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Full text of "Robertson's landmarks of Toronto [microform] : a collection of historical sketches of the old town of York from 1792 until 1833, and of Toronto from 1834 to 1895 : also, nearly two hundred engravings of old houses, familiar faces and historic places, with maps and schedules connected with the local history of York and Toronto"

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1 2 3 

4 5 6 

Major General John Graves Simcoe, 
First Lieut. Governor of Upper Canada. 


■J ■■■ 

- s i; 

• t 


\H-,- - 


•ffV ' " 

II •i,-j|5i.i|jp||ii I 


Aajor Gekeral Isaac Brock. 

Fkul in Action Oct 13^" 1612. 

-V-Jt.^*5i'!iSr™ I 


s'lni* - ^tr^rr 


pipp^^w^ll ip If 11,1 III 


Landmarks ofToronto 



or THE OtiI> 


From 1792 until 1833, 


Toronto Prom 1834 to 1895 


Nearly Two Hundred Engravings of Old Houses, Familiar Faces and 

Historic Places, with Maps and Schedules Connected 

with the Local History of York and Toronto. 


-•^ O" 




j Entered according to Act of the Ptirliamont of Canada in the year one thousand eightThnndrcd 
and ninety-six, by J. Uoss Robertson, at the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 







CHAPTER rxrvi. 

•I'lii' Fhr BriffHdo of Ol«l-Story of 
the Toiouto Fire C'oiiuinnics fmiii 
their boKimiiitK to tlw year 181)."» 5t>!l 

Fire* From Early Timca— A History 
of Every Fin? of any Irarorfuico 
Which ha« Hnppeiuxl in Toronto 

Siuoc itH Foundation (SI 2 


Tho Resifctiy Office— A Dcnartment 
of the Public Service which has 
bocn Moved from Place to Place 

with Rcniarkible Fre«)uem'y 072 


Jordan Port's Shop-The Old Watch- 
maker ol York ; Early Rccollec- 
tiouK of a Tall New Eniclaiidor ; 
His Shop on Duke and Kin'^ Sts, (>7M 

A Bay Shore Cottafcc— A House Oc- 
cupied by CoL H. C/offln. Capt. 
Phillpotti», Capt. Boiwiyca«tle and 
Raynifitid Baby; Sketches of the 

Men HIT'. 


The First Cab in th© City-Earlyi 
Hifltory of Public ConveyanccH 
and Sonic of Thorn Who Drove 

Them ,(«77 


The Blight House- Tho Old Homo- 
stead on Queen Street East : 
Some Reminiscences of a York 

Pioneer (>78 

CHAPTER ceil I. 

Tho Island LLghthou«o— Tho Build- 
ing on Grindstone Point. Com- 
pleted in tho voar ISOH (>S0 


T\vo Wostoru Piors—Viows of tho 
Northern Railway Pier and 
Queen's Wharf from tlio East 

and West <»S0 


The Old Pool in the Park-Au Arti- 
ficial Miniature Lake which Once 
Orna,meuted the I'nivertiity 

Grounds 1,683 


York'a Firet Ba«m.r— -A Piece of 
Music Comrosed for and Sunp; on 
that Occasion 683 


A Church Street Corner— The Build- 
in4; at tho North-west Corner of 

Church and Adelaide Streets (685 

The First York Roniment — An Or- 
Kunisation of Militia Established 
here in 17n8-ItH Officers 686 

Newmarket and Sharon— The Region 
of Upper Yonpc Street, With a 
Full Account of David Willson 
and His Sect, the Children of 
Peace 686 


Upper YonjJTo Street — The Appear- 
ance of tho Great Northern Road, 
With Sketches of Its Early In- 
habitants, from Bond's Lake to 

to the Holland Landin); 690 


The Bay to Hosr's Hollow— Spots 
of Interest on tho .lotirnoy up 
Yonpc Street, as Soon in the 

Early Days of York 700 


llojrg's Hollow to Bond's Lake— Old 
Bnildinps of Upper Yonge Street 
and Interesting Uoniiniscences of 
Its Early Inhabitants 709 

Tho Royal Canadians— Siipplement- 
nry Details -Tho (jnalificntions 
Required by f,'an<lidntes of Com- 
missions 717 


Torontf) HiKhlaiidors— The Original 
Highland Uil'lo Company — Its 

Origin and Its Officers 717 


The Old French Fort— One of tho 
Early Trading Posts— Erected 
about 1 74 0-.'»0 -Known as Foii: 
itonillo— .V Very Full Descrip- 
tion 718 


Toronto Junction Years Ago— A Spot 
that was well known away back 
in the Forties— The Western Sub- 
urb at It Was and as It Is 783 

Karly Scttiors— Early Toronto 736 

H :>*" 





The Kaiig«>rH uiid Nav.v Hall -SVhii' 

It Coat In tlif Da.VH <.f 17»2 to 

Hut the FumoiiH (iut'i'iiH Uiiiikitm 

and to Fit U|» the (lovi'i-mtrV 

Houflo '•''" 

What Slmcoo Wrote «»f Yoik-ltH 
ntnciw a« an ArHoual — 'I'ln' Pi-o- 

porsalH to Fortify tlir I'laic I'M 

Old Niagara— Tho IU'coimIh in tlif 
Archives— A Descrijition nf Fort 
Niagara in 1790 "41 

CHAPTi:ii crxx. 

A Provfwt MarHhal in 1777— Miirs 
Prentice and the .liul,<f— An 0|«l 

Uetnrn '^'^ 


Karly Printing— The (Vntenninl <f 
the Firnt NtMVH|m|)er in rjipci- 
Canada— The FirHt t»rder for 
Paper and Type 74.'< 

CHAPTER n;xxii. 

The Province'8 Great Seal— An In- 
toreuting Memo UeMiK-eling the 
Same. Dated 17!t2 '. 744 

The Queen's Uan^rerN 744 


A Nortli-We«t Corner — DnudaM 
Street Forty YearH Ago — A 
Hambic From Queen Street to 
the Old Peac'(jck Tavern— Curl- 
ing— Fort Mackinac 745 


Toronto RaceconiWK— Where Horni-H 
Ran in Day8 of Yore— Pal rtui>i 

of the Koyal SfHirt 752 


Mechanics' InstitntCH — The Growtli 
ami Fluctuation of Sentiment in 
Favour of Free Heading llooms 
for the People from ISHl to 1883 75(» 

An Early Volunteer Corps aud Ita 
I'mniediate Kut'ceBHors-ZToudltions 
of Service and Other Data— The; 
Nig'ht Guard and iU* Duties 7fi() 

The Officers of the Old Qiueen'* 
Rangers Who Settled in Toronto 

and Tiheir Descendant^ 7G1 


Tiie laland in the FortiCM— "TilwS 
Horse Boat"— Its Owner and Hiw 
History- Sports and Pastimes of 

Long Ago 702 


Lambtou and Etobicoke— Fifty Years 
Since— The Old MiIIh— Uespectinig 
the Gamble, Fi«hier aud Howhuul 

Families 7(!7 


Aq Early Industry— For Making Car- 
riages, Reaping Machines and 
Cabs 773 



Thi> Old 100th Regimeut-A Remiii- 
iKcence of the Formatiou of a 
Iteginient that Iwd at one time 
iu it many Canadian)* 774 


The Third York Militia-Tlieir llin- 
tory an<l CoLoura- Prominent ^'' :. 
Wli't Have Served as ('oninii«H!on- 
ed Offiiers Therein 778 

A FoiKotten Factory 782 

The (iueen's Own Rifles-Tlu' Rat- 
tiilion'M Story From the Date of 
itH Formation Thirty Odd Years 
Ai?o— ItM Good SiMvice on Many 
FirldH 783 

The Koyal (freiMidieri*— Tlw Regi- 
ment's HiHtory— The Formation 
of the Rattalion— The Prewenta- 
li«m of the Colours iu 18U3 801 

Ciipitulation of York— The Forces 
Engaged— Prisoners Who Were 
Takeu— Terms of Surrender— Wh«> 
Was R(>H|M)Usible ? — General 
Shcaffe's Services 807 

St. .Tames' Rectory— The Mau Who 
Ruilt It— Its Earlier Pufpose — 
Its Occupants for more than 
Forty-five Years— The late 
Dean 800 


I'rout Street of Old— The Gooder- 
ham Wharf and Mill-The Fair 
Ground— Other Notable Buildings 

-The Old Fort ;.. 812 


Canadian Lake Navigation— Au Ac- 
count of the First Vessels tluit 
Sailed oiir Inland Waters and 
of Those Who Manned Them, 

1078-1776 815 


The War of Indeneudeuce— A Gov- 
ernmental Hai ir Survey— The 
U. E. Loyaliet8-1770 to 1809... 821 

Six Eventful Years— The first Steam 
Vessels— The War of 1812 and 
the Battles on the Lakes-18()9- 
1815 834 

A New Era— Peace Reiigns in the 
Land— Me rea utile Enterprise Re- 
vives-1815 to 1819 841 

A Progreasive Enterprise— The March 
of Improvement— More Steamers 
and Moie Trade-1819 to 1837... 849 



s. / 

II of a 
110 tim«' 

I'ir lliH- 
.'lit ^'' .. 




Iw I'.al- 
Dati- of 
(I Yt'ar8 
u .Miii;.y 

*> U«Ki- 


lo Were 
f r— Wh«» 



au Wlu> 

ufpos*? — 

e than 














ey— The 

12 and 





1837... 849 






The ltob4-lliou of l^<37•3N-Rv«>lltH uu 
the Lakes— <?aptaim Drew aii(l 
Aniold— Tln> <^»pturt> of llu- Caro- 
line 807 

4'omplaiiiliiK Travellern— The 8t<'am- 
ere Great Britalu and Viftoriii — 
Captain ThoiiiaH DU-k and Mr. 

GUklHon 870 

Tbe Trade of tlic Lake Slill <'on- 
tiuueM to Expand— The Mall 

Steamers and Other Mattel^ 882 


The ttoynl Mall Line-184() to 1857- 

How the (*oin|H)ny Wiw Formed 

and Where— Notable Steamers 

and Their raptala-M— Well Ue- 

menibered OfficlalH 901 

StoruiM ami Shipwrecks- (Jreat I)c- 
vtructLou of Life and Property — 
The CommerciJil Di>itreHs in 1857 907 
Gloomy Anticipatioiifi for the Spring 
Trndi'— The Fii-st Arrival of the 

Season 918 

The Niapira Steamei . 1"i74— 78— 
An Old Institution ThientiMied— 
Formidable Oppositiou — The 

Newcomer Whim 92.'» 

Niagara Falls Line. 1883 to 1893- 
A Popular Vessel— OpiKtMitiou is 
the Soul of Trade-A Truce Ef- 
fected 930 

Hamilton Steamboat Co., 1887 to 
1898— A Modeet Reninninfi— An 
Enterprising and ProgreaHive 

Policy 9.".2 

The General History of tlio Lake 
ShippLuM: Continued— Tli« Gun- 
boats— Steamlioat Raciuit 932 

New Steamers— Captains on the Lnke 
and Others Who Wore Piominent 
in the Shipping World— Conclud- 
ing Remarks 9r.2 

Lome and Victoria Parka— 'llho 
Various Steamers on the 
Routes— Their Respective Com- 
manders. 1887-1893 9.-.8 

Toronto Ferry Co.. 1890-93- It« Rise 
aud Progref's— Its VaiU>iiH Ves- 

eelB- Qulft leefulneas 9.j8 

Hoyal Canadian Yacht Club— 1 Is Rist> 
and Progress and History from 
1860-1893 9(U) 


Canadian Pacific Hteuuu'rH— The Col- 
lingwood and Lake Supt>rior Line 

— its Immediate Siuccessor 971 

The Kochester Route-1889-1893- 
The Steamship Carmona — Iler 
Previous History— Appropriately 

Named 972 

Ihe Ottawa Steamers, 1804-1893- 
Thelr History -The Earlier Ves- 
sels—Well Known and Respected 

Officials 972 

The R. and O. Company— The Fam- 
ous Lake Company— Some Not- 
able Steamers-- A Favourite 

Route- 1857-76, 1876-93 974 

Tabula te»l Statements of Various 
VescelH, from 1078 to the Pres- 
ent Time 981 


York's Assessment Rolls— The Early 

Itolls-The Parofhiiil i)flicials- 

Who They Were an ' Where They 

Came From— Cnri ies in the 

Accounts 990 

The Town of York— Its Ris'atx^ Tro- 
grcsH— ItM Population ileturns 
from 1793 to 1834, with other 

Interesting Data 996 


The Early Seasions— The First Days 

of the Century— The Grand In- 

quest- Frivolous and Vexutious 

Charges— The Home District 

School »95) 

The Wood Correspondence— Mr, 
Wood aud the Early York Resi- 
dents— Dr. Strachan's Sayings 
aud Opinions— An "Officer and 

a Gentleman"— An Acrostic 10<)7 

A Scrap of History— The Fight at 
Beaver Dam— The Part Taken 
in it by Colonel Fitzgibbon— Mrs. 

S«'cord'8 D.ninK Exploit 1021 

An Old .Tarvis Street House— The 
Rt'sideuce of the late Colonel 

Samuel Peters Jarvis 1023 

St. .lames' Church— The Second 
linildinij;— How it was Built and 
by Whom— The Original Contract 

—Its Final Dt^struction 1025 

A Cunadiai! Pioneer- Reminiecenees 
of One of Toronto's Oldest Set- 
tlers—His Early Days, Educa- 
tion and Varied Experience- 
Men He Has Known 1035 



An Old Lottery Schomc-Thc Pro- 
posal to Raise FmidH for the Cou- 
struction of the Torouto, Simcoe 

and Huron Railwny • 

A RemimbMeiice of the Old Market 


Old Newejiapere— Tlie Files in the 
Library at Ottawa— A Liug Lo»t 

Watch"A I^ng Drive 


The Military Tnnilpiu riiil) - The 

Meimbcrs' X;inio«-S<nnf Famoiw 

Soldiers— Woudoi-fiil Atti'inpts at 

Poetry -Amusing Allii-ion» and 


An lucLdcut of the l{i>l)cllioii-^niP- 
thiug About the Man Wbo 
Warned the People oi" 'roronto 
of the Advance of Mn^'keuzie... 
Old Days Brought r.a<'k— Extraot-* 
from the Various \Vritiiipr> "f To- 
ronto's Veteran Tdejjraphei — 
When Canada Wa.s Young— The 

Rise of the Telegrapher 

The Earliest New-spapers— When and 
Where Issued— Singular Adver- 
tlFenicnts— Slave II(.1(Iim-h and 

Slave Dealers 


A Long Forgotten Incident— Lienten- 

. ajit-Goveniors Huntev and Gore 

and the Canndtaus— An Addrc-as 

to the Priu^c Regent and Who 

Signed It 

Aa Old Aecount Book— Some Quaint 
and Interesting Entii<»s— A Con- 
trast Lu Prices Between the Pres- 
ent Time and a Centiirv Since... 
The War of 1812— Many Intei-esting 
Documents Relating to it— Pn>- 
clamatiou and Gen. Brock'M Re- 

Toronto's Earlier Fairs— A Striking 
Contrast— The First Agricultural 
Societies— Parliamentary Aid- 
Some Amusing Recollections 

Old Time Exliibitions-Tlie First 
Show— Chnu'4(>M in the Province— 













An IniposLng Demonstration- 
Weil Kuow^i Prize Takers— Ob- 
solete Industries 1090 

The Old Crystal Palace- Sir Ed- 
mund Head— Distinguished Visit- 
ors— "Chevaliers d'Industrie"— A 
Roun<l of Anni.'»omMit— Exhibits 

and Exhibitoi-s 1093 

.V Curious Old Book— An Advertise- 
ment With an Apology— Singular 
Chronological Table- Old Civil 
Servants- The Old Militia Force 109r» 
Old St. James— The First Building 
Alterations and Enlargements- 
Surviving Members of the Con- 
gregation 1101 

Some Canadian Names- Interesting 
Particulars Why Some Well- 
known Places were so Called 1102 

The Island Block House- Some Par- 
ticulars of the Oid Building— Its 

Destruction and Renewal 1102 

Home of the Triple " V "—Some- 
thing of the History ol and the 
Work Being Done by Toronto 

Athletic Club 1104 

The Kovnl Canadians— Reminisconees 
of the Earlv Davs of the 100th 
P. W. R. C. R.-By One Who 

Served Therein 1112 

Capture of Detroit— The War of 18i2 
—Brock's Demand for the Surren- 
der of Detroit— The Capitulation 
—The Original Deed— Proclama- 
tion 1113 

Toronto's Assessment— How it Has 
Grown— Increased Over (>00 jcr 
cent, in 28 Years— Fa ri,\ Assess- 
ments-Three Different Metho«ls.. 1122 
An Old Document— A Promissory 
NotQ of 1834-How the City of 
Toronto Raised Money in the 

year of it^ Int'orporation 1124 

Some Old Time Residences— The 
Brough House — Two Simcoe 
Buildings— Sam. Rogers and John 
Shea 1125 




are— Ob- 


Sir B(l- 
d Visit- 
rie"- A 





i Civil 

a Force 1005 




ho Con- 


i? resting 
'. Well- 
illcd 1102 


nc Par- 
ing— Its 

1 1102 


— Some- 
(vnd the 











it Hos 
00 ycr 



Hity of 
II the 




id .John 



General Siincoe. Froutiepiece. 

General Brock. Frontiepiece. 

View of Niagara River. Froiitispioce. 

British American lueurauce Co 

First Fire Hall in Toronto 

Church Street Fire Hnll 

First Fire Hall, Bay Street 

Thomas D. Harris 

St Patrick's Market, and First Fire 
Hall for No. 4 Company 

James Ashtield 

Piano Fire Engine of IS-i.'i 

Alexander Jacquos opp. 

"Deluge" Engine House, Berkeley 

Court Street Fire Hall and Mechan- 
ics' Institute 

Fii-e Hall No. 2, Portland street 

Robert Hunter, Captain of Independ- 
ent Fire Brigade 

Fire Hall No. 4, Berkeley street 

Bay Street Hall Bay Street 

Fire Hall No. 0, Queen Street 

Fire Hall No. 3, Youge street 

Fire Hall No. 7. Wilton avenue 

Fire Hall No. 8, College street 

Fire Hall No. 9. Duudas street 

Fire Hall No. 10, Yorkville avenue 

Fire Hall No. 11, Rose avenue 

Fire Hall No. 12, Bolton avenue 

Fire Hall No. 14, Ossington avenue 

Richard Ardagh 

Fire Hall No. 13, Brock avenue 

Central Fire Hall, Lombard street... 

Fire Hall No. 15, Cowan avenue 

Richard Ardagh 

Thomas Graham 

Plan of Cathedral Fire 

The U. P. Church, Bav street 

The Fire Hall, Bay street Church, Baj* and 
Adelaide streets 

The Fire at Gooderham's, 1869.'..... 

Diagram of Esplanade Fire 

Destruction of Globe Building, Yonge 
street , 

Destruction of Osgoodby Building... 

The Osgoodby Building, Meliiid i st. 

Osgoodby Fire, Wellington strei-t... 

Toronto Fire Department opp. 

County Registry Offic, Kichmoud 

Jordan Post House and Shop, Bay 
and King streets 

Colonel Bounycastlc's House ...opp. 

View on Front street opp. 

The Bright House, 1820 to 1894 


! The Island Lighthouse, 1808 opp. 680 

Northern Railroad Pier 681 

Queen's Wharf, Looking West 682 

564 " The Raven's Plume," a Piece of 

564 Music opp. 684 

504 Pool in Queen's Park 684 

565 The N. W. Corner Church and Ade- 
575 laide streets 685 

Monument on Site Ft. Rouille...opp. 732 

5fr6 Col. Thomson's Property 734 

581 Mr. Scarlett's House, Dundas Street 785 

582 The Old Peacock Tavem, Dundasr 
582 Street 736 

Fiic Simile First Page First U. C, 

533 Gazette ojip. 743 

Great Seal of U. C op|». 744 

584 Blue Bell Tavern 745 

585 Rusiholme, 1839 746 

George Cooper's House 747 

586 Brockton Toll Bar 747 

587 K. L. DennL-ou's Earlier Residence 748 

588 Dovepcourt 748 

589 I "The Three Taverns," Dundas Street 749 

590 j Brockton Post-office > 760 

591 Mechanics' Institute 757 

593 First Ferry Horse Boat 762 

595 Second Ferry Horse Boat 768 

597 Third (Steam) Ferry 764 

599 Fourth (Steam) Ferry 765 

601 LouLs J. Privat's House 766 

602 Howlond's Mills, 1840 767 

604 Howlnnd's Store, 1840 768 

606 F. A. Howland's House 769 

607 I Kev. Dr. Phillips' House 770 

608 ] William Gamble's Store 771 

609 I Millwood, The FLsher Homlestead 772 

611 j Ci>lour.s of 100th Regt opp. 774 

620 j Preaentation of Colours, 100th Regi- 

626 ! meat 777 

626 : WMUfam Allan opp, 778 

I The •' East York " Colours 779 

626 1 Major Allan's Chestnut Tree 780 

643 I Museum at Moss Park, Interior, opp. 782 

655 I Colours of 10th Royals opp. 804 

' Capitulation of York (two illustra- 

661 I tione) opp. 808 

664 ; St. Jnmea' Rectory, Front View 810 

667 I St. James' Rectory, Rear View 811 

66'.t Front Street View opp. 812 

671 The Barque Griffin 816 

English Fleet on St. Lawrence^ 

672 1758-60 opp. 819 

French Fleet, ditto opp. 820 

674 Loss of "The Ycrk" 829 

676 Finkle'a Point 848 

679 Steamer Walk-in-the-Water 846 

679 Steamer Queen Charlotte 847 




The Steamer Martha Ogdeu 861 

The Steamer Great Britain 856 

The Steamer William IV 858 

The Steamer United States 863 

The Steamer Caroline 869 

Macuab, Aluu N., Sir opp. 870 

Steamer City of Toronto HS5 

Steamer Ontario 887 

Steamer Chief Justice Robinson 890 

Steamer City of Hamilton 893 

Steamer Peerless 895 

Captain Thomas Dick opp. Sfl(» 

Steamer America opp. 897 

Steamer Europe 898 

Steamer Arabian 903 

Georpre Burton Hdlluid opp. OO-t 

The Ferry Boat Bouquet 921 

The Steamer Kothesay Castle 922 

The Tu^ Kobb 923 

Steamer City of Toronto 924 

Steamer Chirora 926 

Steamer Ciboln— Burnt at Lewiston, 

1895 928 

Steamer Chippewa 929 

Steamer Empress of India 931 

Steamer Macassa 933 

Steamer Modjeskn 934 

Propeller Ocean 942 

Propeller Persia 945 

The Propeller Alma Munro. 954 

Andrew H(>ron opp. 955 

The Spanish CaravelB 95(5 

The Rosamond 957 

The Mayflower 959 

The Primrose 961 

First Club House 962 

Steamer Provincial 963 

The Oriole 964 

R. C. Y. C. Lauuth 9?T5 

The Zelma 967 

The Humber 970 

The Steamer Empress 973 

The Steamer Sovereign 973 i 

The Steamer AlJferian 975 | 

The Steamer Passport 975 j 

The Steamer Magnet 975 i 

The Piopeller Corsicau 976 } 

The Steamer Spartan 977 ; 

Th« Steamer Montreal 977 • 

The Steamer Quebec 978 I 

The Steamer Caroline 978 j 

The Stoamer Canada 979 i 

The Steamer Sagueuay 979 I 

The Steamer Columbian 980 , 

The Steamer Bohemian 980 

The Steamer Trois Rivieres 980 

Alexander Milloy opp. 981 

The Reaideuce of Colonel JarHs 1024 


St. James' Cathedral, Erected 1881. 1028 
Sectional View St. James' Gathe- 

Qpftl ■•••••••• ••••••■••••• ■•*•••••■ ••(•••••••••••• d.t/ZO 

Ground Floor of St. James' Cathe- 

dral 1080 

Plan of Gallery of St. James' Cathe- 
dral 1088 

William Helliwell «ppl086 

Thomas Ridout opp. 1063 

Forts Niagara and Erie opp. 1070 

Brock's Monument 1084 

York Almanac's First Pace npp. 1096 

First Anglican Church Erected in 

Toronto 1101 

lu'erior View of First Anglican 

Cliurch 1102 

The Island Block House, 1814 1108 

TORONTO \T|n,i:T'(^ CI.CB. 

Toronto Athletic Club 1104 

The Billiard Room 1105 

With the Fencers 1106 

The BowHn? Alleys 1106 

The Smoking Room 1107 

The Big Plunge 1107 

The Gymnasium 1108 

Inner Vestibule 1109 

A Cosy Comer 1110 

Commitlee Room 1111 


Fac Simile of Letter Accompanyingl 

Flag of Truce 1114 

Fac Simile of the Plan df the Fort. 1116 
Fac Simile of Explanatory Letter... 1116 
Fac Simile of Original Articles of 

Capitulation opp. 1116 

Fac Simile of Duplicate of Original 

Articles of Capitulation opp. 1117 

Fac Simile of Additions Proposed by 

General Hull 1117 

Fac Simile of Supplemental Article 

opp. 1118 
Fac Simile of Addition to Supple- 
mental Article 1118 

Fac Simile of Gen. Brock's Letter 

to Friends in England 1119 

Fac Simile of Gen. Brock's Procla- 
mation opp. 1119 

Fac Similes of Endorsements to 

Capitulation 1120 

Fac Similes of Endorsements to 

Capituation (six cuts) 1121 

Growth of Toronto's Assessment 1122 

A Promissory Note of 1834 1124 

Brough House, Simcoe street, 1846... 112S 

Two Simcce Street Residences 1126 

Rogers' House, Bay Street 1127 

John Shea's House, 1860 1128 



Adamsoii & Chapiuau's Vhv, I^SS-A... 654 

Addrt'se to Piim-o Regent 1062 

Admiral Sti'iuncr 622 

Allan. G. W 781 

Allan, William 1000 

Aircy. Colouol 754 1043 

Anglican Church in Newmarket 688 

Anglican clergy, 1821 1098 

Ardagh, Arthur 581 

Ardagh, Richnrd,..596, 600, 610. 612 663 

Armstrong k Co 1092 

Armstrong, Jamee 579 

Arnold, Benedict 716 

Arnold, Richard 867 870 

Arsenal at York 740 

Arthur, George Sir 572 

Ashfield, Jamee.. .581, 587, 588. 598 612 

Athletic Club Committee 1109 1111 


Baby. Raymond 675, 676 

Baldwin, Edmund 812 

Baldwin, W. W 812 

Baruum, OP. T 813 

Bate. Lewie 1092 

Baldmu. W. W A)94 

Battle of Beaver Dams 1081 

Battle of Chateauguay 1085 

Battle of Chippewa 1075 

Battle of Chrysler's Farm 1085 

Battle of Lake, in 1759 819 

Battle of Lake Erie 1076 

Battle of Lundy'8 Lane 1086 

Battle of Moravian Town 1085 

Battle of Queeiwtou 1072 

Battle of Stoney Creek 1079 

Battle ol York 1077 

Baynes, Edward 1070, 1072 

Blackburn, Thornton 677 

Blackst<me. Henry <)88 

Blake, D. E 714 

Beard's Foundry burnt in 1867 640 

Beard's Hotel 573 

Beard. Joseph 579 

Beard, Robei-t 575. 579 

Bell, John 773 

Berczy. William 703 

Bethune. Donald 905 

Brent. Joseph 823 

Birchall, T. W 594 

Bishopp. Cecil. Co'.oiu'l 1085 

Bishop Paul 677 

Blind Toll Gate 751 

British America Assurance Co. 566. 612 

Bright, Jamee 679 

Bright, John 678 

Bright. Lewis 094 

Bright. Thomas 679 


Boauycajitle. Richard 675, 676, 677 

Borland, Andrew i^Si^ 

Boretou. Halliday 814 

Boultou. D'Arcy 1084 

Boulton, John 773 

Boulton's Mill burnt, 1870 ib^ 

Boulton, W. H 630, 1089 

Bouitead, James B 695 

Boxall, Colonel 807 

Blco:-, Jo3eph 1108 

Brock, Isaac 1064-86, 1113, 1120 

Brook, George 594 

Brough, Seeker 1125 

Brunei, Colonel 80a 

Bullock, Richard 571, 1010 

Burlin^ou, Steamer 614| 

Bu:r, Rowland 704 

Butler, Thomas 1055 


Cameixm, Duncan 672, 1000 

Cameron, J. Hillyard 594i 

Canadian, Drynoch 691 

i Canadian Pacific Steamers 971 

I Canadian Militia, 1821 1100 

I Canoe Club Races 953 

■ Capitulation of York 807 

i Capreol, F. C 1037 

i Captains of Fire Companies 688 

' Captains on Lake Steami^rs 906 

j Carfrae, Thoma*i 563, 664 

I Carr, John 681 

Castle FrauK 618 

Catholic Apostolic Church Burnt, 

1861 633 

Caven, the Caretaker, and Osgoo'Jby 

Fire 663 

CaAvdell, J. H 685 

CaAvthra, Joseph 1001 

CaMiihra, John 687 

Chaloner Children Buiut in 1869 642 

Chambei*, Jamee 663 

Charlton, William 587, 588, 596, 612 

Clapp, John C 596 

Clarke, Alured 737, 789 

Clarke, John 761 

Central Prison Fire, 1878 650 

Cheney, G. H 1092 

Chestnut Park 709 

Chewett, William 1077 

Cigar Boat 884 

City of Toronto Fire Company 666 

Children of Peace 686 

Coffin, H., Colonel 675 

Colborno, John, Sir 572, 676 

Cole 627 

Colcleugh, Captain 900 

Collier, Thomas 814 


' f 


Cooper, George 78.".. 747, 101»1, 

CJooper, H. C, lU'v 

Coogregatioual CUurtli burnt 

Cowau & Sons 

Cosena, Benjamiu 

Coieufl, Daniel 

Coseus Family 

Crocker, J. S 

Crookshaiik. fico/pf 

Oumberlaud, T. W 

Church, Jo^ejih 


Daly, Chriili's 

Diaper, William 11 

De Blaquier, Poter 

De Grass';, A 

De Rotteuburg, CoIoDel <(•', 

De SaLaborry, Colcucl 

Deer Park :;';■•■ 

Desjardius Caual accideut <01, 

Desjardiiis, Peter 

Deouie, John ;••••• 

Deimis, Joseph ^'f> 

Deuison, G. T "■*'..», 783, 

Deuisou, John 

Deaisou, John E ^• 

Denisou, R. L "■*'• 

Dewar, E. H 

Dewsoa, Majoi' ••■;;.•• 

Drew, Audrew ^^^h 

Dick, James 

Dick, Thom.'is S15, 8<0, 

Dicksou, N. H 

Dixon, F. E 

Dixon, Joseph 

DosI'h Brewery burnt ■■—• 

Don bridge auJ the Rebellio.i o.' 1837 

Don Foundry burnt, 18.">'.» 

Doualdsou, J. A 

Dou<;hty, Thomas 

Drummoud, Charles 

Druuimoud, General 

Duffy. James 

Duggiui, George 

Duraiid, Charles 

Durham, E irl o. 

Durie, W. S : 


Early Kewspaijers 1054, 

Early Printing 

Early Settlers o. ITUl 

Eai'ly Kettlers. Cauo-s, Battoaux... 

Ear.y Toronto. 1791 

EasscKQ, Robert F 

East York MiliLia 

Edwards, Willie, Burnt to Death... 
Esplanade Fires of 1874 aud 1885 


Elmaley, John 804, 914, 

Eg'intoa, Early Uesideuts o' 

Elliott, Mrs. and Children Burnt to 

Death iu 1803 

Ellis Anthoiy 

Engineers, Uoyal Mail Line 





































.. 71 









Erskiue Presbyterian Church Burnt 
iu 188t 653 


Fatal Accident nt a Fire 

Fairgreeu Riot, 1855 

Fenian liaid 

Fleming, William 

Fidler, Isaac 

Fire Brigade, Officers, 1833 

Fire Brigade, Roll of Deaths 

Fire Brigade in 1893, 1894, 1895... 

Fire Companies, Captains of 

Fire Company No. 4 Organized 

Fire Company No. 2, Survivors in 


Fire Department in 1849, 1850, 

1855. 1868 579, 579. 582. 

Fire Department Re-organized iu 


Fire Inspectors 

Fire Limits of City 

Fire Regulations 577, 

Firemen's Beuelit Society 

First Cabs iu Toronto 

First Members B. A. Fire Company 

First Merchant Vessel 

First Officers Hook and Ladder Co. 


First Official Record Fire Brigade. 

First Steamboat in America 

First Steamboat on Lake Erie 

First Steamboat ou Lake Ontario.... 


Fitz Gibbon. .James 1022. 

Frizzell. Sutton U 

Foiwyth, Frank 

Fort Detroit 

Fort Mackinac 

Fort Niagara in 1790 

Fort Rouille 718, 

Fixmteuac, Count 

Fulton, A. T 

Fumiss, Mr 

Gamble, Clarke 700, 

Gamble, John 

Gamble, William 769, 

Gardiner, John 

Graham, Tliom is .593, 

Gra-hani, William 

Graham, Willi'im H., Death of 

Grand Opera House Burnt, 1879... 
Grand Trunk Elevator Burnt. 1864.. 

Grand Trunk Railway Fires 025, 

Grasett, II. J., Colonel 

Gi-asett, Rev. H. J 

Goddes, W. A 

German Mills 

Ghgs. C-jptain 

Gr>>at Eastern Stejimship 

Gre/it Fires in 184S 018. 

Great Fires iu 1849 020, 

Great Fire on Front wtreet, 1872... 
Great Fire on Richmond street, 1859 























it^HpppimipnvpH^tiii I II, I II 



Great Fire on St. George's square, 

Great Fire on Victoria street. 1859, 


Great Fire ow Yonge street, 1868, 


Gibson. David 

Gilbert's Lumber Yard Burnt, 1850 

Gilderslecvo Family 

Gildersleeve. O. S., 

Gillmor, Colonel 

Givins. James 701, 746, 

Globe Fire. 1895 

Good & Company 

Good & Company's Foundry Burnt 

Gooderham & Worts Fire 642, 

Gooderham. William 

Gore, Francis Sir 675, 690, 

Gordon, Johu 

Gordon, William 

Government Dock Yards, Kings- 
ton 857, 859, 

Government House Burnt, 1862, ... 

Gimbo!it« on Lakes, 1867 


Hagerman, I'. A 

Halton, Willinra 

Hamilton, Alexander .KiS, 

PLamilton Foundry burnt. 1870 

Hfimi ton eteameis 

Hampton, Goiiernl 

Haulau, Edward 948, 

Harbottle, Thomas 

Harris, T. D 575, 

Harris, W. R 

Harrington, John 

Harrison, S. B 

Harper, Lieutenant 

Hartney, Patrick 

Harston. C. G 

Hay & Company's fire, 1882 

Head, Edmund Walker, Sir 

Head, Francis Bond, Sir 

Heath, Charles 

Helliwell Brothers 

Helliwell, Willianu 1035, 10^8, 

Hennepin, Father 

Herchmer, Jacob 

Horcuics Hcok aiui T^adder ComiHuiy 


Ueioiu Andrew 

Uetou. .Samuel 

Hess & Company's fire, 1889 

Heward, Frank 

Hey.«, So'oiiioii 

Ui.iier, Major 

Hi'ilicr, Thomas 

Ilosg's Hollow 

Ho.;g's Hollow church 

Hogg, James, G. B 

Holland, 8., Major 

Home District Grammar Schof>l 

Hook and Ladder Co., first officers... 

Horse boats 702. 703 







































Horse raecs of 1888 *75H 

Horse races of 1839 753 

Horse rotes of 1840 754 

Horse races of 1857 765 

Horse races of 1876 755 

Horwood, G. C 815 

Howland. F. A 769 

Howland, Peleg 770 

Howland, W. P 770 

Hull, W„ General 1005, 1113. 1120 

Humbertitoue, Thomas 709 

Hundredth Regiment, formation of 

774, 778 

Hunter. Peter 096, 1061 

Hunter, Robert 580 

Hunter, Wi.liam 712. 713 


Indians' grave 701 

Irving, J. AE 698 

Introduction Mteam fire engines 592 

Iron Block Burnt. 1872..... 046 


.lackeon. Cliflou 706 

Jackion. John Mills 706 

Jacques & Hay 615 

Jacques & Hay, Fires at 623, 625 

Jail on Gcrrard Street Burnt, 1862 034 

James, Robert 749, 752 

Jarvis, E 614 

Jarvis, Family 1023 

JarvLs, Samuel P 1023 

JarvLs Stephen 072, 1003 

Jarvis, W. B 1089 

.Jesuit Father* 695 

Johnson, John 74»1 

Joseph, Frank 1126 

Jukes, W. A 940 


Keele, W. C 735, 755 

Kent, Duke of 822 

Kerr, Martin 600 

Kerr, Thomas 593, 590 

Ketchum, .Jesse 1034 

Killed and Injured .Jacques & Hav's 

Fire .".... ($27 

Kingsmill, Colonel 760 

Kingston Regatta, 1841 877 

Knox Thurch Burnt 618 


Lake Battles, 1759 

Lake Ontario Steamers, 1809-1895, 


Lake Shipping, 1799 ' 

Ijjike Shore Toll Gate Burnt, 1861." 

Lnnihton Mills 

La S^ille Rene, Jtobert 815] 

Lathom, Henry ] 

Lawrence's Tannery 

Leak's Soap Works 

Lee, Dr [' 

Leonard, H. B ][ 

Iy<'gislative Assembly, 1821 

lA'gielative Council," 1821 

I/'giierre, Ivw 


















Lowia&Gi., Itico 018 

Lindiiay, Charles (J7« 

Lippiucott, Uichard 710, 1068 

Lount, HamuGl 1051 

IiOrii« and Victoria Park SitenmorK... '.♦58 
Ijoynl and Patriotic Society of I'.C. 087 


Macaulay. JamcH 1020, 109!) 

Macaulay, James S 1020 

MacdouL'lI, Angus D 749 

Mackenzie Itcbelliou and Firenu'ii 508 

Macnab, Allan 808 

Macnab, Alexander 097 

Macnab. Rev. Dr 097 

Macklem, Oliver T 890 

MaRrath, .Tames 1043 

Mail Building Burnt 054, 055 

Mansion Hoiwe Hotel Ol.S 

Market Elevator Burnt 050 

Markham, Earlv Settlers in 092 

Marks, William 092 

Marks, William ■'ih7 

Mauleverer, Colonel 912 

Mechanics' Institute V50, 700 

Mechanics' Institute, Presidents ... 759 
Mechanics' Institutes, Secrotarie.s ... 760 
Mechanics' Institute, TreasurerK ... 700 

Medical Board, First 1099 

Meehan Terrence '>f^~, 029 

Meunonists 097 

Mercer, Sanuii'l lOOl 

Meyerhoffer, V. P 714 

Militia Officers, 1798 080 

Militia at Queenstou, 1840 874 

Miller. George 1091 

Millov, A 955 

Moodie, Robert 909 

MoodLe,, Susanna 867 

Morrison, Joseph 673 

Mortimer, George 714 

Murphy, John 1019 

Murrray, Captain 827 

Mussoo, Tl'onas 1091 

Musson, William 563 

McLenn, Donald 087,1000 

McLenu, Samuel 581 

McLeod, Martin 691 

McGiJl. .Tohn 1009 

McK'n'ey Fire 659 

McDonnell, Archibald, of Newiuar- 

ket 1019 

McGlyn, Murder Trial, 1864 697 


Nnsih, James 648 

Xaval Events on Lake Ontario in 

1776-1783 821 

Navy Hall, Niagara, Building o' 7.'^7 

Neifrapapers, Early 1054, 1060 

Ninifara in 1790 741 

NlJjgara Steamers and Their Offi- 

ters 926-930 

Night Guard in Rebellion Times 669 

Nbrtiberu Elevator Burnt, 1870 644 


Northern Pier 681 

North-west Ex|M>ditioin 799 

Notable Steamei-s 860 


Oak Ridges 69*8 

O'Hara, Colonel, James 761 

Ontario's First Schooners 818 

Ottawa River Steamers 973 

Otter, Co'onel 791, 799 

O'Brien, E. G 594 

OHLcera East York Militia, 1813 778 

Officers East York Militia, 1837 782 

Officers Fire Dppnrtment, 1846 679 

Offlz-ers Hundredth Regiment 774, 1112 

Offi<'inl Record I'irst Fire Brigade... 674 

Osgoodby Fire of 1S95 663 


Paterson, David 573 

Plntt, Oporft-e .(594 

Pell. J. E 1089 

Prentice, Miles 742 

Prevost, George, Sir 083, 1064, 1080 

Phi'lip.0, Rev. Dr 770 

Phillpotts, Captain 676 

Pilgrimage riot 793 

Pilkiugtoii. Robert 789 

Piper, Hiram 579 

Pi ice, James 573 

Primitive Methodist Church burnt, 

1878 647 

Prince, John 1052 

Printing, Early 743 

Privst. L. J 7C3 

Port Dalhousie Steamers 980 

Potf of Entry 881 

Population of Upper Canada iji 1821 1100 

Postal Arrangements in 1831 85G 

Post. JordMu 673 

Potters' Field 702 

Powell, Mary 685 

Powell. W. B., Chief Justice 085, 1067 

Pi-opellar Inkerman Lost 900 

Proi)eller Magnet Lost 936 

Provincial Great Seal 744 

Provincial Insurance Company 686 

Provisions. Prices of, in 1814 1005 

Puiseaye, Comte de 603 

Pursers, Royal Mail Line 907 

O ■ 

(iuakere. the People Called 696,i 

Queen City Steamer Burnt 

Queen's Foresters and Rangers 

Queen's Own Ri'les. Fi-st Officers... 
Queen's Own Rifles, Fenian Raid 


Queen's Rnngeis. 703, 787, 789, 744, 

Queen's Wharf 

Quinn. John 

Quiute. Bay of 


Racquet Court Burnt, 1861 


" Rescue" Fl'« Engine 

Red Rivtf Expedition. 







ItegimO'Utt* in QuoboiN 177U 742 

Reid, George 8ii4 

BichRrdsoo, Hugh 815, 853. 888. 9;'.8 

Richelieu and Outario Steamers 974, 981 

Ridgeway. Killed and Wouudcd 788 

Ridout, J. 781 

Ridout, Samuel 072, 678 

Ridout. Thomas 672, 673, 1000, 1063 

Ripley, W. H 813 

Ritchey, Johu 1034 

Robertson, Johu 1120 

Robertson, James, & Company 659 

Uobiuson, Christopher 1113 

Robinson, John B 1021 

Ilochester Firemen 623 

Rochester Steamers 972 

Rochefoucault, Duke vS24 

Roe, William 687 

Roger, Samuel 1126 

Rossin House Burnt, 1862 636 

Rouille, Fort 718, 732 

.Rowan, Lieut.-Coloncl 762 

Roy, Louis 743 

Royal Canadian Rifles 761 

Royal Grenadiers, First Officers 801 

Royal Grenadiers, Firat Members... 802 
Royal Grenadiers, Presentation of 

Colours 803 

Royal Canadian Yacht Club 963, 971 

Royal Lyceum Burnt, 1874 647 

Royal Opera House Burnt, 1883 663 

Royal Mail Line of Steamers.. .901, 907 

Rules B. A. Fire Company 666 

Russell Abbey Burnt, 1856 628 

BuBsell, Peter 692, 1059 

Ruttan, Henry 1087 

Saint Andrew's Market Burnt, 1860. 632 
Saint James' Cathedral Burnt, 1839 614i 
Saint James' Cathedral Burnt, 1849 620 
Saint Stephen's Church Burnt, 1866 639 

Sanson, Rev. Alexander 709, 813 

Sca.dding, Rev. F 692 

Scarlett, John 767, 1001 

Shaw, Aeneas 746, 1059. 1073 

Shaw, Alexander 746 

Shaw, ieorge 746 

Shaw, t ieorge A.~ 747, 807 

Small, 0. C 814 

Small, John 1069 

Snarr, John 814 

Spanish Caravels 956 

dpark, Colonel 764 

Stanton, Robert 1034 

Strachan, James 708 

Strachan, Dr. Johu 612, 1007 

St. Georgo, H. Q 694, 1007 

Secord, Laura 1022,1081 

Selkirk, Lord 1018 

Settlers In Markham 692 

Settlers in Yaughan 692 

Shea, John 1128 

Sheaffe. Sir Boger^ 1075, 1077 

Sheppard. Joseph 1001 

Sherwood, Samuei 678 


Sluum Firo 'EngiiicH Firnt Introduced 692 

Steamer Admiral Burnt 894 

Steamer Caro'.itr Destroyed 868 

Steamer Cataraqui Burnt 878 

Steamer Cherokee 880 

Steamer Commerce Wrecked 882 

Steamer Commodore Barrie, Wreck- 
ed 877 

Steamer Frontenac Burnt 854 

Steamer George Washington Burnt... S72 

Steamer Lady Elgin Wrecked 910 

Steamers on Lakes, 1809-1895... 982, 989 
Steamers on Lake Simcoe...699, 872, 

886, 911, 944 

Steamer Morrison. J. C Burnt 900 

Steamers on Ontario in 1836 868 

Steamer Ocean Wave Burnt 894 

Steamer Passport, Accident on 882 

Steamer Peerless Disappears 911 

Steamer Queen City Burnt 897 

Steamer Queen of West Burnt 894 

Steamer on Rice Lake 870 

Steamer Zimmerman Burnt 916 

Steward's Royal Mail Line 907 

Ships on Lakes, 1706 820 

Silverthome, Thomoj 1034 

Simcoe, John Graves 826 

Simpson Fire, 1895 667, 668 

Sinclair, Captain 956 

Smith, A. M 717 

Smith, Ooldwin 1110 

Smith, James 587, 688, 612 

Smith, Larratt 716 

Scobie, Hugh 616, 686 

Scott, J. H 944 

Somerset. William 618 

StoUery, Colonel 807 

Storms and Shipwrecks 907 

Storm, Thomas 570, 612 

Sullivan, R. B 677 

Summer Hill 704 

Sutherland, James 864 


Talbot, Thomas 1097 

Tandem Club Meetings... 1040, 1048,1091 

Taylor, J. F 745 

Traill. C. P 1095 

Temple, Captain 613 

Teraulay Cottage 619 

Teraulay Street Fire, 1877 649 

Terry, Parshall 994 

Thomson, Archibald 1000 

Thomson, E. W 734, 1087 

Thomson, John 764 

Thompson, Charles 894 

Thorne, H 1009 

Toronto Ferry Steamers 959, 960 

Toronto Fire Brigade By-Laws, 

1887 - 602, 612 

Toronto Lighthouse 680 

Toronto Night Guard 760 

Toronto Regatta 940, 941 

Town of York, 1808 and 1809...994, 996 
Town of York, Population 1793 and 

1884 993, 998 




TowMlcy, J. & W 704 


Univewrity Fire of 1890 057 


Vaughnn, Enrly Settlora iu 692 

Vankoiighuct, P. N 1089 

Vessels on the Lukes, 1078-1895...982, 989 
Victoria Fire Fiigine 582 


War of 1812...709, 837. S3S, 83!) 840 842 

War Vessels ou Ljikes, 1817 845 

Wallia, Brown 717 

WatkiuB and Harris 571 

Wataon, John 027 

Welte, Joseph, Colonel 1098 

Wetenhall, John 1087 

Wreck of the Siwedy 832 

Wreck of the York 829 

Whitehead, John 593, 590 

Whitney, F. A 760 

Whitney, G. T 1090 

Whitney, J. W. 762 

Widmer, ChriBtophoi- 814, 1099 

WilBon, David 686, 689 

Wilson, Stillwell 706, 1001 

Wright, Edward 594 

Wolseley, Garnet 789 

Wonderful Vessel 860 

Wood, Alexander 1007 

Woodsworth, Riohard 571 

Worts and Gooderham 812 

Worts, James 818 

Worts, James 6... 813 


Yeo, James Sir 1088 

Yonge, George Sir 70O 

Yonge Street, 1882 7OI 

York County Officials 990, 996 

Yorkville Annexed with Toronto 601 


This, the second volume of the " La&'^markB of Toronto," containa in popular and 

lable form, a continuation of the history of the capital of old Upper Canada from 

le days " When wild in woods the noble savage ran," down to the present golden hour 

invention, when science with electric power whirls the citizen of to-day along streets 

tversed less than a century ago by the primitive ox-motor and cart. 

The first volume of " The Landmarks," found the favour of nearly a thousand 

Utrons, who either by ancestry or association, had an interest, if not in Little York, at 

gt in the greater Toronto. Indeed a moderate sized volume would not contain the 

Written words of good-will expressed by readers for a compilation that to-day would 

ftve been almost impossible by reason of the passing away of pioneers. 

The pages in this volume are composed of a republication of articles by writers on 
lie staff of The Toronto Evening Telegram. These articles during the past few years 
kave appeared in the columns of that journal. 

Each article is complete in itself and the engravings in the volume are either from 
photographs or pen-drawings of the place or location represented, or from original 
irawings in my possession or in the custody of public institutions, or of private 
ndividuals, who have kindly placed them at my disposal. 

Every effort has been made to secure absolute accuracy in the letter press, and the 
bntire publication has had my personal revision. As a native bom Torontonian, with 
^ver half a century's residence in the city, and a familiarity with every map, plan, 
picture or drawing, of or belonging to York from the days of Mrs. Simooe — who made 
ihe first picture — in 1792 and Toronto from 1834, the assurance is given that the drawings 
Ke faithful reproductions of the originals. 

Of the first volume one thousand copies were printed, and of these less than one 
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received for the two volumes the first number will shortly be out of print. 

The edition of the second volume is limited to one thousand copies and it will not 
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The third volume w^ill be issued in September of 1896, and will contain about two 
hundred engravings, with a large amount of new matter concerning early York and also 
, complete history of each church in the city from 1792-1896. 

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Dk of reference in connection with the history of York and Toronto, in the courts of 
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jin which a large sum of money was involved, the original drawing, a copy of which had 
fappeared in The Evening Tdegram and is now in this volume, was an important piece of 
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[aid in arriving at a decision. 

Copies of this volume may Iw obtained by remitting two dollars to the office of The 
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The volume is offered to the public in the belief that from cover to cover it contains 
[information which must interest not only the pioneers, who are still to the fore, with their 
[descendants, but the residents of later years who have made the capital city of this 
[province their home and abiding place for all time to come. 




Isketches of Old Houses and Places of Interest From 17 92-! 395. 



Story ol' tlH' Toroiilo I'lrr I'ompHiiirii rreiii 
lliclr i:«'Kiiiiiluc t» lhi> T4'nc IH95. 

In this adviiiK'tMl age ol' iiu't'luuiical and 
iBcit'iitilic progvosfl, wlioii firi's are fought 
■•with ,«te'ani liri' (MigiiicH diwhargiug from 
|40<) to 1,750 iinitn-ial galloii:^ of watiT 
iiiiiiuto, acM'ial laddi>rH. water towerM 
laiiil other mnjHidiary appliaacfH sf)ecially 
I'Kigui'd to auKiiu'iit thi' vnoiis of fire- 
BK'ii, thi- piiinitivc di'vioe« of K'« than 
liaK a coiilury ago an> oiUii'i' uiikuowu 
|to the present gi-uoratiori or are almost 
Jor^ottt'u by tlie eai'l^' settlers in To- 
mUi wlio are still alive. In fire-fighting 
iftchiuery, certainly " nothing i« like it 
sell to be." From the luK'ket brigade, 
rawing it« supply from ordinary wellw, 
lo the hand fire engine wjus a great im- 
j)rovemeut. that was later ou completely 
overshadowed by the introduction of 
team fii'e engines, pumping from tanks 
illed from hydrants or water carta. The 
stablisluneut of the prewnt water-workw 
ysteiu iu Toronto, iu 1S72, furnished fur 
time a satisfactory fire pressure, and 
be steam engines were relegated to re- 
The ei;i of t:sll buildings demonstrated 
iusnfiiciouey ol the fire pressure to 
Bax;h above the third storey, however, 
id the three disastrous conflagrations 
the eaiCy part of 181>5 forced a re- 
to the use of steam ougiuea as a 
;>asurc of BcK-protcction from the rav- 
ges of the devouring element. 
When hand fire eugiuiM camo into use 
lie bucket brigade pi\.ssed out of exist- 
ace, water being conveyed to the en- 
|[inea in large barrels, fillini at tt»e bay 
ad carried ou waggona to the scene of 
tic tire, a premium being paid to tbn; 
U'ter first arriviug with k supply of 
rater. The rivalry amongst the city cart- 
|rH waa always keea, and H»ai\y aa e*- 
iting race wiis witnessed as the men 
rove their horses at a t'urioos puce id 

win the i)rize. Oftentimes the barrel %Vk 
the first cart wcmld be le>s than half 
filleil, til" ji'ltin^; ovei' tiie fciiuli roaiLi 
having causeil a wholesale s|iilliiin'. ThiB 
UKwle of sujiply was in force m l!S34, 
when Torontd waH incorijoiated. 

(•lie hundi'ed anil fifty \eais before 
Christ, lleio, in Alexanilria, de-ciibed a 
maeliine i>'i iie'd li.\- him " ihe .SiphouB 
used in C(>nilai;r:.tions," which with some 
additions, sueii as liose and some iuii)rove- 
ments in the details of coustrneti e.^i, is 
in;iet ie'iiiy the same ns the haml fire en- 
gines first introduced inti> Toronto. So 
early as the middle i>f the seventeenth 
eejituiy there were hand euKiae.s iu the 
eit.v of Xurembert!; worked by twenty- 
eight men, whieh threw a stream of 
M'ater an inch in diameter ti> a height 
of eighty feet. Necessarily, in a small viN 
lage the c'onditinns are sueh that all 
methods of oxlinKuishing fires must b« 
crude and iueffieient. 

In 11S20, and for some years snbsenuent- 
ly, the law waa that everj- householder 
should keep two leather buckets liangiug 
in a conspicuous place in front of his 
lionse. On an alarm, whieh wjim sounded 
by shouting and ringing the bell of St. 
Jaini's' Church, then the only bell in the 
city, a doable row of citizens wa.s form- 
ed from the burning building to tlie Bay, 
or to the nearest ei«teru, and along one 
line were piiased tlie buckets full of water, 
and down the other the empty buckets. 

In 182(j, eight years before York be- 
came Toronto, the first fire departnn.'ut of 
the town was organized. 

The first fire engiiie company waa in- 
stituted in the year 182<). and wa*; com- 
peeed of some of the m'>st respectable 
merchants and tradesmen of the town. 
Mr. Cnrfrae, jr., by whom the company 
vfcJR fiirt formed, wa^ elected first cap- 
tain, and was re-elected every yeai dur- 
ing the six 3'ears he remained in the 
company. Ho was succeeded by William 

The engine house, or fireman's hall, of 
this company, and the first iu Toronto, 




B I- 





























1-1 73 













nd «iii the went »ldo of Church itrcet, 
h.> next bnilding south of tho old Scotch 
lirk. aiitl botwtH-ii Court ftud AdclRUlc 
tni'tM. It was a two Mtoro.v brick build- 
mi nnounte I in the rear part by « 
mall tower, eiucw reuiovfd. The build- 
^j; wu« in ll^J** divided into thii'<! 
liri ,ioii* or compartment*. The south 
J,i«l«>u wni occupied by Phoenix No. 1 
ugi ic. tho centre by cugiuc No. 2, uuil 


\\» offlcern of 188:i were :— WiHiaai 
MuKBon, cn|)tnin ; David Pateraoa, first 
lieutennnt : John ArmntrooKf Mcoud liea* 
teniiiit : 'I'honuin Pliitt, treasurer ; Alex* 
auder Ilaniiltou. iwcretary. 

Every (iieman duriuK bis coutinuaoM 
ill nctunl duty was exempted from mili« 
till duty in Ihi' time of |N>aee, from Herviitg 
<ut a juryiiinn or a Cimstuble, aud Iron 
all other pariith and town olficea. 


jifi iioth by thii Hook anl Lulilcr Coin- 
ing. The bell tower wtus at the south- 
cat coiTxer, i'l the rear of the buildiiip, 
I'l i:i this was a bell, which was ru;ic: 
Bm a rope in the rear of tho south 
ivisjon, occupierl by the Plineiiix Coin- 
iiiy. At the i-o ir of the bui'iiiiig was also 
loiiK fihel, one storey lii;li. imed for 
rviii};' hose. The bell -wn'-: ; fti'i-warils 
Bug ia the steeple of St. James' church, 
I'l wjis destroyed iu the fire of 1849. 
[Ill 1833 the company, which still occn- 
led the Church street fire hall, was fifty 
^roiiR and had two excellent fire engines, 
firo engines went in those times, and 
K/iil 750 fotft of lic/ei?. 

The fl 8t liO)k and Indder company was 
fo: me 1 ii April, lS3i. It iKX-aesscd the 
.lame p ivili'ges an I exemptious as 
the fire compnuy. It M-as sixty 
stronp;. Its offii'ers were :— Captain 
Thomas Emery, fiint lieutenant Michael 
P. Emery, second liiMitenant Archibald 
McLellaii, treasurer William Ketchum, 
wcretary ChaiicH Hunt. It was called 
Phoenix No. 1. Money wa« raised by sub- 
fCriptioM for a second engine, which wau 
called No. 2. 

As before stated, the two engines and 
hook and ladder apparatus occupied the 
Chureh street building. 

In 1837 the City of 'loronto Fire Enifine 





Conip.-iiiy ;\ii(l the City of TdiTiiito Hook 
and I, 'diii'i- Coniiiiny o'-Miipicil tin' Kiuue 
building i»ii till- wosL ol' Cluiii'li stn'ft ad- 
joiniii,; tilt' Court iiuurfi.' as siiici' tlii'ir for- 

'I'lii- cii;;!!!!' civin|i:iiiy w.'is iHiiiippcd with 
two cir'iii'.s iiiid iiujiiln'rcd si'vciity iiioin- 
bers. Its ollici'ia v.imc : — \V'illi;iiii Mii-ison, 
captain, ■Fi'liii liaki'r, lii'iitt'iiaiit of No. 1 
onjuiic : William Moriison, licuti'uaut of 
No. 2 I'Hijiiu'; .). F. Wcstlaiid. treasurer; 
Chail.'.M iliiiit. s'Cictary of tlio company. 

Till- !•<>•>•; ;lii 1 l,idd"i- I'umpany consisted 
of ^ixty nu'uihi'rs, officered by Willifim 
Kot'liiiia. ij-e.siilciit; .M. P. Enipey, first 
lieulriiant; \Villi:iiii lUr-.'i, scfond lietiteu- 
wnt; William i;riglit, troiusurer; George 
L. .No'ion, sec re la ry. 

Following llii'ir pioneer en^'ines cnnip 
No. 3, ;i machine jriven by llie I'.ritish 
Anioricn l>ife and I' r' A-snr-nr I'lin- 
pany. She Avas Iviiowu as the " British 
Anieii'i,' .lul wjw a Moniieal " i > >■ 
aal uil " tub. No. 3 was liou~oJ i:i the 
hall at the .s<mlli-east corner of I'.ay and 
Temperance utreets, wliieli waa built in 
ls;!!M(). At the north ('oiin'r wa-. .i > h- i 
fo:- the lio^o carriage, and next south 
\. ;:;< a one sldri''.' iiiildimi', whi'ri' i 'U' 
cnji'ine stood. This building was originally 
two <'omparii.K'jit.s, th" south one bi inu; 
(vcupie ! Ijy .\'./ ;> ("iiKii^e, and the iKirili 
by Ilei<ules i!(K)k an I I/idder ('oinir'ny. 
The ^^lled on Ih'' ^outh f^i le, which after- 
ward w.iM bni:l up, waM m'cupied by the 
Ho--e Company. Sn thit tli.' eiiiire huih!- 
i:!;;; \vaj< p;aetically <Iivi(Ied, as it is to- 
liay (18",)5) into three eompai'lnu'nUs. 
The " fore auii aft engines '' weri' move 
poweifn! than the jdmo or goose iie<dv 
ma •hiae*', as thi'y could bo worki'd by 
a I'ui^er Tin" full crew of a 
"fore and aft" was from twelve to 
fifteen men at each brake, and tin' full 
Crew of .M ])iano wa*f seven or eiclit at 
each 1)r"a!:. I'rom the book of ndmiles of 
No. .T. from its inception in April 2G, 
IS.'lT. to the early part of lS4n, some ex- 
tract-i are (inr)ted. .among (itli'rs those re- 
latinu' to the part the company took in 
the Mackenzie ndiellidn. Th" first entrv 
date-: .Api'il L'C. l.s'JT. reads; 

"A fire engine, prot'ured by the I'.ritish 
American I^ife and I'ire Assurance Com- 
pany, having arrived at G o'clcck in the 
cvenin^j;, tlu- following person-s coirvened 
at the engiiv^ house and volunteered their 
sorviecN to form a company for wurking 
her: David Patcrson. Alex'an(h'r Hamil- 
ton, Kielianl \*"(rorlsw(U'th. Alexander 
Henide, (leorge Ilarbron, ddhn Adainson, 
Joseph Dixon, .rdhn Milh'r. 'IhomaH Mills, 
William D"iie;in. Charles (Iraham. Itich- 
nrd Nortl.^dte. .Jnhn I'.ell. D/.vid Ilender- 
Hoii, I'rancis MeMahon, Kdward Knlisdn, 
James Fer^iisun, Isaac Kohmson, KoherL 
Barnee and John McKeuzie. David I'ater- 

Bon heing called to the chair, and Alcx- 

amh'r Hiimilton appointed wecretary, the 

follo\\ii}g resolution wa.s adopted, viz., 

That David Paterwon. iiichard Wooilw- 

worth, Jofseph Dixon, (Jeorge Ilarbrou 

and Alexander Hamilton be a ccniimiltee 

to afl(;pt by-laws for the company and 

repoi-i next Wedncsda.y evening at 7 


] On May 3rd the coinpa.ny met accord- 

, ing to adjournment, wlien the idllnwing 

, additional Viilunteers were adniilted : 

Jorseph Willson, George .Nit'holls. iUram, 

Pi|K>:' and Kobert Stewart. The c-imniit- 

. tc-e re|)<)rted, when tiie followiiig by-la \V8 

were adopted for the future gcveriiment 

1 of the Company : 

I " That kn- the diisciiiliue and rej^ulaiion 
! of the company, a captain, a fiist and 
second lieuteuaut, a trea.surtM- and sec- 
retary he apiioiuted by ballot, to be in 
office one ,vear. 

" That the comjiaiiy meet on the 
Monday of every month, at the hour of 
G.:i() p'm. 

'■ That a majorit.y of the members fvirni- 
ing tlie c<)mpany, including the captain 
or lieutenant, be a (juorum. and com- 
jietent to p:o:'eed to business. 

■■ That the loll be called at half-past six" 
o'clo(dc. when those al)senl nhal! be lined 
one shilling and three pence, r. iid. if ab- 
sent lor the night, two shilling.s and six- 

'•That the lines shall be paid on ilie first 
day of meeting after being imposed, and 
tliat no exemptions be admitted unless 
lor actual sickness, sickness in the fam- 
ily reiiniiiiig the attendance oi the mem- 
bers, or they being absent five miles from 
the city on business of necessit.v. 

'■ That if the fines are not paid to the 

treasurer on or belVire the second day 

' of meeting after they are levied, the name 

I of such person tir pereiinis offending be 

' rejKirted to the c< miiany, and if not imid 

i by the regular meeting night following 

i they shall be exix'lle 1. 

I " That ; 11 moneys by fines or otherwise 

' go to a general fund, and be ap;:!i(Ml 

from tiin' to time to such puipo-es as 

a niajo;ity of the company shall direct. 

" Tluxl it shall lie llie dut \ ot every iiiein- 

ber, in of tire, to repair forthwith to 

the engine Uouse to assist in conveying 

the engine to the place of fire, to work 

it, and to reniiin there until the fire 

shall Ix' extinguished, o;' until discharged 

by the offici'r in command. 

" That it is necessary for the good order 
of the Company that a fine of one shill- 
ing be imiwtseil for disobedience of orders 
at private meetings, and two shilling.s 
and six|R'nee while ou duty with the en- 
gine: al-() that any meinlior who shall 
be guilty Ol smoking, u-iiig profane l.m- 
guagi; o:- tiVi-4'iring at any meeting of the 



ir, !in(l Alox- 
(•(•ivtary, tho 
loptiMi, viz., 
Iianl \V(iO(ln- 
)rtrt' IIiirbrt)ii 
a I'oiiiuiiUoo 
[jorniiauy aud 
?iuiirf ;it 7 

nii't iiccord- 
tlif folldwing 
■e athiiiUi'il : 
•holls, i!ir;iiu 
Th'' <"iniiiit- 
wiiiK liy-l:i\vrt 
p gdvcriuui'ut 

nd rf(,tilati<)ii 
, a fiiSl: and 
.ircr anil si'C- 
Uol, lo be in 

on till' i'lvat 
the linuf of 

nenihiM's forni- 
5 the eaptain 
ini. aii'.l t(.ini- 

t h;i!f-i'''''<l '■'^ 
nhal! l)e lined 
e, ;■■ in!, it ab- 
liug.'i iind .six- 

,iil i.u 1 Ir.' tii'st 

inipixed. and 

inilii'd niih's.s 

'u the taui- 

oi ilie iiu'ni- 

uiile.s I'l'om 


paid to the 
sercind day 
d, the name 
ofli'iiding' 1)1' 
I il' not paid 
iL i'ollowiiig 




or otherwise 

he api'Ued 

purpiris aH 

shall direct. 

I ewry inein- 

iorthwilh to 

n conveying 

iiv, lo work 

ntil the fire 

il discharged 

he good order 
of one uliill- 

uoe of ordei's 

two HhiUiiig.s 
with till' on- 
\v1k> fiiiail 
profane lan- 

K'oting of the 

conipiinj' si. all be.snlijoot to a line of one ,->liil- 
ling lor the lirst otrence,two shillini^'s for the 
sceiiiid yllenue, and expelled for the third. 

'• Til, it every nieinber of the conii)!iny 
wear liis lire hat where priictiee or any duty 
with the eniiine id reijuireil, on default of 
whit li the tine of one .shilling and three- 
I)enee shall he levieil on such person or per- 
sons will) shall wilfully negleia this rule, 
unless the jiei'sou can prove otherwise to the 
sati'taetion of the company. 

"Thai it is expedient, should a vacancy 
occur, that the do till it up as soon 
as practioalile by the tirst suitable volunteer. 

'•That all applications for niendiership to 
this eonipany be in writing, or tlirougli the 
ineinliers of this company, and tliat tliey do 
lie over for one month after being proposed 
before they can be granted." 

After the adoption of the foregoing rules 
or bylaws, the company balloteil for 
ollieers for the ensuing year, the ieiiipurary 
appointment of ca))lain and sei;ri'lary I'cing 
conlirnied. The ollieers chosen were : lieutenant, Rieliard Woodsworth, 
carriiu 11 to 7 ; second lieutenant, A. 
Rcnnie, ciU'i'ied 12 to 2 ; treasurer, Joseph 
Dixon, carried 8 to 7 ; tirst branehinan, 
Robert Stewart ; second branchman, John 
Adanison. 'i'he meeting adjourned until 
the tirst .Monday in dune, at half-past six 
o'clock. A list of the company was sent to 
the Clerk of the Council. 

On Monday, the 5th June, '■■>,S7, the com- 
pany met at half-past six, and was informed 
that satisfactory arrangement.! were entered 
into with tlie officers of the other fire com- 
pany respecting the supplies of water ; that 
the city authorities had passed a resolution 
placing this company on the same footing as 
the other tire companies of this city, and 
that the certificates were getting ready. 
The company appointed the oliieers a com- 
mittee to obtain information where coats for 
those at present uusuppliedcoidd be obt lined. 

On July 3, 1837, the company met .t the 
usual hour. The following volunteered at 
the first monthly committee to take care of 
the engine, hose, etc.: — I'atersou, Hamilton 
and .Mills. Mr. J. Dickson, seconded by 
Mr. Mills, moved <^hat Richard Tinning be 
admitted a member of the compiiny, and 
rule 12 being suspended, lie was elected 
fcccordingly. Messrs. Rvterson, Dickson 
Mid Harbron were apptiinted a committee 
to procure caps for the company. Mr. 
Joseph Wilson, sccoiuled by A. Rcjinie, 
moved that Hugh McNeil be admitted a 
member of the company. 

On August 7th, 1837,_the company met at 
the usual hour, when it called npon some 
absentees of former nights for fines due. 
Some conversation ensued when fining or 

excusing members, wlio upon the day of 
meeting siiould be calhul away from the 
city u])!)!! business, after which the follow- 
ing clause was ordered to be added lo the 
.Uh section of the by-laws, luvmely, "or 
that iieing five miles distant from the city 
on neiessitous business." It was moved l)y 
Edward Robson, seconded by John Bell, 
that the committee appointed on tiie night 
in Jidy lo procure caps do so forthwith. 

On Monday, 4th Sej)tember, 18;}7, the 
company met at the usual ])laee at half 
past six. The inacliiiie was taken out to 
the door of the engine house, where water 
being |)rocuied it was worked handsonvly 
by the company for a few niiuiites, tiie 
engine perforniing to the satisfaction of the 
members, throwing water to the distance of 
140 feet hori/untally. After working the 
maciiine ami running the water suliiciently 
through the hose they were taken in, a 
number of fines collected, and the cap com- 
mittee directed to forward the completion 
of them with all speed. New members pro- 
])osed were : — Henry Cowan, by D. Patenson 
and R. Stewart ; Richard Owtn, by 
Thomas Mills ; 'J'honias Saunders, by Joseph 
Wilson and Edward Robson. D. I'aterson, 
J. Miller and H. Piper were the monthly 
committee for the care of the engine. 

On Monday, October 3rd, lS;i7, the com- 
pany met according to adjournment, at six 
o'eiock — seventeen members present. The 
machine being now quite finished, and all 
the company in good spirits, they got a 
puncheon of water at the door of the engine 
house, and ran it through the hose ; found 
all well. On a motion of George Harbron, 
seconded by Alexander Rennie, that rule 12 
be susjiended, the members proposed on the 
evening in December were elected by a show 
of hands, together with John Bngg, pro- 
])osu(l ))y Robert Stewait, seconded by Mr. 
Woodsworth. Thomas Smith, proposed by 
John Rell seconded by A. Rennie. 

On :\londay, fith November, 1S37, the 
n-gular meeting of the company took 
jilnce at the engine liouw at luilf-paBt six 
o'clock. Some convei'sation took place re- 
B|iectii\g the jii'opriety of having a per- 
son apiiointed to tnke eiiarge of the engine 
and keep her in go<iil order nnd in con- 
Btnnt readiness for operation, and also 
after working to take care lo have her 
immediately eleniied. It was agreed that 
it shall continui' ius formerly until the 
next meeting, during which time (>nquiry 
m.-iy be made whellier some (suitable per- 
son can be procured for that purpose, 
Messrs. Miller nnd Millu ngiee to call oa 
the ciiptain and assist him in greasing 
the \\iieel8 of the machiic. ProjKJBed by 
U. \\<K)dBWorth, «ecoiido<' by G. Harbron. 
S. E. Taylor. Proposei h; R. Woods- 







worth, seconded by G.Harbron.Thoa. Storm. 
PropoHed by R. Tinning, seconded by John 
Bell, John Charters. Rule 12 being suspend- 
ed at the motion of Richard Woodsworth, 
seconded by A. Rennie, the above members 
were elected bv a show of hands. 

On December 4th, 1837, the regular 
monthly mcctiug uight, the company met 
a.t the utiu^I hour. It was rcaolvcd that 
the name df George Nicholls be expunged 
for uou-attendanco. The following new 
members were proposed, and. rule 12 be- 
ing suflpeuded, were immediately initi- 
ated : Henry Stewart, proix>sed by John 
Dixon, seconded by Jamea Ferguson; John 
Campbell, proposed by Thomas Mills, 
Beconded by Robert Barnes. 

On December 5th, 1837, about one a.m., 
the city was alarmed by the ringing of 
the fire bell; but on enquiry the alarm 
■was found to proceed not from any fire, 
but Irom a report that a number of 
persoius, said to be associated with Mac- 
kenzie (noted character for disaffection 
and op|)OHition to Government), were in 
the vicinity and approaching tlie city, 
for the purpose of burning and pillaging 
it and overturning tlie Government. Some 
of the company believing and some dis- 
believing the report, some immediately 
repaired to the City Hall and took up 
arms, and some repaired to their respec- 
tive homi^. On the return of day, the 
report being fully confirmed, a number 
of the members volunteered into various 
militia for active duty, but the day 
paused without anything deci.sive being 
done, the rebels threatening to attack 
the city, and the citizens, who were loyal, 
preparing for their receiving a warm 
welcome. This day Dr. Holmes' house 
was burnt by the rebels, and one of their 
men shot by a reconnoitering party 
under W. B. Jarvis. 

The entry of Wednesday, December 6, 
1837, says : " This day Dr. MorrlKon was 
arrested, and the volunteers from the 
Gor,' and Niaj^ara disti'iels hetr.-m to ai rive." 

Thursday, December 7, 1S37. This, morn- 
ing the secretary addres.sed circulars to 
every member di the corap.iiy to meet 
at the engine house at ten Dclock a.m. 
All not on active duty repaired to the 
Bpot, when it wa« moved by Alexamler 
and resolved that the time is corae wlien 
Hamilton, seconded by Joseph Wilson, 
we feel it to be our duty to take arma 
as an independent volunteer company, to 
resist the attem[)t of traitors and rebels 
to invade our rights and di.^^turb our 
peax-e, and that a deputation do immedi- 
ately wait upon his Honour the Mayor 
to offer our services in any way he may 
think proper, and receive his orders. It 
was moved by Richard Woodsworth. 
Beconded by Joseph Wilson, and re.solve(l 
that the captain, secretary and treasurer 

be the deputation to wait upon th« 
Mayor. Accordingly the Mayor was wait, 
ed on i'n.stantly, when he informed th« 
deputation that he felt gratified anc 
obliged by the voluntary offer of servic* 
i by the British American Fire Company 
■ He requested, as the safety and defence 
of the city was by his Excellency th« 
Governor committed to him, that tb« 
British American Fire Company would 
ncrt; leave the city, but repair forth- 
with with their arms and en- 1 
gine, cistern, etc., to the market squari 
and there await his further orders. Ttie | 
deputation returned to the engine house, 
delivered the orders of the Mayor to th« 
company which were immediately com- 
plied with, and with the greatest ala- 
crity by the company, with the exception 
of iiobert Stewart and John Bugg, to i 
f^upply whose place and fill up deficien- 
cies were proposed (and rule 12 beinp; ] 
suspended) elected John Phillips, proposed 
by Mr. Woodsworth seconded by John 
Adamson. George Simpson, proposed by ] 
Mr. Hamilton, seconded by Mr. Woods- 
worth. William Walker, proposed by Mr. 
Hamilton, seconded by Mr. Woodsworth, j 
John Rogers, proposed by Mr. Ilarbron, j 
.•seconded by Mr. Adamson. Richard Hast- 
ing.-!. proposed by Mr. Peterson, seconded | 
by Mr. Woodsworth. Alex.ander Simpson. 
prop(««ed by Mr. Woodsworth, seconded bj- 1 
Mr. Hamilton. John Collins, proposed bv 
.Mr. llamillon, seconded by Mr. Paterson. 
James Bell, proposed by Mr. Wilson, 
Kcconded by Mr. Paterson. Mr. Alex- 1 
ander Simpson being rather old request- 
ed leave to resign and substitute in hii | 
place his son Robert Simpson. His re- 
quest was acceded to most cheerfully by I 
the company. The company continued 
some time on the stiuare exercising when 
the repoi't was brout^ht that the rebels j 
to the nuuiber of 700 or 800 wore enter- 
ing the city by the Don bridge, and our j 
company ordered to be in readiness to j 
{•ive ihem a warm reception. Immediate- 
ly' after the .Mayor ordered the company i 
out with the machine, as the rebels hdd j 
commenced firing the city in the neigh- 
bourhood of tlie Don bridge. With greiit i 
spirit t'.e members of the company st;irt- 
ed for the scene of action, most 
of them with muskets in their 
hands and the drag rope in the oilier, i 
but ere their arrival at the building on i 
fire the enemy had disappeared, not even| 
waiting to Hee its, much less to fight, the i 
' heavy rumbling of the engine and cis- 
; tern having frightened them into the be- 
lief that the cannon was on the track. 
On our arrival at the bridge our gallant 
captain ordered the engine into opcrn- 
tion, but upon reconnoitering it wi\» 
found the buildiugs were beyond salva- 
tion, with the exception of the toll lioii.>-o, 



The briilRO we saved by pulling up Bome 
of the plauks and pouring water from 
buckets upon the buruiug timbers. After 
the fire was extinguished the company 
again made it« way to the station into 
thi' Market Square about 9 in the eveu- 
iiijr- The committee of the news roi^m 
granted to us thi> use of it for a guard 
room for the night, where we took up 
our station, the engine being in the vesti- 
bule of the market under sentry of our 
uwn. An alarm was given in the evening, 
which waa attended to by the company 
in their usual spirited style, but tound 
to be only a chimney. At midnight the 
Mayor came in and informed us that he 
had j'lst received intelligenci> that about 
sixty-one of the rebels were but a short 
distance below the Don bridge and that 
he wanted volunteers to go with him and 
attack and secure them. Immediately 
Thomas Storm, John Rogers, William 
Duncan, Johu Phillips, John Collins and 
Alexander Hamilton volunteered to fol- 
low wherever he would lead. To those he 
added fourteen more with himself and the 
high bailiff on horseback, and with these 
he proceeded down the Kingston Uoad, 
to the lower toll gate, or the fourth mile 
tree, when seeing or hearing nobody the 
Mayor ordered us to return, thanking us 
most handsomelj- for the firmness and 
resolution in following him so far from 
the city at iniduight. About three o'clock 
we arrived at thi' guard room again and 
were welcomed by our comrades. After 
daylight, the rebels being ilisijersed and 
routed in all directions, the company 
took the machine again to the engine 
house, but us a preeautionary mea- 
Bure, well aware that many incendiary 
traitors were still in the city, though as 
yet unknown, it was unanimously resolved 
that the members of this lire companj- 
consider it expedient, under existing cir- 
cinnstancos, to hold themselves in active 
duty as volunteers or lircincii nislit or day. 

On the 8th it wa.«! moved by Joseph 
Dixou, seconded by Mr. Millor, and re- 
solved that Robert Stewart and .loliu 
Bugg be expelled from the company for 
refusing to take arms as military volun- 
teers in tinira of imminent danger. Dur- 
ing this, tiH well ibs the following night, 
the company kept up a guard of from 
twelve to twenty men, a party of which 
were constantly patrolling the sti'eets to 
prevent fires and arrest suspicious per- 
Kous. On Saturday, itth December. 1837, 
the company was still on tlu' alert, and 
the patrol still kept up, ;us also on Sun- 
day, the 10th. 

On Monday, .January 1. 1S3S, the regu- 
lar monthly meeting to;)k place at the 
pugiue house. It was enipiired into the 
cause of H:mry Cowan's being confined 
iu jail, and found to be on a charge of 

high treason; but upon his producing & 
certificate from R. S. Jamieson, Vice* 
I Chancellor of the province, aud one of th« 
j commissioners apix)inted to enquire into 
the chr.rges of treaaon of hia discharge, 
I he was allowed to remain a member «il 
the company. The company still con- 
tinued to act as night watch and patrol 
I iu conjunction with a number of respect- 
I able citizeius under Clark Gamble, Esq^ 
the company taking the duty of two 
nights out of five. 

At a special meeting on January 5th, 
Mr. D. Patersou stated that a number of 
1 those whose duty it was to be on duty 
the preceding evening were delinquent. It 
: was moved l)y Thomas Mills, seconded by 
Thomas Storm, and resolved that any 
member of the company being absent on 
any night for which by the general con- 
sent of the company it ia hia duty to be 
on patrol exeejit in ease of personal sick- 
ness, or sickueas in the family requiring 
; his attendance, or pr;x'uring a substi- 
I tute bi'lousing to the company, shall be 
; fined five shillin;4-8. The foregoing resolu- 
I tion effecting wiiat was desired, a punc- 
tual attendance of the members, the com- 
pany continued to discharge the duties 
as citj- watch and patrol as before, until 
the formation of a new company of one 
hundred and twenty men under the com- 
mand of the Mayor of the city guard, and 
Alexandor Murray. Esq., ifbout the end 
of the month. 

On February 1st there was no alarm of 
fire. At the regular meeting of the com- 
; pauy at the <'ngine iiouse the following 
Monday, it was moved by Mr. Joseph Wil- 
: son, seconded by Mr. John Adamson, that 
: the company con.sider that the alarm on 
the Ist February was insufficient, and 
j that thi> fine be dispensed with. This wag 
' lost aud it was moved and seconded by 
I the same persons that Mr. S. E. Taylor. 
[ David Paterson. R. Woodsworth and A. 
; Hamilton be a committee to revise the 
rules and regulatitvns of this coin[):iny and 
: report next monthly meeting. 
! On Sunday, 25 di February, ab-'Ut one 
■ of the clock, Avhile divine scrvic" was 
being performed an alarm took place. 
On repairing to the spot, fire wa.s f.und to 
. be in the hall >f tlie Parlianieut build- 
ings, and had it not been timely ob- 
served, would have done iinau'iise injury. 
' It was got out witlinut much damage, 
I but remains nnotlu'r instimre of the necea- 
I sity of the care i,i wtting and maiuige- 
I ment of stoves. On the Snnday, at half- 
; paet eleven p.m., there wa.s another alarm 
] from !\ small house in the rear of Mr. 
; John ISell's, on Richmond stre-.'t. Tl'.'> 
water being very difficult to get, tbe 
building was burned to the ground. For- 
tunately there vfos no wind, and tiie in- 
jury was stayed with the destruction of 




till' one. It i« fiiiiirkod that only throe 
jmnrl'.foiifl nrrivcil nltngcth'T. 
foltowiiifj; (lay, at 3 |).in, tli'Tc 
other fire ; tli" malt kiln of 
I/Vnrli, in Diu'lu'w* str(M>t, took 

On the 
was (Ui- 
Scott iV 
fire and 


il)"r« I'K'cted 

.i/,viu n, in uii; Mi'H.s sircti,, (."uiv i»i> ...." 
■\vafi liofitroyed, lint by the timely aid of 
th» onffine and a irood Rnpply of water 
the connectine; liuildiiiyr ^'an ^aved. 

Ou Monday, 5lh March, ls3s, the com- 
pany met and ((tlleet-d 01«. and 3d. in 
fines. Mention was made to tlie eompany 
of tiie cirenmNtances of the old company'H 
iohition, and tlie now orvcani/.ation of 
fire department, whicli iiad their cor- 

dial ;ij.proh;ition. New niemh' 
in were : 'I'lioman J. Preston, inTijiosed by 
S. K. Tnylor, rieconded by II. Stewart; 
William llamilton, profiosed by A. Ham- 
ilton, seconded bv S. K. Taylor: Joseph 
Hodf^son, propiv>i-d by Mr. Paterson, 
seconded by Robert Sim|)son : William 
Itonaltlson, ' propivsed )iy Mr. llarbron, 
Becond'd by Mr. Woodsworth. It was 
moved by Snmnel K. Taylor, aeconded by 
Mr. Woi-idpwoith. iind resolved, that tli' 
eighth section of rnle.s of the company 
be anieniled by addinp that uo fine ehall 
be exacte'l from nu'mbers who (shall not 
hear any alarm of fire occnrring b'twee!i 
tlie honrs of o'clock in the morning and 
10 o'clock in the evening. It wa.s .^iiii- 
gi'Pted that thore was necessity of tne 
members of the company b'ing acqnaint'd 
with the mannal and jilatoon military 
exercise, and it \va,s enqnired who were 
willing to attend two evenings in tlie 
wook to be drilled, when the following 
ga.vo in their names : David Pnters(.n, 
Alexander Hamilton, Richard Wood.s- 
worth, George Jlai'broii, (iertrge Simpson, 
Joliii .\dainson, Thomas Saunders, .Joseph 
Willson. .John Phillips, Thomas Smith, 
S;imnel E. Taylor, Tiiomas Storm, Henry 
ytewjirt, .Tolm Campbell, .loliu lingers, 
llichanl Ila.slings. The meeting adicnrned 
until tiie next Monday, tiie 12tli instant, 
On Monday .at half-past six o'clock the 
company met at the engine house. The 
ca])t;iin then re.-id the communication 
from the clerk of the Common Council, in- 
forming tlie ci'inpany, ihri'Ugli him, of 
their re-a]tpoiiitiiient under the .-unended 
fire l;nv ;is one of the city fire engine 
companies, and that in conse(inen('e this 
iiiKht the company is called n])iMi to 
elect new officers for tiii^ ensning year, 
Mr. Paterson in llie chair and Mr. Wil- 
eou ««fcr'tary. Wliereuiion it was moved 
by ]\Ir. IMlton. >"Coiided by Mi'. Storm, 
that rule the 12th be mispeuded for the 
OToning and the officers lie elected by a 
show o: hiinds. This was carried. It was 
iuov.mJ by Alexander Haniiito:i, .seconded 
by ,losej)h Dixon, that D;.vid Paterson be 
captain of this company from this night 
until the first Monday in .^Iay one tlidii- 
eand and one hinidred and thirlj'-uine. 

This was carried unanimously. It was 
moved by George Bilton, seconded by 
.Mexandi'r H.aniilton, that .Tosopii Wilson 
be first lieutenant from tiiis night until 
the first .Momlay in 1S39. This \\;is car- 
ried. It wat» moved by Thom.-is Storm, 
scconih'd by Joseph Di.xon, that Alex- 
ander Kennie be second lieuteuant of tho 
company until the Monday iu lS3!i. 
Tills was carried. It was moved by 
Tlioinas Storm, seconded by Thmnaa ,t. 
Preston, tliat Jo.'^eiih Dixon be treasurer 
of tiie company until the first Monday 
in 1S30. CarriiHl. Moved by Thomas 
Storm, seconded liy George P.iltoii, that 
Alexander Hamilton be secretary of the 
company until the first Monday iu May, 
l!<:\\>. Carried. Moved by .Mr. Hiimiiton, 
seconded by Mr. Dixon, that Ed. Uobsoii 
and John Adamsoii be braHchmeu. Car- 
I'ied. Moved by Mr. Ilaiiiilton, seconded 
by Mr. Saunders, that Willi.-im Duncan, 
James Bell .and William Hamilton be sec- 
tion Iiof-emen. Carried. Moved by Mr. 
IL'imilcoii, seconded by .fosepli Dixon, that 
a committee be appointed to examine the 
treastirer's account .and report at the 
mcxt monthly meeting, and that Messrs. 
Jiiseph Willson, J. Preston, 
Henry .Stewart, (ieorge llarbron. Thomas 
Storm do comjiose said oomitiitti'e. Car- 
ried. Moved by Thomas Storm, secondeil 
by Ed. Kobson, that the capt.ain. lieu- 
tenants, secretary ami treasurer do form 
a commiltei' to examine and report on 
the by-laws of the compjiny on the n(>xl 
nioiithly meeting night. Carried. T'he nt- 
nidst harmony prevjiiled ;it the meeting. 

On Monday", Tth .May, 1S3S. tho com- 
pany met, and after having ordered 
two carters to bring up water from the 
bay, ran through the hoso, found thoni in 
good Older, took off the horse and ran 
tiie machine up to the corner of Kin,!; 
street up to tlu' Club House, and trying 
her there found her able to throw water 
over it. .\fter exercising some time theri. 
and being satisfied with her operations, 
they took the machine in, collected s<mic 
fines i>inl adjourned until the finst Mou- 
(!ay iu June. 

On Monday. .Tune 4th, 18.38, the com- 
]i;iny met at half past six o'clock ; called 
the roll, took out the machine to Kiiiu 
street, where having .some hogsheads of 
water ready, the force was tried over the 
Commen.'ial Bank. This building was 
afterwards the (ilobo office, -and the site 
is now (18!l.")) partly occupied by the Bank 
of Commerce. It found that tlu; 
machine worked well, throwing fully 'Jt 
feet ovei' the tops of the chimiiey.s of that 
liigli building. After trying her satisfac- 
torily, they returned to the engine iiouse, 
eolli'ctfd 'JO shillings of tines, after which 
the following resolution was niove<J by Alex- 




imously. It was 
u, wh-oiuIimI by || 
!it Joseph Wilson |ji 
I tliiH nifilit until 
10. Thin was car- 
■ TiioniaH Storm, 
LOii, thill Alex- 
lioutpuant of the 
:SIonday iu 183!i, 
was moved hv 
(1 by Tlioiuaa J. 
ixoii hi> treasiiriT 
tlie first Monday 
C'd by Thomas 
")rtre IJiltoii, tliat 
.see rotary of the 
Monday in May, 
ly Mr. Hamilton, 
that Ed. Uobsnn 
braHehmen. Car- 
imilton, .seconded 
William Duncan, 
Hamilton be nee- 
Moved by Mr. 
(tsepli Dixon, thjit 
■d to examine tlie 
1 report at the 
and that Me.sfir.s. 
las J. Preston, 
oommitti'e. Car- 
Storm, necondeil 
he c.'ipt.ain. lieu- 
Ire asu re r do form 
10 aud report on 
);iiiy on the next 
Carried. The iit- 
jil the inoeling. 
1N38. tlio com- 
haviiiK ordered 
Avater from the 
io, found tliom in 
borse and ran 
corner of Kiii',; 
iiiso, and tryin;r 
to throw water 
some time tisen. 
her oiierations, 
1, colleeted .some 
II the fir,sl Mou- 

]S;iS, tlie com- 
o'clock ; called 
liacliiiie to KIhl' 
le hogshcad.s of 
tried over thr 
building wiu 
le, and the .sitr 
I'd by the Bank 
loiuui that tht 
fowing fully "ii! 
liiiincya of that 
lig her .satisfac- 
fs, after which 
movefJ by Alex- 

nndor Hamilton, fiocoiiiled by .Joseph 
Dixon, and unanimously !idoiited :— That 
ill consequence of t!io ro((uisition uow 
I li.'ing made for city guards lu be in roadi- 
lu'ss, to iict in cas!! of any sudden omer- 
ri'nc'y. this company felt it a duty in- 
eiiinliont on them to offer their services 
to ill" Adjutaut-lli'ner;il, pxjprcssing their 
viUin.irness as a body to defouil the lives 
inid pVopertios of their fellow-citizens to 
the utmost of their power, and th;it a 
(lecutiition of this company be niado to 
cany the above into effect. After the 
pa*<sinu,' of the above it v^Jis noticed that 
it was in contemplation to have a jubilee 
i,nx''ssion on the liCi'.h of the month, being 
till' (,;u 'on's coronati'in day. but ns iioth- 
iiiu' -spi-cial had been done about it, it 
weiild be again laid before the company 
on Thursday evening ;'t 7 o'clock, to 
ulicli time the compa.iy adjourned. The 
di'pui ilion api)( '"ited to couimunicate the 
resolution of tli> Lonip;iny wa.< D. Pater- 
^oll, .Iisi'i)h Wilson and Alexand(>r llamil- 
ti,n. b'ing informed that the most effect- 
ur.l way to obtain an inimodiiito attention 
to thi ii' business was to address a letter 
to the Adjutaut-Cieneral : did so by A. 
Hamilton, secretary of the companj", and 
ol which the following is a copy :— 

Toronto, .""ith Juno, 183S. 
From the call made upon our fellow- 
( ilizens of the militia to volunteer, the American Fire Insurance Com- 
jiany have felt it to be their duty to pas.s 
the i.illowing resolution :— That in conse- 
.luenee of the recpiisition n< \v bring niiide 
for city guards, to be in leadiin'ss to act 
iu any case of sudden omei'goney, this 
company feel it a duty incumbent upon 
thoni to offer their services to the Ad- 
iutant-ticneral, expressing their willing- .as a body to defenil tlie lives ;uid 
iMopcrty of their fellow-citizens to the ut- 
iu'*t Ol' their power. I would hero inform 
you that this company diil unanimously 
I'W tiie I'ehelliou breaking out tak(> up 
arras, .ind for a cimsiderable length of 
time act as a jiatrol, but .is things began 
to wear !\ more pejiceablo aspect many 
It tlie order of the M.iyor re- 



a; tia'iii, ) 

turned their iirnis. but as from present 
ri'ports and a i)pea ranees the company is 
led to believe the mast impcu'tant crisis 
is yet to arrive, they are ih'sirous to ob- 
t.iin .irnis to oiiuip them all and be ro- 
uularly diilled. so when their active ser- 
vit'i' by the (iovt>rnment lutiy l)e demand- 
ed they may be more effective. The com- 
]i;niy i" composed of true and loyt-il men 
and is forty strong. The company ad- 
ioiinicd until Thursday evening next, .at 
or before which time your answer lo this 
is rcBiiectfullv reijuested. 


15. A, !•". ("(inipany. 

To U. Hulloc», E.sq., Adjutant-Gcuem'l. 

Tl;o answer to the foregoing letter to 
the Adjutant-General Wiis : 

Adjutaiit-tJenerars Office, 

Toronto, 0th Jinn', 1838. 

Sir,— With reference to your letter ol 

yesterday, I beg to actiuaint you that 

his Excellencj' the l^ieutenant-Oovernor 

! fully appreciates the loyalty and zeal 

j which have pronijited tlie liritish-Ameri- 

' Ciin ICngine Fire Company to come for- 

; ward for the maintenance of our country 

; !\nd its iii.stitiitions ; but at the same 

' time, under the presi-nt as|K'ct of cir- 

i cumstanees, his J-'xcellency d(H's not deeia 

■ it neee.s.s!iry to call for their active exer- 

; tions ; his I'-xerllency Ims no donbt 

I shall not fail, .should the cxig.Micy for 

' them, in which cjise he will have 

no hesitation in h.aving recotir.>*.> to their 

offer. I have the honour to bo, sir. 

Your most obedient .servant, 

racHAKD r.rLi.ocK', 

Adjutant-General Militia, 
rinirsday, June 7th, 18.'{.'^, the com- 
met according to adjonrmnent .at 7 
o'clock, to receive the report of the cora- 
I niittee apiiointed to wait upon the Adju- 
tant-General, when the conimunication 
jireceding read and approved, after 
which ii convorsjition took place uiron the 
(expediency of instituting in the company 
:i benevolent society. In order to do 
something of the kind, it was moved by 
I Mr. Dillon, seconded by James Dell, aud 
I resolved, that the officers of the com- 
pany be n. committee to draft some rulea 
! for "the government of the comp.-my fus a 
\ benevolent society, and report next nioet- 
: ing night. It was moved by Mi-. Doulton, 
i seconded by Mr. Miller, anil resolved, that 
; the officers be a committee to prepare 
! for a procession uik>ii the coronation day. 
j Accordingly the officers met of the 
j hook and ladder and Toronto fire engine 
I companies at the hou.s*' of Mr. D.iker, 
j known as the •' Dlack Swan," whore it 
was agreed, it >»eing so decided that the 
i Dritish-Americaii FTre Engine Compfiiiy 
! should take the first place in the iiroccs- 
' sion, the hook and ladder the second, aud 
the Toronto company the last place, and 
to meet at their res|)ectivo (luarters at 
the hour of 6 o'clock ii.m., on the 28th 

On the 28th the company met .at the 
engine house. After a short time the 
hydrtiulic engine, owned by WatkiiH and 
Harris, hardware merchants. King 
street, en.8t of St. .lames' C.-.tlc'dral, 
drawn by a horse and having a. 
hnndsome flag on it. came up. when the 
company, |>reci'ded by tlie assist.'int en- 
gineer iso. 1. Kicli.ard W(M)dsworth, with 
the engine, drawn by four horses, with 
banner .ind flag.s of a splendid doscritition, 
pr((Ceed(>d to tlio City Hall, in fi'ont of 
which they were joined by t!ie fire eom- 





panies mentiouod before, nnd, after being 
arranged by the chief engineer, accom- 
panied by the united bands of the Queen's 
ForesterB and UaugerH, proceeded down 
King street to Berkeley street, up Berlv- 
eley street to Duke street, up Duke street 
to New street, u|) New street to King 
street, up King street to Government 
House, through the Court yard and up 
Graves street to Lot street, down Lot 
street to Yonge utreet, down Youge street 
to Front street, down Front street to 
Church street, up Church street to King 
street, down King street to City Hall, 
wheie, leaving the machines in front, they 
repaired to the Council room where a 
collation was beins prepared for them by 
the stewards, of which they partook and 
then withdrew to their resj)ective (juar- 
ters, the display being considered one of 
the most gratifying the citizens of 
this place ever witnessed. 

On the 18th July, 1838, the Mayor hav- 
ing written a note to tiie chief engineer 
to request thi' fire companies to assJHt 
to receive the Earl of Durham, the chief 
addressed a copy of it to the various 
Companiej^, on wliieli the captains im- 
mediately g;ive notice to tlie members to 
attend .at the engine house at 2 o'clock, 
from whicli they took their way to the 
City Hall, where, being congregated to- 
getiier and being joined by the members 
of St. Patrick, .St. Andrew ;ind St. George 
Soi'ii'ties, and fireeeded by a bond of music 
and the members of the City Council, 
they proceeded to the Government wharf, 
an(l, separating iind lining the wharf on 
both sides, awaited his landing from the 
steamer Cobourg. then in sight. .\bout 
4 o'l'lock hi-^ I'x.-i'licney landed, aeenm- 
pnnied by Lady Durham, a numerou.s' 
suite. Sir John Colborue, and an ex- 
cellent band, when Sir George Arthur 
and all the heads of departments, in ad- 
dition to the companies mentioned, re- 
ceived him. .and Sir George, taking the 
Earl, and Sir J. Colborne taking Lady 
Durham, they walked up the wharf, the 
companies closing behind them in pro- 
cession until they eame to the carriage 
in waiting, which, entering, they pro- 
ceeded to the Parliament buildingK. the 
stone steps being carpeted and having , 
the crimson chair of state waiting his re- ! 
ception. After arriving, the Mayor read i 
and presented his address from the citizens I 
and Earl Durham read and pn'si-nted an | 
answer, which was eiitliusiiastieally re- 
Ci'M-..(!, aftov ivhich he di'livenMi an ex- 
i , reni'ous address assuring the citi- I 
<• .-, .:,M(1 spectators of his disposition to [ 
• to thein- rill' iiniiiber supposed to be ' 
pfek' .1. was alioiil Kt.dOO persons, men, 
r\-omea and '■liiidren, ihf iii(i>;t nninerous I 
aud iipiemlid (li^|)lay ivei' made in the ' 
city, one tiiat surprised tiie Karl of Dur- 

ham nnd his attendants, as was after- j 
wards expressed by him. On the follow- 
ing day, biisinese of importanea catling I 
the Earl below, hie stay was necessariij 
limited. The same arrangements beings 
made by the companies, corporation and 
societies as the day before, at 3 o'clock I 
they proceeded to and lined Mr. Brown's I 
new wharf, ea«t of the foot of ScottI 
streett and there awaited the arrival I 
and departure of Earl Durham and! 
suite. At five they appeared in their car- 
riages and approached the boat by thej 
wharf, when a most violent thunder- 
storm suddenly coming on, drenched suehj 
as could not get shelter and prevented 
the Earl from addressing the spi'ctators, 
las it was supposed he wished. However, 
after the shower was passed the boat| 
pushed off, the Earl showed himself bow- 
ing to the numerous s[)ectator8, who kept I 
cheering him till at a great distance out] 
in the bay. 

On, 4th April, 1842, the com- 
pauy met at the usual hour, when, in I 
consequence of the desire of the company | 
to be in possession of a lion of their own 
without the dilficulty of procuring oiw | 
for processions similar to the last, by ho- 
ing under obligations of borrowing frmn I 
Mr. Parkiss or any other [X'rson, it was 
moved by Mr. George Bilton, seconded by | 
Mr. Thomas Storu), and resolved that Mr, 
Paterson do purchase a carved ami gilt] 
lion for the luse of the company on pro- 
cession days. 

On July 10, Monday evening at " i 
o'clock, the conipany met to receive thej 
report of the committee appointed to en- 
quire into the expenses of procuring a{ 
lion as a badge of distinction for the 
companj-. A specimen from a wood en- 
graver was pres.'uted, but it w;is in so j 
unfinished a state as to bo unfit to de- 
cide upon ; it wa.s therefore left with the 
commiitee, to whom was adtled the secre- 
tary, and if, when finished, it pleased 
them, they were given power to complete 
the badges for the whole companj'. Tbe i 
subject of hand grips for the hose and 
hooks foi' fastening them on ladd-'rs and 
roofs were also spoken of, and those pre- 
sent agi'eed to sustain the captain in 
carrying the mea.-ure out and iu defray- 
ing expenses, or have the expenses de- 
frayed out cjf the funds of the company 
in case the coi'poration reufwd the nece.M- 
sary aid from the funds of the city. It 
waij resolved tliat the secretary be di- 
rected to address a letter to the Chief 
Engineer calling his attention to tbe 
absolute necessity of increasing the uum* 
ber of hydrant^ in order to .atlord an ade- 
quate supply for the fire department, ::8 
well as having a proper head of water 
in the reservoir to render those already 



itfl, a« was arter-j 
im. On the follow-, 
importaneo calliug j 
ly waH necesRarily 
rraiigemeutfl beinH 
!s, corporation and I 
pforc, at 3 o'clock I 

liuetl Mr. Brown's 
the foot of Scott 
aited the arrival 
arl Durham and | 
oared in their car- 
1 the boat by the 
violent thunder- 
: on, drenched such 
ter and prevented 
inR the spi-ctators, 
• wished. However, 
passed the boat | 
lowed hiinHelf bow- 
K'ctntors, who kept 

great distance outj 

•il, lS-i2, the com- 
lal hour, when, in I 
ire of the companv 
I lion of their owu j 
■ of procuring oiio 
to tlie last, by lie- 
of borrowing frmii I 
her ixTson, it was 
Bilton, t^ocouded by | 
J resolved th;it Mr. 
a carved ami gill ] 
; company on pro- 

ly evening at ' 
net to reeeive the 
appointed to cu- 
es of procuring h 
listinction for ilic 
from a wood eu- 
bnt it was in so 
to be unfit to do- 
fore left with tlu' 
s added the secie- 
if^hed, it pleani'ii 
power to conipUii' 
ole companj'. I'l.t' 
for the hose uiid j 
m on ladd'TB and ! 
of, and those pre- 
the e;iptain in 
lut and ill defray- 
the expenses de- 
of the company 
reufsed lhi> neces- 
Is of tin- city- It 
(secretary be di- 
tter to thi> Chief 
ttention to tLo 
reatiiiig the num* 
to a fiord an ade- 
e depiirtment, ::« 
er head of water 
ler tht)ee already 

effected efficient, their inefficiency being 
eo apparent tm to create general dis- 

Scarcity of water being a matter of 
Buch frequent occurrence, the company 
adopted and published tiie following re- 
Bolutioii : 

The Water Company— Complaiut of a 
Want of Sufficient Supply by the Fii« 

At a meeting of the British American 
Fire Engine Company, held in their hall 
Monday evening, the 5th inet., the sub- 
ject of the frequent deficiency of water 
at fires, particularly at the fire on John 
street on the morning of the 5th inst., 
being brought under consideration, it was 
unanimously resolved : That the company 
cannot too strongly urge upon the city 
corporation and the various iusurancu 
companiefl the necessity for some imme- 
diate and energetic steps being taken to 
supply the engines with water at fires. 
The so-called water-works, for which the 
citizens are taxed so heavily, are, in gen- 
eral, of little service in case of fire, and 
might with advantage to the safety of 
the inhabitants be at once shut up. That 
this was particularly manifest at the fire 
on John street, on the morning of yester- 
day, the 6th inat., when for upwards of 
half an hour after the engine of the com- 
pany had been on the ground, and in 
connection with one of the hydrants, 
water sufficient to work even for a few 
minutes could not be obtained, and for 
want of which a very large amount of 
property was destroyed, or rather sac- 
rificed, by trusting for a supply of water 
to the water-works. That if some suf- 
ficient means to compel the water com- 
pany to fulfil their oblit^atious to the 
citizens be not adopted, or some other 
means be not devised to pijpvide an ample 
supply of water for the engines at fires, 
the members of the fire company cannot 
be expected to remain associated in a 
service, which, thus rendered inefficient, 
must become dishonourable. It was also 
resolved that a copy of the foregoing 
resolutions be forwarded to the city cor- 
poration, to the offices of the different 
insurance companies and the various 

(Signed) DAVID PATERSON. Captain. 
JAMES PRICE, Secretary. 

April 5th, 1847. 

At a special meeting, October 13th, 
1&47, Mr. Morris having taken the chair, 
it was resolved that the company turn 
out to receive the Governor-General on 
Friday. Accordingly the company aasem- 
bled at 3 o'clock, to join in the proces- 
sion to meet the Governor-General, and, 
after escorting his Excellency to the 
Mayor's residence, returned to the engine 
house and held a special meeting. 

At the monthly meeting. May Ist, 1848, 
the company met as usual, Mr. Paterson 
in the chair. After collecting a few fines 
Mr. Paterson left the chair, and Mr. D. 
Maitlaud vf&a appointed chairman for the 
evening. The company then proceeded to 
elect officers for the ensuing year. Those 
declared elected were as follows : For 
captain, Sproatt 10, Morris 9 ; for first 
lieutenant, Morris, unanimous ; for second 
lieutenant, IJobeon 10, Alderdice 8 ; for 
secretary, Pell unanimous ; for treasurer, 
Walker unanimous. 

At the monthly meeting, Augusti 7. 1848, 
the company met as unual, the captain 
in the chair. The committee for auditing 
the reports reported to have found them 
correct and satisfactory, the company 
having a balance in the treasurer's hands 
of £7 78. Gd. By order of the committer 
the following accounts were handed over 
to the treasurer, and ordered to be paid : 
Ross Mitchell's account for coat, W. 
Landon's account for ale, Mr. Doel's ac- 
count for ale. The captain rej)orted to 
the company the intelWgence that the 
ladies of Toronto intended to prpsent to 
them a banner on Thursday, the 10th 
inst., in the grounds of the old Govern- 
ment House, at two o'clock p.m., and at 
a special meeting of the officer.^ of the 
brigade the several companies were re- 
quested to meet in gala procession 
in order to receive the banner with due 
respect, and the men in connec- 
tion with the Hamilton Fire Brigade and 
corporation pwirtake of refreshment in 
the evening, to be paid for by each mem- 
ber of the different companies contribut- 
ing the smii of one shilling and three 
pence. It wa* resolved to meet at the haJl 
on Thursday at 1 o'clock in full n'galia to 
take part in the proces-sion. Accordingly 
on Thursday, August 1, 1S48, at the hour 
of 1 o'clock p. m., the company met in 
full regalia and proceeded to the govern- 
ment grounds in connection with the 
other companies to receive the splendid 
banner presented by the ladies of Toronto 
to the fire brigade, after which tlie pro- 
cession proceeded down King street and 
up Front street to Church street to the 
Church street fire hall. At 5 o'clock p.m. 
they went in procession to Mr. Beard's 
new building on Church street, on the 
north-east corner of Colborne and Church 
streets, afterwards Beard's hotel, to par- 
take of refreshments. On the whole the 
procession was decidedly the best of the 
kind which Toronto has ever seen, not- 
withstanding the day was most oppres- 
sively hot and disagreeable. 

The preceding to a certain extent 
anticipates history, but is given as the 
complete records of No. 3 Engine Corn- 
pa nj- from its minute book. 
To return to the history proper 





of the Fire D<']).irtm<>iit wo fiml tli.'it 
on April 12. is,*}*, in (Vmiiu'II. Aid. 
L('«.s!it' moved, Hi'C'r)udi>d by Aid. Hai'inT, 
"That nntil the fire di'pfirtnuMit in phiced 
undor Iho ri'y;iiliition ol' the (^(nincil, tin- 
Mnvor bi> uiiliiorizod to diri'i't tlic ismic 
of lifkct.s to cai'tiTs furnishing w.-itcr iit 
fires (US has bi'i-n nndi'r tho 
direction of llic captain of the late York 
Fire Cuinpnny." Cirricd. 

The fibove rf.«olnti<)n is tho first pffirinl 
record relating to the fire departnient of 
Toronto in the minutes of the mnnicipal 
co7|io:iai<)n of the City of Toronto. 

Two days later the firi^t Fire .-ind Water 
Conimitteo of the city was apiminted, and 
couHi«tf'd of Aid. t'arfrae and J.esslie and 
Counttilnian Doel. 

The first re|h>;t of the I'oniniittep on 
Fire, Water, etc., WiU* bronghl up on the 
23rd Ajiril, 1S;?4, and is as follows : 
•' Your committee, ia the dificharge of 
the diuy eiitrusted to them, beg to offer 
a few general snpget^tions, which they 
deem of importance, previous to submit- 
ting for your approval a bill for the 
prevention of the calamities to which the 
inhabitants of the city are exposed in 
casex of fiiv. In the present state of the 
city in regard to its wealth .and nu>ans 
of imiTovement, the cause from which 
, the greatest danger of fire arises cannot 
be jiltogether obviated. liiiililings of 
wocd must necessarily 1m> allowed to be 
erected in the cit; for many years, nntil 
by the improven nt of the Mech.anic Act* 
buildings of o. more substantial charac- 
ter may be constructed at less expense 
than they can now be, or nntil by the 
incr(\'i,se of the wealth and the improved 
facilities of its communication, stone feu- 
buildings shall be brought in iu such 
abundance as to do away with the in- 
ducements which now lead to the erec- 
tion of wooden houses. * ♦ • '['he value 
of ground on each side of King street 
having of late years been greatly enhan- 
ced, a« affording the best stands for 
places of business, your committee are 
led to believe that the proprietors of lots 
could without difficulty or diminution vi 
their rents lease them to iiersons who 
Woiv;j ;>rect brick buildings thereon, W(>re 
t'iere to be a city ordinance against the 
erection of those of wood. Should it be 
considered inexpedient, hoWi>ver, to at- 
tempt to enforce a n^gnlatiou of this 
kind, the danger arising from wooden 
houses, csjK'cially when constructed iu 
contiguous r.anges, may be greatly 
lessened by the erection of brick party 
Walls of sufficient thickness to prevent 
any part of the wood of one house from 
being affected bv fin' arising in those 
adjoining it. (Sd.) " TIIOS. CARFRAK. 
.,,.■. "JOHN DOEL." 

On 17th .Tune, 1834, the following were 
aiijiointed fire insiKJCtors for tho eevernl 
wards of the city: Johu Dennis .Tohnson, 
for St. George's, St. Andrew's and St, 
P.itrick's ; Exaveras Clinkunbroouier, for 
St. Lawrence and St. David's. 

Less than a month later tho chairman 
of fire, water, etc., iu Ida rc|)ort, said : 
That, as the citizens have come forward 
ami .subscribed liber. illy ff>r the purcbasi' 
of a fire alarm bell, aud, as it is also 
absolutely necess.ary that some plan 
sho'ild be adopted for conveying the alarm 
in cajje of fire to the respective firemen, 
wlio are scattered over the city, and, as 
the safety of the city and the preserva- 
tion of i)roperty depends greatly upou 
jnoniptitude of the firemen in attending 
at the place of conflagration, tho com- 
mittee, theiefore recommend to the Coun- 
cil the pi'opiiety of seconding so laudable 
an object by granting the sum of seventy- 
five pounds to carry tho plan into execu- 

The report was received, and adopted, 
and the amount voted. William Musson, 
Robert Emery, Malcolm McLennan, John 
Armstrong, and David Peterson were ap- 
pointed commissioners to expend the 

The ordinary expenses of the fire com- 
pany iu the first yeai' of 'I'oronto's his- 
tory as a city amounted to £17, 35s 
5 l-2d, including payment of officers, men, 
extra carters, etc. 

The appliances at the time consisted of 
two hand engine«, hose reels, and one 
hook and ladder truck. 

The second hook and ladder company 
♦.-as organized in 1836, when a sum of £55 
was voted in Council to the members for 
the purpose of securing uniforms. 

In 1.S37 a considerable amount of i-e- 
paiiing was done to the fire engines aud 
other apparatus by the orders of the cap- 
tains, and the bills sent in to the Com- 
mittee on Finance and AsBeasment, who 
.sent them in to the Council, recommend- 
ing them to bo paid, and at the same 
time protesting against the exjienditure 
of so much money without special per- 
mhssion from the Committee on Fire, 
Water, etc. Tho Council upheld the com- 
mittee iu •'^heir report. The sums which 
had been spent amounted to £32 18s. lOd. 

In March. 1838, the various fire com- 
panies were entirely reorganised by order 
of the Council, aud all men who wi«hed 
to become or to continue firemen had to 
report themselves to tlie CSerk of the 
Council before they were coufiidered eli- 
gible; also to say to which fire engine or 
firo company they wished to belong. 

In October, 1838, there wa« .a i;ood 
deal of excitement among the different 
fire companies as to whether the office 
of chief engineer of the department was 



e foUowluB wore 
for the severnl 
Df'niiiH .lohiison, 
drow'fl and St, 
ikuiibiuoiuer, for 

(*!• the cUairmnii 
lis rciiort, said ; 
v(> come forward 
for the purcbnsi' 
id, as it is also 
.liat Bomo pin 11 
vcyins tUo alarm 
spective firemon. 
thp city, and, as 
nd the prone rvn- 
Is greatly upou 
len in atlondiiif; 
ration, the com- 
iMid to the Coun- 
idlnK so laudiilili! 
> 811H1 of seventy- 
plan into execu- 

ed, and adopted, 
William Muhsom, 
McLennan, John 

'etersou were aji- 
to expend the 

of the fire com- 
of 'i'oronto's liis- 
ited to £17, 358 
t of officers, men, 

time consisted of 
reels, and one 

ladder company 
hen a sum of £55 
the members for 
le amount of re- 
fire engines and 
orders of the cap- 
in to the Com- 
Aweflsment, who 
ucil, recommeud- 
.nd at the same 
the exjienditure 
out special {)cr- 
mittee on Fire, 
upheld the com- 
The Hums wbicb 
to £32 18s. lOd. 
arious fire com- 
'gani^ed by order 
men who wished 
firomeD had to 
lie Clerk of the 
3 coufiidcred eli- 
ch fire engine or 
d to belong, 
re was a i;ood 
ig the different 
ether the office 
department was 

necpssary or not, and petitidns were sent 
to Council, two against the appointnu'iit 
aud <>'"' '" favour of it. The petitions 
well' referred to the Conunilli'e ou Firo 
and Water, who thonglit lli:it not only 
was till' office of chief t iigim-cr ncff.snary, 
but thai to make tJie coiupanles tlioruugh- 
Ir elfii'ii'nt it wouhl be well to have an iMigitu'er, and rtxoinnu'iidinfj; 
Ml. UobiMt Iti'ard, captain of the luiok 
iand ladder coiniwiny, for the powilion. 
This wa.s adopted by the Council, and 
carried out. At the «anie tiiiu' a new 
lire compauj was organized to take 


the City of TiHoiito, to whom good watjes 
will be given lor a vi'ar and suri' l)ay- 
nient. Aj)ply to .1. W.i'bh. Fii'' Insiwctor. 

N. P..— .1. W. \mh one ymiug nian two 
year.s I'luphiycd, who ktidws Ih'' iiihabi- 
lant« and their ni.'inni-r.s. 

The Fire Inspector reniu'sts 
editors of the papers in this 
lower provinces will give the 

In 1840 the hook and laddiM- <'(.iii|i.niy 
occupied the norili side of tin' Cliui'ch 
street building, the ciigiiio No. 2 the 
middle, and engine No. 1 the houiU side, 









charge of the No. 2 engine, and the old 
comriany dinbinided. 

Ill August, 1839, on the oeeasion of a big 
fin', the fire coiii|ianies nuu'o than usually 
distinguished theni.selves, and the 32nd 
IN'Kiim'nt turned out and helped to ex- 
tinguish the flames. Tiie Council passed 
a resolution of thanks, both to tli(> com- 
panies and the regiment, for their valu- 
alile services ou that ocension. 

The following advertisement is fdund in 
the ISritish Colonist of Febru;iry G, 1N3'.> : 

Wiuited— As K((0n as possible, three 
sober active men to sweep the flues of 

the three a|)artinents being connected by 
doors. The first engine of the No. 2 com^- 
I)anv w;us what is callvl a "goose iieek," 
fron'i the fact that the base was attached 
to a pipe curved like the neck of, 
and rising a.bout three feet above the 
deck oi the engine, or machine, as it was 
more familiarly known. Each of thess 
goose Tiecks had a cistern tir water tank 
attached to the rear of the engine. The 
suction lio-e was kept at the side of the 
engine on a wo ulen rod, and when it was 
wanted for duty it ws drawn from tho 
rod, and one end of the hose wfus screwed 




to the T&Ir« of the ongiDe in rear, and 
the othor nhoved into the aperture in 
the cistern, where a leather apron wait 
attached and a ntrop buckled round to 
keep iho watw in. The cistern would 
hold four or five puncheonM of water. 
Thi« engine wn« named the Toronto. 
In Mny, 1841. the chief engineer, 
ThoniiiH D. Harris, rcMigned hie ixj«ition 
in the department, and the Council pasaed 
the following resolution ; " That the 
thankM of this Council are justly due to j 
Thomas D. Harris, Ea.).. late chief cn- 
ginooi' of the Toronto Fire Departiueiit. 
lor hin valuable services as a inoxt im- | 
po.-taiit officer of tlii^ Council, and tliat ' 
him Woriship the Mayor bo rciuestoJ to | 

their apparatus. During the year 1842 
the first Bigna of the real organizatioa 
of the fire department bi^gan to appear. 
The next fire company— No. 4— were or- 
ganized in 1842. Thoma« Mnra was their 
firnt cni>takii. Their first engine was a 
gooAi; neck, and their second a 
machine, built in Temperance street 
by William Marks. Sho was larger, yet 
in style much the same as engine No. 2. 
This com|iany nod its first hall in old 
St. Patrick'e market, the entrance being 
at the ca^t side of the building. It wan 
located here for years, but in the fifties 
the engine was housed in a building on 
tlie Month side of Queen street, about 
seventy-five feet from the corner of John 


ST. Patrick's maukict— i ikst kikk uall fou no. 4 company, oboanized 1842. 

comoiunicate the.xe sentiineiits of the 
Council upon his rotirenien» from the 
office of chief engineer." 

He was succeeiled by Mr. Robert BeariL 
In the same mouth the resignation of Mr. 
li. Woodsworth, assistant engineer of the 
fire department, was received and ac- 
cepted, and Mr. .Joseph Wilson was ap- 
pointed first assistant engineer, and Mr. 
William Atkinson second assistant en- 
gineer of the Toronto Fire Department. 

In the autumn of 1841 the Bay street 
fire hall was built on the site which it 
now occupies. For this purpose the Coun- 
cil voted a sum of £200. The accommo- 
dation up to that time had been very 
bad, and the members of the brigade had 
petitioned the Council several times to 
give them a better place for keeping 

street. The present hall forms part of this 

In June, 1845. the Firemen's Benefit So- 
ciety was organized, and the members of 
the City Council were asked by [H'tition 
from the chief engineer of the Fire I)e- 
jKirtment. to become the patrons of the 
scheme, which they agreed to, at the same 
time thanking the (Icpartuient, tlirongli 
the chief engineer, for their laudable sug- 
gestions for the improvement of the 
Fire Department. The sum of £50 was 
also approj>riatcd out of the funds of the 
city as a. donation towards the funds of 
the newly-formed society. The main ob- 
jects sought were the i)roviding for fire- 
men who might be disabled at fires, or, 
in the event of death, for their widows 
and children. 

g the ypar 1842 
real orgauizatioa 
lM>fifnii to appear. 
—No. 4— were or- 
m Mara was their 
'st cnp^iue waa a 

aecoiid a piaaui 
ompcrauce street 
I waa larger, yot 

as engine No. 2. 
first hall in olil 
»e entrance beiuf; 
building. It was 
but in the fiftifs 
in a building on 
n Htroet, about 
ic coiner ol John 




KIZKD 1842. 

ruis |)«rt of this 

u'h I'l-nofit So- 
thc nu-mbiM's of 

(1 b.v jH'titimi 

tlio Fire Dc- 
patroiiH of the 
to, at the saine 
iiMMit, through 

l.mdable Bug- 
ement of thu 
ru of £50 w.'iH 
e fundH of the 
s the funds of 

The main ob- 
iding for fire- 
at fires, or, 

their widowa 

previous to 1840 various acta had boon 
ji.i-sfd relative to tht> fire regulation of 
til,' city. In or about that year the 
[,,!lo«iiiB fire ri'gulatiout were adopted in 
1,111' act. This ia the act :— 

Whereas, is ia expedient and will be 
f, .11 111! couvouieut to aiuend and reduce 
iatf> nn" act the different enactments for 
provciiting and extinguishing fires, and 
for rfguhiting the conduct of the officers 
(111(1 laou belonging to the «everal fire 
coinii.iiiii'H, and of other persona who may 
lii> prf'scnt at any fire; be it herefore en- 
acted by the Mayor, aldermen and coni- 
iiidiiiilty of the city of Toronto in common 
('ouncil aHsenibh'd, aa follows :— 

Sec. 1.— 'I'hat from and after the passing 
of this act, an act entitled "An act for 
tlie prevention and extinguifthing of 
fires," be, and the same is hereby re- 

Sec. II.— That the Fire Department of 
the city of Toronto shall consist of one 
chief engineer, etc. 

