alan le Norreys, and John de 
Kirkeby, clerk, commissioners of array for the county of Lancaster, were ordered to levy one 
thousand foot soldiers in this county, one hundred and fifty of them from the liberty of Blackburn- 
shire, and the remainder from the other parts of the county. This force, when collected, was 
ordered to advance in pursuit of Robert de Brus, into the marches of Scotland, where he was 
lurking. But in the meantime the king, in the midst of all his glory, was seized with a mortal 
sickness at Carlisle, and died at Burgh-on-the-Sands, July 7th, 1307.' 

One of the legacies left by Edward I. to his successor was the recently-subdued kingdom of 
Scotland ; and amongst the first acts of the new monarch we find writs of military service (1307-8) 
addressed to the sheriffs of the counties of Lancaster, Westmorland, Cumberland, and Northumber- 
land, as well within their franchise as without, commanding them to assist the custos, John of 
Brittany, Earl of Richmond, the king's lieutenant in Scotland, with horses and arms, for the purpose 
of resisting the malice and insolence of " Robertus de Brus," and his accomplices._ Summonses of 
a still more urgent nature were addressed in the following year (1308-9) to " Willielmus de Acre," 
"Mattheus de Redeman," and the sheriff of the county of Lancaster, urging them to assemble 
together, with the men of the county, as well horse as foot, and to take order for the defence of the 
Scotch marches, under the command of " Gilbertus de Clare," Earl of Gloucester and Hereford. 

The pay of the forces was made with so much irregularity as to disincline the conscripts to 
the service; but in 1310 a commission of array was addressed to "Robertus de Leyburne" and 
" Mattheus de Redman," along with the sheriff" of the county, ordering that three hundred foot 
soldiers should be " elected," to muster on the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin at Berwick-upon- 
Tweed, and from thence to march against the Scots ; their wages to be paid to them by the sheriff, 
from the day that they marched from the county of Lancaster until their arrival at the place of 

The war with the Scots, so long protracted, was now drawing to a crisis. Edward II. had 
placed himself at the head of the English army, and the commissioners of array called upon the 
inhabitants of Lancashire for a fresh levy of five hundred men, while Yorkshire was required to 
contribute four thousand, Derbyshire one thousand, Nottinghamshire one thousand, Northumber- 
land two thousand five hundred, and the other counties in a similar proportion, regulated, no 
doubt, in some degree, by their wealth and population. After due preparation, the two armies met 
at Bannockburn (June 25, 1314). At first the event of the conquest seemed dubious, but the 
English having got involved amongst a number of covered pits prepared by Bruce for their 
reception, their forces fell into disorder ; and the disasters of years, suffered by the Scots during 
the reign of the first Edward, Avere retrieved in a single day. The throne of Scotland was 
re-established by this remarkable victory, Robert Bruce reaped the reward of his valour in the loyalty 
and affection of his people, and Edward returned to London to coerce his refractory barons, who 
appeared as little disposed to submit to his sway as were the people he had so lately left in the 

The harvest of 1314 was deficient, and the price of corn, in consequence, becoming excessive, 
Parliament in ignorance of, or with a disregard of, ordinary economic laws, fixed a maximum rate 
at which provisions should be sold. The succeeding year was still more disastrous, for, in addition 
to the failure of crops, there was a murrain among cattle, and a general pestilence among the 
starving people. The nobles expelled from their castles the hungry retainers for whom they were 
unable to find food, and the country necessarily swarmed with vagrants and plunderers. While 
the country was in this horrible condition of pestilence and famine, the Scots crossed the border, 
harassed the northern towns, and plundered and destroyed wherever their power could reach, 
neither leaders nor people in their depressed condition showing much disposition to resist. At the 
same time a war was being carried on in Ireland between the English and the Scots. Edward, the 
brother of Robert Bruce, who had become King of Scotland, had landed at Carrickfergus in 1315 
with the intention, in concert with the native chiefs, of driving the English settlers out of the 
island, and after several confiicts caused himself to be crowned King of Ireland, and reigned for a 
time in Ulster. And, to add to the general state of anarchy and demoralisation, the Welsh formed 
an alliance with the Irish, and rose in revolt in the Principality. The description given of the 
state of the county of Lancaster, as well as of other parts of the country, at this period, in the 

t» 'if ^ ™ eTidenoo of tho slowness with which the news of events the chancellor in London, and up to the 25th July ho continued to affix 
iravelloa m tnglaud at that time, it may bo mentioned that a period of the great seal as usual to writs in the name of the monarch who was 
oigciteen clays elapsed before tho intelligence of the king's death reached tlien nu more. (See CampbM's Lives of the Lord Chancellors, vi. i>. lS7).-0. 




royal proclamations, serves to show to what an extent insubordination and lawless outrage 
earned. According to these documents, malefactors of all classes, as well knights as others wuie 
accustomed to assemble unlawfully by day and by night, in large bodies, and to commit assaults 
and even murders with impunity. To put an end to these excesses, commissioners were appointed 
m Lancashire, under the designation of conservators of the peace ; and as a healing measure a 
letter of credence was issued by the government to " Nigellus Owhanlam," chief of escheats 
requiring him to obtain full faith for "Edmundus le Botiller," justiciar ; "Ricardus de Beresford " 
chancellor; and "Magister Walterus de Jeslep," treasurer of Ireland, who were empowered to 
explain to the principal inhabitants certain matters relating to the king and the kino-dom Similar 
letters were also addressed to "Walterus de Lacy," "Hugo de Lacy," " Thomas' Botiller " and 
others, whose mfliience was necessary to maintain the public peace, under the combined pressure 
of war and ot famine, with both of which the county was at that time afflicted. The tide of invasion 
seemed now about to pour from the north to the south, and, instead of the levies beino' raised to 
march into Scotland, a commission was appointed, whereby " Johannes de Maubray " was empowered 
to raise all the able-bodied men in Lancashire, between the ages of sixteen and sixty, for the pur- 
pose of resisting the Scots, in case they should invade this kingdom. Shortly after the institution 
of this commission, a command was issued to "Thomas," Earl of Lancastre, and to one hundred and 
twenty-eight other individuals, usually considered barons, or tenants in capite, ordering them to 
appear at Newcastle, prepared with horses and arms, to proceed against " Robertus de Brus." In 
the same year (1316-17), a writ of summons was addressed to Thomas, Earl of Lancastre, and twelve 
other barons, convening them to meet at Nottingham, to hold a colloquium, to deliberate upon 
matters of state with the pope's legate. 

The state of society in Lancashire at this juncture called loudly for the appointment and inter- 
vention of conservators of the public peace. A species of civil war existed in the heart of the 
county. Adam Banastre, of the house and family of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, in order to ingratiate 
himself with the king, and to avert the consequences of his own crimes, invaded the lands of the 
earl. Having erected the royal standard betAveen the Ribble and the Mersey, in opposition to his 
feudal lord, he declared that the earl wished to control the king in the choice of his ministers, 
which he disapproved ; and nvimbers of others, friends to high prerogative, embarked in his cause. 
Having entered the earl's castles, they supplied themselves with money and arms, which had been 
deposited there for the use of the soldiers who were appointed to march against the Scots. In this 
way about eight hundred armed men were collected, when the earl, hearing of the hostile enter- 
prise, immediately ordered his knights and vassals into the field. This force did not exceed six 
hundred men ; but they marched without delay against the insurgents, and, having come up with 
them in the neighbourhood of Preston, they divided themselves into two bodies. The force under 
Banistre did not wait to be attacked, but fell furiously upon the first division of the earl's men, 
which began to give way, when, the second division coming up, the fortune of the day was changed, 
and Adam and his followers took to flight, many of them having been killed by wounds in their 
back, received in their precipitate retreat. For some time De Banistre, their leader, concealed 
himself in his barn ; but being closely beset by his enemies, and abandoning all hope of escape, 
he took courage from despair, and boldly opposed himself to his foes, of whom he killed several, 
and desperately wounded many others; at length, finding it impossible to take him alive, his 
assailants slew him, and having cut off his head, presented it to the earl as a trophy.' According 
to an ancient indictment, the battle between Adam de Banistre and his adherents and the 
adherents of the Earl of Lancaster took place near Preston, in the valley of the Ribble ; and the 
victors so far forgot their duty to their lord, and their allegiance to the king, that they entered 
the hundred of Leyland, and robbed and despoiled various of the inhabitants of property to the 
amount of five thousand pounds — an immense sum in the fourteenth century, when, as we have 
seen, a bushel of wheat sold for ninepence, and the yearly value of good arable land did not exceed 
sixpence per acre. 

The necessities of the state still continued urgent, and a commission of array was issued, for 
levying the following bodies of foot soldiers in the north : In Lancashire, 1,000 ; Cumberland, 1,000 ; 
Northumberland, 2,000; Westmorland, 1,000; Yorkshire, 10,000— or for five counties, 15,000. To 
support these enormous levies it became necessary to resort to extraordinary means, and writs were 
addressed to the mayors of Lancaster, Preston, and Wigan, as well as to all the other principal 
towns in the kingdom, soliciting them to send the king as much money as they could possibly 
aiford, to carry on the ahnost interminable war with Scotland. This corporate contribution was 

1 "Adam Banester, a Bachelar, of Lancastreshire (probably a cadet anno (1316) miles quidam Adam Banastre de oomitatii Lancastrite movit 

of the house of Bank), movid Ryot againe Thomas of Lancastre, by crafte guerram contra Domiuum suum comitem^^ Lancastri» ; aed circa b. 

of King Edwarde ; but he was taken, and behedid by the oommaunde- Martini idem Adam captus est et decollatus. {CaUeiianea, i., J4Si.)-i^. 
ment of Thomas of Lancastre." (Leland's Calledanea, i., H6,) "Eodem 



independent of the collection of the eighteenths, which was proceeding along with it contempo- 
raneously ; for we find in the records a writ, addressed to the collectors and assessors of the rates, 
directing them to stay the collection in Lancashire, as to those persons who had their property 
destroyed from the invasion of the Scots, but specifically providing that they alone should be 
exempted. The levy for the scutage, in respect of the general summons of the array against the 
Scots, was also continued, and fixed at the rate of two marks (£1 6s. 8d.) for each shield or knight's 
fee in Lancashire. 

In the turbulent and disastrous reign of the second Edward, the invasion of the enemy from 
without was aggravated by the wars of the barons directed against the royal favourites within the 
kingdom. We have already seen, in that department of our history of Lancashire which relates to 
its ancient barons, that Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, after having headed the barons against Piers 
Gaveston, made a further attempt, by force of arms, to remove the De Spencers from the royal 
councils. The earl, who is described as " a man bustling without vigour, and intriguing without 
abilities," was of a turbulent disposition, and had taken upon him, without the king's consent, to 
summon a large body of the nobles and others his retainers to meet him in a kind of little parlia- 
ment, to take counsel for the redress of grievances. The meeting was appointed to be held at 
Doncaster on the 29th November, 1321, but being in open defiance and usurpation of the king's 
authority, a monition was issued on the 12th November previous, to the nobles and others, expressly 
forbidding their attendance. In spite of the prohibition, the meeting was held, and the disaffected 
had recourse to arms, with the result that a commission was issued (1321) to arrest and take 
"Thomas," Earl of Lancaster, and ten others, his principal associates in rebellion; and a writ was 
at the same time adressed by the Iving to the sheriffs of Nottingham and Derby, commanding 
them to raise the "hue-and-cry" against the Earls of Lancaster and Hereford, and other rebels 
their adherents, and to bring them to condign punishment. The Earl of Lancaster had entered 
into an alliance Avith Robert Bruce by which the Scotch army was to enter England, but without 
laying any claim to conquest. Edward, after taking Leeds Castle, in Kent, led his forces north- 
wards; Lancaster retired into Yorkshire, in the expectation of being joined by his allies from 
Scotland, but no army (3ame. Here he was encountered by a strong force under the governors of 
York and Carlisle, and the fatal battle of Boroughbridge (1322) surrendered him and his followers 
into the king's possession. The earl was conducted a prisoner to his own castle at Pontefract, 
where but a short time before he had jeered at his king with bitter scorn as he passed on his 
return from the siege of Berwick. He was adjudged guilty by the king without trial of his peers, 
and on the 22nd March (1322) the hand of the executioner, with the delinquent's face turned to 
Scotland, to indicate that he was in league with the Scotch rebels, terminated his career, without 
allaying the general discontent. 

Although it does not appear that the county of Lancaster was the actual scene of any of the 
conflicts between the barons and the king's forces, yet levies of troops were called for in the county 
to aid the earl's enterprise ; and, in a memorandum of the delivery of the prisoners confined in the 
king's marshalsea, and in the castle of York, some of whom had been taken in arms against the 
king, and others had surrendered at discretion, in all about two hundred principal men, it is 
stated, that "Nicholas de Longford," of the county of Lancaster, was fined two hundred marks 
(£133 6s. 8d.), and that " Ricardus de Pontefracte," "Robertus de Holand," "Johannes do Holand," 
and " Ricardus de Holand," found security for their good behaviour. There is also preserved an 
ancientinquisition, taken at Wigan, of which the following is a copy, tending still further to show 
that neither the laity nor the clergy of the county of Lancaster were indifferent spectators of the 
contest by which the kingdom was at that time agitated : — 

Rot. plac. coram \ 

fr Ed'"' rn-^^ii [ Inquisition taken before the king at Wigan, in the county of Lancaster, 
p. 2. nT'iG.' \ ^^ ^^^ presence, and at his command. 

West Debet. -The jurors of the Wapentake present that " Gilbertus de Sutheworth," 15 Ed. 11. [1321], sent two men-at-arms 
at his own expense, to he p the Earl of Lancaster against the King -viz., "Johannes filius Roberti le Taillour de Wynequik," and 
Ricardus de Plumptou, and that he also abetted many other persons in aiding the earl against the king. The said " Gilbertus," 
being in court, puts himself upon the country, and is acquitted by the jury 

The Jurors present that ''Robertus de C'liderhou," parson of the church of Wygan, who for thirty years was a clerk of the 
Chancery, and afterwards escheater "_crf7-a rrentom," has committed the following offences : That he sent two men-at-arms, well 
armed-viz Adam de Cliderhou,'' his son and " Johannes ill. Johaunis de ICnoUe," to assist the Earl of Lancaster against the king, 
and with them four able-bodied foot soldiers, armed with swords, daggers, bows, and arrows. That on a certain high festival he 
preached to his parishioners and others, m his church at Wygau, before all the people, telling them that they were the liege men of 
the earl, and bound to assist him agamst king, the cause of the earl being just, and that of the king unjust. By means of which 
harangues maay persons were incited to turn against the king, who otherwise would not have done so. And the said " Robertus," 
being present in court, and arraigned, says, that on a certain feast-day, when preaching in his church, he exhorted his parishioners 
to pray for the king, and for the peace of the kingdom, and for the earls and barons of the land ; and he denies sending any men- 
at-arms or foot soldiers ; and he puts himself upon the country-he is found guilty by the jury of the offences charged in the 


indictment— and is committed to prison. Afterwards, thirteen manucaptors undertake to produce him on Monday after the 
Octaves of St. Martin, under the penalty of 1,000 marks, and they also undertake to answer tor any Hue, &o. On which day the 
said " Robertus" appeaa-s in court, and submits to a fine of £200. 

Though a truce had been concluded between England and Scotland, the Avar was continued 
with little intermission ; and in a commission for raising fresh levies in this and the other counties 
(1322), it is said, that, after the conclusion of the truce, the Scots had invaded the kingdom, and 
that Thomas, late Earl of Lancaster, and his adherents (" whose malice was now quelled "), had 
entered into treasonable conspiracy with them. The commissioners of array for the county of 
Lancaster, under the commission, were, "Richard de Hoghton," "Johan Travers," and "Thomas 
de Lathum,"_to whom the duty was confided of arming the forces of the county and marching them 
to their destination. 

The disorders of the times had filled the prisons of Lancashire with inmates, and writs were 
addressed from Kirkham to the constables of the castles of Liverpool, Hornby, and Clitheroe (but 
not of Lancaster), directing them to keep the prisoners in their respective castles in safe custody. 
At the same time a commission was issued, under the royal seal, whereby Johannes de Weston, jun., 
marshal of the household, was empowered to pursue, arrest, and take " Willielmus de Bradshagh' 
and " Ricardus de Holland," the leaders of disorderly bodies of armed men, who committed great 
depredations in the county of Lancaster. This Willielmus de Bradshagh soon after appears to 
have been restored to the royal favour ; for in the following year we find a writ addressed to him, 
stating that the king has ordained that " Johan," Earl of Warrenne, and others, shall proceed to 
Lancashire with an armed force, for its protection (against the Scotch invaders, no doubt), and that 
" Bradshagh " shall be one of the commissioners of public protection. The return of the sheriff to 
a writ issued for that purpose, serves to show that the great landed proprietors were, at the early 
part of the fourteenth century, very few in number. It is as follows: " In Lancashire 13 knights 
and 51 men-at-arms. All the above hold lands to the amount of £15 per annum." According to 
a presentment made in the hundred of West Derby, it would appear that the sheriffs, in those 
days, were often remiss in their duty, and that "| Willielmus de Gentil," and " Henricus de Malton," 
his predecessor in oflSce, suffered certain notorious thieves to be set at liberty upon manucaption, 
though their crimes were not mainpernable according to law ; and that, owing to the laxity of their 
administration of the law, several persons in the wapentake avoided making presentment of other 
notorious thieves, to the injury of the peace, and the danger of the property of their honest and 
well-disposed neighbours. Nor was this all : they returned certain persons as jurors, and on 
inquests, without giving them warning ; and " Gentil " so far presumed upon his office as to arro- 
gate to himself the election of knights of the shire ; " whereas," as the instrument charging him 
with these manifold delinquencies very properly observes, " they ought to have been elected by 
the county." 

The intrigues of the barons were still actively at work against the king and the royal 
favourites, the De Spencers ; and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, the brother and heir of Earl Thomas, 
entered into that conspiracy by which Edward was dethroned. The ill fortune of this weak 
monarch having precipitated him from a throne to a prison, the Earl of Lancaster became his 
gaoler in the castle of Kenilworth. The mildness and humanity of the earl's character ill suited 
him for this office, which he was ordered by Mortimer, the gallant of the perfidious queen Isabella, 
the " she-wolf of France," as she has been styled, to surrender into bhe hands of Sir John Maltravers 
and Sir Thomas Gournay ; under whose direction, if not actually by their hands, the wretched 
Edward, after having been exposed to every possible insult and privation, was thrown upon a bed, 
and a red-hot iron having been forced into his bowels in a way to avoid all external evidence of 
the cruel deed, he was consigned to death, under agonies so excruciating that his shrieks pro- 
claimed the atrocious deed to all the guards of the castle (Sept. 21, 1327). 

One of the first acts of Edward III. was to reverse the attainder of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, 
and to place his brother Henry in possession of the princely inheritance of that illustrious house. 

But here we must pause, to take a survey of the landed property of the county of Lancaster, 
and the tenures by which it was held in the early part of the fourteenth century, as deduced in 
the "Testa de Nevill." Of this book it is said, in the records published by the Crown com- 
missioners, that — 

"In the king's remembrancer's office of the Court of Exchequer are preserved two ancient books, called the Testa de Nevill, 
or Liber Feodorum,' which contain principally an account— 

" ist. Of fees holden either immediately of the king or of others who held of the kmg m capite. 

" 2nd. Of serjeanties holden of the king. , 

" 3rd. Of widows and heiresses of tenants in capite, whose marriages were left m the gitt ot the kmg. 

' Thisdocument which is not strictly speaking a feodarum, but an inquisition, bears internal evidence of having been takcnabout the year 13-22, 
andwi^p?obSbly the inquisition taken after thi death of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, wlio, as previously stated, wlis beheaded m that year. -o. 




" 4th. Of churches in the gift of the king, and in whose hands they were. 

" 5th. Of escheats, as well of the lands of Normans as others, in whose hands the same were. 

" 6th. Of thanage, forestry, and other peculiar services and tenures. ii t t 4.1 

" Tbe entries specifically entitled Testa de Nevill are evidently quotations, and form comparatively a very small part of the 
whole. They have i^n all probability been copied from a roll bearing that name, a part of which is still extant m the chapter-house 
at Westminster, consisting of five small membranes, containing ten counties, of which Lancashire is one The roll appears to be of 
the age of Edward I., and these books to have been compiled near the close of the reign of Edward H^ or the commencement of 
that of Edward III., partly from inquests on presentments, and partly from inquisitions on writs to shentis. 

The following is a tolerably copious extract and analysis of the contents of the Testa de 
NeYill, so far as relates to the county of Lancaster, which may answer any popular purpose. The 
full entries are cited in the various local histories. 

Matthew Haversage in Withington, Robt. de Lathum in Child- 

1. Fees held in chief op the King, etc. 

"Agnes de Clopwayt in Blothelay, Alex, de Kyrkeby, Orm de 
Kelet, Henr. de Waleton, in Waleton, Adam Girard, Luke 
P'oitus de Dereby, in Dereby, Adam de Helmelesdal in Crosseby, 
Quenilda de Kirkdale, in Forneby, Robert Banastr, Robert de 
Clyton, in Leyland Hundred. Alward de Aldholm in Vernet, 
Hug. le Norrays, in Blakerode, Edwin Carpentar in Kadewalde- 
sir. Rich, de Hilton, in Salford Hundred, Alan de Singleton, in 
Blackburn Hundred, and Amoundernesse, Rich. Fitz Ralph in 
Singleton, John de Oxeolive in Oxcumbe, Roger Carpentar in 
Lancaster, Robert Scertune in Sutherton, Ra. Barun, John 
Oxeclive in Oxeclive, Robert, the constable of Hofferton, in 
Hofferton, Adam Fitz Gilemichel in Scline, Rog. Carpentar in 
Lancaster, Bob. son of Roger de Shertnay, in Skerton, Rad. 
Balrun in Balrun, W. Gardinar in Lancaster, Walter Smith in 
Hefeld, Rog. Gemet in Halton, Wiman Gernet in Heschin, 
Will. & Benedict, sons of Walter de Gersingham, in Gressingham, 
Margery, widow of Barnard Fitz Barnard, in Gressingham. 

" The Earl of Ferrars, in the wapentake of Derby (and he has 
sub-tenants), Almaric Butler, who has the following sub-tenants 
— Henry de Tyldesley in Tyldesley, Gilb. de Kulchet in Cul- 
cheth, Alan de Rixton in Rixton and Astley, AVill. de Aderton 
in Atlierton, Robt. de Mamelisbury in Sonky, Roger de Sonky in 
Penketh, Earl de Ferrars in Hole Hulesale and Wyndul, Will, 
de Waleton & Will, de Lydyathe in Lydiate & Hekergart, Rich. 
Blundea in Hyms and Barton, Ad. de Molynous & Robt Fitz 
Robt. in Thorinton ; the heir of Robert Banaster in Makerfeld, 
Waleton, & Blakeburnshire, and has sub-tenants ; Will, de 
Lanton and Rich, de Golborn in Langton, Keman & Herbury ; 
the Earl of Lincoln (Randolph Earl of Chester) in Appleton and 
Cronton, of the Earl Ferrars' fee ; of the same fee are, Will, de 
Rerisbury in Sutton & Ecoleston, Robt. de Lathum in Knowsley, 
Huyton, and Torbock, Ad. de Molyneus in Little Crossby, Robt. 
de Rokeport, Rog. Gernet and Thom de Bethum in Kyrkeby, 
Sim de Halsale in Maghul, Will, de Waleton in Kirkdale, Will, le 
Koudre and the heir of Rob. de Meols, in North Meols, Thom. 
de Bethum and Robt. de Stokeport in Raven Meols. 

" Waren de Waleton in Waleton, Ric. Bauastre, Walt, de Hole, 
Rio. de Thorp, Will, de Brexiu, Thom de Gerstan, Sim. del Pul 
in Bretherton, Robt. de Cleyton in Clayton & Penwortham, the 
abbot of Cokersand in Hoton, Robt. Ru.ssel in Langton, Leyland, 
and Ecoleston, Robt. Banastre's heir in Shevington, Charnock, 
and Welsh Whittle. 

" John Punohardun in Little Mitton, Ad. de Blakeburn and 
Roger de Arohis in WLsewall and Hapten, Henr. Gddleng in 
Tunley, Caldcoats, & ' Sn. Odiswrth," [Snodiswrth], Ad. de 
Preston in Extwistle, Ra. de Mitton in Altham, Mearley, and 
Livesay, Robt. de Cestr' in Downham, John de Grigleston in 
Kokerig, Will. Marshall in Little Mearley, Gilb. Fitz Henry in 
Rushton, Hugo Fitun in Harewood, Thos. de Bethum in Warton, 
Will. Deps' in Frees & Newton ; Ric. de Frekelton in Frekelton, 
Quintinghay, Newton, & Ecoleston, Gilb. de Moels, Rog. de 
Nettelag & Will, de Pul in Frekelton, Alan de Singilton and 
I wan de Frekelton in Frekelton, Waren de Quitinghay & Robt. 
de Rutton in Quitinghay, Alan de Singilton in Quitinghay, 
Newton, & Elswiok, Warin dfe Wytingham in Elswick— The heir 
of Theobald Walter in Wytheton & Trevele, John de Thornul, 
Will, de Frees, Rog. de Notesage, Ad. de Bretekirke, Will, de 
Kyrkeym, Robt. Fitz Thomas & Will. Fitz WilUam in Thistle- 
don, Frees, & Greenhalgh. Will, de Merton in Marton ; Rog. 
Gemet, Thos. de Bethum and Robt. Stokeport in Bustard Rising. 

"Adam de Bury in Bury, Robt. de Midelton in Middleton, 
Gilb. de Warton in Athertou, the heir of Rich. Hilton in Pendle- 
ton ; Thomas de Gresley's tenants ; Gilbert Barton in Barton, 

wall, Parbold, and Wrightington, Rich, le Pierpoint in Rum- 
worth, Will, de Worthinton in Worthington, Rog. de Pilkinton 
in Pilkington, Thos. le Grettley in Lindeshey, in the honor of 

" Will, de Lancaster in Ulverston, Matthew de Redeman and 
Robt. de Kymers in Yeland, Lambert de Muleton in Routhe- 
clive, Rog. Gernet in Little Farleton, Robt. de Stokeport in 
Gt. Farlton, Ad. de Ecchston, Will, de Molineus, Hug. de 
Mitton, Ric. de Katherale, Hen. de Longeford in Ecoleston, 
Leyrebreck, and Catterall, Ad. de Werninton in Wennington, 
Hug. de Morwyc in Farleton & Cansfield, Henr. de Melling in 
Melling, Rich, de Bikerstat in Helmes & Stotfaldechage ; Adam 
Fitz Richard in Bold cfc Lawerke, Rich. Fitz Martin in Ditton, 
Rich. Fitz Thurstan in Thingwall, Thos. de Bethum in Bootle, 
Rich, de Frequelton in Thorp, Rog. de Lacy, 5 knts. fees of the 
fee of Clithero, Walter Fitz Osbert, Will, de Wynewyck, Peter 
de Stalum, Elya de Hoton, the heir of Rog. de Hoton, Alan Fitz 
Richard & John de Billesburgh, tenants of the king, but no 
place mentioned ; Will, de Neville in Kaskenemor, Marferth de 
Hulton in Pendleton, Roger de Midleton in Chetham, Edwin 
Carpentar in Cadwalesate, Ada de Prestwych in Prestwych and 
Failesworth, Hugh de Blakerode, by charter in Blakerode, Elias 
de Penilbury in Pendlebury and Chadderton, Robt. de Clifton 
in Clifton, Gospatric de Cherleton in Chorleton, Henry de 
Chetham in Chetham, Will, de Bothelton, Gilbt. de Tonge in 
Tonge, Randle Fitz Roger, Rich, de Edburgham, the Abbot of 
Furuess in Furness, Ad. Fitz Orm in Middleton, Walt, de Paries 
in Pulton, Will, de Hest in Middleton, the Prior of Lancaster in 
Newton and Aldcliff, the Burgesses of Lane, in Lancaster, and 
Nich. de Verdon in Kirkby.^ 

2. Serjeanties holdbn of the King. 

"Orm de Kellet in Kellet, Rich, de Hulton, Wapentake of 
Salford, Roger Carpentar iu Lancaster, Roger Gernet in Fisli- 
wick, Lonesdale, & Wapent. of Derby, Alan de Singleton, 
AVill. de Newton ; Ad. Fitz Orm in Kellet, Thos. Gernet in 
Hesliam, John de Oxeclive in Oxoliffe, Robt. de Overton in 
Overton, Rog. de Skerton, Rog. Blundus iu Lancaster, le 
Gardiner in Lancaster, Rad. de Bollern in Bolrun, Thos. Fitz Ada 
in Gersingham, AVill. & Benedict in Gersingham, Margery, 
widow of Bernard Fitz Bernard ; AValter Underwater holds 
Milnefiet. Ad. Fitz Richard iu Singleton, by serjeanty of 
Amounderness, ' AVilloch' & 'Neuton' in Newton, Ad. de Kelleth, 
son of Orm, in Kellet, Henr. de Waleton in AA''alton, Wavertree 
and Newsham's, Edwin Carpentar in Cadwalslete, Hamo de Macy 
and Hugo de Stottord in Scotforth, Rog. White & Gilbert Fitz 
Matthew in Lancaster, AVill. Fitz Dolphin & AViU. Fitz Gilbert 
in Gersingham. The places are not mentioned after the follow- 
ing names : Henry Fitz Siward, Robt. de Middleton, Rich. 
Fitz Henry, Gilbt. de Croft, Hugo de Croft, Robt. the reeve, 
Adam de Relloc & Rog. Fitz John ; Roger Gernet in Halton, 
Rog. le Clerk in Fishwick, Baldewin de Preston in Fishwick, 
John Fitz John in Fishwick, Alaa and Rich, de la More in Fish- 
wick, Rog. Fitz A'iman in Hesham, Thomas Gernet in Hesham, 
John de Toroldesholm iu Torrisholme, Adam Gerold in Derby, 
Ad. de Moldhall in Crosby, Robert de Curton in Querton, Rog. 
de Assart in Fishwick, AViU. Wachet in Fishwick, AA^U. & Agnes 
de Ferrars, Salford, Clayton, and Newshams, Gervas Fitz Simon 
in Oxcliffe, Abbot of Cockersand in Bolrun, Brothers of St. 
Leonard at York in Bolrun, the widow Christiana de Gereingham, 
Robt. & Will, de Bolrun, the Prior of Lancaster, Will, le Gardiner 
and Adam Gernet in Bolrun, Rog. Fitz AVilliam, AVill. Fitz 
Thomas, AVill. & Matilda de Paries in Torrisholme. 

'The "Testa de Nuvill" mentions several touants-in-ohief, whose lauds, though held of tho honor, are not iu the county of Lancaster, and 
which are omitted here. ' < e 




3. Widows and Hkieesses op Tenants in fAPiiE, whose 
Marriages were in the gift of the King.i 

" Alicia dr. of Galfr. de Gersingham, Christiana dr. of same 
Alicia & Thomas de Gersingham, Lady Elewisa de Stutevill, 
Oliva wid. of Rog. de Montbegon, Quenilda wid. Rich. Walens. 
Margaret wid. Ad. de Gerstan, Waltania wid. Rich. Bold, Beatrix 
de Milton, QuenUda wid. Rog. Garnet, Matilda de Thorneton, 
Avicia wid. Henr. de Stotford, Avieia wid. Rog. de Midelton 
Eugenia wid. Will, de Routhclive, Eva de Halt, Matilda dr! 
Nicholas de Thoroldeholm, Alicia the wid. of Nicholas, Emma 
the wid of Nicholas, Sarra de Bothelton, Alicia wid. Rich. Fitz 
Robert, Cecilia wid. Turstan Banastr, Quenilda dr. Richd. Fitz 
Roger, Matilda de Stokeport, Lady Ada de Furneys ; wid. of 
Gamell de Boelton, Matilda de Kellet, Agnes de Hesham, wid. 
of Hugo de Oxeclive, wid. Will. Gernet 

6. Thanagb,^ Forestry, 

and other peculiar Services and 

' Thomas & Alicia de Gersingham, by keeping the king's 
hawks in Lonsdale ; Luke, the constable of Derby, by being 
constable and keeping the castle ; Adam de Hemelesdale, by 
constabulary at Crosby ; Quenilda de Kirkdale, by conducting 
royal treasure ; Richd. Fitz Ralph, by constabulary of Singleton ; 
John de Oxeclive, by being carpenter in Lancaster castle ; Adam 
Fitz Gilmighel, by being the king's carpenter ; Roger Carpentar, 
by being carpenter in Lancaster castle ; Rad. Barun, by being 
mason in Lancaster castle ; Rad. Balrun the same ; Wm. Gar- 
dener, by finding pot-herbs and leeks for the castle ; Walter, 
son of Walter Smith, by forging iron for carts ; Roger Gernet, 
by being chief forester ; Willm. Gernet, by the service of meeting 
the king on the borders of the counti-y with his horn and white 
rod, and conducting him into and out of the county ; he holds 
2 caruoates of land in Heskin ; Willm. & Benedict de Gersing- 
ham, by forestry and by keeping an aery of hawks for the king ; 
Gilbert Fitz Orm, by paying annually 3d., or some spurs to 
Benedict Gernett, the heir of Roger de Heton, in thanage ; Heir 
of Robt. Fitz Barnard, in thanage ; Rog. de Leycester, by paying 
8s. & 2 arrows yearly ; Adam Fitz Rice & Alan Fitz Hagemund, 
in drengage ; Richd. de Gerard, iu drengage ; Gillemuth de 
Halitton, in drengage ; Adam de Glothie, Will, de Nevilla, 
Reyner de Wambwalle, Gilbert de Notton, Rog. de Midelton, 
Alex. D. Pikington, Will de Radeclive, Adam de Prestwich, 
Elias de Penilbury, Will, and Rog. Fitz William, Henr. de 
Chetham, Alured de Ives, Thomas de Burnul, Adam de Pember- 
ton, Adam de RuUing, Gilbert de Croft, Gilbert de Kelleth, 
Matilda de Kelleth, Thos. Gerneth, William de Hest, and William, 
son of Rich, de Tatham, all in thanage ; John de Thoroklesholm, 
by lardeuery : Rog. de Skerton, by provostry ; Robt. de Overton, 
by provostry ; Rog. White and Edward Carpenter, by carpentry ; 
Gilbert Fitz Matthew, by gardenery; Rad. de Bolran, by 
masonry ; the burgesses of Lancaster, in free-burgage and by 
royal charter; the prior and monks of Seaton, by royal charter ; 
Thomas Fitz Adam, Will. Fitz Doldn, & WiUm. Fitz Gilbert, 
by forestry ; Henr. de Waleton, by being head Serjeant or bailitl' 
of the hundred of Derbyshire ; Galfr. Baliatrar', by presenting 
two cross-bows to the king; the serjeanty of Hetham, which 
Roger Fitz Vivian holds, by blowing the horn before the king 
at his entrance and exit from the county of Lancaster ; Thomas 
Gernet, in Hesham, by sounding the horn on meeting the king 
on his arrival in those parts." 

In addition to these peculiar services and tenures of the feudal times, many of ■which sound 
strangely in modern ears, several religious houses are enumerated which held in pure frank alms ; 
and a still larger number of persons who held by donation, in consideration of annual rents, as will 
be seen on reference to the " Testa de Nevill." 

i. Churches in the Gift of the King, etc. 

" Lancaster ; Earl Roger de Poiotou gave it to the Abbot of Sees. 
" Preston ; King John gave it to Peter Rossinol, who died, and 

the present King Henry gave it to Henry nephew of the 

Bishop of Winton. Worth 50 marks per an. 

"St. Michael upon Wyre ; the son of Count de Salvata had it 
by gift of the present King, and he says, that he is elected 
into a bishoprick, and that the church is vacant, and worth 
30 marks per an. 

" Kyrkeham ; Iving John gave 2 parts of it to Simon Blundon, 
on account of his custody of the son and heir of Theobold 
Walter. Worth 80 marks. 

5. Escheats of the Lands op Normans and others. 

" Merton, Aston, ' Henry de Nesketou holds of the king's 
escheats m the counties of Warwick & Leicester, Nottingham 
and Derby, Lancashire, Cumberland, Westmorland, and 
Northumberland.' Fourteen bovates of land in Haskesmores, 
which Willm. de Nevill held as escheats of our lord the king. 

" Hugo le Norreys holds a carucate of land in Blnkerode, which 
is au escheat of the king, to whom he pays a yearly rent of 20s. 

_ ' If the landholder left only daughters, the king had the profits of 
relief and wardship ; and had also, if they were under the age of fourteen, 
the right of disposing of them in marriage. This power was said to be 
vested in the king in order to prevent the heiresses that were his tenants 
from marrying persons that were of doubtful affection to him, or that 
were incapable and unfit to do the services belonging to the land. He 
had also a power of disposing of his male wards in marriage, whose 
parents had died when they were under twenty-one, though without 
such good resons for it. I5ut this power of disposing of wards of either 
sex iu marriage, as well as the right of wardships, was afterwards very 
much abused, and was therefore taken away by the statute of 12 Car. II. 
(ItieO), together with the tenure itself by military, or (as it was usually 
called) knight's service. 

-_ Thanage Service. — Thane, from the Saxon thenian, ministro^re, was 
the title of those who attended the Saxon kings in their courts, and who 
held their lands immediately of those kings ; and therefore they were 
promiscuously called tkani et servientes regis, though, not long after the 
Conquest, the word was disused ; and instead thereof, those men were 
called Barones Regis, who, as to their dignity, were inferior to earls, and 
took place after bishops, abbots, barons, and knights. There were also 
tluini mhiores, and these were likewise called barons : these were lords of 
manors, who had a particular jurisdiction within their limits, and over 
their own tenants in their own courts, which to this day are called Courts 

Baron : but the word signifies sometimes a nobleman, sometimes a free- 
man, sometimes a magistrate, but more properly an officer or minister of 
the king. " Edward King grete mine Biscops, and mine Earles, and all 
mine Thynes, on that shiren, wher mine Prestes m Paulus Minister 
habband land." (Chart. Edw. Conf. Pat. IS H. VI. m. 9, per Iiispeet.) In 
an Anglo-Saxon writ of William the First, quoted by Spelman from an 
Abbotsbury MS. , the term Tliegetia occurs in the same sense. In thanage 
of the king signified a certain part of the king's lands and property, 
whereof the ruler or governor was called thane. iCmeelt.) In the early 
periods of the history of this country, the payments of the thanes were 
made regularly into the public treasury by the sheriffs, distinctly in tJie 
name of this class ; hence we find that in 13 Henry III- (1229), the thanes 
of the county of Lancaster, through the sheriff, paid a composition of 
fifty marks (£33 6s. 8d.), to be excused from the tailliage or assessment 
which the king, in the exercise of his absolute authority, had imposed 
upon his people. {Mag. Rot. 13 Hen. III. titv.lo Lancaster.) The same 
sheriff (Wm. de Vesci) rendered an account of fourscore and sixteen 
pounds (£96) of the gift of the knights and thanes. {Mag. Rot. 5 Hen. 11. 
Rot. 2, b. Tit. Northumberland. Nova Placita tO Novee Conrenttones.) In 3 
John (I2DI) the " Theigni and fermarii" of the honor of Lancaster had 
a composition of fifty marks to be exonerated from crossing the sea. 
{Mag. Rot. 3 John, Rot. 20, a.) 


CHAPTER yill. 

Representative History of tlie County of Lancaster-First Members for the County of Lancaster, and for its Boroughs— First 
Parliamentary Return and first Parliamentary Writ of Summons for Lancashire extant— Members returned for the County 
of Lancaster in the Reigns of Edward I. to Edward IV.— Returns, formerly supposed to be lost, from Edward IV. to Henry 
VIII.— County Members from 1 Edward VL to 50 Victoria— The ancient Lancashire Boroughs, consisting of Lancaster, 
Preston, Liverpool, and Wigau, resume the Elective Franchise, 1 Edward VI.— Newton and Clitheroe added to the Boroughs 
of Lancashire— Representation of Lancashire during the Commonwealth— List of Knights of the Shire for the County of 
Lancaster, from the Restoration to the Present Time— Alterations made in the Representation of the County and Boroughs 
of Lancashire by the Reform Acts of 1832, 1867, and 1885— a.d. 1295 to 1886. 

]E have now arrived at that period when the representative system began to 
prevail in the English Parliament, and when this county, by its freeholders and 
burgesses, obtained the privilege of returning members to the senate, charged 
with the duty of making known the public will in that assembly, in order to 
promote the interest of the great community for which it legislates. None of 
the English counties presents a more interesting representative history than the 
county of Lancaster; and yet this subject has hitherto been either entirely 
neglected, or has been treated in so vague and desultory a manner as to have 
neither uniformity nor connection. To supply this deficiency much labour has been required in 
examining and collating the public records ; but that labour has been amply rewarded by the mass 
of facts which these documents contain, from the fountain-head of authentic information. 

