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Full text of "Frank Forester's fish and fishing of the United States and British provinces of North America [microform] : illustrated from nature"

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FRANK FORESTER' S 



FISH A^-D FISHING 



or THB 



UNITED STATES 



AND 



BRITISH PROVINCES OF NORTH AMERICA. 



ILLUSTRATED PROM NATURE 



HENRY TV-IILLIAM HBjfeBKRT, 

AUIHOB OF FBANK rOEMTEB's "nOESE AND nOESEMANSHlP," "rtEU, SPOETt.," "tM OOHFURB 
MANITAL FOB TOUKO BP0BT8MEK," BXa 



NEW EDITION, KEVISED AND CORRECTED, WITH AN AMPLE SUPPLEMENT 
BT TUE AUTHOE, TOGETHER WITH 

A TREATISE ON FLY-FISHING, 

BY "DINKS." 



/ 



NEW YORK: 

W. A. TO^NSBNn PTJBLISHicR. 

18B6. 



Entered according to the Ac* -rf Congress, In the year 1859, 

BY W. A. T0WN8END & COMPANY, 

In the aery's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. 






C. A. ALV'JRI>. rKlKTEIt, KBW TOtth 



To 

F B A. N O I S STTRG-ET, Esq. 

or NATOBtZ, MISSISSIPPI, 
THIS WOBK, ON THE 

iiti\( Bitb discing of ftflrt^ gimericB, 

IS DEDIOATJBO^ 

BOTH AS TO AN ARDBNT AND INTILLIOINT BP0BT8UAN, 
AND A riBM raiKND, 

BY HIS FEIEND AND 8EETANT, 



FBANE FORESTER 



J. 



■. \ 



TO THE PUBLIC. 



Thk Publishers have the pleasure of stating that the present re- 
vised edition of Frank Forester's "Fish and Fishing," contains an 
entirely new treatise on "Fly-Fishing," prepared by "Dinks," and 
arranged for this work by Mr. Herbert before his death, as will be 
seen by the subjoined announcement. They have to express their 
obligations to the Messrs. J. & J. Conroy, for providing them with 
the finest specimen of Flies and improved Angling Implements, from 
which the illustrations have been engraved ; also their indebtedness to 
Mr. Francis P. Allen, for aiding the artist in preparing the drawings. 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 



I am very happy to have it in my power to add to the new edition 
of my "Fish and Fishing," the following admirable and most entirely 
practical treatise on every thing connected with the science of tying 
and the science of using the artificial fly, by my friend "Dinks," by 
whom it has been originally prepared for this edition, and who is well 
known as one of the most accomplished and thorough practical fly- 
fishers in this country. 

For the favor, I return him my sincere and earnest thanks ; and 
prognosticate for him, from our readers, general and most enviable 
distinction. 

Hekrt William Herbert. 

The Cedars. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



In offering this work to the public, I have little to say, as its oharao- 
ter speaks for itself, but to indicate the sources of tho information 
which it contains, and to give credit to those who, by their works, let- 
ters or conversation, have aided mc in its execution. 

And first, I must express my sincere gratitude to my friend, Pro- 
fessor Agassiz, who kindly aflForded mo every assistance in his power, 
with free access to his fine library, and unrivalled collection of fishes, 
from which most of my drawings are taken 

To my friend Mr. Perley, of St. Johns, I am indebted for much 
valuable and interesting information in regard to tho fish and fisheries 
of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia ; and to Mr. DeBlois, of Port- 
land, for a communication respecting tho great Trout of Sebago Lake, 
in Maine, which was probably a distinct variety, though the fact can 
not be easily now ascertained — the noble fish being, alas ! extinct. 

To Mr. Yarrel's fine work on British Fishes, to Hofland's British 
Angler's Manual, to Richardson's Fauna Boreali Americana, to De- 
Kay's Fishes of New York, to Soyer's Cooking Book, I thankfiilly 
record my indebtedness for extracts more or less copious. 

All the outs were drawn by myself, on wood, either from the dead 
fishes themselves, or from original drawings in the possession of Pro- 
fessor Agassiz, lent to me for this purpose, with the exception of the 
True Salmon — ^which is copied from his beautiful work on the Fresh- 
Water Fishes of Europe— of the Arctic Charr, or Masamacush, and 
the Arctio Grayling — ^which are taken from Richardson's Boreali Ame- 



i 



... ADVERTISEMENT 

VlU 

ricanar-of the Salmon Trout-taken from Yarrel-and of the Lake 
Trout and Pike Pearch, from DeKay's Fauna of the State of New 

For the fidelity and excellence of the engraving, I am indebted to 
Messrs. Bobbett & Edmonds, and Brotherhead, by whom, with one or 
two trifling exceptions, all the cuts have been executed. 

To the Messrs. Conroy I have to record obligation for preparations 
of the fine specimens of various Trout, Lake and Salmon Flies, which 
are engraved in this work ; and I take this opportunity of strongly and 
cordially recommending them to all my friends and readers, as deci- 
dedly, in my opinion, the best rod and tackle makers in the United 
States. 



Another edition of this work having been already called for, I have 
taken the opportunity carefully to revise it, and correct the unavoida- 
ble errors, so far as I have discovered them, which must occur in a 
book treating of a subject so comprehensive as mine. 

A tour through the nortn-western lakes, during the past summer 
and autumn, has given me opportunity to observe the habits and cha- 
racteristics of many fish which previously I had known only by report 
of others — to collect information relative to the mode of taking them 
— and, hence, to verify or correct opinions heretofore expressed. 

A work of this nature must necessarily be more or less compiled, as 
no man can be expected to have fished in every State of the Union, 
or to be personally acquainted with the fishes of each and all. To 
relate personal experiences, where they exist — to collect the best au- 
thorities, where there are authorities ; and otherwise to be silent, rather 
than give character to vulgar rumors — I deem the writer's duty. 

This, to the best of my ability, I have endeavored to do ; and I can 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



IX 



only add, that, as it is not delightful to err, I shall be too much obliged 
to those who will Mndly convince me of error, and enable me to cor- 
rect it. 

In addition to those, my obligations to whom I have heretofore 
gratefully recorded, I have pleasure in referring to Mr. King, of 
Charleston, South Carolina; Messrs. Mandeville and Cobleigh 
of Geneva; and Mr. Gregory, of Adirondack, N. Y., for information 
and specimens from various parts of the country. 

Several kind correspondents, and some ingenious critics, have point 
ed out errors, and suggested emendations, of which I have thankfully 
availed myself. 

All the matter thus collected will be found embodied in a copious 
Supplement to this new edition, provided with a separate Index, 
under the head of the fishes to which it relates ; and including some 
authentic information relative to Southern Fishing, obtained from Mr. 
King. 

A few pages on Deep-sea Fishing will also be found in the Supple- 
ment ; as it is a subject to which— myself considering it very inferior 
as a sport— I perhaps gave scarce " verge enough " in my first edi- 
tion. 

I am happy once again to express my gratitude to the public in 
general, for a kind reception and favorable hearing ; and to my critics, 
on the whole, for kindness and candor. 

Their Friend and Servant, 

Frank Forester. 



LIST OF EMBELLISHMENTS. 



FRONTISPnSCE-THE MASCALONGE. '*" 

OUTLINE OF LAKE TROUT, 37 

HEAD OF THE SILVER TROUT, •-..... 45 

GILL-COVERS AND DENTAL SYSTEM OP TRODT, .... 45 

THE TRUE SALMON, - . . . . . . , . 54 

SALMON PINKS, 54 

SALMON SMOLT, gl 

THE BROOK TROUT, • • 86 

BROOK TROUT FRY, - gg 

THE MACKINAW SALMON, lOj 

VARIETY TRUITE DE GREVB, IO4 

THE SISKAWITZ, . jl2 

THE LAKE TROUT, j,5 

THE SALMON TROUT, jgQ 

THE MASAMACUSH, jgj 

BACK'S GRAYLING, • . 131 

THE AMERICAN SMELT, * . . jgg 

THE WHITE FISH, . ,-, 

THE OTSEGO BASS, . j^ 

HEAD OP THE NORTHERN PICKEREL, 149 

HEAD OF THE MASCALONGE, 161 

THE GREAT NORTHERN PICKEREL, jgj 

THE COMMON PICKEREL, 167 

THE LONG ISLAND PICKEREL, ' . ' . jgj 

THE COMMON CARP, ' , ' ^^ 

THE AMERICAN ROACH, , • ' • 170 

THE NEW YORK SHINER, .172 

THE AMERICAN BREAM, 

MINNOWS, 

' 176 

THE HERRING, ' 

THE SHAD, 

••• ISO 

THE CAT-FISH, 

•••• 182 

THE EEL, . J^ 

THE AMERICAN YS!" LOW PERCH, . . ..*..' lor 

THE STRIPED SEA BASS, ' • ' • ' 189 

THE YELLOW PIKE PERCH, « • . 

THE BLACK BASS * . ' ' .Z 

THE ROCK BASS, ,Z 

THE COMMON POND-PISH, J! 



iii 



i!f 



\u 



n 



_,, EMBELLISHMENTS. 

**' fASB 

222 

THE COD, .223 

THE AMERICAN HADDOCK, .224 

THE AMERICAN WHITING, , ' . ' . ' 226 

SALMON-FLIES, .'.'.8B3 

TROUT-FLIES, 

VIGNETTES. 

. > • • • XZiT 

RUSTIC BRIDGE, ^ 

FALLS OP THE MONTMORENCI, 

MILL AND TROUT STREAM, 

BROOK TROUT, • • • ' ' ' . 115 

RIVER VIEW, 

LAKE INCAPAPCO, 

• • • 125 

TROLLING UNDER SAIL, 

■ • • 135 

STRIKING A GRAYLING, 

...«•• 149 

NETS DRYING, 

. • • • 153 

THE i-'ERRY, 

GORGE HOOK AND BAIT, • • 

• 171 

SKIFF AND WATER FENCE, 

TROUT-DAM, LONG ISLAND, '^^ 

. . ■ • 176 

SILVER LAKE, * 

17T 
WATER MILL, - . - 

TROUT, PERCH, AND BAIT KETTLE, ^'^ 

NETTING FROM BOATS, '°* 

THE EEL, . ■ *^ 

LITTLE WHITE BASS, ^^' 

1Q4 

CLICK REEL, * 

ROCK-BASS FISHING, ^^ 

FOOT BRIDGE AND TROUT STREAM, 20^ 

FISHING BOATS, 206 

A MACKEREL BREEZE, ^M 

CREEL AND RODS, ^^^ 

SQUIDDING TINDER SAIL, ^19 

HAULING THE NET, ^^ 

THE COMMON SALMON, 25^ 

MAY FLIES AND STONE FLIES, 273 

TROLLING WITH SCARLET IBIS FLY, - - • • - - 280 

THE COMMON PICKEREL, ...--•-• 289 

RIVER PERCH, 293 

THE UPPER DELAWARE, 296 

NETS AND BUOYS, --. ^^ 

RIVER VIEW ^ 

FISHING BOATS, • - ^'^ 

GOLDEN PHEASANT, WOODCOCK WING, AND HACKLE, . . • 329 

BAIT KETTLE, ^* 

FINIS, *" 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAOE. 

Introductort Remarks 11 

The Game Fish of North America 17 

Salmonidje, or the Salmon Family 34 

The True Salmon 64 

The Brook Trout 86 

The Greatest Lake Trout 104 

The Siskawitz 112 

The Liike Trout 116 

The Salmon Trout 120 

The Masamacush 126 

Back's Grayling 131 

The American Smelt 136 

TheCapelin 139 

The White-Fish 141 

The Otsego Bass . . . 145 

ESOCIDJE, OR THE PiKE FaMDCT 149 

The Mascalonge 161 

The Great Northern Pickerel 164 

The Common Pickerel , ,167 

The Long Island Pickerel . 161 

CrPRINIDJE, OR THE CaRP FaMILT 164 

The Common Carp 164 

The American Roncf* 170 

The New York ''3hai"-.r . 172 

The American Hr I74 

Minnows 176 

Clupid^, or THE Herring Familt 178 

The Herring ... ..<(... 180 

The Shad 180 

blLURID^, OR THE CaT-FiSH FaIMLT 182 

The Cat-Fish 182 

AMGUILLIDiE, OR THE EeL FaMILT 186 

The Eel 186 

Percidje, or the Pearch Familt . , , . . . 187 

The American Yellow Pearch i87 

The Striped Sea-Bass 189 

Tko Vall/vur Dilro Pa.iwiU mnn 



p 






•nif 



, CONTENTS. 

. . . • • 19* 

The Black Bass . , 197 

The Growler , * . 198 

The Rock Baas ^ 200 

The Common Pond-Fiah .202 

The Lake Sheep's-Head ' . * 203 

The Malasheganay * . 204 

Shoal-Water Fishes , * . * . * 206 

The Sea Bass * ^ ^oi 

The Lafayette * . * 208 

The Weak-Fish ' * '209 

TheKing-Fish .211 

The Silvery Corvina * . * . 213 

The Branded Corvina 2^^ 

The Big Drum and Banded Drum ^^^ 

The Sheep's-Head ^yj 

TheBigPorgeo 2jg 

The Blue-Fish gg^ 

TheTautog ' . 222 

Deep-Sea Fishes '222 

The Cod 223 

The American Haddock * 224 

The American Whiting ^35 

Salmon Fishisg * .-g 

The Implements of Salmon Fishing ^^ 

Trout Fishing 

Lake Trout Fishing 

Salmon Trout FisHiHO ^^^ 

Pickerel FisHiHO 

Pearch Fishing 

Carp Fishing 297 

Striped Bass FisHiNO * J 

Black Bass Fishing 

Eel Fishing AND Trimmers *"° 

Shoal-Water Sea FisHiNO ^10 

The Weak-Fish ^^^ 

The Barb or King-Fish J** 

The Sea Bass .... ^16 

TheTautog .... * ' ' olo 

The Sheep's-Hoad ... 319 

The Drum ' ' ' III 

Deep-Sea FisHiHO 322 

Blue-Fish FisHisa 320 

Appendix A. 

Appendix B 330 

Appendix C • . • • ••••'*"-'-- 



CONTENTS TO SUPPLEMENT. 



PAST I. 

Introductobt Eeuabks ^ 'gfr 

The Game Fishes or Ameeioa 359 

The Salmon --, 

The Brook Trout ' 866 

The Greatest Lake Trout ogi. 

The Siskawitz -^- 

The Lake Trout .^ 

The Salmon Trout ... «w.. 

The Salmon op the Paooto "Watbbs . . 379 

^^^Q'^^"^* *.*.*.*.* 383 

Gairdner'a Salmon . , . „». 
886 

The Weak-toothed Salmon . . ««„ 

* • • • • . 888 

TheEkewan ... 

**••• Bad 

TheTauppitch ' 391 

Clarke's Salmon . 

^ „ •••••••• 392 

The North-west Capelin .... 

^ • . • 39^ 

The White Fish 

, „ . 391 

Le Sueur's Herring Salmon . 

•••• 398 

The Lake Huron Herring Salmon .^ 

The Pike Pearch . , 

403 

Southern Sea Pishes 

• . . 405 

PABT II. 

The Fishinq or North Amebioa ^^ 

Salmon Fishino . . 

• . 409 

The Rod and Tackle . 

* * • 409 

The Castdio-Linb 

THouT-PisniNo 

• The Rod . . •••--.., 418 

'*••••«. 41S 
The Use of the Rod . 

416 






sn 



CONTENTS. 



FAOB 

Of Tholiino fob Lake Tbout *^^ 

The Rod ^^^ 

The Reel ^^^ 

TheLine ^^0 

The Leader and Train of Hooka *^* 

The Bait and Flies *^^ 

The Bait Kettle *^^ 

The Boat and Oarsman, or Guide *21 

The Manner of Striking ^^^ 

Set Lines for Lake Fishing ... 425 

ABTinciAL Flies . • *^^ 

Salmon and Lake Trout Flies ^34 

Lake Trout Flies ^^^ 

Trout FUes . *^^ 

Ska Fishing. 

Table of Depths, Baits, how to Strike and Kill 436 

Table of Tackle and Average "Weight *37 

Table of Spring, Summer, and Autumn Bwta, Tunea of Tide and Day . 438 



III 



i ■ i 
ill 



CONTENTS 



ov 



TREATISE ON FLT-PISHING. 



Fly-Pishinjf 

Different Habits of Pish . 
Articles for Ply-Tying . 
Pishing Case . . , 
Book for Feathers 
Variety of Feathers requisite 
Hooks 



The Kendal, Limerick, O'Shaughnessey, and Carlisle Hooks 
Gut ... . 



Tying-Silks • 

A Vice to hold the Hook whUe Dressing 
How to dress a Ply . , 
Plato of Diagrams and Explanation 
Examples of the Process 

Palmers 

• • • • 

Example No. III. .... 
Lines, Receipt for preparing 

Reels 

Rods ... 



448, 



441 

441 

442 

44S 

444 

44b 

44b 

446 

446 

447 

447 

447 

460 

452 

453 

463 

456 

466 



Length of Rod .... *^' 

Landing-Net Hoop . , • . . , 

Fish-Basket .... 

Salmon-Bag . . • • • , 

Example for a Salmon-Ply Book . . 

Example for a Trout-Fty Book ..'.**'* 

Trout-Flies .... ' * 

Palmers . . , • • • . , 

Receipts . . • • • . 

• . 

2 • • 



458 

460 

461 

461 

462 

463 

463 

467 

468 



lis 



,,, 0ONTBNT8. 

XTlii 

PAOJ 

469 

Plies, continued • , , . 410 

Sea-Trout Flies ..••••* ... 470 

Salmon-Fliea ..•••• , , 418 

Handling the Rod , , . 480 

Trout-Fishing ' . . 482 

Throwing the Line .••••.* ^ ^ ^g^ 

Haunts of Sahnou ^ ^ ^gg 

Trolling , . 487 

Implements for Trolling ^ ^^^ 

Natural Bait .491 

Natural Bait Tackle .492 

Bottom-FLshing .»•••*** 

XOn BT THB BDITOB. 

495 

American Tackle ^^^ 

Rod^ .'.'.'. 496 

^'"'' • .".'.*... 496 

Reels .... 497 

Hooks .*.'.* 497 

Miscellaneous • ***„«„ 

497 

Floats, etc. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



^%^^%^^^%^M^^^MMMMMM^^<P 



To DEAL with a subject so wide as the Fish and Fishing ot aa 
extent of country greater than the whole of Europe, stretching almost 
from the Arctic circle to the Tropics, from the waters of the Atlantic 
to those of the Pacific Ocean, may seem, and indeed is, in some 
. respects, a bold and presumptuous undertaking. It were so altogether, 
did I protend to enter into the natural hbtory of all, or even of one- 
hundredth part, of the fish peculiar to thb continent and its adjacent 
seas. 

Such, however, is by no means my aim or intention. I write for 
the sportsman, and it is therefore with the sporting-fish only that I 
propose to deal ; as, in a recent work on the Field Sports of the same 
regions, it was with the game animals only that I had to do. In the 
prefatory observations of that work, I endeavored to make myself 
understood as to what constitutes game^ in my humble opinion, as 
regards animals of fur and feather. I did not, it is true, expect, or 
even hope, to suit the views and notions of everybody, particularly 
when I looked to the great variety of soils, regions, and climates, for 
the inhabitants of which I was writing ; and to the extreme latitude 
and laxity of ideas concerning sportsmanship which' prevail in this 
country. 
One would suppose it was sufficiently evident, that a work of the 



I'l' 



IX 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



.! 



n 



It 



> 

; I 



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fliil 
is if 



magnitude of the Universal Encyclopaedia, and noticing Bhort of that, 
would suffice to give an elaborate essay and disquisition on every sepa- 
rate sort of sport, which every separate individual, of every separate 
State in the Union, may think proper to practice for his own pleasure 

or profit 

I therefore determined to confine myself, in the first place, to those 
sports only which are truly Field Sports in the highest acceptation 
of the term, and which are established as such by the consent of 

genuine sportsmen. 

In the second place, I restricted myself to those sports which aro 
purely and peculiarly American, and which, as such, are not treated of 
at all, or, if at all, understandingly, by European writers. 

The natural history, the generic distinctions, the migrations, habits, 
haunts, seasons, and the mode of pursuing and taking, in the most 
artistical and sportsmanlike manner, of such animals as are peculiar 
to this continent, which have never been a subject of investigation to 
the sporting naturalist, seemed to me 1 ^ afford a topic intent " ud 

agreeable to the writer, and not devoid of some pretetiBion toward 
entertaining, and perhaps instructing, the general reader. 

M the same time, neither pretending nor hoping to make my work 
perfect, I tlv nr-ht proper to exe ^e my own judgment in deciding 
what spe:!M5t i " 8]7(>rt3 are to be regarded as Field Sports at all, what 
as American iield Sports, and what as requiring description, analysis, 

or explanation. 

Some men consider the shooting of migratory thrushes, and golden- 
winged woodpeckers— which it pleases them to call robins and high- 
holders— as well as small song-birds in general, as a field sport ; I 

do not. 

Many men— I might say, of the rural parts of the Eaatern and Middle 
States, most men— consider squirrels, raccoons, opossums, ground-hogs, 



INTRODUCTOnV REMARKS. XXI 

and Buch like vermin, as being game ; I do not. Therefore I dealt not 
with any of these, nor apologise for not dealing with them. 

Again. Fox-hunting on horseback, in a well-fenced, arable, or 
pasture country, is the finest of all field sports, beyond a question. 
But the facts, that one pack of foxhounds is now kept at Montreal, 
that another was kept a few years since by the members of the British 
legation at Washington, and that a few planters, in two or three 
Southern States, amuse themselves occasionally and irregularly by 
fox-hunting, do not constitute fox-hunting an American field sport ; 
which it is not ; as is demonstrated by the undeniable fact, that there 
are not above three States out of thirty, more or less, in which the 
fox is pursued as anything but vermin. 

There are, moreover, many reasons which render it almost impossible 
that fox-hunting ever shall become an American field sport. In the 
Northern and Eastern States, where only, as a general rule, the coun- 
try is sufficiently cleared of timber to allow of this pursuit in perfec- 
tion, the severity of the winter, and the jealousy of farmers in regard 
to trespass on their lands, and the breaking of their fences, oombint 
to render it impracticable. In the Southern States, the woodland 
character of the country, and the frequency of swamps, bayoua, and 
similar obstacles, destroy all its peculiar excellences, and detract infi- 
nitely from its excitement, and its scientific character. 

Yet once more. Had fox-hunting been, what it is not, an American 
field sport, I should still have dismissed it in a few pages. Because, 
being a sport thoroughly understood, and carried to the utmost perfec- 
tion in the Old World ; a sport, so far as it is one here af all, per- 
fectly identical on the two sides of the Atlantic, and as such, having 
no peculiarities, and requiring no new precepts here ; and, above all, 
being a sport on which more able and excellent treatises have been 
written than on any other in the whole range of sporting subjects, and 



m 



iii P 



it y 



■ * 



.. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

that by such men as Beckford and Nimrod-names as familiar as 
household words to all who can sit a horse, or halloo to a hound-it 
would have been an act, if not of impertinence, at least of total 
supererogation, to fill up the pages of a work devoted to a new class 
of subjects, with trite remarks on an old one, or with quotations from 
books within the reach of every sportsman. 

All this which I have here set 3own in relation to my work on Field 
Sports, and to some strietures which have been made upon it, is simply 
explanatory of my intentions with regard to this work. 

These are to furnish what information I can in relation to the classes, 
migrations, habits, breeding seasons, and the modes of taking, of those 
which I call and consider oporting or game fishes ; to insist on the 
generic distinctions, and the true names and definitions of the various 
species and families ; to show briefly how the various families and 
classes may be distinguished one from the ot^er, thereby enabling 
sportsmen to avoid the constant errors and blunders into which they 
are now falling in the confusion of distinct varieties and orders ; and 
putting it in their power, by the accurate observance, and correct 
recording, of a few simple signs, to render invaluable service to the 
cause of science, in one of the most important, and the least under- 
stood of its branches 

And, before 1 proceed farther, I shall beg gentlemen from remote 
sections of the North, East, West and South, not to wax wrathful and 
patriotically indignant, nor to reclaim fiercely against the author of this 
work, because they fail to find therein described some singular local 
mode of capturing some singular specimen of the piscine race known 
in their own districts, and there regarded as a sporting-fish, but 
unknown as such to the world at large. 

Some gentlemen doubtless regard bobbing for eels, and bait-fishing 
through holes cut m the ice— others, hauling up sharks with ox-chaina 



xxiii 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

and tenter-hooks — and others yet, harpooning garpikes, as excellent 
sport, and as scientific fishing, as many more will probably deem of 
hauling the seine, or fishing with the set-line, or the deep-sea lino. 
None of these things come under my ideas of fair or sporting fishing ; 
and the gentlemen who admire these and similar practices, I beg leave 
to premonish that they will be surely disappointed if they paruse the 
pages of this work. By omitting to do so, therefore, they will spare 
themselves a displeasure, and the author an animadversion. 

Fresh-water-fishing especially is its subject.* Lakes, estuaries, rivers, 
brooks, its scene ; and the Salmon, in all its varieties, the Pike,the Bass, 
and the Pearch, the fish with which it will principally deal. All game 
fish will, however, find a place in its pages ; all those, I mean, which 
can be, and usually are, taken with the rod and reel ; nor will a few 
pages be denied to deep-sea fishing ; and to the consideration of some 
of the finny tribe which visit our rivers and shores, and which, from 
various causes, such as peculiarity of habit, singularity of structure, 
excellence on the table, or the like, may appear worthy of a passing 
notice, although not coming strictly within the sportsman's category of 
game fishes. 

All the modes of rod-fi.«hing will be treated of in their places ; but 
fly-fishing, spinning with the live, and trolling with the dead bait, more 
especially will be discussed ; as, for my own part, I regard these as 
the only true and sportsmanlike modes of operation. Bottom-fishing, 
ground-baiting with the float and sinker, and the like, are doubtless all 
very well in their way ; and will perhaps, in many instances, even with 
sporting fishes, be found the most killing, as they are clearly the 
easiest methods ; while, with other varieties, they are the only modes 
that can be adopted ; still they are to fly-fishing, or spinning the 
minnow, what shooting sitting is to shooting on the wing ; and the 
fisher who is proud of lugging out of their native element twenty trout 




QjY INTBODUCTORT REMARK& 

by main force, aided by a lob-worm or roe-bait, stands in the same 
relation to him who baskets his three or four brace with the artificial 
fly and single-gut artistically cast, as the gunner who pot-hunts his 
bagful of birds, treeing his ruffed grouse, and butchering his quail in 
their huddles on the ground, does to the crack shot, who stops his cock 
in a blind brake, with the eye of faith and the finger of instinct, oi 
cuts down his wild-fowl, skating before the wind at the rate of a mile 
a minute, deliberately rapid and unerring. 



if 



^4^, 




illi 



'If! 



FRANK FORESTER'S 



FISH AND FISHING. 



THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



It is with fishing as a sport, not as a source of national wealth or 
individual epicureanism, that I have to do ; therefore it is of game or 
sporting fishes only that I propose to treat. 

Again, it is true that no sportsman captures that, which, captured, is 
worthless ; and that to be game, whether bird, beast, or fish, is to be 
eatable. Therefore it is of eatable* fishes alone that I propose to treat. 

By game fish, I understand those which, being eatable, will take the 
natural or artificial bait with sufficient avidity, and which when hooked 
have sufficient vigor, courage and velocity to offer such resistance, and 
give such difficulty to the captor, as to render the pursuit exciting. 

By these qualities of the fish, corresponding qualities of the fisher- 
man are called forth, and the greater the wariness of the fish before 
taking the hook, compelling the use of the most delicate tackle, the 
greater his fury and activity when struck, requiring the nicest skill, 
temper and judgment, the higher does he stand on the list; and by 

NoTBTO Rkvised Edition.-II will be readily seen that the phraseology of this 
page .s altered in this edition. It is so, not that I have taken any new ground, but 
because it appears my language was not so definite as to enable all persons to under- 
stand what that ground is. I certainly supposed it unnecessary to state so self-evi. 
dent a fact as that game is eatable. 

• Hence my non-mention of that very curious fish, the Garpike or Alligator Gar. 
Esoz Osseus. He is no more game than the Shark or Dog-Fish, both of which 
men catch for fury 






I 







jg THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 

these qualities, not by the comparative value of his flesh, is bis rank 

'^Forlugb of all field sports the motive- and origin is to kill for 
the table, and not to kill for the sake of killing, stUl the sport o be 
derived from them lies in the excitement of pursuit, and difficulty of 
capture-not in the number or value of the game. 

Wanton butchery of useless brutes, and greedy pot-hunting are the 
Scylla and Ch.rybdis, between which the true sportsman, and he only, 

steers intermediate. . - i. c i 

It is the wariness, the subtlety and the caution of the Salmon, ren- 
dcring it necessary to use materials of the slenderest and most dehcate 
nature, and to apply them with the utmost nicety, which makes the 
triumph over him so far more enthralling to the real fisherman than 
that over the Pickerel or Mascalonge of equal weight, whose greater 
voracity and inferior intellect permits the use of a gimp hook-length, 
and a silken or flaxen line, instead^of the fine gut, tinctured to the very 
color of the water, and the casting-line of almost invisible minuteness. 

The same is the superiority of rod and reel-fishing to the use of the 
hand-line, whether in trolling or in deep-sea fishing; because in both 
thv-^se the sport is at an end, so soon as the fish is hooked ; it being a 
mere question of brute strength whether the victim shall be conquered 
or not, when once fast at the end of a line capable of pulling in a year- 
ling bullock. 

On the contrary, it is not the wariness and cunning, but the vigor, 
the speed, the fierce courage and determined obstinacy of the true 
Salmon, the Brook Trout, when of fine size and well-fed, the various- 
kinds of larger Pike or Pickerel, the Bass, and some others, which 
gives such a zest to their capture, as compared with the smaller and 
duller fish which may be pulled out as fast as a hook can be baited and 
thrown in; or the larger and more torpid fish, such as the Lake Trout, 
the Carp, and the Pearches, some of which, after a single boring 
plunge, resign themselves almost without a struggle, and are mastered 
with no resistance save that occasioned by their own dead weight. 

I have said, above, that it is upon these qualities of boldness and 

Note to Revised Edition.— The killing of dangerous carnivora, as a matter of 
defence, is not liere considered, because in this country, as in Europe, the practice 
aud the necessity have long passed away. 



THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



19 



fierceiiess, combined with wariness in biting, and of vigor and determi- 
nation in resistance, apart from any intrinsic value of the fish, or ex- 
cellence of his flesh, that his rank for gameness must depend. 

It is remarkable, however, that all those fish which are the most 
game, the boldest, the strongest, the bravest, and the most obstinate, 
are invariably the finest also for culinary purposes, and the most highly 
appreciated by the gourmet on the board, aa well as by the fisherman 
in the river or the mere. 

With very few exceptions, the Game Fish are those which do not 
confine themselves either to salt or fresh water, throughout the year, 
but visit the one or the other, as their habits and tastes, but princi- 
pally the propagation of their species, direct them. These migratory 
fish are, without any exception, the strongest, the boldest, and, as 
such, afford the best sport of their tribe ; nor are they, for the most 
part, to be surpassed by any in excellence, firmness, and flavor, when 
in their best condition. 

Those fish which never visit the salt water at all, are unquestion- 
ably so much inferior to others of their own family which run periodi- 
cally to the sea, that they are with difficulty recognized as belonging 
to the same order with their roving brethren ; while of those, none of 
which are known to leave the fresh-water, but two or three kinds, are 
worth taking at all ; and even these are not to be compared with the 
migratory, or the pure sea-fish. 

All excellence is, of course, in some degree comparative, and I am 
well aware that in the interior of the country, where sea-fish are 
unknown, and where the culinary science is merely in a rudimental 
state, many fish are deemed excellent, and are sought out as dainties, 
simply because they are better than the ordinary tenants of the same 
waters; while in any place, where they could be considered in regard 
to the commonest sea-fish, they would be entirely disregarded, and 
sold, if at all, as among the cheapest and most worthless articles of 
human food. 

In the same way, many species of game, both of fur and feather, are 
highly regarded in districts where markets are rare, and well-fed and 
tender butchers' meat unknown ; and in such places you will find many 
tasteless and inferior birds and animals nighly valued, which in cities, 
„„... ^, „ ,an6ij vi ucBu auu iuvvi IS uuiiy DO 06 proouTeu, where poultry 



\%\ 



^ THE OAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA 

1 = 1.0 linrl both fat and tender, no person 

auti.ot„ that n-y — w 1 - .^^ ^_^ ^^^ .,^ ,„,,,, „f 

Tht^h uta "st .orthle. prevail; the same thing hav og 
fish which I regara M concerning which 

occurred with regard to »? J"* ™ *;; ^ / J, .^u „, .hat bird, 
0pntlemen have waxed unwisely inaignani; aa i b , . , i i „j +1,0 
orthLor that n.ode of cooking it, when they have plainly lacked the 
means of drawing the requisite co-nparison. 

Z to nroceed : the Game Fish of this country may bo divided, 
firsf n^oCgen^ral classes of fresh and salt-water fishes ; and t ese 
1 *'be a-in sub-divided, each, into other two, the fresh as migra ory 
. rrnon migratory; the salt, as into deep-sea and shoal-water ; 
Uhou", pefhaps, to speak with perfect precision on the subject, no 
de ":a fish should be called a Game Fish. Very many persons are 
h wever, greatly addicted to the sport of making excursions from ou 
Wer cHies to the various sea-banks, for the purpose, it is true, of 
enfoyin. the sea breeze and the excitement of the sail, combined with 
th attrlctions of the chowder, or the clam-bake the champagne and 
the cotillion, which are wont to complete the day's amusement, but 
BtiU with the object of fishing likewise ; and these persons, even if 
their sport be not of the loftiest or most sporting character, will rea- 
sonably expect to find some account of a favorite pursuit. 

Nor in very truth-though I eschew large congregations of huma- 
xiity fo'r sporting purposes, deeming them rather social and convivial 
in their true character, and holding sociality and conviviality though 
excellent things in their way, as utterly averse to the spirit of sports- 
manship-have I not found it good sport, at times, to sally out from 
some sequestered fishing hamlet, in the trim schooner or more humble 
yawl, and try my fortune with the Cod, the Haddock, and the Halibut^; 
or if perchance, on the rocky shores of Eastern New England, with 
the delicate and lively Whiting, top little known, as yet, to the epi- 
cures of America, although unsurpassed in excellence by few, if any, 
of his race. With deep-sea fishing I shall deal, therefore, although 
hripfly. as becomes its rank in proportion with the more exciting and 



THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



21 



Boientifio branches of the piscatory art ; nor will the shoal-water, or 
bay and estuary fishing, as they are practised on our coasts, be denied 
so many pages, as will appear proportionate to the number or excel- 
bnco of the species taken in that sport. Many of these are delicious 
fish on the table ; but tha sport of taking them consists, principally, 
in the frequency of their biting; and the skill requisite for their cap 
ture lies mainly in the knowing the most favorable bottom-grounds, 
the state of the tides and eddies most propitious to success, and the 
most killing baits at various seasons. 

In throwing out and drawing in the bait, there is, comparatively 
speaking, small science ; and taking the fish when once hooked, little 
skill and small judgment ; temper, and a moderate degree of patience, 
alone seem needful. 

It is not, indeed, to be denied that in this, as in all other ground- 
bait and bottom-fishing, an old experienced angler shall take many 
times more fish than the tyro sitting alongside of him in the same 
boat, and working with apparatus precisely similar, and baits identical. 

This is, however, to be attributed much to practice, and habit — much 
to watchful observation of minutiae, such as the fouUing of the line, 
the correct depth of the plummet or sinker, and such like — and more 
to delicacy of hand in feeling, appreciating and humoring the victim, 
when coquetting and nibbling aboiit the bait. It cannot be likened 
to the skill exerted in casting and managing the fly, or the spinning- 
minnow; much less to the playing, killing and basketing the heaviest 
kind of fish with the lightest running tackle. 

It must be acquired by habit and practice, if it be thought worth 
the trouble of acquisition, but it can scarcely be taught at all by 
instruction or example ; and written precepts to this end would be 
altogether worthless, as they would be dull and unamusing. 

I shall now proceed to the enumeration of the Game Fishes of the 
United States and British Provinces of North America, according to 
my understanding of their game qualities— regarding them, first, under 
their great divisions of fresh and salt-water fish ; then as migratory or 
non-migratory, and deep-sea or shoal-water. 

And here I shall observe that I adopt these grand divisions as para- 
mount to the natural distinctions of genera, families, and the like, as 
I conceive that such a treatment of my subject will be most condu- 



I 




II! 



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1 ■ i 



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1 1 1 


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22 THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA 

cive to the pleasure and advantage of sportsmen for whose benefit I 
pecially write; while the naturalist wiU find that, subjec to these 
d visions' he will recognise all his old acquaintances, and perhaps 
encounter some new ones, under the generic and specific divisions and 
definitions to which he has been accustomed. AL the Game Fish of 
this country belong to a few well-marked families ; and with the sole 
exception of a few deep^ea fish, are included in two large classes 
abdominal Malacopterygii, and Acanthopterygii; the first class being 
those which have all the fin-rays soft and flexible ; and the second, 
those which have a part of the fin-rays hard and spiny, as is the case 
with the Pearch and the Bass, besides some others. 

The deep-sea fish, to which I have alluded as coming under a third 
class, are the sub-brachial Malacopterygii, which have a different 
arrancrement of the fins, although they have the soft and flexible fin- 
rays in lieu of spines, as in the first class named. To this class belong 
the Cod, Haddock, Whiting, and such other of the deep-sea fish, 
especially Fiat-Fish, as can, by any extension of the term, be allowed 
to figure as Game Fish ; for, under this head, I cannot by any means 
include the Ray, the Skate, or the Lampreys, which come under the 
same class with the Sharks, Chondropterygii, or cartilaginous fishes, 
the skeletons of which are not, as in the Malacopterygii or Acanthop- 
terygii, composed of bone, but of cartilaginous or gristly matter. 
The Eel, which is not a Game Fish, is of the class Malacopterygii, 
but with a different arrangement of fins, which gives him the title of 
Apodal. He hardly deserves notice at all, unless as an article of food, 
and if mentioned, will be kept aloof from the others. 

Of these two great generic divisions, then, are all the fresh-water 
fishes more or less distinct families; and all the shoal-water sea-fishes 
likewise, with which we have to do ; nor is there any line to be drawn 
as regards the migratory or non-migratory fishes, some of these belong- 
ing to each of these two great classes. 

It will be well to observe here, that I consider all those fish which 
run up rivers and streams into the fresh-water for the purpose of 
spawning, which pass a considerable portion of the year, and are 
principally, if not wholly, taken in such water, as fresh-water fishes ; 
although a resort to the salt-water is necessary to the reinvigoration 



THE OAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



98 



of their constitutions ; and, it is probable, to the exoellenoe of their 
fleah, and the courage and boldness of their tempers. 

To this class belong several of the finest and most important of all 
our fish, both as regards the table, and the sport; for to this are 
directly referable the Salmon, that king of the piscine world, the Sea 
Trout, the Striped Bass, the Shad, and the Smelt ; both of which, for 
reasons which I shall give, when I am to treat of them, under their 
own proper heads, I admit as Game Fishes. 

Our fresh-water fishes, then, all belonging to the two classes above 
named, Malacopterygii, soft-finned, and Acanthoptery gii^ or spiny- 
finned, are divided into the following families: — 
Of the first, Abdominal Malacopterygii, we have 
The family of Salmonidje, of which the true sea Salmon is the 
type, and of which there are many varieties and sub-genera, both 
migratory and non-migratory ; the principal are 
Genus Salmo : 

The True Salmon, Salmo Solar. 

The Greatest Lake Trout — Mackinaw Salmon — Salmo 

Amethystus. 
The Northern Lake Trout — Siskawitz — Salmo Siskatoitz. 
The Lake Trout — Salmon Trout — Salmo Confirm. 
The Sebaoo Trout, Salmo Sebago. 
The Arctic Char, Salmo Hoodii. 
The Sea Trout, White Trout, or Silver Trout— 5a/»w Trwtta 

Marina, 
The Brook Trout, Salmo Fortiinalis. 
Genus Osmerus : 

The Smelt, Oimerm Viridescens. 
Genus Thymallus: 

The Arctic Grayling, Thymallus Signifer. 
Genus Coreoonus : 

The White Fish, Coregonus Alius. 

The Otsego Bass* — ^misnomer — Coregonus Otsego. 



Hi 



• This very beantifal fish so closely resembles the White-fish, Coregonus Albu*, 
M to be conceived by many persons to be merely a casual variety. This, however, 
does not appear to be in truth the case. It is greatly to be regretted that true and 
distlneiive iiames nhould aoi be attached to fishes which, haviug been absurdly mis* 






84 



THE GAME FIBH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



i| I 



2. Family Siluridje, 

Containing many species, Cat-Fish, Bull-Heads, &o., unworthy of 

notice, except, 
Gekus Silurus: 

The Great Cat-Fish, Pimelodes Huron. 

3. Family Cyprinidje, 

Containing many varieties. The Chub, Sucker, Shiner, Roach, 
Dace, Bream, &o., of no account except for bait, unless it bo 
two imported species. 

The Common Carp, Cyprinus Carpioy and 

The Golden Carp, Cyprinus Auratus. 

5. Family Clupeid^. 
Genus Alosa : 

The Shad,* Alosa Frastahilis. 
Genus Clupea : 

The Herring, Clupea Harengus. 

6. Family Esocid^. 
Genus Estor : 

The Mascalonoe, Esox Estor, 

The Northern Pickerel, Esox Lucioides. 

The Common Pickerel, Esox Reticulatus. 

The Long Island Pickerel, Esox Fasciatus. 

The Garpike, Esox Osseus. 

Beside two or three other species, found in the Pennsylvanian 
and Western waters. 
This brings us to the end of our fresh-water, soft-finned fishes ; or 
of such, at least, as are in any wise worthy to be accounted Game 
Fishes ; and we come to the second division, Acanthnpterygiiy or spiny- 
named by the ignorant early settlers, still go by tliose stupid misnomers — as in the 
present instance, where a fish having no possible analogy to a Bass, and, indeed, 
belonging to a different class of fish, " sofl-fiuned," is termed Bass. The analogouB 
fish in England are known w Gwyniad, Vendace and PoUan. I would suggest 
" Otsego Lavaret" as a very suitable name for this unnamed species. 

* I somewhat doubt this diatiuction. I have drawings, made from life, of two 
varieties of Shad taken in New York bay, agreeing precisely with Alosa Finta and 
Aloia Communis, of Yarrel — the Twaite and Allice Shad of England — to the lat« 
ter of which I would refer this fish. 



THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



116 



finned fishes, which, though it is Baron Cuvior's first division, I have 
postponed to the Malacopterygii^ or soft-finned fishes, on account of 
the greater estimation in which they are held, especially the noble 
Salmon, Pike and Shad families, by both epicure and sportsman. 

Second, however, to these only are several of the families of the 
second class, and scarcely inferior even to the^ is the splendid genua 
Labrax, unquestionably, next to the Salmon, the most sporting fish 
in all respects in the world, and in his absence facile princep$ 

Of the class Acanthoptervoii, then, we have 
The Family Percida. 

1. Genus Perca : 

The Yellow Pearch, Perca Flavescens. 
Of this there are three or four very closely-allied varieties. 
The White Pearch, Perca Pallida. 

The Common Pearch, Perca Fluviatilis, and others of less 
note, among which are the genera Corvina and Pomotis. 

2. Genus Labrax : 

The Striped Bass — Rock Fish — Labrax Lineatus. 

3. Genus Lucioperca : 

The Pike Pearch— American Sandre, Ohio Salmon, &o. 

Lucioperca Americana. 
The Canadian Sandre, Lucioperca Canadensis. 

4. Genus Gristes : 

The Black Bass — Oswego Bass — Chistes Nigricans 
f>. Genus Centrarchus : 

The Rock Bass, Cenirarchus jEneus 
6. Genus Otolithus : 

The Weak-Fish, vulgo Trout, Otolithus Regalis and Caroli- 
nensis. 

•And with these, unless the reader choose to add the Eel, of the class 
Apodal Malacoplerygii, family Anguillido!, the list of the fresh-water 
sporting fishes of the United States and British Provinces may be said 
to close. 

Of these fish, the True Salmon, Salmo Salar, the Sea Trout, Salmo 

Trutta Marim, the Brook Trout, Salmo Fontinalis, the Arctic Charr, 

Salmo Iloodii, and perhaps the Sebago Lake Trout, are migratory] 

as is also the Arctic Grayling, Thymallus Signifer ; all the other Lak« 

3 



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rHK GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA 



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Ill 11 1 



Trout, and such of the Brook Trout as are found in Bmall streams 
above hnpracticablc falls, or in spring ponds, or lakes without oulete 
aro stationary, or non -migratory ; and the cons .quonces of their habit 
m.y be very readily discovered in the inferiority of their flesh, both 
in color and firmness of muscle, and in their comparatively lazy gait, 
and want of game qualities, vigor and endurance 

Of other soft-finncd fishes, the Smelt, Osmerus Viridescens, the Shad, 
Alosa rrdstahiJh, and the Herring, Clufca Harengns, are migratory 
from salt to fresh-water, and so perhaps is the Weak-Fish, m tho 
Southern waters, there misnamed Trout,* OtolUhus Carobnenm. 

The VVhite-Fish, Coregonus Alius, and the Otsego Bass, Coregonui 
Otsego, are partially migratory from the deeper waters of the lakca 
which they inhabit. AH the SUuridcB, Cyprinida, and Esocidce, aro 

stationary fish. _ ^ j •.* j 

Three or four of the above species and varieties I havo admitted 
with no small doubt ; and first of those, in the family Salmonida, the 
Common Lake Trout,t Salmo Confinis, of DoKay ; because I can see 
no sufficient cause for distinguishing this fish from the Greatest Lake 
Trout, or Mackinaw Salmon, with which it appears to me to be iden- 
tical, except in size ; whereas size alone is a very insufficient cause of 
separation. Secondly, the Sebago Lake Trout, which is to be found, 
fis a distinct variety, in no work on American Icthyology ; and yet I 
have thought it best to insert it, on the authority of several distin- 
guished sportsmen, who have had frequent opportunities of comparing 
it with tho ordinary Lake Trout, and who pronounce it to be a new 
and nondescript fish, unless it be the True Salmon degenerated. This 
last hypothesis I am unwilling to listen to, as I disbelieve in the dege- 
neration of animals, in peculiar localities, unless confined under unna- 
tural circumstances, a.s a sea-running fish in fresh-water, without means 

« This fish I have never seen ; but I greatly doubt that the fish called " Trout." 
in the South, is identical with tho Northern Weak-FiBh. From Prefossor Agassiz, 
1 understand it to be a peculiar variety of the Woak-Fish, Ololithus, being spotted 
rather than striped, and thus differing somewhat from it, and frequenting fresh 
streams, which the others do not. 

• Note to Revised Edition.— With regard to this fish, I am satipfied that it 18 
distinct from Ameihyitus, though closely allied to it. It is a deeper and shorter 
fish. See Suppleineiit. 



THE OAME riBH Or NORTH AMERICA. 



97 



of egress. I understand that this Scbago Trout has access to the sea \ 
there is no reason, therefore, why, if originally a true Salmon, it should 
have lost ita true characteristics in waters having their exit through 
the Saco, more than in those which discharge via. the Kennebec, or 
why it should continue to run up a smaller river, when it has deserted 
all the larger rivers westward of the Penobscot, with the exception of 
a very few which are, perhaps, still taken in the Androscoggin and 
the Kennebec, where, a few years ago, they absolutely swarmed. 

With regard to this fish, however, I hope, before concluding this 
work, to receive more decided information from some of my obliging 
correspondents in that quarter ; and perhaps even a specimen by which 
to compare with the other varieties of this genus. 

Again, of the Sea Trout, or White Trout, I have my doubts, 
whether it be not a grilse, or Salmon of the third year. It is as yet, 
BO far as I know, unfigured and undescribed ; but my information con- 
cerning it from excellent fishermen on the waters where it abounds, 
the rivers, mainly, which fall into the Bay of Gaspe and the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, is so clear and strong, that I prefer noting it as a ques- 
tionable variety, in the hopes of calling to it the attention of older 
naturalists than myself, and of those who have better opportunities of 
obtaining and examining specimens. 

Lastly, the Red-bellied Trout, Salmo Erythrogaster^ of Dr. DeKa y, 
I decline to insert on his authority, being entirely unconvinced as to ita 
being anything more than a mere accidental variety. The whole of 
that region of lakes and rivers, in the Northeastern angle of New York, 
in which this variety is said to exist, teems with accidental varieties of 
the Brook Trout, of almost every size, as well as shade and color, both 
of flesh and external tints. The Trout of no two of these lakes or 
rivers are precisely identical. The same may be said of Brook Trout 
from various waters in Long Island. These differences, however, are 
not deemed suflScient, consisting, mainly, in variations of hue, not of 
form, bony configuration, scales, or fins, whereon to found generic 
distinctions. 

The same remarks apply to a small fish, which Dr. DeKay has 
described at length, and figured under a new name, as the Troutlet, 
in his fauna of New York ; and which is unquestionably nothing more 
than the VOUnw frv of the cnmrnnn Rrnnlr Trmif wTii'Ia ;+ ;» c« o«,.,il — 




28 



THE OAMS FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



to retain the lateral transverse bars, or clouded bands, whicb have 
lately been discovered to belong to the fry of every known variety of 
the family of the Salmon, and which have caused all the confusion, and 
given rise to all the various theories, concerning the Parr of Great 

Britain. 

Into all these points I shall enter more fully under their appropriate 
heads, when treating of the separate fish to which they relate. 

The Smelt, Osmerus Viridescens, I have mentioned, though not pro- 
perly a Game Fish— for it is probable that the statements of its being 
taken with the hook refer to the Atherine or Sand Smelt^because 
there are some errors to be refuted, connected with him and the young 
of the true Salmon, which would not so easily be dealt with otherwise ; 
and the Shad, Alosa Prastabilis, I have elevated to the rank of a Game 
Fish, not merely on account of the excellence of his flesh in a culinary 
point of view, but because I am well satisfied by indisputable proofs, 
that although it is not usual to attempt the capture of this fish sports- 
manlike, the fault rests not with the Shad, but with the angler. 

He will not only take the fly, and on some occasions very freely, but 
runs strongly away with the line, and fights hard before he is subdued. 
I regard him a very decided addition to the list of Amercian sporting- 
fishes. 

The common Herring can be taken very readily in the same manner, 
and 1 have had very considerable amusement in killing them with a 
gaudy peacock-tail fly, in New York harbor, in the vicinity of Fort 
Diamond, at the Narrows. 

With these exceptions, and the two varieties of White-fish, one of 
which is absurdly misnamed Otsego Bass, having about as much rela- 
tion to a Bass as it has to a Flounder, all that I have named are 
admitted to be game by all fishermen ; and these I have mentioned, 
because I have little or no doubt that they also, like their European 
congeners, the Gwyniad of Wales and the PoUan of Ireland, may be 
occasionally laken with the artificial fly. 

All these fish are Cflregoniy and are very nearly analogous to one 
another, forming a sort of intermediate link between the families of 
Salmonida and Clupeida. or Salmon and Shad, although they are 
includod for many satisfactory roaaoos among the former — the oomraoQ 



THE GAME FISH OF NORTH AMERICA. 



29 



peopls in Groat Britain calling them fresh -water Herring, while in the 
United States they not unfrequently pass by the name of Shad-salmon. 
The flesh of all the varieties is dolicate and highly-flavored. The 
desire of comparing these American Coregoni with the British varie- 
ties, and of bringing them somewhat more into general notice, has 
induced me to notice them, rather than their game nature. 

I now proceed to the salt water fishes, both those taken in deep, and 
those in shoal water, of the various families above-named ; and there- 
after shall arrange them according to their haunts and habits. 

Of those salt-water fish of the Atlantic coasts which aff"ord the most 
real sport to the angler, and which are alone taken with the rod and 
reel, all the families belong to the class of the AcaniAopterygiiy or 
spiny-finned fishes, none of the soft-finned fishes of the abdominal 
division boiug taken in the shoal waters of the bays and estuaries ; 
while the deep-sea fish are all of the sub-brachial Malacoptery gii^ 
unless we may consider as such the Sea Bass and Porgee, which are, 
however, as often or oftener caught in shallow water. 

Salt-water fish, taken in shoal water, river mouths, and the like, 
AcantAopterygii, spiny-finned, we have of the family 
Percid^, whereof the Pearch la the type. 
Genus Labrax : 

The Striped Bass, Labrax Lineatus. 

Mentioned above as a fresh-water fish, being frequently caught 
in rivers far above tide-water, as well as in the estuaries, and 
even in the surfs on the ocean borders. 
Genus Centropristes : 

The Sea Bass, Centropristes Nigricant. 

SciENIDA. 

Genus Leiostomus : 

The Sea Chub — Lafayette Fish — Leiostomus Obliquus. 
Genus Otolithus : 

The Weak-Fish, Otolithus Regalis. 

The Southern Trout, Otolithus Carolinensis. 
Genus Umbrina : 

The Kino-Fish, Umbrina Nebulosa. 
Genus Pooonias : 

The Drum-Fish, Fogonias Chromis. 



!)!' 



30 



THE GAME FISH OF NOKIH AMERICA. 



m 



SPARIDiE. 

Genus Sargus ; 

The Sheep's-Head, Sargus Ovis. 
Genus Pagrus: 

The Poroee, Fagrus Argyrops. 

ScOMBRIDiE. 

Genus Temnodon: 

The Blue-Fish— Skip-Jack— TeTOTwrfoTi SaUator. 

Labrid^. 

Genus Tautooa : 

The Tautog — Black Fish — Tautoga Americana. 

Those complete the list of those salt-water fish which are of any 
repute as affording sport to the angler in shoal water ; they may all 
be taken with the rod and reel, in the bays, mouths of rivers, and 
shallow inlets along the greater portion of our coast, especially in the 
vicinity of reefs, the piles of old docks, or the hulls of sunken vessels, 
around which they are often found in so large shoals, and bite so freely 
and rapidly, as to afford a very high degree of amusement. Many 
persons are extremely fond of this kind of fishing, though it cannot 
sustain a moment's comparison with Trouting, much less with Salmon 
fishing, or indeed with trolling or spinning for the Pike and the Black 
Bass. 

Several of the above-mentioned fishes are of rare excellence ; the 
Weak Fish and Blue Fish, when quite fresh out of the water, are not 
easily surpassed ; but the King Fish and the Sheep's-head, the latter 
a migratory fish, visiting us during the summer months only, are in 
far greater esteem, being regarded by epicures as inferior to none 
which are taken in our waters. 

The most extraordinary day's sport I have seen recorded in this 
line, fell to the lot of a gentleman of New York, well known as an 
enthusiastical amateur and a most skilful proficient in the gentle art, 
and was thus recorded at the time in the Commercial Advertber of 
1827. I note the circumstance, and quote the following lines from a 
very useful, unpretending, and not therefore less agreeable compen- 
dium, "The American Angbr's Guide," published, I believe, by Mr. 
Brown, well known as the proprietor of the Angler's depot, where he 
keeps an excellent assortment of tackle of all kinds, in Fult-jD street 



THE GAME FISH OF N'JRTH AMERICA 



01 



I have often derived both information and entertainment from this good 
little manual, which is succinct and portable, and I strongly recom- 
mend it to my readers. 

The feat to which I have alluded is thus recordad in its pages: — 

" On Friday last, a gentleman of this city went out fishing from 
Rockaway into Jamaica Bay, with his son, a lad of twelve years of 
a»e. They commenced fishing at half-past seven in the morning, 
fipent half an hour in dining at noon, and quit fishing at half-past one, 
having taken with their rods, in six hours, four hundred and seventy- 
two King-Fish. Their guide was Joseph Bannister; none of thcso 
fish were taken by him, as he was diligently employed the whole time 
in preparing bait." 

The writer adds that he admits this to have been " an extraordi- 
nary performance;" but he goes on to say "that he has many times 
taken above one hundred in a tide, though of late years these fish 
have become scarce in those waters, it bsing supposed that their enemy, 
the Blue-Fish, by preying on their young, have caused the scarcity." 

It is scarcely necessary, I presume, to remark that no such feats 
are to be performed now-a-days ; and he is a happy and an envied man, 
who succeeds, at present, in capturing a few brace of this delicious 
game fish, 

I now come to the last section of my work, the deep-sea fishes, very 
few of which are worthy of remark in connexion with the angler's 
Fport, although they are all of superior excellence, as dainties. 

These are all soft-finned fishes, but they form a separate class of 
the Malacopterygii, owing to a peculiar arrangement of their fins, the 
bones supporting the ventrals being attached to the bones of the shoul- 
ders which support the pectorals, whence they have obtained the terra 
sub-brachial. 

To this class of sub-brachial Malacopterygii belong the two families 
of Gadida and Pleuronectida, Cod and Fiat-Fish, to one or other of 
which portain all the species which are taken by the drop-line on our 
coast ; a sport which is almost too dirty, as well as too laborious, to be 
in very truth a sport. 

Of the family Gadida, of which the Cod is the type, we have 
The Common Cod, Morrhua Vulgaris. 
The Haddock, Morrhua ^glefinis. 



82 



THE GAME FISH OP NORTH AMERICA. 




The Whiting, Merlangus Americaims. 
■ And although there are several other spacies of more or less esti- 
mation for the table, as the Torsk or Tusk, Brosniius Vulgaris, the 
Hake, Merlucius Vulgaris, and some others, none but these are such 
as to require enumeration in a work of this description. 

Of the second family, Pleuronedida, I sb^U think it enough to men- 
tion, 

The Halibut, Hippoglossus Vulgaris, which is the largest species 
of this family, as well as the best that is taken in American waters ; 
for the species of Turbot, Rhombus, which is found on the coasts of 
Massachusetts bay, and that neighborhood, is greatly inferior, both in 
size and quality to the celebrated European fish of the same name. 

The Flounder, of New York, Pleuronedes Dentatus, which is also 
frequently taken, though more commonly by accident, while in pursuit 
of finer fish, than as the angler's prime object, is rather a delicate fish, 
and often bites freely. 

With this brief enumeration of sea-fish I shall content myself, as the 
description and habits of others, though curious, and full of interest 
to the icthyologist and student of nature, belong rather to the depart- 
ment of science, than to the craft of the angler. 

I may, however, mention, not as objects but accessories of the sport, 
the Atherine, Atherina Menidia, a variety of the fish known in England 
aa the Sand Smelt, here commoiUy called the Spearling or Sparling, 
and much used as a bait, for which its bright silvery colors particu- 
larly adapt it. 

The British variety is frequintly taken with the hook; and on the 
Southern coasts, where the true Smelt is unknown, it is commonly 
known and sold as that fish, to which it bears some degree of similarity 
in flavor, as well as in the cucumber smell common to both when 
freshly taken from the water. 

I am not aware thai; the American fish is ever eaten, though it is 
very abundant on the coaats ; in appearance, it so closely resembles 
the European species, that on a slight inspection it would be taken 
for it. 

The Sand Launce, Ammodytes Lancea, is also held in high estima- 
tion as a bait for sea and hand lines, owing to its silvery brightness. 









THE GAME FI8*T OF NORTH AMERICA. 



33 



Snltator, and the Striped Bass, Labrax Lineatus, strike at the 
polished bono, poarl, or metal squid, as it is termed, of the fisher- 
man, when it is made to play with a rotatory motion, glancing through 
the water, in the wake of a swift-sailing boat, or in the surf upon the 
outer beaches. 

Having now accomplished the dry work of enumerating and classi- 
fying those of the fish of America, whether fresh or salt-water, which 
I consider worthy of the sportsman's notice, I shall proceed to describe 
them more or less briefly, according to tha degree of interest attach- 
ing to their habits, migrations, growth, and breeding ; and thereafter 
to the best and most improved mode of taking them ; best, 1 mean, as 
rega.ds art, piscatorial science, and sport, not looking to the mere 
amount of slaughter, but considsring in this instance the suaviter in 
modo, long before the mere fortiter in re. 

And here I will venture to request my reader, who may have pro- 
ceeded thus far in this volume without finding very much to interest 
or enlighten him, not to lay by its pages in disgust; as this portion, 
necessarily partaking much of the character of a catalogue, can hardly 
be expected to be very amusing, while I think I can promise that he 
will find something to awaken his interest, whether he be a scientific 
naturalist, or a mere sportsman, before he has advanced many pages 
farther; inasmuch, as thanks especially to the assistance of my good 
friend Professor Agassiz, and other correspondents, I believe I shall 
have the pleasure of laying before him something that is not only now, 
but curious and highly interesting concerning the growth, the breed- 
ing, and the varieties, several of them hitherto undoscribed, of the 
family of Salmon, Salmonidcs, of North America, to the consideration 
of which I come without farther delay 



— B 
i«t4 



lii) 



AMERICAN PISHES. 



SALMONIDiE, 



01 



THE SALMON FAMILY. 



It must not be supposed, although, for want of reflection on the 
subject, many persons probably may expect it, that the closest observer 
and most accurate discriminator of the facts on which the science of 
the naturalist is founded, can lay down the law with regard to the 
habits, the food, the haunts, the appetites, or even the distinct species, 
of that portion of the animal creation which dwell for the most part 
unseen in the bosom of the waters, with the same certainty as he can 
those of domestic animals, or even of birds and beasts, /era naturd. 

Of the latter even, especially of wild birds, which emigrate from 
clime to clime with the change of seasons, there has been much diflGi- 
culty in ascertaining the growth, the age, and the changes of plumage, 
from the immature to the adult animal, or from the winter to the sum- 
mer dress — so much so, that out of individuals differing in age, sex, or 
season, of the same family, and belonging to a single species, in many 
instances, two, three or more distinct varieties have been created by 
naturalists. 

Much has been effected, indeed, of late, in these particulars, owing 
to the greater science and experience of modern naturalists — who now 



EALMONir^a 



35 



prefer the investigation of facts to the building up plausible theories — 
to the greater diffusion of knowledge and love of scientific inquiry 
among the masses, and, in no slight degree, to the able and laborious 
system of experiments which have been set on foot and carried out by 
country gentlemen and sportsmen, to many of whom the world of 
letters is indebted for very interesting and remarkable discoveries. 

It is but a few years, comparatively speaking, since that accurate 
observer and delightful writer, Gilbert White, of Selborne, the 
most charming rural naturalist whom England — perhaps the world — 
has produced, thought it not unworthy of his time or talents to enter 
into a long train of investigation and argument, in order to prove that 
the Swallow — as then appears to have been largely, if not generally 
believed — did not pass the winter months in a torpid state, either in 
the hollows of decayed trees and caverns, or beneath the waters of 
stagnant pools and morasses. 

In like manner Mr. Audubon has been peculiarly minute in describ- 
ing the migrations of the Sora Rail, as witnessed by himself, for the 
purpose of counteracting the notion, which I myself still know to be 
prevalent among the vulgar and ignorant where these birds abound, 
that they burrow in the mud during the cold season, hybernating like 
the Marmot or the Bear. 

If, then, errors so gross were commonly in vogue concerning animals, 
the greater portion of whose life is spent before our very eyes ; which 
make their nests, rear their young, come and go visibly, and in such 
manner that their presence and absence, nay, the periods of their 
departure and return, must be observed even by the careless and inat- 
tentive looker-on ; much more is it to be expected that the habits, 
nay, the sexes, ages, and distinct species of fish, which rarely present 
themselves to the eyes even of the most curious inquirers, which come 
and go unseen and unsuspected, whose mysteries of generation and 
reproduction are all performed in a medium the least penetrable to the 
eyes of science, whose changes of size and color, from infancy to matu- 
rity, pass utterly beyond our ken, should have been misconceived, mis- 
interpreted, and misdescribed. 

Within the last few years more has been done to elucidate these 
mysteries, and to bring us to an accurate knowledge of thb interesting 



■f 



tt aiji 



gg AMERTCAN FISHES. 

portion of the animal creation, th^n in many previous centuries ; and 
although much yet remains, infinitely more, doubtless, thar, has been 
done still we have very recently attained much certain knowledge 
regarding several of the most interesting families ; we have arrived at 
results which, by simple deduction, show us how we may hope to arrive 
at more, having now obtained data wherefrom to advance and discover 
the process by which to do so. 

The means by which thus much has been accomplished, may be 
described briefly, as the taking nothing for granted, assuming nothing 
on hearsay beyond facts, and on investigating everything carefully and 
painfully, not following too readily preconceived opinions, nor being 
misled by mere external and superficial resemblances, but being guided 
by comparison and experiment, as founded in a great degree on ana- 
tomy and osteology. 

In the examination and comparison of fishes, the clear ttnderstand- 
ing of a few simple facts, which it is necessary to observe and record, 
will enable any sportsman to describe any supposed new variety or 
species, with such accuracy as to render his description of the highest 
value for scientific purposes ; to make it, in short, such that a naturalist 
shall be justified in pronouncing positively thereupon as to the genus, 
species, sex, and perhaps age, of the variety described or discovered. 

The first point to be observed is the nature of the fins, as hard-rayed 
and spiny, as in the Pearch, the Bass, and others which it is needless 
here to enumerate; or soft-rayed and flexible, as in the Pike, the 
Salmon, the Carp, and many more. The second, is the position of the 
fins; and to elucidate this point to the unscientific reader, I here 
subjoin an outline with references, to render this method of examina- 
tion comprehensible and easy of acquisition to anybody. 

The subject of this outline is the young of the Lake Trout, Salmo 
Trutta Lin. of the European continent. This figure, which is taken 
by permission from Mr. Agassiz' fine work, Histoire Natwrelle des 
Poissons iVEaii douce de L^Eurofe Centrale, represents a young Sal- 
mon Trout, taken in the lake of Neufchatel, at the end of summer, 
less than a year old. The lower figure gives the outline of the same 
fish, as seen from above. Other cuts of the same simple description 
will show the formation of the head, the gill-covers and the dental 



SALMONIDiB. 



87 



system, from whicli after the fins, and the number of vertebroe, the 
specific distinctions arc most easily ascertained. 




It will be seen clearly, at the slightest inspection of the beautiful 
little fish which has been selected as the subject of this cut, and which 
is a species of Lake Trout from the continent of Europe, that it has 
eight fins in all, including the tail, six of which are displayed in the 
lateral view, two being on the farther side ; and seven in the view of 
the back taken from above ; the eighth, which is indicated by a dotted 
line, being on the under part of the fish. 

Of these appendages, by which the motion, position in the water 
and direction of the animal are regulated ; the two nearest the head, 
one on either side, a a, are the peotorals; the two somewhat farther 
back, one on either side, bb, are the ventrals; the one on the under 
side, yet farther back, c, the anal; the tail, d, the caudal; and the 
two on the ridge of the back, ee, the dorsal ; f is the lateral line. 

These are all the denominations of fins possessed by any fish, 
although the number and size, as well as the structure, vary in the 
various species, which are thus easily distinguished. 

Of these fins, all the classes of fish, concerning which this book will 
treat, with one exception, the apodal Malacopterygii, one species of 
wliSnli will Kb HlinrVit.lv mfintlonfld. all nosaesn the foUowinsr: — 



i (1 



88 



AiMERlCAN FISHES. 



I! 



m 



i 



Ifii .1 
ill 



k 




Two pectorals. 
Two vcntrals. 
One anal. 
One caudal 
One dorsal. 

No fish has more than two pectorals, or two vcntrals ; many have 
several anals, and several dorsals ; none, unless deformed or monstrous, 
has more than one caudal. 

The apodal Malacopterygii, of which I have spoken, lack the ven- 
trals entirely; wherefore their name apodal, footless; the ventral 
being assumed as performing the function of feet iu the quadruped, 
although somewhat fancifully. 

Now, on the texture of these fins is founded the distinction between 
the two first orders of fishes, as instituted by Baron Cuvier ; the first 
order, Acanthopterygii, having the rays, by which the filamentous 
part of the fins is supported and extended, in part hard, spinous, and 
in some species, sharp and prickly; whence the designation; ^^ acan- 
tkos," signifying a thorn ; while the second order, Malacopterygii, have 
these rays invariably soft and flexible, as the term, derived from 
" malacos," soft, sufiiciently indicates. 

This distinction is so feasily drawn, that when once mentioned it 
cannot be missed or overlooked by the most superficial observer ; and as 
to one or other of these orders belongs every fish, without an excep- 
tion, of which the sportsman takes cognizance — I do not of course 
include shell-fish — its importance is self-evident. 

Of the spiny-finned fishes, though there are many families, and many 
species of each family, there are no great subordinate divisions. 

Of the flexible-finned fishes, on the contrary, there are three 
strongly-defined divisions, of which the largest is that containing 

The abdominal Malacopterygii ; in all of which the two ventral 
fins, BB, are situate on the belly, attached to the walls of the stomach, 
and deriving no support from the bones of the shoulder. To this divi- 
sion belongs, among many others, the subject of the outline cut on 
page 37, the European Lake Trout ; and, as a consequence, all the 
family of the Salmonidce. The fishes of this division can be readily 
distinguished, on a mere external examination, by the fact that the 



8ALM0NIDJE. 



30 



ventral fins, bb, are situated much farther back than in those of the 
uoxt division, occupying a position nearly longitudinally posterior to 
the poctorals, a a ; while in those to which I next proceed, they are 
noarly vertically below them. 

The second grand division of the flexible-finned fishes consists of 
the Sub-brachial Malacopterygii; in all of which the ventral fins, bb, 
are placed very near to the pectorals, aa, the bones supporting the 
former being attached to the bones of the shoulder which support the 
latter. The term sub-brachial briefly expresses this formation, signi- 
fying " having lower arms" — to which human limb the reference is 
pointed by the connexion of the fin, in this division, to the shoulder. 

The thiid division of the flexible-finned fishes, to which I allude 
rather to complete the subject, than that they fall regularly into the 
angler's way, consists of those designated by Baron Cuvier as the 
Apodal Malacopterygii; in all of which the ventrals are entirely 
wanting. To this division belong the families of MurcBnida, and An- 
guillida:, Congers, Eels, and their congeners. 

First then, having noted whether the fish we desire to know more 
minutely has hard or flexible fin-rays, and then, having ascertained 
by the position of his ventral fins, if soft-finned, to which division he 
belongs, by examining the number and position, as well as the texture 
of the dorsal and anal fins, we shall speedily discover his family ; or if 
we have no book at hand to which we can refer, we can easily so 
describe him by letter to some competent person, as will enable him 
readily to enlighten us on the subject. 

To show the importance of possessing even the small degree of 
knowledge conveyed in these last few pages, I will merely observe 
that if the settlers of the shores of the Otsego had been even so far 
advanced in the science, they had not committed the blunder of mis- 
naming the excellent fish of their waters, the Otsego Bass ; when 
it is in truth one of the Salmon family — the former being a spiny, the 
latter a soft-finncd family. 

A few steps more would have prevented our Southern frionds from 
the commission of the absurdity of designating a variety of Weak- 
Fish as Trout — two fish which have not the most remote connexion ; 
and so on ad hifinitum. 



r\ 



4 \ii 



t j 



to 



AMERICAN riSHEB, 



III 

M 



All the family of Snlmonid., or Salmons, have two dorsal fins, a. . 
wilt e observc/ia the outline figure on page 37 ; tho lundcr one of 
w Ich has no rays, but is merely a fleshy or fatty appendage. Had 
Th Otsegoites known this simple faet, they would at onee have per- 
eived that their fish not only was not aBoss, but was a Sainton And 
h s same degree of attainment would have prevented the appheat.on 
f h misnoL Trout to the Weak-Fish. I have observed this very 
day n the columns of a disting^iished weekly journal, an offer on the 
pS of a correspondent to describe the habits 8cc., of t e Sus.u. 
WA Salnon J There being notoriously no Salmon m that or any 
Southern stream, although the Brook Trout abound m its upper 
waters, I venture at once to predict that this Salmon will turn out to 
be the fish described by DeKay as Lucioperca Amencana andvan- 
ously called Ohio Salmon and Ohio Pickerel; being neither, but a 
species of the Pearch family, with one spiny dorsal fin. 

I hope these brief facts will induce sportsmen to give a little atten- 
tion to this subject ; and that they will not be alarmed by the harsh- 
ness or apparent difficulty of a few foreign terms, nor suffer themselves 
to be deter^ed by a mere show of trouble from acquiring, m a few 
minutes, that which will surely give them years of gratification. 

More direct instruction in regard to the mode of observation, and 
the point to be observed, will be given under the head of each par- 
ticular fish, in the body of the work ; but I will here point out that it 
is very well to note down the number of rays severally contained in 
the pectoral, ventral, anal, caudal, and dorsal fins of any fish which is 
suspected of being an undescribcd or distinct variety ; as on this, as 
well as on the shape of these appendages, much depends in distin- 
miishing individual species of the same family. 

I will here, in corroboration of the last remark, state m two words, 
that next to the arrangement of the gill-covers, of which more anon, 
the fact on which Yakrel relies most strongly for distinguishing the 
Bull-Trout, Salmo Eriox, from the true Salmon, Salmo Salar, is 
this, that the caudal fin of the former is convex, while that of the latter 
is more or less concave, or forked, in proportion to tho age of the 

individual fish. 

I shall now pass to the consideration of the gill-covers, the appa- 



SALMONID^. 



41 



ratua by means of which tho fi.sh breathes ; in other words, by which 
the oxygen is 8oparat(!cI from tho water, in which the animal exists, as 
it enters by tho mouth ami passes out at the aperture of the gills, con- 
veying its influence to the blood in its passage. 

This apparatus being of course of tho highest degree of importance 
to the animal, varies in form and structure according to the various 
exigencies of the different species to which it is attached ; and it is 
therefore of great value to the observer in distinguishing ono family, 
and even ono species of the same family, from another. 

With regard to the family of which we arc now treating, tho Sal- 
monid(C, beyond all rjuestion the most important and most interesting 
to the sportsman, as being the gamcst, boldest, and strongest of all 
the fish with which ho has to do, and to the epicure likewise, as afford- 
ing the greatest varieties of the most delicious food, the remarks I am 
about to make have egpecial application. 

Of no other family known to the sportsman, are the species so 
numerous, and so difficult of definition ; and not only the truly distinct 
species, but the subordinate varieties, produced in the same species 
by difference of food, of water, of bottom-ground in the lakes or rivers 
haunted by each, and even by the degrees of light or shadow which 
affects the localities which they haunt. Those varieties, often differ- 
ing by many pounds' weight, colors in tho broadest sense of the word, 
not tints or shades of hue, quality of flesh, and shape, are by no means 
to be set down as distinct and permanent species ; for it will bo found 
that a transposition of these from one place to another, and even the 
regular course of reproduction, will bring them back to the original or 
normal type. 

What strikes us, moreover, at first sight, as in no small degree 
singular, is the fact, that different varieties of one species will very 
frequently differ more widely from one another, and from the original 
type, so far as those externals which strike the mere superficial obser 
ver, than entirely distinct and immutable species. 

This it is which so often leads common and vulgar-minded persons, 
who arc in the habit of boasting that they believe their own eyes only 
and resorting to other absurdities of that kind, and who will not take 
the trouble of connecting causes and effects, or considering logical 



V J 



n 



42 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



„p in flisreffard and even to hold in contempt, the teach- 
"'"rlirfmr theoretical di-eamers, useless coiners 
7::^r:^fi:^^^^^ of distinctions, founded upon no difference. 
" S, I' rry to say, is too often the habit of «po;tsmen ; .ho 
wilH equontly give ear to the superstitious and absurd garruhty of 
:L rlc ignoramus, who pronounces his absolute yea or nay upon 
om fact ab^ut which he is utterly ignorant, and who has no earth y 

qualification for judging on the ^-^^^-;^ ^^^^^/f ^^^ Totow 
question, than that of having seen it so often that he ought to know 
riething about it, which he does not; while they turn away contemp- 
uously, or listen coldly to the teachings of the man, whose arguments 
are founded upon facts that cannot err, upon deductions drawn from 
differences of anatomical structure, permanent from generation to gene- 
ration, and liable to no modification by the change of external circum- 

'ThTsit is which renders the structure of the fins, the shape of the 
gills, the system of the teeth, and other matters of the same kind, 
which pass wholly unnoticed by the clod-hopping hunter, of all import- 
ance in distinguishing one species from another ; while the size, the 
weic^ht, the color and number of the spots, things to which he wil 
point as decisive with all the pig-headed presumption of self-conceited 
ignorance, are of little, if any weight, as varying in individuals, and 
not transmitted, like to like, through generations. 

Almost all the really distinct species of the Salmomda are distin- 
guished principally one from another by the form of the head and the 
structure of the gills in the first degree, and by the dental system m 
the second. Any permanent and unvarying difference in these, 
coupled to other variations of color, form, habit, or the like, which 
might otherwise be deemed casual, being held sufficient to constitute 

a distinct species. 

Many discoveries have been made through these means of late years , 
many varieties, which were formerly supposed to be truly distinct, 
having been proved to be identical ; and many new species discovered 
—the tendency of the whole having been to simplify, and to diminish 
the number of species, in the upshot, and thereby to decrease the 
labors of the student, and to facilitate the acquisition of science. 



8ALM0NIDJE. 



43 



Much, however, yet remains to be dona, as will be rendered evident 
by the consideration that, even in so circumscribed a territory as Great 
Britain, every water of which has been explored, and, it may be pre- 
sumed, almost every fish submitted to the examination of scientific ' 
men, great doubts yet exist concerning many forms, especially of this 
family of Salmonida, whether they are absolutely distinct, or merely 
casual varieties, incapable of reproduction. 

In this country, with its boundless lakes and gigantic rivers— all 
those to the northward and eastward, and all those feeding the tribu- 
taries, or lying in the vast basin, of the St. Lawrence, as well as all 
those on the western or Pacific coast, flowing down through the Sacra- 
mento and Columbia, or wasting in the arid sands or wet morasses of 
the Great Central Basin, all teeming with varieties, perhaps distinct 
species of the Salmon— what a vast, what an unexplored field for the 
sportsman, the naturalist ; and how doubly charming for him who unites 
in one individual both capacities. But two distinct varieties of the 
American Lake Trout, or at the most three, are as yet made out — for 
I think it doubtful whether there be any positive grounds on which to 
establish a distinction between the Salmo Confinis of DeKay, known 
in the Eastern States and New York as the common Lake Trout, and 
the Salmo Amethyslus of Mitcuil, known as the Mackinaw Salmon, 
The Salmo Siskawitz of Agassiz, discovered in the course of the past 
summer in lakes Superior and Huron, is clearly a marked and perma- 
nent species. That there is yet one other distinct species, the Sebago 
Lake Trout, I fully believe, but only having heard of it by oral 
description, I dare not take upon myself, without examination and 
comparison, to decide the question. 

Again ; another huge fish is constantly mentioned as taken at times 
in the lakes of Hamilton county, in New York, which, if it be not, as 
[ believe it is, a gigantic casual variety of the common Brook Trout, 
Salmo Fontiiialis, is certainly a distinct fish. 

A slight examination of the gills, teeth, and fins, will at once settle 
this point. 

Of the common Trout, but one species is as yet firmly ascertained, 
unless the Red-bellied Trout, Salmo Erythrogaster, of DeKay, provo 
to be a distinct form ; which I, for one, do not at all believe. The 
Troutlet of that author is merely the young of the common Trout 



K I 



N .3 








44 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Whether there exists a Sahnon Trout or Silver Trout, Salrno TruHa 
Marim, at all ia American waters, apart from the Salmon-peal, Gnlse 
and common Trout, having access to salt-water, hkewise remams o 
be proved, by the aid of those easy methods of exammation, the use of 
which I so earnestly desire to impress upon my fnends and fellow, 
sportsmen, not merely as an aid to science, but as an immense addition 
to their own individual gratification, when m pursuit of their finny 
prey by the wild margin of some far woodland lake, or on the rocky 
borders of some lone torrent of the wilderness 

That many new species, entirely unsuspected and undescibed still 
remain to be found and recorded in our waters, I hold to be undoubted ; 
when they will be discovered, or by whom, is another question -for I 
regret to say it, as yet the spirit of science, and the desire to facili- 
tate and assist the inquiries of the man of letters, has scarcely pene- 
trated the breast of the American sportsman ; and while, in England 
and on the European Continent, many the most distinguished corres- 
pondents of the literary and scientific institutions of those lands are 
sportsmen, who have contributed most highly to the advancement of 
knowledge by their investigations, experiments and contributions, we 
can, on this side, alas ! point to but two or three of the sporting frater- 
nity who have cared to record themselves as anything more than killers 
of anmials; of the habits, characteristics, and even names of which 
they are but too often grossly ignorant. 

A few there are, it is true, who aspire to higher things, and who 
are actuated by something more than the mere love of killing, the 
mere ambition of boasting of bag; and among these, may their num- 
bcr increase daily! it will not, I hope, be deemed impertinent to 
specify the author of " The Birds of Long Island," who, from a sports- 
man of no secondary skill or energy, has successfully aspired to the 
honors of a naturalist; and has most deservedly acquired, as such, no 
small degree of celebrity and favor. 

From this short excursion, into which I have been naturally led 
in the course of my subject, I return to the description of the giU- 
covers of fish, and thereafter to the dental system, the method of com- 
paring which I shall lay down briefly for the use of the learner, and 
then proceed at once to the history of sporting-fishes. 




8ALM0NIDJE. 



45 



The subject, which I now present, is the head of the Silver Trout 
of Europe, Salnio Lacustris^ a species found in the large lakes of that 
continent. The figure is copied, by permission, from Professor 
Agassiz' great work on the " Fresh-water Fishes of Central Europe." 




The gill-covers of all the fishes of the three first divisions, with 
which alone we have to do, consist of four principal parts, and their use 
is to close the aperture behind the gills, which in all these three 
divisions is so formed, and so freely or loosely suspended, that the 
water bathes in its passage every part of their surface. 

These parts are, the pre-opercubtm, or fore-gill-cover. No. 1 ; the 
operculum, or gill-cover proper, No. 2 ; the sub-opercuhnij or under- 
gill-cover. No. 3 ; and the inter -operculum^ or intermediate gill-cover, 
No. 4. The braiichiostegous rays, as they are termed, are indicated 
by No. 5 ; and the fixed plates, forming the posterior immovable mar- 
gin of the gill-covers, by No. 6. N. 7. indicates the pectoral fn. 

How widely these parts differ in form, in different species of the 
Salmon tribe, will become at once apparent by a comparison between 
the gill-covers in the figure above, and those of the true Salmon, Sal- 
mo Salar, and the BuU-Trout, Salmo Eriox, Nog. 2 and 3, on the 
following cut, which, with these, presents a view of the interior of the 
mouth and the dental system of the common Trout, Salmo Fario, of 
Great Britain. 



I! 



40 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



It 




C ^s,E/i 





In figure 2 of this cut, representing the gill-cover of the true 
Salmon, it will strike any casual observer that the hinder margin of 
the whole covering forms nearly a semicircle, while that of No. 3, the 
Bull Trout, approaches more nearly to a rectangular figure. In the 
former, the pre-o'perculum, fore-gill-cover, a, differs from the same 
part, similarly marked, in No. 3, it being more rectilinear; while the 
operculum, gill-cover proper, b, of the former slopes hindward and 
backward; the same portion, b, in No. 3, cutting in a horizontal line 
upon the joints of the sub-opereulum and inter -operculum. 

And in all respects both differ entirely from the arrangement of 
the same parts in the head of the Silver Trout, exhibited in the cut last 
preceding at page 45. 

The most striking consequence of these differences is, that a straight 
line, drawn backward from the front teeth of the upper jaw, the 
mouth being closed, to the longest posterior projection of the gill- 
cover, will, in the three fish, run at a totally different angle to the 
horizontal line of the body; and will occupy an entirely different situ- 
ation in respect to the eye ; such a line in the head of the Salmon, 
Salmo Salar, and in the Silver Trout, Salmo Lacustris, passing close 
below the orbit of the eye ; while in that of the Bull Trout, Salmo 
ErioXy it will run obliquely very far below it. 

This distinction is very easy of observation, and is extremely im- 
portant in the definition of species ; as indeed is everything connected 



SALMONID^. 



47 



with the form and peculiarities of the head, not forgetting its relative 
proportion to the entire length of the body. 

Of no less value is the arrangement of the teeth in the different 
classes, families and species of fish ; there being, on this point, infinitely 
greater variety than can be imagined by persons who have given their 
attention only to the'struetarc of quadrupeds. 

" The teeth," says Mr. Yarrel, in the introduction to his fine work 
on British Fishes — from which I have taken the liberty of borrowing 
the last cut, descriptive of the gill-cover^ and dental system of the 
Salmon, BuU-Trout, and common Trout — " of fishes are so constant, 
as well as permanent in their characters, as to be worthy of particular 
attention. In the opinion of the best icthyologists, they are second 
only to the fins, which in their number, situation, size and form, are 
admitted to be of first-rate importance. 

" Some fishes have teeth attached to all the bones that assist in form- 
ing the cavity of the mouth and pharynx, to the intermaxillary, the 
maxillary, and palatine bones, the vomer, the tongue, the branchial 
arches supporting the gills, and the pharyngeal bones. Sometimes 
the teeth are uniform in shape on the various bones, at others differing. 
One or more of these bones are sometimes without teeth of any sort ; 
and there are fishes that have no teeth whatever on any of them. The 
teeth are named according to the bones upon which they are placed ; 
and are referred to, as maxillary, intermaxillary, palatine, vomerine, 
&o. — depending upon their position, 

" A reference to page 46, will show the situation of the teeth in the 
Trout, with five rows on the upper surface of the mouth, and foui 
rows below; the particular bones upon which these rows arc placed, 
are also referred to." 

Mr. Yarrel then proceeds to descant, somewhat too largely for 
extraction in a work of this description, on the form, position and uses 
of the various teeth in different families of fishes ; but the gist of his 
remarks I prefer combining under the heads of the various fishes to 
which they belong ; and I shall only add here, that in some species 
the teeth are arranged as in the Salmonidce, in duplicate or triplicate 
rows of single teeth ; in others in dense patches, occupying sometimes 
the greater part of the palate, set like the bristles on a shoe-brush, as 
in the Esocida or Pike famfly; and again in others, as the snecioa 



- I,; 



48 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



V. 



{ . 



ii 



Lalrax, of the family PercicK to which belongs our own noble Striped 
Bass, they cover the whole tongue, besides bemg thickly set on the 

^^m position and shape of these teeth indicate as clearly the habits, 
mode of feeding, and the food, of the various families to which they 
belonc., as do the teeth of the carnivorous, ruminating, or gnawing 
quadrupeds inform the naturalist whether the creature, of which the 
iaw-bone only lies before him, fed on animal substances, on grass, on 
grain, or on the bark and hard-shoUed nuts of trees; or as the beaks 
and bills of birds tell the experienced looker-on whether the owner 
was a bird of prey, an insect-eating warbler, or a grain-cracker. 

The distinction, therefore, which is founded upon the difference of 
the teeth in different fishes, is by no means fanciful, or resorted to 
merely to enable naturalists to display their ingenuity in making 
definitions, and multiplying species, as many people stolidly imagine; 
but is real and permanent, as representing the great sub-divisions of 
the dwellers of the waters, as those which feed on living, those which 
feed on dead animals of their own species, as insect-eaters, or mas- 
ticators of hard shell-fish, and so forth, unto the end. Differences, 
which even the most bigotted enemy of scientific distinctions must 
admit to be as real, and true in nature, as those between the tiger and 
the wolf, the ox that chews his cud, and the horse which fattens at the 

manger. 

I have known a sago coroner in England, who was wont to indulge 
in sapient ridicule of tie learned professions, and to sneer at anatomi- 
cal and physiological distinctions, who gravely sat in inquest over 
some exhumed bones, and solemnly recorded a verdict of wilful murder 
a<^ainst some person or persons unknown, the skeleton, when examined, 
turning out to be that of a defunct cow. 

Such instances are becoming, I am happy to say, rare, as regards 
men in general, and those sciences which regard the human race, 
and domestic animals. Why it should not be so with the sports- 
man, I know not ; but too true it is, that most of that fraternity obsti- 
nately adhere to ancient error, even when it is clearly pointed out ; 
and attempt to ridicule the man of letters as a mere theorist, and 
unpractical, for attempting to correct them in their blunders of 
norr.enelaturj, whereby th'-y confus- all the tribes of the earth, the 



SALMONIDJE. 



49 



air, and the water, and all the things that have life, whether animal 
or vegetable, therein. 

Little are they aware how fantastic are the tricks which they play, 
" like angry apes before high heaven," in the eyes of all those, whether 
naturalists or sportsmen, who do not confound conceit with knowledge, 
or wit with impertinent vulgarity. 

I shall now proceed to a few observations with regard to the figure 
No. 1, in the last wood-cut, on page 46, which represents the inte- 
rior of the mouth, opened to the utmost, of the common Trout of 
Great Britain and the European continent, Salmo Fario; which is 
selected by Mr. Yarrel as "showing"— to borrow his own words— 
"the most complete series of teeth among the Salmonida: ; and the 
value of the arrangement, as instruments for seizure and prehension, 
arising from the interposition of the different rows, the four lines of 
teeth on the lower surface alternating, when the mouth is closed, with 
the five rows on the upper surface, those on the vomer shutting in 
between the two rows on the tongue," &c. 

In this cut, letter a represents the situation of the row of teeth that 
is fixed on the central bOne of the roof of the mouth, called the vomer, 
from some fiincied resemblance to the share of a plough, for which 
the word used is the Latin term ; bb, refer to the teeth on the right 
and loft palatine bones; c, to the row of hooked teeth on eacli side of 
the tongue; dd, to the row of teoth outside the palatine bones, on the 
upper jaw, which are those of the superior maxillary bones; and ee, 
to the outside row on the maxillary bones of the lower jaw. 

Now it will readily be understood what is the importance of exam- 
ining carefully this system of teeth, in the different varieties of the 
salmon family, whether called Salmon, Salmon Trout, Lake Trout, 
Brook Trout, or any other local name whatsoever ; when it is stated 
that the distinct species are very strongly and permanently indicated 
by the number of teeth found in each upon the vomer, central bone 
of the roof the mouth. 

In the true Salmon, the teeth on the vomer very rarely exceed 
two ; and sometimes there is but one. 

In the Bull-Trout, the tooth are longer and stronger than those of 
the true Salmon; but, like that fish, ho has but two, or at most three 
teeth on the vomfir: he is distino-nishnd, aecordinw to the authorities. 



.^hi 



60 



AMERICAN FISHES. 






# 



1 




■i ; 

1 



by the different formation of his gill-covers, and the convex form of 
his caudal fin, whence he is said to be termed the Round-tail in the 
river Annan, in Scotland. This fish is unknown in America, and is 
merely mentioned for the sake of example and illustration. 

In the Salmon Trout of Great Britain, Salmo Trutta Lin., a mi- 
gratory fish, growing to a very large size, the teeth extend nearly the 
whole length of the vomer, thereby establishing a distinction between 
this and the two aforenamed species. 

Of the common Trout, we have already seen the dental arrange- 
ment. In the two distinct varieties of Lake Trout, recognised by 
authorities in Great Britain, which are non-migratory, and analogous 
to our Lake Trout ; viz — 

In the Great Gray Trout, or Loch Awe Trout, Salmo Ferox, which 
is common to most of the large Scottish and Irish inland waters, and 
which is pronounced by Mr. Agassiz to be distinct from any of the 
continental Lake Trout, — these teeth extend along the whole length of 
the vomer. 

And in the Lochleven Trout, Salmo Levenensis, sive Ccecifei', Walk- 
er and Palmer, if it be a distinct species from the common Trout, 
Salmo Fario, as appears to be conceded — although I must say I doubt 
it, as I do the Gillaroo, which, however, is more doubtful — there are 
thirteen teeth on the vomer, extending through its wl.le length. 

It would be well, indeed, if American anglers would take a little 
pains about the examination of these points, and would note them down 
in their tablets — in which, doubtless, they insert the weight of their 
captives — together with the relative proportion of the length of the 
head to that of the entire body ; the form of the gill-covers ; and rela- 
tive position of the eye to a line drawn from the front teeth to the 
lower posterior angle of the operculum or suboperculum, as it may be ; 
the number of rays in each of the several fins ; and especially the form 
of the caudal fin-tail — whether forked, concave, square, or convex. 

A very few memoranda on such points as these, accurately recorded, 
and assisted, where practicable, by the roughest sketch, would be of 
greater utility to the cause of science, than can be readily imagined ; 
and we should undoubtedly soon arrive at facts of great importance, 
and perhaps discover some new and interesting species of this most 
iutcrcstiag family. 



SALMONID^. 



51 



At all ovonta, we should not be tantalized by information ao vaguo 
and indefinite as that convoyed in a note to the appendix, contributed 
by the members of th« Piseco club to Dr. Bethune, for Me beautiful 
and valuable edition of Walton's Angler recently given to the Ameri- 
can world-with notes on American fiahing, the only fault of which 
is their brevity— by that accomplished fisherman and erudite scholar, 
who takes no shame to be held a follower of the gentle art, and to 
possess the finest piscatorial library owned in the United States, 
whether by private individual or collective body. 

" In June of this year," says the notc» to which I have reference, 
"the president of this club killed a red-flcshcd Lake Trout of 24 lbs. 
weight!" And no more! 

Information of the same kind has been given to me by Mr. C. Web 
BER, the author of some pleasant letters on Hamilton County Fishing, 
published during the past year in the columns of the New York 
Courier and Enquirer ; but, unfortunately, none of the fortunate takers 
have noted any points relative to this fish, on which any deliberate 
opinion can be formed. 

The flesh of the ordinary Lake Trouts of America, Confims, Ame- 
thystus, and Siskawitz, are all pale, dingy, yellowish buff, tasteless, 
coarse, muddy, and flaccid. 

It seems to be admitted that the red-fleshed Lake Trout is of more 
brilliant external coloring than the common variety. 

This is the fish of which I have spoken at page 43, as being un 
questionably a distinct species, if not an overgrown and gigantic variety 
of the Brook Trout, Salmo Fontinalis. This latter, I believe to be 
the case; though it Is impossible to pronounce positively, without 
seeing the fish, and instituting careful comparison. 

The fishermen of that district, on the lake, assert, I understand, 
positively that this is not the case ; but of course their opinion is utterly 
valueless, being founded on some such admirable reason as that the 
Brook Trout never grows to be above five or six pounds ; meaning 
only that they have never seen what they take to be one over that 
average. Just in the same manner, a person used to take fi.ili only in 
the small mountain brooks of Maine, New Hampshire, or Vermont, 
might tell you quite as plausibly, quite as positively, and quite as 

. .1 <• n._ _- f~- ~~ \.l~ w,:n«>«V.1n A'<rn<>ri<^Ti(*P of ♦.mfn ornosi — inat t.nft 

truiniuiiy—* 80 lui' ^ "I-t luiacioii/xv vAj/cii%^.j»^c ^i. — — -, — — 



b ■' 



'fi 






Eijsiisja^ ...i-a*tii!- 



62 



AMERICAN FISHES.. 



f» 




Brook Trout never grows to bo above half a pound-nor does it b 

^Vhrcommon Trout of England, Salmo Fario, which is so closely 
connected with our Brook Trout, Salmo Fontinalis, as to be constantly 
mistaken for it by casual observers, is continually taken m the larger 
rivers, especially the Thames, and in some of the Irish waters, from 
ten to fifLn pounds in weight. Mr. Y.hrel, when preparing lus 
British Fishes, had a minute before him of six Trout taken in the 
Thames, above Oxford, by minnow-spinning, which weighed together 
fifty-four pounds, the largest weighing thirteen pounds ; and one is 
recorded in the transactions of the Linnaean Society as having been 
taken on the 1st of January, 1822; in a little stream ten feet wide 
branching from the Avon at the back of Castle-street, Salisbury, which 
on beincr taken out of the water was found to weigh twenty-five pounds. 
These instances, which are beyond dispute, in relation to a species 
so closely related to our fish aa the Salmo Fario, render it anything 
but improbable that it too, in favorable situations, should grow to an 
equal size ; nor is there any reason for doubting it, since it is known to 
grow to the weight of five or six pounds, within a few ounces of which 
latter weight I have myself seen it; and there is no natural or phy- 
sical analogy by which we should set that weight as the limit to its 

increase. 

Should these remarks call the attention of sportsmen to a matter of 
deep interest, and elicit from them occasional records of examina- 
tions, which none can institute so well as they, their end will be fully 
answered, and these pages will not have been thrown away. 

We now come at once to the history of this family, and first, as best, 
to that of the true Salmon. 

This being the noblest and most game in its character of all fishes, 
as I have observed before, once abounding in all waters eastward of 
the Hudson, and still, though it has now ceased to exist in numbers, 
west of the Penobscot, and even there can be rarely taken with the 
fly, is still the choicest pursuit of the American angler, although he 
may be now compelled to seek it in the difficult and uncleared basins 
of the Nova Scotian rivers; in the Northern tributaries of the huge 
St. Lawrence ; or yet farther to the Westward, in the streams of the 
Columbia and the cold torr-^nts of Oregon, .all of which contain the 



SALMONID^. 



53 



true Salmon, with many other noble and distinct varieties, in un- 
equalled numbers. 

Of this glorious fish, of its generation, migrations, growth, f nd habits, 
BO much has been discovered within, comparatively speaking, a few 
years, that I am enabled to present a considerable number of facts, 
which will be doubtless new to many of my readers, and which may 
be received as ascertained and authenticated beyond the possibility of 
doubt. 




MMW 



V 



it } 



04 



AMERICAN FI8HBB. 



SALMON ID^ 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOl'TEBYOIL 




"-.■K- 



Balmoh Pihmi upw tlx month! old. 



THE SALMON. 

THE COMMON SALMON, THE TRUE SALMON. 

P,«. first year, Smo.t. second year. Pea. or Ga.ui.. second autumn.-Saln.o 
Salar, AucToauM. British Fishes, vol. ii. p. 1. DeKay. vol. .v. 

Although this noble fish has never been made the subject bo far 
a« 1 know of any of the strange and monstrous fables which have 
obtained concerning many others of the inhabitants of the waters-aa 
for instance the Pike, of which old kaak tells us, "it is not to be 
doubted, but that they are bred, some by generation, and sonie not, 
as namely, of a weed called pickerel-weed, unless learned Gessner 
be much mistaken ; for he says, this weed and other glutinous matter, 
with the help of the sun's heat, in some particular months, and some 
ponds adapted for it by nature, do become Pikes"-still, until withm 
the last few years, very little has been known with certainty concernmg 
him in his infancy, and during the earlier stages of his growth. 

"The Salmon," says kaak Walton, "is accounted the king of 
fresh-water fish, and is ever bred in rivers relating to the sea, yet so 
hicrh or far from it as to admit no tincture of salt or brackishness. He 
kmA to breed or cast his spawn, in most rivers, in the month of 



UDM. 



.Salmo 

it, 80 far 
ch have 
,ters — aa 
lot to be 
inie not, 
Gessner 
3 matter, 
ind some 
til within 
mcerning 
h. 

! king of 
ea, yet so 
less. He 
month of 



"^ Tl 



do 






JO 



n 



n 



c/i 



O 



CO 



C/5 





^fjiiilitiu=/*ijijl..i 




SALMONIDJB. 



55 



August ; somo say that then they dig" a hole or grave in a safe place 
in the gravel, and there place their eggs or spawn, after the melter 
has done his natural office, and then hide it most cunningly, and cover 
it over with gravel and stones ; and there leave it to their Creator's 
protection, who, by a gentle heat which he infuses in that cold element, 
makes it brood and beget life in the spawn, and to become Samlets 
early in the next spring following." ' 

This passage I have quoted because in sever-^^ respects it approacbes 
very nearly the truth, as it has been proved by the result of a series 
of well-conducted experiments, to which I shall again allude. 

The true Salmon is caught in the estuaries of our large northern 
and north-eastern rivers, on his way up to deposit his spawn in the last 
months of spring and the early part of the summer. It has been 
observed in Europe, that those rivers which flow from large lakes afford 
the earliest Salmon, the waters having been purified by deposition in 
the lakes, while those which are swollen by melting snows are later in 
season. 

It is also observed that the northern rivers are the earliest ; and it 
is stated by Artedi, that in Sweden, Salmon spawn in the middle of 
the summer. The causes influencing these facts are not yet decided 
nor are they easy of solution, says Sir William Jardine, especially 
where the time varies much in the neighboring rivers of the same 
district. 

I am not aware that any diff'erence of this kind has been remarked 
m this country ; and the great lack of residents on the remote Salmon 
rivers who will trouble themselves to observe and record such facts as 
daily occur under their eyes, ronders it very difficult to obtain such 
information as might assist one in coming to any conclusion. 

So far as I can judge, however, this diffbrence does not occur on this 
part of this continent at least ; nor do I believe that the Salmon are 
earlier in their appearance in the St. Lawrence, which flows through 
the largest chain of fresh-water lakes in the world, than the St. John°s, 
or the Penobscot, which lie farther to the south, and have no lakes of 
any magnitude on their waters. It must be mentioned, however, here, 
that all these rivers are equally swollen by melting snows ; and that, 
being frozen soUdly until late in the spring, the period of their open- 
ing naturally connects itself with the appearance of the fish. 



J ivjv^TKi-o^jfHfiCJfffXBBl'M 



»l 






m 


-M 


V; 

i 


! 





56 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



The Connecticut tivor, which has no large lake on its course, and is 
the southernmost of all the rivers which have furnished Salmon for 
many years past, has ceased to be a Salmon river ; or some facts 
mi^hthave been ascertained through observation of its waters The 
Kennebec also, though formerly an unrivalled Salmon river is becom- 
in. yearly less productive of this fine fish. I am inclined to think, 
bow'ver, that it is the earliest Salmon river on this side of the Ameri- 
can continent ; with the Arctic rivers I have of course nothing to do ; 
and of the rivers or natural productions of California, Oregon, and the 
Pacific coast, we shall know nothing on which reliance can be placed, 
until the gold-hunting hordes are replaced by a stationary and organ- 

ised population. ., xu j 

The mouth of the Kennebec is about one degree to the southward 
and westward of the Penobscot, and flows out of a large sheet of water, 
Moosehead lake, which abounds in the common Lake Trout, growing 
to a very large size, the Salmo Confinis of DeKay. I presume that 
the true Salmon no longer has the power of making his way up to the 
head-waters of this beautiful and limpid stream, in consequence of the 
numerous and lofty dams which bar its course ; but of this I am not 

The Salmon enters our rivers, then, rarely before the middle of May, 
and is taken in their estuaries so late as the end of July ; and during 
the early part of the season, nearly indeed until the latter date, does 
not ascend far above tide-water, generally going up with the flood, and 
returning with the ebb. At this time they are taken by thousands in 
stake-nets, on the Penobscot and other eastern rivers, and sent thence, 
packed in ice, to the markets of all the larger cities of the United States. 

At the time of their first entering the fresh-water, when they are in 
the highest possible condition, in the greatest perfection of flesh and 
flavor ,°and at the height of external beauty, they are of a rich trans- 
parent blueish-black, varied with greenish reflections along the back, 
these colors gradually dying away as they approach and pass the lateral 
line, below which the belly is of the most beautiful glistening silvery 
whiteness. The dorsal, caudal, and pectoral fins, are dusky black, 
the small fatty second dorsal fin bluish-black, the central fins white 
on the outer side, but somewhat darker within, and the anal fin silvery 
white, like the belly. 



SALMONIDJK. 



57 



There arc generally a few dark spots dispersed along the body about 
the lateral line ; and in the female fish these are more numerous and 
conspicuous than in the males. 

The accompanying cut, facing page 54, is of a female, fresh run 
from the sea, and is copied, by permission, from the figure by Son- 
rel, in Mr, Agassiz's great work alluded to above. The individual 
from which the figure is taken, was caught in tho neighborhood of 
Havre-de-Grace, in France ; but the Salmon of the two continents 
are identical. 

1 will here observe, en passant, that whenever it has been in my 
power to obtain specimens, either living or in spirits, I have myself 
drawn the figures from nature on the wood ; but where, from the 
season of the year, or other causes, I have been unable to obtain that 
advantage, I have copied my illustrations from tho best authorities, 
where I could find plates or drawings which I deemed satisfactory. 
In the absence of either, I have left the fish unrepresented, in prefer- 
ence to giving incorrect caricatures of the animal — such as disgrace 
too many works of natural history, and, I am sorry to say, among 
others, the great Natural History lately published by the State of New 
York, the illustrations of which are below contempt as works of art, 
and, in a scientific view, utterly useless, and uncharacteristic. 

After they have gained the upper and shallow parts of the rivers, 
preparatory to the deposition of their spawn, the colors of the Salmon 
are materially altered ; the male becomes marked on the cheek with 
orange-colored stripes, the lower jaw acquires a peculiar projection, 
and turns upward at the point in a hard, hooked, cartilaginous excres- 
cence, which, when the mouth is closed, occupies a hollow between the 
mterraaxillary bones. 

The body of the fish becomes greenish above, with the sides of an 
orange hue, fading into yellowish-green on the belly, and the spots 
assume a sanguine hue, the dorsal and caudal fins being more or less 
spotted. The females at this season are even darker than on their 
arrival in fresh water. 

The males are at this period termed Red-fish in Great Britain, and 
tho females Black-fish ; and they are so designated in the very salutary 
enactments which, in that country, by protecting the fish during their 




r 



! I" 



iiji 

1 l.r' 



I > 



^H i 




■ 


I 


li 


L lit f 




i 



AMERICAN FISHES. 

rti::: r ri:^epeW .p.. .. «. peo,o .m no. 

"rctrot%™ .0 POP'-- -:x:Ltr;ot: 

foolUh and dUccdiUble .pint ;. Hon ^ h n. w,<, a._^ ^^^^_ g__^^_ 
which laid the golden eg^, they «nd that by ^^^^ 

„a.io spirit, they are ''oP-f ;;"j;^^jt ^d^ such 

of national pleasure, as well as national prom 
„e the fisheries of a eonntry^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^p^^.„,_ 

Dnring the ^'■"« *<. «sh go th F ^^^^^^ ^^ 

which is th^ ''-"*f,%*;,™^;'':British Fishes:" 
the Salmon," as qnoted by Yar el in liis 

. A pair of fish are seen to r^a,.„ torow, y worto„^ V^^J^^^^ 

with th, ir noses, rather "S^'' '"^^ •„, -.^^ hu gills the 
with his .-"own str-- ^^fj ::X!:Z I ™ade, the male and 

wrong way, 'l"™ ^'^ J^^^^^^^^ .„ ,!,„ „„e side, and the other to 
female retire .0 a Uttedstonce on ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^_^ ^^ 

:i:X^l :"etr la ./-ng a... eaeh ot^--- 
.eir spawn into the ("^ ^ ^^^^tr.^^^^^^^^^^^ them to 

tStir1p:r,'a:my ha^Ye they betaUe them to the 
plols, and deLnd to the sea, to ^^^'f^^-^^i, „„,, ,„, ,^. 

LSuUytrmed glistening creature which ran up the stream in .h, 
^t:f-\rrmed propenya haggit,and the male ahipper; ahd 
the two, generally, kelts. brackish 



SALMONID^. 



69 



it is said, thereby a release from certain parasitical animals, gene- 
rated, these by the fresh, those by the salt water, at each change of 

waters. 

In Great Britain, the period of the Salmon's spawning varies from 
November to the end of January. They have been carefully watched 
during the whole process, as have the eggs after their deposition, so 
that the length of time which it takes them to attain to maturity is 
accurately known. This time has been ascertained by Mr. Shaw, in 
a series of experiments, of which I shall have occasion to speak more 
fully hereafter, to be about 

114 days, when the temperature of the water is - - 36* 
101 days, - - - - - - 43* 

90 days, - - - - - - 45*' 

These experiments were performed in the open air, and in natural 
streams, liable to the ordinary influences of the atmosphere and 
weather. 

Dr. Knox, however, as is recorded in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, observed a pair of Salmon which completed 
their spawning, and covered up their ova with gravel, in the usual 
way, on the 2d of November. This was in one of the northern tribu- 
taries of the Tweed. 

On the 25th of February, or at the end of one hundred and sixteen 
days, the ova were dug up, and found unchanged. On being removed, 
however, at this stage, and placed in bottles of water in warm rooms, 
the eggs were matured almost immediately, and the young fry hatched. 
In this state they can be preserved in the bottles, with the water un- 
changed, for about ten days, aa during that time they are supported 
on the yolk of the egg which adheres to the under part of their bodies, 
as exhibited in figure 1 on the cut at the head of this article. 

On the 23d of March, according to Dr. Knox, the ova began to 
change, and it was not until the 1st of April that the fry were found 
to have quitted the beds. 

Mr. Shaw's experiments were, however, so conducted as to furnish 
data on which more reliance may be placed ; and as these are of the 
greatest interest, and as from experiments similarly conducted, farther 
results of a different kind might be attained, of surpassing importance, , 
I shall state them somewhat at length. 




'■' ' 


:j 






t ■ 

1 

[ ' 
i 

\ ' 
i 





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a^ 


1 

41 


■ j 1 





AMERICAN FISHES. 

. -11 U. found by those who desire to investigato the 
A full aeeount will be found by ptaosophioal Journal 

Bubjeet more thoroughly, in *» Edmborg 

for July, 1836, and Ja'"-'?- »838^ ^ ,„ fc, „ade, of different she, 
Mr. Shaw, it seems, "'"^'■^/'"''^/^^n river, Ae Erith, the ponds 

.t about fifty yards distance from - 8"'^ ^^ ,1,^ ^^e 

heing -PP«e^;y^ -- J ^ ;:r'of the water in the ri™let 
larvffi of insects. The '''"^'^^ J. „f j^at in the river ; other- 
,as rather higher and 1- '»* ^^l in the ponds, and of the 

:ir^rr;:errt,:it::;::p«oiseiy simnar to o^ose of the 

spawn and fr, in ^^^J"?', ^ ^-.^ well-graveUed bottoms, 

twenty-live, the third thirty by fj, ,^, ,■„„ preparing to 

Observing two Salmon, m^ -d ^m-U,^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^,^ 

deposit their spawn, Mr. Shaw prep ^j ^^j^, 

edkasn.au ''7\' ^'^^ I^tit o te treneh, plaeed a large 
from the river, and at the lower e^trem y ^^ ^ ^^^ 

.rthenware basin to -e.e ^ ^a^^ Th« do ^^ J^ ^„, ^,^^ ,, 
net he secured the two nan wn pressure of 

female, while alive, in the '--^; ^^^^b The male fisl was then 
her body, to deposit h-"™ ■; "1 „f .ie milt being pressed 
placed in the same pos,t,on, nd q»ntit^ topregnated 

from his body, passed ^^^ ^^l^^^^ ,^, ^a.in, and thenee to .he 
the ova, which were then transterre _^^^^^^ 

-1. -am which fed -^-PP^^^tronh: Seam .. 40», that 
» the graveUs usu^l^ T« ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^_,^^,..,„,_ ;„ „ae, 
of the river 36°. i ne . K*n» u pnncor.-uv^ the species 

Z prevent the possibility of doubt or «- ^^^aV J..M Pou»ds 
The male fish, when taken, weighed sixteen th to ^ J^^ 

The result was, that ^^■'y^^^^Zitt^'i^. ...mbrane in 
in the scale above given. Wbcntotcmerfc ^^ ^ ^^^^^^^_ 

„hich it had been e-'of '-'**: ^Totte'^'referred to above, 
the young fry is a. .t is shown in ^'>■ 1' » ^j^^ «,„ ,„„„g 

The'yom is absorbed in -;;^*:-ro months, the young fish 
r.::trtrrro. "trand a quarter, as represented a. 



SALMON I DJE. 



61 



No. 2 ; and at the age of six months, he has grown to the size of three 
inches and a quarter, and, except in dimensions, is exactly rendered 
in No. 3 of the above cut. 

From these facts we arrive at two consequences. First, that the 
growth of the young Salmon has been greatly overrated ; and, secondly, 
that at a certain period of its life the Salmon is a Parr. The extent 
to which the growth of the Salmon has been overrated, will be per- 
ceived at once, when it is shown that Dr. Knox, in the paper from 
which I have already quoted, states that the fry which emerged from 
their capsules on the 1st of April, were taken, on the 22d of the same 
month, in the same year, as Smolts, with the fly, of the size of the 
little finger. 

It was also generally believed that the fry of the year descended to 
the sea that very spring, and returned, in the autumn, grilse, varying 
from two to seven pounds weight. 

It is distinctly shown, however, by Mr. Shaw, that the young Sal- 
mon, which is called a Pink while in the state represented above, 
having perpendicular lateral bars or markings of a dusky gray color, 
which were once supposed to be peculiar to the Parr, does not become 
a Smolt, or go down to the sea until the second spring, tarrying a 
whole year in the fresh water. 




Salmon Smolt, one year old. 



The fish here represented measured seven inches and a half ii} 
length, and three inches and one-eighth in circumi once. 