Sec. 111.— That the different engine, 
liook and ladder, hose and protection 
I'omftanips shall choose out of their own 
number tiieir own officera, etc. 

Sec. IV.— That it shall and may be 
lawful for the officers of the different 
eonipauies on the first Monday in May 
i)f each year to transmit to the clerk of 
the common Council the name of three 
fit and proper persons lor each of the 
offices of chief and assistant engineers. 

Sec. v.— The chief engineer, or, in his 
al)seucc, the senior assistant engineer, 
.^linll have the sole and absolute control 
over all the engines, etc. 

Sec. VI. -It shall be the duty of the 
officers and members of the several en- 
gine, hook and ladder and hose com- 
panies, whether a fire shall break out in 
the said city, to repair forthwith to the 
respective engine houses and thence to 
convey such engines and other apparatus 
ill aa orderly and expeditious .a manner 
as possible to or near the place where 
such fire may be, etc. 

Sec. VII.— The Clerk of the Common 
Conneil ehall grant to each member of 
each engine company, hose company and 
hook and ladder company a certificate 
that he is enrolled in the same, which 
certificate ehall entitle such person to 
the exemptions pn>Hcribed by the general 
law.s of the province. 

Sec. VIII.— U|)on occasions of fires it 
shall be the duty of the Property Pro- 
tection Committee to repair thereto, and 
witli their best endeavours to save fur- 
niture, merchandise and other property 
from the fire, and to convej' the same to 
places of safety ; the senior officer of the 
said company present shall have the sole 
command and control of said company ; 
ajid it shall be lawful for him to require 

the aid of any male inhabitant of the city 

between the ages of aixteen and sixty 

, years, wlio ia not assisting in extinguiah- 

, ing the fire, to aa^ist in carrying hii 

I onlera into effect. 

] Sec. IX,— In order that the engineer*. 
j officepB of companies and membera com- 
posing the fire department may be more 
; readily diatingniahed at firea, they shall 
; be reepcctively reciuired to wear auch 
I dress, cap and other insignia as the 
standing Committee on Fin^ and Water 
I shall direct. 

I Sec. X.-Tlie Mayor and aldermen of 

I the cit^', present at any fire, are hereby 

authorized to command any mule inhabi- 

, tant thereat to assist the fire department 

' in ex'' iguiahing the fire, and to remove 

and aij-auge any {lersons at or near the 

fire in such manner iw may bt> necessary 

I to allowing and aiding and assisting the 

fire department the more effectively to 

I discharge the duty, and in order that 

; the said Mayor and aldermen may be 

! more readily recogni/.ed and known, they 

; shall bear a wand with a gilded flame 

at the top, and each and every person 

who shall refuse to comply Avith such 

orders given as aforesaid shall be liable 

to be sent to the common jail of the city, 

and further dealt with a« the Mayor and 

aldermen may determine. 

Sec. XI.— All the licensed carters of the 
city liberties are required to attend all 
fires for the purpose of conveying water 
to the same ; and to secure the utmost 
promptitude the following premiums will 
; be awarded to such licensed carters or 
j others : To onj' carter or other iwrson 
I who shall with his horse draw the first 
j engine or fire r.pparatus to the fire the 
'sum ol ten shillings, and to any carter 
I or other jierson who shall with his horse 
' draw any of the subsequent engines cr 
other apparatus to the fire the sum of 
; five shillings ; to any person for the 
I first puncheon of water furnished to any 
j engine the sum of one pound five shillings; 
I for the second the sum of fifteen shillings, 
I and for every puncheon afterwards rc- 
1 quired by the chief engineer or officer 
commanding the fire department the sum 
of one shilling, but no carter shall be 
entitled to any premium whose puncheon 
is not three-fourths ftill when delivered 
to the engine, nor shall any carter leave 
the fire, except for the purpose of bring- 
ing water to the engine, until discharged 
by the officer in command of the fire de- 

Sec. XII.— That no person or persons 
ehall hereafter pass or cause to be passed 
through any portion of wood or wood and 
lime, or through any wooden floor in any 
house or building within the said city 
or liberties any stove pipe, or without 




■ i ;' 

l<'iiviiig «ix iin'hiH cliMir Iji'Iwcm'ii tin' 
pip' ;iii'I HiM'li p.'i tilioii or lltiiir. 

Si'<'. .*( 1 1 1.— 'I'liji I no (iccii|( lilt or oppu- 
|iaiit^4 ol' iiti.v liiiimi' or i)uil<liii!.; witliiii 
llii' Hili'l cit.v or lihi'rtiiM wliall [n'rinit 
iiiiy |ii|ii' Jiol''M not ill nsi' in nny cliiiiiiii'.v 
in Hiicli lioiisi' or l.uijiliiin to n'liinin o|M'n 
«inii not <liis('(l witli a Rt(i|)|i"r of iiii'tai 
uv oti'.i'r iiicoiiiliiinlilili' nm ti'iial, 

Sr.\ X I \'.— 'I'liii t no (X'cupiinl <if iiny 
liou-^(! hIiiiII p.iHH a Ntovc |ii|ii' tliroiiKli 
the (op or HJiii'it of any wooilcn licimi', out- 
Iioiisc, fence, or iiny liiiililin)^ 'ver. 
ouiiimI mill mciipiid Ijy liini, lier <.r tlnin 

till' HIIllli' hIi.'iII 

Nliiill pliici' ni' li • p n.^licH ri'iii('V''il U' m 

Mtovt's or fii'i'plar.'H ni any woo li'i 
oi' otiii'r wnoiI'Mi vi'^H"l, or iii'iir 
wiioiliMi pa rtlliiiii, in his, her or 
li(iii-i' or iiiius'M in till' Hiiiil city or 
li''s. Ill' in finv untlioiisi' or hIumI, or 
pl.ii r pi'i'iiiit lo 1)1' placi'd iiuy 

!i iiy 




or <lllllllirV 


ill tlic nail »'ity, inilei^H 
pn^'N tliioaKli a Htoue 
ill \fk aiiil mortar. 

S('<". W.-'I'lial no pi'i^oii Ol' jicrsdiis 
t<1iali lii'i'i'afti'r pla<' • any ntovc in aii.v 
lioii>-c or Iniililinn' in t!i" H'ii<! <'it,v <ir 
liliciticH \\illioul ll'a^ill^!; niii" in<'iic-( 
rlcar from aii.v wonlunrk ininicilialcly 
aliovc HiK'ii Klovc. ,-1111! ncvrii iiiclii's fri la 
any wooihvorii oppo'^it;' ilic Hiili'.s of the 
^alllc. anil at lea--ii, i'i!!;iit incin's from 'lie 
floor, anil all Kt'ive^ nliall be fiiriiishci! 
vvitli a iiict.'il to lie jilai'p'l iiikIlt 
the door of tlic said sto'>i'. 

tScp. XVI.— 'J'li.'it no propiii'tor or pro- 
prietors of any lioiiwe or liiii liling in \',lii«'li 
llieie .sliall lie one or nine <'liiniiir\p 
wiliiin the snid city o;' lil.iertie.-i tih; 11 
noj?le<'t or fail to Irive on Iuh. her or 
their houses or liuildiiij!;s. or aforesaid, 
one or UKU'e ladders, or sirill nee-ject to 
liave all ladders to cliimiieys well and 
fafoly faHleiu'd thereto with iron ho(ii<s. 
or shall nc^lK't or refine for cij;-|ii days 
after beiiiK required by the fire insj^iv- 
tor to furnish or repair the same, as 
ll:e case may be, 

'S(>c. XVII.— That no pi'i'son or iK'r»ons 
fdiall set fire to any shavin^r-^, chips, 
ptraw or any other comlnistilile matter 
for the purjiose of cnosnminj; Uie .same 
in any street, square or 1,'iiie in the said 
city or liberties, or within any enclosiu'e 
within fifty feet of any biiildii'i;,', or shall 
carry or keep, or suffer to be carried or 
l;ei)t, any liu'hted candle or l.-mip in any 
livery or otlu-r stables within tlie Haid 
city or liberties iinless Kueh lamp or 
candle shall be enclosed in a lantern or 
shade Ro aH to prevent any accidents 
f?-om fire therefrom. 

Spp. XVIII.-That no person Rliall Hmokc 
or have in his or her posfiossion aiiv 
liphted cipar in any .stable, carpenter or 
^abiDet makers' shop, or other nhop or | 
br;il(!iiip: where straw, shaviiifrs or other 
"riniljustihle matter may bi% or shall ; 
wrry fire throiiph any' of thi> Ktreets. 
squnrcs, laneii or court yards in the said | 
city or liberties, excejjt in koiiio covered i 
vi-esel or fire [lan. 

Si!c. XIX.— That no person or persons 

Miraw or aii.v oilier coinliiiMlible matei'inl 
iiiicnvei'ed in his or their court yard, or 
aii.v lot of :'.T ••Old within one luilidn d feet 
of any bnildii,;:. 

Sec. XX.— That no pi'rson or persons 
Khali fire oi' di-ehar;re any >;un, fowiin;: 
piece or fire arms, or shall set fire to any 
cracker, «i|uib, si'rpent or other firework-- 
iii aii.\' of the streets, lanes or sipiares of 
the said city. 

."^ec. XXI. It hIhiII lie the duly of th" 
fii'i' in-pict.ii' Im cause to be well and 
effectually swept, ironi the first day of 
.\o\eiiiher to till' first day of .\prii, in 
each Mi'l every .vear. each and ev'r.\ flue 
or cliiinne.v in use in the cit.v once in 
each sL-c Weeks, and for the remaiiid"r of 
the year oiu-e in e-.-ery two month-, and 
he is hereby authorized and empowered 
to deinaiid and receive the followin(r rate 
I and charji;es, viz., the sum of fouriience 
' for each .'iml evry time he shall cause to 
be .swejit an.v flin' in aii,y house or liiiild- 
iiifr which does not exceed in hein'hl one 
storey ; the Mum of sixpence for each and 
ever.v time he shall to be swept 
an.v flue in an.v lioiis.' or building which 
does not exceed in liei;:ht two stoi'eys 
above the viotind ; th •' sum of wevenpence 
half-penny for each and every liine he 
shall cause to b" sw'pl an.v flue in any 
house or Itiiildiii:;' of an.v jrrealer heiejht, 
which char.tfe shall b' paid b.v thi^ occu- 
pier of every such house, tciienieni or 

.''^ec. XXII.— That no occupier or f)ccti- 
piers of an.v house, tenement or luiihliutj 
siiall refuse to let his, her or their chini- 
ni'v or flues be swept in the manner and 
a.s often as before provided. 

.^ec. XXlil.— That ill all cases where 
any chimney shall catch fire within the 
siiid city or libertk'b, either within the 
time prescribed by this net the regularly 
Kweei)ing of tht snira', vir in conseijiieuce 
of the same liavi i;r oeen not rc;:iil'irly 
.swept, the Fir.' in.pector Khali himseif 
be liable to the .s.'ime jienalt.v as is pre- 
scribed for the breach of any "of th ■ other 
provi.sions of this act. 

Sec. XXIV. -That ii ■ ::all be the duty 
of the Fire I:isi..":'.,i' to ■•iccouipaiiy in 
[MM'son the cliiiniiey sweepers in iheii' 
rounds tl!rou;h the city or liberties, to 
fU'c they discharge their duty in iiroper 
inannei- ami without unn"ee.^s'iry aniioy- 
(ince or trouble to the licmseholdi'i's, and 
it sli.'ill be his duty to f;ive to each house- 
In Ider within the city at least one day's 
notice of the time when he will atlend'lo 




I-i'iiicV'il I'l' ui 
!>■ Willi li'l; 'jf'S 
II' iii'ii r II iiy 

111 r III' llii'ir 
1 I'ily ur lilii'i'- 

kIii'iI, di' k'i:.!! 
U'i'il auy liay, 

■'lilili' llintri'iiil 
('(piirl viinl. or 

:i' lilllidi'i'il I'l'i'l 

(III or pi'i'-iiiis 

V mill, timliiii: 
ni'l fin' til :iiiy 
it lie I' I'iriMM.i'U-, 
i 111' si|ii,iri-i 01 

H- duty III' thi' 
I be well .mil 
I' first iliy of 

V of A[)ri;, iu 
.'iiitl cv'ji'y iliu- 

city oiK'i- ill 
' rc'inaiiid'T of 

lIUIIltlH, illlll 

11(1 i'iii|)i)\\i'ri'(l 
folliiwiiiK rati' 

1 of foiirpciice 
shall caiisi' to 

loiisi' 111' liuild- 

iii hrijjln. out' 

' for each and 

■ to bi' nwi'pt 

jiiildiny; which 

two stori'VM 

of wcvi-niii'iici' 

^vi'i-y tiini' hi" 

ly fliii' ill any 

ri'alcr lii'i;rlit, 

by tin; o('(.'U- 

ti'iiciucul or 

pier or oci'ii- 

it or buijiliuii 

ir tlii'ii' i.'liiiii- 

nu! liner and 

Casi's wiii'rt' 

n' witiiiii the 

r witiiiii thi' 

the M'^iiilarly 

1 L'OllSlMiU.'UCI' 

lot i'(\;riil-irly 
shall liiiuHf'ii' 
ty as i;i [)ii'- 

V of th ■ Otlit.T 

be till' duty 
C'coin p'liiy in 
I'i'H ii! ihi'ir 

libi'i'iii's. to 
ly ill piKpiT 
.^sary aiiuov- 



pay tlu' 

or piT- 

o I'acli liniisi'- 
!i>t one day's 
vill attend lo 

dwei'pluK tho chiiimoyrt of Huch houso- 

Sif. XXV.-Thnt it «h'ill be the tluty 
of tlie FIro IiiHfK'Ctor to make a report 
to the clerk of the eoninioii <'()ii!i('il on each 
nnil every Monday of the year, by 10 
oVl(X'k in the forenoon, containiiit; all the 
inlrnctioiifl of thin art, by wlinni and 
where poiumittcd, and nhall proHecute to 
eoiivietioii when practicable Mueh of- 

Sec. XXVI,— That no person or persoim 
shftH refuse after any flue or chimney 
shall be swept aH aforesaid, to 
rate or charKe authorized to be 
ed by tho Fire Iiutpcctor. 

Sec. XXVI 1.— That no person 
■Oil? other tliiui the Fire Inspector or In- 
gpcctors appointed by tho common Coun- 
cil shall Bweep or cause to be swept for 
liim, or gain any chimney or flue iu tho 
aaid city or liberties. 

Sec. XXVII.— That any |»otson guilty of 
any of the infractions of the provisions of 
this act after the 10th section iheieof, 
on conviction before the Mayor or any 
one or more of tho aldermen, shall for- 
feit and pay at the discretion of the 
Mayor or alderman or aldermen convict- 
iup, a sum of money not exceeding ,t.'>, 
nor loHB than 2h G(1, and in default of 
pfiyment of the fiue, toj?ether with the 
costs of prosecution, it shall be law- 
ful lor tho Mayor or alderman convicting 
to issue his or their warrant to levy the 
sum by distress and sale of the offenil- 
er'f ^:ood8 and chattels, and in case of no 
sufficient distress being found whereof to 
make tho amount of fine and costs, it 
shall and may bo lawful for tho Mayor 
or alderman or aldermen, as aforesaid, 
to commit the offender or offenders to 
the common jail of the h( me district for 
auy period not exceeding 30 days or less 
than one day. 

Another regulation at this time was 
that in case of fire both boils of 8t. 
James' cathedral wore to bo rung. Tho 
keys of tho church were kept at W. At- 
kiiis.'n's city buildings, and .-it the Polico 
Station, West Market place. 

Ill 184G tho Fire Department of To- 
ronto consisted of tho following officers, 
comtianioB and halls :— Chief engineer, 
Robert Beard; assistant engineers, .Joseph 
Wilson and Thom.'ts Miles. 

Fire Engine Company No. 1, " York," 
Ili'ury Welsh, captain; station Fireman's 
Hall, Church street. 

Fire Engine Company No. 2, " Rescue," 
William lioynolds, captain ; station, Fiiv- 
man's Hall, Church street. 

Fire Engine No. 3, " British America," 
David Pateraon, captain; station, Fire- 
man's Hall, Bay street. 

Fire engine No. 4, "Victoria", A. De 

OrasNJ, captain; ntation, St. Patrick's 

Hook .iiid I, Milder ('oinpany No. 1, "To- 
ronto'':. I(. Piper, captain; station, Fire- 
man's Hall, Church street. 

IIiMik and Lidiler Cmnpauy No. 2, "Her- 
cull's"; .1. Armstrong, captain; station, 
Fireman's Hall, I'.ay street. 

In December, 1S4('., Chief Enginooi 
Beard. ()f the Fire Diipartniont, sent in 
his resit^natioii, which, after being refer- 
red to a '(elect conimitti'o, was accepted. 
At the next ineetiin; of tho Council the 
first and secuiid engineers sent in their 
resignations, which were also accoptod. 
Mr, .lames .Ai'iiistrong was the next chiol 
engineer, but it wa« not till March, 1H47, 
! that Mr. A. Do ( and Mr. Hiram 
i Piper were appointed as first and second 
I assistant engiin'ors of the departineiit. 
I A by-law w.'is passed in Septembt^r, 
[ 1S47, which provided for the issue of de- 
, bentures for the sum of £1,000 for tho 
use of the Fire Department. This is the 
first really large appropriation for the 
use of that department tliat there is any 
record of, and, to juilgo from tho numlwr 
: of times it had boon asked for, it was 
1 very badly needed, 

I The officers selected by tho Council for 
I 1S4S wore :— Mr. Rtbert Beard, chief 
I engineer; Mr. Thomas Mills, first assist- 
j ant engineer, and Mr. Edwin Butt, second 
I nsr.istant engineer. 

I III M.'iy, 1S4!>, the chief engineer, and 
j the assistant engineers of tho fire de- 
I partmeiit, as well a^s some of tho firo 
I coiiipanies, sent in their resignations to 
I thi' Council, and thin led to an ontiro re- 
: organization of the brigade IxMiig re- 
[ solved upon .'ind cnrried into effect shortly 
afterwards. A tax of throopoiico in tho 
Iioiind was levied to provide funds for the 
' maintenance oi a. tiionuighly efficient 
1 and well equipped fire brigade. Lato in 
; tho same year Mr. Tliomiu* French and 
I twonty-tliri'i' other ineniberH of tho old 
I firo brigade ; Mr. Jos. Board and twcnty- 
1 five others ; Mr. .Tames Aslifield and 
thirty-five others, applied in a body to 
I tho Council for pormiwion to become part 
I of the re-organized lirigado, which waa 
I granted thorn. The officers chostMi for tho 
I fire brigade in 1S.50 wo'-o ; Mr. Robert 
Beard, chief engineer ; Mr. Edwin Butt, 
I first afisistant enginoor, and Mr. William 
; lioynolds, wcond assistant engineer. 
I In 18.'>0 the firo companies of Toronto 
I and their officers wore ;— 

Chief engineer, Robert Board; first a«- 
I sistnnt, Edmund Bell; second assistant, 
I William Reynolds; firo warden, James 
j Armstrong. 

I Fire Engine Company No. 1, " York "— 
I Captain, S. Garside; first lieutenant, John 
I Iredale; secretary, James Davis; treas- 
' urer, James Paterson. 




Fire Kusim' Coinpiiny No. 2, "Toronto" 
— ("aiitiiin, A. ArdaKli: fii'st lii'uti'naiit, W. 
Marliii; scciud lii titi'iiaut, — . Ciirrutlii'rs; 
Bfcretary, John Koildy; treasurer, James 

Fire EiipiiiC" Company Xo. 3, "British 
Ami'rica''- C'lptain, H. Sproatt: first lieu- 
teuant, C. IJoweli; wvoiid lieutenant, 
George Pieri'y; Kefietary, Jolm Doel; 
treiwurer, Cliark'H Walker. 

Fire Engine Company, No. 4, " Vic- 
toria,"— Captain, Francis French; first 
lieutenant, Job Bi'.ker; second lieutenant, 
James Beaty; Ireiwurer. G. Simpson. 

Hook and Ladder Company No. 1, "To- 
ronto."— Cai>tain, Jos. Bird ; first lieu- 
tenant, Robert Kirk; second lieutenant, 
F. Milligan; secretary, John Wallace; 
trea-surer, S. Mclean. 

Hook and Ladder Comp.iny No. 2, "Her- 
cules."— C<iptiiin, William Hill; first lieu- 
tenant, John Johnson; second lieutenant, 
Thomaa Graham; secretary, Hugh Close; 
treasurer, W. Lownsborough. 

Hose Company No. 1, "Niagara."— Cap- 
tain, William Stephens; first lieutenant, 
Jame.s Addison; second lieutenant, Robert 
Ijewis; secretary, John Held; treasurer, 
W. Morrison. 

On the 28th January, 1850, an act wa« 
(jbsned to provide for the erection of 
party wall«, and to prevent the erec- 
tion of buildings diuigerous in promot- 
ing fires within certain limits. This act 
provided that : 

All buildings within the limitt of George 
street on the ea«t to the centre of York 
street oa the west: from the centre of 
Adelaide rrtreet and Duke street on the 
north to the bay on the south, are to 
be divided into five cla.<«ea. All churelies, 
chapels, distilleries, breweries, foundries, 
furnaces, etc., of any dimeaisions, and 
dwelling houses, warehouses, etc., of four 
storeys high above ground, or forty feet 
in height, to be deemed of the first class; 
dwelling houses, etc., of three eloreys, 
or thirty-five feet in lieight, to be of 
the se<'oaul cliuis; dwelling houses of two 
etoreys, or twenty-two feet in height, to 
be of the third closa; d«x'lling liouses <if 
one storey, or sixteen feet ir. heiglit, to 
be of the fourth claiss; in\ielling houses or 
offices and stables belonging thereto, and 
at a distance of six feet fi'om any pub- 
lic road, and detached from othei- build- 
ings not in the same possessinn, at least 
thirty-five feet, to be deemed a first- 
class building, and can bo built of any 
dimensions or material whatever. 

The external or party wall.-* of the first 
four classes of building are to be of cer- 
tain degree of thickiies.", varying from 
eighteen to thirty-five inches and up- 

Shop windows or frontw not to pro- 

; ject more than aii inches from the wall 

of the building. 
I Craui's or hoisting jibs to be wholly 
I constructed of iron or other incombustible 
, material. 

No Covered gallery or verandah con- 
structed of wcxid or other coinbustilila 
material to be erected in conneeti<in with 
buildings of the first or second class, or 
with any other than the ground floor 
thereof, unless a« a «'ommunieation from 
one to another stwk of buildings, with its 
ends only abutting on said buildings. 

Buildings of the first, second and third 
class, being erected ou the line of any 
public street or way, or within seven 
feet of such, to be properly enclosed, and 
a pathway of sufficient width laid for 
the convenience of the public outside such 

The Common Council to appoint a city 
surveyor (Mr. J. S. Howard waa the first 
apjKjinted) to oversee the erection of all 
buildings within the above described 
limit*, and to enforce the provisions of 
the act regarding them, and to be en- 
titled to demand and receive from the 
owner of the building built, altered or 
reconstructed the following fees : For 
every ?irBt-rate building, twenty-fivf 
shillings; every addition or alteratioii, 
seven shillings and sixpence; every 
second-rate, twenty shillings; every alter- 
ation or addition, six shillings and three- 
pence; every third-rate, fifteen shillings; 
every addition or alteration, five shil- 
lings; every fourth -rate, twelve shillinsB 
and sixpence; every alterationi or addi- 
tion, five shilling"; ttvery fifth-rat', ton 
shillings; every alteration or addition, 
five shillings. 

No iron foundries, blacksmith shops or 
steam engines to be set up or worked 
within any of the aforesaid limits, with- 
out leave of the Common Council, by re- 
solution thereof. 

W^ithout permission of the Council no 
pers.m to establish or carry on any manu- 
factory of, fireworks, or any 
manufactory dangerous or causing or pro- 
moting fire. 

Steamers, wb^u at any of the dock* 
or wharves, in front jf the city, to have 
a top or screen attached to the chim- 
ney.s to prevent the escape of sparks. 

No {>ersou to have or keep .i larger 
quantity than twenty-eiu;ht [wunds of 
fiun powder in one place longer than forty- 
ei:>ht hours, except in a powder magaziut' 
approved of by the Common Council, said 
twenty-eight pounds to be put in stone 
jars or tin canisters of sev<>u iKiund^. eacli. 

The City Surveyor, when directed by 
the Mayor or any al<ierman. is to exam- 
ine all fire-places, hearths, ovens, boilers, 
furnaces, stoves, stovepipes, or otlui 
places where fii'os arc made or kept or 



!8 from the wall 

)8 to be wholly 
ler incombustible 

' verandah con- 
;hcr conibustililft 
1 conm'i'ti<in with 

BW-'oud I'lass, 01 
:he ground Uvut 
iniunieation {rum 
uildingH. with its buildings, 
second and third 

the line of any 
or within seven 
»riy euclo«ed. and 
t width laid for 
ublic outside such 

to .ippoint a city 
ard waa the first 
iie erection of all 
above described 
the provisions of 
a, and to be eu- 
receive from the 
built, altered or 
wing fees : For 
liug, twenty-fivt' 
on or alteratioL, 
sixpence; every 
lings; every alter- 
lillings and three- 
fifteen shillings; 
ration, five ehil- 
twelve shillinKS 
teration or addi- 
ry fifth-rut;-, ton 
tion or additiou, 

kemith shops or 
et up Of worked 
lid limits, witli- 
Couucil, by re- 

)f the Council no 

rry on any manu- 

•ew<irkfl, or any 

r causing or pro- 

ny of the docks 
the city, to have 
led to the chim- 
ape of sparks, 
keep a larger 

iij;ht [Mounds of 
onger than forty- 
powder miigaziiie 
mon Council, said 

be put in stone 

veu jKtuudh. eacli. 

hen directed by 
man, is to exam- 
lis, ovens, boilers, 

ipt^H, or otlii'i 
nade or kept or 

where ashes are kept, and report thereon 
to the Mayor or presiding aldermen, and, 
under their direction, if the same be dan- 
gerous, to notify the owner, occupier or 
party under the building where such dan- 
ger is apprehended, to discontinue or re- 
move tuch fire or ashes. 

Other provisions of this act relate to 
party walls, the construction of chim- 
neys, window sills, eave troughs, cornices 
and roofs. 

While the volunteer fire laddies, with 
their high regard for the responsible sense 
of good citizenship in freely giving their 
time aud services for the protection of 

Nojih R. Ix-onard second assistant en- 
gineer of the brigade at the same time. 

The Council of 1852 retained Mr. Asli- 
field as ehiof of the fire brigade, and 
nj)|H)inted Mr. William Fleming first 
ussistuut engineer, and Samuel McLean 
second assistant engineer ul' the Toronto 
Fire Brigade. 

Mr. Arthur Ardagh was appointed 
second assistant engineer of the fire bri- 
gade in 1853. The chief engineer was 
not changed. 

About 1 858 a piano engine was obtained for 
No. 'Jand named the Rescue. The " piano" wtis 
to called because it somewhat resembled 

.I.VMKS ASHFIF.r.n—AlM'nlVTKl) (MIIF.l' FIKE IlRtO\T)R 1851— RKSHr.FD 1885. 

property and life, were drafting regula- 
tions for their own governance and for 
the safety of buildings, the city fathers 
were moulding history in many chapters 
of the early features of Toronto's fire- 
lightiug army, 

In 1851 Mr.' James Ashfield was ap- 
pointed chief engineer of the Toronto Fire 
IJrigade, in place of Mr. Robert Beard, 
who had resigned. Mr. Ashfield joined 
the brigade in 1839, waa apiH)inted cap- 
tain of a company in 184(5, nnd Lad 
proved himself to be a very able aud 
efifcient officer. Mr. .John Carr was np- 
poiuted first ussistuat eiigiut>er, ami Mr. 

the box of a piano, with two ba „• 
brLikes at the sides. The " fore and afl 
machine, of Avhich, at a later period, 
there were 8|>eoimeiiH in town, differed 
from the " piano," in that the brake* 
were at the tad instead of the sides. 
Like No. 2 Company, No. 1 at first had 
a " goose neck " machine, aud later a 
" piano." 

Not 1 company wos afterwards located 
in a brick building, on Court street, 
erected in 18-iG, the upper portion of 
which was devoted to tto Mechanics' In- 
Btitute with its library, ind a hall for 
public meetings. The luwer portion was 




(liviili'd into tlireo halln, ouo to the Mv-st 
ff>r No. 1 coiniiaiiy, tin' I'l'iitix- liall for 
No. 2. ivnd the I'fiHti'ru hull for tiic hook 
and laddrr company. No. 2 conipany 
occupit'd tlio Court strout hall up to about 

Oi' conipaay No. 2, Alexander Jaccjuos 
fiayd : " Smioliow this coiiipaiij' (No. 2t 
wore unalik- to find a lovt'-«pot in the 
chief eugiut'or'H heart, aud whilst other 
compauiee had oidy to (ujk niul their 
wautH were Hupplied, No. 2 uever got 
even a heariiiK- lu this state of affairs 
we hud a friend, Mr. Frank lie ward, 
the man.'URer of the Hoyal Insurance 
Coniiiiuiy, who ever Btood by the 
boys of No. 2. For some years the city 
paid prize inotiey, as also the admission 
fee, .$5, and the profits of excursions to 
Rochester and lUiffalo were husbanded. 
In 185'J an order wavS given to Cowan 
& Son, engine builders, of Seneca Falls, 
N.Y., for a first-da^ss folding break piano 


stood sJiouIder to shoulder with their cap- 
tain, and his departure was a signal fo:- 
a break-i'p. John Pearcey moved the dis- 
banding ri'solution. Peter Campion ov 
Thomas Mcllroy were the Becondern. 
The resolution was to the effect ' That 
whereas the captain waw goiug to leav.' 
the city, the company s«^ll out vheir stocli 
aud (juit the servic, uever to i-uu wit!-, 
any machine or under another officer.' 
Marry Smith was general charge 
d'affaires around the hnll, aud kei)t tlir 
boys iu order. There are still 
alive in the Queen City a few of the old 
members of No. 2 : Thomaa Farragher, 
Thoniaa Mcllroy, Alexander Peareey, 
George McConkey, Williau) Reynolds, John 
Pearce, Joseph Worden, Harry Smith, 
William Forbes and Thomas McMuUeu." 
The officers for 1854 were :— Mr. James 
Ashfield, chief engineer ; Mr. Arthur 
Ardagh, firsL assistant engineer, and Mr, 
I William Charlton, second assistant engi- 


machine to throw three streams, a reel 
aud 500 feet of hose. In due time the 
machine was built, and in her co.istruc- 
tion the Cowans had elaborated, as it was 
their firet in this market, and they were 
desirous of getting more orders. A house 
was secured ou the east 8id(> of Youge, 
directly opjiosite Elm st. Double doors were 
put in, wash-rooms, boot-rooms, bunks for 
twelve men .and a neatly furnished rend- 
ing-rooni were fitted up. This latter was 
a popular resort for many of our friends, 
who resided in that then rural part of 
Toronto. Here such men as " Yorkshire " 
Smith, and men of that ilk, would si)eiid 
a social hour reading, smoking and enjoy- 
ing a game of draughts, backgammoa 
and whist. The machine was known as 
Ijidef)endent No. 2. Finally, as years 
rolled on and the city expanded, it wiis 
found necessary to go in for powerful 
Water- woi'kw, and the steamer was in- 
tnxlnced. The captain, in fact the only 
captain the company ever had, having 
met reverses, was about to leave the city. 
A meeting was called. The bo3rH had ever 

necr. These same officers held their re 
epective posts in 1855 and 1856. 

In 1855, on the resignation oi the mem- 
bers of the fire brigade, that body wan 
entirely re-organized, and consisted of 
six engine companies, one hook and lad- 
der company, and one hose company, with 
officers as follows : 

No. 1 Engine, Phoenix Company— Mr. 
John Irediile, captain; Mr. ThoniasHum- 
phries, lieutenant ; Mr. 
mers, secretary. 

No. 2 Engine, Rejficue 
James Smith, captain ; 
Brotherston, lieutenant ; 
Lee, secretary. 

No. 3 Engine, British America Company 
—Mr. John Segswortii, captain; Mr. 
Rober. Carmichael, lieutenant; Mr. John 
Fogg n, secretary. 

No 4 Engine, Victoria Company— Mr. 
Geoi j:e Reatty, captain; Mr. Robert 
Kich.uond, lieutenant ; Mr. William Dill, 

No. 5 Engine Company (Deluge)— Mr, 
Loftus Ti'ueman, captain ; Mr, George 

George Sum- 
Company— Mr, 
Mr, William 
Mr, Thoodoro 


held their re 

iou oi the mem- 
that body wns 
id cousisted of 

hook and lud- 

company, with 

M,i;\AM ; I.\<.,)tTl.s, I IKKMAN ANli ('ATTAIN IlESCUK COMI'ANY NO. '_', lS.V_»-,"{. 

0|). \<\i 






Patterson, lieutenant; Mr. Thomaa 
Jewell, isecretnry. 

Ko. 6 Engine, Provincial Company- 
Mr. ^V. W. Fox, captain ; Mr. John Car- 
keek, lieutenant ; Mr, James liichey, 

captain ; Mr. Wiliinm Burua, lieutenant ; 
Mr. C. E. Ilolliwell, secretary. 

The report of the chief engineer of the 
fire brigade for 185G gives a list of the 
different fire conipauiea, the uumbttr of 
men attached to each, apparatus, and 

Iltiok and Ladder Company, Union 
f)onipany-Mr. R-chard Ardanh, captain ; 
Mr. ('liarle.s P,ent.y. lieutenant ; Mr. Sani- 
upl McLean, secretary. 

Hose Comp.iny-Mr. W. C. Morrison, 









where fltationed ns follows : 

No. 1, Phoenix Cumpany— Tweaity-nine 
men, stationed at Court street. 

No. 2, Heseue Company — Twenty-nine 
men, stationed on Court street. 





No. 3, British America Company— Thirty 
men, stationed ou Bay street. 

No. 4, Victoria Compjiny — Seven teem 
iii.Mi, Ntatioued at the old St. Patrick'H 

No. 5, Deluge Company — T.weuty-four 

The hose compnny had 45 men, and 
was stfitioned on Bay street. 

The total number of men, without th« 
chief and assistant engineers, was 227, 

The loBs during the year wi\e estimated 
at £12,376, which wae corered by about 







men. stiUioiiod on Rorki-ley streot. 

No. 6, Provincial Conipnny— Thirty-five 
men, statioiu'il on Baj- stroot. 

The lioolc and laddi'r compaiij' w.ts com- 
j)oeed of 23 nn'ii, and waa stationed on 
Court stroi't. 

£17,075 insurnncf. 

Till' first captain of No. 5 companj 
w;i« Mr. John Kidd. John and Cliarlos 
Small and Saniucl Parker wore amoiiR 
till' first nioniluM's. TluMr first hall wa» 
ill a lane ni'ar llie south-west comer of 1 




5 company ; 
and Cliarlos 
wore amoiiR 
MI- first hall wa' 
ith-west corner of 

IVrkt'Io^ "ii'l Huko stroots. Tt stands to- 
, ;iy as it did foitj .voaiv apo. Thi'ir fir«t 
riicin'' ^^'"^ "• Mtvon l-tiaud oiu> puiclui>ii'<l 
f'oin Olio of the older coinpaiiios. Aftnr- 
wiu-ils thoy prociii't'd nii Amoskcap, wliii'h, 
for a hand maoliine, wa-s a most flcr^ico- 
ahlc ont'. The cuKino wntt some years 
Inter hoiwed In n builrtiaff on the south- 
weft corner of Duke and Berkeley streets. 
Somewhere about the year 1853 the 

hlbition in Ixindon, and to have been 

BiMit directly from it. At this time there 

were two hook and ladder com)>anieH in 

the department. Mr. Ashfield, wIk> was 

chief of the fire department at that time, 

found that there was a good deal of strife 

I between them, and in coiKBoqneuce dis- 

j bnndetl Hercules iKick and ladder company 

I No. 2, whicli Imd moma at the corner of 

I Bay and Temperance artrceti, and placed 


Provincial Inmitance Company, which had 
its oi'ficee on Toronto street, at the 
nortli-east corner of Coiitt street, bought 
from Perry, of Montreal, an engine known 
us the Montreal " fore and nft " tub, and 
ranking in the first cla«8, and presented 
it to the city for tho uso of the fire de- 
I pannont. The engine wa« one exhil itod 
by the manufacturers at the Great £x- 

the Montreal engines in their hands, 
changing the organization from a hook 
and ladder compan,^ to a fire engine 
company. As there Arerc five fire engine 
companies in existence previously, this 
made No. 6, but it wat better known as th« 
" Provincial," because it wafl a pet ol 
the insurance company of that name. 
William Fox was captain of the company. 



In the eamo buildiug with it wn.s located 
the Jucktioii hose couipaiiy. ThJH com- 
pajiy woa oi-gauizod by Willinm Hcuiiiiif?, 
but BouH'how the iiiimt' of JackMoii Avas 
given to it in houoiir of JanicK .Tack«oii, 
who at a Iritor iwriod was cajitaiii. Tho 
company in tho ol"d days w.'\n a very 
useful and highly resiK-ctable body. 

a how reel, wore temporarilj' Htatiouod I 
in a hal) on tlie west eide of Elizabeth 
fitroet, Houth of Apnes street. In the fo!. 
lowing j'ear the company disbanded, ami 
the hall, along with the bell tower, weri' 
removed to the east eide of ElizabetL 
(Street, but north of Agnca etreet. Tliere 
veteran Bob Hill was in charge, his 




The salary of the chief ensineer of the 
fire brit^ade was fixed at £250 per an- 
num by tlie Council of \><~u. 

In the latter part of 1857 au independ- 
ent engine comi>any was organized on ac- 
count of the i)re valence of ineendi;iry 
fire«, with Robert Hunter a.s captain. 
This company, with old No. 4 engine and 

principal duty being to ring au alarm 
on the bell in ca«e of fire. The engine 
was tran.sferre(l to Bay street hall. 

In May, 1858, in consequence of the 
very larg(> number of fires which had oc- 
curred, the Mayor called a special meet- 
ing of the Council to consider the best 
means of protecting the property of the 



citizoim ngainst firo. It wns resolved to 
or^caui/A' a voluutcer night piitrol 
throughout the city, and alKo to offer a 
reward of $1,500 for the appreheusion 
nud oouvictiou of au.v perNoii who Bhould 
be guilty of setting fire to any premiBes. 

The officers for 1858 were the same as 
ill the previouH year. 

A bad habit among the membore of the 
fire brigade thou (1858) was the runnir^ 

Hhould proceed at a faster rate than a 
waljj wliile n'tuniinj; from fires with 
tlieir iipp.'iratim. the amotnit of the 
fine to be deducted from tlieir |)ay. 

In 1859 the Committee of Fire. Water 
and GiiH appointed Mr. .Tames Aslifield, 
chief eiii;ineer of the fire department, 
William Chiirltoii, first assistant oiigiueer, 
and James Smith, second assistant en- 
giueer. lu this same year a firo eugiue 


lof engines and reels on tlie sidewalks 

|Trhil8t going to and returning from fires. 

This resulted early in the year, in the 

death of Terence Meehan, fireman, of No. 

Co., by one of the engines running over 

him, and steps were thereupon immedi.a- 

ely taken to put a stop to the practice. 

For this purpose a penalty of £5 was to 

imposed upon any company which 

was constructed for the use of No. 4, Vic- 
toria Company, of the Fire Brigade, the 
cost of which was about $1,200. The work 
WJ18 done by Mr. Win. Marks, of Toronto. 
In consequence of the very great num- 
ber of disastrous fires which had taken 
place during this year, and which were 
supposed to have been of incendiary ori- 
gin, the Council issued a proclamation, 




oarly in Soptcmbcr, offoriuc; a reward of 
$1,000 for the conviction of the guilty 

In lS5n the fire department con«i«ted 
of eight oonipanies, the «ame lut in 1856, 
ninnl)erinp 203 nuMi, Htatiowcd and offi- 
cered tin follows : 

Jamen ABhlield, chief engineer, Temper- 
ance (Street; William Charlton, first a«- 
fiistant engineer, Victoria Htreet; James 
Smith, second nasistaut engineer, Front 

Early in IHOO a by-law was pRMi«;| 
which provided for the organization i 
two ho«e <'onipaiiirs, of 20 men each, ii 
stead of having, as formerly, only cj:,. j 
company, conwsllng of 40 men. This liv- 
law wnfl introilu<ed, tia the committe* 
reports, "for tin' better management i>\ 
the fire brigade, nnd to represB aa niurM 
as possible the long continued praclii. j 
of running the engines, etc., on the sid... 
walks when going to fires." The by-laiJ 
was carried into effect on October Int. 


The captains were : .lohn Iredale, No. 
1 engine, Yonire street; Alexander 

.Tac(iues, So. 

eiiprine. King street ; 

Frederick Rattray, Xo. 3 engine, Yongc 
street; Edward Street, Xo. 4 engine, 
Que^n street; Samuel P;irker, Xo. 5 en- 
gine, Ontario street; George Fox, Xo. 6 
engine, (Juecn street; .lames Bennett, 
hook and ladder company, Colborne street; 
James Jackpon, Toronto nos<' Coinp;uiy, 
King street. 

Tu 1S.50 .a new fire hall was erected on 
tho west side of Berkeley street, south of 
Duke street. 

1S60, and the now company was stn- 
tioned at the old fire hall on Court street, 
The captains of No. 1 wen^ :— Jann'< 
Walsh, S. Garside, .Tames Iredale ani'.l 
William Charlton, after assistant I'li- 
nineer. The captains of No. 2 were W.I 
XInsson, Fi'anklin Jacques, Edwin Bill. 
William Reynolds, Richard Couch. Thr nin? 
(liifl'ith, James Smith, Edw.-ird Lee, Ali'x- 
ander Jacques. Amone: the men were \\. 
Brotherstoii, John Da vies, Duncan Forhi'?, 
Peter ('am[)i()!i, J;)liu Esnionde, RicliaHl 
Couch, Thomas Griffith, .Tamos Fost'T. 
William .TaC(}ues, Thomas Farraj^hor. 




Lmc« EsTionrlP. A. Opmini>l. .Io«o|ili Hock, 
Iclinnl M"(lialf(\ Edward Kiiijr, John 
Dr<l. Tlionii'fl McUrcy, John U. Esmonde, 
lilliam Forboe, Thoraan McConkey, 
hoiiiao McMiiUcn, John Pi'arcey, Alox- 
hdor Pearco'-, Ilobcrt Hill, Joseph Gib- 
ftn, William i^^pottiHWood, Jamos Spottis- 
looil. GoorRP SiHittiHWood, John Bo.vd, 
bhn Irwin. William Smith, Thomaa 
nith. Harry Smith, Thomas Harris, 
bomafl Wiugfield, John Sharpo, Gcorgp 

onp protpotivp company. It waw provldod 
that, in lion of all otlicr allowajioofl, onch 
<ompany whoso sorvicoj^ were accoptod 
Bhould be nllowod for the maintonancp nf 
their apparatus n« followa : Engine com- 
panies, .$S00 each; hook and ladder com- 
panies of 80 men and over, .$800, and 
hose companies in proportion. 

The engine company known as No. 2. 
under the command of Alexander Jacques, 
resigned on the Ist September, 1860. and 

nr.K TTAT.T, XO. 0— OURKN STREET — HCILT 1847— REBCir.T 1876. 

I A by-law wius piifised on April 2!>th, 
pCl, providing for tiie orKanizatinn of 
I vohiiitcrr fire brigade, consisting of 
Bno oiigino companies, one luxil; iind lad- 
kr fompany, two h^wf eompt ' ' 

their resignation was accepted. 

The system of snpiilying the engines 
with water by means of puncheons con- 
tinued in Toguc down to 1861. The 
imncheoii was a large cask, capable of 
containing from sixty to eighty gallons 
I of water, or about wliat would fill three 
! ordin.'iry flour barrels. One of the con- 
I tlitions on which the carters of those days 
anios, and obtained their liceiiBes was that each 



mini bi> iiriiviilfd with at least I'lic 
j)Uiiclii'<>ii. 'I'lic H.VHtt'iii (if ri'WurilM nffci'- 
(•(1 fipKt lu tliu-tc ciirli'fM fii'Ht at firi'H 
with llifir iniiu'lu'oiiH wan a Hiifficit'iit 
iiiilticciiiiMil to tcuaraiiti'i' n piinctual Mcr- 
vit'c. To till' carter who wiw fiiHt at 
the fire with hiH |miielie<m, ii prize ol 
four (IdlliirM \va« K'veii, to tlie seetMid man 
three dollarM, tn the tliird man two dol- 

and in nneh cnneH tlie contestinK farti. 
went with tlieir claimH the next dav t 
tiie ehief oiiniaeerV office, wiiere " th, 
(jneHtion waM decided. 'I'jie eartePH wi-.. 
not paid in mmiey at the time of tlie fjp 
but on tlie arriviii of each puncheon it 
carrier wa« wivon a elicclc of tin or ii'iii; 
which entitled liini on pn-Bentation i 
the pn>iK'r officials to a Hhilliug for even 


Ian aaid to the fourth man one dollar ; 
All coming later received a York shil- 
ling for every puncheon brought, and th« 
flame price was paid to tlie prize winnern 
for every additional puncheon. A« misht 
have been expected, diBputew as to tlie 
relative time of arrival were frciiueut, 

check. These checks were round, the 
size of a silver half dollar, and bore 
on them the nnmbi'r of the compaojy 
issuing it. Sometimes they were stamiK'd 
with a fancy device like an eugiifc. lu 
conseciueiice of the provision of the law, 
every carter bad Lie puucLcou, and 

s •nil' III 
■ ly cirtH 
;',„.ir I'll,-' 
,il oil the 
cveill of 
(lav's worl 
ou" their CI 



during the 
pected tha 
on fire by 
the re war* 
that althoi 
home or 

LAN'DMAIIKS ()!•' T' )PvON*T(). 


H ,iiii' III' tin- iiKiiit wi'iiltliy oiM'H lind 
<.\i'r;il iiiuiL'lu'oii*), oiii' lor ciu'li of 
■jic I'.irts. A fow I'lirti'PH minlc it 
• IniKiiH'XH t<> krcp puiicticoim I'ill- 
,(I oil till- i';irt*i. (It all tiiiicM rciiily in the'iit of ''til OtlnTM, wlii'ii tin- 
(lii.v'H wurlx wiu* (loiw, |iut tlifir iuiucIh'oiih 
ou thoii' iinta. filli'tl iu roudiiicsH lor fircH 

iimd lu»«ti' to Ki't tn the fin; ovcm' thi> 
nniK'' ro.idH of till' town, wln'ii tfn'.v ri'iudi- 
od till' I'nuiii""^ tliiT" Hcrin'cly would bt; 
a luiilfull Irft, itll till' ri'Ht hiiviiiK Ix't'ii 
H|il.'i>4hi'd out. The filiirni of tlri' wnw 
Hoiiiidi'd by lilt' iHTHoii who diHCovi-ri'd it 
by nitiiiiuK to tlio first bi'll mid rinjriug 
it, aud the membera of tin; coiu|)auy buiog 


during the night, and it is shrewdly sus- 
pected that many a building wiia set 
on fire by the carters themselves, in the 
expectation or hope of obtaining one of 
the rewardfl. So keen was the rivalry 
that although the cartsmen started from 
home or from the bay with their 
puucbeouB full) yeti on account of their 

all cngajrcd at their custotnnry vocations 
during the day, are equally scattered 
about the town at night, it happened that 
the cartmeu with their puncheons were 
usually in advance of the engines. Pre- 
vious to the final disuse of the puncheons 
a kind of system of wator^works had bi'cn 
laid by Mr. Furuiss, as a private specu- 




lation. TI' luul built a rewrvoir on the 
t'iiNt ."idn of llurou sti'i't^t, juat north 
of w'iiat is now St. Patri' ii street. 
The water wjls i)Uiu|)ed from the bay 
and distributed through a Kiuall 
section of the city, but the pi|)e.s were 
very email, the supply of water totally 
inadequate for the extinction of fires, and 
tliere were frecjiUMit complaints botli from 
the fire companies and the pe()i)le, nevei'al 
of which have been noticed in the min- 
utes of company No. 3. 

As Mr. Ashfield's connection with the 
lire brij;ade of Toronto is a part of the 
history of that brifC^ide for exactly half 
a century, it will be of interest to give 
a brief outline of it. 

In May. LS3!), Mr. Aahfield waw admit- 
ted a member of the Toronto Fire ]{ri- 
gade, which at the time consisted of five 
companies of from thirty to forty mem- 
bers each, all volunteers, who received 
no remuneration for their services. In 
1846 he was elected captain of his com- 
pany, and in May, ISTjI, while absent 
from the annual meeting of the officers 
of the brigade, having prtvioiisly de- 
clined being a caudidiite, iie was elected 
to the office of chief engineer of the 
brigade, and iu accordance with that 
election he was appi)in'ed to that office 
by the City Council. The following is a 
copy of his appointment by the City Coun- 
cil ill 1^51, on the recommeiidatiou of 
the fire brigade : 

aerk'« Office, Toronto, May Hi, l!<r>l. 

Sir,— I have (he honour to acquaint you 
that the Common Council of the City of 
Toronto have, in iiursuanc** of the recom- 
mendation of the fire brigad", by a re- 
.solution adopted on the l.">th iiwt., ap- 
IMjinted yon Chief r^iigiuoer of the To- 
ronto Fire Brigade. 

I have the nonour to be, sir, 

Your very obedient servant, 

James .4ehfiold. 

After a service of fourtetn years in the 
brigade, two tm chief engineer, and all 
without {vty, having his own private 
businefifl to attend to, Mr. Ashfiold de- 
clined being again a candidate for the 
office of chief engineer. The City Coun- 
cil then resolved that the chief engineer 
should be paid a salar\ and induced him 
to accept the office at $()0() \k'v year. In 
.Tune, 1S.15, wliile a>j.^ent from the city 
on a tour of iiuspection, he was re-ajv- 
iiointed and his salary M'as raised to 
.$S0(), and a few years later to i?l,000_. 
On Mr. Ashfield's appointment in IS.'io 
the Council ajipoiiited William Charltun 
first assistant engineer and Avtlnir 
Ardagh second assistant. In 1850 the 
Council had made a small .'.llowaiice to 
n>pet ilie iil'^rilute expenses of the de- 

partment, but up to 1S7G, when the met 
were first stationed in the fire halls, jt 
j may bo said to have been a voluntopr | 
I dei)artmeiit. In l.s.'iG the City Council 
I took the appointment of the chief officfuj 
\ into its hands, the choice of th • brigud* 
: in this matter having been reepecteil up! 
I to that lime. 

' Ilnnd engines continued in use down tc 
18G1, and were drawn to fires by tbe 
firemen. In that year the brigade \va.s j 
! re-organized with steam engines, but th:' 
members of the department still con- 
tinued to practice their ordinary avoca- 
tions, g,)ing to fire halls cnily on tLt I 
alarm. Although the city had stj-au 
I engines it diu not at first have horses 
: to pt?ll them, and whenever there vu I 
' a fire the nearest horses at hand wore 
\ drafted into the service. The old liauJ 
engines were sold to small municipalities 
iu tlie province, the one to be di« 
[Kvsed of being the Phoeni.x, which was I 
jHirehased by the villa4i;e of Oakville. 
t The Committee on Fire, Water aud Gas I 
; recommended tte purclnuse of a steani 
I fire engine in 1858, but no steijs were 
I taken to carry out the recommejidatioii 
I until 18(51, wheu two steam euginen w«re| 
procured from Messrs. Silsby & Co., 
of Seneca Falls, N.Y.,' for which the sum | 
I of $0,000 iva-s paid. The engines gave 
very good satisfactioji on occasions li 
fire, although at first they caused some I 
jealousy on the part of the other fiie| 
companies, which led to their being bin 
dered in its work. 

To the price of one of the engines dii- 
fereut in«urance coiup-anies doing busi- 1 
nes.s in the city sul)scril)ed $2,000. 

After thase two engines became back 
numbers, owing to the !ulviu*>.-o:neut in I 
the science of fire fighting, they wok 
sold to a junk dealer for the Bum of 
$S0, by whom they were broken up, aiij| 
thrown into the scrap-irou h«R.p. 

The cost of maintaining the fire bri- 
gade iu 1801 wiuj $7,520, distributed aj 
follows : 

Cliief engineer of brigade $l,OCi)| 

Fii'si. assistant engineer $C00, a<H:- 

oiid a.ssiatant ifJ-OO 1,0 

Two fiicmcu ij^GlO, one extra diiror 

^$240 880 1 

Six horses an 1 three men l.SOii 

Siv branchmcii at $100 each (iiiOJ 

Two chief branehmen !it $120 e;.cli 24') 

One lKX)k luul ladder company l,o(") 

Fuel, repairs, oil, t'"llow, etc uOiM 

Total $7,5211 

Steam fire engiuci havi.ig Kupei-sieiirll 
the hand brake machiuOH, the fire deiw.r'-' 
iiient in loG2 ^^as m.>t<'ri'uly alteroil 
There were but two statiyjj-s tlic B.iyl 
street fire hall it the corner of Temixr- 
ance street and the Court street fire huJI.I 




on- I 

Jamea Ashfield, the chief eugiiiecr, had 
hid office in the eaat wiiig of the City 
Hall buildings. 

The force consisted of quo chief en- 
1 'iieer. one aasistant engineer, 17 brauch- 
nit'n. 11 hook and ladder men. 1 hiifsU-r, 
2 engiiieerfl of stoam fire eugiubs, 2 fire- 
men of the eaine, 2 driver.^ of horse for 
the same, 2 driverB o' hose* carts, 1 
driver of book and ladder inKk: in all 

j h.-ftd, and Meissrs. Thomas Kerr and 
! Tlioiuas Graham (the present chief) were 
I a-ppointed firemen of eteam engines. 
In February of the same year an appro- 
priation of $2,000 wa« made for the cou- 
stnictioii of water tanks in various popu- 
louH portions of the city, for the pur- 
^)oso of affording an adi-(iuate supply of 
water for the extinguishing of fires. 
Twenty-eight tauka were constructed dur- 


140 men, with two stefl-m fire engliu^s, 
Ihose carts, hose, hook and ladder appar- 
l&tus and seven lioracs. 

In 18G2 the City (\)uncil i)as.s.'d a hy- 
llaw providing for the organization of a 
[lire dopartineiit, to consist of the two 
pam fir" engineH and hone carts, with 

pie necessary euKineers tuul; 

riH> lioi>k aTid iMclder C(;mpuny and thrw 
Ihniirt engines, to bo stationed jit diffcr- 

Biit partH ot the city. The office of second 

lugiuier was awarded to Mi. J-jlin Wliite- 

ing tlie yea , and more added from time 
to time. 

Both in 1803 and 1804 the Committee 
on Fire, Water and Gas urged upon 
tla' Council the necessity of pi"oturiiig a 
thii"d fire steam engine, to be kept iu re- 
sei-ve iu case of accident to eitlier ot 
tlie i>tlu'r en|!;iues, but tlu' Council of 
that yeiir did not consider it necessary. 
Agjiin, on Januiiry 81st. ISOa, tlio Coni- 
niittee n'couiinended that an appropriii- 
tiou of $4,000 be made for an adli'^' 'i,' ; 




I I 

•team fin* oiigiuo, but the report was uot 
adopted by tlie Council, aud the matter 
stood ovi'f oau ■ more. 

In 1803 till' following correepoudpncc i« 
n^portcd ill the records of the Fire, Water 
aud (iiLs Committee : 

Pi-oviucial Ineurauce Co. of Cannda, 

lOlh April. 

The Provincial Iiifstiraucc Coiapiuiy of 
Cnnada hereby (li'iii.i!:d from llio i-ity cf 
Toronto the fin' iMigine " " and 
ho*<e reel belonj-^in;? to the naid conapany, 
and require th' delivery to be made to 
J. .S. Crocker, K-scp, their manager, and 
the said company will hold the munici- 
pality of the city of Tonmto rchponsiblc 
for ■■my dani;ijre the said company may 
suffer from non-delivery thereof. 




The m.atter coming lx>fore the commit- 
tee as it did, without much previous 
notice, the cnnimittce were not prepared 
to order the didivti-y of the engine, with- 
out being fully ;iware of all the eircum- 
etaiices eoiuieet.'d with the city coming 
into'essioii of the machine, for Avhile 
tliej- wei'(> .'inxioufv timt the iimiir.nnce com- 
pany should be jimtly (h'alt with, yet they 
were very c.-uitious that the riglits of 
the city should be c;uvfully preserved. 

T'nder the cirenmstances, the matter 
was post{)oiied until further inquiry could 
be miidc into the matter, during which 
time the annexed notice was received, 
threatening to hold the city responsible 
for any d;iinage the company might suffer 
from the non-delivery of the engine. 

The information reciuired by your com- 
mittee has b<H^u n>ceived, being the com- 
munication of the secretary of the Pro- 
vincinl Insurance Company in 1852, offer- 
ing the care of the engine to the city, 
and the fifteenth report of the Fire, 
Water and Gax C»>mmittee of the same 
yenr, accepting the charge, which are 
BubmittiMl for the informatiou aud action 
of the Council. 

Provincial Insurance Office, 

Toronto, 27th Dec. 1852. 
To Mr. James Ashfield. Chief Engineer 

City of Toronto Fire Brigade ; 

Sir,— You are aware that this com- 
pany has purchasi'd th(^ prize fire engine 
made by Mr. Perrv, of Montreal, .'ind I 

believe you ore also 
cliJise was made foi 
ding that powerful 
brigade of tlie city, 
therefore, to briu, 
Common Council, 

aware that the pur- 
the purjiose of .-ul- 

eiigiue to the fire 
■. May I reciuest you, 
the matter before the 
and take such mea- 

eures as may be deemed necessary for 
the formcation of a comp.any, organized 
under and recognized by the proper 
municipal authority ol the city, aud in 

whose care, aa a part of the fire briga.. 
the engine, to be called the " Proviiici;-,, I 
shall be placed in the same manner th;| 
the engine of the British America 
surance Company has been done, imtJ 
di.iti'ly on your informing me that Biitl 
companv is in a state to take cha^ 
of it. 

(Signed) ED. G. O'BRIE^ 


Report of Standing Committee, jj 

12th. 1853 : 

Youi committee, having had before tl 
the communication of E. G. O'Brien, ( 
leave to recommend that said engine 1 
put in charge of one of the comtwnJ 
at present org.Tuized in ^''e fire brigaJ 
(Signed) GE, KGE PLATT, 

The Standing Committee on Fi- 
Water and Gas beg leave to presout ; 
report No. -t : 

The committee have had before tfj 
a communication from T. W. I'.iifl 
Esq., manager of the British Aiiitri 
Assurance Co., stating that an oil" 
$200 had been made by a distant v. 
eipality for the fire engine now in r^| 
session of the city, belonging to the t 
pany, known as the "British Ainciit,; 
and requesting that the engine may 
handed over to the compiiny or purelK.-j 
by the city for the sum of $200. Y j 
committee recommend that the engiii" 
returned to the British America AssJ 
ance Company. 

In 1800, according to the report nf ;;j| 
chief engineer of the fire department; 
that year, there were fifty-five fi: 
within the city limits, and of ti,\ 
eighteen were extinguished without 
aid of any of the fire engines. 01 ■ 
other thirty-seven the other two werOi 
tinguished with three streams of \va;| 
eleven with two streams, and tweiityfl 
with one strenm. The department «1 
called out on unnecessary alarms twrj 
five times during the year. The 
on buildings and contents was about 5i| 
000 protected by an insuraTice of 
$188,000. Fifteen of the fifty-five 
were attributed to inceniliary nrii:! 
TIk' re()ort goes on to say that tii'^ wiuj 
works (>xtended but to a small portii 
the city. There were no hydrants \ 
of Peter street, nor east of Nelson strJ 
on (^ui'eu si.rert. or south of it except ■( 
two of wi:ieh wire useless because of li' j 
on small mains. Nor were there any 
di-aiits north of Queen street except i 
on Yongo street, three on Church Htr I 
three on Gerrard street, four on Ai'l 
sti-eet, one on Don street, one on Slmj 
street, and one on Sayer street. Thet; 
immber of hydrants in the city was I 




about 12 of which were uselesH bocaiiHC 
of the liipos to which they were coniieet- 
(hI beiug so small, .mid the hydrants so 
far distant from the large mains that a 
fire engineer could not get a supply of 
water from auy of them. 

The engineer stated that since the \r- 
troduction of eteam fire engines in ^ ;c 
litv there had bceu nsed from the hy- 
drants in any one year three-fourths of 
a million gallons of water for extin^^uish- 
ing a fiiv. The quantity used during 

but two fire halls, one the Hay street, 
the other the Court street ; ami the total 
equii)uuMit of the fire department was 
three steamers, three hose carts, one 
hfKik- and ladder truck, one fuel wa^gou, 
seven horses ; the hook and ladder truck 
wn« liauli'd by one— and twenty- 
four hundred feet of rubber hose. The an- 
nual appropriation for running the de- 
partment, exclusive of the salary of the 
chief engineer, was .'P8,00(). 
Coniiinntinu; on tiie crude method of 


1 Nls' l"T' 


Jhc vear 1866 at the price paid, nt .$11 

er 1,000 gallons nsed from the hydrants, 

»hile the ordinary charge for niivate 

ouBuraption was about thirty cents. He 

nrther adils that from the time hand 

Ingines were wholly disconlinued, in 

|862, up to 1.' 66, the whole engine power 

ed for CTtinguishing fires in the city 

^ae two steam engines. In .Inly, 18(16, 

owover, a third Silsby steamer was 

oupflit for a reserve uginf, in 

accident or cmcrgciicy. There were 

sending in .•ui alarm then iu vogue the 
reiH>rt say.s : 

" Tlie belhs in I'.se for the purjiose of 
giving alarm on occanlnns of fin' in this 
city are not as effective as formerly, 
V'hen tU'' city could not boast of a*< many 
exte'isii-e blocks of jiigli buildings as at 
present. There is no lookout or watch 
kept at any of the engine or fire alarm 
Btation.s, and it often liappuas that fires 
do oceiii- for .vliich some of the pricicipal 
bells are not rung at all. Along with 

li .' iil' 




this it may be noticed that thorp are 
many parts of the city in which, shonld 
a (ire break out, a mi'ssongcr, to convey 
the intelligence to the nearest engine or 
alarm station, may have to travel nearly 
two miles, and before reaching it, saying 
nothing of the shortest time possible to 
get the engines and other apparatus to 
the place of fire, the bnildiug where the 
fire originated, with all its contents, to- 
gether with other property adjacent 
thereto, may have been wholly de- 

While on dnty at a fire at Drunimond's' 
lumber yard on the east side of Tonge 
street, on .Inly 4th. lf>G6, Mr. William 
Charlton, .liSBistant engineer of the fire 
<lepartment, received injuries which 
proved fatal six d*,\'s later. The Council 
granted hi.s widoAv the sum of $7.'>0 a« 
a gratuitv for the loss of her husbajid. 

On May 2.^th, 18(57, the Council passed a 
by-law to provide for rewarding those 
who distinguish themselves at fires, as 
follows : 

I. That any person who shall in the dis- 
charge of Ilia duty as a fireman distin- 
guish himself in the performance of a gal- 
lant act by which life or property shall, 
or may be saved, shall be entitled to re- 
ceive rew.ard tliereof, either by presenta- 
tion of a medal or such pecuniary assist- 
ance as the cor|X)ration of the City of 
Toronto by the Council thereof may by 
resolution order or direct. 

II. Provides such pecuniary aid or as- 
sistance for the widows or orrih.ins of any who may receive his death, or 
such injuries as may lead to death, while 
in the discharge oi his duty. 

In April. 186G, T. W. Birchall, Esq., 
manager Tfritish America Assurance 
Companj', presented the city with one of 
Oyston's steam fire engine nozzles, for 
the use of the fire der):>rtment. On motion 
it was decided to accept said steam 
sprending nozzle, and tliat the thanks of 
the Cf)uncil are due, and are hereby ten- 
dered to the said company and others 
who have contributed towards furnishing 

At tlie end of ISOS the department con- 
sistt'd of one ciiief engineer and one assiKt- 
ant engineer, two engineers and two 
firemen of steam engines, on" caretaker 
of fifiparatus, and one fire company of 
tliirty-lour men niid nine supermimernry 
nuMiiliers. In all i'oi'ty-one men, exehisivo 
of the suiieriiumernry members nl' the fire 
compnny. The salaries per annum wi-re 
as follows : 

Assistant Kngineer $.'{00 

Tlireo foremen of sections, eaeh 80 

Thirtj'-one members of Fire Com- 
pnny, each 70 

First engineer steam engine (iOO 

Second engineer of steam engine .'>0(t 

Two firemen steam engine, each 360 

Caretaker, bellringer, etc .%(i 

The officers of the fire brigade were 
■Tames Ashfield, chief engineer : lUchan! 
Ardagh, assistant engineer ; John C. 
Clapp, first engineer fire engine ; Job; 
Whitehead, second engineer fire engiiii' 
Thomafl Kerr, firenmn ; Thomas Graham, 
fireman ; Adam Keny, caretaker. 

In 1869 the netessity for a fire alarni 
telegraph was rejientedly urged upon tin 
Council, and a tender was received frur 
the Gamewell Company, of New York 
offering to do the work for $5,400, bn; 
no steps were taken in the matter. 

The chief engineer in his annual i,- 
ix)rt again brought the matter up, urgii,; 
that it is impossible for the fire depart- 
ment to render efficient service on occa- 
sions of fire, when the alarm is not runi! 
until long after the fire is started. How 
ever, nothiig was done in that directi 
at the time. 

In 1870 the fire alarm telegraph qw« 
tion was still urged upon the Council 
with the result that towards the end o 
the year tenders were invited for a sye t } 
torn of fire alarm telegraph, and th 
contract was .awarded to Messrs. Gam 
well & Co., of New York, the origin i 
tenderers. The price was $12,000, .an 
the contract was to have been complete ' 
on April 1st, 1871, but owing to som 
delay in getting material the system ^^a• 
not ready for use until June 14th, wh i 
it was tested by the Mayor and the Com \ 
mittee on Fire, Water and Gas, nii | 
found to work perfectly satisfactory. 

The contract with the American 1 1 
Alarm and Police Telegraph CompaiiTl 
called for the erection of a tire alarug 
apparatus in the city of Toionto on ih 
following system of automatic telegrapli 
fire alarm : 

For the Central or Battery Station- j,^ 
One automatic electro-magnetic repoate' ' 
arranged for at least three independou 
circuits. Three galvanometers for iiid 
eating the exact strength of the eloctr 
current. Thrte lightning arresters k 
the iirotection of the apparatius. Oiitl 
mahogany table, upon which the fore^uicsl 
apparatus is to be proiHM'ly nrrangedj 
Sixtj' cui)s of the improved sulpnate c| 
copper battery. 

For the Signal St.ations— Tvi^nty cot-l 
tage-shaped cast-iron boxes, with liing';] 
(kK)r8 and combination locks. Five kevi| 
to each. Each station to contain tb 
necessary mechanism and electrical a-- 
rnngeincnts for indicating its exa:;| 
IcK-ality to the central station. 

For tlie Engine House Gongs— Tiir- 
electro-magnetic meelianical gong stiilwl 
gongs to be at leiust thirtei'ii inches 
diameter. Three small call bells fo;- ord:-! 
nary use, one each to be placed in t' f 





[C were 
John C, 
ic ; John 


ire alarm 

ew York, 
;,400, bm 
.unual rr 
up, urging 
re depart- 
e on occa- 
a not n\\\i 
ted. How- 
t direct! . 

■raph que? 
le Council 

the end o 
i for a BVii 
, and tl 
ssrs. Gam 
;he origin 1 
12,000, ill 
n complot 
ug to »«'I 

pyfitem \mi 

i4th, w\i 
[nd the Cci 
Gas, 111 


loricau 1 1 
tire alara 

■onto on th' 

ic telegrapU^ 

ry Station- f 
tic repeate- 

indepcndot ;] 
■re ior md fp\ 

the clocti 
r rosters u t$ 
,aratiw. Ol»' 
the Jor''„oic{ 
n rr auged i 

fluir'iate til 

Tv-onty cct| 
■with hinS'';l 
Five keyiF 
eontain tlj 
^ectrical a:| 
its oxii 
GoiiRs— 'nirj 

front; Stl'it'j 

^M'U inehi>? •■ 
bollH hr.- ord'rj 
pliiccd in t': 

chief engineer's office, the enpine house 
on Court etreet and Fireman's Hall. 

For the Signal and Alarm Circuits— A 
gufficient quantity of the beet quality 
annealed galvanized iron wire to connect 
the various signal boxes, etc., with the 
central station in three completely metal- 
lic circuits (said quantity not to exceed 
10 miles). All the poles used to be of 

The Fire Conimitti'o further urged the 
necessity of providing additional fire 
engines, with a view to the want ex- 
perienced in the east end of the city 
being also supplied, by the location of 
an engine in some convenient locality in 
St. David's Ward. The committee were 
of opinion, witli ret!,;!rd to sucli further 
supply of engines, that the insurance 


nd timber, not leas than thirty feet 

g, nor less than four inches in diame- 

at the top, firmly set in the ground 

least four feet. The average time to 

Immunicate a general alarm is within 

reuty seconds. For the work the city 

Toronto to pay the aforesaid sum of 

f,400 Canada money, in cash, on the 

mpli'tion of tlie work to the satisfaction 

tliL' uaid fire di-partment couuuittee. 

companies should bear a portion ox the 
expence of the same, and intend bringing 
the matter before those institutions. 

Two sites were also purchased by the 
city this year (1870j for the erection o! 
fire halls and the old fire hall on Berkeley 
etreet was altered and enlarged so as 
to make it suitable for a station in the 
east end. The Bay street hall was also 
remodelled and enlarged. New halls were 









built on Portland ctr<'et, onat side, corner 
of Little lliciiniond stvoot (now Farley 
avenup), an<l on the west wide of Yonge 
street, between (rrenville and Grosveuor 

After tlie four new engine lionses had 
been finished in 1871, the Committee on 
Fire, Water and Gas recommended the 
Council to purchase a fourth new engine, 
in order to make the engine honsefl com- 
jtlete for the purpose for which they were 
intended. The Council adopted the re- 
port and tenders were invited for a iir«t- 
claM Ptenm fire engine, and the tender 
of Mesjsrs. ^ilsby & Co., of Seneca Falls, 
N. Y., for .$3,r)00 was accepted. The 
engine was named the "Jnme.s B. Bon,- 
ptead," nfter the then chairman of the 
Fire, Water and Gas Committee, and wa« 
stationed at the Yonge street fire hall. 
A snm of $3,600 wa« expended for hose 
during that year, and the committee re- 
ported that the Fire Department wna 
then in a very high state of efficiency, 
both as regarded men and apparatus. 

Now that the extra fire halls had been 
erected and the new fire engine procured, 
it wa« found necessary to increase the 
number of firemen and to re-orgnuize the 
department. This was accordingly done, 
and at the end of 1871 the department 
consisted of one chief engineer, one as- 
sistant engineer, four engineers of steam 
engines, four firemen of steam engines, 
one bugler and forty men, divided into 
five sections of eight men each, being one 
section tor each of the four engines, and 
one hook and ladder section, making al- 
tf .r 'iher iil men. 

The engineers and firemen were on 
duty continually at their respective en- 
gine houses, but the other men only at- 
tended on occasions of fire. During the 
next two or three years nothing of any 
importance was done in connection with 
the fire brigade ; it was very well equip- 
ped both as to men and engines and the 
fire alarm Hystem gave it opportunities 
which it had never had before. In 1874 
twelve additional fire alarm signal boxes 
'."♦re put uj) iit a cost of $3,200. 

The question of organizing a cor|)6 of 
paid firemen was brought up before the 
Council in 1874 by the Chief Engineer, 
who represented that it was iiufiossible 
to render prompt service at fires when 
the men weir» all pursuing their ordinary 
avocations, and bnd to eome from their 
work, probably miles distant from the 
business iwrtiofi of the city, to attend 

The Council was urged by the Committee 
on Fire, Water and Gas to have a company 
of paid firemen organized who should de- 
vote all their time to the department, 
and to furuibh them with chemical en- 

gines and other appliances so as to make 
theju thoroughly efficient. The brigade 
was to consist of thirty-six men. 

On the completion of some repairs to 
the Court street fire hall in 1873 a sal- 
vage w.iggou was i)roeured and a salvage 
corps organized for the protection of pro- 
perty from damage by water on occasions 
of fire. The various sections of the fire 
department were also increased by th'' 
addition of one man each. Court street 
hall was abandoned in 1887, the applj. 
ances and men being transferred to tbo 
new central hall on Lombard street. 

The permanent fire brigade was organ- 
ized this year on the basis which had been 
recommended by the Chief Engineer nud 
the Committee on Fii-e^ Water and Gas. 
The brigade consisted of fifty officers and 
men at first at an annual cost of $39,- 
916. which included the payment of 24 
outside men, but coon the departmem 
was again re-organized, the 24 outsidi 
men were disi)ensed with, and the depart 
ment was composed of the following :- 
One chief engineer, two deputy chiefs, 
one electrician, one assistant electrician, 
four engineers, four firemen, seven fori'- 
men and twenty-six men. The horsoe. 
with drivers, etc.. Avere furnished by con- 
tract. This second arrangement saved tli' 
city about $6,.500 per j'ear. 

In 1875 Mr. Je mes Ashfield, Chief En- j 
gineer. who had been a member of the bri 
gade since 1839 was relieved from attend- 
ance on fires owing to his long service, 
but continued to have a general over- 
sight over the brigade, to make all pur- 
chases, etc., etc., at a salary of $1,000 
per annum. 

In 1876 the number of fire alarm boxes 
was ninety-seven. The department thi< 
year consisted of James Ashfield, Chieil 
Engineer; Richard Ardagh, Assistani 
Engineer; five sections or companies oi| 
eight men each, one bugler, four engi- 
neers of steam fire engines, eight drivers | 
of hose carts, one driver of hook and hol- 
der truck— in all sixtj'-one men— with I 
four steam fire engines, all in commissioii, [ 
hose carts, hose, hook and ladder aii-| 
paratus and thirteen horses. There wer 
four engine stations, the Day street fir^ 
hall at the corner of Temperance stri'ei I 
the Yonge street fire hall, at the conierj 
of Grenville street ; the Portland stnetl 
fire hall, corner Richmond street and tli 
Berkeley street fire hall, corner of Diin I 
street. The hook and ladder and hose (ir f 
hall was at Court street, and a hose [ir 
hall w;is on Queen street, west of Jnli::! 

In 1S76 the lire brigade was called ni!:j 
one hundred times ; there were seviMitv-[ 
two fires and twenty-eight nnnecewsurv 
alarms. The lasses, as nearly as rouM 1" | 
ascertained, aggregated $1()5,75S. 




•pairs to 
J'i a 8nl- 
I salvngi' 
)n of pro- 

the iw 
1 by th.^ 
irt street 
;hc appli- 
pd to thf 
as organ- 
J had been 
iueer aud 

and Gail, 
[ficero and 
t of $39,- 
ent of 24 
24 outside 
he depart- 
illowiug ;- 
ty chief?, 
jeveu fon 
10 horet'P 
led by cor 
t eaved tl: 

, Chief En 

r of the bii 
•om attemi 
mg aervic 
leral over 
ke all pur | 
of $1.00)' 

ilarm box - 
rtmout tb ■ 
iicld, Chi 

four t'lic. 
jght driv.r- 
ok and \m'. i 
men— wiV: 
commiwuinii [ 
.adder ap] 
There wr 

Rtrcet fir) 
ance Btroet 
the cnrnei 
Jaud fltvH't 
■oet and t!i 
ner of W"»' 
nd hose lir 
a hose lir 
est of .Tuli; 

calleil n«:| 
re fteveiit^-r 

,.758. T::' 

amount of iuflurance on property destroy- 
ed or damaged during the year waa 

The Committee of Fire, Water and Gas 
in 1877 recommended that Mr. James Ash- 
field receive the sum of $1,250 per annum 
instead of $1,000, that being $250 less 
than he had previously received. 

During 1877 there were one hundred 

(796) respecting the organization and 
management of the fire department, to 
amend bv-Uiw 473, passed May 28th, 

Section V.— The whole apparatus and 
management of the fire department, with 
the exception of the men composing the 
brigade, shall be under the direction of 
the Chief Engineer ; and the men eompoa- 


li thirty-seven Calls, thirty-nine of 
liieh were unnecessary alarms. The 
vernl losses by fire amounted to $100,- 
|)34, on which there was insurance for 
I236,92r>. The fire engine which had been 
ioned at the Portland street fire hall 
'ns sold to the municipality of Lanark 
ir $1,200. 
The Kuijjolued is a portion of a by-law 

Ing the fire brigade shall be under the 
direction of the ehief of the brigade sub- 
ject to instructions from the said oom- 
I mittee ; but at every fire the chief of the 
fire brigade, or other the senior officer of 
the brigade who may be present, shall 
have sole control over all members of the 
brigade aud all persona engiiged at any 
fire, aud over all the engines and ;ippai- 




I h' 

atus beloiiKing thoreto duriug any fire ; 
and any piMSon who shall refuse or ne- 
ploct to oboy any legal order of tlie said 
chief of the fire brigade at or during any 
fire, or other the senior officer present at 
any fire shall be subject to the penalties 
of this by-law. 

Section VII.— In the absence of the chief 
of the brigade the senior officer of the 
brigade who may be present, and in case 
no officer is present, the senior foreman 
Rhall have the jiowers and perform the 
duties of the chief. 

On the re-organization of the fire de- 
partment in 1878 Richard Ardagh was 
made cliief of the brigade, the real post 
of i-e8i)onsibility in the department. 
Though not so long in the service, Mr. 
Ardagh was one of the oldest firemen in 
the city. Forty years ago when but fif- 
teen years old, he joined the Toronto hook 
and ladder company. Afterwards for 
seven years he was captain of the Union 
hook and ladder company once known as 
the " Wreckers." He was first foreman 
of the brigade when assistant engineer 
William Charlton was killed at a Yonge 
street fire, and on his death he succeeded 
to his position, which he held for fifteen 

In 1878 three additional hose stations 
had been added, No. 7 on Beech street 
(.now Wilton c^venue), oaat of Parliament, 
No. 8 on College street, corner of Belle- 
vue avenue, and No. 1> on Dundas street, 
near the corner of Queen Btreet. 

In 1879 James Ashfield continued chief 
engineer, Richard Ardagh having been 
raised from first assistant engine.^r to 
chief of brigade. The number oi fire 
aiarm telegraph signal boxes had been 
increased to one hundred and forty-t vo. 

The salaries of the officers of the fire 
brigade were fixed by by-law in the 
early part of 1879, as follows : 

.Tames AHhfield, chief engineer $ 800 

Richard Ardagh, chief of brigade... 1,000 
Thomas Graham, aesistant chief of 

brigade 650 

Donald Giheoii, fciuperintendent fire 

alarm telegraph 800 

Albert Gilbeit, assistant suporin- 

dent fire alarm telegraph 600 

Foremen of sections, each 550 

Ordinary firemen, each 480 

During the year 1879 the brigade was 
called out one hundred and fifty-six 
times ; there were one hundred and ten 
fires and tlilrty-jsix unnecessary alarnis. 
The total amount of losses on buildings, 
merchandise and furniture is estimated at 
$194,328,. and the aggregate amount of 
insurance thereon $451,525. 

In 1880 tliere were one hundred and 
seventy-aix alarms of fii'e, sixty-seven nf 
which were;iry. 'I'he total 
amount of los^i's on Iiuililiiigs, inerciKuulise 

and furniture is estimated at $61,022, 
and the aggregate amount of insurance 
thereon $143,560. 

Three firemen, Thomaa Doughty, Frank 
Forsyth and Martin Kerr earned a testi- 
monial from the Council for their heroigis 
displayed at a fire in the Revere block 
on 3rd December, when they rescued sev. 
eral of the inmates of the premises in a 
more or less burned and suffocated con- 
dition, and wno would have inevitably 
perished but for the noble efforts of those 1 
brave men. 

Early in that year the salvage eervicf I 
was discontinued, the members of tiie 
salvage corps being transferred to tV 
new hook and ladder section established | 
at the Portland street station. 

In order to give the fire brigade mow I 
control over the streets during the pro 
gress of a fire, this by-law was passed 
November Ist, 1880, to amend by-law 
entitled " A by-law for the organization j 
and management of the fire department" 
" It shall and may be lawful for the chiel| 
engineer or the chief of the fire brigade, 
or other officer in charge at any fire, in| 
his discretion to declare and to cause ann 
highway, street, lane, public place or' 
square, or part thereof, to be closed v. 
all wheeled or other vehicles, includiifj 
street cars, between any two cro;'| 
streets or points, in such manner and fo 
such time during the progress of any tire I 
as he may see fit, so as to prevent ii,-| 
jury to the hose and other apparatu£ b^- 
longing to the department, and no perl 
son shall enter upon any portion of anv 
street, lane, public place or square duriug I 
the time the same shall be so declareiil 
closed, and closed as aforesaid, with m\ 
such vehicle or street car, without ii 
curring the penalty of this by-law." 

In 1881 the brigade was called out on- f 
hundred and sixty-five times. There wer 
one hundred and thirteen fires and fifty i 
two unnecessary alarms. The losses bjl 
a large number of the fires were verj| 
trifling. The total amount was only $ 
563, which speaks highly for the worliinjl 
of the brigade, which must have been eiT 
tremelj- j>rompt in its action on occasioBil 
of fire. The insurance on property dam- 
aged or destroyed amounted to $168,84i| 
In 1883 Mr. Ashfield was still engineer. 
Mr. Ardagh chief of the brigade and Mr I 
Thomas Graham assistant chief. Thor'l 
were one hundred and forty-eight firJ 
alarm boxes and now stations located a;! 
in 1878. Of engine house No. 1, AieiT 
Auohinc!o9s was foreman ; of No. 2 1 
Charlton and Joseph Davis, foremen : X: I 
3 Samuel Townley, foreman ; No. 4 Jnh:| 
Noble V No. 3 Charles Smedley and Will 
iiam Villiers : No. 6, Frank Forsyth I 
No. 7, Janii's Thompson; No. 8, Frauil 
Smith ; No. 9, Henry Leach ; No. li'T 




imisefl in a 
Dcated con- 
rts ol thoi'e 

John Robinson and J. Mc(iownn foremen. 
The villnKC of Yorkville was (innoxed to 
the city in 1883, and the fitation on York- 
villc avenue was equipped with a hook 
aud ladder and hoae section. The 
chief officera of the deportment re- 
mained the same with the addition of 
Joseph Davie, assistant chief for the west 
Bide of the city, and John Thompson as- 
sistant chief for the east side. 
Early in 1884 a now chemical engine 

the IJrock avenue hall were transferred to 
the new liuilding. 

In 1885 the strength of the department, 
according to the chief engineer's annual 
report, wa«— Officers and members, 75, 
including the superintendent of the firo 
alarm telegraph and his assistant. The 
nnnibt>r of fire alarm boxoH was 154, all 
of which were in good working order. 
The chemical engine was spoken very 
highly of. With it 17 of the fires of the 


was procured from the Fire Extinguisher 
Manufacturing Company of Canada for 
|2,500. This had been needed for a long 
time by the department and was extreme- 
ly useful in preventing some very bad 
fires. The next year No. 13 was added, 
at the corner of Brock avenue and Dundna 
street, Samuel Townley being foreman. In 
1895 a new double hall wag erected on 
Dundae street, near St. Clarens avenue, 
and the men and appliances stationed at 

year were extinguished without the aid 
of any other apparatus and with very 
little loss. The brigade wtia called out 
to fire duty 208 times. The losses by 
fire, as ascertained, were $281,563, and 
the several insurances on property de- 
stroyed or damaged amounted to $429,- 
950. A large proportion of the losses was 
moi'e than covered by insurance, and only 
three of the fires wore of the claiss in- 
volving heavy loss. 

ill I 



In 1885 tho miiiibt'r of H'.gnal boxe^ Imd 
hQcreoHcd to 174. In ISSO two niort' linsi! 
■tatJoiiH hiid litM'u lultlcd— No. 11, at tin- 
Corner of Roue avpiuic and Ilowiird stn'ot, 
CliarK's Ard.i^li forcinnii; No. 12, on I'ol- 
toii Hvcnuo, William Biowuc. foriMuan. 

The tn<«t iiiipoitant (lucstioii befon- the 
Cominittoi' on Fiie and Gan in lWH(i wna 
the purchasi' of a now and improved sya- 
tein of fire al.ann telegraph apparatus 
complete, to replace the one then in iiHe. 
which had been found uni'eiialili' on sev- 
eral occasions. After cousiderinR Ihc mat- 

in 1S87 tlie followinp by-law was pas«. 
ed to i»rovid(' for tho government of tho 
Toronto Fire I'rigade (Passed Januar? 
31st. 1S87). 

Duties of Chief of Department. 

To have control and direction of his 
bureau of Kupplii's and light, and of all 
clerks nHHigned to duty therein. Be re- 
Bponsible to the Committee on Fire awl 
OaM for tlie conduct and management of 
hi» bureau. To receive the daily and order 
reportu and rcturiiB from tho Chief of 
lirigade and keep an accurate record is 





ter fully, and getting all necessary in- 
formation on the subject, tho whole of 
Uie apparatus was purchased from the 
Gamewell Fire Alarm Company, of Boston, 
who origiuallj' constructed tho first fire 
alarm system in Toronto. The whole of 
the new system wa* in working order 
by June, 1887. The brigade Wius called 
ont 274 times in 1886. The amount of 
loss by fire wa.s $280,902, on which the 
insurance was $1,164,163. 

The I.oinbiinl utreet fire hall, which 
waH built in 1S80, is styled the Central 
fii-c liall. 

convenient form for reference of all busi- 
ness tfnnsaetod in his bureau. To pur- 
chase all supplies required and forwanl 
Sfime on being properly vouched for to tho 
committee for payment. To issue all t^iip- 
plie.s on reciuisition from the other depart- 

Duties of Chief of Brigade. 
To keep an accurate record of all fin'< 
occurring in thi.s city and opera ti'ms 
thereat, or elsewhere, when called ont nf 
tho city. To attend all fii"o,s and liav» 
sr.ine extinjrnished with tho least possitili' 
damage to life and proporty and prevt'iit 



,.,,ii(-C('s«iir.v diinmfrc l).v water at firi-a. 
'I'll ciiiiKi' nil HOftioiiH luit iiOfdoil at I'iri'H 
to pKiiiiplly return to (niarter«. To 111:1 ke 
offifiiil reports of IiIh .'iclioim ami that of 
the tiffieers and uieniberH under his coni- 
11)11 nd when necenflary. To have power, 
aud it nhall be hi« duty, to dwuolUh 
buildinpf and parts of buildings which, 
in his jiidixnieiit, niifrht cauwe further 
(laiiiM>re to life or pro|K'rty, or which, in 
his judfjaieut, it may be necessary to de- 
iiuilish to prevent the spread of fire. To 
prcHuptly report to the Coniiiiittee 011 Fire 
uiiil tins any officer or member who can- 
not perforin full duty in the dop<irtinent. 
'I'o liave power, and it shall bti his duty, 
to tiuniiiiarily suspend from pay and duty 
fliiv person under his coiiiuand for a 
fiii^rant violation of law, rule, regula- 
tion or direction, in all cases where the 
interest of the citizens or reputation of 
the di'partinent would suffer if Bueh 
iiioinpl action should not bo taken, re- 
portiii,; cases at once to the Chairman 
and Committee on Fire and Gas. 
Duties of Assistant Chiefs. 
The Assistant Chiefs shall perform all 

I such dutiee as the Committee and Chief 
ol Itrifjade may rer^ire ; and in the ab- 

[dence of Chief of Brigade, the First 
AsBistnnt Chief shall perform all his 

Duties of Foremen. 

It shall be the duty of foremen of sec- 
tions to see that tfec apparatus entrusted 
to their care and the several buildings in 
which the same may be stationed, and all 
(irticles in or belonging thereto, are kept 
clean and neat, and in order for imme- 
diate use ; they shall also preserve order 
iiijd discipline at all times in their re- 
f]K'ctive Boctioiis ; they shall promptly 
roport to the chief of brigade all delin- 
(liicncicH on the part of officers or mem- 
h'Tf of their respective stations, the 
immes of members absent from duty, with 
ft the excuse rend.'red, if any, for such ab- 
gsence, and such other matter as they may 
Udeem advisable and iieeessary. 

The hosemeii shall be on duty at their 

liecpi'ctive stations at all times, oxcoiit 

Iduring fires, and shiill discharge all 

||dutie,s appertaining to their positions dur- 

piiig the time the apparatus is in service. 

*|lt ((Imli be their duty to keep the sta- 

Etioii, liose and hose in a proper 

land clean condition, and tiiey shall be 

|«ibj('ct ill all tliing-i to the directions 

of the foreman, and shall al.s<) keeji their 

|proper share of the watcii. 

General Uegulatioiis. 

It shall be the duty of all foremen, 

llicseraen, laddermen and drivers of sec- 

tioiiH to reniaii. at their restwctive sta- 

tidiw at nil hours, and on f.'iilure to <'()m- 

ply with those ii gulieiji, ■jitu;. llioy shal) 

be sidijcct to fine or dismissal from the 
service, provided, however, that one ineni- 
ber at a time from ea<'h m'Ctioii iiia.y 
have leave of absence one-half day and 
one night in each wci'k. from one p.m. 
to eight a, 111. the following morning; leave 
of alisenec may be granted on applica- 
tion to the chief of the brigade tliinugh 
the forem.'iii. • • • Absence from a fire 
without giKsl and suffi<'ieiit causi- shall 
subject ihe party absenting hinisU' to 
suHiKMision :uid dismissal. Racing to and 
from fires not allnwed under any cinuni- 
stances, and if the apparatus of the sev- 
eral sectioi < proceed on the same street 
they shall do s^/ in single file. • • • Any 
member of the brigade negl(>ctiag to wear 
his uniform while or. duty shall be 
liable to fine, sus|)ensioa or diauiissal. The 
chief of brigade and assistant chiefs, fore- 
men and all members of the brigade shall 
give their whole and undivided time to 
the brigade duties 

Every man of the force will be liable 
to suspension for the following offences :— 

Disobedience to orders. 

Being in a state of intoxication. 

Insolence in word or manner. 

Violent or eoaise language or be- 

Neglecting duty. 

Frequenting taverns. 

Interference in elections, municipal or 
parliamentary, except for the purpose of 
exercising their own franchise. 

tjualificatiou for Membership. 

That hereafter all ikm-sous appointed to 
membership in the uniform force shall pi>e- 
eess the following qualifications :— 

No person shali be appointed to the fire 
brigade or continue to hold membership 
therein who is not a subject of i.ireat. 
Britain, or who has ever been convicted 
of a crime, or who cannot read or write 
undei'standiugiy in the English language. 
They shall not be less thaai ."> feet 7 inches 
in height. 13r» pounds weight and .''S 
inches in circumference of chest (quies- 

They shall not be more than tiiirty 
years of age. Deception or attempt at 
decepticm shall be cause for rejection. 
Before being appointed they shall pass 
the medical officer and be tested by the 
eliief of bii-iiuie 111 cliiiiiiing l.iddei-, h.niii- 
ling appnratus and performing all ui'ces- 
tiary (luties incident to the duties to be 
performed, and receive a certificate of 
qualification from both officers. 

In 1887 the fire brigJidi' was increaiied 
to eighty-one men, iiiclnding officera, 
divided into seventeen sections : thirteen 
sections of branch and hose men, three 
sections of book and ladder men, and one 
section of the chemical engine. There 
Were three steam engines in use, betiidee 








tho cliomirnl «MiKiii« iiud all otiior nppar- 
ittUH ii(>t'('»iMar.v for tho (■xtiiiguiHhiitK of 
t'iri'K. Then- won* JJOS flri'H uu«l iiliirinH 
tluriiig 1H.S7, on whic-h tlu^ airgrogato 
lo«HP8 Wert" $78,085, covorpd by $0a8.U9. 
At the 011(1 of 1888 two of th« stPiun 
firp oiiRiHea were put out of comniisnion. 
Ill tliiit .vi'ar the bri>?inlo nuBwered to 
tliroi! hundred an<l eleven alarms of firo, 
with loenoH amounting to $216,192, ou 
which there wa« insurance for ^fOGT.OTO. 
DurinK 1S8.S a new «<>nii»oi:^ite police and 
fire fltatiou was erected ou Osaington 
avenue, ituinediatel.v north of Hlonr Hlreet, 
to affoiil |)iotectiou to the icfideuts of 

ing officer, and Mr. John McGowan H<'cr».| 
tary of tiie department. During thin y,< 
the force of m» a wuh again iucreti*,,,] I 
there Ix'ing nim-ty-five olfieera and nu'i I 
bcHides the driveiH. The apparatus \vni| 
alout tho same, with the excejrtioii i/ 
the Btoam engines, all of which wore out! 
of commi*wion at tlie end of tho yoar | 
Tlie number of calls was three hundr..; 
II Mil seventeen : tlie Ioshos by firo wir 
^'134,700, and the insuranco aniounti'i] t 
alout .$l,0in,13S. Tiie town of Parkilal. 
having become annexed to tho city in 
188J), the lioBO reel station ou Cowm i 
avenue wa«j continued iw part of ttl 



that nei,rhtourhood, which, us the village 
of Dovercourt, had been annoxod to the 
city during that year. A hose section was 
first established, and in 189.j a hook and 
ladder eectiou was added. 

lu the early part of 1SS9 Mr. Richard 
Ardagh was iiromoted to Ix^ chief of the 
fire department, an office wiiieh he had 
really held for eome years, as Mr. James 
Aahfield had been relieved from active 
duty some time before. The offices of 
chief of tiie fire brigade and chief eu- 
guieer of the department were abolished, 
and Mr. James Ashficld became purchas- 

city's fire fighting eysteni. 

Ou June 15th, 1S90. Mr. James Ashfif 
who had been chief engineer of the i 
department for many years and p; 
chaMiug officer after retiring from ncti 
duty, died at his residence, 24 Shut:«, 
street, aftr-r a painful illness. He fir':j 
joined the volunteer brigade in 1839, waij 
elected captain in 1846 and chief eugiuei'r! 
in 1851. 

During the yv .r the brigade rea|)onii-] 
ed to three hundred and eiglity-five cal 
an increase of sixty-eight over the yi'a:5 
1889, or an excess of twenty-one per coutf 





Gowan wcr^. 
iug tliw yoiiv 
in iucrea48(..|] 
Tfl and nin 
parntns wai 
oxcei>tion r, 
ich wort! ouij 
of tho ypar ( 
iroc huudn. 
)y fire wer | 
aniouiitod t 
of Piirkilal. 
tho city i; 
<>u Cowiii j 
I)art o£ tt 

lies Ashfip]'' 
r of the f, 
'8 aud pi 
from ncti 
, 24 Shut: I 
es. Ho first [ 
in 1839, wi-i! 
hief cugiik'rj^' 

ITho nioat dostructivo firo wiih tliat at 
Ithi' Uuiverflity, whicli did daiiiaj?!' to the 
lexU'iit of $3(>3.700. Tho total amount of 
|lo«H hy fin- duriiiK the year was .'9487,180, 
liiiiliidiiin the Univeraity firo. Tim iiwur- 
Biiie oil jiro|H>rty destroyed or diiinnKod 
iw,i« $1,1^'4,473. Except for tlie Univor- 
liitv fin", llie loHH was far loss duiinp thiH { 
jytiir thnu it had boeu for aoiae your 
I previous. 

to 15 yen I'M. From 15 to 2<> yenrs at thft 
rale of l.i dayw' pay for caeh year's Hcr- 

From 20 years and npwardw at the rate 
of one nioiilli'H pay for eacli year'n t«»rviCB 
conipleteil. Any nu'iul)er worn out in the 
serviee after 10 years and np to 15 
yonrH, Hhall reeeive a Rratuity of 20 
days' pny for each year's eervico com- 

FIRE n.MA. NO. 13— nnocK avknue, nkar Drs:n.\s strekt— r.uiLT 1S85. 

Ill 1890 a by- w was passed to create 
and establish i >■ Toronto Fire Super- 
anuuat 11 and Benefit Fund, which pro- 
vided .a folio vvB :— 

kn} member resigning in good health 
I after one year's service and up to 10 
i years shall be entitled tr "eceire the 
amount he has contributed to the fund, 
, Any member resigning in good health 
j after 10 years service shall receive a 
: gratuity, to be calculated ii ;, the rate of 
[10 days' pay for each year's eervico up 

After 15 and up to 20 yeais a gratuity 
calculated at the rate of one month's 
pay for each year's service. 

After 20 years and upwards a pension 
for life at three-eighths of his pay. 

In case of injury iu execution of duty, 
five years service and under, one-fifth pay 
for life ; five to ten years, one-fourth pay 
for life ; ten to fifteen years' service, 
liiroe-eighths pay for life ; fifteen to 
twenty years' service, one-half pay for 




Towartl.s tlip f'.nid i\n' Citv rouncil coii- 
ti'ihutod $10,000 nii'l U<" niciulKTM of tlu- 
bii'riido wiTi' tlKr'\vl't('i' .isscski-J month- 
ly \wo pf>r rent, nf the t;ros« amoiiiit of 
llii'ir wiigcs. All '!oii;iti:)iis :iii(l prutuities 
from limo to time frivi'ii by citizens or 
corj)or(i lions to or for tlic boiiofit of the 
fi.'o brifrt'dc ."iiiil ih' [ii-occimIs of all fiiu'8 
wliich from time to tiiiu' iiiiiy be imposed 
ui»on <Miipl'\ve.s of the lire depai'tmeiit are 
also added lo the fund. 

In 1801 the eity piwvhased the horses 
wliich were iiaed by the fire brigade 
under eontrnet : they were twenty-eight 
in number and they ecet tiie city ^4,G'<0, 
with liarneR-i, etc There were four hun- 
dred and forty-two alarms of fire during 
tl:e year, the largest number in the his- 
tory of the department. In the month 
of Tilay there were seventy-fdur calls upon 
tlie force. 

A Combined c!M'mical engine and hose 
w.'iggoii wius adiiod to the department 
in 1802. and statioued at Portland street 
fire hall. During the year there were 503 
alarnu of fire, the greatest number oo- 
t'urririr iu .\pril and the smallest in 
August, while the most destructive fires 
took j; ace in May, when lliere were :iS 
alf . :'„'.. The losses on these fires aggre- 
gated $220,509. 

h) 1893 the department consisted of 
122 officers and men, including the driveiti 
The apparatus was practically un- 
changed, .'ithough the urgent need of a 
steam engine had been |)ul before the 
(\)uncil eoveral times by the chief of the 
fire department The total number of fires 
was 555, an increase of 52 over 1802 
The department was called out 04 times 
iu Xovembcr alone. There wei'e 51 cases 
of incendiarism during this year. The 
looses by fire aggregated ,'pl 05,403. and 
the insurance thereon was .$1,021,081. 
The total loss for 1S02 was .$220,500, 
wbi« h shows a decrease of $25,105 for 
1803, although there were 52 more alarms 
than in the previous. 

The ycpr 1804 was uneventful, there 
being pyuctically nothing new iu the his- 
tory of the department to chronicle. 

Hiirdly had the yeai' ISOo ticeu usher- 
ed in before the i ity was visited by .a 
series of disastrous conflagrations wliich 
destroyed a nundier of large warehouses 
.•ind other business establishments. 

The first of these fires broke out 
in the " Globe " office on the south-west 
corner of Yonge and Melinila streets, at 
nn early hour on the morning of Sunday. 
January (ith. While assisting to lower 
the hi;;- aerial ladder on Melinil.'i street, 
Fireman James Bowrey. attached to the 
liOnihai'd street hook and laddei' section, 
was bui'ied under a mass i>f liricks by 
the falling outv.nrd of the " (ilobe " 

wall, and sustained injuries which prov- 
ed fatal a few hiHirs afterwards. 

Chief Ardagh also sustained iujurii'« 
at the same fire which terminated fatal- 
ly. .Mong with two foremen he was iii. 
specting premisee on Jordan street, ami 
becomiUg hemmed in by a solid wall of 
fhune, the three men jumped for their 
lives into the lane running behind tlii' 
" Globe ' office and extending from M- 
liiula to Wellington streets. Chief Ar- 
dagh Avas very seriously injured. Fium 
the outset liis physicians eutertaiiR'd 
t.iight bi;p'9 o' his recovery and he suc- 
cumbed to the effect of his terrible injur- 
ies on Sunday, January 27th. 

In cousiqueuce of the death of Chief Ar- 
dagh a number of changes were render- 
ed jH'remptory in the command of the bri- 
gad", end the following promotions were 
made. To be chief— Thomas (Iraham, fi.; 
merly deputy-chief ; to be deputy chi»I, 
Ji>liu Thompson, formerly assistant chiel 
for the east end ; to be assistant chief, 
William Villiers. formerly loremau of the 
Court street hose section. 

Two new i>owerful steam fire engines 
were purchased, one from J. D. Ronald of 
Brusw'ls, Out., for $5,000. and the other 
from the Merryweather Steam Fire Eii- 
gint> Company, of Greenwich, England, tor 
i$7,000. The old J. B. Boustead, whio'u 
had been placed out of commission, was 
repaired at an expense of $1,800 and 
again brought into rcfjuisition. The Coun- 
cil also purchased from the Fire Extin- 
guisher Company of Chicago, one iraprm- 
ed " Champion " water tower at a cost 
of $6,800. The brigade was also strength- 
ened bv the addition of two hook and 
ladder waggons, stationed at the Ossing- 
ton avenue and liolton avenue station*', 
and a chemical engine which was put 
into commission at the Portland street 
hall. The numerical strength of the bri- 
gade was also increased. 

The fire brigade in 1S05 was compt«Oil 
of 132 officei-s and nu'u and driveiiii. 
There were thirty-six horses, eleven 
single horse hose carts and waggons anil 
four two hci-se hose wa logons, one B;ili- 
cock aerial turntable luK'k aurl huMtr 
truck, five hook and ladder trucks, (mo 
double cylinder chemical engine, one 
combination double cylinder chemical fire 
engine and three steam fire engines and 
one "Champion" water tower. These uieu, 
horjscs and eiinipnu'iits were divided 
amon,'j;st fifteen hose sections, five hunk 
and ladder sections, and one chemical 
engine section, stationed at the several 
fire balls, of which there were fifteen, nf 
follows : 

At l!ay Street Fire Ilall-Foreman ei 
hose section, Joseph lyamb ; three nieiii- 
bt'rs of hose section, one driver of lue^' 
cart, one one horse hose carl, one foreniai 



driver nt 

01 ciKMiiicni on'',iiio soft ion, one driver 
clu'iiiK'al tMiK'"" '>iiU two men, one double 
fvliiider choiiiicnl oiigine, one uteiiii' fire 
oii"iiie, oupineei, fireiunn iiud driver. 

At rnrtland Street Fire Hall, West End 
.\ssist;int Chief, Joseph D.ivih ; foremnn 
of ho.-e nection, William Ashfield ; throe 


der trnek, coinp'.'te with ladde.'s, etc., ono 
steam fin oiiniiio. 

At Yonrre Strcot Fire Hall, North End 
Asf^istant Chief, William Villiers ; foreman 
of hose eection, W. W. Fox ; three mem- 
bers of hose Boctiou, one driver of hose 
waggon, one two horse haee waggon. 


membere of hose section, one driver of 
hMP cnrt, one combination double cylinder 
iliomical engine and driver ; foreman of 
No. 2 hook and ladder eection, II. Irwin ) 
pifrht members of No. 2 hook and ladder 
(HHliou, one driver of No. 2 hook and lad- 
der ti'UCk, one two hor«o hook and lad- 

At Berkeley Street Fire Hall— Foreman 
ol hose Hoction, John C. Noble ; three mem- 
bers of hose Beetion, one driver of hose 
cart, one one horse hose cart. 

At Lombard Street Fire Hall— Deputy 
chief, John Thomiwou ; foreman rf how^ 
section, W. J. Swift ; three members of 

ii 1 






hofle flection, ouo driver of lioso cart, one 
oiie-horse hoso cart. Forpinau of hciok and 
ladder section No. 1, W. .(. Smith ; ten 
members of hook and ladder section No. 
1, one driver of hook and ladder truck, 
one two-horse ladder truck, complete; one 
Babcock aerial turn-table hook and ladder 
truck and extension ladder, complete, 

of ha-ic section, W. A. Auchiucloes ; thiO' 
members of liose section, one driver of bosi- 
cart, one one-horse hose cart. 

At Wilton Avenue Fire Hall— Foreiua.i 
oi hose flection, Frank Smith ; three 
members of hose section, one driver of host 
cart, one one-iiorso hose cart. 

At Dundas Street Fire ITall— Foreman 


with ladders, hooks, axes, door (hhmu'I'S, 
crow-bars, lamps, etc.; one driver of 
aerial tnirk and one tiller man : one 
" Champion '' -watiM- tower, and on" sti'am 
fire engine, enjjineer, fi'enmn Jinl driver. 

At Queen Street Fire Hall— F<) of 
liose (Section, Frank I'orsyth ; tliree mem- 
bers oi hose section, one driver of liose 
Bectior., one two-hor.><i' iinse waf^jron. 

At College .'^tr':'! Fire Ilall-Forenian 

of ll 
be rs 

ca rt 

of !i( 

os> section, A. Charlton ; three nk'm- 
of hose section, one driver of liiisc 
one one-horse hose cart, 
liose Avenue Fire Ifall— Foromaii i 
section, C. 0. ; three nieiii- 
of hose section, one driver of lie- 
one ono-horse hose cai't. 
I'olton Avenue Fire H.all— Forenia:. 

ise section, .lames Aslitield ; foinniei!- 
of hos(! section, one drivei' ef !.' 



waggon- one two-borsp hose •waggon, one 
hook and ladder waggon equipi)ed and 
munnod, witli W. A. Jirown foreman. 

At Yorkville Avenue Fire Hall— Fore- 
man of hook and ladder section No. 3, 
Cb'arl''* Sniedley ; seven members of hook 
aud ladder sectiou No. 3, one driver of 

Lose eectiou, Robert Thotapeon; three 
members of hoee section, one driver of 
ho«e waggon, one one-horse hoae waggon. 
At Oflaiugton avenue fire hall— 
of hose section, \\. Selioalea, three mem- 
bers of hose section, one driver of hose 
waggon, one one-horse haie waggon; fore- 


R^ bock and ladder Irnck, one two-horse hook man of hook and ladder sectiou, No. 4, 

i'vaiid ladder tria-U, I'oiiiplete : fdreman of 
itfh(«.«'' fcX'Ction, Jdliu Smith ; three nu'iiiiu'rs 

[01 hose eeetion, one driver of hose cart, 

poiio two-honse hotio e;irl. 

At Brock avenue fire liall— Fovimiwui of 

.T<xseph Donnelly, four members of No. 4 
licK)k and ladder section, one driver, one 
h(xik and Indth'r waggon. 

At Govvan avenue fire hall— Foreman of 
hose secti(ni, George II. Ford; three mem- 





I< ' . ii 


\ if 




bers of hoee Bcction, ouo drivor of hose 
cart, ono ouc-horse !ios(? cart. 

Pnvpral iiiciiibcrH of the fire brigade 
were killed while in the faithful disdmrge 
of tiieir hazardous duties. Tlie death roll 
oi the brigade coiituius the following 
names : 

William Thornton, a member of one of 
the volunteiM- ccinipanicK. wji8 fatally in- 
jured on November 22iid. 1S4S, while 
•\(p:kin^ at a firv in a block of brick 
buildings on tliv south side of King 
Hlii'ft, known ;i.-< the City Ibiildings, 
opiHitiit'^ St. .lames' cithedral. lli.s skull 
wa.x fractuTod by a heavy stono falling 
o:: him. 

Frederick Lepiier. a member of No. 6 
II ud Engine Comiwny, was killed in 1858 
.ifi. a »'ire> on the north-east corner of Ade- 
l:iidi' rtrc't !Uid Stoteshnry's lane, a short 
distance east of the iireweut post-office 

William Cheilton. assistant chief of the 
volunteer brigade, died on .Inly 10th, 
ISC.O. from the effect of injuries received 
on July 4th of the same year at a fire ou 
the east side of Yonge street nearly op- 
pot-ite Trinity square. 

James Kidd, killed September 17th, 
18U9, at a fire on the north-east cornc 
of Queen .and Esther streets. 

James Phillips, foreman of N'o. 4 section, 
died September mth, 1S7!), from illness 
cieatnicted while working at a fire in 
Da vies' packing house, caused by inhal- 
ing the fumes of burning saltjietre. 

■\\iliiam Ashfield, brother of James Ash- 
firld, died October 5, 18S0, from injuries 
received at a fire in Benrd's elevator. 

Thomas Charters died Ai>ril 14th, 1881, 
liom injuries sustained while working at 
a fii-e in Hamilton's foundry. 

Jifhn Davis died July 10th, 1884, from 
injuries received by the overturning of a 
h-s*' reel while answering an alarm of 

Albert Gilbert was killed July 16th, 
1S84, by the collapse of ihe roof of a 
burning stable at the corner of Parlia- 
ment and Sydenham streets. 

Thomas Evorist, killed April 24. lsi)0, 
by falling through an elevator shaft in 
Pejir.s' spice mill on the corner of Yonge 
and Alexander street durinr ihe progress 
of a fire iu the building. 

Robert Ilowrey, killed January 0. ISO,"), 
under a falling wall at the (llobe fire. 

Richard .\nlagh. Chief of the Fire Rri- 
g:i(k, died January 27 from injuries sus- 
tained at the <tlolv file in jumping, 
along with Fosemen Fim-^yth and Smed- 
ley, from the third storey of one of the 
burning buildings. 

Chief Ardagb's bo<ly lay in the par- 
lour of his homo on Sheiijourne street. 
and many citizeus and moat of the 

Fire Brigade called at the house ty 
view the face of the man who sacri- 
ficed his life to his duty as a public ser- 
vant. Mrs. Ardagh reiiuested that flor.ij 
tributes should not be sent, but, although 
no flowers were displayed, eeveral beau- 
tiful offerings were received. 

The casket w;is of cedar, covered with 
fine, blacli broadcloth, and upholstcrtil 
iu white satin. On the to|) and enda 
Avere emblems of the Masonic Order, o; 
which deceased was a member. The 
handles were oxidized bais of the ex- 
tension pattern, and the plate bore the 
iuscr^)tion '. 



27th Jan.. 18'J5, 

In his 63rd year. 

Mrs. Ardagh having been confined t. 
her bed for two days, on her iu- 
count the services at the house weii' 
mado as short as iKjusiblc. Kev. Dr. 
Hender^ion, of Carlton street «.'hurt;li, 
Avhere the chief attended, made a .-hon 
addre-is touching uj)ou the life and cliai- 
acter of him iu whose last honour tlicy 
were assembled. An earnest invo"atiou 
and the reading of a hymn completed 
the ceremony. 

T' e pall-bearers were Acting Oliicl 
Graham, Assistant Chief Thcwnpson, Aid. 
I'lCll, ex-chairman of the Fire and Light 
Committee; Aid. George McMurricii, 
chairman of the Fire and Light Com- 
niiltce; Anbrej' White, master of Kirx): 
Solomon's Lodge, A. F. & A. M.; Bamuol 
Ilollinig-^worth, and two members of Li- 
ce Isior Lotlge, A.O.U.W. 

Many members of the old volunteer 
Fire Brigade were present, and AM. 
A. Stevenson, chairman of the Fire Com- 
mittee of the Montreal Council, an'l 
Assistant Chief Engineer Buckingliam. oi 
the Montreal Fire Brigade, were amone 
the prominent outsider-^ noticed. 

About twenty-five members of Kiiij: 
Solomon Lodge. 22, A.F. & A.M., wen' 
pres'Mit, as well as a rejjreeeutatiou fruRii 
Excelsior Lodge, A.O.U.W. 

Tlie i>rocession was very lengthy, th' 
route taken being by Gerrard, Jarvi'. 
Bloor and Yonge streets, to Mount Plea- 
sant Cemetery. 

The following is a complete roll t: 
the Toronto Fire Brigade ou Septembe: 
1st. 1S!».-):- 

Officei'.s— Thomas Graham, chief ; John 
Tl uipvson, a.ssistant chief ; Joweph Davii;. 
W'l.t District chief; Wm. Villiers, NortL 
District chief ; Donald Gibson, sujx'rin- 
tendent fire alarm telegraph ; John S 
Craig, assistant sui)orintendent fire alarii; 
telegraph ; IL J. McGowau, secretary r>\ 

Chemical Engine No. 1, Bay aud Tern- 



[jcrancc streets— Robert Hunter, foreninii; 
^•. Swoetmau, Thomas Graydon, John 
Ward, hosemen ; Arthur Lucas, (Iriver ; 
Thomas Doughty, caretaker and mes- 

HoBC Section No. 1, Bay and Tern|)oi-- 
ancc streets— Joseph Lamb, foroman ; 
Thomas Spence, David Hcddick, Alfred 
Potter, hoeemen ; I. Cluff, driver. 

Hoee and Chemical Soctioii No. 2— W. 

KtrL-et— W. J. Swift, foreman ; S. Price, 
Robert Green, Thom;ia (Wbett, D. M<;- 
Leun, hosemen ; Alfred Everist, driver. 

Hose Section No. 6, John and Queen 
streets— Frank Forsyth, foreman ; Janes 
Forsyth, Moses Thom|won, James Gordon, 
W. Crawford, hortoitien ; D. Nolan, driver. 

Hose Section No. 7, 220 Wilton avenue— 
F. Smith, foreman; Robert H. Sargent, 
W. C. Patterson, George Worrell, hose- 


F, Ashfield, foreman ; A. TV. Smith, W. 
J. Farley, H. Atkinson, Joe. Sponee, ho^e- 
mn ; H. Hamilton, driver. 

Hose Section No. 3, 487 1-2 Youge 
Ptrf'ct— W. W. Fox, foreman ; James J. 
Crrigiiton, Thomas R. Join'w, Thomas ,T. 
Poiutou, hosemen ; David Gordon, driver. 

llrxse Section No 4, Duke and Rerkeley 
slrrots— John C. Noble, foreiujin; Wm. 
I'riiwford, .John Coulter, James Harris, 
hw.'iiiru : A. Gates, driver. 

Uo(Su Section No. 5, IID Louibanl 

men; George Sinclair, driver. 

Hose Section No. S, cotner Collej^e street 
anil I'olli'vue avciiue— W. A. AuchcneilosB, 
fi>reni;i '; Airiuliahl Crawford, Gi'irffi 
Kiuff. U. AtMn<iMi, hoceraen; D. W. Sltiight, 

Ho.-o Section No. 0, lO Dundas street— 
A. Cluirltoii, foreman; Thomns Tate, John 
Taylor, (;o.>'f:;i' Wilkei, liosemen; H. W. 
llatKon. flrivcr. 

Hi se Si'<'tion Xn. 10, 2i) Yorkville .nviMni'i 



i:i >iml'i. 

foieni'Mi: 1'.. Pol la id, Fred. 

: i 



: i 





Mil igaii, William I/i.wi'ence, liosenipu; 
\Vi liiun Aldou-i. driver. 

!:<»«! Swtioii Sii. 11, 170 ItoMO Jivciiin — 
Cli irU'S O. Ardiigli. luroiii'iii; Thomas l)<'.'i- 
«o!i, William N. ("ro'i-*, W. Collard, liose- 
ineii: Edward Hill, driver. 

Ilosc .Section No. 12. corner r.olto.i and 
Allen avenues— .T. S. Aslifield. toremiaii; 
.lames Coiike. ,Tohn I^yn'ii. Henry .loiies, 
J. I'allo:!, Iio-omen: Jolin Hatkin, driver. 

Hose Section No. 13, 31S IJrock iiveime 
— H<)tiert Til iinpson, foreman: .Tosepli (.'ol- 
lard, .lame-: IJrenuan, Mii'hael Teedj-, hoH'- 
nion; K. (iikson, driver. 

llo«e Section No. 14, Orioington avenue 
.Mild J!lo,)r street— Richard SchoaleM, foic- 
anan; Henry Li.'icli, Alexander Auehen- 
do-is. Thomas Ewart, hoseuieu; ^Jnuics 
Jone^^. driver. 

Flose Se<-tion No. 15. rowan nvpiiue and 
Queen .street — H. G. Ford, foreman; C. S. 
V. Toplis, \V. II. Quinn. T. Jy. Ccuuolly, 
lio««Mnen; W. T. Stevemon, driver. 

J look and Ladder .section No. 1, and 
Acri;il Tnrn-t;i.ljle Truck No. 1, Lotit- 
bar-<l street, near J.'\rvi<— W, .T. Smith, 
Vorem.'in : Thomas ATorn'll, ; 
John T. lirown, AVilliam Uussell, William 
Uogers. ladderiiien : <"harles Dickin, tiller- 
inai) : Matthew Mcrai'tney, James Ilai't, 
<"harle« A. Adanr.on, Itolit'rt Foster, Wil- 
liam Slei'th. .los'ph Flrniiii^. W. Hardy, A. 
Holx'rt.son. laddermen : Alexaniier (lunn, 
driver aeiial ; M. Sawdon, driver II. anil 
L.: Thomas Will in nr-. driver ol' engine ; 
Thoniius Crouciier, enji'ineer of ongini'. 

Hook and I^adder No. 2, coi'iier Port- 
land street and Farley avenue— li. Irwin, 
foreman; C'oi"ieliu-i T.uriis, Thomas Davis, 
A. Co'hr.nie. W. H. Saunders, W. David- 
^■OIl. lu Middletoii. W. .1. Farley, William 
Slei'th, A"r (irahai'K S. 'IViwnley, ladder- 
men; William I'liillii*-*. driver. 

llook and l.iiddi r No. .*?. Yorkville ave., 
near Yonee street— 'Miai'le-i Smedley, I'ore- 
nian : Thoiu'is Si'ott. S.amuel Mf(iov,'an, 
•iohu .McCoi nii^'k, i;d\\;ird Koliin.son, Daniel 
Ilailey, Arthur Fverist, •!. W. lieatty, lad- 
tlernu'u ; F, Rus «'ll. driver. 

lI<H)k and I/idder No. 4, OssinKton nve.— 
Jos'ph Donnelly, t'oreinan : W. .1. K«'ai'n-:, 
.1, Commefortl. W. A. ("aihouu, Georj^e I!ell, 
laddei'uien ; .1. A, Mcliui'cn, driver. 

Hook and Ladiler No. 5, IJolton avenue— 
\V. A, Itrown, foreman ; Thomas fiar)j;ent, 
A, Sargent, H, I'.atkin, W. Winter, ladder- 
laeu ; W. Dobbin, driver. 


A lil<«tory or ICvrrv Firo ot'.iii.r liiiitnrtaiicr 
>t lilcli liAN liappf*ne«l In Toronto since i|. 

Since the days when Governor SImeoo's 
tent arose beside the placid waters of 
Toronto bay, there have been mauy 
changes in the congeries of houses which 
has followed the first uauvas dwelliin; 
1 ■laces. 

In the down-to\vu district there are few 
sites which have not been, at some tiim; 
or other, tinder the sway of the flarao 
king that was consuming the buildiiiRs 
that stood upon them. In the old days 
the fire ai)plian('i's were primitive ami 
inelfieient. In 1N3S, according to tlic 
lirilish Colonist newspaper, the city pos- 
Hi'sseti a volunteer fire brigade, with oini 
engine, probably of the old " break 'cr 
douii " type, and two hook and ladder 
companies, with hose carts. The rcti;u- 
l.ars stationed in the city gave nssistaiuo 
at all fires of any magnitude. The liiiii- 
manding officers were invariably willing 
that their men should turn out and ,ii(i 
the citizens in their work of subdiiiti!,' 
the fl;unes. It is recorded in the I'.ritish 
Colonist, of ISiW, that in October of ili!,t 
year a fire broke out in a dwelling; ii, 
till' western outskirts of the city. Tli- 
regul.'irs " doubled " to the blaze and 
li;id the flames extinguished, by m'.'aii- 
of buckets filled from the <iarrison criM'k, 
before the brigade arrived. 

The new8i)aper8 of that remote pcntil 
dill not give their readers the full and 
ably written accounts of fires that are 
to be found in the daily journals of tli' 
pr''S''nt time. The amount of insuraiKv 
is very seldom given, and the other par- 
ticul.-irs are very meagre. 