So early as the Saxon heptarchy a species of Parliament existed, as we have already seen, 
under the designation of the Witena-Gemot, or " Council of Wise Men," by whom the laws were 
enacted. This assembly consisted of the comites or earls, the hereditary representatives of counties, 
assisted by the prelates and abbots, and the tenants in caioite of the crown by knight's service. 
The disposition of such an assembly would naturally incline them to sanction the edicts of the 
sovereign ; and it is highly probable that his will generally served as their law. After the Con- 
quest, the first William and his immediate descendants called to their ' ' great council " the Norman 
barons and the dignified clergy, with the military tenants. This CouncU, or " King's Court," as it 
was called (the term parliament not having then come into use),' assembled three times in the 
year — namely, at Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide. The barons and other tenants-in-chief of 
the king, enumerated in Domesday Book, amount to about seven hundred. These persons pos- 
sessed all the land of England in baronies, except that part which the king reserved in his own 
hands, and which was called " Terra Regis," and has since been called the " ancient demesne " of 
the crown. These tenants-in-chief, per baroniam, as well the few who held in socage as those who 
held by military service, composed the great council, or Parliament, in those times, and were sum- 
moned by the king, though they had a right to attend without summons. In the main the consti- 
tution of Parliament, as it now stands, was marked out so long ago as 17 John (liilo), in the 
great charter granted by that sovereign, wherein he promises to summon all archbishops, bishops, 
abbots, earls, and great barons personally, and all other tenants-in-chief under the crown by tne 
sheriffs and bailiffs, to meet at a certain place, with forty days' notice, to assess aids and scutages 
when necessary; and this constitution has subsisted, in fact, at least from 49 Henry III., there 
being still extant writs of that date to summon knights, citizens, and burgesses to Parliament. The 
landowners of the second, third, and other inferior classes, being all tenants, or vassals, of this 
upper class of landholders, though by free and honourable tenures, similar to those by which their 
lords themselves held of the king, were bound by the decisions of their superior lords. The landed 
interest was for a long time alone represented in the national councils, there being no representa- 
tives, either of the cities or boroughs, or of the trading interest, Avhich were considered too insigni- 
ficant to be represented in the great council.^ The representation of such places was an innovation 

^ Professor (now Bishop) Stubbs remarks that "the name given to 
the sessions of council (under the early Norman kings) was often ex- 
pressed by the Latin coUoquiyjii ; and it is by no means unlikely that 
the name of Parliament, which is used as early as 1175 by Jordan Fan- 
tosme ("sun plenier Parlement"), may have been m common use. But 
of this we have no distinct instanoo in the Latin chroniclers for some 
years further, although whon the term oomea into use it is applied retros- 

pectively : and in a record of the twenty-eighth year of Henry III., the 
assembly in which the great charter was granted is mentioned as the 
" Parliamontum Runimedjo." ... It is first used in England by a 
contemporary writer in 12il3, namely, by Matthew Paris. It is a word of 
Italian origin, and may have been introduced either thi-ough the Normans 
or through intercourse with the French kingdom." — C. 
2 Archffiologia, vol. ii. p. 310. 




introduced in the early part ot the fourteenth century by Simon de Montfort and the reibrmino- 
barons ot his day. It is true that these barons were actuated in some degree by ambitious motives' 
and that their conduct partook of the revolutionary turbulence of the age in which they lived • but 
they were the legitimate descendants of those illustrious patriots who wrung from King John the 
charter of British freedom. The reforms they introduced were parts of the same system ; the one 
the natural eiiect of the other, and both flowing from that spirit of "popular encroachment" which 
does not, and which ought not, to rest till its fair claims are satisfied. In this way the dictation of 
the barons and the discontents of the subordinate orders of society were overcome • and though 
in an age of compa,rative darkness, Edward I., the "Justinian of England," whose sagacity' enabled 
him to mark the signs of the tunes, did not hesitate to declare in his writs to the sheriffs for the 
return of burgesses to Parliament, " that it was a most equitable rule, that that which concerns all 
should be approved of by all." By this temperate extension of the popular rights, the visionary 
projects of John Ball and Wat Tyler, which soon after arose, were defeated ; and the representative 
system of England has remained ever since essentially unaltered, till successive enlargements of 
the elective franchise were rendered necessary by the altered state of society in commerce and in 

In the time of Henry III. abuses in the government had been suffered to accumulate, till, . 
according to the contemporary historians, "justice itself was banished from the realm; for the 
wickeddevoured the righteous, the courtier the rustic, the oppressor the innocent, the fraudulent 
the plain man, and_ yet all these things remained unpunished. Evil counsellors whispered into 
the_ ears of the princes that they were not amenable to the laws. The subject was oppressed in 
various ways, and, as if these sycophants had conspired the death of the king, and the destruction 
of his throne, they encouraged him to disregard the devotion of his people, and to incur their 
hatred rather than to enjoy their affection."' In addition to these grievances, the kingdom was 
deeply involved in debt, and the king stood in need of fresh contributions to carry on his wars, 
which the barons refused to grant till the public grievances were redressed. Overwhelmed with 
difficulties, Henry issued his mandate for holding a Parliament at Oxford. Of this Parliament, so 
celebrated in history, and particularly in the representative history of England, it is recorded that 
" the grandees of the realm, major and minor, with horses and arms, were convened at Oxford, 
June 11, 1258, together with the clergy, to make provision and reformation, and ordination of the 
realm ; and on their oath of fidelity were exhibited the articles which in the said realm stood in 
need of correction." This Parliament, owing to the popular excitation under which it was 
assembled, and to all the members coming dressed in armour, and mounted as for battle, obtained 
the name oi parliamentura insanum, or " The Mad Parliament," though it would have been well for 
England if all Parliaments had been equally sane ; but there was a method in their madness, and 
one of their first acts was to ordain that four knights should be chosen by each county, whose duty 
it should be to inquire into the grievances of the people, in order that they might be redressed, 
and that they should be returned to the next Parliament, to give information as to the state of 
their respective counties, and to co-operate in enacting such laws as might best conduce to the 
public good. Some approach had been made towards this state of things in the time of King John, 
when the knights were appointed to meet in their several counties, and to present a detail of the 
state of those counties to the great council ; but here they were not only to present their com- 
plaints, but, by being made a component part of the legislative body, they were to contribute from 
their local knowledge to the removal of those wrongs which it was their duty to present. 

In this Parliament at Oxford twenty-four persons were elected — -twelve on the part of the 
king, and as many on the part of the community — for the reformation of public abuses, and the 
amendment of the' state of the realm. 

' On the part of the king — 

The lord bishop of London. 

The lord (bishop) elect of Winton. 

Sir Henry, son of the king of Almaine. 

Sir John, earl of Warrenne. 

Sir Guy de Lesignan. 

Sir Wm. de Valence. 

Sir John, earl of Warwick. 

Sir John Mansel, 

Friar John de Derlington. 

The abbot of Westminster. 

Sir Hugh de Wengham. 

[The twelfth is wanting.] 

" On the part of the barons — 

The lord bishop of Worcester 
Sir Simon, earl of Leicester. 
Sir Richard, earl of Gloucester. 
Sir Humphrey, earl of Hereford. 
Sir Roger Mareschal. 
Sir Roger de Mortimer. 
Sir Geoffry Fitz-Geofifry. 
Sir Hugh le Bigot. 
Sir Richard le Grey. 
Sir William Bardulf. 
Sir Peter de Montfort. 
Sir Hugh Despenser." 

' Ann, Burton, anno 1258, p. 424. 


Amongst a variety of other decrees, the twenty-four enacted that the state of the holy church 
be amended ; that a justiciar be appointed for one year, to be answerable to the king and his 
council during his term of office ; that a treasurer of the exchequer be also appointed, to render 
account at the end of the year ; that the chancellor shall also answer for his trust ; that shire- 
reeves be provided in every county, trusty persons, freeholders, and vavasors/ of property and 
consequence in the county, who shall faithfully and honestly treat the people of the county, and 
render their accounts to the exchequer once every year ; and that neither they, nor their bailiffs, 
take any hire ; that good escheators be appointed, and that they take nothing from the goods 
of the deceased out of the lands which ought to be in the king's hands ; that the exchange of 
London be amended, as well as all the other cities of the king, which had been brought to disgrace 
and ruin by talliages, and other extortions ; and that the household of the king and queen be 

Of the Parliaments, they ordain : — 

" That there be three Parliameuts in the year : the first, upon the octave of St. Michael (Oct. 6) ; the second, on the morrow 
of Candlemas (Feb. 3); the third, June 1. To these three Parliaments shall come the counsellors-elect of the king, though they be 
not commanded, to provide for the state of the realm, and to manage the common business of the realm, when there shall be need, 
by the command of the king." "That the community do choose twelve prode men {" prud'hommes," men of probity and prudence), 
who shall go the Parliaments, and attend at other times when there shall be need, when the king or his council shall command, to 
manage the business of the king, and of the realm ; and that the community hold for stable that which these twelve shall do ; and 
this to spare the cost of the commons. Fifteen shall be named by the earl mareschal, the Earl of Warwick, Hugh de Bigot, and 
John Mansel, who are elected by the twenty-four, to name the aforesaid fifteen, who shall be of the council of the king ; and they 
shall be confirmed by them, or by the greater part of them ; and they shall have power from the king to give them counsel in good 
faith concerning the government of the realm, and all things belonging to the king and kingdom ; and to amend and redress all 
things which they shall see want to be amended and redressed, and to be over the high justiciar, and over all other persons ; and if 
they cannot all be present, that which the greater part shall do shall be firm and stable." 

It has been the fashion to consider the " Provisions of Oxford," as they were called, as the rash 
innovations of an ambitious oligarchy, but the principle of the securities then required from the 
crown was adopted from the Great Charter ; and the appointment of a supreme council of state 
was one of the conditions imposed upon John, with the more stringent demand that the twenty- 
live barons, who were then to control the executive, should be elected without the concurrence of 
the king. The unconstitutional power assumed, of choosing the responsible ministers of the 
crown — for in no other light can the functions of these " twelve prode men " be considered— 
gradually fell into disuse, though the time when that authority ceased is not very accurately 
defined in history. In November of the same year (1258), after the dissolution of the memorable 
Parliament of Oxford, writs were issued from the kino-'s chancery to the sheriffs of England, com- 
manding them respectively to pay "reasonable wages'' to the knights delegate for their journey to 
Parliament, upon the affairs touching their several counties. This is the first known lorif'de 
expensis," and it is of the same tenure as that of subsequent times, when it became essential to 
Parliament to have in it the representatives of the counties, chosen by the freeholders ; but the 
writ for Lancashire issued on this occasion, is lost, and with it the names of the knights returned 
for the county. 

The king and his courtiers, headed by his brothers, and countenanced by his son EdAvard, the 
heir-apparent of the crown, resisted to blood the attempts made to reform the Parliament, and to 
redress the public grievances, accompanied, as these attempts were, with measures for subverting 
the royal prerogative, and establishing an aristocratical oligarchy. The progress of reform in the 
constitution of Parliament was not, however, materially retarded by this resistance. It had always 
been the avowed intention of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and Robert de Ferrers, Earl 
of Derby, to confine the executive power within the limits of the law, and to have all the acts of 
the king confirmed, as well by the representatives of the county as by the barons spiritual and 
temporal f and in the Parliament of Worcester, called "Montfort's Parliament," held in 49 Henry III. 
(1265), it was enacted, that each sheriff throughout England should cause to be sent to the Parlia- 
ment two knights elected by the freeholders, with two citizens from each of the cities, and two 
burgesses from each of the boroughs throughout England. By these means the respective orders 
m the state had an opportunity of expressing the public will ; and in an assembly so constituted, 
and ot which the lords spiritual and temporal formed a part, the due consideration of the public 
good was effectually secured.' This national council, which, Hume says, " was on a more democratic 
basis than any which had been ever summoned since the foundation of the monarchy," was the 

personlThtnThlktef °"' ^^° '"'''^ ^'""^' ^^ '^^^^'^ '™"''' "' ""'"'" f^^'^Pji "''''^^^' '^ " =1^°"" "y Sir Robert Cotton and others, and as is 




first in which we distinctly recognise the Parliament of England. It happened, however that m 
these early Parliaments the expense incurred by the communities of the counties cities and 
boroughs from the attendance of their members in Parliament was often considered oppressive • 
and hence we find that many poor boroughs, particularly in the county of Lancaster had no 
members,— the reason alleged being that they were unable to pay their expenses, on account of 
their debility and poverty. The boroughs for which returns were made were principally " walled 
towns,' held of the king in ancient demesne ; and the only places in Lancashire entitled to the 
privilege, it that could be considered a privilege which was felt as a public burden, were Lancaster 
Preston, Liverpool, and Wigan. The inhabitants of the boroughs, under the feudal system, were' 
for the most part, villeins, either in gross or in relation to the manor in which the town stood and 
belonged to some lord.' The former held houses, called burgage tenures, at the will of the'lord, 
and carried on some trade, such as carpenter, smith, butcher, baker, clothier, or tailor, and the 
election of members was in the inhabitants of the burgage tenures, so far as they were free 
agents. There were also in these boroughs certain free inhabitants who held burgages, and were 
in consequence invested with the elective franchise. In incorporated cities and boroughs the right 
of election was generally in the corporate body, or freemen as they were called, subject to such 
limitations, however, as the charters imposed. When the wages of the members representing the 
cities or boroughs were paid out of the rates, the election was in the inhabitant householders 
paying those rates, and the right of election Avas hence designated "scot and lot suffrage." In 
treating the subject of the county representation from the first return to Parliament made by the 
sheriff of Lancashire to the present time, the most clear and satisfactory mode will be to take the 
reign of each of the early kings separately, and connect with the lists in each reign such other 
historical matter as may be presented on the subject : and 1st. — Of the parliamentary history of 
the reign of 

Edward I. 

Although the return of knights and burgesses summoned to Parliament by writ commenced as 
early as 49 Henry III.^ (12C5), no original return made by the sheriff for this county, or for its 
boroughs,' is found in any of the public records till 23 Edw. I. (a.d. 1295). The first return of 
members for this county is to the Parliament at Westminster, appointed to assemble on Sunday 
next after the feast of St. Martin (Nov. 12); and it announces that " Matthew de Redman " and 
"John de Ewyas"^ were elected knights. for the county of Lancaster, by the consent of the whole 
county, who have full and sufficient power to do for themselves, and for the commonalty of the 
county aforesaid, what our lord the king shall ordain by his council. 

"That the aforesaid Matthew was guaranteed to come on the day contained in the writ, by Thomas', son of Thomas de Yeland ; 
Thomas Fitz Hall ; William Fitz Adam ; and William son of Dake" (in confirmation of which they affi.x + 

their marks, the manucaptors or sureties for the members not being able probably to write their own names). + 

" And that the aforesaid John was guaranteed by John de Singleton, Richard de Grenel, Roger de Boulton, and Adam de Grene- 
huUes." The sheriffs return adds, "There is no city in the county of Lancaster." It then proceeds to say "that Lambert le 
Despenser and William le Dispenser, burgesses of Lancaster, are elected burgesses for the borough of Lancasttr, in manner above 
said. And the aforesaid Lambert is guaranteed by Adam de le Grene and John de Overton ; and the aforesaid William is guranteed 
by Thomas Molendinar and Hugh le Barker." That " William Fitz Paul and Adam Russel, burgesses of Preston, are elected for 
the borough of Preston in Amounderness ; and the aforesaid William is guaranteed to come as above by Richard Banaster and 
Richard Pelle. And the aforesaid Adam is guaranteed by Henry Fitz Baldwin, and Robert Kegelpin." That William le Teinterer, 
and Henry le Becker, burgesses of Wigan, are elected for the borough of Wyrjan in the manner above said. And they are guaran- 
teed to come by John le Preston of Wygan, Adam de Cotiler, Roger Fitz Orme, and Richard Fitz Elys." That Adam Fitz Richard 
and Robert Pinklowe, burgesses of Liverpool, are elected for the borough of Liverpool. And they are guaranteed to come, in the 
time specified in the writ, by John de la More, Hugh de Molendino, William Fitz Richard, and Elias le Baxster."'' 

There is a copy of a writ and return, in 1294, for Cumberland, and amongst the persons 
returned for that year are — Matthew de Redman" and Richard de Preston, as knights of the shire. 

In the Parliament of 1296, no original writ for Lancashire appears, nor is there any enrolment 
of writs de expensis for this county on the rolls. 

^ ArcJueologia, vol. ii, p. 31.3, meet at Windsor. Tlie Bishop of Worcester, the Earls of Leicester and 

" Prynne's Enlargement of Ilia 4th Institute. Gloucester, and other magnates, having ordered three knights from each 

•■' In a return presented to Parliament by order of the House of Com- county to attend an assembly at St. Albans, the king enjoins the sheriffs 

corns in 1879, giving the names of members of the lower house and their to send the above-mentioned knights also to him at Windsor. (5) 40 

constituencies "from so remote a period as it can be obtained," the Henry III. (1264-6), summoned to meet at London. This appears (says 

earliest Parliaments mentioned are the following: (1) 15 John (1213), the return) to have been the first complete ParUament consisting of 

summoned to meet at Oxford. Writs addressed to all the sheriffs, re- elected knights, citizens, and burgesses. In each of these cases no 

quiringthem each to send all the knights of their bailiwicks inarms ; and returns of names could be found. — C. 

also four knights from their counties, '* ad loqucndum nohiscumde mgotiU * Matthew de Redman served the office of Sheriff of the county from 

regni nostre" (2) 10 Henry III. (1226) summoned to meet at Lincoln. 1245 to 1249; the other representative of the shire in this Parliament, 

Wrirs addressed to the sheriffs of eight counties, requiring them each to Sir John D'Ewyas, married Cecily, the eldest of the three daughters and 

send four knights, elected by the miiites et probl hominen of their baili- co-heirs of Sir William de Samlesbury, and, in her right, had half of the 

wicks, to set forth certain disputes with the sheriffs. (3) 3S Henry III, manor of Samlesbmy. Ho died before 1311.— C. 

(1251), summoned to meet at Westminster. Every sheriff required to « Petitt M8S. vol 15, fol, 88. Inner Temple Libr. 

send two knights, to be elected by each county, to provide aid towards " This is probably the same person that was returned for Lancashire 

carrying on the war in Gascony (4) 45 Henry III. (1261), summoned to in the following year, 




The first parliamentary writ extant, addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire, is of the date of 
25 Edward I (6th October, 1297) in the Tower of London, and requires that knights only (not 
citizens and burgesses) shall be sent from this county to Parliament, for the confirmation of Magna 
Charta and the Charter of Forests. This writ, which is of the nature of a bargain between he 
kin- and his people, recites that, in relief of all the inhabitants and people of the kingdom for the 
ei-hth of all the goods of every layman, and the most urgent necessity of the kingdom, the king 
hal a-reed to confirm the great charter of the liberties of England, and the charter of the liberties 
of the forest; and to grant by letters patent that the said levy of the eighth shall not operate o 
the preiudice of his people, or to the infringement of their liberties ; and he commands and firmly 
enioins the sheriff that he cause to be elected, without delay, two of the most able and legal, or 
most honest and lawworthy (" probioribus et legalioribus ") knights of the county of Lancaster, and 
send them with full powers from the whole community of the said county, to his dearest son 
Edward, his lieutenant in England (the king being then abroad, engaged m the war with France), 
on the octaves of St. Michael next ensuing (6th Oct., 1297), to receive the said charters and the 
king's letters patent for the said county.' ^ ,, -, ^ ■, r • ■ t 

The members returned in the Parliament of 1297, called for the purpose of raising money for 
the invasion of France, were " Henricus de Kigheley " and " Henricus le Botiller, vel " Botiler. ' 
In the Parliament of 1298, the return in the original writ is "Henricus de Kigheley and 
'Johannes Denyes," (? de Ewyas), knights of the shire. The Parliament of the following year 
- • • - ■ ■- -'' - -■- f"" *i-;" ^^„v,fTr The same observation 

January, 1306-7, "Gilbertus de Syngilton" and "Johannes _ r -pj j 

honour. These returns to the frequent Parliaments," in the latter part of the reign of Edward 1. 
completes the writs for that period, so far as regards this county. During the same reign, four 
returns were made to Parliament of members for the borough of Lancaster, two for the borough of 
Liverpool, five for Preston, and two for Wigan ; each of which will be treated of in its proper place. 

The number of counties, cities, and 'boroughs making returns to Parliament at this time 
amounted to one hundred and forty-nine," in the list of which we find ten members for Lancashire, 
namely, two for the county, and two for each of the above-named boroughs. In the 24 Henry VI. 
(1446), the number of members was reduced to 274, all the boroughs of Lancashire having then 
disappeared from the list, and the only members returned for this county consisting of the knights 
of the shire. 

Although these early Parliaments were frequent, the period of their sitting was of short 
duration. In 49 Henry III. (1265), the Parliament which assembled to settle the peace of the 
kingdom, after the barons' wars, accomplished its duty in thirty-two days, and then dissolved ; and 
yet this was reputed an incredible delay. The Parliament, 28 Edward I. (1300), which confirmed 
the great charter and made artictdi swper cartas, was summoned to meet on the second Sunday^ 
in Lent, and ended the 20th day of March, on which day the writs for the knights' and burgesses' 
expenses were dated, making a session of three weeks. The famous Parliament at Lincoln, 28 
Edward I. (Jan. 20th, 1301), wherein the king and nobles wrote their memorable letters to Pope 
Boniface, claiming homage from the kings of Scotland to the kings of England, sat but ten 
days. ' The Parliament of 3.5 Edward I. was summoned to meet at Carlisle on the 20th of January 

1 Hot. Claua. 25 Ed. I. m. C d. Orig, in Turr. Lond. intended only to fix the times at wliioli the Parliaments were to assemble, 

- Henry de Kiffhley was seneschall or steward of Blackburnshire till the reforms then contemplated were completed. 

10 Edward I. (12S7-8). His colleague was the eldest son of William Fitz- " Prynne's Brev. Pari. 

Alraeric le Pmcema or le Boteler, seventh baron of Warrington; he died ' In June, 1209, Pope Boniface addressed a letter to Edward, demand- 
in the year of his election, and in the following year John D'Ewyaa, who iner that every controversy between England and Scotland should be 
had sat in the Parliament of 1295, was returned with Henry de Kighley referred to the decision of the pontiff. Edward returned for answer that 
as a knight of the shire. — C. he should submit the matter to his Parhament. The independence of 

3 Thomas Travers, who obtained Nateby in Garstang by deed of gift England was threatened by these inordin.ate pretensions, and the king 

fropi his brother, Lawrence Travers, of Tulketh, was coroner for Furness never showed greater sagacity than in this resolve to summon the repre- 

(c. 1292), high sheriff of the county (1301-4), and keeper of the forests of sentativcs of the nation that they might speak the voice of the nation. 

Lancaster and Amounderness, and collector of scutages for the county. In that Parliiiment three hundred persons — prelates, abbots, barons. 

He died before August, 1334. — C. knights, and burgesses— were present, and whatever might be their 

* Of Chfton-with-Salwick and Westby, his colleague, William dc opinions as to the rights claimed by their sovereign over the kingdom of 

Singleton, being of the house of Singleton in Kirkham parish ; William Scotland, they were unanimous in resisting the claim set up by the 

Banastre, who was elected to the same honour with William Clifton in pontilT, and returned as their answer : " It is, and by the grace of God 

1304, died in 17 Edward II. (1323-4), seized of " the hamlet of Singleton shall always be, our common and unanimous resolve, that with respect 

Parva" in Kirkham. — C. to the rights of his kingdom of Scotland, or other temporal rights, our 

" It is evident that no fixed i*ule was adhered to in summoning these aforesaid lord the king shall not plead before you, nor submit in any 

Parliaments, except that which arose out of the king's want of either m.anner to your judgment, nor suffer his right to be brought into question 

money or counsel, or both. The order of the Parliament of Oxford, that by any inquiry, nor send agents or procuratox'S for that purpose to your 

three Parliament-! should be licld in one year, does not appear over to court."— C. 
have been acted upon with uniformity, and tliis enactment was probably 



(1307), when the king expected Cardinal Sabmes; but the cardinal not arriving, as was expected 
the king prorogued this Parliament by another writ till the next Sunday after Mid-lent (March 12)' 
and on Palm Sunday the Parliament ended, having sat only fifteen days, whereof three were 
Sundays,' it being in those times the general practice to assemble the Parliaments on the Sunday, 
and so far to disregard the Sabbath as to hold their sittings continuously, without any intermission' 
on that day. ' ' 

Edward II. 

No fewer than twenty-seven Parliaments were held during the twenty years' reign of Edward II. 
There are no writs extant for Lancashire in ten of that number— namely, in 1308 and 1309 ; in 
November, 1311; in the first Parliament of 1312; in the Parliaments of 1313 and 1316 ; and in 
those of 1317, 1318, and 1323. Mr. Palgrave, in his second volume of Parliamentary Writs and 
\Vrits_ of Military Summons, published by direction of the commissioners of public records, 
has given a very complete list of the returns made to Parliament by the sheriff of Lancashire 
during this reign; and from that source the following returns, from 1307 to 1327, are 
derived. In 1307, it appears from the original Avrit for this county, that "Matheus de 
Reddeman, miles," and " Willielmus le Gentyl, miles," were returned. In August, 1311, 
" Thomas de Bethum," vel " Bethume, miles," and " Willielmus le Gentylle," vel " Gentyl, miles," 
were returned to the Parliament on the 8th of August. The writ de expensis for the attendance 
at Parliament, from the return-day until the feast of St. Dionysius, together with their charges 
coming and returning, is tested at London on the 11th of October. It is remarkable that an indi- 
vidual named Thomas de Bethun, or Bethom, is also returned for Westmorland in the same 
Parliament ; and it is highly probable that the electors in some cases economised their expenses 
by returning_ the sarne member to represent two counties. This Parliament is remarkable for the 
desertion of its public duty, from a cause which strikingly indicates that ancient members of Par- 
liament had much less patience than their successors of the present day. So exhausted Avere the 
lords, the king's counsel, the knights, and the burgesses, by their sitting of nine weeks, that most 
of them departed from Parliament without license, as the writs and summons attest, and the 
remainder petitioned the king to adjourn, and thus obtained licence to return to their homes. The 
original writ for the county of Lancaster, in the Parliament of August, 1312, returns " Henricus de 
Trafforde, miles," and " Ricardus le Molineaux de Croseby, miles." No enrolment of writ de 
expensis appears on the rolls, but the entries of such writs are incomplete. " Dominus Willielmus 
de Bradeschagh, miles," and " Dominus Edmundus de Dacre, rniles," are returned in the original writ 
of March 18, 1313. In the writ of July 8, in the same year, Radulphus de Bykerstathe, miles," 
and " Willielmus de Slene, miles," are returned. No manucaptors were found by those knights. 
To the Parliament of the 23rd September, in the same year, " Henricus de Feghirby vel Fegherby, 
miles," and " Thomas de Thornton vel Thorneton, miles," are returned. The writ de expensis for 
" Henricus de Fegherby," and "Thomas de Thorneton," for attendance at Parliament, from the return 
day (September 23) until Thursday next after the feast of St. Michael (November 15), amounts to 
£21 12s. at the rate of four shillings each per diem, together with their charges coming and 
returning. To the Parliament of April, 1314, there is no return from the county. In the 
Parliament of September, 1314, " Thomas Banastr', miles," and " Willielmus de Slene, miles," 
appear in the original writ, as well as in the writ de expensis. "Willielmus de Bradeshagh, 
miles," and "Adam de Halghton, miles," are returned 20th January, 1315, and £19 4s., at the 
rate of four shillings each per diem, is awarded to them by the writ de expensis. In 1316, 
"Johannes de Lancastr'" and "Willielmus de Walton" are returned on the 27th of January. 
In the Parliament of April, in the same year, no writ for the county is found, but " Rogerus de 
Pilteton, miles," and "Johannes de Pilketon, miles," are returned by the original writ of 
29th July following, and their charges allowed at the usual rate in the writ de expensis. To 
the Parliament summoned to meet at Lincoln, January 27th, 1318, no return appears, but 
"Edmundus de Nevill', miles," and " Johannes de Horneby, miles," are returned by the original 
writ of October 20th in the same year, on which it is observed that no manucaptors were found by 
these knights. At this period an advance took place in the wages allowed to the county members 
for their services in Parliament, and the allowance in the writ de expensis is five shillings each per 
diem, instead of four as hitherto. In 1319, " Willielmus de Walton, miles," and " Willielmus de 
Slene, miles," are returned in the original writ for the county ; but it is much torn and detaced, 
and rendered almost illegible. From some cause, the members' wages were again reduced to lour 
shillings each per diem. In 1320, " Gilbertus de Haydok, miles," and " Thomas de Thornton, miles, 
appear in the original writ, and in the writ de expensis ; but it was alleged that they were 

■ Prynno'a Enlargement of his 4th Institute. 


returned by Willielmus le Gentil, the sheriff, on his own authority, and without the assent of the 
county. No original writ for this county is found for the Parliament of 1321,' but the names of 
" Johannes de Horneby junior," and " Gilbertus de Heydok," are inserted in the writ de expensis, 
tested at Westminster on the 22d of August. "Edmundus de Nevill, miles," and " Johannes de 
Lancastria, luiles," were returned to the Parliament of 1322. ^ By this writ the sum of one 
hundred and seven shillings and fourpence is awarded to the two knights for seventeen days' 
attendance in Parliament at York, and six days coming and returning ; Edmundus de Neville 
receiving sixty-nine shillings, at the rate of three shillings per diem, and Johannes de Lancastria 
thirty-eight shillings, at the rate of twenty pence per diem ; but why the latter received lower 
wao-es than the former for his parliamentary services is not stated. In the original writs of 
election and proclamation for this county, in the Parliament summoned to meet at Ripon on 
the 14th of November, 1322 (altered afterwards to York), " Richard de Hoghton, miles," and 
" Gilbertus de Singilton' vel Sengilton, miles," were returned. From the writ de expensis it 
appears that the original rate of wages was re-established, and the sum of £8 8s. for fifteen 
days' attendance in Parliament, and three days coming and three days returning, was awarded 
to the Ivnights. 

In 1324 the original writ for this county returns the names of " Edmundus de Nevill', miles," 
and "Gilbertus de Haidoli, miles." The names of "Edmundus de Nevyll'" and "Thomas de 
Lathum," "per. iiii dies," are found in the enrolment of the writ de expensis, and on the original 
pawn or docket, as knights appearing for this county. The writ de expensis directs that sixteen 
marks for twenty days' attendance at Parliament, and four days coming and four days returning, 
at the rate of three shillings and fourpence each per diem, should be paid to the knights. No reason 
is assigned for the substitution of the name of " Thomas de Lathum " for that of Gilbert de Haidok. 
At another Parliament in this year "Willielmus de Slene, miles," and "Nicholaus le Norrays vel 
Norreys, miles," appear in the original writ for this county, returned by Gilbertus de [Sothe] worth, 
sheriff. ISfo manucaptors were found by these knights. In the writ de expensis, £7 15s. is awarded 
to the members for twenty-one days' attendance in Parliament, and five days coming, and five days 
returning, at the rate of tAvo shillings and sixpence each per diem. There is a peculiarity in this 
original writ. Usually the citizens and burgesses of the county are required to send members ; but in 
this case the summons is confined to knights of the shire. In 1325 " Willielmus de Bradeshaghe, 
miles," and "Johannes de Horneby vel Hornby" are returned. No manucaptors were found by 
these knights. In the writ de expensis, £7 14s. is awarded for twenty-two days' attendance in 
Parliament, including coming and returning ; " Willielmus de Bradeshaghe " to be paid at the rate 
of four shillings per diem, a knight's wages, and "Johannes de Horneby" at the rate of three 
shillings per diem, an inferior rate of wages. In 1326-7 " Edmundus de Nevyll, miles," and 
" Ricardus de Hoghton, miles," appear in the writ of expenses, the original Avrit not being found. 
The sum awarded to the two knights is £28 8s. for seventy-one days' attendance in Parliament, 
coming and returning, at the rate of four shillings each per diem. 

During this reign four returns are made for the borougli of Lancaster, and two for the borough 
of Preston, but none for either Liverpool or Wigan. 'The rate of wages paid to the borough 
members appears to have been fixed at two shillings each per diem. Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, 
and Wigan Avere the only towns in the Palatinate called upon to return members to Parliament, 
but so little value did our ancestors place on the elective franchise, that they Avere only too anxious 
to be relieved of their privileges, the appreciation of the honour of being represented diminishing 
as the exactions of the sovereign increased. The members deemed it a Avaste of time, and the 
burgesses looked on it as a profitless luxury that might be advantageously dispensed Avith. EA^ery 
year the number of members decreased, and some boroughs petitioned against, and even Avent so 
far as to buy themselves from, their enforced privilege. "So burdensome Avas representation felt 
that, as Ave learii froma note to " Blackstone," from the 33 EdAvard III. (1359) uniformly through 
the five succeeding reigns, a period embracing very nearly a century, the sheriffs of Lancashire 
returned that there Avere no cities or boroughs in the county that ought, or Avere used, or could, 
on account of; their poverty, send any citizens or burgesses to Parliament. 

1 In this Parlijiment, called the "Parliament de la Bond," from the which the Earl of Hereford and the other great confederates (including 

barons coming armed against the Despensers and wearing colovired banda Thomas, Earl of LancMter) suddenly brought to the Parliament of West- 

l.lion their sleeves for distinction, which met at Westminster three weeka minster, with horse and arms, in affray and abasement of all the people." 

= . mid.TOmmer, .ail mdemnity was granted against all men, of what- In the sliort period of eight months there had been a counter-revolution, 

soever state or condition, who had done what might be noted tor trespasses the Earl of Lancaster had been beheaded, and a mighty change bad beeu 

«™nS- Jl„ 5„ ,^K ''tT T^ P""'""'"! andf destroying Hugh le De- wrought as evidenced by the fact that in the same Parliament at York the 

speoser the son, and Hugh le Dcspenser, the father. "-C. exile of the Uesponsers was annulled : the " ordinances ■' made ten years 

Tr»»t^r tif ^i^.'Jl^Jf^^f",-.*,^ u ^^ if ?* }.°^^ *''"'^ ™<='"' ""'='* previously were revoked for the reason " that by the matters so ordained 

rene^lil i hpW ,Lw, Ihnf " -7 t"'"".*'=,'' '" "« Preceding year was the royal power of our lord the king Was restrained on divere things, 

3^t;!l •■ o„.? f^ f ,? ! , It was sinfully and wrongfully made and contrary to what it ought to be ; " and all provisions "made by subiects 

^r„<, '„r if'*™! °f «>« Prel-'tos, earls, barons, knights of against the royal power of the ancestors of our lord the king'' wcrs 

Bhues, and commonality' then given was "for dread of great forco oriered to cease and lose their effect for ever. - 0. ^ 


By an assumption of power which is scarcely to be credited, the high sheriff of the county, in 
17 Edward II. (1324), -arrogated to himself, as we have already seen, the right of superseding the 
privileges of the electors, and returning members for the county by his own appointment. The 
presentment made to the grand jury of the hundred of West Derby against this ostentatious and 
arbitrary sheriff has already been referred to, but it may not be unacceptable to have the document 
entire : — 

(" The Grand Jury o£ the Waiieiitake of West Derby present, That ' WiUielmus le Qentil,' at tlie time when 
he was sheriff, and when he held his Tourn in the said Wapentake, ought to have remained no longer in the 
Wapentake than three nights with three or four horses, whereas he remained there at least nine days witli 
eight horses, to the oppression of the people ; and tliat he quartered himself one night at the house of 
'Dus de Turhat,' aud another night at the house of one ' liobertus de Bold,' another at the house of ' Jioberlus de Grenlay,' and 
elsewhere, according to his will, at the cost of the men of the Wapentake. They also present, that the said ' WiUielmus ' allowed 
one ' Henricus fil. Koherti le Mercer,' indicted of a notorious theft, to be let out upon manucaption ; whereas he was not mainpernable 
according to the law ; in consequence of which the men of the Wapentake avoided making presentments of notorious thieves ; and 
that ' Henricus de Multon ' did the same when he was sherifT. That the said ' WiUielmus ' and ' //enricus ' returned certain persons 
ou inquests and juries without giving them warning. That the said ' WiUielmus le Gentil, when sheriff, had returned ' Gilbertus de 
Ilaydok ' and ' Thomas de Thornton,' knights of the shire (14 Edward II., 1320), without the assent of the County, whereas they 
ought to have been elected by the County ; and had levied twenty pounds for their expenses ; whereas the County could, by their 
own election, have found two good and sufficient men who would have gone to Parliament for ten marks or ten pounds, and the 
sheriff's bailiffs levied as much for their own use as they had levied for the knights. Also, that ' Henricus de Malton,' when he was 
sheriif, had returned ' WiUielmus de Slene ' and ' WiUielmus de Walton' as knights (12 Edward II., 1318), in the same manner." 
"The said 'WiUielmus Gentil' is enlarged, upon the manucaption of four manuoaptors." — {Hot. Plac. 17 Edw. II, m. 72.) 

Edwaed III. 

In the first Parliament of Edward III. (1327), " Michael de Haverington " and " Will'us 
Laurence " were returned knights of the shire for the county of Lancaster. " WiUielmus de Brad- 
shaigh" and "Edmundus de Nevill " were elected in February, 1327-8, and were succeeded by 
" Thomas de Thornton," and "John de Horneby," who were succeeded in turn in the same year by 
'■ Willielmus Laurence" and "Thomas de Thornton." In 1329, "Nicholaus le Norreys" and 
"Henry de Haydok" attended the adjourned Parliament, and were succeeded by "Will'us de 
Saperton" and "Henricus de Haydok." "Willielmus de Bradeshagh (or de Bradeshawe) " and 
"Johannes de Lancastr' " were their successors in the year 1330. At the election of these 
members, the sheriff, by order of the king, proclaimed that if any person in the county had 
suffered wrong from any of the servants of the crown, they were to come to the next Parliament 
and make known their complaints. " Will'us de Bradshawe" and " Oliverus de Stanesfield" were 
returned in 1331. "Adam Banastf" and "Robertus de Dalton" were elected in March, 1332, 
and in September of the same vear "Robertus de Dalton" and "Johannes de Horneby," jun., 
were returned. In December, 1332, " Edos (Edmundus) de Nevill " and " Johannes de Horneby, ' 
jun., were elected; and in the writs de expensis it appears that the wages of the knights were 
then four shillings per diem. " Edmundus de Nevill " and " Robertus de Dalton " were returned 
in February, 1334, and they were succeeded in the same year by "Robertus de Radeclyf" and 
"Henricus de Haydok." In 1335 "Robertus de Shirburn" and "Edmundus de Nevill" were 
elected. In 1336 "Johannes de Shirburn" and "Henricus de Haydok' were returned ; and 
in the same year "Johannes de Horneby," jun., and "Henricus de Haydok. ^^^ , l^^"? ' 
"Robertus de Irland" and "Henricus de Haydok" were returned, and they were succeeded m 
the same year by " Ric'us de Hoghton " and " Edmundus de Nevill." 

The chancres made in the county members seem at this period to have been very frequent, 
but whether that arose from the fickleness of the constituents, from the inadequate payments 
made to the knights of the shire, or from the unproductive nature of parliamentary mtiuence, 
and the very diminutive size of the pension list, does not appear. . ^ , r « t, r, ^ 

The return to the writ of summons in February, 1337-8 contained the names of Robertus 
de Billisthorpe" and "Robertus de Radeclif," and in that of July m the same year " Johannes de 
Hornby" and "Johannes de Clyderhowe," as knights of the shire, to whom, by the writ de 
expensis, dated at Northampton on the 2nd of August, the sum oi £7 4s. was awarded for coming 
to remaining in Parliament, and returning to their houses, being a payment of four shillings eacli 
per diem for eighteen days. The writ for 1339 was issued by the guardian of the kmgdom, and 
the king's coimcil, in his Majesty's absence; and the knights returned to Parliament for he 
county of Lancaster were "Robertus de Clyderhowe" and "Henricus de f^yk^^^^f h. In the 
same year" Nich'us de Hulm" and "Robertus de Prestecote were returned Jol^^^^^l J^^. 
Radecliffe" and "Robertus de Radeclifte" were returned m 1340 and "^/Jf p^^^^X; 
"Robertus de Dalton" and "Johannes de Dalton" were elected and returned to Parliament, 
with the usual allowance of four shillings per diem. . 

Durin- the remainder of this reign the Parliaments continued to be he d almost eveiy yeai 
and it is c4ear, from the continuall/-varying names returned for the county of Lancastei, that 


each session was a new, and not an adjourned Parliament. It is equally clear that no argument 
in favour of any precise duration of Parliament can be founded upon the practice of these early 
times, seeing that there was frequently more than one Parliament in the year ; and that at other 
times the assembling of Parliament was intermitted for two, three, or four years. 

In the 4th of Edward III. (1330) it was enacted that Parliaments should be held once a-year, 
and oftener, if necessary. The 36 Henry VI. (1458) requires a Parliament to be held every year. 
By 16 Charles II. (1664) it is enacted that Parliaments shall' be triennial; confirmed by 6 William 
and Mary (1694) ; but by 1 George I. (1714) the time of their continuance, if considered necessary 
by the king and his advisers, was rendered septennial. So that our parliamentary history affords 
all the precedents from three Parliaments in the year to one Parliament in seven years. 

