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TV IlirtriUr Pm. famhrUi/r, M<ut V S A 
a>ctf<»yfmt wl frtaM b, H. O. Hcii,kt«, ^i Compwy. 











CaBICA PAPJlfA PUt« dcoT. 

Om-ntia ruLoiDA pute dcovi. 





f^KPllALAtrtma 0Cri9ENTAI.I8 .... 

Fbaxinus coriacxa 

Fraxinus pr.onmDA. ...... 

Fraxinds Biltmorkana 

Fraxinuh Floridaka 

Uluis serotina 

HicoRiA Tbxana Plate dccxix. 

HinoRiA CAROLiN.»«u'TENTiuoiiAi.ig .... Plate dcczz. . 

HicoRU VILL08A Plate ccolv. (vol. Til.) 

QuKRCus ELLiFsoiDALis Plate dccui. 

Qdercus pAaooAFOi,xA Plate dccxxi!. 


Plate dooTii 17 






Plate dcoviii. 
^ata dccix. 

Plnte dccxi 

Plate docxii 

Plate dccxiii 33 

Plate dccxiv., dcoxr 35 

Plate dccxvi 37 

Plate dccxvii. 
Plate dccxriii. 



Betvla papyrifer.:, var. cobdooua . , , 




Saiix BAL8AMIFERA Plate dccxxviii 

Salix Alaxensis Plate dccxxix. 

Salix amplifolia Plate dccxxx. 

Popuu 8 acuminata Plate dccxxxi. 

P0PUIC8 WisLizENi Plate dccxxxii 

P0PULU8 Mexican A Rate dccxxxiii 73 

Serenoa ARBORE8CENS Plate dccxxxiv. 77 

Thrinax Floridana Plate dccxxxT 81 

Thrinax Keyensis Plate dccxxxvi 83 

CoccoTHRiNAx jucuNDA Plate dccxxxvii 87 

Plate dccxxiii, , ■ , 

Plate dccxxiv 

Plate dccxxT 57 

Plate dccxxTJ 59 

Plate dccxxvii 61 






JuNiPEBUs BARBADEN8I8 Plate docxxiviii. 

JuNiPERus 8COPUL0RUM Plate dccxzxix. 

C'"BE8SU8 PTGiLEA pi^te dcCxl. . 


Generai, Index 




Flowers regular, monoecious or polygamo-dioDcious, in axillary cymose panicles ; 
calyx minute, 5-lobed ; petals 5 ; stamens 10 ; filaments in two series, free ; ovary 
1 -celled; ovules numerous. Fruit baccate, fleshy. Leaves alternate, long-petiolatc, 
palmately lobed or digitate, rarely simple, destitute of stipules. 

Carioa, Linnatu, Oen. 309 (1737). — Meiainei-, Om. pt. ii. 

89. — Endlioher, Oen. 933. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. Sifn. 

ii. 121 Bcntlum Sc Hooker, Oen. i. 816 Solnu-Lau- 

buh, Engltr & Prantl PJianxenfam. iii. pt. vi. a, 98. 
Papaya, Adanton, Fam. PI. ii. 357 (1763). —A. L. de Jua- 

•ieu, Gen. 399. — B'Slloo, HUt. PL iv. 320 (exd. Jaea- 




Vaaoonoellaa, Saint-Hilaire, Mim, Aead. 

Vasoonoelloaia, Camel, Nuov. Oior. Bot. Ital. viii. 22 

Mocinna, La Uare, La NaturaUta, vii. Appz. 70 (not 

Lagaica nor Beotbam) (1885). 

Small short-lived trees, filled with bitter milky juices, with erect simple or rarely branched stems 
composed of a thin shell of soft fibrous wood surrounding a large central cavity divided by thin soft 
cross partitions at the nodes and covered witli thin green or gray bark marked by the ring-like scars of 
fallen leaf-stalks, and stout soft fleshy roots, or rarely herbaceous, nrith tuberous roots.' Leaves crowded 
toward the top of the stem and branches, alternate, large, flaccid, long-petiolate, subpeltately palmately 
nerved, usually deeply and often compoundly lobed, or occasionally digitate and seven or eight-foliato, 
or rarely ovate-lanceolate, destitute of stipules. Flowers white, yellow, or greenish white, in axillary 
cymose panicles, the staminate elongated pedunculate and many-flowered, the pistillate abbreviated 
and few usually three-flowered, generally uniseximl and dioecious, occasionally polygamo-dioecious, each 
flower in the axil of a minute ovate acute flat bract. Staminate flower : calyx minute, five-lobed ; corolla 
salverform, gamopetalous, the tube elongated, flve-lobed, the lobes oblong or linear, valvate or contorted 
in aestivation ; stamens ten, inserted on the throat of the corolla, in two rows ; filaments free, those of 
the outer row alternate with the lobes of the corolla, elongated, the others alternate with them, abbre- 
viated; anthers attached below the middle, introrse, two-celled, erect, opening longitudinally, often 
surmounted by their slightly elongated connective ; pnllen grains globose, grooved ; ovary rudimentary, 
subulate. Pistillate flower : calyx minute, flve-lobed, enlarged, thickened and persistent under the fruit ; 
corolla polypetalous ; petals five, linear-oblong, erect, ultimately spreading above the middle, deciduous ; 
staminodia wanting. Ovary free, sessile, one-celled or more or less spuriously five-celled by the projection 
inward of the five parietal placentas ; style wanting or abbreviated ; stigmas five, linear, radiating, 
dilated and subpalmately lobed at the anex, or simple and stigmatic over the whole upper surface; 
ovules indefinite, inserted in two rows on the placenta, anatropous, long-stalked, micropyle superior, 
raphe ventral. Hermaphrodite flower : corolla gamopetalous, tubular-campanulate, the lobes erect and 

> The stenia of Carica caudala (Rrandegee, Zoi', ir. 401 [181M]) of Lower California are deaoribed aa herbaceous, from eighteen 
inohea to three feet tall, and as produced from tuberous .oota. 



upreadiiift or mibreflexed ; itUnions t«n, in two ranks, nr Ave ; ovary obovoid-oblong, longer than tliu tul»« 
of tho I'orolla, more or leiw gpurioiMly five-oelleii ImIow. Fruit baccate, yellow, oranf^e-colored, purple, 
or crimson, slightly Kvu-lob«<l, one-celled or more or lem completely five-celled, filled with soft pulp or 
contiiinin|{ a \iu^o control cavity, many-seeded, that produced from hermaphrodite tlowerH long-titalkod, 
|iendul<>UH, usually unsymmetrical, or ^bbous by the abortion of one of the placentas, and smaller than 
that from tho pistillate Howers. S<>e<lM drupacoouH, t>void, inclose<l in niembrHuaceous silvery white 
sac-like arils, ocujiMionally ^rminating within the fruit;' testa crustaoeous, ch)sely investing the mem- 
branaceous inner coat, the outer |)ortiou bocoming thick, rugose, succulent, and ultimatttly dry and 
leathery. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen ; cotyledons ovate, foliaceous, compressed, h)nger than 
the terete radicle turne«l toward the minute |Vkle sublMsilar hilum.' 

Carica inhabits southern Florida and the West Indies, the slopes of the coast mountains which 
border the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea, the Andes from Mexico to ChiU, the valleys of the 
Pacific coast of tropical South America, southern Brazil, and Argentina.' Twenty species have Iteen 
described, but it is probable that the forests which clothe the Cordilleras of South America, where this 
genus is represented by the largest number of iipe<'ies, hide others still unknown to science.* 

The milky juice of Carica, which is most abundant in the unri|)e fruit, contains an enzyme, papain, 
which, like |>epHin, has the power of digesting albuminous subNtanccs, and Curica leaves are commonly 
used in tropical countries to make tough meat more tender.' The fruit of Carica Papaya, the pawpaw. 

■ MuUn. Gari'. Clkrm. Mr. 3, U. 716, (. 138, 130 ; lii. 618, f 92, 
90. — Friti MulUr, Flora, 1800, Xfl, t. 

' The ipeciM of Cari-ss Ii»t* bmn grouped by Solnu-LaulNMb 
(A/artiw Ft. Hnuil. liii. pt. iii. 177; SngUr (r Prtmlt I'jUmanfitm. 
iii. pt. Ti. k, OH) in three Mwtioiu. 

(1.) Vaicomckllca. Dirtioiuof tbeoorolUrontortedorTklTkte 
in mtiTtliun ; itigma linear, undirided ; ofarj and fruiU •puriouilj 

(■2.) llEMirArATA (A. de Candolle, IWodr. it. pt. i. 41S [tMt. 
VaMoncellea]). Uiriuoni of the corolla contarle<l in DitiTation ; 
•tigma dilated and ditidad at the apei ; oTarjr and f ruita tpuriouilj 

(3.) KuPAFATA. Uiriaioni of the corolla contorted in nitiTation; 
•tiginai irregularly dirided to the baao; ovary and (ruita one-f'elled. 

* See Hieronymua, /'J. IHapkor. Argtnl. 121. — .Solmt-Ijaubaeh, 
Martiui Fl. Bnuil. I. r. 178. — Dunnell Smith, llol. Gaxettt, iiiii. 


* Spruce (your. Zinn. Soc. i. 7) in an account of the diatribution 
of the Papajfocta, in addition to the twenty-flre apeciea deaoribed in 
1869, alludei to eieren othen which had been teen by him in the 
foreita of the Andea and on the Pacific coaat of South America. 
What proportion of these belong to the genua Carica doea not 
appear. In the Flora Braitlitruis Solma-Laubach deacribea twenty- 
two apeciea in thia family, ei^ttteen of theae belonging to Carica. 

lu addition to the ipeeiea, there it a hybrid Carica deacribed 
by Van Voliem and obtained by him in 1870 by Impregnating 
the flowera of Carira eryihrocarpa (Andrrf, ///. llorl. iviii. 33, t. 61 
[1871]), a amall icarlet-fruited apeciea of the warmer parte of Co- 
lombia and Peru, with the pollen of Carira Ctmdamareeniit. From 
thia croaa a number of planta were raised which displayed their 
hybrid origin in the rharscter of the learea, intermediate in form 
and texture between thuae of the two parenta. In tho summer of 
1879 two of these hybrid planta flowered; one produced one female 
and a number of male (lowers, and the other only two female How- 
era. Tlie female flower of the first plant was impregnated with the 
pollen of Carica CnndamarcmMii, and those of the other with pollen 
taken from ita own male fluwcm. All three grew into red fruits 
and prodnoed aeeda from which many aeecllings were raiaad. Theae 

seedling planta produced male and female flowers almoat eiclusiTely 
on different indiriiluals, although in the case of both their parents 
the aame plant produces male aud female flowers. The fruit of 
this ic'oiid oroes was bright red, fragrant, oblong-obovate, slightly 
ribbed, flve-aided, four inches long, and two and a half inches in 
diameter. It remained on the planta for more than a year, and ia 
described as rery ornamental. (See Van Voliem, Ganl. Chron. n. 
ier. air. 7'.'0 ; aii. 44fi, f. 68. — Masters, (. c. ii. f. 139.) 

• See Holder, Vrm. Wem. JVal. Hill. Sne. iii. 'MTi {AcrounI of 
iKe Effecli o/lSt Juict oflht Papaw Tm [Cnriea Papaya] in Inlm- 
mling Hulcker'$ .V«i().— Kndlicher, EncKirui. Rol. 487; Med. Pfl. 
4A7. — Martin, Bril. Med. Jour. 1888, ii. 150; Pharm. Jour, and 
Tram. aer. ,1, ivi. 129; Am. Jour. Pharm. Ifii. «10; Iviii. 439.— 
Kusby, IMiggitl'i Hull. iii. 220, f. — U. S. Ditpent. ed. 10, 1883. 

Ktperiments made by Morong (BuU. Pharm, v. 106) to detemuna 
the digestive potency of the leaves of Carica Papa/a and of Carica 
querci/olia showed the following results : — 

Small cubes of cooked fresh lean beef were incloaed in several 
folds of the leaves of ( 'arica Papaya, numerous incisions being made 
with a raior acnns the epidermis of tome of the leaves in order 
to secure an outlet for the milky secretions, while others were left 
in r% natural state. At the end of two days it was found that the 
largeat cubes inclosed in the uncut leaves were considerably cor- 
roded and their edges rounded, while the minute pieces of meat had 
been reduced to a pulpy maas and, in some instances, dissolved into 
a greasy slime which had become widely spread over the surface of 
the leaves. At the end of five days the digestive process had re- 
duced the largeat pieces of meat to pulp, and at thu erd of a week 
all that could bo seen of the meat was a thin greasy liquid covering 
the portions of the leaf in contact with it. The cut leaves soon lost 
their potency and made but little impression on the meat, probably, 
as Dr. Morong suggests, because owing to the admission of air the 
leaves soon became dry and lost their power of inteneration. Pieces 
of meat placed within the folds of the split petioles, from which 
milky juice eluded freely, were not influenced by it at all, the meat 
simply drying up. It is probably essential, therefore, for diges- 
tive action that the meat should be closely wrapped in the leaves to 
exclude the air from it, and so insure perfect contact with their 




U ooniidered one of the most whol«aome of all tropical fruita, and Carica CandamnrMnait ' U cultivuted 
on the Andes of Ecuador aa a fruit-tree. In Argentina the juice of Carica querei/oH' " like that of 
Carica Papaya, ia ooniiidered a valuable anthelmentio, and ia thought useful in tht treatment of 
pulmonary affection* ; the Howen are esteemed as pectorals and the leaves are employed in washing as 
a substitute for suap.* 

In Florida Carica is not known to be injured by insects or attacked by fungal di teases.* 
The generic name is from the Carib name of Carica Papaya in use in Hispaniola when the 
Spaniards flrst invaded that island.' 

gutrio uontiou. Th* le*T« ol Carica qutrei/olia mr* fonnd to 
b« tTH more poUnt tluD IhuM of Carica Papaya in their •IfMt* 
upuD oiMt, th* diuolutioo proomdiiig mon npidly, M muoh Uing 
uooinpliihiid in on* day u In two dk/i \>j th* I***** of Carica 
Papaya. Kiparinunt* mad* with the whit** and jrolki of haid- 
boil*d *gf(* ibow*d that th* l*an* of th* twi> ipcoi** aot*d with 
•qual potanoj and far more rapidljr than thaj had on th* pi*a*( of 
maat. In twantj-four hour* th* outiid* lajrar* of th* albuminoui 
partiola* had •limad ulf, and at th* and of thr** dayi imall pi*o*a 
had baooni* *ntir*l]r dltiolr*d, remaining on th* lurfao* of th* laaf 
in thi form of a thin liquid. At th* end of thr*« or four daji only 
a illght deoompoaition waa noticed on the lurfao* of th* jolk of 
th* egg, and the laarei withered betor* an/ daoiiir* *ff*ot waa pro- 

Papain and papayotin were at on* tim* reeommended In the 
United Statea aa aubatitut** for p*p*in in the treatment of diphth*- 
ria, to aaaiit digeation, and aa a galaotagogue. (See Park*, Daria & 
Co., Organic Mai. Mtd. *d. 8, 43.) H*o«nt *zp*rim*nta ahow, bow- 
eT*r, that in atanb-digaiting propertiei papain ia realljr infarior to 
p*p*in, and although good raaulta bar* followed ita UM in th* tr**t- 
ment of dyipeptio oonditiona, th* aam* reiulta ar* now obtained 
with greater oartaintjr \>j th* um of other agent*, while in the cure 
of diphtheria it hai been repUcnd bj antitoxin treatment and th* 
luoal appUoation of germioidaa. 

> Hooker f. tht. Mag. si. I. 6196 (ISTfi). — Solma-Unbwih, 
Aforfiuj Fl. liranl. liil pt. lil. 184. 

Cttriea Candamaretruit it a eommon tfcin of th* equatorial 
Andei, when it la oultirated aa a fruit-tr** up to elerationi of nin* 
thouaand f**t aboT* th* •••■l*r*l. Th* frulla ar* deaaribed aa 
bright jrellow, eight or nine inebaa long and aomatim** nearljr aa 
broad, with whit* aoft fi*ah uaualljr of plaaaant flaror, although 
aon.atlm*a aoid when the plant baa griiwn in cool eitnationa. (8** 
ValaMo, Ilisloria Natural dt (2ui(o, 68. — Sprue*, your. £i'nn. Soc. 
I. II.) 

' Iliaron/mui, Pt. Diaph. Fl. Argtm. 139 (1883). — Solma- 
Uubach, I. c. 178. 

VatconctUm ipurcifolia, Saint-HIIaire, Uim. Acad. Set. y. 324 

(1B.'.8). — A. de Candolle, Prodr. xt. pt. I. 416. 
Carica kailata, Brignoli, Jlf<m. Soc. Ilal. Set. Modtna, §n, 3, i. 

77 (1862). 

VaKonctlloiia hatlala, Carual, Num. Oiam. Bol. Ilal. viil. 22, 

t. a (1876). 

• 8*0 Morong, Bull. Pharm. t. 163, t. 

* Th*r* ia no record nf anj fungi infaatiog Carica Papaya in th* 
Unit*d Statei, although a number of apecieB attack it in other 
parte of the world, and probably aom* of thea* will be found in 
tbia oountrjr. 

' Uriado, Uirt. Gm. NaL Ind. lib. viii. cap. 33. 




Stigma divided to the base into 5 radiating lobes, dilated and 3-parted at the apex. 
Fruit i-celled. Leaves ovate or orbicular, deeply 5 to 7-lobed. 

Carica Papaya, Linnisus, Spec. 1036 (1753). — MUler, 
Diet. ed. 8, No. 1. — Aublet, PI. Guian. ii. 909. — Aitou, 
Nort. Kew. iii. 409. — Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt. ii. 814. — 
Persoon, Syn. ii. 020. — Lunan, Hort. Jam. ii. 36. — 
Stokes, Bot. Mat, Med. iv. 565. — Humboldt, Bonpland & 
Kunth, Nov. Gen. et Spec. ii. 124. — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 
243. — Lindley, Bot. Reg. vi. t. 459. — Kunth, Syn. PI. 
Mquin. i. 430. — VcUozo, Fl. Flum. ed. 2, 427i Icon. r.. t. 
130. — Sprenpel, Syst. iii. 905 — Hooker, Bot. Mag. Ivi. 
t. 2898, 2899. — D.)t, Gen. Syit. iii. 44 — Schnizlein, 
Ico7i. iii. t. 200, f. 1-3, 14-18. — Spach, Jiiat. Vig. xiii. 
316. — Roemer, Fam. Nat. jn. ii. 122. — Beitham, 
Bot. Voy. Sulphur, 100. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald. 
128. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 290. — Sauvalle, Fl. 
Cub. 54. — Eggers, BuU. U. S. Nat. Mm. No. 13, 56 {Fl. 
St Croix and the Virgin Islanda). — Lefroy, Bull. U. S. 
Ntt. Mus. No. 25, 76 {Bot. Berm^uta). — Hieronymus, 
PI. Diaph. Fl. Argent. 121. — Hemsley, Bot. Biol. Am. 
Cent. i. 481. — Chapman, Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 621. — Wien. 
HI. Gari. Zeit. ii. 448, f. 66. — Solms-Laubach, Martiue 
Fl. BraM. fasc. cvi. 188, t. 49. — Dum, Ann. Inst. Col. 
Marseille, iii. 310 {Fl. Antili. Fran^aises). 

Papaya ououmerina, Norona, Verhand. Bat. Genoot. 

Konet. Wet. v. 23 (1790). 
Papaya oommunis, Norona, Verhand. Bat. Genoot. 

Konst. Wet. v. 23 (1790). 
Papaya Carioa, Gnrtner, Fntct. ii. 191, t. 122, f. 2 

(1791). — BaUIon, Hist. PI. iv. 283, i. 332-336. — Otto 

Kunt7.e, Rev. Gen. PI. i. 253. 
Papaya vulgaris, De Candolle, Lamarck Diet. t. 2 

(1804). — Poiret, ioTnarcfc III. iii. 410, t. 821.— Nut- 
tall, Sylva, iii. 47, f. 96. — Cooper, Smithsonian Rep. 

1858, 264. — A. de Candolle, Proar. xv. pt. i. 414. 
Papaya aativa, Tuasac, Fl. Med. Antili. iii. 45, 1. 10, 11 

Caryoamamaya, Vellozo, Icon. x. 1 131 (1827); Fl. Flum. 

ed. 2. 427. 
Carioa hermafrodita, Blanco, m. FUip. 805 (1837) ; ed. 3, 

iii. 212. 
Papaya eduUs, a macrooarpa, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. 277 

Papaya edulis, p pyriformis, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. 277 


The Pawpaw, which lives only for a few years, although the original trunk is sometimes replaced 
by others from the same root, in Florida rarely attains a greater height than twelve or fifteen feet, and 
its simple stem is seldom more than six inches in thickness ; in the West Indies and other tropical 
countries it often grows to twice size, and the stem occasionally divides into a number of stout 
upright branches.' The bark is thin, light green except toward the base of the stem, where "i: finally 
becomes griiy, and closely invests tht thin layer of woody fibres which gpive to the steiu i - only 
strength and within which a Liyer of soft tissues often half an inch in thickness forms the wall of the 
broad central cavity divided at the nodes by thin porous cross partitions. The stem is supported by a 
stout tap-root which penetrates the soil to the depth of twelve or eighteen inches, and by numerous 
thick fleshy lateral roots spreading under the surface for a distance of two or three feet. The leaves 
are ovate or orbicular in outline, deeply divided into from five to seven lobes which are themselves 
more or less deeply divided into acute lateral lobes, these secondary divisions being entire or rarely 
lobed ; the lowest of the principal lobes are smaller than the others, nearly parallel and form deep 
sinuses at the base of the leaf ; the leaves are thin and flaccid, yellow-green, and from fifteen to twenty- 
four inches in diameter, with broad flat yellow or orange-colored primary veins radiating from the end 
of the petiole through tlie lobes, and small secondary veins extending to the points of the lateral lobes 
and connected by conspicuously reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout yellow hollow petioles, 

' .See Clanl. Chron. n, aor. iiili. 111. 
of the stem i.4 injured. 

It i.s probnble that Cari'V Papaya does not develop branches unless the terniiiml growing point 






enlarged and cordate at the base, which, continuiug to grow, sometimes become three or four feet in 
length before the leaves fall. The flowers, which often begin to appear on plants only three or four 
fe«t high and a few months old, are pale yellow, with minute or foUaceous calyx-lobes,* and are produced 
continuously throughout the year, the males in many -flowered racemose cymes borne on slender 
spreading or pendulous peduncles which vary from four to twelve inches in length, and the females 
in one to three-Howered 8hort«talked cymes." The staminate flowers are fragrant and contain large 
quantities of nectar ; and their corolla is from three quarters of an irch to an inch and a quarter long, 
with a slender tube and acute lobes which in the same cluster are in some flowers dextrorse and in 
others sintrorse in xstivatiou. The ajithurs are ubloug, orauge-colored, and surmounted by the rounded 
thickened und of their connective, those of the inner row being ahnost sessile and one third larger than 
those of the outer row ; these are rather shorter than their flattened filaments which are covered, like 
the connectives of the anthers, with long slender white hairs. The rudimentary ovary s subulate and 
much shorter than the tube of the corolla. The pistillate flower is about an inch long, with linear 
lanceolate erect petals free to the base, dextrorsally contorted in sestivation, and reflexed above the 
middle at maturity ; it ifl destitute of staminodic, and the ovary is ovoid, ivory white, slightly and 
obtusely five-angled, one-celled, and narrowed into a short slender style crowned by a pale green 
stigma divided to the base into five radiating lobes, which are dilated and deeply three-cleft at the 
apex ; the ovules are raised on long stalks. The fruits, which hang close together against the stem at 
the base of the leaf-stalks, are obovate, ellipsoidal, and obtusely short-pointed, and vary in color from 
yellowish g^reen to bright orange-color; on trees cultivated in lae tropics they are sometimes from ten 
to twelve inches long, while on the trees which grow spontaneously in southern Florida they are 
occasionally four inches in length and three inches in thickness, although usually smaller. Their thick 
skin closely adheres to the firm sweet rather insipid flesh which varies greatly in amount and quality on 
different plants and forms a thin layer outside the central cavity, which is filled with a mass composed 
of the nearly black seeds. These are full and rounded and about three sixteenths of an inch in 
length ; when the fru*' is full grown but still green the outer rugose portion of the testa is ivory 
white, vcy succulent, and easily separable from the smooth paler chestnut-brown lustrous interior 
portion, but as the fruit ripeus the outer part of the testa turns black, and, becoming dry and leathery, 
adheres closely to the inner portion which closely invests the thin lustrous light red-brown inner seed- 
coat. The ffuit <?ecays on the tree, and, then drying up, finally splits open, letting the seeds fall to 
the ground. 

Carica Papaya now inhabits southern Florida from the southern shores of Bay Biscayne on the 
west coast and Indian River on the east cast to the southern keys, growing sparingly in rich hummocks 
under the t hade of Live Oaks, Mulberries, Bay-trees, and Magnolias ; it is very common in all the 
West Indian Islands, in Mexico, and in the tropical countries of South America ; and it has now 
become naturalized in most of the warm regions of the Old World.' 

> Tb« c*lji-labes of Carica are deaoribed as minuUi, but od 
ipMimeni taken from two tre^i f^ving \a hummocks near Miami 
on the ^bonM of Ray Riicayne, Florida, from which the plate in 
this work lias been made, two of the calyx-lol«fl of bulb staminate 
and pistillate flowers weie much enlar^t and fuliaceous. 

' In durida, so far as I have l>een able tu learn, the staminate 
and pistillate Howers of wild plants of Ciirtrri Papaya are produced 
on different individuals, but on cultivated plants in Florida and in 
other couutrres they are often audro-ditscious ; that is, the male 
plants occasionallr bear at the ap^z of the principal branches of 
the inflorescence hermaphrodite flowers whioti differ from the pis- 
tillate ttowers chiefly in their tubular-campauulate corolla and in 
the ten or rarely five stamens inserted in two rows on its throat. 
The fruit, which is deveIope<I from these hermaphrodite flowers 
and which hangs on long peduncles, is usually smaller than that 

produced on the pistillate trees, and is nearly always unsymmetri- 
cal. (See Correa dc Mcllo & Spruce, Jour. Litm. Soc. x, 1 [Notet on 
Papayac*<i]—U. (). Forbes, .'/wr. Hot. xvii. 313. ~ Matthews & 
Scott, Trins. Hot. Soc. Kiiinhurgh, xi, 287.) Andro.^i<scious flowerr 
of (\irica Papaya, the pistillate trees b«-nring also a few herniflphro- 
dite flowers, have licen noticed by Ernst in Caracas (Jour. Hot. iv. 
81) on Carica Papaya; and by Baillon on a plant cultivated in 
I'arU (Hull. Soc. Linn. Parit, No. M, flC5). 

* Cultivated for its edible fruit no doubt long before the dis- 
covery of America by Europeans, and easily scattered by the facil- 
ity with which its seeds germinate in waste places, the original 
home in tropical America of Carica Papaya cannot l>e determined 
with any certainty. Correa dc Mello & Spruco (/. r. 8), who 
had excellent opportunities for '*udyingtlie flora of large regions 
of continental South America, believed, however, that the West 


In all tropical countries the Pawpaw ia universally cultivated for its fruit* and in waste places 
near human habitations it springs up in gre^it abundance. 

In appearance one of the most rPtnorkable of the plants of the New Worid, the Pawpaw at once 
attractp the attention of travelc.s m the tropics, and after Oviedo y Valdes wrote the first account'' of 
it during the first half of the sixteenth century many early explorers and many botanists before the 
time of Linnaeus described it. 

Indies was the true home of the Pawpaw, that it had spread south- 
ward across the continent by cultivatioD, and that it was nowhere 
truly wild on the mainland, although they bad seen near Tarapota 
in the eastern Peruvian Andes, at the height o( two thousand feet 
above the sea, the staminate plants growing in a continuous thicket 
of several acres in extent. In the forests of this region, neverthe- 
less, no tmly wild pUnts could be found. 

The Pawpaw was carried to Asia before the end of the sixteenth 
or very early in the seventeenth century no doubt by the Portu- 
guese, for in 1620 Petro de Valle brought the seeds from the East 
Indies to Naples, where they produced plants. In 1651 these were 
described and figured by Columna in the Rerum Medicarum Nova 
Hapanite Tketaurut of Francisco Uernandex, 870, as Papaya Ori- 
mtalit, sive Ptpo arhoraeaa. Twelve years later Dr. Paludanus 
wrote, in the third edition of Linschoten's Hittoin de la Namga- 
lion (chap. liv. 98), published in 1638: " II y a ausii un fruict ap- 
port^ des Indes Occidentales par les Isles Philippines k Mallacca 
e de Ik es Indes, appelM Papaiot, ayant presques la forme d'un 
Melon, et est de la grosseur d'un poing." Boyn, who first visited 
southern China in 1643, found the Pawpaw in great abundance on 
the island of Hainan and in the province of Canton, and in his 
Flora Sineniit he described it among other Chinese plants as Fan 
gay ev ou le Papaya. (See Th^venot, Relationt de Diuen Voyagei 
Curieux, i. [Flora Sinensu, 19].) Rbeede in 1678 (Hort. Ind. Malab. 
i. 21, 23, t. 15) and Rumpf in 1741 (Herb. Amboin. i. 145, t. GO, 51 
[see, also, Burmann, Thet. Zeylan. 184]) showed that the Pawpaw 
was of American origin. In spite of this testimony many authors 
continued to regard the Pawpaw as an East Indian plant until Robert 
Brown, arguing in 1818 that it bad no Sanscrit name, that as Rumph 
had pointed out the inhabitants of the Indltn Archipelago regarded 
it as an exotic plant, and that all the other species of the genus 
belonged to the New World, showed conclusively that it was Amer- 
ican and not Asiatic or African. (See Tuckey , Narrative of an Ex- 
pedition to explore the River Zaire, luually called the Congo, Appx. 
V. 471. See, also, A. de Candolle, Geographie Bolanique, ii. 917 ; 
Origine det Plantet Cultiveet, 233. — Wittroack, Bot. ZeU. xxxvi. 
632. — Solms-Laubach, Bol. Zeit. xlvii. 709.) 

It is doubtful if Carun Papaya it a native of Florida and has 
not been introduced there on account of the value of its fruit ; 
yet if not iadigennus it has become naturalized there as it has in 
BO many other warm countries. The Pawpaw was first noticed 
in Florida in 1774 by William Bertram, who found it growing 
apparently in abundance on the east const south of Mosquito Inlet, 
either near Hillsborough River or at the bead of Indian River 
(Travelf, 131). In this region, which was thdn nninhabitcd by 
whites, the Orange was naturalized at this time, and the Pawpaw 
might have been brought there by the Spaniards when they 
brought the Orange. It is now very common in the wooded bum- 
mocks in the neighborhood of Bay Biscayne, often remote from 
human habitation. Bay Biscayne, however, for more than a cen- 
tury has been frequented by boatmen from the Bahama Islands, 
who if they had carried pawpaws with them to eat might have 
left the seeds on the shore. The probability of recent introduc- 

tion into eastern Florida is, moreover, heightened by the fact that 
Bernard Romans in The Natural Hiilory of East and Weit Florida, 
published in 1775, makes no mention of the Pawpaw, although he 
visited those parts of Florida, both on the east and west coasts where 
it is now naturalised, and paid particular attention to the trees of 
the peninsula. Ou the other hand. Dr. Robert Ridgway, who fouAd 
the Pawpaw in 1897 growing on Chandler's Hummock in the 
Everglades near the northeast edge of Lake Okechobee, a region 
difficult of access and rarely visited, writes to me that " there is not 
the slightest question that this tropical species is indigenous to this 
part of south Florida. I may add that I was unable to find it 
except at Fort Myen, where it was cultivated, in any part of Lee 
County, not even in the vicinity of Fort Thompson, nor in the Big 
Cypress District. I believe, therefore, it is confined to the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Everglades, which are extended in a narrow 
strip known locally as the ' Saw Grass ' region, along the western 
side of Lake Okechobee, quite to the mouth of the Kissimmee 
River." It is due to these observations made by Dr. Ridgway that 
Carica Papaya is admitted into 7'Ae SUva of North America. 

' Forak&l, Fl. ./Egypt. Arah. p. cxxii. — Loureiro, Fl. Cochin, ii. 
628. — Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. ii. 941. — Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 
ed. 2, Ui. 824. — Wight, lU. Ind. Bot. ii. 34, t. 106, 107. — Wight & 
Amott, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 352. — Blanco, Fl. Filip. 803 ; ed. 3, iii. 
212. — Hasskarl, Cat. PI. Bogor. 188; Pl.Jav. Rar. 180. — Bojer, 
Hort. Afaurit. 277.— Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. i. 697. — Van Nooten, 
Fleure Jav. t. — Hillebrand, Fl. Haw. Is. 139. — Bretsohneider, 
Jour. North China Branch Roy. Asiatic Soc. n. ser. xzv. 300 (fio- 
tanicon Sinicum, pt. ii.). 

The fruit of the Pawpaw has been much improved by cultiva- 
tion and selection in the West Indies. Individual fruits with thick 
succulent flesh and weighing ten or twelve pounds are sometimes 
produced on cultivated trees, while on the plants which grow spon- 
taneously in Florida they are often not larger than a hen's egg, 
with thin dry scarcely edible flesh. The fruit is eaten either raw 
or boiled with sugar, and acts as a mild cathartic. The seeds have 
an aromatic pepper-like taste and are considered anthelmentic; 
and the juice of the unripe fruit has been employed in the treat- 
ment of psoriasis and other cutaneous affections. (See Descourtilz, 
Fl. Med. Antill. i. 215, t. 47, 48. — Ernst, Jour. Bot. iii. 319 [ Vene- 
zuelan Medicinal Plants']. — Guibourt, Hist. Drag. cd. 7, iii. 266, f . 
669. — Baillon, Traile Bot. Med. 833, f. 2607-2511. —Fawcett, 
Economic Plants, Jamaica, 23.) 

' " Del irbol que en esta Isla EspaAola llaman papaya, y en la 
Tierra-Firmo los llaman los espailoles log higos del mastuerco, y en 
la provin(;ia de Nicaragua llaman il tal ilrbol olocoton." (Oviedo, 
Hist. Gen. Nat. Ind. lib. viii. cap. 33.) 

Mamcera Lusitnnorum, Clusius, Cura: Posteriores, 41, f. 

Arbor Platani folio fructu peponis magnitudine eduli, C. Baiibin, 
Pinax, 431. 

" This fruit is (which a man would not thinke) a remedie against 
the flux, and so are their Papaies, a fruit like an Apple of a water- 
ish welsh taste." (Layfleld in Purchas his Pilgrimes, iv. 1172 [A 
large Relation of the Porto Rico Voiage].) 




" There mre (ton of good Boot* and PluU with Fruitei, lu the 
Pina and Plantine, Potatoea, Nappoyei, and a fruite called of the 
tndiani Pofpm/a, it ii big^ger than an Apple and rery pleaeant to 
eat" (Wilson in PunXoM hit P^grimi, a. 1264.) 

Papane$, Smith, Oen. Hiil. IM. 

Uamaera mat (f/emina, Gerarde, HtrbaU, ed. 2, 1606, f. ; Parkin- 
eon, Tkeatr. 1640, f. 

" Pappaw ii a fruita aa bigge a< an Apple, of an Orange oolour, 
and good to eate." (Parkinion, Tkeatr. 1671.) 

Mamuara mat Ir /amino, Pino, Nat. Hitl. Brat. lib. iii. oap. vi. 

De Payi, Franoiaeo Hemandeii Rtrum Med. tfov. Hitp, TAerau- 
ru$, 09 ; Hitt. PI. Nov. Hitp. ed. Madrid, 1700, iii. 00. 

Papaie Peruvianit, Banhin, Hitl. PI. i. 147. 

De deux tortei de Papayen, Du Tertre, Hitt. Gen. Anlill. ii. 187. 

The Papa. " The Tree, though it may be accounted wood, yet 
the eofteat that yet I ever saw ; for with my knife, I can out down 
a tree at big ai a man's leg at one chop. The fruit we boy I, and 
serre it up with powdnd pork, as we do turnips in England ; but 
the turnip is far the more savory fruit." (Kivhaid J>'goa, A 
True and exact Hittory of the Iiland of Barhadot, 71.) 

Pinogvaeu mat jr famina, Piso, Nat. Hitl. Brat. ed. 2, lib. ir. 
tap. xziii. 150, f. 

Mameeira, Johnson, Dendroiogia, 59, t. 25 ; ed. 2, i. 60, t. iH. 

De Ariort melonifera Mamara ^ Papaia diela, Ray, Hitl. Pi, ii. 

Pepo arborttcent famina livferlilii, Hermann, Parad. Bot. Prodr. 
362 (exol. syn.). 

Papaya major, flore fffruclu m^joriout pedieulit rurlit infidmlihui, 
Sloane, Cat. PI. Jam. 202 ; Ifal. Hitl. Jam. ii. 164. 

JPicui arbor Utriutque Indin Plalani foliit iu>, •rt\ixv>,frvctu Mali 
Cydonii, aut Mtlonit magniludine, Plukenet, .ilm. Bol. 146; Man- 
liua, t. 278, f. 1. 

Papaja, Merian, Hitl. Oen. Intectt de Surinam, i. 40, t. 40; 62, t. 
62; 64, t. 64. 

Du Papayer, Roohefort, Hiiloire Naturtlle el Morale da Itlei An- 
met, ed. 2, 65, f. 

Papol, Arbor Melonifera, Uermaun, Mat. Zeylan. 58. 

Papolghaha, Papaya, Hermann, Mui. Zeylan. 66. 

Papaya fruelu Melopeponit effigie, Toumefort, Intt. i. 660, t. 441. — 
Boerhaave, Ind. Alt. HoH. Lugd. Bal. ii. 170. 

Carica foliorum lobit linualit, Linnaus, Horl. Cliff. 461 ; Fl. Zey- 
lan. 173. — Royen, Fl. Leyd. Prodr. 225. 

Papaya mat, Trew, Planta el PapUionet Rariarti, t. 3, f. 1. 

The Popaw Tree, Griffith Hughes, Nat. Hitl. Barbadot, 181, t 
14, 15. 

Papaya, fruetu obUmgo Melonit effigie, Trew, PI. Ehrtt. 2, t. 7. 

Carica. Fronde comota, foliit pellalo-Malit, Mni eorie linualii, 
Browne, Nat. Hitl. Jam. 360. 



I i 

Plate DCCV. Cabica Papava. 

1. A staminats inflorescence, natural size. 

2. Diagram of a staminats flower. 

3. A ataminate flower, the corolla laid open, enlarged. 

4. A pair of stamens, front view, enlarged. 

5. A stamen, side view, enlarged. 

6. Pistillate flowers, natural size. 

7. Diagram of a pistillate flower. 

8. A pistillate flower, the corolla laid open, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

10. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 

11 . A stigma seen from above, enlarged. 

12. An ovule, enlarged. 

13. A fruit, natural size. 

14. Cross section of a fruit, natural size. 
1&. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

16. A n-'id, enlarged. 

17. A seetl with its aril laid open, enlarged. 

18. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

19. A setnl with the outer layer of the seed coat removad. 

20. An enii>ryo, enlarged. 

21. A leaf, reduced. 

22. A seedling, natural sizo. 




% ^r 

1 OA' yofirn \MMRtrA. arkacka 

.1^ i « i ii«ny to ii KnaoM |r ly «« *.■'• li-.-. Hi$i. PI. II. 
., •■ aw /(Prtiftt .M« ^« i Hat I'rodr. 

•Ml*, flm»ti. Mi. '«, l«l«, f. : IWkla 
■^. / 
<nn«« a* iMfg*** »o Am»I«, af an Onuig* Mloor, 
llukkuni. rwotr 1071.) 
i> f' > Mi i — . Hmw St. UuL Bm. lib. iii. osp. «i. 

i iVw .'u mqi-mAw fatti.A- ■ -n innlmitu$, 
<>!». \al llM. Jam. ii I..i 

!MjjnU,Ml:«4. riukonci, Al*. Hal XUi; Han- 

^, Hut. Oin. ItUKU it Surinam, i. 4'J, t W; fl2, t. 

M, M. > «^ 

^ .-ui-. Hnfiiiii <■», <!■— M»i. Sm. Hif. Ftw*.- T" I'-wmtK- &<«li«{art, Hubm XahtrtUf n Monttt dt> tilts .in- 

■ r:. M»4<'M. lit)U,ii> Ml 

■ ' "wf. /'( I. 147. . .'.1. lltirmiuin, ifiis. Ztfia ,. .W. 

I"« '.»tir», HiM. Out. i<i iloitiiuib, Win /.'^Um.V 

M I .V • if VMjrbi ttetaaw^n » .- i- ..Minir <>^yw, 7oun)tfoi:, /lur i.lViO, t. 44 . - 

>*« tM I • wU» nw knit*, I .'*;> rii J'>» ' »t L-ifi. I'mi ii. 170 

dwp. Th« trull . .••.I. //of Cliff. 401; / ;??»- 
. wi^ do turnips .n i 

N.. iiy friut." (Ki<.bn/. Hm^wft.t.i, 1. 

.liw .yijoriorfw, 71 ■ ?' • fitrA* «. 181, t. 
tt», JVo* «a«. /C.U . 

, i.^,Ml*Uafm, SO, t. SiS i (d 

' «ncu. />,»«/> i-vmoM, /iWtw fttkux-Jatmhn, Mr* mtw j^mm/u, 

Ur.,wM, Nat. //»). ywR aao. 

rxPLANAnv.N or thr plate. 

'\ «u»iisa(* .o^anwovncit uMaral mm. 
' .>i>«T«Jv uf * •(•rniNkM riownr. 

«n>in«t<i riuwsr, th« coiolU laid a|Ne. «iriM(Ml. 
* \ -.Mxr of ttituitnii, front rim, calkfyBi. 
' \ «tauni>n «i'li* rtrw, •nlKr||iMt 
(> IWiUxt' d "O'T*. niUiiriJ «M 
7 INkgrwii ut > )^«>till<tr Howw 
8. k (HiilUiu* 6ow<ir, tlw rorolU lawl apsn. i<nt»n;«4 
0. Yrrtical •wtioii of an ottrj, aaUrjtaii 
to. CivMS taction of all urary, •nl»r|{«<l 
II A rtignia wrn from a'xiv*, enUnr^i 
1/. All ovule, enlargnl. 

15. A {rait, naiural niw. 

J4. (.'njan ntrtion of a fruit, natnraU titr 

16. Wrlir^l WN'tion o{ a fniit. iiattirai *r,xt. 
10. A >»Mi. riilartPHi. 

17. A wetl with iu aril Uiii »|i< n, eniUfyvJ, 

18. VeKieal wction of a tawl. sulari^. 

19. A need with tlw ^utrr lat'^r <>t ibe t^J »«( remoTtd. 

20. An etiihiTo, enl*rg«<l 

21. A leaf, rmluwd 

22. A HpwIUnv;. i.i'ural m«>- 


.. Hill. I'l. il. 
jd Bl.l'ndr. 

^^^, ^V-Afu ^ftlii 

4'j, t M>; na, t 

i.flBO.t « 
r. Ml; / iffj- 

,18.' I. 

«. lai. t 

If mm muatii, 

SUva of North America 

Tab. DCCV. 

r.EFiiXK^r. Jti. 


Marine jc-. 

^ Hioareao' ihrco': 

fnir . '^tir. Paris. 










Flowers perfect ; calyx-lobes numerous, imbricated in many series ; corolla rotate ; 
petals numerous, spreading ; stamens indefinite, inserted on the base of the petals ; 
ovary ')no-celled, many-ovuled. Fruit baccate. Branches tuberculate, articulate, 
compressed, subcylindrical, or clavate. Leaves sculc-like, caducous. 

Opuntia, Adkoion, Fam. PI. ii. 243 (1763). — Zaeearini, 
Abkani. Akad. MUneh. ii. 687. — Meiimer, Oen. 128. — 
Endlichdr, Gen. 945. — Engetmann, Proc. Am. Aead. iii. 
289. — B»- *v»m & Hookw, 0«n. i. 831. — Baillon, Hat. 

PI. iz. 40 (exd. Met Nopalea). — Schumann, Engler A 

PrarUl PflanKvnfam. iii. pt vi. 199. 
Consoleo, Lemaire, Rev. Hort. 1862, 174. 
Tephrooaotus, Lemaire, Lei CaetUt, 88 (1868). 
Fiolndioa, St Lager, Ann. Soe. Bot. Lyon, vii. 70 (1880). 

Trees or usually shrubs, often low and prostrate, with flattened or subcylindrical or clavate 
articulate tuberculate branches covered by a thick epidermis with small sunken stomata filled with 
copious watery juices,' and with or without solid or tubular and reticulate woody skeletons, and thick 
and fleshy or fibrous roots. Leaves alternate, terete, subulate, small, early deciduous, bearing in their 
axils oblong or circular cushion-like areoke ^ of chaSy or woolly scales terminal on the tubercles of the 
branches and furnished above the middle with many short slender slightly attached sharp barbed 
bristles, and toward the base with numerous stout barbed spines ' surrounded in some species, except 

' The large thin-*ralled parenchyma oeUi which foiiu a large 
part of the tiuue of Opuntia take up water freel; when the grodnd 
is moiat, and the ;> jng brnnohea become aaturated with juicea 
and are thick, plump, and amootb. Dr.ring period* of drought, 
which frequently laat for months in the regiona where these plants 
grow in the greatest numbers, they gradually lose their moisture 
by eraporatlou and become withered and wrinkled. With the 
minute caducous leaves, thick epidermia, and amall aunken atomata 
of Opuntia, thia procesa is i> Tery slow one, and branches severed 
from the parent plant and kept in a dry atmosphere have retained 
sufficient moisture to produce roots and branches at the end uf 
nearly a year. This power to retain moisture aids in the dissemi- 
nation of the plant, for detached joints of the branches falling to 
the ground, as they often do either naturally or by being brushed 
against by cattle and other animals, retain, in periods even of the 
longest droughts, sufBcient moisture to develop roots ; theae anchor 
the joints to the ground and new plants begin to grow. (See Tou- 
rney, Bot. Gaatle, u. 366 IVegelal DtMemination in the Genut 

' " In Opuntia the pulvillua (which in its lower part ia the Kpi- 
nifurous, and in ita upper part the floriferoua areola combined) is 
the same in all atagea of development ; only it ia smaller on the 
lower part of each joint, and bears fewer or often no apines, and 
rarely any flowers or new ahoota ; while the uppermost pulvilli have 
the longeat and moat numeroua apines, and bear the flowers as well 
as the young branches." (F^ngelmanu, Bol. Mez. Bound. Sun: ii. 46.) 

"The areolie contir lo to grow year after year, at least for a 
-wrioa of several years, and each year increase in size from the 
inner margin, several new spines developing above the old ones. 
The number of spines on an areola of a first year's joint is fairly 
<:onstant in the same species, but a joint several years of age may 
in some species bear six or seven times aa many spines as the 

former. In Opuntia fulgida the spines on an areola increase in 
numbers with succeeding years more rapidly than in Opuntia uptno* 
sior. In the latter, however, they increase much more rapidly than 
in Opuntia versicolor. On this species frequently no additional spinea 
are produced after *he first year, and they are never produced in 
such numbers as on the two other species. In these three species, 
after several years' growth the vegetative activity of the areolae 
ceases, and they fall away with the outer scales of the bark." 
(Toumey, tn litt.} 

' The spines of Opuntia, which are produced on most of the spe- 
cies and are usually stout and rigid, are bar'oed backward, and 
make these plants the most difficult and dangerous of all the Cac- 
tus family to handle, or even to approach, and render several of 
the large-growing apecimena valuable for the protection of fielda 
and gardens against browsing animals. The short sharp bristles 
mixed with soft scales, which cover the areolsB above the middle, 
are also barbed backward, and being very feebly attached come off 
with the slightest touch, penetrating the skin or adhering to the 
clothes of persons brushing by the plants. (See Engelmami, /. c. 45.) 

The spines and, in a less degree, the bristles of Opuntia and of 
many other members of the Cactus family, which often contain the 
only moisture to be found in the deserts of America, liave evidently 
been developed to protect these plants against animals suffering 
from thirst, who would soon exterminate them without thia protec- 
tion. They also play an important part in the dissemination of Opnn- 
tias, the barbed spines attaching themselves to passing animals, who 
carry off the easily detached joints of the branches, which sooner or 
later reach the ground and often form new plants. Certain species 
with strongly developed and numerous spinea and feebly attached 
joints rarely produce seeds and appear to depend almost entirely 
on this method of propagation. ( Teste Toumey, ii lilt. See Ganong, 
Bot. Gazette, xx. 133.) 






at the iipex, by a Xoo'jt papry Hlioath, on a fuw ii|HM'icM bnmil, Hat, HeHliy, and Rprvading,' rarely thin, 
Hat, iNtper-hke, and elongatod.' FluwerR luivral, product'd from areolu) on hniiicheit of the pruvioiu 
year botweeii ''.»> bristleH and spineR, Re8;4ile, diurnal, or rarely niH'turnal, cii|>-Hhap«'d, i>ft4>n liirf^u and 
ahowy. (Jalyx-loboB nuineroUM, Hat, erect, deciduoUN. Corolla rotate ; |>etalH numeroua, ibovate, united 
r.i, the baae, Rpreading, red, yellow, or puqdu. StameuH numerouH, ohorter than the potaU, innerted 
ill many Rcriea on their liiuie ; lilamenta filiform, free or Hli);litly united Im^ow ; antherH oblon)^, two- 
celled, o|)eniiig longitudinally. " -rior, one-celled ; ntyle cylindrical, Uinger than the Btamons, 
obcLivate l>elow, flHtular alxive, i ,t the apex into from three to eij^lit elongated or h)bulate lobeH 
Rti^inatic on the inner face ; ovules indeKnit«.>, horizontal, anatr(i|M>uN, inberted on numerouR parietal 
placentas. Fruit biu'cate, Hometimea proliferuuR, covered by a thick skin, ruicciilent and often edible, or 
dry, pyrifurni, globoito or elliptical, concave at the a|M-x, Hurmounted by the niarceHcent tube of the 
Hower, tubercuhtte, aroohite or rarely glabrous, truncate at the base with a broad umbilicus.' Seeds 
numerous, immersed in the pulpy placentas, compreHsed, discoid, often margined with the bony raphe ; 
testa bony, whito, sometimes marked by a narrow darker colored marginal commissure. Embryo coiled 
around the copious or scanty albumen ; cotyledons large, foliaceous ; radicle thin, obtuse, turned toward 
the hilum.* 

Opuntiii, which originally was confined to America, has now become naturalized in many of the 
warm dry regions of the world.' About one hundred and thirty species are now recognized.* They are 


' Subgeoui Ttt.'eakiopunUa, Schuinwin, Monop. Caet. 051 

' Tbe broftd-jpiiwd ip«eiet (Plat^ao-inthiB) appear tu be conftned 
to Arffpntina, and an itill rrrv itnpQrfectl; known. (Se« W. Wat- 
too, Card. Chron. ter. .1, iiiii. 331), f. 121).) 

' I*Lt)feuor Tourney iiuggptU (in ittt.) that the MM;atlQd fruit of 
()panti« is Tt%\\j a terminal blanch of the joivt cuntaining the 
ripened ovary which is sunken i itu u apei, and that tbe mor- 
phology of the fruit of the whole Cactus faoiilj is probably simi- 
lar. In some cases the ovary-bearing branch is highly modiflnl. 
In certain species, however, particularly in tbe cylindrical stemmed 
Opuntias, it retcmblen a sterile terminal joint in all respects, eicept 
in the concave Hower-scar at the apei. The proliferous character 
of the fruit, a character common in a greater or less degree to 
nearly all species of Opuntia, and occasionally found in other 
genera, would seem to indicate that this view is correct. Opuntia 
$pinoaior and Opuntia v^rtieUtw frfqucntly produca proliferous fruits, 
and those of Opuntta Jul 'pita are almost constantly proliferous. In 
the case of these species plants can be propagated by using the 
green fruits and even *he ripe fruits as cutiings. Ot'casionally 
tUt-stcmmed Opuntras are found with an ovary deTe]o{MHl in the 
apex of a branch resembling *n ftll respects one of tbe narrow 
Aat iterile sti'ms uf the plant. lu Opuntitt vrrncohr th*f ovary is 
frequently in the apex of a long joint, and there are innumerable 
transitions between these long fruit-joints and the typicnl pear- 
shaped fruit of tbe specie*. Ovaries in such stems are generally 
sterile, but occasionally contain one or many seeds. 

* lly Kngclmann the species have been arranged in the following 
subgenera : — 

l*LAT(»irsTiA (Pfcc. Am. Xcnd. iii. 1189 [185*1]), now usually 
e.xtrmlcd t'.> his Stenopuntia (/. r. ). 

Juints of ihe branches compressed, without a woody skeleton ; 
spines without sheaths. Kniit pnlpy or rarely dry; raphe fonn- 
in^ a prominent and Imny margin r -^ ' the seed. Kmbryo curlefl 
nnirid the scanty albumen ; cotyledons contrary to tbe sides uf the 

CTUSDROWvnA ^Kngelmann, /. c. [185(1]), 

Joints of the bi*aucheii cylindrirAl or clavate, more or less tuber- 

culatc, with or without a solid or tubular and retioulated ligneous 
skeleton. Spinas inclosed in a looae sheath or in some species 
naked. Kruit Heshy or dry, setuloae or spinescent. Heeds hard- 
shelled, smooth, often marked by a conspicuous marginal commis- 
sure, usually marginlesf, embryo forming less than a circle round 
the copious albumen ; cotyledons contrary, oblique, or parallel to 
tbe side of tbe seed. 

* Opuntias were probably among the first plants carried from 
America to the Old World, where they soon became naturalised in 
southern Spain ; from Spain they were carried by the Arabs to 
northern Africa, and they have gradually and generally extended 
thn>ugb all the warm dry paru of the world. (See A. de Candolltfi 
Origin* drx IHimtet CuUivrft, 1!18.) 

In some countries naturalized Opuntias have become dangerous 
weeds, destroying the value of the land which they occupy with 
impenetrable thickets of spiny branches. In New South Wales, 
where tbe Opuntia was introduced more than a century ago, differ- 
ent species have become such pests that in 1880 an act nas passed 
cumpelling persons, under |>enalty of flue and imprisonment, to 
clear their land of these plants. (See Maiden, Affric. Gazette iVtfic 
South WaleM, ix. 070.) In South Africa Opuntias have spread to 
such an alarming extent that their dcstruotion has Iteen a subject 
of serious government inventigation. (See Kew Hull. MiictUaneom 
Information, July, 1888, 105 ; September, 180(>, 180.) In India, 
where Opuntias hAve long Iweu naturalized, it is supposed through 
early Portuguese introduction, they spread rapidly and are con- 
sidered dangerous weeds (see Krundis, Foreit Fl. Hrit. Inrl. 240); 
and in Hoiitheni Texas hundreds of square miles of grazing land 
have l>een overrun and entirely ruined by different species of dwarf 
Opuntias. (See lientley, f-. S. Dept. Agric. Farmers' Hull. No. 7'A 14 
{Cattle Hangei of the Southu^st].) On the other hand, the nxits uf 
Opuntias are said to have disintegrated the lava on the slopes of 
Mt. .Dtna in Sicily, and, enriching it by tbe decay of thuir stems, 
to Itave gradually changed barren wastes into prmluctive vineyards. 
(See Iliiis, Hull. Si>c. Nat. d'Arclimatation de Franc^^ *^f- 4, v 043.) 

• See I)e Candullo, Pmdr. iii. 471. — Seemann, /ffV. Voy. Herald, 
203. — Engelmann, Proe. Am. Acad. iii. 281) ; Hot, Mex. Hound. Surv. 
ii. 45 ; King't Rep. v. 118 ; Hreufer Sr WaUton Hot. Cal. I 247. — 






diitributeJ from Houthern New England nouthward in the neighborhood of the coast to the We«t Indie*, 
and from itouthern Britiith Columbia through weHtern North America to Chili, the Oalapagoi IilundH,' 
Brazil, and Argentina, the largest number of species occurring in the arid region near the boundary 
between the United States and Mexico. Uf the H]>ecie8 of the United States three attain on the deserts 
of southern Arizona the size and habit of small trees. 

Cochineal' ia derived from a scale-insect, Coccuh Cacti, which feeds on the juices of Opuntia 

Philippi, Liimaa, uiiii. H'J ; Cal. I'l. CMl. 03. - llemilajr, Bol. 
Bint. Am. ('ml. i. 040. — Sohiiiiianii, Marliiu Fl. Hratil. iv. pt. ii. 
30a i Mmog. Cael. OflO. — CoulUr, Cotilrih. U. S. Nat. Iltrb. iii. 

' On the (ialapago* Iilwidi, oii tlia equator nurlj MTon hundrad 
■nd flftjr niiUi fruin the ooMt of Ecuador, the molt iioUted known 
•tittion inhibited naturally bj anjr Upuntia, oceun the largest rspre- 
Mntative of the genuj. This ia : — 

Opuntia Galapagtia, Henalow, Mag. XotU. hot. i 4<17, t. 14, f. 'i 
(1837). — Hooker f. Traru. Linn. Sac. ii. TJ3 — Andoneon, SlocH. 
Akait. Ilandl. 18C3, 86 (Om OttlapagM-Oama C«y.). — llenwley, 
Garil. Chron. ler. 3, iiiv. '26S, f. 70. — Schumann, Mmog. Cacl. 

Opuntia Oalapagtia, whioh ii on* of the Hat-kraoohed •pwiee, 
although frequently ehrubky grow> under favombia condition! to 
the height of twenty feet, with a trunk two feet in diameter and 
•tout ipreading branobei. (Sea Bauer, Biol, Cintralblttll, lii. !247 
[£in liuuch der Galapagot-InMetn],) 

' Cochineal, whioh coiuiiita of the female* of Coecut Cacti, Lin- 
nieui, an hemipteroui inaect, ia a dye nied for the production of 
•carlet, crimson, orange, and other tinti, and in the preparation of 
lake and carmine painta. It owes iti tinctorial power tn the pre- 
lenca of cochinealin or oarmanio acid, ,fhioh ia compoud of hydro- 
gi'n, carbon, and oiygen. The male Inwct is half the aiie of tlio 
female, with long white winga and a dark red body terminating in 
two diverging utie, and ia devoid of a nutritivo apparatus. The 
female has a dark brown body and no wings, and occurs in the pro- 
ptirtion of from one hundred and fifty to two hundred to one of the 
males. When the Spaniards entered Mexico in 1518 they found 
cochineal employed by the inhabitants in coloring thoir dwellings 
aud garments, the dry insects, which they rer red with the greateb. 
care on plantations of the Opuntiaa, forming one of the staple trib- 
utes from certain provinces, probably chiefly from Oaiaca, the 
little village of Cuilapan being usually conaidered the original 
home of the cochineal industry. (Sea Clavigero, Storia Antica del 
Maiico, i. 114, nota. — Preacott, Conquett of Mexico, ii. 130.) For 
a century and a half after its introduction into Europit cochineal was 
believed to conaiat of the aeeds of a Cactus or some other vegetable 
substance (see Caneparius, Z)e Atrammti», 211), but in 107'J Martin 
Lister hazarded the conjecture that it might be a sort of kermes 
(/'Ai7. Tram. vii. 5050) ; and in 1691 a letter containing Obierra- 
tioni on the making of Cochineal, according to a Relation had from 
an Old Spaniard at Jamaica puitlished in the Philosophical Trans., 
action* (xvii. 502), pointed oii^ hat cochineal was really nn insect. 
In this communication instruct .>ns for propagating the plants on 
which the iuaccta feed were ;iven, and their use in hedges de- 
scribed. A little later, in 1704, Leeuwenlioek with the aid of his 
miscroscope showed conclusively the animal nature uf the dye nnd 
finally settled the question of the origin of cochineal (Phil. Trans. 
xxiv. 1014). The cochineal industry once flourished in Central 
Amerik , Peru, and other parts of South America, and in 1858, 
after the deatruction of their vineyar<ls, its cultivnlion was success- 
fully introduced into the Canary Islands, which in 1309 exported 

six and a half million pounds of the dy«, about seventy thousand of 
the dried inaacts weighing one pound. Cochineal baa also been 
pnxluced in southern Spam, Algeria, India, and the Outob East 
India Islands. 

In Mexico the insects are sometimes gathered from wild plants, 
but the product is of poor quality, and th* best cochineal is ob- 
tained by regular oultivatiun. The insects are reared in winter in 
huts, aud from the end of May until tlie beginning of August are 
put out on plants carefully cultivated in inclosed gardens or nopal- 
riea by hanging on the branches of the Opuntias small gauze bags, 
each containing about a tablespoonful of the impregnated females. 
Tlie young aa fast as they are bom escape from the bags aud 
spread over the surface of the branch, where they absorb its juices 
and grow rapidly until their legs, antenn», and probosoes are almost 
indistinguishable. As soon aa insects show signs of spawning, they 
are rapidly brushed into bags or baskets and ara killed by immer- 
sion in hot water, by exposure to tha sun, or in healed ovens, the 
quality of tha product depending largely on tha method and care 
used in killing and curing tha insects. Two or three crops Act 
produced in a season. Tha " grain," as tha dried cochineal is 
called, is sifted to free it of an adherent white powder ; it is then 
picked over to remove all foreign matter and packe-l in bags for 
export. There ara two principal varieties recognised in com- 
merce : silver cochineal, which is of a grayish red color, with the 
furrows of the body covered by a whitish bloom, and black cochi- 
neal, whioh is of a darker red. 

The plant chiefly used to feed the cochineal insect in Mexico 
nnd Central America is Nopalea cochenillifer, Salm-Dyck, Cact. 
Hort. Dyck. ed. 3 (1800) (Cactui cochenillifer, Linnsus, Spec. 468 
[1703], Opuntia cochintlifera, Miller, Diet. ed. 8, N'o. 6 [1765]), 
which differs from the flat-leaved Opuntias in its erect petals 
nuch shorter than the long stamens, and which is probably a 
native of Peru, although now widely spread by cultivation through 
the warmer parts of America and through other warm dry coun- 
tries. The cochineal insect is also reared on Opuntia FicuS'Indica 
and on Opuntia Tuna, which, according to Lowe {Hooker Jour. Bot. 
i. 40 ; Man. Fl. Mad. 313), is the only species used in the Canary 
Islands for the purpose. In a wild state the cochineal insect or 
some of its allies are found on many other species of Opuntia. 
(For accounts of Coccus Cacti, and of the cochineal industry, see 
Melcbior de la Runsschor, Natuerlyke historic van de Couchenille. — 
Rutty, Phil. Trans. xxxvi.i;64 [The Natural History of Cochineal].— 
Thiery de Menonville, Traile de la Culture du Nopal et de I' Educa- 
tion de la Cochenitle dans les colonit's francaises de VAmi'rique. — 
Froiicisoo Hernandez, Hist. Pt. Nov. Hisp. ed. Madrid, 1790, ii. 
177. — ^thunton, Account of the Embassy of the King of Great Britain 
to the Empire of China, i. 180, Atlas, t. Vi. — Humboldt, Essai Pol. 
Nouv. Esp. iii. 242. — Bancroft, Philosophy of Permanent Colors, i. 
410. — Royle, Essay on the Productive Resources of India, 57. — Sig- 
noret, Ann. Sue. Ent. France, stfr. 4, viii. 846 [Essai sur les Coc'ien* 
itles']. — Vett, Woordenbock van Nederlandsch-Indie Cocheniile. — 
Spons, Encycloptrdia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Raw 
Commercial Products, i. 856. — Ober, Travels in Mexico, 529. — 




7\tna,* Opuntia F\cu»-Indiea,^ and of oth«r ipaciM. The fniit of Oimntia Finta-lndica, now n«tural- 
iaad ia mott warm dry regioni, and of Mveral other ipecit't is refre«hui|(, and ii coniumed in coniiderabia 
quantitiei in lemitrupioal countriaa ; ' and Ojiunlia Oj>unti(t,* which growi on the Atlantic voa«t from 

WktI. fhrlmarf »/' ikt Kcviumie Projvclt n/ Inilut, ii. 308. — Cucli- 
•nil, Am. Sal. iirii. 1041 [.ViiIm on llkt (VAiiwoi /nwcf] ) 

BiiiM tlw intndaclion of aoilim Ajt* •whioMl luu hi dapr*- 
■UUd in ralu* Ibal ita production on • Urg* M«l* ii nu longvr 
proAUbl*, wid tb* iuduitrj hu lu(t i't eominerrid importune*. 
(Hm a. 8. liniwn, Social ami AVimtJinira/ Ctmittltim o/* tk« Cannry 
ItlamI; A>'<I4 [ Pkrlianumt of OrMi HriUin, .Stuumal Papm, liii. 
lOlU, MiutUmutMM Strut, No. iMO] ) 

• MiU«r, Art. (d. H, No. 3 (IT68). -lUworth, Spn. PI. Amt 
IIW — Da C*adolU,/Vo<f>. iii. 472.— PftiStr. £>ium Carl. 161 - 
8pwb, HiH. Vrj. lU: 407, t. 44. — SiUafDyek, Corf. Hart, liytk. 
•d :i, 00. -(iriHbwh, n BhI. W. Ind. 302. — Willkooiiu * 
Uagc, /Vx/r. n Hupcm. iii. 1!». — MtaaUj, Bol. But. Am. Cm. 
i. SM. — CoulUr, Cmlrii. U. S. f/al. Htri. iii. «W. — Uuu, Ann. 
liul. Cot. MantUU, iii. 31R (Fl. Ant^i Fratxauu). — Sahumnim, 
Mtmof. Cact. 723. — M*td«n, Agric. Uauilt AVu- Soulk H'o^ii, ii. 
9M, I. 

Catiut Tuna, Unnaut, Sptf. i. 468 (17S3). 
Caetia Opunlta Tima, Tumc, Fl. iltd. AntUlf, ii. 313, t. 31 

CattuB Bonplandii, Humbuldt, Honpluid & Kunth, Nof. dtp. 
H Spte. Ti. 60 (1H23) — Kunth, Sy>. PI. .fcyuin iii. 372. 

Opuntia komda, U* CandolU, L e. iU. 472 (1823). — Pfaiffcr, 
;. c. 102. 

0^n<ia Kitui-lndifa, Webb A Hcrthelot, Fltftogr. Conor, iii. 
pi. ii. Mcl. i.208 (not Miller) (1836-40). 

Opuntia Tuna, • native proliablj of aoma of tba warmar pvta of 
Centrsl or Soutb America, baa bacome widely nktunilixed in moat 
warm countriei. One of the liandHtmeat uf (he Opuntiaa, it ia 
aim. . arboraate in habit, with a abort alani, bruad flat brancbaa, 
atout jellow apiiK*, and inaipid fruit. It ia thia apa«i*« which i« 
parhapa noat generally employed in hed|^> ; and it ia frequently 
eultirated in aouthem Florida, the Weat Indiaa, northern Mexico, 
Lower California, aoutbam California, and many of the eountriea 
of Central and South America, in the Mediterranean baain, India, 
Aoatralia, aoutbem Africa, and the Canary latanda. Although 
the fruit ia innipid, in the Wett InUiea ita juice ia aometiniea em- 
ployed to give a acarlet color to liquura and to fniit uaeil in confec- 
tionery. (See Fawcett, AVfinomic /Vanjji, yufiMira, 59.) Tuna, the 
•peciflc name of thia plant, ia the common Spaniah-Americau name 
of the fniita of all the Hat-branched Opuntiaa. 

' Miller, /. <-. No 2. — Haworth, t. e. lUl. - !)• Candolla, (. c. 
ill. 473. — Pfeiffer, /. c. 152. - 8alm-I)yck, / c 06. 2;K. — Chap- 
man, H. 144. — (iriaebacb, i. c. 302. — Lowe, Man. Fl. .Mad. 317. — 
Braudia, FortH Fl. Brit. Ind. 246. — Willkomm & Lange, /. c. 
129. — llenulay, '. r. i. 5S1. — Coulter, I. r. 410. — Schumann, t. e. 
719. — Maiden, (. e. ii. 900. 

Carlut Ficut-Indicii, Linneua, Spec. 408 (1753). 
Caclui Opunlut nhinfrmit, Tuaaao, /. c. ii. 220, t. 31 (1818). 
0}mntia Tuna, Webb & Uerthelot, /. c. 200 (not Miller) 

Caetui Opunlia, Uuaaone, Ft. Sieut. Prodr. 580 (not linueua) 

Opunlia vulforit, Teoore, Sylt. Fl. Ntap. 230 (not Miller) 

* The pulp of the fruit of the flat-leaTe<l Opuntiaa t> aweet and 
acidulous, and containi aaaimilable matter in the form of mucilage, 

alhuuian, and large quantitiea uf augar, and la fraa froiu all aatrin- 
gent awl tuiie pnipertiea (He* l>* (iraffe. Am. Jour. Pharm. Iiviii. 
1119, I. ; ala<i Light, Am. Jour. Pharm. Ui. 3 [TAa FruU itf Opunlia 
rulgaru]. — Maitch, Am. Jour. Pharm. Iiiii. 2 [fVw< ii/ Optintia].) 
That uf Opuntw Ftcus'tmiica, the aocalled Indian Kig, which ia 
aiteniively oultivateil for ita fruit in Mexico and othar warm 
ronntriaa, ia perhajia mora eitcemMl than that of other apeeiaa. U 
ia often three or four iiichea long and two imbea wide, ami ia yel- 
low or orange-colored, more or laaa tinged with pink or re<l, and 
i<uirer*<l with amall tufta <if briallaa, which ar* aaaily rubbed off. 
In northern Mexieu it forma an important part of the food of tba 
|Mior, being lulil in iinmenae i|uantttie» by atraet-fendera during all 
til* aummar niontba. (See I'almer, Wril .'Inwnnin Scimlul, vi. 67.) 
it ia alao uaed aa fo<Kl in many parte of South America (a** 
llieronymua, /'(. IHaph. Fl. Arjent. 12H), ami largely in Italy and 
the other eountriea bordering the Mediterranean. (.See Varvaro, 
// Fico d'tmtut in Sicdui.) 

Tb* fruit of many other Opuntiaa ia gathered and eaten by th* 
North American Indiana, aapecially by the tribea which inhabit (he 
deaert regiona of the aouthwett. (.See Newberry, /'»;i»Jur .V<-i<nc* 
.VanlUj), xuii. 37 [ Facd nml Fibrt Plants of Iht NoriK A mtrican 
InilianM].) Hy the I'awnaea and I'apigoa it ii gathered before it ia 
fully ripe, alloweil to dry, and uaed in cooking meat. The freah 
unrip* fruit ia often boiled in water and than allowed to ferment, 
when it beeomea itimulating aa well u niitritioua. 

In Mexico, calonche, an in(oxicating drink ainiilar in taate to 
hard cider, ia maile from (he fruit of aeveral ipeeiea of Opuntia by 
preaaing out the juice, paaiiiig it through atraw aiavea, and heating 
i( by Are or the huh, when it atton begina to ferment. (Sea HaTaril, 
Bull. Torrry Hot. Club, xaiii. 33 [t>rml: Plant$ of Iht North Amtri- 
can lndiant\) 

* Coulter, I. e. 1.12 (ISiXl). _ Britton ft Brown, IU. Ft. U. 403, 1. 

Cactut Opunlxa, Unnnui, (. c. 468 (in part) (1753).— Wal- 
ter, Fl. Car. 140. — Michaux, Fl. i. 282. — I'enoon, .Vyn. ii. 

22. — Purth, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 327. - Nuttall, 6'en. i. 296. — EU 

liod, .St. i. 537. — SiioB, Bvl. Mag. 1. t. 2:W3. 

(^uHlia rutgnru. Miller,!, r. No. 1 (1708); /con. t. 101.— 

Haworth, I. e. 100. — I)« Candolle, /. e. iii. 474. — Pfeiffer, I. c. 

140. — Salm-Uyck, (. e. 60. — Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 

297. — Kngclmann & J. M. Bigelow, Pacific H. H. Rep. iv. pt. v. 

42, t 10, f. 1, 2, I. 23, f 13. - Chapman, /. <•. 144. - Walaon A 

Coulter, Graf't .Won. ed. 0, 107. — Schumann. (. r. 714. — Maiden, 

I. e. u. 002. 

Caetu* Opuntia vulgarit, Da Candolle, PI. Qraum, 138, t. 


(>pufi/i<i im>-i<inui, Kafliieique, Med. Fl. ii. 247 (1830). 

(>pun<iu ItiUU-a, Tenore, I. c. 241 (1831). 

OputUia inlermedui, S:iliu-Dyck, Cat. Ilort. l)yck,^lM (1834); 

Cad. Hon. Ih/ck. ed. 3, 09, 213. - Pfeiffer, (. c. 150. 
Ca<-(uj nana, Viaiani, Fl. Dalm. iii. 143 (1H.VJ). 
(tpuntia cuitfaris, nana, Schumann, /. c. 71>*i (1898). 

Opunlia Opunlia, which gruwi on aandy and occaaionally on rocky 
ioil, uiually only in the immediate neighborhood uf the cuaat, from 
the ialand of Nantucket off tbe aoutbern shore of Maaaachuietta 
to South Carolina, is a dwarf plant, with short prucuinbeut flat- 
tened branches armed occasioiuilly with a few amall spinea, and 





ii, nuw Dktunil- 
in coniiderable 
in tic I'oaiit from 

frM (rum dl ulrin* 
I. Jt»tr. i'karm. livlii. 
''kt FniU 11/ Opunlia 

[AVml <>/ Ofxunia]) 
iidisii Vig, wliivb U 
'u *n<l utbar w»rni 
lit uth«r ipMiti, It 
b»> wid», uul i» ytU 
th |>ink or rwl, *nd 
• auilj rulilwd at. 
rt of lb« fooil of tb« 
■t-rtndvn during all 
i<tin Srimlut, »i. (17. ) 
Suiitli Anuric* (••• 

Urge); ill luljr (nd 
nn. (.S«e Vanr»ro, 

nl and raten l>]r tha 
M^a wliirli iiihaliit thfl 
«rry, l*opittitr Srtertct 
*■ fA« NitrtK A iMnWjn 
K»tber«d bctor* it ii 
ig nisat. Tli« frrth 
allowed to feniienti 

I ainiilar in taata to 
ipcciea of Opuntia b; 
n liaf «•, and baating 
inent. (Sea IlaTard, 
of tkt Stwtk Amtri' 

»n, III. n ii. 403, (. 

art) (1753).- Wal- 
I'ertoon, S)n. ii. 
I, Gm. i. 296. — El- 

118); Icon. t. 191. — 
474. - Pfeiffer, /. c. 

f'roe. Am. Arad. iii. 

H. R. Rtp. iv. pt. V. 

144. — Wataon St 

1. 1-. 714. - Maiden, 

/'/. r;nuw<, 138, t. 

247 (1830). 

BfaiMuihuMttt to South Carolinm, and Opuntia Dillenii ' hare bMn believed to poweM valuable medical 
properties. The Uige-f^wing Opuntiae with flat leavea are employed in many countriea to form 
hedge! for the protection of gardens and fields against browsing animals ; and the branches of Opuntia, 
which are saturated with watery juices, are sometimes stripped of their spines and bristles and fed to 

Opuntia, which forms the principal food of a number of scale-insects, is not known to suffer from 
them or from serious fungal disease*.' 

Opuntia, used by Theophrastus as the name for some plant which grew in the neighborhood of the 
city of Opus in Boeotia, was bestowed by Tournefort on the Prickly Pears of the New World.* 

■nuUI ytllow flowtn. It i« ohiafljr IntarMtlsf ta th* nuMt nortbam 
npratantatiTa ol tba genua in eaatem Amariea. Kaflnaaqua (Utd. 
Fl. ii. 247) daaoribad tba uaa of tba aplit branebaa in tba traatmant 
ol acuta rbaumatiam and aa a remadjr for ebronio ulaen, goat, aad 
wounda, and atatad tbat tba Juieaa aad guinm; eiudationa ware 
utad in the treatment of gniTal. A linoture prepared from tba 
treah Mowera and green orariaa ia •umatimaa uaed in horotBopatbie 
praetioe. (See Millapaugb, Am, Mtd. PI. in Homaopalkic Ktmt- 
diu, i. 01, t. 01.) 

In tha ioutbem atataa tba quality of tallow oaodlaa baa been 
aometimaa improred bj boiling tba aplit braiwbea of Opunlia Opun- 
lia with tba tallow, which ii hardened bj their juieaa. (See Porobar, 
Haourcu of Savtkrm Fieldi and Foruti, 06.) 

Opunlia Opunlia ia aaid to have been introdnaad into Eogliah 
ftardeni before tba beginning ol tba liiteentb oenturj (aee Alton, 
Hort. Kevj. ii. 1S3), but it ia not improbable tbat tba earljr refer- 
enoea to this pbuit applj to aoma Weat Indian or Haiican apeeiaa 
and not to tbat of the Atlantic aaaboard of tha United Stataa, 
which from ita email iita and oomparatiTe raritjr might eaailj bare 
eacaped tha notice of tha flrat eiplorera of our coaat. Opunlia 
Opunlia, or a dwarf apeeiea cloaeljr allied to it, ia now naturmliied 
in man; of the countriea of the Mediterranean baain. (See Bn>- 
tcro, n Lutilan. U. 24S. — Viaiani, Fl. Dalm. iii. 143. — Will- 
komm ft Lange, Prodr. Fl Hitpan. iii. 138, — Camel, Parlaton 
Fl. Hal. a. 143.) 

In the region adjacent to the Rio Orande the flat branebaa of 
Opuntiaa are frequently uaed to poultice ulcere and lorea of all 
kinda. The branch it Brat heated to remore the briatlea and tpinea 
and to warm and loftaD the pulp; it ia then opened through tha 
middle or one of the iurfaeea ia ihared off, and the ezpoeed portion 
ia applied to the part requiring treatment. Opuntia branobea heated 
and maahed into pulp are employed in the lame region to clarify 
water, and aometimet aa food (aee Harard, Proc. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
Tiii. S21 ) ; and on the Itthmot of Panama, where a apeeiea of Opun- 
tia ia often planted in hedgea, the aplit branobea are alao beliered 
to poaaaaa medical virtuea. (See Seemann, Bol. Coy. Herald, 131.) 

> Opunlia Dillenii, Hawortb, Suppl. PI. Succ. 70 (1810). — De 
CandoUe, Prodr. iii. 173. — Pfeifler, £nuin. Cact. 162. — Wight ft 

Amott, Prodr. Fl. Ind. 36a — Wight, lU. ii. t. 114. — Lowe, Man. 

Fl. Mad 318. - Clarke, Hooker t. Fl. Bril. Ind. U. 6S7 Maiden. 

Afrie. OatMU Neui South WaUt, ix. 1002. 

Cactue Dillenii, Kerr, Bol. Reg. iii. t. 3U (1817). 
Cactue Indieue, Roiburgb, Fl. Ind. ed. 2, ii. 47S (1833). 
Opuntia Tuna, Sobumaan, Monog. Cael. 724 (in part) (not 

Miller) (1808). 

C^nfta Dillenii, wbioh ia baliarad to ba indigenoua in tropical 
America, baa become widely naturaliied in India, extending to 
Jhalan in tba nortbweit and aacending the Himalayaa to alcTationa 
of five tbouaand feet abora the ■ea-level. It baa been largely uaed 
at a hedge plant. The fruit ia aataemed aa a refrigerant ; tha 
amahed branchet are uaed aa poultioet to reduce beat and inflamma- 
tion; a tyrup prepared from the fruit ia employed in the treatment 
of whooping-cough to inoraate the tacretion of bile and to control 
tpuinodio coughing and expectoration. The juice baa been tuc- 
oetifully employed at a purgative and aa a demulcent in tba treat- 
ment of gonorrbcea, and the pulp of the cruthed branchet to relieTa 
ophthalmia. (See Brandit, Fnretl Fl. Bril. Ind. 24S. — Watt, Die- 
lionary of Ike Economic Producit of India, r. 400.) 

' See Harard, I. e MacOwan, Keie Bull. Miicellaneoui Infor- 
mation, July, 1888, 167. — Bonrde, Revue Tunitienne, 1894 (Projel 
d'Hnquile eur U Cactue eoruidt're' comiM Plante Fourragtre). — 
Maiden, /. e. tU. 681. — Boyoe, Agric. Oazetle New South Walei, 
Tiii. 260, 601. — (}ennadiua, ^^rie. OaulU New South Wedee, ix. 38 
(T»« Prickly Pear in Cyprus). 

* Little can be aaid with regard to the fungi which attack 
the larger tpeciet of Opuntia in thit country. Sphceria Cacti, 
Scbweiniti, which forma black tpota arranged in groupt on tha 
leaTea, ia probably common on tereral tpeciet, but itt botanical 
oharaotert are not well undentood. Teiekotpora Opuntia, EUia ft 
ETcrbart, a email Pyrenomyoete, attaokt Opunlia arhoreeceru, and 
Olaotporium Opuntia, EUia ft Ererbart, hat been found on Opuntia 
BroMUieneit, Haworth, in the United Statat. A peculiar morbid 
growth on Opuntia and other Cactacea baa been detcribed by 
Sorauer (Monal. Kakl. Tii. 1). It ia due, however, not to the action 
of fungi but to the afliccettire formation of corky tittue. 

* Intl. i. 230, t. 122. 

f. Dyrk.aiA (183l)j 

(. r. UM. 


toi'Httiunally on rocky 
k1 of the euajt, from 
if Maiiachuictta 
rt procumbent flat- 
w tmall apinet, and 




JoinU of the branehea eylindric«l, tubercuUte, with reticulated ligneoiu akeletons ; apinea inclosed in 

looae aheatha ; fruit fleshy, aetuloae, or occaaionplly apincacent ; aeedii niarginleaa, marked by a 

conspivuoua narrow marginal commiaaure. 
Tuberolea o{ the branchea full and rounded below the arooln, 

.loints pnla olive-colored, easily separable, thi'ir tnlH>rclea broad, mamillale ; spines yellow ; flowera 

pinki fruit proliferous, usually apineleas, often sterile 1. 0. fiti.oida. 

Joints green or purple, their tubercles narrow, ovate i spines white to reddish brown ; flowers purple ; 

fruit yellow, sparingly apinescent, rarely proliferooa 2. O. bpinosior. 

Tubercles of the branches not full and rounded below the areoUe. 
Joint* eloni^ted, dark green, or purple, their tubercles elongated ; spines brown or reddish brown ; 

flowers green, tinted with red or yellow ; fruit green, splneacent, rarely proliferous 3. O. vehsicolor. 








Joints of the branches pale olive-colored, easily separable, their tubercles broad, 
mamillate, full and rounded below the areolae ; spines yellow. Flowers pink. Fruit 
dull green, proliferous, usually spineless. 

Opuntia fulsrida, Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 306 
(1856) ; Bot. Mex. Bound. Suru. ii. 57, t. 75, f. 18 ; 
Wheeler's Rep. vi. 131. — Walpers, Ann. v. 56. — Hems- 
ley, Sot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 551. — Tourney, Garden and 
Forest, viii. 32'',, f. 46 ; Bot. Gazette, xxv. 119. — Coulter, 

Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 448. — Schumann, Monoij. 
Cact. 676. 
Opuntia fulgens, Engelmann, Brewer & Wataon Bot. Cal. 
i. 250 (1876). 

A tree, with a more or less flexuous trunk occasionally twelve feet in height and sometimes a foot 
in diameter, a symmetrical head of stout wide-spreadiug branches,' and thick pendulous joints which 
are sometimes almost hidden by their long conspicuous spines and which begin to develop their woody 
skeletons during their second or occasionally not until their third season. The bark of the trunk and of 
the large limbs is about a quarter of an inch in thickness and separates freely on the surface into 
large thin loosely attached scales which vary in color from dark yellow-brown to nearly black on the 
largest stems, and is nearly destitute of spines which mostly fall with the outer layers when the 
branches are from three to four inches in thickness. The terminal or ultimate joints of the branches 
are ovate or ovate-cylindrical, tumid, crowded at the ends of the limbs, pale olive-colored, from three 
to eight inches long and often two inches in diameter ; their tubercles are ovatc-oblong, broad, and 
from one half to three quarters of an ini'h in length, with areolte of pale straw-colored matted 
tomentum, and short slender pale bristles ; when they first appear each areola bears from five to fifteen 
stout stellate-spreading light yellow spines of nearly equal length, from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch long, and inclosed in loose lustrous sheaths ; during succeeding years additional spines develop at 
the upper margins of the areoliB, and tubercles on old branches are sometimes furnished with from forty 
to sixty spines which remain on the branches from four to six years. The leaves are hglit green, 
from one half of an inch tw nearly an inch in length, and taper gradually to the acuminate apex. The 
flowers appear from June to September, the first being produced from tubercles at the ends of the 
branches of the previous year, the later from the terminal tubercles of the immature fruit developed 
from the earliest flowers of the season. They are an inch in diameter when fully expanded, with 
ovaiies nearly an inch long, from eight to ten orbicular obtuse crenulate sepals, five erect stigmas, and 
eight light pink petals," those of the outer ranks being cuneate, retuse, crenulate on the margins, and 
shorter than those of the inner ranks, which are lanceolate and acute, the whole corolla becoming 
strongly reflexed at maturity. The fruit, which is proliferous, hangs in pendulous clusters usually 
with six or seven fruits, and occasionally with forty or fifty, in a cluster, one growing from the other in 
co!itinuous succession, the first of the cluster being tiie largest and containing perfect seeds while the 

^ " I suspect tlmt the loiifr Hurfnce ruots ctiablc those plants to 
^et thuir innisturo fruin lliu mins whicli selduin penetrate the soil 
tu a greater depth than fnun six to twelve inches. I liavo never 
seen tuberous ciilargenieiits on the fibrous rcjts." (Tourney, in 

'' The plant of I..owcr California wbiob ia believed to be of this 

species is said to have yellow petals. (Sec K. Orandegee, Ery» 
Ihea, v. V22 INolea im Cacleit].) 

In the early descriptions of this species the petals were said to 
be purple, but according to Professor Toumcy, who has had the 
best opportir ly of studying the Cacti of Arizona and adjacent 
regions, ami m whom 1 am indebted for my knowledge of these 
tree Opuntios, they are purple only after they are dried. 




secondary fruits are frequently sterile ; it is dull green when fully ripe, with dry flesh, and falls usually 
during the first winter, although occasionally a fruit remains on the branches during a second season 
and develops flowers from its tubercles ; the fruit is oval, rounded, and from an inch to an inch and a 
quarter in length, nearly as broad as it is long, more or less tuberculate,' conspicuously marked with 
large pale tomentose areolae bearing numerous small bristles and, although usually spineless, occa- 
sionally small weak spines. The seeds are compressed, thin, very angular, and from one twelfth to one 
sixth of an inch in diameter.^ 

Opunt'ui fulgida, which is a plant of the plains, and is not rare in Arizona south of the Colorado 
plateau and in the adjacent region of Sonora, apparently is most abundant and grows to its largest 
size on the mesas near Tucson, at elevations between two thousand and three thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. It is said to grow also at Cottonwood Springs in southern Nevada and at Calamuget, 
and on Magdalena Island in Lower California. 

The wood of old trunks, which contains a thick pith, is light, hard, and pale yellow, with broad 
conspicuous medullary rays and well marked layers of annual growth.^ 

This Cactus, the Vera de Coyote of the Mexican Indians, wa'i iirst made known to science by the 
botanists attached to the commission which defined the boundary between the United States and 
Mexico. It is one of the most conspicuous and interesting plants of the mesas of southern Arizona, 
where in the clear atmosphere of the desert the lustrous sheaths inclosing its numerous spines glistening 
in the sunlight make it visible for many miles. 

' The depth of the tubercles od msny of the cylindrical Opun- 
tiu, especially on the mature or nearly mature fruit, depends 
almost entirely on the amount of moisture. During exceedingly 
dry seaaons the tubercles are deep and the fruit small and 
•hrireled. On the same plants during a moist season the fruit is 
large and plump, and the tubercles are scarcely raised above the 
remainder of the surface. This is true, only not to so great a 
degree, of the yoonger branches of the plant itself. (Tourney, in 

^ On the foothills of the mountain ranges of southern Arizona and 
northern Sonora a form of this plant occurs with thicker shorter 
joints, more prominent but shorter tubercles, and fewer spines, 
usually only from four to six spines being developed from the tuber- 
cles of the terminal joints, although from those of older joints as 
many as twenty or thirty are produced. The flowers an<! f nit of 

the two forms appear to be identical, but the foothill variety U a 
smaller plant than that of the mesas. It is: — 

Opuntia fulgida mamillala, Coulter, Cantrih. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
iii. 449 (1886). — Toumey, Bo(. flazttte, xxv. 121. 

Opuntia mamiltata, Engelmann, Proc. Am. Acad. iii. 308 
(18.">0); Bol. Atez. Hound. Sun. ii. 58, t. 75, f. 19; Brmtr ^ 
Watiim Bol. Cal. i. 250. — Walpera, Ann. v. 57. — Hemsley, 
Bol. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 562. — Toumey, Garden and Forett, viii. 

' The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North iunerican 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
cut by Professor Toumey in the neighborhood of Tucsou, is sevea 
inches in diameter msi<le the bark, with fourteen Uyers of annual 
growth in the solid exterior layer of wood, which is about two and 
a half inches :u thickness. 


Plate DCCVI. Opi'ntia kumiida. 
1. A Hower, natural size. 
'i. Vertical section of a flower, natural sits. 

3. End of a fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

.'>. A fruit laiil open transversely, natural size. 
(>. A seed, enlarged. 

7. A seed showing raphe, enlarged. 

8. Cross section uf a seed, enlarged. 

9. An unibryo, enlarged. 


and falls usually 
a second season 
to an inch and a 
usly marked with 
y spineless, occa- 
ne twelfth to one 

1 of the Colorado 
iws to its largest 
nd feet above the 
ind at Calamuget, 

ellow, with broad 

to science by the 
nited States and 
southern Arizona, 
) spines glistening 

he foolhill rarietf u a 

Irib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
t. 121. 

:. Am. Acad. iii. 308 
t. 75, f. 19; Brewtrlf 
nn. T. 57. — Henisley, 
lardm and Foresl, viii. 

an of North iunerican 
al Hiatorj, New York, 
Hxl of Tucsoii, is seven 
rteen layers of annual 
irhioh is about two and 



it... i^ 


i i 



' <(uii Krwn when fully riin', with dry flesh, and falls usimiiy 

fruit r<?mniiiN '>ii thf brauuhes tliiriii^ u second HcuKon 

. 1 lilt IS iivhI, roundod, and from an iiirh to an inch and a 

kfQg, mirti' or loMa tub«rculate,' coniipicuously marked with 

<.it>|( uiimerouji umalt ItriHtleM and, althoiiji^li usually HpincdesR, occa- 

<iH"U art" cuni|>r('iwf><J. tliiii. verv .mi^ular, and from out' twelfth to one 

'•birb M a plant of the plain ^ 
:.irfM.l reypon <>i Sii ■ 
i iiiAOfi. tti flwvalim 
Mid to nrrirw aJao ai <'<»ttit(iv. . 
■i in [jowiT ' 

. iriuik«, whirl . .... .. 

. ,\ty rays and well mark^ layorn u! »,-. 
■i*. ihe Vera de Coyot* of tht- Meiiimu Ii. 
' •! to the commi^iKioii «l; ■ ' ' 'i 
•■ of the most fniiiiiiifii 

Hit rare ni Arizona Houtli of th(< Colurtido 
tinHt iiliiindant and },'row8 to its largest 
oiMidd and three Ihousund feet above the 

i;» >n southern Nevada and at Calamuget, 

!. hard, and pale yellow, with broad 

-t made known to science by the 
tfwt^'n th«> I'nited StJites and 
I lie mnsiis of tiouthern Arizona. 

anuMphiMv uf the dn«*>rt the liMUtiu* ithttathA iticlo»ing its numerous spines glistening 
nuke it visible for niauv mites. 

Wm ^ y > b of &b« uiberrle* tm man; of I'm cyliiHlricftl Opun- 
f^M, ^mttauAy uo lh« uiL^ttni '>r nearlv niatura fruit, (irtwml* 
»^anept «<ittr«I; cti th« MmtHuit t>f loowtara. During exoeetlingty 
drr wftaor« tho* tiibfrclc* kt* A»9Y *^ t^ froit smail uid 
uKriTeleii. < >n Iko csmr pUuui .i'lnnif « a<oj*t «*»«««b Uii> fruit ui 
'«r|^ jfcnil ^tlnmjv i^ntt t)i« tutvrrti^t 
^-fuAiUdfr uf tbc «urf*r«. Fhia u. 
•l#|pw, nf the Vtfun^r bnachvs of Htm t>iimi it*f 
'ill I 

* t ht th« fiwthilU tif ifa« tnonntaia rthgvw 'ff M>.t- 
aiirtk«m SunttrH i« ftirni '»f thi* pliutt itt^^iir* w:*,; i •• : 

jffltiu, tnorg pfominml Iwl •Itgrtr-r tuheraltii, »ai f«tr*r tfiuM*, 
uMull^ Old? from four Uk wi i^mjsm '^-'^ - - ' — ^ ' ■■ »-• fW tabvr* 
«!«• iif tb« l«raiuwl t«4qL». «JiN«u«. t ;iu«ia a* 

nuuiT M twcQti or iliirt^' ht* x^o^n'^- ' -, <^>^^i ^^1 fnjit uf 

Ui« twu fumit ■I'iMru to b« ulantiml, but tb« fiiothU'. Taricty ia » 

iiualler pl&ot Uum that <>f tb« meiui. It U: — 

Oimnlm fulguln nuimUialii, ('oulter, Cimtrih. U. S. .Va(. Herb. 

iii. «9 (IHWi) — Toumey, /Ait. fiiuetlt. iir. 121. 

Opvntui mamiUnUi, Knf:oltnjuin, Proc. Am. .4cad. iii. 3(18 
(ISai); B"l. Mti. liminH. SuT. ii. tS, t. 75, f. 10; Ilr^icer St 
WiHiut*, }h.i. Cal. i. ii/5tl. — Watp«r«, .l»in. T. 57. — UeniBley, 
Hw 8mI <"» '■«<. i. 6fi2. — Tourney, Gnrdm and Fortcl, liii, 


' ir 'K>n of North American 

■.-^1 }li*l«ry, New York, 

I' wii of Tiicaon, it mtcu 

■u<Mir<n .r .iiAii.rwK .-^lo. ,,'<- ■.,i« ..- '. .',iirt««n layer* nf uinuml 

j(ro»th in th* iialiil eit«ru>r Uy^r uf aiKxl, ohu'b i> about twn and 

a half indbe* in tliMikiMi*. 


l'i.Ar» IX'C'VI. OpttNTtA n;ixiint. 

I . A fluwer, natural aite. 

'i. ^'eitii'sl Mrtion uf a tlower, natural aiu. 

3. Knil of a fni'*ini; brancli, nnturul s'u<*. 

4. Vertical section of a ftuit, natural Pita. 

5. A fruit tail] vi»u tTKiii^vt:rn('\\ . h:\liiriil sizo. 

6. K aoed. enlarged. 

7. A iH^«4l ahowtni; rapho. rnlaii^ml. 
S. CroM twtion nf n ae<vl, enlari^cai. 
U. An eiobrvo, enU'ifiHl. 


r ACT ACE.*. 

lesb, and falls iiBumly 
ring u second Butsun 
ich to lui iui-h nnd a 
icuously marked with 
•iiiallv sj)in«'U'sR, occa- 
im iini' Iwcll'tb U) one 

nutli of the Colonido 

growH to its largest 

:ni8and fet>t above the 

du and at Oalamuget, 

lie yellow, with broad 

>wn to M'ience by the 

*■ United St«teH and 

of southern Arizona. 

rona spijies glistening 

hut the foothil! rahet^ ia a 

It 'u).~ 

CimrOK U. S. Nat. Herb. 
r. «XT. 121. 

/'roc. .1)11. .Acatl. iii. 308 

58, t. 75, f. 19; BrnM' Jf 
r«, Aun. ». 57. — lUniiley, 
ley. Onriim orul Forest, viii. 

(ton of North Aiiiprioan 

tursi Hi«u»rjr, Now York, 

ir^ixMi of Tiiraoii, is »evi>n 

•mrt««n tajrera nf annual 

Kfti, «hwb i« about two and 

Si'.va of North America. 

.a.b. DCCVl. 


' i' Ki.i'i'n .M . 

£•^1 JfU'tf/u . 


.1 n,.,.i-i 

Imp . ^ Tiirnnir Pitri. 









1 r 1 In r^iT 





Joints of the branches green or purple, their tubercles ovate, narrow, full, and 
rounded below the areolae; spines white or reddish brown. Flowers pink. Fruit 
yellow, sparingly spinescent, rarely proliferous. 

Opuntia spinoslor, Tourney, Bot. Gatttte, xxv. 119 (1898). Opuntia arboresoene, Engelmann, Pacific X. S. Sep. iv. 

Opuntia Whipple!, /3 spinoslor, Engelmann, froe. Am. 
Acad. iii. 307 (1856) j Pacijic R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 51, t. 
17, f. 1-4; Bot. Mex. Bound. Surv. ii. 57. — Hemiley, 
Bot. Biol. Am. Cent. i. 554. — Coulter, Contrib. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. i'i. 451. — Scliumarn, Monog. Coot. 670. 

61, pt. T. 1. 17, f. 6, 6 (not Engelmann, Wislizenus Memoir 
of a Tour to Northern Mexico [^Senate Doo. 1848], Bot 
Appz. 6). — Tourney, Garden and Pori^t, ix, 2, {. 1. 

A tree, with an erect trunk occasionally ten feet in height and from five to ten inches in diameter, 
and numerous stout vertically spreading branches which form an open irregular head. The bark of 
the trunk and of the large limbs is about a quarter of an inch in thickness, spineless, nearly black, 
broken into elongated ridges, and finally much roughened by numerous thin closely appressed scales. 
The joints of the branches are cylindrical, from four to twelve inches in length and from three quarters 
of an inch to an inch in thickness, covered with a thick epidermis which varies in color from green 
to purple, and usually develop woody skeletons during their second season ; their tubercles are promi- 
nent, compressed, ovate, and from one third to one half of an inch long, with oval areolee clothed with 
pale tomentum and short light brown bristles ; their spines, which vary in number from five to fifteen 
on the tubercles of young joints and from thirty to fift on those of older branches, are slender, from 
white to light reddish brown in color, closely invested in w hite glistening sheaths, stellate-spreading, and 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, those in the interior being sometimes considerably 
longer than the radical spines. The leaves are terete, about a quarter of an inch long, and taper grad- 
ually to the aetulose apex ; they remain on the branches from four to six weeks. The flowers, which 
unfold during April and May, remain open for two or three days, and appear to depend on the visits of 
bees and other insects for fertilization ; ' they are from two to two and a half inches in diameter when 
fully expanded, with ovaries about an inch in length, obovate sepals, broadly obovate dark purple petals, 
sensitive red stamens,'' and six to nine-parted stigmas. The yellow fleshy acrid fruits are clustered at 
the ends of the branches of the previous year, and when ripe make them pendulous by their weight ; 
they are oval or rarely globose or hemispherical, and frequently two inches long and an inch and a half 
thick, with from twenty to thirty tubercles ; during the summer these are very prominent, but as the 
fruits ripen they enlarge and become succulent and the tubercles nearly disappear, leaving the fruits 
marked only by the small oval areohe covered with short bristles and armed with numerous slender 
spines, which are deciduous in December as the fruits begin to turn yellow. The seeds vary from one 
fiftli to one sixth of an inch in diameter and are nearly orbicular, slightly or not at all beaked, ^ rd 

' " These insects, nttracted to the (lower, enter hetween the style 
and stamens, passiuf; clown to the base of the style to f^ct the nectar. 
The numerous sensitive stamens immediately bend forward toward 
the style, closing over the insect and hiding it from view. It neces- 
sitates quite an effort on the part of the insect to escape, but it 
finally forces its way from beneath the stamens and climbs to the 
tup of the elongated stigma, whence it makes its escape, thoroughly 
dusted with the prllen from the numerous stamens. In a few 

minutes the stamens assume their noimal condition and the flower 
is ready for the reception of other insects. I have frequently seen 
as many as three honeybees inclosed in a single flower." (Toumey, 
Garden and Forest, ix. 3.) 

" Professor Toumey points out the facts that the stamens of all 
the Opuntias with cylindrical branches are sensitive, and that when 
disturbed they close tightly round the style a few lines below the 
stigma. (Sec Bol. Ga:ellt, xxv. 123.) 

I t 

■ I 





markevl with linear conspicuous commisNures. Tiio fruits reinuiii on the branches during the winter 
and occasionally during the following summer, and then sometimes become proliferous, bearing ilowera 
and fruits.' 

Opuntia Hpinoniur is widely scattered over the mesas of southern Arizona south of the Colorado 
plat«au and over the adjacent region of Sononi. 

The wood of Opuutin npiiioxior is light, soft, |)ale reddish brown, and conspicuously reticulated 
with inconspicuous medullary rays and well-defined layers of unniial growth.' It is sometunes used in 
the manufacture of light t'uriiiturt!, canes, picture-frames, and otI<.er small articles. 

Opuntia npinonior was discoverjil in Sonora in 1855 by Mr. A. Schott.' 

' Profeuor Tourney recogniica lu v»r. S'eo-Mtiieana (li<il. Ga- 
utle, zxT. Ill) [180SJ) a variety of this ipcciea which grniva with 
the oniiuary furm to the same size but is distinguished from it by 
lunger tubercles, more numerous spines with lotMcr slicAths, Hol- 
ers with mure 'umeroiis and much narrower petals varying in color 
from red to yelloWi and larger fruits often more or less tinged with 

' The leg siKoimen in the .lesup Colleetion of North American 
Wowls in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, is 
five and a half inches in diameter inside the bark, with seventy- 
two Inyeis of annual growth in the outer woody portion, which it 
two and one sij^tcontb inches in thickness. 

• See X. 18. 


Platr DCCVH. Ofuntiv si'inohiob. 

1. A flower, natiiri>.l slie. 

2. Vertical section uf a flower, natural site. 
'A The end »{ a fruiting l>ranch, natural Bi;.a. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural siza. 

5. A frnit divided innarenely, enlarged. 
C. A seed, enlarged. 

7. A seed showing the raphe, enlarged. 

8. Vertical Hcctior. of a seed, enlarged. 

9. An embryo, enlarged. 




les during the winter 
jrouB, bearing flowers 

)uth of the Colorado 

spituously reticulated 
; iii Humetimes used in 

lleotion of North American 
ituml History, New York, ia 
ide the bark, with aeveotf* 
ter woody portion, which U 










^ "/» / II \ <l r.i, ■■ ■ I 

('A< I \< h.lC 

Thr ftiiiU miiiiiii nil ilic l)riinch(;s iliiriii^ tlii> uiiit«>r 
• iiii »|i. II <iifiM-ii:M 1 li<>riiiiii- |'riiiiN, U'liriii)^ llowir-^ 


ii) viuthfni Ari»iiiA Noiith of tbo Colorado 

■•ruwn, and cunHpicuomily ri'ticuliitod 
imI growth.' It M NoiuetiiiieH UMvd iu 
ii.'ill arlidvs. 
-M liotl.* 

■ Ltiii .Uniip i'olliH'itiin nf Niirth Aiitrrtouri 

Miiwiiiii ii( Niiliirkl lliiitiiry, Krw York, m 

'tinvlfir iiiiide lU« (ftirk, witti iMivrutjr- 

.r. Ills liiiur wimmI)- |K>rtiun, winch i» 


» XI'LANAllilN OK IHK I'l.Ali:. 

!. A 

2. \ 

X 1 

*. N.. . 

■> A hw 

IKTVII. Omintu !i|'Ini»«i<)Ii. 

. .' MM. 

. tVfw^r. natural vim. 
'I liu. 




L'ho» iluriiig thi> winter 
ft'rniiH, Ijuuritif; Howent 

iwiilli of the Colorado 

liN|iirui>iislv ictniiliiti-il 
It in NuiuctiiiiuH uwd iit 

'uIliH'tiim of Xorlb Arntriotn 
• Rliiral Ilijiturjr, Nrw Yurk, U 
uida 111* bitrk, willi MviiBtjr- 
iul«r wiHxIy {Hirtion, wlii.!h U 

Silva. of North AtnTi-a 

T*b. Dccr/ii, 


6 7 

S.y.'utc'n dt:t 




(Ve^uf Ud/f\r 

Imp . \7hrtfur.J^arL.\ 




J01NT8 of the briinehcH dark j^rcen or purple, eloiigiited, their tubercles flattened, 
elongated ; spines l)rown or reddish brown. Flowers green tinged with red or yellow. 
Fruit green, spinesccnt, rurely proliferous. 

OpuntU veriloolor, CoulMr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. H»rh. Hi. 402 ( 1896). — Tourney, Hot. (Jaiutle, xxv. 121— Schumann, 

Uonoj/. Curt. 074. 

A tree, with an erect trunk oecnaionully in welklevi>lupe<l Npucimens lis or eight f«et high and 
eight IncheH in diameter, and numeruuH atout irregularly Hpreitding often upright branches. The baik 
of the trunk and of the large hranches is Hmooth, light hrown or pur}>ie, usually unarmed, from one 
half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and ultimately ^parates into numerous snmll closely 
appreHscd nearly black scales. The terminal joints of the branches are cylindrical, generally from six 
to twelve inches but sometimes two feet in length, and from three quarters of an inch to nearly an inch 
in diameter ; their woody skeletons are usually formed during their second season, and they are covered 
with a thick epidermis which varieo from dark green to purple, and is marked by linear flattened 
tubercles terminating in large oval areola) which are clothed with gray wool and generally bear a cluster 
of small bristles; their N|iiiiPH are slender, stellate-spreading, the inner from one to four in number, 
usually deflexed and unetpMl in length, the longest being about one third of an inch long and much 
longer than the radiant spines ; they are brown or reddish brown, with close early deciduous straw- 
colored sheatliH, and vary on young joints from four to foiuteen in number, while the tubercles of old 
branches often bear from twenty to twenty-tive. The leaves are terete, from one third to one half of 
an inch in length, abruptly narrowed to the spinescent apex, and remain on the branches from four 
to six weeks. The Howers open in May, and when fully expanded are about an inch and a half in 
diameter, with ovaries Hvo eighths of an inch long, broadly ovate acute sepals, and narrow obovate petals 
rounded above and green tinged with red or with yellow. The fruit is usually clavate, from two inches 
to two inches and a half in length and nearly an inch and a half in diameter, with areolie generally only 
above the middle and usually furnished with from one to three slender reflexed persistent spines about 
half an inch long, or occasionally spineless ; rarely the fruit is nearly spherical and only about three 
quarters of au inch in diameter. When mature the fruit is of the same color as the joints on which it 
grows and ripens from December to Februory ; usually it withers and dries on the tree and frequently 
splitting open shows the irregular angled seeds with their narrow commissures. In some coses it does 
not wither during the first winter, but remains fleshy and adheres to the branch until the end of the 
following summer and sometimes through a second winter ; or often it is imbedded in the end of a more 
or less elongated joint. 

Ojiiintiu rersicotor is the most abundant of the cylindrical Opuntias of the foothills and low 
mountain slopes of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, although it does not appear to have attracted 
the attention of botanists until 1880, when it was found in the neighborhood of Tucson by George 
Eugelmann ' and C. C. Parry .'■ 

The wood of Opuntia versicolor is reticulate, hard, compact, light reddish brown and rather 
lustrous, with thin conspicuous medullary rays, well-determined layers of annual growth, and thick pale 
or nearly white sapwood.^ 

' .See yiii. 84. ' See vii. 130. foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains near Sabina Cailon, is 

' The loK specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American five and seven eighths inches in diameter inside the bark, with 

Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, seventy-nine layers of annual growth ; of these twenty-eight are 

which was cut by I'rofcssop Toumey in siuithrrn Arizona on the of snpwood, which is three quarters of an inch in thickness. 







1. The end of a flowering branch, natural size. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, natural aize. 

3. The end of a fruiting branch, natural siu. 

4. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 
C. A see<l, enlarged. 

6. Vertical section of a seed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 



»4: I 

^ fM"**" 



.■\ -^ 





EXPLA>A:iiiN (IK rilK VI.ATi;. 


1. The sntl «f » floworiuK hrincb, n»l.ural siie. 
1. Verti««l «ivUon i>t « (tunrer, uatunl aiie. 
3. rh« miu .4 4 (mUist brui«k natural »aa. 

i. Vprucki »ert»ali '►( • in M' •-»! »ii«. 
ft A MMii. mUrgad. 

: *u 

Tab. DCCVm. 


I i 






Leaves oblong-ovate, acute, scabrous on the upper surface. 

Cornus asperifoUa, Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 93 (1803). — 
Notiveau Duhamel, ii. 156. — Poiret, Lamarck Diet. 
Suppl. ii. 356. — Parsh, Fl. Am. Sept. i. 108. — EUiott, 
Sk. i. 209. — Roemer & SchulteB, Syst. iii. 322. — Spveng- 
el, Syst. i. 451. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. Am. i. 651. — 
lUfinesque, Am. 61. — Chapman, Fl. 167. — 
K. Koch, Dendr. i. 692. — Watson & Coulter, Gray's 
Man. ed, ", 214. — CoiiU*r * Evuns, Pnt. Onx'tte, iv. 
35. — Coulter, Contrll. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 150 (Man. '. 
W. Texas). — Koehne, DeiUsche Dendr. 437. — Dippel, 
Handb. Laubholzk. iii. 253, f. 135. — Sargent, Garden 
and Forest, x. 104, f. 13. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. ii. 
544, f. 2715. — Britton, Man. 690. — Gattinger, Fl. Ten- 
nessee, 130. 

Cornus serioea, y asperifoUa, De CandoUe, Prodr. iv. 272 

(1830). — Dor., Gen. Syst. iii. 399. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. 

ii. 1013. 
Cornus alba. Hooker, Compan Boi- Mag. i. 48 (not Lin- 

nieus) (1835). 
Cornus Drummondi, C. A. Meyer, Bull. Phys. Math. 

Acad. St. PUersbourg, iii. 372 (1846) ; Ann. Set. Nat. 

iir. 3. iv. 64. — Walpers. Rep. v. 9.3.3. 
Cornus asperifoUa, var. Drummondi, Coulter & Evans, 

Bat. Gazette, xv. 36 (1890). — Cor. .*r, Contrib. U.S. 

Nat. Herb. ii. 151 {Man. PI. W. Texa«). — Koehne, 

Deutsche Dendr. 437. 

Usually shrubby in habit, Cornus asperifoUa on the rich bottom-lands of southern Arkansas and 
eastern Texas is frequently a tree sometimes nearly fifty feet in height, with a short trunk eight or ten 
inches in diameter, and slender erect wand-like branches forming a narrow irregular rather open head.* 
The bark of the trunk is about an eighth of an inch in thickness and is divided by shallow fissures 
into narrow interrupted ridges, and broken into small closely appressed dark red-brown scales. The 
branchlets are slender, marked by numerous small pale lenticels, pale green and puberulous when 
they first appear, pale red, lustrous and puberulous during their first winter, light reddish brown in 
their second year, and ultimately light gray-brown or gray. The winteobuds are acute, compressed, 
pubescent, sessile or stalked, about an eighth of an inch long, with two pairs of opposite scales, 
and about twice as large as the much compressed lateral buds. The leaves are opposite, involute in 
vernation, ovate or oblong, gradually or abruptly contracted at the apex into long slender points, 
gradually narrowed and rounded or cuneate at the base, and slightly thickened and undulate on the 
margins; when they unfold they are coated with lustrous silver-white tomentum, and nearly fully 
grrown when the flowers open from the middle of May in Texas to the middle of July at the north, 
they are then dark green and roughened above by short rigid white hairs, and pale often glaucous and 
rough-pubescent below ; and in the autumn they are membranaceous, scabrous on the upper surface, 
pubescent or puberulous on the lower surface, from three to four inches long and from an inch and a 
half to two inches wide, with thin midribs and from four to six pairs of slender primary veins nearly 
parallel with their sides, and stout grooved pubescent petioles usually about half an inch in length. 
The flowers are produced on slender pedicels iu loose broad or narrow often paniculate pubescent cymes 
raised on peduncles frequently an inch in length ; they are cream color, with an oblong cup-shaped 
obscurely toothed calyx covered with fine silky white hairs and narrow oblong acute corolla lobes about 
an eighth of an inch long and reflexed after the flowers open, elongated slender filaments with nodding 
anthers, and a columnar style thickened at the apex into the prominent stigma. The fruit is borne in 

' Tlio treo only twenty years old, cut by Mr. B. K. Hush near 
Columbia on the Hrozos Hirer in Texas in 1001 for the Jesup Col- 
lection of North American Woods in the American Museum of 

Natural Hi.story, New York, was forty-fire feet high, with a trunk 
sercu inches iu diameter. 