The fiivst fire of any importancx" tha; 
took place in York (Torontoi was iu tli-' 
last tlays of April, 1S13, wh-eii the Am- 
erican forces took poi^ession of tlhc towi; 
and thought it a portion of thoir dut.v 
to burn the Parli.-iiiieut buildings, the 
librai'y and the jmblic documents cnn. 
tained therein. These buildings were 
situated on the bay front within a vitj 
few yards fiom the shore on tin; c;|Hit I 
where now ends Parliament street. In the 
celebrated letter (Slate paper indeed it | 
m;iy be called) of the Venerable Arch- 
deacon >lohn Str.'ichan, of York, to P^'si• I 
dent Thomas .loffcrsou, they are spoke: | 
of as being "two elegant halls witli cnn- 
venient offices," and Dr. Scaddiug (fe<| 
scribes them as "having consisted of twf 
separate edifices or halls." They vc- 
united by a covered iuu*sase or CDie:;- 

landaiakks of tdkonto. 


ote !»> 


> full 




a Is of 


ins 111 




;a uw 


vas iu th'' 1 

I the 


; tlh> 










lin & 





la the 

• iuiii 

•cd it 



;, to 


aro ^:lloke: 

< with COD' 

iddiuff (Je- 


0*: tw 



i or 


ii;i(lo and iiad b"(Mi built about --♦-vi'iitRMMi 
vcar.f. wliiMi tlii'y wiTi' luinii'il ua that 
rtiefl nicniorabilis for York and it.s in- 
>,;,l)itaii1« April 2Stli. 1S1;{. 

I'roiii 17f'-'<. wln'ii till- <-it,v was fdimdod. 
until 111'' latti-i- '•Iwi-ntic-i" ami larl.v 
■•llilrtii'.'*," ii'\>a])i'r-! wi-r- K'aiit lo.'.i in 
qii;nitit.V and in (|iiality, and \ii' liavi- 
-CMircly any rccoi'd^ n; what fii-i-s. if 
,-,tiy tlii'i-c won;, which toik plac" in York 
,,i'"its iinincdiati' nciLviili'mrlKJod. 

On the lost day but om- of tli" yrar 
1S24: tht'* at'coud Parlianicnt biiildiiiKM 
whicli liad lii'iMi I'l'i't'lrd on the saii;(' ;.iti' 
as tlKW di'.stroyiMl in lsi;t, wort' ontindy 
(leairoyt'd by fin', "but this limo," ways 
Dr. Scaddinu:, "not by tin- lianil of nil 
invailiiifl fo'. but by a fin- orii;'inatiiij,r 
in Mil ov(M-li";iti'd flue." Tlii> Io^^m was 
o.^tiinatcd at C2.()00 or .$S.0O0. Thf fnr- 
nilun" and library, such as it Wius. wen- 
■;:ivrd. but (Soiuo papers and jfiiirna'.s 

(Ill 'lliiiifsdny. Scptcnibor 27, 1S27. tho 
Man-iian House Ilotid. whi<'h was untcii- 
anti'd, and nix other hou-cs. occnpied by 
Mi's>rs. M(X)re, Niolioi, Hunter. Pati'i''k. 
Ihitoliinson and Mi's. lici'ry. were entirely 
(li'Stroyed. The Mauion llnusc w;is on the 
iKii'tli 'siile o:' Kiiiu; street, ail I'liaini.'; th" 
north- west <'oruer of that tlioi(iUi;ii{are 
with Princess street. Of the other suf- 
ji'i-i-rs it i^ not jiossible to p,"iv(' .-iny i.^tv- 

A small fire took pla/.'e May .",(), l.S2!>. 
in til'" cabinet workslmp- of a Mi'. (Jilbi-rt. 
on Newgate street. It caused coasidi'r- 
alile daiiiago. 

Early ia the euiutner of 182'.). the lii-'- 
toric residrnce of the fir-t Licuteiiant- 
Govcnio;'. (ieueral Siniooi'. was bi;r;ied t<> 
tlio ground. (';i.stlo Frank, for m> the 
liou-se wa.'. called, was on the western 
lauk of the Don, at the northern erd of 
Pavliinient .street. It WJis not in use at 
th'" time of its destruction, anil w;is sup- 
[losod to have becu set on fire by some 

On Saturday. August Srd, 18;?'?, the 
[sti'aiuer Canada was p.-irlially burned 
iwliile lying at Feehau'.s wharf. The 
.flames were di-covered by her nia.ster. 
ICaptiuu Richardson, and after about half 
]au hoiir'H work they were subdued by the 
ii re menu 
On the morniijg of January 31. 18:14, 
tin store of A. Maodonald, auetioneer 
mil com miss ion merchant, on Kinu' street, 
ivas totally destroyed. The loss was largo, 
acdouald only being insured for a small 

The luoriiinff of February 22n(l. 1834, 
'ork witiu'.Hscd a fire, which, to ipiote the 
'atiiot, was a "conflagration more ex- 
leiLsive ;ind calamitous than it had hitli- 
i-to fiulfcntd." It broke out .-iboiit one 
•'clock, on tUe east side of Yonge street, 

nearly opposite Mi'. Ket<'huin's honsp. on 
the north-west coiner of ^ oiige and Ade- 
laid' streets. It destroyed the dwellinus 
of Kay iV McTiirk, cabinet niakei'.s ; I'ell, 
tallow ciiaiidlei- ; Lacki ■, liaker ; I'owman. 
intx-er, and Messi's. Kesson A: Co.. paper- 
li;iti;A'ers ;ind upho!-t''rers. One lifi\ we.s 
lost, that o" a b<iy named Struthers, 
was bniii'd to ilcatli. Mr. IWiwiiian 
insured for .*.'?.()(»(), Mr. I.ackie for .<1,()t)0. 
'I'lie Patiiol, in rcferriiiiV to the work of 
the lirenii'ii. said : 

" To .speak in .-idi-ipi.'ite terms of prniso 
of oar fire and hook and ladder compaiiiiv-i 
voild ii'ipii"!' anoth'-r pen thiui ours. It 
woald be di.'ficult in any city to orgaiiiz • 
a In il\- o'l men who. by their general scorn 
of danger, could be better fitted to en- 
<'otintei' and repress a temiiest of devour- 
in,!; fl.'inies.'" 

'• Anoile'i pen than onrw " and " tem- 

ol Ue\o.iiin 

f la lie- " are very fine 
ii aires of speech, but how utterly absurd 
they I'ead now. 

At 2 o"<'lo'k on the morning of Septem- 
ber 18tli. 1834, a fill' broke out in the 
rear of the premises of ilessrs. Monr,>, 
Krskin • and I'urnham, on King stre-t. 
siipiio 111 to havi' iomnicneed in the bake 
lioiis ' o.' Mr. I'^rskiue. which was a de- 
tacle'd buildiin' in the lear of his house 
.'I ad shop, ill a t hort time it spread to 
hi: li(,ii e. anil also to the extensive preni- 
is 's of ."-'ilas r.u'.iiham. wholesale and re- 
tail nu'ichaiit, and fro;ii them to the 
premis'-; o!' Webb, the ^I'.oeinaker. Tl;e 
property destroyed wa.s of great value. 
the hoiis'< and shops of Krskine, lluriiham 
and W -bb were coiii|>letely destroyed, as 
was a small w.-irihouse, the pioperty of 
deorgi.' Miinio. shops were on the 
south side o!' King street, immediately 
west of George street. 

On the night of February .">t!i, 183{). 
two seriou-s firi's occurred in Toronto. In 
the first a house situai"il on tin- 
east corner of Lot (tineeii) and Teranlay 
fUreets, occupied by Mr. Uobert lauery. 
wa« entirely destroyed, ".-uid notliin;^," 
says the Toronto Courier, "but the extra- 
ordinary exertions of our over acliv.' 
.'iiid skillful fire compaiiicH prevented the 
adjoining hoiuscs from being swept away 
by the conflagration." 

The second fire broke out on the corner 
of Kiiifi' and (leorge ►streets*, when a large 
niu'ccupieil two .storey dwelling house 
and four or five outhouse's, the jiroiK-rty 
of Ml'. Oenrge I>ii:.!,'gan ; an outhouse con- 
taining .several luiiuired buvslu'l.s of grain, 
the property of William Faster ; a stahi ■ 
belonging to George Monro, and an- 
other belonging to Me«ni-s. Armstrong 
iJc I'ealty were totally consumed. 

A comjiany of the l."»th l^.'giIneut, un- 
der Captain Temple, rendered valuable 






r ^ I i 



eervico in protocting the property which 
was taken out of the houses and in keep- 
ing oi)ou a passage for the water cartN 
through the crowds of people who had 
oolleeted. None of the property wa« in- 

A destructive fire aprain broke out in 
the city on the iii^ht of Monday, >fnrch 
7th. 1830. wliich destroyed the greater 
part of the block of buildings on the 
south side of King street, east of the 
Market square, extending from llobert 
Hawke's clothing warehouse to the 
Crown Inn and Courier office on New Nel- 
son (now Jarvie) street. The fire broke 
out in a thret" storey brick building, the 
property of Christopher Elliott, occu- 
pied by John Sproulc as a grocer's store 
and dwelling hou«e. The flames spreaxl 
rapidly both eaist and west, and in about 
three hours the house and store of Robert 
Hawke to the eiist of John Sproule's and 
the three «torcy brick building on the 
weet, occupied by William Stennett as a 
•ilversinith's shop and dwelling house, 
as well as that of Robert Sproule, were 
sacrificed, as well aa all the sheds, barns 
aud other outbuildings in the rear of the 
block from Robert Hawke's to the walls 
of the Courier office aud Crown Inn, 
neither of which was injured. William 
Stennett and Robert Sproule were both 
partly protected from loss by insurance, 
but Hawke's aud Elliott were not. Two 
of the members of the fire companies were 
severely injured at this fire, notably 
Rol>ert Emery, captain of the hook and 
ladder company, who was seriously in- 
jured by a fall from the roof of one of 
th? houses during the fire. 

Captain Temple aud twenty men of the 
l.">th Regiment were on the ground and 
did poo(l service in protecting property. 
On February 8, 1838, a fire broke out 
in the premises of Mr. Mussou, 145 King 
street east, now 75. which was easily sub- 
dued after £100 damage had been done. 
The Colonist says that " fortunately the 
flames were discovered at the noon hour, 
when most of the members of the (fire) 
companies were at their dinner. Conse- 
quently they were speedily on hand. It 
is a matter for regret that some em- 
ployers are reluctant about allowing 
their men to leave their work for this 
very necessary service." The Colonist 
office in 185;? was in this building. 

The next lire recorded is in May, 1838, 
when a row of .><evcral houses in March 
street, the owner's name not being given, 
were set on fire by some persons un- 
known. The buildings being of wood, they 
were totally consumed. The police made 
diligent efforts to fiud the incendiaries, 
but were unsuccessful in their search. 

Very meagre particulars are given of 
the burning of Farr's brewery in Lot 

street, Augurt 11, 1838. This building 
was afterwards the Moss nnd Wallis, miil 
Inter the Cornell brewery, on the soutii 
side of Queen street, opposite the Bickfonl 
property of Gorevnle. The loss was 
estimated at £300, a downfall of rain 
making it impossible to gain much head- 
way. In assisting to extinguish the 
flames Mr. E. Jarvis had his right arm 
broken, and Mr. Lncoste, a visitor to the 
city, was severely burned about the head 
and shoulders. Two horses were burnod 
to death. 

A name that is still well known In 
Toronto is that of Rogers. On August 30, 
1838, Mr. Joseph Rogers' hat manufac- 
tory, No. Ill King street east, the second 
door from the south-east corner of King 
and Church street, was burned. Tho 
damage was £1,000 and the houso* 
adjoining were scorched. In this 
fire the new hook and ladder appar- 
atus did such good work that the 
City Council decided to purchase a 
similar one if the old one could be sold 
to some other corporation. Mr. Rogers, it 
is recorded, was on a buying trip to 
Montreal at the time. An advertisement 
in an adjoining column states "that not- 
withstanding the fire, Mr. Joseph Rop;erj 
will resume business as soon as a con- 
venient and satisfactory building can he 
obtained." Thus it is to bo seen that 
even at that early day Toronto mer- 
chants were alert and progressive. 

January 9th, 1839, witnessed the dp- 
struction by fire of St. James Cathedral, 
erected in 1830, on the site of a former 
woodeu church. It was a stone building, 
measuring in its interior about 100 x 73 
feet, but had never been wholly complet- 
ed. It contained an excellent organ, pre- 
sented to the church by Hon. J. H. Dunn, 
Receiver- General of the province, whicli 
aLso perished, as did a stained glass win- 
dow, bt^lovcd by Torontonians, but exe- 
crated by outsiders, as l)eing " iu vi|j 
tawdry taste." The loss was covered by 

The year 1839 seems, excepting tht 
burning of the Cathedral, to have been 
singularly free from fires. Only one 
other blnze is recorded— a small fire k 
March street, in a house belonging te 
Mr. T. G. Ridout. No serious damage waj 
done, the flames being extinguished b; 
the use of a few pails of water. 

In the burning of the steamer Burling- 
ton on March 30, 1840, the city had a 
general sensation. The Burlington, a 
side-wheel steamer, costing £16,000, had 
come up the lake with a mixed carga 
including, amongst other articles, twc 
barrels of gunpowder. "She caught (lit 
while lying at the Government wharl,' 
the jjresent Queen's wharf. The Colonif! 
report reads, " and the Fire Brigai!: 

Ktfuted to 


buaiil and 

tioii about 

ul the h.'UK 

(itnti'd thai 

at Port D hi'en c 

ilil'iiculty tl 

uiiiIlt contr 

(Irstroyed a 

Jv (111 111 aged 

fiiiip, i;2,00(] 

The loss 
i;ir:;e, amoii 
ISil, the li 
i.f (Jiiod & C 
ctri'et, when 
Hall, was bi 
of tt lamp, 
stood near I 
Good gave en 
who were thi 
iiig was of : 
much corabui 
possible to bc 
t'xtrcjnely fro 
hose was Ifro 
nmouut of in.< 
On May 6 
chop, on the 
street, betv,-( 
Btreets, forme 
of Industry, 
amount of £2 
is unknown, b 
several suspic 
had been seei 
time ago. Th 
not being pra 
fused. The 
■uian the next' 
'01)0 of the inci 
possible to pr 
he was let gi 
Ift'cretary of 
ip;iny, receivec 
;hat he was 
Six brick bi 
[corner of Kiel 
re totally d 
li^i'2. As in tlif 
lot given, whi 
't £4,000. Oi J 
supied by a 
'«iT ill, and 
;!ic street wit 
iround him. 
ihat the sick 
hy, the weatl 
muie of the o 
On .luim 5, 18- 
It the north-t' 
iti'Pt'ta, was bii 
III ill th.) kitol 
»lil awoke th« 




Hiiutfd to subdue the flames. It became 
;uiii!'iii('il that the guuj)owder was ou 
liuaril itiid the firemeu felt some trepida- 
tion about Roing to the wharf, until one 
y[ till' hiiuda employed on the Burliiit?tt)u 
(Stated that the powder had been landed 
at Port Da.'liiigton, to which place it 
[..111 hieu consigned. It was with much 
jifiiiulty that the firemen got the flames 
uiiili^r control. 'J'b<! fine deck- works were 
(li'Stroyed and the engines were serious- 
Iv damaged. The total loss will be :— 
Khip, £2,000; cargo (about), £500." 

The loss on the uext fire was very;e, amounting to £4,000. On Dec. 2, 
iS-tl, the largo iron and stove foundry 
(,f (lood & Cb., ou the ea,st side of Yougo 
] stici't. where now stands the Munee Music 
llall, was burned through the overturning 
of a lamp. Several frame houses which 
I stood near by were also consumed. Mr. 
I Good gave employment to nearly 50 hands, 
who were thrown out of work. The build- 
ing was of frame, and, as it contained 
uuich combustible material, it was im- 
jjossible to save it. The firemen suffered 
hxtiemely from the bitter cold, and their 
jliose waa frozen several times. The 
! amount of insurance is not given. 

Oil May G, 1842, Metcalf's machine 
[ebop, outhe south side of Lot (Queen) 
Uti'cct, between Yonge and Victoria 
iBtrcets, formerly occupied as the House 
[of Industry, was damaged to the 
lamouut of £250. The origin of the fire 
[is imkuown, but the Colonist stated that 
[several suspicious-looking coloured meu 
|baJ been seen about the vicinity some 
(time ago. They had asked for work, but. 
jnot being practical men. they were re- 
Ifused. The police arr 'ed a coloured 
|in:iQ the next day ou a eharge of being 
loni' of the incendiaries, but, it being im- 
Ipossible to prove anything against him, 
llii' was let go. Mr. T. Armstrong, the 
iBccretary of the hook and ladder com- 
ipjuiy. received such injuries at this fire 
that he was laid up for twelve months. 
Six brick buildings at the south-west 
Iconier of Richmond and Church streets 
I'le totally de«t!oyed by fire in .July 5, 
[li'42. As in the |jreceding fire, the cause is 
but given, while the loss is approximated 
at £4,000. One of the dwellings was oc- 
fcupied by a Capt. Masterson, who was 
Tcry ill, and who had to be carried to 
(the street with only a blanket thrown 
liround him. The British Colonist says 
khat the sick gentleman suffered no in- 
luiy, the weather being very warm. The 
piiUK' of the owner of the houses is not 

Oii.luii*! 5, 1843, the Blue Bonnet tavern, 
ht the north-ea,st corner of Ivot and Saver 
Itieetfl, was burned. The fire was start- 
ed ill thi! kitchen, and when the house- 
old awoke they found the premises in 

a blaze. The fire brigade could do little 
on account of the high wind, and the 
tavern was totallj' destroyed. The loss 
is not mentioned, nor is the name of tlie 
pro|irietor. A month later, on the 7th 
of August, WiK)dH' tavern kitchen, " iu 
Colborne street, late Market lane." was 
buMied. The loss was about £25. Two 
stables iu the rear were also burned. 

The largest conflagration which the 
city had yet seen occurred on August 
22, 184.S. The fire started in the rear 
of the King Alfred tavern on King street 
west, and extended back to Broad lane. 
A tract about one hundred j-ards sijuare, 
containing twenty houses, was burned. 
The damage was £4,000. The great ma- 
jority of the houses destroyed were occu- 
l)ied by working people, who loet every- 
thing. The firemen did goo«l service in 
preventing the spreading of the flames, 
but it waa impossible to extinguish the 
original blaze. The King Alfred tavern 
had only lately been re-furuished at a 
cost of £450. A subscription was started 
bj' the citizens, and £210 was raised to 
help the people who had been burned out. 
None of the names of these people are 

On October 25, 184.3, five houses belong- 
in'^ to a Mrs. Morrison, ou the south-west 
side of lyot (Q Keu) and New (now Nelson), 
streets, were burned. A servant maid 
carelessly left a shovelful of live coals 
on the fl(X)r, and one of the houses caught 
fire, the flames extending to the others. 
The lo«8 was £2,(»00. 

On Saturday, February 10th, 1844, 
.Tacques & Hay's large upholstery build- 
ing, at the south-east corner of King and 
Bay streets, was burned. The building wa« 
stored with uuich varnish, turpentine and 
similar goods used iu a furniture factor}'. 
The loss was over £8,000, and there was 
£1,100 insurance. The origin of the fire 
was unknown. In this case tlie regular.*" 
did excellent work in saving goods ami 
iu assisting the small {)olice force in 
keeping the spectators back. Mr. .lohii 
Jacques was injured by falling timbers, 
but recovered. The fire engine lately 
purchased proved to be of great value. 

Ou December 10, 1844. the Post Office 
tavern and stables on Yonge street were 
partially destroyed. The origin of the 
fire was incendiary. William Uoss, the 
firebug, was arrested, and was sent to 
penitentiary for five years. 

(Ju Wednesday, 14th' August, 1844, a 
fire broke out on the 
and what was then 
street east, which 
to the extent 
in the 


!?30.000. Tin 
have started 
Roy House, in 
the high wind 

corner of Yonge 

Ix)t, now Queeu 

destroyed prop- 

of $25,000 or 

wn.s !-upposed to 

rear of the Rob 



Owing to 
of water, 

' tl 





I!' I: 

tho flainofl Rjinvid quickly aiuonB the 
woodt'ii l)uililiiiK*< ill tin' vicinity, and 
in l«'H.s tliiin Iialf an lioiir tlic Kol) iloy 
HouMO and the four houses adjoining 
south on Yongc street were totnlly 
destroy ed. It wan feared that the 
names would Npread to the other 
«id« of YouKc street, but they were 
saved from destruction by the coolness 
and ener)j;y of the firemen, headed by 
tho Mayor. The violence of the fire 
may be' iud^ed from the fact that 
though the houses consumed were all 
substantial buildings, they were com- 
pletely burnt down in less than an hour 
from the time the fire starti'd. 

The Hob Jtoy House was situated on 
the south-east corner of Yonge and Queen 
etreetH, on the siiot where now stands 
the branch of the Imperial Bank. 

The sufferers by this lire were : Mr. 
Metcalfe, foumler', partly insureil ; .Mr. 
Alexander MeOregor. house and stock, in- 
sured for .$2,"iOO : Mr. Kerry, tavernkeep- 
er ; Mr,. .Joseph Hodg.-on, tinsmith; Mr. 
Stephenson saddler, and Mr. Usher, gro- 
cer. The amount of insurance on these 
last is not stated. 

On January 4th. 1845. a slight blnzc 
dama.jjed ilie iums.' a ml furnitui'e of Mr. 
James Watkins. !()."► Kiohmond street 
west, now No. 100, who was tax collector 
for the district. He was fully insured. 

On Monday, January G, 1845, a fire 
broke out at Messrs. Metcalfe & Cheney's 
pail manufactory, Church .street, on tho 
eaat side, near (iueen street east, do- 
ing considerable damage. For a time 
it was feared that the flames would 
spread to a great extent, but the activ- 
ity of the firemen prevented much dam- 
age to the neighboring property. The 
loss was fully covered by iusuraucew 

No fire of any importance occurred un- 
til i'^'iday, May 0, 1845, when a dis- 
astrous blaze destroyed much valuable 
property between Church and Yonge 
etreets. At about a (juarter past two 
p.m. flames were seen ia«uing from the 
out-premi«efl of William Mussou, who 
previously was burnt February 8, 1838, 
a tinsmith on King street, from whence 
they vspread rapidly to Messrs. Smith & 
McDonell's storeroom, which was filled 
with oils, groceries and spirits, including 
about 100 barrels of whiskey. The ex- 
ploding of these casks caused the flames 
to spiead over the adjoining vacant lots, 
which burned for some time. There was 
at that time a very wide space between 
King street and the next parallel street 
towards the bay— Market street. The 
intervening spate wa« occupied, from 
Church to Y'oiige streets, with wooden 
buildings, some of them very old. In 
the centre of these building.s the fire 
originated. The flamea had spread to 

an alarming extent before the fire i>n. 
gines arrived on the scene, and wln'ii 
they did arrive tlio supply of water wm 
very limited. ISefore long Mr. UrevvepH 
l)ook bindery was euvelojied in fl.iincs, 
and from thence tho fire ran south to- 
wards the post office, burning Mr. licr 
C7,y's stables, and placing tho post on'ii(> 
building in great danger. It was hopeil 
that the i)rogre8s of the flames woiiM 
be stayed at this point; but, in spite oi 
all efforts, the rear premises of Messrs, 
Norris, chinawnre merchants; Mr. Wake- 
field, auctioneer ; Messrs. Wightman \ 
Co., drapers; Messrs. Wragge & Co., 
hardwares merchants ; Mr. U. II. P.rett, 
general merchant ; Messrs. Thomas liji;. 
ney & Co., general merchants ; a vacrint 
store, and the jewellery store of Mewhry, 
Hos.sin Bros, were soon all a prey to 
the devouring element. 

By great exertions the store of Uigin'v 
& Co. was saved from destruction, but 
the fire caught the main building o; 
Messrs. Wragge, and extended to Mr, 
Brett's two stores, and to that of McRsn, 
Utwsin Bros., and tho four handaoiii' 
brick buildings were completely dr- 
etroyed. Three other large stores wer" 
all on fire, but were ultimately savoil. 
Most of tho loss caused by this fire vtmI 
covered by insurance, the greatest loner- 1 
being Mr. i?rett and Messrs. liigney, 

Mr. Brett's stock amounted to !})3."),0nn 
insurance about ,$20,000. Messrs. liii; 
ney were insured for about $30,000 
which covered their loss. 

The papers expressed great dissati' 
faction at the inadequate supply of wat<;| 
on this occasion, and at tho fact that 
re)i:iment of foot soldiers were in tl:*| 
garrison and not one of them was pf 
sent at the fire. Much thankfulness wa, 
felt that the night was so still ; had tlil 
wind been high it is impossible to sav| 
where the fire would have stopped. 

Muflson, the tinsmith, mentioned abov,> I 
resided and carried on business at 5!| 
King street east, same i)lace where 
I). King & Co.'s stere is now. 'I'o tli(| 
west of his place of business, at No. olf 
was the famous grocery establishment f;! 
J. F. Smith .'ind Duncan McDonell, wliic:| 
afterwards became the office of the (V 
onist newspaper, under the propriotor-l 
ship of Samuel Thompson, subsequent t;[ 
the death of Hugh Scobie. On the soutli- 
east corner of leader lane and Kinj[ 
street was Brewer's stationery and Iwotl 
binding establishmont, No. 48 ; on tbil 
south-west corner was Kissock's, ttaf 
came Norrifl' (44) china shop. Wiglitma:| 
& Co., the drapers, were at 42 ; Willia: 
Wakefield, the auctioneer, at 40 ; W, 
J. Crons, Rigney & Co., and then H, 
Brett at 34, and liossin Bros., the jenv.| 
lers, at 32. Higney & Co. were al80o:| 

the occupai 
tinicfi knowi 
well wius 
King street 

On .May 

was visited 


.Mr. Bell, 

It then to( 

«(irds Yoiig 

the biicks 

ociiipicd by 


moml .stree 

dories of tl 

Voii^'e St reel 

►on. Carbe 

iinieh injure 

fully known, 




01 7 

owiinr of tho 

• font of Slmc(i(> 
propiM'ty of till' 

);,• rTHitli h'hIi' nf Kin^ ^tn'ot, nfti'rwnnlH 
iviiii>viii>; opi'osiu' ti) till' Hoiitli-wfsl I'o;'- 
iKM' of Kins '111(1 Toroiitd utrccts. 

Oil Tui'Htliiy, +tli Ndvi'iiiIxt (tf thf Ranic 
V .11, a ln.rK<' tlirfi'-Mtorcy wiirolioimp on 
'[;.■,■■ uliiirf w;is oiitii'dy dostroyi-d. Its 
coiiti'iits CoiiNistod of i\ (■oll:^i(i(•|■lll)ll> 
qu.iiitity of Hiilt nnd whiskey .ind other 
iii.'ichMiidiMe and were a total loss. Tho 
|,.<sie of the wli.irf, Mr. MeMillaii, was 
fully iiiMured and the 
jlddds partially so. 

Kees' wharf was at tip 
stri'ct. and had been the 
ni'Il-kiiowu Dr. Ucon. 

A great amount of daimige was caused 
hv a fire on IvinR stre.t, on Saturday 
fveiiiiij.', Ist March. lS-t(>. The fir'o 
dta It'll ill Mr. Webb's nh(«> store, and 
npi'i'Mil rapidly to the dry (^oodm store 
of Messrs. CroiKliton & Hall. Most of 
the goods wore removed and the flames 
■wiM-e got under control, though not be- 
fore they had occasioned some damage 
to the chambers of Messrs. Smith, Crook 
& Smith, barristers. The whole loss 
WHS fully covered by insurance. No 
cause could be nssignetl as to the origin 
of the fire. 

Webb's store was at 2.S King street 
oiifiti almost on the site ol the Golden 
Lion, nnd Creightou iS: Hall's was n little 
to the west. No. 24, where Mr. Creighton 

This same month of March, 1846. saw 
another bad blaze, which occurred in 
some new brick brildiugs on King street 
near the Temple Chambers. It was sup- 
posed to be the work of incendiaries. In 
two hours it destroyed three fine brick 
buildings, the property of Hon. H. .1. 
Boulton, and another the property of Mr. 
Helliwell. All the propert.v burned was 
covered b.v insurance. One fireman, 
whose name could not be ascertained, 
earned great praise by his courageous 
conduct at this fire. 

The II. J. l'>oiiltoii mentioned above was 
tho occupant of Holland IIons<>, .some- 
times known .is tl\r> Castle. Thomas Helli- 
well Wii« a brewer and resided at 197 
King street east. 

On May oth, 1846, Richmond street 
was visited by incendiaries. The fire 
originated in the cabinetmakers' shop of 
Mr. Hell, which entirely consumed. 
It then took a westerly direction to- 
wards Yonge street, where it destroyed 
the backs of some large brick buildings, 
OJiiipied by Messrs. I.ettridge, at the 
foiith-e.-ist corner of Yonge and Rich- 
liionil .'Streets, jind olhei-s. The iipiKM- 
ptoiies of the house on the east side of 
Yoiige street, occupied by ^lessrs. Thomp- 
son. Garbert. Ivaweon A F.ell, were also 
miioli injnre<l. The amount of losa is uot 
fullv known. 

The fire just mentioned was on tho 
^olllh side oppusite to the site now oc- 
cupied by the Ciinleilrration Life liuild- 

At Yorkville (ui Friday, Di'eeiiiber llth. 
the louse and furniture of Mr. Walker, 
llie toll-ki'i'per, a few yards north of 
the ])resent St. P;iul's llall, were de- 
stioyeil, completing the of fires for 
the year 1S4(». 

Sunday evening, .Innunry lOth, saw 
the first fin; of 1^47, when the grist 
mill, brewery and distillery of .Messrs. 
Thonuw Helliwell ,V: I'.ros., on tlu> Don 
Uiver, were completely destroyed; also 
the dwelling house of .Mr. .It)s. Helliwell. 
The fire was first discovered about 11 
o'clock, when the roof of the cooler was 
seen to be in flames, wliieli sjiread with 
amazing rapidity to the brewery and 
distillery, consuming them both. The 
flour mill caught, and was, with 
the stone dwelling house of Mr. Joseph 
Helliwell, completely destroyed. Mr. 
Kastwood's paper mill was scorched, and 
was only saved from destruction with 
great difficulty. The loss was estimat- 
ed at about .$80,000, of which .$.".,000 
only was covered by insurance. Many 
of the workmen employed by Mr. Helli- 
well had all their clotlies burnt, and all 
bad a narrow escape from being burnt 
to death, as the stairs in the house where 
they slejit, were consumed before they 

llelliweirs brewery was on the eastera 
bank of the Don, not far from where now 
stands Taylor's pajier mills. A full ac- 
count of tliis well known establishment in 
given in Volume I. of Landmarks of To- 

.\ slight fire ©ii .Fnhn street, north of 
Queen street west, on Sunday, Ajjril 4tb, 
1S47. destroyed the house of Mr. G. A, 
liarher, proprietor of the Herald news- 
paper. .Mrs. iiarlkT and her children ea- 
cai>ed with great difficulty from the 
house, and all the furniture, etc., wa« 
toiall.v destro\ed. The house, owned by 
lion. .Mr. Ca.vley, was fully insured, but 
the furniture ;i dead lass. 

On April llth, 1S47, a fire bioke out 
In the brewery owned by .lohu Doel, on 
the north-west coi'iier of Ray and .\dc- 
laide streets. I'he fire engines were soini 
on the spill and about 200 liarrols of beer 
which were stored in the cellar were 
saved. Mr. Doel's house escaped uuiu- 
juied ouing lo tlie fact that they had n. 
hand fire engine on the premises. The 
lirowery was insured in the Home Dis- 
trict Mutual foi' $2.(500 and iu the Johofl- 
town District for $2,000. 

Sunday seems to have been a fatal day 
for fires in Toronto in those days, as on 
Sunday morning, Aiiiil I'.t. 1847, another 
fire broke out in Mr. Hiram Piper'» 




I ':; 


■" I 

workxhop on tlie east side of Ycuiffi' 
utrei't, oiii' iliHir uoi'tli of Kiiiw. 
AvJiich nMulted in a coiwidcrnlil'' li hs 
of i»ro|orty. AfttT tvjiwiiiuiiijr Mi". 
Pi|»er'H hIi(>|i, tin' lire piisseil to n Htiilil*! 
owiioil by Mr. (irct'ii, K»»'*i>><tl'' ImriiiiiK 
it, along with u vaiiiiibic horsf niitl 
luiRj^.v. Till" fill' tlioii I'xti'ndi'd to the 
lircniiHcs or Mr. Hohcrt Love, drujicii'i"t, 
niid to the liack prcrniNos of thi' houni'H 
«»ii KinR Htrt'i't, tiien occupii'il by Mi'hhi'h. 
BnrH'''*K. l-iiWHon, (JIuhhco iind Noi'd- 
hcinii'i', wliich \V(MH' coiiMUint'd, with part 
«»f thoir ('(MitcntH. Tin* lossfs im thin 
Iir<' amomiti'd to about .$('», 000, oF which 
about $4,500 w.i« covcicd by insuiain'i'. 
Pi|i*'i''s tinsmith t<hop was on tlu' east 
»'idc of Yon^?!' ntiret, No. 50, Hoini' thico 
dooiw to tho north of Kiug Btri'«'t. Green's 
nto!e wa-t (X T.-^ll-knovvn rendezvoiw for 
H|ioi'tiug men, oflit'ors from the gnrrifioai 
and the younger clikss of fariuere. After 
retiring from bu'^iness in a nunsmitli .Mr. 
Grt'en entered the Government service as 
wail itgent on tho Allan line, .serving 
for many yearn. He died in (Quebec enrly 
in the pre.seut year (18l>5.) 

A $3,500 bluzo took place on Saturdaj' 
evening, 8th May, 1847, at tlip brick 
tannery owned and occupied by Mr. 
John Sterling, situated at the foot of 
York street, 200 feet south of the pre- 
eent Walker Hou-ie. The fin> brok't out in 
the bark mill, and soon extended over the 
whole building. The prompt arrival of 
the fire engine and the plentiful supply 
of water prevented the flames from 
spreading to the adjoining premises. Mr. 
Sterling's loss was partially covered by 
in<Hurance in the Etna company. 

.\t this fire a fireman was injured bj' 
a cart knocking him down and passing 
over him. 

A most destructive fire occurred on 
Sunday evening, May 31, 1847, by which 
more than twenty families were ren- 
«lered homeless. The flames were first 
discovered shortly before twelve o'clock 
j»wuin^ from a frame building on the 
north sid*' of Richmond street west, near 
the corner of Y'onge street, occupied by 
James Wiley. As the wind waa blow- 
ing strongly at the time, the fire soon 
spread in all directions. The east end 
of Knox Free Church was soon in flames, 
and in one hour the edifice wa« burnt 
to the ground. Meanwhile the rear of 
the houses on Yoiige street had caught 
fire, and in two hours the whole lauge 
of brick and frame buildings from Rich- 
mond to Queen streets, with the excep- 
tion of one brick and one wooden store, 
were completely dMtroyed. The loss by 
this fire was estimated at about 110,500, 
of which not raoro than $5,000 wm cov- 
ered by insurance. This fire led to a 
meeting being called by the Mayor to 

i consider the subject of getting a bettor 
I water Hupplj', which, it m ems, was bad- 
I ly needed. 

I The area covi'red by tlie rava;reH of 

thi^ fire wuh boiind«'d on tlu' north b.v 

(Jiieen, on tho east by Yonge, on the 

foilh by lUobmond and on the we^l by 

1 the ^'rollnd(» surroundiiiR Knox Church. 

i Of the sufferers by this fire .MenspH, 

[ WiN-y, Carter, I>'onard and .Mather were 

insured in the Mutual. Mr. Mulholland. 

! auothnr sufferer, was intjured in tli.- 

I .Montreal Insurance Cumpany. Kmmx 

I Church was iiwnred for )pl.(i(M> in lln' 

I Mutual, and Dr. Buruside, who lia.l jum 

: coiae to reside in tho block, was unin- 

! «ureil. 

' In endiarism wns said to be the cnuso 
I of the fire by which Knox's church and 
I nine dwelling houses were destroyed. 
I The tannery owned by Watson & Co., 
j Y'onge street, and situated on the KinRo- 
I ton road, three miles from town, wii« 
: entirely destroyed by fire on Thursday, 
j July 22, 1H17. Loss unknown, but there 
I was no insurance. 

j A tragical occurrence in ronuection 
with an attempt to set fire to sonic 
! premises is reported in the (llobe of Sat- 
I nrday, September 4. 1S47. On tlw; pre. 
vious Wednesday fire was seen issuiiin' 
from the workshop of Mr. Harper, 
builder, on 107, north side of lUchmDiid 
Hti-eet west, but the flam.'s were quickly 
got under. A watch was set oil 
the premises, and on Friday morn- 
I iiig, about 3 o'clock, a luau was 
seen to climb tlie fence, and proceed to- 
wartls the shop. One of the watch, 
James Mullin, followed him with a gun 
in his hand. Mullin met the man return- 
ing, and called on him to surrender; but 
receiving no answer, and perceiving ;i 
flame in tho direction of the shop, he 
raised his gun and fired. The fire was 
speedily extinguished, but on examin- 
ation the man was found to be (juite 
dead. The body was identified iw tlwit 
of William Somerset, of York township. 
A small fire occurred on Friday, Nov, 
19, 1847, in Messrs. Rice Lewis it Co.'s 
building. The fire was extinguished after 
about two hours' labor, its ravages being 
confined to the cellar, where it origin- 
ated. The loss was about $3,500, mcjstl.v 
covered by insurance. 

liice Lewis' was at 41 King street east, 
on thL> north-cast corner of Tor into stre't. 
No. i Wellington buildings, the iiistuiic 
" Paddock " was known to every one. 

The first fire of any importance in 
1848 happened on Tuesday, February 1, 
when a block of buildings, from RenaieV 
tavern on the north side of Front street , 
just west of Church street, to Colbonu' 
St., were completely destroj'ed. The fir" 
originated in one of the outbuildings; o! 



I;, tiiiic'H tavern, and, an tlic wind wnH 
|p'|u\viii(j; 11 liurriciiuc fi'»iiii the wi'hI at 
till' time, it quiclily oxtcndoil t»> tin* hui- 
KHimliuj? iiouHi'H, until tlie fulirc wont- 
,111 part of tla' block on Front, Church 
and Colbornt' stret'ts \va« levelled to 
ti,e ground. Tweuty-five housea were 
di'htroyod, besides outbuildiiifjiH, und 
tliiTO wan but very little iiiHurauco on 
citlicr houHeH or furniture. 

The UHual HCarcity of water wuh coni- 
iiiniiied of, and the firemen displayed 
tbiir usual energy and activity. The 
suftererH by this fire were an follows ;— 
Mr. Atkiii/'on, two tliroe-storey brick 
iiouces, Blishtly damaged : fully in- 
Hurcd. Two threo-storuy brick houses, 
owiiod liy Mr. Aid. John ArnistronK, par- 
tiiilly destroyed, no insurance. A three- 
storey brick house, the "Tarn o" 81ian- 
ti'r" Tavern, owned by Mr. T. Aitiien, 
totiilly destroyed ; uo insurance. ISriek 
liouws owned by Mr. Oxley, eompietoly 
dfstroyed ; iuaurauce $1,500. Two 
Htorey frame house, owned by Mrs. 
Tlionms ; uo insurance ; the furniture of 
this house was saved. These houses 
were all on the north side of Colborne 
gtreet. On the south aide of Colborne 
gtri'ot there were destroyed :— The stable 
1111(1 outhouses of Mr. Taylor's shop ; loss 
$2rjO to $300 ; uo insurance. A frame 
houHO owned by Mr. .]. Piatt, totally 
destroyed ; insured for $0.'")0 ; furniture 
saved. The next three houses were 
owu"d by Mr. iToehua tt. Beard. Mayor 
o the city in IS")!. HiiS loss was 
JH'tween $1,.^>00 und $2,000 ; no in- 
Mirance. Two frame houses, occupied 
liy Messrs. Howard, Wood & Sons, abt)ut 
$750; uo insurance. Two small frame 
houses, owned by Mrs. Birmingham and 
Mr. Geo. Henderson, which were not in- 
sured ; loss about $800. A building on 
tlio corner t)f Church and Colborne sts., 
the 'Edinburgh Castle" Tavern ; insured 
for $750, which covered the loss. 

The next two buildings ou Church 
Ktretit were owned by A. T. McCord, the 
I'liamberlain of the city. They were in- 
siiri'd for $300, which covered the loss. 
I'iu' next building was owned by Mr. 
Miirchison, value about $200— uo insur- 
ance. * frame building on the corner of 
Trc-c and Church, owned by Mr. Alex. 
Mc jcod ; also the next house ou Front 
dt 'el ; neither was insured— value about 

The next was a three storey brick 
building, owned by Mr. Young, of Uoches- 
ter— loss unknown. The last place was 
the large brick tavern occupied by Wm. 
Heiinie, which was not insured— loss, 
about $1,800. 

The land on which this proi)erty stood 
bflouged to the (X)rpi)ration ; the leases 
Lad just expiroi*' and arbitrators bad 

been appointed to value the improve- 
ments on tlie lots, aecDrdiiig to the terniH 
of the lease. The fire thus relieved the 
corporation of all liability. 

On I'ebruary lltth the workshop ot Mr. 
Medea If, maehinist, iMi 5 tiueeu street 
east, was destroyed. Origin of tlie firi> 
unknown, The machinery destroyed was 
valiu'd at .1*5,000, insured for about $2.- 
500. The Kob Koy Taveru narrowly 
escaped destrtiction on this occasion, 
for the second time. Yet another 
fire happened in this unlucky mouth of 
February, on Sunday 2(jth, when four 
houses owned by Mr. W. U. .\bbott, 4)n 
Sayer street, and two bi'longing to Mr. 
'J'ilt, were levelled to the ground. Mr. 
Abbott was fully insured for $2,000, but 
Mr. Tilt suffered a total loss. 

Mr. Abbott resided at 23 Teraulay 
street, and Mr. Tilt was a general store- 
keepiT on the corner of fckiyer, now Chest- 
nut street. 

On Sunday morning, Octolx'r 15th, 1848, 
the old houiw known as Teraulay Cot- 
tage, once tlie home of the MacaiUuy fam- 
ily, situated on Ix)uisa street, facing the 
southern transept of Holy Trinity church, 
was totally destroyed by fire. There was 
uo insurance, and the buildinf; was of 
small value, except for the historic asso- 
ciations connected with it. 

On Sunday morning, Oct. 20th, 18 tS, 
a firei which started in the hat shop of 
Mr. E. H. McSherry, oa King street vtiei, 
the touth side, did considerable dam- 
age to it and the adjoining premise'* 
of Messrs. IJetley & Kay. The fire was 
kept from spreading very far, but Mr. 
Ellis, a watchmaker, had his stock dam- 
aged a good deal in removing it. Mr. 
McSherry's stock was fully insured for 
$2,000 ; Messrs. Betley & Kay were in- 
sured for $20,000, which scarcely covered 
their loss. Mr. Ellis was uninsured. 

McSherry's house was insured in the 
Quebec and British America Insurance 
Companies for $3,800. Betley & Kay's 
building, where now iTtands the C. P. K. 
office, for $6,000, also in the Britiah 

About one o'clock ou the moruing of 
Wednesday, November 22, 1848. a de- 
structive fire broke out in a building 
No. 76 King street eiiat, the south side, 
near Church, occupied by Mr. Webb oe 
a shoe stoi-e and Messrs. Campbell & 
Hunter, saddlers. The fire siyjii en- 
veloped the biiilding, and then spread 
to the upper part of the corner 
building, occupied by Messrs. Bell & 
Crowther, John Maulson, Charles Lount 
and Thomas Bell as offices. Four large 
brick buildings were almost destroyed, 
the walls only being left standing. The 
shop of Mr. Uogers, hatter, was at on« 
time in great danger. The loss was 

A I 

j 'i 



M i 

•"?").0()(), hut this \V!1H 
li less tiKiii the ;u"tu;il 

\v(M'i> Holii'itoi'K, liav- 

south-t'.i.Kt corti'M' of 

striM'ts. .lohii .M,nii:!oii 

I-<uiiit n 

a land 

( s; iiiint'd at nlinii 

^-U|lp(>,-l>.i to ll'" lU'-l' 

r.cll A Crowllic 
iiii: offices (jii till 
Kiurf ;iii(l Chuirli 
Wius ;iii accountant, CJiaricM 
bairistt'r, and Tlioaias i;;'! 

Tiicro wore various nni:iil fires in tlic 
early part of the year IS-l'.t, the most 
iiaiortant hein^ dii" which, in the mid- 
dle of March, (J,'«lroyed tin' Areenhoiises 
of Mr. tteor^i' Le.slii-, of the Toronto 
XiiTsery, on the Krijr.stcm Koad, iiow 
ki own .as (jaeen Htreet easi. It is unknown 
how tl'.e fire originated, iw by the time 
the flames were seen the largest green- 
house was a I moat couNunied. Mr. Les- 


and the office of the Savings l>ank. I- 
ei'ossed Nelson strd't to the west si'i 
to Kolf's tavern, desti'oying the whui 
block, including the Mirror office air; 
Mr. N.asnuth'M b'lkery. I'roceeding frov,; 
Uolf's taveiii, the fire consiimi-d the coi- 
ner building, and then ran along tli.- 
whole tilock to W. O'Neill's, levelling t!i 
valuable stores of Messrs. Hayes, Jlai;- 
Cheney, O'Neill and others in its cours.. 
About three o'clock the spire of St. 
.Tames' Cathedral took fire, aud \\\. 
building was entirely destroyed. Ahow 
the same time the flames br»)ko out ii. 
the old City ILall, consuming the grcMtcr 
part of the front buildings, iucludiug ■,\ 
small store wliich was occupied by Mr. 
McFarlaue. Some slight diimage wa< 
done to the south side of King etroet, 




A I ) I'L L. A 














Explanation of plan- -I, Old City Hall, *J, Mirror oflii'c, 3, Nipissing House (escaped). 
Farts marked x \ indicace lociilities partly destroyed. Black portions indicate totally 

lie lo«t by this calamity over 4,000 valu- 
able plants, amiHigst them being some 
very rare exotics. The lews was esti- 
mated at about ?2,500. 

On the morning of Saturday, April 7, 1849, 
occurred a fire by which more damage was 
done than bj' any bla/.c before or since. The 
fire was discovered at l..'N) in the mornin.L; 
in \he rear of Graham's tav?ru, King 
street, and Post's tavern, Nelso!\ street. 
The flames speedily consumed Post's 
tavern, the Patriot offic*^, and, crassing 
over King wtreel to the east, burnt down 
all the buildings south oi Duke street, 

and again the store of Mr. Rogers nar- 

j rowly escaped destruction. The Iom 

I wa'i variously estimated from !i>500,0iW 

to i^ToO.OOO. Tiic loeaea, as nearly ;\» 

can be learned, were as follows : 

Church of Hnglaud Cathedral, $58,000, 
insured for .fl2,500. O'Neill I$ros. builil- 
iiig, insured for $7,250 ; stock $24,(»()(i. 
Campbell iSi Hunter, saddlers, goods n- 
moved, !io insurtinee. T. D. Harris, hard- 
ware, total loss; insurance on buildinc 
*T.250 ; stock. )F35.000. Cheney & Co., 
j hardware, insurance, $10,500. ThonM* 
j Hayes, hardware, insurance $4,000. M. 
I P. Ua,ye*« groceries, goods mostly do- 

LANDMARIvS O.-' T()(!()NT<). 


striivrd — iiisuriiiico ^jifi, ()()(). 'riiumafi 
'rii(i!ii(»f!Oii. M;uiniit)t!i lliinsc, larKc Httu'k 
of ilry gi'iiiln (Icstro.viMl— iiisiir.'i iici' on 
huiliiiiigs .'j'u.DOO, on stock irS.OOO— Ium vy 

!'. (HaHst'o, iimnrod $2,250 ; loss cov- 
ered. S,il>iiu' & lliiKKiiis, iii.surcd .$2,250, 
wiiiih iiivorod their toss. Patriot ofiicc, 
i:is;'r.iiic'> .^5,500. Foy \ Austin, insmi'd 
ou stock, $7,250. Tosfrt Hotel in Nel- 
eoi> street, insurance $3,000. ('liarli-s 
Iloiiievy, Mirror office, all lost, insnr- 
iuice $1,250. .John Njisn-.ith, baker, fur- 
niture saved, insurance $2,000. On I'ran- 
cis .-treet sevtM-al iilaces were burned, in- 
cIcdinK Messrs. McL(?an & .fones' cl nin- 
liciN, K. .Xorthcott'.s shop, Swain \- t'o.'s 
iiieilii ini> siiop, anci others. The loss on 
the City Halt v.-as ostiniated at $15,000. 
Walter Mcl'arlane's stock in City Hall 
was insured for $5,000, which covere(l 
the !<'S'-. The total iiniount of insuranco 
was .•i;2;!0,724. 

One life w.-is lost nt this fire. Mr. 
Watson, who had been publisher of the 
Caiiadian and of tlie I'pper Cinada Ga- 
ictte, u|ifltairs in tlie top storey of 
the I'jitriot, tryinj;; to cave .some type. 
when the floor };ave way under him, nnd 
he was burned beyond reco^inition. 

This wiia till' largest fire thai had 
taken place in Toronto eince its first 

Tho plan on the preceding page pLo^vh 
the extent of damage done by the cathe- 
dral fire. 

The insur;uiei< companies wlio suffered 
w"re :-('olnu\bus, <.:5,307 : Hartford, £8,- 
;i()0 ; Etna, C;t.(>00 ; Protection. i;i.;U)0 : 
.Monlroal, £4,124; Quebec, £2,'.t.-)() ; Cam- 
(!i'n. £400: Home District, £5,000; Alli- 
ance. £S,15() : I' America, £17,000; 
PlK*'nis, £5..S50 ; (Holie, £2,050; total. 
tS'.i.tlSl. This waa currcncv e(]na.l to 

August 18th, 1841). there was a small 
fire on (Jueen street, near -larvis, which 
destroyed abf)ut $1,500 worth of pro- 
perty, consisting of Mes,<rs. Nisbet iv 
Foster's carpenter shop and two frai.i 
houwfl, owned by Mrs. Morrison. The 
first w.'iH a. lot.'tl loss, but .Mrs. .Morrison 
•A I- iuMur.'d foe $500, which b.arely cov- 
ered her loss. 

1 liie broke out on Sumlay, March 17, 
ISoO, in a two stori'y frame hous:' on 
Qu I'U street, .at the head of Uay. 
Owiuf^ to the f^now which was f.illinK ''t 
the time, the flames were prevented from 
spreaiiinf.^ to the HurrouuiliiiK bui)<linK8. 
Tlio house was totally destroyed. A firo 
on ■'i\"ednesd.iy, May 15, 1S50, which was 
siipi-osed to lie the work of incendiaries, 
did a great amount of dam.ige in the 
vicinity of Adelaid(> and atreets. 
Til" firo was first discovered in thi> back 
kil<h»a of a small frame house in the rear 

t>f the Odd I'ellows' Inn. on the 
north side (>f .\delai'i(> street, near 
Yonge. Till- fh'imes extended lapidly to 
.Mr. Thompson's machine sliop ;ind Mr. 
Smith's shoe shop on the east, and to 
Mr. Alexander's grain store and the 
Windsor Castle Tavern on the west ; .all 
of which weie entirely consumed. From 
this point tlu> fire sprejid no Yonge 
street as far *as the Bay Jlorsc Inn, 
kept by Thou'a.s Itost. destix>ying 
eight small franu' Mwelling-i in its 
Course. The greatest mifferers by 
this fire were : .Mr. Itobinson, c.abiaet 
makei', everything destn)yed ; Mr. Laf- 
fertv, provision dealer, $5,000, insur- 
ance $1,250. 

Mr. Tyner, shoemaker, insuied on build- 
ing and stock $3,000; Mr. l»r<uill lird, 
cigar maker ; Mr. George Hardy, w.atch- 
maker, and .Mr. Simpson, iv.Mcer. There 
were a number of sm.aller Iosni-k, which 
are not stated. The fire brig.ade is not 
mentioned in connection with this fire, 
or the water su ppl.v, though neither 
Could hfive been very good or the firo 
could not h;ive spread as it did. 

A Company of *th(> li. C. Rifles came on 
the ground about '3 o'clcK'k. and rendei- 
cil valuable a«.-istauce *in gmirding prop- 

.No other fire occurred worthy of no- 
tice until No%'end)op '24, 1N50, when a 
fire broke out in ;i housi- owned by .\lr. 
William Andrews, on the ^f)u',h nide of 
Uichmond fltre 't. near the corner of 
Chinch. Again, owing to the scircit.v of 
water, four houses wero fiurucd to th 
ground before the Tire was st.ayed. The 
loss u|H)ntke property is unknown. 

With the exception of two sm.'ill fires 
in .January, the year 1851 did not suffer 
much lUitil May 7th, when ;i firo 
Plaited in the 'livery stabies »)n Welling- 
ton street, near "York, owned by Mr. 
Gr.ii:* liai.i, and destroyed them utterly, 
Li^geth V with eleven horses oocupying 
lli.-m. A tavern occupied by Mr. A. Archer, 
oi; tae siime stnM't, w.-us also destroyed, 
ignin the short .-u|>pl.v of w.tter rendered 
it imixM^ible to m.ake much he.'uiway 
cigaiiKst the flamts, and it was i nly l)y 
everyoiic helping to carry w.ater in pails 
that the fire w.'is stopped at (HI. Thn 
damage was considerable, but the exact 
aTiiount is not stated. T'he fire brigade 
had an (>a.«(y time for nearly a yea; after 
this, ;ind not until Maxell 21, 1S52, were 
they called upt)n for any serious blaze. 
On thiit Sunday morning .Mr. Vale's axe 
factory on Adelaide, west 
was veiy much injur"d, 
amounting to $4,000. 
t!ie lire unknown. On 
Tuesday. .March 23, ii, 
in the cabinet sho|) of 
soiilh of King, we>t of 

of York street, 

the d.-imagw 

The origin of 

the folkiwing 

fire l)roke o\it 

.\lr. Coiiiier, 

Day .«lirct, 




L.\N1)MAI{KS OK Tt)!r)NTO. 

I) r 

\f i' 


and soon cxtoiidcil to the a(iioi!iinf^ huilil- 
iiif<s, ()(•(' II iii''tl tiv Mr. Mosii.uM, tiiuinith ; 
Mr. Cook, coiilcc-tioiu'r, and \Ir. French, 
chair niiinnfactnnT. This tiiin' tlio wntor 
Biijjply was itiiifil'.' Miul the hiiiiiliiiSH .v(>i'^' 
not entirely dcslroyiMJ, riltlioui.^!i the 
daniap,i> dt)nt' r( iKlcrril them iis'-l'ss. All 
thi' HuffcrcrH wiTo fully insui'iMi, but tlii' 
;nnoiint of Ioh>i or insiiriuipc i.s not stated. 
A ndnilicr of small fires occdrred during 
the hitter jiart of ./tine, ll-i52, and grave 
suspiciouR were rntertaiiiei! as to their 
e.'iiisc. One on June Jl), on Princess 
Btreet, just north of lang, destroyed 
tlir"e or four frame bnildinf;s. Attempts 
v/ere ?iuide whih' tliis firo nas in pro- 
gres! to start otiiers in the neiglibor- 
hood, luit fortunately witliout success. 

Ill July, isr>2, an "indignant remons- 
trance " was sent into J.Iayor .T. G. Bowes 
and (\iineil by the leading insurance com- 
piaiicK'oi the city, asking for more strin- by-l;iWM for the prevention of fire, 
in the matter oi forbidding the erectio'i 
of w<-o(len buildings within the city 
limits, tillowing steiiiiiers to conii> to the 
vharves w'.thuut jiritper piecautions 
being taken, a greater number of 
hydrants, etc., etc. 'J'lie petition was 
pigned by a immbcr of leading insurance 
men and others, but did n(jt liave much 
cffe'.'t. for, on the occasion of a Bni.'ili 
fire in JUchmond street sliortly nfter- 
V7ardB, we find the pajierh calling atten- 
tion to the fact that had it not been 
for tlie extreme 8tillneh:H of the night, 
the fire must have consumed a consider- 
able portio-.i of thc> adjoining blocks, as 
the means of oxtinguishiug the flames 
were altogether inadecjuate in the case ot 
a large fire. 

On the momiiiff of .January 1, 185.*?, two 
fires oeeiirred. destroying the iireinises of 
Messrs. .1. & V. Parks, turners. Adelaide 
street, and tbose of Mr. t)gden, marble 
cutter, i'onge street. The second fire 
spread to the buildingM cf Mr. P.ell, 
watchmaker, and Mr. lirowuHComb, shoe- 
maker, and were with difficulty prevnt- 
ed from progressing further. Much loss 
was caufsed by these two fires, aa none 
of the losers carried any iasiirauce. The 
bnildingf< destroyed were on the west 
tnd^. of Yoiige street. 

On the morning of .Tune 10th, 185.3, the 
Bteamer Admiral, while lying at 15ror\virs 
ivbarf. foot of Yonge fitreet, was burnt 
almost to the water's edge. Happily no 
livefl were loirt. but a great deal of lug- 
gage b*Monging to some of the pas^en- 
i<ere was destruyed. She was insured fur 

Ou Saturday, January 21, 1854, a fire 
broke out in the «ail loft of Mr. 
AdtiWB, ou Timiiug's wharf. A cinder 
Irom a neighbouring chimney lodged 
OQ the ivjof, jiud wiUi fanned into 

were fully in- 
no less than 

a fl.'ime by the filuirp wind which wnn 

blowing. The fiic euf-vines ai'rived too 

late to save the building, but nuiu.u'> il 

to prevent the Bi)read of the fire. Mr. 

Tinning, owner of the building, managed 

to leinove his live stock, but his loss 

amounted to i?l,25() ; no innuranee. Mr. 

Adams, the Bailinaker, lost .$1,000, .uul 

Mr. liobert Moodie. aft'rwards an alder- 

i man. who had eome sails stored :u the 

. building, about .$1,000 ; neither of them 

! wuB insured. One of the engines was put 

! out on the ice at this fire, but tin- ice 

gave way, and ooeasioned a considerable 

amount of trouble in getting the engine 

out afterwai'ds. 

Another six months elapsed before we 
hear of any more destruction by fire, 
anil then on the evening of June 11, 1854, 
the premises of Mr. Salt, on King street, 
were very much damaged, and his stock 
o' dry goods nearly ruined. The fire 
fagines did very good work on this oc- 
casion, and, o'l the whole, the brigade 
Rceineil to be improving considerably. 
Mr. Salt's store and stock 

During the next week 
three attempts to set fire to various 
buildings were made, with greater or less 
BD ce.s.s. Ou the night of \\'<'(hiesday, June 
14. 1854, a building in the rear of Stanley 
etreet, between Church and Victoria, 
was totally destroyed, iiud on the Fri- 
day following the piemise-s of Mr. Arthur 
on Front street were fired, but fortu- 
nately the fliunew were discovered and 
HU'pprei-'tMed. A aimilar thing occurred 
on King street the same day. Ou the 
Wednesday previous an attempt had 
been made on Melinda street, but the 
flarnesj were seen by a young lady, and 
she gave the alarm in time to stop tha 
progiess of the fire. 

June. 1S54, had not yet received its 
full baptism of fire, for on Wedueadav. 
28th, the bells tolled the alarm for the 
firemen to tui'u out to save the premises 
of Mrs. lioatty, taver»ikeejK'r, ou the south 
wide of Kin^ near PrineesB. Before the 
fi;vinen were able to reach the gi •nd 
t'..^' fire had m.'ide conMiih'rable head^-a^-, 
and owing to a strong ojisterly wind 
which was blowing the flaries rapidly 
extended along the south side of King 
until it reached the ruins of James 
Brien's, which had been pulled 
down to check the progress of the fire. 
A number of people Buffered by this tire, 
among them being : John McGloan, build- 
ing burnt down, no insurance ; Edw.'ird 
Dnnlan, shoemaker, total loss ; Mrs. 
l!«'atty, tnvernkeeper, nothing saved ; 
Maxim Sylvester, harness maker, loss 
••ibout $500 ; Lawrence Coffey, dealer in 
flour, loss not knt>wn ; William Jerroux, 
hmn about $200, and otheiB. 



m I 

Thi' lloL'licster (U. H.) firomru -vvoro on 
a vi^•it to this city whoii tlu' fiic of June 
l-llh toolc place on tlio north «i(lu of 8ta,u- 
loy street, destroying eiKiit('(>n or nino- 
ic'.m wooden house<i, moat of them the 
,„i>iierty of Mr. Crawford, baker, who had 
p 110 insui-aace upon them, or ou sixty bar- 
il reis of flour, -whicii were also couflume^l. 
Another fire not mentioned above took, 
pliue on Thursday evening, .June 15th, 
ill a row of brick ho'u^ea on the east 
^ide of Church street, between Queen and 
Shuter street'', llis. McClure, Mr. David 
BvKhau, Mr. Rice Lewis and tlireo other 
rcsitlents were ' jrned out. The insur- 
ance carried was very small. 

On Saturday, July 8th, at six p.m., a 
fire broke out in a frame building, nnn- 
pri^'ing two dwelling houses, in Palace 
street, opposite the jail. They were the 
pio|)crty of Thoma,s Green, nn<l were used 
a-s tenement dwellings. The cause was 
believed to be accidental. 

The deepest alarm was now felt at 
the great number of I'ire.s wliich were 
ii'i'urriap, and the citizenK anxiously de- 
iiiauiii d that the authorities .should cu- 
([uire into the state of affairs. They 
wiTO likewise anxious that the water 
(|iii'Btion should be thoroughly looked into, 
anil a requifitiou was sent in to the 
Mayor and Coirc',! to awaken them to 
a sense of their dut: 8 in the matter. 
There is uo recoi'i. l;. wever, of anything 
particular being done about it at that 

On Sunday evening, Nov. 12tli. lS."t4, 
a fire in Duffy's frame tavern, on the 
north side of Stanley street, uea- Nelson, 
caused conflider..ble alarm to the jieople 
ill that locality. Although there was a 
strong gale blowing at the time the 
firemen worked with s'lch vigor and effi- 
tieney that they succe<.ded in cotifining 
the fire to the house w'lere it started. 
The lo's on this property is not stated. 

On Saturday, Dcceniber 23rd, a fraimJ 
hnildiug u-ed lus a baker's shop by \Vm. 
Ueeves, 157 Queen street west, south- 
oast corner of Peter street, vras totally 
(Iev«t!oyed by fire. 

Tlie largest fire Toronto had seen lor 
years broke out in .Iac(iues I'i Hay's great 
t'aliiijet factory ou the bay front, nearly 
oi)!)o»ite the cud of York street, which 
uiu* the l.-irgeet establishment of its kind 
ill Caimda. A man named Tillev dis- 
covered the fire about 10.30 in the 
oveninj,' of Thuitiday, December 2sth, 
isr>4. The flajues wen' theii lonfined to 
the ])ainting and varnivshinu; in the 
south entl of the third storey of the old 
factory. Fie tried to put it out with two 
l»;iils of water, and, thinking, he had 
nearly cxtinjiniwtHMl it, went down stairs 
or more ; when he returni'd he found the 

fliinie.s were beyond control, and that it 
wa,s necessary to give the alarm, which 
1 ": imnuMliately did. The entrines arrived 
pro'nptly and took up a position near 
the water, and began to play upon the 
south end of the building. It was hoped 
that the progres-s of the flames would 
be stayed in the old factory, but thL 'ire 
had got too eon»pleto a hold upon the 
combustibles within, and it was all in 
vain that the firemen gallantly exposed 
themselves. The flames defied all their 
efforts, and soon had spread all through 
the old place into the immense new build- 
ing. After that further efforts were 
useless, and the firemen turned their at- 
tention to saving the piles of lumber. 

The wi'..d was very high, however, 
blowing from the north-wi'st, directly on 
the great piles lying between the build- 
ings and the wharf. The terrific heat 
soon drove the firemen aw;ty from the 
engines, which lay at the watei's edge. 
The whole stock of finely-seasoned lum- 
ber—the collection of years of labor and 
care— was entirely consumed. The dwel- 
ling house of Mr. Jacijues was saved, the 
wind not blowing in that direction. A 
quantity of made-up furniture was also 
got out of the factory by the active ex- 
ertions of the workmen, but the greater 
part of the stock ;ind the fine and valu- 
able machinery shared the fate of the 

The loss on this fire was various! v 
maiiii from $100,000 to .^l.'iO.OOO, 
the iivsurance was only -$20,000. 
firm was one of the oldest in the pro- 
vince, and great sympathy waa felt for 
them in their tronble. Mr. Jacques was 
slightlv burned during the progress of 
the fire. 

About 1.30 a.m.. on Sunday, January 14, 
IS.'jo, a fire broke out in the building ou 
King street east, to the rear of Messrs. 
Rowsell Jt Hutchison's. It was entirely 
destroyed, as were two printing presses 
and a variety of jirintens' materials. The 
fire was said to be of incendiary nature. 

Ou Sunday, January 2l8t, 1855, a fire 
broke out in the roof of the house on tho 
east .'•ide of Pc)wer street, o<'enpied ti\ P. 
McCurry, eaeristan at St. Paul's U. C. 
church, in the same neighbourhood. The 
damage done was not very great, 

Ou Thursday, January 2.")th, at 0.30 
p.m., the i'teamer (Jueen <'iiv, foi'inerly 
Lady of the Lake, while lying .at the 
Queen's wl'.irf, in this city, was Inirnt to 
the water's edge. The sle.-ii'ier hiul -m 
lK>ard a quantity of dry goods and gn- 
cerie.s for iHirt-; bi'tween Toronto and 
Ilamillitn. ani! only a small j)orlion of 
them were Havecl, The la"-s was fully cov- 
ered by insuriuice. 

On .Monday morning, February 20, l'-55. 

a nd 



I >n 






■ ! j 

111' till' 

II' ilwrlliii;;' 
■rtv of -Mr. 

a lire wan disi-ovcrcd in the First Coii- 
(.',i^'K'''ti()iial ("liiii'fli, cdriicr of I'ay and 
Aiifliiidc stri'(>ls, uiiii-li destroyed that 
Ijuildinp; and its conU'iils, witli seven or 
eiglit dwellinKs to the east and i.ortli of 
it. Shortly after tiie first alarm was 
uiveii, Dr. iCjcliai-dsou ran to tlie jilaee 
and burst ojien one of tiie sid" doors, l)ilt 
tiie fire liad made too much leadway to 
admit of an attempt to extinKiiisli it, 
and in a very sliort time tlie stnietiire 
was in ruins. The ImildinK, wiiiel. he- 
h)np;ed to the liev. Mr. Ivoafs eoiisre- 
Salion, was erected in ISl!) at a eost 
of .'iil2. .")()(». An exeeUeiit or);'an, whieh 
liad I'eeii reeentlv pun lia-;ei|, was also 
destroyed-v.'ilue .1*1. ^aO. The bnilding 
Avas injured in the sum of .f'.t.OOO. The 
f>11ier pi-:Mierty losers wei'e ; lOdward 
Oarvev. William Doolev, Thomas Martin, 
Pobert Hamilton, Mr." Hardy, — . Wil 
oui;i;liy ami .iaim's I'eiin 'r.l, Noii 
ilwellin,;s were insur'il. T 
house wiiieii was the pro) 
Harding, and which had lieiMi hurut, was 
only iusnr'd for .$500. The severe frost 
made the water very hard to Ki't. jnul 
the fir<?meii were practically useless. The 
fire Wiis Hiiiiposed to be the work of an 

On Sunday, M.iroh 4th. a fire 1)i'ok.' 
out. in the Middler-' kIkim ociupifd by Mr. 
Sturtz ik'M', on the W(>st side oi York street, 
about 30 yards nortli of Kinj;'. Tiie iilaee 
wa,s eiilirely con-uined. and there Wiis no 

On the foliowiiip; Sunday, March 1 Ith, 
a stable on Ailelaide street, in rear oi the 
premises (Kaaipied by I'arkins. the pluiuii- 
ei'. wa.s (le-.t roved by !irr 
and cow »*tabled therein, 
siiop was oil the north side 
just east of the Music Hall. 

\ most destructive fire 
S.aturday nioriiiiig. May .'5, 
Carpenter sliop of .Mr. Westinaii, near the 
corner of Itichnioud .'iiid Itay sire -ts, 
which destroyed property to the exti'iit 
of .i<10,000. 'The fire spreail with such 
rapidity that all attempts to extiunuish 
it proved fruitless, ami in tin' cuurs ■ of 
a few hours several worksho|)s and four 
dwellinp; houses were destroyed. Two 
fiiiishinir sliops, whicii ciintained a larsj:e 
<liiantity of tool.) iind a planiiif? nnichine, 
thi! latter vnlutMl at .$()i")0, were burned. 
Two of the d\vellivK« beliiiii!;ed to Mr. 
Wrif!;'it ■lud a third to .Mr. Westiuaii. 
Mr. Westm.'iu was not insuri'd ;iim1 the 
amount )f insurance carried by Mr. 
WriR'ht is not istat"d. The fire was sup- 
posed to i.ave 111"-.; the wiu'k of an in- 

.\nother fire, on Tuesday, .May 2i>, was 
also sup[i(is:'(l to havi- bei'ii tin' W(jrk of 
an incendiary. It originated in some 

stabler beloiifring to Mr. I'aul Kane, oq 
the novtli side of Wellesley street. whicIi 
were completely destroyed, ;i.s well a.s ;; 
f-lovehoiise owned by .Mr. .lame.s Leslie, 
c.irtagi' agent, with sto'k to the amouut 
of .$1,,")00. The other losw in not stated. 
No iii.sur;ince. 

About l.'?0 ill the morning of Frid.iy, 
.Tiiiie 2!», 1S55. a fire, wliich originaied 
in the shed of Mr. ,T. (J. .losoph's liouso 
on the west side of Ciiurch strei't. oppo- 
site St. Michaern church, destroying the 
houses of .Messrs. .Meudell, lloldsworth, 
Childs and Kice I,ewit. H seems that tin' 
siip|)ly o;" water was so very limited thai 
111' ore ;i full mea'^efo could lie had (hv.t 
brick buildiiig.s l.a(. be4>n liurned. 'i'hi' 
ho-e had to In- tak" ; to a Yonge str.'i't 
hydrant befori' .'liiythiiig like a full 
stream of Avater c.ulil be obtained, tiio 
iieai'cst hydrant, on tlie co'-ner of llith- 
mond and Cliurcli. lieiiig found to be iisp- 
less. This fire was tlie scene of soiup 
disgraceful Cfinduct on the p:'rt of tlis 
firemen. When the houses \\ere opein'i] 
fo ■ the removal of the furniture, th" rei- 
la 's were ransacked, and liijuors fn'-ly 
(iistribiitod, rendering the men readv li,i' 
an\ thing d.esperate. Two fireia"! be- 
gan righting, and their comrades gatue;'. 
ed loiiiid. some trying to separ.aie t.'eiii 
and others assisting in the contest. Tin' 
consjibles, who came to do their duty 
the combatants, \vero 
firemi'ii, and drove tln'in 
injuring them so badly 
confined to their bouses 

by i'arrying off 
assaulted by the 
off the ground, 
thai tliev were 

as was a noi'si' 
Mr. Parkins' 
of the street, 
now the Free 

brok" out on 
isr),"), in the 

fo!' some time afterward. Another imi- 
stable. lioolli. shortly after came oi: tin' 
ground, and \va.s iiiiniediately .•issauiteil. 
struck on the head wi'"' an axe, and 
kicked severely. 

, The matter was investigated b., tin' 
I Police .M.agistrate.s and several jfersur,) 
I were fined for fighting !ind assault, hut 
1 no great harm was done in the fightiini' 
i to any one. 

i On Friday. .Tuly l.*?, IS."..", when a t:av- 

i elliiig circud was performing on the ohl 

J'aii- (irc'ii, on Front street o.-ist, a mob 

' of i<^wdii'.s atta<'ked the tent in whicii 

i the show was procei-diiig. The.v first 

I threw one of the waggon.-! lu'longiiig to 

I the otniipan.v info the bay, and liien t\\.. 

i or three more alter them. Next they si't 

' fire to one of the remaining w.aggons, ami 

I .attempted to pull down the tent and Imn: 

it also. Fortunately the fire was put out, 

I though great damage was done to i!,;' 

i property of the circus company. 

I Ab(>ut (') o'clock on Friday morning. T) • 

'. oember 14th, a fire broke out in the in'.- 

I chine rfKiin of the office, on tin' 

.south tide o'' King street west, wlieri\ new 

stand, the Itank of ('oiiinierce. jusi as t!i 

forms were going to pri'ss. The d.iai _, 




,l^,,i,. w(i8, liowever, iucousiderable, iiml 
i,,v>'iril by insurinuin. 

DiiriiK^ tilt' cvi'iiiiig of Thursuay, De- 
<^,;uliL'r -'i^tli. lf^")i>. a firt' broke out in 
of tl"' uM'i'i" i'<H>i"a ill till' liou«t' ou 

where lived .Imnes 

1 11'' 

j:.,st Mailvet .--luare, 

Nliittliesvf^- Theiv was a gcoil deal of 

liaiiiaKe doin', but, the loss wa.s covered b\ 

On Saturday eveniiiy;, January I'.t, \><^)C,. 
loss than tline alarms of fire \verv> 
The first was in Messrs. Miller 


,\; .Mili'ji' coiich laetory on the south 
^j,!,. of Kiiifi,' street west, and but 
fli'lit damage was done. Two houis 
;il'U'rwards, :it 10. .'!<», a su>ve|iii;e 
ill the old Ilos|iital, then oeeupied by 
(idverimient ofli'-es, eaught fire, and fears 
uore entertained fur the ;-<afety of the 
luiililinss. i;y fi'reat efforts, however, 
llu' flames were subdued without nuii.'h 
aaiiiaKi' !)eing done. 

At 12 o'l'lufk, midnight, the third lire 
)jroke out :it Browne's wh;irf. The watch- 
iiiaii noticed the flames issuing from 
\liir|iliy's cuoiH'rage, and immediately 
gave the alarm, but befoii as-iislan'>-e 
;iiiived the fire had ^pivad to the ad- 
inliiiiig sheds. liy some mistake, when 
till' i'iigiae.5 arrived, the hose was brought 
1. 1 play on the ruins ri the old i'oo|rerage, 
where the firi,' haii first broken out. The 
ri'siill was that a few staves were saved 
at tlie expense of a long range of. sheds 
lU till) wharf, besides |il:'.;iug a large 
;ind valuable Vi'a.rehouse in eiinsidi>ral)le 
ihuiger. An a.moiint ol iiiachi ry whieh 
was stored in the sheds wa • stroyed. 
.'ill the pro|ierLy was insureil, di.' amount stated. 

A very destriietive fire occurred on 
Satiiid ly, Jan. 2(Jtli, 1S."»(), The firo was 
;irst discovered by ii .watchman who had 
•har^ie of sonu' stores near the Phoeni.\ 
fiuiulr.v, ou tlie east ^ide of Yonge 
-;i'ei't. No. KS. in a birgc brick houu; 
i daliiig on street. Tliiiikiug the 
family might be u|i, he took no uotiee. 

Ill weal 






'j;aiii passing he saw flames issuing from 
'.hi' liuilding; he at once gave the alarm. 
TIk' (Migiues ai'rived in a short time and 
w.'re (juickly placed in an advantageous 
jm^itioii. and bega.u to play ou the fire, 
whi.ii. in spile of all effoi'ts, consumecl 
the Pluieni.v foundry and the large brick 
ii'iisc in fi'out. It was with vei'y great 
I'.ifficiilty that the firo was kept from 
-I'li'iHliiig any further. 'J'he loss to .Mr. 
Mfliee, owner of the foundry, was ,f;{(».- 
ii'iH, totally unin-iured. The firemen had 
viili'iitly pi'dfiti'd by the comments of 
•Ja' lU'wspaperH on their conduct at pre- 
III this 

fires, for they earned great praise 
ision for the psompt manner 

This wa'^ the tliird time this foundry* 
had been deslioyed or greatly damaged 
by file. 

.\ fire on February ."tth, 1850 did dam- 
age t I the extent 'of about $2."), 000 or 
$:50,0U0. It broke out in Thompson iV: 
Co.'s staticmery store, .No. 52 King sti-eet 
east, oa thi' south sid', where was pub- 
Ijsheil the (" newspaper. Tli" cause 
w;is fu'lieved to be accidental, an<l the 
dannge done amounted to some .*24, (••)(), 
niu -li <)f which wa.s covered by insurance. 
The Kast India Ihus.'. Yates' groi'eiy 
store, next i\nvv west of the Coloiiist, was 
slightly daiuage<l. Ea~'.svard llearn «.S: Pot- 
ter's. ,'")4 King street east, was also badly 
dainag(!d by water. They wei'C mathe- 
matieal instrument niak'is. The other 
flu >!s oi the same building. whi<'h were 
o;'cii|iie 1 by the Provident I'luildiug 
So'iety, Mi-, .\nderson, <a l;ind agent, and 
others, were much dama.g.'d by water, 
and the dtiHirs and windowis smashed. 
Alex.mder I'deakley, ;i dagiierrean artist, 
^vho occupied the top flat of .Nci. 54, last 
all his projx'rty, and was wholly unin- 

\ little before two o'clock ou Sunday 
morning. May 25, 1.S5G, a lire broke out 
in a frame building, then usod as an 
engine house, at the (Irand Trunk sta- 
tion, tjueen's wharf. ttwing to tlie fresh 
breeze blowing, the place was burned to 
the ground. .No less than eight locomo- 
tives, which were in the building, were 
destroyed, tlie woodwork being entirely 
burned away and the machinery da:ii- 
aged. The amount of damage could not 
be ascei'taiiu'il, but it must have been 
many thousands of d(llars. The engines 
could not be got to woi'k at all at this 

No fire of any co!ise(inence occurred in 
Torimto until Tuesday, July 15, 18.")tj, 
when Messrs. Jaciiui's iV Hay's new 
labinet factory, on I't'ont, near Yofk 
Ktret't, W!us bui'iK'd to the ground. It 
will be remembered that the old fae- 
toiy was ;iestroyed by fiie about a year 
and a half previous, but a new and 
larger fabi'ie had been erected < n the 
old site, filled with machinery and rni- 
terial, ami peojiled with workmen. \\. 
three o'clock on the day in (piestiou the 
establishment was in full and successlu! 
operation. ;{0() people labouring iu th'' 
various dep.artineiit.s, aided by all the ap- 
jiliiinces which iiigennily and skill couid 
devise, and an liiur afterwards it wa« 
a he.'ip of ruins--))ui!diiigs and machin- 
ery and stock de.-tinyed, and the occu- 
pants comix>lled to ilee for their lives, 
leaving Hcven of their fellow.'* over- 

whelmed amidst the flame: 

With the 

exci>ption o 

few chest* of tools 


.11 which th 'y (d)i>yi'd oiders ami ihe I bari'els of oil anil varnish, iiotliing of 
i."iy;y Ihcy displayed. 


r. \ I i 

vaUie was «ave( 

1 fi 


le names. 









3 as 
as ^ 









fire, it was boiiovotl. brnko out in the 
drying room, which was situated iinmo- , 
(iiati'ly above the boiler in a building 
attafliod to the Bouthern end of the 
inaiu structure, and next to the water. | 
There was a great deal of smoke at , 
first, and the workmen made the usual ' 
efforts to put out the fire by buckets 
of water, but without success. Complete \ 
arrangements had been made when tlie j 
buiitiiiig was erected for the extinction ', 
of fiie; but, unfortunately, the necessities 
of the iuadeciuato water-work-s comjx'lled 
the stopiJage of the usual supply, and 
there was not a drop of water either in | 
the pipes of the factory or in the hy- 
drants when the firemen opened them. | 
There is no doubt that if a proper ^ 
supply of water could have been had, 
the parts affected might have been flood- 
ed and the fire extinguished. The flames 
noon got access to the piles of lumber, 
shavings and sawdust, with which the 
ground floor was encumbered, and only 
a few minutes after that the fire was 
visible at the roof. Its tremendous pro- 
gress through four storeys astonished 
every spectator. The workmen made a 
few hurried efforts to nave their tools 
and some of the machinery, but ihey were 
600U compelled to desist, and to seek 
safety iu the front part of the lower 
ftory, to which the fire did not extend 
so rapidly aa it did upward. Sad to 
Bay, the retreat of 13 wa« cut off, it 
was supposed by the burning of the 
gtairs, and they were left at the top 
of the building, with the firo raging 
about them, and no means of retreat, save 
a fearful leap of forty or fifty feet to 
the ground. Five embraced this desper- 
ate alternative after the fire had actu- 
ally reached them, and escaped with life, 
but eustaiued bad injuries. 

Seven of them perished in the building. 
Before the engines could reach the ground 
the fire had obtained the entire mastery 
of the building. The men attached their 
hose to the hydranta and found there was 
no water in them; they then moved the 
ougines to the bay and commenced to 
draw from that source, aided by a few 
carters. Their efforts were utterly 
powerless, however, against the flames. 
The wind was blowing from the west and 
north, and it poured a volume of fire 
thrnuRh the windows down upon the 
building which had been used as a var- 
r.ish and oil store, and upon the piles of 
lumber on the wharf, which nothing could 
resist. It was supposed from the direc- 
tion of the wind that the dwelling house 
of Mr. Jacques and the brewery of Messrs. 
Cayle^ & Niwh were in no danger. The 
wind, however, suddenly changed to the 
Bouth, and the jiMpect of affairs w;ih 
altefcd. Two small frame houvses caught 

fire, and the flames soon spread to tbo 
brewery and to the piles of lumber. Mr. 
Jacques' house soon followed. The roof 
of the brewery was of shingles set in 
mortar, nud it resisted the flames a long 
time. A little help from the engines 
would have saved it, but, unfortunately, 
they could not be got to it in time. The 
following is a list of the killed and in- 
jured :— James Minns, a carver. Ho 
was supposed to have gone up stairs to 
save something and to have perished in 
the effort. John Watson, cabinetmaker, 
married, one child; Anthony Ellis, cabi- 
netmaker, had been married only a few 
days; Ch.Trles Drummond, carver, left a 
wife and family ; — Cole, carver, little 
known of him; Ives Leguerre, a French- 
man, stranger in the city; Thomas Go- 
bert, a German, was also a stranger. 
Injured :— John Cook, left arm badly frac- 
tured; John Conly, burned while getting 
down stairs; John Gilbranson, badly burn- 
ed and left leg contused, jumped from 
third storey window; J. Ilurtso, jumped 
from fourth storey, face, neck and arms 
severely burned. John Weiber, Henry 
Sommerflat, Fred. Lutry, John Coleman, 
a man named Jeffrey .and a firenio.n nam- 
ed Wm. Tarletou were also injured. 

Messrs. Jaciiucs & Hay's loss was very 
large on this second fire. Their insur- 
ance amounted to about .$54,000, but this 
did not nearly cover their loss. The 
buildings and machinery were worth 
.$100,000, the lumber .$30,000, and the 
stock about $25,000. Messrs, Cayley & 
Nash's loss was about $15,000, covered by 
insurance. As a result of this fire, a 
eubscriptiou loan was set on foot for the 
purpose of enabling Messrs. Jacques & 
llay to resume their operations. The 
sum was fixed at .$50,000, which was 
realized in a short time. The loan was 
granted for four years. 

Eight days after this calamitous tire 
another one broke out on the south Hide 
of King street, between York, B.-iy and 
Wellington streets, in a work*shop occu- 
pied by one Fuller, which consumed a 
considerable tinionut of projjerty. There 
Wivs a rookery of old buildin^rs pur- 
rounding it on all sides, and tjjey all 
.siR^edily took fire. From the stables tin 
fire spread to a large frame building 
occupied as shops by the Northern rail- 
way, and aLso by Mr. Larjare aa a 

So suddenly was this destroyed that ho 
and his family were only able to save 
a few vahiribles. The fancy goods store 
to the front of this, ;H'cupied by Mr. Lar- 
jare, and the dry goods store of Mr. 
.Foluist'-in were both destroyed. From 
there the fire sprend to the shops occu- 
pied by Mr. II, Ross, grocer, and by Mr. 
ileilly as a saloon. A light south-west- 




' ' '{ 

I : ■* 

erly wiuil was blowing at the timo, nnd 
the fluinoH incliiii'd to the north and tlie 
raat. The liyccuin Theatre was at one 
time iu considerable danger. A large 
open lot to the south was covered with 
lumber intoniled for the HoHsiii Hoiis»s 
then in ronrae of erection. It took fire 
immediately, and the flames spread over 
the lot as far ixs Kay Htieet. A stablci 
filled with hay, was burned there, and 
the whole block of buildingn were in 
great danger. The loss wns from $40,- 
000 to !?■)(). 000, secured as follows : Mr. 
lioniaine ,$10,000, fully insured. Mr. Lar- 
jare was insured for .$0,250, which did 
not quite cover his loss. Mr. Johnston 
was fully insured; amount not stated. Mr. 
Koss insured, no iimount given. Mrs. 

Savage owned the house occupied by 
Keilly. It was insured for $3,500. Fuller's 
carpenter shop was insured for $750. 
Other losses are not stated. 

A destructive fire took place on Oct. 
14, 1850, which consumed almost entirely 
a block of buildings betweeu King and 
Palace streets and Princess and Caro- 
line,, now Slierbourne, .streets. With the 
excjcption of one brick hoiu*!' the whole 
of the buildings were wooden structures, 
and the flames, favoured by a strong 
breezt^ raged s-o furiously that all the 
laJbours of the fire brigade were un- 
availing, except to pi-event the fire 
from croaeing Pal.-ice street to the 
limiber yard of Mr. Sn.irr, which woa 
iu danger at one time. The 
lire had lu.ade rapid progress before the 
engines arrived on the scene, and, as 
nsual, the hydrants were unsupplied with 
water for some time after it was want- 
ed. By the time water was to be had 
tbe flames were raging so furiously that 
no headway could be made against them. 
The entire block was burned down, ex- 
cept a small house owned and occupied 
by Mr. Joseph Shea. A building asso- 
ciated with the early history of Toronto 
was destroyed by this fire. It 
known a4 Russell Abbey, having been built 
for Governor Peter Russell, and occupied 
by him a^ the Government House. It was 
owned at that time by Hon. Robert Bald- 
win. The total loss by this fire exceeded 

On Sunday, November 10, 185G, a fire 
on King street, opposite the Rossin House 
—then nearing completion— caused great 
anxiety for its safety. It broke 
out in Mr. John Clarke's temperance 
ealoon, and before the alarm was given 
had made euch headway as to threaten 
the destruction of the whole range. Two 
or three other stores caught fire, but the 
chief anxiety wa.s for the safety of the 
Rossin House, the fire at one time hav- 
ing actually caught one of the windows 
on the first floor ; but owing to the vigi- 

lance of the firemen all danger 
averted. The loss was comparatively 
slight, as most of the buildings were verv 

No fire worthy of record occurred in 
1857 until September, when on Friday, 
25th, the stables of Mr. Jones, on the 
corner of Duchess and George streets, 
were burned to the ground. It is not 
so much the damiige that waa done by 
this fire as the barefaced way in which 
the buildings were set on fire by un 
organized band of incendiaries, which 
makes it noticeable. 

The fire was first discovered by Con- 
stable Patterson, who waa on duty on 
Jarvis street. He noticed flames issu- 
ing from the building, and on going to- 
%vards it, he saw two men running frutn 
the stables. He made an attempt to 
secure them both, and succeeded in cnp- 
turing one, named Thomas Caldwell. In 
the meantime the aharm had been given, 
but the engines arrived too late to do 
any good. The place was completelr 
destroyed. The night watchman em- 
ployed by Jones wiuj arrested for com- 
plicity iu th<; crime. .Another man nannd 
William Kelly wne also apprehended. The 
reason for atteuii»tiug to burn tin. 
stables was that Mr. iones had estal)- 
lished a line of omnibuses, which had 
the effect of injuring the cabmen's busi- 
ness to a great extent. Another at- 
tempt to burn a new omnibus was made 
on November 19, which fortunately proveil 

The Rossin House narrowly escaped ilo- 
struction on December 17, 1857. A little 
before 7 o'clock that evening a fire 
broke out in the shop of Mr. A. Larj.ire, 
in the Rossin House, and before the ar- 
rival of the engines the greater part of 
the stock, which consisted of light fancy 
goods of French manufacture, was con- 
sumed. By dint of great exertions, the 
progress of the flames was stopped. The 
damage amounted to about $8,000 on 
Mr. Larjare's stock ; . fully insured. 

The idea of connecting the fire .sta- 
tion with some of the outlying police sta- 
tions by telegraph was first thought of 
in February, 1858. The matter 
discussed by the papers, and met with 
their fullest approval, and as the co«t 
was estimated at only about $1,200, tis 
ache me was adopted. 

On Monday, January 4th, 1858, a fin 
broke out ia the shop of Thomas Lang- 
ton, on the west side of Yonge street, 
about four doors from Louisa street. 1: 
wa« toon extinguished, though con^^ider- 
able damage was done, but it was be- 
lieved to be caiLsed by incendiarism. 

On the night of January 27th a fir.' 
broke out in a vacant building adjoin- 
ing Rei'k's tavern, "The Fireman's Uoliij,'' 



CD on tho north siilo of Kin^ street wcBt. 
It wtu* believed to Iwive been wilfully 
fired, and uii iuve.stiu'ivtioii took place, 
but no one wm.s indicted. The liuu,se waa 
owned by Henry Sproatt. 

(ju March li<t a. fire broke out in a 
(fUiblo b<,'loa,^iug to Mre. JanieH Callajihau 
uu the Bouth-east corner of Jarvis and 
yueeu Htreets. where now Htandu the 
Fred Victor Mission. It and the adjoin- 
iug buildings were entirely destroyed and 
Mw. CallaKhau'H house much injured. 
Fully inspired. Thewi were the first build- 
intfs ever erected on the B]wt. 

On March 7th, 18.58, a house on the 
north-west corner of Nelson and Ade- 
laide atreets, ttceupied by Mr. Goodwin, 
the taiuoufl Waterloo veteran, as a 
dwelling house and gymnasium, was com- 
pletely destroyed. The alarm was given 
about 2 o'clock in the morning, and the 
fire engines were soon in attendance ; but 
before their arrival the flames had ob- 
tained such a hold on the building 
it was impossible to save any part of it. 
Ou the same morning, about 5 o'clock, 
a stable belonging to Mr. McMtwter, 
(situated ou the ea-st side of bay 
street, No. 26, was olwerved to 
be in flames, and although the most de- 
termined efforts were used to prevent 
the fire spreading, they were unavail- 
ing, as the buildings, both in front and 
rear, cousistiug of dwelling houses and 
stables, were soon ignited, and a large 
amount of propertj' destroyed. The prin- 
cipal sufferers by this fire were Miss 
Uay, Messrs. Gooddale. Hamilton, Smith 
anil Mrs. Grievisou. The actual loss is 
not given. Both fires were supposed to 
have been the result of incendiarism. 

A disastrous fire, which occurred on 
April 8, 1858, broke out opposite the 
Court House on Adelaide street. It was 
Buppcsed that the fire originated in a 
amall brick building, occupied aa a bake- 
house by Mr. John Hayes, and that it 
was caused by the oven 'icing left in a 
heated state on the prcious evening. 
For fiouie reason the alarm was not 
; given until several other buildings in 
j the block were enveloped in flames, and 
it wiw with great difficulty that the fire- 
• meu managed to keep the fire from 
spreading to the next block. The build- 
fiiigs which were consumed were ten- 
I anted by John Hayes, tavernkeeper ; Wm. 
IBrowu, tavernkeeper; T. H. O'Neill, tav- 
[ernkeeper, and G. George, tailor. The 
[flames spread so rapidly that the fam- 
lilies of Uayea and Brown had b.-irely 
EtimB to eacapo with their lives, and had 
Itimfl to save nothing. When the fire 
IwfUi nearly extinguished three of the fire- 
iwn, immed Fred. Leppar, Joseph Beatty 
land William Thompson, while directing 
Ithe Lose pipea upou tho flames, were seri- 

ously injured by the falling of a chim- 
ney. Tho first named, Fred. Leppar, 
had his skull fractured, and although he 
had the best medical attention, he ex- 
pired three hours later. The lo«8 by this 
fire was estimated at about $5,000 on 
the buildings, and about $2,000 on fur- 
niture, etc. There was very little in- 

On April 9th. another fireman naiue<l 
Terence Meehan, as he was assisting to 
draw an engine to the «oeue of a supjK)sed 
fire. wa« thrown down, and the engine 
pa«-i«'d over him. Ho died from the effects 
of his injuries. 

Ou Friday, April 10, at 3.30 a.m., a 
fire broke out in the printing office of 
Kow.sell iSc Ellis, on thi' south side of Court 
street. The damage done vfixa very con- 
siderable. It was 8uppo-(«d to have been 
caused by an iuceudiai-y. 

Another case of suspected incendiarism 
occurred on April 22 in this year. The 
tii'« broke out in a <<tabl« on tin- south- 
■west corner of Church and Crookshaoik 
(now Wilton avenue) strwts. adjoining 
the housi.' of Mr. John Harrington, 
one of a bloi'k of three. The flameg 
toon spi-oad from the oiit-buildings to 
tho main stnicture, and although th< 
fire engint^s were soon ou the spot, 
they were (juite powerless in conseciueneo 
of the scarcity of water. The nearest 
hydrant was on Queen street, and the 
only way in which water could be got 
was by placing one engine half-way be- 
tween it and the fire and pumping the 
water into the engines at the fire. In 
spite of all efforts the three buildings 
were entirely destroyed, with their con- 
tenta. A few minutes before the alarm 
was given two men were seen, running 
from the direction of the fire, by the 
constable on his beat, and that, coupled 
with the fact that no light had been 
u.sed in Mr. Harrington's stable, gave 
force to the belief that the property had 
been fired. The buildings and furniture 
were pai-tly insured, the total amount 
of loss above insurance not being more 
than $750. The other occupants of tha 
houses were Mr. Allan McLean and Mrs. 

On April 23rd a stable in the of 
Ritchey's terrace, on the north side of 
Adelaide street, took fire, was entirely 
consumed, and five horses which were in 
it at the time with a carriage. The lass 
was about $1,2(K), no insurance. 

Another very destructive fire occurred 
on April 27th in the block bounded by 
Teraulay, Agucf, Eilward and El' ^beth 
streets. Ou T'eraulay street the dwell- 
ing houses of Mr. Parsons and Mr. Os- 
borne, tho architect, were destroyed; ad« 
joining Mr. Osborne's residence was a 
tenement building occupied by three 




!■ I ii 




fuinilicH nnmi'd ISroolm, Dickson niid 
Walker. This w.t.s burnt. lu P^thvaril 
Htroot Du>r«;iu'M Iiouhc niul car|MMitcr'H. 
t<boj> wore l)uru<Ml down. C'ims's Htiiblcs ad- 
joining lli(W<! of DuKKan wore also con- 
Humnd. A nowspajXT of the timo eayn :— 
'"I'liere wore no huildiii^cs on tho front 
of A(?ncs and Elizabeth Btrccti^ burnt, l)ut 
tone back i>nMnis<.'e went with the jien- 
eral fonflagration. Tho entire cexitre of 
the blcK'k is in fact fine heap of burnt 
and HMiculdorinrf ruiuH." 

There v,i\h very little insurance carried 
on any of thofio buildinRs. and the total 
loss was Hoveral thouRand dollars. 

The city was now thoroughly alarmed. 
i\B it -wiv^ felt that without doubt a band 
of inoondiariea was at work, and steps 
wore taken to patrol tho city at night to 
protect property from the work of the 
incendiary. In addition to thin, a reward 
of $1,0()U waa offered by the Mayor, Mr. 
W. H. Boultou. for any information that 
would lead to the apprehension and con- 
viction of the miecreants. 

On April 30th, a large barn, the prop- 
erty of Terence O'Noill, standing on tho 
north side of the Kingston road, about 100 
yards east of the Don bridge, was also 
(lestwyed. In this cfise there was no 
doubt that the building had been wilfully 

On Monday, May 24th, during the fire- 
nieu'e parade, H. Ro-s's grocer's shop on 
the cast t^ide of Youge, honr Richmond 
street, was greatly damaged by fire. The 
origin of the fire wajj generally attribut- 
ed to carelessness on the i)art of some of 
Mr. R<»9s' servants. 

Mrs. McManus, wiio kejrt a second-hand 
store on Queen street, just west of York 
and on the pouth side of the street, vas 
burnt out on July 29th, nothing being 

About two o'clock on the afternoon of 
So|*tomber 12th a fire broke out in the 
stables owned by Mr. Urigge, builder, on 
the oast side of Yongo. near tho comer 
of Gould street. Mr. Briggs himself was 
verj' seriously burned in an unsuccessful 
attempt to save a horse. Some sheds and 
etables in the vicinity, owned by Mr. 
Daw*<on, with several wood sheds and a 
large pile of new lumber, were all burned. 

On January 18. 1S59, a fire broke out 
in the south-west comer of King and 
Goorg'o etroots, in the coffee and epicc 
grinding niauufaictory occuj)ied by Craw- 
ford & Kobarts. There wa.s a great deal 
of damage done, which was covered by 

On Thursday, May 12th, the lumber 
yard of Mr. E. B. Gilbert do- 
btix>yei The yard AVfus situated be- 
tween Bay and York streets and Ade- 
laide and Boultou streets, with the en- 

trance on Adelaide street. Tho firo wni 
first seen arising from the eastern cornor 
at the back of a long wooden shoil, 
which was U8(;d for storing laths and 
dressed lumber in, and with which jt 
was well stocked. Scarcely any people 
wore Jibout at tho time, and unusual de- 
lay arf)se in convoying tho engines to 
the spot. On their arrival the heat wa* 
so overpowering that they wore obliged 
to take up a position a long distance 
off, and from some cause or other con- 
siderable time elapsed before they coiiW 
bo got into working order. By tho tiro* 
any well-directed effort could be mad« 
to quell the flames they were far beynnd 
control. All efforts were then turned to 
confining tho flames to the piles of tim- 
ber in front of tho sheds, and fortunate- 
ly those wore successful. Tho firo wm 
arrested, and, though many of the large 
stacks of lumber near the shod had been 
destrnyod, the fire was kept from spread- 
ing further than tho centre of the yard, 
Tho damage amounted to about $7,000, 
of which only $2,000 was covered by in- 

The most disastrous fire with which To- 
ronto had been visited for some time oc- 
curred on Tuesday, August 30, 1859. At 
about 12.45 a.m. the alarm was rung for 
a fire on the corner of Gould and Vic- 
toria streets, opposite the Normal 
school. The flames had first broken out 
in the shed near the workshop of Mr. 
Annitago, 8 Gould S'treet, ajid spread so 
.speedily to the brick house attached to 
the workshop that it wiie with difficulty 
Mr. Armitage and his; family escaped un- 
injured from the house. To the oaBt oi 
Mr. Armitage'e «hop were the back pre- 
m'lBea of three two-etorcy brick hou/ieti, 
which faced on Victoria street and be- 
longed to him. Farther northward, on 
the west side of Victoria, etreet, were a 
row of six houses, owned by Mr. Sheriff 
Jarvis, and still farther north a two- 
storey rough-cast, owned and occupied 
by Rev. Dr. Taylor and Mr. Robertson, 
head master of the Normal school ; and 
still farther north a brick cottage, o\n- 
ed by Mr. Cameron. The fire, aided by a 
frouth-west wind, speedily consumed the 
outbuildings of the whole row, and from 
thence spread to tho houses themselves, 
Every exertion of the firemen to con- 
fine the flames to the outbuildings pror- 
od abortive, and it was only by pulling 
down the sheds at tho back of the 
houses facing Yongo street that ther 
were saved from destruction. The fire 
having seized ujKin the centre houses, be- 
longing to Mr. Jarvis, trjivolled with a 
speed rarely witnessed. Tho roar was 
terrible, and the water poured iSt seemed 
to have little Qr no effect. Tho loois 
speedily fell and left nothing but thi 



linrc (ind blnckonod walls. By f^rent cx- 
ortimi llu! firfiia'ii suceoedod in Hiiviiij^ 
ihn'O liouscs l)cl()iit;ing to Mr. AriiiitMKi., 
mill also Ml'- Cainorou'rt cottunc. Tor 
,i|HV!U'(ln (if tliri't'-quurtiTH of an hour 
t|,i.ri' wan a great want of water, thnuigli 
iliC (Icfifu'ucy of liydrantH in tliat iiart 
,.( tiio city. Thori! in no doubt that niucii 
luori' i/roperty might liavo been Havod 
l,i\d water boi-n iirocurable. Tiu' aggro- 
Mrtto loHB NViis i'Mtiinati'd at bctwi-on 
:;;ir,,000 and $40,000. 

Thi.s fire doHlroyfd no 1<>sh than h\x 
lioiis^'fl on VictoriiL Htn'ot, (ji'i'iiiticd a^ 
■olIowB :-20.s, Mrs. Clubbfl ; -llo, Mrs. 
S. Jarvis : 212, IU'\\ W. S. Dai ling ; 214, 
Monfi. Eugi'no d(! St. Ri'niy ; 210, Dr. 
.<iiiith : 2 IS, Mr. Nation. 

Sheriff .larvi^ was fully insured, so also 
wiifl Mr. Uohert'^on, and Dr. Taylor wiw 
loi' $2,000, svhieli about covered hiw loss. 
The eaiwe of the Victoria street fire 
\va«i hy fionie attributed to incendiarieH, 
but theiv were many who thought it 
w.'LS tlie result oi carelesHness. 

Toronto was again visited by a de- 
structive fire on Oct. 20tii, 1S.')0. which 
iioiirly swept away the whole block of 
liuikliugs fronting on Uichniond, Adelaide, 
Uay and Sheppard streets. Most of the 
hoiisOH were of wood, and the centi-e of 
thi" block was closely packed with "shan- 
tios," Btables, outhouses and worksliops, 
1,11 of wliich furnished abundant food for 
the flames. The fire wa>i first disco ver- 
p(l in the roar of Bond's livery utable.H 
near the Lyiug-in Hospital on Kichniond 
stroet, about 11.30 o'clock in the ovcn- 
iiic;. There was a strong wind blowing 
from the north at the time, and in a very 
ir\v minutes the hospital and adjoining 
ImildiuKs were wrapped in flames. The 
fii'L' Hoou spread to the houses surround- 
iiiL' Mr. I'ond's stables, and it wius 
with great difficulty that six horses 
were taken out. Seven others, valuable 
iiiiimals, perished in tiie flames. A row 
li houHi's in a lane opposite the west 
tad of Tcmiierance street, belonging to 
Mr. Kop:ers, cai-penter, next fell a prey 
to the fire. The occupants lost nearly 
I'vpry iiiice of fu'-niture, save a few 
tritlinp; tirticles. A row of frame houses, 
llii' property of Mr. Hill, were also de- 
rtrojed, and only a very small portion 
([ tlii'ir Contents saved. Three houses 
(11 UJPliinond street, of Mr. .los. Dixon's 
and Mr. Carrick's, baker, were burned, 
iiiiil it was almo.'ft by a mii'acle that the 
liiiise and bakery of tin? latter esea|)ed 
I dc'struetion. A new building, intended 
[for the Lying-in Hospital, was sevral 
■tiraos on fire, but a number of firemen 
I iiiiuiitcd the roof, and. by ciittinn' nfi and 
jtliiowing down jiortions of the biii'iiiiig 
[matorial, the building nas saved. A 
|t(U|;h-cast house in rear of Adelaide st., 




out of 


a small cottage, occupied by one Carter, 
four frame iiouses, the property of Nfr. 
Carrick; a two-storey house, wliiclj Imd 
been occupied l)y .Mr. Morrison, jeweller, 
were soon destroyed. The wind carried 
the flames towards Shei'pard street and 
consume(l the houses of .\rthur .Milligan, 
U. Milligan, S. Aldordico and H<'veral 
others. Three or four other dwellings on 
.\delaido street were completely burnt 
down. Other houses were damaged more 
or b'^is, but were saved from destruction 
li.v the almost sutierhuman efforts of tlie 
firemen. The night was very cold and 
the ground soon became slippery from the 
frozen water u|ion it. The scene was a 
most jiitiable one; the fire had 
with such rapidity that it liad 
allowed many of the people to 
with their lives. The.v rushed 
their houses into the bleak wind, 
of them barely covered. Their furniture 
was strewn upon the ground in all direc- 
tiiins and in many jiieces. I'pwards of 
fift.y families were rendered homeless by 
this fire. The firemen earned great 
jjraise at this fire by their courage, but 
the intensity of the heat made it impos- 
sible in many cases to do much good. 
The damage don(^ bv this fire was in the 
neighbourhood of ,$80,000 or ,$35,000, but 
particulars of the losses and of insurance 
are not given. The (U'lirin of this fire was 
attributed to incendiarism, but the truth 
was never ascertained. 

About 25 dwelling houses were de- 
stroyed in this lire, and about two acres 
of land laid bare. Mr. Dixon's jti'opei't.v 
was insured, and he was almost the only 
suffeivr who was thus protecte<l. 

A fire at the " Don Foundry." on King 
sti'cet. on the s-outhern si(l(>, close to the 
Don bridge, did considerable dam- 
age on November 2'.ith of this un- 
luck.v year, ISoO. About eleven in the 
evening the fire was first seen, and soon 
the whole foundry- owned by Mr. l"rancis 
If. Medea Ife, wa', a mass of flames. A 
neighbour first alarmed Mr. Medcalfe, 
who ran to the spot, but judging the fire 
had already spread so far that it was 
impossible to enter the office, he broke the 
window and man.aged to save some of his 
bo(jks. A steam engine of six liorse- 
jiower, lathes, planing machines and 
other expensive macliinery of a like 
n.atnre, were irreparably injured. Al- 
though till! Don supplied plenty of water 
the fire engines were practically useless, 
as the fire had too much tin? start of 
them. Mr. Medealf,''s loss was about 
.$10,000 ; totally uninsured. The fire was 
sup[»f>;e(l to have been caused by some 
sjijiiks from a nei'rhi'oni'ing chimney lodg- 
ing in the r*H)f <'f th;' i-ioutlieni part of the 
Jmildiiig. It was the fi^tii time Mr. Med- 
c.ilfe had .';uffcre(l from fire. 




: 11 

i '11 

f ! I 







■ 50 




^ us. 12.0 



— '"L^ IJi^ 





WEBSTER, K. v. 14SS0 





' ..« 




^ ■■] ifc* 

1 ''I 


a' ' 









Ihiriug the early part of ISGO there 
wert' a great many cases of flu|)|»ose(l| 
iueeiidiarism, inowt of them uiiHuceeHHfuI, 
but Htill enough of them succeeded to 
cause the residents to feel very uncoln- 
fortable. A rigid enquiry was held in 
every case, but no clue to the ruffians 
could be found. Another daring net of 
incendiarism was i»erpetruted on Sunday, 
May 6. 18(50, M'hich was unfortunately 
Kucccssful. The outbuildings of Rev. Mr. 
Ellerby's house, on the west side of Jar- 
vis street, No. 306, north of Gerrard 
street, were set on fire about one 
o'clock in the morning. Mrs. Kllerby was 
aroused by hearing the step of a person 
on the wooden shed in the rear of the 
house. She hastily arose, and, on going 
to the window, observed a flame of fire 
spreading over the whole roof of the shed, 
just as if it had been saturated with 
some inflammable liquid. She in- 
stantly alarmed the rest of the family, 
and an attempt was made to save some 
of the furniture, but they only succeeded 
in saving a few articles, owing to the 
intensity of the heat. Considerable de- 
lay took place before the brigade could 
be called out. When the alarm was 
given no time was lost in reaching the 
scene of the fire. In the meantime the 
flames had n-ached Mr. Maclear's house 
on Mutual street, but by prompt action 
this was saved. All efforts failed to 
rescue the residence of Mr. EUerby and 
it was completely gutted. His loss was 
about $5,000, of which only $800 w»i» 
covered by insurance. No clue was 
found as to the iucendiaries. 

Again, on June 9th. a destructive fire 
occurred, which destroyed seven hand- 
some three-storey houses on the west 
side of St. George's square, furniture, 
books and articles of vertu. The alarm 
was given at about 12 o'clock on the 
Saturday night, and the fire engines 
were very soon on the ground, and the 
hose company in a very short space of 
time had coui)led their hose to the near- 
est hydrants, which were, however, at 
a great distance from the fire. The 
nearest hydrant was at the corner of 
Beverley and Quf^en, and the next at the 
corner of John and (Jueen, and, as may 
be imagined, the supply of water was 
meagre and totally inefficient to check 
the progress of the flames. When first 
discovered the fire was in the outhouses 
in rear of a dwelling situated at the 
south end of a row of houses which form- 
ed the west side of St. George's square. 
An attempt was at once made to tear 
down the frame building on fire, but it 
was only partially successful, 'hie fire 
spread rapidly, caught the woodwork of 
the other buildings and was sonn raging 
fiercely inside. 'Ihe roots of the adjoin- 

ing houses were soon a mass of flames, 
and, as the firemen were unable to work 
effectually with their meagre supply of 
water, it was soon apparent that the 
whole row would be sacrificed. In about 
an hour and a half after the fire was 
first discovered the whole of the row ol 
handsome houses were completely gutted 
and the walls rent in numberless places. 
The chief sufferers by this fire were Dr. 
James Bovell, Hon. Mr. Justice Burns and 
Mr. S. B. Harmau. The loss was roughly 
estimated at $30 000. Dr. Bovell lost a 
rare collection of curiosities and Mr. 
Justice Burns his valuable law library. 
As the house where the fire originated 
was unoccupied, there was every reason 
to believe that this, too, was a case of 

The next destructive fire on record 
occurred on Thursday, October 18, and 
had its origin in an unoccupied housQ 
on the east side of Simcoe street, 
near King street. It spread with 
great rapidity, and soon wrecked the 
building where it commenced and had the 
adjoining house on the south in a blaze. 
Fortunately the occupant, a Mr. Taylor, 
had time to remove the greater part of 
his effects. The north wind then drovs 
the fire to the rh rd, which, in spite of 
all the efforts of the firemen, was con- 
sumed ; it was unoccupied. Two other 
houses on King street were allso much 
damaged. The loss in all amounted to 
about $2,500, most of which was covered 
by insurance. The origin of the fire un- 

The last fire for 1860 was that whick 
destroyed St. Andrew's market, which was 
on the north side of Richmond street west, 
between Brant and West Market streots. 
The market was a wooden structure, and 
served both as market and police station. 
A few minutes before 12 on the night of 
December 26 Acting Sergt. Dunlop ob- 
served flames bursting through the roof 
near the centre of the building, and ran 
to the spot, accompanied by several con- 
stables. An attempt was made to get 
at the fire bell, but the intense heat ren- 
dered this impossible. The attention of 
the constables and people was then turn- 
ed to saving anything they could, and 
they succeeded in getting out Sergt- 
Major Cummins' furniture and books and 
papers belonging to the police station. 
Meanwhile the engines arrived, but all 
their efforts to subdue the flames proved 
futile and the building was completoly 
destroyed. The building cost $6,000 in 
1850, and was the property of the co^ 
ix>ratioa. Origin of the fire not known. 

There were a very great many small 
fires during the months of Janitary, Feb- 
ruary and March, 1861, but none worthr 
of lengthened notice until Wednesday. 



M.irch 20th, wIvpii a firp brnki' out in 
the roar oS Na 67, on the west side of 
Victoria Btrect. Bouth of Sliutt'r, tlu'ii 
(Kiupied by Mr. (.ioldborg, biitcluM-. 
W'jpn first discovered the fire was in an 
out-building, and, as a high wind was 
prevailing at the time from the east, liis 
house and the adjoiniug one were boom 
iguited. The bells gave the alarm, and 
in a short time the fire brigade was on 
the scene. The flames meanwhile had 
spread rapidly, and the roofs of four 
more houses were Boon in a blaze. The 
teu.iuts Bucceeded in saving a jiortion of 
their household goods, thoug!i a great 
deal was broken and damaged in the re- 
moval. Several powerful streams of 
water were early brought to bear upon 
the dwellings, but such was the fury of 
the flames that the utmost efforts of the 
firemen to stop the progress of the fire 
were unavailing, and it seemed as if the 
whole block between Shuter and Queen 
was doomed. By a quarter to six ten 
of the houses were a mass of flames and 
the serviccB of the hook and ladder com- 
pany were called into requisition to de- 
molish a house owned by Mr. G. Craig, 
to the north of the buildings on fire. Sev- 
eral engines were also planted at the 
northern and southern extremities of 
the fire, aud wit', great difficulty the 
fire was at last subdued. The damage 
occasioned by this disastrous blaze 
amounted to about $8,000, which was 
distributed among a number of i)eople. 
Over twenty families were rendered home- 
less and a great portion of their furni- 
ture destroyed. In all fourteen buildings 
were burned to the ground or rendered 
entirely useless. Not more than one-half 
the loss was covered by iuKurance, 

On March 24, 1861, a fire destroyed 
two houses on the west side of William 
street (now known as Simeoe Btreet), the 
property of Mr. Larratt Smith. The two 
houses were clase to Queeu street, and 
were entirely destroyed, but most of their 
conteuta were saved. 

A blaze on Saturday night, April 20, 
1861, destroyed property to the amount of 
about $3,000. It originated in a stable sit- 
uated on Front street, near the Market 
Square, belonging to Mr. Gilmour, of Mont- 
njnl, and tenanted by the American Ex- 
press Company and Messrs. Walker & Pat- 
terson, of the American Hotel. The flames 
spread with great rapidity, and it was 
at great personal risk that Mr. Walker 
and some of the police succeeded in sav- 
ing the live Btock in the stable. As it 
was, one valuable horse perished. The 
loss to Mesars. Walker & Patterson was 
about $600, and the Express Company 
were sufferers to about the same amount. 
A shed in rear of the stable was also 
burnt down. The fire was accidental. 

The whole of the buildings destroyed were 
the property of Mrs. Thoman Ewart. 

(Jn April 2l8t, a fire b'oke out in the 
grocer's store on the north-wcBt corner 
of Queen and Ternulay streets, occupied 
by luues Moran. The damage done to the 
house exceeded $400, and much of the 
stock wni" destroyed by watfr. Ther« waa 
no insurance, and the cause was again at- 
tributed to iucendiaritrm. 

At 3 o'clock on the morning of April 28 
two frame houses on the oast side of Maria 
street were set on fire by some unknown 
l>erson, and were utterly destroyed. They 
were the proiwrty of Captain Territt, of 
Oak Ridges. " No doubt exista that they 
wore wilfully act on fire." Such was the 
comment of the papers rejiorting the event. 

A fire occurred on Stanley street on 
its northern side, east of Victoria Btrect, 
on the night of June 10. Two houses in 
Stanley and oni' in Victoria were com- 
pletely destroyed. The occupants were 
Mrs. Kelly. IJryan and IJrowu. The last 
was insured. 

Tuesday. June 11), 18G1, witnessed the 
destruction by fire of Toll Gate No. 1, 
Lake Shore rrad, which was completely 
destroyed, the toll-keeper b(>ing severely 
bui-ned while saving his child from perish- 
ing in the flames. This old gate wa« on 
what is now known as Queen street west, 
and stood on the northern side of the road, 
a few yards west of the G.T.R. William 
Manswi wn.s the name of the keeper. 

On Monday, July 22ud, two fires occur- 
red. The first destroyed the residence o( 
Mrs. Pollock, on the south-west corner of 
Church and Alexander streets ; the second 
a row of recently erected frame houses on 
the wcKt Ki'Je of Brunswick avenue, just 
north of College street, the property of 
Councilman Heed. There was no insurance 
in either case. 

Two houses on the, north side of McGill 
street (Xo«. 34 and 36), near Church 
street, were entirely destroyed on the 
night, July 26th. One wjui oicupied by 
Mr. Charles Murray, an Brfficial of the 
Bank of Upi»cr Canada. They were both 
fully insured. 

A larjxe fire broke nut on Friday even- 
ing. August 16, in a frame building 
north of King street, which wan used 
as a racket court. Before the engines 
could reach the «])ot the fire had 
spread most rapidly, and it waa 
feared that a row of brick bouses on 
King Btreet would be completely de- 
Btroyed. A powerful stream of water 
was brought to bear on them, however, 
and they were saved. As the flames 
gained the roof of the racket court, large 
flakes fell on the roof of the Apostolic 
church (Uev. Mr. Ryerson's), and in a 
very short space of time the roof wa« 
one mass of flames. From thence the 


•■r miiiil * 



V . 

I Hi 




fire spread to Mr. Ryerson'R ntljoiuing 
reaideuce, and iu Hpite of nil efforts i)iit 
forth by the firemen, both buildings were 
completely destroyed. It Avas only by 
dint of continually pouring water upon 
other ho ises iu the neighborhood that the 
Whole block was not burned down. The 
racket court was owned by Mr. Fletcher, 
and was insured. The church and Mr. 
Ryersou's house were also insured. Both 
were rough-cast, and were valued at 
$2,000. The fire was undoubtedly tie 
work of an incendiary. 

The Ai)0-)tolic church and Rev. Georjre 
I^'erson's residence were res|K'ctively 
Nos. 112 and 114, thirty yards in the 
rear, on the west side of Bay, just north 
of King street. A range of stables, the 
property of Mr. John Mitchell, of the 
Burlinj?ton Hoiumo. were also destroyed. 
The racquet court had been a faniouH 
place in its day, the Prince of Wales 
spending a couple of hour.s there enjoy- 
ing the game during his visit to Toronto 
in 1860. 

In October, 1861, the city procured a 
second capable eteain fire engine. The 
weight of this machine was between 5,- 
000 and 6,000 pounds; and it was tiuar- 
ajiteed to get tip sufficient steam in six 
minutes to propi'l two streams of water 
through jiozzle.s 1 1-4 inches in diameter. 
It was provided with a suction pipe 4 
inches in diameter, two steam cylinders^ 
each 8 inches bore and had a 9-inch 
stroke. It also had two brass pimips, 
of 4 1-2 inch bore and 9-iuch stroke. 

On January 11, 1802, a number of offi- 
cers of the 30th Hegimont took up their 
quarters in the Govermiient House. King 
street west, which had been fitted up 
for their reception ; but the warne 
evening they had to evacuate in 
rather a hasty manner, in 
of the building taking fire. A few min- 
utes before eleven o'clock a dense volume 
of smoke was observed issuing from the 
cellar on the western side of the main en- 
trance on King street. The alarm was 
at once given, and the Chief Engineer at 
once proceeded to the place, descended 
into the cellar, and with the help of two 
men of the 30th Regiment endeavoured to 
extinguish the flames with pails of water 
and cutting away the burning embers, 
the ceiling of the cellar being on fire. 
This they considered they had succeeded 
in doing, when to their astonishment they 
found the flames w'ere breaking through 
the roof of the building directly over 
their heads. The building had been 
erected some 40 years before this, 
and was composed of Avood, rough-cast 
outside. Inside it was lathed and 
tered, there being no brick wall Avithin, 
and the fire having got a start be- 
tween the laths and the frame of the 

building, the flames were carried ri^ht 
up to the roof iu a very short time. 
Meantime the two steam engines lately 
purchased by the corporation, the sev- 
eral hand engines, and the hook and lad- 
der company had reached the spot. The 
origiiml intention had been to place the 
" steamers " on the margin of the bay; 
but one of the officials of the Grand 
Trunk informed the firemen that their 
hose Avould be cut by passing freight 
trains if they laid it there. The suc- 
tion hose Avas attached to the hydrant, 
corner of King and Simcoe streets, Avhile 
the Rotary engine received a supply of 
Avater from the corner of King and John 
streets. The fire spread rapidly over 
the niof of the building, and before an 
h<jur the roof was one mtiss of flames. 
A number of soldiers of the 30th reached 
the Ktene of the fire, and rendered great 
assistance iu removing the officers' ef- 
fects, furniture and other movable pro- 
IHM'ty. While this waa going on the 
firemen Avere using their best endeavours 
to extinguish the flames, but no sooner 
were they got unJer iu one place than 
they appeared in another. Yet the fin; 
seemed to burn sloAvly ; but this Avas 
oAving to the heavy timbers of Avhich the 
building Avas composed. It Avas not, 
however, until four o'clock on the Sunday 
mo. ning that the fire was got under, and 
to make everything secure the engines 
continued playing on it till about seven 
o'clock. The entire roof and upper por- 
tion of the main building A\'as com- 
pletely destroyed, and the building itself 
rendered practicallv useless. The loss 
AA-as betAveen $2,000 and $3,000. 