Its gill-covers were silvery, marked with a dark spot ; belly and 
eides, up to the lateral line of the same, silvery color ; back and sides, 



it 



1 1 



AMERICAN FISHES 

^^ . V • « tn frroen ; sides above thft 

a„.« to *« lateral V,„o, /f J' "J ''^llfJ^He lateral lino, and both 
-..teral Imo n>a,kod «,t d-y "^j" ,=„ „,,„„, „d .po.». Tba 

a Uttlo above and a ^^^^^^^^^^^^'Z several d»»ky spot. ; .Uo peo- 
dor.al an ba, twelve rays, marked ^__^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^__^^^j j„ , ^j 

t„,al fin ha, twelve ray, c a d»,ky ^^ ^^^^ same color. 

,ays of a sUvory wh.te , and the anri ^ ^^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^„„„ 

When the »ealo, «e,eoaretully token _^^^^^^ ._^ ^^^^^ 

„d spot, became of a fine ^-^f'^^^^,^^^ „„i„ appeared, .bleb 
and ten ob,c«re oval !>- "''^^/j ,Ueh ha, not acquired the 
erossed the lateral Ime. '» » y"" = 

Boale,, tbe,o bar, are very distmet^ ^^^^^ j^^__^ y^^,,,. 

The above cnt and *«»">?"->" "'7° p, Hey,ha.n', catalogao. 
u British FUhc,," the latter a, I^^^Z^ *« -'— "' '''"' 
To render these fact, ^t -- -^'»;^^^ ^^^^al, began to en- 
Thomas Upton, Esq., of I-Sm^e "»j ^^ ^ggg^ ,„,„„ 
,a,ge a natural lake on lu, property nd ^^^ .^^^^ ^^^ . ^ ., 
pinks from the Lnne a S 'mon r'ver ^„„„„„.,„ation with any 
This lake, which « -=»»'* ^''^""Ved can get out, or any fry, 
ether water, by which the S^^ »»- " ' j,";:;; i„%ero certainly not. 
from other waters, get m. '"".P" ' sixteen month, afterward, 
above two or three ounces each .n wcgb S. ^.^^ ^ ^^^ 

a friend of Mr,,Y™ « ^J Z" e^ll"^ onditio'n, silvery bright in 
palmer fly two Salmon Peal, m eweUen ^^^_^^^_^ 

!„l„r, measuring fourteen mches '"';°^^' ^"^t ;,/„,„,> not so 

„„nc;, ; one was cooked and »■''-; ^^/j^^f,,, at „f a Peal. 
„da,tbo,eoftherive^weU- avo^ ^^^^_ _^„„,,„, ,„„„ 

In the month of July, 1838, e lev ^ ^^ ^^^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^j„^_ „^„„t 

rrcJs^^S'ai:- -:-x^^^ iri 

--^ r^rtrfirTof^rtrf Stained sateen month,, 

^rr^crf^^^-- 

j;;rr!':r':::antbrec™^^^^^^^^^^ 

U„e smolt, of si. and a half -« "7' ^^^ „,a,uro, five inches, 
„ above, and ready to migrate. In July, the pm 
^d tbc smolts have then left the nver. 



flALMONID^. 



ti3 



Dr. Knox seems to have erred merely in supposing that the pinks, 
the size of the little finger, were from the ova hatched in April, when 
they were probably from an earlier hatching of fish, which spawned at 
a more remote date. 

It soems, however, to be clearly and certainly established by these 
experiments, that the smolt, or laspring, as they are sometimes called, 
which descend the rivers every spring toward the middle of May, aro 
a whola year older than the pinks, which are taken in the same waters, 
at the same time, and by the same fly. 

With regard to the later growth of the Salmon, I am not of opinion 
that the lake experiments prove much, if anything, either 'pro or con ; 
since it is a known and established fact, that salt-water has a recupe- 
rative influence upon the mature fish which run down the rivers ex- 
haustad by spawning, and also a certain tendency to increase the 
growth of the young fish which descend the streams, smolts, as it now 
appears, in their second year, of six or seven inches length, and about 
as many ounces weight, and return peal or grilse, varying from two to 
eight pounds. 

It must be observed here, that grilse is the correct name of the fish 
on its return from the sea in its second season, and that ftal is merely a 
fishmonger's term for a small grilse not exceeding two pounds' weight. 

That the identical smolt of six or seven ounces do return, after 
two or three months' absence in the sea, as grilse of as many pounds' 
weight, is proved beyond all dispute ; smolts innumerable having been 
taken, marked with numbered tickets of zinc attached to the rays of 
their ^'.orsal fins, set at liberty, and recaptured grilse^ varying from 
two to eight ^pounds, in the autumn of the same year. The same 
experiment, with the labels 'unremoved, shows that the same grilse, 
descending the stream of unincreased magnitude in the spring of his 
third year, returns in that third a,utumn a fish of sixteen, and upward 
to twenty-five, pounds' weight. 

I hold, therefore, that the argument is conclusive, so long as it is 
founded on a comparison between fish which, whether they be con- 
fined or at large, never visits the sea. Beyond that the analogy 
ceases. It remains to be seen whether the Salmon confined to fresh- 
water will eveV attain the size of those which run to and fro, from the 
fresh to the salt ; I greatly doubt it ; and, with Mr. Yarrel, I think it 



■f 



It 

'1 






AMERICAN FlSHEft. 

04 

• * u.ihf^T thefisl'.sobtou^cu from migra- 
„„„ than a dubious P-'' ^''^jj „ 'e^auce *»ir own specie. 

U IS » smguUr t»«'. "« ^^ j^„ ,,., •,„ ^ soeond year, havmg 

aduU-tUe gnl.e, on .ts '"'"" 'T,.„„i„„ that same autumn. The 
the roe and „.i,t '^^.f^^tZ' bu"« nUor only, fron, those of 
„,„in the Sf»^*7 ;;'.'„ grow"., and there is no known 
tl,e adult Salmon of a yea a eg ^ ^^^ 

differeneo between th fry of '■«»"; j,„= ,„ .„, „o™t,y these 

Itwillprove tobe U tac , 1 vc ^^ ^ ,^^ ^_.^_^,__ ^ .^^^^^^ ^,_^^ 

ash spawn earlier .n the » ™" ^ h„ad.water» of the river, 

must do so, for in the month »f " . j jt will be 

whieh they frequent are masses "^ »°''^ ;" ' J ^ ;, ,he months 
found that the ova are deposited an J fj ^^^^^.^ ^,„„, M. 
of September and Oetober and m j P™"*'^ ;„ ,1 „,„,»*, 

return to the .»>7'": *:„»", Clever ifttle important, 
before the elosmg of the r. ers^ 1 Iw ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

, now eome to the see n p m^ prov ^^ y ^^^^ ^^ ^ ,^ ^^.^^_ 

enee, is, o all m tents and p p , ^^^^^ ^,^^^_ .^ ^^^ 

Most, rf not all, ^f '^l"^f^ J^^ ^^, ;,„„ found invariably 

•■"''tlhTrellmonfaXo- »"--« '» »"' «»-'^"''"^ 
a small fish *» S" J _^^_^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^ 

Tt::;S'Iy,or 2: «ransver.e bands alluded .0 above, and 
of the blmsh gray, , _^^j. ^, ^i,„ „g„„ 

S^-rLr*: r the Brook Trout, S.,. F^^, 

"toltri": this little fish, there has been a eontinual doubt and a 

dilute of mlny years' standing, some persons maintammg that .t was 

luna, an/r',produetive species of *e M— , w 'c they 

it was neither more nor less than a young Salmon. 
It was muuri "» jj J +1,0* pnrr had been marked and 

In proof of this, it was adduced that Faxr naa oeeu 

retaken as Grilse 




8ALM0NIDA. 



9b 



inlgra- 
apecies. 
ore it is 
, having 
1. The 
thoao of 
) knowp 

try thcso 
ied, thcj 
;he rivers 
it will be 
c months 
arcnt fish 
e winter, 
)ortant. 
t by these 
his oxist- 
jd a Parr. 
i, in some 
invariably 
(nsiderable 
e presence 
ibove, and 
I also again 
Fontinalis, 

oubt, and a 
; that it was 
which they 
)ther8, from 
a unproduo- 
1 Trout, the 
t again, that 

marked and 



But in reply, it was statod that Parr had also been marked and 
retaken as Bull Trout, Saimo ErioXy and Salmon Trout, Salmo 
Trutta; whence it waa argued that the fish marked had been so 
marked carelessly and injudiciously, and were not Parr at all, but 
Smolts, or fry of some of the other Salmonida. Mr. Yarrel 
admits that he has seen these vertical marks in the young fry of the 
Salmon, Bull Trout, Parr, common Trout, and Welch Charr ; but 
still maintains the existence of the Parr as distinct, principally on the 
ground that the Parrs are taken abundantly even in autumn, not 
exceeding five inches in length, long after the fry of the larger migra- 
tory species have gone down to the sea. 

This is in the body of the work, written previous to the experiments 
made by Mr. Shaw; and this Mr, Yarrel there considers to be a 
sufficiently obvious proof that the Parr is not the young of the Salmon, 
or indeed of any other of the larger Salmonidce. 

The reason is of course annihilated by the proven fact, that the 
Pinks, which remain in fresh-water all the first year, are young Sal- 
mon, Parr-marked ; whereas the young Salmon-fry, Smolts, formerly 
supposed to be the young fish of that year, all of which have gone 
down the river to the sea, are in truth the fish of the preceding year. 

Similarly is the question settled with regard to the existence of 
Parrs in str ims of the Western isles which are never visited by 
Salmon, theae being, in all probability, the Brook Trout in the Parr 
Btage of its existence. 

And so again the fact that there are lakes in the same islands fre- 
quented by the Salmon and sea Trout, in which Parrs are never found 
— because the young fry, while in the Parr, or transversely banded, 
form, keep in the swift cold streams, and do not descend to the lakes. 

It now appears to be certain, or as nearly certain as anything can 
be, which is not positively proved, that every species of the Salmonidce 
is at one period a banded fish, or Parr. 

This is known as an authenticated fact of the Salmon, Salmon 
Trout, Bull Trout, and common English Trout, aa well as of the 
Welch Charr, aa admitted by Yarrel. 

Mr. Agassiz has figured the Hucho, Salmo Hucho, and the conti- 
nental Charr, which he esteems identical with the northern Charr of 
England, Salmo Umbla, in the same stage — the other characteristics 




i 



i 'Mi 



AMERICAN FISHES 

.or.3 b„s. TU. same ^^ 8"' °^ „ ^,^^^^ ^^^ .,„ B,«ok 

.,0 Great Gra, Trout oU)*. ^U^^Jj^^^^ > ^^^ ^^ ,,;, 

C«#»", of .°;'"y- , h^ i,„„„ tostitutod for tho fry of any of tlie.e 
No o^peoia ''''f^l^Z-iinoo,ery goos no way to provo tho.r 

r„rr:o%:"'X,^" ^ni .0. .0 ..o, t.at tw 

-'" bo di'«»7«^j° '.7;„;^„„„ .H„ „o,t strongly-marked, Salnonida, 
A, it now stands, of four an ^^^ ^_____^ ^^^^^^^ 

.i„o have boon "loarly «oi '^ ^« ^or ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^___ 

:::r a:tCA: :a:a:;::koTroni . one ..-.os .««.... 

^hich is shown to bo no exception t„ the rnle^ ^_^^ ^__^ 

£..er, migratory spec.es f '« ' J ,,,„f„„, goes to show 

„f the five or si,, --;=' -^^- „f ^If ,ot to deviate from the 
that these species will be touna, on , 

rule of ^eir order ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ,, ,ho 

P^. r Sh -;;;i::Ll named by different observers are 
Parr exists , an ^^^ ^f the Salmon family. 

'"rnl^r^rCl reclaims; and justly remarks that 

. ,Mf rno nct^e -idence of the non-existence of ^^^ 
this 13 noi exclusively applied , it 

trshrt^rwlTpl^amon^g^eralobserve^t^^^^^^ 

between the yonng of closely-allied spec.es, three or four of wh.ch 

indiscriminately called Parrs." 

Jn called Parrs, is no proof that all Parrs are young and .mmature 
"m matter, though, as it now stands, cleared of all the absurd 




lALMONIDA. 



67 



theories conooming crosa-brooding between Salmon, Sea Trout, Gray- 
ling, and Common Trout, being set aside, is of easy proof. 

It only rests to show the male and fomalo Parrs full of ova, ready 
for spawning, and the question is settled. 

In connection with this, it is fair to state, that Dr. Hcysham, of 
Carlisle, in England, who is said to have devoted particular attention 
to this fish, which is there called Brandling or Samlet, observes that 
" The old Samlets begin to deposit their spawn in December, and 
continue spawning the whole of that month, and perhaps some part 
of January. As this season of the year is not favorable for angling, 
few or no observations aro mado during these months. As soon as 
they have spawned they retire, like the Salmon, to the sea, where they 
femain till the autumn, when they again return to the rivers." 

After a number of farther observations concerning the young fry of 
the supposed Parr, their sizes, seasons, &c., he concludes by these 
^ords — " In short, we see Samlets of various sizes — we see them with 
milt and roe, in all the various stages, and we see thera perfectly 
empty ; all which circumstances clearly prove that they are a distinct 

species." 

Clearly, indeed ; if it appears that these circumstances can be 
authenticated; but this I, for the present, doubt — first, because if 
there had been visible facts, the theory never could have been started 
of their being unproductive mules. Second, because Sir William 
Jardine, after examination of the Parr of the Tweed, speaks of it as 
still uncertain whether it may not be the young of the common Trout, 
Salmo Fario ; and for this reason, that though he has found males 
full of milt, ho never has seen females with the roe in an advanced 
state ; and, fartherraore, distinctly avers, that " they have not been 
discovered spawning in any of the shallow streams or lessor rivulets, 
like the Trout." 

Sir William, however, still leans to the opinion that there is a 
distinct species, in which the transverse markings are permaneut, 
which reproduces its own kind, and never grows to a greater size 
than eight or nine inches ; and this ho would retain under the title 
given to it by Ray, of Salmo Salmulus. 

Mr. Yarrel is of the same opinion ; and has certainly shown 
decidedly that it is not a hybrid, or a species of which there are 




,^ .,rf '^^^- 



68 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



II 




i 



I 




, ,, ^;ao,l • siipe of three hundred and ninety- 

r ' lr» males ana ono hundrca ana nmoty-»« females. 

, rlfch a once aUpeU all the mystery of the qucsUon- 

elear ana wbch at onee p ^^^^.^^_^„, ,„,„, „„,y, „, 

r^m" Ilr::' M. Ya.el state l>nt '^^^^^ ^ 
e^rle youth, transverse blnish, or olive-eolorea markmgs ; that they 
We Jl been confonnaea with one another, ana-f there be sueh a 
fi^w th tie Parr proper ; ana that from this confnsioo, and the 
wtt : aiserimination on the part of the observers, have arrsen aU 
ZeLradiCory aeconnts of Salmon, Salmon Iront, Bnll Trout, 
ana'Common Trout, raised from the veritable Parr. 

Whelr there L or do not exist a very small, d-stmet spee.es 
of Sato, in Great Britain, which retains these marks »» ""^ta"^. 
i. a matter of little eomparative moment, though mterestmg to the 
naturalist The first question was of the greatest .mporUnee, ^ 
°n wtg the whole subjeet of reproauetion of speeies, masmuch 
Is the faets, as assertea ana formerly believea, were a.reetly 
altlus to 'this, that from the eggs of a barn-door fowl, o one 
bying", were hatJhed bantams, quail, guinea-hens, pea-fowl, ana any 

other°gallinaoeous fowl you please. ,. . , „ ,., u 

On this eontinent, assureaiy, there is no a>st.nct Parr, although 
nnaoubtcdly it will appear hereafter, that '*^ '''V^l"^ ^^rj 
of the family, like the true Salmon, the greater Lake Trout and ho 
Brook Trout, the other speeies without eseeptmn, have the Parr 

"on to topie I have dwelt somewhat at length, yet I trust not so 
long as to weary my readers, the great interest of the pomt at .sane 
and the almost interminable discussion which has been mam tamed on 
the subject, rendering me peculiarly anxious to aaauce somethmg now 
...a to the point ; which, thanks to the kina assistance of my frrend, 
Mr Agassiz, 1 trust I have succceaed m aomg. 

1 may here venture to aaa that the aistinguishea gentleman 1 have 
jnst namea, is inclinea to increa»lity as regard, the existence of a 

aistinet species of Parr. , „ , c... 

I shall now recur to the eiperhnents on the ova of Salmon ; S.st, 




SALMONIDiE. 



69 



for the purpose of shomng how they may be brought into direct 
practical utility, and rendered subservient to the pleasure of the 
angler, as a method of stocking inland waters ; and, secondly, of 
pointing out how easily experiments might be made in this mode, 
as to th°e hybridization of fishes, and the rearing new species of mules, 
or ascertaining that they cannot be reared, by the commixture of the 
milt and roe of various distinct species of the same family in small 
tanks, fed by running brooklets. 

It has been shown above, that the impregnated spawn of any two 
live breeding fishes of the same family, may be artificially hatched 
and preserved in waters other than thosa in which the parent species 
are wont to live ; as even the Salmon in fresh- water. 

I shall now proceed to show that the same result may be obtained 
by the commixture of the melt and roe in aerated water, of dead fishes 
recently taken. 

It is absolutely necessary that the water should be afirated, or highly 
supplied with oxygen. B'or it is for the purpose of finding water in this 
condition, that the Salmon, the Shad, the Bass, the Smelt, and all 
those fish which resort to fresh-waters, for the purpose of spawning, 
run to the shifllow, pure, and swiftly-flowing brooks, to which their 
rapidity and frequent falls impart purity and vitality, by mingling them 
with the atmosphere. In the same manner, the fish of the sea resort 
for the deposition of their ova to the weedy shoals, where the vegeta- 
bles, in process of their growth, under the influence of the sun, distri- 
bute air through the waters around them. 

" The science required for this object" — that is to say, the raising 
foreign fishes for the stocking of home waters — thus speaks Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy, in his delightful work, " Salmonia" — " is easrily attained, 
and the difficulties are quite imaginary. The impregnation of the ova 
of fishes is performed out of the body, and it is only necessary to 
pour the seminal fiuid from the melt upon the ova in water. Mr. 
Jacobi, a German gentleman, who made, many years ago, experiments 
on the increase of Trout and Salmon, informs us, that the ova and 
melt of mature fish, recently dead, will produce living oifspring. His 
plan of raising Trout from the egg was a very simple one. He had 
a box made with a small wire grating at one end in the cover, for 
admitting water from a fresh source or stream, and at the other en(? 



",it>t'-i"-:^We^-* 



n 



70 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



. ^ 'A f *h. V^nx there were a number of holes, to allow the exit 
: : : : l:: tX2^^^ ^o. ... miea w^h pehUes ... gravd 
drffrentB.es, whieh were kept eovered with water that was always 
n mot n In November, or the beginning of December, when the 
Trlt wero in full maturity for spawning, and eoUeeted m the nvers 
I ttis pup se,upon the 'beds of gravel, he eaught the n.ales and 
111 in a'net and'by the pressure of his hands received the ova m 
Tirif water and suffered the melt, or seminaUuid, to pass mo 
the basin ; and after they had remained a few minutes ogether, he 
't.od ced tVn. upon the gravel in the box, whieh was placed under 
a sour-^e of fresh, eool, and pure water. In a few weeks the eggs burst 
au'l the bo. was filled with an immense number of young Trout, which 
had a sma 1 bag attached to the lower part of their body, containing a 
part, of the yo!^. of the egg, whieh was still their nourishment In this 
state they were easily carried from place to place in -"6-^ P-^J- 
of fresh-water, for some days, requiring apparently no food ; but after 
about a week, the nourishment in their bag being exhausted, they 
began to seek their food in the water, and rapidly increased in^ size 
As 1 have said before, Mr. Jacobi assures us that the experiment 
succeeded as well with mature fish, that had been killed for the pur- 
pose of procuring the roe and the melt, these having been nnxed 
together in cold water immediately after they were taken out of the 
body / fu,ve had this experiment tried twice^^ continues Sir Hum- 
phrey, speaking in his own person, "a«^ wUh perfect success ; and 
it offers a very good mode of increasing to any extent the quanaty 
of Trout in rivers or lakes ; for the young ones are preserved from 
the attacks of fishes, and other voracious animals or insects, at the 
time when they are most easily destroyed, and perfectly helpless. The 
same plan, I have no doubt, would answer equally well with Grayling, 
and other varieties of the Salmo genus. But in all experiments of 
this kind, the great principle is to have a constant current of fresh and 
afiratcd water running over the eggs." 

Now it is manifest from this, that any person resident in the near 
vicinity of any lake or rivor, abounding in any species of this family, 
the Common Trout, the True Salmon, the Lake Trout, and probably 
the Otsego Bass, Coregonus Otsego, which is one of the same family, 
likewiso,\aving also the command of the smallest possible source of 



SALMONID^. 



71 



t h running water, can raise, in the space of a few weeks or months, 
av indefinite number of young fish, of any of these varieties, which, 
dv ng the first week or ten days, can be removed to any distance that 
cai be reached in that time— and, in these days of steam velocity, 
wh .t distance cannot be reached ?— in any cask, jar, or other vessel, 
capable of containing a few gallons of water. 

There would not, in this manner be the smallest difficulty, and very 
small trouble or expense, in translating the Mackinaw Salmon and the 
Siskawitz Trout from Lake Huron and Superior, to the inland waters 
of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania — not the smallest diffi- 
culty in introducing the true Salmon from the Penobscot or the St. 
John, to any lake, river, or stream, in the Middle States ; and, it 
having been proved by the experiments of Mr. Upton, in Lilymere, 
as recorded above, that the Salmon will live and preserve its excel- 
lence in fresh-water, entirely debarred from egress to the sea, would 
it not be a highly interesting, and, if successful, valuable, experiment, 
to attempt its introduction into the hundreds of limpid lakelets which 
gem the inlands and uplands of our Northern States ? 

Again, as it is well known that all the migratory fish, like the birds 
of passage, return, whenever it is possible, to the streams wherein they 
were themselves bred, to breed, it seems to me that it would be well 
worth the trying whether these streams of ours here, to the southward 
of Maine, which, within a century or two, teemed with Salmon, but in 
which one is now never seen, might not be colonized and restocked 
with the delicious fish. 

There is no plausible reason why the pinks which should be trans- 
ported to the upper Hudson, and should there remain till they become 
smolts, should not return as grilse to the scones of their childhood. 

Nor do I see any good reason why they should not continue to breed, 
and to frequent any river into which they should be so introduced. 

The cause of their desertion of these rivers is inexplicable. It has 
been attributed to steamboats, but that is ideal ; for the Tay, the 
Tweed, and the Clyde, and half-a-dozen other English and Scottish 
rivers, which still abound in Salmon, are harassed by more steam- 
boats, hourly, than are the Kennebeck and Penobscot now, or than 
wore the Hudson and Connecticut at the time when the Salmon for- 
sook them, daily 



:• « 



i '"i 



i* 



72 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



I think it, myself, far more probaWe t!>at the, were po«ned, and 

driven frem the hoad-waters and trihutarie., in wlneh 'hoy «' «" 

to spawn, by the sawdust, espeeially of the hemloek ; and that the 

Lk whi h were used to run up these estuaries hanng hoeome extmot. 

ae traditional instinet is lost, and there are no fish left wlueh know 

'if^SslXrason-and, the known instinet of the animal eon- 
sidered, it Is as plausible a eonjeeture as any other-.t .s ccrta.n that 
„anyr vers, whose water, a few years ago ran turb.d w.th sawdust, 
TuTwhose e'very tributary resounded to the elaek of the »"-■»■'•.-- 
again run as limpid as ever, and are guiltless of saws, as well as of the 

timber to supply them. . , ■■ . i, :„ 

I contend, therefore, that there is no analogy against, l>«t nmch in 

favor of the possibility of rostoeking the Southern rivers of the Mid- 

die States with Salmon, which should return, and breed in them, year 

'Xriooking to the vast profit directly arising from BJich fisheries 
can I ioubt, particularly when regarding the action of the ^ew York 
Legislature in regard to a fish so comparatively worthless as the Carp, 
that, could such a thing bo effected as the recolonization of our rivers 
with Salmon fry, some action of the legislatures would ensue for their 
protection, until such time as they could be fairly naturalized. 

Whether thh be feasible or not, it is certain, that to every inland 
sprin.-lake, from the western line of Pennsylvania to their easternmos 
and northernmost limits, every variety of Brook Trout and Lake Trout 
can be introduced with ea^e, and at a trivial expense ; nor these only, 
but the true Salmon likewise. And I strongly believe that, when the 
extreme simplieity of the method, and facility of the means, become 
generally known, the true Salmon will be introduced, at least, into 
The lakes of Hamilton County, as well as into many other inland 
waters In fact, running as he docs now into Ontario, there is no 
reason why he should not be safely lodged, beyond the power of re- 
turning, above Niagara, and compelled to fill Erie, Michigan, Huron, 
and Superior with his noble race. 

A few years since, he found his way into Seneca and Cayuga Lakes, 
and If modern improvomcnts-heavens ! how I loathe that word !-- 
have not excluded him, he finds his way there yet, and thence might 



SALMONIDjE. 



73 



be propagated, ad infinitum^ through the whole region of the lesser 

lakes. 

The next point of great value to be attained by the use of experi- 
ments of this nature, is the ascertaining how far fish are capable of 
hybridization ; and possibly the creation of now and interesting varieties, 
besides the elucidation of sundry, now mooted, questions concerning 
the manner in which various species, now distinct, have arisen, and 
whether in truth they are distinct or no. 

Now, it is of course just as easy to commingle, in the manner here- 
tofore described, the melt and roe of two distinct varieties, as of the 
same species ; and the consequences of such an admixture would excita 
the attention of the whole scientific world. 

Anywhere in the northern and north-eastern part of the State of 
New York, anywhere in the northern parts of New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, or Maine, it would bo the easiest thing in the world to procure 
the common Lake Trout, Salmo Confinis, if not alive, at least within 
a few hours after his capture, and the common Brook Trout, dead or 
alive, in any desirable quantities. 

There is little if auy difference in the spawning period of these two 
Sahnonida, so that it would require very little pains or attention to 
procure the males and females undoi the circumstances proper for the 
making of such an exporin'ont, which might b^ performed precisely as 
I have described it above ; trying, in different instances, the males 
and females of the two species alteri-^ely. 

There are thousands and tons of thousands of little tumbling trans- 
parent rills, thrcugliou: that country- — scarcely a farm without a dozen 
such —which have niauorous na,tural basins in their courses, each of 
which, with the aid of a few hours' work employed in raising a timber 
dam, and applying a grate at the entrance and egress of the stream, 
would constitute as perfect a store-pond for the making of such expe- 
riments as could be erected by the wealth of Croesus ; with the advan- 
tage, too, of having the fish requisite for the tests existing, in a state 
of nature, within a few miles, perhaps within a few hundred yards, of 
the scene of action. 

One place already made to hand, requiring no improvement or alte- 
ration, strikes me on the instant ; and one familiar, I doubt not, to 
very many of my readers. I mean Barhydt's Trout-ponds, near 
6 



it q 
I •■\\ 

li 



l-f 






i! 



I'/, 



''i« 



' 








••Tfi'-' 



HI 




I 



74 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



u tv,« Rrook Trout abound, In what perfection 
Saratoga SP™jj'.;k«- * ^e I Lake Trou't could bo obtained, 

'' »^:x;a:r r«iri>:::^-t ,.de . t. oo. . 
ixrt :oi— r;-u..t„u a^o^ wu-,oKtbof,.y.wd 

V tpUn onSoed vessels uatil the yolks of the egg were absorbed 
„u'„ ft "y should be transferred to one or other of the tanks fed by 

'"ir:!™ manner, in »any places, especially in Maine, near the 
west branch of the Ponobseot, where it Sows w,thm a few nules of 
MS Lake, the fonner a favorite spawnin, station of the true 

^a Ion, the latte; abounding in the large Lake Trout we.ghmg some- 
fiJs up to thirty or forty pounds, it might eas.ly be ascertamed 
lefter a hybrid could be obtained between these two fishes ; and 
r perhaps, in a greater degree upon the shores of the great lakes, 
rWbh these Secies are taken, eastward at least of N.agara. 

A similar trial mig'.' >>= made with the ova of the Salmon and of 
the common Trout;" which eould be don, with greater fac ,ty han 
the other, from the fact that the two species are constantly found 
naturally coexistent in the same waters. . , , -j 

Shoufd any of these experiment, result in the production of ybrids, 
another interesting question would arise, as to -'"«'';-.'''« 7';'^*''; 
produced should bo again capable of reproduc.ng their own .pec, s^ 
Luld this be the case, it would go very far toward the breaking up 
the whole theory of distinct species of this family, an F"--mg them 
to be merely accidental varieties, casually produced at 4rs , ..nd hav 
,b"ome in process of generations, capable of '™n-"";"^ f^ 
own peculiar type to their progeny-as is the case c early with the va- 
Llceds of dogs, horses, cattle and other domestic ^^^t^ 
,0 Ion. a, they are preserved unmixed, will produce their like , but 
whieh!if inter-bred with other closoly-kindrod races, will produce a mon- 
jrrel but not a h,hrid-onc, I mean, rtich is capable of reproduction. 



8ALM0NID.E. 



75 



Thus Shetland ponies breeding together will produce Shetland 
pomos ; and blood-horsce of the Arab stock, blood-horses. 

Intermix these, and you shall have a cross-bred offspring ; which is 
not, however, a hybrid, like the produce of a horse and an ass ; for it 
is capable of breeding again, with its own type, or with either of the 
parent races, or with any other pure horse. 

And so of hounds, setters, greyhounds, and all the varieties of 
domestic dogs, so long as they are interbred among themselves ; but 
the moment they are associated witli the wolf, fox, jackal, dingo, or 
any of the congenerous though distinct races, they will breed with them, 
it is true, but the progeny will be truly hybrid and barren. 

If, therefore, it should be proved on experiment, that the various 
distinct species of the Salmonida, as they are now held to be, will, 
when interbred, produce young capable of reproduction, it would go 
very far to establish the fact that the distinctions are not distinctions, 
but merely varieties. 

I must not, however, be understood as saying that the success of 
experiments, and the establishment of such a result as I have supposed, 
would go at all to prove that such intermixture of varieties occurred, or 
such cross-breeds were produced, in a state of nature; far from it. 

We know, that in vegetables, hybrids can be, and are, readily pro- 
duced by artificial means, which will not occur once in a century, per- 
haps never would occur at all, were the plants left to the operation of 
nature. 

Nature abhors monstrosities ; and the proverb that the " cat will 
follow kind" is of older wisdom than Will Shakspearc's. Man's 
freaks have raised mongrels between the lion and the tigress ; nature's, 
so far as we know, or can conjecture, never. And always in a wild 
state a hundred circumstances, such as different size, different habits, 
haunts, associations, and last, not least, fear — one species of the same 
family being habitually the devourer of his relatives — will prevent the 
occurrence of such admixtures between animals. 

It would requii-e many and strong evidences to make me believe 
that the Brook Trout of ordinary dimensions would trust itself wil- 
lingly within such distance of the Salmon, or Lake Trout, as would 
permit their ova to commingle in a single furrow. 

Nor, indeed, do I believe, myself, that the result of suob taperi- 



f Kid 

I 



m 






-1 - 



m 








w 



■it 




76 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



J 1-1 K. success : although 1 gather from a 
xaents as these last-named would bo ^^^"^ ' ^ ^^^ ,^^, ^o 

note of Dr. Bethune., to his ^^^^^es of this faniily were 
am disposed to credit. ^^^ entertainment in the 

That tho.0 which 1 first men ^^^ ^^j,_^^.__^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

to he ^-^'^-^'/^ta^od nd constantly practiced, like many 
r::o:rt.^^o°.t.gott:n,o... .c matter on..solvc. recently 

discovered, hy the ™°^-f j'*;^^ ,^^ „„„.;„„„» to England, by th. 
That Carp were .nt odu ed fio ^^ ,„„„„p,uhed with- 

„„„is, « -f J';^-^ .Vt;;,';: of ;,„ducing or raising the young 
r 'Tbir e ow -'.ly and powerful reopens for belioving 
Zt the Gray tag Va«»s y™«./er, the Charr.Sa « UnlU,i^. 

SS"bc%an CW^,...^^^^^^^^ 

rsclald an Indilnt waters-, sometimes in only one of two 

■itinL rivers whereof that which contains them is apparently 
ncighbormg rivers, wnercoi ^^ ,_.^^ 

the least adapted to then- habits; but always in sucu 
mlv « distinguished monastic institutions on their banks. While 
TgL d was Catholic, great attention was paid to *-—f ^^^ ;'" 
tenL the choicest varieties of fresh-water fish ; an art which has sunk 
rncgl ct, partly owing, doubtless, to the abolition ""f "^'y;- ^'^ 
partin th'e'great facility with which the finest sea-fish are trans- 
ported throughout the country. 

^ If the fish I have last mentioned were so introduced it must have 
,e 1 by some such process as that which I have ^^-e — ; o 
thev are all of so sensitive and delicate a nature, that it is with the 
' i::: difficulty they can be kept alive for an ^^our or ^o a^er 

bein. captured, and that only by a constant change of fiesh spang 
bem. cap , ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^^ impossible 




SALMON I D«. 



77 



that they should have been transported from the continent, after they 

had arrived at maturity. . ^ .v t .1 *i,„ 

Even to this day, in Austria, Illyria, and parts of the Tyrol, the 
c^catest attention is paid t? the nurture of the most delicate fresh- 
water fishes in confined situations ; and Sir Humphrey Davy states m 
his " Salmonia," that, " at Admondt, in Styria, attached to the mag- 
nificent monastery of that name, are abundant ponds and reservoirs for 
every species of fresh-water fish ; and the Charr, Grayling, and 1 rout 
are preserved in different waters-covered, enclosed, and under lock 

and key." 

And now having at length come to the end of this sort of disserta- 
tion on the breeding, growth, and specific generation of the Salmon, 
I shall briefly consider his characteristics, distinguishing marks and 
habits, before passing to his nearest relation, in this country at least, 

the Brook Trout. 

The Salmon, Salmo Salar, of Linnaeus and all authors, is, I have 
observed before, a soft-finned fish of the abdominal division, his ven- 
tral fins being attached to the parietes of the belly. His head is smooth, 
his body scaly. His dorsal fins are two in number, the first supported 
by soft rays, the second adipose or fatty, withi +■ rays ; he has teeth 
on the vomer, both palatine bones, and all the maxillary bones. His 
branchiostegous rays vary in number, generally, from ten^ to twelve, 
but are irregular, and do not always coincide on the two sides of the 
head. The teeth on the vomer rarely exceed two in number, and 
there is frequently but one ; a sign which is thought to distinguish him 
from the Salmon Trout, and other connected species. 

The length of his head, to the whole length of his body, is as one to 
five ; the eye small and nearer to the point of the nose than to the pos- 
terior edge of the gill-covei The pectoral fin is two-thirds the length 
of the head, and has twelve fin-rays. The ventral fin lies in 1 ver^'cal 
line under the middle of the dorsal fin, and has nine rays ; the anal 
fin commences about half-way between the origin of the ventral and 
caudal fins, and has nine rays ; the caudal fin, or tail, has nineteen 
rays ; when the fish is Very young, it is much forked, but as it advances 
in years, the central caudal rays grow up; and it becomes nearly 
square by the end of the fourth year. The first dorsal fin has thirteen 
rays, all of which, with the exception of the two first, are branched. 



1;' " 



■j <i i 



1 ' I'hM 



1 ' 



fc 'III 



.&.i^!-»' V^&feVj*»Si*"«*' " 



11 ; 



If 



i.! 




78 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



The bod, is long, and about equally copveJ abovo and bolow ; th« 
ktcral line dividing the body nearly .HUally, an to a ocr a,n degree, 
parth g the davk hue of the haek, and .ilvory .h.tcness o the belly. 
' The form of the giU-eover., shape, of the fin,, and relative propor- 
tiol of t" whole toh, will bo readily understood by reforenee to the 
Z facing page M, a't the head of this artiele, whioh will g>ve a more 
correct idea than any written description. 

The Salmon is, to all intents, a fish of prey ; and to his end every 
part of his frame is adapted, in the most perfect manner by the master- 
Ca of nature. The elongated form of hi.s body tapering ferward and 
aft with the most gradually ourvated lines, like the entrance and h 
run ef some swift-sailing barque, enables bun to glide tirou^i he 
swift water in which he loves to dwell, displacing its particles with the 
least resistance •, the powerful muscles and strong branched rays of his 
broad and vigorous caudal fin serve as a propeller by which be can 
command an immense degree of momentum and velocity, and ascend 

the sharpest rapids. 

No one who has once felt the arrowy rush of a fifteen-pound Salmon, 
when struck with the barbed steel, will be inclined to undervalue his 
strength, his speed, or his agility ; and the numerous and astonishing 
leaps which he is capable of making, to the height of nuany feet above 
the surface, either in attempting to rid himself of the hook or in sur- 
mounting obstacles to his upward passage, in the shape of dams, flood- 
gates or cataracts, prove the exceeding elasticity, vigor and strength of 

his muscular system. 

The prodicrious power of sinew exhibited in the lythe and springy 
limbs of the quadrupeds of prey of tho feline order, is not superior in 
its degree to that possessed by this, the veritable monarch of fresh- 
water fishes; nor are the curved fangs and retractile talons more 
efficacious instruments to the lion and the tiger for the seizure of their 
victims, than are the five rows of sharp hooked teeth, with which the 
whole mouth of the Salmon is bristled, for the prehension and deten- 
tion of his slippery and active prey. 

Nor is he less bold, fierce, and persevering, than he is well provided 
with the means of pursuit and the instruments of destruction. 

As a proof of the strength and courage of this family, it is recorded 
by Mr. Yarrel, thut a Pike and a Trout, put together in a confined 



SALMONIDiE. 



78 



place, had several battles for a particular ppot, but tlio Trout was 
eventually the master. The comparative size of these fiHh is not men- 
tioned, but of course there was something approaching to an equality, 
as the Pike constantly preys on small Trout. 

It is very certain that, although great havoc is made among Salmon 
by the Seal and the Otter, there is no fresh-- . ter fish which would 
venture on attacking them, not even the Pike, at his largest size. 

The Salmon grows to a very large bulk, though the average run is 
probably from eight to sixteen pounds ; and as is the case with many 
kinds offish, the middle-sized, of twelve or fourteen pounds, are gene- 
rally considered the best in an epicurean point of view, and afford, 
commonly speaking, nearly as much sport when hooked, as the mon- 
sters of the species, 

" The present London season, 1835," says Mr. Yarrel, speaking on 
this point, " has been more than usually remarkable for large Salmon. 
1 have seen ten difieront fish, varying from thirty-eight to forty pounds 
each. A notice appeared in the public papers of one that weighed 
fifty-five pounds. Salmon, however, of much larger size have been 
occasionally taken. Mr. Mudie has recorded one of sixty pounds. 
In a note to the history of the Salmon, in several editions of Walton, 
mention is made of one that weighed seventy pounds ; Pennant has 
noticed one of seventy-four pounds ; the largest known, as far as I am 
aware, came into the possession of Mr. Groves, the fishmonger in 
Bond-street, about the season of 1821. This Salmon, a female, 
weighed eighty-three pounds ; was a short fish for the weight, but of 
very unusual thickness and breadth. When cut up, the flesh was fine 
in color, and proved of excellent quality. 

" The Salmon of the largest size killed by angling, of which I have 
been able to collect particulars, are as follows : In the Thames, Octo- 
ber 3, 1812, at Shepperton Deeps, Mr. G. Marshall, of Brewer-street, 
London, caught and killed a Salmon that weighed twenty-one pounds 
four ounces, with a single gut, without a landing-net." 

Sir Humphrey Davy is recorded as having caught an immense fish, 
weighing about forty-two pounds, immediately above Yair-bridge, and 
captured him after a severe struggle. 

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AMERICAN FISHES. 



Salmon I cvor know takan with a fly, was in Scotland ; it weighed fifty- 
four pounds and a half." 

In this country, except in Canada, where there are many excellent 
and enthusiastic Salmon-fishers, this noble sport is but little followed, 
and there are few records extant of the number or size of fish taken. 

It will be sufficient to observe, however, that in the St. Lawrence 
and its tributaries, especially those great streams coming in from the 
Northward, the Saguenaw particularly, the number and size of the 
Salmon are at least equal to those in the finest English or Scottish 
rivers ; an intimate friend of my own having killed within a few years, 
on the St. Lawrence, near the mouth of the river named above, twenty 
fish in a single day's fishing, one of which weighed above forty pounds, 
while the smallest, if I am, not greatly mistaken, exceeded sixteen. 
This was all done with the fly. 

" It may be stated generally," says Yarrel, " that Salmon pass 
the summer in the sea, or near the mouth of the estuary ; in autumn 
they push up the rivers, diverging to their tributary streams ; in winter 
they inhabit the pure fresh water, and in spring again descend to the 



sea. 



» 



These habits of the fish are unquestionably more or less modified by 
climate and other influences, and it is certain that in America the 
Salmon enter the rivers, and begin to run up thorn in June ; by Sep- 
tember they have arrived at the shallow and gravelly head waters of 
the streams, and are preparing to spawn ; and I presume that as soon 
as that operation is finished they return to the salt-water to recruit, 
and consequently that here they do not pass the winter in fresh-water. 

It has been supposed by many observers, that the Salmon do not go 
very far out to sea, but remain constantly within soundings, and not 
very far distant from their native streams, to which, whenever it is 
practicable, they return ; this is, however, very questionable. 

Many are taken on the British coa.sts, while running along the shore 
in the summer months, and searching for the mouths of the rivers 
which they desire to ascend ; but very few are taken here until they 
have made their way up the estuaries, when they are captured in great 
numbers by means of stake-nets. 

They do not, it is true, invariably return to the streams in which 
they were bred, although they do bo, beyond doubt, in a very great 



6ALM0NIDA. 



81 



majority of instances ; but it would appear from the observations of 
Dr. Heysham and Sir William Jardine, that if they have roved to a 
very groat distance from the estuary of their own stream, they betake 
themselves to the mouth of the first river they reach, if its temperature 
and the condition of its waters suits them. 

Many Tweed Salmon are occasionally taken in the frith of Forth, 
and it is even said that in seasons when the Forth fisheries are unusu- 
ally successful, those of the Tweed are as much the reverse. Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy is of opinion that the taste of the waters of different 
rivers according as they are impregnated with different substances, 
and the effect produced by them on the bronchiae of the fish in the act 
of breathing, are the guides by which Salmon are led back to the streams 
to which they have been accustomed ; and he accounts for their being 
occasionally mistaken, by the fact that such mistakes frequently occur 
durinff great floods, connected with storms, or violent motion in the 
waters near the shore ; by which the components of the waters are 
disturbed, and their flavor consequently altered. In confirmation of 
this view, he relates that he " remembers in this way, owing to a tre- 
mendous flood, catching with the fly a large Salmon which had mista- 
ken his stream, having come into the Bush, near the Giant's Cause- 
way, instead of the Bann. No fish can bo more distinct," he proceeds, 
" in the same species, than the fish of these two rivers, their length to 
their girth being in a ratio of 20 : 9 and 20 : 13." 

I am not, however, inclined to adopt this explanation. For it seems 
to me that in migratory animals of all kinds, and indeed, in some 
instances, in domestic animals likewise, that there is some sort of sixth 
sense, or at least some entirely distinct power, not acquired by means 
of any of the senses of which we are cognizant, nor acting like reason, 
by means of deduction, which enables them to steer their course 
through countless leagues of air or water, or over miles of uncultivated 
land, to the places where they were bred, or to which their instincts 
compel them to resort for the purpose of wintering, obtaining food, or 

the like. 

And I no more believe that Salmon are guided back to their native 
rivers by the flavor of the waters, than I do thixt the swallow, finds 
his way from Africa to Europe, or from Southern to Northern 
America, by the scent of the taintod atmosphere. 



i i 



s : i; 




82 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



I am dispo?ed, therefore, to believe with Yarrel, that this oc- 
casional variation from their ordinary custom, is caused by their 
haviuf^ strayed to such a distance from their native estuaries, that 
when the time comes foi returning, they prefer taking the first suitable 
river, to making longer delay. 

The female fish, it is observed, are the first to enter the rivers, and 
the grilse, or young fish, which have not yet spawned, come in 
earlier than the full-grown Salmon. They swim with great rapidity, 
shoot up the most oblique and glancing rapids, with the velocity of an 
arrow and frequently leap falls of ten or twelve feet in perpendicular 

height. 

It was formerly believed that, in making their prodigious springs, 
the fish takes its tail in its mouth, and shoots itself like a pliant stick, 
the ends of which are forcibly brought together and then allowed to 
spring. This, however, is. a fable ; although, in making these leaps, 
the muscular efforts of the animal do really impart to it a curvilinear 

form. 

It is believed that the utmost limit of perpendicular height which 
they can attain is fourteen feet ; but their perseverance is as remarkable 
as their strength, and though they fail time after time, and fall back 
into the stream below, they remain but a few moments quiescent, to 
recruit their strength, before they renew their efforts ; and they 
generally succeed in the end, although they are said sometimes to kill 
themselves by the violence of their own efforts to ascend, and are 
frequently captured in consequence of falling on the rocks. 

1 once watched a Salmon for above an hour endeavoring to pass a 
mill-dam on the river Wharfe, a Salmon river in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. The dam was of great height, thirteen or fourteen feet 
at least, and was formed with a sort of step midway, on which the 
water fell, making a double cascade. While I was watching him, 
this fish, which was, I suppose, of some seven or eight pounds, made 
above twenty leaps, constantly alighting from his spring about midway 
the upper shoot of the water, and being constantly swept back into 
the eddy at its foot. After a pause of about a couple of minutes, he 
would try it again ; and such was his vigor and endurance, that he at 
last succeeded in surmounting the formidable obstacle ; and to my 



SALMONID^. 



83 



great pleasure — for I had become really interested in his success- 
went on his way rejoicing. 

The voracity of the Salmon is excessive ; and yet from the 
smgular fact, that their stomachs are invariably, or almost invariably, 
found entirely empty, nono of the numerous examiners have been able 
to satisfy themselves what constitutos its principal support. The 
stomach of the Salmon is, comparativsly speaking, small ; and Sir 
Humphrey Davy asserts that, out cf many which he had opened, he 
never found anything in their stomachs, but the tapo-worms bred 
there, and some yellow fluid. This peculiarity must, 1 think, be in a 
great measure attributed to their rapid digestion. In this they differ 
greatly from the Salmon Trout, which is constantly f^\rid stuffad with 
food of all sorts, the remains of small fish, beetles, insects, and the 
sand-hopper, Talitris locusta, which would seem to be their favorite 

food. 

Dr. Knox states, that the food of the Salmon, and that on which 
all its estimable qualities, and in his opinion, its very existence 
depends, and which the fish can only obtain in the ocean, he has 
found to be the ova, or eggs of various kinds of echinodermata, and 
some of the Crustacea. From the richness of the food on which the 
true Salmon solely subsists, arises, at least to a certain cxt nit, the 
excellent quality of the fish as an article of food. Something, 
however, must be ascribed to a specific distinction of the fish itself ; 
for though he has ascertained that th«; Salmon Trout lives in some 
localities on very much the same kind of food as the true Salmon, yet, 
under no circumstances docs this fish ever attain the same exquisite 
flavor as the true Salmon." 

Dr. Fleming states that their favorite food is the sand-eel ; " I 
have myself," says Mr Yarrel, " taken the remains of the sand- 
launce from their stomach." It is known, moreover, that they are 
taken in Scotland by lines baited with this brilliant and glittering 
little fish ; as are tho clean-run fish, fresh from the sea, with the 
common earth-worm. Mr. Yarrel mentions an instance of one being 
taken in the Wye with a minnow, and Sir Humphrey Davy states, 
he has fish-d for them in the Tay with great success, with the Parr, 
probably th-ir own young fry, on spinning tackle. 

For what they mistake the large artificial fly, by which they are so 



1 -'tf 

!: J 1 J 
' ' » i 



84 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




marvellously allured, taking it greedily, at a very short distance from 
the sea, we cannot determine. It is like nothing that has any existence 
in nature ; and some persons have imagined that the Salmon is 
deceived by the gay colors and the ripple of the water, and so takes 
them for small fish. This is not credible, however ; and the most 
plausible suggestion is that of Sir Humphrey Davy, that the fish, on 
their return from salt water, where, of course, they find nothing 
analogous to the natural or artificial fly, are actuated " by a sort of 
imperfect recollection of their early food and habits ; for flies form a 
great part of the food of the Salmon fry, which for a month or two 
after they are hatched, feed like young Trouts — and in March and 
April, the spring flies are their principal nourishment. In going back 
to fresh water, they may perhaps have their habits of feeding 
recalled to them, and naturally search for their food at the surface." 

While I am on this topic, it may not be uninteresting to quote the 
relation of an experiment tried with regard to the effect of various 
kinds of food on the Trout, as it is probable that, in fish so closely 
allied, the facts would not vary much in relation to the. Salmon. 

Mr. Stoddart relates this, in his " Art of Angling as practised in 
Scotland ;" but the experiment was made in the South of England. 
" Fish were placed in three separate tanks ; one which was supplied 
daily with worms, another with live minnows, and the third with those 
small dark-colored water flies, which are to be found moving about 
on the surface, under banks and sheltered places. The Trout fed with 
worms grew slowly, and had a lean appearance. Those nourished 
on minnows, which, it was observed, they darted at with great 
voracity, became much larger ; while such as were fattened upon 
flies only, attained in a small time, prodigious dimensions, weighing 
twice as much as both the others together ; although the quantity of 
food swallowed by them was in no wise so great." 

I may here observe that, from the fact of the Salmon roc, when 
preserved secundum artem, proving a most deadly and infallible bait 
for Salmon — so much so indeed, that the use of it in England is 
regarded as unsportsmanlike, and as an act of poaching — there can 
be little doubt that the ova of fishes of all kinds contribute to their 
food, and add probably to the richness of their flash. 

I have now gone through, I believe, all that is most remarkable and 



SALMON I D£. 



85 



most interesting in relation to tbo natural history, the form, habits, 
food and seasons of this noble fish ; but thoso who wish to study him for 
themselves, and read concerning him more at large than the space, 
which can bo allotted to a single specimen in this volume, will admit, I 
refer to Yarrol's fine work on British Fishes ; to that delightful work 
"Salmonia," by Sir Humphrey Davy ; and to Scrope's superb work, 
entitled, " Days and Nights of Salmon Fishing," which, though I 
have not enjoyed an opportunity of examining it, I understand to be 
both the finest and the most complete treatise on this topic. 

In a future portion of the work, I shall enter at large upon all the 
minutiao of rods, tackle, bait, &c., necessary for the capture of the 
kinc of the fresh-waters ; as well as upon the science of taking him 
with the artificial fly, and all the appliances to that end. Until then, 
adieu to Salmo Salar. 



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AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEKYGII. 



SALMONID^ 




Brook Trovt. virt Youno Frt. 

THE BROOK TROUT. 

THE COMMON TROUT THE TROUTLET.* 

The New York Ciurr; Ricliardson. — Salino Fontinalis; DeKay. 

Like the wild animals of this continent, almost without exception, 
the Trout of America is a distinct species from the fish of Europe ; 
although, as in many other instances, the general resemblance is so 
strong, and the characteristic diflferences so narrow, that in the eyes 
of a common observer, judging from memory only, they appear to be 
identical. 

Many sportsmen, who have been in the habit of killing this beau- 
tiful fish, both in this country and in Europe, are under the 
impression that there is no material difference ; but such is not, in 
truth, the case ; for as with the snipe, the teal, the widgeon, and 
many others of the birds of America, the characteristic marks of 
distinction, though easily overlooked at first, by a person unacquainteo 

* This name is applied to the fish while in the state represented in tho cnt, above, 
by Dr. DeKav. 



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SALMONIDA. 



87 



with them, when once pointed out, cannot be readily mistaken, and, 
bcin" both pcrnianont and invariable, are quite sufficient to establish 
diversity of species. 

It is not in formation, moreover, or appearance only, but in very 
many of its habits, that the Brook Trout, Salmo FontinalU, of Ame- 
rica, differs from his congener, the common Trout, Salmo Fario, 
Europe. 

Still, in general, his manners, his haunts, his prey, and his mode of 
taking it, so closely resemble those of the European Trout, that as a 
general rule, the instructions given for the taking the one will be found 
successful as regards the other ; and the flics, baits, and general style 
of tackle, as well as the science of capturing, with some few excep- 
tions, which will bo noticed hereafter, arc nearly identical, on the 
two sides of the Atlantic. As in Europe, so in America, although 
thore are countless varieties of this most beautiful of fishes, almost 
iudvjed a variety for every stream, still, according to the opinions of 
what I dsem the best authorities, there is but one distinct species. 

Endless attempts have been made in England to distinguish and 
define fresh species ; but these have, in my judgment, all failed. 
According to Mr. Agassiz, whose opinion on this subject I consider 
paramount to all others, the Gillaroo, or Gizzard-trout, as it is some- 
times erroneously called by the Irish, and some of the Scottish writers, 
ib merely a casual variety of the Salmo Forio. The distinction, which 
consists principally in the thickness and induration of the stomach, 
having arisen from feeding on shell-fish, in the first instance, in indi- 
viduals, has been gradually ingrafted on generations, until, in process 
of time, it has become a permanent type. 

Although this variety is not known to exist on this continent, I have 
a very strong suspicion, from many circumstances which I have heard, 
on good authority, concerning the Trout of the Marshpee river, in Maa- 
sachusets, that on examination, it will be found to possess some of the 
leading peculiarities of this fish, particularly the indurated stomach. 
I have never had an opportunity of seeing the Trout of this river ; 
but I know that it has many peculiarities of habit resembling those of 
the Gillaroo, especially that of feeding on shell-fish, a friend of mine 
having actually succeeded in taking them with small white crabs, at a 
time when they would look at no other bait. 





88 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



i 



I xnention this, merely by way of suggestion, as offering an interesting 
subject of investigation for naturalists. , ,u 'A ,^ ^ 

Sir Ihunphrey Davy, in his Sahnonia, rather leans to the idea that 
the Gillaroo is a distinct species, though ho leaves it uncertain whether 
it umy not b. a pern.aneut variety ; his principal argument being 
this that he has caught small fish, not longer than the finger, with a 
fly » which had as perfect a hard stomach as the larger ones, with tho 
coats as thick in proportion, and the same shells within." 

In external appearance, the Gillaroo is said to difter from tho com- 
mon Trout " very little, except that they have more rod spots, and a 
yellow or golden-colored belly and fins, and are generally a broader 
and thicker fish." Again, Sir Humphrey admits that " in a clear and 
cool river, fish that feed much on larva), and swallow the hard cases, 
become yellower, and the red spots increase so as to outnumber tho 
black ones ; and these qualities become fixed in the young fishes, and 
establish a particular variety." ^ 

This would seem, in plain English, to describe the existence of a 
fish in the direct process of change, from the ordinary form of the 
Trout to the Gillaroo, the feeding on the larvoo of winged insects, in 
their hard stony cases, being, as it were, a first step toward becoming 
shell-fish eaters, and the effect being indicated in the gradual change 
of color, though the causes have not been as yet sufficiently powerful 
to produce the induration of the stomach. 

In America, likewise, it has been attempted to draw a distinction; 
and Dr. DeKay, a very accomplished and able icthyologist, although 
perhaps— with all deference be it spoken— rather too much of an in- 
door naturalist, and too much inclined to admit hearsay evidence, has 
designated a species as Salmo Erythrogaster, the Red-bellied Trmt; 
whic°h I confess I do not believe to be even a permanent variety, but 
merely a brilliant specimen of the common Brook Trout, in its highest 
season, taken, probably, from some very bright and sunny water. In 
this view I am fully sustained by Professor Agassiz, who has made 
some very curious experiments with regard to the colors of fishes, of 
the Salmonida especially ; and who has ascertained, beyond a doubt, 
not only that the Trout of different neighboring waters are affected by 
the color and quality of the water, but that the Trout of the same rivei 
vary in color accordingly as they haunt the shady or the sunny side of 



tALMONIDJE. 



the Btr«ftm. For it is a well-known fact, that tho Salmonida^ although 
many of thorn aro migratory at certain seasoua, have their own haunts 
and huntin;; grounds to which tht'y steadily adhere, moving but a short 
distance from on^ spot, in pursuit of their prey, and returning to it 
when satisfied. 

Thus, in a mountain-brook, you shall find, perhaps, that tho pool 
between an uppar and lower fall or rapid is occupied by two fish ; one 
of those will lie at the head, tho other at the tail, of the pool, the more 
powerful fish selecting tho spot which ho chooses, and neither ex- 
changing places, nor hunting far from his habitual haunts. 

In still waters, in like manner, you will find that, day after day, the 
same largo Trout will bo seen under this bank, by that largo stone, or 
in the cavity formed by tho roots of yon a.sh or aider ; and that he will 
not stray to any distance from it, but will seek his prey nearly in the 
same wators, and on tho samo sido of the river, the opposite bank being 
probably held by a rival fish. 

That this will at first be deemed far-fetched and improbable, I think 
likely enough ; but the more we consider it, tho more reasonable shall 
it appear ; for when wo weigh the great influonco of light in the pro- 
duction of colors, and then think how much the transmission of light 
through different media, as, for instance, waters of different degrees of 
density, purity, and color, affects the light itself, we shall find the 
theory far loss extravagant than it strikes us at a first glance. 

And here, I shall quote an anecdote, relatod in Salmonia, for the 
purpose of elucidating an entirely different point, which yet is so much 
to the purpose, in the present instance, that it is even more valuable 
in illustration of this, than of that for which it is quoted. 

" A manufacturer of carmine," thus runs the story, " who was aware 
of tho superiority of the French color, went to Lyons for the purpose 
of improving his process, and bargained with the most celebrated man- 
ufacturer in that capital for the acquisition of his secret, for which he 
was to pay a thousand pounds. He waa shosvn all the processes, and 
saw a beautiful color produced, yet he found not tho least difference in 
the French mode of fabrication and that which he had constantly 
adopted. He appealed to the manufacturer, and insisted that he must 
have concealed something. The manufacturer assured him that he 
had not, and invited him to see the process a second time. He min- 

n 







I«(i 



hi U I 



iAjaMmm nRtu 



90 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



utelv examined the water, and tho materials, winch were the same as 
his own, and„ very much surprised, said, ' I have lost my lahor and 
mv money, for the air of England does not permit us to make good 
carmine ' ' Stay,' says the Frenchman, ' do not deceive yourself ; what 
kind of weather is it now r' ' A bright sunny day,' said the Eng- 
lishman ' And such are the days,' said the Frenchman, on which I 
make my color. Were I to attempt to manufacture it on a dark or 
cloudy day, my results would be the same as yours. Let me advise 
vou my fri.nd, to make your carmine on bright sunny days. ' I will, 
says' the En<41shman, ' but I fear I shall make very little in London.' " 
Now thislnecdote may be depended upon; for a person so distin- 
guished a. a chemist and natural philosopher as Sir Humphrey Davy, 
woul<1 not have related a story in regard to the effect of light, which 
was contrary to truth, or which he did not directly know to be true. 

And if the effect of sunshine is so great on color, as that the m- 
crease or decrease of its brilliancy should cause a totally different 
result to follow from the combination of precisely the same chemical 
in.rredients, it will readily follow that much more effect will be pro- 
duced by its excess in one case, or almost total exclusion in another, 
upon hues so changeful as those which glitter on the scales of a fish. 

That in a pure limpid rapid stream, rushing over a bright gravelly 
bed, through open fields, where no envioas boughs intercept the sun- 
light, and b a dark turbid pond, the waters of which are saturated 
with the draining of peat-bogs, or with the juices of decomposed vege- 
table matter, and overshadowed by thick evergreen umbrage, the light 
even of the most gorgeous noon will be transmitted in very different 
degrees, and produce very different effects both of color, boat and 
radiance, any person can judge, who will observe the sunbeams as they 
fall through a sheet of pure plate-glass, or a thick green bull's-eye ; 
and that the consequences may easily be as they arc stated above, he 
will, I think, be satisfied. 

Now, in the first place, analogous to this, and in corroboration of 
this view of the subjeci, I will remark here, that one of the principal 
external differences between the American and the liluropean Trout, 
IB precisely as might be expected under the views taken above. The 
climate here being far more sunny, the atmosphere drier and more 
* „^f ^^A tha wpnflipr morfi constant and liahtsorae, we find that 



8ALM0NIDJE. 



91 



the Trout of America is a lighter colored, brighter, gayer, and more 
gorgeous creature than his European kinsman. And, farther yet, we 
shall find that in the purest and most limpid streams, in the lakes which 
to the most transparent waters add the sunniest expanse, the brightest 
and most beautiful Trout are taken ; while in black boggy waters, or 
in forest-embowered rivers, the colois of the fish are rather dim and 
dusky. 

This is not, however, merely a matter of theory and analogy, for 
experiments have been actually tried on this point, and with perfect 
success. Mr. Agassiz assures me that he lias repeatedly known very 
brilliant and gaily-colored fish, taken in clear and sunshiny waters, and 
transferred to neighboring pools or streams of totally different charac- 
ter, to begin to fade and lose the intensity of their colors, Bonsibly, 
within a very few hours, and after a few days or weeks, to be entirely 
undistiuguishable from the native fish of the place. 

This accounts, at once, for the facts so often stated, and seemingly 
so inexplicable, of two lakes communicating with each other by a com- 
mon channel, and containing two distinct varieties of Trout, one beau- 
tiful, and excellent upon the table, the other dark-colored and ill-tasted, 
the two varieties never bjingknown to intermingle, or to exchange from 
one to the other water. 

The explanation of this apparent phenomenon is, that the change pro- 
duced by passing from the dark and peat-soiled waters of the one lake, 
to the limpid element of the other, in the fish, is so rapid, that they 
assimilate themselves almost instantaneously, in outward appearance, 
to the fish into whose society they have emigrated. 

The lakelet, known as Stump-pond, on the northern side of Long 
Island, which, as its name indicates, is filled with thebuttsof dead trees, 
and saturatod with vegetable matter, has been for many years famous, 
or I should rather say infamous, for the ugliness, want of brilliancy, 
and indifferent quality in a culinary point of view, of its Trout, as com- 
pared with those of the bright and transparent mill-ponds and rivulets 
of the south side. No one, however, has ever thought of erecting them 
into a species, or of designating them as Salmo Stiimppondicus, seeing 
clearly the cause and effect ; and lo ! now of late years, as the cause 
is passing away with the process of time, the effect is also disappearing ; 
fts the vegetable matter is dsoavino' bnin" absorbed, and swe^t awa^- 



-t^ 



92 



AMERICAN FISHES 



and as the purifying influences of the springs are gaining upon the cor- 
rupt and stagnant qualities of the pond, the fishes are likewise becoming 
brighter and°better. In the course of a few more years, it is probable 
that they will be scarcely distinguishable from the finely-formed and 
nely-colored fish of Snedecor's or Carman's streams, at Islip and Fire- 
place. 

Doubtless, other causes besides the influence of light, have their 
effect both upon the app trance and the flavor of the Trout ; we have 
seen that their color b affected by the shell-fish, or even the larvos of 
flies, on which they feed ; we have also seen that they increase in 
weight, size, and fatness, according as they are nourished with worms, 
with small fry, or with water-flies ; and no one in bis senses can doubt, 
I imat^ine, that if these fish which have obtained scarlet spots, and 
becum°e golden-finned and golden-bellied by feeding on shell-fish, or 
crustaceous-cased insects, were confined upon a regimen of dew-worms 
or May-flios, they would gradually relapse into their original coloring. 

Nor can it be supposed, I think, judging from all analogy, but that 
the Gillaroo Trout, kept permanently in situations where it could never 
find either shell-fish, or any hard edible substances, would gradually 
lose the distinctive hardness of its stomach, as well as its characteristic 
coloring. The probability is, that the young fry of a finger's length, 
spoken of by Sir Humphrey, would lose the distinction individually; 
and I do not at all conceive it likely that the characteristic would sur- 
vive through two generations from the largest adult. 

While I am writing on this point. I will cite a fact, though it belongs 
with greater propriety to the history of another fish, the Greatest Lake 
Trout, Sidmo Amethystus, when describing which, it will be noticed 
more fully. This is simply that in the same lakes, Huron and Superior, 
this same fish exists in three different states of color, so totally dissimilar, 
that it is supposed by the French inhabitants of the shores, to be three 
distinct fishes, and is known by three distinct names, according to the 
situations in which it is found, and by which its coloring is evidently 
afl*;cted. 

Drawings of the fish in two of these stages are now lying before me, 
and will bo presented to ray readers under the proper head ; bore, it 
will be sufficient to state that, but for the shape of the head and gill- 
covers, the form of the Sn§ and the number of th« fin-rays, things not 



SALMONID^. 



93 



examined by the superficial observer, they would pass for different fish. 
These three varieties are known as the T'ruite de GrevCj Truite des 
Battures, and Truite du Large ; or, Trout of the muddy bottom, Trout 
of the rocky shores, and Trout of the open waters ; the first being a 
dull mud-colored fish, the second bright and handsomely mottled, and 
the last bluish and silvery, and resembling more a clean-run Salmon 
than a Lake Trout. 

This is so fairly a case in point, that I cannot resist quoting it here, 
as it is perfectly evident that there is no real distinction whatever; and 
if this be so of one variety or species, there is no reason for doubting 
that like causes will produce like effects, in the congenerous species. 
Again, it is not only possible, but in the highest degree probable, that 
the different chemical substances which arc held in solution by the 
waters of various streams and lakes, may not be without their influence 
on the coloring of their inhabitants. I think I have myself observed, 
both on this continent and in Europe, that the Trout in streams flow- 
ing from lime-stone formations are more lustrous, and more strongly 
spotted than those of duller and less lively waters. 

That the fish of streams rushing rapidly over pebbly beds, arc supe- 
rior in all respects, both of appearance and quality, to those of ponds 
or semi-stagnant brooks, is confessedly notorious ; but this may arise 
not so much from any particular components of the waters themselves, 
as from the fact that rapidly-moving and falling water is more highly 
afirated, the atmosphere being more freely intermingled <vith it, and 
therefore more conducive to the health and condition of all that in- 
habit it. 

Independently of DeKay's Salmo Erythrogaster^ I find mention 
made in the " American Angler's Guide," of the Silver Trout, the 
Common Trout, the Common Trout of Massachusetts, the Black Trout, 
the Sea Trout, and the Hucho Trout, although to none of these except 
the last, is any scientific name attached. 

I beg, however, to assure my readers, that there are no such distinc- 
tions existing in nature. The Silver Trout, which is stated to be found 
in almost all of our clear, swift-running tr-ir^hern streams, and to weigh 
from one to fifteen pounds, is in no respect a different fish from the 
common Trout of Long Island ; nor does that fish differ in any, the 



. -'V 



?1 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




i 



smallest particular from the Trout of Massachusetts, or of any other 
place in'the United States, where the Trout exists at all 

I wish greatly, that the author of the " American Anger's Guide " 
had len some authority for his statement, that this fish is taken m 
tht Lntry up to fifteen pounds, or even up to half that weight 1 
have myself some slight suspicion that such is the case rarely, in the 
northern lakes-I do not mean the great lakes-of New York and 
New England ; and that it is there mistaken for some new species, or 
Tvlriet; of the Lake Trout, from which it differs far more, m all 
respects, than it docs from the true Salmon. ^ ^. . „ . 

Thavl, however, never been able to gain any authentic information 
of any true Brook Trout having over been taken in Canada, or m the 
United States, above the weight of ten pounds ; and that size is of so 
rare occurrence, that when one is taken, it is regarded as a monster, 
and is heralded from one end of the country to the other, through the 
public press. I have myself seen a Trout, taken in the winter through 
the ice'in Orange county. New York, which lacked but a ew ounces 
of six pounds. I know several instances, not exceeding half-a-dozen, 
of fish varying from four to five pounds, taken, some on Long Island, 
some in the interior, within twelve or thirteen years, but I have never 
heard it asserted that a fish of larger size has been taken m America. 

There is, I am ararc, a tale that many years since, a Trout of eleven 
pounds was taken at Fireplace ; and a rough sketch of the fish is still 
to be seen on the wall of the tavern bar-room. I know, however, that 
this fish was considered at the time, by all the true sportsmen who saw 
it to be a Salmon, and the sketch is said to bear out that opinion, 
though I do not mysolf understand how a mere outline, not filled up, 
can c jnvey any very distinct idea of the species intended. 

Sufiice it, that it is not only not on record that any Trout of seven 
pounds or upward has been captured on this continent, but that old 
fishermen will assert positively, that they never grow to be above five 
pounds in weight; and very coolly and civilly imply to you that you 
are speaking falsely, when you tell them that Trout from ten to twenty 
pounds are no great rarities in England, and that they are taken even 
of a much greater weight. The fact, on this point, is,,that Trout of 
ten or even fifteen pounds— 1 mean the common speckled Trout, 
Salmo Fario, analogous to our Brook Trout— are more common in 



SALMONIDA. 



90 



some of the ? rgc rivers of England, and large lakes of Ireland, than 
fish of four pounds are here. There probably rarely passes a season 
ia which ten or a dozen of these large fish, exceeding ten pounds' 
wei'^ht, are not taken in the Thames. I do not think that here, on an 
average, one four-pound fish is killed annually ; and then: rarity is 
abundantly proved by the fact that their capture is always recorded. 

The Bashe's Kill, in Sullivan county, to which the Silver Trout is 
assigned, is a pretty Trout stream, but in no wise superior Ui a thou- 
sand others throughout the country ; and, like all mountainous streams, 
is far more celebrated for the number, than for the size of its fish. 

In both respects, it is surpassed by many of the Pennsylvanian 
streams of the same neighborhood, falling into the Delaware from the 
westward ; and in the size and excellence of its Trout, it cannot sus- 
tain a moment's comparison with the fish of the Long Island streams 
on the south side. Its fish, it is needless to add, are in no wise dis- 
tinct. 

The Trout of Massachusetts are identical with the common Trout 
of New York ; the figure at the head of this article is from a specimen 
taken in Massachusetts. I have caught Brook Trout myself from 
Maine to Pennsylvania, and can safely pronounce on their identity. 
The Black Trout is merely an accidental variety ; the colors, taste, 
and habits of which arc affected by the peaty waters, and stagnant flow 
of the lazy streams in which it is found, and from which it obtains a 
corresponding dinginess of hue, muddiness of flavor, and laziness of 
character. 

With regard to the Sea Trout, as it is here called, I shall quote a 
few paragraphs from the pages of " Smith's Fishes of Massachu- 
setts, " although I cannot say that I e-;t am it a work on which 
much reliance can be placed, as the ox^ih" r>v^ears, from some of his 
statements, to be a writer of more rasht nan discrimination, and 
more ready than qualified to give his opinion decidedly, and without 

appeal. 

These qualities are rcidcred sufiiciently apparent by his indulging in 
a violent tirade against Dr. Mitchil, of New York, whom he accuses 
of vanity and presumption, in affixing his own name to the Striped 
Baas, which he. Smith, asserts to be " a common table Jish, known from 



iiifl 



C vmmzinvt tu 



I all over E"-! rojie. 



» 



ii 



i '' 



96 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



It is I presume, at this day entirely unnecessary to state, that Dr. 
Mitohil was perfectly right as to the distinct character of the American 
fish and its being utterly unknown, and non-existent in Europe ; and 
Smith is wrong in every possible particular ; the fish to which ho 
refers it, the Sea Bass of Europe, Labrax Lupus of Cuvier, Perca 
Lahrax of Linnseus, being altogether a different fish, though of the 
same family, perfectly distinct both in habits and appearance. 

Of the Sea Trout, Smith says:— 

" They are found, as may be inferred from the name, in the salt and 
bracl'.ish waters of tide rivers nnd inland bays, in various parts of this 
and the adjoining States. When taken from the salt-water early in 
spring, they are in high perfection, and nothir.g can exceed their pis- 
catory symmetry. The general appearance of the skin is of silvery 
brightness, the back being of a greenish and mackerel complexion ; 
the spots of a vermillion color, mixed with others of faint yellow, and 
sometimes slightly tinged with purple, extend the whole length on 
either side of the lateral line ; the fins are light in color and firm in 
texture, and, together with the tail, are rather shorter and more 
rounded than the common Trout. They have a firm compactness of 
form from head to tail, which accounts for the superior sprightlincss of 
their movement ; the head and mouth are very small, and the latter 
never black inside, like the common or fresh-water Trout; the flesh 
is even redder, or rather, wo would say, more pink-colored than the 
Salmon, to which, by many, they are preferred as a delicacy, having, 
like the Salmon, much of what is called curd, or fat between the flakes. 

" A fish of a pound weight measures about eleven inches in length. 
Their average size is considerably larger than the fresh-water, or Brook 
Trout — having been taken in the waters to which we refer — VVaquoit 
bay, upon Cape Cod, and Fireplace, Long Island — of nearly five 
pounds' weight ; such instances, however, are rare, three pounds being 
considered a very large fish. We do not remember ever seeing a poor 
fish of this kind taken. They are invariably in good condition, let the 
size be what it may," &xj., &c. 

I have quoted this passage, merely for the purpose of warning my 
readers, in a few words, that there is no such thing; and that the 
whole of the above refers merely to the Brook Trout. 

All the varieties and species of Salmonida^ with the exception of 



SALMONIDiB. 



97 



Bomo of the large lacustrine species, are migratory whenever it is in 
their power to bo so ; and run down to the sea, annually, for the 
purpose of recruiting themselves after spawning, whence they return, 
like the Salmon and Salmon Trout, in excellent condition, perfect 
symmetry, and in the highest stage of external beauty. 

The non-migratory habit of the large lacustrine species does not 
depend, in any degree, on their position or situation above impassable 
cataracts, or in waters without outlets, although they are frequently 
found under such circumstances, for they do not run down to the sea, 
even when they have it iu their power to do so ; as, for instance, in 
Lake Ontario, where they are found abundantly; nor, on the othur 
hand, do they proceed far up the rivers, for the purpose of spawning, 
being content to deposit their ova on the gravel beds of shoal water, 
at the margins of their lakes, or at the mouths of the brooks which 
discharge into them. 

Of the migratory species, the Brook Trout is one ; and when it is 
in his power, he invariably descends to the sea, and returns to perpetu- 
ate his species by depositing his spawn in the clearest, coolest, and 
most limpid waters which he can find. There can be, I think, little 
doubt that, like the Salmon, he returns to the streams in which he has 
been bred. 

There are, doubtless, hundreds of mountain brooks throughout th« 
country, divided by impracticable falls, natural or artificial, from the 
sea ; and although these teem with hordes of Brook Trout, they never 
attain, in them, to any size ; the mature adults being scarcely larger 
than the young fiy, while they are still marked with the transverse 
bandings of the Parr. The flesh of this little fish never attains the 
rich cherry-colored tint of the Trout, in full season, but is of a pale 
yellowish flesh-color, and has neither the richness nor the flavor of the 
sea-run variety. That these swarms do not visit, the sea, is not be- 
cause thoy lack the will, but because they have not the power ; and 
it is possible that the habit of running seaward being precluded gene-' 
ration after generation, the instinctive desire for it passes away in the 
process of time. But that the degeneracy, both in size and flavor, 
is caused by the inability to recruit their powers in the salt-water, is 
rendered evident by the facts I have already quoted concerning the 
fallinsr off of Salmon and S.almnn Trniit. hnt\\ >n S'ze a"d aT>nf»nr'>P'"^ 



t * 



98 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




when intentionally confined in frosh-wator lakes; as well as by tho 
enormous rapidity of growth manifested in the Salmon smolts, which, 
having been a year and a half in fresh water, attaining a length of 
seven or eight inches, and a weight of about so many ounces, after a 
visit of a few months to the sea, return not only reinvigoratcd in con- 
dition, but increased in bulk to seven or eight pounds weight. 

This accounts very readily for the superior size of what Mr. Smith 
designates as a distinct species of Sea Trout, which is, in reality, only 
the Brook Trout on his return from the sea. The circumstances of 
its condition speak for themselves. 

Who ever saw a Salmon fresh-run from the sea, of whatever size or 
awe otherwise than in excellent condition and of rare beauty ? Who 
ever took a spent fish, of the same species, that was not ugly, lean, 
discolored and uneatable ? 

The silvery whiteness and the bluish back of the Sea Trout, as 
described above, is peculiar to all fresh-run fish of this family ; and in 
Scotland a skilful Salmon-fisher will tell you, at a glance, how many 
tides a fish has been in the river, merely from seeing him leap at a fly 

or a minnow. 

All the other marks, cited by Smith as characteristics, are merely 
signs of condition, as the brilliancy of the coloring, the breadth and 
thickness of the fish, and the comparative smallnoss of the head, which 
is produced by no alteration whatever of that portion of the body, but 
by the increase and development of the body itself, which at this sea- 
son and stage of the animal, is equal in its circumference to one-half 
its length. 

It is well known and undisputed in Long Island, that the Pond-fish 
and Creek-fish, as they are termed, pass to and fro between the fresh 
and the salt-water ; and although the Creek-fish are occasionally there 
called Sea Trout, it is by no means as implying that they are of a 
different species, but merely indicating the watar in which they are 
taken. 

The fish to which I referred above in my introductory remarks on 
the Salmonid(B, as being perhaps a distinct kind, analogous to the 
SalTjw TruUa of Linnaeus, is by no means this Trout, but a very differ- 
ent animal, found only in the eastern and north-eastern rivers, which 
empty their waters into the Bay of Fundy or the Gulf of St. Law- 



8ALM0NID*. 



99 



renoe. This Trout is found only in these rivers, and so far as I can 
learn, instead of running up to the head waters of the streams in 
order to spawn, comes up only to the foot of the first rapids with the 
flood, and returns with the tide of ebb. Even about this Trout I have 
my doubts, though before finishing this work, I hope to have more 
definite information on the subject. 

With regard to the fish mentioned above, I have no doubts whatever. 
It varies in nothing from the common Trout but in those particulars, 
which prove that it has run to the salt-water. 

The last-named variety, Salmo Hucho, which is also cited, on the 
authority of Smith, as a fish of New England, stands in the same 
category with the last-mentioned. 

There is no such fish on the continent of America ; and, indeed, 
even on the European continent, where alone it is found, its limits are 
narrower, and its geographical range smaller, than that of any known 
fish. It Is, in fact, found only in tributaries of the Danube, more 
especially in the Traun, the Saave, the Draave, and the Laybach 
rivers. Some writers have supposed him to be purely a fresh-water 
fish, but it is believed by Davy, that, in his largest state, he is an in- 
habitant of the Black Sea. He is said to spawn in the Muir between 
March and May, and in the Danube in Juno. 

He is the fiercest and most predatory of all the Salmonida, and it 
is useless to attempt the capture of large onos with the fly. Spinning 
tackle, the bleak, the minnow, and small trout, or parr, are the only 
modes, and the only bait which ho cares to take. 

In shape, he resembles an ill-fed Trout, being the longest and 
slenderest of all the Snlmmidte., the ratio of his length toliis girth 
being as 18 to 8, or in well-fed fish, 20 to 9. He has a silvery belly, 
and dark spots only on the back and sides, which, in itself, shows suffi- 
ciently that he is not the fish described by Smith under this name. 

Smith's fish is described " as resembling much the Sea Trout ; but 
being found, on a careful examination, to be more slender, and to 
have a greater number of red spots. The back ' ^usky ; the ventral 
fin has a yellowish tinge ; all the othors are of a palish purple ; the 
tail is forked, and the fish measures sometimes four feet through— or- 
dinarily they are only about two, and are caught by the liook° This 
Trout certainly exists in the large rivM-s and ponds in the interior, but 



100 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



deteriorate in size. They are brouglit from New Hampshire in the 
winter, frozen, for the markets, and from the northern parts of Maine, 
where specimens have been taken as large as any produced in the 
great rivers of Europe." 

This passage I quote from the " American Angler's Guide," and 1 
do so, to declare that this fish is, in the first instance, not the Hucho ; 
and, secondly, to point out that no such fish has ever been authenti- 
cally produced at all. A Hucho of the Laybach, of two feet ir 
length, by eleven inches girth, and throe inches thickness, was found 
to weigh four pounds two and a half ounces. Now, fishes increase in 
weight in the ratio of their breadth and depth, not of their length, a 
Trout of thirty-one inches weighing seventeen pounds. Whether any 
Trout or Salmon has ever been taken of full four foot in lenolh I 
greatly doubt. If so, its weight must be enormous ; the largest Salmon 
ever known, the eighty-three pounder, which came into the possession 
of Mr. Groves, the London fishmonger, in 1821, is described as having 
been a short fish for tho weight, and I am convinced would not have 
measured four feet. 

Now it remains to inquire what is this fish which Mr. Smith desig- 
nates as the Hucho ; and is there any such fish in existence elsewhere 
than in that gentleman's imagination ? 

Now I fear the answers to these questions must be in the negative, 
since, most assuredly, there is no scarlet-spotted Trout on record at 
all approaching to the size described by Mr. Smith, which we must 
reckon at the rate of from seventy to one hundred pounds weight. 

The Salmo Amethystus, Mackinaw Salmon, which does grow to 
that prodigious size, and which answers to many of the particulars 
specified, is never scarlet-spotted, nor does the Sahno Conjinis of Dr. 
Dekay ever show a red spot. 

One or both these fish do exist in the lakes of Maine and New 
Hampshire, from Temiscouata to VVinnepisiogee, and it may be that 
this is a mis-description of one of these. If it be not, it is either a 
new and nondescript fish, of the kind mentioned as killed by the Pre- 
sident of the Piseco Club, " with red flesh, weighing twenty-four 
pounds," or it is a very large specimen of the Brook Trout, and, 
moreover, wonderfully exaggerated in dimensions. 
It is a remarkable peculiarity of the American Trout, that it is 



HALMONIUA. 



101 



seldom found— except when, as a very rare exception, one is taken in 
tho drawing the scan — in any largo rivers. I have never heard a soli- 
tary instance of a fish being taken either with the bait or the fly, or 
even with the spinning tackle, in any large stream, unless quite at its 
head waters, where it is itot large. All the Trout which are taken, 
are taken in what are here called creeks, and what would in Europo 
be described as largo brooks, or small rivers of the sixth or seventh 
class. In these the run of fish greatly exceeds the dimensions of the 
little inhabitants of the mountain brooks. This, in addition to other 
facts, at the knowledge of which we have arrived through the experi- 
ments recorded heretofore as made in England with regard to the 
growth of fishes, lead us irresistibly to the conclusion that the use of 
large expanses of suitable water is necessary to the Trout, in order to 
their arriving at any great magnitude. 

It is, therefore, quite within the range of possibility, that in the 
large pure inland lakes, supplied by the limpid springs of the moun- 
tains, the Brook Trout of America may attain a growth analogous to 
that of the well-fed and full-grown Trout of the Thames, the Stour, 
and the Irish lakes ; a growth which the smallness of the streams 
which they do frequent, and their inexplicable avoidance of the large 
and navigable rivers, prevent them from acquiring elsewhere. 

I cannot say that I shall be at all surprised should it turn out, on 
investigation, that the Brook Trout, Salmo Fontinalis, is indeed occa- 
sionally taken up to the weight of twenty or twenty-five pounds, espe- 
cially in the waters of Hamilton County, and is now confounded, on 
account of its size, with the great Lake Trout — not equal to it, 
whether as a fish of game or a table fish — of the same waters. 

The Brook Trout proper of America is one of the most beautiful 
creatures in form, color, and motion, that can be imagined. 

He is slenderly and gracefully formed, though rather deeper in 
proportion to his length than the Salmon, and far more so than the 
Lake Trout. 

In a well-grown and well-fed fish, the length of the head to the 
whole body is about as one to five ; and the length of the whole body 
to the breadth, at the origin of the first dorsal fin, as four and a half 
to one A line drawn from the front teeth to the posterior curve of 
the gill-cover, which is nearly semicircular, is nearly parallel to the 



102 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



lateral lino, and will divide tho body into two nearly equal parts, tho 
oonvexity of tho back and bolly being also nearly equal. The oeutro 
of tho dorsal fin is as nearly as pos.siblo in tho centre of tho length of 
tho body ; and the second dorsal fin is equidistant from tho posterior 
extremity of tho dorsal, and that of the caudal fin. Tho origin of 
tho ventral fin is vertically under tho origin of tho dorsal ; and tho 
origin of tho anal equidistant from tho termination of tho ventral and 
tho origin of the caudal fin. Tho pectoral fin id about two-thirds tho 
length of the head. 

The pectoral fin has eleven rays, tho first dorsal eleven, tho ven- 
tral eight, tho anal fifteen, the caudal nineteen. The second dorsal 
rayless and adipose. 

The head is smooth ; tho body covered with small and delicate 
scales. Teeth on tho vomer, tho palatine bones, and all tho maxillary 
bones. The head and upp.n- part of the back are beautifully mottled, 
like tortoiso-shell, with brownish green and yellow spots ; the gill- 
covers silvery, with yellowish and pink glazings ; the sides, about tho 
lateral line, lustrous metallic bluish gray, with large yellow spots more 
brilliant than on the back. A double row of vivid vermillion specks 
irregular in number, along tho lateral lino, above and below it. The 
sides and upper portion of tho belly glazed with bright carmine ; the 
belly silvery white ; the pectoral fins reddish yellow, with a dusky 
anterior margin ; the ventral fins tho same, with the margin blacker 
and more definite ; tho anal fin red, with a broad white anterior mar- 
gin, and a black lunated streak between the white and red ; tho caudal 
fin purplish brown ; the first dorsal golden yellow, barred and spotted 
irregularly ^vith jet-black ; the second dorsal similar to ; back. 

Such, briefly, are the characteriatj, s and general appeu. ance of this 
beautiful and interesting fish, whloii! a every part of tho world where 
angling is resorted to as a sport, and not merely as a mode of obtain- 
ing subsistence, is the great object of the scientific fisherman's pursuit. 
There is no sportsman, who is actuated by the true animus of the 
pursuit, who would not prefer basketing a few brace of good Trout, to 
taking a cart-load of the coarser and less game denizens of tho 
waters ; nor, whether we consider hb wariness, his timidity, his ex- 
treme cunning, the impossibility of taking him in fine and much-fished 
waters, except with the slenderest and most delicate tackle ; his bold- 



MALMONIDifi. 



ion 



noss and vigor uftcr being h.)u!;uil, or hi.s cxcullcncc on the tabic, sltall 
wo won^lor at tho ju(lgnicnt, much lens dispute it, which, next to tho 
Sulmoii only, rates him the Hrst of frosh-wuter li.shos. Tlio pursuit of 
him leads Uo into the lovelicat scenery of the land; tlic season at 
vliii'h we fish for him is the most delicious, those sweetest months of 
spring — when they are not, as at present, the coldest and most odioi s 
of the year — the very name and mention of which is redolent of the 
breath of flowers, the violet, the cowslip, and the celandine, which 
plunge us into a paradise founded upon the rural imaginings of the 
most cxquiaito of England's rural bards, until wo arc recalled from 
our elysium by a piercing gale from the north-cast, and perhaps a 
pelting hail-storm, bidding us crush our wandering fancies, ajid teach- 
ing us that spring-time is one of those pleasant things which occura 
twice perhaps in a lifetime in the United States of x\merica. 

The habits of the Trout have been already discussed so fully in the 
earlier part of this article, as well as tiio nature of his food, that I 
shall defer further mention of these topics, until I come, in the second 
part of this volume, to tho taking of him with the natural or artificial 
bait, which is most intimately connected with the consideration of his 
prey and his haunts, so that in that place these will be most suitably 
discussed. 

Note to Reviseo Edition. — For some further particulars as to tho size of the 
Brook Trout see Supplement. 4rt. Brook Trout, Salrno Jibnlinalis 



■ I 










■■'#' '^ 



104 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGIL 



BALMONID^. 





»/ ITT. TtUITI D« OREVK 



THE GREATEST LAKE TROUT. 

MACKINAW SALMON NAMAYCUSH SALMON TROUT. 

Salmo Amethyatus ! Mitchil, DeKay.—Salmo Namaycusk ; Peuiiant, Richardson. 

This noble and gigantic species, which equals, or even exceeds, in 
size, the true Salmon, Salmo Salar, and is by far the largest of all the 
lacustrine or non-raigratory Salmonidce^ is found in all the great lakes 
to the northward and westward of Lake Erie, to the Fur countries and 
the Arctic region. It is not found in any tidal rivers, and never visits 
the sea. TheFallsof Niagara present an insuperable obstacle to its 
descent into Lake Ontario; but wliother it exists in any of the smaller 
lakes of New York, or the eastern waters of New England, does not 
as yet appear to be fully ascertained. It has been taken by the com- 
panions of Dr. Richardson and Sir John Franklin, in Winter lake, 
lat. 64^° N. ; but I cannot learn that it has been discovered in any of 
the waters which discharge thomsclves southward by the Mississippi 
or the Missouri. I doubt not at all that it exists in the waters of the 
Great Basin and the Columbia, and that it is one of the fish mentioned 
by Col. Fremont, as taken in them, during his explorations. The name 



SALMONIDA. 



105 



of Mackinaw Salmon, by which it is commonly known, is therefore a 
misnomer, since it is no more peculiar to the straits of Michilimackinac 
than to any other locality between the Falls of Niagara and the Arctic 
ocean. The term Namaycush, which Pennant adopted, and Dr. Rich- 
ardson has retdined, both as its English name and its scientific distinc- 
tion, is no more than its denomination by the Cree Indians, who term it 
Nammecoos, and 1 confess I think it in both respects preferable to any 
other ; for Dr. Mitchil's scientific name Amethysfus, which he gave it 
in consequence of a faint purplish tinge perceptible on the teeth, gums, 
and roof of the mouth, is founded on a peculiarity so slight — I speak 
on the authority of Prof. Agassiz — as in many specimens to be scarcely 
distinguishable ; while it has no name in the English language defining 
it from the Siskawitz, inhabiting the same waters, or from the common 
Lake Trout, Salmo ConJiniSj of the New York and New England 
lakes. 

It is a remarkable fact, that at least one-half of our inland or fresh- 
water fishes have no correct English names, no names at all in fact, 
but such arbitrary and erroneous terms as were applied to them igno- 
rantly, by the first English settlers in the districts in which they are 
found, and have been adhered to since for lack not of better, but of 
any real names. Thus the peculiar fish of Lake Otsego, though fully 
ascertained to be, and scientifically distinguished as, one of the family 
Sahnonida:, and defined as Coregonus Otsego, has, to this day, no other 
appellation in the vernacular than the absurd misnomer of Otsego 
Bass, to which species it has no relation whatsoever. The same is the 
case with the fish called " TVoit/," by the inhabitants of Carolina and 
the neighboring States, which is mentioned as the " White Salmon," 
by Smith, in his history of Virginia ; and which is said to abound in 
the rivers of Pennsylvania. This is, I doubt not, the fish alluded to by 
a recent writer in the " Spirit of the Times," as the Susquehanna 
Salmon, unless perchance another nameless fish, the Perca Lueioperca,j 
is intended. The southern Trout is of the Pearch family — nothing 
more remote from Trout — though in form it has some resemblance to 
the Sahnonidc. It is the Gristes Salmo'ides of Cuvier, the Labre 
Salmoide of Lac«^p^de, both terms indicating its family as of the 
Pearc'i or Bass, and its similarity to the Salmons ; but it has no 
i-QgiiSu name at all, unless wc adopt the vulgarism of calling it a 
8 



5, j 









T? 



I A^ 




?ir-,.f lir 



106 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Trout, which is no less absurd than it would be to call a Pickerel, 

Salmon. 

These prevalent misnomers, and this total absence of real and ra- 
tional names, are of great disadvantage, creating excessive confusion, 
and puzzling all, except the scientific naturalist. It is much to be 
regretted that the Indian terms have not always been sustained ; for 
when interpreted, they are almost invariably found to be truly dis- 
tinctive ; and it is greatly to be desired that on the discovery of new 
genera, or varieties, this system of nomenclature may be adopted, as it 
has been by Prof. Agassiz with regard to the Siskawitz, a new lacus- 
trine Trout, discovered by him during the past summer in the great 
waters of Huron and Superior. 

With regard to those misnamed long ago, the misnomers of which 
have become familiar, and as it were stereotyped by the lapse of time, 
it is difficult to say what is to be done, or how the evil is to be reme- 
died ; and it is to be feared that the Coregonus of Otsego will remain 
the Otsego Bass for ever ; since [although nothing is easier than to 
explain, and even to prove, that the fish is in no respect a Bass] when 
he who has been accustomed so to call it, but who is open to convic- 
tion, enquires if I must not call him Bass, what is his name ? there is 
no answer to the question, but that he is a Coregonus of the Salmon 

family. 

To return, however, to the Greatest Lake Trout, Mackinaw Salmon, 
or Namaycush — it is also called, in common with all the other largo 
Lake Trout, Salmon Trout ; but this is too absurd even to be admitted 
as a provincial synonyme, since the Salmon Trout is a Sea Trout, and 
is moreover found on the eastern shores of this continent. This is pro- 
bably the largest of the Salmon family in the known world ; honce, I 
have ventured on ray own authority, to designate him as the Greatest 
Lake Trout, in order to distinguish him not only from the Siskawita 
and the Salmo Confinis of DeKay, but also from the common Trout, 
Salmo Fontinalis, when taken of large size in the small inland lakes. 

The average weight of this monstrous fish in Lake Huron is stated by 
the fishermen to be seventeen pounds, but thoy are constantly taken of 
forty pounds weight, and not at all unfrequently of sixty or seventy. 

It is stated by Dr. Mitchil, that at Michilimackinac, they have 

«3Cn KlloWa to aiUiiU lUii euuilfluua rrcij^iit Oi -ju-j i.tui-..-- 



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SALMONID^. 



107 



twenty pounds, with which the dimensions of the same fish as described 
by La Hontan, in his Mem. de PAmerique, would seem to agree — " Les 
plus grosses Truites,^^ says he., " des lacs ont cinq pieds et demi de lon- 
gueur et un pied de diametre^^ — but at the present day, specimens of 
this gigantic magnitude are never seen, and seventy pounds may be 
taken as the limit of their ordinary growth. Even this, however, is a 
sua to which the Sea Salmon has scarcely been known to attain. 

It is a bold, powerful and tyrannical fish, with which no other in- 
habiting the same waters can compete. The Gray Sucking Carp, Ca- 
tastomus Iludsonius, the Methy, a species of fresh-water Ling, Lota 
Maculosa, and the Herring-salmon, Coregonus Artedi, form the 
favorite food of this voracious fish, the stomach of which is constantly 
found crammed with them almost to repletion ; but he will bite raven- 
ously and fiercely at almost anything, from a small fish or a piece of 
pork, to a red rag or a bit of bright of tin, made to play rapidly through 
the water. 

In form, h3 considerably resembles the common Salmon, though he 
is p3rhap8 rather deeper in proportion to his length. His head is neat, 
small, and well -formed, with rather a peculiar depression above the 
eye, and the snout sharply curved and beak-like. The head forms 
nearly a fourth-part of the whole length of the fish ; the skull is more 
bony than that of the common Salmon, the snout not cartilaginous, 
but formed of solid bone ; the jaws are very strong, the upper over- 
lapping by about half an inch the lower, which is strongly articulated 
to the preoperculum and to the jugal bone. The eye is midway 
between the snout and the nape, and twice as far from the hinder edge 
of the gill-cover as from the tip of the snout. 

Of the gill-covers, the preoperculum is curved and vertical, or 
nearly so ; the suboperculum is deeper than in the other Trouts, and 
is jointed at its inner angle to the operculum and preoperculum by a 
slender process conocabd by those bones. Its edge forms fully one 
half of the border of the free gill-cover, and is finely grooved. The 
gill-rays are twelve in number. 

The dental syst3m of the Mackinaw Salmon is very complete, and 
more formidable than in any other member of the family. The inter- 
maxillarics and labials, as well as the palatine bones, lower jaws and 
tongue, are armed with very sharp and strong conical curved teeth ; 




Hi ■ 



108 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



those on the vomer oonsisting of a circular cluster on the knob of that 
bone, and of a double row cxtandiug at least half an inch backward. 

The dorsal fin is situated in the middle of the fish, and contains 
fourteen rays, the eighth ray being exactly central between the snout 
and the tip of the central caudal fin-ray. The second adipose dor- 
sal fin is small and obtusely formed. The caudal fin has nineteen, 
the ventrals each nine, the anal eleven, and the pectorals each four- 
teen rays. The origin of the ventral fins is slightly posterior to the 

centre of the fish. 

Such are the principal structural distinctions of this noble fish, and 
I have entered into these rather at length, since by them only can ho 
be distinguished from his lake congeners. I have already observed tho 
rrreat difl"erenccs existing in point of color and markings between fish 
of the same species found in different waters, throughout this family, 
and endeavored to show the impropriety of founding specific distinc- 
tions or even p3rmanmt varieties, by reference to those alone, without 
reference to structure. In the Salino Foiitinalis, common Brook 
Trout this is easy to be noticed, but in none of the Sdlmonida with 
which I am acquainted are the difi'erencos of color and marking so 
broad and distinct as in difierent individuals of this spocies. 1 have 
before me, as I write, three colored representations of this same fish, 
two water-color sketches, by Mr. Cabot, of Boston, and one, a colored 
lithotrraph, in Dr. Richardson's Fauna Borcali-Araoricana ; and these 
three I am certain would be pronounced by nine persons out of ten 
not accustomed to observe structural diflferenccs, throe different fish. 
Indeed, I am informed by Prof. Agassiz, that by the French residents 
on lakes Huron and Superior, thoy are actually believed to be three 
distinct fish, and are known by throe different names, from th3 locali- 
ties in which they are found, viz. : — Truite des Battures, Trout of the 
rocky shallows — Truite de Greve, Trout of the muddy shoals — and 
Truite du Large, Trout of the deep open waters. The first of those 
fish is represented in the large plate facing this paper, and the second 
in the cut at the head of page 104. The third is thus described in Dr. 
Richardson's work named above : — " The head, back and sides have 
a daik greenish gray color, which when examined closely is resolved 
into small roundish yellowish gray spots on a bluish gray ground, 
which covers less space than the spots ; the latter are most evident on 



SALMUMO^. 



109 



the sidos, each of them including three or four scales. The un- 
covered portion of each scale is roundish, and its convex centre 
having a grayish huo and silvery lustre, is surrounded by a dark 
border of minute spots, which are deficient or less numerous on the 
yellowish gray spots, and also on the bluish white belly. The dorsal 
and caudal fins have the greenish gray tint of the back, and the ven- 
trals and anals are muddy orange ; this color also partially tinging the 
pectorals. Tho iridos are bright honey yellow with blue clouds." 

I will merely add to this, that in the colored lithograph, which is 
beautifully executed, the fish has a blight, chan, silve'i-y appearance, 
with a prevalence of bluish gray hu 3, and a silvery bjlly, precisely in 
accordance with a description given to mo by Prof. Agassiz, of the 
Truite du> Large, for in this condition I have never myself seen the 
fish. 

In the drawings by Mr. Cabot, from which the wood-cuts to this 
paper are taken, and the correctness of which I had an opportunity of 
verifying by personal inspection during a recent visit to the upper 
lakes, the Truite des Battwres, largj plate facing page 104, is of a dark 
bluish green on thj back, fading into a greenish brown about the late 
ral lino, thence into a greenish yellow on the sides, and into bluish 
silver on the belly, the wliolj largely marked with distinct irregularly, 
shaped spots— light green on the dark back, yellowish on the brown 
green of the sidjs, and silver on the bluish belly, becoming larger as 
they descend from the back, and at last molting into the brightness of 
the abdomen. The dorsal and caudal fins of the same color as the 
back, with irregular yellowish green .spots, the latter faintly margined 
with dull rod ; the pectorals bluish gray, margin.id with the same 
color, and the ventrals and anals broadly margined with dusky Ver- 
million. The third variety, the Tncile de Grevc, is generally of a 
muddy greenish brown, darker and greener on the back, browner on 
the sides, and yellowish gray on the bjUy. The spots in this variety 
are much smaller than in that last described, and far less definite both 
in shapj and color, so that the fish might be said to be mottled or 
clouded, rather than spotted. The fins are all of the same dull, 
dingy, olivaceous color, similarly clouded, with the faintest possible 
indication of a ruddy margin on tin pectorals, ventrals, and anals, but 
no tinge of that color on the caudal fin. Both these varieties I have 




1.10 



AMERH AN FISHES. 



seen and compar 3d within th 3 last month, recently tak -n on Lake Erie, 
and I am inform hI that th.3 color and flavor of th ; fish is affjctod, as 
micrht bo expected, by th3 same circumstano >s which produce the 
difference of external coloring, the brighter fish having the redder 
flesh and the higher and more delicate flavor. 

In the deep cold wat3rs of Lako Huron, all the fish arc infinitely 
superior, both in firmness and flavor, to those of the comparatively 
shaUow Ind muddy waters of Lake Erie, so much so, that those who 
have been accastomed all their lives to the VVhite-Fish, Corcgonus 
Albus, of the lower lake, speak of that of Lake Huron as entirely a 
diff'erent fish as regards its epicuror.n qualities. 

" The fl3sh of th ) Namaycush," says Dr. Richardson, " is reddish 
or orange colored, being paler when out of season. When in good 
condition, it yi.'lds much oil, and is very palling to the appetite if 
simply boiled, but roasting rendn-s it a very pleasant article of diet. 
The Canadian voyag^urs are fond of eating it in a frozm state, after 
scorching it for a second or two over a quick fire, until the scales 
can be t^sily d.^tached, but not continuing the application of the heat 
long enough to thaw the interior. The stomach when boUed is a 
favorite morsel with the same people." 

Although I have seen this fish at almost every season of the year, 
the fljsh of non^ has exceeded what I should call a dull, huffish flesh- 
color, not approaching to what, on the most liberal construction, could 
be termed red or orange color. It is in my opinion a coarse, bad 
fish on the table, at onci rank and vapid, if such a combination can 
be imagined, and it is d3cid«dly the worst of the large lacustrine 
Trouts,° few of which in cither hemisphere arc either delicate or 
high-flavored. I doubt not, however, that when fresh out of the water, 
in°the cold deep lak^s of Huron and Superior, crimped and broiled 
or roasted, it is far better than could be supposed by one who has 
eaten it only after being many hours out of its native clement. 

In no respect, however, must we regard the opinions of sportsmen 
more cum grano than in their appreciation of the qualities of fish, flesh 
or fowl in an epicurean point of viiw. They are apt to be very hungry 
when they oat, and who does not know the eff"ect of the vSpartan sauce 
on the palatabl mess of the plainest viands r and again, their tastes are 
[)lified b" the absence of stimulants of every kind. 



simp! 



SALMONIDJE. 



Ill 



Tho habits of the Mackinaw Salmon are similar to those of most of 
thu non -migratory Lake Trout ; thoy affect and prefer the deep waters 
at most seasons of the year, and lie at a great depth beneath the sur- 
face. In the spring of the year, however, they approach the shores, 
and are found in the shallow waters, whither, it is supposed, they pur 
BU3 the various kinds of flsh on which they prey, which resort thither 
in 83arch of larvae of v.",riou3 insects. They do not enter the rivers to 
spawn, but approach the shores for that purpose in autumn, depositing 
their ova on the gravelly shoals, and then retiring again into the depths. 
In Lake Huron thay begin to spawn about the tenth of October, and 
return to the centre of the lake within three months from tho com- 
mencement of the movement. The young fry of this fish has been 
examined by Professor Agassiz, and found to possess the same lateral 
bands or markings which were formerly believed to be peculiar to the 
Parr alone, but which are in all probability, common to every species 
of the family of Salmonida. 

During its stay, at the spawning season, in the shallow channels 
between the innumerable islands, the Namaycush is speared by torch 
light in great quantities by ih^ Indians — a cruel and wasteful devasta- 
tion, which, though it cannot be wondered at in the untutored savage, 
cannot be reprehended too severely when practised, as it is universally, 
by the civilized white man, for purposes of reckless sport or illicit and 
dishonorable gain. In the fur countries they are sometimes taken in 
the autumn with nets ; but tho season when it is captured in the 
greatest abundance is in the months of March and April, during which 
it is taken by tliousands on cod-hooks, baited with small fish set in 
holes cut through the ice, in eight or nine fathoms water. It will not 
be amiss here to state that when the ice is formed of snow partially 
melted and recongealed. so as to be opaque, presenting an appear- 
ance like that of ground glass, neither this nor any other of the Trout 
family will take the bait 

During the mid-summer and mid-winter months the Mackinaw 
Salmon is rarely seen or captured, as during those seasons it lies in 
the deepest waters in the centre of the groat lakes, so that it can be 
fished for only with a drop-line and heavy plummet at an extraordi- 
nary depth, in a manner similar to that practised in deep-sea fishing. 



I. 'i 



112 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERrGll. 



SALMONlOiB 



THE SISKAWITZ. 



NORTHERN LAKE TROUT. 



Salmo Siikawitz • Agaasiz. 

This fine fish, which is second only in size to that last described, 
was discovered so recently as last summer, during a trip to the upper 
lakes for scientific purposos by Professor Agassiz, to whose courtesy 
and kindness I owe the power of including it in this work, as it has not 
up to this time been described or figured in any book of Natural History. 
A journal of that tour is at this moment passing through the University 
press at Harvard, which will comprise a full account of this and several 
other previously nondescript fishes, together with accurate and beauti- 
ful lithographic illustrations by Sonrel ; and to this for fuller informa- 
tion, and especially for accounts of several species which do not como 
within the lunits of this work, I refer my readers, certain that they 
will derive both pleasure and profit from the perusal. 

The Siskawitz in its coloring and general appearance, as regarded 
by an uninstructed eye, bears a very considerable resemblance to the 
Mackinaw Salmon, or Namaycush, particularly to that accidental 
variety of it which I have described above as the Truite de Greve , 
and is found in the same waters with it, most abundantly in Lake 
Superior, a few in Lake Huron near the Sault St. Marie, but none in 
St. Clair, Erie, or Ontario. And, it is believed, in the smaller inland 
waters of New York and the Eastern States, it is unknown. 

The head, back and sides of the Siskawitz, above the lateral 
line, are of dingy brownish olive, with a greener gloss on the upper 
parts, irregularly blotched and cloudjd, rather than spotted, with 
lighter circular or oval patches of the same color. Below the lateral 
line the color is paler and more yellow, with clusters of the same spota 



HALMONIDJfi. 



113 



fading into a dull d-sad whits, which is the prevailing hue of the bell/, 
with a very slight silvery gloss on some of the scales. 

The dorsal and caudal fins are of the same greenish brown with the 
back, and like it are irregularly patched with lighter spots. The pec- 
toral, ventral and anal fins are paler, but with the same markings, and 
with a very faint indication of dusky red on the margins 

Altogether, the Siskawitz is a greener colored and leas lustrous fish 
than tha Namaycu,sh, and fur Il'ss distinctly spotted ; still there is so 
much similarity, that by a porson not accustomed to look for nicer 
and more permanent structural distinctions, the two species might be 
very readily confounded. 

In form, the Siskawitz is rather shorter and stouter than the Mack- 
inaw fish, and does not taper nearly so much at either extremity. The 
h-ad particularly, which in the other is very small, neatly shapod, 
and daprcBSod toward the snout, is short, thick, and very obtusely 
rounded, giving a coarse and clumsy profile, and distinguishing it de- 
cidsdly from the kindred species. On the shoulders it is moderately 
bro.id, with the sides somewhat compressed. The length of the head 
is about one-fourth of the whole length of the fish, from the snout to 
the tips of the caudal. The skull is strong and bony, with powerful 
lower jaws. The porous lines and foramina of the bones, seen on th« 
heads of several of the other Trouts, are very evident and distinctly 
marked in this, as are the radiating processes on the operculum am 
preoporculum. 

The preoperculura is considerably rounded and almost vertical , 
the post3rior free margin of the gill-covers ia nearly semicircular, 
much le.ss acute posteriorly than in the Naraaycush. 

It has a very complete and formidable dontal system, all the max- 
illary and palatin3 boms, as well as the lower jaws and either side of 
the tongue, being armed with strong, sharp, curved teeth, and the 
vomer provided with a double line extending along the whole lenf^th 
backward. The dorsal fin is situated nearly midway the whole length 
of thu body; the postfirior dorsal is thicker and more clumsily shaped 
than in the preceding species. The caudal fin is deeply forked. 

The number of rays in the several fins I am, I regret to say, unable 
to supply at present. 

Neither in coloring nor in form therefore, does the Siskawitz equal 



P'\ 






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I I 



114 



AMKRrCAN FI8IIK8 






'.a« 



N 



Hie Mackinaw Salmon or Natnaycush ; it la in all ronpacts a clurasior 
and coirser fish. Its flesh is of tho same nature, though much 
riohor ; and when salted, it commandfl nearly doublo tho price of tho 
Nauinjcush. 

Its habits and haunts are almost idonfical with those of tho other 
epocies, like which it is not migratory or anadromous, never entering 
the rivers either for the purpose of spawning or in pursuit of food ; 
although it approaches the shores, and visits the gravelly shallows of 
tho lakes in autumn, in order to deposit its ova. 

It is taken by the French inhabitants and by the Indian hunters, 
with the torch and spear, occasionally with the scan, and also with the 
long lino in deep water. It is said to strike readily at a piece of glit- 
tering tin, or mothcr-of-poarl, made to revolve and glance quickly 
through the water.* 

There is no doubt but that with good spinning tackle, baited with 
minnow, shiners, or the parr of the Brook Trout, which would proba- 
bly prove the most killing of the three, or with tho deadly spoon, the 
Siskawitz might be angled for with great success, and would afford 
good sport, as it is a strong and powerful fish, growing to twenty-five 
pounds or upwards, although its usual weight docs not exceed fifteen 
or sixteen pounds. 

Neither this fish, however, nor the Namaycush, nor, so far as 1 
know, any other of the non-migratory Lake Trout, strikes with the 
same fim-ceuess and avidity, springing out of the water to take the bait, 
and leaping far and frequently above tho surface when hooked, as the 
Sea Salmon, the Salmon Trout, or any of the anadromous species of 
this highly interesting family. The motion of the great lakers is for 
the most part confined to a heavy lumbering rush in pursuit of the 
bait, and to a strong dead pull when endeavoring to escape after being 
(Jtruck. They will bore down desperately at first into the deep water, 
but do not fight with the swift energy or resort to the cunning arti- 

NoTE TO Revised Edition. — From pcrmmul observation, iiiice writing tha above, 
I am BatiHfied that these large Lake Tront cannot be angled for with succeas, e.x- 
cept in very deep water, either with a drop-line, or by trolling from a boat with Q 
pluininct, and a cod-hook baited with any kind of flesh, fiKh, or fowl. Tiie former 
is the prtferjtble mode. The Indinns kill them with tho spear, or with baits through 
'he ice, in immense numbers. Frt'sii, then* flesh is coarse, oily, rank and vapid, 
JUt when pickled or sinriked, thsy are vi^rv ■ialnt:-.!!!!- 



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lumsier 

i niuoh 

of tho 

e other 

ntoring 

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unters, 
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of glit- 
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id with 
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afford 
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ith the 
le bait, 
, as tho 
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SALMON tDy-E. 



115 



bees, of the Salmo Salar. Strong tackle, an eighteen foot rod, and 
a steady hand, will not fail to sDcure them, even with far less skill 
than is required to take a three-pounder Brook Trout in a quick-run- 
ning river. 

I may add here, in continuation of the remarks made above, under 
the head of True Salmon, in reference to the young fry of all this 
family, that Professor Agassiz has discovered the Pinks, both of this 
and the preceding species in what may be called the Parr form, with 
dusky lateral transverse bandings. I have not judged it necessary to 
give cuts of these fry, as the fact may be regarded as thoroughly 
established, and as the other characteristics of these young Lake 
Trout are so broad and distinct, that they could not be easily mis- 
taken either for the young of any other species or for a distinct 
varii'ty. 

The above descriptions, as well as the representation in the annexed 
wood-cut, are taken, by permission, which is here gratefully acknow- 
ledged, from a spirited colored sketch by Mr. Elliot Cabot, of Boston, 
who accompanied Professor Agassiz on the tour above-mentioned, and 
from the notes of that gentleman. 

It is trusted that this notice, although brief, of an entirely new 
Salvia, will prove satisfactory both to the sportsman and to the natu- 
ralist ; and if the mention of its peculiarities may induce the gentle 
anglers of this country to pay a little more attention to the structural 
diiFerences of fishes, so as to lead to the discovery of new species, 
several of which, it can hardly be doubted, remain still nondescript in 
the unfrequented waters of this mighty land, some good will Jiave been 
"^one to the great cause of science. 



H 




I 



if 




:.' ■ I 



116 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOI'TERYGII. 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



BALMONID^ 




THE LAKE TROUT. 

Salmo Confmis ; DeKay. 

Not having been enabled this spring to obtain a specimen of this 
fish, which I was exceedingly anxious to do, for the purpose of com- 
paring it with the Siskawitz and Namaycush, I take the following 
account from the New York Fauna of Dr. DeKay, whose description 
of the fish is very complete. 

It is a very closely cognate species with the two last described, but 
I believe it to be clearly distinct, which in the first instance I was 
disposed to doubt. 