■' ! 




loose spreading red-stemmed clusters, and ripens from the end of August until October ; it is subglobose, 
white, tipped with the r<>innants of the style, and about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The 
nutlets, which are covered with a thiu coat of dry bitter Hesh, are full and rounded, broader than high, 
somewhat oblique, and slightly grooved on the edge.' 

The wood of Coriiua asperifolia is close-grained, hard, solid, and pale brown, with thick cream- 
colored sapwood. 

Cornutt asperifolia is distributed from the northern shores of Lake Erie, where it is abundant 
on Point Pelee,^ to Minnesota,' eastern Nebraska * and Kansas," and through Missouri and the Indian 
Territory to eastern Texas, and to Mississippi, Alabama," South Carolina, and Florida. 

Cornus asperifolia, although it was discovered by the elder Michaux more than a century ago, is 
still rare in gardens. It was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum in 1884, and is perfectly hardy in 
eastern Massachusetts. 

' The tin and ihape of the nutlet hare beeo used to separate the 
trana-Miuiuippi plant ai a Tarietjr of the eastern •peeiei (Coulter 
& Evani, Bol. Gaielle, xv. 30). In Arkaniaa and Texai the nut 
IB ■ometime* rather imaller and broader in proportion to its height 
than it is usually in the fruit of eastern plants, but the nuts vary so 
much in sise and shape that it is hardljr practicable to base Tarietal 
characters ou them. 

2 Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 191. 

' MacMillan, Melaaperma of the Minnaota Koiby, 400, 

* Kessey, BM. Ezper. Stttl. Ntbnulxi, iv. art. iv. IS. 
' Hitchcock, Flora of Karuai, plate xiii. 

• Mohr, Contrib. V. S. Nat. Herb. n. 060 (Plant life of 


Platk DCCIX. Corxus ahpekifoua. 

1. A flowerinf; branch, natural site. 

2. Vertical section of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

4. A nutlet, enlarged. 



ber ; it is subglobose, 
I in diameter. The 
1, broader than high, 

a, with thick cream- 
here it is abundant 
ouri and the Indian 

»n a century ago, is 
is perfectly hardy in 

fsota VttUty, 400. 
IT. wt. ir. 16. 
»i. 060 (Plant Life of 





■ ri|i««is fruiu ttMi «iul of Aujriigt until Ortolier ; it ia subgloboM 
«■ ftvU<, wckI alNMit u (|iiiirt<!r of un iiit'li in diitniot<'r. Tin 
<•*{ .if dry liitt<'r tll^^.ll, :ir»' full iuU ruuiult'd, hru.ulur tlmu liigii, 

■ in the ed)f<f.' 

' 'liKo-g'tuiiiitd, httrvl, iN>lid and pale hrowii, with tliick crcam- 


i'-il<iit«d fMni tiin nurthim) «h<>r«w of Ijake £rii>, where it is abmuWt 

, i^tt«ni NebnuJui * m\A Kwumu,'' and through MisMiiiri iiiul the Indian 

.1 til Miiwit^ipio, fVUtMuuii,' Siiutb Citrulinii. ajtd Florida. 

. ijlh It wrtfc diM!v»»«*i«dl I'V %be ^lil^r Mu'baux more than a century ago, u 

triMluord iiitu the AriMki .\rboratum ia 1884, and in perfectly hardy in 

'^ \mn bMM «Mii »a Mpanl* ih* 

d tiM oaMra jfM nw <(%Nil<«r 

iriiMww umI T«ia* Ow nut 

■■ v^T IK p'o^iorOfiB W itn bright 

**v ».< L'Uu'-* btl ih« liuU v*r» ft.) 
(..j* j-r- li li- l»*#r- ribfnetal 

• M«<•r.ul^ Td/ Cm Pi 191. 

> MnoMillui. Mtimpmu of th* MumMla VaUtj, 400. 

• B«Mf ), fM> K^fM^ .iun. Xiiraika, it. wt. it. 15. 
' iiitelwiiak, florn o/ A'anmi, plstv tiii. 

« M(«i'. 'onM* f * A'o; //»n>. Ti. 600 (Plant Lift of 
.\ .'i^ma I 


" UCCIX. Coimfii Aiu«iiipc>UA. 
A fl»*ch»f tmueii. natnrai lb*. 

(? teMiwIi. mtonl (in. 



Iva of NorlK AiTir.iii.rt. 

Tab DCCiy. 

'tol)«r ; it is subgloboM' 
U'h in dianiftrr. " The 
iI(m1, bruadur ihiiu liigli, 

awn, with tliick cream- 

, where it is ttbundof t 
lisKotiri and the Indinii 

thun a century ngo, is 
ad is perfectly hardy in 

timnota VaUrt, WO. 

ilu, IT »rl iv. 18. 

i> liii. 

Iir«. Ti. 6fi0 (Planl Lift of 

I'.SF-iat 1 . 

t OfftlUi^' . 


A Nit '. fr^i.r tiifi^ar ^ 

/rnp ./ Tan^uir, /*aru> 





Black Haw. 

Leaves clliptical-ovute or clliptical-obovate, their petioles winged. 
§hort-pointed, fcrrugineo-tonientosc. 


Viburnum rufldultim, lUfinesque, Ahograjih. Am. 66 

Viburnum prunifolium, /3 ferrugineum, Torrey & 
Gray, Fl. -V. Am. ii. 16 (not Viburnum ferruijineum, 
Raiinesque) (1K41). 

Viburnum prunifolium, Chapman, Fl. 171 (not Linnnus) 
(1800). — Sargent, Forett Treei N. Am. \(Hh Centiu 
U. S. ix. 94 (in part) ; Sllva N. Am. v. 99 (in part), t. 
225, t. 11.— Coulter, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. ii. 156 
(Man. PI. W. Texat). 

Viburnum ferrugineum, Small, Mem. Torrey Hot. Club, 

iv. 123, t. 78 (not Rafineique) (1894) ; Bull. Turrey Bot. 

Club, xxi. 306. — Britton, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, v. 

Viburnum rufotomentoaum, Small, Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club, xxiii. 410 (1896). — Britton & Brown, ///. Fl. iii. 

233, f. 3440. — Moiir, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. y\. 743 

{Plant Life of Alabama).— Wnion, Man. 872.— Gat- 

tinger, Fl. Tennessee, 156. 

A tree, often forty feet b height, with a trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and 
short thick branches forming an open irregular head. The bark of the trunk is from one quarter 
to one half of an inch in thickness and is separated into narrow rounded ridges divided by numerous 
cross fissures and roughened by small plate-like dark brown scales tinged with red. The branchlets 
are stout and marked by numerous small red-brown or orange lenticels, and when they first appear 
are more or less coated with ferrugineous tomentnm, which also clothes the obtuse winter-buds, the 
wings of the petioles, and the lower surface of the unfolding leaves ; during their first winter they are 
ashy gray, dark dull red-brown in their second season, and then gradually grow darker. The leaves 
are elliptical-ovate or elliptical-obovate, rounded, occasionally acute or obtuse at the short-pointed apex, 
rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, finely serrate, with slender apiculate straight or incurved teeth, 
coriaceous, dark green and very lustrous on the upper surface, and pale and dull on the lower surface ; 
they are usually about three inches long and from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half 
wide, with stout yellow midribs, numerous slender primary veins and reticulate veinlets more or less 
covered below throughout the season with the rufous tomentum which is iilso occasionally found on the 
upper side of the midribs and which is characteristic of this species ; they are borne on stout grooved 
petioles which vary from one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and are margined with broad 
or narrow wings. The inflorescence buds are broadly ovate, full and rounded at the base, abruptly 
narrowed above and short-pointed and obtuse at the apex, compressed, often half an inch long and a 
third of an inch wide, with four pairs of boat-shaped scales coated on the outer surface with ferrugineous 
tomentum. The flowers are produced in compound sessile or stalked three to five but usually four^ 
rayed thick-stemmed ferrugineo-pubescent corymbs often five or six inches in diameter, with minute 
subulate bracts and bractle< . The calyx is obconic, with short rounded lobes, and the corolla is 
creamy white and often a quarter of an inch in diameter when expanded, with orbicidar or oblong 
rounded lobes. The stamens with slender filaments and light yellow anthers, are exserted, and the 
style is thick, conical, and terminated by a broad stigma. The fruit ripens in October, and is borne in 
few-fruited drooping red-stemmed clusters ; it is oblong or slightly obovate, bright blue covered with a 
glaucous bloom, and about hall an inch long. The stone is corneous, much compressed, and concave.' 

1 The description of Viburnum prunifoiium in the fifth volume of 
this work was made to include this southern tree. The shape and 

tomentose covering of its wiutcr-buds, the larger and more coria- 
ceous leaves with more or less broadly winged fcrrugineo-tomentose 



Viburnum rujidulum iiilmbiU dry uplu'ui wuodit and tlio nmripiiH of river bottnin-landi, and in 
diiitril)uted from itouthwostern Virginia ' itnd •outhern lllinoia' to Hernando County, Florida, iMmth- 
eontorn KaoMUi,' and the valley of the Quadaloiipe River, TetM. Un« of the common and moat beauti- 
ful of the Mmail troea of the aoutht rn foreata, whiih it unlivona in early Hpring with itH great elusterb of 
tlowcrN and lustrouN luiiveH, Vihurniiin rujidii/iim in moat abundant, and attain* its lurireNt aize iu 
aouthern Arkanitaa, weatern Louiaiana, and eastern Toxom. 

Vihurnnm nifi<hiliiin was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum from Misitouri in 188.'3, and has 
proved perfectly hardy in eastern Massachusetts. 

prtiolM, lb* widar floirar-iluiUi't and th* odor of th« fmhl; cut 
wood which in liiniUr tu that of the wo(hI tif VthumHm L^ntti'fo, ar« 
DOW known to Im oonitant chAni£t«n, and niaka it deainibla to 
treat I'thumum rujiititlum aa a i(|)«eiaa. The ranfo* of th« twti tr««a 
ii quit« diffarant. I'ihumum ;>nini/i>/ium id nortbfni, reaching the 
■outhern limita of ita r«ng« in the foothill region of western North 
Carolina and in central Miiaouri, and louthward ii entirely rw- 
plaoed b; i'ihumvm n{/iilutum, whicb it the ouljr Arlwrtacent Vi- 

burnum of the low eountrj of tha aouth Atlantie and aulam Gull 
•tatei, and of Teiaa, l/ouiaiaiia, Arkaiiaaa, the Indian Territory, 
and southern Miaaouh. 

I Thr 1'iiina.le, ]m CouDly, J. K. Small, July 27, IBW. 

' (i. II. French, .laekaon County, June, 1H7H, 

■ CiAurtiuin T^^/idu!um baa been collected in Cherokee County, 
Kanuu, by O. L. ClotUer and II. N. Whitford. (TeaU Htrt. 


Pi-ATK DCCX. Viburnum RunouiuM. 

1. A flowering bnuirh. natural lite. 

2. Vertical iMtion of a flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural aiie. 

4. A fruit divided tnuuranely, enlarged. 
6. A atone, enlargwl. 

6. A winter braneblet. natural site. 

7. A winter branchlat of Vibumum prun\folium, nnlural aiM. 

■ I 


K)ttotn-lan(Li, and ii 
iity, Fli>ri(la, Roiith- 
in and niont heaiiti- 
itM gTViiit cluRtero of 
its Urgent uze iu 

ri in lH8!i, and hai 

iVtUotia uA Mutorn Oult 
u, til* Indikii Ti'rritorj, 

Ul, Ju\j it7, IBM. 

tad in CherokM Countjr, 
Whitfonl. (TMta Hiri. 









I'pUwd w<i(h4« And tkui BMrfin* of river bottom -IuiuIb, and i» 
1 ' «ad nottlwrn lUitxnii ' to Hpniandu County, Florida, south 
.i^iUloii^w Kivi-j rrt4». One of tho common and iiio8t heniiii 

•.•*tii. wlii" i. i! • iili.iTis in early Hpriag with its grciit cliistern uI 
■ r,i<t"hi.. n ,'ftoM: iihuitdant, and iittaiiis its largest size i^ 
.1 i .•.v'.'. ri. TtiXAH 
:., '.1 ii!i . ',!.. An; 'ill \th.irftuni from MitMouri in 18^1}, and lui- 
rn M«MMrk«uM-t 

nfm -t >Im> W>« «mi^^ iif th« touth AtUntio and eute'ni Gu 
n. '.anil, ArksuHui, the Indiiui Trrriton 

a. •.«■•»» i'm«*fi,, !-».. w.My.,I K Small, July 27, 1892. 

-i^.jy ... ('. ICfWMh, J»«k»>w I'wmty, .lone, 1H7H. 

,,,,,. \ :t ' V'ttxtnim n/idvlvm biu keen eolletteii in Clierokee County, 

.T.-.ii w KiJMW, ''- '' ' '"tntkier ami M *< Whilford. (Teste Ihrt. 

-.1. -'/M Vi- Grtt).) 


^ lltTX. VlI>C»»P»l aOTUJl'll'M. 

MKg bmiHi. n«ta»J ti%'- 
t*ti%i«ti al a ttnvgr. antargiKt. 

' i-aLirh. natflrai «(« 

■ ' tra<»r*r»i>iy. •'tilarftwj. 

. "ii/'WMim, iiatvral nit*. 



' bottom -laiuLt, and is 
oiiiity, Florida, south- 
imon and most bettuti- 
;li itn grpjit cl listers of 
us its largest size ii 

nuri in 1883, and Itait 

Lh Atlantic and eajiloni GuK 
uiaaA, the Indian Torritm'j. 

)iu«ll, Julj 27, 1892. 

ne, 1878. 

U'vt^ii in Cherokre Connljr, 

V W hit ford. ( ro»t« //t* 

Silva oF North America 


f^ ' J".' Ktatjn- ciM- 


J^Ki^nne j-c 

A }it.'rrf44.r ./^/•rtr 

Jnif* ./ /hfj^^r P.tfij- 

1 ft 




Flowers perfect ; calyx unequally 4 or 5-toothcd or lobed ; corolla gamopetalous, 
4-lobed, the lobes imbricated in sestivation ; stamens 4 ; ovary inferior, 2-celled ; ovule 
solitary, pendulous. Fruit obpyramidal, 2-coccou8 ; seeds arillate. Leaves opposite or 
verticillate, petiolate, stipulate. 

Cephalanthus, Linnnus, Oen. 61 (1737). — Adanaon, Fam. 
PI. ii. 147. — A. L. de Juuieu, Oen. 209; M'em. Mut. 
vi. 402. — A. Richard, Mim. Sac. Nat. Paris, v. 155. — 

Endlicher, Gen. 630. — Meisner, Oen. 170. — Bentham & 
Hooker, Gen. ii. 30. — BaiUon, Hist. PI. vii. 494. — Schu- 
inanD, Engler & Prantl Pflanxenfam. ir. pt. iv. 69. 

Small trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite or in verticils of threes, petiolate ; stipules triangular or 
ovate, interpetiolar, deciduous, or persistent. Flowers nectariferous, yellow or creamy white, sessile in 
the axils of glandular bracts, in dense globose pedunculate terminal or axillaty solitary or panicled 
heads. Receptacle globose, setose. Calyx-tube obpyramidal, the short limb unequally four or five- 
toothed or lobed. Corolla tubular funnel-form or sau^^r-shaped, divided into four or five short spreading 
or reflexed lobes, usually furnished with a minute dark gland at the base or on the side of eacli sinus, 
glabrous or puberulous on the inner surface of the tube. Stamens four, inserted on the threat of the 
corolla ; filaments short ; anthers linear-oblong, sagittate, apiculate at the base, attached on the back 
belo« the middle, two-celled, the cells opening long^itudinally. Disk thin or obscure, or annular and 
fleshy. Ovary bicarpellate, two-celled ; style filiform, elongated : stigma clavate, entire or slightly 
bilobed ; ovules solitary, suspended from the apex of the cell on a short thickened papillose funicle, 
anatropous ; raphe ventral ; micropyle superior. Fruit obpyramidal, coriaceous, dicoccous. Seeds 
oblong, pendulous, covered at the apex by white spongy arils ; testa membranaceous. Embryo straight, 
in cartilaginous albumen ; cotyledons linear-oblong, obtuse ; radicle elongated, superior. 

Five species of Cephalanthus are now recognized. One is widely spread over the temperate and 
warmer parts of North America and reaches the Antilles ; three species occur in South America from 
Uruguay to eastern Peru ;' and one species' is distributed from the Sikkim Himalaya to China and the 
Malay peninsula and archipelago. 

Only the North American species is known to possess useful properties. 

The generic name, from Kf<f>a\r] and av6o<s relates to the capitate inflorescence. 

■ Sobumann, Marlim Fl. Braiil. vi. pt. vi. 127. 
' Cephalanthiu tttrandrui. 

Nauelea Itlrandra, Roxburgh, FI. Ind. ii. 12fi (1824). 

Cephalanthus naucleouUi, De Candolle, Prodr. iv. 539 (1830). — 
Kun, Foral Fl. Brit. Bum. ii. 68. — Hance, Jour. Bot. ix. 
6. — Uooktr t. Fl. Brit. Ind. iii. 24, 

Ctphalanthus aralioidet, Zollinger, Syit. Vert. 61 (1354). — 
Miquel, Fl. Ned. Ind. ii. 152, 344. 

Cephalanthus occidenlatis, Forbea & Hemsley, Jour. Linn. Soc. 
xxiii. 369 (not Liniueus) (1888). 










Button Bush. 

Calyx usually 4-lobed ; corolla tubular funnel-form, usually glandular. Leaves 
ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, membranaceous. 

Cephalanthus oooidentalis, Linnnua, Sptc. 95 (1753) 

Miller, Diet. eil. 8. — Cr '^oi, Harbk. Baunut. i. 145.— 
Wangenheiin, Baehreib. Sordam. IIolx.HO: Nordam. 
Uolz. 101. — Lamarck. Diet. i. 078 ; lU. i. 256. t. 59. — 
Coatiglioni, Viag. negli Stati I'niti, ii. T2'2. — Mamhall, 
Arbust. A m. 30. — Walter, Fl. Car. 84. — Sehkuhr, Ilandb. 
i. 6C, t. 21. — Will.lenow. Berl. Baumz. 58 ; Spec. i. pt 
ii. 543; £ninn. 143. — Borkhausen, Uandb. Fiirttbot. ii. 
1563. — Giertncr, Fruet. ii. 41, t 86, f. 7. — Michaux, Fl. 
Bor.-Am. i. 87. — Pernoon, Syn. i. 119. — Du Mont da 
Cuunet, Bot. Cult. eil. 2, iv. 330. — Denfontaines, Hist. 
Ari.\.3Sl. — Pnnh,Fl.Am.Sept. i. 114. — Bigelow, Fl. 
Bonton. Za. — KUiott, Sk. i. 186. — Nuttall. Gen. i. 92. — 
.M.inJaiit lie Lau lay. Herb. Amat. iv. 272, f. 272.— 
Hayne, i>'i</r. Fl. 5. — Barton, Fl. Am. Sept. iii. 56, t. 
91. — Sprengel, Syst. i. 377. — De CandoUe, Prorfp. iv. 
538. — Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. i. 288. — Darlington, Fl. 
Cestr. 98. — S|)acli, Hist. Vfg. viii. 463. — Torrey & Gray, 
Fl. N. Atii. ii. 31. — Enienwn, Trees Mass. ;M9 ; cd. 2, ii. 

394, t. — Torrey, Fl. N. Y. i. 313. — Dietrich, -Syn. i. 

■< "^2. — Chapman, Fl. 176. — Curtin, Hep. Oeolog. Surv. N. 
'. 1860, iii. 107. — K. Kocli, Deiirfr. ii. 76. — Lauche, 

Jjtittche Dendr. ed. 2, 185, f. 66. — Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 

pt. ii. 29 — i:N])pel, Hamlb. LaubhoUk. i. 163. — Watson 

& Coulter, Gray's Man. ed. 6, 224. — Britton & Brown, 

m. Fl. iii. 216. f. 3403. — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. 

Herb. y\. 739 (Plant Life of Alabama). — Britton, Man. 

863. — Gattinger, Fl. Ter~es>ee, 155. 
Cephalanthus oppositifo ..8, Moe.nch. Meth. 487 (1794). 
Cephalanthus oooidentalis, var. pubesoens, Rafinesque, 

Med. Fl. 101 (1828). 
Cephalanthus oooidentalis, var. macrophyllus, Ra6- 

nesque, Med. Fl. 101 (1828). 
Cephalanthus oooidentalis, var. obtusifulius, Ra6- 

nenque, Med. Fl. 102 (1828). 
Cephalanthus oooidentalis, var. braohypodus, De Can- 

doUc, Frodr. iii. 6:59 (1830). 

Usually a slirub only a few feet high, or vory rarely arborescent at the north,' Cephalanthus 
occtdmtalin in southern Arkansas and eastern Texas, on the margins of river-bottoms and swamps 
and in their pond holes, often attains a height of from forty to fifty feet with r, straight tapering 
trunk a foot in diameter and frequently free of limbs for twenty feet, and ascending and spreading 
branches. The bark of large trunks is dark gray-brown or often nearly black and divided by deep 
fissures into broad fiat ridges broken on the surface into elongated narrow scales. The branchlets 
are stout, with a thick pitii, and are glabrous, marked by large oblong pale lenticcls, and developed 
mostly in verticils of threes from the ii.iillary buds of one of the upper nodes, the end of the 
branch dying back, at the north at least, in the autumn ; '' they are light green when they first 
appeitr, pale reddish brown covered with a glaucous bloom during their first winter, when they are 
marked by the small semicircular leaf-scars, which show semiluiiate fibrovasculur bundle-scars, and are 
connected by the stipule-scars or by the persistent black stipules ; during the following season the 
brunclilct.s become darker and dark brown in their third year, when the tissures usually appear and the 
b.irk begins to separate into the large loose scales which are found on the large branches and on 
the stems of .small plants. The axillary buds are single or in pairs or in threes one above the other, 
minute and nearly immersed in the bark. The leaves are ovate or lanceolate, acute, acuminate or 
short-pointed at the apex, rounded or cuneate at the base, membranaceous, dark green on the upper 
surface, paler and glabrous or pubcrulous on the lower surface, from four to seven inches long and from 
an inch to three inches and a half wide, with stout light yellow midribs, five or six pairs of slender 

' Ilritlon, yuur. .V. )' lUil. (lard. i. 51, f. U. 

'' f ciurttc, Ihdl. Tnrrry Hot. Ctuh, xi, Iti'J ; ft)(. Gaztllt, ii. 79, t. 8, f . 1, c-g. 






dular. Leaves 

lacrophylluB, Rafl- 

obtueifuUua, Ra6- 

iobypoduB, De Can- 

primary veins nearly parallel with the sides of the leaf, and stout grooved glabrous or puberulous 
petioles from one half to three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are minute, nearly triangu- 
lar, deciduous, or persistent during the winter. The flower-heads are panicled and from an inch to an 
inch and a half in diameter. The creamy white flowers, which open from the middle of May in Florida 
and Texas to the middle of August in the Atlantic states and Canada, and on the mountains of 
California, are very fragrant. The calyx is usually four but occasionally five-lobed, with short rounded 
lobes, and is slightly villose toward the base. The corolla is tubular funnel-form, puberulous on the 
inner face, and glandular or egLindular. The anthers are nearly sessile, included, and discharge their 
pollen before the flowers open.' The disk is thin and obscure, and the style is elongated, with an entire 
stigma. The heads of fruit, which ripen late in the autumn, are from five eighths to three quarters of 
an inch in diameter, green tinged with red, and ultimately dark red-brown. 

Cephalanthus occidentalls grows in swamps and the low wet borders of ponds and streams, and 
ranges from New Brunswick to Ontario ^ and eastern Nebraska ' and Kansas,* and southward to Florida, 
Texas, New Mexico, and A ' .na. It is also widely distributed in California,' and grows in Mexico ° 
and Cuba.' 

The bark of Cephalanthus occidentalis contains tannin, and, although its medical virtues are 
problematical, it has been often used in the treatment of fevere ^ and in homoeopathic practice." 

The earliest account of Cephalanthus occidentalis was published by Plukenet in 1691.'° Accord- 
ing to Alton it was cultivated in England by Philip Miller in 1735." 

> Cross fertilizntion of the fiowera of Cephalanthu) occiderlatu is 
secured by the early maturity of tbo anthers. These discharge 
their pollen before the buds open in a conical mass on the imm^ 
ture stigma, which later is carried by the lengthening of the style 
to a point high above the flowers where it must come in contact 
\Tith insects which are attracted in great numbers to the flower- 
heads by tlicir fragrance and by the abundant nectar in the bottom 
uf the corollas, and which carry the pollen masses from the imma- 
ture stigma of one flower to the mature stigma of another. (See 
Kobcrtson, liol. Gaulte, xvi. OS. — Blanchan, Nalure'i Garden, 
25i, t.) 

Meehan believed that the early discharge of the pollen on to the 
stigma resulted in self-fertilization, but his own observations do 
not appear to support his theory, as he found that only one in Ave 
flowers of a head were fertilized, a fact which Robertson takes 
as presumptive evidence against self-fertilizatio^. (See Meehan, 
I'roc. Phil. Acad. 1887, 3'.i7 IConlnbulims to Ike Life History of 

' Provancher, Flore Canadimne, i. 201. — Brunet, Cat. Vig. Lig. 
Can. ;H. — Macouu, Cat. Can. Pi 199. 

' Bcssey, Bull. Erper. Slat. Nebraska, iv. art. iv. 22. 

* Hitchcock, F/. Kansas, plate xvi. 

» Gray, Brewer Sc Watson Bot. Cat. i. 282. — Eastwood, Bull. 
Sierra Club, iv. 58. 

' Ilcmsley, Pot. Biol. Am. Cent. ii. 6. 

In southern Arizona and In Mcsico the leaves of Cepkalantkui 

occidntalia ore often mnoh narrower than those nsually produced 
by Durthern plants, although the leaves vary greatly everywhere on 
different individuals. The narrow-leaved Mexican form is 

Cephalar\lhu$ occidentalis, var. lalici/oliut. Gray, 5yn. Fl. N. Am. 
i. pt. ii. 29 (1884). 

Cephalanthus snlici/olius, Humboldt & Bonpland, PI. jEquin. ii. 
63, t. 98 (1809). — Humboldt, Bonpladd & Kunth, Nou. Oen. et 
Spec. iii. 381. — Kunth, Sgn. PI. jEquin. iii. 39. — De CandoUe, 
Pndr. iii. 539. — Dietrich, Syn. i. 462. — Hemsley, I. c. 
' Grisebach, Cat. PL Cuba, 139. 

• Raflnesque, Med. Fl. 100, t. 20. — Griffith. Med. Bot. 356. — 
Johnson, Man. Med. Bot. N. Am. 16S.— U. S. Dispem. ed. 16, 
1750. — Parke, Davis & Co., Organic Mat. Med. 37. 

• Millspaugh, Am. Med. PI. in Homceopathic Remedies, i. 76, 
t. 76. 

" Arbor Americana triphylla,/ructu Platani quodammodo amulante, 
Plukenet, Phyl. t. 77, f. 4 ; Almagest. Bot. 47. 

Scabiosa dendroides Americana, temis foliis circa caulen. ambien' 
tibus,Jloribus ochroleucis, Plunkenet, Almagest. Bot. 336. 

Platanocephalus tini foliis ex adverso ternis, Vaillant, Mem. Acad. 
Sd. Paris, 1722, 191. 

Cephalanthus foliis temis, Lin.ueus, Sort. Cliff. 73. — Royen, Fl. 
Leyd. Prodr. 187. 

Cephalanthus foliis oppositis ^ lemit, Clayton, Fl. Virgin. 15. 

Cephalanthus, Duhamel, Traile des Arbres, i. 145. 

" Hort. Kew. i. 132. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 1001, f. 828, 829. 






! J 

f ; 



Plate DCCXL CKriiALANTRUs occuentalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natunl aiu. 

2. Diagram of » flower. 

3. A flower with bracUet, enlarged. 

4. Vertical aeetion o{ a flower, the corolla removed, enlarged. 
6. A corolla laid open, enlarged. 

6. A stamen, front and rear viewi, enlarged. 

7. A head of fruit, natural >ize. 

8. A fruit divided transversely, enlarged. 

9. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

10. A seed, rear view, enlarged. 

11. Vertical section of a seed cut at right angles with the back, enlarged. 

12. Vertical section of a seed cut parallel with the back, enlarged. 

13. An embryo, enlarged. 











IN t^ 

'¥ PLATE. 

Htiir i-i \i I\rHi'>i ihmiiKNTAJ.II. 
K ^ :^«nni; hrwM'b. tiMturkl UM. 
I >i>^rwu iif a riuwur 
A Aower «rit)i bracUat. enlar^pd. 

» ai ••etioii of » flowsr, tika roroiU ntmurvd, enlarged. 
■ • I 

ft, »r'!&rx«d 


Morth Air.eiCi 

Tab DCC.M 



rSF,,.r.'l ,!.■/ 



A UiOi'rtHi.r .iu't'.v ' 

Jmp . / Ttifi^ur Paruf 

•^'^'iWMnMUwOdMiSRMintfTffSiS^^HQHHlefca^^ "^ 



)S A 






Flowers perfect ; calyx 4 or 6-lobed or divided, the lobes imbricated in aestiva- 
tion ; petals 3 to 5, slightly imbricated or subvalvate in aestivation ; stamens 3 to 10 ; ovary 
superior, 3 to 5-cclled ; ovules numerous. Fruit capsular, sessile, or stipitate. Leaves 
alternate, membranaceous, destitute of stipules. 

BlUottia, EUiott, Sk. i. 448 (1817). — NutuU, Gtn. ii. Addi- 
tions. — Endlicher, Oen. 7C6. — Maimer, Gen. 247. — 
Bentham dc Hooker, Oen. ii. 698. — Baillon, Iliat. PI. 
zi. 176. — Drude, EngUsr & PranU Pjiatucnfam. iv. pt 
i. 32. 

Tripetalela, Siebold St Zueowini, Abhand. Akad. Muneh. 
iii. 731, t. 3, f. 2 (1843). — Drade, Engler Se Prantl 
Pflanunfam. iv. pL !. 33. 

Glabrous trees or shrubs, with terete or angled branchlets, scaly buds, and fibrous roots. Leaves 
alternate, obovate or elliptical, entire, glandular-apiculate, membranaceous, petiolate, destitute of 
stipules, deciduous. Flowers white or rose-colored, pedicellate, in erect terminal elongated racemose 
panicles ; bracts and bractlets minute, caducous, or foliaceous and persistent. Calyx four or five-lobed 
or divided. Petals three to five, linear-oblong, sessile, equal or very unequal, revolute after anthesis. 
Stamens four to ten, hypogynous ; filaments flattened ; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the 
base, two-celled, the cells free at the apex, opening longitudinally from above downward. Disk thin 
or much thickened. Ovary sessile or stipitate. subglobose, tliree to five-lobed, concave at the apex ; 
style elongated, slender or thickened, curved or declinate, gradually enlarged and club-shaped above ; 
stigma three to five-lobed, smaller than the thickened end of the style ; ovules numerous in each cell, 
attached on the inner angle of a tumid placenta, ascending, anatropous. Fruit capsular, subglobose, 
depressed at the apex, sessile or stipitate, three to five-lobed, opening septicidally from above downward 
into three to five valves free from the placentiferous axis. Seeds compressed, ovoid, or ellipsoidal ; 
testa cellulose ; embryo minrte, clavate, two-lobed, in fleshy albumen.' 

Three species of EUiottia are now known. One, the type of the genus, inhabits the states of 
Georgia and South Carolina, and the others are small shrubs of central and northern Japan.'^ 

The genus commemorates in its name Stephen Elliott,' the distinguished author of the Sketch of 
the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia. 

' The three speeiei of Elliotti* were arranged by Bentham & 
Hoolcer in three sections : — 

1. Calyx foiiNtoothed, short, cup-shaped. Petals four. Sta- 
mens twice as manjr as the petals. Ovary sessile. Bracts and 
bractlets minute, caducous. (EUiottia racemona.) 

2. Calyx fl^e-lobcd, short, oup-shnped. Petals three to fire. 
Stamens three to six. Ovary stipitate. Bracts linear. {EUiitlia 

3. Calyx five-parted, the divisions linear-oblong, longer than 

the fruit. Petals three to five. Stamens as many as the petals. 

Ovary sessile. Bracts foliaceous, persistent. (EUiottia brae- 


' Maximowicz, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pitersbourg, xi. 433 (Met. 
Biol. vi. aOO); xvi. 401j iviii. .■)2 (.Mil. Biol. viii. 621) (Tripe- 
tnleia). — Franchet & Savatier, £num. PI. Jap. i. 2&(. 

• See xi. 169. 





li tu 






Calyx short, cupular, 4-toothed ; petals 4 ; stamens 8 ; ovnry sessile on a thick- 
ened disk. 

BlMottU raoemoM, EUiott, Sk. I. 448 rl817). — Chapman, ft. 273. — Bklllon, Adantmia, I 200. — Gny, Syn. Ft. 
y. Am. U. pt i. 44 — Hwgtnt, Oardtn and Forut, y\\. 207, (. 37. 

A tree, fifteen or twenty feet in height, with a trunk four or five inchea in diameter covered with 
thin smooth light gray bark, and short ascending branches which form a narrow pyramidal head ; or 
more frequently shrubby. The branchlets are erect, slender, and terete, and when they first appear 
light red-brown and pilose ; during their first winter they are bright ornnge-brown, lustrous and nearly 
glabrous, light brown slightly tinged with red during their second season, and dark gray-brown the 
following year. The terminal winter-buds are broadly ovate, acute, and about an eighth of an inch 
long, with much thickened bright chestnut-brown shining scales conspicuously white-pubescent near the 
margins toward the apex. The leaves are obluiig or oblong-ovate, acute at the end« or occasionally 
rounded at the apex, membranaceous, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, pale and villose 
on the lower surface particularly along the thin yellow midribs and obscure forked veins, from three to 
four inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide ; they are borne on slender flattened 
villose petioles from one third to one half of an inch in length, and abruptly enlarged at the base, 
which nearly covers the small ovate compressed axillary buds ; these are rounded or short-pointed at 
the apex. The leaf-scars are slightly raised and oblongK>bovate, with conspicuous central fibrovascular 
bundle-scars. The flowers, which are about half an inch long, open from the middle to the »nd of 
June, and are borne on slender elongated pedicels, in loose many-flowered racemose panicles from seven 
to ten inches in length, with acute scarious caducous bracts and bractlets. The calyx is shoi-t, cu\y 
shaped, dark red-brown, and puberulous, with broad apiculate teeth erose on the margins. The four 
petals are spatulate-linear and white. The eight stamens are shorter than the petals, with elongated 
broad flattened filaments and oblong-ovate anthers callous-mucronate at the tips of the spreading lobes. 
The ovary is sessile on a thick fleshy disk, four-celled, and abruptly narrowed into the slender elongated 
style, incurved at the apex, and the ovules are numerous in each cell. The frui; Ir still unknown. 

Ellioltia racemosa, which is one of the rarest North American trees, inhabits sandy woods in a 
few isolated stations in the valley of the Savannah River near Augusta, and in Burke and Bullock 
counties, Georgia. It was discovered early in the nineteenth century near Waynesboro, Georgia, 
and was included, but without a description, by Muehlenberg in his Cntalogux Plantarum America 
Seplentrionalin published in 1813.' 

Three or four plants taken from the woods near Augusta in 1875 by Asa Gray and planted in 
Mr. Berckmans's nursery in that city have grown into shapely trees and are still flourishing. There is 
only one other record ' of the successful cultivation of this plant. 


> BUiollia racemota wm diwoTcnd near Wayneaboro, Burks 
Cuunty, Georgia, perhaps b; Stephen Elliott himaelf. Much later 
it wa8 found near Augusta, and in 1853 Mr. S. T. Olney collected 
it at Hamburg on the South Carolina aide of the Savannah River 
oppoaite Auguata. No trace of EUiottia baa been found in theae 
Btationa by the botaniata who have viaited them in recent years but 
in Juue, 1001, Mr. R, M. Harper found a colony of the planta near 

Bloya, Bullock County, Georgia, about forty milea aouth of Waynes- 
boro. (See Small, Jour. N. Y. Bol. Ganl. ii. 113. — Harper, Plant 
Wortil, V. 87, f. 12.) Elliott atatea that he bad alao received ape.'ii- 
mens of EUiottia from the Oconee [River]. (Sk. i. 448.) 

' Muehlenberg atatea that a Mr. Oemler " had the ohrub, once, 
in hia garden." (See letter of April 20, 1813, to Baldwin in Reli- 
(juia Baldwiniaua, 70.) 




Platr DCCXIL Elliottia bacbmoha. 

1. A flowering branch, natural lize. 

2. Diagram of a flower. 

3. A petal, enlarged. 

4. A (tamen, front and rear views, enlarged. 
6. Portion of a style and stigma, enlarged. 

6. An orary, enlarge<l. 

7. Vertical section of an ovary, enlarged. 

8. Cross section of an ovary, enlarged. 









; i 

- M 

' 1 ' - 

■1 ■■ 

; ■ 


■i ■ 



EXri.ANAriON iiK THK I'l.ATK. 

PiATK IJCC'XJI. ELLifrmA ra<:iui<ha. 
i. A flowarioR bnncli. ii*ttml lixe. 
2. Diagrwn of a Hown 

4. A ritankeri, (nnit aikI rear vievn. rnlarj^^^tl. 
S- Portion <>{ » utt Ih uul aiigib^ eiilitrgwl. 
<>. An o»«ry, cnlBrfpni. 
T- Vrrtif*! M«lt»i' of «• o?»ry, i-iiiargMi. 
8. Crw* wrlion ui tn uT»ry, anUrgwI. 


i!va oi' Morlh America. 

Tab DCC/.H 


LarLiuti Jv 


.4 Htorrit4.r {firt\r ^ 

Jrnp . ^ Tantmr J'.tru 












Leaflets 5, ovate to oblong, mostly coarsely serrate, long-petiolulate. 

Frazinua ooriaoea, WaUon, Am, Nat. vii. 302 (1873) ; 

Cat. PI. Wheeler, 15. — Rothrook, Wheeler's Rep, vi. 

185, t. 22.— Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 148 

{Bot, Death Valley Exped.). 
Frazinua piataoiEefolia, var. ooriaoer., Gray, Syn. Fl. N. 

Am. ii. pt i. 74 (1878). — Wenzif. Bot. Jahrb. iv. 182. 

Fraxinus pioiacieefolia, Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. \Qth 
Census U. S. ix. 106 (in part) (not Torrey) (1884). 

Fraxinus velutina, Sargent, SUva N. Am. vi. 41 (in part) 
(not Torrey) (1894). 

A tree, occasionally thirty feet in height, with a trunk from twelve to sixteen inches in diameter, 
stout spreading branches foi-ming a round-topped head, and comparatively slender ashy gray branchlets 
which, tomentose when they first appear and coated with soft fine pubescence for one or two years, 
are ultimately glabrous. T. • leaves are generally about six inches long, with stout grooved pubescent 
petioles, and usually five leaflets ; these are ovate or oblong, acute, acuminate or rounded at the apex, 
broadly cuneate or rounded at the base, coarsely repand-serrate, long-petiolulate, coated as they appear 
with long pale hairs, which are most abundant on the lower surface, and at maturity thick and firm in 
texture, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, pale and glabrous or pubescent on the lower 
surface, from two to three inches long and from one to two inches vide. On leading shoots the 
leaves are sometimes reduced to single long-stalked leaflets, or are threc-foliolate, with a large termi- 
nal leaflet and small lateral leaflets. The flowers, which appear about the middle of April with or 
before the unfolding leaves, are produced in short compact panicles, the males and females on different 
individuals from buds in the axils of leaves of the previous year, covered by broadly ovate scales 
rounded and often short-pointed at the apex, and coated on the outer surface with rusty tomentum. 
The calyx is cup-shaped and larg«ir and more deeply divided in the pistillate than in the staminate 
flower. The anthers are oblong aud nearly sessile. The ovary is abruptly narrowed into the slender 
style slightly divided into two stiginatic lobes. The fruit ripens late in the season, and is borne in 
narrow clusters from two to three inches in length ; it is slender, oblong, from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch long, and the wing, which is rounded and often emarginate at the apex and about an eighth 
oi an inch wide, is about as long as the terete wingless body.' 

Fraxinus corlacea inhabits the desert region of southern Utiih, northern Arizona, southern 
Nevada, and southeastern California, and has been collected in the neighborhood of St. George, Utah,'' 
at Ash Meiidows, Nevada,' in the Devil Run Caiion, Arizona,* and on Cottonwood Creek on the west 
side of Owen's Lake, California." 

,; ;i| 

1 In the sixth Tolumo of this work Fraxiuus coriacea was con- 
sidered a form of Fraximts vetutiua. It differs from that species 
ill its fewer luuger-stulkcd Icatlots which arc more coriaceous and 
more coarsely serrate, and in its range, Fraxinus coriacea being a 
trc-e of the mesas and low plains, while Fraxinu^i velutina is an in- 
habitant of mountain cafions ; and with our still slight knowledge of 
the southwestern species of Fraxinus it is perhaps best to consider 
it a species. 

3 By Dr. Edward Palmer in 187S, and by J. \V. Carpenter in 

■^ By Lieutenant Wheeler, U. S. A., in 1871, and by Dr. Frede> 
ick V. Coville on the Death Valley Expedition in 1891. 

• By Dr. J. M. IJigelow of the Mexican Boundary Survey {teste 
S. Watson), who was probably the discoverer of this tree. 

•■ By Dr. Frederick V. Coville on the Death Valley Expedition 
in 1891. 








i ■ 





Platk IX}CXin. Fhaxinus cobucka. 

1. A brunt'li with staiiiinAto flowers, iialurU liia. 

'J. A litaniinate tluwc r, enlarged. 

3. A branrh with jnstillate (lowera, natural aire. 

4. A |>iiitiUnte flower, enlnrf^ed. 

6. A friiitiii); branrh. natural size. 

6. Vertical nertion uf a fruit, natural niza. 

7. A winter braoclilet, natural aize. 






^ / 


i| < ' i 

a 'I 


i ; 





iHCXm. l>'ilAXI|irU« COMACXil. 

. " li wilh kUmm»l«.' Hoirein, oM'iral liia. 

■ ' 'i witii (NslilUte lliiwrra, nuturkl ritr. 

U nil**. 

< 'iktitnl ails. 


iva of North Amenca. 

Tib. Dccxni, 



.\ :\?^ 




M 'V 



(C S/a^x^n .M. 


A /ii4jf!rsua> dircKC ' 

!*np J ToJiefur /'aruf 

MofiinA- JO. 

i I 


i ''S 




Pumpkin Ash. 

Leaflets 7 to 9, lunccolato to ovute-lanccolate, pubescent on the lower surface, 

Frazinua profunda. Buih, Oardtn and Fortst, i. 616 Fraxinua Amerioana, var. profunda, Butb, Jitj). Mis- 
(1897). — Britton, Man. 726. iffurt Bot. Onrd. v. 147 (18W). 

A tree, sometimes one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a slender trunk occasionally 
three feet in diameter above the much enlarged and buttressed base, and small spreading brunches 
which form a narrow and rather open head ; or often much smaller.* The bark of the trunk varies 
from one half to three quarters of an inch in thickness, and is light gray and divided by shallow 
fissures into broad flat or rounded ridges broken on the surface into thin closely appressed scales. The 
branchlets are stout, marked by large pale lenticcls, and coated when they first appear with hoary 
tomentum ; they are tomentose or pubescent during their first winter, and light gray and pilose or 
glabrous the following year. The large oblong slightly raised leaf-scars are rounded at the base and 
obconic at the apex, which nearly incloses the small ovate obtuse lateral buds. The terminal buds are 
broadly ovate, obtuse, light reddish brown, and covered with close pale pubescence. The leaves vary 
from nine to eighteen inches in length, with stout tomentose petioles and usiutUy seven but occasionally 
nine long-atalked leaflets ; these are lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate or abruptly long-pointed 
at the apex, and rounded or broadly cuneate, and usually unsyminetrical at the base ; when they unfold 
they are coated on the lower surface, like their stalks, with hoary tomentum, and are pilose on the 
upper surface, with short pale hairs, particularly along the midribs and veins, and at maturity they are 
thick and firm in texture, dark yellow-green and nearly glabrous above, soft-pubescent below, from 
five to ten inches long and from two to five inches wide, with stout yellow midribs deeply impressed 
and puberulous above, and numerous slender primary veins arcuate and connected near the margins, 
which are undulate and entire or slightly serrate, with small remote teeth. The staminate and pistillate 
flowers are produced on different trees in elongated much-branched pubescent |)aniclea, with oblong or 
oblong-obovate scarioiis bracts and bractlets. The staminate flower is composed of a minute cam- 
panulate obscurely four-toothed calyx and two or three stamens, with oblong apiculate anthers and 
comparatively long slender filaments. The calyx of the pistillate flower is large, deeply lobed, accrescent 
and persistent under the fruit, and the ovary is gradually contracted into the slender style which is 
divided into two dark spreading stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which is produced in long drooping 
many-fruited clusters, varies from two and a half to three inches in length ; it is oblong, with a 
wing which is often half an inch wide and sometimes falcate, rounded, apiculate or emnnrinate at the 
apex, and decurrent to below the middle or nearly to the base of the thick terete many-rayuil body. 

FraxhiHS profundn grows in deep river-swamps often inundated during several months of the 
year in Dunkin and New Madrid counties, southeastern Missouri, in Clay and Lincoln coimties in eastern 
Arkansas, and on the lower Appalachicola River in western Florida.' 


I i 



' The tree cut bj Mr. Bush near Vamer, Lincuin County, Arkan- 
sas, to obtain a specimen for the ,Jesup Collection of North Amer- 
ican Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, waa one hundred and eighteen feet in height, with a trunk 
thirty-three inches in diameter at three feet above the surface of 

the ground. It was two hundred years old, with uighty-one layers 
of sapwood, which was four inches in tliickness. 

'^ Fraxinm profunda appears to have been first collected on the 
Appalachicola River on June 7, 1807, by F. Roth. It was found in 
the same locality by B. F. liusli in August of the same year, and 
in March, 1898, by Dr. A. W. Chapman and C. S. Sargent. 

J i^, 





Thia mafi^iiicent tra«, which lurpoMet the other American ipecius of this genu* in the lize of itH 
leaves and fruit and in the size of the calyx of the pistillate Hower, was discovered in September, 
1893, by Mr. U. F. Bush at Campbell, Missouri.' 

< Dm Atb-tn* frum Um AtUntie cMut, ral'trrad l« thu tpceiM Mr. Aih* Hm Mot to m* from U» l>i>(toiiu nf (b* Cap* Fnr 
\>y Alb* (IUM. HatMH, iifiii. U71), Judfing bjr lh« •mall fniitinf lUvtr, North Carullna, U prtibsbl; h'rastniu Anuncana. 
ealjj ■ixl tba gUbroiu Imtm of tb« IngmtaUuy tpwiuMiu wbioh 


Plats DCCXIV. PaAxiNm paorvNnA. 

1. A brsneh with ituninat* flowart, natural lita. 

2. A tfauninatc flower, anUrKetl. 

8. A branch with piitillate flowen, natural aits. 

4. A piatillat* flower, anUrgcd. 

Platk DCCXV. Fkaxinuh raoruwDA. 

1. A rluatar of fruit, natural tiie. 

2. A Iraf, natural lite. 

5. ▲ winter braochlet, natural liu. 





,/ .^ 


I in the lize of iu 
red in September, 

onu ol tlw Ctpt Fnr 

« An 




'I I 




OLEA< > 


'«po»%»«7 «p»f«" 

.i»*ri<'*u R}w«;ie8 of thu gonuH in the sizo (i; 
tw m\sx or i«« |4«i4tt«t« Hfiwer, wiw iliwovered in Septemt- 


•I 111 •me from lh« bottonn of tin. Tupi' 


If' I 

?.\I«l-,* fkrir<'r*IH. 

■ f 

II iillli'1 

i mi 

il i* 



I i 


Moit.h America. 


tiH in the sizo o<' 
[•red in S»'j)tun>biv 

itoms uf tht' r'A)H 
I'ij Americatta. 


/^'V . .J/ift.r . 

.^ni Himfh^ 

I :i 


' v^•|p • 


hi\ ) 


fi ill 


.' i 









I 5. . Si 


H it 

Silva ot North Ameru i 


jT'V. HtfTf^U 

/ffifi. . ^ T.uttHir Parw 



M ! 
i .( 


V y 

i , I 









Leaflets 7 to 9, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, aciuninate, pale and pubescent below, 

Fraxinus Biltmoreana, Beadle, Hot. Oaxettt, xxv. 358 (1898). —Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 666 (Plant Life of 

Alabama). — Britton, Man. 725. 

A tree, forty or fifty feet in height, with a trunk seldom more than a foot in diameter covered with 
dark gray slightly furrowed rough bark, and stout ascending or spreading branches which form an open 
syiunietrical head. The branchlets are stout, light or dark gray, soft-pubescent usually during two 
seasons and much roughened during the winter, and often for two or three years, by the large elevated 
mostly obcordnte or sometimes orbicular leaf-scars which display a marginal line of fibrovascular bundle- 
scars.' The terminal winter-huds are ovate and usually broader than they are long and covered with 
bright brown scales, the two outer scales being keeled on the back and apiculate at the apex, and the 
others rounded, accrescent, and shghtly villose. The leaves are from ten to twelve inches long, with 
stout ])ubescent or puberulous petioles and seven or nine leaflets raised on stout elongated pubescent 
pctiolulcs ; the leaflets arc ovate-oblong or lanceolate, often falcate, acuminate at the apex, rounded or 
broadly cuneatp and often inequilateral at the base ; when they unfold they are yellow-bronze color, 
nearly glabroiis above, coated below particularly on the midribs and veins with long white hairs, and at 
maturity the^ are from three to four inches long and from two thirds of an inch to an inch wide, thick 
and firm in tt^xture, dark green and slightly lustrous on the upper surface, pale or glaucous and puberu- 
lou.s on the lo !\ er surface along the slender yellow midribs and primary veins which are arcuate near the 
slightly thickened and incurved entire or remotely and obscurely toothed margins. The flowers appear 
with the leaves about the first of May, the males and females on different trees in rather compact 
glabrous or pubescent panicles, with scarious caducous bracts and bractlets, from the axils of leaves of 
the |)revious year. The staminatc flower is composed of a minute cu[)-shaped very obscurely dentate 
calyx and nearly sessile oblong acute anthers. The calyx of the pistillate flower is much larger and 
deeply lobed, and the oblong ovary is gradually narrowed into the slender style which is divided at the 
apex into two short stigmatic lobes. The fruit, which is produced in elongated glabrous or puberulous 
clusters, is from an inch and a half to an inch and three quarters long, with a wing which is only 
slightly narrowed at the ends, emarginate at the apex, about a quarter of an inch wide, and from two 
and a half to three times longer than the short elliptical niarginless many-nerved body. 

Frax'innK liiHrnorvanti inhabits the banks of streams and rarely low river benches, and is dis- 
tributed from northern West Virginia • through the foothill region of the Appalachian Mountains to 
northern Georgia '' and Alabama,* and to middle Tennessee." It was first distinguished in 1893 by Mr. 
C. D. Beadle '' in the neigiiborhood of Biltmore, North C- -lina, where it is the common Ash-tree. 

' I'ntil till! [iliilits ure aliolit four years old their steins aril 
branches are quite glabrous, "'he branches, which are ileveloped 
later, are covered with the pubescence wliich is one of the best 
eharacters by which this tree can bo distinguished fniiu Fraximts 
A jn.»rirf(na. 

'' In 1897 Fraiinm flillmnrmnn was found liy Professor A. I). 
Hopkins near Kaston, Mononj^ulia County, West Virginia. 

^ In (ieorgia /•'ruj-intw BiUmorenun has been collected by J. K. 

Small near Tacoa, Habersham County, iu August, 180.5, and by 
C. }j. Hoyntou on Little Stone Mountain, L)e Kalb County. 

* In Alabama Fraxitius liiltmiyreana has Iwen collected by T. O. 
Harbison in Marshall, .lacksoii, and Do Kalb counties ; and near 
(ladsdcn, where this trt^c is common, by C. I), lleadle. 

* In the Herbarium of the ,\rnold Arboretum there is an nn- 
dftted specimen of Frazinw liiltmoreana collected by Dr. A. Gat- 
tinger at Nashville. 

' Sec nil. CO. 


















1 : * 


6' ! 
I 'Si i 

1 i 

Plate IX:CXVL Fraxinus Hiltmorka-va. 

1. A flowering branch of a BtAiuiuate tree, natural size. 

2. A ataniinate Hower. enlarged. 

3. A flowering branch of a pistillate tree, natural lize. 

4. A pistillate flower, eiilargeil. 

r>. A cluster of fruits, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, natural size. 

~. A seeil, natural size. 

8. A leaf, natural size. 

9. A winter brauchlet, natural size. 




: . f 



' ' 


I A 6aw*nnK bniKk -4 ■ •unxnat* tnw jiural «!«. 

<.'« tt««. MtllWaJ MM. 


' • n'ur*! tittc. 

fi:lva of Noinh Ameru.i 


''.«a«k>n da/. 

/iiipint* j-a 


.4 /iV. -. /tuui' ..■>■/«' ■ 

/m/i ..' T^iTieuf Ptirw 




j': j 

' m 




/> 4. 



1^ |2B |2.5 
i? Ki |Z2 
^ us, 12.0 


1.25 1.4 1.6 

-^ 6" 













WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) S72-4503 



,1 •? 

4. , - ,_^ 



Water Ash. 
Leaflets usually 3 to S, oblong, acuminate, long-petiolulate. 

Fraxlnui FlorldwiK. 

Frkxlnua plettyoarp*, var. FktridMi*, Wentig, Bot. Jahrb. 
W. 188 (18«3). 

Fraxinus CaroUniana, Sargent, Silva N. Am. ri. 66 (in 
put) (not MiUer) (1804). 

A small Ash-tree which growi in ponds and deep river^wamps in eastern and western Florida 
and in southern Georgia and which has usually been considered a form of the Water Ash, Fraxinus 
CaroUniana varies constantly from that species in the form of the fruit. It is desirable that a plate of 
this second species of Water Ash should appear in a Silva of North America, and although the foliage 
and winter-buds do not afford characters by which the two trees can be readily distinguished in the 
herbarium, it is convenient to treat them as species rather than as varieties. The fruit of Fraxinus 
CaroUniana is elliptical or spatulate and frequently three-winged, with thin wings which surround the 
short slender compressed body, and are acute at the apex, not much more than twice as long as they 
are wide, usually narrowed below into a short stalk-like base, many-nerved, and marked by conspicuous 
deeply impressed midnorves. The fruit of Fraxinus Floridana, as the second species must be called, 
is lanceolate or oblanceolate, rounded and emarginate at the gradually narrowed apex, and about four 
times as long as it is wide, with rather obscure midveins. 

Fraximw Floridana was described by Wensdg from specimens collected in Florida by Gabanis ' 
more than sixty yean ago. It has been colle tf,d in recent years near Jacksonville," Eustis,' and Appa- 
lachicola,* Florida, and in Charlton County, souiL :m Georgia." 

■ Jtan CtbanU (Maroh 8, 1810) wh born in Berlin of » family 
of French PtotMtant* whieb bad (migratwi to Qermanj during the 
reign of Louiii XIV. lie began bii toientiflo career u auiatant in 
the ZoSlogieul MuMuro at llerlin during the administration of Pro- 
teuor Liohteutein and under hti direetion viiited the United Statei 
to coUeet birdi, He remaine<l in America from 1839 to 1843 and 
made Urge omitbologioal oolleotiane in South Carolina, where he 
•pent moit of hie time during hit American riiit, and in Florida. 
Hii nnkll oollection of Amtrioan planta !• preaorred in the Botan- 
ical Muieum at Berlin. Cabanii baa been a praliflc writer on lya- 
iematic ornithology. He contributed the account of the birds in 
the third Tolume of Hchomburgk'i work on Guiaua, published in 
1848, and the Omilhologiteht NotiMm in Wiegmann's i4n;Aiii Jttr 
Nalurgachiekl; published in 1847, and with F. Heine was the 
author of I'trsncAniM ittr omitkolojiicktn Sammlung da Museum 

Heineanum, 1860-43. His most important work appeared in the 
Journal fUr OmiAologie, of which be was the editor from 1853 to 

' By A. H. Cnrtiss, No. <i!321. 

' By 6. V. Nash, Augnst, 1894, and distributed as Fhixinut 

* By J. Roth, May, 1897, and by Chapnum and Sargent, March, 

• By J. K. Small, January, 1895, in the St. Mary's Rirer Swamp 
below Traders' Hill, and distributed ai Fnamu epipltra. 

A specimen collected by Fendler at New Orleans in April, 1846 
(in herb. Engelmann), with partly grown fruit is perhaps of this 
species, as are possibly specimens distributed by Ashe as irozinui 
epiplera from Bladen County, North Carolina (Noe. 1860 and 

i 1 


'if' I 


i ll 






Plati DCCXVU. FniLiiiNVK Floridana. 

1. A branch with lUminate flowen, natural du. 

2. A ■taminate flower, enlargad. 

3. A branch with piitillale flower*, natural lita. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruiting branch, natural «ixe. 

6. A fruit, natural size. 

7. A fruit, natural sise. 

8. A fruit, natural aiie. 

9. A leaf, natural size. 



' '(' 

i ! 


Ktj-« DCXI!XV1I. Kr«.xi.vui FumiDANA. 

\ Srench with stain iiiat<> lluwerm iiktuni mm. 

^ vtainiuate llawvr, «ularge<l. 
'■\ A Wmneh with piatillnt« Howart, nstuntl iii«. 
1 X pia(i1U(« Silver. enUr|;«<l. 

'. *rai«n««r hrnwh luturtl siM, 

?ilva of Nor'Ii Amrrif a 


^iapuiA. jc- 


.•1 liiory.-sur Jify\r^ 

Imp J Tii^eur I'arur 

t \\\ 

!■■ i i ■ 


' 1 '1 




Red Elm. 

Flowers autumnal, long*pcdicellate. Fruit ciliate on the margins. Leaves oblong 
to oblong-obovato, .wuminate. Bud'-scales glabrous. Branchlets often furnished with 
corky wings. 

Ulmut MTOtlna, Hargant, Hot. QoMtte, uvii. 93 (1899). — 
Mohr, Contrili. U. S. Nat. Htrh. vi. 474 (Plant Lif of 
Ataliama). — Qt,tti«gtt, Fl, Tenne$*te, 69. 

Ulmua raoemosa, Chapmsn, Ft. ed. 2, 1 vfl. MV (not 
Borkhaasen nor Thomu) (1883) ; ed. 3, '.14. —Sargent, 
Silva N. Am. vii. 47 (in part). 

A tree, with a trunk forty or Mij- feet in height, and fi >m two to three feet in diameter, and 
comparatively small spreading or pendu'uus branches which often form a broad and handsome head. 
The bark of the trunk is from one quaHer to three eighths of an inch in thickness, Ught brown slightly 
tinged with red, and divided by shallow jfissmes into broad flat ridges broken on the surface into large 
thin closely approwed scales. The branchlets are slender and pendulous, and when they first appear 
are glabrous or occasionally puberulous ; during their first year they are light reddish brown, lustrous 
and marked by occasional oblong white lenticels, darker the following season, ultimately dark gray- 
brown, and often furnished with two or three thick corky wings which are developed during their 
sucor <\ or third years. The winter-buds are ovate, acute, and a quarter of an inch long ; their outer 
scales are oblong-obovate, dark chestnut-brown, and glabrous, and the inner scales are accrescent, often 
RGiriouB on the margins, rounded or acute at the apex, pale yellow-green, lustrous, and sometimes 
three quarters of an inch long when fully grown. The leaves are oblong or oblong-obovate, acuminate 
at the apex, very oblique «t the base, and coarsely and doubly crenulate-serrate ; when they unfold 
they are coated below with shining whit«) hairs and puberulous above, and at maturity they are thin 
but fit in in textuv^. yellow-green, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface, pale and puberulous 
along the midribs and principal veins on the lower surface, from two to four inches long and from an 
inch to an inch and three quarters wide, with prominent yellow mu^ribs and about twenty pairs of 
primary veins extending obliquely to the points of the principal teeth and often forked near the margin 
of the leaf, and numerous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout petioles about a quarter of an 
inch long, and in the autumn turn clear orange-yellow before falling. The stipules are abruptly 
I'-^rrowed from broad clasping bases.- linear-lanceolate, usually about a quarter of an inch long, and 
prsistent until the leaves are nearly fully grown. The inflorescence buds appear early in the season 
IE the axils of leaves of the year, and the flowers open in September ; they are borne on slender 
conspicuously jointed pedicels often an eighth of an inch long, in many-flowered glabrous racemes from 
an ini'h to an inch and a half in length. The calyx is six-parted to the base, with oblong-obovate 
reddish brown divisions rounded at the apex. The ovary is sessile, narrowed below, and villose. The 
fruit ripens '■ >ly in November, and is stipitate, oblong-elliptical, deeply divided at the apex, fringed on 
the margins with long silvery white hairs, and about half an inch long. 

UlmuH srrotina inliai.its limestonp hills and river banks from central Tennessee to northern Ala- 
bama Hiid northeastern Georgia.' 

> Ulmui ttrolina wm cuUeoted l>jr Kugel (>ee ix. 110) on the ita autumnal flowers, it was referred by him to Ulmus racemosa. 

French llruad Ulver near the boundary between North Carolina It was distributed without flowers or fruit as Ulmui racemosa from 

and Trmie'tnn in OctoW, 1H42; it was l>und near Nashville by the Biltmore he. jarium (No. 3634b) from collections made at Xiish- 

l>r, A. Oattinger as early iit least as 1870, and, although he noticed TtUe in 1897. On the 9th of October, 1898, a single large tree 

' ' I 







Tha %ou<l of Ulmun aerotina in hard, close-grained, very itrong and tough, and luaceptible of 
receiving a beautiful polish : it contains numerous obwure medullary rays and bands of one or two 
layers of ^mall open ducts marking the layers uf annual growth, and is light red-brown, with pale yellow 

Ulmus »erotma has been ovcasiunally planted as a shade tree in the streets of Huntsville, 
AUbsma, and Rome, Georgia, where it In distinguished by its broad handsome head of pendulous 
branches. In 1899 yuung plants raised from seeds gatht.'ed at Iluntsvillo the previous autumn were 
distributed from the Biltmore nurseries. The hardiness of thi« handsome and distinct tree has not yet 
been sufficiently tested in the northern states. 

oonrad with fruit wu Man bjr John Huir, W. M. CMbjr, and C. 
8. Sugcnt eloM to the bigbroad wbiab Iwub autward rroin Hunt*- 
rille, Alabiuna, aarou tbr ridg« known ai Hants Sano. 8ubw- 
quentljr it waa found to be abundant on tb« bill* n«ar HnntiTillo 
and on tboaa in tba noigbborhood of Rome, Georgia, by Mr. C. L. 
Bujnton of the Biltmore berbarium. It ii the Ulmut ractmota 
at ChapiBMi'i Flon m far as relatM to tha rirar banka of Tan- 

neiteo, and the l/lmm ractmoui for middle Taanaaaee of Sargent'a 

' Tha apeeiman of l/lmut urotuta in tha Jaaup Collection of 
North American Woodi in the Americao Huaeum of Natural Ifia- 
torj, New York, ia Mtenteen and a quarter inobea in diameter 
inaide the bark and one hundred and twantj^ight jreara old, with 
tweUe lajsra of aapwood, which ia thra* qtiartara of an inch in 


Platk DCCXVIII. Ulmuh hkbotwa. 

1. A flowering branch, natural aiu. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. A piatil, enlarged. 

4. A fruiting branch, natural lize. 

5. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 
0. A aeed, enlarged. 

7. An embryo, enlarged. 

8. A winter branchlet, natural size. 

9. Portion o( a branchlet with corky wingi, natural i 



nd luaoeptible of 
>di of one or two 
1, with pale yellow 

ts of Iluntsville, 
Bad of penduloua 
iuua autumn were 
t tree haa not yet 

TenoMim of Sargant'i 

M jMup Collaotion of 
luMum of NatunI Hie 
tcr JDchM in diameter 
ty-eif ht ftn old, with 
quwUn of Ml iooh in 

Tub nrrxviu 







iiaftl. iJiiM |w»i' **i '^■*^ ■*"*•>• **>*' tough, and nuacaptibkr <it 
MMMitm* fiitXhtj vy »iiil ImiihIb of ona or iw . 

iftvar* i4 m n u n m > *' •i*') w ligkt Twi-bn>wD, witli |)ttln jtdUo* 

-•»!• rnunf 

,tm <Amt u Uu> IU ( > » — ■ < 

■ad OB ikflM Ml *^ ••i«4>J.Vtr> 

tmmih pAMiw< <'t> tiw in tb« utrocU of i{uiiU>i11i\ 

(t >* sVtt^mf/t* '•r<«i| lutndiMmie head uf pciidiilmu 

k ituiiUvtIU' thr iiri'viouH niitiiiiiii woh' 
aiid dutttuut true tuu nut yt-t 

•w mmmm fct HUdU T*»b««h« of rUr|«ii • 

' I I— •( ''(■■> i w wiiM ia tb« Jmu|i CoIImMm al 

. " c«« WdMb w llw ABMi«M MuMliUI of Nkl«l«l lli» 

. N • Yutk, u MTMtN* ud » <|iurtrr iiiohM in ili«»»tit 

»M<<« tk« bark ud ouo huudr*! tiid tw«ntj-«i(ht )r««n aU, vMfe 

iwpIv* Ujtn af H|iwoud, *kHti i< ibiM quwt«n uf «■ ifMk »• 


PlaTl' IHI .\.VHl I 1 V - «• 11I.7IS4. 

1. A duworinf; br»i>cli, ii»lui*l •u" 

2. A Huwcr, onUrK«<t. 
!}. A piaCil, rniargol. 

4. A fruiting bnuirli, natnrkt liM. 

f . V«HM4l UMiioa of • inUt. «iiUr)(*J. 

^ \ Wi^rT tilinMCViT 

<«• oAtfcy *iB^ Mteni < 

i ' 

.Ulva or North AmcncA 

Tab DC'"XVII1 

I HllW-llptlbU llf 

Ih of ona or tm,> 
with |iul« yMom 

I of lluiiU*tlli', 
kit of |)<>ii(ialiiiii 
iiiH iiiitiiiiiii w(<n< 
truit luM iiat yvi 

nniwiMa of .i«r|«ai . 

jMup CoUmMm 1 
iMun uf N»l«isi lib- 
r JiMshM in dJaaMw 
-riKhl ynn old, vMk 
...ri.n uf Ml hMk n 

' I 


i £ F<iX4?n tini 


litiptn^ sc . 

























on 1 












at a 





Bitter Peoan. 

Leaflets 7 to 11, lar late, often falcate. Fruit 4-winged to the base ; nut oblong, 
compressed, thin-shelled ; seed deeply penetrated by the folds of the inner wall of the 

Biooria Tezana, Le Conte, Proe. Phil. Acad. 1853, 
402, {. — Britton, BuU. Taney Bot. Club, xr. 282. 

Carya Texana, C. de CwdoUe, Ann. Sei. Nca. »6t. 4, xviiL 
33 (1862) ; Prodr. zvi. pt ii. 146. 

A tree, on rich river-bottoms sometimes a hundred feet in height, with a tall straight trunk three 
feet in diameter and ascending branches, and on the borders of prairies in low wet woods usually from 
fifteen to twenty-five feet tall, with a short trunk eight or ten inches in diameter, and small spreading 
branches which form a narrow round-topped head. The bark '<! the trunk is from one half to three 
quarters of an inch in thickness, light reddish brown, and roughened by closely appressed variously 
shaped plate-like scales. Thu branchlets are slender, and when they first appear are coated with thick 
hoary tomentum which is sometimes persistent until the autumn, and during their first winter they are 
bright red-brown and marked by occasional large pale lenticels, darker in their second season, and 
dark or light gray-brown in their third year. The scales of the winter-buds are valvate and covered 
with light yellow articulate hairs. The terminal buds are oblong, acute or acuminate, somewhat 
compressed, about a quarter of an inch long, and rather longer than the upper lateral buds ; these are 
usually stalked and two or three times as large as the lower lateral buds, which are nearly surrounded 
by the thin membranaceous border of the large concave obcordate leaf-scars. The leaves are ten or 
twelve inches long, with from seven to eleven leaflets and slender petioles which are slightly flattened 
and grooved on the upper side toward the base, thickly coated at first with hoary tomentum, and 
more or less villose in the autumn. The leaflets are lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, and finely 
serrate, with minute straight or incurved remote teeth, except on the upper side below the middle, 
which is entire. The terminal leaflet is gradually narrowed and acute at the base and short^talked, 
and the lateral leaflets are often falcate, rour.Jed or sometimes broadly cuneate on one side and 
narrowly cuneate on the other at the unsymmotrical base, and subsessile or short-stalked ; when they 
unfold the leaflets are puberulous above and toiaentose below, and at maturity they are thin and firm in 
texture, dark yellow-green and nearly glabrous on the upper surface, pale yellow-green and puberulous 
on the lower surface, from three to five inches long and about an inch and a half wide, with slender 
yellow midribs rounded and usually puberulous on the upper side toward the base, and numerous 
slender forked primary veins arcuate and united near the margin of the leaf, and connected by thin 
straight veinlets. The staminate flowers open about the first of May when the leaves are nearly a 
third grown, and are produced in slender villose aments from two to three mches long from buds 
formed in the axils of leaves of the previous year. The perianth is light yellow-green, and villose on 
the outer surface, with oblong-ovate rounded lobes much shorter than the ovate acuminate bract. The 
pistillate flowers are oblong, slightly four-angled, and villose, wth an ovate bract, broadly ovate bractlets, 
and an ovate acute calyx-lobe. The fruit is produced in few-fruited clusters, and is oblong or oblong- 
obovate, acute at the ends, apiculate at the apex, slightly four-winged at the base, dark brown more or 
less covered with articulate hairs, and from an inch and a half to two inches long, with a thin four- 
valved husk. The nut is oblong-ovate or oblong-obovate, compressed, acute at the ends, short-pointed 
at the apex, apiculate at the base, obscurely four-angled, bright red-brown, rough and pitted, and 


I : 

i ! 

■;■ » 




UAually from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long, with a thin brittle shell, thin papery 
walls, and a low basal ventral partition. The seed is bitter, bright red-brown, flattened, two-lobed at 
the apes, with lobes about as long as the short pobt of their connective, rounded and slightly divided 
at the base, obscurely grooved on the inner face, lobed by two longitudinal grooves on the outer face, 
and deeply penetrated by the prominent reticulated folds of the inner surface of the wall of the nut. 

Hicoria Texana grows on the bottom-lands of the streams and in the low wet woods bordering 
the prairies of eastern Texas, where it is common in the Gulf region for a distance of from one hundred 
to one hundred aud fifty miles from the coast. 

The wood is close-grained, tough and strong, and light red-brown, with pale brown sapwood.' The 
nuts are not eaten even by hogs, and remain on the ground through tlie winter. 

First made known by Le Conte'^ from a tree cultivated in Georgia, and afterwards collected by 
Charles Wright ' in Texas in 1848 or 1849, Hicoria Texana was confounded by American botanists 
with the allied Hicoria Pecan until Mr. B. F. Bush rediscovered it at Columbia on the Brazos River in 
1899, and, attracted by the peculiar flattened nuts, pomted out its true characters. 

> The ipeoimen out b; Mr. Biub for the Joup Collection of 
North Amerioan Wooda in the American MuMum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, ia twentjr-iix inchei in diameter inside the bark 
and one hundred and twentj-tbree jean old. The upwood ia four 
and fire eightha inche* in thickneas, with fifty-three layers of 
annual growth. 

> John Eatton Le C;onte (February H'A 1784-NoTember 21, 
1860) waa bom near Shrewabury, New Jersey, of a Huguenot 
family, hia ancestor MTiUiam, who left Normandy on the rerncation 
of the edict of Nantes, having aettled in New Jersey about the 
year 1692. John Le Conte and his brother Louis became intereated 
in the study of natural hist<yry, and as young me>. spent several 
years in Georgia, where they had charge of a plantation belonging 
to their father and where they established a botanicl garden. In 
1817 John Le Conte entered the United States army as a captain 
of topographical engineer*, and at the end of ten years received 
the brevet rank of major, lis health having become seriously 
impairad during a military expedition to the St John's Kiver in 

Florida, he visited Paris in 1827, and five yean later, resigning 
his commission in the army, settled in New York, where he re- 
mained until 1852, and then moved to Philadelphia, where he died. 
Le Conte published a number of papen on botany and loiilogy, 
principally in the Annalt of the Ljiceum of Natural Hulory of Seto 
York and in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciencei of 
Philadelphia. Of bis botanical pspen the most important are on 
The Specie) of Patpalum of the United State), published in 1820, on 
Utricularia, ' iiiola, and RueUia, published in 1824, on TiUaruliia 
and Cio/a, published in 1826, on Pancratium, published in 1828, on 
The Vine) of North America, published in 1852-S3, on Magnolia 
pyramidata, published in 1854-55, and on Nicotiana, published in 
1850. His large herbarium was presented to the Philadelphia 
Academy of Sciences in 1852. 

Lecontta, a genus of Madagascar Rubiacen, was dedicated by 
Achille Richard tu this refined, scholarly, and liberal man. (See 
Asa Giay, Bot. Gazette, viil. 197.) 

• See i. 91. 


Plate iX^CXIX. Hicoria Texana. 
t. A flowering branch, natural size. 
3. A staiiiinatc flower, rear view, enlarged. 

3. A staminale flower, front view, enlarged. 

4. An anther, enlarged. 

/>. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. Knil of a fruiting branch, natnral siie. 

7. A nut. natural site. 

8. Cross section of a nut, natural size. 

9. A young leaf, nalnral site. 

10. A winter branchlet, natural size. 


wpwood.' The 

la collected by 
irican botanists 
Brazos River in 

wn later, resigning 
York, where he re- 
phiik, where he died, 
utaay and lotilogy, 
ural Hulory ofNeic 
Natural ScittuxM of 
It important are on 
ibliabed in 1820, on 
1824, on TiUarultia 
iblished in 1828, on 
'2-C3, on Magnolia 
titiana, publiihed in 
o the Philadelphia 






H I c r 

V /tUf^T'tt»i$» »1l<ft*^<w ' 


i W 

' i 

■ 1 

^ i 

T'' : ¥ 


,Ul » 




«lf lonjf, with a thiu brittle shell, thin papt-ry 

A Uitttr, Itri^ht red-lirown, fiatteniiil, two-loht'd kI 

•!■ ! of ihi'ir conuMtivi', n)UM(lt>d and slightly divided 

> I l>_v two lo(i^tiidii)al grodVdH on the outer face. 

•<l foWa of the inner surface of the wall of tho nut. 

•t' th« stn'ftniH and in the low wi't woods bordcrinj; 

;;•• (iiilf ffgion for a dihtanro of from one hundred 

^* j*d-l>rown. with |>ale hrown sapwood.' Tin 
' H:,uiu;h tho winter. 

Nf.irjfia, and afterwards coilecte<l hv 
I* .onfoundei" by American botanists 
. ' -11 ,\ 1,1 (Jolundii.i on the lirazos Kiver in 
- ,«,.ia.>.i out it» true characters. 

■.'•■'• !•! 

•■'. •■'' - •■!. ■ .Sr.:i.ftl, Hl."-- 

.,1 • !4<,:,if 111* l>*rk. 

'"■ji «i<}'wwx« la four 

%'»it*irv» Uyrrs of 

I' ( i*!* 'ttfitimry £t, ITMNor^mWr 21, 

iu near .Sl!nv>i:>«rT. New JurrwT, <>! a Hiigandot 

o 44i4^Mtor WiUiajn, nbo icfi \pniMU»lj cm tikr r*-vii««tioa 

»i<«t .tt Xante*, huring Mtiied in Nr* Jorwy abuiit tta« 

'■mi >»h« 1^ rontcand hit t* 'h<r Ijouu Iwcani' int«n'.i».l 

.< ir»l h»V<r?t Mul i »»iin|: mi>B tyeni wvitrai 

r ,r> th«f HmI >h»r){« of a pUniAiioo iK-longiDg 

I .uMkIuhI * IvUnics] gmnUa. In 

. 5 Mtod SMtm arwT u a (mptMo 

- uNi iti rhr (wt a! M« nan nwtiimi 

Hj n«uCti )i*n»|| baeow* tniauJy 

1 .St Jinlkii't RiTvr '. 

I ! r.(l», ho vijiitad Tarii in Iic.;7, (uij At* _»p»p« later, reaipiuif 
1^1. «»mmi«»i<in io th« •riiij-, irttlnl in New York, whore he r». 
ii.iuneil until lAW, and thKii muted ti> rhiladol|)liia, where he died 
l^ t'onte pilhliahed a iiiiiiitier uf gmiKirs on hcitany aud loiilojj. 
ptmci|«lly in tlM< Anmili of Iht Li/i-erm of Malum! lliatory of fin 
Y'-ri and in the /'morei/inyj n/ ll>r Aciidrmy n/ Xaturnl Scimcei ai 
PhiiaiiMf^M. Of hit Uitaiiioal |»ipen the niual iniportant are on 
Tht Sf^rrttn „f I'atftaium nf Ike I'niint Slairt, (inblished in 1820, on 
Clivuitmn, O'mtioUi, and Huttlia, pnblinhed in Iftli-I, on TMathlna 
asd I'k^, puliliahed in ISlMi, on l^nmntt'um, |iiibli»lied in 1S2H, <io 
7V ri««« .if Sinh laixrv'fi, |iulili<hed in lR.">a-,V), nii Maipuiui 
/ijrntmarfaw, piiMiahnI in lrt,^4-.^1, and on A'i<n(winij, piibliibed in 
l*5»l. Hit large btrbarinai wit prraantetl tu the Philadelphia 
Aeadeaiy of MnieiitKn m IWU 

/.n-.x/m. a fniM n( Uadtfaaear Rubiaceie, waa dedicated b; 
.\ihillr Hii'hanI Io thii rttAoad. aelhiUrlv. aad liberal niau. (S«e 
Amtirar, llA (iaf^i^. viii 1^7 i 


Pi-aru iK-t XiX Hi-iii-. iri*i««. 
t. A flowenntr branrh nktarai at>«. 
'i. A HuniifiiU* iiiire'. rp4U' ri**, i'nUir];"J- 
1 A .>..r,.,,y,ii, i),>v«r, front tIcw. enlarged. 
• '-nlnrpKl. 
:sii» rtower. onlftrj^d. 
. tr«ilin({ liraiioli, natiiriil iilio. 
• A not. natural aize. 
S CroM aee^on of ■ mil, imturj aire. 
9. A Toaiifj leaf, natnral »i/,e. 
10. A winter hrfinclilet, natural aize. 


tlit'll, thin papery 
luil, tw()-l()l)f(l at 
li sliffhtly divided 
I tlio outer face, 
ill of tlio nut. 
woods bordering 
riini Olio liuiidrwl 

sap wood.' Till 

rds collocte*! hv 

lericiiu botaninti* 

liruzos River in 

voatT) Inter, rcujfrniiif 
<• Yiirk, wlioro he n~ 
'Ijihia, whore be diml 
bntany and zo<ilo|;y, 
aturttt tlutory of AVf. 
f Xalurat Scienc^g nj 
i«l iiiipurtitnt are uu 
|inl)li«lioil in 1820, on 
n lft'J4, im TiUan,l'vi 
[iiiblished in IS'JH. .h, 

l.V.iW>,'J, nn .\f(tt/fu.i,. 
K'fitutmi, jiiiblitbfi) r 
U> the Pkiladelphii 

m, waa cledicatod bj 
i liberal niau. (.S»p 

Silva of North America 

Tib ncrx.'x 




] I 



'- S Kiu-^m J^i 


>c^'at44i} <u/fl,f' 

/nip J Tarymr .^aru: 

£artiU44i . 







in dii 




not fi 

The 1 

inch 1 


two ii 








four i 



Date i 







nu ini 


inch 1 

' Act 
roogn, ' 





Sbagbaric Hlokory. 

Leaflets usually 5, lanceolate. Fruit subglohose ; nut ovate, compressed, angled, 
thin-shellef' nearly white or pale brown. 

Hioorin CaroUnaB-oeptentrionaUs, Ashe, Note* on the 
nielcn^ of the United States (1896); Bull. No. 6, 
North Carolina Oeolog. Surv. 20 ; Bot. Oatette, zxvii<. 
271. — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. iii. 611, f. 1154 a — 

Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. yi. 463 {Plant Life 

of Alabama). — Britton, Man. 324 Qattinger, Fl. 

Tenneuee, 65. 

A tree, on moist bottom-lands sometimes eighty feet in height, with a trunk from two to three feet 
in diameter, and short small branches which form a narrow oblong head, or on dry hillsides usually not 
more than twenty or thirty feet tall, with a trunk which generally does not exceed a foot in diameter.* 
The bark of the trunk is light gray, from one quarter to one half of an inch in thickness and separates 
freely into thick strips which are often a foot or more long and three or four inches wide and which do 
not fall for a long timr, giving to the trunk the shaggy appearance of the northern Shagbark Hickory. 
The terminal winter-buds are ovate, gradually narrowed to the obtuse ^pex, and about a quarter of an 
inch long, with glabrous bright red-brown lustrous acute and apiculate strongly keeled spreading outer 
scales and accrescent obovate inner scales which when fully grown are bright yellow and sometimes 
two inches in length and long-pointed. The axillary buds are oblong, obtuse, and not more than a 
sixteenth of an inch long. The leaves vary from four to eight inches in length and are composed of 
slender glabrous nearly terete petioles, and usually five but occasionally three leaflets, the terminal short- 
stalked and the lateral sessile. The leaflets are lanceolate, acuminate and long-pointed at the apex, 
gradually narrowed at the base, which is acuminate and symmetrical, or rounded on the upper side and 
unsymmetrical, and coarsely serrate, with incurved teeth which are ciliate on the margins with long 
white caducous hairs when the leaves unfold; at maturity the leaflets are thin, dark green on the 
upper surface, and pale yellow-green and lustrous on the lower surface, the three upper being three or 
four inches long, from an inch to an inch and a half wide, and about twice as large as those of the 
lower pair. In the autumn the leaves turn dull brown or yellow-brown some time before falling. The 
flowers appear from the middle to the end of April when the leaves are nearly fully grown. The stami- 
nate flowers are borne in ternate slightly villose pedunculate aments from the base of the shoots of the 
year ; they are pedicellate, glandular-hirsute on the outer surface, with four stamens, and are much 
shorter than their linear acuminate villose bracts. The pistillate flowers, which are produced in usually 
two-flowered spikes, are oblong and covered with clustered articulate golden hairs, and their bract is 
linear and ciliate on the margins. The fruit is broader than it is high, or short-oblong, and is slightly 
depressed at the apex, from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a half wide, dark red-brown, and 
roughened by small pale lenticels, with a husk which varies from one eighth to nearly three eighths of 
ail inch in thickness and splits freely almost to the base. The nut is ovate, compressed, prominently 
fuur-angled, acute at the ends, nearly white or pale brown, and from three quarters of an inch to an 
inch long, with a thin shell and a large sweet seed. 

Ilicoria Carol ince-septentrional is grows on dry limestone hills and on river-bottoms, and is dis- 

' According to Small (in lilt.) Hicoria Carolin(T-septenlrionali.i Id 
llmcstono soil on tbe bottoms of Chickamauga Creek near Chatto- 
rooga, Tennessee, grows to a height of more than one hundred feet 

and forms a trunk four feet in diameter. I have not :>GGn such 
specimens. Hicoria ovala and Hicoria lacinioia grow to a great size 
on the alluvial bottoms of this stream. 

1 I ii;, 1 


' il 





tributtn] from southern Dakota and central North Carolina to northern Georgia and through western 
North Carolina to eastern Tennessee and central Alabama. Very abundant in all this region, it is 
easily re«. agnized by its slender branchlets and small buds, and in tlie autumn by the peculiar brown 
color which the leaves assume several weeks before falling and which makes it easy to distinguish this 
tree fron; a distance. 

The wood is hard, strong, very tough, and light reddish brown, with thin . "^arly white sapwood.* 
Probably long confounded with Ilicoria ocata, the Shellbark Hickory of tho north, whioh in the 
southern AppaLtchian foothill region grows usually only on bottom-lands, the characters of Uicor! . 
CaroUn<t-septen\ ioK^lia were first pointed out by Mr. W. )iV . Ashe.' 

I Two trac* o( thii tpsciM w«n out nnr Roma, Q«orgU, by Mr. 
C. L. Bojnlon for ih« jMup CoIImUod of North AoMriuui Woixtt 
in the AnMrinn MuMum of N»tur»l Hiitorjr, New York, in th* 
•utuina of 1898 ; on* wu fourtmn inobu iu ilianicter inside tho 
bark Mid one huodtwt ud forty^^ii yeui old, with espwood which 
WM three iuche* thick ud compoaed of thirtjr-ooe Ujcra of annual 

growth ; the other wae twenty and one quarter inchiii in diameter 
inii'te the bark and one hundred and ninetj-four jrean old, with 
•it;iwaod which wae two and seren eif.hthi inchei ii< thickneee and 
oompoeed of littj-eight lajere r'. annual growth. 
> 8«e ziii. 140. 


Plats OCCXX. Hicoria CAKOLiN.K4KpmrrRio i. 

1. A flowering branch, natural ciu. 

2. A etaminatc flower, aide vixw, enlarged. 

8. A itaminata flower i«en irom below, enlarged. 
4. A piatillate flower, enlarged. 
6. A fruiting branch, natural iiu. 

6. A nnt, natural siu. 

7. A nut, natural size. 

8. A winter branehlet, natural liza. 



through western 

liis region, it ig 

peculiar brown 

distinguiah this 

lite sap wood.' 
>, whioh in the 
ters of Uicor! . 

inchin in diameter 
lour ynn old, with 
iM ill thiokneu wid 

:< . or./x 

. u . 



I 1 





li , 

1 i 

'■ 'J 







/ * 

\nliTU AM nine A. 


tnttutad htm imtUiani D»lt*ta 
Ncirtli CmmIum Iu iwiUfH Tm;» 

i,„.. t.. ,. . 

tnt. *|««Mij^ 

^fAMWMM ImIIuIII i*(> 

,*4*« n..»tlt Ur«b«. ..„ (....,rpa an.l through w«.t«r.. 

- ••'i cmmUmX AkiwM „|.,„, „, all thin r..^ri„„, ^ j, 

"*•'" •** •"" *■**■ ": uitiinm l>^ il„. pculLir l.rowii 

I "w^ ^"'uj, MiM|r ttA wrii. h makni it «Miay to distinguiiili thi^ 

•«rfe. M»d ti^bt n» fa ib hrowu, with tUin n.-arly whit,. »j,,,w.«mI.' 
*• HWfllwik Hirkory of th« north, which in thr 
hoUinn-Uridii, the charBctcrH of JJiixirm 

I i 

'H Iwmly anit <-M ijiurUr inobn in 

I ii» koMlrml »ml ninrtjr.foiir ynn ul.I, will, 

• ^ tMt ••*•■ «i|[hllu inohM m thieliuMa uti 


P«-«« DCCXX. Hiionu ('*ii«i.m.«Hi»rT«in'KioxALU. 
1. A floweriii). hranrh. nainnl liw. 
!t. A •taminalv tlowcr, «<{« yinw, «>nUr|;nl 
8. A Maninal* lower u>*n horn WJow. milkrfrwil. 

i- A !<■■< «»r, enUr){«.L 

'■ * '• "ii. natiifkl UM, 

*>. A nat. f«MM%/ ««». 
A rmi. iMrtnml .im. 
' A "iBlet L-nMi»i tat. uaturM mm. 


kI tlir(>ii)(h wodUir'i 
II lliiH ri-^ioii, It 
till' ptTiiliar liriiv , 
' to (lintiiiguittli tli; 

I whiU' sapwood.' 
orlli, which in ili. 
riicloM of JJiixirin 

htttr iiiobri in diuiwlpr 

iirtr-'oiir jttn oW, Will, 

iiirhM lu thiekMH awl 

Silv* of North Ain«nci 


(KFoiTcn */V 

HoftH^ JC 



' \: 

< J 

A M/i >t *'rHta^ . /u-r^r ' 

hup y ' Tiuifur /',i 





Lkafi.et8 6 to 9, lanceolate or oblanccolatc, pubeHcent and coated on the lower 
Hurface while young with Kilvcry peltate Hcalos. Fruit HubgloboHe or pyriform ; huNkn 
thin ; nut small, angled, thick-Nhelled. 

Bioori* TiUoa*, Aihe, Bull. Tomy Bu. Club, nU. 481 
(1H97) i Hull. No. 0. North Carolina Oeolog. Surv. 
21. — Uritton A Brown, lU. Fl. iii. liV2, I. IIRO*.— 
Uohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Htrb. ri. 462 (Plant Life of 
Alabama). — Britton, Man. 325. 

HloorU gUbra, yu. vlUoaa, Sargtnt, SUva N. Am. tIL 

167, t 306 (1806). — Aihe, Hifknritt »/ tht United 

HloorU pallida, Aihc, Hiekoriu n/ M« United State* 

(1896); Garden and Fortel, x. 304, f. 30. — Britton, 

Man. 326. 
Hlooria Tilloaa pallida, Britton A, Brown, III. /7. iii. 612 


A tree, usually not more than eighteen ur twenty but sometimes forty or fifty feet in height, with 
a short trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter, and small branches, the upper ascending 
and forming a narrow oblong head and the lower pendulous. The bark of the trunk in from one half 
to three quarters of an inch in thickness, light gray or grayish brown, and irregularly divided by deep 
fissures into broad connected ridges covere<l with closely oppressed scaicH. The branchlets are slender, 
coated when they first appear with pale tomentum or pubescence mixed with silvery pelbite scales which 
also occur on the under surface of the leaves and on the staminate inflorescence ; during their first winter 
they are glabrous or puberulous, bright purplish brown, and marked by occasional oblong light gray 
lenticels, and rather dark-colored the following year. The terminal buds are sessile or stalked, ovate, 
acute, and from one eighth to nearly one quarter of an inch long, with imbricated scales puberulous 
and more or less covered on the outer surface with yellow glands. The leaves vary from six to ten 
inches in length, and are composed of slender petioles which are pubescent in the spring and fui> 
nished with conspicuous tufts of |>ale or brownish hairs, and are glabrous or puberulous in the autumn, 
and of from five to nine but usually seven leaflets ; these increase in size from the lowest to the upper 
pair, and are sessile or very short-stalked, lanceolate or oblanceolate, acuminate, gradually or abruptly 
narrowed, nearly symmetrical or unsymmetrical at the entire base, and coarsely serrate above, with remote 
glandular incurved teeth ; when they unfold they are covered with deciduous resinous globules, and on 
the lower surface with soft hairs and with the peltate silvery scales which are characteristic of this tree 
in early spring, and which soon become indistinct and often disappear by the time the leaves are fully 
grown ; at maturity they are dark g^een and glabrous above, pale or bright yellow below, the largest 
from four to five inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide and more than twice as large 
OS those of the lowest pair, with stout midribs and slender primary veins pubescent or tomentose below. 
The staminate flowers are produced in ternate hairy catkins from five to seven inches in length, with 
large acute scarious bracts, and are villose on the outer siu-face, with hairy anthers and elongated linear 
acuminate villose bracts. The pistillate flowers are oblong, prominently four-ribbed, and coated with 
scurfy yellow pubescence, with a lanceolate acuminate bract much longer than the ovate acute bractlets 
and the calyx-lobe. The fruit varies from subglobose to pyriform and from three quarters of an inch 
to an inch and three quarters in length, and is four-winged and more or less thickly covered with 
yellow scurfy scales, with a thin husk which splits to below the middle or nearly to the base. The nut 


i t 



i 3 








ia slightly angled, often somewhat compressed, narrowed at the ends, and pale or light brown, with a 
thick shell and small sweet seed.' 

Ilicoria villosn inhabits sandy plains or sterile rocky ridges and is distributed from southern 
New Jersey '' to eastern Florida,' and from the valley of the Meramec River in Missouri to eastern 
Texas.' It is the common Hickory on the sandy soil of southern Delaware, where it sometimes begins 
to bear fruit when only a few feet high ; and it is very abundant in the foothill region of the southern 
Appalachian Mountains and in southern Missouri and Arkansas, where on the dry flinty soil of low 
hills it is often the oaly Hickory-tree. 

The wood of Ilicoria villom is hard, tough, ratlier brittle, and dark red-brown, with thick nearly 
white sap wood." 

' When the seventh volume uf ihin work wu published in 1893 
this lliokory had been reco^ized only on the hills near AUenton, 
Missouri. The silvcrj scales on the young leaves and branchlcts, 
which make this tree so conspicuous in early spring, are less notice- 
able in the AUenton trees than on those in some other parts of the 
country, and they were thought to be a fonu of the Pignut, Hiroria 
fflalrra (see vii. 107, t. cclv.). Now that this Hickory is known to 
be widely distributed and common in many parts of the country 
and its characters are better understood, I follow Mr, W. W. 
Ashe, who flrsi noticed it in the east, in considering it a well 
marked species. 

' Uinma ntlosa was found by Mr. W. M. Canby near Cape May 
Court House, New Jersey, July .3, 1899, and by W. M. Canby, 
John Muir, and C. S. Sargent, near Millsborougb, Delaware, in 
October, 1898. 

' Hicnria lillom was collected by A. H. Curtiss at Oak Hill, 
Volusia County, Florida, July 31, 1900. 

* The most southern stations in the Piedmont region where I 
have seen Hicoria villosa are Birmingham and Tuscaloosa, Ala- 

* Hicoria villom was found near Houston, Texas, April 17, 1900 
by Mr. B. F. Rush. 

' The specimen of Hicoria villoia cut near Biltmore, North Caro- 
lina, for the tJcsup Collection of North American Woods in the 
American Museum of Natural History, New \oA, is nine inches 
in diameter inside the bark and one hundred and fortj two years 
old, with forty-eight layers of sapwood, which is uu inch aid seven 
eighths in thickness. 


lurtiu at Oak Hill, 

ixas, April 17, 190U 





Leaves oval to obovate-orbiculur, 5 to 7-lobed, dark green and lustrous on the 
upper surface. 

Querous elUpaoidaUB,'E. J. Hill, Boi. Oautte, xxvii. 204, Querous coooinea, Sargent, Silva N. Am. viii. 133 (in 
t 2, 3 (1899). — Britton, Man. 334. part) (not Mucnchbaueen), t 413, f. 2 (1895). 

A tree, sixty or seventy feet in height, with a short trunk rarely three feet in diameter, and much 
forked branches which are ascending above and often pendulous low on the stem, and form a narrow 
oblong head. The bark of the trunk is comparatively thin, internally light yellow, close, rather 
smooth, divided by shallow connected fissures into thin narrow plates, dark brown near the base, dull 
gray above, and on the large branches gray-brown and only slightly furrowed. The branchlets are 
slender, covered with matted pale hairs when they first appear, bright reddish brown, and marked 
by small dark lenticels during their first year, and dark gray -brown or reddish brown in their 
second season. The winter-buds are ovate, obtuse, or acute, sometimes slightly angled, and about an 
eighth of an inch long, with ovate or oval red-brown lustrous sUghtly puberulous outer scales ciliate 
on the margins. The leaves vary from oval to obovate-orbicular in outline, and are truncate or 
broadly cuneate at the base, and deeply divided by wide sinuses rounded at the bottom into five or 
seven oblong lobes repandly dentate at the apex, with slender bristle-pointed teeth, or often, particularly 
those of the upper lateral pair, repandly lobulate ; when they unfold they are slightly tinged with red 
and coated with thick hoary tomentum, and soon becoming glabrous with the exception of small tufts 
of pale hairs in the axils of the prir sipal veins, at maturity they are thin and firm, bright green and 
lustrous on the upper surface, paler and sometimes entirely glabrous on the lower surface, from three 
to five inches long and from two inches and a half to four inches wide, with stout midribs and primary 
veins rounded on the upper side, and slender lateral veins connected by prominent reticulate veinlets ; 
they are borne on slender grooved glabrous or rarely puberulous petioles from an inch and a half to 
nearly two inches long, and late in the autumn before falling turn yellow or pale brown more or less 
blotched with red or purple. The flowers open when the leaves are about one quarter grown, the 
staminate in puberulous aments from an inch and a half to two inches long, and the pistillate on stout 
tomentose one to three-flowered peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is membranaceous, 
campanulate, usually tinged with red, from two to five-lobed or parted into oblong-ovate or rounded 
segments which are smootli or slightly villose, fringed at the apex with long twisted hairs, and about 
as long as the stamens. These are composed of short filaments and oblong anthers cordiite at the base 
and blunt or emarginate and sometimes apiculate at the apex. The pistillate flower is red, with broiid 
hairy oblong acute involucral scales, a four to seven-lobed tubular campanulate calyx ciliate on the 
margins, three spreading or recurved styles hairy near the base, and enlarged dark slightly two-lobed 
stigmas. The acorn, which ripens in the autumn of its second year, is short-stalked or nearly sessile, 
and solittiry or in pairs, and from three quarters of an incli to an inch long ; the nut is ellipsoidal, 
varying from cylindrical to subglobose, chestnut-brown, often striute, and puberulous, with a thin shell 
lined with a thick coat of pale tomentum ; the cup, which incloses from one third to rather more than 
one half of the nut, is turbinate or cup-shaped, gradually narrowed at the base, thin, light red-brown 
and puberulous on the inner surface, and covered on the outer surface with narrow ovate obtuse or 
truncate brown pubescent closely appressed scales, and a thin hyaline deeply lobed margin. 


I , 

I - 





Quercua elHpsoidalis grows in the neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois,' and ranges to eastern Iowa' 
and southeastern Minnesota.* 

■ Thii tree wiu flnt noticed in the •uburbe o( Chiwgo by Dr. E. 
J. Hill in the lutuinn of 1891 at Gardner*! Park near the touthem 
limit* of the city. Here it growt on an ancient beach of Lake 
Michigan in thin aandy toil overlaying a heavy clay. South of the 
Calumet Hirer, near Halited Street, it spreads over an area o' 
several acres, growing on clay soil with Quereui ruhra, and it is 
common at Glenwood, where it is associated with Quereui cue- 
(into and Quercya celuiina, and where it grows also on clay soil. 

* Quercm eUip$mdali$ was collected by William D. Barnes in 
1895 at Big Rook, Seott County, Iowa. (See E. J. Hill, Bol. Ga- 
unt, uviii. 21S.) 

* I first saw this Oak, which had been collected by Engelmaun 
at the Falls of Minnehaha in September, 1878, at Brainerd on the 
lied River of the North, and near St. Paul, in September, 1882. 
At varions times I have considered it an extreme form of both 
Querela necinta and of Qufrtvs vttutinOt and as a possible natural 
hybrid between these species. Now that it is known to be much 
more generally distributed than I formerly supposed and to remain 
constant in its characters in widely separated regions, the idea of 

recent hybrid origin will have to be abandoned, and I am glad to 
follow Dr. Hill and cousider it a species which possesses some of 
the characters of Querau vtlulina, Quereut eoccinea, and Quercut 
paltatru. As Dr. Hill has pointed out, like Qu«rcu« palutlru it has 
comparatively smooth bark, pendulous lower branches long-peraist- 
ent on the trunk, and deeply lobed leaves. The dark color of the 
bark near the base of the trunk, the yellow color of the inner bark, 
the coarse-grained wood, the tufts of hairs in the axils of the leaves, 
and the dull color of the autumn foliage, suggest Quercut velutma. 
The bark, however, is much less rough and lighter colored than that 
of the Blaok Oak. The inner bark is of a lighter yellow color, and 
the winter-buds are much smaller and only slightly pubescent, not 
tomentose, and the fruits are of a different shape. From Quenui 
eoccirua it differs in its smooth bark, pubescent buds, in the autumn 
color of the leaves, in the shape of the fruit, and in the character of 
the cup-scales. 

A fruit of Quercut elliptoidaiit appears on the plate of Quercut 
eoccinta in this work (viii. '^ ccocxiii. f. 2). 

i^ ■! 


Plate DCCXXL Qukrcus kllipkoidalis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural size. 

2. A staminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

4. A frnitiug branch, natural aiie. 

5. 6, and 7. Acorns, natural aixa. 

I' ( 


o eastern lova' 

id, and I am glad to 
h poucMet lome of 
vccinea, and Quenui 
Mtrcm palutlrit it hiu 
ranches long*p«rBut- 
'be dark color of the 
lor of the inner bark, 
be axili of the learea, 
feit Quereui velulma. 
iter colored than that H \ 

ter jrellow color, and 
igbtly pubeacent, not 
ape. From Querau 
buda, in the autumn 
d in the character of 

the plate of Quereus 



\\ I ■ L \ ^ ■■■'■ / 


'<r 1 

" > .y 1 '■ 


f M 


! ; .♦ 



Sill A OF MiKTll lUFh/rA 


gvom ifi ♦*!«< ii«iKtib<irbfKM4 ol ('i«M>«(fu, DJi.mia,' and ranges to eastern Iowa 

90^1 v:;'i.m'*»4'' 

hT (>I > 

ife tf«>*f \t«r 


-.-M -ft *a wmnmA r 


• . I mif « inwtT «*»» 

^'.| !*«•*«, K mil— » trwtr 

<*jr *«*i* •«#? -,.f»ie^- • ,-.>. 

.*».•«*, WtaM »» ■ 

.-f«rti«*, w>4 ii*»>-. 

...'..'i.-u wm >w>iM«a4 . 

•t B* ibit N 

"» t.lU<** ' 



1 f>jMih]« iiatiinf 

.. ItlMwa tn W much 

vtuMh mtffetti Md In rrmaiii 

■ -,.j-u.'-' ■. ^ .Hi :', • .|,.ii .1 

■•MM kj«n# wl^ Kill have to (w «l>andoiie(l, iiud I nin f\v\ , 

h^v l*? flhif «»t{ r>niiaKler ii a ipecipfl whicb puMt>Mes tutu** ^ 

"^ •%(• -f •''4« t-Wufiwi, Qit4Tfu.i cort-tnen, and f;^*/-^, . 

^''^w""*- *'-M jKtiutffd cmi. liko <^irrcu< }tnl\tstru it ru 

auapvri .«.-k p«mliil<ma lower hrancbrt liinf;.|i«ni>> 

— t »«. Mh - ,.,, _... .t«»i)l)r liilNKi l«ares. The dark tdlcir of li. 

-'k Mat lb» kMW .!« the Unuk, ih« yellow color of the iijiit'r btti ■ 

,i-vi/'.g»»,»ii«| ir«Mi, tb* lufUiif hairs in ihn ««il»of the loa<- - 

i«*i! '^iijiir al Um autjjtiin foliuf^f, otigfi^flt (^u^t-ui irluiv- 

« 'K»»»»»r. i» maab Um rvii«h»iHl lijjliter oolorod Ihnii il, . 

' '••«>* I Mr Tha laixr hark w of a lighter jellow color, v 

■ i ■ wp n-ui-h Klnalliir iiiul oiilr iilightly pubea^'ent, r./ 

'^ 1 ) ih» fniitji are of a different iiba|i«. Knini yoer- . 

•.<M It ilifftn in 'latuiootli bark, polwtcent buds, in tlie aulnn' 
i> r of the laaxa. lu iW >ha(M of the (ruit, and in the character •■ 
tha i»ip-«<<«lea 

A fruit of <^f ••iTtf fittpiwviiilu appears on the plate of Qu^r. v 
o^niMO >n this work (^riii. I. rccciiii. (. 2). 


t. A flowfrinx liraiirli, natural liu. 
'.'. A •taminato tluwit, riilar)(e(l. 
3 A putillat* flower, enlarged. 
i. A fniilinK branch, uatursl site 
6, 6, and 7. Acorna. natural sit*. 






* 3 


i to eastern Iowa ' 

>iic<l. unci I nni f[t*H i" 

ll ptMAfHflVel lUUHl ii« 

r coet-tnea, and '^frt-^' 

Qiirri-ut imlmlru it ho 

r hranclirfl l()l)j;-|>«rHn- 

The (Inrlc ciilcir of Uw 

color uf the inner b«rk 

n ibn ux\\» of ttie Iis«t>« 

iigKCiit QtuTcuj iftuim,. 

iglitcr culor«<l thnn (IkJ 

ightar jrcllow color. «w 

sliglitl/ pubrM'«nt, tu L 

nhA{M*. Vnmi Quff*-.t: 

pot bnilR, in the autaanu 

and in tlie characur .- 

>n tbo iilute of Qw 

.ivii, v.t Nc-'itJi Amciua 


' .*.;.«■•.• ./,•/ 


/Ci-jA^U///^ . <2.. 

."/ /iV. ■' r,v«,r ^t'tft\r 

Ay> , '" Tunfur !'<i. 






The hi 
first ap 
scales 8 
and cii 
the ini( 
pale toi 
inches 1 
an inch 
upper 8 
The St 
yellow 1 
or less 
scales I 
acute c 
in the 
ovate t( 
about 1 
red ; tl 
with a 
and CGI 

' I lira 
Mt. Cam 





Swamp Spanish Oak. Red Oak. 

Leaves oval to oblong, deeply 5 to 11-lobcd, white-tomentose on the lower 

Querotis pairodsefolia, Ashe, Bot. Oatette, xxiv. 375 
(1897). — Mohr, CoiUrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 472 
(Plant Life of Alabama). — Britton, Man. 334. 

QuerouB faloata, var. b pagodsefoUa, Elliott, Sk. ii. 605 

QuerouB digitata pagodsBfoUa, Ashe, Handb. N. Car. 47 


A tree, sometimes one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk four or five feet in 
diameter, and heavy branches which in the forest form a short narrow crown ; or when the tree has 
{rrown uncTowded on the bank of a river wide-spreading or ascending and forming a great open head. 
The bark of the trunk is an inch in thickness and is roughened by small rather closely appressed 
plate-like scales which are hght gray or gray-brown. The branchlets are slender, coated when they 
iirst appear with thick hoary tomentum, tomentose or pubescent during their first winter, and dark 
reddish brown and puberulous during their second year. The winter-buds are ovoid, acute, often 
prominently four-angled, and about a quarter of an inch in length, with light red-brown puberulous 
scales sometimes ciliate at the apex. The leaves vary from oval to oblong and are gradually narrowed 
and cuneate or full and rounded or rarely truncate at the base, and deeply divided usually by wide 
sinuses rounded at the bottom into from five to eleven lobes ; these are acuminate, bristle-pointed, 
usually entire or rarely repandly dentate toward the apex, often falcate, and spread at right angles to 
the midrib or are pointed toward the apex of the leaf ; when they unfold the leaves are coated with 
pale tomentum which is thickest on the lower surface, and are dark red on the upper surface, and at 
maturity they are dark green and very lustrous above, pale and omentose below, from six to eight 
inches long and five or six inches wide ; they are borne on stout pubescent or tomentose petioles from 
an inch and a half to two inches in length, with stout midribs rounded and usually puberulous on the 
upper side, slender primary veins arching to the points of the lobes, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets. 
The stipules are linear, villose, and caducous. In the autumn the leaves often turn bright clear 
yellow before falling. The flowers appear with the unfolding of the leaves, the staminate in clustered 
slftncler villoae aments two or three inches long, and the pistillate on one to three-flowered tomentose 
peduncles. The calyx of the staminate flower is thin, scarious, pubescent on the outer surface, more 
or less deeply tinged with red, and divided into four or five rounded segments shorter than the 
stamens, which are tour or five in number, with oblong emarginate yellow anthers. The involucral 
scales of the pistillate flower are coated with thick hoary tomentum and are about as long as the 
acute calyx-lobes ; the stigmas are clavate, sliglitly lobed at the apex, and dark red. The acorn ripens 
in the autumn of its second year and is short-stilked or nearly sessile ; the nut varies from short- 
oviite to subglobose, and is light yellow-brown, puberulous particularly toward the rounded apex, and 
about f;ve eighths of an inch in diameter, with a thin shell lined with pale tomentum tinged with 
red ; the cup, which incloses nearly one half of the nut, is flat on the bottom or slightly turbinate, 
with a thin somewhat lobed margin, and is glabrous on the inner surface and covered on the outer with oblong rather loosely imbricated scales which are rounded at the gradually narrowed apex 
and coated except on their dark margins with pale pubescence.* 


' I first saw this tree on the bottoms of the White River near 
Mt. CarniBl, Illinuu), in 1894, and allusion to it wafl made in the 

eighth volume of this work published the following year under the 
description of Querciis digitata, to which it is closely related. (Seo, 

■ I 




Quemis pagodafolia inhabits rich bottom-lands and the alluvial banks of streams, and iit 
distributed from southeastern Virginia' to northern Florida," and through the Oulf stdtes and 
A;''.aasas ' to southern Missouri, western Tennessee and Kentucky, and southern Illinois and Indiana, 
and is probably most abundant in the river-swamps of the Yazo basin and of epstern Arkansas, of 
which it is one of the largest and most valuable timber-tretts. 

The wood of Quercus pagodafolia is light reddish brown and unusually close-grained for that 
of one of the Black Oaks, with comparatively small open ducts and thin supwood, and is valued by 
lumbermen almost as highly as white oak.* 

QueraiK pagodafolia is one of the largest American Oaks ; and few North American trees are 
more beautiful either in the dense forests which cover the alluvial bottom-lands of the Mississippi 
basin, where its tall shafts tower high above its humbler companions, or on the banks of the Congaree 
or the Savannah, where ite ^at branches spread for from the massive trunk and the ample leaves 
fluttering in the wind display first the dark green and then the silvery whiteness of their two surfaces. 

alio, Ridgmy, Pnc. U. S. tfiJ. lUut. y. 80 j iTii. 413. — Oardm 
and Forul, Tui. 101, f. 16.) Later Mr. W. W. Aihe foand thU 
Oak-trM mar Raleigh, Uortb Carolina, and hai ahown that it i> 
the Qiwvui falcala, rar. pagodcffolia, of Elliott. The character of 
the bark and wood and the thape of the leavei with their eilTory 
white lower enrfaoe lerre to diitinguish thii tree from all the 
fornu of Qutrciu digilala. That tree growi only on drjr and uioalljr 
■terile uplanda, while Qutreiu pagodafolia i§ a conitent inhabitant 
of riTer-bottoms often inundated during MTeral month* of every 
Tear and of rich river bank*, in all the great region which it ii 
BOW known to inhabit, and I follow Mr. Aihe in coniiideriog it a 

' Quercuf pagodafolia waa ooUected near Virginia Beaeh, Vi^ 
ginia, in May, 1000, by Mr. C. E. Faxon. 

' Qutrcm pagodafolia waa oolleeted by Mi. A. H. Curtiaa near 
Chattehoochee, Florida, September, 1884. 

* Quercu* pagodafolia waa onllected at Fulton, Arkanaaa, in May, 
1900, by Mr. B. F. Buah (No. -243). 

* The apecimen cut near Mt. Cami^l, lUinoia, by Dr. J. Schneck 
for the Jeanp Collection of North American Wooda in the Amori- 
ean Mnaeum of Natural Iliatory, New York, ia thirty-two inchea in 
diameter inaide the hark and one hundred and eight yeate old, with 
nine layer* of aapwood, which ii an inch and an eifihth in thick- 


Plate DCCXXII. Qukkcuh PAaoD.«roLiA. 

1. A flowering branch, natural *iz«. 

2. A ataniinate flower, enlarged. 

3. A pi*tiUate flower, enlarge<l. 

4. A fruiting branch, nr.tural aize. 
C. A winter bi«nchlet, natural alia. 



1 i 


BtreamB, and ia 
Gulf sUtefl and 
QoiB and Indiana, 
ern Arkansas, of 

grained for that 
nd is valued by 

aerican trees are 
■ the MisBissippi 
of the Congaree 
the ample leaves 
ir two surfaces. 

Virginit Ocaob, Vi^ 

li. A. H. Curtiu near 

on, Arlunui, io M*j, 

>M, by Dr. J. Sohneok 

Woods in the Ameri- 

it tbirtjr-tTTo inoheiin 

eight yean old, with 

an eifihth in thick- 

li : » .1 

.V ' ! ' ' 


i' ' • 

1! 1 

?'■ 1 

■^1 •: 

'J' f 

■ ■ 


■ I' 



i| :l 


I VA.W/r I 


!< '!> tii<l tli» alluvial ImnkH of HtrHanis, kiid 
.."rilifrii Kloriiii, »ii<l thniu^li tlio Gulf itatM .ii 
'r««iiMHMi<i aiiiJ Kentuckj, and toutherii Illinoin nnd Ititlun 
<w«uip« iif till* Yaao bMiii and of uaMtcrii Arkaiiiuiv 
ii.u...i«i tcBiWr*UM». 