The following is a list of the members for the county of Lancaster during the remainder of 
the reign of Edwkrd III., with the date of the Parliaments in which they sat, and the amount of 
wages they received from the county : — ■ 

Members (Knights). Paeliambnt at Wages. 

No writ found Westminster, April 23, 1341 

Johjes de Haverington "I Westminster, Monday, 15 days of Easter (April 24, 1343) £13 : 12s. for 34 days. 

Joli ea Unrtou j > j> j ^ l ' j 

Ctaus. 17 E. III. P. I. m 1 ckirso. 

wnv'"^i? ^"u-"!,'" V,-Vv;i"' IWestminster, Monday after Octaves of Holy Trinity (June 7, 1344) £12 : I63. for 32 days. 

WiUus fil. Rob. de RadeclifF... J > j j j ^ , , j 

Claus. 18 R III. P. 2 m. 26. 

Joh'es de Cliderhowe l Westminster, Monday after Feast of Nat. Blessed Mary (Sep. 11, 1346) £7 : 4^. for 18 day?. 

Adam de Bredelurk / ^^^^^ 20 E. Ill P 2 m. U d. 

Adam de Hoghton I Westminster, Monday after Dominica day Middle Quadragesima (March ) „„ . „ .-,,-,, 

Joh'es Cokayn ( 31,1348) \ ^^ '■ «. tor ^J days. 

Claus. 22 E. III. P. 1 m. 24 d. 

Rob'tus de Plesyngton ) Westminster, Morrow of St. Hillary (Jan. 19, 1347-8) £15 : 4s. for 38 dars. 

Rjb tus de Prestcote ) ' ■' ^ ' ' ■' 

Will' dp r" 1 Iff ( ^Vsstminster, Octaves of the Purification (Feb. 9, 1351) £13 : 43. for 33 days. 

Claus. 25 E. III. Pars unlca m. 27 dorso. 
No writ found Westminster, Tuesday, Feast St. Hillary. 

26 E. III. (1352). 
Joh'es de Haveryngton, C'/jtrafc)' Westminster, Morrow^ of the Assumption (Aug. 16,1352) £4 : 4s. for 21 days. 

aaus. 26 E. III. m. 10 d. 

("Duchy of Lane") Westminster, Monday after St. Matthi. Apost. (Sep. 23, 1353) £6 for 30 d.uys. 

Claus. 27 E. in. m. 5 d. 
Ric'usNoweir... ..'.','.'.'..'.!. ..".!!! | ^Westminster, Monday after St. Mark Evang. (April 28, 1354) £13 ; 12s for 34 days. 

Claus. 28 E. Ill m. 21 d. 

Robt, de Horneby ..............'. Westminster, Monday after St. Edmund, Martyr (Nov. 12, Vir,-,) £7 : 12s. for 19 days. 

Vltiu.'i. 29 E. III. Pars unica m. 3 d. 

John de Haverington ) „. . [£7 : 123. for John for 

Robt. de Singleton Westmmster, Monday m Easter week (April 7, 1357) ] 38 d-.iys, and for Robt 

'"'''' f £1) : 4s. fur 31 days. 

(Addressed to the Duke.) Claus. 31 E. III. m. 19 d. 

The writs de expensis for the loiights of the shire for the county of Lancaster are directed, not 
to the sheriff, but to the Duke of Lancaster himself. The knights for the counties generally had 
two distinct writs, some of them for six, others for seven, and one for eight days' expenses ; but the 
writs for Lancashire were issued to the Duke of Lancaster himself, or his lieutenant, by the title 
of Duke and Duchy of Lancaster :— 

Members (Knights). Parliament at Wages 

Roger de Faryngton ] 

Robert de Horneby .' | Westminster, Monday after Purification B. M. (Feb. 5, 1358) £13 : 12s. for 34 days. 

m-v 1 J TT , i, ., , Glaus. 32 E. III. m. 31 d. 

Wilhelmus de Heskyth, miles ] „j , . , ,„ , ^ , „ , 

Rogerus de Faryngton |Westmmster (May 15, 1360) 

Will'us de Radeclyf ) 

Ric'us de Tounlay |Westmmster, Sunday before Conversion of St. Paul (Jan. 24, 1361) £15 : 4s. for 38 days. 

Edmundus Laurence 1 ^'«™- ^^ ^- "'' ™' ^^ ^■ 

Mattheus de Rixton jWestmmster, 15 days of St. Michael (Oct. 13, 1362.) gg ^ ^^^ 

manufacture of ^^Ui,^^lJ^t''*'^°rf' for '■ settling the Staple " or were sent to all the sheriffs, to send one hiigkt only, "of the most 

Sr the coSntv and non!. fTiA w.^' \^''Tf '"■' "^^ S"'? ™<= ""='"^'''' advanced, discreet, and most exempt, in that respect, .J'men who would 

heldinthepresentdar«i^h thW^^^ «'"*Tf •" ™* " ™""°" *» ^^ "^^ ^""^^ withdrawn from autumnal occupation. " '^ Writs were also issued 

^t^east'^t?fS^c"„l'pl^iVn\T,i?mtS!^g^^^^ S^J;?) tL'Sfe„'u.Sr-^H.""'" °' ^"°^^'^'^' *° ^^"^ "^^ ^™'^ '"■" 


At this period a singular piece of presumption was practised in the return to Parliament of 
members for the county of Lancaster. The deputy-sheriffs, instead of returning the members 
elected by the county, returned themselves, concealing the writ, and levying the expenses, which 
they appropriated to their own use. Upon complaint made to the king, he issued two writs : the 
first to the sheriff of Lancashire, and the second to the justices of the peace of the county, directing 
them to examine into the merits of the election, and to certify the facts to him in chancery. In 
the meantime, the levying of the expenses was suspended till further orders upon these 
" imparalleled writs," as they are called by Prynne. In the writ to the sheriff (I7th Nov., 1362) that 
officer is informed that the greatest agitation exists in Lancashire respecting the election of the 
knights for that county in the last Parliament ; and his Majesty, wishing to be more fully informed 
about the election, commands the sheriff to assemble the knights and other good men of the com- 
mons of the said county, and to make inquiry whether " Edrus Laurence " and " Matthew Rishe- 
ton," who have been returned in the writ to Parliament as knights of the said county, or other 
persons, were duly elected ; and if, upon deliberation and information, he should find them to have 
laeen elected by the common assent of the county, then to cause the said Edrus and Matthew to 
have £18 16s. for their expenses incurred in coming to the Parliament, remaining there, and 
then returning — that is to say, for forty-seven days— each of the aforesaid Edrus and Matthew 
receiving four shillings per diem ; but if other persons have been elected knights of the said 
county, then the sheriff is to render information of their names, under his seal, into the kings 
chancery, and to remit the writ to his Majesty, conformably to the directions already given. The 
king's Avrit to the justices is addressed to his beloved and faithful Godefr. Folejambe, and his 
fellow -justices of the peace, in the county of Lancaster, on the 5th of February, 13C3 ; and it states 
roundly that the said Edrus and Matthew, who are the sheriff's lieutenants, have made a false and 
deceptive return ; in consequence of which, the jurors are required to call before them, at their 
next session, the knights and other good men of the same county, and take diligent information 
and inquisition on the above premises, and to return the same into the king's chancery ; the sheriff 
of Lancashire being at the same time commanded to supersede the levy of the wages, until he shall 
have further directions from the king in his mandate respecting them. The result was, that the 
election was declared void, and the sheriff's lieutenants were unseated by the king's authority. The 
proceedings under these memorable writs, which were the first of the kind that were issued, serve 
to show that the king in these early times, and not the Commons House of Parliament, examined 
and determined on disputed elections ; and that the king, by special writ issued to the sheriff, or 
to the justices of the peace, caused the merits of the elections to be inquired into, and certificate to 
be made of their legality or illegality. But, to resume the returns of the list of members for the 
county : — 

Knights. Parliament at Wages. 

Adam de Hoghton Uvestm. (Oct. 6th, 1363) «. 37 E. III. 

llogerus de Pylkynton ... j ^ 

Adam de HoghtoB Westm. Octaves of St. Hilary (Jan. 20, 136,5) £17 : 4s. for 43 days. 

Roger de Pylkynton j- »v esuui. CL 3S E. III. m. 31 d. 

Job. le Botiller, Miles Iwpstm Monday the morrow of the Invention of the Cross (May 4, 1366) £8 : 16s. for 22 days. 

Will. fil. Rob'ti de Radeolyf J " "^^"^^ '■'■ ^' CI. iO E. III. m. 23 d. 

Rog de Pylkyngton, azV. K^ ^ ;^ J J jyi (1368) £14 for 35 days. 

Rog. de Radeclyf, sen. . . . J " esim. isi, y^ i CI. i1 E. HI m. U d. 

^S t S;!e:?iS"} ^-'- 0^*-- °^ '^""''^ (^""''^^' -^""^ '• ''''^ cir^fl. -■ni':^nY'''- 

'^t^^-::::::::]'^^'^'^^''-''''^'-'' arJ^.'^::'^^- 

Joh'es de Ipre Wynton, Monday in Octaves of Trinity (June 8, 1371) ^^..^.^^4 m.t" ^l d.'^'' 

Johannes Botiller, MUeH... Uyg3t„,. Morrow of All Souls (Wednesday, Nov. 3, 1372) •;,;-;-/^ Vr?"' ^"l f ^''^^' 

Nich. de Haverynton J CL 4b E. III. m. 4 a. 

WiU'us de Atherton ) ^v^.tm. Morrow of St. Edmund (Nov. 21, 1373) ;:,;-;;'^i^Vf ' ^°\ f ^''^^' 

Joh'es de Holcroft S CI. i7 E. III. m. 1 d. 

Joh'es Bottiler, Chivaier... Uyestm. Monday after St. George (April 28, 1376)i ^•■y;,iw>A*Vf !^ ow 

Rog. de Brokhols / 01. 50 E. 111. r.Z. m. li </. 

Joh'es Botiller Uvestm. in fifteen days of St. Hilary (Jan. 27, 1377) o,■■k^^}^nf^J:"]^\^'''^^^ 

Rog. Pilkington J 01. 51 E. ill. m. lA. d. 

. This Parliament has been called "The Good ParlUment,: in con- »-' ^crivod much enco^^^^^^^^ g'r"Suke of Cctte?; 

^^Z:^^'^^^^^^^'^^^^^''^^^^^^^ ^^^ a7;VZn^;t'X?^ct"undidmuch oi 'the wor. of its pre- 
.4Sstress, ^i-P-ers, was made the subject of a specUcensv^e deceasor.-C. 

kin? s mistress Alice irerrerH, waa mauo niit. ci«...jws^u %... » ^^.-^^^^^ ww....— .« 
by the Commons. The increasing activity of the Commons in this Parliav 



In the ''O Edward III (1346) tlie number of the temporal peers summoned to the Parliament 
held at Westminster, at the head of whom stood Henry, Duke of Lancaster amounted only to fifty- 
four from which it may be inferred that the hundred and fifty barons in Parliament of 47 Henry 
III '(1263) mentioned by Selden included the minor barons, at that time the only representatives 
of the commonalty of the land ; and that not by delegation, but by a common interest. The fixed 
number of abbots and priors to be summoned to Parliament was determined m the reign of Edward 
III but it will be seen by the following list that in the twenty-six religious houses to which this 
privilege was adjudged none of the Lancashire monasteries are included :— 

\ St Albans 8. Kvesham. 15. Slirew,sbury. 22. Malmesbury 

2 GlastonbuiT 9. Wincheloombe. 16. Gloucester. 2.3. Cirencester 

I S .TuScant, 10. Crowlaad. 17. Bardney. 2 . St Mary, York. 

A Wootm.-ncter 11 Battel!. 18. B6aet in Holm. 25. Selby. 

: St Edmondsbury. II lading. 19. Thorney. 26. Prior of St. John o£ 

6 Petei-borough. 13. Abingdon. 20. Ramsey. Jerusalem first 

7. Colchester! U. Waltham. 21. Hide. baron of England. 

Althouo-h the boroughs of Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, and Wigan, all returned burgesses 
to represent them in Parliament in the reign of Edward I., only the two former of these places 
sent members in the reign of the second Edward, and so early as the ninth year of Edward III. 
we find the return made by the sheriff of the county, in answer to the parliamentary writ of 
summons, states that, " There is not any city or borough in my bailiwick [or county]." It is to 
be observed that the writs do not particularise the boroughs that are to return members, but 
merely require the sheriff to return two citizens for each city, and two burgesses for each borough, 
within his county. In the 36th of Edward III. (1362), the sheriff, in his return, writes upon the 
writ " There is not any city or borough in his county from which citizens or burgesses ought, or 
are accustomed, to come as this writ requires." In the 38th of Edward III. (1364), the reason for 
this negative return is rendered — " There are not any cities or boroughs (in Lancashire) that 
ou"-ht, or any of the citizens or burgesses of which are wont, to come to the said Parliament, on 
account of their debility or poverty." In the following year (1365) the case is still more strongly 

put " There is not any city or borough from which any citizens or burgesses are able or 

accustomed to come, according to the tenor of the writ, by reason of their debility and poverty."^ 
In the 2d of Richard II. (1378-79), when the parliamentary writs were addressed to the Duke ol 
Lancaster, this plea of debility is not confined to the county, but is extended to the whole duchy ; 
and it is stated that there are not any burgesses in the duchy of Lancaster who were accustomed 
to come to our lord the king's Parliament because of their poverty. In the last year of this king's 
reign (1399) the plea of poverty is again reduced within the limits of the county, and it is said 
that there are not any citizens or burgesses within the county of Lancaster who have been 
accustomed in times past to come to any Parliaments. Our ancestors, so far from aspiring to an 
increase in their boroughs, were anxious, in the language of modern legislation, to merge those 
they had in schedule A, conceiving the cost of their borough members, though limited to the 
very moderate sum of two shillings a-day " during Parliaments of comparatively short duration, not 
sufficiently repaid by the support of their local interests. On the subject of the payment of wages 
to the members of Parliament, considerable light is shed by a petition presented to the king in 8 
Henry VI. (1430), by the Commons, and which is expressed in these words — " The Commons pray, 
that all cities, boroughs, towns, and hamlets, and the residents within them, except the lords 
spiritual and temporal coming to Parhament, and the ecclesiastics, and those cities and boroughs 
which find citizens or burgesses for Parliament, shall henceforth for ever contribute to the 
expenses of the knights elected, or to be elected, to Parliaments." 

For two hundred and fifty years — that is, from the end of the thirteenth to the middle of the 
sixteenth century, about one hundred and twenty, or one hundred and thirty, cities and boroughs 
in England returned members pretty constantly to Parliament ; and about thirty others returned 
them only occasionally, amongst which were the Lancashire boroughs, the sheriffs having taken 
upon themselves to dispense with the attendance of members for those boroughs, for the reasons 
stated in the writs. 

1 The wages to be received by members of Parliament were fixed by new enactment to revive the former usage. The practice had fallen into 

the 16th Edward II. (1322) at the low rate of four shillings a day for a knight disuetude some time before this, for Pepys, in his Mary, under dfitc 

of the shire, and two shillings a day for a citizen or burgess. There are, Marcli 30th, l{il38, writes: "At dinner we had a great deal of good 

liowever, some instances in which a less sum than that established by discourse about Parliament: their number being uncertain and always at 

statute was allowed ; and it is on record that in 1403 Sir John Strange, the will of the king to increase, as he saw reason to erect a new boroiigli. 

the member for Dunwich, agreed with his constituents to take a cade and i3ut .all concluded that the bane of the Parliament hath been the leaving 

half a barrel of heiTings as a composition for his wages. The last formal off the old custom of the places allowing wages to those that served them 

payment of wages to a member occurred in ICSl, when Thom.os King, who in Parliament, by which they chose men that understood their business 

had been member for Harwich, obtained from the Lord Chancellor a writ and would attend it, and they could expect an account from, which now 

de ej'p'^t'sis bergmnlum levandi. After notice to the Corporation of Harwich, they cannot: and so the Parliament is become a company of men unable 

Lord Campbell, in his life of Lord Chancellor Nottingham, cites this case, to give account for the interest of the place they serve for," — G. 
and expresses an opinion that the writ might still be claimed, without a 



The following petition, presented by the Commons to the king in the same year shows that 

Prynne has preserved a register of the time allowed to members of Parliament for travelling 
from Lancashire to certain places, when the Parliaments were held in those cities, from which it 
appears that two, and sometimes three days, were allowed for travelling to York, four days to 
Coventry and five or six to London, in ordinary seasons; but in a snow or "foul weather" eight 
days was the ^naximum allowance for travelling from hence to a Parliament sitting at Westminster 
In 7 ol Henry ^ I (1429) it is asserted m the sheriff's return, notwithstanding the fact to the contrary' 
that there is not any city or borough within the county of Lancaster, which was accustomed in 
times past to send any citizens or burgesses to Parliament, on account of their poverty and want of 
means, and therefore no mention is made of citizens and burgesses, as appears in the indenture 
annexed to the writ. Similar language is held in all the returns from Lancashire till 1 Edward VI 
1547), when Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, and Wigan, resumed their elective franchise : and in 
1 iilizabeth (15o8-59) Newton and Chtheroe were added to the boroughs of the county Durino- 
the Commonwealth two returns were made by Manchester, but that town ceased to return members 
at the Restoration. 

Richard II. 

In the first year of the reign of Richard II. (1377), the king, in his writ of summons for the 
duchy of Lancaster, addressed to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and King of Castile and Leon, 
after announcing that Charles of France had overrun Flanders, and was meditating an attack upon 
the English city of Calais, informed his beloved uncle, that, for the better defence of his kingdom, 
and of the Anglican church, and to afford succour to his allies, he designed to embark for the 
Continent; and for the good government of the kingdom while he was absent, the duke was 
commanded to send from his duchy two knights from the county palatine of Lancaster, two 
citizens from each city, and two burgesses from each borough, Avithin the same, to Parliament, 
having full power, from him (the duke) and the commons of the duchy, to take the necessary 
measures therein. This writ is preserved in the archives of the duchy of Lancaster.^ 

The members returned to Parliament (Westminster, October 13, 1377) as knights of the shire 
for the county of Lancaster, in virtue of the writ, were "Joh'es ISoteler" and "Nich. de 
Haveryngton," who, after a session of sixty-six days, received a writ de expensis to the amount 
of £26 8s. ; but no citizens or burgesses were returned from any city or borough of the duchy or 
county of Lancaster. In the second year of Richard II. (1378) " Joh'es Botiller, Chivaler," and " Rad'us 
de Ipre," were returned for the county of Lancaster, at the Parliament which met at Gloucester, 
October 20, 1378, as appears from the Roll CI. 2 Rich. II. m. 22 d., on which Prynne observes 
that the writ in this roll was issued to the Duke of Lancaster, and to his vicegerent, for the knights 
of the duchy ; that in the writ to the duke this clause, " as well within the liberties as beyond," is 
omitted, and this clause of exception (inserted in all other writs for knights' expenses in other 
counties), " the cities and boroughs of which the citizens and burgesses to our Parliament, etc., 
shall come, so far as excepted," because the sheriffs of Lancashire then and before returned, 
" There is not any city nor any borough within the bailiwick from which any citizens or burgesses 
to the said Parliament ought (or are wont) to come, because of their weakness or poverty ;"• and in 
this very year made this return, " And there are not any citizens or burgesses in the aforesaid 
duchy who have been wont to come to any Parliament, because of their poverty and debility." 

The other knights of the shire returned for the county of Lancaster during the reign of 
Richard II. are enumerated in the following list : — 

Knights. Parliament at Wages. 


Ttrs^ithiwoVfh^'^^^^^^^^^ jWestminster, Monday after St. Hilary (Jany. 16, 1380) £24 for 60 days. 

CI. 3 R If. m. 18 d. 

^ The aheriflfs seem to have erected, nominated, returned, omitted, twenty-six intervening years, other shei-iffs make returns to the effect set 

discontinued, revived, and recontinued boroughs, at their own will and forth in the text. — Parliaments and Councils of England, p. 30. 
pleasure. Under the three first Edwards, thirteen sheriffs returned '-^ KoU. A, 6. m. 16. 

members thirteen times for Lancaster and six times for Preaton ; yet in 



Knights. Parliament at Wages. 

Joh'es Botiller, Chivaler ] Northampton, Monday after all Saints (Nov. 5, 1380) £19 : 128. for 49 days 

Thoa. de Suthworth, Chivaler. . . / ^^^ ^ ^^ ^ 20 d. 

Will de Athirton I Westminster, Morrow of All Souls (Nov. 3, 1381) £38 : Ss. for 96 days. 

Eobt. de Urcewyk / ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 22 ^ 

Eoger de Pylkynton, Chivaler. 1 -Westminster, Morrow of St. John (May 7, 1382) £10 for 25 days. Clifton / CI. 5 R. /I. m. 5 d. 

Joh'es Assheton Westminster Monday, Octaves of St. Michael (Oct. 6, 1382) £10 : 16a. for 27 days. 

Robert Usewick j ^^ g ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 

Rio'uB de Hoghton \ Westminster, Monday, three weeks of Quadragesima (Feb. 23, 1383) £10 : 8s. for 36 days. 

Robt. de Clifton < J ni a d tt n lo j 

CI. 6 Jl. II. p. 2 m. 13 d. 

Walterus Urswyk, Chivaler... ) -Westminster, Monday before All Saints (Oct. 26, 1383) £8 : 16s. for 40 days. 

John Holcroft ) r,T ~ r, rr ^^ i 

CI. I R. II. m. 23 d. 

Roger de Pilkington, Chivaler \~^^^ Sarum, Friday after St. Mark (April 29, 1384) £16 for 40 days. 

Thos. Gerard J ^, ^ n rr 

Robt. Ursewick, Chivaler \ -Westminster, Morrow of St. Martin (Saturday, Nov. 12, 1384) £1 8 for 45 days. 

AVill. de Tunstall, Chivaler ...J ' -,, „ „ ,, „_ , 

CI. 8 R. II. til. 27 d. 

Robt. Ursewyk, Chivaler 1 -Westminster, Friday after St. Luke (Oct. 20, 1385) £23 : 4s. for 58 days. 

Thos. de Radecbffe J " ^, „ „ rr «^ , 

CI. 9 R. II. m. 22 d. 

Nic. de Hayeirngton, Chivaler Kygg^.jj^;j^g^ jg(. Q^^^^^j. (^3gg^ £28 for 71 days. 

Robt. de Workesley J 

CI. 10 R. II. m. 16 d. 

Job. le Botiller de Weryngton, \ 

Chivaler [-Westminster, Morrow of the Purification B. Mary (Monday, Feb. 3, 1388)^ £46 for 115 days. 

Thos. Gerard J Cl.UR.IL 

Joh. de AshetoDj^ Chivaler | Cantebrigge, Morrow of Nat. B. Mary (Sept. 9, 1388) £18 : 8s. for 46 days. 

CI. 12 R. II. m. lid. 

j'h'd^ Assheton' Chivaler '' } '^Westminster, Monday after St. Hillary (Jan. 17, 1390) £22 for 56 days. 

CI. 13 R. II. p. 2 m. 7 d. 

Joh de Croft^hivaler^'^'^ " } Westminster, Morrow of St. Martin (Saturday, Nov. 12, 1390) £30 : 123. for 34 days. 

CI. li R. n. m. SO d. 

Robt dtworkisk'*^'^"'^^'^'" I Westminster, Morrow of All Souls (Friday, Nov. 3, 1391) £17 for 40 days. 

CV. 15 iJ. //. m. 26 d 

R^d^'dt^^rTchivfler™'*'^ '" jwynton, Octaves of St. Hillary (Monday, January 20, 1393) £23 for 38 days. 

CI. 16 R. II. m.. 19 d 

Thas*' GerarXcSvaler !!."!!!'!! } Westminster, fifteen days of St, Hillary (Tuesday, Jan. 27, 1394) £21 for 71 days. 

a. 17 R. II. m. 9 d. 
Thos' de Radecl'iff^' *^*'''^'*^'''''" | Westminster, fifteen days of St. Hillary (Wednesday, Jan. 27, 1395) £12 : 16s. for 32 days. 

CI. 18 R. II. m. 6 d. 
Rill! Mdyneux'!^','^!'. .^!!'™'.^^'. ! } Westminster, Feast of St. Vincent (Monday, Jan. 22, 1397) £30 : 12s. for 34 days, 

CI. 20 R. 11. p. 2 m. 2 d. 

p'v,;«q1oi. ' I Westminster, Monday after Exalt, of Cross (Sept, 7, 1397), and adjourned 1 „,-, „ c >i j„„o 
RaddeRadeciiff":::.:.::;::;:::/ to Shrewsbury (MoW Jan. 28, 1398) ..!...'....,: :: \ 1^16 :8s. for 41 dajs. 

CI. 21 R. II. p. 2 m. 9 d. 

Henry IV. 

The duchy of Lancaster being now united with the crown, by the duke having become King of 
England, the parliamentary writs of summons, in the first and second years of the reign of Henry 
IV., were addressed to the sheriff of Lancaster, and not to the duke. The members for the county 
returned in this reign were : — 

1 This ParlMment has been called by some historians "The Parlia- In it articles of high treason wore exhibited against the king's ministers 
ment that Wrought Wonders," and by others ' ' The Merciless Parliament." who wore, accordingly, sentenced to death or banishment.— G. 



Knights. Parliament at Wages. 

Robt. deUrsewjk, Chivaler ... 1 ,,, .-.,;, 
Hen. de Hoghton, CMvaler ... f "^^^'^^'^''-^O'^^ofSt. Miohael,summoned by RioliardII.(Sep. 30,1399) X26 : 16a. for 71 days. 

a. 1 Hen. IV. P. 1 m. 21 d. 

™T,„™^!''°^ ^f'^'^T^ "■' n^^''^,"^ on the 29th September ; the Parliament met on the 30th, but oaly sat' for' a single day' 
SctXth, fsoTTlCy l7)" ""'■'"* '^'"■'^"^"*-" ^"°^"^'' ^^'•""'-«"* ™« -— «^' *° --* ^* WeBt^' 

Robt. de Ursewyke, Chivaler.. 1 ttt t - i r^ , 

Nich. de Atherton, Chivaler .../ *^ ^^*™"^'^«'"' Octaves of St. Hillary (Jan. 20, 1401) £34 : Ifis. for 66 days. 

CI. 2 H. IV. P. 1 m. 3 d. 
No returns found Westminster (Jany. 30, 1402) Z II. IV 

Rich, de Hoghton, Chivaler ... 1 TIT x ■ t 

Nic. de Haveryngton, Chivaler / "'^^*™"'^'^^''> Morrow of St. Michael (Sept. 30, 1402) £27 for 69 days. 

a. 4 H. IV. m. 34 d. 
Rad. de Radeolyff. Chivaler ... 1 ,,- . . . ,, , ., „ „ 
Robt. Laurence | AA estmmster, Morrow of St. Hillary (Jan. 14, 1404) £31 : 123. for 69 days. 

CI. 5 H. IV. P. m. 10 d. 

Jao. Harryngton, Chivaler l „ , ,.,, ,„i, ,,„„ 

Rad Staveley, Chivaler J- Coventry (6th of October, 1404) £8 : 8s. for 46 days. 

a 6 ff. IV. m. 5 d. 

/\\estmm6ter (Monday, 1st March, 1406) \ 

Will Botiller ) Adjourned to 25th April / 

Kob't. Lawrence"!;;!";;!:!!;:! ^ Adjourned to 4th June V£71 ;123. for 189 days. 

I Adjourned to 2och Oct. | 

V Adjourned to 22nd Deo ) 

CI. 8 ff. IV. m. 7 d. 
LTSn^TeV^cSe;"!!! I^loucester (20th October, 1407) £21 :12s. for 54 days. 

CI. 9 H. IV. m. 8 d. 
No returns found Westminster (Jan. 27, 1410) 11 //. IV. 

Johannes de Assheton,^ 

Chivaler ^ Westminster (Nov. 3, 1411) IZ II. IV. 

Johannes del Bothe ) 

To the Parliament held at Coventry in the sixth year of this monarch's reign (1404), the sheriffs 
were commanded not to return any lawyers — persons learned in the law. Lord Chancellor Beaufort, 
in framing the writs of summons, illegally inserted a prohibition that any apprentice or other man 
of the law should be elected, and hence this Parliament was called " The Lack-learning 
Parliament" (Parliamentum Indoctuin.). Lord Campbell says the recklessness of the Commons 
may have arisen from their not having a single lawyer among them. 

Henry V. 

The first return made in this reign (1 Henry V., May 14, 1413) of the knights of the shire for 
Lancashire transmits the names of " Joh. Assheton and Joh. de Stanley, chivalers." By a. striking 
siagularity the indenture mentions only the name of Sir John Stanley, and entirely omits that of 
his colleague, stating that Nich. Longford, knight, and all others named in the indenture after him, 
with unanimous consent and agreement, have made a free election, and given to John Stanley the 
younger full power to become a knight in the Parliament to be held at Westminster, to answer for 
themselves and all theirs, and for all the commons in the county of Lancaster, in those matters 
which, under favour of the king, shall happen to be ordained in Parliament. The corresponding 
indenture is lost. 

In the next Parliament, "Rad. de Radcliff" and "Nich. Blundell " are returned as knights of the shire for this county 
January 29, 1414. (2 Henry V.) 

2 Henry V Johannes de Stanley, Robertas Lawrence, pec i«c?e»< (November 19, 1414.) ' 

3 HenrvV. No returns found (October 21, 1415.) 

3 Henry V do (March 16, 1416.) 

4 Henry V do (October 19, 1416.) 

5 Henry V do" (November 16, 1417.) 

7 Henry V. ' Nioholaus Botiller de RoucHf, Johannes Laurence (October 16, 1419.) 

8 Henry V Ricardus de Shirburne, Johannes del Bothe (December 2, 1420.) 

9 Henry V Thomas de Radclyf, miles, Thomas de Urswyk (May 2, 1421.) 

9 Henry V. Johannes Byrom, Chivaler, Ricardus de Sherburn (December 1, 1421.) 

■ At this election, eighteen electors, in full county court, with other "honest men and lieges" ol the coimty of Lancaster, elected the knights 
Parliaments and Councils qf England, p. 28. 


Henry VI. 
The members returned to represent the county of Lancaster in this reign were — 

1 Henry VI Tbos. de Urswyk, Johannes Gerard del Bryn, armig (November 9, 1422.) 

2 Henry VI Thomas de Radclyf, chiv., Radulphus de Iladclyf del Smethelles (October 20, 1423.) 

3 Henry YI Kadulphus fil. Necholai de Longford, miles, Ricardus de Radclyf 

de Radclyf, armig (April 30, 1425.) 

4 Henry VI Johannes Botiller de Beausee, Nicholaus Botiller de Raucliff (February 18, 1426.)' 

6 Henry VI Radulphus de Radclif, chiv., Thomas de Stanley (October 13, 1427.) 

8 Henry VI Johannes Byron, miles, Robertus fil. Roberti Laurence, miles ... (October 13, 1429.) 

9 Henry VI Johannes de Morley, Willielnius Gernet (January 12, 1431.) 

10 Henry VI Willielmus de Assheton, miles, Thomas de Haryngton (May 12, 1432.) 

11 Henry VI Thomas de Stanley, chiv., Thomas de Eadchf, chiv (July 8, 1433.) 

14 Henry VI Henricus de Halaall, Thomas Laurence (October 10, 1435.) 

15 Henry VI Thomas de Haryngton, Henricus de Halsall (January 21, 1437.) 

18 Henry VI No returns found (November 12, 1439.) 

20 Henry VI Thomas de Stanleigh, miles, Thomas de Haryngton de Hornebe (January 25, 1442.) 

23HenryVI No returns found (February 25, 1445.) 

25 Henry VI Thomas Stanley, knight, Thomas Harrington, 'Esq., per iTident. . (February 10, 1447.) 

27 Henry VI The same persons (February 12, 1449.) 

28 Henry VI Thomas Stanley, Johes. Butler, knights, per indent (November 6, 1449.) 

29 Henry VI Thomas Stanley, Ricardus Haryngton, knights, jjer mffe»f (November 6, 1450.) 

31 Henry VI No returns found (March 6, 1453.) 

33 Henry VI Thomas Stanley, Alexander Radcliff, knights (July 9, 1455.) 

38 Henry VI Richus. Harrington, knight, Henry Halaall, ^er iracfeni (November 20, 1459.)- 

39 Henry VI Eiclid. Haryngton, knight, Henry Halsall (October 7, 1460.) 

In the seventh year of this king's reign (1428-9) the qualification of electors for counties, which 
had hitherto been undefined, was fixed by an Act of Parliament, which ordains that " the knights 
shall be chosen in every county by people dwelling and residing in the same county, whereof every 
one of them shall have land or tenement of the value of forty shillings by the year, at the least, 
over and above all charges," which is explained, by an Act of the 10th (1431-2) of the same king 
to mean fi'eeholds of that value within the county for which the election is to be made. Hitherto 
all the freeholders, without exception, had claimed the right of voting for county members, in 
consequence of which, it is alleged, great outrages had arisen, " whereby manslaughter, riots, 
batteries, and divisions among the gentlemen and other people of the said counties shall very 
lilcely arise and be, unless convenient and due remedy be provided in this behalf." From the reign 
of Henry VI. to the present time [1886], no change has been judged necessary in this qualification, 
though the nominal money equivalent has in the meantime greatly increased. ' 

The agitation of the kingdom at this period, arising out of the wars between the houses of 
York and Lancaster, seems to have given rise to a violent stretch of the royal prerogative, the 
king having, of his own authority, summoned members to Parliament ; and hence an Act of 
indemnity was passed 23 Henry VI. (1445), which provides, " that all such knights of any county, 
as are returned to the Parliament by virtue of the king's letters, without any other election, shall 
be good, and that no sheriff, for returning them, do incur the pains therefore provided." ■" 


Edward IV. 
The members returned for the county of Lancaster in this reign were — ■ 

1 Edward IV No returns found (November 4, 1161.) 

3 Edward IV No returns found (April 29, 1463.) 

7 Edward IV James Haryngton, Knt., William Haryngton, Knt (June 3, 1467.) 

9 Edward IV No returns found (1469.) 

10 Edward IV No returns found (November 26, 1470.) 

12 Edward IV Robert Harynton, John Assheton (October 6, 1472.) 

17 Edward IV George Stanley, Knt., James Haryngton, Knt (January 16, 1478.) 

22 Edward IV No returns found (1483.) 

From 17 Edward IV. (1478) to 37 Henry VIII. (154.5) all the returns, with the exception of a 
few fragments of those of the Parliament of 1542-4, have hitherto been supposed to be irretrievably lost. 
Within that period seventeen ParHaments Avere summoned and dissolved, viz., the 17 and 22 

1 CaUed "The Parliament of Bats," from the circumstance that ' In the original edition Mr. Baines states that since the reign of 

orders were sent to the members that they shoiild not wear sword.s, so Henry VI. "the value of money has in the me;mtime incremed UnfoU." 

they came to the Parliament, which met at Leicester, with long st.aves, The eiTor is in uaini? tho term " value " instead of ' ' nominal equivalent." 

and when these staves or bats were prohibited they had recourse to The truth is, that £5 in the reign of Henry VI, would have purchased 15 

stones and leaden plummets. -C. quarters of wheat, which, for 20 years before 1707 (when Fleetwood wrote 

u , ?T: I''?'«'''=''*1 Parliament, m which it was enacted that all his Ckronicon Preciosum) cost «30. In other words, from Henry VI. to 

such knights of any county as were returned to the Parliament by virtue J707 the value of money had decreaml sixfold, instead of inamshw ten- 

of the kings letters, without any other election, should be good, .and fold. What is meant is, that the equivalent of £6 temn. Henry VI. was 

that no sheriff, for returning them, should incur the penalties therefor £30 in 1707-a sixfold increase in nominal amouut.-H. 
provided by the 23 Henry VI. The queen, Margaret of Anjou, and her ' Sir Robert Cotton's .\bridgemeiit, p. (i(>4. 

party earned all before them, from which circumst.anco, and the measures 
carried, it was called ParUuuLaUaiit, dkUjoUci'Jii. — 0. 



•Edward IV.; 1 Richard III; 1, 3, 7, 11, and 12 lienrv VII • and ] 3 fi u 91 9s ^i qq j 
37 Henry VIII. Fortunately a list of the Parhament 'of 21' HenryS'il'i. '('15 '-.S h as witMn 
recent years been found among Lord Denbigh's papers, which happily preserves the names of ha 
his oncal assembly, a^d this has been included in the Blue Boorreturns issued by oX of the 
House of Commons, March, 1878. Since the publication of that volume a discovery has been made 
of the greater part of the returns of Henry VIII.'s last Parhament, which was originally summoned 
to meet at Westminster, January 30, 1544-5, but by prorogation was adjourned to Westmhister 
October lo, 1.4.., thence by further prorogation to New WiSdsor, November 23, 1545, and by final 
writs to meet at Westminstei- instead of New Windsor, November 23, 1545. It was dissolved in 
consequence of the kmg s death, January 31 1546-7. From these recently-discovered documents we 
get the following returns of the members elected for Lancashire :— 

11 w^"'"^ vnr Henricus Fai-yington, armiger, Andreas Barton, armiger (November 3 1529 ) 

37 Henry ^ III Thomas Holoroft, miles, Johannes Kechyn, armiger.. (November 23 1515 ) 

From 1 Edvjard VI. (1547) to 16 Charles L (1640) the writs are regular, and the following are 
the members returned as knights of the shire for Lancashire :— ° 

7 IrtZrd VI Thurston Tyldesley,Esq.--John Kecliyn, Esq (November 4, 1547.) 

7l!.dwardVI Richard Houghton (m place Robert Worsley, Knt. )—Tho. 

Butler, Esq (March 1 1553 ) 

I'^fl ^[cM Sherborne Knt.- John Rygmayden the Eider,'EsqV'y.y.'.'. (Ootober'5, 1553.) 

Ifary Tho. Stanley, Knt.—Tho. Langton, Knt fOctober 2 1 'i'ii ( 

If 2Ph lip and Mary Tho. Stanley Knt.-John Holfroft Knt. ....,.■.■.■.■.•■.■.■■.■.■ (November I'' 1554 1 

2&3PhihpandMary Tho. Stanley, Knt.-Will. Stanley, Knt (oSr 21 1555 1 

4 &5 Philip and Mary Tho. Talbot, Knt.-John Holcroft, sen., Knt .■.■.'■.'..■.'.■.'.'■.■.' (Januarv 2o' 1558) 

J?^''^.'? John Atherton, Knt.-Rob. Worseley, Knt (January 23! 1559.) 

5 Ehzabeth Tho. Gerard, Knt.— John Southworth, Knt (Januarv 10 1563 ) 

13 Elizabeth Tho. Butler-John Radcliffe, Esq. (1571 ) 

14 Elizabeth John Radcliff, Esq.— Edm. Trafford, Esq., Master of the Rolls ... (May 8, 1572 ) 

2/ Elizabeth Gilbert Gerard, Knt.— Rich. Molineux., of Sefton (November 23 1584) 

28Elizabeth John Atherton, Esq.— Rich. Holland, Esq (October 15 1586 ) 

SlEUzabeth Tho. Gerard, son of Sir Gilbert Gerard, Knt.— Tho. Walmesley, 

„^^,. , ^, serjeant-at-law (November 12, 1588.) 

35 Elizabeth Tho. Molineux, Knt.— Tho. Gerard, jun., Knt. (February 19 1593) 

39 Elizabeth Tho. Gerard, jun., Knt., of Astley, Marshal of the Household.— 

Robt. Hesketh, Esq., of Rufforthe , (February 9 1598.) 

43 Elizabeth Rich. Houghton, Knt.— Tho. Hesketh, Attorney of the Court of ' 

Wards (October 27, 1601.) 

1 James I Rich. Molineux, Knt. — Rich. Houghton, Knt (March 13, 1604.) 

12 James I Gilbert Houghton, Knt.— John Radcliff, Knt (April 5, 1614.)" 

18 James I John Radcliff, Knt. — Gilbert Houghton, Knt (January 16, 1621.) 

21 James I John Radcliff, Knt. — Tho. Walmesley, Knt (February 12, 1624.) 

1 Charles I Rich. Molineux, Bart.— John Radcliff, Knt (May 17, 1625.) 

1 Charles I Rob. Stanley, Esq.— Gilbert Houghton, Knt (February 6, 1626.) 

3 Charles I Rich. Molineux, Knt. and Bart.— Alex. Radcliff, Knight of the Bath (March 17, 1628.) 

16 Charles I Gilbert Houghton, Knt. and Bart.— Will, ffarrington, Esq (April 13, 1640.)^ 

16 Charles I Ralph Ashton, Esq. — Roger Kirkby, Esq. — Rich. Houghton, Esq., 

mce Roger Kirkby, disabled to serve (Novembers, 1640.)^ 

In 15 Henry VIII. (1523) Sir Thomas More, then chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, held 
the office of speaker of the House of Commons. The learned chancellor's connection with the duchy 
has led to the mistake that he represented Lancashire in Parliament, and consequently that this 
county has had the honour to supply a member to the speaker's chair ; but this is an error. 