The Government House hardly^ had time 
to cool off after its scorching when 
another public building, the new jail, 
north of Gerrard street, east of the Don, 
then iu course of erection, Ava.s all but de- 
stroyed by fire. About 2 o'clock on tho 
morning of Friday, January 17th, 1862. 
the caretaker of tlie jail A\'as aAvakeued 
from his slumbers by the reflection of a 
brilliant light on the Avindows of his 
bedroom. Hastily quitting his bed and 
running outside, he saw that the upper 
portion of the centre buildiug of the jail 
Avas on fire. He immediately ran round to 
the main entrance, and to his astonish- 
ment found that the padlock and hasp 
had been Avreuched off the door and 
carried aAvay. He endeavored to ascend 
the stairs, but AA-as prevented by the 
dense volume of smoke, and he at once 
ran off to the city to give the alarm, 
shouting '• Fire at the new jail" as he 
Avent along. The bell at Berkeley street 
gave tho alarm, and he returned. How- 
ever, after the engines turned out the 
bell ceased, and, as no indication of tiie 
fire could be seen from the city, the en- 





piiiiH ri'turnnd to the atationfi. The alarm 
was giveu again from St. Lawrence iliill, 
tut uot until much Taluable time had 
been lost. The eagines again turned 
out, but there was great difficulty in 
bauliug them, owing to the depth of enow. 
auil it vras not until five o'clock in 
the morning that they rcaehed the tspot. 
By this time the roof of the centre 
building had fallen in, and the chapel' 
■\viui a ma«s of flames. The firemen, 
under Chief Ashfield, went to work to 
lay the hose, but after they had 
laid down several lengths it was found 
that they had uot sufficient to reach 
from the Don to the building. Some of 
the hose carts had not arrived, and 
another long delay took place, as mes- 
sengers had to be sent to the city to 
bring forward the hose, and it was not 
until 7 o'clock that a stream could be 
brought to bear on the burning building, 
and by that time the centre building was 
completely gutted, so the efforts of the 
lirenien were directed to prevent the fire 
spreading to the wings. The steam f're 
engine poured a steady stream of water 
on the burning embers, but after it had 
been at work two hours, it was found 
that one of the plates or tubes of the 
boiler had got burned by allowing the 
water to get too low, and the engine 
ceased work. lu the meantime the other 
engines commenced work, and, after 
working hard and steady until I o'clock, 
the centre building was completely gutted 
and the walls scorched and cracked. The 
damage done was estimated at $30,000: 
insured for $20,000. It was supposed 
that a gang of bushmeu had gone inside 
the building to get shelter Irom the pierc- 
ing cold, and either wilfully or acciden- 
tally fired the premises. 

Tuesday evening, March 25th, 1SG2, a 
destructive fire took place in the pre- 
mii-ei of Messrs. Booth & Sons, copjter- 
smitlis, on the ea>t side of Yonge, five 
doora north of Queen street. About 
11.15 the fire was first seen by some 
lads, who were passing, and they at once 
gave the alarm. The engines arrived 
on the scene in a very short time, and 
the water was turned on. The flames, 
however, burst through the windows, 
but after a powerful stream of water 
had been poured on for some time it was 
thought the fire was extinguished, whea 
three explosions took place, one after the 
other, and the flames burst out anew 
and couunuuicated with the store above 
bv the stairway and casing taking fire. 
Tlie hose was taken round to the rear 
of the store and set to work there, and 
in a short time the fire was completely 
extinguished. The damage done was 
estimated at about $3,000. insured for 
?2,500. The origin of the fire is un- 

known. Not much more than a mouth 
after this, on April 28th, the premises of 
Messrs. Booth, along with the store i„" 
Mr. Joseph Hodgson, stove dealer, were 
totnllv destroyed, the damages amounting 
to $10,000, of which only $8,000 was 
covered by insurance. The details of 
the fire are scanty, but it was supposed 
that it was the work of an incendiary. 
There was also another building owned 
by Mrs. McArthur, burnt, which was 
valued at about $.'5,000 or $6,000. It 
could not be ascertained whether this 
was insured. 

Between 4 and 5 a. m. on May €> the 
druggist shop of H. Emery and Moran's 
grocery, 72 on the north side of Queen 
street, west of Teraulay street, were de- 
stroyed. The damage was about $2,000, 
insured for $1,000. 

A destructive fire took place on Thurs- 
day, November 6, 18G2, in Mr. Henry 
Agnew's foundry on the west side of 
Sumach street, foiitb of Queen. The fire 
commenced in the machine shop, a frame 
building, and spread with such rapidity 
that in ten minutes the whole building 
Avas a mads ol flames. The pattern mak- 
ers had to run out to save themselves, 
leaving all their tools behind tliem. 
Meantime the fire engines arrived, and 
one of the steamers was stationed at the 
edge of the Don, and, by pouring on a 
powerful stream of water the fire 
was confined to the building in which 
it originated. A great deal of valuable 
machinery was lost ,in this fire, and the 
building was completely destroyed. The 
lo«3 was between $8,000 and $10,000, 
and the place waa uninsured. The fire 
WiKs iturely accidental. 

On Friday, November 14, 1862, occurred 
a fire which will long be memorable in 
Toronto. About half past two that morn- 
ing the inmates of the Rossin House were 
roused by the cry of '* Fire." It was 
thought at first to be a false alarm, but 
soon it was discovered to be onlj' too 
true. Those who opened the doors of their 
chambers and smelt the smoke gave a 
shout and bounded down the stairs in 
their uightclothes. Fortunately it was 
easy to get to the street at this time, 
as the gas was burning, and the way 
out could be seen. The rushing to and 
fro of the first movers brought the re- 
mainder to a sense of their position, and 
a scene of wild confusion ensued. Down 
the stairs went a crowd of half-clad 
people, of both sexes, with bundles in 
their hands and trunks clattering after 
them ; band-boxes, looking-glasses, toilet 
services, chairs and tables were upset in 
the general hurry. The fire, it was sup- 
posed, had its origin in a small room 
near the kitchen, in which kindling wood 
was stored. The yard south and west of 






t- 1 

thn kitchen was filled with a Inrgo qiinn- 
tit.v of cordwood, and there was heflideii 
mi nnioitut of coul in nheda. It wnn Hnid 
tlint the flames first iHSued from thene, 
juid it wn« thought they luuivt have 
lieen wilfully fired. Soon after the alarm 
was givGn. the cordwood and a wooden 
Btorchouse and stable, also near the 
kitchen, took fire. About an hour after 
the discovery the conflagration had ns- 
Bumed gigantic proportions. The angry 
flames leapt from storey to storey and 
eourcd high above the roof into the dark- 
ness. The floors fell in with successive 
crashes, and, as onch one fell, the fire 
glowed with a redder i.ue and rolled up 
immense volumes of smoke, which settled 
over the hotel. The greatest anxiety was 
felt at one time for the female servants 
of the house, as the fire raged most 
fiercely underneath that portion of the 
hotel where their bedrooms were located, 
in the top storey. Boarders who came 
from the second and third storeys re- 
ported that, when they first awoke, their 
rooms were so filled with smoke that 
they could scarcely breathe, so that it 
was not unnatural to suppose that the 
girls, who were on the top storey, might 
suffer severely. Many of them had con- 
siderable difficulty in getting down. One 
girl, who stayed longer than the others, 
had to escape out of n back window by 
means of a ladder pmcured by Mr. 
Brown, the steward of the hotel. She 
was unhurt. Some ten minutes at Icost 
elapsed after the fire was discovered be- 
fore any one gave notice at the engine 
houses, but as soon as the bell rang on 
Bay street the engine came rushing out. 
The hydrant at the corner of Simcoe and 
King ertreets was ojiened, the hose laid to 
York rrtreet to the burning kitchen. All 
efforts to check the flames were in vain. 
The second engine speedily arrived, and 
was stationed at the corner of York and 
King. The hose from it was laid through 
the central hall, also to the kitchen, 
with no better result, e:v;opt that the 
office and the ground floor fronting 
York street, were saved. Still the wing 
continued to burn. Though an enormous 
(|uantity of water was poured upon it, 
ihe conflagration apiH»nred to increase in 
an inverse ratio to the efforts made to 
"ubdn" it. Al)out four o'clock a third 
steam fire engine was got out of the 
Outral house and stationed neai the 
ffirner of York and King streets, where 
it did good service. 

The vacant grounds on York and King 
streets were literally piled with rescued 
property. All the stores in the hotel 
were speedily emptied of their contents 
when it became evident that the fire 
would extend to the front. From an I 
early hour a fatigue party of Captain ' 

Ilobhs' Company, 80th Regiment, ren- 
dered good service in carrying out gomlH. 
Others of the regiment were tent to as- 
sist the |K)licc in keeping order. 15.v 
their aid the large crowd wan kept upnn 
the sidewalk, ond loft the movements of 
the firemen unimpeded. About 5 o'clock 
the flames reached the front. They had 
penetrated to the third flat, while ,i 
party of men were at work in the rooms 
on the floor above the King street ston-H. 
Suddenly, while some of them were direct- 
ly over Mr. Charles Potter's store, the 
floor on which they stood gave way with 
a fearfal crash, and they fell through 
into the store. One man dropped just 
behind the window, and wae seen strug- 
gling amid the debris. A deep groan 
escaped from all present, and a ru»h wn< 
made for the window. The glass was 
soon smashed, and a soldier named Kellv 
was dragged out of the flames. Won- 
derful to say, he was not much hurt. 
He said that before they fell there were 
five men working w^h him in the rooms- 
Sergt. Counell of the 30th, two other 
soldiers, a civilian, and a coloured bny 
about ]6 years of age— but he thouj;ht 
they got out before the floor fell. Sad 
to say, one of them never left the burn- 
ing building alive. This was William 
H. Graham, son of Mr. Graham, carpet 
dealer, King street. His body wan 
found, much burned and disfigured, but 
still recognizable. The many fine stores 
on the ground floor of the Uossin House 
block shared the fate of the rest of the 
building, but in most cases their con- 
tents were saved. The stores on Iving 
street we- ? occupied by Mr. Walton, 
merchant tailor ; Charles Potter, optician; 
W. Wharin, dealer in watches, jewellery, 
etc.; Mrs. Forbes, milliner ; Mrs. Pollard, 
embroideress ; W. Gillctt, tobacconint, 
and W. Smith, newsmau. The store on 
the corner was occupied by R. Jordan 
He Co., grocers. The York street stores 
were : P. Rooney & Co., dry goods : 
Joshua Lowe, manufacturer of steam 
gauges, and M. Miraulne, barber to the 
Rossiu House. The aggregate loss of 
these was about $3,000. As most of the 
goods were removed without damage, the 
loss was small. Many of the guests of 
the house lost their effects ; in fact, hut 
very few of them saved anything. The 
insurance on the building amounted to 
$60,000 : on the furniture, $19,500. Th« 
total loss wjvs estimated at $200,000. 

No fires happened in 1S63 until April 
20, when Mr. Lamb's glue and blacking 
factory, situated on Amelia street, north 
side, and also to the north of the 
Necropolis, was totally destroyed. The 
fire was first seen about eleven o'clock 
and it spread with great speed, being fed 
with the inflammable materials inside 



the factory. It Boon aprond throuRh th« 
principal bui^Uing, four BtorioH hiRh, mid 
floor after floor Rave way till at last the 
roof fell, leaving only the bare walls 
dttinding. Tho Hinallor buildings in the 
vicinity were ignited and burned to the 
pround. The steamers were on the ground 
oiirly, but wer« not abk to cope with 
the flames, which had got a great start 
before they came. Mr. Lamb's loss was 
$f<.000. insured for $4,000. The fire was 
considered to be purely accidental 

A most atrocious act of incendiarism 
occurred in Toronto in September, 1863, 
whereby three lives were lost. The place 
was Col borne street, in the premises of 
Messrs. Barry & Son, wool and leather 
dealers. The circumstances were these : 
Messrs. Rarry had employed a man 
named McGlyn for a number of years, 
till he became of dissipated habits when 
he was discharged and another man, 
Elliott, was engaged in his place. 
Elliott's family, consisting of his wife and 
two children, took up their residence in 
the third floor of the building and the 
second floor was occupied by Mr. Barry, 
Jr. McGlyn had often come back to com- 
pliiin of Elliott having superseded him in 
his position, and on the day in question 
he came when Elliott was out and asked 
for 8ome small articles which he said he 
had left there. Mrs. Elliott refused to 
give him anything during her husband's 
absence and ho went away. Shortly after 
Elliott returned and McGlyn also came 
back, got his articles and once more left, 
only to return in a short time and un- 
chain a dog belonging to Elliott and 
lead him away. Elliott followed him and 
a quarrel ensued ; from words they got 
to blows and McGlyn received a severe 
thrashing. Out of revenge for this he 
went around the store some time after- 
wards and entered a side door. A lew 
minutes later flumes were seen issuing 
from the cellar, and very soon flames 
bnrst forth from every flat. The smoke 
To»o quickly and filled the building the 
stairway acting as a funnel to draw the 
fire upward. In the house at the time 
were Mrs. Elliott and two children, one 
four years old and the other twenty 
months, and her aunt, Mrs. Milligaii. The 
eight of the smoke seemed to throw the 
women into the greatest confusion. Mrs. 
Elliott ran to the at-.iirway, but that 
means of exit was cut off. Finding escape 
impossible she and her aunt went to the 
back window which was forty feet from 
the ground. She threw herself out at the 
window holding on to the sill, afraid to 
drop, until her hands and arms were 
scorched so much that she had to let go. 
She fell on her feet, but sustained serious 
internal injuries of which she died some 
Lours later. Her aunt was more fortu- 

nate, she jumped, alighting on her feet, 
but smashed 4ier left ankle fearfully ; she - 
recovered. The utmost efforts were made 
to roach the floor where tho children 
were, but they were of no avail ; the 
fierceness of tho flames frustrated all 
efforts and the unfortunate children both 
perished. The fire engines had arrived in 
the meantime and did all they could, but 
the building was cmnpletely gutted. The 
damage amounted to about $1,200 and 
the place was fully insured. 

The man McGlyu was arrested on tho 
spot, and the coroner's jury at the en- 
quiry held next day found him guilty of 
murder and arson, and he waa committed 
for trial. On his trial in March, 1864, 
the jury disagreed and were discbargeiL 
He was tried again in December, 1864, 
and the jury returned a verdict of not 
guilty, and the prisoner was discharged. 

There was no porious fire in 1864 until 
August, when the Grand Trunk elevator 
and wharf were destroyed. Since 
the destruction of the Rossin House 
no fire of any groat extent had 
(Occurred, for which the city waa 
indebted in a large measure to the 
efficiency of its fire brigade, which had 
improved wonderfully during the previ- 
ous two or three years. About 6 o'clock 
on Sunday morning, August 28th, 1864, 
a watchman, named McLeod, on passing 
through the sheda thought he detected a 
smell of smoke. On going into the ele- 
vator he found the first apartment full 
of smoke. At this time no flames were 
visible, though the smoke was very 
dense. The opening of the door, how- 
ever, created a draught, thus giving life 
nud power to the smouldering and con- 
fined fire. The watchman at once gave 
the alarm, the fire bells were rung, and 
the engines arrived on the scene with 
great promptness. By that time the 
fire had made great headway, for the 
structure was composed of wood, and 
before the engines could be brought into 
play the flames had burned through the 
roof and were roaring high above the 
towering building. The moment the en- 
gines arrived they were run out upon 
the wharf as close to the elevator as pos- 
sible, the suction pipes were thrown into 
the Bay, and four streams of water were 
turned upon the burniug building. Every 
possible exertion was used to stay the 
progress of the flames, but the nature 
of the building and the start the fire had 
got rendered it impossible. The firemen 
worked diligently and manfully, though 
it was evident from the first that their 
efforts were all in vain. The intense 
heat burned the great iron bars with 
which the building was held together, 
and then the thousands of bushels of 
grain pressing with an irresistible force 

* iji 







agnitist the walls, Huddouly burst thciu 
awn.v oil all hUIi'a, and the valu ibli' 
fitorcH ru»<he(l into the JJay, fillliiK it up 
level with the wharf. Tho flour hIumIh 
wore nl«o totally oou^^unicd, with their 
coiitent«, 400 barrels of flour. 

Tho Grand Trunk wharf extended out 
from tho Esplanade between Peter and 
Brock street*. It was then the finest 
aud most substantial wharf in Toronto 
harbour, and had been erected two years 
previouHly, at a cost pf $25,000. The 
capacious flour shed, capable of contain- 
ing several thousaud barrels of flour, 
was oulv a few months built, and had 
cost $5,000 or $0,000. The elevator wan 
the main loss. The building was one of 
the best of its kind in the province, and 
was constructed at the same time as tiie 
wharf, the whole having beeu built by 
Mr. Shedden, of the firm of Hendrie & 
Shedden, afterwards J. Sheddeu & Co., 
cartage agents. 42 Frout street 
cdfit, who di-i|o8ed of the wharf 
to the Grand Trunk. The elevator, 
though known as the " Grand Trunk Ele- 
vator," was the projwrty of Mr. Shed- 
den. Its actual cost WJis .$50,000. but 
improvements had added several thou- 
sands to that figure. Fortunately, it 
"waa insured for $35,000, so it was not 
a total loss. 

Messrs. Gooderham & Worts lost 127 
barrels of flour, Mr. W. P. Howland 200 
barrels, aud Mr. P. Ilyland 10 barrels. 
Most of the flour was insured. The total 
estimated looS was : The elevator, $50,- 
000 ; wharf aud flour sheds, $30,000 ; 
oats, $11,500; corn, $10,500; wheat, 
$5,000 ; flour, $2,400 ; total, .$109,450. 
The total iusuriiiice was only about $40,- 
000, so that the .actual loss iu round 
numbers was $70,000. Mi'ssrs. Erwin & 
Sloan, Oswego ; Cheney & Ames. Oswego ; 
W. D. Matthews aud S. A. Oliver, To- 
ronto, were the greatest sufferers from 
the grain burning. The origin of the 
fire was supposed to have beeu some 
eparks from the cugine house near. 

On tho morning of Februarj' 23, 1805, 
two houses on the south side of Sj'den- 
ham street, the property of John Lang- 
ton, were entirely destroyed. A snmll 
bouse on Adelaide street west, occupied 
by Mr. Coylo, was destroyed on the 25th. 

The dwelling house and warehouse of 
Thomofi Moran, on the south-east corner 
of Trinity aud Palace streets, were com- 
pletely burned on the night of March 13. 
The loss exceeded $1,000, the amount it 
was insured for. 

On April 26, two hoiiBcs on the east 
side of Seaton street, owned by fc^ergt.- 
Major Haatings, were also destroved. 
Damage $2,000; insured for $1,300. 

On the 7th Augiust, 18G5, the Grand 
Trunk was again u sufferer. About 11.30 

on the evening in (|ueHti(jn a fire w.n.s 
di»4C()vered iu one of the wooden sheds in 
reur of a row of brick houses fronting on 
Jtay street. Although the alarm va>^ 
given immediately it was not until 20 
minutes later that one of the Pteatners 
was got iu working order aud directed 
water on the flames. Uy this time tho 
fire had made great headway aud then 
caught the Grand Trunk offices uii 
the south-west corner of liay and 
WHlington streets, aud the adjoin- 
ing residence of Dr. Adams, which 
were soon enveloped iu flames. The fire- 
men first, very foolishly, directed the 
water on the offices and the burning aud 
already well-burnt stables and left tho 
adjacent houses to the mercy of tho 
flames. Uanlon's Hotel, on Bay street, 
ignited, aud soon became a total wreck, 
and the flames were soon rapidly feelinn 
their way along the roofs of Mr. W. 1', 
McMaster's and a vacant house next to it, 
when tho men received orders to plaf 
their streams upon McMaster's hous<!, 
and it was thus saved from total destruo- 
tion, although badly gutted. A rletach- 
ment of the 47th llegiment arrived witli 
their engine aud set to work, rendering 
valuable assistance. The Grand Trunk 
lost about $1,500. A large number of 
papers and some office furniture was 
saved, but Mr. James Stevenson, assist- 
ant superintendent, lost property to the 
amount of $350. The Grand Trunk was 
uninsured. Dr. Jos. Adams was insured 
for $1,(J00, which did not nearly cover 
his loss. Mr. Ed. Hanlon, Uochester 
House, was insured for $1,800, loss more; 
Mr. McMaster, insured for $1,."jOO, about 
covered his loss. A house occupied by 
Dr. John Hali, with stables, was badly 
damaged: insured. There were several 
other houses aud stables burnt on this 
occasion, and altogether the damage done 
amounted to $25,000. Tho fire was no 
doubt incendiary, as the neighbourhood 
was the resort of all the worst charac- 
ters iu the city. 

A boy named George McLaughlin, ser- 
vant to Dr. Adams, was, it is sad to 
say, burnt to death on this occasion. lie 
Wits unable to escape from the attic, 
where he slept. 

Not mauj' weeks after the above fire 
another one on the south-west corutr of 
Temperance and Yonge streets dki 
considerable damage. At 1.45 on 
Friday morning, September 8th, 1805, 
the alarm sounded for a fire at 
Dodgson, Shields & Co.'s confectionery 
establinhment, a few hundred j'ards east 
of the Bay street fire hall. The fire was 
discovwed a few minutes earlier by the 
inmates of the confectionery place ou 
Yonge street, which was connected with 
the Temperance street establishmsut by 


1 1 ;i:| 



n oiK'-Btoroy brick huililini;. TIip innmtes 
ni the Yoiigo Htroot pliico wore t-ut off 
fidtu couiinuiiicution with tlio Hhnp \w- 
\n\v, so rail to the windowH. niid, witli 
Ihi' a«fli8tauco of a few byBtnmlors, they 
iitteropted to innku tlicir exit from tho 
third storey of tho biiildiiiR. Three clerka 
who slept in tho upper ntorey lundo a 
<lpscent by a rope, whilo from nnother 
1 1 mm one of the young men hung down 
.iiiil allowed himself to drop, being caught 
ill the arms of the crowd below. As 
snnu aw tho Fire Depiirtment wero on 
the spot, which wa« with great alacrity, 
Inddors were placed at tho windows of 
Dodgson, Siiields & Co.'s, fronting on 
Temperance street, and two women, who 
were in one of the upper rooms, wore got 
snfcly down. Every effrrt was made to 
check the advance of th« flames, but tho 
cast wind caused the fire to spread to 
tho brick hoiwcs of Mr. Seatii and Mr. 
Andrew Henderson, auctioneer, and at 
nbout 2.30 tho roar of the Wcsloyan 
Methodist church caught fire, but wa« 
extinguished. About tho same time tho 
roof of the New Connection Methodist 
church caught fire, and in an instant the 
odificc was in a blaze and burning so 
fiercely that all hope of saving the build- 
ing was out of the (luestion. The fire 
then spread to Dodgsou, Shields' place on 
Temperance street and to Mr. J. Ed- 
wards', stationer, and they were both 
completely wrecked. Messrs. Dodgson & 
Shields' loss was over $40,000, insured 
to almost their full amount. Mr. Seath, 
uninsured, loss $1,000. Mr. Henderson, 
insured for $800, loss covered. New 
Connection church, loss about $10,000, 
Insured. This fire was laid at the door 
of incendiaries. 

On Oct. 26, 186r), St. Stephen's church 
(Episcopalian), under the charge of Rev. 
A. J. Broughall, and commonly known aa 
"Denison's church," was totally destroy- 
ed by fire. It was supposed that tho 
church was entered by burglars to rob 
the safe, which was there. Their efforts 
being unsuccessful, they sot fire to the 
church out of revenge. Two engines 
arrived on tho scene of the fire, but too 
late to be of much use, and both the 
church and the adjoining parsonage were 
destroyed. The church was insured for 
$2,000 and tho parsonage for $1,000. 
The church was built of brick, and the 
parsonage was a rough-cast frame build- 
ing, and they had been built at the ex- 
pense of Brigade-Major Robert B. Dcnison. 
'The ruffians who did the damage were 
not caught. 

The year 1866 does not give us any 
tiro worth mentioning until July 26th, 
when a blare which broke out in the 
wholesale hardware store of Mr. W. R. 
Harris, situated on the west side of 

Yonge street, between Front and 
NVellinfl;ton streets, did considerable 
damage. Tho fire broke out about 5.30 
in the evening, and had gained a good 
hold when first observed. The two firo 
engines were on the ground almodt im- 
meiliately, but the water supply was very 
limited, and beyond a few jets of mud 
and watM-. nothing could be got. Of 
course, tho fire, left to itself, soon gained 
tho third storey, and forced its way out 
of the front windows, threatening tho 
storeys on tho opposite side of the street. 
Fears wero also ontertainetl for tho 
safety of tho adjoining stores, and as 
Harris' store was tho centre of a large 
and valuable pile of buildings, tho de- 
struction of them would have involved 
a great <leal of damage to trade for some 
time. The scarcity of water caused 
matters to look still more serious, and 
tho engines ran wildly about from 
hydrant to hydrant in search of a 
stream sufficient for the occasion. After 
considerable delay, one of them managed 
to get a decent supply ; but hardly had 
it started when the lujse gavo out, sev- 
eral breaches having occurred in it. 
Meanwhile the flames were burning wild- 
ly in Harris' store, which seemed to go 
like tinder, and showed themselves in an 
adjoining hoop skirt factory, from which, 
however, they wero driven after some 
difficulty, and much damage to the stock. 
It was only by the crowd passing up pails 
of water that the latter store was saved 
from destruction. Tho fire seems to 
have burned itself out without spreadinj^ 
any farther, having entirely destroyed 
Mr. Harris' store and all his stock, the 
damage amounting to about $16,000 or 
$18,000, most of which fell on Mr. Harris, 
who fortunately was insured for the full 
amount. The cause of the fire was un- 
known. The building was owned by Mr. 
John Crawford, and was insured for 
$2,400. At the omiuiry, which was held 
to find out the origin of this fire, great 
complaints were made at the inefficiency 
of the water-works, evidence being put 
in to show that it was almost impossible 
to throw two streams of water at one 
time, owing to the limited supply, and 
that sometimes the water was entirely 
turned off at the tVne of a fire. After 
a long investigation the jury returned 
the following : The jury, having com- 
pleted their investigation of the late 
circumstances connected with the fire 
which took place on the premises occupied 
by Mr. \V. R. Harris, on the afternoon 
of July 26th last, feel it to be their 
duty to call tho attention of the cor- 
poration to the evidence given to the fact 
that the insufficient supply of water 
placed in jeopardy a valuable block of 
buildings, on which the insurance amount- 






il'i ' 




ed to ovor one millioii ilollarB. Tho Jury 
iiro iiIho BurpiiHiMl Id loarii that boiuo 
poi-tioiiH of the city arc I'utin'ly without 
a watrr Mupply at iiigiit. Thi* jury are, 
thori'foip, of opinion tiiat tho full power 
of the water-workH Hhould at all times 
In^ at the immediate and entir(> eommand 
of the fire department, and they would 
urge U|>()n th(> c-orporatioti to iiiMist upon 
ti full diNchurge on the part of tho water 
componieH of their oblig:ition. 

Not long after thin, on August ^th, a 
dPBtructivo fire broke out in St. John's 
Ward. Spreading with unusual quick- 
ncHB, the fire had made great headway 
before the billH Hounded tlie alarm, and 
before the engineM reached the Hpot the 
flameH had reached the large brewery of 
MemrH. ThonipNon & IturnH, on the Houth 
Hide of AgucH Ntreet, east of Sayer Htreet, 
from the renidenee adjoining, where ii 
bad broken out. The building, being of 
wood, burned (piickly, altliough two 
Btcam engincH were on the Hpot, well 
supplied with water and aided by a 
drenching rain, and the flamen obtained 
complete poRHeHsion of tlie entire place 
before any chanc)> of extinguishing them 
presented itself. I'ltinrntely, after great 
exertions, the fire was confined to the 
brewery, which it completely dentroyed, 
as well as the bouse attached. The 
buildings were owned by Messrs. Rowell 
and Payne, of Sayer street, ami were tm- 
iuflured. Their value was about $2,000. 
Messrs. Thompson & Burns' stock was a 
valuable one, and was only insured f<)r 
.$1,000. The entire lo«s wjui about .$12,- 
000. The fire originated in some out- 
houses iu rear of the brewery, and was 

February 24 saw the first blaze of the 
year 18G7, but it was not as disastrous 
as it might have been, as the engines 
were well supplied with water, owing 
probably to the hints the water com- 
panies got duriug tho previous year. 
The fire brokf' out about half past eleven 
in the evening iu the car works of 
Messrs. .T. & A. C. Scovcll, fronting tho 
Esplanade, between York and Bay streets, 
and adjoining the factory of Messrs. 
Jacques & Hay. The alarming he.odway 
made by the flames rendered the total 
destruction of the latter buildiug immi- 
nent; but by good fortune this was avert- 
ed and the fire confined to the premises 
where it first broke out. The engines 
arrived on the spot soon after the alarm 
was given, and, after a little delay, did 
good service in preventing the farther 
spread of the flames. The car shops were 
gutted, but no damage was done to the 
adjoining premises. The building and a 
portiou of their internal fittings were 
owned by Mr. John Cayley, and were 
worth about $3,000 and were not in- 

sured. Messrs. Hcowlls' loss is not 
statoil. The fire originated near the fur- 
nace, and was purely accidental. 

Tho only otiier fire worthy of notice in 
this year occurred on l>ec. .'(1, an<l con- 
sumed the foundry of J. (S. Beard & Sons, 
on the K.iplaniule, opposite the Northern 
railw/iy station. on Front street. 
The alarm wnt* given shortly after seven 
iu the evening and the engines were 
promptly on the spot ; but the building 
being entirely of wtio»l and a fresh breeze 
blowing ut the time, the fireuuMi were 
almost powerless to stay the progress of 
the flames. The fire enveloped the foun- 
dry in a few minutes, and was borne 
across the railway tracks in front of thi^ 
building, until the Northern railway sta- 
tion opposite was scorched and smoking 
in twenty places. It almost seemed as 
if nothing coidd be done to save the other 
places in the locality, but fortunately the 
effort*) put forth were successful. Tho 
foundry was a total wreck with its con- 
tents. The foundry had only just been 
completed at a cost of some $8,000 ; it 
was insured for some $0,000. The North' 
em railway station was damaged to thi 
extent of about $800; covered by iiuur- 
ance. The origin of this fire was purely 

Un July 16, 1868, came a blaze eneh 
as ha<l not Ihh'u seen for some years. Tim 
origin of the fire, so far as can bti 
learned, woh some children who worn 
playing with matches in the lear 
Mumforil's shop on tha 
Yongo street, north of 
it was su[»|K)sed that 
they accidentally set fire to the sht^d. 
The flames soon spread through the dry 
wood of the outbuildings, and the thick 
smoke soou gave evidence of the locality 
of the fire, and soon a crowd of specta- 
tors were on the spot. The three steam 
engines arrived promptly and were, dur- 
ing the progress of the fire, placed so as 
to prevent the spreading of the flames as 
some new spot was threatened. One, how- 
ever, gave out about three o'clock, leav- 
ing only two to battle with the element. 
One wooden building, occupied by Mr. N. 
L. Steiner as a marble cutting estab- 
lishment, and seven owned by ex-Alder- 
man Bugg, and occupied by five different 
tenants, were enveloped in fire almost be- 
fore the engines could be brought to play. 
The fire, however, confined itself more 
to the others than to Mr. Steiner's pre- 
mises at first, and allowed the removal 
of some of the smaller pieces of marble 
from the workshop. The outbuildings of a 
row of brick houses, also owned by Mr. 
Bugg, were frequently enveloped by the 
flames and an extensive lumber yard 
owned by Mr. Drummond was within 
reach. In this yard stretching from 

of Mr, Jam(>s 
east side of 
Shutor, and 




Yougo to Victoria stroetR wnn rnntainod 
betwepu five nnd six biiiulrod thnuRnnd 
fpvt of lumber, bcnidoH filiiiiKlt'M, Inttm, Pte. 
Th<' Hjmce which whh covered by tliJH 
htiiff ^viiH eBt^iiiited in aren nt about lialt 
uu acre ; it was Hituated in the very 
ticart of tlie blo<'k and the material con- 
tained in it wan excellent food for an 
iiitenite and lantinK conflnRration. The 
viiriuUM piles of lumb(>r and RhingleH 
inpidly caught tire, until the whole yard 
WMM one burniuK inasn. Ity thiH time 
Yuiitrc Btreet wan tlie scene of the wildcBt 
I'xiitement, busincHH was nlmoHt entire- 
ly HUHpeuded nnd everyone turned in to 
lielp >t''t the furniture, etc., out of the 
biirniiiK houscB. About three o'clock a lit- 
tle rain fell and it was hoped that this 
wuuld continue, but it rood passed off 
njrain ; and the fire now doing deadly 
work with a larKt' row of wooden houses 
i)U Victoria street, also swept along to- 
wards Mr. Stciner's house on Cruick- 
(•liaiik street, now Wilton avenue. This 
often'd no impudinient and woon huc- 
cuiulH-'d to the fhiines ; and a brick 
house owned by Mr. L. Sisson was 
nearly being its next victim, but 
by erecting a thick projection of 
bricks Mr. Sisson kept the fire from the 
fence nnd prevented the house from 
catching. The flames were thus jirevent- 
cd from spreading any farther in this 
direction, and the attention of th(> fire- 
iiieu was turned to Yoiige street again. 
The fire had spread northward and de- 
Btroyed several small houses in a lane 
between Yongo and Victoria, but the 
liberal streams of water poured ui)on 
them prevented the flames from doing 
any more damage in that direction. Down 
past the Youge street entrance to the 
lumber yard the fire caught the pre- 
mises owned by Mr. McPhail, stationer, 
formerly of the firm of Brewer & McPhiiil, 
and occupied by Mr. Warren and the 
owner. Desperate efforts were made to 
extinguish it here, but the premises were 
doomed. However after this the firemen 
were enabled to keep the flames from 
spreading further, and, except some 
slight damage to some more outbuildings, 
they had run their course. The lumber 
yard had completely disappeared, so far 
as its content^ were concerned, and for 
some distance around it presented a 
large extent of black and grimy ruins. 
The engines worked to a late hour 
drowning the smouldering embers. The 
aggregate loss by this fire was from 
130,000 to $40,000. The losers were as 
follows : Mr. Wm. Wallace, a stable 
burnt ; loss about $100 ; no insurance. 
Mr. Howarth, druggist, who owned three 
uf the houses barnt, lost about $1,200 ; 
insurance $800. Dr. Brunt occupied one 
of Uti Drummoud'a bouses and bad a 

good deal of furniture burnt ; loss about 
$H(IO ; insured. Mr. Uiigg had seveu 
wooden houses totally destroyed. They 
produced a rental of .^720 and were but 
slightly insured. Mr. I>ruiiiiiiond was the 
heaviest loser, bis loss being estimated 
at $1(>,(>0() and insurance about $4,000. 
He also lost u few small houses on the 
lane, which were iimured. Mr. N. L. 
Steiner had insurance to the amount of 
$3,0UU, but his loss was above that, 
some valuable Italian marbles he had 
being badly damaged. Mr. Mercer was 
insured for $1,000, which covered his loss. 
.Mr. (lourlny was insured for $1,.S()0, and 
it wns estimated that his loss would bo 
trifling. Mr. I<ouis £i|ui lost a wooden 
building which was insured for $U0<), 
and that about covered his loss. Mr. 
James Miiniford was a largo loser. His 
stock and improvements he had effected 
were worth about $2,000, of which only 
$1,000 was insurei*. There were various 
other small losses, but they are not 
given. The firemen earned great praise 
for their energy and pluck at this fire 
nnd the supply of water wob excellent. 
For over a year Toronto enjoyed the 
absence of any serious fires, the worst 
coming on August 4. 1HG!>, nnd by it four 
buildings were destroyed on the corner 
of King and Princess streets. The pre- 
mises were all owned by Mr. C. J. White- 
house, and were occupied by William 
Parks, grocer : John Little, boarding 
house ; John Collins, green-grocer, and 
Robert Adams, candy store. The fire 
started in Collins' building and spread 
on either Bide. The fire engines were 
again deterred by a lack of water, bat 
the Hook and Ladder Co. did good ser- 
vice. After the water was procured all 
efforts were made to prevent the lire 
spreading any further and these were 
eventually successful. The occupants of 
the houses lost nearly everything, and 
were barely able to escapo with their 
lives. The buildings were insured for $1,- 
700, but were valued at over $3,000. All 
the effects, furniture, stock, etc., of the 
occupnutH were uninsured, but the 
amount of loss is not known. 

A sad tragedy iu connection with a 
fire occurred on September 17, 1869. The 
fire broke out in a block of houses on 
the north side of Queeu street, near 
Denison avenue. The buildiugc, which 
were of wood, were occupied by 
Henry Chaloncr a^ a email dry 
goods fitore, Mr. Browu as a saloon, 
and a Mrs. Alexander kept a small 
grocery iu the east part of the block. It 
wa« quite impossible to say bow the fire 
originated. All that is known is that 
immediately after it was discovered it 
made its way wnth amazing rapidity 
through the block, and iu less than two 


' > 'J 






E I 

I ' I ( 

hour* the wlioli> wnn in ruiim. The und 
part of tho nl.iry In UmI two little cliil- 
<lren witp Itunird tn ili-dtli, «nil ii fin'- 
iiinn rocpivt>il injuiifit which aflci-w.-irilH 
pruvod fntiij. I In- two chiltlri'ii, mm niul 
•Inugiitcr of Mr. ('Iialoni-r, wen' iikimI (I 
iiiitl 4. The fiiliir iiutl only jiiNt time 
to •nvc hiN own lifi', and the niothiT 
throw till" lial),v out of a wimlow t<> liiiii; 
(lilt thr t«inokt' blindi'il and confu^i'd jicr, 
iiiid t-lic ffll out h<M«r|f, IcaviiiR the fliil- 
dri>n, who were both hurnrd tu death. 
W hPii the fire l)riRade arrived two of 
the firemen, .fa men Kidd and Thoman 
IIiirRt went to the rear of the liiiildiiiK 
\< ith tlse hone, and were direetinK it "'• 
I ■ tlie flanieH wlien a heavy biick ehim- 
iii'v fell over with a crash. The debrin 
biiiicd Kidd, while IIiirNt had hin arm 
bi'i'ken and received other injurien. Kidd 
wiiB with »lifficully rexcued from the Inirn- 
inR mnns and taken hnmi'. Although h*> 
leceivcd the bent medical attention and 
care, he micciimbed to his injuricH the 
next day. The iininunt of injury do<ie 
to proiierty liy this firo is not Htated. 
MiK'h sympathy wan felt for Mr. and Mrn. 
Chalouer, who not Img before had lost 
four others of their family. 

At d'lx o'clock on the evening of TuoH- 
ilay, October 2«J, IStlK, a xniall cask of 
l)cniiue, in the fermeutinK rooms of the 
l;irpe works belonf.;inK to Messrs. Oooder- 
liiiii A: Worts luiTt. and set fire to tin' 
ba-xement of the bnildinK. In a few min- 
utes tlie flames spn'ml aloni? the floor, 
and, almost before the alarm coidd be 
Riven, had ^prunR np all alonp: the flonr- 
ii'.p;. Almost inst.intly workim'n c rowtled 
to the placp. Intellij^ence was sent to 
the fire fltationn, the alarm ranp out over 
the city and the eiiRines arrived on the 
t>ccuc already sufficiently well indicated 
'>y the immense m.'i«-ies of flaino which 
wore now risiuR, and which lighted up 
the eky with a lurid glare. In a very 
"hort time the fire had obtained such 
uflcendaucy that the engines appi^ared 
almost hopeless, but, upon the arrival of 
two of the engines, the firemen set to 
work with a heartiness, good will and 
judgment which spoke well for their 
skill and pluck. 

The works consisted of old buihlings, 
erected some twelve years previons, 
which included tho mill and fermenting 
rooms ; on the south was the wharf, on 
which was stored a large quantity f 
spirits and other property. Running north 
from the east end was the new refinery 
or malthousc and storehouse, with spirits 
in the yaulta underneath. Close by was 
the Ksideuce of Mr. Gooderham. 

A« Boon aa the firemen arrived on the 
spot tlie attempta to extinguish the fire 
and Bave the valuable property became 
aystematized; and, considering the crowd- 

ing, hurry and confusion, a good amount 
of work was done. The reels playeil from 
the »ilip on tlie lake, each engine driving; 
two Ntreams of water— one stream direct- 
ed towards flooding the insido of tli<> 
nialthouse and the others to subduing the 
fire in the main buililing, wetting ronfi* 
and throwing a heavy stream U|M)n the 
most exposed point, at tho south-west 
corner of the new buildings. What gave 
perhaps peculiar |M)wer to the '''i- in- 
side the building, were tho two large 
elevators situated on the east and west 
ends of the roof. These were almost 12 
fi'et stjinire and servetl as draught holei*, 
by which the intensity of the fire wan 
greatly augmented. The volumes of flame 
which issued from these was prodigious. 
The heat at times was so intense that 
people who had congregated about t)'<t 
buildings were forced at times to retire 
out of the reach of the heat. I'or a time 
the fire seemed to he confined principally 
to the upfter storey, but it graiiually 
crept down, until the whole interior wha 
a nmss of flames. Tho roof by this time 
was completely destroyed. 

The fire had been confined to the north- 
ern side of tho building, but the wind 
from the north caused it to take posses- 
sion of the southern side. The flami'n 
burst through the windows right acro'ts 
the railway track, destroying tho tele- 
graph poles and wires. About 7 o'clock 
an occurrence took pliice that gave a still 
nsiiie fearful aspect to the fire. Into a 
drain leading from the burning buibling 
the burning spirits got access, and all 
at once the centre of the still heaved and 
burst, and logs and stones and earth flew 
all round. I'ortunately nobody was hurt, 
but it caused the people to withdraw to 
a safer distance. 

About eight o'clock it was feared that 
the storehouse which stood to the north 
of the distillery would catch firo, as a 
fence and a (|unntity of wasto lumber 
near it tooK fire, and burned most furi- 
ously. Added to this, a barrel of spirits 
which was lying near exploded, and tho 
flames seemed to lick the bottom of tho 
wall, as if ansi(>us to be burning the 
storehouse. Howe ' the attention of 
the firemen was direcied towards it, and 
they set to work, and after an hour's 
labour this portion of the premises 
saved. By 8.30 the fire had reached 
a range of storehouses situated to the 
west of the main building. The bourns 
and rafters began to fall, and immonsi! 
volumes of flames would burst forth. 
Then, now and again, an explosion oc- 
curred within the building, and blaziuR 
rafters would shoot into tho lake, and 
be seen no more. 

By nine o'clock it was evident that th'^ 
fiie had done its worst, and would 



rod thnl 

10 north 

c, i\B a 


iHt furi- 

)t spiritA 

and tho 

of tho 

ng the 

tioii ol 

it, nnil 


8CB wa« 


to the 


nunc list! 


si on of- 


kc, nnd 

:hat tho 


■i ■•H 

<l I 




spread no further. But the interior of 
tlie buildinp wa« still ou fire. The very 
hciiTy timlxM'S of which it wa« composed 
caused it to burn slowly. Then a cjuan- 
tity of grain in the mill, which, as the 
floors gave way, fell to the ground. a?id 
remained a mass of red heat for lioi;;3. 
It wa« not until one o'clock in the morn- 
ing that the fire wjm» extinguished, and 
the firemen stayed after that, playing 
water on the ruins. The main build- 
ings, which were <iestroyed, cost $150,- 
0(10. The boilers, engine room and stone- 
hurst were valued at between .$60,000 
and $70,000. At the time of tlie fire 
between S.OlM) and 0.000 bushels of corn 
were stored in the building, besides 80,- 
000 gallons of liquor iii the process of 
manufacture, and about 2.000 head of 
cattle, which had been li-ft to feed on 
the refuse of the distillery. Altogether 
tlie loes in buildings, stock and other 
exi)en.<e.s Wius l)el.\veen#100.H(H> anil.*!12lt.0IR». 

The firm were their own in-surer.^. 

About 12.4'! a.m. on the uiorniiig of 
JIarcliI 1, 1870. the Queen street b;Ml 
sounded nti alarm which was quickly 
taken up by the other bells in the city. 

The steam enpriiies jiroinptly turned out 
nnd a bright reflection in the west end 
of the city guided the brijrade to the 
scene of the fire, which was tlie Northern 
K;ul\v;»y Elevator, at the foot of llriK'k 
street. When t\w en^iiiie« arrived the 
fire apiTcared to be confined to thi> 
southern ^Kirtion of the buildinp: Mnd 
nn endeavour was inatie to lay the hose 
throuLTli a long shed leadie.^j to the back 
of thr elevator. At tiie same time an at- 
tempt was njnde to run :\ train of fiat 
cai-s into the building in order that they 
migiit bo loaded with a portion of the 
flour which was stored in the building ; 
but before the hose could be laid, and 
before the traiii was ready to move in, 
the fire ran ."vlong the roof of the shed 
like a burning liquid, and it wa,s with 
difficulty that several i^ersons, who were 
within the slied, managed to escape. Up 
to tliis time some hopt* had been enter- 
t.ained that the fire would have been con- 
fined to a portion of the building, and 
that the bulk of the flour stored in the 
sheds might be saved, but any such hopes 
were quickly dispelled by the iKM-fect 
volumes of fire which now envelojjed the 
buildings. The exertions of the firemen 
were now turned to preventing the fire 
from spreading to adjniiiing property, and 
the crowd busied themselves miming a 
number of flat cars ont of danger. The 
fire progressed rapidly nnd two hours 
ntvl a half after tiK* alarm was wounded 
t>i7 Northern elevator a ni*^08 of 
raiiw. The origin of the fire is a mystery ; 
it wa« discovered by a lot^omotivc driver, 
uno ivbeu the alarm was given it was 

well under way. Tl»e loss on tlie contents 
of the bnilding was about $150,000 ; on 
tlH* buildings tlietnwMves aliout .S(>i>,(>ni), 
nie loss was wholly coverwl by insurance. 

Oil May 14, 1870, a destructive fin- 
destroyed a large amount of property 
on the south-east corner of Ilayter and 
Teraul.ay fitre«t«, the premises oi'cnpied 
by MesBrs. McBenn & Broi. nnd Messrs. 
Parish & Gorrio. The fire st.artod in Mo- 
Bean's engine house and spread to the 
builders yar«l of Parish & Gorrie, on the 
north side of Hayter street, before any 
water could be brought to l>t>ar on it. 
During a. dolay, cauNtnl by tlje want of 
sufficient ho^^<', the fire iittained a mas- 
tery over everything conibn«<tible alvjut 
the place, and ^■onn some immense jiiles 
of luml)er were ignite<l. From Ternulay 
street the fire travelled p.iat the rear 
of Constable Ilornibrook's house to 
two new workshops l>eU)nging to 
Parish & Gorrie, .and they w»'re soon 
burnt to the ground. The brisk north- 
westerly wind which was blowing 
fanned the flames and blew tli'> 
sparks in every direction, and much 
alarm was f(>lt for the safety of the sur- 
rounding buildings. P.y o'clock it wjis 
evident th.nt nothing further could be 
done to arrest the progress of the con- 
flagration, so ."ill efforts were put forth 
to .oave the adjacent buildings. This \v,is 
effected after labour, and tlie 
fire at last burned itself out. t)ver 100,- 
000 feet of flooring was destroyed in 
Messes. McKe.ans' i>renu8«^8, and a largi' 
number of window and door frames nii't 
the same fate. Messrs. Parish & (}orfi'> 
also lost a quantity of valuable lunilu-r, 
but were fortunate in saving their wurk- 
men's tools. Messrs. Mcl'eans' workneMi 
lost tools to the amount of .$1,500. The 
total loss could not be ascertained cor- 
riH'tly, but it estimated at abmil 
$18,000, of which only $3,000 was 8ecur«d 
by insurance by Messrs. McHeau. Tli > 
Call:--' of the fire wa.s necidentel. 

On Friday, Novemlier 18, about a quar- 
ter past seven in the evening, the fire 
alarm sounded for a fire at " Ronlton's 
Mill." on the north-east corner of Bay and 
Esplanade r<treets. The fire engines were 
promptly on the scene, and, a plenti- 
ful .supply of water being obtainable from 
the Lake, no time was lost in bringini;; 
the branches to play on the burning mass. 
The fire had broken out in the third 
storey of the southern jvirt of the bnild- 
iug, and when the engines arrived tin' 
flames were bursting out of two of the 
windows to such an extent that it was 
feared no good coidd be done. The only 
way to reach the place where the fire 
apjM'ared to be was through these two 
windows, and a continuous stream was 
kept pouring into them. The office was 




broken into ami the books, |iai)oiB and 
Hufe were roscned. An hour aftor tho 
flamcH broke out it was obvious that no 
efforts could stop their proKi'OHH ; the 
fiauiCM soon upread to the elevator, which 
fortwittt'ly coutained bnt little grain; 
and tlio beams of the gable, once on fire, 
bnrnt with an inteiwifty which soon 
brought them to the ground. The fire 
ran through witli ligbtnius like rapidity, 
and by mi^iiiight all that remained of the 
fine mill wei-e four blackened walls : the 
interior, with the exception of the base- 
aunt, being conipletely gutted. The 
origin of the fire is a mystery. The 
uiill shut down at t» o'clock as nstial, 
and everything apiK>ared to be all right; 
at 7.15 p.m. the fire broke out, nobody 
knew how. Mr. IJoultou estimated his 
loss !*t about $30,0t)0, of which .$11,000 
wan covered by insurance. Tlie firemeu 
received great credit for tlic manner iu 
wliich they iKirrormcd their duty. Tlie 
e»gine.s were promptly on the spot and 
tlie br.mchcs well directed, and evcry- 
tlii'ig done to stay the fire that was 

Ahout 11 o'clock p.m., ou Saturday, De- 
cemU'r 10th, 1870, a fire bix^ie out in the 
tioap and candle factory bcloniriiig to the 
estate of ,J. Carty, on tiie conth-weet cor- 
ner of tiueeu street esu-t and (ieorge street. 
which ivautted iu tlie complete destruc- 
tiiHi of the bnildi!»g and itM content-^. The 
alarm wfis given by T. (.1. Tolluirst. and 
till' fire bri)A'ade wen- (juickly <m tlie 
pirouud, and did good work in preventing 
tht' fire exlendin.n' to the ad join! up; inoii- 
erty. About three o'clock the buildin^jc 
wiis one mtu-H of blackened bricks and 
charred timber. The lK)oks and ■•iccounts 
were !»ll rescued intact. Mr. Dodp,vou, 
fonnerly of the firm of Dodgson. .Shields i^ 
Morton, was tke lessee of IIk' fa-ctory. He 
wii.s iii'Ured. iMit 1m» loss was very con- 
siderable. This was one of the liest fac- 
t*>rie.s of the kiud in Canada, and one of I 
the very first manufactoriw establislifd i 
iu that p«rt of Toronto. It wa*i <)|Kiied i 
very early in tlie " fifties.'" when Queen I 
Btrcet ea-st wtis not even macadamized | 
hevond Church street, and when au open 
stream ran on the fouth side of the street 
fi<Mn George to (^»roline, now Sherl>ourne ; 
street. The two brick lK)U»*es on the north- ] 
east corner of Jarvis-i and QiK'en street I 
had }u«t been completed, and all aro«iml ; 
them was open ti<'ld. 'IMie reniaiue of the j 
orchard beloivging to the .Jarvis liome- 
stead extended to the p<)iut where George i 
now cro«-es Queen street, and when the i 
factory Wivs Iniilt it wa/t coii«ido;-ed a mis- ] 
take to |iut it in such an o«it-of-th»'-way ! 
place. The fire swept it away an a caudle 
factory, and the busiueftS was never re- j 
suiaed. I 

Not yet had 1870 had its full quota of 

fires, for on Dec. 18th. about 7.20 in the 
evening, fire broke out in a yard of Mr. 
Clement's aimh fuetory, on the aoutii side of 
Front street, o|>iKmite the Queen's Hotel. 
Tlie alarm was given at the Qm^en's 
Hotel, and Mr. McGaw. with a few others, 
went to the spot and extinguished the 
flames with a few pails of water. At 
11 o'clock the I- Us again rang the alarm, 
and this time the factory was really on 
fire, r.efore the engines c<mld be got to 
play U|ion the building it was one mass of 
flames, which spread rapidly anion;.; the 
combustible materials within. Almost 
from the outset a,ll hope of saving the 
factory was abandoned, and Mr. Cleiiieuta 
directed the firemen to devote their en- 
ergies to prevent the fire catching Messrs. 
.Jacques & Hay's establishment, wliich 
adjoined. Fortunately their efforts were 
successful, and a still more serious blaze 
was averted. Sliortly after the fire 
broke out a conTincing iircnit of its being 
the work of an incendiary was affordeil 
by the diseovery tliat a staijle, which 
was situateil som(> distance from tlie fac- 
tory, on fire inside. This wits ex- 
tinguished before it gained much bead- 
w;iy. Had it not been, nothing coah! 
have saved a large stock of lumber cIoko 
by. About 11.3{> the roof fell in, and by 
midnight nothing remained but tl>e mere 
shell of the building, with its burning 
contents in one flaming heap in the base- 
ment. The total loss by this fire w.ns 
$12,000. Mr. Clements kwt on his stock 
and machinery $8,000, and was not in- 
sured. The owner of the building, Mr. 
John Cayley, lost $•4,000, and was also 

On October 11th, 1871, at two in the 
afterucKHi, a fire broke out at Milloy's 
wharf aud stoielioiise at the foot of 
Yont!,* street. It originated iv the south- 
eivsL corner of the building, and spread 
rapidly to the eastern part. The buildiiiig 
destroyed contained a large (plant ity of 
griin, crockery and stovi-s, the greater 
liortiou of whicli were »k»stroyed. The 
jirincipal lo^icrs were : Thomaa Duncan, 
14,000 bu-sheW of grain; .lames Youii^u,', 
4,000 bushels of grain; James Walsh, 
4,(K)0 basliols of grain; C. W. Farrell,' 
3,800 bushels of malt; U. J. lioulton, 200 
barrels of flour. 

'I'lio total lo-^N amounted to over $20,- 
000, most, of which wiu-» covered by iu- 

Two good frame hoibses on the west 
side of George street, just north of Queen, 
the i>roiK'rty of Mr. Lally, a t^ieriff's 
officer, valued at .fl.OOO, were destroyed 
by fire at four o'clock a.m. on Dece«ii)er 
27th. They were fully insured. 

One of the worwt fires Toronto Ijod 
been visited with for some years bT(>Ke 
out at 10 p. m, ou February 14, 1872, 

^i ;■! 









in the store of John Charlesworth & Co., 
No. 35 Front Btroot, on the nouth side. It 
•vns (Kficov<»n?<l by a cowitablo on duty, 
and lie immediately gave tho alarm, and 
tins Bay street enfrino promptly arrived on 
th« sceuc, but tlie pro;!;ri'«a and appear- 
ance of thfi fire wore such that the other 
enRinea wore fli};ii.-illcd for. In the mean- 
time the fire had burst through the roof 
and wvLB spreading over the entire leugth 
and breadth of the block. The cornice 
beneath the windows in the highest 
storey, after burning for a short time, 
fell to the si<lewalk, threatening to de- 
stroy the hose, which was at once re- 
moved by th« firemen with their hooks. 
All the engines were in operation about 
11 o'clock, two of them being placed on 
Higgiubotham's wharf, the others at the 
tanks at the loot of Bay street. The 
hose of the former being carried across 
the track, all traffic was stopped. Up 
to about 11 o'clock there waa no pro- 
gress made in the direction of taking the 
goods from the stores on either side of 
that portion of the premises which was 
burning ; but as it seeme<l that no pro- 
gress was being made against the flames, 
the order was given to commence the re- 
moval of the goods, and the work at 
once was taken ap by a score of men. 
By midnight a41 hope of saving the build- 
ing seemed to be lost. Monitory jets of 
smoke were observed issuing from the 
roof at intervals, westward of where the 
fire was raging in the central part of 
the block. The several storeys of each 
store, which was separated from the ad- 
joining by a brick partition, were suc- 
cessively burned out, and still the fire 
advanced beneath the roof to the ad- 
jacent portions. The iron front, from 
which the block took Hs name, now gave 
way, part falling inside and part on the 
pavement. At one o'clock there seemed 
to be no chance that any portion of the 
building would be saved. Hundreds of 
men and boys were engaged in removing 
the goods from the scene of the fire to 
whore it was thought they would Ih> 
safe. As the conflagration progressed, it 
became more and more evident that no 
part of the block could be saved, the 
engines not being of sufficient power to 
send a stream of water higher than the j 
third storey. The mansard roof, being 
composed of boards covered with the 
combimtible felt roofing, was always the 
first |K>rtion of the building to ignite ; 
the iiou front bepran to lean outwards, 
and no stream of water could be got to 
reach it. At 1.45 a.m. the block of one 
or two wareluMisos in the rear broke 
into flames and burned with great fierce- 
ness for some time. A few minutes be- 
fore two o'clock a large jiortion of the 
building fell with a crasli that was heard ' 

over a great p^rt of the city. The flames also 
reached the old Custom House and did con- 
siderable damage there, but the Looks, 
papers, otc. , were secured before the fire or 
water got to them. 

The firemen did not cease playing on 
the fire until 10 o'clock the next morn- 
ing, and the scene was a sad one. With 
the exception of three stores, the wliole 
row was completely destroye<l. The total 
loss amounted to about $400,000, the 
losers being : Mr. Staunton, who owned 
two of the buildings, which were worth 
about $3.5,000. The greater portion of his 
stock was saved. He had insurance for 
about $20,000. Messrs. John Robertson, 
Son & Co. saved most of tbeir stock and 
were insured in various companies for 
$40,000. Messrs. Thomson & Burns were 
believed to be insured for about $9,000. 
Messrs. BrummcU & Russell lost all their 
stock, but it was insiire^ ; amount not 
stated. Mr. S. S. Campbell lost the whole 
of his stock of leather belting, valued at 
$8,000; insurance $5,000. Messrs. Bar- 
clay & Evans' stock was entirely con- 
sumed. It was valued at $70,000 and the 
insurance was $25,000. Livingston & 
Johnston, who saved a large portion of 
their stock, were insured for $13,000. Mr. 
Myles was insured on bis stores for $36,- 
000. Messrs. Thomas Walls & Co. saved a 
considerable amount of their goods. Their 
loss above insurance was about $50,000 ; 
their insurance was about $107,500. 
Messrs. Dobbie & Ciirrie had about $120,- 
000 worth of stock, of which they saved 
$50,000 Avorth. They were insured for 
$70,000. The origin of this most disas- 
trous fire is not mentioned, but it is sup- 
posed that it was accidental. The work 
of re-building the block was proceeded 
with as soon as the weather permittad. 

The excitement caused by this fire b»d 
hardly time to subside when the rest of 
the block was burned to the ground. The 
fire broke out on Sunday, May 12, 1872, 
in the wall paper factory of Messm. 
Staunton & Co., and it was soon 8c<u 
that the bailding« of the Iron Block awl 
Mr. J. B. Smith's lumber yard were iw 
danger of being destroyed. Bay street 
engine was the first to arrive and was 
speedily got to work, but not before the 
flames had obtained snch headway as tii 
render all chance of saving the factory, 
with its valuable niachiner;-, blocks, 
stock, etc., hopeless. Soon after the fir*, 
broke out the boiler in the engine room 
burst and the walls of that portion of the 
factory facing stmth were blown on t« 
the Esplanade. The flames spread rapidly 
through the whole Jensth of tiie buildinj, 
and soon the lumber in Mr. Smith's ynrd 
was made the prey of tlie fire. Mr. 
Smith's office ulso caught, and that oscd 

,(f : 



on fire, anotbor Iron Block catantroplio 
eeemed inevitaMe, as t)i« wiad bad risen 
considerably and wh8 driving the f tames 
iu all directions. The roof of Meosra. 
Milloy's storebooBC was on fire three 
times, and it was only by dint of tlie 
preatest exertions that Hcrious damage 
did not ensue. The Hiirbnr Commissioner's 
office was the next to go ; Mr. Smith's 
office and tlte last named building bnrned 
up like tinder, and all the efforts of tbe 
firemen to check the progress of the fire 
were fntile. The sparks were carried 
about by tbe wind and soon the mansard 
roof of Mr. Staunton's store was obserTed 
to be in a blase, and the ilames worked 
their way roand to Messrs. M. Fisher & 
Son's premises next door. Both stores 
were soon wrapped in flainns, and the 
only stream of water broupUt to play 
npon the buildings facing Front street 
was a miserable affair. AH the premises 
betw^een Staunton's store and the 
Esplanade resembled one vast furnace. 
By seven o'clock ail the upper stories of 
Fisher & Son's and Staunton's stores 
were Irretrievably gone, and presently 
the roof fell in with a tremendous crash. 
At half-past seren the fronts of both 
stores were observed to totter and a few 
■ccontlfl after they fell ; when the smoke 
and dust cleared off nothing was to be 
seen of the building btit one or two frag- 
.uents of parting walls and a mass of 
debris in the street. However, after this 
the firemen prevented the flames from 
Bpreading any further and by ten o'clock 
all \iaus safe and the firemen ceased pour- 
ing v^'ater on the ruins. The origin of tbe 
fire is a mystery ; it wa* supposed to 
have started in the engine room of 
Staunton's factory. The property de- 
stroyed was valued at about $150,000, 
of which Mr. Staunton lost about $110,- 
000 ; $66,750 being covered by insurance. 
Messrs. Fisher &. Son's loss could not be 
correctly ascertained. Mr. Smith lost 
from $30,000 to $25,000 and had insur- 
ance for $13,000. 

On June 30, 1872, a fire broke out 
about 6.16 a.m. in the engine room of 
Messrs. Joab Scales & Co.'s tobacco 
works, on the ^outh side of Palace, now 
Prout, street, just east of Frederick 
street, which damaged tbe engine 
and machinery to some extent, and 
did damage to the raw tobacco, which 
aawunted to $4^00 or $5,000. The total 
estimated losa was between $9,000 and 
^0,000. Firtly insured. The promptness 
and efficiency of the fire brigade pre- 
vented a very disastrous conflagration 
ou this oceasiou. 

On Saturday morning 
abont 4.30 o'clock, hre 
on the premises of Mr 

April 5. 1873. 
was discovered 
William Burke, 

lumber mez^huut, etc., ou the Eouth- 

west comer of Richmond and Bhep* 
pard street^. The flames had al- 
ready gained great headway when 
the fire engiitcs arrived, and then no 
water could be got and the fire raged un- 
checked. Water was at length obtained 
from the corner of York and Ricbmoud 
by one of the enigines, and subsequently 
three others got it a]t different points. 
Iu spite of all tbe efforts put forth by 
tlie firenoen, the whole of Mr. Burke's 
buildings and lumber piles, together with 
half a dozen dwelling houses, were swept 
away. Mr. Burke*s low was about $20,- 
000 ; insurance, about $9,500. The other 
houses destroyed were oecvpied by Mr. 
John Siiigletou, Mr. Fimnk Orris, Mr. 
Richard Clarke, Mr. Nathaniel Baker and 
Mr. Ed. J. Burton. The coutents of these 
buildings were completely destroyed. The 
next building to the west wat owned and 
occupied by Mr. Daniel Brooke. Here tbe 
flames were arrested, after doing dam- 
age to the extent of $2,000 to the house 
and furniture. Mr. Brooke wa« insured 
for $3,000. The total loss by this fire 
was estimated at about $30,000. Its 
origin is not known. 

On July 1, 1873, the water-works were 
taken over by the corporation from the 
water company which had been operat- 
ing them. The matter had been under 
consideration for some time, and it was 
without doubt a decided improvement on 
the old way. 

A fire on Dec. 1st. 1873, almost com- 
pletely destroyed the Primitive Metho- 
dist church on \he 8outh side of Alice 
street, about seventy yards from Yooge 
street. The flames were first seen 
by a policeman about 3 a.m., and 
he at once gave the alarm, but 
by the time tbe engiuee arrived and 
got into working order the fire bad 
made ccusider&ble headway. The flames, 
which started in the woodwork near a 
register coming up from the furnace, ran 
up into the cupola and thence spread 
along the roof. From the roof tbey crept 
down into the interior of the cbnrch, and 
when the fire brigade succeeded io ex- 
tiuRuishing them the whole inside at the 
buildin(i' was almost completely gutted. 
The floor was uot burned, but was very 
much damaged. A few of the i)ew8 
escaped and the framework of the gal- 
lerj" and one or two pillars were intact. 
AH the rest was a total wreck. The 
organ was entirely destroyed. Tlie whole 
loM was about $13,000, $10,000 ou the 
building and $3,000 on the furniture aod 
organ. The insurance was $8,000 on 
the building and fixtures and $2,000 on 
the organ. 

About 11 o'clock on the night of Jasu- 
ary 20th, 1874, the old Royal Lyceum, 
siluuted near the Rossiu House, ou tUe 


."■1" .' 

■ it ■ : Cl 


1 I 



:l U 



south side of Kiug street, was discovered 
to be iu flainue. Tlieee spread with such 
rapidity that iu less thau an liour no- 
tliiug wofl left of the building but the 
bare walls. It w;i« owued by Mr. French, 
aud was occupied by Mr. Taunehill, the 
piece jMirformed on the night of the fire 
beiug " Ute Murder on the Hudaoii." The 
damage wa« about .$18,000, aud Mr. 
French wjus insured for $15,000. 

Ou Jai'unry Utli, 1874, tlie premieea of 
James Miller and W. .1. iSniith, cabinet 
makers, ou tlie Kouth side of Shuter, cIoho- 
ly adjoining Youge utreet, were entirely 
destroyed. The damage was about 

The check toll-gate ou the Kingston 
road, now Queen street cast, just west 
of Mill lane (Broadview avenue), was 
fired by iuceniliarie« ou the night of 
March 2G, 1874, aud burned to the 

A fearful fire broke out ou tlic night 
of May 10, iu a wooden building on the 
nortli 'side of tlie Efl|)lunade, No. GO, occu- 
pied by John Taylor & Co., as safe manu- 
facturers. This was entirely destroyed. 
From there the flamea spread to the 
premises of Neil Currie, No. 52, Loiler 
maker. Lyman Bros. & Co. had a ware- 
boiwe in this ueiglibourhood, which was 
also damaged very greatly, and some 
" pattern " ehoiw, tenanted by a Mr. 
Little, were also destroyed. The fire 
worked nortii wards, anfl soon the pre- 
mises of Messrs. .Smith & Keighley, whole- 
sale grocers, and the stock of Thome, 
Par.ions & Co., leatiier merchants, were 
destroyed. These buildings were on the 
Boutli side of Front street, to the east of 
Church street. 

Tlie lasses were a« follows : Lyman 
Bros. & Co., $3,000 ; Taylor, John & Co., 
$20.000 : Little. $500 ; N. Currie. $10.- 
000 ; Smith & Keighley, $100,000 ; 
Tiiorne, Parsons & Co., $20,000. 

With the exception of Neil Currie, who 
only had a $1,500 iwlicy, all of the above 
were protected by in-suraneee. Tiie build- 
ings were the pro|K'rty of Mr. A. M. Smith 
aud were also covered. Wiien the Kspla- 
iinde fire had been burning for about an 
hour, an alarm came fiom tieorge street 
that the ice houses, Nos. 15 and 17. ou 
the ofiat side of the street, were in flames. 
They were occupied by Samuel Hill & 
Co. A report of tlie time says : 

" In a few minutes an engine arrived 
ou the spot and was speedily set to work 
but too late to save much of the projier- 
ty in the block. The entire shell of the 
ice house soon afterwards fell exposing a 
scene which in gorgeous beauty could not 
be surpassed in the imaginary regions of 
fairy land, blocks of ice being piled to 
what .appeared to be a great height, cacli 
of which sparkled iu the lurid light from 

were William 
Richard Har- 
McCarthy aud 
damage was 
houses beiug 

the other fire, looking like a pile of rubiea 
such as the boldest writer of fairy tales 
never imagined." 

Other losers by this fire were Mr. Tay- 
lor, rouKh-cast dwelling, W. Campbell, 
grocer, .J. Franks, grocer, and some 
Kmaller ones. Campbell was not insured 
but all the others were believed to be. 

While a ladder was beiug raised 
against one of the buildings on Front 
street in the midst of the fiist fire, a por- 
tion of the machine fell, seriously injur- 
ing a fireman named Carruthers in the 

About 4 p. m. ou Monday, May 2.")th, 
six houses on the east side of Seaton 
street, from No. 65 to 75 were entirely 
destroyed. The occupants 
(lorrie, Robert Btevciusou, 
bert. .Toiin Edwards, Mrs. 
O. J. Fitzsinmions. The 
reckoned at $3,000, the 
frame jind valued at $500 each. 

The premises of Davies & Co., situated 
between Front and Mill streets on the 
western bank of the Don, were discover- 
ed to be on fire on the afternoon of June 
23id. Very great damage was done, the 
main buiidini^s and several adjacent sheds 
including three ice bouses, being destroy- 
ed. The loss was covered by insurance. 

A largo fire occurred ou the morning 
of July 28th at the oilcloth factory occu- 
pied by Davies v't McCuilough on the cor- 
ner of Wellesley and Ontario streets. A 
large brick building was entirely des- 
troyed and the loss, only partly covered 
hy insurance, amounted to several thou- 
sand dollars. 

About 4 o'clock on the morning of March 
30th a fire broke out iu a block of six 
rough-cast buildings on the south-east 
corner of Gerrard and Ontario streets. 
Four of them were completely destroyed 
the remaining two almost so. The cor- 
ner house was a hotel, proprietor Edwin 
Hough, and mnnag d by Cliarles Lamb. 
Next to it wae Mrs. Dixon's millinery 
.•^tore. thou Charles Johnson's the sta- 
tioner's. Chowu & Braine, butchers, IL II. 
Hammond's grocery, and E. Anderson, a 
bi.'ker. The total foss was about $5,0()(), 
not more than half of wliich was insured. 

A fire not only destructive to property 
but where human life was sacrificed, 
broke out on the morning of May 31 in 
the millinery store of John Miller, 329 
Yonge street, on the eastern side, seven 
ddors south of Gould street. Despite the 
efforts of the firemen the flames burst 
through the uppi>r storey and the roof of 
the store, ami extended next door to J, 
II. Hammond's, the hatter. The npjxT 
storey over the two stores was Miller':^ 
dwellint, he Rublcttimr a por'ijon of- it 
to James Nash, a painter, and) his :«ifc, 
,X»neii :iut) Hiy, utyi^<i put evci^uue. yfim. 

J' 'i 




noloep, but Mil lor and his wife succeeded 
in making their escape while Mr. and 
Mrfl. Nash perinhi>d. The cause of this fire 
was supposed to be incendiarism. The loss 
wjifi about $G,.")l)0, only partly covered, eo 
far as Miller was coucerued, by iusur- 

On June 9 one of the largest fires that 
Toronto had seen for many years broke 
out in Good's foundry on the north-cast 
nide of Qui>ou street, just east of Yonge 
street, which was totally destroyed. The 
[ire spread to Yonpe, destroying tlie pre- 
niises of J. Ilowland, on the corner, No. 
73. Mr. Rowland wafl a drj- goods mer- 
chant. It next took 7"), G. Goulding's mil- 
linery establishment, 77, J. V. l)avies' 
music dealer ; 79, George Ellis ; 81, J, 
A. Cherry, dry goods; 1S3, .Tohn Lanibo, 
boots and shoes; 1S7 and ISO, Sanio & 
JoliiLston, cabinet makers; 191, Neil Mc- 
Eachren, the Albert Hall came next and 
was greatly damaged, then 191 1-2, P. IZ. 
Noverre's, tobacconist, and the livery 
stabUjs of J. G. Snider, in rear of l'.t3, 
were greatly damagi'd. 

On Queen street, adjoining Good's foun- 
dry to the east, on the corner of Victoria 
titreet, W£ie a saloon kept by E. Dawson. 
Tills wna entirely destroyed, while on 
Victoria street Nos. 5S to 72 were gut- 
ted. The insurance on the Yonge street 
lionses and their contents exceeded $40,- 
(tOO, of this $6,000 was on the Albert 
Hall block. There was no insurance on 
Good's foundry and only $1,600 on 5S nnd 
60 Victoria street. The reflection of the 
flames from this fire was seen plainly at 
Niagara and also at Whitby. 

Tiie Toronto Nut and Bolt Works, on 
the south side of Little Kiohmond street, 
just east of BiUliurst street, owned by 
MesTS. Kobb & Co., were entirely de- 
stroyed on the night of Juno 20. The 
building and contents were full}' insured, 
hut there were many tons of coal stacked 
on the premises, which were uninsured, 
and proved a total loss. 

Onl}' a very J)rief ji>riod elapsed when 
on July 12 Collins' brass foundry, C12 
and 614 on the west side of Yonge street, 
just south of Bloor, was destroyed, and 
Mr. Collins' dwelling house as well as 
that occupied by Thomas llobinson great- 
ly ilani;iged. The lass wius estinmted at 
$'.t.00l). Mr, Collins being insured for 

Ikjoth & Sons' steam copper works on 
the Esplanade, on the north side, near 
the corner of Buy street, were destroyed 
oa the night of August 18. The loss 
amountod to about $6,000, which was 
covered by insurance. 

KolniLson, McDonald & Co.'s planing mill 
on the south side of Mill street east was 
completely burned out on tlie evening of 
r.ovomber 6. A large quantity of lum- 

ber, together with a great deal of ma- 
chinery and many tools belonging to the 
workmen, was also destroyed. The total 
leas was about $8,000. The insurauca 
was only a little more than a third 
of this, $3,000. 

For some munths no firea of any great 
consequence occurred in the city. Ou 
August 30 great damage was done to 
the premises of C. P. Held & Co., 29 Front 
street east, on the south side. Damage 
to the amount of $15,000 was done, which 
was fortunately wholly met by insurance. 

Hamilton's fouudrj-, on Front street 
east, between Berkeley and Parliament 
streets, was utterly destroyed by fire on 
the night of November 21. The damage 
done exceeded $200,000, and it was only 
insured for about $60,000. Over 200 men 
were thrown out of employment, and the 
whole of their tools perished in the 

A fire occurred at the Central Prison 
on June 21, 1877, in a bri<-k buililinc; 
occui)ied as a bakery, etc. The damage 
done amounted to about $500. 

Metcalfe's foundry, known as the "Don 
Foundry," on the sonthern side of King 
street east, close to the Don, w.-is entire- 
ly destroyed on the night of July 12th, 
1877. The building and its contents wero 
valued at $7,000, and were only insured 
for a little over $2,000. This was the 
fifth time Mr. Metcalfe had been burnt 

Sunday, October 7, occurred one of the 
most disastrous fires of the year. About 
three o'clock a.m. the premises on the 
east side of Teraulay street, between 
Buchanan and Uayter streets, owned .-md 
oceui)ied by the Canada Coffin Manufac- 
turing Company, limited, were burned to 
the ground. The coffin company occupied 
the building as their work shops, and 
at the time the fire took place it was 
filled with a large stock of manufac- 
tured goods and r;iAv material, all of 
which was destroyed. The loss to the 
company exceeded $20,000. Over 1,400 
coffins were destroyed, besides a largo 
stock of material, which all perished 
either by fire or by water. The amount 
of insurance carried only amounted to 
about one-third of the daniiige done. "The 
only \\\\y to account for the fire is by 
attributing it to incendiarism." Such 
was the remark made by the Globe news- 
paper in reporting the blaze, and the 
other dailies said the same. 

On November 20 Oliver's lumber yard, 
on the west side of Lome street, was par- 
tially destroyed by fire, and great fear 
was entertained that the Queen's Hotel 
would go too, but after half an hour's 
hard work on the part of the firemen 
all danger to the latter building was 
averted, besides a considerable jwrtion 






ilii '' 

111 . ,ri 



of Oliver's property being saved. The 
damage doiic was to a great extent cov- 
ered by the various policies of insurance 

On June 22, 1S78, a fire of a very de- 
Btrnctive nature took place in the pre- 
ini«eH occupied by Mr. J. W. Philips, 
builder, o'l th> eouth-iwiet corner of Elizi- 
beth and Hayter streets. DaninKO to the 
extent of $7,000 wjis done, but there wnsi 
ample insurance. Thomas Carroll, who oc- 
cupied an adjoining sash and blind fac- 
tory, was all but burnt out, his loss 
reaching $5,000 and he was only insured 
for $2,000. Mr. J. E. Turner and Mr. J. 
D. McArthur, leather belting manufac- 
turers, were also losers, each about $1,- 

A fire broke out on the evening of 
September 30 in the planing mill and 
handle ninnutactory of C. T. Brandon & 
Co., in McDonell square, south side, off 
Bathurst street. Owing to the inflamma- 
ble nature of the building and contents 
the flames spread rapidly and destroyed 
most of the property, including the ma- 
chinery aud stock. The firm were insured 
for $3,000, but this did not quite cover 
the lose. The fire was supposed to have 
been accidental and to have commenced 
in the boiler room. 

Gearing's sash aud door factory, Nos. 
118 to 124 Esplanade street, on the 
north side, was entirely gutted on the 
afternoon of October 9. The fire broke 
out about 4.30 and it was about 6 before 
it was completely subdued, the damage 
amounting to more than $5,000. The fire 
was caused by the high wind which pass- 
ed down the chimney with such force as 
to blow the flnmes out into a lot of 
shavings some distance off. The shavings 
in turn communicated with the wooden 
work above, and so the conflagration oc- 
curred. Happily for Mr. Gearing he was 
insured fully. 

At 12.20 on the morning of Wednesday, 
November 13th, flames were discovered 
issuing from the south-west corner of the 
paint shop in the Central Prison yard. 
The main building, the prison proper, oc- 
cupies the east side of the quadrangle. 
At the point most remote from this, the 
south-west comer of the walls, the fire 
originated. All the space between the 
rear wall and the main buildiug w^as 
occupied by workshoiis, piles of lumber 
and staves. The yard was also full of 
combustible material, and once the flnmes 
started they spread with alarming rapid- 
ity. The paint shop was consumed in a 
few minutes, and soon the saw mill, dry- 
ing kiln and engine room, on the north 
side of the paint shop, wore in flames. 
The wind also carried the flames to the 
large store room filled with wooden ware 
and o'.her inflammable material, situat- 

: ed exactly west of the paint shop, and de- 
j stroyed it, with the piles of lumber and 
staves between the various buildings. 
Two flat cars and a dozen box cars, 
standing on the tracks of the Northern 
railway, betweeu the shops, were con- 
sumed, together with a quantity of lum- 
ber in rear of the paint shops. All these 
buildings, with their contents, were abso- 
lutely destroyed. 

The stores, buildings and niachinorv 
cost, with the foundry, $40,000. This was 
a total loss. The loss on the other build- 
ings brought the sum up to nearly $100,- 
000, which, fortunately for the city, fell 
upon the insurance companies, and not 
upon the ta-xpayers. Jreat as was the 
damage to property, it is pleasant to 
learn that there was no harm done to 
life or limb. The cause of the fire wan 
never accurately ascertained. 

Stewart's flour mill, on the north-east 
corner of Frederick and Esplanade streets, 
was greatly damaged by a fire Avhich 
broke out on the evening of November 
18. The mill contained about 200 bar- 
rels of flour, aud between 2,000 and 3,000 
bushels of wheat, which were destroyed, 
as was all the wooden machinery, such 
as sjjouts, elevators, etc. The loss ex- 
ceeded $4,000. which was more tbau met 
by the iusurance carried. 

On Good Friday, April 11, 1879, what 
I was known as the Market Elevator, on 
I the Esplanade, almost opposite the foot 
i of George street, was entirely consumed 
: by fire, which broke out just before seven 
; p.m. The whole of the fire brigade were 
; on the ground very soon after the alarm 
I was sounded. " For fully two hours," 
I relates an eye-witness, " there was no 
; abatement of the flamo^ although it 
j might have been supposed that the very 
intensity of the fire, combined with the 
inflammable nature of the material it 
had to feed upon, would have been suf- 
ficient to burn itself out in a very short 
time. On the contrary, however, it blazed 
away fiercely until everything of a com- 
bustible nature had been consumed. The 
ecene during the progress of the fire was 
profoundly impressive. Distributed around 
the various docks in the vicinity were a 
number of schooners, and these vessels 
afforded admirable positions for hun- 
dreds who desired to obtain a good view 
of the scene. * • • Taken altogether, 
it was a weird sight— the thousands of 
spectators crowding vessels, wharves and 
houses, the exceeding brilliancy of tbe 
light giving the water in the bay a re- 
semblance to blood, and the schooners in 
the harbour the appearance of phantom 
ships— combined to form a spectacle not 
readilj- forgotten by those who wit- 
nessed it." 
There was no doubt that the fire wa» 



caiisod by un iuceudiary. This could 
readily be seeu from tlie fa«t that the 
lire WOH started in the upper storey, 
where, if unobserved for a ehort time, 
it would be utterly imiKxwible to git it 
under control. The building had been 
unoccupied since the previous October, 
wliioli was another fact pointing out de- 
sign in the origin of the fire. The dam- 
ago done was about $50,000, and towards 
covering that amount there wee policies 
of insurance amounting to $20,000. 

On the night of Wednesday, July 16th, 
the shoe factory fl \V. 1). Hamilton, on 
the north side of Front street east, eight 
doors from Youge street, caught fire, and, 
with its contents*, was entirely consumed. 
Tlif building, 180 feet long by 50 feet 
wide, was four storeys high in front and 
live in rear, and was insured for $15,000. 
The mJtchinery was insured for $10,000, 
and the stock for $60,000, Mr. Ilamil- 
tou's loss, though, was very heavy, as 
he had just purchased a heavy lot of 
leather, etc., in anticipation of the fall 

A disastrous fire occurred on the morn- 
ing of September 8, in the premises of 
Christie, Brown & Co., on the south-west 
c()nier of Duke and Frederick streets. 
Damage was done to the extent of $20,- 
000, which was more than covered by 
the insurance carried. 

The house-furnishing store of Noah L. 
Pipcri 169, on the east side of Yonge, 
three doors from Queen, was destroyed 
by fire very early on the morning of Sep- 
tember 11. The loss was more than $25,- 
000, only $18,000 of which was insured 

The Grand Opera House, on the south 
side of Adelaide street west, between 
Yonge and Bay streets, fell a victim to 
fire very early on the morning of Novem- 
ber 29. Mr. and Mrs. Bandumnn's com- 
pany were fulfilling an engagement at 
the time, and, with one or two exceptions, 
the whole of the costumes belonging to 
both ladies and gcut'jmen were destroy- 
ed, as well as the scenery and stage 
accessories. Bad as this was, it was no- 
thing to the loss of human life which oc- 
curred. Rv jert Wright, the stag!' car- 
penter and caretaker, his wife and daugh- 
ter, a child of about ten years of age, 
were iniabli; to effect their escape from 
the burning building and were burnt to 
death. A man named Thomas Scott was 
also seriouslj' injured, in jumping from 
an npjH.'r window, but eventually he re- 
covered. The damage done was estimated 
at $+7,000, and the insurances reached 

At 11.30 p.m., Thursday, May 7, 1880, 
n. fire broke out in a block of rough-ciust 
buildings on the ea.stern corner of Duf- 
feriu avenue anfl Queen street, occupied 

by Robert Moore, hotelkeeper. and T. 
Booth, grocer. The fire spread rapidly, 
and soon enveloped the Union Hall, a 
large wooden building to the west of 
Moore's. These W'-re all rjuickly levelled 
to the ground, very little of their con- 
tents being saved. Moore was insured for 
$5,800. but Booth w;v.s uninsured. The 
total damage e.\«eeded $10,000. 

Another somewhat serious lire broke 
out on the night of May 29 in the pre- 
mises of Baillio & Downey, millers, on 
the north side of King street west, now 
No. 88. The mill was not in use at the 
time the fire occurred, and there was 
no stock there, but the dam:ige amounted 
to more than $2,000. 

Priddie's cabinet factory, on the north 
side of Duke street, was almost destroyed 
by fire on the night of July 23. The dam- 
age was about $2,000: in^uraiK-e $1,200. 

The stables of the Black Horse hotel 
on the north-east corner of Front anA 
George streets together with a workshop 
and two other stables adjoining were en- 
tirely consumed by the fire which took 
place there on the evening of Friday, 
September 17th, 1880. The owners were 
A. Oxford, hotel proprietor. Wood, tin- 
smith, loss about $2,500, and O'Connor 
and Davison who occupied the other 
stables. Oxford's loss was about $600 
and the two latter about $230 each. No 
less than thirty horses were in the stables 
when the fire occurred all of which were 
safely rescued. 

A verj' destructive fire occurred ia 
Parkdale between three and four a.m. 
on September 23, 1880, causing the total 
destruction of a hotel, fancy goods shop, 
drug store, grocery, and a coal, wood 
and lumber yard office. The fire broke 
out on the groun<l floor of G. A. Devlin's 
drug store, on the north side of Queen 
street west, now Nos. 1502 and 1504, 
closely adjoining the Parkdale Hotel. 
The building where the fire commenced 
wa« owned and partly occupied by A. 
McKnight, who lost everything. G. A. 
Devlin lost all his stock of drugs. Mr. 
McBeath's coal office was entirely de- 
stroyed. II. Timms' loss, who kept the 
Parkdale Hotel, and owned the block in 
which it was situat.Ml, was a total one. 
It was valued at $-l:,000, with a slight 
insurance. T. P. Worth occupied the 
other part of the Timms block as a fancy 
gooils store. His furniture and stock were, 
saved, but were greatly damaged. The 
total loss was about $8,000. The insur- 
ances were as follows : Devlin's loss $2,- 
600, insurance $800 ; McKnight. insur- 
ance $975 ; T. P. Worth, insurance $1,- 
700 ; H. Timms, iasurance $2,200 ; Mc- 
Beath, insurance $50. 

A fire occurred in the Revere block, 
on the south side of King, west of York 

! ^1 


1 i 

i m 






strof't. on Fiiilay, DoocinVr 3, hy which 
a joiiiif? \voiii:iii iuhiumI .NVllio Edwards 
v-jLH so ti'rrihi.v biiriiod that aho oiilj' sur- 
viviMl liiT rescue for n few liour.M. Two 
lii'ciuon, naiiicil nvju'ctivoly William For- 
H.vtli and Martin Kerr. wtTO liadly burniMl. 
Tilt; ilaniigi' <'aus('d to tlic Uoverc blocli 
Avas not largo, about $3,000, jiartly in- 
Burod against. 

Enrlv in the mmnim? of Monday, March 
28tii. ISSl, a fire broke out in the «tablo« 
Jind driving; nhcd t)ccupied by Terry iSc Co.. 
]!{(• Front wtreet vaHt on its iiortiiern 
Hide, which completely destroyed tlio 
Iniiidings, and six iiorscs stabled there 
wore burnt u> death. The total damage 
cxci'eded .$2,."00. The insurance was not 
neaily sufficient to cover the loss. 

A row of cottages on the south- west 
corner of Itobin.son and Luinley streets, 
four in number, were desti'oyod by fire 
on the night of April oth ; the loss was 
about $1,.jOO, and only 'i f^nuill insur- 

Newspaper offices have been peculiarly 
unfortunate in the matter of fires. On 
Sunday niDrning. April 10th, one occur- 
red in the World office on the east side 
of Yonge Ntreot. Fortunately the dam- 
age done waj) small though a number of 
people had a narrow cscajw from being 

A dinastrous firo occurred between 7 
and 8 o'cKx'k on the night of January 
32, 18S2. It originated in the premises 
occupied by the firm of (iillespie, Mend 
\- Co.. on the nortli side of Wellington, 
near I5ay street. Tlio firm just mention- 
ed occupied the second, tliird and top 
storey of the building, while the first 
I'uit and basement were renti'il by the 
lirni of (iille8|)ic, Ansley & Martin, whole- 
sale dealers in hats, caps and straw 
g<M)ds. Next door to the east were the 
premises of Houston, Foster & Co., im- 
jiorters of cloths. ']"ho upper jmrtion of 
the building was entirely dcstroyod, a? 
Was the stcR'k it contained. Gillespie, 
Annley iV: Marti'i's stock A^as greatly 
damaged by water, as was also that of 
Houston, Foster iN; Co., but all three firms 
were fully insured. I 


The above alliterative liea<lline appears 
in one of the j)apers of Februarj' 2nd, 
1SS2, above an account of the great fire 
by which a great jiortion of Hay c** Co.'s 
furniture warehousi' and manufactory on 
the Esplanade, at the foot of York street, 
were entirely tlestroyod. The firo was 
discovered at 10.40, and at 11 o'clock 
the roof of Hay's warehouse was in a 
blaze, and the firo eating slowly down- 
ward soon communicated with flames 
which had burst in through tlu' side of 
the building. The firo gathered strength 

and fury every momonti and 8o<jn 
attacked and conHiinied everything in- 
fliimnmblo within it« reach. "It apiwand 
aH if a very hell wim raging on the 
wharf antl the intense lit>at melted the 
ice for fully one hundred yards out into 
the bay." The (juotation is from a cor,- 
tomporary account of the disaster, and 
its statements are fully borne out by all 
the information given by the papers of 
the time. The rapidity with which the 
flames Bpread over the furniture estab- 
lishment of liny & Co. is to be accoiuited 
for by the fact that not only was tin- 
Htructure a frame one, but in it was 
stored a large quantity of newly varnish- 
ed furniture, besides oils and tur|H'ntine, 
of which a large stock waw always k"pt 
on hand. Fully 10,000 people were gather- 
ed along the ]']«planade in the vicinity of 
the fire on the streets leading to it and 
upon such railway trucks .-lud steamboats 
Jis occujiied a good position for sight see- 
ing therefrom. Conger's coal yard closely 
adjoiued Hay's factory, and in the stable 
were four hoi-ses, all of which wore burn- 
ed to deatfi. 

As regards the damage done Mr. Conger, 
in who«o ijremises tho firo originated, 
between 3,000 and 4,000 tons of hard 
coal stored away which was all more 
or le.s8 damaged ; the wharf was also 
I)Hrtially injured. Mr. Conger's loss was 
about $20,000, on which he had insur- 
ance of between $i),0<)0 and $10,000 in 
different companies. Hay & Co.'s loss 
was the heaviest. It amounted to $!t0,000 
with insurance carried for only one- third 
of that aniotint. One fireman belonging to 
No. 4 section was injured by a burning 
brand falling on him, but happily wa.>j 
not long on the sick list. 

The old City Flour Mills on the north- 
past Corner of Fsplanade and Frederick 
streets finally disappeared, ''1011 an easy 
prey to the flames." late in t!ie evonin'j; 
of March 27th, 1882. It wiia in a dilapi- 
dated state and was only worth about 
$1,000 which was a total loss. 

.lust forty-eight hours later on March 
21)tli, another fire broke out on the Ek- 
I>lanade on the western corner ol Iconic 
street, occupied by .Tohn Oliver & Co's. 
planing mill and drying kilns, the Garden 
City llarter Purifier Company, the Soho 
foundry and the Toronto Waggon Wheel 
Comiiany. The eceue at the beginning 
was disheartening owing to the extent of 
the mill and the inflammatory nature of 
the materials contained in it. But the 
firemen under Richard Ardagh worked 
bravely to prevent its spread. The fol- 
lowing incident happened while the fire 
was being fought on the cast and north : 
A loud crash was heard on the west side 
of the burning pile and the vast crowd 
ruslied madly along Esplanade street to 




sec what liiid happened. It was tbon dis- 
coTPrcd that the flat roof of tho Soho 
foundry uik>u which wcro working thi> 
v,-hr>\e of the men of No. 2 section of tho 
fire brijjado had falliui in carrying with 
it the whole of the men. N'eveitheleK^ they 
all t)Ut miraculouHly esca|K»d. only two of 
tlioni receiving slight iujuries. 

'I'fio losHi'8 were very heavy, Oliver & 
Co'h. b.'iny; the largest, about $3.").000. 
The total lo,>.» was about $.")(),000, and the 
iufiurauee was less than $20,000. 

On tlK' morning of Novembi'r 9th, the 
bulliling, tenanted by tho IJ. \V. H. and 
owned by the Northern Itailway Coni- 
pany, situated on Dock \o. 5, and known 
MS the flour and through freight shed, was 
hurned to the ground, the contents alHO 
being all but a total lass. The i»ro|)erty 
(li'vMtroyed consisted of the shed, valued 
;it i^fi.OOO ; nine flat cars, worth about 
.$2,1)00; four box care, in value $1,200; 
.•Mid all the office paj^rs. The railway 
conipanicH wore fully insured. Inside the 
6l>od weiv stored between 1,200 and 
1,500 barrels of flour belonging to dif- 
ferent owners. Coffee & Co. being the 
jirincipal ouee, they having no less than 
!iOO barrels stored there. The remain- 
der of the contents consisted of several 
hundred kegs of mills, a large quantity 
of glaes and some earthenware. Donogh, 
MeCbol & Oliver lost a large quantity 
ol lumber, about 250,000 feet, iu value 
nl)out .'?G,500, upon Avliieh there was an 
insurance of only $3,500. 

" As the clocks were striking the hour " 
of midnight, on .January IG, 1883. the 
safe works of Bain, Wont & McLean, on 
the south-west corner of Front and Fred- 
erick streets, we:(> found to be on fire. 
In fifte(Mi minutes the whole building was 
euveloi)ed iu flames, and in an hour and 
a half the place was gutted. The loss 
was about $25,000, and tiiis was covered 
twice over by the insurances carried. 

Davies & Co.'s storehouse, on the north- 
east corner of River and Oueen street 
east, was very badly damaged by fire 
early in the morning of Sunday, February 
4. 1S.S3. Tho building in (juestion was of 
W(H>(1, and adjoi'ied on the north side a 
substantial brick malt kiln, being of tlie 
Hiime height as tho latter, which (lossess- 
eil three fhwrs. On the first and third 
fl(X>i-s a door connected the kiln with the 
(Storehouse, tho latter being filled with 
enormous wooden bins, in which were 
several thousand bushels of barley in 
steep. The greater part of tho interior 
(vf this building was destroyed, as well 
as the contents. The total loss was alwut 
$.'?5,000, there being insurance towards 
tills of $21,000. 

At an early hour in the morning of 
F( bruary 8th, the Royal Ojx'ra House, 
ou the south side of King street west, 

aljout half way between Bay and Yi>rk 
streets, was destroyed by fire. The 
flames wens first discovered about 5 
o'clm-k a.m., and by seven nothing re- 
mained of thp building but a few yards 
of Bmoke-blackened wall. The oftera house 
stood on the site of the old Royal Lyceum, 
destroyed by fire in January, 1874. A 
new building wiuj at once commenced, and 
opened to the public only nine months 
later, on September 14. 'lM>e cost of the 
Royal 0|M'ra House, when completed, was 
$(54,500. Additions had been made to the 
value of $8,400, nad the |>roiHM'ties, etc., 
brought the total value np to about $80,- 
000. The insurance was only for .$15,- 
500, consequently the lessee's loss was 
very licavy. 

About 5.30 p.m., on November 20th, tho 
woodenwaro factory of T. C. Brandon & 
Co., in the north part of the Central 
Prison yard, was found to bo on fire iu 
the rooms adjacent to the engine housi*. 
The firemen worked with a will, hut not 
until hours had elapsed were the flames 
under control. The loss was estimated at 
$40,000, of which $15,000 was (mi tho 
building, which belonged to the Goveru- 
m Mit. The latter were insured for $19,- 
000, Brandon & Co. for $G,000. 

The complete destruction by fire of 
Erskine Presbyterian Church, on the north 
side of Caor-Howell street, facing the 
end of Simc(K! street, occurred on the 
after;j<x>n of Sunday, January 20th, 1884. 
When the flames were *irst discovered the 
Sunday school had not been diftniissed, and 
it was only OM'iug to tho prostMice of 
mind displayed by the teachers that a 
panic was averted. However, everyone 
got out of the building safely, and none 
wore injured. The flames spri-ad rapidlj-, 
an<l by G o'clock of Erskine Churcli no- 
tliing but smouldering ruins remained. 

The pulpit, Bible, a few ciu^hions and 
the organ and piano lusod in the lecture 
room were saved, but the grand organ 
and the small one lused in tho Sunday 
school were destroyed. The Sunday school 
library contained over 1,000 volunios, 
which were all destroyed. 

Erskine church was opened for service 
on the third Sundav in September, 1878. 
It cost $29,000 and was able to seat 
950 people. It was built of white brick 
with cut stone facings in tho modern 
Gothic styles of architecture. On the 
south-east corner was a square tower 
135 feet high, which was a very promi- 
nent feature in tho scenery of tho neigh- 
bourhood. There were five entrances in 
the '4ont of tho building, so had the fire 
occurred during either morning or even- 
ing service the congregation could have 
both quickly and easily made its way 
into the street. There was insurance of 
$20,000 ou the building, couf+eciuently the 

J J 

' 1 




conKroRalioii were doiui able to build 
tlu'iiiMolvt'B another church. 

Tb« 'Jwtruction of Adaiunou & Chap- 
maa'ti graiu olevature on the £N])laun(Iu 
at the foot of Weet Market street occur- 
red at 7 o'clock on the eveniuR of Janu- 
ary 31. The fire broke out in Adanison'H 
bnildinp, which was at the extreme end 
of a loug wharf. Ou the we«t, and (juite 
cloNO to it, but on another wharf, stood 
Cbapnian'M elevator, while on the end of 
u wburf on the ea«t of it was L. Yorke'a 
steam stone works. The firemen worked 
hard, hopinj? to prevent the fire extend- 
ing to Cha])man'H, which it unfortunately 
did owing lo the water supply being in- 
sufficient and eventually reached Yorke's 
stone yard. 

Adanuiou's n,nd also Chapman's buiiUiugis 
were entirely destroyed. At the time of 
tlie fire the former contained 14b,UU0 
busheH of grain, of which 100,000 buHhels 
were of wheat, the rest being comiwsed 
of oatti, pcitfl and barley. In Chapman'* 
elevator about 25,000 busbels of grain 
were stored, valued at about $27,000. 
The grain in this building was princi- 
pally owned by a Mr. Sproule; that in 
Adamsou's by the following : A. V. Dela- 
porte, 40,000 bushels ; Taylor & Gates, 
86,000 buMhels ; Crane & Baird. 25,000 
bushels ; J. B. McKay & Co., 2,000 bush- 
els ; James GoodtUl, 4,000 bushels ; Mr. 
Slater, 2,000 bushels. 

The total losses in this fire reached 
^62,000, and the iueurances on build- 
ings, grain and plant generally only 
ampunted to $31,000. Mr. Adamson was 
the heaviest loser. Mr. Chapman waa 
wholly covered by iuxurauce. 

The sajue night a fire occurred at 98 
Luraley street, dcstroyiug the bakery of 
Mr. Hall and an adjacent stable. A 
horse stabled therein was burnt to death, 
and the bake house and its contents were 
wholly destroyed. The damage amount- 
ed to $3,500 ; partly covered by an in- 
surance policy for $1,200. 

The great eoap works at the Don of 
Morrison, Taylor & Co., of 77 Front 
street east, ou the north side, near West 
Market street, were found to be on fire 
on the evening of February 12th. The 
works were situated directly on the 
banks of the Don, ou the north side of 
Front, east of Beachell street. They were 
aibsolutely and entirely consumed. The 
loss exceetled $70,000. The amount of in- 
surance w»a a little over $40,000. 

Queen's Birthday was duly celebrated 
in Toronto in 1884, by none more dili- 
gently than the proprietors of the Daily 
Biaii, for they, not content with the fire- 
works provided by public caterers, had 
a bonfire all to themwlves. About 9.30 
a.m. fire was discovered in the pajjer 
room, in the basement of the building. 

inim('iliat''ly under the offices tenanti'd 
by the New York Axuurajice ComjKiuy, 
The flames met little to feed u|K>n until 
they reached the top flat, the northern 
portion of which was occupied by tli« 
Mail n« a corapa<<in£ room and the soiiih- 
ern portion by the Bell Telephone Cum- 
piiny. In the Teleirhone Company's pr<'- 
misea at the time wore six young women, 
who had some little difficulty »v*ntually 
in effecting their eticape fawm the burn- 
ing building. All were saved, though, 
and happily no accident either to life 
or limb was the result ol this fire. The 
damage done was principally in the pre- 
mises occupied by the Telephone Grmi- 
]>any. It was estimated at $20,000. and 
was fully covered by insurance. Mauy 
of those who occupied offices in the tfail 
building bad their property injured by 
water or smoke, but in a week's time 
those injuria were fully repaired. 

At 12.25 ou the morning of Monday, 
Aug. 3, 1885, one of the worst fires thut 
ever occurred in the history of Toronto 
broke out in the largo brick building ou 
the Esplanade, at the foot of Frederick 
street, known as the Grape Sugar Re- 
finery. In ten minutes from the time 
the alarm was gfven the whole of the 
grai)e sugar building was a mass of 
flames. The heat was intense, and it 
was impossible for the foremen to ap- 
proach the factory, and even if they 
could, all the water they could havo 
poured on the building would have been 
useless. The fire continued to spread, 
and in a few moments the schooner Annie 
Mulvey, lying in a slip alongside the fac- 
tory, was burned to the water's edge, 
William McCiiUum, one ol her crew, be- 
ing badly injured. Saulter's, Evans', S. 
R. Heakes' and Gunsell's boat houses were 
next destroyed. Elias Rogers' coal 
wharf with its piles of lumber, Poison 
& Co.'s engine and boiler works, the 
Currie boiler works, Williams' and Reu- 
nardson's boat house and Graham's ice 
house came next, and with them were 
burned the schooners Mary Ann and 
Madeline. Further west were Poison & 
Co.'s machine shops, Steele Bros.' stables, 
Adamson's plaster shop, Chapman & Co.'s 
buildiug« and Sylvester's elevators. These 
all perished. Besides these buildings the 
following vessels were destroyed; a list is 
given with their value : Steamer Mazep- 
pa, $9,000; steamer Annie Craig, $4,000; 
steamer Ontario, $8,000: steamer Ther- 
esa, $5,000; schooner Annie Mulvey, $4,- 
000; schooner Madeline, $1,000; yacht 
Minden, $500; yacht Veronica, $2,000; 
yacht Flight, $1,000; yacht New Yacht, 

The total loss was estimated at about 
$050,000, and the insurance, distributed 



ninoiiff tweut}--«i'von «llfIiTont cuuipanios, 
juiiouutod to $1S1,7S)<J. 

Aiiiuut; tlic' losL'rw were thi> following : 
Willluiu Pol«nn (V Co.t boilonnabevs, (60,- 
eUO ; J. It. liiuky k Co., cofti doclu, 9M0,- 
e<M) ; WilMou k ik>iiB, acalo workm $25,- 
(H)U ; Crnnc & Co., c«al dorlui, $0,000 ; 
Jhiih>h a. Warin. buntbouac, $6,000 ; £liaa 
lU^'Ta, conl wharf, $1,600 ; Saultera' 
boMtlioiMc. $1,000 ; ThoniM Ptwlc, luacbis- 
ust, $1.000 ; and mauy smaller ouea. 

with the machinery and stock. TIkto wna 
fortunately no Iohh of life or injury to 

Ou April 1, 1880, a seeond tiro broke 
out in the Mnii bnildine and ii^fain in 
that pnrt of it occupied by the Ilell T»le- 
phouc Company. The daimif;e done to the 
Mail Priutiiiff Couipiiny'fl property was 
under $15,000, but the Telephone Coui- 
pauy Hufteri'd to th« extent of $20,000. 
In both ca«08 the lodMea were fully cotit- 


V) •*^r*_ 



X F f\p**g N-^ T^ sr ^^ 




F-gPL AN AD E . ST^ 

I I i t 







The following numbers, corrcrtponding 
with thoee on the plan, nhow the principal 
wharrefl and elevators destroyed : 

1, Glucoae factory, where the fiio start- 
ed ; 2, vacant space, where the echooner 
Ann Mulvey was moored ; 3, Elias Rogers 
& Co.'8 wharf ; 4, Taylor's wharf and 
elevator : 5. Adamvson's wharf and cle- 
viitor ; 6, wharf and elevator, owned by 
Sylvester Bron. & Hickman ; 7, Church 
street wharf and Bailey & Co.'=) coal 

Henry Wort, the watchman in the 
6Ugar refinery, was unable to make his 
esciii)e from the building, and was burned 
to death. He was a pensioner, having 
served iu the 44th Regiment, both in the 
rhinese and Rnwsian wars. 

Another terrible fire occurred at Morri- 
son & Taylor's soap factory on the Don 
ou the night of December 8, whereby 
(liuuiigc was done to the extent of $42,- 
000. It ^vafi, though, more than covered 
by the amount of insurance carried. In 
less than an hour the buildins:, which had 
only been put up about two yoar-s pre- 
viously, wae all but destroyed, together 

cd by insurance. 

On May 22, for the third time In less 
than two years, fire again broke out in 
the Mail building. This time it wafi in the 
job printing department. The fire origi- 
nated in the rooms occupied by Alex- 
ander & Cable, lithographers, and from 
there worked its way downward to the 
composing room of the Mail job office, 
and beneath that to their job office and 
press room and upwards to the editorial 
floor, and still higher to the composing 
room of the MaiU 

The Mail's loss on this occasion was 
very severe, a great quantity of new 
type being destroyed, and Alexander «& 
Cable's loss was also severe, about $10,- 
000. In both cases the lasers were fully 
protected by the insurance carried. 

Firstbrook Bros, box factory, 273 King 

street east, on the south side, east of 

Berki^ey street, was, with its contents, 

entirely destroyed on the morning of 

I Friday, June 11. The loss exceeded $18,- 

j GOO, and the insurance on the faulory 

. and its contents was about $14,.^)00. 

A disastrous fire broke out about 3 

. ; 1 

: 1 




7f " '' 

■ ■il!' 

o'clo'k (I. in., (Ill Scpti'inlirr 24tli, in tin- 
jMcnii-^OH to till' rt'iir of DiivhlHon A: I[ii.v, 
wIk.Ii'niiIi' KrcK'crH nml liiiuor (Ii'iiIci'h, lUi 
Y<jH!;i' Htri'i't, on tin' wcMti'rn mIiIi' nurlli 
of Wi'llinjitoii ntncl. Tlio front liuildiiip; 
wnM not very m-rioiiHly injurnl, liut tlic 
pt(K'k \v(i8 to tilt' I'xti'nt of nitin.v tlion- 
piukIh of (lulliirN vai'ioiinly cHtiniiiti'iI in 
(iinonnt from $7r).(M)() to ijIOO.OiM). There 
WHH insuriinee to tin' extent of $71,000 in 
ten different c'lMiipauieN. 

The wlii.lcMili' <lru(!; /in<l cheniicnl wn re- 
house of i{. W. i:ili(jtt it Co.. y Front 
xtrci't enst, iilnif»ii <>n the snuthoiiKt cor- 
ner of Y(;n>j;e, wiis entirely destroyed very 
e/irly in the moininiJ!: of October 20tli. 
The fire liroko out nt ■'< o'ehiek ii. in.. 
11(1 liy five o'eloek it wjin under control, 
but tlie entire contenlw of the building; 
were u burniim: heiip of ruiiiN. The total 
loss was $71,s;i.'», iinil tlie insurance $70,- 
000. Two of tlie firemi'ii were injured, 
namely, .John Fallon of Court Htreet. who 
fell from the «i cond Htorey to the {ground, 
and Jaiiiew ./. Creit;liton of Yonge street, 
who was struck by a piece of falling lim- 
ber and had his arm dishK-ated. 

'i'lie Croiiipton Corset Compan.v, on tlie 
west side <>1 York street. No. ~><, waH de- 
Hlroyed liy fire on the aft''iiioon of Feb- 
ruary 5tli. 1NS7. Owing t<< the numlier 
of fr.'ime bniidiiigH in the imniediat;' 
vicinity, Rreat fearM were entertained of 
an extensive conl'lagration, but this 
happily was averted. The dam;ige done 
exceeded $11,000. The insurance was 
$57,Ot)0 on stock anil building. 

For tlie second time fire visited the 
factory of I^nib & Co., glue and black- 
ing I^allnfaetureI•.'^, nt the heiid of Siunach 
ntni't. on the morning of Sunday, .May 
20th, 18S8. The centiv- building contain- 
ing a large amount of macliinery for 
making Haiid-pa|H'r, blacking, etc., was 
entirely defitroyed, and great damage 
■was done to the Ktock. The total loss 
exceeded $.'jO,0((0, aii<l the amount of iii- 
»<uranco was only $12,000, less than half 
the amount of loss. 

Hewitt iV Harvey's box factory. <ni the 
north side of ISritain street, took fire 
('lK)rtly after luviii oa June r»t!i, and it 
Kj)read with such rapi<lity that in five 
minutes the entire buililing was envel- 
o|H>d in flames. In a few minutes the 
fire spread to Pease & Co.'a furnace fac- 
tory, 151 to 155, on tlie Poulli side of 
Quoeu street east. The firemeu worked 
well, but, despite their effort?, the fire 
8piead to Martin Bro^.' car>inge factory, 
adjoining I'ease iS: Co.'.s. Within half an 
hour tlii'.t building was destroyed, a*i well 
as one occupied by J. \V. Iline a»s a .lifirse 
shoeing shop. Pease & Co. had $20,000 
of stock on hand, half of which was de- 
stroyed. The loss was covered by insur- 
ance. The damage to the building owned 

by Taylor nros., of M'.st Market imil 
Coll)orne streetx. am< .iiited In about .'*2.- 
000. Martin I'.ros.' Ionh was $(1,OOU, i,:,d 
they were insuri'd for .f.'l.OUO. The buinl- 
ings, worth .$4.0(10, wi-re a hxH. 
Hewitt & liaivey'M Iohh amounted to 
about $5.0110, while that of J. \V. Ilii,,., 
who was not insuiod, reached !>J-0((. "Tii 
origin oF the fii'e is unknown." Thai was 
the re|H)rt ()f all the paix'rs on the next 

Yet another blaze oirnrred at the dn- 
tral Prison late in the night of August 
20, ISSS, when the paint anil store n ';u 
caught fire from "sonii' niiknown eaus^'," 
The building was a fiMiiie one, 100 % ."el, 
and was filled with highly iiiflammali! < 
material bi'loiiging to the Urandon .Mai.i;- 
factiiring Company. This burned fiercely 
and in les«i than half an hour the build- 
ing and its contents were a mass if 
ciiarreil and blackened ruins. The liran- 
don Company's loss was about .$12.oim( 
and the building was worth aboni .<1,. 
500. This was fully covered by the in.sur- 
a nee carried. 

Samuel, lienjamin I'i Co.'s wholesa'.e 

lijirdware t-tore. No. 5S Yonge str"i'l. ii;i 

its western side, just 'ouih of Mi'limla 

I street, was greatly damaged by fire ua 

j October 23. Great as was the harm iliiii- 

I by the Uami's, water, though, did miu'li 

I more, and when tlie danniges canii' to 

be assessed they reacle'd no less than 

i $75,000. The insuram*- c.irried, Ihounh, 

more than covered this. 

On Thursday, .lanuary IStli, ISSO, a 
ver.v bad bla/.e occurred at Messrs. t.\ui-.i- 
nean's store, 7 and King street eti!.', 
j on the south side, just e.ast of Yoii:i'. 
' The damage to the building was eov. r- 
I ed by a few humlred dollars, but t," 
I stock Avas almost ili'sti-oyeil by fii'', 
I water, smoke and cinders. The insni-aiiii' 
i carried, though, was more tlian sufficii'iit 
i to fiill.y cover the loss, which reaclu'd tin' 
i sum of $18,042, 

j The well known chair factory of Hess 
' & Co., situated on the west siiln m' 
Strachan avenue, chvse to \Vellinj.tMii 
avenue, was destrovi'il on the night ni 
Jlarch 20. ISSO. the factory stood on 
a triangular jiiece of land, the base if 
which rested on Strachan .■iveiiue, while 
on the south side ran the (l.T.K. t'-ack. 
On the north side wen- Iiiglis i\c Hunter's 
shops and the gronuils of the Central 
Prison. At the iioint of the triangle a 
railway track entered th" groumls so ns 
to ship the stoi-k more easily. Standirig 
there at the time the fire occurred weri' 
several box cars. Those caught fii'e ami 
were a total loss. With the exception 
of the engine house, the building wa.-< of 
wood. The engine .and boiler room w«6 
of brick, and stood at the easteri 
end of the buildinii'. A new engine cost- 


: i-i •• : 



lull $1,000 Iwiil only Ix'i'n pinciMl tlii'ic 
till' iii'fvioux iiiituiiiii <iiitl thU \\'i\H <>ii- 
tiri'ly Ui'U'royi'd iih /i iiintlt'r of rmirMi', 
Tilt' tin' broki' out iil '.t.20. uiiil liy 11 
(.V'loi'k tiicft' wiiH iiotliinm l''ft of the cii- 
tii-c lidililiiiK <niil it** ci'iiti'iitH Imt lilack- 
I'tii'tl wiiIIm and cliiirrcil tiiiilnTM. 'I'iif Ionh 
rciiclii'd $r»ri,2-|0, mill the insinnnci' .*4l',- 
,'(Mi. 'I'lif cMii>ti' of lliu fin- wiiM nt'vor 
cli'iirly iini'iTtainctl but Home tliou^lit il 

\\!{H tll<' D'HUlt of H|K>lltlini'OUrt ('ollll)ns- 


Till' loiiil iukI Colour woiks of A. <t. 
I'l'iu'lic'ii. on tin' noi'lli-\\('-<l I'oiiuT of 
I'r. nt iiu'l I'i'infi'Ms hit. i'in w;.h vi'I'v Ii. id- 
ly iiijuri'd ill till- liaN'iiicnt and firwt 
fliii'i'y I'y " Ii'"'' wliii'li liioi;i' out tlicri- 
1,11 tliV hL'lil of OctoliiT ."(111. IHSfh Miicli 
iiinn- daniaffi- though im'siiU.'<1 from wati'r 
iiiil lii-avy HH was tlu' Um^, nearly !iil">,- 
0(10, it sv.'ii* nii't l>y llic anuHint of iiriur- 


Another l)i(; fire l»i'ol;e ,iut mi the nipht 
(if Noveiiibei' 2'>tli ill what is known as 
till' Truth buildiiit;, on the south niile of 
Ailflaide, a little to the west of Bay 
stii'i't. 'Plit' vaiiouH o''eui>antH were : 
'[■|iilli I'ulilishinn ('oMipjiiiy, Auxiliary 
Publishing Company, Ladies' Joi' nal, S. 
F. iiiid C'. A. WilwHi, Orange ■ .uinol, 
J. .><. Williams, .1. T. iteid, \V. W. Wells, 
.losejih Mixire, Toionlo Paper I'.ox Coni- 
pany, Churt'hill iSc Co.. j' in.anufac- 
tuKTs; (}. T. Pendritli, iiiiK'liinist. and 
S. Crawford iSc Co., Htaiiipiiii;'. The Truth 
laiililiiig v.-as tlio lioiue of a numbei' of 
pulilisliing firms and other iiidustrleH. 
AnioiiK the fliiof HufferepH were 
Cliiiichill A: Co., .1. S. Williams, .Io,seph 
Moore and the Truth Piililishiiig Com- 
pany. The buihling was destroyed no 
far a-s thi' interior W;i8 foiu'erned at the 
liiK'k, but no great annniiit <if daniajJin 
was done in tlie front. The hv.a to the 
various (x'cupants of the premises ex- 
ceiiled !?l-t,OUU, which, most iortunately 
for them, was fully covered by the in- 
suranoo earrieil. 

Valentino's day, ISJiO, will ever be a 
UH'iiionible one in Toronto's history, for 
on tlu' evening of tli.-it day fire broke out 
ill the I'niversity building, in the (Queen's 
P.irk. which in a tow hours reduced 
that noble building to a heap of ruins. 
It was tlio day on which the annual con- 
vi'r.saziono was to bo hold, and many of 
the r<xmi« and corridors were gnily deco- 
ratod in honour of the event. The cause 
of the fii'o was the uiwi^tting of a lamj) 
in one rf the cori'idors ; it broke and the 
oil p.'iught fin', which sjiread with nmaz- 
iiig rapidity, l']) tho etairwaj- shot the 
flames, into tho reading rooms, into the 
library, to convocation hall, to tho 
Bonate chamber, nothing was spared. Tho 
fire broke out in the oast end of tho 
building, and only a portion of the eouth- 

western wii4i; wan i»»ved. " It wan a 
Had sight," "aid a pap-r of the time, 
"to dee the (iiioe liaiid.''ome building, the 
great Feat of learning for this proviur', 
a inuHN «>f coM. hard, cracked walU niid 
itnioking onibers, and many of the old 
HtuilentH, now proli'HHJoiial men in tiie 
city, turned nadly Ixiinewnrd after view- 
ing tho destruction oi lh<'ir belovett alma 

Tho library, with the exception of 100 
volumes savi'd by the as-istant 
Mr. r.nbner, cou'-isted of about U;'i.tM>i» 
books and wan an absuliite loss. Four 
large volumes •)f Auilulmii's birds of Amer- 
ica, of which there are only known to bo 
four other co| ies on this continent, wore 
ainoin;' tho volumes which perished. They 
were valued at .$l,.'»<>t», and the total 
value of the library was about $10u,(MM). 

Tho total lo-H ii'y the I'liiversity fire 
reached the appalling total of $.''.'>:•.. 7<M>, 
with no greater iiisuran<"e than .''il.'iO.dOO, 
Kecently one of the professors of "Varsity 
was asked to give some particulars of 
tho great fire. He declined, and (juoted 
for his reason a portion of the opening 
lines of tho second iMok of the .\oneid, 
''.lubes renovare delorum * * (iuao(iuo 
i|ise inisei'i'iiiia vidi." "'Thou onjoinest me 
to I'eiiew an unuttornble grief which I 
myself hiive witnessed (experiencedi. " 
.''Seldom has n wittier reply been given. 

Exa<'lly one week elapsed and another 
great fire o<'curred in tlu- city in the 
pii'iiiises o:'Cupieil by the (iendioii Manu- 
faeturiiig Coiiipiiny, on the south side of 
Wellington, just west <(f Y<iiigo sireet. Tho 
flames, driven by tho wind, extondeil to 
the oast, and gri'atly dainagi'il the pro- 
niise.s of White A: Potter, doaler.-J in lace 
and faiK'y goods. The fire originatotl iu 
the upper storoj' of (rendron's, and by 
the strenuous exertions of the firemen it 
was confiiiotl almost wholly to the storey 
in which il commenced, Tho d.-image done 
to the buildings roached about .$i"),tMK), 
to the slock about $4,01)0. The iiLsurancii 
was ample. 

A month elapsed, and again on a Fii- 
day, on March 21, a fire broke out in 
the iiremises of the lirush Corset Com- 
j)any, on Hie imrlh side of Adelaide, oast 
of Bay street. The fire began at a few 
minutes befoi'O 8 p.m. For a slnirt time 
it was feared that it would extend both 
east and west, but the firemen succeeded 
in confining its ravages to the ixiint 
where it bn)ke out. Tho k>8s, which was 
covered three times over by the insurance 
carried, amounted to $l.'l,itO!». 

Home mouths passed away, and once 
more on a Friday was there another 
big blaze, the lumber yard and planing 
mills of Scott & Cross, nn tho north side 
of Hayter street, together with two small 
cottages, being greatly danuigod by fire. 

I I 



I -Kl 







» I 

The amount of the loss wa« $16,102, and 
the iuauraaice only reuchftl $11,000. 

The premieos occiipiiHl by the Dominion 
Plate Glass Company, No. 7>1 Victoria 
street, on the oasti-ru side, were Heriounly 
daniairi'd by fire on the evening of Janu- 
ary i4, 1891. The loss reached nearly 
$12,000, more from water than the 
flames, though, and the insurance was 
$85,000. so n« far as the Glass Company 
was concerned the interruption caused to 
trade wsis the worst part of the 

Al-nit 10.30 on the night of April 0, 
ISUl, the piano factory of Ileintzman & 
Co., on the south side of King, just east 
of the liossin House, Goldstein & Co.'s 
cigar store, and Quinn's shirt warehouse 
were a.l greatly damaged by a fire 
which was supposed to have broken out 
on the iJriMuises of Goldstein & Co. The 
loss anioniited *n all to about $32,000, 
«ud each of the three firms whose pre- 
mises and stock were injured either by 
fire or water were fully protected bj' in- 
fiurance. .^ 

A. Dorenwend occupied No. 103 i'ongo 
street as a dealer Tn hair and faiicy 
goods, and had his place almost ruined 
by fire and wivter on the morning of May 
18. The premises were on the eastern si<le 
of the street, three or four doors south of 
Adelaide street, and when the fire broke 
out it was greatly feared the flames 
would extend to tlie adioiaing premises. 
They were checked in time, though the 
damage amoui-ted to more than $13,000 ; 
the iiusurauce was $20,000. 

The last day of 1801 witnessed a very 
bad fire at the carpet warehouse of J. G. 
Foster & Co., on the north side of Col- 
borue street, east of Leader Lane. The 
warehouse was not much injured, but the 
(Stock was to the extent of nearly $50,- 
000. The insurance carried was ample. 