(^ lifiH wiiiiill brawn and ununuallv cloHe-K:riiintHl for >i 
■mail <tpMa <liwli and thin inpw ,M)d, and ih vivIidmI 

dr tiM 

(mMWM Otk» ; and few Nortli American tn*-.- 
Hf tkw alluvial hottom-landa of tho Miaaiaaif; 
<u UimUcr (MMpuuoaa, or on the hanks of tho Con^;,! 
■>r«id far from tlM> mft««^'« trunk and the ample Im 
ifid th«Ki ttM ftii^rrv whitt'nxM* of their two siirfac*-- 

•u« kvows 

A>t» laoad tku 

-Vian tbkt It o 

' ■ * b»nwt4T M 

■ ■ *>ui Ow»ir uUvr^ 

■.■^ tnmi all tbr 

-iry ami linumUr 

• ^ •:"t«nt iiiluiUt«nt 

u»««il iMriny ** tju ^mu* of pirory 

r,j;i i.vtr 't k*. 10 all Ui* ^r»at itj(1'» wbich it it 

to inhabit, aaii I loUmr Mr. Aah* in raMMUna( it a 

' Qmfnti f»fa4»tfaUa waa oiillaotml nrar Virginia Umoli. 
Ifvauk, ia Majr, IWW, by Mr. C K. Faiun. 

' QwT\^a inqniifMia w** (olUotnt bjr Mr. A. II. ('uKi» 
r lattiihonrhrr. Kliiriila, 8«ptciDti«r, 1HH4 

* Qutrn^ pa^lirfniia waa oolUcted at Kultuii, Arkaiuaa, ia Sk\* 
19m>, br Mr. H. K. Hiuh (No. VtS). 

* Th» ipaciincn rut iirar Mt ( armiil, lllinoii, \'y Dr. .1 Set. 
for tiio jMiip CiiltiMJtioti nf N''>rtb .Vinenraii W'ikmIs iii the Av 
raji MiiA^iini iif NatumI lliiitorr. N«w Ynrk, i« thirtv-twu incii*' 
diaoMrtcr ia<:de tha bark aod uue hnndrttl aiiil eight jeart old. • 
bIm lajat* of Mpwood, wfaiob ia an iDcb and an eighth in thc' 


Puart IXXTXXIl. Qraaiini r*uuDK>YiUA. 
I K )l9«r«rtB|; braiirh, natural >iae. 
'..' .K ttaminwt* rtowor, enUrgHl. 
;<. A {MtilLkl* Ait«r«r. unlars.'mi. 
t. A (ntUiiii( hrtni-h. natural «i»» 
f>. A winter liranchirl. naturaJ »ij«. 

Ntnmmii, au(i iv 
Uulf nUtrn itrt't 
inoM nnd Indian* 
tiTii Arkaiiwtv 

Xr>kiii<>(l for 'i 

HIkI IK Vlkllll'<i 

incrinin trt*¥ .. 
if tliu MiMHiwstp; 
H of the Conjf I 
tlic ninplu li"«. . . 
t'ir two stirfnt'" 

> Virginia B«uk. 

Mr. A. II. CiiKiu 

llou, ArkvuM, in .. 

noil, hy Dr. ,1. Sr.hiMnt 
n Wowii iu th< Ait<»i 

a tliirljr-twu inc-li« 
ul eight >'ean uM. %■ 
id wi eighth in tharii 

5tlv« of North AniTii M 

Tab, DCr'XXM 

/ £.'/\un"i ./.•/ 

Em ffuTi^/u . 


* i ( 

:■ > I 


> , i 

i I 







nciitt', ( 
aiul i)fl 
upper fl 
and a ! 
yt'llow 1 
three (| 
are acu 
Bcales II 
uut is ( 
tL^ he) 

' I Imv 
whon tilt 
the luwes 

» Walt 
liutuny, a 
In 1K91- 
I'ent tu t 
tiio Divia 

I>r. Kvaii 
tiglitu tli 




Red Blroh. Black Blroh. 

STitoniLES cylindrical, erect, or Hpruiiding. Leaves ovate, acute, or acuminate, 
cuneatc at the baoe. 

Batula Kankioa, Etmu, Bot. OanttU, urii. 481 (1899). 

A tree, from thirty to forty feot in height, with a trunk from twelve to twenty inchen in diameter 
covered with thin more or leiM furrowed very dark lirown or nearly hhick hark, luid wide-Bpreadin^ 
hninciieH. The branchleta, which are rather titout and marked l>y numeroiM Hmall ]>tthi lenticelM, are 
bright red-brown during two or throe yearit, and then gradually become darker. The leaves are ovate, 
acute, or acuminate, broadly cunoate or somewhat rounded ut the entire base, and irregidarly, coarNely, 
and often doubly serrate above, with spreading teeth ; when they unfold they are puberulous on the 
upper surface and ciliate on the margins, with short soft white deciduous hair.i, and in summer they are 
glabrous, dark dull green on the upper surface, pale yellow-green on the lower surface, from an inch 
and a half to two inches long and from an inch to an inch and three quarters wide, with blender 
yellow midribs, four {Miirs of thin primary veins, reticulate veinlets conspicuous on both surfaces, and 
slender peti(des from three quarters of an inch to an inch in length. The scales of the st<tmiiiate 
flowers are ovate, acute and apiculate at the a\)ex, puberulous on the outer surface, and dark red- 
brown.' The pistillate aments are from one third to one half of an inch in length and about one 
sixteenth of an inch in width, and are borne on slender glandular pubescent peduncles from one half to 
three (|uarters of un inch in length, and bibracteolate, with scarious caducous bractlets ; their scales 
are acuminate, light green, ciliate on the margins, with long white hairs, and strongly retlexed at the 
middle, and the styles are bright red. The strobiles are cylindrical and about an inch long, and their 
scales are cuneate at the base, longer than broad, and ciliate on the margins with broad lateral lobes 
much shorter than the oblong-ovate terminal lobe which is narrowed and rounded at the apex. The 
nut is oval and somewhat narrower than its thin wing. 

Betula Kenaica inhabits the Kenai peninsula in the vicinity of Cook Inlet, where it grows with 
Pice/t Sitchennin, and Kadiak Island. It was discovered during the summer of 1897 at Sunrise near 
ILl head of Turnagain Arm of Cook Inlet by Dr. Walter H. Evans," and two years later it was distin- 
guished on Kadiak Island by Dr. F. V. Coville of the Harriman Alaska Expedition.^ 

' I hsn M«n only jroiing lUniinate amanti of thii tree ooUeoted 
when they were about an inch lung and aoon after the opening of 
the lowest Huwers, 

' WaltiT Harrison Kvaus (June 3, 180,')) was born at Delphi, 
Indiann, where ho was educated in the common and hi|;h schools. 
In 1882 he entered Wabash College at Crawfordsville, Indiana. 
Graduating in 1887, he took a post-graduate course in \u» college, 
becoming assistant to Dr. .1. M. Coulter, at that time professor of 
iKitan^r, and receiving in ISiK) the degree of Doctor of I'liilosophy. 
In lH91-0i! Dr. livans made collections of Cadi in the region adja- 
cent to the boundary between the I'nitod States and Meiico for 
the Division of Botany of the United .States Department of Agri- 
culture, and since 1602 ho has been the iKitanical editor of I'/ie 
Kilirrim/nl Station litconl published by that department. In 1897 
Dr. Kvans was sent to Alaska as a special conunisaioner to inves- 
tigate the agrii-ultural resources of the territory and to report on 

them to Congress. With Professor Coulter he has published A 
lievuion of North American Cornaceir in the Hfteenth volume of 
The Botanical Gazette, and ho is the author of a paper on The 
Effect of Copptr Sulphate on Seett Oennination in Bulletin No. 10 of 
the Oiviiion of Vegetable Pathology, United Slates Department of 
Agrimlture, and of a number of miscellaneous papers. 

' " I found Betula Kenaica abundant on a forested gravel point 
in Halibut Cove, Kachcmak liay. Cook Inlet, growing twenty-Hve 
to thirty-Hve feet high and a foot in diameter. There are a few 
trees still standing back of the village of Kadiak on Kadiak Island, 
and I found an abundance of them in one spot in the valley at 
the head of Knglisb or Woman's Kay, eight miles south of Kadiak 
village, the trees at this point having a maximum diameter of 
almut one foot and a height of about twenty feet." (Coville, in 


>t , 




I m 

4 [ ^^fl 





I jl 
I F 



Platb DtX^XXIII. Betula Kknaica. 

1. A fruiting branch, natural site. 

2. A scale of the fruiting anient, enlarged. 

3. A nut, enlarged. 


OJ ' ■ 

m 1. 


1 • 1 


; 1 


: ( 
i ' i 



1 f 


\ 'I 1 




' 'i^ 

1 V 

J ■H 

I t 


i ! 

if i 



Plats rXl-XXUI Butoia Ki!!«i.i.A. 

ilv.i i<r Not 111 Amrinca 

Tat ncCXXlll 

.'l/^'i .(tv 

J^nu/fifn^^/t/ .tc* 






■ if 

■ 'I 

■■ i-fl 


^ /ftfytftttt' -/// 

/»?u» , ^ Tart^^r P.inj- 










are cc 
On pi 
base h 

' A 

due to tl 
his Cala 
173). M 
of Bttut: 
with the 




Oanoe Biroh. 
Leaves ovate, cordate at the base. 

Betula papyrifera, var. oord<foUe^ Fernald, Bhodora, iii. 

173 (1901). 
Betula oordifoUa, Regel, Nouv. Mint. See. Not. Mote. 

xiii. 86, t. 12, f. 29-36 (Mono^aphia Seiulaeearum) 

Betula alba, inbcp. 6 oordifoUa, Regel, BuU. Soe. Nat. 

^^nlc, zxxriii. pt ii. 401 (Oattung»n Betula und Alnus 

[1865]) ( De CandoUe Prodr. xvi. pt ii. 166. 

Betula papyrifera, p minor, Gray, Man. ed. 6, 459 (in 

part) (not Tuckennan) (1867). 
Betula papyrifera, var. minor, Watson & Coulter, Gray's 

Man. ed. 6, 472 (1890). — Sargent, Silva N. Jm. ix. 

67. — Britton & Brown, lU. Fl. i. 609. — Britton, Man. 

Betula pap3rracea, a oordifoUa, Dippel, Handb. Laulholxk, 

ii. 177 (1892), 

On the slopes of Mt. Katahdiii in Maine and on the White Mountains of New Hampshire the 
Canoe Birch is usually not more than thirty or fortv feet in height, and at the highest elevations 
which it reaches on these mountains it is reduced to a low shrub. The leaves of this mo'.ntain tree 
are cordate at the base, and farther north, and in the northern Rocky Mountain reg^ion where the 
Canoe Birch is not common, the leaves are sometimes cordate and sometimes wedge-shaped at the base. 
On plate ccccli. of this work the ordinary form of the Canoe Birch with leaves broadly cuneate at the 
base is figured, and properly to illustrate this species a figure of this well-marked alpine, northern and 
western form is needed. Except in the form of the leaves, there seems to be no other constant 
characters by which the variety corcUfoHa can be separated from the typical Canoe Birch.' 

' A oonfiuion vhiob has existed in the name of this Birch is 
due to the fact that two plants have been confounded in the Bttula 
papyracea, var. minor, of Tuckennan, as shown by Mr. Fernald in 
his Calalogut of the Va$cular Planit of Ml. Katakdin (Rkodora, iii. 
173). Mr. Fernald identifies Tuckerman'a specimens in Herb. Gray 
of Betula papyracea. Tar. minor (Am, .four. .Sci, zlr. 31 [1843]), 
with the plant which Kegel has called Betula alba, subsp. 8 tortuoia 

(Bull. Soc. ti'at. Mote, xxxviii. pt. ii. 404 [Gatlungen Betula und 
Alnut] [1865] j De CandoUe Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 168), an Old World 
plant, while American botanists previously had considered the dwarf 
form of the Canoe Birch to be Tuckemian's plant. Kegel's name, 
eordifolia, therefore, based in part on specimens collected on Mt. 
Katahdin in 1840, should be adopted fur this variety. 

* 1 

I* h 

i - ■ 



1. A llowcring branch, natural air.e. 

2. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

3. A scale of a fruiting anient, enlarged. 

4. A nutlet, enlarged. 

' I 

t 1 

■ I 

: I 





: 1 

'j ' f 1 

it I ' 

« '■. I.. 

' ; 





BETl'lA PA! 

I i 

I , 1 

rxn ANATION OF niK 1>I,ATK. 

I'l.ATS UClXXIV BitTn,* I4<'l ulKbiLA, VM. (OHDlrOLIA. 
1 A iluwcrinK '^'o^Hi UklunI aiie. 
V :!«it4af> U«kli(^h. Uatarkt MM 

4 A 

I'.ilv.i 1)1 Nor'.h Aiiiprirrt 

T^b uccxxr.' 



t' A' Kt.i,'*i 'Ui' 


A /it, '/rv/.r ./tff.r^ .^V J'u/- Paru 

lartauJ -'■* 



JuUi If 

f^Hi \ 


t ' 








:;i f 


and : 




lar. 11 




in le 









six ]) 


or pi 

or ac 




on tl 





on tl 







Stuoiiiles cylindrical, pendulous. Leaves ovate, acuminiac, rounded or cordate at 
the broad base. 

Betula oooidentalia, Huokur, Fl. Bor.-Am.W. 156 (in part) 
(183'J). — Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. «t. '2. xv. 197 (Jieuitio 
IMittacearum) (in part). — Lyall, Jmtr. Linn. Sot. vii. 
134. — SurgBnt, But. Gazette, xixi. 237. 

Betula alba, aubip. 5 oooidentalia, a typica, Kegel, Bull. 

Soc. Nat. Moie. uzviii. pt. ii. 400 {Qattungen Betula und 
Alnus) (in part) (186B) i De Candolle Prodr. ivi. pt. ii. 
l(y> (in part). 
Betula papyrifera, Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 436 (in part) 
(1886). — Sargent, .SiVm N. Am. ix. 57 (in tmrt). 

A tree, from one hundred to one hundred and twenty feet in height, with a trunk three or four 
feet ill diameter, and comparatively Hiuall brancheH which wiiile the tree is young are slightly ascending 
and form a narrow symmetrical pyramidal crown, and on old trees are often pendulous. The hark is 
thill, marked by large oblong horizontid dark-colored raised lenticels, light orange-brown, very lustrous, 
and separates freely into tiiin papery layers which disclose in falling the bright orange-yellow inner 
bark. The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear arc pale orange-brown, more or less glandu- 
lar, and coated with long pale hairs ; during their fii-st winter they are bright orange-brown marked by 
numerous minute pale lenticels, pubescent or puberulous, and nearly destitute of glands, and in their 
second year they are orange-brown, glabrous, very lustrous, and the lenticels begin to lengthen horizon- 
tally. The winter-buds are acute, bright orange-brown, and from one eighth to one quarter of an inch 
in length, and in expanding the inner scales, which are obovate or oblong, rounded at the apex, light 
yellow-brown, and scarious, sometimes become three quarters of an inch long. The leaves are ovate, 
acute, usually rounded but occasionally cordate or rarely cuneate at the broad base, and coarsely and 
generally doubly serrate, with straight or incurved glandular teeth ; when they unfold they are light 
yellow-green covered with dark reddish resinous viscid glands and villose along the midribs and veins, 
with long white hairs which are most abundant on their lower side and in the axils of the primary veins, 
where they often fonn hirge tufts which are persistent during the summer ; at maturity they are thin 
but firm in texture, marked by the scars of the fallen glands, dull dark green on the upper surface, pale 
yellow-green on the lower surface, and puberulous on both sides of the stout yellow midribs and five or 
six pairs of slender primary veins, from three to four inches long and from an inch and a half to two 
inches wide ; they are borne on stout glandular grooved petioles at first tomentose, ultimately pubescent 
or puberulous, and about three quarters of an inch in length. The stipules are oblong-obovate, rounded, 
or acute and apiculate at the apex, ciliate on the margins, with short white hairs, puberulous, glandular- 
viscid, about half an inch long and from an eighth to a quarter of an inch wide. During the winter the 
staininate aments are about three (piarters of an inch long and an eighth of an inch thick, with ovate 
scales rounded or abruptly narrowed and acute at the apex, j)uberulous on the outer surface, and ciliate 
(in the margins, with long scattered pale hairs, and when they are fully grown and the flowers have 
opened in May they are fron three to four inches long and about a quarter of an inch wide. The 
strobiles, which are produced ;)n .stout peduncles about three quarters of an inch long, are cylindrical, 
from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half in length and from a quarter to a half of an inch in 
thickness ; their scales are much longer than they are broad, gradually narrowed to the base, puberulous 
on the outer surface, and ciliate on the margins, with spreading lateral lobes, and an elongated terminal 

^ •.■ 








3 * 



loho rounded nt the narrow \\\yex. Tho nut ii oval» uSout a itixtitontli of an inch long, and nearly uh 
wide aM itn wingH.' 

Htffthi ttci'ult'ufaiiM inhahiti) tho ImnkH of NtrMinm and hikes in HouthwtmtiTn HritiHli Cuhimhm and 
northwoHtoiii WaHliington, and nowhere very iMtmmon growu prohahly t<» its Ur^eHt ttize on the alhivial 
bankn of tlie hiwvr FraMer Kiver.' 

Jit(nfti orviiitntaiiH \h one of the hirgent of all Hireh-treoH, and, with the exception of the Cotton* 
wood, it is the lar^eHt of tlie deciduoiiH*luaved trin^s of northwi'Hturn Nortli Anicrira. It wiut diMcnvrrtMl 
on the Mhori'H of tlu« StmitM of Fucii l>y Dr. John Srouh*r^ lirtwrvn 18*25 and 1827. In 181>;j thiH tree 
wiiM introduced into the Arn<dd Arhorctnni, wliere it Iuih ^rown very rapidly and In perftntly hurdy and 
where it already dinplays the orange-hrown hark which bent diHtinguiHheti it from the Canoe lUrch of the 

nil the Swpt't Water, our of ttm (irnnchea of thn IMiittf*, aihI wu 
tint ileicrilwil aiul Hgurfxl hy biin u lietula mruUnUilii. (,S«« 
Sjtlviit i. 2ti, i. 7.) Turroy in fV>m>n/'f Heport rt|M>at»il thii t*rrur. 
Tliu MUie apeciei wu aliu ilpioribftil and Affuntd in Kmtfn liffHrt 
(v. !t*J3, i. 'Mi) lu Itftitla ucittifntntui hy Wntnun, who ropfiutt'tl tiii 
er^tr in TA* Ihttanif of i^aU/orttia, mu\ it ii tliiii pUnt wliii'li ti do. 
kcdUhI »nil HKurcd u ittttUa occuletUali* in the ninth volinne of 
Thf StUui It/ tWirth Ammca, when iin alluiion only ia nmdu to th« 
irne ItftuUt rnxutmlaiu ot ih« t'out in m note under li^tula ;>o/ryri/. 

NuttjiU found Rnulber iinftll Uirch in the llooky Mountain reiiiuii 
Hiid on the plains of the ('olunibia which he de«oril>ed and figured 
as Httuln rAom^i/iWiti in the flnt volume of liii Sylva \n\h\\f\wi\ in 
1H4*J. This |dant, jiidf^injf hy oiiu of Nuttaira urit^inal ipecimciu 
in the (iray llerlwriuni, ii the tlendfr-fruited form of the iiUnt 
di'McrilK'd \iy Nuttall a« lietula itteuiffitalu, whirh i» oommon in vani- 
ern Oregon and Wafhington and ranges eastwartl into Alunliiiui 
and Idaho. If the two formii, whii'h Mein to vary only in the tliiuli* 
UPM of thu anients, really lM>lung to one s|woit!S this would havu to 
Iwar Nuttall's name of lirtula rhimifnfalta had not Tauscli four 
yearn farlitT than Nuttall usihI that nauiu for a Kur(i|H>an Hitccivs. 
tS«)nio of the H|»eciniens of the tree raited liftuln tHriUenlalu by Nut- 
tall and Watwon Iwar a strong rvseniblance to a fragmentary sjwci* 
men in thv (irny Herbarium of tb*< Asiatic JIftuUi muTophyila, Itungp, 
but the vvidenco of this s|)c>cinien would lurdly seem to warrant tho 
adoption of Hungc's name for our tree, for which I have pro{>oRvd 
the name of liehUn Jmtimtlui, (See Iht. (iazrilr, xx\i. 'SxVX) 

'* The most eaittern place from which I have seen a specimen of 
fiftulu in'riilftttalu is Oonald on the Columbia Uiver in Hritinh 
Columbia in about longitude UM° west, w hero it was collected in 
lHH.'i by Mr. John Macouu. 

• ii. 00. 

I In the ninth volume of this work published in IKtMt, while call- 
ing attention to the color of the Iwrk of this tree. I cousiderv*! it a 
western ft>rm of fktula papfri/rrt^. Since th** publication of Ibal 
Tolumc 1 have had an op|H)rtuuity to see thii trtw again on Van- 
eouviT Nland and to c«tnipar« the young plantit in the Arnold ArlN»- 
return with plants nf the Canoe Hin^h of the name age. Thes** are 
■odifttinct in their bark, and in the color of the branchlets, whu'h 
on the western tree are orange-bn>wn and bright red-bri»wn on the 
eastern tree, that it is not possible to ctinsider them forms of the 
Mune s[>ecies. 

From heuUa papyn/trn it can also be distinguisheil by the shape 
of the leaves, which are broad or ntunded or on vigorous shoots 
■lightly cordate, not cuneate at the Inue, and by the shorter and 
broader strobiles, with pulierulous scales ciliate on tho margins, the 
scales of liftulii fHtfyn/rni iM-tng usually glabrous and destitute of 
nuirginal lubi:s. although on s|>ucimenft which I cullect'.M) several 
years ago on Priiut* Kdward's Islaud the scales are sometimes 

Httulti iKfuienUxlxs was first deKribed by Hooker from the speci- 
mejis collected near the Straits of Kuca by l>r. Srouler. althiuigh 
with them be united u s|>ecim«u collected by Pmiglafi in the interior 
west of the Hucky Mountains, The tree from thu .Straits of Kuca 
appeared tlrtt in tho description of fietula tKviiirtUaitn which was evi- 
dently drawn phncipally from the specimens of that tree and must 
therefore l*e considered the type of lltMiker'n s|M>cies, while the 
second s|>ecimen included in this deK'ription appears t4> be one of 
tho fitrms of lirtula jtapyn/ero. 

In the ninth volume of this work ((V5, t ccccliii.) tho half 
shrubby dark-barketl Hirch with spreading gmeefully drtMiptng 
atemn whit b in common in eastern Washington and Oregon, and 
ran^s as far south rs Colorado, I'tah.and northcni Califiiriiiu, was 
rotifoiindeil with lirtuln iHTuieiitultM uf ll(K>ker and was described 
and tigured under that name. This plant was collected by Nuttall 

i n 



Platk DCCXXV. ItrruLA occiiikntaus. 
1. A Hi>wrrinK braiicli, iiiitural aizu. 
'J. A friiitiiiK l>runrli, natural »\i,e. 
'A. A Mala of a fruiting anient, eiilari;t!<l. 
4. A .rale uf a fruiting ainent, enlarged. 
t>. A nut, enlarged. 

K, itiui luiurly UN 

li (-i)lumlim iumI 
on tht) ull II villi 

i)f the Coftoii- 

wiiM iliwdvt'rcd 

M IH'.CJ thin trt-o 

felly Imnly and 

lou Birch of tli« 

the I'tattr, and wu 
n miiilfninlit. {Stt 
' n|M-*t»il tliU iTnir 
rnil in A'lii./'j /;»^k rl 
III, whu ri'|>«iiii>(| lii, 
• plant wliii'li it lid. 
tlifl ninth viiliiiiit* iif 
unljf ia niailo t,i |||« 
nilar Utlula />a/iyri/. 

ikj Mountain rrKiun 
acrilwil and ll){un'il 
Sj/lni iMililialii'il in 
1 original niwcinifiii 
I fiiriu cif the plant 
1 ia fomtnuii in I'lut. 
ward into Moiitatui 
tj only iu ths tliwli- 
this would havt' to 
id not TftUMh four 
I Kuru|>ean •[teciea. 
(niilmialu lijr Nut- 
frat;inentary gpfci- 
muTophyllfl, Htiii^p, 
iu'ein to warrant the 
ich I have projioaed 
■, mi. a.!!).) 
leen a •|>ceiiiien of 
a Uiver in llrili»h 
it wu ooUeoted in 







in i f 

' ^<fh'J( A. UKTXl 

-11. i^i.ut f. rtixhwuth <»f ,111 inch long, and n.Mt, 

«»4»w»d UkeK in southwesU'rn British Cohiiuhi,> 
'*wl>ly to iU lurgest size oil the .ili 

^it!i the exception of the t.-j 
^' rtli Anu'rica. It wiw diwt .. 
iii.l 18'J7. In WXi ih-- 

■ ll.y M\d Ls (HTfectly hani 

*«t durfinguwhe* ii from tlic Canoo Uirch . 

mMm < /< . 
nturjiiuJ bam, 


•. uf iHi rijji.nw. khuotJi 

> "'1 bj tlw ulttirUr uxl 

k Malm eituiui on th<) mHrioiu. Uw 

•i-ii«!l» j(Uliru»i aiut liecttaU .if 

'iM mhu-Jt I cullnMui) leraniJ 

'"» »Tv «um«(iatea 

tfambbT <t*rk-b«r)i«a birtk 
•tvfiu «tiii It i^ rommmi 
nn^* w fur louth a> i 

tl* SwMt Wntot, on* of ths brancbo of tho PUtl*. ». 
:;-rt duenbod aixl flpirwj by biiu u /!f(ij/a 01T1..W.1.,... 
Sfhm, i. aa, I 7.) Tom>y in /Vrwoni'K At;«»-( wpcuuil iiw 
?^i« «»»» afwtwt vu alio described «iiil figured in A", , 

i-iX \. W) u a»rtrio .«n./.-«,MH by WaUmi, wh.i n|.»A 
•I'-r .11 Tk. Arf.w, or ( Vi/i/orf.ii), und it is Ihin plant wl..r, 
»>;nli«l mid %un!d u ifMiiAj ucculmlatis in tho ninth ... 
/■*» .Si/no o(' ,V,«.(* ,^Blrt^£•a, wliero an allusion only is «i».l. 
tJ-a» fi(/u^ iKTiiiettlalii of tlm ,-o«»t in a note under /.(»/■,/-, 

VutUll found another Buiall Birch in tho Kotlcr MoniilA;.. 
a.ui on tho plaiun of tho Columbia which lie dMiriU-d and 
»> ItmUa rkomhtfulia in the fimt voluuu. of his Sgh,, puW.. 
l«*i ru.i plant, judginif h '"»' "' Nuttull'. original »i» 
!J tbi 'inv lierhariuiu, in the sIciidiT-fruitfd form of li.- 
d<w.riU-d I., N;,tu.ll u 0,tula .i,-n,/mm/u, whi.h is ■•omu,,,,, ■ 
Km On-jtoB «.{ Waalori^i.fl and ranp-s ..aatwanl inl.i M 
and Idaho. If ib- t»u foruiv whi.d. .Mm lo vary only in th* ■ 
I*- •■( Hw amenU, really 1. long (o one spt-ciwi this would h*. 
h«»f VuttaJI's nam* of littulu rhiimhi/olio had not Tauiici. 
yMfi. gutter than JJutlill iM»d that name for a Kuro|«-an «,- 

""" '"■ " '>■ I'tJ'l ihfuUulaiu 1 

'I. a fraginr'iitiiri 
■ •■ ' \siatn. />/.#ia murvphylla, 1 . 
1.0 wmUl ha^Mr s«em lo warn r 
' T which I hare prv.i . 
tirlll, mi. ..its).) 
>»• »t.»n a siMiiuiii. 
'imhia Hivur in h.- 
.().» ,t> >b.«i l.>ngind« IM° WMt, wbero it woa coUrct. 
■ "- . i.y Mr. XU'.'Mtf), 

bI > 


Pi..vri! nCCXXV. I»itT,i,A OOcrDKOTALia. 
1 A (lowprinif briuirli, nalursl iljo. 
'.'. A (riiiliiiR liraiiih, natural siwi. 
3. A Male ot a fruiting cuiianl, eoUrgMl. 
•t. A si-alc of a fruiting sincnt, enlarged. 
o. A mil, enlargwl. 

."ilv.i of North America. 


e on the a|i 

>f thfl I'luic, , 
ila otxut'miUi:'.* 
ri repeaUHt Uw 
;arej in A rn 
••on, whtt n-| .- - 
iw pUllt wl'u 
tht* ninth t .< 
only IS uiAil, 
lunler ISfMii /. 

pa»!cm to WArti* > 
liich I l>a«e \<t%,\ 
If, iMi. 'Jllil.) 

' »f«U II RflCCIfl.f 

li* Kivur ill h- 
' It waj cullrctis' 





'•'i.r\ 1 ,/a/ 


i,riti.i- .4{/,\i' 

./"//■ ^* 7lj^4^'r J\ir&- 





to tw 

cols, i 




nnd II 





oil loi 




to th 









of ai 



' III 


Mime i III 




White Birch. 
Stuouiles oylindricul, pendulous. Leaves rhomboidal to deltoid, ovate, acumi- 


Betula Alaskima, Bargent, Bot. Qtuittte, ixzi. 236 (April, 

Betula alba, aulwp, verrucosa, var. resinifera, Regel, 

Hull. Soe, Niit. Mute, xxxviii. pt. ii. 398 (Oattungen Be- 

tula und Alnua) (in part) (1866) ; De CandoUe Prodr. 
xvi. pt. ii. 164. 
Betula resinifera, Britton, BuU. N. ¥. Bot. Oard. ii. 166 
(not Regel) (May, 1901). 

A troo, UHUully from thirty to forty but occasionally eighty feet in height, with a trunk from six 
to twelve inchuH in diameter, and slender erect and spreading or pendulous branches. The bark of the 
trunk, wliich is tliin and marked by numerous elongated horizontal dark and only slightly raised lenti- 
i'oIh, is (hill, pale reddish brown or sometimes nearly white on the outer surface, light red on the inner 
surface, closo and Hrm, and finally separable into thin plate-like scales. The branchlets are slender, 
glabrous, bright rod-brown, more or less thickly covered during their iirst year with resinous glands 
whii'ii do not always entirely disappear until the second or third season, when the branchlets are lustrous 
and marked by numerous small pale lenticels. The wintei^buds are ovate, obtuse at the gradually nar- 
rowed apex, and about a quarter of an inch in length, with light red-brown and shining outer scales 
tioniotimes ciliato on the margins, with long white hairs, and oblong rounded scarious inner scales 
wliich pro hardly more than half an inch long when fully grown. The leaves vary from rhomboidal to 
dt'ltoid-ovoto, and are acuminate and long-pointed at the apex, truncate, rounded or broadly cuneate or 
on leading shoots occasionally cordate at the entire base, and coarsely and often doubly glandular-serrate 
above ; when they unfold they are yellow-green and covered with resinous glands, lustrous and villose 
above, with long scattered pale hairs, and slightly puberulous below ; and at maturity they are thin, 
tlurk green on the upper surface, pale and yellow-green on the lower surface, from an inch and a half 
to three inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with slender midribs and primary 
veiuH pubcHoent or ultimately glabrous below, and slender often bright red petioles which are at first 
HUinowhat hairy but finally glabrous and about an inch in length. The stipules are oblong, gradually 
narrowed and rouiuled at the ends, and villose particularly toward the margins. The aments of 
Htaminate ilowurH are clustered, sessile, about an inch long, and an eighth of an inch thick, and their 
Koales are ovate, acuminate, puberulous on the outer surface, and light red with yellow margins. The 
]iiHtillHte aments are slender, cylindrical, glandular, about an inch long and an eighth of an inch 
tiiick, and are raised on stout iHuluncles nearly half an i 'ch in length. The strobiles are cylindrical, 
Kjireading, or pendulous, from an inch to an inch and a quarter long, and from one third to one half 
(if an ini'h thick ; and their scales are almost as long as they are broad and ciliate on the margins, 
witli erect and acute or spreading and rounded lateral lobes, much shorter than the elongated acute or 
acuminate ternunal lobe. The nut is oval and narrower than its broad wing.' 

Jiiliiht AldshaiKi is distributed from the valley of the Saskatchewan from about longitude 106° 

' III ISflH llimr|t«Kii pollootml ii|i«cinioni of tliia tree on the Sas- 
kiililii'Wiiii ((«((■ lli'rli. (Jrii)'). Tlimo upocimcnii wero pofcrrcd by 
lii'tji'l to oiin iif liin vm-iolIcK of tim ( )l(l World, fietula alha from 
I lUkui ill i-mliTii Silicrin mill from Trmwliuiciil, but tlio Alusknii 
ii|Kii!iiii(iiiii wliioli I Imvo lent to tbo Impcrittl Hotanio Rnrdcii at St. 
IVtenbiirg an pruiioiinood by the butaniit of that catabliahment to 

bo unlike any of tlio Asintio species, and with tlie scanty know- 
ledge which now exists of many of the northern Asiatic llirches it 
does not seem possible to unite American and Asiatic forms until 
a thorough study of them can be made in the forest and the differ- 
ent species can be cultivated side by aide. 



i. H 




west' northwestwatd to the coast of Alaska, along which it extends from the Lynn CanaP to the 
shores of Cook Inlet.' It is the common Birch-tree of the Yukon biisin, where it grows sparingly 
near the banks of streams in forests of coniferous trees and in large numbers on sunny slopes and 

In 1898 Bttula Aluskana was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum from seeds gathered near 
Skaguay, Alaska. 

■ In July, 1876, Bttvla Alaskona wu collMtad at Prince Albert 
on the Sukatchewsn in latitude C8° north by Mr. John Miiooun. 
In 1887 it was found 'y Dr. Geori^e M. Dawnon on the Deaae 
River and on the Lewit Kiver " near the mountain!." 

^ In August, 1897, Belula AUukana was found at the foot of the 

White Pass above Skaguay at the head of the Lynn Canal, Alaska, 
by W. M. Canby, John Muir, and C. 8. Sargent. 

' During the summer of 1807 Belula Alatkana was found by Mr. 
W. II. Kvaus on the shores of Cook Inlet. 

< Tette M. W. Uorman, ih lilt. 


Platb DCCXXVI. Bktula Alaskana. 

1. A flowering branch, natural site. 

2. A ataniinate flower, enlarged. 

3. A fruiting branch, natural iiite. 

4. A scale of n fruiting amsnt, enlarged. 
6. A nutlet, enlarged. 

6. A winter branclilet, natural size. 

, r 


■nn Canal' to the 
t grows sparingly 
sunny slopes and 

eds gathered near 

he Lynn Canal, AUuka, 


tana wu found by Mr. 

I: ■ i;; 


.A- A' 

x/; r 1 ,.f. vo/,'/7/ AMERICA. 


' "" '' ' ' " ifTtwmijt from t!io Lynn Canal' to th* 

'"■' •' " • >■■ \ ukoii hiuiin, whero it p'ows sparin.' 

» f'.riM« "f x-imiferiiH, Ufv, awl iii Uij(h immlx'M on «unny slopes . 




^ 'f| 

if ' 



l! ' 

Ailu.itiuin from seeds gaUiernd m . 

"mfc l.jr Mr J<4ia Mseuan \r, H 

-!>»>:"•» »' thp hwul •>* tho l.jrnn Can*], Al«. . 
'". Muir, Hnd ('. S. Siirgont. 
"*' ^ l>.*»o» nil th. !>«*. • l'«'^..t^)»:i...m.u.r.,(lHil7/.V/ufa;<iMtnnuwM found b. - 

r. tf*>4a AUukami «m Imiihj at thf /uo« «» «lt. ' Tfit^ M W ItumM. i/, /i«. 


Pr.*r« DWXXVI. hKnix Alaj-kana. 
1 A flflwmnir hranrb, nuunil tn». 
'i A •Urait.iit* (l.iwPT. eiilsrKCil. 
3. A froilini; branrh, natural si.n. 
4 A uriili. of a fnihiinf anient, enlarged. 

5. A nutlM, ealoTKad. 

6. A wistOT bnutrUM. hfttaral (Ue. 

:i'f ' 





n ^ 


eeda gatherml n«^ 

Iho I.ynn Ciun), At»v. 
Mibinu WM found b< ^ 

S:lva ol No;'th America. 




CA'./''iHtAf.1 l/iTfiT' ■ 

ZarUiuJ sc 


.4 /f*^'.v«ftr i/i/fw ' 

Inp ^' Tuft'^tf fizru- 



i • i ^ 


' 1^ 

i is 

' ' m 


1 u 

s • 






■ ■ j 

1 : 









Lkaves ovate, acute, sinuately lobed, doubly serrate, lustrous on the lower surface. 
StumeiiH 4. Nut broadly winged. 

AlDus Bltoheniia. 

Alnua vlrldls, Hongsrd, Vig. Siteha, 44 (not De Cuidolle) 

(Aiigml, WM) i Altiii. Phiji. Nat. Math. pt. ii. Acad. 

itci. St. I'Menbourg, ii. 162 ( Vfg. Siteha). — LyaM, Joitr. 

Linn. Soe. rii. 134. — liotlirock, Smithsonian Sep. 18G7, 

4n4 (^V. ^i<M*o). — Macoun, Cat. Can. PL 438. 
Alnu« virldl*. /3, Hooker, Fl Bor.-Am. ii. 157 (1839). 
Alnaiiter frutioosus, I<«dehour, Fl. So»s. iii. 655 (in part) 

AInui vlrldls, p Bibirloa, b BitohecBls, Regel, Nmw. 

Mtm. Siic. Nat. Mote. xiii. 138 (Monoffraphia Betulor 

fMfiim) (in pari) (1861). 
Alnua vlrldia, 8 ainuata, Regel, Bull. Soe. Nat. Moac. 

xxxviii. pt. ii. 422 {Oatiungen Betula und Alniis) (in 

part) (1865) i Ue CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 183 (in 


Alnua viridia, /3 Sibirioa, Regel, Ruti. Dtmdr. pt 1. 60. 

(in part) (1870). 
Alnua oooidentalia, Dippel, Handb. LaubhoUk. ii. 168, f. 

78 (1892). — Koehne, Deutsche Dendr. 114. 
Alnua rubra, Coville, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 345 

(not Bongard) (1895). 
Alnaater Alnob«tula, F. Kurtz, Bot. Jahrb. six. 406 (Fl. 

ChilcatgehUtes) (not Schweinfurtli) (1895). 
Alnua tenuifoUa, Sargent. SUva N. Am. ix. 68 (in part) 

(not Nuttall) (1896). 
Alnua Alnobetula, Sargent, SUva N. j.m. ix. 68 (in part) 

(not K. Koch) (1896). 
Alnua inoana, var. vireaoens, Gorman, Pittonia, iii. 70 

(not WaUon) (1896). 
Alnua ainuata, Rydberg, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxir. 190 

(1897) ; Mem. N. Y. Bot. Qard. i. 117 {Fl. Montana). 

A tree, sometimes forty feet in height, with a trun!- seven or eight inches in diameter covered 
with thin close bhie-gray bark which is bright red internally, and short slender nearly horizontal 
limnchos forming a narrow crown ; or often a shrub only a few feet tall spreading into broad thickets. 
The branchluts are slender and slightly zigzag, and when they first appear are puberulous and very 
glandular ; thoy are bright orar<^e-brown, lustrous, and marked by numerous large pale lenticels during 
tluiir lirst season, much roughened during their second year by large elevated crowded leaf-scars, and 
light gray-brown tlie following year. The winter-buds are acuminate, dark purple, covered, especially 
toward the apox, with close fine pubescence, and about half an inch long. The leaves are ovat«, acute 
nt the apex, full and rounded, often uns3rmmetrical, and somewhat oblique or abruptly narrowed and 
cuncato at the base, divided into numerous short acute lateral lobes, and sharply and doubly senate, 
witit straight glandular teeth ; when they unfold they are glandular-viscid, and at maturity are 
nionibranaceous, yellow-green on the upper surface, pale and very lustrous on the lower surface, and 
glabrous or villose along the under side of the stout midribs, with short brown hairs which usually 
also form tufts in the axils of the numerous slender primary veins which extend obliquely to the points 
of the lobes ; thoy vary from three to six inches in length and from half an inch to four inches in 
width, and are borne on stout grooved petioles abruptly enlarged at the base, and from one half to 
three <|uartorH of an inch in length. The stipules are oblong or spatulate, rounded and apiculate at 
thx apt^x, puberulous, and about a quarter of an inch long. The aments of staminate flowers are 
|)r(i(luc«d in pairs in the axil of the upper leaf, which is sometimes reduced to a small bract, and singly 
ill tlio axil of the leaf next below it, and are nearly sessile ; appearing in summer, they are about 
half an inch long and an eighth of an inch wide during the winter, with dark red-brown shining 
u|iiculatu |iuberulous scales, and when the flowers open in spring, or at midsummer at high elevations, 
when till' leaves are nearly one third grown, they are four or five inches long, with a puberulous light 
red rachib and pedicels, and ovate acute (".piculate three-flowered scales. The calyx is four-lobed with 

; (1 














if , '' 




rounded lubeH shorter than the four stiirounN. The piotilLite amenta uro produced in elongated paiiiclug, 
and are iaclugud during the winter in buds furnu-d tiie previouH summer in the axiU of the leaves of 
Bliort lateral branchlctn, and are long-pedunculute and about a third of an inch long and a sixteenth of 
an inch thick. The strobiles are raised on slender peduncles, and are borne in elongated Hometimes 
leafy panielcH from four to six inches in length ; tliey are oblong and from one half to five eighths of 
an inch in length and about one third of an inch in thicknesH, with truncate scales thickened at the 
apex. The nuts are oval, and about as wide as their thin wings. 

^l/;ii(ji i^if'lieiixix is distributed oloiig the northwest coast of North America from tlie borders of 
the Arrtie Circle to Oregon ; it is common in the valley of the Yukon, aud ranges eiistward through 
British Columbui to Alberta, and through Washington and Oregon to the western slopes of the 
Rocky Mountains. At the north, mingling with dwarf Willows, it forms great thickets,' and in 
southeiutern Alaska it often becomes u till slender tree on the rich moist bottom-lands near the 
mouths of nu)untain streams, or, ascending nearly to the limit of tree-growth, at high elevations is 
reduced to a low shrub. In the valley of the Yukon it is very abundant on the wet banks of streams, 
where it is often arborescent in habit,' and in British Columbia ' and the United States it is generally 
small, growing usually only at elevations of more than three thousaud feet above the level of the 
sea, and often forming thickets on the banks of streams and lakes.* 

Aliiiis iSUchenins, which was long confounded with Alnus AInohetuIn, the Green Alder of the 
northeastern states and Europe, was found in 1827 on Baranoff Island in the neighborhood of the 
town of aitka ' by K. H. Mertens." 

■ SceiDMin, Bill. toy. Hfrald, 17, 41. Sec, kl«o, Dall, Alatkn and 
i/j Ufaourrft, 440. 

In the (tray llcrbariuni there are specimens of Alnui Sitchfnxis 
collected bv .lohn Muir at St. Michael on Norton Sound in 1881, 
and by M. \V, llasseyter on Popoff Island, one of the Shumagin 
group, in 1872. 

^ (lomian, m tUt. 

• Atnm Silchrmu was collected by Dr. George M. Dawson in 
187G on the Iltasynnco braiurh of the upper Fraaer Kiver. It has 
aloo been collected by J. Macoun at Hector in the Kocky Moun- 
tains, at Lake l^uise, and un Uugcrs Pass near Ci lacier, on the 
line of the Canadian Pacilic Itailroad, and on Crow Mountain Pass, 

* In lS8i\ Alnus Sitchftua wa^ collected by \V. M. Canby and 
C. S. Sargent near the head of the .Toeko Uiver in Montana, and 
in 1808 by .1. H. Sandberg on Cedar Mountain, Lahat County, 

Idaho. In 1R80 I foonil this Alder on SiUer Peak near Yale, 
Kritish Columbia, at elevations of forty-flve hundred feet alM)re the 
sea, and also on the banks of the Fraser in the same region. TheHA 
specimens were after referred to Atnu» tenui/olUi, Nnttall, which 
does not approach the coast. In 1800 I found it on the banks of 
tho .Solduc Kiver iimung the Olympic Mountains of Washington, 
on Mt. Mood, Oregon, at high cleTations, on the Ulue Mountains 
of eastern Washington, where it is very abundant, and on the shores 
of Avalanche Lake, Montana, at an elevation of four thousand feet 
above the sea-level. 

* It is probable that Dr. John Richardson wma the discoverer of 
this species during his jiinrney with Captain .John Franklin tu the 
shores of the polar sea of North America during tho years ISID- 
111'. (See Franklin, your. Appz. No. 374, as Alnui gUtniiulota.) 

• Se«xii.80. 


Plate DCCXXVII. Ai.srs Siti'iiensis. 

1. A flowering branch, natural siie. 

2. A staminatu Howcr, enlarged. 
.3. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 
4. A fruiting lirancli. natural size. 

0. A fruit-scalv with its nut«, enlarged. 

6. A nut, enlarged. 

7. A leaf, natural size. 


ngated imniilus, 
of the li'iives of 
J a sixtft'iitli of 
iitt'd Honietiiiit'8 
Hvo eijflitliH of 
lickciiud at tliu 

1 tlie borders of 
Mtward throngli 
slopes of the 
ickets,' and in 
lands near the 
;h elevations is 
nks of streams, 
i it is generally 
le level of the 

1 Alder of the 
)orhood of the 

or Peak near VhIp, 
idred feet al>ure the 
«ino regiun. Tlii'se 
itiia, Nuttall, which 
it on the baiikii uf 
liiu of Waehington, 
lie Kliio Mountains 
itt and on the shores 
' four thousand feet 

u the discoverer of 
hn Franklin to the 
g the years IHlft- 
iw glanjuloia.) 

\ ' I W 








mm, auti 
■M t ho i- 
town tjf 

:Uto ano'iiiii .'iri> |iroilii(.>i><i in (•lon^iil«'<i iiitiiiilfit. 

In prttvuHU i.ntiiiuur ill tin; uxiIn of the li-iitM ol' 

iiatv ^iiiii Nlmut » third of iti) inch long itii<l n Nixtet-rilJi <it 

•'ihW (i«iiiiucl«t, itii<l Aro ImriK) iii vloiigattul mimpliDM-t 

'ti>'» ,»r«' i>hliifij» .iinl fr<)iii Olio li.ilf to fivi« ci^htjlii .if 

ii III thirkiiMW, with truiiritti! Hi'ultm thi('ki>lif<l at tlir 

. ^ir thin win^. 

■ '("iKt iif North Aiiii'rir.'i from thr horil«r» oi 

I tliK Yukon, lUiil niiigi'ii (^iwtwanl througli 

.'I utiii On*|(oii t<) the wi'Htern ttlupt'ii of thi 

i'i Willov»», it formi jyrndt thickutu,' niiil m 

'- I'll th»< ri( h niiiist hottom-lniiiU near thf 

• • I. it' liiitit of lr«i>-^rowth, itt lii^h flfvatioUK \* 

Yukon it \» VATV ahuuiLint on the wt>t Imnkit of titrviuii- 

. Hritiah f^olmnhia" itii<l thi' I'liitfd Stati-n it ii« j{t<nem!lv 

■t more th«i) thrtn? tlioiiKincI fcit aliovr th<' l<v..| nf tt... 

.. ikn of HtnMuiiit auti lakvN.* 

tf < onfoiiiidt'il mth /l/;ii(^ Aliiohitiilii, the Green Aliler of the 

' md in I"*-? on HnnwioiT Islam! in tbo neijfhliorhooil of thf 


• l> tW3 ilma .<>.i.i^u^ > 
C A Strgviit mmr lb* lii<aH 
u> inaa bf .1 ii S«it,ibrrg 

Si-.', nix., l'»l. I • 

• of Abius .S./.Ai.'a-^. 
. !*<.iiml in IHMI. 

•. -Ii,;|. 

Iilnlio. In IHHO I fniiml ihii Aldur uii SjlT.r lv«k near Y»l. 

Hntuh CtiluDil.ik, it cUvati.ini ..f f.<rtr-AvM hiinilrnl f«rt alxiTf IL> 

: «i4i. ..h lb.. iMtnlm nf tin* Knu^r lit tlii* uinc rrf^iun. THv** 

■»f»' ^flrr r»-forn.l f.i AIniu Imm/ijia, NntuU, wbir' 

III. ..Hut In IHtMi I foiinil it nil llio luiuli> < 

• K. ■'»< il." i>l>iiij)ii. M.)uiitiitn« of WiuhinKl'T. 

un Ml Huod, 'trrx'"' " '"«'> «l«r«tiuiu, "ii Ibc llliin M.iuDt*.'.' 

1 «.:. -Ii U'uk,n,(i(iii wbtin It liTfr* almiiduit, tntl aii tlie ihui*'- 

• r. MualuM. m MI atontiiHi of four tlwiiMUid fnM 

kintxin inu tbo diaouvenr t<( 
lift Juhu Krmnklin to iIk 
. Innoi; iIh- y.'-ini tUlSi 
I V .S.. iJi, M Ainui glaiviulimi.) 


ri..>.h IMI XX\I1. Ai .^. -. ■^ll. iihSii-.. 

]. A Howorin); limiich, ntttiiml niic. 

" A <tju»inat(. ti.iwcr. cnlari;»'l. 

.1. A (lifititlau. fliiwer, enlari;«l. 

4. A fniitiiig br«nrli. niktnral liia. 

5. A friiil.ncslii witli it* nut«. cnlnrKi'il. 

6. A nut, enlar^;^. 

7. A li rF. uiitural um. 

>n^itt«(l |iAiiii'li<ii, 

of tht> ll'lttfH uf 
III II Nixtfl-lllll uf 
Ljiltftl HOinctlllM-K 

) Hv)i (UffliUiK ••! 
hit'kfuvd at tin 

II Alilpr of 1 1 
Ixirhooil of tl\- 

Ti-r I'rak nwr Y'4l: 
unilml f«<>l alHiTr i , 
uiiift n^ffiun. Til* • 
i/iJm, Naiull, Hi.:' 
I il nil Ihs buli> 
tuinM nf \ViulnnKt>-r 
llic llliin MiiuiiU' < 
nt. ftnd on tlif* •hor*- 
>f four UiuutMnil f<-' 

f%» Uw tltwoTeirr ^ 
iiha Knuklin to il.r 
ng llic rcini IHl'.i 

Silv* of North America 



ii ; 

• t ,)| 

C'A f'a.ron ,M 



A /ii*>tv tU4.f litr*:: ' 

.■V" - -.''JAV/./- .' \iru 









•ff ! r it 








■ 1 V' 

: ,(' 

>■ V. 

1 ^ 




St. Ji 


of a 



and t 



red, ! 

but i 

an ir 

tliin ] 



are sc 

are c 







I s« 

■' He 
" Ty, 
lower t 
with n 
tho pre 
" I> 

^ W^.' * 






Leaves ovate or lanceolate, acute, glaucous and conspicuously reticulate- 
the lower surface. 

ined on 

Saliz balsamifera, Barratt, ex Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 
149(1839). — Bebb,/(o<. Gaxette, U. 190; Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club, XV. 121, t. 81. — Wataon & Coulter, Grai/'a 
Man. ed. 6, 486. — Dippel, Hatidb. Laubholxk. ii. 285, f. 
137. — Koehne, Deutache Dendr. 97. — Sargent, Oarden 
and Forest, vi. 28, t. 5. — Rand, Oarden and Forest, vi. 

105. — Britton & Brown, m. Fl. i. 504, f. 1201. — Britr 

ton, Man. 314. 
Salix oordata, p balsamifera, Hookar, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 

149 (1839). 
Salix pyrifolia, Anderson, Siiensk. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 

ser. 4, vi. 162, t. 8, f. 93 {Monographia Salicum) (1867) ; 

De CandoUe, Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 254. 

Usually a shrub often making clumps of crowded slender erect stems, generally destitute of branches 
except near the top and only a few feet tall, Salix bolsamifera in a hillside bog near Fort Kent on the 
St. John's River in Maine becomes arborescent in habit and, growing to a height of twenty-five feet, 
forms a trunk twelve or fourteen inches in diameter.' The bark of the stem is thin, rather smooth, and 
of a dull gray color. The branchlets, which are comparatively stout, and glabrous during their first 
season, are reddish brown and lustrous or chestnut-colored when exposed to the sun, becoming olive- 
green the following ^^ear. Tiie winter-buds are acute, much compressed, bright scarlet, very lustrous, 
and about a quarter of an inch long. The leaves are involute in the bud, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate at the apex, broad and rounded and usually subcordate at the base, finely serrate, 
with glandular teeth, and balsamic particularly while young ; when they unfold they are thin, pellucid, 
red, and coated on the lower surface with long slender caducous hairs, and at maturity tiiey are thin 
but firm in texture, dark green above, pale and glaucous below, from two to four inches long and from 
an inch to an inch and a half wide, with stout yellow midribs raised and rounded on the upper side, 
thin primary veins and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they are borne on stout reddish or yellow petioles 
from one third to one half of an inch in length, which in falling leave narrow slightly raised leaf-scars 
marked by three conspicuous equidistant vascular bundle-scars. The stipules, which are often wanting, 
are sometimes produced on vigorous shoots and are foliaceous, broadly ovate, and acute. The aments 
are cylindrical, from an inch to an inch and a half in length, viith obovate acute rose-colored bracts 
coated with long white hairs, and are borne on slender leafy peduncles. There are two stamens with 
free filaments and reddish or ultimately yellow anthers. The ovary is narrow, ovate, gradually con- 
tracted from above the middle to the apex which is crowned with nearly sessile emargiiiate stigniatic 
lobes. The scales are persistent on the fruiting aments which varj' from two inches and a half to three 
inches in length. The capsules are ovate-conical, long-stalked, a quarter of an inch long, and dark 
orange color." 



' See E. V. WiUiams, Rhothra, iii. 277. 

" Hebb {BfUl. Torrey Hot. Cluh, xv. 124) pniposes theso varieties ; 

*' Typica. Leaves ovate, 2 to 3 iiichea long, nhort-pointed or the 
lower obtuse, rounded at base, at Iniigth rijjid and glaucous beneath, 
with raised reticulate veins, uiinutoly glandulnr-serrnlate ; fertile 
aments very loose, leaves of tho peduncle few and largo. Tliis is 
the prevailing northern fomi. 

" Vfgetij. leaves broadly lanceolate, 4 to 5 inches long, acute or 
acuniinnto, truncate or conUte at the base, coarsely and irregularly 

repand-toothed, paler beneath ; aments less spreading, not so leafy 
at base. 

" Lanceolata. Ivcaves lanceolate, 2 to 4 inches long, ^ to } inch 
wide ; aments more slender, otherwise as in /'. tt/pica. 

** Alpestris. Low bush, 2 to 4 feet high ; leaves small, 1 to 2 
inches long, lanceolate, pointed at both ends, rather coarsely and 
irregularly serrate, green both sides ; male anient slenderly cylin- 
drical, less silky. Kaglo Lake, Mt. Lafayette, alt. 4,200 feet ; also 
on the coast of Labrador." 






Fi f ,i 

Sallx bahamifera is an inhabitant of cold wet bogs and is distributed from the coast of Labrador 
to northern Maine, northern New Hampshire and New York,' and to the valley of the Saskatchewan,^ 
northern Michigan,^ and northern Minnesota. 

Siilir bahaiiilfera was first collected by Mr. Henry Little* in August, 1823, on the bank of the 
Aiiimonoosuc River among the White Mountains of New Hampshire,' and was first distinguished by 
Joseph Barratt." 

In 1880 Salir halsmnifera was introduced into the Arnold Arboretum, where it is perfectly hardy 
and one of the most beautiful of the shrubby Willows, particularly during the winter, when the bright 
scarlet buds make the shining branches conspicuous. 

V ' 'i 

Km;;. i 

fi i 

> Salix baltami/era wu collected od the ahores of Lake Placid, 
Kcw York, by Mr. J. G. .lack in Auguat, 18!M. 

' Maeomi, Cm. Can. Pt. 445. 

' Karwell, iianien tirut Furegt, vi. 149. 

' Henry Mltle (Decemlicr 'Jl, ISOi-March 31, 1827) wn,s the 
second child of Moses Little who waa graduated from Harvard 
College in 1787, and studied medicine with Dr. Jonathan Swett of 
Kewburyport. He married in 171K) Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Williams, a merchant of Salem, where ho settled and became a 
prominent iihysician. He died in 1811 of pulmonary consumption, 
which proved fatal to his ten children. Henry Little was gradu- 
ated from the Harvard Medical School in ISS.*), and his interest in 
botany was no doubt due to an acquaintance with Dr. Jacob Hige- 
low, who was connected with the school. Ho died during a voyage 
undertaken for his health. (.See The Dexcendants of George Little 
tchit ctvne tn Massachusettx in liiiO, No. 355, m, by George Thomas 

' Teste Bebb, Dot. Gai-tte, iv. 190. Mr. Little's White Moun- 
tain specimens were found by Behb in the herbarium of the Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of IMiiladelphia. 

" .Joseph Harratt (.lanuary 7, 17'.>7-.Iuno 25, 1882) waa bom in 
Little llallam, Derbyshire, England, and from 1825 to 1829 was 

profesaor of botany, chemistry, and mineralogy in the military 
academy at Middletown, Connecticut. He subsequently entered 
the Medical School of Yale College, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 18^, and finally settled in Middletown, where he practiced 
Diedicino for many years and where he died. He bad previously 
been a pupil of Torrey in the study of Imtany, devoting himself 
particularly to the genus Salix. In 18^ Dr. Harratt read before 
the Lyceum of Natural History of New Y'ork a Monograph of the 
North .Vnierican Willows, which he proposed to illustrate with a 
figure of each species. The expense of this work caused it to be 
abandoned. In 1840 he published in Middletown the Salicei Ameri- 
canft ; ?ii'nrth American Wiltoivs. In this paper twenty-nine species 
are arranged in eight acctions. This arrangement, with llarrHtt'.H 
sectional characters, was adopted by Hooker in his Flora Uoreali- 
Americana. This appears to be the only im|>ortant botanical work 
acconiplisbcd by Dr. Barratt, although he made and distributed a 
large number of herbarium s|iecimens of Willows. Later he de- 
voted attention to the geology of the region adjacent to Middletown 
and to the study of the languages of the American Indians. 

Barratlia, established on a Texas Composite now referred to 
Encelia, was dedicated to him by Aaa Gray, who waa bis fellow- 
student under Torrey. 


Plate OCCXXVIII. .Sali.x iiai-samifkka. 

1 . A tlowtring brnncb of the staminate tree, natural aize. 

2. A Mlaminatc flower, enlarged. 

?i. \ fruiting branch of the pixtillate tree, natural (iu. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

5. A fruiting branch, natural size. 
C). A capsule, enlarged. 

7. A leafy branch, natural aize. 


! !■ ■ 


•ast of Labrador 
I Saskatchewan,^ 

he bank of the 
listinguished by 

perfectly hardy 
ivhen tlie bright 

logy in the military 
iiibseqiieiitly entered 
vbich he was gradii- 
ii where he practiced 
He had previously 
ny, devoting himself 

Darratt read before 
a Monograph of the 

to illustrate with a 
vork caused it to be 
»n the Salkef A mtri- 
' twenty-uine species 
nient, with Harratl's 
n his Flora lioreali- 
rtant botanical work 
de and di8tributc<l a 
Hows. Later be dc- 
accnt to Middletowu 
lean Indiana, 
te now referred to 
»\io was his fellow- 

1 i. 

4! : 



'A' SOKTU AMhh'lCA. 


1 •■..1<I wt't Ikijjb i»nil JH (liHtrihutt'd from tho coast of Lalirailoi 
i liire and NVw Yoik.' luid l.» tlic valley of the S^katcliowuii, 

i.vtwl l»v Mr. H.mry l.ittl. ' in Auijust, 1823, ou the hank ol il,. 
Me Mountnini* of Now llauipshirt',' ami was first (listii;guwlii-il In 

'■■■•/•■m t/M introducwi int« Ihf Arnold A rhorntiiin, where it in perfoctly hanl 

. ■^l I'lMuliful of tlw* «hr ibhv Willow^ jwrticuUrly .lurin;. the winter, when tlifi 1 
;!i.iJce tho Hlunin)^' br»(v<ih«i> 'otigpiciiou.s. 


>.>Mf«*n wu ooI!<M-tc 
^ s-j Mr- .1. t;. Jn. >. 
».• . ',11. Cm. Can. /'I. ! i 
' >»r»«U, iJvHen arj A. . 
' Hoary liuU (!»-. 
•rt{<ti^ «ihU«l of M->v 
VoOtft to l(h7. u 


I «u tho 
1 H)irT«rif 

liim^ Iran- 

»' WrMii** ft 
' iw'imptuMi, 

IwtMT <«M iw doaU dw t« mn »i-q,'»iw .«« wtU. l>r. J.u>ob Hige- 
low, «hii *w aouMtai «ttli the »o1m«. (|« ,Ud .Inring ■ voy»go 
anrlanakm fu dm U.»lUi. (S«* /V Itrjctruiuntt ,/ a,orf, Uitle 
wfoflMi. ft. .!/.»««<*«,. V ,.,,. .,| l,T Grorp. now.. 

" Mr. Littlo'« Willi* M ij 
•;,• i,,t1iiii;.: f il,. . ...1- 

' •vCbfulMl*, I 

itvm Xma ku IKIJO „ai 

l'f''""»" "innv, • ri.umlry, ami iiiiiicriil»gy in tlio liiiiit..> > 

■uKlriiir at hiclilli'Umu, Ci.miecticut. Ili< «iil)«.)iieiitly en!- 
Um Moairnl Suluxil of Y»l« (:,>llr^-p. from whiili \\t wm ^r.,>. 
tir>i in \K\\, iinil fiiiallj mhIihI hi Miilalttown, nherc be jini. t ■ 
BMolicmn f"r iramy ycnn ami wli«rf be ilird. Hi- ba^t prevhi'i. 
b»»B a jHipil ..( r..rt*» III tbu • o' boUuy. ilevotiu)? \,m- ■ 
IMflKiiUrlir In II.,. i-i'Liip. S«li« In \fa\ Dr. llarratt rend !*(.. 
Ilw Lrreiiiii of Naiiiral Hl^^ory of New York a .Mc.uograpb of i;., 
Nortb Ainerieaii \Villow«, which lio proponed to illuatrots wit>j . 
(l(fu«. of (Mcb apecieii. Tile eiiMtnuc of Ibis work ciin«cd it l<. 
alwndoited. In IMO b.- piiMisbcd in Middletown lb.. AWi. m A •., 
itxiir ; Sorth Anurruwt Wiil,>wt. In this jui[)rr Iwenty-iiiiie i>p,;. 
aro arr«U(jr«<l in ei),'bt nectionn. Tliin nrmu({enient, will. IWra:: 
•ectiiiiwl cliaracteni, wnMidi.pied by Il.Hpker iu bi.i IZn-a /(<..v,, 
4i»i«i.-.i)ui. Tbi» appeani In be the only miporUiil botanical in : 
at'eoniplubeil by Dr. Hiirrnll, «ltbou){b In. umile and distribul. i 
Urgv Biiinber of berbariiim jpcciiiieiis of Willows Later Ik .. 
f«te«l atteDlMui to tbe geoiogT of Ibe region adjacent to Middiei.'i ; 
....( I.. ,1- ii„.l, „( ihii UnguajfM of tho Araeriean Indians. 

' i>ti»k«»I ou a Teuu Composite now referred • 
"'■ ' ""' ' '"II by Ajui (iray, whi< wm bis f«ll<>-. 

•twimt uwifr I 




1. A rtowtring linuieb of ih* ttajninato trm., i..i..„.,, Mro. 
-. A «liimiiMl<> Atiwinr, «nUrK«d 

.'*. A fruilin,; h.anrh of !(«■ pioiillate tree, iiahiral »;«•. 
4. A r'i"ilUl« Howw, eularifed. 

-, natural »iie. 
:■, eiilarirmi. 
■ t«fy l.raneli, natural siui. 

} : > 


asi of Lalirndor 

:hc h.'kiik uf thi 
li.sliiig-uishi'il liv 

1 l)orf('(!tly hardy 
when tlie brijih! 

tTt7^ 111 thtj iiuluArt 
Nubs«i|iieut]y entriiTj 
wUit'li he wu i^nHtw 
II, nlierv lie pi-*. t.fy-( 

Hi* ha^l prpvioM- 
lur, cifrotiug biiii-vr.! 
lUiTatt read l«f>ir« 
1 .1 .Munngrapb of the 
I to illuKtnita wit'j .' 
work c»n«ed it to U 
mu lh<> Suiters A mrr, 
■r IwHntj-iiine ape^-fivi 
t'mpiit, uttb lWrau'« 
ill Ills FU>nj Ihtrf^,f 
orUiit nvrx 
Aflp and distributivi , 
illuws Later bi 'V 
jarrnt Ui iMiddlei>"i 
ricjiii ImliaiiE. 
rito !io» KferrmI • 
wbu wu bis fello- 

of North Aiiu'i'UM 



Z'lrutuJ . 

lAl.lX RAI.SAMl FEFM.B.^rrHt. 

.4 Ut»urfi4.r t/i/,\r ^ 

'nip . f Tiineur. Pttru 


■ i 1 






1 ' ': 

1 ; ■; 

:l ' ^! 


1 5 il 

1 ^ ,\ 


: i 

I • [ 

MiWi .1 







Feltleaf Willow. 

Leaves usually elliptical-lanceolate and acute, covered below with a thick coat of 
matted lustrous snow-white hairs. 


Salix Alazenais, Coville, Proc. Washington Acad. Set. ii. 

280 (1900) ; iii. 311, t. 34; £uU. A^. J'. Jiot. Gard. ii. 

164. — Eastwood, Hot. Oaxette, xxxiii. 133. 
Salix speoiosa, Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Voy. Beechey, 130 

(not Host) (1832).— Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 145.— 

Ledebour, Fl. Ross. iii. 625. — Seemann, Bot. Voy. Her- 

handl. xv. 119 {Bidr. Nordam. PUarter) ; Proe. Am, 

Acad. iv. 59. — Rotbrock, Smithsonian Rep. \%Mi, ih^ 

(Fl. Alaska). 
Salix speoioBa, fi Alaxeneis, Andersson, De Candolle 

Prodr. xvi. pt. ii. 275 (186^N. 
Salix longistylis, Rydberg, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Oard. ii. 163 

aid, 40, t. 10. — Andersson, Ofvtrs. Vetensk. Akiui. For- (1901). 

A tree, sometimes thirty feet in height, with a trunk from four to six inches in diameter, often 
shrubby and in the most exposed situations often not more than a foot or two high, with semiprostrate 
stbH's.' The branchlets are stout, and when they first appear are coated with a thick covering of 
white matted hairs ; this gradually disappears and in their second season they are usually glabrous, 
dark purple, lustrous, marked by large elevated pale scattered lenticels, and much roughened by the 
large U-shaped scars left by the fallen petioles. The leaves are revolute in the bud, elliptical-lanceolate 
U> obovate, acute or occasionally rounded at the apex, and gradually narrowed below into the short 
thick petioles ; when they unfold they are often glandular on the margins, coated above with thin pale 
deciduous tomentum, and covered below with a thick mass of snow-white lustrous matted hairs which 
remains on the mature leaves ; they are firm in texture, entire and sometimes slightly revolute on 
the margins, often somewhat wrinkled by the reticulate veinlets, dull yellow-green on the upper surface, 
from two to four inches long and from an inch to an inch and a half wide, with low broad yellow 
midribs and many obscure primary veins. The stipules are linear-lanceolate to filiform, entire, from 
one half to three quarters of an inch in length, and usually persistent <at least until midsummer. The 
flowers appear about the middle of June when the leaves are nearly half grown, and are produced on 
lateral branchlets whose leaves are well developed or often reduced to small hairy bracts ; they are 
borne in stout erect pedunculate tomentose aments, those of the staminate plant varying from an inch 
to an inch and a half in length and being much shorter than those of the pistillate plant which at 
maturity are sometimes five inches long ; their scales are oblong-ovate, rounded at the apex, dark- 
colored, and coated with long silvery white soft hairs. The stamens are two in number, with slender 
elongated filaments. The ovary is ovate, acuminate, very short-stalked, covered with soft pale hairs, 
and gradually narrowed into the elongated slender style, crowned by the two-lobed stigmas. The 
capsule is nearly sessile, ovate, acuminate, covered with close dense pale tomentum, and a quarter of an 
inch in length. 

Salix Alaxensi.i inhabits Alaska, where it is distributed along the coast from the northern part 
of tl»e Alexander Archipelago to Cape Lisbourne, and in the interior to the valley of the Mackenzie 
River and to the shores of Coronation Gulf." It has not been found on the wind-swept Aleu'lan 
Islands, but as far north as the eastern end of Kotzebue Sound it is said to sometimes grow to the 

' Tbo botanists of the Harrlman Aliiakan Expedition of 1899 covered vitb a growth of shrubs it bad grown into a liandsomo 

fuiuid SalLc .ilnxemiit growing as an almost prostrate slirub on small tree. (See Coville, Prot?. Washington A ':ad 5d. ii. 281.) 
naked gravels at the Muir Glacier in Glacier Hay, while in tho '' See Hiohardson, Arctic Searching Ezped. li. 313. 
same region and only a few miles distant on older gravel deposits 






height of twenty feet, while at Cape Lisboiinie it is a siirub not nioru than two feet tall.' It attains 
its largest size from the Shumagin Islands eastward ; and it is the uuly arborescent Willow iu the 
coast region west and north of Kadiok Island." 

The wood of >SVi/(j- Al'iiemix has not been examined. It is often used as fuel by Indians and 
travelers on the headwaters of the Arctic rivers.' 

Salix Alaxenxin, which is one of the most beautiful and distinct of the American Willows, was 
discovered on the shores of Kotzebue Sound during the summer of 1827 by the naturalists who 
accompanied Captain F. W. Beechey in the British ship Blossom on his voyage of discovery. 

' S«e Noauiaiin, Bol. r'oy. Utratd, 40. 

* Dr. Kreileriok V. Cofille, one »f th« boUniiU who nocum- 
panied the Huminu) Alukwi Expedition of IHUtI, obtained for the 
fint time reliable ioformatioii on tbe diitribution of this Willow on 
the Alaikan cout, and citabliihed the faut that under farorable 

condition! it become! tniljr arbomoent in habit. (See Covillr, 
/'rue. n'a$Mtiglon Aatd. Set. ii. 280.) I'Uto dccitii. i! made (niui 
drawing! of ipeoimrna collected by Dr. Corille and pre!erved in 
the I'nited State! National Herbarium at Waahington. 
• Talt Curille, (. c. iii. 3U. 


Platk DCCXXIX. Salix Alaxinru. 

1. A flowering branch of the itaminkte tree, natural aiM. 

2. A !tAminate flower with it* scale, enUrge<l. 

3. A flowering branch of the piatillate trae, natural liw. 

4. A piatillate flower with itx ecale, enlarged. 
6. A fruiting branch, natural liie. 

6. A capaule, cnlarginl. 

7. A capsule with open valvea, enlarged. 

8. A leafy branch, natural sixe. 

, i: 



S -i 





\"/. ^// AM nine A. 

>Al.l' MT, (■• 

iirtiv It 1.0 .1 alirtili not ruoro tbun two ffi't tiill.' It attain^ 
UwiDiifi «iHiitwiir>l , iiiil It \s the (inly nrliiirtssreiit Willow iii llic 
tk IaIaiuI. 
" bu not b««n esiuuined. It m i>ft4'ii imi'il hh fuul by Indiaim and 
\rrtsc rjvpr*/ 

' i>f tJkc niiMtt beautiful and ilixtiiit't of lli« American WiIIowm, vk .. 
L»»biM' ^)<lll■l(i (luring the suniiutfr «if 18*27 by the uaturalutv wht> 
111 thf Uritii«h nhip DliMMmi on hi* voyage uf (ii«euvery. 

wivtiuaw il iMcumM trnlj nrlmnMeoiil in Imbit (Hm CovitU, 
.1' ,€!>. wh" urw'-iii /Vv- W^Mktufton Acfui. .Sii. ii. 'J8U.) rUtc ilwisii. ii nuul* frtrn* 
I" < l4aitiMl (m Uio ilnivinf* iil tpfeiinniu ruUertvd by Dr. Curill* uiil f nn t ni in 
' ■ WilUwuB Uk ' ii.« Nutiimftl llorbtriuiii It Wuhingtuii. 



liAfi, IM'CXXIX. Saux Ai,A)t«S!«w. 
I. A riowrriiiii hruii-U o( tlio lUniinstv trrv, iiktursl aiie. 
'.' A •taminati' Hnwcr witli ita wait, enUrgml. 
I A tluwerin|{ br»»rh of th« ^UtilUtv Irei-, naturul aiit. 
I A pintillnui tinirvr with iu »4*mlff. vnUrgocl. 
'• A frnitiiitf bruitli, nularal MM. 
' 1 ^.'•Ailc i>itlar](t<d. 

•Hi> villi Open rt^r**, cnUrgad. 

:'! 1 

'i»^a«f>>Y «■«»;- 


r.ilva of North America. 


rf.y.i.t.'>' .M 

lartami .rr 


^4 }{i<)cfmiU' itirtw ** 

Imp J Tarwur ru^'t'f 






S \ 

1 r 

i ! 








are c( 
to br 



IMile } 



tlie n 




tit mi 





of Y( 

1 Fi 

fnrin i 

a fam 




jrciir C 

teer m 




III 18 






Leaves oval to brondly obovatc, nearly glabrous at maturity, glaucous on the lower 

SiUis MnpUfollA. CovilU, Prof. WatKingion Acail. Set. li. 282, t. 1(1 (1000) ; iii. .114, t. .15. 

A tree, occasionally twoiity-fivo feet in height, with a trunk a foot in diivmuter, often much smaller 
nnil HimietimeH shrubby. The brani'iilets are stout, conHpicuouHly roughened by the large elevated 
U-shaped scars of fallen leaves, and marked by occasional pale lenticels ; when they RrHt appear they 
are coated with thick villose pubescence which gradually disappears during their second and third 
seasons when the bark is of a dark dull red-purple color. The leaves are revolute in vernation, oval 
to broadly obovate, rounded or broadly acute at the apex, gradually or abruptly narrowed at the 
cuneate base, dentate-serruhtte, particularly toward the base, or entire, densely villose above and below, 
with long matted white hairs, when they first appear, and at maturity glabrous or nearly gLibrous, 
]iale yellow-green on the upper surface, slightly glaucous on the lower surface, from two inches to two 
inches and a half in length and from an inch to un inch and a half in width, with short slender 
tomentose {Mitioles, midribs broad and hoary toward the base of the leaf and thin and glabrous above 
the middle, and numerous thin arcuate primary veins. The stipules have not been seen. The flowers, 
which appear with the leaves from the middle to the twentieth of June, are produced on lateral leafy 
branchlets ; they are borne in stout pedunculate tomentose aments, those of the stamiuate plant varying 
from an inch and a half to two inches in length, and shorter than those of the pistillate plant which 
ut maturity are about three inches long ; their scaler are oblanceolate or lanceolate, dark brown or 
nearly black, and covered witli long pale hairs. The stamens are two in number, with slender elongated 
glabrous filaments. The ovary is ovate-lanceolate, short-stalked, glabrous or slightly pubescent, and 
gradually norrowud into the elongated slender style crowned with a two-lobed slender stigma. The 
capsule is ovoid-lanceokte, glabrous, short-stalked, and about a quarter of an inch in length. 

Salix arnplifolia inhabits the sand dunes which for a few miles skirt the beach on the west side 
of Yakutat Bay, Alaska, at the mouth of streams flowing from the glaciers of the St. EUas Mountain 
range, where it grows with Salix Alaxensin, and where it was discovered by Dr. F. V. Coville' on 
June 22, 1899. It was also collected by Dr. Coville in Disenchantment Bay at Hubbard Glacier and 
on Haenke Island and Egg Island, and on the east shore at the head of Yakutat Bay. 

The wood of JSalix arnplifolia has not been examined. 

' Frederick Vernon Corillo (March 2.3, 1807) was born on a 
farm in the township of Preston, Chenango County, New York, of 
a family of English and Scotch descent. In 1800, his father 
having moved to Oxford, New York, the son was educated in the 
academy of that town until his entrance at Cornell University, 
from which bo was graduated in 1887. In the summer of that 
year Coville joined the Geological Survey of Arkansas as a volun- 
teer assistant, devoting his time to the study of the tlora of the 
crntral and northern parts of that state. He was then instructor in 
Iwtany at Cornell for one year, and in iTuly, 1888, was appointed 
iissistant botanist in the United States Department of Agriculture. 
In 1803, on the death of Dr. George Vasey, he was placed in 

charge of the division of botany of that department. Mr. Coville 
was of the United States Death Valley Expedition of 
1801, and his important report, which greatly increased the know- 
ledge of the flora of southeastern California, forms the fourth vol- 
ume of the Contribution:! from the United Staten Snlionut Uerbarium ; 
in 1890 ho was (Uie of the botanists who accompanied the Ilnrriman 
Alaskan Expedition, lie is the author of several botanical and 
biographical papers published in the Proceeilingi of the Biological 
Soeiety of Washington, in the Ueports of the Department of Agri- 
culture, and in t\ie Proi'eedings of the Washington Aeademy of Sci- 
ence. In the last be has described in two papers the Willows of 


■ > > i. 


i I, 



Plate UCCXXX. SAi.rx a.mi-likolu. 

1. A flowering brunch of the staniiuate tree, iiatuial sue. 

2. A staiuiniite llmvcr with its bciIc. onlarjjed. 

3. A rtowtriiij; l.ran.-h of tlie pistiMate tree, natural size. 

4. A pislillati' flower with its scale, enUrged. 
.'■>. A fruiting' iiraiicli. natural siie. 

C. A caiMuld, enlarged. 


it '• I T 

i I 


\i f I 

H m 

i I i y 














;j ( i 


Pij-nt DCCXXX. S\u\ AMiLiKviuA. 
1. A (iotreniig brunch of th« utainiaitt* tree, natural «i». 

-V A staminnte tlo«<-r willi .■ ' . , ' 

•: /\ ftrmntji,^ brani'li of ih. lural tiw. 

'.At- rinw«r with it» .wal«, iulargtd 


I . ; 


; j 



) M 

'.vii nl '^lirili AinencA 

Tab Dcr. 

' AVUfv'i .M 


■ii : . i 



SALIX AMl^'.lFOL'.A 'ov^ 

A .'h. : rfVi.r , ityt*,r ' 

"yj , .\j.'w/,/ J^/r 





'i ' 
I ' 

\ :'■■ 



, I 
I ) 


i 'i 

1 1 



1 ; ' 

■ ' !' 

4 ife;; 






Leaves rhomboid-lanceolate, long-acuminate, green on both surtace^ 
slender, nearly terete. 


FopuluB acuminata, Rydberg, Bull. Torrey Bat. Club, zx. 
46, 1. 149 (1893) ; CotUrti. U. S. Nat. Herb. iU. 623. — 

Sargent, Silva N. Am. ix. 172. — Britton &, Brovu, IU. 
Fl. i. 491, f. 1167. — Britton, Man. 309. 

A tree, sometimes fifty or sixty feet tall, with a trunk three feet in diameter, but usually not more 
than forty feet in height, with a trunk from twelve to eighteen inches in diameter,* and stout spreading 
and ascending branches which form a compact round-topped or pyramidal head. The bark of young 
stems and of the large branches is smooth and nearly white, and on old trunks it is pale gray-brown, 
about half an inch thick and deeply divided into broad flat ridges. The branchlels are slender, terete 
or aUghtly four-angled, pale yellow-brown, and roughened for two or three years by the elevated oval 
horizontal leaf-scars which contain three dark fibro-vascular bundle-scars. The winter-buds are resinous, 
acuminate, and about a third of an inch in length, with six or seven light chestnut-brown lustrous scales, 
the lateral buds being much flattened by pressure against the branch. The leaves, which are pendulous 
on slender nearly terete petioles from one to three inches in length, are rhomboid-lanceolate, abruptly 
acuminate, gradually or abruptly narrowed and cuneate or concave-cuneate or rarely full and rounded 
at the mostly entire base, coarsely crenulate-serrate except near the apex, thick and leathery at maturity, 
dark green and lustrous on the upper surface, dull green on the lower surface, from two to four inches 
long and from three quarters of an inch to two inches wide, with slender yellow midribs, thin remote 
primary veins and obscure reticulate veinlets. The stipules are ovate, acute and apiculato or acuniirate 
at the apex, about an eighth of an inch long, and caducous. The aments of flowers, which appear before 
the leaves, are slender, short-stalked, and from two to three inches in length, with scarieus light brown 
glabrous scales dilated and irregularly divided at the apex into filiform lobes, and cac^i "ons. The 
numerous stamens, witli short filaments and dark red anthers, are inserted on a wide oblique membra- 
naceous disk. The ovary is broadly ovate, gradually narrowed to the apt which is crowned with 
large laciniately lobed nearly sessile stigmas and inclosed nearly to the middic ia the Jg^^ cup-shaped 
disk which is persistent under the fruit. The fruiting aments are four or fi>'c 1. 'u«8 'uag and the 
capsules are pedicellate, oblong-ovate, acute, tlnn-walled, slightly pitted, abr. ( ; luird ut an inch long, 
and three or occasionally two-valved. The seeds are oblong-obovate, roundt. ■ '.i the apex, light brown, 
about one twelfth of an inch in length, and surrounded by long \^liite hairs. 

PopuliiH acuminata inhabits the banks of streams in the arid eastern foothill reg'.'in of the Kocky 
Mountains and, although probably nowhere common, is ustributed from Assmiboia'' tu .js'ern Nebraska,' 
eastern Wyoming,* and southern Colorado. Long confounded with Pojndus .ngvutifoUa, it was first 
distinguished by Mr. P. A. Rydberg," who found in 1891 a number of trees of thL. Cottonwood in 
Carter Canon in Scott's Bluff County, northwestern Nebraska. 

' The wood apooiinen cut in northweateni Ntibraaka for the Jesup 
Collection of North Aiaerioan Wooda in the American Museum of 
Natural Hittorv, New York, i> tuelve and a half inches iu diame- 
ter inside the bark and only twentf^ight year» old. 'ITie iinpwood 
is two ai.d three eighths inches thi :k, with sixteen layers of annual 

' Pofiulut aeumuiala was collected by Mr. John Macoun at LetU- 
bridge, Assiniboia, June 6, ISOL 

» Bessey, Rty. Nebraska State Board Agric, 18M, 104 ; 1899, 

• See Nolsou, Bull. No. 40, Wyoming Ezpor. SUt. 02 (Trees of 

' Per Aiel Rydberg (July 7, 18C()) was bom in 0th Parish, 
Westergocthland, Sweden, and was the son of a farmer. At the 
p.gro of thirteen bo was sent to the pvepiuatory school of the Royal 
Grmnaaium at Skara, and iu 1881 was g;raduatcd frv)m the Gymnu- 


II il 


■ m 





PojniluB acuminoUi is soraetinir j planted to shade the streets of Laramie, Denver, Colorado Springs, 
and other cities in tl' ' i<':;i(iii which it inhabits.' 

■ium. He oMne to America in 1882, and from 1884 to 1800 and 
■gain from 1801 to 180;t wu a teacher of natural iciencet and 
mathematica at Luther Academy, Wahoo, Nebnuka. The yean 
1800-91 and 1803-00 be ipent at the CnWenity of Nebraaka, re- 
oeiTiug from that institution the dt3gree8 of Bachelor of Science in 
1801 and of Maiter of Arti in 1R05. In 1805 Mr. Kydberg entered 
Columbia Univeraity and three yean later obtained the degree of 
Doctor of rbiloaopby. From 1805 to 1800, while a ttudent at Co- 
lumbia Univervity, he performed the duties of Professor of Natural 
Sciences and Mathematics at the Cpsala College in Brooklyn. 
Dnring the summers of 1801, ISttt, and 18011, he was a field agent 
of Iwtany of the Unitea States Department of Agriculture ; in 1805 
and 1800 of the Uivision of Agrostology of that Department, and 
in 1807 of the New Vork Botanic Garden, collecting plants in Ne- 

braska, South Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Montana. 
Mr. Rydberg is the author of a number of botanical papers and re- 
ports, including a Flora of the Black HilU of South Dakota and of 
the Satui Hiilt nf Central Nebraaka, a paper on the Grmtte atut 
Forage Ptiintt of the Hncky Mountain Region, with Mr. C. L. Shear, 
a Monograph of the North American Specie* of Pht/nalijt anil Related 
Genera, a Monograph of the North American PotentilUg, and a Cata- 
logue of the Flora of Montana atul the Yelloicttone National Park. 

* The oldest specimen of Populut acuminata which 1 have seen 
was ooUecteil by Dr. K. V. Ilayden on Keynolds's expedition to the 
headwaters of the Missouri and Yellowitone rivers in 185(^00, 
and is preserved in the Kngelmauu herbarium. In 1874 it wa& coU 
I'icted by Kngelmann at Denver, Colorado, and in 1880 I founa it 
in the streets of Colorado Springs. 


Platk DCCXXXI. Popt'i.UR acuminat.*. 

1 . A branrli wltli staminate flowers, natural siie. 

2. A staminate llowcr, enlarged. 

3. The bract nf a staminate flower, enlarged. 

4. A branch with pistillate flowers, natural site. 
a. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A fruitin); branch, natural siie. 

7. A fruit, enlar^eil. 

8. A leafy branch, natural size. 

(:'' *l 




<u. .< -it 

iJKtmmla n •oatKtimM pUntMi to aluulf Uie iit.r««t« of I^nrikmio, Denver, ColoraUu Sprin^ 
i: :h«> r«i)(toii which il inhithits ' 



f I 

21. M^. tM*)^ tie Iw Ifi M I •! Mm I. u«»'>it> »( N»t>ruA>. - . 
!«. «)>«• iMiaMtiiiii itiK < nm « i>l llmrlM-Uit .4 m:.mi<, „ 
%(«> >• UMft la una Mr Kxttart i-M^tt^ 
. J iteMi irMri )»«rr -^tuml ikr (UfT>"- 

.vMrtHntMl U> i rllf«liau> ii( S .: .. I 

]:>MM( tki Mir-'-'- ' ' 'M'« I*"" '' lOi', I... ^^ t (mM •<>■» 

<r l«»7 W Um Sow » v N.^ 

l>»k«U, Wjriiniinii, Culonulo, I'toh, tml Mm.u- 
''' '* ""'^z i' Ik* kiilkor «( % uiiinbtr of baUnioal p«p*ni »».l . 

, * H.yril n/ iKt Hllli-t HllU «f Situlh ll«knla %ut\ 
'ti f'cninii yrhra/tkrit n pajwr on Ibit dniufj . 
' |4< Mo-t-y .Wxurililin Ktiium, nith Mr ('. I.,. Slu. 
' th* Sfirtk Aiiunrnn Spft^it^ 0/ /'\f/aaiu «»u/ ft'.;.,' 
. V. ..'^friipA o/f^ A"'irtA -4m*ni'ilii VitttnUtii*, «lid n ' 
■'I ..' 144 /-i^im »!/' i/imMna (Pm/ fAr )>ii.wj/.iM# Stilionth f'nt i 
' Th«> nldmit •p€4*ia)t>n of f'ttpitlut antmtmUn which 1 hitvr .. , 
Willi oullMcli^tl \ty l*r. K V. llATdrn mi Unynuldt'H vxprilitirii, t,, ;, 
kaulwKt«n ol th« MiMtnin and Yelluwit<>n« rivitr* in IndU m 
■B4I i« pr«MrviMl in the K»f(*<1hiiinn herbftrturo. In IM74 il w*« r ' 
l«^tod hy Kftf«tmiiDn Mt Ponvor, ('olurmdtt, And in \dSO I ^.•.r.! 
m iki< Atrr^tA u( ( oluriulu Sprinjpi. 


l"r.ATii IX^CXXXf. t' aci'mixata. 
! . A braodi wi'ii •teniinat* Bowm, natural %\te. 
". A •!j«mi»»t» rtowf r, «i\UiT;vrl 
3, Tbn bract «f » ilaraiiiato Howvr, enlarct-d. 

4 A tyraiiili with pMliilntv HnnKri. iialiirol ^it«. 

5 A |H>)illau flowar, •ftUr|!»!iii. 


Colorado Sprin^jn 

>. I'Uh, *im1 Mi>nt«ni 
■>Ullio«l |<il|>*ni «■>,) n 

ir (in III* fi'nuMi UK, 
with Mr C. L She*. 

I'lilmlilia, utd « ''n> . 
i/(<n* A'*i/iunii; /'lit ^ 
il'i! which 1 kavr irr., 
jlc)»'« <>>|i*<litMW til IIh, 

>ii« rirrn in lAAO-Mi 
a. In IM74 it wu m,! 
nd in 1880 I li^e.l 

Mi; til AillC 


XJ-.i,,.,'. ,u 

7?,if-!nt* j-c. 


-V .'(wrfetuv ftr^r * 

.'-/j:/' . ' : ififUf ".in.- 


It! , 



5/ ill' 


«i I 

i' I 








flat I 





art) I 



to ft 











' s 

ill Ju 






Pistillate flowers long-pcdicelluto. Lcuvch deltoid, abruptly short-pointed, coarsely 
crenulute-serrate, their petioles lutendly compressed. 

topui'u Wlaliseni. 

Populiis monllUera, Torrey, Bot. Mtx. Bound. Surv. 204 
(iKit Alton) (1859). 

Populua Fremontli, var. (?) WisliEeni, Wataon, Am. Jmir. 
Sei. Mr. 3, »v. VM\ (1H78) ; Proe. Am. Acad, iviii. 157.— 
Bmwer A Wataon, Hot. Col. ii. 92 (in part). — Sargent, 

Forett Trees N. Am. lOth Centui U. S. ix. 175 (exol. 
iyn.). — We»mnel, Hull. Hot. Sar. Ilelg. xxvi. 377 (Rev. 
Gen. I'o/iuliu) (in part). — Coulter, U, S. Nat. Herb. II. 
420 (.Van. VI. W. Textu). 
Populua Fremontil, Sargent, SUva N, Am. ix, 183 (in 
part) (1896). 

A large tree, with wide-spreading brunchcH and pale gray-bruwn bark deeply divided into broad 
flat ridgcH, stout light orange-colored glabrous brunchlets, and acute lustrous buds. The leaves are 
broadly deltoid, abruptly short-pointed, truncate or sometimes cordate at the broad entire base, coarsely 
and irregularly crenulate-serrate except toward the entire apex, coriaceous, ghibrous, yellow-green and 
limtroiis on both surfaces, from two inches to two incheH and a half long and usually about three inches 
wide, with slender yellow midribs, thin remote primary veins, and conspicuous reticulate veinlets ; they 
are borne on slender glabrous petioles ( (impressed laterally, from an inch und a half to two inches long, 
and bright yellow in the autumn before falling. The stipules are broadly ovate, acute and apiculate or 
acuminate at the apex, scarious, and caducous. The aments appear before the leaves and vary from two 
to four inches in length, with caducous bracts which are scarious, light red, and divided at the apex into 
elongated filiform lobes. The numerous stamens with large oblong anthers and short filaments are 
inserted on a broad oblique disk. The ovary is long-pedicellate, ovate, full and rounded at the apex, 
crowned by three broad erenulate-lobed stigmas raised on the short branches of the style, and inclosed 
nearly to the middle in the cup-shaped disk which is irregularly toothed on the margins and persistent 
under the fruit. The aments of fruit are fdiir or five inches long, with oblong-ovate thick-walled acute 
three or foui>valved slightly ridged buff-colored capsules which are about a quarter of an inch long, 
and are borne on slender pedicels from one half to three quarters of an inch iu length, and placed rather 
remotely from each other on the slender glabrous racbis. 

I'npulus WisHzeiii is the common Cottonwood of the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico and 
western Texas, and in the adjacent parts of Mexico." From the other Cottonwoods it can be easily 
distinguished by the elongated slender pedicels of the pistillate aments which are peculiar to this tree 
and, showing no tendency to become abbreviated, make it desirable to treat it as a species. 

I'ojmlua Wializeni was discovered on the upper Rio Grande in July, 1846, by Dr. F. A. Wis- 

' Speoimena of a Cottonwood collected by Miu Alice Eastwood 
iu July, 1896, oD Recapture Creek, Sao Juao County, southeaatern 

Utah, although beyond ita uaaal range, appear to belong to this 
species (Kaatwood, Proc. Cat. Acad. ser. 2, vi. 325). 
» See vi. IM. 















^ US, 


1.25 1.4 



6" - 























WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 873-4.S03 



Plate DCCXXXII. Pi-i-ULUs Wislizejti. 

1. A branch with sUminate flowers, natural lize. 

2. A staminate flower, enUrged. 

3. A brancli with pistillate flowen, natural size. 

4. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 
6. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

North Amenca occxxx:: 





li , 

(i .'t- 

is ' 

IS' ' 

I ! 


P I 

11 > 

i / 



1. A l>riiii«li with 'Uniinsto flowen, natural aita. 

2. A sUminsUi t)t»r»r. mUri^l. 

3. A lirancli uiiii (nittilUU' tt'ivim, nMural size. 

4. A plRlillHU! tio»«r. fuUfgeJ 

6. A (railing branch. DBlumi «•«. 

Si'.va of North America. 


<Vi*urfi-'n ^/*^. 

Tfofiuie- JY^' 





( ! 


. I (I 


^ '{ttHvouuy i^tr^r ' 

/nip ./ Tlvittt^y.J'ari,)' 

i 1 



•' ' I ? 






Pistillate flowers short-pedicellate, their disk large and cup-shaped. Leaves 
rhombic to broadly deltoid, elongated, acute or acuminate, green on both surfaces. 

Populua Mexioana, Wosmael, De CandoUe Prodr. zri. pt. 

ii. 328 (1868) ; Mim. Soc. Sei. Ilainaut, Mir. 3, iii. 240, 

t. 15 {Monogr. Pojmlus). — HemBle/, Sot. Biol. Am. 

Cent. iii. 181. 
PopulUB Fremontii, Wataon, Proe. Am. Acad. z. 350 (in 

part) (1876); Am. Jour. Sei. ter. 3, zv. 136 (in part).— 

Brewer & Wataon, Bat. Cal. ii. 92 (in part) Rnsby, 

Bull. Toi'rey Bot. Club, ix. 79. — Sargent, Forest Trees 
N. Am. \Oth Cemna V. S. iz. 175 (in part) ; Silva N. 
Am. ix. 183 (in part). — Weaniael, Bull. Bot. Soe. Belg, 
zzvi. 376 (in part) {Rev. Oen. Populua). 

A tree, sometimes eighty feet in height, with a trunk three or four feet in diameter covered with 
pale gi'ay or nearly white bark deeply divided into broad flat ridges and heavy gracefully spreading and 
ascending branches which form a broad open head. The branchlets are slender, and when they first 
appear they are pale green and more or less pubescent or villose, with long matted hairs, but soon become 
glabrous and are light yellow-brown during their first neason. The terminal winter-buds are narrow, 
acute, light orange-brown, puberulous toward the base of the outer scales, about one quarter of an inch 
long, and two or three times as large as the much compressed oblong lateral buds. The leaves are 
rhombic and long-pointed, especially when the tree is young, or broadly deltoid and acute or acuminate 
particularly on vigorous shoots, broadly or acutely cuneate or truncate or slightly cordate at the base, or 
often rotuded at the apex and much broader than long, usually coarsely and irregularly crenulate-seriate 
except at the base and towards the apex, and finely crenulate-serrate above the middle when the leaves 
are broad and rounded ; when they first unfold the leaves arc dark red covered on the lower surface 
with pile pubescence, puberulous on the upper surface, ciliate on the margins, with short white crowded 
hairs, and glandular on the tips of the teeth, with bright red caducous gknds ; soon becoming glabrous, 
at maturity they are subcoriaceous, bright yellow-green, very lustrous, two or three inches long and 
somewhat narrower or much broader than long, with slender yellow midribs, obscure primary veins, 
coarse reticulate veinlets, and slender nearly terete petioles grooved on the upper side near the base, at 
first puberulous, soon glabrous, and from an inch and a half to nearly two inches in length. The 
stipules are ovate, acute or acuminate, scarious, villose, from one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch long, 
and caducous. The flowers appear before the leaves late in February or early in March, the staminate 
in dense cylindrical aments usually from an inch to an inch and a half in length, the pistillate in 
slender many-flowered aments from an inch and a half to two inches long. The ovary is ova>, roui r'.ed 
at the apex, slightly three or four-angled, short-pedicellate, and nearly inclosed in the cup-shaped 
membranaceous disk. The fruiting aments are three or four inches long, and the capsules are borne 
on short stout pedicels thickly placed on the rachis, and are round-ovoid, buff color, slightly three or 
four-lobed, deeply pitted, t!, about one third of an inch long, and surrounded at the base by 
the much enlarged disk.' 

> Populm Meiicana a very tloael; related to the California 
Populiu Fremontii, differing chiefly from that species in the larger 
disk of the pistillate flowers, in the rhombic leaves which are com- 
mon on young plants, and appear frequently on the same branch 
vitli broad deltoid leaves, and in its distribution ; and when the 
Poplars of the southwest are bettor known than they are now it 

may be found desirable to treat this north Mexican tree ai a variety 
of the California species. 

Populus Mexicana is the common Cottonwood of northern Mex- 
ico, and it is this tree which is planted in the streets of Mexican 
cities. (See Priygle, Garden and Foreal, i. 105 f.) It is also the 
common Cottonwood of the valleys of southern Arizona and south- 






Populua Mexicnnn inhabita the banks of mountnin streumii in southern Aiizona and southwestom 
New Mexico, and is widely distributed through nortiiuni Mexco. 

Populua Mexicana ufi^enn to have been flrst collected 'jy Berlandier in northern Mexico. 

wpstern Nr.^ Motico. Id eutern New Mexico it appetn to be 
replkoeil by Pa/tulm Wittumi and by tbe Kocky Mouutain fotiii of 
PopiUut (trlloiilia, which in tbe ninth volume of thii work wm 
cuufoiiuded with PoptUut Fremontii lo far u roUtei to Colonulo, 

vaitern New Mexico, and western Texa<, and which I*rofeuor Tre- 
loaee h» called var. intermedia in bii unpublitbed notci on the 
genua Fopului, 


Platic DCCXXXIII. Populuh Mrxicana. 

1. A flow<>rin ,, branch of a itaniinate tree, natural siza. 

2. A Btaminate flower, enlarged. 

3. A flowering branch of a piatillate tree, natural sU*. 

4. A ])iatillate 6'>wer, enlarged. 

G. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

6. A fruit, enlarged. 

7. Leaf of a shoot, natural size. 


ind southwestern 


I wliioh I'rofeuor Tr»- 
ublishad notei on the 

/ ^■ 


1 i 



silA'A OF NUHTll A.)fKI{I('A. 



iahaii^ the h«iik« <>f luouiiUin itraanui iii MMuthnrn Amoiia and •outhweitcrii 
My •li>(nl<iit4Hl lliMii^h hiirth»<rii M'-viro. 
■ I i<|>)>.'arH l»i liJiir*' )M>fii hit) riillri'icil liv Hcrlaiiilit-r in iinrtlirrii Mi>xio<i. 


ri.*T« i» < .s%\ih rii»-fi.i« mkxi> A>i. 

t ^ finm*tmjt t<r«-Kli »f * nUluiiMUr Irm, nahirml >iu. 

\ -^Uunniu* I'owsr, unUrKMi. 
3. A !',.•'• ';lll^> hmiirh of n iiialillatv tree, iiaturitl MUk 
4 A i>i-'Mmt4> lluw«r, «iiUr|{e<l 
b A fniiKnK liranrh, nttunj iiita. 
•■ ^ fniil, I'nlarKwt. 

tr 1 1 'I a •licKit, natural liie. 


Jill HouthwektiTii 


.> . Ii I'mrMMir Tr»- 
• i!i<liril ntttMi 'in tlui 

?ilvA of Not'lh Am«ric» 


rSF^M." <M 


ZarUi^d .ro 

AJiuJ'ffnu^r i/trt^* 

Jmp J. Tnfifur /'itrU 



















in a 






















Flowers perfect ; cnlyx cupular, unequally .'Mobcd ; corolla 3-partcd, the lobes 
valvatc in icHtivation ; .stamens 6, their fllamentH triangular, joined at the base ; car- 
pels ;}, united above into an elongated style ; ovule baHilar, erect. Fruit drupaceous, 
1-seeded. Spadix interfoliar, elongated. Leaves alternate, orbicular or truncate, 
pctiolate, their petioles dentate. 

Berenoa, Hooker (. Bmthr~ ^ Uoohtr, Otn. iii. 926, 1228 (18M3). — Drude, EngUr A Prantl Pfiamenfam. il. pt. iii. 

37. — Btillon, Hut. PI. xiii. 314. 

Unarmed trees or shruhg with tall arboregceiit and often clustered or short or elongated subter- 
ranean endogenous stems clothed above for many years with the sheathing bases of the i)etioles of the 
fallen leaves, and stout tough deep - descending roots. Leaves terminal, induplicate in vernation, 
semiorbiciilar, truncate at the base, coriaceous, green, or pale and glaucous on the lower surface, divided 
from the apex to below the middle into numerous two-purted segments plicately folded at the base ; 
rachis short, acute ; ligule thin, concave, obtusely short-pointed, furnished with a broad membranaceous 
dark red-brown deciduous border ; petioles slender, flat above, rounded and ribbed on the lower surface, 
dentate on the margins ; vaginas thin and firm, bright mahogany red, lustrous, closely infolding the 
stem, their fibres thin and brittle. Spadix paniculate, i:itorfoliar, elongated, its rachis slender, com- 
pressed ; branches numerous, slender, elongated, gTa3efully drooping, coated with hoary tomentum, the 
primary panicled at the base and simple toward the apex of the spadix, flattened, the secondary terete 
from the axils of ovate acute chestnut brown bracts ; spathes flattened, thick and firm, deeply two-cleft 
and furnished at the apex with n broad or narrow red-brown membranaceous border, inclosing the 
rachis of the panicle, each primary branch with its spathe and the node of the rachis below it inclosed 
in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger spathe of the node next below. Flowers 
perfect, small or minute, sessile on the ultimate branches of the spadix in the axils of ovate acute 
chestnut-brown bracts, solitary toward the ends of the branchlets, and in two or three-flowered clusters 
toward their base, bibracteolate, the bractlets minute, caducous. Calyx truncate at the base, unequally 
three-lobed, the lobes valvate in leativation, thickened and persistent under the fruit. Corolla three- 
parted nearly to the base, its divisions valvate in (estivation, oblong-ovate, thick, concave, acute and 
thickened at the apex, grooved on the inner surface ^vith two or three deep depressions, deciduous. 
Stamens six, included ; filaments nearly triangular, united below into a cup adnate to the short tube of 
the corolla ; anthers short-oblong, attached on the back below the middle, introrse, two-celled, the cells 
ojiening longitudinally ; ovary oblong-obovate, of three carpels free below, united above into a slender 
elongated style ; stignm minute, terminal on the fruit ; ovule solitary, erect from the bottom of the 
cell, anutropous. Fruit drupaceous, oblong-ovoid or globose, one-seeded, black, and lustrous, usually 
bearing at the base the two minute abortive carpels ; exocarp thin and fleshy ; mesocarp thin and 
fibrous, orange-brown, resinous and strong - smelling, ch-sely investing the pale brown crustaceous 
putamen. Seed erect, free, oblong, or subglobose ; testji hard, chestnut-brown, and lustrous, lighter 
colored on the ventral side witii a conspicuous oblong or circular mark ; hilum small, subbasilar ; 
rajihe ventral, elongated, undivided ; albumen homogeneous. Embryo lateral. 

Serenoa with two species is confined to the coast region of the south Atlantic and Gulf region of 

1 1 ■ 








North Amerioa. One species ' is a slender tree found only in the swamps and low hummocks adjacent 
to the Chockoliskee River in southwestern Florida, and the other, which is the type of the genus, is a 
low plant generally scattered over sandy barrens from South Carolina to Louisiana, often covering great 
areas almost to che exclusion of other plants. 

Sereiioa is not known to suffer from the attacks of insects or serious fungal diseases.' 
The generic name commemorates the distinguished botanical services of Sereno Watson.' 

' Serenoa lerrulata. Hooker f. Betiliam If Hooter Gen. iii. 926 
(18S8). — Langlois, Col. PI. Basst-Louisiant, 17. — Chapman, Fl. 
ed. 3, W2. — Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nut. Herb. vi. 424 {Plant Life 
of .■liahamo). 

Chmiurropti trmilata, Micbauz, Ft. Jlor.-Am. i. 1!00 (1803). — 

Willdenow, Spfr. iv. pt. ii ^t 7;. - Aiton, llort. Kew. ed. 2, v. 

4&9. — Purth, Fl. Am. A'fjrf. i. i>39. — Nuttoll, Gen. i. Ii31.— 

Elliott, St. i. 431. — Sprengel, Sgit. ii. 137. — Loudon, Arh. 

Brit. W. 2632. 

Sabal lerruiala, Kocnier & Scliiiltcs, Si/sl. vii. pt. ii. 1480 

(1830). — Dietrich, .St/n. ii. 1201. — Kunth, Knum. iii. 240. — 

Chapman, Ft. 438. 

Brahea serrulata, H. Wnndlaud, Kerchore I.ea J'atmiers, 235 


Serenoa serrulata, the Saw-Palmetto, produces a horizontal stem 
wliii'h is sumctimes six ur eight inches in diameter, and frequently 
extends f >t ten or twelve feet at a distane* ot irom two to four feet 
below the surface of the gruund. From this stem, which under spe- 
cially favorable conditions ooci»sionally rises to tlie height of a few 
feet above the gruuiid, numerous stout roots |ienetmttt deep into 
ti.e soil, and short secondary stems rise to the surface and bear 
heads tif numerous leaves which ore supported on slender rigid 
petioles, and arc thick and Hrni, about a foot in diameter, and ])aIo 
on the lower surface, especially while young. From April to June 
it produces irregularly its Howcrs in ample panicles, remarkable 
for the long thin membranaceous red-brown Iwat shaped tips of 
the spathes; and in the autumn the oblon^-ovoid fruit, which is 
often an inch in length, covers the now drooping panicles, and 
affords abundant food for birds and many animals. 

'i'he fruit of Sererioa serrulata posaesscs remarkable fattening pro- 
perties, and the domestic animals which feed on it soon become sleek 
and fat. In medicine it has been found sedative, nutrient, and 

diuretic, and about two hundred and fifty tons of Saw- Palmetto be> 
ries are now coDsamed in the United States in the manufacture 
of fluid extracts used to improve digestion, increase weight and 
strength, to Induce sleep, to relievo irritation of the mucous mem- 
brane of the throat, nose, and larynx, and to strengthen enfeebled 
sexual organs, and in the treatment of the enlarged prostate gland. 
(See Oupore, Medical lirief, 1877, PJ.I. — Goss, Therapeutic Gizette, 
n. sor. i. 243. — Parke, Davis & Co., Organic Mat. Med. ed. % 159 ; 
Pharmacology of the Newer Mat. Med. No. 62, 1141 [Therapeutic 
Properties of Satv Palmetto]. — Rushy, Bastedo & Coblentz, Alumni 
Jour. N. Y. College of PharT>iacy, ii. 169 [The Pharmacology of Saw 

The stem of Serenoa semdata contains tannin in considerable 
quantities, and excellent leather haa been prepared from it, al- 
though the largo amount of red coloring matter associated with 
the tannin has a tendency to nmkc n dark leather, and the manu- 
facture of "syrup of tannin," an extract made from Serenoa serru- 
lata and sold a few years ago in northern markets, has been aban- 
doned, (See Trimble, Garden and Forest, ix. 182 [The Tannins of 
the Palmettos'] ; Am. Jour. Pharm. Ixviii. 397.) The Howcrs pro- 
duce a largo ainotmt of nectar, which is an important bee-food, 
and the superior honey made frvim them is sold as Palmetto honey. 
(See Rusby, Hastcdo & Coblentz, /. r. 171.) The collection and 
shipment to the northern states of the crowns of fresh leaves of the 
Saw-Palmetto for the decoration i)f churches and dwelling-houses 
has recently beconte a Florida industry of some importance. 

- Most of the fungi which have been recortled as occurring on 
Serenoa are found on the [tetioles of the leaves. Of the seventeen 
8|)ecies recorded some arc found also on Siifntl Palmetto. They 
are ai' small, and (h> not cause disease. Meliola pnlmicola, Winter, 
infests the leaves, covering them with a sooty black web. 

'^ See vii. 108. 

•' PI 


immocks adjaceut 
of the genus, ig a 
ten covering great 


ns of Saw-Palmetto be> 
tea in the nnuiufactiire 
n, increase weight and 
on of the muootis meni- 
to strengthen enfeelileil 
enlarged prostate gland, 
toss, Therapeutic (lizette^ 
IcMal. Med.ed.'l, KM; 
1. 5a, 1141 [Therape^ilic 
cdo & Coblentz, Alumni 
he Pharmacology of Saw 

tannin in eoniidenble 
1 prepared from it, nl- 

matter assoeiatcd with 

leuther, and tlie nmiiii- 
ade from Serenon aerru- 
markets, has been abnn- 
ix. 182 [ The Tanuim of 
97.) Tlie flowers pro- 
an important heo-fuod, 
sold as Palmetto honey. 
1.) The collection itnd 
ns of fresh leaves of the 
les and ilwelling-houses 
some im{)ortauce. 
ecorded as occurring on 
aves. Of the seventeen 

*•',./,«/ Pntmello. They 
Uliola pnlmicola. Winter, 
ity black web. 




Fruit globose. Leaves green on both surfaces. 

Berenoa arboresoens, Sargent, Sot. Oaxette, xzvii. 90 (1899). 

A tree, from thirty to forty feet in height, with one or several clustered erect inclining or 
occasionally semiprostrate stems three or four inches in diameter, and covered almost to the ground 
with the closely clasping bases of the leaf-stalks and below with a thick pale gray rind. The leaves 
are thin and firm, bright yellow-green on the upper surface, blue-green on the lower surface, about two 
feet in diameter, and divided nearly to the base into numerous lobes which are half an inch wide near 
the middle of the leaf and are only slightly thickened at the pale yellow midribs and margins ; their 
petioles, at first erect, soon become spreading and are from eighteen inches to two feet in lengfth, one 
third of an inch wide at the apex and an inch wide al the base, and are armed with stout flattened 
curved orange-colored teeth. The spadix is from three to four feet long, with a slender much flattened 
stalk, panicled lower branches eighteen or twenty inches in length, and six or eight thick firm pale 
green conspicuously ribbed spathes deeply divided at the apex, which terminates in a narrow membrana- 
ceous border. The flowers, which are about one twentieth of an inch long, are solitary toward the ends 
of the branches and in two or three-flowered clusters at their base ; their calyx is light chestnut-brown 
and tlie corolla is pale yellow-green. The fruit is globose and a third of an inch in diameter, with thin 
dry flesh covering the dark orange^olored fibrous strong-smelling resinous inner coat which closely 
invests the pale brown crustaceous nut. The seed is subglobose, somewhat flattened below, with a pale 
vertical mark on the lower side, a minute hilum joined to the micropyle by a pale band, and an obscure 
oblong acute raphe. 

Serenoa arborcscens inhabits the great Cypress swamps and low hummocks adjacent to the 
Chockoliskee River and its tributaries in southwestern Florida which, south of Cape Romano, extend 
from the neighborhood of the coast to the borders of the Everglades. Growing always in low 
undrained soil, it stands for many months of every year in water from one to eighteen inches deep. 
Occasionally occupying almost exclusively areas several acres in extent, it is more often scattered among 
Cypress-trees or southward among Royal Palms. 

Serenoa arboresoens was discovered ' in the spring of 1887 in the Royal Palm Hummock near the 
town of Everglade on the Chockoliskee iliver by Mr. Pliny W. Reasoner." 