In 1 Edward VI. (1547) writs of parliamentary summons were issued to Lancaster, Preston, 
Liverpool, and Wigan ; and each of these places at that period, if not earlier, resumed, by royal 
authority, the elective franchise. Queen Elizabeth, in the first year of her Majesty's reign, 
made a further accession to the Lancashire boroughs by the addition of Newton and Clitheroe ; 
and all these six boroughs regularly returned members to Parliament from that time until the 
passing of the Reform Act of 1832, when Newton was disfranchised and Clitheroe deprived of one 
member ; but by the same Act it was provided that two members should be given respectively to 
Manchester, Oldham, Bolton, and Blackburn, and one each to Salford, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bury, 
Rochdale, and Warrington. 

' Prior to the meeting of this Parliament certain of the King's ^ "The Long Parliament," which many thought " would never have 

ministers, among them Bacun and Somerset, undertook to manage tlie had a beginning, and afterwards that it would never have had an end." 

Commons so as to secure tlie passing of the votes desired. The promise When the members were about to meet, on the 6th December, 1G4S, 

became known out of doors, and the ministers, in consequence, were Colonel Pride sarrounded the House with two regiments, and excluded 160 

nick -named "undertakers." It was summoned in the expectation that members. *' Pride's Purge," as it was called, was followed by the arbitrary 

it would grant supplies, but instead of this the members insisted on the act of Cromwell, who, on the 20th April, 1G53, violently dispersed the 

previous discussion of grievances, and as it proved obdurate, it was members, and called upon Col. Charles Worsley, afterwards member for 

dissolved on the 7th June, without having passed a single hill, and from Manchester, who had command of the soldiery, to "take away the baiible." 

this circumstance was called " The Addled Parliament."— C. After many vicissitudes, in which fragments of this Parliament were 

2 Called "The Short Parhament," from its being dissolved after a called together again and again for special purposes, the appearance of 

Eossion of three weeks —C. legal dissolution was given by a bill for "Dissolving the Parliament begun 

and holden at Westminister, 3rd of November, lliiO, and that the day of 
dissolution shah be from this day, March 16th, 1659 " (-60).— C. 

134 THE HISTORY OF LANCASHIRE. oiiap. vitt. 

It appears that nomination boroughs were perfectly familiar so early as the reign of Elizabeth ; 
and it is probable that both Newton and Clitheroe always partook of this character; but the most 
flagrant instance of the kind upon record in these early times is to be found in a bundle of returns 
of parliamentary writs in 14 Queen Elizabeth (157:2), which, thouo-h unconnected Avith the county 
of Lancaster, may not inaptly be introduced in this place. The document is in the chapel of the 
Rolls, and is expressed in the following terms : — 

" To all Christian people to whom this present Writing shall come : I, Dame Dorothy Packington, widow, late wife of Sir John 
Packington, Kt., Lord and Owner of the Town of Aylesbury, send greeting. Know ye Me, the said Dame Dorothy Packington, to 
have chosen, named, and appointed my trusty and well-beloved Thomas Litchfield and George Burden, Esqrs. to be my Burgesses of 
my said town of Aylesbury. And whatsoever the said Thomas and George, Burgesses, shall do in the Service of the Queen's 
Highness in that present Parliament, to be holden at Westminster the Eighth day of May next ensuing the Date hereof, I, the same 
Dorothy Packington, do ratify and approve to be my own Act, as fully and wholly as if I were or might be present there. In 
WITNESS whereof, to these presents I have set my Seal this Fourth Day of May, in the Fourteenth Year of the Reigu of our Sovereign 
Lady Elizabeth, by the Grace of God, of England, France, and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, etc." 

In the 26th year of this queen's reign (1584) a very extraordinary claim was set up to 
parliamentary nomination by Sir Ralph Sadler, "a knight of noted virtue," in respect of his office 
of chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, which was no less than the right to nominate both the 
members to represent the borough of Leicester in Parliament. The account given in the archives 
of the borough of this claim, and of the manner in which it was disposed of, is as follows : — • 

" Nov. 12, 26 Eliz. — At a common hall, the sheriff's precept being read, and after that Sir Ralph Sadler's letter for nomination 
of both our burgesses, and other letters ; it is agreed, that Sir Ralph S;idler, knight, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, shall have 
the nomination of one of the burgesses ; who thereupon nominated Henry Skipwith, Esq. ; and the other chosen was Thomas 
Johnson, one of her Majesty's serjeants-at-arms ; and either of them promised to bear their own charges." 

On what authority the chancellor grounded his pretensions to nominate members for Leicester, 
except that it is within the duchy of Lancaster, does not appear, nor does it appear that any 
similar claim was ever made by any other chancellor, either before or since. It may be inferred 
from the corporation record that members began about this time to serve without wages ; and it is 
probable that the practice was gradually discontinued, till at length it wholly ceased. 


The following are the names of the members for the county of Lancaster elected during the 
Commonwealth : — 

1653. Will. West, John Sawry, Rob. Cunliss. (July 4.) 

[The name of " Praise God Barebone," occurs in this Parliament in the list of London members.] 

1654. Rich. Holland, Gilbert Ireland, Rich. Standish, Will. Ashurst. (Sep. 3.) 

1656. Sir Rich. Houghton, Bart. Col. Gilbert Ireland, Col. Rich. Holland, Col. Rich. Standish. (Sep 17.) 
1658-9. George Book [ ? Rooke], Bart. ; Alex. Rigby, Esq. ( Jany. 27.) ' 

11 Charles II.^ to 30 Victoria. 

The Parliament of 1G53 was a packed Parliament, returned by Cromwell, the Lord Protector, 
and consisted of only one hundred and twenty-one members, of whom one hundred and ten were 
for England, five each for Scotland and Ireland, and one for Wales. In 1654 the right of election 
was again partially restored, the number of members being augmented to four, of whom 
two hundred and seventy were chosen by the counties ; the remainder were elected by London and 
other considerable corporations and towns, Manchester and Leeds being amongst the number. To 
the Parliament of 1653 neither Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, Wigan, or Clitheroe sent any members, 
but the county returned three ; to those of 1654 and 1656 Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, and 
Wigan sent each one member, and the county four. To the ParHament of 1658-9 Lancaster, 
Preston, Liverpool, Wwan, and Newton sent two members each, and the county two ; but no 
return was made for Clitheroe during the whole period of the Commonwealth. Though the 
Government professed to be popular, the elective franchise was very much abridged during this 
period, and an estate of two hundred pounds value was necessary to confer the rio-ht of votinc In 
other respects the elections were unobjectionable except that all those who had carried" arms 
against the Parliament, as well as their sons, were prohibited from voting at the elections. 

CromJSi' "bl*L°^rac?'j;f Ood V^"r?fT^f'« !'^?,''^""= "^ ^khard privilege ; Manchester, Leeds, Halifax ceased to retm-n members; audtho 
EnXnd Scoaind aS IreHnd and the dm^^ ° "2"°'^ "^ "''"''^ ^^= =^8'''° '"""^d to two Icnights. Macaulay s;vys the 

It l?a^ a uniaue chapter for w^^^^^ belonging. chango was extremely popular, ,9 being the Restoration of a system 

CHAP. vni. 



presenf timV:^ ^''''^^*' ""^ *^' '^''' ^""^ ^^'' '°""*^ °^ Lancaster, from the Restoration to the 

Sir Roger Bradshaw Edward Stanley. 

The same The same. 

Peter Bold Charles Gerrard. 

Charles Gerard Sir Charles Hoghton. 

bir Charles Houghton The same. 

Sir Roger Eradshaw James Holt. 

Lord Brandon Sir Charles Houghton. 

James Stanley, Charles, Lord Brandon., Ralph Assheton, vice Chas. Lord 

Brandon, called to Upper House 
_, as Earl of Macclesfield. 

Tne same The same. 

The same Fitton Garrerd. 

^he same Robert Bold. 

The same The same. 

Tliesame The same. 

The same Richard Shuttleworth of Gaw- 


The same The same. 

The same The same. 

Sir John Bland, of Hulme The same. 

The same The same. 

The same The same. 

Sir Edward Stanley The same. 

The same The same. 

Lord Strange The same. 

The same The same. 

The same Peter Bold of Bold. 

The same James Shuttleworth. 

J. Smith (Lord Strange) James Shuttleworth, Esq. 

The same Lord Arch. Hamilton. 

Richard L. V. Molyneux Sir Thomas Egerton, Bart. 

Edward Smith Stanley (Lord Stanley).. The same. 

Hon. Thomas Stanley, vice Edward Smith Stanley, called to the Upper House. 
Thomas Stanley, of Cross Hall, Esq., vice Thomas Stanley, deceased. 

The same SirThomasEgerton,Bart.,ot Heaton 

The same John Blaokburne, Esq., of Hale. 

The same The same. 

The same The same. 

The same The same. 

The same The same. 

The same ... The same. 

The same The same. 

Lord Stanley „ The same. 

The same The same. 

The same The same. 

The same j The same. 

The same John Wilson Patten, Esq. 

The same Benjamin Hey wood, Esq. 

Of all the old Lancashire boroughs Liverpool may be said to have risen most into eminence ; 
and for this distinction it seems indebted rather to the local advantages of its marine situation than 
to its chartered privileges. Preston has at all times occupied a high station amongst the towns of 
the county ; but for several centuries it was perfectly stationary in its wealth and population ; and 
it was not till its corporate restrictions were materially relaxed that it began to increase in either. 
The other old boroughs of the county have not undergone any material changes in the lapse of ages, 
while a number of the other towns of Lancashire have sprung into existence and been increasing 
within the last century in a ratio altogether unexampled. 

For many years, and indeed for some ages before the Reform Act of 1832, the political character 
of the county representation displayed itself in a division of the return of members between the 
Stanley family, as the head of the Whig party, and the Blackburnes, of Hale Hall, as representing 
the Tory interest ; but at the general election in 1831 the disposition of the county in favour of the 
then pending reform bill (of which the most conspicuous features were its disfranchising the decayed 
boroughs, and conferring the elective franchise on many of the populous unrepresented towns of 
the county) was so strong, that this tacit arrangement was no longer acted upon, but two members 
were returned, both of them in favour of the new system. 

That " poverty and debility," which for so long a period induced the inhabitants of all the 
parliamentary boroughs in the county of Lancaster to suffer their elective rights to sink into 
abeyance now no longer exists, but has given place to an amount of wealth and population which 
fully entitles most of its boroughs and several other towns in the county to send their repre- 
sentatives to the national councils. By the provisions of the Reform Act of 1832, 2 Will. IV 

12 Charles II 1660. 

13 Charles II 1661 

29 Charles II 1678! 

81 Charles II 1679 

S3 Charles II I68l! 

1 James II 168.5. 

8 James II 1688. 

2 "William and Mary 1690. 

7 William III 1695 

10 William III 1698 

12 William III i7oi' 

13 William III 1701. 

1 Anne 1702. 

4 Anne 1705. 

7 Anne 1708. 

9 Anne 1710. 

12 Anne 1713.' 

1 George 1 1715. 

8 George 1 1722. 

1 George II 1727. 

3 George II 1734. 

15 George II 1741. 

21 George II 1747. 

27 George II 1754. 

1 George III 1761. 

2 George III 1762. 

8 George III 1768. 

15 George III 1774. 

21 George III 1780. 

24 George III 1784. 

30 George III 1790. 

36 George III 1796. 

41GeorgeIII 1801. 

42 George III 1802. 

46 George III 1806. 

47 George III 1807. 

53 George III 1812. 

58 George III 1818. 

1 George IV 1820. 

7 George IV 1826. 

1 William IV 1830. 

: WiUiam IV 1831. 




cap. 45, passed 7th June, the representation of the county of Lancaster and its boroughs stood 

thus : — „ , 


Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool, and Wigan (2 members each, and unaltered) 8 

Newton (disfranchised) 

Clitheroe, instead of two members, to return 1 

Lancashire, instead of two members, to return — 

North Lancashire 2 

South Lancashire ■ 2 

New Boroughs. 

Manchester 2 

Ashton-under-Lyne 1 

Bolton-le-Moors 2 

Blackburn 2 

Bury 1 

Oldham 2 

Rochdale • • • • ^ 

Salfbrd 1 

Warrington 1 


Before the Reform Act, Lancashire and its boroughs returned 14 members to Parliament ; so 
that the increased number for the county and boroughs by that Act was 12, or nearly double. 

Members Elected since the Passing of the Eepobm Act, 1832. 

Since the passing of the Reform Act in 1832, there have been fourteen Parliaments, the 
general elections for which were in December 1832, January 1835, August 1837, July 1841, 
August 1847, July 1852, March 1857, April 1859, July 18G5, November 1868, February 1874, 
April 1880, November 1885, and July 1886. The first two of these Parliaments were in the reign 
of William IV., the last twelve in that of her present Majesty ; and the Parliament elected in July, 
1886, is styled the twelfth Parliament of Queen Victoria. As in 1832 a new Parliamentary era 
commenced, we give the numbers of registered electors in 1832 and 1865, and the number of votes 
polled for each candidate at every contested election. By the Reform Act the county of Lancaster 
was separated into two divisions for representative and electoral purposes, usually termed North 
and South Lancashire. 

Lancashire, North (Two Members). 
Electors in 1832, 6,593— in 1865, 13,006. 

1832, Dec. Eight Hon. E. G. Stanley (L) 

John Wilson Patten (C) 

On Mr. Stanley becoming Colonial Secretary ■ 

1833, March. Right Hon. E. G. Stanley (L) 

1835, Jan. Lord Stanley (L) 

John Wilson Patten (C) 

1837, Aug. LordStanley (L) 

1832, Dec. 

Lancashire, South (Two Members). 
Electors in 1832, 10,039— in 1865, 21,555. 



John Wilson Patten . 

1841, July. Lord Stanley 

John AVilson Patten 

On Lord Stanley again becoming Colonial Secre- 
tary : 

1841, Sept. Lord Stanley 

On LordStanley'sacceptingtheChiltern Hundreds 
and being then created a peer : 

1844, Sept. J. Talbot Clifton (Protec.) 

1847, Aug. J. Wilson Patten (C) 

James Heywood (L) 

1852, July. John Wilson Patten .'.,' (C) 

James Heywood (L) 

1857, March. John AMlson Patten (C) 

Lord Cavendish (L) 

1859, April. John Wilson Patten (C) 

Marquis of Hartington (L) 

1865, July. John Wilson Patten (C) 

Marquis of Hartington (L) 

On Mr. Patten accepting the Chancellorship of the 
Duchy of Lancaster : 
1867, July. John Wilson Patten (C) 

1835, Jan, 

1837, Aug. 

1841, July. 





George W. Wood 

Viscount Molyneux 

Sir T. Hesketh, Bart 

Lord Francis Egerton 

Hon. R. Bootle Wilbraham 

Viscount Molyneux 

George W. Wood 

Lord F. Egerton 

Hon. R. Bootle Wilbraham 

Edward Stanley 

Charles Towneley 

Lord Francis Egerton 

Hon. R. Bootle Wilbraham 

On decease of Mr. Wilbraham : 
May. William Entwisle 

William Brown 

On Lord Francis Egerton becoming Earl of 
Ellesmere : 

June. William Brown 

Aug. William Brown 

Hon. C. P. Villiers 

On Mr. Villiers electing to sit for Wolver- 
hampton : 

Dec. Alexander Henry 

July. William Brown 

John Cheetham 

March. William Brown 

John Cheetham 

(L) 5694 

(L) 5576 

(C) 3082 

(C) 5620 

(C) 4729 

(L) 4626 

(L) 4394 

(C) 7822 

(C) 7645 

(L) 6676 

(L) 6044 

(C) 7571 

(L) 6973 








Elections. Lancashire, South — con. 

1865, July. Hon. Algernon F. Egerton (G) 9167 

Charles Turner (C) 8801 

Right. Hon. W. E. Glladetone (L) 8786 

William John Legh (C) 8476 

H. Yates Thompson (L) 7703 

James P. Heywood (L) 7653 

Meeting. Lancasliire, South — con. 

1859, April. Hon. Algernon F. Egerton (C) 

"William John Legh (C) 

John Cheetham (L) 

J. Pemberton Heywood (L) 

A third seat having been granted to this 
constituency : 

1861,. Aug. Charles Turner (LC) 

John Cheetham (L) 

Under the provisions of the Representation of the Reople Act, 1867, the county was divided 
into four separate constituencies, viz.. North, North-east, South-east, and South-west Lancashire, 
two representatives being assigned to each. By the same Act an additional member each was given 
to Liverpool, Manchester, and Salford; Lancaster was deprived of its two representatives (for 
bribery),_ one each being given to Burnley and Stalybridge, the last-named borough being partly in 
Lancashire and partly in Cheshire. 

_ After the passing of the Representation of the People Act, 1867, the elections for the several 
divisions of the county were as under : — 

1874, Feb. 


Electimis. North Lancashire : 

1868, Nov. Capt. Hon. Fredk. A. Stanley 

Rt. H©n. John Wilson-Patten 

Marquis of Hartington 

Capt. Hon. F. A. Stanley, Unopposed 

Et. Hn. J. Wilson-Patten, Unopposed (C) 
Oh Mr. Wilson-Patten being created Baron 
AVinmarleigh, a new writ was issued : 
1874, March. Thomas Henry Clifton, Unopposed . 
1880, April. Right Hon. Fredk. A. Stanley 

Major-Gen. Eandle Joseph Feilden... 

Thomas Storey 


North-East Lancashire : 

1868, Nov. 

1874, Feb. 

1880, April. 

Elections. South-East Lancashire : 

6832 1868, Nov. Hon. Algernon Fulke Egerton (U) 8290 

6681 John Snowdon Henry (G) 8012 

6296 Eight Hon. Frederick Peel (L) 7024 

Henry Yates Thompson (L) 6953 

1874, Feb. Lieut.-Gol. Hon. Algernon F. Egerton (C) 9187 

Edward Hardcastle (G) 9015 

Peter Rylands (L) 7464 

John Edward Taylor (L) 7453 

8^72 1880, April. Robert Leake (L) 11313 

7505 WilliamAgnew (L) 11291 

geoo Hon. Algernon Fulke Egerton (G) 10569 

Edward Hardcastle (G) 10419 

Sowlh- West Lancashire : 

3612 1868, Nov. Richard Assheton Cross (G) 7729 

3594 Charles Turner (C) 7676 

3463 Rt. Hon. Wm. Ewart Gladstone (L) 7415 

3441 Henry R. Grenfell (L) 6939 

4578 1874, Feb. Richard Assheton Cross, Unopposed (G) 

4488 Charles Turner, Unopposed (G) 

4401 On the death of Mr. Charles Turner, a new 

4297 writ was issued : 

6682 1 875, Nov. Col. John Ireland Blackburne, Unop. (G) 
6513 1880, April. Rt. Hon. Sir E. A. Cross, G.C.B. ... (G) 11420 
5231 Colonel John Ireland Blackburne ... (C) 10905 
5183 William Rathbone (L) 96.i6 

Hon. Henry H. Molyneux (L) 9207 

Under the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885 (48 and 49 Vic. c. 23), the distribution of seats 
was changed, and the aggregate representation increased from 33 to 57 members. Under its pro- 
visions the borough of Clitheroe ceased to return a member, and became merged in its division of 
the county ; the borough of Wigan was deprived of one member, and an increased number of repre- 
sentatives was given to the boroughs of Liverpool (six), Manchester (three), and Salford (one) ; and 
Barrow-in-Furness and St. Helens were created parliamentary boroughs with one member each. 
The county now returns 23 members, viz., one each for the North Lonsdale, Lancaster,^ Blackpool, 
and Chorley divisions of North Lancashire ; one each for the Darwen, Clitheroe, Accrington, and 
Rossendale divisions of North-east Lancashire ; one each for the Westhoughton, Heywood, Middle- 
ton, Radclifie-cum-Farnworth, Eccles, Stretford, Gorton, and Prestwich divisions of South-east 
Lancashire ; and one each for the Southport, Ormskirk, Bootle, Widnes, Newton, Ince, and Leigh 
divisions of South-west Lancashire. The boroughs return 34 members, viz., Liverpool (nine), Man- 
chester (six), Salford (three), Blackburn, Bolton, Oldham, and Preston (two each) ; and Ashton- 
under-Lyne, Barrow-in-Furness, Burnley, Bury, Rochdale, St. Helens, Warrington, and Wigan 
(one each). 

Since the passing of the Act the elections for the several divisions of the county have been as 
follows : — 

James Maden Holt (C) 

J. P. Chamberlain Starkie (C) 

Sir Ughtred Jas. Kay-Shuttleworth . (L) 

William Fenton.... (L) 

James Maden Holt (G) 

J. P. Chamberlain Starkie (C) 

Sir Ughtred Jas. Kay-Shuttleworth . (L) 

Lord Edward Cavendish (L) 

Marquis of Hartington (L) 

Frederick William Grafton ( L) 

William Farrer Ecroyd (C) 

J. P. Chamberlain Starkie (C) 

Elections. Div. North Lancashire. Elections. 

1885, Nov. North Lonsdale. W. G. Ainslie (C) 4168 1885, Nov. 

(one) Sir Farrer Herschell ... (L) 8941 

1886, July. W. G. Ainslie (C) 4063 1886, July. 

W. M. Edmunds (GL) 3263 


Div. North Lancashire— con. 

Lancaster Major G. B. H. Marton (C) 4387 

J. G. M'Coan (L) 3530 

J. Williamson (GL) 3886 

Col. G. B. H. Marton... (C) 3691 




Electimis. Dir. North Lancashire — con. 

1885, Nov. Blackpool Colonel Rt. Hon. Fredk. 

A. Stanley, Unop. ... (C) 

1886, July. Colonel Rt. Hon. Fredk. 

A. Stanley, Unop. ... (C) 
Accepted the Chiltern Hundreds on being 
created a peer. 

1886, Aug. Blackpool Sir Matthew AVhite 

Ridley, Bart (C) 6263 

J. 0. Pilkington (GL) 2513 

1885, Nov. Chorley Lieut.-Gen.R. J.Feilden (C) 5867 

H.Wright (L) 2808 

1886, July. Lieut.-Gen. Randle J. 

Feilden, Unopposed . (C) 

Smith-East Lancashire — con. 

North-East Lancashire 

1885, Nov. 

1886, July. 

1885, Nov. 

1886, April. 

Darwen Vi.%count Cranborne ... 

John Gerald Potter ... 
Viscount Cranborne . . . 

John Slagg 

Clitheroe Sir Ughtred Jas. Kay- 


J. 0. S. Thursby 

Sir U. J. Kay-Shuttle- 


On appointment as Chancellor of the Duchj' 
of Lancaster re-elected unopposed. 

1886, July. Clitheroe Sir U. J. Kay-Shuttle- 

wortb, Unopposed ... 

1885, Nov. Accrington F.W.Grafton 

R. T. Hermon Hodge... 
R. T. Hermou Hodge... 

Joseph F. Leese 

1885, Nov. Rossendale Marquis of Hartington 

W. Farrer Ecroy d 

Marquis of Hartington 
Thomas Newbiggiug . . . 

1886, July 

1886, July. 

(C) 5878 
(L) 5873 

1886, July. 

(C) 6085 
(GL) 5350 

(L) 6821 

1885, Nov. 

(C) 4462 

1886, July. 

1885, Nov. 

1886, July. 

(L) 5320 
(G) 4842 
(C) 4971 

1885, Nov. 

1886, July. 
1885, Nov. 

(GL) 4751 

(L) 6060 

(C) 4228 

(LU) 5399 

(GL) 3949 

1886, July. 
1885, Nov. 

South-East Lanc^(shire : 

1885, Nov. Weethoughton.. Frank Hardcastle (C) 6011 

E. Cross (L) 3741 

1886, July. F. Hardcastle, Unop. ... (C) 

1885, Nov. Heywood Isaac Hoyle (L) 4533 

J. Kenyon (C) 3955 

1886, July. IsaacHoyle (GL) 4206 

J. Grant Lawson (0)3962 

1885, Nov. Middleton Colonel Salis Schwabe . (L) 5882 

,„„„ ^, T. Fieldeu (C) 4885 

1886, July. T. Fielden (0)5126 

0. H. Hopwood, Q.C.... (GL) 4808 

Elections. Div. 

1885, Nov. Radcliflfe-cum- / Robert Leake (L) 5092 

Farnworth ( W. W. B. Hulton (0)4579 

1886, July. Robert Leake (GL) 4695 

Sir Fredk. Milner, Bart. (C) 4569 

1885, Nov. Ecoles Hon. A. G. J. Egerton.. (C) 4559 

Vernon Kirk Armitage. (L) 4312 

1886, July. Hon. A. G.J. Egerton.. (0)4277 

Ellis D. Gosling (GL) 3985 

1885, Nov. Stratford William Agnew (L) 4860 

J. W. Maclure (C) 4676 

1886, July. J. W. Maclure (0)4750 

William Agnew (GL) 4011 

1885, Nov. Gorton Richard Peacock (L) 5300 

T>. J. Flattely (C) 3552 

1886, July. Richard Peacock CGL) 4592 

Vist. Grey de Wilton... ' (0) 4135 

1885, Nov. Prestwich Abel Buckley (L) 5414 

R. G. C. Mowbray (C) 4686 

R. G. C. Mowbray (0) 4843 

Abel Buckley (GL) 4704 

South- West Lancashire : 

Southport G. A. Pilkington, M.D.. (L) 3741 

J. E. Edwardes-Moss ... (C) 3581 

Hon. 6. N. Curzon (C) 3723 

G. A. Pilkington (GL) 3262 

Ormskirk A. B. For wood (0)5133 

Professor J. P. Sheldon (L) 2343 

A. B. Forwood, Unop... (C) 

Bootle Col. T. M. Sandys (0) 6715 

S. H. Whitbread (L) 3915 

Col. T. M. Sandys, Unop. (0) 

Widnes T. C. Edwardes-Moss ... (C) 4527 

E. K. Muspratt (L) 2650 

T. C. Edwardes-Moss ... (C) 3719 

A. Birrell (GL) 2927 

Newton Et. Hon. Sir Richard A. 

Cross, G.C.B (C) 4414 

Col. M'Corquodale (L) 4031 

1886, July. Rt. Hon. Sir Richard A. 

Cross, G.C.B (0) 4302 

Sir Geo. Errington, Bt. (GL) 3486 
Sir R A. Cross accepted the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds on being created a peer. 

1886, Aug. Newton Thos. Wodehouse Legh (C) 4062 

D. O'C. French (GL) 3355 

1885, Nov. Ince Colonel Blundell (0)4271 

C. McL. Percy (L) 3725 

1886, July. Colonel Blundell (C) 43C8 

G. P. Taylor (GL) 322S 

1885, Nov. Leigh Caleb Wright (L) 4621 

Lees Knowles (0)3275 

1886, July. Caleb Wright (GL) 3297 

AV. H. Myers (0) 3134 


Lancashire History iu the Reign of Edward Ill.-Pestilence-Creation of the First Duke of Lancaster-Heavy Imposts on the 
People of the Duchy-Death of the First Duke of Laucaster-His Will and Possessions-Administration of the First 
Duke, from the Rolls of the Duchy— Renewal of the Dukedom iu the person of John of Gaunt-The Franchise of jura 
regalia confirmed, and extended in favour of the Duke of Lancaster-Continuance of the Royal Bounty to the House 
of Lancaster — a.d. 1327 to 1379. 

NE of the most spirit-stirring periods in the early annals of Lancashire is that 
comprehended in the long reign of Edward III., at which, in the order of our 
history, we have now arrived. In this reign, the estates of the House of 
Lancaster, forfeited by the defection of the head of that house, were restored and 
augmented; the ducal dignity was conferred upon Henry, the first Duke of 
Lancaster, and the second duke created in England ; the county was erected 
into a palatinate jurisdiction, with jura regalia; and John of Gaunt, the distin- 
guished ornament of the ducal house, flourished in princely splendour in the 
exercise of regal functions. To add to the interest of this portion of our history, the public records 
of the kingdom abound with authentic materials; and our difficulty has arisen, not from the 
deficiency, but from the redundancy of those materials, which, being too copious to be published 
in detail, can only be presented in selection, and often by close abridgement. 

One of the first acts of Edward III., on ascending the throne, was to relax the severity of those 
decrees under which Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, by the advice of the vindictive Despensers, had 
been doomed to the block, and the estates of the earl, as well as of his followers, to confiscation. 
Edmvind de Nevill, by petition laid before the king in council, humbly represented that at the 
command of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in whose service he was, he had arrayed certain persons to 
arrest Hugh le Despenser and others of the counsellors of the late king, for which offence he had 
been fined one hundred marks ; of this fine he had paid thirty marks into the exchequer, which 
he prayed might be accepted in discharge of his fine, and which request the king was pleased 
graciously to grant.' An order from his majesty in council to the sheriff of Lancashire, issued in 
1327, directs that the lands of Sir Robert de Holand, Richard de Holland, and others, who had 
been engaged in the quarrel of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, against the Despensers, should be 
restored and delivered into their hands ; and the king, by the assent of Parliament, ordered writs 
to be directed to the treasurer and barons of the exchequer for releasing from fines and confiscation 
those who had joined Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, against his majesty's deceased father, in the battle 
of Boroughbridge.^ Sir Robert de Holland, who married Maud, one of the two daughters and 
co-heirs of Alan, Lord la Zouche, great-grandson of King Henry II., by the Fair Rosamond de 
Clifford, had filled many positions of trust. He fought in the wars in Scotland in 1303, served the 
office of Chief Justice of Chester and of Wales, with the custody of the king's castles of Chester, 
Rhuddlan, and Flint, as well as that of Beeston, was held in great esteem by the Earl of Lancaster, 
who appointed him his secretary, and for his services bestowed upon him divers manors and 
extensive tracts of land in Lancashire and elsewhere.^ When the earl made a second attempt to 
remove the Despensers from the royal councils, Sir Robert was despatched into Lancashire to raise 
a body of men to support the earl's enterprise, and to join him with the levy on the banks of the 
Trent, where, at Burton Bridge, he had placed a body of men to prevent the king's forces crossing 
the river. At Burton the earl found himself outmanoeuvred, and was obliged to retreat' north- 
wards to Boroughbridge, where a battle was fought which ended fatally for the insurgent army. 

» 1 Edw. in. (132r), p. 1. m. 21, Turr. Lond. 

2 Tbe roll of the battle of Boroughbridge, in poasesBion of C. W. W. 
Wynn, Esq , published in Division II. of the Parliamentary Writs, and 
Writs of Summons (Append. 188), serves to show the extent of this 
rebellion and the quality of the rebels. No fewer than three hundred 
and fifty barons and knights had arrayed themselves under the banners 
of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in this memorable insurrection, of whom 
many were killed or taken prisoners, exclusive of a great number of 
knights of somewhat inferior note, who were captured, and their lands 
confiscated by Edward II., but principally restored by his successor. 

' Among the muniments preserved in the Record Office ia an exem- 
plification of a grant from Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, Ac, to Hobprt de 
Holland of divers lands, Ac, viz., the manor of Yoxhale, with the 
advowson- the manners Tongetwiatle (Tintwistle) and Motteram m 

Longedendale, with the advowson of Motteram : the manner of Brough- 
ton, in the county of Bucks ; the mannor of Westderby, nere Liverpoole, 
with the demesnes of Croxtath ; and tbe manners of Torisholme and 
Kellett, with the bailiwick of Lonesdale, Fournaya (Furness) and Kert- 
mell (Cartmel), and Forester (ship) in Ccmi. Lane. ; the lands in the Hope, 
nere Manchester, and the bailiwick of Salford ; with a release of severall 
manners and advowsons in the county of Northampton (Division xxv., 

T> g\ Q 

* The king crossed the Trent at Walton, lower down the river than 
Burton, and by this means turned the earl's flank, compelling him to 
retreat across the Dove, a movement that was executed in such haste 
that the army chest, containing 100,000 silver pieces, fell into the river, 
where it remained for fully five centuries, having been fished up so 
recently as the year 1831. — C. 


The earl was captured and beheaded a day or two afterwards at Pontefract, but Sir Robert, who had 
surrendered, escaped the penalty of death, though the whole of his vast possessions were confiscated 
to the crown, as were also those of his kinsmen, "Johannes de Holand" and "Ricardus de 
Holand," who' had shared in the rebellious enterprise, and so remained until the accession of 
Edward III, when, with the assent of Parliament, their respective estates were ordered to be 
re-delivered into their hands. But the consummation of all this clemency was in the reversal of 
the attainder, and the cessation of all proceedings against Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, on the 
petition of his brother and heir, Henry, the now earl, to whom all the estates forfeited by his 
deceased brother were restored by a special act of grace, dated the 3rd of March, 1328. The order 
of restoration of the lands, profits, castle and honor of Lancaster to Henry, Earl of Lancaster, is 
directed to John de Lancaster, warden or keeper of the honor of Lancaster ; Geofrey de Werburton, 
sheriff of Lancaster ; Edmund de Assheby, keeper of the fees of the honor of Lancaster ; and to the 
various other officers of that honor.^ As if it had been intended to propitiate the manes of the 
deceased earl, a brief was issued from York to Robert de Weryington, clerk, enabling him to 
collect alms in various parts of the kingdom to defray the cost of the erection of a chapel, to be 
built on the site where Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, had been recently beheaded. 

The war with Scotland still continued, and the incursions of the Scots exposed the inhabitants 
of the northern counties of England to the most severe' suffering. The young king, anxious to 
avenge the wrongs committed upon his subjects, placed himself at the head of his army; to 
increase which he directed his mandate to the commissioners of array" of cavalry and infantry in 
the county of Lancaster, announcing that the Scots were preparing to invade the kingdom, and 
ordering them to prepare with arms all the men in the county, between the ages of sixteen and 
sixty, to join the king at Durham.^ The Scots had driven Edward II. from the very gates of 
Edinburgh, and out of Scotland, and pursued him with such activity into his own kingdom that 
he narrowly escaped falling into their hands. Emboldened by their successes they advanced to 
Avithin twenty miles of York, plundering the towns and abbeys and laying waste the country on 
their way. After his deposition an attempt was made, on the night of the coronation of the young 
King Edward III., to surprise and take Norham Castle, a fortified stronghold on the English side 
of the Tweed, and immediately afterwards a formidable invasion of England was planned by Bruce. 
In June (1327), an army of twenty-four thousand men, under Randolph, Earl of Moray, and Lord 
Douglas, assembled on the marches, crossed the border, and ravaged Cumberland. The young 
Edward, with a precocious heroism, put himself at the head of a great army of English knights and 
archers, and of foreign soldiers under John of Hainhault, which had assembled at York ; on the 
1.5th July he was at Durham, and immediately moved forward in pursuit of the enemy, whose 
track was discernable by the smoke of burning villages in the defiles of that mountainous country. 
Froissart gives a vivid description of this his first journey against the Scots, marching "through 
marshes and savage deserts, mountains and dales," looking in vain for the enemy, and eventually 
compelled to give up the pursuit in despair, when he returned to Durham, and thence to York. 
This was the first lesson in warfare of the great Edward, and it is recorded that he wept when he 
found that the enemy had silently escaped by a night march, and that he was circumvented by 
the skill of an army inferior in numbers.^ The effect of this expedition was, hoAvever, to free the 
coiuitry from the invaders ; and the death of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, which occurred on 
the 7th of June, 1329, prevented any further active hostility between the two countries for some 
years. At this time the county of Lancaster was much disturbed; large bodies of armed men 
assembled in the hundreds of Salford and West Derby, to the alarm of the peaceable inhabitants, 
and the insecurity of their property and lives. To put an end to this state of things, the Idng 
addressed_ his warrant (in 1328) to the sheriff of Lancashire, commanding him to make public 
proclamation that whoever should in future assemble in this Avay would be subject to imprison- 
ment and the loss of their arms.'' This measure does not appear to have had the desired effect. It 
Avas found necessary in 1329 to appoint a commission, consisting of John de Haryngton, Thomas de 
Lathom, Richard de Houghton, Richard de Kigheley, and Gilbert de Warburton, as guardians of 
the public peace. In the proclamation by Avhich this commission was accompanied it is stated 
that great multitudes of vagabonds and others assemble illegally together, by day and by night, 

' 2 Edw. in. p. 1. m. 18. Turr Loud. » Rot. Scot. 1 Edw. UI. m. 4. Turr. Lond. 

llumo erroneously attirms that the " first commission ot array which •> Among the " Chamberlains' and Ministers' Accounts (Lancashire),' 

we meet with in English history" was that of Henry V., before his in the Eecord Office, is an "Account of Robert de Holand (1 Edw. III., 

departure for 1 ranee to engage in the memorable battle of Agincourt 1327), late justiciary, ot expenses in wages, &o., incurred under the 

(141.5). Ihis commission, which marks an important revohition in the King's Writs of Privy Seal, and arranged under the heads of wages paid 

miJitary system ot lingland, for it was no loss than a substitution of a to carpenters and others In the Castle, costs of carters and carts, costs of 

national milltia lor the ancient feudal force of armed retainers under the sailors' apparel, and purveyance of the king towards Scotland.— 
command and banner of their respective lords, is traceable as far back as « Claua. 2 ISdw. III. m. 20 d. Turr. Lond. 

the reign of Henry II., but it was not until later, and after much com- 
plaint, that the form of the commission was settled by statute — C 




watching the passes through woods and other places, both public and private, and that these 
banditti waylay travellers beating wounding, and abusing them; killing some of them, maimin^ 
others, and robbing all of them of their property. The functions of the guardians of the pTce 
were very extensive ; they were no less than the powers of inquiring into offences, and of correctincr 
and punishing the offenders at their own discretion. While the government were punishing thS 
outrages of the lawless, they were not unmindful of the oppressions and delinquencies practised bv 
their own servants; and hence we find that in 1330 a wrft was issued by the king's authority to 
the sherittot Lancashire reciting that, in consequence of the representation that divers oppres- 
sions and hardships had been inflicted on the inhabitants by men in authority, he was to make 
proclamation that whoever had suffered oppression and injustice, contrary to the laws and usa^os 
ot the rea,lm, should make known their grievances to the next Parliament through the two knights 
of the shire to be sent from this county to that Parliament.i 

The country was now threatened with a fresh war. The regency, by which the Scotch nation 
was governed during the minority of the prince, declined to recognise the claims of Edward Baliol 
whose cause the English king had espoused, and taillage was levied of a fifteenth, to enable him to 
carry on the war, of which William de Denum, Thomas de Banenburgh, and Robert de Tughole 
were appointed the assessors m the northern counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Cumberland' 


and Westmorland ; while Henry de Percy was appointed warden of the marches. The demands 
upon Lancashire were not confined to money : a levy of four hundred archers and one hundred 
hobelers, very strong and able-bodied men, fully accoutred, was required from this county, and 
John de Denum, Edward Nevil, and Robert de Shireburn, Avere appointed to array the levy.^ At 
the same time a writ of summons was addressed to Henry, Earl of^ Lancaster, directing him to join 
the king at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on the Feast of the Holy Trinity (Sunday, June 14, 1332). In 
the meantime, the Scotch forces had penetrated into the northern counties, and spread so much 
alarm by their homicides and devastations that a writ was issued to the sheriff of Lancashire, 
announcing that the king, for the protection of the inhabitants, permitted them to withdraw 
themselves, with their goods and cattle, out of the county into the southern parts of the kingdom, 
and there to remain, wherever they chose in the king's woods, forests, and pastures, during their 
pleasure, and to graze their cattle in the same without making any payment for so doing. It was 
also announced that similar commands had been given to the Bishop of Durham, and to the sheriffs 
of Northumberland, Nottingham, and Derby.^ Encouraged by the discontent of the English lords, 
many of whom claimed to own lands in Scotland, Edward Baliol made an attempt to recover the 
Scottish throne. There is good reason to believe that Edward approved of the enterprise, though 
he gave no aid, and even went so far as to forbid the passage of armed men through the northern 

' Claus. 4 Edw. III. m. 18 d. Turr. Lend, 

^ Pat. 6 Edw. in. p. 3, m. 18, Turr. Lend, 

> Claua. 7 Edw. III. p. 1. m. IS. Turr, lond- 


counties, a procedure that necessitated Baliol and his associates taking ship from the Humber. 
They landed on the coast of Fife in August, 1332 ; repulsed, with immense loss, an army which 
attacked them near Perth ; and on the 27th of the following month Baliol was crowned at Scone, 
when, in response to the demand of Edward, he acknowledged his sovereignty to be a fief held 
imder the crown of England. If his success had been rapid, his reverse was not less so, for his 
acknowledgement of the abandoned suzerainty proved fatal to himself, and he was at once driven 
from his relilm, and Berwick, which he had agreed to surrender, was strongly garrisoned. The 
kino-, who was then at Pontefract, at the head of a powerful army, on his way to the north, marched 
forward to Berwick, in which garrison the regent Douglas had fortified himself. After a protracted 
siege, a general battle ensued at Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333), in which Douglas, with many earls 
and barons, was .killed, and nearly thirty thousand of the Scots troops fell in the action, in which, 
according to Knyghton, the loss of the English amounted only to one knight, one squire, and 
thirteen private soldiers! — a loss, as the historian Hume observes, so small as almost to be 
incredible. The picturesque old border town of Berwick, which had been the scene of so many 
struggles, was surrendered, and at a Parliament at Edinburgh a large portion of the south of 
Scotland was annexed to England. 