" Characteristics. — Blackish, with numerous gray spots. Body 
robust ; comparatively short in proportion to its depth ; caudal fin 
with a sinuous margin. Length, two to four feet 

" Description. — Body stout, thicker and shorter than the common 
Salmon. Length of the head to the total length, as one to four and 
and a half noarjy. Dorsal outline curved. Scales, small, orbicular, 
and minutely striated. Thft lateral line distinctly marked by a scries 
of tubular plates, arising at the upper angle of the opercular opening, 
slightly concave until it passes over the base of the pectoral fin, when 



8ALM0NIDJE. 



117 



it proceeds straight to tha tail. Head flattened between the eyes. 
Snout protruded, and in aged individuals with a tubercular enlarge- 
ment on its extremity. Eyes large ; the antcro-posterior diameter 
of the orbits 1.5, and their distance apart 2.5 ; nostrils contigu- 
ous, patent; the anterior vertically oval, the posterior smaller and 
rounded. Under jaw shortest, and received into a cavity of the 
upper. The transverse membrane over the roof of the mouth exceed- 
ingly tough and thick ; the numerous curved teeth in the jaws partly 
concealed by a loose fleshy membrane. Tongue, long, narrow and 
thick, with a series of teeth along the central furrow. Many series 
of acute teeth along the vomer and on the palatines. 

" The first dorsal fin with its upper margin rounded, sub-triangular, 
arising somewhat nearer the snout than the extremity of the caudal 
rays, higher than long, measuring 4.5 in height, and 4.0 along the 
base. It is composed of fourteen rays, the first two short, and imbed- 
ded in the flosh ; the fourth and fifth rays longest. The adipose fin 
1.0 long, rounded at the end, scarcely narrowed at the base, an inch 
long, and placed over the end of the anal fin. Pectoral fins broad 
and pointed, five inches long, and arising slightly behind a line drawn 
from the upper posterior angle of the oparcle. It is composed of 
fourteen rays. The ventral fins, placed nearly under the centre of 
the dorsal fin, composed of nine rays, and furnished with a thick 
axillary plate. Anal fin quadrate ; its extreme height 4.4, and its 
base 3.0 ; composed of twelve robust rays. Caudal fin nine inches in 
extent from tip to tip, furcate, with a sinuous margin. 

'■'■Color from a living specimen. All the upper portion of the head 
and body bluish black. Sides of the head, base of the first dorsal, of 
the caudal and anal fins, with numerous rounded ^.rowded irregular 
light spots. On the base of the dorsal and caudal, the spots are 
oblong light greenish ; chin brownish bronze ; pupils black ; irides 
Salmon color. Tips of the lower fins slightly tinged with red. 
" Length 31.3 ; of the head 7.3. Weight fifteen pounds. 
" Fin rays, D. 14.0 ; P. 14 ; V. 9 ; A. 12 ; C. 21^. 
" This is the well-known Lake Salmon, Lake Tiout, or Salmon 
Trout of the State of New York. Among the thirteen species or 
varieties of Lake Trout, or Lake Salmon, so beautifully illustrated 
by Richardson, I cannot find this species described. It appears more 




118 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



nearly allied by the figure to Salmo ITvodii, but difFors in very impor- 
tant particulars from this species. It occurs in most of the northern 
lakes of this State, and I have noticed it in Silver Lake, Pennsyl- 
vania, adjacent to Broome County, which, as far as 1 know, is its 
southernmost limit. The figure illustrating this species was from a 
specimen taken at Louis Lake, in Hamilton County, of unusual size 
and vio-or. The average weight is eight or ten pounds ; but I have 
heard fishermen speak of some weighing thirty pounds, and even 
more. There is, however, such a strong propensity to exaggeration 
in everything in relation to aquatic animals, that I refrain from citing 
cases derived from such sources. 

" They frequent the deepest part of the lake, and unlike most of 
their conveners, never rise to the fly. 

" The flesh is of course much prized in those districts where no 
oceanic fish is ever tasted ; but to me it appears to possess all the 
coarseness of the Halibut without its flavor." 

This, with the exception of a few general remarks ou its habits, ia 
all that Dr. DeKay has recorded of this fish. 

i canuot, however, proceed, without expressing my great surprise 
at Dr. DeKay's opinion of its resemblance to the Salmo Hoodii^ 
known also as the Arctic Charr, the Mingan river Salmon, and the 
Masamacoosh of the Creo Indians. This is a decided long-finned 
Charr, beautifully colored, of a rich lake purple, with numerous bright 
golden spots, and the red belly of the proper Charr. It is, probably, 
an anadromous species, running up the swift rivers of the north, and 
descending to the salt-water to recruit. Its flesh is bright red. In 
shape, again, it differs entirely from the fish before us, being the 
longest and most slender of all the Salmonidce of this continent, some- 
what resembling the German Hucho in shape. 

I can see nothing in which it can be compared to any of the Lake 
Trout, and least of all to this, which is the most worthless of all the 
non-migratory species. It is found I believe in Lake Ontario, below 
the Falls of Niagara, and certainly in ril the New England lakes so 
far to the eastward as the State of Maine. In the British provinces, 
with the exception of Lakes Mephramagog and Champlain, I do not 
think that it exists. 

From a careful comparison of the cut in Dr. DeKay^s work, plate 



SALMONlUiE. 



119 



38, Gg. 123, as well as from his description of its coloring, I have no 
hesitation in pronouncing it far more nearly connected with the Siska- 
witz of Prof. Agassiz, tlian with any other of its congeners, although 
the elongated head, the shape of the fins, and especially the lobe-like 
formation of the caudal, clearly distinguishes it from this species. 

it is to be regretted, however, that in the work of the uiaguitud 
and importance of the New York Fauna of the State of New York, 
u' plates should be, as they are, so atrociously executed, that for 
matters of scientific examination they are all but useless, while as 
pictorial illustrations, they are below contempt. 

Note to Reviskd Edition.— See Supplement. Art. Lake Trout, Satmo 
Confinis. The quality of this fish differs entirely with tlie different watera 
from which it is tuken. In the New England waters, it is generally bad. In 
Beneca Lake, and the Hai.iilton County waters, unequivocally admirable, and 
exceeded neither by Sea Salmon nor Brook Truiu 




120 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERTGII. 



SALMON ID^. 



iiiii, 




SALMON TROUT. 



SEA TROUT WHITE TROUT. 



-« =! 



Salmo Trutta : Yarrel. 

This beautiful fish, which is the Salmon Trout of the Thames, the 
Sea Trout*of Scotland, and the White Trout of Wales, Devonshire, 
and Ireland, is found nowhere on the continent of America except 
on the eastern side of the Province of New Brunswick and in the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence 

It must on no account be confounded, as it has been by Dr. Smith 
in his " Fishes of Massachusetts," with the Brook Trout, Salmo Fon- 
iimilis, when they run down and remain permanently in salt-water, 
as they do, more or less, along the whole south side of Long Island, 
but especially at Fireplace, at Waquoit bay, on Cape Cod, and pro- 
bably at many other points along the eastern coast ; for tho fish are 
totally distinct, as will be shown hereafter. 

" It is distinguished," says Yarrel, " by the gill-cover being inter- 
mediate in its form between that of the Salmon and tho Bull Trout 
The posterior free margin is loss rounded than that of tho Salmon, 
but more so than that of the Bull Trout. The line of union of tho 



SALMONID^. 



121 



operculum with the subopcrculum, md the inferior margin of the sub- 

operculum are oblique, forming a cousilcrable angle with the axis of 

the body of the fish. The posterior edge of the preoperculum rounded, 

not sinuous, as in the Bull Trout. The teeth are more slender as 

well as more numerous than in the Salmon or Bull Trout ; those on 

the vomer extending along a great part of the length, and indenting 

the tongue deeply between the two rows of teeth that are there placed 

ono row along each side. The tail is less forked at the same age than 

that of the Salmon, but becomes like it, square at the end, after the 

third year. The size and surface of the tail also is much smaller 

than that of the Salmon, from the shortness of the caudal rays. 

" The habits of this species are also very like those of the Sal- 
mon, and the females are said to run up the rivers before the males 
Sir William Jardine says : ' In approaching the entrance of rivers 
or in seeking out, as it were, some one they preferred, shoals of 
this fish may be seen coasting the shoals and headlands, leaping and 
sporting m great numbers, from about one pound to three or°four 
pounds m weight ; and in some of the smaller bays the shoal could be 
traced several times circling it, and apparently feeding. They enter 
every river and rivulet in immense numbers, and when fishing for 
Salmon, are annoying for their quantity. The food of those taken 
with the rod in the estuaries appeared very indiscriminate ; occasion- 
ally the remains of some small fish, which were too much di..ested 
to be discriminated; sometimes flies, beetles, or other insects, which 
the wind or tide had earned out ; but the most general food seemed 
to be the Tahtris Locnsta, or common sand-hopper, with which some 
of their stomachs were completely crammed.' 

" The largest adult fish of this species I have ever seen," Mr 
Yarrel adds, " was in the possession of Mr. Groves, the fishmonger in 
Bond-street. This specimen, which occurred in June, 1831, was a 
female, m very fine condition, and weighed seventeen pounds." 

Never having myself seen this fish in America, although perfectly 
familiar with it in Great Britain, but having good reason for bein^ 
sure that it existed in the great estuary of St. Lawrence, and in the 
bays of Gaspe and Chaleurs, I wrote, so soon as I decided on the 
preparation of this work, to a friend, Mr. Perley, in New Brunswick, 
Her Majesty's emigration officer at St. .Tohn. know.'n- th-t T Tr--^ ♦ 








12i 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



i 




rclv as well on liis kindness in supplying mo with any information ho 
Mt possess on the subject, as on his skill and thoroughness as a 
sportsman and fly-fisher, and his science as an icthyologist. 

He obli-inc^ly replied to me at len-th, beside sending me a highly 
valn-.blo r^epo^rt on the Fisheries of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, fully 
confirming my opinion of the existence of this noble and sporting fish 

in tho Province. , , . t. ,- v r 

Without farther comment I proceed to lay his observations before 
my readers, premising only, that while thoy fully prove tbe identity 
of the New Brunswick White Trout with the Salmon Trout of Yarrel, 
Salmo Trutta^and distinguish it from the Brook Trout, whether Eng- 
li^i or \merican, Salmo Fario, or Salmo Fontinalis, they show some 
remarkable differences in habit from the same fish in the British Islands. 
" You will perceive," says Mr. Perley, " that, under official orders, 
1 have been compelled to go into natural history ; and that you may 
see the whole, I send some reports printed in 1847, including one on 
the Forest Trees of New Brunswick. I procured the second edition 
of Yarrel when in London last year, and the beautiful supplement 
containing' the plates of the Salmon, from the little Parr up to the 
crilso of two years, all of which I have been compelled to study. 

" The White Trout of the gulf of St. Lawrence, is precisely simi- 
lar to the Salmo Trutta of Yarrel. The drawing of Vol. IL, p. 77, 
second edition, is a very good representation of our White Trout. In 
June when in the finest condition, they arc somewhat deeper than 
there' represented "—the cut at the head of this paper is a fac simihe 
of the plate in Yarrel alluded to by Mr. Perley-" the shoulder is 
then exceedingly thick ; the head, especially in the female, is very 
small I never heard of any weighing more than seven pounds. 1 
have never seen a White Trout on this side of the province, or any- 
where except within the gulf. They are of delicious flavor when new- 
ly caught, the white curds lying thick between the bright pink flakes ; 
and they do not cloy like the Salmon. 

"Many of the common Trout, Salmo Fario''— Fonhnolis?— 
" also visit the mixed water of the estuaries, and very likely go out to 
Bca They then acquire a peculiar silvery brilliancy, and their con- 
dition becomes greatly improved ; but they cannot be mistaken, even 
then f-- the White Trout. They are a longer fish— their heads are 



SALMONID.E. 



123 



larger— the color of the spots is more brilliant, and there are more of 
them ; and the tri-colorcd fins leave no room for doubt, as the fins of 
the White Trout are very pale, and of a bluish white. When first 
lifted from the sea, the backs of the White Trout are of a bluish 
green, just the color of the wave ; and the under part of the fish 
sparkles like molten silver." 

In a report of the fly-fishing of the Province, which Mr. Perley 
was good enough to enclose, I find also the following pertinent remarks 
on this fish : 

" It is to be understood," ho says, " that the whole Gulf of St. 
Lawrence abounds with White Trout, from one to seven pounds in 
weight. They proceed up the rivers as far as the head of the tide in 
each, but they never ascend into the purely fresh water. In the salt- 
water they are caught only with the ' Prince Edward's Island fly,' so 
called, the body of which is of scarlet with gold tinsel, or of gold 
tinsel only, with four wings from feathers of the scarlet ibis— the 
curry-curry ' of South America. 

" In the estuaries of rivers where the water is only brackish they 
take the Irish lake-fly with gay colors ; the scarlet ibis seems the most 
attractive, however, in all cases. In the fresh-water the Trout are 
quite diff^erent ; they are much longer, very brilliantly colored, with 
tri-colored fins of black, white and scarlet, and numerous bright spots 
over the body. When the fish are in good condition these spots are 
nearly as large as a silver penny. They rarely exceed three pounds 
in weight, but are a very sporting fish ; they take most of the Irish 
flies, but the red hackle in all its varieties is the favorite. A brilliant 
hackle, over a yellow or fiery brown body, kills everywhere, all the 
season through. 

" The Sea-Trout fishing, in the bays and harbors of ' Prince Ed- 
ward's Island,' especially in June, when the fish first rush in from the 
gulf, is really magnificent ; they average from three to five pounds 
each. I found the best fishing at St. Peter's bay, on the north side 
of the island, about twenty-eight miles from Charlotte's town. I there 
killed in one morning sixteen Trout, which weighed eighty pounds. 

" In the bays, and along the coasts of the island, they are taken with 
the scarlet fly, from a boat under easy sail, with a ' mackerel breeze,' 
and oftentimes a heavy ' ground swell.' The fly skips from wave to 



i\ 



i.i't 



I. ' 





ini 

"' 1 . ! 


F :' 


1 il 



'!! 



i: 



124 



AMERICAN FISHES 



wave at the end of thirty yards of lino, and th.re should be at least 
seventy yards more on the reel. It is splendid sport ! as a strong fish 
will make sometimes a long run, and give a good chase down tho 

wind " 

This clear, able and sportsmanlike account of this fine fish perfect- 
ly establishes' tho fact of its existence as a distinct species, intermediate 
between the true Salmon, Salmo Salar, on the one hand, and the 
Brook Trout, Sabno Fontimlis, on the other. And it must on no ac 
count be confounded with tho ,ion-migratory Lake Trouts, which have 
been just described, and which arc sometimes erroneously and absurdly 
called Salmon Trout. They never quit the purely frcsh-water-theso 
never leave it. These are anadromous, those stationary. 

Those are a worthless fish, both to the sportsman and the epicure, 
comparatively speaking ; these are in all respects tho most valuable 
of the species, with the exception only of tho true Salmon ; and nei- 
ther in excellence of flavor nor in sporting qualifications do they fall 
behind even him, although they are far inferior in weight and size. 

Mr. Yarrel states that the length of the head in this fish is as one 
to four to the length of the whole body, and the depth of the body to 
the length the same. The teeth, small and numerous, occupying five 
rows on the upper surface of the mouth, those of the central row, on 
the vomer, extending some distance along it, the points turning alter- 
nately to each side, one row on each side of the under jaw, and three 
or four teeth on each side of the tongue, strong, sharp, and curving 
backwards, well calculated to secure a living prey, or convey food to- 
wards the pharynx. 

The dorsal fin-rays are twelve in number, the pectoral thirteen, tho 
ventral nine, the anal ten, and the caudal nineteen. When the Sal- 
mon Trout is placed by the side of a Salmon, it is in comparison 
darker in color in the body, but lighter in the color of the fins. 

It is with great satisfaction that I am enabled to present this beauti- 
ful and gallant fish to my readers, and to establish with certainty its 
identity with the Salmo Trutta of Yarrel, and its existence in the 
North American Provinces. This fish has hitherto never been de- 
cribed in any American sporting work, nor I believe in any work of 
a scientific character, as an American species, with the exception of 
the Parliamentary reports of Mr. Perley. The fish described as tho 



SAf-MONlDJE. 



I2fl 



Salmo Trutta in the American Angler's Guide, and in Smith s Fishes 
of Massachusotts, is, as I havj already observed, nothing resembling 
It, but the very Brook Trout described above, with the tri-colored fin, 
improved by a visit to salt-water. 

I may hero observe, en-passant, that my distinguished friend, Mr. 
Agassiz, was not aware, a few months since, of the existence of this 
fish as an American species. 

It cannot fail to prove a great acquisition to the list of the American 
angler, as there is no bolder or better fish, and its haunts are of no 
difficult access. I learn that an • Engli.sh yacht is already fitting out, 
m order to take the field against the Sea Trout in the gulf this very 
summer ; and I doubt not that ere long some of our New York clip- 
pers will spread their wings in emulation of their brothers of the anc^le 
from -the eastern side of the broad Atlantic. I can conceive no more 
delightful trip, no more exciting rivalry. 

NoT« TO REV.-KD ED,T>oN.-Mr. Perley writes me, under date of October 19, 

t1 "Z " Tt 'T '" ": "^^ "' ^"''^' '° """" '"''^"--'^ ^hat the Salmon 
Irout pursue the brnelts .„to the rivers and harbors, ar.d return to the sea as soou 

aH the Snielt ascend tha brooks. It appears that they do aot spawn or breed in 



i 
1 1 




126 



AMEHICAN FISIIRH. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEUYOII. 



SALMON! U.K. 




THE MASAMACUSH. 



HOOD'S CHARR 



SalTTio Hoodii; Richardson. 



This beautiful fish is given on the authority of Dr. Richardson, by 
whom it appears to have been first described, although discovered by 
Lieutenant Hood, in Pine Island lake, latitude 54". 

It is not a little remarkable that this fish should have so long re- 
mained unknown, as it is stated by its describer " to be common in 
every lake and river from Canada to the northern extremity of the 
continent." Whether this includes the great lakes above the Fallsof 
Niagara, it is not stated, although the language would authorise that 
interpretation ; no distinct mention is made of it, however, as having 
been taken south of the Mingan river, which empties into the estuary 
of St. Lawrence somewhere about the latitude of 50° ; all the other 
specimens described being taken in Winter lake, or in the waters of 
Boothia Felix ; it is scarcely possible, however, but that it must be 
found to the southward of this line, to justify the words of so accurate 
and correct a writer as Dr. Richardson. 

At all events, the Mingan river is in Canada proper, in the lord- 



BALMONID/E. 



127 



ship of iMin<;an, aud is constantly visitod, for the purpoHo of Salmon 
fiHhing, by yachting parties from Quebec, scarcely a year ocenrring 
but ono or more vessels arc fitted out for this wild spot, which ia 
nearly opposite to the northern side of the inhospitable, and nearly 
if not absolutely "-'nhj.'oiicd island of Anticosti, the sport amply 
repaying the time and trouble. 

I am personally acquainted with several very accomplished Salmon 
fishers who are at home on those waters, yet by none of these have I 
ov;-r hesud any mention of this fish, and I am well satisfied that 
although it must, I presume, have been taken by them frequently, it 
has entirely escaped their observation, being probably confounded 
either with the Salmon, or the Salmon Trout, although entirely dis- 
tinct from either. It is remarkable as being the only Charr that is 
found in the inhabited portions of the United States or Canada, for 
although Richardson designates th( common Brook Trout, Salmo 
Fontinalis, as the New- York Charr ^ I confess I am at a loss to per- 
ceive any grounds for so specifying it. One of the marked charac- 
tM-istics of the Charr, the greater comparative height of the dorsal fin, 
which will be readily observed in the cut at the head of this paper, is 
entirely wanting in the Brook Trout, and although the vomerine teeth 
are disposed in a cluster in that species, after the manner of tho 
Charrs, this alone hardly appears to me a sufficient reason for altering 
its nomenclature. 

The other varieties of Charr, the Angmalook, Salmo Nitidus, and 
the long-finned Charr, Salmo Alipes, arc found in the small lakes and 
rivers of Boothia Felix, but as that far northern peninsula is utterly 
beyond tho reach of the most determined angler, it is useless to give 
them more than this mere passing notice. 

The Masamacush is, on the contrary, within easy reach of all who 
are willing to travel distances, without incurring either risk or fatigue, 
in pursuit of their game, and is found, moreover, in the very waters 
which afford the greatest variety and the highest attractions to tho 
scientific fly-fisher, in their abundance of Salmon, Salmon Trout, and 
Brook Trout. It is also a bold and daring biter, voraciously seizing 
a bait of sucking carp, pork, deer's heart, or tho belly of one of its 
own species affixed upon a cod-hook. " We took many at Fort En- 
terprise, in March, in cill-neta sfit under tho ino " Bntra r»r T?iVhor/1„ 



ik. 









i|l3| 



128 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



tr 



son, "in the neighborhood of an open rapid by which the waters of 
Winter lake were discharged into a river that remained frozen up 
until June. At that time their stomachs were filled with the larvsB 
<jf insocts. During the summer this fish is supposed to retire to the 
depths of the lakes, but it reappears in smaller numbers in the 
autumn, and is occasionally taken in the winter in nets, but seldom 
))y the hook, except in the spring. The spawning season is in April 
or May, judging from the great development the spawn then acquires, 
though the spawning beds are unknown to us. The Masamacush 
attains a weight of eight pounds, but begins to spawn before it weighs 
more than two or three." 

Dr. Richardson does not state whether this fish will take the fly or 
not, but as it is not the general habit of the non-migratory Trout of 
the American lakes, or of the British Charr, to do so, it may, 1 think, 
be presumed that the Masamacush, where he exists in lakes, is to be 
taken by trolling in deep water with a small Trout or other fish upon 
a heavily-weighted hook, with spinning tackle. 

It is not distinctly stated, and probably is not ascertained, whether 
this is an anadromous or non-migratory fish. The Charrs, for the 
most part, are found only in the deepest parts of the lakes which they 
inhabit, and rarely enter the streams which feed or drain these but 
for the purpose of spawning, when they seek out the clearest and 
swiftest rivers running on gravel bottoms. 

The fact, however, that the Masamacush is taken in the Minwan 
river, a powerful body of water having direct communication with the 
sea, would go far to prove that he is an anadromous fish there, at 
least, visiting the sea, and returning to spawn ; although it is very 
probable that like many of this family, and like his own congener, 
the Angmalook, he can exist indifferently in fresh or salt-water. 

Like all the Charrs, he is red-fleshed, and of delicious flavor. And 
from these facts, were it not that the Masamacush is said not to 
exceed eight pounds in weight, 1 should be vastly inclined to suspect 
his identity with the red-fleshed and bright-colored lake-fish, which 
is occasionally taken in the Hamilton County waters, as mentioned by 

Note to Second Edition. — I believe at present, from my observation in the 
Northern Lakes, that =t is of no use to attempt to take any of the Great Luke Trout 
on Claire with the fly ; and th.it they will rarely hook even at a trolled bait. Heavy 
l«nH and a long drcp-;ine iu sixty to one hundred ft- et wHtcr wi" ibne l«iph thfm 



w..m::-mM,M-M,-..-,.^ llftlnr^fld 



TIP 



SALMONIDiE. 



129 



Or. Bethune in his beautiful edition of Walton's Angler, at page 
138, in a note ; and as described to me by Mr. Webber, the author 
ot a series of very agreeable letters concerning the fishing of that 
region, which were published in the columns of the New York 
Courier and Inquirer during the past summer. 

It is very unfortunate that, so far, none of the gentlemen who have 
been so lucky as to take this highly-colored and fine fish, have pos- 
Bessed sufficient scientific knowledge to examine and record its cha- 
racteristics in such a manner as to allow us to decide upon its identity 
with any known species. 

The only thing which appears to be certain, is this: that it does 
not belong to any one of the three kno^vTi species of the non-migra- 
tory Lake Trout. A,s it is said to have been taken by the President 
of the Piseco Club, a gentleman on whose authority perfect reliance 
may be placed, up to the great weight of twenty-four pounds, this 
must, m my opinion, be either an entirely nondescript fish, or merely 
a Brook Trout of gigantic dimensions. 

It is generally described as being square-taUed, with two rows of 
red spots, the vcntrals and pectorals deeply tinged with vermillion, 
and the flesh of a bright glowing carnation, and a delicious flavor 
Now, this description coincides with no described fish of North 
America, though nearly agreeing with that of the great common 
Knghsh Trout of the Thames, and of the Irish lakes and rivers. 

But to return to the Masaraacush, as it is known to exist in the 
northern waters. 

[ts body, as will be observed in the cut, is more slender than that 
of any of the SalmonidcB heretofore described, and the head is about 
a sixth of the total length. The lower jaw, when the mouth is closed 
projects beyond the upper one by the depth of the chin, and it 
appears longer yet when the mouth is open. 

The teeth of the labials, intermaxillaries and lower jaw, are very 
smaU, short, conical, acute, and slightly curved-on the palatine 
Dones there is a row of larger teeth mixed with smaUer ones, and on 
the knob of the vomer, a cluster of six or seven. The tongue is 
armed with a single row on each side, which meet in a curve at the tip ; 
there are also two or three scattered teeth on the centre of the 
tongue. The rakers and pharynseal bones are armed with short teeth 



h 



h^'iy 



130 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



like velvet pile. Of the gill-covers, the operculum is very narrow 
its transverse diameter being scarcely half its height. The subopor- 
culum exceeds the half of its length in height. 

The Masamacush of the Mingan river, which is the fish in its 
normal form, according to Dr. Richardson, from whom this account 
is abridged, has ten gill-rays on one side, eleven on the other ; dorsal 
fin-rays twelve, pectoral thirteen, ventral eight, anal ten, and caudal 
nineteen. 

The back and sides of this fish are intermediate between olive 
green and clove brown, bestudded with yellowish gray spots as big as 
a pea. A few of these spots on the gill-covers. Belly and under 
jaw white ; the latter dotted thinly with bluish gray. 

The Arctic fish is brighter in color ; the back and sides being 
purple, the spots distinctly yellow, and the sides, below the lateral 
line, tinged with a flush of lake. 



Before proceeding to the Grayling, which, though of this family, is 
not a proper Salmon, but of the subgenus Thymnllus^ I will observe 
that the opinion which I hazarded in my introductory remarks con- 
cerning the existence of a distinct Salmon in Scbago lake, near Port- 
land, in Maine, known as the Sebago Trout, and which I proposed to 
designate as Salrao Sebago, is fully carried out by the information 
which I have received since writing those remarks, from a thorough 
sportsman, well acquainted Avith all the described species. 

He assures me that the waters of that lake did contain a Salmon 
closely resembling the Salmo Salar, but which has in all probability 
become extinct. At the date of his writing, he was about to set forth 
on a visit to the lake, and should a fish be procurable, I shall receive 
it, although not in time to include it in the body of the work, at least 
in season to be embodied in the appendix. 



SALMONID/E. 



131 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEIJYGII. 



SALMONID^, 




BACK'S GRAYLING. 

THE ARCTIC GRAYLING. 

Thymallua Signifer ; Richardson, Cuvier.-/reMj/ooA.;,o«,aA ; Esquimaux—Pow. 

ton Bleu ; Can. Voy. 

The exceeding beauty, and remarkably game qualities of this noble 
fish, have induced me to give him a place in these pages, to which hia 
place of nativity hardly entitles him, as he is, I fear, to be found no 
where southward of the 62nd parallel of latitude, between' Mackenzie's 
river and the Welcome. " Its highly appropriate Esquimaux title," 
says Dr. Richardson, from whose fine work on the Fauna of Arctic 
America J have borrowed both the matter of this paper and the cut 
at the head of this page, " denoting ' wing-like fin,' alludes to its mag- 
nificent dorsal ; and it was in reference to the same feature that I be- 
stowed upon it the specific appellation of Signifer^ ' the standard- 
bearer,' intending also to advert to the rank of my companion. Cap- 
tain Back, then a midshipman, who took the first specimen we saw 
with the artificial flv." 

I may remark hire, that the European Grayling has the similar ap- 
pellation of VeziUlfer, or the " banner-bearer," in allusion to the same 
feature, althou^V \he fin is greatly inferior in size to that of the fish 



if 1. 



182 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



oi which I am speaking. The allusion to Captain Back, then a mid- 
shipman, is founded on the fact, that midshipmen in the British navy, 
rauk as ensigns in the army, and that French officers of the same 
wrade, are styled enseigne de vaisseau, in consequence of the same 
analogy. 

Dr. Richardson proceeds to observe that " it is found only in clear 
watert', and seems to delight in ihe most rapid part of mountain 
streama In the autumn of 1820, we obtained many by angling in 
a rapid jf the Winter river, opposite to Fort Enterprise. The sport 
was excellent, for this Grayling generally springs entirely out of water 
when first struck by the hook, and tugs strongly at the line, requiring 
as much dexterity to land it safely as it would to secure a Trout of six 
times the size. 

And this l&tter would be no small feat, since I find elsewhere that 
the fish grows to five or six pounds weight, greatly exceeding his Eu- 
ropean congeaer in siz3, as ho does also in vigor and brilliancy of 
coloring. 

" The charac\«rs by which the Graylings are distinguished from the 
Trouts," continues Dr. Richardson, " in the regne animal^ are the 
smallness of the mouth, the fineness of the teeth, the great size of the 
dorsal fin, and the largeness of the scales. The stomach is a very 
thick sac ; the gill-rays are seven or eight in number." 

The color of this beautiful fish, is stated by the same author to bo 
as follows : " Back dark ; sides of a hue intermediate between lavender 
purple and bluish gray ; belly blackish gray with several irregular 
whitish blotches. There are several quadrangular spots of Prussian 
blue, on the anterior part of the body, each tinging the margin of.four 
adjoining scales. The head is hair brown above, the checks and gill 
covers the same, combined with purplish tints, and there is a blue 
mark on each side of the lower jaw. The dorsal fin has a blackish 
gray color, with some lighter blotches, and is crossed by rows of beau- 
tiful Berlin-blue spots ; it is edged with liglit lake-red. The ventrals 
are streaked with reddish and whitish lines in the direction of their 
rays. 

" The scales are covered with a thiokish epidermis, consequently 
having little lustre. 
" The body is compressed with an elliptical profile, the head, when 



SALMONID^ 



133 



the mouth is shut, ending acutely, but when viewed from above, or ic 
front, the snout is obtuse. The greatest depth of the body is scarcely 
one-fifth of the total length, caudal included. The head is small, 
being one-sixth of the total length, excluding the caudal, or one- 
S3venth including it. Orbit large, distant half its diameter from the 
snout, and two diameters from the edge of the gill-cover. Nostrils 
midway between the orbit and the tip of the snout. Mouth not cloven 
as fiir back as the edge of the orbit. Intermaxillarics longer than in 
the Coregoni, but overlapping the articular end of the labials less 
than in the Trutta. Labials, thin elliptical plates, the posterior 
piece lanceolate, and as broad as the anterior one. Under jaw tolera- 
bly strong and rounded at the tip. 

" The teeth are small, subulate, pointed, and slightly curved, stand- 
ing in a single series on the intermaxillarics, in two rows on the pala- 
tines, and in clusters of six or seven on the vomer. The tongue is 
smooth, but the pharyngeal bones, and cartilaginous rakers of the 
branchial arches are rou<Th. 

" Of the gill-covers, the preoperculum has the form of a wide mo- 
derately curved crescent. The suboperculum is more than half the 
height of the operculum, not exceeding it in length. Interoperculum, 
small, and acute-angled 

"The dorsal fin has twenty-three rays, the pectorals fifteen, the 
ventrals nine, the anal thirteen, and the caudal nineteen. 

" Although this exquisitely beautiful and very game fish, is not, as I 
have previously observed, properly speaking, a native either of the 
United States or the Jiritish provinces, being found only in tho 
northern part of tho unsettled regions of British America, and tho 
waters flowing from Great Slave lake into the Arctic ocean, still, so 
wonderfully are the facilities of travel increasing through tho West and 
North, and so great is the enthusiasm of the Anglo-Norman race in all 
matters connected with sporting and sportsmanship, that it by no means 
appears to me impossible that, before many years have elapsed, the 
lovers of the angle, whether of English or American birth, will be 
found casting the fly in the glass-clear rapids of the Winter river, 
and the other waters of those untamed regions, for the Arctic Gray- 
ling, and the many beautiful species of Salmon that are to be taken 



I 34. 



<l ■ * I, 



134 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



■'I 



) f 



there. Nor would there, I believe, be much more risk or hardship 
attending the performance of such a sporting tour, by a strong and 
well-found party, than was incurred, not only without hesitation, but 
with alacrity and enthusiasm, by the sporting gentlemen who crossed 
the Mississippi, in pursuit of the elk and buffalo, at any time antece- 
dent to the Black Hawk war. 

The excitement, the novelty, and, consequently, the charm of such 
an exj jdition, would be indescribable ; and as the brief summer of 
those regions is as beautiful as it is brief, while the sportsman would be 
brought into contact with an entirely new race of beasts, birds, and fish 
of chase, I can imagine nothing that would better repay thx' risk and 
enterprise of such an expedition. 

All the arrangements of such a tour could be made with greatest 
ease at Montreal, where every fiicility could be afforded to the tourists 
by the agents of tha fur companies, and whore the whole of the 
necessary means are just as well understood, and the necessary outfit 
just as easily procured, as are those for a fishing excursion into Hamil- 
ton County, in New York, or for a Maine Moose-hunt, in Boston. 

The prairies of the West have long been explored as hunting grounds, 
by the sportsmen of the old as well as by the hunters and the trappers 
of the new world— the forests and deserts of Africa have afforded 
their trophies of the savage trace, the central wilds of Abyssinia have 
surrendered their fierce denizens, the forests of Ceylon, and the dark 
jungles of the farthest India, have bocome familiar hunting grounds to 
the English sportsmen ; and I think it is scarcely to be doubted that, 
before many years have elapsed, the Swedish and Norwegian rivers 
being already overfished, the votaries of the rod and reel from cither 
side of che Atlantic, will be found whipping the yet virgin streams of 
the far Northwest. 

Political reasons, too, will have their weight in bringing about such 
a consummation ; for the disturbed state of the continent is already 
sufficiently alarming to deter the pleasure-seeking yatcher from visitin^' 
his old haunts in the soft and sunny seas of southern Europe, while the 
stormier seas of the Western world offer him peace at least and hos- 
pitality, while on these shores he will find sport, whether he affect the 
rifle or the rod, far superior to what he has been used to enjoy on the 



ftALMONIDJE 



135 



Eastern continent. I have heard of one yatch already Ettin- out by 
an enthusiastic English sportsman, with the intent of visitin^r this very 
season the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the bays of Gaspe and°Chaleurs, 
and the wild shores of Prince Edward's Island ; and that good sport to 
his utmost wish may follow the adventurous owner, must be the praver 
of every generous son of the gun or angle. 

Not. to R.v,«ed Eo.T.o.v.-Since penning the above, Mr. Perley, of St. John's, 
to whom I appLed for information touching this fish, writes me that a brother 
sportsman informs him that he has killed them abundantlv in the Hudson Brv 
waters. I th.nit it probablo that they may bo found in Labrador. 




I 



' li 



136 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERTGII. 



SALMONIDiE. 




THE AMERICAN SMELT. 

Osmerus Viridcscena ; LeSueur, DeKay, Agassiz. 

This highly-prized and delicious little fish does not properly fall 
within the angler's catalogue of sporting fishes, inasmuch as it is ques- 
tionable, at least, whether it is ever taken with the hook ; I have 
heard it positively asserted that it has been captured, both with the fly 
and with its own roe, but I consider the fact doubtful, to say no more 
— the fish having probably been confounded with the Athcrine or 
Sand-smelt, a small fish commonly known in this country as the Spar- 
ling, and much used as a bait fish. This fish, which a good deal re- 
sembles the true Smelt, both in appearance and flavor, is of a difler- 
ent order and family, being of the order Acanthopterygii, and family 
Mugilidm, bitt-s freely and readily, and has probably, as I observed, 
been mistaken by the unscientific angler. 

My object in dwelling on this delicats^ little fish, is, firstly, to cor- 
rect a vulgar error which I find still prevalent with many persons, that 
the true Smelt is identical with the Salmon smolt, and is, in fact, 
the fry of the Salmon at the commencement of his second year 

The absurdity of this is sufficiently evident from the consideration 
that the Salmon smolt is an immature fish, which runs down the rivers 
he inhabits in the spring, and returns in the autumn a grilse, as has 
been related above ; whereas the Smelt enters the rivers perfectly ma- 
ture, and full of spawn, running up for the purpose of depositing its 



SALMONID^ 



137 



ova so soon as, or even before, the streams aro clear from ice, and 
returning a spent fish in the autumn. It is a sub-genus of the genus 
Salmo, true— but as distinct from it as a Roebuck from an Elk. 

My second object in devoting a page or two to this little fish, is to 
call the attention of scientific men to the fact that there are, in the 
United States, two distinct species of this fish : the Common Ameri- 
can Smelt, Osmcrus Viridcscens— which, diffe-s from the European 
Smelt, Osmencs Ej>erlanus, in many particulars— and a much smaller 
and more highly scented, as well as highly flavored, variety, which I 
believe to be identical of the European fish. 

Some years since, before I thought of publishing on this subject, 1 
compared this smaller fish with the Eastern Smelt, Osmerm Viridtts- 
cens, of LeSueur, and, although I have unfortunately lost the notes 
which I made at that time, and forgot the specific diflFercnces, except 
that the ventral fin in the smaller fish was considerably farther forward 
than in the common fish, I am certain of the fact that there were 
farther diflferences in the number of the fin-rays, apart from the extra- 
ordinary difference in size, which could not fail to strike the least ob- 
servjint. 

This smaller fish, so far as I know or have heard, is never taken but 
in the Passaic and Raritan rivers ; and in neither of these is the large 
Smelt, common alike to the Eastern and the Southern States, ever 
seen. I have observed and examined many thousands, by bushel baa- 
kots-full at a time, and have never seen a fish exceeding seven or eight 
inches in length taken from the Passaic, the general run not exceed- 
mg six ; whereas it is notorious that the American Smolt is rarely 
taken less than ten or eleven, and thence upward to twelve and fifteen 
inches. 

Varrel states of the European Smelt, that they are occasionally 
seen ten and eleven inches long, but that this is an unusually large 
sizo. ^ 

He also describes their food, during their residence in fresh-water, 
as :onsistmg of small fish, with orustaceous and testaceous animals 
In the Tay they are said to feed principally upon the shrimp ; and I 
have heard it asserted by persons of integrity, that they have been 
caught with the same bait near Belleville, on the Passaic. 

It was my full intention to have instituted a full examination and 
10 






13& 



AMERICAN FISHES 



comparison of these— which I am perfectly satisfied will prove to be 
two distinct species— this last spring ; but unfortunately I was neces- 
sarily absent from home during the very few days of this season in 
which they were taken in the Passaic, and lost the opportunity of 
doing so. The run of them is becoming less and less numerous every 
successive season, and it is to be apprehended that ere long they will 
ceaso to visit us at all. 

I will remark hero that the habit of the European Smelt in England 
is very capricious in regard to the rivers which he honors with hia 
presence. It is said that in England the Smelt is never taken between 
Dover and Land's End ; on the eastern side of the island it is taken 
from the Thames and Medway to the Tay, and on the western, in the 
Solway, and so far south only as the Mersey and the Dee. 

A specific description of this well-known little fish would be useless, 
as I am unable to furnish data of comparison between the Smelt of 
the Raritan and Passaic rivers in New Jersey and the Osmcrus Viri- 
descens. 

Before proceeding farther, I will merely observe that I am well as- 
sured that it is generally believed these different species of fish cannot 
be taken with the liook, merely for the reason that no one has ever 
attempted so to take them ; at least, with any bait at which there was 
the slightest probability of their rising. 

I know that the Shad and the Herring, contrary to all received 
opinion, can be taken with the fly ; and I have had great sport myself 
with the latter fish, off the pier of Fort Diamond in the New York 
Narrows, catching them with a gaudy peacock-fly, as fast as I could 
throw it in and pull them out. 

It would by no means surprise me to find, that, during the time 
when Smelt run up our streams, they may be taken freely, either with 
a very small bright fly, or with morsels of shrimp or pellets of their 
own roe, upon a number-twelve Limerick Trout-hook, and thrown 
like a fly, on the surface.* Should such prove to be the case, they 
would afford very pretty light fishing at a time when there is no other 
Bport for the angler. 



• Note to Revised Edition.— Ou this pjiiit, see Supplement. Art. American 
Smelt 



SALMONIDJE. 



139 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACXJPTERYGU 



SALMONID^ 



THE CAPELIN. * 

Mallotua Villotut; Cuvier. 

Of this beautiful little fish, which inhabits the northern seas only, 
never coming farther south than the shores of Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick, I am unable to offer any representation to my readers, 
never having seen a specimen or engraving. 

He is very nearly allied to the Smelts, from which he diflFers princi- 
pally in the smallness of his teeth. 

He is stated in Mr. Perley's report on the Fisheries of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, to be " from four to seven inches in length, the under 
jaw longer than the upper, the color of the back greenish, the under 
surface of the body silvery. They usually appear about Miscon and 
in the bay of Chaleur early in May ; but sometimes not until nearly 
the end of that month. The Cod fishery does not commence until 
the arrival of the Capelin, which continues near the shores until the 
end of July." 

Mr. Perley proceeds to state that, in consequence of the " wanton 
destruction of the proper food of the Cod— Herring and Capelin— 
which are taken in immense quantities, not for immediate eating, or 
for curing, or for bait, but for manuring the ground," the Cod fishery 
is utterly declining, the fisheries going to waste, and the establishments 
deserted and going to ruin. 

" In a representation," he adds, " made to the Canadian Legislature 
by a fisherman of Gaspo, it is stated that this fisherman had seen five 
hundred barrels of Capelin taken in one tide expressly for manure ; 
and that he has also seen one thousand barrels of Herring caught at 
one time, and not taken away, but left to rot upon the beach." 

It is in this connection that I have here enumerated the Capelin ; 
for he cannot be taken with the hook, so far as I can learn, and thero- 

forft is nnt cntmn "Rut fni- H-nri floViiir* •mV>/»*liQ» Tsrt^V. *!.» J _-_ !• . 






' U 



■~-i^t 




140 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



or the bultow, as it is called, or set-lino, it is invaluable as a bait. 
Whenever it can bo obtained, no other should be used. 

It is an exceedingly excellent fish, however, for the table, possessing 
much of the flavor with the peculiar cucumber odor of the Smelt. 

This wanton and stupid destruction of all kinds of game, whether 
feathered, finned, or furred, really appears to bo a distinct character- 
istic of all the white inhabitants of America, wheresoever they are to 
bo found ; and it cannot bo doubted that ere long they will most bit- 
terly regret the consequences of their rapacity and wasteful folly. 

In this case, the wantonness is the more remarkable, as well as dis- 
graceful, because, as Mr. Porloy well remarks, " a bountiful Provi- 
dence has furnished the shores with inexhaustible quantities of kelp 
and sea-wccd, and other valuable manures, which really enrich the 
8)11, while it is admitted that the use offish greatly deteriorates it. 

" The legislature of Canada has been strongly urged to make it a 
xnifldomeanor, punishable by fine and imprisoumcnt, for any person to 
to use either Herring oi Capolin as manure, and such a measure would 
seem to be highly desirable in New Brunswick. To be effective, there 
*hould be similar regulations on both sides of the bay of Chalcur." 

Doubtless this is all very true, but unfortunately the Legislature of 
Canada is much too busy in passing bills for the reward of notorious 
murderers and rebels, and the opposition to the ministry much too 
busy in combating them, and striving to get into office again, to think 
of anything that could benefit the Province, or tend to the good of 
any one except themselves and their own immediate partizans. 

Their own bad passions, and factious partizanship, and no external 
causes whatsoever, are the bane and curse of the Canadas ; but, after 
all, I -suppose, it matters mighty little whether the legislature pass 
such a law or no ; for no human being that I ever heard of in Ame- 
rica, whether British or of the United States, ever dreamed of obeying 
the game law, except exactly in so far as suited his own convenience. 
So I presume the doom of the Capelin, and ultimately of the Cod, may 
be considered sealed. 



'ft 



BALMONIDil!. 



141 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOl'TEUYGII. 



SALMON ID JS. 




THE WHITE-FISH. 

ATTIHAWMEO 
Coiegonus Albua; Le Sueur, Cuvier. 

This and the succeeding fish are the last two of the Salmon family, 
and the only two of their own peculiar sub-genus found within the 
limits of the United States and British Provinces, although there are 
Bcveral other species in the Arctic regions. 

In Europe they have several equivalents which are generally known 
aa Lavarets ; of these are the well-known British species, the Gwyniad, 
the Vendace, and the Powan, of England and Scotland, and the 
PoUan of Ireland, all closely connected, and yet perfectly distinct from 
the analogous fish of America. 

Here, unfortunately, these fine fish have no names at all, save the 
trivial designations or absurd misnomers given to them by the first rude 
settlers of the regions in which they are found. 

The fish of which we arc now speaking is probably the most deli- 
cious of all the purely fresh-water varieties— for such to all intents and 
purposes it is, as a table fish, for it is not found within the limits of 
civilization, except in the lakes above the Falls of Niagara, which 
preclude the possibility of communication with the sea. It is, how- 






142 



AMERICAN FISHES 



ever, found in the Coppermine, the Mackenzie, and other rivers which 
fall into the Arctic sea, and can " probably live indifferently," as Dr. 
Richardson observes, " on fresh or salt-water, like several species of 
TruttcB and Coregoni, that occasionally wander to the sea, although 
they are not strictly anadromous." 

It is claimed by the inhabitants of that portion of the State of New 
York that the finest White-Fish of the whole western country are 
taken in Chatauque lake, a small mountain tarn situated some hun- 
dred feet above Lake Erie, and forming one of the sources of the Alle- 
ghany river. I doubt not the superiority of the Chatauque lake White- 
Fish to the same species taken in the shallow, mnddy, and turbulent 
waters of Lake Erie ; but I entirely disbelieve in its being able to 
sustain comparison with that of the clear, deep, and cold waters of 
Lake Huron, where it is found of the greatest size, and in, as I under- 
stand, the greatest perfection. 

" It is," says Richardson, " a rich, fat fish, yet instead of producing 
satiety, it becomes daily more agreeable to the palate ; and I know 
from experience, that though deprived of bread and vegetables, one 
may live wholly upon this fish for months, or even years, without tiring." 

" In October," observes the same author, " the Attihawnieg" — this 
is its appellation among the Cree Indians, and it were most desirable 
that in the absence of any correct English nomenclature the aboriginal 
names could be adopted — " quits the lakes, and enters the rivers for 
the purpose of spawning. It ascends the streams in the night-time, 
and returns to the lake as soon as it has spawned. Dr. Todd informed 
me that it enters the Severn river from Lake Huron about the 25th of 
October, and retires to the depths of the lake again by the 10th of 
November ; but that in some rapid rocky rivers of that lake, indivi- 
duals are taken throughout the year. A few spawn in the summer 
It is a gregarious fish, and resorts to different parts of a lake, accord- 
ing to the season of the year, its movements being in all probability 
regulated by its supply of food. In winter the fisheries are generally 
established in deep water, remote from the shore ; toward the breaking 
up of the ice, they are moved near to the outlets of the lake ; and in 
the summer comparatively few Attihawmeg are caught, except what 
are speared in the rivers. After the spawning perrod, the fall fishery, 
as it is termed, is more productive in shallow bays and on banks near 



SALMONIDJE. 



143 



the shore. I was informed in the fur countries, that this fish preys on 
insects, and that it occasionally though rarely takes a hook baited with 
a small piece of meat. Dr. Todd found fresh-water shells and small 
fishes in the stomachs of the Lake Huron Attihawmeg; indeed shelly 
nxoUmoa.— Helix, Planorbis, Lynneus, Faludim, &c.-appear to be 
a favorite food of several Trout and Coregoni, both in Europe and 
America.-' 

The fact of the Attihawmeg feeding on shell-fish is greatly corrobo- 
rated by the circumstance of its differing from all the ,.ther known 
Coregoni in the extraordinary thickness of its stomach, which resem- 
bles the gizzard of a fowl; the same being the case with the Gillaroo 
or shell-fish-eating Trout of the Irish lochs ; and, I have little doubt, 
with the crab-eating Trout of tho Marshpee river in this country. 

To the excellence of the VVhite-Fish, I can bear personal testimony 
when on the table, but I have never had an opportunity of examining 
It ; and I am indebted for the description below, to the Fauna Boreali- 
Americana, of the author I have already so often quoted. 

I am informed that this fish is occasionally taken by persons engacred 
in trolling for the Lake Trout, or throwing the fly for the Black Bass, 
Gristes Nigricans, nor can I at all doubt that were his habits properly 
observed and carefully studied by a scientific angler, judging from what 
has been stated above in relation to his food, he might be taken with 
the hook with as much certainty as any other of the lake fish, unless, 
perhaps, the Black Bass, and he would assuredly show great sport at 
the end of a long line, being both a powerful and active fish. 

The average weight of this fish appears to be three or four pounds, 
but when very fat, it is often taken up to seven or eight ; and in par- 
ticular localities it attains a much greater size, having been caught in 
Lake Huron of thirteen or fourteen, and in Lake Manito, it is said, of 
twenty. 

One of seven pounds, caught in Lake Huron, measured twenty-seven 
inches in length. 

In form, the Attihawmeg is very deep in comparison to its length , 
one of the ordinary size, taken in Pine Island lake, measuring as five 
to seventeen, exclusive of the caudal fin ; but when very fat, its depth 
is "s one to three. 

The body is compressed, beine much leas thick t^^a" •^'^■^^ 






i\ 



^W1 



144 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



head is narrow above, with a moderately wide frontal bone, and form- 
ing one-fifth of the length, excluding the caudal. 

The eyes are large, and situated a little more than a diameter of 
the orbit from the tip of the snout, and nearly thrice as far from the 
edge of the gill-plate. The nostrils are placed midway between the 
orbit and the snout. The snout is blunt when seen in front, but its 
profile is more acute. The mouth has a small orifice, but when shut, 
its angles are depressed 

The jaws and tongue are furnished with a few teeth, which are too 
minute to be readily seen by the naked eye, and too slender to be very 
perceptible to the finger. The vomer and palate are quite smooth. 

Of the gill-covers, the preoperculum is sharply curved, and rather 
broad ; its width, in the middle, equalling the height of the suboper- 
culum The operculum measures one-third more vertically than it 
does horizontally ; while on the contrary, the suboperculum is twice as 
long as it is high. The interoperculum is triangular. The branchial 
arches have each a single row of erect subulate rakers, a quarter of an 
inch long, and rough on their inner surfaces. The pharyngeal bones 
are inconspicuous and toothless. 

The scales are large, irregularly orbicular, and about half an inch 
in diameter, with a bright pearly lustre. 

Color, in the shade, bluish gray on the back, lighter on the sides, 
and white on the belly, giving place to a nacry and iridescent pearly 
lustre in a full light. Cheeks, opercula, and irides, thickly covered 
with nacre. 

Fins : branchiostogous rays eight, dorsal fifteen, pectoral sixteen, 
ventral eleven, anal fifteen, caudal nineteen and seven-sevenths. The 
adipose fin is rather large, and situated opposite the termination of the 
anal. The caudal is forked, and spreads widely. 

*It is, in short, a very beautiful fish, and no less useful than it r 
beautiful and delicious, affording the principal subsistence to several 
Indian hordes, and being the main reliance of many of the fur po.sts 
for eight or nine months of the year, the supply of other articles of 
diet being scanty and casual. 

• Note to Revised Edition — For many further partioularg concerning this no- 
t>Ie fish, See Supplement. Art. Attihawmeg. 



fi'i 



SALMONIDiE. 



145 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEETGII. 



SALMONIDiE. 




THE OTSEGO BASS 

OTSEGO LAVARET. 

Corcgontf Otsego,- DeKay.- Sa/mo Ottego; Dewitt Clinton . 

Through the kindness of my esteemed friend, Mr. Cooper, of 
Cooperstown, I have had an opportunity, during this present spring, 
of carefully examining and dissecting this exceedingly beautiful and 
interesting fish, as well as of testing its qualities on the table. 

It is very closely cognate to the last-mentioned species, but is 
unquestionably distinct ; differing in size, form, in the number of fin- 
rays, slightly in the gill-covers, and so far as I could discover without 
a microscope, entirely in the dental system. 

Although a deep fish, it is not nearly so much so as the Attihaw- 
meg ; the finest specimen :vhich I inspected measuring eighteen and 
a half inches in length, and ten inches in circumference at the origin 
of the dorsal fin ; the depth at the same point was a fraction under 
four inches, not being much less than a fifth of the whole length, 
including the caudal. The gill-covers differed in form, in having the 
posterior free margin more curved, and less vortical, the operculum 
less high in proportion to its length, and the suboperculum more so 



I 

MS 



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mm 

r 



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I 



146 



AMERICAN riSHES. 



The snout was sharper and longer, and the labial plates shallower in 
proportion to their length. 

The branchiostegous rays were eight on one side, nine on the 
other ; the dorsal fin-rays thirteen, the pectoral seventeen, the ventral 
eleven, the anal eleven, and the caudal twenty-two 

I examined the mouth as minutely as I could without the aid of 
a glass, and neither by my eye nor my finger could I detect the ves- 
tige of a tooth on the maxillaries, intermaxillarics, tongue, palate, or 
vomer, the latter parts being of a pearly whiteness, and as smooth as 
glass. 

The pharyngeal bones were also toothless, but the branchial arches 
were armed with erect rakers, precisely as described in the last- 
named species. 

The colors of this fish were the most beautiful, lustrous, and bril- 
liant, that I ever witnessed — the back, of a rich iridescent blue, 
changing to greenish ; the sides, cheeks and gill-covers, glittering like 
mother-of-pearl, and the belly sparkling like molten silver ; the fins, 
of a bluish green ; the caudal very deeply forked ; the lateral line 
nearly straight. 

This exquisite and beautiful fish, so far as is known, is found only 
in the Otsego lake, the head waters of the Susquehanna river ; but it 
would be very curious to compare it with the so-called White-Fish of 
Chatauque lake, a locale very similar to the Otsego, equally cut oflF 
from communication with other waters, and at about an equal eleva- 
tion above tide-water. I greatly suspect that the C'oregoni of these 
two mountain lochs would prove identical. 

The habits of the Otsego Lavaret are but little known. It is gre- 
garious, however, and rushes in vast shoals, early in spring, to 
all the shallow waters and shores of the lake, for a few days, during 
which he is taken in vast numbers ; after that time, he retires to the 
coldest depths of the lakes, and is seen no more until autumn, when 
he again makes his appearance for the purpose, it is supposed, of 
spawning, although the period at which the ova are deposited does 
not appear to be clearly ascertained, nor whether the spawning-beds 
are in the shoal waters of the lake, or at the mouth of its feeders. 

It is lamentable to think, though but too true, that through the 
wanton improvidence of the early settlers, who dealt with this delicious 



>r in 

the 
itral 

I of 

ve8- 
), or 
1 as 

Qhes 

last- 

bril- 
)lue, 
like 
fins, 
line 

anly 
lit it 

lOf 

off 
eva- 
bcse 

gre- 
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ring 
the 
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the 
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SALMON I D^. 



147 



fish much. Bs the New Brunswickers do with the Capelin, literally, 
I believe, feeding their hogs with them, they have already visibly 
declined in magnitude, as well as decreased in number. 

They were formerly taken, weighing up to four pounds ; but now, 
tlie half of that weight is regarded as an unusually fine fish The 
Bpeciraen which I have described above weighed two pounds and 
three ounces, and was an uncommonly well-fed and delicious fish. 

With regard to their food, I can say nothing definitely ; the stom- 
achs of those which I examined contained nothing but a blackish, 
earthy substance, which resembled decayed vegetable matter, and 
some small fragments of worms, or larvaj of insects. 

I observed no thickening of the stomach, nor anything which 
seemed to indicate their feeding on any shell-fish or mollusc^e. 

Mr. Cooper informs me that he recollects but a single instance of 
one of these fish being taken with a bait The fly, however, might 
possibly prove more successful. 

The rarity, excellence, and peculiarity of the Otsego Lavaret, enti- 
tle him to a place, as well as the noble race of which he is a member, 
though in some deforce destitute of the game qualities of his order. 
My principal object, however, in introducing him in this place, waa 
first, to present the whole family of American Salmonid^ to my read- 
ers, as complete as possible ; and secondly, to reclaim with all my 
might agamst the absurdity of calling this fish a Bass, of the famUy 
Percida, to which it has neither resemblance nor kindred. 

This absurdity, if possible, is rendered more flagrant by the fact 
that there is yet another fish as distinct from this as possible, desig- 
nated as the Oswego Bass, though it is no Bass either, but a Corvim, of 
the family Saenidce, called also the Lake Sheep's-Head, which, from 
the similarity of title, is frequently confounded with this Corcgoms 
or Lavaret, and also with the Black Bass of the St. Lawrence, which 
for the third time, is not properly a Bass, Gnstes Nigricans, and 
which IS again, through the similarity of names, confused with the 
Sea Bass, Centropristes Mgricans, who is also blunderingly called 
Black Bass. So that we have actually four fish as different one from 
the other as any four things can be, all blundered up together in con- 
fusion worse confounded, owing to the timidity of naturalist, hesi- 
tating to alter a misnomer originating in the ignorance of those who 






Hi 



148 



AMERICAN FI8IIK8. 



^cre naturally ignorant. The scientific name and characteristics of 
this fish are well established, as Coregonus Otsego, the English of 
which, being interpreted, is " the Otsego Lavaret." And now, why 
should not the stupid blunder of Bass be consigned to the oblivion 
which it deserves, and the true appellation be applied to the fish — an 
appellation which assigns to this, the last, not least, of the American 
SalmonidcE, a local habitation and a name ? 

At the last moment, I quote from a very clever writer under the 
signature of the " Naturalist," from the Spirit of the Times, confirma- 
tory of my opinion with regard to the taking of this class of fishes with 

the fly: 

" Besides the Salmon and Spotted Trout, the Coregonus Albus, or 
White Fish, is abundant in the Chatcaugay lakes. In the latter part 
of June and early part of July they take the artificial fly freely ; in 
winter, they may be often taken through the ice with the worm. 1 
myself caught one of three pounds' weight, with a worm, while fishing 
off the rocky shore, (the shores of both lakes are mostly rocky,) for the 
Speckled Trout." 




BSOCIUiS 



149 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGII. 



E80CIDA. 



Tins family, the Esocidce, of which the true Pike, Esox Lucius, of 
Europe, is the typo, is largely represented in the waters of the United 
States and the Provinces ; six or seven distinct spociss having been 
discovered, exclusive of the formidable Garpike, Esox Osseus, of the 
south-western waters, which, instead of scales, is cased in a complete 
armor of rhomboidal plates ; and which is held, by Mr. Agassiz and 
other distinguished naturalists, to be a connecting link between the 
animals of the present period and those contemporaneous with the 
Saurians, and other extinct races. 

The fish of this family are distinguished, generally, by the want of 
the second dorsal or adipose fin, by the situation of the dorsal very far 
backward and opposite to the anal fin, and by having the border of their 
upper jaw either formed solely by the intermaxillarijs, or by having 
the labials destitute of teeth, if they enter at all into its composition. 
The mouth is always large, and the teeth sharp and powerful, but the 
shape and proportional length of the jaws vary greatly in the various 
spacies, as do the situation and number of the teeth, and the formation 
of the gill-covers; and by these particulars are the species distin- 
guished. 

The principal of these various species, are — 

The Mascalonqe, Masqueallnnge, Esox Ester, of the great lakes ; 

The Northern Pickerel, Esox Libcioides, of the same waters; 

The Common Pickerel, Esox Reticulatiis, of all the ponds and 
streams of the northern and midland States. 

The Long Island Pickerel, Esox Fasciatus, probably peculiar 
to Long Island, formerly Nassau Island, on the southern coast of 
New York. 

The White Pickerel, Esox Vittatns, of the Ohio, the Wabash, 
and others of the western waters. 

And the Black Pickerel, Esox Niger, of Pennsylvania. 

Of all these species, the first two form the type, all the others fol- 



I 



■4 



9f. 



|i 



160 



AMERICAN FISHES 



lowing the formation of the licad, which is remarked in one or other 
of these, as regards the comparativo length of the snout, the fc'^-^-on 
of the lower jaw, the dental system, and the gill-coverw. So marked 
is this diflFerence, that in addition to the wood-cuts of the entire fishes, 
I have thought it well to give large representations of the heads of 
these two noble fish ; and by examining these with a little care, and 
comparing them with the heads of any of the smaller varieties, it will 
be easy to distinguish to which type any one of them belong. 

Thus, any person will at once perceive that the Common Pickerel, 
in the comparative length of the jaws, and the beak-like form and 
scanty dentition of the lower mandible, follows the type of the Masca- 
longe ; while the Long Island species resembles, in the short obtuse 
snout, and extension of the teeth to the tip of the lower jaw, the North- 
ern Pickerel. 

The same thing will be found to be the case with all the other sub- 
species, although the diflFercnces between them are so trifling, and so 
purely technical, while their general resemblance is so great, and their 
habits so entirely similar, rendering it impossible to mistake them for 
fish of any other family, that I have deemed it superfluous to multiply 
examples, or to give specific descriptions of more than the first four 
species ; contenting myself with enumerating the others, and indica- 
ting the localities in which they are to be found, which will be alto- 
gether sufficient, in order to prevent confusion. 



Note to Revised Edition. — Another species of this voracious fish, Eaox Phale- 
ratus, is laid down in some books, but it does not seem that any of the tiiree, Niger, 
Vittatus, or Phaleratus, are very clearly made out as permanent and distinct va- 
rieties. Their habits, haunts, and manner of feeding are ail nearly identical ; and 
until a more complete search of the western and southern waters has been made, it 
is useless to attempt going into minutioB of this kind. It is a singular fact, as stated 
by Richardson, that no Pike or Pickerel has ever beea taken ia waters west of the 
Rocky Mountains. 



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C80CIDA. 



101 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACUPTERYGO. 



JtaOClDM. 



THE MASOALONGE. 

Matqucallongi ; Canadian French.— E»ox Ettor; Cuvicr, Agaoaiz. 

This magnificent fish, wliich is the finest, largest, and most excellent 
food of all the Pilce family, is found only in the great lakes and waters 
of the St. Lawrence basin, not having been discovered in any of the 
rivers or lakes which discharge themselves into Hudson's Bay or the 
Polar Sea, nor yet, so far as I have been able to ascertain, in any of 
the smaller lakes of the United States which shed their waters north- 
erly into the St. Lawrence. It is stated that " in the spring, which is 
its spawning season, it frequents the small rivers that fall into Lake 
Simcoe" — which discharges itself by the Severn into Lake Huron — 
and that it feeds on small, gelatinous, green balls, which grow on the 
sides of banks under water, and on small fishes." 

This great Pike is said, by Dr. Richardson, to attain the weight of 
twenty-eight pounds, but it unquestionably grows to a very much larger 
size, though I cannot state, with precision, the greatest dimensions that 
ho has been known to acquire. Dr. DeKay says that he has been 
known to exceed four feet in length, which, having in view the breadth 
and depth of this fish when in condition, would give a probable weight 
of sixty or eighty pounds, which I believe to approach" his maximum. 
He is a bold and most voracious fish. 

The cut accompanying this paper, and the following description, 
are taken from a specimen preserved in spirits, in the possession of 
Professor Agassiz, of Harvard University, which measured about two 
feet and a half in length, and weighed eighteen pounds. 

The length of the head to that of the whole body was as two to nine. 

The snout, from the orbit of the eye forward, singularly elongated 
and acute. The anterior edge of the orbit, midway betweon the tip 
of the snout and the posterior margin of the free gill-cover. The bor- 
der of the upper jaw is fo ni-'d of the maxillaries alono. th:; edrres of 



m-^ 



■« 



I 



152 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



f I 



which are furnished with several rows of long, powerful, and exceed- 
ingly sharp, awl-shaped teeth, the points curving slightly forward. 
The vomer and palatine bones are covered with card-like clumps of 
spiny teeth, as are the base of the tongue, and the pharyngeal bones. 
The tongue itself is soft. 

The lower jaw is considerably longer than the upper ; it is armed 
for something less than half its length with very powerful recurved 
fantrs, the two largest being in front, a little posterior to the tip of the 
ton^Tuc. Beyond these, the lower jaw is toothless, curved upwards, 
with sharp, horny, beak-like edges ; and in these points, particularly, 
is it distinct from the following species. 

Of the gill-covers, the prcoperculum is nearly vertical, and but 
slightly curved, the operculum much higher than it is broad, and 
nearly four times as high as the suboperculum. which is slightly round- 
ed posteriorly. The branchiostegous rays are eighteen in number. 

The body and head are quadrangular, flattened above, and much 
compressed at the sides. The dorsal fin is directly above the anal, 
the caudal powerful and deeply forked. 

The fins, according to Professor Agassiz' singularly precicc mode of 
enumeration, contain — the dorsal, twenty-two fin rays ; anal, twenty ; 
ventral, thirteen ; pectoral, eighteen. The main part of the caudal 
fin is divided into two somewhat unequal lobes, containing, the upper, 
nine ; the under, eight fin-rays ; while above and below the two larger 
lateral rays there arc nine smaller rays. 

In color, it differs from the Northern Pickerel in having the general 
tint of the body lighter than the markings. The back and upper part 
of the sides are dark, changing from greenish blue to bluish gray, on 
the sides, which are irregularly dashed with darker spots and splarhes. 
When exposed to a strong light, every scale reflects bright colors, 
which vary as the fish is moved ; but there is no fixed pale mark on 
the tip of the scales, as in the succeeding species. 

The Mascalonge, which owes its name to the formation of the head 
— masque allonge, long face or snout, Canadian PVench — but which 
has been translated from dialect to dialect, maskinonge, muscalunge, 
and muscalinga, until every trace of true derivation has been lost, is 
said to be much znv^ro common in Lakes Erie and Ontario than in the 
more northern waters of Canada ; but this will, I fancy, prove to be 



ESOCID^E. 



163 



erroneous, as I know them to be taken of great size, and remarkable 
excellence, in Lake ITiiron, 

It is the boldest, fiercest, and most voracious of fresh-water fish ; and 
there is none, unless it be the Great Lake Trout, that can ofi'er any 
adequate resistance to his attacks. It is said that even the spiny dor- 
sals of the Pcrcidcv, do not protect them from his ravenous attacks. 

He bites daringly at a dead bait played with spinning-tackle, or 
even with a simple gorge and trolling-hooks. He is, moreover, readily 
taken with that murderous instrument, the spoon, or even by a bait 
of tin or rod cloth, made to play quickly through the water. 

Before passing to the next species, I cannot but pause to notice a 
strange error of nomenclature, in Mr. Brown's comprehensive little 
volume, "The American Angler's manual," to which I have alluded 
before, by which he transforms the term Esor^ the specific name of 
every member of the Pike family, as assigned by Linnajus, into the 
Ehsi'x, which he appears to conceive a distinctive term peculiar to the 
Mascalonge, which he calls " the Essex or Muscalinga of our western 
lakes." I note this error, not froia any desire to underrate a useful 
and valuable little book, but merely to guard against its adoption by 
anglers in general. 









NoTi: TO Revised Edition.— The Mascalongre is, as I presumed above, and have 
verified by pcrs(..ial observation, vastly more abundant, and infinitely larger, and in 
nil rcspocta suporior in Lake Huron to those in the lakes below ; indeed tlie superi- 
ority of all kiiiils of lish in those cold, pure, deep waters, improving the farther you 
go northward, to those in the muddy shallows of Lake Erie, cannot be believed until 
it is learned by experience. 




11 



isr 



154 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGIL 



AMERICAN FISHES 



ESOCIDiE. 



GREAT NORTHERN PICKEREL. 

Etox Lucioides ; Agasslz. 

This great Pike, like the last, is peculiar to the basin of the St 
Lawrence, and was first clearly described and specified during the 
Bcieniific tour to Lake Superior, which I have already mentioned, by 
Prof. Agassiz, who pointed out Kr. distinctions, both from the European 
Pike, and the Mascalonge, tothe former of which, Esox Lucius, it is 
by far the most closely allied, although it appears to have been con- 
founded with both— ie Su 'ur, who first gave a distinct specific name 
to the Mascalonge, having de^cnbed it as the fish now under consid- 
eration, Esox Lucioides, itiiJ not at all as Esox Ester. 

The Northern Pickerel is taken up to the weight of sixteen or 
seventeen pounds, but rarely, I believe, exceeds that weight. It is an 
exceedingly handsome fish, longer and slighter, in proportion to its 
depth, than the Mascalonge. 

Its body is four-sided, the back broader and flatter than the belly ; 
the vertical diameter is equal to about one-seventh of the body, caudal 
included ; the transverse diameter is two-thirds of the vertical , the 
body carries its thickness to the dorsal fin, and then tapers into the 
thin tail ; the sides are compressed and flattened ; the head is about 
one-fifth the length of the body ; the snout not nearly so long, and 
much more obtuse, than in the Mascalonge ; the under jaw does not 
exceed the upper in length nearly so much as in that fish, and is 
armed around all the fore part with a single row of small, slightly- 
hooked teeth ; on the sides of the lower jaw are a row of larger awl- 
shaped teeth, implanted in the bone ; the palate bones, vomer, and 
pharyngeal arches, are all armed witli bands of small sharp teeth, like 
carding machines, as in the former species ; the tongue is broad, and 
truncated at the tip. 
The gill-covers are nearly as they arc described in the Mascalonge, 



f 







' ¥1 



itj. A 



ESOCID^. 



155 



except that the odgo of the suboperculum is straighter and more 
vertical, and that the opcrcula are in a slight degree scaly. 

The gill-openings are very large ; and the branchiostegous rays are 
fifteen in number, or more numerous by two than in the English Pike, 
which differs from the Northern Pickerel moreover in the number of 
all the fin-rays, in having tha cheeks and opcrcula covered with regular 
scales, as in the Esox Rcticulntus, and in the teeth on its vomer and 
palatine being dispersed into lines, rather than planted in serried 

patches. 

The Northern Pickerel has dorsal fin -rays, twcnty-ono ; anal, eigh- 
teen ; caudal, seven above and seven bjlow the larger lateral rays ; the 
whole caudal divided into two unequal lobes, the upper of nine, the 
lower of eight rays ; the ventral eleven, and the anal sixteen. 

The back of this beautiful fish is of a rich blackish green, which 
changes on the sides to greenish gray ; there is a bright speck on the 
tip of each scale, which gives a singularly light and sparkling aspect 
to the whole fish. The belly is of a lustrous pearly white. There 
arc several rows of oblong, diamond-shaped, yellowish gray spots on 
the sid's of the head, body and tail. The cheeks are varied with 
emerald green reflections, the under jaw and gill-rays white ; the 
iiides purple, with a golden band around the pupil; the dorsal and 
caudal fins are blackish green, marked with patchy bands of a darker 
oil green ; the anal greenish gray, with orange margins, and a few 
dark spots ; the ventrals the same, witli orange tips, but wHhout spots ; 
the pectorals dusky yellow. 

The Northern Pickerel is equal in boldne- »nd voracity to the 
Mascalonge, and to the northern European Pike, irom which he differs 
in the fin-rays, dtmtal sysicm giil-covers, and very essentially in the 
coloring— the Pike biding ban led or mottled, and having no indication 
whatever of the regular rhomboidal spots which mark the sides, and 
form a characteristic of the Northern Pickerel. 

He takes any sort of bait in spinning or trolling, and being readily 
captured by set baits through the ice, forms a very essential article of 
food to the Indian hunter when the chase fails him. No animal food 
of any kind comes ami.s3 to this fresh-water tyrant. Fidi of every 
variety, even his own species, and the spiny Pearch, the immature 
young of wild fowl, rats, reptiles of all sorts— in short, every living 



.-11 






! I 







166 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



thing that comes within his reo'jh, ministers instantly to his voracious 
appetite. 

But the baits by which he is most sportingly secured are the small 
bright leucisciy or shiners, at the end of a double swivel trace, or a 
live frog, which he can rarely refuse. 

Note to Revised Edition. — I have recently been informed by a correspondent, 
that this fish, or the Mascalonge, is taken in the Connecticut, near Bellow's Falls. 
That he himself has captured it, and is assured of its being wholly distinct from the 
CuJimon Pickerel, with which he asserts himself to be, and of course is, conversant. 
He also adds, that it has only been known in those waters within a limited number 
of years ; and that it is the popular belief that it was introduced i.ito the Connecti< 
cut by the breaking out of a new outlet from some mountain lake. If this be bo, it 
is a strange fact, as this fish was only distinguished as belonging to the great lakes, 
last year, 1848, by Professor Agassiz, who considers it peculiar to them ; and the 
Mascalonge has been hitherto distinctly limited to the St. Lawrence basin. This 
fish wiij considered by Richardson, as identical with the English Pike, Esnx T<ii- 
ciun, A-.'. ."oh it is not, tluinj;h nearlv allied to <>, whciici- its iiiiiiic. Lticioidrs 




ESOOID^. 



157 



Hi 



ABDOMINAL 
MAI^uCOPTERYGII. 



ESOCID^. 



•%>^ 







THE COMMON PICKEREL. 

'Esox Rcticulatus; Le Sueur. 

Throughout the United States, excepting only the extreme west- 
ern and southern waters, this is perhaps the commonest of all game 
fishes ; from New England to the western limits of Pennsylvania, not 
a river, pond, or streamlet but abounds with this bold and rapacious 
fish ; and it is probable that, like many other of the northern fish, ho 
is found in the waters of the hill districts of Virginia, Carolina, and 
even of the Western States, although in such locations he is lost sight 
of among the tribes peculiar to those regions. 

With regard to the Southern States, especially, it is almost impos- 
sible to arrive at anything like certainty concerning the species or 
varieties of game fish to be found within their limits, from the univer- 
sal misapplication of names, and the unhappy tendency of sportsmen, 
to which I have already made allusion, to adopt any barbarous local 
misnomer, rather than to make themselves acquainted with the true 
specific names, and to learn the distinctions, so as to speak under- 
standingly of the game which they take. 

It is indeed a hopeless task to hunt up the real per-uliarities ana 



158 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



true genera of fisb, known in their own regions as the " Wclchman," 
the " Ponipano," and such other denominations, which of course are 
not to bo found in any work of natural history, while the people, who 
aro in the habit of taking them daily, can give you no information, 
■iuv indeed data, on which to found an opinion, except that they are 
" very like a whale," or a Trout, as it may be. I mention this hero 
I passant y because I am perfectly prepared to find myself violently 
;!,ssailed, and pronounced utterly incompetent to prepare a book of 
(his nature, because I have not included " that delicious fish, the pride 
of our southern waters, well known to the real sportsman, the noble 
' Ponipano,' or the unrivalled ' VVclchman,' as it may bo, in my list 
of game fishes." But I have made up my mind to peaceful submis- 
sion, deeming it quite enough to have investigated the identity of what 
it amuses southern gentlemen to call " Trout," and Western New 
Yorkers "Bass" and " Sheep's-Head," without troubling my head 
about mere provincial barbarisms. I believe the " Ponipano " to be 
of the Mackerel family, and the " Welchman," which is described as 
a bold biter at small fish, worms, and the like, to be a percoid fish, 
analogous to Rock-Bass, CciUrarchus yEncics, or perhaps a Cor vim, 
analogous to the Malas/iegane, or Sheep's-Head of the lakes. 

The Common Pickerel — to return to my subject — does not in gene- 
ral exceed five pounds, and in most districts this is considerably above 
his average, which does not, I think, go beyond two and a half or 
three pounds, but they arc occasionally taken in the smaller lakes, 
and in some few of the more sluggish streams, of infinitely larger 
size, even so far, it is said, as to twelve and fifteen pounds' w. ight ; 
but such instances are rare, even if they can be reli-d upon as facts 
— which I am somewhat inclined to doubt, tliiuking that they have 
probably been mistaken for some other cognate species. 

lu the year 1838, I myself took a Pickerel which weighed fifteen 
pounds threo ounces, under Stillwater bridge, on the Hudson river, 
while fishing for Black Bass, Griaies Nigricans, with a large gaudy fly| 
and landed him, aftor a long and severe struggle, having only a light 
fly-rod, and neither gaff nor landing net, although I was fishing with 
a Salmon-reel, and one hundred yards of line. 
^ I was not at that time sufficiently conversant with minute distinc- 
tions to say positively to what species this large fish belonsed. and I 






ESOCIDiE. 



159 



■ 



unfortunately took no notes at the time. According to the best of 
my recollection, however, it was a longitudinally spotted fish, and if 
so, was probably a stray Northern Pickerel, which had found his way 
down the canals, from the basin of the St. Lawrence, into that of the 
Hudson. 

And this, which would at first seem a highly improbable, if not 
impossible hypothesis, becomes at once reasonable, when the fact is 
known that three, at least, of the fish peculiar to the great lakes and 
to the waters of the St. Lawrence have found their way into the 
Hudson and its tributaries since the opening of the various canals, 
and are now taken abundantly within the State of New York — these 
are the greater Black Bass, Gristcs Nigricans ; the Oswego — not to 
be confounded with the Otsogo — Bass, Corvina Oscula ; and the 
Rock Bass, Centrarchus JEnexLS. 

Any of these species, in order to reach the Hudson, must descend 
thj canals, and take advantage of the moment when the boats are 
passing through the locks, and the gates opened — which, when we 
consider the commotion of the water, the splashing, hubbub, and con- 
fusion which occurs at such times, is in itself sufficiently extraordinary, 
and seems to go far toward proving that fish, except as regards feeliu"-, 
are much less shy than is commonly believed, and to -^rd abolishing 
the idea that they are driven out of their favorite rivers by craft or 
steamboats. 

If one species, however, can succeed in passing those numerous 
obstacles, there is nothing to prevent another from doing likewise ; 
and it is in no respect more difficult to believe that the Northern Pick- 
erel should so make his way to our southern waters, than that the 
varieties of Bass above-mentioned should— as it is well-established 
that they have done— introduce themselves as an indigenous fish in the 
same. 

From what I have personally seen, therefore, of the Common Pick- 
erel, Esox Reticwlatm, I am a good deal inclined to doubt the tales I 
have heard of its groat size ; and, until I shall be satisfied, on personal 
examination, am unwilling to credit him with a growth exceeding six 
or seven pounds. 

This fish, as will appear from examination of the cut, follows the 
type of the Mascalonge, in the elongation of the snout, the curvature 



■m 



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all 



160 



AMERICAN FISIIKS. 



of the lower jaw, and the sraallncss, though not absolute deficiency, 
of teeth in the foro part thereof. 

It is easily distinguished by its having, its cheeks and gill-covers 
completely cased in gmall scales, and by the brownish lines on its 
flanks, occasionally intersecting each other, like the meshes of a net, 
whence the name Reticulata. 

In form this Pike closely rosomblcs the others of his family. His 
body is quadrilateral, the back broader than the belly ; th'i depth is to 
the entire Lngth, including the caudal, as one to seven, tho thickness 
is about two-thirds of the depth ; the length of the head to tho 
entire length is as one to four ; tho posterior edge of the orbit is 
midway between tho tip of the snout and tlie posterior margin of tho 
frcj gill-cover ; tho origin of the ventral fin is midway between the 
tip of the snout and the fork of the caudal ; the termination of the 
caudal opposite to tho origin of tho anal ; the gill-covers are nearly 
vertical, and very slightly rounded, except the margin of the suboper- 
culum, which is very short as compared with tho operculum ; the 
brauchiostegous rays are nine in number, dorsal fin rays twenty, 
pectoral sixteen, ventral ten, anal twenty, caudal eighteen, seven 
above and seven below the greater rays. 

The back is of an olive green with blue reflections, the sides olive 

green fading into greenish yellow, with vertical lines of dull brown 

occasionally crossing one another, so as to form a sort of irregular 

network ; the dorsal and caudal fins arc of an olive brown clouded 

with green; the pectorals and ventrals greenish brown, margined 

with dull yellow ; .he anal dusky green ; the irides golden yellow •, 

the cheeks and opercula, which are covered with small scales, are 

olive green, with brownish marks and reflections. The snout brown ; 

the lower jaw and gill-rays white; the belly white, marked with brown! 

This is the Common Pickerel of the Middle and Eastern states ; and 

IS the fish intended, when the word Pickerel is used without the aid of 

any epithet or definition. It is rather a favorite fish ; and has been 

injudiciously introduced into many fine Trout ponds and streams, 

which have in consequence lost all thrir attractions to the fly-fisher, 

but now swarm with this coarser and comparatively worthless fish. 

^ He is a bold biter, and affords considerable sport when hooked ; but 

IB coarse, watery, and of small value on the table. 



•'\ 



\ 



ESOOIDiB. 



161 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYOII. 



ESOCIDiE. 



I 







THE LONG ISLAND PICKEREL. 



"1 



Esox Faaciatus ; De Kay. 



J 



This, which is the smallest and most insignificant of the family, so 
far as its sporting or epicurean qualities are concerned, was first distin- 
guished and named by Dr. DeKay, of Now York. 

Its principal characteristic is the very remarkable size of its scales, 
which, in most of tho family, even in the enormous Mascalonge, are 
very minute and slender. 

In this little denizen of the running brooks and clear Trout ponds 
of Long Island, tho scales are larger than in any other of tho family, 
80 as to make it resemble, in that particular, some of the Cyprinida^ 
rather than its own tribe. 

In other respects, size excepted, it diiFors little from the other Pike, 
whieh follow the type of the Northern Pickerel, rather than that of ths 
Mascalonge, to which variety it belongs ; as is readily seen in the 
short snout, straight lower jaw, of this small fish, the latter carrying 
its teeth, of full size, quite round the fore part of the jaw. 

The Long Island Pickerel rarely, if ever, in those waters, exceeds 
a pound weight, and that is greatly above the average, which is proba- 
bly nearer one-half that size. It is less voraciou? also than the larger 
members of its family, and is said to be in no wise detrimental to the 
Trout, which literally swarm in the same waters. Indeed, its size 
would render it innocuous to anything beyond the small fry, as a 







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AMERICAN FISHES 



well-grown pound Brook Trout would be considerably more than a 
match for any of these little Pickerel which have come under my ob- 
servation. In shape and general proportions, the Long Island Pickerel 
is not dissimilar to the species last described, the head alone excepted, 
which, allowance being made for the difference of size, and the scali- 
ness of the cheeks and opercula, is, in all respects, similar to that of 
the Great Northern Pickerel. 

Its gill-covers do not materially differ from those of the Common 
Pickerel, except that the lower margin of the suboperculum is some- 
thing more oblique, giving the posterior edge of the free margin 
rather an angular form. 

The branchiostegous rays are four in number ; the dorsal fin-rays 
twenty-two, pectoval sixteen, ventral ten, anal eighteen, and caudal 
eighteen, seven above and seven below the greater rays. 

Its color is olive green, darker on the back, and fading into greenish 
yellow on the sides, irregularly barred with transverse waving bands 
of dusky brown, whence its designation of Fasciatus. The fins are 
brownish green, generally, without spots or bars ; the pectorals and 
ventrals the palest, and bordered with dingy yellow. 

Before closing this paper I would mention a very remarkable speci- 
men of this fish, which was kindly sent to mo by my friend, Mr. 
William Pennington, of Newark, who perceived that it was a fish of 
unusual character, and knowing that I was engaged in this work, took 
some pains to procure me a sight of it. 

This individual was caught in a net in the salt-water, in the lower 
part of Newark bay, and at first sight I was inclined to believe it a 
nondescript species. 

It weighed something over a pound and a half, was unusually tliick 
in proportion to its depth, and was in the finest condition. Its culor, 
however, was the most remarkable ; for the back and sides, dovsTi to 
the lateral line, were of the richest and most lustrous copper-color, 
paling on the sides into bright brazen yellow, with th^ belly of a silvery 
whiteness. The cheeks, gill-covers, and fins all partook of the same 
coppery hue, and the whole fish was far more lucent and metallic than 
any of the family I had before seen. There was not the slightest in- 
dication of any transverse bars or of any mottling ; nor was thero any 
of that sea-green color which is so peculiar to the Pike family. 



ESOCID.E. 



163 



On a minute examination, howovor, of its charactoristics, and espe- 
cially of the size of its scabs, I was p3rf jctly satisfied that it was 
neither more nor loss than an individual Long Island Pickerel, l^sox 
Fasciatus, which, having wandered into salt-waters, had thus entirely 
changed its colors, and grown to a weight exceeding its natural average, 
in the ratio of at least three to one, probably from the superiority and 
greater abundance of food which he found in his new hunting grounds. 

I did not myself taste the fish, but was informed that it was of 
very unusual excellence. 

I never saw a more striking instance of the eflfect which different 
waters have upon the coloring and condition of fishes, than in this 
Pickerel ; nothing was left unchanged except those specific characters 
on which alone permanent distinctions can be founded ; and without a 
knowledge of which, the quickest observation is useless, so far as as- 
signing their places to any of the animal kingdom. 

In addition to the four species above described, there are laid down 
in the books three others, beside the hideous Garpike, or Alligator 
jrar, Esox Osseus, of the West. 

These are the Esox Ntger^ Esox Phahratus, and Esox Vittatus, 
of the western waters, all which are so closely allied, and so closely 
similar in habit, that there is no object in occupying space in their 
description, the rather as they are well known, and not liable to be 
mistaken for others of the same familv. 



Note to Revised Edition. — I have obeerved a statement of a correspondent to the 
N. Y. Spirit of the Times, that I have erred in assigning one to one and half pounds 
as the limit of growth to the Long Island Pickerel, because he had killed Pickerel 
of four pounds and upward on Long Island. The common Pickerel, Esox Reti- 
culatus, which grows to five and even seven pounds, is taken on Long Island, but 
is not, therefore, or for other cause, the Long Island Pickerel, which was scientifi- 
cally distinguished from it by DeKay, on account of its diminutive size and large 
scutes. The distinctiou has been allowed by Agassiz, and all eminent naturalists. 



/io* tfijf t^ n4^hifit^ 



164 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEETGIL 



OTPRINIDjB. 




THE COMMON CARP. , 

Cyprinuf^ Carpio ; Linnsus, Cuvier. 

Of this family, Cyprinidcty the principal characteristics are a mouth 
slightly cleft ; weak, and generally toothless jaws ; pharyngeal hones 
strongly dentated ; one dorsal fin ; branchial rays few in number ; to 
which may be added large fleshy lips, and bodies covered with large 
scales. 

It comprises eighty or ninety well-known American species, not one 
of which is worthy of notice, as either a fish of sport or a dainty. 
There are in America no Carps proper, indigenous to the country — no 
Barbels — no Cobitis, or loaches. Leucisci^ analogous to, though by 
no means — as stated by Dr. J. V. C. Smith, of Massachusetts — iden- 
tical with the Chub, Roach, Dace, and Bleak of Europe, are found in 
abundance under the above names, but still more commonly as Shiners. 
The genus Abramisy Bream, has again several representatives in the 
waters of North America, but none, either of this or the last sub- 
genus, can attain to dimensions which lead the angler to trouble him- 
self about them, unless it be as bait for other fish, as Pike and Pearch, 
for which purpose several of these fish are better adapted than those 
of any other family, unless it be the young fry of the Salmonida^ 
while in their Parr form. 



. CYPRINIDiE 



165 



In lieu of those genera, however, which exist in England and on 
the continent of Europe, but entirely lack American representatives, 
several prevail here which are totally wanting in Europe, as the genus 
Labco, the genus Catastomus, Suckers, or Sucking Carp, many varieties 
of which are found throughout the waters of the United States and 
Canada, from north to south, and many species of Hydrargyra, ana- 
logous to the European Minnow. 

Several of these last species are of great interest to the naturalist, the 
Catastomij or Suckers, especially, from the singular formation of their 
mouths, which are situated far below and posterior to the tip of the 
snout, and furnished with crimped and pendanJ labials, adapted for the 
deglutition of vegetable substances and even of mud; but to the 
sportsman they are of no account, as they do not take the bait, and 
are worth little as bait themselves, while, by the epicure, they are 
justly held in utter scorn. 

The truth is, that nowhere under the canopy of Heaven are tho 
genus Cyprinus worthy to be accounted sporting fishes, and nowhere 
are they eatable — not even excepting the Carp and Tench of Europe 
— unless with the aid and appliances of a most careful cuisine, and by 
dint of stewing in claret, with condiments and spices, garlic and force- 
meat balls, and anchovies, such as might convert a kid glove, or the 
sole of a reasonably tender India-rubber shoe, into delicious esculents. 

The shyness of the Carp in biting, the great size of the Bream and 
Barbel, and even in some waters of the Chub, induce bottom -fish- 
ing anglers at home to take some pleasui*e in their pursuit and capture, 
but that is invariably in such slow and sluggish waters as contain no 
gamer or more delicate fish ; and the dull, logy, watery fish them- 
selves, and the cockney punt-fishers, who aspure to take them, are held 
in about equal esteem, or disesteem, by those who know what it is to 
throw a long line lightly, with a cast of flies, for the vigorous-speckled 
Trout, or to spin, or even troll, with the Parr or Minnow, for the 
savage and voracious Pike or Salmon 

In America, none of the Leucisci, Chub, Roach, Dace, or Shiners, 
and none of the Abramis^ Bream, exceed nine or ten inches in length, 
and consequently are never subjects of more serious pursuit than the 
holiday crooked-pin and angle-worm fishing of schoolboys. They are 



r^x.^/ */ fii\hiA^ 



166 



AMERICAN FI8HE9. 



the detestation of the Trout bottom-angler, constantly nibbling away 
his bait, and tantalizing him with vain hopes of a bite. 

Of this family, therefore, so far as the true American genera are 
concerned, no notice need be taken in a sporting work, except as re- 
lates to two or three little fishes, to which I shall devote a few lines 
each, as being excellent bait for all the larger and bolder fishes. 

Within the last few years, however, two European varieties have 
been introduced, and have become entirely naturalized in some of our 
waters. The Gold Carp, Cyprinus Auratus of Linnseus and Cuvier, 
or common Gold and Silver fish of China, in the Schuylkill, and in 
some streams of Massachusetts, and the Common Carp of Europe, 
whose title stands at the head of this paper, in the Hudson, especially 
in the vicinity of Newburgh. 

The former of these little fish is, indeed, unworthy of notice, except 
as an ornamental fish, to be kept in garden tanks and fountains ; but 
the other being much, though I must confess in my opinion unde- 
servedlyj esteemed in Europe, and having been deemed worthy of le- 
gislative enactments for his protection, by the State of New York, 1 
shall proceed to describe as a species, which, within a year or two at 
the farthest, will come within the American angler's list of game. 

The mode of this fish's introduction into American waters, is as fol- 
lows : — Captain Robinson, who has a fine place immediately on the 
banks of the Hudson river, containing some fine fish ponds, between 
Newburgh and New Windsor, imported some years since a quantity 
of Carp at considerable expense, I believe from Holland, where the 
species is very abundant and very fine in quality. His ponds were 
soon admirably stocked ; but in process of time a heavy freshet 
carried away his dams and flood-gates, and a very large proportion of 
his Carp escaped into the Hudson. This fact being represented to 
the Legislature of the State, a penal enactment was passed, heavily 
mulcting any person who should take any one of these Hudson river 
Carp, at any season or under any circumstances, until after the expi- 
ration of five years from the passage of the act. 

The provisions of this bill have been strictly enforced ; several per- 
sons have been fined, and the fish is nOw extremely abundant. 

I cannot here, in relating these circumstances, control myself, but 



4 



tr 



V 



CYPRINIDiE. 



167 



4 



mnst invoke the contempt and indignation of every gentle sportsman, 
every reasonable thinking man, upon the heads of that ignoran* 
motley, and destructive assemblage, which is entitled the Senate ana 
Assembly of New York. For the last fifteen yeurs not a session has 
passed without the strenuous and sustained attempts of the most edu- 
cated and most influential gentlemen of the State, both of the city 
and the agricultural counties, to induce the faineant demagogues Oi 
that assembly to take some measure to prevent the total extinction, 
within that very county of Orange, of some of the noblest species or 
game in existence, indigenous to that region, and oncb abundant, but 
already scarce, and within twenty years certain to be lost altogether, 
through the mal-practices of their destroyers, the errors of the ex- 
isting game-laws, and the difficulty of enforcing them in their present 
state. 

It is quite unnecessary to state that these efforts were wholly inef- 
fectual — that it was found impossible to induce those learned Thebans 
to do anything to prevent American Woodcock from being shot before 
they are fledged, and American Brook Trout from being caught upon 
their spawning beds ; but that no sooner is a coarse, watery, foreign 
fish accidentally thrown into American waters, than it is vigorously 
and effectively protected, which protection was merely granted, I be- 
lieve, to enable " a facetious member of the legislature,^^ as he is styled 
by the learned Doctor Bethune in his fine edition of Walton's Angler, 
to draw a witty comparison between the naturalization of "scaly 
foreigners" and Irish voters. I dare say the facetious member was not 
devoid of hopes that the scaly foreigners would some day or other vote 
for him. 

It is impossible to feel anything but contempt for such unutterable 
blockheadism, while it is equally impossible to expect anything better, 
after their recent exhibitions in the legislatorial line, from such a body 
as the New York Houses of Assembly. 

Since, however, their wi&dom has pronounced that henceforth the 
Carp is to be a game fish of America, I shall proceed to describe 
this " scaly foreigner," thus naturalized with a five years' exemption 
from liability to captu^ 'n the waters of Hudson's river. 

The European Carp .^ of the fish which has been the longest 

known and esteemed, being mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny, 



r^x f>ft/rt 4>h tfi r 



168 



AMERir.AV FISHES. 



although they do not at that period appear to have attained their 
present celebrity. They are found in most of the lakes and rivers 
of Europe, but thrive best in th^^ 'nore temperate southern districts, 
degenerating when they are carried farther north. !t is said that in 
Russia they are even now unknown. "Their growth," says Mr. 
Yarrel, " is, however, particularly cultivated in Austria and Prussia, 
and considerable traffic in Carp nrevails in various parts of the Euro- 
pean continent, where an acre of water will let for as much yearly rent 
as an acre of land, and where fres^-water fishes, as articles of food, are 
held in higher estimation than in this country." — Mr. Yarrel means 
England, but the observation is even more applicable to the United 
States than to Great Britain. " Carp," he continues, " are said to live 
to a great age, even to one hundred and fifty, or two hundred years ; 
but they lose their rich color — their scales, like the productions of the 
cuticle in some other animals, becoming gray and white with ago." 

The exact period of the introduction of the Carp to England is 
unknown, but it is mentioned in the Boko of St. Albans, by Lady 
Juliana Berners, printed in 1496, and the great probability is that it 
was naturalized from the continent, probably from the Low Countries, 
or Austria, previous to the suppression of the monastic institutions. 

The Carp thrives best in ponds or lakes, and in such parts of rivers 
as have a slow, lazy current, and a muddy or marshy bottom. 

" They are very prolific," I again quote from Mr. Yarrel, " breed- 
ing much more freely in lakes and ponds than in rivers. Bloc found 
six hundred thousand ova in the roe of a female of nine pounds' weight, 
and Schneider seven hundred thousand in a fish of ten pounds' weight. 
They spawn toward the end of May, or the beginning of June, depend- 
ing on the temperature of the water and the season ; and the ovc are 
deposited upon weeds, among which the female is followed by two or 
three males, and the fecundation of a large proportion of the ova is 
by this provision of Nature effectually secured ; but they both breed 
and grow much more freely in some waters- than in others, without 
any apparent or accountable cause." 

The Carp, and indeed the whole family of Cyprinida, are the least 
voracious of all fishes, and the least addicted to animal food, the larvae 
of insects, worms, the softer and more gelatinous parts of aquatic 
nlants, and even vegetable mud, furnishing them with ample subsist- 



.,^. 



CYPRINID^. 



169 



enc3. During tho winter, it is belinvod that they eat little or nothing, 
and lie, half-torpid, in the mud. They are extraordinarily tenacious 
of life, and can be kept alive in a cool place for many days, and even 
weeks, if placed in wet moss, and fed on bread steeped in milk. This 
peculiarity renders them very easy of transportation. 

They are slow of growth, not arriving at the weight of three pounds 
before their sixth, or ten before their ninth year ; they arrive, how- 
ever, ultimately at a very great size, having been taken up to eighteen 
pounds, at which ultimum they are nearly as broad as they are long, 
measuring thirty inches in length by twenty-two or three in depth. 

" They are in season for the table," says Yarrel, once more, " from 
October to April, and are greatly indebted to cooks for the estimation 
in which they are held. 

" The mouth is small ; no apparent teeth ; a barbule or cirrus at 
the upper part of each corner of the mouth, with a second smaller one 
above it on each side ; tho nostrils are large, pierced at the second- 
third of the distance between the lip and the eye. The eye is small ; 
the operculum marked with striaj radiating from the anterior edge ; 
nape and back rising suddenly. The dorsal fin-rays are twenty-two 
in number, the pectorals seventeen, ventrals nine, caudals nineteen. 
The first dorsal fin-ray is short and bony, the second also bony and 
strongly serrated posteriorly. The first anal fin-ray is also bony and 
serrated posteriorly. The tail forked, the longest rays as long again 
as those of the centre. The caudal rays of the two halves of the 
tail always unequal in number in the Cyprinida. The body covered 
with large scales, about twelve rows between the ventral and dorsal 
fins ; the general color golden olive brown, head darkest ; insides 
golden ; belly yellowish white ; lateral line interrupted, straight. Fins, 
dark brown." 

This fish is very well adapted for keeping in muddy stow ponds, 
when he will become very fat, and can be used with advantage when 
no othar fish is to be procured. 
12 



LjCoC fil t/ /t iTi'AjA C_ 



170 



AMERICAN FI8IIK8. 



W 



ABDOMINAL 
MALAOOPTERYGII. 



CYPRINIDiB. 




THE AMERICAN ROACH. 

LEUCISCUS RUTILUS 

The American Roach is a pretty, lively little fish, common to most 
of the ponds and small running streams of the Middle and Northern 
States, and is closely analogous to the European fish of the same 
name, although it never approaches it in size. In England the Roach 
has been taken up to the weight of five pounds, in the United States 
it rarely exceeds five or six inches in length, and together with its 
congeners, the Chub and Dace, as they are generally termed, though 
none of them identical with Itie European species, are seldom tak?n 
except by schoolboys, and never put on the table except in remote 
country districts where sea-fish, and the better inland varieties bein'i 
unknown, anything will pass muster, in this line, as dainties. 

The Roach is readily distinguished by his blood-red irides, and the 
ruddy tinge which borders his pectoral, ventral, and anal fins. His 
head is thick and obtuse at the snout, the labials coarse and fleshy 
The eye large, and situated midway between the tip of the snout and 
the po=tirior margin of the gill-covers. The gill-covers are mode 



CYPRINIDiB. 



171 



rately carvad, forming an irr.-jular somicircle. Tha pectoral fin has 
its origin inuuediately bi;hind tho edge of tho suboporculum. The 
origin of tho dorsal is midway between tho snout o,nd origin of the 
caudal fin, and th- veutrals vortically undjr it. The caudal Cu is 
powerful and lunated. Tho dorsal rays are ten in number, tho 
pectoral sixteen, ventral nine, anal cloven, and caudal nineteen. This 
little fish is gregarious, swimming in shoals, and feeding on worms 
and herbs. It is admirable as a bait for Pike, and for tho larger va- 
rieties of Pcarch and River Bass, boing, I think, preferred by them 
to any other fish, as tho Parr is by the Sea Salmon, and tho larger 
spocies of lake and sea Trout. Tho Chub and Dace are also good 
for the same purposo, but inferior to tho Roach. As sporting fish it 
would be a loss of time to doscribe thorn at length. The Am^.ican 
Chub nevor exceeds ton inches. 

• Note to Revised Edition. — Since penning the above, I hear from some (wr- 
reppondeiits that in many of the Eastern waters they grow to a much larger size ; 
my views are, however, those of Agassiz, DeKay, Smith, and Richardson. 




0^4dy r f T>A^f 



172 



AMERICAN FIHIIEH. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYOII. 



CTPRINIDA 




THE NEW YORK SHINER. 

Stilbe Chryaoleucas ; Agassiz. — Cyprinua Chryaoleucas ; Mitchil. 

This beautiful little fish is common to almost every pond and stream 
throughout the temperate regions of North America, from the waters 
of New England to those of Lake Huron. It is found associating to a 
certain degree with the species last described, and still more com- 
monly with the Sun-Fish, Pomotis Vulgaris^ and the Yellow Pearch, 
Perca FlavescenSy though it undoubtedly falls a victim to the voracious 
appetite of the latter fish, when it grows to a larger size. It loves 
gravelly shallows, on which it spawns, and is constantly to be seen 
sporting among the leaves of the large water lilies. 

Like the species last named, it is an excellent bait both for Pearch 
and Pike, and is often taken on spinning tackle by great Trouts, 
whether brook or lacust-ine. 

It belongs to that group of Leucisci which have the dorsal fin far 
back, and in this respect greatly resembles the subgenus Abramis, or 
Bream. 

Its head is small, smooth, and depressed above The mouth is 
small, and destitute of teeth. The eyes are large, with yellow irides. 
The body is very deep, biding very nearly one-third of the length, 
excluding the caudal fin Tli ^ branchiostegal rays are three in nam- 



CYPRINID.E 



173 



ber, the pectoral sevonteen, ventral nine, dorsal nine, anal fourteen, 
and caudal nineteen. 

The upper part of the head, back, and sides, dark glossy green ; 
lower sides, and holly, silvery white, with golden reflections. Dorsal 
fin, hrownish yellow ; pectorals, reddish buff ; ventrals, dull lake, 
anal and caudal, dull reddish brown, streaked with lake. 

Of this group, there are several species, all abundiiut, and affordliig 
much sport to schoolboys and young ladies. To the angler, except 
as bait, they are little worth, and to describe one variety, as a typo of 
the species, will bo amply sufficiont. 




liF" 



MifM%ill(?lLyUL//.:E'Mi /I ^ 



174 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERTOII. 



CTPRINIDA 




AMERICAN BREAM. 

Abramis VcrsicoLr ,• AgasBm. 

The Bream of America, of which there are several inferior species, 
like most others of this family which I have enumerated, never grows 
to any size, and is very little accounted by the angler in general, 
though in some of the western waters, where they bite freely, they 
are sometimes angled for with the small red worm, and arc accounted 
a delicate pan-fish. 

They are distinguished from the other Cyprini, by the great depth 
of their bodies, by having the dorsal set very far back, behind the 
extremity of the ventral, and by the great length of the dorsal fin. 

The tongue is smooth, as well as the jaws and palate, but the 
lower pharyngeal bones are set with large teeth. 

Like the other Cypriiiij the Breams are among the least carnivo- 
rous of fishes. 

This is a beautitul species. The back is dark, of a hair-brown hue, 
varied with many colored changeable reflections ; the sides golden 
yellow, and the belly silvery white ; the dorsal and caudal fins brown ; 
the otl'crs yellowish, tinojed with red 



CYFRINIDJE. 



175 



The branchial rays are three in number, the dorsal fin-rays twelve, 
the pectorals twelve, the ventrals seven, the anal twenty-seven, and 
the caudal nineteen. 

A little fish, closely resembling this in form, is described and figured 
in Dr. Richardson's Northern Zoology, on the authority of Lieut. 
Col. Smith, who took it at the confluence of the Richelieu and St. 
Lawrence. It is known to the Canadians as la Quesche. In form, it 
closely resembles this species ; and in color, the last described ; but 
it has one spiny ray in the dorsal, and one in the anal fin, and a 
todthed tongue, which would seem to divide it from the ganua Abra- 
mis ; while the size of the anal divides it from the true Carps. It 
has, moreover, small scales, and barbels. 




f ^i^ . . ^^fi* ^P^^^^'*^^ 'C l W l m TTV'ft'WfF^^^ 



176 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



" 



if 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACv^PTEEYGII. 



CTPRINID^ 




MINNOWS. 

Hydrargyra ; Auctorum. 

The Minnow proper of Europe, Cyprinus, Leiidscus, Pkoxinus, ib 
unknown to the waters of North America, but as its equivalent, 
and analogous to it, we have innumerable species of the Hydrar- 
gyra^ or American Minnow ; which, in general appearance, habits 
and haunts, are very nearly assimilated to the European fish. 

Its food consists of aquatic plants, small worms, and minute portions 
of any animal substances. It bites boldly and readily at small red 
worms, gentles, or the larvae of any of the Phryganea, known as cad- 
dis-baits, stick-baits, and the like, on the least Limerick hooks, num- 
ber twelve ; and is constantly taken by boys with a worm alone tied 
to a fine string, which the little fish swallows so greedily that he is 
pulled out before he has time to disgorge it. 

Under many local names this beautiful little Cyprinut is found in 
every swift-running stream with a gravelly bottom, and in the shallows 



— _. — J J j^ -—J. 






1 



T 






i 



CTPRINID^. 



177 



known as Killy-fish, and are an excellent bait for M\ of almost every 
kind that prey on other fish. 

As live bait for Pike, Pearch or Catfish, they are not to bo equalled ; 
and in spinning or trolling, they are excellent for the noble Striped 
Bass, the Pike, the Salmon, the Lake Trout in all its varieties, and 
for the Brook Trout — especially those which are found in the tide- 
creoks, where they are less willing than in other waters to take the 
fly. A more particular description of so common and well-known a 
fish would take up space needlessly, which is more required for other 
parts of my subject ; and the species are, I was almost about to say, 
innumerable. Three of the commoner varieties, and those most useful 
as bait, are represented on the preceding page. 



il 



'Hi 




KvTh 



MK 



fipc^y fX/ar/^V^ytr 



178 



AMERICAN FI8HB8. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYRII. 



OLUFIDiB. 










THE HERRING. 

Clupea Harengua. 

The common Herring, which visits both continents, runs into the 
jiouths of all the northern and north-eastern rivers of North Ameri- 
ca, and is not only greatly sought for as an article of food, but really 
affords very excellent sport to the angler. In spring, when he enters 
the estuaries in full condition, and full of spawn, he leaps freely at 
any gaudy-colored fly— whether of the peacock feather, or, what is yet 
better, a four-winged fly of the scarlet ibis and silver pheasant, on a 
scarlet chenil body, not unlike the fly used in Black Basa fishing, but 
of a smaller size. The best way to use it is with a single bb shot 
attached to the gut an inch or two above the fly, so as to troll with it, 
as it were, slightly sunken below the surface. I have taken the-n in 
this manner, off Fort Diamond at the Narrows, almost as fast as 1 
could cast and draw in the fly. 

The appearance of this fish is so well known that a very particular 
description is hardly necessary. The length of the head to the body 
is about as one to four, the depth to the length of the body as one to 
five. The upper part of the fish is a fine blue, with green and other 
reflections, when viewed in different lights ; the lower part of the side 
and belly silvery white ; the cheeks and gill-covers silvery. Dorsal 
and caudal fii^ dusky ; the fins on the lower parts of the body almost 



i 



CLUriDJE. 



179 



white. The lower jaw is much long!?r than the other, with five or six 
small teeth extending in a line backwards on ouch side from the an- 
terior point ; four rows of small teeth on the central upper surface of 
the ton'Tue, and a few small teeth on the central surface of the upper 
jaw. Branchiostogous rays are eight in number, pectoral sixteen, 
ventral eight, anal sixteen, dorsal nineteen, and caudal eighteen. 
The scales are large. The caudal fin deeply forked. 

Several other species of Herring are common to the waters of the 
United States, but this is the only one which is taken with the fly, or 
can be accounted as game to the sportsman 




££. 



C^y rX 



iL 



hMi. 



180 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABPOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYOII. 



CLUPin^ 




THE SHAD. 

Aloaa Prastabilia; DeKay. 



This delicious and well-known fish, which is by many persons es- 
taemed the queen of all fishes on the table, has been, until very re- 
cently, regarded as one that could be taken only with the net, and 
therefore of no avail to the angler. It is, however, now clearly proved 
that, like the He'rin?, the American Shad will take a large gaudy fly 
freely, and being a strong, powerful and active fish, affords great play 
to the sportsman. 

It is undoubtedly the fact that, until within the few last years, fish- 
ing in the United States, except of Trout, having been practised 
rather as a means of providing the table, than as a matter of sport, it 
has been taken for granted that many species of fish, which are easily 
captured by the ssan, will not take the bait or thi fly ; and few spe- 
cies have been pursued as game except those which are not easily 
caught otherwise than with the hook. Fly-fishing, moreover, having 
been a few years ago confined to a very few individuals, and even now 
being comparatively limited, it was attempted only with those families 
which could hardly be otherwise captured. Now, however, nom avonn 
ckang^ tout cela, and opportunities for the practice of this delightful 



at 



if ara aniirrTif fnr an ftn.nrArlv. that 



anv nersinn is rp.trardf^A in seme de- 

»• r — --n - 



CLUPIDiE. 



181 



groe as the sportsman's benefactor if ho introduces to his notice a now 
species which will afford sport with the artificial fly. 

It is, as I have observed, indisputably true, that on his entrance into 
fresh-wator from the salt, for the purpose of spawning, the Shad will 
readily take a gaudy fly, the more readily the higher he runs up into 
the cold and highly a6iat3d waters in the upper parts of our large 
rivers, where also they are taken in the greatest perfection, as for 
instance in the Delaware, «o far up as Milford, in Pike county, Penn- 

pylvania. a *. a' 

Th- New York Shad, Alosa, PmstaUlh, was, I believe, first dis- 
tinguished specifically by Dr. DeKay of New York, having been pre- 
viously confounded with the Allice Shad of Europe, Alo.a CoMMunn, 
of Cuvier, Clufka, Alom, Auctorum, to which it boars a very con- 
siderable reseinblaace, although I presume that the distinction can be 

fully made out. , , . , xt. 

The body of this fish is deep and compress-^d, the thickness rather 
bs9 than one-third of the length. The length of the head is to that 
of tho whole fish as one to six ; the depth to the length as one to four. 
The scales are very large ; the tail long, slonder, and dr.ply forked. 
The dorsal fin-rays are nineteen, the pectoral fifteen, ventral nine, 
anal twenty-six, and caudal twonty. The greatest depth of the body 
is just before the ventral fin. The shad has no distinct lateral line, 
its abdominal edge is strongly serrated, especially behind the ventrals. 
The top of the head and back are dusky blue, with brown and green 
reflections in particular points of view. There is a single dusky spot 
behind the operculum. The irides, sides of the head and body, are of 
a silvery white, with a tinge of copper-color. The dorsal and caudal 
fins are dusky, the pectoral, ventral, and anal fins, white. 

The flosh of the Shad is perhaps the most delicate of any existmg 
fish ; and, though it lacks the lusciousness, as well as the glutinous 
fin of the Turbot, it is preferred to that fish by many judicious epi- 
cures, notwithstanding the drawback r-casioned by its innumerable 
and shavply-pointed bones. 

From personal experience and success, I can assure the fly-fisher 
that he will find much sport in fishing for the Shad during his upward 
run in the spring, with a powerful Trout-rod, a long line, and such fliea 
as he will procure in perfection at Conroy's, in Fulton-street, New York 



r^r:^/ t/fti<A. 



182 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACCr i'EUTGII. 



BILUBIDiB. 




THE CAT-FISH. 

ttmon Pitnelode. Silurua, Pimelodua, CanoniB: Richwrdson 

This singular and hideous family of fishes is distinguished from 
the others of the same order, by the skin b3ing cither naked or pro- 
tected by large plates, but always destitute of true scales. The inter- 
maxillaries are s''jponded under the ethmoid bono, and form the border 
of the upper jaw, while the labials are longthenod out into barbels, or 
are simply rudimental ; it has, also, a second adipose dorsal fin. First 
rays of the dorsal and pectoral fin spinous. 

This family contains twenty-five or thirty species peculiar to Ame- 
rica, which are generally known as Cat-fish, Bull-heads, Bull-pouts, &c. 
They inhabit the larger lakes and rivers, especially, but are found in 
all the waters of North America. 

The commonest and the larg2st species both belong to the sub- 
genus Pimdodus, and are well known as Cat-fish ; the ordinary kind 
measuring only a few inches in length, and never exceeding a few 
ounces weight ; the largest reaching a hundred or even a hundred and 
fifty pounds, especially in the great northern lakes, and in the western 
rivers. The great Huron Pimelode, o-, .as jt in o''ten oalhd, the Chan- 



SIHIRID^. 



183 



nd Cat-fish, which is the largest of the family, is thus described by 
Richardson : 

" Profile oval, tapering into the tail. Head broadly oval, forming 
two-ninths of the total length. Orbits small, and nearer to the snout 
than to the gill-openings. Nostrils situate some distance before the eye. 
A shnder barbel, half an inch long, springs from their posterior mar- 
gin. Snout obtuse. Labials ending in a tapering barbel, which b an 
inch and a quarter long, and reaches to the gill-opening ; there are 
also two slender barbels, one each side of the chin. Both jaws are 
armed with a brush-like band of short teeth. The palate and vomer 
are stnooth. In this genus the suboperculum is wanting ; the prcoper- 
culum is attached to the operculum by bone, and can be traced by its 
elevated ridge. The interoperculum cannot be traced through the 
skin. There are nine gill-rays. The gill-openings are rather narrow. 
The dorsal rays are — one spinous, seven soft ; second dorsal, adipose. 
Pectorals, one spinous, eight soft ; ventrals eight, anals twenty-four, 
caudals seventeen. 