' At the time of its discovery neither flowers nor frui' mre col- 
lected, but in October, 1888, Mr. E. N. Keasoner vibited the 
Chockoliskee River and obtained a few seeds, a stem for tho 
•Jesup Collection of North American Woods in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New Vork, and a few small plants. One 
of these has been grown in my garden in llrookline, Massachu- 
setts, and is now about eight feet high. In tho spring of 1898 Dr. 
Koliert Uidgwny, the distinguished ornithologist, informed me that 
his guide on a recent journey which he had made to the southeast 
of Kort Myers on tho Caloosahatcheo River, Mr. R. G. Corbett of 
inimockalee, had told him of a tall slender Palm in the Cypress 
swamps thirty or I'urty miles to the southe:ist of Lake Trafford and 
near the head of the Chockoliskee ; and througli Mr. Corbett I 
obtained in 1898 leaves, tlowers, and ripe fruits of this interesting 
Palm, which proved identical with the jne discovered by Mr. Rea- 
soner. and a second species of Sereuon . 

' I'liny Ward Reasoner (May U, lWl3-Septonibcr 17, 1888) wai 

bom in Princeton, Illinois, and was the son of Henry C. li 'awnur, 
who moved in 1848 from South Kgreroont, Massachusctlj, to Illi- 
nois, where he married and engaged in farming. Young Reasoner 
was educated in the high school at Princeton, and in 1881 went to 
Florida, whore he established at Oneco near the Manitec River a 
commercial nursery in which ho gathered together a large collec- 
tion of tropical and subtropical plants and where he died of yellow 
fever just when his intelligence, ind'^stry, and energy hod made him 
widely and favorably known and the usefulness and success of his 
career seemed assured. 

Mr. Reasoner was a constant contributor to the horticultural 
journals of the country, writing principally on exotic plants suit- 
able for cultivation in southern Florida, and he was the author of a 
report on Tropical ami Srmitropical FruiU in Florida and the Gulf 
Stales, published in 1887 by the Department of Agriculture of tho 
United States in Bulletin No. 1, Division of Pomology. 

f i' 







i i 

i: I 


Plate DCCXXXIV. Skrevoa abbore9ck.\8. 

1. Portion of a flowering gpadix, natural size. 

2. A fluster of flowers, enlarged. 

3. A flower, enlarged. 

4. A flower laid op^n, showing jwtnis and stamena, enlarged. 

5. Vertical section of a flower, eiii.irged. 

6. An anther, rear and front views, enlarged. 

7. A pistil, enlarged. 

8. Vertical section of a carpel, enlarged. 

9. Portion of a fruiting Bpa<lix, natural size. 

10. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

11. A fruit, tlif ])ericarp removed, showing the flhron* tnesocarp, enlarged. 

12. A sce<l, enlarged. 

13. A seed, showing the hilum. enlarged. 

14. A leaf, nuirh reduced. 

16. A ligule with its nieniliranaceoua border, enlarged. 






' \\1V. Skrknua ARBORR,S<;f>-S. 

■i <>' « (l»w«riti|L; ii|iiulix, natural aize, 
i««r ■>( tIfiWorB. i'ularf;iM. 
•i A Howor, «nlarg«tl. 

t. A tiowpr laiil upeii. shovriiig |hjuU and atamens. oaJarged. 
.''. Vfcrtiral Hi-rtion of u Hower, uiilnrgfcl. 
(' An anther. r»ar anil fionl views, enlar},'c<l. 
T A ]>i»til, enlarijwi. 
M. Vprtifal DtK'tJon of & car^l. enliirg»nt 
s*. I'ortiim I'f a fruiting •pwlii, natural «ij«, 
l". Vurliiai iiectidn of n fruit. eiilftrHcti. 

11. A fruit, tlic iieric»rji reinnvul, filiunriDj; the fihi^s mwocarp, enlarged. 

12. A *ee<i, eniargwi. 

!H. A wted, tlwtring tiie htlum. eiilargvd. 

14. A kai, mhrh'KilQe«ti. 

t5. A lignl"' wnh it* m^oiWanaeeoni Wwdw, enlargml. 

!; ' i 


L.ilva of North America 


c' £' Fuuiun iial 

£/n. ^imefy j'c- 

\ . \ 





A ''fm- V-*V«^ tthY\t ' 

/m/: .J Tanfiitr, Paru 

1 • 




■ f; 


















Flowers perfect ; calyx and corolla confluent into a short cup, 6-lobed on the 
margin ; stamens usually 6 ; ovary 1 -celled ; ovule basalar, erect. Fruit drupaceous, 
globose, ivory-white ; exocarp fleshy ; putamen crustaceous. Spadix interfoliar, elon- 
gated, paniculate. Leaves orbicular, or truncate at the base, petiolate, their petioles 

Thrinax, Swartz, Prodr. 57 (1788). — Schreber, Gm. 772. — 
Martius, Palm. Fam. Oen. 8. — Endlicber, Oen. 253. — 
Meianer, Oen. 357. — Drude, JSngUr & Prantl Pjianteiv- 

fam. ii. pU iii. 34 (lect. Porothrinax). — Sargent, Silva 
N. Am. z. 49 (sect Porothrinax) ; Bat. Qazette, xxrii. 

Small unarmed trees, with simple endogenous stems marked beloTV with the ring-like scars of fallen 
leaves and clothed above with the long-persistent sheaths of the leaf-stalks, and long tough wiry roots 
covered with thick orange-brown loosely attached rind. Leaves terminal, induplicate in vernation, 
alternate, orbicular, or truncate at the base, thick and iirm, usually silvery white on the lower surface, 
more or less deeply divided into narrow acute two-parted obliqi'dly folded lobes, with thickened margins 
and midribs ; rachls reduced to a narrow border, with a thin usually undulate reflexed margin ; ligule 
thick, concave, pointed, often lined while young with hoary tomentum ; petioles stout, elongated, flat- 
tened, rounded above and below, their margins thin and smooth, concave toward the base, and gradually 
enlarged into vaginas composed of coarse netted fibres covered with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix 
paniculate, interfoliar, pedunculate, elongated, its primary branches short, alternate, flattened, incurved, 
furnished with numerous slender terete alternate pendant secondary flower-bearing branchlets produced 
in the axils of ovate acute scarious deciduous bracts ; spathes numerous, tubular, coriaceous, two-cleft, 
and more or less tomentose toward the apex, each primary branch of the panicle with its spathe and the 
node of the rachis hAovi it included in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger spathe of 
the node next below. Flowers solitary, miuute, articulate on elongated, or short thick disk-like pedicels 
in the axils of ovate acute deciduous bracts. Perianth truncate at the base, six-lobed, the lobes obscure 
or broadly ovate and acute, persistent under the fruit. Stamens six or nine,' inserted on the base of 
the perianth ; filaments subulate, thickened and scarcely united at the base, or nearly triangular and 
united below into a cup adnate to the perianth ; anthers oblong, two-celled, opening longitudinally, 
inserted on the back below the middle, introrse, becoming reflexed and extrorse at maturity. Ovary 
superior, ovoid, one-celled, gradually narrowed into a stout columnar style crowned by a broad funnel- 
formed flat or oblique stigma ; ovule solitary, basalar, erect, seuiLmatropous ; micropyle lateral. Fruit 
drupaceous, globose, marked at the apex by the remnants of the style and bearing at the base the 
slightly thickened perianth of the flower ; sarcocarp thin, green, crustaceous, ultimately becoming thick- 
ened, ivory-white, juicy, bitter, easily separable from the thin putamen of two closely adherent coats, 
the outer crustaceous, pale tawny brown and slightly tuberculate, the inner membranaceous, silvery 
white, and lustrous. Seed free, erect, nearly globose, slightly flattened at the two ends, depressed at 
the base ; hiium subbasilar, oblong, pale, conspicuous ; raphe short, unbranched, inconspicuous ; testa 
tliiii, pale or dark chestnut-brown, and lustrous ; albiunen uniform, more or less deeply penetrated by a 
broad basal cavity. Embryo lateral. 

' III all the Florida species of Tlirinax mid in Thrinax pamiflora, 
Swarti yll. Ind. Ore. i.GU,t.V\ [1707]), i\\e type of tlie Kciiiis.tlio 
uuiiiber of stamens is six, but in Thrinax exceUn, (irisebaeli {Fl. 

Brit. W. Ind. 515 [1804]. — Hooker f. Bot. Mag. oxv. t. 7088) of 
Jamaica the number ia said to bo uiiie. 



- 'i* 








Thrinas U tuuiiued to the New World. Three species inhabit southern Florida ; ' and five or 
six 'pecies, still imperfectly known, are scattered through the Aitillea and on the shores of Central 

T!)e wood of the Florida species of Thrinax is light and soft, and contains numerous small fihro- 
vaM'iilnr bundles, the exterior of the stem being much harder than the spc .;gy interior. The stems are 
used! fur the pil-^s of small wharves and for turtle crawls, .md tlie leaves are employed as thatch and are 
manufnctumd into hats and baskets, and coarse ropes. 

The g'.nciiu name from Oplva.^ is in allusion to the form of the leaves. 

1 For the t'^ird Klurida speciei, t'hriuar micwfitrpa^ Bee x. iV), t. 
'ill, when) the fruit is cleiioribetl u orange-bruwn in eulur with r. 
:!riifttaoet>uh iMTicarp, the true chnroGtera of the fully ri|>e 
being then urknown to nic (nee Sargent, I' i. Gmttte, (xrii. 87). 

' See Koeiner Si Schultea, Sytl. y\\. pt. ii. 'iSOO. — Martiua, Nat, 
Hut. Palm. iii. 254. — UriMbub, Fl. tV. lid. 61S ; Cat. PI. C\A. 


Flowera lang-pe<licpllate ; perianth obsenrely lolied or nearly truncate ; fllamenta iiubulata, hardly united 

at the base ; sti);;nm oblique 1. T. Flokiuana. 

Flnweni ■hurt-|ietlirellate ; |K'rianth \obeit broadly ovate, acute ; iilamenta neari, ° .igulor, unitetl below 
into a cup nilnate to the jwrianth : atif^a flat. 

Seeds three sixttenths of an inch in diameter, pale chestnut-brown , leave:« from thre« to four feet in 

diameter 2. T. Kkvknsim. 

See<U from one nixteenth tu one eighth of an inch in diameter, dark cheatnut-brown : leaven two feet 
in diatneter or lesa 3. T. hicbocabpa. 




da;' and five or 
ihorcs of Central 

irous small fihro- 

Thu Htems are 

t8 thatch and are 

■i300. — M»riiu«, \al. 
id. 81B ; Co/. PI. Cub. 

1. T. Florioana. 

2. T. Kktrnsu. 







Flowers long-pediccllntc ; perianth obscurely lobed or nearly truncate ; filaments 
subulate, hardly united at the base ; stigma oblique. 

Thrinaz Florldana, Strgent, Dot. Ocuutt*, xxTii. 84 

Tbrinax parviflora, Vuey, Rev. V. S. Dtpt. Agrie. 1876, 

186 (C :. Forat Tree* U. S.) (not Swarta) (1876). — 

Chapman, Bot. OoMette, iii. 12 ; Fl. ed. 2, Suppl. 6C1 ; ed. 
3, 462. —Sargent, SUva N. Am. z. 61 (in part), t. 610 at 
to the laaf. 

A tree, with a slightly tapering stem, from twenty to thirty feet in height and from four to six 
inches in diameter, covered with a smooth pale blue-gray rind and generally clothed to the middle and 
occasionally a! >' >8t to the ground with tiie long-persistent clasping bases of the leaf -stalks. The leaves 
are thick and firm, nearly orbicular, or truncate at the base, from two and a half to three feet in 
diameter, rather longer than they are broad, yellow-green and lustrous on the upper surface, silvery 
white on the lower surface, and divided to below the middle into numerous lobes which vary from an 
inch to an inch and a half in width near the middle of the leaf ; the rachis of the leaf is a narrow 
reflexed undulate orange-colored border and the ligule is long-pointed, bright orange-colored, and three 
quarters of an inch long cud broad ; the petioles vary from four feet to four feet and a half in length 
and are pale yellow-green or orange-colored toward the apex, which is three quarters of an inch wide and 
coated at firsi. with hoary deciduous tomentum, and much thickened and tomentose and from two inches 
to two inches and a half wide at the base. The flower-panicles, which in all the Florida species of 
Thrinax appear two or three months before the flowers open and lengthen very slowly, are when fully 
grown from three feet to three feet and a half in length, with primary branches from six to eight inches 
long and secondary branches from an inch and a half to two inches in length ; these are ivory-white at 
the time the flowers open, turning light yellow-green before the fruit rl jens, and orange-brown in drying. 
The flowers are raised on slender pedicels nearly an eighth of an inch long and are ivory-white and 
very fragrant, with a pungent aromatic odor ; their perianth is almost truncate or obscurely six-lobed ; 
the filaments of the six much exserted stamens are subulate and barely united at the base, and the 
stigma is very obUque ; they open in June and sometimes also irregularly in October and November, 
and the fruit ripens six months later. The fruit is from one quarter to three eighths of an inch in diam- 
eter, somewhat depressed above and below, with ivory-white and lustrous juicy bitter flesh, and the 
seed, which varies from one eighth to nearly one quarter of an inch in diameter, is dark chestnut-brown 
and penetrated almost to the apex by the broad basal cavity.' 

In Florida Thriiiax Floridana inhabits dry coral ridges and sandy shores, and is distributed from 
Long Key to Torch Key and the islands in its neighborhood, and on the mainland ranges from Cape 
Romano to Cape Sable. 

Thrinax Floridana was discovered by Dr. A. W. Chapman,^ who found it near Cape Romano in 
the autumn of 1875, and in October, 1879, it was found by Dr. A. P. Garber ' on Cape Sable. It is 
now cultivated in gardens at Miami, Florida.* 

' It 18 the leaf of this •[icrics which wiui figurwl on tho plate of 
ThritM. narvijtora in tho tenth volume of this work (t. 510). 
'' .Seo vii. HO. 
^ See i. n5. 
* A number of trees of this Palm brought from Long Key arc 

now established in the garden of the hotel at Miami ; and from 
flowers and fruits gathered from them Mr. Faxou has made the 
plate of this speoies. It is the Thrinax excelsa of some Fk'ida 
nurserymen, but not of Grisehach. 












1. Portion of a Howuriiig apatliz, natural niie. 

2. A Howar, enlarKwI. 

3. Periuntli of a flower witli ita atamens, laid open, enlar^jed. 

4. A HtatDon, eiilargetl. 

5. A piatil, cnlarf^ed. 

fi. Portion of a fruitin); apndix, natural aita. 
7. Vertiral awtion of a fruit, enlarged, 
'8. A need, enlarged. 
9. A leaf, much tet'. ice<l. 
10. A ligule, natural aiie. 


> * 








■ I 


Ht»rF IH»XXXV. TiiKiNAt Ki.i'HiKAN*. 
I t\»ru<>n of m Hifwreriitw; aiiAili* natural •ijM 
'i A Howar, inlarg*!) 

3. I'vrUiitti uf • H<iw»r Willi iti .taunMii, linl open, mlugtd. 

4. A "(ftn^en. ^nl^pjfiMl, 
B. A 

ft l*(,; . .1.1^1 -'\ff 

7. V««Jf»i . 

8. A «-^i ' 

Sitv* of North Am«nc» 




" K.FiiJ-^n t.f/ 


^ huurteua- .///rt/ 

Imf ^ rafitHdr Pu/u 





i ^ ' ' 


Ui t\,i 






Flowers short-pedicellate ; perianth-lobes broadly ovate, acute ; filaments nearly 
triangular, united below ; stigma flat. Seeds pale chestnut-brown. 

Thrinaz KeyenBis, Sargent, Bot. Oaxette, xxvii. 86 (1899). 

A tree, with an ashy gray stem, often twenty-five feet in height and from ten to fourteen inches in 
diameter, raised on a base of thick matted roots from two to three feet high and eighteen or twenty 
inches wide, and surmounted by a broad head of leaves, the upper erect, the lower, both living and 
dead, pendulous and closely pressed against the stem. The leaves are nearly orbicular, or truncate at 
the base, but rather longer than they are broad, from three to four feet long, and divided for two 
thirds of their length into lobes which are often two and a half inches wide near the middle of the leaf, 
the lowest Icbes being parallel with the petiole or spreading from it nearly at right angles ; they are 
thick and firm, light yellow-green and very lustrous on the upper surface, with bright orange-colored 
midribs and much thickened orange-colored margins to the lobes, and on the lower surface they are 
coated when they unfold with hoary deciduous tomentum and at maturity are pale blue-green and more 
or less covered with loosely attached silvery white pubescence ; the rachis of the leaf is a thin undulate 
border and the ligule is thick, pointed, an inch in length and in width, and Uned at first with hoary 
tomentum ; the leaves are borne on stout petioles flattened above, obscurely ridged on the lower surface, 
tomentose while young, pale blue-green, from three to four feet long, an inch wide at the apex and 
from three to four inches wide at the much thickened concave base, which is coated with a thick silvery 
white felt-like tomentum which also covers the broad vaginas composed of thick loosely woven coarse 
tough fibres. The flower-panicles are usually about six feet in length and are Etout, spreading, and 
gracefully incurved, with firm thick spathes more or less coated with hoary tomentum ; their primary 
branches are much compressed and vary in length from three or four inches at the base of the panicle 
to an inch and a half at its apex and, like the short secondary branches, are bright orange color. The 
flowers, which open in June and occasionally also irregularly in November and are white and slightly 
fragrant, are raised on short thick disk-like pedicels and are about an eighth of an inch long ; they 
consist of a cupular six-lobed perianth with broadly ovate acute lobes, six stamens with nearly triangular 
filaments united at the base, and oblong versatile anthers, and an ovate ovary gradually narrowed into a 
stout thick style dilated into a broad funnel-shaped flat stigma. The fruit, which ripens in October 
and also irregularly late in the spring or in early summer, is lustrous, ivory-white, and from one sixteenth 
to nearly one quarter of an inch in diameter, witli thin flesh and a pale chestnut-brown seed three 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter, penetrated only to the middle by the basal cavity. 

Thrinux KeyetmK, which is the largest and haiulsoniest of tiie fan-leaved Palms of tropical Florida, 
grows in dry sandy soil close to the beach on the north .side of the largest of the Marquesas keys, where, 
mingled with Coccothrinar. juvundn, it lifts its broad and stately head of massive foliage above the low 
Hlnubby undergrowth of Uhun Metophim, Conocarpus eiecta, Jacquinia armillarin, and Eugenia hiixi- 
Jhlia. It grows also on Crab Key, a small island to the westward of Torch Key, one of the Bahia 
Honda group.' 

' This Talin wns first Keen bv me nn the Mnrqiieans keys in CO) in the belief thnt the thiok fleshy black fruit of Coccothrinax 
NiiveniiM^r, 188(1, without llowers or fniit nivl waft iiu'orroctly re- jucunda belongeil to it. 
fiTri'ii to Kuthrituix (Cinrdeu atul, ix. Ki'J ; Silva iV. Am, x. 




Platk DCCXXXVI. Thrinax KKVENSig. 

1. A portion of a flowering tpadiz, natural size. 

2. A flower, enlarged. 

3. Perianth of a flower laid open, with its stamens, enUrged. 

4. A pistil, enlarged. 

5. A portion uf a fruiting spadix, natural size. 

6. Vertical section of a fruit, enlarged. 

7. A seed, enlarged. 

8. A seed, enlarged. 

0. A leaf, niucli reduced. 

10. A ligule, natural size. 

i li ! 



















1. A pfirtiou of It tlowcriDg spadii. natural itiie. 

2. A flower, enlarge<l. 

H. I'nriiuith of a riuwer l»i(l optn. with iu «Uimon«, onUr^tML 

■t. A piitil. enlar(rr<l 

'). A portion of n fruitmi; •ptttix, natural size. 

<> V.riical «Tliun u( * frill '.irk--. I 

• III. onUritwi. 

i~ A w<nJ, ••iiUri(v<l. 
y V l*«l. iiiuf!i ri^urej. 


' I 


Silvd of" North Ainenca 



( t' Fa.ti'n t^W 

.Htipuit*- . 


.4 HiA'iv'i'tt.r %itre.r^ 

/rif J T,:/lfiir Part.' 



i '1 

; I 

. ft 

y- i 





Flowers perfect ; calyx and corolla confluent into a six-toothed perianth ; st: mens 
9; ovary 1-celled; ovule basilar, erect. Fruit baccate, globose, black, and lustrous. 
Spadix interfoliar, paniculate. Leaves orbicular, or truncate at the base, petiolate, their 
petioles unarmed. 

Coooothrinaz, Sargent, Bot. Gaxette, zxvii. 87 (1899). 
Thrinaz, Endlicher, Gen. 253 (in part) (1836). — Meiuner, 

Gen. 357 (in part). — Bentham & Hooker, Gen. iii. 

930. — Drude, Engler & Prantl Pfianxonfam. ii. pt. iii. 

34 (sect. Eiahrinax). — 'Ba,inon, Hist. PI. xiii. 317 (excel, 
sect. Hemithrinax). — Sargent, SUva N. Am. z. 49 (sect. 

Small unanned trees, with simple or clustered endogenous stems marked below by the ring-like 
scars of fallen leaves and clothed above with the long persistent petiole-sheaths, or rarely stemless. 
Leaves terminal, induplicate in vernation, alternate, orbicular, or truncate at the base, pale or silvery 
white on the lower surface, more or less deeply divided into narrow acute two-parted plicately folded 
lubes ; rachis short ; ligule thin, free, erect, concave, rounded or long-pointed at the apex ; petioles 
compressed, slightly rounded and ridged on both sides, their margins thin and smooth, gradually 
enlarged below into elongated vaginas of coarse fibres, often forming an open conspicuous network, 
generally clothed while young with thick hoary tomentum. Spadix interfoliar, paniculate, shorter than 
the petioles, its primary branches furnished with numerous short slender pendulous flower-bearing 
secondary branchlets from the axils of scarious acute bracts ; spathes numerous, tubular, papyraceous, 
two-cleft at the apex, inserted on the rachis of the pai le, each primary branch with its spathe and 
the node of the rachis below it inclosed in a separate spathe, the whole surrounded by the larger 
spathe of the node next below. Flowers perfect, solitary, minute, articulate on slender elongated 
pediceld in the axils of caducous bracts. Perianth cupular, trunjate at the base, obscurely six-lobed, 
deciduous. Stamens nine, inserted on the base of the perianth, exserted ; filaments subulate, enlarged 
and barely united at the base ; anthers oblong, attached on the back near the middle, introrse, two- 
celled, the cells opening longitudinally. Ovary superior, ovoid, one-celled, naiTowed above into a 
slender columnar style crowned by a funnel-formed oblique stigma ; ovule solitary, basilar, anatropous ; 
micropyle sublateral. Fruit subglobose, buccate, one-seeded, crowned by the remnants of the style, 
raised on the thickened torus of the flower; exocarp at first thin, of two closely united coats, the 
outer crustaceous, briglit green, the inner membranaceous, silvery white ; in ripening becoming thick, 
sweet, juicy, homogeneous, black, and lustrous. Seed erect, free, depressed-globose ; testa thick and 
hard, vertically grooved, deeply infolded in the ruminate albumen ; hilum subbasilar, minute, and 
obscure ; raphe hidden in tlie folds of the testa. Embryo lateral. 

Coccothrinax i.s confined to southern Florida and to the Bahama and West Indian islands. Two 
species occur in Florida; one of them is a small tree, and the other a low nearly stemless plant.' Co -o- 
thrinax radiatu'- inhabits Cuba, Antigua, San Domingo, and Trinidad, and Coccothrinax argenteu^ 

' CiKcothrinai Garbtri, Sargent, Hot. Gazelle, nvii. 90 (1899). 

Thrmax Garheri. CliRpinaii, llol. Gazelle, iii. 12 (1878); Fl. ed. 
2, Siippl. (V)l. — .Sargent, Silra jV. .-im. i. 50. 

Thrinaz argetitea, var. Garheri, Chapman, Fl. ed. 3, \&1 
« Sargent, Bot. Gazette, xxvii. 89 (1899). 

Thrinaz railiala, Roeraer & Schultes, Syst. vii. pt. ii. 1301 
(1830). — Martina, .Vat. Him. Palm. iii. 257. — Griaobacli, H. 
firil W. ImI. 615 ; Cal. Pt. Cuh. 221. 
' Sargent, /. .-. (1899). 

Thrinaz arijenlen, Unemer & Seliultes, /. c, (1830). — Mar- 
tins, /. ('. 250. — (irisebacli, /. r.; /. c. 



'^ 1 








the Bahamas, Sou Domingo, and Cuba, where there appear also to bo other little known or ondescribed 

The stems of Coccothrinax are used for wharf-piles and the sides of turtle crawls, and the tough 
coriaceous leaves are made into hats,, baskets, and coarse ropes, and are used for the thatch of 

The generic name from kukko; and Thrinax is in allusion to the berry-like fruit. 


or ondeBcribed 

and the tough 
the thatch of 





Brittle Thatch. 

Pedicels stout, elongated ; filnmcnts subuliite, barely united. Fruit black, with 
thick juicy succulent flesh ; seeds light tuwny brown, conspicuously sulcate. 

Coooothrinaz Juounda, Sargent, Bot. OuMtte, xxvii. 89 Silva N. Am. x. 61 (in part), t 610 (excl. figure of the 

(1899). leof). 

Tbrinax parviflora, .^argent, Forett Trees K. Am. \Oth Thrinaz argentea, Chapman, Fl. ed. 3, 462 (not Roemer 

C'eruiM U. S. ix. 217 (not Swartz nor Chapman) (1884) ; & Schultea) (1897). 

A tree, with a stem slightly enlarged from the ground upward, and from fifteen to twenty-five 
feet in height, from four to six inches in thickness, and covered with a pale blue-gray rind. The 
leaves are nearly orbicular, the lower lobes being usually parallel with the petiole, but are rather 
longer than they are broad, thin and brittle, from eighteen to twenty-four inches in diameter, and 
divided below the middle of the leaf or towards its base nearly to the ligule into narrow lobes which in 
their widest part are an inch across, and are f urniahed with much thickened bright orange-colored 
midribs and margins ; the leaves are pale yellow-green and very lustrous on the upper surface and 
bright silvery white on the lower surface, which is at first coated with hoary deciduous pubescence ; 
the rachis of the leaf is thin, undulate, obtusely short-pointed, and dark orange-colored, and the ligule 
is thin, concave, crescent-shaped, often oblique, slightly undulate, occasionally obtusely short-pointed, 
three quarters of an inch wide, one third of an inch deep, and light or dark orange-colorud ; the 
petioles are slender, flexible, at first erect but soon spreading and then pendant, rounded on the upper 
side, obscurely ribbed on the lower side, with a low rounded rib, from two feet and a half to three 
feet long, pale yellow-green, an inch and a half wide at the base, and coated at first with silvery white 
deciduous tomentum toward the dark orange-colored apex which is about five eighths of an inch in 
width. The panicles are from eighteen to twenty-four inches in length, with flattened peduncles, 
slender much flattened primary branches from eight to ten inches long, and light orange-colored like 
the slender terete secondary branches which are from an inch and a half to three inches long ; their 
spathes are thin, fibrous, and pale reddish brown, and are coated towards the ends with pale pubescence. 
The flowers, which expand in June and irregularly also in the autumn, are raised on ridged spreading 
pedicels an eighth of an inch in length and consist of a cup-like six-Iobed perianth, nine stamens 
with slender exserted filaments slightly united below, and large oblong light yellow anthers, and a 
subglobose orange-colored ovary surmounted by an elongated style dilated into a broad rose-colored 
stigma. The fruit, which ripens in about six months, is from one half to three quarters of an inch in 
fliameter, and bright green at first when fully grown ; it then turns deep violet color, and the flesh 
becomes very succulent and filled with violet-colored juice ; ultimately it is nearly black and very lustrous, 
the whole pericarp becoming sweet with an agreeable flavor, and then shriveling it grows leathery in 
drying. The seed is light tawny brown, with a thick hard dull testa which is deeply infolded in the 
ruminate albumen. 

Coccothrimix juamda is now known only in Florida, where it inhabits dry coral ridges and sandy 
flats from the shores of Bay Biscayne, along many of the southern keys, to the Marquesas group west 
of Key West. 

The stems are used for the piles of small wharves and for turtle crawls, and the soft tough 
young leaves are made into hats and baskets. 

' il 




Coccothrinax jucunda wm diicovered in 1880 by Mr. A. H. Curtiia ' on Dahia Honda Key. 
The specific name is in alliuion to the sweet edible flesh of the fruit. 

> 8m ii. SO. 


Platr IX'CXXXVII. Coccdthrinax .iucunda. 
1. A imrtion of • fruiting; ipiulix, natural iite. 
3. Vertical Mction of a fruit, eiilargml. 

3. A Med, enlarKed. 

4. A leaf, much reduced. 
6. A lignle, natural liia. 

y ;i 


ii ' 



■liRlNAX JuCliNl 


! ; 


Otmothrtmu jhrtuuta wm riuuuv«iv<l in IH^) bj Mr. A. II CurtiM ' on HithiB Ilim>i« Kuy. 
Ilw apMiAe naoM i* « BlliuMa to iIm •««*t adibl* ttnaii of ihu fruit. 

• ■mU.Hi 


I'lJi TK. 

l'l.*TT ' ' IMHINtl .ll'i:i!N|IA. 

A 'ifvl*, lularkl uu. 

! -i' 

i . i\ 


StIvK of Norfh Arn*n(4 



rsf.Ln'r ./rt' 

J^m.Hirrw/i4 ■ 


A Hi. •• ffftt^r Mrt\r ' 

Jnip . ^Tufi^tr Pcrur 


IB ^ 




Red Oedar. 

Staminate flowers elongated. Fruit small, subglobose ; seeds usually two. Leaves 
opposite, acute or acuminate, glimdular. Branchlets slender, pendulous. 

Juniperus Bcirbadensis, Linnnus, Spec. 1039 (1753). — 
Lamarck, Diet. ii. 627. — Miebaux, Fl. Bor.-Am. ii. 245. — 
Willdenow, Spec. iv. pt ii. 851. — Purah. Fl. Am. Sept. ii. 
647. — Nuttall, Oen. ii. 245 ; Sylva, iii. 96. — Sprengel, 
Sytt. iii. 909. — Maycock, Fl. Barb. 394. — Loudon, Arb. 
Brit. iv. 2504. — Engelmann, Trans, St. Louis Acad. iii. 
692.— Mohr, Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. vi. 326 (Plant 
Life of Alabama) ; Bull. No. 31 Div. Forestry U. S. 
Dept. Agric. 37, t. 2. 

Junipenia Bennudiana, Lunan, Hart. Jam. i. 84 (not Lin- 

nieus) (1814) Raflnestjue, Med. Fl. ii. 13 (in part). — 

Gordon, Pinetum, 101 (in part). — Henkel & Hoclistetter, 
Syn. Nadelh. 328 (in part). — Carrifere, Traiti Conif. ed. 
2, 49 (in part). — Parlatore, De Candolle Protlr. xvi. pt 
ii. 490. — Sargent, Silva N. Am, x. 70 (in part). 

Juniperus Virginiana, B auatralis, Endlicber, Syn. Conif. 

28 (1847). — Carribre, Traiti Conif. 44. — Courtin, Fam. 
Conif. 131. 

Juniperus Virginiana, Lindley & Gordon, Jotir. Hort. Soc. 
Land. r. 202 (in part) (not Linneaus) (1850). — Courtin, 
Fam. Conif. 130 (in part). — Chapman, Fl. 435 (in 
part). — Carri^re, Traiti Conif. ed. 2, 43 (in part). — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. 10th Census U. S. ix. 182 
(in part) i SUva N. Am. x. 93 (in part). — Masters, ./our. 
R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 215 (in part) ; Jour. Bot. xxxvii. 10. — 
Hansen, Jour. B. Hort. Soc. xiv. 298 (Pinetum Danicum) 
(in part). 

Juniperus Virginiana Barbadensis, Gordon, Pinetum, 
114 (1858). — Henkel & Hochstetter, Syn. Nadelh. 337. — 
Hoopes, Evergreens, 293. 

Juniperus Virginiana, var. Bermudiana, Vasey, Sep. 
U, S, Dept, Agric, 1875, 185 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) 

Since the tenth volume of this work was published in 1896 I have had several opportunities to 
restudy in the field the Red Cedars of North America, and it now seems necessary to separate Junipenm 
Virginiana as there described into three species : — 

First, the Juniperus Virginiana of Linnaeus, the Red Cedar of the north, with comparatively stout 
branchlets, erect branches which usually make a narrow compact pyramidal head, or sometimes in old 
age become more horizontal and form an open round-topped crown, and fruit which ripens at the end 
of the first season.' Second, the Red Cedar of the Florida peninsula with more slender pendulous 
branchlets and long often pendulous branches which spread into a broad open head and smaller fruit 
ripening at the end of the first season. Third, the Red Cedar of western America with rather stouter 
branchlets, fruit which does not ripen until the end of the second season, and lighter colored usually 
reddish brown wood. 

In Florida the Red Cedar, which is not distinguishable from Jimiperui^ Barbadensis ^ of the West 
Indies, is a tree sometimes fifty feet in height, with a trunk occasionally two feet in diameter covered 
with thin light red-brown bark which separates into long thin scales and small bninches which are erect 
when the tree is crowded in the forest, but in open ground are ascending and spreading and form a 

' As thus limited the range of Juniperus Virginiana is from 
8uutberii Xova Sootia mid New Brunswick westward to eastern 
Nebraska, Kiusas, and the Indian Territory, and soutbward tu the 
coast of South Carolina or Georgia, the Ir. .estone hills of tlie inte- 
rior of southern Alabama and Mississippi and eastorn Texas. 

■^ Linnieus's specimen of JunijKrus liarbadensui preserved in his 
berbarium at London represents a tbin-brnnchcd species which is 
nut distinguishable from tlie West Indian and Florida tree, and this 
specimen nuiy properly be considered the type of .funiperus liarha- 
dtmit iu spite of the fact that Linnieus evidently confounded the 

West Indian and Bermuda species, both of which he described, for 
he refera to his Juniperus Barbadensis the *' Juniperus Barbadensis, 
Cupressi ffllivt, ramulis tpiadratis" of Plukenet (Aim. Bot. 201, t. 
197, f. 4) and the Junipertis Bermudinna of Miller (Cat. PI. Hort. 
Angl. t. 1, f. 1), which arc both shown by these figures to bo thick- 
branched species. Of the identity of tlie former there is some 
doubt, but the figure iu the Cat. PI. Hnrt. Angl. admirably repre- 
sents the IJernuida .Tuniper. Hermann's Juniperus Bermudiana 
(Cat. Hort. Lugd. Bat. '.Hii, t.), which Linnrous referred to bis 
species of that lume, is probably some other species. 


;;■ i!| 







brond flat-topped head often thirty or forty feet iu diameter. The secondary branches are long and 
slender, and are erect at the top of the tree and pendulous on the lower branches. The staminate trees 
are of open habit, wiJi light-colored yellow-green foliage, and the pistillate trees are of more compact 
habit, with dark green foliage. The branchlets are slender, foui^angled, pendulous, and at the end of 
four or five years, when the leaves disappear, are light reddish brown or ashy gray. The leaves are 
opposite in pairs, closely impressed, narrow, asute or gradually narrowed above the middle and acumi- 
nate, and marked on the back by a conspicuous oblong gland. The flowers are diuecious and in Florida 
open early in March. The staminate flowers are oblong, elongated, and from an eighth to nearly a 
quarter of an inch in length, with rounded entire anthei^scoles which bear usually three pollen sacs. 
The scales of the pistillate Howers are gradually narrowed above the middle and acute at the apex, and 
become obliterated from the fruit. This is subglobose, dark blue, and covered when ripe with a glaucous 
bloom, and is usually only about an eighth of an inch in diameter, with sweet resinuous flesh and usually 
two seeds. 

In the United States Juniperus Barbndensis is distributed along the Atlantic coast from southern 
Georgia to the shores of the Indian River, Flcrida, and on the Gulf coast from the northern shores of 
Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to the valley of the Appalachicola, growing usually in inundated rivei^swamps 
and forming great thickets in forests of Taxodium, Red Maple, Gordonia, Loblolly Pine, Swamp Oaks, 
Palmetto, and Liquidambar ; ' and in the West Indies it grows on the Bahamas,'' San Domingo,' the 
Mountains of Jamaica,' and on Antigua.' 

The wood, which resembles that of the Red Cedar of the north in color and fragrance, is straighter- 
grained and more easily worked, and for many years and until the supply begun to become exhausted 
it was exclusively used by the German manufacturers of pencils, who have established large factories for 
cutting this wood at Cedar Keys and other places on the Florida coast. 

Juniperuit Uarhadensin, with its long spreading branches and elongated gracefully drooping 
branchlets, is one of the most beautiful of all Junipers, and it has been largely used for the decoration 
of the squares and cemeteries of the cities and towns in the neighborhood of the coast from Florida 
to western Louisiana.' 


i:: i 

' Near TalUhauee, Florida, and along the coast of Alabama, 
Missu^ippi, and eaatern Louisiana Juniptru* Barhaderuii is common 
in the neighborhood of towns and nppears to b« thoroughly natural- 
ised and to be gradually spreading into adjacent woodlands. The 
fact, bowerer, that west of the Appaliwhicola it does not grow in 
swamps or remote from human habitations seems to indicate that 
the Junipers now in this region have sprung from tre«s which wer« 
planted there not Tery long ago. Juniperus Barbadentu is the most 
unirersally planted coniferous tree i. yiem Orleans and in the towns 
of western Louisiana, but there is oven less evidenee that it is iidi* 
f^enous iu the region beyond the Mississippi. 

' Kggers, No. 43S8 in herb. Kew. 

' Eggers, No. 231>0 in herb. Kew. 

* '^Juniperui Harbadensix is now somewhat rare on the Blue 
Mountains, but it is evident that it was confined to an elevation 
ranging betwetn thirty-five hundred and six thousand feet in later 
years. Formerly it may have ranged much lower, as it grows well 
even near the sea-level if it gets plenty of water. The wood is 
valued so much that all the trees that were easily reached have 
been cut down. I think the height may be put down from forty to 
fifty feet and the girth of the trunk at from two to foor feet." 
(W. Fawcett, in lill.) 

* Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. fnd. 503. 

* The Bedford .luniper which is occasionally cultivated in Euro- 
pean collections is possibly of this species. (For the synonymy of 
this plant see X. 06 ; tee, also, Veitcb, Man. Conif. ed. 2, 103.) 



les are long and 
le staminate trees 
of more compact 
ind at the end of 
The leaves are 
liddle and acumi- 
U8 and in Florida 
ighth to nearly a 
:hree pollen sacs, 
at the apex, and 
B with a glaucous 
I flesh and usually 

1st from southern 
>rthern shores of 
ited river-swamps 
ne, Swamp Oaks, 
aa DomiDgo,^ the 

nee, is straighter- 
lecome exhausted 
arge factories for 

.cefully drooping 
or the decoration 
oast from Florida 

bat nre on the Blue 
nflned to an elevation 
( thousand feet in later 
lower, ai it grows well 
r water. The wood is 
re easily reached hare 
)ut down from forty to 
om two to four feet." 

II5 cultivated in Euro- 
(For the synonymy o( 
Com/, ed. 2, 103.) 


Platk IX!CXXXVIII. Junipkkuh Barbadensih. 

1. A flowering branch of a sUminate tree, natural Biie. 

2. A Btaininate flowtr, enlarged. 

3. A stamen, front view, enlarged. 

4. A branch of a pistillatu tree, natural aize, 
C. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

G, A scale of a pistillate flower with its ovules, front view, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural size. 

8. Cross section of a fruit, enlarged. 

9. A Bee<l, enlarged. 

10. The eiiil of a branchlet. enlarged. 

11. A leaf, enlarged. 






ii <> 

i r 

'•>, I 





Flaw IXt'XXXVIII. JijiipitKLii Bakhalensiii. 
1 A HowtTini; lir»nrh of h aUuiinste tree, natiiral giie. 
'i. A ManimiH* Howi>r, eDkr);ei]. 

3. A »t«nion, front view, (•iilarfful. 

4. A briiiicli of a pistillate trw. imtaral nhc. 
6. A pi»till8t« flixrcr, riiiar;;«|. 

A seal.- of a pirtiUatr fli.w»r wiU» il« urulca, front viow, enlarged. 
A fruiting bnuifli, natural me. 
< iiKliiin of a fruit. f^iiivrKod. 
• ■I. enlarged. 
' 'i "t 1 SnuithUt. ralarg«d. 


S:Ivi of Norih America 





•.r/'u.r^i .iW 


ftj^uia SO 

A /iiut-riftuc JiTAi" 

Imp ,/ TaJtfur r-trw 



I; .i • 





Red Oedar. 

Fruit subglobosc, ripening at tlic end of the second season, usually 2-8ecded. 
Leaves opposite, acute, glandular. Branehlets slender. 

Juniperua aoopulorum, Sargent, Garden ami Forest, x. 
420, f. 54 (1897). — Nelson, Biitl. No. 40, Wyoming 
Exper. Stat. 86, f. 16, 17 (Trees of Wyoming).— Ryd- 
berg, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Ganl. i. 13 (Fl. Montana). — 
Ilosaey, Rep. Nebraska State Boftrd Agrie. 1897, 83. 

JuniperuB ezoelsa, Purnh, Fl. Am. Sept. ii. r>47 (not Mar- 
BclittU von nioberstein) (1814). — Nuttall, Gen. ii. 245. 

Juniperua Virglniana, Torrey, Ann. Lye. N. Y. ii. 250 
(not LinniBua) (1838) ; Emory's Rep. Appx. No. 6, 412 : 
Pacifle R. R. Rep. iv. pt. v. 142; Bot. Mex. Bound. 
Siirv. 211. — Lyall, Jour. Linn. Soc. vii. 144. — Cooper, 
Am. Xat. iii. 413. — Parlatore, Ve Candolle Prodr. xvi. 
l>t. ii. 488 (in part). — Engelmann, Trans. St. Louis 
Acad. iii. 691 (in part) ; Rothrock Wheeler's Rep. vi. 
263. — Watson, King's Rep. v. 336. — Porter & Coulter, 
Fl. Colorado ; Ilayden's Sum. Misc. Pub. No. 4, 132. — 

Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. \f)tk Census V. S. ix. 182 
(in part) ; Silva N. Am. x, 93 (in part). — Tweedy, Flora 
of the Yellowstone National Park, 74. — Macoun, Garden 
and Forest, i. 47 (The Forests of Vancouner Island).— 
Britton, Trans. N. Y. Aead. Sci. viii. 74. — Maatcru, 
Jour. R. Ilort. Soc xiv. 215 (in part). — Hansen, Jour. 
R. Hort. Soc. xiv. 298 {Pinetum Danicum) (in part). — 
Britton &, Kearney, Trans. N. Y. Acad. xiv. 22. — Loi- 
berg, Contnb. U. S. Nat. Herb. v. 55. 

Juniperua oooidentalia, Porter, Hayden U. S. Geolog. 
Surv. Montana (Tith Ann. Rep. of Progress), 494 (not 
Hooker) (1872). — Macoun, Cat. Cun. PI. 461. 

Juniperua Virginiana, var. montana, Vosey, Rep. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. 1875- 185 (Cat. Forest Trees U. S.) (not J. 
communis, y montana, Aiton) (1876). 

A tree, thirty or forty feet in height, with a short stout trunk sometimes three feet in diameter, 
and often divided near the ground into a number of slightly spreading stems, and stout spreading and 
ascending branches covered with scaly bark which form an open irregularly round-topped head.' The 
bark of the trunk is dark reddish brown or gray tinged with red, and is divided by shallow fissures 
into narrow flat connected ridges which break up on the surface into persistent shredded scales. The 
branchlets are slender and four-angled, becoming terete at the end of thr'.e or four years, when they 
are covered with smooth pale bark which a few years later begins to seperate into thin scales. The 
leaves are opposite in pairs, closely appressed, acute or acuminate, marked on the back by an obscure 
elongated gland, and dark green, or on trees in the southern Rocky Mountains often pale and very 
glaucous. The staminate flowers arc oblong and about one sixteenth of an inch in length, and their 
anther-scales are rounded and entire, with four or five anther-sacs. The scales of the pistillate 
flower are spreading and acute or acuminate, and become obliterated on the mature fruit. At the end 
of the first season the fruit is about one sixteenth of an inch in length and blue or rose color, and 
beginning tn grow the following spring it becomes before autumn from one quarter to one third of an 
inch in diameter, bright blue, and covered with a glaucous bloom, and has sweet resinous flesh, and one 
or generally two seeds. The seeds are ovate, acute, prominently grooved and angled, light chestnut- 
brown, about three sixteenths of an inch long, and lustrous, with a small two-lobed hilum. 

Junipcnis scnjiuhnim is distributed through the eastern foothill region of the Rocky Mountains 
from Alberta to western Texas, and westward to the coast of British Columbia ■ and Washington, and 

' At Manitou at the base of Pike's Peak Junipem) $copulonim ' In 1870 Junipenis scopulnnim was collected by Dawson on the 

in sheltered positlniis develops long slightly pendulous lir.tnches, gravelly margin of Francois Lake in British Columbia in latitude 

and is u hiuidsonie tree of open habit, while on the more arid wind- 54° north. This is tho most northern station from which I have 

swept slopes the branches are short and rigid and form a compact specimens of this tree. (Sec G. M. Dawson, Garden and ForcKl, i. 

round-topped head. 59, as Junipenis Virginiana.) 





to eastern Oregon, Nevada, and nortliei n Arizoim.' Nowhere very commun, it growa on dry rocky 
ridges, and except near the cuu8t usually it elevatiuua of more than Kve thousand feet above the level 
of the sea. 

JunlpcruM srojmlonim was discovered in October, 1804, by Lewis and Clark during their journey 
across the continent.' 

' In lAU) Jimiperut ifofnunrum wu found bj WiiliMnnt in New 
KIoiu'o (No. WA in hsrb. Kn^rlumnii) ; and tho folluwiuK yeikr l>jr 
FiMiillcr Rt SauU Vt (Nii. KVi), when tliii .luui|>er is ri>inp»rii- 
tircly ooniniun. In April, 1H7I, it wu collected liy Dr. J. II. U«- 
nrd ne«r Fort Apaobej Arixona. ( Tatt herb. Kngeltn«nn. ) 

' Lewli and CUrk'e tpecinen prwerred by the American Diilo- 
•ophical Society abows timt the tree calleil by l*unh and by Niittall 
Junifitr^t* ezcelia wafl Junipfrnt iropittantm, and not, ai hai usually 
bt'iin aupiwted, the Juniptrut occiiietUt^u u( Hooker. 




Platr DCCXXXIX. .Ii'viPERim scopulorum. 

1. A branch with staminate Howera, natural uize. 

2. A ataniinate Hower, cnlar|;p<l. 

3. An anther, rpnr view, enlarged. 

4. A branrli with piatillatc flowers, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarf^ml. 

C>. A scale of a pistillate flowpr, upper side, with its ovules, enlarged. 

7. A fruiting branch, natural site. 

8. A fruit <livicle<l transversely, enlarged. 

9. A seed, enlarged. 

10. Knil of n branchlel, enlarged. 

11. Tip of a leaf, enlarged. 

8 on dry rocky 
libove the level 

g their journey 

the Anitrican I'liilu- 
*urah and by Niittall 
I not, ai haa uiually 


SON rid 

I ; 


aiort* Uixri hv« ihuumnii f<^<'> nv lint<l 

> .ind riark duriii); thvir jt)iirn«y 

, liif-hii.M! ' , s ,11, I 
u>tt not, lu Imt u«iiftlly 


. Ii »ilh putillat" fliiWfM, ti«t(ir«l niw, 
.'>. A |'iitilliil« flunei, eiilarK'f'l. 
r>. A arkla (>! n pinlilUlG lluwi-r, u, 
7. A tromng )>nuu-h, natuntl »in 
H A frilll Iih.UmI Ir. :..■ I 

' » (innchUt. <'ni»riiixl 

ith itN iiviiloB. piiLir^od. 




[j/lS ' :! 

Silvii of Nirth Ami>ti' A 

.': f-u-^'i .M 










'■/I ' 

f I 

; i 











Scales of the fruit 6 to 10; seeds compressed, black, 
dark green, eglandular. 

Branchlets stout. Leaves 

CupresBUs pygmaea, Sargent, Bot. Oatette, xxzi. 239 

CupresauB Ooveniana, var. pygmeea, Lemmon, Handb. 

West American Cone-Bearera, 77 (1895). 

Cupreaoufl Ooveniana, Sargent, Silva N. Am. i. 107 (in 
part) (not Gordon) (1896). 

A tree, sometimes thirty or forty feet in height, with a trunk rarely more than a foot in diameter, 
and ascending branches. The bark of the trunk is bright reddish brown, about a quarter of an inch in 
thickness, and divided by shallow fissures into fiat ridges which separate on the surface into long 
thread-like scales. The branchlets, which are comparatively stout, are bright orange color when they 
first appear, bright reddish brown during one or two seasons, and then turning purple become dark 
reddish brown at the end of several years. The leaves are ovate, acute, or acuminp.tii on vigorous 
shoots, dark green, and eglandular. The staminate flowers are obscurely four-angled, with broadly 
ovate peltate connectives, and the fertile scales of the pistillate flowers, which vary from six to ten in 
number, are acute and spreading. The fruit is short-oblong, usually sessile, and from three quarters to 
seven eighths of an inch in length, with from six to ten scales terminating in small bosses. The seeds 
are compressed, only about one eighth of an inch long, and black. 

Cupreasua pyymcea inhabits the high barren region near the coast of Mendocino County, California, 
which extends from Ten Mile Run on the north to the Navarro on the south. Here it grows on 
deposits of sand and a thin coat of peat, overlaying a heavy yellow clay in a narrow belt which, 
beginning about three quarters of a mile from the ocean, extends inland for three or four miles.' 

The wood of Cupressus pygmeea is soft, very coarse-grained, and pule reddish brown.^ 

' On this poor soil the plants begin to bear cones when only a 
foot or two high, but on the borders of the barrens and of the deep 
gullies which penetrate them, where the plants occasionally escape 
for several years the flres which almost annually sweep over this 
region, they often grow in better soil to a height of thirty or forty 
feet, although from overcrowding they rarely develop the spread- 
ing branches which are peculiar to Cupressus growing in abundant 

The name pyginsa used by Lemmon to distinguish the dwarf 
plant stunted by overcrowding and insutBcient nourishment is 
unfortunate as a specific namn, for there is no difference between 

the smallest and the largest plants except in size; and it is proba- 
ble that individuals un the borders of the barrens, if they could be 
protected from fire, would in time grow to a large size, for the 
oldest plants now standing show no signs of maturity and none of 
them are thought to be more than fifty years old. ( Tale Purdy, in 

' The log specimen in the Jesup Collection of North American 
Woods in the American Museum of Natural History, I'ew York, 
is eleven and one half inches in diameter inside the bark, and is 
thirty-sii years old. The sapwood is two inches thick, with thir- 
teen layers of annual growth. 


i' '-^ 

i ! 


■ ; I 
■ 'i 



Platb DCCXL. Cupkbssus pvqm.ka. 

1. A branch with staiiiinate flowers, natural size. 

2. A Htaniinate flower, enlarged. 

3. A scale of a stauiinate flower with its anthers, enlarged. 

4. A branch of a pistillate tree with flowers and fruit, natural size. 

5. A pistillate flower, enlarged. 

6. A Bciile of a pistillate flower, u])|)er surface, witli its ovules, enlarged. 

7. A scale of a cone, nide view, witli its seeds, euUrge<l. 

8. .Seeds, enlarged. 

9. Tip o! a branch, enlargerl. 




!!i M 

> i'' 11 




- ii- 

i '0 

i ii' 


I'Hli! IhX'XL. (.'cTUBwrs rv.iM.Ki. 
! A ttr«iwli wilh Jtaiiiinftta Hoirer», natural eize. 

2. A Xaoimata fliiwrr, vDlaixed- 

3. A »ciiJt' of a Atttininate Uuwer with itn ariiliors, I'lilargwl. 

4. A brnnrli of a piatiUati' trM.' irith tiowi^rs aiul fruit, imtiirr.l i-ize. 

5. A iii<till«!K flower. eij|»rKv.l 

f A »r.i;i. .i| » piatiUatr »ti».: m- ■■••i,.-,: « ill ii.1 ovules, ri.lar^,,!. 
.( a ran*, oiil* if. ■ ■ t-'i 

'•ranrb, snlaT^-'l. 


111. ^ 

Silva nf North Ainenca. 


' A' F(i.t*^n fi^^ 

A }h,HT"<tt.r .fiff-v 


, !mf J ninfur r.irij. .'C. 



t; my: 



Investioations made since the earlier volumes of this Silva were published have shown the 
necessity of correcting the descriptions of several species. A few of these corrections have already been 
printed ; the others will be found in the following notes: — 

Magnolia fODtlda, i. 8. Magnolia grandiflora was first published by Linnieug in 17C9 in the tenth edition 
of the Systema (ii. 1082). 

Magnolia glanca, i. 5. Magnolia glaxtca was first used by Linnieus as a name of a species in 1759 in tbe 
tenth edition of tlie Syatema (ii. 1082). 

Extend range westward in Pennsylvania to swamps on the South Mountain at the head of the east fork of the 
Conocooheague River, Franklin County. ( Teste Miss M. L. Doek, Garden and Forest, x. 402. See, also. Garden 
and Forest, vii. 398 ; viii. 79.) 

Magnolia acuminata, i. 7. This name was first published by Linnnus in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 1082). 

Magnolia trlpetala, i. 13. This name was first published by Linnaeus in 1759 i'- che tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 1082). 

Extend range to the valley of the Susquehanna River in York County, Pennsylvania, wbere it has been found 
near York Furnace and at Reed's Run by Professor T. C. Porter, and where it is rare and local. (See Porter, 
Bull. Torrey Bat. Club, xxv. 489.) 

Liilodandron Tullpifera, i. 19. Add to the synonyms Tulipifera Liriodendron, Miller, Diet. ed. 8 (1768). 

Aaimina triloba, i. 23. Extend range to western New Jersey and to southeastern Nebraska, where it has 
boim found in Pawnee, Richardson, Nemaha, Otoe, and Saunders counties. (See Bessey, Hep. Nebraska State 
Board Agric. 1899, 84.) 

" In eastern Pennsylvania Asimina triloba is common along tbe lower Susquehanna and its tributaries, and 
on the Juniata in Mifflin and Huntingdon counties, where I found it at the head of a mountain stream sixteen 
hundred feet above tbe level of the sea." (Professor T. C. Porter, in litt. See Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xxv. 489.) 

Canella alVi, i. 37. This tree was described by Liunaeus in the first edition of tbe Species Plantarum, 
published in 1753 as Laurjis Winterana, while tbe name Canella alba of Murray was not published until 1784, 
and, under the rules of nomenclature adopted in this work, Canella Winterana of Gsrtner, published in 1788 
and already adopted by Sudworth, must be taken up for it. (See Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, xx. 46 ; Bull. No. 14 
Div. Forestry U. S. Dcpt. Agric. 273 [Nomenclatitre of the Arborescent Flora of the United States'].') 

Fremontia, i. 47. Fremontia having been a synonym when it was used in 1853 by Torrey as the name of bis 
genus in Chciranthodendrew, the name cannot be retained for this California tree under the rules of nomenclature 
followed in tills work ; and Frcmontodendron of Coville is adopted. (See Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iv. 74 [Bot. 
Death Valley Fxped.] [1893].) 

Fremontodcndron Calif omicum. Extend range northward to Siskiyou County, California, where it was 
cnlli»-ted by Miss A. M. Huntley in June, 1S96, near Sisson, at the western base of Mt. Shasta. In August, 
1892, it was found by Mrs. T. S. Brandegee on Snow Moun* lin in Lake County, one of the highest peaks of the 
California coast ranges. 

Tilla heterophylla, i. 57. The northern limits of the range of this species in Pennsylvania are, according to 
Professor T. C. Portor, Huntingdon County, where it grows on the banks of the Juniata River; it also grows in 
Franklin County on the Conococheaguo. (Porter, in litt.) 

Zanthozylnm, i. Go. The author of Fagara is Limuuus, Syst, ed. 10 (ii. 897), published in 1759, and not 
Adanson, Fam. PI. published in 1763. 



( ; ! 

Xanthozylum Fagura, i. Til. Fnijara Pterota was flnit published by Linncius in 1759 in the tenth 

editiuti of tin- Synlumi (ii. 8!»7). 

Zioithozylujn cribr^ am, i. 71. According to Urban (^liot. Jnhrb. xi. 571) an older name for this tree is 
that of Vald, Xtinthuxi/liimjliiviiin. The synonymy as corrected is as follows: — 

Xantlioxi/liiin Jli!nim,\M, Kcloij. iii. 48(1807); Skrivt. Nat. Srhk. Kjitbenh. vi. 133. — Eggers, J9u//. 
U. S. \iU. I/rrb. No. 13, 38 (/7. iSt. Croix ami the Virgin Islands). — Kobiuson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. j)t. 
i. 375. 

Xant/iorylum Clava-I/erculis, De Candolle, Prodr. i. 727 (oxol. syn.) (not Linnsus) (_tcsle Urban, /. c.) 

Xnnthoxylum cribrosum, Sprcngel, ifiyst. i. 946 (1825). — Sargent, Garden and Forest, ii. 016 ; Silva N. 
Am. i. 71, t. 30. 31. 

Xanthorytum Floridanum, Nuttall, Sylra, iii. 14, t. 85 (18.54). — Cliapman, F7. 60. 
Xanthoiylum Sumach, Urisebooh, Abhand. Kunig. Gesetl. Wis.^. Gottingen, 190 ( Vcg. Karaib.) (not 
Miicf.idyen) (1857) ; Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 138. — Walpers, Ann. vii. 528. — Eggers, VidensL Medd.fra Nat. 
For. Kjobenh. 1870. 108 (/"V. St. Croix). 

Xanthorylum Caribcrum, Watson, Ind. 155 (not Lambert) (1878), 

Xanthorylum Carilxrum, va,'. Floridanum. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. u. ser. xxiii. 225 (1888). 
Fagarajlavii. Urban, Doi. Jahrb. xxi. 571 (1896). 
Ftelea trlfoUata, i. 70. Extend range southward in Florida to the neighborhood of Eustis, Lake County, 
where it was collected in iJunc, 1894, by Mr. George U. Nash. 

Amyria marltlma, i. 85. In the first volume of this work the name of Amyris muritima of Jac<iuin was 
adi>|it<'d for this Florida tree. This name was first published iu 1760; and the fact was overlooked that Linnocus 
had used for it the name of Amyris Ehmifera in the tenth edition of his Systema, published three years earlier 
than the second edition of the Species Plantarum. Amyris ElemiJ'era should therefore be adopted for the Florida 
plant, although Urban {But. Jahrb. xxi. 601) would separate the Amyris maritima of Jacquin from the Amyris 
Elemifera of Linna-us on the strengtii of the presenc« of a disk in the flower of the former and of the minute and 
variable pubescence of the latter, — differences which Kobinson has pointed out are of little value. The two species 
being united, the synonymy of our south Florida tree becomes, — 

Amyris Elemifera, Linnaeus, Syst. ed. 10, ii. 1000 (1759) ; Spec. ed. 2, i. 495; Anioen. Acad. vii. 05. — 
Descourtilz, Fl. Med. Antill. iii. 279. t. 212.— Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. s<5r. 5, xiv. 3^4. —Urban, 
Hot. Jahrb. xxi. 601. — Itobinson, Gray Syn. Fl. N. Am. i. pt. i. 376. 

Amyris maritima, Jacquin, Enum. PI. Carib. 19 (1700) ; Hist. Stirp. Am. 107. — Linnaius, «Sy)ec. ed. 
2, i. 496 (cxcl. syn. I*. Browne). — Swartz, Obs. 148. — Sprengel, Syst. ii. 218. — De Candolle, Prodr. ii. 
81. — Macfa<lyen. Fl. ./am. i. 231. — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 174. — Balllon, IPist. PI. iv. 397, f. 447- 
451 ; Diet. i. 159. f. — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad, xxiii. 226. — Sargent, Silva N. Am. i. 85, t. 36. 

Amyris Floridana, Nuttall. .4m. Jour. Sci. v. 294 (1822) ; Sylva, ii. 114, t. 78. — Torrey & Gray, Fl. N. 
Am. i. 221. — Loudon, Arb. Brit. ii. 561. — Chapman, Fl. 08. 

Amyris sylvalica, De Candolle, Pr'idr. ii. 81 (1825). — Grisebach, Fl. Brit. W. Iiul. 174 (in part). — 
Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOth Censvs U. S. \x. 83. 

Amyris Plumieri, Gnsehach, Cat. PI. Cuh. 60 (1806). — Sauvalle, Fl. Cub. 20. 
Amyris maritima, var. aiiijusti/olin, (iray. Proc. Am. .lead. u. ser. xxiii. 226 (1888). 
Amyris sylvatica, var. Plumieri, Maza, Anal. .V«c. Esp. Hist. Nat. xix. 229 (1890). 
KUmifira maritima. Otto Kuutzc, Ilev. Gen. i. 100 (1891). 
Koeberlinia spinoaa, i. 93. Extend range westward through southern New Mexico and Arizona to the foot- 
hills ami Mii' in the McigliborlioiHl of Tucson, where it is very abundant as a broad low shrub. 

nez Faraguariensis. i. 104. For the synonvmy of the ilifTereut H|)ecie3 of Ilex and other plants from which 
Mat«' or Paraguay Tea i.s olitainetl, see N. E. IJrown, AVir Hull. Miscellitneous Iiiformatiim, May and ilunei 1892, 

Hex decidna. i. 113. Extend range to southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kansas, xii. a). 
Evonymns atroptirparena, ii. 11. This tree occurs occtsionally in wo<kIs in the valley of the Sioux River 
in the extreme Houtlieasteru part of South Dakota and ranges up the valley of the Missouri Hivor into Charles Mix 
County (see Saunders, Bull. No. 04 .S'oi(//i Dakota Agric. College, 169 [Ferns and Flowering Plants if South 
Dakota]) ; exttmd range also to central Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora tf Kansas, xii. (/). 


, Lake Countyt 

)im to the foot- 



Rhamnua OarollnluiB, ii. 36. Tho range of this gi)eoiea from Lung iHland, New York, should be emended 
to read fruui Vir^icia. The northern station was admitted on tho authority of the Catalogues of New York and of 
New Jersey Plants (Britton, Stearns & Poggenburg. Cat. PL N. i'. 11 [1888] ; Britton, Cat. PI. N. J. 76 
[1880]) ; but it now appears that the Khamnus of Lung Island and New Jersey referred to this species is Rham- 
nus Frnngnla^ Linnieus, which has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized. (See Britton, Bull. Twrey 
Dot. Club, xxi. 184, 233. — Britton & Brown, 111. Fl. ii. 406.) 

Rhwanns Pnnhiana, il. 27. It was not in Siberia, but at Grossenhain in Saxony, that Frederick Fursh 
was bom on February 4, 1774. (See C. A. Puroch, Flora, 1827, ii. 491.) 

XlaoultM glabra, ii. 55. Extuud range westward tu Pawnee, Kichardson, and Nemaha oountiei, southeastern 
Nebraska (Bessey, Rtp. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1899, 80), and to eastern Texas. 

The Texas form is, — 

^ISsculus glabra, var. liuckleyi. 
yKKuluK arguta, Buckley, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1860, 443 (not /Esculus Pavia, var. arguta, Lindley). — 

Britton & Brown, ///. Fl. ii. 401, f. 2383. 

^sculua glabra, var. arguta, Itobinson, Gratj Syn. Fl, N, Am. i. pt. i. 447 (1897). 

This variety, which ranges from Iowa to Kansas and eastern Texas, may be distinguished by its six to seven- 
foliolate leaves, with narrower lanceolate more acuminate and usually more sharply and generally doubly serrate 
leaflets than are usually found on uEsculua glabra. It was first distinguished at Lai issa, Cherokee County, Texas, 
by S. B. Buckley. 

H3rpelata trlfoUata, ii. 77. Add specific gravity of absolutely dry wood 0.9102; and weight per cubic 
foot 56.72 pounds. 

Acar glabmm, ii. 95. Extend range northwestward along tho Pacific coast to the passes at the head of the 
Lynn Canal, Alaska, or nearly to latitude 60" north. This plant is not rare on t. coast of southeastern Alaska, 
although probably it is always shrubby. (See Meehan, Proc. Phil. Acad. 1884, 81, as Acer rubrum ; see, also, 
F. Kurtz, Bot. Jahrb. xix. 369 [Fl. Chilcatgebietcs].') Near Esquimo, Vancouver Island, on rocky sea cliffs 
this Maple grows to the height of forty feet and forms a trunk eighteen inches in diameter ; and I have seen it 
uf nearly the same size on the banks of streams among the Blue Mountains of Washington at an elevation of 
about four thousand feet above the sea. Extend range southward along the Sierra Nevada to the eastern fork of 
the Kaweah River, where in September, 1896, I found it as a bush five or six feet high at elevations of from eight 
thousand to nine thousand feet above the sea-level ; and eastward to the elevated regions of Sioux and Scott's Bluff 
counties, northwestern Nebraska. (See Bessey, liep. Nebraska State Board Agric. 1899, 89.) 

Acar Nagando, ii. 111. " I am not certain if this tree is native in Pennsylvania. Around Easton it is 
spread everywhere over fields from the seeds of trees planted along the streets of the city." (T. C. Porter, in litf) 

Cotinna Amarlcanna, iii. 3. Extend range to southwestern Missouri where it is common on the bluffs and 
rocky banks of streams tributary to the White River, and was first found during the summer of 1897 by Professor 
William Treleaso on Swan Creek in the neighborhood of Taney City. 

It is still common on the low limestone ridges about three miles east of Huntsville, Alabama. 

Rhtia Matoplum, iii. 13. This name was first published by Linnaeus in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systema (ii. 964). 

Rhna typblna, iii. 15. The Staghorn Sumach was described by Linnseus in the first edition of the Species 
Phnitanim under the name of D'ltisra hirtn, and it appears only in one of his later works as Rhus typhina. 
According to the rules of nomenclature followed in this work the first Linnaean specific name must be used and 
Rhus hirta, Sudworth, is therefore adopted for the Staghorn Sumach. The synonymy of this species as amended 
is as follows : — 

Rhus hirta, Sudworth, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xix. 81 (1892). — Britton & Brown, III. Fl. ii. 386, f. 2348. — 
Britton, Man. 600. 

Datisra hirta. Linnieua, Spec. 1037 (1753). 

Rhus typhiiKi, Linnauis, Synt. ed. 10, ii. 963 (1759) ; Amnn. iv. 311. 

Toxicodendron typhinum, O. Kuntzc, Iln\ Gen. i. 154 (1891). 

Tu this s])ecies were rflferred by Watson (^huh)-'), on what authority I do not know, and by some later authors, 
Rhus Canadense, Miller, Dirt. ed. 8. No. 5 (1708), Rhus hypselndendron, Moench, Mcth. 73 (1794), and Rhus 
vh'idijlorum, Noux'cau Diiliamil. ii. 103 (1808?). — Poiret, Lamarck Dirt. vii. 504. 

To bis Rhus typhina, /3 viridiflora, Engler, Dc Candollc Money. Phaner. iv. 378 (1883), refers the Rhus 
viridl/tora of Poiret. 


>! . 




SUVA OF Noiirii amkkica. 

1 »: 


: V rA • 

Rhna oopaUiaa. iii. 10. Extend range to Kichardson County, Roiithoastorn Nehraika (Beaiioy, Rep, 
Nebraska State liuani Agric. 18U9, 00) ; and to ua«tern and loutheaitern Kanaaa (Hitohcock, Flora o/A'antat, 
xii. (i). 

Oladrastla, iii. M. It has usually been suppoied that this genus was flrst publiRhe<l by Kaflnesquo iu 18*25 
in his Srogenj/ton, or Indication of iHHy-eix New iSperiee of Pliinls of Surlh America ; but it was really 
published by hita on February 21, 18'24, on page 60 of the first volume of the Cincinnati Literary Gazette 
{Xeophi/ton No. 1). 

The buds of Cladrastis are nake<l and are not as describe<l, '' covere<l individually with thin lanceolate scales," 
and it in tlie young leaves and not bud-sciilus which are coate<l with lustrous tomentum. 

Cladrutia lut**, iii. &7. Extend range to northern Alabama, where it was found in 1802 on the bluffs of 
the Tenneasee Hiver near Florence by Dr. C. Mohr as a shrub from six to eight feet high, and to Eagle Kock, 
Burry County, southweatt-rn Missouri, where it was collected in June, 1807, by Mr. B. F. Bush. 

Add to the synonymy of this s|)ecies : — 

f Sophora Kentuctea, Du Mont do Courset, Bot. Cult. ed. 2, vi. 56 (1811), 
Clatlrantif fragrant, Katinesque, Cincinnati Literary Gazette, i. 60 (Ft'b. 21, 1824). 

Oledltaia triacanthos, iii. 75. Extend range to Houston County in the extreme southeaitem part of Min- 
nesota. (See Wheeli'r, Minnesota Botanical Studies, ser. 2, pt. iv. 302.) 

Oledltsla aqnatlca, iii. 70. Extend range to western Illinois, where it is comu^-^n on the bottoms of the 
Mississippi Hiver opposite St. Louis, and where it was found near Cahokia in 1877 by Henry Eggert ; and to La 
Pointe, St. Charles County, Missouri, where it was found in October, 1882, by Mr. Eggert. 

Cercis Casadenala. iii. 05. Extend range to southern Ontario, whore it was found on July 27, 1892, on 
Pele« Island in Lake Erie by Mr. John Macoun : and to eastern and southeastern Nebraska. (^Teste Herb. 
University of Nebraska.) 

Carcis Tazanala, iii. 07. In the first line of the description of this tree " twenty or nearly forty feet in height " 
should read, — rarely forty feet in height, — and in the eighth line it should read that the petiole* are abruptly 
enlarged and not rontractetl at both ends. 

Flthaeolobinm, iii. 131. An older name for this genus is Zygia of Patrick Browne, Nat. Ilist. Jam. 270 
(1756) ; and as Ichthyomethia (iii. 51) of Browne has been adopte<l in this work instead of the more commonly 
use<l Piscidium of Linnaius, the same rule must be applied in the cose of Zygia, and the three North American 
arborescent species become Zygia I'ligiiis-cati, Sudworth, Zygia hrevifolia, Sudworth, and Zygia flexicaulis, 
Sudworth. (See Bull. No. 14 Z>ir. Forestry U. S. Dept. Agric. 248 [Nomenclature of the Arborescent Flora 
of the United Stnte.i].') 

Pmnna nigra, iv. 15. Extend range to southeastern Minnesota, where it grows in Houston County on the 
bottoms of the north and south forks of Crooked Creek and on Winnebago Creek, and in East Burns Valley, 
Winona County. (I^ee Wheeler, Minnesota Botanical Studien, ser. 2, pt. iv. 302.) 

Pmnna bortulana, iv. 23. Extend range to eastern and southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, The Industrialist, 
383 [Flora of Kansas]). 

Pmnna anbcordata, iv. 31. Extend range to the dry plains north of upper Klamath Lake in southern 
Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains, where I found it in Aug^ist, 1806, as a stunted shrub only three or four 
feet in height. 

Pmnna emarginata, iv. 37. Extend range southward along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the 
head of Kern River. (See Coville, Conlrib. V. 8. Nat. Herb. iv. 00 [Bot. Death Valley Fj-ped.].) On the 
middle fork of the Kaweah River I found it in September, 180<S, growing aliundantly in dense thickets from four 
to six feet in height at an elevation of almui eight thousand feet aliovc the sea-level ; extend range also to the San 
Rafael Mountains in Santa Barbara County, California, where it was found by Dr. F. Franreschi in May, 1804, 
and to tiie neighborhood of Flagstaff and the San Francisco Peak.t in northern Arizona, where it was collected in 
Juno and July. IHOl, by Mr. D. T. McDougal. 

Pmnna Carollniana, iv. 4'.<. In the second ])aragraph of the description of this tree Mississippi should ))e 
substitutod for Missouri. 

Carcocarpna lediioUna, iv. 63. Extend range to Snow Lake Valley, Klamath (^ounty, Oregon, where it 
was c'oliectcti on June 9, 1896, by Mr. Elmer I. Applegate ; and to the Blue Mountains of Washington, where, on 
July 31, 1896, I found a single tree on the Touchet River at an elevation of about five thousand feet al)ovc the 


nceolate acales," 

era part of Min> 

in»t. Jam. 279 
more commonly 

le Industrialist, 

isippi should \te 



Pyma ■■mbnclfoUa, iv. 81. In the fourth volume of this work puliliahed iu 1892 two species of Pyrus of 
tho section Sorbus were admitted, Pynis Ameriiana, Uu Candolle, a widely distributed eastern species, and a tree 
of the northeast, n.ferred to Pyrua samhur{fulia, Chumisso & Schlechteudal, which is a species of northeastern 
Asia and which was believed to be widely scattered also through western North America and to cross the continent 
to the shores of Labrador. An examination of tho type specimen of I'yrus sambur{f(Aia preserved in the herba- 
rium of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. Petersburg shows that that spccues dilTers from the plant which was 
figured in this Silva as I'yrus samhucifolia and from the different shrubby species of Sorbus of western North 
America. From these the eastern tree may bo distinguished by its abruptly acuminate leaves and larger fruits 
usually in broader and more numerously fruited clusters. 

Tho tree of the northeast, the Pyrus sambuci/olia of the fourth volume of 7%e Silva, in its typical form is 
easily distinguished from Pyrus Americana by its broader abruptly acuminate blue-green leaflets, by its larger 
flowers which usually open eight or ten days later, and by its much larger fruits ; but there are forms which appear 
intermediate between the two or are possibly hybrids l>etween them, and the best observers are still in doubt whether 
this tree should be considered a species or a variety of Pyrus Americana. For the present, therefore, it may be 
well to consider it a variety, for which I suggest the name of decora in allusion to its handsome fruit. 

The synonymy of this tree would then be : — 

Pyrua Americana, var. deem:". 

Sorbus aucuparia, 13 Miohaux, Fl. Uor.-Am. i. 290 (1803). 

Pyrua aucuparia, Meyer, PL Lab. 81 (in part) (not Linnaeus) (1830). 

Pyrus aambucifolia. Gray, Ttfiin. ed. 6, 161 (in part) (not Chamisso & Schlechtendal) (1868). — Macoun, 

Cat. Can. PI. 146 (in part). — Sargent, Forest Trees N. Am. lOM Census U. S. ix. 74 (in part) ; Silva 

N. Am. iv. 81 (in part), t. 173, 174. — Macmillan, Metaapermce of the Minnesota Fa/Zey, 283 (in part). — 

Rand & Redfield, Fl. Mt. Desert Island, 98. 

Sorbus aambucifolia, Britton & Brown, HI. Fl. ii. 288 (in part), f. 1976 (not Roemer) (1897). — Brit- 
ton, Man. 515. 

Pyrua Americana, var. decora ranges from the coast of Labrador to the northern shores of Lake Superior 
and to Minnesota, and southward to the elevated regions of northera New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. 

Lyonothamnna florlbnndua, iv. 135. Extend range to San Clemente Islan.', California, where it was dis- 
covered in 1896 by Mrs. Blanche Trask. (See Erythea, v. 30.) 

HamameUs Vlrgliilana, v. 3. This name was first published by Linnteus in 1759 in the tenth edition of the 
Systcma (ii. 90). 

Rhlsopbora Mangla, v. 15. The Mangrove grows in the United States probably only in Florida, and the 
previous statements that it grows on the delta of the Mississippi River and on the coast of Texas are, I now believe, 

Bngonia procera, v. 47. Add specific gravity of absolutely dry wood 0.9453 ; and weight per cubic foot 
58.91 pounds. 

Oomna florlda, v. 66. Extend range to southeastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kanaaa, xiii.). 

Nyaaa Ogeche, v. 79. Extend ran|];o to the basin of the lower Appalachicola River, where it is very abundant 
on the borders of Cypress swamps down to within a few miles of the Gulf coast, and where it grows to the 
height of sixty or seventy feet, and usually forms several stems which are sometimes a foot and a half in 

The excellent quality of the honey made from tho abundant nectar of tho flowers of this tree is recognized, 
and bee farms have been established on the lower Appalachicola River in the neighborhood of the swamps where 
it grows. 

Njraaa aquatica, v. 88. Add to the bibliography of Nyaaa aquatica of Linnieus, Linnteus, Syst. cd. 10, 
ii. 1313 (17.-)9). 

Sambucus glauca, v. 91. Extend range eastward through northern Idaho to northern Montana, where in 
.Inly, 18%, I found it growing as a shrub from four to six feet in height near Columbia Falls, north of Flathoad 

Viburnum Lentago, v. 90. Extend range to South Dakota, where it is common in the valley of tho 
Minnesota River and in the valleys of tho Black Hills, and occurs near Sioux Falls in the Sioux River valley (see 
Saunders, Hull. No. 04 South Dahitu Aijrir. Colhye, 190 [Fc/vi.i ami Floirvring Plants of South Didota']) ; 
t<i tlie Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, where it was found in August, 1900, liy Mr. .7. G. J.ick, at i»n elevation 
of forty-three hundred feet aliove the level of the sea ; and to eastern Kansas (Hitchcock, Flora of Kannan, xvii.). 

, 1 




▼aoclnlain «rboranin, v. IIU. Kxtoml nog* to loutheMUirti KaiiMu, when it haa b«en found by E. N. 
i'lank near (iaiciin, Cliorokoe County. 

Arbutna Andraciw*. v. l'2i. Thii name wai flnt puliliihetl by Linnaiui in 1T60 in the tenth edition of tha 

S;/iiti>iiit ( ii. lO^J ). 

Andromada farruglnaa, v. 131. Kxtoml raiit;t> to Tmnpa, Florida, wliom it wan onllv.'tptl .Mnrvh 20, IHttH, 
liy C. 8. Sur|{eiit ; to .\|i|ialtt<-liicola, whvrv it wan I'ollut'tfd in low Mituly I'inu liaiiuim Mtiri'li lU, IHMH, liy Dr. A. 
W. Ckapnuui ; unii to Mary Hstliur, Santa Koita County, Florida, wburu it won found liy Dr. C Mohr in Uctoliur, 

Ozydandmm arboranm, v, ISC>. Kxt^iud rangu to Kxmore, llainpton, and Old I'oint Comfort on tho 
MUt coiiiit of Vir);iiiia, wliuru it \» aliinidaut. (Trite W. M. Cunby.) 

ChryaophyUom oUvlionBa, v. l(il. Wliut i» probably tbu Florida tree, judging from i'himicr's llguro 
(/'/. Am. od. Hiiriiiaiin, t. •>'.)). wax Hmt deM'rilxHl by Linuu'ui aa ChrijiojthyUum oliv\f'urmf in the tenth edition 
of the Syitrma (p. 937), pnldiahe<l in 17r>n, and not by Laiuarok. 

Add to tbo lynonymi : — 

('liiyfop/ti/lliim Ciiinito fi, LinnKua, Spec. 192 (IT.'iS). 

Bomalla lannglnoaa, v. 171. Extend range to Kui*ti», Lake County, Florida, where it was found in .Tuly, 
ISOf), by Mr. (i. U. NoHh ; to tbo nnigbborliood of Appalavliit'ola, Florida, wliuro it wan collected in .fune, 181)7, 
by Dr. .\. W. Cliapman : and to noutlioa-Htcrn KanHoa ( llitc'hcook, Flura of h'ungag, xiii.). 

Fraxinaa qnadrang^ata, vi, 3,5. Extend range to Boutheavteru Kaniuia (llitchvook, Flora of Kun»u», 
xiii. ). 

rrazinna anomaia, vi. 30. Extend range to tbo caflon of the Qunniion Kivor at Grand Junction, western 
Colorado, where it hiw lie<>n found by Miitfi Alice Kn<two<Ml (me Zoe, ii. 232), to the banki of (irand Hiver i.i 
Utah, where it has also been coUectcil by Miss Alice Eautwocxl (see I'nx: Cut. Acad. ser. 2, vi. 30.')) ; to tho 
southern rim of the Grand CaBon of the Colorado Kivcr, where it was found at Tolfroy, Arizona, in iSeptembor, 
1804, l>y Touniey and Sargent ; and to the Mogollon Mountains, New Mexico, where it was collected in April, 
1881, by I'rofcssor K. L. (irceno. 

Fraxinaa Pennaylvanlca, vi. 40. Extend range to central Kansas ( Hitchcock, Flora of Kaimaii, xiii.). 

Frazlnua Pennaylvanlea, var. lanceolata. \i. f>0. Extend range xouthwurd in Florida to the deep river- 
HwanipA of tbu lower .Xppuhtchicola Kivi-r boiiin, where it is very abundant .-ind grows probably to its largest size, 
often forming trunks three feet in diameter; and to AasinilMiin, where it was eollecU'd by Mr. <Tohn Mocoun on 
the shores of Old Wives' Lakes in 1805 and south of Moose .law in 180C. (See Canadian licrord of Hcirncv, 
vii. 281.) 

Large ipiantities of lumber manufactureil from thin tree in the sawmills of Appalachicola are sent to tho 
north, where it is used in the interior finish of bouses and in cabinet-making. 

Catalpa Catalpa, vi. 80. Catalpa communis was first published in 1802 in the first edition of Du Mont 
de Cour'iet'n Hot. Cult. (ii. 180). 

Creacantla cncnrbltiaa, vi. 00. Keniove from the synonyms Crescentia m-ata, Burmann, an East Indian 
species, and add CrtKentia ovala, Sudworth {Bull. No. 14 I)ir. ForcMry U. <V. Dept. Agric. 836 [Xomeri- 
clatiire <f the Arliormcrnt Sperii'H nf the f'nitid Stateit^ [not I'rbun] [1887)). 

Saaaafraa Saaaafraa, vii. 17. Extend range tu the neigbborhoo<l of Wells, York County, Maine, where it 
wai found Septemlier IG, I80.*>, by Mr. Walter Deane ; and to tho neighborhoo<l of Soruia, Lambton County, 
Ontario { Sto Canndian Record nf Science, vii. 28.'>. ) 

TTlmtia campeatria. vii. 40. Add Ui the synonyms : — 
L'Imuii niteuH, Mocncb, Met/i. 3;W (1704). 
r/miis furctdofa, Stokes, Hot. Mnt. Med.'n. S.") (1812). 

TTlmna acabra, vii. 40. An older name for this tree is VlmuB glabra, Hudson, Ft. Angl. 95 (1702). 

Add to the synonyms : — 

I'hmiK hitifolia, Mocnch. Meth. 33:5 (1794). 

Ulmua Isevia. vii. 40. Add to the synonyms : — 

I'lmn^ riimno."!, Ttorkhnustm, Ilandb. Fonthot. i. 851 (1800). 

Ulmua racemoaa, vii. 48. This name was used by liorkhausen in 1800 for a European species of Elm 
(Ilandh. Forstbfjt. i. 851), and therefore was not applicable to the American tree, for which the name Ulmua 
Thomaii is pro)>oso<l. 

'omfort on th« 

ira of Kantat, 

are sent to the 

>ii of Du Mont 

il. 96 (17G2). 



Kitunil xan^a to WimdrnfT'ii (iap, Siismz County, Nuw •leney, where It WM founii hy I'orter & liritton 
Soptonilicr 17, IHtlT ; anil to Marathon, LitM){la>lu, iinil iShuwano conntiuM, iiontrnl Wiiiconain, wliere it in itill 
minicitintly itliiiniluiit to lie of coniinuruial iiii|>urtiiiico. ( Te»tr (i. I). Smlworth.) 

In wenti'rii MiHHoiiri Ulmux Tlimnaiti in nut rare in the valltiy of tliu Miiiouri iiiver ni'ar Courtney, 
whunt it won foutiil liy Mr. I). F. Buah in April, 1H!I4, ami near Kiinaui ('ity, wlivro it wim fountl the following 
yt'ar by Mr. William Mai^lcunziu. It i* not known to mo to grow naturally in TunnuHMe, where it in replaced by 
L'lioiin firotinit. (Suo xiv. 41.) 

Ulmns fulT>, vii. 63. Extend rniigo to weitern and northern Kanioi (IlitchuiKilc, TTir InduttruiiiBt, 
xxiv. '.\M [Fliirii Iff /iiinniiit]). 

Otltt* oooldantalls, vii. (IT. Extend range to the extreme weitern part of Kama* (llitchuock, 7%e 
liuluntrinlint, xxiv. 323 [Flora jf KuniM*]), 

Oaltla MlaaiwilppUiisl*, vii. 71. Extend range into louthwestern Kanioi (\\\te\iQoe\i, The ImlHutrialiit 
«xiv. H'J!l [FInrii nf' A'litadii]). 

Moras rubra, vii. 71). Extend range to Pownal in southwcatern Vermont, where there nru a few xmall 
])lantH which wore ftnit noticed ab4)ut 1830 by William Oakea (nee Thompson, //intory nf Vrrinoiit, Natural, 
Civil, ami Slatittiral, pt. i. 19*5), and redisuoverud in August, 1898, by Mr. W. W. Eggleston (»eo C'lark, Hull. 
No. 73 Vernwiit Aijrie. Erper, JStat. 6i. — Urainerd, Jonen & EggloRton, /•'/. Vermont, 31)) ; and to the valley 
of the Sioux iiivur in the Houthfoiitern county of South Dakota. (Sue Saundun, Uull. No. 64 S. Dakota Agrie. 
Collrtje, 134 [Fernn and Flineeriny Plants of South Dakota}.) 

Jnglana oinaraa, vii. 118. This name was first published by Linnnua in 1769 in the tenth edition of the 
Syitemu (ii. r-7-). 

Jnglana nigra, vii. 121. Extend range westward in Kansas to the latitude of the ninety-ninth meridian 
(Hitchcock, The liulustrialiit, xxiv. 823 [^/or<i of Kan tan]). 

Hicoria minima, vii. 141. The statement on page 143 that " north of the coast Pino belt of Alabama and 
MiiisiaHippi it is the most multiplied species on the poor dry gravelly soil of the uplands" should refer %o Hicoria 
rillnad. (See xiv. 47.) In this region and in central Georgia //I'con'a minima appears to be confined to river- 
banks, and, although it grows in this region to its largest size, it is not common. The most southern points from 
which I have seen specimens are the banks of the Appalachicola Hiver below Chattahoochee, Florida, whore it 
was found by Dr. Charles Mohr in June, 1880, and Cullmao, Alabama, where it was collected by Dr. }.!ohr in 
March. 1884. 

Hicoria laclnioaa, vii. 157. Extend range to southeastern Michigan, where it is abundant on Belle Isle in 
the Detroit River, and where it was found by C. S. Sargent in May, 1899, and to Ontario adjacent to the Detroit 
River; to Richardson County, southeastern Nebraska, where it was first found in 1890 (teste Herb. University 
of Nebraska) ; to the liottoms of Chattanooga Creek, Chattanooga, Tennessee, where it grows to a large size, and 
was found on October (i, 1898, by ilohn Muir, W. M. Canby, and C. S. Sargent ; .ind to the neighborhood of 
Fannington, Davis County, North Carolina, where it was found on the flats of Dutchman's Creek in 1895 by Mr. 
F. K. Iki'nton. Large trees of this species, some of them probably planted more than a hundred years ogo are 
growing nt Chiirmont, Brandon, Shirley, and other estates on the James River, Virginia, where this tree is 
called (iloucester Broad-niit. 

Quercua alba, viii. lU. Extend range westward in Canada to the shores of Rainy Lake, Ontario, where it 
was found in 1891) by Mr. W. Mcluness. (See Ciinadian Record of Science, vii. 285.) 

Qnercua macrocarpa, viii. 43. Extend range to Winslow .ind Watervillc, Kennebec County, Maine, where 
it is abimd.-int in dry wixxis and where it was found in September, 1898. by Mr. M. L. Fcrnald ; to the southern 
borders of lierkshirc County, Massachusetts, where it is rare and local (see Averill, Rhodora, ii. 3C) ; and to 
the neighborhood of Wilmington, Delaware, where a single large tree growing in the woods was first noticed in 
1890 by Mr. W. M. ("anby. 

Quercua Douglaaii, viii. 79. Quercus (Emtcdiana (R. Brown Campst. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vii. 
2")0 [1871]), doubtfully referred to Quercus Garrijana (viii. 29), is shown to be Quercus Douglasii by Mr. 
Brown's specimens recently prcscnte<l by his son to the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

Quercus chryBolepiB. viii. 105. Quercus oblomjlfolia (R. Brown Campst. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vii. 252 [notTorrcy ] [1871]), doubtfully referred to Q. Douglanii (viii. 79), is shown to be Quercus chn/solepis 
sub-s|>ecic.s vacciniifolia, by Mr. Brown's specimens recently ]irescnted by his son to the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

Quercus tomentella, viii. 109. Extend range to S:m Clemente Island, California, where it was discovered 
in 189tJ by Mrs. Bl.-inelic Trask. (See Frythea, v. 30.) 


: i\ 








4' J' 

Quercoa myrtiloUa, viii. 128. On the sandy shores of St. George's Sound, near Carribel, to the eastward 
of the mouth of the Appalachicola Kiver in Florida, Quercua myrti/ulia sometimes assumes a treelike habit, rising 
to a height of twenty-live feet and forming a straight trunk from four to six inches in diameter. 

Qaercns Texana, viii. 129. Extend range through northern Alabama, southeastern Tennessee, and northern 
Georgia to the banks of the Congaree Uivcr near Columbia, South Carolina, where it grows to a very large 
size and where it was found in May, 1897, by W. M. Canby and C. S. Sargent, to the Piedmont plateau of 
North Carolina (Ashe, Bot. Gazette, xxiv. 87G), and to the Atlantic coast plain in Onslow County, North 
Carolina (Ashe, Hot. Gazette, xxviii. 271). It is common but of small size on dry limestone hills near Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, on Orchard Knob and other limestone hills near Chattanoog.i, Tennessee, on the dry banks of the 
C'(Ki.>ia Kiver at Rome, Georgia, and near Atlanta, Georgia. Extend range also to Starkville, Oktibbeha County, 
.Mississippi, where it was found in October, 1894, by Professor M. S. Tracy ; to Post Oak, Lowndes County, 
Mississippi, where it was collected by Dr. Charles Mohr in October, 1894 ; and to southeastern Kansas (Hitch- 
cock, TTie Indiistrialint, xxiv. 323 [Flora of Aa«,s(j«]). 

Qnercna velntlna, viii. 137. Extend range to southeastern Nebraska, where it was collected near Nebraska 
City in 1894 by Mr. .1. H. Masters. {Teste Herb. University of Nebraska.) 

Qnercna palnatrla, viii. 151. Extend range to southwestern Tennessee, where it is common on bottom- 
lands in the neighborhoixl of Memphis. 

Qnercna imbricaria, viii. 175. It was probably an error to consider this tree an inhabitant of Wisconsin. 
The ncigliborhood of Muscatine in southeastern Iowa is now believed to be the most northern station, where it 
grows in the Mississippi valley. {Teste L. II. Pammel.) 

Fagna Americana, ix. 27. The range of this tree in Wisconsin is confined to the eastern counties, where 
it is common, especially near the shores of Lake Michigan. 

Oatrya Virginlana, ix. 34. Extend range southward in Florida to Lake City, Columbia County, where it 
was collected in July, 1895, by Mr. G. D. Nash. During the summer of 1899 Mr. C. G. Pringle found this tree 
in the neighborhood of Jalapa in southern Mexico. 

Carpinna Caroliniana. ix. 42. During the summer of 1899 Mr. C. G. Pringle found in Mexico Carpinua 
Carotiniana on the mountains near Jalapa and Orizaba at an elevation of about four thousand feet above the level 
of the sea and at an elevation of six thousand feet above the sea near Cuernavaca, whei j in the deep rich caflons of 
the mountains which form the southern rim of the valley of Mexico this tree, surpassing in size all the known Horn- 
beams of the world, reaches a height of one hundred feet and forms a trunk frcm three to four feet in diameter, 

Betnla lenta, ix. 50. Extend range to central lor^a, where it was found in 1900 at Steamboat Rock near the 
banks of the Iowa River by L. H. Pammel. 

Betnla papyrifera, ix. 57. Extend range to central Iowa, where it was found in June, 1900, at Steamboat 
Rock near the banks of the Iowa River by L. H. Pammel. 

Alnua. ix. U7. Betnla and Alnus were first united by Linnieus in the tenth edition of the Systema (ii. 
12(55), published in 1759, and subsequently in the sixth edition of the Genera, jmbliahed in 1704. 

Alnna glntlnoaa, ix. C9. Bettila (jlutinosa was first ))ublished in 1759 by Linnteus in the tenth odition of 
the S;/slema (ii. r2t)5). and subsequently by Lamarck in 1783. 

Alnna tennifolia, ix. 75. Extend range northward in British Columbia to latitude fit, where it was found 
(in the shores of Francis Lake on July I*). 1887, by Dr. G. M. Dawson : and eastward along the Saskatchewan to 
the neichlmrhood of Prince Albert, whore it was found in July, 189<i, by Mr. John Macoun. (See, also, xiv. 02.) 

Myrica cerlfera. ix. 87. Extend range northward to Millsborougb, Sussex County, Delaware, where it is 
cnnimon in sandy biirreiis as a low broad shrub, and where it was found on Octolior 12, 1808, by John Muir, 
W. .M. Canby, and C S. Sargent: and to Ca|)e May, New .Jersey, where it was foiiml Marrh 30, 1899, l)y Mr. 
W. M. Canliy. uiid where in sandy soil close to the sea it is a tree from twenty-five to thirty feet in height. 

Salix Wardi, ix. 107. This is the common Willow of the Ozark mountain region of southwestern Missouri 
and northwestorn and western Ark.insas, where it is very on rwky banks of all streams, ofti'U gmwing 
to the licight of tliirty feet, and forming a trunk from twelve to eightefu ini'lics in diameter. 

Salix Bebbiana. ix. 131. Extend rang-; to the shores of Cook Inlet, Alaska. ( See C" , ille, I'mr.U'asL 
inijtim Acad. Sci. ii. 283 ; iii. 30f>.) 

Salix MiSBOuriensiB. ix. Iil7. Extend rani;!' eastward to Iowa, wliero tliis trc- grows in tlie Mississippi 
Kiver valley near Sioux City in the extreme northwestern part cif Lymi County, and in the Mississipjii Kiver 
valley in the neighborho<Hl of Daven|)ort and Muscatine (see Bail. /'mr. !mm Arail. Sri. vii. 152) ; and through 
northe.istcrn Kansas to Kilfv C.Minty, Kansas ( Ilitclicock. Tin /inliistriii/isl, xxiv. 323 [ F/nra <;/' h'dn.ins]). 


1 near Nebraska 

mon on bottom- 

I counties, where 

!lo, /Vor. W,isL 



Saliz Sltchonsls, ix. 149. In Alaska Salix Sitchensis ranges northward and westward to the shores of 
Cook Inlet and Kadiak Island, ascending to elevations of at least fourteen hundred feet above the sea-level. The 
wood is sometimes used by the coast Indians of southern Alaska for frying salmon, as the smoke does not give a 
bad taste to the fish. The pounded bark is employed to heal the flesh of cuts and wounds. (See Coville, Proc. 
WaMngton Acad. Sci. ii. 278 ; iii. 307.) 

Populns tremuloides, ix. 158. Change range from southern Nebraska to Fine K' '-^'e, northwestern Ne- 
braska. {Teste Professor C. E. Bessey.) " In the valley of the Yukon and its tributaries I'opulus tremuloides is 
abundant on old river levels and dry hillsides, but rarely occurs on the rich bottom-lands. It seldom exceeds 
twelve inches in diameter or fifty or sixty feet in height. Pojiulus bahamifera is much less common, although it 
is fairly abundant on all bottom-lands and creeks and river banks. It is a much larger tree than Populua tremu- 
loides, sometimes reaching sixteen or eighteen inches in diameter and about seventy feet or more in height when 
growing on rich alluvial soil." (M. W. Gorman, in litt.) 

Populns grandldentata, ix. 161. Extend range to northeastern Iowa and southward along the Mississippi 
River to the neighborhood of Muscatine, to Steamboat Rock on the Iowa River, in Hardin County, and to the 
Ledges, Boone Couiity, in the central part of Iowa. (^Teste L. H. Pammel.) 

Fopulus heterophylla, ix. 163. Extend range in Connecticut northward to Southington, where it was found 
during the summer of 1901 by Mr. C. H. Bissell. 

FopuluB anguatifoUa, ix. 171. Extend range to the Chiricahua Mountains in the extreme southern part of 
Arizona, where it was foimd in 1897 by Professor J. W. Tourney. 

Oreodoza regia, x. 31. In 1774 William Bartram visited the upper St. John River, Florida, and noticed 
Palm-trees which seemed to him " to be of a different species from the Cabbage-tree ; their strait trunks are 
sixty, eighty, oi- ninety feet high, with a beautiful taper of a bright ash colour, until within six or seven feet of the 
top, where it is a fine green colour, crowned with an orb of rich green plumed leaves : I have measured the stem of 
these plumes fifteen feet in length, besides the plume, which is nearly of the same length." (^Travels, 115.) 

Of the Palms of Florida this description can apply only to Oreodoxu regia, although I cannot learn that it 
now grows anywhere near the St. John River or that it has been seen there by any later traveler. It is possible 
that it is these trees to which Nuttall alludes in the preface of his Sylva of North America (p. viii.). 

Joniperus Utahensis, x. 81. Add to the synonymy : — 

Juniperus Knighti, Nelson, Bot. Gazette, xxv. 198, f. 1, 2 (1898) ; BxdL No. 40 Wyoming Exp. 

Stat. 88, f. 18, 19 (Trees of Wyoming') ; and extend range into southern Wyoming, where it is common in 

the Red Desert region from the Seminole Mountains to Green River. 

Janip<«iu aabinoides, x. 91. This name as applied to this tree was first published by Nees von Esenbeck 
in Linnira, xix. 706, in 1847. The great Cedar Brake on the San Bernard River in Brazoria County, Texas, is 
composed of this species, which sometimes attains a height of a hundred feet here. ( Teste B. F. Bush, who visited 
it in 1900.) 

CnprOBBOB Macnabiana, x. 109. Extend range from central Napa County, California, where it has been 
found by Mr. Carl Purdy on Mt. .lEtna, northward through Lake County, where it is now known to abound on 
the tributaries of the Lake, and on the slopes of Mt. Raynor, and to Red Mountain on the eastern side of Ukiah 
valley in Mendocino County, where it has been found by Mr. Purdy. In July, 1901, Miss Alice Eastwood found 
Ciipressus Macnabiana on the road between Shasta and Whiskeytown, Trinity County, California, probably 
near tho place where it was originally discovered by Jeffrey. (See Bull. Sierra Club, iv. 41.) 

Cupresaua Nootkatenaia, x. 115. Extend range eastward to Stevens' Pass in northeastern Washington, 
where it was found by J. H. Sandberg and J. P. Leiberg at elevations of from four thousand to six thousand feet 
al)uve the sea in August, 1893 : and northwestward to Khantaak Island in Yakutat Bay, where a single tree was 
seen by P'redcrick Funston in 1892. (See Conlrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. iii. 328.) 

Thuya occidentalls, x. 126. Extend range to northeastern Tennessee, where it was found on the Holston 
River at Fislulani, Sullivan County, on June 10, 1897, by Mr. G. B. Sudworth. 

Thuya gigantea, x. 1 29. Yas Bay is the extreme northwestern station from which I have seen specimens of 
this tree. ."'DUtiit'svst of Yas Bay it is not rare on the Alaska coast, growing from the sea-level up to elevations of 
fifteen hundred feet ami surjiassed only by the Tidoland Spiuee in size. 

Masters has showni that the oldest name for this tri'c is TTiuya plicata, which should be adopted for it. (See 
Garth Chron. spr. 3, xxi. 101, 213. 2.'>8.) Thuya plicata first used l)y J.iines Donn in tho fourth oilition of 
tliu JfiirlHS Cantabrii/icnsiK, published in 1807, but as the name was unaccompanied by acy description it becomes 

l Vi 




a nomen nudum, and the author of the species is David Don, who described this tree in the second volume of Lam- 
bert's Genua Pinua, published in 1824, his description being based on a specimen collected by Nee (see viii. 25) 
and preserved in the British Museum. Nce's specimen is ascribed to New Spain, but, as Dr. Masters points out, 
this is clearly an error in the in8crij>tion on the label as there is no Thuya in Mexico, and Nee in his voyage with 
Malaspina also visited different parts of the northwest coast. Malaspir.a's voyage extended from 1789 to 1794, 
when he arrived on his return in Cadiz, so that it is N^ who discovered this tree and not Mcuzies, who was not at 
Nootka Sound until 1796. The Thuya plicata of northwestern America discovered by Nee and subsequently by 
Meuzies must not be confounded with the Thuya plicata of gardens, which ':<> a form of Thuya occidentalis of 
eastern America. 

Ziibocedma decnrrena, x. 135. Extend range eastward in southern Oregon to the eastern slope of the 
Cascade Mountains, where it is common above the .shores of Upper Klamath Lake at elevations of about twenty- 
two hundred feet and where it does not grow to a large size. On the Warner Range still farther east it grows in 
the Yellow Pine belt, but it is not common and rarely forms a trunk exceeding two feet in diameter (C. Hart 
Merriam, in lift.). Extend range in California to the Santa Lucia Mountains, to Mt. San Carlos near New Idria 
in San Benito County, and to the San Rafael Mountains in Santa Barbara County, where it was found in May, 
1894, at elevations of Ave thousand feet above the sea by Dr. F. Franceschi. 

Sequoia, x. 139. Emend description of the fruit to road " maturing during its first or second season." The 
fruit of Sequoia sempervireis appears always to ripen during one season, but in the case of Sequoia Wellinfftonia, 
which flowers early in the year, the young cone grows during the first season to about half its full size and, beginning 
to grow again late in the winter or in very early sj)ring, attains its full size in May, when the seeds are ready to 
germinate, although the cones do not open naturally until August or September after the hot dry season. (See 
Sargent, Garden arid Foreft, x. 514, f. (56.) 

Pinna qnadrifolia, xi. 43. Extend range in California to the desert slopes ''f the Santa Rosa Mountains, 
Rivertide County, where it is abundant at an elevation of five thousand feet above the level of the sea and where 
it has been found by Mr. H. M. Hall. (See Erythea, vii. 89.) 

Finns clansa, xi. 127. Extend range southward along the east coast of Florida to five or six miles south of 
New River or Fort Lauderdale. 

Pinna glabra, xi. 131. E^xtend range to central Mississippi, where it is common on the low wooded borders 
of streams and swamps, and to the swamps adjacent to Bayou Phalia, eastern Louisiana. 

Pinna divaricata, xi. 147. Extend range to the eastern sloiio of (ireen Mountain, Mount Desert Island, 
Maino, where it was found by Mr. E. L. Rand in July, 1898. (See lihodora, i. 135.) 

Iiaiiz Americana, xii. 7. Extend range southward to Preston County, West Virginia, where in May, 1897, 
it was found by Profe'sor A. D. Hopkins near Craneaville at an elevation of about twenty-three hundred and sixty 
feet above the level of the sea growing in a sphagnum-covered swamp. (See XQth Ann. Hep. West Virginia Agric. 
Erp. Stot. 50.) 

Larix Lyallli, xii. 15. Extend range southward in the Unite<l States along the cpntiiienial divide, where it 
has been found to extend in many scattered colonies, to the neighlmrlinod of Camp Creek Pass at the head of the 
middle fork of Sun River. Here it forms a pure forest of oonsidcrable extent at an elevation of from seven 
thousand to eight thousand feet above the sea-level, and was found by Mr. H. B. Ayres in August, 1899; and to 
Pend <l'Dri.'ille Pass between the waters of the Clearwater River and those of the west fork of the south fork of the 
Flathead RiviT, wliere it was found at an elevation of seven tbousaml feet by Mr. Ayres in SepU;inl)Cr, 1899. 

Picea Mariana, xii. 28. p^xtend range .m far north as least at the valley of the Klondike in the Yukon 
Territory, where it is very ccimnion from the Yukon valley as far west as the west bank of White River at a point 
two hundred and twelve miles above the mouth of that stream, and where it was first noticed in 1899 by Mr. Mar- 
tin W. Gorman. " West of the Yukon it wears in all wet marshy localities and is to l)e found growing over buried 
glaciers wherever they cx-cur in that region, but I did not observe it anywhere on the rich bottom-lands along tho 
immediate banks of the Yukon. It is a nuK'h smaller trt>e than the White Spruce, sehlom reaching eighty feet in 
height or producing a tnmk exceeding twelve inches in diameter. Owing to the scarcity of timlier it is sometimes 
cut and makes bett<.-r lumber and fuel than the White Spruce, as it is darker, harder, and closer-grained." (Gorman, 
in litt.) 

Picea Canadonsia. xii. 37. Extend range southward in Wisconsin through the northern part of the state. 
( r- .«/. L. S. Clieney. ) 

Tanga Canadenaia, xii. 63. In Wisconsin tho southern station of tho Hemlock is in Iowa County in the 




miles south of 

ooded borders 

Desert Island, 

southwestern part of the state, where there is a grove of this tree on a bluff on the east bank of the Pecatonica 
Rivor about six miles north of Blanchardville, Lafayette County, and two miles east of Hollondale, Iowa County. 
(L. S. Cheney in litt.) 

Tanga Mertenslana, zii. 77. Extend range northwestward along the Alaska coast to the shores of Prince 
William Sound, where, during the summer of 1899, at the head of an icy ford, John Muir found trees of this 
species from eighty to one hundivid feet in height with trunks from two to three feet in diameter forming a pure 
forest ; and eastward in Montana to the pasb between the head of Sun River and the head of the Clearwater, and 
about fifteen miles east of McDonald's Peak, where at an elevation of five thousand feet above the sea-level a small 
grove of stunted trees was seen during the summer of 1899 by Mr. H. B. Ayres. 

Fseudotsnga Japonica, xii. 84. This name was first used by Beissner (_Mitt. Deutsche Dendr. Gesell. Nr. 
6, 62 [189C]). 

Abies balaamea, xii. 107. In Wisconsin this tree occurs only in the northern and central parts of the state, 
where it is common, and is entirely unknown in the southern ccimties, the station in northeastern Iowa being an 
isolated one. 



of the state. 

p i 

i I 

2* = 

: 11 





Names of Orders are in small capitals ; of admitted Genera and Species aud other proper namesi in romau type ; 

of BynoDyms, iu italics. 

\ ^ 

Alwle, ix. 154. 

Abies, xii. 05. 

At>ie8,x\l 1,19,59,83. 

Ahiex AjtmetviiSf xii. 21. 

Ahieg AJaiensist var. microspermat xii. 21. 

.!^;>ifi//|, xii. 33, 37,99. 

Ahiet alba ccerulta, xii. 40. 

Ahiea Albfrtiaua, xii. 73. 

Ahies Alcorkiana, xii. 21. 

Abies A Icwiuinna, xii. 21. 

Abies amabilis, xii. 125. 

Ahieg amabilis, xii. 117, 137. 

Abies Americana, xii. 33, 37, 03, 107. 

Abies Americana cverulea, xii. 40. 

Abies Apollinis, xii. 99. 

Abies AfmllinLi, $ Panach . , xii. 99. 

Abies Apotlitm, y Hegina Amaliat xii. 99. 

Abies Araragi, xii. GO. 

Ahiea arctica, xii. 39. 

Abies argenlea, xii. 100. 

Abies Arizonica, xii, 113. 

f Abies aromatica, xii. 117. 

Abies Baboronsis, xii. 00, 100. 

Abies balfliiinea, xii. 107 ; xiv. lO'l. 

Abies balsamea, xii. 113, 121. 

Abies bahameOf $ Fraseri, xii. 105. 

Abies balsamea HiuUonia, xii. 109. 

Abies bahami/era, xii. 107. 

Abies bicolor^ xii. 21. 

Abies bijida, xii. 101. 

Abies bifoHa^ xii. 113. 

Ahies brachypkyUa^ xii. 102. 

Ahies bracteata, xii. 129. 

Abies Bridgesii, xii. 73, 

Abies Hrxiuoniana, xii. 01. 

Abies Canadensis, xii. 37, 63. 

Abies Canadensis f xii. 73. 

Abies CaroUniana, xiu G9. 

Abies Cepbalonica, xii. 96, 99. 

Abies Cepkalonica, a Paniasstca, xii. 99, 

Ahies Cephnlonica, $ Arcadica, xii, 99. 

Abifs Cephalti'iira nthwfta, xii. !K). 

Allies CVpbuloiiica, var. Apollinis, xii. 99. 
Abies Cepkatonica, var. Hegiiae Amaliae, 

Abies Cilicifii, xii. 96, 98. 

Abies I'ltrub'ii, xii. JO. 

Ahies commutaliit xii. 43. 

Abies (Muieulor, xii. 121. 

Ahies i'imif>lnr, xii. 117. 

Abies vonrohr, var. Umorarpa, xii. 121. 

Abifs roncolor, var. L(wiana, xii. I'Jl, 

Ahies rurvi/nlifi, xii. 37. 

/l/n>'.'* denticidala, xii, 28. 

Allies diversi/oiia, xii. (W. 

Ahif.i Ihuglasii, xii. 87. 

Ahus Ihmglnsii, var. nuurocnrpn, xii. 93. 

Afiifs Jhuglnsii, var. tari/olia, xii. 87. 

Abiei ilumitsii, xii. 01. 

,\liies, (M-miumie proportics of, xii. 90. 

Af:':i Eichleri, xii. 101, 

Abies ilutjelmannif xii. 43. 

Abies Engetmanni glaucOi xii. 47. 

Abies excelsa, xii. 23, 25, 99. 

Abies excelsa denudata, xii. ?4. 

Abies excelsa, var. medioxirra, xii. 24, 

Abies excelsa, var. vtrgata, xii. 24. 

Abies falcata, xii. 56. 

Ahies Jirma, xii. 101, 102. 

Abies Jirma, var. bifida, xii. 101. 

Abies Krascri, xii. 105. 

Ahies Fraseri, xii. 107. 

Abies Fraseri (B) nana, xii. 109. 

Abies Fraseri, var. Iludsoni, xii. 109. 

Abies, tungal diseases of, xii. 101. 

Abies Olehni, xii. "1. 

Ahies Gmelini, xii, 4. 

Abies Gordoniana, xii. 117. 

Abies grandis, xii. 117. 

Abies grandis, xii. 113, 121, 126. 

Abies grandis, a Oregona, xii. 117. 

Abies grandis, var. concolor, xii. 121. 

/16/(?,? grandis, var. densijhra, xii, 125. 

X6i>.t grandii, var. Loiciana, xii. 121, 

.46i« heterophiflla, xii. 73. 

/Ifiiei hirtelU , xii. 97. 

/16ic^ Hi^pmicQ, xii. 100. 

Abies boir olepis, xii. 06, 102. 

^!6jm //o( ieriana, xii. 77. 

Abies, h; orid, xii. 97. 

Abies, i sect enemies of, xii. 101. 

Abies i signis, xii. 97. 

Abies J xponica, xii. 102, 

Abies < ezoensLt, xii. 21. 

Abies Ctetnp/eri, xii. 2. 

Ahies Khutrow, xii. 22. 

Ahies Larix, xii. 3. 

Abie lasiocarpa, xii. 113. 

Ahie- lasiocarpa, xii. 125, 

Abiei lasiocarpa, var. /I nzonica, xii. 113. 

Abies laxa, xii. 37. 

Abies leptoiepis, xii. 2. 

/16tf.« Lowiana, xii. 121. 

/IftiV.-i rnnirocarpa, xii. 93. 

Abies niagniHca, xii. 137. 
, Abies magnitica, var. Shastensis, xii. 138. 

Abies magnifica, var, xanthocarpa, xii. 138. 

Abies Mariana, xii. 28. 

Abies medioxinia, xii. 21. 

Ahies Menziesii, xii. 21, 47, 55. 

44/;iW Metiziesii Parryatta, xii. 47. 

/!^)(f,< Merfensia, xii. 77. 

/!/)(>.< Mertensidna, xii. 73, 77. 

.^ItiV.v mirrorarpa, xii. 7. 

.4/)iV.s' mirrophyllii, xii. 73. 

^I&i« microsperma, xii. 21. 

.l/jiV.i minor, xii. 99. 

Abies Monii, xii. 90, 101. 

.1 /*/>.■( Aforindii, xii. 22. 

X/»ic.v ni'icroKffNi, xii. 87. 

•■WmV.v mucr'tnatn, var. polustris, xii. 87. 

.l/ii*'.'* uephrolepsi.t, xii. 101. 

.l/wV.-j nigra, xii. 28, ;t;i, 43. 

/l/*iej» /iii/rif, /3 rubra, xii. 33. 

Abies nobUis, xii. 133. 

Abies nobilis, xii. 137. 

t Abies nobilis rohusta, xii. 138. 