The taillage, or tallage,^ collected in this reign, as mentioned above, was a kind of occasional 
property-tax. In the 11 Henry III. (1226-7) a taillage was made in Lancashire, which serves as a 
barometer by which to measure the relative importance of the principal towns of the county in 
the thirteenth century. The impost was assessed by "Master Alexander de Dorsete and Simon 
de Hal," and the payments were for — • 

The town of Lancaster [£8 

The town of Liverpool [7 

The town of West Derby [5 

The town of Preston [10 




Marks. s. d. 

4] xiij 

4] xj. vij. viii. 

0] vij. vij. viii. 

6] XV. ... vj. 

The tenants in thanage paid 10 marks (£6 13s. 4d.) to have respite, that they might not be 
taillaged.^ It is remarkable that neither Manchester nor Salford is mentioned in this early return 
to his Majesty's exchequer, and that Wigan, though one of the ancient boroughs of the county, is 
also omitted. 

On the marriage of the king's sister, Alionora, to the Earl of Gueldres, an order was issued to 
the abbot of Furness and to the priors of Bursoough, Upholland, and Hornby, as well aS to the 
abbot of Whalley and to the priors of Kertmell and Conigshead, requiring them to levy the subsidy 
on their respective houses, towards the maritagium, an impost of early times, which ceased with 
the feudal system.^ This order the priests were slow to obey, in consequence of which another 
letter was issued by the king from Pontefract, reminding them of their neglect, and ordering them 
to communicate their intention to the proper authority. No further documents appear on the 
subject ; and it may be presumed that this second application produced the desired effect. The 
abbot of Peterborough, in order to show his attachment to the king, and to secure the favour of 
the noble family whose influence at this time prevailed in his Majesty's councils, presented Edward 
with a splendid service of plate, amongst which was a silver-gilt cup with a scuchon, on which were 
engraved the arms of " Lancaster." 

The danger of invasion from the Scotch, which prevailed so frequently during the reign of 
Edward III., induced that monarch to issue an order to Robert de Shireburn and Edmund de 
Neville, directing them to enforce, in the county of Lancaster, the statute of Winton, for arming and 
arraying the inhabitants according to their respective estates in land.^ The Scots, who certainly 
deserved the praise of persevering patriotism, and, moreover, had justice on their side, were a cause 
ol unceasing anxiety to their English neighbours. The king's needs being urgent, he issued a 
warrant, dated at Nottingham, March 27th, 9th Edward III. (1335), to his beloved and faithful 
Thomas, Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England, and to a great number of nobles, knights, and esquires 
(including William le Boteler, of Warrington, and others in Lancashire), reciting that in the 
Parliament lately holden in Westminster it was agreed by the peers and commons there assembled 

' 'r?"'^?'^' o' .tolj^lf . ™ J, special contribution levied on the bur- chattels of the value of forty marks, shall keep armour, and provide 

gesses lor tne loras tieliaLt, in the same way that "aids" were exacted themselves with a haberject or habergeon (a steel or leather breastplate, 

by him 01 his land-tenants, and was after the nominal rate of 2s. 8d. in haberjonem), an iron cap, a sword, a cultel (dagger-knife), and a horse ; 

tion — o" ^°" "" '^^ charged in double propor- of ten pounds in land, and chattels value twenty marks, a habergeon, 

'" ivr" T? + -Ti TT TTT r. 4. 1 t sword, and cultcl ; of one hundred shillings in land, a purpoint, iron cap, 

- mag. KOI. 11 il- 111. Kot. 1 a. Lancastre. sword, and cultel ; of forty shillings in land and more, up to a hundred 

4 Ti, ♦.-?'"' iTtI;'''! ?■ "• ^''"'^- shillings, a sword, a bow, arrows, and cultel; and he who had less than 

^o=. iiq'*!?? 1 T „„o^f "r '■' "r"' ^inton, as it is commonly called, forty shillings in land, to be sworn to keep falchions, gisarms, knives, 

pa^eri Id Edward 1 (1286), enforced and extended the provisions of the and other smalUarms. The hand-gisarm was a short biU with serrated 

mh Henry II. (1181). It required that all persons between the ages of edges,— C. 

httceu and sixty, possessing fifteen pounds in land, or upwards and 



that, "for the defence and safety of the Idngdom, the lands in the marches, and the people there" 
It was the king s duty to march against the Scots, and that with certain of his faithful subiects he 
had accordingly at a great cost repaired thither, and, " with the help of heaven," proposed to be at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne on Trinity Sunday next, with a great army, prepared to advance against the 
enemy and repress their malice ; wherefore he enjoined all his laithful subjects that, laying all 
excuses aside, they should be Avith him at the above time and place, prepared with horse and arms 
to move against the enemy.' Two years later (March 29th, 11 Edward III.) he issued another 
warrant from Westminster, addressed to his beloved and faithful "William le Boteler de 
Weryngton," and Thomas de Lathum, in which, after reciting that to keep the Scots in check a 
great body of archers was immediately required, he commanded the said William and Thomas, 
jointly and severally, to raise lifteen hundred archers in the county of Lancaster, and with all speed 
to march them at the king's expense to Scotland. 

England being again involved in war with France, the king determined to embark for the 
Continent, partly to direct its operations, but principally to animate by his presence that extensive 
confederacy _ which he had organised against Philip, the French king. This intention was 
announced in Lancashire by a writ directed to John de Haryngton, Edmund de Nevill, and 
Richard de Hoghton, knights, by which they Avere directed, along with other knights, to be in 
their proper persons " present before the king in council at Westminster, the day after Easter 
(1338), to hear what he had to expound to them for their conduct during his absence on most 
urgent business, in parts across the sea," and with the further purpose of receiving instructions to 
preserve the peace inviolate during his absence.' Although Parliaments had then been only very 
recently instituted upon the model of popular representation, the royal influence began already to 
exert itself to obtain the return of such members to the House of Commons as would best secure 
the king's purpose, by granting him large supplies out of the public revenue ; and this appears to 
have been the object of Edward in summoning these knights by the authority of his own writ. 
Though disliking the French war, the Parliament which was convened on the recommendation of 
this council (March 27, 1340) made a grant for two years of the ninth sheaf of corn, the ninth 
lamb, and the ninth fleece, on their estates ; from the citizens and burgesses, of a ninth of their 
goods and chattels, at the true value ; the like from the foreign merchants which dwelt not in 
cities or boroughs ; and of the people that dwelt in the forests, one fifteenth.'' The same Parliament 
also granted a duty of forty shillings on each sack of wool exported, on each three hundred 
woolfells, and on each last of leather, for the same term, declaring, however, that this grant was 
not to be dra-\vn into a precedent. But in order to facilitate the supply, and to meet the king's 
urgent necessities, they agreed that he should be allowed twenty thousand sacks of wool, the 
amount to be deducted from the movables when they were levied. Local treasuries became 
necessary as depositories for the sum collected in the respective counties, and the abbot of Furness 
accordingly received a command to provide a suitable house in his abbey for " the custody of the 
king's pence." A writ of summons was directed to the sheriff of Lancashire, ordering him to arrest 
the ships in the ports, and to man and equip them for action.^ With the fleet, consisting of two 
hundred and forty sail, principally collected in this way, the king set sail for Flanders on the 22nd 
of June, 1340, and the next day at evening gained the splendid victory, off the harbour of Sluys, 
over the navy of France, in which two hundred and thirty French ships were taken, and thirty 
thousand Frenchmen killed, along with their two admirals, while the loss of the English was 
comparatively inconsiderable." The day after the victory, Edward proceeded to Ghent, where he 
found that his queen, PhiUppa, almost within sound of the roar and shouts of the battle, had just 
given birth to a prince, who, from his being born on St. John the Baptist's Day, was called John, 
and from being born at Ghent, was called " of Ghent." The child grew to manhood, and was 
afterwards famed in history as John of Gaunt, "time-honoured Lancaster." 

Although this signal victory gave to the navy of England a superiority which it has never 
since lost, the alarm of invasion spread very generally, and, amongst other preparations made to 
repel the invaders, it was ordered (in 1339) that fifty men-at-arms, three hundred armed men, and 
three hundred archers, should be raised in this country, of which number twenty-five men-at-arms 
and one hundred and twenty archers were to be contributed by the following gentlemen -J "John 
de Haryngton, for himself and his father, ten men-at-arms and forty archers ; Robert de Radeclit, 
five men-at-arms and forty archers ; and Henry de Trafford, ten men-at-arms and forty archers. 

The warlike spirit of the king had involved him in hostilities both with Scotland and France ; 
and in the following year a writ of military summons was issued to Gilbert de Clyderowe and to 

' Mt. Scotic^, T. i. pp. 332, 333.-C. = Rot- Aleman. 12 Edw. III. p. 1 m. 23, Turr. Loud. 

' /6M, V. i. pp. 486, 417.— C. ,„ . ... . ,„„ ,, 

= Claua. 12 Edw. HI. p. 1 m. 37 d. Turr. Lond. « Froiesart, hv. i. chap. 61. 

* In pursuance of this enactment, inquisitions upon the oath of the , „ 4. „ , ,, „,,„, ttt ,„i li r, lin 

parishioners were taken in every pariah within the realm.-C. ' Rot. Pari. 13 Edw. III. Tol. h. p. 110. 


Robert de Radeclyf, ordering them to assemble the men-at-arms and archers under their command 
to meet the king at Cariisle, by Quadragesima Sunday (March 5, 1340), to repel the invasion of the 
Scots.i These successive demands upon the military tenants were very harassing, and their 
oppressiveness was increased by the difficulty of obtaining payment from the constituted 
authorities. A warrant, dated at Langley, March, 1541, and addressed to the Bishop of Durham 
and others, recites that WilUam le Boteler, a Lancashire man, and others, had represented to the 
king that though they had been a long time in the garrison at Berwick-upon-Tweed, a great part 
of their wages remained still due and unpaid, whereupon the king gave commandnaent to the 
bishop and his colleagues to examine the accounts of the claimants, and see them forthwith paid out 
of the money levied by the nonetax.' On the 13th August following, the king issued another 
warrant from Shene (Richmond), commanding John de Thynden, receiver of the nones north of the 
Trent, to pay out of such moneys the wages of William le Boteler and others for their services 
either in the marches or elsewhere in Scotland, for such time as they should remain after the 12th 
of March, 1341.^ At the same time, John de Helleker, the king's receiver for Lancashire, was 
ordered to send money to Carlisle, towards repairing the fortresses of that city, and the abbot of 
Fumess was commanded to provide a suitable house in his abbey for the custody of the king's 
pence. To the joy of the people, a proclamation was this year (1340) received in Lancashire and 
in the other counties of England, commanding the sheriff to publish a truce between the king and 
Philip de Valois, and between the English and the Scotch. Little reliance, however, appears to 
have been placed upon the permanent restoration of tranquillity, for in 1341 the sheriff of Lanca- 
shire was ordered to provide one hundred bows and one thousand sheaves of arrows, for the 
expedition into France.^ This was speedily followed by another to the sheriff, directing him to 
provide a thousand sheaves of steel-headed arrows and a thousand bowstrings. 

In the war with France, which was speedily renewed, Henry, Earl of Derby, son of the Earl 
of Lancaster, greatly distinguished himself; ^ and the events of this war, in which the French king 
was taken prisoner, shed an imperishable renoAvn on the military character of England. For the 
prosecution of the contest large levies Avere raised in all the counties of the kingdom ; and an 
order was directed by the king to the sheriff of Lancashire (1345), commanding him to make 
proclamation that all barons, bannerets, knights, and esquires in the county, between the age of 
sixteen and sixty, should be forthwith prepared, with horses and arms, to attend the king across 
the sea, to enable him to put a speedy and successful termination to the war." Not only the noble, 
but the ignoble also, were embarked in this service, and the sheriff received soon after a writ of 
military service, commanding him to make public proclamation that all persons in his county who 
had been found guilty of felonies, homicides, robberies, and other offences, and had been pardoned 
by the king's clemency, should provide themselves with arms and accoutrements, and march to 
join the royal army on its embarkation at Portsmouth for France. All these preparations and all 
these attacks upon the French kingdom were, however, but the preludes to the great effort of 
1346, which culminated on the field of Crescy, when the steady courage that was the result of 
the comparatively free condition of the yeomen of England was first asserted on a great scale- 

The Scotch, under David Bruce, availing themselves of the opportunity which the absence of 
the English forces afforded, prepared to invade the northern counties, on which a writ Aras 
addressedby the king to the sheriff of Lancashire (1345), announcing the danger of the country, 
and ordering him to make proclamation that all the men of the county should remove their live 
stock to the forest of Galtres, in the county of York, where they might be preserved in safety, 
and where the flocks and herds Avould enjoy pasturage free of charge.^ The King of England 
being engaged in the French wars, aided by his youthful son the Black Prince, and by the Earl 
of Derby, who by his father's death, September 22nd, 1345, had now succeeded to the earldom of 
Lancaster, Queen Philippa assembled a body of soldiers to repel the Scotch invaders, who had 
entered Cumberland, taken the fortress called " the Pyle of Liddel," and after beheading the 
governor had advanced into the bishopric of Durham, plundering and slaughtering. This force, 
under the command of Lord Percy, met the army of Bruce at Neville's Cross, a mile or two west 
of Durham (1346), with the determination to avenge the insults which had been offered to the 
country, and to put an end to the violations Avhich had been committed upon the property of the 
mhabitants. Animated, in that chivalrous age, to the highest pitch of enthusiasm by the 
presence of the queen, who rode along their ranks previous to the battle, the English troops, 
though not numerically amounting to one-fourth of the number of the Scotch, fought like lions. 

2 'nlf' iL^f 'i ^}\ CM r "^'^y "^ guarded with steel (acerata), and then the charge is to be one 

^01. ototKc, y. I. p. DUD.— vj. shilling and twopence. 

" Ibid, V, 1. p. DlL— C. » [fgd i^ *^35 

oo^T,* ^ M ?"°'' °' *'T'' f *?'"'1, '° *?? government order at one shilling « Rot. Franc. lOEdw. ni. p. 2 m. 12, Turr. Lond. 

each, which sum is also to be aUowed for a sheat of arrows, except when ' Glaus. 19 Bdw. ni. p, 2 ni. 10 d. Turr. Lond 


The enemy was broken and driven ofi the field, and fifteen thousand of them were made to bite 
the dust, amongst whom was the Earl Marshal of Scotland.' To crown this memorable victory, 
David Bruce, the Scotch king, was made prisoner, and conveyed to London, along with a number 
of his captive nobles, in triumph. ''^ The number of prisoners taken in this battle was so large as 
to fill all the prisons of Lancashire. The inhabitants, in order to relieve themselves from the 
burden of the support of so many prisoners, liberated a number of them, in the hope that they 
would return to their own country ; but instead of pursuing this course, they began to • commit 
depredations ; on which the government instituted a commission, consisting of Thomas de Latham, 
John de Haryngton the younger, and Nicholas le Botiller, to make inquisition into the alleged 
liberations, and to announce that the persons guilty of this offence against the public safety would 
be liable to the forfeiture of life and limbs (1346).^ 

In order to reinstate the English navy in its former strength, after the splendid victory of 
Sluys, a tax somewhat resembling that attempted to be imposed by Charles I., though unattended 
by its disastrous consequences, was levied in the seaports of Liverpool and Chester, under the 
authority of an order from the king, by which the collectors of the ship-money were directed to 
collect the subsidy of two shillings the sack on wool, and sixpence the pound on movables, for 
sixty large ships of war (grossis navibiis de guerra), and to deliver the money so assessed to the 
admiral of the fleet of those ports. A contribution was also made in Lancashire, in favour of 
Edmund Baliol, King of Scotland, the nominee of Edward, King of England; and Richard 
Molineaux and his associates, collectors of the triennial tenths recently granted to the king, were 
ordered to transmit one hundred and eighty-four pounds, in two instalments, out of the sums 
collected for the king's exchequer (1349). * 

At this time the " Black Death," a pestilence of the most fatal character raged in the country, 
and is said to have extended to Lancashire. So malignant were its effects that of the three or 
four millions who then formed the population of England more than one-half became its victims. 
It first appeared at Dorchester, and according to Stowe, the annalist, fifty thousand persons died 
of this plague in the city of Norwich ; an equal number were interred in the burial-ground where 
now stands the Charter House, in the city of London, and it is recorded that more than one-half of 
the priests of Yorkshire perished (1348-9). The labours of husbandry were neglected ; no courts 
of justice were opened ; Parliament was prorogued ; and men, intent only on their own safety, 
slighted every call of honour, duty, and humanity. 

On the 19th September, 1356, the great battle of Poictiers was fought, Henry, Earl of 
Lancaster, the " good earl " as he was called, was, at the time, leading another expedition in France, 
and only just missed the glory of sharing in the victory by being a day's march from Poictiers. 
" Going from Tours," wrote the Black Prince to the city of London after the battle, " we had the 
intention of meeting our most dear cousin, the Duke of Lancaster, of whom we had most certain 
news that he would make haste to draw near us." The brilliant career pursued in France by 
Henry, Earl of Lancaster and Derby, had determined the king to confer upon him a signal mark 
of the royal favour by creating him Duke of Lancaster.' The origin of this title is thus 
represented by the heralds : — 

" The first creation of the title of duke, as distinct from that of earl (for in the elder times they were oft synonymous with 
us) was in the eleventh year of Edward the Third (1337), when in Parliament he conferred upon his eldest son, being then Earl of 
Chester, the title of Duke of Cornwall. The investiture of this first duke was only by girdiup; him with the sword, although some 
learned men, confounding, it seems, the ceremonies of his being afterwards made prince of Wales, with this creation into the title 
of duke, say he was invested by a ring, a rod, and a coronet, all of which indeed together are mentioned m some patents of the 
following times, that seem to create the eldest sons Duke.s of OornwaU, as well as Princes of Wales, and Earls of Chester. The same 
investiture also, by the sword only, is mentioned in the creation of Henry, the first Duke of Lancaster, about fourteen years after 
this first creation of the Duke of Cornwall. He was created for life in Parliament, and the clause of investiture m the charteris 
only nomen duds Lancastrice inponimus «t ipsum de nomine duels dicti loci, per cincturam gladu praesentiahter inveshmus ; and the 
county of Lancaster as a county palatine, with reference to that of Cliezler, for example of jurisdiction, is given to him as the body 
of his duchy.s Afterward, in 36 (26) Edw. III., on the last day of the Parliament, Lionel, Duke of Clarence, and John, Duke of 
Lancaster, both sons to the king, were honoured with those titles, Lioml being then in Ireland; but the other being present, had 
investiture by the king's girding him with a sword, and his putting him on a cap of fur, dtsus m cerdedor & deperes, as the roU 
says — that is, under a coronet of gold and stones." 

Soon after the first establishment of the duchy of Lancaster heavy complaints were made by 
the inhabitants in consequence of the twofold pressure of taxation— first for the support of the 
state and next for the maintenance of the institutions of the duchy. To alleviate their burdens 
the kino- addressed a mandate to the Duke of Lancaster, or to his lieutenant and chancellor, 
wherein°it was directed that all general inquisitions concerning felonies and trespasses m every 

> The battle was fought on the hill just outside the city of Durham, ' ^fi^''°\.f '^'^^- "^- "■ * ^- '^""'- ^°""^- 

and the site is still marked by a broken 8h;.ft of stono the romams of a * 2i Edw. 111. 

cross erected by Ealph, Lord Neville, to commemorate the victory in • 25 Edw. lU- ("SI), 
which he had such a distinguished share.- C. See c. iv, p. oi. 

2 Froissart, liv. i. 0. 139. 




nart of the kiiK^dom should cease, so long as the people remained peaceable, and particularly that 
the people in the duchy of Lancaster, >vho had been impeded in their business and reduced to 
Searpoveity by the^inquisitions made in the duchy, should no longer be burdened m this way, 
?he dukeS therefore Ordered to supersede all such proceedings within his duchy, and to 
admin ster the law in the same manner as in other parts of the kingxlom. The same year the king 
addressed a proclamation to all admirals, their lieutenants and sheriffs, appointing Roger del Wych, 
jZsyworl, John Cruys, and William, son of Adam de Lyverpol, to arrest as many ships in 
L°verpoTand Chester, and other ports, as were necessary to conyey Thomas de Rocheby, the 
k n'?iustickry of Ireknd, into that country. The difficulty of procuring labourers m husbandry 
afte? the countiT had been so much thinned of its population by the plague [of 1349] disinclined 
the working clas^ses to take the usual rate of wages for their- labour It was the period of transition 
from serfdom^ to free labour, in which the labourers asserted their own importance somewhat 
beyond the limits of discretion, and an Act was in consequence passed '' to restrain the malice of 
seivants" who insisted upon extravagant wages {outrageouses lowers) The standard of wages 
fixed by this Act was that which had prevailed voluntarily before the plague broke out when corn 
was tenpence a bushel and wages fifteenpence a week. This law being in opposition to the general 
prTnciple of trade, which causes the supply and the demand to regulate the price, failed m its 
obiect and the labourers left their usual places of abode to seek more profitable employment, which 
they easily found from home. The whole organisation of labour was thrown out of gear; tor a 
time cultivation was almost impossible-the fields were left untiled-and the scarcity of hands, 
consequent on the course of industrial employment being so rudely disturbed, niade it difficult lor 
the minor tenants to perform the services due for their lands, and it was only by a temporary 
abandonment of half the rentals that the landowners could induce their tenants to retain their 
farms It was the first great struggle between capital and labour. Repressive measures became 
necessary, the strong arm of the law was again called in, and it was enacted that no servant should 
in summer go out of the town or parish where he usually dwelt in winter, if he could obtain 
employment there, with a proclamation dispensing with the law in favour of the labourers in the 
counties of Lancaster, Stafford, and Derby, and in the districts of Craven and the marches of "Wales, 
who were allowed to go in the month of August— the season of harvest— to work m other counties ; 
and persons refusing to obey this proclamation were to be put m the stocks by the lords and 
stewards, or, if that discipline did not prove sufficient, they were to be sent to the next prison,_and 
there confined for three days (1359). ' As compared with the south of England, or even the adjom- 
ino- county of York, Lancashire at this period was but ill-cultivated. The huge tracts of bog and 
swiimpy morass that stretched along its southern boundary would scarcely afford a pathway for 
travellers, much less land for tillage or pasture ; the bleak moorland wastes and sterile hills that 
separated it from Yorkshire on the eastern side yielded but a poor return for the labour of the 
husbandman ; and a large portion of the western border, sloping to the sea, was covered with loose 
sands, driven by the drifting winds, to the destruction of vegetation beneath. Much of the country 
Avas forest and "wild woodland, retaining their primeval features, and in which the animals of the 
chase roamed at will. But land was gradually being reclaimed from the waste, and agriculture 
was making progress, especially in Ribblesdale and the district of Furness, where the two great 
abbeys had been established, and the Cistercians had taught their neighbours and dependents to 
plough the fertile vales and to pasture their flocks and herds on the green slopes of Pendle and 
the fells of Cartmel. 

During the king's absence in France, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, was summoned to attend the 
council, which duty he performed with his usual fidelity. This was amongst the last public acts 
of that venerable peer, for on the 24th of March in the following year, 1361, he died of the plague, 
without male heirs, on which his honours and princely possessions descended to his two daughters, 
Maud and Blanche, whose names, however, are not even mentioned in his will. 

Will or Henbt, Duke of Lancaster. 

In this will, dated at the Castle of Leicester, loth March 1360, his titles are set forth as Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, of 
Lincoln, and of Leicester, Steward of England, Lord of Bruggerak [Brigerac] and of Be[a]ufort. After long directions as to lua 
funeral and burial in the Collegiate Church of the Annunciation of our Lady at Leicester, the duke devises all his goods, silver 
plate, and all other movables, to pay his debts and to " guerdon " his poor servants, each according to merit and estate, and to 
fulfil his bequests to the Cliurch, etc. He appoints, as his executors, " John [Sinwen or Gynwell], Bishop of Lincoln, the honourable 
home of holy religion, William, Abbot of Leicester, our dearest sister the Lady Wak, our dearest cousin of Walkynton, Eobertla Mare, 
John de Bokelande, Sir John de Charnele, Sir Walter Power, Sinkyu Simeon, and John de Neumarche." He devises all his goods, 

1 Tlie last recorded sale of slaves in Lancashire W!m about forty years in 1309. the abljot sold, for one hundred slilUings sterling, "one notivo, 
before this time. It occurs in the munimonte of Whalley Abboy, where, with all liis family and all his effects." — C. 

= Clause 33 Edw. III. m. 6 d. Turr. Loud. 


beyond what suffics to pay his debts and reward bis servants, and fulfil liis bequests to the Church, to be applied " to the 'profit of 
our soul by the advice and consent of the executors. The will was proved the 3d of the Kalends of April [March 30], 1361, in the 
castle of Leicester, before John Bishop of Lincoln ; and again before Sir William de Witleseye, official of the Court of Canterbury 
at London, on the ith of the Ides of May [9th May] 1361.— Segist. IsUp. fol. 172 a b, in the Archiepiscopal Rcghtrij at Lambeth. 

The extent and magnitude of the possessions of the first Duke of Lancaster, forming as they 
do the principal part of the duchy, may be in some degree estimated from the following enumera- 
tion exhibited in the Inquisitlo Post Mortem taken in 36 Edw. III. (1302). 



"In the County of Lancaster.— l,anca.steT castle & honor— Pleas of the county of Lancaster— West Derbyshire baili«ick— 
Lonesdale wapentake— Lancaster vill— Lone Water, fishery near Prestwait— Overton tnauor— Slyne vill— Skerton lands &c,— 
Quernemore park— Wiresdale vaccary— Blesdale vacoary— Caldre vaocary— Grisdale vaccary— Amunderness wapentake— Preston— 
Singleton- Riggeby vill with le Wray— Hydil park— Cadilegh— Fulwode wood— Kylaneshalghe— Broughton— Mirestagh park— 
Wiggehalgh— Baggerburgh— Clyderhoo castle— Blakebornshire wapentake— IghtenhuU manor- Colne manor, with members— 
Woxton— Penhulton vill— Chateburne vill— Acrinton vill— Huncotes— Haselingden vill— Penhull chace— Trogden chace— Eossendale 
chace— Totinton manor & chace— Hoddesdeu wood— Rachdale manor— Penwortham manor— Widnes manor— UUeswaltou manor- 
Eccleston vill— Leyloud vill— LyverpoU castle- Westderby manor & Salford manor (as of the honor of Tuttebury)— Horneby castle 
& manor — Werington manor — Laton manor. 

" In the County of Leicester. — Leyoester castle & honor extended— Frithe wood — Hynkeley manor extended— Schelton manor 
extended— Derford manor extended— Selby, five views of frank-pledge— C.irleton, four views of frank-pledge— Schulton, two views 
of frank-pledge — Derford, two views of frank-pledge — Hynkeley, two views of frank-pledge. 

"In the County of Dorset. — Kyngeston Lacy manor — Winterborn Minster — Wimbourne Holt chace— Bradbury hundred — 
Shapwyk manor — Maiden Neuton hundred. 

"In the County of Southampton. — Kyngesomborne manor — Pernholt wood & chace — La Lond wood — Staunden — Earle — 
Elleden — Huld — Pernholt — Tymbrebiiry — Compton Houghton — Sumborne Parva — XJpaomborne (land, &c.) — Stockbrigg vill — 
Langestoke manor — Weston manor, near Odiam — Herteley manor. 

''In the County of Warwick. — Kenel worth castle and manor extended — ^Asthull manor — Wotton rent — Waddesley — Lapworth 
rent — Mershton Boteler — Brinkelowe (lands and tenements) — Ilmedon, view of frank-pledge. 

"In the County of Wilts. — Colingborne manor extended — Everlee manor extended — Lavyngton manor extended. 

"In the County of Berks. — Esgarston manor extended — Poghele — Hungerford — Sandon — S; Kentebury (land, &o.). 

" In the County of Dei'by. — Melborne castle & manor. 

"In the County of York. — Pontefract castle & honor, with members, vizt — Slaikeborne manor — Bowland manor, with forest — 
Snaith vill, with soke — Pykering castle, vill, and honor — Scalby manor— Hoby manor— Esingwald manor — Bradeford manor — 
Almanby manor — Ledes manor — Berewyke manor — Eoundhaye manor — Scoles manor — Hypax manor — AUerton manor — Rothewell 
manor — Altoftes manor — Warnefield manor — Ackworth manor — Elmesdale manor — Camesale manor — Custon' — Tanshelfe manor — 
Knottingleye manor — Boghall manor, with the free court of Pontefract — Divers lands and tenements. Sic, in Maningham Barnboghe — 
Woodhouse — Potterton — Hillum — Saxton — Roundhaye — Secroft — Thornore — Scole — Muston — Ivypax manor — Ledeston — AUerton 
— Ayer [Ayre] fishery — Rothewell — Flete mill — Wridelesford — Kildre fishery. Divers lands aod tenements, &c. Warnefeld — 
Crofton — Akeworth — Elmesle — Kerkeby Mensthrop — Suthelmsale — Coteyerd — EUerker — Camesale — Balnehoke — Hargincrofte — 
Bernesdale— Custon — Holnhirst — Carleton Castleford mill — Hardewike — Knotingley — Beghale — Beghelker — Beghallund — {All the 
afoi'esaid belong to the Honor of Pontefract) — Slaykeborne in Bouland, with the forest — Bremund pasture — Roudon — Ap Aldington — 
Maukholes — Brombewell — -Holme — Baxsterhay — Browesholme — Berkholme — Eghes — Latheringrime Bernardseless — Nicolshey — 
Wardeslegh — Hogeking — Hcighe — Crepingwarde — Benteley Close — Graistanley — Lekherst — Peinleghes — Coswayne — Chipping 
Crosdale — Neuton — Hamerton Witton — Grimlington — Salley mill — Bradeford in Bouland — Blakshelfe in Mitton — Withikill — 
Smithecrofte — Cowyke viU, belonging to the soke of Snaythe— Roucliffe moor — Acre water fishery — Pikering castle, forest, &c., 
with the fees appertaining, vi2' — Middleton — Levesham Finhilwode — Gotherland— Aleintoftes — Thwaite — Lingthwaite — Rumbald — 
Haretoft — Folketon marsh — Ednesmershe — Brumpton — Scalby — Hobye — Esingwolde — Credeling manor. Divers rents and reprises 
issue out of the manors aforesaid. 

"In the County of Northumberland. — Dunstanburgh castle — Staunford barony, with its members — viz. Emeldon — Danstan — 
Burton — Wamdam — Shipplay — Crauncestre — Fenton — Newton-on-the-Moor & Cartington. 

" In the County of Huntingdon. — Huntingdon rent — Gomecestre rent. 

" In the County of Rutland. — Tye, two leets — Casterton Magna, two leets. 

" In the. County of Northampton. — Higham Ferrers- Raimdes vill — Ruasheden vill— Irchestre vill — Hegham hundred as of the 
honor of Tuttebury — Davintre manor — Eathaddon, two leete— Helmingden— Lylleborne— Dodeford, two leets — Wedoubeck, as of 
the honor of Leycester. 

" In the County of Surrey. — Erwell, the tenement called Hertegrave. 

" In the County of Middlesex. — London, the messuage called the Savoye, with shops & rents appertaining. 

" In the County of Lincoln. — Lincoln county, 14 fees in the same belonging to the castle Lancaster — Retrecombe court. 

" In the County of /Siaforci.- Newcastle-under-Lyne manor, castle & borough, with members, viz.— Clayton vill— Wolstauton— 
SheltoD vill— passage of the sea— Stoke, advowson of the church— Cliff wood— Bradenef lands & tenements. 

"In the County of Hereford and Marches of IFaZes.— Monemouthe castle, vill, & demesne— Grossemont castle— Skenfrithe lands, 
&c.— Album caatle & demesne— Karakenmyn castle— Oggemore castle— Ebbothe manor— Iskennin commote— KedweUye demesne— 
Camwathlon demesne or lordship. 

"In the County of Gloucester and Marches of Wales.— 'S.o&d&W manor— Eccelowe—Minsterworthe manor— Monemuthe castle— 
Berton lands, &c. — Blakmorles pasture— Kedwelly castle, vill, &■ demesne. 

" In the Counties of Gloucester, Hereford, and Marches of T7afe».—Carnewathlan lordship— Lananthir vill— Kaerkennyn castle 
Iskennyn commote— Ogemore castle & lordship— Ebbothe manor— Shen castle, with Barton— Album castle, with Barton— Tyburtun 
manor— Minstreworth manor — Rodleye manor— Monemouthe castle & lordship — Groamonde caatle & lordship— Whitcastell castle 
& lordship— Kedwelly lordship— Carnwathlan lordship— Ogemore castle— Ebbothe manor. 

" In the County of 5ucis.— Tappelowe— Chalfhunt St. Peter— Saundesdron— Weston Turvile— Broughton Parva— Penna. 
'• In the County of Bedford. — Suthmulne — Middleton Erneys. 
'■ In the County of Cambridge. — Grauncete. 
" In the County of Worcester. — Bruites Morton. 


" In the County of Lincoln.— Twelve Knights' Fees each of which renders yearly 10» for the castle-ward of Lancaster. 
" In the County 0/ Sumci-srf.—Redene— North Overe. _ 

" /ft «/ie Co«)i«w 0/ ZJorset.— Shapewike— Swinetolre— Mayden Kyweton—Upaydehnge n n- 1 tt t, 

« In the Comity of Kent.-StTode-Godmm,tone-Glyye Hastinglegh-Braborne-Chelefeldmanor-Horton-Cau stoke Hasshe. 
" In the County o/S«.ex.-Scheffeld Parva-Kirsed-Kindale-Charlaxton-Flecchmg-Chi£Feld-Hothore-Est Grmstede- 

LylliDgeston-Bagerugg-Pyritou-Hasele-Thomele-Brightwell-Shupton upon Charewell-Bleohdon-Wighthull— Lynham- 

Childeston & Sewell near Goldnorton. ., t 1 • /-.l i i wi t. at j 

"In the County of £crfa.— Fyffehide-Kingeston— Southdenchesworth-Loking— Cherleton near Wantynge— Staunden- 

Hanrethe-Staunford-Westhildesle-Wolhampton-Northstanden chapel-Hungerford chapel of St. John. 

"In the County of TFiZte.— Choldrington, half-a-fee— Chitterne, haU-a-fee— Elcomb, half-a-fee— Merevedene, one fee- 
Wrichford, half-a-fee— Hordenehuuishe, one fee-Cheokelowe, one fee— Berewike manor, one fee. 

"In the County of &u«Aamp(on.— Chalghton— Katerington— Erleston— Somborne— Fyffhide near Andover -Schalden- 
Bellum— Avenetum-Hertele— Langestoke— Weston— Estden—Semborne. ^^ , . t , u n. -it n^ t d 1 i, 

"In the County of Dctow.— Hemly— Portheleg— ShiUingford— Ferdon— Kerdogis— Ivelegh— Clulton-Coleton Ra egh- 
Fursan -Whithem -Whiston -Hoddesworth - Maneton — Prank-arswike - Southwyk — Sprayton- Woreslegh— Whitneslegh- 
WoUegh— Wrix-ston— Godelee— Kippingiseote— Uppecnte -Witherige— Hole Meleford— Clompton— Clift St. Lawrence— Hordelis- 
worth— Milleford— Deandon— Bourdouliston— Yowe— Hogeland & Heanis. ri ^ , w ,. 

" In the Counties of Gloucester, Hereford, d; Marches of PFoZes.- Landingate— Longehope— Dounameney— Huntelege— Wisham 
— Walbykney— Partbir — Dile — Cunstone — Dixton — New Castle — Cothitham — Mommouthe — Garthe— RakeniU- Holy well— 
Grosemound— Chesterton— Asperton—Mayneston—Lanwarthin—Lanknethin— in the lordship of Kedwelly— Penbray— Witewike 
—Hope Maloisell, Llauelthye church, St. Ismael church, Lanoonar church— In the lordship of Ograore, the under-written fees 
—viz., Dourenen— Deynell— Pyncote— Lanforte— Colewinstone— Frogg Castell— Ewerdon— Puttes— Le Wike— Southdone & St. 

° In tlie County of Lancaster:— \Y&\ton in Blakebornshire—Crointon—Apulton— Sutton— Eooleston-RainhuU-Knowselegh 
— Torbok — Hyton— Maghull — Crosseby Parva — Kirkebye — Kirkedale — Northmeles — Argameles — Ulneswalden — Brethertou 
— Hoghton — Claiton — Whelton with He' arge — WytherhuU with Bothelesworthe — Hoton — Longeton— Leilond— Enkestou — 
Chenington— Chernoke— Walshewhithull— Warton in Amoundernesse— Frees— Neuton— Frekeltou—Witingham—Etheleswike— 
Bura in Salfordshire- Middleton with members— Chatherton—Totinton—Mitton Parva— Wiswall—Hapton—Townlay Coldecotea 
— Snoddeivorthe- Twiselton— Extwisell— Aghton— Merlaye- Lyvesay— Donnom Fobrigge-Merlaye Parva— Rosshetou—Billington 
—Alnethan— Clayton— Harewode—Crofton Horneby-Ulideston— Warton in Lonesdale— Gairstang with members— Thiselton— 
Prees — Kelgrimesarghe — Brininge— Merton Magna— Middelton in Lonesdale— Neuton— Makerfeld—Lauton— Keinan—Erbury— 
Goldeburne— Sefton — Thorneton — Kerdou — Halghton — Burgh —Lee— Fish wicke—Dalton in Furness— Stayniuge— Midhope— 

"The undei--vyritten fees are held of the Honor of Tattehury.—B.!iiRh Parva — Bolton — Brightmet — Comptou-Burghton— 
Childerwell— Barton in Salfordshire — Asphull — Brokholes— Dalton— Perbald— Witliington— Lostock— Romworthe— Pilkinton— 
Worthington— Hoton [Beaton] under Herewiche— Tildeslegh— Sulthithe— Rixton— Asteley— Atherton— Sonky— Penkythe— Ines— 
Blundell— Barton— Halsale—Windehulle—Lydegate—Egergarthe— Lancaster priory, advowaon— St. Michael-on-Wire church- 
Preston church — Mary Magdalen chapel— Chypin church — Ribcaster church — Whalley, abbey of. 

" Foe the Dean & Chapter of the Church op [St.] Mary op Leicester. — Preston, advowson of the church. 

'■ Fob the Abbot & Convent op Whalley. — Romsgreve in the chaoe of Boulaud near Blakeborne, lands & tenements— 
Penhulton, lands & tenements — Cliderhow, the tenement called Stauden— Hulorofte & Grenelaohe — Standen, 'faltag' lands, &c.— 
Cliderhoo manor, lands, &c., as of the castle of Lancaster." 

To this inquisition we are enabled to add a condensed transcription, from the rolls of the 
duchy of Lancaster (not before published), extending through the whole period of the first ducal 
administration, and which, while it sheds much light upon the early history, as well as upon the 
landed possessions in the county, serves to illustrate the nature of the jura regalia exercised by 
the Dukes of Lancaster in this " kingdom within a kingdom :" — 

Anno 1 Duoatus, 26 Edward III. [1351-2]. " 

{Office Reference Al.) 

Intituled, " Pleas at Preston of three sessions of the Justices of the lord the Duke of Lancaster, in the first year of the 

lord the duke that now is." 

This roll contains the essoigns taken at Preston, before Hugh de Berewyk an i his associates, justices of our lord the Duke of 
Lancaster, Wedne-day next before the feast of St. Margaret the Virgin, m the year of his duchy the 1st (July 13, 1351). 

It contains pleadings of lands between parties, plaintiffs, and defendants, pleadings of assize mortis antecessoris, novel disseisin, 

» This word, which occurs in three counties in this document, may HI. are from 25th Jan. to 24th Jan. The ditcai yoai-s of Henry, first duke, 

not be a local name, but simply denotes five hides of land— H. are from 6th March to the 5th March. About ten months of every ducal 

2 As the ducal, years of Henry, first duke, are neither conterminous year consequently fall in one regnal year, and the last two months of the 

with the regnal years of the reigning sovereign, nor with the year of our ducal year fall in the next regnal year. — H 
Lord, the following tables are appended. The regnal years of Edward 

Ducal Years of Heney first Duke of Lancaster. Regnal Years of Edward III. in the same period. 

Ist. eth March 1351 to 5th March 1352 25th. 6th March 1351 to 24th Jan. 1352 

26th. 25th Jan. 1352 „ 1363 

27th. „ 1353 „ 1354 





„ 1353 



» 1354 



„ 1365 



1850 „ 









„ 1359 „ 






1361 to 23rd March 1361 

when the duke died. 



„ 1355 









„ 1363 



„ 1869 






,. 1361 



to 23d March 1361 

wliea the duke died 




pleaa of debt, account, and trespass, and other claims to liberties, rights, etc., all as arising in the county palatine of Lancaster 
with the judgments thereof given {inter alia as follows) : — ' 

" John of Winwick, parson of the church of Wygan, and lord of the borough of Wygan, appears by Robert de Prestcote or 
John de Lanfield, to plead damage and the prosecution of all liberties of his vill and borough of Wygan, according to the form of 
the charter which the lord the king granted to him thereof." 