The skin is smooth, thick, adipose, and lubricated by a mucous 
secretion. The color is a dingy greenish brown above, and dirty 
white below. The fiesh is very rich and gelatinous, and not dissimilar 
either in quality or fiavor to that of the Eel. In some places it is 
esteemed a great delicacy. All the Cat-fish are greedy biters, and 
will take almost any animal substance as a bait. After being hooked, 
however, although they arc powerful fish, and pull hard for a while, 
it is yet a dead lug entirely, unlike the lively and fierce resistance of 
the Trouts and Pearchcs ; and they aflSird in truth very little real 
sport to the angler. 

Seven species of this fish are quoted by M. Le Sueur, as belonging 
to Lakes Eric, Ontario, and their tributary waters, besides many other 
varieties in the southern and western waters, where it grows to a yet 
more enormous size. 

There is, however, so little di " nee either in the appearance or 
habits of this filthy, mud-loving and hideous fish, that the description 
of one species must sorvc for all. 

The cut at tho head of this paper represents the great Cat-fish, or 
Huron Pimelode. 

The Silurus Glanis, Slv Silurus, or Sheat-fish, is the largest fresh- 



r^i^ ^ / t/ rt4\h^t 



T84 



AMERICAN FISHES 



water fish of Europe, growing, it is said, to six feet in length, and 
attaining to three hundred weight. 

Dr. Smith includes this species of Siliirus in the fishes of Massa- 
chusetts, and Dr. Flint attributes it to the Ohio and Mississippi, both 
ovidently confounding it with the various indigenous Pimelodes, which 
it greatly resembles. It differs from the American Pimelodes in hav- 
ing the anal fin extremely long, extending almost the whole distance 
from the extremity of the ventral tc the origin of the caudal fin 



>■' 




ANOUILLIUiC. 



185 



APODAL 
MALACOPTEBTOIL 



ANOUILLIDiB. 




THE EEL. 

Anguilla ; Auctoram. 

Although I in no respect regard the Eel as worthy of the notice 
of the angler, a volume on fish and fishing would be incomplete, had 
it not some allusion to this singular fish, which is, moreover, very 
excellent on the table. 

The family to which it belongs is of a diflFerent order from any 
which have been enumerated, that of the apodal Malacopterygiij or 
soft-finned fishes, destitute of ventrals. They have slender and elon- 
gated bodies, without apparent scales, these being deeply imbedded in 
mucous skin. Gill-covers they have none, the gill-openings are small, 
before, and rather below the origin of the pectoral fins. The dorsal 
fin extends above two-thirds, and the anal above one-half the length 
of the whole fish, both united at the end, and forming a tail. The 
lateral line exhibits a series of mucous orifices. 

The general color is hair-brown, varying to glossy bluish green, 
13 



' ■^** ^>£MLMjkltJ 



186 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



above, and coppery-yellow varying to silver-white below, aooordin;; to 
the purity and brightness of the waters which they inhabit. 

They may be taken with a hook and angle-worm, but it is a nasty, 
jJimy business, and affords no sport to eompcnsate the disagreeable 
nature of the labor. The Eel-spear, the set-line, or the Eel-pot, is the 
tiuo mode of taking them, and their true place is not in the creel of 
the genuine angler, but on the board of the elaborate epicure, en ma- 
telotte, or a la tar tare, according to individual preference. 

With this fish, our list of the soft-rayed species is brought to a close, 
and I shall now proceed to the Acanfhopterygii, or apiny-finned fishes, 
among which are several of our finest species, both of fresh and salt- 
water, both for sport in the water, and excellence on the table 




PCKcipyfi:. 



187 



to 



y. 

lo 

10 

)f 

l- 

e. 



ACANTlIOPTERYQn. 



PERCIDJL 







THE AMERICAN YELLOW PEARCH. 

Perea Flavtactna; Mitchil. 

This is a very oomtnon fish, widely difTusjd, with small variation 
of sizo, shape, form and color, through all the inland fresh waters of 
the whole United States, ranging through all the lakes and rivers of 
the country from the eastern part of Maine to the waters of the Ohio, 
into which it has gained access through the Ohio Canal, and whence 
it will undoubtedly ere long make its way into the Mississippi. There 
are several subordinate varieties of this fish, which differ in size, color, 
and slightly also in the number of fin rays, in different waters, and 
these have been created into distinct species, under the titles of the 
Rough Yellow Pearch, Perca Cerrato Crranvlata ; the Rough- 
headed Yellow Pearch, Perca Granulata ; the Sharp-nosed Yellow 
Pearch, Perca Acuta ; the Slender Yellow Pearch, Perca Gracilis ; 
and the White Pearch, Perca Pallida. It does not, however, appear 
that these distinctions are sufficiently broad or permanent to justify 
this arrangement ; and it is now generally held that there is but one 
speciss of true fresh -water Pearch in the United States, and that the 
forms which have been designated under the above titles arc mere 
accidental varieties, similar to those which have been previously 
notiood of the common Trout. Originally the Yellow Pearch was a 



_«v w 



AtAr 



188 



AMERICAN FI8HEJ. 



northern fish, its range extending to about the fiftieth parallel, but it 
has lately, like several others of the same species, been much more 
widely diffused through artificial channels, as, for instance, the Black 
Bass, Griites Nigricans, and the Rock Bass, Centrarchus ^neus, 
which have descended from the basin of the St. Lawrence, by the 
Eric and Whitehall canals, into the waters of the upper Hudson. 

The Yellow Pearch is a bold biter, and a tolerably good fish on the 
table ; it frequents the same waters with the Pickerel, from the assaults 
of which it is defended by the sharp spinous rays of its dorsal fin. 

In color, its sides are yellow, varying in intent. ;ty from greenish to 
bright golden in different waters, and occasionally In tide waters to 
pale greenish white Its back is banded with six or eight dark verti- 
cal bars. Its pectorals, ventrals and anal are golden orange — its 
doraals and caudal greer'-^h brown. 

Its body is compressed, elongated, with a slightly gibbous dorsal 
outline. The scales are small, the head, above the eyes and between 
them, smooth, lateral line concurrent with the line of the back. Head 
sub-depressed, and in the larger and older fish the rostrum is pro- 
duced, causing a hollow in the facial outline. The first dorsal com- 
mences above the base of the pectorals, the first ray much shorter than 
the second, the fourth, fifth and sixth rays are the longest, and the 
last the shortest — it has in all thirteen rays. The second dorsal has 
seventeen rays, the two first spinous. The pectorals have fifteen soft 
rays ; the ventrals have one spinous and five soft rays ; the anal, two 
spinous and eight soft; the caudal is forked, with rounded tips. 

The mouth is of moderate size ; the preoperculum strongly toothed, 
the operculum serrated beneath, with a spine on its posterior angle. 
The irides are golden yellow — the pupils black. 

It varies in weight in different waters, from a few ounces to four or 
five pounds. It is a bold, hardy fish — is easily transported from one 
water to another, and appears to thrive equally well on all soils. 

It is taken with the worm or small fish, used either as a live or 
dead bait, and affords very fair sport, pulling strongly on the line for 
a few minutes, but by no means requiring the same degree of skill as 
the Pearch to effect its capture. It is the favorite fish of rural anglers, 
where Pickerel do not abound, and is esteemed a great delicacy where 
fica-fish cannot be obtained. 



PERCIDJE. 



188 



AOANTHOPTERYGU. 



PERCIDiK 



THE STRIPED SEA BASS. 

Roek Fish ; Bar-Fith ; Richardson — Labrax Lineatvt ; Cuvier. 

This noble fish, which, after the Saluion family, is unquestionably 
the most sporting fish of this continent, has its geographical range 
from the Capes of the Delaware, in which river it is known as the 
Rock Fish, to the coasts of Massachusetts ; unless, as I think almost 
certain, the Bar-Fish of Richardson, which is taken in the St. Law- 
rence, prove to be merely an accidental variety. 

The Striped Bass is properly a sea fish, entering the rivers in the 
spring to spawn, at which time he runs as high up the courses as the 
depth of water will permit, and lies among the bushes where the chan- 
nels are narrow. They run far up the Hudson — are taken at the 
foot of the Cohoes Falls of the Mohawk in great numbers, and ascend 
yet higher up the cold, clear waters of the Delaware. 

In September and October they run along the coast in large schuUs, 
nntering the inlets, and being taken in great numbers between the 
outer bars and the beach by the sean. In the heaviest surfs of the 
Atlantic, on the outer ocean beaches, they are captured of grtat size 
with a bone or metal squid. They are a bold, ravenous and powerful 
fish, biting voraciously at almost every sort of bait, from soft crabs 
and clams, on a drop-line, to shiners or sparlings on trolling tackle, 
Shad-roe in rivers frequented by that fish in the spring of the year, 
and even the artificial fly of large size and gaudy colors, with which, 
at the end of a hundred yards of line, they afford great sport, being 
vigorous, fierce and active, nor succumbing until after a long and 
violent conflict with their captors. 

In winter, when the weather becomes cold and stormy, they again 
enter the estuaries of rivers, and imbed themselves in the mud of the 
brackish bays and lagoons, which possess the advantage of being calm 
and undisturbed by the tempests which vex the open sea. 

They attain to a very great size, even, 1 believe, to seventy or 



r^rtf jOjT-tJt^si^wnuk 



Mr 



190 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



eighty pounds' weight, though I have never myself seen one of above 
forty-three ; the smaller sized fish, of seven or eight pounds, are, 
however, by far the most delicate, and I think those not exceeding 
fifteen pounds give the best sport to the angler. 

In color, the Striped Bass is bluish brown above, silvery on the 
sides and beneath. Along each side are from seven to nine equidis- 
tant dark, parallel stripes, the upper series terminating at the base 
of the caudal, and the lower above the anal fin. These lines are 
occasionally indistinct, sometimes interrupted, and more rarely each 
alternately a continuous stripe and a row of abbreviated lines or dots ; 
this appears to be the form which Dr. Richardson has designated as 
the Bar-Fish of the St. Lawrence. 

The body is cylindrical and tapering. Head and body covered 
with large adhesive scales. Lateral line obvious, running through the 
fourth stripe, and nearly straight. Head bluntly pointed ; eyes large ; 
nostrils double ; gill openings large ; lower jaw the longest ; teeth numer- 
ous on the maxillaries, palatine bone and tongue ; operculum armed 
with two spines on its lower margin, the preoperculum finely dentated. 

The first dorsal consists of nine spinous rays, of which the first and 
the last are shortest. A simple ray occurs between this and the 
second dorsal, which consists of twelve branched rays. The pectoral 
fins have sixteen rays ; the ventrals one spinous and five soft rays ; 
the anal three spinous and eleven soft ; the caudal, which is broadly 
lunate in shape, has seventeen branded rays. 

The pupils are black, the irides silvery. 

Altogether it is one of the most beautiful, as well as the most excel- 
lent and sporting of American game fish, the flesh being very firm, 
white and well-flavored. 



There are two other species of Bass, the Lahrax Rufus, and Lahrax 
Pallidus, or Ruddy, and little White Bass, which are better known, 
both to anglers and epicures, as the River Pearch of New York, and 
White Pearch. They are both taken in the brackish waters of tide 
rivers, and afford fair sport to the angler, as well aa being a very deli- 
cate pan-flsh 




', 



\W 



^^maf:- f*^ %<* at Wi^\A.t^J 



Blaok BaL^'lf " 'T'"''' '■>»""« M of .hi, "' 

* "^j -Labrax Nigrica'n* »,i,- l . '^ S^^"s> M the flm*II 

. 2"?^ po-d, of Queof, r's*t "i: ^-"b^aa being C"? 

2'°'°« *» 'wo p„„„d, -^t^^f. ^'"""'i™. Lo„g m1, ,^ '" 

uTvei,Iv7'' "o 'lo flj. ^ • ■""■« ^''^^"-^O '^--y good ea^^ 

«- once of .be St. We.oe bL I :"" ''^"^'^' " » *™». of fte 
l^ork »„.i „f (,^ prfTt M ° ""'"' »' *» State f Nol 

thore «„o doubt that, like h„ Pea 1 ! "^""'"^ "' *= «««■*, b J 

Parti„„Lr°llT ''™'''°'''™- ™«--™"y i-Portan. to ™erit »or. 




ty ^ 



/n> 



>Af 



192 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ACANTHOPTERYOI I. 



PEBOIDiB. 







THE YELLOW PIKE PEARCH. 



AMERICAN 8ANDRE. 



laieioperca Americana ; Cuvier. 



THE OHIO PIKE, GLABB-EYE. YELLOW FIKE, OHIO BALUOK 

This bold and voracious fish I have never seen, though it is 
abundant from the western part of the State of New York td the 
waters of the Ohio, the great lakes and the rivers of the fur countries, 
up to the 58th parallel of latitude. It aflFords great sport to the 
angler, being readily taken with the hook, with almost any live or 
dead fish bait, though it is said to prefer the common fresh water 
Cray-fich, Astacus Bartoni, according to Dr. DeKay, whose account 
of this fish I have taken the liberty of borrowing from his Fauna of 
New York : 

" The best time for fishing Ls in the dusk of the evening, with a 
great length of line, keeping the bait in gentle motion. The foot of 
rapids or beneath milldams appears to be its favorite haunts. In the 
heat of summer it seeks the deepest parts of lakes, or in streams in 
the coolest places under weeds or ^rass. It is esteemed one of the 



m 



If 



PERCIDS. 



193 



,' 






most valuable fishes of the western waters, in which it greatly abounds, 
and sells readily for a high price. It spawns in Lake Huron in April 
or May, and has been taken of the length of thirty inches. 

" Its color is yellowish olive above the lateral line ; lighter on the 
Bides ; silvery beneath. Head and gill-covers mottled with green, 
brownish and white. Chin pale flesh-color. Pupil dark and vitreous, 
irides mottled with black and yellowish. Membrane of the spinous 
dorsal fin transparent, with a few dark dashes ; the upper part of the 
membrane tipped with black. Soft dorsal fin light yellowish, spotted 
with brown in irregular longitudinal bars. Ventral fins transparent 
yellowish ; pectoral fins yellowish olive, with brownish bars. Anal fin 
transparent yellowish, with a broad whitigh margin ; caudal fin with 
irregular dusky bars. 

" The body is elongated, cylindrical and tapering. Scales of 
moderate size, lateral line straight from the upper edge of the gill- 
covers to the tail. Preoperculum serrated with a series of distant 
spines. Opcrcle with one slender flat terrinal spine, beyond which is 
a pointed membrane. Branchial rays, seven. Mouth wide extensi- 
ble, the lower jaws received into the upper. A series of acute re- 
curved teeth in both jaws, and on the vomer and palatines. Two 
very long and conspicuous teeth, resembling canines, in front of each 
jaw ; those of the lower received into cavities above. Teeth on the 
vomer minute. Tongue smooth, pointed, free. The first dorsal fin 
is composed of thirteen or fourteen long slender spinous rays ; the 
second dorsal has one short, simple, subspinous ray, and twenty-one 
soft rays ; the pectorals have fourteen soft rays ; the ventrals one 
stout spine and five branched rays ; the anal one spine and fourteen 
rays ; the caudal is deeply furcate, and has seventeen distinct, beside 
many accessory rays." 

This fish is a true Pearch, though its form, elongated mouth, and 
fiercely predatory habits suggest the idea of a Pike, whence Dr. De- 
Kay has given it the appellation of Pike Pearch, which is a translation 
of its classical name, in preference to the name Sandre, which beloncrs 
to the Canadian fish of the same species, and to the analogous Euro- 
pean fishes. 



1^1 ■ 



\h4 









'4 



r . . ^ r 



194 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



The Grat Pike Pearch, Ludoperca Grisea, would seem to bo a 
pormanent variety of the above, if not a distinct species ; it differs 
from it in size, never exceeding ten or twelve inches, in color and 
aovoral other important particulars. It is found in the same waters 
•nth the preceding species, and is equally prized as an article of food. 



Richardson's Pike Pearch, the Canadian Sandre, iMcioperea 
Canadensis^ is another small distinct species, found in the river St. 
La.wrcnce. Its principal characteristic difference lies in the fact that 
the operculum has five acute spines on the lower margin. In color 
i*i is dark olive green above, and whitish beneath, with a few pale- 
veP.ow spots on the sides below the lateral line. It does not exceed 
fourteen inches in length. It is, like the others of its species, esteemed 
an excellent fish on the table, and, being a free biter and hard puller, 
affords good sport to th-e angler. It is not, however, of so great im- 
Dortance that I care to enter into a more minute description. 

I'his 18 the fish concerning which a controversy haa been gcirg on 
between " Dinks " and some Western fishermen, who insist o '. orlling 
it a Pike, as distinct from Pickerel. It is a true Pearch a.id hos no 
connexion with any of the Pike family. 



I 










lem to bo a 
; it differs 
I color and 
ame waters 
lie of food. 



I/ueioperea 
3 river St. 
le fact that 
. In color 
I few pale- 
Dot exceed 
8, esteemed 
lard puller, 
> great im- 
11. 

n goirg on 
\i o\ crlling 
a;id 1198 no 



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PERCIOiE. 



195 



AOANTHOPTER Ya IT. 



PERCIUiE. 



THE BLACK BASS 

OP THE ST. LAWRENCE. 

This « „„„ of iho fla,,t „f ,t, American fresh-«t=r fiAe,- it » 

wnen hooked and by a very few only in exoellenoo upon the board 

Peonhar originally to the basin of the St. Lawrenee in S it 
.bounds fron. the Palls of Niagara downward, if not tbr„ ' h iTs lie 
ourso .t has made its way into the waters of the upper HudLt 
through the eanaU. It is said by Dr. DeKay to be found'l ra, ! °' 
Ihe small lakes of the State of New Fort b„. i i / "" ^ 

n.usUe limited to those whieh.ermlte-l' ."hTrtt Lt 

unspl:::^:''^'""""™^'^ "^^'"^^ «-.'- - poaching and 

and a la™ 1 ;; "a ;l'd: T'^T T' """"'"^'^ "°"'° '-«> 
.1.. .-1 , ^ °^ '°"'°' "''""'l and four win-s two of 

the sdver pheasant and two of the searlot ibis As the nitV B 
attains to the weio^ht of .;, „ • i,, , '*'''™ ^ass 

In color, thU « is of a dusky bluUh black, sometimes with bronze 















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I 3 



196 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



reflections, the under parts bluish white, the cheeks and cill-covcrs 
nacrous of a bluish color. 

The body is compressed. Back arched and gibbous. Profile do- 
Bcending obliquely to the rostrum, which is moderately prolonged 
Scales large, truncated. Scales on the operculum largo ; a single 
series on the suboperculum, much smaller on the prcoperculum, ascend- 
ing high up on the membrane of the soft dorsal and caudal fins Eyes 
largo ; nostrils double. Operculum pointed, with a loose membrane 
I he lower jaw is somewhat longest. The jaws are smooth and scale- 
less. Both jaws are armed with a broad patch of minute conic acute ' 
reserved teeth. An oblong patch of rasp-like teeth on the vomer 
and a band of the same kind on the palatines. Branchial arches 
minutely toothed. Pharyngeal teeth in rounded patches. 

The dorsal fin is composed of nine stout spines; the second dorsal 
of one spine and fourteen soft rays. The pectorals have eighteen soft 
rays, the ventrals one spine and five soft rays, the anals three 
spines, and twelve soft rays, and the caudal sixteen soft rays ' 

*It IS somewhat doubtful to me whether the fish known in the waters 
of Lake Erie and those generally above the Falls, as the Oswego Bass 
IS not distinct from this fish, though it is also occasionally called Black 
Bass. There is very evidently some confusion about the matter, as I 
am well assured that another fish of the same family, the Corvina O,- 
cj./^, IS at tinies confounded with it, and called by the same name, 
though m truth It but slightly resembles it. Another fish of the same 
family is the Growler. 

lakl''rharh"T7 EorTioN.-During a tour. thi. autumn, through the great 
lake I had abundant opportunities of learning the habits of this fish, which swL 
in al, the Canad,a„ lakes though not found north of them. It is taken in Zoa 
Crooked and Cayuga Lakes, and in the first is of rare excellence. I leartlTh. 
opnnon that the differences between this and the Oswego Bass rise n e 1 fl 
difference of condition and feeding-grounds. This Ba» has. I understanlbee. Tn 
troduced into Lake Mahopach, Dutchess Co.. N.Y. «na«rBiana. bee., m- 



PERCIDA. 



197 



ACANTIIOPTEIIVGII. 



PERCIOiE. 



THE GROWLER. 



Orittea Salmoeidet ; Auctorum. 

The White Salmon , Smith's History of Virginia Tii* TiiouT ; Carolina Pro- 

viiiRiallBin. 

This fish, in general form, closely corresponds with that last de- 
Bcribed. It Ims the same gibbous back, with the lateral linu following 
the dorsal curve, and the same protruded lower jaw. Its teeth arc pot 
minutely in broad bands or patches. Tho operculum has two mode- 
rate points. 

its color is deep greenish brown, with a bluish black spot on the 
point of tiio operculum. When young it has twenty-five or thirty lon- 
gitudinal brownish bands, which become effaced by age. 

The first dorsal fin has ten spines, the second thirteen or fourteen 
soft rays; the pectorals sixteen soft rays; the ventrals one spine and 
five soft rays ; the anal three spines and eleven or twelve soft rays ; 
the caudal fin, which is slightly lunate, has seventeen soft rays. 

There may, perhaps, be two distinct varieties of this fish. It has 
been taken in the waters of Western New York, in the Wabash in 
Indiana, and abundantly in Carolina, where it attains to tho length of 
two feet, and is considered an excellent fish, passing, as well aa 
another fish of the same family, the Carolina Weak-fish, Otolithm 
Carolinensis, under the misnomer of Trout. I am inclined to believe 
that this fish is also known as the Welchman in the inland waters of 
North Carolina. It is also the Salmon of the Susquehannah. 

Before passing on to the next species I will observe that I consider 
the proper classical name of the Black Bass of the St. Lawrence deci- 
dedly to be Gristes— tho genus Huro not having been by any means 
satisfactorily defined. For that of Centrarchus is distinguished by 
having many spinous rays to the ventral fin, while the genus Grisies 
has but three, Perca two, and Liicioperca only one— this affording a 
broad and clear distinction, and being that on which Agassiz founds the 
subgenus in question. 



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198 



AMERICAN FISHB^. 



ACANTIIOPTEUTGII. 



PEBOIDA 




THE KOCK BASS. 

FRESH WATER BASS. 
Ctntrarchus JEntua; Cxynvt. 

This is another delicate and game fish, which, originally peculiar 
to the basin of the St. Lawrence, has made its way through the canals 
into the upper waters of the Hudson and the anastomosing streams. 
It is abundant in the great lakes, and Lake Champlain. 

It, like the Black Bass, is a bold biter, taking a small fish dead or 
alive very freely, but preferring to all other baits the Cray-fish, Aita- 
cus Bartoni. 

The general color of this fish is a dark coppery bronze above, with 
grcca reflections, the head above dark green, gill-covers metallic green, 
with a dark spot on the posterior margin of the operculum. The sides 
golden copper, with several rows of oblong dark spots below the lateral 
line. Thfe fins bluish green. 

The body is cr .ressed, short and broad. The dorsal outline gib- 
bous ; the lateral line following the curve of the back. Head large, 



with a concave outline. Gill-covers scaly ; the operculixm with rudi- 
ments of a double angle on the posterior margin ; lower jaw somewhat 
the longest. Teeth small, conical, recurved, on the maxillaries, inter- 
maxillaries, vomer, palatines and pharyngeals. 

The dorsal fin has eleven spinous and twelve soft rays ; the pecto- 
rals fourteen rays ; the ventrals one weak spine and five branched 
rays; the anal, six spinous and eleven soft rays; the caudal with 
rounded tips has seventeen rays. 

The Rock Bass is excellent eating, and gives good sport to the 
angler, though it never attains to the size of the Black Bass, rarely 
exceeding a pound or a pound and a half, and consequently being far 
less difficult to take. 

This fish, as well as the Black Bass and others of the family, might 
be transplanted with great ease into inland waters ; and as they are 
hardy, and defended from all enemies by their sharp and spiny fins 
would be sure to thrive, and would prove delicious additions to our 
lacustrine species of fishes. 






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200 



AMBRIOAN FISHES. 



ACANTHOPTEEYGIL 



FEBOIDiB. 




J5£^^J 



THE COMMON POND FISH. 



FRESH WATER SUN FISH 



Pomotit Vulgaris. — Cuvier. 

This beautiful little fish has gained its provincia. name from the 
•xtreme brilliancy of its colors when disporting itself in the sunshine 
The numerous spots on its body have procured for it the absurd name 
y{ Pumpkin-seed in many States, and in Massachusetts it is known as 
Bream. It is valueless as an article of food, and equally so as a bait 
fish, its acute spines deterring any fish from seizing it. It is, however, 
a constant object of pursuit to boy and lady angleis. 

It has very many varieties, and a wide geographical range, being 
found from Lake Huron, through all the Eastern States, and along the 
Atlantic coast so far south as Carolina. 

Its color is greenish olive above, with irregular pointe. of red and 
broader yellow or reddish browu hpots disposed in very irregular lines 
Ranges of brighter spots on the bluish oporculam, and on the hinder 
prolongation of the oporculum a black spot with a bright scarlet margin. 

Its body is much compressed, very broad, oval. Scales large and 
even. Forehead sloping *o the snout. Lateral line concurrent with 



PERCIUS 



201 



the back. Eyes large, circular near the facial outline. Nostriia 
double ; mouth small, with very minute thick-set teeth on the mazil- 
laries, palatines and yoraer. 

Its dorsal fin has ten spinous and twelve soft rays, pectorals twelve 
soft, ventralfl one spine and five soft rays, anal three spinous and five 
soft, caudal seventeen soft rays. 

There is another well-defined species, the Black-eared Pond-fish, 
Pomotis Appendix^ which is distinguished by a large lobe-like black 
prolongation of the upper posterior angle of the operculum. 



* 1 










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203 



ACANTHOFfERYGIL 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



SClENIDiG. 



THE LAKE SHEEP'S-HEAD. 

Corvina Oscula ; Cuvier. 

This is a very common fish in Lake Erie, and also below the Falls 
of Niagara, where it is readily taken with the hook, though it is in 
very small repute for its edible qualities, being commonly reported to 
be dry, lean and tasteless. It is in fact very rarely eaten. 

Its color is bluish gray on the back, darker on the abdomen and the 
snout. Abdomen and chin grayish white. 

In shape it considerably resembles the preceding genera, Gristes 
and CentrarcAus, having a gibbous dorsal outline, and arched profile, 
the lateral line being also, as in these, concurrent with the curve of the 
back. The eyes are large, round and prominent, situated close to the 
facial outline. The teeth in the jaws are small, conic, and sharp, but 
the palate and pharyngeals are paved with large rounded solid teeth, 
well adapted for crushing its hard and shelly prey, such as the fresh- 
water clams and muscles, cyclas and paludina which constitute its 
principal subsistence. 

The dorsal fin has nine spinous rays, the second dorsal one spinous 
and twenty-eight soft rays, the pectorals nineteen soft rays, the 
ventrals one spinous and five soft, the anal two spinous and eight 
soft, the caudal, seventeen rays. Its air bladder is very large and 
simple. 

This fish, if I am not greatly in error, is very frequently confounded 
on the lakes in the vicinity of Buffalo with the Gristes Nigricans, 
under the name of Oswego Bass,* and in fact, though of a different 
family, Scienida, does bear somethiiig of general resemblance to that 
species. It is also found in many of the small inland lakes throughout 
the country. 

• It is more probable, however, that there is no true distinction between the 
Black Jinrl Oswego Bass, save in the diflfcrence of condition 



SClENlD^. 



doa 



AOANTHOPTEBTOII 



BCIENID^ 



THE MALA8HEGANAY. 

Coroina Richaidaonii ; Cuvier* 

This, like the species last named, id an inhabitant of the upper 
lakes, though it is not found below Lake Erie. In Lake Huron it is 
known as the Sheep^s-head, and in the vicinity of Buffalo as the Black 
Skeeph-head, 

It affords very good sport to the angler, and unlike its congener last 
described, is highly prized as one of the most delicious of the lake 
fishes. 

Its color is greenish gray, banded with dusky or blackish bars over 
the back, its sides are silvery, its belly yellowish. In form it closely 
resembles the Corvina Oscula, but its forehead descends in a more 
vertical angle to the mouth. The under jaw is somewhat the longer. 
The mouth is cleft back as far as to the middle of the eye, which is 
large and round. The teeth are very numerous and very small. The 
opercu]-im has two lobes behind. 

The first dorsal fin has nine spinous rays, the second one spine and 
eighteen soft rays, the pectorals have fifteen soft rays, the ventrals 
one spine and seven soft rays, the anal one spine and seven soft rays, 
the caudal seventeen soft branched rays. 

There is yet another species of this family, the Corviiia Gfrisea, 
known familiarly as the White Pearch of the Ohio, which is found 
in the waters of that noble river, but it is of little importance either 
to the angler or the epicure, and merits not a more particular descrip- 
tion. 

With this fish ends the list of those fresh-water fishes of the United 
States and British Provinces, which by the most liberal courtesy may 
be called game or sporting fishes. 

Hence I proceed to the shoal-water sea fishes of the same division, 
Acanihopterygii^ and thence, and lastly, to the deep-sea fish of the order 
Sub-brachial Malacopterygii. 



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AMERICAN rrgHES. 



SHOAL-WATER FISHES. 



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Having now come to tk ) conolusion of that, by far the most impor- 
tant, portion of my subject which relates to the fresh-water fishes, 
including those anadromous or migratory species which, although they 
make their abode during a part of the year at least in salt water, are 
taken in sporting style in rivers and estuaries only, I shall proceed to 
devote a few pages only to these sea fish ; all of the division Acanthop- 
terygii, and all of five families, Percida, Scienida, Sparidaj Scombri- 
da, and Labrida, which are taken in shoal waters at the mouths of 
large rivers, in bays and estuaries, and which not only afi'ord much 
sport to the angler at particular seasons of the year, but furnish a 
delicious article of food. 
These are the Sea Bass, or Black Sea Bass, Ceniropristes Ni 
gricans. 

The Lafayette, Leiostomus Obliquus. 

The Weak-Fish, Otolithus Regalis. 

The Kino-Fish, JJmbrina Nebulosa. 

The Silvery Corvina, Corvina Argyroleuea. 

The Branded Corvina, Corvina Ocellata. 

The Bio Drum, Pogonias Chromis. 

The Sheep's-head, Sargus Ovis. 

The Poroee, Pagrus Argyrop$. 

The Blue-Fish, Temnodon Soltator. 

The Tautog — Black-Fish — Tautoga Americana. 



SCIENIDJE. 



205 



AOANTHOPTERyon. 



BCIENIDA. 



THE SEA BASS. 

BLACK SEA BASS. 
Centropristea Nigricana ; Cuvler. 

This is an excellent fish, and a very general favorite on the table 
It is with us a summer fish of passage, in the Northern States I mean, 
appearing on the coasts of New York during the months of May, 
June and July, in which it is frequent in the markets, and readily 
taken with the baited hook. 

Its geographical range is very wide, extending from the coasts of 
Florida to Cape Cod, on the shores of Massachusetts ; abundant in 
the vicinity of Martha's Vineyard, it is rare in Boston bay. Properly 
a southern species, though it visits the waters of the Eastern States 
in summer, it invariably returns to the eastward in autumn. 

With the wonted stupid perversity of their order, the fishermen of 
our coasts have confounded it, by deans of absurd misnomers, with 
two entirely different species, the Blue Fish, Temnodon Saltator, 
and the Black Fish or Tautoo, Tautoga Americamy calling 't com- 
monly by both these appellations. 

The color of the Sea Bass is a general blue black, sometimes more 
or less slightly bronzed, the edges of every scale are much darker 
than the prevailing color, which gives the character of a black net- 
work on a bluish ground to the whole surface of the fish. The fins, 
excepting the pectoral, are pale blue ; the dorsal and anal more or 
less distinctly spotted with a darker shade of the same color. 

The body is oblong and compressed ; the scales are of an oblong 
form, covering the opercula and extending high up on the dorsal ; the 
preoperculura is distinctly toothed along its entire margin, the oper- 
culum has a large spine on it, and another above ; the teeth are like 
velvet pile on all the bones, those on the outer edges of the jaws the 
largest. 



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206 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



The dorsal fin has ten low spinous, and eleven much more elevated 
soft rays, the pectorals have eighteen soft rays, the ventrals one 
spme and five soft rays, the anal three spines and seven soft ravs 
the caudal trilobed, consisting of eighteen soft rays. ' 

This fine fish is known by a great number of provincial titles ; among 
others Dr. DeKay mentions the trivial names of Black Harry and 
Hanahilh. 

It is a bold and free biter, and is one of the principal objects of 
pursuit by those who join in steamboat excursions to what are called 
the sea banks, off the port of New York, in the process of whicl 
they are often taken in considerable numbers. 




JCIENID£. 



207 



ACANTHOrTERYGH. 



8CIEN1DA 



THE LAFAYETTE 



SEA CHUB. 



Leiostomus Obliquua; Lacepcde. 

This is a beautiful and cxquisitoly-flavored little fish, which pro- 
perly belongs to the southern waters, being very common on the coasts 
of Florida, where it is much prized both as a sporting fish and as a 
delicacy. 

New York is probably its northern limit, and in the New York 
waters it is a rare visitant, though it appears at times in extraordinary 
abundance. 

One of the seasons of its most remarkable frequency happening to 
be simultaneous with the visit of Lafayette to America, it thus obtained 
its common name by general consent, it never having been observed 
previous to that date, and so taken for a new fish, though it had in 
truth been defined long before by Dr. Mitchil, who designated it 
Mngil Obliquus. 

Its color is grayish white, with fifteen or sixteen darker gray bars, 
more or less, pointing obliquely forward, those nearer the tail more 
vertical ; pupils black, irides yellow, fins pale yellow, the dorsal and 
anal finely spotted with black. There is a round spot of dark brown 
on the lateral line above the pectorals. 

The first dorsal fin has nine spinous rays, and is triangular in shape, 
its fourth and fifth rays being the largest ; the second dorsal has one 
spine and thirty soft rays ; the pectorals twenty, the ventrals fifteen 
soft rays ; the anal has two spines and twelve soft rays ; the caudal 
has nineteen branched and articulated rays. 

rhoro is a variety of this fish, Leiostomus Xanthurus, peculiar to 
.South Carolina, which has no spots or bands, but has all the fins, and 
more especially the caudal, yellow. 



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208 



AMERICAN FI8HE9 



ACANTHOPTERVGU. 



ECIENIDiG. 



THE WEAK-FISH. 

Wheat Fish ; Squeteaque, ChecoaiB.—Otolithua Regalia ; Cuvier. 

The trivial name of this fine fish has never been very distinctly 
explained, some ascribing the title " Weak " to the delicacy of the 
mouth, which when hooked often tears away from the barb ; others to 
the briefness of its resistance after being struck, though at first it 
pulls strongly. 

Yet a third explanation is, that Weak is a corruption from " Wheat," 
because it comes into season when the wheat is ripe ; this, however, ie 
not the fact, as it is an early spring fish, though taken through the 
summer months abundantly in the waters of New York ; probably 
both names. Wheat and Weak, are really corruptions from the Narra- 
gansett appellation by which it was first known to the English settlers, 
Squeteaque. 

Its geographical range is very wide, extending from New Orleans 
and the mouth of the Mississippi, where it is styled " Trout," to the 
estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence. It has also, it is said, been 
taken at Martinique. 

It is less common in the New York waters than formerly, being 
savagely hunted by its deadly enemy, the Blue Fish, Temnodon Sal- 
tator, which has lamentably thinned its numbers. Still it exists in 
sufficient numbers to give very exciting sport to the shoal salt-water 
angler, and when quite fresh out of the water is a very exquisite fish, 
its flavor greatly resembling that of the Trout, whence probably its 
southern misnomer. When it has been taken three or four hours it 
becomes flaccid, insipid, and in fact utterly worthless. 

Its color is bluish gray above, with irregular lines of transverse spots 
on the back and sides ; the head is greenish blue, the irides are yellow, 
the gill-covers and belly silvery and nacrous, the chin Salmon-colored, 
dorsal and caudal fins brown, pactorals pale brownish yellow, ventrala 
and anal orange. 



bCIENIDyl!,. 



209 



The body is long, slender and compressed ; head convex above the , 
eyes, the scales moderate-sized, oval, coveiing the head and gill-covers; 
the lateral lino is 8li;5htly curved ; the eyes large ; maxillaries, inter- 
mazillarics, and pharyngeals minitely toothed. 

The first dorsal fin is triangular, and longer than it is high, of eight 
weak spines ; between this and. the second dorsal is a single weak 
spine. The second dorsal has twenty-eight soft rays, the pectu. iIh 
have eighteen soft rays, the ventrals one spine and five soft rays, the 
anal thirteen, and the caudal seventeen rays. 

Of this fish there are two distinct varieties, the Otolithu$ Caroli 
nensis, also misnamed Trout, which is bluer on the back than the 
Common Weak-Fish, and is spotted rather than striated ; and th 
Otolithus Drummondi, a smaller species found at New Orleans. 

The Common Weak-Fish is taken with the hook and reel of al 
sizes, from a few ounces up to seven or eight pounds, and it is posi- 
tively asserted even up to thirty, but I have never seen a specimcB 
approaching to such dimensions. 



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910 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



AOANTHOPTERYOU. 



SClBNIDiC. 



/ I: 



THE KING-FISH. 

BERMUDA WHITING. 
Umbrina Nebuloaa; AgtMiz.—Umbrina Alburnu$. 

This admirable fish, which was formerly very abundant in the 
waters of New York and its vicinity, very few ever wandering so far 
as to Boston, is becoming daily less frequent. On the coasts of Caro- 
lina and Florida, where it is still taken in vast numbers, it is known 
absurdly as the Whiting, a fish to which it bears no resemblance. 

It is perhaps the gamest of all the shoal salt-water fishes, and the 
angler regards the King-Fish in his basket much as the sportsman 
looks upon the Woodcock in his bag— as worth a dozen of the moro 
easily captured and less worthy fry. 

His colors on the back and side are dark bluish gray, with lustrous 
and silvery reflections, and bright many-colored nacrous gleams flitting 
over him as he dies. His iridos are yellow ; his dorsals, caudal, and 
pectorals are dusky olive brown, the former the deepest ; the ventrals 
and anals pale yellow. There arc several dark oblique bands on the 
back, broken toward the tail, and a dark horizontal stripe, more or 
less distinct, from the pectorals to the tail. 

The body is long, cylindrical, and slender ; the scales round, the 
lateral line parallel to the back ; the snout is long but blunt ; the 
operculum has two strong flat spines ; the preoporculum is serrated 
behind ; the branchiostegous rays are seven ; the teeth of the upper 
jaw are long, sharp and rare, in the lower even and crowded. 

First dorsal fin is triangular, with ten spinous rays, the second 
dorsal has one spinous and twenty-five soft rays, the pectorals thirteen 
soft rays, the ventrals one spine and five soft rays, the caudal fin 
has seventeen rays, and has its upper lobe acute, but its lower rounded. 
There is said to be a permanent variety of this fish, Umbrina 
Coroidcs, peculiar to South Carolina, which has two spines to the anal 
fin, and is marked with nine dark vertical bands on the back. 



1 I 



8GIENIDA. 



911 



AC-VNTHOPrERVari. 



BOIENII)^. 



THE SILVERY CORVINA. 



CORVINA AKOYROLEUCA. 



SiLviRY Pkarcii. Bodianua ArgyroleucoB ; Mitchil. 

This fish, which greatly resL'rnbles the Pcarch both in shape and 
habits, is well known to the fishermen of New York as the Silvery 
Pearch. It "is properly a native of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of 
Mexico, but ranges during the summer so far north as the waters of 
New York. 

It is a free biter, and a moderately good fish. 

It is of a lustrous silvery white on the upper parts of the body, and 
opaque white below. Its dorsals, pectorals and caudal are pale 
yellow ; its ventrals and anals orange yellow. 

Its body is compressed, its dorsal outline arched and gibbous, its 
lateral line concurrent with the back ; eyes large, mouth deeply cut, 
teeth small and disposed in bands ; the prooperculum has two small 
spines, and a serrated margin ; the operculum terminates in two flat 
spines. 

The first dorsal fin has eleven spines, the second dorsal two spines 
and twenty-two soft rays, the pectorals seventeen soft rays, the ventrals 
one spine and five soft rays, the anal two spines and nine soft rays, the 
caudal is slightly rounded, and has seventeen soft rays. 



.JL'Auk^ 



212 



AMERICAN FISHES 



ACANTHOPTERYGII. 



SClfNIDiE. 



THE BRANDED CORVINA. 

Corvina Occllata ; Cuvier. 

This is a beautiful species, very rare at the north, hut is abundant 
to the southward. It is as excellent as it is handsome, and my south- 
ern readers will recognise it as the Poisson Rouge, or Red-fish, of New 
Orleans, and as the Sea Bass or Red Bass of Charleston. Like the 
rest of its family it is a bold biter and a vigorous fish, and is considered 
superlative on the table. 

In color it is blue above, lighter below, with head, cheeks and 
shoulders of a deep golden yellow, with ruddy metallic reflections. Its 
dorsal fin is dark green. Pectorals, ventrals and anal dull red. At 
the base of the tail it has one and sometimes two dark brown confluent 
spots. To these its name of Branded has been ascribed by Dr. 
Mitchil, as if the marks resembled the brand left by a heated iron. 

The body of this Corvina is more cylindrical, less compressed and 
shallower than in any others of its family. The snout is blunt but 
prominent. Lateral line concurrent with the dorsal outline. The 
teeth in one band in both jaws. The preoperculum is serrated or 
toothed along the whole margin ; the operculum terminates posteri- 
orly in two blunt spines. 

The first dorsal fin has ten spines ; the second one spine and twenty- 
six soft rays ; the pectorals have seventeen soft rays ; the ventrals one 
spine and five soft rays ; the anal two spines and eight soft rays ; and 
the caudal, which is nearly even, but slightly hollowed out in the centre, 
has seventeen branched rays. 

It is found in the southern seas from eight inches to three feet in 
length, and in those waters is one of the most favorite objects of pur- 
suit to the salt-water angler. 



SCIENIDiB. 



213 



ACANTHOPTERYOIL 



BCIENIDJB 



THE BIG DRUM. 

Pogoniat Chromia; Cuvier. 



AND 

THE BANDED DRUM. 

Pogoniaa Faaciatus ; Lacepede. 

Both of these fish are so constantly and commonly taken by the 
bait fisher in shoal salt water that it would hardly be proper to omit all 
mention of them in a work of this nature, although except the great 
size and difficulty of landing the former, and the rapid biting of the 
latter variety — if they be indeed distinct species, which I think Dr. 
DeKay has satisfactorily establbhed them to be — they have little or 
nothing to recommend them. 

The geographical range of both these fishes is from Florida to New 
York, their northern and southern limits being identical. 

They have both deep compressed bodies, large eyes, lateral lines 
parallel to the dorsal outline, numerous teeth in card-like bands on the 
jaws, and the pharyngeals furnished with large hard grinders. 

They have both double dorsals, the former with nine, the latter with 
ten spines in the first — both with one spine and twenty-two soft rays 
in the second. Pectorals, respectively, eighteen and twenty ; ventrals 
of both, one spine and five soft rays ; anals, respectively, two spines, 
seven soft rays, and two spines, five soft rays ; caudals seventeen, and 
fifteen branched rays. 

The large fish is of a brownish bronze color, rather lighter below, 
with a strongly marked spot behind the pectorals ; scales silvery at the 
outer edges. 

The smaller fish is nearly of the same color, chocolate brown, or 
bronze intermixed with silver, but marked with four dusky bands, one 
oominor down to the nectorals- the second crossing the first dorsal- and 



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214 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



the last two crossing the second dorsal. The pectoral fins are yellow 
ish, the others dusky brown. 

The smaller fish has been by some persons supposed to be the young 
of the larger species, but this is, in my opinion, satisfactorily contro- 
verted by Dr. DeKay, who has seen them in September six inches long 
with all the characteristics of the adult. 

It is known by various popular names, as the Grxmter^ Young Druniy 
and Young Sheeps-head, but is a fish of very small estimation. 

The larger species is rarely taken of less than three feet in lcngth» 
and fifteen or eighteen inches in depth ; they weigh from twenty to 
eighty pounds, and although the large fish are very coarse, the young 
are considered by some persons delicate eating. They rarely go north 
of New York, but very rarely visit the coasts of Massachusetts. 



I 




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ellow 



SPARIDiB. 



215 



young 
ontro- 
s long 

mgthj 
nty to 
young 
north 



AOANTHOPTERYGIl. 



SPARrilifiU 



THE SHEEP'S-HEAD. 

Sargua Ovia; Auctorum. 

This fine and delicate fish must on no i. icount be confounded with 
the fresh-water Corvirue, two of which pass by the same synonyme in 
the vernacular, and are peculiar to the great lakes. This is, on the 
contrary, a purely salt-water species, never ascending rivers, although 
it enters all the shallow bays on the coast, so far as Cape Cod. It is 
a southern fish in its natural state, although during the heat of the 
summer it wanders to the northward, where it is taken along the shores 
from June to October. Its southern limit is the Mississippi, and the 
coasts of Florida and the Carolinas are its breeding-grounds. 

As a delicacy, it holds " the same rank with American gastrono- 
mers," says Dr. DeKay, " that the Turbot holds in Europe. I have 
frequently eaten of both, under equally favorable circumstances, that 
is to say, within an hour after being taken out of the water, and can 
assort that the Sheep's-Head is the more delicate and savory fish. The 
Turbot, I may here state — though I have heard the contrary frequently 
asserted — does not occur on the shores of America." 

I have quoted the above remarks for two reasons, first because I 
desire to register my assertion as against Dr. DeKay's, although such 
things are, after all, merely matters of opinion, that the Sheep's-Head, 
though a delicious fish, is not more delicate— savory neither of them 
are— than the Turbot, and that it is immeasurably inferior to it in 
lacking what constitutes the Turbot's chief excellence, the admirable 
gelatinous fins, which have been famous the world over from the time 
of Domitian and Heliogabalus, arch epicures of old, to the palmy 
days of Ude and Carenne. 

Secondly, I beg leave to state positively, that although <Ac Turbot of 
Europe does not exist on the shores of America, a Turbot, and a very 
admirable fish too, as far superior to the Halibut as one fish can well 
be to another, docs exist, and is congtantly taken on the shores of Mas- 



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216 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



sachusetts, although, like many other excellent species, it is strangelj 

undervalued. 

But to return to the Sheep's-Head : it is a timid and wary fish, 
very difficult to hook, and when hooked a fierce and bold battler, 
exceeding difficult to land, and making a more desperate resistance 
than infinitely larger species. It is considered the greatest achieve- 
ment of the salt-water fisherman to master this king of the seas. 

It is occasionally taken up to seventeen pounds, though seven or 
eight pounds may be considered the average of largo fish, but like 
many, I might say most fishes, the smaller and middle-sized run may 
be generally set down as the most choice. 

The Sheep's-Head has a deep compressed body, a head sloping 
abruptly to the snout, and equally so to the chin and throat. Scales 
large and oblong,* smaller on the gill-covers and throat ; the lateral 
line is parallel to the dorsal outline ; the preopcrculum is broadly 
rounded, the operculum emarginate. In front of each jaw it has 
several large quadrilateral cutting teeth, and inside of these, both 
above and below, as well as on the pharyngeals, are many series of 
large-paved grinders. 

Its dorsal fin has twelve spinous and eleven soft rays, its pectorals 
fifteen soft, ventrals one spinous and five soft, its anal three spinous 
and ten soft, and its caudal seventeen soft rays. 

In color it is of a dull silver, with coppery gleams on the back, 
with five slightly arched bands of a darker color crossing the back 
and tail. The irides are brown, the pupils black, girdled with a 

golden ring. 

The fins are all deep brown or blackish ; the head and forehead 
black, with golden green reflections ; the chin marked with smutty 
patches, from some fancied resemblance of which to a Moorland 
sheep's face, its trivial name is derived. 

Note to Revised Edition.— Since writing the above, I learn from the correspon- 
dent of a paper, writing hostilely, that the Sheep's-Head janges even south of the 
MiBsisfiippi. I used the best authority I could command, not having visited that 
country. 1 now gladly avail myself of his matter, though " I detest his manner." 



8PARIDiE. 



217 



AOANTHOPTERYGII. 



SPARIDiE. 



THE FilG PORGEE. 

Pagrvs Argyrops ; Cuvier. 



This i8 a good and a handsome fish, and would be more valued if 
loss common. It is a bold and free biter, and affords great sport to 
the salt-water angler, being, with the Sea Ba&s, the principal object 
of pursuit to those who affect steamboat excursions to the fishing 
banks. Its geographical range is from Charleston southward, to Cape 
Cod on the north, beyond which it has been found impossible to natu- 
ralize them. 

The color of the Porgoe is a deep brownish black on the head and 
back, with green and golden reflections, especially about the neck and 
sides, which are sUvery, with brazen gleams. A black spot marks the 
upper corner of the gill-covor crossing the lateral line, and there is 
another of the same kind at the base of the pectoial fin. The dorsal, 
anal and caudal fins arc brown, the vcntrals bluish, the pectorals light 
yellow. The body of this fish is much compressed, with a gibbous 
outline, nearly half as deep as it is broad ; the face arched ; the 
scales are large, and the lateral line corresponds with the curve of the 
back. 

The jaws are largely furnished, as well as the pharyngeals, with 
alternating series of acute and paved teeth. The dorsal fin is com- 
pound, with one stout and twelve feeble spines, and twelve soft rays ; 
the pectorals are unusually long, with sixteen soft rays ; the ventrals 
have one spine and five soft, the anal three spines and eleven soft, and 
the caudal soventeen soft rays. 

There are two smaller fish of the same family, one well known to 
all fishermen, especially on the Long Island shores, as the Sand 
PoRGEE, Sargus Arenosus ; and another far less common, described 
by Cuvier and others as the Rhomboid al Porgee, Sargus BhoiJi' 
boides, which, though very similar to the Big Porgee, are clearly 
distinct. 

15 



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918 



AMERICAN FISHES 



ACANTHOFTERYGn. 



BCOMBRIDiG 



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1 1 



THE BLUE-FISH. 

HORSE MACKEREL, GREEN-FISH, IN VIRGINIA ; SKIPJACK, IN 
CAROLINA ; SNAPPING MACKEREL. 

Temnodon Saltator / Cuvier. 

A BOLD, fierce, and wcll-knowa fish this, greatly sought after, and 
afibrding fine sport to the fisherman, and right-royally good to eat 
when quite fresh out of the water, split in two down the back, nailed 
upon a shingle, and roasted before a quick fire. 

It is a singularly erratic fish, sometimes swarming on the coasts, and 
again almost entirely disappearing. It occasionally runs far up rivers, 
and was taken in the Hudson, so high up as the Highlands, in great 
quantities in the year 1841. It appears to have been entirely unknown 
on the coasts of New York before the year 1810, since which it has 
been, on the whole, gradually on the increase, while in like propor- 
tion its'victims, the Weak-Fish and King-Fish, appear to be dying out. 

The Blue Fish is said occasionally to reach the weight of thirty-five 
pounds, but the average run is from three to eight. They generally 
frequent the coasts of New York from May until late in the autumn. 
Their geographical range is very wide, from Brazil to Massachusetts 
on the coasts of America, from New Holland to Madagascar, and 
from Amboyna to Egypt. 

The young fish abound in the mouths of our rivers from four to six 
inches in length, and even then they will take the bait with avidity. 

The ordinary mode of catching this fine fish is with what is techni- 
cally termed a squid, or piece of bright bone or metal, hurled out 
from the stem of a sailing boat, going with what is known as a " mack- 
erel breeze " in a sea-way, and drawn rapidly home by hand. 

There are many worse kinds of sport than this ; the swift motion 
of the vessel, the dashing spray, and the rapid biting of the fish, com- 
bining to create! a highly pleasurable excitement. 



»COMBRIDJE. 



219 



The color of this fish is a light bluish gray, with deeper tints on the 
back, and greenish reflections on the sides, becoming silvery on the 
belly. The pectorals, dorsal and caudal fins greenish brown, the ven- 
trals and anal bluish white. 

The body is oblong, cylindrical, compressed and slender, the facial 
outline gently sloping, the scales, which cover the whole body, the head, 
gill-covers, and much of the fins are of moderate size and oblong 
oval form. 

The lower jaw is longest, both niaxillaries are well armed with sharp 
lancet-formod teeth ; the palatines, vomer and base of tongue banded 
with card-like patches of teeth The operculum terminates in two 
indistinct flat points. 

The first dorsal fin is composed of seven weak spinous rays, the 
second of one short and twenty-five longer flexible rays. The pecto- 
rals have seventeen soft, the vontriils one spine and five soft, the anals 
one spine and twenty-seven soft, and the caudal nineteen flexible 
rays. 

Of the same family with the above are the well-known Spring Mack- 
erel, Scomber VcrTuilis^ of Mitchil, and Fall Mackerel, Scomber Grex. 
of the same author, as also the Spanish Mackerel, Scomber Colias, all 
of which species are excellent eating, and give good sport in the bays 
and inlets. They are, however, so common that they are rarely pur- 
sued for the sport, or taken except as an article of food and commerce. 
I therefore pass them without farther notice than this mere cursory 
mention 



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220 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



AOANTHOPTERYOn. 



LABRIDiE. 



THE TAUTOG. 

The Black-Fish of New Yotli.—Tautoga Americana ; DeKay. 

This, like all the fishes last described, is rather a general favorite 
among both sportsmen and epicures, though I confess my own opinion 
to be that he is generally overrated in both capacities. As a game 
fish he is a dead, loggy, heavy puller on the hook, offering little resist- 
ance beyond the vis ivertue and dead weight, and on the table his excel- 
lence depends mainly on the cook. 

The color of the Black-Fish is indicated by his name, but varies con- 
siderably from deep dull black to glossy blue black with metallic 
reflections, and occasionally to dusky brown. 

His body is elongated and compressed, the outlines of the back 
arched forward of the dorsal to the snout, straight posteriorly. The 
lateral line concurrent with the back. The eyes are rather small, the 
scales small, extending over the gill-covers, which are very large and 
rounded. The lips are very thick and fleshy, the teeth stout. The 
branchiostegous rays are five in number. 

The dorsal fin has seventeen low spinous rays, and ten soft rays, 
the pectorals seventeen soft, the ventrals one spinous, five soft, the 
anal three spinous and eight soft, the caudal fourteen soft branched 
rays. 

The Tautog ranges only from the capes of the Chesapeake to Mas- 
sachusetts Bay. He is readily taken with the hook baited with crabs, 
clams, or other small shell-fish, from April until late in the autumn, 
especially in the vicinity of rocks, reefs, hulls of sunken wrecks, or old 
deserted docks, where he finds food in abundance. It is well to bait 
the ground largely for several days in advance of fishing for him.* 

* Note to Revised Edition. — I have recently learned that this fish, as well as 
the Providence Whiting, is becoming common in Charleston, having, it is believed, 
»sf !iued from the car of a fishing-boat, and bred there. 



UB0P-8EA riSHES. 



221 



DEEP-SEA FISHING. 



I HARDLY hold myself justified in enumerating the Cod, Haddock, 
Whiting, Halibut and Flounder among game fishes, but as it is proba- 
ble that some of my readers do regard them as such, and pursue them 
for the pleasure of the capture, independent of profit, I shall proceed 
to describe the first three briefly, and shall devote a few pages in 
another portion of this work to a consideration of the modes and 
methods of their capture. 

The huge Halibut, Hippogtossus Vulgaris, and the Flounder, Pleu- 
ronectes Dentattis, I shall content myself with naming, as I cannot 
bring myself to regard them as fit for any but culinary purposes. In 
like manner the Hake, the Cusk, the Pollock, and many others of the 
Cod family, I shall pass in silence as objects only of casual pursuit, 
except to the professional fisherman, who plies his daily toil to earn hit 
daily bread 




^ -.'yf.. 



222 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



8UBBRA0II1AL 
MALACOPTEllVtill. 



OADIDiB. 



I I 



ii: 




THE COD. 



Morrhua Vulgaris. 

This is the common Cod of Newfoundland, well-known as au 
article of food the wide world ovsr. There is an American variety, 
Morrhua Americana, which is slightly though permanently distinct. 

The fishes of this class are distinguished from the other soft-rayed 
fishes by having the vcntrals situate nearly vertical under the pec- 
torals, and having two or three dorsal and anal fins. 

The color of this well-known species, which attains to a vast weight, 
sometimes seventy or eighty pounds, varies much in individuals. It 
is generally greenish brown, fading into ash-color when the fish is 
dead, with many reddish yellow spots. The belly silvery opaque 
white, the fins pale green, the lateral line dead white. 

The body is long and cylindrical, the head sloping in an arched 
line, the eyes large, the scales small and adhesive. It has a cirrus 
or barbel at the extremity of the lower jaw. It has four rows of teeth 
on the upper, and one on the lower jaw. 

It has three dorsal fins, respectively of fifteen, twenty-two, and 
nineteen rays ; pectorals nineteen rays ; ventrals six rays. Two anal 
fins respectively of twenty-two and nineteen rays ; caudal forty rays. 

It is a bold and voracious fish, ranging from New York northwardly 
along all the coasts of America. 



0A02 -iS. 



223 



BUBRACIIIAL 
MALACOPTERYOIL 



OADIDifi 




^i,ZJi- 



THE AMERICAN HADDOCK. 






Morrliua Mg\ejinx9', Cuvior 

The distinctive coloring of this fish is blaclcish brown above, and 
silvery gray below the lateral line, which is jet black. The back and 
sides are varied by purplish and golden gleams ; there is a large dark 
vertical patch posterior to the pectorals, crossing the lateral line. 

The fins are dusky blue. 

The body of the Haddock is stout, anteriorly, and tapering back' 
ward. The head large and arched. The eyes are large. The lower 
jaw is the shortest ; the teeth small, in a single row on each jaw ; a 
single small barbel on the chin. 

It has three dorsals, the first and third triangular, the second long- 
est, respectively of fifteen, twenty-two and twenty rays The pecto- 
rals have twenty-one, the ventrals sixteen, the two anals respectively 
twenty-five and twenty-one, and the caudal thirty-four rays. 

The range of the Haddock is similar to that of the Cod ; it is very 
abundant, and is about equal in estimation as an article of food with 
its congener?. 



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224 



BUnimAClIlAL 
MALACOI-TKltYOII. 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



OADIDia 




THE AMERICAN WHITING. 

Merlangua Americanus. 

This is, comparatively speaking, a rare and little-Known fish, that 
which is commonly called Whitings being in reality a Hake Mer/ucius 
It ranges only from Massachusetts northward. 

It is easily distinguished by its long, tapering, cylindrical body, and 
its high, triangular, wing-like dorsals. 

Its color is, above the lateral lino, a bright nacrous bluish gray, and 
below a silvery white, with fins nearly of the same color. 

The head of the Whiting is acutely prolonged ; the eyes large and 
prominent ; the gill-covers rounded ; the teeth sharp and small. 

The three dorsals have respectively thirteen, twenty and twenty 
rays ; the pectorals nineteen, the ventrals six, the anals respectively 
twenty-four and twenty-one, and the caudal thirty-two. 

The Whiting is a delicate fish. It is taken in the same manner 
and in the same waters with the Cod and Haddock, and, like them, 
has little or no game habits. My chief reason for inserting him in 
this work is, that his existence in American waters has been doubted 
and denied. 

• Note to Uevibbd Euition — I have just learned from Mr. King, of CharleBton, 
S. C, that this iish has lately been found m tneir waters, having, it is thought, es* 
caped from an Eastern fishing-hoat, and bvcomo naturalized. 



SALMON FISHING. 



225 



SALMON FISHING. 



,*f 



Of all the pificatory Hports, this is the first and finest ; and although 
it cannot now be pursued by the American angler except at the 
expense of some not inconsiderable time and trouble, still there is no 
land on earth in which it exists in such perfection as in this. 

Time was, when every river eastward of the Capes of the Dela- 
ware swarmed with this noble fish, but, year after year, like the red 
Indian, they have passed farther and farther from the sphere of the 
encroaching white man's boasted civilization, and perhaps will also 
ere long be lost from the natural world of this era. 

The Kennebec is now the western limit of the Salmon's range, and in 
that bright and limpid river he is yearly waxing less and less frequent 

In the Penobscot, even to this day, he abounds ; but for some 
singular and inexplicable reason, whether it be from the sawdusty 
turbidness of its lower waters, or from some especial habit of the fish, 
he is rarely or never known to take the bait or the fly, within very 
many miles of the mouth of that grand and impetuous stream. 

Far up the northern and northwestern branches of the river it is 
speared constantly by the Penobscot Indians ; but the white residents 
of that wild region, lumbermen for the most part, and sparse agricul- 
tural settlers, are guiltless of the art of fly-fishing — the only method, 
by-the-way, except the use of roe-bait, whereof more anon, by which 
much success can be expected or obtained. 

To the sportsman, that great track of grandly-timbered and superb- 
ly-watered wilderness, which yet lies virgin almost and unbroken, from 
within a few leagues of the ocean to the great St. Lawrence, and 
from the Upper Kennebec to the Aroostook and St. John's, is yet 
well nigh term incognita. 

i'et well would it repay the fisherman or the hunter, to pack his 
rraps m the smallest compass, and set forth with rifle, shot-gun, and 












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■jo^jwifc- A.,tA.j 



U 



n 



229 



AMERICAN FISilEH. 



long Salmon-rod, via Augusta, Norridgewook, and the magnificent 
gorges of the Keunoboc, for that land of the Moose, the Deer, the 
Trout, and the lordly Salmon, there to encamp for days or weeks, as 
his taste for excitement and his manly hardihood should dictate, floating 
by day in the birch-bark canoe over the bright transparent waters, 
sleeping by night on the fragrant and elastic shoots of the green hem- 
lock, winning his food from the waters and the wilds by his own skill 
and daring, and earning the appetite whereby to enjoy it, by the toil 
which is to him a pleasure. 

Such in fact ia at present the only mode by which the angler can 
enjoy truly fine Salmon fishing, unless indeed he be a man of such 
liberally endowed leisure that he can fit his own yacht, and visiting 
the estuaries of those Salmon-freighted rivers, which, from the St. 
John's, round all the eastern and northeastern shores of New Bruns- 
wick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward's Island, to the vast mouth of 
the St. Lawrence, and up that splendid river and its great northern 
tributaries, the Mingan and the Saguenay, so far almost as the heights 
of Cape Diamond, offer the largest temptations to the adventurous 
angler. 

Within a few years, indeed, the rivers close around Quebec, the 
Montmorenci, the Chaudierc, and the Jacques Cartier, abounded with 
Salmon ; and a drive of a few hours in the morning from the Plains 
of Abraham, set the fisherman on waters where he could confidently 
count on filling his creel, even ^o overflowing, before night-fall ; but 
latterly these streams have failed almost entirely, and a sail of many 
miles down the St. J a^vrence to the mouth of the Saguenay or the 
lordship of Mingan, has mw become necessary to ensure good sport. 

In the upper province jf Canada, although Salmon run up the river 
into Lake Ontario, and frequent many of the streams falling into it 
from the northern shore, as the Credit and others, they are very 
rarely fished for or taken with the fly, and it is said confidently that 
in the lake itself they will not take the fly under any circumstances. 

Within my own recollection, Salmon were wont to run up the 
Oswego, and so find their way into all the lesser lakes of the State of 
New York ; but the dams on the river, erected, I believe, in order to 
the construction, of the canal, have completely shut them out from 
these waters. I may here observe that it is very greatly to be deplored 



magnificent 
le Dter, the 
or weeks, as 
tatc, floating 
rent waters, 

green hem- 
liis own skill 
, by the toil 

! angler can 
nan of such 
and visiting 
om the St. 
New Bruna- 
st mouth of 
at northern 
I the heights 
adventurous 



Quebec, the. 
ounded with 
a the Plains 
confidently 
bt-fall ; but 
ail of many 
icnay or the 
50od sport, 
up the river 
lling into it 
!y are very 
idently that 
instances, 
un up the 
he State of 
in order to 
n out from 
be deplored 



SALMON FISHING. 



227 



m 




that, as is corapoUed by law in the Scottish and Irish Salmon rivers, 
a small aperture is not left in the rivers and dams, if they be above 
twelve feet in height, by which the fish may ascend to the cool and 
gravelly head-waters, in which they deposit their spawn. 

Such an aperture or run-way, which need not be of more than two 
or three feet square, would not occasion any material waste of water 
in rivers of the vast volume and rapidity which are characteristic of all 
the American Salmon rivers, and, therefore, would detract nothing 
from the utility of the works, while, by suffering this most valuable 
fisli to ascend the course, and so to propagate its species, it would ensure 
to the inhabitants of the Inland shores a delicious variety of food, and 
create anew an important article of commerce. 

It is singular that the Saluion of the lakes are never known to enter 
the Niagara river, although they are constantly taken at its mouth. 
They might ascend it some sixteen or seventeen miles, to the foot of 
the Falls, but I believe it to be a fact that none have ever been taken 
within the stream. 

The cause of this is probably to be found in the great depth of 
the Niagara rivor, in its abrupt and wall-like shores, and in the total 
absence of gravel beds, or pebbly shoals of any kind, on which they 
can deposit their ova. 

Again, I am not aware that Salmon are ever taken in the Black 
river, the Rackett river, or any other of the fine streams, all abound- 
ing with the finest Brook Trout, which make their way from the 
romantic region of the Adirondach lakes and highlands, to the north- 
ward, into the basin of the St. Lawrence. 

Everywhere to the northward of the great Canadian river, to the 
extreme arctic regions, the Salmon is found in vast numbers, and, 
together with the White-Fish, or Attihawmeg, the delicious Arctic 
Grayling, Back's Charr, and the Common Trout, afford their principal 
subsistence to the Esquimaux, and to the adventurous fur-traders, 
whose posts are dotted down, hundreds of leagues apart, throughout 
those inhospitable countries. 

Again, throughout the whole of that huge territory lately won at 
the sword's point, by the Saxon energy of young America, from the 
degenerate children of old Spain, throughout the British possessions, 
and even in those far northern shores which the Russian holds upon 



W^M 



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. ^U.'A .A 



'•III ' 

If ll> 1, 



i ( 
I '1 



228 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



this western continent, the estuaries and courses of those waters which 
pour into the Pacific, can boast not only the true Sahuon, but many 
fine, distinct varieties. Many years will not probably elapse, taking 
into consideration the incessant stream of immigration which is almost 
overflowing Northern California, and remembering the restless, enter- 
prising energy of the Anglo-American race, before railroads, oven to 
the Pacific, across the western prairies, and through the gorges of the 
Rocky Mountains, will open this new world to the adventurous angler, 
and the dwellers of the Atlantic cities wUl make their trips to the 
Salmon rivers of the Pacific with less trouble, and in less time, than 
it took their sturdy Dutch f,.iefathers to visit Albany, now reached 
with ease in a few hours. 

For the present, however, it is needless to discourse of those west- 
ern waters, since time must pass before any species of game will be 
pursued for sport on the shores of the Pacific, or killed except to 
afford subsistence to a population occupied wholly by the greedy race 
for riches. To the fislierman, therefore, the Eastern States and the 
north-eastern British provinces afford the only accessible Salmon fish- 
ing ; and I should strongly urge it upon those who are enthasiastic 
about this fine sport, not to waste time even in the Kennebec or the 
Penobscot, but to pack up their traps at any time between May and 
September, and set forth at once for the city of St. John, in New 

Brunswick. 

This town, which might be styled not inaptly the paradise of Ame- 
rican fly-fishers, may be reached with ease in a few days via Boston, 
whence, if 1 am not mistaken, a stout and well-found Btcaracr, the 
Admiral, takes her departure every Wednesday for New Brunswick. 
In St. John every requisite for the prosecution of the sport can be 
obtained, every information concerning the vast waters, and every 
facility for the procurement of guides, boats and the like will be gladly 
furnished, and every thing that hospitality can effect will be lavishly 
offered to the gentle angler. 

I venture here to mention the name of an enthusiastic and thorough 
fisherman, Mr. Perley, Her Majesty's emigration officer in the city of 
S^ John, as one certain to do whatever in his power lies to forward 
tho views and promote the pleasure of any who shall visit his part of 
the world, led by the love of the gentle science ; and 1 take the same 



SALMON FISniNO. 



239 



opportunity of thanking him for the very valuable information he has 

afforded me concerning the fisheries and fishing of the province, and 

of bespeaking his friendship and attention for any of my readers who 

shall be induced by the perusal of these pages to wet a line in the 

rapids of the St. John, the Obscache, the Chemenpcek, or the Richi- 
bucto. 

Before proceeding to describe the mere technical portions of Salmon 
fishing, and the implements nccossary for the prosecution of the sport, 
I shall take the liberty of quoting from myself a chapter of a nove- 
lette now in course of publication in Graham's excellent magazine, 
entitled Jasper St. Aubyn. I do this not egotistically, nor altogether 
to save time and trouble, but rather because it contains as correct an 
account of the mode to bo pursued in casting for the Salmon, hooking, 
playing and killing him in an English river, as I am capable of writing ; 
and because the variety of the narrative style may possibly prove a 
relief to the reader, after the drier routine of more didactic writing. 

It is scarcely, perhaps, nece.-'sary to add that the mode of fishing for 
the Salmon in England and America are identical, the tackle and im- 
plements the same, and the same flies the most killing in all waters, of 
which singular fact, and other matters connected with which, I shall say 
more hereafter. Nor, I presume, need I apologise to my reader for 
the slight anachronism which has attributed to an ideal personage sup- 
posed to live in the age of the Second James all the modern improve- 
ments and advantagT^s possessed by the anglers of the present day, and 
all the skill and science which were certainly not to bo found at that 
time in any Salmon-fisher, not excepting even good quaint Father 
Izaak, whose maxims on Salmon-fishing, and indeed on fly-fishing in 
general, savor far more of antiquity than of utility. 






" It was as fair a morning of July as ever dawned in the blue sum- 
mer sky ; the sun as yet had risen but a little way above the waves of 
fresh green foliage which formed the horizon of the woodland scenery 
surrounding Widecomb Manor; and his heat, which promised ere 
mid-day to become excessive, was tempered now by the exhalations of 
the copious night-dews, and by the cool breath of the western breeze, 



r.^^r 



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230 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



which came down through the leafy gorges, in long, .oft swells fro™ 

the open moorlands. . , . , ., 

"AH nature was alive and joyous; the a,r was vocal with the 
pipintmelody of the blackbirds and thrushes, caroling m every brake 
rb^skrainglo; the smooth, green lawn before the windows of tlie 
:^HallL;o^edw^--^^^^^ 

r ^a!^r:i:;^"^^-, -. a sco. of sp.^. peacocks 
Tere strutting to and fro on the paved terraces, or PO-^e^^ J- "^ 
larved stone balustrades, displaying their gorgeous plumage to the 

'^XZ^.., mists of the first morning twilight had not been dis- 
persod from the lower regions, and were suspended still in ho middh. 
air in broad fleecy masses, though melting rapidly away in the incrcas- 
in<r warmth and brightness of the day. , , , , , i 

" And still a faint blue line hovered over the bed of the long rocky 
.orge, which divided the chase from the open country, floating about 
ft ifke the steam of a seething caldron, and rising here and there into 
tall smoke-like columns, probably where some steeper cataract ot the 
mountain-stream sent its foam skyward. 

" So early, indeed, was the hour, that had my tale been recited ol 
these degenerate days, there would have been no gentle eyes awake to 
look upon the loveliness of new-awakened nature. 

" In the crood days of old, however, when daylight was still deemed 
to be the fitting time for labor and for pastime, and night the appointed 
time for natural and healthful sleep, the dawn was wont to brighten 
beheld by other eyes than those of clowns and milkmaids, and the gay 
Bongs of the matutinal birds were listener] to by ears that could appre- 
ciate their untaught melodies. . ^ ., 

" And now, just as the stable clock was striking four, the groat 

oaken door of the old Hall was thrown open with a vigorous swing that 

made it rattle on its hinges, and Jasper St. Aubyn came bounding out 

into the fresh morning air, with a foot as elastic as that of the moun- 

• tain roc, singing a snatch of some quaint old ballad. 

" He was dressed simply in a close-fitting jacket and tight hose of 
dark-green cloth, without any lace or embroidery, light boots of un- 
tanned leather, and a broad-leafed hat, with a single eagle's feat^-r 



SALMON FISHING. 



231 



thrust carelessly through the band. He wore neither cloak nor sword, 
though it was a period at which gentlemen rarely went abroad without 
these, their distinctive attributes ; but in the broad black belt which 
girt his rounded waist he carried a stout wood-knife with a buckhorn 
hilt ; and over his shoulder there swung from a leathern thong a large 
wicker fishing-basket. 

" Nothing, indeed, could be simpler or less indicative of any parti- 
cular rank or station in society than young St. Aubyn's garb, yet it 
would have been a very dull and unobservant eye which should take 
him for aught less than a high-born and high-bred gentleman. 

" His fine intellectual face, his bearing erect before heaven, the 
graceful ease of his every motion, as ho hurried down the flagged steps 
of the terrace, and planted his light foot on the dewy greensward, all 
betokened gentle birth and gentle associations. 

" But he thought nothing of himself, nor cared for his advantages, 
acquired or natural. The long and heavy salmon-rod which he carried 
in bus right hand, in three pieces as yet unconnected, did not more 
clearly indicate his purpose than the quick marking glance which he 
cast toward the half-veiled sun and hazy sky, scanning the signs of the 
weather. 

" ' It will do, it will do,' he said to himself, thinking as it were 
aloud, < for three or four hours at least ; the sun will not shake oiF those 
vapors before eight o'clock at the earliest, and if he do come out then 
hot and strong, I do not know but the water is dark enough after the 
late rains to serve my turn a while longer. It will blow up, too, I think, 
from the westward, and there will be a brisk curl on the pools. But 
come, I must be moving, if I would reach Darringford to breakfast.' 

" And as he spoke he strode out rapidly across the park toward the 
deep chasm of the stream, crushing a thousand aromatic perfumes from 
the dewy wild-flowers with his heedless foot, and thinking Kttle of the 
beauties of nature, as he hastened to the scene of his loved exercise. 

" It was not long, accordingly, before he reached the brink of the 
steep rocky bank above the stream, which he proposed to fish that 
morning, and paused to select the best place for descending to the 
water's edge. 

" It was, indeed, a striking aad romantic scene as ever met the eye 
«f painter or of poet. On the farther side of the gorge, scarcely a bun- 



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232 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



dred yards distant, the dark limestone rocks rose sheer and precipitous 
from the very brink of the stream, rifted and broken into angular 
blocks and tall columnar masses, from the clefts of which, wherever 
they could find soil enough to support their scanty growth, a few 
stunted oaks shot out almost horizontally with their gnarled arms and 
dark-green foliage, and here and there the silvery bark and quivering 
tresses of the birch relieved the monotony of color by their gay bright- 
ness Above, the cliffs were crowned with the beautiful purple hea- 
ther now in its very glow of summer bloom, about which were buzzing 
myriads of wild bees, sipping their nectar from its cups of amethyst.^ 

" The hither side, though rough and steep and broken, was not m 
the place where Jasper stood precipitous; indeed it seemed as if at 
some distant period a sort of landslip had occurred, by which the 
summit of the rocky wall had been broken into massive fragments, and 
hurled down in an inclined plane into the bed of the stream, on which 
it had encroached with its shattered blocks and rounded boulders. 

« Time, however, had covered all this abrupt and broken slope with 
a beautiful growth of oak and hazel coppice, among which, only at dis- 
tant intervals, could the dun weather-beaten flanks of the great stones 

be discovered. 

" At the base of this descent, a hundred and fifty feet perhaps below 
the stand of the young sportsman, flowed the dark arrowy stream-a 
wild and perilous water. As clear as crystal, yet as dark as the brown 
cairn-gorm, it came pouring down an.ong the broken rocks with a 
rapidity and force which showed what must be its fury when swollen 
by a storm among the mountains, here breaking into wreaths of rip- 
pling foam where some unseen ledge chafed its current, there roaring 
and"surging white as December's snow among the great round-heeded 
rocks, and there again wheeUng in sullen eddies, dark and deceitful, 
round and round some deep rock-rimmed basin. 

" Here and there, indeed, it spread out into wide, shallow, rippling 
rapids, filling the whole bottom of the ravine from side to side, but 
more generally it did not occupy above a fourth part of the space 
below, leaving sometimes on this margin, sometimes on that, broad 
pebbly banks" or slaty ledges, affording an easy footing and a clear 
path to the angler in its troubled waters. 

« After a rapid glance over the well-known scene, Jasper plunged 



SALMON FISHING. 



233 



into the coppice, and following a faint track worn by tho feet of the 
wild-doer in the first instance, and widened by his own bolder tread, 
soon reached the bottom of tho chasm, thouj^h not until he had flushod 
from the dense oak covert two noble black cocks with their superb 
forked tails, and glossy purple-lustcrod plumage, which soared away, 
crowing their bold defiance, over tho heathery moorlands. 

"Once at the water's edge, tho young man's "tackle was speedily 
made ready, and in a few minutes his long line want whistling througli 
the air, as he wielded tho powerful two-handed rod, as easily as if it 
had been a stiipling's reed, and the large gaudy peacock-fly alighted 
on the wheeling eddies, at tho tail of a long arrowy shoot, as gently as 
if it had settled from too long a flight. Delicately, deftly, it waa 
made to dance and skim the clear, brown surface, until it had crossed 
the pool and noared the hither bank ; then again, obedient to the pli- 
ant wrist, it arose on glittering wing, circled half round the angler's 
head, and was sent fifteen yards aloof, straight as a wild bee's flight, 
into a little mimic whirlpool, scarce larger than the hat of the skilful 
fisherman, which spun round and round just to leeward of a gray lodge 
of limestone. Scarce had it /oached its mark before the water broke 
all around it, and the gay deceit vanished, the heavy swirl of the sur- 
face, as the break was closing, indicating tho great sizT of the fish which 
had risen. Just as the swirl was subsiding, and tho forked tail of the 
monarch of the stream was half seen as he descended, that indescri- 
bable but well-known turn of the angler's wrist, fixed the barbed hook, 
and taught tho scaly victim the nature of the prey he had gorged so 
heedlessly. 

" With a wild bound he thtew himself three feet out of the water, 
showing his silver sides, with the sea-lice yet clinging to his scales, a 
fresh sea-run fish of fifteen, ay, eighteen pounds, and perhaps over. 

" On his broad back ho strikes the water, but not as he meant the 
tightened lino ; for as he leaped the practised hand had lowered the 
rod's tip, that it f^U in a loose bight below him. Again! again! 
again ! and yet a fourth time he bounded into the air with desperate 
and vigorous soubrcsaults, like an unbroken stood that would dismount 
his rider, lashing the eddies of the dark stream into bright bubblini 
streaks, and making the heart of his captor boat high with anticipation 
16 






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' ^ ■>» j^ / . ^ mJt <«bk Jk *4I «i* 



a34 



AMERICAN F19IIK8. 



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Of the desperado «truggIo .hat should follow h.^forc « . '"°-«- ""i" 
lie panting and exhausted on the yellow sand or mo,.t .p^ee,,« ,, . 

<' Awav' with the rush of an eagle through the a,r he « gone bke 
an arrow down the rapids-how the reel ring,, and the hue wh stle, 
fromth! swift working wheel; he is too swift, too headstrong to h 
Ihe^ked as yet ; tenfold the strength of that slender taekle nught no. 
control him in his Brst fiery rush. 

" But Jasper, although young in years, was old m the art, and sWM 
„ the eraftiest of the gentle eraftsmen. Ho gives h.m the butt of h , 
1 s eld y t ying the strength of his t..okle with a delieate and gentle 

nge gt!ing k ™ line a. every rash, yet flr,„ly, -""""f ' '-'.'"^ '"' 
lotth all the while, and moderating his speed even wh.le he yrelds to 

'■''"Meanwhile, with the eye of intuition and the nerve of iron, he 
bounds Ion- the diffieult shore, he leaps fron, rook to roek al.ghfng 
!„ their li^pery tops with the firm agility of the rope^aneer he 
Ites k e'de'ep through the slippery shallow, keeping h„ l,ne 
„t, inelining his rod over his shoulder, bearing on Ins fish eve 
w' h a kil in-- pall, steering him elear of every roek or stump aga n.t 

*l A:;Io:t:'great salmon has turned sulky ; like . pieee of lead 
. he has sunk to the bottom of the deep blaek pool, and hes on the 
.ravel bottom in the 8ullenn»ss of despair. 

"Jasper stooped, gathered up in his left hand a heavy potble, and 
pUehe^' into the ool, as nearly as he eould guess to the whereabout 

A™u he throws himself elear out of water, and agam fo led m h,« 
attempt to smash the taekle, dashes away down stream ™f;"™», 

"But his strength is departing-.he vigor of h,s „,sh ,s br k n^ 
The anrfer gives him the butt abundantly, stram, on nm w,.h a 
Lavicr pull, yet over yields a little as he exerts his fa,l,„g powers ■, 
Le his '.o a. silver sMe has thrie» turned up, even to the surfaee 
Tnd though ea^h time he ha, reeovered himself, eaeh t.me ,t has been 
™ith a heavier and more sicldy motion. 



SALMON FI8IIIN0. 



235 



" Brave fellow I his last race is run, his last spring sprung — no 
more shall he disport himself in the bright reaches of the Tamar ; no 
more shall the Naiads wreathe his clear silver scales with river-groens 
and flowery rushes. 

" The cruel gaff is in his side — his cold blood stains the eddies tor 
a moment — ho flaps out his death-pang on the hard limestone. 

" ' Who-whoop ! a nineteen pounder !' 

" Meantime the morning had worn onward, and ere the great fish 
was brough to the basket, the sun had soared clear above the mist- 
wreaths, and had risen so high into the summer heaven that his slant 
rays poured down into the gorge of the stream, and lighted up the 
clear depths with a lustre so transparent that every pebble at the 
bottom might have been discerned, with the large fish here and there 
floating mid depth, with their heads up stream, their gills working 
with a (juick motion, and their broad tails vibrating at short intervals 
slowly but powerfully, as they lay motionless in opposition to the very 
strongest of the swift current. 

" The breeze had died away, there was no curl upon the water, and 
the heat was oppressive. 

" Undor such circumstances, to whip the stream was little better 
than more loss of time, yet as ho hurried with a fleet foot down the 
gorge, perhaps with )me ulterior object, beyond the mere love of 
sport, Jasper at times cast his fly across the stream, and drew it neatly, 
and, as he thought, irresistibly, right over the recusant fish ; but though 
once or twice a large lazy Salmon would sail up slowly from the 
depths, and almost touch the fly with his nose, he either sunk down 
slowly in disgust, without breaking the water, or flapped his broad tail 
over the shining fraud as if to mark his contempt. 

" It had now got to be near noon, for, in the ardor of his success, 
the angler had forgotten all about his intended breakfast ; and, his 
first fish captured, had contented himself with a slender meal furnished 
from out his fishing-basket and his leathern bottle. 

" Jasper had traversed by this time some ten miles in length, follow- 
ing the sinuosities of the stream, and had reached a favorite pool at 
the head of a long, straight, narrow trench, cut by the waters them- 
selves in the course of time, through the hard shistous rock which walls 



ilii 



/^.<- » «:. ^^-.m».JL.:a , 



If I 



g3§ AMKIUCAN FISHES. 

the torrent on each hand, not leaving the slightest ledge or margin 
between the rapids and the precipice. 

"Through this wild gorge of some fifty yards in length, the river 
shoots like an arrow over a steep inclined plane of limestone rock, the 
surface of which is polished by the action of the water, till it i.«i as 
slippery as ice, and at tho extremity leaps down a sheer descent of 
some twelve feet into a large, wide basin, surrounded by softly swell- 
ing banks of greensward, and a fair amphitheatre of woodland. 

" At the upper end this pool is so deep as to be vulgarly deemed 
unfathomable ; below, however, it expands yet wider into a shallow 
rippling ford, where it is crossed by the high-road, down stream of 
which again there is another long, sharp rapid, and another fall, over 
the last steps of the hills ; after which the nature of the stream be- 
comes changed, and it murmurs gently onward through a green pas- 
toral country, unripplcd and uninterrupted. 

" Just in the inner angle of the high-road, on the right hand of the 
stream, there stood an old-fashioned, low-browed, thatch-covered, 
stone cottage, with a rude portico of rustic woodwork overrun with 
jasmine and virgin-bower, and a pretty flower-garden sloping down 
in successive terraces to the edge of the basin. Beside this, there was 
no other house in sight, unless it were part of the roof of a mill which 
stood in the low ground on the brink of the second fall, surrounded 
with a mass of willows. But the tall steeple of a country church, 
raising itself heavenward above the brow of the hill, seemed to show 
that, although concealed by the undulations of the ground, a village 

was hard at hand. 

" The morning had changed a second time, a hazy film had crept 
up to the zenith, and the sun was now covered with a pale golden veil, 
and a slight current of air down the gorge ruffled the water. 

" It was a capital pool, famous for being the temporary haunt of the 
very finest fish, which were wont to lie there awhile, as if to recruit 
themselves after the exertions of leaping the two falls and stemming 
the double rapid, before attempting to ascend the stream farther. 

" Few, however, even of the best and boldest fishermen, cared to 
wet a line in its waters, in consequence of the supposed impossibility 
of following a heavy fish through the gorge below, or checking him at 
the brink of the fail, it is true, that throughout the length of th'- 



SALMON K 1811 1 NO. 



237 



pass, the current was broken by baro, slippery rocks peering above 
th > watora, at intervals, which might be cleared by an active crags- 
man ; and it had been in fact rcconnoitercd by Jasper and others in 
cool blood, but the result of tbo examinatior was that it was deemed 
impassable. 

"Thinking, however, little of striking a large fish, and perhaps 
desiring to waste a little time before scaling the banks and emerging 
on the high-road, Jasper throw a favorite fly of peacock's horl and 
gold tinsel lightly across the water ; and, almcst before he had timo 
to think, had hooked a monstrous fish, which, at the very first leap, 
h-) set down as weighing at least thirty pounds. 

" Thereupon followed a splendid display of piscatory skill. Well 
knowing that his fish must bo lost if ho once should succeed in getting 
his head down the rapid, Jasper exerted every nerve, and exhausted 
every art to humor, to meet, to restrain, to check him. Four times 
the fish rushed for the pass, and four times Jasper met him so stoutly 
with the butt, trying his tackle to the very utmost, that he succeeded 
in forcing him from the perilous spot. Round and round the pool he 
had piloted him, and had taken post at length, hoping that the worst 
was already over, close to the opening of the rocky chasm. 

" And now perhaps waxing too confident, he checked his fish too 
sharply. Stung into fury, the monster sprang five times in succession 
into the air, lashing the water with his angry tail, and then rushed 
like an arrow down the chasm. 

" He was gone — but Jasper's blond was up, and thinking of nothing 
but his sport, he dashed forward, and embarked, with a fearless foot, 
in the terrible descent. 

" Leap after leap he took with beautiful precision, alighting firm 
and erect on the centre of each slippery block, and bounding thence 
to the next with unerring instinct, guiding his fish t^e while with con- 
summate skill through the intricacies of the pass. 

" There were now but three more leaps to be taken before he would 
reach the flat table-rock above the fall, which once attained, ho would 
have firm foot-hold and a fair field ; already he rejoiced, triumphant 
in the success of his bold attainment, and confident in victory, when a 
shrill female shriek reached his ears from the pretty flower-garden ; 
caught by the sound, he diverted his eyeSj just as he leaped, toward 



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238 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



the place whence it came ; his foot slipped, and the next instant he 
was flat on his back in the swift stream, where it shot the most furi- 
ously over the glassy rock. Ho struggled manfully, but in vain. The 
smooth, slippery surface afforded no purchase to his griping fingers, no 
hold to his laboring feet. One fearful, agonizing conflict with the 
wild waters, and he was swept helplessly over the edge of the fall, his 
head, as he glanced down foot foremost, striking the rocky brink with 

fearful violence. 

" He was plunged into the deep pool, and whirled round and round 
by the dark eddies long before he rose, but still, though stunned and 
half-disabled, he strove terribly to support himself, but it was all in 

vain. 

" Again he sunk and rose once more, and as he rose that wild shriek 
again reached his ears, and his last glance fell upon a female form 
wringing her hands in despair on the bank, and a young man rushing 
down in wild haste from the cottage on the hill. 

" He felt that aid was at hand, and struck out again for life — for 

dear life ! 

" But the water seemed to fail beneath him. 

" A slight flash sprang across his eyes, his brain reeled, and all was 

blackness. 

" He sunk to the bottom, spurned it witli his feet, and rose once 

more, but not to the surface. 

" His quivering blue hands emerged alone above the relentless 
waters, grasped for a little moment at empty space, and then disap- 
peared. 

" The circling ripples closed over him, and subsided into stillness. 

" He felt, knew, suffered liothing more. 

" His young, warm heart was cold and lifeless — his soul had lost its 
consciousness— the vital spark had faded into darknews— perhaps was 
quenched for ever." 



TIIK IMPLEMKM'S OF SALMON FI8H1NO 



2m 



THE IMPLEMENTS OF SALMON FISHING 



roso once 



Time was, when every angler was required to make his own instru- 
Qionts, from the rod itself to the artificial fly, but now, so general has 
become the love of this calm and gentle pursuit, and so multiplied 
and subdivided are all trades and professions, that there are few cities 
in the civilized world, of any magnitude, in which it is not easy, at 
any moment, to procure anything that is requisite for this pursuit. 

Of consequence, the necessity for skill in manufacture of imple- 
ments has passed away, and, comparatively speaking, but few anglers 
think it necessary any longer to be familiar even with the method of 
tying their own flies, the tackle-shops furnishing every possible 
variety, more neatly executed, it is probable, and consequently more 
killing, than any could be of private manufacture. 

Still, to tie a noal and taking fly is a very useful accomplishnient 
to the enthusiastic fisherman, especially when he is in wild and remote 
districts, as frequently must be the case ; and at times some rare 
natural fly will be seen on the water, which it may be found expedient 
to imitate without delay. 

The art of tying flies is attained with greater readiness, and, in fact, 
is far less difficult, than is generally thought, or than would be imagined 
needful, from the beautiful delicacy of the manufacture in its perfection. 
Most works on practical angling contain long and otaborato diiections 
how to hold, and how to tie the feathers on the hook, but ail these are, 
in my opinion, utterly valueless and futile ; nor do I believe that anj 
person has ever learned either to tie a fly, or to cast it when tied, from 
the perusal of any printed explanation ; any mo'-e than the young 
sportsman has ever acquired the knack of shooting on the wing except 
by practice and experience. 

The best way to acquire the art of tying flies is to observe carefully 
the manipulation of some skilful operator, and to obtain from him, 
during the performance of the work, oral instructions on the subject. 



ui i imaL ab £\ d ^ % t 



840 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



U i; 



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IV 



i 



! : 



From any good tackle-maker, a few lessons can be obtained at a vcr;y 
Bmall expense, and these will, in a very short space of time, render 
the novice au fait to the trick. 

The first thing to be considered in the angler's equipment, is the 
rod, and it is here well to observe that, for almost every sort of fish- 
ing, some different and peculiar rod is essential. That which is com- 
monly called a general fishing-rod, is, in fact, an abomination, and is 
useful only to the bait-fisher, and even for him is an awkward and 
ineffective instrument, it being impossible so to regulate the arrange- 
ment of the lower joints as to produce that regular and equable degree 
of pliancy alike with a si it! baiting or with a pliant fly-top. 

For the Salmon, the rod should not be of more than eighteen, or 
less than sixteen feet ; the longer is apt to be a little cumbrous, and 
deftly to wield a doufc^i-handed Salmon-rod, during a whole summer- 
day, requires no small practice of the muscles. The best wood for 
the butt, which shoiiid be very stout and solid, is well-seasoned maple, 
which is both light and strong ; the second joint of ash, the third of 
hickory, and the fourth or top joint of equal parts of lance-wood, 
or split bamboo, carefully spliced together. 

Many experienced anglers prefer to have their Salmon-rods manu- 
factured without metal joints, but with neatly-cut and accuratoly-fitted 
fcares, which are adjusted and firmly spliced together with strong 
waxed-end when at the river-side. 

The supposed advantage of this method is the greater certainty of 
the rod's holding together during a severe struggle, in the course of 
which a joint will f-onietimes be disengaged from the socket ; and a 
greater equability of pliancy throughout the whole length, from the 
butt to the end, \*hich is supposed to be in some degree impaired by 
the metallic ferrules into which the heads of the ferruled joints are 
inserted. 

In the present improved state of the manufacture of all sporting 
articles, I must however admit that these objections are, in my opin- 
ion, very fanciful, and that the trouble of splicing and unsplicing 
greatly exceeds the benefit derived from the practice. 

Nothing can be more beautifully regular and equal throughout their 
whole length, than the springy bend of the best l-'nglish, Irish, Scot- 
tish, and American Salmon-rods ; and I may here record it aa my 



THE IMPLEMENTS OF SALMON FISHING. 



241 



deliberate opinion, tliat tho best rods in the world are now manufac- 
tured in the city of New Vork, and that Conroy is superior, as a 
fljf-rod maker, to either Chevalier or Martin Kelly, of universal 
reputation. David Welch, too, has few equals, if superiors. 

The reel should bo very large, capable of containing one hundred 
feet of twisted line, composed of hair and silk intermingled, and 
tapering gradually from the centre to each end, where It should be 
neatly looped to a bottom of the best and stoutest Spanish silk-worm 
gut, as thick, if possible, as the 32nd of an inch, to which the hook- 
links of the flies should be fastened. 

The hook-link for Salmon fishing should be of the best strong gut. 
The casting-line, of the best Salmon gut, is to be looped to the reel- 
line, and must taper thence to the hook-link. The loops must be 
whipped securely on both sides with best waxed silk. 

The casting-line is to be three yards in length without the addition 
of the fly -link. Every knot on the casting-line should bo what anglers 
terra the water-knot, which is merely a common knot made by passing 
the ends to be secured three times around each other ; the ends to bo 
w '11 whipped as before. 

The casting-line is to terminate with a loop, and the fly is to be 
knotted with the water-knot, to a link also looped, and secured by 
waxed line, which is then to be looped on the casting-line. 

One fly only should be used for Salmon fishing. 

The best method of attaching the hand fly and the second fly to 
tliD casting line for trout-fishing, when three flies ai-e to be used, as is 
oftm the case, is entirely different from anything hitherto stated. 

There is but one knot which will allow these flies to hang truly, and 
that is fully described with a cut at page 63. 

It is very desirable that the gut should by dyed, in order to deaden 
its silvery glitter, which is too conspicuous in the water, and often 
scaree tho fish. The best preparation for this purpose is dark green 
tea, which brings it nearly to the color of water, when slightly discolored 
by rain, at which time the fish are most apt to bite freely. 

Too much attention cannot be paid by the angler to the quality 
and condition of his gut-lengths, or to the proper adjustment of the 
knots and loops by which it is fastened. These can scarcely, indeed, 
bn loo narrowly or jealously scrutinised, as gut is a material which is 



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AMERICAN FISHES. 



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easily frayed and cut by its own friction, and the slightest imperfection 
v?ill often cause the loss of a very heavy fish. 

The great beauty of gut is, to be correctly round and perfectly equal 
in thickness, which enables it to stand a strain which, if it were une- 
qual, would cause it to give way. 

The reel should be of brass, which I prefer to German silver, 
bushed and rivctted with steel. It should have a balance handle, and 
a click, which is of great use, as preventing more of the line than is 
required from running oflF it while in the act of casting, before a fish 
is struck ; but a catch or stop must on no account be used, as it will 
frequently stop the line at the very moment when it should run tho 
fastest. I had almost forgotten to add, that the simple reel is vastly 
preferred by all truly scientific anglers to the multiplier, which in fact 
is now almost exploded. 

The fly-hooks should unquestionably be of the Limerick bend, and 
even for spinning with the parr, or fishing with the worm or the deadly 
roe-bait, all of which are very killing to the Salmon, tho same form 
is the preferable. 

The great size and weight of the Salmon renders the use of the 
landing-net impossible, and it is, n-.oreover, at the best, a clumsy and 
unportablc machine. For it, therefore, tho angler substitutes the 

gaflP a sharp, unbarbcd hook, of convenient size, which screws 

securely into the head of a stout ashen shaft, the butt of which may 
conveniently be hollowed so as to contain spare fly-tops, as it is inad- 
missible to subtract from the weight of the rod-butt by hollowing it. 

With this hook, so soon as the fish is sufficiently exhausted to be 
drawn within striking, held in the right hand while the rod is trans- 
ferred to the left, he gaffs the fish steadily and sharply in the solid 
portion of the tail below the abdominal cavity, which gives it a firm 
hold, and enables the lucky sportsman to pull out even a forty-pounder 
with but little trouble. . 

It is not a bad plan to have a stout knife-blade, with the inner edge 
sharpened, hinged on the back of the gaff, which will often be found 
of use in cutting away any twig or other obstacle which may entangle 

the fly. 

A creel is of little use to the Salmon fisher, as in order to carry 
any number of those noble M\, one vvould be requisite of the size of a 






/^ 



THE IMPLEMENTS OF SALMON FISHING. 



243 



clothes-basket ; and such is the weight of the fish, that, if you expect 
to be successful, an attendant is indispensable. 

With those instruments, then, a well-filled fly-book in his pouch, 
and perhaps a spare gut foot-length round his hat, the fisherman may 
deem his outfit perfect. 

A suit of plain dark clothes, a pair of stout nailed shoes, and heavy 
loose trowscrs of the coarse Scottish plaid worn by the shepherds, is 
the best attire for the sportsman. India-rubber boots are an abomi- 
nation, unwholesomely confining the perspiration, and excessively 
uncomfortable from the intense heat which they create ; besides, an 
angler is hardly the sort of person to care much about wet feet or a 
soaked jacket. 

Having now equipped and rigged him, we will conduct him to the 
marge of limpid lake or rapid torrent, and see how best his scaly 
prey he may ensnare. 

In order to become a fly-fisher, 1 think that something of an 
especial genius is necessary — I mean a fly-fisher in the highest sense 
of the word, and regarded in the same light as the sportsman whom 
we can deservedly term a crack-shot. 

Still, although something of a natural and inherent aptitude ia 
necessary, practice, experience, and a love of the art, go so far that 
no one who really desires to attain eminence in this skill need despair, 
for perhaps no one very keenly desires it who has not that aptitude, 
though perhaps latent, and even of himself unsuspected. 

To teach a man, as I have said befor^ . "f / writing or even by oral 
instruction, unless coupjed -vith active practice and example, how to 
make a fly, how to cast a 'Ay. how to hoak a fish, or how, when hooked, 
to kill him, is to my a '..prehension impossible. Yet without some 
instructions on this subject, a work on Fishing would justly be deemed 
imperfect, and perhaps even impertinent. 

After the first slisht skill is attained which enables a fisherman to 
cast a fly at all without whipping it ofi" the hook-length, the great 
points to be acquired are, precision in casting, and neatness in deliver- 
ing the fly. 

In Salmon fishing with the double-handed rod, all these things are 
somewhat more difficult than with the light twelve-foot Trout-rod, and 
more practice ia requisite before perfection can bo gained ; yet the 






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AMERICAN FISHES. 



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mode is identical, and the instructions which alone can be given arc 

alike few and simple. 

The first thing to be observed is, that the rod must not be firmly 
grasped, but held with a loose and delicate play of the thumb and 
fingers, as a cue should in billiard playing, or a foil in fencing. 
Secondly, that in throwing out the fly, nothing like a jerk or snap 
should be performed, such as is done with a four-horse whip in flank- 
in<r a loader. It is very difficult to explain, except by comparison, 
what that movement is; but it may perhaps be described as by a 
sudden checking of the propelling power, or as almost a retroversion 
of it at the moment of its greatest impetus, somewhat such as that 
which is termed spinning, or Englishing, a ball at billiards. 

The rod being held Ughtly in the fingers, the butt of it must be so 
moved in front of the person, with all the muscles of the arm relaxed, 
the elbow and the wrist free and pliant, that the tip shall describe a 
complete circle above and sometiiing behind the head, and it will be 
not amiss for the tyro to practise this motion without attempting to 

cast as yet any line. 

Secondly, it must be remembered, when the line and fly is brought 
into play, that by the circular motion of the tip, the whole line, with 
its cast of flies, must be made to stream out at full length, and to 
describe a semicircle, so that at the instant previous to propulsion, if , 
we desire to throw directly forward, the flies shall be at the whole 
length of the extended line, exactly behind us ; when they must be 
thrown out by a direct and even motion, without any jerk, and yet 
must be in some sort checked rather by a gradual holding up or 
cessation of the impelling force, than by any sudden stop or retro- 
gression. 

The mode of casting which I have endeavored to d<>8cribc for a 
forward throw, must be used in all cases ; if to the right, the line 
must stream out, and the flies be extended at full length to the 
extreme left, and via vena ; and this is the method by which accu- 
racy and precision in casting can bo acquired, and by perseverance in 
which, with experience, the fisherman will ultimately succeed in 
throwing his stretcher, or last fly, with certainty into a smaller circum- 
ference than that of his own hat. 

Thifl it is which we call precision. 



£ 



THE IMPLEMENTS OF SALMON FISHING. 



245 



By neatness, we intend tho knack of so delivering the lino that each 
one of the cast of flies shall alight upon the surface of the water 
singly and everally, and as lightly as the thistle-down, without any 
portion of the foot-longth, much less of the lino, bagging or falling in 
a bight upon the stream. 

This delivering of the cast at the end of a perfectly straight, yet 
perfectly easy line, is tho first great thing to be obtained. If wo 
attempt to throw the flies, oxcopt aftor having made them describe a 
full somicircle in the direction opposite to the purposed cast, we shall 
throw thorn nowhere. 

If we fling out tho whole line loosely, it will fall in a baggy bight 
upon the water, probably striking the surface in advance of the flies, 
and certainly making a splash and scaring away tho fish which wc 
desire to allure. 

If wo check it too suddenly, or jerk it back at all, we shall snap oiF 
all our flies with a loud crack, and so remain disarmed and useless 
for the nonce. 

In practising, the novice should use but a short line, five or six yards 
at the utmost, and a single fly— and when he can throw that with 
certainty into a space of a few feet in circumference, he may gradually 
let out his line till he has reached fifteen yards, which I regard as the 
extreme length that can bo managed with certainty, neatness, and 
precision, and add to the stretcher his first and second droppers, more 
than which arc wholly useless. 

Having said thus much of the mode of casting the flies, we will 
suppose our angler clad in the plainest and least obtrusive colors, at 
tho margin of the stream, if it be such as he can command with his 
double-handed rod, or wading it if not too deep, or in his boat if it be 
too broad to be cast over successfully. 

First, he shall go down stream ; for the motion of the water will so 
keep his line taut, the benefit of which hereafter ; and he will also 
have fewer casts to make, and find less trouble in giving a nJitural and 
easy movement to the artificial insect, whicli hn must keep ever floating 
on the surface. Furthermore, the fish are wont to lie, especinlly in 
swift wattMS, with thoir heads up stream, and will therefore perhaps 
take tho fly most readily when cast down, and drawn gently "vcr th^^ra. 

Secondly, he must on no account fish with tho sun bohin<l Ins back, 



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246 



AMERICAN FISHKS. 



for, if he do, the shadow of his body, with his arms thrashing the air, 
and the counterfeit prcscntinont of his long rod vibrating aloft, will 
be thrown on the bright surface of the waters in such a manner as 
will undoubtedly alarm the fish ; which, however much doubt there 
may exist as to their powers of auscultation, no one will deny to bo 
capable of quick vision. 

Thirdly, he shall not so draw his fly along the surface as to give it 
the appearance or reality of floating up stream ; for flies do not in 
nature float up stream ; nor do the Trout or Salmon, although they 
may nover have studied logic, and are probably incapable of deducing 
consequences from causes, lack the ability to discern what is, from 
what is not, natural. 

Across the stream he may bring it gently and coquettishly home, 
with a slow whirling rotatory motion, letting it swim down in the 
swifter whirls of the stream, and float round and round in the eddies, 
with this special observance, that he shall, in so far as he can, keep it 
ever at the end of a tight line, for so only will the fish hook itself, 
without any movement of the hand on the angler's part — an end most 
desirable to effect. 

Both Salmon and Trout lie in wait for their prey, for the most part, 
rather than swim in pursuit of it in schulls or companies. They are 
often, I would say generally, found in pairs, and therefore, after killing 
one in any favorable pool or eddy, it will be well not too soon to desert 
the spot, even although it may have been disturbed by the bustle and 
burly of the first capture. 

The tail of swift rapids, where some large stone breaks the force 
of the current, and causes a lull, or, as one would say of wind, a l(>e, 
will always be found a likely spot wherein to cast ; ard in pools, be- 
tween two rapids or cascades, the head and the foot, immediately 
above the one and below the other descent, will generally each hold 
a fish. 

Still clear deep reaches will again be found to contain many times 
the most, and often the largest fishes, especially of Brook Trout ; 
and these places require the neatest and the finest fishing, for two 
very suflScient reasons j first, that the transparency of the water enables 
the fish clearly to discern the angler, unless he stand well back from 
the murtrin of the bank • and-, s'^condlv, tliat its stillness allows all the 



THE IMPLEMENTS OF SALMON FISHING. 



247 



imperfections of the artificial fly, and perhaps the gut to which it ia 
appended, to bo discovered by the intended victim. 

In nothing is piscatory skill more distinctly evidenced, than by th(t 
instinctive accuracy with which, in whipping a stream, the practical 
angler will discern what places to fish closely, accurately, neatly ; which 
to pass over lightly — in other words, which are more and which are 
most unlikely to hold the objects of his pursuit ; and this skill, this 
power, like that of casting the fly, or even in a greater degree than 
that, can be gained only by dint of long practice and accurate obser- 
vation. 

As I had occasion to remark, not once, but many times, in my 
" Field Sports," aeteris paribus of eye, hand and nerves, on which 
almost everything depends, the closest observer of nature, the most 
diligent inquirer into the actions, the habits, the prey, the haunts, thj 
every-day life of the bird or beast which he is pursuing — in other 
words, the best naturalist — will be the best and most successful sports- 
man ; and so it is, and perhaps even more so, in the case of the 
iingler. And, indeed, after years spent in this exciting and yet gentle 
pursuit, the angler will ever find that he has something still to learn, 
that he has gained something daily, if he keep his cars, his eyes, his 
mind opr^n to the sounds, the sights, the beautiful provisic . of nature. 

In large lakes, which must bo fished from boats, the vicinity of the 
chores, the edges of shoals, and the holes in the close neighborhood of 
large rocks or bouldcM's whicli cause eddies, and above all the entrances 
or outlets of streams, brooks and rivers, are the likeliest places in 
which to find SalmoB, but not reedy banks or weed beds, as is the case 
with the Pickerel and Mascalonge ; and such spots as these deserve 
the utmost care and attention of anglers. And now, I believe that I 
have said all that I can say about the casting of the fly, and the places 
into which it should be cast in order to ensure the first success, the 
getting a rise, I mean, from this noblest of fishes. Little is dono, how- 
ever, in getting this rise, unless we know how to strike, and how to kill 
him when he has ris^n. On this head, perhaps, it might be said tlia+ 
the art of striking a fish, or so handling the rod that the barbed hook 
shall be buried securely and quickly, or ere tiie fish has time to dis- 
cover that the gaudy bait is an unreal mockery, without substance or 
savor, consists in knowing what is nol^ rather than what is to be done 



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248 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Very certain it is that the fly must not bo jerked or twitcbcd away 
quickly, as is done by ninety-nine hundredths of novices who thereby 
instead of fixing the bait in, flirt it out of the n.outh of the Samon 
and probably prick him in doing so, rendering him thereby shy of 
again looking at the bait, and teaching him a lesson, which he may 

not forget in many days. , ^ , , 

At two moments only, of the ordinary cast of a fly, is the fish nearly 
feuro to hook himsclf-that is, when it first alights on the surf-vce of 
the stream, and when it is in the very act of being withdrawn from it, 
for tin purpose of making a fresh throw-for at these two n.oments 
only is it necessarily at the end of a taut extended line. When a 
fish strikes boldly at either of these two points of time, it is v<>ry sure 
to hook itself without any exertion of the angler ; but if the line is in 
the slightest degree curved or baggy, unless there is a certain almost 
indescribable movement of the wri.'.t, the fly will often be rejected, 
owing to the discovery of its quality, and the fish will so escape scot- 
free. 

This striking I have seen variou.sly described, but never, m my 
opinion, comprehensibly. I consider that the great thing in fly-fish- 
in<r is to keep the line always as straight as possible, never allowing 
any portion of it to float on the water, and to have the fly never sub- 
merged, nor yet skipping, but trailed evenly along the ripples, as if it 
were'^naturally floating down, at the end of a straight ext>'nd<>d Imo. 
By this method, the chances of striking your Salmon, without any eff-ort 
on your own part, will be hugely increased. If, however, it be found 
necessary to strike, this must not be done by a jerk or backward whip 
movement of the rod, but by the slightost possible turn of the wrist 
inward and downward-what that turn is, every angler knows, but it 
certainly cannot be described in writing, nor can it be, I think, very 
easily demonstrated— so exceeding slight it is— by example. 

More fish are, in my opinion, lo.st by clumsiness, and especially by 
over-violence at this moment, than at any other time ; the utmo.st 
caution, therefore, and delicacy of manipulation, are indi.=ponsable ; 
and at first, until he has killed some fish, and obtained some practical 
experience in the art, I confidently advise the novice to beware of 
striking; to allow the fish, if possible, to hook himself; and rather to 
lose him from his not doing so, than from his own act by whipping tho 



THE IMPLEMENTS OP SALMON FISHING. 



249 



half-swallowed fly out of his imperiilod jaws If strike ho must, let 
huu do it with tlio least possible force or exertion. 

When first a large and lively fish feels the hook, he will not unfre- 
qucntly, if checked suddenly, throw himself clear out of the water to 
the height of several feet, and so endeavor to cast himself across the 
tightened line, which, if he succeed in doing, he shall break it surely, 
and escape. The counter-movement to this dodge, .viiich is often 
repeated many times in rapid succossion, is to sink the top of the rod 
quickly, so as to slacken the line, and suffer the fish to strike it only 
when lying in a bight on the water ; but care must again »bo taken 
here to reel it in again quickly, lest it may become entangled by the 
fish rushing suddenly in towards the angler. 

Beyond this there is not much to say on the score of playing a 
hooked fish ; the great end and object is to keep him, with as heavy 
a strain as you can venture to support upon his mouth, with his head 
down stream ; for in that position the water enters his gills the wrong 
way, so that the vital principle of tlie oxygen cannot be separated from 
it by the branchial apparatus, and the fish naturally dies by suffoca- 
tion, or by something analogous to drowning. 

To effect this, very much delicacy and nicety of touch are requisite ; 
the rushes of the fish are .sometimes of fearful impetus and velocity, 
and sustained for such a length of time as to take nearly all the line 
off the reel, and to compel the angler to run at full speed, up or down 
the bank, as it may be, in order to avoid smashing his tackle. It is 
well here to observe, that it is in all cases the best plan to follow your 
fish as early in the game, and as rapidly, as you can, rather than to let 
off too much line, as you thereby keep so much in hand for an 
emergency. 

The great principle is, to make the fish pull as hard as possible 
without ceding line, and never to give him an inch that he does not 
exact from you by force ; the knowledge of the exact amount of re- 
sistance which you may offer, and of the when exactly and how much 
you must yield, is the grand proof of the Salmon-fishf r's science. If 
he run for a rock, against which to smash your tackle, or for a cascade 
or cataract, over which you cannot pilot him with a hope of success, 
you must resist him to the last, which is done by advancing the butt, 
fii-mly grasped, toward him, and bearing y )ur rod backward over your 
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AMERICAN FISHES. 



right shoulder, thereby compeUing him to strain out the line, the 
velocity of which you must regulate with the ball ot your thumb, mch 
by inch from the reel, against the whole reluctance and spring of the 

elastic rod. 

When the fish runs in, the rod must be hold nearly erect, and the 
line reeled in as quickly as possible. If the fish turn sulky, as he will 
sometimes, and plunge down to the bottom, lying there like a stone or 
a lump of lead, he must be aroused and forced to run again by a peb- 
ble cast in as closely as may be to the spot where he lies, and then his 
run must be alternately humored and controlled, like the whims of a 
pretty woman, until his resistance is overpowered, and, like her, he 

yields him to your will. . 