The stables of the Verral Livery Com- 
pany, tn Gl York street, were destroyed 
on Janiiary 11th, 1802, by a fire which 
broke out there in the evening of that 
daj-. Not only were the stables destroy- 
ed, but of five horses, which were there 
at the time, three were burnt to death. 
The total loss readied $13,500 ; the iu- 
Burance exctH'ded $18,000. -jj» 

A large three-storey brick factory, on 
the north side of JUchmond, east of York 
Btreet. owned by William Kidd was, on 
the night of March 15, 1802, discovered 
to be in flames in the upi>er storey. The 
firenu'u worked with a will, but with 
all their exertions the stock of A. J. Gil- 
mour, cabinet maker, and Watts A: I\lc- 
Slahou, picture framers, was entirely de- 
stroyed. Those ttvo firms occupied the 
premises where the fire originated. In 
other parts of the ju'eniisi's the damage 
caused w.-i - :.iore from smoke than anj'- 
Lhiiig else, but there the harm was, no 

1 matter what the cause. The loss was 
I nearly $7,000, fully insured. 
I James Mcintosh's flour and feed store, 
109 Front street, east of Jarvis on the 
south side, was gutted in the early morn- 
ing of Sunday. April 10th. The damage 
reached $13,800, and the insurance 
slightly exceeded that amount. 

The seven-storey warehouse, part of 
which was occupied by James Skinner as 
a wholesale crockery dealer at GO Wel- 
lington street, on the north side, west of 
Mincing lane, wiis very badly injured by 
a fire that broke out on the evening of 
May I9th. The loss was variously esti- 
mated, but whatever it was— one paper 
puts it at $20,000— it was quite covered 
by insurance. 

The Morse Soap Company's factory, 531 
Front street, on the south side, east of 
lieachell street, was very badly damag- 
o«l by a fire taking place there on Aug. 
11th at 10 p.m. The loss was about 
$7,700, covered fortunately by insurance. 
The American liattau Company's big- 
factory on the south-east corner of Nia- 
gara and Tecumseth streets was dis- 
I covered to be in flames early in the 
: morning of August 20. By the hard work 
! of the fire brigade the flames did not ex- 
I tend further than the three upper floors, 
but a magnificent display of goods, which 
the company had prepared for the To- 
ronto Industrial Fair was entirely de- 
stroyed. The machinery, being in the 
ground floor, was uninjured. The loss 
exceeded $16,000. the insurance $21,000. 
A fire which broke out early in the 
morning of September 8, at Tushiugham 
& Sons, 102 Adelaide street, west of Shep- 
pard street, did damiige to the extent 
of $25,000. The owners of the building 
lost $10,000, and were not insured. W- 
P. Smith, wood turner; F. H. Boehler, 
tinsmith; Grant, bamboo manufacturer, 
lost $5,000, $3,000 and $3,000 respec- 
tively. The first of these was fully in- 
sured, the second only partly, and the 
third not at all. There were at least 
half a dozen other losers, varying in 
amount from $150 to $1,500. 

"The iiottest fiie in years." Such was 
the de,s<. 'irtion given of the great blaxe 
which occurred shortly after noon on 
Wednesday, December 14, 1892. The 
scene of the fire wiw a five-storey brick 
warehousa-.iu Pearl, immediately in rear 
of I'ay and King streets, owned by Geo. 
Proetor, of the Bay Tree IIc'^l, and oc- 
cupied by, in t^u> basement, Ayie.sliuiy 
Dairy Company; on the fii-st floor, .lohn 
M. French, oil and paint factory; Scliae- 
fei's cigar shojw on the second, and the 
American Watch Ciise Comjiany's pi-emises 
on the third. 

The building, erected in 18>i7. wa.s gut- 
ted, the tenants Using their entire slocirtf 

,1 «i> 



niul inachiacry, and as much damage wa« 
(loiip in an hour aa in auy fire that had 
visited Toronto for years. The loss was 
a»)oiit $30,000, the heaviest lioing that 
of the American Watch Company. The 
amount of insurance did not cover any 
(^iiiffle firm's loss. No less than thirteen 
ilil'fi'ieut iusurauce companies were af- 

Yet another fire occurred at the Cen- 
tral Prison on Saturdaj', March 4, lSi»;$, 
in a two storey brick workshop. The 
huildinsr was full of manufactured 
articles and contained much valuable 
iiinihinery. The premises were valued at 
11(1 hss than $25,000, the dani.Mjie done to 
them aniountinp to nearly $7,000. The 
loss on the contents of the buildiiip and 
on the expensive machinery was almost 
einiiil to the total value put ui)on both, 
$IS.000. The fire was "accidental," that 
is ii using defective pulleys that caused 
.sufficient friction to make tbi premises 
JKiiite could be coiusidered as exercising 
necessary care and judgment in protect- 
inj: the building. 

About 1) o'clock on the evening of April 
10, 1S94, the great blind factory of A. 
R. McKinley & Co., on the south side of 
iSt. Albau street, burst into flames, the 
Intter proceeding from one of the paint 
shojis. The building was a frame one to 
a jrreat extent and its contents were of 
the most inflammable nature. Great 
flames of fire shot high up into the air 
and the light could be seen |)tainly as far 
east as the Kingston Road. The loss 
amounted to almost $9,300 ; towards this 
the insurance policies held by the firu) 
reached $0,500, leaving fi net lose of $2,- 
800, bei^ides loss of trade and emi)loye8 
being thrown out of work. The cause of 
the fire waa attributf^d to spontaneous 

Sunday, April 16th, less than a week 
after the fire just recorded took place, 
saw another fearful fire in Toronto. Tt 
wns on the extensive premises of James 
Kohertson & Co., 265 to 283 King street, 
on its southern side, west of Dorset, and 
extending almost to John street. The 
firm were saw and lead mnuufaeturers, 
the place being known as th > Dominion 
works. The firemen, under I'lchard Ar- 
dngli, worked, as they always do, with 
unceasing energy, but, despite all their 
efforts, the building was all but destroy- 
ed, with the greater portion of its con- 
tents. The '.1*18 on the building and con- 
tents Was nearly $61), 000, happily for 
Messrs. Robertson, fully covered by in- 
surance. The cause of this fire was the 
same as that at McKinley's, sjioutaneous 

The stained gloss works of James Mc- 
Causland & Sou, at the back of 72 and 
76 King street, ou the uorth side, about 

150 yards to the west of Bay street, were 
badly damaged by a fire of incendiary 
origin on Monday, May 8th. The loss on 
building and contents was $14,500, and 
the insurance was $32,000. 

Holph, Smith k Co., the lithographers, 
of 51 Wellington, just west of Ray street, 
on the south side, suffered greatly by a 
fire which broke out in their sho{)s on 
Friday, August 25th. The cause was at- 
tributed, iu this case also, to spontaneous 
combustion. The damage done amounted 
to $10,945. Insured for $49,000. 

With only two exceptions the year 
1S94 wns free from any very disastrous 
lires. One broke out on .January 7th on 
the north sidi> of tjueen street, just west 
of Manning, No. 700, owned by the Laud 
Security Company and occupied as a 
clothing store by Mrs. Cohen, doing dam- 
age to tlie store of about $(iOO, fully in- 
sured, and to the stock $3,600. This lat- 
ter loss was exactly covered by the in- 
surance policy. Four days later another 
blaze took place at the United Service 
Clothing Comi)any'8 premises, 97 King 
street east, when the loss was $1,000. 
This fii-e was caused by the ignition of 
the Christmas decorations remaining iu 
the window. There M'as ample insurance. 

On Wednesday, February 7th, a small 
fire occurred at 89 King street east, oe- 
cuj)ied by Messrs, IL & C. I'lachford as 
a shoe store and by Mrs. Caswell and 
others as a dwelling. The damage done 
was abt>ut $700 in all. but Mrs. Caswell 
was severely burned iu escaping from 
the flames. 

Friday, May 11, witnessed the first big 
fire of the year, when the two storey 
frame factory owned by W. R-iinkin, ou 
the north-east corner of Duudas street and 
Sheridan avenue, occupied by the E. R. 
Ruriis' Jam Company was totally de- 
stroyed. The stoit's oi Mallou & Woods 
and John Pearson, closely adjacent, were 
also damaged, as waa McConnell's tavern. 
The UvsHes were: Rankin, $6,620; Burns, 
$2,000 ; the others $S2, $151 and $540 
respectively. In Rankin's c.-ise the insur- 
ance carried wii** only $3,310, in Burns' 
$1,500, so the loss of the former's was 
very heavy one. The rest were all fully 
protected. The cause of the fire was in- 

On the afternoon of Sunday, August 19, 
the premises occup.i-d by W. N. Ferguson, 
.1. IL Ames aud Joseph Bunker, on the 
north-east corner of Bay and Melinda 
streets, were completely gutted by a fire 
which occurred. The building waa a, 
roughcast frame one, belonging to John 
Goodhall, and the loss, $1,500, was just 
equalled by the insurance. Ferguson, 
Ames aud Hunker lost $700, $1,451 and 
$250 respectively. They were all three 
fully iuHured. 

f A- 







f'M I 

Mi V i 

The old 8inalI-poz Hospital, Broadview 
avenue, on the western side, adjoining 
Kivenside Park, owned by the city, was, 
by order of the Huthoritie^, destroyed by 
burning on Tuesday, September 25. 

The Becond great fire of the year oc- 
curred at 6 o'clock ou the morning of 
Sunday, October 28, in the three storey 
brick building owned and occupied by 
Withrow & Hillock, on the south-west 
corner of Queen and George streets. The 
building was gutted and damage done to 
the amount of nearly $7,000, though the 
insurance wa« ample, more than $12,700. 
The premises were occupied as planing 
mills, etc., and there was a large lum- 
ber yard in the rear. The fire, which was 
attributed to incendiarism, broke out in 
the moulding shop in rear of the main 
building. One of the firemen, Alfred 
Everist, driver of hose section, No. 5, was 
very badly injured by a falling beam, it 
being five weeks before he could return 
to duty. 

Two days later, at a paltry little blaze 
at the back of 75 Adelaide street west, 
the deputy chief of the brigade, Thomas 
Graham, was also injured by falling into 
a pit. He was laid by for some days. 

A fire, which did damage to the ex- 
tent of $4,500, occurred at 25 Front 
Btreet west on December 11. The premises 
were owned by Miss Staunton and occu- 
pied by Mclx-an & Co., shoe dealers, the 
Fringe and Tassel Company, Ciiarles Mit- 
chell & Co., and Cuthbertson & Co., both 
fancy goods dealers. Fire did far less 
harm tijan water, but except 4ihe Fringe 
Company, everyone wua fully insured. 

About 2.45 a. ni. on Sunday, January 
6th. 1895, Michael Mc(2uade, one of the 
Holmea Electric Protection Company^si 
watchmen, discovered fire in the pre- 
mises of the Globe, Yonge and Melinda 
streeta. He was making the round of the 
building when, on opening the door of 
the boiler room, he was met by a cloud 
of smoke. He immediately turned in an 
alarm, but before the reels arrived the 
flames had gathered such headway that 
in twenty niiuuten they had crawled 
from the basement to the roof, and the 
dome of the tower tumbled into the 

The first buildin,? to catch fire from the 
Globe conflagration was Hairy \\'tbl)'.s 
reislaurant on the iiorlh corner .i iMo- 
linda .-iiid Yonge, directly oppcwite. This 
lar^^e tlireo storey brick strueluri' was 
soon euvel(){)ed in flames. Tin- lirou^li 
Printing Company, on Jordan .stret-t, and 
Niehohis Itooney's wholesale dry goods 
houNo on Yonge street were the "next to 

In (piick .succession followed the To- 
ronto Lithographing Coinp;iny"s pn'- 
mises in the west end of the Globe build- 

ing. Jordan street proved so narrow as 
to be no barrier to the uU-devouriug ele- 
ment. Across it leaiwd, and the new ware- 
house of S. F. McKinnon Co., on the west 
side, was the next to go. 

In a few momenti^ after the outbreaJc 
of the fire the entire Globe building from 
cellar to roof was a maes of hissing, 
seething fire. The two elevator shafts 
on either side of the wooden stairway 
in the centre of the building made an 
excellent draught for the flames, and 
they were sucked up to every floor with 
instantaneous rapidity. As they ate up 
the woodwork the heavy machinery on 
the various floors soon broke them down, 
one after another, with a series of 
terrific crashes, until the entire contents 
of the building were hurled into the b.nse- 
ment in one inextricable and confused 
mass. The ro<}f then' fell upon the debris, 
and the weak walls of the structure were 
all that remained. 

Then the upi)er jjortiou of the wall on 
Melinda street bt>gan to cant outwards, 
and, in a moment, came tumbling to the 
street, throwing volumes of sparks high 
over the surrounding buildings. 

The Globe had two Bullock presses, 
eight type setting machines, weighing 
from 2,500 to 3,000 pounds each^ and a 
complete outfit for the conduct of a large 
newspaper. All this was lost, except 
records, which were recovered from the 

The Toronto Lithographing Company, 
which occupied two flats of this build- 
ing, lost a large stock of presscH. valu- 
able atones and all the tools, Hamples 
and engravings of its artists and work- 


The building was first occupied by the 
Globe in 1890, the improvements costing 
$70,000 and the entire building $90,000. 

The heavy wind di'ove the flnmefl acrwe 
u|K>n Harry Webb's restaurant, north-west 
corner of Yonge and Melinda. They soon 
ate iht'ir way through the vooi and found 
an easy prey in the interior, which, in a 
short space of time, was entirely consum- 
ed, with all its eilvenvare and valuable 

The veering wind caught a mass of flame 
and Ih'ut it down u|x)n the root of Nicholas 
Room-y'H dry gootls e.stabliehment, just 
south of and adjacent to the Globe builil- 
iuK'. The building wn.s filled with \ aluable 
and inl'lamijMible goods, and tliey ;-<if)n 
were eaten up in the general conflagra- 
tion. Not a vestige of the in^•ide of this 
building remained. 

Siniultiiueously with the ignition of 
Harry Wi-bb's restaurant, the lire com- 
munieitted to the IJrough Printing Com- 
I)au,v'8 I'.-tabli.shment, being comnninieatitl 
l>y blazing embers f.alling u|)on the rotif 
from the toi) of the Globe building. Groat 

• IF 




DESTKUCTION OK Till', <;|,!)B10 liUIKDlNd, S. W. (,0U. YONlJl'; AM) MELINDA KTS. — IS'.)"). 

J ."^il 

. !i I 




maases of brick and other building ma- 
terial kept tumbling on the doomed ware- 
house, and it was imixMsiblc to save it. 

In the burning of this latter building 
occurred aeerioufl incident, which nearly 
cost the lives of Firemen Smedley and For- 
«yth and from which Chief Ardagh cventu- 
aJly dlini. These three were going through 
to attack the lire from that side whoai 
the chief decided to go l>ack for a hose 
braaich, and they started dovk'n the ele- 
vator, only to meet flames' on the floor bc- 
Jow. I"brHyth rushed to the wuulow and 
dropped twenty-five feet to the lane. In 
ppite of hw severe injuries from cuts on 
his face and head, he immediately frought 
as-istanco for the chief and Smedley. who, 
he thought, were hemmed in by flames. 

The two latter men had run back to the 
third storey, and found thorn-delves at bay 
iu earneflt. The fire (torched their hair, 
beards and eyebrows, and they saw there 
was only one passible chance for life. 
Cliii'f Ardagh weighed 225 pounds, and 
forty feet is a big drop even for a feather- 
weight. They shook handi and said "Good- 
bye," then the chief dropped and Smedley 
followed him. The chances were greatly 
against them, but both of them wen; able 
to crawl to Wellington street, where the 
squad of men Foivyth had sent to relieve 
them found them sitting on the (steps of a 
w^a re house. 

The chief attempted to get up, and with 
difficulty did eo ; he was sent to his home 
ill 8horboume street iu a hack, while 
Smedley was removed to Ids residence on 
Nassau street. 

A sudden gu«t of the variable wind car- 
ried the fierce flames from the Globe 
building across Jordan street to the hand- 
some heven-atorey warehouse just erected 
by S. F. McKinnon Co. The lire struck it 
like a lightning bolt, piei-ced the roof, and 
in an incredibly short space of time the 
licking tongues had enwrapped the whole 
interior of the magnificent structure. 

The roof and v^indows fell in, and floors 
soon bent and went down with a cra«h, 
and small iwrtionts of the walls followed. 
Only three days earlier a valuable stock 
from the old stoi-e, valued at i?125,000, 
had been moved into this building. 

The rear of Michie & Co.s grocery store 
was damaged, a large plate glass window 
being broken, as well a« other windows in 
the establi-hment. 4bout $1,000 worth 
of teas were injured by water. 

All the buildings in the vicinity suffer- 
€'d ia the same way, eome being blackened 
and blistered. The iskylights of the Os- 
goodby building were cracked by the heat. 
When the aerial ladder was being put 
in position on Melinda street the order 
to erect it was countermanded. At five 
minutes paflt three o'clock, when the gang 
of mcu were removing it, the wall of the 

Globe building fcH, and two men were 
buried under it. 

The aerial ladder required eight men to 
work it, four on each side, and the four 
men on the south side of the truck, imme- 
diately next to the burning building, were 
llobert Bowrey, Robert Foster, John 
Brown and John Hart, of the Lombard 
street fire hall. Bowrey stood on the lad- 
der as it ro<e. He was armed with a pair 
of pliers to cut through the wires that 
hung iu a network along the front. Before 
the ladder had reached that altitude. 
Foreman Frank Smith realized that it 
was located in too hot a place for work 
and ordered it down again. This order 
was safely and successfully carried out 
and the squad were engaged in adjusting 
the ladders in a ship-shape manner ou 
their carriage, when the bricks began to 
fall from the roof above. The men 
on the north side of the truck were 
further from the building than the 
others, and when the firemen gave a 
shout of w-a ruing they succeeded in 
jmupinti: clear. The men on the other 
side attempted to go around the truck 
instead of diving under it. Before they 
got clear a large section of the wall 
tumbled upon part of the aerial ladder 
and imprisoned the four meiu Brown and 
Hart were thrown under tlie framework 
of the truck, which broke the fall of 
bricks and in all probability saved their 
lives. They were cut and bruised, but 
were still .ible to remain on duty. 

The other four men of the squad rushed 
to rescue their imprisoned comrades. 
Seldom— never— has there been done a 
tleed of greater daring in Toronto than 
was done then. The ruined wall still tot- 
tered above them and they took their 
lives in their hands. Did they hesitate ? 
Not they I Quickly their experienced 
hands cleared away enough of the debris 
to permit of getting at the men. 

Foster was next to Bowery ou the lad- 
der, and in addition to many bad cuts 
and bruises he had one leg broken in 
two places. Bowery was stream- 
ing with blood from many wouudfi, 
and groaned with anguish as hie 
comrades laid him tenderly ou the 
sidewalk. Both men were taken to the 
General Hospital, and at 10 minutes to 
6 o'clock Sunday morning Bowerj' died. 

Bowery would have been 2.5 years old 
on Jauuarj- 18th. In 1886 he was ap- 
l)ointed driver in the Lombard street 
hall and in 1390 he was appointed fire- 
man. He was engaged to be married. He 
leaves, besides a mother, three brothers 
a|ud a sister. 

Hi3 injuries conaisted of fractures of 
the left thigh and right forearm and 
severe wounds to the lace, scalp, left 
hand and left ankle. 



The fuueral took place from his former 
resid(!uce, 25-1: Parliament street, on Janu- 
ary 8th, to St. James' cemetery, at 3.30 

Just aa the fire iu the Mt'Kimion block 
was getting nicely under way, when sev- 
eral of the brigade were playing on the 
Jordan street end of the Globe building, 
a stone fell from the cornice and struck 
lleiuy Saunders, of No. 2 hook nnd ladder. 

Examination showed that he had sus- 
tained a bad sma^jhing of the bones of 
the left log and ankle. He was put under 
cliloroform to reduce the fracture, and it 
is pleasing to say eventually recovered. 

The folIoAvLug is a list of losses an.d 
insurance : 

Loss Insurance 

Globe Printing Co $140,000 $ 94,150 

Toronto Litho. Co 120,0<.)0 (15,000 

N. Roonev, dry goods.. . 60,000 55,000 

S. V. McKi'nnon, millinery 2'20,(XK) 120,000 

Urough Printing Co 24,(X»0 13,500 

flarry Webb, estaurant 17,000 21,000 

A. Manning, unilding. .. 10,000 20,000 

Dr. Abbott, building 2,500 4,000 

Millar *; Richard, type.. 1,000 30,000 

Haworth Belting Co 25,000 25,000 

Michie & Co., grocers. . . 1,000 in full 

Benham Silver Co 700 iu full 

Smaller firms, say 5,000 in fall 

.S7 15,200 .$494,S."')0 

Chief Richard Ardagh died on January 
27th from the effect of his in^irie.s. Au 
account of his funeral is given in the 
preceding chai)ter. 

At 7 o'clock on the evening of January 
10th, the caretaker of the Osgtxidby 
building, on MeliniLa street, was sitting 
talking to Annie Thompson, wlio was 
nursing his wife, a sufferer from heart 
diuease. The first indication of tire that 
he noticed w:ls a thin line of smoke that 
came into the room through the crevices 
around the door. 

Out he went into the corridor, but the 
smoke drove him back, half suffocated. 
Again he tried it and succeeded in reach- 
ing the elevator which he eudeavouted 
to raise, but which did not seem to work 
right. Slowly he gropt»d his way back 
to his apartments, realizing that all 
escafK! M'as cut off from the interior ways 
of egress. 

lie and the nurse took the sick woman 
out of bed and all three climbed fnit on 
the window sill and shouted fire. 

Private Nightwatchmnn Jnmes Cham- 
bers was closing au o[)en door in a lane 
just across Melinda street. Tiie scri>am8 
attracted liifl attention and he I'an out 
into the street and saw flames flashing 
fnnn the top storey of the (Jsgnodby 
building. He ran immediately to box i'2 

on Bay street and turned in the alarm, 
and in a few minutes the reels began 

Thousands of people were on their way 
liome from business when the great con- 
flagration its fearful reflection into 
the ekies. It waa only a matter of a 
few minutes till tlie crowds blocked the 
streets in every direction. 

Caretaker Caven left the window sill 
and went and shut the door of the room 
to keep back the emoko. Then he appear- 
ed again at the window. 

There was uo fire esca|)e in the build- 
iug, and the only way out wa.s the one 
they chose. 

The two women were terribly fright- 
ened, and it was with much trouble tliey 
were prevailed uixjn not to cast them- 
selves into the street. 

The life-saving net came from the 1/om- 
bard street hall, and hundreds of willing 
handa held it under the window. 

Mrs. Caven leaped into mitl-air, and 
fell uix)n the network of wires that 
stretched their icy length below her. 
There she hung for perhaps ten seconds 
before she fell into the net, turning over 
and over. 

Wrapixnl in a rug she was carried into 
the Ci'own Hotel and laid on the billiard 
table, where Ur. Garratt wa** called, and 
she was taken in the ambulance to St. 
Michael's Hospital. 

The great crowd held their breath as 
the form of the invalid came whirling 
down, and more than one of the men 
who were grasping the net said he turn- 
ed eick at heart and was afraid to <,)peu 
his eyes when the woman stinick the net. 
The sight of those three iwople away up 
there with the building in flames and the 
clouds of black, thick smoke swirling and 
sweeping all about them was one that 
8tam|»ed itself indelibly on the minds of 
the thousands who watciied with their 
he.'irts in their mouths. 

Silence like death fell ou th<: crowd 
as the woman jumpi'd, and many a silent 
prayer went up from the hearts (if the 
great multitude, whose strong sympathy 
held them spell-bound. 

In watching the perilous descent of 
their companion, Caveji and Miss Thomit- 
son had forgotten their own <lanu;.'!-. As 
soon as their attention turned again to 
themselves they fountl the furniture in 
the loom behiml them blazing. Somet 
electric wires ran ui> the front of the 
building and over the roof to supply 
l)ower in a ii'oom on the third flat. These 
wires ran clo8(> to the right of the win- 
dow. Miss ThomiJBon reached out, grnsi)- 
ed th(!m and swung herself boldly out 
into them. Again the liuge crowd held 
its breath, awestruck and horrified, ns 
they cxjA'Ctcd to ecu the wires torn from 

^ ^1 





thpir frail fa«teningB and the woman 
hurled into the street, ievcrity feet be- 
low her. 

Her grnap was not very firm, but ehe 
■lid down rapidlj to the eecond storey, 
where she tried to follow th«m along the 

alide down the wires, and she was suffer- 
ing from a severe nervous shock. Caven 
followed her immediately, and also buc- 
ceeded in reaching terra firma. 

Up the elevator shaft went the flames, 
and in an inconceivably short space ol 


borizoT, :i' roping -.vbicli Mrs. Cavon just 

grn;.. n Hho f""!! from the wires a few 

mo * ^ Her strength gave out, 

ail ' • ;p;.(>d into the net. Ilcr h.nudfi 

wei ■- a 1 bleeding from her rapid 

time the structure was a furnace of fiery 
red from cellar to roof. The wind veered 
nnd changed about, and the direction o! 
thi' fire waa uncertain. At one time Me- 
Conkey'a rcKtauraut was in danger, and 




the firomcn played two atreams of water 
OD the Melioda street face of the building. 
A sudden change of the wind to the uorth- 
©flirt decided the location where the light- 
ing was to be done. 

Clouds «rf sparks and coals of firo flew 
in Mazing sheet? orcr into the crowd that 
jammed Wellington street, and by eight 
o'cloclc people were beginning to find that 
location uncomfortable and trying to get 
around to the east side of the fire. 

From Molinda street a dozen utrearas 
were turned into the OHgoodhy building. 
Three lines were carried over the Crown 
Hotel, .ind from the roof of The Telegram 
trtorenoom cm Melimla street the firemen 
succeeded in saviiug the houses on the west 
side of the burning structure. 

At 7.30 part of the western wall of the 
new McKiunon warehouse fell into the 
premises of Park Bros. 

Every crn«h sent columns of smoke, dust 
and tspark,-* high in the air. The noise of 
the great fire and the shouts that rose 
ever and nnon from the crowd made a 
queer combination. Through it the fire- 
men worked away quietly but pcrelst- 

Half an hour after the fire l)egan the 
flames leaped to the roof of the ware- 
house at 30 Wellingtcm west, occupied by 
Thomas Dunnett iV: Co., furrieiv, and there 
the fire *ipre;id so rapidly that almost be- 
fore the streams were turned into it it 
was doomed. 

The (iceue during the fire wa;-( some- 
thiuK to 1k> remembered. Blocks away the 
crackle of the flames, the cra.sli of the 
fallinii; flnor-s and the cheers of the excit- 
t;(l crowd could be heard. The reflected 
l^lare lighted up the business portion of 
the city with aii intensity almost of day- 

The fire fiend seemed triumphant, and 
the crowd seemed at tunes to be over- 
awed and sensible of it.s own iKjwerless- 
Ui>ss a.s it watched the huge piles of flame 
that threatened destruction far and wide. 
The great pillars of nmoke struggled up 
into the air, and were beattli back by the 
fifice wind. The fiery koplioles that the 
windows opened into the •wildron of flame, 
(ind the I'ed and white tongues of fire 
that swept acros.s the streets and played 
nml nickered .arount^ the tops of nearby 
buiNinn'.-i were very teri-ible. The air wa« 
heavy with the heat, and the careering 
C()mbu.stiblefi that flashed fairy trails 
through the air were like the Faust Biock- 
cn wenes on an immense scale. 

The pcene, a« it appeared from the 
upper windows of the Merchants' I'.ank 
building was appalling. The location of 
The e«^utre of excitemeu* tad removed it- 
self to 'Wellington .street by eight o'clock. 

At nine o'clock the rush of the crowd 

was awful. Athletic six-footers were lift- 
ed off their feet and carried about like 
children in the pushing yet good naturcd 

The flames flashed across from the burn- 
ing warehouses to the roof of Runtin, 
Reid & Co.'s ewtablishment, and when the 
top of that got fairly started they some- 
times formed an arch completely over the 
street. Underneath the firemen worked 
silently and steadily. 

On the top of tiie Kilgour building was 
a s(|uad of men, but no water could he 
gotten, and their presence there was of 
no avail. 

Fi-oni Jordan slre(>t east there Avns a 
mass of wet. steaming huniiuiity, that 
gazed with upturned faces, that th" fire 
lighted with a toucli of colour, at the 
corridor of fire whicli the street pre- 
sented to the west. 

It is a wonder that no one was seri- 
ously hurt in the crush. Grand & Toy 
had rigs carrying away goods from their 
store, and ev^ery time they drove into 
the <;rowd there would be a stamiiedc' 
to get ont of the way of the horses. 

A |K>lice cordon was driitwu across Wel- 
lingt(»n, and the officers ever and again 
beat back the multitude that shoved 
against them, and threatened to surround 
the ambulance, wliieh stood in readinesa. 

■Not more than half an hoxir after the 
fire Wfus discovered great tongues of 
fln.nie burst from the roof of the Osgoodby 
building to that of Major Oirlaw's ware- 
house, 30 Wellington street, occupied by 
Thomas Dunnett & Co., dealers in furs. 
In an inconceivably short space of time 
this five-storey building was a seething 
mass of fire, and rapidly went down into 

iieaching o\it for more food, the de- 
vouring flames wrapped theni-^elves about 
the next building west, oecupied by Bois- 
seau & Co,, clothiers, antl owned by the 
Snarr estate. This and the Dunnett i)uild- 
ing were joined in a terrific mass of 
fire, that sent out volumes of smoke 
and s|)arks, and Jui intensity of lieat that 
drove the firemen back from the placo^ 
Many of them had narrow escapes from 
falling walls and tinil)crs and crashing 
glass and signs. 

The next outbreak was to a building 
used 1)3" Robert Darlin,j; & Co, Jind Ray, 
Rennie & Co,, .also owned by the Snarr 
estate, wholesale woollen dealers. The 
fL'unes at once permeated the entire 
.structure and ate up everything in it. 
The walls separating these buildings 
came down with a terrific cra-sh, send- 
in/ immense vf^aaies of sparks skywards 
find again endangering the lives of the 
firemen. The next building seized wafl 
that of B. II. Gray & Co,, manufactUrera 











of wliitfwure. Stculthily, llku uumu duiiiou 
beut oil a terrible vonj^euuce, the I'iru 
ate its wuy i^aHtward until it forcod an 
entruuco uud eoiiceiitratinfj; its oui'ifry 
withiu the walls gathered forw and I'ur.v 
Butil suddeuly it burwt from the rtiol" in 
tremeudoiw sheets that lit ui» the heiiveuH 
with a fiery i^low that inaili- the H\yn(i- 
tucle as awlul a^ it was ma gull ic ut. 

The Ktrejiiius of water were entirely iu- 
ade(iuiite to reju^h tiie ui>{K'r Ht<jrio8 and 
the fire hud everythiuf? its own way. It 
rapidly Hpre.-id to the CortieoUi and other 
enialler buildiiif^H. The union of the fires 
from all of which juado wiiat wu« 
before terrifie .simply indescribable. 
Grent niuiises of sparks, enitx'rs, volumes 
of thick bliiek Ninoke, all jnerced by the 
blood red Viri', went .shootiiivJ out in all 
directioiu* nnd it wjus seen that that por- 
tion of the linriiiufr prujjerty wiuj hope- 
lessly d(K)ni('d. The firemen next gave 
their undivided attention to the south 
Bide of Wellint^lou street. 

So intense (jeciune the heat as the 
flames spread .south across Wellington/ 
Btreet that tiie galvanized iron cornice of 
Hart & Uiddell's melted and fell, the 
ro<jf ignited and the building was doom- 
ed. Firemen who had Imm'ii manfully 
fighting the flames on the north side 
were immediately ordered to the south 
side. Streams were kept on lUmtin. Held 
& Co.'.s, as well as Hart ic Kiddi'll's 
warehouse, 'flic flames leaped out of the 
upper windows of the latter' 
and met tliost' from the iiortli side, form- 
ing au arch of flame. I' was a. magni- 
ficent si>eutacle. Thous luls stood awed, 
beholding the scene. The eouflagrit^tiou 
was now .at its height. Several sections 
of hose were now carried to the roofs 
of adjoining huilding.s. Tlu; eastern half 
of the Buntiu, lieid building, occupied by 
Buntin, Reid iV: (.b., it seemed impo.'vsil)le 
to save, but betwe(Mi ihe two there was 
a wall 24 inches thick, and it resisted 
the onslaught to the last. Shortly before 
this J. D. lionald's ste;iin fire (Migine was 
brought down I>ay street amid <'lu'ers of 
the crowd. It was stationed near Wyld, 
Gra.sett & Darling's warehouse e.nd a 
line of hose was imiiiedia tel y eai'ried to 
the building's top. From tills point of 
vantage the fire in Hart ife Uiddell's was 
Bubdued ijv 10. HO. The large ]>late glass 
windows on llii' Wellington street front 
of Wyld, (Irasi'tt ifc Darling's were 
craeked. All the iiartners in' the liriii were 
early at the scene and ;us.sistid by em- 
ployes spread Wkt blankets across the 
broken windows. Wet lilaiikeis were also 
iised by employes of W. K. I'.roek. 

While William Cr.awford, a fireman of 
the ISei'keley street hall, was carrying 
hose ujwtairs in the Cra.v building Ik- 
Blipped and fell 15 feet. He was picked 

up greatly stunned ; tho ambulance wa« 
called, and he wan taken to the General 
Hoapital. When the doctors examined 
him, it was found that hia back was 
hurt ojid that he bad Bustained other in- 

-Vrthur Robinson, connected with the 

! Yorkville ho»e, had his hand and wrist 

badly sprained while breaking into the 

Kilgonr building. He was using the noa- 

zle of the hose in his baud at the time. 

The load's sustjiined by the different 
parties and the amount of insurance aar- 
ried arc given below, and may be con- 
sidered fairly accurate : — 

Loss Insurance 
J. VV. Woods, owner Os- 

goodby building $ .5.5,(»00 $25,000 

J. y. Reid, building... 25,000 .'Jo.OOO 

Hart & Riddell ;i5,000 2.5,0< K) 

Ray, Rennie & Co 100,000 OO.tXIO 

Buntin, Reid & Co 10,000 40,000 

Hunter, Rose & Co 500 covered 

R. H. Gray, building.. .30,000 I2,5UO 

do stock .50,000 .'W.OOO 

Thos. Dunnett 50,000 .")O,00O 

Major Carlaw, building ;J0,000 20,000 
Wyhl , ( ; nisett & Darling 500 

K. Roisseau 00,000 .W.OOO 

(). H. Wilson 5^0 covered 

Rbt. Darling & Co, stock 75,000 tiO,000 
do building 15,000 10,000 

Cohen Bros S,000 5,100 

< !. T. ( ioirie 3,000 1,000 

Merchants Cotton Co., 

Montreal 18,000 S,000 

Vannouth, Duck & Yarn 

Co 22,000 15,000 

J. E. Knox, ])ersonal . . 1,500 

Brereton & Manning... 40,000 

Siemens & Kvel 15,000 

W. L. Haekev 10,000 

W. S. Johnson 15,000 

Union Card & I'aper Co, 

Montreal 10,000 

J.H. Scconibe, saddlery, 

hardwai'c 4,000 

Bastedo & Co., furs. . . . 4,000 

Snarr estate .35,000 

Corticelli Silk Co 1 ,000 










.'?72.3,on(i .•<r,:;-_>.5oo 

It is a. curious fact that nearly alw.aya 
such occurrences <ro in threes, and Sun- 
day morning was again the scene of a, 
great conflagratixjii in the business jior- 
tion of the tiueeii Citv. 

At 12.30 a.m. Sunday. March 10, Wni. 
Farley, the watchman in Robert Sinij)- 
.son"s iinniensi> new sture on the south- 
west corner of Yonge and Queen streeta, 
ha<l just atteniled tf> his funuieos, and 
ciime out througli the manliolo in the 
pavement. .Mexaniler XL'Ki'e is a Holmes 



Electric Protection Company watclimau, 
and he had just turned in a Hif;niil to 
his office from a box at P. JaniifsouB 
store, oil the north side of tho Htrtvt, anil 
crossed over to apeak to Farley. Th<'y had 
just spoken whi'u they heard tlic noisi* 
of crackiiiff BlaH!», to whicli they paid 
no attention at first. As it contiiiiKMl. 
they thought it Ava-s Homo one breaking 
windows in Knox Presbyterian church, 
and climbed over the fence to see if tliey 

Only too well the firemen feared that ati 
nlariu from No. 32 meant nomcthinfl 
nerious, and they were strainiug every 

Farley entered the coal hole, nud ran 
out 60 feet of the hoae from oni> of tho 
attachments that were located all over 
the building, lie could .secure no water 
fjower, and tiie fire, eating along tlie 
leiling. drove him back into the street. 

The alarm reached headquarters at 

f' i 


could find anyone. From there they 
saw tho flames coming out through the 
basement windows in the south-west end 
of Simpson's building. 

P. C. Hoberts, of No. 2 division, w;>s 
pas.siug, and MoKee shouted to him to 
pull an alarm. In a moniout the signal 
went in from bo.x: 32. Fire bells rang 
all over the city, and wpary s'hopkeei>- 
trs, who had just got nicely into bed, 
wei-e awakened by the clang of the reels 
and the »wift gallop of the I'lyiug hoi-sea. 

12.33. Tho Lombard street si'i'tion, with, 
I'cputy Chief Tliomi>sou and Aaaiatant 
Villier.s, was first on the neeue. Bay 
street, Berkeley street, Wilton avenue, 
Queen street and Yonge street were the 
next in, and in lc«w than six minutes 
four stream*! of water were being poui'eij 
into the basement. Through the Queem 
street door an entrance W!is effected, ami 
the deputy chief issued onleis to flood 
the first floor. The streajus of water 
directed into the basement were rapidly 



getting tho best of tho flamfw, whtm thoy 
raaulv!'! tlu' olovator Hhaft, luul tho builtl- 
ing wii« dooiiiod. Up the firo wont liko 
lightning, and Hpread itself over tho third 
and fourth Htoreyn, BontliiiR wirkcd-look- 
ing tonguca out through tho Avost win- 
dowH. At 12.41 tlie goiioral iilarni \vii« 
eent in, and iu five minutes tho whole 
grojit structure wan a nia«H of flninOH, 
shedding a luriil glare from every win- 
dow. Tho «outli-wo«t wind drove tho fire 
out toward Queou and Yonge etreefc^. and 
the gale that was blowing was fieix'e 
enough, had it boon from tl>e nortii. to 
have dofltroyod the wliole block. Ciiii'f 
Grnlliam thought that the building Avas 
a riaii<?o|n>us place to fight fire in, 
and when tii(> lyoinbard .street men were 
driven hack from tiie Queen fVri'ot side 
he would not /illow amy more of his men 
to cuter the building. Tiiree lines of hose 
"were laid in by way of tlie Knox ciiureli 
grouuds. and another was carried in 
through the Christian Institute from Uieli- 
jiKNid wtroet, and helped th(> wind to sav<i 
the building.^ to the south. 

The big seven-storey ■vvaroliouse was 
filled with dry goods of all kinds, wliidi 
"were like tiiulor to tho .•4ii.v;»gi^ fire tliat 
raged from ••eilar to attic. Tiu' iiurri- 
caoje tore away blazing shingles and 
pieces of timber, and sent them flying 
away over toward Victoria, lloinl anil 
MHitual .«tieets upon the roofs of the 
hoiv^es, where they started many an in- 
cipient fire. 

Many were tho families that orgauizedi 
bucket brigades and dashed water upon 
cornices a-nd roofs that began to blaze. 
Tho gale kept growing strniicor and 
stronger, and tho ;iir was filled with 
UiyriaiLs of fk'ry-rcd cinders, that sailed 
like littlo nK>lten boa.t.s in great Hheets 
out over the city that lay silent beneath 

Whirling and dashing through the mid- 
night air, on the wings of the .sou'-wester, 
those showers of flame were meteoric 
ine«-;engora of the dostvuction that tho 
fire-fiend WcO* warring gleefully, and peo- 
ple beg.'vn to bo ai)prehenKive that Queeu 
and Yonge streets would not be the only 
(scene of i"uiu. 

Crowds of spectators had by this time 
arrived on the scene, and for block-s iiround 
the streets were jammed with excited 
peopl(>. Men who resided anywhere near 
were getting their Lares and Penates into 
ehafie for immediate removal to t^ome place 
♦f safety. Women with apron's over their 
head« iuid children in their arms wore 
almost in hysterics as they ran about 
giving tho alarm. StorekeoiRM-s in tlie im- 
mediate neighbourhood were in a state of 
wild terror and did some very ludicroiiH 
thinga iu theii* endeavour to save their 

property. People wore running with thoir 
iH'dcIothos in Iheir arms and their port- 
able valuablofl jammed into their pocliets. 
One man was «een running with a bar- 
ber's chair on h'w back. 

Tho whole interior of the big Simpson 
building had by this time become Himply 
one great caldron of flame. The am^e 
burst up through the roof and went sail- 
ing away to the eastward over the city. 
Flames were leaping in demoniac glee 
around the windows and out of every 
opening. Through the amoke and flame 
the steel columiw and girdera could be 
seen outlined in bright red. Twi«ting and 
s(iuirming nnd knotting themselves to- 
gether like live creaturea, they pulled the 
whole structure to pieces. ITio floors had 
given way and crashed into the cellar. 
The columns bt>gan to collapee, tho roftf 
went through, and then the brick pier« 
upon which the main weight of the build- 
ing was carried came down in sections 
of ;i storey at a time carrying away the 
pillars and girders in their fall. The fear- 
ful heat drove tho firemen out of Queen 
street, and they had to change their 
modus operandi. Uerkeley street coupled 
to a hydrant iu trout of tke Imperial 
Itank, and carried their line in through 
th" Treniont House and up on to the roof. 
Wiltou avenue brigade laid their hose 
Iroiu the same hydraait to the roof of 
.Milne iS: Co.'s hardware eatablishraeut, and 
they prei)ared to fight any extension of 
tho fire in that direction. The demon-like 
flanuw had wrapjjod themselves around 
the whole of the departmentJil store like 
the red mantle of Mephisto, and they leap- 
ed and writhed and shot out great clutch- 
ing arni.s liiat tscemod to reach e.ovotou«ly 
I'oi- the neighbouring buildings. Grim and 
gaunt f<t(wd tho tall Hjurc of old Knox 
cliureh in Calvini-stic storunefrs, as it loom- 
ed up its length beside the sea of fire 
tliiit raged beside it. Great (sections of 
flame swept across the streets, and then 
drew back like a sortie repulsed by the 
lH'«iegert^. The scene at the height of the 
fire was awful. The Wood red hue ol 
the flames communieated itself to every- 
thing that came beneath their glare. 
Thick smoke rolled away up into the gale 
and the «parks that sailed away chi er- 
nuuls of niicliief filled the air. Every 
moment great Boctionn of the Simpson 
building came down with a oraeh that 
eent Hhowera of embcrB flying out aerops 
tho street and drove a cloud of du»t and 
T)owdery del)ria up into the air. 'Die 
liigh wind howled and the flames crack- 
led and roared. Men shouted, and the 
crowd cowered in fear almost before iho 
terrible sight. It was, indeed, some- 
thing one could never forget. Fire i)os- 
eeisses a .fearful fascination for almost 


CTeryonp, nnd tho ffiKht of the crowd of 
upturnp*! faco«, every one brought into 
bold nnd vivid rolit'f by the nlmoHt bliiwl- 
Ing re<l Rliire, wna wonderful. The dc- 
votiriiiR clement dwept along with a ter- 
rihln celerity and an exhibition of power 
that wn« grand. The flamef< Rpcmed to 
plory in their triumph, and to be aware 
of tho inability of their i'i;my Ioub to cope 
with them micec«Bfully. 

A moment they m-emed to panne and 
gather toRethor for a nupa-eme effort. 
Then there whoit ffliit a blaHt of fire that 
flwept the Trcmont House into itn helliah 
embrace and enveloped it in dentruction. 
Three firemen were on the roof, but their 
hose wan luelenn after the fall of the 
ea«t wall of SimpHon's, and they wer« 
in a porilouB pfwitinn indeed. The pitchy 
emoke that poured across almoNt choked 


The cast wall of Simiisoii'H coUaiwed 
into Yongc etroct, and the pile of timbers, 
bricks and pillars falling upon the hose 
cut off the water supply. Then the east 
Bido of Yonge street was exposed to the 
full fury of tho flame*! that had before 
eiirgt'd beliiud the barriers of this wall. 

them and nearly drove them to jump to 
escape suffocation. Ladders were hur- 
ried in from tlio lam; by way of the 
stable cntranoe, and run up against the 
two-storey extension over the dining 
room behind the hoteL From the toi> of 
the extension another ladder was shoved 





up t«> till! nxjf u( tlii^ iiiaiii buildiiiKi o'l'l 
the tlirL'f men iiiadi' all wpcod to ti'irii 

SiiniiltaiieouHly with tlio Trciiioiit Hoiihc 
till! Iiiirdwaiu cMtiibliHlinK'nt of .loliii 
Millie A Co., till' Kt'iitM* fiiriiiHliiii^ Htorc 
of Duiil'icld & Co., MiKiMliniiVH barber 
b1io|i, C. M. IleiidiTHoii'M aiiutidU store, and 
the Iin|HM'ial liank bcK'ni to liliixe in tlie 
upiH'p BtoroyB. lOver.vone eseaped from 
the Trernont llonse, and tlie bank nflifialH 
removed all tlieir b<K)k.s to tlie liead 

Spectatoi-B lii>(i;an to tliiiik that tlii> bijr 
bbicli, including tlie Confederation I-il'e 
BiiililiiiK, would .'ill ^,'<>, but it was not 
to be. Then the fire leap<'<l to the iioitli 
side of (^ueen street, wewt of Yi)nK<', and 
attacked the .laiiiienon block, erossinK 
Hliortly afterward to the luirlli-eaHl cor- 
ner, and wtartinK into tiie r<Mif and \i|i|K'r 
fitore.vM. 'riiiMi people f!;!'e\v ci-rtain that 
there would be no po.'^sibility of Mtoppin.B 
it until it burned ittR-lf out. A lia:'d figlil 
UKaiiist the attackinjj field did the Janiie- 
Moii block make. Nearly aipiai'ter of an 
hour till! hot breath of the fii-e de \oii 
seared and Hcarred its paint, and the hoi 
glare I'eddened its walls. Tiie 8truc- 
ture fiiirly miioked, and yet ii<> actual 
fire bloke out. 'I'lieii there came a swift, 
Hudden of I la me from a. tiiird-Htorey 
window on the mouIIi side, and in a few 
uiinutes the building looked as tiiouwli 
it had been burniiiu,' iiisiih- for lioui's. and 
only iust then the flames lia.d forced their 
way inlo vi(!w. The flame curved and 
caracoled about the block, ami jiwejit in 
and out of the windows like devils jday- 
luij ;it The smoke liuni; 
its black pall over tie) roof, and the 
fire leajK'd out and drove its myriad 
forked toiigucH up through the murky 
cloud that Bwirli'd above. The fire had 
uow obtained a [iKjld on each of the four 
corners, and the thought of possible ulti- 
mate cousetiuenees was appalling. The 
tiremen worked nobly, handicapped i\e 
they were, and a little after two o'clock 
they wore brought face to face with an- 
other fearful danger. A firebrand had 
been carried by the wind over on to the 
roof of the Pythian Hall, in the Hardy 
block, at Queen and Victoria streets. 
There it lay smouldering and flickering, 
wondering whether to go out or not, 
until it .set fire to the sliiiigle:^ jiud the 
flames bui-st from the Victoria street 
windows. Then the firemen were out- 
flanked, but they prom|)tly detailed the 
Ossiiigtoii avenue men to leave the 
Henders<iii block, on the north-east cor- 
ner of (^ueen and Yonge. They could 
get no ladders and carried their hose 
up the stairway to the top storey. All 
hope of saving yiiiipscin's had been' aban- 
doned, ami all the altention of the de- 

partment waH directeil to the other ei»ta'i»- 
liHlimeiitu that stood in niicIi inimhient 
danger. The heat and debris hail 
driven the firemen off t2ueen wtreet west 
and oft Yonge ntreet Mouth of tiueen. 
Four lines were carried through the arch- 
way from Katon'H to tiueen street, over 
the rear t>f fciutdiffe's, and another line 
wafl brought through McPherson's nIioi. 
fltore from Y'onge street. These fought 
back the flames while three streams weru 
played on the Katou building's roof by 
Eaton'H own brigade. The great effort 
uow was tt> save Eaton's big block, uim] 
every force was concentrated ou tiiia 

The inadeipiate uppliauces put the fire- 
men in a bad ):<Ksitioii, but for three hour." 
they contested every inch oi ground ,•>« 
the fire drovi! them nk>wly back on to thi 
roof of Eaton's, the fire breaking out 
through the roof where they had been 
standing. To the eouith the fire wall be- 
tween VVaulesfl' store and Simpson's was 
ull tiiat saved the block. 

The small Hcnald engine belonging 
to Mr. II. \V. Petrii', wa« i>ut in position 
outside Gourlaj', Winter <.V: Leeming'ji 
piano «tore ou Yonge street, and did 
splendid work. Two streams were thrown 
into the blazing 8ho|xs by tliis machine. 
The feature of the fire wa-s the use ol a 
little old engine that had been stored 
jiway as Uhj o!il-liushioned to be of any 
iLse. This machine proved to the satis- 
faction of any sane man that engines 
are a necessary complement oi the 
wiuipment of a fire brigade, and that 
the C.'inadian engine, which the .'xpertu 
condemned, w;is as good as the beat in 
the world. Sever;il streams were poured 
from it into the front of Sutcliffe's. ami 
it undoubtedly .saved Ji;»tou'a big estan- 
ILshment from the flames. 

(!liief Graham said the little lioiifild 
did grand service with 200 feet of ho.*:!! to it. A steam fire engine could 
have thrown water on to the Siinpison 
building from a distance where liis nicn 
would have been snfe when they could 
not stand near ejjough with their pre- 
"icnt pressure for of the walls. 

Few are the p'\>p!e vlio have ever seen 
a steeiile in fhiiues. Knox church s])iri' 
was a wooden " 'C'.iini on i\, brick tower 
well'and heavily '.milt. Like a guardiiin 
sentinel it had stcMid for an hour, black 
and straight, over the scene of havoc 
that the tii'e was making almu-<t lie- 
neath it. Sometimes ilie top of it wiis 
alm<yrt hiddi;: b.. the whirling oi 
.«!moke and fl.'ime that combatted for su- 
premacy about it. At 1.30 a little spot 
of fire appeared about 20 feet u[) from 
the of the tower. The attention of 
thousands of people wa.s immedi;Ltely 
drawn to it, and they watched it slowly 

it >'. 


' f? 


'■■*■,■'■. ■ ■■-■ ■•••1 . ^^j'i.■r^wS*r»«*'• :« -fr^^-^- . 

(up. ii;ii 




in a el 
ii"il fro 
«.|' Iho 
i'.ist ccv: 



iiiond f<ti 
tlif Inini 
Yonpt' fit 
tlie \ippo 
trton'' t'xo 

ini: of 11 
would «u 
fairlv fltt 
wind w;us 

i'. Eat< 
\viis ;in ir 
ha', -iv 

(op. 0(1) 





(^l>r('i>(iju)r and graspinp; the woodwork 
in .1 <'lulch that was novi-r to Ik' uii- 
tijlUiMimL Evorywhoro tin* fiRht wn« 
hard. Two lines of lioao wore car- 
ried from Queen street into the top 
of the Ilenderflon hlcvk, on tl»e north- 
oast corner, uiul two hranchew from the 
roar .suooeoded in Hiivini: all hnt the top 
Htoioy. The whole biiildinil was dronchocl. 

ri(>e was laid from Quoon and Victoria 
streets, and linen were run from Rioh- 
nionil utroet niulor the archway of the 
Coufofleration Life buildinc, to i>lay on 
the InirninfT .stores on the eawt side of 
Yonpe street south of Queen street. Only 
the \ipper storeys of them all, Milne's 
Bton^ excepted, were burned. 

Everytxxly thoiipht that th(> big bnild- 
iiitr of the Confederiition Life Company 
\\ould surely kuccu ib. The slate roof 
fairly steamed with the heat, and the 
wind w;is all that saved it from tleetruc- 

i'. Eaton A: Co-'s system of protection 
an imraon-ie jiid to the firemen. They 
>lx niRht watchmen and a Grinnell 
luallc sprinklor system, with three 
ants on the i-oof. Tho^e three hy- 
lir.nts were a bijv factor in thp fifiht, 
and the brifjado admitted the assistance 
roudored by the sixteen member.s of the 
Eaton staff who won' on hand. 

Sam McGow.'in, of Yorkvillo avouiio hook 
and ladder, v,-a« struck by a piece of 
fallinfi ladder from Kn<ix church and fjot 
luH arm broken, lie v.-as removed to the 
Goiii'ral Hospital. 

KoIkm* Everest, ho<oma.n, from Lombard 
wtroot hii'l, <li<iiK'ato(i a knoo-eap by fall- 
inii in an >|M'n coal hole in front of yinip- 
s<>ii'pi. Ho vas tiikoa homo. 

I'iroman K.-hiii.son, of Vorkville, pot fw 
hiokon, but rcturii'd after having 
it droewd at li •• hi'spitnl. 

liobt ft Pjvl.s<.n iind William Feathens 
worked in the 'i'renirMi; House. They 

\i a> 

uiKl wore cut by the aky- 


had a close shavi ' 
into the basement 
of the eastern wal 

jiini|ied futi-^ni U'' c from Iho main iwif on 

to the klvC'iU'V 


Ihrec nn^n fror. l/orkeley street hall 
lit u playinp a stream 
of Simit<on's. A part 
fe)', aud they dropped 
their hoso and jumiK'd just in time. 

The losses on the diifei«ut IniiUlings and 
contents were : 

R. Simpson, building . .$13(t,(XK) 

H. Simp- .u, stock 'Jtt(,i,tHK) 

Wnnloj , .V Co , building 10. (MH) 
Wanb-..;, \ Vrc , sto.k. . . 

r. .Jamic'vv, -ityT/ck 

Apricultur;. .=- .id Art2 As- 

Roeiation buiiding .... 

l»o. do. contents. . 










Los.q Insurance 

SutclifTe & Sons, stock . . 95,000 65, WO 

R. H. Gray, building . . . 8,000 6,000 

Mrs. M. G. Jones, bldg. 10,000 10,(H)0 

M(4'herson & Co., stock 4,000 4,000 
Gourlay, Winter & Leem- 

ing, stock 2,000 2,000 

Mrs. A. Henderson, build- 
ing 10,000 10,000 

C. F. Adams & Co., stock 5,000 5,000 

Mrs. M. E. Brisley, stock 5,500 4,300 

lames Bonner, stock 15,0fl0 8,000 

Imperial Bank, building. 6,<XM) 6,000 
J. F. Brown & Co.,. stock 1,000 1,000 
Confederation J -fe, build- 
ing .5,000 5,0f»0 

J. Milne & Co., stock 25,000 20,000 

Knox Church 10,000 10,000 

Jas. Mannell, building.. 4,00(» 3,500 

Tremont House, furniture 2,000 3,000 

J. Dunfield & Co., stock 4,500 4,000 
Canada Umbrella Co. , 

stock 2,000 2,000 

Knights of Pythias 500 500 

T. I<;aton & Co 5,000 5,000 

Other losses 10,000 10,000 

Total .S744.500 §,-)74,SO(i 

The approximate losses of the several 

insurance companies interested are as 
follows : 

Lancashire Insurance ?.30,000 

I^iverpool, London & (Jlobc; .'^OjMtO 

Phoenix, of Brooklyn 30,000 

Caledonian 25,000 

Commercial Union 2;"),000 

Northern Assurance 25,000 

Royal, of England 25,000 

Scottish Union fi National 25,00f> 

London and Lancashire 20,000 

North British & Mercantile 20,000 

.4':tna lo.OtXl 

Connecticut Fire 1 5,000 

London Ass. (%irporation 15,000 

Norwich Union 15,000 

Sun Insurance, of London 15,000 

Manchester Fire 12,000 

Atlas Assurance 10,000 

P'ire Insurance Exchange 10,00<* 

Hand-inHand 10,00<1 

Nat ional 10,000 

North America 10,000 

Phienix, of Hartford 10,000 

Queen Fire 10,000 

LTpion Assurance 10,000 

Agiicultural 7,500 

Guardian 7,000 

Alliance, Eastern Assurance, Eco- 
nomical, Gore F'ire, Hartford, Im- 
perial, United Fire, each . 5,000 

Western Assurance Co. , (part rein- 
sured) 40,OW 

Wellington Mutual 1.500 




i /( 





t ■ 


A Department of the Public Service which 
haH been Kemoved f^oiu Plnee t« Place 
with Kemarkable Frequency. 

Often as the custom housesand poiit offices 
were shifted about from cue place *-> the 
other until they found iheir present abiding 
placesi in the buildingB thty now occupy, 
another department of public service was 
more frequently moved. Thi., was the 
repistry 1 the ', iind it is a noteworthy fact 
thit although changed so frequently, occupy 
in a; quarters in private liouoea, many of 
them of frame, no pipers have ever breu 
lest uy fire or liny otiier caus'. In 1796 a 
reg stVy t-fEce was established foi the 

illustrated in a previous chapter. Tu this 
house, Mr. Cameron transferred the nga 
trai!-hip of the Ho ne District, on his ac 
ces-ioii to the office. 

Mr. Cameron was succeedtd by Steplien 
.larvis, who again n moved the ofbce to 
II is dwelling at the south east corner of 
Duke and Sherbourne streets. This house 
was of framj and like tiio otheru has been 
described and illustrated. 

Samuel Ridout was the next legistrar. 
H'- fit 8t ( stabliahed the offici.^ in the hous.^ 
of John Dennis at the north-east cor- 
ner of King and Ynnge street. This was a 
fram ' building with a large fruit garden, 
about chief among the products of which 
were delicious p urns. This building was 
dcsttoyed at least inrty years ago. For a 
long time it was the only building tliere- 
abouts. It was a longish oue storey stiur 


Home District, theri^ was no county of York 
then, nut until many yea s afterwards, and 
Mr. Thomas Riduut wai appointed th^■ hist 
registrar. He establish d the < Wic'. at his 
house, the Ridout homestead, which has 
bei'n described and illu trattd in a previous 
chapter. This was a frame hui'diui; on 
Duk- srct. 

Mr. Riddut was succeeded in the office by 
DuiH-in Ciim'rui. a very eaily and priMii- 
iiii nt, resident (if York, one of the niemlier*; 
of the L Tislitive Council, and one of the 
founders of .St. James churcli, and a mem- 
ber of it from its e>tablishnient. M . 
Cameron had previi us y Imiit for a re^i 
dence the hou^e ,it the corner of Front 
and Vji'ortrc street?, which he afterwards 
sold to (J'or^e Monro and is now known as 
the Bliick H'irse Inn. 'ihn building which 
was of framt^, has also been described and 

ture.painte 1 white with a palinij in front and 

l.u^'o willow trees. Mr. Dennis who bui t 
ir, was formerly sup.'iint nd> ut of the dock 
y.irds at Kiiig-,ton. He was oue of the 
United Empire Loyalist refugees and receiv- 
ed a grant of land on the Iluniber near the 
modern vi Inge of West n. His son J. soph 
l>eniii- owned and .oniinanded a vessel on 
Lake Ontario in 1812. When ttie war with 
the United States b.oke out he and his ship 
"ere attached to the Provincial marine. 
lis vessel was captured and he was made 
a prisoner ot war in which condition he 
ninained for fifteen months. He after- 
wards comnii>.nded the I'riucess Ch;u lotte, 
an early steamboat on Lake Ontario. Mr. 
Ridout estab.ish the registry offi 'e in tliis 
buildinp of .John D niiis, in 1827, and 
in.dnaimHl it there for a w i or a little muif. 
In 1S'J8 he moved the "« ffioe to Patcrson 




\ ^ 

biiildiug previously deicribed, wliich stood 
about midway between K Ukt and C Ibonio 
street on the west side of West M>rkot 
Ktrept. Ttiib was also a framn buildius;. 
The offic • remained here but a few months 
ut ihe eud of which tim Mr. Ridout trans- 
turred it tJ the builditi); o* James Beaty 
uii the south side of Kitifi' street between 
George and Frederick streets. Hr-re the 
i.tiice was kept for a year. In 1829, Mr, 
Hidout built at his personal expense for the 
purp'>se of a registry office a small brick 
t>uildinK on the north side of Adelaide 
btnet opposite St. James Church. This 
buildiiiy has been dehtroyed. In 1849 
while Mr. Ridout held this ofiice a law was 
pissed that the regi^tiy ( ffice should no 
longer be kept in a private residence, but 
must be maintained in a public building;. 
At the same time the office was established 
as the county registry. As yet there 
was no distiict city registry, the ci y 
forming part of the county. In accordance 
with the act of 1849 thu county built a 
small one storey stone fire proof building 
where the office of the gas company 
new stands, on the east side of Toronto 
street just north of Court street. This 
bud liiij; iias been destroyed to meke 
way for the building which now occupies 

the site. In 1855 Mr. 

Ridout who had been deputy iCL'ister for 
niciny years, succeeded his fathei Samuel, 
ill the office which he has since filled. In 
lS;VJthe couay and city registr.irships were 
divided. At quite a recent date tlie pre- 
sent brick county regisfy huildintj was 
erected at the north-east corner of Rich- 
inriiid and Clare streets. 

When trie city Hi;d county tiffices were 
separa'ed Josi ph Moirisoii btcaine the first 
city r uistrar. He established the < ffice in 
ttie iipp-r rooms of a buildinj; on the .-ouih 
sid'' ot Wellington street l>et\Vi en L!ay and 
Voiige .-^tr et near tlic Merch mta 
Ihe building is .still stamiitiL'. 

Ml. Murrison held the uflico but a ishor* 
lime ind was succeeded by Sunuol Shi r- 
wcod. Mr. Sliet wood was a lawyer lie re- 
pie.sinted (Ji(!nvilie in 18l)4. an I was one of 
the C'lUnrel who <lefeiideii the prisoneis 
brought ilown fr>ni Earl Selkirk'.* setile- 
inenl for trial in 18M) on charjji s of mur- 
der und Milibcry. During Mr. Sh.rwood'.s 
tenure of ( llici' the city put up for a rej^istiy 
office a small brick building on the north 
>hi<: of Court street, near the site of the 
police court. Mr. Siierwood considered 
the iiuiidrig unsafe ami unsuitable for the 
purpose f( r which it was d' signed, and re- 
m»ei to tah.. the responsibility of kei ping 
the r'curds in it. He transfi i red ihein to 
lit!, own house, oDce kuown as Dorset II >i4se, 

and later as London Hou-e, on the n-rth 
tide of Wellington street, ju-t east of John 
street. This building which is now des- 
troyed, has been described and illustrated 

Mr. Charles L'ndsey was Mr. Sherwood's 
successor in the office of city recistrar. 
IJe first escabb,;ihed the office in the build- 
ftig of the Royal Insurance Company at 
the south east sorner of Yonge and Wel- 
lington streets. The city then put up the 
building on the south side of Richmond 
street, west of Vonge, which has since been 
occupied, Mr. Linds^'V having the office. 


The Old m^atctaniaker ef York-Karly Be> 
collections of a Tall New Englander— His 
Shops on Dnke and KlnR streets. 

Fancy the venf>rable watchmaker of ninety 
years ago, revisiting the scene of his labours, 
and finding his town lot of a few hundred 
feet, bounded on the north by King 
street, on the east by Yonge street, 
on the west by Ray street, ami on the south 
by Melinda stieet, worth in 1802 about a 
couple of hundred dollars, now valued at 
over a million dollars. Jordan Po<t, the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was the eaily c ock- 
maker of York. He was a tail New 
Englander of giave address, but of benevo- 
lent disposition, aud well liked in the com- 
ni'iinty. He was the owner of the entire 
frontage from Y<'nge to Bay on King street, 
and south to Melinda street. Jordan st eet, 
named after the old waic'.imaker. nivided 
the lot, while Melinda street was the nama 
given to the dividing line to the south, 
)u honour of hia woithy wife. Two of 
iii.s daughters were named re- 
spectively Si phronia and Desdemona, bvt 
their n. me- have not been hanieddowii tons 
in any of the many itropi i ties owned by 
I'ost. So early aw ISO'i Mr. Post advertised 
in the Upper Cannda Gazette or Ainerirnn 
Orncle, wliich \v,is puhlisheU at Toronto, 
that he was about to leave York for a snort 
time. The ailvertisenicni leads : " Jord .n 
Post, watchmaker, requests all those who 
left watches with him to be rtpaind, to 
call at Mr. Ri man's and re ceive them hy 
payiiij: for the repairs. Heintdids reliinrng 
to York in a fiw months. Sep:, Uili. 1S02." 

At the clo.-o of the eunie year he puts 
forth the general notice ; — "Jordan I'ost, 
clock ami watchmaker, inform, the pnolio 
that he now cairiea on the alxjve business 
in all its branches at the npj)cr ind of Duke 
street. H<' ha.s a complete assormieiit of 
watch furniture. Clock.s and watches re- 
paired on the shortest notice und iii< st 


■ » '. 




^:4' ■' ■ 



Hi i 


.^.^st .^f /i.^ 



fcaHouable terms, toRPthor willi cvory 
jirticlp ill tliP jJCohl and wilvoi' line. N.15. 
— Ill' will old li-as.-i. I»t>c. 11th, 
1S()2.'' PkksI'h Bliop on Dnki- strcft wnn on 
till' iiortli fiidk> iu>.'ir the corner of Jarvi.s. 
A iioplii'W of liiM kei)t hotel hero some 
years after. 

r.i'.sidi's the block described above, Mr. 
Post hail acquired other valuable pro- 
|n rties iu Yo:k, a.s will appear by an 
advertiseinent in the Weekly KeRi.stei- of 
.l.iniKiry IDtli, 1826, from which also it 
will be seen tliat he at one time contem- 
plated a pift to the town of one hund- 
red feet frontage and two hundred feet 
of depih, for the purpose of a Kccond 
IHililie market. " Town lots for sale. To 
he fiold by auction on the premises, on 
WiMlnewday, the first day of T'ebruary 
ii'xt, four town lots on Kinfi street, west 
I'l (ieorpe street., to be lea.sed at the 
same time to the hiphest bidder, for 
tweuty-iuie years, subject to such con- 
diti<>iis as will then be produced, six lots 
ou the west side of YoiiKi' street, .and 
twerity on Market street. The Subscriber 
has reserved a lot of Kround one hund- 
red feet front by two hundred feet in the 
rear, on George street, for a market 
place, to be given for that purjio.H'. He 
will likewise lease ten lots in front of 
said intended market. A plan of the lots 
may Im' seeu and further )>nrticular8 
known by ap|)licatioii to the sul)seril)er, 
Jordan IVist. York, .Tan. 4th, 1S2()." 

Ou the arrival of Sir Francis Oore in 
York on the 30th of September, ISlTi, we 
find amongst a tleputation of the priuci- 
|ial merchants Jonlan Post, sr., nnd dor- 
dan Post, jr. Among the sidiscribers to 
a ■' common sclio)! " in Y'ork, iu 1S20, 
we find Jordan Post down for tl7 Os. ;{d. 
Philip Klinger for £2 10s., and Lardner 
P.ostwiek for £2 10a. Ou one occasion 
ahout Lsari some of the boys of the town 
tried to steal a \voodeu clock that hung 
fr< m the doorway, aud the escapade eml- 
oil in the cUx'k falling on Craig, knocking 
him down and killing him. fraig was 
the owner of a distillery over tlie Don 
•iml nephew of liishop Strachan. Iu 1S20 
P<*si moved west to the south-east cor- 
lii'r <if King and P.ay, to the house shown 
iu the engraving. This was the first 
houM' erected on that co'uer. It was torn 
down i bout 1840, and the large three- 
storey brick building, belonging to 
Jaciiues iV Hay erected. The ground has 
been for many years in the estate of the 
h'Jte Hon. .lolin Ko'is, a fnriner member 
of the I/'gislative Council of Canada, he 
liiiviug bought the pror/urty from the 
heirs of Jordan P«st. 

After Jaci|ues l^c Hay moved, the ware- 
house was divided into two shoiw, and the 
rear jiortiou was occupied by William 
Ilalley, aa a type warehouse. In 187G 

the building was torn down, and the 
present building erected on King street 
west, and as far south as Messrs. Malouey 
aud Kamsay's shops ou Bay stiret. Post 
then went to Scarlioio' to live after leav- 
ing Torouto. 



; Tlir lloiiHe Orcupird by ( ol. \. t'oinii, Cnpt. 
I I'lilllpott.H, <'up(. Buiiii.Tcasllo mill Kay- 
I iiioiiit llnby- Ski'lflioH of llie iiipii. 

j On a promontory, suddenly jutting out 
into th(> harbour, ou the south side of 
Front street, and on the west of Peter 
street, there once sttiod a pretty little 
Cf>ttage, with a garden and a grove 
surrounding it. The cottage was n storey 
aud a half high, of frame, jrainted white, 
with green blinds and dormer windows. 
It wa* enclosed by a boiird fence. The 
main entrance wa.'i at the e;ist end, and 
ruuuiug around the house ou this side 
from the gate was a path leading to 
the bay side of the building where was 
: the entrance most commonly used. Ou 
the beach, just west of the bank where 
the cottage stood, was a much frequent- 
ed bathing-place Oi)iKwitc the cottage, 
oa the north si e of Frout street, was 
the (lovernuu^nt wood yard. Diagonally 
, across, on the north-cast corner of Frout 
I and Peter street, stood, and still stands, 
the house of the Hon. George Crookshank. 
The bay shiuv cottage, aud the laud on 
; which it stixxl and all about, was Ord- 
nance pro|H.'"ty. S<'veral men of local, 
or more than local celebrity, at different 
times have made the humble dwelling 
their home. 
: The first was Col. N. Coffin. He came 
to Y'ork with Lieutenant-Governor Sir 
Peregrine Maitlnnd, ou his a|>poiutment 
iu 1818, aud his name is found among 
the subscribers for the Don ^ ridges iu 
1822. Two years later he Avas one of 
the party which accompanied Sir Pere- 
gr lie i>n a tour to Lower Canada. The 
Cai.'idian Review for December, 1824, 
after lueiitiouing the arrival of the party 
I at the Mansion House in Montreal, says: 
i " In the morning his Kxcelleucy break- 
I fasted witli Sir Francis IJurtim (the Lieu- 
j teuant-Ciovernor of Lower Canada from 
j 1808 to is;{2), at the (iovernment House, 
I whom he afterwards accompanied to 
1 (Quebec in the Swiflsure steamboat. Sir 
Peregrine is accompanied by Lord Ar- 
thur I/euuox, Mr. Maitland, Colonels Fo.<<- 
ter, Lightf<K>t, Coffin and Talbot, with 
the Hon. F. (!. Stanley (from 1851 to 1809 
Farl of Derby), grandson of Earl Derby, 
M.P. for Stockbridge, John K. Deuison, 
Fsq., (subsequently SiR'aker of the Hoiise 
of Commons), M.P. for Newcastle-upon- 


1 .; i^ 


i i 




Vt / i •*,' M 







Tjue, nud JaiucB S. Wortlcy, Esq. (nfter- 
ward« Ix)rd Wharncliffe), M.P. for Roa«i- 
uey, iu Cornwall. The three latter gentU- 
meu are uow uiioii a tour in this country 
from Euglaud." In 1828 Col. Coffin, then 
Adjutant-General of Militia, wh« sum- 
nioued to app»^ar before a committee of 
the House of A8Beml)ly, to give evidence 
in relation to a treejniHs on Government 
proixTty at N'ingara Falls, as was also 
Col. Giviiifl. fc»ir Peregrine Maitland re- 
fused jK?rmi8*iioii to attend, upon which 
both officers were arrested and locked 
ui> in jail. Col. Coffin wrote a letter 
from the jail on the evening of their ar- 
rival to Major Hiilior, the Governor's 
privaU^ secretary, 'riiis is a Cf>py of it : 
" York, March 22ud, 1828, Sir,-I beg 
leave to request that y(tu will state to 
the Lieuteuant-Governoi- that in obedience 
to the communication I received through 
you, that his Excellency could not give 
me fiermissiou to attend a committee of 
the Hovwe of Assembly for tlic reason 
therein stated ; that 1 did not attend 
the eaid committee, and that in conse- 
quence thereof I have been committed 
this evening to the common jail of the 
Home District, by order of the House of 
Assembly, 1 have, therefore, to pray that 
hie Excellency will be pleased to direct 
that I may have the advice and assist- 
ance of the Crown officers to enable me 
to take snch stefts as I may be instruct- 
ed on the occasion. 1 have the honour, 
N. Coffin, Adjt.-Gen. of Militia." No re- 
dress, however, was obtained, and Col. 
Coffin and Col. Givins were confined in 
jail until the close of the session. They 
afterwards brought an action against 
the Speaker of the House for false im- 
prisonment, but nothing was recovered. 
In the Royal Engineers was an officer 
bearing the name and rank of Captain 
Philljjotts. He was the brotlier of Bishop 
Phillpotts. He first comes to the notice 
of the people of y(jrk when the Ixiyalist, 
quoting the Niagara Gleaner, relates that 
Sir John Colborne (Kiid a visit to the 
Falls, going on liori«back, anil accom- 
panied by Captain PhilljKitts, on Mon- 
day, November 10, 182.S. This was when 
Bir John was on his way to York, im 
successor to Bir Peregrine Maitland in 
the Lieutenaut-GoviTiiorsliip. Captain 
Philli)ott8 came to York with Sir John 
and l)ecame his secretary. The 
captain was a fine looking man, of me- 
dium height, rather inclined to embon- 
point. He was a familiar figur<' to the 
inhabitants of York, especially on Siin- 
diiy mornings, when he would WJilk down 
to St. James' church with Sir .John Col- 
borne, re^;Jlen^lent in Co<'ked hal, while 
feathers and gold-laced unifoiin. Caiitain 
PhilljiottH left Y'ork bcfon' Sir John C(,l- 
borue, going either to the Lower Pro- 

vinces or returning to Eugland. His «>on 
remained liere, studied law, was admit- 
ted to the bar, and prnctisud his prt>- 
f ess ion up to the time of his death. 

Auothei occupant of the bay shore cot- 
tage wati ICaymoud Baby. He wits a 
pupil of Dr. Strachan'fl Home District 
Grammar ScluKd in 1819, aud in 1827, 
attired as an Indian Chieftaiu, he was 
one <A the conspicuous figures in a war 
dance at the first fancy dress ball re- 
corded iu the annals of York. 

Perhaps the most distinguished dweller 
iu the cottiige was Captain, afterw.irds 
Sir Hicliard Honnycastle, the author of 
"Canada as It Was, Is and May Be," und 
" Caniubi and the Canadians in 184G." 
In one of these books Captain Bonnycastle 
wiis led into the error of recording that 
Torouto or Tari'uto was probably the 
name of an Italian Engineer, who con- 
structed the old French fort, evacuated 
and destroyed at the tyne when tin- 
ICnglish obtained supremacy in Canada. 
On the occasion of the completion of the 
work on the outlets of the Don, in l!s;}5, 
some old formalities were observed, says 
Dr. .Scadding. On the twenty-second of 
August in that jear the bridges which 
had been built by the aid of Sir John 
Colborne were handed over by the mili- 
tary authorities of the town. " The civic 
authorities approached the new struc- 
I ture iu pr<K»'S8ion. A barricade at the 
I first bridge arrested their prt>gress. A 
guard stationed there also forbade fur- 
ther advance. The officer in comma nil. 
Captain Honnycastle, appears, aud the 
M;iyor and corporation are informed that 
the two bridges before them are, by the 
Command of the Lieutenant-Governor, 
juvsented to them as a free gift for the 
benefit of the inhabitants, that they nniy 
in all time to come be enalded to enjc y 
the salubrious air of the |)eninsula, the 
only stipulation being that the bridges 
should be free of toll forever to the truops, 
stores and ordnance of the sovereign. 
The Mayor, who, as eye-witnesses rejort, 
was arrayed in un official robe of purple 
velvet, lined with scarlet, read the fol- 
lowing reply: " Sir,— On the jiart of his 
Majesty's faithful and l<»yal city of 'lo- 
roiito, 1 receive at yonr hauila the in- 
vestiture of these bridges, erected hy 
command of his l^xi'idlency the Lieuten- 
aitl-(ioveriior, and now delivered to the 
Cor[>oration for the benefit and acconum*- 
dation of the citizens. In the name of 
the <'ouimon Council and the citiziMin nf 
Toronto, I beg you to convey to liin l.x- 
celleney the grateful feelings with whicli 
this new instance of the IxMinty of unr 
!!!'«'. jrnicious .'-oveieign is received; aiid 
I take this <K-easion, on behalf of the cit^, 
to renew our assii ranees of loyally anil 
utiachnieut to his Maj«;sty'y jiersou aud 


tt\\tnmtaL-Kjatmit$ i -•■» .vr. ■ 


, 9 



\ ' r 

-\'-'» *i 'V .V ■■ » .'•?""iA' ■■■■■■ 


■ lit-— «*>' ,^,v;\i\, ■ ', ■ 1 

1 V -V '*• ■ 


■'. .C'^- 







(}(>viTiirti*'ut, uiiil to iH'tiy tlironKl* I>>m Kx- 
ii'lleiii'.v u. coiitiimiirii'i' «>( royal favour 
tow.inlH tliin city. 1 liiivc. oii tlic part 
(if till- (oriioratiou and citiziMiH, to riMjiit'Ht 
yim t<» MHHuru liiH Kxct'llt'iicy tla; Licutcu- 
, it-dovcruor thai his Kxcu'iicncy'M (IfNin? 
imtl Ki'ot'i^'i') t'Xt'rtioiiH for the health and 
wi'ifiiro of till! iiihahitaiittt of thirt city 
aif duly aud gratefully appreciated, and 
1 Ix'j; you to convey t< hi« Kxcellency the 
iH'Ht wiHlu'H of uiyHi'lf aud luy fellow- 
I itizeiifi for tlitt health and happiiietw of 
hiH lOxcelleucy and family. Porniit me, 
Sir, for niywif and brethren to thank you 
(or the very liandHoine and (oiupliinentary 
iiianner in which you have carried his 
Kxi'i'llency'n coiiiinission into execution." 
Iiiiuiediately the band, who were Bta- 
tioned on the bridj^e, ntruck up the heart- 
Ktirrin>r air, (}«k1 Save the Kiiy?, during 
tlic iierforinance of which the gentlemen 
(if the corporation, followed by a lar>;e 
iiiiiuber of the inlial)itaiitM, passed un- 
covered over the bridp'. Three clieern 
were then K'veii res|)ectivi'Iy for the 
KinK. for his Kxcellency the I.ieutenant- 
(loveiiior, for the Mayor and Council of 
the city of Toronto, and for Captain 
r.unnyc4uitle. The ueiitlemanly and dij?- 
nificil manner in which both the addresses 
wire read did credit to tiie u;entleineii 
nil whom these tluties devolved, and the 
UiKxl order and f^ood h'.iuiour that pre- 
v;iiled among the siH'Ctators prewent were 
I'xceedingly gratifying." 

The above account appeared in the 
current issue of the Christian Ouarilian 
iiiid was copied into the Toronto Patriot 
if August 2H, IHSR. Mr. It. 1$. SuUiviin, 
tlie Huccessor of Williain liyon Macken- 
lie in the mayoralty, was the mayor at 
I'.ie. time. lie was nfterwards one of the 
ju(1kc« of the Court of Common Pleiis 
The bridges presented to the city on 
tliis occasion had a brief existence. A 
few vi'jirs later they were carrieil away 
liy spring floodn in the Don. What was 
r.itw ihe Island, but was then a peninsula, 
Win once plentifully stocki'd with goats, 
tlie offspring of a cokmy eKtablisiied by 
(iiivernor Hunter at (iibrallar Point for 
tilt' sjikc of the nourishing properties of 
;:(Mits' milk. These animals were des- 
tiuyet! during the wiir of ISIU. At a 
lieridi .antedating the stocking r>f the 
M-'iiinsula large quantities of goats ran 
tit hirge on Goat Island, .•uljoining thi> 
Knlis ui Niagara. They were reared by 
an Eiii^lish soldier n:nned Stofiman, who, 
(111 opc'iiping a massacri! of his comrades 
in the neighbourhood of what is now 
Lf'v.iwton, at the hands of the Iroquois, 
t^odii (ift(>r the coiKiiiest of the country, 
Hci! tliither, and led a Kobinson Crusoe 
"ort <f life until his death. In Captain'K bo.iks on Canada he dis- 
ceursed freely and often satirically on 

persons, customs aud places. The cot- 
tage on the bay shore has long since dis- 
appeared, and the bank has been cut 
down to make way for tin' railroad 



Tbe Karly lllHlory •! Pnbllc ('oiiveyaiirrii 
nnd Monir or the .Mrn M'bo Drovr Them. 

East of Parliament street is a section 
of the city abounding in short, narrow 
streets, thickly built up with houses of 
moderate size. Eastern avenue is one of 
the thoroiiglifares traversing this dis- 
trict. .No. fi-t of this street is a very 
small one storey frame building, painted 
almost black by wind and weather. Hero 
for more than fifty years has lived a 
well known coloured man named Thorn- 
ton IMackburn. In one of the doors iu 
his house he points out to the visitor a 
panel shattered by a bullet during the 
Mackenzie rebellion. Mr. Blackburn 
came from the United States to Toronto, 
acconi|)anied by his wife, who is still 
living, in l.S3-i. For several years he 
found employment as u table waiter at 
Osgoode Hall. Previous to this cabs had 
made their first appearance in Mon- 
treal copied from a vehicle then popular 
iu Loudon. Mr. Blackburn obtained the 
pattern of a Montreal cab and taking it 
to Paul Bishop, a French Canadian, 
whose name of L'Eve(jue —the Bishop- 
had been Anglicized iu Upper (Viiada, he 
ordered one made from the design fur- 
nished. Bishop, who was a nu-clianic of 
great skill, anil counted as the best lock- 
maker in Canada, had a shop at the 
north-east corner of Sherbourne and Duke 
streets. He accepted Mr. Bl.ukburns 
commission, and in 1S37 he delivered to 
him. the first cab built iu Upper Canada. 
This cab has been on exhibition at the 
York Pioneei''s log liouse in the Exhibi- 
tion grounds. It was n.inied " Tiie 
City." The cab was painted yellow and 
red. The entrance for passengers was 
from the rear. There was aceoiii'"o<la- 
tion in it for four [Nissengers. Tli 'i ver 
sat on his box in front. One lioi i.rew 
the vehicle. For sevcr.-il years Mr. Black- 
biiii; had the monop. ily of the cab busi- 
ness in Toronto. It was found to be so 
profitable a pursuit that others were 
tempted to engage in it. One MouibKV 
morning Owen, Miller & Mills. c;irriage 
makers, on the south side of King street, 
a little west of York street, turned out 
for Guest & Griffin, the proprietors of a 
livery stable on King street east, alnuit 
the site of Hugh Miller's drug store, six 
cabs. These were like a little .lark- 
coloured sentry box mounted on wheels. 






m0lt' I'.i^tl'.,. 







They wfre drawn by ono lutrst> ami car- 
ried" two iMTHiiiiM. 'J'hc <lrivi>r H«t in 
front. They were calU'il after the iianu'H 
oi the priiicipiil lake bteiiiiifis : Tlie 
Chief .luHtiee Uobinmm, ISritaiinia, (iu.'en, 
Transit, Niajrara anil PriiieesM Koyal. 
Other ealm built by Owen, Miller A MIIIh, 
a few years after Mr. J'.laeklturnV ini- 
lialion of tlie n:<ivcini'nt, were eall'd .-if- 
ler the Haiiits who had furniHhed nanu'H 
to the ^vardB of the city. At lirnt ih'Ti' 
Men- no fixed r;itis, hnl later, aH IIu'ki' 
imhlic eonveyaneeh increased in nnnibi'v 
eertaiu fares were fixed for one, two oi' 
mure jiersunB, aceordinj? to the diNlane", 
and also by the hour. Tor ordinary 
dictani'es the fare was one shill- 
inir for one person and one sliillinR 
.tuil Hixjienee ft>r two. The eah Ktan<l was 
on (liuix'h Htreel, at the we.n Miile of St. 
.lauie^'. where it now is. At flint no lieen."*!' 
Avas paid. Then a tax Wius fixed, varying 
fro:n six to twelve dollarn a year. t>i late 
yearj thi^ ha« been noiuinvhat inereased. 
The nuinberiiiK ol the vehicles hImi eaine 
iuto practice at iliis time. The fiist vaW 
men made so nunh money that snon the 
liU'iuesB wao ovenloae. Many nervanls left 
their maalers and went into th ■ new <*■■- 
cupation. Anion^.^t tlie*e weiv CharicH 
Abbott, a servant of William 11. lioiiltoii. 
nt The Grange; .Tanie.s Alexander 1 itz- 
pjitrick, and Juil^c llagernian'H co.u'h- 
iii.'in. George Davis, "who Iri.d l)een in tiie 
(service of Ix^rd Tnllamoiv, Iniilt a cab 
%vhich he named after hL-< old master. 
Later two brother.-*. .lohn and Willia.m 
Newell went into the buMnesw, and nliout 
the same time liobert Paul. Mr. Jo'ieph 
llazelton i-s an old Toroilo «'a,b owner. 
lli-i life in one re«|vct is renutrkailile. 
lie has never travelled in any vehicle but 
ix call. He Wiis never on a steamboat, 
a. railway train or a street car. II(« 
Ciwne out to this country in a sailing? 
Kliip. Some of the cabmeni, finding tlie 
competition too etronj?. abandoned cabs 
nltogether and went inu> the livery busi- 
ness. The first two-horse c.tb w!w« driven 
by Louis Walkrr. Like Bisiiop, lie wa« 
H Frrn^'h-Oanadian, and like him, too, 
his name was changed from thi' French 
La Mari'he into Walker. He lived on the 
north side of l)u •hi'»t« strcvt, a few doors 
ea^'t of Sl'.<'rl)ourne street. From this time 
cuiwai-d cabs, st.'iges, busses au<l public 
conveyances of every kind increased with 
the growth of the oitj*. Mr. Blaekbuin, 
the first cab driver in the city, retire^l 
from the business with a comi>eteney 
a score cK years .ago, l)ut he is not for- 
gotten, for grey-haired men now (1888) 
frequently greet liim with the exclama- 
tion, "Ha ! It is you who drove me to 
my wedding.'' or "You arc the man who 
drove my eldest boy to his christening." 

CHAI'TKR (('11. 

The Old llomi'ittratl oil Miirrn Htrecl KahI— 
.'oiiiiir KriiiiiilHcriirrH or a York I'iourer. 

In the latter part of 1804 a fire broke 
out in an old frame dwelling house on 
(JiieiMi street east, next <loo! west on tlie 
northern side ()t the stnvl, of the I'ast- 
erii blanch of the I'.ank of Commerce, by 
which this old honii'ste<ul of the KrlKht 
fiimily was all but destroyed. For nearly 
sixty j'cars (he old-time building, <•[ 
which an illustration is given, w/is the 
rcHidence of John ISright, at the date uf 
his death the oldest inhabitant of the 
city of Toronto, a. place he had lived 
to see grow from :i small village of a 
few hundred inhabitants to a great city, 
numbering when he died nearly 20(),0(tO 

John r.right was the Hon ( f Lewi and 
Margaret IJright, the former an Fnglish- 
man who had formerly behniged to the 
42nd Iteginient, and who came to Canada 
about the same time that Gocernor Sim 
coe did, or perhajw rather eailiei, nnil 
abode in Three I'vivers, (jue- 
in 17!)0, the subject of this 
lK>rn. In 179t», Bright, the 
to York, and lived in a slab- 
site now occupied 

t<H>k up his 

bef. 'i'here, 

sketch was 

elder, came 

built cottage on the 

by the Mail building. 

He was jirincipal messenger for n great 
number of years at the Provincial Par- 
liament buildings, anil was assisted for 
twenty-ticven years of that tinn» by his 
son John. He died in his hundredth ycju", 
alKMit 1S50. 

When the war of 1812 broke out, Jolin 
liright tfK)k up arms in resiHjuse to 
Brock's proclamation calling out the 
militia, and si'rved throughout the whole 
of the wjir. Writing in 1S8H, just after 
Mr. Bright's de.ath, Mr. 1>. B. Bead, in 
one of his works, thus S|)enks : 

" Old veterans like to fight their battles 
over again. Not long since I had an in- 
terview with old Mr. John Bright, tt't 
years of age, then living Ndow the Don, 
a veteran of the war of 1812, who was 
wounded .at the battle of I^undy's Lane, 
for which ho n'ceived .i (K-nsion. His eye 
brightened when his mind wjis stirred by 
recalling the scenes of the eventful night 
of the 2.')th July, and he could tell how, 
with the blessed moonlight shining on the 
comhiitants. the moon's i)alc light wan 
brightened by the blaze from the cannons' 
mouths, a sheet of flame, how man met 
man, iu the fearful caniage of bloody 

At the close of tlie war, Bright, still a 
very young man, little more than a boy, 
iu fact, Ix'gan business in the meat trade, 
and continued iu it successfully for a 
great number of years. 

I m 






. :nir 

^ -i^ 

i 4M 










Wlii'ii filiout thirty ycaiM <>r ape lio liiul 
;ic'(|iiirc<l tlii^ plot of l.'iml oil tliu north- 
ui'st coiiii'T of Y<p|ip;(' Ptrct't, wlicn' •Inmi^'- 
soii's stori' stood |iiior to tli<> unMit fin' of 
Mnn'Ii. lS!»ri. mid all tin' Imid !idjoiniiri' 
it, to Jiiiiii'M stn-ct on tlio wost, miii! to 
I.oui.-ii. wti'i'i't oil tilt' iiortii. Ml' tradi'd this 
(»il' ;; t'.i'rwmds witii ii man iiainiMl Wiiliaip 
Kliolt, who had liuilt tin- ffaiin' liousi' oa 
ijuf'i'ii ftivrt La the I'arly ' thirtitH," for 
•hill lunai'sti'ad and adjaciMit IimkI, !'"- 
c'l iviiiu; ill addition a cow .'is part of tlu' 


In IS.'iT r.ii'j,ht was nf;;niii la thi' field 
agiiiust till' iiif^iugi'iits, and lio pi'i'-'itly 

al)ly «[)rnt, John Rii'-ilit died ivtily in 18^S 
in his (»;5r(l year. lie left lioliind him a, 
j;r('at niiiiihi'i* of descendant '<, and a rc- 
putntion for liom'sty and plain dcaliiii;- 
that any man inifAlit envy. 

Mr. John I'.riAht had a lirothor a few- 
yi'ai's \oiin;j:i'r than himself iianii'd 
'riioiii.'iH, who for a very jrreat ninuher 
of ye;irs c.'inaed on Im.siness as a farrier 
.•ml bl.'ieksmith on the opposite sid.' of 
KiiiLr«tf>n K()ad to whi're th(> old 'uKiic 
^tead .'5too<I. Liki> .Tolm Rriftlit. .Tames 
w;is a tlioroiitrh Tory, and like liim toi 
in this r('S[)e('t. tli;it he was .a Cnn- 
siientioiw and painstaking; man in all 



TllK IlKli^lil' lloisi;, IS'JO TO IS'.lt. 

laiaejiti'd that he could not oiiee luni-e uo 
to the Iroiit at the l'"eni.iii raid in IM^f'. 

Mr. I'.iij;lit ni.'irried ahoiit 1N1!S, Nain- . 
danirliter of William Knott, fornu-rly of 
til'' (.iiiern's IJaiit.',ei's. I'iiev had several 
'.'liLliltia, three t»>\\^, John. Tliom;is ;ui(l 
WLIIi;iiii, and four dauiihter.s. Tlioiuas 
lirl'^ht wius an olfi<i;il at the ("ouil II use 
lor- inan> years, d.^iiii;' reliiiia ry •>, lS'.t."». 
Mrs. i;ri'j,ht dii'd in |n7n. 

Ill |oiiti<!s .Foliii r.rinlit \\;is a Tory of 
llie 'I'orii'K, a <'liiir<'h anil Kine; ni.'iii to 
Ih'' ha< iilioii" lijiviir.',' no symiiathy with 
i'''|iuhli<';iiiisiii or ra<li(Mli'-ii, in an\ way, 
tlia[«> or foiiM. 

After ;i lou;;- life, iis'l'ull.s and lioliour- lit! undertook. Tiie old lil;ii'k-i!"i th'.s 
fol.;e w;in ;i ura! resort f<r til' ohl- 
tiliie reMideul.'i (HI ilie liailks of tie" Poll 

forty ye;ir« a^;o. There occasion lily 
^athi'iecl totjelher John Thomson, loliil 
Smith .-ind Captain Sparks, tii'or;;''' l.''Nlt' 
wouhl eoiiie ill now ••■.nd then, also many 
of the lllliolt.s fn.iii Sea rlior>urj;li and 
from .V^iineoiiit. .i.'imes pa^sl■d a'>\;i> ill 
IMl'J, h.iviiiu,' p.isscd his >.Sih lirlhday, 
a 111 like his lirotlii'r ant! his father he 
left ;i. pleauant memory Ix'liiiid him. 

.lames Jinnht passed the whole of his 
life in 'r.u'onto and liad a liirLie family. 
M- !n c( hi^ (lesei'iidants are st;ll in tlio 
city, or ill its iiiimeili;i t" vicinity, anil 








on^ of hifl flonB occnpios the old forge nnd 
etill carries on the cime husiuess that 
hi« father did before him. A nephew of 
his resided for many yenra on Qvieeii 
street west in a pretty cottage just west 
of Bathuret street. 


The BalldinK on CirlndHtone Point Com* 
pirted In the year 1808. 

One of the fi st, perhaps the very first, ne- 
cessity of a port IS a lighthouse. Although 
such a cuide to lake navigators was prcj ct- 
ed and bepuu at a very early period it was 
not finished until York becomo quite a 
village. A lighthouse was Iv gun on what 
was then Yorlt p?ninsula, but is now To- 
ronto Island at the point known as Gibral- 
tar Point, before the close of the last ccU' 
tury and the vtssel MuhawK, of which we 
had frequent mention in ilie early annals 
of the towij, was employed in bringing over 
Btoaes from Queenaton to build it. Mr. John 
Thomson, who was still living in 1873, was 
•mployed in its arection. The buildint; waa 
then begun, but evidently was not complet- 
ed, for m 180;s an Act was passed by the 
Provincial Legislature for the eatablishmcnt 
of lighthouse^s on the south-westernmost 
point of a certain island cailed Isle Forest, 
situated about three leagues tr .m the town 
of Kingston in tho Miciland Distric", an* 
other upon Mi8<i«8aga Point at the entrance 
o the Nipgira River near to the town of 
Niagara, and the otheruponGbraltai Poir.b. 
It was not practicihle to cany the Act fully 
into effec: before 1806 at the earliest. Ac« 
enrding to the Act a tund for the eiectic. 
!tnd maintenpnee of these lighthouses wai to 
bs formed by levying tlire' pence p r ton on 
• very vessel, boat, rafr, or other craft of ten 
tons bu den and upwards doubling thcpoini 
named, inward bound. Tnat ligh' house 
duty should be levied at a port when there 
was no lighthouse became a grii vane, and 
in 1818 it was enac'ed that no vessel, lx)at, 
raft, o other cr ifr of the burden of ten tons 
aud upwards -nould he liab c to piv any 
llgiithouse duty at any port where no light- 
hoose WHS erected, »iiy local law or usage 
to the contrary notwitiistanding. But the 
lighthouse at York was not completed until 
1808 at the earliest, for in the Gazeff^ of 
March 16tb of tbat year the annouiiueinent 
IB made that a Ivtrhtriouse is about to t>e ini'- 
mediatcly estab ished on Gibraltar Point at 
the entrance to York harliour. Tne GazetU 
remarks : It is with pleasure we inform he 
■puhlie that the daneera to resKcls navigating 
Lake Ont.iiio will in a great m*asnre be 
aToided by the erection of a liftntliouse on 

Gihraltar Point which ia to ba imm«dia*aly 
completad in complianea with an addieis of 
the Houia of Auambly to tha Lieutenant- 
Governor. For a considerable period all 
Taasela wa a 8ign>iiUd by a flag from tha 
lighthouae. The acccmp'inving illuatration 
ahowa the ligbthousa on the Point. 

two wfstern piers, 

View* of iho Nartherm Rnllwiir Pier and 
QnreB'ji ^linrr t'roni the Kaxi and West. 

In 1852 the Bsara of Har^, ur Commis- 
sioners decidett tiiat a wintfc. iiirlwur along 
the western bay shore was a conrenient and 
desirable thing for the accommodation ,e 
shinpinp of this port. The Queen's ,arf 
at the foot of Bathtirat Btreet and what in 
now the easternmost of the piers of the Nor- 
thern railroad were then in existence. Ac- 
cordinply, Mr. J. G. Howard, the veteran 
engineer of High Park, in March, 1853, sub- 
mitted a plan for an outa de winter harbour 
to the west of the Queen's wharf ami lor an 
inside win cr harbour in the water lot lying 
east of the Queen's whari and np to theNor 
them pier ; these water lots stretching our 
as far aa wnat ia known as t)ic windmill line. 
As soon as this plan of the Harbour Com- 
missioners became known, Mr. Cumberland, 
then the President of the Northern road, had 
crilis sunk and booms put down for rafting 
timber, thus shutting off the possibility of 
using aoy oonsiderabl." spice of the water 
lot between tlie Queen's wiiarf and the Nor- 
thern pier for a winter iiarbour. An ar- 
rangement was effected by which the Har 
hour Commission secured a small portion of 
the wat«>r lot to the eastward of the eastern 
line of tl'.e Queen's wharf but it wis ao small 
iliat It has never been available for the pur 
p(ve intended. The city ihen cribbe<l and 
h led in at a cost of $10,000. the warer lot 
west of the Queen's whari which had been 
intended for the outer hariionr, hut the 
Cmadian P. icific Railroad one night S't a 
large gang of nun at work putting tracks 
down on it and thus stole the property and 
the improvements at the same time. Th" 
first Northern pier was that running a an 
ai.g e • astwarii :r(.ir the foot of Brock street. 
On tliip pier sands the grain elevator shown 
in vi'.'wNo. 2. Since that time several piers 
havelwen coiiatructtd between this and the 
Queen's whart. View No. I is taken from 
th" oiiginal Northern piei- looking west with 
the Queen's wharf in the distance shdWinK 
the iiooms and the logs. View No. 2 shows 
the Northern pier and elevator looking from 
the west with a sniali portion of the boan-j 
'iud loss. 








•1' J 

fl i 

. " 


op. fiSM. 




y,»/)a. ,..,.. I 





■ -^^^k:8^ 


IK IS1.\M) MClITIinrsK, ISOS. 

op. BSU. ) 






■, ft? -i 




ill l> 






: -I} 


■I n 
















An Artlflrlnl Mlnlnturr t.nkr Whirh Onre 
Ornailli'iilftl tht' i;iiivrr<tity <;roiiii«l«. 

Thour fiiiniliar wi li (JiU'cn's I'.irk and the 
U:iiv( rsity (irciiiKis li:ivc luit tailed to f>b~ 
serve tlf dc p gully or riivlni' wliicli lies he- 
twc'ii the iliiivcrsitv liuiMii gs and tiic 
pHtliuay. Oi'igiiifilly a f;iii.iU stveain v.-in 
tliiiiiuii this o:ov('. SiiliscfiiKMitly i; 
tliin(,'iit proptT to hiiild a il;iin aernss 
s-r'iuii :iiid so coiiHtiuet a miiiiritiire 
This was done and tlie p iid so fnimett w- 
ninined in rxistcr.uc for a consideral>le li'iis^i h 
of iim'\ Finally, howe\-er, the water ijrrw 
stngnant and tht; gi'tuTiil (dT nsiveness of th'' 
poi I was rnhanccd by the fact that it wn« 
mad(> A ccmvenient piaee ot execution and 
lundul for all the worlliless cats and do^^s m 
tde neiylihourhood. A drain was built, the 
water of the lake was let oil', aiul now t!\o 
raviiK.' presents much the same iippearame 
as oriuiniklly. The illustration shows tbe 
Ikke AH it was. 



A rif>rc of Miivir « onipovrtl For nnil Siiir^ 
On That Ocrn«:<ili. 

Alonn the edge cf the "nay jiisr west of the 
w'.s'ern extreinity of the present Parliament 
House grounds formeily ran a shingly tvach 
(fa width siiflieient to admit cf thepassngc 
of vehicles. Jiiek of this bench was ilie elitr, 
tx'endiiig along the bay front, fifteen or 
twenty tei'i i'lijii at this point. The c m-" 
inis.-fariit s'ore-houses \ve;e situate 1 iieie on | 
•his l>ench — long wldte stiuenires of wood | 
with Mie shutters of the windows alwaj'S i 
clo-ed i mil oa a levcd with the bav, yet I 
li'ivinj: an pntra!u:(! in thi- re'ir by a narrow 
£r:»iii,'w,iy from the elifT above on whicli close ; 
hy u,is the guard house, a small bniliiin<; , 
painted adnn c(dour with a riM)f of one slope j 
inclining 'o the south aud an arotied stoop i 
or veraiidali open to the nor h. A ligtit ■ 
bridee over a deep ■watercourse led up to the | 
guard" houst'. Here a sentrT was m^w to be 
seen pacitig up .'.ml down. Over otiier lie- 
prt!S.sii>iiS or raviivs eicse by here were b'ng 
to be seen some ]>ia' forms or flo red areas 
(f stout plank. Th'S- were said to 1 

the site of the naval building yard wh^re an 
unfinished ship of war and the materials col- 
looted for the construction of otlieis were 
destroyed when the United States' forces 
took possession o' York in 1813. It apjie us 
that Col. .los'ph flmichotte had jus; li, en 
pointing (Ut fothe Govcrnnmnt tlie exp".-ied 
condition of the public property here. In 
his Biitisii Nordi America he remarks thai 
"thedtfeiicidess situation of York, tfie mode 
of its cap'ure and tlio destruc'ioii of the 
iarL'e ship then on the stocks were but too 
prophetically demonstrated in my v p.)rt to 
iieadcpiarters in Lower Canada on mv return 
from I rcsponsinle mission to tlie caDital of 
the Upper Tiovince in th' early part of 
April. Indo' (I tlie communication of the 
result of my rt connoitring opcrationsand the 
intelligence of the successful invasion of 
Yrrk and the filing of the new ship by the 
enemy were receivedalmost simultaneously. "' 
The GoTeii or-in-cliief. Sir (ieorL'e Pre- 
Tost, was blameii for haTing pcrmitteii a 
frigate to be laid down in an unprotecred 
position. '• Veritas" a correppondeiu of the 
-Montreal Ih'rald in ISl"), s lys that there was 
;i " sfiking impr' piiety in building at York 
wii houi provid; lit; t lie means of sec'irity t here 
as the works i f do ence ptojected by CJen-^ 
eral l{ioek — when he contemplated bt^tore the 
war the removal of the naval depot from 
Kingston to York by reason of the prox- 
imity of tlie former to the Sta'es in water. 
by the tee— were discontinmd by of 
Sir George Prevosr that is — and r re- 
sumed, The position intended to liave been 
fnriitied by General Brock. ne.Tr Yoik, was 
capable ot being mtide very strong had his 
plan been exicutcd, but as i: was not nor 
any o:h r plan of defence adoped, a ship- 
yard without protection became an al ure- 
mtnt to the en my as was felt to the coat of 
th' inhabitants o' York." 

On the 28. h ( f iX'cember, 1S3;?, the inte- 
1 io ot t!ie commissariat st( re decorated with 
fligs was the scene of the first charitable ba^ 
zaar held in the.-e narta. It was foi the r-^- 
iief of distress occasioiit d bv a recent visi- 
tation of cholera. The enterpii;-e svas t?e- 
markab'.y snecessinl. Sibl aid's Ciuiailiiin r.i itie foilowiag January say- of 
It :" •• All the fastiionab.e and we l-distv.s- 
ed Atteniied ; the baud of the gallant 'yth 
played, at each table stood a lady an i in a 
sliort time all the articles were soul 

Tins • were said to he 
spaces occupied by different portions of the | very 

renowned r.anva.s- house of G>iveriior Simeoe. | protitiibly to gentlemen, 
:» structure mannfactuied in London and I »» the apple of their eye the ttungs 

made and pn .rented by suon hands. Ihe 

who will keep 

"nee the pro|>-rty (jf Captain Ct)ok, the eir- 
onimiaTigator. Tiu^ convenience < f its plau 
and th»! hospitality for whicfi it tiflorded 
room were favourite topics among the c.'rii- 
p.inions of the Governor. Someway to the 
'■ast of the comniisBaritit 3t(>re bouses was 

sum CO lected on tnia rcv.asion was three 
hundred nr.d eleven piuixis. The h.'iKiar 
was under the patronage of Lady Gdhorne. " 
H rewith is piesei t' d a f:-ic simile of a pieei! 
of music call.'d The Raven PKime, wnt'eii 


I : 















??■ ■: 







•^Kr^ 11. 



1 1 M'-i 

i V 





I J- - 










for that occasion by Jam a M. Cawdoll, 
dedicated to Misa Mary Powell and sung by 
J. E Gojdsoii. L iciy Colborne, of course, 
was the wife of Lieutenant-Governor Sir 
Jolin Cdlborno-Lord S- aton, Mi-s Mary Pow- 
ell \va^ tho dau);i)ter of Cliicf JiiBtice Pow- 
e'i, Ml. J. M. C^wdell ^\as a w. ll-knowi 
local pioiicor of literatutf. He puljlished 
for a i'hort time a maKazine of liglu reading 
ontitUd Ihe Hose Harp, tlie bulk of wliicii 
confiistcd of cractful compositions in verse 
and ptOBf by himself. Mr. Cawdcll had 
bciii :in officer in the army. Through the 
fricnds'lnp of Mr. Justic;; Macaulay, attcr- 
ward Sir James, he wu» appointed lihrarian 
ami sern^tary to tlip Law Society of O-'goode 
Hull. He died in 1842. 


The ItnllillDC At the North-\«>«t Corner or 
rhiirrh aud il,«lelalile Str<M'is. 

A lod brick buildini; s ands at the north- 

Tiie house which is of two stories and of 
good size was built about 1832 by a tailor, 
named Hunter, who carried on his busiuesa 
there and also occupied it as a residenca. 
fn 1837 it was the residence of Hugh Scobie, 
the proprietor of the lirilixh Ci)bmisl. 
Alter his death the bulding wa.s 
converted it into a hotel. Since t len 
it has br;en used as a saloon for the 
greater part of the time. When the 
house was being renovated, on r< mov- 
ing the paper from the wall in the front rjom 
looking out on Adela'de 8trep»^, an •ich. 
stretching trom tiie floor nearly to tho c il- 
ing, painted on the plaster wa.s disci ve eil 
OD the south wall, showing that the apart- 
ment had once been used as a lodge room. 



An Orariinlzntion or Mllltia KHtablished 
Here In 1798-lU OIHccrs. 

In 1798, while the Hon. Peter Russell was 
acting as the President of the Council, be- 
twi en the withdrawal of Governor S incoe 
and the appointment; of the Hen. Peter 


W'?' corner of Ciiurch and Adelaide streets 
opposite tlic public library, which few per- 
•0116 it'inemlxir aa anything beside a saloon. 

Hunter aa president, it was decided that 
there i-lioiild bo a retriment (f militia ostab- 
lisiiedat York. Accordingly an Ordcr-ia« 

I \^ 


r I 







council w)s passed, anil Hon. D. W. Smith, 
Sarvtvor-O.Mieral. appointfil colon- 1. 
The CO onel then drafC'.-a the following itfi- 
cer« who were pl.i3.Hl on the rrcoula and 
ajpr-veil by the rresident-in-Counoil, aa 

fo.l( ws : 

The Ho '. n. \y. J=mlth. Cor 

John m. 1, I..,.. J. !•• -•'-■'•\?f. '^o """l.'^' cap uiu m ihc ISritish mihtia, 

Lieut. -I'ui. 
Major- V'leant. 
Dfi)Utv-l.icnteimnts-\\ n-.. .Inrvis. Ksq.. pvo- 

fpssinctohavethe (Joveruors* conunis.Mon as 
(ieinitv-lieuteiiani ami colonel of the > orii 
militia, Ka-l lliunis,'. 

IMehinl licasley, Ksq., J. l\. inennur of I'ar- 
lianieiit. West f.idinf,'. 

To lie eaptuir.s- Mr. ^\ m. (irahant, foriner)v 
a captain i'li the Kins,''s .service anil now on 

half pay. 

Mr Kreil. Baran de I.aen, formerly a cantain 
in tl • lerinan troops, einniojed by liisMn.iesty. 

FJicnard I'.easley. I'm).. nicinl>fr <.r I'ariia- 
ment, now captain in the Lincoln militia. 

John Wilson. K.sii,. .1. 1'.. formerly captain of 
militia in Nova Scotia. 

.Mr Win. t'l.Hwitt. nf the Mirvevor-tieiicral s 
Department, formerly ciipi^iin ;>( niili;ia in ilie 
Sastern district. 

Mr. Wm. Henv.y. said to b'" alreaiU comini-- 
Bioncd. . , 

Mr. George Playter. a L. K. Loyali.-l and pen- 

Mr. Thomas I'.idoiit. lietiteiiant, from the 
Lincoln militia. 

Mr. .\ lex. Burns, .secretary to his Honotir the 

Mr. H<?,n.i;-i;iiiii Mallorv, sou-iii-la'.v to the late 
Mr. I)a.vti''n, 

To b(» lit lUcnaiirs : 

Mr. "john henijon, formcily illlcer in the 
British mili;ii. 

Mr. W. Allan, liout. from the Lincoln militia. 

George l'lii>hi;!m, lOsq.. .in<=iico of the peace. 

Mr. Alexand'^r Wood, mrreliant. 

Mr. Jacob llerann'r, merchant, brithcr-iii- 
law of the Hon. It H. 

Mr. Kdwaid Wri'^lit, formerly qiiarterm istcr 
Qneen'ts iianKeis. 

Mr Ariliibald Cameron, merchant, foiiiicrly 
ei'ureant of the Queens Uanyers, 

Mr. Tiiiimas Barry, metvliaiii. 

Mr .-^anmel Heron, uuTchant. 

Mr, Archibald Thomson, formerly & militia 

Mr. \Vhcelcr Douglas, merehant miller. 

Al^'crmaii, said lo 1m' ciMinis-ioni iL 

To bo cnsignH : 

Mr. Jame^ lUi(?Kle.s. merchatit, nep>iew of |{. 
G. Uugiili' . 

Mr. (.amble, from Inland, merchant. 

,Mr. John Tenhrorh. u: Majnr Ti'iibrofh. 
"Mr. Samuel I), t^i/eiw. son nf Capi. Cuzens 
and a-,-,isiant in fiTretary's ollii'e. 

Mr. A. 'I". UiiK^les, merchani, nephew of H. 
Q. Uni:(,'les. 


Mr..\le\-. Maenah, ro be ad it. wit 1. rank of liini*. 

Mr. Abler .Miles, to be ( crnia^ter. 

(ii.M" Ki; (■( i\. 


nr Rrslon nf I pprr > one« Strrri Mlili ji 
Fall .(rroiint nr OaTiil nilUoii »n<l llu 
Sect, ihe IbiMrrii ot I'rnrp. 

After passing the rej;ioiiof the Oik Rulg. son 

Yonco street, at the point whei-e Newmnr- 
ki t came in vjew toward the east, ,v Lrgn 
portion of the traffic ot Yonpe street turn, d 
asiile tor a certain distance out of the 
straiijlit route to the north in that dircetion 
Ahoiu tlii.s ]ioiir, the anccnt dwel'iTs ,it 
York, used to take c.ote of signs th.i tiicy 
had passt d into a higher latitnde. Ililf •( 
(tegree to tne .south ot their homes, a^ X..'.« 
g.^ra for txair.pie, tney were in tlie land, if 
not of the citrsn and myrtle, certain. v of 
the ttiliptree ami pawpaw, whet" tb.' eiiii)!f. 
chestnut trrew plentiliiily in tlie nitnra! 
wo (!3 and the pe.u'li Inxutiantly tl iiii-ii ,1, 

Now, halt a tl L'l''- tb e other w;iy ;n Mn' 
tramontane regicn, north of the R ilg.'s, 
thi y found ;h<Mnselve8 in the pri Heiic of a 
Vi^i.'tation tliat spoke of an advance, hcw- 
ev( r minute, towards the pole. 11 r<' ali 
along rlie wayside be.uitiful .specimens o: tin 
spruce, pirn', and balsam fir, strangers in 
tin» lorest abont York, were eiicouiut rul. 
Sweeping the sward wi'. h the . drorping 
branches and senditig up thtir dark green 
spires high in the air, tiiese trees w. le al- 
ways regarded witn iirerest and de-i;.'d ri.s 
gractful obj e's wuriiiy 'o be transiened ;o 
thi' lawn cr oriiainiital sniubliery, Tlius 
writrs l)r. il.'iiry Seadding to win m we ,ire 
iniiiliidl fur this chapter on X>'wmai k. t 
and Sii.iron. 

.\ little wiy otTtlte road rn the left, jus' 
bilori' the turn leading to Ni wmarke"-, w,is 
tne great ynaker meetinL.' house, of 'hi.? 
ri'^jion — 'he Friends' meetiiig-honse. abii M- 
iiig of the ns( fn; plain cast, gen<' set n 
witii its .«ol;.l shut;"rs closed up. Tins wis 
the successur of the fiist Quakir niriirg 
house in Upper Ca.iada, Hir> .^l . .1 's. iili 
.I'.hn (JuMiiy. t:.i' < ininent Fnglisii 1^»iii1;.t. 
will •tavciltnl on tins con; inetit :n l^ilT 4il. 
delivered several addresse?) with a view 
espceiaily to the reuniting, if jio.ssiblo, of 
the ()itti()dox and the Hicksites. 

(!'>iii ay 111 his " .S atistical Acccnnt nf 
Upper Canada," took note that ilii.s Qn.k'r 
incf t aiL' -home and a tnodirn eh pd at 
lI"L".:;s Hollow. belon{:iiig to tiie Cbuoh of 
Kiigl.aiiil. weri" the only two placen if woi - 
hIii|i o be seen on Yonge street li-;wreii 
Yi I'k and the Hoditid Luidini:, a d:s' uier, 
hi' says, of neariv forty miles. Tins was in 

Following now the wiiecj marks of clear^ 
Iv the ni.ij'.rity of tcIih.Ii s iraveilitig on the 
street, We turn as'de to N'Wrntrket. 

Nwmaiket had for its germ, or 'lucleus, 
he riiills and stores of Mr. E isha liaman, 
who emi^rateii hitlier from tiie state ni Ni w 
York 111 ISOO Here also on the branch of 
tne Holl.uMi Riv.r, mills .it an early date 
Were established by Mr. Morde.'ai MilUrd 
and taiinernH by .Nlr. Josepli Hill Mr 

LANDMARKS OF lORONTO'a niilU became s-uhsequently the 
i)oper;y of Mr. Peter Kobiusoii, wiiD was 
C.'iiiiiussiouer of Crown Lauiis in 1827, iiiul 
on ■ of tiie n^presentiitivea of the united 
counties of Vork and yiincoi', and aftcrwarcis 
liic piopcriy of Ins brotlur. Mr. W, B. 
]v)b.ll^on, who for a timo resid'^^d hero, and 
lor a miniber of year:* r. prfainUi^d the 
couiuy "t Simcoe in tiie Provincial I'arlia- 
iiK'ii:. Most gtMitit men tiavcUiug north, or 
to the north- west, broUf:!lit with tiicm from 
fiiiiMs in York, a note of con.mendatiou to 
Mr Robinsv)n, wlioao friendly and iiospl- 
labie dispod.tiou was weli-knowu. Gov- 
ernors, commodores and commanders-in- 
oliiti oa their tour;* of pleasure oi duty, 
weiealad to find a mjmt'ntary reating-plac ; 
.1. a rctined dwm.-stic fireside. H^jre, Sir 
Juaii Frank in was ente.'tained lor som ; 
(iiys n IS.S."), and at other periods, Sir John 
Ro-saini Oiptain B ack, when ou ti.eir way 
to til" Aietic r.'fious. 

In 1847. Mr. W. B R .binsou was Com- 
missioner of Pulil c Woika. and at a later 
period, one of tlie Cliiet Commissioners of 
iii.>C.inada Company. Mr. Peter Robinson 
w:kS matnimeutal ut 8et:thn^; the region in 
whtch our C.uiadiau Peterborough is sit- 
uated, ani trom hini that townhasits name. 

A'. NewmirKet wa.< lonj; engaged in pros- 
Pluus business, Mr. John Cawthra, a lufui- 
ix 1 (if tile millionaire f.iinily of that name. 
M ■ ,]ohn Cawthra was tiie first represen.a* 
tive 111 the Provincial Parliainen: of tlie 
County of Simcoe, after the separation from 
tie Comity oi York. In 1812, Mr. John 
Ciwtiira and his brother Jonatlian, were 
iiiuoiii,' tile volunteers wiio offered tiiim- 
Selves for the deter. ce ot tiie country. 
ThouL'ii by nature inchued to peace, they 
were :iup Hid to this by a sincere sense of 
du'y. At, Detroit, John assiaud in convey^ 
iiiC across ihe river in soows tlie lieavy guns 
wtiici were expecte'i to be wan'od in tiie 
iittaek on the fort. On the slopes at Qu'eii- 
stun, •loiiti nan hiul a hair-breadth e.~cape. 
A' th diiic'ion of his officer, he moved 
iiom the rear to the front of his compiny, 
giviii.^ place to a comrade, who, tiie follow- 
iiic iiisiant, had a portion of hiS leg earned 
away by a .ihot from Fort Gray, on the op- 
posite side of the river. Also at Qieen- 
fctoii. John, after personal y cautioning Colo- 
nel Mj,cdoiiell against rashly exposing hini- 
eelf at he se'nn-d ti) be do;ng, was calli d on 
.'I few minutes afterwards to aid in c.iri>ing 
iliai, ( nicer to the rear, mortally wounded. 

With Newniaikei , too, i« a*a icialed IIih 
rjaiBi( 1 M . William Roe, am reliant, tiien 
Binee 1814, etigag'd at one tiiiK! largely in 
tlH! fur ir.ide. It was Mr Roe who saved 
from capture a co^asidttrabh' portion of the 
public funds, when York f •!! into the hands 

of G.Tiieral DearbornandCommodoreChaun- 
cey in 181.3. Mr. Roe was at tlie time au 
employee in the office of the Receiver Gene- 
ral, Prid'aux Selby, and by the order of 
Geiural Sheaflfa and the Executive Council, 
he conveyed three bags of gold and a large 
sum in army bills to tne farm of Chief Jus-' 
tice R;>biuson, on tlie Kingston road, east 
of the Don bridge and theie buried them, 

The army bills were afterwards delivered 
up to the enemy, but the gold remained se- 
creted until aftet the d pariure of the in 
Taders and was handed over to the authori- 
ties in Dr. Strachan's parlour by Mr. Roe 
The Rjcjiver-General's iron chest was also 
removed by Mr. R le, and deposited on the 
premises of Mr. Donald McLian, clerk of 
the House of Assembiy. Mr. McLean was 
killed while bravely opposing tlie landing 
of the Ame; leans and tiis house waa plun- 
dered, tiie strong chest was broken open 
and about one thousand silver dollars were 
taken therefrom. 

Tiio name of Mr. Roe's partner at NiiW- 
matket, Mr. Andrew B irlaud, is likewise 
associated with the taking of York in 1813. 
He was m uie prisoner in the D>;ht and in 
the actual striigple againft cap: ure, he re- 
ceived six or seven riflj wounds, from the ef- 
fees of which he never whol y recovered. 
He had also been engaged at Queenston and 

In th;; report of the Loyal and Patriotic 
Societj' of Upper Canada, we have aa entry 
made of a donation of sixty dollars to Mr. 
Andrew Borland on the 11th of June, 1813, 
with the note appended : "The Committee 
of the Loyal and Patriotic Sacie y voted 
his sum to Mr. B)rlHnd for his p.itriotic 
and I'minent services at Detroit, Queenston 
and York, at whicii latter place he was se- 
vrely wcumled. " 

We also learn from the repot t that Mr. 
D'Arey Boulton had presented a petition to 
tli< Society in favour of Mr. Borland. The 
members of coiiimitte.> present at the m et» 
iiig held June 11th, 1813. were Rav. Dr. 
S raehan. Chairman ; Wil.iam Chewett, 
Esq.. William Allan, E^q., J.hniSmal, Esq. 
and Alex. Wood, E-q., 8 cretary, and the 
minutes stat ■ that " the petition of D'Arey 
Boul on, K-q., .i number of the Society in 
laTour ol Andrew Borland, was taken into 
consideration and the sum of sixty dollars 
was voted to him on account of hi.'' patriotic 
and eminent services at Dciroi , Queenston 
and York, at which latter place he was 
most severely wounded." Mr. Borland had 
been a clerk m Mr. Boullon's store. In the 
order to pay the money signed by AU«an- 
der Wood, Mr. Borland is styled " a volun- 
teer in the York Miiiiia." He afterwards 
had a pjuBiou ot twenty pounds a year. 



lit ■ 


It. ' 





In 1838, his patriotic ardour was not 
quenciied. Durmy the troubles of tlwit pe- 
riod, lie undcriouk the command of 200 In> 
dians, wiio voluntctrt'd to figli"; in de- 
fence of thi- C iwii of England if thire 
should be nc< i!. Tlioy «• it- stationed for 
a time at the Holland Lindirg, but their 
services were not rtquirtd. 