On the second portion of the roll, and on the first skin of such roll, after reciting the gi-ant by King Edward III., in the 25th 
year of his reign (1351), to Henry, Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester, and steward of England, of his 
dukedom of Lancaster, as therein set forth, are recorded the letters-patent to Hugh de Berewyk and others, by the said Henry, 
appointing them justices of assize for his said duchy, and of pleas as well of the crown as others within the said duchy, to hold, 
hear, and determine, according to the law and custom of the kingdom of England, saving to him amercements, &c. Tested at the 
Savoy, 7th March, in the first year of his said duchy (1351). 

In continuation of the roll are recorded a multiplicity of pleadings between various parties, to the following effect (anglicised 
from the roll) : — 

" John Molyneus against John Blundell of Crosseby, touching the lands upon marriage. 

" John Knody of Cliderow against William de Horneby, parson of the church of Eibchester, touching lands in Cliderowe. 

" John Blounte of Hazlewood, Robert Legh, and Thos. Strangeways, came on their recognizance, at the suit of John Radclif, 
touching a tenement and lands in Salford. John Blounte answering that the premises were of the manor of Ordesale, and that 
Henry, late Earl of Lancaster, father of Henry the duke, was seised of the lands, and granted the same by charter to the said John 
Blounte, as of the manor of Ordesale." 

And thus the pleadings are continued throughout the entire roll ; and, as evidences of that early period, they are applicable 
to the most considerable part of the places and manors in the county palatine of Lancaster, and the early possessors' rights and 
premises there. 

There is a second roll distinguished A.l.a, and containing the essoigns taken at Preston before William de Fynche, or 
Fyncheden, and his associates, justices of the said duke's bench, in the tenth year of his dukedom (1360-61), and in its nature 
similar to the preceding roU. 

Anno 2 et 3 Dooatus [1352-54]. 

A.2 contains pleadings and essoigns, taken at Preston before Hugh de Berewyk and others, in the second year of the said duke 
and of the same nature and effect as those of the preceding rolls, and is very copious, the proceedings in many cases being fully set out. 

A.2. a contains pleadings and essoigns of the like nature, as taken both at Lancaster and Preston in the fourth year of the 
same duke. 

A.2.b is properly considered as a roll of finest letters close and patent, and as containing charters of the fourth year of 
Henry, Duke of Lancaster, being the twenty-eighth year of the reign of King Edward III. ; and the following outline comprises the 
general matters, or subjects, with several of the names of persons and places applicable thereto ; — 

No. on 

Principal Matters. 




Proceedings before the Justices at 
Preston as to right of Fishing. 

Account of Fines paid to the Duke as | 
Lord for Writs of Assize. j 

Richard Aghton ^. Roger Bondesson and John 
Stelle, the Defendants justifying In right of 
William de Heskayth, Thomas de Litherland, 
the Prior of Burscogh, the Abbot of Cockersand, 
and Richard de Aghton. 

Merton Meer, LeWyck, 


Richayd Bradshagh 


Peter Jerard and Wife 

■ Wyndhull Manor. 
. RaynhuU Manor. 

"Torbock Manor. 
Walshwittell Manor. 
- Dalton Manor. 

Wiiliam Careles 

William Lawrence 


' Thorneton 

Latou Magna. 

Laton Parva. 
' Ribleton Manor. 

Asheton, near Preston 
( Manor. 


William de Exoestre, Parson of Crofton ) 
Church \ 

North Meyles. 


• 3. 

Grants by 

The Duke to William de Heghfield, 
at 14s. Rent, and Tenants to do 

in perpetuity, 28 Acres of Land in Salford Waste, \ 
suit at the Lord's Mill. / 

Salford Waste. 

Several other grants were made to persons specified, but cancelled, as the premises became leased by the duke's charter to 

John de Radeclif. „ .,. /^ , , , j xi i, j t 

i. A fine of 3s. 4d. to the duke as lord for a Writ of Pone, concerning an agreement--Ceciha Orulshagh and HugH de ines. 
5 The duke to Richard de Walton, the duke's approver in the parts of Blackburnshire. 

" Grant of a messuage and lands in Colne and Merclesden, held by the custom of the manor and castle of Ghthero, and 
other premises in Trowden, Mithum, and Trowden Chace. 



Pines to the Lord for Wrili. .,,.., i j t • 

fi " John de Radeolif parson o£ the church of Bury, to the doke-Hal£-a-mark [6s. 8d.] for ands m Asheton-under-Lime. 
" it de Legh and Matilda his wife to the duke-13s. 4d. [a mark] for the moiety of the manor of FUxton 
"Ckrissade Bolton to the duke-Half-a-mark for tenements in Newton-in-Makerfie d and Walton-m-the-Dale. 
" Robert de Leeh and Matilda his wife to the duke— 13s. 4d. for the manor of Ordeshale. • .•« . , • 

This course is pursued through thirteen other instances of fines of the like nature, paid by various persons m different places m 

the county palatine. 

De Anno 4™ Ducatcs (in doeso) [1354 55]. 

Recognisances of Debts. 

Otho de Halsale and John de Radeclif ^^«fi . 1 ^ . 41 

Richard de Rixton J?lin de Asheton -^ "" 100 marks £66 13 4 . 

John, son of Adam de Claxton Sir Adam de Hoghton, Knt. ^^^"'^'^'t '^^^^ ' ^ ' *'• 

Otho de Halsale The Duke 100 marks. 

^™ The' Duke to Geoffrey de Langholt and Robert de Gikellswyk of Tadecastre, for the Abbot and Convent of Sallay.-Licence to 
Alien in Mortmain Lands in Bradeford in Bouland, held in socage by fealty and service, and as by inquisition taken by the 
Duke's command, . ■ ■ s. 

The Duke to Adam de Hoghton.— Acquittance of serving on juries, So. , .^ -, ^x. n ^^ -n j nu 

The Duke to John d« Haverington of Farletou.-Lease of the Manor of Horneby and its demesnes, the Castle, Deer and Chace 
of Rebrundale (Ad vowsons, &c., excepted). ,,T^,,-nii tt t^-ict l 

The Duke to Matthew de Southeworth.-Pardon of a debt owing to the Dake s Father Henry, Earl of Lancaster. 

The Duke to John de Dyneley and Heirs.— Grant of Dunham Manor by Homage and Fealty, and ±12 : 6 : 7 per Ann. with 23. 
for the Ward of Lancaster Castle. The above are all tested at Preston. j. j u t, i- 

The Duke to the King.-Precept to John Cokayn and others to levy in the Duchy the remainder of Aid granted by Parliament 
to King Edward III., to knight his eldest son, according to the King's Mandate, and also a Maudate of the Sheriff of Lan- 
caster to assist therein. As tested at Lancaster. mi.jiDi 

William de Stoklegh and Avisia de Bretargh.— Inrolment of a deed of the manor of Hyton. Tested at Preston. 
Pleadings at Lmcaster of a similar nature to A.2. 

Otim- Grants, from the ith to the 11th Henry, Bake of Lancaster, comprising i9th Edward III (1356) and SGth Edward III. (1363). 

The Duke to William de Heghfeld and his Heirs.— Grant of 23 [? 28] Acres of Waste in Salford, at a Rent of 11« 6* reserved, 
and remainder to Thomas Strangwas. Tested by Henry de Walton, Archdeacon of Richmond, Lieutenant of the Duchy of 

The Duke to Richard de Dyuesargh, of Liverpool, and his Heirs.- Grant of a Messuage and Appurtenances in Castle Street, 
Liverpool, which formerly belonged to Benedict le Stedeman, late Constable of Liverpool Castle, at 4" Rent p. ann., and by 
Services, as the other Tenants of that Town did for their Messuages. 

The Duke to Henry le Norreys. — Grant of Free Warren in Speek. 

The Duke to John del Monkes.— Grant of the Wardship and Lands of Henry de Croft. 

Divers Fines to the Lord for Writs of Assize.— For Lands and Tenements in Hopton, Tildesley, Ditton near Torbok, and in 

The Duke to John de Perburn. — Letters of protection while abroad with the Duke in the King s Service, and similar Letters of 
Protection to various other Persons. 

Among numerous other entries on the Roll are various instruments by licence, warrant, writ, grant, or appointment — viz. 
For holding pleas and complaints ; for keeping the statute of weights and measures ; the statutes of servants, artificers, &c., and 
the record of various fines for writs of assize, &c., and therein the Writ de Conspiratione. 

A Writ, diem clausit extremum, of the Lands of John de Rigmayden, in the Duchy of Lancaster. 

An Exemplification of the Proceedings between Thomas de Abnay of the High Peake, and Thurstan de Holand of Salfordshire 
returned in the Duke's Chancery, concerning the Manor of Denton under Downeshagh. 

A Mandate to John Haverington and others to equip the Men-at-Arms in the Duchy, with 300 Archers and others, to be dis- 
patched to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to march with the King against the Scotch. 

Another Mandate on behalf of the King, as to the Alienations and Possessions of Lancaster Priory, taken with other Alien 
Priories, by reason of the War with France. 

Appointments to the Office of Escheator, inquiries of the conduct of Bailiffs of the Wapentakes, appointment of Justices to hear 
and determine Trespasses within the Duchy, and Mandates to the Sheriff to assist in all such Premises. 

A Lease of the Herbage of Musbury Park. 

Grant of the Hospital of St. Leonard's at Lancaster, to be annexed to the Priory of Seton, if the Burgesses of Lancaster consent. 

The Appointments of Keeperships of Forests. 

Pardon of a Suit by the Duke for an Assault committed. 

Grant and Confirmation of the Advowson of Wygan Church, and Letters of Protection to various Persons, wliUe staying with 
the Duke in the King's Service in the Parts of Brittany. 

Anno 7° Ducatus [1357-58]. 

Divers Fines for Writs of Assize of Lands and Tenements in Longtre, Hepay, and Dokesbury, Great Peuhulton, Great Merley, 
Bury, Middleton, and Penhulton, in Salfordshire. 

Grant of Land and Turbary in Salford, and divers Fines for Premises in Westlegh, Flixton, Whitton, Weryngton, Sonokey, 
Penketh, Burtonwood and Laton, Great Merton, Bispham, Pynington, Bold, Lydiat, Thorneton near Befton, Culcheth, Tildesley, 
Glaeebrook, Bedeford, Halsale, WyndhuU, lues near Crosby, and Ines Blundell, including the Writs Post Dissesin, forma Donationes, 
Dedimus Potestatem, and the Writ de Ingressu. 

A Mandate by the Duke for the King, to William de Horneby and Richard de Towuley, to Collect and levy the tenths and 
fifteenths within the Duchy of Lancaster. 

A Pardon by the Duke of the Suit of Peace against Hugh le Maohon of Abingham, indicted for Housebreaking at Chorley. 

Anno 8° Duoatus [1358-59]. 

The Duke's Mandate to Justices assigned to try certain Malefactors, against whom the Parson of the Church of Wygan, and 
the Lord of the Town, had complained regarding the hindrance of his Bailiffs in the performance of their duties, and his Mandate 
to the Sheriff of the Duchy to assist therein. 


Divers Fines for Writs de Conventione, &c., concerning Lauds in Culcheth, Mamcestre Manor, and tlie Advowsons of the 
Churches of Mamcestre and Assheton ; Lands in Chippyu, Eggeworth Manor ; Lands in Liverpool, Penhulton in Saltordshire Cul- 
chith and Hyndelegh Manors, Croxteth Park, Flixton Manor, Kenyan, and the Manor of Huyton. ' 

A Grant of the Herbage of the Foss of Lancaster Castle, and of the place called Bernyard in Lancaster. 

An Acquittance of serving the Office of Juror, Escheator, Coroner, or Bailiff. 

A Release of Rent for Lands held by John Baret in Derby, Liverpool, Everton, and elsewhere within the Duchy. 

A Pardon by the Duke to John de Etheleston, indicted for extorting money and other offences, and a Pardon to William de 
Tvvys, of Transgressions. 

A Lease of the Fishery in the River Ribble at Penwortham, with the Meadows there. Tested by the Duke at Preston. 

Anko 9° DuoATCs [1359-60]. 

Appointment of Justices in Eyre for Pleas of the Forests. 

Precepts to the Sheriff to make a Proclamation for holding Sessions at Preston, and to summon Persons to attend before the 
Justices there. 

Pardons for Trespasses of Vert and Venison in Duchy forests, and other Trespasses. 

Grant of Free Warren in Halsal and Ryuecres. 

Lease of the Herbage called Veden and Mufden. 

Grant of a Yearly Rent of 20' to William de Liverpool, out of the Manor of West Derby, 

Licence to take Gorse from Toxteth Park. 

Pardons for Trespasses in the Duchy Forests, and in Toxteth Park. 

Pardon upon Indictment for Offences against the Statutes of Servants and Labourers. 

Divers Fines upon Writs for Lands in various places. 

The Duke, in behalf of Roger la Warre. — Commissioners appointed to inquire into the said Roger's Petition, showing that he 
held the Town of Mamcestre as a Boro' and Market Town, and enjoyed certain Liberties there, and in the Manor and Hamlets, and 
that the Duke's Bailiffs had interfered to levy Amerciaments, &c. 

A Licence to Alien in Mortmain Lands in Lancaster. 

Grant of Lands in Salford to Thomas del Olers, and others. 

Grant of a Messuage in Preston escheated to Henry, Earl of Lancaster, by Felony. 

A Mandate to the Escheator of the Duchy to interfere no further in a Chapel and Lands in Audreton, which had been seized 
into the Duke's bands by the late Escheator, it being found, by Inquisition, that the Church of Standish was endowed therewith. 

Anno lOmo Ducatds [1360-61], 

The Duke to Adam de Skilyngcorn. — Licence to take with him a Body Guard within the Duchy of Lancaster, for the Defence 
and Protection of his Person, 

Pardon to Agnes del Birches, for producing a forged Charter before the Justices, in an Action as to Tenements in Astelegh. 

Grant of Lands in Penhulton. 

Mandate to the Escheator of the Duchy for Livery of Seisin of Lands held by au Outlaw for Felony in Chipyn, the Duke having 
had his Year, Day, and Waste. 

Mandate to Collect and Levy within the Duchy the tenth and fifteenth granted by Parliament, to defray the Expenses of War, 

Appointment of Bailiff of the Manor of Derby for Life, at twopence a-day for his Wages, 

Appointment of Keeper of Toxteth Park for L'fe, with the Grant of Skeryorderock within the Sea, to construct a Fishery there. 

Mandate to the Duchy Escheator to interfere no further as to Land in Kirden [Cuerden], seized into the Duke's hands upon 

Appointment of Keeper of Quernmore Park. 

Mandate to the Duchy Escheator to deliver Lands which had been seized into the Duke's hands upon the Marriage of one of 
the Duke's Maidens, a legal Divorce having subsequently taken place. 

A Pardon upon Indictment for catching Fish at Heton Norres, 

Fines for Lands in Hunersfeld and Stalmyn, 

Grant of a Messuage and Lands in Salford, which came to the Duke's hands by the death of Richard de Tetlowe, who was a 
Bastard, and died without Heir — Remainder to 'Thomas de Strangwas, 

Grant of Lands in Ingoll, 

Grant of an Escheat in Salford, 

Divers Fines for Writs de Attincta, Writs of Assize, and the Writ de Debito, 

Grant of 20 Marks [£13 63, 8d,] yearly out of the Manor of Derby, 

Grant of Wardship and Marringe of William de \Vartou. 

Appointment of Justices to try Malefactors for Trespasses in the Chaies of Bowland, Penhull, Trowden, Rochdale, Rossendale, 
and Romesgrene. 

Grant of the Wardship and Marriage of Thomas de Haverington, 

Grant of Lands and Tenements in Gosenargh, escheated by Felony. 

Lease for 20 Years of the Foreign Wood of Myerscough. 

Mandate to the Duchy Escheator to interfere no further in Premises at Ribblechester, seized into the Duke's Hands on the 
Felony of Roger de Allele. 

An Indenture of Agreement concerning Tenements in Romesgrene and the towns of Penhulton and Cliderowe, between the 
Duke and the Abbot and Convent of Whalley. 

Grant of the Bailiwick of Derby Wapentake for Life, , „ , , ■ j ■ . j-i 

Mandate to the Duchy Escheator not to interfere further as to Messuages and Lands in Asteley and Hyndeley, seized into tue 
Duke's Hands by reason of the Felony of Richard de Atherton, 

On t!ic lack and in continuation of this Roll to the followiny effect : — 

The Duke to Adam Skillingcorn.— A Lease of a Place called Hoddesdone for 12 Years, at £2 63, 8d, per Ann, Henry Le Norres 
of Speek, and others, for the Duke. 

Recognisance of Debts and divers other Recognisances of Debts, „ . i-i, m 

A Lease by the Duke to William, son of Adam of LyverpuU, and More de LyverpuU, and others de Lyrerpull, ot the J-Own, 
with all the Mills of the same Town, together with the Rents and Services, and the Passage of the Water of Merese, with the 
Turbary of Toxteth Park and the stallages as therein particularised, [The Instrument, as enrolled, is very obscure. It is tested, 
Henry de Walton, Lieutenant of the Duchy, at Lancaster, 24th March, 11th Year of the said Duke— 1361.] ' 

' The duko died the day before this dute, — li. 


Mandate to John Haverington and other?, to raise Soldiers, Men-at-Arms, and Archers, in the Wapentakes of_ Amounderness, 
Fourneys, and Lonsdale, within the Duchy, to march against the Scotch. And like Mandates to others for Derbyshire, Salfordsbire, 
Blakeburnahire, and Leylondshire Wapentakes, with a distinct Mandate to the Sheriff to assist. 

Grant of a'yearly Rent of £10 to Henry Ditton out of the Lands of Thomas Ditton. 

Grant of Wardship and Lauds and Marriage of William the son of Robert de Frees. 

The Duke's Pardon of Suit for Trespass and Hunting at Blakelegh Park. 

Grant of Holtefeld in Salford. 

Pardon of Peace to the Vicar of Kirkham Church for mal-admmistration m his Office of Dean of Amounderness. 

Mandates to raise 300 Archers, to accompany the Duke to Brittany, from the various Wapentakes. 

Grant of a Paviage for Preston, and for Customs on Merchandise in aid thereof. 

Admissions of Attorneys to plead in the Duchy Courts. 

Justices assigned for observing the Statute of Weights and Measures. 

Permission to inquire of lands in Hornclyve. 

Grant of the Wardship of Lands of Adam de Mondesley. 

Paviage for the Town of LyverpuU for two Years. ,„.-,, t^ , i, t^ , , • i_ j 

Mandate to the Duchy Escheator for Livery of Seisin of Lands in Radechf, ss forfeited by Felony, the Duke having had year, 

day, and waste. , ■ t^ , 

Confirmation of a Grant of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, to William Norreys, of Lands in Derby. 

Writ of the Disseisin of Dokesbury [Duxbury] Manor. 

Tbe like of Lands in Chorley. , „. t.-it,i 

Mandate to the Escheator for Land in Penwortham, seized for withdrawing of the service of a Boat over the River Ribble. 

Writ of the Disseisin for Lands in Ellale. 

Grant of the Site of Ulneswalton Manor to Richard de Hibernia, the Duke's Physician, with Liberty to be Toll free and Hopper 
free at the Duke's Mills. 

Grant of Allowance to the Town of Overton to grind Corn at the Duke's Mill at Lone. 

Grant of the Custody of St. Mary's Chapel at Syngleton. 

Pardon for Trespasses in the Duchy Forests. 

Pardon for JSfon-Appearance in Court. 

Justices assigned to keep the Waters in which Salmons are caught. 

Justices to inquire of Stoppages in the Duchy Rivers, and chiefly the Ribble, to the injury of Penwortham Fishery. 

Appointments of Stewardships. 

Pard on of a Fine pro Licentia Concordandi, as to Tenements in Mamcestre. 

Inquisition and Letters Patent touching the Manor of Mamcestre as a Market Town and Boro' with the Hamlets thereto. 

The Duke to Thomas de Lathum and Wife. 

Licence to hold Knouselegh Park. 

Agreement touching the Wardship of Lands and the Marriage of Richard de Molyneux of Sefton. 

Divers Letters of Protection for Persons serving the King abroad. 

Confirmation of a Lease of the Manor of Aldeclif to the Prior of Lancaster. 

Warrant to levy 520 Marks (£346 : 13 : 4) from the Freeholders of Quernmore F. rest and the Natives of Lonsdale, as their 
portion of £1,000 Fine for Trespasses against the Assize of the Forest. 

Several Mandates to the Escheators concerning various Lands seized. 

Divers pardons for Trespasses and Assaults. 

Exemplification of Proceedings touching the Intail of the Manor of Bury. 

The like as to Lands in Harewode, the Water of Hyndeburne, and Clayton on the Jlores. 

[The other Records of the Annals of the Duchy are marked A.4. and A.5., and are similar in their contents to A.l. These 
RoUs terminate the Records of the first Duke, who died in the year 1361, without male issue.] 

So rich an inheritance as the dukedom of Lancaster could not remain long in abeyance. The 
marriage of John of Gaunt, the fourth son of the reigning monarch of England, to Lady Blanche, 
the youngest daughter of the deceased duke, produced the almost immediate revival of the title, 
and the subsequent death of lady Maud, her elder sister, without issue, invested Duke John with 
the whole of those extensive possessions which the first duke had left to his children. The con- 
fidence reposed by the king in this, his favourite and most highly-gifted son, conferred upon him 
everything but sovereign power ; and his second marriage with Constance, the eldest daughter of 
Peter the Cruel, obtained for him the title of King of Castile and Leon. In this character he 
obtained the right to coin money, and several pieces were struck bearing his superscription. The 
wars in which he was engaged have already been adverted to,^ and the history of this munificent 
duke shortly portrayed. His claim to the throne of Sicily, founded on no just pretension, produced 
a strong remonstrance on the part of his holiness Pope Urban V., who issued on the occasion one of 
those bulls at the bare name of which princes and kings were accustomed to tremble. This bull 
is still preserved, though divested of its seal. The inquiry upon what legitimate ground the Duke 
of Lancaster founded his pretensions to the kingdom of Sicily he was not able to answer to the 
Pope's nuncio, and from that time this claim seems to have been abandoned. 

The Continental wars in which the EngUsh were engaged did not prevent them from embarldng 
on a crusade against Ireland, that unfortunate country Avhich has for so many centuries been the 
scene of opjaression and misgovernment. In a writ addressed to the sheriff of Lancashire by the 
king, the Irish people are characterised as " our enemies, and rebels ; " and it is announced to the 
sheriff that Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the king's son, is on his way to Ireland to coerce the "rebels" 
into subjection, and the ports of Liverpool and Chester are required to send ships, properly manned, 
to support the expedition, (1361).' That the object of this armament was not very speedily 
accomplished may be inferred from the fact that,, two years afterwards, a proclamation was issued 

1 Sue chap. iv. = Pat. 85 Edw. lU. p. 2. m. 24, Tun-. Lend. 


by the king for seizing eighty ships, of thirty tons burden and upwards, wherever they could be 
found, on the western coast, between Bristol in Somersetshire and Furness in Lancashire, which 
ships were to be sent to Lyverpole, before the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula (Aug. 1), to assist 
Prince Lionel in carrjdng on the war against Ireland. At that time the exports of Liverpool were 
very subject to the restrictions of orders in council. In 1362 the bailiffs of Liverpool and John, 
Duke of Lancaster, both received orders from the government to prohibit the exportation of 
provisions of various kinds, as well as of dyewares and other commodities, which prohibition 
extended to cloths called " worstedes," ' and to sea-coal, then recently discovered as an article of 
fuel ; and similar interdicts, soon after issued, extended the prohibition to horses, linen, woollen 
yarns, jewels, and the precious metals. Liverpool was at that period rising, though slowly, into 
importance ; and an order was issued by the king to the admiral on the station, as well as to the 
sheriff of the county, and the mayor and bailiff's of the borough, to rebuild (de novo construere) a 
bridge over the Mersey within their lordship. The alarm of invasion was again spread with great 
assiduity, and the royal proclamations of 1369 diligently propagated these apprehensions, in order 
to quicken the transmission of the public supplies. Adam de Hoghton, Roger de Pilkinton, William de 
Atherton, Richard de Radclyf, and Matthew de Rixton, commissioners of array for the county of 
Lancaster, were appointed, by royal mandate (1369), to press and enrol four hundred archers in 
Lancashire, to accompany John, Duke of Lancaster, to Aquitaine f and the archbishops, bishops, 
abbots, priors, dukes, marquesses, earls, barons, and castellans, were informed that the king 
had appointed his son, the Duke of Lancaster, his captain and lieutenant in " Guynes and 
Caleys," the Black Prince having then returned to England broken in health. In the following 
month the sheriff of Lancaster was commanded to array, by himself or his deputies, all men in the 
county capable of bearing arms between the ages of sixteen and sixty years, and to cause them to 
be in readiness, and properly equipped, to resist the French, who threatened to invade England, to 
obstruct the passage of merchants and merchandise, and to abolish the English language ! ' By a 
subsequent proclamation it was ordained that the men-at-arms, hobelers, and archers in the county 
of Lancaster should be in complete readiness by Palm Sunday (April 7, 1370), and William de 
Risseby, John Blake, clerk, Matthew de Rixton, and Richard ap Llewellyn Vaughan, had confided 
to them the power to arrest all ships, from twelve to forty tons burthen, in the ports of Lyverpull,^ 
and all other places from thence to Chester, that port included, and to send them to the ports of 
Southampton and Plymouth by Sunday next before the feast of Pentecost (Sunday, May 26), with 
a sufficient equipment of sailors for the passage, to embark in the expedition of John, Duke of Lan- 
caster, and others in his company, going to Gascony.' To prosecute all these hostile operations the 
king, this year, by the authority of Parliament, levied upon the parishes of England a tax of fifty 
thousand pounds, each parish being required to pay five pounds fifteen shillings, the greater to help 
the less. From this return it appears that there were then eight thousand six hundred and thirty- 
two parishes in England, and that the contribution of 

Lancashire, for its 58 parishes, was ^^^6 8 

Westmoreland, 32 „ „ Vtl ^i " 

55d lb U 

Cumberland, 96 

Middlesex, exclusive of London, 63 parishes, was 

365 8 

London, 110 parishes, was °^° 

Yorkshire, 540 „ „ '^^''^ " 

But It was in vain that John of Gaunt marched through France from Calais to Bordeaux; the 
French were ready to harass him by skirmishes, but not to fight m any general engagement, and 
as a consequence no great battle occurred. 

By an indenture, made in 1371, between the king and his son John, Duke of Lancaster, King 
of Castile and Leon, the duke grants to his father the county, castle, town, and honor ot Richmond, 
in exchange for the castle, manor, and honor of Tykhill, castle and manor ot High Peak with 
knights' fees, together with the advowson of the churches of Steyndrop and Brannspath, the 
free chapels of Tykhill and High Peak, the church and free chapel of Marsfeld, the ^'ee chapel of 
Pevenese, the priory of Wylmyngdon, the priory of Whitiham, and the house of St. Robert ot 
Knaresborough with the castle, manor, and honor of Knaresborough, the hundred or wapentake 
of Staynclifff in Yorkshire, and the manor of Gryngeley and Whetebury^ At the same time an 
order was issued by the king to the freemen, and all other tenants on the exchanged possessions 
ordering them to obey John, Duke of Lancaster; and similar orders were given by the ^f Jo 
the venerable fathers, all and singular his archbishops, bishops, and other prelates of churches, 

■ This well-known woollen fabric derived its name from Worstead, » Kot. V™. « Edw !„ 3 Tur, Lond 

then a busy town, but now an unimportant village about a dozen miles Rot. Fiane. 4* Edw. Ill m 25 ^™^^° -.f^, L„„a, 

north of Norwich where the manufacture was earned on.-C. Rot, 1 at 1 Klcli. U. p. 1. por 1 

2 Rot. Vascon. 43 Edw. HI. m. 5, Turr. Lond. 



and to his earls, viscounts, barons, and others holding of the castle, honor, and county of Rich- 
mond," announcing that he had granted to his royal father and lord the county of Richmond, and 
commanding that all vassals and feudatories should perform homage, fealty, and all other services 
and duties to the king. ^ 

The prerogatives of jura regalia conferred upon John of Gaunt in his duchy and county pala- 
tine of Lancaster were greatly enlarged by the royal bounty, by which he was appointed the king's 
especial lieutenant and captain-general of "our kingdom of France," and in Aquitaine and the 
parts beyond the sea.^ This authority was still further enlarged by the memorable charter granted 
to the duke in the early part of the reign of his royal nephew (June, 1379), of which charter it 
may be said in a feAV words that it gave the largest powers possible to a subject to John of Gaunt, 
both upon the sea and in France, Aquitaine, and " elsewhere in all parts beyond the sea." 

The persons embarked with the duke in his foreign expeditions were privileged by royal 
authority, and letters of protection were granted by the king, directing that all noblemen and 
others attached to the expedition should cross the sea without delay, so that none of them should 
be found in this country after the approaching feast of St. John the Baptist (June 24, 1379). 
Amongst others engaged in this expedition, and to whom letters of protection were addressed, we 
find the names of Robert, son of William de Clyfton ; William de Barton, of Ridale ; Adam del 
Darn ; Henry Fitzhenry, son of Thomas de Alkeryngton ; John de Ribelton, of Preston, in Amon- 
dernesse; Hugh de Tyldesley; John Redeman; and Adam, son of Adam de Lancaster. 

Ireland was still treated as a conquered country, and each successive lord-lieutenant, instead of 
sailing for that island in the character of a messenger of peace, was armed with a strong naval and 
military force, as if embarking against a hostile state. Accordingly, we find an order from the king 
to the sheriffs (1373), announcing that he had appointed Simon Charwelton, clerk, and Walton de 
Eure, to arrest ships of from twenty to two hundred tons burthen in Bristol and the other western 
ports as far as Lyverpole, at which latter place they were to rendezvous, for the passage of William 
de Wyndesore, "governor and warden of the land of Ireland."'' 

In these early days, amongst all the restrictions on commerce, we find no laws against the 
importation of grain, but there are frequent interdicts against the exportation of that article ; and 
hence we have, in the year 1375, a precept to the sheriff of the county of Lancaster, directing him 
not to allow the exportation of wheat, barley, or other grain from this county. 

The reign of Edward III., though a period of Avar and mihtary renown, terminated in peace. 
For the restoration of this blessing the country was indebted to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
Avho, in virtue of the powers with which he was invested, concluded a treaty of peace with 
Flanders, and also a truce with France, which, after having been prorogued from time to time, 
terminated finally in an adjustment of the differences between the two nations. In the last year of 
this king's reign (1377) a grant, as we have already seen, of chancery in the county palatine of 
Lancaster was made by the Duke of Lancaster ; ^ and the reign concluded, as it had begun, with 
favours and privileges to the ducal house, which had long held the first station amongst the peers 
of the realm, and Avas speedily to be advanced to sovereign poAver. 

' Ex. origin, in Turr. Lond. . ■•> Pat, 47 Edw. Ill n. 2 m "4 Tun- T nnd 

' Rot. Franc. 47 Edw. HI, m. 19, Turr. Lend. > Bee chap iv. 


Power of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster-The Duke's Expedition to Spain-Larger Measure in Lancashire than any other part 
of the Kingdom-Accession of the House of Lancaster to the Throne-Grant of the Isle of Man, first to Henry, Earl of 
Northumberland, and afterwards to Sir John Stanley, Knight-Annals of the Duchy-Charters of the Duchy-Will of 
Henry IV.-Heury V. ascends the Throne-Union of the County of Hereford to the Duchy of Lancaster-Battle of 
Agincourt— Death of Henry V.— His Bequest of the Duchy of Lancaster— a.d. 1377 to 1422. 

OHN OF GAUNT, Duke of Lancaster, had now attained his meridian power, and 
the reign of Eichard II. may not inaptly be called the regency and Yice-royalty 
of the duke. Though the king swayed the sceptre, his noble uncle guided the 
arm that wielded it ; and all the principal measures of his reign were supposed 
by the people, and not without cause, to emanate from the palace of the Savoy 
or the castle of Lancaster. No subject of the realm had by any means equal 
power in this kingdom; and, as the representative of the king in foreign 
countries, he exercised prerogatives seldom confided to a subject. The wealth 
of the duke was immense, but the splendour and state which he maintained absorbed and even 
anticipated his princely income. The arts were then slowly emerging from the night of the middle 
ages ; the dogmas of the schools and the superstitions of the monasteries were shaken by the risinw 
spirit of inquiry ; poetry, hitherto almost unknown in this island, except in the effusions of the 
Welsh bards and of Caedmon, began to be cultivated; and "time-honoured Lancaster" was 
amongst the most munificent patrons of genius in his age and nation. 

In the "process and ceremony of the coronation" of Eichard II. (July 16, 1377), who was now 
but eleven years of age, we find the names of John, Duke of Lancaster, Eoger le Strange de Knokyn, 
John la Warre, Henry de Grey de Wilton, and Archibald de Grelly, all names connected with the 
county of Lancaster, and attached, for the purposes of this ceremony at least, to the king's court. 
This " process " John, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster, and'high steward of England, 
delivered with his own hand into the king's court of chancery.' The ceremonial, which was one of 
unusual splendour, was performed almost as soon as the obsequies of the late king were ended, and 
was doubtless hastened by the fact that apprehensions were entertained of the ambitious designs 
of John of Gaunt, who, as eldest surviving son of Edward III., expected to be sole regent. The 
Parliament assembled in October of the same year, when, at the request of the Commons, the 
Lords, in the king's name, appointed nine persons, of whom the Duke of Lancaster was one, to be 
a permanent council of the king, and further resolved that, during the king's minority, the appoint- 
ment of all the chief officers of the crown should be with the Parliament. The decision was a 
grievous disappointment to the duke, and his feelings must have been ill-concealed, for there is 
upon the rolls of Parliament a speech that he made, in which he demanded the punishment of 
those who had spoken of him as a traitor. But the times were serious for England, and men's 
minds were exercised less by the doings in Parliament at home than by the prospect of impending 
danger abroad. The wars of Edward III. had produced no permanent advantage, but had 
engendered a spirit of revenge that threatened the safety of the country. The truce with France 
had expired, and Charles V., acting in concert with Spain, had lost no time in renewing hostilities ; 
the Scots, ever restless, were again in arms, and had succeeded in burning Eoxburgh and capturing 
Berwick. There were, in fact, enemies all round ; commerce was interrupted, the seaports were 
ravaged, and the Isle of Wight had been plundered. The high reputation of the duke pointed 
him out as the mediator of differences, whether of a national or a domestic kind ; and after having 
settled the quarrel with France and with Belgium, we find him appointed a commissioner to 
compose the ancient differences between the gallant Earls of Northumberland and Douglas.^ In 
1378 the prerogatives oijura regalia were renewed in favour of " King John," Duke of Lancaster, 
as he was called, on going abroad, and rendered as extensive as they were in the time of King 
Edward III. The privilege of coining money in the city of Bayonne and other places was at the 
same time renewed.^ In the same year the duke's eldest son, Henry of Bolingbroke, whose name 
figures so prominently in later history, was deemed of sufficient age to receive the honour of 

1 Richard II. claus. 1. m. 44. 

" Scoi. 1 Richard II. m. 7. 

' -2 Richard II., Vase. S. R. 


knighthood, and his father, in accordance with custom, in the second year of his regality (1378), 
issued a summons to Richard de Townley, the sheriff, to levy the usual aid to make him a knight. 
The followin<T year plenary power was given to the duke in the marches of Scotland. While 
clothed with these powers the duke concluded a peace with Scotland, Avhich was confirrned by the 
king, his nephew, at Northampton, and proclaimed in this county, under the designation of the 
" Great Truce," by the sheriff of Lancaster, at the end of the year 1 380. The insurrection of Wat 
Tyler and his confederates, in which the house of the Duke of Lancaster, situated in the Savoy in 
London, was destroyed,' interrupted the proceedings of the court of justice at Westminster ; on 
which occasion a proclamation was issued by the king to the Duke of Lancaster, ordaining that on 
account of the unheard-of and horrible commotions and insurrections of the people in the kingdom 
of England, and for averting the dangers arising from the incursions of foreign enemies, as well as 
for other reasons, all the pleadings in the Court of King's Bench stood adjourned; and all writs 
and mandates delivered to the duke, his chancellors, justiciaries, sheriffs, or other ministers, 
within the county of Lancaster, should be returned on the octaves of St. Michael (Oct. 7, 1380), 
instead of at the usual period.^ The seditions which originated in the neighbourhood _ of London 
spread into the provinces ; and rumours were very extensively circulated that these disturbances 
were fomented by the Duke of Lancaster and other peers, in order to procure the deposition of the 
king, that they might usurp the royal authority. To these rumours it was judged proper to give 
the most positive and solemn contradiction, in consequence of which a proclamation was issued 
by the king to all archbishops, prelates, and others, wherein it was announced that a hateful 
rumour, which wounded and grieved the royal heart beyond measure, had been diffused 
throughout divers parts of the kingdom, representing that the detestable disturbance in certain 
counties of England, against their allegiance to the king and the public peace, had been instigated 
by John, Duke of Lancaster, and certain others, prelates and faithful subjects; which rumours the 
proclamation denounced as wicked inventions, and declared the duke had always been faithful and 
zealous for the honour and safety of the country (1381).' These sinister rumours, notwithstanding, 
at length became so prevalent as to endanger the personal safety of the duke ; and a proclamation 
was in consequence issued to Henry de Percy, Earl of Northumberland, and to John, Lord de 
Nevyll, appointing them to raise a bodyguard for the duke, with all possible despatch, both 
men-at-arms and archers, to protect him against the violence of his enemies. A mandamus was 
also directed to the sheriff of Lancashire to make proclamation within the duchy of the ordinances 
against unlawful assemblies, &c., as recited in the royal mandate of June 18, 4 Rich. II. (1380).* 
The duke was at the same time appointed the king's justiciary, to inquire, on oath, within the 
counties in his duchy, and the county palatine of Lancaster, into depredations, robberies, 
homicides, burnings, and rapes, with power to punish the offenders. That these crimes had 
attained to a frightful magnitude in Lancashire may be inferred from a species of royal 
proclamation issued by the king and duke (King of Castile and Duke of Lancaster) to the sheriff 
of the county of Lancaster, preserved in the archives of the duchy,'' in which, after ordaining that 
the " holy Anglican Mother Church " shall have all its liberties whole and unimpaired, and fully 
enjoy and use the same, and that the great charter and forest charter shall, according to the 
statute 6 Rich. II. cap. 6 (1382), be firmly observed, proceeds to say that so licentious had become 
the public manners, that the female character was treated with the greatest disrespect, and "ladies 
and other noble maids and women," were frequently violated by force, and that the resentment 
of the persons subject to these outrages was so slight that numbers of them married their ravishers; 
for remedy of which it was ordained, that if after such outrage the parties contracted marriage, 
they should both of them be disabled, ipso facto, from maintaining any inheritance, dowry, or 
conjoint feoffment, or from receiving any bequest from their ancestors, and that the inheritance 
should descend to the next in blood." The crime of abduction at this time was of frequent 
occurrence, and the carrying off a wife by force was by no means uncommon among knights and 
gentlemen as well as those of the meaner sort. The frequent wars at home and abroad, with the 
absence of any settled police, seem to have emboldened the young gallants of the day in the evil 
practice, ni which they easily found lawless followers to help them. 

For the purpose of interposing a barrier against the progress of the Scots in their future 
attempts to invade the northern counties of England, a treaty was entered into and ratified between 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Henry de Percy, Earl of Northumberland (1383), in which 
It was stipulated that the freemen of the counties of Lancaster and Durham should be charged by 

J See chap iv. p. 40. The Savoy palace was built by Petcv, Eavl of Pat. 6 Richard II. p. 1. m 32 

Savoy and Richmond, on whose death it escheated to the crown ; and « Patent Rolls Richard II — C 

Henry I [I. conferred it on his son, Edmund Crouchback, through whom » Roll A 6 m 16 

It became a possessiori of the Earls of Lancaster. « Scot. 7. ijicliard II. m. 1. 

' Claua. 4 Richard II. m. 1, 


the lord to assemble and to come with all their power, whenever proclamation was made by 
the Eai;l of Northnmberland that the Scots had laid siege to any castle in the allegiance of the 
,r^-, ^^e stipulations of this treaty were soon brought into active operation, for on the 17th 
March, 1384, a mandate was addressed to Ralph de Radclyf, sheriff of Lancashire, to meet the 
Duke of Lancaster at Newcastle-on-Tyne, on the 24th March "next," with all the men-at-arms 
and archers arrayed withm the duchy for the defence of the realm against the Scotch ' The Scots 
aided by a body of French cavalry, renewed their incursions into Cumberland, Westmorland and 
Lancashire, where they committed the most extensive outrages, on which the Kinc of Eno'iand 
havmg assembled an army of 60,000 men, issued an order to the Duke of Lancaster "to meet him 
with horse and arms at Newcastle, on the 14th of July (USiy With this army the youno' king 
penetrated into Scotland, and, after having burnt the capital and laid waste all the towns and 
villages through which he had to pass, advanced as far as Dundee. This signal act of retributive 
justice put an end to the invasions of the Scots, and restored peace to the two countries. 