The fly is, as I have before observed, by far the most effective and 
killincr bait for the Salmon, although it is very doubtful for what the 
animal mistakes it, since it has no resemblance in nature. The best are, 
in my opinion, combinations of peacock herl, and jay's wing, with 
body of pink, blue or green silk twined with gold or silver tinsel ; there 
are, however, many other gay and gaudy feathers which are nearly 
equally killing, and every fisherman has his own favorites. 1 he ac- 
companying plate contains at No. 1, representations of several vane- 
ties of Salmon-flies, and at No. 2 of Lake-flies for great Trout, which 1 
know to be killing, as I know them to be beautiful-and which were 
prepared especially for this work, to my order, by the Conroys of Ful- 
ton-street, New York, of whom I have already spoken as, in my opin- 
ion, the best rod and tackle maker in America, if not perhaps in the 

world. -v I 1, 

The Salmon, especially when quite fresh-run from the sea, will lalce 
the worm at times greedily ; for which mode he must be fished for 
with a stiffer rod, similar to that used for Bass angling, with a quill- 
float, and enough of slot on the gut to carry the bait down close to the 
bottom. The best w-ias are the large loh or rfeto-worms, and they 
should be cleansed or scoured by keeping them for several days pre- 
vious to .using them in a pot full of moistened moss. Two worms should 
be used, and they should be baited thus : 

Enter the barb of a large sized No. O, or No. 1 Limerick Salmon- 
hook at the head of your first worm, and bring it out at the middle ^ 
run the worm quite up on the gut above the arming of the hook ; 



THE IMPLEMENTS OF SALMON FISHINO 



351 



...in e.>tsr the barb at the middle of the second worm, a-d bimg it up 
ZTlrly to the head. Draw down the first worn, to n.ee the 
m Ji the bait will move on the bottom wth " -'7"°»''- . 
prte composed of roe of the Salmon, taken out when freshly Ml d, 
wa!h^d caSy, and cleansed of all the impurities, the blood and ffla- 
:„ntt:lr thoroughly dried in the air, salted withtwo ounc. o 

loued down and covered with melted lard or suet in earthen pots, ■ 
t st trderous bait both for Trout or Salmon WWn a.^ «^^ 
M it will cut out of the pot. like stiff cheese, and wrll f i'='; 'ff ''^ 

: L hook, ^^^::^::^;:^^z::^t::?r: 

r "si::- :*■ -.TZl'lX of -ark that the roe of the 

^d Cutis little prob* th^t the gothic savages who resort 
rt'se practices at all will trouble themselves so far as even to en- 
deavor to do a minimum of mischief. 

lLv the Minnow, the Shiner, the Smelt, the Sparling or Ath - 
anting' above all, th^ young Parr, are very killing baits, especially 
Z'bere is a freshet in the stream, for the Salmon, upon spinnmg- 

nUfullongrodshoulOe^.^^^^^^ 

t t^^t^^X^o. - vf \^ r: '"":?• the 

nut., ttu»i " " vr« 1 T imoripk hook at the end ot tne 

There should be one large No. 1 LimencK noojt "* 
1 Here saouiu s in and 5 tied back to back of the larger 

-rlhTslSrar fuu'length of the bait, to hook mto 

the lip when the fuuncl will slide down upon the nose. The second 

t iTbrought out at the fork of the tail, giving a curve to the Ssh 
w U causes'it, when drawn rapidly throu<Oi -'"' '^^f '^, 
glance beautifully, in a manner most attractive to this noble fish. All 



X. 



2bU 



AMERICAN FISHES 



the fins should be cut oflF except the pectoral on the outer side of tho 
curve, which will cause it to spin more certainly. 

Some persons use a second hook-length with three No. 7 hooks tied 
back to back triangularly, not entered in the bait, but suffered to play 
loosely around it : but I see no advantage in the addition. 

With any of these baits, with the art to boot, and a clear eye, a 
Bteady nerve and true hand, anywhere almost eastwaj-d of the Kenne- 
bec, and thence northward to the grand St. Lawrence, the adventurous 
fisherman is certain of such sport, as, once tried, makes all other fishing 
for ever more stale, weary, and unprofitable. 




TROUT FI8HIWO. 



253 



TROUT FISHING, 



This charming sport, second only in its excitement to the skill 
which it requires, and in the quality of the captive, to its elder sister, 
Salmon-fishing, cannot, ho enjoyed in any part of the known world in 
greater perfection than on the northern continent of America 

Everywhere from the Arctic Circle to somewhere about the forty- 
fourth degree of north latitude, everywhere from the mouth of the S . 
Lawrence and the wild shores of Gaspe and Chaleurs to the far coasts 
of the Pacific, and the swift streams of Oregon, this heautiful and 
active fish is found ahundant, in every spring-stream and fountain- 

nourished lakelet. , , „ 

Everywhere he is pursued eagerly, and esteemed a pn^e worthy of 
the sportsman's skill and the epicure's idolatry To the northward 
and eastward he is, however, both the finest and the ™* P'""**^ 
The rivers of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia swarm with Brook 
Trout ranslng from halt a pound to five pounds in weight In the 
streams of Maine and New England they are equally abundant 
although they are generally smaller in ske, and arc for the most part 
taken in the small mountain streams from which they rarely run down 
to salt water; whence their colors are less brilliant, and therr flesh 

inferior in flavor. ,, , ,, , 

In the State of New York they are of unrivalled excellence and 
are found in vast numbers, especially in the streams of the south side 
of Long Island, in the lakes and rivers of the north-eastern counties 
which debouch into the basin of the St. Lawrence and in aU ^he 
streams of the south-western tier of counties which ^-^ ^^'^'^^J 
southwardly into the Delaware, the Susquehannah and the Alleghany 
All the waters of Northern and Western Pennsylvania arc likewise 
admirably stocked with this delicious and game fish, nor naj any one 
n.ed to seek bettor sport than he can find at Carman's or Snedecor s 
on Long Island. In the Marshpee river, on Cape Cod, famous as being 



r ■ ar 



254 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



the favorite fiBhing-ground of that good Bpoitsman and great states- 
man, Daniel Webster ; in the Callikoon and Bcavcrkill on the east, 
and the fine Pennsylvanian streams on the west of the Delaware ; in 
the net-work of lakes and rivers which renders Hamilton County in 
New York the angler's earthly paradise, or in the swift Canadian 
streams which swell the St. Lawrence, from the Michigan westward to 
the Sault St. Marie, and upward to the head of Lake Superior, sport 

is certain. • • a 

The implements of the Trout-fisher are similar, except in size and 

power, to those used in the capture of the Salmon ; but as less strength 

is necessary to subdue, so is, perhaps, oven greater delicacy requisite 

to ensnare him. 

The Trout-rod should be twelve feet long, and as pliant, almost, aa 
a coach-whip, equally bending from the butt to the tip. It should be 
composed of hickory, tancewood, or bamboo, with a solid butt of ash, 
at the extreme lower end of which should be attached a simple click- 
reel with a balance handle, but without a stop, capable of containing 
thirty yrds of London made hair and silk line, tapering equally from 
the reel to the point. The bottom, or leader, as it is called generally 
in America, should consist of about five yards of round tapering silk- 
worm gat, and the flies should be three in number. Plain rings should 
be used on a fly-rod, and not the new tubular metallic guides, which 
stiffen it too much, and prevent its equal curvature under a strain. 

For bait-fishing, spinning a minnow, or daping with a grasshopper, 
a stouter rod may be adopted, similar to that used for ordinary fresh- 
water, or shoal salt-water fishing. 

The best baits are the Salmon-roe, prepared as I have described it, 
common brandlings or dew-worms, and any small fish, and especially 
its own young fry, which may be used either dead on spinning tackle 
such as is described above, or alive, hooked through the back under 
the first dorsal fin, and sunk with shot to within a few inches of the bot- 
tom. In this mode, the slightest possible quill float should bo adopted. 
The spinning is by far the more sporting and exciting method ; and in 
large stream's running directly into salt water, where the finest and 
greatest Trout are found, and where they do not willingly rise to the 
fly, none is much more killing. In addition to these, a grasshopper 
dropped deftly on the surface just before the nose of a fat, basking, lazy 



TROUT F18UINU. 



255 



„mc» Wll when all other plans fa.1 ; •'^"P'?';' '^ . , ^y^n jho , 
.„U water erooto and river n-ouths and m *»;;;; ^"^^^^^^^ ,^ ,^„ 
fi.h haunt, when in it, greatest P=*«';;. -* Tmu^ f " he throat 
same loealitie, it will bite at a small wh.te erab, a "»^"'». »' 
S'the two peetoral fins attaohed, of "^^^^^Z the n>o,t 
M^ of these, however, pale ^^^l^^ :^X^'^.., diffieult, 

legitimate, the most seten. fie tbe-^^^ „, ^„, „f .„ 

and lastly, not Icastly, the most Kuun,, 

the methods used to capture him. ^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

takmg colors. It was formei y g ^^ ^^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^ 

Tr:::arh:icrifrrrst p.* «.e ^efiies ^ 

tho\:s: MlUng in all waters the world o.r in -^^^^^^ 
Norway, and in the waters of Amenca ; »- « f ^""^rde'nt vota- 

n r :CTr::"ted of » ^-e-- :-f - 

Europe would not improperly be *»»|^' -™^7; *e ginger haetle, 

The flies whieh I hold thebest "« *;™^;li^;,iw„. tin- 

tho black hackle, °«'=-<'°'' Vr .wl vcllow dun and the blue 

.«•. *->' March-brown ->^^-^^::XtlX^^ "^ ^'^»' «^' 
d^_hoth very kdUng fl s-Ae °; *^ = ^'^^ ^. ^^,^^ ,„y „f 
the green and gray drakes ; and tor ni„M 



inJBkla^'L-JWiH^» 



256 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



* ■ ;iV 



the gray, oroam-colorcd, or mealy moths ; of these 1 pvefer a large 
whitc-wingcd moth with a black body. In many waters some of the 
coppery-golden and green peacock herls are found to kill well, and 
last season, 1848, nothing was so successful on Long Island as the 
scarlet ibis with a gold tinsel body. For my own fancy, however, 1 
decidedly prefer the hackles of almost every color and variety, from 
the gin-cr, through all the shades of cock, grouse, partridge, wood- 
cock, up to jet black ; and my favorite oast is a coch-a-bondu or soldier 
palmer for my stretcher, a ginger hackle or-blue dun for my second, 
and a black palmer or a dotteril hackle for my first dropper. The 
accompanying plate of flies are many of the best and mast beautiful 
varieties, and there is not one of them which at some time or another 
I have not proved to be killing. All these, as also the large gaudy 
lake flies, marked No. 2 on the plate preceding this, which very ne^vrly 
resembles the Salmon-fly except in size only, and are deadly indeed 
to the Trout of the Adirondach waters, were all prepared expressly for 
representation in this work by Mr. Conroy, and are not, iu my opinion, 

to be surpassed. , n r * 

Beyond this I shall say nothing on the score of flies, nor shall I enter 
into any minute and elaborate descriptions of these or other vane 
ties with which most books on fly-fishing abound, usque ad muscam , 
for I am satisfied that such descriptions must be entirely unsatisfactory 
and us3less to the fisherman, who should attempt to tie flies by their 
aid without other and more practical instruction ; and they are so 
well-known to all anglers, and to all tackle-makers, by their names 
that they can be readily and unmistakeably ordered by letter, and 
obtained at any distance, from any of the large cities. The following 
vi.^notte is a representation of two well-known Ephemerae, the com- 
mon Green Drake or May-fly, and the Stone-fly, in their embryo and 

perfect stages. , 

In pro-rcss of this subject, I take the liberty of quoting, from Dr. 
Bethune"s very beautiful edition of Walton's Angler, the followmg 
paper, which was drawn up and contributed to that work by myself, 
on the Trout-fishing of Long Island, at the request of the accomplished 
author It contains everything that I knew or could collect at that 
time on this branch of the subject, and as I rest well-assured that my 
borrowinrr it will in nowise injure or interfere with that beautiful and 



TROUT FIBHINQ. 



25? 



1 VI T fnol fhat it would bo useless and absurd to re- 

''^^^'X^ZZ:^:^^ *o oaroM o.,... Wt..cn 
inopuu^'F _ T mi (tilt sav North America m 

".- ^:=:r vJ^fH S^^^ 

never thrown a lioo, or taken a 1 rou .n « 1*, an 

r omo al^XrHal^ca . ,. prUo --°™-- — I 
without the aid of gaff or teding-nct, brought to basket 

Txlefaet is remarkable ; the example decidedly unworthy of imi- 

""!" L other Instanee to whieh 1 have referred is in all respce^ 
M • „f (he flsh the very opposite of the former ; as, in it, 
e.eept the «« "^ «" j^; *" l^Jl ,, aue as m„eh to superior 

rrrLlrlJ; :::> «.= ^or^er, is attributable to blind and 

unmerited good luck. 



/> - ^ ^ . ^ M^ 



I 



258 



AMEBICAN FUnta. 









"Tho hero of tl.i» anoclot. U a gonrtn.nan, too,,- h, th, «».. rf. 
„„r. of Connnodorc Limbrick, a ch.rucl.r in rtich ho hn, flgnred 
Tany „ day in the columns of the Spirit of tl>o T.mc, and »ho » 
Zor^ally allowed to bo one of tho bet and moat o.por.oncod, a. 
well as tho oldest fisherman of that city. 

"After having flshod all the morning, with various suoeessm tho 
pond! ascortafned, it seems, that in the pool W"" .-"■»*- 
I fish of extraordinary size, whieh had been observed repeated , 
Tnd fished for constantly, at all hours of the da, and evening, w,h 
"ery iMorent variety of bait, to no purpose. Hearing this, he be ook 
3 to the miller, and there having verified the i»forn.ation which 
h 1 i r ce led, and Laving satisfied himself that neither fly nor min- 
nw gentle nor red-worm, would attract the great Trout, he procured 
Z:L refcr^^, a »,«. from the miller's trap and F"ceedmg o 
trill therewith, iook, at the first cast of that inordinate dainty, a fish 
that weighed four pounds and three-quarters ! 

" Inother fish or two of the like dimensions have been taken m 
Liff Snedecor's and in Carman's streams ; and it is on record, tl^^a 
^Fireplace, many year, since, a Trout was taken of ^W™ POJ^s^ 
A rough drawing of this fish is still to be seen on the wall of the tavern 
bar-room, but it has every appearance of being the sketch of a Sa - 
mon- ani I am informed by a thorough sportsman, who remember 
It i'me and the occurrence, although he did -';-*»«*'•■; ^ 
doubt was entertained by experienced anglers who did sco it, of its 

beinc in truth a Salmon. 

"In the double-pond among the Musconetcong Hills, on the eon- 
fines of New York and New Jersey, in tho Greenwood lake in th 
^:o region, and in some other ponds in Orange County Brook Trout 
have been occasionally taken of the same unusua iz. One fi h 1 saw 
myself on last New Year's Day, which, shameful to ell ' '""l J^^™ 
Taucht through the ice, near Newburgh. This fish weighed an ounce 
: tolb ve-'five pounds, and was well-fed, and apparently m good 
Iffiion-but, as I said before, all these must be taken as e^ceptl ns 
p ving the ruie, that Trout in American waters rare y exeee «« 
three pounds in weight, and never compare in me with the fish taken 
'England, and stiU less with those of the Scottish and Irish waters 
in alfof which, the regular, red-spotted, yellow-finned Brook Trout, 



TROUT PISHINO. 



259 



arc constantly Ukon, with tbn fly, of ton pounds wolght and upward ; 
and BomotinioR, in tho lakoa of Ireland and Cumberland, in tho Black- 
water, Coquet, and Stour rivers, attain to the enormous bulk of twonty- 

six and thirty pounds. 

" With regard to the second point of distinction, I have never heard 
of a Trout being taken at all in the Hudson ; nov.: in tho Delaware, 
even so far up as Milford, where the tributaries of that river abound 
in large and well-fed fish ; never in tho lower waters of the Connec- 
ticut, or any Eastern river so far as tho Penobscot, although the head 
waters of all these fine and limpid rivers teem with fish of high color 
and flavor. In Great Britain, on tho contrary, it is to tho larger, if 
not to tho largest, rivers that the angler looks altogether for good 
sport and large fish ; and it is there as rare a thing to take a fish a 
pound weight in a rivulet or brook, as it is hero to catch a Trout at 

all in a large river. 

«• In Canada, and in the British Provinces to tho eastward of Maine, 
it is true that Sea Trout, or Salmon Peel, are taken of largo size in 
tho St. Lawrence, and in the rivers falling into the bays of Gaspd and 
Chaleurs; but although occasionally confounded with the Trout proper, 
this is in truth a totally different fish, and one, so far as I know, which 
is never taken in any of the waters of the United States. 

" In appearance, tho Brook Trout of America and Great Britain 
are to my eye almost identical ; both presenting, in well-fed and 
well-conditioned fish, the same smallness of head, depth of belly, 
and breadth of back ; tho same silvery lustre of the scales, and the 
same bright crimson spots. The flesh of the American fish, when 
in prime order, and taken in tho best waters, is, I must confess, of a 
deeper red hue, and of a higher flavor, than that of any which it has 
been my fortune to taste at homo— and I have often eaten the Thames 
Trout, which, rarely taken below ten pounds in weight, are esteemed 
by epicures the very best of the species. 

" We travel now, be it observed, by railroad to our fishing stations, 
but for the convenience of reviewing tho country, and scanning the 
waters, in regular succession as we pass eastward, I will suppose that, 
as in tho pleasant days of old, wo are rolling along in our light wagon, 
over tho level roads, on a mild afternoon in the latter days of March, 
or the first of April. 



1 



■X...* *« * 



260 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



pebbly barrier. ^^^^^^ ^^y„,„, and wild 

"Now we are in tne lauu ui 

'"f^. t.e ..B hand, t.o ^t .ead^. --e. JJ.;^;^^:' ^I: 

i!uJX: »ndM f „l anU., p.« up . .ho doo. 0. 3e. 
Smith's tavern. „uv,nn.rb it be a better station for 

is to be made of Long bland ««""■ ^j^^ ,„„ formerly 

.. On tins stream there are two P "^'-^^^ f ^^^ „,„,„ ,,,„ «ro 

private property, and c>-^ J^ ':';r;rtrall person, indiserlmi- 
fnrnUhed wHl. a permit tliey a e now p _^ ^^ 

lately, and 1 believe without rertr.etn ^'^^^^^^ „f .,;, j,, 

taken by eaeh individual or by a pa.ty Th »„ q ^^^^^^^^ 

*at these ponds have detenorated e, ap- J- ^^^ ^^„„, 

they are well-stoeked wA smal flsh of ^^^^^.^^^ ^^ ^ 

»- rarely taken "Jjf^rm Zn a» »,».. average of the 

good fisherman. HaU a pound^ y ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^,_^^ 

:fr:^ r bu e : - heard or mueh work heiug done rn . ; 



TROUT FISHING. 



261 



and, in truth, except that this is the first southern pond of any note, 1 
would hardly advise the angler to pause here. 

" About a mile and a half farther eastward is a large pond, and a 
fine house, both recently constructed at a great expenso by Judge 
Jonc«— the former exclusively designed as a fish-pond. The place 
has, however, passed out of his hands, and the house is now kept as a 
hotel by one of the Snedecors. The pond has hitherto been private, 
but is now open, though with a limitation. It is well-stocked with 
fish of a fair size. When I was last there, a fortnight since, a gentle- 
man had taken eight fish, weighing as many pounds, with the fly that 
morning. The largest did not exceed a pound and a half, but they 
were handsome, clean, well-fed fish, and, as the day was anything but 
propitious, easterly wind, and very raw and cold, I considered it fair 
sport. He had not been fishing above a couple of hours. I under- 
stand, however, that there are many Pike in this pond, and in the 
stream that supplies it ; and I much fear that this must ultimately 
prove destructive to all the fish in the water, although those resident 
on the spot assert that the Pike never grows in that region to above 
half a pound, and rarely to that weight, and that little, if any, detri- 
ment is observed to arise from his presence. 

" This, however, I cannot believe, for the growth of the Pike ia 
usually almost as rapid as his voracity is excessive ; and I am aware 
of many instances, both in the United States and in England, where 
ponds and streams, excellently stocked with Trout, have been utterly 
devastated and rendered worthless by the introduction of this shark 
of the fresh waters. 

" The house is well-kept, as is almost invariably the case on Long 
Island ; and I have no doubt that the angler may pass some days here 

with pleasure. 

" Some miles beyond this, still keeping the southside road, we come 
to Babylon, where there is an excellent house, under the management 
of Mr. Concklrn, of whom all accommodation may be obtained, both 
as regards fowl-shooting in the bays and Trout-nshing in the neighbor- 
hood. There are several ponds and streams more or less well-stocked 
in this vicinity, but none of any particular note, eitlier for the size or 
flavor of the fish. 

" Such, however, is not the case with the next station at which we 



./-. - «^ ■ J «« 






262 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



arrive, Liff. Snedecor's-in whose pond the fish run to a larger size 
than in any water we have yet noted. The Trout here, both in the 
pond and in the stream below, are noted for their great beauty, both 
of form and color ; and although there is some debate among con- 
noisseurs as to the comparative flavor of Snedecor's fish and those 
taken at Carman's, eighteen miles further east, the judgment of the 
best sportsmen inclines to the former. 

" The pond is of the same character with those which I have de- 
scribed heretofore, and can be fished only from boats. It is open to 
all anglers, but the number of fish to be basketed by each person in 
one day is limited to a dozen. In the stream there is no limit, nor 
indeed can there be, as the tide-waters cannot be preserved, or the 
free ri-ht of fishing them prohibited. The Trout here are not only 
very numerous and of the first quality of excellence-their flesh being 
redder than that of the Salmon-but very large ; the average pro- 
bably exceeds a pound, and fish of two and two and a half pounds 
weight are taken so frequently as to be no rarity. 

*< The outlet of this pond, after running a few hundred yards, opens 
upon the salt meadows, where there is no obstacle whatever to throw- 
ing a long line. It is broader and longer than any stream we have 
hitherto encountered, and is incomparably the best, contaming fish 
even lar^r than those of the pond above, and, in my opinion, of a 
finer flavor. I believe it, indeed, to be an indisputable fact tha. 
Trout, which have access to salt water, are invariably more highly 
colored and flavored than those which are confined to fresh streams 
by natural or artificial obstacles. . 

" There is no distinction, of which I am aware, in favor of pond or 
stream, for the use of the fly, the fish taking it readily in cither, 
although as a general rule they will rise to it earlier in the fresh, than 

in the tide-water. 

« At some distance down this stream there is a range of willows on 
the bank, nearly opposite to a place owned by Mrs. Ludlow ; and 
under the trees are some holes famous for being the resorts of the 
largest fish, which affect here the deepest water and the principal 
channel. Here, as in the pond, fish of two and a half pounds are no 
rarity, and, in fact, such are taken here more frequently than above 
1 should say that one would rarely hook a Trout in this stream under 



TROUT FISHING. 



2Gb 



one and a half pounds ; and the true angler woU knows that a well- 
conditioned fresh-run fish, from this size to a pound larger, on the 
finest and most delicate tackle, will give him nothing of which to com- 
plain in the way of exercise or excitement. 

" At a short distance from Sncdecor's is another stream, known ai 
Green's Creek, which contains a peculiar and distinct variety of Trout, 
which is called in that district the Silver Trout. I have not seen this 
fish, but learn from good sportsmen that it is of a much lighter and 
more pearly hue than the common Trout, the bright and silvery lustre 
of the scales prevailing over the back and shoulders. It is crimson 
spotted, but the fins are less strongly yellow, and it is perhaps a 
slenderer fish in form. The flesh is said to be firm and well-flavored. 
The Silver Trout is rarely taken much over or much under a pound 
in weight, and rises to the fly or takes the bait indiscriminately. This 
stream has, 1 know not wherefore, of late years lost much of its cele- 
brity, and is rarely visited by the best sportsmen. 

At Patchoguc, yet a few miles further, there is a very large pond, 
which was formerly perhaps the most famous on the island, both for 
the abundance ^and the size of the fish which it contained. They have, 
however, become latterly so scarce, that few persons from a distance 
think it worth their while to pause there, but proceed at once to Sam 
Carman's, at Fireplace, eighteen miles eastward from Liff. Snedecor's; 
these two being in fact the par excellence fishing grounds of the Island, 
and the difi"erence between the two rather a matter of individual pre- 
judice and fancy, than of any real or well-grounded opinion. 

" The character of the fishing at Fireplace is nearly similar to that 
at Islip ; the stream flowing from the pond is larger, and contains 
much larger fish, the most beautiful, both in shape and brightness of 
color, of any on the island. In this stream, two pounds is a very com- 
mon size ; perhaps, fish are as frequently taken of this weight as under 
it, and upwards to four pounds. Their flesh is very highly colored, 
and t'uolf flavor, as I have observed before, second to none. Indeed, 
it is but a few years since Carman's fish were estimated by old sports- 
men the only fish worth eating ; of late, however, fashion— which rules 
in ^astronomic tastes as otherwise — has veered a little in favor of the 
Islip Trout, and it remains at present a debatable point between the 
two. The course of Carman's stream lies chiefly through open salt 



! 



Ill 



^C^i^-^tLm^iSLmm » tf •^^ 



264 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



„e.dow», and the baok» are entirely de.Utuie of covert =0 ha. v^,ry 
careful and delieate fishing is neeeseary m order to fill a basiet. 
En with gronnd halt it i. de.irahle .. keep eompletely out of B>ght 
^21 as far from the hank as possible, and to avo.d janmg the 
wl^ so «ry and shy are the larger fish. It is also ad^ablo to fish 
water, so wary y ._^ this water, the same pre- 

7„rbem Jtat n°and tie bait-fish being dropped a. lightly on the 
Sr a f t w r'e a fiy, so as to ereate neither splash nor sound^ 
Thlpond aiove is likewise deservedly eelebrated, the fish a.cragmf 
Ihe PO""" » . , ^ „^i i„ all respeets to any pond 

Tr ::t hi'sor n o;::" region. The fly-fishing hero in season is 
IroTab^ he best on Long Island, although of late, here, a, every- 
where ie, Trout are beeoming eomparatively few m number ; so that 
it has been found neeessary to impose a limit on sportsmen. 

" «n' Iny years ago, a eelebrated English shot »d "ngW-* 
has since left tUU country, and who, I believe, was among *e « ^'. ■' 
tr. he very first, to use the fiy on Long Island waters, took betw en 
forty ^d fifty good fish in this pond before dinner, and rn the after- 
n„!n Tasketed above a dozen of yet larger size in the stream below. 
"TThtfl, the like of which will not, I fear, be soon heard o 
ag J, was performed with a fly, the body of which was composed of 
TeVear fur, and the hackle of a woodcock's wmgs-a very kdlmg 

. " ""wrTs : X e ed S: IsW pond, with a saw and 
r: U rroXt, wMch contams a great nu„,ber of fisl, o very 

, d --f!rra;:2:Lrer,"LteVr" : the 

zx:^^^^ 'w -- -L^:raeruS 

:t:rrfr::d IchSlave'oecasion'to mention here- 
'' "'l remember that a fact of the same sort is recorded of two lakes, 
through a uog mcuuuw. -" -n,. u^^-- 



TROUT FISHING. 



2bd 



aro worthless— in the lower superlative ; and they are never known to 
intermingle. How this should be, cannot well be explained ; for, 
granting that the excellence of the fish arises from the soil and food, 
and tha°t the inferior fish improves on coming into the superior water, 
still there must be a transition state. 

« With this pond I shall close my notice of the south side waters, 
merely adding that at Moritches, and yet further east, there are many 
streams and lakelets abounding in fish, though inferior to those of the 
waters I have enumerated, both in size and quality ; and these are, 1 
believe, all open without limit to all persons who desire to fish them. 
" It may bo worth while here to mention, for the benefit of sti-angers, 
that the houses kept by Snedecor and Carman are by no means 
country taverns, at which nothing can be obtained, as is often the case 
in tho interior, but hard salt ham and tough hens just slaughtered. 
Being frequented by gentlemen entirely, they are admirable hotels in 

every respect. 

" I will now turn, for a moment, to the north side, on which there 
are also many streams containing Trout, but none, with a single ex- 
ception, which can show size or numbers against the southern waters. 
That exception is Stump Pond, near Smithtown, now rented to a 
company of gentlemen, and of course shut to the public in general. 
The fish in this large sheet of water axe very numerous, and very 
large, but are for the most part ill-shapod, ill-conditioned, and inferior 
in flavor— long, lank fish, with very large black mouths: 1 have been 
informed that in latter years the fish in this water have been gradually 
imprc/i..g, but of this I cannot speak from personal experience ; it is, 
howe- "notorious, that occasionally Trout of very fine quality, both 
in an, iice and flavor, have been caught here ; which is somewhat 
remarkable, inasmuch as the same feeding grounds rarely produce two 
diflferent qualities of fish. 

" With regard to weather, a darkish day, with a moderately brisk 
breeze, sufficient to make a strong ripple on the water, is the most 
favorable. It is somewhat singular, that in spite of the generally re- 
ceived opinion that southerly or south-westerly weather is the only 
weather for Trout-fishing, few old Long Island anglers are to be found 
who cannot state that they have taken as many, some say wore, fish 
during the prevalence of easterly winds, as in any weather. A friend 
18 



m £ 



[ ■• -• '**■ ^ '^ «■* I 



266 




AMERICAN FISHES. 



„f mine on whoso a«ll.o.ity 1 oan P"rfe«"y --"ly' "■"* '» "'"'"' ' ^'""^ 
con^Mbtodness for .any facts stated in this pap,, azures 
^ that ho has nevor inown Trout to tako the fly more free y than 
Zing a northeasterly snow-storm. Still, 1 mnst con..dcr those a. 
tep'tions to the general rule ; and 1 at least would ^^ee'. '^ "^f 
my ehoice, ' a southerly wind and a eloudy sky'-always ban.ng 
Ihnnder-and no objcetion to a slight sprinkling of warm ram _ 

"There is another peculiarity to observe in the Long Island wale 
_Jd so far as I know, in them only-that Trout brte dec.ded^y 
better and more freely, when the water is ver, flue and clear than 
when it is in flood and turbid. Indeed, if there be a good r.pplc on 
the surface, the water can hardly be too transparent. 

"It has been suggested to me, that this may be accoun ed or h, 
U,e act that in flood the waters are so well filled wrth natural b. , 

bat the fish become gorged and lazy. ' -»-' -^^"^t 
this is perfectly satisfactory to n,c; as the same must bo he case, 
Ire or less, in all waters; whereas it is unquestronably the ease, 
ZZ\ hive fished, except on Long Island, that Trout are more 
easily taken in turbid than in fine water. 

"i, eonnectedwith the foregoing remarks, 1 wdl here add ha 
as a seneral rule, the minnow, with spinning or trollmg tackle, 
• und to be more killing than ground bait in the ponds, and «« vena 
ZL tide srreams-prohably from the mere fact that *» — J « 
the rarer in the one water, the red-worm in the other, and that each 
bv its rarity becomes the greater dainty." 
'filnd this I have nothing to add, with respect to Trout-fishmg 
with the e«cption of a few very general observations on the most 
My tta s, seasons, and places in which to fish for the Trout, since 
h mode taking them with the fly is in all respects the saino a 
that akeady given under the head of Salmon-fishing, the modes o 
casLtfor' striking and playing these kindred fishes being in all 

Ttetrt'plte, I am clearly of opinion that for very early fishing 
in March and April there is no place on this continent at all compa- 
aWeto Long Island, where all along the south shore the, can be 
taken in number, almost innumerable, in every pond, stream and salt 
or..*, until the end of July, when the, cease to bite freely. It « 



TROUT FISHING. 



267 



worthy of observation that very early in the season the bait is more 
kiUin<r than the fly, but that from May to the end of the season the fly- 
fisher will fill his creel when the bait-fisher will go empty-handed home. 
In the salt creeks the fish take the fly far loss wiUini^ly than the bait ; 
and in Carman's Creek, which is very decidedly the best Trout river 
on Long Island, it is said that there is but one example of a fish bemg 
killed with the fly, by an old friend of my own, Mr. Luxford, formerly 
of H M 's Royal Dragoons, in whose eye, should this meet it, those 
words may awaken not unpleasant reminiscences of his visit to the 
United States, and of his many, many sporting rambles with Frank 

Forester. . t xi.* i -i -n 

In Carman's River the largest fish in America are, I think it will 
be allowed, mostly caught, running often quite up to five lbs. weight, 
and 1 fully believe that if it were fished patiently and resolutely, cspo- 
cially at the gray twilight, or in the shimmering moon-shine quite 
down to the bay, throu-h the salt meadows, with a small Trout on good 
Bpinnincr-tackle with three swivels, or with a very large fe<.ady fly, sunk 
by means of a shot to several inches below the surface, fish might be 
taken of s.ven or eight pounds weight. After Long Island fishing is 
nearly at an end, commences, and continues quite until September, 
that in the crystal streams of the Southern New York counties, in the 
Pennsylvanian streams, and even later in the waters of th., Adirondaeh 
Hicrhlands and later yet at the Sault St. Marie. 

The Juniata, the Wyoming, the upper Delaware, the upper Alle- 
ghany and the upper Susquchannah swarm with fish, as well as all 
their tributaries. The former rivers, and many another equally fine 
streams in the Alleghany and Blue ridges, are within easy striking dis- 
tance of Philadelphia; all the waters of the Dela^vare and Susquchan- 
nah rivers can be reached in a day from New York, by the Moms 
and Erie railroad ; nor is there any lovelier or more romantic region 
nor any waters dearer to the angler, than those which are now opened 
to the world by that noble avenue which is already complete so far as 
to Owego, and which will soon link with its iron chain, Erie and all 
th'i upper lakes to the Atlantic sea-board. 

Hamilton County and its splendid fishing-grounds may be reached 
in many ways from New York, via Albany. From Caldwell's on 
Lake George, from Lake Champlain by the Saranac, from Scheneo- 



r' . - ^ jf . * ^\ 



268 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



tady by thcFish-house, and from the St. Lawrence it ia accessible to 
the Canadians by the Black River or the Racket. 

These waters abound in the Brook Trout, and the groat Lake Trout, 
whereof a word more hereafter, though he very little merits a word; 
and good accommodations can now be obtained in many places 
through that of late inhospitable region; but much of the pleasure of 
a trip°thither is destroyed by the swarms of mosquitoes, and yet worse, 
of venomous acupuncturing black and sand-flies, which phl.botomizo 
almost beyond endurance the hapless unacclimatcd stranger who ven- 
tures into their demesnes, between May and the latter days of August 
Boyond this I will only add that the haunts of the Brook Irout 
closely resemble those of the Salmon ; that they lie lurkmg for their 
passing prey under great stones at the head or tail of swift glancmg 
rapids! in the small deep pools between, beneath the roots of grea 
trees which protrude from banks over swirls and whirlpools, in holes 
under weirs and sluices, and in no place more frequently than at the 

tail of mill-races .,• i ^ r* 

The best and heaviest fish do not begin to feed until twilight, after 
which, for about three hours, they are exceedingly voracious, reposing 
again after that until daybreak is at hand, when they again feed for 
an hour or two, lying quite still, and oftentimes refusing the most 
temntin^T baits during the whole of the day-time 

1 have been told lately, and ne no reoBon for doubting the accuracy 
Of the information, that great sport may be had by baiting any well- 
ascertained haunt in a stream with the common Cray-Fish, his shell 
being cracked to pieces for several days in succession, previous to 

fishing it with a fly. . i x- „ *i,« 

From the Brook Trout I pass on to his nearest relations the 
various kinds of Lake Trout, Mackinaw Salmon, Siskawitz, and, as it 
is called erroneously, Salmon Trout of the lakes. 

Before closing this article, 1 have judged it well to q«ote a few re- 
marks on Trout-fishing, from that admirable work, Hofland's Angler 8 
Manual, inasmuch as they are in the highest degree appropriate to the 
Trout-fishing of America generally, while the observation on bush- 
fishing, dipping or dapping, will be found of great advantage to the 
angler for small Trout in the beautiful tumbling mountam-streams far 
inland, in our northern and north-eastern States. 



TROUT FISIIINQ. 



269 



(( 



THE ARTIFICIAL FLY 



" Fly-fishing 19 certainly llio most gentlemanly and pleasant kind 
of angling, and it has many advantages over every other mode of 
fishincr. In the first place, your apparatus is light and portable ; tor 
a slight rod, twelve feet long-or if wanted for a narrow and wooded 
Btroam, one of ten feet only would be more convenient-a reel con- 
taining thirty yiird« of line, a book of artificial files, and a landing- ' 
n.t, and you are fully equipped for the sport. In the second place, it 
is the most cleanly and the least cruel mode of angling, as you are 
not obli-'cd to soil your hands by ground bait, or live baits, nor to 
torture a° living fish, or insect, on your hook. Another charm m fiy- 
fishincr is, that you are never fixed to one spot, but continue to rove 
aloncTthe banks of the stream, enjoying, in your devious path, all the 
varie°tics of its scenery ; the exercise induced is constant, and not 
too violent, and is equally conducive to health and pleasure. I have 
already said that a one-handed rod should be ten or twelve feet long, 
and a two-handed rod from sixteen to eighteen ^eet ; to either of 
which must be attached a reel containing thirty yards of twisted silk 
and hair line, tapering from a moderate thickness to a few hairs, at 
the end of which you are, by a loop, to attach the bottom tackle. 
This should be made of round, even gut, and three yards long ; some 
persons prefer four yards ; but I think too great a length of gut 
increases the difficulty in casting the line. Those bottom tackles may 
be purchased at the shops in two, three, or four-yard lengths. These 
lines should also taper gradually, the gut being much stronger at the 
end which is to be attached to the line on the reel, than at the end to 
which the stretcher-fly is to be fixed. When you fish with only two 
flies, the sccond-or drop-fly-should be at a distance of thirty-six or 
forty inches from the bottom, or stretcher-fly •, but, if you use three 
flies th 3t drop should be only thirty-four inches from the stretcher, 
and'the second drop thirty inches from the first. These drop-fiies 
are attached to the line by loops, and should not be more than three 
inches long ; and, by having the gut rather stronger than for the end- 
fly they will stand nearly at a right angle from the line. I recom- 
mend the beginner to commence with one fly only ; but, at most, he 
muflt not use more than two ; and, aa for his mode of casting, or 



* .**' 






270 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



throwing his fly, now his tackl,^ is prepared, I fear little useful instruc- 
tion can be given, as skill and dexterity, in this point, must depend 
upon practice. I may, however, advise him not to attempt to cast a 
lon<r line at first, but to try his strength, and gain facility by degrees. 
He^must make up his mind to hear many a crack, like a coachman's 
whip, and find the consequent loss of his flies, before he can direct 
his stretcher to a given point, and let it fall on the water lightly as a 
gossamer. When I come to speak of the different Trout streams m 
the neighborhood of London, and elsewhere, I shall recommend the 
flies to be used for the place and season; in the meantime, I shall 
attempt to describe the haunts of the Trout. 

" He is fonJ of swift, clear streams, running over chalky, lime- 
stone, or gravelly bottoms ; but he is more frequently in the eddies, 
by the side of the stream, than in the midst of it. A mill-tail is a 
favorite haunt of the Trout, for he finds protection under the apron, 
which is generally hollow, and has the advantage of being in the eddy, 
by the side of the mill-race, awaiting his food. He delights also in 
cascades, tumbling bays, and wiers. The larger Trout generally have 
their hold under roots of over-hanging trees, and beneath hollow 
banks, in the deepest parts of the river. The junction of little 
rapids, formed by water passing round an obstruction, in the midst of 
the general current, is a likely point at which to raise a Trout ; also 
at the roots of trees, or in other places where the froth of the stream 
collects All such places are favorable for sport, as insects follow the 
same course as the bubbles, and are there sought by the fish. After 
sunset, in summer, the large fish leave their haunts, and may be found 
on the scowers, and at the tails of streams ; and during this time, so 
long as the angler can see his fly on the water, he may expect sport. 
Unfortunately, when the deepening shades of twilight drive the sports- 
man home, he is succeeded, on dark nights, by the poacher, with his 
night-lines; and, I am sorry to say, that the north-country angler 
gives too faithful a picture of this uight-fishing, which he himself 

^'*'' And now, having told the young angler where to search for fish, 
I must strongly impress upon him the necessity of keeping out of 
Bight of the fish, for, if once seen, not any kind of bait he can offer 
will tempt a Trout to take it ; therefore, approach the stream with 



TBOUT riSHINO. 



271 



cution keeping as far ftom it a« possible : fir.t, fi.h the mJo nearert 

„ Cnd then oast your line »0 a, to drop jn»t under the bank on 

r :;ple Bide of 'the Btrean., drawing it, by ^'^J^^ 

l!«rde you, always continuing oarcful to show yoursell as l.ttl. a. 

•""" slme persons recommend Sshing up stream, and throwing the 4y 
before thm; others walk down the river, and east the fly before the^^ 
For ny own part-after much experience-whenever can do o 

:r:ur ;V oCirr'stld dose t„ the water, edge, and 
Sc^Jour east Cose to .c bank «« --J™ ;-' I^il 

Com ll^le ; but ^hen the water you fish is weedy, or much wooded, 
! l"e haris very difficult to manage ; but in ponds, or streams free 
r :tpere:ts,'it may be used by a skilful hand with great advan- 
Z The winds most favorable to the angler are south s uthc st 
Shwest, and northwest; but in March and Apr.l th,s latter wmd 
Jgene ly too cold. A fresh breeze is favorable, espoerally for U^- 
«, 111 dams or the still deeps of rivers; as the ripple on the 
„t7i "Ve ^c-e, has the same effect as a rapid stream, ,a 
;t::;rg the Lrp^ighted Trout from discovering the dceepfon of 

""tti^Ihing you can hardly have too much wind, if you can 
man ge your boft'comfortably, and keep your fly on the water 
TherTare very tew lakes, with which 1 am aequamted where go d 
Iportc nbehL from the shore; to ensure »--- '.\»:';.;;t; 
^ VI A if vm, pan procure a boatman well acquainted with the 

:Z'Zt manayrenG his boat, the battle is half won^ After 
r^ ; he fish seek L shallow water, and a lake may *en <>» flsW 
Zn the shore. I have found, from long e.penenee m ""-fi^-g. 
rrit il better to east your line towards the shore, rather than from 
tl;^ or up or doJu the lake The boat should be mamtarned. 



.1? 



l_..A-.a* ldm.'Jk^*f I 



272 



AMERICAN FISHEb. 



ill 



as far as possible, at u p.opor distance from the shore— that is, so that 
your flies may fall where the water b(>gin3 to doepeu from the shore 
The boat should be allowed to drift with the wind, and the oars used 
as seldom as possible, and merely to keep it in a proper position and 
distance from the shore. Tho flies used in lake-fishing are larger 
than those for rivers ; and I have frequently observed that tho winged 
flics answer better than palmers. Perhaps tho cause of this may bo, 
that many rivers and small Trout streams are bordered with trees, 
which overhang them, and from which drop tho insects that tho 
palmers imitate ; whereas tho shores of the lake are generally rocky, 
or stony, and mostly denuded of trees, and consequently do not pro- 
duce this kind of food for their finny inhabitants." 



" BUSH-FISHING, DIBBINO, OB DAPINO. 

" One great recommendation to bush-fishing is, that it can be prac- 
tised with success in the months of June, July, and August, when the 
river is low, and the sunshine . bright, and in the middle of the day, 
at a time and season when no other circumstance would f-tir a fish, the 
largest Trout are taken by this method. The angler intwt bo provided 
with a fourteen-fcet rod, with a stiff top, and str ng ;uuniu^ tackle i 
he will seldom have to use more than a yard of line, the bottom of 
which should be of strong silkworm gut. I recommend strong tackle, 
because, in confined situati. is, overhung with wood, you will not have 
100J.J L (lay your fish, but .ust hold him tight, and depend on the 
«tf«ngri of t^o tackle. 

" Tiu'. size of your hook must depend on the size of your fly, from 
No. 7 to 9 for small flies and grubs, and, for beetles. No. 4 or 5. 
For bush-fishing, you should be provided with well-scoured brandlings 
and red worm, cad-baits, clock-baits, earth-grubs, beetles, grasshop- 
pers, and a horn of flies, or, at least, as many of the above as you 
can procure. A small green grub, or caterpillar, which may be got 
in June and July, by shaking, over a sheet or tablecloth, the boughs 
of an oak-tree, is a most killing bait for this kind of fishing. 

" Great caution is necessary in using your rod and line ; for, if 
there are few bushes or brambles to conceal you, the water must bo 
approached warily, as the large Trout often lie near the surface, and. 



TROUT riSHINO 



273 



if you are once seen, they will fly from you If the water Hhould bo 
deep, dark, and overhung with thick foliage, bo that you can scarcely 
and an open space for your bait, your line mu»t be shortoncd to half 
a yard, and Bometiines less. 

" If your flies are small, use two of them at once, as they frequently 
fall into the water in couples ; when daping with the fly, if you boo 
your fish, drop the fly gently on to the water, about a foot before him, 
and if you are not soeu, he will eagerly take it. When your fish it) 
struck, do not allow him to get down his head, for fear of roots and 
weeds, but keep him to the top of the water, where his fins and 
strength will be of little use to him ; and in this situation, with good 
tackle, you may soon exhaust him, and make him your own by a 
landing-net, the handle of which should be two yards lonfe ; or he 
may bo landed by a hook or gaff", with a long handle ; and this, in 
some situations, amidst close, thorny brambles, will be found more 
useful than a landing-net, which is liable to bo caught in the bushes. 

" When you use the worm, the caddis, or any other grub, you will 
require a single shot. No. 6, to sink your bait, for it cannot sink too 
slowly, or cause too little disturbance in the water." 

No. 1. Mayflies, perfect, and emDryo. 
No. 2. Stonefly, perfect, and embryo. 






¥'^ 



r.m r.^.. 



L ^ 1- 



974 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



LAKE TROUT FISHING, 



! 1 



These great, bad, course and unsporting fisli, of all the three varie- 
ties, are very nearly similar in their habits, lying for the most part iu 
the deepest parts of the great lakes, seeking their food in the depths, 
and very rarely rising to the surface, either for food or play. Of 
these the great Mackinaw Salmon is perhaps the liveliest, and the 
common Lake Trout, Salmo Confiim, of DeKay, the heaviest and 

most worthless. 

They will scarce ever rise to a fly, and can rarely be taken even 
with a spinning minnow ; with a live bait, however, or a peacock-fly, 
submerged to a considerable depth, with a bullet at the end of two 
hundred yards of line, played from a stiff- rod at the stern of a light 
skiff or canoe moved rapidly through the water by sails or oars, they 
can be caught with considerable certainty. When hooked, however^ 
they are but a heavy, torpid fish, bearing down with a sullen dead 
weight, and offering little more than a passive resistance. My friend 
William T. Porter, who constantly fishes in the waters of Hamilton 
county, informs me that he has been exceedingly and almost invariably 
successful with what seems a very strange and unsporting combination, 
a small fish namely, and a large fly on the same line, at about a yard's 

distance asunder. 

The commonest way, by far, of angling for the common Lake Trout 
is with a stout drop-line and a Cod-hook baited with a piece of salt 
pork, or the belly of a Yellow Pearch or Brook Trout let down into 
ten or fifteen fathom water. The fish bites, gorges his bait, for which 
you may allow him a few seconds' time, after which ho is hauled in by 
main force. He is very indifferent eating, but perhaps the best way 
of preparing him when quite fresh out of water, is to crimp him to the 
bono after stunnning him with a heavy blow on the head, wrap him up 
in a cover of thick greased paper, and roast him without removing the 



LAKE TROUT FISH I NO. 



275 



entrails, which will come away at a touch when he \s cooked, under 

'';re';:el:: M^^^^^^^ Sal.on, or Namaycush, and the Masa.a- 
cush or Arctic Charr, the latter a delicious and very voracious fish, are 
both' taken in the same manner, in very deep water, in the summer, 
and through holes cut in the ice in the dead of winter. The favonte 
bait for both these fishes, is the belly of the yellow or gray sucking 
Carp, or a piece of the raw heart or liver of a deer. 

The Mackinaw fish is, however, a far bolder fish than any of his 
race, and occasionally follows any shining bait or squid up to the very 
surflce of the water, if it is sunk by means of a weight, and then 
trolled sharply upward and onward to the surface. A piece of bright 
tin, with a rag of scarlet cloth attached to it, is, I am informed, found 
to bo very successful and killing in the hands of the Indians. If thi 
be the ca.e, of which I am well assured, there can be little or no doubt 
that the deadly spoon, as it is called, an implement shaped precisely 
like the bowl of a table spoon, of bright metal, silvor-washed within, 
and brazed without, attached by a swivel at the lower extremity to a 
stout tiiplo hook, and at the upper to a piece of strong gimp-which is 
so murderously destructive to the Black Bass of the St. Lawrence and 
the Mascalonge-would be found no less effective with the great Lake 
Trout ; nor if any one should think it worth the while, would any harm 
be thought of his applying any invention, however slaughtering and 
poacher-like, to so base and caitiff a fish as the Lake Salmon 

Of Back's Grayling it is almost unnecessary here to speak, so tar 
north are his customary haunts, and so very difficult and expensive is 
it to reach the districts in which only he exists. This is the more to 
be regretted for that he is one of the finest, if not the very finest, of all 
the sporting fishes of America. He is the boldest of ^;ters at a fly 
taking all those flies which are most preferred by the Brook Ti out 
Laplnc. many times out of the water in his efforts to extricate himself 
from the hook, nor ever succumbing to his captor's will without a des- 
perate resistance and a severe conflict. His flesh is no less delicious, 
and his excellence at the board in no wise inferior to his spirit, or the 

beauty of his coloring. 

Of the Attihawmeg or White-Fish of the great lakes, of the Otsego 
Bass, or as I should desire to have it hereafter called, the Otsego La- 



I'S '-I'M 



.♦. 1 












Kr "-" 



, - ^ ^ - .. Ml *^'A 



276 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



varet, and of the little Smelt, which are all members of this same 
noble family, it needs not to make farther mention. They all have 
been occasionally taken with the fly, and will all undoubtedly be often- 
times again so captured, but the certainty of their rising is by no 
means sufficient to warrant the fisherman in wasting much time in 

their pursuit. 

I may here, before finishing this head of my subject, observe that in 
fact there is scarcely any fish which will not, apparently from some 
whim or other, take the fly on the surface. I have myself so caught 
the Striped Bass, the Shad, the Herring and the Northern Pickerel 
with the Salmon-fly. All the family of the small CyfrinUa, as the 
Roach, Dace, Bream and Chub, will at times bite freely. In the Black 
River a species of this family rises very freely, and gives good sport. 
It is there called the Chub, and is, I believe, identical with another of 
the same division, known as the Wind-Fish in some of the streams of 
Duchess County, in the State of New York ; and a thoroughly good 
fisherman of the city informed me yesterday that he had even caught 
Suckers with a Trout-fly, a fact, which but for the very great respec- 
tability of the source whence I derived the information, I should hardly 
have been inclined to credit. 

None of these unimportant little fish, however, give sport enough, 
or are sufficiently good on the table, to make them worthy the pursuit 
of others than boys, snobs, and the ladies, who must pardon me for 
the company into which I have introduced them, certainly not accord- 
ing to their merits, on my estimation of them. 

Note to Revised Edition.— See Supplement, article Lake Trout, for some altered 
views and farther instructions in regard to the tuclile and mode of taliing tliis fish. 
I am more than ever satisfied that there are two distinct Lake Trouts in the Now 
England and New York waters, apart from the Namaycush or Mackinaw Trout, 
and the Siskawitz. 



SALMON TROUT FI8HINQ 



277 



SALMON TROUT FISHING. 



There is but one region on this continent in which this admirable 
sport can be enjoyed at all ; for, singular to say, the fish is found only 
ID those rivers of New Brunswick which flow eastwardly mto the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and the Bays of Gaspe and Chaleurs. 

As if to mak3 amends, however, for the narrow limits of their geo- 
graphical range, they absolutely swarm, during their season, in all the 
rivers which thoy frequent, traversing the sea bays in enormous schuUs, 
and running up all the rivers to the head of tide water, beyon^ which 
they do not ascend on those coasts. Why this should be the case it is not 
easy to conjecture, since it would appear to indicate a variation in the 
species from one of the normal habits of the race— that, I mean, which 
dictates to the parent fish that they must run up into the aSrated waters 
of pure fresh rivers, in order to deposit their ova. 

It may be, though I am not prepared to state that it is, the fact, that 
the ascent of all these rivers beyond a certain point is rendered im- 
possible to the fish, by long rapids, or impassable cataracts, and that, 
perceiving the impossibility of arriving at the place of their proper 
and natunal destination, the fish themselves cease to attempt it, and 
merely run up from the brackish into the fresh water, in order to enjoy 
those alternations of temperature and food, in which all this family 
would appear especially to rejoice. 

In the Scottish and English waters, the Salmon Trout, like the true 
Salmon, ascend quite to the head waters of the streams which they 
frequent, and deposit their ova precisely in the same manner as the 
other of their congeners. Here, it is evident, from Mr. Perley's re- 
ports to the British Parliament on the Fisheries of the Province, that 
they do nothing of the kind. 

In the St. Lawrence, I have never heard of their being taken above 
Montreal, and rarely above Quebec, although there is no obstruction of 



.kit! 



Ifk, 

■it 




Jmmm . ft , /^ i rf t4>'A > A r 



,f 



i 



278 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



any sort lo hinder their running quite up to the mouth of Niagara, as 
is the case with the true Salmon. 

. One thing, however, it may be observed in this connexion, is very 
evident-that wo know, comparatively speaking, almost nothing of the 

nature of fishes' instincts. _ , +;.„ 

That they possess exceedingly tenacious memories, I cannot in the 

least doubt ; and I have more almost than strong suspicion that these 

memories became hereditary, and are so transmitted from generation 

*' irnrother way can we account for that extraordinary instinct 
which leads back the young bird to the nest in which it was hatched 
the grilse to the river in which it had its birth-sinee the young bird 
are deserted by their parents at a period long anteceden to their 
return from their migration, and the fish never have the protection of 

their nrocenitors. , _, , 

Nor in any oth»r way can « explain the fact that the true Salmon 
never enter the Niagara River, although they run '^-^'-j'^^ 
„,outh ; even if we admit that its waters are enfre ly unBtted for the 
purpos s of the fish, and that it eontains no shoals smted for spawnrng- 
grounds; for otherwise, we should cxpoet that every md>v,d«al fish 
'would vi^it it at least onec, in order to get a taste of .ts qual, y and 
then finding it unsuitahle, desert it ; whereas ,t ,s not on re ord that 
any fish has ever heen taken of this spceies withm Us ^l?"- -- 

It may be that this wonderful power is an espee.al gift of Prov. 
denee, preventing the fish from wasting too mueh time m seekmg out 
a hau;! and so losing the season for the propagat,on of .^ spec », by 
conduetW it truly, as the needle to the magnetre pole, to the stream 

" tt^Z^:':^ it may, certain it is that ^n all the rivers which 
fiow el^waX f.o... the Provinces into the Northern AtlanUc w.* 
!vTry fiood-tide a horde of these beautiM fishes ™n »P ""f *;? 
trlke the junction of the salt and fresh water, usually at the foot of a 
f^ or rap d, and there remain disporting themselves m the hr.ght 
Eddies, Ind throwing themselves quite out of their natwe element, 

in pursuit of their scaly prey. c.„,tl,h or 

in these places they will take very greeddy any of the Scott sh or 

Irish gaudy lake-flics, leaping out of the water to take and se,.e them, 



SALMON TROUT FISHING. 



279 



and risin- ho voraciously and rapidly, that it is found impossible to fish 
with above one, or at the most, two flies; as it is not at all an unusual 
thing, if fishing with three, to hook at the same moment three several 

fisliGS 

IntheObscach^, several years since, Mr. Perley, who visited those 
Witters in his official capacity, accompanied by Capt. Egerton, of H. 
M 43d Light Infantry, killed three hundred of these fine fish at the 
junction of the fresh and salt water, at the foot of a long glancing 
rapid, in a single tide ; and the former gentleman writes me word, that 
one morning last season he killed, in an hour or two, eight fish, which 

weighed forty pounds. ^^ i e 41. 

This must be regarded, however, as an unusual run of luck ; tor the 
average size of the Salmon Trout does not appear to exceed four 
pounds, although they are taken up to S3ven and eight. 

In the fresh water, within the rivers, they arc taken exactly as the 
Salmon, or Brook Trout, with a double or single-handed rod indifi-e- 
rently, and with any of the baits or flics which are killing to the others 
of the ftimily ; but best of all, with a scarlet Ibis fly, with a gold tinsel 
body,.which it prefers even in bright water, to the best peacock herl 
and gay feather lake-flies. Although a fine game fish, a strong fighter, 
and hard dier, the Salmon Trout often comes in for a share of the 
Salmon fisher's maledictions, jumping incessantly at the deceits in- 
tended to fascinate a larger and more potent victor, and in fact, for 
insisting on being taken in lieu of its great congener. 

In the sea bays, (luite out of sight of land, while roving along the 
coasts, in search probably of its favorite estuary, the Salmon Trout is 
caught nearly as we catch Mackerel or Blue Fish, by trolling with the 
Ibis^fly, above described, at the end of thirty or forty yards of line, 
from the stern of a sailing-boat, under all canvass, in a stiff Mackerel 

breeze. 

For this sport it is necessary to use a reel, with not less than a hun- 
dred yards of line-as the largest fish are taken by this method, and 
make a very violent resistance before they can be brought home. 

The fly is kept skipping from wave to wave, as the boat laveers, or 
beats to windward, and the fish throwing itself out of the sea to secure 
it with its beautiful bright sides flashing like virgin silver in the sun 
light, and^when struck, constantly dashing away with the whole of th« 



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AMERICAN FISHES. 



line from the whizzing reel, and giving a long run down wind, there 
is perhaps no sport in existence more full of pleasant excitement and 

adventure. . .^ i. * 4.«x 

Nor when taken is the prisoner unworthy of the pams it has cost to 
kill him ; for although smaller, he is in all other respects nearly of 
equal excellence with the true Salmon, and occupies a place second to 
liim alone, with the judicious epicure. 

Right well would it repay some of our gallant yachters, to turn the 
heads of their tight crafts easterly, and bear away, as the old song has 
it, with a wet sheet and a flowing sail, for the rock-bound shores of 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, for once there, right hospitable 
would they find their welcome, and their sport right royal. 




PICKEREL FISHING. 



fl81 



PICKEREL FISHING. 



III 



From the gigantic Mascalonge and its nearly equal congener, the 
great Northern Pickerel, to the small barred variety, which is found 
only in the waters of Long Island, the whole of this fierce and vora- 
cious family affords great sport to the fresh-water angler ; and where 
the Trout and Salmon do not obtain, they are considered as the kings 
of the waters. There are many modes of fishing for thorn, and the baits 
which they will take are almost innumerable, comprehending in their 
range almost the whole animal creation, fish, flesh, fowl and reptile. 

When of great size they are excessively destructive— not to other 
fish only, of which they are the tyrants, but to frogs, water-rats, and 
even the young of wild-fowl. 

They are taken either with trimmers, that is to say, small floating 
buoys with a rude reel attached, and a dependent live bait, with long 
set-lines ; or again, by roving with the live, or trolling with the dead 
bait. In the former mode, it is the better way to use two moderate- 
sized hooks, one passed through the lip, and the other through the dor- 
sal fin of the bait, which should be sunk about two feet below the sur- 
face, with a large float on the line, and suffered to swim about at his 

pleasure. 

By this method, however, large Pearch are often taken instead of 
the proper fish, and trolling with the gorge-hook, or fishing with the 
snap-hook is by far better sport— especially the former— more legiti- 
mate, more exciting, and last, not least, more killing. 

Of these methods, Mr. Hofland, in his British Angler's Manual, 
thus discourses— and although he is speaking of the English Pike, 
Esox Lucius, not of the Mascalonga or Pickerel, as the fishes are of 
the same family, and the modes to be pursued in capturing them in all 
respects identical, I have not hesitated to extract his able and well- 
written description ; I must premise, however, that where he speaks 
19 



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282 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



, n ^ nn for bait wc must substitute the Roach, the 
of Dace,Bleak or Gudgeon f b.t we ^^^ ^^^^ .^ ^^^._ 

Minnow, th. small Bream the New i ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

iedly the b >st aud most kiUmg of a., the youu, y, 

Brook Trout. ♦^nllmfr with the gorge-hook, 

Like Mr. Holland, I Mmtoly Pf « 'J"""/^^*, J,, ^,uh the 

common snap, or with what is ftere oa 

Xh tat I «gard as a groat -d^f^-;-;';™'';^,^ ^r. Hofland. 
The rod for Piko-troUing U well do»er,bed "^ ,, ;,_ ;„ 

but one of Conroy, best general ;";P; ^ '^^^ „,„a for Bas. 
f.ct, .be best for ovorytbing e.eep «r« ; ' "^..^ .„p_.Ul be 
or Weak-FUh thongb with rail cr a s .on ^^ ^,„ 

found all-suffioient. In n,, op.mon a large el k reel, ^,^^ 

for Salmon, and a stout sdken Ime of " 1'"*;'^ / y^j^^^ dis- 

bo found preferable to the contrivances of ^hieh Mr. 

courses. ^ ^„„,4 i,„ got against the 

grasping the butt about a y,.d a^ove it-*-"^^ „„, „.„„,,„ 

The body should *- "J^j'^lj position; the rod, as 
round again, with a qa.ck jerk, to .ts or P ^.^^ 

aeseribod before, will follow the sarje mot™, and darv^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

g,eat velocity and -°.X' ^^ t VoP 'he bait upo" *« •«*- »>" 
checkins its motion gently, so as lo uiup 

ttwiiout creating a ripple, certainly -*-'-/ tliver a dead 

^ Uttle practice '"'^J* t;: ' C ^^ - twenty-five 

ril":;; St SeUi,rre:::r. that the longer his easts, the 

^«r"i:xr:et:--u,dbedra^^^^^^^^ 

home, the loft hand constantly g.vmg out and -™ 8 

ti^X .1.1™ r-rrr ..^ i-, - 



PICKEHEI. FISHING. 



283 



be surpassed ; and paying due attention to the above and givmg heed 
to his Ltmctions, the young angler will hardly fad of sport m any of 
the inland lakes or rivers of this country fronx Maine to Lake Supo- 
rior and La Belle Riviere, as the French designate the Ohio, and from 
the Atlantic coasts to the Arctic Circle. , u 

<' I must here inform the novice in trolling, that Uttle sport can be 
exp>5cted without a tolerably clear water. 

'' Nobbs, the father of the art of trolling, speaks of April and 
May as the best months; but, with due deference to so great an 
authority, 1 should say September, October, and November, are the 
best moMhs, as the fish are then in prime season, and are worth 
taking whereas in April and May they have not recovered from 
spawning, and although they may feed freely, they wilUe lank and 

thin, and in bad condition. „ „ „ i. * „♦ 

"Early in March the Pike are often taken full of spawn, bu at 

tbis season they will seldom gorge the f ^' f ;-. ^^^^^^/^^X 
by the snap. In the autumn, rivers and ponds begin to los their 
weeds, which, in spring and summer, are so troublesome to the troller, 
Zl the fish then take to the deep holes, and their haunts are more 
easilv found. The troller cannot be too early or too late at us sport, 
for during the middle of the day the fish seldom feed, unless it be 
cloudy and the breeze fresh. _ 

" The best baits for Jack and Pike are Roach, Dace, Bleak Gud- 
geon. Minnow, small Chub, and Trout, or the Skegger or Brandlmg ; 
when none of these can be procured, a small Perch, by cutting away 
The back fin, may be used. Indeed, in the lakes of Derwentwater and 
Bassenthwail, and various places where other fish are scarce, and th 
small Bass or Perch plentiful, it is the bait in genera use. It is of 
he utmost consequence that the baits should be perfectly fresh and 
sweet ; although a Pike might run at a stale bait, he will rarely pouch 
it, even at the snap : your baits cannot be too bright or fresh. 

" Many writers have recommended birds, mice, frogs, &c., as bait 
but where small fish can be procured, no other will be wanted : of all 

the baits mentioned, I prefer a -^^-^^^^f ,^tr''kTtLX 
cially for the gorge-hook, as the sweetness of the fish makes the Pike 

more eager to pouch it. 



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284 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



« n U.V Jw and when tho water is not very clear, I should 
polLd, aad carefully waAod before you bait with them. 

" TROLLING TACKLE. 

.. The rod should be of strong bamboo cane, and from ten to t^Iv. 
lBeroQ»uo whalebone or hickory; the 

r-.'=» s .■..t'.-r "'- ..... «.-*'■ - - 

a very L'ood sort of line for this purpose, manufactu cd by ivi , 

^ n nl.oe Hackney Some troUers prefer a rod twenty feet long, 
Duncan-place, HacKnty. o ^^^^^^^^ ^^ 

rj:;:::i:r:h=:r"r:rw: ::.": ^^ -> -- 

;X you-r bait fall, .'^^^^ -^ ^Z~ J^^ 
r ir td—a:lX:;1he r., .oovcd for the rocep- 

tion of the line. rnni(^Hv when the cast ia 

"'These reels turn round with great rapia.ty when i 
„.e:iettlr,.out^suae^t^;of.n.^ 

by turning them With the fore hne y ^ ^^,^ ^^^^^^ 

l!^;::- X^trnl: », .^dm, up, and the ,.0 

"T-:^llar . t. U usedV.^^ 

„ there called a pirn Uj 11 eq F .__ ^^^^^^ ^^^_^^^^ 

r:rr;:i?dir si:^.- p;efer «... .1**0 

kind of fishing I shall first describe. 



t( 



PICKEREL FISHING. 



THE OOROE-nOOK 



286 



" Is cither a double or single hook, fixed on twisted brass wire, and 
loaded on the shank with lead, to which is attached a piece of gimp, 
eight or ten inches long, at the end of which is a small loop. To 
b^it this hook you must have a brass needle, about seven iuchos long ; 
put the loop of the gimp on the eye, or small curve, of the needle ; 
then put the point of the needle in at the mouth of the fish, and 
brin^ it out at his tail ; bring the gimp and wire along with it, the 
lead'being fixed in the belly of the bait-fish, and the hook or hooks 
lying close to the outside of his mouth ; then turn the points of the 
hooks towards his eyes, if a double hook, but if a single one, directly 
in a line with his belly ; next tie the fish's tail to the arming wire 
very neatly, with strong thread. To the line on your reel you must 
attach a gimp-trace, twenty-four inches long, having a swivel at each 
end, and one in the middle. The spring swivel, at the end of your 
line' is to be hooked on the loop of your baited trace, and you are 

ready for sport. 

" When you are thus prepared, drop in your bait lightly before you, 
then cast it on each side, and let the third throw be across the river, 
or as far as you can reach— still letting the bait fall lightly on the 
water. In each case let your bait fall nearly to the bottom ; then 
draw it up gently towards you, and again let it sink and rise till you 
draw it out of the water for another cast. 

" I have before named the favorite haunts of the Pike, but when 
you arc in a good water you should carefully fish every part of it, for 
you may often have a run where you least expect it :— weeds are a 
great annoyance to the troller, and he will often bruise his bait, and 
injure his tackle, unless he is very cautious. At every new cast be 
careful to examine the bait, and clear it from leaves and weeds, as the 
Pike is very dainty, and will not touch a soiled bait. 

" The farther you throw your bait, if the water be broad— provided 
always that it falls lightly— the greater your chance of success, so 
that you are not intorrupted by weeds, roots of trees, &c. ; and if the 
water should be very weedy, you will be compelled to drop your bait 
into deep cbar openings. 

" When you feel a run, let your line be perfectly free, and allow 




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286 



AMKUICAN FISHES. 



the fish to make for his haunt witliout chock ; and whiMi ho stops give 
out a little slack lino. By your watch, give him ton minutes to pouch 
the bait before you strike, which you may then do, by first g-nitly 
drawing in your slack line, and then striking gently; but should your 
fish move soon after ho has been to his haunt, give him line, and ho 
will stop a^ain ; but after this, if ho move a second time before tho 
ten minutes are expired, strike, and you will niost likely secure him ; 
but if ho has only been playing with the bait, you will have lost him. 
" When I have boon so served once or twice, I generally resort to 

my snap-tackle. 

" If you have fairly hooked your fish, ho cannot easily break away, 
and as your tacklo is strong, unless ho is very largo, you need not 
give out much line, but hold him fast, and clear of the weeds ; giving 
him but a short struggle for his life. The gaflf is better than a net for 
landing a large Pike, for he is dangerous to handle, and his bito is 

much to be dreaded. 

" When you are without cither gaff or landing-net, seize the fi.sh by 
putting your finger and thumb into his eyes. Half a dozen gorge- 
hooks may bo carried in a tin box, with a little bran, ready baited, 
which will generally serve for a morning's sport. 

"angling at the snap. 

« I shall first describe the old fashioned mode, although it is now 

rarely practised. , 

" The spring-snap was formerly much in use, and may be purchased 
at any of the tackle shops. It consists of three hooks, the upper one 
small, and the two lower hooks large. The spring confines the lower 
hooks, but the spring gives way, and the hooks spread out when the 
fish is struck, and hold him securely. 

" It is baited by introducing the point of the small hook under the 
skin of the bait, on the side, and bringing it out at the back fin. Mr 
Salter gives the following directions for the double hook-snap, which 
may be used either with a dead or live bait : 

" 'This snap-hook is a double -hook, or two single hooks. No. 6, 
tied back to back, on gimp ; to bait this snap, use the baiting- needle 
havine first placed the loop of the gimp to which the hooks are tied 



PICKKRKI, FtSIIINO. 



287 



in tho oyo of tho nocdlo. l-^ntor the point of tho noodlo just above 
tlui gills of tho fnh, n-ar tho hack, avoiding to picroo tho flnsh a« 
much as possible, as it is only intended that tho gin»p should lio just 
behind tho skin. Brin;,' tho noodle and tho loop of tho gimp out near 
tho tail, an.l draw till tho hooks lio oloso to tho part your noodlo 
entered, and nro Homowhat hi.l by tho gills. Tho bait will live a long 
time after being thus hookod, and may be uscmI in fishing with a float, 
by putting three swan shots on tlr^ gimp to keep it down :— alway.^ 
prefer a Gudgeon for this huitii.g. I oall this a snap, bocauso, wh -n 
fishing this way for Jack, I strike in.modiately I porcoivo a run, and 
have met groat buccoss this way of snap-fisliing. This snap may b.^ 
baited with dead fish, and trolled with.' 

« Although I have quoted this mode of keeping a bait * a long time 
alivo on the hook,' I by no means recommend tho practice to my 
young brothers of the angle, for I have long confined myself to tin 
use of tho dead bait ; and with tho gorge-liook, and the snap used in 
the manner I am about to describe, tho Piko-fisher will never waufc 
sport in a well-stored water. 

" I have before said, that by spinning tho Minnow with tho samo 
kind of tackle as that used in spinning the Bleak for Thames Trout, 
I have taken many Jack, Pearch, and Trout ; but I have also fre- 
quently lost my tackle, by tho gut being bitten through by the sharp 
teeth of tho Pike. To remedy this evil, gimp may be employed 
instead of gut; indeed, the snap-taeklo now generally sold at the 
shops is of this description, but with larger hooks than I use, and 

coarser gimp. 

" The angler must now make his casts in the manner recommended 
in trolling with tho gorge-hook, letting the bait partly sink, and then 
drawing H towards him by gentle touches, by which means the bait 
will sphi freely, and look bright and glittering in the water. When 
you feel or see a bite, let the fish turn, and then strike gently, but 
still with sufficient quickness and force to make your hooks hold ; and 
now, with patience and perseverance added to those instructions, a 
complete disregard of cold and wind, and a determination never to 
lose his temper at trifling disappointments, the tyro may soon becomo 

The best waters for Pickerel of all kinds are deep, slow, sullen, 






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AMERICAN FISHLS. 



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shadowy streams, with dark, creeping waters, and shores fringed with 
Pickerel-weed, water-lilies, and marsh grass ; and the best places m 
which to cast for them are the edges and openings of the floa mg 
weed-patches, under the cover of which they are wont to lie expecting 

^^ Whe7the fish has taken the bait, the great thing is to give him 
time enough to gorge it, and not to mar all by -P^^-^^ "j 
striking before it is time. Once hooked, a steady hand, and cool 
temper" will soon ensure his capture ; for though ho is strong and 
fierce, his boldness and incautious way of biting permits the use of 
vcy strong tackle ; and though he fights hard for a while, he has nei- 
ther the arrowy rush nor the innumerable artful resources of the true 

^""'prkerel fishing with trimmers on large lakes, a. described under 
the head of Eel fishing, is by no means bad sport ; and if seve- 
ral large fish chance, as is very often the case, to be hooked at once, 
the sinking and reappearance of the gaily-paint.^ buoys, and their 
rapid motion through the water as the terrified fish rush away wth 
them, offer an amusing spectacle, while the rapid chase with swiftly- 
rowed boats is full of gay excitement. ^ , . t, j ,i„ 

For this sport all the limpid ponds and lakelets of this abundantly- 
watered land are most admirably adapted, from the ^f^^^'^^f^V'l 
New England through all the Eastern States to the fine inland k.s 
Tf Northern PennsyWania. But to enjoy this sport, or that of trolling, 
n perfection, the angler should visit the Great Lakes and the steams 
of the great basin of St. Lawrence, and that stupendous river ts^f , 
in which, from the Thousand Islands, among which swarm both the 
Masc loi- and the Great Northern Pickerel, up to the farthest 

^butaries%f Lake Superior, he will find T'l\'t<>^ ^1^2^'^^ 
he may be of killing, which will not disappoint his wildest wishes. 

In tl same manner as the Pike is the Pike-Pearch or Sandre, U- 
ciLea^A..ricana, erroneously called the Ohio Salmon, and otho 
Zurd provincial nicknames, which is a very fine and delicate fish, as 
well as a very sporting one, to be taken. . ^ , , . ..-.^^ 

In the western waters he is the most abundant and his favorite 
haunts are the tails of mill-races and whirling eddies under shady 
banki* 



riCKEREL FISHING. 



2By 



Him Bball you surely take by troUing with the Shiner or bottom- 
fishing with the fresh -water Cray- Fish ; nor will you despise him 
taken and smoking on your board. ,, „ t. u 

The Black Bass and the Rock Bass, and the large Yellow Pearch 
may also be taken by trolling ; but there are for these fish other and 
more appropriate methods, of which I shaU treat under their proper 
heads 



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'2Q0 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



PEARCH FISHING. 



In every pond and river of America is this fish found, and none of 
the smaller and less vigorous biters are greater favorites with the 

^°There is, in my opinion, but one distinct species of the Yellow 
Pearch in Ameiica, although there are several strongly-marked but 
I think casual varieties. In the salt-water bays, however, and the 
estuaries of tide rivers, there are two small and distinct species of the 
Bass, the little White Bass, Lahrax Pallidus, and the i^^^dy Bass, 
Labrax Ricfics, both of which are constantly confounded with the 
Pearch, to which they bear a strong resemblance, being members of 
one and the same family, and are called by the New York fishermen 
Sea Pearch, White Pearch, and Salt-water Pearch. 

These brave and hardy little fish run from a few ounces up to a 
quarter, and occasionally half a pound weight, which n,ay be considered 
their maximum. They swim in largo shoals, near the sur ace of the 
water, and are a most delicious fish. The Yellow Pearch is found 
occasionally in company with thorn, although he rather affects fresher 
water, and I have thought that when taken in tide streams he wears a 
greener garb than his ordinary dress. ^ 

The Minnow, the red worm, and at times small Shnmp will take all 
these varieties in the salt water ; and from the very earliest dawn of 
Bprinc to the setting in of severe cold weather, it is rare but the angler 
can fi°nd some sport with these .quick and lively biters 

In almost every lakelet and pond from the sea-board to Lake Huron, 
the Pearch abounds, swimmin,, in company with the MhPonoUs 
Vulgaris, ^nd the New York Shiner, Stilbe Chrysokacas ' they run 
front half a pound up to three, four, and occasionally even five pounds 

""''"^ratoga Lake, the Greenwood Lake, in Orange County, New York, 



o 



:i\\m 



PEARCH FISHING. 



391 



Hopatkong, in Suescx County, New Jersey, Seneca Lake, and the 
Northern tkos, Huron more especially, contain these fish of the 
U;:est size, and in the greatest perfection, but every where they may 

bo cmAt almost at any time. „ , ,. „;,i, « 

ir„ond-a*ia", tUo oommoa ground-worm, on a Aotted Ime m& a 
on Xt ^ P^Aaps tho commonest bait ; in America pastes are bn 
£ LLs U, nor in trntb have , any great ^^^^^^^^^^ 
they are recommended by many good anglers Of late yea, s how 
Ter, I thini they ha,e lost repute. In the days of old Isaac they 
were esteemed almost sovereign. ■ 

The Minnow, Shiner, or small Trout is, in thU country, by all odds, 

.W most takinAait. It should be affixed to the line by one or two 

man h ot Uher through the lip or under the dorsal fin as hghtly 

TpLmc, and being sunk with a shotted gut to withm a foot or so 

of the bottom, should be allowed to swim about at h>s own wdU 

1 do not approve of the frog for Pearch fishmg, although when n 
th humor they will lake this, or indeed almost any 6^^ or rep,^ 
Ta^t The following is Holland's advice as to the mode of fishmg for 
h m and although the English and American speoes are «>s met 
to habits are identical, and the rules laid down below cannot bo 

'ThltuTaTrod will do well for taking Pearch, but a heavy one Is 
n„t";uired. A reel and silk or grass-line with a J»~";- 
gimp, if Pike haunt the same waters, as is apt to be the ease, will 
produce the desired effect. 

' The same tackle and mode of fishing -^l/^P^-^. V^ut'and 
Pickerel, the Pike Pearch, the Rock Bass, and even the Tiout and 
H s h fore well, in Pearch fishing, always to be provided with the 
ta kltnoc sary t secure larger fish than those which you actuaUy 
exptt to take,'and to be prepared and on the look-out that you bo 

^:Zt:^^ to lie by tl. side of the -am, and^d. 
deep banks, or near beds of the water-lily, the eddies at mill-taUs, 

d^u:bli;g bays, near the old piles of -den «ges . old kemp 
sheeting ; the best baits for a Perch are, the Mmnow, the Gudgeon, 
the red worm, and the Brandling. ^, ^ , , ^.v tl.P back 

" A Minnow may bo used by fixing a No 9 hook undei the back 



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AMERICAN FISHKS. 



Ki '( 



fin, or by passing it through his lips, with a cork-float, carrying shot 
according to the depth of the water. You should fish within a few 
inches of°the bottom, and when a fish bites, a little time should be 
given before you strike, as the Pearch is tender-mouthed, and, if not 
well hooked, is apt to break his hold. The paternoster is much used 
for Minnow fishing ; it may be had at all the tackle shops ; it is sun.; 
by a small bullet, and has three hooks at different distances, which 
may be baited in the manner above described ; but my favorite mode 
of Pearch fishing is, by spinning the dead Minnow, which gives me a 
chance, at the same time, of taking Jack and Trout. 

« The Gudgeon or the Bleak may of course be used m the same 
manner when large Pearch are expected. ^ , , 

" In worm-fishing, the Brandling and the red worm are the best ; a 
No 8 or 9 hook may be employed, and the float must be suitable for 
the water. Some anglers prefer roving for Pearch in the following 

manner : , - , j r 

« Use a 1-eel on your rod, and have bottom-tackle of three yards of 
gut, with a hook No. 8 or 9, with one or two shot-corns to sink the 
bait which should be one or two well-scoured red worms, and you 
must then cast your line across the stream, letting it sink, and drawing 
it towards you alternately, till you feel a bite, then allow a few seconds 
before you strike. You may also drop this bait into still, deep holes, 
as in Trout-fishing ; indeed, a practical angler-especially an old 
Trout-fisher-will prefer this mode of worm-fishing to the use of the 

float." , .J u * 

After these apposite instructions there is little more to be said ; but 
I cannot refrain from quoting a few lines in relation to the habits of 
the Yellow Pearch in the West, from the pen of an admirable writer, 
» • • * ♦, who has contributed very largely to our stock of in- 
formation concerning the fishes of the great lakes and Western rivera 
of New York, by his admirable articles formerly published m the 
Buffalo Commercial Advertiser. I shall have occasion to quote from 
him a-ain, in relation to the Black Bass, the Oswego Bass, and the 
Lake °Sheep's.Head, concerning which he has furnished us with tue 
best information that wo possess : 

" In the spring, aa soon as the ice has left the Btrearas, the Pearch 
begins running up our creeks to spawn. IL^ is then caught in them 



I'EARCH FISHING. 



293 



m great plenty. About the middle of May, however, he seems to 
prefer the Niagara's clear current, and almost entirely deserts the 
Tonawanda, and other amber waters. You then find him in the eddi.s, 
on the edge of swift ripples, and often in the swift waters, watchmg 
for the minnow. As the water-weeds increase in height, he ensconces 
himself among them, and, in mid-summer, comes out to seek his prey 
only in the morning and towards night. He seems to delight espe- 
cuVy in a grassy bottom ; and when the black frost has cut down the 
tall water-weeds, and the more delicate herbage that never attams the 
surface is withered, he disappears until spring, probably secludmg 
himself in the depths of the river. 

" The back fin of the Poarch is large, and armed with strong spmes, 
He is bold and ravenous. He will not give way to the Pike or to the 
Black Bass ; and though he may sometimes b; oaten by them, his com- 
rades will retaliate upon tne young of his destroyers. 

" The proper bait for the Pearch is tho Minnow. He will take that 
all seasons. In mid-summer, however, he prefers the worm, at whicn 
he generally bites freely. Uh is often taken with the grub, or with 
small pieces of fish of any kind." 

1 may here observe that the Pearch, like his congeners, the various 
tribes of Bass, will occasionally take the fly, though not so ba\dly or 
freely as to justify its use largely. 






h I 







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AMERICAN FISHES. 



Ill HI 



111 '■'■] 

i, 



^; i 






!l ii 



CARP FISHING. 



This, I confess, I regard as very miserable sport, for though tne 
fish is shy and wary, the difficulty in taking him arises only from his 
timidity and unwillingness to bite, and he is as lazy when hooked as he 

is slow to bite. . , 

His proper haunts are deep, stagnant, slow-flowmg streams, or ponds 
with nmddy bottoms ; and he lies under weeds, and among the stems 
and flat leaves of water-lilies, flags, and marsh-grasses. ^ 

Not indigenous to this country, he has been naturalized m the 
waters of the Hudson, where he is, for the present, protected by 
severe legislative enactments. , • „ 

He will doubtless, ere long, become very plentiful ; and as he is a 
rich fish when cooked sccundv^m artem, and by many esteemed a great 
delicacy, he is likely enough to become a favorite with the angler^^ 

Hofland thus describes the method of baiting the ground and fishing 
for Carp in England, and his directions are the best 1 have seen; they 
raay by followed with implicit confidence : '.,.,« 

" In rivers, the Carp prefer those parts where the current is not too 
strong, and where the bottom is marly, or muddy ; and in lakes or 
ponds are to be found near beds of water-lilies, and other aquatic 
plants. Old Carp are very crafty and wary, and wdl no easily be 
Lken by the angler ; but young ones, when a pond is well stocked, 
mav be easily taken in great quantities. 

'^Notwithstanding these instances of familiarity, it is by no means 
easy to make a large Carp familiar with your bait: to do this, the 
Litest nicety and caution must be observed ; but if the young ang er, 
wh" has been'often foiled in his attempts, will patiently and implicitly 
follow my instructions, he will become a match for this cunning fish^ 
« Use a strong rod with running-tackle, and have a bottom of 
three yards of fineish gut, and a hook No. 9 or 10 ; use a very light 



CARP FISHING. 



295 



qum-float, that will carry two small shot, and bait with a well-scoured 

red worm. 

" Now plumb the depth with the greatest nicety, and let your bait 
just touch, or all but touch, the bottom ; but you are not yet pre- 
pared ; for a forked stick must be fixed into the bank, on which you 
must let your rod rest, so that the float will fall over the exact spot 
you have plumbed. Now throw in a sufficient quantity of ground- 
bait, of bread and brand worked into a paste, and made into little 
balls ; or, in want of these, throw in the garbage of chickens or ducks ; 
and all this is to be done on the evening of the day before you intend 

to fish. 

" The next morning, if in summer, be at the pond-side where you 
have baited and plumbed your depth, by four o'clock at least, and, 
taking your rod and line, which is already fixed to the exact depth, 
bait with a small, bright, red worm ; then approach the water cau- 
tiously, keeping out of sight as much as possible, and drop your bait 
exactly over the spot you plumbed over night ; then rest part of your 
rod on the forked stick, and the bottom of ic on the ground. 

" You must now retire a few paces, keeping entu-ely out of sight, 
but still near enough to observe your float ; when you perceive a bite, 
give a little time ; indeed, it is better to wait till you see the float 
begin to move off, before you strike, which you may then do smartly ; 
and, as the Carp is a leather-mouthed ilsh, if you manage him well, 
there is no fear of losing him, unless the pond is very weedy. Be 
careful to have your line free, that, if a large fish, he may run out 
some of your line before you attempt to turn him ; as he is a very 
strong fish, and your tackle rather light, you must give him careful 
play before you land him. 

" The extreme shyness of the large Carp make all this somewhat 
tedious process necessary to ensure success ; but 1 can safely assert, 
that I scarcely ever took this trouble in vain. Various baits are 
recommended for Carp— such as green peas, parboiled, pastes of all 
descriptions, gentles, caterpillars, &c. ; but I have found the red worm 
the best, and next to this, the gentle, and plain bread-paste. Those 
who prefer a sweet paste may dip the bread in honey. Paste and 
gentle will answer better in autumn than spring. April and May are, 
in my opinion, the best months for Carp fishing ; and very early in 









ITS 



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296 



AMEKiCAN FISHES. 



Hli 



the morning, or lato in the evening, is tho best time for pursuing yom 

'^ The above mode of baiting bottom grounds, and of fishing with the 
worm, in all its particulars, may bo pursued with perfoet success m 
all ponds and slow-running streams, for all the many species of the 
Carp family, which are, for the most part, the least carmvorous of 
fishes, and consequently the most difficult to allure, as the Bream, 
Roach, Dace, Chub, and Shiner, as they are provmcially termed, 
though by no means identical with the European fishes of the same 
nam^s. The Suckers, Cata^to^xi, a sub-genus of the same family, 
will hardly take any bait whatsoever. 

While fishing, as above described, both small river Pearch and Eels 
of all sizes are likely to be hooked, as the baited bottom-ground allures 
all those species which seek their feed at the bottom to its vicmity 







STRIPED BASS FISHING. 



297 



STRIPED BASS FISHING. 



With the sole exception of Salmon fishing, this is the finest of tne 
seaboard varieties of piscatorial sport. The Striped Bass is the bold- 
est, bravest, strongest, and most active fish that visits the waters of 
the midland States, and is, as I have before observed, to be surpassed 

only by the Salmon. 

Everywhere, from the capes of the Chesapeake to the St. Lawrence, 
they run up the rivers to spawn it. the early spring, and shelter them- 
selves in the shallow lagoons within the outer bars during the winter. 

Everywhere they are fished for eagerly, and esteemed alike a prize 
by the angler and the epicure. 

In every manner they are fished for with success, and with almost 

every bait. 

The fly will take them brilliantly, and at the end of three hundred 
yards of Salmon-line a twelve pound Bass will be found quite sufficient 
to keep even the most skilful angler's hands as full as he can possibly 

desire. 

The fly to be used is any of the large Salmon-flies, the larger and 
gaudier the better. 'None is more taking than an orange body with 
poacock and blue-jay wings and black hackle legs ; but any of the 
well-known Salmon flies will secure him, as will the scarlet-bodied fly 
with scarlet-ibis and silver-pheasant wings which is so killing to the 
Black Bass of the lakes. 

With the fly, he is to be fished for with the double-handed rod, pre- 
cisely as the Salmon ; and when hooked, though he has not all the 
artifice and resource of that monarch of the deep, he is hardly inferior 
to him in agility, strength, and vigor of resistance. 

It is singular that more recourse is not had to this mode of taking 
him, as in waters where the Salmon is not, there is no sport equal to it. 

Those who try this method will not, I dare to assert, regret the 
20 



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11! :ii 



298 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



trial; th.y muBt, ho«v=r, fish from a boat, as the "A'' «' *" 
.troam, which Ba» frequent do not permit them to be eo.nmanded 
from the shores, even with the double-handed rod. 

Again, the Striped Bass may be caught either w.th the Sorgf-'""'* 
and he iroUing tackle described under the head "/ /'"-f*'""; 

with the spinning-fish and swivel-traces «™»-"<l»Vir'h N « 
Salmon. Almost any small fi»h will answer for the bart, but the t^cw 
York Shiner, the real Smelt, or the Atherme-«(«s Sand Sme t or 
Spearlin"-cspecially the latter, will the most read.ly allure h„n 
^hUmcthod of fishi'ng, second only to the use of t e fly ,s he mo. 
exciting, as it requires finer tackle, and consequently eal , forth far 
more °M1, than I ordinary modes of fishing for him at the botton. 
For boat fishing, a strong ash or hickory, and lance-wood, rod, w.th 
patent guides and the new agate funnel-top, wh.ch can be procured a. 
Conroyt, and is one of the most perfect nuprovements of the day 
■ with a SalmOB-reel and two hundred yards of silk or grass Imc, vnl b 
found the best ; of course, for Salmon-fishing, the ha,r and sdk Imc 
takes the precedence of all others. A rod of twelve or fo-'-" ' ! 
will suffice from a boat, but for bank or bridge fishmg one of about 
eighteen feet is preferred by the best fishers. 

Comparatively few persons troll for Bass as described abovxi ; for, 
in fact, the great majority, even of our good fishermen are ,n some 
It Dot-anders, and prefer taking monstrous giants of the water w. h 
irlckt to the L greater excitement of skilfuHy and deUea. y 
conquering a moderate-si.ed fish with the finest tackle, lie Stuped 
bZ, it is said, is known to attain the weight of a hundred pounds -, 
but ueh giants are rare, though up to forty or fifty pounds they are 
no rarities. The largest fch are taken in deep, rapid fde-ways, such 
as Hellgate or the Haerlcm river, by trolling from the stern of a row- 
boat wil a strong hand-line and a large hook baited w th that h.deous 
preine reptile, or insect rather, the real squid, or w.th the art.fioal 
™Xf tin or pewter. A good deal of skill is required for th.s mode 
of fishing, but yet more strength than skill, and it is a very weansomo 

' mI more fatiguing is the exercise of squidding for them wiU. «.o 
artificial bait in the ocean surfs of the outer beaches, m which the tod 
of throwing out and dragging in the squid becomes a real labor 



STRIPED UAS8 FIsniNO. 



299 



Neither of these methods, any more than taking them on sct-linea 
baited with Spoarling or Tom-Cod, as is very successfully practised in 
the Hudson, do I regard as legitimate or honest fishing ; and they are 
resorted to rather by the professional fisherman than by the amateur 

for sport. 1 c u 

Nor can I say that I look with much sympathy on those who hsh 
for them as is the usual practice at Macomb's dam. King's bridge, or 
BclleviUe hridgo on the Passaic, and similar places, with floats 
and sinkers and the bottom baits ; though I confess that the size and 
vigor of the fish when hooked, render this the finest of all the kmds 

of bait-fishing. 

The rule is, to fish as near the bottom as possible, with a smker 
light enough to move with the tide. The hook should be large, and 
I believe the Kirby form is generally preferred to the Limerick. Some 
anglers recommend the use of double, others of single gut; and some 
fish with, others without the float ; both plans have their own advan- 
tages, and probably there is little difference in reality between the 

two. „ , 

In rivers frequented by Shad, the Shad-roe, either fresh, or preserv- 
ed and potted, as described above in reference to Salmon, is the most 
killing bait that can be used in the Spring-time, and is especially the 
favorite bait of the Passaic anglers at the Belleville bridge and the 
reefs near Acquackanonck I have no doubt of its success in the 
upper Delaware so high as Milford, where the Bass, there called 
Rock-Fish, is taken of rare excellence. In tide-ways it is obviously 
useless, since the Shad never spawn in such places, and as animals in 
a state of nature feed naturally, the Bass never looks for, nor will 
take, such a bait, except in spots where it abounds naturally. 

The Bass may be fished for with success from early in April, some- 
times even in March, until lato in October and September. On his 
first appearance, and up to the latter part of June, the shrimp is the 
best bait ; and it should be used with a float, suspended at ten or eleven 
inches distant from the bottom. From June, throughout the summer 
the shedder crab attracts the Striped Bass rather than any other bait 
A sliding sinker should be used in this instance, which rests on the 
ground, "and allows the crab to move on the bottom. No float is re- 
quired for this method. 






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400 



AMERICAN FISHKS 



So soon 03 tho soaaon is so far advanced that tho shodder has re- 
covered his scaly panoply, which sets his enemies' assaults at defiance 
the shrimp agaiti comes into play, and, with the various kinds of s.nall 
Balt-watcr fishes, constitutes the best river baits. ^ ,„ , „. , 

For boat ashinj? in tho bay, with sinkers-as for tho Weak-twh, 
ICin. Fish, and others, among which the Striped Bass is taken the 
Boftdam is tho favorite appliance ; and for this kind of sport full and 
«oapt tides, and a wind off shore, arc the best periods. 

In killing the Bass, after he is hooked, great skill, great persever- 
ance, and incessant vigilance are necessary. It \b a sine quan^ to 
keep him up, frastrating his efforts to rush to the bottom, and to hold 
him ever in hand, with a taut line, ceding nothing to his wildest 
efforts, except on absolute compulsion. 

Excellent tackle is requisite, and to preserve it excellent, constant 
attention to it must b^ had, or all will be in vain. Nothing is more 
provokin.^ than to lose a fine fish, well played, and perhaps all but 
killed, owing to some .slight i.nperfection in the gut bottom or the 
arming of the hooks, which care, before coming to the water a edge, 
would°have easily and .surely prevented. 

Whether the Striped Bass has ever been killed by the fatal spoon, 
I know not ; but I cannot doubt that it would be found nearly as effec- 
tive as with its congener, the splendid Black Bass of the St. Lawrence, 
to which I shall now proceed. 




BLACK BASS FISHINO 



30 1 



I f 



fkl 



BLACK BASS FISHING 

IN THE 8T. LAWRENCE. 



From the Files of the Buffalo Commercid I borrow the fol owing 
description of the habits, haunts, and modes of taking the Black and 
Oswo.0 Bass-if different they be, as I boliavo thoy arc m the Niagara 
rivor° It is by the same distinguished sportsman and sound naturalist 
to whom 1 have before alluded in my article on the Pearch 

I prefer quoting hi.n to writing of this fish rnys.lf ; as although not 
unacquainted with his habits, 1 have nover yet myself enjoyed he 
pleasure of catching him cither with the fly, the spoon, or th. 

'^ « The Oswego Baas and Black Bass bear so strong a resemblance to 
each other, that not one fisherman in ten knows them as distmct en- 
titles. In form, color, weight, and habits, the two are almost per- 
fcctly identical ; and yet their differences, though minute are striking 
and essential. An Oswego Ba.a, when placed by a Black Bass of the 
same size, is readily distinguished by his more forked tad, his grea er 
thickness of shoulder, his coarser scales, and, above f ^^^^ ™;^*^' 
which, when open, is nearly twice as large as that of the B^ack Bass. 
In LakrOntarL, the Oswego Bass is abundant, and the Black Bass 
comparatively rare. In Lake Erie, the Black Bass great y predomi- 
nates, and it may be doubted whether the Oswegonian-like certain 
citizens of the Ontario shore-is not an interloper m our waters, who 
has found his way to us from below, through some canal. However 
this may be, he is certainly right welcome! 

« The Black Bass is our chief object of pursuit-his capture is our 
dearest triumph-his captive form our proudest trophy. When word 
first comes, in June, that the Black Bass bites in our "ver^ what a 
atir there is among our anglers !-what questionmg as to the when, 



'1,1 



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.'102 



AMERICACf F1SHE5 



.„d the whore, and by wh»m, aud wUh what hait, and «« numW 

tnd s« '-what an anxious inquiry after b.g minnows !-wha a rat 

^tZ serapin. of pond-holes for soft lobsters !-what a watehmg of 

2 tJ°-U it Aero be no wind, or a zephyr from the south or 
the sties . an , ^^^^ „, ^ 

e IroTa less easy task, and involves, or is supposed tomvolve 
capture IS j ^^^.^ ^^ _^_^ ,^^^ jhan any 

Xtfi^tif r'streams and rivers, and probably, too, on 
,,e ba : and shoals of our bay. Numbers run up 'Hjl-^or s ream 
in Mav and bite freely at the worm, in the middle and latt.r part ot 
thar^ntt in the Tonawanda. His appearanee is 00 familiar to 
t, "Lri tion. His eolor varies, though it ^enen^Uy appro^h. 
W,.k I thinit only the smaller Bass runup the ereeks. Thos taken 
rxonall sTl/om overweigh two or 'wo and a half pounds an 
have a^roenish hue. In the river they attain a weight of four and four 

general eolor ot the fish a n. o ^^^ .^ 

hook, in the Niagara, untd June. He is always 

fattest and best i- a^^m-" „ ;„ ,^, ^^^ „,y, and with 

" Ho IS angled for, ^J' »-^7 '^ gass or Salmon ; and 

munication : 



if 



BLACK BASS FISHING. 



303 



« < This is a gamo fish, affording tho angler the V3ry liighcst enjoy 
ment. Thesa fish are taksn in various ways. Whon collected on 
their feeding grounds, in August and the succeeding fall months, 
th-y are sometimes taken in considerable numbers. The usual mode 
of an-lin- for them at this time, is either with or without a float, 
and with livo bait-a small fish taken for the purpos3, along the lake 
shores or in brooks. They are exooedingly strong and active- 
qualities which delight the angler. When first hooked, they run 
v^ry wild, and almost invariably rise to the surface, and leap one, 
two and even three feet in the air, shaking the head violently, evi- 
dmtly with a view to dislodge the fatal hook. Frequently, while 
makincr their runs, they will suddenly turn and come with all their 
power°directly towards their enemy, and by thus slacking the Ime, 
will succeed in shaking the hook loose : this often happens with m- 
experienced fishermen, but more rarely with the angler who holds a 
good reel and winds rapidly. The most beautiful mode of angling 
for them known, is trolling, either with live bait or an artificial fly 
of large size and gay appearance. The writer has succeeded re- 
markably well with a fly made on a large-sized Limerick hook, such 
as are used for Striped Bass when fishing with crab bait. The fly 
is made as Mlows :-Body of a peacock feather, wings of bright 
scarlet kerseymere and white pigeon feathers ; or, the feather strip- 
ped from a white goose-quill, and wound round like the hackle, and 
surmounted with thin strips of scarlet forwings. For trolling plea- 
santly and comfortably, the angler should provide a moveable seat, 
which he can place across the gunwale of his boat, in order that he 
may sit with his back to the oarsman, and facing the stern. Thua 
he will have full command of his rod and line, and not be sitting 
in the cramping attitude which the lowness of the seats would cause. 
He should reel off fifty to sixty, or even one hundred or more feet 
of line, and in going over shallow reefs of seven or eight feet depth, 
two hundred feet, as the fish feeding on the reefs usually dart aside as 
the boat passes, and do not return immediately to their harboring spot, 
which is one reason why those who do not use the reel are not as suc- 
cessful as those who employ it. After a few moments they glide back 
to their favorite spot, and as the fly comes along, dart at and seize it. 
A strong tug is felt by the angler, who has only to draw gently, and 



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304 



AMERICAN FISUHS. 



his prey ia fastened. The oarsman rests on his oars, to give the 
an/er full command of his line. The noble fish, a tor one or two 
runs to right and left, suddenly rises and makes his splendid leap, and 
plun^in., again seeks the bottom, again rises, and then tries his last 
LeHmcnt of dashing right towards the boat. He struggles long and 
vigorously, but his strength is at last exhausted, and you trail your un- 
resisting captive to the landing net. I have taken them of various 
weights" the largest weighing five pounds nine ounces : this was done 
last%u;mer, 1844, in Lake George. I believe they are sometimes 
taken much higher in the St. Lawrence river, and upper lakes ; but 
xny acquaintance with them is limited to the beautiful lake just ment- 

'''''' At SherriU's capital hotel at Caldwell, every facility for enjoying 
this delightful sport can be had, though the best fishing grounds aro 

down the lake. ., 

« An excellent house is kept by Mr. Garfield, twenty-two miles 
down the lake, where the best fishing stations for the Salmon Trout 
are situated. There is a good deal of fine ground for the Bass m the 

neighborhood. „ , .1 t^t 

^ About ten miles from Caldwell, there is a place called the Narrows, 
where there are numerous small islands, with shelving rocky shores, 

and fine trolling ground. , «, v„ 

' An^rlers will find good plain accommodation at a house kept by 

Mr. Lyman, who is very kind and attentive to his guests, and furnishes 

baits, guides, &c. 

' In trolling for the Black Bass in Lake George, you will fre- 
uucntly strike those of one-half to three-fourths pound weight, even 
with the very large fly which 1 have described. There is so great a 
difference, both in shape and color, between the fish of this size and 
those of two or more pounds weight, that a stranger would never take 
thorn to be of the same species. These small fish are very similar in 
shape to the Blue-Fish of the salt-water, while those of the larger size 
spread in width as they increase in size, so that a fish of two and a 
half to three pounds, is of a shape between a Black-fish, or Tautog, 
and the famous Sheep's-Head. In color they differ also greatly ; the 
small Bass being of a light dull greenish color, while the larger grow 
d.arkor as thov increase in size, the largest being nearly black on the 



BLACK BASS FISHING. 



305 



back, and of a very dark brownish green on the sides. The younger 
ccntiT, above described, are not to be despised on account of their 
size for wttcn taken with a light Trout-rod, they will be found to be 
a fine vigorous fish ; and when in their temerity they seize the largo 
fly on fueling the hook, they will, true to their nature, make the leap, 
in imitation of their sires, thus showing themselves to be game fish. 
1 have known them to leap three times while reeling in the long ^trol- 
linff line, whereas the larger gentry rarely leap more than once.' " 
In addition to this I will only add-for all that is said here is correct 
• and clear— that in the St. Lawrence, among the Thousand Islands, this 
admirable fish is taken in unequalled numbers, and of unrivalled 
excellence That in the Black river they are likewise very abundant, 
and rise in it very freely to any gaudy fly. A friend of my own has 
killed many of this fine Bass with a large red hackle, with a gold tinsel 
body, and also with a green-tailed grannam. The best fly, however, is 
decidedly one manufactured by Conroy, after the colors of that de- 
scribed in the above quotation, with a scarlet chenil body, binder wings 
of the red ibis, and upper wings of silver pheasant ; this will be found 

unfailing. - i j it, 

A singular fact, which obviously, though oddly enough, escaped the 
observation of my friend at Buffalo, is that at the first appearance of the 
Black Bass at the mouth of the Niagara, say in the latter part of May, 
the fish all lie around a reef on the Fort Niagara- or Amcrican- 
sido of the river, not one being ever, at that period, taken on the 
Canadian reef opposite. After about six weeks' residence, however, 
they change sides, and cross over, deserting the American shore alto- 
gether, and being taken only on the Canadian side. 

The New York Shiner is there esteemed the best bait, and with it, 
in last May, an officer and three men in H. M. service, caught in a 
few hours enough of these fish to load two strong men to their heart's 

content. j j i 

The small Rock Bass of the lakes is taken off the wharfs and docks 

on all the same waters, from Kingston to Lake Superior, with the 

Minnow or small Shiner, though rarely with the fly. It is a good 

fish, but rarely exceeds a pound in weight. 

From tho first writer I here quote a few lines concerning the Lake 

Sheep's-T-L'acl, Corvina Oscula. to which I have alluded before, Mit 






.^ mT 



306 



AMERICAN FISHES 



iJiJi 



which must not be confounded with the Malashcganay— or Black 
Sheep's-Hcad, Corm^i EicAflrrfsowii, a congenerous fish, taken nearly 
in the same waters, and with the same bait— any, to wit, of the fresh- 
water Molluscas, and, above all, with the Cray-Fish— which ia as ex- 
cellent as this other is abominable on the table : 

" This is a villain in general estimation— the pest of the fisher for 
Bass— a fish that putteth the cook, who would render him acceptable 
at table, in a quandary— from which, I am sorry to say, I cannot re- 
lieve her, though she be at her wit's end. 

" He is generally brown, gray or reddish above, and of a dead, im- 
pure white below. His head is large, and his body is flattened latterly, 
though the frying-pan rejecteth him. His ordinary weight is two or 
three pounds, though he sometimes weighs five, and even six. His 
food, his haunts, his habits, are similar to those of the Black Bass, 
whom he ever accompanieth, as though he were intended by nature as 
a foil to set oif the merits of that jewel of the flood. He is despised, 
yea, detested, by the choleric angler, who pulls him out, and then 
dasheth him upon the stones. 

" The Sheep's-Head of the sea is a lusty, crafty fish, bepraiscd alike 
by the fisherman and the epicure. At the turn of the tide, he takes 
the whole soft clam on your hook at a mouthful, and chews it, shell 
and all, and pulls like a Salmon as you draw him in ; and his radiant, 
deep and broad-barred sidcs-as he flaps about on the sand of that 
low islet in the great south bay of Long Island, to which you have just 
hauled him— how brilliantly they show, and make you think of the 
dying Dolphin, and of old Arion ! And when he reposes at the head 
of th^'e table— fit place for him— beautiful, though boiled, how heartfelt 
is the homage he receives from all around ! Truly, it is libel on him, 
\a call by the same name this Paria of the lakes. 

" And yet our fish is vigorous, and not altogether destitute of beauty, 
to the eye at least of those who know him not. Is it not chronicled, 
that at kack-Rock, a strange angler once bartered away two noble 
Bass for two large SheepVHeads, which, for the nonce, wore called 
White Bass .' ' The freckled toad, ugly and venomous, wears yet a 
precious jewel in his head'— and our fish, in his clumsy cranium, 
wears two small loose bones, serrate, and white and polished, which 
must have some use to him, some wondrous adaptation to his mode of 



BLACK BASS FISHINa. 



307 



life wWcb, when unfolded, will prove that he is not unregarded by 
Him who made the great whales and the fishes of the sea. 

" His mouth is paved with large, flat, rough hones, or teeth, like 
those of the sea fishes that root up and devour the hardest testace.«; 
and I have little doubt but that the naturalist who watches him 
narrowly will one of these days detect him crushing and consuming 
the Uni'and Anadontaa-the fresh clams of our muddy flats and 

sandy bars. , 

" He bites at the worm, the Minnow, the Chub, the Lobster, and 
makes good play with the line, though he gives in more quickly than 
the Bass An experienced angler can generally distinguish his bite 
and his resistance— but the most knowing ones are sometunes taken 
in, and think him Bass until he is fairly brought to view. 

" When you have caught him, let any oue who will accept him 
have him; and take to thyself no merit for the gift. His meat is 
more like leather than fish or flesh. It is a common saying, that the 
more you cook him the tougher he becomes ; and I am not aware that 
ho is ever caton raw. But, some people do eat him, and profess to 
like him ; they must have stupendous powers of mastication and diges- 
tion. I have been told that, roasted whoie in the ashes, just as he 
comes from the water, he is savory and tender— sci credai Judmis ! 
I once did eat him, prepared as follows :— he was split through the 
back, put upon the gridiron, there grilicU enough to cook a side of 
pork ; his flesh was removed from the skm, boned, chopped up into 
dice, probably with a cleaver, and stowed with milk, butter, pepper 
and salt. 1 must say that, though it was mpot of great tenacity, and 
might well be likened unto India-^rubbor ^t had much sweetness " 



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80B 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



EEL FISHING AND TRIMMERS. 



With regard to the Eel, if I consulted my own tastes only, 1 should 
remain in utter silence, holding them totally below the contempt of 
the angler, although en matdotte, or a la tartare, on the table they 
certainly are not despicable ; there arc, however, those who probably 
think otherwise, and who would regard it as an omission, perhaps a 
slight, if I were to pass over their favorite wriggling reptile. I there- • 
fore quote from Hofland's British Angler the following, which com- 
prises all that can be said on the subject, and is no less applicable to 
the Eel of America, than to that of Great Britain : 

" To angle for Eels, use a strong gut line, with a light float, and 
No. 9 hook, and bait with a large red worm ; or use a No. 6 hook, 
and bait with a marsh-worm, and let your bait touch the bottom ; but 
the most alluring bait I know of for an Eel is, Salmon-roe ; and when 
fishing for Trout with this bait, the angler will frequently take Eels, 
much to his annoyance, if, like myself, he detests their dirty slime, 
and serpent-like writhings. I shall say nothing of bobbing for Ko\s, 
or of sniggling, as they are practices below the angler ; but as the 
largest Eels are caught by night-lines, and this method is a necessary 
resort for the supply of the table, I shall give the instructions of 
Daniel on this point. 

"*It is of little consequence where they — i. e. night-lines — arc 
laid, as they will succeed in streams, when the Eels are in search of 
food, as well as in the still, deep holes of rivers ; and they will take 
frogs, black snails, worms, Roach, Dace, Gudgeons, Minnows— which 
two last are the best— Loaches, Bleaks, and Millers' thumbs ;' a suffi- 
3ient quantity of links, of twelve hairs, should be doubled— or use 
twisted gut, and a hook tied to each Unk ; these are to be noosed, at 
proper distances, to a piece of cord fifteen feet long ; bait the hooks 
by making an incision with the baiting-needle under the shoulder, and 



thrusting it out at the middle of t 



.he tail, drawing the link after it ; the 



EEL FISHING AND TRIMMERS. 



309 



point of the hook should bo upright towards tho back of the bait- 
fish • fasten one end to tho bank, or a stub, and cast the other into 
the water, but not to the extent of the line, as Eels will run a little 
before the gorge ; the lines should be taken up early in the morning ; 
such of the lines as have Eels at them will be drawn very tight. 
Dark nights in July, August, and September, are the best for this 

kind of fishing.' 

" Hooks proper for this method of taking Eels may be purchased, 
either double or single, and are called Eel-hooks. When a double 
hook is used, I should say the following mode of baiting is better 
than Mr Daniel's. Without a baiting-needle, enter the point at the 
fish's mouth, and bring it out at the tail, letting the two hooks lie 
close to the mouth of the bait, as described in baiting the gorge-hook 

for trolling. , x i v 

" Trimmers, baited with a live Gudgeon, are sure to be taken by 
Eels The wire to which hooks are fixed should be strong and well 
tempered, as the Eel struggles hard to free himself. Very large Eels 
are caught in the lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland, by trim- 
mers, b°aitod with small Trout or Pearch-there called Bass-with 
the back fin cut off. On Derwontwater-Keswick lakc-it is a com- 
mon practice for parties to engage a fisherman, who provides twenty 
or thirty trimmers ; the tops being painted bright red and white, that 
they may be seen at a distance. The party should be m the boat by 
four o'clock, A. M., at the latest ; the fisherman then baits the trim- 
mers with live Bass, small Trout, or Minnows, and places them at 
equal distances across the lake, spreading to the extent of from half 
to three-quarters of a mile ; and if there are two or three boats 
belonging to the party, and the Pike and Eels are on the feed, the 
great diversion is to see the trimmers carried off by fish, in different 
directions at the same time, when all becomes animation and exertion 
in the different boats; all rowing towards the tHmmers, and eager to 
seize on their prey ; and very large Pike and Eels are often caught 
in this manner." 








A— -. V 



^ X 'A •'• •» 



flIO 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



SHOAL-WATER SEA FISHING, 



This sport, which is pursued with great eagerness by many of our 
city anglers, has for its scene the various channels, bays, shoals, reefs 
and mud-flats of our harbors, the great land-locked lagoons along our 
coasts, and many places in the East river, and Long Island, as well as 
in the estuaries of all the larger rivers from the capes of the Chesa- 
peake to Massachusetts Bay. 

It is pursued in boats, which are rowed from spot to spot, and 
anchored over the various reefs and shoals, or in the vicinity of sunken 
reefs, about which these fish are supposed to abound, according to the 
state and variation of the tides. The fish usually taken are the Sque- 
teague or Weak-Fish, the Barb, or King-Fish, the Tautog or Black- 
Fish, the Striped Bass, the Sea Bass occasionally, the Sheep's-Head, 
the Big Porgee, and soraetunes the Drum. 

For the Sea Bass, however, and the Porgee, longer excursions are 
generally necessary, as the best fishing for these is on the outer sea- 
banks, in the Atlantic, whither steamers and sloops occasionally pro- 
ceod with companies for a day's amusement. In these, however, there 
is most frequently more fun than fishing, although sometimes very 
good sport is had, and greater quantities of fish taken. 

For Sheep's-Head, again, boats are generally fitted out expressly, as 
this large powerful fish and heavy biter requires stronger tackle than 
is needed in the capture of any of thj other species. 

The ordinary booty, therefore, of the shoal-water sea angler, is con- 
fined, nine times out of ten, to the Weak-Fish, the King-Fish, the Stri- 
ped Bass, and sometimes the Black-Fish, although this latter differs 
somewhat from the others in his accustomed haunts; and for these, 
all of which may be taken with the same tackle, and nearly with the 
eame baits, he constantly goes prepared. 