/lAiM nobilisf var. glauca, xii. 138. 

i46te4 nobilis, var. magnijica, xii. 137. 

Abies Nordrnanninna, xii. 96, 98, 

Abiet) T'^ annian:\ speciosa, xii. 97. 

Abies ^>u.,i.Uica, xii 100. 

Abies oltoiata, xii, 24. 

Abies Omorikat xii. 22. 

.^&(e.y orientalis, xii. 22, 23. 

i4ftiM Pattoniana, xii. 77. 

.46iM Pattonii, xii. 73, 77, 80. 

/16i£s pectinatOf xii. 23, 63, 99. 

Abies pectinata, $ Apollinis^ xii. 99, 

Abies pcndulat xii. 7. 

Abies Ficea, xii. 90, 99. 

Abies Picea, xii. 23. 

Abies Picea (B) Appollinis, xii. 99. 

Abies Picea, economic properties of, xii. 100. 

Abies Pichta, xii. 98. 

Ahies Pindrow, xii. 98, 

Abies Pinsapo, xii. 96, 100, 

Abies Pinsapo, var. Baborensis, xii. 100. 

Abies polita, xii. 21. 

Abies procera viminalis, xii. 24. 

Abies Reginoi Amalite, xii. 99. 

Abies rcligiosa, xii. 97. 

Ahies religiosa, x. 141. 

Abies religiosa glaucescens, xii. 91. 

Abies rubra, xii. 33, 37. 

Abies rubra c(vrulea, xii. 40. 

Abies Sachalineusis, xii. 97. 

Abies Schrenckiana, xii. 25. 

Abies selinnsia, xii. 98. 

Abies Shastensis, xii. 138, 

Abies Sibirica, xii. 90, 97. 

Ahies Sibirica, var. alba, xii. 98. 

Abies Sibirica, var. nephrolepis, xii. 101. 

Ahies Sitchensis, xii. 21, 55. 

Abies Smithiana, xii. 21, 22. (/ 

Abies species, xii. 01. 

Abies spectabil is, xii. 98. 

Abies spinulosa, xii. 22. 

/IftiW snhalpina, xii. 113. 

/l^ifVi subalpina, v&t. fallax, xii. 113. 

/U/c'^ taxifolia, xii. 03, 87, 99. 

.•IftiV.i taxifolia, var. patula, xii. 03. 

t Ahies Thnnbergii. xii. 21. 

^16(V.s Torano, xii. 21. 

i-lfeiftv Irigona, xii. 55. 

/ItiW Tsuga, xii. 60. 

/IfciV.s Tsugii nana, xii. 00. 

.■16jV.') nmhellata, xii. 101. 

Abies Veitehi, xii. iM». 101. 

J/;iV.f I'eitchi, var. Sachalinensis, xii. 97. 

Abies veimsta, xii. 129. 

^/xV.'* rulgaris, xii. 99. 

Abies Webbiaim, xii. IK), OS. 

.'IftiVs Wfhhiano, Q Pindroir, xii. 98. 

Abies WilUain'<omi, xii. 77. 

Abietenc, xi. 1H>. 

■' I' 



'1 = 

i I 





Acacia, iii. 39, 115. 

Acacia laculenta, iii. 113. 

Acacia aibitia, jux. 19. 

AcAoia Arabioa, iii. 116. 

Acacia Bahamensis, iii. 120. 

Acacia btcepi^ iii. 111. 

Acacia Catechu, iii. 116. 

Acacia Cumanetuiix, iii. 101. 

Acacia dipteral iii. 101. 

Acacia edul\$t iii. 119. 

Acaoia Karnesiaua, iii. 119. 

Acacia Famesiana^ var. ptdunculatOt iii. 119. 

Acaoia Farnetiana, var. Hempervinos, iii. 1^1. 

Acacia Jfericauii.1, iii. 137. 

Acacia jifxuo$at iii. 101. 

^f*a»iVi_/(»rmojw, iii. 127. 

Acacia frcmtiMa, iii. 111. 

Araria/urcata, iii. 101. 

Acacia glaruiuli»a, iii. 109. 

Acacia glauca, ui. 111. 

Acaoia, Green-barked, iii. SA^ 85. 

Acacia Greggii, iii. 125. 

Acacia borriila, iii. 116. 

Acacia J uUfiora, iii. 101. 

Aracia /rrriya/a, iii. 101. 

Acacia latisUiijua, iii. 129. 

Acacia letitictlhla, iii. 119. 

Acacia f Upinphj/Uat iii. 119. 

Acacia Uucacaniha, xiii. 19. 

Acacia Ifucocephala, iii. 111. 

Acacia Melanozylon, iii. 116. 

Acaoia nostras, iv. 10. 

Acacia pallida^ iii. 101. 

Acacia, Parasol, iii. 41. 

Acacia pcdunciilata, iii. 119. 

Acacia poiyphylla, iii. 127. 

Acacia puiverulertta^ iii. 113. 

Acacia pycnantba, iii. 116, 

Acacia * »alinarum, iii. 101. 

Acacia Senegal, iii. 116. 

Acacia Scyal, iii. 110. 

Acacia Sili»pja>trum, iii. 101. 

Acacia stenocarpa, iii. 116. 

Aoacia Suma, iii. 116. 

Acacia. Three-thorned. iii. 75. 

AcaL'ia tortuofta, xiii. 19. 

Actcia Wrightii, iii. 123. 

Acanthtxieres quadrigibbiu, rii. 133. 

Acer, ii. 79. 

Acer albo't^riegatumt ii. 105. 

Acrr alburn^ ii. 1U"». 

Acer argenteo-x^aTiegatum^ ii. 113. 

Acer aureO'Variegatum, ii. 113. 

Acer liarbatiim, li. 97. 

Acrr harbatum, xiii. 7. 

Acer lArbatum, var. Klnridanam, ii. 100. 

Acer fHirbatuntj var. I'loridanum, xiii. 7. 

Acer barbatuni, var. grandideiitatum. ii. 100. 

Acfr harfxttum, var. granditientatum, xiii. 8. 

Acer barbatum, var. tiitrrutu, ii. 90. 

Acer fiarbatum, var. ui'jrxim, xiii. 8, 9. 

Acer Cali/amirum, ii. 112, 113. 

Acer Cauipbelhi, ii. HO 

A-'fr (^aruidetuw, ii. K5. 

Acer Caroiinianum, ii. 107 

Acer circinatum, ii. 9'1. 

Acrr coccineum, ii. lO."!, Ui7. 

Acer craUcgi folium, ii. BO. 

Acer crispum, ii. llli. 

Acrr dasyrarpum, ii. 103. 

Acer dasyrnrf.nm monoipfrmum^ ii. 106. 

Acer dt.ilH)liciini, ii. HO. 

Acer dixsecturt Wagiieri, ii. 105. 

Acer Douglasii, ii. 95. 


Actr Drummondiit ii. 109. 

Aftr eriticarpumt ii. lOil. 

Acer Floridanum^ ii. 100, 105. 

Acer Floridanumy var. actiminatumt xiii. 7. 

Acer Ftoridum^ ii. 105. 

Acer glabruin, ii. 95 ; xiv. 99. 

Acer glah'um, var. /ri/wr(i>um, ii. 9C 

Acer glaucuni, ii. 107. 

Acer grandidetUatumt ii. 100. 

Acer heterophyltum, ii. 105. 

Acer hybridum^ ii. 105. 

Acer Japonieuin, li. 80. 

Acer laciniatum W'ierii, ii. 105. 

Acer leucmiervity xiii. 7. 

Acer longifolium, ii. 105. 

^ffr lutescetia, ii. 105. 

Acer macriKarpum^ ii. 105. 

Acer inacropliylluin, ii. 89. 

Acer mocrophyllum, ii, 104. 

Acer MeTiainum, ii. 100. 

Acer microphyllum, ii. 107 ; xiii. 11. 

Acer mimtanum, ii. 83. 

Acer Negundo, ii. Ill ; xiv. 99. 

Acer Negnndo, var. Califomioum, ii. 112, 

Acer \eguTido, var. Texanum, ii. 111. 

Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, ii. 113. 

Acer Negundo, var. vu)gnrc,a. b-color, ii. 11.1. 

Acer Negundo, var. vulgare, b. anguitisiti- 

nium, ii. 113. 
Acer uigruni, xiii. 9. 
i4rer nigrumt ii. 99. 
f Acer nigrum, xiii. 8. 
Acer iiiveum, ii. 80. 
Acer palinatum, ii. 80. 
Acer pulmatum, ii. 89, 104. 
Acer palmi/ttlium, var. concolor, xiii. 9. 
Acer palmifulium, var. nigrum, xiii. 8. 
Acer fHircijiortim, ii. 83. 
Acer I'aria, ii. 104. 
Acer petiduium, ii. 105. 
Acer PennH}-lvanicuin, ii. 85. 
Acer Fennsylvanintm, ii. 83. 
Acer pictuu), ii. 80. 
Acer platamiides, ii. 80. 
Acer pulviuorpbum, ii. 80. 
Acer I'seudo-IMatanus, ii, 80. 
Acer ptUvrndentum, ii. 105. 
Acer rubruni, ii. 107. 
Acer rxJ>ntm, ii. UX\ ; xiii. 11, 
Acrr ruhrum, 3, xiii. 11, 
Acer nibnini, dilitribution of, xiii. 11. 
Acer rutmm n«i.f, ii. 1(W. 
Acer mbrum, Hubspce. micrnphyllumt xiii. 11. 
Acer ruhrum, »uh»[)ec. urminrbiculatumf xiii. 

Acer niftrum, var. clansum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, rar. Druinmoiidii, ii. 109. 
Acer rubrum, var. euruhrum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, var. microfthyllum, ii. 107. 
,-lcer nigrum, var. pallid tjiorum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, \at. pallidum, ii. 103. 
.{rer rubrum, var. nanguiueum, li. 107. 
Acerrubntm, var. semurrbindatum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, var. titmrntusum, ii. 107. 
Acer rubrum, vnr. tridena, xiii. 11. 
Acer rutinerve, ii. H5. 
Acer Hufjflii, ii. 99 ; xiii. 8. 
Acer fiaccharinum, ii. 103. 
Acer Mcrhiirinum, ii. 97 ; xiii. 8. 
Acer mccharinum, Hubspec. Hugelii, xiii. 8. 
Acer taccharinum, lubtpeo. taccharinum, var. 

glaurum, xiii. K. 
Acer aaccbnrinuni, var al bo-mac ulatuni, ii. 


Aeer sacobarinam, rar. onneatum, ii. 106. 
Ao«r laocharinum, var. ditiectum, ii. 105. 
Acer saccharinum, var. Flmidanum, ii. 100. 
Acer aaecharinumf var. glaucum, ii. 90 ; xiii. 

Acer saccharinum, rar. laciniatum, ii. 105. 
Acer »accharinumi var. nigrum, ii. 90 ; xiii. 8, 

Acer •accharinuu), var. normale, ii. 104. 
Acer saccharinum, var. jtsewio-platanoidei, ii, 

Acer saccharinum, var. Hugelii, ii. 09. 
Acer saccharophorum, ii. 97. 
Acer Saocbaniin, xiii. 7. 
i4cer Sacchanim, ii. 97, 103. 
Acer Saccharum, var. barbatum, xiii. 8. 
Acer Soccharuui, var. Floridanuni, xiii. 7. 
Acer Saccharum, var. grandidentatum, xiii.S. 
Acer Saccharum, var. Icucoderme, xiii. 7. 
A<'er Saccharum, var. ydgrum, xiii. ^. 
Acer Sacchiinim, var. Hugelii, xiii. 8. 
Acer Saira, ii. 105. 
Acer $anguineum, ii. 105, 107. 
Acer semiorbiculatum, ii. 107 ; xiii. 11. 
Aoer ipicatum, ii. 83. 
Acer spicatum, ii. 104. 
Acer apicatum, var. Ukurunduenae, ii. 84. 
Acer striatum, ii. 85. 
Acer tometitosum, ii. 105. 
Acer Iripartitum, ii. 95. 
Acer Ckuruudurme, ii. 84. 
Acer versicolor, ii. 113. 
Acer violaceum, ii. 113. 
Acer virg^tum, ii. 93. 
Acer Virginicum ruvrufn, ii. 106. 
Achrnt liahamensis, v. 183. 
Achras lialata, v. 182. 
Achras costata, v. 163. 
Achras pallida, v. 165. 
Achras salici/olia, v. 179. 
Achras serrala, iv. 49. 
Achras Hapotilla, vnr. parrijlora, v. 183. 
Acmena, v. 39. 
Acmophylla>, ix. 96. 
Acoptua Ruturalis, ix. 41. 
Acrubasia Jiiglaudia, vii. 118. 
Acronvcta Populi, ix. 156. 
Acronycta rubricoma, vii. 04. 
Actiaa Luna, vii. 110. 
Adamaran, v. 19. 
Adelgea abieticulens, xii. 25. 
Adelgea Abictis, xii. 25. 
f Adnaria, v. 115. 
.i^A'idium <^sculi, ii. 54. 
i^Vidium clHtinum, xii. 101, 
if^Mdium Fntxiui, vi. 27. 
.^A'id urn myricatum, ix. 86. 
ilCi'idium pyratiun, x. 73. 
>^'idium Snmbuci, v. 87. 
j^^geria acerni, ii. 81. 
/t^geria rxitiosa, iv. 11. 
if^gcria Pinoruni, xi. 11. 
iDgeriii pros-^pis, iii. 100. 
f .iCgialea, v. 129. 
i^^aculus, ii. 51. 
A^sculus alba, ii. 55. 
^.*niltts arguta, ii. 55 ; xiv. 99. 
jf-'xctdus Asamica, ii. 52. 
/K.iculuf) austrina, xiii. 3. 
ii-*(tculu« Cuiifoniicn, ii. 61. 
^fCiculus camea, ii. 53. 
i'Kflcubitt ChiiuMisia, ii. 52, 53. 
ii-^Hculus Culuinbiann, ii. 52. 
^iCtculus discoiur, ii. 00. 




Mticului dissimilu, ii. 52. 

/Enc\du$ echinattt^ ii. 56. 

jfitcului JiavOt ii. 59. 

/litculuM Jlava, vur. purpurascenst ii. 60. 

^^jiGulus glabra, ii. 55 ; xiv. 00. 

^nculu» glabra^ var. arguta, xiv. 90. 

/KiicuhiB glabra, var. tiuokleyi, xiv. 09. 

iGsculiiti IlippocastAiuim, ii. 52, 53. 

/EArtUus hifhrido, ii. 60. 

/Csoiiliis Indioa, ii. 52. 

jEhcuIus lutea, u. 50. 

ACntuius macroslachyat ii. 52. 

iEflciiIus Mexiuoiia, ii. 52. 

ji^scxdus mnricata, ii. 55. 

jUtctdua neglecta, ii. GO. 

jEhcuIu$ ochroleucfi, ii. 56. 

.£bou]u8 octandra, ii. 59. 

iKsculiiB octandra, var. hybrida, ii, 60. 

^sculun octandra, var. hybruia^ xiii. 3. 

Aiaadus Ohioenai$t ii. 55. 

^sculus pallida, ii. 55. 

iEseulua Parryi, ii. 52. 

^scultis parvillors, ii. 52. 

A^sculua Pavia^ ii. 52. 

^xculuA Pavia, ii. 52. 

/Ciru/iM Pavia, discolor, xiii. 3, 

Aiaculttt Pavia, var, discolor, ii. 60. 

jf^seiilus Pundiiana, ii. 52. 

i^sciilus rtibicuDda, ii. 53. 

i^seultis turbiuata, ii. 52, 53. 

j^scidtts verrncom, ii. 55. 

^sculus WaUouiana, ii. 53. 

Agaricua adiposus, ix. 25. 

Agaricus Campnnella, x, 101. 

Agaricus saliguus, ix. 101. 

Agnriciis ulinariiis, vii. 42. 

Agastianis, iii. 59. 

Agastiauia aeaindiJiorOf iii. 63. 

Agathimnthea, v. 73. 

Agathisanthea Javanica, v. 73. 

Agnthophyllum, vii. 0. 

Ageria, i. 103. 

Ageria Caaaena, i. 111. 

Ageria heterophylla, i. 109. 

Ageria obovala, i. lOO. 

Ageria o/mca, i. 107. 

Ageria palttatria, i. 109, 

Aglaospora profusa, iii. 38. 

Aigeiroa, ix. !52, 

Aiginia, ix. 151. 

Aka-inatsu, xi. 7. 

Alder, ix. 73, 75, 77, 70 • xiv. 01. 

Alder Blight, ix. 70. 

Alder, Soiiitide, ix. 81. 

Aiders, Kiiropean, wood of, ix. 70. 

Alditia, iii. 115. 

Aleppo Pine, xi. 9. 

Alerae, x. I'M. 

Algnrobia, iii. 90. 

Algarohia dulcia, iii. 101. 

Algnrobia glnndulosa, iii. 101 ; xiii, 15. 

Algerian Fir, xii. 100, 

Alligator Pear, vii. 2. 

Almond, the, iv. H, 9. 

Almond Willow, ix. 111. 

Alni(ind-oil, iv. 9. 

Almond-tree, Indian, v, 20. 

Almonds, Hitter, iv. 9. 

Almonds, Sweet, iv. 9. 

Alnaster, ix. (iH. 

Alna-itcr Aluoliflula, xiv. 01. 

Alriaater fnttiroaua, ix. 08 ; xiv. til. 

Aluitaltr rinV/u, ix. 08. 

Almtfu'tulii, ix. 07. 

AlnuB, ii. 67, 68 ; xiv. 104. 

Alnui acuminata, ix. 79. 

Alnus acuminata, a genuitut, ix. 70. 

AInus Alnobetuln, ix. 68. 

Alnua Alnobetula, xiv. 61. 

Alnua alpina, ix. GS. 

Ainus barbata, ix. 00. 

Alnua Jirembana, ix. 68. 

Alnua communia, ix. 60. 

Ainua criapa, ix. 68. 

Alnua denticulata, ix. 60. 

AlnuB, economic uaes of, ix. 60. 

Alnua flliptica, ix. 00. 

Alnua Februaria, ix. 69, 

Alnua fruticoaa, ix. 68. 

Alnus, fungal diaeaaes of, ix. 70. 

Alnua glauca, ix. 60. 

Alnus glutiuoaa, ix. 60 ; xiv. IM. 

Alnua glutinosa in the United StatOB, iz. 70, 

Alnua glutinoaa (vulgaris), ix. 60. 

A' 'US glutinoaa, y Sibirica, ix, 68. 

Alnus glutinosa, B aerrulala, ix. 60. 

Alnua glutinosa, var. rugosa, iz, 60. 

Alnua, hybrids of, ix. 68. 

AlnuA incana, ix. 68. 

Alnus incana, iz. 68. 

Alntta incana, a glauca, ix. 75. 

Alnua incana, B, ix. 00, 75. 

Alnua incana, ?» rubra, ix. 73. 

Alnus incana, var. glauca, ix. 60. 

Almia incana, var. virfscena, ix. 75 ; ziv. 61. 

Alnua, insect cnemiea of, ix. 70. 

Alnua Japonica, ix. 60. 

t Alnus Jorullensia, var. acuminata, iz. 70. 

Alnua lanuginosa, ix. 69. 

Alnua maritima, ix, 81. 

Alnus maritima, a typica, ix. 81. 

Alnua, medical proportiea of, ix. 09. 

Alnus Aforisiana, ix. 69. 

Alnus Nepalenais, ix. 70. 

Alnus nigra, ix. 09, 

Alnua nitida, ix. 70. 

Alnus oblongata, ix. 81. 

Alnus oblongifolia, ix. 77, 79. 

Almia occidentalui, xiv. 01. 

t Alnus oi-ciflentalis, ix. 75. 

Alnua Oregonu, ix. 73. 

Alnua ovata, ix. 08. 

Alnus pubescens, iz. 68. 

Alnua rbonibifolia, ix. 77. 

Alnua rhombifolia, ix. 75, 79. 

Alnus rolundi/olia, ix. 00. 

Alnua rubra, ix. 09, 73 ; xiv. 61. 

Alnus riigusa. ix. 09. 

Alnus srrrulata, ix. 09. 

f Alnus aerrulata, j3 rugosa, ix. 76. 

Almts senttlata, y oblongifolia, ix. 79. 

Alnus ainnota, xiv, 01. 

Alnus Sitohensifl, xiv. 61. 

Alnus tcnuifolia, ix 75 ; xiv. 104. 

Alnus tenuifhlia, xiv. 01. 

Alnus undulata, ix. 08. 

Alnua viridis,ix. 08, 75 ; xiv. 61. 

Alnus viridis, 0, xiv. 01. 

Alnus viridi.t, Sibirica, ix. 08 ; xiv. 01. 

Ahuis riridia, Sibirica, h Sitchensis, xiv. 

Ainu:* riritli.'i, 8 sinuata, xiv. 61. 
Alatotiin, vi. 13. 
Aiilonin thed/onni.'i, vi. 11. 
Attingiii Chinensis, medical u-ses of, v, 8. 
Amelaneliier, iv. 125. 
Ameltinehier alnifolia, iv. 131. 
Anielanchier Ameinnehier, iv. 125. 

AmelftDahier Asiatioa, iv. 126. 
Amelanchier Bartramiana, iv. 127. 
Ametanchier Botryapiumt iv. 127. 
Amelanchier Canadenaia, iv, 127. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, iv. 131. 
Amelanchier Canadetiaist var. alnifolia, iv. 131. 
Amelanchier Canadenaia^ var. liotryapium, iv. 

Amelanchier Canodeusia, var. Japonica, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oblongifolia, iv. 

128, 131. 
Amelanchier Canadensis, var. obovalis, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oligocarpa, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. prunifolia, iv. 

-. nelanchier Canadenaist var. pumila, iv. 131. 
Amelanchier Canadenaia, var. rotundifolia, iv. 

Amelanchier Canadensis, var. spioata, iv. 

A melanchier diveraifolia, var. alnifolia, iv. 

Amelanchier floridot iv. 131. 
Amelanchier, fungal enemies of, iv. 126. 
Amelanchier glabra, iv. 131. 
Amelanchier, insect enemies of, iv, 126. 
Amelanchier intermedia, iv. 128. 
Amelanchier oblongifolia, iv. 128. 
Amelanchier oligocarpa, iv. 126. 
Amelanchier ovalia, iv, 127, 129. 
Amelanchier oialis, rar. semiintegrifolia, iv 

Amelanchier pallida, iv. 131. 
Amelanciiier parviHora, iv. 126. 
Amelanchier pumila, iv. 131, 
Amelanchier rotundifolia, iv. 125, 120. 
Amelanchier aanguinea, iv. 126, 127. 
Amelanchier apicata, iv. 128. 
Amelanchier vulgaris, iv. 125. 
Amelanchier WangenheimianOt iv. 127. 
American Kim, vii. 45. 
Amerina, ix. 95. 

Amphibolips spongiflca, viii. 12. 
Amphisphicria Wellington ire, x. 140. 
Amphyllostietn Catalpre, vi. 84. 
Amygdalinte. ix. 06. 
Amygdalophora, iv. 7. 
Amygdalopsis, iv. 7. 
Amygdaltis, iv. 7, 8. 
Amygdalua, iv. 7. 
Amyris, i. 33. 
Amyris balsamifcra, i. 83. 
Amyris dyatripa, i. 85. 
Aniyri."* Kiemifera, xiv. 98. 
Amyris Etemifera, i. 85. 
Amyris Floridana, i. 85 ; xiv. 08. 
Amyria Hypelate, ii. 78. 
Amyris maritima, i. 83, 85 ; xiv. 08. 
Amyria maritima, xiv. 03. 
Amyria maritima, var. angustifoUa, i. 85 ; xiv, 

Amyris parvifolia, i. 83, 
Amyris Plnmicri, xiv. 08. 
Amyris sylvatica, i. 83. 
Amyris ayli'otti'a, i. 85 ; xiv. 08. 
A myria sylvatica, var. Plumieri, xiv. 98. 
Amyrifi toxifera, i. 83. 
Anacithuita, vi. 73. 
Anncahuita wood, medical properties of, vi. 

Anacabdiace.*:, iii. 1. 


' 1 



\i \ . 

Aiiumtiiiiit, V. nt. 

Anmmiiiiiit dichotuiUK, t. 32. 

AiMiiioniis esculiMiU, v. 31. 

Anammnis fhknctaUU v. 32. 

AiiH<)iiii, vi. HI. 

Aiuleruont Nili Juhiin, ii. t38. 

.■I m/roi/ynr, viil. -l. 

Aiidmgyituua Howers of INoeft, lii. 20. 

AmlntgvDous tloweni of TinuR, xi. 4. 

Aiidruiiieda, v. 1*29. 

Andtomtda, v. I'Ul. 

AniimmetUi arhorfx^s. 135. 

AntiwtMiia lirbfirpu'etia, v. 135. 

Au'lmmfdit fllifttira^ t. 13(). 

Amtroincdii fcrrtiginfiif v. 131 ; xiv. 102. 

A uiiromf^Uit^rruginni^ var. nrhorrscttiat v. 13'2. 

Andrvmrdu frrruifinen^-^KT. fmtxctisti^ v, 132. 

Aiidrumeda, fun^iil enemies of, v. 130. 

Afuiromedii gUttuopHtflla, v. 130. 

Andnnneda Miiriiuiii. v IIKV 

AiitlroiuMla ovalif '. <i. f. KU). 

Atuirtnn^'fn plum fta, ii 3. 

Andro r ifidi... v. 130. 

Andm. y:lr :30. 

.^f»rf^fm^€' v»(M(i. j . 132. 

i4 ru/romrtft. /rt, v. ISttf 

Andrnmfiia t I ^Kirtiu/iWia, »,*?>. 

AniHtila pellucida, viii. 12. 

AiiiHutH senatoria, viii. 12. 

Anisota Stigma, viii. 12. 

Aniioiia, i. 28. 

Anoiia, i. 27. 

Awma, i. 21. 

Aiiona Chfrimolia. i. 28. 

Aiiona f^Ubra, i. -9. 

Anntiit liiurif'tha, i. 29. 

Atioiia nturicatA, i. 28. 

Anona /lalitstng, i. 23. 

Auona jimdula, i. 23. 

Anoiia reticulata, i. 28. 

Anuna ftqiiaiiioAa. i. 27. 

Anonit trtliiha, i. 23. 

AXONACRJC, i. 21. 

Annnyrtos aquatu"^, vii. 01. 

AtitKfUfhima, i. 49. 

Autlu-npa Koylei, viii. 10. 

AnthiMleudrtm, v. 113. 

Anlhf**lendron jiat^im^ v. 145, 140. 

AnthomeUs, iv. 83. 

AnthifneUs (tftivalif, iv. 119. 

,ln/Artmf/rji Ifouglasii, iv. 80. 

.-|fiMi»m<'/'rjy/flt(i, iv. 113. 

Arithfunelft ylaruiidMa, iv. 113. 

JfiMtrni'"//'! nttutuii/oiiiit iv. 95. 

.^ riM"mf*/f'jt lurfnnafd, iv. 113. 

Aiithoiiomiis Crata-gi, iv. H4. 

Antliuiiomu.H qnadrigibbus, iv. It, 70. 

Antbustimia atru[iuiictata, viii. 12. 

AntliMtoma (IrpiKbiphnes, vii. 20. 

Anthiistoiiiflla bracliyMtoiiia, xii. 01. 

AiitlitiNttiini-na iii^roHiinuluta, x. 5. 

Alili«|til:* i'onnfnlirlI;i, v. (to. 

.\iiti«pila nyuut'folielU, v. 74. 

AiitV'i. v. 17."i. 

ApaU! bajiilHriti, vii. 133. 

.\|iutur)t ('cltLN. vii. tVI. 

Apatiira Clytuii, vii. 04. 

A/iHitmUy li. 07. 

.A[ilii!i Dioispyri, vi 1 

A|»lii» Vibiiriii, v. IM. 

Aptuus, xi. 1. 

Apirriphurum, iv. 07. 

ApiUin, vi. 25 

Apocarytt, vii. i;i2. 

Apple, Crab, iv. 71, 75. 
Apple Haw, iv. lit). 
Apple, KoAe, v. 41. 
Applu-tree Horvr, iv. 70. 

Apricot. tht<, iv. H, 9. 

Atpiifoliuin, i. 103. 

/tr/tji/IWium, i. lOIi, !().>. 

Aralia, v. 57. 

Aralia l^aliforiiica, v. 57. 

Ariditt aiurxrrm, v. (K). 

Amlui Chtnetuiu, v. (K). 

Aralia conlata, v. 58. 

Aralia Dfiititufitno, v. 00. 

An.lui eduhs, v. 58. 

Andui flatiit v. 00. 

Aralia hinpida, v. 58. 

Aralia biimiliii. v. ')7. 

Aralia hypoleuea, v. 58. 

Anjlin I.fnnvm, v. tKK 

AntUa Mandshurtca, v. QO. 

Anilia iiiidicaiiUs, r. 58. 

Aniliii /'/(inrAd'iiana, v. (M). 

Aralia quiiujue folia, v. 58. 

Aralia raeemoaa, v. 58. 

Aralui raceitukin, v. 57. 

Artilia raifmona, var. occidentalis, v. 57. 

Aralia itpiiiosa, v. 59. 

/Ir(i/«i npitiiua, V. 00. 

Anilia npiuosii, $, v, 59. 

A ntiiti .«;»iN(W(i, var. rdnMrerw, v. 60. 

Aralia spinoaa, var. Cbineiisis, v. 00. 

Aralia vpinoaa, rar. elata, v. (K). 

Aritliaiptnfi.fn, var. ylahreiCftu, v. 00. 

Akai.ia( t.K, V. 57. 

Arlxil dt> llierro, iii. 49. 

Arlwr VitH", x. 120. 

Arbor-vitu', .lapaneAe, x. 124. 

ArbiituB, v. 121. 

Arbiitiis Andntclinc. v. 122 ; xiv. 102. 

Arliiitiis Andnu'hne, fruit of, v. 121. 

Arbutus Arizoiiica, v. 127. 

Arf/utus intfffri/iiliatV. 122. 

Arhitus laun/i)iia, v. 123, 125. 

.' Arhutw macruphi/Utt, v. 125. 

Arbutui) Mt-nzieitii, v. 123. 

Arhutia .>/mr«iii, v. 125, 127. 

Arfiutux tmtllii, ?. 125. 

f Arhutus ohtujiij'oiius, v. 119. 

Arfmtfis priKfra, v. 12i(. 

ArhulttA pnmi/olia, v. 125. 

Arbiittis iterrntifuiia, v. 122. 

Arhul'i* VVjuJirt, v. 125. 

Arbutus l.'iiedo, v. 121. 

Arbutus I'lit'do, fruit of, v. 121. 

ArhutuM (virian.*, v. 125. 

ArbufiiA Xalapensin, v. 125. 

Arftutu.i Aolfip^ruLs, v. 127- 

Arhittm A'fi/a/wTMw, var. .Inznriioi, v. 127. 

Arbutut Xaiap^nsis, var. Trrana, v. 125. 

AriruthfiSt X. 09. 

.trrvxMfw dmpticea, x. 72. 

A rrexUhus dnt/mrm, var. a arrriun, i. 72. 

Arcnilhitf dniftaceat var. H <>/*/(« iwcti/a, x. 72. 

Ardisin, V. l.'il. 

Ard Litfi Puirrinifia, v. 153. 

,-lrrr(j idrrncrn^ x. 30. 

Argpiitpv, ix. 90. 

Argonpn, ix. tfc'». 

Argyll. Dukfof, i. 108. 

Argyrt'stliia fuprcHm-lla, x. 100. 

ArhnpiituH fuliiiiuuiis, ix. 10, 

Aria. iv. liT, ftH. 

Ariit, iv. 07. 

Armeniaoji, iv. 7, 8. 

Armmaica, iv. 7. 

Arnold, Jamen, xiii. lOt. 

Aronia, iv. 07,08. 

Artmia, iv. 07, 125. 

AroTiia alni/olia, iv. 131. 

/trrmtii arhoffa, iv. 127. 

/inmiu arhidifidia, iv. 123. 

/IrimiVi .1 iiiVirird, iv. 120. 

Aronia }Uttryapium, iv. 127. 

Arimia mrdala, iv. 127. 

/ln"it(i fji-fi/iji, iv. 128, 129. 

Arouia mitttid'/olia, iv. 125. 

Arrow-woiNl, ii. 12. 

Arthrit.ipnim, iii. 115. 

Aitarara, iii. 73. 

Awcara fH/uuftWi, iii. 79. 

A^affraa, iii. lUt. 

X^iir/nrd jiyiiwisci, iii. 35. 

Aaeiuuni iiiwHtuni, xi. 11. 

Aih, vi. 29, ;i;», 39, 41, 5;», 57 ; xiv. 33, 37. 

Aah, Hlaok, vi. 37. 

Alb, iniie. vi. :r>. 

AHb, Kringe-Howpred, vi. 31. 

Ash, MounUin, iv. 00, 79, 81; vi. 47. 

A»b, I'unipkin, xiv. 35. 

Ash, lied, vi. 49. 

Asb, Swamp, vi. 55. 

Aah, Water, vi. 5.") ; xiv. 39. 

Ash, White, vi. 13. 

Ash-leaved Maple, ii. 111. 

Asbe, William Willard, xiii. 149. 

Asimina, i. 21. 

A-timiua angustifolia. i. 22. 

Asimina camftanifiora, i. 23. 

A imiua cuneata. i. 22. 

Asimina grandiOora, i. 21, 22. 

Asiniiu.i ]>arviriora, i. 21, 22. 

Asimiua pygmna, i. 21, 22. 

Asimina triloba, i. 21, 22, 23 ; xir. 07. 

Asimine, i. 24. 

Asiminier, i. 22, 

Asp, Cjuuking, ix. 158. 

Afti>en, ix. ir>5, 158. 

Aspidiotus Abietia, xii, 0!. 

Aspidiotus JuglandiH, vii. 110. 

Aspidiotus rapax, vii. 20. 

Aspidifca diospyriella, vi. 4. 

Aiipidisca jnglandiella. vii. 110. 

Aspidisca ostryiefuliella, ix. 32. 

Asterina uuda, xii. 101. 

Athrtftaxif, x. 139. 

AtbysanuH variabilis, ix. 48. 

Attacus Promelbea, vi. 20 ; vii. 15 ; x. 124. 

AurufMtria, iv. 07. 

Au.'ftrHlfS, xi. 4. 

Auiitralian Illack-wood, iii. 110. 

AuHtratian I^idybinl Ht'ttlc, vii. 20. 

Auatrnliaii Myrtle, ix. 23. 

Austrian I'im*, xi. 0. 

Avieenna, vi. 100. 

Avicennia. vi. HC». 

Avieennia Afrii-una, vi. 10.'>. 100. 

Avi*'eunta alim, vi. 100. 

Avicennia, economic usert of, vi. 100. 

Avirennia elliptira, vi. |(HJ, 

Artrrnnia Flfridaun, vi. 107. 

Avirruma ttiU-nnedia, vi, 100. 

Anreriuni jAVnarkinua, vi. 100. 

Avicetium .\ftyn-i, \i. 107. 

Avicennia iiitidit, \i. 107. 

Aviceniiia obloii^ifoliji, vi. 107. 

Avu-enniii uniiiimli.t, vi. 10."), 100. 

Avirennia uj/itinalui, var. ailm, vi. 100. 

Avictfmia resini/ero^ vi. 100. 


57 ; liv. 33, 37. 

Aviremia lomentota, tI. 108, 106, 107. 

AtocuIo I'car, vii. 2. 

Ajlmisria, zi, 3U, 

Azalea, v. 144. 

Azalfo, V. 143. 

Azalea arhitreiicent, r. 146. 

AzaUa hiroior, v. 140. 

AztilfH cttleniluiacfu, v. 146. 

AzaUa canescena, v. 140. 

Azalea /rngraiu, v. 146. 

Azalea Imtiea, v. 14tl. 

Azalea Japonica^ v. 146. 

Azalea Lappimim, v. 144. 

1 Azalea liitea, v. 140. 

Azalea nwllii, v. 140. 

Azalea mttlijlom, \. 140. 

Azalea occidenlalu, v. 140. 

AzaUa pericltimeuoiden, v. 140. 

Azalea t*fmtifa, v. 145. 

Azalea I'onlica, var. Sintmit, T. 146. 

Azalea Sinentit, t. 146. 

Azalea vitcota, v. 146. 

Azaleas, Ghcut, v. 146. 

Aialeaa, Ir.dian, v. 146. 

Azaleastrum, v. 144. 

Azarolutt, iv. 67. 

Badamia, t. 19. 

Bag-worm, i. 73. 

Bailejr, Liberty Hyde, ir. 24. 

BaUnitiuB caryatrypes, ix. 10. 

BalaiiiiMis naaicus, vii. 134 ; viii. 12. 

BRlaniiiiis Qiiercus, viii. 12. 

Balaniniia rectus, vii. 134 ; ix. 10. 

Ualaiiiuus uniformis, viii. 12. 

Balata, v. 182. 

llalata-giim, v. 182. 

Bald Cypress, z. 151. 

Bald Cypress, Mczican, i. 150. 

Balfour, John Hutton, xi. 60. 

Balfourodendron, li. 60. 

BaliD, cupalm, v. 8. 

Balm of Kir, zii. 100. 

Balm of Gilead Fir, zii. 107. 

Balsam, iz. 167. 

Balsam, Canada, zii. 109. 

Balsam, Carpathian, zi. 10. 

Balsam Cottonwood, ii. 175. 

Balsam Fir, xii. 105, 10'', Ua 

liaUamea, zii. 07. 

Banister, .John, i. 6. 

Barharina^ vi. 13. 

Baretta, i. 81. 

Barney, Eliam Eliakim, vi. 90. 

Barratt, Joseph, ziv. 04. 

Bartram, John, i. 8, 

Bartram, William, i. 10. 

Basket Oak, viii. 07. 

Basswuod, i. >')2. 

Bastard Cedar, x. 136. 

Batinlendron, v. 115. 

BattMlentlroii, v. 115. 

liatoilenilrim arboreum^ v. 119. 

Hay, i. 41. 

Kay, Red, vii. 4. 

Bay, Hose, v. 148, 

Hay shillings, xi. 20. 

Bay, Svamp, vii. 7. 

Bayonet, Spanish, x. 6, 9. 

Bay-tree, vii. 21. 

Beiidlo, Chnuneey Delos, ziii. GO. 

Beam-tree, White, iv. 60. 

Bean, Coral, iii. 03. 

Bean, Moroe, iii. 89. 


Bean, Indian, vi. 80 

Bean, Screw, iii. 107. 

Boarberry, ii. 37. 

Bear Gross, z. 4. 

Bear Oak, viii. 155. 

Boar-woo<l, ii. 38. 

Beaufort, Diiohess of, ix. 1£ 

lleaufortia, ix. 10. 

Ik'aver-trce, i. 0. 

Behb, Michael Kohuck, ix, 1,12. 

Bedford .lunipcr, i. OU ; ziv. 00. 

Bedford Willow, ix. 09. 

Beech, ix. 27. 

Beech, Blue, iz. 42. 

Beech, Bull, ix, 23. 

Beech, Copper, ix. 24. 

Beech, Cut'leavcd, ix. 24. 

Beech, Evergreen, ix. 23. 

Beech, Fern-leaved, ix. 24. 

Beech, Japanese, ix. 22. 

Beech, New Zealand Black, ix. 23. 

Beech, New Zealand Silver, ix. 23. 

Beech, Purple, iz. 24. 

Beech, Red, ix. 23. 

Beech, Water, vii. 103. 

Beech, Weeping, ix. 24. 

Beech- nuts, poisonous properties of, iz. 23. 

Beech-oil, ix. 24 

Beech-tar, ix. V 

Beef Woo<l, vi. .1. 

Beer, Spruce, zii >il. 

Bee-tree, i. 51 ')7. 

Belerio myrot . ' i\ -, v. JO. 

Belluccia, i, 75. 

Bembecia Sequoiie, z. 140 ; zi. 11. 

lienlhamia, v. 6E 

Benlhamia fragi a, v. 64. 

Benthaw'i Japonica, v. 64. 

Benlho) i, v. 63. 

Benthan JloridGf v. 06. 

Berberina, i. 00. 

Berlandier, Jean Louis, i, 82. 

Berry, Miraculous, v. 104. 

Beasera, vi. 109. 

Bessera xpinota, vii. 27. 

Betula, ix. 45. 

Belula, ix, 07. 

Betula acuminata, ix. 46, 56. 

Betula Alaskana, xiv. 69. 

Botula alba, ix. 47, 

Belula alba, ix, 47. 

Betula alba, economic properties of, iz. 47. 

Betula alba in ,Japan, ix. 48. 

Betula alba odorata, ix. 47. 

Belula alba, u milgara, ix. 47. 

Belula tdbtt, B populi/olia, ix, 56. 

Btlula alba, f papyri/era, ix. 57. 

Betula alba, subspeo. 5 occidenlalis, a typica, 

ix, 06. 
Betula alba, subspeo. 5 occidenlalu, x typica, 

xiv, 57. 
Belula allia, subspec. 5, /3 commulata, iz. 57. 
Betula alba, subspec, rurdi/oUa, xiv, 55. 
Betula alba, subspec, 0, a communui, ix. 57. 
Betula allxi, siibspec. 0, cordifolia, ix, 57, 
Belula alba, subspec, populi/olia, ix. 55, 
Betula alba, subspec, pubcsccns, ix. 47. 
Betula alba, subspec. vemtcosa, a vulgaris, ix. 

Belula alba, subspec, vermcota, var. retinifera, 

xiv, 09. 
Betula alba, var, popuhfulia, ix. 57. 
Betula Mmibetula, il. ('.8, 
Betula alnuides, ix. 40. 


Bthda Alma (rugoiia), iz. 00. 

Betula Alnu$, glutiuo$Q^ ix. 00. 

Betula Almm, iucana, ix. 00. 

Betula-Alnwi g!auca, iz. 00. 

Betula-Alnus maritima, ix. 81, 

Betula- A Inwi nUtrfit ix. 00. 

Betula airpini/olia, ix. 50. 

Betula cordifolia, ix. 57 ; liv. 65. 

Betula crixpa, iz. 68. 

Bfltila cyiindr '^f'*'\i/St iz. 40. 

betiilu, oconou "operties of, iz. 48. 

Betula Krniaiii, . 48. 

Betula Krmai ' -x 57. 

Betula excelsu, » 511, 57. 

Betula exceUa CtinadensiSf iz. 55. 

Betula fontinalii, ziv. 58. 

Betula, fungal (liscHses of, iz. 40. 

Betula f^landuloaa, iz. 47. 

Betula ylulinosn, ix. 47, 00 ; xiv. 101. 

Betula Orayi, ix. 40. 

Betula hyhrida, iz. 40. 

Betula, iiybri(U uf, ix. 40. 

Betula incana, iz. OU. 

Betula, insect enemies of, ix. 48. 

Betula intermedia^ ix. 40. 

Betula Kenaica, xiv, 53. 

Betula lanulosa, iz. 01. 

Betula lenta, ix. 50 ; xiv. 101 

Betula leutat ix. 55, 57. 

Betula lenta, a genuina, ix. 53. 

Betula lenta, lutea, ix. 53. 

Bettda Littelliana, ix. 47. 

BetiUa lutea, ix. 53. 

Betula Maximowicziana, ix. 48. 

Betula Mazimowiczii, ix. 48. 

Betula, medical properties of, ix. 48. 

Betula miorophylla, xiv. 58. 

Betula nana, ix. 45, 47. 

Betula nana, ix. 47. 

Betula nana, inflorescence of, ix. 45. 

Betula nana, var. flabellifolia, ix, 47. 

Betula nana x ptibescens, ix. 48. 

Betula nigra, ix. 01. 

Betula nigra, ix. 50. 

Betula uccidentalJs, ix. 05 ; xiv. 57. 

Betula occidentalii, ix, 57 ; xiv. 58. 

Betula odorata, ix. "% .'. 

Betula odorata, vnr, tortuosa, xiv. 55. 

Betula ovata, ix. 08. 

Betula papyracea, ix. 57. 

Betula papyracea, a cordifolia, ix. 57. 

Betula papyracea, minor, ix. 57. 

Betula papyracea, occidentalis, ix. 57. 

Betula papyracea, X cordifolia, xiv. 55 

Betula papyiifera, ix. 57 ; xiv. 104. 

Betula papyrifera, xiv. 57. 

Betula papyrifera, minor, xiv. 55. 

Betula papyrifera, var. cordifolia, xiv. 55. 

Betula papyrifera, var minor, ix. 57. 

Betula papyrifera, var. minor, xiv. 55. 

Betula populifolia, ix. ^. 

Betula pubescenn, ix. 47. 

Betula puniila, ix. 45, 40. 

Betula pumiUi, ix. 47. 

Betula pumila, intlorescence of, ix. 45. 

Betula pumila x lonta, ix. 40. 

Betula resinifera, xiv. 59. 

Betula rhomhifolia, xiv. 58. 

Betula rtd>ra, ix. 01. 

Betula serrulata, ix, 09. 

Betula torfacea, ix. 47. 

Betula riridis, ix. 08. 

Bkti'i.ack,*:, ix. 45 ; xiv, 53. 

Betulastor, ix. 40. 







lietuUuier, ii. 40. 
lietiilin, ii. 47. 
lirurrena, vi. 7A. 
iiewick, IteiiJAiiiin, i. 49« 

lUiuUii I'iiit', xl 0. 

llig Hud Ilickor>. vii. 101. 

lligShvlltMrk. vii. 167. 

Hig VtTv, %. n.v 

Hi^Krrvftu CtivrriM, ir. 0. 

Itigf low, John Milton, i H8. 

iUggina, ix. 1>5. 

lUgttoniit CaUiipn, vi. M, HO. 

Jii^tonut /ifinirM, vi. IC». 

lUgnomn langunima^ vi. t^. 

Big^umui QuercMM, vi. 84. 


Ifillwrript, v. 110. 

/i.i/ia. li :.i. 

Rillui Citiumfnana, ii. 52. 

Billiii HtypocnMianumt ii< 52. 

UiUUul. V. 10. 

liineclaria, v. 181. 

Biographii'al Notei. 

Aiulenuun, Nils Juhan, ix. 138. 

Argyll. Ditke uf, i. U)8. 

Arnold, James, xiii. 1(>4. 

Ashe, WiUiain Willard, xiii. 110. 

lUili'V. l.ilMTty ll\di>, iv. *Jt. 

Halfoiir, Julin HuttoD, xi. (H). 

Hauister, .lohn, i <»■ 

HnrnpY, F.liniii Kliakim, vi. \fO. 

Itnrratt, Jiwupl), xiv. tVt. 

Hartrau), Jidiii, i. 8. 

iUrlrani, WiUiam, i. U\. 

IWatilis t'haumov iVlos. xiii. 00. 

Ik'aufurt, OiK'heM of, ix. \\i. 

Debit, Michael Sihuck, ix. 132. 

Iterlnndifr, Jean Loui.%, i. H2. 

Hewick, lienjomin. i. VJ. 

Bigeloir, John Milton, i. 88. 

Bligh. WilUani. ii. IK. 

Hlmlgett, John I^oiuU, i. 33. 

tiuiitticr, Pierre-Kdmoiid, vi. 74. 

Buynton, Krank KIlis, xiii. 00. 

Brainerd, Kzra, xiii. 11-- 

Brewer, William ileiiry, vtii. 28. 

Brown, KoU-rt, viii. 02. 

Buckley, Samuel BoUfonl, iii. 3. 

Burke, Joseph, ix. 4. 

Burter, Joachim, i. 95. 

Bn«b, Benjamin Franklin, vii. 110. 

Cabanin, Jean, xiv. 30. 

Campbell, Ari-liibald. i. 108. 

Cnnby. William Mariott, xiii. 41. 

Cap*i, Mary. ix. 10. 

Carey, John. i. 115. 

Carpenter, William M., iv. 93. 

C«te»by, Mark. vt. 10. 

CeU, .lar()ui-n Martin, ii. 4. 

Chapn).4n, Alvan Wentworth. vii. 110. 

Chahe, VirBuiius IlelMT, xiii. 10. 

Chouteau, V. 1... vii. 80. 

Ciritlo. l)ouieni<'n, ii. 2. 

Clayton, John, i 8. 

Clifton, Francitt, ii. 5. 

Colden, Cadwalluder, i. GO. 

Coltinson, iVter, i. 8. 

Compton. Henry, i. 0. 

Condal, Antunio, li. 23, 

Cooper, J. (;.. i. :w). 

CorduH, ValeniR, vi. 09. 

Coulter. ThoniaJi, iii. 84. 

Coville, Frederirk Vernon, xiv. 67. 

Crewenzi, I*iftn> de', ^i. 08. 

Croom, Hardy B., x. 58. 

Curtiu, Allen Hiram, ii. fiO. 

Dale, Samuel, iii. 34. 

I>»n|{lai, David, ii. 94. 

Douglas, Hobert, vi. IK). 

Dnimniund, Thuman, ii. 20. 

D'inbar, John, xiii, 121. 

Dunbar, William, vii. m. 

Dii I'ont do Wemoura, El«iithtre-Irene, 

ix. 0. 
Kggvrt, Heinrich Karl Daniel, xiii. fil. 
Khret, (ti>org Dionyiiii, vi. 80. 
Klliott, Stephen, xi. 159. 
KIlii, .fobn, i. 40. 
Kllwaiiger, (leurge. xiii. 100. 
Kniory, William Heiiuley, iv. 00. 
Kngelmann, (ieurge, viii. 81. 
K?(chr('holt/, tlohann Fricdrich, ii. 39. 
Kvaus. Walter HarriMon. xiv. .'kI. 
F.ytenhanlt, Karl Wilhelm, iii. 30. 
Fairi'hild. Thomaa, v. OH. 
FHrnese, Odoardo, iii. 121. 
Fendler, August, xii. 123. 
Foihergtll, •lohn, vi. 10. 
FrajH'r. tlohn, i. 8. 
(iandwi. William, viii. Xi. 
(tarber, Abraham PaAral, i. 05. 
(iarden, Aleiander, i. 40. 
(iiblM's, LewiA Keeve, xii. 70. 
(iledititch, .loUann (tottlieb, iii. 74. 
(fordon, James, i. 10. 
(towen. James llo)M>rt, x. 108. 
(Jray, Christopher, iv. 70. 
Greene, KMwartl lA'ft viii. 84. 
(iregg, Jusiah. iii. I'JO ; vi. .'13. 
(irisebach, Heinrich Uudolph Auguittii* 13. 
Guess, George, x. 140. 
(tuettjinl, Jean Ktienuo, r. 112. 
Harbison, ThomnH Grant, xiii. 152. 
Hartweg, Karl ThetKlor, ii. 31. 
Havard, Vali^ry. i. 81. 
lli^lic, Loui<t r)i(<<Mlore, i. 79. 
Hill, KlUwurth Jerome, xiii. 99. 
Hinds, Hichard Brini^ley, ii. 14. 
Holm«!(. Jo.seph Austin, xiii. 1-0. 
Howell, Tbonms, xii. 52. 
Jack. John George, xiii. 105. 
Jacipiin. Nicttlaus J'jMpb, v. 15Si 
Jaiues, Kdwin, ii. 90. 
Jeffrey, John, xi. 41. 
Jones, Beatrix, xiii. 1.30. 
Kalm, Peter, ii. 80. 
K.irwinsky. Wilhelm Freiherr, i. M. 
Kellogg, Alliert, viii. 120. 
Kennedy, Louis, iv. 10. 
Knowlton, Frank Halt, ix. 38. 
Kueberlin, C. L., i. 03. 
Lambi'rt. Aylmer Bourke, xi. 30. 
I*andn-tb, David, vii. 87. 
LawHon, Charles, x. 120. 
I^eavrnworth, Meltins C, iii. 00. 
L*' Cunte, John Katttm, xiv. 41. 
l>ee, James, iv. 10. 
I.*ee & Kennedy, iv. 10. 
I>>minonier, I.ouin (tuillaume, tit. 40. 
Ijv I'age ilu Vntt/-, v. 17. 
Ix'tternian, George Wa»hington, xiii. 79. 
Lindheimer, Ferdinand, i. 74. 
Little. Henry, xiv. t>4. 
Ix*bb, William, x. (><). 
Lowrie, Jmiathan Uobcrtf, iv. 28. 
I.yall. David, xii. 10. 
Lyon, John, v. 80. 
Lyon, William Scnigham, iv. 133. 
Macfadyen, James, ii. 73. 
Mackenzie, Alexander, xii. 75. 

MftoMahon, Bernard, vii. 86. 

MacNab, James, x. 110. 

Maguol, Pierre, i. 2. 

Marggraf, (ieorg, v. 24. 

Marshall, Humphrey, viii. 39. 

Marshall, Moses, i. 4tl. 

Maximilian, Alexander Philipp, IViuz tod 

Neuwied, ix. 138. 
Mnehan, Thomas, ix. 82. 
Melliclmmp, Joseph Hinson, viii. 144> 
Menzies, Archibald, ii 0I>. 
Mertens, Karl Heinrich, xii. 80. 
Michaux, Andn<, i. 58. 
Michaux, Frnni^itis Andr^, xi. 15fi. 
Miller, Pliiiip, i. ,'I8, 
Mohr, Charles, iv. 1N> ; xiii. 'J5. 
MuehlenlM^rg, Gotthilf Heinrich, ii. GO. 
Murray, Andrew, xi. 03. 
N'iU<, I.<ouis. viii. 25. 
NewlK'rry, John Strong, vi. 39. 
Nuttall. rhomas. ii. .'M. 
Olney, Stephen Thayer, iii. 47. 
Palmer, Kdwanl, viii. 100. 
Parkinson, John, iii. 10. 
I'arry, Charles Christ"phcr, vii. 130. 
Patterson, Harry N< [|, iv. 2-1. 
Petre, BoU'rt James, Lord, i. 8. 
Pinckney, Charles Coteswurth. v. 108. 
Pi|>er, Charleh N'aneouver, ix. 146. 
Piso, Willcm. vi. 110. 
Planer. Joliann .lakob, vii. 00. 
Plunk, Klisha Newton, xiii. 13. 
PoiCeau. Alexandre, ii. 75. 
Porter. Thomas Coiirad, iv. 28. 
Pratz, Le Page du, v. 17. 
Pringle, Cyrus Guernsey, ix. 129. 
Purah, Frederick, ii. 117; xiv. 100. 
liavenel, Henry William, viii 100. 
Heasoner, Pliny Ward, xiv. 77. 
lit^verchun, .liilien. xiii. 175. 
Iteynoso, Aivaro, ii. 19. 
U<d)in, Jean, iii. 38. 
Bobin, VeH|»ajiien, iii. 38. 
Uonians, Bernard, iv. 5. 
UothriH'k, Joseph Trimble, viii. 92. 
Bugid, Ferdinand, ix. 110. 
Hydberg. Per Axel, xiv. 09. 
Sabine. Joseph, xi. 97. 
Sadler, .lohn, viii. 02. 
Sehaeffer, .hikob Christian, ii. 15. 
Schott, .\rlhur Carl \'ictur, x. 18. 
Scolder, John. ix. 0«i. 
Sequoyah, x. 140. 
Sherard. James, i. 77. 
Sieber, Franz Wilhelm, v. 184. 
Small, John Kunkel, xiii. 21. 
Swartz, Olof. v. 44. 
Swieten. Gerard von, i. 99. 
Thomas, David, vii. 18. 
Thurber. (ieorge, iii. 30. 
Torrey, John, xi. 72. 
Toumey, James William, viii. 93. 
Tradescant. .lohn. i. 2<>. 
Tra^k. Luella Btanrhe, xiii. 29. 
Tr<*<'ul, AuguNte Adoiph Lucien, x. 10. 
VabI, Martin, v, 'Xi. 
Vail. Anna Murray, xiii. 15^1. 
Vauquelin, Louis Nicolas, iv. 57. 
Ventenat, Ktienne Pierre, i. 58. 
Widter, Tluinias, xi. 132. 
Wanl, l^'ster Frank, ix. 108. 
Warder. John Aston, vi. 90. 
Ware, Nathaniel A., i. 8(J. 
Wataon, Sereno, vii. 108. 



WUliiflDui, Friedrich Adolf, y\. 04. 

WixnUioum, Samuel WiuhiDgtoa, vUi. 88. 

Wright. Charlei, i, t>ft. 
ItioU, I. 124. 
Ilioin, I. J23. 
liiatn M«ld«n$ut, x. 70. 
liiotn orirnlttiui, i. 124. 
liutfii iirienlttlu, & pendula, x. 124. 
liioUi orientdlin fili/urmin, x. 124. 
tttotn pentiida, x. 124. 
liircli, xiv. r>7. 

hjri'h. Hlaok, ix. fiO, Ofi ; liv. 53. 
Itjn-li, (juiiH!, ix. 67 ; xiv. Co. 
liirt'h, CluTry, ix, 50. 
Uircl), FrHj^rmit, ix. 47. 
Birch, Gray, ix. 53, 55. 
Diri'li, Mahogany, ix. 52. 
Birch, Mour, ix. 17. 
Itirch, Old Field, ix. 50. 
ilirch, Paper, ix. 57. 
Hirch, Red, ix. Gl ; xiv. 53. 
Birch, Uivcr, ix. (tl. 
Birch, Sweet, ix. 52. 
Birch, White, ix. 47, 55 ; xiv. 59. 
Birch wine, ix. 47. 
Birch, YeHow, ix. 53. 
Birch-bark utiioea, ix. 59. 
Birch-hark oil, ix, 47. 
Birch-ui), iimniifacture of, in the United 

Statex, ix. 51. 
Birchun ill China, ix. 48. 
Birches ill Japan, ix. 48. 
Birtl Dhcrry, iv, 3*>. 
Bitter Hark, ii. 38. 
Bitter Pecan, vii. 149 ; xiv. 43. 
Bittcrnut, vii. 141. 
Black Ash, vi. 37. 
Black Birch, ix. 50, r>5 ; xiv. 53. 
Black Calabash, vi. IK). 
Black Cottonwood, ix. KKt, 175. 
Black Cyprc'SB, x. 153, 154. 
Black (ium, v. 77. 
Black Haw, v. 99; xiv. 23. 
Black Hickory, vii. 103, 107. 
Black Iron-wo<Kl, ii. 29. 
Black Jack. viii. 145, 101. 
Black Jack, Furk-leaved, viii. 145. 
Black Knot, ir. 12. 
Black Locust, iii. 77. 
Black Manj^rovn, vi. 107. 
Black Maple, xiii. 9. 
Black Mulberry, vii. 77. 
Black Oak, viii. 103, 137, 141. 
Black Olive Tree, v. 21. 
Black IVrsimnion, vi. 11. 
Black Pint" of Japan, xi. 7. 
Black Plum-tree, v. 41. 
Black Slots iv. 33. 
Black Spruce, xii. 28. 
Black Tree, vi. 108. 
Black Walnut, vii. 121. 
Black Willow, ix. 103, 107, 113, 115, 141, 
Black Wowl, vi. 108, 
lilackburnia, i, 05. 
Blacknian IMuin, iv. 24. 
Blackthorn, iv. 10. 
Blackthr)rn canes, iv. 11, 
Btack-woud, Australian, iii. 110. 
/iladhia, V. 151. 
HUldh'm /KitiirulaUt, v. 153. 
Blu»to|)lia^a jjrossorum, \ii. 03. 
Blepharida rhuis, iii. 10. 
Btif^h, William, ii. 18. 
Ulighia, ii. 18. 

Blight, Alder, ix. 70. 

Blodgeit, John Looml«. \. 33. 

Blolly, i. 42; vi. HI. 

Blue Ash, vi. 35. 

Blue Beech, ix. 42. 

Blue Ja(!k. viii. 171. 

Blue Myrtle, ii. 43. 

Blue Oak. viii. 79. 

Blue Spruce, xii. 47. 

Blue-wood, ii. 25. 

Blueberries, v. 110, 

Blueberry, High-bush, v. 117. 

Blytridium signatum, xii. 01 

liuhu, vi. 13. 

liitbua, vi. 13, 

Bogus Yucca Moth, x. 3. 

Bois de St. Lucio, iv. 11. 

Bois Fid6lo, vi. 101. 

Boissier, Pierre-Kdmond| vi. 74* 

Boissiera, vi. 74. 

BoneiUa, v. 155. 

Bontin, vi. 105. 

liontia t/enninitni, vl. 106. 

iiortUia, vi. 07. 

Borer, Apple-tree, iv. 70. 

Borer, Flat headed, iv. 70 ; viii. 11. 

Borers. Oak, viii. 11. 

BoRKAOINACK.K, vi. 07. 

Botryospha^ria (fleditschiic, iii. 74. 

Botryosplueria Persimmons, vi. 4. 

Botrytis cinerca, xii. 84. 

Botrytis Douglasii, xii. S-l. 

Bottom Shellbark, vii. 157. 

Bourreria, vi. 75. 

Bourrfrui glabra^ vi. 08, 

Bourreria Havanenais, vi. 77. 

Bourreria lluvancnsis, vnr. radula, vi. 77. 

Bourreria ovata^ vi. 77. 

Bourreria rmlida, vi. 77. 

Bourreria rerurra, vi. 77, 78. 

Bourreria tomenUmi, y Kavanensist vi. 77. 

Bourreria virgata, vi. 77. 

Bow Wood, vii, 89. 

Box Elder, ii. 111. 

Box-wood, ii. 17. 

Boynton, Frank Ellis, xiii. 60. 

Bracteatcrt, xii. 97. 

Brahea duicin (?). «■ 47. 

Brithea nemdata, xiv. 70. 

BrainenI, Ezm. xiii. 112. 

Bread from bark uf Hemlock, xi. 93. 

Bread from bark of Pinus contorta, xi. 93. 

Brewer, William Henry, viii. 28. 

Itrcwerina, viii. 28. 

Briani;oii manna, xii. 4. 

Brittle Thatch, x. 53 ; xiv. 87. 

Broad-lfaved Maple, ii. 89, 

Bruad-nut, (iloucester, xiv. 103. 

Broom Hickory, vii. 107. 

Brnusmnetia, iii. 59. 

Broitjisonetia seruudijlorn, iii. 03. 

Broussonetia tindoriat vii. 89, 

Brown Hickory, vii. 107. 

Brown, Robert, viii. 02. 

Bruchus desertorum, iii. 100. 

Bruchus prosopis, iii. 100. 

Brushes, Palmetto, x. 41. 

Bucculatrix thuicUa, x. 124. 

Bucida, v. 19. 

Burida ntigusti/olia, V. 21. 

Bui'iila Bucera.i, v. 21, 29. 

Bucida Bureras, var. (ingusti/olia, v. 21. 

Buckeye, ii. 01 ; xiii. 3. 

Buckley, Samuel Botsford, iii. 3. 

Buckleyi, iii. 4. 

Buukthorn, v. 173. 

Buckwheat-tree. 11. 7. 

Bull Bay. i. .3. 

Bull Beech, ix. 23. 

Bull Nut, vii. 103. 

Bull Pine, xi. 77, 05, 140. 

Bullock's heart, i. 28. 

Bully Tree, v. 182. 

Bum W(hm1, iii. 14. 

Bumelia, v, 107. 

Bimelia, v. 177, 

Bumelia angustifoUa^ v. 175. 

Bumelia arnihnoidea, v. 171. 

Bumelia arhorea, v. 171. 

Bumelia vhrtjmphyUoideit, v. 109. 

Bumelia aitmUa, v. 175. 

Bumelia dulrijicot v. 104. 

Bumelia ferruf/inea, v, 171. 

Bumelia fiKtidisMimn, v. 105. 

Bumelia lanuginosa, v. 171 ; xiv. 102. 

Bumelia lanuginoNa. var. rigida. v. 172. 

Bumelia lycioides, v, 173. 

Bumelia lycioide», var. reclitiata, v. 108. 

Bumelia Mafttichodendron^ v. 105. 

f Bumelia otdongifolia^ v. 171. 

Bumelia pallida, v. 105. 

Bumelia parvi/olia, v. 175. 

Bumelia reclinata, v. 108. 

Bumelia rerlimUa, v. 175. 

Bumelia mlivi/nlia, v, 105, 179. 

Bumelia serrata, iv. 49. 

Bumelia spinosa, v. 172. 

Iluinelia toiiax, v. 109. 

Bumelia lomeutosat v. 171. 

Bur Oak, viii. 43. 

Burgundy pitch, xii. 23. 

Burke. Joseph, ix. 4. 

Burkea, ix. 4. 

Burless Chestnut, ix. 14. 

Burning Bush, ii. 11. 

Hurser, Joachim, i. 95. 

Bursera, i. 05. 

Bursera (/ummi/era, i. 97. 

Bursera Siinaruba, i. 97. 

BURSKKACE.K, i. 95, 

Buflli. Bunjauiin Franklin, vii. 110. 
Bush. Mutton, xiv. 20. 
Bustic, V. 179. 
Butternut, vii. 118. 
Button Bush, xiv, 20. 
Button-ball tree, vii. 103. 
Buttonwoml, v. 24 ; vii. 102. 
Buttonwood, White, v. 29. 

Cabanis, Jean, xiv. 39. 
Cabbage Palm, x. 30. 
Cabbage Palmetto, x. 41. 
Cabbage Tree, x. 41. 
Cactace.*:, v. 51 ; xiv. 9. 
Cactus Bonphindiif xiv, 12. 
Cactus cochr> ''Vir, xiv. 11. 
Cactu!^ Ddleiiii, xiv. 13. 
Cactus Ficus-Indica, xiv. 12. 
Cactus heiaffonus, v. 52. 
Cactus ludicus, xiv. 13. 
Cactus nana, xiv. 12, 
Cactus Opuntia, xiv. 12. 
Cactus Opuntia inermis, xiv. 12. 
Cactus Opuntia Tuna, xiv. 12. 
Cactus Opuntia vulgaris, xiv. 12, 
Cactus Peruvianus, v. 52. 
Cactus Tuna, xiv. 12. 
Cadamba, v. HI. 

! 1 






Cadamha ja$min\fiorat t. \Vi. 

Cwlilu Cbi«( i'lum, iv. *iO. 

TuU, huilc ilv. I. 7'J- 

Cvutuft Abicti»-(*ftnA<leiitii, lii. 01. 

CwumA Abietm-iwctinaUp, lii. *ll. 

C'ipuiii* l^rit'i*, lii. 5. 

CttitiitOf V. lAU. 

CnmiUi pamifrrum^ v. lOOl 

('Rjitpiit, vii. *21. 

CaUbwh, llUok* vi. 00. 

CjUalMub-tn>e, vi. 07. 

('KUniAndcr wuod, vi. 3. 

Caliciupcia INnea, si. I'J. 

Cfttieu Hiuh. v HO. 

Calico \V(kk1, vi. 2*.'. 

Cftlirurnift llully. iv. 124. 

California Ijiun'l. vii. 'Jl. 

California Liliic, li. 43. 

Califuriiia Niitnir^, i. ti'Q, 

California Olive, vii. 'Jl. 

Caligula Japouicft, ii. 0. 

CallirtMiarpui, ii. *J. 

CalUrocarputt iz. 1, 

CalUpbia betulclla, iz. 4A. 

Calluliiim rreuiu, iz. lU. 

Callidiiim aiittnnatuni, i. Tl ; li. 11. 

Callitfrapha M>alahft, iz. 70. 

Callipt<*rua Caslane*. it. 10. 

Calloidet nobilin, iz. 10. 

ValoctHrut^ z. VXV 

Caloctdrua macnUrpuif z. 134. 

Calonobe, ziv. I'J. 

Calolhifrtut, M. o], 

CalothyrtuM Cali/amira, ii. 61. 

Catpidia, vi. 100. 

Calyptoapura (■(Fpperiiana, zii. 01. 

Calyptranthes, v :ifi. 

Calyptrantbea aroinatica. v. 3A. 

Calyptnuithea Chytraculia, v. 30. 

Calyptranthrt Chytrmoulim a ^enuiiu^ T. 30. 

Calyptranthes Cbytraculia, $ ov»li», t. 30. 


Calyptruitbi** Cbytraculia, t ftaiiciflora, v. 3fl. 

Calyptranlbf I Cbytraculia, • Ziiiypuxn, t. 36. 

Cattfptranthei JamhiUana^ v. 41. 

Calyptrantbes obacura, t. 3A. 

Calyptranthfi paniculata, t. ^15. 

Calyptrantbea Scbiedevia, v. 35. 

Calyptranthei S<'bleoht«ndalianA, t 35. 

Califptmnthfi Zuzygium, v. 30. 

Caltfptranthuf, v. 35. 

Camellia axUlaru, i. 39. 

Campbell. Arcbibald, i. 108. 

Caiuixleria, vi. 113. 

Camptieria, vi. 113. 

Campkorvmattt vii. 0. 

Canada baluni, zii. 100. 

Canada pitch, zii. t>5. 

Canada Plum, iv. 15. 

Caiiby, William Mariott, ziii. 41. 

Canbra, ziii. 41. 

Canel, i. 36. 

Cant* lla, i 3>j. 

Cai>f-lla alba, i. 37 ; zir. 07. 

CcuelUi laun/oliat i. 37. 

Caiiella ubtuiifulia, i. 35. 

Canrlla Winterana, i. 37 ; zir. 07. 

Canhi-LACE.*:, i. 35. 

Canker of Larcb, zii. 5. 

Canop Itircb, iz. 57 ; ziv. 5S. 

Can.K- Ci'dar, z. IL'O. 

Cauuea, Hircb-bark, iz. 59. 

Canotia, i. 87. 

Canuti* holacantba, i. 88. 

Capri, Mary, ii. 10. 

CapvAMin.uKjc, t. 31. 

Capparia, i. 31. 

Cap|iuri« aphylla, i- H'J. 

Capiwriii Itreynia, i. 3*J. 

Capiwru tyuophallophorm, i. 31. 

Capitarti Dahi, i. 3'.'. 

f 'fi/'/Miru tmtirtffuiUi, i. .13. 

Ciipparia fnmduaa, i. 32. 

CappariH Janiaict'nai*, i. :t2, 33. 

Cappiina Jatnowrfnu, var. emarjinata, \. 33. 

Capparm Mitbrulalica. i. 32. 

Capimrii puU'herriiiia, i. tl2. 

('apparm irpiaria, i- 32. 

CappariH ipinoaa, i. 31, 

Capparu Yco, i. 32. 

Caprrro, ii. Ofi. 

Crtprrie, iz. IW 

CapriflcatiuD, vii. 03. 

Caphrirui^ vii. 01. 

Capfificui insecti/erftt vii. 03. 

CapriHg. vii. 03. v. 85 ; liv. 23. 

Capulin, it 23. 

Capulinua, iv, 47. 

Canlen, v. 52. 

Vnrttioifpii, ii. 31. 

Ciirdiolepis obhuia, ii. 37. 

Carey, Jubn, i. UA. 

Cargillta, vi. 1. 

Carica, ziv. 1. 

Carica Candaniarcenaii, ziv, 3^ 

Carica caudata, ziv. 1, 2, 

Carica, di^^fHive properties of, kit. 2. 

Carica crytbrocarpa, ziv. 2. 

Carica, fungal diacascn uf, ziv. 3. 

Canca haatata, ziv. 3. 

Carica hermnfrttiiita, ziv. 5. 

Carica, bybridi <if, ziv. 2. 

Carica, medical proi>crtipa of, ziv, 3. 

Carica Tapaya, ziv. 5. 

Carica quiTcifulia, ziv, 2, 3. 

Caricack.k, liv. 1. 

Carlea, vi. 13. 

Carlffmohria^ vi. 10. 

Cariofnvhria Cnrulinn, vi. 21. 

Carlamohria litfttrm, vi. 23. 

Cart'tmnhriit purvijlttra, vi. 10. 

Cariiifnta Krazini, vi. 27. 

Cartnima. vi. 79. 

CarpHtbian balum, zi. 10. 

Carpenter, William M., iv. 03. 

Car]>ent4'riii, iv. 93. 

Carpinui, ii. 39. 

Carpinuit iz. 31. 

Carpintis Amertcanat iz. 42. 

Carpitiut Am^nrnna, var. tropicotit, ix. 43. 

Carpinua IWtuIus, iz, 40. 

Carpinus HfttUuM^ ix. 42. 

Carpinui Iktulus, borticultural forml of, ix. 

Carpinus fiftuluM Virgxnianat iz. 42. 
Carpinui Caruliniana, iz. 42 ; ziv. 101. 
Carjnnits ("nrptnizzn, ix. 4*). 
CarpintiR Carpinun, ix. 41. 
Cnr)iitmii, Cbincii«>, ix. 40. 
Carpinus cordtita, ix. 10, 41. 
CarpinuA UuinenniH, ix. 4o. 
Carpinui, ccuiioniic properties of, iz. 41. 
Carjiinuii eruHn, iz. 41. 
CiirpinuH, fungal diacaw'8 of, iz. 41. 
Carjiinus, insect i'iieniii'.i nf, ix. 41. 
CnrpiuMM intermrrlin, ix. 40. 
Carpimit Japmaca^ ix. 41. 

Carpinui laziflora, ii. 40, 41. 

CufjHnuM itntntttlu^ ii. 40. 

CarpinttM ihtr^fn^ ii. 32, 'M. 

CarpmuM (hirifo . AtMriatrut^ ii. 34. 

Carpinui 'riclmmMkii, ix. 41. 

Car)>iniii Turcxaninovii, ix. 40. 

Carpinui viminea, ix 40, 41. 

CtirfHma rir^>ihinfi, ii. IM. 

Carpmtit rir^nirii, ix. 31. 

Carpinui Yed«>«nai«| iz. 41. 

Carrta, i. ;>0. 

Oif/d, vii, 131. 

Cnrifii nlU, vii. 153, lAl. 

Curyri iimoni, vii, 141. 

Can/a nmom, var. mttrt*tiarfitrmi», v|i. 14n. 

Oiryri nrmirtt, var. ftorrttui, vii. 105, 

Carifit iittifuntt/oltn, vii. 137. 

Caryti n'/itfirirn, vii. 149. 

Carya mlhitrtira, vii. 118. 

CarffU ctmlt/ormiSt vii. 157. 

Carya glnhra, vii. 105. 

Citryn lUinointiii, vii. l.')7. 

Cart/a intft/ri/nlui, vii. 149. 

Can/n }ffxtrana, vii, 132. 

Cdryn miirorarpa, vii. Itt7. 

Cnrya myristirirfomm, vii. 145. 

Carya ohcttrtinta, vii. K15. 

Caryn ttlitw/ormit, vii. 137. 

Caryn pttrritui, vii. 105. 

Caryii puitftcen^, vii, 157. 

Carya tulrata, vii. 157. 

Cary*i tftmptfra, vii. 137. 

Carya Texana, vii. 137 ; ziv. 43. 

Caryn Itrmentom, vii. 101. 

Caryit Unwntona, var, maxima, vii. 101. 

Caryca maamyn, ziv. 5. 

Caryocedrus, i. 70. 

CaryophylluM, r. 30. 

Caryophyllun aromatinit, v. 40. 

Caryotax^t*, z. 55, 

CaryittniMi grnndin, x. 56. 

Carytttaxiui Afyrintica, z. 50, 

Caryitinxra ntwi/ertt, z. 50. 

Caryotaxtis Inxi/olia, x. 57, 

Casatiiiphorum, ix. 7. 

Caicara Sagrada, ii. 39. 

Cauada, v. 179. 

Caawna,!. 111. 

Cauie, iii. 110. 

Cauie, culture of, iii. 120. 

Casiine (\inihnuiua, \. 111. 

Ctuaine Prraipni, i. til, 

Casiirie rtimulo^tt, i. 111. 

Caitagno dei Centi Cavalli, iz. 8. 

Caitanea, iz. 7. 

CoMtanra, iz. 1. 

Caitanea alnifolia, ix. 10. 

Cantawn Amertattui,'it. 13. 

Coftaufa AmfTirana, var. (in7t«fi/o/in, it. 13. 

Castauea AmrrininOt var. lati/ulta, ix. 13. 

Cantttnen ftutigfona, ix. 9. 

Caitanea Caitanea, iz. 8. 

Caitanea CaiitHnea, var. laciniata, iz. 0. 

Caitanea Ciutanea, var. puliincrvis, iz. 0, 

Caitanea Catitanea, var. variegata, iz. 0. 

Ca:xUv\en rhryiopHylln, ix. 3. 

Cdftanea chryfophylln, var. minitr, iz. 3. 

Caxtnneii crenatd, iz. 9. 

Caitanea dcntata, ix. 13. 

Caitnnea, rcoiioinic pn>perticR of, iz. 10, 

Castanen Fagus, ix. 22. 

Caitanea, fertilization of, ix. 7. 

Caitanea, fungal disoaaes uf, iz. 10. 

Caitanea, insect euemiea of, iz. 10. 

^ Ml 


jtisti/olui^ ii, 13. 
f'olia, it. 13. 

s of, ii. 10. 

CtuUtntn Jnponitvi, it. 0. 

CiuUina*, infl<lit!«l proiMrtiH of, tx. 10. 

Catliinfn ufirifi, ii. tl), 

CMtam-R piiiniU, ii. 17. 

Cojifiittfti ptimila, $ rMina, ii. 10, 

Cattimfii iifi/iif], ix. H. 

Caa1nn«ft mttivn, var. AmeriennOt ti. 13. 

Ctulanrn urmp^rvirtnit ix. 3. 

Coii^iri^ri itru-Ut^ ix. \). 

CMUntiti L'lignri, ii. 10. 

Cwtnnm vfnrttt ii. H, 9, VI. 

CoMlanfit t'MCfi ; .Im^tVfimi, ix. 13. 

Vn*tnufii ufWfi, /)iiftin«riPM, ix. 0. 

( Vi^/firifii t'ulifariA, ix. H. 

f 'fl,<^lflfa ru/f/tiru, y .^fntfri'iYimi, ix. 13. 

( '(t</(iri«(i vttiyitriM, t Japonica^ ix. 0. 

Cnthtu^ofuiM, viii. 4. 

C'aNtunopNJii, ix. 1. 

C'lwtiuiopiiiii ahryiiophyllAf ix. 3. 

('tiNtftiiiipni« uhryiiophylln, B minor, ix. 3. 

i 'a$Uvutf}»i» chriftnphffUnt viir. pumila, ix. 3, 

Ciutatiopiiiii, cuuiioniii' pruiwrtioi of, ix. *2. 

CoHtiinHpiiii, fungal diiviui*! of, ix. 2. 

Catiilpn, vi. H3, H4). 

Ciittil/ut hit/HiinioiiUst vi. WI, 80. 

Calal/m hufuimiuiilf*, var. Kirmp/eri, vi. 8-1. 

Catalpa Itmif^ei, vi. HI. 

Cntiilpti lUmiffi, vi. 8H. 

(^ittjilpa CiitalpH, vi. HO ; xiv. KKJ. 

(')itatpa (.'titulpa, K'^dIimi fi>riiiH of, vi, 88, 

CtUttlpn rotniUHitin, vi. Hit ; xiv. 102. 

CalnliHi nn-fltfn/ut, vi. 80, 80, 

Cutalpa fniriAifoliii, vi, H4. 

Catiilpii, fcrtiliratioii of tlio flowers of, vi, 83. 

Catalpa, fungal nitMiiiei of, vi. 84. 

Catiilpa, iiMi'ct iJiiciiiicH uf, vi. 8-1. 

(\iffi//Mi hirmp/eri, vi. ftt. 

Cntttlptt liiuijiniliiptn, vi, 84. 

Catulpa loiigisiiinia, vi. HI. 

Catalpa loii^iAiiiinu, wm<hI of, vi, A4. 

Catalpa, imtdical propprtien of, vi. 8-t, 

C'atalpA, neetjiriferuiu glaiuli of tbu leaves 

of, vi. 87. 
Catalpa ovata, vi. H4. 
CntAlpft fipi ciosA, vi. HO. 
CaUtlpa ^i/ritiffifhliii, vi. 8-1, 80. 
C'ntalpa, IVus' hybrid, vi. 84. 
Catalpa, Western, vi. 80. 
('ittitlpiutHt vi. 83. 
CatiipfHi^ V. 10. 
Catastoga haniainoliolla, v. 'J, 
ratawl)it>i)Hu Uliotiodcmlrouif T. 140, 147. 
Cutci'liti, iii. 110. 
Catt-!il)H>a, vi. 10. 
Catt'jdty, Mark, vi. 10. 
Cnthormiou, iii. 131, 
CiiUnijti, v. 30. 

Cat'.H Claw, iii. 123, 12^, i:i3. 
Cattle ill soiitlieni pineries, xi. l'>0, 
Cavanxileti, vi, 1. 
Carinium, v, ILj. 
Ci'unotliu'4, ii. 11, 
Crnnnthiis, ii. 47, 
CcaiiotliUH AinericaittiR, 11, 42. 
('tatn)thtiy (irborfwt, ii. {'}. 
Crnuitlhus .\sHUic\t.*, ii, 47. 
Ci-aMHtliuH a/urcuH, ii. 42. 
Cffiniifhu.i roluhrinu.^f ii. 47. 
(.'ranolhuM frrrfiis, ii. 20. 
Ccaiiothiis ('.IiiiriMU' Versailles, ii. 42, 
(V'aiiotluiN, tiytirids, ii. 12. 
Cfiiuolhii.i lirviffittus, li. 21. 
Cfaiinthiis LolihiaiiUA, ii. 13. 
Cmuolhin redinatiin, ii. 40. 


C*nn(Hhw tartfiiatua, ii. 4A. 

Ceanuthiii ipinoiiia, xiii. 1. 

Ccaiiotliiis tliyraiHonis, ii. 43. 

CiNiiiotliuii VuitL'tiianui, ii. 43. 

CranuthuN valiitiniii, ii. 4A. 

(VaiiotliMi vflliitiiiiis, var. arbnr«ua, ii. 4A. 

CiM'iiloiityia CiiprrNsi-anannssa, x. lAO, 

CeuidoinyiA gltiditsuliia*, iii. 71. 

Cucidoinyia ltri(Mliiiidri, i, 18. 

Ccvidotnyia Salicis-iilitpm, ix. 101. 

Cuaidoiiiyia Saliriv-strobilisciis, ix. 101. 

Cfoidoinyia Salicis-triticoidfls, ix. 101. 

Cuuropia moth, v. 0. 

Ct'dar, X. t)l. 

(*udar*Kpplfs, x. 73. 

Ct<dar, Itustanl, x. 130. 

(Vdar, CaiHM), x. 120. 

C«dar Klin, vii. 57. 

Cedar, (iroiind, x. 7A. 

(^'dar, IiiceitNe, x. 135. 

(Vdarof lioa, X. 100. 

Cedar, Oregon, x. 120. 

Cedar I'ine, xi. 131. 

Cedar, Port Orford, x. 119. 

(Vdar, I'oHt, X. IMl 

Ce.Ur, Kml, x. 03, 120 ; xiv. 89, 93. 

(Vdar. K.H>k, X, 01, 

Ci-dar, Stinking, x. •)7, 

Cedar, White, x. Ill, I'JO. 120, lai 

Crdrella iHlorata, i. lol. 

Cfiiru* Muhogtmi, i. 100, 

Cki.asthai'K.k, ii. 0. 

Ci'In, .Jai'fpies Martin, ii. 4. 

Cfltts, vii. 03. 

('eltia Attihi, vii. (H. 

O-ltin avulrnUi, vii. 01. 

Chit nllH^, vii. 71, 

Cfltiit Awiiht'tiana^ vii, 07. 

Crltii Awlihfr iana, vur. oblongatQt *''■ 07. 

Cfllis Awixhcriintm, var. uvatOt vii. 07, 

Celtis nnstraiis, vii. 01. 

f'fltis lirrlaudierif vii. 71. 

Cflli* hrffiftn, vii, 72. 

Cfllii ranitui, vii. 07. 

Cfltia < 'ourtmait vii. 04. 

Cfltis ntnlattt, vii, 07, 

Cfllin crdHMijhlitt, vii. 07. 

CW/w rrnmii/olia, var. eucnlt/ptijhlia, vii. 07. 

CfUi* irfni.ii/iitiat var. mnrtfolia, vii. 07. 

f V//W (Tfi.Mi'/;»/tVi, var. lilitr/olia, vii. 07. 

Cellu IhmtjUmiy vii. 07. 

Celtic Khrftihen/iana, vii. 04. 

Cflti.1 rriiH'iirfHt, vii. 04. 

Cfltii Flftriiiiiuti, vii. 07. 

Celtis, fungal iliHeases of, vii. 04. 

(^flti.i/u,*ctUii, vii. 71. 

f CtfltiM (prnutlitleulaUj, vii. 07. 

Celtiji hfU rtiphfiWi, vii. 07. 

Celtis i^uanipu>i, vii. 01. 

Celtis, i'lsect enemies of, vii. 64. 

Celtis inld/ri/iilia, v-i. 71. 

Cfltit lirvigala, vii. 71. 

Cfltii Liudheijiwri, vii. 71. 

CfUii liinf/i/i)lia, vii. 71. 

Cflthmnritima, vii. 07. 

Celtis MisMissippiennis, vii. 71 ; xiv. 103. 

Celtis Mississippieiisis, var. reticulata, vii. 72. 

Cellis morifitliaf vii. ()7. 

CfltU ofAiipta, vii. 07. 

Celtin oceidentalis, vii. 07 ; xiv. 103. 

CfUis iH'rlilrtUnlis, vii. 71. 

(Cfltii (H'riiletitali-'i, var. Awliherlinmi, vii. G8. 

C-//M ncrifieiitnli.'it var. vonUitn, vii. 07. 

CeltU occidetitaliij var, crtis.iifolia, vii. 08. 


9 CtUia occidtmtntut o graruiultntatat vii. 08. 

f Ctltis itcvui^ntalu, var. ffrarulutttUata, vii. 07. 

C»Uu oi'riHtntalis, var. irUegn/tAui, vii. 71. 

Callia uceidantalia, var. pumila, vii. 09. 

Ctltit iMvittentatiMt var. Mttmlatu, vii. 72. 

Cellta fHTuitrUalu, var. Hrtihrinaculitt vii. 07. 

CtltiM ocndentatis, var. trrrulnta, vii, 07. 

CtUis ficriilentnlu, var. tmu^'oita, vU, 07. 

Ctliit ptiUidn, vii. Ot, 

Ctltis /Ki/ii/a, vii. 07. 

Cfltu prttcfra, vii. 07. 

( fllu pumila, vii. (10. 

Vrlti* rrtinUitUt, vii. 08, 72. 

Cflti* rhiim-wifirn, vii. 04. 

Celtis Tata, « pallida, vii. 04. 

CW/u t^iuifi^ia, vii. 07, 

Cfltii Tifiann, vii. 71. 

(^emhra, xi. 1, 

Cembrn, xi 4. 

Cenangium Ahietis, xi. 12. 

Ceuangium deforniatiim, x. 73. 

Cenangium ferruginosum, xi. 12. 

Cenangium seriutum, ix. 40. 

Centrodera deeolrrutn, vi. 27. 

Cephalanthus, xiv 20. 

i 'rphilnnthuM nrnlioidm, xiv. 25. 

('fpfmlanthu.* nanrlroidi'ii, xiv. 25. 

Ceplinlantlius oceidentalis, xiv. 20. 

('rphnliiuthuM oeridtntnlix, xiv. 25. 

Cephalanthus oocidentalis, medical properties 

uf, xiv. 27. 
Cephalanthus occidentalui, var. hrachypodua, 

xiv, 20. 
Cephalanthui occidentnlitt, var. mncrophyllus, 

xiv. 20. 
Cfjthalanthtu occidtnlalin, var. ofHuti/oliwi, xiv. 

Cfphttlanthus ocrideutnlit, var, pit/i<sr«is, xiv. 

Cephalantbua oecidentalis, vnr, salicifolius, 

xiv. 27. 
Cephalanthwi oppimtifoliut^ xiv. 20. 
C^-phalnnthua mlin/oliiUt xiv. 27. 
Cephalanthus tetramlrus, xiv. 26. 
Cephalnrerfftn, v. 51. 
Ceplialoitiaii Kir, xii. 09. 
Cfphalophitrus, v. 51. 
Cephalotomandrn, vi. 109. 
Ceraneidm, iv. 7, 8. 
Cerasin, iv. 11. 
Vermophorat iv. 7, 8. 
Cerasus, iv. 8. 
C^nwtw, iv. 7, 8. 
Cernms Amfricnna^ iv. 10. 
Cfrasui horealin, iv. 35. 
Crrtt.iu.i Iira.'<iliensi,% iv. 51. 
Ceraaun Ca/i/omica, iv. 38. 
CerttittiS Capollin^ iv. 40. 
Ccraiiiji Capuli, iv. 40. 
Cfmsm Caroliniand, iv. 49. 
Cera.vts Chirtwi, iv. 25. 
Cenwts demij^m, iv. 42. 
Ceranut demi/iora, iv. 41. 
Cera.m.t Ihterinci-U, iv. 41. 
Cermus emarffinala, iv. 37. 
Cemmui rrecta, iv. 37. 
Cem.iuK Jimhriata, iv. 41. 
CeranHS (jlandulo.tat iv. 37. 
Ceraatia hiemnlis, iv. 10. 
Cera.m.* hirsutit, iv. 41. 
Cfnwm iliri/itlia, iv. 53. 
CrrfiHH.1 LnunicemmHy iv. iO. 
Ctyam» Lmittinica, \y. 11. 
Ceram» MahaUb^ iv. 10. 


!! li 



Cfmsus micrantha, iv. 41. 

Cerasus moilis, iv. 38. 

CerasMS nignt, iv. 15, 19. 

Cerastif obovala, iv. 41. 

Cerasus Padua, iv. 10. 

Cerasus Pattonianay iv. 37, 38. 

Ctrasus Pennsiflvanica, iv. 35. 

Cerasus persici/olia, iv. 35. 

Cerasits rejiexa, iv. 51. 

Cemsus salid/oiia^ iv. 46. 

Cerastis serotina, iv. 41, 42, 45. 

CmiSMs sphfrrorarpUt iv. 51. 

Cem.ftis umhelhUa, iv. 33. 

Cerxmis Tiri^nmnfi, iv. 41, 45, 

Cfnisw Virginianat var. 0, iv. 41. 

Crni/o-t/rtrAy-*, v. 73. 

Ceratostachya itrborfa, v. 73. 

Corcidiuin, iii. 81. 

Cerciilium fluridimi, iii. 83. 

Cerciditim rioriiium, iii. 85. 

Cerciiiium Texanuiu, iii. 81. 

Cen'iilium Turreyauuin, iii. 85. 

Cervi», iii. 93. 

Cercia Canadensi:), iii. UTi ; xiv. 100. 

Cercis Cauadettsist var. imf}fscefis, iii. 9& 

Cercis Clniifnsis, iii. 93. 

(Vrcis (iriRithii, iii. 93. 

Ccreis ut'ciilen talis, iii. 04. 

Cercis (tccidentalis, iii. 97. 

Cercis ocvidentalist var. iii. 97. 

Cercis itccidentaliat var. Texetisis^ iii. 97. 

Cercis racemusA, iii. 93. 

< Vrrii rtnifarmity iii. 97. 

Cerois Siliquastrtiiii, iii. 93. 

Cerris SiUqtMiatrufti, var. iii. 'M. 

Cercis Texeiisis, iii. 97 ; xiv. lOU. 

Ceroocarpus, iv. Gl. 

Cercocarpm .-(rumticti.*, iv. 64. 

Cercvrarpus heUUfr/itims, iv. GO. 

Cerax^rfniS hetuloidea, iv. GG. 

Cei HHrarpus breviriorus, xiii. 27. 

Cercffcorpus hrenfionui, iv. 61, t»6. 

Cercoi-arpus fotlicr^lluides, xiii. *J9. 

Cercthorpfis/'tthergiiliiidef, iv. 61, 65. 

Cerrocarpris intricattis, iv. '>4. 

Cercocaii>iis ledifoliit.i, iv. 63 ; xiv. KX). 

Cen'ocarpus ledifulius, var. iittricattis, iv. 6-1. 

Ccri'iK-nrpus parvifuIiuD, iv. tV). 

Cerci>carptL* jHirvtfoUiui, xiii. L'7. 

Cerntcxirf-ns ftan-i/uiiiis, var. htttJotdeft iv. 66. 

CerccM'arpus parvifulius, var. brevitlurus, iv. 

Cereocarput pan-ifoiius, var. brevifioruSf xiii. 

Cerc»''irpiLi pari'i/'*liu$, var. tjlnber, iv, 66. 
C«rcooarpus parvifulius, var. [uiucidenUtus, 

iv. t\Ct. 
Cerrtxfirpiu pauadentatux, xiii. 'J7. 
Cercocarpiu TraAkio!, xiii, *J9. 
Cen'oft|Mtr;» a>'iTiua, ii. HI, 
C'cnospora t.'atalpip, vi. HJ, 
O-n-ospuni I>iosp\ri, vi. 1. 
OrcnsjKjra fiiliginuAa, vi. 4. 
Cercu«^{M)ra llumaiiiflitlis, v. 2. 
('ercu«pi>ra Jiiglaii(ii.t. vii. 117. 
CerctiHpora Kaki, vi. \. 
("errdspora Muricola, vii. 77. 
Cerctrtpora purpiir«H, vii. 2. 
Cercospiira Vurcw, x. 5. 
C'erc<wp«»rt*!la I'trsicii', iv. 12. 
( 'erdana, vi. 67. 
Cerdana alluMlora, vi. 68. 
Cf n?uii, V. .11, 
Cereui {;ig^.iDt«uB, t. 53. 


Cer«U8 Pectfln-aboriginum, t. 52. 

Ceretia Feruvianus, v. 52. 

Cer«us Pringlei, v, 52. 

CtTocarpuSy v. 39. 

CerophorQi ix. 83. 

Cerophom anff»sti/otia, ix. 84. 

Cerophora intxiora, ix. 91. 

Cerophora Uinceoiata, ix. 87. 

Cerophom spicatis, ix. 84. 

Cerrist viii. 4. 

CerrouUSf viii. 4. 

Cbieuoyiicca, x. 3. 

f Chirrophj/llum arhortsctns^ v. 59. 

Cfurtoptelea, vii. 39. 

Ch(rioptelea Mericana, vii. 40. 

Cbalciiphora caiu(H:stri8, vii. 101. 

ChalcupUura Virgiiiicnais, xi. 11. 

Chaiim!i'jpari.*t, x. 98. 

t.ianurcypar'ft x. 97, i>8. 

Chatrurci/ptiru. brefirameat x. 98. 

Channrcyparii ericoides, x. 112. 

CA(jm/rrvpa*M Latcatmiaua, x. 119. 

Chamirci/paria Latraomi, x. 119. 

ChamactffMirLi Nuti-rns:.i, ylauca^ x. 115. 

ChanurciffHiris XuthUensis, x. 115. 

Chamircyparis obtuaa, x. 98. 

Chauurci/paria pendtda, x. 98. 

Chamircyparis pisi/era, x. 99. 

Chamtnyfforin pisijWa ^^li/era, x. 99. 

ChanurrujHiris pmfeni atpiarroaa^ x. 99. 

CHnnurctffHiri'i sphirroidca, x. 111. 

Chamtrcyjxtris aifuarrosa, x. '.18. 

Chamirct/jHiris ihyoidta, x. 111. 

Channrmeapilua, iv. 67. 

Chamirropa amuUsy x. 38, 

Chanurrnpa y/u/'rn, x. 38. 

Chanuerops Palmetto, x. 41, 43. 

ChamfTTopx aerruiala, xiv. 76. 

Chapman, Alvun Wfiitwortb, vii. 110. 

Cbapniannia, vii. 100. 

Cbaputc, vi. 11. 

Chaac, Virjpiiiiia liebcr, xiii. 46. 

Chnaaeloupiit, vi. 13. 

Chf bulic niynibalaii!*, v. 20, 

Cbei'keriMl-barked .liiniper, x. 85, 

CnKiKANTiionEMUti:.*:, i. 47. 

Chrirfinthiideudrim, i. 47. 

Chr-miuthiMleudnm ('tiSt/iirriimm, i. 47. 

Cbeirantb(Klfii(lr(in pUlauuides, i. 47. 

Cbem-y INiini, iv. 20. 

CberiiiiiMa, i. 28. 

Chernic!) laricifubn*, xii. 5. 

Cbcriiieii piiiifulia', xi. 11. 

CherrifB, Hi^arroati, iv. 9. 

Cb *rrit')i, Duke, iv. 9. 

CberricH, Ili-art, iv. 9. 

Cbrrrics, Murello, iv. 9. 

C'berry, v. 153. 

Cberry Hirch, ix. 50. 

Cberry, Hird. iv, :W. 

Cberry. Chnkf, iv. 41. 

Cherry t'onhal- water, iv. 10. 

Cherry, cultivation uf, iv. 0. 

Cberry, Dog, vii. 6it. 

Cbrrry, Maranca, iv. 10. 

Cherry, Mountain, iv. 26. 

Cberry, Mountain KvergrwD, iv. 54. 

Cherry, INgeon, iv, '*6. 

Cherry, Pin, iv. 'Mi. 

Cberry, Kuni, iv. 45. 

Cherry, Si-fiiush Wild, iv. £4. 

Cherry, Surinam, v. 11. 

Cherr'j, WiM. iv 37, 41 ; xiii. 25. 

Cberry. Wild hiack. ir. 45. 

Cherry, Wild Red, iv. 36. 

Cherry-gum, iv. 10. 

Cherry-oil, iv. 10. 

Cherry-tree, Mexican, iv. 46. 

Cherry-tree, New Mexican, iv. 46. 

Cheituut, ix. 13. 

Chestnut, American, cultiTation of, ix. 14. 

Chestnut, tiurlcas, ix. 14. 

Chestnut, Golden-leaved, ix. 3. 

Chestnut Oak, viii. 51, 55, 183, 

Chestnut Spinner, ix. 9. 

Chestnut-tree, Chinese, ix, 9. 

Chestnut-tree, Kuropean, cultivation of, ix. 8. 

Cbestnut-tree, Kurupean, introduction into 

the United States, ix. 9. 
Chestnut-tree, Japanese, ix. 9. 
Chestnut'tree, the Turtwortb, ix. 8. 
Chestnut-trees uf Mt. Ktna, ix. 8. 
Cli est nut-wood, extract of, ix. 10. 
Chestnuts, Spanish, ix. 9. 
CMcharronia, v. 19. 
Chickasaw Plum, iv. 25. 
Chickasaw Plum, origin of, iv. 26. 
Chicot, iii. 70. 

Chilonectria cucurbitula, xi. 12. 
Cbilupsis, vi. 93. 
Chilopsis {flutit.oaa, vi. 95. 
Chilu|i8is line&ris, vi. 95. 
Chiiop.sis .maligna, vi. 95. 
Chinmntbus, iv. 7. 
ChinuinthiiS amyydalina, iv. 49. 
Chinese Carpinus, ix. 40. 
Chinese Chestnut-tree, ix. 9. 
ChincHc gulls, iii. 9. 
Chinese Hemlock, xii. 60. 
Cbiiiese Liquidanibar, v. 8. 
Chinese white wax, vi. 26. 
Chinquapin, ix. 3, 17. 
Chinquapin Oak, viii. 56, 59 
Chion einctuH, vii. 133. 
CbionantbiiH, vi. 59. 
ChiourtHthis angiislif'olias vi. 00. 
C.\ionanthut Chinetutis, vi. 59. 
Chionanthtis rotiui/itlia, vi. r»0, 61. 
Chiouanthus fraxinl/iilia, vi. 31. 
Chionantbus hetcritphylla, vi. 60. 
Chionantbus b)ngifnlia, vi. tiO. 
Cbiiiiiiintbu.s iniiritini"., vi. 60. 
Chionantbus, niediciil properties of, vi. 59. 
ChiotuvithuA mvfifdiui, vi. 60. 
Chionantbus n'tusji, vi. 59. 
Chiounuthns trtfida, vi. 60. 
ChiirtiatUHiis Irifiiyra, vi. r>0. 
Chionafithtis verriali^, vi. 60. 
CbionantbiiH Virginiea, vi. 60. 
Chitmanthfis \ 'tnjiuica, var. angxuti/ulia, vi. 

Chumanthis Virginirat var. tiitifolia, vi. ()0. 
Chioitauthua Vinjoiintf var. tmiriltmn, vi. 60. 
Chiofiiin(hiiS Vtrffinicii, var. mont'^ua, vi. 60. 
Chiononthus /Crylf.nint, vi 64). 
Chionaspis furfurus, iv. 70. 
Cl.ionaspiH Nyswp, v. 74. 
Cbiunaspis pinifoliie, xi. 11. 
Cbionaspin Quercus, viii. 11, 
Chithtmatilhua, Iii. 115. 
Cbittani \\'(>od, iii. 3. 
Cbiltim WikkI, v. 171. 
Cblamydubalanus, viii. 4. 
Chloromeles, iv, Gl. 
Chlornmrlea armiyen'trens, ir. 75. 
Choke Cherry, iv. 41. 
Cholla, xiv. 15. 
CKomeUia, i. 103. 

iltivntion of, ix. 8. 
iutroductiou into 

rtios of, vi. 59. 

ani/u»ti/oliat vi. 

luttfoli/i, vi. (tO, 
maritimti, vi. (>0. 
montizua, vi. 00. 

Choniastmm, v. 144. 
Chouteaa, I^erro, vii. 80. 
ChroineaoB looriEB, vii. 133. 
Chrifttmas Berry, iv. 124. 
Chrysobalantis, iv. 1. 
Chrygobalanus elliptictta, iv. 4. 
Clirysobalaiuis Icaco, iv. 3. 
Chrysubalanus Icaco, a genninus, iv. 4. 
Chrysobalanua Icaco, pollocarpuB, iv. 4. 
Chryaobalanus Icaco, $ pttr/iureus, iv. 3. 
Chrysobalanua Icaco, y ellipticus, tv. 4. 
Chryiobalanus luteuSf iv. 4. 
Chryaobalaiiiis oblongifolius^ iv. 1. 
*Jhryiiobalanu8 orbicularis, iv. 4. 
Chryaobalanus pellocarptu, iv. 4. 
Chrysobothris fcmorata, ii. 81 ; iv. 11, 70 ; 

viii. 11. 
Chrysobothris octocola, iii. 100. 
Chrysobothris 0-aignaia, ix. 48. 
Cbrysomela pallida, ix. loO. 
Cbrysomeia Bcalaris, i, 51. 
Chrysomyza Abietis, xii. 01. 
Chrysoniyxa Ledi, xii. 26. 
Chrysomyza Rhododendri, xii. 26. 
Chrysophylliiin, v. 150. 
Chrysophylliim Cainito, v. 160. 
Chrysophyllum Caimlo, v. 161. 
ChryfiophyUuin Cainito, $, x\v. 102. 
Chrysophyllum Carolinense, v. 160. 
ChrymphyUum femigineum, v. 161. 
Chrysophyllum Ludoricianum, v. 171. 
Chrysophyllum micrnphyllum^ v, 161. 
Chrysophyllum monopyrenum, v. 101. 
Chrysophyllum olivifoniie, v. 161 ; xiv. 102. 
Chrysophyllum oUviforme, var. monopyrenumf 

v." 101. 
Chrysophyllum Roxburghii, v. 160. 
ChU-ling, V. 8. 
ChuncfHi, V. 19. 
Chyfralia, v. 35. 
Cicmla septendecim, viii. 11. 
Cicada, The Sevcuteen-year, viii. 11. 
Cider, niaoufacture of, iv. 08. 
Cidorkin, iv, 68. 
Ciliciaii Kir, xii, 99. 
Cimbcx Americana, ix. 101. 
Cinchnna Caribira, v. 105. 
Ciuchorui Carnliuhna, v. 100. 
Cinchona jloributulit, v. 103. 
Cinchona Jamaicensis, v. 105. 
Cinchona Luciana, v. 103. 
Cinchona montana, v. 103. 
Cinctosandra, v. 110. 
CinnamiHtendroi) corticosiim, t. 37. 
Cinnamomuin Zeylaiiicuiu, i. 36. 
Cinnamon Hark, i. 37. 
C'l/t'miwKi, vi. 13. 
Cirillo, Dumnuco, ii. 2. 
('irr)ia platant'lla, \ii. 101. 
Cithari'xylon, vi. 101. 
Citharexylun villosum, vi. 103. 
Citheronia rrgidis, vii. 116. 
Cladra.Htis, iii. 5.''> ; xiv. 100. 
(^lailrastis friitjrttns, xiv. 1(X). 
Cladrastis lutea, iii. 57 ; xiv. 100. 
Cladra.ttis tinctoria, iii. 57. 
Claiiuiiy [.^, iii. 45. 
Clarimyrtus, v. 39. 
Clayton, John, i. 8. 
Cleisl'H'alyx, v. 39. 
riethropsis, ix. 68. 
Clefhrnpais, ix. G7. 
CIrtfiropsis Nfpalgnsii, ix. 70. 
Clethropsis nitida, ix. 70. 


ClifiP Elm, vU. 48. 

GliftoDi Francis, ii. 5. 

Cliftoniai ii. 5. 

Cli/tonia ligustrinaf ii. 7. 

Cliftonia luonophylla, ii. 7. 

Clijionia ni'fu/a, ii. 7. 

Clisiocampa, ii. 36. 

Cliaiocampa Californica, viii. 11. 

Clisiocampa constricta, viii. 11. 

Clisiocampa disstria, viii, 11 ; ix. 84. 

Clisiocampa sylvatica, i. 51. 

Clistoyucca, z. 3. 

Cloves, V. 40. 

Cloves, oil of| V. 41. 

Clove-stalks, v. 41. 

Clove-tree, v. 40. 

Clove-tree, cultivation of, v. 40. 

Cluster-cups, iv. 70. 

Cocci/erOf viii. 4. 

Coccotoba, vi. 113. 

Coccolobis, vi. 113. 

Coccolobin CurtL'-siif vi. 119. 

Coccolobis Floridana, vi. 119. 

Coccolobis laurifolia, vi '19. 

Coccolobis LeoganensiSf vi. 115, 119. 

Coccolobis, medical properties of, vi. 114. 

Coccolobis pan' if oliat vi. 119. 

CocccAubis tenui/olia, vi. 119. 

Coccolobis Uvifera, vi. 115. 

Coccololiis Uvifera, var. Leoganensis, vi. 115. 

Coccolobis Uvifera, var. ovalifolia, vi. 115. 

Coocomyces triangularis, viii. 13. 

Coccothrinax, xiv. 85. 

Coccothrinax argentea, xiv. 85. 

Coccothrinax Garberi, xiv. 85. 

Coccothrinax jucunda, xiv. 87. 

Coccothrinax radiata, xiv. 85. 

Coccus Cacti, xiv. 11. 

Coccus [licis, viii. 10. 

Coccus Pe-la, vi. 20. 

Cochineal, xiv. 11. 

Cockscomb Gall'louse, vii. 41. 

Cockspur Thorn, iv. 01 ; xiii. 39. 

Cocoa Plum, iv. 3. 

Codlin-moth, iv. 70. 

Codimocrinum, x. 1. 

Cuffee-tree, ii. 37. 

Coffee-tree, Kentucky, i'.i. 09. 

Colden, Cadwall.TifT, i. 60. 

Culeophora caryipfoiiclla, vii. 133. 

Coleophora eorneUa, v. (>5. 

Coleophora laricella, xii. 5. 

Coleophora Ostryir, ix. 32. 

Coleophora viburniella, v. 94. 

Coleosporium Pini, xi. 12. 

Coleosporium Senccinnis, xi. 12. 

Coloospitrium Vibunii, v. 94. 

Colleta Plum, iv. 26. 

Collinson, Peter, i. 8. 

CoUosphieria curticata, vii. 87. 

Coloplm rtn)icul.i, vii. 41. 

Colomdo Spruoe, xii, 47, 

ColpoMia inorbidum, xii. 20. 

Colubrina. ii. 47. 

Colubrina Americana, ii. 47. 

Colubrina Asiatica, ii. 47. 

Colubrina Culubrina, ii. 47. 

Colubrina Kcrnientum, ii. 47. 

Colubrina femtginosa, ii. 47. 

Colubrina (Ireggii, ii. 47. 

Colubrina rcclinata, ii. 19. 

Colubrina Texcnsis, ii. 47. 

Columella, vi. 109. 



Compton, Henry, i. 6. 

ComptonU, iz. 84. 

Complonia, iz. 83. 

Comptonia asplmi/olia, ix. 84. 

Condal, Antonio, ii. 23, 

Condalia, ii. 23. 

Condalia, ii. 19. 

Condalia /errea, ii. 29. 

Condclia infectoria, ii. 23. 

Condalia Mexicana, ii. 23. 

Condalia microphyllR, ii. 23. 

Condalia obovata, ii. 25. 

Condalia spatbulata, ii. 23. 

CoNIFER£, X. GU ; xi. 1 ; xii. 1 ; xiv. 89. 

Conocarpus, t. 23. 

Conocarpu) acuti/olia, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, var. arborea, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, var. procumbens, v. 24. 

Conocarpus erecta, var. sericea, v. 24. 

Conocarpua procumbens, v. 24. 

Conocarpiu racemoaa, y. 29. 

Conotracbelus Juglandis, vii. 116. 

Conotrachelus Noso, iv. 84. 

Conotracbelus Nenupbar, iv. 11, 

Conotracbelus posticatus, iv. 84. 

Consntea, xiv. 9. 

Cooper, J. G., i. 30. 

Copalillo, ii. 74. 

Ccpalm balm, v. 8. 

Copper Beecb, ix. 24. 

Coral Bean, iii. G3. 

Coral Sumacb, iii. 14. 

Cordia, vi. 07. 

Cordia A/rivana, vi. 08. 

Cordia alliodora, vi. 08. 

Cordia alliodora, woo<l of, \i, 69. 

Cordia angmtifotia, vi. 08. 

Cordia Boissieri, vi. 73. 

Cordia /Iroicnii, vi. 68. 

Cordia Imllala, vi. 08. 

Cordia rampanidata, vi. 68. 

Cordia Cerdana, vi. 08. 

Cordia dirhntonui, vi. 08. 

Cordia, economic uses of, vi. 08, 

Cordia Floridana, vi. 77. 

Cordia Gcrascantbus, vi. 08. 

Cordia globosa, vi. 08. 

Cordia hexandra, vi. 08. 

Cordia Indit-a, vi. 08. 

t Cordia juijlannifolic, vi. 71. 

Cordia lati/olia, vi. 08. 

Cordia Myxa, vi. 08. 

Cordia Myia, uses of, vi. 68. 

Cordia olJirinalis, vi. 08. 

Cordia orienlatis, vi. 08. 

Cordia panindata, vi. 08. 

Cordia podocepludn, vi. 08. 

Cordia reticidata, vi. 08. 

Cordia lllitimphii, vi. 08. 

Cordia Uothii, vi. 08. 

Cordui Sebcstcnn, vi. 71. 

Cordia Sebf-itena, vi, 08. 

Cordia Setn'Mena, var. mbra, vi. 71. 

Cordia spet'iosa, vi. 71. 

Cordia suboortlata, vi. 08. 

Cordia mhopposita, vi. 08. 

Cordia thjrsijiora, vi. 79. 

Ccrdia vestita, vi. 08. 

Cordial-water, Clierry, iv. 10 

Cordus, Valerius, vi. 09, 

Cordi/iohlasle, vi. 13, 

Cork Elm, vii. 47. 

Cork, barvcsting of, viii. 8. 


,f i 



Cork Oak, viii. 8. 

Cork Wood, vii. 111. 

CoKNACEAC, T. 63 ; xiv. 21. 

Coniularia Penicie, iv. 12. 

Coriiu8» V. 63. 

Com»», iv. 67. 

Corftui aiha, xiv. 21. 

f Cortnts alha, v. 64. 

C(tmu$ altertutj v. 71. 

Cornua altcriiifolia, v. 71. 

Comus Amomumj v. 64. 

Corniis asperifolia, xiv. 21. 

Cttmus asperi/olia, ''ar. Drummondi, xiv. iJl. 

Comut awfrfi/w, v. 1 1. 

Comwi bmchf/poda, v. 64. 

Cornua capitata, v. 64. 

f Ct?miti ramiiwi, v. 64. 

Comus crijepula, v. 64. 

Comui lyanocarpa, v. 64. 

Comui Drummoruli^ xiv. 21. 

Cunms Horida, v. 66 ; xiv. 101. 

Comus Jiorida, v. 69. 

Cornus Horida, pondiilous variety, v. 68. 

Comus Horida, red-ltracU'd variety, v. 68. 

Comuii, fungal eiieiuios of, v. 65. 

Comus, insect enemies of, v. 65. 

Comus Kousa, v. 64. 

Comta lanuffinosa, v. 61. 

Comus macrophylla, v. 64. 

Comus mas, v. 64. 