A charge of high treason, in compassing the death of the king, and usurping his throne 
was this year made, by John Latimer, B.D., an Irish Friar of the Franciscan order, ao-ainst 
the Duke of Lancaster, which charge the duke, who had then just returned from his expedition 
into Scotland, vehemently denied, and required to be confronted with his accuser; but on 
the eve of the trial, according to Kennett,^ "Lord John Holland, the king's half-brother, and 
Sir Henry Green, two of the duke's friends, entered the friar's lodgings, and cruelly put him to 
death with their own hands, by hanging him up by the neck and privy members, and laying a 
great stone upon his breast, which broke his neck ; and, as if they had perpetrated this enormity 
by public authority, they drew his dead body through the streets the next day, as being deservedly 
punished as a traitor. This cruel action brought upon the duke much dishonour, and, though it 
ridded him_ of a false accuser, as was thought till the friar was so illegally put to death, yet it 
rendered his innocence more suspicious than before ; and many believed him really guilty who 
before thought him falsely accused." This, to be sure, was a monstrous infraction of law and 
justice, and might well subject the duke to suspicion, if the fact could have been established that 
he was a party to the murder, in which light the punishment of the friar must be viewed ; but we 
do not find in the records of the day any evidence of this fact. It was an unfortunate trait in the 
king's character that he surrounded himself with ministers who were ready to foment the feeling 
of jealousy he entertained towards his uncles. The Duke of Lancaster was unpopular, and was 
generally suspected of the most ambitious and criminal designs ; he appears, however, to have 
possessed many of the high qualities of a statesman — prudent, iDut not an enemy to improvement — 
generous without prodigality — possessing great wealth and influence, but there is no evidence of his 
ever having employed his power in any act of disloyalty to his nephew. While the duke was in 
France (August, 1384), with a grand retinue to renew the negotiations for peace, the king's 
ministers took advantage of his absence to bring his great partisan, John Northampton, late lord 
mayor of London, to trial, confiscated his estates, and sentenced him to perpetual imprisonment 
a hundred miles beyond the city, and, encouraged by their success, they formed the bold design of 
bringing the duke himself to trial for treason before Sir Robert Tresillian, chief justice of the 
King's Bench — a design as impudent as it was illegal. The duke, informed of their intention, 
retired to his castle at Pontefract, and everything seemed to threaten a civil war, when the king's 
mother, with much difficulty, patched up a kind of reconciliation between the king and 

The war with Scotland being ended, and the Duke of Lancaster feeling that his possessions in 
the duchy and county palatine were secure, he prepared to enforce his claim, in right of his wife, 
to his inheritance in Spain,-* leaving his son Henry, Earl of Derby, as his locum tenens in his 
absence. In this expedition, the most splendid of the age, he was accompanied by his chancellor, 
William de Ashton, Esq., "Thomas de Ashton, Esq., John de Eccleston, of Lyverpole, Esq., and 
Thomas Holcroft, Esq., all of the county of Lancaster, with a number of knights and gentlemen, to 
whom letters of protection were given by the king.' On the 12th March, in the tenth year of his 
regality, Robert de Urswyk, escheator, Ralph de Radclyf, sheriff, John Croft, of Dalton, chr., and 
Thomas de Radclyf were appointed commissioners, by authority of a royal warrant, to elect a 
thousand of the best archers in the duchy, to proceed with the duke to Spain when summoned." 
Previous to his departure, the duke entered into an engagement with the king his nephew that 
he would not make any treaty with the crown of Spain unless upon the condition that the King of 
Spain should pay to the King of England 20,000 gold doubloons ; and the duke further engaged 

I Patent Eolla (Duchy Records) 7 Pachard II.— C. •> See chap i?. 

= Claus 8. Richard II. m. 3. d. ° Patent Rolls (Duchy Records) 9 Richard II.- C. 

' Vol. i. p. 262. ° Ibid.—C. 


that he would repay to the king 20,000 marks (£13,333 6s. 8d.), which he had borrowed to defray 
the expenses incident to the fitting out of this expedition. The duke was accompanied on his 
expedition by his wife and his tAvo daughters, Philippa and Katharine. The fleet in which they 
and their large force (the flower of English chivalry) embarked set sail in July, and the expedition 
remained abroad for some time, but the result was partly a failure and partly a success. The duke 
failed in securing the coveted crown of Castile, but he succeeded in finding a royal match for each 
of his daughters. The eldest, Philippa, he married to John I., King of Portugal, and the other, 
Katharine, was united to Henry, Prince of the Asturias, who, on the death of his father, became 
King of Spain— thus, though he lost himself a crown, he seated his descendants on the two thrones 
of Spain and Portugal.^ After securing these advantageous alliances for his daughters and a large 
sum of money for himself he relinquished all claim to the crown of Castile and to any title to be 
called king of that country. Of this mission the following account is given in an ancient 
manuscript chronicle in the Harleian collection, in the British Museum. '- [We have modernised 
the spelling.] 

"And in the eleventh year of the reign of King Richard II. (1387), Sir John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, went over the sea 
into Spain to challenge his right that he hath by his wife's title to the crown of Spain, with a great host of people, of lords, and 
knights, and squires, men-of-arms, and archers ; and had the duchess his wife and his three daughters over the sea with him in 
Spain. And there they were a great while, till at last the King of Spain began [to] treat with the Duke of Lancaster ; and as they 
were accorded together, through their sooth counsels, that the King of Spain should wed the duke's daughter of Lancaster that was 
heir to Spain, and the King of Spain gave to the Duke of Lancaster of gold and silver that were cast into great ingots, as much as 
eight chariots might carry, and many other rich jewels and gifts ; and every year after, during the life of the Duke of Lancaster and 
of the duchess his wife, 10,000 marks of gold,^ and that by her [their] own adventure, costs, and charges, they of Spain should bring 
these 10,000 marks every year, yearly, into Bayonne, to the duke's assigns, by surety made. And the Duke of Lancaster wedded 
another daughter of his unto the King of Portingale, well and worthily, and left there his two daughters with their lords their 
husbands, and came him home again into England with the good lady his wife. Duchess of Lancaster." 

During the duke's absence in Spain "a submission of award " was entered into between the 
honourable " Prince, King, and Duke," as he is designated in this document,* on the one part, and 
William Pargrave and Igden Slingsby, Esq., on the other part, relating to the manors of Scotton, 
Breareton, and Thonge, in the county of Fork, to determine how far the latter parties, in right of 
their wives, the daughters of William de Westfield, were entitled to certain privileges in these 
manors, the award to be made by twenty knights and esquires, the most sufficient that could be 
found near to the manors in litigation. 

In the year 1 388 the alarm of Scotch invasion was again very prevalent in this country, on 
which the king issued a proclamation to the Duke of Lancaster, or his chancellor, announcing that 
the Scots and their adherents had assembled a great army, and had hastily invaded the kingdom 
of England, burning, destroying, and horribly slaying men, women, and children, and had almost 
advanced to the gates of York. To repel this cruel invasion, the duke was required to make 
proclamation in all cities, boroughs, and market-towns, and other places in the county and duchy of 
Lancaster, that all lords, knights, esquires, and others competent to bear arms should repair with 
all speed to join the king's army.'' Before the return of the duke from Spain, in 1389, the battle 
of Otter bourne, on which the ballad of " Chevy Chace " was founded, had been fought, Douglas had 
been made to bite the dust, and the Scots had been driven back into their own country, but the 
public mind still continued agitated in the extreme by the intrigues of the Duke of Gloucester and 
his adherents, who sought to usurp the royal prerogatives, and to use them for their own aggran- 
disement. The presence of the Duke of Lancaster served to check the turbulent and ambiUous 
spirit of his brother of Gloucester, and to restore tranquillity to the State. 

Although by Magna Charta it was declared that uniform weights and measures should be used 
throughout the whole kingdom, to guard against those impositions to which the people were 
exposed from the arts of fraudulent dealers, the provisions of the charter had hitherto not been 
enforced ; it was now ordained by the authority of the king, on petition of the Commons that a 
standard measure and weight should be established for the whole kingdom, and that any person 
convicted of using any other should not only make satisfaction to the aggrieved parties but should 
also be imprisoned for six months without bail. The county of Lancaster was, however exempt 
from this enactment, " because," as the king says in his answer to the Commons, " there has always 
been a larger measure used in Lancashire than in any other part of the kino'dom."" 

The earliest enactments in the statutes of the realm for regulating the° salmon fisheries of this 
kingdom are those of the statute of Westminster 2, of which the confirmations relate to the 
Lancashire rivers, the Lune, the Wyre, the Mersey, and the Ribble; and by a statute, 13 

i Ha"rMSs''co'd'' M6'fo''98'b"^'~°' ""^ ""=''«''?e'l twenty-fold. It is more probable thiit it moans 10,000 ordi- 

= 10,000 marks in the ordinary money of aceount, equals £6,6C6 : 13 : 4. °'"'^*XT'jISb^ c" fs'^orf^' 60 
But the "mark of gold " (the expression used in the MS. ) was equal to = Claus 1? fiich 11 m 42 

20 marks of silver ; so that if the term be taken literally, that sum must « Rot F' rl vo iii "sro 


Richard II. c. 19 (1389-90), it is enacted, "That no young sahnon be taken or destroyed bv nets, 
at mill dams or other places, from the middle of April till the Nativity of St. John Baptist ]" and 
" it IS ordamed and assented that the waters of Lon, Wyre, Mersee, Ribbyl, and all other waters 
in the county of Lancaster, be put in defence, as to the taking of salmons, from Michaelmas Day to 
the Purification of our Lady (Feb. 2), and in no other time of the year, because that salmons be 
not seasonable in the said waters in the time aforesaid ; and in the parts were such rivers be, there 
shall be assigned and sworn good and sufficient conservators of this statute." This Act was 
amended by 17 Richard II. c. 9 (1393-4), which enacts " that the justices of the peace shall be 
conservators of the recited statute, with under-conservators appointed by them, and that the said 
justices shall inquire into _ the due execution of the law at their sessions ; " and further amended 
by 1 Eliz. c. 17 (1559), which, amongst other things, provides that the meshes of the nets used in 
taking salmon shall be two inches and a half broad, and that the fish shall not be taken by any 
other means.^ 

" In 1393, John, Duke of Lancaster, son of the King of Eugland, Duke of Guienne, Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester, and 
steward of England," as he is styled in the parliamentary records, and Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, constable of England, 
"complained to the king that Sir Thomas Talbot, knight, with others his adherents, conspired the deaths of tlie said dukes in divers 
parts of Cheshire, as the same was confessed and well known, and the dukes prayed that Parliament might judge of the fault. 
Whereupon the king and the lords in Parliament adjudged the said Thomas Talbot guilty of high treason, and awarded two writs — 
the one to the sheriffs of York and the other to the sheriffs of Derby, to take the body of the said Sir Thomas, returnable in 
the King's Bench in the month of Easter then ensuing ; and open proclamation was made in Westmiaster Hall that upon the 
sheriffs' return at the next coming in of the said Sir Thomas he should be convicted of treason, and incur the loss and penalty of 
the same." ^ 

Notwithstanding all these court intrigues the honours and privileges of the Duke of Lancaster 
continued to accumulate ; and by an act of ro3^al favour he was allowed to hold Aquitaine in liege 
homage of the king ; and all prelates, earls, viscounts, and others were commanded to pay homage 
to the duke, The viceroyalty of Picardy was soon after conferred upon him, at which time the 
privilege was conceded to him of importing sixty casks of wine, duty free, for the use of his 

The scandal raised at court by the marriage of John of Gaunt, the king's uncle, to his mistress 
Catherine Swinford,'' was somewhat abated by the king's patent, which legitimised her four 
children by the duke. These children were surnamed Beaufort, from the place of their birth, the 
patent of legitimation bearing date on the 10th of February, 1397." 

In the following year (1398) the quarrel between the Duke of Lancaster's eldest son, Henry of 
Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, and Thomas Mowbray, first Duke of Norfolk which terminated in 
the banishment of both these knights, took place." The death of the illustrious and venerable 
Duke of Lancaster was precipitated by this event ; ' and the deposition of Richard II., " unking'd 
by Bolingbroke," speedily followed.* On the death of his father, the Duke of Hereford returned to 
England, ostensibly to claim his paternal inheritance of the duchy of Lancaster, but really, through 
the public power, and his own daring, to assume the still higher possession of the throne. Amongst 
the most powerful of the adherents of the Duke of Lancaster Avere Henry de Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, and his son Henry Hotspur, to whose services he was essentially indebted for his 
elevation ; and one of the first acts of the new king's reign was to present the earl with a grant of 
the Isle of Man, to hold by the feudal service of bearing the curtana, called the "Lancaster 
Sword," on the day of the coronation," at the left shoulder of the king and his heirs, which sword 
had been borne by John of Gaunt at the coronation of Richard II. This grant is represented, in 
the document by which it is made, as the inadequate reward of the earl's magnificent and faithful 
services to the State. The island, castle, peel, and lordship of Man, the possession of William le 
Scrope, Earl of Wiltshire, had been seized by the king, on the execution of the earl for misgoverning 
the kingdom in the time of Richard II. ; and the whole of these possessions, together with the 
regalia, royal jurisdictions, franchises, liberties, and the patronage of the bishopric, as Avell as the 
goods and chattels of the unfortunate earl, Avere conferred upon the Earl of Northumberland m 
perpetuity. The restless spirit of Northumberland, who thought himself inadequately rewarded 
by the Isle of Man, Avhile he had secured for his sovereign the kingdom of England, urged him on 
to acts of rebellion against King Henry, as he had before rebelled against his predecessor. Less 
fortunate in his second than in his first revolt, the reAvard of his perfidy to Richard overtook him, 
and he lost, in the sequel, his son young Hotspur, his possessions, and his life. By the attainder oi 
the Earl of Northumberland, the Isle of Man, after six years, again fell into the possession of the 

' The subsequent statutes for the regulation of these fisheries aro • Sec chap. Iv. p. 60. 

4 and 5 of Anne, c. 21 (1706) ; 1 George I. stat. 11. c. 18 (1714) ; 23 George II. = Rot. Pari. vol. lu. p. 343. 

c. 26 (1749-50); 43 George III. c. 61 (1802-3). « See chap. v. p. (J4. 

^ See chap v. * "■ ""* 

■■" The duty on wine at this time was 3s, per, with an ad valorem ' P. 66. 

duty of 5 per cent upon its introduction into tho port of London. " Pat. 1 Hen. IV. p. 6 m. 35 


Crown, and was seized for the king's use by Sir William and Sir John Stanley ;' on which the king, 
by letters patent (dated 4th Oct., 1405), of his especial grace and favour, granted to Sir John 
Stanley the island, castle, peel, and lordship of the Isle of Man, and all the islands and lordships 
thereto belonging, together with regalia, regalities, franchises, and liberties, and all other profits 
and commodities annexed thereto, to have and to hold for the term of his life.- 

On the 6th of April, 1406, the king so far extended his bounty as to grant the Isle of Man to 
Sir John Stanley in perpetuity, in as full and ample a manner as it had been held by any former 
lord of the crown of England, per Iwrnagiwrn legiwm, but altering the tenure, which was now, 
instead of bearing the Lancaster sword at the coronation, to pay to the king a cast of falcons at the 
coronation, after homage made in lieu of all demands and customs. By this grant the Stanleys 
obtained an absolute jurisdiction over the soil, and became, with the exception of a few baronies, 
immediate landlord of every estate in the island, a semi-regal position which, save a brief 
interregnum during the Commonwealth period, they retained until the death, without male issue, 
of James Stanley, in 1736, when the lordship passed to the House of Athole, James Murray, the 
second duke, being descended from a daughter of James, the seventh Earl of Derby. 

The annals of the duchy, during the whole period of the life of John of Gaunt, will at all times 
rank amongst the most interesting records in the early history of the county palatine of Lancaster ; 
but though they are all before us, they are much too voluminous to be inserted in detail, and can 
only be given in summary, with such references as may enable those who wish to consult particular 
documents to find them with facility. These annals being resumed from the period of the death 
of the first Duke of Lancaster, and brought down to the demise of the last subject duke, comprehend 
the whole period of the history of the duchy, from its creation to the time when it merged in the 
Crown, not indeed by absolute union, for the duchy of Lancaster has always been considered a 
separate inheritance, but by actual possession— the Kings of England and the Dukes of Lancaster 
having been the same persons ever since the time when Henry of Bolingbroke ascended the throne, 
to the present day. 

John, Ddkb of Lancaster— viz. 1377 (51 Edw. III.) to 1389 (12 Rich. II.) 
(From the Duchy Secords in the Record Office). 


The two introductory instrumenta are aa follow : — 

51 Edw. III. 
John the Duke to Thomas de Thelwall s Appointment of Chancellor of the Duchy and County Palatine, 

Ai 4.1, T^ 1 i. ., o, -^ . ,, „ and delivery of the Great Seal of the Royalty. 

Also, the Duke to the Sheriff of the County Proclamation of Pleadings of Assize, &c. 

N^hn!^! 1 I 1 T ) I ^"t!^^ ^"''^ ^'°" *°'" ^^'"' °f -^^^'^^ de Nov. Dis. 20s. paid to the Hanaper. 

Nicholas de Syngleton to the Duke Fine of 10s. for a Writ de Conventione. ^ 

T^^llLr\?f^ "^ ^°^"^' '°" "^ ^''' •^°'"' "^^ M.^nA^i^ to Roger de Brokholes. the Duke's Escheator, for 
•! TV,rS!°,'-n ,S'--^ V,; ■•■■ delivery of Lands formerly held in Capite. 

3. The King and Duke for Henry de Ferrarijs Mandate to the Escheator to deliver Lands formerly held in 


4. The King and Duke for Walter Pedwardyne and others Like Mandate for Advowsons of Churches, &c. Conyngshead 

r m TT- J T^ , r -.TT-,,. , Priory and Wharton Church. 

6. The King and D^ke for the Duke : Adani de Hoght^n,' ^ ^^°'""' ^" ^^^^'°S- 

7. T^fm:L%TZ''t^eV:L Warrant to cut Timber for Repairs of Lancaster Castle. 

ine iving ana uuke tor the Duke Precept to the Mayor and BailiBFs of Lancaster and other PerBons, 

to proclaim prohibition against Persons congregating with an 

8. Various Fines paid for Writs, " P"'^"" '" '""P"'^^ ^^^ ^^^'"""^ "^ Lancaster. 

9. The King and Duke for the Duke Writ to the Escheator to seize the Lands of Nicholas de Prest- 


'"■ '"^Ha'^Sngton '"^''^ '"' '°^° '"'''''"' '"'^ '"''"^"'^^ ""' ^7"^^ V""' ^"^"^ '''' P^^'^S ^'^^ ^26 8s. as Knights elect 

■* '' for the Commonalty of the Duchy, for Expenses in coming to 

the King s Parliament. 

' Writs dated Pountfreyt Castlo, SdJuly, Hen IV A,-.riH„ «,» «,.„* .,■ 

" Claus. 8 Henry IV. m. 42. ^' nfTl^^n li ™' ^?^'' "i I™,!'"^*"'^ (^^r?), by writ directed to the sheriff 

•■' This appointment is dated at Westminster, 10th April 51 Edw III WillS^ Hn N^ "'ff}'?'^ WiUiam de Skipwyth, Roger de Fulthorp, and 

(1377 , and states that John, King of Castile and Leon a3 Duke oTVan' orrteroH ?w tl "'"^i" ''t'"' ^l,"^*,'? ^"^ ^" P'^''^. "'<=-. i» «><= ^""'y' 

caster, in the presence of Robert d% Wylington and ThomTde Hunrarford th^ Mnnd?, » " 'f^ ^" ■"°*'5 '"""'^ '^"""i ^^""^ ^'^^^'on^ ^^ Lancaster on 

knights, and others of the kmg's housdiold, hi tZ cCol wS th^ mari^ in f?,Tl ""«'■•, ^''^^'.'S'O" .day, and that due proclamation should be 

palace, appointed Thomas de Thelwall, clerk his chanoXr within th« if.n«t ff a] "f"'' /?°'i '" ™r'o"= market-places of the suits or pleas to l)e 

duehy and county of Lancaster, who took Us oath toThe sameTtaL -md of th« Hf«nJi°',°''? *''" 'T' ^"''i"f ' *^'''°S *''^° "■^•^ ««« twenty-four 

his great .seal for the administration of the regalities of the county mlkt^e h ,nd?-.^ i *i'' '''™T""'"iy' ^^ ''^est men, from every wapentjike or 

of the same, with his own hand to the said ThomM doliTOred etc '^ After Tn^^ ?„viff f ^\ ^^^id county, for the further fulfilling of the mandate, 
wards, the chancellor having received the seal, tto said king onthe 20th ''°'''™ ""= "'*'°°' °^ ""^ twenty-four men and this writ. 



PERSONS. ,,,mmc„„ 

11. The King a^d Duke for King Richard Precept for Proclamation that all Foreign Mendicant FriarB 

within the Duchy quit the Realm, according to the King's 

12. The King and Duke for the Prior and Convent of St. Mary's, Precept to'tbe Escheator not to interfere in the Manors and 

ijeicester Possessions of the Abbey of St. Mary de Pratis, during the 

avoidance of the Abbot's death. 
Here ends the first Year of the Royalty (1377), on the first side of the Roll, i 

13. John, King of Castile, &c., for the Abbot of Furnes Precept to the SheriCf, commanding the Executors of John Raton 

to pay £55 to the Abbot. 

14. Fines paid to the Duke for various AVrits, and attested by the Custos RegaHtatis, William Wetherley, Vicar of Blakeburn Church- 

15. The King and Duke for the Abbot of Evesham Mandate to the Barons of the Exchequer concerning the Fishery 

of Hoghwyk in the River Ribble, claimed by the Abbot, and 
,„ _, i ii T^- , T> , seized by the Deputy-Steward of the Manor of Penwortham. 

16. The same for the Kmg and Duke Mandate to the Sheriff to Levy Aid, according to the Statute, to 

« iu -r. 1 make his eldest Son a Knight. 

17. The same for the Duke and other Magnates of his Retiuue Letters to the Abbots of Furneys, Whalley, Cockersand, and 

going abroad m the Kmg 3 service other Abbots, Priors, Archdeacons, and Proctors, to offer 

prayers and sacrifices to God for the success of the expedition. 

18. The same for the Duke Mandate to the Duke's Escheator to seize the Lands, &c., of 

Otho de Halsale. 

19. The same for Richard de Townelay, Sheriff Mandate to the Barons of the Exchequer to pay his Account of 

Charges for Parchment, &c. 

20. The same for John Boteler and Ralph de Tpre Precept to the Sheriff to pay the Knighfe) elected for the Com- 

monalty of the Duchy £16 for their Expenses in coming to 
Parliament at Gloucester. 

This ends the second Year of the Royalty (1378). 

21. 2 Rich. n. (1378-9). 

The King and Duke for Alan Wilkeson and Wife Mandate to the Barons of the Exchequer to inquire of a Messuage 

and Lands seized into the Duke's bands, for the Felony of 
John de Ley land at Kirkeby, in Derbyshire. 

22. 'Various Fines paid to the Duke for Writs. 

23. The King and Duke for the Duke Mandate to the Justices to adjourn Sessions. 

24. The same for the Abbot of Whalley Mandate to the Baroas to inquire of Tithes seized by the 

Escheatiir, as belonging to William Talbot, an Outlaw, touch- 
ing the Tithes of the Church of All Saints of Whalley, at 

25. The same for the King Precept to the Sheriff to proclaim within the Duchy the 

Ordinance made as to the Goldsmiths' mark. 

26. The same for Nicholas de Haryngton and Robert de Urswyk Precept to the Sheriff to pay the Knights of the Commonalty 

their Expenses to Parliament at Westminster. 

27. The same for the Duke Precept to the Sheriff to elect a Coroner in the room of Thomas 

de Fasakereley. 

28. The same for the Duke Precept to eject Verderors for Derbyshire, Amouuderness, and 


29. The Bang and Duke for John de Eccleston Precept to the Sheriff to give Seisin (i.e. possession) of a Messuage 

and Lands taken by the Duke for the Felony of Robert de 

30. The same for the Abbot of Evesham Monastery Mandate to the Escheator to deliver Temporalities to Roger de 

Yatton, Abbot-elect. 

31. The same for the same Mandate to the Barons of the Exchequer to surcease demands 

upon the Abbot, and to answer for the Issues according to the 
Award of the Great Council. 

32. The same for the Duke Mandate to the Escheator to seize the Lands, &o., of Sir Thomas 

Bannastre, Knight. 

The end of the 3d Year of the Royalty (1379). 

33. 3 Rich. II. (1379-80). The King and Duke for the Duke ... Precept to the Sheriff for election of a Coroner. 

34. The same for John de Boteler and Thomas de Southworth Precept to the Sheriff to pay them as knights for the 

Commonalty, £24, for Expenses in coming to Parliament at 

Anno Quarto Segalitatis, John, Duke of Lancaster (1380). 
3 Rie. IL (1379-80). 

35. Fines pa d to the Lord for Writs. . . . , ^, -r 3 c ttt-h 

36. The King and Duke for John de Haydock Precept to the Escheator to give seisin of the Lands of Willm. 

Botiller in Laton Magna, Laton Parva, Bispham, Warthebrek, 
and Great Merton ; and Rents in Atherton, Weetlegh, 
Pynnyngton, Bolde, Lydegate, Thornton, Culcheth, Egergarth, 
Tildeslegh, Glassebroke, Bedford, Halsall, Ives, and Wyndhull ; 
Great Sonkey Manor, and Werington Manor. 

37. The same for John Botiller Precept to give seisin of Lands and Mill in Burtonwood, and the 

Manor of Weryngton, with Advowson of the Church. 

' The first year of the royalty or regality of John of Gaunt was the ITth year of hia dukedom,— H. 



38. The same for the Duke Precept to seize the Lands of William Botiller. 

The like of John Byron. 
The like of Eichard Radclif. 

39. The same for Gilbert de Gtorf ordsyohe Writ of Re-disseisin as to the Turbary in Scaresbrek. 

40. The like for the Tenants of Worston Township Mandate to the Baron s of the Exchequer, relating to the Tenants 

of.Worston, and Pasturage of Common and the Inolosure by 
William Nowel. 

41. The same for John Botiller and Thomas de Southworth Precept to the Sheriffs to pay Knights for the Commonalty of 

the Duchy, £19 12a., their Expenses in coming to Parliamt. 
at Northampton. 

42. The King and Duke for the Duke Mandate to the Escheator to seize the Lands and Tenements of 

Peter Gerard. 
The like of Ellen de Birewayth. 
The like of Wm. de Bradshagh of Hagh. 
The like of Riohd. de Caterall. 
The like of Gilbert de Kyghley. 
The like of Isabella de Eton. 

43. The same for John Eadeoliffe Mandate to give Seisin of the Manor of TJrdesale [Ordsall], 3 parts 

of Moiety, of the Town of Flixton, Tenements in Le Hope, 
Shoresworth, Le Holynhed, in Tokholes, Salford, the Bailiwick 
of Rochdale, and i of moiety of the Town of Flixton. 

44. The same for Isabella Bradeshagh Mandate to assign Dower of Lands seized into the Duke's Hands 

by reason of the minority of Thomas Bradeshagh. 
Writs of Diem Clausit Extremum. 

45. The King and Duke for the Duke Mandate to the Escheator to take the Lands of John de Skerton. 

And the like Mandate for several otherp upon deaths. 

46. The same for Sir Roger Pilkington, Knight Writ of Post Disseisin to the Sheriff for a Tenement in Rediche. 

47. The King and Duke for the Abbot of Cokersand Mandate to the Barons of the Exchequer to inquire of Rent of 

Hands in Mellyng, held by Hy. Chaderton, as seized for Debt. 

48. Fines paid for various Writs to the Duke, as acknowledged by William Horneby, Clerk of the Hanaper. 

49. The King and Duke for the King Precept to the Sheriflf to take William Greenhil, an Outlaw, in the 

King's Court within the Duchy, according to the King's 
Mandate therein recited. 

50. The same for same Precept to the Mayor and Bailiffs of Liverpool to proclaim the 

K ing's Mandate prohibiting Exportation of Corn. 
Anno Sexto Regalitatis (1382). 

51. The King and Duke for John de Warren Mandate to the Escheator to give Seisin of Wood Plumpton 

Manor, as in Fee, by Sir John Davenport, Knt. to Robert de 

52. The same for William de Atherton and Robert de Urcewyk. Precept to the Sheriff to pay the Knights of the Commonalty of 
,„ _, -^. -, T^ , . , ,,. ^^^ Duchy for their expenses to Parliament at Westminster. 

53. The King and Duke for the Kmg Precept to the Mayor and Bailiffs of Liverpool to proclaim the 

K.( rr, Tj- J T^ 1 t i,. TT- z. o i, , Klug's Mandate touching the Exportation of Corn. 

64. The Kmg and Duke for the King of Scotland Precept to the Sheriff to distrain Persons in Liverpool possessing 

several Casks of Wine taken in the Port of Inchgalle by some 
Persons in the County of Chester, contrary to the Truce with 
,, rm, c .V. -n- i: T. , 1 Scotland, and to pay 10 Marks (£6 133. 4d.) for each Cask. 

65. The same for the Kmg of England Precept to the Sheriff to publish the King's Proclamation within 

the Duchy relative to Charters of Pardon by the King's Sub- 
jects (except certain Persons named, and the Men of the City 
of Canterbury, of the Towns of Cambridge, Bridgwater, St, 
,. _,, , „• -r, ,,.,., ^ Edmund's, Beverley, and Scarboro') 

56. The same for Sir Roger de Pilkmgton, Knt. and Robert de Precept to pay the Knights elected for the Duchy Commonalty 

» 4. XI, V J 1^ , ^ ,,T -x ^^^ ^'"' ^^™ Expenses to Parliament at Westminster. 

57. Fines to the Kmg and Duke for Writs. ^i-u^^i. 

58. The King and Duke for the King of England Precept to Liverpool as to Exportation of Corn. 

Writs of Diem Clausit Extremum. 

59. The King and Duke for the Duke Mandate to the Escheator to take the Lands of Edward Lawrence 

en TV, IT- J n 1 t i,. T^- r T, , , ^"'^ ^^^ Ij&ni of Thomas Lathum. 

60. The Kmg and Duke for the King of England Precept to Liverpool as before. 

61. The same for the Poor Fishermen in the Duchy Precept to the Sheriff to publish the King's Prohibition against 

preventing the Fishermen from setting their nets in the Sea, 
fi9 Ti,^ o„„o f„ Tir ri 1 TUT- ^"^^ catching Fish for their Livelihood. 

62. The same for Matilda Waryng Writ _of Re-disseisin to the Sheriff of a Messuage and Lands in 

63. The same for Thomas de Knoll Ma^daTfo the Barons of the Exchequer to inquire of Lands in 

Chippendale, seized into the Duke's hands on the Felony of 
John de Knoll, as purchased after the King's Charter of 

64. The King of England for the King Wrirad°d;essed to the King of Castile and Duke of Lancaster, 

to cause to be elected and to come to Parliament 2 Knights 
for the Commonalty of the Duchy, and of every City 2 Citizens, 
and of every Boro' 2 Burgesses. 

Witness the King at Westminster, 7th January, 6 Ric. II, 




65. The King and Duke for the King Precept to the Sheriff to make Proclamation of the Statutes and 

Ordmauoea made in the Parliamt. of the 6ih Year of King 
Richard (1383), as recited in the King's Mandate addressed to 
the Duke of Lancaster, or his Lieutenant. 

66. The King and Duke for Margery Bannastre W^::^^^;llTS^f:^^ IL^^^'Ln in le 

'^" ^''onZ Dlt'c^oSi"' °' '''" ^'"'^ """^"^ ^'"='''' ™'='^^'^ ^""A^P* *° *^^ ^'^^"ff *° •"^'^^ Proclamation that aU the Duke's 
on tne Uucny coast Officers, Ministers, and Tenants of the Duchy, abstain from 

takmg the Goods of the said Ship, the Crew having escaped 

Anno Septimo Segalitatis (1383). 

68. The King and Duke for the Duke Writ of Diem Clausit Extremum' upon the death of John de 

fio Ti, c Kirkby, Chivaler. 

7n'ThP»r!f"'""' The like, upon death of David delrland. 

IV. ine same tor same Precept to the Sheriff to elect a Verderor for Amoundernesa, 

-, m, y, instead of Adam Bradkirk. 

79 -Thprt The like for Derbyshire, vice Richard de Aynscough. 

7^' Th!=7^='f;.'7i,"'Ai:i,":"*n'", j °°' *» elect a coroner for the county, vice Adam de Skylicorne. 

/ 3. The same for the Abbot of Cockersand Do. to give Seiain of Lands in BiUynge, seized by King Edward 

-I TT- i 4.1, T^- J T^ , , ,„ . for the Felony of William de Falyngge. 

/I. Fines to the Kmg and Duke for Writs. ®^ 

75. The Kmg^and Duke for Richard de Bareweford and Agnes, Writ of Re-diaaeisiu concerning Lands at Chorlegh. 

76. Fines to the King and Duke for Wrila. 

77. The King and Duke for the Duke Writ of Diem Clausit, Ac, directed to Robert de Ursewyk on 

^. -, J T^ , , *'^® death of Hugh de Bradshagh. 

/ 8. ihe Kmg and Duke for John Pilkington and Wife Writ de Dote Aasiguanda directed to the Escheator, for Margaret 

de Bradshagh. 

79. The same for same Writ of Diem Clausit Extremum upon the death of Hugh de 

Dacre. Do- on the death of Thomas de Rigmayden. Do. of 
„„ „. ., , ,, .r. , - Thomas de Lathum. Do. of Richard de Balderston. 

80. Fines paid to the Duke for Writs. 

Anno Octavo RegalUatis (1384). 

81. The King and Duke for the Duke Precept to the Sheriff for Proclamation, that all the Men of the 

Duke's retinue meet him at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, to march 
into Scotland. 

82. The same for Adam de Prestall of Salf ordshire Precept to the Sheriff not to put the said Adam on Juries, &<:., 

he being deaf. 

83. The same for Johanna Rigmayden Writ de Dote Assignanda, addressed to the Escheator. 

84. The King and Duke for the Duke Writ of Diem Clausit Extremum, on the death of Matthew de 


of John Kekwyk, of Derby. 

of William Barton. 

85. Pines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

86. The King and Duke for the Duke Mandamus to the Escheator, upon the death of Thomas de 


of Thomas Banaster. 

of Edward Banastre. 

87. The same for John Daunport (Davenport) Mandate of William de Homeby, Receiver of the County of 

Lancaster, to pay the secondary Justice iu the Duchy 20 
Marks, for his Fee of 20s. for his Clerk for two last Sessions. 

88. Fines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

89. The King and Duke for the King of England Precept to the Sheriff to get ready the Men-at-Arms and Bowmen 

within the Duchy, to march agst the Scotch, according to the 
King's Mandate. 

90. The same for the Abbot of Cookersand Precept to give Seisin of Lands in Billynge, as seized into King 

Edward's Hands for the Felony of William de Falyng. 

91. The King and Duke for Isabella Lathum Writ de Dote Assignanda out of Lathum Manor. 

92. Fines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

93. The King and Duke for Roger de Fazackrelegh and Wife... Writ de Procedendo in an Assize of Novel Disseisin before the 

Justices, as to Tenements in Knowslegh, Childwall, Roby, and 

94. The same for Johanna Kekewyk Writ de Dote Assignanda. 

95. The same for the Duke Mandamus to the Escheator, upon the death of Thomas de 


' The "Inquisition" or "Inquest of Office," commonly called an the profits accruing, until proof of legal age, and if there was no heir the 

Inquieiiio post mortem, was an inquiry held on oath before a jury sum- lands bee ime the king's by escheat, from which circumstance these docu- 

moned by virtue of a writ directed to the escheator, coroner, or other ments are sometimes, though incorrectly, called cskcats. _ The finding of 

officer of the king, to inquire on the death of any tenant holding lands the jury with the writ of enquiry was returned to the king's chancery, 

in capite, or in chief, whether by knight's service or in soccage, (1) of whence a transcript was sent to the exchequer in order that the proper 

what lands he died seized, (2) by what rents or services the same were officers might levy the services and duties duo. The heir, on attaining 

held, and (3) who was the next heir and of what age. They were further the ago of 21 if a male, or 16 if a female, might sue oat their livery or 

to enquire whether the tenant was attainted of treason, or an alien. In omter le ^nain (i.e., take oft the hand) and obtain dehvory of their lands 

either of which cases the lands reverted to the crown ; if the heir was a out of their guardian's hands. — C. 
minor, the king had the wardship or custody of the body and lands, with 


Hie incipit Annus Nanus Regalitatis (1385). 

96. The King and Duke for the King and Duke Writ of Diem Clausit, &c, on the death of Henry de Dyneley. 

Geoffrey Workesley. 

Adam de Hoghton. 

97. The same for the Duke Precept to elect a Coroner for the County of Lancaster, vice 

98. Fines paid to the Lord for Writa Joiin Skilicorn, deceased. 

99. The King and Duke for John de Pilkyngton, Parson of Writ of Re-Disseisin as to the Manors of Le Lee, Grymsargh, 

the Church of Bury Hogliton, Quylton, Raveuemeles, and Wbytyngham, and 

Messuages and Lands in Lee, Goosnargh, Assheton, Gryme- 
sargh, Quytyngham, Frekilton, Caterall, Hoghton, QuiltoD, 
Withenhall, Hephay, Lynesey, Plesyngton, Wrightyngton, 
Ravenmeles, Goldburn, Preston, Sourby, Whittill in the 
Wodes, Walshwhittill, Eocleston, Chernock Richard, and 
Ribchester ; and Moieties of Chernok Richard Manor and 
Whittill in the Wodes ; two parts of Asheton and Gosenargh 
Manors, and the 4th part of Caterall and Wrightynton Manors. 

100. The King and Duke for the King Mandate to the Justices to adjourn Sessions. 

101. The same for the Duke Mandate to the Escheator to seize into the Hands of the King 

and Duke tlie Lands of Thomas Banastre in Ethelswyk, 
Freculton, Claughtou in Amounda- Billesburgb, Halghton, 
Syngleton Parva, Thornton le Holmes, Sowerby, Hamylton, 
Stalmyn, Crofton, Farryngton, Thorpe, and Brethirton. 
Like Mandate for the Lands of Edmond Banastre in Dilworth, 
Broghton, Preston in Amounderness, Wodeplumpton, with 
the More Hall and Gosenargh. 

102. Fines paid to the Lord for Writs. 

103. The King and Duke for Isabella Lathum Precept to the Sheriff to give Seisin of Tenements in Latham 

Manor, vizt- Horskarre, Demedowe near Rughford, Robynfeld 
de Horskarre, Calverhay, Watton, Ryding, and 8 Marks 
(£5 6s. 8d.) Rent of Freeholds in Newburgh. 

104. Fines paid to the Lord for Writs. 

105. John de Radclif to the Duke Recognisance for Rent of Lands in Oldham, Chatherton, and 

Wytton, near Plesyngton. 

106. The King and Duke for Margaret de Ines Writ of Assignment of Dower to Margaret Bradeshagh, of a Water 

Mill in Westlegh, in the Duke's Hands by Minority of the Heir. 

107. The same for Jas. BotiUer, Earl of Ormond Precept to the Escheator for Seisin of Rent of the Manor of 

Wetherton, notwithstanding no Process as to proof of Age, 
nor his being called on the Inquisition taken. 

108. The same for Roger Fazackerlegh Mandate to the Justices of the Bench to proceed on Novel 

Disseisin as to Tenements of Sir Thomas Lathum, Kn*- in 
Knowslegh, Childwall, Roby, and Anhlesargh, and on no 
Accot to give Judgm* withot the Duke's advice. 

Anno Decimo Regalitaiis (1386). 

109. Fines paid to the King and Duke. 

110. The King and Duke for Margaret de RadoHf Precept to the Receiver of the Duchy to pay a yearly Rent for 

Lands in Oldom, Chatherton, and Witton, near Plesington. 

111. The same for Robert de Barton Writ of Re-disseisin for Messuages and Lands in Lathum. 

112. Fines paid to the King and Duke. 

113. The King and Duke for the Duke Precept to the Sheriff to Levy £20 of the Lands of John de 

Radclif in Oldom, Chatherton, and Wytton, for Arrears. 
Witnessed by Henry, Earl of Derby, Gustos of the Duoliy. 

Anno Undecimo Regalitatis (1387). 

114. Fines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

115. The King and Duke for William Ward Writ to Walter de Urswyk, Keeper of Lancaster Forest, to 

accept Bail for the said William, detained iu Lancaster Castle, 
for a Trespass on the Forest. 

116. The King and Duke for the Duke Writ of Diem Clausit Extremum upon the deaths of 

Wareyn, Thomas Strangways, Thomas Sotheworth, Richard 
Torbock, Thomas Holand, William Tunstall, Petronilla 
Banastre, Thomas Molyneux, and William Aghton. 