From bemp endowed with great energy of 
character .ind liaving iilso ii familiar know- 
ledye of the natire dialects, Mr. Boiliiud 
Nad gnat ii.lluence witli the Indian tribi s 
ii'rquentine m- coasts of Lakes Huron and 
Siineoe. Mr. Roe, likewise in his dealing-! 
with the aborijjiues, Sad aeijuirtd a consid' 
erahle facility in speakint' the Otchibway 
dialect and had much influ nee » ith the 
ua lives. 

Let us not omik to record, too, that at 
Newmarket not very many years sinee, was 
snecesstully practising a grandson of Sir j 
William Ijlackstone. the commentator on 
the Inws of En^'land, Mr. Henry Ulickrttone, 
whose eonspicuous talents gave promise o' 
an eminence in his profession, not unworthy 
or the nam ■ he bore. But his career was 
cut short by de ,tli. 

The varied ehirac er of colonial society, 
especial y in its early crude sriite, the living 
elements inixe.i up in it and ths curicnis 
changes and interchanges that take p ace in 
£he course of its dcveiopnieiit and conaol;- 
dation receive iliustra; ions from rccKsias- 
tieal, as w.ll as civil, annals. 

We. ours"lvi*.s, remember the cimich edi- 
fice of ihi' Aiglican comiuunion at Newmar- 
ket, when u was an unpiastered, unlame 1, 
clapboard shell, haring lepeatedly offic ai.-d 
in r., while in ilial s age of its existence. 
Since then, the congregation ivpnsented by 
that eiapboaru shvil, have Had as pastor-", 
men like the following : a graduati? of 
Tiiniry College, Dublin, not undistinguish- 
ed in hi.s University, a prot. gt; of the fa- 
mous Aiehbi.-hop Magec, a co-worker for a 
t m of the distingniiihed Dr. Walter Far- 
quhar Hook o." L i-d?, niid minister ot on.' 
of the nimltrii elinrciies then-, th'; Rev. R >- 
b^rt Taylor, aft' iwa.tds ol I'et.-rborouch, 
nire in C.nada. And .since h's incumli. ney 
they have been miiiistt red to by a form' r 
vicar of a piomineiit cliurch in London, S . 
Michael's, Burleigh strc-t, a depend'tuy (if 
St. Martin's ,n Tr.ifaik'ar Sijuare. the R v. 
Stptimus Rainsav, wiio w,is also long ih" 
ciiie! .sicretayand man igcr of a well- 
Known C 'ionial Mission. ry Socuty, wiiicli 
iiad its lieadquariera in Ljndon. 

Wliilf on the orhe- tiaid an mterrening 
pastor of the same congi-' gttinn, educated 
lor tl;e ministry here mi Canada, and admit- 
ted to li'ly orders here, was transfent.l 
ligm Newmarket, first, to the vicarage of 

Somerton, iu Somersetshire, England, inul 
secondly, to the rectory of Cleuchwardeu 
in the County of Not folk in England, the 
R'.'V. R, Athill. And another intervenint; 
incumbent was, after having been also 
trained for the ministry and admitted to or- 
ders liere in Can.ada, eaileil subsequently to 
clerical work in the United States, b.^ing 
finally appointed one of the canons of the 
Cathedral Church at Chicago, by Bishop 
Wuitehouse, of Illinois. Tuis was the Rev. 
G. C. Street, a near relative of tile distiin 
guislu d English architect of that name, dc- 
siirner and builder of the new law courts in 
L M'dou, 

As to the name Newmarke% in its adop» 
tion, there was no desire lo set up in Caiia- 
da, a memorial of the famous English Caiii- 
bridgeshire racing tov'n. Tlie title choseii. 
for the place was an announccnicnt to thi.( 
eff.ct,: Here is an additional mart for tti%, 
convenience of an increased population, a 
place where farmers and ochers may pur^- 
chase and exchange commodities without 
being at the trouble of a journey to Yorker 
elsewhere. Tlie name of the Canadian N w- 
niarket in facr, arose as probably that of tiie 
English Newmarket itself arose when tiist 
eitablisiie 1 as a iiewly-upened place of tiade 
for the prnnitivi' farmers and other-i of Aii- 
gliaanii Mercia in the Ana o-Saxon nerioil 
It deserves to be added that th" English 
Ch'Mch at Newmarket was years ago to 
some extent endowed by a cene.-ous gift of 
valuable laud made by Dr. H-wiek, a 
bachelor medical man, whose large, whi'e 
house on a knoil by the wayside, was always 
noted liy the traveller from York, as lie 
turned aside from Yoiige street for Newniar- 

Proceeding onwards now from Newmar- 
ket, we spe (My come to the villug.' cf 
Sharon, or lioi;e, as it was once iiarneil, 
situated also off the direct northern ruute 
of Yong ■ street. 

David Willsoii, the great notability ami 
founder of the place, had been in his youni;- 
er davs a sailor, and as .such had visited ;he 
Chinese jx rts. After joining the Quakers, 
he taught for a tim* amongst them as a 
schoolmaster. For some proceeding of his, 
or for sime peculiarity oi religious opinion, 
he was cu*^ off from the Hieksite 8ul>>ii v.- 
si.m of the Quaker boily. He then JK-gi'i 
the formation of ,i den'.minati..n of Ins own. 
Ill the bold p'lliey of giving to his perhoiia' 
ideas an outwiid embodiment in the form 
01 a conspicu(.us temtde, he anticipate d tn.' 
shr .vd prophets or the Mormons, Josepli and 
Hiram Sinitli Wil'.son's buihiing was 
erected about IS'J."). Naiivoo was not cjni- 
nieiu'. d until til'- i^pring of 1840. 

In ;i little paniplilet, pubii-liLd at I'liila- 





('.elphia. ■» 1815, Willson gives the follow- 
Hit; nficount ot himself. He bays : I, the 
wM;<!r, was born of Prtsbyfjriau pannts in 
tin; coiiulv of Dutches^, State oi New York 
ill North America. In 1801, I removed witli 
my family into this Pioviuce — Uppi^r Caiia- 
dii— and after s ftiw years beca'i.e a member 
oi ri,e Society of the Quaksra at my own 
n quest as I chose a spiritual ptcple for my 
Kehren and bisters in religion. But after 
1 liuu bee n a member thereof aiiout aeveu 
years, 1 liegan to speak sometlnng of my 
kiiowledtre of God or a Divine Being in the 
licnri, soul, or mind of man, uU which sit;- 
ii'fiea I lie same thing to my understanding, 
hut my language was offensive, my spirit 
was abliorreii, iny pi rson was disda ned, my 
company was forsaken by my brethren and 
siiters. After which I retired from the So- 
ciety and was disowned by them for so 
dciuf;, but several reiiied wih me and were 
disowned, also because tiiey wouldnot unite 
in the disowning and condemning the fruits 
of my spirit, for as J had been accounted a 
iaittitul member of the Society for mam 
yiars, they did not like to be hasty in oon- 
dtinnation. 'Iherefore we became a separ* 
itt people and assembled ourselves together 
uiulei' a separate order which I immediately 
formed. After I retired from my forme'' 
Hirelings, a3 our discipline lid to peace with 
all pi'ople more th III inyoiie in my know 
letlgp, we called oi.vbiives Children of i'eace 
b<;causu we were but /tung therein. 

Tiie following ace )iiiiL ot the Temple 
(rected by Wilison at S'laton is by a visitor 
to the village in 18S5, Mr. P^vtricii Siiireff, 
who ill Ills "Tour ihcougii Noriii America, ' 
pubiislnd at Hdiiiburgh in 1835 fcays : Tiie 
iii'ihliiuj is of W(»od, painted wliite external- 
ly, aeveii y feet high, and consists of thrr 
stonys. The first is six y tee: square with, 
a door 111 the centre of each side an:l three 
larije vrindows on each side of tjie door. On 
t\Ti) Shies there is a representation of the 
netting mil and the word "Armageddon" in- 
sciibed below. The secouci storey is twen- 
ty-seven feet square with three windows on 
I ucli Bide and the thud stor'j' nine feet 
iqiiare witli eiie window on each sule. The 
c rners of each of the stories are terminated 
by .-quare lanei us with trilded mountings 
aiiLltiie tei niiiiation of liic building isa giiil> 
cd ball of considerable size. The interior 
was fi Ifii with Wooden ciiairs placed round 
Bi>;teen pillars, in the centre ot which is a 
square cabimt ot iihi'li 'va.iiut with a door 
and windows on eacli side. Tlii're was a 
table in the centre of the cabinet covered 
with blaciv velvet hung witli erim.sou metino 
and triune in which was deposited a Bible. 
On the tour ceirral piUais were painted tin; 
words Kaith, Hope, Chanty and Love, and 

on the twelve others the names of the Apos- 
tles. The central pillars seemed to support 
the second stor< y and at the foot of each 
was a table covered with green cloth. The 
house was withcjut ornament, being paiuted 
fawn green and white and had not a pulpit 
or place for addressing an audience. It is 
oc>;upied once a month for colleetingchai i y 
and contains 2,952 panes < f glass and u 
lighted once a year with 116 caudles. 

The materia s o' the frame work of the 
Temple Dr. Scadding continm s, were pre- 
pared at a distance from the site and run 
rapidly up as far as possible without noise 
in imitation of the building of Solomon's 
Temple. By the side rf the principal edi- 
ficj stood a structure, 100 feet by 50 feet, 
used for ordinary meetings on Sundays. Ou 
the first Friday in S ptember used to be an 
annua! feast when the Temple was illumi- 
nated. In it was an organ built by Mr. 
Coaies of York. 

There was a local mi mbership of the Chil- 
dren ot Peace lu York and at stated inter- 
vals services were tield here iu the old court 
house on Riclimond street, at Lawrence s 
hotel and in the small brick schoolhou«e on 
Bikeley street. Considerable crowds as- 
bembled on these occasions and once a panic 
arose as preaching was going on iu the pub« 
lie room of Lawrence's hotel ; the jois^ts of 
the fluor were heard to crack, a rush was 
made to the door and several leaped out of 
the windows. A favourite topic of Willson's 
was "Public Affairs, their Total Depravity," 
eoupled with denunciations of the -o-calied 
Family Compact. Into these points, Mr. 
Willson would euter with great zest. When 
waxing warm in his discourse he would 
sometimes, without interrupting thetiow of 
his words, suddenly throw oil his coat and 
suspend it ou a nail or pin in the wall, wav- 
ing about with freedom during the residue 
01 his oration a pair of sturdy arms arrayed 
not indeed in the dainty liwn of a bishop, 
but in stout, well-bleached American lac- 
tory. His adduss was divided into sections 
between whicli hymns ot his own c»omposing 
were sun^, by a company of feinafcs, iliess- 
ed in white, sitting cai one side, acccinpa- 
uied by a baud of iiiusic:.irustrumeuts on the 

David was an illiterate mystic as his writ- 
ings show. At the elose ut the War oi ISlt, 
he appears to have been under the luipreo- 
sion that the Governm'Ut designed to ban- 
ish him as a seditious person. He aeeoro* 
iiigly published a doeuineut iieprecaiing 
isucn action. Tlle,-^e are extraots from it. 

Address to thy crown, O, Eiiglatici, and 
thy great name. I write as liUows to all 
the inhabitants thereof. After I have writ- 
ten 1 will leave God to judge between you 

M lii 


P i !. 

> ^ 

'■ t .■' 

1 jlS 




i ■'''■ 

aud tne uud also to make judges of yo.i, 
whctner you will receive my iniuiHtry in 
your laud in peace, yea or nay. Y») are 
pit at ludeed. 1 oaimot h-lp that, neithfr do 
1 '/an: to, but am willing yi- should n mam 
pi'.iat in the sifihi of Goii, a^thougii 1 am 
bur small iu the tilings, ihoieo;. Now ciiooae 
w iiciiicr I siiould or migh: bi- your siTvant 
in iLese inings, yea or nay. As 1 think it 
wouid bj a sliame to:- a inniister to be ban^ 
ishid ticm your nation by preaching tiie 
^'ospel ot peace therein. J am a man under 
the visitation of God's powiT in yoar land 
and niany scandalous repurts are in circula- 
tion against me. Tne inti nt u: the spirit ot 
the ti.iiig IS to put me to fligat from your or that I slinul.l be imprisoned 
ti.ert'iu. For wliicli cause I as a dut ful sub- 
ject make myseil kii'iwn Hereby unto you of 
gr^-at I'btato in the world lest your ni:nds 
should ijc affected and stirred up against me 
without a cans • by your int riors, m iio a-'tk 
to du ivil to tiic Works of IJod wiiriu;vi.r tne 
Almiglity is trying ;o do you gooii. 

In some versus uf tlie sain.; date as this 
address to the home au'horities in ISl"), he 
refers to tiia peril he supposed himself to be 
in. A ItW stanzas will .-uliij as a spei-inieii 
cf his productions. Tiius he sings : 

The powers of heil are now combined 

Wiih war airuinst imp ra^'e. 
But :n my Goil my soul's realigned 

The rock of every at;e. 

iotne then (Uith sit in Kintj's estate 
.*iid some oi earth mii-t !<erve 

Ann some hath yrold ami silver jilate 
When others almost starve. 

The earth doth hunger for my blood 

.\nd ^atan lor my smii, 
And men my flesh tor daily food 

That they may me control. 

If God doth •j:ive what I receive 

I he ^unii; ii) uuc to ttjee, 
And iliou m spirit must believe 

In Kos>>el liberty. 

It's iilso mine by George our Kinjf 

The ruler of my daj, 
And yet if I di>hoiiour briiij.' 

Cut sliort my locble stay. 

For thi.s is in your hearts to do 

Ye inferiors of the earth. 
Ana it's in uuiie to do so too. 

And stop that cursed birth. 

The styie ot a volume styled " Iinpres- 
eions, " a kind of Alcoran, w used to be 
sold to visitors iu the Temp.e, does not. rise 
much above the foregoing ether iu its versj 
or prose. 

In '• Oinada aa it Was, Is, and May Bi'," 
Captain Bonnycastlu thus sp.aks of D»vid 
Willson ; A" a short distance irom New- 
market, which is about, three iniies to the 
ngnt of Youge uearita termiualiou at 

the Holland Linding on a river of that 
uame, running into Lak-i Simcoe, isasettl ■ 
ment of nligioiia mlhuiiasta who have 
chos.n the most, ferule part of Upper Cana^ 
da, tho country near and for nules round 
Newmarket for the seat of their earthly la- 
beruacle. 11 -re numbers of deluded people 
have placed tliemselves under the tempuril 
and spin ual cliarge of a higli priest, wiia 
calls himself David. His real name is Uavid!). The Temple, as the building ap- 
propriated to the celibration of tiieir rites is 
callea, is served by this man who .iflicts a 
primitive dress and has a train ot virgin 
miuistiants cloihed iu white. 11 ■ travels 
about occasionally to preach at towns aim 
villages in a waggon followed l)y others, 
coviTed with white ticksclotlies, but 
Ins peculiar tenets are beyond that oi danc- 
ing and siugini; and imitating Divid, tiiL- 
Kinc, 1 really cauuo; tell, for it is alto- 
gether too farcical to last long, bn Mi. 
Oavid seiuis to understand clear y as an 
tlie temporal concerns of his inta iiae<l fol 
lowers go tliat the old fashioned .sigiiilicatioii 
of moini and tnum are re igiously centered in 
his own sanctum. 

The following notice of the Children ol 
Peace occurs in Patrick Swift's A'.nanac foi 
1S34— This S iciety numbers ab.)ul '2Sl 
members iu Hope, east of Newmarkit. They 
have also stated places of pre.uhing at the 
Oil! Court House, York, on Yong strc' t anTi 
at sp akir is David 
Wiilsoii, assisted hy Murdoch MeL'od, Sam- 
uel Hughes and others. Their music, voca. 
;ind instrumental, is excellent, and iheir 
preachers seek no pay from tne Gjveruoi 
out cf the taxes. 

On v.eek days, WiUson was often to b>; 
seen like any other industrious yeoman, 
driving into town Ins own waggon, loade.i 
with tlie produce of hiS, diess^d m 
home-spun as the '• burel fo k" ot Yong' 
street gineially were. In tin' axis ot on.- 
eye th re was a slignt divergeiicv. 

Wilisoii neither won inartyrdom nor sii- 
fercd exile, but lired on in great worldly 
prospj ity in Sharon, reverenc-d by Ins ad- 
herents as a sort ot oracle and fl»tlereil hy 
attentions from successive political h aders 
on ace -unt of the iiifliunce which he migiiL 
be supp ised locally to possess, down to th'' 
year 1860, when he died, aged 89. 


Tbr 4ppraranr« ol the Creat Nerlhcra Road 
WUb Mtetcbm of Im Knrly liiliHbliaul* 
Froni Bona'it Lake lo tbr nallaHd taiidlug. 

For the following chapit r d. scriptive • f 
Yougu street and its early residents from 



Boud'B L^ke to the Holland Landiujr, wo 
art- indebted to the Ruv. Dr. Scadding who 
has made (xliauative inquiries luioihe early 
liisioiv of Yonge street trom the Buy to ita 
iippHT cxtiumity. 

Afttr leaving Bond's Lake, we now speed- 
ily pab^ed Dryuocli, off to the left on 
elevilcd liind, the abode df Capt. Martin 
McL od, formerly ot the Isle of Skye. Tlie 
laiiiily and domi alio group, syatemitized on 
a laiRt scale at Diynoch hoie, was a Ciua- 
dian I (-production ot a oliit f ain's hou8plH)ld. 

Capt. McLeod was a Scot of the Norse 
Vikingirtype ot robust, manly frame, of 
uvblc, frank and tender spirit, an 0:jsianist, 
IOC, and m the Scandinavian direction, a 
philologist. Sir Walter Scott would have 
made a study of Capt, McL -od and may have 
done so. He was one of eignr brothers, 
ntio nil held commissions in the army. His 
own military lite cxiended fn m 1808 to 
1832. As an officer hUccKsaively of tiie 27th 
79th nnd the 25tli regiment", ho 
BhW much ac ive service. He accompanied 
the Kirce sent over to this continent in the 
warof lS12-13.It was then thathe for the fi st 
time saw the land wiiich was to le iiis final 
liome. He was present iik.'Wiae at the af- 
fair at L'laitsburg and also at tiie attack on 
New Orleans'. He afterwards took part in 
tlie I'riiiinsular war and receivtd a 
mertal wuh tour clasps forToulouse, Orlhes, 
Nivc and Nivelle. He missed Wattrloo, 
un:orlunate,y, as he used to say, but he was 
present with the allied troops iu Paris dur- 
ing the occupation of that city in 1815. Of 
the "JT) h regiment, he was tor many years 
adiiuant and then paymaster. Three of his 
uncles w re general officers. 

Ir Is not iuappri'priaie to add that the 
Major MeL.od who received the honour of 
a Loinpaniouship in the Order ofSt, M;chael 
ana ^;. George for distinguished services in 
ihe Rt d iLiTer expedition of 1870, was a son 
cf Captain McLeod of Dryuoch. That in 
and abeut tlie Canadian Diynoch, daelic 
• iiiiulJ be familiarly heard was iu keeping 
with liic general character ot the piac . 
Tiif ancieiit Celtic tongue was in iact a ne- 
cessity, as among the dependents of the 
h(iisf. were always some who had 
nev.i iuirned the Euglish language. Dry- 
lue , was the name of the old hoineiu Skye, 
i'lir Skye Drynocii was on uufenced, hiliy, 
p.istuif !a' 111 of about ten miles iu ext(Ut, 
yitldm^' iiiuiimini to lurds of wi d cattle 
and snrne 8,000 sneep. Within its limits, a 
lake. Luoli Ihuckaciaie, is still the iiauiit of 
tlie otter, which is hunted by the aid of tlie 
famous terriers of the island, a mountain 
Siitam abounds with salmon and trout 
whiie the heather and bracken of the slopes 
theltcr grouae and other game. 

Whittaker in his " Hiatory of Wha ley" 
quoted by Hallam in his "Middle Ag«8," 
Uusciibes the aspect which aa he cuppoaes 
a certain portion of England presented to 
the eye as seen from the op of Pendle Hill 
in Yorkshire in the Saxon times. Th p;c» 
lure which he draws, we in Canada can 
reilizii with great perfectnesa. " Cou d a 
curious observer of th^ preaeni day, "'he says, 
" carry hmself nine or ten ceniuriea back 
and ranging tile summit of Pendle survey, 
tli» fcrked vale of Calder on one aide and 
the bu.der margins of Rbble and Hodder 
on tlie other, instead ot populous towns and 
villages the castles, the old tower built 
house, the eltgant modern mansion, the ar- 
tificial plantation, the enc osed park and 
pleasure greunil instead of uiiintt rrupted 
enclosures which have diven sterility al- to ihe summit of the fells, how great 
then must have bi en the com rust wiien 
ranging either at a distance or imm diately 
beneath his eye must have caugiit vast 
trac.a of forest groumi stagnating with bog 
or darken d by native wooda wlu-re thewild 
ox, the roe, tim atag and the wolf had 
scarcely learned the supremacy of man, 
whi n directing his view to the intermediate 
spaces, to tne wideiiinc of the vail ys or ex- 
panse of plains beneath he could only have 
distin(;uislied a few iusulat< d patciies of cul- 
ture each encircling a Village of wretched 
caliins among which m ould siiU be rt^m-iiUiul 
one mansion of wood scarcely ecjual in 
'•(imfor"- to II ino'lerii r- *<■■'■■ --o^ •' ■ i<j. 

ing proudly eminent above the rest where 
the Saxon lord surrounded by his faithful 
cotani, eiij.>ved a rude and solitary i:ide- 
p nib uce liaving no superior but hia sover< 
ef n.'' 

This writer a^ks us to carry ourselves 
ir.ui' or ten centuries back to realize the pic- 
ture whicn he has conceived. Frc-\i the 
upland here in the vicinity of, less 
iiian I alf a century ago, gazug southwards 
over the exp.nise thence to be commanded, 
we sluiild hav" brheid a scene closely re- 
seinl'linp tliat wiiicli as he supposed was 
seen freiii ihe summit of Pendhiuthe S.ixon 
days, while at tlie present day w>-see every- 
where throughou; the same expanse an ap- 
proximation to the old tr.other lands Eng- 
laiid, Sco;land aud lieland in condition and 
appearance in its style of at;rioulturrandthe 
character of its towns, villages, hamlets, 
lann houses and country viU is ! 

We now Oi-.ter a region once occupied 
by a number ot French military refuges. 
During the revolution in France at the close 
of the last century many of the devotees of 
the royal cause passed over into England 
w here as elsewlur'.' they were known and of as Emhjrcs. Amongsl them wero 






■ t'''>'l! 



i'j if 


1 1 




* I 

li i! i 

'- ■ ■ f\ 






numerous officers of the regulai army all of 
them, of course, of the uobltsse order or else, 
as the inherited rule waa, uu comniisaion in 
the King's service could have b«u thoir.J. 
When now the royal cause beuaniedt spi-rate 
and they liad suffered the loss of all their 
worldly goods the British Gorfninunt of 
the day in its sympathy for the monarchical 
cause in France oflerwd them grants of land 
in the newly organized Province of Upper 

Some of them availed themselves of the 
Eenerosity cf the British Ciown. Having 
beuu conuMdes in arms tlicy desirfd to oc 
cupv a block ot eonigiifiu^ lots. Wluisr 
there was yet almost all Wt sieni Uinada to 
choose trom by some clianco tluse Oak 
Ridges, e.-pi oially liiffieult to bring uiidur 
cultivation and suiiu what sterile, wlu-n >ub- 
dued were preforrud. partly puihaps throujjii 
tlie 11 tluenoe of sentunent, tiny may have 
diiCoVertd some rtseinblaiiee to rcgiiiiis fa- 
miliar to theinsL'lviS in their native luid. 
Or ill a moud luspirid and made lasluonable 
by 11 lussoau, they m:iy liave longed for a 
lodge in some wildcnuss wiiere tlie 
mur uleoil which liaci desci iided upon theold 
society tit Europe should no loii<,' r harass 
them. When twit ed by the passing way- 
farer who had selicttdland in a mure pro- 
pitious siuation tii.y would pour to the 
gigaiiiie boli a of the surrouiuiing p ncs in 
prmif of tile intrinsic excill'iioe of the soil 
beldw which tmist be gooil, tlay said, to 
nouiish such a veg-ta' ion. 

After all, liowever, this particular locality 
may iiavo bei'n seiecti-d rather fir tliem than 
by liu m. On the early map oi 1798. a range 
of niu- lots on eacri sub- of Y'lige street, 
just liere in the Ridges is< :ed and 
marked ■' Frencli Koya ists by order of his 
Honour'*, e. th. Prcsdciit, P-ter Russell. A 
postsciip; to the O'az'ttccr of 17"J'.) givMs tiie 
readt r the lutorinaiioii that " iimls iiave 
Dem app I'pnatrd in the rear of York as a 
refiig- for some Frtncti Royalists, and their 
set'leiiient has ccininenc'-d " 

On the V.tugiiaii side. N >. 56, was occu- 
pieil coi jointly by Michel Faiizcn and 
Fraiici- R"iieou.>:, No. T)?. by Julieiid- Bugle, 
No. 58 by Pi, ni Aug C'Unte le Cli.ilus. Ain- 
bois de Fney aini (,!uetlf)n St. (! eon- 
jointly, N '. 59 i>y Qiulton St. Ueorgf, No. 
60 bj J< mi Louis Viccine des Clia u-. In 
King, No. 61 by Rill Aug Coin:e u. Chalua 
and Augu line B';it'.'ii conj^.m, !y. On the 
Maruiiam side. No, 52 is Ovciipied Ijy x\v 
Cointo de Pui.-aye, No. 53 by R.iii Aug 
Comte d Cii ilns, No. 54 by J. an Loui- V'l- 
c .nite lie Ciialus and R in Aug <'ouitr li,- 
Chains, o njinntly. No. 55 by Je.ui L'UJ-' 
Viconu d" Ciialu«-. No, Oti by la Cieva'ier 
de Marseuil uau Michael F.inchard ounjuiui- 

ly, No. 57 by the Chevalier de Marseuil, No. 
58 by Reni Leiourueaux, Augustine Boiiou 
and J, L. Vicomte de Chalus tunjointly. 
No. 59 by Quetton St. George and Jean 
Furon conjointly, No. 60 by Ambtpiae do 
Farcy. In Whitchurch, No. 61 by Michel 

After felling the trees in a few acres of 
tiieir respective allot uients some of these 
Emiijrea withdrew from tfie country. ll«iico 
111 liie Ridges was to be seen here ami there 
the rather unu.-^ual sight of abandi ned clear- 
ings returning fi a state of nature. 

Janw a Sirachaii, the brother of Hatjop 
Strachau, wiio visited York in 1819, de- 
cr;bes the process of obtaining grants of 
land. He sayu that the enugrant coming to 
York reports at the Lieutonant-Uoviiuor'a 
office and shows that he has come fr<jni some 
?'>art 01 the United Kingdom and cwn by the 
Knclish laws 1 old land. Ho then takes the 
oain of allt t'sauce and make s a petition for a 
crain aniouu: of the waste lands ot tho 
Crown. H'' is ih' n referred totlieSurveyor 
(iciieral to see if any person has eser been 
granted the lamis api>lied for. It not tho 
petition is read to tlie Council and the Lieu- 
teiimtvClovenur is lecomnirnded to _-r;iiit 
ttie prayer of tlie p tuiomr for 100, 200 
and lU S'lne s 400 and 600 and eveii I'JOO 
acres. Tue lands are grained on condition 
that they cannot be disposed of fo; three 
years, and tha' dve acres on eich one luiu" 
drcd acri 8 gr.inte<l must be cleareU and also 
lia.f the roadway in iront of ttie same imisC 
b ■ cleared bt .'ore the deed is i.ssui'd. Mr. 
Strachan tli' n gives tlie fees which niu.-<t bo 
paid to tht< (i >v rnmeiit for grams ranging 
from 100 to I'JOO acres. These are as fo - 
lows: lUO acres. £5 143 Id. ; 200 acr. ,-<, 
£16 17- «d. ; .SOOacies, £24 11-. 7>i. ; 400 

s. £.S2 


.500 Mcre.s, £;?9 19s. 01. ; 
600 acr.'S £47 I8.s, lOd. ; 700 ac es. £5517^. 
lid. ; .SOO acres, £6S 'J.s. ; 900 ac : >, £70 
lbs. : 1,000 acres £7i> lOs. 'Jd, ; 1,100, 
£86 4s, III. ; 1,200 acra>, £93 18-«. 4d, 

Th (.'Hi 'oiB styled Comte and Vicomte de 
Chalus derive.', their titl" from liie d.imain 
and caule of Ch.dus in Noiinandy asH..ciati;d 
in the minds of reaiieis ot Eng isli 
history %vi:h 'ho death ot Richard Ca- ir de 
Liiii. JeanL)Ui3 de Chiiius whijtie nimu 
ajipi-ais on numbers 54 and 55, Markhani, 
i.iid on other lots, was a Major Geiieraliii the 
Royal Army of RriUany. At tli balls 
given by the (lovenior and otle ra a! York, 
the jewels of Madame la Comtesse created a 
gicat seiisa'ioii, wholly surpassing evcij- 
tiling of ttie kind that had hiiiiei'u neeti 
seen by th • ladies of Uppr Cmiaiia. Am- 
boise tie Farey of No. 58, in Yaugli lU, and 
No. 60 111 Mirkliaiii, nau also the nmii oi 
Gei.eral. Auguatiu Bvjitou of No, 4S .n 

' n 



M.irkhain, and No. 61 in Vuuglian, was a 
Licii tenant-Colonel. 

The Comte de Puisayo of Nc 52 in Mark-* 
nam, tigurcH conspicuously in the coutetn^ 
poriiy account** of the Royalist Btrug(?lf 
agaiiiMt the Conrention. He, himsi If, pub- 
lished ill London in 1803, tive octavo vol- 
umes of mi moirs, jusiitications of his pro- 
(:e''cliiit,'s :ii that contest. C.irlyle in liis 
"Kieiich Revolution" speaks of Ue I'uis.iye's 
work anil rererrinc to the so-cailod Calva- 
dos war says tha^liose who are curious in 
such ni;ittera may read therein "how our 
Urondiu Nitioiial forces, i. e., ihe Moder- 
ates ni.uchiiig otT with plenty of wind music 
weru drawn out about the old chateau ol 
i{ree<.urt in the wood country near Veinon 
(ill lirutaiiy) to meet the Mountain Naiion- 
;ii lorci s ( h'' Communis!) advancing from 
I'aiia. How on the tilieciitli afuriiooii of 
Jiiiy, 179;{, they did meet ! and aa it wen 
shriek d mutually and took mutually to 
lligiu without loss, llow I'uisaye there 
■ifiir — for the Mountain Nationals fled first 
anil we thought ourselves the victors — was 
iDus'd from his warm bed in the Cattle of 
Breiourt ami liad to gallop without boots, 
oiii- Nationals in the iiiglit Matclies having 
lail'ii iinexpecteiily into nawe ijui pent. ' 

Cariyle alludes again toihis inisadvcntui'f 
wh' iLipproachiig liesuhj cl of the (juiberon 
I xp miioii two y' ais later toward ihi^ close 
of La V'endere war. Aflhctng for the 
iiHiiiiini a proplieiic tone in I is p^'culiiu way 
(Jarlyle proceeds thus iiitroduciiiL' at the 
clusi! of his l^kl■tch de I'ui-aye once more, 
who was in coininand oi ilie invading fo;ce 
.ipokeii of alMiough nor undividedly so. "In 
tut inoiul r July, 17!*.^, Hngii«h ships,'' lie 
tay~, '• Will ride \u (^mberjii rouis. I here 
will lx> di barkalioii o. ciiivaiiou> ci-dfcii.,u.i 
(i. €. ex-noblesse) of volun eor pn.s> iiers of 
war, eag r to desert, oi firearms proclam.i- 
■ ions, ciithes chests, roya ist and spcie. 
\Vliirrapi.n al o oiitiie Repiibicansule there 
wil! be r.ipid stand to arms wi ii anibii<c;id.' 
niaieii iigs iiy yiiiberon brach .ar midii gut, 
sioriiuiig of K<jri P< iitiiieun. War tnuiulcr 
mingling with tli;' war of tin: mighty main 
uinl such a morning light as has s hioni 
dawn li, dtbarkation hurled back into its 
houih in- into ihe dev. uiuig Iriiiows wtt. 
wreck and wail ; in one word a ri ili ntnt 
Puiiiiye as :iita;ly inetieotual lieic as he was 
r Calvados, wio n he rode from Wriinn 
Castie witlmut boots," 

T'l" iiiipr'.'SHion which Carlyie gives of 
M. de I'liis.iye, is not g:eat,y bettered by 
Wi;at M. de Lainartine saxsot hliii in toe 
" History ol tiu tiiroiidisis" win nspeaking 
of hull 111 coniiee'ion wiili the aflair near th^ 
Chateau of Brecourt. lir 13 tilcii ranked 
witli adventurers rathir than hfrois. "This 

mao," de Lamartine says, " was at once ao 
orator, a diplomatist and a soldier — a char- 
acer eminently adapted for civil war which 
produces more adventurers than heroes." 
De Lamartine describes how prior to ho re- 
pulse at Ciiateau Brecourt, *'M. de Puisaye 
liid passed a whole year concealed in a 
cavern in the midst of the forests oi Brit- 
tany, where by hismanceuvres and coires- 
ponilence he kindled the fire of revolt 
against the Republic." He professed lo act 
111 the interests of the Moderates, believing 
that through his influence they W' uid at last 
be induced to espouse heartily the cause or 
constitutional royalty. 

Thiers in his "History of the Fr. nch 
Ri.'volution." spenks in respectful tfriius of 
Piiisaye. He says that " with great intelli- 
gence and » xiraordinary skill in uniting the 
i-lemcnts of a parry he combined extreme ac- 
tiviiy of mind and vast anibiiion" and even 
aficr Qiiiberon, Thiers sviys "it was certain 
hat Puisaye had doni all that lay in his 
power.'' De Puisaye ended his days in 
Eiiglatui m the negnbourhood of L iiilun in 
1827. In one of the letters of Mr. Survi yor 
Jones, we observe some of thf iniproveinents 
of the Oa'u Ridges spoken of as " Puisayc's 

It is possilily to the settlement thus only 
111 contempiatioii of (7/i((/?Y=.s- here in the Oak 
Ridges of Vorge stiee that Burke nlliuUs, 
wli. n in hi> R' fl- ciions on the French R vo- 
lution he says : "I hear that there ir ■ coii- 
side:abl ■ emigiatioiis from Fiance, and tliar, 
man/ quiLiing ihai volup uous cliniie and 
nat sedujtive Circeaii l.bcrty have taken 
refuge in tlu froz ii .'egioiis and under the 
British d'spotism of Canada." 

Th" frizin regi iis of Canada, tiie great 
taeturiciaiis expression in lins place, has be- 
C'line a ster-'otypL-d phrase witu dee aimers. 
The reports f.f the first settlers at 'J'adou-ac 
and Uiubtc ma ic an indelible iir.piession on 
i!ie Knropean mind. To this day in trans- 
At. antic conrniiniiies it is realized only to a 
liiu't' d ex!< nt that Canada has a spring, 
Biimiin r and autiiiiin, as w 11 as. a winter, 
and that tier skies svear an asp ct not al- 
w.iys gloomy and inhospit;ib:e. British lies- 
poMsiii IS of course i onic.illy said andnieana 
111 reality Briiisli consn utional freeiiotn. 
In some instances tliese Rny liist otheer-- ap- 
i> ar to liave accepted coinnrssioiis from the 
British down and so to kave becjiue uonii.-. 
nally eotitlo'd lo giants of land. 

There are some representatives of the ori*- 
ginal tmiijrea !iA\l to he met with in tiie 
neigiibuurlii od lif tiie O.ik Riilges, but they 
havo not in ev ry iiisiance coniiniieil to bo 
seized of the lands giantid ui 1798. The 
C. line de Cnalus, son of Rem Augu=lin, re- 


f; fl 


I !i 




: 1 1, 

8 ii 



ll E- 





' n 

taini property here but ho Iitcb in Mou- 

An estate, however, at the distance of one 
lot oastwai-d from Yonge itrcet \n Whit- 
church IS yet in the aclual occupation of a 
direct desceiidaut of oiu- of tlif first sultlffs 
in this legion, Mr. Henry Quctton St. 
George hore eiigagud with ciicgy in thu 
various operations of a practical farmer on 
land lulierited immediately from liia father, 
the Chevalier de St. lieorge at the same 
time diiipeniing to his many friends a re- 
fined hospitality. If at GUnloiioly the cir- 
cular turrets and pointed roofs of the old 
Fiencii chateau .»re not to be seen, wliat 
18 of gieater importance the amenities and 
sreutle Ufe of the old French chateau arc to 
be found. 

A Urge group of superior farm huildings 
tormeriy seen on the right just after tne 
^urn which leads to Givnlonely, bore ti.e 
graceful name of Larchmere, an appellation 
dlancmg at tlie mere or little lake wit'iin 
view o: the windows of the house, a sheet of 
water more generally known as Lake WiU- 
eocks, so called from an early owner of the 
spot. Col. WiUcocks. L-irchm-'re was for 
xornetimc tlie house of his great gtaudson, 
William Willcocks Baldwin. The house 
has since ben destroyed by fire. 

Just beu a'h thi.; surface of the soil on the 
borders of the lakelets of the Ridges, was 
early noticed a plenti'ul deposit of white 
shtll marl, re.sembluu' tho subsiaiice broug'it 
up from the oozy floor of tne Atlantic in the 
soundings preparatory to laying the tele- 
grapli c.ib e. It wa.s iu fact incipient chalk. 
it used to be employed in the composition 
of a whitewash for walls and fences. In 
these quarters as elsewhere in Canada fine 
specimens of the antlers of the Wapit; or 
great Amer.can stag were occasionally dug 

Tne summit Ictc! of the Ridges was now 
readied, the mo^t e evated lauG in this part 
of tlie basin of tise S;. Lawrence, a height, 
however, afte.' all of only about eiglit hun- 
dred feet above the level of the hea. Tie 
attention of the wayfarer was hereabuut 
always directed to a t-mall strenm which 
the road crossed flowing out ol Like Will- 
socks, ;ind tiieu a siiori distance further on, 
he was desired to notice a slight swale or 
shallow morass on tlie left. Tne stream in 
qu- stion he was told was the infant Hum-< 
b^r just starting south for L;»ke Ontario, 
while the swale or morass he was assured 
was a feeder of tlie eastern branch of the 
Ho land River, flowing north into Lake 

Notwithstanding the comparative near- 
ness to each other of "he waters of the llol- 
laud and U umber thus made visioie to the 

eye, the earliest project of a canal in these, 
parts was for the connection, net of the 
Holland River and the Humuer, hut of tht 
Holland River and the Rouge or New. 'il)« 
Missi.ssaga Indians attached great impor- 
tance to the Rouge and ita valh'y as a link 
in on>^ of their ancient trails between Huron 
and Ontario, and they seem to havti inipiirt. 
cd to the first vliite men their own noiione 
on the biibj ct. " l< apparently rises," 
siiys the Vazittirr of 1799, speakinu' of the 
Rouge or New. " in the vicinity of one ot 
the branches uf Holland's river with wnich 
it will probably at some future period b« 
connected by a canal." A proposed canal 
is accordingly here marked on one of the 
first manuscript maps of Upper Canada, 

Fa her St. Lawrence and Fattier Missis- 
sippi pour their streams, so travellers assnrc 
us, from urns situated at no great dis auoc 
apart. Lake Itaska and its vicinity just 
west of Lake Sup.rior possess a charm for 
this reason. In like mannei- to compare 
small things with great, the particular quar- 
ter of the Ridges « hen the waters of tlw 
Huinber and the Holland used to be se«n in 
near proximity to each other had always a 
special interest. Two small lakes calhid re- 
spectively Like Sproxtoii i»nd Lake Simon, 
important feeders of tlie Rouge, a little to 
the east of thi' (llenloneiy property, are 
situated very close to the streams tliat pjas 
into th" east branch of the Holland River, 
so that the conj-i'ture of the author o< the 
Onzettter was a good one. He say«, app.i- 
reiitly the sources oi the Rouge and Holland 
lie near each other. 

After passing the notable locality of thi» 
Ridges just spoken of, the land bi gan per- 
cptibly to decline and soon emerging from 
the contused glens and hillocks and wood.-, 
that had long on every side been hedc;!:^ 
in the view we suddenly came out upon ,4 
brow where a wide prospect was obtained 
stretching far to the 1101 th and far to the 
east and west. From such an elevation the 
acres lure and there, denuded of their 
woods by the solitary axemen could not be 
distincuislied, accordiiigly, the panorama 
presented here for many a year continued m 
lie exactly that which met the eye.s of lb* 
first exploring party irom York in 1793. 

As we used to see it, it seemed m eJect 
to be an unbroken forest in the foregrouud 
bold and bil owv, and of every variety of 
green, in the middle dis ance assumiuR ii-u- 
tial, indistinct tints, as it dipped down intu 
what looki d like a wide vale there, appa- 
rently rising by successive, gentle staces, 
coloured now deep violet, now a tender blue 
up to the line of the sky. In a depression 
in the far horizon immediately in front w.ta 
to be seen the silvery Bhe«D of water. 



rill", of course, was the lake known smco 
17U;{ us L:ik(! 8imcoc, but previously Hpokmi 
ot by the Fimich sometimfS as Lake Smion 
01 Sheniong, sometimes an LikoOueutiron.k, 
Ou' ntaron an! Toronto, tno very name 
wli c\i IS so familiar to us now as 
apj)t rtaiiiing to a locality thirty miles souih- 
•raiil of thiH lake. 

Tlie French also ,jn tlieir own tongue 
sonu'times designated it, perhaps for some 
rca.-ion I'onnecled with tinliing operations, 
Lar ivux CUiim, Hurdle Lake, Thus in th« 
(lazttturul 1799, we have " Simooe Like, 
formei ly Lake aux Claies, Ouentironk, Sht^- 
Dioiig, situated b^^iween York and (iluueesitr 
upon I^ike Huron, it has a few ^mall islands 
and several irood harbours." Ami again on 
another page of the same (Juzetti'r we have 
the article " Toronto Lake (or Toronto) lake 
la Clie (('. c. Lao an X Claies), was formi rly 
9P called by some others, ttie same article 
proceeds 10 say called ttie chain of lakes 
from the vicinity of Matcliedash towards 
the tip^d (f the liay of Quinte, the Toronto 
lakes and the cation from the one 
to Uie other was called the Toronto Kiver," 
whilst in another place in the Uazflte(r we 
hare the information given us that the H um- 
ber was also styled the Toronio Rivir, thus 
•' Toronto River called by some St. John's, 
now called the Uuniber. " 

The regions of which we here obtained a 
kind of F'sgali view on the northern brow 
uf the Ridgts is a c assic one, renowned in 
tlie history of the Wyandots or Hiirons and 
lU th« early French missionary annals. 
Francis I'arkmau iu an agreeably writien 
work entil'ed " The Jesuits in North 
America in iHe Sereuteenth Century' has 
dwelt Somewhat at length ou the history of 
this locality which is the well peopleil To- 
ronto region, ^i'tii 0!i (Y y ft bcuui'oup dt iji n'<. 

ill the early reports of the Jesuit fatneis 
themselves this area figures lasgely. Thry 
iu fact constructed a map wlsich must have 
Id the central mission board of their asso^ 
cation at Rome to bc'lieve that this portion 
of Western Canada was as thickly sirewn 
with vulagesaiid towns as a district ot equal 
ajea in o d France. In the " Chorograpiiia 
Ri'gionis Ifuro.iam"' attached to Father du 
Cr'ux's Map of New France of the date, 
16fiO, given :n Bressani'.s '*At)ridgemeiit of 
" Til ■ Relations, " we have the following 
p.acis conspicuously marked as stations or 
sub-missions m the peninsula bruiiided by 
Xdtawasaga li.iy, Matcliedash, or S urL'eoii 
Bay, he Rivi-r Stvern, Lake Couciiichiiig 
and Lake Simcoe implying population in 
and round each of them. 8i. Xavier, St. 
Charlis, St, Lniiis. St, Iirnatius, St. D^nis, 
kit. Joachim, St. Athanasius, St. Elizab'Mh, 
St. John the Baptist, St. Josepii, St. Mary, 

Si. Michael, La Conception, St. Mary Mag- 
dalene ar.d others. 

Li Schoolcraft's American Indians, the 
8c<me of the story ot Aingodoii and Nay- 
wadlri is laid at Toronto by which a spot 
near Lake Simco" seems to be meant and 
not frh<! trading post of Tironto on Lake 

The farmhouses and their surroundings in 
the Quaker settlement through which afitr 
descenoing from the Ridg -a on the northern 
side, we passed, came to be notable at au 
ear y date for a charao'eristic u» atness, 
completeness and visible jiidiciousni ss and 
for an air of enviable general com'ort and 
prosperity. The farmers here were emi» 
grants chiefly from Pennsylvania. Coming 
from a quarter where large tracts had rapid- 
ly been transformed by human t il from a 
state of nature to a CiUidition ol high cultia 
vat ion they bi ought with thorn an inherited 
experience in regaid to such matters and ou 
planting themselves down in the midst of 
sucli u wild, thev regarded the situation 
with more inteiligenc(i perhaps than the or- 
dinary emigrant fn ni the British Islandi 
and interior of (iei many, and so unrctarded 
by blunders and doubts as to tlu- issue were 
eiiabli (1 very spec d;ly to turn their industrv 
to prolitable aecoun.. 

The old of 1799 speaks in au ex- 
alted sen imeiital strain ol an emigration 
then going on from the United States into 
Canada " Th 3 loyal peasant." it says, 
•' sighing after the government lo' lost by 
the iate revolution, travels from Pennsyl- 
vania in search of his former laws and pro- 
tection and having his expectations fu filled 
by new marks of favour from the Crown iu 
a grant of lands, he turns his plough at 
once into these fertile plaire-tlie imme- 
diate reference is to the neighhourhood of 
Woodhouse on Lake Erie — and an abun- 
dant crop reminds him ot his gratiiude to 
his(Jodand to his King.' 

1: is not quite ceiiain whether the Quaker 
sttlers of the region iiorth of the Ruiges 
came into Canada under the influence of 
foeliiii;s exactly such as those describe i by 
the <!iuiltee.r of 1799. In ISOG, however, 
we tiiid them coming forward in a body lo 
confrraiulate a new Lieutenant-(iovernor on 
his arrival in Upper Canada. In the ila- 
zettt of Ojt. 4. 1806, we read :— "On Tues- 
dav, the .SOth Stpumb' r, 180G, the follow- 
ing address from the Quakers residing on 
Yinige street was presented to his F.xcel 
lency the L.euteiiaiit-Governor. The So" 
ciety of the people calleci Quakers, to Fraii" 
ci.s (loi-e, (lovernnr of Upper Uanaila, send- 
eth greetiiii.'. Notwithsat-ding, we are » 
P' ople, WHO !iold forth to the wor!d a prin- 
ciple which in many respects diflfers fioiu 




■If I 




I .1 1 


the gn ator part of niankiiul, yet we bi»lioTo 
it our riMsoiifibli- duty ii« siiili tne Apoailc : 
' Submit yourselves uu!o ori'iy oi (iiiiiiiici' 
of in;m for till' Lord » Milk"', wlu'tlur it hv 
the kiuc as Hupreino, or unto j,'ovtri'.ors a« 
unto til. Ill that are sent by him for tlw |niii- 
ishmoni (if gvil doi-g ami Uir the praise of 
tliem iliat do well;' in ;hi9 we hipe to he 
hi9 hunihli' and pt-aoiiil siilijeetH. Altii'jUj,'h 
wi' laiuiot for cwnscifiici' saku witii 
iiMiiy if our lellow-mort.ili 1:1 eoiiiplimon- 
ta y custoiiH of m:iii, ni'ith>-r in taking up 
!he sword to Blied human blood for ilu' 
Si"(iptnr«' s.uth tliai'it .8 rij;hteuii.snr>Ha that 
<'xaltetli a nation, but sin \a a rrproaeli lo 
;'ny p op!.',' w.' Um'i concerm d fur ;hy wel- 
fare and tlie pro-pirily of tlie I'l'ovinee, 
Iio|iin^' thy adminiH ration may hi' sueli as 
to be a ti'rror to fne 1 yil-minded nnd a 
pleasure totiiein that tio w 11, tinn will the 
proTJiice QuuriBh and prosper under thy di- 
fi'ction, wl'.ien 13 the « nrneat desire and 
P'.avir of ihy smeere friend- — K ad and ap- 
pr iTcil in Von;„'' street monthly mer uii,'. 
b id the lSt;i day 01 th- '••tli mon-h, ISOU 
'I'lmotliy K i^eis ami Amo.s A mit:i<,'e are :tp 
p. lilted ;.' atiend on tiie tioveiin r there- 
with. Signiil l)y order ot the same meet- 
ing. Nathaniel Pearson, clerk." 

To this addteiis, charaeteristic alike in the 
P'ouli.i;' syntax ot us si ii'eiu' h ami in tic 
well niraiit platitudes u wiiicii it i;ive8 cx- 
p.esMoii, iiis Kx t lieney was pleased to n - 
turn tile f illowuif; .uiswer : •' I letu/n yon 
my ttiankd for ymr dutiful address and for 
ycur i.'o d wishes for my wulf ire and pros- 
p.'iiiy o: this Province. 1 liave no duiiht of 
your piovinu peac fill and yood siiSjoets ;o 
his M.ij sty as Well as iiidu u.'ious .-ind rc' 
spectftble members ot soci ;y. I shall at all 
times be nappy to alToni to siieli persons my 
couiitenanee and ^iipptjrt. Francis Ciore, 
li<nr. -governor. ('iit Hou-e, 

York. Uppr Canada. iJUh S. pt . 1806." 

The Timor iiy Jljgeis iieie natni'ii, bore a 
leading part in :ii- fiisr < stHblisliiii'iit of the 
Quaker seite ni'Mi;. lie and .laeob Liiiidy 
Were rhu twcjoriL'inal managi'is of it-satlaiis. 
0.1 the arrival of (Joveruer I'et^-r Hunter, 
predecessor to Governor (iorr. Timothy 11 1- 
i,"r^ and Jacoh Luiidy with a deputation 
from rlie settlem iit i.nme iiro town to com- 
plain to him of tiie delay which they and 
ilieir e"i-rehgioiiists had ■ xperiei.c 'd in ob- 
taining the patents for their lands. 

(iovernor Hunter, who wa-; ;dso com- 
maiider-iu ciiief and a Lu ut.deneral in tlir 
army, ree ived tln-ni in tne liairisoii, ami 
after heai'ing how on coming to Vork on 
iormer occi.-ions th^y had be'U seir ahout 
irom one I dice to another tor a I'py to 
their ir(|iiiries aboiit th.' patents, le- 
.^u.-Sted tleni loccjme to him a;:aiii tln' next 

day at noon. Ordeia were at the aamo in- 
stant despitehed to Mr D. W. Smith, til 
Hurvevor-General, to M-. Hniill, clerk of 
the Kx.cuiivi' Conned, lo Mr. IJiirns, elerk 
of tile Crown, and to Mr. .larvis. Secretary 
and R.'giHtrar of the I'rovinee, all of whom 
it appealed at, one time or another had fa 1- 
ed to reply sutiHfactoriiy to the Quakers, t.i 
wait at the same hour on the L eiitenant- 
(lovernor, biiiigiiig with theiniaeh renpe.'. 
lively Hueh pap 'rs and nieinoramlfi as miyhi 
be in then possespion, having r'dat ion it) p,.\. 
te'its for lands III Whiteliurcli and King. 

Governor Hunter hail a re|mtatu)n for 
considerable severity ot ehar.'ieter and ah 
luiietioiiaries from the judge on tie; ben m 
to tne hunioiest employ.', held otlici- in tle.i;.. 
days veiy literally during pleasure. 

" These geiiilt men comp am"— Mie per- 
sonages above eiinm.'rat. il having duly ap- 
ji.ared tog. till r witii the <lepuiatu''i iroin 


^'oiiga streei, *• Flies geii lininn com- 
plain, " the ^iovi-riior saiil " that they can- 
not yet their ji ifsnts. " 

Kieh of the ollici.'»l persontig. s present ot- 
fered in Mieci asiou scjiii" .luiistinet observa 
lions, 1 xpressive ii would seem of a degvu. 
of n grit and hiniiig c xculpa'oiy rea.-^oi.s :.( 
far iis lie imli vidua ly w is eoneeriied. On 
<;loser interrogation, oue thing, however, 
came out very clear, that the order for tie' 
p;it' n's wa« more than twrlv.' nionilis old. 

At length the onus of blame seiMiicd to 
.settl ■ down on the iiead of the Secretary 
.and R.-gistr;ir. Mr. .(arvi.s, who could only 
say that really he i)ressurc o business m 
his ofTic.' was so trreat that he had b-en ah- 
.-olu e.y uiiahi.' up lo the present nioTiien; 
to get ready the particular patents nfeire.l 

" Sir ! ' w:.s the Governor's immediat.' 
rejoinder, " if they are, not torihcominy. 
.very on-j of hem, and pi icil in rh.' haiul.- 
f)f these trcntlemeii here in my preaei C'' ;ii 
n 'On on Teursiiay next, it is now}, 
by (J. org... I'll un-Jarvis you," iiiipl\iii2; i 
snmmary cong.iis Secictarv .md II iris ra.. 
It is neidl.'sa to say thai .Mr. iiogersan.i his 
colleagues of th.-" deputation earned back 
with them to VVhitehurcii livel\ aeeoiiut- 
of the vg nr ai.d rig' ur of the new (!(,vfr- 
nor, as wdi .i.s their patents. 

Gen. ral Hunter was very pf^r. miitorf i; 
his'ils o oasioiially. In .1 da.'ii*'. ot 
•Inly It), IbO.'i, is to be si en an ominous aii- 
nouiiccnii 111 that the Governor is going to 
be very strict with tiie uovernmen clerks n. 
ree.'ird to hours : " Lieut, C'lvernor's (>! 
tiee. 21st .liuy. ISOIl. No ic.' is herehv 
"IV' n that r.'trii ,. ;■ ;iiici)iiari<'e 'or th.' tr'ins- 

the Pro- 
( fhci: oi 

I Mx' cii- 

Ijiism.'ss ot 

action of the publi 

vine ■ wil in lutnre be given at the 

tie' .Secremrv of the Province, th' 



tiTc Cinincil Offiop and the Survoyor«(f ne- 
ral's Otfioo, nvi-ry day in tin; year. Siin- 
(l.iyi, (liioil Kiulay anil Chriitniua Day oiJy 
I X(v pit'ii. from twn o'clock in llio nmrnin^' 
until tliri'i! in tliu afit'niiii.ii nmi trum fiv 
o'clock 111 til!' afternoon until Boveii in tli" 
evt^iiint;. By onler of llie L c ii,inantG(Jv- 
ernor. Jimics Oreoii, S'cri tury." 

SiKin slt'T the ipjjearaiiL'e of this nnticP, 
it liappeneil one 'o enoori, ti at ynunj; Alex- 
amur Maiiiab, a elvrk iii one ni the pul>ii(; 
(ifliii s, was iniiocicntiy Wiii'lui.p the (luver- 
imra ill li.iikatiuii from a loat, prepnratoty 
to Ilia beiiij,' convty d up to tie' Oouncil 
Clianilier 111 a aetlaii eliair wliiih wa.H in 
wiirin^' f(e- liini. 'J'lie yoiitii Hmldenly 
caii),'iu liis Kxcoll' ncy's eye and was n.-ked 
" what I'lisiue-B he had lo h • th re ' Did 
he not l>ei(jiit5 to tlif Survcyii -(lemrara Of 
fi(!i ? Sir 1 your servioia an; no lonyrr re- 
qinrcd. " 

For this samo youn^ Macnah thus sums 
niarily ilisini'Hed, <«o\iiiior IliinUr pro- 
cined sulis' ijueiitly a (.'Driiiiiis.sK.ii. He at- 
tidneil the rank ot Captain iiiii met a .sol- 
di' I's fate on tile fi Id o; W.iteriuo, the only 
Ulip<'i' Ciiiadian known Ut liavi; 1) '(••.•. eiu 
j{.i^'ed or to have fAlleii in tiiat fanii'un bat- 
tl>'. So late as 18158, Capiaiii Mai^nab's 
Wateiloo medal was |> <'S«'n;cd by i l,e Duke 
ot (Iambi id<.'e personally to tiic Ke^. Dr. 
Ma'n:\b, m1 iiowniauviUr, ne]iliew uf thed ■- 
ci :iK' d ullii'er. 

Two s louL' eliaraeteristic items relating 
toO'Vernor ilunter may lure he subjoined. 
Tile foliowiii;,' was his brief reply to tne 
Aiidiess of ttie Inhabitants of York on his 
arrival ilu'r' iu 1791) " Oentleiiieii, notiiinj,' 
that IS 111 my pnwir bIkiII be wanting to enii- 
trihut" to I lie liappinesn and wclf.ite of this 
ciiiiMiy." At Ni;it;a:a an address from "liie 
nieelianics and husbandmen" was nfiisfMl 
by him on tfie irronnd that an addreRs p o- 
lef-siedly from thi; inhabr.uits j^rnerally had 
bi'i II p: rscnted alri ady Oiitnis tlu' Can 
Mflhitittu of S -p*. 10, 17'J!I. jiiints the lo,- 
lowing aneitbti', wiiieli is i liit at (iovernor 
Hiiiii'i. '■ AiKtL-iiiire — \Vlieii <!i)\eriior 
Siinevie .UTived at Kingston on hiK w.iy lieri- 
l'i tak ■ upon him tne (Jovenmieiit of the 

ivince, tile m.airistiates 

cent lemeli o 

that town, 

)i"es( n 

te.l h 


with a Vi'iv 


lit ■ address. It was politely :iiid ver'nally 

aUBW Tei 

1. Tl 

le iiihalutalits ol ttie 


town who ninv not in 


iinP' r eir- 

cl-s pi'osenti d tlieira. And this also his 
FiXoelleiicy Very politely an.swered and the 
H!is wer beicg in writing is carefully jire- 
btiv.d til ihia ilay." 

Aimii;.' the pati ut.i carried !i 




'crs, aiH'Ve irmii 

.wore at leas 


8' veil 111 wUicli he Was lib re oi' les.s ilitt r 

•'sted. His own lot was 9,5 on the wcs; or ' soience from whatev-r i:i a wordtiia 

Kinp Hid'! of Yom^e Htreit. Iiiiinediatcly iq 
troni of him on fbi' Whiteliuieh or eastBide 
on lots 91, »'.'.!);{. !H, 95 an 1 U6. all in a 
row. wcro enjoyed by hoiib or near relatives 
of his be iriin{ the iiameH respi ctivly ot 
Uiifus R"g(>rs, Asa U"C rs, Isaac Rogers, 
Wing Roy' r.s, Jamci Koijera and Obadiah 


Ml. Lundy'a name does not appear amoiij^ 
those of tlie original i)atent''eH, hut b.itd or 
portKiiis of lots in the Q iiker settlement 
ari' mai kc'l at an early period wi li the 
names of S:iailrach Lundy, Oiver fjUiidy, 
.lacob Lundy, Reuben Lundy ami ptrli;ip.s 

Li the region just beyond the Riilges, 
tliero Were farmers al«o of the conimiinity 
kiiuwn ,as Mennoiiists or Tiiiiki'rs. Long 
beard- when such append, igi's wei'" raritieH, 
dangling liair an'iqiie sii.'ipi'd, buttonlesa 
honii'-spun coats and wide liriniiriud, low-» 
crowned hats, made these persons con- 
spicuous in the street. On the sea' of a 
I ;idid C'lUnlry waggon, or on the back of a 
sohiary, rustic nag, wmjuUI now and then be 
sei'ii a man of tinti ci'inmuni y, wlu might 
pasp for Joliii lluss or .hihn a Lasco as repre- 
sented in tiie iictures. It was always cu- 
rious to gaz upon tiiese waifs and strays 
from oltl Holland, jierpetuating, or a', least 
trying to p •ipetuati'. on a new continent 
cu.stoins and notions originating in the pecu>« 
liar circurns ane-.s of obscure healities lu 
another hcmi-pherc three hiindied years 
ago. Simon, the founder and pro- 
phet of the Ml iinonists, was a native of 
Fr esland iii 1496. lie advocated the ut- 
most rigour ot life. A'though there are 
ni<idt^riii/.i'd Mennonists now in Hulland, at 
Amstirdam for > x impU', who are diatin* 
guished for luxury m their tabhs, their 
e()iiipages anil their country srats, y't asub- 
8 otion of the commuiiii V known as Ukc- 
Wai ists from one Uke Walds, adhere to iho 
primitive stnctiKss enjoined by Meiino. 
Tiieir apnarel, we are toid, is mean I" yond 
expression, and they aviud everything that 
has the most d;s ant app 'aiaiic ■ ot elegance 
or ornament. They let tiicir beards grow 
to ail enormous length, their hair uncombed 
lies in a disorderly manner on their slioul- 
lb rs, their eounteiiancea are mirked with 

tne stri'iiirest lines 


III niaire are such as ari' on 

leji'ction ami inela 

ly. and their habitations ami household 

Iv fitted to au- 


uj) m 

swer tiie demands of meri' necssi 


shall not enlarge, 

Mosheim adds 

the circumstanoes of their ritual, but only 
obs' rve tlia thy prevent all attempts to 
alter or modify their n ligiou-^ discipline by 
pii'si rviiig their p nple ;rom everything that 
1) ars the remotest aspect of learniiig and 






' i 

i ^ 

i! ! 



ba^e a tendency to enlighten their devout 
ignorance." The symvithies of our i)ii» 
mitiYt' Tnnkers b youd tl»e Rnlj;es weru as 
we may suppose with this aecuun of the 
fatherland Monnouists. 

Tiiongii only a niiiiuto frapmont of our 
population an exctptiou was early inadc hy 
the local parliament in 'avour of tho Men- 
nonists, or Tiuikeis, ailovrmg thcni to make 
aflBrma;iona in tiie courts, like the Quaki r;, 
and to C(>mpound for military aers'ice. Lkt- 
.Lollard. Quakci an<l some o'her similar 
terms, Tui.ker, i e. Dippi r, was probahly at 
fir-l u«ed in a spirit of ruiiLule. 

Proceeding omvard from where Newma-- 
ket conio? in view ou the ri^'ht from Yonge 
Btrcit, we saw almost immediately on the 
left the conspicuous dweiimtr of Mr, Irvint; 
the Hon. Jacob ^Emilms livng, a name his- 
torical Ml Oiiiada, a Pauiiis .Emiliiiss Irving, 
having been Ccrnmandfr-in iiiief of the 
Forc' s in B-'itish Aiinroa in 1,0.'; and also 
President for a time of the Province of Que- 
b*'e.. Tliis Paulas .Einilus Irving had pr'- 
rious y taken p;irt under Gtiieral Wolfe in 
the capture of <^n(}h c. 

The house of Ills descendant, Jacob .Kmi- 
lius Irvintr, here ou Voiige .street, was 
known as Bon.siw.w from siim»? ancient fami- 
ly property in Dunif' iessiure. He had bei'H 
»u offijer in Wie 13 h Light DragKims and 
^^-i wounded at ^Vaterioo In addition to 
many sirougly mark^'d Kurdish trai'a of 
character and phy^-iique, hi: potsi ssed fine 
literary tiutea and hi.itnoiiic skill ot a I igh 
order, favoured bv the possession of a graud 
baritone v( ice. H • retained a p-ofessional 
Mcinjr f<ir Horses. A four-in-liand guided 
by himse f, issuing from tlif j^ates at Boii- 
aLaw and wiiirli: g along Yonge street into 
town Wis a eomniou ai).dr. He d ed 
at the Ifalls i f Niat;arA in 1856 Since 1S43, 
Mr. Irving hai be. na m- mber of tlie Upper 
House of United Canada. 

A littl« way bai.k ere we descended the 
Dorcltern aiop'' of the Rdgos; we cauuht 
■iirlu of the Holland River, or at leasL id 
aome p,>rtiiu of the braii.'h of it with winch 
ve are immt'di.>teiy concerned, iK.suuig a 
D«w boru nii ivcHu one of its fuuntainr^. 

As we travfr8i-(l the Quaker settlemirt, 
tr»« .'gain sei-ii a brook m aiid'M ing tbi ouj^'h 
B«adows. TnuB was the rain tern branch of 
the river meand ring through mea'ows a 
mere b" ok. Tlie nutin 8tr»'am li<'8 ' tf to the 
west, flowing the m idiru Ihadford and 
Uoyutown. It m at the h'^d of ',e' main 
Mr ram Uiat the most Htrikmc .Tpf>n)Xinia- 
t»on of the waujrs of the Humber and Hol- 
land rivers is to be sien, 

\Ve arrive now at tti" Upper Landing, the 
ancient canof landng. i{>n: il was iliat 
the war parties and tiuuting parties embark- 

ed and disembarked while yet thes^ waters 
were unploughed by the heavy boats of the 
whre man. 

The Iroquois from the south, side ot Lake 
Ontario p' iielratod the wellpwopled regicp 
of the Huror.s by several routes, by iliv 
great liiy of Quin'e Highway, by tiie 'rails 
viiose t rniini on Like Ontario wiTe near 
respectively the moiern Bowman viUe and 
Port Hope, and thirdly by a track whici. 
we liav« virtually been following m thia 
our long ramble from V'ork ; virtually we 
say, for it was to the west of Youce street 
that the trad ran followini,' first the valley 
of the HumbiT and tlnn that of the main 
stream of the Holland river. Tne route 
wliich Mr. Ho. land ti vik when he penetrat- 
ed fronr. Toronto Bay to the head wavers ot 
■he river, which now bears his name i.s 
marki d in the gi( at M. S, map whioh he 
cons' ruc'ed in IV'Jl. Hr passed up cident- 
ly along the great water course of the 

" V ou can pass from Lake Frontenac," 
t. c. Ou ario, Lahontan says " intj Lake 
Huron liy the River Tau-a^hon-ate (the 
Huinb'r) by a portag- of about twenty- four 
miies to Lake Toronto, which, by a river of 
the same name tiiip ies into Lake Huron, 
1. e. by the River Severn as we should now 

Hunting parties or war parties taking to 
the water here at the Upper Landinir in the 
pre>.hist;oric period woull probab y be just 
about to penetrate the almost insular lii.i- 
tnct of waich we have spoken westward of 
Lakr Simcoi — the Toronio region, the place 
(d concourse, the welUpcopled region. But 
some of till in might perhaps be makn.j for 
the Lik" Huron country and Nortii-Wf-at 
ge'iieraily by the t8tabli.-.iied trail liavmg its 
ti rniinus at or near Onllia, to use the 
modern nam\ 

In tlie days of t-he white man, the old In- 
dian plaec of ('mt)a;kation and debarkauon 
on the HoU.aiid River, aeciuircd the iiamf of 
th'' Upp r>(.'.uioe-LHndiiig and hith.-r the 
smal i-r craft continued to proceed. 

Vesbieig of deeper draught lay at the 
Lowt»r Landing to which we now ino'.'e ou, 
about a mde and a-half further down the 
stieam. Hero the river was about twi nty- 
hve yards wub*, the banks low and border- 
txl by a Woody marsh m which the tamarac, 
or larkb, was a conspicuous tree. 

In a clea<red space on the right at a point 
wh<'re Vingf street struck the stream 
th're Were »■ me lone, low budding* of bg, 
with s:rong shutters on tha windows, iisuab 
ly closed. Th' se were the (lovi riinient de- 
positories of naval and nil litary stores and 
Indian prtS!n:soii iheir way to I't ne'an- 
guishene. Th" elus er of bailditig« hero 




wag onse known as Fort Gwillimbuiy. Thus 
w • liave it written iu the old (hizfftrer of 
1799, '• It is thirty milea from York to Hoi- 
laiui Rivor at the Pine Fort called Gwiliun- 
burv. Where the road ends." 

(ialt in his autobiograpliy speaks of this 
spot. Hi' travelled from York to Newmar- 
ket in one day. This was in 1827. Then 
iii'Xt morning he says, "wo went forward to 
;\ l)lac'> on the Holland Rivir called Hoi- 
himl's LundiiiL', an open space; which the In- 
dians r.tid fur traders w^ert; in the habit of 
hcqtuMitmg. It presented to me soniethinc; 
of a Scottish aspect in the style of the cat- 
ta^f's, but ni8t(!;ul of mountains the environs 
wore I'overed with trees. We embarked at 
this p'.ac. " He was on his way co Godench 
It ;ht time via I'enetanguishene. 

The River Holland had its name from a 
f TtiK r Surveyor-Gttiieral of the i'rovince of 
Qinhee, pi lor to the setting ofl" of the Pro- 
vince of Uppe, Canada -Nlajnr S. Holland. 

In t'..e UpjMV Canada Unztttc of Feb. 13, 
iSO'2, we iiave an obituaty notice of this of- 
riciai personage'. His hist^ ry also it will be 
(ibsiived was mixed up with that of Gene 
ral Wolfe. " Died," the obiiuary says, 
" on the 2Sth instant— that is on the 28th 
<[ Dt'cembiT, 1801, the article being copied 
from tlie Qndii'C ilazitte of the 31st of thi' 
preceding DiC;niber — of a lingering illness, 
winch he bore for many yi-ars witii Chris- 
tian pati.'iuv and resignation, Maji r S. Hoi- 
laiui. He liad been in his time an iniiepid, 
active, and intelligent otficer, nerer mf,l:ing 
iliffieuities, iiowever a.daous, the duty he 
was empioyt d in. He was an excejleni 
field engineer, in whieli capacity he was em- 
ployed in tile year 17.*i8 at the siege 01 
b&iiishourg in the <li taeiinient of the army 
tinder G iieral Wolfe, who after silencing 
the batteries that opposed our entrance into 
the harbour and from his own setting hre 10 
three ships of the line and obliging tii'< r-- 
maindcr 111 \ disabled state to iia^il out ot 
cauiion shot th.Ht great ofljcer by a and 
unrxpecled movement took TSt within four 
I'lunlred yards of the towri frjm whence 
.Vlftjur Hciil.ind under his dirjctio;i«, carried 
■)ii the miproach(>s, destroyed the defences 
'f tlie t(.wn itid making a practicabb' bri ach 
obliged the enemy to capitulate. He dis- 
tiii^ruiBhed himself also at the i^iiuiui'sl of 
Qiiiiiec in IT")!), and was made horinuiablc 
inentiou ot in Gen. Wolfe's will .la a l ga- 
te*. He also distinfjuished himsi If iti t!ii' 
lit'fence of Quebec iu 1760, after 
.Murray's unsuccessful attack on the eneir.v 
Alter the peace, he was app'iinicl 
Survryot-f; n'-ral ot this pionnee and was 
uselii ly finp oyeil m iurvcyin,' the ,'\tiieri- 
can coasts troin wfiich survt y thos' d' aiiLriits 
publishtd some years since by Major Dc- 

barrr 8 have been principally taken." 

Majoi Holland was succeeded in the Sur- 
veyor G( nera ship of Lower Canada by a 
nephew — the disninguished Colonel Joseph 
Bouchette, In 1791, Major Ho land con- 
structed a map of the British Province of 
Quebec on the scale of six inches to the 
.s<(uaie mile. It exists in M.S. intheCrowa 
Liiul's OlHce of Onlaiio It is a miigiiifii 
cent mr.p. On \\. Lake Simcoe is left unde- 
fin d on one side not haying been explored 
in 1701. 

It was in 1832, that the project of a 
steamer for the Holland River and Lake 
Simcoe was mooted. We give a document 
relating to tins undertaking which we find 
in the Courier of Ft bruary 29th o'thatyear, 
publistnul :u York. The names of those 
wiio were willing to embark, however mod- 
era' ely in the eiaerprise, are of interest. It 
will be observeci ■.iiat the expedition con- 
templated was not enormous. To modern 
speculators in any direction what a baga- 
telle s-ems the sum ot £2.000. 

" S cainboat on Lake Simcoe," thus runs 
the advertisem' nt, " Persons who feel in- 
terested in thesuccess of thisundertakint; are 
respectively informed that Cupt. MeKenzie; 
late of the. A ciope, who has himselt of- 
fered to subscribe onesfourth of the sum re-« 
([Hired to bnild the proposed steamboat, is 
now at B.Ufalo for the purpose of purchasing 
an engiK! to be dein-ered at Hollaiul Land". 
iiig dining the prcRcnt winter. Capt. Mc- 
K' rizie, who visited Lak" Simeoe last sum- 
mer, is of opinion that a boa' of sufficient 
size and power for the business of tht lake, 
can be buili for .£1,250. In order, however, 
to insure success it is proposed that stock 
to the amount ot £2,000 should b' subscribe 
id and it is hoped thai this sum will be 
raised without de ny in order that the ue- 
Ci'ssary steps may be taken oi) the return of 
Capt. Mcteiizie to commence building the 
boat with tile view to its completion liv the 
opening of navigaticn. 'Fhe shares are 
twelve pounds, ten shillings each, payable 
til persons ctiosea by the stockholders. The 
following shares have already oeen taken 
up ! The HiM'. Peter Robinson, 8 shares ; 
F. Hiwson, 1 : Kdw. O Bnen, 2 : W B. 
R..biiison,-t ; W. R. Runes. 4 ; J. 0. B u- 
cliier, 2 , Win. Johnson, 2 ; Jiihri Cummer, 
1 ; T. Mctsington, 2 ; A. M R lines. 1 ; 
R>birtCaik, 1 ; Robert Johnsto 1 : M. 
Mossir.ctoii, I ; B. Jefferson, I ; J, M. 
J.iekson, 1 ; R, O.iver, 1 , Win. Turner, 2, 
L. Cameron, 1 ; F. Osborne, 2 ; J., 
1 ; J. White, 1 ; S. H. Farnswor h. 1 ; 
Andrew Mitchel . 5 ; Murray N^ ^''>iggi"g 
& Co., 2 : Capt. Crenrhmn. 2 ; Ciptain Mt- 
Keiizie, 40 : C,»ouil,i C<'mpaiiy, 8 : .1. F. 
Smiih, 2 ; John Powell, 1 ; Gran: Powell, 




r ' 




1 '• 





fHfii i i i 

2 ; A. Small y, 1 ; Simuol P. Jarvis, 1 ; 
Jam .- K. Sivnll 1, , R. W. Park.r, 1 . H. 
CainoroM, 1 ; Capt. Castl.', 79ili Rt,'t-. « : 
J.'unrs Doyle, 2, Fr;iiu d Piu-!psi. K:ist 
G'.viUnn^mry, 1 ; G. Lount, NS'.'s: Cwillnn- 
buvy, 1 ; S iDiiu 1 L ir. , Wost U w '.limlniry, 
1 ; Georc'o P ay.or. Wl.Jchu; cii, 1 ;,losepli 
Hewftt, 1 ; Thomas A. Jibh. 2 ; Charioo 
S. Monch. llaytes-b'iiy, 1 ■ G. Ridout. 2 ; 
T. <T. Ridout, 1 ; T. omas Rul. nliar!"*. 1 ; 
M ij r Hatwiok, 2 , Cipt. W Campbell, 2 : 
C. C. Siiinll, 1 ; J Rrtcl'.iiin. 1 ; Capt. 
Davie?. 2 . Liiu,. Ciut'.iow, 2 ; Capi. R ■>.". 

1 ; C. MoVi-tie. 1 ; L\\v. A.laii.s. 1 ; S. 
Wasiibun;, 2 ; J. C. G.Hhvin, J : F. T. Bil- 
lings 2 ; TiK.riio k Patfriis. 2 • James 
Pea'r-oii. 1 ; R. Mason. 2 ; Wm. I. iiurliTon, 

2 ; Wtii. Wiiro. 1 ; A. H. Toiu^'x, I : Sliel- 
(lon. ihrclic r & Co.. I ; Jab> z I'.aib.r, 1 ; 
R. \V. Prentice, 1 ; T Keli, 1 : Lucu.a 
O'Bn-n, J. Total 102share3. Perb. lis who 
are desi!0u.9 ff takm;; >hai'e3 in iliis boat 
are rcsp'^c'fuUy iniormed tSat the subscrip-. 
tioa pap r is lymg at tho .store of Mi ssr.«. 
Muri.iv, Newb gt;-.!)!,' & Co., whei- th.y 

can have nn opportamfy 



names. York, .Slst 1) ceiiibi r, ISIH." 

Tiu movemrni here initiated resuked in 
the steamer " Simcoe" which pli' d for sotr.e 
years between the L\ndnig and the porta of 
Lak- Simcnp The Stmco ■ was buiU a' the 
Upper Lindiii;^ and after liemg aunched, it 
was mcessary to d-ag the boat by main 
fore- down to "leep water throufjh the thiik 
sediment at the bottom of the stream. 
Dutin!,' the proccs.s while the eaps'an and 
rackle or other arrangement was b', ing 
V gorcus y worked, instead of the boat ad- 
vaiic iig the land in eotisivb rable missi, 
ni'jv.d bodily towatila the boa', like a cake 
of ice free from tlie mam fl le. Much oI 
the ground and mar>h in the creat e.s-nnry 
of the Holland River i.s said to be simp'.y an 
accucr.ulation or ■ irthy and vigetalde mat- 
ter rcstiiig on wa'cr. 

The " I'etei Itobnison ' wai aiic. 'ceded by 
%\u " .Slnieoe,' Captain Uell, ine • Iiea\er," 
*' Morning," and other veasels. 


(ip-iU i.i Inl* re^l on itie .l<iiirrie> up ti)ii;:e 
Ktrf<-t a<t Keen lit the Kurlj liu><> oi lork. 

S.I G'orce Y nge. ,Se r-tary of in 
1701, Hid rJ. I', fnr H m; on ;n the C'unty 
or I)ivon t om 17015 to 1790, i;iv. a nam 
to the most reniarkabh .•^tit et which To- 
ronto h in <V' r po->es.sid. It is I long 
J >tir!!ev tliioujh this sj-iit. bii by n-^ 

means an iiriiBteresting onf. Let us h i,',n 
at the bay sho'e and p.vw up YDnge .■<irect, 
viewing i* afe it wa.-i, not as it in, P>etore 
starting it n\iy be remarked that Yongv 
street v/aa oiiginally what is kntjwn as a 
bush road, that is. winding inre and tluri- 
to cbc apt trreat tree.s. It fi I'ov/ed the track 
of an Indian t.ail. The obj ct of layin;; 
out this road of extreme length through i 
(Lms" wiliierness anii traversing almost nn- 
pissable raviiesj. is given by Snrveyoi. 
(bneral D. W. Smi;h ;n iiis (Jir.ittvr of 
1791). U • says :— 

" Yong" street ig the direct coinmiinua- 
tion from York to Like Simcoe, opmni 
during the adm'nistration of hi.s f].\eeller.oy 
Major (leiieial Lieutrnant-G' veriioi- Siiiuc;', 
who. hai'ing vi-iti d L ik Huron by Lako 
aux Clair.-', (formerly a so Orieiitaroi.k ir 
.Simon, and now n;.med Lake Simcoe,) niiil 
disc veri'd •lu; haib ur ot P.ii.'t,Ui;,'U slieiu. 
(noM- Glousester.) to b tit for ."ii.]))i iiy, 
iisoivedon 'inprovi;ig the eommiinictitu.i, 
froui L.ike Oiil:irio to Like Huron by ili .- 
short ri ute,'-by avoiilint; tne ciieintii.- 
passage o'' Lak' Krie. This street h.islnci. 
opentnl ill a .iir-it lui" a"d the road mail" 
by the tioops of his ExcelJeitcy's corp-!. 
D is thirty nrbs from York to Hollani'V 
River, atti.c Pim^ Fetrt eallt;d GwiUimbury, 
where the road "nds ; from thence you lirs 
ceiid into LaKe Simcoe, and having pa.-isiii 
it there are two pa>.'-ag' s into Like Huron, 
the on< by tho Rivir S vern, wliieii con- 
veys the waters of Lake Simcot; into 
(Jiouoester B'y, the othi r liy a .small port- 
age, the continuation of Yonge street o .i 
■smad lake, >v'iiich also runs into (Jloucestt; 
Hay. This oonminn cation atToros tniny 
advantag s. Vlei ctiaiidisc from Motitri-i 
to Mh'hiiimai kiiiac may be sent thi.s wny 
at tell or tittten potind.-i has exp-ns' !>• i 
ton Mian by the route of the Grand or Ot. 
: tawa river, and thtt merchandise froii N' u 
York to be :seiit np the North and Mohawi> 
rivers f.,r ' he nortli-wi .si trt'.de finding :t.< 
w;iy into Like Ontario ♦: Oswego, ( F rt 
raiio) the advanage w.ll eertnin:y be 
teit oi transpor:ir.g goods from O-'W. go tn 
York and from thence attross Yonge street 
a'.<l down the waters of Lake Sim oe intu 
L"k'' Huron in preference to sending it by 
Lake Fiiie. " 

.Starting from Toronto bay on our on, 
pil^'ninige aoiig the route tf' m wiiK'ii ■-' 
n.ueh I xp eted in th(r las' yiai of l.r 
his' cntiirv, We first on tli e:i>^t tli 
ioiiiho ct Cdiff . Instil'. • Si'ott. ^unoui t'lj 
by orchard, g.udeii and plcisure gp'ti'i. 
att' rward th • resi<lenc.' of Justice- Siir. 
vtoinl, and or; 'lie w st tile liouse of Gil" 
.lus'ice Sir .1. lines M ;oaul.''V. simd.iriv -^ t;i 
a'ed 111 vbe mnist o{ tieis, fluwer.-^ and \'\i 



taV)l(F. Then we come to what was then 
an uxirciii- ly 'i<sol,ite pLice, but is now 
the most throiiL'i'ii qiiiirtcr of ttu city, 
till! intcreoction of Yoiij^c and Kincj Rtri'<!ts 
North of thig, at a later period in 1832, woro 
tla fnuiidries of W. B. Shrhlon, V. li. 
Put'h.-r. W. A. Dufi'li'T, Sainiud Aiidrus, 
.1. V.uinornian and B. V^annorinan, nianiifac- 
turiii till' v\ arcs tinn in .U'niand. Ne.irly 
opposite wevo tho Spirit \r\iilts of Miel'a(d 
Kane, tlie lath'T of I'.uil Kane, an early To- 
ronto aitist. At the left corner of Adi'laide 
slioct, aioiii; the south side of it, was tiie 
\VP:l-k..owii tannery of Jesse Ketehuir., .'ind 
on thr iioitli corner, diayuiially 'icr.iss wis 
iiis li'i; white frame liouse. Tiie ,s;id s otthc 
toaiUvay here were covered wiili taiibarkanii 
Wire till' neatest: approach to sidewallis ii. 
tiic town. 

The next point reaciied is a 'onrcrossway, made by the intersection of i'l.nge and 
Dii"da.^. L i: or Que n, which rrc identical, 
and pos.-essed (d t'S|)eoial historic iufereat, 
as i)i'iii^ thn intersection of the two ^'reat j 
military roads of Uppt r Ciiiada piojicted 
and exp orod by Governor Simcoo in pt r- 
son. C» ji'cts of interest at tins cross-roads 
Were :ii ' ter yi a .- Eili.itt's Siin Tiv;rn on 
the west su'e, a larg'' s<(Uai'e wliite l)uildnsj | 
lud I'll ';.:; ea.''t side Ooi, fs toundry, wheic | 
the " r. lonu',' the drst loc..niotiyc Ijiiiir 
Hi Up}" ! Canada, was constructed in IS-'.'i 
tor llic O.itario, Sii.iorx' and Huron T^d! lad. 
On ilu same suie, a little above this, lived 
tiie three brotherr^-, f.nnnis in tl.j liistory of 
till' Lik' Ma'iu', C.iptains .lohn, R diert 
mid t'iiarles Mcintosh. It wa-> opp sit'' the 
foim r's house that llie i iottook j)laee whieli 
sn;ii.uiz il die re'urn horie o Widiain Lyon 
Mick ii/ie in 1840 after t\v. he yeais of ex- 
d»'. N X', on the west side ab'Ut whe.e a 
stiie!; l»ads into T: inity S(|iiai-e, •■■ white 
gate IS readied tlie eniiince info the 
grnui lis f.f Dr M .caiday. His oouse in wiiat 
i^iniw iVinity Sijuaie, ^^a.i long cons.dereil 
partuid irly riniote ami uiaccessihlu and 
stents arc told of per .n- bcwildi re<l ami 
;ost for ill tirs in the aiijniidoj; marshes and 
woods vvhde trying; to v ac!i it. Justice 
ll'.mlion travellui;.' 'Kini 1' i,-cott m his own 
Vfciiicle and lioiieii tor I>.-. M le.iulay's il'iini- 
cili' xvaa (lissu iileil on i< aehciiLT Mr. Smalls at the coni'T "f Knif; and U'lk-'hy 
btiects from at temp' 11,;^' to iii.s!; on to ins 
(le.s:i!:,itMti. aj- le'Uj^Mi il \va- by no ni-aii'-- 
lilt", "U account of tlvf iiiconveni. nces and 
neils to b' eiieouiitPlei!, and ha t the foU 
I'JWi: _' day was Miki n 11(1 :n accomplisliini: 
tile ii >i,im> of his jou! n y, 

N' ■ til of thiB point a li^ '■ s'rrti li of ;oii s' 
l;iiid . Atended to Yorkvdh-. A iittle b - 
yndwii're (JrosveM'-r s're. t lads into 
w 41 was Elmsny \'i,la, ivas a sod ary 

green field with a screen of lofty tre<-« on 
three of its sides, In its midst .vasa Dutch 
barn or hay barracks with mov.ible top. On 
thi^ northern sidi; of this was the exact spot 
where a fatal duel was four;ht, 'he story 
of which has been alr'ady toid. Justtothe 
north of he scene of this duel was tho 
portion of Yoi.fcc street Mrhert! a wooden 
tramway was once laid down for a short 
distance. Sub eiraiiean ^pniies and quicks 
sands hereabout, rendered the p iinitive 
rcadinaker'soccup.ilioii no •'a^y one and pre^ 
vl 'US to til • application ot macuiani, the 
frainway, while it lasted, was abi'ou to the 
fanners after he.-ivy rams. \ ar bj- was 
the cott.ifje or Mr. Charles l)ur;uid. His 
fatlur was the liist who ever imported Iwx- 
hounds into Ui'pr Canada, a p ck of which 
animals Ineausid tobcsentou to him from 
Knglind. I'eter I) a .laidiics from whom 
the Huiidas lias is ninie ,i clerk 
in the employ of Mr. Duruiid in 1SU5. 

A few jards inriher on was what was 
popularly known as the S.indhill, a modern 
ate rise showinc where in by-gone ages the 
lake b'g-iii to shoal. An ot'ject of intereat 
in the woods h .ro at the top of the rise on 
tlie went the "'s <irave'' 
m ide nocic. ablt by a littb civi iz il railing 
around it. Tne sory conu' c'ed with this 
;_'rave lias not escap. d Dr. Scadding who 
has paiil especial at.oi tion to me history of 
Yoiig'-' street, and to #hom we are indebted 
for the whole of tins aiticL'. Tin- story was 
'his : When tic United Siatcs' fo ees 
Were laiuhiii; 111 1813 rear tr.e Hiimiiei' B.iy 
with ill uuention ol attacking ihefoitand 
takii'g York, one of Major ('s Indians'd hita-elf in a u\:e and from that 
position fiieu into the Ix'.-its rep .'tedjy with 
fatiil etlVet. Ill' was soon liiso ivereii :md 
sp' sliot. 'I he body was afterwards 
found and deposiied witb respect in a j: rave 
on tl.i c.est (jf the Siiidlii 1 wiiere an an- 
cient lurying gK.und /lad existed, 
thou^'ii long ab,ind.'hed. It would s em 
th -'t by boine in.' nis the scalp of tins Indian 
w;is pa'k. d \ip vith t lo' ' - 'Plii' s of tiie eap- 
tiu'eoi \'ork, ;iiid eonveyed by '.I' ut. Dudley 
to \Va-!iin:.'ton. Froii being touiid u> com- 
pany witli till' Sp i'k'.'r's m ce on iha' oc- 
casion, the s;o:y arcs.' of its h;iv ng h"en 
ilsiovrivd ('Ver 'ill' Speak"r'a ciiair in 'h'.' 
r irli.iin"ir Buiiiiiiig liiat w.-is d-stioy'd. 
r I. W. F. (.(ytiiii 111 his " isr_'. The \V,ir 
aod l:s Moal' asserts t wa- a i> iiike 
or sci.feii w:g tliat was ioiiiid ill th.' Par- 
li.imcnt H'luse and \\h,:< inist.iKi n forase i p. 

i;ildd:lig U (lilireinents iiave at tlie pres- 
ent l:ni" eeiasioii d t he I'onipl tc iblicra- 
tioii of tiu'! and t iu- boin s of 111' 
Indian brave .■ind i is foi etjiihers hav.' b . ii 
carrieiiaway p.rh.'ip.i to mix witlitliem ':t.u- 

■ ! it 


. I 

; I 



of many a building. To the eastward of this 
sandy rise wa» one of the oa ly public nur- 
sery gardens of York, Mr. Frank's. Fur- 
ther to the north on the same side was an- 
other, Mr. Adams. The grounds of Kcar- 
sirg House, Mr. Pi'oudfoot's mansiou, occu- 
py ihf site of Frank's nursery gardens. Tne 
rest of the Sandhill rise bore the name of 
Clover Hilli tlie home of Captain E msley, 
son of the Cliief Justice. Anothtr house on 
the same properiy in which tlie Capt.iin 
•ubs' qiienrly liTed was named BaiiistabL', 
being a por ion of the out-buildmga con- 
vert'-d into a dwel ing. To the north of 
the Sandhill on the east side of the road 
was a wayside mn sti 1 standing known as 
the Gardeners' Arms. Ou the right beyond 
the Gardeners' Arms were erictcd at an 
early date a considerable distance trom each 
other, I wo or three flit single storey, whitt 
frame cottages, the tirst of saiili structures 
in the outakirt'i of York and Kpcodily copied 
and repeated in various direitiuns, being 
thought models of neatness and convenience. 
Opposite where these little cottages were to 
be se-n at a later date w:is the yiii< yard of 
Mr. Bevau, who combined the nianufac'.ure 
ot wo'.iden ware and wiue. Just before 
reaching the first concession road, or what 
is now Bloor street, was afamily rejidenoe of 
an ornamental suburb:\n charac:er, put up 
by Lardner Bustwiek and the first of that 
class of dwellings in the neighbourhood. 
Next .ifter Bostwick'"^ was the house of Mr 
De Blaijuier, who livid tlier" before build- 
ing notfar oCF, the residence ea led The Pines, 
wheri' he died and which was afterward oc- 
cupied by Mr, John Hiward. Mr. D> 
Blaquier was the youngea; sun of the first 
Lord De Blaquier of Ardkil) n Irelnud. H^' 
emigrated in \SX1 and was subsequently ap- 
pointed to a ."eat in tlie Legislative Council 
ot Upper Canada. In his yiu'a h- had 
8e«n astive service as a m dsh.piran. He 
w%8 present at the battle of Camperdown 
in the Bounty, commanded by Ci plain 
Blieh. He was alsoin liie fl et at the Noie 
«|uTing the mutiny. 

Next we come to the First Concession 
Road now named Bloor street from .Mr. 
Bloor, a brewer anil large property owner 
■)f tile neighbourhood who lived on the south 
sideo^!;.ij street east of Yonce street. 
Heri'. too, at the eastward jtood .S'. Piul's 
Clinrch, made famous by the erection of ^ 
ap\T< eigiity-five feet nigh in oneaftei noon as 
desciil/ea m another cdapter. P.assiiiL' on 
the left wiiat was the old " Potter'B Field,' 
or " Vork Geiii ral, or Strangers" Burying 
Orouud," wi- tiiul ourselves opposite th"- 
celfcbrateil Red Linn Tavern int'.nia:ely con- 
nected in many ways with the •■aily historv 
of York. On the east side cf Vonge street 

n' ar the nortliern toll-gate, stood Dr. R. C. 
Heriie's house, burned in the troubltg of 
1SH7. To the right further on is the brew- 
ery of Mr. Severn built in 1835. S ill fur- 
ther on the same side, a block house of twu 
st'iries, both of them rectangular, hut the 
upper turned half round on the lowf^r hnilt 
in coiiBequenoe of the troubles of 1837 and 
supposed to command the great liii.'hwiy 
from the north overhung a high bank. An- 
other of the same kind stood at the eastern 
extremity of the First Concession Road. A 
considerable stretch of striking laiuUeapf.' 
here skirts our I onto on the r ght. Rofic., 
dale Hous.-, the old home of Seplien J. avis, 
Registrar of the Province, has always been 
noticeable for the romantic character ot its 
situation .a tlie crest of a precipitous bank, 
over-lotkiiig the deep wiiulmg raviiies vi 

The perils and horrors encountertd ev>ry 
spring and autumn by travellers and otli-rs 
in their ascent :ind descent of the precipi- 
tous sides of the Rosedale ravine at the 
point where the primitive Yonge .strett 
:ro8sed it were a local proverb and a by- 
word of perils and horrors, ranking for enor 
mity with those associated with the pass- 
age of the Rouge, the Credit, the .->.x een 
ami a long list of other deeply plout;iieJ 
watercourses, intersected by the two great 
highways of Upper Canada. The as . ut 
and descent of the gorge here wi'i." cohee- 
tively spok'^n of as the •' Blue Hill" from 
tlie fact th .„ ntrata of a bluish alay in jlit 
be observed at the summit on both sole- 

All the conditions reijuired to be fuihll-d 
by the first settlers were these : They must 
within the term of two years clear fit for 
cultivation and fence ten acres of the lot ob- 
tained, build a house, IG by 20 feet of Kn;'-- 
or frame, with a sliiiiirle roof, also cut down 
all tile timlier in front of Miid the wiiole 
width of the lot, which is 20 chains I.'IS f>'tl 
wide, 3;{ feet ot which must be eiesrcd 
smooth and it ft for half of the publ;e read. 
To issue iiijuiutions for the perfoi miie ■ u! 
such work was easy. To do such work or 
to get such work efTectnaUy done wi.- iiihitr 
the circumstaiic s of the times dithcul:, 
Hence Yotitre street continued for some 
years attt r 17!t4 to be little more than » 
rambling forest wheel track througl. 'Ii 

In 1794 William Berczy brought ovev 
from the Pulteney .Settb inent on th' •'outli 
side of Lak" Oiuario, sixty ( fimiln ■^ 
and conducted them to the towii.slii|> 'f 
M;irkliam north-cast of York, where lamU 
had been assigned them. In effeotiMk.' this 
first lodgnient of a considerable bndy i^ eok)- 
nis's in u region entirely ni w, Mr. He >'i:v 
necessarily cut out by the aid of I is p.ntv 



;viid »uch other help as he could obtain, 
bL'Uit kind of a track through the for at 
;iloiij» t!ie line of Youge street. Ho had al- 
leady ouco before successfully acornplished 
,( similar w^ik. He had hewn out a waggon 
loiui for emiyranta througii trackless woods 
ail ihi' way from Philadelphia to where the 
ruiti".' y Settlement was. 

la IVX^, Deputy Provincial Surveyor Au- 
austus J U' s was dirci::e(i by Lieuienaiit- 
Governor Smooe to surrey and open in a 
iiioie effective manner ;he route winch Mr. 
B iL'zy /lud his emigrantb had travelled. A 
de:achnu'ut of the Queeu's Rangers wrs at 
tl.esainc time order- d 'o assis:. On the 24th 
Drctnibsr, 1795, Mt. Jone.s writes to D. W. 
gmitli, Acting Surveyor (General — His E*- 
celltiicv was plea.-ed to d;reet me previous 
to my -surveying tiie townsh.p of York to 
precetd on Yoiige street to suivey aiul open 
a cart road from ihe harbour at Yoik to 
Lite Sinicoe, which I am now busy at. Mr. 
I'earse i.s to l)e with me in a few days' time 
with a tie'achment of about thirty of the 
Quei u 8 K»iig'T8 who are to assist in open- 
ing tiie saul load In his note-book and 
jouciial for the New Year, 1796, Mr. Jones 
records the cornm ucement of the survey 
thn-* -Monday, 4th January, 1796, Survey 
d Yi>ut;e street. Begun at a Poat near the 
Lak York H&rbonr on Bank, between Nos. 
20 am) 21, the course bemg Mile Ni. 1 
N. 16 degrees W. eighty chains from B ack 
Oak Tree to Maple Tree on tii« right side 
aloiij; the said V ge street, at eighteen 
cham.s tifty link.- mall creek, course the 
same ai thirty-two eighty, here First Coii- 
oession. At N. 36, W. to 40-50. At 39- 
50 .swamp and creek ten lin-ks across, runs 
to tie right, tbeii N. 2, K to 4."? chains m 
the lii;e. At 60-25 small crefk i uiis to right 
8wainpy to 73, N. 29 Vv'. to 77 swamp on 
ngn', then N. to 80 on line, timber cuiifly 
wlu'.L' aiid black oak to GO and in many 
places windfalls thereon, maple, elm, bei cli 
and a tew oaks, black ash, oose soil. Mil" 
No. 'i, do, 80 chains rising fine Kidgc tu 9 
on tup. And so on day by day until Tues- 
c'a\, February 16ih, wht ii liie party reich- 
ed the LaMdii>g The suiTry and opening 
0! till street Irom York Hay to the Landing 
thus ori'upied forty-three dayn— January 
4.1i to Fi bruary 16 h-^ Throe days .sutiiced 
lor the return of tlie party to the place of 
beginning. 'I'lie memoranda of these three 
days run thus : — Wcdmsaay, 17ih — re- 
turned back to a small lake at the iwenty- 
firtt mile tree, pleasant weather, light winds 
from ihe w.'«t. ThurHilay, 18th —-.lame down 
to livt mile tree from York, pleasant wea- 
ther. Knday, 19' h — c%me to tne town of 
^ ork ; busy entering tome of my field notes. 
Weather as biifore. Tae next day Mr. Jones 

went to the Garrison and informed the Gov- 
ernor that Yonge street was opened from 
Ynrk to the Pine Fort Landing, Lake Sim- 

Another early SurTeyor o" note, coiuect- 
ed with the primitiTe history of Yonge 
street was John Stegmann, a German, who 
had been an ofEccr in a Hessian regiment. 
He was directed in 1801 by the Surveyor- 
General, D. W. Smith, to examine and re» 
port upon the condition of Yonge street. 
Thus he reported — Agreeable to your in- 
structions for the examination of Youge 
street, I have the honour to report thereon 
as follows : That from the town of ?ork to 
the three-mile post on the Poplar Plains, 
the road is cut and that aa yet the greater 
part of the said distance is not passable tor 
any carnage whatever on account of logs 
^^ liich lie in the street. From thence to Lot 
No, 1 — the first l.jt after crossing the third 
concession road from the lake shore — the 
road IS very difficult to pass at any time 
agreeable to the present situation in which 
tiie said part ot the street is. We have then 
a detail of his notes as to the condition of 
the road opposite evt ry lot aU the way to 
the northern limit o: the townships o: King 
and Whitchurch. Of lot No. 1 in the town- 
ship o: York on the west side of Youge 
street it is reported that the riquiskion of 
(-0V rnment is complied with, except a few 
lugs lu the stn et not burnt. Of Lot No. 1 
on I he cast side also that it is coiaphed 
with except a few logs not burnt. No. 2 
west side complied with the street cut but 
not burnt. East side complied with, tome 
logs in the street not burnt and in some 
p aces narrow. No. 3 west side complied 
with except a few logs not burnt, east aklo 
complied with, the clearing not fenced, no 
house, some logs in the street not burnt. 
No. 5 west Bide complied with, East side 
non-compliance. No. 8, west side, com- 
plied with the street cut, but not burnt. 
East side complud with the street cut, but 
not burnt. Here the street it is noted goes 
to the eastward of the liiHi on account of 
hilly ground. No- 3, west side, complied 
with ill clearing, the street bail and eariow. 
Mistsiiio ncn-eompliance, street bail and 
narrow and to the east of the road. Nc 16 
west side notlung done to the road, about 
five acres cut, not fenced and no house 
thereon, oast side complied with. No. 17, 
west side coiiiplK-d with, tht underbiush ic 
the street cu , !rut not. burnt, easi side eom- 
plied with exetptsome lugs not burnt. No* 
18, west side, weil-complied with, ( ast side 
well eomplnd with. No -JS. west sidr, 
compiled with, east side complied with— 
nolliing done to the street and a jchool- 
houae erected in the ceulre of the atr'.et. 

13 '^ 
i; 1 







Tliia is tlie end of the township of York. 
Th(Mi on No, 3.'], west side Vaugiuiii cleariiijj 
coinpliL'd with, no Mouse ;inil iiolhini; done 
to the street. E:ist si.le, Mark ham clearing 
complied witl'i swUlh p.irt ut the street cut, 
but not hurnt and noi 1 1, p.irt of the street 
nothiiif; done. No. 37, V ai;,'h,in cle iring 
O'i'Dpiied w\tn, but sunii' ;iig' trees and 
some h'gs lett in the street. Markhani, 
scrnii' trees and logs left in the street, some 
acres cut hut not hun', no fence arid a 
small loi,' iioust; N'v 5^ V.iUi{h:in claruig 
nomplied with tht- strc. t tUl and legs not 
burn. M:ii khani cuariiig cdmplied \v.U\, 
the s;ri'el cut and logs not burnt, a very bad 
place tor the load and may be iaid out bet- 
ter, No. G3, wist side, King noncompli- 
anco, e.isi sule, Wliiichurcn. uou-comp.i- 
»nce and simil.irly nu -.o N), 88. on which 
in K lit; fhe clearing Is coniplieil witli, not 
fenc' d, the.^.ieei good, in Wlii;ohU!Ch, the 
clearing is coniiilied with, but notiiing done 
to tlie atroet. N >, Do, Kiig, four aci'S cut 
and iiuthing ibniu to the stieet. Wh t 
church. SIX acres clear land and uo.hiiig 
done to the s reet. Here King and Whit- 
church and the npor; end. 

Ml S ( gmanii cuiic udes iiis report by say- 
ing — This was tlie real situation of Voi;ge 
street when i xanr.nt d by me, and 1 am sorry 
to be under the necessity to add at ttie con- 
clusion of this repur tliat the most ancient 
inhabitants of Y(ugf street have beinthc 
most 111 gieciful in clearing tl.e street and 1 
have rea-ipn to belipwe thai some ir fl ■ with 
tiie r>()l^^ltion of (loverniiient in ie>pect of 
clearing rtio street. 

Mr. K rc/y lirougiit over his sixty-four 
fami.ies in 17'J4. The most ancient inhabi- 
tants were thus oi srven years' stainlini;. 
It mt n of the second generation regarded 
Voiige street as a ditlicult route to travel, 

wliat must tlie tiisl 

from the 

Genesie country and l'^ n nsylTania h.ive 
found It to be. They brought with liicin 
velr.chs, and h'^r.^es, ar.d tatiniieB and soiiii; 
household stntr. The iutZ'ttff.r ol IT'J'Jday.-, 
that the b idy of tl'.eir w.>t!i;oiis Was made ot 
close b'l.rd.s and that the most clever had 
th • ingeiuii'y to caulk the seimis and so by 
shifting oti : lie bo<ly from th" cariiage it 
aerv( d to transport ttie wheels ami the 
family. Old settlers aroiiml NewniarKet 
U«e<) to narrate how in tlieir tii>t jou.'iiey 
from York to till' Landing, tiny lowered 
tlieir wagijons oown the Kt<-< ps by ropes 
paBS'd round th' steins of saplings and th' n 
hiiuled them up the ascent on itie upn sie 
aide in a similar >vay. 

Just beyond th. Blue 11 11 raviue en the 
west side stood tor .i >'iig while a^uneiy un- 
finished franit' bui <i,iig \s ith gab.v town ,is 
the street and vvii.doWc, boaiUcd h^l. Tiie 

inquiring stage passenger would be told 
good hurnoiMfdly by the drirer that this 
was Rowland Burr's Folly. It was to have 
been a carding or fulling mill worked by 
peculiar manhmoiy driven by tlie streani ,i, 
the valley below, but either tlie iniprac; lea. 
bili;y of this from the position of the biiiM . 
iiig or the as yet insigiiitic;iiit quantity ot 
wu '1 pioduc il in thecouir.ry mad tiie en- 
terprise aboi" ive. Mr. Burr was an emi- 
grant from I'eiiiisyh auia in 1S0.1 and from y manhood was strong y marked by 
many of the trails which are held to te 
I'll utictenstic of 1 iie speculative and ei'.er% 
g.tic Anui ican. Hut unfortunateij' for hull- 
s'' f. be was tn advaiice of his neighbour^. 
A anal to eonnec" Like Ontario with tln^ 
ijcorgian Bay of Lake Huron via Like :*,(u. 
coe and the vaby of the Uuinber w.s 
pr( aseii by him years auo and ;it li s w n i\ 
p use he minutely i xuniie d the louii an i 
pubUshed tliereou a r.'port. He was a Imrii 
engineer and inechanieian. He built on his 
own account or tor o'. iieis a nuir.ber oi nii! is 
and, p-oviding and getting into 
working order ihe complicated meciianism 
T' quired for e,icn and this at a time wh 'i 
suv;h undertakings wi le not easy to aceoiii- 
plish from the unimprori li condition of the 
country and llie few facilities 'iiat existeil 
lor unporliug ami tiansporting inland iieavy 
machinery. Tlie mills and factories at I'uri- 
wich in originated with iiini imi 
from liini tiiai plac takes its name. The 
early tramway im Yontje street of wiaeli we 
iiave already sp ken was suggested by Mr 
Burr a'ld wh' n tlie cutting down of the IUul 
Hill was dt cided on fie undertook and il- 
; c«ed the work. 

I- IS ikjW more than half a century siiiC'.^ 
the ptctiliar elay of the fiiiiK Hi 1 begin to 
be lu'iud o nsi I'ul account. Mess s. J,.iiies 
anil William Townaley first burnt kilns ul 
whitr brick hei ' ta the left Ot Yong strut 
and tlio iii.iiml'acture was afterwards carried 
ou by Mr. Nig tmgile, a family coniieciioii 
of th ■ Messrs. Towiisley. Mr. Worthiiig- 
ton. alho, for a time engagi d in the niaiui- 
laoure ot pressed buck and dain "ilea on 
ttie same spot. The' R-issiii House and the 
Yoikville Town Hal! were built of pressed 
brick made lieie. 

Chestnut Park ou tlie right was en o'ed 
at a comjiaratively iiiodern perioil I'y Mr. 
Ma' hers, an early merchant o Yo'k, wio 
before building here, lived on Queen > I'l t, 
near the Af adows, the resiiiein;" ol Mr. J 
Hiliyiud Canierc'ii. CiUNsnut Park \Mes ..i- 
terwards taken by i!r. Micph isoii. A: I' 
bit gliinps. s are obt, lined of Oiklands. M.. 
John .Mai (louald's resilience, Raiinaliy. Mr. 
M'-'MjJiter's tiod.' and Woodlawii, the le.a.e 
o: C;iaucellur Bl.ike and built liy Imn, i i' 



justly b. 
»epi.-i of a 
ruad. 1 1 
tiie Nort 
on wli.-i 
that the 
I lie roii! 
.11 tnat I 
for ht Iji 

ill wn , 

use.- th; 

I hat a.s 

18 Sill I 

tik> I.-: I 
.Mr. Can 


ur luiii- 
tb tlic 


>■ - 



afterwards occupied by Justice Morrison. 
Sumnu-r Hill, seen on the liigli laud far to 
tlif rif^lit and commauding a uolilc view of 
tho wide plaiu below, including Toronto and 
uie laki' vi<;ir far distant, was built by 
Ciiarka Thomson, whosu uanic is associated 
Willi tilt; former travel and postal service of 
rue whole length of Yonce .street aod the 
UpiwrLikea. Sumuur Hill was groatly im- 
proved and enlarged by Larratt Smith, its 
»u1m (Jill nt owucr. 

The pnmitiTc watrgon track of Yonge 
3:1." t ascended the hill at which we i ow 
arrive a little to the west of the present 
line of the road. It passed up tliriUj^h a 
narrow excavutrd notch. Across tins dc- 
prcsMon vr trench, a forest tree tell wrh'iut 
miiig I'l'dken and there long rcinaiiu'd. 
Teams dU iheir way to and from town had 
to ji:iss iiiuicr it, like captiu' d armies of old 
under the yoke. To some among ihe coun- 
try io.k it sui.'geste(l the beam ot the gal- 
lows-tree. Htiice sprang an ill-om' lud 
uaiii-' long attached to tins spot. Near 
here at th • lop of the hill were hirmerly to 
be seen tiie remains of a mil wimll.iss o:' 
capstan used in the hauling up of the North- 
West Ci nipany'b boats at this point of the 
long portinje from Lake Ontario to Lake 
HiiioM. S I ear y is August 3, ll'ii^J, the 
>i;igara d'on-ftellntiiju announced 'ha: it was 
nforiiied on good aut'iuniy tiiat the Nurlh- 
Wes; C iui])aijy had it seriously in cut!!"iii- 
platiuii to establiahacomnuinieationwirh tlio 
Uppir Likes bywayoi Yurk through Vong' 
suiet li Lake Sinu'oe, a dis; aiee oi tliir y 
.hree miles. The Const dlat ion adds that 
the (ioveiiinient has aciua, \ I'egiiii tu open 
Yoiitre sireit for sev. ral mile.- wh:eh ex iin* 
p!e wil niiilouhu tlly be no iiulUvi- 
nil lit to persons wi:o possess piopeiiy on 
thatstDet and i S vicinity to exert them" 
-elves in opening and completing what niiy 
justly be considend one of the primary ( b- 
.'epis of attention in a new oouiii ly, a good 
road. In these <arly liays tm; e.ivalcaile of 
the N;irth-wi SI Company '.s boats mount d 
on wh.'elrt pursutd tiieii way up N'mig ■ 
"iF' '•t. It used to be sujip i^ed by s.iiu 
that the tret across the uotclitlirough which 
Mie roiil passed had heen puip' sely fe.ied 

n itiat p sitiun as a part cf tli" apparatu.i 
for hrlp.uL' th.- l).Jat^ up th ■ hill. 

liie .ahlel.nd now aiuuiied was long 
iiiwiiasthi' [-"upiar I'iains, anil Siegmann 
iiaes this name in h s r»port. A by-road 
Hint a.s.i-uiis this same rise neai Jli niialiy 
18 s 111 known as the Pupiar i'iain.-> To 
tlio h'.'t o: Yiiiig- str- el at the pu.nt now 
roaclud and lying alii.'htly back stu! d uiiiil 
ree-nilv h house of Mr. J. 8. Howard, 
known ;.s Obve (irove. It was l.inli by 
.Mr. (Jiiupbe.i, propiiutur of the Oi'.aiio 

House in York and an eminent man in the 
Masonic body. Masquotah— meadow in the 
Ochipway tongue — stood to the left a short 
distance in. L, was the home of W. Warx 
ren IJahlwiii, tliesonoi Dr. VV. W. Bald" 
win, the builder of Spidina. 

D er Park, to the north of the road that 
enters here, but skirting Yonge street as 
well, had that name giveu it, wlien the pro- 
perty of Mrs. He ith, widow of Uol. Hath, 
of tde H. E. i. Company's service. On a 
part of this prep rty was the house built by 
Colonel Car.he«-, afterwards the abedo 01 
Mr. Fisk n. Colonel Carthew, a halt-pay 
ofBL'ir of Cornish origin also made large ;m- 
))rovemen s on property in the viciuicy or 
N wm.irket. 

Ju- 1 alter D r Park to avoid a long 
ravine, winch lay m the line of the direct 
rou e nort hward, the road swerved to the 
left ami then desc'ndetl passii g over an em 
baiikmeir which was the dam of an aiija-. 
cent sawmill, a fill" view of the interior of 
which will the saw usually in active motiou 
was olitaiiieil bv 'he ■ raveiler as lu' fared on. 
Tiiis was Mi''hiii \V!i tmore's s-tiwrniT. 

Of late years the rtpt-.x of the long iriancle 
o: No; m Ill's land tliat for a great while lay 
des(dat*) betW"eii the original and subse- 
quent lines of Yoiige street, was happdy 
utilized by the eri ction thereon of a church, 
Corist Cnu'ch, an object well seen in the 
a^C' lit and dencent uf the street. Ancient- 
ly V' ry near the site of Christ Chuicii, a 
--olitary loiigish, wooden building, fronting 
sou'iliward was conspicuous, the abod'' of 
M '. Hudson, a provincial land surveyor of 
mark. L lokig back soutliwaril from near 
til; front of Jii-- liouse a finedistant glinipso 
of the waters o; Like Ontario used to be 
obttiin (1, ehisiiig the Tista made lu the for- 
est by ^'oiigo street 

B ore !• aching Wliitincre's sawmill, 
w..ile parsing aloi.g the brow of the hill, 
over luukii'g the ravine, which was avoided 
by th.' alree; iis ii ran in the firs; instanc •, 
there was to be seen ;it a little dis tinee to 
the lig'n on some n>ugh undufa'iug g'nuiul 
a house which always attracted the eye by 
its atVaciatioii of Gothic in the outline of 
its windows. On the siihi towards the ptib- 
lie voad It showeii several olitusexiu aded 
l.uic t ligtiis. This p. culiatity gare the 
building otnerwise ordinary enoutrn, a 
slightly lomant c a;r. Ir had the ■ tl'ec i:i 
fact at a liter p ricd of creating foi this 
liabi':ation when i^taiidint,' for a considerable 
while tenantless, the reputation of biing 
h.un id. Tnis nonse .and the surrounding 
grounds constitute d Springti Id Park, the 
oigiiial Upp'T Canadian in m otJihuMdis 
,1 icU-^oii, a;. !•; i,'li h geulleiiiaii, lurnu 1 ^' oi 
iJuwiiion in \Vi sliire, who einigr.ited liiih- 




\ ! 

J I, 

I I I! 

11 I II 




er prior to 1806, but finding public affairs 
managod in a way wliich he diemed not 
Batis'acory he returned to England, where 
in 1809, he published a pampliu-t addressed 
to the K'ng, Lorda and Commons of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain atid Ire- 
land, entitled " A Vhw of the Pohtical 
Situation of the Province," a brochure that 
made a stir in Upper Canada if not in Eng- 
land, the Local Hou-se of Assembly voting 
it a libel. In the preface to his pampliiei 
which is a well-written production, Mr. 
Jaclkison gives an account of his first con- 
nection with Canada ;uid his early expe- 
ruiK'c here. Hi' says : "Having by right 
o: inheritance a cI-mui to a large and very 
valuable ract of laiid in the Provinee of 
Quebec, I w;(8 induced to visit L wer Cana- 
ua for the p'rp.>se of inv<stig;iniig my ti.le 
and bf me dt suous to view the immense 
lakes and fa Is in Upper Canada, where I 
had purchased some .and previous to leav- 
ing' Enp and, I ex t luled my ti.ivt Is to tha' 
country with which I was so much picised 
tliat I resoiv. d lo settle on one of my es- 
tates and cxp iidrd a consuieranle .-urn on 
Its improvements" — the allusion is probably 
to.Spnncfie.d Park — "buti^onsideriiig neither 
my pcr.son nor pr* p.rty secure undnr tlie 
sysum pursued ilier , I have been obligt d 
to rduquibli t'ne h' p- of it's ii j 'Vment." 

To Mr. J.iokfonV mind the colonj' was 
Viemg governi d exauily iu tli'^ w ly vhatltads 
finally to revolt in colonies. Tlie principles 
of tlieconstitution j,'uaruir'e(il)y tiie Mother 
Couuuy were violated. One of his griev- 
anct s was — not tiiat a seven; h of the pubic 
land h:id been set .ipart fur an estih.ished 
church but tiia: — '' m seTcnieen yeais not 
one acre had been turiud to any bciufic a 
account, not a clercyiiir,n < x ept such as 
Eng and p:>y> or the Missionary Society 
sends, only tire luiiumbir, wi;hout glebe 
perqusite or p.\r3oni.g • l.uuse and still 'ewer 
cliuii lips than ministers o: ti •• established 
religion.' Nevertheless, what th'^ old 
Freiic 1 trader siiid (f Atii'a — Toiijoxirn en 
ma"(li^.<unt ce I'ila'ii iiai/f!, on y n^vien-^ fou- 
jourtt pioved true in lespect to Canada n tne 
oas( of Mr. J.icksou as m the case of hevoral 
other severe critic- of public af- 
f;.irs in later times. He returned ;ind dwelt 
in the land af' r all, setiiing with his faiir.'.y 
(11 Lake S incof where .Jackson's and 
Jackson's Landing retain his name ami 
where dcsceiidar.18 ot his still remain. Mr. 
Jcks'U had possessions likewisein ihe VV- st 
Ii.d: 9 and made ir^jji nt visi's thitner, as 
aN) to Kiiylaiid whtr.' at hngtli he died in 
1836 Up t.j about that tunu we observe 
' IS nan.e in he Commission of the Peace. 
He \Ta~ a gentleman commoner of Bailiol 
Colli ge in th.- UniTersity of Oxford. Pre- 

vious to 1827 he published a Biblical work, 
which was tor sale in the bonk stores of 
Messrs. M- ighan and Lese' & Sons, York. 
It was entitled The History from the Cn- 
at'on o'' the World to the Death of Joslms, 
authenticated from the best authoiities with 
notes Critical, Philosophical, Moral and Kx 

One of Mr. .Tackson's sons, Clifton, is lo- 
cally remembered as an early example \u 
these parts of the exijuisite of the period, 
the era of the Prince R'cent and Lord 
Byron. By extra saenficuig to the Graces 
at a time where articlea de cosmHiiue et df. 
lure generally were scarce and co.-tly m 
Canada he got himself into trouble. In 
182*2, he had ccasion to make his escip,; 
from durance vile in Yoik by opening ^ 
passage one quiet Sunday morning thron.rt. 
the roof of th' old jail. He was sp edily 
pursued by Mr. Parker, the warden, ;ind ai 
associate, Mr. Gar.'-ides, overtaken at Al 
baiiy in tne ,'^tateof New York, anprelui.,; 
ed under a feigned cliarue and broa;,'h' hacK 
to York. Among 'lie inhabitants <>i soin. 
of the villages be; ween Albany and Youngs- 
town, ,'. suspicion arose that a case ot kni - 
napping in progress and Messrs. I'wk i 
and Garsides, were exposed to risk o; per- 
sonal violence In fore they co'.ili reach tliu 
wes'eiu bank of the Niagara River witn 
their prey. A few years later, C'ifioi; 
.Jai'ksoii obtained a situation in the Honit; 
Colonial Otlice with a good salary. To di-- 
tingui-h Mr. Mids Jael;-;(jn from Mr. Sam- 
u I Jackson, another Yonge street paipiie^ 
tor. the epithet Jacobin was applied to tie 
fornuT in aili'tiou to his political piincip 'a, 
and th'- appellation Hatter J .cksoii to ti ■ 
latter ir. tillusion to his trade. OniheiiiTa- 
sion of Canada I'y tie United States fotces 
during 'he war of 1812, he open'y avowed 
his sympattiy witii the invaders and was 
obliged to fl e from the t(u;ntry. 

The original o\eiier of Jacobin Jacksoii'd 
property wa.s Stilhvell \Vii,-on, who as e.ily 
as 1799, was appointed one of the (jver.>eors 
of highways and fences for the poriioti ei 
Vongo street from Lot 20 to Lot 4l) iii Mark- 
ham and VaUi;hMi. In 1S21 he w».s land 
lord ot the Wa'erloo House in York. Iu 
1828 sc-me of his pr. peity w .a seized for aa 
indidjttdnesH to one Jairus Ashley. At an- 
other time he Tasiii c( niinand of aslip-ketl 
seliooner plying between York and Niagara. 
After Mr. Jackson, Mr. Cawthra became H • 
owner of this property. 