Comus Nuttallii, v. 69. 

Comus t-fiiigua, v. 61. 

Cornus officinalis, v. 61. 

f Camus petlf/gnma, v. 64. 

0>mi*jr punrlata, v. 71. 

Comus riparia^ v. 71. 

Comus njHtria, var. nigosa, v. 71. 

Comus rotuTnli/olia, v. 71. 

t Cornus rubiginosa^ v. (J4. 

Cornus sanf^uinoa, v. 6-1. 

Cornus sericea, v. 6t. 

Comus sericea, y asprri/oiiaf xiv. 21. 

Comus undufata, v. 71. 

Coromande' wood, vi. 3. 

Corrections, xiv. 97, 

Cor^icftu Pine, xi. 6. 

l'ort*'X CanelliP allw, i. 3.'i. 

Ciirlcx thynii.'nnal)!t, v, 8. 

Curtiriuni aceritium, var. iiivcum. i. 73. 

Corticiuni cnientum. ix. 101. 

Ciirtioiiim (Hkesii, ix. tOl. 

Cortii'ium pezizoideum, ix. 156. 

{^orypha minor, x. .'18. 

Citr^pha Paitnettn, x. 41. 

Corypha pumila, x. 38. 

Cossula inagnifka, viii. It. 

Cussnt* (Vntrn-usirt. ix. l.VJ. 

CosRus lipnijM'rda, i. 50 

CuAKU.t Qii'Tciperda, \\x\. 11. 

Cossuft rt'tirulatUN, viii. 11, 

CcMMu ruhiniv, iii. 38. 

CoHU'a, ii 2. 

Cdtiniis, iii I. 

Cotinus Americanus, iii. .3 ; xiv. 00. 

i'lttvxus f^ogffyyno, iii. ii, 3. 

Cotinus CiitinuH, iii. L'. 

CiAif^^fistrr sjnUhulata, iv. 105. 

Cutt4tii (tuii), v. H.'t. 

Ci>ttnnw.MMl. ix 170. \K\ : xiv. 69, 71, 73. 

Cott^mwcMHl. HalMiut, ix. 175. 

Ciitonw.K.*), HUrk, ix. 163, 175. 

(VittiiiiwMHl, Narrciw-leaved, ix. 171. 

Cottonwood, Swamp, ix. I(>.3. 

Coulter, Thomas, iii. M. 

Covrllia, vii. 92. 

Covellia, vii. 01. 

Coville, Frederick Veraoa, zit. 67. 

Cow Oak, viii. 67. 

Crab, Kraf^rant, iv, 71. 

Crab, Soulanl, iv. 72. 

Crab Wood, vii. 30. 

Crab-apple, iv. 71, 75. 

Crab-apple, Oregon, iv. 77. 

Cranberries, v. 116. 

Cranberry, cultivation of the, r. 116. 

Crataegus, iv. 83 ; xiii. 31. 

Crtit(Tgu9 aceti/olia, iv. 107 

CratieguB aciitifolia, xiii. 51. 

Cratiegus feHtivalis, iv. 119. 

Cratityus Amelamhier, iv. 125. 

Cratffigus anomala. xiii. 1U7. 

Crategiia npiifdia, iv. 111. 

Cratagus apii/Mia minor, iv. 111. 

Crataegus aprica, xiii. 169. 

Crnttrgus arhortscfns, iv. 109. 

Cmtaegus arhuti/oUa, iv. 123. 

Crataegus vVrkansana, xiii. 85. 

Crnttegus Arnoldiana, xiii. 103. 

CratA>gti8 Asbei, xiii. 140. 

Cratjegus atnjrubens, xiii. 181. 

Cratcrgus ItadiaUi, iv. 92. 

Crata'gus berl>erifolia, xiii. 30. 

Crattrgus herbrrifUia, Iv. 93 ; xiii. 43. 

Crata>gua Berlandieri, xiii. 91. 

Cratiegus blaiida, xiii. 177. 

(^rahrgus liosriana, iv. J*2. 

Crataegus Iloyntoni, xiii. (io. 

Cratfngus bractiyacantha, iv. 80. 

Crntji'gus Hrnzoria, xiii. 77. 

Craui>gus Husliii, xiii. o.^. 

Cr.itjegus Canatli'usis, xiii. 89. 

Cratiegus Cunbyi, xiii. 41. 

Cratjegiia Candida, xiii. 05. 

Crattrgus Carol inintut, iv. 113. 

Cmtirgus Curntrft, iv. 91. 

Crataegus Chauiplainensis, xiii. 105. 

f Crnl(tgus rhlortM-arpii, xiii. 61. 

CratiFguH coct-inca, iv. 05 ; xiii. 133. 

CraUrgus coccinea, iv. 96 ; xiii. 13'l. 

Crutirgfis ciicriufn marrattintha, xiii. 135. 

Cratirgns foccinen pruinma. xiii. 61, 

Cnttwg':' coccincR rotiindifolia, xiii. 134. 

Cniltrgits cucrinen subviilosti, xiii. 101. 

(ytit(rgus ntrcinea, • .' motlis, xiii. 83. 

Crata-giis (MK-rinea, var. niucracantba, iv. 06. 

Cratcrgus ax-rinea, var. macrocafUha, xiii. KH, 

1.39, 147. 
Crataegus n>rfinra, var. moHis, iv. 00 ; xiii. 

Cratcrgus carrinra, var. Uigtindro, iv. 95. 
Cratjpgus coccinea, var, populifulia. iv. 97. 
Crattrgyis ntcriutfo, var. tf/piiyi, iv. 97. 
Cratcrgus an-finfa, var. viridix, iv. 05, 96. 
CnitjpgiiR cm'cinioides, xiii. 115. 
Cnittrgus coilirnla, xiii. 7.3. 
Crataegus c<i)lina, xiii. 7!t. 
Crnttrcjus Cnhi^hinua, xiii. 05. 
Cratfl*guA coiiNangiiinca. xiii. 157. 
Cratfl'giis riirdatn, iv. 10". 
Cnitit'gii!^ conlata. distriliuiiun of, xiii. 35, 
Cratagut cnrcmarin, iv. 71. 
Crntflpgus rurusca, xiii. 99. 
Cratirgus Caurirtianci, iv. 02. 
Crataegus Crus-giiUi, iv. 01. 
CraUrtpui Cms'galii, iv 103, 
CratN'gua Crus-gatli, distribution of, xiii. 

Crata'gus Crus-galll, var. berberifolia, iv. 93. 

Cratagus Crui-galli, var. berberifolia^ xiii. 53. 

Cratwgua Crus-galli, var. Fontauesiana, vr. 

CratAgiis Crus-galli, var. linearis, iv. 02. 

Cratiegns Crus-gaUi, var. ovalifolia, iv. 92. 

Crata'gus Crus-galli, var. pruntfolia, iv, 02, 

Cratiegus Cras-galli, var, pyracanthifolia, iv. 
\Y1 ; xiii. 39. 

Cratirgus Crus-gaUi, var. pyracarUM/cdia, iv. 

Cratiegus Crus-galli, var, salicifolia, xiii, 39. 

Cratagus Crus-galli, var. salicifolia, iv. 02. 

Cratctgus Cms-galli, var. splenden$f iv. 91. 

Cratcrgus c^neifolia, iv, 103. 

Crata-gusdiUtata, xiii. 113. 

Crattegiis dis(mr, xiii. I(»5. 

Cratiegus Douglasii, iv. 86. 

Cratcrgus Douglasii, iv. Oti. 

Cratirgus Douglasii, distribution of, xiii, 35. 

Cratiegus Douglasii, var. rivularis, iv. 87, 

CiatieguH Douglasii, var, rivularit, distribu- 
tion of, xiii. IVi. 

Cratcrgus Ihwningii, xiii, 140. 

CratiPgua cdita, xiii. 57, 

Cratcrgus Eggertii, xiii. 116. 

Cratirgus elliptim, iv. 114, 110 ; xiii. 53, 167. 

Cratiegus Kllwangeriana, xiii. 100. 

Cratiegus Kngelmannl, xiii. 43, 

Cratiegus erecta, xiii. 40. 

Cratfcgua fecunda, xiii. 47. 

Crata'gus Huva, iv. 113 ; xiii. 155. 

Cratcrcpis Jiava, iv. 10.3, 114 ; xiii. 156, 159. 

Cratiegus Hava, var. elliptica, iv. 114. 

Cratorgus fiava, var. elliptica, xiii. 165. 

('ratcrgus •' \ var. lnhata, iv, 113 ; xiii, 151J. 

CratitgtL^ Jlava, var. puftt-scens, iv. 114, 

Oatacpis jUruasa, iv. 117, 

Crata'gus KInridana, xiii. 159. 

Cratiegus, fuugnl eurntiea of, iv. 84. 

CrnUegus goniinusa, xiii. 141. 

Crata'guj (leorgiann, xiii, 63. 

Cratiegns glabriuscula, xiii. 175. 

Cratirgus glanduUaa, iv. 96, 113, 114 ; xiii. 

Cm 'fgus glatulidcK^a, d aucndeuta, riii. 139. 

Cratirgus glcvululma, 8 macracantha, xiii. 147. 

f (^atcrgits glandulosa, $ rolimdifvlia, xiii. 134. 

Cnittrgus glaudulosa, var. ma<Tacatitha, iv. 

Cratcrgus glauduliwi, var. rotundifoliaf iv. 95. 

CrntiegUH llurbisoni, xiii. 151. 

Crata'gus IIolincHiaiia, xiii. 110. 

Cnittrgus fiitlmesiaua vdlipes, xiii. 119> 

Cratircpis hornda, xiii. l.'VI. 

CratM^giiA Itlinoieusis, xiii, 143, 

Crataegus, iiiM'Ot enemies of, iv. 84. 

('mta'gus intcgriloba. xiii. 145. 

Crntiegiis dunewi!, xiii. VXi. 

Cmtiegn.H lacera, xiii. 127. 

CratH'guh lacriuiHta, xiii. 161. 

Cratcrgus UiUf>iia, iv. HU, 103. 

Cratirgus laurif'ijlia, iv. 91. 

Cratirgus Larallei, iv. 01. 

Crotn'ifUfl lA'lterniani, xiii. 79. 

Cnittrgus IfWitphUms, iv. 101. 

Crattrgus hnrtin.i, Iv. {fJ. 

Cnittrgus littntla, iv. 113. 

Cratiegti.H lobul-ita, xiii. 117. 

Cniltrcjus lucnta, iv. 01, 110. 

Cratiegtis lucorum, xiii. 125. 

Cratiegus miuTiuantha, xiii. U7, 

Crtiiirgus tnaiTnt^antha, iv. \H\. 

f Cnittrgus macracantha, xiii. 139. 

Cratcrgus macracantha, var. minor, xiii. 147. 

rberi/olia^ xiii. 63, 
Fontanesiano, ir. 

iiearis, iv. 02. 
ralifulia, iv. 02. 
ninifulia, iv. 02. 
fracanthi folia, iv. 

ymcanthiffitia, iv. 

lici folia, xiii. 30. 
Ud/oliat iv. 02. 
lendenif iv. 91. 

ition of, xiii. 36. 
niluris, iv. 87. 
vularis distribu- 

Iftiia, riii. 130. 
icnuthn, xiii. M7. 
/(/"o/((i, xiii. 134. 
nacractinthat iv. 

nndi/oliat iv. IM>. 

Cratiegtu Margaretta, xiii. 137. 

Cratagiu Michauxii, iv. 114. 

Crataffta microcarpa, iv. 105. 

CraUegus Muhri, xiii. 50. 

CraUegua mollis, iv. 00 ; xiii. 83, 84. 

CrataguM mollist xiii. 03, 101. 

Cratiegus nitida, xiii. 170. 

Cratagus obovati/olia, iv. 103. 

Craingua opaca,i\. 110. 

CratieguB opiina, xiii. 171. 

Cratagu* ovaUfoVta^ iv. 02. 

Cratiegus Oxyacantha, iv. 84. 

Crat(rgu,t Oxyacanthay iv. 111. 

Cratagui OxyacanthOf var. AmericaTUif iv. 111. 

Cratirgua Oxyacantha, var. apiifoliat iv. 111. 

CratctgMS parvifolutt iv. 117. 

Cratiegus paBtorum, xiii. 134. 

Crataegus podicellata, xiii. 121. 

Crat«egufl peritaudra, xiii. 120. 

CratasgiiB Peoriensifl, xiii. 45. 

CrafTsguB pinnatiflda, iv. 84. 

Cratagus poptUi/olia, iv. 07, 107. 

Cratiegus pratensis, xiii. 81. 

Cratiegus Pringlci, xiii. 111. 

CratceguB, properties of, iv. 84. 

Cratiegus pruinosa, xiii. 61. 

Crat(tgits pruneUifolia^ iv. 02. 

Cratagus pruni/olia, iv. 02. 

Cratiegiis punctata, iv. 103. 

Cratiegus punctata, distribution of, xiii. 35. 

Crat(rgtu punctuta, var. aurea, iv. 103. 

Cratagus punctata^ var. brevupina^ iv. 86. 

Cratftgiis punctata^ var, ruhrat iv. 103. 

Crat(tgu9 punctata, var. xanthocarpa, tv. 103. 

Cratagtu pyri/olia, iv. 101. 

Cratiegus pyriformis, xiii. 07. 

Cratiegus quercina, xiii. 05. 

Crntagtu racemosa, iv. 127. 

Cratiegus Kavenelii, xiii. 163. 

Cmt(rgu.i riviUarut, iv. 8*>, 87. 

Crat(tgu3 rotundifolia, iv. 05, 125 ; xiii. 65, 

Cratftgux rotund i/olUi, a miiwr, xiii. 147. 
Cruttrgux mfundi/oliat b succulentaf xiii. 130. 
Cralirgun xalicifolia, iv. 92. 
Cratiegus saligim, xiii. 37. 
Crattegwi Htinguinea, iv. 86, 06. 
Cralirgiis sanguinea, iMuglasii, iv. 86. 
Crataegus Surgenti, xiii. 60. 
Crata'gus Hcabrida, xiii. 123. 
Crataegus senta, xiii, 167. 
Cratiegus sera, xiii. S7. 
Crata'gtis itigimta, xiii. 53. 
Cratiegus siUicola, xiii. 131. 
Cratiegus sinistra, xiii. 43. 
Cratiegus sortlida, xiii. 75. 
Cratiegus spntlnilatn, iv. 105. 
CriiUrgux sp<ithuliita, iv. SO, 114. 
Crntirgns spivota, iv. 120. 
Cratiegus stipulusa, iv. H4. 
Cratiegus sulnmitlis, xiii. 101. 
Cnttiegus s.ihorbiiMilata, xiii. 71. 
CrnttrgM-t suhvilloxu, iv. 00. 
CratirgtiA suhrillom f, xiii. 83. 
Cratiegus succuleiitn, xiii. 130. 
Cratiejjus 'IVxaiin, xiii. 03. 
( 'rutirtfus Tenttui, iv. Ot>. 
Cratirgnu tilifpfotitt, viii. H-t. 
Cratiegus touipnt'ina, iv. 101. 
Cnttinjti.i tiimfntosa, iv. 00, 117 ; xiii. 101. 
Crtitiegiis tonu'utosa, distrtbiitioii itf, xiii. 35. 
Cralitgu.1 tomeulom, var. mollu, iv. 1>0 ; xiii. 

('rrt/<ry»< tomentosa, var. plicata, iv. 103. 


Cratagus tomentosOf var, punctaiaf iv. 103. 

Cratagus tomentosa, vrt. pyri/olia, iv. 101. 

Cratagus turbinata, iv. 113. 

CratffiguB uniflora, iv. 117. 

Cratagus unilateralis, iv. 117. 

Cratiegus Vailis, xiii. 153. 

CratiBgUB venusta, xiii. 67. 

Cratagus Virginica, iv. 114. 

Cratcegus viridis, iv. 100. 

Cratagus viridis, iv. 06, 114 ; xiii. 61, 170. 

Cratagus viridis, var. nitida, xiii. 170. 

Cratiegus vulsa, xiii. 173. 

Cratagus Watsoniana, iv. 01. 

Creniatomiat vi. 76. 

Crepidodera HclxineB, ix. 101, 156. 

Cresaentia, vi. 97. 

Crescentia aruminara, vi. 97. 

Creseentia alata, vi. 08. 

t Crescentia coriacea, vi. 00. 

Crescentia cucurbitiua, vi. 00 ; xir. 102. 

Crescentia Cujete, vi. 07. 

Crescentia Cujete, uses of, vi. 97. 

Crescentia cunei/oliOt vi. 97. 

Crescentia lati/olia, vi. 99. 

Crescentia lethi/era, vi, 00. 

Crescentia obovata, vi. 99. 

Crescentia mmta, vi. 00 ; xiv. 102. 

Crescentia, species, vi, 00. 

Crescenzi, Pietro dc*, vi. 08. 

Criocephalus agrestis, xi, U. 

CnssuB latitarsus, ix. 48. 

Cronartium ai^rlepiateum, ix. 86. 

Crouartium ribieolum, xi. 12. 

Croom, Hardy B., x. 58. 

Croomia, x. 58. 

Cryptolechia cryptolechiella, i. 108. 

Cryptolechia faginelia, ix. 24. 

Cryptolechia quercicella, viii. 12. 

Cryptolechia Sehlagenellii, viii. 12. 

Cryptorbynchus Lapatbi, ix. 100, 155. 

Cryptosn'^-'-'v; ^1.1,.' "lluin, ix. 10. 

Cucur.oer-tree, i. 7. 

Cucuniber-ttse Large-leaved, i. 11. 

Cucumber'tree, Long-leaved, i. 15. 

Cuiete, vi. 07, 08. 

Cumberland Plum, iv. 24. 

Cupania glabra, i. 42. 

Cuprespitinala t x. 140. 

Cupre-tpinnala disticka, x. 151. 

Cupressua, x. 07. 

CuprenKus Amerirnna, x. 115. 

Cupresaus Arbor-vita, x. 126. 

Cu| rcssus Arizunica, x. 10<%. 

Cupressus Arizimira, var. bonila, x. 105. 

Ctipremtus attenwilOt x. 110. 

Cupressus Bnl/ourinrui, x. 119. 

CuprfsHus lienthami, var. Arizonica, x. 105. 

Cuprffsus Hnur.tifrii, x 110. 

Cuprctsivt Cali/ornira, x. 107. 

Cuprfsnus Cali/oniirn gracilis, x. 107, 100. 

Cupre.ssu,t conoidea, x. 00. 

CuprenKits coniula, x. 107. 

CuprcssHs di.ttii'/in, x. l.'il. 

Cupre.isus difttirhii, $ imfiricnr.a, x. 152, 

Cupressus di,<tirh(i, var. nutans, x. 153. 

CupresnHS di.itichn, var. paten,«, x. 151. 

CupressuB, econoinic prt»pertie8 of, x. 08. 

Cupressus elongntn, x. 100. 

Cnpressus fa.<tiffialtt, x. iH). 

Cupresftus J'nigriin.t, x. 110. 

Cuprr.Hsus fuucbris, x. KM). 

Cuprcs^uH, fungal diseases of. x. 100. 

('upre:isus glnndulitsn, x. 109. 

Cupresstiit (jhiHi-n, x. 100. 


Cupreasus globuli/era, x. 100. 
CupresBUS Goveniaua, x, 107 ; xiv. 05. 
Cupressus Ooveniatm, var. pygmaa, xiv. 06. 
Cupressus Guadalupensia, x. 08. 
Cupressus Guadalupensit, x. 105. 
Cupressui Harlwegii, x. 103. 
Cupressus Hartwegii, v&r. fastigiata, x, 103. 
Cupressus horizouUilis, x. 100. 
Cupressus horizontalis, $ pendula, x. 100, 
Cupressus, insect enemies of, x. 100. 
Cupressus Lambertiana, x, 103, 104, 
Cupressus Lambertiana, \tLr.fastigiata,x. 103. 
Cupressus Lawsoniana, x. 119. 
Cupressus lugubris, x. 99. 
CupressuB Lusitanica, x. 100. 
Cupressus Macn biana, x, 100 ; xiv. 105. 
Cupressus niacr'icarpa, x. 103. 
Cupressus macrocarpa Crippai, z. 104. 
Cupressus macrocarpa flagelliformis, x, 104. 
Cupressus macrocarpa, ? var. Farallonensis, x. 

Cupressus macrocarpa, tot. fastigiata, x. 103. 
Cupressus macrocarpa, var. GuadatoupensiSf 

z. 08. 
Cupressus macrocarpa, var. Lambertiana, z, 

Cupressus Nabiana, x. 100. 
Cupressus Nootkatensia, x. 115 ; xiv. 105. 
Cupressus Nutkana, x. 110. 
Cupressus Nutkatensis, x, 115, 
Cupressus obtusa, z. 98. 
Cupressus obtusa, ecouomic properties of, z. 

Cupressus obtusa, var. breviramca, x. 98. 
Cupressus palustris, x. 111. 
Cupressus patula, x. 100, 124. 
Cupressus pendula, x. 100, 124. 
Cupressus pisifera, x. '.'8. 
Cupressus pisifera, var. a squarrosa, x. 99. 
Cupressus pisifera, ^ \r. c Hlifera, x, 00. 
Cupressus pygmiea, xiv. 95. 
Cupresstis pyramidally, x. 99. 
Cupressus Reinioardtii, x. 104. 
Cupressus sabinoides, x. 01. 
Cupressus scinpervircns, x. 90. 
Cupressus sempervircns liorizontalis, x. 100. 
Cupressus sempervirens stricta, x. 00. 
Cupressus sempervirens, a, x. 00. 
Cupressus s''mi>eri'irens, a fastigiata, x. 90. 
Cupressus sempervirens, j9, x. 100. 
Cupressus sempervirens, y spfnerorarpa, x. 100, 
Cupressus sempervirens, y umhilicatu, x. 90. 
Cupressus sempervirens, 8 globuli/era, x. 100. 
Cupressus sempervirens, « Indira, x- 00. 
Cupressus spharocarpa, x. 100. 
Cupressus st^uarrosa, x. 09. 
Cupressus Thuya, x. 124. 
Cupressus tliyoides, x. 111. 
Cupressus thyoidts, x. 71. 
CupresstiS (hyoidvs aurea, x. 112. 
Cupressus tbyoidt's eriodides, x. 112. 
Cupressus torulosn, x. Oi). 
CupresKus (orulosa^ x. 103. 
Cupressus Toume/ortii, x. i>l>. 
Cupressus umbilicata, x. 00. 
CupresKus Whitleyana, x. 00. 
Crpui.iFKR.4-:, viii. 1 ; ix. 1 ; xiv. 49. 
CurtUia, i. 65. 

Curtiss, .Mien Hiram, ii. 50, 
Custard apple, i. 28. 
Cutob, iii. 116. 
Cut-leaved Ueeeh, ix. 24. 
Cyanococous, v. ll.'i. 
Cyclobalanopsis, nii. 4, 


tJt '.! 



Cyeli>h^'mopiis, viii. 1. 

Cyclobi. K lu . viii. 4. •, vu*'. 1. 

Cylindropn itia, xiv. 10. 

C5I ijdroipurium ou*anicoluDi, ix. 10. 

CifUpogwx, iii. 33. 

Cyllene autennfttus, iii. 100. 

Cyllene piotus, Wi. 116, 133. 

Cyllene robiniie, iii. [\^. 

Cynipa Gnllfe tinctoriie, viii. 9. 

Cjfnozylon, v. 03. 

CypbelU fulva, ix. 70. 

Cyprew, x. 105, 107, 101) ; xi?. 05. 

Cypres*. Bald. x. 151. 

Cypreu. Hlnck, x. 153, 154. 

Cypr-ti, l>(H!iduou8, x. 151. 

Cyprew kuees, x. 151. 

Cypre.w, LawRon's. %. 110. 

CyprcM, Mexican Bald, x. 150. 

Cypre«9, Montert^v, x. 103. 

CypivM of Montezuma, x. 150. 

Cypress of Peopatella, x. 150. 

Cyprefcs of Tule, x. 150. 

Cypres*., Pyramidal, x. 100. 

Cypress, Ked. x. l.>4. 

Crpreis, Sitka, x. 115. 

Cypr«S8, White, x. 153, 154. 

Cypress, Yollow, x. 116. 

Cypresses, Mexican, x. 98. 

Cyrilla, ii. 1. 

Cyrilla Antillana, ii. 2. 

C^riUa Caroiiniana, ii. 3. 

Cyrilla funciita, li. 3. 

Cyrilla fKtninilata, v. 153. 

Cynlia parvi/olta, ii. 3. 

Cyrilla poly^tarhia^ ii. 3. 

Cynlla racemi/era, ii. 2. 

Cyrilla «acen)idora, ii. 3. 

Cyrilla raremnta. ii. 3. 

Cynlla raoeniosa, var. racemifera, ii. 2. 

Cyrillace.e, ii. 1. 

Cyrtophorus verrucosus, iv. 11. 

Cy$togyrie, \ii. lU. 

Dacrydium plumosum^ x. 134. 

Dartylu/, vi. 1. 

Dacfylus Tmpfzuntinus, vi. 2. 

Diedalia quercioa, viii. 12. 

I>ipdaiia vorax, x. 134. 

Dftpgcr. Spanish, x. 9, 13, 15. 17, 113. 2/. 

I>ahu<in, i. 109. 

Dale, Samuel, iii. 34. 

Dali'a, iii. 3^). 

Oalea arborescens, iii. 33. 

Ualea Hpinosa, iii. .'15. 

Iktphrii/thyllopri'i capitala, v. 73. 

iMp-uliu rutiUiia, x. 73. 

Darlini^ Plum, ii. 21. 

Dasyscypha Af^aasuii, xii. 5, 101. 

DaxyKcypha calvciim, xii. 5. 

l>[uty!h'vpha Willkommii, xii. 5. 

Dutana intc^errima, \\i. 110. 

I>alana n.inistra, it. 70 ; \ix. 116, 133. 

IkUvra Air.'d, xjv. 99. 

I)a%id*s<>ak, viii. 10. 

f OrcaJut, vi. 13. 

Deciduous Cypress, x. 151. 

Deep Cre*'k Plum, iv. 20. 

Dei-rlterry, v. 117. 

DeiUnia varinUria, ix. 101. 

IhloMtrHi, \. 181 

'lendroctonufl fruntaliA, xii. 26. 

( 'endn>ctonuA ruflponiiis, xii. 25. 

UendroctnnuK tircbraus, xi. 11. 


Dendrodaphnc, vii. 9. 

f J)fndrodaphne, vii. 9. 

Doprej^saria robiniella, iii. 38. 

Dfrmatophyllum, iii. 59. 

J)ermatophyllum gpeciosumf iii. 03. 

Desert Palm, x. 47. 

Desert Willow, vi. 95. 

Dfxmanlhits mlinartimf iii. 101, 

Do Soto Pluro, iv. *20. 

Devil Wood, vi. 05. 

IHamaripSy ix. 1*5. 

Diamond Willow^ ix. 130. 

Diandne, ix. 90. 

Diuporthe Carpini, ix. 41. 

DiaspLs Carueli, x. 73. 

Diatryiw disciformis, ix. 49. 

Diatry|H<lla Tucciieana, ix. 70. 

Ihcalyx, vi. 13. 

Dioerea divanoata, iv. 11. 

DidymiwiM'cus, ii. G7. 

Di^p^r Pine, xi. 95. 

Dilly, Wild, v. 183. 

Dimerosporiuni pulchrum, v. 65. 

DimitrjihanthfiS, v. 57. 

IHmorphafthus c/aru.*, v. 60. 

Dimorpkatithwi Mandshuriruif v. 00. 

Diospyros, vi. 1. 

Diwpynn Hmsilifujiiji, \i. 3. 

Dio*pyro> Ca'olitiiana, vi. 7. 

Diospyros, character of the wood of, vi. 2. 

f Diofpyroti Chiuenjiis, vi. 4. 

Ihofpyrat riliata, vi. 7. 

Diimpyrim rorirohr, vi. 7. 

t THospyrtift cmtata, vi. 4. 

Diospyros Cunulon, Ti. 3. 

DiospyroM de*'ayulra, *!. 3. 

Diospyros Dendo, vi. 3. 

Diospynis diffyna^ vi. 3. 

Duxipyrox duliia, vi. 3. 

Diospyros Kl>onai)ter, vi. 3. 

Ihiixpyros Khrna^tti-r, v\. 2, 

Diospyros Kbenaster, fniit of, vi. 3. 

Diospyros KlM-num, vi. 2. 

JJufjipyrtin Ehftium, vi. 3. 

Diospyrot Kmbryoptfj Ia , vi. 3. 

iHmpyrox ftTTJttjinra, vi. 3. 

Diospyros, fitn^l enemies of, \i. 4. 

Difiipyras tjMnirrima, vi. 2. 

Diatpyr'Mi glutirf\:>j, vi. 3. 

Diospyru* ( luajai'ana, vi. 7. 

Dio^t-; ■• *cct eneoiies of, vi. 4. 

lMc:.f" •■ >.' Ji'ponicn, vi. 2. 

f />■'■ •I'v'-' ■ '-'iFmp/eri, vi. 4. 

I>ioe{.; . s Kuki, \i. 4. 

Diatpyrot Kftl'i, var. B, vi. 2. 

f Ihiapf/ros Ktiii, var. rnntata, vi. 4. 

DiospyrtM Kaki, mikkI of, vi. 4. 

J}\o$pyrn% laun/oita, vi. 3. 

IHoxpyrnn limfji/oiia, vi. 3. 

Diospyros I^tui, vi. 2. 

IHoxpyrtki Mnlaffanra^ vi. 3. 

Jhimpyrta Matrix, vi. 4. 

Diofl])yro«, iiie<lieal properties of, vi. 3. 

Diospyros nielaniiTvlon, vi. 3. 

Puifpyron tuflauttjtfimf vi. 2. 

Diospyros melanoxylon, wimmI uf, \i. 3. 

Ihoxpyritt mrmbranarea, vi. 3. 

JHuspyron mtmM'arpa, vi. 2. 

fhospyron ntgra, vi. 3. 

Ihitfpyros nigriratui, vi. 3. 

iHotpymt ohtwii/iilia, vi. 3. 

Diospyros opponittfolia, vi. 3. 

Diospyros Paraleu, vi. 3. 

Diospyros peref^hiiA, Ti. 3. 

hioif-j' w "* ■■■,•?'■', ^i, 7 

In^pyroa P' ^o-Lotu n. ?.. 

i>i*A','e yiu/ivcT'*, .1 7. 

Diospyrr lUft- ■':», ▼?. 'A. 

D' v>v.:« rttt '\lata, vi. H. 

2 *i apyt-o* '■eiUrlntt,, vi. »». 

Diospyro.t A'oJ^'.^»/<...^, vi. 4. 

i)iVw/»yrfW Sapota, vi, 3. 

f Diofpyros Schi-Tse^ vi. 4. 

f Diospyros Sim h*w, vi. 4. 

Diospyros tcsaellaria, vi. 3. 

Diospyros Tcxana, vi. 11. 

Diospyros toxicaria, vi. '^. 

DioHpyros, uses of, vi. o. 

Diospyros Virginiana, vi. 7. 

Diospyros Virginii in medical properties of, 

vi. 9. 
Diospyrr.t Virgitiiai ., var. concolor, vi. 7. 
IHaipyrtut Virffiniawi, var. tnarrocarptt^ vi. 7. 
iHmpyron Virginiana, var. microcarpa, vi. 7. 
Dioxpyrns Virginiatia, var. puliescenSf vi. 7. 
Ditupyran U'i(/A/uina, vi. 3. 
Dipholis, V. 177. 
Diphohn salicifolui, v. 179. 
Ihplima, ix. 95. 
Diplisfa, ii. 47. 
ihplisca elliptica, ii. 49. 
Diplodea Taxi, x. 03. 
Diplosis Catalpfe, vi. 84. 
Diplosis Vini-ri^idtc, xi. 11. 
Dif>ttaion, ix. 95. 
JhpU"'->9pfrmumy i. 39. 
Dissemination of Yuocft, x. 3. 
DistegocitPpa«, ix. 40. 
Digteg-.i-irwn, ix. 39. 
lHsteyj('jr;!U!t C«r/n'niw, ix 41. 
IHsteg-c^'^.'us f rordata, ix. 41. 
Ihfttg'^orptis laTi/turOf ix. 41. 
Disterigma, v. 116. 
D'K'tor (lum, iii. 14. 
Do)5 Cherry, vii. 09. 
Hngwood, V. 09, 71 ; xiv. 21, 
T'o^wimkI, Flowering, v. 06. 
D(i|; voo)!, Jamaica, iii. 53. 
T\>f"«'rrMl. Poison, iii. 23. 
I'-iintia, vi. 105. 
Dimiielaari(i, v. 111. 
Don*ifvw'lema Wildii, vii. 87. 
Dothidea PringUi, x. 5. 
Douglas, l>avid, ii. IM. 
Douglas, Kolwrt, vi. 90. 
Douglas .Spruce, xii. S7. 
Dowuwanl JMuui, v. 175. 
Drepnwles varus, x. 7.3. 
ihnmophyllutn, vii. 19. 
Ihimvphyllum /Miucijlorumt vii. 21. 
Dninanon<l, Thomas, ii. 25. 
Drummoiulia, ii. 25. 
f /Mjwifn.*, VI. 13. 
Drvi>eamp.'\ rubicunda. ii. 81, 
Dr><M-hu>teH afTalier, xii. 25. 
DryopteI?a, vii. 10. 
DryiK'tes, vii. 23. 

J}rvpetea alha, var. latifolia, vii. 27. 
i>rypetrs crtxea, vii. 27. 
Ih-yftetrn mM-en^ l»*ngijtfit, vii. 27. 
Ihypeten <To*-f(i, 7 lalifiUin, vii 27. 
JPryftrtf.* nnfa, var. Ititt/ntta, vii. 25. 
Dryprfe.* glnui'a, vii. 25, 27. 
Drjpetcs Keyensis, vii. 25. 
Drypetes Ateriflora, vii. 27. 
Ihypftes lati/olia, vii. 27. 
Ihypetfn »W)ti7t//(>m, vii. 27. 
Dry rot of Taxodiuiu, x. 150. 


Duck Oak, riii. 166. 

Uuke Cberrjr, iv. 0. 

Dunbar, John, .ri 121. 

Uunbar,\ViUiai'>, vU. 80. 

Du 1 lit I'e Neinoun, £leutl:6ii)-liene, ii. 9. 

Dutch i.liii, vit. '0. 

Dwarf Maplo, ii. 95. 

D;iiast«i Titjriu, Ti. 27. 

Eaolen impcrialis, x. 160. 

Earl; Red I'lum, iv. 26. 

Kbknack.1':, vi. 1. 

Kl>uny, iii. 137 ; vi. 2. 

Kbunj, Indian, vi. 3. 

Kburia quadrigctninata, iii. 74. 

Eccopsia {agigsmmieana, iz. 24. 

Kchenopa binutata, i. 77. 

Ec'liinocereus, v. 51. 

Kchinocereui, v. 51. 

Echinonyctanlhxa, y, 61. 

KchinopsiB, v. 61. 

Echinopiit, v. 51. 

Edible seeds of Pinus, xi. 3. 

EJtvardBia, iii. 59. 

Edicardiia chry ophylla, iii. 00. 

Eggort, Heinrioh Karl D.iniel, mi. 61. 

Khrot, Georg Dionysius, vi. 80. 

Eliretia, vi. 79. 

Khretia acuniiuala, vi. 79. 

Klirotia acuminata, uses of, vi. 79. 

Ehrclia liourreria, vi. T^, 78. 

Khretia ciliata, \i. 81. 

Eliretia ulliptica, vi. 81. 

Khretia eiasperata, vi. 81. 

Khretia glabrOt vi. 68. 

Khretia llavatieruin, vi. 77. 

Khretia oiati/olia, vi. 79. 

Khretia pyri/otia, vi. 79. 

Khretia radtUa, vi. 77. 

f Khretia acabra, vi. 81. 

Khretia serrata, vi. 79. 

Kiehleria, v. 181. 

Klapbidion villosum, vii. 133 ; viii. 11. 

Klaphrium, i. 96. 

Klnphrium integerrimum, i. 97. 

Elder, \. 88, 91. 

Elder, Hoi, ii. 111. 

Elder, Poison, iii. 24. 

Klcmifera marilima, xiv. 98. 

Elk-wood, i. 13. 

EKiott, Stephen, xi. 169. 

Elliottia, ii. 2 ; xi. 159 ; xiv. 29. 

EUiottia bractcnta, xiv. 'J9. 

Elliottia paniculata, liv. 29. 

Elliottia racemosa, xiv. 31. 

Ellis, John, i. 40. 

Ellwaiigcr, George, xiii. 109. 

Elm, American, vii. 45. 

Elm, Cedar, vii. 57. 

Elm, Cliff, vii. 48. 

Elm, Ccrk, vii. 47. 

Kim, Dutch, vii. 40. 

Kim, Etiglisb, vii. 40. 

ESiii, Kalse, vii. 09. 

Elm, Illokory, vii. 48. 

Kim, Mountai'i, vii. 52. 

Elm, Uod, vii. 52, 63 ; xiv, 41. 

Elm, K,)ck, VU. 45, 17. 

Klui, Slippery, vii. 53. 

Eiin, Swamp, vii. 45. 

Elm, Wiiter, vii. 43, 01. 

Elm, White, vii. 43, 40. 

Elm, Winged, vii. 61. 

Elm, Wjch, vii. 40. 


Elm-Ieaf Beetle, vii. 41. 

Eraaturgn Fuvdpi , x 124. 

ii;»»wrv pieris, vi. 1. 

Embryopieria ^elatini/era, vi 3 

ErtUfryopleru glutmifera^ vi. 3. 

Embryo; 'teria Kaki, vi. 4. 

Embrijopteris peregrina, vi. 3. 

Emetila ramulosa, i. Ul. 

Kiuoryi William Heiualey, ir. 60. 

Emorya, iv. 60. 

EmplectooladuB, iv. 7, 8. 

EmpUclocladusj iv. 7. 

Euallagma, vi. 97. 

Encina, viii. 111. 

Enrleistocarpon, viii. 4. 

Endotropu clei/olia, ii. 37. 

Kiigelinnnn, George, viii. 84. 

Kngelniann Spruce, xii. 43. 

Kngehiianiiia, viii. 84. 

English Elm, vii. 40. 

EngliBh Laurel, iv. 11. 

Kuglisb WalnuU, vii, 115. 

Entomoft^orium maculatum, iv. 70| 84. 

Epigyiiium, v. 110. 

Epigynium, v. 115. 

Ericace.*:, v. 115 ; xiv. 29. 

Kriosma Caryic, vii. 133. 

Kriusma Querci, \iii. 11. 

Erysiplie aggrcgata, ix. 71. 

Krythrina Pnrl/iulay iii. 53. 

ErythrobalanoSt viii. 4. 

Erythrogyne, vii. 91. 

Eschftchultz, Juhann Friedr^ch) ii. 39. 

Eschseboltzin, ti. 39. 

Esculwi, ii. 54 ; viii. 4. 

Euabie», xii. 07 

Kuandromeda, v. 120. 

Euaralia, v. 57. 

Eubetula, ix. 46. 

EucarpinuH, ix. 40. 

Euearya, vii. 132. 

Eucastanopsis, ix. 2. 

Euceltis, vii. G3. 

Euceisus, V, 51. 

Eucoccoloba, vi. 113. 

Eucrescentia, vi. 07. 

Ei'cupressus, x. 97. 

Eudia:ius tityrus, iii. 3^. 

Kufagus, ix. 22. 

Eugenia, v. 39. 

Eugenia arutniitica, v. 40. 

Eugenia axillaris, v. 45. 

Eugenia Baniensi^, v. *7. 

Eugenia buxifi>lia, v. 43. 

Eugenia caryopfiyllata, v. 40. 

Eugenia f dichotonui, v. 32. 

Eugenia escuUnta, v. 31. 

Eugenia fragran-, \. 32. 

Eugenia (Jarberi. 49. 

Eugenia Jaiubulana, v. 41. 

Eugenia Janibos, v. 41. 

Eugenia lougipea, v. 40. 

Eugenia Michelii, v. 41. 

Eugenia Mouticola, v. 45. 

Eugmia M<mrei, v. 41. 

Eugenia myrloides, v. 43. 

Eugefiia ptiUens, v. 30. 

Eugenia Parkeriana, v. 41. 

Eugenia procera- v. 47 ; xiv. 101. 

iAijenia prorera, v. 49. 

Eugenia triplinerviay v. 45. 

Eugenia tripHnervia, y buxi/oUOi V. 43. 

Eugenia ttnitlum, v. 41. 

Eugenia ? Willdenuwiif y. 41. 

Euqenia Zeylanica, t. 41. 

r..f/ nioides, vi 13. 

hugevioidi 'inctn. t .m A- 1h. 

Eugonia subsip - -.rig, vii U ; in. 10. 

Eugordonia, i. 39. 

Eukrania, v. 63. 

Euonio acid, ii. 10. 

Eupapaya, xir. 2. 

Eupemea, vH. i. 

EuPHORBiAC'.^^, yii. 2'i. 

Eupicca, xii. \iO. 

Eupitbecia mii^erul '.- - i^. 

Eupsalia minuta, viii 

Eurbudodendron, v. I4i). 

European Hop llornbeaai, ix. 32, 40. 

European L&rcb, xii. 3. 

European Spruce, xii. 2o. 

Eustrobi, xi. 4. 

Eusyoe, vii. 92. 

Euterpe Can"6aa, x. 30. 

Euthrinax, x. 49. 

Eulhrinax, xiv. 85. 

Eutbuya, x. 123. 

Eutsuga, xii. 60. 

Eur&cciuium, v. 115. 

Euyucca, x. 3. 

Evana, Walter Harriaon, xiv. 53. 

Evergreen Beecb, ix. 23. 

Evergreen White Oak, viii. 83. 

Everyx chcerilus, v. 74. 

Evonymus, ii. 9. 

Evonymua atropurpureus, ii. 11 ; ziv. 98. 

Evonymus Australianus, ii. 10. 

Evonymus CarolinensLi, u. 11. 

E«onymiis Europseua, ii. 9, 10. 

Evonymua Japonicus, ii. 10. 

Evonymus Japonicus, var. radicana, ii. 10. 

Evonymus Javanicua, ii, 9. 

Evonymus latlfolius, ii. 10. 

Evonymua lati/olitis, ii. 11. 

Evonymus radicans, ii. 10. 

Evonymus tingens, ii. 10. 

Evonymus verriioosn-i, ij. 10, 

Excaca, /a, vii. ^'9. 

Excatcaria ludda, vii, ' ). 

Exoascus amentorum, ix. 71. 

£ -"tscus Havus, ix, 49, 

i*. >. "'dium Ar.:lron ■ ':e, v. 130. 

Exonasiuium A.^aleft?. v. 147. 

Exobar " . di-coidr ;m, v. 147. 

I.iLbn?' ira 3yin iuci, vi. 14. 

F< )1 '.'.Uuin Vaciiiii, v. 117. 

,' .. >l*>aia, V. 103. 

Eio. 'ema Caribiuum, v. 105. 

Exostt im Hni bujdum, v. 103. 

ExoJr-^. ii. 73. 

Esothon Copp.ull!'. ii. 74. 

ExoiKea ohl '. r^-^^'-i, ii. 75, 

Exn'^. .1 paniculata, ii. 75. 

Extrai t of rheBtnnt-wood, ix. 10. 

Eysenhardt, K* vl Wilhelin, iii. 30. 

Eysenbanltia, iii. 29. 

Eysenbardiia adenostylis, iii. 20. 

Eys-^nhardti'j amcphoide.i, iii. 29, 31, 

Et/aenhardtia amurphoideit var. orthocarpa, iii. 

Eysenliardtia nrthoeaipa, iii, 31. 
Eyseiibivdtia polyptachya, iii. 29. 

Fagara, i. 05 ; xiv. 97. 
Fagarajl'ivn, xiv. OS. 
Fagara frarmi folia t i. 67. 
Fagara lenti\cifolia, i. 73, 
Fagara Ptcro(a, i, 73 ; xiv. 98. 





Fagara tragode$, \. 73. 

Fagus, ix. 21. 

FaguSf ix. 7. 

Fagu* alba, ix. 27. 

FHgiis Aiuerioaim» ix. 27 ; xiv. 104. 

Fagu$ A mmcwia latifoiiay ix. 27. 

Fftgiis anUrcUcm Ix. 22, 23. 

Fagxa atropunicta, ix. 27- 

Fagua betuloiilcs, ix. 22. 

Fag^it CiUtanea, ix. 8, O, 13. 

Fagu* Cnstanea dentata, ix. 13. 

Fagus Castanea ;mmt/a, ix. 17. 

Fagus crenata, ix. 22. 

Fagus Cunniughamii, ix. 23. 

Fagus echinata, ix. 22. 

Fagus, oconoiuic properties of, ix. 23. 

Fagu.- ffrruginea^ ix. 22, 27. 

Fagua femtgineat Caroiiniana, ix. 27. 

Fagus ferrugitttOt laCi/oiia, ix. 27. 

Fagiis, fungal diseases of, ix. 24. 

Fagus fusca, ix. 23. 

Fagu$ heten^phylla, ix. 27. 

Fagus, iasect enemies uf, ix. 2A. 

Fagtia JaponioA, ix. 22. 

Fagus, medical properties of, ix. 24. 

Fagus Menzicsii, ix. 23. 

Fagus nigra^ ix. 27. 

(agiis obliqua, ix. 23. 

Fagus procent, ix. 23. 

Fagus pumila, ix. 17. 

f Fagtts pumila, vnr. pnrcnx, ix. 10. 

Fagi^ punuia, var. serotinOy ix. 17. 

Fagus prgtripn, ix. 23. 

FagtiM rotuudif'fHia, ii. 27. 

Fagxts Sifholiii, ix. 22. 

Fagtis Solamlri, ii. 23. 

Fsgus lyh'atica, ix. 22. 

Fagus nylratica, ix. 27. 

I'agui Mtflvntica, atro-punicfa, ii. 27. 

Fa^^-ts sylvHllcu fuliiti atrorubcntibus, ix. 24. 

Fagus sylvatiea, heterupbylla, ix. 24. 

Fagus sgltxttica, c Americana, laii/oliat ix. 

Fagus tuU-atica, Americana, ix. 27. 
Fagus k^.' ii/k-a, pur/iurfit, ix. 24. 
Fagus tii'tfttlicii, y Atiati-a, ix. 22. 
Fagus sylvatiea. var. 8 ^! iMjIili, ix. 22. 
Fag^Lt ty!'-'Slrit, ix. 22, "J?. 
Fairohild, Thomas, v. (W. 
Fall Wol'worni. v. 9; vii. 41, n, IIG ; ix. 

l(t. 24, :J2, U, 18, 101. 
Ffll.-iT Klni. vii. »jy. 
Fan Palm, X. .7. 
Farkleberry, v. I ID. 
Farnew, ^Moardo, iii. 121. 
F'lrnesia, iii. 115. 
Famesia mlora, iii. 119. 
Fat. rork-tret-, iv. A. 
Fatrpa, v. 1 ■- 

Fatua '^mu<latA, vi. 27 ; ix. (i*. 
/byi, ix. 83. 
Fftya fagi/'ra, ix. 86. 
F'lyana^ is. H.^ 
i'^Q^ana A7vnr,.\ u. 86. 
FeU.Ie»f ViHu*. .m\-. (15. 
TcnUU) August, i ;. 123. 
l->-ndlera,xii. 1 '1. 
FenusA \«ri^-. -, ij, T*f 
Kem-lenvti! liet "h, x '.'4. 
Fern, S-.-.eet, ix. M. 
F*ttid liiif Vcyi', ii. 66. 
Fxciruiirn, \\\. 9. 
Ficua, vii. t \. 
Fieus ajfmw . vii. 9*. 

Fiei A aurea, vii. 05. 

FiciS aurta, var. tati/olia, vii. 06. 

Ficus brtvij'oliat vii. 07. 

Fiaus Carica, vii. 03. 

Fious Carioa, cultivation of, vii. 03. 

Fims cawiata, vii. IM. 

Fious elastica, vii. 03. 

Ficus, fertilixation of, by insects, vii. 03. 

Ficus, gall-Huweni of, vii. 02. 

Ficus j*efiutwulata, vii. 07. 

Ficus populnea, vii. 1)7. 

Ficus religiosa, vii. 9t. 

Ficus lloxburghii, fertilixation of, vii. 03. 

Ficus Sycomorus, vii. 03. 

Fiddle Wood, \i. 101, 103. 

Fig, vii. 93. 

Fig, Indian, xiv. 12. 

Fig-tree, vii. 03. 

Figs, vii. 03. 

Fir, Algerian, xii. 100. 

Fir, Halm of Giload, xii. 107. 

Fir. lUlsam, xii. UXi, 107, 113. 

Fir, Cephaloninn, xii. 09. 

Fir, Cilician, xii. 00. 

Fir, Greek, xii. 00. 

Fir, Himalayan, xii. 08. 

Fir, Mexican, xii. 07. 

Fir, Nordmann, xii. 98. 

Fir, Red, xii. 87. 133, 137. 

Fir, Scott^h, xi. 6. 

Fir, Silver, xii. 120. 

Fir, Wnitf», xii. 117, 121, 126. 

Firensia, vi. 07. 

Fires in tu>utbcrn pineries, xi. ItiiS. 

Fistubna Ilcpntica, %iii. 13. 

Flat-headiul Applo tree Itorcr, iv. 13. 

Flat-ht-nded Hort, iv. 11, 70 ; viii. 11. 

Horence t\>urt Yi-w, x. 62. 

Flowering Dugwitod, v. GG. 

Floyd nut, tbe, vii. 157. 

Fluted Seab% vii. 20. 

Faetatax^ts, x. 55. 

F<rta: ■. montanti, x. 67. 

Fcetalaxus Myristira, x. 59. 

Ftzlalaxus nucifmi, %. 5(1. 

Forest (iartlen I'lum, iv. VO. 

Fores KoRo l*lnni, iv. '.H), 24. 

Forest 'IVnt-ratorpillar, \x. _l. 

Kork-It'ftvc'd HIiHrk .lack, viii. 145. 

Forrrxtia, ii. 41. 

Fotljergil), .Tuhii, vi. 10. 

rotbiT^nlla, vi. 10. 

Foxtail I'inc, xi. 50, fi3. 

Fr^.^ Jiia*a t'alli.sta, ix. 41. 

Fragiles, ix 00. 

Fragrant Hin'h, ii. 47. 

Fragrant Crab, iv. 71, 75. 

Frtitiifiiiti, ii, 31. 

Frartffuh ('alt/orturn, ii. 37. 

Frantjuiii Ctili/irrntrn, var. ttnnentrlla, ii. 30. 

Fraugiiln Cantltniitna, ii. 35. 

Fruugula /nigilu, ii. [Vt. 

Framjula I'urshinna, ii. 'i7. 

Fraiikliiiia, i. 30, 45. 

Fnviliinia, i 30. 

FniitUitiut Allainaha, i. 45. 

Krasi-r. .Inbo, i. H 

Fraxinastnim, vi. 26. 

FraxiuuB, vi. 2."». 

Fraximit aruminato, vi. 43. 

FnuviuJi <tlh<i, vi, L*0, (3. 

Frarimut ulhu-nn*, vi. 44, 47. 

Krnx:nut Amcrirana, vi. \'.\. 

Frnxinus Amennma, \i. 50, .Vj. 

Fraxiniu /4fnmcawi, subspeo. Novct-Anglia, 
vi. 50. 

Fraxinus Amencana, subspec. Oreguna, vi. 67. 

Fraxinm Anwricana, var. acuminata, vi. 43. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. JJerlandieriana, vi. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. Caroiiniana, vi. 56. 

Fraximts ATnericana, va/. epiptera, vi. 43. 

J-'raxintu Americatui, vtir.juglantlijUia, vi.60. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. tati/olia, v|. 43. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. microearpa, \\. 44. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. normale, vi. 43. 

f'yaximts Americana, \aT. piftacitr/olia, vi. 41. 

Fraxintis Americana, var. profunda, xiv. 36. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. pubescens, vi. 40. 

Fnuinus Americana, var. t/uadrangtilata, "i. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. quadrangulata ner- 
vosa, vi. 35. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. sambudfolia, vi. 37. 

Fraxinu* .imericaua, var. Texen»is, vi. 47. 

Fraxinus Americana, var. triptera, vi. 55. 

Fraxinus aiiomala, vi. 30 ; xiv. 102. 

Fraxinus lierlandieriana, vi. 53. 

Vraxinus liiltinoreana, xiv. 37. 

Fraxinus Canadensis, vi. 43. 

Fraxinus Caroliniaua, vi, 55. 

Fraxinus Caroiiniana, vi. 50 ; xiv. 30. 

Fraxinus Caroiiniana, B lati/olia, vi. 50. 

Fraximu Carolinienxis, vi. 43. 

Fraxinus Chinensis, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus Chinensis, var. rhynchophglla, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus cinerea, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus coriaeea, xiv. 33. 

Fraxinus citriai'ea, vi. 4!, 47. 

Fraxinus Cuhensis, vi. 55, 50. 

Fraxinus Curtutsii, vi. 44. 

Fraxinus curvidrns, vi. 66. 

Fraxinus cu.<tpidAtn, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus di{>etnla, vi. 31. 

Fraxinus diiH-tala, var. bracbyptcra, vi. 31. 

FraxinuH dip«'tala, var. trifoliiita, vi. 31. 

* Fraxinus discolor, vi. 40. 

Fraxinus, econ<iniic uhch uf, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus eUiutica, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus e/nptern, vi. 43. 

Vraxinus exrtUinr, vi. 26, 27. 

Fraxinus exvelamr, vi. 5.%. 

Fraxititi.t tijmnsa, vi. Tit). 

Fraxinus lloribundii, vi. 2^ 

Fraxinus Floridnnii, xiv. 3-.> 

Fraxinus jinrif'era, vi. 26. 

Fraxinus, fungnl enemies of, vi. 27. 

Fraxinus /iLscti, vi. 20. 

Fmxinus Grejjgii, vi. 33. 

FrsxinuH, inset-t enciinrs of, vi. 27. 

Fraxinus juglauilifiilui, vi. 50, 

f Fraxinus Juijlandi/tili.t, vi. 43, 55. 

Fraxinus ju^ttandifoiui, fl snbiutfgnrima, vi. 

Fraxinnn Inuceolata, • i. 50. 

Fraxiuus Intifiilia, vi. ."i7. 

Frnxmus Umtjxfoim, vi. 10. 

Fraxinus .Miiiidslniriea, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus .Milril•^ii, vi. 25. 

FraxiiHii*. nirdifal properties of, vi. 26. 

Frtixiniis miifn, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus nigra, vi. 37. 

Fniximis nitjra, vi. 20. 

Fraxinus nigra, tiubMpec. Caroiiniana, vi. 56. 

Frarintis nigra, stilwpcc. nigra, vi, 'M. 

Frnrynit.* nii/resretis, vi. iVi. 

• F^'axiniLs ,Vor<i Ani/lut, vi. 4.'i, 

Frtixinus yovct'AngUir, vi. 37, 50. 

f)raxinua NuttaUii, \\. 5B, 

Praximis obtongocarpa, vi. 49. 

Fnudnui Oregona, vi. 57. 

Fraxinua Oregotm ;,, vi. ut. 

Fraxinus Oregona, var. ripariOf vi. 57. 

Fnuiniis Orntis, vi. 20, 27. 

Fmxinus ovatUt vi. 20. 

Fr<ixinu» pallida, vi. /ifi. 

FraxinuM pannom, vi. 20. 

Fraxintts paucijlora, vi. 56. 

Fmxiiiiis PeiuisylvHiiica, vi, 49 ; xir. 102. 

FraxinuM reiinsylvaiiiea, var. lanceolata, vi. 

50 ; xiv. KVJ. 
Fmximis putacio'folia, vi. 41 ; xiv. 33. 
Fraxinui pintacutfolia, var, coriacea, vi. 41 ; 

xiv. 33. 
Fraxinus platifcarpa, vi. 55. 
Fraxinun platycarjm, var. FlondanOt vi. 56 ; 

xiv. 39. 
FraxiiiuR profunda, xiv. 36. 
Fraxinus puhencenn, vi. 49, 50, 56. 
Fraxinu» pubescetu, B longi/olia, vi. 49. 
FraxinuM puhescenn, y lati/olia, vi. 49. 
Fraximis pubeacetis, var, lierlnndieriana, vi. 53. 
Fraxinug pubescens^ var. Limlhdmeri, vi. 53. 
FraxiniLH puhexceru, var. suhpubexcenji, vi. 49. 
/■^tiiinu.* fmbencen."*, var. ^, vi. 57. 
i^roxinw pulrer»Uult}, vi. 20. 
Fraxinus quadrangulata, vi. 35 ; xiv. 102. 
Fraxitiwi ifuadrangnlatny var. nervosa, vi. 36. 
/■VarmfH iptaflrangulalti, var. subpufiescens, vi. 


Fraxinua rliyticophylla, vi. 20. 

Fraxiniu liichardi, vi. 20. 

Fraxintu rtp indifolia, vi. 20. 

/Vajrtnu.1 ruhicunda, vi. 20. 

/'Vaxmu;' m/"«, vi. 20. 

Fraxim s aambuci/olia, vi. 37. 

Fraxiti m St'hiediana, var. parvi/oUa, vi, 33. 

/^xi> tw aubt'illosa, vi. 49. 

Fraxitus tetragona, vi. 35. 

Fraxim i Texensitt, vi. 47. 

Fraxinnj iDmentaia, vi. 49. 

Fraxinus triatata, vi. 53. 

Fraxinus triptera, vi. 55. 

i^rarinu,* urophylla, vi. 27. 

Fnuiiuis velutiiiu, vi. 41 ; xiv. 33. 

Fraximts viridis, vi. 50. 

Frnrintis viridis, var. Berlandieriana, \i. 53. 

Fraximis viridis, var. puhescens, vi. 49. 

FreireodK ndron, vii. 23. 

Fremontia, i. 47 ; xiv. 97. 

Freinontia Califdniioa, i. 47. * 

FrenionttxlfudroM, xiv. 97. 

Froutuntodeiidroit Californicum, xiv. 97. 

Frijolito, iii. (>3. 

Fringe-flowered Ash, vi. 31. 

Fringe Tree, vi. 00, 

Fruit of Opuntia \\& footi, xiv. 12. 

Fultmni Oak, the, viii. 7. 

Fun^ut diseases of 

Abies, xii. 101. 

Carica, xiv. 3. 

Celtis, vii. CA. 

Ilicoria, vii. 131. 

Julians, vii. 110. 

Larix. xii, 5. 

Moras, vii. 77, 

Ferseu, vii. 2. 

Picca, xii. 25. 

PiiiUH, xi. 11. 

riatanu.s, vii, 101. 

PseudotHUga, xii. H4. 

Sassafras, vii. 16. 


S«renoat xiv. 70. 

Toxjion, vii. 87. 

Tauga, xii. 01. 

Vlmus, vii. 42. 

Umbellularia, vii. 20. 
Fungal enemies of 

Amelrnchier, iv. 120. 

Andromeda, v. 130. 

CaUlpa, vi. 84. 

CornuB, v. 06. 

Cratffigus, iv, 84. 

Diospyros, vi. 4. 

Fraxinus, vi. 27. 

!lamamelis, v. 2. 

Liquidanibar StyraoiHua, v. 0. 

MohrodeudroD, vi. 20. 

Nyssa, v. 74. 

PrunuR, iv. 11. 

Pynis, iv. 70. 

Rhododendron, v. 147. 

Sambitcus, v. 80. 

Symplocos, vi. 14. 

Vaceinium, v. 117. 

Viburnum, v. 94. 
Fusidadium Treniula, ix. 156. 
Fuaisporium Berenice, xii. 101. 

Gale, ix. 83. 
Gale, ix. 83. 
Gale lielgica, ix. 84. 
Gale Cali/omica, ix. 03, 
Gale-oil, ix. 84. 
Gale u'iffinosa, ix. 84. 
Galeruca decora, ix. 101. 
Galeruca xantbomclfena, vii. 41. 
(iail-flowers of Ficus, vii. 92. 
Gallifera, viii. 4. 
(iail insects on Quercus, viii. 12* 
Galls, Chinese, iii. 9. 
Galls, Nut, viii. 9. 
Galls, Oak. viii. 9. 
Galls on Bctulit, ix. 48. 
Galls on Populus, ix. 150. 
Galls on Willow, ix. 101. 
Galoglychia, vii. 91. 
(tanilwl, William, viii. 36. 
Gaiubelin, viii. 35. 
(tarl>er, Abraham Pascal, i. 05. 
(Marcinia Malafmrica, vi. 3. 
Garden, Alexander, i, 40. 
Garfield Phini, iv. 24. 
Geiger Tree, vi. 71. 
(leleehia abietisclla, xii. 01. 
Gelechia carytevorella, vii, 133. 
(telechia cercerisella, iii, 94. 
Gelechia obIii]ui.<itrigclla, xii. 25. 
Gelechia pinifoHella, xi. 11. 
Gelplea, v. 39. 
(Jcorgia Bark, v. 109. 
Georgia Piuo, xi. 150. 
GeraseanthuSf vi. 07, 
(tcrniinatiou of PInus, xi. 4. 
(iermination of (jurrcus, viii. 4. 
(termination of Yucea, x, 3. 
Ghent Azaleas, v ^ 0. 
Gihbes, Lewis Hcuvc, xii. 70. 
Gigantabie.t, x. 139. 
Gigantabies turifolia, x. 141. 
Giganttibiea Williugtotiia, x. 145. 
Gimhernalia, v. 19. 
Gin, flavoring of, x. 72, 78. 
(linger Pine, x. 120. 
Ginseng, v. 57. 
Giuscng, Amoricau, v. 58. 


Ginseng, Chinese, v. 58. 

Ginseng quinquefolium, v. 68. 

Glaucous Willow, ix. 133. 

Gleditsch, Johann Gottlieb, iii. 74. 

Gleditaia, iii. 73. 

Gleditsia Afrioano, iii. 73. 

Gleditsia oquatica, iii. 79 ; xiv. 100. 

Gleditsia hrachycarpa, iii. 70. 

Gleditsia Bujotii, iii. 77. 

Gleditsia Carolinensis, iii. 79. 

Gleditsia Caspica, iii. 73. 

Gleditsia elegans, iii. 75. 

Gleditsia ferox, iii. 76. 

Gleditsia heterophylla, iii, 75. 

Gleditsia intrmis, iii. 75, 79, 

Gleditsia Japouica, iii. 73. 

Gleditsia Japonica, economic uses of| iii. 74. 

Gleditsia Meliloba, iii. 76. 

Gleditsia monosperma, iii. 79. 

Gleditsia spinosa, iii. 75. 

Gleditsia Texana, xiii, 13. 

Gleditsia tnacantha, iii. 79. 

Gleditsia triocanthos, iii, 75 ; xiv. 1(X). 

Gleditsia triacanthos, ^, 79. 

Gleditsia triacanthos, fi aqttatica, iii. 79, 

Gleditsia triacanthos, ecouomio uses of, iii. 

Gleditsia triacanthos, var. inermis, iii. 76. 
Gleditsia triacanthos, var. j9 brachycarpos, iii. 

Glenospora Curtisii, v. 74. 
GIteosporium acerinum, ii. 81. 
GItDosporium Canadense, viii. 12. 
Glceosporium Celtidis, vii. 05, 
Glceosporium nervisequum, vii. 101. 
GIteosporium Opuntiie, xiv. 13. 
Glceosporium Populi, ix. 150. 
Gloucester Broad-nut, xiv. 103, 
Glycobius speciosus, ii. 81. 
Glyptostrobtis pendulus, x. 152. 
Gnathotrichus asperulus, xi. 11. 
Gnathotrichus materiarius, xl. 11. 
Cnomoniella tubiformi8> ix. 70. 
Goa, Cedar of, x. 100. 
G(Ebelia, iii. 69. 
(iocs pulverulentus, ix. 24. 
Goes tigrinus, vii. 133. 
Golden Beauty Plum, iv. 24. 
Goldeu-leaved Chestnut, ix. 3. 
Gotiosuke, vii. 91. 
Gopher Wood, iii. 57. 
Gonlon, James, i. 40. 
Gordonia, i. 39. 
Gordonia acuminata, i. 39, 
Gordonia Altamaha, i, 40, 46. 
Gordonia anomala, i. 39, 40. 
Gordonia excelsa, i. 39. 
Gordonia Franklini, i. 45. 
Gordonia Lasianthus, i. 39, 41, 
Cioi'onia obtusa, i, 39. 
Gordonia pubescens, i. 45. 
Gordonia pt/ramidalis, i. 41. 
(fOSflyparia I'lmi, vii, 41. 
(towen, James Kobert, x. 108. 
(irAoilaria jnglandinigneella, vii. 110, 
Gracilaria oatrvfcella, ix, 32. 
Gracitaria sassafrasella, vii, 15. 
(Tiacilaria suiH-rbifrontella, v. 2. 
Grnndes, xii. 97. 
Grftpe, Sea, vi. 115. 
Grnphiola congesta, x, 38. 
Graphisunis triangutifer, vii, 04. 
(irapholitha bractcatann, xii. 84, 
Grapholithea caryana, vii. 134. 




U I 


Vtny Uirch, ii. 53,55. 

(irftj, Ckhitopher, iv. 70. 

(tniy Pine, li. 147. 

Vmj PopUr, U. 154. 

(trent Laiirol. v. IIH. 

(ireiit SwAiitp Pine, xi. 113. 

Greek Fir, lii. W*. 

Oreen-tuirked Acaoia, iii. H^l, 85. 

(ireeiie, l-l<)wanl Lee, Tili. H4. 

(ireenelln, viii. HI. 

iirtgg, .lotiiKh. iii. 126 ; Ti. 33. 

(iraf^gia, vi. :i4. 

(irriti/iii, V. 31*. 

(trtacbftch, Ileiiiricb Rudolph August, ii. 13. 

(tritebacliia, ii. 13. 

fffound CiMlar. i. 75. 

(intenfntt ix. 1*5. 

Gtiaiacana, vi. 4. 

(iuaiacidium, i. GO 

ffuaiar^o, i. 01. 

(tuaiacum, i. 59. 

(inKiaeiiin angUBtifoHuni, i. 59, GO. 

(tiiaiacum artHtrcunt, i. (iO. 

(tiiaiacum Cuulteri, i. 00. 

CiuaiaRum hv^t^motriiMun, i. 60. 

Ittiaiacum ofKcitialc, i. 50, ttO. 

Guaiacum parvitloruni, 1. 59. 

(iuaiacuiu reaiii, i. GO. 

ffiiaiacum sanctum, i. 59, GO, 03. 

Gwiuinim sauctttm^ var. fHirri/oliutn^ i. Gi\, 

Guauirum irrticale, i. 03. 

(iiuiacum wood, i. 60. 

(iiiaiiabauus, i. ""JS. 

(iiiopurium, v. 39. 

Guayat'iin, i. 61. 

Guess, (ioorf^, x. 140. 

Guettartl, Jean Kiienue, v. 11^. 

(tuettarda, v. 111. 

Ottettarda, v. 111. 

GtiftUirda ambifjua, v. 112. 

Guettania lUodyettti, v. 113. 

Gtiettanla elliptica, v, 113. 

GiifUania HnviVttnsii, v. 112. 

Guettania hinuta, r. 111. 

GufUart{i\ rmjiim, v, 11-. 

(tuettarda scabra, t. 112. 

Guettfjrd'i fjierinsay T. 111. 

Guiohiira, vi. 113. 

Guiana Plum, vii. 27. 

''htUandina^ iii. 07. 

t\uuaful\na dutxca^ iii. 69. 

Gum, Hlack, v. 77. 

Gum, Chcrrr, iv. 10. 

Gum, Cottun, v. d^). 

(iuni, Duotur, iii- 14. 

ftiim, Kliutic, V. 171. 

(titin, Mo^, iii. r^ 14. 

(lum, Ut'tl, V. 12. 

Gum, S4)ur, v. 77. 

Gum, Spruce, xii. 31. 

Gum, .Stur-leaved, V. 12. 

(ium, Sweet, v. 10. 

Gum-tree, Hof;, iii. 14. 

Gum, Tu|tel<>, v, 83. 

(lumlm HIet, vii. 14. 

(rumbu Limbo, i. 97. 

GuuiMnthui, vi. 1. 

(iurneon Stopi)er, v. 43. 

Gymmda, ii. 13. 

Gyniinda ririftebaohii, ii. 14. 

Gyniinda (iriacbacbii, vnr. glauceMcns, i 

Gymnantbes, vii, 29. 
Gjmnaxttbes lucida, vii. 30. 


QymnobaUimui, \ W. 9. 

f Gymnohalanw CatesHifanwit vii. 11. 

(tymuwladus, iii. 07. 

GtfmmH-ladiui Canadensis, iii. 09. 

Gymmwladus CbiueuAis, iii. 67. 

(tymmtrladus diuious, iii. 09. 

(iymnocladut dioiuus, economic uses of, iii. 

Gymnosporangium liermudianum, i. 73. 
(tyu)i)(>tiporaii);ium biMeptatum, x. 101, I'M. 
Gymnoiipurangiuni clavariwforuie, x. 73. 
(lynuK'fipnrangium i'lavi|)eH, x. 73. 
GymmiM|H)rangium KUiflii, x. lOl. 
(lymnoxp^trangium glubuiuiii, x. 73. 
(tymtioAporangium macropun, x. 73. 
(tyn)U(M[>orangiiini Nidus-avis, x. 73. 
Gynini)A|H>rangiuni apeciusum, i. 73. 
Gt/tnnolhifrsw, ix. 08. 
GynaUm, vi. 67. 
GiftmUm vfntttum, vi. (>8. 
(tvroceras C'ettidii*, vii. 65. 
Gitriilecana^ vui. 4. 

HaokWrry, vii. 67, 71. 

H'lhnia, iv. 67. 

lIn1op(>n»es, xi, 4. 

IlnUsia, v. Ill ; vi. 19. 

Half fin (Viro/infi, vi. 21. 

lialfnifi diptfra, vi. 2iJ. 

Unlexia fHirfijiora, vi. 10. 

litilftia rftindfita, vi. 23. 

ll'dfsia gtetiOi-<jr/Hi, vi. 21. 

finlefia tftrnptera, vi. 21. 

Ilnlesia tftrnptera .UrcArtni, vi. 22. 

tlalenidnta Caryie, v. 2 ; vti. \'X\, 

Hales' paper-ahell Hickory nut, vii. 154. 

Hnlmia, iv. 83. 

llalmta romifitlia, iv. 103. 

linlmin jiaMUUn, iv. 95. 

lialmia InfMJta, iv. 101. 

Halmia punctata, iv. 103. 

lialmia tomnttoMi, iv. lOl. 

llnlmia timxe.Unun, $ pt/n/i^ia, iv. I(t1. 

Halmiii tiitnerUiii'fi, 8 Inirophltta, iv. 101. 

lialmia tomenitMa, « CalfHuifndron, iv. 101. 

Ilithkirmlrum, vi. 105. 

{inUflnidnim ThimarnH, vi. 100. 

Haltica bimarginata, ix. 70. 

Hamamklidkx, v. 1. 

Hamamclis, v. 1. 

Unmnmelis nndrogyna, v, 3. 

Ifiimnmrliji nrhttr^n, v, 'J. 

fliimnmelis cnryUfoUa, v. 3. 

Hatmimrlis diouti, v. 3. 

Haiuaiiiclis, fungal enemies of, v. 2. 

HainanieliH. iiitu>et eneiiiies uf, v. 2. 

HuniatneliH .laponiea, v. 2. 

l/iimnmelts macropht/lla, v. 3. 

HamuiiieliH mollis, v. 2. 

Ifttmamtlin fMjn'i/nlui, v. 3. 

Hatnanielis Virginianii, v. 3 ; xiv. 101. 

Haniamelis Virginiana, disobarge of seeds of, 

v. 2. 
J/amameliA \'it(pniann, var. Japonica, v. 2. 
Ilamam*h.f Vtri/iniafnt, y/nr. ftarvijttiut, v. 3. 
J/nmamfliJi /^urcanniana, v. 2. 
H^iiinn, i, 28 

Harbison, 'Diomaii Grant, ziii. 152. 
Hard Pine. xi. l'A\. 
Hantionia Pini. xi. 11. 
, HnrrHphoruH vananus, v. 65. 
Hartwc^'. Karl Tbe«Mlor, ii. 94. 
Hartwfgia, ii. 'M 
Havard, Vmliiry, i. 81. 

Haw. iv. 80, 101, 103, 100, 117 ; xiii. 37, 41, 
43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 5;», 55, 57, 59, Oi*. (Wi, 
67, tm, 73, 75. 77, 79, 87. 89, 01. t»5, 97. 
90, la-i, 107, 111, 121, 123, 127, 131, i:W, 
1.37, 141, 149, 151. I5:i, 155, 157, 159, 
10.3. 167, 169, 171, 173, 175. 177, 179. 

Haw, Apple, iv. 119. 

Huw, Hiai-k. V. 99 ; xiv. 23. 

Haw, Hog's, iv. H9. 

Haw, May. iv. 119. 

Haw, Parsley, iv. HI. 

Haw, Red. xiii. 71, 81, 83, 85. 101, 113, 115. 
117. 119, 125, 129. i;U, 145, 181. 

Haw, Sandhill, xiit. 161. 

Haw. .Varlet, iv. \*.\ 1»9 ; xiii. 01, 03, 103, 
109. 139. 143. 147. 

Haw, Small-fruited, iv. 105. 

Haw, Summer, iv. 113, 114 ; xiii. 165. 

Haw, Yellow, iv. 113 ; xiii. 161. 

Hazel, V,*,tcn. v. 3. 

Heart Cherries, iv. 9. 

Helie, I^ouis Tlu^tHlore, i. 79. 

Helietta, i. 79. 

HeliettH apieuUta, i, 79. 

Helietta muUiHora, i. 79. 

Helietta parvifolia. i. 79, 81. 

Helietta Pla>ana, i. 79. 

Iletininlboflporinn) i'almetto, x. 38* 

//rmtyymniVi, vi. 67. 

Hemileuca Maia, viii. 12. 

Hemileuca yavnpai, iii. 100. 

ilemiocotea, vii. 9. 

Hemipapaya, xiv. 2. 

Hemi|N'rHcn, vii. 1. 

Heniithrinax, x. 49. 

Ilemithrinax, x. 49. 

HeinbH>k, xii. 63. 09. 73, 03. 

HenibH'k, Chinese, xii. GO. 

HeuiliK'k, llinialayaii, xii. 61, 

Heni1(M-k, Mountain, xii. 77. 

HemliK'k, oil of, xii. (>.5. 

lit -uiloi'k resin, xii. 65. 

Henil<H'k, Sargent's, xii. 0*J. 

Hemlocks, .lapanese, xii. 00. 

Hepialiis argenteoniaeulatus, ix. 70. 

Heri'ules' Club. v. 59. 

I/rfj>en>jtruf^, xii. .'>9, 60. 

Hf.ff>rioprucr I'atttmianat xii. 77. 

Hes|»eroyueea, x. 3. 

Heterandrn, vii. 1. 

Hrtenmieles, iv. 121. 

Heterumeles arbiitifolio, iv. 123. 

Jleleromflfs Frrmimtiana, iv. 123. 

ilfzarhiamyr, v. 39. 

Hexanthera, vii. 1. 

Hfyi^na, x. I'Xi. 

Hrydrrui lierurrent^ x. 136. 

HiU-rnia tiliaria, i. 51. 

Hiearoji. jv. Ti. 

Hiekory, xiv. 47, 

Hieknr'y, Hig Hud, vii. 161. 

Hickory, lilaek, vii. 10i», 167. 

Iliekury Borer, vii. 110. 

Hiekory, Itroom, vii. 167. 

Hiekury, Hrown, vii. 107. 

Hiekory Kim, vii 48. 

Hu-kory, Nutmeg, vii. 115. 

Hickory Oak, viii. 107. 

Hickory, origin uf the name of, vii. 134. 

Hiekury Pine, xi. r,3, K15. 

Hickory, .Shagburk, vii. I."i3 ; xiv. 45. 

Hickory. Shellbark, vii 153. 

Hickory. .Swamp, vii. 141. 

UickuiT', Water, vii. 149. 


Iliokory. White Ilcart, vii. 103. 

Ilicoria, vii. 131. 

Uieoria acuminata, vii, 157. 

ilieuriu allin, vii. 101. 

Ilirtma ulha, vnr. maxima, vii. 101. 

llicorift aquiitit'ii, vii. 149. 

llionria Cnroliiuo^Septeiitrionalii, xiv. 45. 

Ilicoria Fernowinna, vii. 146. 

Jlicoria, fungnl <IiHeasci of, vii. 134. 

Ilieuria glabra, vii. 105. 

Hicorin glabra, var. odorats, vii. 107. 

Iliooria glabra, var. villoM, vii. 107. 

Hicorin gUihra^ var. villosa, xiv. 47. 

Ilicoria, insect cneniicii of, vii. 133. 

Ilicoria laciiiiosa, vii. 157 ; xiv. 103. 

Hicona laciiiiou, hybrids of, vii. 158. 

litcoria maxima, vii. 161. 

Ilicoria, medical pro|)erties of, vii. 133. 

Ilicoria Moxicana, vii. 132. 

I/iroria inivrocarpa, vii. 107. 

Ilicoria ininiuia, vii. 141 ; xiv. 103. 

Ilicoria myriaticieforinis, vii. 145. 

liicitria othralat vii. 107. 

Ilicoria ovuta, vii. 153. 

ilicoria pallida, xiv. 47. 

Hicoria Pucau, vii. 137. 

Uicoria Pecan, cultivated varieties of, vii. 

Hicona Pecan, cultivation of, vii. 139. 
Ilicoria Pecan, hybrids of, vii. 13ti. 
Hicoria gulrata, vii. l.">7. 
Ilieoria Texana, xiv. 43. 
flicoria Texana, vii. 137. 
Hicoria villosa, xir. 47, 103. 
Hicoria viUo*a pallida, xiv. 47. 
Ilicoria, wood of, vii. 132. 
Hicoriua albiiA, vii. 101. 
Hicoriua amara, vii. 141. 
Hicorim aquaticua, vii. 140. 
Hii'orius t/laber, vii. 105. 
Hicorim itUefjri/olia, vii. 149. 
Hicorius minimus, vii. 141. 
Hicorin* myristic(rformijt, vii. 145. 
Hicorius (Mioratus, vii. 167. 
Hii'orixis ooatus, vii. 153. 
Hicoritts Pecan, vii. 137. 
Hiatrius nulcatiu, vii. 157. 
Iliekorytrcs in Europe, vii. 159. 
Hifrophyllufi Cassine, \. 111. 
Iligh-bufth IV.ui'borry, v. 117. 
Hill, Kllsworth .leronie, xiii. 99. 
Uilsenbergia, vi. 79. 
Himalayan Kir, xii. 98. 
Himalayan Hemlock, xii. 01. 
Himalayan Larch, xii. 3. 
Himalayan Spruce, xii. 2*J- 
Hin(l!i, Uichard Bnusloy, >,. 44. 
Himlsiii, ii. 44., x. 08. 
Hipp'H-<t.*fanum, ii. 51. 
H!np()nmne, ^ii. 33. 
Hip'iumuno Mancinella, vii. 35. 
Hipponmne, poiscmou.s properties of, vii. 3-1. 
Ilippomane, wood of, vii. 34. 
Hogljerry, vii. 09. 
HiigGum, iii. 13. 14. 
Ilnj; (lum 'ree, iii. 14. 
Ht.g'^ Haw, iv. 89. 
Holly, i. 107. 

Holly, California, iv. 124. 
Holmea. Joseph Austin, xiii. 120. 
Holt.H, Oftior, ix. UK). 
Honey-drop Plum, iv. 24. 
Honey Locust, iii. 75, 101. 


Honey Shucks, iii. 77. 

Hop Hornbeam, ix. 'M. 

Hop llornlwam, European, ix. 32, 40. 

Hop Hornbeam, Japanese, ix, 32. 

Hopea, vi. 13. 

Hopea tincioria, vi. 15. 

Ho|>*tree, i. 70. 

T Horau, v. 27. 

Hormapbis Ilamamelidis, v. 2. 

HormapbiN papyracea, ix. 48. 

Ilormapbis spinosus, v. 2. 

Hornbeam, ix. 42. 

Hornbeam, European, horticultural forms of, 

ix. 40. 
Hornbeam, Hop, ix. 34. 
Horse Hear iii. 89. 
Horse Sugar, vi. 15. 
Horse-chestnut, oil of, ii. 52. 
Horse-chestnut, the history of, ii. 63. 
Horso-ehostnuts, fungal diseases of, ii. 54. 
Horseflesh Mahogany, iii. 127. 
Howell, Thomas, xii. 52. 
Huajillo, iii. 135. 
Hudmnia, v. 19. 
lluile do cade, x. 72. 
Huisache, iii, 119. 
HumboldtianiD, ix. 00. 
Hybrid Abies, xii. 97. 
Hybrid Walnuts, vii. 114. 
Hybrid Yuccas, x. 4. 
Hybrids of Pinus, xi. 4. 
Hybrids of Quercus, viii. 5. 
Hydnum cornlloidea, ix. 25. 
Hyleainus snriceus, xii. 25. 
Hylobius Pales, xi, 11. 
Hylotoma dulciaria, ix. 48. 
Hylotrupcs ligncus, z. 72. 
Hylurgopa pinifex, xi. 11. 
Hymenexthen, vi. 67. 
Hypolate, il. 77. 
Hy/telate, ii, 73. 
Hypelate panicxilatQi ii. 75. 
Hypotate trifoliatn, ii. 78 ; xiv. 99. 
Hyf}cranthera, iii. 07. 
Ifuperanthern dioica, iii, 69. 
Hypericum Laxianthu^, i. 41. 
Hyphantriu cunea. i, 51, 108 ; ii. 12, 30 ; iv. 

70 ; V, 9, 91 ; vii. 41, 77, 116 ; viii. 11 ; 

ix. 48, 181, 
Hypocrca rufa, x. 140. 
Hypmlorma brncbysporum, xi. 12. 
Hypodermella Lariei.H, xii. 5. 
Hyjwnomenta euonymclla, ii. 12. 
Hypopogon, vi, l.'t, 
Hypoxylon multiforme, ix. 49. 
Hypoxylon pruinatum, ix. 156. 
Hypoxylon Sassafras, vii. 2. 
Hypoxylon transversum, ix. 49. 
Hypoxylon turbinulatum, ix. 24. 

Icnco, iv. 1. 

Icacorea, v. 151. 

Icacorca panieulata, v. 153. 

IcatpuN Prunicr do, iv. 4. 

Icaques, Prunes dc, iv. 4. 

Iiatpiier, iv. 4. 

Icerya Purchaai, vii. 20. 

lothyomotliia, iii. 51. 

lethyonu'thia Piscipula, iii. 53. 

llcx,'i 103. 

Ilex, viii. 4. 

Ilex aistivali,<i, i. 1 1 3. 

Ilex ambigum, i. 113, 115. 

Ilex angustij'olia, i. 1 10. 


Ilex Aquifolium, i. 107. 

Ilex .4(ju{/'olium, vi. 63. 

Ilex Cassena, i. 111. 

Hex Cassino, i. 109. 

Hex Castine, \. 111. 

Hex Casnine, $, i. 111. 

Hex Cassiue, var, angustifolia, i. 110. 

Ilex Catsine, var, lati/olia, i, 109. 

Ilex Cassine, var. myrtifolia, i. 110. 

Ilex cauinoidet, i. 109, 

Ilex Dahoon, i, 109. 

Ilex Dahoon, var, anguit\folia, i, 110. 

Ilex Dahoon, var. myrtifolia, i. 110. 

Ilex daphne phylloides, v. 73. 

Ilex decidua, i, 113 ; xiv. 98. 

Ilex Floridana, i. 111. 

Ilex 'aurifolia, l 109. 

Ilfj laxiftora, i. 107. 

/.Vx liyustri/olia, i. 110. 

Ilex ligiistrina, i. 110, HI. 

Ilex montana, i. 115. 

Hex Monticola, i. 115. 

Ilex myrtifolia, i. 110. 

Hex opaca, i, 107. 

Ilex Parngunriensis, i. 104 ; xiv. 98. 

Ilex prinoide.i, i, 113. 

Ilex prionitig, i. 113. 

Ilex quercifolia, i. 107. 

ilex religioaa, i. 111. 

Ilex rosmarifolia, i, 110, 

Hex spinescens, i. 101. 

Ilex stcnopbylla, i. 101. 

Ilex vomitoria, i. Ill, 

Ilex Watfonia, i. 110. 

luciNE/f:, i. 103. 

Imhricaria, v. 181. 

Incanic, ix. 97. 

Incense Cedar, x. 135. 

India Rubber from FicuB elastioa, tU. 93. 

Indian Almond-tree, v. 20. 

Indian Azaleas, v. 140. 

Indian Hean, vi. 86. 

Indian Cherry, ii. 35. 

Indian Chief Plum, iv. 24. 

Indian Fig, xiv, 12. 

Indiana Chief Plum, iv, 24. 

Indiana Ucd Plum, iv. 24. 

Inga forfex, iii. 133. 

Ingn Guadaluj*ensis, iii. 132. 

lugu microphylla, iii. 133. 

Inga rosea, iii. 133. 

Inga Unguu^cati, iii. 133. 

Ink-wood, ii. 75. 

Insect enemies of 

Abies, xii, 101, 

Anielanubier, iv. 120, 

Catalpn, vi, 84. 

Celtis, vii. (i-l. 

Cornua, v. 05. 

Cratirgns, iv. 84. 

Diosi>yros, vi. 4. 

Fraxinu8, vi. 27. 

Hamanieli.s, v. 2. 

Hicoria, vii, HW. 

Juglans, vii. 110. 

Larix, xii. 5. 

Liqiiidanibar Styraciflua, v. 9. 

Mobrodondrun, vi. 20, 

Moms, vii. 77. 

Nyssa, v. 74. 

Ficea, xii. 25, 

Pinus, xi. 11. 

Platanus, vii. 101. 

Prnnus, iv. 11. 



5 I 

m i 


i s- 


rseiidoUugm, ni. S4. 

rjrnu, iv. 70. 

SuMfru, vii. 15. 

Tuiyloo, vii. 87. 

TiiigWf lii. 61. 

(IMiMiB, vii. 41t 

rmbclluUria* vii. 20. 

Viburniiin, v. M. 
In'egrifolijp, x\. 4. 
loxjflon, vii. H5, 
Irifth Yew. x.&2. 

Irunwootl, v. lUO, 173 ; ii. 34, 37. 
Iron-wood. ii. 3, 7, 75. 
Iron Wo«>d, iii. 41) ; iv. 135. 
UUy, iv. ftlV 

(ijuiiA piuiii.iv. ao. 

Itfii Ct/nJIa, ii. 3. 
Iteft nu'emiRoim ii. 'J. 
Ivy, V. no. 
Ivy, Pottoii, iii. 0. 

.Iiu-k. HUck. viii 115. 101. 

.Urk. Hhie, fiii. 171 

Jaok, .Idhn Grorge, xiii. 106. 

Jack Oikk. viii. 101. 

Jdck Fine, xi. 147. 

.lack Pine plains, xi. 118. 

Jack, Sand. viii. 172. 

Jai'<{uin, Nicolaua .fuaepb. v. 155. 

Jacquinia, r. IJV). 

Jarifuinia arhtrttt, v. 157. 

Jacquinia arniillarit, v. l/>7. 

Jacpiitna armiUarui, $ iirtHim, v. 167. 

.lacqninia ariniUiirifl, ffiiU of, v. 155. 

JamaicA Dogwood, iii. 53. 

Jamhttf, T. 3W. 

Jamhtisa, r. 39. 

Jamhota r%il(^ris, v. 41. 

James. I-^win, ii. 06. 

Jimeiia, ii. 06. 

Japan, cultivation nf Pines in, xi. 11. 

Japanese Arbor-vitjp, x. 124. 

Japanese lieecb, ix. 22. 

JajKinese Hiirh, ix. 48. 

.fflpanetw Cheitnut-tree, ix. 0. 

Jnpanete Hcni)iM>ks, xit. VAi. 

Jnpunpse Hop llorntieam, ix. 32. 

JapanoM Ijirch, xii. 2. 

.Tapane^e Perniinmon, vi. 4. 

Japanese IV-udotsuf^, xii. 84. 

Japanese Walnut, vii. 110. 

Jatminum hirmtum, v. 112. 

Javanese HliudcMlrndroof, t. 146, 147. 

Jeffrey, John, xi. 41. 

Jennie Lucas Plum. iv. 20. 

Jersey Pine, xi. 123. 

Joe \V(mk!, v. ir>7. 

Juned. Ileatrix, xiii. 130. 

Joahua Tree. x. 19. 

Jttttinia, v. 30. 

Judas-treo, iii. 95. 

JniLA.NPACE^:, vii. 113 ; xiv. 43. 

Jii);laiis. vii. 113. 

Juylans nUttnti/oiia, vii. 110. 

Juglant alba, vii. ir>3, 101, 

Juylnrui aUm nruminata^ vii. 105. 

Jutflans fj/M minima, vii. 141. 

Jugiant aiftt odamta, vii. 107. 

JuglarvM nlfxi ot'titn, vii. 153. 

Juglam altni, « ftarana, vii. 137. 

JuglanM nmuru, vii. 141. 

Juglans afn,'talitt>iui, vii. 137, 141. 

Juglani O'fualira, vii. 149. 

Juglans Calif oruica, vii. 129. 


JuglnrtM Crt/i/nmird, vii. 125. 

Juglans cathartica, yii 118. 

Juglans oinerea, vii. 118 ( liv. 103. 

Jugtaru einena, vii. 115. 

Juglans oinere*, medical propertiea of, vii. 

Juglans cinereo-nigra, vii. 114. 
Juglatm t-^ymprt$»n, vii. ITht. 
JugUiM coniif\trmu, vii. 110, 141. 
Juglans ryliruiricti, vii. 137. 
Juglans, fungal diseases of, vii. 110. 
Juglann glahm, vii. 105. 
.Tuglaitii, hyhrtil^ of, vii III. 
Juglans IlUn^nensi*, vii. 137. 
Juglans, in»e«ft <'nemi«H of, vii. 110. 
Juglans in South America, vii. 115. 
Juglans insularis, vii. 115. 
f Juglam intfrmtdui alafa, vii. 115. 
Juglanii iiiterme<lia pyriformis. vii. 114. 
f Juglans tntermettia 'ptadmngxtiata, vii. 115. 
Juglans intermedia Vilnioriniaiia, vii. 114. 
Juglans ianniiua, vii. 157. 
Juitla'is marrophffUaf vii. 110. 
Juglans M^ndshuricn, vii. 115. 
Juglans Man-hhurica, vii. 110. 
Juglatis Mfticnnat vii. 115. 
Juglans mtriitmi, vii. 141. 
Juglans mollis, vii. 115. 
Juglans murronata, vii. 141. 
Juglans tn\/nslinr/"rinit, vii. 145. 
Juglans nigra, vii. 121 ; xiv. 1U3. 
Juglans nigra, vii. 110. 
Juglant nigra ohhuga, vii. 121. 
Juglanxniffra, fl, vii. 1|S. 
Juglans nigra, var. Itulivian*, vii. 115. 
Juglans ttltcortlata, vii. 153, lO.*!. 
Juglanx ol'hmrjti, vii. 118, 
Juglans (tblonga alha, vii. 118. 
Juglans olivfr/ormis, vii. 137. 
Juglans otntlis, vii. 153. 
Juglans <ir<ifci, vii. \nS\. 
Juglarut /Wan, vii. 137. 
Juglans Pittturaii, vii. 121. 
Juglans /utrrina, vii. 105. 
Juglans p»trcina, a ttlH-ordata^ vii. 105. 
Juglann pttrnna, firifi/rmix^ vii. 1(>5. 
f Juglans pubrxcrns, vii. 1(i1. 
Juglans pyriformts. vii. 115. 
Juglans regia, vii. 115. 
Juglaiu regia, cultivation and uses of, vii. 

Juglans rt'gia gibboaa, vii. 114. 
Juglans regia intermedia, vii. 114. 
Juglans regia octognna, vi. 110. 
JuglatiM rrgia, var, A'uffW'niri, vii. 115. 
Juglans regia, var. .Sinenjiijt, vii. 115. 
Juglaru nJtru, vii. 101. 
Juglans rupestris, vii. 125, 
Juglann rujyextris, var. ruijifr, vii. 125. 
Juglans Sieboldiana, vii. 110. 
Juglans njuamo»a, vii. \'u\ \W\. 
Juglans ftpMmosa, $ microrarpa, vii. 107. 
f Juglans stemtrarjfa, vii 115. 
Juglans sulmta, vii. 141, 157. 
JuglauM lomenlnna, vii. 101. 
Juniper, x. "5, 79, HI, 8.3, 85, 87, 89. 
,Iuni|>er, IWdford, x. 9(t ; xiv. 110. 
JunifH'r, rheckert'd-liarked, x. 85. 
JunifHT, Swedish, x. 78. 
Juni|>rr, tar uf, x. 72. 
Juniperus, x, 09. 
Junijtertis alpina, t. 76 
Junij)erus Andina, x. h7 
Juniperus arboreseens, x. 93. 

Juniperus lUrbadeniis, liv. H9. 

Juntpenu Itarhailefisis, x, 70, 93. 

Juniprrus iiet{foniia^Mt x. 00. 

Juni|M*nis Itvrmudiana, i. 70. 

Juntfierus liermwiiana, i. 93 ; civ. 80. 

Junif>erus horealis, t. 75, 

Juni|H>nis Califiirnioa, x. 70. 

Junifierw Cali/omtra, var. ostenspenna, x. 70. 

Juniperus Cali/ortiiiti, var. Utahensis, x. 81. 

Juni/teniM Canadensis, x. 76. 

Jutiif>erus Cantliniatui, x. 93. 

Juniperus Cerrotiana. x. 70. 

Juniperus mmmunis, x. 75. 

Juniperus communi* nana, x. 70. 

Juniperus uommunis ol)lungn-|)eadula, i. 78. 

Juniperus rommunM pyramidalis, x. 78. 

Juniperus cummunis Suecica, x. 78. 

Juntperus nimmunin vulgarin, x. 70, 

Juniperus communis, H rejlexa, $ i}entiuia, x. 

Junijierus rommunu, • erectat x. 70. 
Juniftena communis, « vulgaris, x, 75. 
Junif*er*ts cvmmunis, 0, x. 70, 
Junifterus communis, alpina, x. 70. 
Juniperus communtn, depresna, x. 76. 
Juniperus Ci)mmunis, fastigiata, x. 78. 
Juntperun cttrnmunif, hemisphfrrica, x. 75. 
Juniftents citmmuni.i, Hiipanica, x. 75, 78* 
Juniperus communis, rejlexa, x. 78. 
Junifterus communi*, y, x. 70. 
Juniftems communis, y Caucastca, x. 75. 
Junifttrus communii.*, y mtmtana, x. 70. 
Juniprru* cnmmunis, B arfmrescens, x. 75. 
Juniperus cummunis, t "f'longtt, x. 75. 
Juni}>criis euminunis, \.ir. Sibirica, x. 75. 
Junipems dealbatat x. 75. 
Juniperus de/ormis, x. 75. 
Juniperus densa, x. 71. 
Juniftenis depressa, \. 75. 
tluni|>rrus drupacea, x. 72. 
.lunipenis, eciuiuniic proporties of, x. 71. 
Juni}>eruR, r.<iscntinl oil uf, x. 72. 
Juniperus i-xcelsa, x. 71. 
Juniperus rxcHsa, x. 87 ; xiv. 03, 04. 
Juniperus exreha, natui, x. 71. 

Juniperus tlaccida, x. H3. 

Junipetiix fielila, t eicrlsa, x. 71. 

Juniperus f'tltda, if I'ln/iniana, x. 93. 

Junifterus ffttida, 9 jlaccida, x. 83. 

Juniperus f'ragrans, x. 93. 

tluiiipenis, fungal ditieiiHes of, x. 73. 

tluniiHiruH gigantea, x. 70. 

Juniperus glauca, x. 0(i. 

Juniperus ftMsamthanea, x. 06. 

Junifirrus gracilis, x. S3, 90. 

Juniperus hemisph(frica, x. 75, 

Juniftentti Itermanni, x. 87, 93. 

Juniperux Iludsomtii, x. 71. 

Juni})erus, insect enemies uf, x. 72. 

Juntfterus isnphylla, x. 71. 

Juniperus Knighti, xiv. 105. 

JuuiftcrtiS marntcarpa, x. 72. 

Junifterus mairi>/H>ita, x. 71. 

Juniperus Mencana, x. 70, 91. 

Juni{>orus munosiM'rnm, x. 89. 

Junif>ern-t nririd, x. 70. 

Jumfterus nana, A mofUana, x. 70. 

Juniftrrus nana, Walpiua, x 70. 

Junifterus itfjli/tiga, x. 75, 78. 

Junifterus obltmga ftetaiula, x. 78. 

.Juniperus (iccidentalis, x.87. 

Juniperus occidenlalis, x. 79, 81, 89, 03 ; xir. 

Juniperus oceidenUilis, « pUiospermat i. 87. 

i»ftfnna, i. 70. 
hemu, X. 81. 

Jimiptrut oceidentalii, $ monoMperma, i. RO. 
Junijtema tHvidentatii^ v«r. gymmtcarpa, i. 80. 
Juniperus iHriUmtalu, viir. 7'«xarui, i, 01. 
Junipenu itcruienlaiu, var. l>lahensUf i. HI. 
Junipena occitientatis, Tar. ? y coryurij^eru, X. 

JunijifTut Otivieri, i, 71. 
Junipmu oppo/iiti/olia, i, 70. 
Jiiiii|H'riii ()xyci*<lrut, i. 72. 
Junifwr\i$ OxyrMru», • gibbota^ X. 72. 
Juni|>eru)i pachyphliea, i. 85. 
JuniperuM p^tulula, x, HO. 
Junipena plochyderma, x. 8fi. 
Juni/)erus pviycarpott x. 71. 
FtiniptTtis procpn, x. 70. 
Juniperux prostrata, x. 71. 
Juniperu* pygmtta, t. 70. 
Junifterus pyramuiali»t x. 70. 
Juniptrrus pyri/ormit, x. 70, 80. 
JiinipeniH recurva, x. 70. 
Juni{H.'rus recurvai var. iquamaU, x. 71. 
Juniperwi reptnSt x. 71, 75. 
Junif}frn» m/etcenjit x. TZ. 
Junii>eTUi ruffscena, var. • Noeif x. 72. 
Juniperus Sabina, x. 71. 
Junipfrwi Sabina, x. 71. 
Junipenu Sabina proitratn, x. 71. 
Junipfrus Sabina, $ humilii, x. 71. 
Juniperus Sabina, var. eiceliia,x. 71. 
Juniperui Sabina, var. procumbentf x. 71. 
Juniperus snbinuidcH, x. 1)1 ; xiv. 105. 
Junifwrus scopuluruni, xlv. 03. 
Junifterui Sihirira, x. 70. 
Junipents »«iuamata, x. 71. 
Juni/ierus SuecicOt x. 78. 
Junipenu tetrat/ona, x. 70,01. 
Juniprrutt trtraguna, var. oiigospermat X. 01. 
Juniftentii tetragona, var. (tatemperma, x. 79. 
Juniperus Utahensis, x. 81 ; xiv. 105. 
Juniprrua Virginiaiia^ x. 03. 
Juniprms Virginianat x, 80 ; xiv. 89, 03. 
JunipfrH.i Virginiana Barbatlennis, x. OU ; xiv. 

J uttif lemi 


xiv. H9. 

xiv. 93. 

Virginiana Cnrolinianat x. 96. 
Virgininna };racitis, x. *.K5. 
Virginiana Hfniuvmit x. 93. 
Virginians prontrata, x, 71. 
Virginiana, U australi.i, x. 1)3 ; xiv. 

Virginianot a vuigarut, x. 93. 
Virginiana, & CaroHniamt, x. 93. 
Virginiana, B glnucat x. 1)0. 
Virginiana, > liedfitrdiann, x. 90. 
Virfriniana, distribution uf, xiv. 89. 
Virginiana, var. liermwliaiutf x. 93 ; 

riryifitanrt, var. humilis, x. 71. 
l*ir*;inia«a, var. mon/afm, x. 93; 

K(rlera /aun/o/ia, vii. 27. 

Kaki, vi. 4. 

Kakis, urigin uf the cultivated, vi. 4. 

Kakis, UHi's of, vi. 4. 

Kalm, IVter, ii. 80. 

Kalniia, v. 137. 

Kalniia anf;ustifulia, v. 138. 

Kalmia oricoiJes, v. 137. 

Kalmia ghiura, v. 137. 

Kalniia latifnlia. v. 139. 

Kalmlu tatifulia, fertilization of, v. \^1. 

Kalmia Utifolia, niuristrous form uf, v. 140. 

Kalmia polifolia, v. 137. 

Kampmania J'raxiui/oUat i. 07. 


Karwinskr* Wilhalm Freiherr. i. 04. 
Kaja, X. 50. 

Kaya-no-abura, x. 50. 

Kallomiannia yiieevgena, x. 5. 

KelloKg, Albert, viii. 120. 

Kelluggia, viii. 120. 

Kennedjr, Louis, iv. 10. 

Kennedja, iv. 10. 

Ktntuoky Cuffe't^tree, iii. 60. 

Kemiei, tbe Oak, viii. 10. 

/ •ysertingia, iii. 50. 

Keysia, v. 144. 

Khaja Senegalensia, 1. 101. 

Kiokapoo IMum, iv. 20. 

King nuts, vii. 157. 

Kinuikinnie, v. <14. 

Kirsvhwasser, manufactur* of| !▼• 10. 

Kiikjthomas nut, vii. 134* 

Knaokaway, vi. 81. 

Knajia, ix. 95. 

Knees, Cypress, x. 161. 

Kniphnjia, v. 10, 

Kuub>cone IMne, xi. 107. 

Knowlton, Frank Hall. ix. 38. 

Kirborlin, C. L., i. 03. 

K(ul>erlinia, i. 93. 

Kieberlinia, i. 88. 

Kuiberlinia spinosa, i. 03 ; xiv. 08. 

Kura-tnatsu, xi. 7. 

Labramia, v. 181. 

Lavaihfa, i. 39. 

Laaitheajlorii/a, i. 45. 

Lachnea Scipioiw, x. 140. 

Laobnns Abictis, xii. 25. 

Lacbnus australis, xi. 11, 

Lacbnus Caryie, vii. 133. 

Laobnns laricifex, xii. 5. 

I.Acbniis IMatanicola, vii. 101. 

Lacbnus Strobi, xi. 11. 

Lacisteinn altemum, ix. 87. 

Lacistema Derterianum, ix. 87. 

Lacquer, niauufacture of, iii. 8. 

Lacquer-tree, iMiltivation of, iii. 8. 

Lndvbird Heetlo, Australian, vii. 20. 

La*iitadia cousociata, x. 140. 

Laguncularia, v. 27. 

Laguncrilaria glabri/olia, v. 29. 

Lngnncularia racemosa, v. 29. 

l^kb, iii. 110. 

Lambert, Ayhnor Hou-ke, xi. 30. 

Lamp-black from i'inus Pinaster, xi. 8. 

Lnmlri'tb, David, vii. 87. 

Lang.ulorfia, i. 05. 

Laplaeea Iliematuxylon, 1. 42. 

Larch, xii. 7, 127, 133. 

Larcb, Canker of, xii. 5. 

Larcb, Kiirupcan, xii. 3. 

Lari'b, Himalayan, xii. 3. 

Larcb, Japanese, xii. 2, 

Larch Sack-bearer, xii, 5. 

Larch, Saw-fly, xii. 5. 

Uirj^e-luaved Cucumber-tree, i. 11. 

Larix, xii. 1. 

Larix Altaica, xii. 4. 

Larix Americana, xii. 7 ; xiv. 106. 

Larix Americana pendnlii, xii. 7. 

Larix A niericana prolifrra, xii. 7. 

Larix Ameriiana nibra, xii. 7. 

Larix Archangtlira, xii. 4. 

Larix caduci/olia, xii. 3. 

/.wri> communis, y liomca, xii. 4. 

Larix coinmtmi.1t var. 3 Sihirica, xii. 4, 

Larix communis, var. i penduUtuif xii. 3. 


Larix Dahnrioa, xii. 4. 

Larix Vahurica, m typiatt lU. 4. 

Larix ItaHnrica, $ prostrata, xii. 4. 

I^rix Haburica, var. Kurilensis, xii. 4. 

Lartx Dahurica, var. y Japoniea, xii. 4. 

Larix decititui, xii. 3. 

Larix deritiua, m communis, xii. 3. 

Larix decidua, y A mericarta, xii. 7. 

Larix decutua, • jtettditla, xii. 3. 

I^rix, ecouumie properties of, xii. 8. 

Larix Europaa, xii. 3, 4. 

Larix Eurofxga communis, xii. 3. 

Larix Kuroptra comjxicta, xii. 3. 

Larix Europtra laxa, xii. 3. 

Larix Europira peruiula, xii, 3, 

Larix Euroftira, m fypica, xii. 3. 

Larix Europira, var. Dahurica, xii. 4t 

Larix Europira, var. Sibirica, xii. 4. 

Larix, fungal diseases of, xii. 0. 

Larix GriJfilHiatut, xii. 2. 

Larix Griflithii, xii. 2. 

Larix, insect enemies of, xii. 5* 

Larif intermedia, xii. 4, 7. 

Larix Jafxmica, xii. 2. 

Larix JdfHmica macrocarpOt xii. 2. 

I«arix Kiempferi, xii. 2. 

Larix Ktempferi, var minor, xii. 2. 

Larix Kamtsrhatika, xii. 4. 

Larix Kurilensis, xii. 4. 

Larix taricina, xii. 7. 

Larix laridna, var. tnicrocarpa, xii. 8. 

Larix taricina, var. pendula, xii. 8, 

Larix I^rix, xii. 3. 

Larix r^rix, economic properties of, xii. 3, 4. 

Larix Ledebourii, xii. 4. 

Larix leptolepis, xii. 2. 

Larix leptolepis, Murrayana, xii. 2. 

Larix leptolepis, var. minor, xii. 2. 

Larix Lyallii, xii. 15 ; xiv. 100. 

Larix miiroi'arpa, xii. 7. 

Larix occidontalis, xii. 11. 

Larix pendula, xii, 7. 

Larix pyramidalLi, xii. 3. 

Larix liomca, xii. 4. 

Larix Sibirica, xii. 3. 

L>irix tenuifolia, xii. 7, 

Larix vulgaris, xii. 3. 

Lasianthus, i. 42. 

Lasiosphtcria Htuppca, xii. 61. 

Laugeriti, v. 111. 

Laugierin, v. 111. 

Laugicria hirsuta, v. 112. 

LArKACEiK, vii. 1. 

Laurel, v. 139. 

Laurel, California, vii. 21. 

Laurel, Knglisb, iv. 11. 

Laurel, tJreat, v. 148. 

Laurel, Mountain, v. 139 ; vii. 21. 

Laurel Oak, viii. 175. 

Laurel, Portugal, iv. 11. 

Lauroccra.su9, iv. 8. 

Laurocerasus, iv. 7, 8. 

Laurocera.ixis Caroliniana, iv. 49. 

Laurocerasus ilici/oUa, iv. 53. 

Laurocerasus salici/olia, iv. 40. 

Laurocerasus sph^rrm-arpa, iv. 51. 

Lanroccrasus sphn;rucarpa, jB Urosillensis, iv. 

Laurus, vii. 1. 
Launtjt alhida, vii. 17. 
Laurus Jiorbonia, vii. 4. 
Laurus hullata, vii. 10. 
Launis Carolinensi,i, vii. 4, 7. 
Launa CaroUnensLi, a glabra, vii. 4. 


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laurus Canlineniu, fi i)iibe$emt, ni. 7. 

Zdurui Carolirmuu, y obtuta, rii. 4. 

Launu Canliniana, tU. 4. 

Lttun fatetbai, TU. 11. 

Launu I iilesbj/ana, vii. Jji. 

Lnurui diveni/olia, vii. 17. 

I aurui faeteni, vii. 10. 

.'.aunu Injica, f ii. 2. 

Lu-trut Maderientit, vii. 10. 

Zau.tu Penta, vii. 2, Sauafnu, vii. 17. 

ZainM Tmeriffit, vii. 2. 

Z<-.urui riV/, vii. 10. 

hauTua varilfoiUit vii. 17. 

Laurut Wintemna, i. 37 ; xir. 97. 

Launutinus, v. Ot. 

IjivMiD, Charles, z. 120. 

Lamon'B Cjpran, x. 110. 

Lvanlut, iv. 67. 

Lvaf-minen on QuerciUi viii. 12. 

Leather-wuud, ii. 3. 

Leavenworth, Mellina C, iii. 60. 

Leavenworthia, iii. 66. 

Lecaniuin Carjie, vii. 133. 

Leoanium JugUndifez, vii. 116. 

Leornium Quercifez, viii. 11. 

Lecaoium Queroitronis, viii. 11, 

Lecaniam Tulipifere, i. 18. 

Le Conte, John Eatton, ziv. 44. 

Lee, Jainea, iv. 16. & Kennedy, i>. 16. 

Leea, iv. 16. 

Leta ipinota, v. 60. 

LiQUMiNOSX, iii. 29 ; xiii. 13. 

Leitneria, vii. 109. 

Leitneria Floridana, vii. 111. 

LEiriiERiACKf, vii. 109. 

Lemouoicr, Louis (iuillaame, iii. 46. 

Lemon-wood, i. 83. 

Lentajo, t. 93. 

Lentago, v. 93. 

Le Page du I'ratz, v. 17. 

Lepidobalanus, viii. 4. 

LepiJobalanus, buda of, riii. 4. 

Lepidocereus, v. SI. 

Let'tjiii, vi. 25. 

Leptocoris trivittatui, ii. 81. 

Ltplodapkne, vii. 9. 

Leptoaphieria filamentosa, z. S. 

Leptoipbsria taxicola, z. 63. 

Lcptoatroma hjpophyllum, iii. 74. 

Leptoetroma Sequois, z. 140. 

I^ptotbainnia, v. 110. 

Leptura vagans. ix. 4X. 

Lettfrnion, George WaabingtoD, xii>. 79. 

LeiicKna, iii. 109. 

Leuctnus fifrmota^ iii. 127. 

Lfwrtrul Fttxteri, iii, 109. 

Leursna glandulosa, iii. 109. 

I,.eiu>H>na j^lauca, iii. 111. 

Lfurirna iflawa, xiii. 17. 

I.4;uccna Greggii, xiii. 17. 

lA'ucft-ua (tri^ggii, Rtipiilee of, iii. 109. 

Ivcurena niacrophylla, stipules of, iii. 109. 

l.t!U04ena pulvcrulentfl, iii. 113. 

liCitcirna retusa, iii. 109. 

Lrtn-e, ix. l.Tl, l.'>2. 

I^eucobalanus, viii. 4. 

Leucoifie^, ix. I.VJ. 

T^uitthiif Mariana, v. 130. 

Leurttrffhtntt vi. 1. 

Liboc(><lru.l, x. 133. 

Libocedrus, austro-caledonica, x. i:)3. 

Libocedrus llidwillii, x. 134. 


Libooedrus Chilensis, x. 134. 
Libocedrus oupressoidea, z. 134. 
Libocedrus decurrens, z. 135 ; ziv. 106. 
Liboeednu Doniaua, z. 134. 
Libocedrus, economio properties of, z. 134. 
Libocedrus, fungal diseases of, z. 134. 
Libocedrus macrolepis, x. 134. 
Libocedrus Papuana, x. 133. 
Libocedrus plumosa, z. 134. 
Liboeednu tetragona, z. 134. 
Libytbea Bacbmanni, vii. 64. 
Light wood, xi. 164. 
Lignum-vitffi, i. 60, 63. 
Lilac, xiii. 1. 

LIUACE.K, X. 1. 

Limaeia lauri/olia, vii. 27. 

Lime, Ogeechee, v. 70. 

Lime-tree, i. 53. 

Lin, i. 53. 

Lina Lapponica, iz. 101. 

Lina scripla, ix. 101, 156. 

Lina Tremuhe, ix. 156. 

Linden, i. 52, 55, 57. 

Linden-bast, i. 60. 

Lindbeimer, Ferdinand, i. 74. 

Linociera cottni/oiia, vi. 60. 

Liopus oinereus, vii. 133. 

Liopus Querci, viii. 11. 

Liparena, vii. 23. 

Liparis monarcha, zii. 24. 

Liquidambar, v. 7, 8. 