The best localities for this sport are so numerous, and so well known 



BHOAL-WATER SEA FISHING 



311 



to the guides and professional fishermen of every neighborhood, that it 
is needless to enter into a particular narrative of their whereabouts, 
since it is very littli likely that a stranger would attempt to find them 
unassisted by a guide, and to the practised and experienced angler of 
each region, they are of course well known. 




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;u3 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



THE WEAK-FISH 



The Weak-Fish is a very abundant species in the vicinity of New 
York, and is angled for with much success in almost all parts of tho 
inner bay. The name is said to be derived from tho weak mouth of 
the fish, which is so soft that it very frequently is torn by the hook, 
and 80 allows the fish to escape. It pulls fairly upon the hook, and 
when struck of a considerable size, gives considerable play to tho 
an*Tler before he can bo secured. 

Many persons fish for this species, and the others which haunt the 
same grounds, with the drop-line, but this b a poor and unexcitmg 
sport, as compared with the use of the rod and reel. 

The best rod is a moderately stiff general fishing-rod, with a reel, 
and from one hundred to one hundred and fifty yards of flax or hemp 
line • a No. 1 Kirby hook will probably be found, on the whole, tho 
most successful ; and the most killing baits arc shrimp, shedder-crabs, 
or clams The Weak-Fish occasionally runs up to eight or nine lbs. 
weight, but the general average does not probably exceed two. When 
quite fresh out of the water, the Squeteague is a very tolerable fish 
not a little resembling the Trout in flavor, but it very soon becomes 
soft and flaccid. It is by no means so game or so good a fish, when 
taken, as the Striped Bass or the King-Fish, yet it is not without many 
votaries who pursue it with ardor. ^ .•, r^ j 

Immediately around the Battery, and even from the Castle Garden 
bridge, good sport is frequently had with this fi.sh, as also on the flats 
off Communipaw, in Buttermilk Channel, off the Owl's-Head, as well 
as at Bergen Point, Elizabethtown Point, and many other places, both 
in the Kills, and in Newark Bay. It is said that the afternoon tides 
are the most favorable for taking the Squeteague, until a short time 
before sun-set, but that so soon ^ the peculiar drumming or croakmg 
sound, which is ascribed to this fish, is heard, it is useless to fish 



1 »»« no lio fliAii nnasea to bite. 






THE BARB, OR KINO-FISH 



313 



THE BARB, OR KING-FISH. 



This is, in all respects, a better and finer fish, both for the captor 
or the epicure, than the last. 

He is with us, at New York, a summer fish of passage, and is, it is* 
much to be lamented, becoming yearly more and more rare. 

In Mr. Brown's \merican Angler's Guide, it is stated that, " As a 
game fish, he is considered as giving more real sport than the Trout, 
Bass, or Salmon. His name and whereabouts has only to be whispered 
to the New York angler, and he is off after sport that he has perhaps 
anticipated for years." 

Now, to this I must record my positive dissent; for, though it may 
be, and is, very true that the King-Fish is a great favorite with the 
New York angler, that he is a game fish, biting briskly in those sea- 
sons when he is found abundantly in these waters, and offering resist- 
ance both longer and stronger than any other small salt-water fish- 
still no one— except those jelly old codgers who consiilor patience 
demonstrated by sitting still in an anchored boat, and comfort evi- 
denced by the consolation of the inner-man with beef sandwiches and 
cold brandy-and-water — would dream of considering it better sport to 
sit for hours, between Black Tom and the Jersey shore, with no hope 
save that of hooking a little fish, which rarely exceeds two pounds in 
weight, with a bottom bait and strong ground tackle, than to hook a 
twenty-pound Salmon with a fly on the surface, and to play him for 
an hour before he can be gaffed. 

The one sport requires luck and patience — the other skill, hardi- 
hood, endurance, courage, long experience, quick eye, stout heart, 
Beet foot, and ready hand. How, then, shall these sports be com- 
pared ? 

I do not desire, however, to discredit the King-Fish ; nor does he 
21 



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314 



AMERICAN FlbUliS- 



■„, „„y„Uo dc»crv. it, «, both for dur.nle vM and ,o^-«orlm ex 

t:- • ':;f:::jt°::o:':.., .uh *„ .a „„a ta^. w.. a. 

,crib.a .ndcr the hoad of the S,uotoa,,uo, or Woak-FM., oxcopt that 

rlLtotu «I.ou.a bo »..a,t„o ,„o„th of the K.n«-Hsh bo.„, 

'-"■ T1.0 best bait '» *« *"f J"^t,„, .„ ,,„ „„„,a,.ratio„ of 

,„ „ f»;-7°;7^ „" rCf ; 'ed - aneoaoto,publi.hoai„ 

M it »t J i„ tbo An,o,.icao An.lor. Cuido, tbat two„ty or th.rt, 

a„a Roinss of all .uis'-afry =■""""'= »" °'°"' 

migratory flsbo». ^f^^^^f "^ ^ ,,,, f„ ,„,, far botwoon. Tbo 

Th.r '-^ - ^" ;B,„,'Fisl, nay, o.c. tho,c scaly en,- 
King-lMsh, tbo Latajctto, disappear 

'°"'? r :r;::faftt an Itn^:, U perbapl tban Jacob. 

turning in nu,„bor. i""™''; "''''•■ ^ p„i„t to Jcr.=y City, 

I. New y-.""!'^' *\ n, "b" r t called Black Ton,, and 
within tho fortified islands, a.nj the Dl Kin-Fish. Bat 

'^'rtr::°J^°>^^^^^^^'- >„ the 

in the Passaic bay, ana on ambers. 

.agoons of Lon. '*f >;^::; ' *" -f pre, and remain . 

Mav they soon return to us as y 

togasitlitethtbcm. They shall be welcome. 



i^- 



THC SEA BASS. 



310 



em ex 

jrc do- 
pt that 
I being 

ition of 
shed in 
ling tho 
y and a 
; and 1 
)r thirty 

qualkd ; 
days the 
kills his 

comings 
those of 

• 

^n. The 
scaly CU9- 
disappear 
tn Jacob's 
crs by re- 

■rsoy City, 
Tom, and 
^ish. But 
Iso in the 
crs. 
remain a" 



THE SEA BASS. 



The Sea Bass is another gentleman among his finny comrades, and 
he is sometimes taken by tho rod-fisher whilo angling for tho Squo- 
teaque, or King-Fish. He is, however, difficult so to kill, and is com- 
parativcly rare in the inner waters. 

On tho sea banks without Sandy Hook, in tho lower bay, and in the 
Sound, he is very abundant, and affords great sport to those who are 
sati.sfii;d with quick biting and continual hauling in. 

Both for the Bass and tho Big Porgee, stout hempen or flaxen drop- 
lines are tho most successful, varying from t.>n to twenty-five fathoms 
in length, fitted with a single sinker of a pound weight, and three or 
four hooks on separate snoods, eighteen inches asunder, of various 
sizes, for various species of fish. 

For Porgees, the No. 3, round Black-Fish-hook, is preferred ; for 
Sea Bass, No. 1 or 2, Kirby. The only bait is tho clam, and it is 
desirable to salt him for a day, which, hardening the flesh, renders it 
more difficult for the fish to abstract him. 

No skill is required for this mode of fishing, except that of keeping 
one's wits about him, striking very sharply the instant he feels a bite, 
and hauling in rapidly with a taut line ; for, if a slack occurs, the fish 
will often disengage themselves. 

Many people are very fond of this sport, but I hold it, after all, but 
heavy work, not the less so for being considerably laborious, and for 
the fact that hauling in the small, cutting line, hand over hand, and 
the salt-water, are apt to make the fingers exceeding sore, if gloveless ; 
and to use gloves in angling, would be something like donning the 
upper Benjamin with fox-hounds. 



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316 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



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THE TAUTOG, OR BLACK-FISH. 



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Of him Dr. Mitchil, not unsagely, nor unpleasantly, discourscth 
after thk fashion. The facts of natural history, as herein recorded, . 
are worthy of all confidence ; nor are the maxims wortnless to the 

^"" The Black-Fish abounds in the vicinity of Long Island, and is a 
stationary inhabitant of the salt-water. He never visits the rivers, 
like Salmon or Sturgeon ; nor, on the other hand, deserts his dwelling- 
place as they do. He is fond of rocks, reefs and rough bottoms. He 
is taken through the whole course of Long Island Sound Fisher a 
Island Sound, and in the neighborhood of Rhode Island. The Tautog 
was not originally known in Massachusetts Bay ; but withm a few 
years he has been carried beyond Cape Cod, and has multiplied so 
abundantly, that the Boston market has now a full supply, wi bout 
the necessity of importing from Newport and Providence. The Black- 
Fish, however, does not confine himself to rough bottoms; for he is 
also caught in the southern bays of Long Island, and on the banks of 
the ocean off Sandy Hook. He is considered, by the New Yorkers 
as a very fine fish for the table. He grows to the weight of ten or 
twelve pounds, and even more ; but it is a fish of a good size, that 

equals two or three. j ^ j „„,1 

" He may be kept for a long time in ponds or cars ; and fed, and 
eveu fatted there. When the cold of winter benumbs him, he refuses 
to eat any more, and a membrane is observed to form over he vent^ 
and close it. He begins to regain appetite with the return of warm h 
in the spring. The blossoming of the dogwood, cor^^jiorxia early 
in April, is understood to denote the time of baitmg Black-Fish, ^s 
soon as these flowers unfold, the fishermen proceed with their hooks 
and lines to the favorite places. If there is no dogwood, a judgmen 
is derived from the vegemuuu ut cU^ en. ..n 



m -ri 



THE TAUTOG, OR BLACK-FISH. 



317 



Beason of baiting is reckoned very favorable until the increasing 
warmth of the season brings food enough to fill their stomachs, and 
they thereupon afford less pastime to the sportsman, and less profit 
to the professor. The people express this sentiment in these coarse 
rhymes : 

" • Whea chestnut leaves are as big as thumb nail, 

Then bite Black-Fish without fail ; 

But wiieii chestnut leaves are as long as a span, 

Then catch Black- Fish if you can.' " 

" The common bait for Black-Fish is the soft clam, mya. The 
soldier crab, or fiddler, ocypoda, will frequently tempt him when he 
refuses to taste the other. And he snaps very readily at the large 
finny worm of the salt-water beaches, nereis, when used on a hook 

"^ " Some persons, who live contiguous to the shores where are sit- 
uated the rocks frequented by Tautog, invite the fish there by baiting. 
Bv this is meant the throwing overboard broken clams or crabs, to 
induce the Black Fish to renew their visits, and fine sprt is pro- 

''''" Rocky shores and bottoms are the haunts of Black-FisL Long 
experience Is required to find all these places of resort. Nice obser- 
vations on the landmarks, in different directions, are requisite to 
enable a fishing party to anchor on the proper spot. When, for 
example, a certain rock and tree range one way, with a barn window 
appearin^^ over a headland the other way, the boat being at the point 
where tw°o such lines intersect each other, is exactly over some famous 
rendezvous. To insure success on such expectation, it is proper to 
have a pilot along, well versed in all the local and minute knowledge 
According to the number and distance of the rocks and reefs visited, 
will be the time consumed, from the duration of a few hours to a long 
summer's day. An opinion prevails, that the Black-Fish can hear 
very well ; and, for fear of scaring them away, the greatost stillness is 
observed. He is a strong fish, and pulls well for one of his weight 

and size. , « j • xi, 

" At some places Black-Fish bito best upon the flood: m others, 
they are voracious during the ebb. Thunder accompanying a shower 




hi 






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i,r I 



318 



AMERICAN' FISHES 



is an indication that no more of them can be caught. The appcaranc. 
of a porpoise infallibly puts an end to sport. Curious stones are told 
of fish in the wells and ponds, floating in their native element, having 
been found dead, after sharp and repeated flashes of lightning Dull 
weather, with an easterly wind, is generally the omen of ill luck. 
The exploits performed in fishing for Tautog, are recounted occasion- 
ally, with remarkable glee ; and they afford a never-failing theme of 
entertainment to those who are engaged in that sort of adventure. 
Thoucrh the hand line is generally used, the rod is sometimes employ- 
ed to great advantage. The Black-Fish is remarkable for retaming 
Ufe a long time after he is taken out of water. He sometimes swims 
over even ground, and is caught in seans." 

A stout trolling rod, with a strong flaxen line, and a reel, are the 
best implements. The hooks should be those known universally as 
the Black-Fish hook, of various sizes, according to the angler's taste, 
ran.ring from three to ten. These should be armed-two being used, 
which is the proper number— on hook links of ticbly-twistcd gut, re- 
spectively, of twelve and fifteen inches, which links should be securely 
fastened to a small brass ring. This ring is to be looped to the end 
of the line to which the sinker is appended. 

This is the best arrangement of the hooks for aU salt-water shoal 

bait fishing. 

The Black-Fish b entirely a bottom fish, and is caught everywhere 
within his geographical range, in whirls and eddies, in the close vici- 
nity of rocks and reefs. 

Robin's reef, at the entrance of the Kills, is a favorite feedmg- 
ground ; and some years since I had rare sport daily for many weeks, 
about the hull of the wrecked packet ship Henri Quatre, below the 

Narrows. , u j 

The rocks off the well-known watering house, the Sachem s Head, 

on the Sound, and many other rocks in the bays and Sound of Long 

Island, are of equal reputation. 

He must bo struck sharply, and pulled up without a moments 

quarter. i x ui 

He is better in the pan than on the hook, and better on the table 
than in the pan. How you may cook him you shall learn hereafter. 



THK SHKEP'S-HEAD. 



3!9 



THE SHEEP'S-HEAD. 



This capital fish, which holds the same repute in America which 
is hrbyThe Turb; in Europe, is sometimes hooked by the rod-fisher 
:'i angling for the Barb, Squeteague, or Striped Bass; but wl.n 
This occurs, he generally beats his retreat successfully, carrying off 
with him bait, bottom-line and hooks together. . 

Still he is sometimes mastered by delicate skill and judicious ad- 
n^inistration of the reel, but then only by the stoutest tackle, manipula- 
Tedby the best of fishermen. Drop-lines of strong hempen cord, 
or the ordinary Cod-line two hundred yards long, with a h.avy 
Ler, and a large stout Black-Fish hook, will, however, pretty cer- 

tainlv brinfT him home. 

He frequents the vicinity of rocks, and loves to bite at the small 
rock-crab, and the soft-shelled clam. ■ ^ 

The best way is to bait with the clam whole and unbroken, burying 
the whole hook nearly to the arming in the neck of the clam. By 
doing this, the incessant and vexatious nibbling of the small fish is 
avoided ; and the shell of the clam is a mere nothing to the great 
paved round teeth, which line the palate of this strong, voracious fish. 
Where small fish are not frequent, the . lams may be put on open, 

with success. , , , « tvt v,v«v 

The Sheep's-Head is becoming scarce in the harbor of New York 
and those brought into the city come mostly from the south bays of 

Long Island. 

No fish is better on the table, or more valued. 

He is the highest prize of the salt-water angler, and the idol of the 

epicure's adoration. 

Let him enjoy his reputation, he deserves it; perhaps the know- 
ledge of his posthumous honors may be a consolation to him m his 
death-pang. 



M 






f 




''mm 






. , . J. 



320 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



THE DRUM. 



Neither to catch nor to cook the Drum, will I teach you, gentle 
reader mine, for he is not worth the hook which he will probably carr j- 
away, if you strike him, nor the salt which you might waste in season- 
ing him. 

Unless in his vast size and great power, he has no merit, and in 
these he is surpassed by the Shark, the Porpoise, and the Whale, for 
which I should about as soon think of angling. 



BLUE-FISH FISHING. 



A general favorite from his southern to his extreme northern 
limit, this great Mackerel is every where an object of pursuit, and 
deserves to be so, both for the fun of taking and the pleasure of eating 
him. When fresh from the water he is superlative. A very bold and 
daring biter, he is caught in great numbeiii in swift tide-ways, eddies 
and inlet mouths. In the Sound, in the Long Island South Bay chan- 
nels, in the inlets of the Jersey beaches, from June to August, he 
affords rare sport. 

Sail for him in a large cat-rigged boat, and the fresher the breeze, 
and the brisker the sea, the better. In large schulls he swims near 
the surface, leaping af every living thing which crosses his track of 
devastation. 

When you have the luck to strike a schull, stick to it pcrgcvcringly, 



^MHihrt 



.i;lj|*Bil 



BLUt-FISH FiaHino. 



321 



Mossbg U tack and tack, as fast a. you can go about m the d.reot:ou 
rrirse ; aud it the god. of the deep look w.th heu,gna.oe ou 
vour labors, you shaU kUl a hundred at the least, m a trde. 
^ Thus fish L him: To a stout cotton W of -f "^f /'* \ff 
a sa^d of bright tin, or bone,arn.ed with a good-sized K.by hook, 
X strong gimp hook-link. Make fast the end of your Ime to a 
:t inrstL't the boat, then whirl out the ^^-f, '° ^I ''"^^ 
1 nlth of your line, and play it with both hands alternately. The fish 
; tr ke' tsolf, a^d is to bo hauled in with -egular even puU new 
Jeld, nor yet slacked for an instant, for if .t be, the fish wdl dis- 
engage himself almost certainly. 

When you taek your boat, if the water be shoal, haul m your line, 
else shall you foul it in the sea-weeds. 

When you have hooked your fish, raise your squid w. h the hook 
up^nrost, and a slight shake shaU cast him into the bottom of the 

^tabvlon Islip, and Quogue, on Long Island, in Fire Island inlet, 
and Sue let, Shrewsbury, Squam-Beach, and Bamegat, rn New er- 
ZyX estuaries of the rivers in Connecticut, and the trde-ways m 
Boston harbor, are all favorite grounds for Blue-Frdimg. 

TTconclud:: there is no pleasanter summer day s a---"^ *- 
a merry cruise after the Blue-Fish, no pleasanter close to it than the 
\ 7Z the chowder, and the broUed Blue-Fish, lubricated with 

*7rf ' Ctldds mo^t t the zest of such a day, is the presence 
o7 rdarm ng ttau being one of the few .ports of field or fioo 
• V r.L oan femininely, and therefore fittii.gly, participate. For 
Ltt X^eS-ish, say the phUosophers, efthirty po^ s 
ti^htLugh? doubt it. Of four andfive pounds y™ « -f 
L surely ; if of eight, rejoice ; if of ten, smg p«ans,-for that is 
triumph. 





5 



m 



m 



823 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



DEEP SEA FISHING. 



The Cod, the Haddock, the Whiting, the Hake, the Halibut, and 
the Flounder, may be caught every where north of Massachusetts ; and 
from Boston to the eastward, parties of pleasure are made constantly 
to take them. On the Great Banks they are most abundant, but in 
Boston Bay great sport is not uncommon, nor is it unusual for a single 
boat to bring in its fifteen or twenty quintals of these fine fish. 

The whole sport consists in the frequency of the biting, and the 
size of the fish, which, for the modt part, varies from ten to fifteen 
pounds ; for though they are sharp and voracious biters, they require 
no play when hooked, offering only an inert resistance, and a dead 

heavy pull. 

Fifty yards of stout hempen line, two small-sized Cod-hooks, baited 
with the mud-clam, the menhaden, or where it can be procured, the 
capelin, and a pound sinker, is all your apparatus. 

With this, in any eastern water, you may rest assured of returning 
home with a boat-load of fish, a set of very weary limbs, a pair of very 
sore hands, and an enormous appetite, of which, mejudice, the first and 
the last alone are desirable. 

If you be content with these, fair or gentle reader, go out for decp- 
Bea fishing wh';a and where you will, prov; Jed you ask me to follow 
you no farther j for here, once more we . .u^i, part. Ere long, if the 
fates— and the booksellers— be propitious, < I'-ust, to meet again, with 
undiminished satisfaction, each of us with the otl.or. 

And so fare ye well, who have accompani'-d ma so far on my ram- 
bling way ; may all your pleasures, as you wodld have them, be both 
long and lasting ; and all your pains, as ye must have them, being 
mortal men, brief and transitory ; and so may fair fortunes be about 
ye. and kind thoughts toward Frank Forester. 



"S. 



rni 



t 4 



APPENDIA 






i 




\p 



'iEiii I 



/- 



i^PPENDIX.-(A.) 



IHE A^NGLER'S APPARATUS. 

Prom Hofland'9 Britlih Angler's Manual. 

X, . impossible .0 .e«o»e a --^^^'-rrr^: L" I 

--""trtu^rse" X— ces;aoaat™ 
prepared for all times, seasoua, ^vpvcise of his inge- 

f L eraft-wiU and much to amuso h,» m «>e ox.c» o ^J 

„„i., in making and -P-'^f l-'; J^'/ ,^ „!, 1 following Is a 
disposition of tho materials of h« art-of wmon 

list : ,,. •„„:„- tiiA minnow and bleak, 

Rods for Salmon-fishing, trolling, spinning the minnow 

patent lino for trolling. 

Winches or reels for running-taekle. ^^_ 

Hooks for trolling, on wire or gimp, ^^'^ ^^^^^^^^^^ [i^es. 

Bleak and minnow tackle, and baiting needles, ot vanoTis 
Hooks tied on gut, from No. 4 to No 12 
Hooks tied on hair, from No. 10 to No. 13. 
Loose hooks of all sizes. 
Paternosters for Pearch-fishing. 

Shoemakers' wax and sewing-silk. 
• Floats of various sizes, and caps for floats. 

Split shot and plummets for taking the depth of the water. 

Disgorger, clearing ring, and drag. 

Landing-net, gaff, and kettle for live bait. 

Gentle-b3X, and bags for worms. 

A fishing-basket, creel, or game pouch. 







326 



APPENDIX. - 



A pair of pliers, a paii of scissors, and a pe 
A. book of artificial flics. 
A book of general tackle. 



RODS. 

Choice rods are of the utmost consequence to the angler's success, 
and various instructions have been given by different authors for 
selecting pioper kinds of wood for the purpose, and the method of 
raakinp; them ; but as excellent rods of every description are nov? to 
bo purchased in almost every part of the United jvingdon, I shall 
recommend such as will be generally useful, and may be procured 
without difficulty at any of the fishing-tackle shops in London. 

In choosing a rod, be careful to examine if the joints fit securely, 
if it be perfectly straight when put together, and if it spring equally 
in all its parts, from the butt to the top, when bent. 

That which is commonly termed a " general rod " will be found 
most useful to the traveller who has not an opportunity of carrying 
more than one with him at a time, it being so contrived that it may 
be used either for fly-fishing, trolling, or bottom fishing, as the butt 
of the rod is bored, and contains several spare tops, i. e., one for the 
fly, one for spinning the Minnow, one for the float, and another for 
trolling — the whole being conveniently packed up in a canvas bag. 

Although this kind of rod will be found highly serviceable on many 
iccasions, I would by no means recommend the use of it when you 
lave an opportunity of employing separate and appropriate rods for 
Jhe different kinds of angling. The rods used exclusively for fly- 
fishing should be as light as possible, consistent with strength, and if 
for throwing with one hand, not more than from twelve to fourteen 
feet long, and if with both hands, not more than from sixteen to 
eighteen feet. Indeed, a rod shorter than either of these would be 
found very convenient in a narrow, closely-wooded stream, where it is 
frequently necessary to force your fly with a short lino under over- 
hanging bushes 

I am acquainted with some excellent anglers in the north oi Eng- 
land, who cannot be persuaded to use any other fly-rod than one 
composed of two pieces only, and spliced in the middle ; but this is 



APPENDIX. A 



3J7 



inconvenient to carry, and the jointed rods arc now brought to such 
perfection, that I feci assured they will answer every purpose of the 
Lliccd rods, besides being much more portable. Tho Irish fly-rodfl 
are screwed together at each joint, and arc much more elastic than 
tho English rods. 

THE TBOLLINO ROD 

Should be very strong, and not less than twelve nor more than sixteen 
feet in length, with large rings upon it, that the line may run frecl>. 

The rod for spinning a Minnow or Bleak should be of ))amboo cane, 
and from eighteen to twenty feet long, with a tolerably stiff top ; tho 
rings should be placed at a moderate distance from each other, and 

be of the middle size. 

The barbed rod, for angling with the ledger-bait, should have a 
stiff top, and bo about eleven or twelve feet in length ; but for float- 
fisliing it must be much lighter and something longer. 

Thl rod for Roach and Dace should be of bamboo cane, and, if for 
bank-fishing, from eighteen to twenty feet long ; but if for angling 
from a punt, not more than eleven or twelve feet. It must be very 
light, perfectly taper, and of a proper degree of elasticity, as the 
anger's success in Roach and Dace-fishing will depend upon his 
dexterity and quickness in striking when ho has a bite. Many anglers 
never fish without running-tackle, that they may be always prepared 
to encounter a large fish ; but they must not hope to meet with the 
same sport in Roach and Dace-fishing as those do who use a light rod 
without rings, and a short line, when the chance of striking your fish 
is much more certain. 

LINES. 

The b:;st lines for running-tackle are composed of silk and hair, of 
different degrees of strength and thickness, according to the purpose 
for which they arc intended. For Salmon -fishing, a strong winch or 
pirn, large enoush to contain from eighty to one hundred yards of 
line, is requisite, and for Trout a brass reel, containing from thirty to 
forty yards of line, gradually tapering to a few hairs at the end, where 

foot-link of gut containing the flies is to be fixed. 



*f*r" 




'l«;i 



328 



APPENDIX. — A. 



1 ^' 



Mi 



•y 



! 



Silkworm gut lines are from two to four yarda, and arc used as 
lengths to bo added to the lino on the reel, cither for fly or bottom- 
fishing. 

Lines for trolling are of several kinds, some of twisted silk, and 
others of silk and hair, but that sold by the tackle-makers, called 
patent troUing-Une, is in most general use. A strong reel, and from 
forty to sixty yards of line, are requisite. 

Indian weed is a good material for bottom-tackle, but infoiior to 

the silkworm gut. 

Eel-lines, night-lines, and trimmers, may bo purchased ready 

fitted up. 11 J 

A winch, or reel, is used for running-tackle, and is generally made 
of brass, but I have seen them in Scotland made of wood, whore they 
are called pirns; the multiplying reel was formerly much used, but 
from its liability to bo out of order, a plain reel, without a stop, is 
now generally preferred. Reels are of various sizes, containing from 
twenty to one hundred yards of line. 

Bleak and Minnow tackle arc of endless variety in form and con- 
trivance, almost every experienced angler having his own peculiar 

plan. 

The paternoster is a line* used for Pcarch fishing, made of strong 
gut, and should be connected with a running-line by a fine steel 
swivel. It contains three hooks, the size Nos. 7, 8, or 9, placed at 
equal distances from each other; the first near the bottom, where a 
small plummet of lead is fixed to sink the line, and the others each 
from eighteen inches to two feet apart. The hooks are so contrived 
by swivels as to revolve round the line, and thereby give play to the 
live Minnows with which they are to be baited. 

FLOATS. 

Much care and judgment are required in adapting your float to the 
various streams or waters in which you angle. A deep and rapid river 
will require a float that will carry from sixteen to twenty of No. 4 
shot, if the stream be deep and the current gentle, a float carrying 
one-half that number of shot will be sufficiently heavy ; and when the 
water is perfectly still, a very light quill-float, carrying two of No. 6 



APPENDIX. A. 



s» 



rf,ol .hoaldb.u.«di .ndl ma, remark horo, that "'"«"»"" J"" 
tat, the fo-cr the omubcr of .hot, and the fiuor your bottcu-taekl.. 
•Kn aroatcr wUl be >our sucoesa. 

""::;£, ». u... i ,.*...-*.-•-'-"■•••• '■■" 

™o. as thcT inako Icsa disturbance in the water. 

Yo„ ine nmst be .hotted tiU not more than the eap of your fioa 
U In above the water, unlcs, it .honld bo very rough from wmd or 
rapid eurrent, in wbieh ea»e something more of the float mu.t .wm, 

"'TheT-pine quiU i. a favorite float with some angler,, but for . 
moderate Stream I prefer a swan'a quill. 

THE LANDINO-NET AND OAFF. 

The landing-net may be purebased so contrived as to unscrew from 
a slkeUn the handle-whieh should be four or five feet long-and a 
Jor took for landing Salmon, Pike, and large Trout, may also be 
bougl to screw into the same socket, and both the net and gaff may 
bo ^irried in your basket or creel till you reach the nver side 



fit 



lf!||!|! 



! I' 



m 



: 




BA£.f- 



OO 




APPENDIX.-(B.) 



THE FLY-FISHER'S APPARATUS. 

Fiom Hofland's British Angler's Manual. 

A COMPLETE fly-fisher will make his own flies, and will find much 
amusement in the practice of this delicate art. It will be necessary 
that he should provide himself with the following materials to enable 
him to imitate the flies described heretofore : 



HOOKS. 

London, Kirby-sneck, and Limerick hooks, of all sizes. Of these, 
the Limerick hook is in the greatest general estimation ; but in the 
north of England, the Kirby-sneck hook is preferred for small hackle 
flies. 

FEATHERS. 

Cocks' and hens' hackles, of all colors ; those chiefly in use are 
red, ginger, coch-a-bonddu, black, dun, olive, grizzle, and white ; the 
latter for dying yellow, &c. 

Peacock's herl, coppery colored, green, and brown. 

Black ostrich's herl. 

Gallino fowls' spotted feathers. 

The feathers of the turkey, the grouse, ptarmigan, pheasantr— cock 
and hen— woodcock, snipe, dotteril, landrail, starling, golden plover 
or peewit, wild mallard, bustard, sea-swallow, wren, jay, blackbird, 
throstle, blue pigeon, argus and silver pheasant. 

Water-rat's fur, mole's fur, and hare's ear. 

Mohair, dyed, of all colors. 






APPENDIX. B 



331 



Fine French sewing-silk, of aU colors. 
Flos silk, of all colors. 
German wool, of all colors. 
Gold and silver twist. 
Silk twist, cobblers' and bees'-wax. 

A pair of pliers, a pair of fine-pointed scissors, a small hand slide- 
vice and a fine-pointed strong dubbing-needle. 

silkworm gut, from the finest to the strongest, and Salmon gu. 

gincle and twisted , . .i„ 

Lengths of the white and sorrel hairs .f stallions' tails. 





APPENDIX.-(0.) 



HOW TO COOK FISH 



THE SALMOM 

Me Mi«, Ae Img of fah«, « tho best plain boiled Hi, riohncsa 
is 1- lent, hi, «avo;,o e.oolleut, that, bo far from bcog .mproved 
hisuatural qualities are destroyed and overpowered, by anythmg of 
artificial condiment. 

MT OWN RECEIPT FOtt BOILINO SALMON. 

If yon arc ever so lueky a, to eateh a Salmon, where incontinently 
y„n can proceed to cook him, that is to say, in the wdderness, wrth n 
Un yards of the door of yonr shantec, with the fire burnmg and the 

'"'s^frronce by a heavy blow on the head, crimp him by a 
succession et cuts on each side, through the muscle, quite down to the 
bTct b nc, with a very sharp knife, in slashes parallel to *» gai-covcr^ 
Then place him for ten minutes in a cold spring, or under the jet of a 
waterlll. In the meantime, keep your pot boiling, nay, but screech- 
b,» with intense heat, filled with brine strong enough to bear an egg. 
tL: n immerse him. having cut out the gilK opened the beUy^n 
washed the inside, and boil him at the rate of seven mmutes and a half 
rthe pound ; di h him, and, serving him with no sauce save a tureen- 
!°.,. .,rV...r in which he has been boiled, proceed to cat h,m, wrth 



■ fr ■^^0'M 



APPENDIX. C. 



33» 



no other condiment than a little salt and the slightest squeeze of a 
lemon I do not object to cucumber sliced very fine, with a dressing 
of oiL three tablespoons to one of vinegar, salt, and black popper 
guantun svff ; but I regard green peas, or any other vegetable, with 
this grand fish, as a cockney abomination. 

soyer's receipt— salmon au naturel. 

Clean and prepare as before; but, if he be not fresh enough to 
crimp, scale him, and proceed as follows : 

" Put your fish in cold water, using a pound of salt to every six 
quarts of water ; let it be well-covered with water, and set it over a 
Lderate fire ; when it begins to simmer, set it on the side of the fir 
. If the fish weighs four pounds, let it simmer half an hour-if eight 
pounds, three-quarters of an hour, and so on in proportion ; dish it on 
a napkin, and serve lobster or shrimp-sauce m a boat. 

soyer's lobster-sauce for salmon. 

Put twelve table-spoonsful of melted butter into a stew-pan ; cut a 
middling-sized hen-lobster into dice, make a quarter of a pound 
Z lobster-butter with the spawn, thus : take out the spawn and pound 
t well in a mortar, then add a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, mix 
til well together then rub it through a hair sieve ; when the melted 
Wer is upoi the oint of boiling, add the lobster-butter, st. he sau.e 
round over the fire, until the butter is -^^''^^'^/'^'''^ ^''\;''^^^ 
essence of anchovy, the juice of half a lemon, and a quarter of a tea- 
poonful of cayenne ; pass it through a tamis into another stew-pan, 
th n add the flesh of the lobster. When hot it is ready to serve 
where directed. This sauce must be quite red ; if not rod m the lob- 
Bter, use live spawn. 

soyer's shrimp sauce. 

Make the melted tatter a. for Ae '-'.''«'.«"'»'! '"''■''"X; 
„{ Bhrimps, and serve Mf-a^int of pieWed shrimps m the boat mft .t 
K fo Zoncc of shrhnps, the anehovy sauee may bo served ..th shr,n,p. 
in it as a subst'tuto, if no essence can be naa. 



! :.;; 



-J'W 






-;mi i 



334 



APPENDIX. C. 



SALMON A LA BEYROOT 



Broil two dices of Salmon, in oiled paper, over a moderate fire ; 
when they are done, peel the skin from the edge, and lay them on a 
dish without a napkin ; have ready the following sauce : put one table- 
spoonful of chopped onions in a stew-pan, with one ditto of Chili vine- 
gar, one of common vinegar, two ditto of Harvey sauce, two ditto of 
mushroom catsup, and twenty tablespoonsful of melted butter ; let it 
reduce till it adheres to the back of the spoon, then add two table- 
spoonsful of essence of anchovy, and a small quantity of sugar, pour 
it over the fish, and serve it hot. 

HOW TO COOK TROUT 

My own Method. 

This is the method of tlie woods, and in the woods I learnt it ; but 
havmg learned, I practice it at home, considering the Trout one of 
the most delicious morceaux, when thus cooked, in the world. It 
mast be cooked, however, in the open air, by a wood fire kindled on 
the ground or by a charcoal fire in a small Boston furnace. 

Clean and scale your fish, open, 'clean and wash him interaally ; take 
for a one pound fish two small skewers of rod cedar wood, upon each 
thread a piece of fat salt pork half-an-inch square ; with these fasten 
the belly of the fish asunder, annex hira by the tail to a twig of pliant 
wood, which suffer to bend over the fire so as to bring the fish oppo- 
site the blaze, place a large biscuit or a slice of thin dry toast under 
the drip of the gravy, cook quickly— for a two-pound fish, ten minutes 
will suffice— dish with the biscuit under him, and cat with salt and 
lemon-juice, or, if you please, with shrimp or lobster sauce, or a dash 
of Worcestershire or Harvey sauce, though I think these, for my own 
cheek, bad taste. 

TROUT AU NATUREL. 

A large Sea-Trout or Salmon-Trout is to be cleaned, cooked and 
eaten precisely as the Salmon in my first receipt. I conceive, myself, 
that any piquante or rich sauce overpowers the flavor of the fish, and 



*^Vr?»^ 



■■: ^ 



APPENDIX. C. 



335 



should therefore be eschewed; but those who favor such things may 
eat him with shrimp or lobster sauce as above. 

HOW TO COOK PIKE. 

Nohhs' Receipt for dressing a Pihe. 
Take Your Pike and open him ; rub him within with salt and daret 
^ne • save the milt, and a little of the bloody fat ; cut him in two 
or thi-ee pieces, and put him in when the water boils •, put m with him 
let marjoram, savory, thyme, or fennel, with a good handful of 
silt : let them boil nearly half an hour. For the sauce, take sweet 
butter, anchovies, horse-radish, claret wine, of each a good quantity J 
a little of the blood, shalot, or garlic, and some lemon sliced; beat 
them well together, and serve him up. 

Soyer's Receipt for Pike roasted. 
This fish in France is found daily upon the tables of the first epi- 
cures, but the quality of the fish there appears much more delicate 
than here. But perhaps the reason of its being more in vogue there 
is that other fish are more scarce ; not being so much in use here- 
that is, in London-but in the country, where gentlemen have sport 
in caJhing them, they .re much more thought of, and to them, per- 
haps, the following receipts may be the most valuable. To dress i^ 
nlain it is usu^i^ ' baked, as follows : having well cleaned the fish, stuff 
it and sew the belly up with packthread ; butter a saute-pan, put the 
ush into it and place it in the oven for an hour or more, according to 
the size of it ; when done, dish it without a napkin, and pour anchovy 
sauce round it ; this fish, previous to its being baked must be trussed 
with its tail in its mouth, four incisions cut on each side, and well 
buttered over. 

Pihe cL la Chambord. 
The large fish are the only ones fit for this dish, (which is much 
thought of in France.) Have the fish well cleaned, and lard it ma 
square on one side with bacon, put it in a fish-kettle, the larded side 
upwards, and prepare the following marinade : slice four onions, one 
carrot, and one turnip, and put them in a stew-pan with six bay-leaves, 



^ 


A 






^ ll 




; 1! 




■ :;. '*!' 




■';i 




■ T 




■ 11 1 





lit 



i Is L 
1 ' ill 



M 



336 APPENDIX. C. 

six cloves, two Wades of mace, a little thyme, basil, a bunch of parsley, 
half-a-pound of lean ham, and half-a-pound of butter ; pass it over a 
slow fire twenty minutes, keeping it stirred ; then add half a bottle of 
Madeira wine, a wincglassful of vinegar, and six quarts of broth ;^ boil 
altogether an hour, then pass it through a sieve, and pour the liquor 
into the kettle over the fish ; set the fish on the fire to stew for an 
hour or more, according to the size, but take care the marinade doos 
not cover the fish, moisten the larded part, now and then, with th:; 
stock, and put some burning charcoal on the lid of the kettle ; when 
done, glaze it lightly, dish it without a napkin, and have ready the 
following sauce : put a pint of the stock your fish was stewed in— hav- 
ing previously taken off all the fat— into a stew-pan, with two glasses 
of'^Madeira wine, reduce it to half, then add two quarts of brown 
sauce, keep it stirred over the fire till the sauce adheres to the back 
of the' wooden spoon, then add the roes of four carp or mackerel— cut 
in large pieces, but be careful not to break them— twenty heads of 
very white mushrooms, twenty cockscombs, twelve large quenellings 
of whiting, and finish with a tablcspoonful of essence of anchovies and 
half a one of sugar, pour the sauce round the fish, arranging the garni- 
ture with taste, add twelve crawfish to the garniture, having previously 
taken off all the small claws ; serve very hot. 

This dish, I dare say, will be but seldom made in this country, on 
account of its complication, but I thought proper to give it on account 
of the high estimation in which it is held in France ; I must, however, 
observe, that I have omitted some of the garnUure which would make 
it still more expensive, and if there should be any difficulty in getting 
what remains, the sauce is very good without. 

Pike en matelole. 
Stuff and bake the fish as before ; when done, dress it without a 
napkin, and pour a sauce matelote in the middle and round the fish, 
and serve very hot. Or the fish may be stewed as in the last. 

Pike a la Hollandaise. 
Boil the fish in salt and water, in the same manner as Cod-Fish ; 
drain it well, dish it without a napkin, pour a sauce Hollandaise over it 



APPENDIX. C. 

Small Pike d la Meunihe. 



337 



Crimp a small Pike, it must not weigh more than two pounds, but 
Bmallor if you can got it,_and proceed exactly as for Sole a la meu- 
nidre, but allow it more time. 

Pike mth caper sauce. 
Boil the fish as before, and have ready caper sauce made as follows : 
put fifteen tablespoonsful of melted butter in a stew-pan, and when M 
boils add a quarter of a pound of fresh butter ; when it melts, add two 
tablespoonsful of liaison ; let it remain on the fi-.^^t '.d t!o 
not let it boil ; moisten with a little milk if required, then add two 
tablespoonsful of capers, and pour over the fish. 

Pike d la Mailre d'HStel. 
Boil the fish a« usual, and dish it without a napkin ; then put twelve 
tablospoonfulB of melted butter in a stew-pan -, and when i^t is upon the 
point of boilin,, add a quarter of a pound of maitre d'hotel butter, 
and when it mJlts pour over and round the fish ; serve very hot. 

Pike d la Egyplienne. 
Cut two onions, two turnips, one can:pt, one head of celery, and one 
leek into slices; put them into a large stew-pan with some parsley, 
thyme, bay-leaves, and a pint of port wine ; then have your fish ready 
trussed, with its tail in its mouth ; put it into the stew-pan, with the 
^o.otables ; add three pints of broth, and set it on a slow fire to stew, 
with some live charcoal upon the lid ; try, when done, by runnmg the 
knife close in to the back bone ; if the meat detaches easily, i is done ; 
take it out, and place on a baking sheet •, dry it with . cloth, then 
c. and bread-crumb it ; put it in the oven, and salamander it a light 
btown ; then put twenty tablespoonsful of white sauce ma stew-pan, 
with ei^^ht of milk, and reduce it five minutes ; then add four gher- 
kins the whites of four hard-boiled eggs, and two truffles, cut m very 
small dice ; finish with two tablespoonsful of essence of anchovies, the 
ju=ee or half a lemon, and four pats of butter : dress the fish without a 
napkin, and sjiuce over. 

Filleh nf Pil(f tn -natelote. 
If for a dinnn- for twelve, ftll.t » - «r.4l m^ m aad bread- 



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■i :■ 



338 



APPENDIX. C. 



crumb, and fry in oil ; dish them round on a border of mashed pota- 
toes, previously cutting each fillet in halves, and serve sauce matelote 
in the centre. 

Fillets of Pike d la Meunilre. 
Fillet four Pike as above, cut each fillet in halves, rub some chop- 
pod eschalot into them, dip them in flour, broil them ; when done, 
sauce as for Sole ^ la mcuni^re. Observe, if you happen to live in the 
country where Pike is plentiful, you may dish the fillets in as many 
ways as Soles, or any other fish ; but I have omitted giving them here, 
thinking it useless to fill a useful book with so many repetitions ; wo 
have several ways of dressing Pike to be eaten cold in France, which 
I have also omitted, as they would be quite useless in this country. 

HOW TO COOK PEARCH. 

The best mode of cooking a Pcarch, under a pound weight, is by 

broiling it. 

Small Pearch will serve to make water-souchy thus : Scale, gut, 
and wash your Pearch ; put salt in your water ; when it boils put in 
the fish, with an onion cut in slices, and seperated into rings ; a 
handful of parsley, picked and washed clean ; put in as much milk as 
will turn the water white ; when your fish are done enough, put them 
in a soup dish, and pour a little of the water over them, with the 
parsley, and the onions ; then serve them up with parsley and butter 

in a boat. 

Large Pearch may be crimped and boiled in the same way. 

Soyer's Receipt for Pearch d, la Hollandaise. 
Have three middling-sized fishes ready prepared for cooking ; then 
put two ounces of butter, two onions, in slices, ore carrot, cut small, 
some parsley, two bay-leaves, six cloves, and two blades of mace in a 
stew-pnn ; pass it five minutes over a brisk fire, then add a quart of 
water, two glasses of vinegar, one ounce of salt, and a little pepper ; 
boil altogether a quarter of an hour, and pass it through a sieve into a 
small fish-kettle ; then lay the fishes into it, and let them stew twenty 
or thirty minutes over a moderate fire ; dress them on a dish without a 
napkin, and pour a sauce Hollandaise over them. 



mn 



APPENDIX. — C. 

Pearch d la Mailre d'Hdtel 



339 



Prepare and cook your fish as above ; then put twenty tablespoons- 
ful of melted butter in a stew-pan, and when it is upon the point of 
boiling add a quarter of a pound of Maitre d'H6tel butter, and pour 
the sauce over the fish, which dress on a dish without a napkin. 
Small Pearches en xcattr souchet. 
Cut four small fishes in iialvos, having previously taken off all the 
scales, and proceed precisely as for Flounders en water souchet. 
Small Pearches frits au beurre. 
Scale and well dry six Pearches, and make incisions ^ero and there 
on each side of them •, then put a quarter of a pound of butter mto a 
Lt^-pan, season your fishes with pepper and salt, put them in the 
utlpan'and fry them gently, turning them carefully ; when done 
dross them on a napkin, garnish with parsley, and serve without sau e^ 
In my opinion, thoy are much better cooked in this way than boiled 
• or stowed ; large fish may also be done this way, but they require more 
butter, and must cook very slowly. 

fc W TO COOK CARP. 

Izaak Walton's receipt. 
But 4>st, I will tell you l,ow to make this Carp, ftat is so curious 
to bo caught, so curious a di»l, of meat as shall make h>m worth a 1 
;„„, labor aid patience. And though it is not without some troubl 
and charges, yet it will .eeompenso both. Take a Carp-abTC rf 
polible : seiur him, and rub him clean with water and saH but scale 
rtot then open him, and put hi,n with his """^ -^ '--t: 
you must save when you open him, into a '"^"P" "'';"'=' *!" 
take sweet marjoram, thyme, or parsley, of each a handful ; a pr^ 
of rosemary, and mother-of-savory ; bind them into two or three 
ml, buni;, and put them to your Carp, with four or five who 
onions, twenty pickled oysters, and three anchov.es. 1 ^'^Vjr^^^ 
your Carp as much elaret wine as will only cover h.m -and season 
Z claret well with salt, cloves and mace, and the r,nd of orange 
and lemons. That done, cover your pot, and set .t o- Y"'f " 
till it be sufficiently boiled. Then take out the Carp, and lay it w,.h 




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APPENDIX. C. 



tho broth into the dish, and pour upon it a quarter of a pound of the 
best fresh butter, melted and beaten with a half-a-doze i spoonsful ol 
the broth, the yolks of two or three eggs, and some of the herbs 
Bhred ; garnish your dish with lemons, and so serve it up, and much 
good to you. 

Soyer's Receipt for Carp en matelote. 
Have your fish ready cleaned, and make four or five incisions on 
each side ; then put two sliced onions, three sprigs of thyme and pars- 
ley, and half-a-pint of port wine in a stew-pan, or small fish-kettle ; 
season the fish with pepper and salt, lay it in the stew-pan, add four 
pints of broth, and place it on a slow fire to stew for an hour-wluch 
will be sufficient for a fish of five pounds wcight-or more, in propor- 
tion to the size; when done, dress it on a dish, without a napkin; 
drain it well, and serve a matelote sauce over it ; only use some of the 
stock from the fish, having previously taken off all the fat, instead of 
plain broth, as directed in that article. 

Carp d la Genoise. 
Prepare your fish as above, and lay it in your fish-kettle, with two 
ounces of salt, half a bottle of port wine, two onions, two turnips, one 
leek, one carrot, cut in slices, three bay-leaves, six cloves, two blades 
of mace, and a sprig of parsley, cover the fish with whi'. broth ; stow 
it as before, dress it without a napkin, prepare a sauce GenoiBC and 
pour over it. 

Stewed Carp a la Marquise. 

Cook the fish as above, and when done, dress it on a dish without a 
napkin, and have ready the following sauce : put twenty tablcspoonsful 
of white sauce in a stew-pan, reduce it over a fire until rather thick, 
then add a gill of whipt cream, two tablcspoonsful of capers, and two 
o^' chopped gherkins ; pour over the fish, then sprinkle two tablcspoons- 
ful of chopped beet-root over it, and serve. 

Carp vnth caper sauce. 

Cook the fish as above, and dress it without a napkin ; then put 
twenty-five tablcspoonsful of melted butter into a stew-pan, and when 



APPENDIX. — C. 



341 



nearly boiling add a quarter of a pound of fresh butter ; stir it till tho 
butter melts, then add four tablespoonsful of capers, and pour over. 
This sauoo must bo rather thick. 

Carp fried. 
Open tho fl,h down tk. back with a sharp knifo from tho hoad to 
tho tail, cutting off half tho hoad, m that tho fch B qmto flat ; broak 
tho back-bono in th.00 plaoos, but allow tho roo to romain; then d,p 
tho fi* in flour, and fry it iu hot lard ; dross it on a napkm, garmsh 
with parsloy, and sorvo plain moltod buttor, woU-scasonod, m a boat. 

HOW TO COOK EELS. 

Eelsfried. 
Cut tho Eels in pieces about three inches long, dip them in flour, 
egg and bread-crumb, and fry them in very hot lard, dress them on a 
napkin, garnish with parsley, and serve shrimp-sauce m a boat. 

Eds d la Tartare. 
Cut tho Eols and fry as abovo, ha,o roady somo Tartaro Banco upon 
. coU «, lay the Eols upon it, and sorvo immodiatoly •, should the 
Eols bo lar'go, ftoy must bo throo-parts stowed botoro thoy are fr.od; 
dry them upon a cloth previous to bread-crumbmg them. 

SpitchcocJced Eels. 
Tako tho bones out of tho Eels by opening them fi:om k™* '» ' j^l- 
and cut them in pieces about four inohes long, throw them mto some 
«™r then have ready upon a dish about a couple of handfuls of bread- 
! :mbta tab - oonful'of chopped Jarsley, a little dried thyme, and 
aTittlo cayenne opper, then egg oaoh piece of Eel and bread-crumb 
them with it, fry them in very hot lard, dish them on a napkm, and 
serve shrimp-sauce in a boat. 

Stewed Eels. 

Cut tho Eels in pieces as before, and tie each piece round with pack- 

thr^Id then put them into a stew-pan with an onion, a tablespoonful 

* white wine, three cloves, three whole allspice, a bunch of parsley 

thyme, and b y-leaf, and a little white broth, suflieient to cover them ; 






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APPENDIX.- 



place them over a moderate fire, and let them stew gently for half an 
hour or more, if requu-ed— according to the size of the Eel— take 
them out, drain them on a napkin, dish them without a napkin, and 
have ready the following sauce r put a teas;ioonful of chopped onions 
into a stew-pan with four tablespoonsful of white wine, and eight ditto 
of brown sauce, let it boil gently for a quarter of an hour, keeping 
it stirred, then add a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies and a little 
sugar, and pour over your Eels. 

Eels en matelote. 
Stew the Eels as above, dress them without a napkin, and pour a 
sauce matelote over them. They may also be served with a sauce k 
la Beyrout. 



HOW TO COOK SHAD. 

Broiled Shad. 
Scale, clean, cut oflF the head and fins, split down the back, broil 
quickly over a charcoal fire ; broil the roe separately in the same 
manner ; serve on a hot dish, garnished with the roe and fried parsley. 
Eat with drawn butter, anchovy, or shrimp sauce. 

To Boil Shad. 

Scale, open, clean, and wash your fish ; boil him quickly, wrapped 
in a napkin, in boiling water ; serve upon a napkin, garnished with 
fried parsley ; eat with caper sauce. 

Sea-shore receipt for Boasted Shad. 

Split your fish down the back after he is cleaned and washed, nail 
the halves on shingles or short board ; stick them erect ;" -< the sand 
round a large fire ; as soon as they are well-browned, serve on what- 
ever you have got ; eat with cold butter, black pepper, salt, and a 
good appetite. 

This is a delicious way of cooking this fine fish. 

HOW TO COOK TAUTOO. 

Clean, score, and broil your Black-Fish quickly ; lay it in a stew- 



APPENDIX. C. 



343 



pan, with a bottle of port wine, two sliced onions, six or seven cloves 
and a few pepper-corns ; add an eschalot and some cayenne ; pour in a 
quart of weak veal-broth, stew gently for an hour. 

HOW TO COOK 8QUETEAOUE. 

Boil when cleaned, and serve with shrimp sauce, precisely as Salmor 
or Trout. 

HOW TO COOK SEA BASS. 

Boiled. 

Boil plain, as above ; serve with shrunp sauce, caper sauce, or 

parsley and butter. 

Broiled. 

Broil quickly over a charcoal fire ; serve with matelote sauce, as 

follows : 

Sauce Matelote. 

Peel about twenty button onions, then put a teaspoonful of powdered 
sugar in a stew-pan, place it over a sharp fire, and when melted and 
getting brown, add a piece of butter the size of two walnuts, and your 
onions, pass them over the fire until rather brown ; then add a glass 
of sherry, let it boil, then add a pint of brown sauce and ten spoonfuls 
of consomm6, simmer at the corner of the fire until the onions are 
quite tender, skim it well ; then add twenty small quenelles, ten heads 
of mushrooms, and a teaspoonful of essence of anchovies, one of catsup, 
one of Harvey sauce, and a little cayenne pepper. Serve where 
directed. 

HOW TO COOK KING-FISH. 

BroU over a quick fire, serve plain, eat with anchovy or shrimp 

sauce. 

Fry in olive oil, serve plain, eat with salt and red pepper. 

HOW TO COOK SHEEP's-HEAD. 

Rub it over with salt and lemon before putting it in the water. To 
every six quarts of water add one pound of salt. Boil a ten-pound 







\\\ 
111 



344 



APPENDIX. C. 



fish about, twenty minutes. Serve on a napkin, garnisli with parsley, 
eat with shrimp or lobster sauce. 









HOW TO COOK HALIBUT. 

Soyer's Receipt for Halibut to boil. 

A Halibut must be well rubbed over with salt and lemon before it 
is put in the water ; have ready a large Halibut-kettle half-full of cold 
Witter, and to every six quarts of water put one pound of salt, lay the 
fish in, and place it over a moderate fire ; a Halibut of eight pounds 
may be allowed to simmer twenty minutes or rather more ; thus it will 
be about three-quarters of an hour altogether in the water ; when it 
begins to crack very slightly, lift it up with the drainer, and cover a 
clean white napkin over it ; if you intend serving the sauce over your 
fish, dish it up without a napkin ; if not, dish it upon a napkin, and 
have ready some good sprigs of double parsley to garnish it with, and 
serve very hot. 

Halibut d la Crime. 

Cook the Halibut as above, and dish it without a napkin— but be 
caieful that it is well drained before you place it on the dish, and ab- 
sorb what water runs from the fish with a napkin, for that liquor would 
spoil your sauce, and cause it to lose that creamy substance which it 
ought to retain ; this remark applies to all kinds of fish that is served 
up with the sauce over it ; then put one pint of cream on the fire in a 
good-sized stew-pan, and when it is nearly simmering add half-a-pound 
of fresh butter, and stir it as quickly as possible until the butter is 
melted, but the cream must not boil ; then add a liaison of three yolks 
of eggs, season with a little salt, pepper, and lemon-juice, pom- as 
much over the Halibut as will cover it, and serve the remainder in a 
boat ; or if not approved of, dish the fish on a napkin, garnish with 
parsley, and serve the sauce in a boat This sauce must not be made 
until the moment it is wanted. 

* 

Halibut Sauce homard. 

Cook the Halibut as before, then take an ounce of lobster spawn 
and pound it in a mortar with a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, 
rub it through a hair sieve with a wooden spoon upon a plate ; have 



APPENDIX.- 



34u 



ready a pint of good melted butter nearly boiling, into whicb put the 
red butter, and season with a teaspoonful of essence of anchovy, a 
little Harvey sauce, cayenne pepper, and salt, then cut up the flesh of 
the lobster in dice and put in the sauce ; serve it in a boat very hot. 

Halibut d. la Hollandaise. 

Cook the Halibut as before, and dish without a napkin ; then put 
the yolks of four eggs in a stew-pan with half-a-pound of fresh butter, 
the juice of a lemon, half a teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter of one of 
white pepper ; set it over a slow fire, stirring it the whole time quickly ; 
when the butter is half-melted take it off the fire for a few seconds, 
still keeping it st-.ed,till the butter is quite melted, then place it 
again on the fire tUi it thickens, then add a quart of melted butter, stir 
it again on the fire, but do not let it boil, or it would curdle and be 
useless ; then pass it through a tammie into another stew-pan, make it 
hot in the bain marie, stirring all the time ; pour it over the fish or 
serve in a boat. The sauce must be rather sharp ; add more season- 
ing if required. 

Halibut d, la Mazarine. 

Cook the fish as above, then have all the spawn from two fine hen 
lobsters; if not sufficient, get some live spawn from the fishmonger's, 
making altogether about two ounces ; pound it well in the mortar and 
mix it with°half-a-pound of fresh butter, rub it through a hair sieve, 
place it upon ice until firm, then put it in a stew-pan with the yolka 
of four eggs, a little pepper, half a teaspoonful of salt, and four table- 
spoonsful of lemon-juice, place it over the fire, and proceed as for the 
sauce Hollandaise, adding the same quantity of melted butter, and two 
teaspoonfuls of essence of anchovy, pass it through a tammie mto a 
clean stew-pan to make it hot, dish the fish without a napkin, soakmg 
up the water in the dish with a clean cloth, and pour the sauce over 
it ; be careful the sauce does not boil, or it will curdle. 

This dish is one of the most elegant, and is the best way of dressing 
a Halibut; for I have always remarked, that notwithstanding its sim- 
plicity, it has given the greatest satisfaction, both for its delicateness 
and appearance, causing no trouble— only requiring care. 
23 




ai6 



APPENDIX. — C. 



Halibut en matelote Normande. 

Procure a smallish Halibut, one weighing about ten pounds would be 
the best ; cut off part of the fins, and make an incision in the back, but- 
ter a saute-pan, large enough to lay the Halibut in quite flat, and put 
three tablespoonsful of chopped eschalots, three glasses of sherry or 
Madeira, half a teaspoonful of salt, a little white pepper, and about 
half-a-pint of white broth into it, then lay in the Halibut and cover it 
over with white sauce, start it to boil over a slow fire, then put it into 
a moderate oven about an hour, try whether it is done with a skewer ; 
if the skewer goes through it easily it is done ; if not, bake it a little 
longer, then give it a light brown tinge with the salamander, place the 
fish upon a dish to keep it hot, then put a pint of white sauce in the 
saute-pan and boil it fifteen minutes, stirring it all the time, then pass 
it through a tammie into a clean stew-pan, and add a little cayenne 
pepper, two tablespoonsful of essence of anchovies, two dozen of oys- 
ters, blanched, two dozen of small mushrooms, two dozen quenelles, 
six spoonsful of milk, and a teaspoonful of sugar, reduce it till about 
the thickness of buchamel sauce, then add eight tablespoonsful of 
cream and the juice of a lemon, pour over the Halibut ; have ready 
twenty coriltons of bread cut triangularly from the crust of a French 
roll, and fried in butter ; place them round the dish, and pasd the sala- 
mander over it, and serve. 

Halibut en matelote vierge. 

Boil a Halibut as before, dish it up without a napkin, and have 
ready the following sauce : chop two onions very fine and put them in 
a stew-pan with four glasses of sherry, a sole cut in four pieces, two 
cloves, one blade of mace, a little grated nutmeg, some parsley, and 
one bay-leaf; boil altogether five minutes, then add a quart of white 
sauce, boil twenty minutes, stirring all the time, then put a tammio 
over a clean stew-pan, and colander over the tammie, pass the sauce, 
take the meat off the sole and rub it through the tammie with two 
spoons into the sauce, add half a pint of broth, boil it again until it is 
rather thick, season with a teaspoonful of salt, one of sugar, the juice 
of a lemon, and finish with half-a-pint of cream whipped, mix it quickly 
and pour over the fish ; garnish with white-bait and fried oysters, that 
have been egged and bread-crumbed ; or if there is no white-bait, 
gmclts will do. 



APPENDIX. C. 



Halibut d la Religieuae. 



347 



Dress the Halibut as before, and cover with Hollandaise sauce ; 
chop some Taragon chervil, and one French truffle, which sprinkle 
over it; garnish with hard-boiled eggs cut in four lengthwise and laid 

round. 

Halibut d, la Cremi ; gralinL 

Put a quarter of a pound of flour in a stew-pan, mix it gently with 
a quart of milk, be careful that it is not lumpy, then add two escha- 
lots, a bunch of parsley, one bay-leaf, and a sprig of thyme tied toge- 
ther, for if put in loose it would spoil the color of your sauce, which 
should be quite white, then add a little grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful 
of salt and a quarter ditto of pepper, place it over a sharp fire and stir 
it the whole time, boU it till it forms rather a thickish paste, then take 
it off the fire and add half-a-pound of fresh butter and the yolks of two 
eggs, mix them well into the sauce and pass it througe a tamraic ; then 
haVing the remains of a Halibut left from a previous dinner, you lay 
some of the sauce on the bottom of a dish, then a layer of the Halibut, 
without any bone, season it lightly with pepper and salt, then put 
another layer of sauce, then fish and sauce again until it is all used, 
finishinc' with sauce ; sprinkle the top lightly with bread-crumbs and 
grated Tarmesan cheese ; put it in a moderate oven half an hour, give 
it a light brown color with the salamander, and serve it in the dish it is 
baked in. 

Halibut a la Poissoniere. 

Boil a Halibut as before, and take it up when only one-thitd cooked, 
then put in a large saut^-pan or baking-sheet forty button onions 
peeled and cut in rings, two ounces of butter, two glasses of port wme, 
the peel of half a lemon, and four spoonsful of chopped mushrooms, 
then lay in the Halibut, and cover with a quart of brown sauce, set it in 
a slow oven for an hour, then take it out and place it carefully on a 
dish, place the fish again in the oven to keep it hot, then take the 
lemon-peel out of the sauce and pour the sauce into a stew-pan, reduce 
it till rather thick, then add twenty muscles, (blanched,) twenty heads 
of mushrooms, and about thirty fine prawns ; when ready to serve add 
one ounce of anchovy butter, a tablespoonful of sugar, and a little 



a» ii 



34S 



APPENDIX. — C. 



cayenne pepper, stir it in quickly, but do not let it boil ; pour the 
sauce over the fish, and serve very hot. 

Halibut d la Crime d'Anchois. 

Boil the Halibut and dish it without a napkin, then pour the follow- 
ing sauce over it and servo immediately : put a quart of melted butter 
into a stew-pan, place it on the fire, and when nearly boiling add six 
ounces of anchovy butter, and four spoonsful of whipped cream, mix it 
quickly, but do not let it boil ; when poured over the fish sprinkle 
some chopped capers and gherkins over it. 

Small Halibut d la MeHniire. 

Crimp the Halibut by making incisions with a sharp knife, about an 
inch apart, in the belly part of the fish, then rub two tablospoonsful of 
chopped onions and four of salt into the incisions, pour a little salad 
oil over it, and dip it in flour, then put it on a gridiron a good distance 
from the fire — the belly downwards — let it remain twenty minutes, 
then turn it by placing another gridiron over it, and turning the fish 
over on to it, place it over the fire for about twenty-five minutes, or 
longer if required ; when done place it upon a dish and have ready 
the following sauce : put six ounces of butter in a stew-pan, with ten 
spoonsful of melted butter, place it over the fire, moving the stew- 
pan round when very hot, but not quite in oil, add a liaison of two 
yolks of eggs, a little pepper, salt, and the juice of a lemon, mix it 
quickly, and pour over the fish ; serve directly and very hot. The 
fish must be kept as white as possible. For the above purpose the 
Halibut should not exceed eight pounds in weight. 

Halibut d la gratin Provenfale. 

This dish is made from fish left from a previous dinner. Put two 
tablespoonsful of chopped onions, and two of chopped mushrooms into 
a stow-pan with two tablespoonsful of salad oil ; place it over a mode- 
rate fire five minutes, stirring it with a wooden spoon ; then add three 
pints of brown sauce, and reduce it one-third, then add a clove of 
Bcrapod garlic, a teaspoonful of Harvey sauce, one of essence of an- 
chovy, a little sugar, a little cayenne, and two yolks of eggs, pour a 
little sauce on the dish you serve it on, then a layer of fish lightly 



APPENDIX. C. 



349 



seasoned with pepper and salt, then more sauce and fish again, finisli- 
iuf with sauce ; sprinkle hrcad-crumbs over it and place it in a mode- 
rate oven half-an-hour, or till it is very hot through, brown it lightly 
with the salamander and serve very hot. The garlic may be omitted 
if objected to, but it would lose the flavor from which it is named. 

HOW TO COOK FLOUNDERS. 

Soytr's Receipt for Flounder en matelote Normande. 
Cut the fins off a fine fresh Flounder, and make an incision down 
the back close to the bone, in which put some force-meat of fish, well 
seasoned with chopped eschalots and parsley, then butter a saute-pan 
very lightly, and put a teaspoonful of chopped eschalots into it with 
two glasses of white wine ; lay the Flounder into it and season with a 
little pepper and salt, then cover it with some bechamel sauce, and 
put it into a moderate oven for about twenty minutes or half an hour 
—but try whether it is done with a skewer— brown it lightly with the 
salamander; then take up the Flounder, dish it without a napkin, and 
make the saace as follows : put six spoonsful of white sauce in the 
saut^-pan with six ditto of milk, let it bod four minutes, keeping it 
stirred, then add one dozen oysters blanched, one dozen quenelles of 
whiting, one dozen mushrooms, half a teaspoonful of essence of ancho- 
vies, and four tablespoonsful of cream, with a little cayenne pepper 
an(^ sugar ; pour the sauce over and round the fish, pass the salaman- 
der again over it, and garnish round with fried bread cut in small tri- 
angles. The sauce may be passed through a tammie before the gar- 
niture is added, if required. Fried smelts are frequently served as 
garniture around it. 

Flounder d la Poltaise. 
Trim a fine Flounder and make an incision down the back, clearing 
the meat from the bone, then melt two ounces of butter, and mix with 
it a teaspoonful of chopped eschalots, one of chopped mushrooms, ono 
of chopped parsley, and a glass of sherry ; put the Flounder in a dish, 
and pour the butter, etc., over it ; sprinkle a few bread-crumbs on it, 
and put it in the oven twenty minutes or half an hour ; when done, 
pour a little anchovy sauce over it, and brown it lightly with the sala- 
mander. 



i 






850 



APPENDIX, 



Flounder aux fines herbes. 
Boil a Flounder— if the Flounder is very fresh it may bo put in boil- 
ing water, but it is best to let it only simmer— in salt-and-water, and 
dish it without a napkin ; have ready the following sauce : put in a 
stew-pan six teaspoonsful of chopped onions and a piece of butter, fry 
the onions a light brown, then add eight tablespoonsful of brown sauce, 
and let it boil at the corner of the stovo ten minutes, then add a tea- 
spoonful of chopped mushrooms, half ditto of chopped parsley, ono 
ditto of essence of anchovies, and the juice of a quarter of a lemon ; 
pour it over the fish and servo. This sauco must be rather thick, but 
not too much so. 

HOW TO COOK HADDOCK. 

Soyefs Receipt for common Haddock, plain. 

This is a very serviceable, light, wliolesomc fish, and may bo ob- 
tained, like Solos or Whitings, at any time of the year ; to dress them 
plain, put them in boiling water well salted, and let them simmer about 
twenty minutes, or according to the size, dress on a napkin, and servo 
shrimp sauco in a boat. 

Haddock d la Walter Scott. 
Put two tablespoonsful of chopped onions, one ditto of Harvey 
sauce, ono ditto of catsup, one ditto of sherry, and twenty ditto of 
melted butter into a middling-sized stew-pan, place it over the fire and 
let it boil fifteen minutes, keeping it stirred, then have ready a good- 
sized Haddock, cut in four pieces, put it into the stew-pan with the 
sauce, place it over a slow fire for twenty minutes, or longer if neces- 
sary ; when done, dress it on a dish without a napkin ; reduce the sauce 
a little more if required, then add a little sugar and essence of an- 
chovy, pour it over the fish and serve. 

Fillets of Haddock d la St. Paul. 
Fillet your fish the same as a Whiting, dip the fillets in flour, egg, 
and tread-crumb, and fry in hot lard, or oil, in a saut6-pan, dress 
them on a napkin, garnish with fried water-cress, and serve with two 
If i,^,™ v.^*4^/>>. r««itoH Kiif Tint, hoilftd. in a boat. 



APPENDIX. C. 



351 



Fillets of Haddock a la Hollandaue. 
Fillet youT fish as above, and proceed as for fillets of Whiting 4 la 
HoUandaise. 

HOW TO COOK WHITINQS. 

Soyer''a Receipt for Whitings, to fry them. 

Every person knows the delicacy of this fish, and its lightness as 
food, especially invalids ; it is generally well received at all tables : to 
fry them well, dry them in a cloth, then throw them in flour, egg and 
bread-crumb, fry them in hot lard, observing the directions for frying 
Soles ; servo them on a napkin with shrimp-sauce in a boat, and gar 
nish with parsley. 

Whiting au gratin. 

Have the Whitings skinned, with their tails turned into their mouths; 
butter a saute-pan and put in the Whitings, with a tablespoonful of 
chopped onions and four tablospoonsful of brown sauce over each ; 
sprinkle bread-crumbs over them, and a little clarified butter, and put 
them in a moderate oven half an hour ; take them out and dress them 
on a dish without a napkin ; then put twelve tablespoonsful more 
brown sauce into the saut^-pan, with a teaspoonful of chopped mush- 
rooms, one ditto chopped parsley, one ditto essence of anchovy, a 
little pepper, salt, and sugar, boil ten minutes, pour round the fish, 
and pass tho salamander over them. 

* 

Whitings broiled. 
Have the fish skinned and curled round, fiour it, and lay it on the 
gridiron over a moderate fire ; it will take about twenty minutes; dish 
it on a napkin, garnish with parsley, and serve plain melted butter in 
a boat. Season when near done. 

Whitings boiled d la Maitre d'Hdtel. 

Broil the fish as above, dish them without a napkin, have six table- 
spoonsful of melted butter in a stew-pan, put it to boil, then add two 
ounces of maitre d'hdtel butter, stir it till it is melted, but do not let 

if \\f\\\ . jiTid nour over the fish. 

— J ^ 




11 H 



;ri 




:F' 






I 



i 






1109 



AFPKNUIX. C. 



fillets of Whitingi fried. 

Take tho fillets of ix siuall Wbitiugs which have not been skinned, 
dip them in flour, « i>f, and bread-crumb them, and fry in very hot 
lard ; garnish with fried parsley, and servo with sauce IloUandaiso in 
a boat. 

Fillets of Whitings d la Hollandaise. 

Fillet six Whitings as above, cut them in halves, then butter a saut^- 
pan, and lay in the fillets, skin side downwards ; season with a little 
pepper, salt, and lemon-juioo, place them over a slow fire five minuten, 
turn them and place them again on tho fire ; when done, dish them 
round on a dish, and pour some sauce Hollandaise over them 

Fillets of WhUings d V Italienne. 

Fillet and dress tho fish as in tho last, adding chopped parsley to 
the seasoning, and make the sauce as for Filets do Soles k I'ltalienne. 

Wliiting d VHuiU. 

Fry the Whiting in very hot salad oil, instead of lard, of a very 
light brown color ; dish it on a napkin, garnish with fried parsley, and 
aerve shrimp-sauce in a boat 




SUPPLEMENT 



TO 



Jj'BANK FORESTER'S 



|is% ani |is^iit9 



BT 



i 



HUNRY WILLIAM HERBERT. 








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1 N D E X '!,' ( ' 




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.{.MKIV HACKLii. 

H^ PAl MRK IIAI.R.UK- 

.^.,K siUVlR i'AUMKR. 

iVir PALMKK UACKUfc 

■i ; i.AC« PALMEtt HACKLK- 

. :-. VALMK-B HAf'KL'i. B-it'NU 
1 11 ij UoW. 

7, a*iJ£K^ l)r!\KK, Oa .»iAV KLV 

,,, ..V DKAKl., OH MAY r l.V. 

ft, «;<:'•■* ?'• NU. 

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i, !.• ;; KAiu 



l... iCINODOM il-Y. 
M WHITE GNAT 



44- ' 



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-■""-^••""l 



INDEX TO PLATE OF FLIES, 



I. RED PALMER HACKLE. 

i. PEACOCK PALMER HACKLE. 

3. BLACK SILVER PALMER. 

4. YELLOW PALMER HACKLE. 

5. BLACK PALMER HACKLE. 

6. BLACK PALMER HAPKLE, Ribhed 

with Oold. 

7. GREEN DRAKE, OR MAY FLY. 

8. GREY DRAKE, OR MAY FLY, 

9. COW DUNG. 

10. BEE FLY 

U. BLACK GNAT. 
12. HAKV'S EAR. 



13. COCK TAIL. 

14. WHIRLING DUN. 

16. KINGDOM FLY. 
10. WHITE GNAT. 

17. BLUE DUN. 

18. RED ANT. 

19. GOLD SPINNEU 

20. WHITE MOTH. 

21. GOVERNOR. 

SB. MARCH BROWN. 
93. STONE FLY. 
24. WILLOW FI.Y 




I ^ 1 1) 1 1 ll f . I Jl » ,. I l"ll 



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INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



On coming to revise the body of this work for a new edition, it 
was found, as might naturally be expected in a book embracing so 
large a field, that some errors had crept in, of commission, but yet 
more of omission ; that some opinions with regard to fishes, unknown 
to the writer through his own observation, quoted from others, are, as 
verified by his own experience, incorrect ; and that some few things 
stated as facts, when tried by the same test, are incorrect. 

To set these right in the body of the work, would have rendered it 
necessary to reprint and re-stereotype the whole volume ; as, by the 
insertion of new matter, the paging would have been all thrown out of 
order, and many whole pages would have been entirely destroyed, 
merely in order to rectify a single word. 

1 have therefore judged it best to throw what new information i 
have gained, into the form of a Supplement ; embodying therein the 
eoifcction of all erroneous opinions which, through want of informa- 
tii misinformation, I have fallen into ; and adding farther instruc- 

tions „ith regard to the implements, and the art of angling. 

On Trolling for Lake Tvout, and on Fishing with the Fly, very con- 
siderable additions will be found in this edition ; as well as a Table ex- 
plaining the seasons, bait, &c., of the principal salt-water fishes of 
our waters. 

I had hoped to have been able to insert some information concern- 





QgQ INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

ing the more interesting sea-fish of the Southern States ; but having 
wdted as long as it was possible, for a number of specimens of which 
I had a promise from a friend in Charlcaton, South Carolina, I am 
very reluctantly compelled to go to press without that advantage, and 
am precluded from doing much more than naming what I learn to 
be the best and gamest of the southern species. 

In this Supplement, I shall adhere to the plan adopted in the Vol- 
ume, of dividing it into two parts, one treating of the structure, habita, 
and classification of the fishes; the other of the implements, the ma- 
terials, and the art of angling. 

The Salmon family will claim-as of the Volume itself, so of the 
Supplement also-the larger portion. Of this interesting group, the 
proper Salmons, I have herein inserted descriptions of six new species 
peculiar to the Columbia and other rivers of the Pacific coast, now 
growing into so great importance ; and of the sub-genus Coregonus, of 
the same group, I have two new varieties from the north-western lakes. 
Concerning the several varieties of Lake Trout, I have cause materi- 
ally to modify opinions expressed heretofore; and have succeeded in 
collecting much new information as to their habits, quality, instincts, 
and the mode of capturing them. 

To the various friends who have assisted me with advice, informa- 
tion, and friendly criticism, I take this opportunity of again express- 
ing my gratitude, and of putting it on record how much is due to them 
of the increased value of this edition. 



PART I. 

THE 

GAME FISHES 

OF 

Snrtli %mim. 







mmmmmmmm 



I 



■ i 



€)^t (0anie ^isliBB nf Emnirn. 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPrERYGIL 



SALMONIDiB. 



THE SALMON. 



THE COMMON SALMON — THE TRUE SALMON. 




Salmo Salar; Auctorum. 

I STATED in the body of this work, that the True Salmon was wont, 
in former years, to run up into Seneca, Cayuga, and others of the 
small lakes of central New York, and expressed a doubt whether it 
was not now prevented from doing so, by the obstructions in the Os- 
wego river. 

In the course of a visit to that interesting region, during the past 
autumn, I had an opportunity of verifying this doubt ; and I found, as 
indeed I expected, that the True Salmon has ceased to exist in those 

beautiful waters. 

It is with great pleasure, however, that I lay before my readers an 
enactment for the preservation of that noble fish, just passed by the 
Supervisors of the county of Oswego, in conformity with the act of the 
State Legislature, committing the care of Game, and the passing of 
Game laws, to those Boards throughout the country. 

This act is precisely what it should be, and reflects the highest 
credit on the liberality, \?isdom, and energy of the Board which en- 
acted it. I only regret that its provisions extend only to a single 
river • 1: ". trust that this defect will be' amended, and that the Os- 
wego River, and the Seneca, Cayuga, and other outlets will receive the 
same privilege, which would doubtless lead to the speedy re-establish- 
ment of the Salmon in those lovely and limpid waters : 
24 




lifr 



C32 



AMKKICAN FIfellEb. 



LAW FOR THE PRESERVATION OF SALMON. 

PUDUBHED DY ORDER OF THE BOARD OK 8UPKRV.BOR8. 

AN ACT for the preservation of Salmon in the Salmon River and Lake Ontario con. 

tlgnous thereto :—PnBBod Dec. I2th, 1836. 

The Board of SnpervisorB of the County of Oswego, convened at PulnBki. m the 
KHid county, do enact as foUowflt 

. 1. It .hall not be la,.ful for any person to fish for. catch, or take, any Salmon, 
wi h any ne-. seine, weir, of any kind or dcBcription. in any of the waters o the 
slon River in said county, or in the waters of Lake Ontario, wuh.n one n. e of 
" mlth of said river, between the first day of April and the -«-;■-»' ^^^y''^^- 
u,ber, in any year after the passage of this act. And any person offend.ng h rem, 
ha for every such off.nce. forfeit and pay the sum of one hundred dollars, to be 

covered by action, with the costs of suits, by and for the use o any person who 
TproBccute for the same before any justice of the peace in and for the sa.d county 

"' IT And be it further enacted. That the Salmon so caught and taken in any of 
the waters aforesaid, in violation of the provisions of this act. together w.th any 
111 net, weir, or traps so used or set for use. in violation of th.s act as aforesa.d 
Tl belrfoitei to and may bo immediately taken into pos8ess.o» o . and curr.ed 
aw!y!b ny person who shall find said net. seine, weir, or trap, whde so used or 
Jfo uL as aforesaid; and such person may and he is hereby authonsed to keep, 
Telo otherwise dispose of the same for his own use and benefit as to h.m may 
c ^fit^a^^^ proper And any such weir or trap which shall be affixed to any dam 
or le obstructls in any of the waters of Salmon River, or wh.ch shall be set or 
lured to the bottom of said river or lake aforesaid, Bhall be. and the same .s hereby 
"l-udged a public nuisance, and may be abated by any person summardy wUhout 
nrocessoflav. other than the proviwons of this act. 

63 And be it further enacted, That the owner or owners of m.U or other dam 
which are now erected across the said Salmon River, or any branch or channel 
Th eof BO a, to obstruct the usual course of the Salmon m gomg "P -«i nv-' -»>« 
Shu not on or before the first day of June, in the year o,. thousand e.gh hundred 
^.d f^, have altered such dam by constructing an apK>n or slope on the lower s.de 
hereo xtending fr..m the top of said dam to the bottom of the nver below, sa.d 
Inrr; Bl pe to be not less than twenty feet wide, with a smooth and even sur- 
aprou or slope lo fortv-five degrees with the horizon, and to be loca- 

'T ""'*::? .oil n /"ul Hv., .. o.c»,„.U»c„ »,« pc™U, » 

,ed m o .. n.« «» -J" "■" ,t„„ .„„h j.^, ,h.„ „.pec.ively 

*:\ 717. r. w'™ w c .»ch d.m i. .ocaM, .h. .,™ of o„o hundred 

ir:i:. r^ oi; of „h-,cH .. ^ p- .« .,. co^p,..,,.. .„- .>. ~ 

1 .:: It "e„,v.r.vo doU... to be .ppro.,,i«Ud .o th. support of ib. «»r of .„ch 



SALMON. D^:. 



868 



town, and to be received by the overseer or overseers of the poor thereof, in the 
manner provided for in the first section of this act. And in case such dam shall not 
have been so altered within the time above-mentioned, such dam shall bo adjudged 
a public nuisance, and may be abated in the same manner us is provided in the 
second section of this act. And further, that any mill or other dam which shall be 
hereafter erected across said river, or any branch or channel thereof, shall bo con- 
structed with an apron or slope as aforesaid. And any owner or owners of such 
dam, which shall be hereafter constructed iicross said river as aforesaid, who shall 
neglect or refuse to comply with the provisions of this section, shall respi.«tively for- 
feit the same penalty, to be prosecuted for, received and applied, as is herein before 
provided in this section. 

§ 4. And be it further enacted. That it shall not be lawful for any person to fish 
for, catch, or take Salmon, while passing over such aprons or slopes, or within the 
distance of four rods of said slopes, aprons or dam ; And any person ofTending herein, 
shall forfeit and pay the sum of twenty-five dollars, to be recovered and applied in 
the manner provided for in and by the first section of this act. 

§ 5. And be it further enacted. That nothing contained in the first three sections 
of this net, shall be so construed as to prevent the fishing for, catching, or taking 
Salmon with a spear, in the waters aforesaid, by the owner or owners, lessee or les 
sees, and their lawfully authorized agents of the lands over which the waters of said 
river flow, or adjoining the waters of Lake Ontario aforesaid. 

^ 6. And be it further enacted, That this act shall take efiect on the first day of 
January, eighteen hundred and fifty. 

A. L. Thomabon, Chairman. 



I earnestly recommend the passage of similar laws to this, by the 
Legislatures of the various Eastern States, especially by that of Maine, 
in reference to every river eastward, at least, of the mouth of the Ken- 
nebeck, as the only method by which the speedily approaching extinc- 
tion of the Salmon can be prevented. 

I have no doubt, however, that if the same law were passed by the 
Legislatures of Connecticut and New York, with regard to the fine 
liver which gives name to that first State, and to the noble Hudson, 
coupled with an absolute prohibition to take or destroy the Salmon for 
th? space of five years, that this, the king of fishes, might be re-intro- 
duced into those waters, by the adoption of the simple method des- 
cribed at page 60 tt seqiientes of this volume. 

And I take this opportunity of stating, that I have good hope of ma- 
king such arrangements as will enable me to procure, in this coming 
spring, such supplies of the Salmon fry, in the state which admits of 



tf'<r 



864 



AMKRICAN riSMK*. 



their transportation from Nova Scotia, as will Huffioo to c»tabli.sh th. 
posHibility of tho und .rtakiiiR. It is my intention, should I sucooed 
in obtaining' any support or i.ncouragem.'nt from the LegiHlaturo of 
New Jersey, to make the experiment in the tributaries of the I'a^'saic ; 
and should it bo successful, 1 can only add that it will give mo but too 
much pleasure to assist any gentlonian of spirit in procuring the means 
of restocking any waters on which they may reside, with this most 
game and noblest of fishes. 




tALMONIDJ 



300 



AllDOMtNAI- 
MAI.ACOprKRYail. 



lAUdONIDiE. 



THE BUOOK TROUT. 



THE COMMON TROUT. 



Salmo Fontinalii; DeKay. 



With regard to this very beautiful and excellent fish, 1 have very 
little to add to what ia recorded in the former part of this volume, at 

page 86 et seq. 

I have ascertained, however, as a fact, what I mentioned there as a 
mere surmise, that in some places and on some occasions the Brook 
Trout of America are taken of a very much larger size than is gene- 
rally imagined. 

At the Sault St. Mario, which I visited this autumn, although too 
late for Trout-fishing in its perfection, the average run of fish is ex- 
ceedingly large ; as also in the Garden River, which falls into the St. 
MaryC, a few miles below the beautiful rapid I have mentioned. 

Three and four pounds is by no means an unusual weight ; but the 
most important fact is this, that some years since, the commandant of 
the United States' Fort, at the Sault, offered a reward to any Indian 
who should bring in a Brook Trout of ten poitnds' weight. The result 
was, that many were brought in of six and seven pounds and upward, 
and at last one monster which actually weighed eleven pounds and 

some ounces. , . . u j 

There is no question about this fact, or of its bemg actually a red- 
spotted Brook Trout, as distinguished from the Namaycush or Siska- 
witz • for the whole affair originated from a desire to investigate and 
ascertain the fact of natural history, on the part of the distinguished 
officer in question, and the fish was submitted to a thorough scrutiny 
and scientific examination before the premium was awarded. 

The question may therefore be regarded as settled, that, in favorable 
situations and peculiar waters, the Brook Trout grows to a size much 
larger than is usually supposed to be its utmost limit, possibly even up 



^MMi,iiBi-wi naa »ti 




366 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



to fifteen or twenty pounds, though the average of the fish is undenia- 
bly below a pound. 

There can, I aui now satisfied, be no doubt that the very largo red- 
spotted fish described by Dr. Smith, under the title of Hucho, as ex- 
isting in many of the lakes of New England, is nothing more, as I 
surmised in the first instance, than an enormous and overgrown Brook 
Trout, very large specimens of which are constantly brought into the 
Boston markets from the interior of New Hampshire. The wonderful 
effect of different waters on the growth, coloring and flavor of fish has 
been already mentioned ; and I shall have yet more to say on this sub- 
ject when I cc'ue to speak of the Lake Trout. 

1 will only here farther observe, that on recent information from an 
undoubted authority, I have reason to believe that I have overestima- 
ted the average weight of the Brook Trout taken in Carman's Creek 
on Long Island ; a very highly accomplished angler, who fishes those 
waters constantly, having assured me that the average is not now above 
three-fourths of a pound. There is no question, that in waters so 
assiduously whipped as those of Long Island, not only the number but 
the size of Trout must necessarily decrease. For farther instruction 
on Fly-fishing, &o., I must now refer my reader to the Second Part of 
this Supplement, where he will find, I trust, all that may be necessary 
to supply what was omitted above, both as regards doctrine and prac 
tice, art and implements, necessary for the gentle craft. 



8ALM0NIDA. 



367 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGIL 



SALMON IDiE. 



THE GREATEST LAKE TROUT. 



MACKINAW SALMON NAMAYCUSH. 



Salmo Ameihyatuti Mitchil, DeKay.—Salmo Namaycush; Pennant, Richardson. 

Of this fish — concerning which, in the body of the work, I wroto 
chiefly on the report of others— in the course of a recent tour to the 
upper lakes, I had ample opportunities of judging. I saw certainly 
liundreds of specimens, none below seventeen or eighteen pounds 
weight, and many up to forty and forty-five. They are so abundant 
on Lake Huron that the Indians sell them willingly for a quarter of a 
dollar each, without reference to size. 

The flesh of this fish, as an article of food, is exceedingly bad ; it 
is coarse, flabby, and at once rank and vapid, when fresh, if such a 
combination can be imagined. On one occasion, a very large fish of 
this species having been served up boiled one day, and pronounced, 
by a large party of good epicurean judges, less than indifferent, a por- 
tion was dressed cold on the following day with salad, and was so 
insufferably rank, that it was incontinently sent from the table as un- 
eatable. 

When salted and smoked, or preserved in salt pickle, it is somewhat 
better, though not at all equal to its sister fish the Siskawitz. 

I should be willing to assert that the average of this great fish is fully 
up to twenty pounds. I will here add, that I have reason to believe 
that the opinion hazarded on report of others, that the Great Macki- 
naw Trout is the livdiest of his species, is entirely erroneous ; and that, 
from all the inquiries I made among Indians, hunters, and scientific 
anglers on the lake, I am inclined to disbelieve that this or the next 
described fish can be taken either with the fly or the spinning-minnow 
in trolling. If ever they are taken in either of these modes, or with 
the spoon or squid, it is contrary to their usual habit; and may be con- 
sidered a freak of the fish, and one of so rare occurrence as to render 



^ 



368 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



it a very unprofitable attempt for the angler to fish for them by any 
of these modes. 

A coarse, heavy, stiff rod — a long and powerful oiled hempen or 
flaxen line — on a large winch, with a heavy sinker, a cod-hook baited 
with any kind of flesh, fish, or fowl — but, best of all, with a piece of the 
belly of its own species, is the most successful if not the most orthodox 
or scientific mode of capturing him. 

Its great size and immense strength alone give him value as a fish 
of game ; but when hooked, he pulls strongly and fights l*ard, though 
he is a boring deep fighter, and I think never leaps out of water, lil.o 
the True Salmon or the Brook Trout. 



'^'" 



SALMONIDiE 



360 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEEYGH 



SALMONIDiG. 



> H 

in 



THE SISKAWITZ. 



NORTHERN LAKE TROUT. 



m 



Salmo Siskawitz ; Agaasiz. 

This fish, like the former species, came frequently under my eye 
during my late northern tour ; and I rejoice in the possession of a 
barrel of him in his pickled state, which I procured at the Sault St. 
Marie, on the strength of which I can recommend him to all lovers of 
good eating as the very best salt fish that exists in the world. 

He is so fat and rich, that when eaten fresh he is insufferably rank 
and oily ; but when salted and broiled, after being steeped for forty- 
eight hours in cold water, he is not surpassed or equalled by any fish 
with which I am acquainted. 

Since my return, he has been tasted by very many gentlemen of my 
acquaintances, and by no ona of them has he been pronounced any- 
thing less than superlative. 

His habits closely resemble those of the Namaycush ; and like him 
I cannot learn that he ever takes the fiy, or is ever taken by trolling. 
I do not, however, believe that either of these methods are often re- 
sorted to for his capture, although there are many scientific fly-fishers 
about the Sault, and the Brook Trout of those waters are principally 
taken with large and gaudy lake-flies. 

The average weight of the Siskawitz does not exceed four or five 
pounds, though he is taken up to seventeen. His excellence is so per- 
fectly understood and acknowledged in the Lake Country, that he 
fetches double the price per barrel of his coarser big brother, the 
Namaycush ; and he is so greedily sought for there, that it is difficult 
to procure him even at Detroit, and almost impossible at Buffalo. 

1 believe none were ever brought to New York, previously to the bar- 
rel which 1 brought down with me from the Sault. I am now able to 
supply, from personal inspection, what I was compelled unavoidably to 



li • ■•lifl 




870 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



omit above, the number of rays in the various fins. They are as fol- 
lows: 

First dorsal twelve branched rays, second dorsal adipose, pectorals 
fifteen, vcntrals ten, anal nine, and caudal twenty-one perfect, besides 
several rudimental branched rays ; in all of which it diff^crs from the 
Namaycush. It is, I think, on the whole, a bluer and less distinctly 
spotted fish than the Namaycush 

As a sporting fish, it is, I am of opinion, of small value ; but as an 
article of cuisine — he is valuable, or rather, and that not hyperboli- 
cally, invaluable. 



!ii| 



11 



ll|i 



i ! 




SALMONID^. 



871 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGII. 



SALMONID^. 



THE LAKE TROUT. 

Saltno Confinia; DeKay. 

Concerning no fish have I seen occasion so greatly to alter my ex- 
pressed opinions— founded chiefly on the opinions of others, and, where 
original, formed from examination of fish taken in the waters of the 
Eastern States, and in Lakes George and Champlain, in none of which 
is it either a game fish, or in my opinion a good fish. 

I still doubt greatly whether there be not two distinct species of 
Lake Trout, one quite peculiar to the small lakes of New York. Cer- 
tainly 1 never saw or tasted any Lake Trout similar in appearance, or 
equal in flosh and flavor, to those which I ate at Geneva, and which 
were subsequently sent down to me in ice, by my friend Mr. Mande- 

ville, of that city. 

The description of these fish exactly tallies with the account of the 
red-fleshcd Lake Trout of Hamilton county, where I have never fished, 
being deterred therefrom by dread of that curse of the summer angler, 
the black fly, which is to me especially venomous. 

A letter which I insert below, from a capital angler, who has caught 
this fish in the far-famed Louis Lake, agrees exactly with the charac- 
teristics of the Seneca Lake Trout, but not with his habits; as I have 
the best authority for stating that in Seneca Lake they are never taken 
cither by the fly or by trolling ; although in Crooked Lake, immedi- 
ately adjoining it, they are constantly caught by trolling for them 
" with shiners strung upon the hook, and drawn head foremost, with 
a hook leaded to sink twenty to thirty feet." 

In Seneca Lake they are taken on set lines, varying in depth from 
twenty-five to four hundred feet, concerning which method more under 
the head of Lake Fishing. 

The following is an accurate description of one of the fish sent to 
me from Senega Lake. It differs, as will be seen, in many respects, 






372 



AMERICAN FISHEft. 



of structure, shape, and color, from the account quoted at page 117, 
from Dr. DeKay's Fauna of New York— almost widely enough, in my 
opinion, to justify its erection into a separate species: 

Dental system. — A double row of strong hooked teeth on the labials 
and palatines of the upper jaw. The vomer perfectly smooth and 
toothloss. In the lower jaw, a single row of strong hooked teeth on 
the labials, and a double row of smaller size on the tongue. 

Branchiostegous rays, eleven on the right side, thirteen on the left. 

Pectoral fin-rays sixteen, ventral ten, anal twelve, dorsal thirteen, 
caudal twenty-seven. 

In all these respects it diflFers from DeKay's Salmo Conjinis. 
Whole length, nineteen and a half inches. Head, four inches to the 
lower mai-gin of the inter operculum. Eye, one inch and a half from 
tip of snout. Origin of the ventral fin, nine inches and a quarter ; of 
the anal, thirteen ; of first dorsal, eight and a half; of the second dor- 
sal, fourteen, from the tip of the snout. 

Depth of the fish at the origin of first dorsal, three inches and three- 
fifths ; breadth of back two inches. 

Curvature of the belly greater than that of the dorsal outline. Color 
of the head dark bluish black. Irides silvery, gill-covers silvery with 
nacrous reflections. Back and sides, above the lateral line, beautiful 
glossy cseiulean blue, mottled with bright silvery spots of the size of 
large duck-shot ; below the lateral line the silvery spots arc larger, and 
the ground lighter blue ; belly pure silver. 

Pectoral fins pale yellowish green, ventrals and anal greenish, very 
faintly tinged with red. First dorsal greenish transparent, veined with 
black ; second dorsal silvery grey, slightly mottled ; caudal greenish 
grey, mottled with black. 

A very beautifully formed fish, more tapering than the Namaycush 
or Siskawitz, with the small head, and much both of the form and 
lustre of the True Sea Salmon. 

Flesh rich orange buflF, very firm, highly flavored and delicate. This 
fish, and another rather larger, but otherwise exactly agreeing with 
this, were eaten at my table by a party of six gentlemen, as good 
judges of good eating as any Ivith whom I am acquainted, and were 
unanimously pronounced better than Brook Trout! better than True 
Salmon ! the best fish in the world ! 



SALMONID^. 



873 



Singularly enough, at the very time that my opinion was becoming 
changed with regard to this-I now think excdhnt fish, 1 received a 
long and most kind letter from the accomplished fisherman to whom I 
had applied for information in regard to Hamilton county fishing, dif- 
, fering from the opinion given in the bulk of this volume, whicL 1 had 
just before discovered to be faulty. 

I have no hesitation in laying this verbatim before my readers, as I 
have no doubt it is thoroughly correct in all respects, both as to the 
habits and quality of the Hamilton county Lake Trout, with which 1 
am satisfied that the Lake Seneca variety is identical; the variation 
in the habits of the fish in the different localities being ascribable to 
the different qualities of the water which they inhabit. 

The average weight of the Lake Trout in Seneca Lake is much as 
is stated by my kind correspondent-that is to say, under /o^r pounds, 
and they very rarely exceed seven. ^ 

This letter was written at my request, for the purpose of pomtmg 
out commenting upon, and correcting any errors of omission or com- 
mission which he had discovered in my work ; and I can only express 
mvself equally obliged by the candor and kindness of the criticism. 

Had I permission to give the name of the writer, I am well aware 
that in every angler's opinion it would add immensely to the value of 
his remarks as authority ; but it will suffice that 1 should assert that 
he is, of my own knowledge, one of the best fly-fishers in the United 
States. 

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION ON THE LAKE TROUT. 

" The average weight is eight or ten pounds." 

This is an extract from the New York Fauna of Dr. DeKay. Now, 
I venture to assert that Dr. DeKay never wet a line in the waters of 
Hamilton county, and that " the propensity to exaggeration in every- 
thiu-r in relation to aquatic animals," induced his informant to mako 
the above statement. I boldly assert that the average weight of Lake 
Trout is not four pounds. 

An ei<rht or ten pound fish is considered an unusually heavy fish. 1 
Will give" you my experience. In May, 1848, I spent eleven days m 
HamUton county, in company with a friend, and that friend an old 
Hamilton county troUer. We faithfully fished in Lake Pleasant 



W I' 



- ■1;. i:. '* J : ' I 



•««H*9w*nMnnn 



liil! 

Si; 




874 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Round Lake, and the far-famed Louis Lake. We killed about two 
hundred pounds' weight of fish. I killed one of sixteen pounds, one 
of nine pounds and a quarter, and two of five pounds each. My friend 
did not kill a single fish heavier than three pounds and three quarters, 
neither did I, save those just mentioned ; and I would and do say, that 
our fish did not average three pounds, the great majority being two 
pounders. 

At the same time two friends fished Pisoco Lake and Raekott Lake ^ 
the heaviest fish killed by them was eleven pounds; and I do not be- 
lieve that they took another of greater weight than four pounds ; at all 
events, we beat them all to smash in weight and number. So much 
for the average weight. 

The wholesale assertion on your 118th page, that they never rise to 
the fly, should be qualified. It is not correct that they " never rise to 
the fly." They frequently do. 

The nine pound and a quarter Lake Trout above referred to, was 
killed by me with an artificial fly. The facts are these : — On the 28th 
of May, 1848, I was fishing on Louis Lake. I was using a trolling- 
rod and a small Trout-rod, casting with one and trolling with the other. 
Upon my trolling-leader 1 had two flics ; and when my oarsman was in 
the act of pulling round a projecting elbow of wood, I reeled up, to 
avoid contact with a fallen tree, and just as my first fly trailed on the 
surfiicc of the water, the fish broke or rather dashed at it ; I struck 
him instantly, and' away he went, with so much velocity that I had 
hard work to keep my line from overrunning, not having a click-reel ; 
I fortunately thumbed the reel, and passed my Trout-rod to the oars- 
man, and then had fair play ; and I assure you I never had hold of a 
fish of the same size, that showed more game, power or endurance. He 
never sulked for an instant ; and the only diff"erencc which I could 
discover in his mode of action from a Salmon, was that after being 
struck, he did not show himself, or leap. Had I hooked this fish with 
my light rod, I would not have killed him under an hour ; and, indeed 
as it was, he was not " half gone " when Cowlcs, my guide, put the 
gaff" into him. This fish rose in about eight feet water, and took me 
twenty-five minutes to kill him ; and I never worked harder in my life 
to secure a fish, for you juay imagine that I was anxious to secure a 
Lake Trout, hooked as I have described. 



SALMONIDiE. 



876 



On the same page, you quote from Dr. DeKay, that this Trout has 
" the coarseness of the Halibut, without its flavor ;" and subsequently 
assjvt, as your own opinion, " that this is the most worthless of all the 
non-migratory species." I think that you arc mistaken— my reasons 
presently. On page 274 to 276, you also use the following expres- 
•jions : " These great, bad and unsporting fish," &c., " with a bullet at 
the end of two hundred yards of line, run rapidly through the wa- 
ter." " He is very indifferent eating." 

I disagree with you. "Every man to his taste." "What's one 
man's m°at is another man's poison." I prefer a Lake Trout to the 
host Brook Troni— don't laugh ! Now for my proof. To my know- 
ladcc, Lake Trout are preferred at John C. Holmes', the proprietor 
of Lake Pleasant House, to anything you can lay on the table. The 
nine; poimd and a quarter Trout to which I have before alluded, was 
eat m in this city, at the house of a mutual friend of ours, and was de- 
clared to be a glorious morsel. The sixteen pound and a half Trout 
was eaten at a friend's house in Broadway ; seventeen persons, myself 
among them, partook of it, and I never heard anything surpass the 
praise°of all; and for myself, let me say, that I never tasted a finer 
fish. He was boiled and eaten with plain drawn butter, or as house- 
keepers and cooks call it, I believe, " parsley and butter ;" and during 
my sojourn in the woods, my friend and myself invariably preferred 
and had the small Lake Trout cooked by our guides. If it be " very 
indifferent eating," then I am easily pleased, and every person with 
whom 1 have spoken on the subject are no judges of fish flesh. 

Have you fished for Lake Trout in Hamilton county .? I presume 
not, for most assuredly you labor under a mistake as to the " modus 

operandi^ 

Your instruction on lines, 9, 10, 11, page 274, is incorrect, and 
tends to lead the novice astray. Our friend of the " Spirit " is much 
nearer the mark, but the instruction is defective, as you have quoted 
it. 1 believe that no portion of your work was more anxiously looked 
for, than your views, direction and instruction upon fishing for Lake 
Trout. Hamilton county is becoming known ; and as the majority of 
anglers never can and nevor will be "fly-fishers," trolling for Lake 
Tiwit is destined to be the prevailing modo of fishing in that county 




of crcat waters. 



Now, I propose to give you a description of the truo, 



I S 1.1 1 I 



fM. 



m 



m I 



li 



! i;ii 



11) 



ii 



376 



AMERICAN PISHES. 



and proper tackle for this branch of angling, which is, by all odds, 
second only to casting the fly ; and a description of which has not, as 
far as I know, ever been published in any work on angling. 



This excellent treatise will be found under the head of Lake Trout 
Fishing ; and herewith, for the present, I quit the Lake Trout. 




gALMONIDJC 



877 



ARDOMINAL 
MALACUITERVQU. 



BALMONlD.t. 




THE SALMON TROUT. 

8EA TROUT WHITE TROUT. 

Salmo Trutta; Yarrel. 

When speaking of this beautiful fish-which, by the aid of ray friend 
Mr. Perley, of the city of St. John, 1 have been enabled fully to estab- 
lish for the first time as an unquestionable inhabitant of our waters— 
I mentioned, on page 277, the singular fact that this fish, although it 
enters every river and estuary on the eastern side of Nova Scotia, and 
runs up so far as the meeting of the tidal and fresh waters, docs not 
run up into the shoals, or spawn in the gravel beds of any of those 

rivers. '^ 

While commenting on that fact, I stated that it would appear to 
indicate a variation in this species from one of the normal habits of the 
race— that of running up into aerated waters, in order to spawn. 

This, it now seems, was founded on an erroneous interpretation of 
the fac't, which is, that the Salmon Trout, which does run up into 
fresh shallow streams, in order to spawn, on the Eastern Continent, 
does not breed with us at all on the Atlantic coasts of America, though 
• it will probably be found to do so in the waters which fall into the Pa- 
cific, as the Columbia, Sacramento, and other rivers in which, as I 
loam from returned Californians, it literally swarms 

The Salmon Trout in our north-eastern waters is merely a transient 
and very rapacious visitor, pursuing the vast shoals of smelts which 
run into all those rivers, and hunting them with unwearied activity 
and ferocity, until they escape above his reach into the swift and 
shallow fresh waters, into which he does not seem to pursue them 
After their escape, he returns at once into the outer bays and larger 
estuaries, where he is taken, as I have before described, with the scar- 
let ibis fly. 

The pursuit of the smelt by this fish indicates the propriety of spm- 

25 



Pill 



378 



AMERICAN riSHKS. 



ning for him mtu tl.at bait, in tho proper localities, in case of his 
refusing tho fly, especially when tho smelts aro becoming rare. 

Mr. Pcrloy, from whom I derive tho above valuable information, 
assures mo that ho was very successful last spring in taking smelt with 
a very small scarlet ibis and gold tinsel fly. They rise constantly, he 
says, leaping quite out of the water at their favorite bait. 

I propose to try this sport in the Passaic, in tho coming spring ; 
ftnd in default of other fly-fishing, doubt not to find it good fun. 



'■Z/I^^ 




SAT.MONID£ 



87U 



AIIDOMINAI. 
MAhACOlTEUYUII. 



SALMON I DiE. 



m 



TllK SALMON OF THE PACIFIC WATEUS. 



As thcao variotioa aro now fulling within tlio notice of American 
citizens, and furniHhing both food and sport to the bold and hard^ 
pioneers of civilization who aro resorting in such numbers to the El 
Dorado of tho Far West, 1 quote from Richardson's Fauna Borcali 
Americana tho following lively description of tiieir structure, species 

and habits : 

" In the paucity of our information respecting the fish of New Cale- 
donia, tho following notices, collected from the Journal of Mr. D. VV. 
Harmon, a partner of the North-Wcst Company, aro valuable. This 
gentleman resided for several years at a fur-post on Stuart's Lake, 
which lies in tho 55th parallel of latitude, and 125th degree of longi- 
tude, and which discharges its waters by a stream, named also Stuart, 
into Frazer's River, that falls into tho Strait of Juan da Fuca. Aa 
his remarks upon fish relate chiefly to tho Salmon tribe, this appears 
to be the most appropriate place for their insertion. 

"'1811. May 11. — Stuart's Lake. The ice in the lake broke up 
this afternoon. 22. VVc now take Trout in the lake, with set lines 
and hooks, in consideraldc numbers, but they aro not of a good kind. 
It is perhaps a little remarkable, that Pike or Pickerel have never 
been found in any of the lakes and rivers on the west side of tho 
Rocky Mountains. 

" ^August 2. It is impossible at this season to take fish out of this 
lake or river. Unless the Salmon from tho sea soon make their ap- 
pearance, our condition will be deplorable. 10. Sent all our people 
to a small lake about twelve miles off, out of which the natives take 
small fish, much resembling Salmon in shape and flavor, but not more 
than six inches long. They are said to be very palatable. 22. One 
of the natives has caught a Salmon, which is joyful intelligence to us 
all, for we hope and expect in a few days to have abundance. Theso 






I 




380 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



fish visit, to a greater or less extent, all the rivers in this region, and 
form the principal dependence of the inhabitants as the means of sub- 
sistence. The native," always make a feast to express their joy at the 
arrival of the Salmon. The person who sees the first one in the river 
exclaims, Td-loe naslay ! td-loe naslay ! Salmon have arrived ! Salmon 
have arrived ! The exclamation is caught up with joy, and repeated 
with animation by every body in the village. 

'■^ *■ September 2. We have now the common Salmon in abundance. 
They weigh from five to seven pounds. There are also a few of a 
larger kind, which will weigh sixty or seventy pounds. Both of thcui 
are very good when just taken out of the water ; but when dried, as 
they are by the Indians here by the heat of the sun, or in the smoke of 
a fire, they are not very palatable. When salted, they are excellent. 
As soon as the Salmon come into Stuart's Lake, they go in search of 
the rivers and brooks that fall into it, and these streams they ascend 
so far as there is water to cnabhi them to swim ; and when thoy can 
proceed no farther up, they remain there and die. None were ever 
seen to descend these streams. They are found dead in such num- 
bers, in some places, as to infect the atmosphere with a terrible stench, 
for a considerable distance round. But even when they are in a putrid 
state, the natives frequently gather them up and eat them, apparently 
with the same relish as if they were fresh. 

^''^ October 21. We have now in our store twenty-five thousand 
Salmon. Four in a day are allowed to each man. I have sent some 
of our people to take White Fish, Attihawmeg. 

'''■^November 16. Our fishermen have returned to the fort, and in- 
form mo that they have taken seven thousand White Fish. They 
wngh from three to four pounds, and were taken in nine nets of sixty 
fathoms each. 17. The lake froze over in the night. 

"' 1812. January 30. I have returned from visiting five villages 
of the Nateotains, built on a lake of that name, which gives origin to 
a river that falls into Gardner's Inlet. They contain about two thou- 
sand inhabitants, who subsist principally on Salmon and other small 
fish, and arc all well made and robust. The Salmon of Lake Nateo- 
tain have small scales, while those of Stuart's Lake have none. 

" ' May 23. — Stuart's Lake. This morning the natives caught a 
Sturgeon tli:it would woicrh about two hundred and fifty pounds. We 



SALMONID^. 



381 



li 



frequently see much larger ones, which we cannot take for want of 
nets sufficiently strong to hold them. 

" ^August 15. Salmon begin to come up the river. Few Salmon 
came up Stuart's River this fall, but we procured a sufficient quantity 
at Frazer's Lake and Stillas. These lakes discharge their waters into 
Frazer's River, which is about fifty rods wide, and has a pretty strong 
current. The natives pass the greater part of the summer on a chain 
of small lakes, where they procure excellent White Fish, Trout, and 
Carp ; but towards the latter part of August they return to the banks 
of the river, in order to take and dry Salmon for their subsistence 
during the succeeding winter. 

" ' 1813. August 12. Salmon have arrived. 
" ' 1814. August 5. Salmon begin to come up the river. They are 
generally taken in considerable numbers until the latter part of Sep- 
tember. For a month they come up in multitudes, and we can take 
any number we please. 

" ' September 20. We have had but few Salmon this year. It is 
only every second season that they are numerous, the reason of which 
I am unable to assign. 

" ' 1815. August 13.— Frazer's Lake. Salmon begin to come up 
the river, which lights up joy in the countenances both of ourselven 
and of the natives, for wo had all become nearly destitute of provisions 
'"1816. September 9. Salmon begin to come up this river. 
'' ' 1817. August 6. — Stuart's Lake. Salmon arrived. In the 
month of June, we took out of this lake twenty-one Sturgeon, thai 
wore from eight to twelve feet in length. One of them measured 
twelve feet two inches from its extreme points, four feet eleven inches 
round the middle, and would weigh from five hundred and fifty to six 
hundred pounds. 

" ' The Carrier Indians reside a part of the year in villages, built at 
convenient places for taking and drying Salmon, as they come up the 
rivers. These fish they take in abundance with little labor , and they 
constitute their principal food during the whole year. They are not 
very unpalatable when eaten alone, and with vegetables they are very 
pleasant food. Towards the middle of April, and sometimes sooner, 
the natives leave their villages, to go and pass about two months at 
the small lakes, from which, at that season, they take White Fish, 



*-«l 




S82 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Trout, Carp, S.C., in considerable numbers. But wben these bogin t(. 
f.iil, they return to their villages and subsist on the small fish which 
they dried at the lakes, or on Salmon, should they have been so pro- 
vid'jnt as to have kept any until that late season ; or they eat herbs, 
the inner bark or sap of the cypress tree, (piniis Banksiana,) berries, 
&c. At this season, few fish of any kind arc to be taken out of the 
lakes or rivors of New Caledonia. In this manner the natives barely 
subsist, until about the middle of August, when Salmon again begin to 
make their appearance in all the rivers of any considerable magnitude ; 
and they have them at most of their villages in plenty until the latter 
end of September, or the beginning of October. For about a month 
thoy come up in crowds, and the noses of some of them are either 
worn or rotted off, and the eyes of others have perished in their heads ; 
yet in this maimed condition they arc surprisingly alert in coming up 
rapids. These maimed fishes are generally at the head of large bands, 
on account of which the natives call them mce-oo-tecs, or chiefs. The 
Indians say that they have suffered these disasters by falling back 
amonf^ the stones, when coming up difficult places in the rapids which 
thry pass. The Carriers take Salmon in the following manner. All 
the Indians of the village assist in making a dam across the river, in 
which they occasionally leave places to insert their baskets or nets of 
wicker-work. These baskets arc generally from fifteen to eighteen 
feet in lenj;th, and from twelve to fifteen feet in circumference. The 
end at which the Salmon enter is made with twigs in the form of the 
entrance of a wire mouse-trap. When four or five hundred Salmon 
have entered this basket, they either take it to the shore to empty out 
the fish, or they take them out at a door in the top, and transport them 
to the shore in their large wooden canoes, which arc convenient for this 
purpose. When the Salmon arc thrown upon the beach, the women 
take out their entrails and hang them by the tails on poles in the open 
air. After they have romained m this situation a day or two, they take 
them down and cut them thinner, and then leave them to hang for 
about a month in the open air, when they will have become entirely 
dry. They arc then put into store-houses, which are built on four 
posts, about ten feet from the ground, to prevent animals from destroy- 
ing them ; and, provided they arc preservinl dry, they will remain 
jrno'l fnr aovoral vonrs''—IInrmon''s Travels in North America^ 1820." 



gALMONID£. 



883 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTEEYGII. 



BALMONIDiG. 



THE QUINNAT. 

Salmo Quinnat: Cavier. 