117. The same for same Precept to the Sheriff to elect a Coroner, vice Edward Frere. 

Do. vice Hugh de Ines, they being both incompetent to their 

118. The same for same Precept to the Sheriff to elect a Verduror for Quemmore and 

Wyresdale, vice John Croft, made Steward of Lonsdale. 
The like, vice Robt. Cauncefeld, he being in Spain with the 

119. Fines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

120. Ralph de Radclif, Sheriff of Lancaster, for the King and Recognisance of Debt for the Sheriff to pay £80 for his office for 

Duke one Year. 

121. The same for same Like Recognisance for a faithful Account of his profits. 

122. The King and Duke, for John de Ines Precept to the Escheator to supersede the demand of £34 Hs. 4d. 

of Lands, &c., in Wythyngton and Harewode, and other 
Moneys, till the next Sessions. 





Anno Duodecimo Regaliiatis (1388). 

123. Fines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

124. The King and Duke for the Duke Mandate to the Justices to adjourn i 

125. The same for same Writs of Diem Clausit Extremum upon the deaths of 

Haydok, of Alice de Legh, and John de Nevill. 

126. The same for Milicent de Aghtou Writ to the Escheator for Assignment of Dower. 

127. Fines paid to the King and Duke for Writs. 

128. The King and Duke for Ralph de Nevill Precept to the Escheator for Livery of seisin of the Advowsou 

of Prescote Church, and for Payment of Relief and for Respite 
of Homage till the Duke's return to England. 



{The Interior Part of the Roll having been already Abstracted, the following are from the same Roll in Tergo.) 

First Year (1377). 

Grantors and others. 

No. 1. j Edmund, sou of Alau de 
dors, j Folifayt 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. i. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

No. 7. 


No. 8. 

No. 9. 

\ John de Assheton-under- 
J Lime 

Thomas Lathum 

Grantees and others. 

Edmund Lorence, son of John Law- 
rence, of Asshdon 

John de Kirkeby.. 

Robert de Breton, Vicar of the Church 
of Huyton, and Thomas de Ryding, 

Annus Secundus (1378). In Tergo. 

For William de Horneby, Parson of 
the Church of St. Michael-upon- 

Wy re 

For Edmund Lorence 

\ Robert de Washington and 
J others 

Thomas de Lamplogh and 

Adam of Lancaster 

William de Heton 

Richard de Massy, Knt.. 

For Thomas Mirreson of Lancaster . . . 
Ralph de Ipre and Peter de Bolrun... 

For John de la Pole, Justice of 

Annus Tertius (1379). In Tergo. 

^ , , „, ^ Hugh de Dacre, Knt., Lord of Gilles- 
John dePlesyngton j^^^^^j 

Annus Quartus (1380). In Tergo. 
No. 10. 1 Various Recognisances of 
dors. / Debt. 

Annus Quintus (1381). In Tergo. 

No. 11. 

j-JohnEotiller, Knt.. 

No. 12. l Henry de Bispham and 
dors. J Richard de Carleton 

Henry de Bispham and Richard de 
Carleton, Chaplains 

John Botiller, Knt., and Alice his wife 

Matters and Premises. 

Enrolment of the Deed of Release and Quit 

Claim of all Right to the Manor of Folifayt, 

near Tadcaster, 50 Ed. III. (1376). 
The like of Lands which Elizabeth Folifayt, 

widow, held in dower, 51 Ed. III. (1377). 

Other Deeds relative to the Manor. 
Recognisance of the Receipt of £iO in part 

payment of a Debt of 140 Marks (£93 6s. 8d., 

1 Rich. II. (1377-8). Other Deeds relating 

Enrolment of Deed by Release and Quit Claim 

at Crossehalle, in Lathum, and all other 

Lands granted in Lancashire, 49 Ed. III. 


Recognisance of Debt of £8. 

Ao 2do Regalitatis. 

Recognisance of Debt, £40. 

Recognisance of Debt, £10. 

Enrolment of Grant of Lands in Heton, Broune, 
Molebek, Urwike, and Lancaster, 51 Ed. III. 

Recognisance of Debt of £5.— Witness, Henry, 
Earl of Derby (son of the Duke of Lancaster, 
afterwards Henry IV.), Gustos of the Royalty. 

And various other Recognisances of Debts. 

Enrolment of Grant of the Manors of Halton 
in Lonesdale, and Eccleston in Leylandshire, 
in Com. Lane, with all their Members and 
Appurtenances, 2 Rich. II. (1378-9). 

Release and Quit Claim by Feofifees. 

Enrolment of the Grant of the Manors of Great 
Laton, Little Laton, Bispham, and Warde- 
brek, Lands in Great Mertou, and the whole 
Lordship of Merton Town, 4 Rich. II, (1381). 

Enrolment of Grant of the above Manors, Lands, 
and Lordship, in Fee Tail special, 4 Rich. II. 




Grantors and others. 

Grantees and others. 

No. 13. 

No. 14. 


Annus Sextus (1382). In Tergo. 
> Recognisances of Debts 

No. 15. 

No. 16, 

y Robert de Wasshyngton 

- Roger de Fasacreley , 

No. 17, 

"1 Adam de Hoghton, Chivi'. 
[-Nicholas de Haryngton, 

J Chivr. 

And Richard, son o£ Adam 

Annus Octavus (1384). In Tergo. 
y Richard de Hoghton 

For William de Hornby, Parson of St. 
Michael-upon-Wyre, and William le 

Edward de Lathum, Henry de Scares- 

breck, and others 

For the King and Duke 

dors. I '^^^ ^'°S ^^^ ^'^^^ 

Thfi like, 

^®- 1 The King and Duke, 
dors fThe King and Duke . 

J ' ■ > The King and Duke , 

No. 21. 

The King and Duke 

For WiUiam de Horneby, Parson of 
St. Michael-upon-Wire 

Matters and Premises. 

li'or John Nowell., 

WiUiam de Rigmayden 

For Hugh, son of John de Partyngton, 
of Irwelham 

For Adam da Hoghton and others ... 
For Thomas Smith, Nayller, of Cholle 

Enrolment of Grant of Lands, &c., in Carleton 
in Amounderness, for a Rose Rent per Ann. 8 
Years, and increased Rent £20 per Ann., 5 
Rich. II. (1381-2). 

Memorandum of Agreement as to Dower of 
Tenements in Wrightinton. 

Recognisance of Debt of 200 Marks, upon a 
seizure into the Duke's hands, on the death 
of James Botiller, Earl of Ormond. 

Enrolment of Grant of the Wardship of Lands of 
Henry de Kighley, Knt., in Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, and the Marriage of his Son, 7 Rich 
IL (1383-4). 

Precept to the Sheriff to supersede taking the 
Body of John Nowell, to answer before the 
Justices of the Duchy for the death of John 
de Holden, upon Appeal of Murder. 

Precept to the Sheriff to supersede the Out- 
lawry for Trespasses in the Duchy Chases. 

Precept to the Sheriff to supersede an Outlawry, 
King Richard II. having granted him pardon. 

Similar Writs for WiUiam Crist and John de 
Leylond, Souter, of Wigan. 

Precept to the Escheator to supersede Levy of 
Rent of 100 Marks (£66 13s. 4d.) out of 
Wetheton Manor. 

Precept to the Sheriff to supersede Outlawry, 
Defendant having found Bail to appear at 

Annus Nanus (1385). In Tergo. 

Various Recognisances of Debts and Writs de Supersedendo, addressed to the Sheriff. 
Annus Decimns (1386). In Tergo. 

Recognisances of Debts, &c. 

I John de Walton Robert de Saureby and John deBirke- 

heved. Chaplains 

No. 23. 1 Robert de Saureby and John John de Walton and Rosa his Wife ... 

No. 22, 


No. 24. 

No. 25. 

/ de Birkeheved, Chaplains 

I Agnes Banastre i For William de Horneby, Parson of the 

I Church of St. Michael-upon-Wyre.. 

Annus Undecimns (1387). In Tergo. 

Recognisances of Debts and Writs de Supersedendo as to Debts, 

Enrolment of Grant of Lands, kc, in Lancaster, 
Bare, and Kertmell, 9 Rich. II. (1385-6). 

Grant of the above Lands, &c., in Fee Tail, 

Recognisance of Debt of 500 Marks (£333 6s, 8d) 
for Infeoffment of Lands, seized into the Duke's 
hands by the minority of Constance Banastre. 

William de Dutton 

For William Molen, Robert Dyryng, 
John de Cornay, and others. Chap- 

No. 26. 

No. 27. 

Annus Duodedmus (1388). 

Gilbert de Halsall and 

In Tergo. 
For the King and Duke . 

Enrolment of Grant of Lands, &c., of William 
de Dutton in Ribchester, Bispham, Northe- 
brok, and all his Burgages and Lands and 
Tenements in Preston, in Amounderness, 11 
Rich. II. (1387-8). 

Recognisance of Debt of £700 for payment to 
WiUiam de Hornby, Receiver, of £237 143. 
Ofd. for his Account of the Time he was 
Sheriff. Witness, Henry, Earl of Derby, Gus- 
tos of the Duchy, 12 Rich. II. (1388-9). 

Recognisance of Debt of £200 for the said 
Robert, to render Account of his Office of 

T--^ "n^°'^f"llf^.tZ.°^ King Richard IL (1383-4) there are no Books nor Rolls extant to the 1st of Henry IV. (1399)."-^ 
Libra Great Ayloffe'- (1692) ; pa ge 159, tn John of Gaunfs Chancery of the Duchy {Record Office). 

' This venerable index, whicli, by tlie muniflcouce of Her Maie,9ty 
has become public property, and is now preserved in the Record Office 
IS, as described in the schedule of Ayloffe's will, "a book givinir an 
.-vccount of all or most of the records in the dutchy office, and how to find 
them ; it was commenced in 1684, and, as the author himself informs us, 
occupied thirty years in the compilation, a period during which Benjamin 

■) Robert de 
/ others ... 

Standyssh and 

For the King and Duke . 

Ayloffe, the industrious compiler, filled the office of clerk and keeper of 
the records of the duchy of Lancaster. The most important entries of the 
" Great Ayloffe " relating to Lancashire and Cheshire have' lately been 
published by the Record Society (vol. viii.) under the editorship of Walford 
D. Selby, Esq., of Her Majesty's Record Office. 



In the " Originalia Memoranda," on the Lord Treasurer's side of the Exchequer we find the 
following Records relating to the county and duchy of Lancaster, from the period when the ducal 
house first rose mto distinction to the time when the third Duke of Lancaster ascended the 
throne, with the letters-patent of Henry IV. and Henry V. 

T,. ^^^!^^E^^^'~'^^^ °"^'® °^ Lancaster's charter, enrolled in Memoranda 9 Edw. I. (1281) ; and Records of St. Hilary, 19 
Edw. 11. (lo25-o). •" 

Chart, of Henry, E. of Lane, enrolled. Reeds. St. Hil. 6 Edw. IIL (1327)— Roll. 

D. of Lane's liberty of replevying to the Morrow of Easter Term, iu Co. York. ' Reos. St. Mich. 26 Ed. Ill (1352)— Roll 

Unjust claim of Henry, late E. of Lane, Duke of Lane, in Co. Derby. Recs. St. Hil. 26 Edw. IIL (1352)— Roll 

CharterofDukeof Lane respecting divers liberties granted to him iu the city of London. Recs. Hil 27 Edw III (1353)— Roll 

Charter of the D. of Lane for receiving ^40 under the Honor of the Earl of Derby and Lincoln, in equal parts, in Co. Leicester. 
Mich. Records, 23 Edw. III. (1354) — Roll. 

Duke of Lancaster's claim in Co. Leicester. Easter Recs. 28 Edw. III. (1354) — Roll 1. 

Charter of D. of Lane in Co. Leicester, enrolled Mich. Recs. 29 Edw. III. (1355)— Roll. 

Cognisance of Rich. Michel, sheriff of Not. and Derby, for the D. of Lane in Co. Derby. Hil. Recs. 32 Edw III (1358)— Roll 

D. of Lane's claim in Co. Line for working fines. Mich. Recs. 33 Edw. III. (1359)— Roll. 

Charter of John, D. of Lane. Mich, llecs. 38 Edw. III. (1364)— Roll 24. 

Charter of John, Duke of Lancaster. Mich. Recs. 38 Edw. III. (1364) 21. 

Record sent to the King's chancellor in the county of Lancaster. Mich. Reos. 38 Edw. III. (1364)— Roll. 

Charter of J., D. of L., for liberties granted to him. Hil. Recs. 39 Edw. III. (1365) — Roll 16. 

D. of Lane's claim of divers sums. Mich. Recs. 42 Edw. III. (1368) — Roll 20. 

D. of Lane's Charter, 47 Edw. III. (1373)— Roll. 

Charters of John, Kg. of Cast, and Leon, D. of Lane, enrolled Mich. Recs. 1 Rio. II. (1377-8)— Roll 2. 

Charter of John, D. of Aquitaine and Lane, of liberties granted to him by the king. Mich. Recs. 21 Rie IL (1397-8) Roll 13. 

The Duke of Lancaster's claim of divers sums charged upon the sheriffs of the Counties of Somerset, Dorset, Lincoln and York' 
Mich. Recs. 21 Rie II. (1397-8)— Roll 20. . , • 

John, Duke of Lancaster's claim of divers sums charged upon the sheriff of the County of Line Mich. Recs. 22 Rie II 
(1398-9)— Roll 34. 

The claim of John, D. of L. for divers sums. Mich. Recs. 21 Rie II. (1397-8)— Roll 21. 

The claim of John, D. of Lane, for divers sums upon the sheriff of Lincoln's accountant. Mich. 23 Rich. II. (1399) — Roll 34. 

The King's Letters Patent touching the Duchy of Lane enrolled Mich. Recs. 1 Hen. IV. (1399-1400) — Roll 14. 

* * * » * « 

Two Letters Patent made to John Leventhorp, under the seal of the Duchy of Lancaster, enrolled Mich. Recs. 1 Henry IV. 
(1399-1400)— Roll 15. 

f * * * It * 

Divers sums claimed by our Lord the King's Attorney-Gen. of his Duchy of Lane, to be placed to the same King as for his 
Duchy of Lane, in Co. Derby and elsewhere. Trinity Records, 5 Henry IV. (1403-4) — Roll 16. 

* ***** 
The King's Letters under his privy seal of the Duchy of Lane enrolled Mich. Recs. 6 Hen. V. (1418-19) — Roll 19. 

Of the illustrious John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, it has been observed that he was the son 
of a king, the father of a king, and the uncle of a king, and could have said as much as Charles of 
Valois had he been the brother of a king. His children were as follows : — 

By Blanche, youngest Daughter and co-heir of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, his first Wife — 
Henry of Lancaster, surnamed Bolingbroke, afterwards Henry IV. of England. The first king 

of the Lancastrian line. 
Philippa of Lancaster, married John I., King of Portugal. 
Elizabeth of Lancaster, married, 1st, to John Holland, K.G., Earl of Huntingdon, and Duke 

of Exeter, and, 2nd, to Sir John Cornwall, K.G. 

By Constance, eldest Daughter and co-heir of Peter, King of Castile and Leon, his second Wife — 
Katherine of Lancaster, married Henry IIL, King of Castile and Leon. 

By Catharine Swynford, Daughter and co-heir of Sir Payne Eoelt, Knt, and Widow of Sir Hugh 

de Swynford, afterwards third Wife — 
John Beaufort, Marquess of Somerset and Dorset, married Margaret, daughter of Thomas 

Holland, Earl of Kent. . „„-. j -o- i, t 

Henry Beaufort, Cardinal of St. Eusebius, Bishop of Lincoln (1397) and Bishop ot 

Winchester (1426). 
1 Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter. , -n i i. at -n v ^ 

'Joan Beaufort, married, 1st, Robert, Lord Ferrers of Wemme, and, 2nd, Ralph JNeville, Jiari 

of Westmorland. 

■ In the pedigree of the Earls and Dukes of Lancaster, pp. 62.3, by the accidental omissioa of the marks of deBCe,^, the te^^^^^ 
children of Joh^f Saunt by Catharine Swynford -Henry, Thomas, and Joan Beaufort-appear as the issue of John Beaufort instead ot John. Uute 
of Lancaster. 




Raised to the throne by a Parliamentary revolution, and holding power by the will of the Parlia- 
ment, the son of John of Gaunt had too equivocal a title to admit of his resuming the struggle for 
independence on the part of the crown, and the grounds even on which he rested his claim to the 
sovereignty — by conquest and by inheritance^ — were in themselves contradictory, and hence his 
rule was marked by a ready compliance with the prayers of the two Houses of Parliament, whose 
powers were, perhaps, ne^er more frankly recognised at any time in the country's history. But the 
throne of a usurper is never a bed of roses, and the reign of Henry IV., short though it was, was 
agitated by violent animosities : one conspiracy broke out after another, the peace was continuously 
disturbed by the struggles of contending factions, and on the third day of his first Parliament, in 
the week of his coronation,- no less than forty challenges were given and received, and forty gages 
thrown down by the angry and excited barons, The insurrection of the Earls of Rutland, Kent, 


and Huntingdon, which had for its object the restoration of Richard, was followed by an 
insurrection in Wales; and a royal proclamation, addressed to the "Chancellor of the King's 
County Palatine of Lancaster," announced that Owyn Glyndourdy, and other rebels, had lately 

„ „ * ^°ll^'"1 'i'^-J- ^'^^) A^y° ^? claimed on three grounds, viz., con- 
quest, right of birth, and the resignation of Richard-reasons that are 

thus set out by Gower m hia doggerel chronicle 

Regnum cmqiustat que per hoc sibi jus manifestat : 
Regno succedit hceres nee abinde recedit 
Insuper eligilur a plebeque sic stabilitur (Pol. Songs i 4491 • 
and Chaucer recognises the threefold claim when, in his *' Comple'ynte" 
to his purse (p. 22) he thus addresses him— v^umpieyii w, 

O conqueror of Brutes Albyoun, 
Which that by lygm and free dercioun 
Ben verray Kjnge.-C. 

With the object of strengtlioning liis position, and perhaps with the 
hope of eventually superseding the older Order of the Garter, many of the 
knights of which were uncertain in their allegiance, Henry, at his 
coronation, instituted a second military order, the knights of which, 
from the custom of washing the body on the eve of great religious cere- 
monies, were styled "Knights Companion of the Bath." There is no 
early complete register of the Order, but among the forty-six knights 
made at the institution were three Lancashire men— Sir John Ashton, 
of Ashton-under-Lyno, Sir John Arden and Sir William Boteler, of 



risen against the king m great numbers, to resist whom the chancellor was required to proclaim 
withm his jurisdiction that all knights and esquires able to bear arms in person, and archCs X 
received annual, fees from the king should repair to Worcester by the 1st of October, to io n the 
other levies raised to put down this insurrection (1400-1401). > ' Owyn Glyndourdy, oi Owen 
glf'i^^^y V^^^'T write It, who claimed to be the great-grandson of Llewellyn and the rightt\d 
Prince of Wales, had made inroads on the garrisons of Ruthin, Oswestry, and other places on the 
Welsh marches The flame of insurrection spread fast, and from his mountain llstnesses he 
leader was able to dely the power oi England. Mortimer, whom he had made prisoner, from being 
an enemy, became his friend and ally, and ultimately he was joined by the Perci^s, who had 
tmned their arms against the Lancastrian king. A long and sanguinary civil war Ensued, in 
which Henryhad by tiirns to fight against his English subjects, under the Eafl of Northumberland- 
who, from being his ftiend had become his deadly enemy-the Welsh under their native princes, 
and the Scotch under Robert III. of that kingdom; but by his courage, skill, and prudence ho 
overcanie his enemies, and established that throne by the power of the sword, which appeared at 
first to have been erected upon the afiections of his people. The writ to raise troops in the county 
ot Lancaster was followed by another addressed to the chancellor of the duchy, commanding him 
to proclaim that William Atherton and Edmund de Dacre were appointed to collect the 
"reasonable aid of twenty shillings for the marriage-portion of Blanche of Lancaster, the king's 
eldest daughter, to the Duke of Bavaria, and for the knighting of the king's eldest son Henrv of 
Monmouth (Dec. 12th, 1402). ^ ■^ 

-ni ?'^ wounds inflicted upon the pride of France by the conquests made in that country by the 
Black Prince and the Earl ot Derby (son of Henry, Earl of Lancaster), formed a never-ending source 
of hostility between the French and English nations; and the Duke of Orleans did not fail' to avail 
himself of the difficulties by which Henry IV. was surrounded. His attacks were directed against 
the English castles and fortresses, both in the south and north of France, at Bordeaux and at 
Calais. To prevent these possessions from falling into the hands of the French, the king issued a 
proclamation to the chancellor of the duchy and of the county palatine of Lancaster, as°well as to 
the sherifl's of other counties, commanding him to proclaim, in all proper places within his jurisdic- 
tion, that all knights, esquires, valets, and other persons competent for defence, having any fees or 
annuities, lands, tenements, gifts or grants, or other donations, held by gift of the king or his 
progenitors, should personally appear in the king's presence at London within fifteen days from 
the date of the proclamation (1407).^ These demonstrations were of themselves sufficient to 
preserve the English possessions without striking a blow ; and the contest between the Duke of 
Burgimdy and the Duke of Orleans— in which the King of England, in a proclamation to the 
chancellor of the county palatine of Lancaster, inhibited the people of England from taking any 
part so much engaged the French armies — that they would not prosecute their hostility against 
the English cities of France.* Sir Thomas Beaufort had been appointed admiral of the north, but 
even while negotiations for peace were going on with France piracy continued, and plundering 
parties from the opposite coasts were organised with greater completeness than before. At 
Harfleur privateers were fitted out on the pretence of serving under the King of Scotland, though 
negotiations for a treaty of peace were at the time pending betAveen the English and the Scots. These 
privateers preyed upon English merchandise, and it was estimated that property of the value of 
£100,000 was captured nominally by the Scots, but really by the subjects of the King of France. 
It must not, however, be supposed that the French were the only offenders, or that the English 
were more sinned against than sinning, for every port along the southern coasts of England Avas 
a haven for pirates and desperadoes to whom filibustering was as profitable as it was an exciting 
employment, and they were not always very discriminating as to whether the vessels attacked 
belonged to an enemy or to a friendly neighbour. 

That the commerce of this county, in its infant state, was at this period greatly injured and 
impeded by the depredations of the hostile powers by which England was assailed, may be inferred 
from a petition to the Commons House of Parliament from the inhabitants of Lancashire, Cheshire, 
and Cumberland, in which they allege that several robberies and depredations have been com- 
aitted on their coast by their enemies of France and Scotland, and by the rebels of Wales, who 

' Claus. 2 Henry IV. p. 2, m. 1, d. A oomml^alon of array on the extending over two years. The winter preceding tlie wedding was spent 
"rebellion of Oweu Glyndourdy," dated 10th August 3 Henry IV., was in preparing the outfit, and the Issue Rolls of the Exchequer record pay- 
directed to Richard de Hoghton, Nicholas de Harrington, Ralph Radclif, ments to the amount of £1,840 on this account alone for woollen cloth, 
Thomas Tunstall, Thomas Gerard, William Botiller, Robert Standyssh, embroidery, furs, skins, saddles, and other necessaries of a great lady's 
William de Athiston (? Atherton), John de Assheton, John Sotheworth, trouBsmu. Among the items is a payment of £100 "for cloth of gold and 
Gilbert Halsall, John del Botlio, Ralph Standyssh, Robert Lawrence, and other wares " at the establishment of the great London mercer, Richard 
Richard de Radcliff. C. Whytington, Who had then just been made an alderman— the preparatory 

'' Fin. 3 Henry IV. m. 16. The "reasonable aid" was the feudal step to his becoming " thrice Lord Mayor."— C. 
form of raising money from the king's tenants. The dower promised " Claus. 8 Henry IV. m. 17 d. 

with the lady was 40,000, of which 16,000 nobles were to be paid down * Glaus. 13 Henry IV. m. 22 d. 

on the solemnisation of the marriage; and the balance by instalments 



have seized and taken their vessels, owing, as they allege, to no admiral or keeper of the seas 
beino- upon the station, to the great destruction, ruin, and oppression of the said counties; for 
remedy whereof they pray that protection may be afforded to them. To which petition the king 
replied that an admiral should be appointed for the safeguard of the seas of the north-western 
coast (141 Oy 

The contest for the papacy, which at this time agitated all Christendom, was felt so strongly 
in England that a proclamation was issued by the lung to the sheriff of the county of Lancaster, 
and to other counties, wherein it was announced that Peter de Luna, alias Benedict XIIL, and 
Angelo Corario, alias Gregory XIL, were rashly contending for the papal chair, and both of them 
being pronounced and declared notorious heretics and schismatics by the definitive sentence of the 
holy and universal synod canonically congregated at Pisa, the most reverend father in Christ, the 
Lord Petro de Candias, on account of his merits, was elected by the same authority to the 
pontificate, by the title of Alexander V., and the sheriff was commanded to make proclamation 
in all places within his jurisdiction that the said Alexander V. was the true Roman pontifex 

The life of King Henry IV., though only in the meridian of his years, was now drawing fast 
to a termination. The scenes through which he had passed on his way to the throne, and the 
disquietude with which he was assailed from so many quarters, while in the possession of that 
giddy eminence, preyed upon his constitution and shortened his days. Worn out by the troubles 
of his reign, he died at Westminster on the 20th March 1413, in the forty-seventh year of his age 
and the fourteenth of his reign. Had it been his fate to remain in the sufficiently elevated but 
more humble state of Duke of Lancaster it is highly probable that his life would have been more 
happy and his death less early. By his will (dated Jan. 21, 1408), which breathes a spirit of 
remorse characteristic of the state of the royal mind, he bequeathed the duchy of Lancaster as an 
endowment to his consort the queen, in these words : " I will that the queen be endowed of the 
duchy of Lancaster." 

The reign of Henry V., the second British king of the Lancastrian line, presents one of the 
most splendid periods in the military annals of England. During this short but eventful reign, 
France was once more laid prostrate at the feet of her ancient rival; and the capital of that 
kingdom, as well as the power of its government, was held by the British monarch with a tenacity 
which was not relaxed even in the hour of death. At home all was tranquillity ; the cabals of the 
court, which had embittered the last days of Henry IV., were hushed by the frank and fascinating 
character of his once profligate son, and the scenes of domestic discontent were confined altogether 
to the contests between the early reformers of the Church of Rome. 

The first English martyr in the cause of the Lollards was William Sautr^, rector of Osythes, 
in London, who was consigned to the flames in 1401, at the instance of the Church, in virtue of a 
writ issued by Henry IV., whose father, John of Gaunt, had been the early patron and firm friend 
of John Wycliffe, the founder of the obnoxious sect in England. Henry V., more influenced 
probably by a wish to preserve the peace and harmony of his kingdom, than by any strong 
predilections, espoused the cause of the Church of Rome ; and it would appear from a royal 
proclamation, issued in the first year of his reign, to the sherifE' of the county palatine of Lancaster, 
that the new schismatics had spread into this county. In this proclamation the king announced that 
certain preachers, not privileged by law, or licensed by the diocesan of the place, or permitted by 
the Church, of the new sect of Lollards, preach in public places, contrary to the ordinances of the 
Church, and, under colour of preaching the word of God, foment and disseminate discord among 
the people,_ and the pestiferous seed of evil doctrine. For remedy of which, and to protect the 
Catholic faith, the sheriff is commanded to make proclamation that no chaplain shall hold, dogmatise, 
preach, or defend this heresy and error, under pain of imprisonment and forfeiture of goods ; and 
if any persons shall be found publicly or privately infringing these orders, by holding conventicles, 
or congregations, or receiving the preachers of the obnoxious doctrines, or shall be really and 
vehemently suspected of so doing, they shall be committed to prison without delay, to remain there 
until they shall obey the mandates of the diocesan in whose diocese they have preached, to be 
certified by the diocesan himself (1413).=' The demand for reformation in the doctrine and the 
discipline of the Church was far too loud and too widely extended to be silenced by proclamations; 
and hence we find from another royal mandate, addressed to the chancellor of the county palatine 
of Lancaster in the following year (1414), that divers of the liege subjects of the king, on the incite- 
ment and instigation " of a most cunning and subtle enemy,^ Sir John Oldcastle (Lord Cobham), 
holdmg and teaching various opinions manifestly contrary and obnoxious to the Catholic faith, and 
to sound doctrine, stood charged with wickedly imagining and conspiring the king's death, because 

1 Kot. ParL 11 Henry IV. i(m 62, vol. iu. p. 639. = Clau3. 11 Hoiiry IV. m. 81 dors. " Glaus. 1 Hen. V. 



he and his counsellors would not assent to these doctrines. The accused parties, too conscientious 
to plead not gmlty dF an offence which they had actually committed, or under some other influence 
which It IS now difficult to discover, confessed their guilt; and the king of his special grace 
pardoned all. the offenders, except Lord Cobham, Sir Thomas Talbot, knight, and ten other persons 
of inferior station. This pardon the chancellor was required to proclaim through the whole of his 
jurisdiction; and the reformers, with the above exceptions, some of whom had taken refuo'e in the 
places of sanctuary— Manchester and Lancaster being of that number— were allowed to plead the 
royal pardon before the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24) next ensuing ^ A 
number of the Lollards forfeited their lives to the dictates of their conscience— for it is impossible to 
impute to the great mass of them any sinister motive; and Lord Cobham, the most zealous and 
distingiushed of their number, who had escaped from the Tower, was, three years later (1418) 
recaptured while the king was in France, and hung up by the middle upon a gallows erected in 
St. George's Fields, where he was consumed alive in the fire, under the declaration of the archbishop 
and his provincial synod that he was an incorrigible heretic. These terrible examples checked for 
a time the spread of Lollardism; but the fires only smouldered, and, in the reign of Henry VIII., 
under sanction of the king, they burst forth with a force so irresistible as to destroy the whole 
power of the " Holy Anglican Mother Church." 

At this period a large accession of wealth and power was made to the duchy of Lancaster, by 
the union of the rights and possessions of the county of Hereford to the duchy, under 'the 
sanction of the following royal ordinance (2 Hen. V. 1414) : — 

" The king, by the assent of Parliament, declares, grants, and ordains, that all the honors, castles, hundreds, manors, lands 
tenements, reversions, rents, services, fees, advowsons, possessions, and lordships, as well within the kingdom of England as in 
parts of Wales and other places, within the king's lordships, which have descended, or shall descend inheritably to the king, after 
the death of Dame Maria, one of the daughters and heirs of Humphrey de Bohun, formerly Earl of Hereford, Essex, and 
Northampton, and Constable of England, as to the son and heir of that Dame Mary ; also, that all the rights, liberties, franchises 
and frank customs, to the same inheritance appertaining or regarding, be severed from the crown of England, and adjoined, annexed) 
united, and incorporated to and with the said king's duchy of Lancaster, perpetually to remain to the same king, as being so 
adjoined, united, annexed, and incorporated ; and further, that all the honors, castles, hundreds, wapentakes, manors, lands, 
tenements, and reversions aforesaid, and all other things to the said inheritance regarding, and the vassals and tenants to It 
appertaining, be also entirely enfranchised, and by the officers treated, guarded, and governed, in all respects, as possessions to the 
said duchy appertaining, and the vassals and tenants to the same duchy regarding, are enfranchised, treated, guarded, and governed 
for ever ; and this, according to the form, force, and eifect of the words contained in a schedule passed in this Parliament ; and by 
the king, with the assent of the Lords aforesaid, and the authority aforesaid, fully affirmed. ['Then follows an enumeration of the 
possessions at great length.^] 

Scarcely had the chancellor oi the duchy of Lancaster proclaimed, by royal command, the 
truce between England and Castile and Leon when the King of England, having renewed the old 
claim to the crown of France, and desiring to quarter the cities of that kingdom with the three lions 
of England, resolved on invading the French king's dominions, and embarked at Southampton with 
an army of six thousand cavalry, and twenty-four thousand foot, principally archers, and landed at 
Harfleur, August 14th, 1415. After carrying the garrison of that town, and leaving a number of 
his troops to defend that fortress, Henry, at the head of his troops, marched for Calais, but on his 
way he was interrupted by a hostile army of fourteen thousand cavalry and forty thousand 
infantry, under the command of the Constable of France, and obliged to come to battle on the 
plains of Agincourt.'' Here the glories of Crescy and Poictiers were renewed, and the cry of 
" A Derby " or " An Edward," was not more piercing in the ears of the discomfited French army 
on those fields of English glory than was the cry of " A Henry " on the field of Agincourt. The 
loss of England in this memorable battle (fought Oct. 25, 1415), which destroyed the military 
power of France, was incredibly small — some of the contemporary authorities say not exceeding 
forty men — amongst whom were Edward, Duke of York, and the Earl of Suffolk.'' That this number 
is much underrated cannot be doubted, and if the nature of the engagement did not establish that 
fact, it might be inferred from the proclamation to the chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, 
issued by the king soon afterwards, for the purpose of recruiting his army, by which all knights, 
esquires, and valets, holding fees or annuities of the king for term of years, or for life, were 
required, under forfeiture of the same, to appear in their own persons at Southampton, to cross the 
seas to France arrayed and furnished with suppUes for three months (1416).° 

' Claus 2 Henry V m. 24 dearly the nature of tho force that landed at Harfleur, and the extent to 

' Eot. Pari, voi: iv. p. 46. While speaking of this Act, Sir Edward which the chivalry of Lancashire shared in the glories of that memorable 

Coke says—" For the great roialties, liberties, privileges, immunities, St. Crispin's Day.— C. a. i- n 

quitances, and freedoms, which the Duke of Lancaster had for him and « The estimates of the Enghsh loss are very conflicting. Our own 

his men and tenants see Rot. Pari, die Lunse post octav. Sancti Martini chroniclers make it absurdly small, butit must have been some hundreds, 

an. 2 Henry V., aU which are estabUshed, ratified, and continued by Monstrelet puts the loss of the English at sixteen hundred, and another 

authority of Parliament, necessary to be known by such as have any of French historian, St Remy, gives the same number. 01 the omvaU'y ot 

these possessions. "-Wrtt InMtute, p. 210. Franco the flower perished. Seven pnnces of «'°,^l°°d *«"■ Xs^„^^" 

= The " EoU of the men-at-arms that were at the Battle of Agin- thousand gentlemen, of whom a hundred and twenty were nobles bearing 

court" and "The Retinue of Henry V. in his first voyage," pubhshed banners.- C. 
in Sir N. H. Nicholas's Ewiory of the Battle of Agincourt, exhibit very = Claus. 4 Henry V. m. 21 d. 




Before the departure of the king for France he instituted commissions of array in this and 
the other counties of England, to take a review of all the freemen able to bear arms, and to divide 
them into companies, that they might be kept in readiness to resist an enemy. " This," says Mr. 
Hume, " was the first commission of array which we meet with in English history." How a writer 
of so much research should have fallen into the error of supposing that there had existed in 
England no commission of array till the time of Henry V. it is not easy to imagine : commissions of 
this nature had been instituted two centuries before, and the number of them in operation in the 
reio-ns of the EdAvards, in the county of Lancaster alone, it is difEcult to estimate. 

° The necessities of the state had plunged the king into great pecuniary difficulties; and 
although the county of Hereford, with its land revenues, had recently been added to his hereditary 
possessions, he was obliged, before he could embark his troops for France, to raise supplies by 
pledging the crown jewels. The loans obtained in this way had been contracted for with so much 
precipitation, and the regalia had been so widely dispersed, that a proclamation was issued by the 
king to the chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, wherein it was announced that certain royal 
jewels, of no little value, had been committed and pledged, for the greater expedition of the king's 
voyage lately made to France, to certain of his liege subjects retained in the expedition, for the 
payment of their wages, which jewels it was now proper should be restored; the chancellor was 
therefore commanded to proclaim, that all persons Avithin his jurisdiction, Avho had received such 
pledged jewels, should present them in person at the public treasury, in order that they might be 
redeemed; in default whereof, the offending parties were rendered liable to forfeit all their 
goods (1416).' 

In anticipation of a continuance of the Avar Avith France, a commission, dated April 28th 
6 Henry V. (1418), was issued for the muster and training of those capable of bearing arms within 
the several hundreds of the county palatine, when the folloAving persons were named as 
commissioners to take the chief direction : — ■ 

John Stanley 
William de Atherton 
John Gerrard 
Nicholas de Harrington 
Henry de Kyghley 
Robert de Halsall 
Nicholas Blundell 
Thomas Bradshaw de Hagh 

Lawrence de Standish 
William de ffariugton 
Christopher de Standish 
Ralph de Clayton 
John de Coppull 
William de Worthyngton de 

Richard de Hoghton 

Thomas Urswicke 

Nicholas Butteller 

Richard Butteller de Kyrklond 

Nicholas Singleton 

Richard de Katerall 

Thomas Rigmaydeu 

James de Pykering 

John Brokholes 

AA^thin the AVapentake 

(Hundred) of AA''est 


Within the Wapentake 
of Leyland. 

Within the Wapentake 
of Amounderness. 

John Pylkington, Knt. 

John Byron, Knt. 

John de Hilton de ffarnworth 

John del Bothe 

Handle de Radcliffe 

Richard de Radolife de Radclife 

Robert del Holt 

Edmund de Trafford ) 

Henry Hoghton, Knt. \ 

Richaid Radclife 

Richard Shirburne 

Henry de Longton 

Richard de Townley 

Thomas de Southworth 

Thomas de Osbaldeston 

Robert Laurence, Knt. 
William Tunstall 
Walter de Curwen 
Nicholas de Crofte 
John de Mosley 
John Lawrence 

Richard Kirkby, Knt. 

Thomas ffleming, Knt. 

John Pennyugton 

John Broghton 

John Harrington de Cartmell 

Henry de Guype 

AVithin the Wapentake 
of Salford. 

Within the Wapentake 
of Blackburnshire. 

Within the Wapentake 
of Lonsdale, 

Within the Wapentake 
of ffourneys (Furness) 

The career of King Henry V. Avas as short as it Avas brilliant. When his glory had nearly 
reached its summit, and both crowns Avere just devolving upon him, a mortal malady seized him 
at the age of thirty-four years, and consigned the conqueror of France to the tomb on the 81st 
August, 1422. His principal care in his last illness Avas to provide for the secure possession of his 
French conquest to his infant son Henry VL, then but nine months old, Avhom he commended to 
his brother, the Duke of Bedford, desiring that the Earl of WarAvick might be his tutor— little 
suspecting that this unfortunate child Avould not, in his mature years, be able to maintain even 
his English possessions, and that, in his person, the Lancaster line would be pushed from the 
throne of his fathers. 

' Glaus. 4 Henry V. m. 11. dors. 




The will of Henry V. bears date (in 1417) three years before his marriage to the Princess 
Catharine, and four years before the birth of his only son. By that will the royal testator 
bequeaths his duchy of Lancaster to his two brothers, John, Duke of Bedford, and Humphrey, 
Duke of Gloucester, in these terms : — 

" I will and pray the aforesaid feoffee, &c., in the' castles and manors of Halton and Clitheroe, and in all other lordships, 
manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, and other possessions, &c., do depart, as evenly as ye may, in two parts equal, the same 
castles, lordships, manors, &c. And inasmuch as you may goodly, ye do assign in the t'one of the said two parts, castles, lordships, 
&c., in the south coasts, and in the t'other, do assign castles, &o., in the north coasts of England ; [in the latter to] enfeoff my 
brother John, Duke of Bedford, and his heirs-male ; [in the south to] enfeoff my brother Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, to him 
and his heirs-male, &c." ' 

> This, the last will of Henry V., was dated 24th July, 1415, imme- 
diately before his departure to France, but the subsequent birth of a son 
abrogiited its principal beqiiests, and the whole duchy of Lancaster 

descended to Henry VI. The will concludes with these words in his own 
autograph : " This is my last will, subscribed with my own hand, R. H. 
Josu, mercy and gremercy, Ladle Marie, help." — C. 


Scarcity of Records for History during the Wara of the Roses— Marriage of Henry VI.— Claims of the Rival Houses of York and 
Lancaster to the Throne— Wara of the Roses— Henry VI. dethroned by Edward IV.— Henry seeks an Asylum in Lancashire- 
Taken by Sir John Talbot— Sir John's Grant for this Service— Catastrophe to the Lancastrian Family — Edward V. murdered in 

the Tower Coronation of Richard III. — His Warrant for Seizing a Rebel's Land in Lancashire — The King's Jealousy towards 

the Duke of Richmond, Son-in-law of Lord Stanley, extends to his Lordship— Attainder of Lady Stanley, Countess of 
Richmond — Landing of the Duke of Richmond in England — Battle of Bosworth Field — Confiscation of Lancashire Estates- 
Union of the Houses of York and Lancaster — Sweating Sickness — Lambert Simnell and Perkin Warbeck, Pretenders to the 
Throne-— Fatal Consequences of the Civil Wars to the Duke of York's Family (note) — Sir William Stanley accused of High 

Treason Condemned and Executed— Henry VII.'s Royal Progress to Lancashire — Execution of Edward, Earl of Warwick, 

the last Male of the Plantagenet Line— Death of Henry VII.— a.d. 1422 to 1509. 

LTHOUGH few periods in English history afford so many