Liquidambar aceri/olia, v. 8. 

Liquidambar aspleni/olia, iz. 84. 

Liquidambar Califomicum, v. 7. 

Liquidambar, Chinese, v. 8. 

Liquidambar Formoaac&, v. 8. 

Liquidambar Formoaana, cork; ezcresocDoea 

of, V. 8. 
Liquidambar Formosana, resin of, v. 8. 
Liquidambar imberbe, v. 7. 
Liquidambar macrophylta, v. 10. 
Li<fuidambar Majimoiciczii. v. 8. 
Liquidambar, Oriental, v. 7. 
Liquidambar orientalis, v. 7, 8. 
Liquidambar peregrina, ix. 84. 
Liquidambar protensium, v. 7. 
Liquidambar, species, v. 8. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, v. 10. 
Liquidambar Styraciitua, fungal enemies of, 

V. 9. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, insect enemies of, 

V. 9. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, medical uses of, 

V. 8. 
Liquidambar Styraciflua, resin of, v. 8. 
Liquidambar Styraeijiua, var. Mexicana, v. 10. 
Liquidamber, v. 12. 
Liquid storax, v. 8. 
Liriodcndron, i. 17. 
Liriodeudron I*rocaccinii, i. 17. 
Liriodendrort procrrum, i. 19. 
Liriodcndron Tulipifera, i. 19 ; xir. 07. 
Lithucarpus, viii. 4. 
Lithocarpia, viii. 1. 
l.ttlitM-olletia bctulivora, ix. 48. 
I.itliucolU'tia caryiealliella, vii. 1,')3. 
LithucoUetis cjiryoifuliella, vii. 133. 
LithocolletiB celtifoliella, vii. G4. 
Lithocolletis ccltisella, vii. 01. 
Lithocotletis cratjegella, iv. 84. 
Lithocolletis gtittiHuitulla, var. lesculisella, 

ii. .'■.3. 
Lithocolletis jnglandiclla, vii. 110. 
Lithocolletis ostryiefuliella, ix. 32. 

Lithocolletis populiella, tz. 166. 

Lithocolletis Umbellulariie, vii. 20. 

Little, Henry, ziv. 64. 

Live Oak, viii. 09, 105, 111, 119. 

Live Oak, U. S. reaerrationi of, viii. 101. 

Lobadium, iii. 7. 

Lobb, William, x. 60. 

Loblolly, i. 42. 

Loblolly Bay, i. 41. 

Loblolly Pine, zi. HI. 

Loblolly-wood, i. 42. 

LochmBus manteo, viii. 12. 

JxKust, iii. 39, 43 ; xiii. 13. 

Locust, Black, iii. 77. 

Locust, Clammy, iii. 45. 

Locust, Honey, iii. 76, 101. 

Locust, Sweet, iii. 77. 

Locust, Water, iii. 79. 

Locust, Yellow, iii. 30. 

Lodge Pole Pine, xi. 00, 91. 

Lodhra, vi. 13. 

Lodhra cralitgoidet, vi. 14. 

Log-wood, ii. 26. 

iKimbardy Poplar, ix. 163. 

Lombardy Poplar in the United States, ix. 

Longifoliie, iz. 90. 
Long-leaved Cucumber-tree, i. IS. 
Long-leaved Pine, zi. 161. 
Lopbodermium juniperinum, x. 73. 
Lophoderniium Pinastri, xi. 12. 
Lophoderus triferanns, vii. 87. 
Lophotonia, ix. 21. 
Lophyrus Abietis, x. 124. 
Louisa Plum, iv. 20. 
I.curo, vi. 08. 

Lowrie, Jonathan Roberts, iv, 28. 
Loxoatege Maclune, vii. 87. 
Loiotienia rosaceana, iii. 10. 
Lucombe Oak, the, viii. 7. 
Luna moth, v. ; vii. 110. 
Lusekia, ix. 05. 
Lyall, David, zii. 16. 
Lyallia, zii, 16. 
Lyon, John, v. 80. 
Lyon, William Scrugham, iv. 133. 
Lyonetia alniclla, ix. 70. 
Lyonia, v. 80, 130. 
Lywiia, v. 120. 
Lyonia arborra, T. 135. 
Lyonia ferrugirtea, v. 131. 
Lyonia Mariana, v. 130. 
Lyonia rhomboulali$, v. 132. 
Lyonia rigida, v. 132. 
Lyom tbauinus, iv. 133. 
Lyanoihamnui a$plenifolius, iv. 135. 
Lyonutliaiiums tloribundua, iv. 135 ; xiv. 101. 
Lyonolhamnut Jioribundm, var. atfUeni/oliut, 

iv. 136. 
Lysiloma, iii. 127. 
Lyxiloma liahamensis, iii. 120. 
Lysiloma latisiliqua, iii. 129. 
Lysiloma polyphylla, iii. 127. 
Lysiloma Sabicu, iii. 127. 

Maacikia, iii. 66. 

Maboln, ■,■!. 1. 

Macfadycn, James, ii. 73. 

Macfadyenii, ii. 73. 

Mai-itlia, vi. 07. 

Mnckoiizie, Alexander, zii. 76. 

Mtii'luro, vii. 8,5. 

Mnrlurn aurantiaca, vii. 89. 

MacMahoii, Bernard, vii. 86. 



MaeNib, Jamei, z. 110. 

Macoucoua, i. VXi. 

Uacria, vi. 67. 

MacTamyrUu, r. 30. 

Maoropclma, v. 116. 

Macroptkalma, vii. 01. 

Maorosporium Catalpa, vi. 84. 

MaCTOthui/a, z. 123. 

MaerNhyrtui, ii. CI. 

Madeira mahogany, vii. 2. 

MadroBa, v. 12? '25, 127. 

Magna), Pierre, i. 2, 

Magnolia, i. 1. 

Magnolia aouminata, i. 7 ; xiv. 07. 

Magnolia acuminata, Tar. cordata, i. 8. 

Magnolia aurieularit, i. 15, 

Magnolia auricxdala, i. IS. 

Magnolia Campbellii, i. 2. 

Magnolia oonspioua, i. 2. 

Magnolia cordata, i. 8. 

Magnolia Dt CandoUii, i. 7. 

Magnolia fcstida, i. 3 ; xiv. 07. 

Magnolia fotida, rar. anguatifolia, i. 4. 

Magnolia fcetida, var. Ezoniensis, i. 4. 

Magnolia fistida, var. praooz, i. 4. 

Magnolia fragrant, i. 5. 

Magnolia Kraseri, i. 15. 

Magnolia frondota, i. 13. 

Magnolia fuacata, i. 2. 

Magnolia glaiiua, i. 5 ; xiv. 07. 

Magnolia glauoa longifolia, i. 6. 

Magnolia glauca, var. lati/'olia, i. 6. 

Magnolia glauca, var. longifolia, i. 5. 

Magnolia glauca, var. pum'Ua, i. 5. 

Magnolia grandiftora, i. 3 ; xiv. 07. 

Magnolia grandiftora, var. tUiptica, i. 3. 

Magnolia grandiftora, var. lanceolala, i. 3. 

Magnolia grandiftora, var. obovata, i. 3. 

M'grdia Harttoegut, i. 4. 

^ ii<nolia hypotouca, i. 2. 

Ma^u'i'ia laglefleldi, i. 3. 

Magnolia longifolia, i. v. 

Magnolia niaorophyUa, i. 11. 

Magnolia, Mountain, i. 7, 16. 

Magnolia obovata, i. 2. 

Magnolia pyramidata, i. 16. 

Magnolia Tbompsoniana, i, 6. 

Magnolia tripetala, i. 13 ; xiv. 07. 

Magnolia Umbrella, i. 13. 

Magnolia Virginiana, a glauca, i. 6. 

Magnolia Virginiana, fifatida, i. 3. 

Magnolia Virginiana, S tripetala, i. 13. 

Magnolia Virginiana, • acuminata, i. 7. 


Mahagoni, i. 09. 

Mahogany, i. 100 ; iil. 27. 

Mahogany, Afrlonn, i 101. 

Mahogany, Bastard, i 101. 

Mahogany Birch, ix. 52. 

Mahogany, Horsefloab, iii. 127. 

Mahogany, Madeira, i. 101 ; vii. 2. 

Mahogany, Mountain, iv. G3, 06 ; ziii. 27. 

Mnhoiiia, vii, 87, 

Mallodon niclanopui, vii. 64 ; viii, 11, 

Mains, iv. 07, C8, 

MalM, iv. 07. 

Malut anguatifolia, iv. 7S, 

Malus rommunia, iv, 68, 

Malut coronaria, iv. 71. 

Malut diversifolia, iv, 77, 

Malut microcar}>a coronaria, iv, 71, 

Malut micromr/Ki sempervirent, iv, 76. 

Malut rirularit, iv, 77, 

Malut tempenirtni, iv. 75. 

Matut tubcordala, iv. 77. 

Malut Toringo, iv. 00. 

Mancanilta, vii. 33. 

Mancbineel, vii, 35. 

Manchineel, Muuntaio, Ui. 14. 

MancineUa, vii. 33, 

Mancintlla venenata, vii, 36. 

Mangle, v. 13. 

Mangrove, v. 15. 

Mangrove, Black, vi. 107. 

Mangrove, White, t. 20. 

Manilkara, v, 181. 

Manna, vi. 26. 

Manna, Brianf^n, xii. 4. 

Mannaphorut, vi. 26. 

Mrple. Alb Leaved, ii. 111. 

Maple, Black, xiii, 0, 

Maple, Broad Leaved, ii. 80. 

Maple, Dwarf, ii, 05, 

Maple, Mountain, ii, 83, 

Maple, Red, ii, 107 ; xiii, 11, 

Maple, Red, distribution of, liii. 11. 

Maple, Rock, ii, 07. 

Maple, Scarlet, ii. 107. 

Maple, Silver, ii, 103, 

Maple, Soft, ii, 103, 

Maple, Striped, ii, 85, 

Maple, Sugar, ii. 07 ; xiii, 7. 

Maple, Vine, ii. 93. 

Maples, fungal disease of, ii. 81. 

Maple-sugar, making of, ii. 08. 

Marasca Cherry, iv. 10. 

Maraschino, manufacture of, iv. 10. 

Marcgravia, v. 24. 

Marcorella, ii. 47. 

Marggraf, Georg, v. 24. 

Maritime Pine, xi. 7. 

Maritime Pine-belt, xi. 152. 

Marlberry, v. 153. 

Marrons, ix. 0. 

Marsh Pine, xi. ItO. 

Marshall, Humphrey, viii. 39. 

Marshall, Moses, i, 46, 

Marshallia, viii, 39, 

Massaria Comi, v, 06. 

Massaria epileuca, vii. 77. 

Massaria Ulmi, vii. 42. 

Mastic, V. 165. 

Mastic, Young, iii. 2. 

Maitotuke, vii. 91. 

Matlhiola, v. 111, 

Matthiola tcabra, v, 112. 

Maul Oak, viii, 105. 

Maximilian Alexander Philipp, Frinz von 

Neuwied, ix. 138. 
Maximiliana, ix, 138, 
May apples, v, 147. 
May Haw, iv. 110. 
Mecas inornata, ix. 155. 
Medical properties of Carica, xiv. 3. 
Medical oroperties of Screnoa scrrulata, xiv, 

Medical uses of Opuntia, xiv. 13, 
Meehan, Thomas, ix, 82, 
Mcgathymus Yuccie, x, 5, 
Melanipsora betulina, ix. 49, 
Melampsora Goeppcrtiana, v, 117, 
Mclampsora Tremula;, xii, 5, 
Melampsora Vacclnionim, v, 117, 
Mclanconis Alui, ix, 70. 
Melanobalanus, viii. 4. 
Mrlanocarya, ii, 9. 
Melanococca, iii. 7, 
Melauopsamma oonfertiasima, z. 140. 

MalexitoM, zii. 5. 

Meuaceje, i. 00. 

Melicocca, ii. 73, 77. 

Melicocca paniculata, ii. 76. 

Meliiobut, iii. 73. 

Melilobut helerophylla, iii. 76. 

Meliola balsamicola, xii. 101. 

Meliola furcata, x. 38. 

Meliola palmicola, x. 38 ; xiv. 76. 

Mellichamp, Joseph Hinson, viii. 144. 

Melliohampia, viii. 144. 

Menetlrata, tU. 1. 

Menzies, Archibald, ii. 00. 

Menziesia, ii. 00. 

Mortens, Karl Heinrich, xii. 80. 

Mertensia, xii. 80. 

Mertentia, vii. 63. 

Mertentia rhamnoidet, vii. 64. 

Mertentia tizypkoidet, vii. 04. 

Mespilodapbne, vii. 10. 

MetpHodaphne, vii. 0. 

Metpilodaphne opifera, vii. 10. 

MetpUut acerifolia, iv. 107. 

Metpilut attivalit, iv. 110. 

MetpUut Amelanchier, iv. 126, 127. 

Metpilut apiifolia, iv. 111. 

Metpilut arbnrea, iv. i2T 

MetpUut arbutifolia, iv. 6c,', 123. 

MetpUut arbutifolia, var. melanocarpa, iv. 68. 

Metpilut axillarit, iv, 117, 

Metpilut berberifolia, iv, 03, 

Metpilut Botciana, iv, 02, 

MetpUut Calpodendron, iv, 101, 

Metpilut Canadentit, iv, 127, 

MetpUut Canadentit, var, cordata, iv. 127. 

MetpUut Canadentit, var. obovalit, iv. 128. 

MetpUut Canadentit, var. oligocarpa, iv, 126, 

Metpilut Canadentit, var, rotundifolia, iv, 120. 

MetpUut Caroliniana, iv. 113. 

MetpUut coccinea, iv. 05, 00. 

MetpUut coccinea, pubetcent, iv, 00, 

MetpUut coccinea, var, viridit, iv, 05. 

MetpUut corallina, iv. 107. 

t MetpUut corallina, xiii. 139. 

MetpUut cordata, iv. 107. 

Metpilut comifolia, iv. 103. 

MetpUut Crut-galli, iv. 91. 

MetpUut Crut-galli, var. pyracanthifolia, ir. 

92 ; xiii, 30, 
Metpilut Crut-galli, var. talicifolia, iv. 02. 
Metpilut cuneifolia, iv, 01, 103, 
Meapilut cuneiformit, iv, 103, 
Me,^pilut elliptica, iv, 02, 114. 
Metpilut ftabellata, iv, 05. 
Metpiliit flava, iv, 113, 
Metpilut ftexitpina, iv, 113, 117, 
MetpUut ftexuosa, iv, 117, 
MetpUut Fontanetiana, iv, 02, 
Metpilut gtanduloia, iv, 90 ; xiii. 134. 
Metpilut hyemalit, iv, 114, 
MetpUut lariniata, iv. 117, 
Metpilut latifolia, iv, 101, 
Metpilut linearit, iv. 92. 
Metpilut lobata, iv, 101, 
Metpilut htcida, iv, 91, 
Metpilut lucida, var, anguttifolia, iv, 92. 
Metpilut maxima, iv, 95, 
Metpilut Michauxii, iv, 114, 
Metpilut nivea, iv, 127. 
Metpilut odorata, iv, 05 ; xiii, 147. - 
Metpilut ovalifolia, iv. 92. 
Metpilut Oxyacantha aurea, iv. 117. 
MetpUut parvifolia, iv, 117, 
MetpUut Phanopyrum, iv, 107. 







MetpUui fxjmli/olia, ir, 97. 

MetpUut pnunota, ziii. 61. 

MapUm prunelli/blia, ir. 93. 

MapUm pruni/iilia, iv. 02. 

Mttpiim pubetceru, it. 99. 

iltipUm punclala, ir. 103. 

MetpUut pijrifolia iv. 101, 103. 

MetpUut rivularit, ir. 87. 

MetpUut mundi/'oiia, iv. 05 ; xiii. 134. 

MetpUut talici/olia, iv. 03. 

MetpUut tanguinta, ir. 06, 

MetpUut tpalhulala, ir. 106. 

MetpUut tlipulota, iv, 84. 

MetpUut tuccutentOt xiii. 1<40. 

MetpUut tUiafolia, ir. 09. 

MetpUut lomeniota, ir. 101, 117. 

MetpUut turbinata, ir. 113. 

MetpUut tmifiora, ir. 117. 

MetpUut unUaleralit, ir. 117. 

MetpUut viridit, xiii. 61. 

MetpUut Wattoniana, ir. 01. 

MetpUut Wendlandn, ir. 96. 

MrtpUui xanOuxarpa, ir. 117. 

Meaquite, iii. 101 ; xiii. 15. 

Mesquite, Screw-pod, iii. 107. 

Mftagonia, r. 115. 

Metagonia orata, r. 117. 

Metupbam carernosk, x. 150. 

Metopiuni, iii. 11, 14. 

Metopium, iii. 7. 

Metopium liniuei, iii. 13. 

Mttopium Linnm, rar. Ozymtlopium, iii 13. 

Mexican Bald Cjrprcu, x. ISO. 

Mexican Cherry-tree, ir. 46. 

Mexican Fir, xii. 07. 

Mexican Mulberry, vii. 83. 

Mexican species of Pinui, xi. 5. 

Michaux, Andr^, i. 68. 

Mlchaux, Francois Kaiti, zi. 155. 

Michauxia tettUit^ i. 45. 

Michelia, i. 2. 

Micracis birtella, rii. 20. 

MUroceratut, ir. 7, 8. 

Microjambotaf r. 30. 

Micr«melea, ir. 67. 

MirrvmeUt, iv. 67. 

Micropeace, xii. 60. 

Microptelea, rii. 40. 

Micmpleteat vii. 39. 

Mitroptelea parvi/olia, rii. 41. 

Micrcnpbiera AIni, r. 65, 05 ; ix. 70. 

Miorosphwra elevata, ri. 84. 

Microtpbera erineopliila, ix. 25. 

Microephiera quercina, riii. 13. 

Micro«pb»r« Rarenelii, iii. 74. 

Miorosphcra Vaccinii, r. 117. 

Microitroms Juglandia, vii. 117, 134. 

Microtiniu, r. 93. 

Micratinut, r. 03. 

Miller, Philip, i. 38. 

Mimosa, iii. 113. 

Mimota bictpt, iii. 111. 

Mimosa Cumoria, iii. 101. 

Mimofa Farnetiana, iii. 119. 

Mimota fnmttota, iii. 111. 

Mimota furcata, iii. 101. 

Mimota glandulota, iii. 100. 

l*limota glauca^ iii. 111. 

Mim/txa juUjIora, iii. 101. 

Mimota liri'igata, iii. 101. 

Mimota latitilitjua, iii. 129. 

Mimota teucocephah, iii. 111. 

Mimota palUila^ iii. 101. 

Mimota peiluncuiata, iii. 1^9. 

Mimota roiea, iii. 133. 

Mimota «a/tnorum, iii. 101. 

Mimota icorpioidet, iii. 119. 

Mimota lortuota, xiii. 19. 

Mimota Unguu<ati, iii. 133. 

Himuaops, r. 181. 

Mimuiopa Balata, r. 182. 

Mimutopi Halola, r. 18!>. 

Mtmutopt Browniana, r. 182. 

Mimutopt ditteda, r. 182, 183. 

Mimusops, eoonomic properties of, r. 182. 

Mimusops Klengi, r. 182. 

Mimutopt Floriilana, r. 183. 

t Mimutopt globota, r. 182. 

Mimusops hexandra, v. 182. 

Mimutopt Hookeri, r. 182. 

Mimutopt Indiea, r. 182. 

Mimusops Kauki, r. 182. 

Mimutopt Kauki, var. Broaniana, r. 182. 

Mimusops parvidora, r. 182. 

Mimusops Sieberi, r. 183. 

Miner Plum, ir. 20, 24. 

Minnetonka Plum, ir. 20. 

Hiraculous Berry, r. 164. 

Missouri Apricot Plum, iv. 24. 

Mistletoes on Juniperus, z. 73. 

Mocinna, xir. 1. 

Mock Orange, ir. 49. 

Hookemut, rii. 161. 

Mobr, Charles, ir. 90 ; ziii. 2S. 

Mohria, vi. 10. 

Mohria Carolina, vi. 21. 

Mohria diplera, vi. 23. 

Mohria parriflora, vi. 19. 

Mobrodendron, vi. 19. 

Mohrodcndron Carolinum, vi. 21. 

Mobrodendron dipterum, vi. 23. 

Mobrodendron, fungal enemies of, vi. 20. 

Mobrodendron, insect enemies of, vi. 20. 

Mobrodendron parviflonim, vi. 19. 

Mumi, xii. 101. 

Momisia, \-ii. 63. 

Momitia, vii. 63. 

Momisia aiiUeata, vii. 64. 

Momitia Ekrenbergiana, ni. 64. 

Monella carjella, vii. 134. 

Mongezia, vi. 13. 

Monilia fructigena, iv. 12. 

Monilia Linbartians, iv. 12. 

MonUittut, ix. 151. 

Monnieria, iii. 40. 

Monodaphnus bardus, ri. 27. 

Monohammus confusor, xi. 11 ; xii. 25. 

Monobammus dentator, xii. 25. 

Monohammus marmoratus, xi. 11. 

Monobammus soutellttus, xi. 11. 

Monohammus titillator, xi. 11. 

Monterey Cypress, x. 103. 

Monterey Pine, xi. 103. 

Montezuma, Cypress of, x. 150. 

Moor Birch, ix. 17. 

Moose-woud, ii. 85. 

Moraceie, vii. 75. 

Morella, ix. 83. 

Morella, ix. 83. 

Morello Cherry, iv. 9. 

Morelotia, vi. 75. 

Moronobea coccinea, iii. 14. 

Morophorum, vii. 75. 

Moms, vii. 75. 

Mortis alba, vii. 76. 

M'o'js alba, introduction into the United 

States, vii. 70. 
Moms alba Tatarica, vii. 70. 

Mont Canadeniii, rii. 70. 

Moms oeltidifolia, vii. 83. 

Monit Contlanlinopoiitaiia, vii. 76. 

Moms, fungal diseases of, rii 77. 

Morus Indiea, vii. 77. 

Moras, insect enemies of, rii. 77. 

Horu* berigata, rii. 77. 

Moms, medical properties of, rii. 77. 

Morut Mexicona, rii. 83. 

Momt micropkylla, rii. 83. 

Morus multioaulis, cultiration of, rii. 70. 

Moms nigra, vii. 77. 

Morus nigra, uita of, rii. 77. 

Morut reticular', vii. 79. 

Morut riparia, vii. 79. 

Morus rubra, vii. 79 ; xiv. 103. 

Morut rubra, var. heterophylla, rii. 70. 

Morut rubra, var. tncua, vii. 70. 

Morut rubra, var. pallida, vii. 79. 

Morut rubra, var. purpurea, vii. 79. 

Morut rubra, var. lomeniota, rii. 79. 

Morut teabra, vii. 70. 

Morus serrata, vii. 77. 

Morut Tatarica, vii. 70. 

Moruc tomentota, vii. 79. 

Mossy Cup Oak, riii. 43. 

Moth, Nun, xii. 24. 

MotberMslores, r. 41. 

Mountain Ash, ir. 69, 79, 81 ; vi. 47. 

Mountain Cherry, iv. 26. 

Mountain Elm, vii. 52. 

Mountain Evergreen Cherry, iv. 64. 

Mountain Hemlock, xii. 77. 

Mountain Laurel, v. 139 ; vii. 21. 

Mountain Magnolia, i. 7, 15. 

Mountain Mahogany, iv. 63, 65 ; xiii. 27. 

Mountain Manchineel, iii. 14. 

Mountain Maple, ii. 83. 

Mountain White Oak, viii. 79. 

M .>blenb8rg, Gotthilf Ileinrich, ii. 56. 

MiiehlenLdrgia, ii. 56. 

Mulberry, vii. 83. 

Mulberry, Black, vii. 7T. 

Mulberry, Mexican, vii. 83, 

Mulberry, Red, vii. 70. 

Mulberry, Russian, vii. 76. 

Mulberry, White, vii. 76. 

Muriea, r. 181. 

Murray, Andrew, xi. 03. 

Mggintia, ii. 13. 

Mgginda integri/otia, ii. 14, 29. 

Mygindn lati/otia, ii. 14. 

Mygindii Utti/olia, var. ii. 14, 

Myginda paitent, ii. 14. 

Mylocnrium, ii. 5. 

Mylocarium liguttrinum, ii. 7. 

Myrcia f /lalhitiana, v. 32. 

Myrciaria, v. 39. 

Myrica, ix. 83. 

Myrica altera, ix. 87. 

Myrica argula, ix. 85. 

Myrica argttto, fi macrocarpa, ix. 86. 

Myrica argvta, y tinctoria, ix. 85. 

Myrica arguta, t Peruviana, ix. 86, 

Myrica atplcnifftlia, ix. 84. 

Myrica Ilrabantica, ix. 84. 

Myrica Califoniica, ix. 03. 

Myrica Caracataua, ix. 86. 

Myrica Carulinicnsis, ix. H4. 

Myrica Carolinensit, ix. 87. 

MyricB ccrifrrn, ix. 87 ; xiv. 104. 

Myrica ccri/era, ix. 84. 

f Myrica ctrifera humUit, ix. 84. 

Myrica ceri/era, a anguitifolia, ix. 87. 

Afj/riea ctri/era, • arboracmt, a. 87. 

Myrica ceri/era, P, ix. 84, 87, 88. 

Mj/rica cerifera, fi lali/olia, iz. 84. 

Myriea certfera, media, ix. 84. 

Myrioa Mrifam,'^ pumila, iz. 88. 

Myriea Comptonia, ix. 84. 

Mjrica cordifolia, iz. 85. 

Myriea Farquhariana, iz. 86. 

Mfrica Faya, iz. 86. 

MyrioF, fangal diaeaaea uf, iz. 86. 

Myrioa Gale, iz. 84. 

Myriea Oalt, ix. 84. 

Myriea Gale, eoonomio propertiea of, iz. 84. 

Myriea Gale, medioal propertiea of, iz. 84. 

Myriea QaU, fi tomtntota, iz. 84. 

Myriea Gate, y Portugaltmit, ix. 84. 

Myriea Hartwegi, iz. 84. 

Myriea heterophytla, ix. 87. 

Myrioa, hybrida of, iz. 94. 

Myriea inodora, iz. 01. 

Myriea integri/olia, ix. 86. 

t Myriea Laureola, iz. 01. 

Myriea maeroearpa, iz. 86, 87. 

t Myriea maeroearpa, fi anjuttifotia, iz. 87. 

Myriea, medical propertiea of, ix. 86. 

Myriea Nagi, iz. 86. 

Myriea ohovata, iz. 91. 

Myriea paluatris, ix. 84. 

Myriea Pennsylvanica, ir 84. 

Myriea peregrina, iz. 84. 

Myriea peregrina, medical properties of, iz. 

Myrioa pubeseena, iz. 85. 
Myriea puiilla, iz. 88. 
Myriea rubra, ix. 86. 
Myriea saplda, ix. 86. 
Myriea tesaUifolia, ix. 84, 88. 
Myriea tessilifolia, var. latifolia, iz. 84. 
Myriea wax, iz. 85. 
Myiucace£, iz. 83. 
Myrobalana, t. 20. 
Myrobalans, belerio, t. 20. 
Myrobalana, cbebulio, y. 20. 
Myrobalanxa, v. )9. 
MyR8INKACE£, v. 151. 
MYRTACEiG, T. 31. 

Myrtle, Auatralian, iz. 23. 
Myrtle, Waz, iz. 87, 91, 93. 
Mytus, V. 31. 
Myrlia axillarii, v. 43. 
Myrtua Brasiliana, v. 41. 
Myrtus buxi/olia, v. 43. 
Myrtus Caryophyllus, v. 40. 
Myrlus Chylraeulia, y. 36. 
Myrtus dichotoma, v. 32. 
Myrtus Jamhos, v. 41. 
Myrtus Monlicola, y. 45. 
Myrtus Poireli, y. 43. 
Myrtus procera, v. 47. 
Myrtus Willdenowii, v. 41. 
Myrtus Zuzygium, v. 36. 
Mytilaapis pinifoliie, xi. 11. 
Mytllaspis pomicurticis, iv. 70. 
Myzoaporium nitidum, v. 65. 

Nwmaapora aurea, ix. 41. 
Nieraaspora ebrysospcrma, ix. 156. 
Nioniiupom crocea, ix. 24. 
Naked-wood, ii. 49 ; v. 32. 
Nannybcrry, v. il6. 
Narrow-leaved Cottonwood, ix. 171. 
NaucUa tetramlru, xiv. 25. 
Naval stores, xi. 154. 
Naval Timber I'ine, xi. lia 


Ifteatiitii, vii. 01, 

Neoklac* Poplar, iz. 181. 

Jftelandra eoriacta, Tli. 11. 

Ntelandra tanguima, vii. 11. 

Iftelandra Willdmoviana, tU. 11. 

Nectar glanda of Yuooa, z. 3. 

Neetoli; ix. 96. 

Neelopix, ix. 95. 

Neotria baliamea, xil. 101. 

Nectria cuourbitula, zi. 13. 

Neotria depauperata, z. 6. 

Neotria Umbelliila.'ia, tII. iiO. 

Neclusion, iz. 08. 

N4e, Louia, viii. 26. 

Neea, riii. 26. 

Ntgundium, ii. 70. 

Negundiumfraxin^foiimn, 11. 111. 

Negundo, ii. 70. 

Negundo aeeroides, ii. Ill, 112. 

Negundo aeeroides, var. Cnl\fomicum, ii. 112. 

Negundo Cali/omieum, ii. Ill, 112. 

Negundo fraxinifolium, ii. 111. 

Negundo lobatum, ii. 111. 

Negundo Mexieanum, ii. HI. 

Negundo Negundo, ii. 111. 

Negundo tr\foliatum, ii. Ill, 

Nematua Kricliaonii, zii. 6. 

Nematua aimilaria, iii. 38. 

Nematua ventralia, iz. 101. 

Nemodaphne, vii. 0. 

Nooolytua Caprea, vi. 27. 

Neomorphe, vii. 02. 

Nephoteryz Zimmormanni, xl. 11. 

Nephritic-tree, iii. 13t. 

Nepticula amelanehierella, iv. 126. 

Nepticula oaryaifoliella, vii. 133. 

Nepticula Clomcnaells, vii. 101. 

Nepticula cratngifoliella, iv. 84. 

Nepticula juglauditoliella, vii. 116. 

Nepticula maximclla, vii. 101.. 

Nepticula nyasitiella, v. 74. 

Nepticula oatryiefoliella, ix. 32. 

Nepticula platanella, vii. 101. 

Nepticula ptoleieella, i. 77. 

Nestylix, ix. 05. 

Nettle-tree, vii. 00. 

Neurodoaia, v. 116. 

Neuwiod, Prim von, ix. 138. 

Newberry, John Strong, vi. 39. 

Newberrya, vi. 40. 

Newcaatlo Thorn, iv. 01. 

New Jeracy Tea, ii, 42. 

New Mexican Chorry-treo, iv. 46. 

New Zealand niack Boooh, ix. 23, 

New Zealand Silver Beech, ix, 23, 

Nitidulm, ix, 07, 

Niveffi, ix, 97, 

Nobilos, xii. 07, 

Noltia, vi. 1, 

Nopalea coohenillifer, xiv, 11, 

Nordmann Fir, xil. 08, 

Norway Pine, xi, 07, 

Norway Spruce, xii. 24. 

Notbofagus, ix. 22. 

Notho/agus, ix, 21. 

Nunimularia Clypeua, viii. 12. 

Numniularla diseretn, iv. 70, 

Nunimularia nili'roplacn, vii, 2, 

Nummulnria puuetulatn, viii, 12. 

Nun moth, xii, 24, 

Nuasbaumor nut, the, vii, 157, 

Nut Pine, xi, 43, , 17, .51,56. 

Nut-|^lla, viii, 0. 

Nutmeg, California, z. 60. 


Nutmeg Hickory, vii. 146. 

Nuttall, Thomaa, U. S4. 

NuttaUia, ii. 34. 

Nux, vii. 117. 

NrOTAOINAOEJt, vi. 109. 

Nyelanlhei hireula, y. Ill, 

Nycterisition, y. 169. 

Nyaaa, v. 73. ' 

Nysia anguliians, v. 83. 

Nyita anguiosa, y. 83. 

Nyaaa aquatica, v. 83 ; ziv. 101. 

Nyssa aqtuitiea, y. 75, 76, 83. 

Nyaaa arborea, v. 73. 

Nyisa biflora, y. 76. 

Nyua Canadensis, y. 75. 

JVyMO eandieans, v. 79. 

Nyssa eandtcans, var. grandidentala, v. 83. 

Nyssa capitata, v. 79. 

Nyssa Caroliniana, v. 76. 

Nyssa eoeeinea, y. 79. 

Nyssa denlieulata, v. 83. 

Nyaaa, fungal enemiea of, v. 74. 

Nyssa grandidentala, v. 83. 

Nyaaa, ioaect enemiea of, v. 74. 

Nyssa inlegri/olia, v. 75. 

Nyssa montana, v. 79. 

Nyssa multijiora, v, 75. 

Nyssa multijiora, var. sylvatica, v. 75. 

Nyaaa Ogeche, v. 70 ; xiv. 101. 

Nyssa palustris, y. 83. 

Nysia sessU\flora, v. 73. 

Nyaaa aylvatico, v. 75. 

Nyaaa aylvatiea, var. biflora, t. 76. 

Nyssa tomentosa, v. 70, 83. 

Nyssa unijiora, y. 83. 

Nyssa villosa, y, 75. 

Oak-apple, viii. 12. 

Oak, Baaket, vui. 67. 

Oak, Bear, viii. 166. 

Oak, Black, viu. 103, 137, 141. 

Oak, Blue, viii. 70. 

Oak, Bur, viii. 43. 

Oak, Chestnut, viu. 51, 55, 183. 

Oak, Chinquapin, viii. 66, 59. 

Oak, Cork, viii. 8. 

Oak, Cow, viii. 67. 

Oak, David's, viii. 10. 

Oak, Duck, viii. 166. 

Oak, Evergreen White, viii. 83. 

Oak galls, viii, 9. 

Oak, Hickory, viii. 107. 

Oak, Jack, viii. 161. 

Oak kermes, viii, 10. 

Oak, Laurel, viii. 175. 

Oak, Live, viii. 09, 105, 111, 119. 

Oak, Maul, viii. 105. 

Oak, Mossy Cup, viii, 43, 

Oak, Mountain White, viii. 79. 

Oak of Mamre, viii, 10. 

Oak, Overeup, viii. 47. 

Oak, Pin, viii. 51, 50, 151, 181. 

Oak, Poasum, viii, ICO, 

Oak, Post, viii. 37. 

Oak, Punk, viii. 1C6. 

Oak, Quercitron, viii. 139. 

Oak, Red, viii. 123, 129 ; »iv. 51. 

Oak, Uock, viii, 56, 

Oak, Kock Chestnut, viii. 51. 

Oak, Running, viii. 115. 

Oak, Saul's, viii. 18. 

Oak, Scarlet, \iii. 133. 

Oak, Scrub, viu. 75, 05, 123, 146, 156. 

Oak, Shin, viii. 27, 33, 75. 


^.^ixi,»3nfltin^-: - . 



Otk, Shingl*, viii. ITS. 

Okk, Spanish, nii. U7. 

Oak, Swamp Spaniih, liii. ISl ; ST. 61. 

Oak, Swamp White, viii. 47, 63. 

Oak, Tan Buk, viii. 183. 

Oak, the Culharo, viii. 7. 

Oak, the Luoomb*, viii. 7. 

Oak, tb« Wadiworth, viii. 6J. 

Ouk, Turkaj, vui. 143. 

Oak, Upland WiUow, viu. 172. 

Oak, Valbr, riu. 23. 

Oak, Valonia, viii. 8. 

Oak, Water, viii. IBS, 169, 181. 

Oak, White, viii. 16, 23, 29, 33, 71, 87, 89. 

Oak, Willow, viii. 179. 

Oak, Yellow, vui. SS, 127, 139. 

Oak, Yellow-bark, viu. 137. 

Oaka, Ameriean, cultivated io Europe, viii. 

Ochnaylim, i. 6S. 
Ooneria ditpar, i, 51 ; ii. S4. 
Oootea, vii. 9. 
Oeotea bullata, vii. 10. 
Oeotaa Catetbjana, vii. 11. 
Oeotea, eoonomio uiei of, vii. 10. 
Oeotea fcetene, vii. 10. 
Oeotea Guianeniia, vii. 10. 
Oootea opifera, vii. 10. 
OaAta Mrtcra, vii. 10. 
Oeotea iplendena, viL 10. 
Oetandi*, ix. 96. 
Oetimia, iz. ISl. 
Odontota donalii, iii. 38. 
(Edemaaia concinna, iv. 70. 
(Enocarjmt frigidut, x. 30. 
(Bnoecrpua rtgiut, x. 31. 
(Enocarput SanconOt z. 30. 
Ogeeehee Lime, v. 79. 
Ohio Buckeye, ii. 66. 
Oidium radioenm, iz. 156. 
Oiketieui Abbotii, z. 160. 
Oil, Almond, iv. 9, 10. 
Oil, Aprieot, iv. 10. 
Oil, Birch-bark, iz. 47. 
Oil of Birch, iz. 61. 
Oil of clovea, v. 41. 
Oil of Hemlock, xii. 66. 
Oil of Red Cedar, z. 95. 
Oil of SaMafrai, vii. 14. 
Oil of turpentine, xi. 3, 9. 
Oil of Umbellularia, vii. 20. 
Oil, lavin, z. 72. 
Oilnut, vii. 118. 
Oiotodiz, ix. 95. 
Old Field Birch, ix. 66. 
Old Field Fine, xi. 111. 
Old Man'i Beard, vi. 60. 
OUa Amtricana, vi. 65. 
OUa fragrant, vi. 63. 
OUa ilid/olia, vi. 63. 
OtJUkCKM, vi. 26 ; ziv. 33. 
Oleum Juniperi, x. 72. 
Olive, California, vii. 21. 
Olive-tree, Black, v. 21. 
OIney, Stephen Tbajer, iii. 47. 
Olneja, iii. 47. 
Olneya Tenota, iii. 49. 
(Xuntot, YU. 91. 
Olynlhia, v. 39. 
Omorika, xii. 20, 23. 
Onciderei cingnlatni, vii. 133. 
Onvgena fa^nea, ix. 25. 
Ooepora Abietnm, zii. 84. 
Opa, T.3». 

Opalua, V. 93. 

Opubu, V. 93. 

Opuntia, ziv. 9. 

C{pun(ia arhoructnt, xiv. 17. 

OputUia co^Untli/era, xiv. 11. 

Opuntia Dillenii, xiv. 13. 

Opuntia Dillenii, economic niei of, ziv. 13. 

Opuntia Ficut-Indioa, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia, fruit of at food, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia fidgtru, xiv. 16. 

Opuntia fulgida, xiv. 16. 

Upuntia fulgida mamillatn, xiv. 16. 

Opuntia Galapagvia, xiv. 11. 

Opuntia Korruia, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia intermedia, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia Italioa, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia mamillata, xiv. 16. 

Opuntia maritima, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia, medical uies of, ziv. 19. 

Opuntia Opuntia, ziv. 12. 

Opuntia spinoeior, xiv. 17. 

Opuntia spinosior, var. Neo-Mezicaoa, ziv. IB. 

Opuntia Tuna, ziv. 12. 

Opuntia Tuna, xiv. 12. 

Opuntia venioolor, xiv. 19. 

(^niia mdgarit, xiv. 12. 

Otpuntia vulgariM, B nana, xiv. 12. 

t^mntia Whipplei, fi tpinotior, ziv. 17. 

Otange, Mock, iv. 49. 

Orange, Oiage, vii. 89. 

Orange, Wild. iv. 49. 

Orchitiflcarpum, i. 21. 

Orchidorarpitm arietinum, i. 23. 

Oregon Cedar, x. 120. 

Oregon Crab-apple, iv. 77. 

Oregon Pine, iii. 90. 

Oreillct de< Indei, iii. 9. 

Oreinotinus, v. 93. 

Oreinotinui, v. 93. 

Oreodaphne, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne, vii. 9. 

Oreodaphne huUata, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne Cali/omiea, vii. 21, 

Oreodaphne fatent, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne Guianentit, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne opifera, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne tericea, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne tplendem, vii. 10. 

Oreodaphne, aubgen. Umbellularia, vii. 10. 

Oreodoza, x. 20. 

Oreodoxa, ecuuomic propertiei of, z. 30. 

Oreodoia frigida, z. 30. 

Oreodoxa oleracea, z. 30. 

Oreodoxa oleracea (7), x. 31. 

Oreodoia regia, x. 31 ; xiv. 106. 

Oreodoia Sancona, i. 30. 

Oreoptelea, vii. 40. 

Orgyia inomata, x. 150. 

Orgyia leucostigina, i. 61 ; vii. 41. 

Oriental Liquidnmbar, v. 7. 

Orrtantkei, vi, 25. 

Omix cratagifoliella, iv. 84. 

Omix ((uadnpunctella, iv. 126. 

Omu>, vi. 20. 

Onuj, vi. 25. 

Omta dipetala, vi. 31. 

Omus Europita, vi. 26. 

Omut fiorihunda, vi. 27. 

Omut rotundifolia, vL 26. 

0mu3 uroph)lla, vi. 27. 

Osage Orange, vii. 89. 

Osier holu, ix. 100. 

Osmanthus, vi. 63. 

Oimanthni Americasus, vi. 6S. 

Onaanthna Aqnifolium, vi. tO. 

Oimantbus, economio usee of, tI. 63. 

Oimaotbui fragiaas, vi. 63. 

Otmanthut Uieifolim, vi. 63. 

Osmothamnui, v. 143. 

Omothaimut, v. 143. 

Ostrjra, ix. 31. 

Oitrya carpintfolia, iz. 32. 

Oitrya, economic properties of, iz. 32. 

Ostrya, fungal diseases of, iz. 33. 

Ostrya, insect enemies of, iz. 32. 

Oilrya Italico, iz. 32. 

Ostrya Japonica, iz. 32. 

Ostrya Knowltoai, iz. 37. 

Ostrya Mandsburica, iz. 32. 

Ostrya Ostrya, iz. 32. 

Oilriia Ottrya, iz. 34. 

Ostrya Virginiana, ix. 34 ; ziv. 104. 

Otirya Virginica, iz. 32, 34. 

Oitrga "irginica, a glanduloia, iz. 34. 

Otirjia i irginica, $ eglandulota, iz. 34. 

Oitrya vulgarit, iz. 32. 

Overcup Oak, viii. 47. 

Ozyacanlha, iv. 83. 

OtyeedruB, z. 70. 

Ozyooccin, v. 117. 

Oxycoccns, v. 116. 

Oxycoccut, V. 116. 

Ozycocau macrocarput, v. 116. 

Oxycoccut paluttrii, v. 116. 

Oxyeoceiu paluitrit, var. (?) macrocarpui, t. 

Oxycoccut vulgarit, v. 116. 
Ozydendrum, v. 133. 
Ozydendrum atboreuin, v. 136 ; ziv. 103. 

Pfiean, vii. 134. 

Pachylobius picivonis, zi. 11. 

Pachypsylla Celtidis-gemma, vii. 64. 

Pachypsylla Celtidis-mamma, vii. 64. 

Pachypsylla Celtidis-veaioulum, vii. 64. 

Pachypsylla vanuata, vii. 64. 

Pad us, iv. 8. 

Padut, iv. 7, 8. 

Padut Carolina, iv. 49. 

Padut Caroliniana, iv. 49. 

Padut cartilaginea, iv. 46. 

Padut demitta, iv. 42. 

Padut dentijlora, iv. 41. 

Padut fmbriata, iv. 41. 

Padut hirtuta, iv. 41. 

Padut micrantha, iv. 41. 

Padut oblonga, iv. 41. 

Padut ohotMta, iv. 41. 

Padut rubra, iv. 41. 

Padut lerotina, iv. 46. 

Padut Virginiana, iv. 46. 

Palaomorphe, vii. 92. 

Paleaorita vernata, vii. 41. 

Paliurut, ii. 41, 47. 

Pallaeia, vi. 109. 

Paltavia acxileata, vi. 110. 

Palm, CabUge, x. 30. 

Palm, Desert, x. 47. 

Palm, Kan, z. 47. 

Palm, Royal, z. 31. 

PALM.E, I. 29 ; ziv. 76. 

Palmer, Edward, viii. 106. 

Palmerella, viii. 100. 

Palmetto, i. 43. 

Palmetto brushes, z. 41. 

Palmetto, Cabbage, x. 41. 

Palmetto, Silk-top, x. 51. 

Palmetto, Silver-top, x. 63. 

Fklo V«id«, Ui. 80, 

Palloria, i. 103. 

Palura, ri. IS. 

Pamta, r. 19. 

Panax Americanum, i. 68. 

Panax Gitumg, t. S8. 

Panax quinque/olium, t. B8. 

PwiouUte, Ti. 113. 

Puui oonobmtui, ix. 28. 

Puut dealbatuf, tU. 42. 

Fanui domlU, ix. 2S, 

Pao Judau, vi. 110. 

Pao L«pn, n. 110. 

Ptpain, xiT. 2, 3. 

Ptpaw, i. 23 ; xir. A, 

Papaya, xiv. 1. 

Papaya Carica, xir. 5. 

Papaya eommunii, xir. S. 

Papaya cueumtrina, xir. S. 

Papaya tdulis, fi pyriformu, xir. S. 

Papaya edulit X mocraauTia, xir. 8. 

Papaya loHm, xir. 6. 

Papaya vulgarit, xiv. 5. 

WpayoUn, xir. 3. 

Paper Birob, ix. 67. 

P*p«r-pu!p manafutund from Yaooa arlio- 

raioeiu, x. 20. 
Pap«r-ihell Hickory nut, Halu', rii. 164. 
Papilio Eurymedon, ii. 30. 
Papilio Troilui, rii. 16. 
Paradigma, ri. 07. 
Paradiie-tree, i. 91. 
Paralta, ri. 1. 
ParaUa Ouianemit, ri. 3. 
Paraaol Aoaoia, iii. 41. 
Faria atcrrima, rii. 116. 
Farkinwn, John, iii. 16. 
Patkintonia, iii. 17, 87. 
Farkinaonia aouleata, iii. 89. 
Farkintonia aouleata, natire country of, iii. 

Parkinnnia Af ricana, iii. 87. 
Parkintoniajiorida, iii. 83. 
Parkinionia microphylla, iii. 91. 
Farkinionia micropbyUa .oouomto UMt of, 

iii. 88. 
Parlanuma Texana, iii, 81. 
Parldnvmia Tomyana, iii. 83, 86. 
Parmmtiera alata, ri. 08. 
PanuUa, iii. 33. 

Parry, Charles Chriitopher, rii. 130. 
ParryeUa,rii. 130. 
Parsley Haw, ir. 111. 
Parsons Plum, iv. 24. 
Pasauia, riii. 4. 
Patania, riii. 1. 
Pasania, buds of, riii. 4, 
Pasania den$\fU)ra, riii, 183. 
Patrinia, iii, 69, 

Patterson, Harry Norton, ir. 24. 
Patton Spruce, xii. 77, 
Paria, ii, 51, 
Pavia bicoior, ii, 69. 
Pavia Caii/omica, ii. 01. 
Pavia camea, ii, 63. 
Pavia discoloTf ii. 00. 
Pavia flam, ii. 63. 
Pavia /ulva, ii. 69. 
Pavia glabra, ii, 66, 
Pavia hibrida, ii. 00. 
Pavia Indica, ii. 62. 
Pavia lutea, ii. 69, 
Pavia neglecta, ii, 69. 
Pavia Ohioemit, ii. 6S. 


Pavia pallida, ii. 66. 

Pavia rubra, ii. 62 

Pavia WaUoniana, ii. 83. 

Pamanaflava, ii, 69, 

Fawcohicoora, rii, 134. 

Peach, oultiration of, ir. 0. 

Peash, properties of, ir. 10. 

Peaoh-tTM Borer, ir. 11. 

Peach Willow, ix. 111. 

Pear, Alligator, rii. 2. 

Pear, Aroeado, rii. 3. 

Pear-tree, ir. 68. 

Pecan, rii. 137. 

Pecan, Bitter, rii, 149 ; xir. 43. 

Feireskiopuntia, xir. 10. 

Pempelia gleditschiella, iii. 74. 

Pemphigus tnudnifolii, ri. 27. 

Pempbigua rbois, iii. 10, 

Femphigui ulmifusui, vii. 41. 

Pentandne, ix, 06. 

Pentaptera, r, 19. 

Peopatella, Cypreu of, x. 160. 

Fepperidge, r. 76, 

Perfonm Uturi/olium, ii. 37, 39. 

Peridermium Abietinuct, xii. 26. 

Feridermiam Abietinum, rar. deoolonuu, xii. 

Peridermium balsameum, xii. 101. 
Peridermium Cerebrum, li, 12. 
Fetidermium eoluninare, xii. 61. 
Peridermium Harkoesiii, xL 12. 
Peridermium oblongisporuni, xi. 12. 
Peridermium Peckii, xii. 61. 
Peridermium Pini, xi. 12. 
Peridermium Strobi, xi, 12, 
Ferry, manufacture of, ir. 69. 
Fenea, rii. 1, 
Penea argenUa, riL 10. 
Peraea Borbonia, rii. 4. 
Pertea Carolineniii, rii. 4. 
Periea CaroUnentis, a, rii. 7. 
Ptnta Caroiinentit, a glabriutcula, rii. 4. 
Penea Carolinemii, fi pubeteeru, rii. 7. 
Per$ea Carotinemii, rar, palutlrit, rii, 7. 
Penea Catetbyana, rii. 11. 
Penea fatent, rii. 10. 
Persea, fungal diseases of, rii. 2. 
Penea gratittima, rii, 2, 
Peraea Indica, i. 101 ; riL 2. 
Peraea lingue, rii. 2. 
Penea longipeda, ir. 1. 
Fersea Persea, rii. 2. 

Persea Persea, cultivation and uiea of, rii. 2. 
Fersea pubesoens, vii. 7. 
Penea Sauafrai, rii. 17. 
Penica, ir. 7. 
Persimmon, ri. 7. 
Persimmon, Black, ri, 11. 
Persimmon, Japanese, ri. 4. 
Penimon, ri. 1, 
Perula, rii, 01, 
Festalozzia funerea, x. 124. 
Petalanthera, vii, 9. 
Petra, Robert James, Lord, i, 8. 
Peuplic Suisse ix. 181. 
Pezioula ca<;>in !a, ix. 41. 
Peiiza crocpa, xii, 101, 
Pbacidium orustaceum, xi. 12. 
Phacidium Pini, il, 12. 
Phcenopyrum, iv, 83, 
Phanopyrum aeerifolium, iv. 107, 
Phanopyrum arborescent, iv, 109, 
Phamopyrum CarMinianum, iv, 113. 
Phanopyrum coccineum, iv. 96. 


t phanopyrum corattinum, xiii. 139. 

Phanopyrum cordalum, iv. 107. 

Phanopyrum elliplicum, iv. 114, 

Phanopyrum parvi/olium, ir. IIT. 

PAonopyrum popui\foiium, iv. 07. 

Phanopyrum /ruinoium, xiii. 61. 

PAan(]>pyrum epathulatum, iv. 106. 

Phanopyrum tubvillotum, iv. 09. 

PAonopyrum un^/lcrum, iv, 117. 

Phanopyrum Virginicum, iv. 114. 

PAonopyrum Wendlandii, iv. 06. 

PhakuTOt, iv. 83. 

Phalacroe cordatue, ir. 107. 

PAarmanuycea, rii. 91. 

} 'hego$, ix. 21. 

t PhUbolUhit, V. m. 

Fhlehia radiata, ix. 26. 

Fhleoapora Aceria, ii. 81. 

Fhleoapon Celtidis, rii. 66, 

Fhleoepora Mori, vii, 77. 

Fhleoapora Ulmi, vii. 42. 

FhlcBosinua oristatua, x. 100. 

Phloeosinua dentatns, x. 72. 

Phoma minima, ii. 81. 

Phoradendron junipeiinum, x. 73. 

Fhorodon Uumuli, iv, 11. 

PAod'nta arbuli/olia, iv, 123. 

Pkotinia lalici/olia, iv. 123. 

Pbryganidia Califomioa, riii. 11, 112. 

Pbyoii rubrifaaciella, vii. 133. 

Fhylicifolio, ix. 96, 

Fbyllachora soapincola, x. 6. 

Pbyllaotinia guttata, r. 66. 

Phyllaotinia suffulta, vi. 84 ; ix. 11. 

PhylloaUyx, v, 39, 

Phyllocuistia liquidamhariselU, T. 9. 

Phyllocniitia liriodendrella, i. 18. 

FhyUocnistis magnoliieella, i, 2. 

Fbyllocnistia populiella, ix. 166. 

Phyllceous integer, ix, 101, 

Fhylloatiota acericola, ii. 81. 

Phylloaticta Caiyae, rii. 134. 

PbylloetioU Celtidis, vii. 66. 

Phy'losticta Hamamelidis, r. 2. 

Fhyl osticta micropunctata, rii. 2. 

Ffaylioaticta Palmetto, x. 38. 

Fby losticta Saccardoi, v, 147. 

PhylloBticta Sassafras, rii. 16, 

Phyllogticta sphieropBoideR, ii. bl. 

PhyUolhyrmt, ix. 68. 

Phylloxera caiyiecaulis, rii, 133. 

Phylloxera Caatanea, ix. 10. 

Phyteuma, v. S^, 

Phytoptua Fraxini, ri. 27. 

Phytoptus Thuye, x. 124. 

Phytoptus Ulmi, rii. 42. 

Pioea, xii. 19. 

Pi'cea, xii. 96, 

Picec Abies, xii, 20, 23, 

Picea Abies, androgynoua flowers of, xii. 

Ficea Abies, economic propertiea of, xii. 23, 

Ficea Abiea medioxima, xii. 23. 
Ficea Abiea riminalis, xii. 24. 
Picea Abies rirgata, xii. 24. 
Ficea Abies, rar. invertn, xii. 24. 
Pioea Abies, var. mons' >sa, xii. 24. 
Ficea Abies, var, penduln, xii, 24, 
Picea Abiea, var, pyramidalia, xii, 24. 
Picea Abies, var, strigosa, xii. 24. 
Pi«a acuti»$ima, xii. 33. 
Picea Ajanemi), xii. 21, 55. 
Picea Ajanemie, a ;«nuina, xii. 21. 




Picm Ajanmni, $ luHnUgtrrima, di 31. 

/Vm AJai—nsii, ju. micro$ptrma, lii. 81. 

Pina aiba, sU. 37. 

Piem ilba amlta, lii. 40. 

Pieta alia, w. arctka, sU. 30. 

Pieta AlcoeUana, lii. il. 

Picea Atco^iana, *>., M. ' 

Piem amahUit, tii. 113, US. 

Pieta ApoUiruM, xii. 09. 

i'icta baltamta, xii. 107. 

Pina baltamea, nr. longifolia, ni. 107. 

Pieta baltami/tra, xii. 107. 

Pio^k bioolor, xii. 20, 21. 

Pieta bi/olia, xii. 113. 

Pina hrachfplifUa, xii. 109. 

Pieta liraetiala, xii. 120. 

Pieta hrtri/iilia, xii. 28. 

Pieta hreri/oiia, rtr. imiifroKnKa, xii. 28. 

Pices Bnwerium, xii. 61. 

f Pieta Cali/omica, xii. 77. 

Ficck Cuudeuit, xii. 37 ; xir. 106. 

Pina Canadentii, xii. 63. 

Piom Canadauii, udra, noiu flowvn of, 

xu. 20. 
PioM Canwlciiiix glwiea, xii. 40. 
Pieta Ctphalomea, xii. 00. 
Ana CUieiea, xii. 9B. 
Pietu carulta, xii. 40. 
Pieta Columbiana, xii. 43, 44. 
Pieta eoncolor, xii. 121. 
Pieta eoneolor, tu. no^ona, xii. 121. 
Pieta DougUuii, xii. 87. 
Picem, flcoDomio prupvitiM of, xiL 20, 23. 
Pion Engelmuwi, xii. 43. 
Pieta Enjelmanni, rut. Frandteana, liL 43. 
Pi-ta txetUa, xi'. 23. 
Pieta tzcelta dtvidala, xii. 24. 
Pina tzcelta, d mtdioxima, x i. 24. 
Pina txetUa, iriminaJii, xii 24. 
Pieta exctba, nt. sirigota, xii 24. 
Pieta ezcttta, tu. virgata, ri. 24. 
Pieta Jirma, xii. 101. 
Pieta Jirma, var. A, xii. 102. 
Pieta Jirma, rar. B, xii. 101. 
Pieta Fratiri, xii. 105, 107. 
Pieta Frateri liudtonia, xii 100. 
Pieta Frateri Hudtoniea, xii. 109. 
Picea, fungal diieaMi of, xiL 2S. 
Pieta glauceteertt, xii. 91. 
Picea Glehni, xii. 20, 21. 
Pieta grandit, xii. 117, Vil, 12S. 
I'ieea hirtella, xii. 07. 
Pieta liondoentit, xii. 21. 
Picea, ioMct enomief of, xii. 25. 
Pieta Japonica, xii. 102. 
Pioea Jeioeiuis, xii. 20, 21. 
Pieta KhulroK, xii. 22. 
Pieta kutunaria, xii. 90. 
Pieta luioearpa, xii. 113. 
Ptcca laxa, xii. 37. 
Pieta Lotriana, xii. 121. 
Pino Loicii. xii. 121. 
Pieta magnijtea, xii. 137. 
Picea Mariana, xii. 28 ; xir. 106. 
Picea Mariatui, xii. 33. 
Picea Mariana, ar. Doumetii, xii. 31. 
Picea Maximowiczii, xii. 25. 
Pina Mmzieiii, xii. 47, 05. 
Pieta Mtnzietii, var. eritpa, xii. 65. 
Pino mierotperma, xii. 21. 
Pieta monf.iui, xii. 23. 
Pieta Mtrimia, lii. 22. 
Pina nigra, xii. 28, 33. 
Pieta nigra t • ,i>elu, xii. 31< 

PicM nigra, • ifuamra, xii. 28. 

PioM nigra, Tar. glauea, xii. 37. 

I'icta nigra. Tar. gritta, xii. S3. 

Piet t nigra, ar. rubra, xii. 33. 

Pia 1 iM>Mi<, xii. 133. 

Pkta nabUii (baltamta f), xii, IM. 

Pino .A^anfmamiana, xii. 98. 

P\eta Sumdiea, xii. 100. 

I'ioea oborata, xii. 20, 24. 

Pioea oboTata, Tar. Sebraaakiaaa, xiL 25 

Pioea Umorika, xii. 20, 22. 

Pioea orieulalii, xii. 20, 22. 

Pioea Parrjana, xii. 47. 

Pino Partofuiana, xii. 124. 

Pina ptelinata, xii. 100. 

Pieta Piehta, xii. 08. 

Pieta Piniirow, xii. 08. 

Pieta Pintapo, xii. 100. 

Pieta polila, xii. 21. 

Pieta (Pmulotmga) nobilit, xii. 133, 

Pina putig^u, xii. 47. 

Pieta pungent glauea ptnJula, xii, 48. 

Pieta pungent, a oiridit, xii. 47. 

Pina pungent, glauea, xii. 47. 

Pir«a pungent, Tar. KUnig Albtrl von Sachttn, 

xii. 48. 
Pieta rtligiota, lii. 07. 
Pieta rtligiota glauctteeni, xii. 01. 
Picea rubene, xii. 33. 
PicMi rubra, xii. 28, 33. 
Pina rubra putilla, xii. 37. 
Pieta Sehrtnehana, xii. 2& 
Picea Sitoheniia, xii. 65. 
Pieta Sitk(mtit, xii. 55. 
Picea Smithiana, xii. 20, 22. 
t Pieta Tianichaniea, xii. 25. 
Pioea Torano, xii. 20, 21. 
Pioea VeitchI, xii. 101. 
Piev vulgarit, xii. 23. 
Pieta vulgarit. Tar. Allaiea, xii. 25. 
Pieta M'tNiiana, xii. 08. 
Pini Willmanniana, xii. 98. 
Piektringia paniculata, v. 153. 
Pieroeoeeut, t. 115. 
Picrocoecut tlr-atut, t. 117 
Pieroeoeeut F: nidanut, T. 117. 
Pirrococfuf ufaitiinru, T. 117. 
Pieridia, t. 129. 
Pieri*, t. 130. 
Pierit, T. 129. 

Plerii Henapia, xi. 11 ; xii. 8. 
Purit ovalifolia, t. 130. 
Pigeon Cherry, It. 36. 
Pigeon Plum, Ti. 119. 
Pigeon Wood, Ti. 111. 
Pignut, Tii. 165. 
Piga' tubera, t. 8. 
Pileolaria effuait, <ii. 10. 
Piltotlegia, i. 103. 
Pilooereus, t. 51. 
Pilocereut, r. 51. 
PHoetrtut Engelmanni, T. 53. 
Pilocereut giganttut, r. 53. 
Pin Clierry, iv. 36. 
Pin Oak, Tui. [<!, SO, 151, 181. 
Pinaater, xi. 4. 

Pincknry, Charles Cotetwortb, t. 108. 
Pincknoja, T. 107. 
Pinckncya pubenx, t. 109. 
Pinekneya pubttetnt, t. 109. 
Pine, Aleppo, xi 0. 
Pine, Austrian, u. 6. 
Pine, Bhotan, xi. 6. 
Pine, Black, of Japan, xi. 7. 

Fbw, Ball, xl. 77, OB, 146. 

Pine, Cedar, xi. 131. 

Pine, Conioaa, xi. 6. 

Pina, Digger, «i 06. 

Pin*, FoxUil, xi. SO, 6S. 

Pine, Georgia, xi. 166 

Pine, Ginger, x. 120. 

Pine, Gray, xi. 147. 

Pine, Great Swamp, xi 11& 

I>in*, Hard, xi. 156. 

Fine, Hickory, xi. 03, 136. 

Pine, Jaok, xi. 147 

Pine, Jers*;, xi. 123. 

Pine, Knob-cone, xi 107. 

Fine, Loblolly, xi 111. 

Pine, Lodge Pole, xi. 90, 91. 

Pine, Long-leayed, xi. 161. 

line, Maritime, xi. 7. 

Pine, Marsh, xi 119. 

Pine, Monterey, xi. 103. 

Pine, Norway, xi. 67. 

Pine, Nut, xi. 43, 47, 61, 58. 

Pine, Old Field, xi. 111. 

Pine, Oregon, ri 00. 

Pine, Piteh, xi. 99, 115, 146, 166. 

Pine, Pond, xi. 119. 

Pine, Prickle-cone, xi. 139. 

I*ine, Pumpkin, xi. 19. 

Pine, Bed, xi. 67. 

Pine, Red of Japan, xi. 7. 

Pine, KIga, xi. 5. 

Pine, Rosemary, xi. 113. 

Pine, Sand, xi. 127. 

Pine, Scotch, li. 6. 

Pine, Sorub, xi. 89, 123. 

Pine, Shoit-leaTed, xi. 143. 

Pine, Slash, xi. 113, 167. 

Pine, Soledad, xi. 71. 

Pino, Southen, xi. 151. 

Pine, Spruce, xi. 127, 131, 146. 

Pine. Swne, xi. 9. 

Pine, tugar, xi. 27. 

Pine, Swwmp, xi. 157. 

Pine, Table-Mountain, xi 138. 

Pine, Tamarack, xi. 90. 

Pine, Weymouth, xi. 21. 

Pine, White, xi. 17, 23, 33, 35, 39. 

Pine, YeUow, xi. 75, 77, 85, 143, 156. 

line belt, maritime, xi. 152. 

Pine wool, xi. 3. 

Fine-bread from bark of Pinus oontorta, xi. 

Pine-tree money, xi. 20. 
Pineries, southern, cattle in, xi. i56. 
Pineries, southern. Ares in, xi. li 6. 
Pines, cultivation of, in Japan, x. . 11. 
Pinipestis reniculella, xii 28. 
PiBon, xi. 43, 47, 51, 65. 
Pinsapo, xii. 100, 
Pinus, xi. 1. 

Pinus, xi. 1 i xu. 1, 19, 59, 83, 05. 
Pinus Abiei, xii 23, 24, 98, 00. 
f Pinut Abitt, xii. :ii 
f Pinut Abitt aeutittima, xii. 33. 
Pinus Abiti alba, xii. 90. 
Pinut-Abiet Americana, xii. 03. 
Pinus A bitt baltamta, xii. 107. 
Piniu A biet Canadentii, xii. 28, 63. 
Pinus Abitt laxa, xii. 37. 
t'^inus Abiet Picea, xii 23. 
P'fius Abitt, b Regina Amalict, xii. 90. 
Pinus A bitt, a jurUnata, xii. 100. 
Pinui A bitt, $ Apollinut, xii. 09. 
Pinut Abiti, 9 Apollinut, xii. 09. 







Plnii* AUh; I Paoaohaioa, ni. 00. 
A'niu Abia, t mminalii, lii. 124. 
Pmut Abin, • Ctpkalonica, ni, 00. 
/'■'nut iiAwi, Tkr. meduxtima, sii. iM. 
/^'nui attunra, li. 103. 
<'tniM a<Aa, lii. 33, 37. 
"mut alba Canadttuir, li. IT. 
Pinut alba, $ arelica, lii. 30. 
Pinui albiwiilu, n. 30. 
Pima Alcaiuiana, lii. 21. 
PinuM Alepenau, xi. 8. 
f Pinut aloptcunidet, xi. 110. 
Piniu amabilv, xii. 113, 1!2S, 187. 
i'iniit Americana, xii. 28, 63. 
Pinm Americana rubra, xii. 33. 
Pinut Americana, » alba, xii. 37. 
Pinut Apocheca, xi. 81. 
Pinut Aiiollinin, xii. 00. 
/>inuf '.raragi, xii. 60. 
Pinui uuUU, xi. 63. 
Pinui Arinmioa, xi. 7S. 
Pinut Arti'ena, xi. S. 
Pinua atteiiL'aU, xi. 107. 
i>inu< autlralit, xi. 161. 
f f inw au>(ra/M excelta, xi. iSl. 
ih'niu Auilriaca, xi. 0. 
/^'nf*< /lyacaAuuj, xi. 33. 
Pinut Baborentii, xii. 100. 
Pinut Bahamentit, xi. 167. 
PinuB Balfouriana, xi. 60. 
Pinut Balfouriana, xi. 63. 
Pinut Balfouriana, rar. arittata, xi. 63. 
Piniu buUamea, xii. 105, 107. 
A'niu lialtamea, var. Frateri, xii. 105. 
nniM iabqmca, var. longifolia, xii. 107. 
Piniu fianbiarui, xi. 80, 147. 
Pinut Beardileyi, xi. 77. 
Pinut Benlbamiana, xi. 77. 
/'I'niu bifida, xii. 101. 
Pmut binato-folio, xi, 5. 
Pinut Bolanderi, xi. 80. 
Pi'nuJ borealit, xi. S. 
/'I'nuj Bourtieri, xi. 80. 
fi'niu brachypkylla, xii. 102. 
PintM brachyptera, xi. 77. 
PiniM braeleata, xii. 120. 
Pinut Brunoniana, xii. 61. 
f /'iniij Ca/i/om'ana, xii. 103. 
AniM Co/i/omica, xi. 103, 107. 
Pinut Canadmtit, xii. .17, 63. 73. 
Pinut Canadentit, ?, xii. 87. 
Pinut Canadentit, $ nigra, xii. 'J8. 
Pinus Canariensis, xi. 4. 
Pinut Cedrut, xi. 10. 
Piiiua Ceinbra, xi. 3, 10. 
Pinus Cembra pygmtea, xi. 10. 
Pinus Cemhra, b pumila, xi. 10. 
Pinus Cembra, y Helvetica, xi. 10. 
Pinus cembroi<les, xi. 47. 
Pinus eembroiden, xi. 39. 
Pinus Cephalonica, xii. 99. 
Piiiiia Chibiiahuniia, xi. 86. 
Pinut Cilicica, xii. 98. 
Pinut cinerea, xii. 23. 
Pinus clausa, xi. 127 ; xir. 106. 
Pinus commulnia, xii. 43. 
Pinus concolar, xii. 121. 
Pinus contorta, xi. 89. 
Pinut contorta, xi. 91, 139. 
Pinus contorta, var. Bolanderi, xi. 80. 
Pinus contorta, Tar. latifoliu, xi. 91. 
Pinus contorta, var. Murrayann, xi. 90. 
Pi'nuj contorta, var. (b) Her. raoni, xi. 89. 
Pinus Coulteri, xi. 09. 

Pinut Craigana, xi. 77. 

Finui Cubantii, ). 43. 

Pinut Cubtntii, xi. 167. 

Pinu^ Cubtniit, var. 7 lerlhrocarpa, zi. 1S7. 

f inu< euprtuoidet, z. 134. 

Pinut Dahurica, xii. 4. 

Pinut d^fttxa, xi. 'lO. 

Finui deiuifloni, xi. 3, 7. 

Pinui divarioaU, zi. 147 ; xir. 100. 

Pinus Douglatii, zii. 87. 

Pinut Douglatii, $ pendiUa, xii. 87. 

Pinus Douglatii, rar. brevibracleala, xii. 87. 

Pinui Dnuglatii, var. lax\folia, zii. 87. 

Pinus dunmta, xii. 60. 

Pious eohinaU, zi. 143. 

Pious (ohinata, itomp growth of, zi. 4. 

Pinus eoliiiuita, turpentine from, xi. 146. 

Finus, eoononio r . nertiea uf, zi. 3. 

Pinus Edgariona, J. 130. 

Pious, edible leeda uf, zi. 3. 

Pious edulis, zi. 68. 

Pinus edulit, var. monophylla, zi. 61. 

Pinus Elliolia, xi. 167. 

Pinut Sngelmanni, zi. 77, 81. 

Pinus excelta, xi. 6 ; xii. 23. 

PiniM excelta, B mediozima, xii. 24. 

Piniu fattuoia, zi. 0. 

Pinus Pinlaysoniomi, zi. S. 

Pinut firina, xii. 101. 

Finns fleiilis, xi. 36. 

Pinut Jtexilit, zi. 39. 

Pinut JiezUit megalocarpa, zi. 36, 36. 

Pinut Jlexilis, macrocarpa, zi. 36, 36. 

Pinut flexUit, f refiexa, xi. 33. 

Pinut flexilit, var. albicau'.it, zi. ?0. 

Pinut ftexilit, var. a lerrulata, zi. 36. 

Pint J Fraseri, xii. 105. 

Pit,ut fWmonliana, n. 61. 

Piiius Frietiana, xi. 6. 

Finus, fungal diseases of, xi. 11. 

Finns Gerardiana, zi. 3, 10. 

Pinus, germination of, xi. 4. 

Pinus glabra, xi. 131 ; xir. 106. 

Pinus glabra, xii. 40. 

Pinus glomerata, zi. 7. 

Pintu grandis, xii, 117, 126. 

PinrM Griffithii, xi. 6 ; xii. 3. 

Pinm Grozelieri, xi. 23. 

Pinus Halepensis, xi. 3, 8, 

Pinus Harryana, xii. 102. 

Pinus beterophylln, xi. 167. 

Finus boteropbylla, acjrogynooa flowers of, 

xi. 4. 
Pinus hirlella, xii. 07. 
Pinus homolepif, zii. 102. 
Pinus Hookeriana, xii. 77. 
Pinus Hudsonia, xi. 147. 
Pinuf Hwttonica, xi. 147. 
Pinus humilis, xi. 6. 
Pinus, hybrids of, xi. 4. 
Pinut inopt, xi. 89, 91, 123. 
Pinus inops, var. ?, xi. 139. 
Piniu inops, var. clauta, xi. 127. 
Finns, insect enemies of, xi. 11. 
Pinus insignis, xi. 103. 
Pinut insignis jnacrocarpa, xi. 103. 
Pinut insignis, var. binata, xi. 101. 
Pinu,« iwignis, var, (a) radiala, xi. 103. 
Pinut insignii, var. (b) Ittvigata, xi. 103. 
Pinus insularts, xi. 6. 
Pinus intermedia, xii. 7. 
Pinus Japonica, xii. 21. 
t Pinut Japonica, xi. 7. 
Pinut Jeffreyi, xi. 79. 

Pinus J^ff^tyi, var. ni^noans, xi. 70. 

Pinut Jeffreyi, var, penintularit, zi. 80. 

Pinus Jeffreyi, var, (b) d^exa, zi. 70. 

Pinut J^rtyi, var. (e) montana, xi. 79. 

Pinus Jetotntit, zii. 21. 

Pinus Kampferi, zii. 2. 

Pinus XamlsMa<iit«i, xii. 4. 

Pinut KItulrow, xii. 23. 

Pinut ioia, zii. 3. 

Pinui Lambertiana, xi. 37. 

Pinus Lambertiana, 7 B brtvifoUa, zi. 36. 

Pinus Lambertiana, t ?, zi. 35. 

Pinut Lambertiana, var. minor, xi. 27. 

Pinut Lambertiana, nt. pu-purea, xi. 27. 

Pinus Lambertiana, sugar of, xi. 20. 

Pinus laricina, zii, 7. 

Finns Larioio; a. 3, 6. 

Pinus Laricio, u. 6, 7. 

Pinus Laricio in the United States, zi. 6. 

Pious Laricio Calabrica, zi. 0. 

Finns Laricio Cebennensis, zi. 6. 

Finus Larioio Pallatiaoa, zi. 6. 

Pious Laricio, 3 Austriaoa, zi. 6. 

Pinut Laricio, g nigricant, zi. 6. 

Pinus Laricio, y, zi. 67. 

Pinus Larix, zii. 2, 3, 4. 

Pinus Larix alba, zii. 7. 

Pinut Larix Americana nigra, xii. 7. 

Pinus Larix (Americana), zii. 4. 

Pinus Larix Canadentit, zii. 7. 

Pinut Larix nigra, zii. 7. 

Pinus Larix rubra, xii. 7. 

Pinus Larix, a communis, xii. 3. 

Pinut Larix, g rubra, xii. 7. 

Pinus Larix, y nigra, xii. 7. 

Pinut Larix, 9 aiia, xii. 7. 

Pinus Larix, 8 iazo, xii. 3. 

Pinut Larix, s compacta, xii. 3. 

Pinut Larix, 1} ru^, xii. 3. 

Pinus Larix, t rosea, xii. 3. 

Pinut Larix, 1 alia, xii. 3. 

Pinus lasiocarpa, xii. 113, 125. 

Pinut latifolia, xi. 81. 

Pinut Latleri, xi. 6. 

Pinus iaio, xii. 37, 70. 

Pinut Ledebourii, xii. 4. 

Pinus leptolepit, xii. 2. 

Pinus Llaoeana, zL 43, 47. 

Pinut longifolia, xi. S, 161. 

Pinus lophosperma, xi. 71. 

Pinut Zowiana, xii. 121. 

Pinut lutea, xi. 151. 

Pinut Lyallii, xii. 16. 

Pinut fflacrofar/)0, xi. 99. 

Pinut macrophyila, xi. 80. 

Pinut Maderiensis, xi. 9. 

Pinut magnijica, xii. 137. 

Pinut Mandshurica, xi. 10. 

Pinut Mariana, xii. 28, 63. 

Pinui Mariana ndira, xii. 33. 

Piniw maritima, xi. 6, 7, 8. 

Pinus Massoniana, xi. 7. 

Pinut Mayriana, xi. 81, 

Pinus, medical properties of, xi, 3. 

Pinut Menzieaii, xii. 21, 65. 

Pinus Menziesii, var. crispa, xii. 66. 

Finus Mcrlcusii, xi. 6, 

Pinus Mertensiana, xii, 73, 77. 

Pinus, Mexican species of, xi. 6. 

Pinut microcarpa, xii. 7. 

Pinut mitis, xi. 143. 

Pinus mitis, paupera, xi. 131. 

Finus monophylla, xi. 51. 

Pinut mmophylla, var. edulit, xi. 6S. 



PiHus mmlami, ti. A, 10, 13& 

I'iniK ninntioulm li. '2'X 

PinuM mtrntittUa, vftr. i/iyi/n/a, li. 93. 

/Nnitf nimtutiiut vftr. mtmnni, li. U3. 

/>mw I imlimla, »ar. /Nir;)*jfn«arpq, li. 23. 

/'iMUi .Uti$<(i, li. A. 

IHiiua itturiciiU, si. 19U. 

/'iNUj mMnciirn, li. H!t, 

/'iMbj munctirn, var. AniKtmj/i, li. 139. 

/'inuj .Ui4rrfiy(ina, li. IM. 

/SniM .UMrniynria, var. Sargtnlii, li. 01. 

i'inui Nrpklaiuii, li. 3, fl. 

I'inut Nriwlaiuil in th* t'nitwl 8ut«, li. 0. 

Pmui niffiit, li. ; iii. 28, 33. 

PtHut nij/ricdrM, li. 0- 

/Vriuj noAiVij, lii. 133. 

IVriiM A'ifn/ma'inianfl, lii. 06. 

Pinut XuHntlii, lii. 11. 

/'lulu (iNirurii, lii. 2'J, 'iH. 

Pinui ithot'iUa, $ S<-krmckiana. lit. 2d. 

Pinui Omuriia, lii. 22. 

Pinui orwnfdiu, lii. 22, 2A. 

/*i'niM ormtlalit, t Innji/olio, ai. 3& 

/*inu> otlemiMtrma, li. 47. 

INiiua paluitrii, li. 151. 

I'inui piilii>tri«, ntilwty ti«i from, li. IM. 

I'inui paluitrit, turpentine from, a. IM. 

Pinut Parriinna, li. 43, 77. 

Pinui Pallimiana, lii. 73, 77. 

PiuuM pectinnta, lii. W. 

Pmus ftnwtula, lii. 7, fK). 

/•inuj /'irm, lii. 'JO, 117, 90. 

/'tnui /'iVfti m^i<»xtmd, lii. 24. 

/'inu< rirttu, lii. UH. 

I'inui l'inut«r, xi. 3, 7. 

/•inu» Piruultr, li. 6, 7. 

I'inui I*inutrr, cultivation of, li. H. 

I'iuui Pinuter, reiino'u product! of, zi. 7. 

Pinui Pindrov, lii. 96. 

Pinua I'inrii, li. ,1,0. 

Pinut Pinto, li. 7. 

Pinut Pintapo, zi<. 100. 

Pinut Pityuia, li. 8. 

P\nui ptilila. lii. 21. 

I'inui, pollen of, si. 4. 

I'inui iwnderow, <i. 77. 

Pinut poniimta, li. 80. 

Pinut porulerota (>) hmtkamiann, il. 77. 

Pinut fiondmtn (p) brnchfplera, x'l. 77. 

/'inu/ pondtToia, var. (») nijnitiM, li. 77. 

Pima pondfrtuia, var. /tmfAamia'Mi, xi. 77. 

I'inui pomlero«a, var. Jeffreyi, li. 79. 

I^nui pontleroM, var. Mr.yriana, li. 81. 

I'inui ponileroaa, var. Kopuluruni, xi. 80. 

Pinut Poutictlt xi. 5. 

/'in»* ^Hirpkyrocar/Hl, a. 23, 24. 

ISnitt pnniila, xi. 10. 

I'lnufl puni^ni. xi. 135. 

I'inui quadrifulia, xi. 43 ; lir. 106. 

I'lUUM railiata, xi. liXi. 

Pinut radtatUt var. (a) tuhnruUita, xi. 103. 

I'inui railialm var. (b) biuata, xi. 104. 

Pinut rrjirtn, xi. ."B. 

1 Pinut rrjtfxa, xi. IW. 

Pinut religiimt, xii. 97. 

I*itius reiinota, xi. 07. 

Pmut rftiiiiita, xi. .'>. 77, 80. 

I'inui rigida, li. ll.'t. 

/'inuj nyiV/n f. li. 103. 

I'inui riKida, ittuinp i^wth of, xi. 4. 

Pinut nffifta, var. /u/m, xi. 115. 

Pinut nijula, far. terftlina, li. Hi*. 

I'inui KuiliurKliii, xi. 3, 9. 

I'inui Roiburghii, turpantine from, li. U 

Pinui rubra, xi. B, 67 ; lii. .13. 

I'iniM rubra, II viotarta, xii. 40. 

Pinui rubra, vmr. arttica, lii. 37. 

/'■nu< rutim, var. urrtufi longi/ulia, lU. 87. 

i'inuj ru^ra, var. nrru/fci, ui. 37. 

/'inu< rupeilrii, xi. 147. 

I'inui Sabiuiana, li. OB. 

Pinui Si'breiifliana, lii. 25, 

Pinui iciipt/era, li. 7. 

IHnut ifopijiirum, li. 80. 

Pinut leUmtlfpit, xii. 101. 

I'inui lerotina, xi. 110. 

Pinut Skatia, li. 30. 

Pinui Sihiriea, ni. 07. 

Pinui Sirboldii, lii. 00. 

firiiif Sini-lairittna, li. 103, 

Pmut Sinctairii, xi. 103, 105. 

Pinui Silrbmiii, xii. 60. 

/h'niw Smitbiana, xii. 22. 

Pinui ip., xii. 113. 

Pinut ipKtabUii, xii. 06. 

Pinut mwimiia, xi. 14^1. 

I'inui itrobiformii, xi. 33. 

I'inui Strobui, xi. 17. 

Pinun Strubui nana, xi. 21. 

I'inui Strobui nivea, xi. 21. 

Pmut Strobui, p montitoia, li. 23. 

I'inui ijflvaitrii, xi. 3, S. 

rinua iflvnirii, xi. B, 0, 7, 8. 

/'itiu< tylmlrii, t, xi. 7. 

finuf tyletttrii, B Sorrtgiea, li. 07. 

Pinui tylrtitrii, f Nimy-Citiaritniii, n. 123. 

/'inu< tytvttlrii, I divaricala, xi. 147. 

Anu< tyleeilrii, t niaridnu, xi. 6. 

I'inui ijlveitrii in tba United Statea, li. S. 

Pima Syrfiru, xi. 7. 

I'inui Tnda, xi. 111. 

Pinut Trrda, xi. fl. 

Pinut Tirda, a Irtiui/olia, n. 111. 

I'inui Tada, g tcMnala, xi. 143. 

I'inui Tnda, g rigiiln, xi. llfl. 

I'inia Titda, y variahHit, xi. 143. 

f Pinui Tadxi, I aloperuroidea, xi. 119. 

."inui Tmia, > paluilrit, xi. ISl. 

Pinut Tada, var. A (rigida), xi. IIB. 

/'iniu Titila, var. htlerophylla, li. 157. 

/'inw 7"amrflc, xi. 91. 

/'iriui Tartaricn, xi. B. 

/•inu* lari/iJia, xii. 87, 107. 

Pinui tenuifolia, xi. 17. 

/'inui tetraguna, xii. 37. 

I'inui Thunber^, xi. 3, 7. 

f Pinm Thutihergii, xii. 21. 

Pinut Timoritraii, xi. 5. 

I'inui Torreyana, xi. 71. 

Pinut Ttcbonoikiana, xii. 102. 

Pinut Ttuga, xii. CO. 

/'inuf Ttuga, B nana, xii. 00. 

Pima luhrrrulala, xi. 103, 107. 

Pinut luhrri-uliUa, var. ai^M, xi. 107. 

Pinua, umlw of tbe cone-icale of, xi. 4. 

Pinut rariahilii, li. 143. 

Pima Vritchi, xii. 101. 

I'ima rmuttn, xii. 129. 

Pima vimiiuttil, xii. 24. 

I'inui Virf^niana, xi. 123 

Pinui I'lnTiniana, b echinata, xi. 143. 

Pinut Wrbbiana, xii. 98. 

I'ipal Tree, vii. 91. 

Piper, Charlei Vanooaver, ix. 145. 

Pimphorwn, iv. 67. 

Hrua, iv. 70. 

Pitcidia, iii. fll. 

Pitcidia Carlbagenemii, iii. 5,1. 

Piieidia Srylbrina, iii. 53. 

Piieidia Piieipula, iii. S3. 

Piioidin, Ui. fit. 

Piio, Willem, vi. 110. 

Ilaonia, vi 100. 

Piaonia aculeata, vi. 100, 110. 

Piionia runii/iiiia, vi. 111. 

Ilaonia, aoononiic uaea of , vi. 1 10. 

Piiimia loranlhaidit, vi. 110. 

Piionia noxwi, vi. 110. 

Piaonia obtuiata, i. 42 | vi. Ill, 

Piaonia rutnndala, vi. 110. 

Piaonia auboonlata, i. 42. 

Piaonia tomentoaa, vi. 110. 

y'uonia villoia, vi. 110. 

Piaaodra Ktrobi, xi. II. 

Pitlacia Simaruba, i. 90, 07. 

Pitch, liurguudy, xii. 23. 

Pitch, C'anaila, xii. U5. 

Pitch line, xi. 09, IIB, 140, IBO. 

Pithecolobium, iii. 131 ; xiv. 100. 

Ilthei-olubii'.m brevifolium, iii. 135. 

Pithecolobium dulee, iii. 132. 

Ilthecolobium flexicaule, iii. 137 

i'ubtcoiobium /or/ez, iii. 133. 

Pithecolobium tiuadalupenie, iii. 13SI. 

Pitherolohium microphyUun, iii. 133. 

Pithecolobium Saniaii, iii. 132. 

PUKtcolobium Textnie, iii. 137. 

Pithecolobium L'n|;uia-cati, iii. 133. 

Pithtcitlubium Vnguii-cati, iii. 1.12. 

Pithecolobium Unguii.«ati, economic ui«a of, 

iii. 132. 
Pitja Cupreiai, i. 101, 125, 140. 
Pit.vophthorui puberulua, xii. 25. 
I'itjrophtborui pubipennii, viii. 11. 
Pitjrophtboma queiciperda, viii. 11. 
Plailtra, vi. 13. 
Phgioitigma, vii. 91. 
Planer, Jobann Jakob, vii. 00. 
Planera, vii. 59. 
Planera aquatica, vii. 01. 
Planfra parvijlora, vii. 41. 
Planera Hirhardi, vii. 01. 
Planera idmi/olia, vii. 01. 
Plank, Kliaha Newton, xiii. 13. 

I'LATANACI.K, vii. 00. 

Platanua, vii. 90. 

Plalanui CaliJ'omica, vii. lOB. 

Platanua, funf^l diaeanea of, vii. 101, 

Plalama hybrulia, vii. 102. 

Platanua, inaect rncmica of, vii. 101. 

Plalama lofiata, vii. 102. 

Platanua Mexicaaa, vii. 101. 

Plalanut Mexifana, rii. 105, 107. 

Platanua occidentalia, vii. 102. 

Platanui orcidentalit, vii. 105. 

i'lalanut occidentalit, fi ttthtila, vii. 102. 

Plalama occidentalit, var. Ilitpanica, vii. 102. 

Plalama occidenlatii, var. .1/exicona, vii. 101. 

Plalama in-ientalit, vii. 100. 

Platanua racenioaa, vii. 105. 

Plalanut racemota, \ii. 107. 

Platanui fulgant, vii. 100. 

Plalanut vulgarit, t anguloia, vii. 102. 

PlaUnua Wrightii, vii. 107. 

Platopuntia. xiv. 10. 

I'latyacantlue, xiv. 10. 

Platydadui, x. 97, 123. 

Platyvladut ttricta, x. 124. 

Platjraamia Cecropia, iv. 11. 

Plectrodera acalatur, ix. 155. 

Pleiandne, ix. 90. 

PUiarina, a. 05. 



VUthotflkia, Ti. ST. 
Plinia, y. 99. 
Plmia induneutala, T. 41. 
/'/inia rubnx, t. 41. 
llowrightia murboM, It. \X 
I'liim, Hlnakiiuii, iv. IM. 
I'luin, Cuddo « hiaf, iv. !M. 
I'lum, ('(DMla, IT, 10. 
Plum, ChioluMw, It. 30. 
fluiii, Cocoa, It. 3. 
I'tiim, CollnU, Iv. '20. 
PInm, eiiltlTatlun iif. It. 0. 
I'luin, CiimlwrUnd, It. 'J4. 
Plum, I)««p Cmk, Iv. !M). 
Plum, Us Hoto, It. W. 
I'luin, DownwKrd, t. 178. 
Plum, Karl; Ktil, iv. '». 
Plum, Korait (i*rd«n, It. itO. 
Plum, Pureit Hum, It. 20, 34. 
Plum; Gitrlliild, iv. 34. 
Plum, (iolden llMutjr, It. 34. 
Plum, Oulana, vii. 37. 
Plum, Indian Chief, iv. 34. 
Plum, Indimnk Chief, iv. 34, 
Plum, Indiana Red, iv. 34. 
Plum, Itatka, iv. 30. 
Plum, Jennie Luoat, It. 96. 
Plum, Kiokapoo, iv. 20. 
Plum, LouIm, iv. 30. 
Plum, Miner, iv. 30, 34. 
Plum, Minnetonka, iv. 30. 
Plum, Miuuuri Aprioot, iv. iM. 
Plum, Pigeon, vi. 119. 
Plum, Pottawattamie, It. 30. 
Plum, Purple Yoeemite, It. 10. 
Plum, Quaker, It. 10. 
Plum, Red, It. IS. 
Plum, Suoker Citjr, It. 34. 
Plum, Tranaparent, It. 30. 
Plum, Wayland, iT. 34. 
I'lum, WenTer, iv. 16. 
Plum, Wild, iv. 10, 33, 31. 
Plum, Wild UooM, iv. 34. 
Plum-pockeU, iv. 13. 
Plum-tree, Black, t. 41. 
Poeophorum, ill. 7. 
Podocarptu (?) nucifera, i. 60. 
PodoMiia Sjringte, vi. 37. 
Podoiphar* biuncinata, t. 8. 
Fodoiphnra Oxyacanths, iv. 12. 
Pogmolmpke, vii. 01. 
Pnhlana, i. 05. 
Puiion Dogwood, iii. 33. 
Poieon Elder, iii. 24. 
Poison Ivy, iii. 9, 10. 
Poiion Sumach, iii. 23. 
Poiion Wood, iii. 13, 14. 
Poison-tree, iii. 24. 
Poitiea, ii. 75. 
Poiteau, Aleiandre, U. 7S. 
Polita, ix. 0. 
Pollen of Pinus, xi. 4. 
Pollination of Y'icca, x. 2. 
POLYOONACIO:, vi. 113. 
Potygonum Umifera, vi. 118. 
Polygmphus ruflpennis, xii. 28. 
Polyphemus moth, v. 0. 
Polyporus amorphus, vi. 30. 
Polyporus annosiis, xi. 11. 
Pulyporus . <r.lanatus, ix. 40. 
Polyporus betulinus, ix. 40. 
Polyporus cinnabarinus, iv. 12. 
Polyporus conehifer, vii. 42. 
Polyporus graveolena, vili. 13. 

Pnlyponii Haleala, vi. 30. 

Polyporus officinalis, xii. 8. 

Polyporus piceinus, sii. 30. 

Polyporus Pilota, xii. 61. 

Polyporus salieinus, Ix. 101. 

Pulyporus Hcbweintiil, xi. 11. 

Polyporus Tolvatus, xi. 13 | xii. 90. 

Puiyi/torrt, i. :I0. 

Polftpura axiUaru, i. 30. 

Poinette Hleue, iv. 80. 

Pond Apple, 1.30. 

Pond Pine, xi. 110. 

Pond's extract, t. 4. 

Ponderosa, xi. 4. 

Poplar, ix. 161. 

Poplar, Gray, ix. 184. 

Poplar, Lombardy, ix. 183. 

Poplar, Necklace, ix. 181. 

Poplar, Trembling, ix. ISA. 

Poplar, White, ix. IM. 

Populin, ix. 1S8. 

Populus, ix. 101. 

Populus acuminata, Ix. 173 | lir. 00. 

Populus alba, ix. 184. 

Populus alba, f, ix. 184. 

Pvpulus alha, $ pyramUtalu, ix. 184. 

Populus alba, var Bolleana, ix. 104. 

Populus alha x trtmula, b eantu»n$^ ix. 184. 

Populm alhoAremuta, ix. lOt. 

Populus, androgynous aiiicnts of, is. 101. 

Populm angulala, ix. 170. 

Populus anuulala lorluo$a, iz. 179. 

Pnpulun atiyulnla, a lernlina, ix. 170. 

PopuluM angulosa, ix. 170. 

Populus angustifolia, ix. 171 ; ziT. 100. 

Populus angutli/otia, ix. 170. 

Populus argtntea, ix. 163. 

Populus AtheniensiSt ix. 158. 

Populus auslralis, ix. 106. 

Populus luilsaniifera, ix. 107 ; xiv. 106. 

Populus balsamifera, ix. 153, 103, 178. 

Populus balsamifera laneeolata, ix. 167. 

Populus balsamifera suaveolens, ix. 103. 

Populus balsamifera viminalis, ix. 103. 

Populus balsamifera^ a genuina, ix. 167. 

Populus balsamifera, g laurifolia, ix. 103. 

Populus balsamifera, y, ix. 175. 

Populus balsamifera, var. angustifolia, ix. 171. 

Populus balsamifera, var. (7) Catifornica, ix. 

Populus balsamifera, var. caodiouu, ii. 109. 
Populus hetulifolia, ix. 103. 
Populus hiformis, ix. li>5. 
Populus liolleani', ix. 104. 
Poiiului Canadensis, ix. 179, 183. 
Populus Canadensis, jB discolor, ix. 170. 
Populus Canadensis, y angustifolia, ix. 171. 
Populus candirani, ix. 100. 
Populus canescens, ix. 164. 
Populus Carolinensis, ix. 179. 
Populus eaudina, ix. 163. 
Populus Certinensia, ix. 163. 
Populus ciliata, ix. 152. 
Populus cordifolia, ix. 103. 
Populus deltoidea, ix. 179. 
Populus dilataia, ix. 153. 
Populus dilataia, $ Carolinensis, ix. 170. 
Populus diversifolia, ix. 156. 
Populus, economic properties of, ix. 156. 
Populus Eupbraleniis, ix. 166. 
Populus Euphratica, ix. 155. 
Popului fastigiata, ix. 153. 
Populus Fremontii, ix. 183. 
Pof ..IS Frtmontii, xiv. 71, 73. 

Pofiutm Fremontii, var. (7) Wi^iuni, ix. 183 1 

xiv. 71. 
Populus, fungal dlaeases of, ii. 180. 
Populus glandulosa, ix. 170. 
/'«pWu< (Jriwi-a, ix. 104, 108. 
Populus grandidentata, ix. 161 ; xiv. 108. 
Populus gramlidsnlata, f pmduta, ix. 101. 
Populus heterophylla, ii. 163 | xiv. 100. 
Populus hstsropHylla, ix. 170, 
Populus hsteropkylla, f argenlea, ix. 163. 
Populus l.'udioniea, ix. 10.1. 
Populus hybrida, ix. 104. 
Populus, hybrids of, ix. 102. 
Populus, insect enemies of, i . UIS> 
Populus Italiea, ix. 103. 
Populus larigala, ix. 170. 
Populus lati/olia, ix. 161, 170. 
Populus laurifolia, ix. 103. 
Populus longifotia, is. 103. 
Populus mqjor, ix. IM, 
Populus Marila.ilica, ix. 170. 
Populus, medical properties of, ix. 188. 
Populus Mexicana, xiv. 73. 
Populus micrucarpa, ix. 102. 
Populus mmiltfera, ix. 179, 183 ; xiv. 71- 
Populus monticola, ix. 103. 
Populus monticola, wood of, ix. 169« 
Populus Neapolitarut, Ix. 103. 
Populus nigra, Ix. 163. 
Populus nigra, ix. 170. 
Populus nigra Italimi, li. 153. 
Populus nigra, II Helvetica, ix. 170. 
Populus nigra, S pyramidalis, ix. 153. 
Populus nigra, $ Virginiana, ix. 170. 
Populus nigra in the United States, iz. 163. 
Populus nivea, ix. 104. 
Populus petvtula, ix. 158. 
Populus pseudobalsamifera, ix. 163. 
Populus pgramidalis, ix, 163, 
Populus pyramidala, ix. 153. 
Populus salicifolia, ix. 171. 
Populus serolina, ix. 179. 
Populus Sieboldi, ix. 166. 
Populus suaveolons, ix, 162. 
Populus trerauhi, ix. 164. 
Populus tremula, var. villosa, ix. 156. 
Popul'js tremula, var., ix, 158, 
Populus tremula pendula, ix, 188. 
Populus Irtmuliformis, ix, 168, 
Populus tremuloides, ix, 168 ; xiv, 108. 
Populus tremuloides, a ptndula, ix. 168. 
Populus trepida, ix. 158. 
Populus trichocarpa, ix. 175. 
Populus trichocarjia, var, cupulata, iz. 175. 
Populus versicolor, ix. 153. 
Populus villofa, ix. 155. 
Populus Virginiana, ix. 170. 
Populus Wislizeui, xiv. 71. 
Porcelia, i. 21. 
Porceliii parv\floTa, i. 29. 
I'orcetia triloba, i. 23. 
Pork-Treo, Fat, iv. 4. 
Pork Wood, vi. Ill, 
Porlieria, i, 60, 

Porlieria hygrometrica, i, 60, 60. 
I'orotbrinax, x, 40 ; xiv, 79. 
Port Orford Cedar, x, 119, 
Porter, Thomas Courad, iv, 28. 
Portugal Laurel, iv. 11. 
Portuna, v. 130. 
Porluna, v, 129, 
Possum Oak, viii, 160. 
Post Cedar, x. 130. 
Post Oak, viii. 37. 



l'olUi»IUial* llum, It. St, 

Homohwon, «U. 134. 

I'raaUlania, vl. i:t. 

I'ntalttmua Ikn^tanmi, r\. XA. 

I'nli, U riHT* •I", V. 17. 

I'ru'kl*-«am I'liw, li. 130. 

IVIiklj Aih, i. (17. 

rriiuMi WiHifl, V. U)A. 

i'nngU, (';ru> (iu*niM)r, li. 129. 

I'nngliHipbjrtiiin, ii. 130. 

i'rinuiilu, i. 1<X>. 

IViniM, i. I(K1. 

/Vinuj, i. IIKI. 

fnmtt dttviuut, i. 113. 

/VirwM mimtana, i. IIA. 

rrini TOD Neuwied, li. 138. 

I'riuiMiiyituf KulHnia, riii. 1 1 j ii. 10. 

l*nouiu UticuUu, viii. 11 ; ii. 100. 

PntcAarfliiit i. -W. 

Pntrhnniia Jilanmtiwi, i. 47* 

I'mckardia/ili/m, i. 47. 

PnNloiut <lecipi«nt. i. 3. 

rruiiM>h» moth, v. U. 

I'mniitM maciilfttii, i. 2. 

IVonubk ■jtnthrtira, i. '2. 

I'ninub* jruMiuclU, i. 2. 

i'ropiilidiuiii TnugB, lii. 61. 

I'mopU, iii. 00. 

Prmojtit ajfittii, iii. 101. 

I'rmnpid braftfiUtUa, iii. 101. 

Protupif oiuerftMeot. iii. 00. 

l*nmnftiii Cumaneruu, iii. 101, 

I'rnmtpu AmiinyffwM, iii. 101. 

I'rfuitpis tluirit, iii. 101. 

Pmtopit Kmorifif iii. lOT. 

l'ro4»pu jUjnwtat iii. 101. 

VriuopU fruticnttt^ iii. 101. 

Pmopis glandulota, iii. tUl liii. 15. 

l*ro*opu hurritln, iii. 101. 

Protopu inrrmUf iii. 101. 

FriMopit jiiliflora, iii. 101 ; liii. 18. 

Protopu jnlifitira^ liii. l.**. 

I'roMipis juliHuni, var. ^IiukIuIom, ziii. 15. 

I'ruaopii juliHora, Titr. rtlutina, xiii. 15. 

I'rtMupit ubluiigm, iii. 01^ 

Protopu o<lorala, iii. 101, 107. 

Profopis paltujit, iii. 101. 

I'mwpii pulwMsiu, iii. 107. 

Protopu SUtipMUtrum^ iii. ICl. 

rrotupit ipirigf'rm, iii. 99, lUO. 

I'n»»pi> 8tf phaniiiu, iii. 90. 

Prtttopit vrUtina, ziii. 15. 

I*rot«ot«nu .-VKuUna, ii. 53. 

Protokopta, vi. I'X 

Protohopra linctoria, ri. 15. 

I'ruiiiowe, ii. OU. 

!*rune d'Am^rique, ir. 2. 

Priinei, iv. 9. 

Prunes d'loa(|uc>, ir. 4. 

I'mnier d'Kiite, ir. 9. 

I'ruiiier d'IeAi('ie, ir. 4. 

PrunopKora, iv. 7. 

Pruntia, ir. 7, 8. 

Pnimu, ir. 7. 

I'niniu Alabamenii*, lili. 25. 

I'runuii .'Vlle^jImiiicfiHtii, iv. 27. 

Prunus Americana, iv. I'.K 

Pntum Ammrann, iv. 15. 

Pnmut Amrrirnnii, var. (?), 23. 

I'ruiiiit Amprirana, var. mctUia, ir. 19. 

PriinuB Ainvf^iliiltiN, ir. 8. 

Pruntis an^iifltifolia, iv. 25. 

Primus Armfuiaca, ir. 8. 

Prunus Avitiiii, iv. 8, 9, 10. 

Prnniu AriuRi, ru. maaroawpai iv. 10. 

/Vwiiu hiirmlu, ir. 3A. 

Pruniu /Inui/ifMW, ir. 51. 

/*runu Cimailmtit, ir. 4B. 

Prunia I'apult, ir. 40. 

Prunut ('(ifmim, ir. 40. 

I'niDUi Carolinianm ir. 40 i tir. 100. 

I'rtinui Caruliniana, eilj ardiiuuiM on, Ir. 0. 

Prunut cartUat^mtitt iv. 45. 

I'riiiiiu Oruiu, ir. 8, 10. 

l*runiU'Ceratus (^anadttuitt Ir. 41. 

Pruma-Ctmtus mimtana, ir. 35. 

Pruniu Ckuvto, ir. 2.1, 25. 

I'nmut Uenuua, iv. 42. 

i'runus dumattioa, ir. 8, 0, 20. 

I'runuB dumutioa, rar. .luliana, ir. 0. 

I'runus doDiMtioa, rar. PniMauliana, Ir. 0. 

Prunut liutrmcktit ir. 41. 

i'runui •kwrginaU, ir. 37 ; lir. 100. 

Prunua emarglnata, rar. nioUii, Ir 38. 

Prunut errcta, ir. 37. 

I'runus, fungal ancmiM o(, It. 11. 

Prunia kumalit, Ir. 10. 

Pruniit Kiriula, Ir. 41. 

I'runus hurtulana, Ir. 23 ; lir. 100. 

i'runus ilirifolia, Ir. 53. 

Prunus ilicifolia, rar. intogrifolia, It. S4. 

/'ri<nuj iYin/i4ia, rar. acrutenlaiis, ir. 54. 

J^runut injucumta, liii. 21. 

I'runus, inseet anenilas of, ir. 11. 

I'runus insititia, ir. 0. 

Pninta intUitM, ir. 25. 

/'rwiwj tani-ft^iata, ir. 35. 

I'runus Launicerasus, Ir. 10, 11. 

Prunus l^aurocerasus, pn>p«riieB of, iv. 10, 

I'runiu-tauro-Certuwi itrrat\folia, ir. 40. 

i'runus Lusitanioa, ir. It, 

Prunut Lutitanira, ir. 40. 

/'ninuj Lutilanica, var. lermH/nlia, ir. 40. 

I'runus Malwleb, ir, 10, II. 

I'runus niaritima, var. B, ir. 28, 

Prunut Mutittippi, iv. 19. 

Prunut motlit, ir. 15, 38. 

I'ninus Mump, ir. 8, 0, 11, 

Prunut rujmi, ir. 41. 

I'runus nit(nk, iv, 15 ; or. 100, 

Prvnut nigra, Ir. 10, 

Prunut ohoiiUa, ir, 41. 

Prunut orculmlalit, ir, 54. 

Prunut irrontmica, ir. 0. 

Prunus Padus, Ir, 8, 10, 

Prunus Peiinsjrlranica, iv. 35. 

I'runus i'ersica, ir. 8. 

Pntnut pfrniri/utia, iv, 3,'*, 

Prunut /Ueumdmia, iv, 51, 

Prunus, pro|)ertieB of, iv. 0, 

Prunus Ps4'udu-Ceraaus, ir. 11, 

Prunut pumila, iv. 33, 31, 

Prunut ruhnt, ir, 41. 

/'nifiiu tiilin/olia, iv. 40. 

Prunut tnlid/rjia, var. nniti/olia, IT. 46. 

Pruniu trmprrrirfnt, iv. 40. 

Prunus serutina, iv. 45, 

Pruniu terotimi, iv. 41. 

Prunut lerotma nro-monlana, liii. 25. 

I'runus serotina, prt>i)erties uf, ir. 10. 

I'runus sphfertjoarjia. iv. .'it, 

Prunus spinusn, ir. 10, 11, 20. 

Prunus tpinttta, iv, 19, 

Prunus sulicordatn, iv. 31 ; &iv. TOO. 

Prunus subcordnta, var. Kelloggii, iv. 31, 

I'runus tania, liii. 2^1. 

Prunus umU'lluta, iv. 33. 

I'runui umbellaU, rar, iujncunda, liii, 21, 

Pniana VlrglaiwM, Ir. 41. 

/'rwiMU I'lryinMM, Ir. 40. 

PruHHi yirgmiano, rar. dtmiua, It. 49. 

Praaut VIrginiana, rar. lauooearpa, Ir. 4Z 

Prunua VIrginiana, prupariiM of, W. 10. 

Prunus, wood of, ir. 11. 

Ptalkrnpt, is. Wl. 

Pituilmarui, iii. 3R. 

Pttudiu-ncui iiioni'a, iii. 30, 

Pttwltkrrlul, i, toil. 

PttuilofitUtUm, i. 05. 

Pituitoi**inlon gtanduiiitumt i. 67. 

Ptfutiofwtalon Irvnrpum. L 67* 

pBcuduplusnii, I. 33. 

I'sauduphiauii .Sarganti, i. 3S. 

I'seudotsuga, iii. H3. 

Pitudoltugn Dougttuii, iii. 87. 

Pttutittttugii l*imgtiitit tttnudata, lii, 87, 

I'lrwloliuga Ihmglatii laii/olia, ni, 87. 

Pttudultwja DfHigliuii, rar. glawa, ill. 88. 

I'leudoltuga iJouglani, var. maemcarpa, iii. 

PsaudoUugm, •oonomio proptriiu of, iii. 

Psaudotaugm, fungal disaaaai of, iii. 84. 
PtnAoliuga glaucttcmt, ill, 01, 
Psaudotsuga, instot anamiai of, iii. 84. 
PsaudoUuga, Japanese, lii, 84. 
Pseudotsuga Ja|M>nioa, ill. 84 ; lir. 100, 
J*teutlottuga LinttUifanfi, iii. 87. 
Pseudotsuga macrot'arpa, lii, 03. 
Pseudotsuga mucrunata, iii. 87, 
Pteudottuyn laii/olia, rar. tlongnia, lii, 88, 
I'lruiioltugn lar\/'otia, rar. tuienua, lii. 88. 
Psjrlla Dioapjrri, rl. 4. 
Psjila rhois, iii, 10, 
Pti'li'a, i. 75. 
Ptelea angiistifolia, i. TS. 
I'telea aptera, I. 75. 
Prelea Balilirinii, 1. 75, 
Pltlea mollit, i, 77, 
Plelra monophgUa, li. 7, 
Ptrtra fmrri/oiia, i. 81, 
Plrlnl iwnlaiihyUit, i. 70. 
rtolea trifoliata, I, 75, 70 ; ilr, 08. 
Ptelea trifoliata, var, muUli, I, 77, 
Pltlm nixei/olia, I, 70. 
Pterocarya torbi/otia, rii. 116. 
Pter<»t)'rai, vi. 19. 
Pttr^la, i. 05. 
Plerula tubipinota, I. 73. 
IHilinus basalis, rii. 20. 
Puceinia l.iuliii, r. (M. 
Puccinia Pnini spinosie. ir. 12. 
Pulviuaria innumerabilia, ii. 81 ; rii. 87. 
Pumpkin Ash, lir. 35. 
I'umpkin Pine, li. 10. 
Punk Oak, viii. 100. 
Purjibi Iteecb, ii. 24. 
Purple Haw, ii. 25. 
Pur^ile Vosemite Plum, ir. 16. 
Purpurea, ii. 07. 
Punh, Frederick, ii. 30 ; liv. 100. 
Putzfittiii, ii. 51. 
PtUzrifiit rotea, ii. 52. 
Pjrramidal Cvprt'ss, i. lUO. 
/'yryiu, v. l.'Jl. 
Pyriileiini cadinuni, i. 72. 
Pynis, iv. 07, 08. 
Pifrut titni/oliil, iv. 131. 
Pymt Amrlitnrhier, iv. 125, 
Pyrui Anicrirana, iv. 79 ; liv. 101. 
Pynu Amrrit-anii, iv. 81. 
Pjrrua Americana, var, decora, liv. 101. 

Tjm Amtrlaui, *w. mlaroMrp*, It. M, 

Tjrrut Mfualifollk, iv. 7fl. 

PjrriM krbutifuli*, it. 08. 

I'fnu arhuti/ulia, »r. tiuUmorarpa, ir. 08. 

l')TUM arhul^folin, far. niym, I*. W. 

P^rua Ari*. iv. OU 

I'jrrui tncupuU, W. HP. 

/'ynu aueuparia, iv. TO, 81 ; ■)*. 101. 

Pjrrui bacoaU, iv. 00. 

/'yru> /iarframuirui, ir. I37> 

P^rut Btttryapium, iv. 1U7. 

Pjrui oonimunii, iv. 08. 

/'yruj rommuiiM, Iv. 00. 

I'jrrui ooronkris, iv. 71. 

/'yrw coronaria, Iv. 78. 

/'yrut roronaria, v«r. (inyiafi/Mia, iv. TB. 

I'jrrut ooroniiri*, vkr. lotniii, iv. 73. 

/'ynu ilivtrn/atia, iv. 77. 

I'jrrui, fungiU •naroiM of, It. 70. 

Pynu/utm, it. 77. 

Pjpvt glanjuloia, iv. 00. 

Pjtrua, iuaact anamlaa of, iv. 70. 

ryiiu lotntj, iv. 72. 

I>yrua Malua, iv. 08. 

t'frus mieroearpa, Iv. 80. 

I'jrrua nign, iv. 08. 

I'jrua niviilia, iv. 08. 

Pfm occidenlalu, It. 83. 

/'ynu ovalit, iv. 138, 130. 

I'yrua prunifolin, iv. 08. 

I'jrrua rivularU, iv. 77. 

Pj/nu rivularit, Uvipet, It. 77. 

Pjtrua mlloifuli*, Iv. 00. 

Pjrrui •aiiiliuoifalia. It. 81 ; liv. 101. 

Pynu lamhuci/otia, liv. 101. 

I'yrua aainbuclfolU, var. pumiU, iv. 83. 

Pymt tanguitim, Iv. 138, 131. 

Pyrui SuliMii, iv. 0". 

I'jrua Sinenaia, iv. 60. 

Pyrvt Soulnrdi, iv. 73. 

Pjrua ipecUbilia, iv. 00. 

Pi/rui lubcordala, iv. 77. 

I'yrua Toringo, iv. 60. 

/'yrua UuurimtiM, Iv. 00. 

Pyrm Wnngenkeimiana, it. 1S7. 

Qutdrella, i. 33. 

Quaker Plum, iv. 16. 

Quakiiig Aap, ix. 108. 

Quercitron Uak, viii. 130. 

Quercua, viil. 1. 

Queroua acuminata, viii. 6S. 

Quercua acuminata >; maarooarpa, Tiii. 66. 

Quercua acuta, viii. 4, 11. 

Qutrcui aculiiimt, viii. OS. 

Quercua ilCgilopa, viil. 3, 8. 

Quercua ^gilopi, viil. 7. 

Quercua i£gilopa, ff macrolepii, viii. 8. 

Quercua agrifolia, viii. 111. 

Querciu agrifolia, y berberifolia, viii. 111. 

Qiterctu agrifolia, yht.frutfM'em, viii. 111. 

Quercua alba, viii. 10 ; xiv. 103. 

Quercua alba, hybrida of, viil. 18. 

Quercua alba, medical properties of, Tiii. 3. 

Qutrcus alba (rrpaitda), viii. 16. 

Qutrexu alba minor, viii. 37. 

Quernu alba palmlrif, viii. 03. 