" ' This is the species which ascends the Columbia earliest in the 
season, commencing its run in the month of May in enormous shoals, 
clearing the greater Dalles, cascades and rapids innumerable, and ma- 
king its way to the sources of the river, where, at the close of the sea- 
son, it is found dead on the beach in great numbers. The muscular 
power of this fish is truly astonishing, even in a class of the animal 
kinc^dom remarkable for vigorous movements, for it may be seen 
^c'^ndmcr channels at the Kettle Falls so rapid, that when a stone as 
bi.r as a man's head is dropped into them, it is shot downwards with 
the swiftness of an arrow.* Individuals of this species have often been 
seen with their noses fairly worn down to the bone, and in the last 
sta-e of emaciation, yet still striving, to the last gasp, to ascend the 
stream The selection of particular streams for spawnmg is a remark- 
able feature in the history of the fish. It ascends the Walamet, Snake, 
and Kootanie rivers, &c., and passes by the Kawalitch, Okanagan 
Dcase's river, and others, seeming to prefer a rapid stream interrupted 
by falls to one of a quieter character, though other circumstances 
must regulate its choice, as some of the rivers which it refuses to enter 
have an°extremely rapid current. It is this Salmon which forms the 
main subsistence of the numerous hordes of Indians who live upon the 
banks of the Columbia, and it is known by the name of Quinnat, for 
one hundred and fifty miles from the mouth of the river. It attains a 
large size, weighing often from thirty to forty pounds.' The Quinnat 
is evidently the ' Common Salmon' of Lewis and Clarke. These tra- 
vellers men.^oa the first arrival of the Salmon at the Skilloot village, 

• In the map published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the 
descent at the Kettle Falls is stated at twenty-one feet ; but Lew.s andC arke were 
of opinion that in high floods the water below the falls nses nearly to a level w.th 
that above theni. 



m 







884 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



below the site of Fort Vancouver, as having occurred on the 18th of 
April, in the year 1806. 

" ' Color. — General tint of the back bluish gray, changing, after a 
few hours removal from the water, into mountain green ; sides ash 
grey with silvery lustre ; belly white ; back above the lateral line stud- 
ded with irregular rhomboidal or star-like black spots, some of them 
occellated. Dorsal fin and gill-covers slightly reddish ; tips of the anal 
and pectorals blackish gray ; the dorsal and caudal thii' .iv studded 
with round and rhomboidal spots, back of the head sparingly marked 
with the same. Whole body below the lateral line, with the under fins, 
destitute of spots. Lower jaw and tongue blackish gray ; roof of the 
mouth tinged here and there with the same. Scales large. Teeth 
disappearing on the medial line of the upper jaw, one row on each 
palate bone, a few small teeth on the fore part of the vomer, and two 
rows on the tongue. Form. — The greatest convexity of the back at 
the origin of the dorsal; end of the caudal semilunar ; adipose oppo- 
site to th6 posterior end of the anal ; dorsal of greater height than 
length. Fins.— Br. 17 ; P. 16 ; V. 10 ; A. 16 ; D. 14—0 ; C. 19f .' 
" The specimen of this. Salmon, though it is very soft, and has lost 
its scales, still retains its form, so that 1 am able to add the following 
particulars to Dr. Gairdner's description : — General form much like 
that of a Salmon Trout. The head is exactly one-fourth of the length, 
from the tip of the snout to the end of the scales on the caudal. The 
snout is cartilaginous as in S. Salar, and the length of the lower 
jaw rather exceeds that of the upper surface of the head. The edge 
of the gill-plate is an arc of a circle as in that species, but the sub- 
operculum is still more sloped ofi", having much the form of that of 
Salmo Scouleri. There are sixteen gill-rays on the right side, and 
seventeen on the left. The largest teeth are those of the under jaw, 
of which there are eleven in each limb, placed at regular distances, 
with some small ones in the intervals attached to the soft parts only. 
The labial and intermaxillary teeth are similar to these, and but little 
inferior in size. The lingual teeth, considerably smaller than those in 
the jaw, are placed in two parallel rows, five in each. The palatine 
teeth are a little shorter than the lingual ones, and those on the vomer 
are the smallest of all, scarcely protruding through the sof., parts in 
fhfl recent specimen : there are nine of them — two in front, the others 



il 



SALMONID*:. 



886 



in a single series, running upwards of half an inch backwards, or ahout 
two-thirds as far back as the palatine teeth. The gullet is armed with 
small teeth above and below. The jaw teeth are as big as those of the 
Salmon Trout. There are sixty-six vertebrae in the spine. The 
pyloric ccBca aro very numerous, there being about one hundred and 
fifty-five of them ; and their insertions surround the intestines from the 
pylorus until it makes a bend downwards, below which they continue 
to be inserted for a short way on one side of the gut only." 








ilil 



386 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGII. 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



BALMONIDifl 



GAIRDNER'S SALMON. 



THK QUEACHTS. 



Salmo Oairdnerii; Richardson. 



•' The specific name which I have given to this Salmon is intended 
as a tiibutj to the merits of a young though able naturalist, from whom 
science may expect many important accjuisitions, and especially in the 
history of the Zoology of the north-west coast of America, should his 
enf^agcmcnts with the Hudson's Bay Company permit him to cultivate 
that hitherto neglected field of observation. 

" ' This species ascends the river in the month of June, in much 
smaller numbers than the Quinnat, in whose company it is taken. Its 
average weight is between six and seven pounds. 

" ' Color. — Back of head and body bluish gray ; sides ash gray. 
Belly white, i he only traces of variegated marking are a few faint 
spots at the root of the caudal. Form.— Profile of dorsal line nearly 
strai'fht, tail terminating in a highly semilunar outline. Ventrals 
correspond to commencement of dorsal and adipose to end of anal. 
Teeth. — Jaws fully armed with strong hooked teeth, except a small 
space in centre of upper jaw. Vomer armed with a double row 
for two-thirds of its anterior portion. Palate bones also armed with 
strong teeth. FiNS.-Br. 11-12; P. 13; V. 11 ; A. 12.' 

" In this species the gill-cover resembles that of Salmo Salar still 
more strongly than that of the Quinnat does, the shape of the sub- 
operculum in particular being precisely the same with that of Salar. 
The teeth stand in bony sockets like those of the Quinnat, but arc 
scarcely so long. Those of the lower jaw and intermaxillaries are a 
little smaller than the lingual ones, and somewhat larger than the pala- 
tine or labial ones. The tongue contains six toeth on each side, the 
rows not parallel as in the Quinnat, but diverging a little posteriorly. 
The pharyngeals are armed with sr.iall sluiip teeth. The numbers of 



8.* ,'f. 



6ALM0NIDJE. 



387 






the teeth, excluding the sraall ones which fall off with the gums, are as 
follow: — Intormax. 4 — 4 ; labials 21 — 21 ; lower jaw 11—11 ; palate 
bones 12 — 12; vomer lost; tongue 6 — 6. When the soft parts are 
entirely removed, tha projecting under edge of the articular piece of 
the lower jaw is acutely serrated, in which respect this species differs 
from all the others received from Dr. Gairdner. There are sixty-four 
vertebrao in the spino " 







888 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



AKOOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGII. 



BAIMONIDyG. 



WEAK-TOOTHED SALMON. 

QUANNICH. 
Salmo Paucidens; Richardson. 

"This Salmon ascends the Columbia at the same time with the S. 
Gairdnerii, and in equal numbers. It is taken in company with that 
species and the Quinnat, and haa an average weight of three or four 
pounds. 

" ' Color.— Back of head and body bluish gray ; sides ash gray with 
a reddish tinge ; belly white. No trace of spots on the body or fins. 
Form. — Commissure of the mouth very oblique, approaching to verti- 
cal, dorsal profile quite straight, tail forked. Ventrals corresponding 
to middle of the dorsal, and adipose to posterior extremity of the anal. 
Teeth sparingly scattered and feeble on the jaws, only a few short 
weak ones on the anterior extremity of the vomer, and on the palate 
bones. Fins.— Br. 13; P. 17; V. 12; A. 17; D. 12—0.' 

" From the labels having dropped off, I cannot refer the fragments 
of any of the specimens to this species with certainty ; but I am in- 
clined to think that the spine, containing sixty-six vertebrae, belongs 
to it, and if so, the gill-cover is extremely like that of S. Scouleri, 
and the bones of the head have the same fibrous structure which we 
have noticed in the description of that species. None of the teeth 
have been preserved, but those of the lower jaw appear to have been 
fixed in cartilaginous sockets, which have separated from the bone, 
leaving a rough surface. The palate and upper jaw bones are lost. 
The union of the branchial arches at the root of the tongue is longer 
and narrower than in the preceding two species, and the gill-openings 
consequently are more ample. Either this species or the S. Scouleri^ 
or perhaps both, are named ' Red Char ' by Lewis and Clarke." 



SALMONIDA. 



380 



AI»1)<>M1NAL 
MALACOPTERYGn. 



SALMONID^ 



THE EKEWAN. 

Salmo Scouleri} Richardson. 

" ' The Ekewan, which averages thirty pounds in weight, ascends 
the Columbia towards the end of August and in the month of Septem- 
ber. Its flesh is paler and of inferior quality to the four preceding 
kinds.' From Dr. Gairdncr's description of this species, I have little 
doubt of its being the same with the S. Scouleri of Observatory Inlet; 
and I should, without hesitation, have referred to it the spinal colume 
and opercular bones noticed at the close of the account of the prece- 
ding species, had not Dr. Gairdner mentioned that no specimen of the 
Ekewan was sent, as he had not obtained one small enough to be put 

in spirits. 

" ' Color.— Body above medial line smoke gray, passing on head and 
tail into bluish gray ; a slight reddish tinge at the root of the dorsal, 
and between it and the adipose. Fins bluish gray, and all tinged with 
red except the caudal, which, with the back, is studded with irregular 
semilunar and stellated blackish brown spots. A large verraillion red 
patch in the concavity of the vertex, and another on the preopercule. 
Body below the mesial line grayish white with a reddish tinge. Form. 

A remarkable flattening over extremity of snout, behind which 

a slight concavity to occiput, where the body rises suddenly into a 
hump, and continues rising as far as the first dorsal, this elevated por^ 
tion being accuminated into a ridge. A notch behind the point of the 
snout gives an arched outline to the commissure of the mouth. Lower 
jaw also arched upwards, so that the two jaws do not approach each 
other when the mouth is closed, except at the two extremities. Teeth . 
—Jaws fully armed with strong hooked teeth, except a small space in 
the medial line of the upper jaw. Teeth moveable, from being imbed- 
ded in soft cartilaginous sockets. Two rows of strong lingual teeth, a 
single row on each palate bone, and a few rudimentary ones can be 
felt in a single row on the anterior extremity of the vomer. Teeth on 








mrl 



I 



300 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



RAYS.-Br. 16; p. 16; V. 9} A. 16; D 



the pharyngeal bones. 

12 — 0. 

" ' This description applies to a female— the male differs in the up- 
per jaw being elongated into a proboscis, which projects beyond the 
lower jaw when the mouth is closed ; it is formed of a moveable carti- 
laginous mass articulated to the extremity of the nasal bones, and is 
furnished with teeth as well as the rest of the jaw. The lower jaw is 
narrower, and entirely received within the concavity of the upper one 
when the mouth is shut.' " 




Hi" 



8ALM0NIDA. 



891 



fifT 



ADDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYOII. 



BALHONID/B. 



THE TSUPPITCH. 



Salmo Ttuppitch; 



" 'The Tsuppitch ascends the Columbia at the same time with the 
Ekewan. I counted 1644 ova in the ovary of a female. 

" ' Color. — Back of body and head studded with oval and circular 
spots ; sides and fins, including the caudal, destitute of spots ; back 
medially bluish gray, passing on the back of the head into blackish 
gray, and on the sides into yellowish gray, with a greenish tinge and 
silvery white. General color of the fins ash gray. Teeth. — Jaws 
fully armed with minute sharp teeth, a single row on each palate bone, 
a very few on the anterior end of the vomer in a single series, and a 
double row on the tongue. Form. — Head small, exactly conical, ter- 
minating in a pointed snout. Commissure of mouth very slightly ob- 
lique. Convexity of dorsal profile rising gradually to origin of first 
dorsal, and declining from thence to the tail. Caudal forked. Rays 
—Br. 13; P. 13; V. 10; A. 13; D. 12—0.' 

" A spine containing sixty-four vertebrae, and an under jaw with ten 
curved teeth in each limb, are all the bones that I can with any ap- 
pearance of correctness refer to this species. The teeth are of equal 
size with those of S. Gairdneri, or perhaps rather larger, and are at- 
tached to the jaw-bone through the medium of cartilage. 



n 



«i 






302 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGIL 



AMERICAN FIBHEb. 



BALMONID^, 



CLARKE'S SALMON. 

Salmo Clarkii ; Richardson. 

" Dr. Gairdner doe8 not mention the Indian name of this Trout, 
which was caught in the Katpootl, a small tributary of the Columbia, 
on its right bank. I have therefore named it as a tfibuto to the me- 
mory of Captain Clarke, who notices it in the narrative prepared by 
him of the proceedings of the Expedition to the Pacific, of which he 
and Captain Lewis had a joint command, as a dark variety of Salmon 
Trout. In color this species resembles the Mykiss of Kamtschatka, 
and there is no very material discrepancy in the .number of rays in the 
fins. Vide Arct. Zool., Intr., p. cxxvi.- 

" ' Color.— Back generally brownish purple red, passing on the sides 
into ash gray, and into reddish white on the belly. Large patches of 
dark purplish red on the back. Dorsals and base of the caudal ash 
gray, end of caudal pansy purple. Back, dorsal, and caudal studded 
with small semilunar spots. A large patch of arterial red on the oper- 
culc and margin of the preopcrcule. Pectorals, ventrals, and anal 
grayish white, tinged with rose red. Teeth.— Both jaws armed with 
strong hooked teeth, a single row on each palate bone, a double row 
on the anterior half of the vomer and on the tongue. Dorsal profile 
nearly straight. Ventrals opposite to the middle of the first dorsal. 
Fissure of mouth oblique. Extremity of caudal nearly even. Fins. 
Br. 11; P. 12; V. 8; A. 13; D. 11—0.' 

" There appear to have been two specimens of this species sent to 
me by Dr. Gairdner. In both the spinal column contains sixty-two 
vertebrae. The teeth, which are closely set, rather long, slender and 
acute ; and, in the older specimen, considerably curved, are in num- 
ber as follows: — Intcrmax. lost ; labials 28 — 30 ; palate bones 15 — 
17 ; vomer 13, two in front and the others in a single flexuose series, 
as long as the dental surface of the palalc-bones ; lower jaw 13—13 ; 
tcDsuo 6"~6, lu two almost parallGl rows. xuS iiHi-usi v06»»b* srs vi«6 



SAI.MOtflDJC:. 



393 



largest and most curved, thuau uf tlio lowur jaw aro next in size, then 
follow the vomerine, palatine, and labial teeth, which are equal to each 
other. The pharyngeal toeth are also proportionaHy long, and thcro 
ifl an oblong palato, rough with very minute ones, on the isthmus which 
unites the lower ends of the branchial arches. Thia space is quite 
smooth in S. Salar, in several, if not in all the English Trouts, and 
in S. Quimiaty Gairdneri, and in the imperfect specimen which I havo 
referred to S. Scoultri. In tho latter the surface of the arches is also 
quite smooth, but in tho Quinnat and Gairdneri minute rough points 
become visible with a good eye-glass. In all the Trouts the com- 
pressed rakers hare their thin inner edges more or less strongly toothed. 
In one of tho specimens of S. CUirkii the spinal column is nine inchosi 
long, in the other six." 
20 



Pliil 



i 



i' 



hi 



i II! 



fi 



304 



\BDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGII. 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



BALMONIDiG. 



THE NORTH-WEST CAPELIN. 

Salmo{Mallotu8?) Paeificus; Richardson.— Sub-genus Mallotus; Cuvier? 

" ' The Indian name of this fish is Oulachan. It comes annually in 
immense shoals into the Columbia, about the 23rd of February, but 
ascends no higher than the Katpootl, a tributary which joins it about 
sixty miles from its mouth. It keeps close to the bottom of the stream 
in the day, and is caught only in the night. The instrument used in 
its capture by the natives is a long stick armed with sharp points, 
which is plunged into the midst of the shoal, and several are generally 
transfixed by each stroke. It is the favorite food of the Sturgeon, 
which enters the river at the same time, and never has a better flavor 
than when it preys on this fish. The Oulachan spawns in the different 
small streams which fall into the lower part of the Columbia. It is 
much prized as an article of food by the natives, and arrives oppor- 
tunely in the interval between the expenditure of their winter stock of 
dry Salmon and the first appearance of the Quinnat in May.' This 
fish is noticed by Lewis and Clarke in the following terms :— * The 
Anchovy, which the natives call Olthen, is so delicate a fish that it soon 
becomes tainted, unless piokled or smoked ; the natives run a small 
stick through the gills, and hang it to dry in the smoke of their lodges, 
or kindle small fires under it ; it needs no previous preparation of gut- 
ting, and will be cured in twenty-four hours ; the natives do not ap- 
pear to bo very scrupulous about eating it when a little foetid.' 

" ' Color generally silvery white, passing on the back into a blackish 
tinge. Large irregular, but generally oval spots of yellowish white and 
blackish gray on the back. A bluish black spot over each orbit. Mar- 
gins of lips black. Back of head grayish white. Minute black dots 
on the silvery basis of the cheeks. Form.— Head small and pointed. 
Large suborbital covering the greater part of the cheek. Opercule 
terminating in a thin rounded angle. Mouth opening obliquely up- 
wards, its fisaure extending as far back as the anterior margin of the 






SALMONID^. 



395 



orbit. Lower jaw projecting beyond the upper one, and terminating 
in a rounded knob turned slightly upwards. Margins of upper jaM 
entirely formed by the intermaxillaries, on which there are a few mi- 
nute set» in place of teeth. Lower jaw, vomer and palatines devoid 
of teeth. Tongue rough, and pharyngeals armed with teeth. Fins. 
Br. 8 ; P. 11 ; V. 8; D. 11 — ; A. 20. Adipose fin thin and con- 
taining little fat. Lateral line straight and continuous.' 

" Five specimens were sent to me by Dr. Gairdner, but they were 
unfortunately all so much injured that I can add very few particulars 
to that gentleman's brief description. In the general form, the ap- 
pearance of the scales, the black specks on the head and body, the 
form of the anal and its attachment to a compressed projecting edge 
of the tail, the structure of the lower jaw and gill-covers, and in the 
shape of the head as far as it could be ascertained, this fish closely 
resembles the Capelin. On the other hand, the ascent of the species 
into fresh water to spawn, and perhaps its dentition, ally it to the 
Smelt. Head as in the Capelin, forming one-fifth of the length be- 
tween the tip of the snout and end of the central caudal rays. Caudal 
forked. Dorsal commencing a very little anterior to the middle be 
tween the tip of the snout and end of scales on the caudal, agreeing, 
in this respect, more nearly with the Smelt than with the Capelin, in 
which the dorsal is farther back, its first ray being equidistant from 
the end of the snout and the extremity of the central caudal ray. Anal 
of one specimen containing twenty-one rays. Gill-covers thin, papery, 
and flexible, lined with nacre. In drying, the surfaces of the opercu- 
lar bones are marked with wrinkles parallel to their sides, as may be 
observed in the Smelt and Capelin, but not so conspicuously. These 
wrinkles are most evident on the square operculum. As the thin 
lining of the mouth and lips is mostly abraded, from the putrescency 
of the specimens, the dentition can be only imperfectly ascertained 
from them. In four specimens no teeth whatever can be discovered ; 
but in a fifth, a female full of mature roe, the lower jaw is armed 
with a single series of very slender, curved teeth, rather more distant, 
and longer than those of the Capelin. There is also a solitary tooth 
remaining on the vomer of the same specimen, occupying the place of 
the exterior vomerine tooth in the Smelt, and nearly as large. Tongue 
conical as in the Smelt, and not presenting an oval flat surface sur- 



1 :f«1 



396 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



rounded with teeth like the Capelin. In all the specimens the upper 
jaw was so much injured that its structure could not be ascertained ; 
but it is probable that the inter maxillaries, being small as in the Cap- 
elin, were not distinguished from the labials by Dr. Gairdner, in his 
examination of the recent fish. The rakers of the branchiae are long 
and slender as in the Smelts and Capelin. The stomach resembles 
that of the Capelin ; the descending portion ends in a pointed sac, and 
a short branch which it gives off in the middle terminates in the pylo- 
rus. The intestine makes a bend, or rather twist, downwards at the 
pylorus, and runs straight to the anus, its calibre gradually becoming 
less as it approaches the latter. There are nine caeca, three of them 
rather shorter than the others, close to the pylorus; the other six, in- 
serted in a single series down one side of the intestine, are each half 
an inch long. In three specimens there are sixty-eight vertebrae in 
the spine, and in two sixty-nine. A male specimen, with the melt 
half-grown, showed no traces of viUi, or altered scales, on the lateral 
line, though the skin was apparently entire in that place. Male Cape- 
lins, destitute of the ridges of elongated scales, are occasionally taken 
in Greenland." 



riALMONID£. 



897 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTERYGII. 



BALMONID.'E. 



THE WHITE FISH. 



ATTKHAWMEG. 



Coresonus Alius- 



It is very worthy of remark, that this delicious fish is taken abun- 
dantly, and of the very finest quality, infinitely superior to the fish of 
Lakes Erie and Ontario, and not inferior to that of Huron and Superior 
in the small inland lakes of Seneca and Cayuga. 

So far as 1 can learn, the White Fish is nowhere taken with the fly, 
unless by pure accident ; and that it is utterly unworthy of the angler's 
pursuit, as a fish of game, cannot be doubted. The Coregoni, in 
general', are the most vegetable-eating of all the Salmonida, and rarely 
take a bait of any kind, although I learn that in Seneca Lake they 
are occasionally caught on set lines, especially with stale bait. 

I find it stated in Dr. Richardson's Fauna Boreali Americana, that 
the White Fish runs up the Severn River from Lake Huron, in order 
to spawn, on the authority of Dr. Todd ; there must, however, be 
some error in this; as having visited the Severn this autumn, and 
canoed up it into Lake Simcoe, I can answer for the fact that it is im- 
practicable to any fish; and that having a purely rocky bottom until 
above the great falls, it possesses no spawning grounds to tempt fish. 
At the very outlet there is a natural fall or rapid of above twelve feet, 
with an old Indian mill-dam ; at about twelve miles higher yet, there 
is a very powerful rapid of about fifteen, and at twcnty-five from the 
mouth a superb rapid and fall of seventy feet descent in about a hun- 
dred yards of length. , • n 

The Severn notoriously contains no fish except a few sucking Carp 
of different kinds, a few Rock Bass, and in the shallow rice lakes above 

the Mis, goodly Mascalonge. u c. at '. 

The best White Fish are taken in the rapids of the Sault St. Mane, 
with scoop-nets; but they are also speared by the Indians, and taken 
in vast quantities with the seine, by the white settlers. 












398 



ABDOMINAL 

MALACOPTERYGII. 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



8ALM0NIDJE. 



LE SUEUR'S HERRING SALMON. 

Coregonua Artedi ; Le Sueur. 

This fish is the Herring of Lake Erie and the Niagara River. It 
is not of much value as an article of food, and of next to none as a fish 
of sport. The meat is white and delicate enough, but rather dry and 
tasteless. 

Richardson thus alludes to it in his fine work, so often quoted, on the 
Northern fishes of America : 

" This species having been taken in Lake Erie and the Niagara 
River, requires to be noticed in this work. M. Le Sueur says that it 
is locally known by the name of Herring Salmon, and is considered to 
be very delicate food. As it did not foil under our notice, we shall 
transcribe the description given of it by its discoverer. 

" Description quoted from M. Le Sueur. — Body subfusiform, a little 
elevated at the back ; head small, having an osseous radiated plate 
which is covered by the skin ; snout pointed. In form this species 
approaches the Scombri ; a section of it is ovai Head small and nar- 
row ; snout short, terminated by small intormaxillaries ; maxillarica 
wide, sharp-edged as in the Herring, edges entire ; mandibles carinate, 
producing inwardly a triangular pedunculate expansion ; very small 
conical teeth inserted in the f-kin of the lips at the extremity of the 
jaws : these teeth were sufliciently manifest in a small individual, but 
not visible in a larger one, a female, which came under my observa- 
tion. Rays in the osseous plate of the head tubular, and open at the 
exterior, some tending backwards, and others towards the end of the 
snout. A faint carinate line divides the top of the head in the dried 
specimen. Lateral line straight and near the middle; nostrils double, 
close to the end of the snout and articulation of the maxillarios ; scales 
round, approximated, easily falling off; the base of the tail is covered 
with them. Color ash blue at the back, paler and silvery on the rest 
of the body, with yellow tints on the tail, liead and dorsal ; iris whitish, 



.W-Tii 



1^ 



8ALM0NID£. 



399 



pupil black. Length ten to twelve inches. Fins. — Br. 9 ; P. 16 ; 
D. 12— 0; V.12; A. 13; C— g. 

" M. Le Sueur, in comparing our Attihawmeg, or his Coregonus Al- 
ius with C. Artedi, says that it has a less fusiform hody, and the back 
elevated from the nape to the dorsal. * The C. Albus,"* he further 
states ' has more depth of body, a greater elevation of back, and much 
stronger proportions in its body, fins, and scales. The adipose fin, 
which is broad ^ appears to consist of delicate rays, much pressed, and 
in pairs.'' A careful examination of the dried specimens of our C. 
Alius from Lake Huron, exhibited no rays whatever, nor any interspi- 
nous bones to support them, but the fin, in drying, splits in a fibrous 

manner." 

This is the Herring of Seneca Lake, now becoming very rare, but 
much prized, as the best and most killing of all baits upon the deep 
lake set-line for Trout, Pike-Perch, Eels, and Black Bass. 



|i| 






400 



AMERICAN FISHESt 



ABDOMINAL 
MALACOPTKRYOIl. 



SALMON I Difi. 



LAKE HURON HERRING SALMON. 

THE HERRINCJ. 
Coregonua Harengua ; RichardBon. 

This fish is exceedingly abundant on the shores of Lake Huron, to 
which it resorts in enormous shoals in the spring and autumn, and con- 
stitutes a principal article of food to the Indians and white settlers. It 
is rather a dry and tasteless fish. It occasionally rises at the lly, but 
is rarely taken except by the seine. 

Richardson describes him thus. I have examined this and the last 
species, and am satisfied that they arc distinct : 

" This fish is plentiful at Penetanguishene, on Lake Huron ; but I 
am unable to determine whether it be the same with the C. Artedi of 
Le Sueur, which we have already noticed as an inhabitant of Lake 
Erie. Baron Cuvier's remark upon our specimen was, ' Esfece nou- 
velle voisine det Coregones: It resembles C. Lucidus very nearly ; its 
larger head, smaller scales, and a slight difference in the position of 
its ventrals being the principal distinctive characters I have been able 
to detect in the dried specimens. Havinor lost my notes of the dissec- 
tions which I made of C. Lucidus, and having examined the recent 
specimens of C. Harengm only cursorily, I can say nothing respect- 
incr any differences that may exist in their viscera. An argument 
against the identity of the species may be adduced from their habitats 
being upwards of twenty degrees of latitude apart. 

"The Lake Huron Herring Salmon is gregarious, like the Bear 
Lake one, and frequents sandy bays during the summer months. It 
spawns in April and May, and at that time is occasionally seen in 
rivers. According to Mr. Todd's observations, it is ' a timid fish, ap- 
pears to be in constant rapid motion, and associates in shoals in pursuit 
of the fry of the small fishes on which it f'cds. As an article of diet, 
it is well tasted and wholesome, though much less rich and agreeable 
than the Attihawmeg. 



SALMONID^. 



401 



" The following is a description drawn up from notes made at Pone- 
tanguishene, aided by a re-examination of the dried specimens : 

" Color, in the recent fish, olive green on the back, silvery on the 
sides and belly, and blackish green on the top of the head ; the gill- 
covers, cheeks, and irides are whitish and nacry. 

" Scales of the same form with those C LuciduSy but only of two- 
thirds the size ; on the sides their transverse diameter is four lines, 
their longitudinal one rather more than three, and when in situ, eight 
are included within a linear inch. There are eighty-four on the late- 
ral line,* and twenty-two in a vertical row under the dorsal, of which 
nine are above the lateral line, and eight between it and the ventrals. 
The lateral line is straight. 

" Form. — Body compressed, back rounded, belly slightly flattened, 
the greatest thickness, however, being at the lateral line, which is 
rather nearer to the back than to the belly ; the height of the body, 
at the dorsal, is double its thickness. Profile like that of C. Liicidus, 
the head being, however, more acute. f The snout is obtuse, when 
seen in front or from above, and the vertex is smooth and rounded in 
the recent fish ; in the dried specimen the radiated tubular lines near 
the nape, the sagittal ridge and other eminences, appear as in C. Lu- 
cidus, but not so prominently. The length of the head is more than 
one-fourth of the distance between tha tip of the snout and end of the 
scales on the caudal, and somewhat less than one-fifth of the total 
length, including the lobes of the caudal. In the position of the eye, 
and the forms of the jaws and opercular bones, this species scarcely 
differs from C. Litcidus. When the mouth is fully open, its orifice 
measures seven lines vertically, and five and a half transversely ; the 
under jaw, which is narrow, but not acute, then projects about four 
lines beyond the articulations of the labials. 

" Teeth, none on the jaws, vomer, or palate, but three rows of very 
Blender ones on the tongue may be perceived by the aid of a lens. 
Rakers stiff, subulate, and rough on the margins, the middle or.es of 
the first arch, which are the largest, measuring five lines. 

» Ono Bpecimen had only Beventy-Bcven scales on the lateral line, but the same as 
the above in a vertical row. 

t The figure, which was taken from a dried specimen, presentB a less elegant pro- 

tUe than that of the recent fish. 



402 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



« Fins.— Br. 9—9 ; D. 12 or 13-0 ; P. 16 ; V. 12 ; A. 13 ; C. 

19|. 

" The ventrals originate under the sixth or seventh dorsal ray, but 
the structure and form of all the fins are nearly as in C. Lucidu$. 
The adipose is not supported by interspinous bones, but it exhibits in 
the dried specimen a very fine, apparently fibrous structure, which en- 
tirely disappears when the fin is moistened. In one specimen the 
centre between the tip of the snout and end of scales on the caudal, 
corresponds with the first ray of the ventrals and thirtieth scale of the 
lateral line ; in another it is a little posterior to the first ventral ray, 
being at the thirty-third scale of the lateral line : in the last specimen 
the lateral line has seven scales more than the other." 




PERCIDA. 



ACANTHOPTERYGH. 



403 



PEQOIDiG. 



THE PIKE PEARCH. 



l! 



YELLOW PIKE PERCH, OJ AMERICAN 8ANDRE. 

Lucioperca Americana; DeKay. 

In speaking of this fish in the body of this work, not having then 
seen it, I borrowed both the description and the cut from Dr. DeKay's 
Fauna of New York. > 

The cut, I regret to say, is very incorrect, especially as regards the 
position of the ventral fins, which, as in the subbrachial Malacopterygii 
and the Bass group of the Fercidce, are attached to the humeral bones, 
and situate immediately below the pectorals. 

The following is the description, with measurement, of very fine spe 
cimens, sent to me by Mr. Mandeville, of Geneva : 

Head prolonged, snout-like, with a flattened depression above the 
eyes. Prcoperculum nearly vertical, scalloped rather than dentated 
on the under margin. The operculum has three flat angular processes, 
corresponding to a line drawn from the snout through the centre of the 
orbit, and a pointed membrane beyond. 

Eye very large, nearly equidistant between the snout and the oper- 

cle. 

Dental system most formidable ; several powerful recurved canine 
tusks at the extremity of each jaw, those of the lower received into 
corresponding cavities of the upper jaw ; a series of smaller hooked 
teeth on the labials, and a row of very long sharp recurved tusks on 
the palatines ; no teeth on the tongue or vomer. 

Whole length, 19 inches ; from snout to posterior angle of operclo, 
5 inches; from snout to centre of eye, 1^ inch ; to origin of the pec- 
torals, 4f inches ; of ventrals, 5| ; of anal. 111 ; of caudal, 16^ ; of first 
dorsal, 5 ; of second dorsal, lOJ. Breadth, 5J inches ; thickness, 2^. 

Branchiostegous rays, 6. 

Pectorals thirteen soft rays ; ventrals one spine five branched rays ; 
anal one spine twelve branched rays ; caudal deeply furcate, nineteen 





IB 



i 


IP 


j 


1 


! 


1 



404 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



rays ; first dorsal, fifteen spiues, first three short, fourth and fifth long- 
est ; second dorsal, two short spines, seventeen soft rays. The ventrals 
are placed, as in the tubbrachial MatacojpUrygii, immediately below, 
and a little behind the pectorals. 

The dorsal outline is slightly curved, and descending abruptly to 
the snout, above the operculum ; the lateral lino is nearly concurrent 
with the dorsal outline ; ventral outline much curved. 

The pectoral fins are golden yellow ; the ventrals and anal, ruddy 
orange ; dorsals, transparent yellowish green, mottled with blackish 
gray. Head, blackish brown above. Gill-covers, golden yellow, 
mottled with purplish gray. Back, above the lateral line, purplish 
brown, with a golden spot on the edge of every scale, giving it a beau- 
tiful dappled hue. The sides down to the pectorals, and in a lino 
thence to the anal, beautifully mottled with vivid golden yellow and 
purplish brown, running in irregular wavy diagonal lines, upward and 
backward. Belly pure white. 

This is a beautiful fish, and as good and game as he is beautiful. 
In Seneca Lake these fish wUl rarely take the bait in trolling or 
spinning ; but in Cayuga they are constantly so taken with Shiners, or 
by trolling with two hooks about two and a half inches apart, baited 
with a frog, one hook through the lip, the other through the thigh, 
which, as the frog is drawn along, gives it a natural swimming motion. 
The Pike Perch fights hard and pulls very strongly. The same 
♦.ackle as for Pickerel is the best. 

His flesh is delicate and delicious ; boiled, he is best with parsley 
and butter or egg sauce ; but in no way is he other than a good table 



i 



PERCIDiB. 



406 



ACA.NTHOFlERYOn. 



PEROIDiE. 



SOUTHERN SKA FISHES. 



It is a Bouroe of much regret and diBappointment to me that a num- 
ber of specimens, which I was promised from Charleston, have not 
come to hand in season for this edition ; I relied on then! wherefrom 
to draw figures and compile descriptions of several, to me, new gt^ra, 
which 1 can now only name by their provincial appellations, which, 
being incorrect and local, are not to be found in the books. 

The principal of these are the Cavalle, and Horse Cavallc, two fish 
of the Ptrcoid family, strongly spined, which are said to be bold 
biters and th. former a very fine fish. Besides these, there is the 
Southern Black Fish, entirely different from the Tautog, or Northern 
Black Fish, and having a much larger mouth; several varieties of 
Mullet, and the far-famed Pompano of Florida, a fish of the Mack- 

arel family. ,..,••• i 

Of late years, the Tautog and Boston Bay Whiting have been mtro- 
duced into the Bay of Charleston, and are said to be greatly thriving 
and becoming abundant. . 

None of these fish, as I am informed by my friend Mr. Kmg, of 
Charleston, South Carolina, the keenest fisherman of those waters, are 
ever taken except with the hand-line, with a heavy sinker and clam 
bait, the rod and reel being ignored and voted useless by the anglers 

in the deep-sea line. ,, x- • r 

I trust, at some future period, to procure more and authentic mfor- 
.nation touching these fishes ; but in lack of certain and positive infer- 
mation, I prefer sUence to either theory or error. 



in 







PART IL 



THE 



FISHING 



OF 



Snrtli ^Imniro. 



SALMON FISHINU 



409 



SALMON FISHING. 



On reconsidering what I have written in the body of the work, 1 
perceive that I have wiiten somewhat too rapidly, taking matters for 
granted which are granted with a finished angler, and therefore passing 
them over without comment, where, perhaps, they need to a novice 
farther explanation. 

I shall therefore recapitulate, first, the implements, and then the 
modus operandi. 



THE SALMON-ROD AND TACKLE. 

My description of the Salmon-rod, on page 240, is nearly unobjec- 
tionable, so far as it goes. Experience makes the angler dread whale- 
bone ; I think that it should never be used in any rod, parti ularly on 
the tip of the top joint of a Salmon-rod ; it will curve, and by pressure 
cease to be clastic, or spring. I have seen the worst effects from its 
US3. The stationary curve or bend of the extreme end of the tip will, 
despite of every precaution, cause the line to coil round the top, and 
then, "where are you .?" reel useless — tackle gone — fish gone ! Any- 
thing but whalebone. Split bamboo, spliced, is preferable to any 
other wood. Lance-wood is good — very good. All modern Salmon- 
rods are made with ferrules and cappings, each of which is received 
into a socket of metal, brass, or German silver, let into the receiving- 
joint. This is all very neat and convenient ; but I never would think 
of throwing a fly for a Salmon, with a rod of this character, without 
loop-tics, as security against the joints loosening or flying apart. 

The continued use and action of a powerful cighteen-feet rod, whon 
subjected to the constant tug and work of a Salmon, will loosen them, I 
care not how well made, or how closely fitted ; aud even with the loop- 
ties, I have known the very best to shake, and make one also shake 
27 




410 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



liliilill] 



Screwed joints are, I think, not lasting ; they very soon get worn and 
shaky, and make a man timid ; for in Salmon fishing, one should have 
the most unbounded confidcnco in his tackle. I cannot overcome my 
respect and reverence for the old-fashioned spliced rod; with it one 
has elasticity, firmness, and strength, combined with lightness. A 
modern eightecn-feet rod must weigh at least two pounds twelve 
ounces. The spliced rod, sime length, will not weigh more than two 
pounds two ounces; and ten ounces additional weight is no joke m a 

day's cast. 

Every Salmon-rod should be provided with a spike to screw into 
the butt ; it is all-important for many purposes, and every Salmon- 
fisher knows the use of it. The great fault in most Salmon rods is the 
imperfect and ignorant " ringing." The modern rods have too few 
and too small rings; too many are better than too few, particularly 
on the top joint. The very best rods now have sixteen rings. 

One hundred yards of line is abundant for the heaviest Salmon ; 
and I believe that no Salmon was ever lost owing to shortness of line, 
with one of this length on the reel. Every experienced, angler for Sal- 
mon knows that a Salmon is, unlike the Bass, not a « run-away" fish. 
His run seldom exceeds fifteen or twenty yards, and even then, like a 
trotting horse, he requires a tight rein to make him " go." In Salmon- 
fishing\ answers very well where you have eighty or a hundred yards 
■ of lin°e on the reel, to have the taper gradual from the fortieth or fif- 
tieth yard, the centre of the line, to the reel end, and from the cen- 
tre to the fly end ; and thus, when necessity requires it, the reel end 
can be changed to the fly end, and the old fly end made the reel end. 
1 have killed my share of Salmon, and I never had a fish take seventy- 
five yards from mo, even in a large lake, where they had plenty of 

"sea-room." . 

A friend of mine struck a very heavy fish on Loch Comb, m tho 
County Galway, in Ireland. The water was very rough, and be 
was standing on a projecting rock which ran out of a small island, 
opposite to the beautiful village of Ouehterard. He had light tackle 
and not more than seventy yards of line on his reel. He killed the fish 
after about one hour's work ; and that fish did not run off fifty yards of 
liis line. His weight was eleven pounds, much lighter than the angler 
expected when he first struck him. 



SALMON FISHING. 



411 



The use of two or more flios, when fishing for Salmon in a river, 
would be an experiment, I think, dangerous in the extreme ; and even 
in lakes I have never seen any man use even two flies, when fishing with 
the rod. 

A true Salmon fisher should disdain and spurn the use of double 
gut. A friend, instructed by the best fisherman during his day, states 
that he never shall forget his direction, viz:— " Let your tackle be 
.of the lightest kind, consistent with strength." He never used double 
gut. I never have, and never will. The link on which the fly is tied 
should be finer and more slender than the link to which it is looped or 
knotted. The end of the casting-line, which is united to the reel-line, 
should be the thickest and strongest portion of the gut, and the whole 
should taper to the fly. Three yards and a half is the proper length 
from fly to reel-line. This instruction is all-important, as I hope to 
show, when speaking of Trout. 



THE CASTING-LINE. 

The casting-line should be looped, for Salmon flshing, to the reel- 
line. Th*j loops on both should bo securely whipped with strong and 
well-waxed silk. The casting-line, without the addition of the fly 
links, should be three yards, and no more ; and every knot on the 
casting-line should be the water-knot, which is the simplest knot in the 
world, being the common tie-knot, with two or three turns round 
itself instead of one. For Salmon fishing three knots are necessary, 
though two arc sufficient for Trout. 

Each knot should be well secured by whipping with waxed silk ; and 
at the end of the line a link should be made, and well secured as above. 

The link upon which the fly is tied, should be knotted with the wa- 
ter-knot, as described, to another link, upon which a loop should be 
made, also well secured by whipping. 

Thus, then, we have two links upon which the fly is tied. The loop 
then upon the fly-link is looped to the casting-line, and thus the cast- 
ing-line is about three yards and a half in length from reel-line to fly. 
By this mode, the disadvantage arising from the double loop on the 
casting-line is partly obviated by having the loop removed a consider- 
able distance from the fly. 



Sijll 



in HI 



412 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



This is my Salmon casting-line, and experience and close observa. 
tion enables wo to say, with confidence, that it is the proper one. 

On page 244, I have stated that " the mode is identical," that is, 
of casting the fly for the Trout and the Salmon. What I intended 
here to say is simply, that the effect to be aimed at is the same ; the 
mode of operation is certainly in some sort different. The wielding 
of an eighteen-feet Salmon-rod, as done with both hands, certainly 
differs from the handling with one hand of the light twelve-feet rod. 

The former requires more power, slowness and steadiness of arm ; 
and far more caution is needed to prevent the fly from cracking off. 

It is the most difficult thing in the« world to describe motions of the 
arm, so as to be distinctly understood ; much more, motions of an im- 
plement so delicate as a fly-rod. 

With regard to the mode of casting or delivering the fly, 1 have 
nothing to add to the instructions given on page 246 of the body of 
the work. I will, however, add, that in playing a heavy fish, hooked 
on a single gut, it is very well, " beside advancing the butt, and bear- 
ing your rod backward over your right shoulder," to lower the body 
by bending the knees as much as possible, or even kneeling down, as 
by so doing you diminish and equalise the strain on that most delicate 
of instruments, the long Salmon-rod. 

It is to be observed that a moment longer may be given to a Salmon, 
before striking, than to a Trout ; many good writers recommend allow- 
ing him to turn before striking, but with this I do not coincide. 

My own idea is like shooting on the first aim— always to strike, and 
to kill, with judgment, as quickly as you can ; never giving a moment of 
time, or an inch of line, which you can avoid giving. 

On the subject of flics, it is not necessary to say more. All largo 
and gaudy flies, on Limerick hooks, will kill in some state or other of 
some waters ; and with a pretty good assortment, the angler has only 
got to chjinge till he finds one to which the fish will rise, and then 
Btick to that. 

And so, adieu tc Salmon Fishing. 



IllWlllil 



TROUT FISHING. 



418 



TROUT-FISHING. 




THE IMPLEMENTS. 



With regard to the rod, as described on page 254, 1 have little or 
no more to say. 

Different persons approve of different degrees of pliancy in rods,. 
Irish anglers generally using one much more pliant than their English 
brethren. 

My con-espondent referred to above, writes to me in reference to 
my description, thus : and his theory and practice are both so good, 
that I cannot do better than again quote him, as 1 agree fully with 
every word. 



THE TROUT-ROD. 




"A PLIANT Trout-rod, in the hand of a fly -fisher, is a comfort. Per- 
sons who use spliced rods can handle a very pliant one, but the great 
majority of anglers, as you are aware, use the jointed rods ; and it is 
almost impossible for ' an old hand,' who has for years used a spliced 
rod, to procure one sufficiently pliant. 

A rod can, however, be too pliant, even in the hand of the most ex- 
perienced. Every man who has used a very pliant rod, knows that 
when preparing for a fresh cast, the line will catch before it can be 
carried sufficiently back to make the forward movement ; ^md the effect 
is, that in the effort to obviate the threatened difficulty, a fly will crack 
off. Now, I use a very pliant rod ; but I am an Irishman, and learned 
my trade in that land of lake and river. You are an Englishman, 
and I suppose became master of your trade there. The English use 
comparatively stiff rods. A rod should not be pliant below the second 
joint It is no easy matter to describe one. Your length, twelve 




414 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



foet, is exactly up to my notion The weight should not exceed thir- 
teen or fourteen ounces ; and above all, it should not bo top-hoavy. 
In stormy weather, a very pliant rod, even in the hands of the best 
angler, is very inconvenient and laborious ; and when used in such 
weather, nothing short of constant care and exertion will save the flies 
from snapping off. 

" You omit to mention the necessity for a spike in the butt. Every 
fly-rod should have it. In case a new cast of flies is required, or any 
change, what a convenience to have the rod erect, and the line hang- 
ij;<r down to your hand. How many rods get broken when stretched 
on the ground, by some careless devil standing on the tip ; or the tip 
being obstructed by weed or brier, in a sudden and careless lift. 

" You give no directions about the number of rings. A rod should 
have sixteen. Avoid whalebone tip. There should be no percepti- 
ble spring in a fly-rod before three and a half feet from the spike ; a 
spring below that will inevitably make the rod top-heavy. Three 
yards is the length of the casting-line, but never more than three and 
a half. 

" You say ' the flies should be three in number.' Not always— there 
arc exceptions, many exceptions. In confined streams, where there 
are bushes, weeds, &c., one fly is as much as can be managed or used. 
Also, in streams where the fish are very numerous, one fly is plenty, 
particularly with the light tackle, which a gentleman and an anglei 
should use. In clear water, lakes and ponds, three flies are the proper 
number. 

" Now to return to the casting-line. On a casting-line no loops of 
any kind should be used, because they are unnecessary ; and every un- 
necessary bulk, or uneven surface, which may make a splash, or 
frighten fish, should be avoided. To tlio reel-line, splice a link of the 
stroncrcst gut ; that is, proportionate with the tapering gut of the cast- 
ing-liiO, which is a fixture, ubtii used up by constant cutting, when 
another is put on 

" Let the casting-line be nine feet, the largest and stoutest links at 
the top, graduating to the bottom. To the bottom or last link, knot 
the link upon which the tail or strel. hei-fly is tied. Three feet from 
the end of the casting-line, before the tail-fly is put up, or three feet 
eight or nine inches from the tail-fly, use this knot : 



TROUT FUUINO. 



415 




Two feet from the first knot, have a similar knot. The ends of all the 
other knots, except the one which secures the tail-fly, tie neatly with 
waxed silk, as near the color of the casting-line as you can. The knot 
should be the ' water-knot.' Let the first dropper or drop-fly be tied 
on gut three and a half or four inches long, the second a shade longer. 
Upon the end of each link upon which the drop-fly is tied, let the knot 
be that in the cut. The slip-knot on the casting-line, as depicted in 
the plate, can be pulled open by catching the little projections on each 
fiide, and pulling them apart. I insert the knot end of the drop-fly 
between the opening or two links, and then pull the knot together, and 
the dropper hangs perpendicular. There is no more secure or neater 
knot ; every cast tends to increase its security ; and there is no con- 
trivance whereby the drop-flics can work, or hang so well. The reason 
why wc whip or tic the ends of all the knots save those for the drop- 
pers and tail-fly, is, that when fishing in stream or pond, if the projec- 
tions of the knots are exposed, the casting-line will constantly become 
foul and heavy, by every floating piece of grass or stuff, which will ad- 
here to the sharp projections of the knots. 

" Objections may be made to knotting the tail-fly to the casting-line, 
and thus making it a fixture. The answer to this is, that the advan- 
tage is far greater than the disadvantage. One can in a moment slip 
out cither or both his droppers, by drawing apart the knot, and in- 
B2rt other flies ; or he can, as every man should, when fishing, have a 
perfect mounted casting-line 'all round his hat;' and it is only the 
work of a moment to cut the discarded casting-line from the stationary 
link attached to the reel-ime, and tie on the substitute. Or one may 



416 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



cut the casting-lino in use close up to tho knot which secures the 
tail-fly, and tie on another — the loss of gut is trifling — and when, by 
constant cutting, the link becomes short, he ties on a new one. 

" There is one other remark worth mentioning. The tail-fly should 
be the heaviest, the first dropper should be less in size, and the hand- 
fly, or second dropper, less than tho first ; and let the angler be as- 
Burod, that attention to these apparently minor matters tend to fill his 
creel and save his fly. This is the true idea of a casting-line. A man 
should be particular in his tackle, and he is as much entitled to credit 
for its neatness as for dexterity in its use. 



ON THE USE OF THE ROD, 



" Every angler should learn to use the rod with either hand ; and 
no man is a finished, safe, expert, or self-saving angler who cannot use 
the left as well as the right hand. To say nothing about a sprained 
wrist, and consequent loss of sport during the season, or being obliged 
to cease fishing from the fatigue and weaknef ^ of one hand, there are 
certain winds, in some situations, when and where a cast cannot be 
made with the right hand. 

" Again, it is important to be able to throw a fly in the teeth of the 
wind, which, when done properly, often lifts the very best fish. It is 
not difficult, but it is a little laborious, and needs practice. It is not 
accomplished either by the double or single turn ; it is done by bring- 
ing the rod right up in front, avoiding, if possible, the wind taking the 
rod to the right or left. Now when the rod is almost straight, press the 
butt strong towards the body with the wrist, keeping the arm as close 
to the side as possible, until the tip comes about three-quarters 
straight against, or in the eye of the wind; and then run the' arm out 
directly forward, turning the wrist, during the forward action, outside, 
or towards the right side. By this mode, which is more easily done 
than described, the line, which should be only of manageable length, 
will unfold, and display a pretty fair cast ; at all events, the waves, or 
turbulent state of the water, will conceal the defective fall of the flies 

" Every angler should tie his own casting-line ; no depcndance can 
be placed on those purchased, for the reason that very few tackle-sel- 



TROUT PISIIINQ. 



417 



lers are practical fly-fishcrs, and do not know the necessity, and will 
not take the pains, of making a tapering lino. 

" A casting-line will cost soventy-fivo cents at the tackle store ; made 
at home, they cost about eighteen cents. It is important then, on the 
Bcore of economy, as well as success, that the angler should make his 
own casting-line. 

"It is therefore important that the proper knots should be known 
by name, and how to make them. 

" There arc but three knots suitable for angling, to wit : the slip- 
knot described in the cut above, which is only fit for the insertion of 
the drop-flies ; the water-knot, and the knot, or mode of finishing a 
knot, which might be termed the ' finishing-knot.' 

" The slip-knot need not bo described — it is plain enough in the 

drawing. 

" The water-knot is the most simple of all knots. It is the ^com- 
mon knot,^ passing or turning the ends to be united twice round each 
other, and then pulling them together. It is only necessary to pass 
thorn twice round ; it is enough, although some persons use three turns 
It is the smallest knot by which gut can be united. When the knot 
is pulled tight, then cut off the ends, leaving a little remaining for the 
whipping or fastening. The projecting ends should then be fastened 
with thin but strong silk, waxed with white wax. Every practical 
anclor knows how to finish off, or secure the end of the silk. The silk 
is wound round the projecting and main gut, until within six or seven 
turns or rounds of the end of the projecting bit of gut; then turn the 
point of the silk towards the knot, and continue the wina.ng around 
the end of the silk which has been turned towards the knot, until the 
winding is finished, then pull the end tight under the whipping, and 
the fastening is secure and invisible.'' 




!IIH i| 



'ilB 



El|i 



|i I 



111 






418 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



OF TROLLING FOR LAKE-TROUT 



IN HAMILTON COUNTY, NEW-YORK 



(■T A IFBCIAL CORRIirOMDINT.) 



I PROPOSE, in this connexion, to treat of this fino and exciting sport, 
describing Ist, The rod ; 

2nd, The reel ; 

3rd, The line , 

4th, The leader, and train of hooks ; 

5th, The bait and flies ; 

6tu, The bait-kettle ; 

7th, The boat and oarsman, or guide ; 

8th, The manner of striking the fish, when the bait is taken. 
And lastly, 9th. How to play, and gafiF the fish. 

1st. The Rod.— > mutual friend of ours, who writes occasionally 
for the " SpHf," and who is a most skilful troller, wrote an article 
which appeared in the " Spirit " in the fall of 1848, signed " M., Maa- 
peth, Long Island," in which he gave a capital description on most 
of the above heads. I wish you had the paper, as it is all that is to 

be said on the subject. 

The trolling-rod spoken of by you on page 327, would answer, to 
wit : the barbed rod. * • * had two of the most perfect trolling 
rods I have seen; they were made by Ben. Welch, of Cherry-street, 
and are all bamboo cane. I had one made by George Karr, of Grand- 
street, which I like very much ; and I will describe it the best way 1 
can, although it is no easy matter to describe on paper a rod of any 
kind :— Length from eleven to thirteen feet ; butt of ash, thoroughly 
seasoned, about one and a quarter inches in diameter, or about as thick 
as an ordinary Bass-rod. The butt should be hollow, t contain sparo 



TROLLING FOB LAKE TROUT, 



419 



tips. Tho sooond, third and fourth jointa should bo bamboo, so that 
when tho rod is put together, it will bo about twelve foet. 

The rod should have two spare tips ; one should be stronger and 
shorter than tho other, to vary tho fishing according to the state of tho 
weather, and circumstances. 

The fourth or last joint, tip, should bo about three feet, thinner, 
and more pliant than the spare toyj which fit in the bored butt. The 
first spare top should be two feet long, stiifor and stronger than the 
original top. The second spare top should bo about fourteen inches 
long, strong and stiflFj and in heavy weather, this strong, stiff top will 
bo tho one to u.se. 

Rod-making has been brought to such perfection, it would be a 
waste of time to give further instructions ; but still I only know two 
men in this city who can make a true troUing-rod, viz: — Ben. Welch, 
of Cherry-street, and George Karr, of Grand-street, near Broadway. 

Rings should never bo used on rods of this character. The "rail- 
road" through which the line travels, constitutes one of the peculiari- 
ties of this rod. Rings interfere with, and impede the line, and should 
not be used. The guides used by Welch are the only true ones — they 
are neat, light, with a thin flat shank, about one-fourth of an inch in 
length, which is firmly secured on tho diS"erent joints. There should 
be very few guides on the rod — five, I consider sufficient, exclusive of 
the metal case at the top of each tip. This metal case should have a 
rounded surface, perfectly smooth, and sufficiently large to allow the 
line to run without the slightest obstruction or friction. 

Let me give one hint before I take leave of the rod. I recommend 
that all troUing-rods should have guides on both sides — that is, a guide 
on the opposite side of the other : not on the butt, but on all joints from 
the butt to the end ; and why ? In this kind of fishing there is power- 
ful pressure on the rod ; and the very best will, from hard work, be- 
come bi>nt, and remain bent, and thus lose its elasticity. To ob- 
viate this, turn round the joints, slip the line through the spare guides, 
and in a few hours the rod is "all straight." 

2nd. The Reel. — To give an explanation of this to you, would be 
absurd. I will simply say, that No. 3 is about the proper size for a 
troUing-rod, without stop, click, or multiplier. The line cannot run 



il 



m I'i 





Illil 



1 



420 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



oflF too free. According to my opinion, John Conroy oau make tlie 
best reel in the world. 

3rd. The Line.— One hundred yards is abundant. Twisted silk 
is tho best lino for trolling. I know thoy kink, when new ; but very 
little use will put an end to it— id est, knock tho kink out of it. 

Plaited lines aro very good and cheap, and do not kink ; but ikey 
absorb tho water, and do not run frco from tho rod. 

A mixture of hair in lines, is my abomination. It is tho most dan- 
goroas and uncurtain stuff a man can use. You can never depend on 
it; the hairs will give way with but little strain; and when you hook 
tho heaviest fish, tho greater danger is to bo apprehended. 1 hate 
them. 

4th. The Leader and Train of Hooks.— This word " leader" 
goes against my grain. Tho old familiar English-Irish sound of " cast- 
ing-line," has a charm for my ear, equalled only by tho still, silent 

noise of . ., . „ 

" Bttllynaliiuch or Cotlello'a flowing waters.' 

But let leader go for trolling. 

Most troUers uso twisted gut for a leader, with a small swivel at- 
tached to one end. The other end is fastened to the reel-line, either 
by loop or knot, but a knot is by far preferable. The leader should 
he two yards long — some good and old hands use three yards. I never 
use twisted gut. I prefer a leader of good round Salmon-gut. 

The train of hooks is attached to the eye of the swivel, at the end 
of the leader. The train is made of five hooks, and made on the very 
best and most perfect gut, single. The strand upon which the hooks 
are tied, is fastened by a knot to another equally strong and perfect 
strand, which is fastened by a loop to the swivel at the end of the 
leader. Thus you have the rod, reel, line, leader, and train of hooks. 
Perhaps a sketch of the train of hooks will bo better than an explana- 
tion. Here it is : 




This train, you will perceive, is made of five hooks. The lip-hook 



TnoLLINO FOn LAKE TROUT. 



421 



flhould bo a size or two smallor than the tail-hooks — say No. 5 for tho 
tail, No. 6 for the iniddlo, and No. 7 for the lip. These hooks aro 
joined shank to shank, with tho gut between them, and then firmly 
tied with waxed silk. But I procured from Ireland a set of hooks 
welded or united together, and they are far superior to single hooks 
joined by tyjiig together, for they frequently double up, and become 
very troublesome. George Karr, before named, can rig this kind of 
train better than any man in this city, as far as my cxpcrienco goes. 

5th. The Bait and Fmes. — The proper bait is tho Shiner, which 
can be plentifully procured in all the lakes of namilton county. They 
aro taken with tho smallest kind of hook. No. 12, with worm bait ; 
and when secured, aro put into the bait-kettle, and preserved until 
used. Tho mode of putting tho Shiner on tho train is simple : put tho 
lip or single hook through the lip, the middle hook in the belly, tho end 
hook in the tail. 

Unlike Trout-fishing proper, I loop on my flies when trolling. About 
thirty-six inches from the Shiner I loop on the leader — a large fly ; 
and thirty inches from that fly I loop a smaller-sized one, and then I 
am rijiaed to " throw out." 

6th. The Bait-Kettle, — This is a most indispensable article for 
the troUer— ho can't get along without it. It should be made of 
Btronf tin, painted green outside and white inside. The bottom should 
be wider than the top, but sloping gradually. Conroy has cow in his 
store some very good and complete ; but there is one great improve- 
ment, to have the handle lie or fall inside the lid. I recommend a small 
gauzo ladle, with a short handle, to take the bait from the kettle when 
required — it will save much trouble, and injury, if not death, to the 
" dear little creatures." 

The kettle should be replenished with water every hour ; and one 
unerring sign that the Shiner needs fresh water, is when he pokes his 
nose to the surface. When the fishing is over, sink the kettle in tho 
shoal water, and secure it, so that it cannot be tossed about by " wind 
or weather." 

7th. The Boat and Oarsman, or Guide.— Here you must trust 
to luck—" first come, first served." But any person going to the house 



m 



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^^B '-AS 


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H' m 


Ky M pwigj 


■1 


mIhI 



422 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



of John C. Holmes, at Lake Pleasant, will find good accommodation, 
and " honest John" will secure a good guide and a good boat ; and 
from experience I can safely recommend Cowles, Batchellor, and Mor- 
rell, of Lake Pleasant, as faithful, honest, persevering, safe and skil- 
ful guides and oarsmen. 

Trolling is solely done from the boat. The troUcr sits with his face 
to the stern ; the oarsman in the middle, or rather near the bow, and 
rows slowly and gently along the lake ; about one and a half or two 
miles an hour is the proper speed. 

8th. The Manner of Striking the Fish when the Bait is 
Taken.— Should there be much wind, thirty-five yards of line is suf- 
ficient to run out-if calm, say forty-five or fifty. When a fish is felt, 
the tip of the rod should be eased off, or given to the fish, in order that 
he have time to take hold ; then give a good surge of the rod, and you 
will rarely miss striking him. Should you be fishing with two rods, 
which is almost always the case, pass the other rod to the oarsman 
Never give the fish an inch, unless by actual compulsion ; invariably 
keep him in hand— feel him at a distance, but still be kind and gentle, 
not rude or rough. Do not show the gaff until you know that the fis-h 
is " used up ;" if a small fish, run the not under him ; and if the fish 
is spent or exhausted, he will fall into it ; but if he shows life, draw 
him over the net. If a large fish, use the gaff, which pass under him, 
with the point downwards ; then turn it up inside, and strike as near 
the shoulder as possible. I say shoulder instead of tail. 

1 believe that I have now done with this branch ; but let me say, 
that no good tr oiler uses lead or sinker of any kind. I hav^i seen it 
used, but used to the destruction of sport and tackle. Sinkers carry 
the hooks to the bottom, and there you stick either to root or rock. 

When trolling, you take, on the average, more fine Brook Trout 
than Lake Trout. I tbink that two to one is correct. 

One word as to the sporting quality of the Lake Trout. The nine 
pound and a quarter Trout, before mentioned, may perhaps be an ex- 
ception ; but I do affirm, that the Lake Trout is a fish of game, spirit, 
» and endurance. 

I have killed them from one to sixteen and a half pounds. The 



"~Ui 



TROLLING FOR LAKE TROUT. 



423 



eixtecn and a half pound Lake Trout was hooked by rae, on a single 
gut leader ; from the time I struck him, till his capture, was one hour 
and forty-five minutes. During the first half-hour, he showed great 
bad temper, and kept the perspiration flowing off my head ; he did sulk 
for half an hour, but it was a moving and a dragging sulk, unlike the 
Salmon ; and during this sulk he took me along the lake for about 
mile ; 1 became fatigued, and bore so heavy on him that I got him 
near the surface, and from that time until his death was one continued 
run and fi^ht. He had not the vivacity of the nine and a quarter 
pound fish, but still I had " my hands full," and was effectually "used 
up" when he was gaffed by Cowles, my guide. 

There is another mode of fishing to which you have made no refe- 
rence, and which I have never seen described or spoken of in any 
work upon angling. I mean " cross-fishing," as practised on the large 
Irish hikes ; and although it affords great amusement, still it is a spe- 
cies of poaching, and should not be practised by the legitimate angler. 
The cross-line consists of one hundred and fifty yards of strong line, 
say thin whip-cord, seventy-five yards of which is wound on a card, 
similar to a card used in trolling for Blue fish, and the other seventy- 
five yards on another or similar card. In the centre of the line, a flat, 
square cork, about an inch thick, five inches wide, and of the same 
length, is secured to a loop in the middle of the cork, and made per- 
fectly stationary, but still so sjcurod that the cork shall lie flat and 
even on the water. To twenty yards, on both sides of this cork, the 
flics arc attached — that is, three feet from the cork, loop on the first 
fly, and so on, every alternate two yards, until eight or nine flies are 
looped on the line, on each side of the cork. The flies should be the 
usual lake-flies, tied on twisted, or very strong, Salmon-gut of about two 
feet in length. 

Two boats arc of course needed. One card is held by the person 
in one boat, and the other by him in the second boat. The line is 
then stretched out as the boats separate, until the hand-fly is distant 
about twenty yards from each bos.t. The boats arc slowly rowed along, 
in parallel lines. The line should be kept taut, so that the flios skim 
or dance on the surface of the wator. Each angler knows his own fish 
by tho cork, and the person holding the card on the opposite side of 
the cork has no right to kill tin fish which has been struck on the side 



!^1 



424 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



nearest to his friend. There is much art and tact necessary in thia 
kind of angling. The friend who is not entitled to the fish has as 
much sport, and " work on hand," as the person in the opposlto boat 
—he must play the fish with equal care— but the nicety is, in man- 
aging the flics. Suppose the fish has taken the fly next the cork- 
there are, then, say eight flies between the angler and the fish. Two 
modes can bo adopted. Should the fish be small, when the hand-fly is 
drawn to the boat, it should be laid on the side, with the fly hanging 
about a foot outside the boat ; and so on with each fly, until the fish is 
captured. Should the fish be large, this mode is dangerous ; for, 
should the fish make a violent run, the flies laid over the side might 
get fast in the wood, and play the deuce. To obviate this, all the flies 
can be run up on the line, towards the fish— that is, when the first fly 
comes to hand, run the loop along the line until it meets the second 
fly, and so on, until you have all the flies between you and the fish, in, 
as it were, a heap. After the fish is killed, a few moments will suffice 
to re-arrange the tackle. 

Upon Rackett Lake, Long Lake, Lake Piseco, and other large wa- 
ters, this mode of fishing would afford great amusement ; and the only 
objection to it is, that it is a deadly way of capturing fish. But it is not 
half so bad, and is in fact honorable and legitimate, when contrasted 
with the innumerable " infernal machines" used for the destruction of 
game of all kinds. 

There is an advantage in trolling which I have omitted. You can 
lay the trolling-rod on the stern of the boat, and use the fly-rod for 
casting, and thus " kill two birds with one stone"— troll with one rod, 
and cast your fly with the other. In this way, I raised and killed with 
my light Trout-rod many of my best and bravest Brook Trout. 

I win close this subject by stating, that from the 15th of May to the 
15th of June, and from the 1st to the 20th of September, are the best 
seasons for trolling on the lakes in Hamilton county. 

The " black fly " seldom appears before the 1st of June — ho is a 
most infernal tormentor ; but one consolation to the angler is, that, 
unlike the mosquito, he is a sound sleeper, and is never seen, heard, or 
felt at night. Every man going into the woods should carry a gauze 
net, sufliciontly large to cover the liat and tie round the neck, to pro- 
tect the face, ears and neck from the black fly 



TROLLING FOR LAKE TROUT. 



43d 



SET-LINES FOR LAKE-FISHING. 



I HAVE only to add to the above complete, and, I think, perfect de- 
scription of lake trolling, the following account of the manner used in 
Seneca, and many of the other small lakes, for taking fish with the 
set-line. 

It is not a sporting, but it is a very killing way of taking fish ; and 
there is some fun, after all said and done, in making a haul. 

First, the set-line is baited with live Minnows, Shiners, or — best — 
Lake Herring, Coregonus Artedi. Anchor one end of the line firmly 
near the shore, in fifteen feet water ; thence run directly out into the 
lake from a quarter of a mile to two miles, with a very strong hempen 
cord, having short whip-cord bait-lines, with hooks armed on gimp 
attached at every sixteen feet ; the depth varying from twenty-five to 
five hundred feet. 

The same method is much used in Scotland, and off the coast of 
Newfoundland, for deep-sea fishing, and with immense success ; the 
bait there being the Herring proper, or Capelin, and the depth from 
ten to fifty fathoms. 

In the British Provinces this deep-sea line is known as the '' bul- 

tow." 

Whether for lake or deep-sea fishing, this is a very dirty, laborious, 
unscientific, and unsporting mode of killing fish; and there is nothing 
to recommend it but the immensity of pot to which it ministers. 
28 



'jms^ss^- 



426 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ARTIFICIAL FLIES 



(Soe Frontispiece to Supplement.) 



The superiority of " fly-fishing" over every other mode of angling, 
cannot be questioned, even by the most ardent admirer of the float or 
ground-bait. The natural and acquired skill actually necessary, be- 
fore any man can throw a " neat fly," is only known to those who have 
made this method of angling their study and amusement. I believe 
that no man was ever made a " fly-fisher" from written instruction. 

The rudiments may be acquired from books ; but a practical know- 
ledge of the art can only be acquired by patience, perseverance, and 
good temper. All works on angling contain something on the subject ; 
and if my angling friends do not find sufficient instruction in my " Fish 
and Fishing," they must be content to begin with old Isaak, and travel 
down to the last authority. 

It is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to present a correct and 
satisfactory list of artificial Trout flies. Every angler has his own 
fovorito fly, particularly if he is in the habit of fishing in one particular 
pond or stream. The fly which may be found most killing on Stump 
Pond, may not stir a fish in the adjoining water. 

In 1848, the " ibis" was all the rage in Stump Pond ; it was wholly 
worthless at Spoonk and Mauritchez. The accompanying plate con- 
tains flies of acknowledged merit, and generally used in the waters of 
this State ; and I feel assured, from my own experience, as well as from 
the accounts of others, that no angler can be at fault when his book 
is supplied with flics of the character described in the drawing. 

I am indebted to Thomas Finnegan, of this city, for much valuable 
information in relation to the exact colors used in making the follow- 
ing described flies ; and indeed the greater number of them have been 
prepared by him, and the coloring arranged under his supervision. ^ 
By turning to the plates, and number of ^each fly, the reader will, 



ARTIFICIAL FLIES 



427 



from the following description, see the material of which it is com- 
posed, its color, quality and peculiar character. 

No. 1. Red Palmer Hackle. — Body — Dark red colored mohair, 
ribbed with gold or silver twist. Hackle — Of the red cock, worked 
with red silk. Hook—^o. 5, 6, or 7. 

No. 2. Peacock Palmer Hackle. — Body — A full fibre of pea- 
cock herl. Hackle — Of a dusky red cock, worked with red silk. 
Hook—^o. 5, or 6. 

No. 3. Black Silver Palmer Hackle. — Body— a &hre irom. a 
black ostrich feather, ribbed with silver twist. Hackle — Black, wrap- 
ped over the whole body with black silk for fastenings. Hook — No. 
5, 6, or 7. 

No. 4. Yellow Palmer Hackee. — The body is made of white 
hackle dyed yellow. The hackle of yellow silk. Hook — No. 5, 6, or 7. 

No. 5. Black Palmer Hackle. — The iody of black ostrich's 
herl, wrapped with a black cock's hackle. Hook — No. 5, 6, or 7. 

No. 6. Black Palmer Hackle Ribbed with Gold.-— The body 
of peacock's herl, wrapped with a black cock's hackle, and ribbed with 
gold twist. Hook — No. 5, 6, or 7. 

The flies from No. 1 to 6, inclusive, which I style " Palmer hackles," 
are known to every " fiy-fisher" as most effective in taking Trout; and 
as they are intended to represent the larva) or caterpillars of flies, as 
well as some v,. ' le insects themselves, it is evident that their size and 
color may be varied. In angling vocabulary, the terms " black hackle," 
' red hackle," &c., are almost invariably applied to all flies of the 
above character ; and it may be, that the above addition of the terra 
" Palmer," may be deemed by many good sportsmen to be an innova- 
tion upon old-established angling phraseology. I know that criticism 
should be avoided in the use of fly-fishing terms, which every man 
knows cannot be justified by any literary rule ; but some angling terms 
are so glaringly absurd and contradictory, that it seems to me actually 
necessary to correct evident inconsistencies, when such corrections do 
not confound or mystify that piscatory learning which time has, as it 
were authorised as an angling alphabet 




l-J^iMiiti^i 



428 



A-iEBICAN FISHES. 



In several works upon angling, the term " hackle" is variously ap- 
plied. Wc find it synonyuious with " palmer," which expresses an 
artificial fly and a caterpillar. We find instructions to prepare the 
" hackle" to make the fly ; and again, we are instructed to fish with a 
"hackle" or a "palmer." Thus the angler is confounded. The 
" hackle" is at one moment a feather, and at the next a fly-the fly of 
one angler is the hackle of another ; a hackle is nothing more than the 
feather of a bird, and a portion of the material which composes the 

palmer. 

There is also some apparent inconsistency in the use of the term 
" palmer fly." The term " palmer," as I understand it, is only appli- 
cable when speaking of the " palmer worm ;" but as this worm is des- 
tiued to become a winged insect, the term "palmer fly" or " palmer 
hackle" is, according to my notion, a more expressive term than 
" hackle" or " palmer" alone. The palmer is the insect represented 
—the hackle is the material to form the representation. 

' The foregoing few general remarks I have deemed necessary— not 

from any desire to infringe upon old and perhaps well-established 

names, but for the purpose of inducing others to examine the subject. 

A little research upon this apparently unimportant matter led mo 

into a labyrinth, from which I have with difiiculty escaped ; and I am 

by no means assured that my views may not increase the mystification 

of our angling vocabulary. 

No 7 Green Drake or May Fly.— TFin^s-Tho mottled 

feather of the mallard dyed yellow, to stand rather erect and divided. 

Bodv-YeWo^ mohair, ribbed with peacock's herl and orange silk. 

Legs-Roii ginger hackle. TaU forked with two or three haira. 

Hook—^o. 5, 6, or 7. , , * ^ v 

There are other modes of dressing this fly, but I prefer the above. 

No 8 Gray DRAKE.-mn^s-The gray feather of a mallard, if 
not too dark, to stand erect. IIead~A morsel of peacock's harl. 
nodv-rmo, down from a white pig. light gray camlet, or whitish gray 
ostrich herl, striped with deep maroon silk. Tail forked with two or 
three gray hairs. Legs-A grizzled hackle. Hook-^o 5, 6, or 7. 

The green or gray drake h not, so far as I can judge, an American 



ARTIFICIAL FLIES. 



429 



fly • still I have found both to be killing flies, from the middle of May 
to the close of Juno. Every angler who has fished in England and 
Ireland knows of their surprisingly attractive qualities ; and that dui-ing 
the " green drake month" the Trout reject tvery kind of artificial and 
natural bait, for the "green or gray drake ;" and that at no period of 
the Trout season are the fish so powerful, vigorous, and fine-flavored 
as when this apparently luxurious and sanative food appears on the 
streams and lakes. 

If I am correct in saying that it is not an American fly, and conse- 
quently not an imitation of any existing American insect, and that it 
is still a killing artificial bait on American waters, then the position 
taken by some of the best anglers will hold to be true, that for the 
purpose of successful fly-fishing, it is unnecessary to imitate the natu- 
ral insect. 

It is necessary to say a word in relation to the mode of casting with 
those flies. The green drake is thrown in the usual way ; but the 
action of the gray drake being entirely dififercnt from the green, the 
same mode of casting will not answer. Unlike the green drake, the 
gray drake does not rest on the water. His light on the water is mo- 
mentary—" no sooner on than off.'' Therefore, the artificial gray 
drake should bo thrown right over the Trout, and then lifted so as to 
imitate the rise and fall of the natural fly. 

No. 9. The Cow-dung Fly. — T^mn-s— The feather of a landrail, 
dressed a little longer than the body, to lie flat on the back. Body^ 
Yellow wool, with a little brown fur, to give the body a dirty orange 
color ; the body tolerably full, icn^s— Ginger hackle, same color as 
the body. Hook— "So. 6, 7, or 8. 

This is my favorite fly. As a standard and universal fly-bait for 
Trout, I think that the Cow-dung should stand "A. No. 1." It is not 
much 'known to American anglers, and is rarely used on American 

waters. 

The origin of the fly is not aquatic. It is found on the excrement 
of animals" particularly on that of the cow. In windy weather it is 
blown from the land to the water ; and no bait is more greedily seized 
by the Trout. In March and April I use it as a tall-fly ; in May and 
June as a dropper ; and in July and August as a hand-fly. I regulate 




430 



AMKBICAN FISHES. 



the size of the fly acooiding to the state of the wind and water. There 
are few flics so frequently murdered in dressing as the " cow-dung ;" 
and there is no fly iu the whole list which rcquhes more care in shape 
and color. 

No. 10. The Bee-Fly.— WingS' Feather, the pigeon's wing, 
dark. Body— Chcml of various colors, arranged in stripes in the 
following order : black, white, light yellow, white, black, white. Legs 
— Light black hackle. 

No. 11. The Black Gnat. — Wings— Vale starling feather, or 
hen blackbird. Body— Black ostrich herl, or black worsted. Hook 

—No. 9, or 10. 

This fly is generally dressed short and thick, as represented in the 
plate, and is classed among the " midge flies." In summer, when the 
water is clear and low, it is a good fly. In cloudy weather it may be 
used through the day; but in bright days, it is only useful in the morn- 
ing and evening. * 



JVlngs — 
Hook — 



No. 12. Hare's F.\r.— Body— Fur from a hare's ear. 
Feather of a starling's wing, i^c^-s— Ginger cock's hackle. 
No. 6, 7, or 8. 

From the first to the last day of the Trout season, I have found this 
fly to be a good killer and a favorite bait. It is not generally known 
to the American angler. Finnegan, before referred to, can tie this 
fly to perfection. I prefer to use it as a dropper. 

No. 13. The Cock-tail.— TFin^-s— The bright feather of a snipe's 
wing. Body— YiiWov^ mohair, ic^s.— Light black hackle. TaU 
forked with two long hairs. 

Let the angler try this fly, and then judge of its quality. I in- 
clude it in the list, because a friend has given it a good character. 

No. 14. The " Whirling Dun." — Body— B\nc fur and light 
brown mohair, wrapped with yellow silk. T-Fm^s-Snipe's feather, 
or the pale feather of a dun-colored bird. Lcgs—Blno cock's hackle. 
The tail of two hairs from a light-colored muff. 

This fly takes its name from the whirling manner of its flight, h 



ARTIFICIAL FLIES. 



481 



can be usod with success, from the middle of May to the first fortnight 
in July. With a good breeze, it ia a killing fly. 

No. 15 The Kingdom Fly.— Wings— A. woodcock's feather. 
Body — White silk, striped with green. Legs— Red cock's hackle. 
//ooA.— No. 6, 7, or 8. 

No. 16. The " White Gnat." — Wings— k small white feather. 
Body — White silk. Legs — Red cock's hackle. 

This is a delicate fly, and will kill in the evening of the summer 
months. 

No. 17. The " Blue Dun." — Wings— From the blue part under 
the wing of a male widgeon ; to stand erect. Body — Blue fur from 
the water-rat or squirrel. Blue mohair may be substituted for fur, if 
the true shade of the natural fly cannot be procured. Legs — A very 
fine hackle, as near the color of tho body as possible. WkisJcs — Tvro 
blue hairs. 

It is extremely difficult to procure the feather of the exact color of 
the natural fly, or sufiicicntly delicate for the wings of this midge-fly. 
It is a good fly early in tho season. 

No. 18. The "Red Ant." — Wings — Light starling's feather 
Body — Peacock's herl m'^'^e thick at the tail, and a ginger hackle for 
legs. 

In warm, gloomy weather, without electric clouds, ant-flies are kill- 
ing baits during the day ; but they are nearly useless as a morning or 
evening fly. 

No. 19. The " Gold Spinner." — Body— Orango silk, ribbed with 
gold twist. Wings — Starling's feather. Legs — Red hackle. 
From Juno to the middle of July, this is a good general fly. 

No. 20. The " White Moth." — Wings— The feather of a white 
owl. Body — White cotton, and a white co, k's hackle wrapped round 
the body. 

This is a night fly, and should bo used in a dark, gloomy night. It 
requires an experienced hand to fish successfully with this fly. The 
moment the rise of the fish is heard, the angler should instantly strike. 



SB 




482 



AMERICAN FI8HEB. 



Between 9 antl 12 o'clock, one night in the month of July, 1847, 1 
took cloven handsome fish with a " white moth." Care should bo 
taken in the selection of your fishing ground. A position free from 
all obstruction is indispensable, to insure either pleasure or success. 

No. 21. TiiF, "Governor." — Wings— k woodcock's feather. 
Body — A peacock's herl, tied with orange silk. 
This is a good fly iu June and July. 

No. 22. The " Mahch Brown."— TFiu^s— Mottled feather from a 
partridge's tail, set upright. /Wt/— Light hair and red squirrel's fur, 
mixed." Legs-a. grizzled hackle. Tail Whisks—Tvio hairs, reddish 

brown. 

This fly, like a great many others, is known by various names. I 
believe that in Wales, it is called the " cob-fly." In Ireland, it is 
called the " caughlan ;" and in that country it is highly prized as a 
superior fly. Sonio good anglers make the body of hare's car and 
yellow worsted. I have not found it to be a killing fly on Long Island, 
although in some streams in Connecticut, it did good service in the 
month of April. 

No. 23. The Stone-Fly. — Wings — A mottled feather of the hen 
pheasant, or the dark gray feather of the mallard, inclined to red— to 
be dressed rather long, iior/7/— Dark brown fur, or the dark part of 
a hare's ear, mixed with yellow camlet or mohair. Legs~\ few laps 
of a grizzled cock's hackle ; and in the finishing two dark hairs are 
frequently used for the antennae, or fe>;lers. 

The angling history of this fly is full of interest ; but as I merely 
propose to^giv'e a list of such flies as experience justifies mo in recom- 
mending, together with a statement of the materials, colors, &c , of 
which they are formed, 1 will in this place simply refer my readers to 
the account given by Cotton, of this fly; but I cannot refrain from 
expressing my unqualified dissent from the remarks in the " North 
Country Angler," in relation to the natural history of this fly ; and it 
is to mo a mlittcr of astonishment, that Mr. Daniel, in his great work 
wliich treats on fishing, has fallen into great error in reference to the 
stono-fly. 



* ARTIFICIAL FLIES. 



433 



No. 24. The Willow-Fly. — Wings — A dark grizzled cock's 
hackle. Body — Blui* squirrera fur, mixed with yellow mohair. 

This fly appears very lato in the season, and is a favorite with some 
good anglers. 

I have thus gone through the catalogue or list of flies in the colore 
plate, but I do not desire to ho understood as intimating that this list 
contains a spocinion of all the best killing flics. 

Every angler lias his own peculiar notion in regard to the best fly ; 
and the difficulty of presenting a perfect catalogue, will bo very appa- 
rent, when it is considered that there are upwards of one hundred and 
twenty-five fllos which compose the list of various writers ; and as the 
name of the fly of one writer bears a diff"erent name and description 
from that of< another, it is more than probable that the name and de- 
scription of some of the flies in my list may not bo in accordance with 
the views and opinions of many old and experienced anglers. 

It is a mooted question among tlie very best " fly-fishers," whether 
an exact representation of the living insect, is necessary to insure suc- 
cess in angling with the fly. The Scotch flies are not imitations of 
living insects ; and the best anglers in that country maintain the 
opinion that it is absolutely useless and unnecessary to imitate any in- 
sect either winged or otherwise ; and 1 find that Professor Wilson ad- 
vocates the inutility of such imitations. 

Professor Rennie says that " the aim of the angler ought to be, to 
have his artificial fly calculated, by its form and colors, to attract the 
notice of the fish ; in which case he has a much greater chance of suc- 
cess, than by making the greatest efforts to imitate any particular spe- 
cies of fly." 

The opinion of such authorities tends to shake old settled notions ; 
and although I invariably endeavor, when dressing a fly, to imitate the 
living insect, still I have seen nondodcript flies beat all the palmer 
hackles, and the most life-like flies that ever graced a casting-line. 

I shall leave the subject where I found it— in doubt— trusting that 
some more experienced hand, and lover of the art, will, ere long, en- 
lighten the angling community, not only upon this branch of the sub- 
ject, but upon the "fly" in general. Every distinct insect has a 
history full of interest and instruction ; and although some valuable 



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Corporation 



23 WEST MAIN STREET 

WEBSTER, N.Y. 14S80 

(716) 872-450S 







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494 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



treatises have been published, which depict the insects and their types 
in their natural coloro, still a compilation of all that is instructive, with 
such additional information as research and experienee may procure, 
would make a volume of deep interest to the naturalist and the angler. 



DESCRIPTION OF SALMON AND LAKE TROUT FLIES. 

Plate to face page 224— body of work. 

The Salmon Flies three in number. Upper row, from left to 
right. 

Largest Fly, No. 1.— Blue worsted head; black hackle body, 
with silver thread ; upper wings, speckled turkey ; broad wing, bright 
golden pheasant ; green peacock herls, blue-jay and red hackle legs ; 
bird of paradise tail ; scarlet-dyed antennao. 

Middle Flt.— Red worsted head ; ruffed grouse hackle and blue- 
gcai wings ; green peacock herl ; red hackle body ; ruffed grouse 
hackle legs ; orange silk tuft ; bird of paradise tail ; blue macaw an- 
tennae. 

Third Fly. Green peacock harl head ; speckled turkey and blue 

geai wings, with copper peacock's herl; red hackle legs ; blue floss- 
silk body ; bird of paradise tail. 



DESCRIPTION OF LAKE TROUT FLIES. 

Plate to face page 224— body of work. 

Left-hand Fly, Lower Row, No. 2.— Black floss silk head; 
brown peacock's wing ; red hackle legs ; copper peacock's herl body ; 
orange worsted tuft. 



ARTIFICIAL FLIES. 



435 



Right-hand. — Bluy worsted head; ruffed, grouse upper wings; 
golden pheasant under wings ; brown cock's hackle legs ; pink silk 
body, with gold twist ; bird of paradise tail ; green peacock's herl an- 
tonnaa. 



DESCRIPTION OF TROUT FLIES. 

To face page 253— borty of work. 

Upper Row, first Fly to left-hand. — Black cock's hackle, 
dark blue worsted body. 

Second. — Scarlet ibis wings ; scarlet silk body ; silver twist. 

Third. — Green peacock's herl wings ; ruffed grouse hackle legs; 
orange silk body ; green peacock herl tuft. 

Fourth — Cock a bondhu hackle ; red silk body ; silver thread. 

Fifth. — Cock a bondhu hackle ; green worsted body. 

Sixth. — White miller ; black silk head; white owl wings; white 
ostrich legs ; white chenil body. 

Second Row, first to the left.— Bee.— Gray pigeon wings ; 
black and yellow silk body. 

Second.— Green drake; Mallard's speckled wing; light brown 
hackle legs ; pale brown mohair body ; tail, three black horse-hau:s. 

Third. — Black midge ; gray goose wings; black chenil body. 

Third Row, first to the left.— Brown turkey's wing; cock a 
bondhu hackle legs ; red worsted body ; speckled mallard tail. 

Second.— Snipe's wing; gray mouse body; ruffed grouse hackle 
legs ; speckled mallard tail. 

Fourth Row, first to the left.— Yellow dyed hackle wings 
yellow worsted body ; silver twist. 

Second.— Furnace hackles ; green worsted body. 




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AMERICAN FISHES. 








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AMERICAN FISHES. 



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WOQ 



A TREATISE 



FLY-FISHINa 




BY "DINK S," 



!: 



oaianiALLT iubtooxd *ob 



CONTAINIMO COMPLETE AND KLABOBATB DIRECTIONS rOB BTEBY THINQ 
CONNECTED WITH THE ABT AND BCIBNCE OT 

F L Y-in I s H I N G, 



TUB UATKBIALS, MODE OF TTIMO, 00IX>B8, 8BAB0NS, AND U8BS OF ALL TBI 

HOST KILLINU TABIETIES OF ABTIFIOIAL FLIBS; THE USE OF TIUB 

BOD, THE VABIflUB MBTHODB OF CASTING, TBB BEST F0BU8 

OF TACKLE, THE TBITE MODE OF BIBINO, nOOKINO, 

PLAYING, AND XILLINa YOUB FISH, ETC. 




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ficie 

mer 

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SUPPLEMENTARY TREATISE 



OK 



FLY-FISHING. 



Fly-fishino may well bo considered the most beautiful of all rural 
sports. For, in addition to the great nicety required to become pro- 
ficient in the art, it is also absolutely requisite, for its successful {Attain- 
ment, to study much and long — how to adapt and blend the various 
materials used in the construction of a fly ; how to construct the fly 
on certain defined rules ; and, lastly, how to select your flies, thus 
carefully and correctly constructed, in accordance with the state of the 
sky, the color of the water, and the peculiar habits of the fish in dif- 
ferent rivers. The two first are tolerably easy to acquire ; the last by 
far the most diflScult of all. A lifetime devoted to it would barely 
render a man decently knowing, for scarcely do two rivers present the 
same appearance, two skies the same shadows, or the fish of two rivers 
the same tastes, and consequently no particular rules can be laid down 
or plan devised which shall everywhere be infallible. 

In this last section, then, of the first part, it is not to be expected 
that more than a general enumeration, of errors to be avoided, plans 
and practices found useful, can be given. Each angler must study for 
himself the peculiar habits of the fish in the various rivers in his sec- 
tion of the country, where he may hope to be after a while a respect- 
able angler ; while, perhaps, on an expedition to a distant river, he 
20 



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442 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



would in all probability be beaten by a much inferior fisherman. ^ 
But 80 it is, and so in all probability it ever will be; and that man 
will be the best angler who is the readiest at taking hints from those 
living on the waters he wants to whip. 

There is, I regret to say, amongst fishermen an unaccountable dis- 
like to impart knowledge to a brother disciple, and with many an 
almost insuperable objection even to show their cast of flies, still less 
the favorite nooks for the best fish ; the last one can understand and 
think little about, for if we did want to know, wo could either watch 
unknown and unseen for a day, or we could, by carefully fishing ev-ery 
part of the river for one day, select the best for another; but for fiies 
we should be at a loss. Luckily all this class of men are approachable 
in an indirect way ; a quiet chat by the river side, after a casual meeting 
(regulariy planned by you), about the state of the water, weather, bad- 
ness of gut now-a-days (a very catching topic by the way), producing 
your point by way of a clincher: "'Tis the best that 1 can get, say 
you "how do you manage-for 1 find the greatest difficulty now m 
getting it anywise decent; yours seems very strong and good, pray 
where" do you obtain it?" will generally produce to your eyes the 
casting line. A casual examination of it, a particular one of the flics, 
done quickly, interspersed with praise on their construction etc. will 
probably gain a trifle more knowledge for you; a present of a kilhng 
fly or two on a strange water will gain you as many useless ones But 
a sight of the stock— this will render you au fait to the style of fly in 
use; you must then add up all your gains, and manufacture accord- 
ingly Invariably have I noticed that the most successful local fisher- 
men are the most diflicult to draw; and I always held, and do hold, 
that any means are fair to circumvent them. 

We will now proceed to enumerate the various articles requisite for 
fly trying. On the following page you will see the plan of a most con- 
venient and portable box to contain all these articles in store, and also 
ft portable case for short items. Of floss silks-such as ladies embroider 
ottomans and such-like things with-you require every shade almost; 
of Beriin wools, the same ; of pig's-wool, or mohair, various colors 
and tints; of furs, you require Musk-Rat, Field-Mouse, Black Squu^ 
rel. Mink, Marten, young Fox-cub, ditto Coon, Green Monkey, 1 or- 
cnpine-belly. Red Squirrel, the ear of the English Hare, and ditto 
P.. 'cut. 



FLV-FISUINO. 



443 




Inside must be 




♦plan of FISniNO-CASK. 

This may be made of any wood, according to fancy, 
red cedar, to keep moths away. 

a c, height, fifteen inches ; c rf, width, fifteen inches ; / ?, depth, 
eleven inches ; i i, are drawers of equal size ; j j, are two drawers half 
larger than i i ; k k, arc two pigeon-holes ; p and h arc folding-doors 
shuttirig in centre, bolted top and bottom on one side, locked on the other. 

The drawers i i have all shallow trays fitting 
inside them ; two in each are sufficient. Tlie top 
trays of the top drawers are divided into three 
compartments each; the one by two longitu- 
dinal strips of wood, the other by two transverse 
ones, thus. The transverse ones should have 
lids in. There you keep your hooks and tinsel 
a 6 / c is a movable top fastened with 
hinges at n n, to be turned over on to the doors 
ff and h, lined inside with parchment. On this 
lid and the other half of the top of the box you 
place your feathers, &c., to dress your flies on. 
The lower figure represents the top opened out; 
they do not quite touch one another when shut 
up, as a slight rim runs all around both boards to 
raise them. In this cavity you can always keep 
your mixed wings, or pieces of lead to keep the 
feathers from blowing away. Atmor m, you fix 
your movable vice, taking it off when you shut 




n;:i 



It! .; 



444 



AMKBIOAN FI8UK8. 



„p. J, !, U whore you lock it up. Cl^niUo of variou. .ub.Unco mi 

form of book t? hold a,, a.»urtm™t of feather., &e.. for a »hort fl.h.ng 
our The feather, mu.t bo tied up in buneho., eaeU .ort b, itaol , and 
th quill end iu,orted into a co.npartment The mo.t eouvemeu .uo 
U eight and a half inchc. long by «ve and a half wide, when Mded „p 
when opened, however, it U twenty-eight inehe, long by five and . 
S wide, no ineluding the flap. Thi. i» folded up, however, one 
Z over the other. It i. be,t made of parehment a 6 reprosen 
r.ver,e .lip. of «n.o material. The.o are .t„ehod through th. 
baek at regular di.tance,, to hold tho feather., and at the end., c. » 



I 




i^A= 



1 ■,\ 




VLT-FI8IIINa. 



446 



whoro each fold is. u d d, arc the flaps to wrap over all when 
folded upon e, for convenience of holding hooks, tinsel, silk, ntc. It 
is best to have a couple of pockets, one over the other, covering b. 
The in <)uth of one is represented at f. You cnn also, if requisite, have 
a pocket to each flap at the back of the four flaps, the opening being 
downward, as represented in the additional cut, which shows the first 
or lowest flap partly turned up on the - ond. In this book it is best 
to put the largest feathers in the bottoni row of slits, and smaller 
ones in the upper row, as it does not matter if the larger ones hide the 
smaller ones. In the second row I have shown how the feathers are 

stowed away. 

The lines c are merely to mark the turns over, as the above is only 
of one sheet of parchment, save the cross pieces and pockets. 

Of feathers you require an infinite variety. Wild Turkey tail and 
tail coverts, also the neck feathers, may be useful. The tail of the 
American Ruffed Grouse; the neck and tail of the English Grouse; 
the yellowish-tinged neck feathers of the Ptarmcgan ; the tail of cock 
and hen Pheasant, neck of both and wing coverts of hen ; of the duck 
tribe you require the black, white, brown and white-barred feathers 
from under the wing of the Gray, Wood, Canvas-back, Mallard, Teal, 
and Widgeon ; of the Peacock, the neck and tail ; the neck feath- 
ers of various colored cocks (commonly called hackles), black, red, 
yellow, gray, marled, and white, for dyeing blue, green, plum, claret, 
brown, &c. ; also Woodcock, starling, and Landrail wings. Wren's 
tail, Guinea-Fowl tail, tail coverts and neck feathers. Macaw feathers 
of various colors, tail of the Macaw, blue and yellow under, blue and 
red under side; Cock of the Rock's neck; Golden Pheasant-neck 
toppinsand tail; Great African Bustard tail, tail coverts and neck; 
Golden Plover rump coverts ; Argus Pheasant neck and tail feath- 
ers ; English Jay wings ; Parrot tails of every color, neck ditto ; 
also topknots of American Kingfisher, skin of English one ; tail and 
wing feathers of Capercailzie, those deeply and closely barred with 
white; Guinea-Fowl feathers dyed green, orange, and claret colors; 
Ostrich feathers, the thickest and best, of various colors; tame Turkey 
tails of various tints; Scarlet Ibis; three or four barred feathers 
. from the quail's tail; tail of Long-tailed Thrush, &c. 

These are all that at present occur to my mind. They are tolerably 
numerous certainly, but all extremely useful ; many of them every day. 



r t 



446 



AMERICAN FIBIIKS. 



Doubtless many more might be added from the birds of America, but 
these are sufficient for general purposes. 

HOOKS. 

The hook requires particular attention. It is bad enough to make a 
good fly on a bad hook, but to lose a good fish in consequence, is far 
worst. The best hooks undoubtedly are O'Shaughnessey's Limerick, 
when to be had. There are also the Kendal or Kirby Sneck, and 
Carlisle hooks, of some celebrity ; also Kelly's Dublin ; and Bartlett's, 
of Redditch. 



D^ 




KENDAL OB BNECK BSND. 



HOLLOW rOINT T.IMF.RICK 
OH kxlly'b UOOK. 



O'snAUGBMCSSKT. 



O'Shaughnessey used to make his hooks as here described: "They 
are at first small straight bars of the best iron, of the requisite length, 
with a rude kind of head at one end. They are first barbed, sharp- 
ened and rounded with a file, and then bent with circular pincers to 
the proper degree of curvature ; they are next steeled by the applica- 
tion of fire and charcoal ; and then, after a little final polishing, are 
placed on a smoothing iron heated to 580 degrees of Fahrenheit, and 
are, lastly, immersed in grease to preserve them from rust." (See 
Angler in Ireland.) 

Of these you require every size, from the largest to the least. Bartlett 
of Redditch manufactures the best now-a-days, as regards shape and 
temper, having more of the form of the real Limerick— now I believe 
no more, the original makers of them being dead. What were and are 
usually called Limerick hooks are very far from them in appearance. 





BTUND BEND OABLSLK. 



KIBBT BIND CABUILB. 




BABTLXTT B. 



Of gut you require the very strongest for Salmon, and very fine for 



FLY-FISHING. 



447 



Trout that is, where you choose to use a single-handed rod and small 
flies. When, however, you use Salmon-flies for them, you must use 
Salmon gut and rod. 

Of tying-silks, you require yellow, red and orange, of three or four 
diff'ercnt substances; foi fine, the ravellings of a lady's dress will do ; 
for the other sizes, you can purchase small reels of required colors of 

China silk. 

Of tinsel, you require flat gold and flat silver of various sizes, and 
also gold and silver twist. Some few flics require a crimped kind of 
flat, broad gold and silver. 

You now require a vice to screw on to your stand, to hold your hook 
firm while you dress your fly, and a pair of tweezers to hold on to the 
end of a hackle, thread, or silk, etc., while you use your hand for any 
thing else ; small flat pieces of lead, to prevent your feathers being 
blown away ; a pin or two ; cobblers' wax, and a bottle of copal varnish, 
or liquid wax still better. 




DIAGRAM OF THE VICE Rlsgi:iUKI) 

Here is the pattern of a portable vice : a is the frame which is se- 
cured on to the tabic by e; b is a movable vice inserted into fi*ame 
tlirough square holes at c and d. The upright pillar b is squared so as 
to fit into c and D ; r o is a screw running through the upper part so 
as to tighten the vice, the back side of which has a hinge unseen at i. 
H is the top of the vice showing the position in which the fly is held. 

TO DREfci, A PLY. 

" The art of fly-trying requires the rarest combination of manual skill, 
judgment and fancy, and the happiness of invention with which these 
gorgeous deceits are often devised, and the neatness with which they 




':' -! 



443 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




are executed have ever greatly won my admiration." So writes the 
" Angler in Ireiand." 

And hear again what the poet Gay has to say on the subject: 

" To frame the little animal, provide 
All the gay hueo Jict wait on female pride ; 
Let nature guide thee— sometimes golden wire 
The shining bellies of the fly require; 
The peacock's plume thy tackle must not fail, 
Nor the dear purchase of the sable's tail. 
Each gaudy bird some slender tribute brings, 
And lends the glowing insect proper wings. 
Silks of all colors must their aid impart; 
And every fur promote the fisher's art ; 
So the gay lady with extensive care 
Borrows the pride of land, of sea, of air ; 
Furs, pearls, and plumes the glittering thing displays, 
Dazzles our eyes, and easy hearts betrays." 

EXPLANATION OF FIGURES ON OPPOSITE PAGE. 

No. 1. Hook with waxed string, a, taking four turns round it 

No. 2. Gut, b, fastened on. 

No. 3. Hackle, c, fastened on with single turn round. 

No. 4. Tinsel, d, fastened on, with another single turn round. 

No. 5. With silk, c/, showing position preparatory to wrapping it 
on; e being wound over/; kept in its place by a finger. 

No. 6. With silk body wound on, and fastened at g by single turn 
of waxed end ; a, end of silk being cut off" close. 

No. 1. With d, tinsel wrapped on, and confined at ff by single turn 

of a. 

No. 8. With hackle c wrapped on, fastened at g by triple turn of 
waxed end a, looped; h represents the triple row of hackle close 
together for shoulders, and i the legs. 

No. 9. With/, the wings in position, secured by triple turn of a; k 
represents the stumps of wing not cut off. 

No. 10. Represents the fly all finished. 

No. 11. A single loop. 

No. 12. The triple invisible ; one end, a, being passed through loops 
bed, each being afterward tightened. 

No. 13. A pair of tweezers. 

No. 14. Prepared hackle clipped at sides, at l. 



FLT-FISHINQ. 



449 




i ) 



Ill 



460 



AMBRICAN FISHKS. 



No. 14 




No. 18. 




We will now, as well as we can, describe how to dress these different 
styles' of flies, commencing with the easiest ; and we would recommend 
the novice to practice at No. 1 until he can produce something pre- 

e tk; for, for some time it wiUbe any thing else, '^^Vf^^^^^ 
deavors to master the difficulty. Select a tolerable-sized 1 ook. No. 3 
for instance; fix it firmly point downward in the vice, which screw 
tight to the edge of a table placed in front of the wmdow or und r a 
skylight. Wax your silk well. To do this properly, you must st.ck , 
a pin in your trowsers knee ; take two or three turns of the silk round 

he head and point alternately to prevent its shppuig; hold a small 
r und bit of wax, not much bigger than a pea, between finger and 

humb; well wax every part, beginning at the bottom, takmg care not 

put your fingers on the silk, else it is apt to break Tae three or 
four turns along the bare hook some distance apart, to w.thm a nfl. 
of the head; select your gut; bite the thick end a htt e up and <Wn 
as far as the hook will cover; take eight or ten tight turns o the silk 
close together round both, the gut being on the under side of the hook 
and then whip on loosely to a point opposite the barb. Now wi h one 

1 round all make fast a cock's hackle, we will suppose. Tins hack e 
re uir spreparing. It is done thus : at the quill end the fluff or woolly 
Zer m'ust'be Ipped off; at the other end with a fine-pomted scjs- 
Trs clip away close to the end two or three fibres on each sule of the 
qv^ 1 «us prevents the end tied on being too thick and clumsy. Now 
I return to the fly; next with another turn fasten one end of tinsel 



FliT-FIBHlNO. 



in 



or twiat, as the case may be ; next take a turn round an end of wool 
or peacock's tail or ostrich, and with a couple of turns round the shank 
pass the waxed silk to the head. If the body be of floss silk, with the 
finger of one hand press one end of the silk on the shank, twisting the 
other over the shank and over the silk end also ; take a second turn 
round, draw tight, and wrap evenly to the head, secure with tweezers 
for the present. When a wool, mohair or fur body is to come on, you 
twist a portion of them round the waxed thread and work it evenly up 
to the head; pull off the superfluous dubbing; make fast; twist on the 
tinsel slaptingly from heel to head at regular distances ; three to four 
turns round generally suffice; fasten with a turn of the silk; next 
pass the hackle alongside of the tinsel, close to it all the way, and the 
same way. If across (some flies are tied so), the teeth of fish cut 
througli the fibre, and the fly does not look so well; if close alongside, 
the teeth are not so liable to cut the hackle, and take two or three 
turns with it round the upper end of the shank close together to form 
the legs and shoulders. Now take a couple of turns of the waxed silk, 
to fasten all on tightly ; passing the end of the silk through the last 
turn, pull it tight; this forms a knot and secures it. Select your 
fibres of feathers for wings, observing not to make them too heavy or 
too long ; one half way between the point of the hook and the extreme 
end of the bend is long enough. Holding on to the root end of the 
wing, pass it between your lips to moisten it ; fit to the proper length 
over the hook, holding it there with one hand, while with the other 
you take two or three turns of the silk tightly over the wing as close 
as possible to the legs. Draw back {i.e. toward the head) the wing; 
pass the silk twice close behind the wing, between it and the eye and 
shoulder hackle, to give it a correct set ; then pass forward ; cut off 
'ho stump of the wing as close as possible ; finish off with four or five 
jrns of the waxed silk over the cut off part. Make a couple of knots 
as above described, or invisible knot ; then break off the silk, and you 
have your fly all com'^-ete.* 

To render the above more plain, I have made a set of drawings of 
each process, accompanied with letters and notes, so that with a little 
attention a very correct idea may be formed how a fly should be tied. 
When a tail is used, it must be set on before the tinsel or hackle, with 
a couple of turns of waxed silk, and cut off quite close. 




452 



AMERICAN FISHES. 
EXAMPLE I. 



No.1 



Ko.a. 





Here No. 1 represents th^ body wound on, and the tinsel (if any), 
with the hackle b and buzzy wings, c, fastened and ready to wrap on. 

No 2. As above, with b wrapped on up to e, and there tied; after 
which is wrapped on alongside of b, after b reaches "it, fastened on 
also at E, by waxed end, a, tied off with invisible knots. 



EXAMPLE 11. 
No. 1. 




No. a. 



! 







rLY-FISHlNO. 



453 



Here are represented two ways of making a palmer. 

No 1 represents the body fastened on as above (plate 1, No. 1); o 
being the waxed end, d the hackle, to be wound on, finishing off at c. 
N. B. — Palmers are made with very long, thick hackles. 

No, 2 represents another sort of palmer; two hooks are fastened 
back to back, as shown in example, b represents a Peacock's harl, or 
other substance, for the body to be finished off at f, {a No. 2). c and 
D are two hackles set on the reverse way, i. c, quill end tied on first. 
B is wound along past hackle d, fastened down at f. Hackle c is 
wound along pretty closely, waxed end a being alongside, or a may be 
carried on to <; with the harl and there left. Hackle c is fastened 
down at ff and cut off close, as also waxed end a. Hackle d then is 
wound on to f, where it is tied down by waxed end (a No. 2), ends all 
cut off close. 



EXAMPLE III. 




Example HI. represents a real salmon -fly; a b horns; c head of 
ostrich; d tail; e gold tag behind the tail. This plate gives nearly 
the representation of a real Limerick (O'Shaughnessey) hook. 

The above is pretty nearly a general fly, omitting only the head, 
which consists generally of a trail of ostrich turned round the head 
after the wings are clipped close, and two horns put on either outside 
or just under— the head lying on top of the wings. There is what is 
called a buzzy fly and a palmer, represented in examples I. and IL 

Example HI. is a perfect salmon-fly, and in these also directions are 
giyen. 



1 






II 



m 11 



): 



ill 




iH.:i 



«ai5i 






. I 



464 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



i 



Wo trust that these directions will enable any one to manufacture 
for himself, after patience, practice, and perseverance. But wo would 
particularly advise any one so beginning to take a few lessons from a 
practised hand, where he will sec all the minute dodges wo cannot de- 
scribe. 

Finnegan of New York would doubtless give lessons in this beauti- 
ful art, and, to judge by his flies, no one is more competent to do so. 
They have that peculiarity about them that bespeaks them Irish, and 
are most neatly manufactured, though without any appearance of stifl"- 
ness or eye-serving about them. 

Having described the method as practised by ourselves, we will for 
the present pass over th? different sort of flies in vogue, and show how 
your gut casting-line is to be made. Select for salmon eight or ten of 
the very strongest gut you can pick out, prove each link separately — 
one end between your teeth, the other round a finger ; pull till it 
breaks. Try it again, and if it resist considerably put it into a basin 
of water. Ser\'e the rest in the same way, then take out two pieces 
of about equal thickness; place the thiol: end of one to the thin of the 
other, let them once lap an inch or two; holding them so, take the 
short end of one, pass it over the other long end ; bring it underneath, 
and, passing it twice through, the loop is formed. The same with the 
other short end ; pull the knots tight and draw the two ends together ; 
this knot never gives. Observe the following figures : 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Figure 2 is the single knot, but it is liable to slip. Keep adding 
to these two links, either thicker at one end or thinner at the other, till 
you get the required length of foot-line. To the thick end may be 
added two or three lengths of double and treble gut, if you like it, it is 
rather better. To twist gut, you must wet it and put one or two in 
each quill, with a stick to keep it from slipping, then plait one over the 
other, drawing it out of the quills as you proceed. I have mentioned 
this, not because I thought it necessary — for I presume every school- 



■*p*w^. 



FLY-FISHING. 



485 



boy knows how to plait a line— but for fear I might meet with a Uttle 
abuse if I did leave it out. I always buy my links already plaited, as 
they are better done by machine, and it saves much bother. Hair 
points for trout-fishing are also made in a similar way to the double 
and treble gut, by increasing or diminishing the number of hairs ac- 
cording to the substance required. 

The next article that deserves our attention is the line. It is a 
point of much dispute among fishermen, whether hair, hair and silk or 
hemp lines are best for Salmon ; for all seem to agree that for trout- 
fishing proper (and I mean always in thus naming it, such aa is carried 
on with suitable trout-flies and a one-handed trout rod), there is 
nothing better than a mixed hair and silk line tapered at either end 
to reverse, in case of accidents. This is the best ; hair is next best. 
For Salmon, however, the case is different. You require weitrht to 
propel the line against wind, and also great strength. I have always 
used one hundred and fifty yards for a line, one hundred of which 
was hemp steeped in boiled oil, dried and well rubbed in, and fifty 
yards of heavy black or gray country hair-plait line, as being stronger 
and better than any thing else. I use it still ; it is infinitely better 
than hair and silk. I prefer it to all hair, as it reels up closer than 
hair alone would do. 

When last in England, there was great talk about new discoveries in 
the line way. I have never tried them, and consequently cannot vouch 
for the performance of them, but several friends of mine, who are by 
no means contemptible fishermen, spoke strongly in their favor. From 
the appearance, it is evident that they are dressed over with more than 
boiled oil, with the use of which as a preservative of hemp lines I have 
been long familiar ; they present just such an appearance and smell as 
a mixture of boiled linseed oil and soluble India-rubber would — and 
of that I doubt not the composition is made. 

The following receipt will be found to answer every purpose, with- 
out pretending, however, to be " the one :" 

3st boiled linseed-oil, four ounces (one-fourth of a pint), saturated 
solution of India-rubber in naphtha, four ounces ; mix well together, n\h 
with a brush over the line stretched in the open air; when dry, repeat 
the dressing, and leave exposed to the air till stiff. Care must be taken 
to rub it on thinly, yet evenly all over, and avoid touching it till dry. 

Lines thus prepared, they tell me can be thrown further than any 



456 



AMBRIOAK riBHKB. 



other. If 80, of course they arc the best, but I prefer the hair, know- 
ing that when wet it acquires such a weight that you can cover twenty 

yards with it readily. 

Wo now come to the consideration of reels, which wo shall dismiss 
in a few words. Tliero are only two sorts that are fit for use, the 
plain* and the click wheel.\ The others are downright impostors, 
always getting out of order or getting you in trouble, whichever 
sort you have of them. For Salmon, the most convenient size is one 
four and a half inches diameter by one and a half inches wide inside. 
For Trout, two and a half inches diameter by three-fourths of an inch 
wide. They should have a long, flat brass base to fasten to the rod by 
means of slides, and arc more convenient with the new patent handle, 
the ivory knob of which screws and unscrews, allowing a hinge to 
work so that the knob can either bo put mside and kept there by a 
notch cut m the rim of the outside plate, or else in the proper position 
for reeling up. 

BBEL WITH PATENT HANDLE. 





A. Plate of wheel with cut in it. 



* The catch of a click wheel, unless well made and kept oUed, is apt to refuse to 
work sometimes. When it does this in running out, it overshoots the hue and 
fouls. Take off the cap and give the steel dagger a blow with a liammer or any 
iron substance ; this generally corrects the defect unless the cogs are too much worn, 
in which case they must be renewed. 

f Never buy a plain or any other reel with a stop, 'tis the devils mvention, to 
cause you to lose many a fish, and thereby "swear a few." It constantly slips, 
and brings the line up taught, and snaps when running out fast. 



FLY-FISIIINO. 



457 



D. ITandlo. 

0. Pill to fasten in tho other joint. 

D. Of liantUo. 

B. Tho ivory knob. 

The handle o, by means of tho screw represented on d, is screwed 
down on to n, which keeps the whole in its place, and presents tho 
same appearance as the common immovable handle, over which it pos- 
sesses the great advantage of freedom from breakage while travclini^. 

We now come to the consideration of the material to be nscd for 
reels. Brass used to be thought good enough ; now German silver, if 
not silver ones, arc in fashion. As long as they work well, it is no 
great consequence what tho material bo. I have used brass for fift<>on 
years and more, and as long as it acts as well as it has hitherto done, 
I must say that nothing need be better. * 



! 



it 



THE ROD. 

Tlie next article deserving our notice is the rod, on the goodness uf 
which as much as any other part of the turn out, depends our success. 
Some men never in their lives could make a rod. An old fisherman 
makes the best always; he knows exactly where they should be stiff, 
and where liniber. There are various styles in rods to suit varioiu 
tastes, and for the following purposes : 

No. 1. Twelve-feet single-handed trout-rod; two pieces spliced, abi 
feet each. 

No. 2. Fifteen-feet double-handed trout or salmon; three piecea 
spliced, five feet each. 

No. 3. Eighteen feet double-handed salmon-rod; three pieces, one 
ferule, one splice, six feet each. 

No. 4. Twenty -feet double-handed salmon-rod ; two pieces spliced, 
thirteen and seven feet each. 

No. 1 is the most magnificent rod I ever handled ; it throws an 
extraordinary length of line, was made by Edmundson of Liverpool, 
and cost ten shillings sterling. It is moderately limber, with heavyish 
top. 

No. 2 is at present on the stocks, and ought to be good ; if it is 
not, it will travel and let anothor take its place. 

No. 3 is a fair rod by the same maker as No. 1 ; cost thirty shillinga 
sterhng ; but I fear the ferule ; more are worse than better than it. 



Ii*'» ^> 



i;i" 




458 



AMERICAN FIBIIE8. 



/ / 



No. 4 is a country-made bottom, witlt an old Edmnnd8nr.a1.non. 
top; it i. an extraordinary performer; very heavy and uff; J"o«t 
inconvenient to carry abont; consecinently such a m-l „ not ht fo, 
other than those living on the river banks. 1 would never adv.se he 
construction of one except in that case. For most men twenty feet » 
too long and heavy; if bo, eighteen is the sue for a sa In.on-rod fo, 
them Fifteen is only a double-handed trout-rod, but wdl kill a salmon 
if need be For a moderate fisherman Nos. 1 and 3 will be .luitc 
sufficient. For an occasional one, No. 3 may serve. For your i.ulo 
5itigable man, twenty or twenty-one, three pieces spliced, is all hi 
loinires; for vonr salmon-fisher seldom bothers the poor trout. 