As we reach the higher laud after cro'-s- 
ing tne dam of Whnmore's Mill and return 
ing with ti;c more liireci line of 'he s'reet 
some rude p itery works meet the wy. Hern 
in the midst of woods the passei-by saw on 
one side of the road a oue-horse clay, griod* 



iiii; 111 cliitii! laliorioui'ly iu operation ami on 
till- I'llit'f ili.'<p!ayi'cl in the cprn aironb'.inia 
suppiiricil by woodiin pins iliiven into the 
(^ruat IcL's Cdniposing the wall of the low, 
w;iiiiowle^9 build ng, luinuTOu . articlis oi 
C0.U8I', I lown ware, partially ^'-'^ziii, pan?, 
Clocks, ji's, jug", d 111. Johns ;iiiil lo forth. 
Tlifse woiks wurecarrad on l^y John Walm- 


A tract of rougii country was now reach- 
ed il tlicuit to clear and d (EluI' to iraV' rae 
Willi a vciiicle. Here a truru;no corduroy 
oaiiJ<«way was eiiconntpr' d, a long scnus of 
,tiiall saw ( g^ laid side by bid ■ over which 
wluH'h j;dted (K-Uberattdy. In the wet oca- 
ii)ii, poriidiis if it l)f ing ;ifl lat would undu- 
;aie uiider thi' weight o: a passing load and a ln.rse'ii leg would be firrap- 
piii.'iiKl pos.sibly snapp d short by tlic mid- 
vlcii yielding nr reroluiioii of ons of thi! 
cyuuders iielow. To thu ng'it of this triC 
was one of the church pi' bts resrrved in 
t'T.iy townsiup in ttie original laying out ((f 
Upper Canada, one lot o: wo handled acres 
in every acveii of lh« ?ania art a. A elic oi 
tnis airaiigcinent, now broken up, but, ex-> 
P' ctcd to b • permanent wiien the Quebec 
Art was pass d in 1780, reniainett di.wn to 
a late date in the shape of a way.-tide inn to 
tne right near here atyh d on its sign the 
'■ Gl' b Iiin."a ti.le and sign reinindiiig 
0:1 ot the "Church Sale.-," and ?' Cnnrcli 
'i lies' uot uncununoii 33 Tillai.'e a e-houso 
uesignations in some parts of Eiiglaiui. 

Hitherto the g'ueral direct i^n qf Yonge 
ST'Ct has heen north sixteen degrics wesr. 
At the point where it passes th road niaik- 
ing the northern limit of the Tnird Coiices-. 
siuii from th' b:iy it swerves s ven degrees 
tu 'lie eastwaid. In 'lie first survey of this 
region mere occurred heie a jog or tauh 1:1 
the lines, The portion of the street pro- 
posed to be opened north failed by a few 
nda to connect in a continuous nghl line 
with th portion of it that led southward 
iiuo Yuk. Tiieirregii'anty was afterwards 
corrected by slicing oflf a long, narrov.', an- 
gular piece roni three lots on liie east side 
and adding the like quantity of laud to the 
ujiposite lof, it 'lapp niiigjuat lien; that the 
itj's on the east sride lie east and west, while 
ihose on the west side lie north and sou'h. 
A:ter the third coi.c s>ioii, the lots along 
;iie stre'et lie uni uruily east and west 

The fj;st pcssesBOr of the lot on the wts: 
■■ide of \'()iiye streer, fligii, ly augm- iited as 
described, was the Baron I)e Hd n. an 1 Ilicer 
in one of the German regiments disbanded 
after the Ui.ited States Revolutionary War. 
He was a fiieiid of the Uildwiii family. In 
lt)*H), he was th^ second 01 Att(j: ucv (jene- 
la: Whi'e, who was killed iu a diel with 
iJr, Small. 

In our progn 89 nortiiward, we now trav- 
era • tjround hica ly historic as the .-c no of a 
si- irmi-h and bloodslied in the troubles of 
18;{7- I'hc t vents connected witti this havu 
been sufHciently describ d. The giea: con- 
spicuous wayside inn, wliich here s'. ood at 
: he right ot the road, usually calh d M .nt- 
gumery'.'i, was at tin; time of its des rue; ion 
by the Government torcca iu 1837 m tho 
occupation of a landlord, named Lmgfcor, 
Tlie (if Montgomery from whom ihe 
inn took its name, ho having been a former 
oncupant, was on a farm owned by h.mself, 
b< au ifuUy situattd on rising ground to the 
left, subsequent y the priperiy and place of 
abode of Mr. James Ljsslie. Mr. Mon:- 
C'lmery had onee a iiote in York named 
" The Bird in Hand' on Yonge stl•ee^, a 
litil.' to tne nortn of Eliiot;'sSun Tavern. 

Kgliiiti n through which at the present day 
Ymige 3' reet passes hereabout is a cuiious 
Si ray memo: ial ot the Tournament in Ayr- 
siure, whieh made a noise in 1839. The 
passages of aims on tho farther side of the 
A'Jantic, that cccasionally tuggest names 
fur Canadian villages are not always of so 
P'licefiil a character as that in tho east of 
Kglinion's grounds m 1839, although it is a 
mat'trof some in;er<stiiow to renumber 
that even in that a Louia NapjKon Sgund, 
WHO at a later period was eiig.iged 111 jousts 
of a rather serious kind promoted ty iiiu.- 
selt. About Kglinton the name Siiider is 
no able as of a United Empire Loyalist 
finiiy Seated here of Geinian desctiit. Mr- 
Martin Siudep, tatlier tf Jacob and Elias 
Snider and other brothers and sisters, emi- 
grated hi! her a! an ear^y period from Nova 
Siotia, wlu re ho first took up his abode for 
a time after the R volution. Among the 
names of those who volunteered to accom- 
pany General IJiock to Detroit iu 1813, is 
thai ot Jacob Snider. Iu lit( r year^ a 
member of .he same family was Sheriff for 
the county of Grey and repeatedly a repre- 
senta'ive in I'arliamenc of he same county. 

Beyond Ejlinton ;n the decent toa lough, 
irr gular ravine, the Ik me 01 Jonathan Uale 
was p.isseU on the east side of the street, 
one if the Hales who were forward to un- 
dertake w rks of public utility at a tune 
wiieu appliances for the execution of sueii 
woiks wt re few, Mr. Hales' lot afterward 
became part of the t state of Jisse Ketchum. 

On the west side opposite here was a fu/m 
;liat had been modi rn;/.ed and beautified by 
; wo :umilies in sucossion, «ho migrated 
hither from the West Indies — ilu; Murrays 
and iliu Nantons. In particular a long 
avenue of evergreen trees planted by them 
anil leadiiigup 10 he hon^e was noticeable. 
Whde these lamilie-s wire ilu- owners and 
occupants of the properiy, it was named by 




■S i'll 











tlu'iu I'i j:!iin'8 K;iiin. SubMiiU'iillv IM- 
piiiii's F.iriii pa-H 'd into uic naiuiH o' Mr. 
J lines li !ity, op of tii'' icpit'sontiitiV' s of 
Torciito III I he lldiix' ot Ciimiiioiis in;»- 
(Li, who iiKiiii' it !ui ( c MsMiiil s\iTiimi r n-- 
tioa: anil f.iliid ii ( Jlrii (irnvo. I: liail Ixfcii 
known iit oni' pt-rioil ,'is tin- Mid'ai^'all 
K.irm, John M.icD Mii^all of VovU havint* 
III-. 11 Its owmr liotn I SO I lo IS'Jd Mr. 
M ioDoiijjall wan ■. li" proprirtor fif h' priii- 
;;ipal hot. 1 of VoiU. Mr, M.'U'D iilmU was 
tile ( r 1,' L'laiiti'i' ot ihi firm m iii (ii.iti- 

ly to t'ln Ri 11 ll (il Cilrll * I I V . 1j It N'li. ;{. 

Oa iiij^h laml to the rii,'ht a int way oil' : he 
roaii an Eii^'iish-lookint: mansion nf ImIcU 
with circiiiar • nds" was ano'lior tarly mno 
vat ion. A yoiinij plmtat'on O' tid's, s'> 
plac "(l as to slifltcr i' from the iiortti f-ast 
MiniH. acid, il to its Ivitjiish a^p c . This 
was Iv'i i^-liid. tiio licim of Sir. 
!:kt'uise an iinnrijrant fr.'in tho \V. ,s 
It was af ti'i wa; d^ ilu'.alioac of M:-. 
an Alierin.'vii ot I'oronto. 

Uiio or two old Sarin houses of an fini- hib, 
Now Jersey style of two storuya wilh sttep- 
'sli roofs ami small wii.dows w. it tlnii 
pas-'d on th.' loM. Some way fiirili"r on, 
but still in the low liiid of 'In irrfi.;u ar la- 
vine ano' lier p' imi'iv- nisnc mair.ifacoiy 
of leatli' r waa n^iu' n'd, 'I'm.s was " Law- 
renci' s Tannery." A or il<:e ov. r tno s-tream 
here whieli is a feeder to ll;e l>oii, W.m 
Bom. times s^pcken of as H iwhe'.s bridf,' ■ 
fr m the nam.' if its build v. In th.' h. I- 
kw on 'he ii f , ilusc to tie •.aniiny and 
ovi rlocik d f I om ' lo' road, wi-^a cream col- 
our d. resp ctable frame iiou-.-, th(- domi. 
cile of Mr. Lawrence lims if. In ins yir.i 
or R.ird'ii, some hives of lu'o.s whvn such 
things Were ramies, u>ed ruways to lie 1 lok- 
cd at witli cni'iosry in pi'sine. Tlie oriL'i- 
nal patentees of lots '■i,\, si V' n, ei^tit and 
nine on tnc west side of th" street just iiere 
were toui- brotli(;<, Jos pii, Duke. Jlir-.m 
and Jolm K.ndriek r. ppect vely. They all 
hail nautical proelivi'ies and w. !'■ ali eoii» 
nrctnd with th.- niariii.. of the like. 

We now speedilv arrive.} at the com- 
meii..'ement of tile diflfi^'ult disc, nt into tliv 
C'Tat valley of the yreat west iiranc i of 'he 
Don. Vontje street liere made a grand de- 
tour to thcoasf ;uiil tailed to iiij.iii tne di- 
rec northeiiy course tor S( nie time. As 
usual wfieri vcr lonp, inclined planes were 
en* in tbe ateep sules of lofty clay banks, 

lilt! cuuuiiioii 1)1 lliu I'.i.l.iu.iy iHTealMHU. \».l 

after ruin mile.scribab.y bad. Alter reachuu 
the stream and crosiiin{j it on a rou^h tini 
ber bridge known ami.ntiv .sometimes as 
Bie Cre. k ijruige and s. m t in s as IT zon's 
bridpp, the track ascendeii tne further liank 
a' first by means of a narrow hogsback, 
whici conrenuntly sloped to the yalcjafti r- 

wards it made a sweep to thn north 
w.ird aloioj the brow of some broken bills 
and then (iiial.y turned weBW ird until tin 
dire(;t iiorti.erii route of the street was again 
touch d. 

rii lianks I f till" Don are here on i \rrv 
sidi' very bo rl, civd. d u s.tiv p'ac.'s into 
atiees by an intervenuij; pla can. On a » 
eoiiilary tl it i lum foi m.d in the m:d< ot i 
gias-.-j,'iovMi LdeariiiL'. to the left ihere vi 
ereceil :it an earlv date, the shell of a pli 
of worship, app r aiirm,' to the o d Sc..; • 
U<\\ kirk pir up here throiicli tii / ai . : 
.Mr. .1 iim.s l[ i'j, a memb. r of that comnin 
iiion and liio owner for a tiim) at leas: of ii •■ 
lloiir mills ill the railey near tne brui;.' ■. 
l''it.m mm ttis locality was popuarly known 
as iiofij; 8 Hollow .'.^pit.. 'b' p'Sial iiar. 
of ibe place, 'S'oi k .Mills. Mr. Hi gi.' was o; 
Se.Ttisli di'scri ; , ml a man of spirit. 1; 
IS.'VJ h.' sent a liiall ni;!^ to M . riurmtf, t i 
editor of the ('mirkr. Wlio had sp lUeii . 
oim in his paper in ofl'eisive term-, but, inii 
{."iitleman deeiin.d to lij^lit a du'd. .Mi. 
\\'-\i'i dn.l in IS.'W. 

'I'll • ciri'iiit or tiui hills overhaiit:ii j; t! 
nulls II ,(,i^- v\;is a \v ivs tedious, but si \ . :,i, 
■.'o(..d hit> of scenery were c.u'j,dit s yht o:. 
(' 1 I h." lip and aft r cscapilif; t lie eh;. I ditii- 
culti'S on the 1 f hand a loni;, low. wooiier. 
bm'dinj:; wa.s s. en with {jablr and door t.i- III., road. Tnis was .an ear'y plac >■ 
w. rsliip of the Ciiurcii o! Imi aland, an ou"- 
p.)st of I he missi.'n a Y.'rk. 'I'ne Ion;; due i f 
its roof was s;i;»iitly cnived dow; wards l.v 
the Weight of a siiort jhimm v bin. at *• 
middle point f r the ac'eommo.l;>tion of ,i . 
iron stove within. Just biforc arriviiip r. 
tiii'ga'e . f the buryii'^'-ground tUiachci '.i. 
tins biiild:i;{^ ; iiMc w.r. n.t rest itig ^linip-- - 
to the h,'tt ii..wn into d.i p wo. ily ulcii-, a 1 ■ t 
tin m conveigini; sontbwjird on th'- D.ui, In 
.some of till III W( ri' little patci es of p.easitr 
grass land. But h-r-- for ho mo-^t 
part the for. st long rrmtiined undistiiibi 'i. 

The ehu'X'h or chapei n-f- rred to w..< 
oiteii .-erve.i by divmi y students s. nt oit 
lromt..wii and f : ei|iieiit ly no douli , its eciioed witbpn-ntico atl- nipisai puip • 
or.itory. Goutlay says that tliis c apel and 
the Fri'-nda' House-, near Nesvinir- 
ket, Wi re theonly two places ot public w i- 
ship i.n Vol g • s icit in 1817 .1 niit-^ 
Siiichan via 'e.! bis brotiier, tn.- liisnop of 
Toronto in 1810 and wrote a book of hi^ 
trip, entitled ■" A Vsit to the Pioviine if 
('pp. r C.i:;ada in 1819bv .lames Siraclian. 
In I Ills work he says— " My bro hi r lian by 
ins e.x rtions ami encourig.-meni among 'h- 
p ople, caused a chapel tu be bui t ahi.U' 
eigbi mileb from York, where In- i.tfi- at''- 
onci' a month, one of the young siud.n'x 
under Ins care reading the service and ase:* 





jnnii <i'i till! iiiteiniP'liatn Suntl.iy-i. O i Ins 
■ liiv of ilomi: iliity I WiMit \.illi li III .iiui w;i8 
Hi; iiy l.'i'''''i''''^l' 'A''' »li''l"'l W;iH bui!t in 
■. tiiuk wooil. Tiie dimensions uru (iOxlJO 
[flit, rli'" pcWK.ii''' vcay (Ic^ciMit aiui \vli:il was 
iiuhIi I"'' iTllicy wtr<' tilli'd wiMi an attcii- 
livc coni,'!'' fjaiidii. As you h «■ v< ry few in- 
,i;,b;t!iu*-< oil your w;iy uit, 1 oouM nnl con 
,.i<i wi I'l-o all '. Ii • prupic cariii" fioiii." 

In ISHJ I lie fouii'.lati n Htoii • of a ihirabic, 
lirii'k I'liurcli, was la <l near iliesitcot iiio 
old traini.' <'!iapi.'i. On ttiat oi'casion, Dr 
»;t!i''liiM naiiKii as ' spi'oiai pn niKicrs of the 
iirij,' plac'' of wciiMiip, Si'ih-cm Kt U'liimi 
.iiiii Jii!.' pli Sri'ppiiU, tlic •oriiier ilovotiiif.' 
miuli tiiih' ami mioihv in tlic nirtli'.'r.iin.'u of 
tlic wo- U, ami !iir lattor giving 1 ri c aciv a 
i]i land as a 8ito lo;,'ftlicr wi'i a liaiulH(iiiii> 
dona ion in cash A silver ri" d d wliioli liad 
iiii'ii tltposi'fd uiidir tiic o d Itui.dinp, was 
iiiiw uaiif"M'cd U) a ravi'y in tiic toiiii' a 
•lou stone of its propoM d snc-j'sstif i 
iioKi on th olivii'so, " Ff.iiiL'is li II'. ]vi|., 
Li'iitcnaiiT •(JoTcni'ir, ISIfi." and en tin; !•• - 
v.-r, '■ KitiySixln of <; "vj- Third, ' To 
;• VI, If ii'iw aiiiU'da coupi of otlitT in daln 
of silvi r , oi'.i' lioro on tin' ohvcr-c, " Joim 
>;in(i,an, P D.. H shop . r Toronto. Au xin- 
,|. I Sms'iii, Minis IT, ]S43, " md on the ks 
V( r-f. ■' Sixtii of Vii'ioriii. ' Tnc otluT had 
i>crd) il on i' I he liaiii- ol : he arohitcc . 
Mr. J. <i. Howaid. witi a list of o;hiT 
.■liuirhiM CI' I'ted Ml L'pp'i' Canada under his 
aiiTfiion. Ainoiit; tn-' p rsons pres. nt dnr- 
111^' till- (• rcniony \VL'rcCiii''f JiHtico R' Imi- 
■toii, Vio(!-l.'lianL'elior J ni".siin. I'n lion. 
iiid R'-v, A Civi'inlisii. anil the JLl'V. (i, 
\l'ir;iin rot TlnTniull. J'nor to the on - 
-loor pioc ■eding>«, a r>»n iikihl ■ so 'nc hid 
Ijcrii wMifSiscd \vi!h';i the wai'.s of the old 
oiiildiiij;. Koiir uiMilleiTi'. n rcceiv' il the v\u- 
nf coiitiimiti -n at the liand-s of the l>;si.op. 
ill of t cm up to a reci'nt date nin-cuis 
'orinistH. ihr e oi thoin nnn-con:oi'nrs' 
ministers of niarU. Mi. I'owtdey, M;. 
Leach — who fireached ilie fuioril s- rni-ii at 
the huiial ol Janie> Hogg, ;iiio Mr Ritehie — 
the toiMili, Mr. Sinson, no- iinv.oiisly a 
miiii.^'er, luit now in Holy Orders of the 
Church of, and ih' nmiister ap- 
point li o 1 fliciat(! in liie iien- church. 

At ii' p'tstnt day Yoiige s: rect crospos 
fIuLi{ s Hollow in a dir' ct line on a raised 
einhaiiknient, the anrieiit Roman 
loadia ilcers would iiare deemed re pect iliS', 
:\ Work ui-eoinpli-^hed about the yrar ISIi." 
beWe the aid of a'.eain powc was proeu a- 
hlf 111 these parts for sncii purp' Mr. 
Lynn w,iB tto engineer in cliage i ere at 
tliiit time. The picturcs(|ne (diar.ietet oi the 
vail'v has been considerably interfered with. 
Neverthideas a winding road loads over tin; 
billsto the rifiht leaduns up to the church. 

St .I'din's hasstill som'-sylran surrouiicline^. 
It m.y be adiied that the destnie: ion of thi» 
beaiiifiil liereaboiii to sonii' ex:iiit a 
ne -off in tlie line geological stud ea display- 
ed to the eye m thi' siil'S of tlie dc p euta causeway. L.k' 
Ontario's ancient ti mr hero ifted up iugii 
.tiid il y in the air cxiiiljii.s siraniiri. Mip"i- 
>t ratnin, I i:e d' posiiH ni suco'^sive pi.iei- 
long ago. Tlie action of : h'- matter, hov.« 
eTer, hag blurre i tl.u inteiestiiig picuesof 
the pi^' foinierly d. splayed on the suifa^'e 
of the artificial escarpim nt at Ilog'^'s Hoi 

ciiAi'Ti:!: ccxii. 


Old lliill<lliiu<* ol I |>|ti'i- Vtiiiue SIreel ;ti)<l 
liileresliim ICeiliiiiiNCeiU'CH of »{■*'l) 

In tiie eat ly d;iyH j .uriirying up Vons' 
strict, tiie first bill (iiiig that pi'-eiited it- 
self afi r passing Hogg's Hollow was Mr. 
Hiiiiibe, srone'a noiise on 'he west aide of tiie 
mad. n was a maiiufac urer of p'.it ly 
\\i\v. A curious iiic (lent used to b'- i i.- (1 as having eecurr d in tiiis iiousi'. Tr.e 
I biriil of an o'nl Indian towiiiig pn ce turu"d 
} up liy th ■ plougii 111 one of tlie fluids and 
j 111 ale to do duty in 111 ■ management oi un- 
I wi'ldy b;i«k lugs in tlie great tire place, sud- 
I deiily pr;.ved itself to have be n cliaig d all 
the wliil". exploding one day in tne hands ol 
Mr. Hiirnber-t'iie's daughter while being pur 
til Its ciis:omaiy lu.' and killiii.' her on tiio 
>p > . S mewh at similarly at V v Erie in 
tne tile wiiicii lie;;' loyed the wiiaif at the 
andiiig, a condemned cannon which had 
long In; n plauteit :n tne pier as a post wenr 
off, h ipi^ily strai!,'ht upwaids, witiiout doing 
any d image. M:. Hunib rstoiie saw active 
service as a lieiit nant in ; he Incorporated 
Militia in ISl'J. He was pnt in cli irg.- of 
some of tlie pi ison IS captured by Colonei 
Fi zgibbon at the B aver Dams, and when 
n %v r.i anng his di s;iiiation. Kingston wi'ii 
his prisoners in a laige bacliau, he. lik' the 
f.iinoiis drago n who caught the T..r:ar, was 
Iliad" a pi isoner liiins. if liy the n.oii whom 
lie liad in custody and was adroitly rowed 
over by il.ein to th- Unin tl States shore, 
where, b ing landed, he wasswitily locked 
up 111 jail ;iiid tlieiic: or.iy delivrrol wneu 
))c ice wafci restored. 

The next memorable object also on I'et 
lift was .Siiepliaid's uin, a noted resting- 
place tor wayfarersand tliei; animals, fl Hik- 
ed on the north bv large driving shed.i. oti 
the south by si.blea and bnriis : over the 
porch at an early p nod was the cSlhy of a 

ir ■ 






s 1 





|J0 ^^" 


f US, 1 2g 

1.4 11.6 






WIBSTM.N.Y. 14580 

(716) •7a-4S03 





:Vl '■} 




2 11 gaidniit attempted in wood on the pre- 
.ni^es. C 'nstiuGiivene&a was one ofthepre- 
vcciniinaii' f culties in the fiiat landlord ot the 
tio}den Lion. He waa noted also for skilful 

• xecution on st^ instruments cf music 
■m ihe bassoon for one. In the rear of the 
iiotel, a little to the louth onafineeminunc, 
me put up for himsi If after th: lapse of some 
fean, a prirate resid* nee remarkable for the 
.'(iginality of its design, the outline of its 
aiany pr' ji'ctingicofs pr( senting a multitude 
of concave cuives in the Chinese pagoda 

In aoveral buildings in this nei(;hbourho"d 
an (ffort waa at one t mc nade chi<fly 
through the influence cf Mr. $h< p>iard tore- 
produce what in the wtat of England are 

• illt'd cob walls, but eitb< r from au error in 
aompou:iding the material or from tke pecu- 
liar character of the local climate th>y 
iproved uosatiafacfory. The Shephards, 
karly pr( prietors (.f land a little further on 
vere a o iff rent family and) pelt their name 
differently. It was some membera of thia 
family that were momentarily concerned in 
the movement of 1837. 

Ill Willowdale, ii hamlet just beyond 
Sliephard's. was the ref>' ]-uce of David Gib- 
lon destroyed in 1837 by the Government 
tbreeir. In 1825, Mr. Gibson was appointed 
surveyor of land in the frcvince by the 
Lieutenant-Governor and in this profession 
a^ we 1 as that of a practical farmer he was 
prosperous. He likewise rppresentcd North 
York in the Provincial Parliament. When 
the cholera came after the luniult of 1837 he 
was appointed one of theSupiriiicndcuts of 
Coioniza. ion Roads. He died at Quebec in 

A road turning off at right angles 1,0 the 
eastward out of Willowdale, led to a cele- 
brated camp meeting ground on the proper- 
ty of Jacob Cummer, one of the early Ger- 
man settlers. It was a grand m.iple forest. 
7lii« was the toene of the camp meetine de- 
scribed in the autobiography ot Peter Jones, 
the Indian missionary, an account of which 
has been givcu elsewhere. 

Where the dividing line occurs between 
Tork anb Markkam at the angle on the right 
was the first site of the sign of the Green 
Bush mn, removed af :< rwarcit to the iinmr* 
diate outskir:8 of York, and to the left 
somewhere near by was a sign that waa of 
interest from its peculiarity, thn Darweston 
(jiate, a small white fiva-barred gate hunj by 
Its ti pniost bar to a prijectiun trom a lof y 
pi'St and having painted on ita lower har*, 
"Durweston Gate, 'and the landlord's name. 
it was probably a rt production by a Dorset- 
«bire imm grant of a familiar cbjtet in his 
native villagp. Soon afterward advancing 
aor.hward, Fineh'a waa reached, a trreat 

hostelry on the right of high repi.te about 
1836, and subs quantly among txcuraioit 
parties from town and among the halt-pay 
settlers of the Lake Siincoe region for the 
contents of its laider and the quality of i a 
cooking. Another place of similar renown 
was Crew's, six or eight miles further on. 

When a long alop* towards the north be- 
cint> soon after Finch's, a ▼illaire entitled 
D^indurn waa onee projected by Allan Mac- 
Nub afterwards the famous Sir Allan, acting 
at th^ time as agent for H. J. Boulton, but 
Dundurn never ad vai.ced beyond iiicipienc>- 
Tne name was afterwards familiar as that of 
Sir Allan's chateau close by Hamilton. 

A wulNtravclIed road now soon turned off 
to the right le:.ding to ctrtaiu a'most his- 
tbiic mills ill Markham, known as the Ger< 
man Mil s. In the &'aze<<eer of 1709, th'se 
mills are referred to — Markham tuwn.shp m 
the East Ridinir of the County of York, 
:roiits Yon ge street a..d lies to the nuriti- 
ward of York and Scarbon ugh. Here are 
good mills and a thriving settlement of 

The German Mills are situated on Lot No. 
4 ill the third concebsion on a tiorticjn of the 
Rouge or New, a river which the Gazeilfi«r 
informs its readers wan the back coinmuni- 
cation from theG rmau setKincnt in Mark- 
iiam to Luke Ontario. The expectation in 
1799 was that this river and not (itlitr the 
Humber or Don would one day be coiinerted 
with the Holland River by a canai It was 
not certainly known in 1794 where the river 
which pissed the German Mills had its out- 
let. Ill Iredell's plan of Mai kbam of that 
date the .stream is marked '* Kiichesecpe or 
Gnat River, waters supposed to empty into 
Lake Ontario to the eastward of the High- 
lauds of Yoik." Information doubthss 
noted down by Iredell from the lips of some 
stray native. Kitche-SSeepe, Big River, is of 
couiae simply a descrip.ive expression takcti 
as in 80 many instances by the early pec pie 
to be a proper name. It does not appear 
that among tl'.e aborigines tliere were any 
proper local names in our sense of the ex- 

The German Mills were founded by Mr. 
B Tczy, either on his own account or act ng 
as agent for an asscciation at New Yoik for 
the promotion of German emigration to 
Cmada. When after failing to induce the 
Government to leconsider its decision in re- 
gard to the patents demanded by him for 
Ilia settlers that gentleman retired to Men- 
treiil, the German Mills with various par.< 
c' Is of land were adver'ised for sale in .^he 
Gazette of April 27th, 1895, in the following 
strain — " Mills ai,d land in Mark! am. to be 
sold by the subscriber for payment of debts 
due to the creditors of William Btrczv. 




E^q-.thi! milli called th^GermanLlills, beinf; 
a grit> mill and a aaw mill. Th? ^riit mill 
haa a p i * of French burs and complete ma- 
chinery for mnkine and billing lup^rfine 
flour. There mills are iituii'cd n Lot No. 
4, ID the Third Concession of Markham; 
with them will be given in, lots Nos. 3 and 
4 in the Third C jncession at the option of 
the purchaser. Also 300 acres, b*ing the 
wei' half of Lot No 31, and the whole of lot 
No. 32 in the si>cond concision of M;irlcham. 
halt the purchase money to be piid in hand 
and half <n one y( ar wiih legal interest. W. 
Allan. N. B. Francis Smith, who lives on 
lot No. 14 in the third concession, will show 
the promises. York, 11th March, J805. " 

lo appears from theiamn Gazette thrtt Mr. 
B'rczy> vacant house in York had been en 
tered by burglars after his departure. For 
their apprehension, W. Cneweit off.jrs a re« 
ward of twenty dollars. Mr. B Tczy never 
bccam'i <1isen angled from his embarrass- 
ments. H" died in N w York in the early 
part of 1813, aged 68. A Bos on newspip^i 
noticing his di-arl: sp aks c>f him as a disx 
tincuished inhabitant of Upper Canada and 
iiighly resptcted for his literary acquire* 

The German Mills we p purchased and 
i;ppt in operation by C»pt. Nolan of the 70th 
R'B ment at the tini'? on duty in Canada, 
liui the speculation was not a success. It is 
ttated that this Capt. Nolan was the father 
of the officer of the same name and rank, 
wlio fell in the o'larce of the L'ght Biipade 
at the very Sist outset of Balaclava. The 
mills onc'^ bore th ■ designation of Nolanville. 
The Gazette of March 19 h, 1818. contains 
the following curt announcement : '"Notice. 
Tiio German Mills and Distillery are now in 
operation. For the proprietors, Alexander 
Patterson Clark, 11th Mirth, 1818." Ten 
years later they are offered for sale or to 
lease in the U. C. of April 5 h, 
1828, in the following advertisement :— "For 
sale or to be leased, all or any pnrt of the 
property knf>wn and d scrib d as Nolanvill • 
or Gjrnrvn Mil's, in .he third C'licession of 
th' township of Markham, coiisis'.ing of four 
hun<l;ed acres of land, upwards of fifty 
under good f iic sand iniprovem.>nts wi^h a 
good dweliiuiz-liouse, b.irii, stahle, saw-mill, 
jjnst m II, disti lery, brew house, malt house 
and several other outbuildings. The abovf 
premises will be disposed of, either the 
whole or in part, by app'ication to the snb- 
sc'iher. William Allan, York, January 26 h, 
IS2S. The premises cin be viewed at any 
tini; by applying to Mr. John Duggan re 
Biding there." At this time the c uster of 
buildings, constituting the German Mills wns 
a rather impressive sight to one coming upon 
tbem suddenly in the midst of the woods in 

a deserted condition with all their windowr 
boarded up 

Associated with the German Mills is tbc 
memory of Charles Stewart Murray, after- 
wards well-known in York as connectoi 
with the Bank of Upper Canada. He hW 
bean thrown out of emp'oyment by Cipt 
Nolan's relinquishment of the Mills, lie 
was thsn patronized by Mr. Tiiorne, of 

A romantic interest attached to Mr. Mm 
ray from his being a personal friend of Stt 
Walter Scott and from his being intimately 
associated with him in the excursion to the 
Orkneys while the "Pirate'' and the "Lordof 
the Isles" were simmering in tne novelists 
brain. " N3t a bad R'-pasi" phyfuUy sairf 
Sir Walter after partaking one day of home- 
ly meat-pie at the little i.nn of on ■ Rae. Li! 
from Mr. Murray') talk a minute grain to be 
added to Sir Walter's already huge can* 
of ana Mr. Murray's grandfather or otherr 
near relative had b-en for a time secretary 
to Prince Charl s Kdward Stuart, the Pre- 

A mile or two beyond where the track n 
the German Mills turned off Yooge strrd 
once more encountered a branch of the Dou 
flowing as mual through a wide and d/t- 
cult ravine. At the p lint where the s'rourt 
was crossed mills and factories marie ther 
appearance at an early date. The ascrni 
ot the bank towards the north wis accom- 
plished ill this instance in no round alu u; 
way. The road went straight up. Horte 
power and the strength of leather were heif 
often severely tested. 

0.1 the rise abive b^gan the vi lig* dC 
Tnoruliili, an attractive and noticeable pi ic. 
from the first moment of its existence, 
Hereabout aevera: English families had set- 
tled, givinc a special tone to the ncighbonr* 
hood. In the very h-art of the village 
the horn !, unfa:li«j{ly genial and hospitable 
of Mr, Parsons, one ot the chief founders of 
the settlements, emigratine hither from 
•Sherbourue in Dorsetshire in 1820. Nearertk* 
brow cf the hill overlooking the Don. was ti*f 
house of Mr. Tiiorn >, Irom whom the plaoe 
took its name, an Eng ish gentleman, als<^ 
from Dorsetshire, and associated with Mc 
Pars 'lis in the numeronsbusiness enterprises 
which made Thornhill for a long period a 
centre of great activity and prosperiiy. B'- 
yond a little further northward lived the 
(jappers, another family initiating here tbe 
amenities and ways of go d old west cd 
Eiifiland households. Dr P^iget was like* 
wise an element of hnppy influence in the 
little wotid of this regon, a man of high fu- 
ture, formerly a medical practitionerof great 
repute in Toiqu^y, 

Directly opposite the house of Squire Par' 


11 miift fiiw^ 



•0118 was the home of Williiim Huntt r. For 
the whole of the prcctHiinsj part c.f this ar- 
ticle, we arc indc'bti d to Dr. .Soailding, 
having qnottd liini almost word lor word 
and for the latter part of tlit- article we are 
aho iiidi b ed to liini. At this point we slia 1 
insert a vaUnhl' communication from Mr. J. 
Siiaw, or 14S lOiicld avtiiuy, giv nc i-n at> 
count (f Wtilain Hunter, the eariy condi- 
tion o: YoK^'u siivi't, and g lu'ral remiuis 
tences as to the lire of tiiu pijiiters. Mr. 
Sli:iw snys :— 

I was l)oiii at Newmarket, in the Pio. 
riiicc or Cniadi, in the yoar 1822. My 
p^ironts leniov d to York in tlie fiame year. 
At an e.irly ii-^i' 1 re uriud to the country, 
rc?idii)K tli'Me uiril Irciinucd toToronto, in 
the year 1S71. I'lis.sejsiii)^ tlie blessinff o: 
a good m n'.oiy 1 puipiiM; to give you a few 
fki-lciies on pi neer lUV, liia. may bi; inter- 
1 sting, anil ui oiil r loniaUe it m ire so, 1 
tl.ave (iU"''d ari()iij,'lv fiuni ilie expcuifinn c.t 
William Hunter, a near Ineiid of iiiiuf, with 
W'lOUi I Nva> eoiive saiit duiiiijj the latiT 
pirt of his life, and whose relation of early 
liiii'S liavi' bfcn uuiei b y suiinped on my 
111 iiioiy. William Hauler enr.irra'ed from 
E :j.;laiiil wi:ii liis wife and family, consist- 
ing of oiii- sou and six daiigiiiirti, in the 
ye,irl7'J2, and settled lor a iiiiie at Abany. 
A year later, his son 'J'lionias reiiuned to 
Loudon, his uncle, Jchii Hunter, haviiii; 
3i nt lor h.m, he biMii;,' a iiurehaiit doii:jj 
■ usiness at No. 14 St. Paul's Ciiuchyaru. 
Hiiutrr wa.»a black-iui::., and well-- kill'd iii 
til • trta 111 lit oi liorscj. Som ■ l:in,- after, 
a situation opened out for h ni n th; town 
of York as ineie wcie Lir.isli troops sta 
tiouediheri. and a troop of li'U'se. ii was 
«'nt tor by tt (Vi-rnor 8;m(;. i-, who appointed 
him ill ehali^e as a veeiina: y SUlgeoil to the 
hors-s 1)1 ioii.L'iiii; to tlic (I imisou, and to ilo 
the GuveriiiiKiit blackMiitii woik. ]£< i,',ive 
him a giant of twdlitiiuhcd aeri's of lii.d foi- 
iiimseil and.hesaii:e lo eacii of Ins childr n, 
but from the w.liiapp ,i aiice of ilie cruutiy. 
lie p ae> d hut liitlevaue n the land, and 
const queiitly sieured biu twohundiei acie.s 
situated III tlie Towusiupot Vi,ui,'Ikiii, front- 
ing on Yoiigi^ street, iWiive miles from 
York. II ■ arriv d ,it York 1111703. 

l';-ui)i : h • pri'Stiil ciiandpoiiil, n would be 
veiy ditfieuU tor a stranger on entering our 
beau'.i:ul c.ty, to form a just conccp ion of 
the apptarance o York at that pi ruul. un- 
less he were abie to take into the scip ■ oi 
his imagination tlie vas^ amount of improve- 
Jiients ffoing on from time ;o tiine in tilling 
up and levelling, aloig with the draiiingr, 
and the toil brought in to till up the ironi- 
ago from the grasp of iho mariii. now ealleil 
the Esplan;.d'. YorU at that lim- was a 
tciuU haniK't, miminrii.g about four hundred 

inhabitants, in close proximity to and west 
of the Don. The dwellnig.s were principUiy 
constructed of logs, tlie jjinings p!as:(red 
with coars • moitar. The lire places were 
usually broail, built up v^ith stone at tiie base, 
10 the Jieight of six feet, the balance fre- 
quently wit i sniail biieiis with a gradual 
siope to the centre, ami thickly coa'eu \siui 
plash r inside. Its unuual iiiureisc. in popu- 
lation li. rough immigration wa."* Vi ry suial,, 
I. had more uiu coiOuring of a military aia- 
tion in tho eyes of its iuh..bitauts, than the 
future home of thousands of int. lli^ent 
beings. It was surrounded by ihousaiuU of 
the wild deiiizeiKS of the forest, who Were 
looking with j.alousy on the encroachinuiu 
of I he white mm on 'heir huiitii g giouii.!<. 

Its location hail a low, sw..mi>y npi.eir- 
aiice, and tiie>vaut of dr..inage, along \vi;!i 
the dead and motioulcbs water."« of the i).,n, 
caused the prevalence of di.-;easc. Anion' 
th ■ most prevalent wa.'i the fever aim .i,:,'iie, 
a ling.ring malady, tlioi; .-n not in inuiy 
case^ fa;al, yet it dt pressed energy, aiul ly 
its f Kjuent attacks, it sekiotii tail.d in 
breaking tne eonstiiutions of its victims. 
Its .--uiriaun'ings were lonely in tlie cxtri nie 
to the newly-arrived (iii'giaiit. burvounaed 
as it was by dense fore.-ji. , that the wiiu 
beasts c.aiiiiid as their domain. One of the 
set'ler.s' iiigir. er.terta nnieiits was the 
crocking of the thou.'-aiuls of trogs that in- 
fisttd the locally. That was leinud tiio 
'' Canailian Ji Hid," and it, togt^thir with 
the scr.i clung o ;l'.e<\vland 'he lynx, a:d 
the howling of wolves, and other uiscordaiit 
notes, iihuie It inything bur p.casant win ii 
peaceful s.i!ml>er was soui;lu. Among the 
trials the s. ttlers had to contend with .iiul 
ijot the least, w;is the attack of tiie mos- 
quito, though small in stature, owing to the 
conn: less iiUinbLrs tiiai sv.aimed in > verx" di- 
rection, ai.d ihi ir tlii:st lor blood, a^.d tlnir 
long bills, so we!'.-ail p'ed to enter tli pons 
of th(^ skin, and ilnir consttmt. attaciis on 
man, woman and child, tap ciaily at nigiit, 
;t became lacessary to make bonfires m 
iron' of the dwellings to create smoke to 
pr Vint their entrance. 

Yonge street at that time conipiised what 
w IS Called a bush road going zi(.'Z.g to es- 
cape the fores tri cs, and othei impi tlnnLnt.i 
on the line of an Indian trail. Dot' li iitie 
and there m gli' be seen tlio h cation of a 
hardy pioneer, whose axe liiul mule :i .-mall 
(ip'Miing in the forest, and the snuke of 
whose log cabin, covered with bark, might 
be seen wiiiuii g it.s w;iy tliroui.'h the 
branches of the surrouniling trees. ThM 
was aninter('8:in2 road — ph n, iful were deer, 
bears, woive.s, lynx ar.d other gamf, but if 
b nicli'ed in the forest, the travi Her would 
find but, poor protection fr. m his gun. 

life, and 



tgkinat the attacks of tlie ravenous wolvt-s 
ihat inlestcil the l^icality. 

S loii after the war of 181-, William ll'iu- 
ter moved from Vurk to his taim ai Thoiti- 
liil . I iivinir bui.t liis huusc and shop dirtct- 
iv I ppo>itu to the rcisitlciH'o of ilie late 
Sqii.K' i'.irsons, laf.eriy a partner in thi firm 
oi Tliornoc& Pasons, wlieie hi; carried on ti.c 
bliiLkf.nutli liusinf-as for a r.umi)pr of years. 
Iiu.j:i' : avi! inMinoiii'd llie Idisuii s-i of the 
tirin of Tiionif& I'.ii » ns, h cause ilu'y wen- 
vi-ry 1 xtcii-;.vr noalera in 11 .ur ;i,.d mi"c:'aii- 
lit^", running two or inne fl^ur nuliB, and 
t:.i l:uj;esL tannery in Aiiic-rici, expiirtiiij: 
fl ur \\ry "Xtenr^vely to Ivicl iml. Ow i.;; 
19 ii many danj^ers tliria .liini; the.'^parst - 
.y SLMttercd sett.ers throii|.'ii iiii.- fores;, by 
tiu: Iiidiati-', it vas ncceshary to kerp on 
JO ci terms with tliose wlio waclied closely 
iiR' iiiDvem' nts of til.' s tthrs, am! miulit a 
uny moment iir ak out with treacherous ili - 
■ij;as. Hunter w;',s noi slow in realizing 
;1jl- s.luanon. and < nibrac' il i ve y cppor u- 
11. ly, ny j^o 1(1 I'liioes and kii.dn k-;, tosecuro 
tiiea' fiiei d-.iin. In this he suec 'ed d in a 
iTiii .: i;aljic dij.Mve. in carryii\!» ou liis 
pp. ley ho liad losubmic to much iinpli asant- 
iie-s, owii'Ej to the bold and uneuhiy.ited 
stale of th" Indians wiio m:\dc ii convenient 
tovi.sit lumviiy often on tlieir rainblcsi, 
:an\ illeu at night, when forhis own eouve- 
liii'i ce, he would leave the ki cheu door un- 
bolted w.ieii reining, the Imiian.s would 
(juietly enter and lie diw!! until morning, 
wi'.en, on rising, he wi uhi j.'ive them some- 
tuii:!,' to ea', ami they \V('Uid g.'> on Uii'ir 
(vay rejjicng, and of .en sited tears ot gi at.- 
tu .e as they --^aid go. d-bye to F.i'. iier lluh~ 
ter. On varuais urc.i'^ions they ekhibi ed 
fea's 01 skill in th ir wild ya-nes and ixei- 
tioiis, 111 Widen iluy were lainous. At a cer- 
lani sea.son ot the year, they made tii ;r 
•■luainpiMeiii near ;his place for the 
of iiiintiiii; for iuis, and game, along tlie 
bunks of t lie creei; that flowec; through and 
e:usse.i Vonge select at tiiis point, whici-, 
wus a larg ■ body of water, a' that t me the 
mam inljurary of the Don, but owing to ihe 
removal of the forest and Oiher caus.-s, t|io 
a'.ieaiii h:is bccii greatly reduc^'d. TiH' first 
iuniheiiiig trade 111 '.lie provincj was com- 
nieiKed (11 tills bireain. 

Thy setllenient of ihose unbroken forests 
was very slow, as none but the most, oou- 
nigi'ous and persevering would stand any 
ciiaiioe tf t-uocss. After all tlia' is said ot 
the tiia'.s the pioneer farmer undergoes, 
whicli are very great, they were ih' li.ip- 
piest commumty in the couutiy. Friend- 
ship Willi I hcinwas a necessity. They made 
:i their platform. Th^y aid nold of it, and 
practie.illy it grew up with them throiigh 
life, and ;ii tnosc oases where necessity \va.i 

lio only propeding power in society, by 
constant exercise it soon becnni'' a virtue, 
ami was transmilti d thrcjiudi Ih(ir coming 
C'lieratioiis. No oiie larmcr could si and 
aloof, and say to his negiibour fanner 
" I will not v.aiu thy as'Siatance at any " F.c illustration, I wib give you a 
skrtch of the first procciis (if cleaitng land. 
The sam ■ neC' ssity crops up in oihe ■ d< p irt- 
ments of farming. .Stni: h gm 8 on hi- >-ild 
Iju^li farm 11' comni nces iiiuh^rli usliing, 
tin 11 eh- pping down till! trei s, and eu ling 
thrill up into i)i(jp' r lenirtiis, trimming and 
P luig ill.; busli, until he accoinj) isiKS in 
this way as maiiv acres as iic d( s res. He 
lets the mill) r lie for drying purpose.i until 
the ptop r I iiiii' arrives lor loi.'ging;ii d Inirn- 
iiii;. The thoiigtit nviroecuis i.ome ''How 
will I I'et all tiiis done?'' but when ihc 
prci))er time arrivi s lie go- s and invites his 
i'..i;;nbours lo ids loiigmg bee on s-iicli a day. 
They all arrivr on linie ;ind bting \\itlithem 
iw ) or more yoke ot (X n, v/iili a strong 
ciiaiii attach a to each yoktt. 'I'liey are all 
pr.icical men , tlry divide the ehoppir.g, tile men into, choose ;i fore- 
man lor each, and commence busiinf,-. It •«■ 
([iiiies about f ur men to oin; yoke oI oxen. 

l"he end or the chain is aCiaciied t" the end 
oi one or more hgs at a lime, and drawn by 
the; oxen whe/e ill ■ pile is t j be term d, 
and I acii log roUeii by the m n up, forming 
a hiiije pile, s iiij sixoriign: leer high. So 
onw.ird they go, clearing ihc gri-iund of logs, 
iinlil a.l is in piles, ready tor burning, and 
then they ail have a jolly tiiU! at ]iro. 
Smith a at nigtit. riaio tiny C(jiitiiiu.: ;0 
as-ist each o Inr, alleina ely Iniilding up a 
llfedollg fi!end=hip lliat blit few clijv.y in 
r.ny other slatii n in life. 

ll was ntitural or the hard-wiciiiuht s t- 
ilers o have eiitertirnm. ii" oceisi. na ly of 
one kind or aiiotiur, as a ciuini.'' iiom tho 
loii' liness of these surrouiidin;,'j, so at a 
rie ■ ingir, was dcti.'rmined to have a holi- 
d.iy fo. games aua oiher Miiu.seirient.'-, with 
an Indian wardanceat i'.igiit,and Mr. Hun- 
ter was ri qii -s ed to invite tin- c'li- t of ihe 
triiie to biuiK down froiii the O.ik lliilgos, a 
compiiny of his bravi s on the luLdit in ques- 
tion. Hunier ac-'ordintrly .seir a messenger 
to iniortn nim, and iiie invitation was ac- 
ceptiii, to take place on the iol owing week. 
When the day arnvi d. eve: ything went, off 
satisfactorily, l)Ut the interest was concen- 
trated on the nighi p^'rformance. Tiie In- 
dians were ih-re on iinie, a larg; toopof 
them, about one hundred warriors, heuaed 
by iheir chief, ciotiied in their w.ncjstunie, 
wi h painted facei--, a'liied with knives, and 
toiiiahitwk-, lie savag s loiiii nc ; liemsi Ives 
around a hugj b nfire. Tne scenes enacted 
lU that meiu-irtibli; uigiitbeggirdesci iption. 




It partook of the character of a sham fight, 
with all the heiinusneBa of Indian warfare, 
waving thtir hatuhets, and striking at each 
other, bat with luch exact skill as not to 
injure each other in the slightest degree, 
also imitating the process of scalping with 
tlieir knives. Ttieir faces being striped with 
the jrice of the Indian berry, from the light 
of the fire, had the appearance of streaining 
blood. Tneir wild cjacvlatioua and ut:er- 
ings, as they danced to and fro aronnd the 
fire, the shiill echo ot the war-whoop re- 
sounding through the forest trees, added 
fearfully to tlie horrors of the scene. A' 
the olose the Indians were supplied with 
provisions, and enc imped at the fire until 
the break of day, wlien they retired quietly 
to their woodland retreat. 

As time advanc d the number of the set- 
tlers increased. Tne dread of the Indians 
gradua ly subsided, as cxperier.c ; ptov d 
that the Indian, thouf^h a dang srousenemy, 
by kind and cenerons treatment would con- 
tinue a trusty fri> nd of the white man. 

To resume Dr. Saaddmg's narrative — An- 
other man of mark associated with Tiiorn- 
hill in Its palmy days, was the R'3V. Geo. 
Mortimer, for a series of years the pastor 
of the Eiig!ish c inpr>'gation there. An 
earlier incumbent of the Kig isli church at 
Thornhill, was the R^v, I^aac Fidler. Ths 
fient cman r<'ndored famous tlie scine of uis 
Canadian m'nisiry, as well as his enp'!ri- 
cncos in the United States, by a book, whicii 
in Its day was a good deal read. It was 
entitled " Observations on Professions, Lit- 
erature, Manners and Emigration in the 
United StaesandCinada." Mr. FiJIerwas 
a remarkable prson, of a tall, Wes more- 
land mould, resembling thecominoiipicturis 
of Wordsworth. He was somewliac pacu- 
liar in his dress, weiring always an ex- 
tremely high sliirt collar, very conspicuous 
round the wliole (>f his n(ck, forming a kind 
of spreading whit.' socket, in winch rested 
and revolved a head, bald, egg-sh.iped and 
epectacli.'d. B 'sides i)eing scholarly in the 
modern sense, Mr. F.d er possessed liie more 
uncommon .(ccomplishmeiit of a familiarity 
with the Oriental Inncjuages. 

In his book, he gives the narrative of the 
overturn of a family party on their way 
hom>3 from church. The charioteer was the 
intended youthful bridegroom of one of the 
yoniif ladies of the party. The horses be- 
came less manageable every moment, bu*: 
mirth and joculaiity prevail d among the 
party, wholly inapprehensive of danger. 
The carr.age was overturned and the ladies 
and gentleman trundled out ofitlike rolling 
pins. Nubody was iiurt in the least for the 
mud wa^ .«osott that they were embeddedin 
iu D.'. Soadding tells of his experience 

when i.fiijiating one bright summer morn in 
the Thornhill church. ' A farmer's horse, 
that had been rooming leisurely about nn 
adjoining field, suddenly took a fancy to the 
ohady interior disclosed by the wide-op n 
doors of the sacr d building. Before the 
rhurch wardens or any one else could make- 
out what the clatter meant, the creature 
was well up th>- ucntral passage of the nav«. 
Then hecoiiiingalfriglited, itsejjction was an 
awkward affair catling for tac; and mall(eu^ 

Tbe English church at Thornhill has had 
another incumbent, not undistinguished in 
literature, the Rev. E. H. Dewar, autho • 
of a work publislied at Oxfo' d, in 1844, on 
th3 theology of Modern Germauy. I>, is in 
the form of letters to a friend, and is enti- 
tled •• 0;rmui Protestantism and the Right 
of Private Judgment in the Interpretation 
of Holy S'jrip u'.e." The author's former 
position as ciiaplain to the British residents 
at Hamburg, gave him facilities for b. com- 
ing acqaiintcd with tiie state of German 
theology. Mr. D war died at Thornhill, 
«n 1862. Theincumb nf, who precrded .Mr. 
D'war, was the Rsv. Dominic E, Bl.ike, 
brother of Mr. Cnancelior Blake, a clergy. 
mm, also ot superior talents. Previous to 
iiis emigration to Canada in 1832. hi^ lia<l 
been a curate in the county of Mayo. He 
died suddenly in 1859. 

It is curious observe that in 1798, sal- 
mon ascended tiie tyaters of the Don lo this 
po;nt on Yonge street. Among the itcom- 
inendations of a farm about to be cffred for 
sale, the ' xistencj thereon of an excel eut 
salmon fishery, large enough to support a 
number of families, is aimed. 

As we move on from Thornhill with 
Vaughan on the left, and M irkham on th ■ 
right, the nam t of another rather memora- 
ble, early missionary recurs, whose memory 
is associa'ed with both these township?— 
Vincent I'iiilip MeyerhoflFt-i*. Mr. Meyer- 
I'offer WIS a Hungtrian, born a" Riab, in 
1784, and had been ordained a Presbyter in 
the National church of Austria. On emi- 
grating to the United States, he being him- 
self, a Franciscan, fell into som ; dispiiits. 
with the Ji^suis, at Philadelpiiia, and with- 
drew from the Litin Communion i\n<\ at- 
tached himself in coinpiny with a tellow 
Presbyter, named Huber, to the Lutheran 
Reformed. As a recopinz 'd minister ot that 
b dy, he came on to Bufialo, where he offi- 
ciated tor foiiryr-ars to three congiegatiouu, 
visiting at the same time, occasionally, a 
congregation on the Ctnada side of the river 
at Lnieridg'. He, here for the first time, 
b'gan the s udy of thi English language. 
Coming now into contact wiXh the clergy ol 
the Anglican communion, he, finally ro-* 

II! J 




on thf 





,ib, in 

jyter in 

Uii emi- 

ng liim- 


d with- 
nil at- 


of that 
he otfi- 
nuily, a 
he liver 
St time, 
lerfiiy of 
ally re- 

Kolved to oonform to the Anglican ohuch 
an i was sent by Bishop Stewart, of Quebec, 
to the Oerman •ettlemcnt in Markham and 
Vaughan. H<ire ho officiated .'or twenty 
years, building in interval St. 
Sti phen's church, in VAUi{han, St. Pinlip's, 
in the third concession of Markharn, and 
the church in Mtrkham Tillage, and es- 
tabliahint; a permanent congregation at each. 
He was a Ti^oiouH, stirring prcaoher in his 
acquired Enclish langunge, as well as in his 
vernacular G rmin. Hf possessed also, a 
colloquial knowlodge of Litin. which is sti'l 
a spoken languag; in part of Uingary. He 
was • man of energy to the List, ever cheer- 
ful in opiiit and abounding in anecdotes, 
personal or otherwise. During the Napv*)- 
leonic wars, he was " Fieid Cnuplain of tiie 
Imperial Infantry Regiment, N>. 60, of the 
Line," and accompanied the Aistrian con- 
tingent of 40,000 m^n furnished to Napo- 
leon by tiie Emperor of Austria. He wus 
afterward, when the Austrian Emperor 
br.ike away from Niipileon, taken prisoner 
with fire regiments ot the line, and sent to 
Dresden and Mnyenoe. He was at t!ie lat< 
ter place, when the battl'^ of Leipsic was 
louglitOjt, 16. 17. 18, 19, 1813 H-; now 
left Miy nee without 1 ave, the plague 
breaking out then, and got to Oppenheim, 
wlicn a G rman Presbyter, nimed Muller, 
concealed him till the depnrture of the 
French out of the town. After several ad- 
ventures, ha found his way back tu the 
quirtets of liis recirn''nt. now acruig in the 
anti-French interes at Muinheim, where he 
duly reported him?elf and was well received. 
After the war, from the year 1816, \u' hart 
for three years th(! p;is oral charge of Kling- 
enminster, in the di cse of Strasburg. He 
(lied at Whitby in 1859. A memoir o' Mr. 
Meyerhofif^-r has bucn printed, and it bears 
tin following tile, "Twelve Years a Roman 
Catholic Priest, or ihf Au'nbiography of the 
R;v. V. P. Meyerhoflfer. M. A., late Mili- 
tary Chap'ain to the Austrian Army, and 
Grand Chap'ain of the Orders of Free 
Masons and angemen of Cmada, B.N A., 
containing an account of his career as Mili- 
lary Chaplain. Monk of the Order of S . 
Francia,and Ciereymin of the Church of 
England, in Vaughan, M.arkhim and 
Whitby, C.W.' 

He had a musical voice which had been 
properly cultivated. This, he used to say, 
was a source of revenue to him in the early 
part of his public career, those clergy being 
in request and receiving a higher remunera- 
tion, who IK ere able to sing the service in a 
superior manner. His features were strong- 
ly marked and peculiar, p^rhapi Mongolian 
in typ9. Tiiey were not German, English or 
Italian. Were the concavity of tiie nose 

and the protection of the mouth a little mo->.- 
p-onounced in Elias Howe, th ' medallions 
of that p'rsona^e would sive a general idea 
of M . M -yerhofrerVp ofiic and head, 

In his vountrer Hays, he had acquired 
som> medical knowledge which >t>id him in 
good s'tai for a time at Philadu phia, when 
he and Hubir first renounced t.'io Latin 
dogmas. His taste for the healing art was 
slightly indulged, even after the removal to 
Canada, as will be seen from an adver:i-e» 
tnent, which appeared in theCuU'ier of F^-b. 
29:h, 18.32. It is headed thus : •' The use 
and direction of the new invent d and never - 
failing Wonder S ilve by D. V. P. Mever- 
hoffer. of Markham, U. C, H. D , 6 h con- 
cession." The advertisement then goes on 
to say that the salve is good to' burns, old 
wounds, teller worms, and so forth. Testi- 
fying to its worth are th« following; "In 
Markham, Mr. Philip Eckhardt, jun. ; do. 
do. sen. ; Gotlitb Eckhardt, Abraham Eck- 
hardt, John Pmgel, jun. ; Mr. Ling, Mr. 
Larga, Jjlin Perkins. John Schali, Ciiaries 
P terson, Luke Stantenkough, P<"ter March. 
In Vaughan, Jacob Fritcher, Dinitl Stang. 
R command d by Dr. Baldwin of York. 
Tne medic no is to be had in the E vhta 
cone ssion ot Markham, called Rmr^town, 
by Sinclair Ho den, in tho fifth concession 
by Cliristopher Hevelm and T. Amos, jn the 
town of York in J. HaMwin's ami S. Birn- 
liam's stores on Yoiige strict by Parsons and 
Tnorue. Price cf a box, two tni lings and 
six,) nee curr.-ncy. " 

Military associations bung about the land 
to the right and left of Richmond ILU. Ihe 
orig nal possessor ot L')t No, 22, on the west 
side, was Capain D.niel Cjz ns, a g ntle> 
man who took a very active part in opposi- 
tion to the revolutionary movement, which 
resulted in the independence of the United 
States. Hj raised at his own exp use a 
company of native soldiers in the R yalist 
interest and suffered ^\l". confiscation of a 
considerable estate in Ni'w J rsey. Three 
tiicusand acr> s in Upp.T Canada were sub- 
sequently granted him by th ■ British Crown. 
His sons, Daniel and Shivers, also received 
grans. Samuel die I ot a fie .it York, in 
1808, but Slivers returned to New Jersy 
and ui'.'d there, wtiere family onnexlons of 
Captain C z^ns, still survive. Tiiere luna 
amongst them a tradition, that Captain 
Cozins built the first house in our Canadian 
York. We observe in an early pan of York, 
the name of Shivers Cozens, on No. 23, in 
Block E, on the Kouth side of King street, 
the' of B.nj imin Cot mis, on No. 5, on 
Market Square, and the name ot Captain 
Daniel Cozens, on No. 4, King street (new 
town, north side, with the date of the grant, 
Ju y 20 h, 1799. It is thus quite likely 




tliat Cap ain Cozens, or a iii'inbcr of liis 
t'uiiiiiy, put lip buildiiics in Y^-k at a very 
Oil ly p liod. \Vr read in iiu! Ni.iff^ini IIt 
«/(/, ot October 31, 1801, till' ti liownig : 
" l>i'j(l on th. li lilt., near 1'Iii1j<I' iiiiiii. 
C.iptMiii l)ini 1 Cnz-na," ami in tnt; flu-.iiU' 
\\\v\ ijfadi' : "Dopir^fcl lis life, on u,<.' 
2fl li U.I., Mr. Stniut'l I). C./.'Ms. one of ilir 
riis; inhabi aiis of this town (V. rk)- Us 
reniiiins wcri^ iuterrtcl withMusonio iioin.iua 
on ilie" 

Aii.'tli'r ( ffioer of the R voluii nary er.i, 
was tile lir.-ii owner anil for several y.-ars. 
;h'' ; Oicupant of tliu In-, mini (liati'ly 
opposiit! Cip am Cuz us. Tiii.s C^ iptain 
Rieliafil Lipp'ncott, a nativ. of X \v Jersi;^- 

Ou the 12: ii Apnl, 17S2, Cp: tin l.i;>p n- 

(•(!■ ■, ae! ll.Jj' lli'der :iUl ll'MT V ol I he ■■ 11 1 .111 

o." A-;-oi'! ; ' il Loyal 8t8 (I N w Vo, k. ' • .s •• 
cuud by h.ii:i,Mig Giiptaiii J ^1 II I llii'iuy, 
of tile R-vniuMoiiny .iriiij'. as an net of r' ■ 
taii.ition, C.ipiiiii Hii'Uly hiivie;,' siunni.-ui y 
tri-at'd in tlic s:uii- waj-, a reh.ViVe of C.ip- 
ta ii L'ppincoli'.-, I'iiii p White, whn was 
Miipr s' il witliiii :iieliiR'.'3 oI ihe Kev-)luioii 
ary force, whih; on a stole'' visK cihi- 
mother on Chri.stnia.s D.iy. On Huiuiy's 
brorist was fastened a ));p(M\ beaiiii;,' ti.t- 
Hfo "Is : '"Up .i{ jes Huildy lor Pl;ilip Wnitci. " 
When the Mil T nder ol Capt. Lppinoott 
wasreusid by ihe 11 jyalist auuurities, 
W:i.shiiii,'toii ordered ihu ■ xecirion oi au or 
fiuor ofc final rank, to 1) .selected by lor, cm 
ot liie pi i-oiKus 'i hi.-' haiida. Tiie lot fell 
oil CiTt. Ciiarle.s Aspiil, ol liie Guani.s. a;;ed 
only nineteen. 11 ■ re«));iei.l, however, 
uiiti the i«.-ii •• • f ,1 cut mar lal, p oniised 

to tie held oil C.ipt L ppilicott. Sill u.d be 

known. The c( uft acij iitKjd, and Cijitaiii 
AsgiU only narrowly . s'jap il the fiite of 
Audre, liiront,'! priinp iiitervciition on 
tlv pu't of ihi' Fieiicli Government. Tiiu 
French .Miiii-ler of Sta'e, the Count du Ver 
jjeMies, to wiioni iiere liail been time for 
Lidy AM.'dl. til" Capt liii's mother, to ap^ 
peal, received diieelioiis to ask his release 
in tlie conjoint naine.s of the Kiii.tT Mid Queen, 
as " a tr.i lit ■ to iiuin.ii'.ity. " Wa,--iiiiigtoii 
• houfjht pr. ji r to ;u'c lie to this r, q ost, 
but it w:i.-i I ot until the foUowint: year, 
when the li vo utiunaiy stru,i,':;le eiuied, that 
A-eill and L.pp nco^t were .set at liberty. 
Tiie former li-ed to succi;ed to hia father's 
biroiietey aiid to b' coniu a (ieiiiral i llicer, 
Colonel O'llaia. of Toronto, rniiemiKMed 
iliiiiiigai a labh", wiieii a (ieiu.tal Sir Ch.irlcs,l; was pointed ou' lo ii.nias havmij b 'en 
duiittg the American R voluttonary War, 
utulor sentPiioe of death, condemned by 
General Washington o be hamred in the 
place ef alio 111 r person. 

Ci^aiii Lippincott rcceiv<^d fio'n the 
Ciorvn, three thouatmd ac es ia Upper 

Canada. H«! survived until the year 1826 
when aged 81, and after eiij yii g ha f-paj 
for a period ot forty-tlirt'o yeais, he expind 
at the iioii-e of his son-indaw, in York. 
Coloii' I (■ or.^e Tay or Deiiison, who fjive v. 
I ihowM eldest fioti, Richard L ppircuti I> m. 
son, Ciptaiii L'ppinuott's name. A f-w 
mil'S tiir'ber on. name y, in North ami lv.,t 
(iw illimbiiry, (ieii jrnl Benedict Arnold 
known anioi'L' United St.ites citizins us "the 
tr.iitiir," received a grant of live tiiousiud 

A s'lort distance beyond Riclimomi Mill. 

j Was the abode of Colone! Mo^ die on ti;i 

j rigiit, (iistinmiished by a tli;,' s'alT pi i.'ont 

I .'f It, after I lie eu-i om in LoW' r Clinad;!, 

when an < Hi •'.•: s iioiise vi.sed to be known in 

I tl is way. Cnloinl M lodie's titecaine iioiji 

'. us raiiK 111 the regular army. H" had neen 

I L eitt.-C lionel of tiie 104th R j,' ment .imi 

I IkuI served in the I' war .iiid in th ■ 

j R 'vn'utionaiy war. He wa.s .'■iio' in IS.'JT, 

I while at teinptint,' to rid past Montcoine va 

hotel, legardless of tiic inauigeiit oiuiUi iig' 

to stop. 

At a certain p riod in the history o: 
Yoiitje street, a.-, indeed, of all the |. Milium 
iioroiigiifareB ot Upper Caiiida about iSliU 
.■;:>, a ire<nu'iit sijni that prepriy 
c.aiiced hands, and that a second wave oi 
p pulati' 11 Was iolliii<r, was the sprii,f,Mig 
lip .at inierv.s of of an inipn.veii 
•syh-, witii i-ui roiiiidi!it,'>:, lawns, sinMeiing 
pi intatioiiH, wi. dun.; drives, wi ll-c.'t:is riici- 
ed entrance ya'es, anU so on, iiidicitiiiL' an 
npp eciatioii of tie c'efjant and ct.inforidile. 
A little way beyoml Rici.mond Hiil on ilic 
If . were two i.Msiances or tilts : criry, Kne- 
lisli looking re-;d iices, no far apar , wi;h 
a c:uster or appu't' nances round i;ici). iliu 
lioin s of Luritt Smith and Fr.iiieia l>oyil, 
betii of wiioiii liiil .'cttled with their "im;- 
lies la 18.')(i ^Ir. Smith had been piuv oi;s- 
ly 111 C.inad i to a military ci.picity, litinnq 
the war of 1812 l.'i, and tor iiiiny years >uii- 
SI Mileirly, he h.ul ben Chief Coiniu:;;>:i:y, 
(f the Field Tram iJep irtinenr, and I'iiy- 
master of the Ar ill, ry. H • died at S lUtii- 
amptoii in IStiO. Mr. 1'. ivd. who einigiated 
hull' r from the county if Kent, was oii" of 
the fiist in these parts to import from Fii;:- 
land, improved breeds ol cittle. In hi.s 
liou>e 'vas to b- seen a collection of y 
fine paintincr*, .•imongst them a Holti ■ ii. a 
Teiiier-', a Domnicliino, a Smirke, a Widii'- 
and two Hoiac' Vernets. The lainili' s or 
Mr. Boyd and Ml-. Siniih were rela'ed by 
maniage. M . Boyd died in Toronto iu 

it was in this house that Kinnear was 
murdered in 1m4;{ Bond's Lake, neiir by, 
was named from W. lond, a gardener near 
Vork, ill 1800. 





■mpplrmi-nliiry llptnlls— Tlie4tunlllicullon» 
Kri|iiire(l by 4'aatlldale* tor t'oiiiiuLt- , 

OlIlK' ! 

IK re are things leii likely to liuppmi | 
than thid, that ai some future period the 
t'aiwiiii'ii Dominion mny rnise, as Upjier and 
l.owif I imada (lid in IHjlS, a regimi.iit for 
ijii'imI stTVice ill the Hriiish ilominiona. 
' 1' ri.iy ihtirefore p ove not uniniercstin!,' ' 
;j ii,,i;iv 10 tiers if tiiey leai'u what whm lo- 
liiirf'i from the geiitleiiifii who in iSoS 
j,iu''iit to obtain comni's.-.i(>ns higher tiiau ; 
,;,,t(i{ t'Dsign in the JOUth il'.'jjiini'ut. i 

.iiu following is an exltact fioni the ! 

r.iuvtj department at O'.lawa, ot iliepi-o-| 
(.^.„;iiii^3, in one case, which is a fair sampio ■ 
oiail, (if 'I'o lioard of Kx;iminers : — j 

I'l, CI eiUiigi of a board of (JIlicciH, as- ' 
se;i;;,.i,l liv <):dcr of iiis iixculKni'y Lieut. ' 
(,t, i: li ."'ir William ICyre, K. C. 15 , com- 
na;; ^ii'g the troops in iJriiish North Amer- , 
;,a,iiir iho purpose of e.\an:il;i:l^' fur com- '_ 
1 issi'ins in hor Majusly's 100; h or I'rinco of j 
WiU's' Royal (Ja-iadian Rei;im'i:ii. ; 

Montreal, Oili May, 1H.")8. 

I'resiilont — Col. Orde, cominari.iin;^ Royal I 
FuL'ineers. I 

MoiiibiT.s— Capl. Galhvuy, o. Royal Kn- | 
jiiKCPd ; lifv. L. J. Rogers, Assi-stant i 
Uaolain to I lie r'orcf.s. i 

Mf. I'liuwiv Wallis appiared huforo the ; 
Hoard as a oandidatu for a Ih utunaut's com ; 
niiisioii in iho lOltth llo:;inient. I 

Mr. llruwii Wallis is actiuL,' adjutant of ' 
tiic lUuhain Lit,'!it Cavalry, and also lixlil.i 
a coDiiiiisdon as captain in the sodcntaiy 

.lie i'.nard, having put a ftw tteneral ; 
luc lions to -Mr. Brown Wallis, is of opin- ; 
ion taut ill' is well (lualiKtd for lieutenancy 
inlur M.ijcsty's army, and beg to reconi- 
meiiii liim for such. i 

i:ji2ticdj \V. R. Ordk, Colonel, 

Commanding Royal Engii eers. 
" J. L. CiAi.i.WKV, Captain, 

c. Royal Engineers. 
" E. .1. i;<"ii;Rs, 

Asst. Chaplain to the Forces. 

\Vm. Eyri., Lii'ut, tJen'l, 
Commanding the Forces in H N. America. 
Heail(|UHrteis : 
.Moil roal, 6th May, 1858. 
This Mr. Urown Walli-s was for some short 
timo acting adjutant of a detachment of 
tije rcL'imeiit under coniinand of Major 
Dunn, V'.C. He retired from the army in 
18t)3 and now resides in Ottawa, He is 
(iiic (if the very few survivors of the original 
ciiici rs of the regiment. 



The OrlslDiil lllKhinnd Killn rompany Its 
Orlulu and lU OIHrcr*. 

Nearly thirty eight year.s go, in tlio 
Bpriiig or early summer of 1H5G, several of 
tlie tiion re.sidents in Toronto \s ho were of 
Scoliisli l.irtli or exlrai;iioii decide:! to en- 
rol tliLMiiselvus (ctiuld they g<'t permis.sion 
aiul prociira otlicerw), as ritle volunteers, and 
form a cotiipany to be known as the 
liii^hhaul Company, who wer ■ to have the 
same uiiiforiii as the Scotuli rcgiinentrf of the 
I'lili.ih ar-iiy. 

This idea was eventually carried out, 
thougli tlitir tiuiies were gieoii, instead of 
roil, aa liiDse of the -ISth are to day (IS'J.'!). 

There was somo little diiliciilty at lirst 
in ol^t.iiuiiiL,' ollicer.-i, not from lacu of 
niateiial IjuL because so many of those who 
were willing to accept commi3:iionB had had 
no previous militarv tiaiidnc. 

l.veiitually till.' coniinand was oU'ered to 
Mr. Ale.Naiider .Morliiiier .Sniiili, wlio.luippi. 
ly, still survives, and whe i lie had accepted 
it everyone wondered wliy ho had not 
been a.sked in the lirst place. 

Captain Smith was a born solditr, and to 
this day takes liie keenest interest in military 
matters He joined the IKSrd Ifighlandera 
in l.SIll), when he was a men; youth, came to 
this country in KS.'iH. and :-.ervid tiiroughout 
the Canadian rebellion. In iS-iO. listening 
to the advice of tjis friiMuls in Scotland, he 
purchased his disehitrue and entered upon 
coinmen-ial iiui'suit.s, but ids heart was al- 
ways with tiio army, and he ghnlly under- 
took the coiiiniaiid when it was otl'cred to 

When the 100th Re_L,'iment was raised, so 
hi(;hly did Colonel de Roituiibari., who wai 
the A ti. of Militia in L'|ipjr Ca(-«da, appre- 
ciate Capt. .'^mitli that ho wished liiiii to be 
; ppointeii to a captai .cy in that regiment, 
1 lit circuinst noes w„ro otherwise not pro- 
pitious, and Captain Smith remained in To- 

The other otlicers wore Alexander T. Ful- 
ton, who was lieutenant, and John dardi- 
ner, formerly of the 71st Regiment, was en- 

The men of the company were remarkable 
for their fine appearance, for the readiness 
with which they acipiired their drill and for 
their steadiness on parade. 

Eventually the compmy was merged in 
the t^)ueeii's Own Rilles alter an indepemient 
career of about eight years. There are few 
bygone things that were more creditable 
to Toronto than was the Highland Com- 




n.w j jAu 





One or the Burly Tradlac P«iU-Br«eie< 
Abcnt IT4»M-KB*wii at F*rl K«allle-A 
Very Fall DeacriptUn. 

The venerable Dr. Soadiling prepared Mine 
years ago a a'.; etch and comi>ilation from 
TariouB auurcea of tlie hiatory of the old 
French trading post knowu as Fort Rouille, 
which WAS located at the south- west corner 
of the present Industrial F.xhiUtioniirounds, 
just where DuiTerin street runs into the 
lake. The account is interesting;, contain- 
hii; as it dofs references to Toronto and its 
site by tlie early historians. Dr. 8cadding 
has made the sketch as accurate as possible 
by consulting every availatile authority. 


The domain of the Five Nations of the 
Iroquois Indians, which cxte uled along the 
whole of the south side of Lake Ontario, 
was, for a tinio, rcuarded, in theory at least, 
as neutral ground by the French of New 
France and the cf New England, 
liiit both French and Knglish soon sliewed 
a duHire tu obtain a good foothold there, 
fit si for the purpose of trade, and secondly 
with a view, it cannot be doubted, to ulii- 
mate possession by treaty or otherwise. 

liy perniisiiion of the nci^^hbouring abo- 
rigines, La Nalle, in 1G79, erected a small 
stockade at tiie mouth of the NiaL'ara Tlivcr, 
to be simply a temporary receptacle for pel- 
trios brought down fiom Michilimackinac 
and Detroit, by way of Lake Erie, and a 
store-house for goods to be offered in ex- 
change for the same ; which stockade, by 
17*25, had become the strong, solid fortress 
which, with some enlargements, we see to- 
day in good condition, commanding the com- 
munication between the lakes Ontario and 
Erie. Had Fort Toronto been longer-lived 
than it was, it would have become, without 
doubt, in a short time an armed military es- 
tablishment, like the other posts. 

Following the French example. Governor 
Burnett, of the province of New Vork, after 
obtainin|T a nominal permission from the 
Iroquois, Astablishcd, in 1722, a pinall store- 
house or trading post on the west side of the 
entrance to the River Oswego, a stream by 
which a communication could be convenient- 
ly maintained between th« waters of Lake 
Ontario and those of the Mohawk river, the 
Hudson and the sea. Its ostensible pur- 
pose was, at th^ outset, the same as that 
of La Salle's enclosure at the mouth of the 
Niagara ; but xa 1728, Governor Burnett 
took care, again after the French example, 
that the simple stockade should be trans- 

formed into a regular fortress of stone, uieni 
orable as being the Krst military work 
on Lake Ontario whence waved the flag ol 

The effect of the English trading-post tt 
the entrance of the Oswego river was sooc 
felt by the French trathckers in furs at Furti 
Niagara and Frontenac ; and it became maui 
fostly important that something should U 
done to neutralize, as far as possible, this un 
welcome interference with the usual current 
of trade. 


In an official Journal or Report on Cans 
dian affairs transmitted to France in 1749 
by the Governor-Ueneral of the day, the 
Count de la Ualissoniere, the (iovernment 
of Louis XV was informed that direct ona 
had been given for the building of a stockadi 
or store-house at Toronto — so the "pau 
here between the lakes Ontario and Huroi. 
was at this time styled. " On being in- 
formed," the Report says, " that the 
northern Indians ordinarily went to C'houe- 
gueu with their peltries by way of Toronto, 
oil the north-west side of Luke Ontario, 
twenty-five leagues from Niagara and sevin 
ty-five from Fort Frontenac, it vf».) 
thought advisable to establish a post at tliai 
place, and to send thitlior an otiicsr, 15 sol 
dicrs and some workmen, to construct a small 
stockade fort there." (Sec I'aris Documents, 
Colonial History, Slate of New York, vol. 
X., p. 201. Albany, lS.-)8, 4to). The tuime 
of Ihe officer sent on this service was Port, 

Tl:o authoritiee at Versailles were always 
cautioning the governors of Canada a^jmnst 
expense. Gali soniere therefore think.s i: 
prudent to observe : " Tiie expense will 
not be great : the timber is transpoiieJ 
there, and the remaining requisites will be 
conveyed by the barques belonging to Fort 
Frontenac." He then shews how the new 
post msy be sustained and how its maui oii 
ject can be secured. " Too much care, "he 
says, " c nnot be taken to prevent those 
Indians (from the north) continuin;; tliui: 
trade with the English ; and to furnish them 
at this post with all their necessaries, even 
as cheap as at Choueguen, Messrs. de la 
Jonquiere and Bigot," it is added, " will 
permit some canoes to go there on license, 
and will apply the funds as a gratuity to 
the officer in command there" Moreover, 
it is said, directions must be given to legu 
late the prices at the other posts. " It will 
be necessary to ord«>r the commandants at 
Detroit, Niagara and 1 ort Frontenac, to U 
careful that the traders and storekeepers of 
those posts furnish goods for two or three 
years to come, at the same rate as the 
English ; by this means the Indians will 



Jita< custom thfinselvci from »{"■">{ ^o 
CnoiK'ijiieOi nnd tho KngliMh will be uhligoil 
<o aiiikiulou that plaoo." (It is acarcely lie- 
ceuAry t« say tliat Chmioguen ii the inma 
name as ()->wego, with an initial ayllablo 
urnppcd and a final n retained. The .M. de 
i* Jou<i»iere meutioaed ii (ialiiioniare'i luo- 
a-uor, just arrived, and M. Bigot ia hia 
co-adjutor or Intemliint, aa the expreaaion 
wu It may bo mentioned that a fort at 
the " pass a^ Toroutu ' had been auggested 
some yeara before, namely, in 1686, by (iov- 
ernorlfeneral de Denonville, I ut ita Hitua- 
tioo waa to have been at the Lalte Huron 
lod of the " paaa," and ot a military char- 
tcttr, BO that English men, should tliey 
chance to treapaas that wa>, might " have 
lome one to apeak to." No action, however, 
wu taken on the augseation) 

As to the form and aize uf the fort at 
Toronto erected in 1749, we obtain very 
precipe inforri. ition in the "Memoir upon 
•.h« late NVar in North America, in 17.'<9 60," 
by t'apt i'ouchot, the last French com- 
mandant at Fort Niagara. " The Fort of 
Toronto," Pouchot aaya (p. 119, vol. II. ), 
"iiat the end of the Bay (i. e. weat end), 
on the aide which ia quite elevated, and 
covered (i. e. protected) by flat rock, ao 
that vesaels cannot approach within can- 
non shot." The rock that crops up jubt 
below the site of the fort, in flat sheets, is 
very conspicuous when the lake is calm. 
Pouchot had aeen the fort, but he writes in 
the past tenae, after ita destruction " This 
fort or post," he aays, " waa asijuare about 
thirty toiaes (180 feet) on a side externally, 
with flanka of fifteen feet. The curtains 
fornied the buildin^^s of the fort. It was 
very well built, piece upon piece ; bat was 
only useful for trade. A league west of tbe 
fort," he adds, " is the mouth of the 
Toronto river, which ia of considerable size. 
This river communicates with Lake Huron 
by a portage of fifteen leagues, and is fre- 
quented by the Indians who come from the 
.\orth." (The Humber was known then 
is the Toronto river, because it led north- 
ward towards Lake Toronto (t. e. lake 
Simcoe), just as the Montreal river falling 
JDto Lake Superior wa« so styled because 
it indicated one of the canoe routes to Mon- 
treal, and as Canada Creek, un affluent of 
the Mohawk i iver, wa« so called, because 
its chnnnel was a water-way northwards 
'owards Canada. For the same reason 
.Matchedash Hay, on the old maps, was 
Toronto Bay, (Bale de Toronto), as pene- 
trating far inland towards Lake Toronto in 
a aouth-eastern direction ; and, similarly, 
even the lakes forming the communication 
with the River Trent and the Bay of Quinte, 
were collectively the '• Torotto lakes.") 

We learn from Capt. (iothor Mann's now 
celebrated "Plan of the Proposed Toronto 
Harbour," etc., dated " (juekieu, 6th Dec, 
ITSS," that there were five buildings within 
the stockade. lie delineated ttiem dis- 
tinctly in his plan, as well aa the bounds of 
the ([uadt angle enclosed by the paliaadea. 
The remains were tlien ao prominent to the 
view and tangible as to justify the applica- 
tion to them of the term " Ruina. 1 he 
group is labelled on his map, " Ruins of a 
Trading I'ort, Toronto " I'robably in 17H8, 
when (iother Mann examined the spot, aome 
of the pickea wore atill in poaitiou, and the 
charred reniaina of the cedar posta which 
supported thebuildin.a would still be stand* 
ing. I hese in later years had diaappearcd, 
utilized as fuel, probably, by camping-parties 
from time to time ; but the long shallow 
trenches where the palisadea had been 
planted in ths ground, and the pita and ir- 
regularities in the surface of the soil, shew- 
ing in the usual way where buildings of 
perishable materiala had once been, were 
very conspicuous down to the year 1878 ; 
although by that time a good deal of the 
space onco enclosed within the palisades had 
fallen into the lake. (The writer himself 
remembers when the area shewing the re- 
maina of the old French fort was much 
larger on the southern side than it waa in 
1878, through the extension of the cliiF out 
into the lake considerably beyond the line 
of the present shore. He also well remem- 
bers a vertical stain (aa from decayed wood) 
extending some way down on the face of tiie 
cliff where the land had fallen off : this waa 
the place, as he believed, where the flag- 
staff had been inserted in the ground : also 
a number of flag-stones from tbe adjoining 
beach, roughly laid down on the surface of 
the soil, where, as is likely, some great 
wood-stove, or the oven of the fort, had 


The name oflicially conferred on the newly- 
established post wa^ Fort Kouille, in com- 
pliment to Antoine Louis Rouille, Count 
de Jouy, Colonial Minister of France, 1749- 
54, in succession to the Counr Maurepas. 
This Count de Jouy waa a distinguished per- 
sonage, not only on account ot the many 
hieh positions in the state which he had 
held, but also by reason of his patronage of 
literature. He was for a time at the head 
of the Royal Library, and was instrumental 
in having translations made of De Thou, 
Guicciardini, and other important writers. 
(He died i i 1761). But, notwithstanding 
the eminence of the Minister iu these several 
directions, his name as connected with the 
new trading post on the shores of Toronto 








liny i|iiickly fell intu diHiiAc. Tin; uNpresHioii 
Toroiiti) Wan (ilruad^ fuiniliar to the {Kipular 
cat an I in tlio popular spuuch u.s Ueuutiiiff 
iho important ciinoe-laiiilinf; near by, for 
the " pas.1 at Toronto ;" imd tlie pixt became 
oommniily l^novn na Fort Toronto. /. c. tlio 
tr.ulin;^' post at tlio Toronto lauiliii^. Hy 
tliat iip[)ullation it canio to bo ^uiiorally 
diiiilsc II of very noon after it was, ea- 
tubliMlied, In a (iuHpatuh addrensed by M. 
d(; Loii'.,'iioiiil, (iovurnor-( ioiieral, to Huuillu 
liiinself III 17")-. wo have both expressions 
U4od. Speakin;; of a min^iinfr Holdier who 
liad reeuntly Ijcgii sent with duspacchoR 
from till' post of Niagara to tlie post of Fori 
Froiiteii.ic (KiiiL'ston), ria Toronto, he says : 
" Tiie (.'ommandant at Niii^ura, M. du ia 
Lovalt( rie, hail ducaulicd a no! lier to con- 
vey certain deapntchos to Fort Ronille, with 
orJurs to the atoro-keepor at that jiust to 
tranH'hit them promptly to Montreal. It 
was not known,' ho then adds, " what be- 
came of that sohlior. About that lime," he 
continuuM " a from Tor.')nto ar- 
rived at Niagara, who informed M. de la 
Levulteric that ho had not si'un that soldier 
at the fort nor mot with him on the way. 
It is to be feared that he has been killed 
by the In<iians, mid the despatuhos oarric i 
to thu Fnglish. " Then iu a passuijc of the 
same communication, which will be given 
liereafter, M. de Longueuil makes use of the 
other expression, l''ort Toronto. 

The Jntendant 1>igot also again and again 
speaks of this establishment as Fort Toronto 
in the elaborate " .Memoir" prepared l)y 
him in reply to cert in charges of mismanage- 
meat brought against him on his return to 
France in 1763, and printed at I'.iris in that 
year, making however the inciilental re- 
mark, that it was tor some time known as 
Fort Ronille. We learn from the same 
Memoir that Fort Toronto was from the 
outset a Royal Post, i. e. tiiat the trade 
carried on there was for the benefit of the 
King's Exchequer. In a despatch to Rouille 
himself, copied in the Memoir, he refers to 
great expenses incurred at Fort Oswegatchie 
(Oadensburg) thiough the necessity of sup- 
plying food to the Indians there ; but then 
he hopes, he says, to recoup himself for 
these expenses by the trade carried on at 
Toronto, " where large quantities of goods 
('effects') are required for that purpose." 


During the brief span of its existence, 
there was not time for Fort Toronto to de- 
velope into a first-class trading-post. From 
its proximity to Niagara it was, in certain 
points of view, a dependency of the fort 
there. In 1754 the occupants of Fort Niagara 
were twenty-four soldiers, five offlcers, two 
•ergeants, one drummer, « chaplain, a sur- 

geon, and a store keeper ; ami the nunih.-v 
of eanots annually despatclied thithei with 
mi|)plie/i was ten ; while at Fort Toronto 
there were only five soldiers, oiiu otlieer, two 
sergeant.'*, and a storekoejx^r ; aii<l i|,,. 
number of eanoe.<i .sent up with goods wu-i 
live. Mac h canoe 'cstined for the wenturti 
forts was fn-ightcd with a cargo worth 
iilmiit seven thousand French livros, ami i.,c 
price L'i\eii for good beaver was from thrco 
iivrus ten sous to five livres per pouiid. 
As we iiavo already seen, a considorable 
supply of " ciTects" was re(|uircd at Fort 
Toronto to make it answer the purpose of 
its establishment. From the outset it wan 
foreseen tiiat the business done iher j woui^l 
(iiiiiinish that done at Forts l''rontonac and 
Niiigara Hut it was argued : " If tli'.re 
be less traile at ilii'se two last-mentionei 
forts, there will bo less transportation ot 
morcliandisc : what will be lose on the om; 
side will be gained on the other, and it will 
amount to much the same thing in tiie 
end. The King will even reap a great ad- 
vantage, if we can accomplish tlio fall of 
Chouciiuen by disgusting the Indians with 
that place, and tliis can be efToeteil only by 
selling cheap to them." 

Season after season then, for ten yours, 
we may suppose a great variety of seenos 
ocijurrinu within and around the pali.sailes 
of Fort Tcu'onto, characteristic of the period 
and the special circumstances and condition 
of the immediate locality. Along the In- 
dian road or trail from the North, bands 
of Mississagas (who were simply Otehip 
ways from Lakes Huron and Superior), 
would come down, bringing with them the 
fuis collected during the hunting season, 
together with other articles of merchandi.'^e, 
the handiwork of themselves and their 
scjuaws in the lodges during the winter 
months. I^ands bearing the same tribal ap- 
pellation, and laden with similar burdens, 
would arrive also from the \\ est, travelling 
along through the " Mississaga Tract" by 
pith on the north shore of the lake ; and 
some, moreover, woul. make their way 
thither from the weatwaiu in canoes. The 
trees which lined the broad sandy beach 
from the mouth of the Humber to what in 
modern days has been known as the Dug- 
way, was a very favourable situation for 
encampments. This space would be dotted 
over with numerous temporary wigwams ; 
and a double file of traffickers, male and 
female, would be seen on the track leading 
eastward toward the Stockade on the cliff 
a little way down the bay, — aom« going, 
eager to effect sales, others returning, 
pleased, or the contrary, with terms secured, 
or '.loating over some useful or showy pur- 
chase jast made. 



At this Stockade un tha clitl wore tliui 
ipr«ii>l out for the firat time in ll-.c»e parts 
;h( products of iiumaii industry, for inticiil 
ia«pu' Uuii and tnutu'il iiitcn liiui|i;e. 

Uiaplayed on the gretMi^warcl iiisjdo tlie 
palH'k'les on the une bide wore wans 
;miiL'lit laboriously hitlier from the (Mil 
'.Vorlil across the sea ; and on the oilier, 
.Iw lir'Might laliorioiisly hitli(;r, often from 
CHiisiil'-ril'lo distanc(!8, the ordinary pi'o- 
MCC" <if tiie country, as it tlien wan: tlic 
,iiti'(inie of tliu common pursuitu and toil 
ii tlio iiativcH of the land, with H|)ecimsn!i 
uf tiivir liandiwork and in;;unuity, rude it 
intty be, in aspect, but evincintj insijncts, 
t(n'd(»cies and capacities in g'Ttn, identical 
with those of the more favoured memljors 
ot the human family with whom thuy were 

trc confronted. On the one side, wo have 
;« Frenchman, ull activity, and liucnt of 
:|,.et'h, exhibiting; tx) the best advantage 
jie.p fabrics in wool, in cotton, in tlux, and 
.tsiay be, to a limited extent, in silk, from 
;tic loohi!) of old i-'rance, cloths, linens, rib- 
0OII8, I raids, very pronounce<l in colour and 
pattern, to suit the " savatre" fancy ; to- 
gijtherwithcutleryof a certain class, iiatcliets, 
liuives, and simple tools ; kettles, of 
brus and iron ; fusils, powder and sh'<t and 
i;»ll ; bonds, toys, mirrois, silvi -; iketa. 
I III the other side wo see the red man of the 
.Vbrlh, sedate in mann taciturn, kcon- 
<i:;lite(l withal and shrewd, opening out his 
peltries of various kinds, liis beaver, otter, 
lox, iniirlen, deer, bear, wolf and bufTalo 
skins ; his moccasins and shoe-packs of well- 
cured buckskin and buti'alo-hule ; his birch- 
balk mnkuks filled with pemmecan or maize 
or dried berries ; his bass-wood baskt'ts, 
chequered red, white and blue ; pouulic-;, 
btlts and lej;c;ing3 frin;.'ed anil adorned 
with the stained ({uills of the poicupine ; 
snowshocs, bows and arrows, carved war 
duha, stone pipes. 

The fascinating, fatal fire-water was for- 
bidden to be ottered in open tradic, but some 
supply of it was not far nfif, to i e dispensed 
in occisional treats. 

Here, then, at the primitive Fort Toronto 
W&9 inaugurated, on a humble scale, the 
commerce which has been so happily since 
developed on the shores of the adjoining 
bay ; the commerce now represented by 
manifold symbols and signs in every quarter 
bf the widespread city of Toronto — the 
well-supplied stores of King Street, Yonge 
Street and Queen Street, the grtinu Ware 
houses of Wellington Street "and Front 
Street; the freight depots,elevators, steamers, 
trains, crowde i platforms and wharves of 
the Esplanade, and, though last to be 
mentioned, yet by no meant the least in 
significance and importance, by the multi- 

tudinous ussomblajjc iif builclinKs with theii 

multifarious contents, animate und inani 
j mute ; as seen dnrini; the time of thf Sop- 
j tcmiicr exhibition ot each sut cossive year, 

in the great Iiuliistrial Kxbibition I'ark. 

of whirli the nioniimcnl coninicmorative ot 
I the early tiadiii;: post now forms so con 
I Bpicuous an ornament. 

I have more than once spoken in oUior 
piiblic.itions of a certain curly .MS ii,:i|, 
which I once luul the advantitL;<' of ci'uing in 
Kngliiiid, in which over a sm ill groiiji ot 
little tcnt-shaii(d Inits on titc nliure of To 
ronto bay, was written, "Toronto, an In- 
dian village, now deserted." .\b tlicre is 
notliing to lead us to .^uppo.-iu th:it there was 
ever at this point a village of sedentary In 
dians, it is reasonable to conjecture that 
the inscription in ({Uestion was nccasiuncd 
by A sight of the dismantled wi^^wams on 
the strand at the terminus of tlie !ndi;in 
road from the north, without a km<.'' l;;o 
of their origin and periodical use. iiiu 
chette's two or three MisBissa;;a famiiioa 
that, according to his experience, wcr-j ihe 
only intial)itants of the shore of'lc 'Hlo liuy 
in 17!t'2,were |)crlu [n simply casi '■ uiiliiiers 
of the same frail apologies for houses, durii? 
a hunting or tidliin'.' cxcursi'>n. 


Francois I'iijuot was a presbyter ot tin: 
French Church in Canada, a mcmlur ol 
the religious confraternity of Si. .Siilpice 
He was a man of great zeal and enterprise ; 
an<l in 174'.) accomplished, almost unaided, 
the cstabliKiinicnt of a mission ut the nmutli 
of the River Oswegalcliie (opposite the 
modern I'rescottK in llie tenitory of ilie 
Iro(]Uois Indians By ITiVi, the Oswegatchie 
mi.ssion, after some disastrous experience, 
Itad developed in the usual way into an im 
portant trading post and centre of I- rench 
influence, especially among the Onondaga, 
Onnidu and Cayuga native tribes. In I7ri2 
I i(|uet made an exploratory tour of Lake 
Ontario, A king's boat was supplied to 
him for the purpose. His journal of the 
expedition has been printed. In June ho 
was at Fort Frontenac. Here he found tiie 
Indian trade ruined by the English post at 
Choueguen (Oswego). He complains of the 
fare he met with at Fort Frontenac : tha 
pork and bacon were very bad ; and there 
was not brandy enough in the fort to wash 
a wound. He passed on to the Bay of 
Quinte and visited the site of a mission 
formerly established theie by two brother 
presbyters of the Suljv.-ian order, Doliiere.s 
de KleuB and D'Urfe. On the twenty sixth 
of he reached the new fort of Toronto, 
which offered a striking contrast to Fort 

. j ^- -j,| 


m^: ■■ 




FFoot«naa " Tho wine here is of the beat," 
Piquet saya ; " uoihing i< wanting ia the 
fori ; everything ia abundant, tine and 

food." Uu found a number of MissiAsaga 
udiaD* thara. who, he says, flocked arc^iud 
iiim, and opui.e of the happiness mieir 
young people, the women and children, 
would feel if the Kins; of France would be 
aa ^ood to them aa to the Iroquois Indians, 
for whom he provided missionaries. They 
complained that for them, instead of bui d- 
ing a church, only a canteen had been con 
structed. He would not, huwevsr, allow 
them to proceed any further, and an.swered 
them to the effect that they had Ljen treated 
accordinsf to their fancy ; that i.iey had 
never evinced the least zeal for religion ; 
that their conduct was much oppoRv d to it ; 
that the Iroquois Indians, on 'An-- contrary, 
iiad manifested their love t'. c Christianity. 
He was stronuiy impelled to persuade ihem 
to join him at his mission at Oswegatchie, 
but the governor in-chief had commanded 
him to confine his efforts to the Iroquois 
tribes ; so, lest the ardor of his zeal should 
betray him to disobedience, he re-embarlced 
and encamped si.K leagues from temptation, 
i wo days more brought him round the 
head of the lake to Niagara, where he was 
warmly received by the commandant, the 
chaplain, and the store keeper. The next 
day lie proceeded to the trading place above 
the Falls : and in connection with his obser- 
vations on these two posts, he refers again 
to the post at To onto, and expresses the 
opinion that the storehouses there ahou d 
not be kept up, because the trade of Fort 
Frontenac and Niagara was thereby di- 
minished. *' It was necessary, ' he says, 
" to supply Niagara, and especially the 
trading places above the Falls, rather than 
Toronto. The difference," he says, " be- 
tween the two first named of these posts, 
and the last, is that three or four hundred 
canoes could rume loaded with furs to the 
Portage (t. e., the pose above the Falls) ; 
and that no canoes at all could go to To- 
ronto, except those which otherwise must 
necessarily have gone to Niagara or Fort 
Frontenac, such as those of the Ottawaa 
of the head of the lake and the Mississagas ; 
ao that Toronto could not but diminish the 
trale of these two ancient posts, which 
would have been sufficient to stop all the 
aavages had the stores been furnished with 
goods to their liking." The storekeeper at 
Niagara had told him that the Indians com« 
pared the silver trinkets which were pro- 
cured at Choueguen with those which were 
procured at the French posts, und they 
found that the Choueguen articles were as 
heavy aa the others, of purer silver and 
better workmanship, but did not cose them 

quite two beavers, whilst for those offered 
for sale at the French King's posts ten 
beavers were demanded. Thus we are dis 
credited, and this silverware remains a pure 
lo s in the King's stores. " French brandy, 
indeed," Piquet, reprovingly adds, " was 
pref rred to the English (rum) ; neverthe 
less that did not prevent the Indians from 
going to Choueuuen. To destroy the trade 
there, the King's posts ought to have been 
supplied with the same goods as Chouet;uen, 
and at the same pi ice." The closing up of 
th«i establishment at Toronto, however, aa 
we shall presently see, was destined to be 
brought about iii the way differing from that 
suggested. (See Colonial Document8,N. V,, 
X, 2()1, where the nam' is given asPicqu t ; 
and Parkraan'a Montcalm and Wolfe I., US, 
and II. Appendix). 


Ttie increa iui encroachments of the 
English colonists on the territories own d 
or claimed by the French Crown created 
a general uneasiness throughout Xtw 
France in 1751-2. The policy adopted h\ 
these aagressive nei Jibours, of encoura.iii 
a strong anti French f' eling an>on>: the 
Indians everywhere, was very troub esome 
In a despatch already quoted, dated in 
1752, we learn that the inmates of the weak 
and solitary trading post at Toronto wero 
kept in a state < f much anxiety from this 
cause. M. de Longueuil, Governor-General, 
informs the ^Jinister at Vei sallies that tbe 
storekeeper at Toronto had been assured 
by some trustworthy Indians, that the 
iSalteaux, i. e,, Otchipways of the Sault, 
the same in fact aa the Mississagas, had 
dispersed themselves round the head of Lake 
Ontario ; and seeing himself surrounded by 
them, he doubts not but th> y have somu 
evil design on his tort. "There is no 
doubt," M. de Longuiuil then observes, 
" but it is the English who are inducing 
the Indiana to destroy the French, and 
that thiy would uive a good deal tu get 
the aavages to destroy Fort Toronto, on 
account of the essential injury it does their 
trade at Choueguen." And again in Octo- 
ber of the same year de Longueuil writes of 
various outrages that had been comnntted 
on Frenchmen by Indians in the south-west, 
on the Wabash and the Llinois riv rs. 
" Every letter," he aaya, " brings news of 
murder ; we are menaced with a <. eucral 
outbreak, and even Toronto is in danger. 
Before ton? the English on the Mianu will 
Lain over all the surrounding tribis, Let 
possession of Fort Chartres, and cut oui- 
communications «it i Lruisiana " Sucli a 
condition of thin s could not continue long. 
In 175t) open hostilities commenctd bet^^eea 



Ka<jland and France on the question of 
boiincli^rios on this continent : and the 
contliL't, afterwards knoNvn as the Seven 
Veat's' War, began, which ended in the 
ueasicn of almos; all the French domain in 
America to Eng and. In 1737 he fort at 
Toronto was the scene of a plot whicli Capt. 
Poucho , ;h" conimandani at Nia:.ara, was 
the means of frustratin.'. It appears from 
Poiiciio: 3 narra iv.; (I , 82) iha a con- 
tia enr of Mississaga Indians to the number 
of ninety, proceedin<_' to Mon real lo assist 
the French in the defence of that place, 
conceived, as it seemed to them, the happy 
thought of pillaging Fort Toronto as they 
passed, notMiflksandin.' tha i: belon>{ed 
10 their friends. The supply of brandy, 
supposed to be stowed away somewheie 
(herein, was the t mptation. The only p r- 
sous within !h« fort at the time were M. 
VarreB, the storekeeper, and ten men 
under M. de Noyc;:le. The lat; erhad b en 
secre ly apprised of th» plot: by a French 
domsiic. Aono: with two m n was in- 
9 »u ly d spa chtd, unobserved by the con- 
spiraors, lo Fort Nia ara across ih ; lakr. 
(apt. Pouchot,in command ih rt.on hi arin>; 
the story, lost no time in despatching two 
officers, Capt. de la Ferte and ^f. de 
FiDsun,with sixty-one men, in two batteaux, 
each armed with a swivel gun at the bow. 
They reached Toronto at four o'clock in the 
afternoon of the next day. They found the 
Mississagas atill encamped near the fort ; 
and passing in front of them the boats sa- 
luted their vigwams with " artillery and 
musket balls, ' directed, however, into the 
air, as Capt. Pouchot had given orders. 
The Indians were immediately summoned 
to attend a council. They wer« greatly as- 
tonished at the adventure, Capt. Puuchot 
tells us, and confessed everything : they had 
false news delivered to them, they said, 
to the effect that the English had beaten the 
French. But the true reason of their 
action, Pouchot adds, was that they felt 
themselves in force, and could get plenty of 
brandy for nothing. 


The moves on the world's chess board fol- 
lowed one another in rather quick succes- 
sion in the remote portion of it occupied by 
New France. In 175ti de la Jonqiiicre's sug- 
gestion, of which we have already heard, 
that the French should become masters of 
Choueguen, was carried into effect by no 
less a personage than Montcalm hiiiisulf, 
who afterwards fell at Quebec. H'his blow 
te English interests was, however, returned 
three years later by Col. liradstreet's cap- 
ture of Fort Fronteiiac, and the destruction 
there of nine armed French sloops. At the 
tame period, Choueguen was recovered by 

Col. Haldimand for its former po.ssessors. 
Fort Niagara was now the only remaining 
strong point on Lake Ontario not in Kuglish 
hands. In 17~>8. after the capture of Fort 
Frontenac, M. de V'audreuil, (Governor- 
General, the seco' d of that name, wrote to 
the Minister de Messiac : " If the h'nglish 
should make their appearance at Toronto, 
I have given orders to burn it at once, and 
to tall back on Niagara." Then in the fol. 
lowing year we have him informing the 
san^e Mini:s[er that he had ordered down 
what reinforcements he could from tha 
Illinois and Detroit, for the protection of 
Fort Niagara. " These forces," he says, 
" would proceed to the relief of Niagara 
should the enemy wish to besiege it ; and I 
have in like manner," he adds, " sent or- 
ders to Toronto to collect the Mississagas 
and other nations and forward them to 
Niagara." About this time watchers oa 
the ramparts of Fort Niagara would 
see ascending from a point on the 
far horizon to the north-west, across 
ttie lake, a dark column of smoke^ 
sure indication of the fact that the orders 
of de Vaudreuil were being executed, and 
that in a few hours all that the English or 
any one els , on approaching Toronto, 
would discover of the onco flourishing 
trading post there would be live heaps of 
charred timber end planks, with a low 
chimney stack of coarse brick and a shat* 
tered Hooring at its foot, made of tlaiT' stones, 
from the adjoining beach, the whole sur- 
rounded on the inland side by three lines of 
cedar pickets more or less broken down and 
scathed by fire. 

On the 2.')th of June (1759), af«-er a liege 
of about three weeks, first by Oen. Pride ux, 
who was accidentally killed in the trenches, 
and then by Sir William Johnson, who suc- 
ceeded to the command, the fortress of Ni- 
agara fell, with thu loss on the part 
of tho besiegers of 63 killed and 185 
wound d. 

Tho fort or trading-post above the Falls, 
known as Little Niaeara and lort Schloeser, 
where stands now the village of La Salle, 
had been also, like Foit Toronto, 
committeil to tho tlatnes, after removing its 
contents ami little detachment of guanU 
to tho priucipil fort, at the mouth of the 
Niagara river. 


To make assurance doubly sure. Sir 
William ilohnson, after getting possor-aioa 
of Fort Niagara, lost little ^Ime in sending 
over to Toronto to give, should it be found 
necessary to do so, tho coH/^-df-ijraci: to tha 
fort there. On the 28th of July (1759), he 
writes in his Journal : "The evtning of ths 


; iflf 


' 1 1 

t a 





27th I sent three wliale-boats with a party 
of above thirty men to reconnoitre Fort 
Toronto, and on their return propose to 
Bend to destroy it." Then on the 30th he 
writes : " At ni^ht Lieutenant Francis re- 
turned from Toronto and reported that the 
•nemy had burned and abandoned that post, 
and destroyed many things which they 
could not take along, viz , working utensils, 
arms, etc. A Chippeway chief came to me 
with Mr. Francis, in order to speak with 

The subsequent iutc. view with the chief > 
who represented the tribes along the north 
shore of the lake, was an iucidbnt of con- 
Bidorable importance. On the 2nd of August 
> ir William gave formal audience to this 
chief, whose name was written down as 
Tequakareigh. The scene is described in 
the Journal at some length. Sir William 
writes :— " With a string and two belts of 
wampum 1 bid him welcome, and shook him 
by the hand. By the second, which was a 
black belt, I took the hatchet out of the 
hands of his and all the surrounding nations : 
recommended hunting and trade to them, 
which would be more to their interest than 
quarrelling with the English, who have ever 
been their friends, and supplied them at the 
cheapest rates with the necessaries of life, 
and would do it again, both here (Nia:;ara) 
and at Os'.vego, provided they quitted the 
French interest. This I desired he would 
acquaint all the surroundini; nations with. 
A black belt, the third and last, was to in- 
rite his, and all other nations living near 
them, lo repair early next spring to this 
place and Oswego, where there shcmld be a 
large assortment of all kinds of goods fit for 
their use ; also recommended it to them to 
send some of their young men here to hunt 
and fish for the garrison, for which they 
would be paid and kindly treated. Told 
them at the same time thai 1 would send 
some of my interpreters, etc , with him on 
the lake to the next town of the Mississagas, 
with whom I desired he would use his best 
endeavours to convince them that it would 
be to their interest to live in friendship with 
the English, and that we had no ill inten- 
tions against them, if they did not oblige 
us to il To vviiich he (Toquakaroigli) 
answered, and said it gave him great pleasuve 
to hear so good words, and was certain it 
would be extremely aarreeable to all the 
nations with whom he was acfiuainted, who, 
with his, were wheedled and led on to strike 
the English, whioh he now confessed he 
was sorry for, and assured nie they never 
would again ; and that should the French. 
According to custom, ask Iheni to do so any 
more, they would turn them out of the coun- 
try. He at the same time begged earnestly 

that a plenty of goods might be brought 
here and to Oswego ; and there they, as 
well as all the other nations around, would 
come and trade ; and their young men 
should hunt for their brothers, whom they 
now took fast hold of by the hand, and 
called upon the 8ii Nations, who were 
present, to bear witness to what he had 
promised. He also de/ired I would send 
some person to the Mississaga town, near 
where Toronto stood, to hear what he shou'ul 
say to their nation, and to see that ha would 
deliver my belts and message honestly. I 
clothed him very well," Sir William adds, 
*' and gave him a handsome present to carry 
home ; then took from about his neck a 
largo French medal, and gave him an English 
one, and a gorget of silver, desiring, when- 
ever he looked at them, h would remember 
the engagement he now made." 


In 1760 the site of Fort Toronto was vis- 
ited and reported on by Major Robert Ro- 
gers, an officer distinguished in the late 
French war, the hero of "Rogers' Slide,' 
still pointed out on Lake (Seorge, opposite 
" Antony's Nose." Although he does not 
happen to have made a note of the remains 
of the fort, but only speaks in general 
terms of " the place where formerly the 
French had a fort," he gives the interest- 
ing information that the woods had been 
cleared away over an area of about 
three hundred acres immediately around 
it, partly, doubtless, for fuel during iho 
ten years of the fort's occupancy, but partly 
also at the outset for pickets and supports 
of buildings and other purposes about the 
establish iiicnt, and tor security against sud- 
den surprise. Major Rogers was on his 
way to take formal possession of the forts 
in the west just vacated by the French. He 
has left an account of his movements when 
on this mission. On the 13th of September 
he started for Montreal with two hundred 
Rangers in fifteen whalo-boats. After des- 
cribing the several stages of his journey 
up to about what is now Port Hope, his ap- 
proach to Toronto is thus narrated : — " The 
V ind being fair, the 30th of September 
(1760) we embarked at the first dawn of 
day, and with the assistance ot sails and 
oars, made great way on a south-west course, 
and in the evening reached the River To- 
ronto (t e. the Humber), having run seventy 
miles. . . . There was a tract of abor.t 
three hundred acres of cleared around round 
the place where formerly the French had a 
fort, called Fort Toronto. The soil here, 
he observes, is principally clay. The deer 
are extremely plenty in this country. Some 
Indians were hunting at the mouth of the 





river, who ran into the woods a^ our ap- 
proach, very much frightened. They came 
ill, however, in the morning, and t<;atiliei 
llteirjoy at the news of ou.' succeas airainst 
ti»e French. They told us we could easily 
tecompliah our journey from thence to De- 
troit in ei:ht days ; that when the French 
traded at that place the Indians used to 
come with their peltry from Micliiliniackinao 
liowu the River Toronto ; that the portage 
was but twenty miles from that to a rirer 
falling into Lake Huron (Holland River, 
Lake riimcoe and the Severn, considered as 
one stream). I think Toronto,' the Major 
adds. " a most convenient place tor a fac- 
tory (>• e. a trading post) ; and that from 
thence we may easily settle the north side 
of Lake Erie We left Toronto the 1st of 
October, steering south right across the west 
end of Lake Ontario At dark we arrived 
at the south shore, five miles west of Fort 
Niagara, some of our boats having now be- 
come exceedingly leaky and dangerous." 


In 1788, Capt (mother Mann, an eminent 
otKa*r of the Royal Engineers, acting under 
orders, examined Toronto harbour and pen- 
insula ; took soundings, delineated roughly 
t!:e course of the then unnamed Don where 
it euters the bay, and the great inlet into 
the marsh in the direction of Ashbridge's 
Bay : he noted likewise, witli a double row 
ufdottel lines on the western portion of his 
map, " Part of the road towards Luke La 
Clie," »'. «. Lake Simcoe, which comes down 
with a bold zig-zag towards the mouth of the 
Humber. But what is more to the present 
purpose, (iother Mann L'ives a miniature 
proiiud-plan of the old French fort, shewing 
Dy dotted lines the place of the pickets which 
formed the stockade on the three inland 
sides, with five small oblong parallelograms 
enclosed, denoting doubtless the principal 
storehouse (a little in advance of the rest), 
and quarters for the keeper, soldiers, and 
other men usually in charge of the place. 
I'he v/hole group occupies of course th* 
esact area wliieli used to be known to all 
•arly inhabitants as " the oW French fort," 
and is labelled by Capt. Mann, at the top, 
'' Ruins of a Trading Fort/' and underneath, 
in continuation, "Toronto." In 1788, wind 
and weather, and camp-tires from time to 
time in the neighbourhood, had not yet 
btQup;ht about the changes afterwards so 
effectually wrought ; and the " ruins" 
could be delineated with ease. The whole 
locality >• as examined by Capt. Mann in an- 
ticipation of a future town, township and 
settle ' ent. to be established hereabout by 
the Government in due time. The title <i 
'.he map is as follows :" Plan of the pro- 

posed Toronto Harbour, with the proposed 
Town and Port by the Settlement ;" and 
he had been directed to give an opinion aa 
to the best position for a military work cal- 
culated to protect the new establishment 
whenever it should he called into existence. 
Accordingly, on his Plan he marks \> ith the 
letter A. a little to the east of the site of 
the old Trading Post, the spot which he 
thought to be the fittest for the purpose in- 
dicated — the spot in fact occupied at the 
present day by the " Stone Barracks" at 
Toronto ; and to show the character of the 
channel, he gives, from this point slantingly 
aoross the entrance into the harbour, to the 
point of the peninsula on the opposite side, 
the soundings in fathoms : 2, 2[[, 3, 4, 4, 
3^, 3^, I^, 1. To show that a military work 
at the spot marked A would be calculated 
to give protection to a settlement along the 
northern shore of the bay, he draws on his 
map a fancy town-plot exactly four-square, 
consisting of eleven equal-sized blocks, each 
way, with a broad belt of " Ground re- 
served'* in front, and a lar.e patch of 
" Common" in the rear. Moreover, the 
surrounding country from the line of the 
Humber to someway east of the Don, he 
cuts up into concessions and farm- lots and 
roads after the usual fashion, with the ut- 
most regularity, quite irrespective of hill 
and dale, river, ravine or morass. 

[It should be added that Capt. Mann, 
through some caprice, elected in iriis Plan to 
spell " Toronto" with an e in the second 
syllable ; carried away, probably, like ('apt. 
Boimycastle at a later date, by a notion 
that there was so^iethinsr Italian in the 
name, and beiuf; quite unacquainted with 
its real ofii,'it> and meaning, in his Report 
to Lord Dorchester, accompanying the Plan, 
Capr. Mann, it is to be observed, adopts the 
ordinary and proper form of the word ] 


The pioneer land surveyor, Augustus 
Jones, largely employed by (Jovernor Nimcoe 
in laying out for the first time several por- 
tions of IJpper Canada, set otFaud partially 
described, in 1793, a series of lots forming 
a broken tront concession on the edge of 
Lake Ontario, stretching westward from 
the boundary between tlie townships of ^'o^k 
and Scarboroush. The interval between 
this line and a line running north from the 
mouth of ** St. John's River," i e. the 
Humber, measured along a base line now 
represented by Queen Street, was divided 
into thirty-nine lots, each twenty chains in 
width, with a public roadway of one chain 
in width after every fifth lot. (A roadway 
of the same width was also left between 
York and Scarborough). At the western 

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• i 'Sli 









if ' 



1 •, 



.'■ 1 



i! ' 


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limit of each lot he passed down southward, 
at ri^ht angles to the base line, to the 
water's edgo, where he planted a post. As 
he chains out this western limit o( each lot, 
lie makes notes of the timber, soil and char- 
acter of surface. Although his descriptions 
have, all ot them, more or less interest for 
the present occupants of this region, we are 
not particulfKrly concerned with them just 
now, until we come to the western limit of 
lot number 29. In running this lino he 
( omes out upon the clearing in tiie woods 
which Major Rogers spoke of as having been 
made round the old French fort Toronto. 
On the 10th of .luly, 1793, he makes tiiis 
entry in his Field Book ; " Lot 29. A Post 
on the bank a little below the old Fort" 
1 1, e. he chains down from his baseline 
(Queen Street) to the water's edge, and 
plants a post there, a little to the east of 
ihe site of the old French fort]. His des- 
cription of the surface, etc., then follows : 
" At 2.50 (two chains, fifty hnks from the 
base line) a wet hole ; at 6.50 a small creek 
running to the left (t. e. eastward : some 
little atUueut of the garrison ereek) ; at 8.70 
a wet hole ; at 14 chains a wet hole ; at 
19 chains wet one chain across ; at 20.50 
a wet hole 75 links across ; at 35 chains a 
swamp ; at 48 chains a small creek running 
to the left ; at 57.50 a wet hole ; at GO. 50 
wet two chains across ; at 63 chains to low 
wet ground, which continues to near the 
Lake, 8 chains. At 52 chains to where the 
Trees have formerly been cut down, now 
grown up with small saplings. Timber : 
tall birch, maple, black oak, hickory ; a 
few hemlocks. The soil on the top appears 
black and loose ; underneath a hard clay.'' 
He now returns to his bdtse line and chains 
down, as before, the western boundary of the 
next lot. His entry is • " Tuesday, 16th 
[July, 1793], Lot .30. To a Post on the bank 
of the Lake. At-2.50 a low wet hole ; at 
13.40 a swamp two chains across ; at 2.3.70 
a swamp three chains across ; at 41 chains, 
where the timber had been cut down at the 
time the French built the fort (i. e. he comes 
out again on the ttiree-hundred-acre clear- 
ing mentioned by Major Rogers) ; at 54 
chains on a ridge descending to 56 chains ; 
at 61 chains to clear ground ; at 66.40 on 
the bank of the Lake about two chains ; 
(i. e. 132 feet or 44 yards) above the old 
Fort (t. e. to the west of the site of the old 
Fort). TiniDur : beech, maple, hemlock, 
and oak : clay soil." The western boundary 
of Lot No. 31 is next run. Starting again 
from the base, it terminates, after 57 chains 
have been measured, at a point where a post 
was planted " about two cbaius above the 
Blacksmith's old house" (the remains proba- 
bly of a forge for the benetit of Indians 

and others requiring repairs for implements, 
guns, etc., and placed at that distance for 
jsafety's sake) After Lot .30, as after everv 
otlier fifth lot of the Uroken Front range, 
an allowance for road (one chain) was left! 
This allowance for road is now DuiTeii;! 
Street, at the western limit of the Exhibi 
tion Park ; and is still to-day the dividiti' 
line between Lot 30 (included in the I'ark') 
and Lot 31 (commonly known, until recent 
sub-division into building loti, etc. , as Dr. 
Gwynne's property. 

We thus have it conclusively demon- 
strated from the Field Hook of the original 
surveyor of the " Broken Front" concej. 
sion of York, that the old French Fort of 
Toronto was situated near the edge of the 
lake, between the east aud west boundaries 
of Lot No. 30, and about two chains from 
said western boundary. That is, it wad 
situated in the angle farmed by the lake 
shore and the said western boundary, two 
chains east of that boundary ; and any one 
'A ho may take the trouble to make the ex- 
periment by actual admeasurement, will 
find that two chains (132 feet or 44 yards) 
from Dufferin Street, i. c. the boundary be- 
tween lots 30 and 31, will conduct him to 
the spot where tlie monument commemo 
ra ive of the old French Fort Toronto has 
been built. 


The remains of the old French fort, slight 
as they were, constituted, in the absence of 
grander "ruins," one of the "sights" in the 
vicinity of the infant capital of Upper Cana- 
da, audas such they were usually mentiouedia 
the early printed accounts of the place. 
In 1799 appeared David William Smyth's 
Topographical Description and Provincial 
Gazeteer of Upper Canada. Its full title 
reals as follows : " A Short Topographical 
Description of Hit Majesty's Province of 
Upper Canada, in North America, to which 
is anne.\ed a Provincial Ga/'.eteer. London : 
published by W. Faden, Geographer to His 
Majesty aud to His Royal liigline>3 
the Prince of Wales, (/baring Cross, IT'.t'.). 
Printed by W. Bulmur and Co., lUis- 
aell Court, Cleveland Row, St. James'.'' 
It is said in the preface to have been drawn 
up by "David William Smyth, Esq., the 
very able Surveyor-Cieneral of Upper Can- 
ada, on the plan of the late Captain ilutuh- 
ins, for the River Ohio, and the countries 
adjacent." Speaking of York, in the Topo- 
graphical Description, the compiler of this 
work says : " In passing out of the harbour 
of York, to the westward, you see the gar- 
rison on the mainland at the entrance of tiie 
harbour, which, and the blockhouses on 
GibraLar Point, are its security ; aud a 





little to the westward of the garrison are 
the remains of the old trench Fort Toronto ; 
adjoininf; to which is a deep bay that re- 
ceives the River H umber, on which are 
law-milh belonging to Government ; a little 
way up the river the Government yacht is 
building." I'hen again under York, in the 
(ia^e teer part : " The remains of the old 
French Fort Toronto stand a little to tlie 
westward of the present garrison, and ttie 
River Humher discharges itself into Luke 
Outitrio, about two miles and half west of 
that ; on this river and the Don are excel- 
lent mills, and all tlie waters abound in 
fish. " In 1813 appeared a second edition 
of U. W. Smyth's wofk, published under 
the immediate inspection of Uovernor Gore, 
who was resident at the time in London. 
In this re-issue these allusions to the re- 
mains of the old French Fort Toronto are 

In 1805 vas published in London a 
" Slietch of His Majesty's Province of Up- 
per Canada, by D'Arcy Houlton, Barrister- 
at-Law," a thin quarto volume of niuety- 
uine pages, vnry handsomely printed At 
the end are seven pages of " Subscribers' 
Names." It has an excellent map, and is 
dedicated •' To the King " The author of 
this work was afterwards better known in 
Upper Canada a.s Mr. Justice Boulton. 
lu this Sketch the remains of the old French 
Fort Toronto are not overloolied. In cou- 
uecciou with York they are spoken of in 
terms almost identical with those employed 
ly Surveyor-General Smyth. 