Qufrcut alba pinnnlijida, vlll. 16. 

Quemu alba, a pinnalifdo-iinuata, viii. 16. 

Quercus alba, g f Ounnitonii, viii. 33. 

Qutrcui alha, <inu<i(a, viil. 10. 

Quercus alba, y mieroearpa, vlll. 10. 

Quercua alba x macrocarpa, viii. 18. 

Quercus alba x minor, vKi. 18. 


Qnaraiu alba x Frinua, viU. 18, tO. 

f Quemu atitna, viil. 0. 

Qutreut amhiguo, viii. 130. 

(Jutmu annulala, viii. 71. 

Qutmt aqualiea, viii. 100. 

Qutrrus dyuafim, a euneata, Vti. lOO. 

Quercut aipmliia, a laur\/'otin, viii. 100. 

Uu<rcM< aipMlicn, ( hileropKi/lta, viii. 180. 

Qutrcui atptatiea, y ettmgata, viii. 100. 

Qutrcut aipialica, I imlivita, viil. 100. 

Qutrtut aiiualira, i atltnuala, viii. lOA. 

QuercvM a'/ua/ini, ( t myrltfiilia, viii. 133. 

Qutreut aijvalira, var. hybrida, viil. 100. 

(^u<reuJ arriiglandiM, viii. 111. 

Queroua Ariau'-ioa, viii. 80. 

(^mtf Autlriaca, viii. 7. 

Querrm Ballola, viii. 7. 

Qutreut Baloul, viil. 7. 

Qutrau lialoul, vlli. 7. 

Qutrcut Baniileri, viii. 100. 

Quertui berbtridf/olia, viil. IK. 

Qutrcut bicolor, viii. 03, 07. 

(^urnui bieolnr, $ mollit, viii. 03. 

Qutrcut bicnlor, g plalanoidt; viii. 03. 

Qu«r<?u< bicolor, lubapec. Mickauxii, viii. 67. 

Quercua brevlfolia, viil. 171. 

Quercus brevlfolia x Cateabiai, viii. 173. 

Quercua brevlfolia, hybrida of, viii. 173. 

Quercua breviloba, viii. 71. 

Quercus Ureweri, viii. 37. 

Quercta Britloni, vlli. 103. 

Quercua, buda of, vlll. 4. 

Qutrcut Butrjerii, viii. 11. 

Quercus Bungeana, viii. 3, 10. 

Qutrcut calicina, viii. 7. 

Quercus Callfornica, viii. 141. 

Qutrcut Calliprinot, a arcuala, viii. 10. 

Qu<rfu< Catlanea, viii. 61, 60. 

Quercus Cateabtei, Till. 143. 

Quercus Caletbtri X aqualiea, viii. 144. 

Queroua Cateabni x laurifolia, viii. 144. 

Quercus Catesbai X nigra, viii. 144. 

Quercus Cerris, viil. 3, 7. 

Quercus Cerria, buds of, viii. 4. 

Querous Cerris dentioulata, viil. 7. 

Qu<rciM Cerrit f\itkamentis, viil. 7. 

Quercus Cerria, hybrids of, vlli. 6. 

Quercus ChapmanI, viii. 41. 

Qutrcui Chincapin, viii. 60. 

Qutrcut Chineniit, vlll. 10. 

Quercus chrysolepia, viii. 105 ; xiv. 103. 

Qu«rcui chryiolepit, viii. 100. 

Querous chrysolepia, subapeo. Falmeri, viil. 

Querous chrysolepia, subspeo. vacciuiifolia, 

viil. 100. 
Qutrcut eintrea, viii. 171. 
Qu<rru< cinrrra, denlalo-lobata, viii. 171. 
Quercui cinerea, y kumilit, viil. 171. 
Quercut cinerea, var. pumila, viii. 116. 
Quercus coccifera, vlli. 3, 10. 
Quercus coccifera, ( Palcstina, viil. 10. 
Quercus oocclnea, viii. 133. 
Qufrctu coccinea, viil. 120. 
Quercu* coccinea, a coccinea, vlli. 133. 
Quercut coccinea fi, viii. 130. 
Quercut coccinea, B nigretceni, viii. 137. 
Quercut coccinea, y tinctoria, viii. 137. 
t Quercut coccinea, S Rugelii, viii. 137. 
Quercut coccinea, var. ambigua, viil. 125. 
Quercut coccinea var. f mieroearpa, viii. 120. 
Quercua coccinea X ilicifolia, viii. 100. 
Qu«rcu< conferlifolia, viil. 117. 
Qu<rciM crauipocula, vlli. 106. 

Qutrcui erinlla, tII!. T. 

Quercua oriapula, vlli. 0. 

Qutrcui Cubana, viii. 00. 

Qutrcui oiiimta, viil. 147. 

Querous cuapidata, vlli. 4, 11. 

QiMTCua dtcipitni, viil. 01, 

Quercua danalHora, viii. 18.1, 

Qutrcui dini\/lora, viii. 183. 

Quercua denalHora, var. eohiooides, viii. 188. 

Quercus dentata, viil. 3, 10. 

Quercus digiUU, viii. 147. 

Qutrrui digilalii pngodafolia, zIt. B1. 

Quercua dilatata, viii. 3, 0. 

Qiiercui diicolor, viii. 137, 147. 

Qutrcui diicolor, y Baniiliri, viii. 106. 

Queroua Douglaaii, viii. 70 | xiv. 103. 

Qutrcui Ihuglaaii, g t (iamhelii, viii. ,'13. 

Quercut Douglaiii, y Nommittieana, viii. 33, 

Quercua thuglaiii, 1 1 ffini, viii. 30, 

Quercua Drummonitii, viii. 37. 

Qujroua dumoea, viil. 00. 

Quercua dumota, y aculidmt viii. 06. 

Quercua dumota, var. bullala, viii. 06. 

Quercua dumom, var. munitu, viii. OC, 

Quercut dumoia, var. polgcarpa, viii. OS. 

Quercus dumosa, var. revoluta, viil. M. 

Quercut Dunnii, viii. 107. 

Quercut £>uranifii, viil. 71. 

Quercut ecAinacen, viii. 183. 

Querciu ecbinoidit, viil. ITS. 

Querous, econom'o properties of, tUI. 3. 

Querous ellipsoidalia, xiv. 49. 

Quercut tlongala, viii. 147. 

Queroua Emoryi, viii. 103. 

Quercut Emoryi, vlli. 75, 89. 

Querous Engelmnnni, viii. 83. 

Q..eraus Esculus, li. 61. 

Quercut Eiculut, viii. 7. 

Quercut expanta, Tiii. 7. 

Quercut /a/ca(a, tIU. 147. 

Quercut /a/cala, Ludoviciana, Tiii. 147. 

Quercut /ajcala, triloba, Till. 147. 

Quercut /a/cn(a, var. b pagodcefolia, viii. 147 ; 

xiv. 61. 
Quercui Fendleri, viii. 75. 
Quercui ferruginea, viii. 101. 
Quercut /u/oetcmt, viii. 106. 
Querous, fungal diaeaaes of, viii. 4, 13. 
Queroua Gamhelil, viii. 33. 
Quercut Oambelii, var. Ounniionii, viii. 33. 
Queroua Garryana, viii. 20, 
Quercua Garryana, dwarf form of, viii. 30. 
Quercus Geurgiana, vlll. 160. 
Quercus Georglana x Marllandica, viii. 150. 
Quercui Oeorgiana x nigra, viil. ISO. 
Quorcua, germination of, viii. 4. 
Quercut Gilberli, viii. 20. 
Querous glabra, vlli. 4, 11. 
Quercua glauea, viii. 4, 11. 
Quercut Gramunlia, viii. 7. 
Quercua GrifBtbii, vlll. 3, 6. 
Quercut griiea, viii. 75, 80. 
Queroua groaaeaerrata, viii. 6. 
Quercut haitala, viii. 103. 
Quercut hemiipharica, vlll. 105. 
Quercut hemuiphasrica, var. nana, viii. 105. 
Quercut heterophylla, viil. 180. 
Quercut Hindsii, viil. 23. 
Quercui humilis, viil. 171. 
Quercua, hyb' i' of, viii. 5. 
Queroua hy^i;.i(.u. \, viii. 117. 
Queroua Ilex, v . . 7. 
Quercut Ilex lubt. ,a, viii. 8. 
Quercua Ilex, 7 Ballota, viii. 7. 





Qiicmis Hex, var. Ballota, tiU. 3. 

Quercui Uirtfolia, riii. 1A5. 

Quercui ilici/olia X rocrinM, viii. 156. 

Querout inibrieari*, viii. 175 ; xiv. 101. 

Quercui imbricaria, $ ipinulosHf viii. 175. 

Queraa imbricaria X comnfo, viii. 176. 

Quarcus imbricaria x Mariiandica, viii. 176. 

Querctis iMbricaria X ni^.-a, viii. 176. 

Quercui imbricaria x paluitri«, viii. 177. 

Qiiercua imbricaria x velutina, riii. 170. 

Queroiis ineaoa, viii. 3, 10. 

Quercut in/ecforta, viii. 0. 

Qaftrcui, insect enemies of, viii. 4, 11. 

QuercuM Iihabureruis, viii. 8. 

Querouf, ita inoreaaa in North America, viii. 

Qufm$9 Jacobi, viii. 29. 
Quernts KeUogffii, viii. 141. 
h>mtl-uji ianata^ m incana^ viii. 10. 
Qucrcus laurifolia, viii. 169. 
Quercttt laurifiilia hybridut viii. 169. 
Querctu lauri/olia, a acutu, viii. 169. 
QuerciiS lauri/oiia, jB oAftua, viii. 169. 
Qucrcus Leana^ viii. 170. 
Queniua lobata, viii. 23. 
Qttercus lobata^ subapec. fruticota, viii. 27. 
Qucraui lobata, var. Bicwerit viii. Ii7. 
QuercuM lobata, var. Hindiii, viii. 23., 
Querela ImgiyUmda, viii. 23. 
Qneroiu Luaitanica, viii. 3, 6. 
Qucrcus Lusitanii i, a gcnuina, viii. 0- 
Querrus Lu*'.t,fcnica, m infoctoria, viii. 9. 
Q'.'.rrcus Luaitanica, aubapeo. Batica, « Hir- 

bockii, vi'i. 6. 
Qucn'u.; Urata, viii. 47. 
Querents Mactkmaldi, viii. 95. 
Qucrcus Maclhmaldi, var. eUgantula, viii. 95. 
ijuercua macrocarpa, viii. 43 ; xiv. 103. 
fiufrcus macrocarpa, & abbrcviata, viii. 43. 
Qufrats macrocarpa, y minor, viii. 43. 
Querctis macrocarpa, var. o/itw/ormu, tiii. 43. 
Qiicmts macroiffHS, viii. 8. 
Qticmis marginata, viii. 11. 
Cjitercus MariUndica, viii. 101. 
Quercua Marilandica x nana, viii. 162. 
Qucrcus maritime, viii. 100. 
Qiiercua, medical properties of, viii. 3. 
Qturcus Mexicana, y Cfm/erti/olia, viii. 117. 
Quercus Miehauxii, viii. 07. 
QuercuB minor, viii. 37. 
Qucrcua minor x alba, viii. 38. 
Qucrcus ^f^rhccl'ii, viii. 6. 
Quercua Mongoliea, viii. 3, 6. 
Qucrcus montana, viii. 51. 
Qucrcus Morehus, viii. 120. 
Qucrcus jfuehlcnl^ergii, viii. 'tii. 
Qicrcus MuchUnbcrgii, var. humilis, viii. 59. 
Quercui myrtifalia, viii. 12^t ; xiv. 103. 
Qiiercua nana, v)>i. 155. 
f Quercus nana, viii. 105. 
Querrus nana X coccittea, vi.; 150. 
QuemiK liana x velutina, viii. I.'jO. 
Quercus AVfW, viii. 1*9. 
QuercMS nifp*a, viii. lO-***. 
Quercus nigra, viii. 8, 137, 101. 
<^ii*rotiji nigra iligitata, viii. 147. 
Q'iercus ntgra int» gri/oiia, viii. 101. 
Q'lercus ntgra trijidn, viii. Km. 
Qtercus nigra, a a'juatira, viii. 105. 
Quercus nigra, B, viii. 101. 
Querctis nigra, fl latifttlia, viii. 161. 
Quercus nigra, 'luintjuflofia, viii. 101. 
Quercut nigra, 6 truUntata, viii. 170, 
t Quercut nigra, y sinuata, viii. 1 14. 

Quercui nigra, var., viii. 180. 

Queroua oblongifolia, viii. 87. 

Quercus oblongi/olia, viii. 75, 83 ; xiv. 103. 

f Qttercus oblongi/oliat viii. 79. 

Quercus ohlongi/olia, var. brevilobata, viii. 79. 

Quercus obovfUCt viii. 10. 

Quercus obtufa, viii. 100. 

Qucrcus obtusi/olia, var, f brevilobOi \iii. 71. 

Quercus obtusiloba, riii. 37. 

Quercui oblusiioba, var. parvi/olia, viii. 41. 

Queroua occidentalis, viii. 3, 9. 

Quercus (ErsttdUma, xiv. 103. 

f Qttercus (Srstcdiana, viii. 27, 29. 

Qtttratit oltoidcs, viii. 99. 

Quercus div<tformis, viii. 43. 

Quercus oxyadenia, viii. 111. 

Queroua pag;odie folia, xiv. 51. 

QtiCTfUh PaUstina, viii. 10, 

Qticrcui Palmeri, viii. 107. 

Quercua paluatris, viii. 151 ; xiv, 104. 

Quercus palustris, viii. 129. 

Quercut paluitrit, $ cucullata, viii. 151. 

Quercui parvttla, viii. 119. 

Quercus pcduncuiata, vir. 6. 

Queroua Persica, viii, 8. 

Querctu Phelloa, viii. 179. 

Quercus PhcUos {maritima), viii. 100. 

Quercxts Phellos (pumila), viii. 116. 

Querctts Phellos sempercirens, viii. 99. 

Quercus Phellos (sylmtica), viii. 179, 

Querc*u Phellos, c, viii. 99. 

Quercus Phellos, a longifolia, viii. 179. 

Querela Phellos, a viridis, viii. 179. 

Quercut Phelha, &, viii. 99, 171, 

Quercus Phellos, $ hrevi/olia. viii. 171. 

Quercus Phellos, $ humilis, viii. 171. 

Querrus Phellos, imbricaria, viii. 175. 

Quercus Phelloa. B tati/oiia, viii. 171. 

Quercus Phellos, B sericea, viii. 171. 

Quercut Phellos, sufitmbriraria, viii. 181. 

Queraa Phellos, y ofttusiftilia, viii 99. 

Querrns Phellos, B subrepanda, viii. 179. 

Quercut Phellos, » nana, viii. 115. 

Quercus Phellos, t subUtlmta, viii. 179. 

Quercut Phellot, var. viii. 180. 

Quercus Phellits, var. armaria, viii. 123. 

Quercut Phellos, var. lauri/oliu, viii. 169. 

Quercus Phellos x coccinea, viii. 180. 

Quercut Phellos X ilici/olia, viii. 181. 

Queroua Phellos x Mariiandica, viii. 181. 

Quercus Phellos x nana, viii. 181. 

Quercus Phellos X nigra, viii. 181. 

Quercus Phellos x rubra, viii. 180, 

Querctts Phellos x tindtn-ia, viii. 180. 

Quercut Phellos x velutina, viii. 180. 

Q'iercus pinnatifida, viii. 10. 

Qucrcus platatioides, viii. 63. 

Qncrcni prinuidas, viii. 59. 

Quercus prinoides, viii. 55. 

Quercus Prinus, viii. 51. 

Quercus Prinus, viii. 67. 

Qtterais Prinus amminata, viii. 55. 

Qiierrtwt Prinus Chincnpin, viii. 59. 

Qtierrii* Prinus ttiscoior, viii. Oil. 

QueritiS Prinus humilis, viii. 59. 

Qiiemis Prinus (mnntitfila), viii, 51. 

Querriij Pnmts (fialusfris), viii, 07. 

Qtiercus Prinus {pumilo), viii. 59. 

Quernw Prinus tometitosa, vii'. 63. 

Qft^cus Primis, a lata, viii. 51. 

f Querctis Prinus, a jfOrvi/oUa, viii. 51. 

Quen'^is Prinus, hirolor, viii. 03. 

7 Qucrcus PrinuH, oMon^ata, viii. 51. 

Quercru Prinus, ptatanoides, viii. 63. 

Quereus Prinus, var. discolor, viii. 67. 

Quercus Prinus, var. Miehauxii^ viii. 67. 

Quercut Prgami, viii. 8. 

Quercut pteudo-cocci/era, viii. 10. 

Quercui pubetcent, viii. 8. 

Quuroua pumila, viii. 115. 

Quercus pumila, var. tericea, viii. 116. 

Quercus pungent, viii. 75. 

Quercus Pyrenaiea, viii. 8. 

Quercus Ramomi, viii. 79. 

Queroua reticulata, viii. 91. 

f Quercus reticultUa, $ Ortggii, viii. 91. 

Quercut rttusa, viii. 99. 

Quercua Robur, viii. 3, 6. 

Quercus Robur, viii. 0. 

Quercus Robur pedunaUata, viii. 6. 

Quercus Kobur, aubspeo. pedunoulata, viii. 61 

Quercua Robur, aubapeo. aeuiliflora, viii. 6. 

Quercut rotundifolia, viii. 7. 

Quercus rubra, viii. 125. 

Quercut rubra, viii. 129, 141, 147. 

Quercttt rttbra dtssecta, viii. 151. 

Qiercus rubra maxima, viii. 126. 

Quercus rubra montana, viii. 125. 

f Queratt rubra tnontana, viii. 147. 

Querrus rubra nana, viii. 155. 

Qttercus rubra ramosissima, viii. 161. 

Quercus rubra, a tnridit, viii. 125. 

Quercus ru/;ra, b, viii. 125. 

Quercus rubra, c Schre/eldii, viii. 126. 

Querois rubra, a latifoliu, viii. 125. 

Q lercus rubra, 0, viii. Vl't, 147, 

7 Qttercat rubra, coccinea, viii. 133. 

QueroiS rttbra, jB Hispanica, viii. 147. 

Quercus rubra, rttncinata, viii. 120. 

f Quercus rubra, y Muhlenbergii, viii. 125. 

Qiierctw rubra, y subserrata, viii. 125. 

Quercus rubra, S heterophylla, viii. 126. 

Quercua rubra, • aurea, viii. 126. 

Quercttt rttha, var. Texana, viii. 129. 

Quercus rubra X digitata, viii. 120. 

Quercua rubra x imbricaria, viii. 120. 

Quercus rubra X velutiiia, viii. 126. 

Quercus Rudkini, viii. 181. 

Quercua, Baccbarine exudationa from, viii, 8. 

Quercua Sndlenuna, viii. 01. 

Quern*s Sagrcrana, viii, 1)9, 

Querctts San-Sabeana, viii. 71. 

Quercus, aections of, viii. 4. 

Qtjercus scmftcrvirens, viii. 99. 

Qucrcus sericea, viii. 115, 

Quercua serrata, viii. 3, 10. 

Quercus terrata, viii. 10. 

Quercus scrrntn, a Vhinensit, viii. 10. 

Quercus aerrata, Uoxburghii, viii. 10. 

QuM-cus sessiliflora, viii. 6, 

Qttercus sessilijlora, var. Afongolica, viii. 6. 

Quercus Shumarati, viii. 137. 

Quercus stnttata, viii. 144. 

Qttercus Sonomensis, viii. 141, 

Quentts spii'ota, viii. 91. 

Querctts ftellata, viii. 37, 41. 

Quercus stellata, Flondana, viii. 37. 

Qu^rn.'.* stellatn, y depressa, viii. 45. 

Querctis stellata, 8 Utahetisis, viii. 33. 

Qrj^rru* st'tloni/rra, viii. 8. 

Quercus Suber, viii. 3, 8. 

Qttercus 7\iitzin, viii. 8. 

Quercus Texana, viii. 129; xiv, 104, 

Querriix (inrforia, viii. 137. 

Qnerrtis tinrturin, a anipdosa, viii. 137. 

Qutmin tinrttiria, a di*r>ni>r, viii. 137- 

Quernts tinrturia, tHaijHifira,\m. 137. 

Quercus tinctoria, sinuoxa, viii. 137. 




QunvtM tineloria, y maerophylla, viii. 137. 
QutTcm lincloria, I nobilii, viii. 137. 
Querau lincloria. Tar. Califomica, nii. 141. 
Quereui tomGntells, viii. 100 ; zir. 103. 
Queroas Toumeyi, viii. 03. 
Qnenu$ Tourne/orlii, viii. 7. 
Quaroiu Tout, viii. 3, 7. 
Quercut triloba, viii. 147. 
Qutrcut Trojana, viii. 8. 
Quercut lurbintlla, viii. 75, 95. 
Quermt uliginoia, viii. 165. 
Querous undulata, viii. 75. 
Quercut undulala, viii. 33, 71. 
Quercut undulala, ■ Oambelii, viii. 33. 
Quercut undulala, fi obluti/olia, viii. 75. 
Quel cut undulala, yJamesii, viii. 76. 
Quercut undulala, y peduneulala, viii. 76. 
Quercut undulala, > gritea, viii. 87. 
Quercut undulala, I WrigHtii, viii. 76. 
Quercut undulala, var. gritea, viii. 76, 87, 80. 
Quercut undulala, var. oblongata, viii. 76, 

Quercut undulala, var. pungent, viii. 75, 05. 
Qucrciu Ungeri, viii. 8. 
Qiwrctu vacciniifolia, viii. 100 
QiwrctM Faljonea, viii. 8. 
Queroiu velutina, viii. 137 ; xiv. 104. 
Quercut venuslula, viii. 33. 
f Quercut villota, viii. 37. 
Quercut virent, viii. 90. 
Quep^ut virent, var. dentala, viii. 101. 
I j<rciM in'retu, var. marilima, viii. 100. 
QuercuB Virginiana, viii. 90. 
Quercua Virginiana, var. maritima, viii. 100. 
Quoroiia Virginiana, var. minima, viii. 101. 
Quercua Wislizeni, viii. 110. 
Quercut Witlizeni, ytit. frutetceni, viii. 110. 
Quercua Wializeui x Californica, viii. 120. 
Quercut Wiiliteni X Kelloggii, viii. 120. 
Quick Beam, iv. 80. 

Racka, vi. 105. 

Railway tiea from Pinue paluatria, xi. 164. 

Kaki, iv. 10. 

Ramnlaria albo-maoulata, vii. 134. 

Ramularia Celtidia, vii. 05. 

Ramulara Hamameliilis, v. 2. 

Ramularir. monilioidea, iz. 86. 

Rattle 'ioz, vi. 22. 

Rauwofia, vi. 101. 

Ravent I, Henry William, viii. 160. 

Ravenelia, viii. IGO. 

Ueasoner, Pliny Ward, xiv. 77. 

Red Ash vi. 40. 

Kt'd Bay, vii. 4. 

Kc('. lieech, ii. 23. 

Kcil Hircb, ix. 01 ; xiv. 53. 

Kcdbnd, iii. 96, 97. 

Red Cedar, x. 93, 129 ; xiv. 89, 93. 

Ked Cedar oil, x. 95. 

Rod Cypress, x. 154. 

Ui-d Khii, vii. 52, 53 ; xiv 41. 

R.d Fir, xii. 87, 133, 137. 

Rvil Gum, V. 12. 

Rod Maw, siii. 71, 81, 8.1, 85, 101, 113, 115, 

117, 119, 125, 129, 13;i, 146, 181. 
Rrd lroii-wo<Hl, ii. 21. 
Red Miiple, ii. 107 ; liii. 11. 
Rrd Mnplo, distriliutinii of, xlii. 11. 
Red Mullwrry, vii. 79. 
Red Oak, viii. 12."), 129 ; xiv. 51. 
Red I'ino, xi. 07. 
Red I'Ine of .liipnn, xi. 7. 
Red riuiii, iv. 15. 

B«d Spruce, xii. 33. 

Red Stopper, v. 40. 

Redwood, x. 141. 

Rephetit, vii. 01. 

Reain, Hemlock, xii. 6.j. 

Reain of Liquidaunbav Formoiana, v. 8. 

Rcain of Liquidambar Styraei6ua, v. 8. 

Reainoua product* of Piuua Pinaatar, zi. 7. 

Retema, iii. 80. 

Retinia fruatrana, xi. 117. 

Retinotpora, x. 97. 

Relinotpora flicoidet, z. 08. 

Retinotpora Jilifera, x. 09. 

hetinotpora lycopodioidet, x. 98. 

Retinotpora obluta, z. 98. 

Retinotpora piti/era, z. 08. 

Retinotpora tquarrota, z. 00. 

Ratinoaporaa, Japaneae, forms of, x. 09. 

P«verchon, Julian, ziii. 176. 

Reynosia, ii. 10. 

Reynoaia latifolia, ii. 21. 

Reynoao, Alvaro, ii. 10. 

Rhagium lineatum, zi. 11 ; zii. 26. 

RnAHNACEjE, ii. 19. 

Rhamuidium, ii. 27. 

Rhamnidium ferreum, ii. 29. 

Rhamnidium revolutum, ii. 21. 

Rhamuua, ii. 31. 

Rkamnut alni/olia, ii. 37. 

Rhamnut Califomica, ii. 37, 30. 

Rhamnut Califomica, var. rubra, ii. 37. 

Rhamnut Califomica, var. tomenlella, ii. 39. 

Rbamnus Caroliniana, ii. 35 ; ziv. 90. 

Rhamnus cathartica, ii. 32. 

Rhamnut chiorophora, ii. 32. 

Rhamnut colubrina, ii. 47. 

Rbamnua crocea, ii. 33. 

Rhamnut crocea, ii. 34. 

Rbamnus crocea, var. insularia, ii. 34. 

Rbamnua crocea, var. pilosa, ii. 33. 

Rbamnua Davurica, ii. 32. 

Rhamnut ellipfca, ii. 40. 

Rhamnut ftrrea, ii. 20. 

Rbamnua Frangula, ii. 32, 36. 

Rhamnut iguaneui, vii. 64. 

Rhamnus ilirifolia, ii. 33. 

Rhamnus infectoria, ii. 32. 

Rhamnut imutarit, ii. 34. 

Rhamnus lavigatus, ii. 21. 

Rhamnus laurifolia, ii. 37. 

Rhamnus oteifolia, ii. 37. 

Rbamnua Purshiana, ii. 37 ; xiv. 00. 

Rbamnua Purshiana, var. tomentella, ii. 39. 

Rhamnus rubra, ii. 37, 38. 

Rbamnus tinctoria, ii. 32. 

Rhat^nus tomentella, ii. 30. 

Rhamnus tililis, ii. 32. 

Hhapis acaulis, x. 38. 

Rhelinophlceum, iii. 81. 

Rhigin, vi. 113. 

Rliizucoccus Quercua, viii. 11. 

Rhizophora, v. 13. 

Rhizophora Americana, v. 15. 

Rhizophora api'tdata, v. 14. 

Rhizophora cawlelaria, v. 14. 

Rhizophora coiijugata, v. 13. 

Rhizophora marrorrhiza, v. 14. 

Rliizophura Mniigle, v. 15 ; xiv. 101. 

Ithiziiphora Mangle, v. 14. 

Rluzoptiont Mnuf^le, a, v. 15. 

Rhizoph-irii Mangle, var. raeemosa, v. 15. 

Klii/itphom iiiurroniita, v. 14. 

Jthizitphora raremitsu, v. 15. 

RlLIZOl'IHUlACK.V., v. 13. 

Rhododendron, v. 143. 
Rhododendron, v. 143. 
Rhododendron aaruginoium, . 146. 
Rhododendron Afghanioum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron Anthopogon, v. 146. 
Rhododendron arboreacena, v. 146. 
Rhododendron arboreum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron aurevm, v. 145. 
Rbodoi^endron azaleoidea, v. 146. 
Rhododendron bicolor, v. 1-16. 
Rhododendron calendulaceum, v. 140. 
Rhododertdron calendulaceum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron campanulatum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron Camtacbaticum, v. 144. 
Rhododendron canescent, v. 146. 
Rhododendron Catawbienae, v. 147. 
Rhododendron chryaantbum, t. 146. 
Rhododendron cinnabarinum, v. 146, 
Rhododendron Due de Brabant, v. 160, 
Rhododendron elatagrmdes, v. 145. 
Rhododendron ferrugineum, v. 144. 
Rhododendron flavum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron, fungal enemiea of, v. 147. 
Rhododendron hybrid, Delicatiaaimum, r. 

Rhododendron Indicum, v. 146, 147. 
Rhododendron jaaminiHorum, v. 147. 
Rhododendron Javanicum, v. 147. 
Rhododendron Lapponicum, v. 144. 
Rhododendron lepidotum, v. 145. 
Rhododendron, Madame van Houtte, v. 150. 
Rhododendron maximum, v, 148. 
Rhododendron maximum, var. album, v. 140. 
Rhododendron maximum, var. purpureum, 

v. 140. 
Rhododendron maximum, var. roseum, v. 140. 
Rhododendron, medical properties of, v. 146. 
Rhododendron motle, v. 146. 
Rhododendron nudiflorum, v. 140. 
Rhododendron oecidontale, v. 146. 
Rhododendron odoratum, v. 140. 
Rhododendron officinale, v. 146. 
Rhododendron, poiaonoua propertiea of, v. 

Rhododendron Ponticnm, v. 147. 
Rhododendron Ponticum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron procerum, v. "48. 
Rhmtodendron purpureum, v. 149. 
Rhodmtendron Purshii, v. 149. 
Rhododendron salignum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron Sinense, v. 140. 
Rhododendron speciosum, v. 147. 
Rhododendron visrosum, v. 146. 
Rhododendron Wellsianum, v. 150. 
Rhododendrons, Catawbienae, v. 146, 147. 
Rhododendrons, cultivated, v. 145. 
Rhododendrons, hybrid, v. 145. 
Rbo<lodcndrons, .Tavanesc, v. ?40, 147. 
Rhmlodemiros, v. 129, 137. 
Rhodora, v. 143. 
Rbodornstrum, v. 144. 
Rhotlothamnus Kamlsihaliais, v. 144. 
Rhus, iii. 7. 
Rhus, iii. 1. 

Rhus aromatica, iii. 10. 
Rhus Canadensis, iii. 10 j xiv. 99. 
Rhus copnllina, iii. 19 ; xiv. 100. 
Rhus copallina, var. angiistiulnta, iii. 21. 
Rhus copallina, var. angustifnlia, iii. 21. 
Rhus copallina, var. integrifolia, iii. 21. 
Rhus L'opalliim, var. Itineeoluta, iii. 20. 
Uliiis oopullina, var. latialata, iii. 21. 
Ulms copntliua, var. latifolia, iii. 21. 
Rhus copallina, var. Icucanthn, iii. 21. 





Rbui copallina, rar, Mrnta, iii. 21. 

Rhui CoriarU, iii, 0. 

Rhm colinoida, iii. 3. 

Hhui Colimu, iii. 2, 3. 

RhuB glabra, iii. 9, IG. 

Rhus liirta, liv. 99. 

Rhus hypKlodtndron, lir. 99. 

Rhut integrifolia, iii. 27. 

Hhus integri/olia, iii. 10. 

Rhm integrifolia, var. $errttla, iii. 27. 

Rhui leucatuha, iii. 21. 

Rlius liicida, iii. 10. 

Rhut Metopiuni, iii. 13 ; xiv. 99. 

Rhus ovata, iii. 10. 

Rhm Orfnulopium, iii. 13. 

Rhua semialata, iii. 9, 10. 

Rhus succedanea, iii. 8. 

Rliiu Toxicodendron, Iii. 0, 10. 

Rhiu Toxicodendron, poitouoiu properties of, 

iii. 10. 
Rhua tjrphina, iii. 15 ; xir. 99. 
Rhm tjiphina, xiv. 90. 
Rhm ti/phiiui, fi viridiflora, xir. 100. 
Rhus tjfphina, rar. arborfscms, iii. 15. 
Rhm ii/phina, yu. frutescens, iii. 15. 
Rhm renenala, ill. 23. 
Rhua Tcmicifera, Iii. 8. 
Rhua Vemix, iii. 2a 
Rhus Vemiz, iii. 8. 
Rhm viridijiarum, xiy. 99, ICO. 
RhuB-tallow, iii. 0. 
Rhjtiama acerinum, ii. 81. 
Rhytlama punctatam, ii. 81. 
Rbjtisnia sallclnum, ix. 101. 
Rhjrtiama Si aaafraa, vii. 15. 
Rhytiaiua Vaocinii, t. 117. 
"Riga, Pine, xi. 6. 
Rigidie, ix. 96. 
Ringach. le, xi. 11. 
Ripselaiis, ix. 95. 
Ripsoctis, ix. 95. 
River Uircb, ix. 61. 
Roberlia, v. 163. 
Robin, Jean, ill. 38. 
Robin, Veapaaien, iii. 38. 
Robinia, iii. 37. 
Robinia bella-roaea, iii. 46. 
Robinia dubia, ill. 46. 
Robiuia fasligiata, iii. 42. 
Rflbinia fraffiliSf iii. 39. 
Robinia giutinosa. III. 45. 
Robinia blapldx. ill. 37. 
Robinia inermis, til. 41. 
Robinia N'eo-Meiicana, III. 43. 
Robiuia Paeudacacia, ill. 39. 
Robinia Pseudacai:la, va.. crlspa. III. 42. 
Robinia Paeudavocia, rar. Deoaiineana, iii. 

Robinia Paeudacacia, var. diaaecta. III. 42. 
Koblnia Paeudacacia, var. inermis, III. 41. 
Hobinia Paeudacacia, var. latiBlli(|ua, ill. 42. 
Robinia Paeudacacia, var. macrophylla, 111.42. 
Koblnia Paeudacacia, var. inlcropbylla, ill. 

Robinia Paeudacacia, var. monophylla, ill. 

Robinia Paeudacacia, var. pendula, ill. 42. 
iiobluia Paeudacacia, var. pyramidalla, Hi. 

Robinia Paeudacacia, var. tortuoaa, ill. 42. 
Robinia Pscudacacla, var. umbracullfera. III. 

Robinia aiKdabilif, iii. 41. 
Robtnia stncta, III. 42. 

Robinia UUerharti, iii. 41. 

Robinia viaooMt, iii. 45. 

Robur, riii. 4. 

Rock Cedar, x. 01. 

Rook Cheatnut Oak, vUi. Bl. 

Rock Elm, vii. 45, 47. 

Rock Maple, ii. 97. 

Rook Oak, riii. 66. 

Roatelia aurantiaoa, x. 73. 

Raatelia Botrjapitei, x. 101. 

RiBatcKa comuta, iv. 70. 

Raatelia pjrata, It. 70, 84. 

Ro>BtelLi< on Pjrrua and Cratogni, iv. 70, M 

Romaleum atomarium, vii. 04. 

Romana, Pnmard, iv. 6. 

RoeACi«, It. 1 ; xiii. 21. 

Soae Apple, v. 41. 

Rose Bay, v. 148. 

Boaes, ix. 96. 

Roeemarjr Pine, xi. 113. 

Roain, xi. 3. 

Rospidios, vi. 1. 

Rothrock, Joeeph Trimble, riii. 92. 

Roumea coriacea, vii. 27. 

Rowan-tree, Scottiah, iv. 69. 

Royal Palm, i. 31. 

RuBiACit.K, T. 103 ; xiv. 25. 

Rudbfchia, v. 23. 

Rugel, Ferdinand, ix. 110. 

Rugelia, ix. 110. 

Rugenia, v. 30. 

Kum Cherry, Iv. 46. 

Running Oak, viil. 116. 

Rnaaian Mulberry, vii. 76. 

Ruat, Spruce, xii. 26. 

Ruata on Pyrua, iv. 70. 

Rutacej:, 1. 65. 

Rydberg, Per Axel, xir. 69. 

Sabal, X. 37. 

Sabal Adansoni, x. 38. 

Sabal, economic properties of, x. 38. 

Sabal iCtonIa, x. 38. 

Sabal, fungal diaeases of, x. 38. 

Sabal, germination of, x. 38. 

Sabal glabra, x. 38. 

Sabal Meiicana, x. 43. 

Sabal minor, x. 38, 

Sabal Palmetto, x. 41. 

Sabal Palmetlo (7), x. 43. 

Sabal pumita, x. 38. 

Sabal temlata, xir. 76. 

Sablcd, ill. 127. 

Sablua, x. 70. 

Sahina, x. 09. 

Sahina Dermudiano, x. 70. 

Sabina Cali/omica, x. 79. 

Sabitia cictlia, x. 71. 

Snhitiajlacatln. x. 83. 

Sabina yigantm. x. 70, 141, 146. 

Sabina isnphylt"s, x. 71. 

Sabina Mexicann, r. 70. 

Sabina occiilentalni, x 87. 

Sabina otteosprrma, x. 79. 

Sabina pachyphlaa, x. 85. 

Sabina ptoi-hydfrma, x. 86. 

Sabina potycarpof, x. 71. 

Sabina proctra, x. 70. 

Sahina rentrva, x. 70. 

Sahina rerurva, var. a tenuifolia, x. 70. 

Sahitia rfcurva, var. dfnsa, x. 70. 

Sahina n-ligiusa, x. 70. 

Sahina souatnata, x. 71. 

Sabina Itlragona, x. 01. 

Sabina Virjiniana, x. 03. 

Sabine, Joseph, xi. 07. 

Sabinea, xi. 07. 

Saoidium Symplooi, ri. 14. 

Saok-bearer, Larch, xii, 6, 

Sadler, John, viil, 62, 

SauCACEiK, ix. 95, 

Saliolne, ix, 100, 

Salix, ix. 96. 

Salix ^gypHaea, ix. 06. 

Sollx Alaxenais, xir. 05. 

Salix alba, ix. 08. 

Salix alba, oconomio properties of, ix. 98. 

Salix alba in the United States, ix. 08. 

Salix alba, $, ix. 98. 

Salix alba, B viltllina, ix. 08. 

Salix alba, y, ix. 98. 

Salix alba, aubapeo. Pavuachiana, ix. 97. 

Salix alba, var. ccerulea, Ix. 96. 

Salix alba x lucida, ix. 97. 

7 Salix amblgua, ix. 103. 

Salix ampUxicaulis, ix. 100. . 

Salix amplifolia, xir. 67. 

Salix aniygdaloidea, ix. 111. 

Sollx, androgynoua amenta of, ix. OS. 

Salix angmlala, ix. 136. 

Salix anguslata crassa, ix. 136. 

Salix argula, Ix. 116. 

Salix arguta lasiandra, ix. 115. 

Salix argyrocarpa x pbylicifolia, ix. 97. 

Salix argyrophyUa, ix. 124. 

Salix amtralis, ix. 08. 

Salix Amiriaca, ix. 100. 

Salix balsamlfera, xir. 6i. 

Salix balsamlfera alpestria, xiv. 63. 

Salix balaamifera lanceolata, xir. 03. 

Salix balsamlfera typica, xiv. 63. 

Salix balaamifera rcgeta, xir. 63. 

Salix liaumgarteniana, ix. 100. 

Salix Bebbiaua, U. 131 ; xi- 104. 

Salix bifurcala, ix. 100. 

Salix Bigelorii, ix. 130. 

Salix Bigelovii, a lali/olia, ix. 139. 

Salix Bigelovii, b angusti/olia, ix. 139. 

Salix Bigelorii, rar. fmcior, ix. 139. 

Salix bigemmis, ix. 99. 

Salix Donplandiana, ix. 110. 

Salix Bonplandiana, f> /Hillida, ix. 119. 

Salix Bonplandiana, aubapec. pallida, ix. 119. 

Salix brachystachys, ix. 142. 

Salix brachystachys, $ Scouleriana crassijtilis, 

ix. 142. 
Salix brachystachys, aubspec. Scouleriana, Ix. 

Salix brachystachys, subspec. Scouleriana 

tenuijulis, Ix. 142. 
Salix Cautonienala, ix. 08. 
Salix Cajiensis, Ix. 98. 
Salix capreoides, ix. 142. 
Satix Carniolica, Ix. 100. 
Salix Cnroliniana, ix. 103. 
Satiz cinerea, ix. 99. 
Salij coerulea, ix. 98. 
Salix conrnlor, ix. 100. 
Salix cordata, Ix. 135. 

Satii cordata, B anguslata, 1° discolor, ix. 107. 
Salix cordata, y Mackcnzieina, Ix. 135. 
Salix cordata, auljapec. angustata, Ix. 1.16. 
.SVi/i> curdata, aubapec. angustata discolor, Ix. 

Salix cordata, subspec. angvslata viridula, ix. 

Salix cordata, subspec. angmtata vitellina, ix. 




Sola cordala, inbtpM. Maeimxieana, 'a. 136. 
Salix cordala, aubipeo. rigida,"a. 136. 
Saiix cordala, >ubsp«a. rifida, % tal\folia, ix. 

Salix cordala, subapco, rigida, b angutli/olia, 

U. 136. 
Salix coril"'!, sub«p«c. rigida, d vtttila, a. 

Salix cordala. Tar. haUamifera, liT. 63. 

Salix cordala, var. lulea, ix. 136. 

Salii cordata, var. Maokenzieana, ix. 136. 

Salix cordala, var. myricoida, ix. 07. 

Salix eordata, rar. rigida, ix. 136. 

5a/iz cordala, var. vatila, ix. 136, 137. 

Salix eordata X Candida, ix. 07. 

Salix eordata X incana, ix. 07. 

Salix eordata X petiolaria, ix. 07. 

Salix cordala X rotlrala, 136. 

Salix eordata X Kricea, ix. 97. 

Salix cordala X va^ru, ix. 136. 

Saiix Coulleri, ix. 149. 

S<Uix cratta, ix. 134. 

Salix cuntala, ix. 140. 

Salix daphnoides, ix. 00. 

Salix daphnoidea, economio prop«rtiea of, ix. 

Salix decipietu, ix, 00. 
Salix discolor, ix. 133. 
Salix discolor, ix. 100. 
Salix discolor, iubip«e. eriocephala, ix. 134. 
Salix discolor, aubapec. eriocephala var. parvi- 

flora, ix. 134. 
Salix discolor, aubapec. eriocephala, var. 

ru/escens, ix. 134. 
Salix discolor, aubapec. prinoides, ix. 134. 
Salix diaeolor, var. eriocephala, ix. 134. 
Salix discolor, var. prinoidea, ix. 134. 
Salix, economic propertiea of, ix. 100. 
5a/tx Elbrtuensis, ix. 100. 
Salic eriocephala, ix. 134. 
Salix exceUa, ix. 99. 
Salix exigua, ix. 124. 
Salix falcala, ix. 07, 104. 
Salix Fendleriana, ix. 116. 
Salix Jissa, ix. 99. 
Salix flavetceru, ix. 141, 142. 
Salix ftavescens, var. capreoides, ix. 142. 
Salix flavescetu, var. Scouleriana, ix. 142. 
Salix Jtavo-cireru, ix. 103. 
Salix flexibilis, ix. 08. 
Salix fluTiatilia, ix. 123. 
Snlix Huviatilis, var. argyrophylla, ix. 124. 
Salix lluviatilia, var. eiigua, ix. 124. 
Salix Forhyana, ix. 09. 
Salix fragilior, ix. 99. 
Salix fragilia, ix. 99. 

Salix fmgilis in the United Statea, ix. 09. 
Salix fragilUma, ix. 99. 
Salix, 'ungal diseases of, ix. 101. 
Salit Gariepina, ix. 08. 
Salix Omelini, ix. 99. 
Salix Helix, ix. 99. 
Salix helerophylla, ix. 98. 
Salix lliitdtiana, ix. 127. 
Saiix llindsiann Irnui/olia, ix. 127. 
Salix hippophai folia, ix. 100. 
Salix hirsuUt, ix. 08. 
Salix lloffmanniana, ix. 115. 
Salix llookerinna, ix. 147. 
Salix Ilottstnnidtut, ix. 103. 
Salix llumboldtiana, ix. 97. 
Salix Humbotdliaiia, sulispcc. /a/oom, ix. 98. 
Salix Huml/oldliana, subspec. Marliana, ix. 


Salix Humboldtiana, lubapeo. oxyphylla, ix. 

Salix, bjtbrida of, ix. 07. 
Salix, insect enemies of, ix. 100. 
Salix Kochiana, ix. 100, 
Salix Invigata, ix. 113. 
Salix Invigata, var. aoguatifolia, ix. 113. 
Salix Invigata, var. congeata, ix. 113. 
Salix Lambertiana, ix. 09. 
Salix lanci/olia, ix. 116. 
Salix laaiaadra, ix. 116. 
Salix laaiandra, var. caudata, ix. 116. 
Saiix latiandra, var. Fendleriana, ix. 116. 
Salix latiandra, var. lanci/olia, ix. 116. 
Salix laaiandra, var. Ljrallii, ix. 116. 
Salix tasiandra, var. lypica, ix. 116. 
Salix lasiolepia, ix. 139. 
Salix lasiolepit, var. Bigelovii, ix. 139, 140. 
Salix lasiolepis, var. (7)/aiiax, ix. 130, 140. 
Salix Ledebouriana, ix. 100. 
Salix liguslrina, ix. 103. 
Salit long'ifolia, ix. 90, 123. 
Salix longi/olia anguslistima, ix. 124. 
Salix longi/olia argyrophylla, ix. 124. 
Salix longi/olia opaca, ix. 124. 
Salix longi/olia pedicellata, ix. 123. 
Salix longi/olia, var. exigua, ix. 124. 
Salix longipes, ix. 109. 
t Salix longipes pubescent, ix. 103. 
Salix longiatylis, xiv. 06. 
Salix lucida, ix. 121. 

Salix lucida angusli/olia laaiandra, ix. 116. 
Salix lucida lali/oiia, ix. 121. 
Saiix lucida ovali/olia, ix. 121. 
Salix lucida pilosa, ix. 121. 
Salix lucida rigida, ix. 121. 
Saiix lucida tenuis, ix. 121. 
Salix lucida, aubapec. macrophylla, ix. 116. 
Salix lucida, var. angusli/olia, forma pilosa, 

ix. 121. 
Salix lutea, ix. 136. 
Salix Madagaseaiieusia, ix. 98. 
Salix Magellanica, ix. 97. 
Saiix Marliana, ix. 07. 
Salix, medical properties of, ix. 160. 
Salix membranacea, ix. 00. 
Salix microphylla, ix. 129. 
Salix mirabilis, ix 100. 
Salix Missouriensis, ix, 137 ; xiv. 104. 
Salix mollissima, ix. 09. 
Salix inotiadelpha, ix. 100. 
Salix monandra, ix. 99. 
Salix Monspeliensis, ix. 99. 
Salix mucronata, ix. 98. 
Salix myricoides, ix. 97, 136. 
Salix myricoides, a cordala, ix. 136. 
Salix myricoides, b rigida, ix. 136. 
Saiir myricoides, c an^iuiaia, ix. 136. 
Salix Nerademia, ix. 123. 
Salix nigra, ix. 103. ^ 

Saiix nigra amygdaloides, ix. 111. 
Salix nigra cenulosa, ix. 109. 
Srtiir nigra, a angtisti/olia, & longi/olia, ix. 

Salix nigra, b lati/olia, a brevijulis, ix. 103. 
Salix nigra, b lali/olia, longijulis, ix. 103. 
Salix nigra, h lati/olia, y brevi/ulia, ix. 103. 
Salix nigra, b lali/olia, y breci/olia testacea, 

ix. 103. 
Salii nigra, ff lali/olia, ix. 103. 
Salir nigra, subspec. longipes, ix. 109. 
? Salix nigra, subspec. longipes oougylocarpa, 

ix. 103. 
Saiix nfi^ro, subspec. longipes venutosa, ix. 100. 

Saiix nigra, anbapeo. marginala, ix. 103. 

Salix nigra, aubapec. Wrightii, ix. 109. 

Saliz nigra, var. faloato, ix. 104. 

Saiix nigra, var. Wardi, ix. 107. 

Salix nigra x alba, ix. 07. 

Salix nigra X amygdaloidea, ix. 07. 

Salix Nuttallii, ix. 141. 

Salix Nuttallii, var. bracbjatacbya, ix. 142. 

Salix Nultallii, var. capreoides, ix. 142. 

Salix oceidentalia, ix. 109. 

Salix oceidentalia, var. longipes, ix. 100. 

Salix olivacea, ix. 00. 

Salix oppotili/olia, ix. 100. 

Saiix oxyphylla, ix. 97. 

Salix pallida, ix. 98, 100, 110. 

Salix pendulina, ix. 100. 

Salix pentandra, (?) ix. 103. 

Salix pentandra, g caudata, ix. 116. 

Salix persici/otia, ix. 99. 

Salix petiolaris X Candida, ix. 97. 

Salix Piperi, ix. 146. 

Saiix Pomeranica, ix. 00. 

Salix Pontederana, ix. 100. 

Salit prcecox, ix. 00. 

Salix pratensis, ix. 99. 

Salix prinoides, ix. 134. 

Salix purpurea, ix. 99. 

Salix purpurea, n Lamberliana, ix. 100. 

Salix Purshiana, ix. 104. 

Salix pyri/olia, xiv. 63. 

Sulix Reuleri, ix. 09. 

Salit rigida, ix. 136. 

Salix rosea, ix. 100. 

Salix roslrata, ix. 131. 

Salix rubra, ix. 00, 123. 

Salix Russelliana, ix. 99. 

Salix Scouleriana, ix. 142, 140. 

Salit sensitiva, ix. 133. 

Salix serotina, ix. 99. 

Salix sessilifolia, ix. 127. 

Salix sessili/olia Hindsiana, ix. 127. 

Salix sessili/olia, 8 villosa, ix. 127. 

Salix Sitcbeuis, ix. 149 ; xiv. 105. 

Salit Sitchensis congesta, ix. 140. 

Salix Sitchensis denudala, ix. 140. 

Saiix speciosa, ix. 116 ; xiv. 65. 

Saiix speciosa, B Alaxemit, xiv. 66. 

Saiix splendent, ix. 98. 

Salix toxifolia, ix. 129. 

Saiix laii/olia, var. a sericocarpa, ix. 129. 

Salix taxi/olia, var. leiocarpa, ix. 129. 

Salix tenuijulis, ix. 100. 

Salit Torreyana, ix. 136. 

Salix vagant, b occidenlalis, ix. 131. 

Saiix vagans, roslrata, ix. 131, 

Salix vagans, subspec. roslrata, ix. 131. 

Salix viminalis, ix. 99. 

Salit I'irescena, ix. 90. 

f Sniir virgata, ix. 103. 

Salix vilellina, ix. 98. 

Salix Wardi, ix. 107 i xiv. 104. 

Saiix Wargiana, ix. 99. 

Salix Wininicriana, ix. 100. 

Saiix M^oolgnriana, ix. 100. 

Salix Wriyhtii, ix. 109. 

Samarpses, vi. 25. 

Samarpses triptera, vi. 55. 

Sambucus, v. 85. 

Sambucus adnata, v. 86. 

f Sambucus australis, v. 80. 

Sambucus bipinnata, v. 80. 

.Sambiu'tis bipinnata, v. 89. 

Sambucus Cali/ornica, v. 91. 

.' Sambucus callicarpa, v. 91. 



Sambuotti CuuuIeiMU, r. 88. 

Sambucni Canadeniit, var. Mczioant, t. 88. 

Samtnicm ctrulta, v. 91, 92. 

Sambucut CMnftuu, t. 86. 

Sambuoui Kbuliu, t. 86. 

Sambucui, fuogul enemies of, T. 86. 

Samhucui Gaudicltaudiana, t. 86. 

Sambucui glauoA, t. 91 ; xiv. 101. 

Sambuaa gluuca, t. 88, 89. 

Samhuau grartolcm, t. 86. 

Samhucus Aiimi/u, v. 89. 

Sarobttcui Javanica, t. 86. 

Sanibucui Madeirentia, r. 86. 

Sambuait Mexicana, t. 88, 91. 

SambucuB nigra, t. 86. 

Snmbuciu nigra, v. 85, 89. 

Sainbuciu Palmensia, t. 86. 

Sambiiciu Peruviana, v. 86. 

Sambueut pubent, t. 86. 

Samhucus pubent, var. arborfjcent, v. 85. 

Sambuatt pubetcens, v. 85. 

Sambuciia racemosa, t. 85. 

Sambticw rrpmt, v. 89. 

Sambucut Thunhergiana, t. 86. 

Sambttcut vehtina, v. 88. 

Sambucut rulgarit, v. 86. 

Sambucut WiUiamtii, r. 85. 

Sambuous xantbooarpa, t. 86. 

Sand Jack, riii. 172. 

Sand Fine, li. 127. 

Sand-bar Willow, u. 123. 

Sandhill Haw, xiii. 161. 

Saperda bivittata, it. 70. 

Saperda calcarata, ix. 155. 

Saperda discoidea, vii. 133. 

Sa)n'n)a tridentata, vii. 41. 

Sa[H'rda veatita, i. 60. 

Sapindacex, ii. 61 ; xiii. 3. 

Sapindua, ii. 67. 

Sapindut acuminatut, ii. 71 ; xiii. 5, 6. 

Sapindua Drummondi, xiii. 5. 

Sapindut Drummondi, iL 71. 

Sapindut falcatui, ii. 71 ; xii. 6. 

Sapindut lucidut, ii 76. 

Sapindut Manatentit, ii. 71 ; xiii. 6. 

Sapindua marginatua, ii. 71 ; xiii. 5. 

Sapindut marginatut, xiii. 6. 

Sapindua Mukorosai, ii. 68. 

Sapindua Saponaria, ii. 69. 

Sapindut Saponaria, ii. 71 ; xiii. 5, 6, 

Sapindua Saponaria, deteraive propertiM of, 

ii. 68. 
Sapindua trifoliatua, ii. 68. 
Sakjtace*:, t. 159. 
Sapota rottata, t. 163. 
Sapola Miillrri, v. 182. 
Sapota nigra, vi. 3. 
Sarrofriphatut, ii. 31. 
Siirrnmphaittt CaroUnianut, ii. 35. 
SarroTucca, x. 3. 
Sargenlia Aricticca, l. ."Vl. 
.'^argent's Hemlock, xii. 66. 
Sariava, vi. 13. 
.■^aflaafraa, vii. 13, 17. 
Sas>n/rat albidum, vii. 17. 
.SatMafraa, fungal diaeaaea of, vii. 15. 
Saflftafra», inacct cneiiiiea uf, vii. 1.^. 
.Saa^afraa, medical propertiea of, vii. 14, 

Sa^tn/rat officinale, vii. 17. 
Sa^aafraa, oil of, vii. 14. 
Sasaafraa Saasafraa, vii. 17 ; xiv. 102. 
Satm/rrtt i*aritfi*tium, vii. 17. 
.Satinwood, i. 71. 

Saul'a Oak, viii. 18, 

Sariod, iii. 127. 

Savin, z. 03. 

Savin oil, x. 73. 

Sawara, z. 09. 

Saw-fljr, Laroh, xii. 5. 

SAXirRAaArit.E, iv. 133. 

Scale, Fluted, vii. 20. 

Scarlet Haw, iv. 06, 90 ; xiu. 61, 03, 103, 109, 

139, 143, 147. 
Scarlet Maple, ii. 107. 
Scarlet Oak, viii. 133. 
Sctura, vi. 106. 
Sceura marina, ri. 106. 
SobaelTer, Jakob Cbriatiaa, ii. IS. 
SchieSeria, ii. 15. 
Scbafferia buxi/olia, ii. 17. 
Schafferia completa, ii. l7. 
Schnfferia ouneata, ii. '6. 
Schafferia fruteacena, ii. 17. 
Schitfferia laleriflon, vii. 27. 
Schinut Fagara, i. 73. 
Scbiioneura Americana, vii. 41. 
Scbixoneura pinioola, xi. 11. 
Scbiioneura teaaellata, ix. 70. 
SchmaUia, iii. 7. 
Sebollera, v. 116 
Schollera Ojycoccui, v. 116. 
Schott, Arthur Carl Victor, z. 18. 
5cAoua6oa commutata, v. 29. 
Sekubtrtia, x. 149. 
Scbubcrlia ditlicha, x. 151. 
Schuberda ditlichia, 0, x. 162. 
Sckuberlitt ditlicbo, y, x. 152. 
Schubcrtia tempervirent, x. 141. 
Sciadopbila, ii. 31. 
SciadophjUuni Jacquinii, i. 42. 
Sciapteron robinin, ii! 38. 
Sctrracladus, v. 167. 
Sclfrocladui lenax, v. 169. 
Scleroderria Sequoiie, i. 140. 
Sclerozut tenax, v. 100. 
Scoljrtua Fagi, vii. 64. 
Scolytus 4-apinoaua, vii. 133. 
Scoljrtua uniapinoaua, xii. 84. 
Scopeloaoma Moffatiana, v. 2. 
Scoria, vii. 131, 134. 
Scoriae apongiosa, iz. 124. 
Scotch Fir, xi. 5. 
Scotch Pine, xi. 5. 
Scouler, John, ix. 66. 
Scouleria, ix. 66. 
Screw Hcan, iii. 107. 
Screw-pod Meequite, iii. 107. 
Scrub Oak, viii. 75, 05, 123, 145, 165. 
Scrub Pine, xi. 89, 123. 
Scurfy Bark-louae, iv. 70. 
Srutia ferrea, ii. 21, 29. 
Sea (irape, vi. 115. 
Seaaide Alder, ix. 81. 
Sefiattiania lucida, vii. 30. 
Sfbeilen, vi. 07. 
Sebealma officinalis, vi. 08. 
Sehestena tcabra, vi. 71. 
Sebeatena, vi. 68. 
Seiridiuni I.iqtiidambaria, v. 9. 
S<>Inn(lria Ceraai, iv. 11. 
Selaiidria Qucrcua-alba, viii. 12. 
Sfmiilopn*, ix. 07. 
Semiothii^a binif^nata, xi. It. 
SfunelHTia, vii. 0. 
Septoria aceriiut, ii. HI, 
Septoria ceraaiiia, iv. 12. 
Septoria coruicola v. 06. 

Septoria Liquidambarii, t. 9. 

Septoria ochroleuca, ix. 10. 

Septoria Sjmploci, vi. 14. 

Septoria Tuco», x. 6. 

Septoeplueria Maclura, vii. 87. 

Sequoia, x. 139 ; xiv. 106. 

Sequoia, fungal diaeaaea of, z. 140. 

Sequoia giganlea, x. 141, 146. 

Sequoia, inacct enemies of, x. 140. 

Sequoia religiota, x. 141. 

Sequoia aempervirens, z. 141 ; ziv. 100. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia, z. 146 ; xiv. 106. 

Sequoia Wellingtonia, weeping, x. 147. 

Sequojah, x. 140. 

3erenoa, vii. 108 ; xiv. 76. 

Serenoa arboreacens, xiv. 77. 

Serenoa, fungal diseases of, xiv. 76. 

Serenoa serrulata, xi-/. 76. 

Serenoa serrulata, economic properties of, 

xiv. 76. 
Serenoa serrulata, medical properties of, xiT. 

Service Berry, iv. 127, 131. 
Sevrnteen-jear Cicada, viii. 11. 
Shad liusb, iv. 127. 
Shagbark Hicknrjr, vii. 163 ; xiv. 46. 
She Balsam, xii. 106. 
Sheepberry, v. 96. 
Shellbark, Big, vii. 167. 
Shellbark, Bottom, vii. 157. 
Shellbark Hickorj, vu. 163. 
Sherard, James, i. 77. 
Shibu, vi. 4. 

Shii-take, cultivation of, viii. 11. 
Shillinga, baj, xi. 20. 
Shiu Oak, viii. 27, 33, 75. 
Shingle Oak, viii. 176. 
Shining Willow, ix. 121. 
Sbittim-wood, ii. 38. 
Short-leaved Fine, xi. 143. 
Siberian Spruce, xii. 25. 
Sideroiylon chrysophyHoidei, v. 169. 
Sideroxylon decandrum, v. 173. 
SideroTylon Ittve, v. 173. 
Sideroxylon tanuginotum, ", ^71. 
Sideroxylon lycioides, v. 173. 
Sideroxylon reclinatum, v. 168. 
Sideroxylon satici/olium, v. 179. 
Sideroxylon tericeum, v. 169. "* 

Sideroxylon lenax, v. 169. 
t Sideroxylon lenax, v. 171. 
Sideroxylum, v. 163. 
Sideroiylum attenuatum, v. 164. 
Sideroxylum coatatum, v. 163. 
Sideroxylum dulci.lcnm, v. 164. 
Sideroxylum incmic, v. 163. 
SideroiyluDi Maatichodcndrun, v. IfiS. 
Sideroxylum Mormulana, v. 163. 
Sideroxylum pallidum, v. 106. 
Sieber, Franz Wilhehu, v. 164. 
Siliquaslrum, iii. 93, 91. 
Siliquaslrum cordalum, iii. 96. 
Silk-cultu.-e, vii. 76. 
Silk-top Palmetto, i. 51. 
Silk-worma, Oak, viii. 3. 
Silk-wonna on Toxylon, vii. 87. 
Silver Bell Tree, vi. 21, 23. 
Silver Fir, xii. 1;!9. 
.Silver Maple, ii. 103. 
Silver-tnp Palmetto, x. 53. 
Simamuba, i. 90. 
Siinaruba, i. 89. 
Simaruba nmara, i. 89. 
Siinaruba glauca, i. 89, 01. 



iSimiirtiia midmtudU, i. 01. 

Simttruba officinalii, i. 91. 

Sinuruba Tube, i, 89. 

Simarubs >enioolor, i. 80. 

SlMARUBK/G, i. 89. 

Sinoxylon basilare, vii. 133. 

Sinoiylon decline, vii. 20. 

Siphoneugena. v. 39. 

8iphonophora liriodendri, i. 18. 

Sitka Cypreu, i. 115. 

Sitka Spruce, tii. 55. 

Slaah Pine, xi. 113, 167. 

Slippery Elm, i. 47 ; vii- 63. 

Sloe, iv. 10, 27, 33 ; xiii. 21, 23. 

Sloe, Black, iv. 33. 

Small, John Kunkel, xiii. 21. 

Small-fruited Haw, ir. 106. 

Smerinthiis Juglandia, vii. 116. 

Sioilia Caitanen, ix. 10. 

Smoke-tree, iii. 2. 

Snake Sprucu, xii. 24. 

Snowdrop Tree, vi. 22, 23. 

Soapberry, ii. 69, 71 ; xiii. S. 

Soft Maple, U. 103. 

Sokolojia, ix. 95. 

Soled&J Pine, xi. 71. 

Soltnandra, v. 103. 

Solenoitigma, vii. 63. 

SoUnostigma, vii. 63. 

Solenotinus, v. 93. 

SoUttclinut, v. 93. 

Sophora, iii. 59. 

Sophora afflnis, iii. 66. 

Sophora chrysopbylla, iii. 60. 

Sopbora Europiea, iii. 60. 

Sophora glauca, iii. 60. 

Sopbora heptaphylla, iii. 60. 

Sopbora Japonica, iii. 60. 

t Sophora Kenluckea, xiv. 100. 

Sopbora aecunditlora, iii. 63. 

Sophora aecundiflora, economic uaea of, iii. 

Sophora Sin.'co, iii. 60. 
Sophora $pfcio»<i, iii. 63. 
Sopbora tetraptera, iii. 60. 
Sophora tomentosa, iii. 60. 
Sophora vetutinot iii. 60. 
Sophori, iii. 60, 
Sorbus, iv. 67 
Sorbu), iv. 67. 
Sorhua Amelanchier, iv. 125. 
Sorbus Amtricauaf iv. 79. 
Sorhus Americana, var. microcarpa, iv. 80. 
Sorbus awtiparia, iv. 69, 79, 81. 
SorbuA am'uparia, 0, xiv. 101. 
S»rb\is aucufxiria, var. A mericanOf iv. 79. 
Sorbus aucuparia, var. a, 80. 
Sorbus aucupariti, var. (8, 81. 
Sorbus microt'ttrpOt iv. 80. 
Sorbus occuleiitatis, iv. 82. 
Sorbus pumila, iv. 82. 
S trbus riparia, iv. 80. 
Sorbus sitmbucifoUa, iv. 81. 
Sorbus Sitchenm, iv. 81. 
Sorrel Tree, v. 135. 
Soulard Crab, iv. 72. 
Sour (iuni, v. 77. 
Sour Tupelo, v. 79. 
Sour WoikI, v. 135. 
SourBop, i. 27. 
Southern Pine, xi. 151. 
Soyniida febrifuga, i. 101. 
Spanish Itayunet, x. 0, 9. 
Spanish Ituckcyc, ii. 65. 

Spaniih Chutnut, ix. 9. 

S|>aniih Dagger, x. 0, 13, IS, 17, 23, 27. 

Spaniah Oak, viii, 147. 

Spaniih Oak, iiwamp, xiv. 61. 

Spaniah Stopper, v. 43. 

Spaniah Wild Cherry, iv. 64. 

Sparkleberry, v. 119. 

Sphnrolla larieiiia, xil. 6. 

Sphnrella MaolunB, vii. 87. 

8ph«<rella aabaligena, x. 38. 

Sphnrella Taxudii, x. 160. 

Spbainilla Umbellularin, vii. 20, 

Splueria Cacti, xiv, 13. 

Sphieria ooUeota, vii. 87, 

Spbioria Collinaii, iv. 126. 

Sphnria niorl)oaa, iv. 12. 

Sphieronema Robinin, iii. 38. 

Spbnronema Spina, vi. 27. 

Sphieropaia (ileditaohiie, iii. 74> 

Sph»ro{>aia raaiuillaria, iii. 74, 

Sphieropaia minima, ii. 81. 

Npbarutlieoa laneatria, viii. 13, 

Spherotbeca phytoptophylla, vii. 66, 

SpheiiocarpuSf r. 27. 

Sphinx CataliHe, vi. 84. 

Sphinx drupiferarum, iv. 11. 

Sphyrapiaua variua, ii. 109. 

Spice Tree, vii. 21. 

Spindle-tree, ii. 10, 12. 

Spiniluma, v. 163. 

Spinner, Cheatnul, ix. 9. 

Spinta Cali/omica, iv. 59. 

Spirita of turpentine, xi. 0, 

Sponioceltia, vii. 03. 

Spoon Wood, v. 140, 

Sporooybe Uobinin, iii, 38, 

Spruce beer, xii. 31. 

Spruce, Black, xii. 28. 

Spruce, Blue, xii. 47. 

Spruce, Colorado, xii. 47. 

Spruce, Uouglaa, xii. 87. 

Spruce, Kngelmaun, xii. 43. 

Spruce, European, xii. 23. 

Spruce gum, xii. 31. 

Spruce, Himalayan, xii. 22. 

Spruce, Norway, xii. 24. 

Spruce, Patton, xii. 77. 

Spruce Pine, xi. 127, 131, 140. 

Spruce, Ked, xii. XI. 

Spruce Rust, xii. 26. 

Spruce, Siberian, xii. 26. 

Spruce, Sitka, xii. 66. 

Spruce, Tidoland, xii. 56. 

Spruce, Weeping, xii. 51. 

Spruce, Whiti', xii. 37, 43. 

Spruce-bud Worm, xii. 25. 

Spruce-cone Worm, xii. 26. 

Spruces, Snake, xi;. 24. 

Slag Duab, v. W>. 

Staghorn Sumach, iii. 16. 

Star-apple, v. ItH). 

Star-leaved (luni, v. 12. 

^l itanoptycba claypuloana, ii. 53. 

Slt-ganoptycha ptnicolHua, xii. 5. 

Strgnnuptycha Uatiburgiauu, xii. 25. 

SlemmoUkiiphum, vi. 13. 

Stetim'tilifr, v. Ml). 

Stnwfulf/x Mirhrlii, v. 41. 

enosphtMiuH nutntus, vii. 133. 
Stiotis vrrsit'nlor, x, MO. 
Stink-hnut, the, vii. 10. 
Stinking Crdar, x. 57. 
Stissfria, v. IHl. 
Stone Pine, xi. 9. 

Stopper, T, 46, 47. 
Stopper, Gurgeoo, t. 43. 
Stopper, Red, v. 49. 
Stopper, Spaniah, v. 43. 
Stopper, White, v. 46. 
Storax, liquid, v. 8. 
Straaburg Turpentine, xii. 100. 
Streptotbrix atra, x. 73. 
Striped Maple, ii. 86. 
Strobua, xi. 4. 
Sirobus, xi. 1. 

Strombocarpa cineraseeni, iii. 99. 
Stnmboearpa odorala, iii. 107. 
Strombocarpa putiescens, iii. 107. 
Strong Back, vi. 77. 
Stror.g Bark, vi. 78. 
Slrongylocalyx, v. 39. 
S'.rychnodaphne, vii. 9. 
Stump growth of Pinua, xi. 4. 
Styphnolobium, iii. 59. 
Slyphnolobium affine, iii. 65. 
Styphnolobium Japonicum, iii. 60. 
Stypbonia, iii. 11. 
Styphonia, iii. 7. 

Slyphonia inlegri/olia, iii. 10, 27. 
Styphonia serrata, iii. 27. 

STYRACEJi, vi. 13. 

Styrax liquida folio miuore, T. 8. 

Suber, viii. 4. 

Sucker City Plum, iv. 24. 

Sugar Apple, i. 27. 

SugarbeTry, vii. 67, 71. 

Sugar Maple, ii. 97 ; xiii. 7. 

Sugar of Pinna Lambertiana, zi. 29. 

Sugar Pine, xi. 27. 

Sumac, iii. 11. 

Sumach, iii. 19. 

Sumach, Coral, iii. 14. 

Sumach of commerce, liL 0* 

Sumach, Poison, iii. 23. 

Sumach, Staghorn, iii, 15. 

Sumach, Venetian, iii. 2. 

Sumach-beetle, Jumping, iii. 10. 

Summer Haw, iv. 113, 114 ; xiii. 165. 

Surinam Cherry, v. 41. 

Suwarro, v. 63. 

Swamp Ash, vi. 56. 

Swamp Bay, i. 5 ; vii. 7. 

Swamp Cottonwood, ix. 163. 

Swamp Elm, vii. 45. 

Swamp Hickory, vii. 141. 

Swamp Pine, xi. 157. 

Swamp Spanish Oak, viii. 151 ; xiv. 5^ 

Swamp White Oak, viii. 47, 03. 

Swartz, Olof, v. 44. 

Swartzia, v. 44. 

Swedish Juniper, x. 78. 

Sweet Bay, i. 5. 

Sweet Birch, ix. 52. 

Sweet Buckeye, ii. 59. 

Sweet Fern, ix. 84. 

Sweet Fern, medical properties of, ix. 84. 

Sweet Gum, v. 10. 

Sweet Leaf, vi. 15. 

Sweet Locust, iii. 77. 

Sweetaop, i. 27. 

Swieten, Gerard von, i. 99. 

Swietenia, i. 99. 

Swietcnia Angolcnsia, i. 99. 

Swietenia huntilis, i. 99. 

Swietenia niocrophyUa, i. 99, 100. 

Swietenia Mahagoni, i. 99, 100. 

Sycamore, vii. 102, 103, 105, 107, 109. 

Sycidium, vii. 92. 



Sfcomorplu, vii. 01. 

Sjooiuoruf, Tii. 103. 

Syeomonu, vii. 01. 

Sycomonu anfiV/uoruffii rii. 93i 

Sytlgiium, T. 30. 

Sflvttira, a. 4. 

Sjnipluccw, TJ, 13, 

Sjfmptocott vi. 13. 

S^ploau AUlonia, ri. 14. 

SjrmplocM crmtagoidu, vi. 14. 

Hjmplocos, economic uhb of, vi. 14. 

Kf mploeos, funpil enemiea of, vi. 14. 

St/iitpioeo$ Hamiltimiana, vi. 14. 

S^mplocoi Loka, ii. 14. 

Sjmplocoa, medical propertiei of, ti. 14. 

StfmfUoris nerviwa, Ti. 14. 

Symplocoe phyllocaljx, vi. 14. 

S^mplocot potycarpa, Ti. 14. 

Sj/mptocoi propinqua, vi. 14. 

Sj-mpluGoa racomoea, vi. 14. 

Sjmplucoi apicaU, vi. 14. 

Symplocce theaformia, vi. 14. 

Sjbiplocof tinctoria, vi. IS. 

Symtdru, viii. 1. 

Sjrnandne, ix. 07. 

Sjfnarrhenat v. 181. 

Sjracbf trium Vacoinii, t. 147. 

SyiuBcia, vti. 02. 

5y:((rria, viL 01. 

Syz)ji\im, T. 30. 

Sifzygium Jambolanum, v. 41. 

Table-Mountain Pine, zL 13S> 

Tacamabac, ix. 167. 

Tacamahica, ix. 152. 

Teds, li. 4. 

Tallow, RbuB, iii. 0. 

famaUit vii. 1. 

Tamala Bttrhotiia, vii 4. 

Tamaia palmtru, vii. 7. 

Tamarack, xii. 7, 11, 15. 

Tamarack Pine, xi. 00. 

Tamarind, Wild, iii. I'JO. 

Tamarinda, Manilla, iii. 132. 

Tail Bark Oak, viu. 183. 

Tan-bark, viii. 6. 

TanUicucat v. 10. 

Taphrina c<eruleaoens, viii. 13 ; ix. 2. 

Taphrina deformana, iv. 12. 

Tkiphrina deformana, var. Wiuioeri, iv. 12. 

Taphrina Oatrjrie, ix. 32. 

Taphrina Pruni, iv. 12. 

Taphrina pttrpurascena, iii. 10. 

Taphrina rhizopbora, ix. 156. 

Tar, li. 3, 8, 0. 

Tar of Juniper, i. 72. 

Tasaajo, xiv. 17. 

Tauzin, viii. 8. 

Taxacka;, x. 55. 

Taxine, x. 03. 

Taxodium, x. 140. 

Taxoftium ascmderu, x. 152. 

Taxodium, buda of, x. 140. 

Taiodium, economic prupertiea of, x. 150. 

Taxodium diatichum, x. l.'il. 

Taxodium distichum, x. 150. 

Taxod\um dUtichum Meximnum, x. 150. 

Taxodium ditlichum perididum, z. 152. 

Taxitdittmdutirhum Smenie ftftidulum, x. 132. 

Taxwitum dUtichum, A patent, z. 151. 

Taxodium diatichum, var. im^iricariufu, x. 

Taiuiliuo), dry rot of, i. 150. 
i'aiudium, fungal diaeaaea of, x. 160. 

Taxodium giganltum, x. 1 15. 

Taxodium, inaect enemieb at', z. ISO. 

Taxodium Mezicanumt x. 1^0. 

Taxodium microphylluit:, x. i52. 

Taxodium mucronulatum, i. 150. 

Taxodium t'mptrvireru, x. 141. 

Taxodium itmptrviren^ % xii. 12^. 

Taxodium Sittenje, x. 1I52. 

Taxiidittm Sineruf, y pendulum, x. lL!s. 

Taxodium iVatkinglonianum, x. 145. 

Taxua, x. 61. 

Taxua baccaU, x. 62. 

Taxui bacrala, x. 63, 65. 

Taxua baocata ailpreaaa, x. 62. 

TaxuM baccata r.ap-aala, x. 63. 

Taxua baccata Dovaatnoii, x. 62. 

Taxua baccata, economic propcTtiea of, x. 62. 

Taxua baccata 'latigiata, x. 02. 

Taxua baccata, poiaonoua prupertiea of, x. 63. 

TVuui baccnttt, 0, x. 63. 

Taxui barcata, 8 minor, x. 03. 

Tazut haemlo, vrr Canadmsit, x. G3, 66. 

Taxus baccata, var. microcarpa, x. 62. 

Taxui baccata, var. a brtvi/olia, z. 66. 

Taxut lioursieri, z. 65. 

Taxua brevifolia, x. 05. 

Taxua Canadenaia, x. 63. 

raxui Canadenaia, x. 65. 

Taxua cuapidata, i. 62. 

Taxua, economic propertiea of, x. 63. 

Truua Hotidana, x. 67. 

Taxua, fun^l fliseaaea of, x. 63. 

Taxua globuaa, x. 63. 

T'oxui Lindleyana, z. 65. 

Torus lugubria, x. 62. 

Taxut minor, z. 63. 

Taxut montana, z. 58, 67. 

7*0X0 nuci/rra, z. 66, 62. 

T'oxui urientalit, z. 62. 

Tiuut }Htiypl(xa, X. 62. 

Taxtu tardiea, x. 63. 

Tttxuj Watlichiafia, z. 62. 

Teicboapora Opuntiie, xiv. 13. 

Telea Pulypheniua, viii. 12 ; iz. 32. 

Teleiandra, \\\. 0. 

Tetesmia, iz. 06. 

Tenorea, vii. 01. 

Tent-oater|iillar, Foteat, ix. 24. 

Teohrocadus, xiv. 0. 

Teraa baatiaiia, vii. 47. 

Tcraa variana, xii. Vi. 

Terminalia, v. 10. 

Terminalia, v. 10, 23. 

Terminalia Uelerica, v. 20. 

Terminalia Ituceras, v. 21. 

Terminalia Catappa, v. 20. 

Terminalia Chebula, v. 20. 

Tesola, iii. 40. 

Tetracheilot, iii. 115. 

Tetraneura t'lnii, vii. 41. 

Tftranthtra aihida, vii. 17. 

Tetrantkeraf Califnmica, \ii. 21. 

TetranychuB telariua, viii. 12 ; r'i. 5. 

lctraa[>ermie, iz. U). 

Thatch, xiv. 81. 

Thatch, Brittle, i. 53 ; xiv. 87. 

Theriiia fervidaria, vi. 20. 

Therurho<lion, v. 1-14. 

Thomaa, David, vii. 48, 

Thorn, Cuckspur, iv. 01 ; xiii. 30. 

Thorn, Newcastle, iv. 01. 

Tlioru, Wajthiiijfton, iv. 107. 

Thorn, While, iv. 05. 

Threo-tborned Acacia, iii. 75. 

Thrinax, z. 40 ; zir. 70. 

rArinoi, xiv. 86. 

TAn'nax argmtea, z. 63 ; xiv. SB. 87. 

Thrinax argmtta, var. Oarberi, xiv. 88. 

lliriuax, economic propertiai of, z. 60, 

Thrinax excelaa, xiv. TJ. 

Thrinax exctUa, xiv. 81. 

Tlirirax Floridaua, xiv. 81. 

Thrinax Uarbe.n, i. 50. 

Thrinax Garberi, xiv. 83. 

Thrinax Keyenaia, xiv. 83, 

Thrinax microcarpa, x. 63 ; xiv. 80. 

Thrinax parviflora, x. 61 ; xiv. 79. 

Thrinax parviftora, xiv. 81, 87. 

T'Annox radiata, xiv. 85. 

Thuia, X. 125. 

Thuiacarpui, x 60. 

ThuicKorpui Juniperinus, x. 76* 

Thuioptit borealii, x. 116. 

Thuja, z. 126. 

Thujin, i'. 124. 

Thu/optit, X. 07. 

ThujopsiM horealit, x. 110. 

Thujoptia t Standithii, x. 124. 

Thujoptit Tehugaltkoy, x. 116. 

Thujopiit Tchugatikoya, z, 110. 

Thurber, George, iii. 30. 

Thurberia, iii. 30. 

Thuya, X. 123. 

Thuya, X. 07, 1.13. 

Thuya acuta, x. 124. 

Thuya . idina, x. 134. 

Thui,- ChUentii, x. 134. 

Thuya Craigana, z. 136. 

Thiiya decora, x. 124. 

Thuyu Doniana, x. 134. 

Thuya, economic uaea of, x, 124. 

Thuya excelta, x. 115. 

Thuya fli/ormit, x. 124. 

Thuya, fungal diaeaaea of, i. 124. 

Tliuya gigantea, x. 120 ; xiv. 105. 

Thuya gigantea. x. 124, 135, 136. 

Thuya gigantea, var. Japonica, x. 124, 

Thuya, iuacct cnemioa of, x. 124. 

Thuya Japonica, x. 124. 

ThUf'a Lobbiana, x. 130. 

Thuya Lobbii, x. 130. 

Thuya Atemiesii, x. 120. 

Thuya obluaa, x. 08, 120. 

Thuya occi lentalia, x. 120 ; xiv. lOS. 

Thuya odorata, x. 126. 

Thuya orientalia, x, 124. 

Thuya orientalia, var. g penduU, z. 124. 

Thuya penduta, x. 124. 

Thuya pisi/era, x. 08. 

Thuya pisifera, var. flifera, x. 00. 

Thuya pisifera, var. S'luarrusa, x. 00. 

Tliuya plicata, xiv. 105. 

Thuya plirata, z. 120, 130 ; xiv. 106. 

Thuya procera, z. 126. 

Thuya tphttroidalit, x. Ill, 

Thuya sphteroidea, x. 111. 

Thuya Ktandiahii, x. 124. 

Thuya Ittragnna, x. 134. 

Thuyopsis, x. 08. 

Thyn, X. 125. 

Thyridupteryz ppbemeneformif, x. 73, 124. 

Thyrsusma, v. 03. 

Tidclaud .Spruce, xii. 55. 

Tilia, i. 40. 

Tilin alba, i. 50, 67. 

Tilia Americana, i. 52. 

Tdia .imericana, i. 55. 

Tilia AmcricauA Multke, i. 53. 



TUia Amtricona, var. htttrophylla, i. 67. 

TUia Americana, var. puheicetu, i. 60, 

TUia Americana, var. WaUeri, i. 66. 

Tilia argentea, i. 50. 

TUia Canaderuit, i. 62. 

TUia Caroliniana, i. 63. 

Tilia daayitfla, i. 60. 

TUia euchlora, i. 60. 

TUia glabra, i. 62. 

riVid grata, i. 66. 

Tilia beterophjila, i. 60, 67 ; xir. 07. 

TiJia helerophylla-nigra, i. 67. 

T'l/io heleropkyUa, var. a{6a, i. S7. 

Tilia hybrida lupcrba, i. 63. 

TUia lalifolia, i. 62. 

TUia laz\ftora, i. 65. 

Tilia Malmgrxoi, i. 49. 

Tilia Me .ioana, i. 40. 

Tilia neglecta, i. 62. 

TUia nigra, i. 52. 

TUia parvifolia, i. 60. 

TUia paucifolia, i. 60. 

Tilia petiolaria, i. 60. 

Tilia platyphjilos, i. 60. 

Tilia pubescena, i. 66. 

TUia pubescent, i. 62. 

Tilia pubcBoeiu, var. leptopbjlla, i, 86. 

TUia tlenopelala, i. 62. 

Tilia Iruncata, i. 66. 

Tilia ulmifolia, i. 60. 

Tilia Tulgaria, i. 60, 

TIUACE.K, i. 49. 

Tijiuroya, vi. 109. 

Tingi* Jiiglandii, ni. 116, 

Tiuus, T. 93. 

Tinut, T. 93. 

Titi, ii. 7. 

Tobinia, i. 66. 

Tollon, iv. 123. 

Tomioui cacograpbua, xi. 11, 

Tomiciis calligrsphus, zi. II. 

Tomious Pini, li. 11 ; zii. 26. 

Tootbaobe-tree, i. 07. 

Torob-wood, i. 86. 

Torminalis, iv. 67. 

Torminaria, iv. 67. 

Tornillo, iii. 108. 

Tomj, Jobn, zi. 72. 

Tomya, z. 67. 

Torreya, i. 55. 

Torreya Cali/omica, z. 69. 

Torreya (7) grandia, z. 56. 

Torreya Myriitica, z. 69. 

Torreya nueifera, z. 66. 

Torreya laxi/olia, x. 67. 

Torrubia, vi. 109. 

Tortriz fumiferana, zii. 25, 

Tortriz politana, zi. 11. 

Tortriz queroifoliana, viii. 12. 

Tortwortb Chestnut-tree, iz. 8. 

Touniey, Jamea William, viii. 93. 

Tozicodendron, iii. 11. 

Toxico<iendrof^ pinnatum, iii. 23. 

Toxicodendron lyphinum, ziv. 99. 

Tozyloii, vii. 85. 

Toxylon aurantiaatm, vii. 89. 

Tnzylon, economic uaea of, vii. 88. 

Tozylon, fungal diaeaseB of, vii. 87. 

Tozylon, insect enemies of, vii. 87. 

Tozylon Madura, vii. 80. 

Tozylon poTniferum, vii. 80. 

Toyon, iv. 123. 

Tradescant, ,Tohn, i. 20. 

Tragia Aloi, iz. 70. 

Tragia oriipa, iz. 70. 

Trametea Pini, zi. 11, 

Trametea auaveolena, iz, 101, 

Tranaparent Plum, ir. 26. 

Traik, Lualla Blanche, ziii. 29. 

Tr^ul, Auguate Adolph Lucien, x. 10. 

Tree, Lacquer, iii. 8. 

Trembling Poplar, iz. 166. 

Tremez Columba, vii. 133 ; iz. 24. 

Tremolit, vii. 01. 

Tremula, iz, 151. 

Trichoearpu), iv. 7. 

Trichopodium, iii. 33. 

Trichoaphieria paraaitioa, zii. 101. 

TrUopiu, V, 1. 

Triloput denlala, v. 3. 

Trilopm etlivaliM, y. 3. 

Triloput nigra, v. 3. 

Trilopu* parvifolia, v. 3. 

Triloput rolundi/olia, v. 3. 

Triloput Virginica, v. 3. 

Trimmatoatroma Amerioanum, iz. 101. 

Trimmatoatroma Salioia, iz. 101. 

Tripelaleia, ziv. 29. 

Tripelelut, v. 85. 

Tripelelut Autlralatimt, j. 86. 

Trilkrinax, z. 38. 

Tauga, zii. 69. 

Ttuga, zii. 83. 

Ttvga Ajanmiit, zii. 21. 

Ttuga Albertiana, zii. 73. 

Tauga Anragi, zii. 60. 

Tauga Araragi, var. nana, zii. 60. 

Ttuga Brunoniana, zii. 61. 

Tauga Canadenaia, zii. 63 ; zir, 106, 

Tauga Caroliniana, zii. 69. 

Tauga diveraifolia, zii. 60. 

7>u^ Douglatii, zii. 87. 

Ttuga Douglatii brevibracteata, zii. 87. 

Ttuga Douglatii fattigiala, zii. 87. 

Ttuga Douglatii, var. taxifolia, zii. 87. 

Tauga dnmoaa, zii. 60. 

Tsuga, economic propertiea of, zii. 61. 

Tsuga, fungal diaeaaea of, zii. 61. 

Tsuga heteropbylla, zii. 73. 

7<u^ Hookeriana, zii. 77. 

Tauga, inaeot enemies of, zii. 61. 

Ttuga Lindleyana, zii. 87. 

T'lu^a macroearpa, zii. 93. 

Tauga Mertenaiana, zii. 77 ; ziv. 106. 

7<u;a Merleniiana, zii. 73. 

Ttuga Pattoniana, zii. 77. 

Tsuga Pattoniana, var. Hooieriana, zii. 77. 

7tu^ (Pteudnltuga) Japonica, zii. 84. 

Ttuga Roezlii, zii. 77. 

Ttuga Sieboldii, zii. 60. 

Ttuga Sieboldii, B nana, zii. 60. 

Ttuga SUchentit, zii. 56. 

Ttuga taxi/olia, zii. 88. 

Ttuga Ttuja, zii. 60. 

Tsusia, V. 144. 

Tuber brumale, viii. 7. 

Tuber melanoaporum, viii. 7. 

Tubopadut, iv. 7. 

Tule, Cypress of, z. 160. 

Tulipattrum Americanum, i. 7. 

Tulipattrum Americanum, var. lubcordatum, 

i. 8. 
Tulipi/era, i. 17. 
Tulipi/era Liriodendron, ziv. 97. 
Tulip-tree, i. 19. 
Tulip-tree, Chineae, i. 17. 
Tumion, z. 68. 
Tumiou Californicum, z. 69. 

Tumion Californicum, var. littoralt, z. 60. 

Tumion, econ. nic propertiea of, z. 66. 

Tumion grande, z. 66. 

Tumion nuciferum, z. 66. 

Tumion tazifolium, x. 67. 

Tupelo, V. 76. 

Tupelo, V. 73. 

Tupelo Gum, v. 83. 

Tupelo, Sour, v. 79. 

Turkey Oak, viii. 143. 

Turpentine from Pinus echinata, zi. 146. 

Turpentine from Pinua palustris, zi. 154. 

Turpentine from Pinus Rozburgbii, zi. 9, 

Turpentine, oil of, zi. 3, 8, 9. 

Turpentine, spirita of, zi. 9. 

Turpentine, Strasburg, zii. 100. 

Turpentine, Venice, zii. 4. 

Turpinia, iii. 7. 

Tnaaock Moth, iz. 10, 101, 166. 

Tuasock Motb, White-apotted, vii. 41. 

Ulhacea, vii. 39 i ziv. 41. 

Ulmua, vii. 30. 

Ulmna alata, vii. 61. 

Ulmui alba, vii. 43. 

Ulmua Americana, vii. 43. 

Ulmut Americana, vii. 47. 

Ulmut Americana, a glabra, vii. 43. 

Ulmut Americana, a rubra, vii. 53. 

Ulmut Americana, $ alba, vii. 43. 

Ulmut Americana, $ icabra, vii. 43. 

Ulmut Americana, y alala, vii. 61. 

Ulmut Americana, y t Bartramii, vii. 43. 

Ulmut Americana, ypendula, vii. 43. 

Ulmut Americana, var. 7 atpera, vii. 43. 

Ulmut aquatica, vii. 61. 

Ulmua campeatria, vii. 40 ; ziv. 102. 

Ulmut campettris, vii. 40, 41. 

Ulmut campettrit Chinentit, vii. 41. 

Ulmut campettrit parvifolia, vii. 41. 

Ulmut Chinentit, vii. 41. 

Ulmut ciliata, vii. 41. 

Ulmas crassifolia, vii. 67. 

t Ulmut critpa, vii. 63. 

.' Ulmut denlata, vii. 43. 

t Ulmut dimidiata, vii. 51. 

Ulmua, economic uaea of, vii. 41. 

Ulmut effuta, vii. 41. 

Ulmut excelta, vii. 40. 

Ulmut Floridana, vii. 43. 

Ulmut foliacea, vii. 40. 

Ulmua fulva, vii. 63 ; xiv. 103. 

Ulmua fulva, medical properties of, vii. 

Ulmua, fungal diaeaaea of, vii. 42. 
Ulmua glabra, ziv. 102. 
Ulmut glabra, vii. 40. 
Ulmut Hollandica, vii. 40. 
Ulmut Hookeriana, vii. 40. 
Ulmua, insect enemies of, vii. 41. 
Ulmua Uevis, vii. 40, 41 ; ziv. 102. 
Ulmus lancifolia, vii. 40. 
Ulmut latifolia, ziv. 102. 
f Ulmut longifolia, vii. 51. 
Ulmus Mezicana, vii. 40. 
Ulmut mollifolia, vii. 43. 
Ulmut monlana, vii. 40. 
Ulmut nitent, xiv. 102. 
Ulmut nuda, vii. 40. 
t Ulmua obovala, vii. 43. 
Ulmut octandra, vii. 41. 
Ulmut opaca, vii. 57. 
Ulmus parviHora, vii. 41. 
Ulmua pedunculata, vii. 40. 




I'i I 

UImm pendula, TJi. 43. 

t Ulmta pmpuit, vii. 53. 

f I'lmut pulittctfit 7, fiS. 

Uimiu pumila, rii. SI, 

Ulmut rsMmou, tU. 47 ; xir. 4V 109. 

V!mu$ rubra, vii. B3. 

Ulmut saiim, vii. 40. 

Ulmui Mabn, rii. 40, 41 ; iit. 102. 

Ulmi-i Kibra, W' iiwinliiU, vii, 40. 

L'lniu> MrotiDK, xiv. 41, 102. 

Ulmut tubrrota, vii. 40. 

Ulmut turcutota, xiv. lOii. 

Vtmut ie'randra, vii. 40. 

L'liuiii T^oinll•i, xiv. 102. 

f L'lmut tomentosa, vii. 43. 

Ulmut virMla, vii. 41. 

Ulmut vuifjarit, vii, 40. 

Vltiius Wallichiana, vii. 41. 

Ulubelluliiri*, vii. 19. 

Cmbclliilarik Californios, vii. 21. 

L'mbelliilari*, fungitl diuaict of, vii. 20. 

Umb«llulariii, iuaect enemiei of, vii. 20. 

UmbellulnriA, mediral properties of, vii. 20. 

Umbcllularia, oil of, vii. 20. 

Unibellulir acid, vii. 20. 

Umbo of Pinui, <i. 4. 

I'luhrpllk-tree, i. 13. 

L'lU de Gato, iii. 125. 

UncinuU Aoeria, ii. 81. 

Uncinula ^^ircinatft, ii. 81. 

I'liciniila flexuoaa, ii. M. 

UncinuU geniculata, vii, 77. 

Uncinula intermedia, vii. 42. 

Uncinula maorotpora, vii. 42. 

Uncinula polvchcta, vii, 04, 

Uncinula Salitia, ii. 101. 166. 

Untdo, V. 121. 

Unedo edulit, v. 122. 

Ungnadia, ii. 63. 

Vngnadia heptaphj/lla, ii. 65. 

Ungnadia htlerophylla, ii. 05. 

Un^adia speciota, ii. C5. 

Upata, vi. 105. 

Upata, vi. 105. 

Upland ^\nilow Oak, viii. 172. 

Urediner on Pyrus, iv. 70, 

Uredo Cilri, vii, 87, 

Uredo Querent, viii, 13. 

Umectu, ix, 95, 

Uroniyces brevipei, iii. 10. 

Uroftigma, vii, 92, 

Urottigma, vii. 01, 

UmiliiTma affint, vii, 94. 

Uroiiigma po/nJneum, vii. 97. 

Urottigma rtligumim, vii. M. 

Uiionit, ix. 95. 

Uraria, i. 21. 

Uivria Irilohr, i. 23. 

Uviffra, vi, 113, 

Uvi/tra Curtitttii, vi, 119, 

Uvifera lauri/olia, vi. 119. 

Uvi/era Ltoganmiit, vi. 115. 

Taceinium, v. 115, 
Varrinium album, v, 117, 
Vaccinium arboreum, v, 119 ; xiv, 102. 
Vaccinium conrmbosum, v, 117, 
Vactinium diffutum, v, 119. 
Ya':cin\um difomorpXum, v. 117, 
Vaccinium rlrvatum, v, 117, 
Vaccinium, fungml enemies of, v, 117, 
Varrinium hitpiaulum, v, ItO, 
Vaccinium lanctoiatum, v, 117, 
Vaccinium aacrocarpon, v, 116. 

Vaccinium mueronatwn, v. 110. 

Vaccinium Mjrrtillus, v. 110. 

Vaccinium oocidentala, v. 110. 

Vaccinium t .tum, v. 117. 

Vaccinium Oxjroocent, v, 116. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos, v. 116, 

Vaccinium Otycoccut, var, Mongifotium, v. 

Vaccimum Oxneoceut, var. ovali/oiium, v. ilO. 
Vaccinium piJieicent, v. 116. 
Vaccinium punctahtm, v. 116. 
Vaccinium Scdncnte, v. 116. 
Vaccinium stamiueum, v. 117. 
Vaccinium uliginosum, v. 110. 
Vaccinium Vilia Miea, v. 116. 
VachtUia, iii. 115. 
VacMlia Famttiana, iii. UG. 
Vahl, Martin, v. 33. 
Vablin, v. 3!), 

Vail, Anna Murray, xUi, 154. 
Valley Oak, viii. 23. 
Valonia, viii, 8. 
Valonia Oak, viii, 8. 
Valsa comtophora, iii. 38. 
Valsa Liquidambaris, v 89, 
Valsa Maclune, vii. 87. 
Valsa nivsa, ix, 1,'^, 
Valsaria Diospyri. vi, 4. 
Valsaria Kabiuin, iii. 38. 
Vanessa An'iopa, ix. 100. 
Varach r -^t. iv. 4, 
Varcnnta, JO, 
Varennea ptttyttackjfa, iii, 29. 
Van'nju. vii. 01. 
Varronia, vi. 67. 
Varrnrtia bttllata, vi. 68. 
I'drronia glohoia, vi. 68, 
Vasconccllea, xiv. 2. 
V(Uco>icellta, xiv. 1. 
VatconcelUa qurrci/olia, xir. •''. 
Vatconfellatia, xiv. 1. 
Vatc(mcello:iia hattata, civ. 3. 
Vauquelin, Louis Nico. ai, iv. 67, 
Vauquelinia, iv. 57, 
Vauquelinia Lalifomic^, iv. 60. 
Vauquelinia coryn.lxMa, ,'v. 67. 
Vautfuelinia corymbota, iv. 59, 
Vauque.inia Karwinskyi, iv, .57. 
Vauf'-Minia Ttnrryi, iv. 59. 
V,.-dAlia eardinalis, rii, 20. 
Vegetable wax, iii, 8, 
Venetian Sumach, iii, 2. 
Venice turpentine, xii. 4, 
Ventenat, F'.lenne Pierm, i. 68. 
^'snturia Orbicula, -^iii, 13, 

mturia sabalicola, x, 38, 
\ en de Coyote, xiv, 16. 
V.ralaxut, x, 61, 
Vehhenack.*:, vi. 101. 
Vemir, iii. 7. 
Vftrir, ix. 95. 
Vibwfiuia, iii. 29. 
V*ihor(juia polystachya, iii. 29* 
Viburnum, v. 93. 
Viburnum, v, 93, 
Vibun\um amhltxtft, v, 99, 
Viburnum Americanum, v, 94. 
Vilmmum edute, v, M, 
Viburnum ellipticiim, v. 94. 
IVA iium ferrugineum, xiv. 23. 
Viburnum, fungai enemies of, v. 94. 
Viburnum, tnscct uncroies of, v. 91. 
Viburnum Ijuitaiw, v. IM. 
Viburnum Lentagn, v. 96 ; xiv. 101. 

Viburnum Opnlus, v, 9t, 

Viburum Opuiut Americanum, v, 91, 

Viiurnum Opuiut edule, v, 94, 

ViWnum Opuiut Eurnpennum, r. 04, 

Vihumum Opuiut I'imina, v, 04. 

Viburnum Opui.t Piminn, rar. lubtordalum, 

V, M. 
Viburnum Oxycoccut, v. 94. 
Viburnum prunifolium, v. 99. 
Viburnum prunifolium, xiv, 23. 
Vibur urn prunifolium, ferrugineum, xiv. 23. 
Ui^mum ;injrii/(i.ium, yw. /errugineun, v, 00, 
Vibuntum pyrifolium, v, 96, 99, 
Viburnum r:iitdulum, xiv, 23, 
Vibu Mni ruftUomentotum, xiv, 23, 
Vibunium Tinus, v, 9t, 
Viburnum tomcntotum, v. 84. 
Viburnum Iritobum, v. 91. 
Vieillardia, vi. 100. 
'im«n, ix. 05. 
Viminalit, ix. 97. 
\ matico, vii. 2. 
>'ine Maple, ii. 03. 
Virrya, v. 143, 
Virgilia, iii, 67, 
Vir^ilin lutta, iii, 57, 
Virgilia irr>"\diJlora, Iii. 63. 
Vitiania, vii. 01. 
Vitii Idna, v. 116. 
Vitit Idm, V, 116. 
Vyenomut, ii, 9. 

Wadsworth Oak, the, viii. 63. 
Wafer Ash, i, 76. 
Wahoo, ii. 11, :)8 ; vii. SI. 
Wallia, vU. 113. 
Wallia cinerea, vii. 118. 
H'aWid /roriniyiWio, vii. 121. 
Il'a//ui nigra, vii. 121. 
Wallia nigra macrocarpa, vii. 12i. 
Wallia nigra microcarpa, vii. 121. 
Wallia pyriformit, \i\. 115. 
Walnut, vii. 125, 129. 
Walnut, DIack, vii. 121. 
Walnut Case-bearer, the, vii. 110. 
Walnut, Japanese, vii. 110. 
Walnuts, Engli.b, vii. 115. 
Walnuts, hybrid, vii. 114. 
Walter, 'itomaa, li, 132, 
Walteriana Carulinienais, ii. 7. 
Ward, Lester Frank, ix, 108. 
Warder, John Aston, vi. UO. 
Ware, Nathaniel A., i. 86, 
Washington Thorn, iv, 107, 
Washingtonia, x, 46, 
Watkingtonia Cali/omica, x. 146. 
W-uhingtunia 6lamentosa, x. 47. 
i» lihingtonia ^/ili/era, x. 47. 
W^ashingtonia robusta, x. 46. 
Washingtonia Sonune, x, 46. 
Watape, xii. 40. 
Water Ash, vi, 55 ; xiv. 39. 
Water Beech, vii. 103. 
Water Elm, vii, 4.3, 01, 
Water Hickory, vii, 149. 
Water Locust, iii. 79. 
Water Oak, viii, 105, 109, 181. 
Watson, Sereno, vii, 108, 
^V'ax, Chinecc white, vi, 20. 
Wax, Myrica, ix, 85. 
Wax Myrtle, ix, 87, 91, 93, 
W)ix, \egetablc, iii, 8. 
Wax-tree, cultivation of, iii. 9. 
V\yland Plum, iv, 2^1, 




in, xir. 23. 
turn, T. 96. 

Wranr ?luin, It. 16. 

Weeping Botch, ii. 24. 

Weeping Spruce, lii, 51. 

Weevil, White Pine, li. 11. 

WMingImm, x. 139. 

Wellinglonia giganlttt, t. 140. 

Weil Iniliit Birch, i. 97. 

Western Catalpa, vi. 89. 

Weymouth I'ine, xi. 21. 

White Aih, vi. 43. 

White Hekin-treo, if. 09. 

White Birch, ii. 47, US ; xir. 60. 

White BiittnnwoocI, v. 29. 

White Oedar, x. lit, 120, 120, 130. 

White CjtpreM, x. 153, 1S4. 

White Elm, vii. 43, 48. 

White Fir, xii. 117, 121, 123. 

White Heart Hickory, vii. 103. 

White Iron-wood, ii. 77. 

White Mangrove, r. 29. 

White Mulberry, vii. 70. 

White Oak, viii. 10, 23, 20, 33, 71, 87, 80. 

White Oak, Evergreen, viii. 83. 

White Oak, Sv amp, viii. 47, 03. 

White Pine, xi. 17, 23, 33, 3S, 30. 

White Pine Weevil, xi. 11. 

White Poplar, ix. 154. 

White-spotted Tuuovk Moth, vii. 41. 

White Spruce, xii. 37, 43. 

White Stopper, v. 45. 

White Thorn, iv. 95. 

White Willow, u. 139. 

White Wood, vii. 28. 

Whitewao<l, i. 37, 63. 

Wild Aih, iv. 80. 

Wild BUck Cherry, iv. 46. 

Wild Cherry, iv. 37, 41 ; xiii. 26. 

Wild China Tree, ii. 71. 

Wild Cinnamon, i. 37. 

Wild Dilly, T. 183. 

Wild Goose Plum, ir. 24. 

Wild Lime, i. 73. 

Wild Orange, iv. 49. 

Wild Plum, iv. 19, 23, 31. 

Wild Bed Cherry, iv. 36. 

Wild Tamarind, iii. 120. 

Willow, ix. 109, 119, 127, 129, 131, 136, 137, 

146, 147, 149 ; xiv. 03, 07. 
Willow, Almond, ix. 111. 
Willow, Bedford, ix. 99. 
Willow, Black, ix. 103, 107, 113, 116, 141. 
Willow, cultivation of, for baaket-makiug, 

ix. 100. 
Willow, Desert, vi. 05. 
Willow, Diamond, ix. 130. 
Willow, Keltleaf, xiv. 05. 
Willow, GInuoous, ix. 133. 
Willow Oak, viii. 179. 
Willow Oak, Upland, viii. 172. 
Willow, Peach, ix. 111. 
Willow, Sand-bar, ix. 123. 
Willow, Shining, ix. 121. 
Willow, White, ix. 139. 
Wine, Birch, ix. 47. 
Winged Elm, vii. 51. 
Winterania, i. 35. 
Winifranij Cnntlla, i. 37. 
Wislizenia, vi. 91. 

Wislizenus, Friedrioh Adolph, vi. 94. 
Witch Haxel, v. 3. 

Woodhousc, Samuel Washington, viii. 88. 
Wool, Pine, xi. 3. 
Wright, Charles, i. 94. 
Wycb Elm, vii. 40. 

Xanthopierite, i. 00. 
Xanthoxylum, i. 06 ; xiv. 97. 
Xtnthoxylum Americanum, i. 06. 
Xanthoxylum arotna/irum, i. 07. 
Xanthoxylum braohyacanthum, i. 06. 
Xanthoxylum Carihttum, i. 08, 71 ; xiv. 98. 
Xanlhaxylum Carihaum, var. Floridanum, xiv. 

Xanlhnxylum Carolinianum, i. 07. 
Xanlhoiytum Catahianum, i. 07. 
Xanthoxylum Clava-Uerculis, i. 67. 
Xanlhiaylum Clam-Ilerculu, xiv. 08. 
Xanthoxylum Olava-Heroulis, var. fruticc- 

sum, i. 08. 
Xanthoxylum cribrosum, i. 71 ; xiv. 68. 
Xanthoxylum erihrtuumf xiv. 98. 
Xanthoxylum elatum, i. 60. 
Xanthoxylum emarginatum, i. 66. 
Xanthoxylum Fagara, i. 73. 
Xanthoxylum Havum, xiv. 08. 
Xanthoxylum Florulanum, i. 71 ; xiv. 08. 
Xanthoxylum /raxini/oliumt i. 67. 
Xanthoxylum Airsufum, i, 08. 
Xauthuiylum nitidum, i. 00. 
Xanthoxylum piperitum, i. 60. 
Xanthoxylum Plernia, i. 73. 
Xanthoxylum Rhetsa, i. 74. 
Xanthoxylum Sumach^ xiv. 98. 
Xanthoxylum tricarpum, i. 67. 
Xyleboruii calatus, xii. 26. 
Xylodalea, iii. 33. 
Xylosma nitidum, vii. 27. 
Xyloterui bivittatui, xi. 11 ; xii. 26. 

Taupon, i. Ill- 
Yellow Birch, ix. 63. 
Yellow Cypress, x. 116. 
Yellow Haw, iv. 113 ; xiu. 161. 
Yellow Locust, iii. 30. 
Yellow Oak, vui. 56, 127, 130. 
Yellow Pine, xi. 76, 77, 86, 143, 156. 
Yellow Poplar, i. 10. 
Yellow Wood, iii. 67. 
Yellow-bark Oak, viU. 136. 
"ellow-wood, ii. 17. 
Yew, X. 62, 65, 07. 
Yew, Florence Court, x. 62. 
Yew, Irish, x. 62. 
Young Mastic, iii. 2. 
Yucca, X. 1. 
Yucca acuminata, x. 23. 
i'ucca agavoidea, x. 10. 
Yucca aloifolia, x. 6. 
Yucca aloifolia, var. /3 Draconis, x. 7. 
Yucca aloifolia, var. y conspioua, x. 7. 
Yucca angiutifolia, fi data, x. 27. 
Yucco anguali/olia, /3 radiosa, z, 27. 
Yucca arborescens, x. 10. 
Yucca arcuata, x. 0. 
Yucca aapera, t. 0. 
Yucca Atkinsi, x. 7. 
Yucca auatralis, x. 4, 13. 
Yucca baccata, x. 10. 
J'ucra baccata, x. 10, 15, 17. 
yucca baccata, p australis, x. 4, 13. 
yucca baccata, var. macrocarpa, x. 13. 
yucca Boerhaavii, x. 23. 
yucca brerifolia, x. 10. 
Yucca canaliculata, x. 0. 
Yucca Carrierei, x. 4. 
Yttcca concava, x. 10. 
Yucca conspicua, x. 7. 
Yucca constricta, x. 27. 
Yueca comula, x. 10. 

Yueea crmulala, z. 6. 

Yucca, dissemination of, x. 3. 

Yueca Draconia, x. 4, 7. 

Yucca Praconia, var. arboreaeeru, x. 10. 

Yuoca, economic properties of, x. 4. 

yucca >/a(a, x. 27. 

yucca EUacomhti, x. 23, 26. 

Yucca mai/olia, x. 26. 

Yuoca, fertilization of, x. 1. 

Yucca flbre, x. 4. 

Yucca fllamentoia, x. 4. 

Xucca filamtntoaa t, x. 16. 

Yucca fllifera, i. 4. 

Yucca Jili/era, x. 13. 

Yucca, fungal diseases of, x. 6. 

Yuoca, germination of, x. 3. 

yucca ijlauca, x. 26. 

Yucca gloriosa, x. 23. 

Yucca glorioaa acuminata, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, fructifloation of, x. 24. 

Yucca glorioaa glauceacena, x. 23. 

Yuciii glorioaa maculata, x. 23. 

ytuva glorioaa viarginata, x. 25. 

Yucca glorioaa medio pieta, x. 26. 

Yucca glorioaa minor, x. 23. 

yucca glorioaa mollia, x. 23. 

Yucca glorioaa noliilia, x. 23, 24. 

Yucca glorioaa nobilia parvijiora, x. 23. 

Yucca glorioaa rohuata, x. 23. 

Yucca glorioaa Iriatia, x. 23. 

Yucca glorioaa, var. Ellacombei, x. 23. 

Yucca nlorioaa, var. obliqua, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. plicata, x. 24. 

Yucca glorioaa, var. pruinoaa, x. 23. 

Yucca glorioaa, var. auperba, x. 24. 

)'ucca glorioaa, var. lortulata, x. 23. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. y recurvifolia, x. 24. 

Yucca gloriosa, var. t planifolia, x. 26. 

Yucca Guatemalensis, x. 4. 

Yucca Haruckeriana, x. 7. 

Yuoca, hybrids of, x. 4. 

Yucca, insect enemies of, x. 6. 

Yucca integerrima, x. 23. 

yucco Jammica, x. 25. 

Yucca lineata lutea, x. 7. 

Yueca longi/olia, x. 0. 

Yucca macrocarpa, x. 13. 

Yucca macrocarpa, x. 15, 17. 

Yucca Mohavensis, x. 15. 

Yucca Moth, x. 2. 

Yucca Moth, Bogus, z. 3. 

Yucca, nectar glands of, x. 3. 

Yucca, nocturnal opening of the flowors of, 

X. 2. 
Yucca obliqua, x, 23. 
yucca patma, x. 23. 
Yucca pendula, x. 24. 
Yucca pendula variegata, z. 26. 
Yucca, polliuation of, x. 2. 
Yucca polyphylla, x. 27. 
Yucca pruinoaa, x. 23. 
Yucca puberula, x. 17. 
yucca purpurea, x. 7. 
Yucca quadricolor, x. 7. 
Yucca radioaa, x. 28. 
Yueca recuna, x. 24. 
Yueca recurrifolia, x. 24. 
Yucca, redexiun of the leaves of, z. 1. 
Yueca reroluta, x. 10. 
Yucca nifocincta, x. 24. 
Yucca Schottii, x. 17. 
yucca aerrata, y argenteo-marginata, x. 7. 
y'ucca aerrata, 8 roaeo-marginata, z. 7. 
yuccu aerrulata, x. 0. 


Kimn itrTulata, n wm, i. 6. 
I'wva irrrulalo, $ roinula, i. 9. 
Kurm iu|wrAa, i. M. 
>'m<y« rmu{/u/iii, I. 0. 
I'lirt-a (iirfu/iiM, 1. 23. 
Yiioo* rrwulwuit, 1. 1), 
I'lMTri trii\)l,tr, I. 7. 
furni uiu/Wa/a, t. 10, 
YttOM VuiwUva, ■ 4. 


Zulbovlum, i. W. 

ZanUkfnu, iii. AO. 

Z4*D, tlw Alftrun, riil. tf, 

Z«IMlbi», T. 130. 

ZtnolHo, T. 129. 

ZtuMn Mouli, i, M. 

>Uuuni pjrriu, ii. M ; tU. 41 j is. la 

Zitypktu eimmutala, vli. (H. 

iTuypAui /lomuifnuu, ii. 49, 

Hui/pkm rmarjinahu, ii. Si9. 

Xufpitu igwaua, vii. 04. 
Zoiiima, T. 129. 
Zugiliu Virginint, ii. 34. 
Zw«Ut;h«n«rMMr, iv. 10. 
Z;i{i», lir. ino. 
/jrgi* brtrlfolis, lir. 100. 
Zjrgin Haiicanlu, ii«. 100. 

Zjg\» liiiriiMiti, liv. inn. 

Ztuophyllacix, i. SO. 
ZygophjiUum arbomm, i. 60.