Everv rod ou^jht to have a spare top, and any one going on any 
fishing 'oxncMlition of more than three or four days' duration, should 

rovide l.iur..lf with a spare rod in case of accidents to the one 
he ,e;u..allv uses. Thus, for instance, a No. 1 .and No. 2 rod, and 
Nos 3 and" 4, or Nos. 2 and 3, would render a person inditferent to 

*" We ucKUome to conshlcr the best wood to be used in the manufacture. 
Many makers use ebony or rosewood for the butt, to got the weight at 
the bottom. It is. tu my mind, not necessary. The best ro s I .avo 

ever seen were those made by ,- fishermen, lliey beat the bo t 

London rods to eternal smash. . rods were aU ot hngl.sh ash, 

urns and middle pieces, and :.. v,o,a tops. The greatest secret m 
the making of a rod, is to get perfectly clean, straight-grained wood, 
reasoned f^r two or three years, and in the six-feet tops to make two 
"hcch dued and whipped over with fine, well-waxed silk. Another 
Xn . ^o a very good one, for tops, is to glue four pieces of lance- 
wooi together, and work the top out of the centre of the mass. Tops 
HO made always spring back after using. They also have generally 

three splices in the top piece. n i f .k.nwSn^ 

In a succeeding page I shall have to describe a method of throw ng 
a salmon-line, adopted on the wooded banks of the Spey for which a 
different kind of rod is required, so that I may as well describe it in 
this place. About half-way up the middle piece it fines off rathe 
suddenly, that is to say, out of the proportion salmon-rods are bml 
on; and again, half-way up the top piece, that is, thence to the point 
it docs not fall off in the regular proportion ; this gives a great spring 
in the centre, and causes the top to appear too heavy, which, however. 



'M' 



FLY-FIsniNO. 



450 



it ia not I trust, ere this plan h coinincntcd on— as I know ftill well it 
will be, by those who pretend to know a great deul-it will bo tried I 
have 8eon and tak.m too particular notice of these rods to be n.istakon 
and have seen those in a Spey man's hands* send a line that would 
frighten most people to look at. These rods, when you have a, .uircd 
the knack, will throw ten yards more lino than a common rod- and 
against wind they are superb. ' 

Wo ought to have stated that twenty feet is quite long cnou.rh for 
this rod; It is also much stouter and heavier than an ordinary salmon- 
rod. To make ourselves better understood respecting it, we will sup- 
pose it to consist of three splices. These should bo carefully niid 
closely wrapped on arriving at your finhing ground; and, if ciiciun- 
stanccs admitted, might be kept so until leaving the place alt().r,.ther 
Divide this eighteen feet by four, and you get four feet six inelios a^ 
the quarter. Thus, the third quarter, i. c, nine feet from the butt, is 
where the great play is in this rod, and which, as I said above,' is 
reduced rather more than the proportion ; while the fourth quarter is 
not so much ; care, however, must be taken not to run into the oppo- 
site extreme, for a slight increase in the size of the top would naturally 
throw the play elsewhere; and the slightest fining off of the next 
quarter confines the play there. So much value do I put on this rod, 
that I am writing to the banks of the Spey for a veritable one, the 
which I shall have great jileasure in submitting to any tackle-maker 
desirous of the pattern ; for of all rods in the world it is the one best 
adapted to tho uncleared banks of all our best salmon rivers, where 
frequently you are unable to get your fly in by any other method than 
as it is termed " switching." 

. The great fault that most rod-makers commit, is not knowing where 
to make the rod give. This should be at a point below the first splice, 
according to tho size of the rod, sufficient to keep the strain from it, 
and also to prevent tho natural stifl^ness caused by the splice from 
interfering with the play ; again on tho second splice, it must give 
from the foot, as far distant as the yield is from the top of the butt- 
piece ; and again about tho same distance from its top. The top 
piece also gives at the distance laid down for the top of the middle 
piece. I learnt this from watching tho play of a Blackwater rod, for 
which the maker was deservedly famous, so much so, that his rods 
sold for more (plain though they were) than Martin Kelley's salmon- 



460 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



ii 



;1 



rod. I should not, however, advise any one to make his own rods, 
unless he has a taste that way, when probably, after spoihng twenty 
or thirty, if he is a practical fisherman he might hit on the real thuig. 
The least shave too much will spoil the casting of a rod; so that it « 
excrcmelv difficult to know when to stop. Another great secret in 
taking, the most out of your rod, is to balance it well. Generally 
speaking, rods are made with a groove and sliding ring to pass over 
the foot of the rod; this .hould never be fixed unless by actual ox- 
penr.ent you have ascertained the exact point where it best suits with 
the reel and line you mean to use. When you have discovered this 
spot, pin down one ring and cut your groove for the foot of the roc 
to fit in For a beginner I would recommend a light rod-it will not 
fatigue him nearly so much; he will learn to throw a fly cleaner with 
it than the heavier one. The Whippy rods are far more difficult to 
use artistically than the others, but for fine-weather fishing they arc 
elecrant tools. I trust I have said enough on this subject to make inyseh 
understood. To one that knows nothing whatever on the subject, 
I have only to say-go to some respectable tackle-maker; ask lor a 
ffood rod ; tell him you don't understand the matter, and request his 
advice and choice; for his own credit as a judge ho dare not give you 
a bad one, lest you should show off his knowledge some other day. 
He who would do this to you must either be a fool or a rogue-either 
of which aspersions on his fair fame would not be pleasant 

Our next articles of equipment are a landing-net and gaff", or clip, as 
it is sometimes termed. I have brought them on the tapts together 
because the same staff does for both. The best landing-net is made of 
hickory steamed and bent into a circle; on the outside of it, for six or 
eight inches, an iron plate is whipped on with waxed fine twine; in. 
the centre of this plate is a knob, on which is worked a male screw of 
the size to fit the top of the landing-pole, which has a female screw on 
it. The net can be either of silk or fine whipcord, pretty bag^7, to 
prevent the fish from flopping out. 



LANDING-NET HOOP. 



Around the outer edge of this hickory bow a grc vc is run (suffjci- 
enUy deep to hold the cord by which the net is fastened on), having 
smaU holes bored through it every three-quarters of an inch; this is by 



FLY-FISHINO. 



461 



far the best net I have ever seen ; some there arc made of iron oi steel, 
jointed, and s!)mo of wood, with sockets &c., like a rod, vovv pretty 
and handy, but liable to get out of order. The clip ought not to bo 
too small, it should be two and a half inches wide, the point slightly 
bending outward, and about three inches from the lower part of the 
bend to a line perpendicular to its point. The pole (landing) should 
be about four feet six inches long, with a couple of rings lashed on to 
it eight or ten inches or a foot from its top and about eighteen inches . 
from its bottom ; to these, when you have to carry the clip yourself, 
you fasten a cord and sling it behind you. Trouting, you would hold 
it in one hand ; salmon-fishing, you cannot, smce you require both 
hands to work the rod. 

FISH-BASKET. 

The most convenient thing to carry trout in is a wicker pannier, 
fitting to the back, with a hole in the lid — these are to be bought at 
any tackle-shop — in the back of it are holes for the strap to run through ; 
let me advise every one to use, instead of leather, a fine horse-girth of 
proper length, with leather at buckle and for the strap inside the bas- 
ket ; this girth does not cut the shoulders, nor does it stretch when 
wet. 

SALMON-BAG. 

The best article for salmon is a bag of moleskin, lined with fine silk 
oil-cloth, two feet long by twelve inches deep, with a strap to it. I 
never carried one, but fancy it won't go good with five salmon in it, 
though it will hold them ; I prefer having some one else to tote the 
sack along, though, if obliged, I certainly would use one of these — 
they keep the fish clean, fresh, and nice, especially if you put a little 
wet grass into it ; the inside requires washing occasionally. 

To kill your salmon you kick him on the head. To serve out trout, 
put your thumb into his mouth and bend back the head till you hear 
a crack. Besides the humanity of the thing, it is unpleasant to hear 
the brutes flopping about in your basket, and still more so when they 
are brought to table to see their mouths wide open. Those that are 
necked keep their mouths shut, and tell no tales ; the others gape most 
awfully, and speak loudly of your cruelty. 

What, now, is the best contrivance for carrying your flies in 1 is a 
very frequent question. Some use a tin box, either oval or circular, 



li H V 







l!-l 



»F«'-ppj^i;-«^H«t-'7«r*«JS*S*J 



462 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



With ^ veral piece, of card-board fitted inside, between which they 
Low their flies, casting-lines, &c. Others, again and they ave by 
for the most uuiuerous, use pocket-books -many of them so vo umi- 
nous that they require adonkeyto carry them A selection of a dozen 
rimon-flies and two dozen trout-fltes are ample f^.r the day s use; the 
balance of the stock may be left at home. ,, ,v , 

Here you have the plans and dimensions of a salmon and trout-book. 
The sdnu.n-book was made to my order some years ago, and has been 
cry nmch adopted in England since. Its great advantages consist in 
vour l>oi-.'-- able to stow away a large number of flies; to keep th gut 
trai.'.t (f^r the ends all hang out at one end); and, at the same time, 
not To be too cumbersome. The flannel between each layer of hooks 
prevents rust. The trout-book is one of many years standing, and 
I do not know a better one. 

EXAMPLE FOU A SALMON-FLY BOOK. 

Firr 1 represents the leaves, which are of parchment, with cross-bars 
of strong silk, knotted through at the point ot intersection 
of the cross-lines ; the other side of the leaf presents the 
same appearance, the two folds of parchment being stitched 
together at the edges; between each leaf is one of parch- 
ment incased in flannel-this absorbs the moisture and 
prevents rust. Size, eight and a half inches long by four 
inches wide, the outside case of Russia leather, on the one 
side, containing three capacious pockets to hold casting- 
lines, spare gut, &c.; the other side, with a band of leather 
stitched across the inside to hold a pair of scissors, knife, gaff, and a 
spare place for any odd matter, as lancet, &c. 

^ ^ Fig. 2 represents the plan of hooking in a fly, 

the barb of which is passed under one strand and 
brought down to the angle over the other strands; 
six o*r seven of these double leaves are ample. 
The one outside must have a wide flap reaching 
half-way down the other side and closed with a 
wide buckle and strap to fasten the hook by (kept 
in its place by two keepers on the flap, the other 
on the back). 




Fio. 1. 




Fio a. 



FLY-FISHING. 



463 





O 


o 


f 1 




■ 


r 










I 






















a 


»l~»" 


' It 


J* 








1 




J 


1 
t 








V 


;o 


^ 


V, 



KX AMPLE OF A TROUT-FLY BOOK. 

Hero } uu Lav o uio plau of two leaves of a trout-book. The right side 

forms a pocket with a flap. It is, of course, 
double to the turn of the leaf, stitched up 
the sides. The left side is also double, 
its reverse side presenting the same ap- 
pearance as the one sbown, 0, are 11. ii', 
thin bits of cork to prevent the flies bei..;^' 
crushed, a, «, a, a are four slips of stiR 
parchment with pointed ends passed into 
a slit at n, b, n, b. To secure the flics you draw out tlie end of a ; put 
your flies under and slip it again into slit b. Three of these leaves, 
forming six pages, to fiisten flies in, with the pocket between each to 
prevent entanglement of flies in each compartment, and four leaves of 
flannel, to put your wet flies in, arc sufticient. 

The back of this book should be like the salmr>n-book, with similar 
pockets on one side, and the band of leather also. The most con- 
venient size is four inches wide by six inches deep. A buckle and 
strap round the outside arc far handier than strings. 

Having now got through all the various implements necessary for 
the fly fisherman, it ortly remains to notice the different flics best 
adapted for general purposes ; for more than that we cannot do unless 
it be to specify the materials and colors. We will divide our flies into 
three classes: trcut-flies proper, white or sea trout flies of three sizes 
larger, and salmon-flies. To render these lists as plain as possible, we 
will here give a list of terms used : taff, i. c, whatever is placed to- 
ward the heel of the hook outside the tail ; tail-hody ; tinsel is flat 
gold or silver; twist is round ditto; hackle is whatever feather is 
fastened on at the tail and wound headward ; /fi7S— these are put on 
close to the head and under the wing; they will not be mentioned 
where tackle and legs are formed of one article; wings; horns; 
head. 

TR0UT-FLIE8. 

No. 1. Red Fly. — Body — Dark red squirrels' fur equal part claret 
mohair, most claret toward tail, worked round brown silk wings. 
Wood-drake's ginger-dun feather. Pea-hen has same-tinted fcathera. 
Xc^.s_Clarct-stained hackle. To make it buzzy, a copper tinged 
dun hackle is wound on above the body. Hook — No. 6. 



I Hi 



m 




464 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



^•o. 2. Red Spinner.— i?«(^2/— Brown silk, ribbed with fine gold 
twi.t ; British officers' epaulet size. Tail-Tsvo whisks red cock hackle. 
H^;„^5_ Wood-drake's feather, as above. Hook—'i^o. 6. 

No. 3. Great Dark Drone.— 5ot?//— Mole fur, or black ostrich 
wound round. Lcr/s and wings-Bine dun hackle. //ooA;-No. 5. 

No 4 Cow-DUNO Fly.— Yellow mohair, or camlet, mixed with little 
dingy brown fur of bear left rough, spun on light-brown silk. Winys 
Landrail wing. Ze-7«-Ginger-colorcd hackle. Hook-Ho. 7. 

No 6. rEACOCK-FLY.-5oJy-Brown peacock's harl, dressed with 
mulberry-colored silk. Whiff ^-dv^vkesi part of starling's wmg feather. 
Hackle-T>avk purple (stained), appearing black, but when held up to 
the light of a dark tortoise-shell color. Hook—^o. 9. 

No G March Brown.— /?oiy— Fur from English hare's face, ribbed 
with oran-e silk tied with brown. Tail-Tv^o strands of English par- 
tridcrc tail. Zer/s— Feather (tied on hackle fashion only close under 
wings) from back of English partridge. W^m^rs-Under part hen 
pheasant's wing. Hook— No 6. 

No 7. Sand-Fly.— Sandy-colored fur from English hare's neck spun 
on same colored silk. W^/n^s-Landrail made full. Zf^s- Light- 
ginger from hen's neck. Hook — No. 7. 

No 8.— Stone-Fly.— iJorfy— Hare's car, mixed with yellow mohair, 
ribbed over with yellow silk, and showing most yellow toward tail. 
Tail-Two strands mottled English partridge tail. Wings same as 
March Brown. Ze</s— Hackle, stained greenish-brown. Morns— Two 
rabbit's whiskers. Hook— No. 11. 

No. 9. Raccoon-Fly.— 5o6/y— raccoon's fur (bclly),wound round yel- 
low silk. Wings and fe^s— Landrail's wing, buzzy. Hook-No. 13. 
No 10 Gravel-Bed.- ^orfy-Lead-colorcd silk, wound on very 
fine win— under side of woodcock's wing. Z^^J-Blackcock's hackle, 
rather long, wound on only twice round the shoulders. Hook-No. 

No 1 1 Yellow T)vs.—Body-Ye\\ow mohair, mixed with blue fur 
■ „f mouse, or vellow silk, well waxed, to give it an olive tint. Wtngs 
-Lightest part of the starling's wing. Zc^a-Light-yeUow dun hackle. 
Hook — Xo. 6. 



smmm. 



FLY-FISHINO. 



465 



No. 12. LiTTLB Yellow Ma\ Dun.— ^oc?y— Pale-ginger fur from 
back of liarc's cor, ribbed with yellow silk. Tail — Two whisks from 
dun hackle. H^m^.f— Mottled wood-drake, oUve tint. Zeys— Light 
dun hackle, yellowish stain. Hook — No. "7. 

No. 13. Black-Gnat. — Bodij—Black ostrich harl. Wings— D&vk 
part of starling. Legs — Black hackle. Hook — No. 12 or 13. 

No. 14. Oak Fly.— Orange floss silk, tied on with ash-colored silk, 
showing at the tail and shoulders. Witigs — Outside woodcock's wino-. 
Legs — A furnace hackle, i. c, red cock's hackle, with a black list up 
the middle, and black tinge at the extremities of the fibres. This 
hackle must be warped all down the body at regular distances, and the 
fibres snipped off till close up to wings, leaving enough for legs. Hook 
No. 4 or 5. 

No. 15. Turkey Brown. — JBodj/ — Dark-brown floss silk, ribbed 
with purple silk. Wings and legs— Bnzzy\ dark-grain hackle. 
Hook — No. 1. 

No. 16. Little Dark Spinner. — Bodij — Mulberry- colored floss 
Bilk, ribbed over with purple silk. Tail— Two strands of hackle for 
legs. TTm^jfs— Starling wing feather. Zc^rs— Stained tortoise-shell 
purple-tinted hackle. Hook — No. 7. 

No. 1 7. Grannom, or Green-Tail. — Raccoon's belly wrapped on 
brown silk ; green tag at end of tail to represent egg-bag. Wings 
very full, from partridge wing. Zeys— Pale-ginger hen's hackle. 
ZTooA- No. 12. 

No. 18. The Soldier or Fern-Fly. — Body — Blood orange floss 
silk. Wings — Darkest part of starling. Legs — Red cock hackle, or 
made-buzzy with- furnace-hackle on above body. Hook — No. 5. 

No. 19. The Sailor Fly. — Body — Dark-blue floss silk. Wings 
and legs same as above. Hook — No. 5. 

No. 20. Alder-Fly. — Body — Peacock's harl, tied with black silk. 
Wing — Brown hen, or inside of woodcock's wing. Legs — Deep amber- 
stained hackle, or black May ditto. Hook — No 4. 

No. 21. Green Drake. — Body — The extremities are of brown pea- 
cock's harl ; middle of pale straw-colored floss silk, ribbed with silver 
twist. Tail — Three rabbit's whiskers. Wings and legs buzzy. Wood- 



m 

w 



m 



'. 



^p 



(i 



ill) 



.pHi 




■SWJWWWsWiWSffiSSS 



J-A'alW!..-'" * *"*' " 



466 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



drake white bar clipped oflF, or mallard tinged olive, if in a state of 
rest, wings as above, legs pale-brown bittern's hackle, or partridge or 
ptarmigan feather. Hook — No. 3 or 4. 

No. 22. Gray DK\viis,.-rBody as above. Tail as above. WirujH 
and %6— Buzzy; mottled mallard stained faint purple; if at rest, 
wings of same colored mallard feather. Legs — Dark purple-stained 
hackle, wrapped over the above colored body. Hook — No. 3 or 4. 

No. 23. Marlow Buzzy (the celebrated cock-a-bonddu).— i?o(/y— 
Black ostrich harl twisted with brown peacock's heel. Wings and 
legs — a furnace hackle, buzzy. Hook—ll^o. 8. 

No. 24. The Dark Mackerel or Brown Drake.— i?oc?y— Dark- 
mulberry floss silk, ribbed with gold tinsel. iTaj/— Three rabbit's 
whiskers. Wings— Br oyin mottled mallard. Xcii-s— purple-dyed 
tortoise-shell hackle. Hook — No. 4 or 5. 

No. 25. Pale Evening Dun. — Yellow martin's fur, spun on pale 
fawn-colored silk. Body— a. fine-grained feather from starling's wing, 
stained rather light-yellow. Legs— Tale dun hackle. Hook—^o. 12. 

No. 26. July Dun. — ^orfy— Blue mouse fur and yellow mohair 
mixed and spun on yellow silk. Wings— Dark starling stained darker 
with onion {vide receipts). Legs— Dark dun hackle. Hook—^o. 
12. 

No. 21, Wren-tail.— -Ginger-colored fur, ribbed with gold twist- 
hare's neck will do. Wings and Ze^s— Buzzy wren's tail. Hook— 
No. 12 or 13. 

No. 28. Red Ant. — 5orfy— Peacock's harl, tied with red brown 
silk. Wings— Ught part of starling's wing. Legs— Red cock's hackle. 

^ooA:— No. 12 or 13. 

No. 29. Black Ant.— i?oc?y— -Peacock's harl and black ostrich 
mixed. TTiw.^^s— Darkest part of starling's wing. Zc^r*— Black cock 
hackle, ^ooi— No. 12 or 13. 

No. 30. August Dun.— fiorfy— Brown floss silk, ribbed with yellow 
silk. ^017- Two rabbit's whiskers. Wings— FaatUcr of a brown 
hen's wing. Ze^^a— Plain red hackle stained brown, made buzzy with 
grouse (English) wound on above body. Hook—lio. 8. 

No. 31. Orange Fly.— Orange floss silk, tied on with black silk. 



I 

i 



FLY-FISHING. 



407 



Legs—k furnace hackle. Wings— Ylcn blackbird or dark starlinc's 
wing. Hnok—^o 12 or 13. 

No. 32. Cinnamon-Fly.— jBoJy— Fawn-colored floss silk. Wings 
—American robbin's, or better the long-tailed thrush, buzzy. Grouse 
feather, or red hackle stained brown with copperas, on above body 
//ooAr -No. 10. 

No. 33. Blue-Bottle.— Bright blue floss silk, tied on with light- 
brown silk, showing the brown at the head. W^m«7s— Starling's wing 
feather. Legs — Black hackle wound on slightly from tail. Hook— 
No. 0. 

No. 34. Willow-Fly.— i?oc?y— Mole's fur, or blue mouse. Wings 
— A dark dun cock's hackle, strongly tinged a copper color. Hook— 
No. 8. 

These are the best flies used in England. They are derived from 
" Ronald's Fly-fishers' Entomology," with colored plates ; a very ex- 
cellent work. The only variation I have made has been to substitute 
the feather of an American bird whenever I knew any suitable. Un- 
fortunately this is not the season for palmers or caterpillars ; and, not 
having the insect or patterns, I am unable to give as many as I could 
wish, as they are excellent troht-killers, especially after a flood. 

PALMERS. 

No. 1. The Red Palmer. — 5orfy— Peacock's harl, with red cock's 
hackle wound over it, tied with dark-brown floss silk ; two hooks are 
used, vide plate of flies (Ronald's). 

No. 2. Brown Palmer. — Mulberry-colored worsted spun on brown 
silk, brown cock's hackle wound over it (Ronald's). 

No. 3. Black Palmer. — Black ostrich harl, ribbed with gold twist, 
red cock's hacklo wound over it (Ronald's). 

No. 4. Yellow Palmer. — Pale straw-colored worsted, wound on 
same-colored silk. Pale straw-tinted cock hackle over body. 

No. 5. Green Palmer. — Pea-green worsted on green silk body, 
hackle steeped in onion dye. 

No. 6. Fawn-colored Palmer. — Fawn-colored worsted on pale- 
red silk body. Fawnish-red hackle wound over body. 



iV 



? %b 18, ' 



i t 




^ ^ m ' t - 'j ' iws s m ' i ' s s mss 



468 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



The following receipts are also taken from Konald's works above 
mentioned, and are excellent. 



RECEIPTS. 

To DYE White Feathers a Dun Color.— Make a mordant, by dis- 
solving a quarter of an ounce of alum in a pint of water, slij^htly 
boil the feathers in it, taking care that they be thoroughly soaked 
with the solution ; then boil them in other water with fustic and cop- 
peras till they assume the proper tint. This for yellow dun— sumac 
and copperas for blue dun tint. The greater quantity of copperas used, 
the deeper will be the dye. 

To TURN Red Hackles Brown.— Put a piece of copperas the size 
of a half-walnut in a pint of water, boil it, and while boiling, put in the 
red feathers ; let them remain until by frequent examination they are 
found to have taken the purple color. 

To dye Olive Dun.— Make a very strong infusion of the outside 
brown coatings of onions, by allowing it to stand twelve or twenty-four 
hours by a warm fire. If dun feathers are boiled in this they become 
an olive-dun; if white feathers, they become yellow; if a piece of 
copperas be added, the latter color becomes a useful muddy-yellow, 
lighter or darker, as may be required, and approaching a yellow olive- 
dun, according to the quantity of copperas used. 

To DYE Mallard Feathers for Green Drake.— Tie up the best 
white and black barred feathers from under the wing, in bunches of a 
dozen; boil them in the mordant, as directed in No. 1, to get out the 
grease ; boil them in an infusion of fustic, to procure a yellow, and add 
copperas to the infusion, to subdue the brightness of the yellow. 

To DYE Feathers Dark-red and Purple.- Hackles of various 
colors boiled (without alum) in an infusion of logwood and Brazil-wood 
dust, until they are as red as they can be made, may, by putting them 
into a mixture of muriatic acid and tin, be changed to a deeper red. 
As the solution is not to be a saturated solution of tin it must be much 
diluted; if it burns your tongue much it will burn the feathers a little; 
by putting the feathers, after the first process, into a warm solution of 
potash, they will become purple. 



FLY-FISniNO. 



400 



To DVE Featuers various shades of Red, Amber, and Brown. 
—Boil tlicm in the alum niordaiit ivbove, then in an infusion of fustic 
(tablo-spoonful to a pint of water), to bring them to a bright yellow . 
then boil them in a dye of madder, peach or Brazil-wood. To set the 
color, put a few drops of dyers' spirit (to bo procured at any silk-dyer's) 
into the last-mentioned dyo. 

To STAIN Gut. — Put the gut into an infusion of onion-coatings 
(above) ; when it is quite cold let it remain until it becomes as dark 
as may be. Gut may be stained in an infusion of cold grocn tea. A 
cold dye of logwood will turn it to a pale blue. 

After a little practice you will be enabled to do wonders with your 
feathers ; perhaps, also, with your hands, which, if you operate exten- 
sively on all the colors, will become quite a nondescript co^or. 

FLIES — CONTINUED. 

We insei-ted the foregoing receipts in this place in preference to the 
end of the trout-tlies, inasmuch as, being copied from Ronald's work, 
and having reference chiefly to his style of tying flics, which, by thu 
way, is the most correct, since he gives you a colored representation 
of the fly, and then below it a colored one of his imitation. To this 
list I have added thirteen more and three palmers, the raccoon being 
one, and the three last of the palmers, before enumerated, and the 
ten following ones : I need hardly observe that palmers are nothing 
more than caterpillars. 

ITackle. 
Eed twist, 

Black, " 

Red " 

Red «' 

Black " 
ti II 

Red " 
Ginger" 

Red " 
None, 



No. 1. 



Body. 
Orange floss silk, 



2. 
3. 
4. 
6. 
6. 
1. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 



II 

II 

Black 
II 

Yellow 
II 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Rat's fur, 
Mouse fur, 
Pule iron-blue mo- ) 
luiir with pale yel- V 
low mixed, ) 

12. Green gosling mohair, 



Tinta. 

Silver, 

Gold, 

None, 

Silver, 
II 

None. 
Silver, 
None, 
II 

Silver, 



( Woodcock ont- 
\ Bide wing. 

Partridge. 

Landrail. 

Starling. 
II 

II 

Partridge. 
Landrail. 

Starling. 
Grouse buzzy 



(legs picked out of body.) 
None, None, 

Red, " 



Sea-swallow. 
Partridge. 



Mi" 



!' I 



470 



AMKRICAK FISHES. 



The foregoing lists arc ample for all trouting purposes. Tlonald's 
patterns are given with the udclition uf the number of hoolc ; mul, I 
may add, these arc full two sizes larger than English fishcnnoii gen- 
erally use ; the dozen last enumerated may vary in size from No. C to 
No. 10, but of this more anon. 

Wo now come to the Sea-Trout Flics— from Nos. 1 to 4 we may sot 
down as the regular size for America, Nos. 2 to being those in use 
in Ireland, where they most abound. They are made much more 
gaudy than trout-flies, and yet not so expensively -as salmon-flics; 
bodies all floss silk : 



Sodj/. Tail. Tln»a Tag. Hacklt. Wings. 

Pale blue, {^'"ifa^tkTh''^^''"' ^^^^^ °«^"''^' ^^'"''^^ Starling.] 

Yellow , " Gold, Blue peacock, 

Rod orange, Blue parrot, " Gold, 

Orantjc, Guiuoa-fowl, " None. 

These below liave fur or pigs'-wool bodies. 
Claret and 



ITtad. 

Bluo 
peacock. 

None. 



Red, 
Black, \ 



Mixed 
brown 



!,[■• 



( Brown ) 
\ mallard, J 



Silver, Orange silk, 



( Gold pl.eas- ) ^old, 
\ ant s ueck, ) 



p, . ( Brown | Dlnck 
tlaret, ^ ^^^[iiv^^^ ] "strieh. 

Black, Mixed, " 



«• 



Brown, 

Dark blue. 

Yellow and 
Palo proen 
mixed, ) 

The above are half-a-dozcn of the very best flies used at the Bally- 
nahinch river, in Ireland— the best river in the world for sea-trout. I 
have given them here, confident that they will not disgrace the country 
where they were bred and born. I have only to observe further, that 
of all fish in the world they are least particular, rising equally well to 

salmon or trout flics. 

Before describing salmon-flies, it will be necessary to explain what 
is meant by mixed wings, and how they arc made; also, what is meant 
by a tag. A mixed wing, as its name implies, is one composed of vari- 
ous feathers, and also of various hues— at one time greenish, at an- 
other blue, at another red, &c.; but still the basis and the method of 
constructing it are the same. 

Before commencing to tie your flics,it is better to assort the feathers for 
the wing. You take a quantity of brown mallard fibres, cut close to the 
hen, teal, drake, or widgeon, golden pheasant's neck, guinea-fowl, par- 



FLY-FISHING. 



471 



rot, green aud blue, cock pheasant's tail, bustard, wood-drake ; separate 
the fibres of one lot, laying them on your table, with a spuco be- 
tween each; then take up another lot, and lay a fibre down on each 
of the others ; and so on with each bundle, except golden pheasant, of 
which you use about one-half as much as the others; and parrot, one- 
quarter, guinea-fowl three-quarters, English pheasant one-quarter. When 
ull arc sorted out, roll them into a bundle, and draw them out several 
times between your fingers, to more perfectly blend them. This is 
your ordinary rich wing; nothing can be more beautiful or better. 
Your fly always wears an even appearance and not blotchy. When you 
require an extra colored tint to your wing, add more of the color, but 
take care to blend the fibres you add well with the stock color. A 
tag is whatever you wrap on the bare hook outside of the tail. And 
now we come to salmon-flies, of which we can only enumerate a few 
standard and well-known killers in the old country, and a few of this 
continent. We regret to say, for more reasons than one, that we have 
had no experience in salmon-fishing in America; it is for this reason 
we crave the indulgence of our readers for the meagre lot of American 
standard flies; what we have given are well-known killers in many 
waters of the old country, and are the standard flies of many and 
various rivers. I have little doubt but that they will be found as 
effective in the new as they are in the old world. The first lot are all 
small flies, used in Ireland chiefly for salmon. They will, I doubt not, 
be effective here for sea-trout or river-trout. The size of hooks from 
which the patterns are taken vary from Nos. 2 to G ; on the smallest 
of them I have killed salmon; they may, however, be made a couple 
of sizes larger. 

No. 1. Gold tag. Tail — Two fibres of hen pheasant's tail. Body 
— composed of fine red chenille, one-third; light bluish-green chenille, 
one-third; pale-yellow straw chenille, one-third; claret-colored cock's 
hackle for legs only, body being bare. Wings — Great African bustard, 
with four strands of green-blue peacock harl. Head — very long, of com- 
mon brown peacock's harl. (I state here, once for all, that I describe 
flies in succession from the tail end, whence they are commenced in 
the making.) 

An extraordinary killer, tricolored chenille body, claret hackle, 
bustard wings. 




y 



472 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




No. 2. 7ai7— Two fibres of brown mullanl two of red parrot, fine 
small turn of palo orange fioss silk, next these. ^Wy— Black tlons oilk ; 
the finest gold twist, wound on very close, i. <•., eleven turns on No. 2 
hook. /,f>//«— Of red cock's hackle ; body hare. Tr/n«/.v— Very thick, 
composed of small neck feather golden pheasant, and two fibres of 
the blue-green peacock above this brown mallard. Head — Black 

ostrich. 

Quito as good. Black body and red cock's legs ; gold tinsel. 

No. 3. Shanks— Black. Tuff— YcWow floss silk. Tail— Two strands 
of pale-bhic parrot ; the yellow floss tag is wound twice around beyond 
the tail quite close. IJackle— Gray cock, i^orfy— The yt^llow floss 
run aU)ngside of a black floss silk band. Zcf/a— Partridge full. Wini/s 
— Teal drake, //rac/— Black ostrich. 

As good as the others. Shanks black ; partridge legs ; gray hacklo. 

No. 4. TiiK FooGY Flv. — /?<)rf?/ —One-fourth green chenille, one- 
fourth pale yellow ditto, one-half puiphi ditto. A Marled Hackle— 
Root end first is wound over the body, the ends left projecting beyond 
the hook at least half an inch. Winf/s—VartndgQ tail. Head— 
Oranse chenille. 

A very ugly but killing fly. 

No. 6. Gold tag. Tail— Tea\ drake. Red hackle— GoU tinsel, 
^orfy— Black floss silk. WinffS—Wixcd teal and mallard. Horns— 
, Blue and gold macaw. Head — Black ostrich. 
Not bad. Black and red hackle. 

No. 6. ra<7— Yellow floss silk. Tuil—Uhcd. Hackle Red— SWvcr 
twist, crimson floss silk body. Mixed wings, with golden phcasaut- 
neck. Macaw liorns. ^eat/— Ostrich. 

Very good crimson and red hackle. 

No. 1. Ta^— Gold. Tail— Three golden orange parrot strands, tin- 
sel gold. Huckle—B\vic. Body—B\\ic. Wings— smaW golden pheas- 
ant neck, two blue English kingfisher's feathers (blue-bird might do), 
a fibre or two of bustard, ditto teal drake. Macaw horns. Head- 
Black ostrich. 

A lovely fly, blue body, ditto hackle, ditto wings. 



iti 



rLY-FISHINO. 



478 



No. 8^ Gold /..<;. Toucan golden lail. Silver twUt blue hackle 
^orfy-Two-thirds palo roso, one-third crimson flos., silk Wnian^ 
Mixed. //orn«— Pulc-bliie parrot. I/cad— Sona. 

Great white trout-fly, rose and crimson or blue Imcklo. 

We now como to the larger class of salmon flies- 
No. 0. Broad gold tar,. Tail-Uhed, Jlackle-Ucd cock's tin 
sol gold. i?o,/y-Grecni8h yellow floss silk. Z.^^s-English jav Urn- 
coverts. Winff,-mch, mixed. ^orn»-Macaw. m<ut~lihck 
ostrich. 

Green yellow body', red hackle and jay logs. 

No. 10. T'a^-Fine gold twist four or five turns. Ta/Z-Qolden 
pheasant neck, tinsel gold. //oc^/e-Black. i?oc/y_Pale blue Z.^v- 
English grouse or argus pheasant. Winffs-Oi golden pheasant, nock 
teal ancl brown mallard, American widgeon, argus pheasant, buntard! 
Head — Black ostrich. 

Blue body, black hackle, grouse or argus legs. 

No. 11. ra^-Gold. Tuil-Oold^n pheasant crest, then black 
ostrich two turns. Ilackle-Loxig and black, tinsel gold. Bod,/- 
Palo blue floss silk. Winffs-Bn&tard on sides and teal drake in cen- 
tre, //cat/— Black ostrich. 

Blue and black hackle. 

No. 12. T'a^'— Gold and two turns crimson floss silk. Tail~mxcd 
Hackle— Crimson orange. i?oc/y-Blood orange floss silk, tinsel gold' 
Wmffs—mch, mixed with extra gold pheasant tail and neck. Horns 
— Macaw. Head — Ostrich. 

Orange body, hackle crimson orange. 

No. 13. Ta^r-Broad gold. TatV-Mixed, gold tinsel, and twist 
wound on side by side over, ^orfy— Brown palo floss silk. Hackle 
—Red. Wings— Mixed, showing most guinea-fowl. /Torns— Macaw. 
Head — Ostrich. 

Brown body red hackle. 

No. 14. Tasf-Qold. Tail— Golden pheasant neck and pale blue 
parrot, gold tinsel. Hed hackle, yellow, orange body. Legs—Oi 
English jay-wing (blue). Wings— Kieh, mixed. Head and horns as 
above. 

81 






11 



m 



8'**>.r 



474 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Yellow orange body, red hackle, jay legs. 



No 15 7'afl-Gold twist. TaJ^-Mixed, gold twist (fine). Hackle 
-Black. ' ^orfy-Black floss silk. Xe^«.-Dark guinea-fowl. mng. 
-Richly mixed with extra guinea-fowl. ^orns-Macaw. Head- 

Black ostrich. 

Black body, ditto hackle, guinea-fowl legs. 

No. 16. r«^-Deep gold afterward orange silk. T^U-GoX^.x. 
pheasant neck, and ditto red tail feathers, fine gold twist. HacUe- 
Long black. 5orfy-Black (bluish tint) pi^s'-wool or worsted. 
W^i,^.-Brown drake, guinea-fowl, with two or three flamingo fibres 
under wings; over the legs and shoulders a little orange mohair (least 
quantity), //mt/.— Brown peacock harl. 
Blue-black body, wool-black hackle. 

No 17. Tag-GoU, then crimson floss silk. TaiV-Two fibres of 
muddled parrot. ^«cA:/.-Red gold twist. ^orfy-Brown worsted 
Zms-Partridge. W^my.-Golden pheasant neck, guinea-fow , teal 
drake, blue parrot. Macaw harm. Head-Red orange floss silk. 

Very plain but eff"ective ; colors brown. 

No. 18. Oranire floss silk tei7. Mixed tail. Gold twist. /facA:/e_ 
Red cock. £orfy-Pigs'-wool, crimson, little black and claret colors 
well mixed. PTm^-Golden pheasant neck, blue (pale) parrot and 
teal drake, ^carf— Black ostrich. 

Ballynahinch, County Galway, fly. 

No 19 Gold tag. Mixed tail, extra, golden pheasant. Hackle— 
Red cock's, two fine gold twists, one each side, of bioad silver wound 
on a claret-brown worsted body. Legs-Gvonso. Wtngs-Te^\ 
drake, brown mallard, bustard and golden pheasant neck, heavy, 
jyorns— Macaw, ^carf— Black ostrich. 

Clarety-brown worsted body; red hackle; grouse legs. 

No 20 iTaiV— Golden pheasant crest, silver twist. Hackle-Lo^g 
black" ^orfy-Least bit yellow, then black one-half, then yellow the 
rest of pig's wool or mohair. Vrm./7s-Golden pheasant crest, brown 
mallard, bustard, teal drake, and guinea-fowl. 

Black and yellow barred body ; black hackle. 



■«*»?**?*;-;;■" ' 



r:v 



FLY-FISHING. 



476 



No. 21. TatY— Golden pheasant crest, gold twist. iTac/fc^c— Gin- 
ger and long body, straw-colored mohair. Ze^j— English blue 
jay. Wings— Rich, mixed. Horns— Uac&w. Sead—B\&ck os- 
trich. 
^ Straw-colored fur body ; ginger hacklo. 

No. 22. Ta^r— Gold tinsel, rose and orange floss silk. Tail- 
golden pheasant neck with guinea-fowl, gold twist and tinsel. Hackle 
—Black and long. 5orfy— Part rose floss silk one-third, then black 
and claret, red mohair, black predominating. Wings — Heavy, guinea- 
fowl, with bustard, golden pheasant-neck, brown mallard, blue parrot, 
ostrich black, and macaw Horns. 

Black and rose ; ditto, and claret body ; black hackle. 

No. 23. Yellow silk tag. Mixed tail, silver twist. Rich crimson 
body. Red hackle. Black legs. Mixed wings. Macaw horns. Os- 
trich head. 

Crimson body ; red hackle. 

No. 24. Gold tag. Mixed tail, gold tinsel, red, yellow, orange, 
claret and black mohair mixed. Body, red predominating. Guinea- 
fowl or partridge legs. Rich mixed Wings. Macaw Horns. Black 
ostrich Head. 

No. 25. Gold tinsel, then yellow silk tag. Tail— Of three strands 
guinea-fowl, and two of red golden pheasant tail. Hackle — Red cock's, 
gold (fine) twist. Body — Half brown, half red mohair warped on fine 
and close. Wings — Brown mallard and deep-dyed orange guinea- 
fowl. Horns — Red flamingo or scarlet ibis. 

Bodies and legs scored under. 

No. 26. Tag— Very long, of gold tinsel. Tail—Go\dm pheasant, 
tinted scarlet, broad gold twist. Hackle — Blue. Body — Blue floss 
silk. Legs — Very bushy, of blue English jay, and over them a 
couple of turns of pale blue parrot. Wings — Two large golden 
pheasant crests, with ditto tail. Horns — Red macaw. Head— Blaxik 
ostrich. 



i:; 






No. 27. Tag- 
neck, red tint. 



-Gold tinsel and black ostrich. Tail — Golden pheasant 
Hackle — Black and long. Body — One-sixth yellow 




476 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



pigs'-wool, four-sixths black ditto, and then yellow the rest. Wings— 
Bustard and capercailzie, or guinea-fowl, iforns— Macaw. 

No, 28. Tail — Golden pheasant crest, gold twist. Body — One- 
half orange and brown mixed, most orange at tail, one-half black, 
pig's-wool. Legs— Long black. Saddle hackle. Wings— A golden 
pheasant crest, with teal drake and brown mallard. Macaw horns, and 
ostrich head. 

No. 29. Tail — Yellow-orange worsted pricked out, broad gold 
tinsel. Hackle of three colors, one-fourth of crimson, warped on 
crimson body, next two-fourths nearly black hackle warped on black 
body, remainder pale-blue parrot on dark-blue body. Wings— T&ma 
turkey's tail, black, with a white tip. Head— Black ostrich. 

No. 30. Gold twist tag. Tail— YeWow worsted, pricked out; gold 
twist. Hackle— Black cock, long, ^orfy— Pale-blue worsted, the 
•ist yellow worked in under the wings and in front of the legs, and 
then pricked out. Wings — Dingy black and white turkey. 

No. 31. TVx^— Yellow floss silk. Tat7— Golden pheasant neck and 
guinea-fowl, silver twist. Hackle— Black cock. i?oJy— Deep crim- 
son. Wings — Mixed. Macaw horns. Ostrich head. 

No. 32. Gold tag. Mixed tail, bluish tint, gold tinsel. Body- 
Yellow floss silk. Hackle— Red cock. Ze^rs— Golden plover, liich 
mixed wings, showing blue and red. Macaw horns. Ostrich head. 

No. 33. Gold tag. Golden pheasant crest. Broad gold tinsel. Red 
cock's hackle. i?orfy— Reddish brown, orange and yellow pigs'-wool 
well mixed. English jay legs. Rich mixed wings. Shining red 
golden pheasant tail. Macaw horns. Ostrich head. 

No. 34. Gold tag. Gold tinsel, with gold twist along-side. Hackle 
—A red marled one, set on quill end first, and wrapped across the 
gold. Body— Thin, of yellow, orange, and reddish-brown worsted. 
Wings— Brown mallard and teal drake. If hackle much longer than 
end of hook, shorten a little ; ought to be half an inch longer. 

The next are lar^re class flies, and must be tied on double or treble 
gut. 



■ 
i 



FLY-FISHiyO. 



ill 



No. 35. Gold taff. Golden pheasant crest. Gold twist. Body— 
One-third deep crimson floss silk ; at the end of this, one turn of 
black ostrich harl ; then, on the back and belly of the fly, a small crest 
of the cock of the rock is fastened short on; the next third is yellow 
floss silk, the gold warped over it, the ostrich at the end, and the 
crests above and below; the last third is a deep-brown orange, with 
cock of the rock above and below. English jay legs, close on head- 
wards. Very rich mixed wiriffs of golden pheasant. Tail- -Both, red, 
and other part and neck, teal drake, bright blue parrot. Macaw horns. 
Ostrich head. 

This fly could not be made under two dollars. 

No. 36. Gold tag. Ta?7— Light crimson worsted picked out. Gold 
twist. Ifackle— Long gray. Body— Crimson prple worsted. Wings— 
A golden pheasant neck, dyed deep purple, reddish-brown teal drake, 
brown mallard, two harls of blue and two of brown peacock's tail. 
Macaw's horns. Brown peacock's harl for head. 

No. 37. Tag — Brown peacock's harl. Tail—TesA, red golden 
pheasant and blue parrot. Gold twist. Black hackle. Body—Tyio- 
Bixths orange, one-sixth green, one-sixth orange, one-sixth green, one- 
sixth orange, floss silks. Z<;^s— Dingy black hen. Tr%s— Golden 
pheasant neck feather, cock pheasant's tail three fibres, teal drake, 
brown mallard, golden pheasant's centre tail feather. Brown pea- 
cock's harl for head. 

No. 38. Gold tag. Tail— Golden pheasant crest, broad gold tinsel 

nd gold twist along side. Black hackle. Dark-blue mohair body. 

Wings — Golden pheasant neck and centre tail feather, brown mallard, 

Vvild turkey. A little deep scarlet wool is then worked in over the 

wings, picked out and clipped short. Macaw horns. 

No. 39. Tag — Gold tinsel. Golden pheasant crest. Tail — Heavy 
gold twist, with band of dingy orange floss silk warped along-side 
of it. Hackle — Long black saddle. Body — Pea-green floss silk. 
Wings — Guinea-fowl neck dyed deep orange. Red tail of golden 
pheasant, teal drake, brown mallard, and guinea-fowl. Four long 
bnstard fibres for horns. Head — Dingy olive mohair. 




in 



i^iSTTa: 



ii 




478 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



No. 40. Gold tag. Guinea-fowl and brown mallard tail. Gold tin- 
sel with brown floss silk worked along-side. Hackle— hong red cock's. 
£oiy-Deep crimson, mostly obscured by the brown. Ze<;s— Par- 
tridijc. Prm(7S— Chiefly Guinea-fowl, brown mallard, and English 
cock pheasant tail, four or five strands. Macaw horns, and ostrich 
head. 

No. 41. Gold and thin crimson silk tag. Mixed tail, showing a 
good deal of deep blue. Bread gold twist. Dyed clarety-red hackle. 
Body— Fiery brown, i. e., red, brown, and purple, pigs'-wool mixed, 
brown predominating. TTin^-s— Brown mallard, blue parrot, orange 
parrot, long-tailed thrush, and bustard. Head— Black ostrich. 

Such is the list of salmon-flies we have selected from many and 
various rivers of England, Ireland, and Scotland. Were I to attempt 
to enumerate them, it would almost be an endless job. There are yet 
a few more flies to be added, such as are fit for pike and black bass, 
which we omitted to particularize in the early part of the work, and 
which, even now, we will consign to the end of the fly-fishing part 

altogether. 

Having now shown you, or rather attempted to show you, how to 
make your hooks, if you like so to do, and seriatim trout-flies, rods, 
casting-lines, salmon-flies, we must even follow up by endeavoring to 
explain the various methods of throwing and working the fly. This, 
however, it is difficult to do on paper. Far more will be learnt by 
practice, an ounce of which is worth a pound of precept. 

To commence, then, with trout-fishing, with a single-handed rod. 
When put together, the rings should all be in a line. Run one end of 
the line through each of these, the balance being reeled on to the winch, 
which is either screwed through or round the butt, or clasped on to it 
by a movable brass ring and catch. To quote Ronald : " It is advis- 
able to practise the art of throwing a fly on the grass," previously to 
attempting to fish. " Any open space free from trees," says he, " will 
do. A piece of paper may represent the spot to be thrown to. 
Taking the wind in his back, the tyro, with a short line at first, may 
attempt to cast within an inch or two of the paper; and afterward, 
by degrees, lengthen his line as his improvement proceeds ; he may 
then try to throw in such a direction that the wind may in some 
measure oppose the line and rod; and, lastly, he may practice throw- 



JNiw. tiat.l* -^.-^-»=^,^ .^,, ^^m 



ilft 



FLY-FISHINQ. 



479 



ing against the wind. In this way a person may become an adept at 
throwing a fly much sooner than by trusting to the experience ho 
may get at the water side ; for, his attention being then wholly 
engrossed by the hopes of getting a rise, &c., a bad habit may very 
easily be engendered, which will not be as easily got rid of. He 
should endeavor to impart to the line a good uniform sweep or curve 
round the head ; for if it returns too quickly or sharply from behind 
him, a crack will be heard, and the fly whipped off. There is some 
little difficulty in acquiring this management." 

So far, Mr. Ronald; and now we will, perfectly coinciding in every 
particular, add a little to his instructions. In delivering or throwing the 
fly, the back of the hand nlust be upward, quite square. In drawing 
the fly toward you, the wrist must be gradually turned till the back 
is downward and the thumb pointing upward. This enables you to 
strike a fish by the simple motion of clenching your fingers, added to 
an almost imperceptible inward motion of the wrist down very quickly 
yet gently. In drawing out the line for a new cast, you raise your 
arm, not your shoulder, pointing your thumb outward, 'Tis seldom 
necessary to raise your elbow much, unless in casting a very long line 
indeed, when your arm is bent as much as it can be. Rest a moment, 
to give your line time to straighten behind you. This prevents the 
crack ; delivering your line forward by turning the back of the hand 
upward and straightening out your arm. This imparts to your rod a 
sweep pretty much oval, and if you commence and continue this prac- 
tice from the first, you will soon get used to it. At first it fatigues 
the wrist a good deal, and you feel cramped, and as if set in a strait 
jacket; but this weara off, use gives freedom and neatness to your 
style of throwing. Nothing betrays a fisherman sooner than the way 
he holds and handles his rod. Learn this lesson and the next well 
and thoroughly, and you are advanced a long way toward being a fish- 
erman, although you may never have had a rise. 

The other lesson you have to practise — is to stay your line just be- 
fore it touches the water, to prevent an awful splash. This is easy 
enough to do ; when you see your line within a foot of the water, you 
can either partly turn your hand so as to bring the thumb upward 
with a slight turn of the wrist, or you can move your wrist, keeping 
the back of the hand still upward. In either case, the motion must be 
very slight, so as only to check the downward force without stopping 



"II. *l 



ii 



li 




|i I' 



!^ ■ . ! 



M" 



480 



AMERICAN 7ISUES. 



the direction of the line. These are the two great dodges in throw- 
ing a fly. I wish I only had in my younger days as much told to me, 
as you have had in the last few lines ; many a year passed before I 
found them out. 

In fishing for trout, there are two styles adopted. One is, to throw 
your line nearly across the stream, letting it float down and gradually 
across, to your side. In this case, and particularly in salmon-fishing— 
for I shall not have occasion more apropos to mention it— care must 
be taken not to, as the term is, let the line "belly," which means, to 
let the stream carry a part of the line before the flies— which assur- 
edly it will do, unless, as soon as your flies are in the water opposite, 
you slightly draw the point of your rod up the stream. The other 
plan is called " whipping," which means making quick casts, not let- 
ting your line stay above a few seconds in the water; one style is 
practised as much as tlie other. For my part I adopt the first plan 
in swift-running water; the latter when fishing a dead pool or in a 
lake. Three flies are suflScient to use on one and the same casting- 
line; the last is the " tail-fly," or, as it is sometimes called, "the 
Btretcl^er;" the other flies, which have about four inches or barely 
that of gut, are made fast to the casting- line or "foot" line two to 
three feet apart, and are called " droppers" or bob-flies. In the selec- 
tion of flies great judgment is required ; some days one sort, other 
days another sort; the beetle tribe, Coleoptera^ affect the hot days 
roost. The Ephemera, or fish-fly, cold days ; the water-fly or Phryganea, 
cloudy days with gleams of sunshine. The Dyptera and other land- 
flies, windy days. He would do well to commence with a palmer as 
a stretcher, and the fly which seems most suitable for the day as a 
. dropper until he can discover what fly the fish are actually rising at 
The palmer is never out of season, and is a good fat bait.'* 

Again, a good deal depends on the state, size and color of the 
water, and the appearance of the weather. When the water is clear- 
ing ofi" from a flood, or is large, larger and lighter-colored flies may be 
used. When it is very low, clear and fine, much smaller and darker 
flies are preferable. In dark, gloomy weather, also judging from the 
state of the water, you put on a bright fly, large or small, as the water 
may be. In clear weather, the one of darker hue. Avoid high places 
to cast from ; keep as low down to the water side as possible, if in it, 
all the better, as fish easily see you. Never fish with the sun at your 



FLV-FISHING. 



481 



back, as that throws your shadow down on the water you want to 
throw over. •' "" 

We wUl now suppose our tyro has managed to hook a halt-pounder 
wh,ch will be qmte as much as he can manage to get out. L must 
raise the point of the rod up, and bear gently yet evenly on him, 
never suffonng the hne to get slack for a moment, letting him run on 
what hne he leels disposed to take, simply keeping the forefinger over 
the line and pressing gently on the rod, so as in a slight degree to 
check him; always endeavoring to take the fish down stream reeling 
up hne whenever opportunity occurs, increasing his strain as 'the fish 
appears to weaken, until at last he can pull him out on the bank or £ret 
him into the landing-net. The gveat secret is to keep the top of your 
rod well up, to bear an even strain on the fish, and to keep your line 
always tight. 

Bear these three points in mind, and but few fish you will lose 
Of course if there are rocks or fallen trees in the way, for which places 
the fish always make, you must exert your utmost to prevent a lodg- 
ment, bodily and by main force if your tackle will bear the strain if 
not, by manoeuvring him past the spot. ' 

Frequently, when I fish for trout, I use a single hair in place of gut, 
and even with it I do not much dread a snag; as, if you cannot turn 
the fish away, you can prevent his fouling the line by being quick and 
lifting your rod well up. White or Sea Trout are very greedy brutes, 
striking the fly most generally when it touches the water ; conse- 
quently, whipping is the best for them. But, as in general you would 
use a double-handed rod, this becomes too laborious, and consequently 
you fish for them as if for salmon. But still, what you "do for conve- 
nience sake is not always the best, which "whipping" decidedly is. 

I am afraid to say how many I have caught of these fish at the 
Ballynahinch river in an hour with a small trout-rod, "whipping'' 
agaiiftt the double-handed rods and invariably beat them. Never in 
my life did I ever see so many fish as these and probably never shall 
again. Every throw, the moment the flies touched the water, one, 
two and three sometimes rose at once to each fly. So troublesome, at 
last did they become, from often having three hooked at once, that I only 
left on one fly. That is the river, of all others, for White Trout. 

We now come to the consideration of Salmon-fishing, after which 
all other is poor. Be your rod what it may, you cannot hope for any 



gi I 



i!:i 

" ' 



11 f: 



P I 



482 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




Man. 



sport with a less one than eighteen feet, and that is full short. Of 
course you use both your hands. But the position of the upper one 
is still the same as when you use a single hand for trout ; the turn of 
the hand and wrist (only you have to straighten your elbow more and 
raise your arm) is still the same— the same oval sweep to save your 
flies from cracking ; the same rest, only longer, when the line is behind 

you. 

Every thing is the same, even the stay to save the splash, except 
that the back of the left hand, if you are right-handed (but this you 
oucrht not to be, left-handed fishing the right bank of the stream, 
right-handed when fishing the left) down, the left hand up. The right 
hand should be eighteen inches above the reel; 
Line. Shore, tho left hand within a few inches of the butt. 

After delivering your line, you may rest the butt 
against your hip or your groin. Mind, if you do 
this, to have the butt well rounded, or else you 
will soon establish a very fine raise ; you can rest 
your right arm now by taking hold with the left. You must fish 
more down the stream than for Trout, making an acute angle between 
a line from the opposite shore to you and the direction of your rod. 

Beware of "bellying" your line, as mentioned before; keep the lino 
at a stretch all the time, giving it a slight "undulating motion" up 
and down, and gradually yet slowly draw it toward the side you are 
on. Don't fish a longer line than you can manage. That is the 
way you are to act when all is clear behind you; but may I be so 
bold as to inquire how you mean to manage under that high over- 
hanging crag with all those nice trees growing down to the water-side, 
'tis a beautiful hole "en veriU;' and must be fished. "I really don't 
know," say you; "my line will be fast in the trees if I throw behind 
me." ' That I also know, and, moreover, that you cannot bring itbe- 
hind you up stream, if you mean in any ways to cast across it. T3ut 
come, I will put you up to the spicy dodge I mentioned a while ago, 
and although your rod is not the thing, we can manage middling in- 

diflferently with it. . , t. 

Mind, it is the most difficult style of throwing, but is also, when 
learnt, unquestionably the best. It will astonish you with the length 
of line even your rod will take; mine would throw fully one-third 
further. 



FLY-FISllINO. 



483 



Now, observe, I will allow the lino to run down tlio current till it is 
at its full length. Now you will presently see mo raise my arms 
(keeping the rod 'point upward) as high as I can, to release as much 
line as possible from the water, and so to enable it to come back with- 
out exertion. As soon as this is done, the point of the rod is thrown 
back sideways up stream, at an acute angle to tho body, about the 
level of the bent left arm, pretty much as you would bring back a 
scythe, only that the elbows are more crooked, and consequently have 
not the same swing. 




When so brought back, the back of the right hand is down, that of 
the left up ; this motion drops the fly in the water just by your feet 
After a second's rest to let your fly come safe to you and touch the 
water, and commence to float down stream, tho wrists are sharply 
turned, accompanied by a circular motion of the arm, the left hand 
grasping tho butt is brought in under the right arm, almost into the 
pit ; 80 that the right arm lies on the butt of the rod at full stretch, 
and pointing to the shore opposite you. In this movement the back 
of the right hand is upward, of the left down. 

I ought to have mentioned that the body is half-faced toward the 
river, so as to give as full command of the opposite side as possible ; 






; >■ 



1 r 



484 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



and instead of the rod being thrown forward down the stream, it ia 
pointed across as much as possible. 

I mu'ch fear that this description will be difficult to understand. I 
have, however, endeavored to make it as plain as possible, and ac- 
companied it with three such beautiful drawings of the three different 
steps, that unless the engraver touches them up considerably they will 
be almost as difficult to understand. 

In fishing a strange water, always endeavor to get the color of flics 
preferred there, and select accordingly; but in this country, where 
you may happen on scores of rivers where there are no fishermen, and 
perhaps no authentic account of what flies are good, your best plan is 
to mount a gnat fly as dropper and a gaudy fly as stretcher ; as, for 
instance, the first six salmon flies, which are neither the one nor the 
other, may be used as droppers; 9, 10, and 12 as stretchers. If none 
of these suit, try a plain turkey's wing, with an iron-blue body and 
black legs, or No. 16 ; in fact, almost any fly I have named. I will 
undertake that more than two-thirds will rise fish in any river in the 

world. 

A combination of English jay is one of the most eff'ectivc flies m 
the world, as it can be put into as gay a fly as you please, and also 
into as plain a one as you like. The same observations hold good for 
Salmon as for Trout, regarding appearance of the weather and water. 
Do not fancy too large flics; for certain am I the Salmon don't except 
when the river is in flood. I do not know the numbers of Conroy's 
hooks after No. 1, but two sizes larger than that >frhat Bartlett calls 
his 3s. are large enough. Kelly puts on his B.B.B., large size Salmon 
hooks, about equal to Bartlett's 4s. Remember that in spring fish- 
ing this rule won't hold good, for you then have to fish with a thing 
almost as big as a mouse, if the waters are any ways high. I have 
given one or two patterns of these gaudy spring flies amongst the 
Salmon flies, and amongst the Pike-flies may be found three with blue 
bodies, which are used in the Ness, in spring, for Salmon. 

Salmon do not often lie in the middle of a very strong rapid, either 
at the tail or in the very head of it; they are very fond of an eddy, 
though it may be in the very midst of a boiling torrent. But I have 
as often had sport at the tail, especially when it ran into a deep pool, 
in which case I generally had a rise on each side of the stream in the 
back water. 



FLY-FXSHINO. 



485 



In fishing a place of this sort, cast carefully over into the stream, at 
first only fishing the side you arc on; then, after that, wade in as'far 
as you can, cast as far over as possible into the dead water on the 
other side of the stream, lifting your rod as high as you can, else the 
current sweeps away your flies before the fish have time to hook at 
them. 

I must not dismiss this part of my subject without saying a few 
words respecting the flies in use for Pike and Black Bass. For the 
former, the luost successful fly I know of is made on a very largo 
hook — Codfish or Lake Trout size. It has a mouse-colored fur body, 
with long, black, shiny hackle from the cock's rump, with two large 
eyes from the peacock's tail set on for wings. I have not the least 
doubt, however, that a fly tied to represent a young duck or gosling 
(if so bo it can be called a fly) would be just as effective, to say 
nothing c>f one like a mouse or a small water-rat. You must, how- 
ever, use gimp instead of gut for them, and a shorter and stiffer rod. 
For Bass, the fifteen-feet two-handed trout-rod seems best adapted; 
but I confess I have had no success in whipping for them, and there- 
fore do not speak very confidently respecting the best flies. 

My only chance for fishing for them has been where there has not 
been a suflSciency of current, which is a great desideratum, unless you 
have a strong breeze. White Bass, however, rise well at almost any 
moderate-sized trout-fly (proper), and at times — that is to say, when 
they are in full run — you may by this means take a large number. 
They are an active' fish, and play well; so that, with a light rod, you 
can have very fine sport. 

Old General Gates, who served for many years in Canada, has often 
said that the very best fly for them was composed of a strip of a sol- 
dier's scarlet jacket wourfd on as body, long scarlet hackle for legs and 
wings; indeed, a feather from the scarlet-dyed plumes in the soldiera' 
shakos of those days was what he used. 

I have seen a very beautiful fly from Conroy's ; the body of beautiful 
rich crimson-scarlet velvet, with long fibre — or pile, I believe, the more 
correct term is. The wings, of four feathers, two on each side, red fla- 
mingo or scarlet ibis inside, and a very pale barred mallard feather 
outside. 

I have no do ibt but that the following flies would also answer well : 
Golden pheasant crest, tail, broad gold tinsel ; scarlet or red hackle ; 



II . » 



it II 



486 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



body thick, of pigs'-wool— blood orange a half, yellow a quarter, and 
red a quarter, well mixed ; wings, blue peacock, three or four strands, 
and two golden pheasants' neck feathers; horns, red and blue macaw. 
No. 2. Crest, tail, gold tinsel; red cock hackle; orange floss silk 
body; jay legs; wings as above; ditto horns. No. 3. Red golden 
pheasant tail,°silver tinsel; red cock's hackle; yellow worsted body; 
legs, red parrot or flamingo; wings, flamingo, backed by golden 
pheasant tail. Very good sport may be had in the rapids of the St. 
Lawrence with fly, in the months of June and July. 

I omitted to mention in the proper place, that the only substitute 
of the golden pheasant crest, at all approaching to the mark, is a 
Billy-goat's beard dyed the proper color, and that is perfect. I have 
seen it in a fly, and could not tell the difference. 

And now wo have got through the poetry of the art. Hitherto, 
things have gone happy as the marriage bell. I have cottoned to my 
subject con amove. What follows is decidedly against the grain. I 
unhesitatingly declare, and I confidently appeal to my brother angler, 
whether he, a fly-fisherman, does not feel similarly. To me fly-fishing 
is a labor of love; the other is labor— alone. But notwithstanding 
such are my feelings, it by no means follows that every one else so 
fancies it. Every one to his taste. It is not given to each individual to 
be able to find the waters wherein to kill his Salmon or Trout; and it 
cannot for a moment be supposed that, because the Salmon and Trout 
are not, he is to be debarred from joining in the pleasures of the flood. 
For this unfortunate class of people (I am at present one of the num- 
ber and therefore, if I do slightly stigmatize the class, I trust, havmg 
placed myself in the same boat, that I may be forgiven) we will draw 
from the hidden storehouse of our mind sundry dark and dismal 
visions of things past. When, as a little boy, we delighted, with a 
hazle rod, float, and wriggling worm, to pull out many a perch, carp, 
tench, and slippery eel, our greatest delight then was to chuck them 
out, sans ceremonie, slap over our heads; and now, at three times the 
age, our first fun in fishing is to catch minnow with a fine trout top 
and a pair of No. IV hooks. 

We will, however, proceed; and, to do this satisfactorily, we will 
divide this part into two sections; one, trolling or fishing with arti- 
ficial bait; the other, with natural bait, merely resting a moment or 
two to define what we mean by the term trolling. 



FLY-FISHINO, 



487 



Trolling, then, is of two kinds: ono consists in lotting a long jino 
drug after a bout progressing at a slow yet steady rate, cither by oar 
sail or paddle. About three miles an hour is most proper An- 
other kind of trolling is practised, either from a boat at anchor or 
from the shore. The rod used is ono about eight or ton feet long 
very stiff, with very largo rings so as to check the line as little as pot' 
Bible. To make a cast, the line is coiled 'down by your feet, say fif- 
teen yards or more, while only about four feet is left outside the 
rings. Tho rod is moved evenly two or three times backward an.l 
forward, with ono liand either across the body if you want to make a 
cast to your right, or to tho right of your body if to cast to your left 
keeping your forefinger pressing your lino to the rod. Tho motion 
must be even, equable, no jerking, else the cast will be a mull. When 
you get sufficient impetus, withdraw your finger, as .the rod top points 
in tho direction you wish your line to go. Very little force is reoui- 
sitc, more depending on knack than any thing else ; now, allow the 
bait to settle down in the water a little, and commence slowly drawing 
in tho lino with your hand below the bottom rinc, letting it fall in 
largisTi coils at your feet, and moving th« point of the rod either up or 
down, according as you wish to direct your bait here or there. 

Wo shall how mention the various implements in use for trolling, 
either with a lino or dead bait, the natural or the artificial : 



I 



ill 



III 



IMPLEMENTS FOR TROLLING WITH KITHER LIVI^ OR DEAD BAIT. 




No. I.— The Kill-Dkvil. 






y}) 



I 



9-^ 



No. a— But ir lIuoKS r k k Kill-Dbvil 



9 



488 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




No. 8.— Oi.Afl8 BAii. 




No. 4— Flexible Mikmow. 




No. 6.-STO0I*. WITH Cod-Fbii Hook. 




No. «.— 8p»ino-Shap BKroRB Sbttwo. 




No. 7,— SmiNO Snap Set 



FLY-FISHING. 



480 



cyBtB 




No. 8.— DouiiLR OonoK Hook. 



No. 9 — Baitino NuEUhE 

First, then, we will describe what is called a Kill-Devil, vide Fig. 1. 
This is made of lead, shaped out something fish-ways. At the thick 
end it has a loop of wire soldered into it ; at the fine end, another 
wire passed over a triangular piece of horn to form the tail. This wire 
is either soldered into the lead or firmly whipped to it ; a piece of 
broad silver tinsel, with largish silver twist on each side of it is now 
secured at the tail; a very thick crimson floss silk is warped on closely 
over the lead ; the silver tinsel is then wrapped on with a silver twist 
on each side of it, and close to it. The whole is tied closely at the 
head, and your Devil is made. 

Now it only remains to attach the hooks to it. 

These are set on gut, as in No. 2. First, a and b, being separate 
from the rest, three hooks back to back on 6, two hooks ditto on a. 
At c there is a small loop which is inserted into the eye in the head 
of the Devil d. a is shorter than b, and hangs below the Devil about 
the shoulders, b hangs on the opposite side, about where it is repre- 
sented, cis tied down just above the tail. / and ^ are beyond it. 
The Kill-Devil is an excellent bait for Trout ; quite as good as a live 
Minnow. Strike the moment you feel a touch. 

No. 3 is an Artificial Flexible Minnow. It is composed of cotton 
wool cased over with India-rubber, and painted to represent a min- 
now. The hooks arc precisely similar to the " Kill-Devil," and set on 
in the same way, except that the long gut, /, is passed clear through 
the body at a, instead of being fastened at the tail. This is an admir- 
able invention of late years, and a most undeniable killer. I have 
successfully used one against three men using the Live Minnow in the 
same boat, and come within three or four of the whole of them in a 



i Hi 



; i 



ill in 



Mii ! 



490 



AMKUICAN VIbHES. 



a 



day's fishing. Black Bass, Pike, Rock Bass, Terch and White Bass 

'' No'r'" an Aiuficial Glass Minnow-a plate of fluted glass some 
three inches long by three-eighths ^ide, is set into a back of German 
silver, the tail of German silver, hooks used as in the others, only larger 
and set on gimp instead of gut, tied down at the tad. t is extremely 
showy in the water, and well calculated for pike, which run at it 

'"S'is a Spoon, with a large Cod-fish hook'soldered on to it at the 
point, a hole being drilled through the shoulder end of it to which 
usually a few links of chain are fastened. It is used with tolerable 
success for Black Bass, and also for Lake Trout. 

No. 6 and 1 represent a Spring Snap-hook, set and unset I do 
not value them at all ; they are liable to get out of orcler -tch in he 
weeds, and tear your bait, which is hooked through the lips with the 
small hook, «, and tied with a thread at 6. • , i j . 

No 8 is the Common Double Gorge-Hook on brass wire leaded at 
a. Tins is baited by inserting the hook end of No. 9 called a baitmg 
needle into the loop-hole at 6, passing it into the mouth of the fish and 
out of the vent, drawing the hooks close up to the mouth. This bait 
Tgenerally used for night or lay-lines; it will catch any fish almost, 
but is more particularly used for Pike or Eels 

I have not thought it necessary to mention the common sort of Arti- 
ficial Minnow, because no one who can get the Flexible would ever use 
r It is made of lead, and painted to represent the fish; is very 
chimsy and not worth having. We have now disposed of the artificial 
ba^Ts and come to natural ones. Of these we shall enumerate only 
fi" Salmon Roe, Minnow, Worm, Maggots, Craw-fish and Frogs. 
Pieces of fish we look on only as a substitute for the Minnow. 

Salmon Roe, one of the most killing baits for Trout, Eels, Salmon 
and I may say, all kinds of fish, is thus prepared, according to 
Blaine- *' A pound of spawn taken from a Salmon some ten days or 
foTefore spawning, at which time it is in the best state is im- 
mersed in water as hot as the hands can bear, and is then picked free 
^om membraneous films, &c. It is now to ^y^^^^:f^ l^^ ^^ 
and hung up to drain for twenty-four hours, after which put to it two 
ounces of rick or bag salt, and a quarter of an ounce of -Hpetre and 
again hang it up for twenty-four hours more. Now gently dry it be- 



PLY-FISHING. 

fore the fire or in the sun, and ^hen it becomes stiff pot it down " It 
18 better to use several small nots than ««« i . " 

in the air it is liable to dalC M "t ^uT' ""° '^ ''"'"« 
.. ^ ^^ludge. Jiach pot should have some melted 

mutton suet run over the roe, and be elo«Iy tied over with bwt; 
If put .nto adry place ,t will keep good for a eouple of year." When 
you use this bait mould it up in your linsers TI,. « lit,i . „ 
cient to fill up the hollo, o/the h^o., an^Sdet i:^;:^ 
or three sound grazns of it on the point of the hooks. This fai 's 
most deadly when used m a flooded river, either as the water rises a 
Its height or as it clears off. ** 

Rn?7'r''^ '" ''" T""'" ^^««P*^*i«"' there are three sorts-the 
Roach, the Dace or Shiner, and the Stone Loach. The first live 
the longest; the Shiner shows most while it lives, and the Stone 
Loach IS as hardy, perhaps as the first, but is not so plump-looking a 
bait \oung Bass, Pike, Perch, &c., arc sometimes used, but are lot 
nearly so good as any of the three above mentioned 

These are generally secured by putting the hook in the under lip 
and out of the nostril. If this be nicely done, they will live a long 
time. This is supposing you use only a single hook which, however, 
I consider the best. ' 




irii 




Natural Bait Tackle. 



If you use the Artificial Minnow tackle, you kill your bait immedi- 
ately. One small hook for natural bait is made to travel up and down 
by two small loops of gut whipped on at a and b. This is hooked into 
the fish's hps, and one of the three hooks at c is stuck through the 
back by the dorsal fin. 

Need I say how to put on a worm ? I fear I must. To do it artis- 
tically, you must begin at the head and work it on to your hook, if 
not too large, without showing the steel at any point; if it be, let a 
part hang down at the bottom of the hook, and a little of the tail may 
hang over as a tit-bit. The little red worm, called Brandling, is the 
best— found among old cow-dung manure. Worms are better kept 
awhile in moss moistened with a little cream. 



m w \ 




492 



AMERICAN FISHES. 



Maggots (or as they arc more gcnteely termed, gentles,) arc, as 
every one knows, the house-fly in its first stage after leaving the egg. 
They are plentiful enough all summer. A piece of meat need only be 
left exposed and there will be plenty of them. They are a capital bait 
for Trout, used when the water is low, and best in a blazmg hot day, 
poked on to a very small Trout-fly. Just run the hook through at the 
thick end of a couple of them, crossways. Before using your gentles, 
put them in oatmeal ; it hardens and cleans them. A copper-cap box 
with fine holes drilled in the lid is a good receptacle for them. Lato 
in the fall, you must protect your breeding-box from frost, or else they 
all go into the chrysalis state. Always use the largest. 

Crawfish also is a good bait for almost all kinds of fish ; hook them 
throucrh the body and use them the same as a worm. 

Fro°g8 are good for Pike, Eels, Trout and Perch. Do not use the 
bull-frog, but the grass-green fellows. Use a moderate sinker, else you 
may find master froggy looking at you from the opposite shore, as I 

>d in the " Spirit^' happened to some bright Waltonian. 




Flg.1. 



■^^> 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 

For bottom fishing you require sinkers of various sizes, according to 
the strength of the current. These you can easily make for yourself, 
by boring a hole through a bullet with a brad-awl, and hammering the 
ball on some flat piece of iron till you get it to the shape required. 
You must then pass a loop of some strong line through it double, 
splicing it sailor-fashion, and drawing the spliced part out of sight mto 
the hole. With these you require a swivel ; but you may buy sinkers 
with a brass swivel ring at each end, which are by far the best. 



"' "Tnnm 



rn swm* 



FLT-FISHINO. 



408 



Fig. 2 represents a trimmer already set TJ,;= • 
for Pike : a round pieee of wood whL 1 T"^ ^" '"" ^**«' 

painted red or some showy eolo; abutl '" :'''1- "^'^^ '' ^^^^' 
stiek stnclc in the eentre to\:\^X: ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^'':: 
wood there is a groove cut, represented at « ^whieh tht V 
Tround when set all but a yard or two Tk; r • T ^'""^ " 

.t the .op of .tick 6; the'Ju lie U be'o": U 't'V ',"? 
.Uek above water. When a fish takc/2 Li, 1 . • '"' "'' ""' 

ook aharp y ft,r year trmmer ia and about the weed, to whTlpT 
for wh, h they are especially intended, always make to bolt their p ey 
Iney are very eflfective. '^ J' 

I have not said a word as yet about floats ; they are but seldom 
used nowadays ; but some people like them who ar'e o lazy to f ^ 
the. hues al the time. They are usually made of cork, rou'nded a 
the top, and tapenng to the bottom with a quill-top fitted into .t I 
run through them over the quill; a smallVeceT ' ^^ Tfi^,^^^^^^ 
hold the hne, whde to the bottom of the wood a wle loop is tied 
nished '" ""'• '''^ ^^^^^ ^^ *^- painted'and v^r 

A swivel is a piece of twisted iron wire, or rather two pieces con 
nected toge«.er by a fine round small piece of iron fitted inrth' two 
holes. Its heads are then hammered out to prevent its slipping out 
o^^the hoHbut allow ng it to work round and round fre^. U 
Fig 3)^ A good substitute when hard set, is a common wat h-key 
filed oflr close below the large circle. ^ 

Now, r believe I have done; all but a few words in extenuation of 
having presumed to write so far. Whether there is any thing new n 
the foregoing remarks I cannot say. Whether the subject has been 
handled well or ill it becomes not me to say, unless I may so far pre 
sume as to regret its great deficiencies. Man and boy, for twenty-five 
years have I been fishing, during which time I have had to contend 
against many adverse circumstances, and have been obliged to put my 
wits to work no small number of times, either to form some device 
or other or to repair some casualty. Under these disadvantages, I 
have had to learn how each and everything connected with the art 
was made, and oft had to put that knowledge to a practical test 
The labor, time, trouble and annoyance that these delays occasioned 







I 



mi 



AMERICAN FISHKB. 



«»e, induce mo to endeavor to make young anglers ^^au/aitr to every 

article they are likely to require. , , i. 

U ml be urged i^mi n,e, .nd probably will bo, that I hav. «m. 
Seed the bait-fiLr to th. fly-m«.. I ho„e.tly eo„fe» my am and 
have only to urge in .xtonnation, that I hate the former and adore 
thTlatterVbnt ftill, I have, I trust, not altogether forgotten th. ba.t. 

Tregret to .ay that I have had far more experience in America with 
,11 kinda of bait than with aie»; euch, however, « my misfortune, but 
tetiwonld rather «.h for .hiner, than not Bah at all. I .wn a vejy 
'^ong predilection for the art, and I humbly lay th.. my tribute at the 
fcet of my brother anglers, hoping for their pra»e, yet feanng much 

"k mrieen the mean, of conveying any information or instrue- 

«on on m of *• ?'»««'='' °P™«°"' »f «""^ 1 ^'' *7. "" J 
hoped t. do. And. from the bottom of my heart, my beloved broth- 
e^'^^f th. angle, I trust you may each and dl catch the biggest Ssh ,n 
;^ur resp«=tife waters; that you may enjoy much happiness the com- 
L «id for m».y .o«K.ns; that you may live at pe«=e with dl the 
Jm, but more espeeiaUy with your obedient, humble sern^^ 




KLY-FISHINO. 



40^ 



NOTE BY THE EDITOR. 



As nearly all the general teachings and maxims on fishing were 
ongmally denved from British authors, based upon Irish or Canadian 
expenenee, American fishemen have been compelled, (by the necessity 
of adaptation to heir large variety of lake or river fishing,) to make 
numerous alterations and improvements in the getting up of tackle, 
etc. Some slight mdicatiou of these varieties will, it L presumed, b 
acceptable to our young sportsmen, while showing to our best bcal 
fishermen that American ingenuity is as expansive as our territory 
J^irst, then, we speak of ^* 

RODS. 

The General Rod, as it is aptly called, is of course the style most 
generally m use. These have five joints, mounted with either brass or 
German silver. 

The Trunk Trout, also has five joints, usually brass mounted; va- 
rieties are more expensively mounted and have hollow butts 

The Bass, somewhat similar, but not so varied, unless made to 
order. 

The Extra Fine Fly, four joints, German silver mounted, with extra 
tip, IS a great favorite among sportsmen. 

The Single Ferrule, four joints, brass mounted, with guide rings, and 
prepared for reels. * 

The Bamboo, four joints, brass mounted, fitted with pattat guides' 
some have only guide rings. * 

^ The Cane, with either three or four joints. These have lancewood 
tips or not, guide rings or not, and are mounted for reels or not. 

The Walking-stick, three or four joints, with or without "screw 
ferrules, brass heads, ash butts, or lancewood tips. Some prefer the 
walking-stick style, when made entirely of metal and there are circum- 
stances which might justify the extra expense. The party using the 
rod is the best judge. 






I m 



I . I 



406 



AMERICAN FISHES. 




Tho Plain Four Joint, always good for general utility, needs no de- 
Bcription ; but the purchaser should make his selection from at least 
three varieties in quality, and a respectable dealer will always have on 
hand spare bamboo or reed poles, ferrules, guides, tips, etc. 

LINES. 

The Best Linen, in coils of eighty-four feet each, five sizes ; and 
seven thicker sizes, varying from ten to one hundred feet each. 

The Best Linen Reel, two sizes, from one hundred to three hundred 

feet each. . , « 

The Best Linen Hawser-Laid, six sizes, in coils of eighty-four feet 

each; but Bank Fish or Sea Lines should be selected by the party 

going to use them, or else send a sample. 

The Best Linen Blackfish, three sizes, not less th&n one hundred 

feet each. 

The Swelled-Hair, two sizes, usually ordered for twenty, thirty or 

forty yards. 

The Salmon-Hair, two sizes, length to order. 

The American Grass, in boxes containing one gross each. 

The Chinese Grass, in catty boxes, the contents various in size and 

number. 

The Best Hawser-L-'d Cotton, (for cod-fishing,) thirteen sizes, m 

coils of eighty-four feet each. 

The Common Cotton, eighteen sizes, in thirty feet lengths. 

The Best Plaited Silk, (sixtecn-plait,) may be had from twenty to 
two hundred and fifty yards, according to order, and the Twisted Silk 
follows the same rule. The Patent Taper Fly usually ranges from 
twenty to forty yards ; the ordinary Taper Hair, from twenty to fifty 
yards ; and the Relaid Grass, from fifty to two hundred yards. 

The nature of the service required should be explained to tho 
dealers, who will furnish any of these lines with floats and hooks on 
gut; or, if you wish to use ground bait, as if to catch Blackfish, of 
course hooks and sinkers must be attached. 

REELS. 

Bailey's Patent, and Deacon's Improved Patent, are both admi- 
rable, whether in brass or German silver. By pressing in or drawing 



\l 



»LY-FI8HIN0. 



497 



out the collar of the crank shaft, the wheels can h. i. i a • . 

out of gear in a moment. ^' ^°'^'^ ^''^e'' >» or 

John Warrin's American Balance Handle, in hrass or P.^ ■, 
with o. wHW .eel pi... .„<,.,.. se.L^rLtr. ^^I- 

.se are adapted for line. tron. ten to one h„„d ' It^r " """ '° 

The Cliek and the Plain varieties alao pallo'f .t 
provenaent snggeatod h, American varielro?:^;"!:':^""' '^ 

HOOKS. 

^^11.0 Superfine Salmon, fourteen sizes for single gut, and eight fo, 

The Royal Improved, eight sizes for single gut, and eight for double. 
18 usually preferred for trout. ^ aouDie, 

The Limerick Trout, or O'Shaughnessey, nine sizes for gimp, seven 
for smgle gut, and eight for double. ^ 

doubK "'"' '''™™' ^""'' "™ '"^ '" ™«"° sot, and eight for 
The Kirby-bent Gravitation, sixteen sizes. 
The Round-bent Gravitation, sixteen sizes. 
The Kirby-snecked Fish, various sizes. 
The Virginia has twelve varieties, and the Chestertown ten. 
The Sockdologer, or Yankee Doodle, four varieties. 
The Cod, the usual well-known, eight numbers. 
The Halibut, usually double, various sizes. 
The Limerick Pike, double or treble, various. 

.n?J tT"r ^^^S ^'""^ '''''^' '^^' ^«**^°^ t^« "°gl« trimmer, 
and eight for the double. "^^cr, 

The Shark, various sizes, with or without chains. 

The Spring Snap, (described by "Dinks,") is now made in four 
varieties. 

All the above are made with either flatted, ringed, or filed ends, as 
tne purchaser may wish. 

MISOBLIANECS. 

/7oa<»._Bound cork, egg or barrel shape, various sizes. Unbound 
torJr, do. Hollow wood, do. Porcupine and fancy quUl, do. 



P' 



ii^ii 



408 



AMERICAN FISHKS. 



Artijiciah.—Fish, glass, leather, tinsel, ot gutta-pcrcbft. Frogs and 
mice, various sizes. Insects, great variety. Worms and Gentles, 
Dobsons, all sizes. Flies, for trout, bass, or salmon. Shrimps, silver- 
laco Minnows, and other bait. 

Swivels. — Brass or steel, seventeen sizes. 

Sinkers. —Bank, swivel, ringed, or hollow, various sizes and patterns. 

Spinning ^at<.— Duel's patent, with improved flies and bobs. Th« 
Patent Spoon, suitable for either artiflcial fly or minnow. 

Kill-Devils.— An immense variety. 

Squids.— Bom, lead, pearl, or tin, round or flat. 

Books.— ¥\y or Tackle, with flat reel-lines and hooks, suitable for 
general fishing. 




yif.ii.r 



IN DEX 



m 



INDEX. 



Abdominal MALAOorTKRvau, 23. 

meuniiiff of the term, 23. 

liat of the fresh-water fisli of that 
diviaion, 33, 35. 

natural history of the, 34 to 184. 

the fishing of, 235 to 396. 
Aoanthopterygii, 23. 

ni'taning of the term, 22. 

list of fresh-water fishes of that di- 
vision, 25. 

natural history of tho, 185 to 224 

the fishing of, 310 to 331. 
Adirondach Laiie nnd Hi|;hlands, 356. 
^glefinis Morrhua. 31, 323. 
iEneus Centrarchus, 25, 198, 305. 
Agassiz, Professor, preface, et passim. 
Aloaa Pramtabilis, 23, 180. 
Amethystus Salmo, 23, 104. 
American game fish, 17 

Bream, 174. 

Haddock, 123. 

Shad, 180. 

Salmonidea, 34 to 148. 

Sandre, 192. 

Sand-smelt, 298 

Smelt, 136. 

Cyprinido, 194 to 177. 

KsocidsB, 149 to 163. 

Ciupida, 178 to 181. 

Siluridaa, 182 to 184 

Anguillidffi, 180. 

Yellow Pearoh, 187. 

Whiting, 224. 
Ammodytes Launcea, 32. 
Anguillidse, 182 to 184. 
Angler's apparatus, the— appendix A— 

325. 
Apodal Malacopterygii, 22, 185. 
Apparatus, the fly-fisher's, 330. 
Appendix A., 325. 

B., 330. 

C, 332. 
Argyrops Pagms, 30, 217. 
Attihawmeg, 141. 
Atheriua Mcnidia, 32. 



or Lake Sheep's-Head, 



Auratus, Carpio Cyprinus, 24. 

Bait, passim, under the heads of Tariooi 

kinds of fishing. 
Bars on the young Trout, 28, 97. 
Bar- Fish of the St. Lawrence, 190. 
Bass Black, 195. 

Rock, 198. 

Striped, 189. 

Otsego, 145. 

Osweoro, 
203 

Sea, 305. 

Little White, 190. 

Ruddy, 190. 

Striped Bass fishing, 297. 

Black Bass fishing, 301. 

Rock Bass fishing, 305. 

Sea Bass fishing, 315. 
Battures, Truite des, 108. 
Bay fishing, 310. 
Black-Fish, Tautog, 230, 316. 
Blue-Fish, Skipjack, 318, 320. 
Bottom-fishing, 2j. 
Bream, American, 174. 
British Coregoni, 24. 
Brook Trout, 33, 86, 253. 

young of the, 86. 

of the Marshpee, 87. 

colors of the, 88, 91. 

the Silver, 93. 

the Common, 93. 

the Massachusetts, 93. 

the Black, 93. 

the Sea, 93. 

the Hucho, 93. 

size of the, 94. 

of Waquoit Bay, 96. 
■ of Fireplace, 96. 

habits of the, 97. 

of Hamilton County, 10], 

where they are taken, 253. 

the fishing of, 353. 

the rod for, 254. 

fly-fishing for, 255, 269. 



}. . i 



602 



INDEX. 



Brook Trout, anecdotes of fishing, 257. 

Long Island fishing, 260. 

inland fishing, 267. 

bush-fishing, or daping for, 272. 
BrosmiuB Vulgaris, 32. 

Carolina Trout— misnomer— 23. 
Carp. 24, 164. 

Common, 24, 164. 
Golden, 24, 166. 
Carp fishing, 294. 
Capelin, 139. 
Cat-Fish, 24, 182. 
Centrarohus JEnvns, 25, 198, 305. 
Centr^oristes Nigricans, 29, 205, 315. 
Chondropterygii, 22. 
Chowder, 20. 
Chub, 24. 

the sea, 29, 207. 
Charr, the Arctic, 23, 126. 
Chromis Pogonias, 29, 213. 

Fasciatus, 213. 
Clam bake, 20. 

bait under various heads of fishing. 
Clupea Virescens, 24, IdO. 
ClupeidsB, 24, 280. 
Cod-Fi8h,31,222,322 
Confinis, Salmo, 23, lib. 
Coregonus Albus, 23, 141. 

Otsego, 23, 145. 
Corvina Oscula, 202. 
Richardsonii, 203. 
the Branded, 211. 
the Silvery, 212. 
Argyroleuca, 211. 
Ccellata, 212. 
Oyprinidee, 164. 
CyprinuB Carpio, 164, 294. 
AuraluB, 166. 
Leuciscus Rutilus, 170. 
Stilbe Chrysoleucas, 172. 
Abramis Versicolor, 174. 
Hydrargyra, 176. 
Conroy, tackle-maker, preface, and pas 

sim. 
Cookery of fishes— appendix C— 332. 
Conroy's rods, 241. 

Dbntatob Pleuronectes, 32 313. 
Drum-Fibh, 09, 213, 320. 

Eel, 22, 135, 308. 
Erythrogaster, Salmo, 27. 
EsocidiB, 24, 149, 281, 
Esox, 24. 

Estor, 24, 151,281. 

Lucioides, 24, 154, 281. 



Esox Reticulatus, 24, 157, 281 
Fasciatus, 24, 161. 
Niger, 163. 
Fhaleratus, 163. 
Vitlatus, 163. 
O-seus, 24, 163. 



Fario Salmo, 23. 
Fasciatus, Esox, 24, 161. 

Pogonias, 213. 
Fish and Fishing, passim, 
game, of America, P 
Black. 220. 
Blue. 218. 
Cat, 182. 
King, 209. 
Pond, 200. 
Weak, 208. 
Fishes, fresh-water, 34 to 203. 
shoal-water, 204 to 222. 
deep-sea, 222 to 225. 
Fishing, bottom, 21. 
deep-sea, 322. 

grouud bait, passim, under fishes 
fresh-water, 225, et seq. 
lake, 274, 301, 308. 
river, 225. 
lb al- water, 310. 
Z^rp, 294. 
Eel, 308. 
Blue- Fish, 320. 
King-Fish, 313. 
Bass, Striped, 297. 
Bass, Sea, 315. 
Taulog, 316. 
Drum, 320. 
Sheep's-Head, 319. 
Salmon, 225. 
Lake Trout, 274 
Trout, 253. 
Pickerel, 281. 
Pearch, 290. 
Pike Pearch, 288. 
Bass, Black, 301. 
Bass, Rock, 304. 
Salmon Trout, 281. 
worm for Salmon, 250. 
worm for Carp, 294. 
Fish, how to cook— appendix C— 332. 
Fly-fisher's apparatus, the— appendix B 

—330. 
Fly for Salmon, 243, and seq. 
for Trout, 246, 254. 
Black Bass, 303. 
Striped Bass, 297. 
Shad, 180. 
for Herrings, 178. 



INDEX. 



Fly for all small Rshes, 276. 

Salmon Trout. 277. 
Fontinaiis, Sulmo, 23, 86. 

Game fishes of North America, 17. 

Garpike, 24, 163. 

Gold- Fish, 24, 166. 

Gill-covers of fislies, 46. 

Graylinff, Buck's, 131. 

Great Northern Pickerel, 149. 

Greatest Lake Trout, 104. 

Grilse, under Sfilmon. 54, and passim. 

Gristes Nipfrican ,, 25, 195. 

Growler, 197. 

tireve, Truite de, 104. 

Gadidffi, 222. 

Gristes Sulmoides, 197. 

Haddock, the American, 223. 

fishiner, 322. 
Halibut, 32, 322. 
Hrtke. 32. 
Hamilton county Dussim from 225 to 

277. 
Herring, 178. 
HippogJossus Vulgaris, 32. 
Hybridization of fishes, 69. 
Hooks — appendix A— 325. 

under the head of every kind of fish 
ing. 

IfLANb, Long, Trout fishing on, 257. 
Trout peculiar to, 93. 
Pickerel of, 24, 161. 

LABRIDiC, 30. 

Labrax Lineatus, 25, 189, 297. 
Lafayette- Fish, 207. 
Lake Trout, species of, 26. 

the Greatest, or Namaycush, 23, 
104. 

the Siskawitz, 23, 112. 

the Common, 23, 116. 

the Sebago, 23, 20. 
Lamprey, 22. 
Leiostomus Obliquus, 29. 
Lucioides, Esox, 24, 154, 
Lucioperca, 25, 192. 

Americana, 192. 

Canadensis, 194. 

Griaea. 194. 

MAiAMAOosH, 23, 126, 274. 
Malacopterygii, 22, 25, 39, to 184. 

Abdominal. 34 to 184. 

Apodal, 22 to 1R5. 

Snbbrachial, 222 to 224. 



808 



Minnows, 176. 

Mackinaw Salmon, 34, 86, 274 

Mascalonge, 151 

fishing, 281. 
Malasheganay, 203. 
Menidia, Atherina, 32. 
Merlangus Americanus, 32. 224 
Merlueius Vulgaris, 32. 
Morrhua Vulgaris, 31, 222 

^glefinis, 31, 223. 

Namaycush, Indian name of Mackina* 
Salmon, 23, 104. 

fishing, 274. 
Nebulosa, Umbrina, 29, 313 
Nigricans, Gristes, 25, 195, 301 

Centropristes, 29, 205, 315. 

Obliquos Leiostomns, 29, 207 
Otohthus Regalis, 25, 208, 312. 

Carolinensis, 25, 26, 39, 208. 
Oscula Corvina, 202. 
Osseus Esox, 34. 
Otsego Bass, 23, 145. 

Iiavaret, 84, 
Oswego Bass, 25, 202. 

different from the Black, 196 
C^merus Viridescens, 23, 136. 
Ovis, Sargus, 30, '. 15, 319. 

Paqrus Argyrops, 217. 

Percidffi, 25, 187. 

Parr, passim, from 34 to 120. 

Fearch, the American Yellow, 25, 187 

«oU. 

the White, 25. 

the Common, 25. 

the rough Yellow, 180. 

the rough-headed Yellow, 180 

the sharp-nosed Yellow, 180. 

the slend°r Yellow, 180. 

the Silvery, 211. 

fishing, 280. 
Perca Americana, 25, 187. 

Pallida, 25. 

Fluviatilis, 25. 

Cerrato Grannlata, 180 

Granulata, 180. 

Acuta, 180. 

Gracilis, 180. 
Pickerel, 24. 

the Great Northern, 34, 154, 28) 

the Common, 24, 157, 281. 

the Long Island, 24, 161, 281. 

the White, of the Ohio and Wa- 
bash, 149. 

th» Black of Pennsylvania, 149. 



r 






m 



Mi 



504 



INDEX. 



Fickerel, the Garpike, 24. 

fishing, 281. 

the rod for, i/82, 325. 

the bait for, 283. 

the hooi58 for, 285, 286. 

the tackle for, 284. 
Pike FeBrch,25. 

the American, 192. 

the Canudian, 194. 

the Gray, 194. 
Pleuronected Dentatus, 32. 
Pimelodes Huron, 182. 
Pogonias Chromis 24, 213. 

Fusciatua, 213. 
Pond-fish, 200 
Pomotis, 23. 
Porgee, the b'.g, 30, 217. 

the Sand, 217. 

the Rhomboidal, 217. 

Roe-bait, Salmon, 251. 

Shad, 299. 
Rods — appendix A — 325. 

under the heads of each kind of fish- 
ing, 
for Salmon-Trout, Pickerel, &c., 
239 to 325. 
Reels, under each kind of fishing, as 
above, 239 to 325. 

Salhonidjc, 23, 34 to 145. 
Salmo, 23. 

Salar, 23, 34. 

Fontiualis, 23, 54. 

Amelhystus, or Namaycu8h,23,86. 

Siskawitz, 23, 104. 

Confiuis, 23, 112. 

Hoodii, or Masamacush, 23, 126. 

Trutta Marina, 23, 120. 

Erythrogaster, 27. 

Sebago, 26. 

Thymallus Signifer, 23, 131 

Qsmerus Viridescens, 23, 136. 

Mallolus Villotus, 139. 

Coregonus Albus, Attihawmeg, 23, 
145. 

Coregonus Otsego, 23, 145 
Balmon, the True, 23, 54. 

the Mackinaw, 23, 86. 

the Great Lake Trout, 23, 104. 

Lake Trout, 23, 112. 

the distinctions of, 45, et seq. 

the migrations of, C3, et seq. 

the size of, 79. 

the growth of, 60, et seq. 

the hybridization of, 73. 

the haunts of, 74, 225. 



Salmon, the habits of, 34 to 86. 

the generation of, 43, 54, 58, etsa^ 

how to propagate, 69, 71. 

the fishing of, 225, 252. 

the rod, 

the flies, 250. 

the roe-bait, &c., 251 

Pinks, 34, 63. 

Smolt, 61. 

Peal, 62. 

Parr, 51. 

Grilse, 63. 

Saltator, Temnodon, 30, 218. 320. 
Sargus Ovis, 30, 215, 319. 
Rhomboides, 217. 
Arenosus, 217. 
Scienidffi, 205 to 217. 
SoombridflB, 218, 219. 
Sea Bass, 29, 205, 315. 
Striped Bass, 179, 297. 
Sea Chub, 29. 209. 

Pearch, 211. 
Sebago Salmon, 26. 
Skip-jack, 30, 218, 
Silvery Pearch, 211. 

Corvina, 211. 
Smelt, 23, 136. 
Snap-hooks, 285, 286, 325. 
Shad, 180. 

taken with the fly, 181. 
roe bait for Bass, 299. 
Sheep's-head, the Sea, 215, 319. 
the Lake, 202. 
the Lnke Black, 203. 
SparidcB, 217. 

Subbrachial Malacopterygii, 31, 222 t« 
225. 

Tackle — appendix A — 325. 

under the heads of every kind tf 
fish. 
Tautog, 30, 220, 316. 
Tautoga Americana, 30, 220, 316 
Trolling, see Pickerel fishing, 281 

Blue-Fish fishing, 320. 

appendix A., 325. 

rods, as above. 
Trout, Brook, 23, 86. 

Greatest Lake, 23, 104. 

Siskawitz Lake, 23, 112. 

Common Lake, 23, 126. 

Sebago Lake, 26. 

Southern, £5, 26, 39, 208. 

Salmon or Sea, 12j. 

dpscription of the Brook, 86. 

young fry of the brook, 92, 97 



INDEX. 



606 



Tront, Bizu of the firook, 100. 

fiahingr of the Brook, 253. 

Loug Island fishiug, 257. 

Salmon iuhiug in New Bruniwick 
277. 

Lake Trout flshing, 274. 
Troutlet. the, 86. 

Trutta, Sal mo Marina, 23, 120, 277. 
Turbot, 215 

Uhbrina Nebuloea, 29, 209, 313. 

ViRIDEBCENS, OsHieruB, 23, 136. 
Vulgaris, Brosmius, 39. 

MerluciuB, 32. 

Morrhua, 32. 



Vulgaris, HippoglossuB, 32. 
PomotiB, 200. 



Watee, freflh, fisheB, 34 to 203. 

fishing, 239 to 308. 

salt, fishes, 205 to 225. 

fishing, 310 to 322. 

shoal, fishes, 205 to 220. 

fishing, 310 to 320 
Weak-Fish, 208, 312. 
White-Fish, 141. 
Whiting, 224, 322. 
Worm-bait for Salmon, 250. 

.for other fishes under the head oi 
each. 



3 a 



1111 



iii: 



m 



in ■ 
Hi , 



!.{» 



INDEX TO SUPPLEMENT. 



Abdominal Malacoptertqii, 361, 865, 
867, 369, 871, 877, 879, 383, 886, 888, 
389, 891, 392, 894, 397, 898, 400. 

Acanthopterygii, 403, 405. 

American Sandre, 403. 

Artificial Flies, 420 to 435 

Attehawmeg, 397. 

Bass, 410. 

Bear Lake Salmon, 400. 
Bee-Flv, the, 430. 
Black Drum, 436. 

Fish, 436, 437, 438. 

Fly, the, 424. 

Great Fly, the, 430. 

Palmer Hackle, 427. 
do. ribbed with gold, 427. 

Silver Palmer Hackle, 427. 
Blue Dun Fly, the, 431. 
Boston, 366. 

Bay Whiting, 405. 
British Provinces, the, 425. 
Brook Trout, 365, et passim. 
Bultow, the, 425. 

Capelin, the, N. W., 394, 395, 396. 

Carman's Creek, L. I., 366. 

Carrier Indians, the, 381, 382. 

Casting-Lines, 411. 

Cavalle, 405. 

Caughlan Fly, the, 432. 

Cayuga Lake, 361, 397. 

Charleston, S. C, 405. 

Clarke's Salmon, 892. 

Cob-Fly, the. 482. 

Cock-tail Fly, the, 430, 877, 883, 388, 889. 

Columbia River, 391, 392, 394. 

Common Trout, 365, etpasdin 

Connecticut, 863, 432. 

Corregonus, Albus, 397. 

Artidi, 398. 

Harengus, 400. 
Cotton, on the Stone-Fly, 432. 
County Gal way, 410. 
Cow-dung Fly, the, 429. 
Cowles, Mr., 'the guide, 374, 423. 
Crooked Lake, 871. 
Cross-fishing, 428. 

Danikl, on Fishing, 432. 
DeKay, Dr., 865, 367, 371, 372, 378, 375, 
408 



Dease's River, 383. 

Detroit, 369. 

Drop-flies, 415. 

Drum Fish, 437. 

Double Gut for Salmon, 411. 

Eastern States, 363. 
Ekewan, 389. 
England, 429. 

Fauna Boreali Americana, 879. 

of New York, 397, 372, 373, 40S. 
Finishing-knot, the, 417. 
Finnegnn, Mr. T., of New York, 420. 
Fraser Lake, 381. 
Eraser River, 379, 380. 
Fly-Fishing, 366, 426, et passim. 
Frontispiece, descriptions of the twentv- 

four flies in, 426 to 433. 
Fort Vancouver, 384. 

Gairdneu's Salmon, 386. 

Gairdner, Dr., 384, 387, 389, 392, 390. 

Game Laws, 361. 

Garden River, 365. 

Geneva, N. Y., 371. 

Gold-ribbed Black Palmer Hackle, 427. 

Gold-spinner Fly, the, 431. 

Governor Flv, the, 432. 

Gray Drake llv, the, 428. 

Greatest Lake 'Trout, 367. 

Green Drake, or May Fly, the, 428. 

Greenland, 396. 

F.vRE's-ear Fly, f he, 430. 

Hamilton County, N. Y., 871, 373, 37r) 

418, '[■!■{■. 
Harmon, 1>. W., 379. 
Hair lines, ^20. 
Harmon's Travels, 382. 
Herring Salmon, 398, 399, 400. 
Holmes, John C, 375. 
Horse Cavalle, 405. 
Hucho, 366. 
Hudson River, 363. 

Ibis, the, 426. 
Indian prize, 365. 
Ireland, 429, 432. 
Irish Lakes, the, 423. 

Kaatpootl River, 392. 



li 



i^ 



*♦! 






t 



508 



INDEX TO 8UPPLEMKNT. 



KaiT, Mr. O., of New York, 41 S. 

Kawalitch River, 3»3. 

Kennebec River, 36S. 

Kettle Falls, 883. 

King, Mr., of Charleston, S. C, 405. 

Kingdom Fly, 431. 

King Fish, 486, 437, 488. 

Lake Champlain, 8G9. 

Erie, 307, 898. 

George, 869. 

Huron, 367, 397, 400. 

Louis, 371, 874. 

Ontario, 897. 

Pleasant, 878. 

Piseco, 374, 424. 

Rackett, 874,424. 

Simcoe, 097. 

Superior, 897. 

Country, the, 869. 

Trout, 866, 871, 876. 

Pleasant House, 875. 

Trout flies, 434. 

Huron Herring Salmon, 400. 
Law for the preservation of Salmon, 862. 
Le Sueur's Herring Salmon, 398 
Le Sueur, Mens., 899. 
Limerick hooks, 412, 347. 
Loch Corrib, 410. 
Long Island, 3G6, 482. 

Lake, 424. 
Lucioperca Americana, 408. 
Lewis and Clarke, 888, 892, 894. 

Mauritctibz, 486. 

Mackinaw Salmon, 367. 

Maimed Salmon, 882, 833. 

Maine, State of, 863. 

Mackerel, 405, 438. 

March Brown Fly, the, 432. 

Mandeville, Mr., of Geneva, N. Y., 403. 

Mascalonge, 897. 

Malacopterygii, Subbrachial, 404. 

Minnows, 425. 

Mykiss of Kamtschatka, 392. 

Morrell, Mr., of Luke Pleasant, 422. 

Namaycush, 865, 867, 069, 870, 372. 
New I'aledonia, 882. 

iinpland, 366. 

Fuuadland, 425. 

Hampshire, 866. 

Jersey, 864. 

York, 861, 363. 

Niagara River, 398. 
Northern Black Fish, 405. 
North-west Capelin, 394. 

Company, 879. 
Nova Scotia, 864, 877. 

O^NAGAN River, 383. 
Ouchterard, 410. 
Oulachan, 394. 



I'alhbr Hackles, six varieties, 427. 

Passaic River, 364, 378. 

Penctanguishene, 400. 

PercidaB^ 403, 405. 

Perlev, Mr., of St. John, N. B., 877, 378. 

Pike Verch, 403, 404. 

Pompano of Florida, 405. 

Porgee, 436, 487, 488. 

Pulaski, Oswego Co., N. Y., 362. 

QUANNICH, 883. 

Queachts, 886. 
Quinnat, 383, 886. 

Rackett Lake, 874. 
Red Char, the, 388. 
Red Ant Fly, the, 481. 
Rennie, Professor, 483. 
Rocky Mountains, the, 879. 
Round Lake, 374. 

St. John, N. B., 877. 
St. Mary's River, 865. 
Sandre, American, 403. 
Sault St. Marie, 365, 869, 397. 
Sea Bass, 436, 237, 438. 
Sea Fishing, a table of Depths, Baits, and 
Way of striking for, 436. 

Tackle, and average weight of, for, 
437. 

Spring, Summer, or Autumn Baits, 
to suit weather or tide, for, 43S. 
Sea Perch, 438. 

Trout, 377. 
Seneca Lake, 861, 871, 873, 397, 398, 899, 

404. 
Severn River, Lake Huron, 3'j7. 
Sheep Fish, 487. 
Sheep's Head Fish, 437, 438. 
Shiners, 404, 425. 

Silver-ribbed Black Palmer Huckle, 427. 
Sinkers, 437. 
Siskawitz, 865, 369, 372. 
Skilloot Village, 383. 
Slip Knot, the, 415, 417. 
Smciv, 878, 385, 386. 
ScrWh, Dr., 366. 
.- nake River, 383. 
Snoods, 437. 

Southern Black Fish, 40'). 
Southern Sea Fishes, 4i»5. 
Hpeonk, 426. 

Spirit of the Times, N. Y , 375, 418. 
irflillris, New Caledonia, b81. 
8ton. fly, the, 432. 
Strait of Juan de Fuca, 879. 
'"u'iix.d Bass, 436, 437, 4;!S. 
biuiirt's Lake, 879, 380, 881. 

River, 381. 
Stump Pond, 426. 
Sturgeon, 894. 

Supervisors of Oswego Co., N. Y., C6l. 
Supplement, second part of the First, 866 
4'j7. 



i 



INDEX TO SUPPLEMENT. 



509 



TAnTOO, 405, 486, 437, 438. 

Todd, Dr., 897, 400. 

Trolling for Lake Trout, 418 to 425- 

Bait or Flies for, 421. 

Bait-kettle for, 421. 

Leader or Train for, 420. 

Line for, 420. 

Oarsman or Guide for, 421. 

Reel for, 419. 

Bod for, 418. 

Ways of Striking, Playing, or GaflSng 
in. 422. 
Trout Fishfng, proper, 418. 

Rod and I'ackle for, 413. 

UseoftheRodin, 416. 
Trout Flies (See also plate opposite page 

253 in the body of the worlc), 435. 
True Sea Salmon, 872. 
Tsuppitch, 891. 



U. S. Fort at Sault St. Marie, 886. 

Waiamet River, 883. 
Wales, 432. 

Water-Knot, the, 415, 417. 
Weak-Fish, the, 486, 437, 438. 
Weak-mouthed Salmon, 388. 
Welch, Mr. B., of New York, 418. 
Whirling Dun Fly, the, 480. 
White Fish, 880, 397. 

Great Fly, the, 431. 

Moth Fly, the, 431. 

Trout, 377. 
Willow Fly, 433. 
Wilson, Professor, 433. 

Ybllow Palmer Hackle, 427. 
Pike Perch, the, 408. 



i 



! 



i i 



{ 



i 



Il^DEX TO FLY-FISniNG. 



» 



ALDKR-Fly, 465. 
American Floats, etc., 497> 

Hooks, 497. 

Lines, 406. 

Reels, 406. 

Rods, 495. 

Tackle, 495. 
Articles for Flies, 442. 
AssortinK Feathers, 471. 
August-Dun, 466. 

Bait, Natural, 490. 
Baiting Needle, 489. 
Ballynahinch River-Fishing, 481. 
Bartlett's Hooks, 446. 
Bellying, 482. 
Billy-Gout's Beard, 486. 
Black Bass, 485. 

Gnat-Fly, 465. 
Blackwater Rod, 459. 
Blue-Bottle, 4G7. 
Book, form of, for Feathers, 
Bottom-Fishing, 492. 

Carlislb Hooks, 446. 
Carrying Flies, 401. 
Cinnamon Fly, 467. 
Codfish Hook, 485. 
Conroy's Hooks, 484. 
Cow-dung Fly, 464. 
Crawford Bait, 492. 

Dahk Prone-Flv, 464. 

Mackerel-Fly, 466. 
Diagram of l^ortable Vice, 447. 
Directions for Fly-making, 450. 
Dressing Flies, 447. 
Duu-Flv, Pale Evening, 466. 

July, 460. 
Dyeing Feathers Dark Red, 468. 

Olive Dun, 468. 

Mallard Feathers, 468. 

Red Hackles Brown, 468. 

Various shades, 469. 

White Feathers, 468. 

English Jav, 484. 

Example ot Fly -making, 452. 

No. II., 452. 

No. III., 458. 

for Salmon-Fly Book, 462. 

for Trout-Fly Book, 463. 



Feathers, Varieties of, 446. 
Fern-Fly, 465. 
Finnegan, 454. 
Fish-Basket, 461. 
Fishing-Case, Plan of, 443. 

in Strange Waters, 484. 
Flexible Minnow Hook, 488, 489. 
Floats, 403, 497. 
Fly-Dressing, 447, 450. 

Fishing, 441. 
Fly-Plate, Explanation of, 448. 
Fly-Tying, 442. 
Frogs for Bait, 492. 

GLAss-Bait, 488. , 

Golden-Pheasant Crest, 485. 
Gorge-Hook, Double, 489. 
Grannom or Green-Tail Fly, 465. 
Gray-Druke Fly, 406. 
Gravel-Bed Fly, 464. 
Green-Drake Fly, 465. 
Gut, 446. 
Gut Casting-Line, 454. 

Hair-Points, 455. 
Hooking in a Fly, 462, 
Hooks, 446, 497. 

Implements <br Trolling, 487. 

Kendall Hook, 446. 
Kill-Devil Hook, 487, 489. 
Killing Trout, 461. 

Salmon, 461. 
Kirby-Bend Carlisle Hooks, 446. 

Landing-Net Hoop, 460. 

Trout, 481. 
Length of Line, 483. 

Rod, 482. 
Lines, 455, 495. 
Limerick Hooks, 446. 

Maggots, for Bait, 492. 
March Brown Fly, 464. 
Marlow-Buzzy Fly, 466. 
Minnow Hoofe, for Trolling. 483. 
Natural Bait Tackle, 491. 
Trolling, 490. 

Note by the Editor, 495, 



n 
li 



1 <i 



612 

Oak Flt, 465. 
Orange Fly, 4fi6. 
O'Shuughnessev Hooki, 446. 

Palmirs, 458, 4(57 
Peacock-Fly, 464. 
Pike, 48.5. 

Plan of Fishinff-Case, 448. 
Position of Body, 4S3. 
Rod, 4S2. 

Raccoon Fly, 464. 
Receipt fur Linos, 455. 
Receipts, 468. 
Red Ply, 463. 

Spinner, 464. 
Reels, 406. 

Click wheel, 456. 

Plain, 456. 
Reel with Patent Handle, 456. 

Materials for, 457, 
Rods, 457, 495. 
Rods, length of, 459. 

Position of 482, 483 

Varieties of, 457. 

Wood for, 458. 
Ronald's Files, 469. 
Round Bend Carlisle Hooks, 446 

Sailor Fly, 465. 
Salmon-Bag, 461. 

Book, 462, 

Flies, 471. 

Fishing, 481. 

Haunts of, 484 

Lines, 455. 

Rods, 457, 482 

Roe, for Bait, 490 



INDIX TO rtT-FISHINa. 



Sand-Fly, 464. 
Sea-Trout, 481. 

Flies, 470. 
Selecuon of Flics, 480. 
Set of Hooks for a Kili-Devil. 487 
Suckers, 492. 
Spare Rods, 4AH. 
Spoon, with Codfish Hook, 488. 
Spring Fishing, 484. 

Snap, before Setting, 488. 
Set, 488. 
Staining Gut, 469. 
Stone-Sly, 484. 
Swivels, 493. 

Throwino Flies, 479, 480. 

Lines, 458, 479. 
Tinsel, 447. 
Trolling, 486. 
Trout-fi uing, 479, 480. 

Flies, 468. 
Trout-Rod, 457. 
Turkey, Brown, 465. 
Tying-Silks, 447. 

Vice, Diagram of, 447. 

Wrathkr, State of, 480. 
Whipping, 480. 
Whippy Rods, 460. 
White Trout, 481. 
White Bass, 485. 
Wicker Pannier, 461. 
Willow-Fly, 477. 
Wren-Tail, 466. 

Tillow-Ddn Flj, iti. 



mm 



\' 



}