In 1813 York was captured by a United 
States force. In the accounts of that inci- 
dent the remains of the old French Fort 
Toronto again curiously come into view. 
Their site, it appears, was well known to 
the American authoritie<i, and in the origi- 
nal plan of operations against Yurk, the spot 
selectt'd for the debarkation of the troops 
was there, although the landing actually 
took place some distance to the west of that 

.Mr. John Lewis Thomson, in " Historical 
Sketches of the Late War," writes thus (p. 
120) : — " Agreeably to a previous arrange- 
ment with the Commodore, (Jcneral Dear- 
bora and his suite, with a lorce of 1,700 
nion, embarked [at Sackett's Harbour] on 
the 22nd and 23id of April [1813], but the 
prevalence of a violent storm prevented 
the sailing until the 25th. On that day it 
moved into Lake Ontario, and, having a 
favourable wind, arrived safely [before 
\ork] at seven o'clock on the morning of the 
27lh, about one mile to the westward of the 
cuius of Fort Toronto, and two and a half 

from the town of York. The execution ol 
that part of the plan which applied imme- 
diately to tne r.ttack upon York was con- 
fided to Col. Pike of the 15th Regiment, 
who had been promoted to the rank of Briga- 
dier-General, and the position which had 
been fixed upou for landing the troops was 
the site of the old Fort. The approach of 
the fleet being discovered from tlie enemy's 
garrison. General Sheaffe, the British Com- 
mandant, hastily collected his whole forco, 
consisting of 75l> regulars and militia ami 
100 Indians, and disposed them u the best 
manner to resist the lauding of ttie American 
force. . . , Bodies of Indians were ob- 
served in groups in ditl'erent drections in 
and about the woods below the site of the 
Fort, and numbers of horsemen stationed in 
the clear ground surrounding it. . . . 
At eight o'clock tie debarkation com- 
menced ; at ten it was completed. Major 
Forsyth and his riflemen, in several large 
bateaux, were in the a Ivance They pulled 
vigorously for the designated ground at the 
site, but were forced by a strong >n ind a con- 
siderable distance above," etc. 

In Auchinleck's " History of the War of 
1812-'13-'14," published at Toronto in li*55, 
a full-page plate is given (p. 186) illustrative 
of the capture of York. Letters identify 
the points of interest with great precision, 
as follows : A. The Humber ; B. Place 
V here Americans lauded ; C. Old French 
Fort ; D. Western Battery ; E. Half-moon 
Battery ; F F. Garrison Garden ; G. G. 
Government House, Garrison and Magazine ; 
H. H. Ships and Stores burned by liritish. 
The Lake road. Garrison road, and business 
part of York in 1812, are also given, and the 
note is appended : " The plate represents 
in addition, the city of Toronto as it uo^v 
is. [The present streets and wards are in- 
dicated ] The woods, however, have been 
left as they were [i. «. in 1812], to mark 
the difficulty « hich attended military move- 
ment* generally." In the plate the letter 
C. is placed w ith great accuracy in the angle 
between the line of the shore and the 
road now known as DufFeriu Street, on the 
east side of the road , and li, the spot where 
the Americans landed, is seen very near 
where Queen Street, if produced iu a right 
line, would strihe the water, which also 
indicates what was the generally known 
fact. It is understood that Mr. Anchin- 
leek, while writing his v ork on the w ar, 
which appeared originally in successive num- 
bers of Mr. Maclear's Anglo-American Ma- 
gazine in 1853, et tieq.. Lad the advantage of 
the best information, derived from such 
sources as Chief Justice Robinson, Mr. Chew- 
ett, and many other gentlemen, late sur- 
vivors of tbe critical period, who, from pev- 


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Boaal experience, were well acquainted with 
all particulars connected with tiie war. 
This renders the carefully prepared plate 
in Mr. Auchinleck'e Hiitory of great 
value, as fixing with certainty, for 
future students, the exact situation of 
a number of localities possessing great 
interest, especially for the inhabitant* of 


Lossing'a Pictorial Field Rook of the War 
of 1812, published by the Harpers in New 
Yorlw in 1869, is a very valuable and most 
interesting work, which will long be a popu- 
lar book of reference. It is important, 
therefore, and will be in place here.ko point 
out and to correct several of its inaccura- 
cies in regard to the old French Fort at 
Toronto. When Mr. Lossing visited To- 
ronto in 18C0, for the purpose ot personally 
examining the scene of action, where the 
capture of York was effected in 1813, by 
an American armed force, and making 
sketches for the forthcoming publication, 
he sought out and obtained an intirview 
with iMr. John Ross, a surviving veteran 
of 1812, and at the time the leading local 
undertaker of Toronto. Mr. Lossing ob. 
taised from Mr. Ross accurate information 
as to the situation of the old French Fort, 
but unfortunately, being up in years and 
an invalid, Mr. Ross did not accompany 
Mr. Lossing to the spot. " Mr. Rosa aave 
me such minute and clear directions con- 
cerning the interesting places in and aroand 
Toronto, that I experienced no difficul y in 
finding them," Mr. Lossing writes p. 592. 
" I hired a horse and light waggon, and a 
young man for driver; >i t spent a great 
portion of the day in the hot sun." Un- 
luckily this young man had not the familiar 
knowledge of the different localities that 
Mr. Rosd had ; and the consequence was 
that Mr. Lossim: mistook the " Butts," 
set up in quite modern times, for rifle prac- 
tice, " abou 60 rods west of the New 
Barracks," considerably easr of the real 
site, for remains ot the old French Fore. 
This is evidenc from the skeich which he 
gives, and his explanatory remarks 'hereon. 
Mr. Lossing writes : *' The principal re- 
mains of I he For , in which may be seen 
some timber- work placed 'here when the 
fort was partially repaired in the winter of 
1812-13 [so he fancied], are seen in ;he 
foreground. They presented abrupt heaps 
covered with sod. On the right, in the dis 
tance is seen Gibraltar Point, with the | 
trees springing from the low sandy surface, j 
On he lef; are the New Barracks." The! 
supposition tha'' the old French For. was re- | 
paired with a view to defence in 1812 13, ' 
WAS purely imaginary. The timber \^ork 

spoken of, and conspicuously shown ia the 
skech, was par: of iha construe ion of ihc 
•'Butts." There never were any remain.n 
of the old French For t. of this conspicuous 
sort. The establishment hsra was, aa Ihavu 
again and acain had occasion to se forth, 
simply an Indian trading post during the 
whole period of its exisienci-, and not a 
miliary work. Curiously enough, the 
rough, irregular protuberances in the soil, 
on one of which, in tlie imm dia '■. fore 
ground, he;: repr s nts hims If as si-- 
tinj; wiiile skctciiing the view before him, 
with the young driver standing by liim, re- 
ally vjcru the genuine remains which he was 
in search of. Exactly where he was aitiiii;T 
wore scattered about plentiful vestinres ol 
the vanished buildings of the old French 
Fort, shallow pits where the supports ot the 
houses had been, and where the chimney 
stack had stood, and the shallow trenches 
or furrows formed by the earth slightly 
raised on each side, along where the pali- 
sades had formerly been planted in the 

The impression in the mind of the writer 
that the old Fort Toronto hud been a mili- 
tary work is also seen in the wood-out map 
(p. .590) where the shape of •' Fort Toronto" 
is made to be. on the smallest seale of course, 
but very distinctly, a fortress in the Vaubau 
style, with the regulation angles, bas- 
tions, etc. (In S. (j. Goodrich's Pictorial 
History of America, another popular work 
published in New York in 1854, there is to 
be seen a cut entitled *• the death of Pike," 
given in connection with the capture of 
Yoik in 1813. In it York figures in tha 
distance as quite an important city, with 
several towers, spires, etc.) While cor- 
recting Lossing, it will be as well to poiat 
out some further errors at p. 587 in the 
text and appended note. The Blockhouse 
spoken of in line 12 from top, was situated 
on the bank of the artificial channel known 
as the " Little Don," not far from the 
Parliament Huildings. It commanded the 
road which led from the "Carrying l.'la(!e3" 
or narrow part of the Island. This is quite 
a diflerent position from " the hii!h east 
bank of the Don, just beyond the pro cnt 
briilge at the eastern termination of King 
and Queen Streets." The portion of the 
note below that requires correction is the 
following : " It (the island) is low and 
sandy — so low that from the moderate ele- 
vation of the town (fifteen or twenty feet 
above the water) the dark line of the lake 
may be seen over it. Upon it were, and 
still are, some trees which, at first ulaiioe, 
seem to be standing on the water. Thij 
gave the name of Tarontah, an Indian word 
signifying " trees on the water," to tha 



place. When the French built a fort there, 
wsstward of the extreme western end of the 
peninsula (which waa called Gibraltar Point), 
they named it Fort Tarontah or Toronto." 
In this passacro, etymology, arthography and 
history are all at fault. Th ; name given 
tn the fort built here by the French waa 
Fort. Kouille. The word Toronto di 1 not 
originate here : it had nothing to do with 
the trees on the peninsula here : it travelled 
down hitlier from Lake Simcoe in the north, 
which, at least one hundred years before 
the French built the fort, was well known 
as Lake Toronto (spelt exe.ctlv so on early 
maps). The predominant traditional inter- 
pretation of the word used to be " Place of 
.sleeting," the allusion being to the popu- 
lous region between Lake Toronto and Lake 
Huron, the grand rendezvpus of the Huron 
or \V>andot tribes, down to the year 1649. 
The " trees on the water" theory of inter- 
pretation ^\as a late afrerti'.ounht, an in- 
genious guesa on the part of some ona who 
hul heard of an Iroquois word with some 
such meiiuing, obscurely resomblin,' To- 
ronto in sounil. Lewis H. Morgan, in his 
" League of the Iroquois, ' wrote down the 
funcied term as •' Deonda" ; so hi» ear had 
caught it. Not only, as has once before 
riceu stated, was Lake Simcoe Lake Toronto, 
bill Alatchedash and Gloucester Bay was 
liay of Toronto, the back lakes connecting 
with the Trent were the Toronto Lakes and 
Humber was the Toronto River : indicating 
that they were, all of them, ^^ ater high- 
Mays to the great interior central ren- 
dezvous or " I'lace of Meetina;" of the Hu- 
ron tribes. After vanishing from the map 
ia the north, it obtained by a happy acci- 
dent a permanent lodgment at the spot 
whore it now rests. Good linguistic reasons 
could be given for the now generally re- 
ceived interpretation of " Toronto," but 
the details would occupy too mucli space. 
There was evidently a desire on the part of 
the Surveyor-General's department, at the 
beguuiingof Sir Peregrine Maitland's regime, 
to perpetua e on the map of Upper Canada 
the beautiful name which had been strangely 
dissardea fcir York in 1793-4. When the 
" Mississaga Tract" « as secured and laid 
out one of the new townships was named 
Toronto, and a narrow triangu ar piece of 
territory belonging to it was called the 
" Gore of Toronto." When the village in 
the township of Hope, afterwards known 
•a Fort Hope, was first projected, Mr. Chss, 
Fothorgili gave it the name of Toronto ; 
and Robert Gourlay, in the curious map 
prepared for the first volume of bis Statis- 
tical Account of Upper Canada, gave the 
name of Toronto to what was to be the 
principal city of the province, according to 

anew but very fanciful method suggested 
by him for laying out townships and loads, 
and figured on his map. 


It thus appears that the site of the old 
French Fort Toronto was a matter of com- 
mon notoriety at York from the outset oi 
thai place. And so it continued to be after 
York had merged into Toronto. Most of 
the inhabitants of the town and its vicinity 
were familiar wich ^he spot. Sportsmen 
in the habit of looking after water-fowl of 
I various kinds along the beach westward 
! from the garrison were specially cognizant 
of it. Youuij lads at school were fond of 
tiring on " the old Frencti Fort,'' as the 
terminus of a half-holiday's stroll towards 
Humber Bay along the well-beaton path on 
the edge of the cliff, i t was in tliis latter 
way the present writer first formed his 
acquaintance with the spot, his perfect 
fanuliarity with which waa kept up by a 
visit every now and then during many sub- 
sequent years. 

In 1878, a large portion of the so-callod 
Garrison Common was fecured from tlio 
Government, and set apart as a park for 
Industrial Exhibition purposes. A survey 
of the ground was made, walks and drives 
were laid out in it, and many buildings re- 
quired for carrying out the objects of the 
park were erected, i'.y a happy accident 
the site of the old J)"rench Fort Toronte 
was included within the limits of the park. 
Up to 1878 a space round about the particu- 
lar spot where the remains were, had been 
enolos-ed by a poorly kept wooden fence, 
through wliKii foot passengers, desirous of 
crossing tho Common, could easily make 
their way. The lines of this fence failed 
to form a correct square. One of its angles 
w\3 unaccountably obtuse, as may be seen 
in Sandford Fleming's plan of Toronto, 
which sliows the enclo.sure in question with- 
out any mention, however, of the cause of 
its existence. The irregularity in shape re- 
ferred to had probably aome relation to 
the former pali.':ades, tlie lines of which did 
not run exactly at right angles either to 
the line of the present Dufferin street, or 
the present line of the shore, as shown Dy 
tie delineations in Auchinlcck's plan, and 
also by the map given by I-,ossing. 

The fence spoken of was, of course, taken 
down when the park was prepared for exhi- 
bition purposes ; but more than that ; it 
became necessary to level and sod the en- 
closed area ; to grade it, in fact, somewhat 
towards the south, and to straighten the 
lino of the cliff o^. tbat side, which had 
become verj' irregular from tho destructive 
action of the waves below. These necessftry 

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improvements involved the obliteration of 
the vestiges of the old French Fort, which 
for BO long a time had imparted a charm to 
the fjrouna hereabout, and the great proba- 
bility of the site becoming obscure io tbe 
future and possibly at length being clean 
forgotten, obviously presented itself. The 
risk was manifest of the inhabitants of To- 
ronto losing a valuable property, so to 
apeak, viz., the knowledge of a spot situated 
in tlieir midst, possessed of very great 
historical interest ; of more bistorical in- 
terest, in point of fact, than any other spot 
within the limits of their city, or anywhere 
in its neighbourhood, being chronologioally 
connected » ith the old French and Indian 
eras in the annals of Western Canada. A 
determination to mark the memorable site 
by some luitablo structure was immediately 
come to on the part of the i'resideut of the 
Industrial Exhibition Association. Mr. J. J. 
Withrow.who had been chiefly instrumental 
in securing for Toronto its Exhibition 
i'ark, and was now actively engaged in 
making ic ready for exhibition purposes on 
a very comprehensive scale. A cairn of 
unhewn stone was accordingly built throuj;h 
bis influence with the city authorities, and 
a fine massive granite boulder, recently 
brought up by the dredging machine out of 
the adjoining ship channel of the entrance 
into Toronto Bay, mounted upon it, bearing 
the following inscription : — 

This cairn marks the exact sitk ok 
Fort Rol'iixk, C(immonly known as Fort 
Toronto, an ^..ndian Trading ano 


OF THE Government of Louis XV. in ac- 
cordance with the recommendations ok 


ISTRATOR OF New France, 1717-1749 
Erected by the Cori'obation of the City 
OP Toronto, a. d. 1878. 

1 his memorial object was visited and at 
tcntively inspected by His Excellency Lord 
Dutferin, Governor-General of Can ida, on 
the occasion of his inaugurating the great 
Industrial Exhibitiou, held for the first time 
in the new grounds. 

The cairn now erected answered an excel- 
lent purpose for about the space of six years, 
when from partial settlement and other 
causes it became somewhat deteriorated in its 
appearance, and it was generally felt that 
something more worthy of the City of To- 
ronto, and of the important site commemo> 
rated ought to take its place. 
cairn replaced by a memorial column, 

which is finally made a memento op 

THE queen's jubilee IN THE 
YEAR 1887. 

The year 1884 was the never-to-be-forgot- 
ten iSemi-Ceutennial of the Incorporation of 

Toronto as a City and the restoration o( 
that beautiful and appropriate name, whiuh 
for fifty years had been supplanted by that 
of " York." It was thought appropriate 
that one of the means of signali/iiii^ the 
occasion would be the commencement, at 
all evens, if not the con''pletion,of a memo, 
rial object on the site of the old French 
Fort Toronto, to take the place of the con- 
fessedly temporary and now dilapidated 
cairu. Mr. W. Birclay McMurrich, Chair- 
man of the Semi-Centciinial Committee, ap- 
pointed by the Corporation, and re 'ently 
Mayor of the City, interested himself in the 
matter, and on the last day of the Semi- 
Centennial celebration, the foundati'm of a 
monumental pillar after a design by the 
Messrs, Langley and Burke, architects, 
of Toronto, was laid by the then Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Ontario, the Honourable 
John Beverley Robinson, in the presence 
of the .Mayor of the City, Mr. A. K. iJos- 
well, and a large concourse of citizens and 
visitors from the United States. 

During the progress of the two following 
years two of the lower courses of the pedestal 
were built with funds contributed by the 
Corporation and the Industrial Exhibition 
Association, 'i he process of erection seemed 
likely to be an affair cf several years' dura- 
tion, when happily the fiftieth anniversary 
of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria 
occurred in 1887, and it was determined to 
make thR completion of the memorial on 
the site of the old French Fort Toronto, 
an incident in the City's commemoration 
of that event. Great good-will was very 
generally shown to this project. On various 
grounds several public bodies united in 
promoting the scheme. The Corporation 
of the City encouraged the undertaiving 
from the outset by repeated subsidies, in 
order ihat the starting point of trade and 
commerce in this reidon might be identified 
with precision in all future time. The In- 
dustrial Exhibition A.<isociation of the City 
again and again liberally aided the scheme, 
deeming it most pioper that a site of so 
much general interest happily included 
within the limits of the Exhibition Park, 
shouM be boldly and lastingly distinguished. 
The Associated Pioneers of the City of To- 
ronto and ancient County of York, with 
the help of many friends in sympathy with 
their Society and its aims, made large con- 
tributions towards the cost of the work, 
being desirous that the scene of the firsl 
dawn of civilized life on the shores of lo- 
ronto Bay, in the little company of Euro 
peans domiciled in the fort, and the rou<,'h 
clearance in the primitive forest of an area 
of about three hundred acres immediately 
around its palisades (as reported by Major 



Rogers) should be surely known to coming 
generations. And theUoernmont of the 
t'rovince ot Ontario (granted prompt and 
generous ossistanco to secure the completion 
of the monument in the year named, so 
that, besides bein;; a due memorial of ore 
of the roost notable hiatorical sites in the 
Province, it might also form one of the 
sbidinf; mementoes in Canada of the Jubilee 
of Her Majesty the Queen. 

I>y encouragement and funds thus sup- 
plied, the erection of the monument wai 
completed, and the ceremony of its unveil- 
ing by His Excellency the Marquis of Lans- 
downe, Governor-General of Canada, took 
place among the proceedings of the opening 
day of the combined Dominion and Local 
Industrial Exhibition at Toronto, the 6th of 
September, 1887. 

The remarks of His Excellency on the 
occasion were as follows : — (It will be ob- 
served that the inauguration of the General 
Exhibition had just occurred in another part 
of the park). 

" The ceremooy which has recently been 
concluded in another part of the ground was 
one which had reference to the affairs of 
today, and to the material interests, present 
and future, of this city arid its neghbour- 
hood. 1 am glad that you have asked me 
to take a part in another ceremony, which 
will for a moment carry our minds back 
from the present to the past. We are met 
this afternoon in order to preserve from 
obliteration the traces of the first beginnings 
of the city of which you are so justly proud 
to-day. In doing this you are, I think, 
showing A very proper and laudable feel- 
in?. A community is wanting in self-respect, 
which does not take an interest in its 
own history, and seek to preserve those 
records by which that history can be traced 
and authenticated. I have frequently no- 
ticed with pleasure that the people of To- 
ronto are fond of dwelling upon the memo- 
ries which live ...ound the city, and this 
portion of the Province of which it is the 
capital ; and there is certainly no part of 
Canada in which men of the present day 
have a better right to refer with pride to 
the achievements of' their forefathers, or 
to the courage with which the earliest set- 
tlers in the land, when they were as yet 
a mere handful of men, held their own in 
the face of desperate odds, iisrhting for the 
country of their adoption, and preserving 
to the British Empire one of its noblest 
bulwarks. The monument which you h ive 
asked me to unveil, carries us back, how- 
ever, to a past even more remote than that 
upon which you are fondest of dwelling ; 
it takes us back to a period earlier than 
that of the United Empire Loyalists- 

earlier than theageof Simcoe and of Hruck. 
It is erected on the site of the old 
French Trading Post, built here nearly a 
century and a half ago, by the French Gov- 
ernment ; a post which was, in fact, the 
earliest civilized settlement established in 
this neighbourhood ; that settlement you 
have very appropriately described in your 
address aa the germ of the Toronto with 
which we are now acquainted. I think the 
greatest credit is duo to the public bodies, 
the Corporation, the Exhibitiun Association 
and the Provincial Guvernincnt, as well as 
to the private friends and supporters of the 
project, who have combined for the purpose 
of securing the identitiL-ation of so interest- 
ing a spot, and of commemorating it by the 
erection of a suitable monument. Standing 
aa that monument does in the midst of these 
Exhibition Grounds, it will serve, I hope, 
year after year, to remind the thousands 
who frequent them of the achievements of 
those who have built up the fortunes of the 
City of Toronto upon a spot where com- 
paratively a short time ago the rough 
trading post of a foreign country was the 
only sign of approaching civilization, and 
to whosu eiibrts spread over successive cen- 
eraiions, you owe it that the solitude, the 
desolation, the dangers, the rude existence 
of the first settlers at this spot, have been 
replaced by the teeming population, the 
plenty and prosperity which we see 
around us on every side to-day. I esteem 
myself fortunate in having been called 
upon to undertake this task, and I have now 
much pleasure in dedicating this monument 
to the public of the City and Province." 

To adopt the word* of one of the many 
chroniclers of the day's proceedings, — His 
Excellency then " seized the lines and 
undid the veil, and in a moment the round 
shaft was exposed to the view of the spec- 
tators. The crowd greeted the disclosure 
with cheers, which were again and again 
heartily repeated" The monument, it is 
then added, which is after a design by 
Messrs. Langley and Burke, architects, 
is a plain, rounded column or shaft, having 
somewhat the appearance of a lighthouse. 
Including the rough mason work, which 
forms the base, it reaches the height ot 
thirty-two feet, and will be a conspiauous 
objt'ct of view from the bay. The stone is 
" Credit Valley Red," supplied from the 
quarries of Mr. K. Chisholm, of llramp- 
ton. It was executed, it should be sub- 
joined, at the works ot Mr. Lionel Yorke, 
on the Esplanade, and a tribute is due to 
the great practical skill of Mr. Vick, super- 
intendent of those works The follow- 
ing inscription appears on the north side of 
the pedestal : — 

t '4 

■i! ;g 

' i.: 

I'ti* '<: 




ii I'll;' 



Four Toru)NTo, 




A. I>. MU(X;\L1X., 

Thus a work of no .~linht importance waa 
liriiii^lit to a cloac. A site of coniiidtirahle 
liisiorical ai;,'iiilirii:ico Wft3 iloriiiitely tixi'd 
;uul durably inarkiid for tlio s,'r.uilication of 
ti>(;ul i-c.-iiilontH und tho inforiuation ot the 
L'aiiudiiiii public generally And in d-jing 
this a notable niUlitioii wan niaJo to the 
uirTaciioiis of the parks and drives of To- 
loiuo, a ol)ject l)einjj se; up 
by the wayai :e in one of tlium, calciilatuil 
U) atimulato a wholesome curiosity in tho 
minds of all beholder!), usp«;ciiil)y in tho 
minds o: tho many inleilii^Liii f)erMons. 
younj; and old, who are drawn to tho 
Cajiilal of tiio i'rovinco on })artiuular ooua- 
siona ycur aficr year ; a nionumuntal ob- 
jtrct, uciititH'd, when it i<hall itself have 
btcome a tliiu^' of autiijuity — corroded, jmr- 
nap.s, by the tooth of time like ono of vhe 
ancient round towers of Irelanil — destined 
even then to be still named amoii^' lIio 
"sii^lits" of Toronto, and oiiaracterized by 
its i di&bitants as one of their most valued 


The monument consists, first, of a sub- 
struction of rough stone about five feet 
in depth and twelve and a halt feet square 
at its lowest part, dimiidshing by steps to 
vbout twelvM foot square at tho surface. 
Then, for about four feet, follow in cut 
Credit Valley stone, hree courses, to a 
block formins the main body of tho pedestal, 
".ive feet square and five and a half fjL't 
i.i lifiight. Over this is a course projecting 
eight iachcs ; and then comes a block 
wrought to form a transition from the 
hfiuare to the round form, upon which 
rests the column p;oper ; a shaft in eight 
divisions, sliuhtly tapering from live 
feet at the base, to about two feet at 
the .summit, which terminates in a conical 
apex. 'Jhe whole height from tho surface 
is a little over thirty feet. The esti- 
mated cost at the outset of the cut 
stone portion was about two thousand five 
hundred dollars. The grants and col- 
lections have somewhat exceeded this 
sum, and the slight surplus is to be ex- 
pended by the Industrial Exhibition Asso- 
ciation in rendering tlie surroundings of 
tlie monument complete. The excess over 
the (juota guaranteed by the Pioneer As- 

sociation to seeuro tiie conuiletion of tin' 
monument in 18S7 has been ]ilacud by 
tho committee cii.irged with the collie; 
tion to the ortdit of the I'ionoers' g.Mi 
eral fund, with tho approbation of the pri . 
cii>al subscribers. 


An account of the writer's intimate ai' 
qiidntance with the site of the old French 
trading post known as Fort Toronto i.s given 
at hu .,'(1 in the memoir. As to tho perfect 
accuracy of that s.ite, as marked by the o1j« 
liak wiiich has lieen erected thereon, tWj 
]iaiticulars relating thereto should be men 
tioned for the more complete sati.if.iciion of 
every visitor to liiis historical spoi. It h.u 
been already noted in tliis memoir that th« 
original provincial land surveyor, Au 
iju.uua Jone.i, set it down m 
ids field book now jireserveil 

in the Crou n l.aiuU' Depariinenl. Turoiuo, 
that he ran the division lino bctwetni lots ;!i) 
and .'U, " about two chains westward of liu- 
remains of the old French FiTt,' which di- 
vision line is now represented by the iho- 
rouyhfare known as Dufi'eriu avenue. Out, 
of curiosity and just to tost tho primitiva 
burvuyo 's remark, tho writer a few years 
since, but subs»-(|uent to the erection of tlie 
obelisk, aacom{)anied by a friend, tool; thi; 
crouiile actua ly to measure with a regular 
surveyor's chain, the distance of two chains 
casi-ward from Dufl'erin ave. and this dis- 
tance, ne was pleased but not surprised to 
find, brou^iii him and his friend precisely 
CO the spot marked by the obelisk, thus 
showing how correct was the old surveyor i 

The second interesting particular is tlie 
following :— in the course of certain excava- 
tions in the Kxiiibition Park m.»de in con- 
nection witli tho panocomic display in IS'Jl, 
a discovery was made of what there can be 
little doubt was a burial plot aj^pertainiui,' 
to the old French Fort Toronto. A number 
of skeletons were found laid in the ground. 
for the most part with regularity, showing 
tha' they were deposited in a place set apart 
for 'sepulture, some of them encased in cotliiis, 
and some noc. The situation of the burial 
plot is exactly north of the monument 
at a distance of al out one hundred 
yards. Here wore probably to be 
seen the remains of all those who had died 
at the old Flench Forr Toronto, during its 
brief existence from 1749 to 1759. The two 
particulars just narrated, amounting we may 
say to a positive demonstration, should be 
eapecially noted, inasmuch as the proprie- 
tors of the land immediately west of Dufferin 
street liave endeavored to throw discredit 
on the site in the Exhibition Park mar> ed 
by the obelisk, in consequence of the di»> 






., ,'■ ;« 

i -^ 


lop. lOL 

eofery on thi 

Mill e*dar ^up 

which tiM ooy 

cliff or wlge o 

wu* hastily cc 

of tlie old Kn 

on the land 

I'ort lioaiUe i 

origin of the 

is well knowr 

quite recent t 

juH weil-rc 

C'au.vla Collej 

Mr. Duffy at 

visablc to ren 

Dorthward, ii 

tered aiiiiati 

w»ter. The 1 

WM long a c( 

side of DufTer 

street just he 

niisletnling, ii 

tinuc. to give 

tiie pronuuci 

popular orga 

igaal to the t 

Iiiiuid doulile 

Tiie result is 

oft n obliged 

oi Rouille iut 

in th" memoi 

Coant de Joi 

timi! being at 

having his no 

trailing post 

vailod in ap 

Toronto, tl 

familiar as a 

ha.5 often bee 

was 80 siyled 

w&s establis! 

derived not : 

tins loealiiy, 

Lb,' -a Simcoe 

plaue of iiieel 

comiuonly sp 

dial'jct spoke 

word Toron 

Sugtu'd's diel 

and not to 

hoine was no 

the south ai 

possible that 

may occur ol 

for example, 

cut meaning 

In the sun 

tion surroun 

posts and a 

ot the whole 





(Ofrry on ik»t land of » wuftll disosed well 
tn<l e*dar ^uppo^U of a buildiuK oioM by, 
«hi(;h kM oow disappeared, not far from tbe 
cliir ur edge of the bank. Tb«He remaini, it 
wa/< hastily concluded, were aome remnanta 
of tlie old French fort, and a street laid out 
on the land has been acuoriliugly named 
I'ort Kouille street, hut it bapjrans that the 
origin of the well and building referred to 
is well known. 'I'lioy were the work in 
quite reoent of Mr. lames Duffy, a 
tiill well-rcmetnt)cred master In U|>(<cr 
Cau.vla College wlio ouou owned the 8p<>i. 
Mr. Duffy at a lutor period found it ad- 
visable to remove hi.i bouse a short distaiicu 
aorthward, in < rdcr to be m a more aUel- 
(ersd situation, further away from the 
water. The lumso waa removed bodily, and 
was long a conspicuous object on the west 
tide of DufTerin ivvc The name Fort llouitit 
street just here, bc.iide.4 being confuaiiij^ and 
iiUAlcading, is lively, if allowed to con- 
tmuc, to give perni:kueucu to a Imrbarism in 
tlie pronunciation of a French word, the 
pupalar organs of speech bein^ r, ittio un- 
t |aal to tbe task of pro<laciug th I ronch 
ij(jui(i doul)le '* 1" and tbe acoentuaiN^il "e." 
Tlie result is that tbe educated ear is already 
oft n obliged to onduro tbe tnvnsfortnaliou 
01 Rouiile into Kouill. It bast been shown 
in tb ■ memoir how Antoiue L<ouiy Kouillo, 
Coant de Jouy, colonial minister for tbe 
timi; being at Paris, was oomplimeuted by 
having bis name otiiciatly attached to the 
trading post here, but popular usuge pre- 
vailed in applying to it the appellation of 
Toronto, that name being already 
familiar as a designation of the 1 cality. As 
ha.: often been shown, the Toronto Landing 
was eo styled long before the trading post 
wan establislied, " Toron o," having been 
derived not from anything connect d with 
tins locality, but from Lake Toronto, now 
IaKh Simcoe, far to the north, the grand 
place of meeting of the 'Vyandot Indians, 
commonly spoken of as Uurona. It 13 to the 
dialect spoken by the Wyaudots that the 
word Toronto belonged (cDUsult Father 
Sugard's dictionary of the Huron language) 
and not to that of the Mohawks, whu^e 
hoine was not hereabouts, but far aw ay to 
the south and east. Of course it is quite 
possible that in the Moha^ k dialect a term 
may occur of a somewhat similar sound (a.s, 
for example, Deonda) and possessing a differ- 
tut meaning. 

In the summer of 1892 the City Corpora- 
tion surrounded the monument with massive 
posta and a metal bar. The general effect 
ot the whole structure has thus been greatly 


▲ tpct Ibnt Was «Vrll Known Awav KarV 
In the Forlieit— The Western Suburb a« 
II was and It la. 

Probably few towns in the Doir.inion pre- 
S' nt a greater contrast between what th y 
arc now and what they were forty yearg ago 
than doej tiio subject o our sketch. VVhure 
electric car.i now run with more or less regu- 
larity were to be f und roads innocent of 
evfry ultLinpt at ptivinL,', and romiukiiliie 
only for lliuir utter deHolation in wincur 
through snuw dri ts, tlieir discomfort in 
spring o.ting to thn quantities of 
mud witii which they abounded and 
their all but iinpassability in summer 
from thu clouds of dust always a i^ing 
total number of inhabitants in the district 
now included in the municipality of Toronto 
Junction did not exceed two hundred and 
fifty souli, whereas today the population is 
variously eatimaiod at from live to six tliou- 
sand people. There was bnt one railway 
ataliou, that on tuo Northern Railway, 
known as I)avcnport, and what a 
station it was ! dimply a wooden 
shed, opuii, except ut tlio roof, en- 
tirely to tlie weather, and at wuich slopped 
only two trains each way .uily. It is need- 
less to add that there were no seats pro- 
vided for the waiting public —of whom, for- 
tunately, there were ve y few, and if one 
wer desirous of purchasing a ticket it would 
have been a hard matter to accomplish, as 
there wero no ofliciahi of any sort or descrip- 
tion within sight. 


There was no potollico nearer tban 
Brockton on the one side, VV'e.ston on the 
other and at Yotkville and Lambton on tbe 
east and west respectively. Having a tele- 
gram . elivered cost four times as much aa 
the message itself and on the very rare oc- 
casions when sucli missives arrived for any 
ot tbe residents, their recipient! 
were regarded with feelings of ad- 
miration, if not of awe, in having 
such important kiusincss on hand as to neces- 
sitate a telegraphic messas^e. At the period 
we are spnai;ing of Mr. George Cooper was 
huildiDy, as a residence tor himself, the large 
red briclc house near Davenport station 
which is now occupied by Mr. A. Royce. On 
the north side of Davenport road, nearly 
opposite to tlie spot where now runs Church- 
hill avenue, were one or two paltry cottages, 
which liave long since disappeared. On the 
south side of the road from tbe railway sta- 
tion, and for a long way both towanlo Dun- 


J .-■ -t: 







das street and A'eston road, this last then 
known as the Plank road, was dense bush 
land throu<:;h wliich few people either cared 
or attempted to pass. Where Mr. IJrimer 
now resides on Davenport road was a large 
rough-cast house, (since dostrojed by fire) 
standing, as do.-s the present one, in a 
spacious garden and occupied by Mr. Samuel 
Thompson, who was well known as a poli 
tician and writer of no mean literary abil 
ity. He died in Toronto in 1886, just 
after h« had completed and published 
a delightful volume of reminiscences. 
About a quarter of a mile to 
the north-west of Mr. Thompson's resi- 
dence, on the road leading to Weston, where 
it is intersected by what is now called St. 
Clair avenue, were four or five Hmall houses, 

boundary of the farm known as Aikenehaw 
occupied by Colonel £dward U'illi.ini 
Thomson from 1S44 — when ho erected tlie 
large red brick house, which is still stand 
ing— until his death in 1865. Colonel 
Thomson was one of the 8ur»irors of the 
war of 1812, 1813, 1814, and for some time 
held a seat in Parliament. He was, thoui^h, 
far roorj eminent as an agricul- 
turist than as a politician and 
valued his position as chair inuu 

of the Board of Agriculture for Upper Can- 
ada much more tiian any political distinc- 
tion he might gain. It is worthy of re- 
mark that Colonel Thomson's house was 
the first brick resiJenee of any description 
erected on Dundas street between Toronto 
and the|Humber. On the nitienshaw property 


a blacksmith's shop, and a very small gro- 
cery store. These houses were on the edge 
of the woods, in which abounded red and 
black sijuirrels as well as great numbers of 
chijiniunks. The land for the Grand Trunk 
Railway 'V-is then (1854) in course of survey, 
but the lino was not cut through until 
1856, nor Carlton station erected until 1857. 
V\ liat is now Keele street ran as u 
concession fn^ni the present St. (lair avenue 
to Dundas street, and forn.od the eastern 

there were no houses whatever exceptim: 
the Colonel'! residence and out biii!ainL;> : 
indeed there was in IS5:{ one plot oi iuit^li 
land of eight acres forming a portion of tlie 
propel ty, which was not finally cleared 
until 1850. Opposite Col. Thomson':i resi- 
dence on Dundas street was a modiMMtely 
sized rough (.ast dwelling, which '.vaa oi-cii- 
pied by Mr. William Kccle, a son of Mr 
\V. C. Kcielc, whom we shall presently refer 
to. William Keele farmed the a(lj< ining 

-'-- Mr 



Iftail of perhaps fifty acres, but in IS.'jo and 
lSr)G he leased a larc;e portion of the pro- 
perty to» joint stock company for the pur- 
pose of forming a race course. This latter, 
known as the Carlton race ground, was 
opened for sport in the spring of 1857, and 
in the following year had the honour of 
Royal patronage, Htr .Majesty giving a sum 
of money to be run for by horses under 
a certain age bred in Canada. The 
course had a very brief existence, com- 
paratively, as it was finally closed in 1872. 
What we now know aa Kosle street ex- 
tended on the south side of Dundas street for 
perhaps eight hundred yards until it reach- 
ed the rough-cast house occupied by Mr. 
\V. C. Keelc, where it stopped short 
ill the midst of a dense undergrowth of oak 
and other trees. Mr. Keele. from whom this 

the locality. He was for a long time 
(excepting the farmers) the only employer of 
labour in the neighbourhood, he having ex- 
tensive brick yards on Dunaas street, near 
the Plank road, and was besides the 
first owner of nearly all the laud 
in the vicinity. He was a man 
of strong prejudices, yet capable of deep af- 
fection, and under a somewhat rough man- 
ner had a very kind heart. He whs one of 
the inhabitants of York who iu 181,~) signed 
the address of welcome to Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor (J ore, on the return of the latter from 
England to resume the reins of i^overnnient. 
He died in Toronto in 1860, at the great aje 
of 87 years, leaving a large number of des- 

fJetween the cottage we have just ra- 
I ferred to and the I'eacock tavern — the 


Street takes its name, s\as a soli( itor of high 
character and repute. He published more 
than one legal handbook, which had a large 
sale. On the southwest corner of Keele and j 
Dundas street stood the Swan tavern ; we 
Atf sorry to aa,j it was not regarded as being , 
ck i^reat blessing to the neighbourhood. On i 
the opposite corner, towards Toronto, on the 
8»me side, stood a new red brick cottage 
built by Mr. .Tohn Scarlett, wiioaiao erected 
in 1838 the rough-cast house known as 
Runnyinede, still standing on the north side 
ot Dundas street to the extreme west of the 

Mr. Scarlett may, indeed, be regard - 
fi as the father of Toronto Junctioi, ; 
he built almost, if not the Tery first house in 

latter long since pulled down and replaced 
by a hotel of the same name — were some few 
cottagesaiidMr. Seaj' itt'sbrick yards. There 
was a blacksmith's shop exactly opposite the 
Peacock, and when we say there was one 
small seneral store near the brick fields we 
have described Torcnito Junction as it wis in 
1853 with tolerable accuracy. There was no 
provision whatever at this perio<l for the 
education of the young ; boys and girls alike 
cither waited to school in Toronto or 
to Ktobicoke where there was a small 
school house, now used by the Roman 
Catholics as a church The nearest place of 
worship belonging to the Church of England 
was St. CJeorge's, on Dundas street, beyond 
the Uumber. Thers was a small wooden 



'A 1: s 

li!' '' 






building also on Dundas street, on the 
•outhem side, near Bloor street, occupied by 
the Wesleyan body, but there was no per- 
manent minister, and eves if ther« had been 
one there was no residence for him. As 
for sanit*ry arrangements, every house- 
holder was a law unto himself, 
and the marvel is not that there 
was so much illness I ut that there was so 
little. As for the administration of justice, 
there was fortunately but little serious 
crime. When any such occurre I it was 
dealt with in Toronto, and minor cases were 
heard by one or other of the various magis- 
trates acting for the township. These 
gentlemen always held their courts at tlieir 
own houses, f-uch was tha Junction forty 
years ago— a small, scattered community, 
without power for good or evil. What it is 
to-day our readers are able to j Ige for 

Early Settlers. 

Amongst the MS. in the archives at Ottawa 
b the first list sent out from HJngland of the 
Loyalists who had signed to settle in Upper 
Canada. Very few of the names are familiar 
in this part ot the province, as these 
pioneers bettled in the Midland district. 
The list reads : — 

Loyalists who have signed to f,'o and settl* 
with their families in Upper Canada. Lon- 
don, Dec. 26th, 1791 : — Isaac Morley, Samuel 

Knowles, Daniel Stretch, Benj. OgJen. 
Xathan Harnum, Robert \lorrell, Edward 
Dougherty, Jas. Gushing, Barth. Stavers, 
Jno. Smith-Halfield, \Vm. Hove, Robt 
Wilkins, Joseph Hallo way, Jcrem. Pem 
berton, Jos. Stephens, Jno. Baker, 
Peter McDonald, John Brooks, John Bar- 
ton, Jas. Huestis, Lawrence Thucsoon, Jivs. 
McAtell, Edward Thorp, Chas. Thorp, Ed 
ward Dougherty, jr., John (Griffiths, Jacob 
Buffinton, Sebastian de Molito, Henry Mc- 
Donald, Jas. Stephenson, Alex. McDonald, 
(ieorge E. Spoouer, VVm. Gallop, Terence 

Kerin, Frederick Hcrchtield, MoDonakl, 

Thomas Giles, WolfLjaug Road, Frederick 
Herner, Jno. Loughburrow,Ja3. Rankin, jr., 
Neil McMuUen, Thos. 'J'ulley, John I'iul- 
lips, \Vm. Hart, Zack. Tulley, Williiitr. 
Scliermer, Ann Pomeroy, (widow) Wm. Da 
Mont, Mark Mansfield, (;re;jory Wells. 

Early Torvnto. 

GoTernor Simooe, when he arrived in Ca- 
nada, did not coino direct to Niagara. lie 
writes from Montreal on December 7th, 
1791 :— 

He proposed sttlfini'nt of Toronto — Simcot ti 
Dundas, Die 7, 1791, dated Montrfal. 

I hope to assemble the Legislature in 
the autumn at Niagara, to winter at Cat;v- 
raqui and early in the spring to occupy with 
such a central po.sition ss shall previously be 
chosen for ihe capital. If possible, I could 
wish to beijin a settlement at Toronto. 


r ij! 




TTIint It Cost In the Days of 1793 to Hut 
ihe Fuinoas Qneen's Kansers and to I'M 
I'p the Vovernor's House. 

In ft letter written in 1792 by Alured 
Clarke we hare some interesting facts about 
the hutting of the Queen's Rangers and tiie 
fitting up of Navy Hall at Niagara. The 
ricords are found in the Siincoe papers in 
Uie Archives Department at Ottawa. Clarice 
i»ys :— 

Clarke to Dundas. 

"SlK,— Inmy letter. No. 43, of the 5th 
Stptember, I mentioned that having called 
apon Colonel Simcoe, commanding in Upper 
Cftoada, for the returns and estimates of 
such works as might be deemed necessary in 
(bat part of this district, he has stated, as it 
«M imponsiblti to reduce to any certain esti- 
mate the expense that would accrue from 
tiw necessity of huttinc the Queen's Rangers 
M Niagara, he would himself make the 
neeessary communication to the Lords Com- 
misaoners of his Majesty's Treasury. 

" The enclosed, Nos. 1 to 6, are estimates of 
the works and repairs found nece.ssary and 
grdered for Colonel Simcoe, to be carried 
into immediate execution, amounting to one 
thousand, five hundred and sixty-four 
pounds, fifteen shillings and twopence half- 
penny, which I have approved and direct to 
be defrayed in the usual nianuer by the 
Deputy Paymaster - General of the 
Forces, taking for granted that any 
further couimiMiicdtion?i that may be 
thought necessary on this head will be made 
by Colonel Simcoe, as before stated. 

" I have the honour to be, with great re- 
ipect, sir, your most obedient and most 
faithful humble servant, 

" Alured Clabke. " 

" 7Ae Right Hon Ue'iry Duudas. 
•'(Abstract of estimates enclosed.)" 

Navy Hall must have been quite a respect- 
»ble dwelling for the days of 1792. It was 
of wood, clapboard, and outside of the 
original cost of the building Simcoe pro- 
posed to spend upon it 'about £300, or 
{2.500 of the currency of to-day. 

The first memorandum is nn "Estimate of 
the expence of erecting 28 log houses for the 
icconimodation of Colonel Simcoe's Ran- 
gers at the west landing at Niagara." 

£ s d 
No. 1, Workmanship.. 95 18 6 
No. 2, Materials %*8 I 10 

£1,U34 4 

The second is an "Estimate fort he expenco 
of fitting up Navy Hall foi the accommoda- 
tion of Colonel Simcoe" : 

£ 8 d 
No. .3, Workmanship... IW 6 
No. 4, Materials .357 2 

473 5 2 
And the third is an " Estimate of expence 
of building an oven for use of Colonel Sim- 
coe's corps." 

£ 3 d 

No. 5, Workmanship 5 12 6 

No. 6, Material 51 17 24 

57 9 8^ 
The huts for the Queen's RaDge>-s were to 
be 28 in namlMr, and quite a iar .e quantity of 
timber wars required for tbetr erection. A 
letter in the archives from the captain of the 
Royal Engineers at Quabec Kivos details of 
the work to be done to make tiM colonial 
regiment cooifortable. It reads ; — 

QuKBKc, 8th Ocspober, 1792. 
Estimate ot expence vi ersctiiig twenty 
eight log houses for the accommodation for 
the corps of Queen's Rangera, at the west 
landing, ordered by His Excellency Colonel 
Simcoe, 20th August, 1792, from the report 
of Lieut. Pilkington, Royal Engineers. 

Each house to be 24 feet by 10 in the 
clear. Eight for tlie officers. Fourteen tor 
the men. Three for au Hospital. Two mt'ss 
and cooking houses for the otScers. One for 
a bake house. 

£ s d 

Carpenters 70 00 00 

Masons 20 it W 

Glaziers 1 15 Ol' 

Smiths 3 18 t) 

93 IS ti 
Materials necessary 
Six hundred logs, 20 feet each, 9 in. diam. 
One thou.'jind logs, 20 feet each, 9 in. diiim. 
Four hundred logs, 14 feet each, for rafters. 
Nine hundred lifty i^ in. pine plank. 
Six hundred 1 j in lioards. 
Eleven hundred fifiy in. boards. 
Six thousand '20d nails 
Seventeen thousanJ lOd nails. 
Fifty-six tliousaud shingles. 
Eighty'foar thousand shingle nails 
One hundred eighty nine barreU lime 
Five thousand four 1 uudred bricks 
Four hundred twenty-six panes glass 
Forty-eigiit lbs putty 

Nineteec pieces flat iron, 6 feet long each. 
Eight pieces do, 5 feet long each. 
Eighteen pieces square iron 6 feet long each. 
Twenty-eight pair hooks and straps 
Four hundred and forty eight fectruuniug 3 
ia. oak plank, 8 iu. broad. 





II- i 

' I 

1 - 


i a 







h'-[ ' 

I '■'; 

i 1: 



Amounting to ninety-tive pounds, eighteen 

shillings and sixpence currency. 

Bknj. Fish BR, 
Capt. Commanding Royal Engineers. 


(Sifned,) Alcred Clark k. 

Estimate of the expense of erecting 
twenty-eight log houses for the acconmioda- 
tion of the corps of Queen's Rangers at the 
West Landing, as per Captain Fisher's esti- 
ma»e, dated Quebec, 8th October, 1792, 

£ I. d. 
GOO logs, 26 feet each 9 in. diam. 

at 5s each 150 

1,000 logsSO feet each, 9 in. diam 

atSsench 250 

400 logs, 14 feet each, for rafter*, 

at r-ia each 100 

9')0 feet 1<: inch pine plank, at la 

.Sd eachi' 59 7 6 

600 } inch boards, at Is !Sil each, . . 30 

1,1.")0 1 inch do, at Is each 57 10 

6,(X)0 20a nails at 14s per M .., 4 4 

IT.vlOO lOd naiU at lU^ y>.:v M S 10 

56,000 shin-iles at 4r)s per M 12() 

84,00C shingle nails at :U Od per M 14 14 

189 barrels of lime al ',»j eacii 8.') 1 

5.400 bricks at 60s per M 16 4 

426 panes of ylas^s al 6d each 10 l."{ 

48 pounds of putty at lOd 2 

19 pieces of flat iron, 6 ft. lon^ 

each, at 5s each 4 15 

8 pieces of flat iron, 5 ft, long each, 

at 4s each 112 

IS pieces square iron, 6 ft. long 

each, at .5s each 4 10 

28 pairs hooks and straps at 4s pr. 

pair 5 12 

448 feet 3 in. oak plank, 8 in. 

broad, at 4d per ft 7 9 4 

9.38 1 10 
John- Craioie, A. C. 
Estimate of making such repairs and ad- 
ditions at N ivy Hall as are requisite for the 
accommodation of his E.xoellency Colonel 
iSimeor, ordered bv kim 26tl> July, 171(2, 
from the report of Lieut. I'ilkington, Royal 

£ a. d. 

Carpenters' work H • 

Evicklavers' and plasters' IS 

Smiih.i'". 2 5 

(ilazicrs* 2 

Painters' { 2 

Labourers' 12 

116 5 

inch boards. 24,001) shingles. 7,000 laths 
150 lbs. .30d nails. 50 lbs, 20d nails. 281) 
lbs. lOd nails. 25 Us. 8d nails. 40U 
shingle nails. 140 lbs. lathing nails, 
lbs. 5 inch spikes. 180 barrels lime. 
7,000 bricks. 




60 lbs stucco. 

whiting. .3.32 panes glass. 64 lbs. 

36 lbs. white paint. 6 lbs. blue 

12 lbs brown paint. 4 lbs black 

7 gallons linseed oil. 1 gallon 

turpentine. 6 lbs. fig blue. 12 Ibn. 

2 stock locks. 12 door locks. 3 pad 

bushels hair. 

25 lbs. 






locks. 12 pair H hinges. 12 pair H hinci j. 

12 window bolts. 12 door bolts. 16 do/cn 

screws. 18 sashes and catches. ^ ewt. 

small square iron. .^ cwt. small flat iron. 

Four sheets iron. 

Amounting to one hundred and si.xteen 
pounds, five shillings, currency. 

BKN.t. Fisher, 
Capt. Comdg. R. Engra. 

Signed, Alured Cl-Arke, A.C. 
Estimate for above — 

£357 Os 2d. currency. 

John t raiiui:, 
Com. 4 Q. M. General, A.C , 

QuruKC, 8th October, 17'.»'2. 

Estimate of the expense in buihtiiu' an 
oven for the use of the corps of Queeh's 
Rangers at the West Landing, ordered Ijy 
His Excellency Colonel Simcoe, 20th August, 
1792, from the report of Lieut. Pilkington, 
Royal Engineer. < 

Masons and bricklayers. .£3 lOs. OJ. 

Smiths £0 73. 6d. 

Labourers £ 1 15c. Od. 

Maicrlah necessary: — 

600 feet round pine, 6 by 8 in 
round scantling, 5 by 6. 
•caBlling, 4 l)y 5. 
100 1^^ in. boards. 

2,000 feet 

4,000 feet round 

3St) H in. pine plank. 

300 ioeh boards GOOj} 

£5 12s G^t 

Materials — 7,500 bricks, 45 brls. liin!, 
15 batteaux loads sand, one peice, 2.^ in. 
Hat iron, Oft. lon^, 6 sheets iron, and I'Jlhs. 
rod iron. Total value — £5 12s. 6d cur- 
rency. B. FisiiEit. 

Estimate of the expenco of sundry 
materials for the building of an oven for 
the use of corps of the York Ram'ers at 
the West Landing required in Caplnin 
Fisher's estimate of the SthOctobei, 17ii-. 

£ e. I. 

7,500 brick, at 60s per thd 22 10 

45 brls lime at 68 per brl 20 .") 

15 batteaux loads of sand at 10s 7 10 i 
1 jiiece 24 in. flat-irwn, 6 ft. 

long, at 53 5 

6 sheets of iron at 4a 1 4 <l 

12 lbs. of rod iron at 303 per cwt. 3 :'t | 

£51 17 .'ii 
Joiiy Craiuie, 

Com. and Q. M. Genl. 

!i ' 




An interesting letter accompanies the esti- 
mates. It gives a statement about Navy 
Hall, showing that the original building was 
erected during the war of 1770-75. It 
reads : — 

Re Xavy Hall and the. hiUn — Extract from 
later, dated Quebec, S6th May, 170.1, from 
Alured Clarke to lit. Hon. Henry Dundns : 

I shall bo;;in with the building ei^ht hues 
for covering tlie Queen's Rang rs This 
regiment arrived at Quebec in the summer 
without my receiving any information con- 
cerning it other than an information the 
year before that it was in contemplation to 
riiise such a corps. Of course, no previous 
measures could be taken tor tlioir accommo- 
dation. Immediately on their arrival they 
(liaembarked and were conveyed with their 
baggage, store? etc , to the Upper Province, 
leaving it to Cnloicl Simcoe's discretion to 
quarter them where he thought it would 
best answer the purposes for which tboy 
rere raised. Upon their arrival it became 
necessary to take steps for etlocting a more 
aubslantial protection from the weather of 
the approaching season. The circum- 
stances of the case would admit 
of no delay, and the plan adopted 
was most advisable, not only as being most 
expedilious but, considered in an economical 
view, less expensive and at the same time 
more durable than barracks to bo construct- 
ed of n^aterial made from timber then 

Tiie l.uilding of an oven for thiir accom- 
modation WHS equally necessary, that being 
the only means in the infant state of the 
lettlemont by wliich they could have been 
furnished with bread. 

Anotlier part of the service to be carrie 1 
into execution without waiting for a previ- 
ous approbation was making the repairs 
and additions to Navy Hall which Col. 
Simcoe found necessary for the immediate 
accommodation of himself and family, as 
well as several otlicers of his (iovernment. 
This building is on the west side of 
Niagara river and was erected in the course 
of the last war by order of the commander 
inchief of the forces for the use of the 
officers of the Naval Department serving 
upon Lake Ontario; thatesta) lishment being 
since considerably reduced and the house 
not being much wanted during peace, did 
not from time to time receive the repairs it 
stood in need of; and in it^ best state could 
be considered but a paltry residence for 
the King's representative. However, such 
as it was, it was the only one that offered, 
or that could be produced as a shelter until 
a batter or more commodious one could be 
provided, bub in the then state and condi- 
UoD thereof it could not have been inhabited 

in the winter, and so far was the season ad- 
vanced that it was not possible to transmit 
any plan or proposals to England for pre- 
vious consideration or directions ; under 
these circumstances, and considering the 
building as beine under the immediate 
orders of the military commander-in-cliief, 
1 was iniiuced to approve and authorize the 
payment of the alterations and repairs neces- 
sary for the reception of Colonel Simcoe'a 
family, etc., just arrived in » new country, 
and who without this assistance must have 
aufTered the greatest inconvenience, which 
from his public character he certainly should 
not have been exposed to. 

The aci'oininodation for the ollicors of the 
staff of Upper Canada was equally indispen- 
sable an 1 likewise received my sanction. 

I have the >onour to be, your most 
obadieut and most faithful humble servant, 

Aluked CIu\rke. 

CliAl'lKR CC'XVllI. 


U« Fitness us nn Ar«rnnl The I'ruposals 
to ForUI'y ibc I'lnce. 

Lieut. -Governor Simcoe thought agreat deal 
of the old town of York, now ' oroiito. Had 
his original intention been carried out we 
should have hail iiuito a fortification on the 
Island at the west point. Simcoe, in writing 
to Lord Duudas, says : — 

28th April, 1792 

"Toronto appears to be the national 
arsenal of Lake Ontario, and to afford an 
easy access over laud to Lake Huron." 
The proposal to fortify the Island is given 
in detail. The block house referred to was 
erected at dlibraltar Point, a hundred feet 
north of Hanlan's. Stone was nor. usad, but 
in all other regards the description of the 
block house is accurate. For many yea b it 
was thought that the block house was near 
the light house, but thi-i letter elFectually 
disposes of this statement, for the blocK 
house " wholly commands the entrance to 
the harbor." The letter is written by Lieut, 
Pilkington, an otHcer of the Royal Engi- 
neers. It reads : — 

Niagara, 6th Sept., 1793. 

Sir, — Pursuing the idea of occupying 
Point liihraltar with a cavalitr or stone re- 
doubt, for commanding the entrance into 
the harbour of York, serving also in a more 
general view of a system for the defence of 
the place and for the immediate purpone of 
(iovernment, for depositing naval and mili- 
tery stores in the greatest securi'y, with the 
smallest garrison ; I beg to oifer a square 
block-house, fifty-eight feet in the clear, the 
lower part coi oisting of a powdsr magazine 
and store roonm and the upper part lo servo 








! ' 

I * 

;S ,!'' 

as barrac!;a. The lower storey under part 
of the upper, forming the breastwork of a 
battery iii barbet, to be of masonry, the re- 
maining part of the second storey of log 
work, grooved into uprights, removable in 
caae of any emergence. The whole of the 
lower part to be made bomb-proof, by tim- 
bers supported by pillars'and^the party walls, 
and for the greater security of the powder, 
the magafine, with the passages leading to 
it, to be arched with brick. 

As the proposed position of the work is 
not subject to any fire on the north side but 
from the harbour, it will be advisable to have 
the entrance on that side, and as the lower 
part of the building may serve for barracks 
in case of any attack, it may be expedient 
also to have the same side constiucted so as 
to admit of the requigite light and air on 
such an occupation. The best side wholly 
commands the entrance to the harbour, and 
the south a narrow beach leading; to the ex- 
treme point of the land forming the 
harbour ; on the east side there 
is an advantageous position against the 
proposed work, which though detached by 
unfordable waters it may be necessary to 
occupy or remove. 

The probable expcuss of the blockhouse 
IB for workmanship only, as a considerable 
share of attention will be requisite to the 
foundations. I estimate at seven hundred 
and eighty-five pounds sterling, considering 
the labouring part, to be perforniea chiefly by 
the military ; of the expense of the materials 
I cannot at present form any precise idea, 
but it may be concluded from the facility 
with which stone, lime and timber may be 
procured, they will be obtainable at a very 
reasonable rate. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your Excellency's most obediert 
and very humble servant, 

Robert Pilkington. 
To His Excellency Col. Simcoe. 


Simcoe was very anxious to hurry forward 
the settlement of York. The broken front 
referred to the lands facing the bay and lake 
shore. Simcoe writes : — 

i<nncoe to Dtmdas. 

York, Sept. 11, 1793. 

•' The great importance that it appears to 
the Ceuncil to promote the erection of 
Tnv 1 hns alfla b'.'oasioned them to deviate 
fror: ' .'? general plan to assist the settlement 
i" '• -I, vjto or York, It was thought ex- 
-.*.; tt '.o reserve the whole of the Broken 
tVr>ii, !• (Jarrison purposes as well as to 
prevent t.*'.e e Altering of the inhabitants in 
Buch sii^uatioBC as their fancy or interest 
might induce them, which would ever pre- 
vent that compactness in • town which it 

seems proper to establish ; two or three of 
the front concessions are therefore granted 
in this township, and the reserves will be 
made in the back lands, but reserves will bo 
made near this Harbour, of Timber, which 
must in time berome valuable, as it is pro> 
posed to furnish from hence all that may be 
wanted in the fortresses on the Lakes." 

(iovcrnor Simcoe thought that York had 
advantages over Kingston. He proposed to 
winter the fleet at York and erect buildin'^s 
for naval purposes. These buildingd stood 
on the bay shore, south of John street, and 
were afterwards the commissary buildiDgs 
They were of frame and clap-boarded. 
When ori^iinally erected they were ot logs 
Simcoe says in his letter to Lord Dundas :— 

lie Arsenal at York— Simcoe to Diinda.^. 

Sept 20, 179.1. 

"lalso enclose for your inspection an actua 
survey of the Harbour of York ( late 
Toronto) the proper naval and military 
ar.senal of Lake Ontario, and, in a great 
measure of Upper Canada. The port of 
Kingston, which is at the mouth of the 
River St. Lawrence, is, from its e.\teut 
and situation absolutely indefensible, 
and by being constantly frozen up 
during the winter is certaiuly 

liable at that season to be destroyed, as it is 
at no great distance from the United States. 

" I propose, therefore, that the winter 
station of the Fleet, and the refitting jiost, 
and such naval buildings as may be want 
ing, be at York. This post is at a great 
distance from the foreign shore, is cajjable 
if being easily defended, and the grants of 
laud having been made by the present Gov- 
ernment, suflicient care has been taken that 
great reservations of timber should be made 
for naval purposes. The floating ice (and a 
bridge which it makes from the islands uea- 
Kingston to the Continent) prevents the 
shipping in that harbour, as well as in that 
of Niaijara, from sailing for several days in 
the spring when it is practicable to be at sea 
from York." 

When the war with France occurred Sim- 
coe felt that the Rangers would be better at 
York — so he writes to Lord Du'^das : — 

" Upon the first news of the rupture with 
France, I determined to withdraw the 
Queen's Rangers from the unhealthy vicinity 
of Niagara, where they were encamped, and 
to occupy York. 1 submitted to the Com- 
mande. -in-Chief my intentions and desired 
his sanction to authorize me to construct a 
Block Honse to defend the entranoe of the 
harbour, detailing to him its properties and 
the security it would a^ord to the Civil 
Government of the Province, at the same 
time stating in the capacity of Civil Governor 
that was 1 not obedient to his authority I 



should certainly occupy and in some dei;;ree 
secure that- post, for the residence of the 
Civil officers of the Government, and that 
the only protection of the country should 
not depend on such a miserable fortress as 
Niagara, situated vrithiu the Line of the 
United States." 


In the same letter Gov. .'^imcoe writes con- 
cerning the Rangers and their houaini: and 
.^Iso gives us important information as to the 
meeting place of the first Legislature. 7be 
store houses referred to were part of the 
Navy Hall property. Another paragraph 
ia the letter refers to the harbor of York, 
and also to the fact that merchants were 
buying lots in the pioneer town. This was 
surely the first land boom. Gov. Simcoe 
writes : — 
Re Qneen'3 liaTigers' Barracks, sam' letter. 

Last year I hutted the Queen's Rangers 
as well as possible near to Niagara, and I 
fitted up the king's barracks and store 
houses to contain the offices of Government 
ftud to accommodate tbe Legislature of the 
Province, who must for some time have their 
annual assembly at that place. These tem- 
poraiy buildings I thought it a great public 
saving to refit, as it is most probab e they 
will be required hereafter for various Govern- 
menlal purposes, or sold advantageously for 
the public benelit. 

The occupation of the harbour of York I 
totally take upon my.self in the capacity of 
Civil Governor, and i sliould forthwith pro- 
ceed on the storehou.sea which I propose to 
erect, as is most necessary for the public 
.service, but at the same time I eing con- 
vinced that, as permanent storehouses may 
be so built as to contribute essentially 
to the strength of this important 
post and the whole colony, and 
the incorporating such a military purpose 
into the arrangement of what is necessary 
to preserve the public stores, bringing it 
under the cognizance of the I]oard of Ord- 
nance, I feel much embarrassed. 

Lieut. Pilkington^ the Engineer, has fur- 
nished his estimate of the aggregate of the 
expense which the purposed storehouses and 
block house will cost, and which I lieg to 
submit for your consideration. Having 
thus, sir, entered into the system which I 
consider as absolutely necessary for the de- 
fence and security of the Province intrusted 
to my charge. 

Mercltanta buying lots in York. 

I hope to complete the military street 
(through the province) in the ensuing autumn 
The merchants and traders have already turn- 
«d their eyes to this communication and ob- 
tained lots in York upon such a speculation; 
this will be greatly increased when it shall 

be fully understood that it is much mors 
easy of access than uniform reports and fre- 
quent enquiries had given room to imagine. 


The Sccords ia tta« ArektTes— ▲ Uescrip- 
tlon of r«H Rlagarft ta 17*0. 

The records in the Archive Department at 
Ottawa are of gr eat value to all who are in- 
terested in the earlier history of the coun- 
try, especially the western part of Canada. 

In the correspondence of 1790 there is a 
letter from Ralfe Clench, a member of a well- 
known Niagara family. His letter is dated 
Nassau, 28th August, 1790, and is written 
to John Johnson, Bart, Navy Hall. The 
letter gives Sir John information regarding 
the purchase of part of the Six Nations 
country by some Americans. Tho lands 
seem to have been near the Grand River. 
The pioneers of Canada prior to 1791 very 
frequently addressed and headed their cor- 
respondence with the name of the district 
in which they were located. 

In 1788, by proclamation of Lord Dor- 
chester, that part of Canada west of the 
Ottawa was formed into four districts, viz. 
Lunenburg, extending from the Ottawa to 
to the river Gananoque ; Mccklinburg, from 
the (Jananoque to the Trent ; Sassiu, 
from the Trent to Long Point on Lake 
Erie ; and Hessa, which included the 
remainder of Canada to the ;~t. Clair. 
In 1791 the Constitutional Act was 
introduced into the House of Lords for the 
further adjustment of Canadian matters. 
By this .> ct Canada was divided into two 
provinces by a line drawn from Point-au- 
Baudet, on Lake St. Francis, to Point 
Fortune on the Ottawa, thence along the 
course of that river to its head waters and 
the southern limit of the Hudson Bay Terri- 

" Following this a correspondence giving a 
description of -Fort Niagara, which in 1790 
was in Caniida, but by the treaty was hand- 
ed over to the United States. The account 
is contained in a letter written by Mathews 
to Nepean : — 

Mathf.ios to Nepran. 

" Fort Niagara is situated upon an angle 
formed by the lake and river ; the side next 
the land has two half bastions with a long 
curtain and ravelin, all of sod work ; there 
is a strong stockade in the ditch, which is 
dry, and on the Benn (?) a smaller line of 
pickets sloping outwards ; there arc two 
block houses of mason work in the gorges of 
the bastion, mounting each two pieces of 
cannon, en barbette, which commands the 

I !l 






wiiole country within thair range. The 
sides next the lake and river are stockaded, 
and on the opposite side of the river ar« two 
bastions, mounting 12 and 18 pounders, the 
uholo in a good state of defence." 



Miles PrcHtlce and tbe Jndge. 

One of the well-known names in the city 
of Quebec from 1759 60 until 1787 was Miles 
Prentice, the Provost Marshal of Quebec, 
Prentice was a popular fellow. He kept tbe 
Freemasons' Tavern and also the Sun Tavern 
in the ancient city, and it was his niece that 
came within an ace of marriage with Lord 
Nelson when he was commander of the 
Albemarle, lying at Quebec. An old reoord 
has turned up in the Archives Department 
at Ottawa, concerning Prentice and a man 
named Giroux. It appears that Prentice, as 
Provost Marshal, had lUroux and his wife 
under arrest and locked up in jail. The 
chief justice, it appears, thought that the 
pair should be liberated. Preatice thought 
ditfcrently. In order to bring matters to a 
focus, the chief had an interview with Pren- 
tice, in which the latter was very emphatic 
and would not yield He said : 

On Saturday mo jiiig, the 4th instant, .Vr. 
Livins met me ncui' the PostolBce and de- 
sired that I would turn back to my house ; 
he wanted to speak to me and called for a 
private room for that purpose. The iirst 
question Mr. Livins asked was, "Have you 
not a man and his wife in your prison ?" I 
answered I had, upon which he said, '" I 
should be glad to know the man's name and 
how his name is spelled ?" I answered I 
could not tell him exactly, but would look 
for the commitment. When I had found it 
Mr. Livins took down the mans name on 
a piece of paper, with pen and ink, and I 
believe the whole, or at.least a part, of the 
commitment, after doinc; which he told me, 
" I had no right or authority to imprison 
them on thefe commitment, as it appeared to 
him to be a very odd one and as a military 
Provost Martial he thought I had no right 
to receive any other prisoners than those 
belonging to the military." I then made 
answer that any prisoners sent to me from 
the General or Lieutenaut-Ciovernor I would 
take them in charge, or even front him, 
till such time as they were examined. 
H« then said, " I had no right to 
reoeivt any prisoners from him, except 
thro' compliment, as I was only Provost 
Martial to the Army." I answered that I 
knew I was not Provost Martial for the 

Province of Quebec in the civil way, but 
that I was Military Provost Martial for tha 
City of Quebec and its dependencies, upoa 
which the discourse ended for that time. 
On Sunday, the 5th, about 5 o'clock in the 
evening, Mr. Livins sent his servant, who 
informed me his master wanted to speak to 
me ; when I arrived at his lodgings, I was 
conducted into bis study, and as soon as 
he asked me if the man and his wife were 
released I told him they were not ; hu 
then said he would send me an order that 
they '* should be brought before him, and 
when examined, if ho found sufficient 
reason for so doing, he would commit them 
to the common jail and give them a trial, 
and if fouml guilty, have a public example 
made of them," to which I answered that. I 
would not deliver them without an order 
from the Lieutenant-Governor; he then saiU, 
*' If I would not deliver them upon hia 
order," as Chief Justice of this Province, 
" he would be under the necessity of com- 
mitting me to jail :" upon which I replied, 
that I was fifty years of age, and had never 
yet been confined an hour ; he then added, 
" I do not understand that people should 
be put into prison by any person and there 
kept in confinement during pleasure." 

(Signed) Miles I'rentice. 

Quebec, 6th October, 1777. 
Personally appeared before me. Miles Pren- 
tice, of the City of Quebec, and made 
oath on the Holy Evangelists to the 
truth of the foregoing declaration. 
(Signed) Thos. Scott, C. P, 

Endorsed — Miles Prentice's, Provost Mar- 
tial, Declaration under Oath, 6th Oct., 1777. 

Am Old Military Retarn. 

In the Archives Department at Ottawa 
there is an old return of the c arrison at Que 
bee and at Three Rivers in 1776. Tliere 
were but few regulars at Quebec, but no lesst 
than eleven regiments and four companies 
of artillery at Three Rivers. 

QOEBKO, MAY 1, 1776. 


Royal Fusi^ers 67 

Royal Emigrants 177 

Corps of Seamen 358 

Marines 30 

Artificers, &o 77 

British Militia 277 

Canadian Militia 508 

Company of Invalids 55 

Total 1,566 

9th, 20bh, 21st, 24tb, 2dth, Slst, 34th, 
47th, 53rd, 62nd, 1st Batt. Royal Emigrants 
4 companies Royal Artillery. 



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T1 '-t ■'. 

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m ' 


Volume I. 


O R 


THURSDAY, April i8, 1793. 




far llufi f frf f o* of Vice, Pnfnnrfi (£> Immnraiity, 


10JIN 'GRAVES aiMCOE, Efquirc, 

liiwlnuKl Ontmr tf CMmA iUmmMdin^ Hii Mtjrfy'i 

Ftrai, iilJf IVoviorf of Vjifir CunaJ.i, 

WHEREAS il iit::e Indifprnrblt 
duty of all Prople, md more 
' erpceiillyorillC'hrifii.n N<iion>. to 

trefcrvr >nd idvince the Hoiiat ind 
enicC'of Alni^lity Cod) >iid to 
difcoiuage ind luppred all Vir'e, 
WeCancn^ri ::)d lir.i::anlilyi *hlch 
Knot timety i)te»«l»ed may juflly drjwdown ihr Divine 
Vengeance upon Uund our Country! And Hh MajtPy 
Ibaving for tne -promotion of Virtue, and in leiid-ftitis 
to the beft Intertfla of Hi« Ciibjecu, givtn cd.iinund fot 
caufing all Uwimade ap.iiifi Blafplif myi j, 
Aduliny, FomlcJilon. rolysimy, ln:-'l, Praf.<ni:Ion 
•of theLorfiDay,S»eirin|;iiidDrunkfMClV, to be Itr.aiy 
put in Eiepitlon in e«eiy pirt of the P.-ovi«e, Idd 
Iherelore diteft, require and command the Rcarc Olicen 
■iidConnable>oriher<Yenl To«nt and Tdwninipi, lo 
make prefentmeat'uponOalh, of any of the Vieen before 
mentioned, to the Jiiftices ofthe Peace in their SdEon, 
or to any of the other temporal Courti: Aod for 
the more effefiualproceedlna herein, all Judges, Jufticei 
and Maginnlee ind all otner officert concerned for 
putting the Unagiinll Crimes and Offences into eile- 
rulion, are direAed ind commanded lo exert'lhcmr«IvesH 
for the due profecution and punilhment of all perfons, 
«ho (hall prefutne lo offend in any ol the kinds afore- 
(aid: and alfo of til perfons that, contrary to their 
duly, Hull be remifi or negligent in pulling thefald 
laws in exeqttlon. And I do further charge and com- 
mand, that ihis Proclamation be publickFy read in all 
'Count of Jul>ice, on the fiif) iiy of every Seflion to 
be held in the courfe of the prefent year, and more ef- 
pecitlly ill fuch ol His MajeDy't Courti, as have the 
Cog;niLance of Crimes and Olfcncet ; recommending the 
fame, toall Chriliian Minifiersof every denomination, 
to caufe the fame Proclamation to be read four times 
in the faid year, immedtatrly afcr Divine Service, in 
•ill placn of'^^Public Worlhip, and that they do their ut- 
roofi Endeavour, to incite their refpeftive Auditors to 
the prafiiceof Pi<tyandVh1ue,and the avoiding of eveiy 
courfe, contnry tu the pure Morality of the.Religion 
«l the Holy Golpel ol Jefus Chrill. 

CiviH under my Hand and Seal at Arms at the Go- 
vehimjui Houlc, N«vv Hall, '.he Eleventh 
«lay of April, in the Year of our Lord One 
nhoufand icven Hundred and Ninetv-thtee,'and 
in the Thirty-thtM Yen cf Hit Majefly't 



Drcmiir 13, i7ja. 

fy Hii Exettltn.-yi Ccmmmi, 

Wti. JARVlji, Secrvt.i.'y. 


My LcrJi itil GrnlUmn, 

HAVING judged it neceTaty to embody i pirt of 
the militia of this KiiiRdor,). I hive in purfuancc 
rf thepioviF6nsof lhel<*, called you together 
wilhitl the time liijilled fot Ihat potpofe, il is on every 
account, i £ieat fatiififtiort la me lo meet you in Par- 
liament at this Conjunrlare, I ihould have Men h.ippy 
If I could iiivc announ.ej lo you the Terureind un- 
diilutbcd contltiuaiKt of all tne bleffingi wliirh my 
fubje<<li have Derived fkom a ftaie of innquijily ; but 
eN'erils haVe recently occurred which require oilf united 
vigiliitce and eiertion in order lo prefetvt the idvinla- 
fe%. •hich we h-'ve hitherto enjoyea. 

The rediiiotis ifr juices which have been In i great 
meifure rheckei* by ymir firm- and explicit declarjlion 
in the lall felBon, and by thegenerl concurrence of my 
people in the fame fentimenti, haveoflaie been more 
openly renewed, and with inrreafed aOivity, A fpirit of 
tumult and diforder (the natural cotifequence of fuch 
praaices)haslheim lirdfinaAs of riot and infurreiiioii, 
which required the imerpofjlien of a military force in 
fupport oftheCivil Magiflrate. The induDry employed 
to excite difcunteni on various pretetts aiKl In different 
pris ofthe kingdom hit appeared to ptbceed from 4 
deflgn loattempl the deAiuAion of ourhap^conlliluti- 
on, and the fubverficrtpf all order and lovetTfment i and 
thltdefign hu evideiftty been purfued in eonncAion, 
and concert with perfons in foreign countries, 

I haveearerulyobferied a llriA neuiralily in Ihepre- 
fent war on the continent, and have uniformly abftain^l 
from any interference with relpeft to tt:e internal afiairi 
of Fran'-e; but it is impolTble fonme to fee, without 
the mon feriout uneafinefs, the Kn>ng and increafing 
indications which have appeared there ol an intention 
tt) excite difturtiancet in' other countries, to difregard 
the rights of neutral nations, and lopurfue views of con- 
.)uefl and agrundiaeinenti as well at' to adopt towrds my 
allies the States General (who have obferved the faui 
neutrality with myfelf ) meafures which are neither con- 
formable to the law of nations, nor to the pofitive 111. 
pjlatiantafexifting Itealies. Underall thefe circumflan- 
ce> I have felt it my. indifpcnfible duty to hive tecourf'- 
to Ihofe meant of prevention and internal defence wiiii 
which 1 am entruRed by law ; and I have ilfo thought 
it right to take fteptfor making fome augmentation ot° 
jny naval and military force, being perfuided that thef.: 
exertions are necelfiry in the prefent flate of affairs, and 
ire befl calculated both tomamtain internal tranquility, 
and to render a firm and temperate conduA efiettual fur 
pteferving the blefUngs of peace. 

Nothing will be neglefted on my part that can contri- 
butetothat important oLieA,conrilienllywj.llKbefeciirity 
of my kingdoms.nnd tvith the faitfull performance of en- 
pgrmcnts which we axe bound equally by ioiereft and 
hunnur to iuILl, 


Op. 743 









The CcnleaaUl cf tke FInl Newapaper In 
I'pper Canada— Th* Fint Order tor Paper 
and Type. 

The Upper Canada Gazette was tba firife 
newspaper publiahea in Upper Canada, It 
was issued at Niafjata. or Newark, on tha 
18th April. 1793. Louis Roy was tha 
printer. He was from Lower Cauada The 
paper was a folio in size, each page bein^; 
15 by 9 inches. It was three dollars per 
unuum. The following was the tirst order 
given for type, which was imported speci- 
ally from England in 1792 93. The record 
is from the Archives department at Ottawa. 
Hequmtion Type for Priming Office, U. C. 
1 fount of Brevier Roman, 250 lbs. 
1 fount of Brevier Italic, 100 lbs. 
1 fount of Long Primer Roman, 350 lbs. 
1 fount of Long Primer Italic, 250 lbs. 
1 fount of Pica Roman, 300 lbs. 
1 fount of Pica Italic, 200 lbs. 
1 fount of Great Primer Roman, 150 lbs. 
1 fount of Great Primer Italic, 100 lbs. 
1 fount of Double Pica Script, 2U0 lbs. 
1 fount of Small Pica Black, 100 lbs. 

Also the following alphabets of two-line 
letters : 
5 alphabets of 5- line Pica. 

of 21ine English. 

of 2-line Small Pica. 

of 2-liue Long Primer. 

of 2- line Brevier. 

of 2-line Pica. 

of 2- line Great Primer. 
N. 6. — The letter founder is requested in 
castingthese new founts to castfigures, braces, 
rules, fractions, references, small capitah, 
etc., and also signs of the zodiac, planets, 
aspects, etc., and u complete assortment of 
flowers, King's coat of arms, for folios and 
for quartos ; beside some ornamented forts 
and woods, quotations, etc. 
Stationery :— 40 resims of Crown paper. 

80 teams of demi. 

20 reams ot foolscap. 

20 reams of printing post. 
6 reams of 4th gilt post. 
3 reams wrapping post. 

1 ledger and day book. 

2 barrels iuk. 
of paper was sent for 1792, 
of good quality, but for the 

Gazette bundles of demy were ordered, and 
accordingly a requisition was sent to Ens;- 
land for a supply. The old manuscript reads : 

Requisition for stationery for the Govern- 
ment printing office of Upper Canada, for 
the year 1793. 

6 bundles of printing demy. 

8 reams of printing crown. 







A supply 
which was 

10 reams of priuting pott 
8 reams of folio foohcap, plain. 

8 reams of folio post, plain. 

9 reams of quarto post, plain. 
4 reams of quarto post, gilt. 

6 reams of quarto post, blackedge. 

Niagara, Nov. 4th, 1892. 

Signed, L()(Ji» Roy, Printer. 

Prior to 1800 the Gazette was removed 
from Niagara to York. Th« printers were 
within sight of a libel suit tor publishing a 
letter reflecting on a very worthy citizen of 
York, Mr. William Allan, tha founder of 
Moss Park, and the father of the Hon. G. 
W. Allan. The publishers of the Gazette had 
inserted a letter from "A Farmer" reflecting 
on Mr. Allan, and that gentleman promptly 
called the attention of the Governor to the 
fact. The printers evidently made matters 
rigli. for they were not dismissed, but con- 
tinued the publication of the paper. 

The complaints were made the subject of 
a special meeting of the Executive Council. 
The minutes read : — 

ConNciL Chamber at Yokk. 

25th March, 1800. 
Pkesent : 

The Hon. John Ehnsley, Chief Justice. 

The Hon. Peter Russell. 

The Hon. iSneus Shaw. 

Mr. Allan, a merchant in York, com- 
plained of an article inserted in the 
Gazette of the 22nd inst, and signed " A 
Farmer ' which states him to be a candidate 
for the County of York at the ensuing elec- 
tion. Mr. Allan stated that the assertion 
is entirely without foundation, and is 
apprehensive that if it reaches the persons 
with wliom he is connected in the Lower 
Province, and is uncontradicted, it may very 
materially affect his interests. 

The Board conceives that the printers are 
highly culpable in having inserted an article 
in their paper without authority. But on 
looking at the rest of the article, it thinks it 
absolutely necessary to direct the Chief 
Justice immediately to transmit the paper to 
his Excellency, with the request of the Board 
that the printers be immediately dismissed 
from their office, and that his Excellency 
will avail himself of his present situation to 
procure some other person to be King's 

Minutes 25th March, 1890. 

Read a petition from Messrs. Waters and 
Simons, King's Printers, acknowledging 
their error in having inserted in the Gazette 
of last Saturday, an essay, signed "A 
Farmer," and throwing themselves upon 
his Kxcellency's clemency for forgiveness. 

Rccommendr^d, that the Chief Justice be 
directed to transmit a copy of this petition 
to his Excellency. 




I ^4 ] 







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1 ife'' wS 




i|. ? 

\' -If 



An lateremiug Memo. UftpcctluK the Hmmt, 

l*Ul«)ll 17!'.'. 

lu 1792 a seal for tho I'lovinco of Upper 
Canada wau sent out by the Engliaii Ooveru* 
inenr to (jovernor Siuicoe. 

Warrant to Lieut. •Governor Simcoe/or uning 
Great Seal. 

CiEORdE R.— 

To our trusty and well boloredGuy, Lord 
Dorchester, Kuight of the Most Noble Order 
of the iiatli, uur Captnin-Gciieral and 
Governor-in( hijf of our Frovinct of Upper 
Canada in America, or to our Lieutenant- 
(iovernor in Canada or Commander-in-Chief 
of our said province tor the time being : 
Greeting — 

With this you will receive a seal prepared 
by our Order for the use of our iiaid Province 
of Upper (^anuda, tho same being engraven 
on the one &ide with a representation of Our 
Anchor and Sword upon a Ciiluniut of Peace 
•ncircled with a Crown of Olive, two 
Cornucopias, surmounted by an Imperial 
Crown and the Union of Great Hritain with 
this motto : — " Imperi Porreita Majestas 
Custode Rerum Cie3are,"aud thii inscription 
round the circumference, Sigill, Nos. Prov. 
Can. Sup and on the reverse our Arms in a 
Shield with the motto, and round the 
circumference our Titles. Our will 
and pleasure is, and wo do iere- 
by authorize and direct, that the 
said seal be used in sealing all 
public instruments, which shall be iiadti 
and passed in our name and for our service 
in and for our said Province of Upper 

Given at our Court of St. James, the 
twenty-eighth day of March, 1792, in tho 
thirty-second year of our reign, 

By His Majesty's Commander, 
Henry Dundas. 

Tbe Qnccn'fi Rnnscrs. 

In 1792 Governor Simcoe wrote to Lord 
Dundas announcing the arrival of the 
Queew's Rangers. He said : — 

Quebec, May 28, 1792. 

* I have|the pleasure to inform you that the 
transports John and I'etsy, with part of tho 
Queen's Rangers, arrived yesterday. " 

Afterwards the pioneer (Jovernor wrote 
as to hutting the Rangers at the new land- 
ing on the Niagara river. 'J his wus up at 
Queenston. He says : — 

Simcoe to Dundas, re Qu-en's Rangers. 

"1 shall be very happy, sir, when your com- 
munications with Lord Dorchester srhall 

enable you to decide upon the points which 
I have stated in my letter of the 17th of 
November last, and I hcpe for these specitic 
communicationi. My first object, ot course, 
has been done away by the very early arrival 
of the Queen's Rangers, without which cit . 
cumstance I could on no emersency havo 
acted in my military stations in the opinion 
of Major General Clarke." 

Simcoe to Dundas re York Queen'i Hangers 

" Upon mature deliberations I have founii 
it advisable to hut the Queen's Rangers at 
the now Landing upon the Niagara river, 
and early in the spring 1 hope to occupy u 
po.=it near to long point upon the Lake Eric, 
another at Toronto upon the Lake Ontario " 

lie York and Queen's llangirs— Simcoe to 

'* I should consider any other rei^iments 
than the Queen's Rangers and com- 
pany of Royal Artificers remaining in tlii.s 
province, though tnost certainly very useful 
from their necessary expenditure and assist- 
ance in forming towns (the great defic ency 
in both the Canadas), by no means necessary 
in a military sense. '1 he Queen's Rangers 
are hutted, by great exertions, at 
the Niagara Landing, now Queenston. 
Mr. Street, an inhabitant of the place, 
chose to dispute the Right of the Land ; I 
directed the Attorney General to defend the 
suit, and judgment was given in favour of 
the Crown." 

In 1793 Simcoe determined to remove part 
of the Queen's Hangers to York. The letter 
with this fact is written by Governor Sim- 
coe to Lord Dundas, at London, Eng. He 
says : — 

i?e Queen's Rangers — Simcoe to Dundas. 
NiAOAR.\, 17 June, 1793. 

I mean without delo.y to take part with 
the Queen's Rangers at Toronto (or York) 
and shall take an early opportunity of ex- 
pressing my sentiments to you, Sir, upon 
that subject. 

Heading of k;/':,- from Simroe to King. 

York (i.atk Toki nto), Utper Canada, 
AucusT 22nd, 1793. 

Simcoe to Duv/p-^s. 

August 23ri), 1793 

I havo determined to hut the Queen's 
Hangers and probably to remain with them 
this winter at this place. It pos.iesses many 
eminent advanta^'-.j, which I shall do myself 
the honour oi expatiating on at the lirst op- 

It will be noticed in the last letter that it 
is headed " York (late 'I oror.lo)." The 
term Toronto was not in use again ollicially 
until 1834, when the city was incorporated. 

I •' i 



at It 



B \ 

4- ': 



■1- ■! ■ ', 






DiintliiH .Street Forty I'enr.t As<i- A Itnniltle 
from <taeeii Street to the 4M«i I'euooi li 

It is very difficult for those who only 
know Diindas street as it is now, with its 
scteet cars, electric lamps, large stores, 
capacious churches and elegant residences, 
to realize that less than forty years ago the 
game neighbourhoo \ consisted of scattered 
priva'e houses standing in their own 
grounds, a few cottages surrounded by gar- 
ileus, a 1 rge market garden, a rope walk, 
four or five taverns at lonp; distances apart, 
with here and there a very small general 
store. trinity University, erected in 1851 
and lSo2, the fouiulalioii stone having been 
laid in May of the lornior year, 

Bank, stood the Queen's Head Tavern, kept 
for many years by Lewis Bate, and famous 
as a resort, from the more crowded city, on 
summjr evenings. This locality was known 
forty-five years ago aa " Blue Bell Villaije," 
after the tavern just referred to, but when 
the latter was removed the name given to 
the neighbourhood gradually died out. The 
Queen's Head, tiiough a very popular estab- 
lishment, was by no means a pretentious or 
imposing looking structure. It was only a 
small two-storey frame house, with a verandah 
on tk-' sides facing Queen and Duudas streets 
respectively. Theia was also in front on the 
latter side, a capacious horse trough and a 
very small driving slied. On the opposite 
corner to this hostelry was the house in 
the occupation of Mr. J. V. Taylor, for 
?nanv years clerk to the Legislative 
Council. I'assing the Queen s ficad on the 




"— - ^ 3' •- - , \i'.^~" 



was just completed and open for 
the reception of btudcnts, and 
the buildings were at that time to all intents 
ad purposes in the country. Leavini^ 
Trinity on the right and proceeding further 
west along Queen street was a large open 
ipace covering Beveral acres, unfenoed aad 
undrained, and over which people croaseil, 
as a short cut from Queen to Dundas street, 
reaching the latter at the point where Halton 
street now joins it. Passing this open space, 
crossing Shaw and Givens streets, which then 
existed — as not a few of our so called avenues 
and streets do to-day — in name only, came 
in 1851, (it was removed the following year) 
the old Blue Bell tavern, then one or two 
°mall houses, when Dundas street was readied, 
where, on its eastern corner, on the spot 
«[iicli is now occupied hy the Dominion 

same side of the street was a blacksinith'a 
shop, tM'o small dwelling houses, then a nar 
row lane leading from the main road into the 
open Holds, affordin ; thus a way into (^ueen 
street. Past tiiis l;.nd again were one or 
tw.'> insigniticani, buildings an' tuen on 
the same side of the ' ■■■■^ open 
fields for several hundred \ Xi ' ■■ The 
lane just mentioned, then, as now, was 
known us Rebecca street. The reason it 
obtained this name was that the laud it 
c'osses was purchased by a contractor who 
supplied wood to the garrison. He disputed 
the right of the road trustees to exact toll 
from his teams at the gate on Queen street, 
near its junction with i)unda8 street This 
ilispi'.tc caused a great deal of ill-feeling 
between the oontriciois men and the keep- 
ers of tlie gate, and coustaut quarreli 











etiFued, And sometimes blows were iitxt- 
changed. Eventually the plot of ground 
over which Rebecca street runs was pur- 
chased and a lan« cut throus^h which afford- 
ed access from Dundas to Queen street, 
avoiding the hated gate Owing to these quar- 
rels the lane got locally known as Rebecca 
street, after the Rebeccaites, who in South 
Wales in 1843 systematically destroyed toll- 
gates and bars. The reason they took the 
name of Reb^^ccaites was in allusion to the 
reference contained in Genesis, 24, 60. On 
the western side of Dundas street, as far as 
where Ossington avenue now begins, were 
■mall market gardens, two good-sized dwel 
ling houses, built by a man named 
Thornhili, which are still standing, and 
one of them occupied by Mr. J. A. Donald- 

Captain Alexander Shaw. It, thouj^h a lo^' 
house, was a very comfortable one and was 
built about 1794 by Captain, afterwards 
Major-General JEneas Shaw, grandfather of 
Alexander. This house was knowu as Oak 
Hill and there the Duke of Kent was enter- 
tained by General Shaw on the second vieit 
of the Duke to Canada in 1709 Generr ' 
Shaw was in his day a famous stJdier. 1- j 
•orved under General Simcoe, who 
was the first Governor o'^ Upper 
Canada, as a oaptain iu the 
Queen's Rangers, a colonial corps, after- 
wards incorporated into the resular army. 
In the winter of 1791-92 Capt Shaw ac- 
complished a remarkable feat, in marching 
with his detachment of Queen's Rangers all 
the way from NtiW Brunswick to Montreal 

son, lately Government Emigration Agent; 
there were also one or two frame cottages. On 
ahe opposite or en stern side of the street, 
after the fields were passed, was Colonel 
Givins' residence and farms — in all about 
one hundred acres. Colonel Givins was 
Indian Commissioner, and had served 
through the war of i81213-Ulo. He 
built his house about 1797-8, and resided in 
it until his death. After he died his daugh- 
ters continued to live there until their 
decease. The building was then 
(1890) pulled down and a ntsw 
one erected. To the east of Colonel 
Givius' property was thut occupied at the 
period of which wo are speaking (1852) by 

on snow shoes. Such a performance is un- 
paralleled in military annals. General 
Shaw died in 1815 from fatigue and exposure 
duriner the war. He was interred in the 
graveyard surrounding the first church of 
St. James in Toronto. He left a large 
family of five sons and an equal aumber of 
daughters. The whole of the former were 
ofFoers in the army. His eldest son, C/«p- 
ta:u Alexander Shaw, became the owner of 
O .k Hill, and resided there until his death 
o < January 12th, 1834. He, too, like his 
i ther, was a gallant soldier, and had served 
in many different parts of the globe. He 
served in 1805 during the expedition to 
Naples, was present iu 1806 at Calabria, 



GEORSf: C00Pf,R5 H0U«5£ 

a^taiiTnt the battle of Maidft, and in Egypt 
in 1807. He was again on active service in 
HoHiwud in 1809, and was also at Waterloo. 
Ht; A na interred side by side with his parents 
in old S'l. James'. His 8.)n, Captain George 
Shaw, .lit 11 came to Oak Hill, but shortly 
iiflerMirds removed to Kingston, and the 
old homei>tea<l was rented to a brother. Cap- 
tain Ale-Kuuder Shaw. Captain George 
Shaw's only son, George Alexander, for 
some time commanded tlie 10th Royals, 
Canadian militia. Oak Hill, with all 

of the street stood, in 1852, a pretty rough* 
cast cottage with verandah. Facing Dundas 
street, in front, was a lawn, and in front of 
that again down to the street was a small 
orchard and kitchen garden. This was then 
occupied by Lieutenant Colonel Richard 
Lippincott Dunison, who died on March 
10th, 1878. Where Ossington avenue now 
runs was a lane leading through the woods 
and fields to the house " Dover- 
court," then in course of erection 
for, and from 1853 occupied by.Colonel R. L. 

- -^^Ro cRTo Ni • To LL -Bap* 

its interesting associations, wag pulled 
down several years apo. Captain Alex- 
ander Shaw, grandson of the famous 
loldior, Biived for soveral years in the 
incorpor !• militia after the rebellion of 
1S37, IT., diet! in .Tapan in 1886 while on 
a visit to u\ ■ i ; arM ''aughter, who then re- 
aided there. t tho f pot where Ossington 
avenuo now begins, oi the north-west corner 

Denison, until he died in 1878. On the left of 
the path, near Dovercourt, stood a fair-sized 
frame cottage built by Colonel Denison's 
father i!.nd used in 1846 as a distillery, R. L. 
Denison carrying on the business. The trade 
was discontinued about 1848 and the house 
was let to various tenants until 1854, when 
it was rented with the large field, of six 
acr.'S in front of Dovcrcourt by an Knglish- 




I ( 





man named Tiurgcaa, who was the first man 
to carry on the business of a market garden- 
er on an extensive scale in Toronto. 


ceeding alonnj Dundas stre- 1, on its north- 
western aide, wa.i ihe field belonging to R. 
L. DeniscQ, afterwards let co Burgees, the 

When R. L. Deuison left the cottage hofore 
mentioned to take up his residence at Dover- 
court bis former abode was occupied bj 

English market >jardener, 'then Payne's 
h'.acksmith shop, still remaining, with 
closely adjoining it the City rope walk, then 


Dr. Thomas Ravage, a medical man of con- 
sideriitile attainments. He lived there until 
!s.'>7. wlu'u lie removed to Clairville. Fro- 

the carriage 
known now 


as the 

to Dovercourt, 
road of the 

same name, and extending to Davenport, 



I k r»o«nt lot or two, then two cottages bnilt 
III) 1844 by G. T. Deniaon, jr. , and pulled 
jiown aboai tMrty years later to build upon 
libtir site the house occupied by Professor 
Irtoldwin Smith. Paat these cottages oa the 
liame side of the road, aud we came to the 
Ijaudsome rongheast house, which ia yet 
|iber« though somewhat enlarged and now 
Lntiiely surrounded by laree trees, built in 
|l^ hy the late Colonel Greorge 
jltylor Deniaon, father of our present 
1 1993) Police Magistrate. He resided there 
luBiil his death on May 30th, 1873, and his 
I widow still occupies the house. Colonel 
|D«Bisoo married a daughter of Major Dew- 
I son, of the 35th Regim«at, who settled near 
ioroato, and was an exceedingly popular 
IntQ. After passing "Rasholme," as G. T. 
lUfDiflons residence was ealled, was bush 
land, divested certainly of most of the heavy 
jmber, bat still covered with a dense under- 
crowth of oak, pine and trees of other varie- 
I ;iM. Then came the concession known now 
u Dufferin street, running north aud south 
irom the lake to Davenport road, forming 
tt that time the western boundary of the 
city. \^ e mua*. now return to the south 
iide of Dandaa street, at the corner opposite 
ihe site of Ossington avenue. There were 
I to houses here until about two hundred 
virds west of Devercourt road ; then was 
teached Marshall's wheelwright shop, and » 
Mnall dwelling house adjoining it. Dovercourt 
•oad then only known by that name from 
Dundas street to the Lake Shore road, and 
I in 1852 containing only three houses. Ono 
I ci tliese was occupied by Mr. Angus D. Mao* 
ionell. and the third and lar;;est was 
goill about 1850 and resiaed in by Judge 
Samuel l^aley Harrieou until hi& death. It 
Kisknowu as Foxley Grove, and it is from 
it (hat the present Foxley street derives its 
imt. After MaashaVi's houses was passed 
;Dei'e were no at all until Dutlerin 
I itreet was reached. Then there was a large 
iriruij; shed belonging to CoUard's tavern. 
Then came a second licensed house kept by 
Joseph Church (the building still remains), 
iouwn as the Brown Bear, and then fol- 
owed a noted hostelry, the Queen Street 
Hotel, of which the proprietor was 
I'M Robert James, known far and 
wide as " Boh " James. He was 
iimous for his horses and for his love of 
sport of all kinds, and few meu of his class 
were more respected by both his customers 
I lod the general public. At this period 
\iSi) the whole ot the north-eastern side of 
Dundas street, from Ossington to Brock 
trenue, was known as Denison Terrace, the 
lame given to it many years previoush- by 
the first owner if tiie land, G. T. Denison, 
li Bellevuo, Toro.'^o, father of Richard L. 




>* v\ 


;■ ! 






' 'v *• 




* j' 

II' 1 

II!' I 


'IF '■■ 

1 ,1 


Deniacn, ot Dorercourt, and G. T. Deniaon, 
of Ruaholme. This gentleman was h re- 
markable man in many respects. He came 
with his father, John Denison, of 
Hedon, Yorkshire, to Canada in 1792, 
and four years later to Toronto. Ha 
served as an officer in the York Tolunteers, 
in the war of 1812 and was a prisoner of war 
for many months. It was he who in 1S12, 
aided by sixty men of the Canadian militia, 
cut Dundaa street through from the Garrison 
common to L mbton Mills, thus enablini; 
oommunieaMon to be maintained throughout 
the war between those two places. He was 
instmmental in 1822 in raising a troop of 
dra.oons, known as the York cavalry, now 
as the Uoveruor General's Body Guard, 

not in Upper Canada. He re-organized the 
troops of cavalry militia for Toronto anu 
Yorkville, he organized in 1855 the Toronto 
.Field Battery of Artillery, and alao in I860 
the Queen's Own Rifles, and would, but tor 
his prematura death, have been made a 
Companion of the Order «f St Michael and 
St. George. 

The locality where Collard's, Church's 
and James' taverns stood was populi^rly 
known as Appii Forum or the Three 
Taverns, and there on fine days, )<oth in 
summer and winter, were wont to assemble 
racing men, eager to arrange contests to test 
the capabilities of their various trotting 
horses. Past the Three Taverns were no 
houses OB either side of Duudas aireec for 

S)Ro-cKToi^"-B§T * Of Fi et: . 

— -"'' 

C* N fiMCTQ. £jv^ gir 

and for six months in 1838, 

during the Rebnllion was on active 
service. Besides taking such an 

interest in military matters, he was a noted 
agriculturist, and for many years an alder- 
man for St. Patrick's Ward. His sons, 
Richard Liippincott and George Taylor 
Denison both took an active part in public 
affairs. The first served in the cavalry com- 
manded by his father during 1837-38,and was 
connected with the militia until his death ; 
besides this he was for many years treasurer 
to the Board of Agriculture for Upper 
Canada, and an alderman of the city at the 
time of his decease. The aecond son, George 
Taylor Denison, was practically the father 
of the volunteer movement in Toronto, if 

about one bundled yards, until the toll gate 
was reached, which was kept for many 
years by James Kerr. The gate haii«e 
was on the north east side of Dundas 
street and rails extended across the road on 
the oppo°ice side to the fence, so when th« 
gate was closed it w«s impossible for con- 
veyances to get through at all vntil it wm 
opened, and pedestrians were compelled 
either to wait its opening or ciimn over. 
Close to che gate, on the south-western side 
of the street, was a small general store, kept 
by a Mrs Larkin, who was also p«K- 
mistress. There was no letterbox at this 
time (1853), and every one called for their 
correspondence. Such a thing as delirering 
a letter oever crossed the mind of any 



one. There waa but one colleckioa t, d%j 
anil sonriaiimes in Tery bad weather not that. 
This post-ofBce waa tirat knowa as Deni&on 
Terrace office, iheu aa Lippincott and 
^oally aa Brockton. There were two or 
three other houses cloae to the poat-office, 
ud then the road now known aa Brock 
avenue was reached, and there the hoaaea 
finally atoppod on that aide of the road. 
Coming weet through the toll-gat« on the 
northern Hide of Duftdaa atreet were no 
houses until Brock avenue waa paaaed, then 
ttaiiding back a little way from the road 
were four log ahantiea built for the 
use of the lumbermen and 

kDown aa Stoney Batter Village. Tbia 
oame was giren to them by Colonel O'Hara, 
who lived in a large red briok hoaae on the 
Lake Shore road, about half-a-mile aouth- 
veat of that part of Dundaa atreec. The 
uaine pleased the fancy of the residents in 
;hrse cottages, and so long as they remained 
ilauding they bore no other. They finally 
disappeared about thirty yeara a<;o. From 
ibis point, croasiiii; by what was known aa 
iho White Bridge, the line of the then 
N'unhern Railway, Diuulas street ran 
'.hrough the bush, without house or 
residence of any kind on either 
side of the road until it reached 
wh<it waa then a concession, but which is 
DOW Bloor street. Hera apanning Dundaa 
otreet on the northern side of the concession 
was a frame buikUm^ known always as the 
" Blind" toll-gate How it got that name no 
one ever knew, and yet it waa never spoken 
of ia any other way. The reason of its erec 
liuu was because many of the people who 
wore riding and driving to Toronto avoided 
the toll-gat« at Brockton by going down 
Bloor St. until they reached DufFerin st. , then 
proceeding along that until Dundas at. was 
reached, thus leaviug the gate behind them. 
The "Blind" toll-gate was demolished about 
twenty years since. On the right hand aide 
of Dundaa atreet, still going to the north- 
west, about a quarter of a mile from the 
road, stood the farm bonae with ita extensive 
barns, stabling and pigeon house* occupied 
by Mr (jeorge Cooper, and there wore no 
other houaes on thai aide until the black - 
smit.h'a ahop opposite the Peacock tavern waa 
reached. On the left hand still proceeding 
fromBloo.' atreet waa a small wooden build- 
ing used by the Wesleyan body as a place of 
worship, then a row of small frame 
oottagea, bush land and fields intervened 
until Harrison's cottage waa reaohed — it is 
still there — then the next building on the 
aame side was the old Peacock tavern, and 
having arrived there we b-ing our descrip- 
tion of Duudaa atreet, for^y years ago, to a 

Carl Ins- 

One of the well-kuowu makcra cf oarling 
stoiins ia the " ibinies" waa Mr. Peter M» 
Arthnr, who lesivled on New, afttrwards 
Nulaon, BOW JarvU atreei, in tue frame 
baikliiig direoily opposite Hospital (uow 
Richmond) atreet, on the uorth-wca ^coner 
of those two atree a. His oommaneiae boai- 
nosM is thas announced in the BritiaA Cohaitf 
iu 18 9:— 

" To Carlera— ' Geluqn* Flnr.tina Oonit:. 
teriatAcuto' — Horace. — (SmrUng atones may 
be had on apfiKcatien to the aobecriber, 
who has taken paina to collect a number 
of blocka of tlie moat excellent grain. Sev- 
eral m'imbers of the Toronto Curlinfr Club 
have already been supplied, and speoimena 
may be seen on the Bay on Playing Dajn^ or 
on application to Mr. Macdouald, at iha 
City Wharf, or to the subscriber athia resi- 
dence. No. 16 New Street The prioo of 
the stonea is eight dollars per pair and np- 
wards, according to the handles and finish. 
Petkr MoArthtjk. 

" Toronto, January 17th, 18.39." 

Th ' Hora iai (juotitiou i!< from tne Oies 
1, 9, 3, and ben g ir mslated irio.iii3 " A: d 
t'lO r V. r.s are fast i>et with nippiiu; fro&t. " 

Wort N iCkliia. 

In the Archives Department at Ottawa, 
in a letter from Mathews to Nepean, we 
have a description ot ; he old fort on Lake 
Huron. The MS. reads :— 

The next and last post iu this commonioa- 
tion is Michiiimackinac, at the further end 
of Lake Huron, situated upon an island 
about nine miles from the main. The wor'^a 
here never were finished, and ita insular 
situation is its chief defence. This is the 
chiet resurt ot the fur trawlers fitting 
out for the Northwest trade, and the centre 
of a very ' onsiderable one in that vast coun- 
try to the Mississippi— for this post, no 
good one, I am inclined to think, can be aub- 
stitnted nearer than the Falls of St. Mary, 
very nany ka^uea from thence, that might 
answc. for the Northwest trade, as the furs 
are brou<;ht from thence down the Grand or 
Ottawa river directly to Montreal, leaving 
the lakes to the westward. But the lose of 
Mackiuawill matirely sever from us the 
weatem trade above mentioned, which is 
carried on by the lakea, the greatest part of 
which, there can be little dou^, will pass 
by the Oswe$^ rirer into the United Statea, 
and the Northwest trade, or a part of it, 
must ultimately be drawn that way ako 
from the same eaaae. 

I l 


%l I 




Where Hornos Knn In |»ay* of Vope — 
I'atroiu cr (he Boyal Sport. 

Id any things have changed in und about 
Torouto during tlie last sixty years, fevr 
perbi\ps more so than the race coarses. The 
c«iitra.>-t between tke " Woodbtne" course of 
to-day and the tirst T' ronto track ia almost 
as ^'n at as the di/rereiice botwetn the elec- 
tric car, whicti leaves the tornier place say 
»c 8:30 a.m. and arrives at b^t. Jaiiics 
Cburch half au hour later, and the nld 
Scarboro' stage of twenty years ago, which 
generally took nearly au hour to accom- 
plish the same diittance and at certain rea- 
sons of the year often broke down on its 

Of th<> earlier course and of those which 
miccsedcd it, and of the men who were 
connected with them trom time to tiine 
it .s proposed to give a brief account. 
The first course in Toronto was, strange 
to say.ou the Island at that part of it known 
as "The IJcnd." It is thus pleasantly de- 
scrib d in a letter from one of our 
city's oldest inhabitants. "After cross- 
ing the second bridge, tiie opc on the ' Big 
Doi3," as it was called, there was a plateau of 
smooth springy turf for half or three-quar- 
ters of a mile, extending southerly to the 
iiorihernmoat of t e two ridjjcs of sand 
forming the beautiful valley leading thence 
to the lighthouse at (-ibraltar I'oint. The 
favorite resort for equestrians (and there 
wore many of them, both ladies and gentle- 
men, in those good oKi days) was the island, 
BO long as the 1 ridges lasted. The valley 
was mostly covered with L»ras3, but it was 
rathor heavy riding ; tlie moment however 
the plateau was re iclied at either end 
there was a raco to the other end, 
and many a pretty race of the kind tlicre 
was. There was no 'regular' race course 
in the neighborhood of York at that time. 
Grrooms would try their master's horses at 
the bend but I never knew of a 'proessional' 
race on the Island. '! he only public race I 
recollect in York in the early time was on 
Front street from 'Small's Corner' to the 
Market Place It was announced by placards 
potted throagliout the town, the town 
fiOQstable k^ the coarse, and all York 
turned o«t to witness it. " 

Our correspondent adds in a post- 
■eript : — "It may, perhaps, seem 
■omewbat absurd to call it a 
*be&atifnl vallcylHitthe aand hills forming it 
were covered with large trees from six inches 
to two feet or more in diameter, (there was 
Marcelf any undergrowth) and of 

all hei.hts from six feet to ihirtv 
and as the ridges rose and fell glimpacrs o: 
the sparkling waters of tiie lake and bay 
met the eye od eitlier side." 

When Sir John Colborne was Lieutenant 
Governor, be, in company with Lieutenant 
Colonel Rowan, his military secre-ary, a 
famous horseman and rider to hoHuds, was 
in the habit during the summer time of rid- 
ing there almost daily. it was also occa- 
sionally the scene of " scratch " trottiiv 
matches between horses owned by people in 
or near the city. After the rebellion of 
18;*7-8 this Island course w s less and les.^ 
used for pleasure, and not at all for raeiu;- 
purposes, even in the very mild form jubt 

Of Sir John Colborne, the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, and of his services in the Penin-ular 
war, we have all heiu-d ; how at ("uida/i 
Rodrigo he was severely wounded, it was at 
first thougitt mortally, yet he lived and was 
present afterwards at Waterloo. Colinel 
Rowan was an equally gallant soldier and 
had served with distinction in many differ- 
ent parts of the globe— in Sicily in ISOli 7, 
Sweden in 1808 and in the Peninsula Mar 
under Sir John Moore Yet later in 18i 9 
he was on tiie \Valehcren expedition, and 
i later still, in 1811, he was present ot the 
action fought in Sabugal in I'ortugal. Dur- 
ing tiie I'eninsnlar war he was at the battles 
of Vittoria, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes and 
Toulouse, and finally ac Waterloo. Some 
of his relatives of the same n.-^me reside in 
Toront.! now, engaged in the practi ■ oi 
their professions as doctors, lawyers and as; 
business men. 

In 18I)ij, or the year following,a course was 
laid out on the Garrison CoM:mon, between 
the Old and New Forts. Races were held 
here for three or four years auccessivelx 
under the patronage of ths ofiici.,rs statioiieu 
both here and at Niagara. There was a 
famous horse known as Antelope, a three- 
year-old, who carried all befo' e him on one 
occasion on this course. He was ridden 
by '• ilob " James, tie jockey, after- 
wards the proprietor of the tjueen street 
tavern on Dundas street, a man, who de- 
spite his profession as a horse dealer and 
general " sport," was respected by every 
one who knew him for his straightforward 
ways. Quite recently he has been de- 
scribed by a veteran in the sporting world, 
" as one of the whitest men you ever saw.' 
This course did not long remain open Next 
tollowini; it came Scarlett's, or t^ e Sitncoc 
chase 'course on Dundas street, near the 
Hnraber. It was situated on the 
plains lying north of "Dundis 

streat, l)etween the Weston road, 
on the east, and the woodd on the 

CITY or T 


! ! 



western bank of the River Huml er. Th« 
it&udB and necessary oSlce.s were near Dun- 
du street, rather nearer tlie western than 
tbo eastern boundry of the course. Mr. 
Scarlett resided at UunnyTiiede, on Dundas 
icreet, about a mile nearer Toronto, and 
though he never owned a race horse, and 
probably never made a bet, was up to his 
eightieth year one of the hardest r'^crs in 
the country, and an enthusiastic lover of 
horses. This course was conpleted in 
1837, and the first races were leld 
on the 6th, 7th and 8th of the following 
September. The amount of prizes was 
rery small, and the meeting itself only a 
»ery qualilied success. The British Colonist 
of April 12th, 1838, contains the following 
advertisement : — 

"City of Toronto and York County Spring 
Rsce meetings, over Mr. Scarlett's course, 
23rd and 24th May, 1838. Stewards. John 
Powell, Mayor of the City ; Col. Kingsmill, 
Col. Carthew, Col. Dawson, Major Denison, 
Major McGrath, Will. Goring, John Mait- 
lan.l, Sec'y." 

Among the gentlemen who are named here 
ii9tewards,are several who were well-known 
in Toronto more than fifty years since. Mr. 
Powell, the Mayor, was a descendant of 
Chisf Justice Powell. Colonel Kingsmill was 
:i popular militia '-'V.cer. Colonels Carthew 
and Dawson stationed here with their 
regiments. Major Deuison was George 
Taylor Denison, of Bellevue, as clever a 
rider in his younger days as ever mounted a 
liorse and to the last day of his life a splen- 
did whip. Tne other gentlemen whose 
n»mes .'re given were lovers of horses and 
lieen sportsmen. 

In the following year, 1839, the Colonist, 
OQ Jlay 1st, announces that the " City of 
Toronto and York County Race Meeting will 
be held on Scarlett's Race Course on June 
19th and 20th." The following was the pro- 
gramme : — 



ON Wodnesdar. the 19th, and Thursday, the 
mh days of June, 1839: To start each day 
at one o'clock precisely. 



M'r. Qen. 


The Hon. Sir Allan Naoier Macnab. 

Colonel Cox. P. S. 
Col. iBuUock. A.G.M. 
Captain Markham, 32d 
The Sheriff H. District 
Lieac Meade,43rd L.I. 
Charles C. Small. Esq. 
John Barwick, Esq. 

Col. Sparke, 93rd Hg'rs, 
Major Ma<3;rath. 
Captain Arthur. A.D.C 
The Mayor of the City. 
Lieut. M. Pipon.K.D.G. 
Peter Bucbanan, Kaq. 
C. Wallace Heatb Esq. 

George Monro, Esquire. 



Free for all Horses— 'i year olds, a feather ; 3 
year olds to carry G st. 9 lbs.; four, 7 St. 9 lbs ; 
Ave, 8 St. 4 lbs.; six, 8 st. 10 lbs.; and aged, 9 st. 
— lleata, two miles and a distance. Entranoo 


For Uorse» that never won Plate, Match or 
Sweepstakes, of the value of £60. at any one 
time before the day of entry- 3 year olds to 
carry 10 St. 7 lbs.: four. 11 St. 4 lbs.; live. U st. 
10 lbs.; six and aged. 12 St.— Heats, once round 
and distance— Gentlemen Riders. Meinber.s ef a 
Racing or Fox-hunting Club. Entrance, £1, 


For Horses that nuver started for Plate, Match 
or Sweepstakes, before the day of entry.— 
Heats, once round. Post entry. 



Free for all Horses— 2 yrar olds, a feather ; 3 
year olds to carry 7 st, S lbs.; four, 8 st. 4 lbs.; 
live, 8 St. 13 lbs.; six, 9 st. 4 lbs.: and au;od, 9 st. 
7 lbs.— Heats, once round and a distance. Win- 
ner of either o( the lirst day's Races to carry 10 
lbs. extra. Entrance, £4. 


For horses bred in the Province, that never 
won Plate, Match or Sweepstakes, before the 
day of entry— Heats, once round and a distance. 
Weights and Riders, as per Innkeepers' Plate. 
Entrance £3. 


Of £5 each. p. p.— Free for all Horsea— Heats, 
once round and a distance. Weights and Riders 
as for Innkeeper.s' Plato, To enter for this race, 
on the evening of the first day's races. 


For ponies of 13^ hands higb, and under— Heats, 
once round. Post entry. 

Mares and Geldings allowed 3 lbs. Entrances 
for the Plates co be rhade and paid at the Ontario 
House, between tha hours of 2 and 1 o'clocn, 
afternoon, on Monday before the Races ; and 
the second Hors«!3 in each of the Races for these 
Plates to have their entrances. H'inners to pay 
per cent towards expenses. Riders must turn 
out in full Jockey style. 

Toronto, May 23. 

The races came off at the time appointed 
and were fairly well attended. 

(jrievous scandals arose over the race 
meeting accounts for the years 1837, '38, 
'39 ; charges of culpable carelessness, if not 
©f actual dishonorable conduct were freely 
made by certain of the stewards against 
i other oflicials. These charges w ere at last 
j submitted to a committee, who duly sat and 
afterwards reported, though only by a 
j majority, not unanimously, that the official 
; accused, who was an offitier of the incor- 
porated militia, " had duly accounted for 
all moneys received and expended by him." 
The spring mcelingof 1840 on Scarlett'i 
Cdurse was the most memorable ever held 
there. The following is a list if the gentle- 
men under whose auspices the proceedings 
took place : 

I ! 


> » 











President— Co). Airejr, 3ith Reeiment; 
stewards — the Mayor, Major Magratti, Sir 
Allan MacNab, Capt. Markhatn, .3'2nd ; Col. 
Spark. 93rd ; Capt. Campbell, A. D.C., Tth 
Hutiars; Col. ' Bullock, D.A.G. ; Capt. 
Arthur, A.D.C. ; Capt. Schoaiwar, K.D.U,; 
Hon. J. H. Dunn, C. C. Sm»ll, Esq.. Wm. 
Cayley, Esq., with Mr. W. U, Boulton as 
treaiiurer and John Maitland as secretary. 
The entries were fairly numerous for such a 
very young undertakinc;, and considering 
the additional fact that at that date there 
were so few wealthy people in the prorince 
who could indulge in the luxury of hone- 
breeding for racing purposes. The City 
Plata of £110 sierl-ug, equal to £150 cur- 
rency, waa the I ..e ribbon of the meeting. 
This was the tira . time snch a Urge stake 
had been oQ'cred in the Upper Province. 

in the list of stewards ^iven above are 
the names of many men who bad already 
done thei'.' country good service and who in 
after years added to their laurels. Colonel 
Airey, of the 34th, was a c;allant soldier and 
afterwards greatly diatinguished himself. 
Captain Markham, of the 32 d regiment, 
baa served ^;i Canada during the trcubloa of 
1837,.and was severely wounded in the action 
of St Denis, in Lower Canada. Afterwards 
he accompanied his regiment to India, where 
in the Punjaub campaign of 1848-9 he oom- 
nnanded the 2nd Infantry Brigade, being 
wou ded in the attack upon MooUan, in 
September, 1848. In the following year 
he was present with his brigade at the 
famous battle of Goojerat. For his eminent 
•ervices he was nominated C, ]i. and created 
a General officer a few years later. 

Colonel Spark, of the 03rd, had served 
with his reeiment throughout the war of 
1812 and was severely wounded in the at- 
tack on New Orleans, January 8th, 1815. 
He retired from the service in the early 
"Fifties." The Mayor, Mr. Powell, filled 
that office for the third year in succession, 
but being an ardent sportsman thought 
quite as much of attaining racing distinction 
as civic honors. He was as well pleased to 
be a steward for the third year, as to be 
thr e times Mayor. Major Maprath we 
have previously mentioned. Sir Allan Maa* 
Nab was the hero of the steamer Carolina 
exploit at Niagara during the rebellion. H« 
was so well known that no further mention 
of him is requisite. Mr. Ounn was the l!e- 
cblrer-General. He was a prominent public 
man and was father of Alexander Roberts 
Dunn, v. C., afterwards 11th Hussars and 
still later Lieutenant Colonel of the 100th 
Regiment. Captain Arthnr was A. 
1>. C. to Sir George Arthur, 
the Lieutenant • Governor. He "was 
that and nothins; mor«." Colonel Bullock 

waa the ever-popular Adjutant General of 
Militia, while Captain Sjchoaswar was a 
smart cavalry soldier and thorough sports- 
man. Of Messrs. C C. Small, William 
Cayley and W. H. Honlton we need not 
speak ; their names in Toronto are as 
familiar as household words, and their 
memories are yet green. Here ia the pro- 
rramme for the two days, as far as it has 
been possible to procure it : 


Open to all comers. 


For Horses that had never previously won a 
prize ot £50. 



Open to Horsis of any HKe. 


Open to Horses that had beuii at leu^t two 
months In Canada previous to tbe race. 

Th ' races came otf with great eclat in live- 
ly weather, with the following results : — For 
(he City Plate there were nine cntrici and 
the race was wou by Captain Marktmu'. i 
horse Prince Albert, a two year old. 

There were the same number of eutrici 
for the Garrison Plate as for the preuodiu^ 
race. It was wou by Shepherdess, a mar* 
belonging to Mr. Abbott, of the Garr<son, 
but an objection was raised and the dccibioii 
deferred pending investi.,ations. 

For the St. Leger and (iovernor-Generai's 
Stakes there were five entrie.) for each, and 
they were carried o£r by Mr. Stinsou's Lady 
Jane and Mr. Richard's Little York. 

On the evoniug of the second day tha 
stewards and many of those who had attend- 
ed the meeting dined together at the Ontario 
House. Colonel Airey was in the chair, and 
Mr. VV. H. Boulton in the vice chair. 

In the following November a celebrated 
steeplechase took place. Here is the au- 
uouncement made a few days previously to 
the event taking place : 

Steepl* Chase. 

BY Horses bona flde the property of Officers 
belonginn to the Garrison of Toronto, and to 
be ridden by Officers of the Garrison, over a 
Course of One Mile and a Halt, to be ticlected 
by the Stewards, and not to be shown until the 
morning of the Race. 
To come off 

On Friday, IStli November, 1840, 

Entrance, Five Dollars— P. P Catch WeighU 
—No leap to bo ridden over before the Kaco. 

The second Horse to save bis Stake. 

All derails relative to the Race and Ground 
to be decided by the Stewards, who may post- 
pone the day If the weather prove unfavorable. 

All expences of the Course, Bills, and adver- 
tisements, to be paid by the Winner. 

Lieut. Colonel WINOFIELD, 38d Regt. 

Asst. Qr. Mr. Oen'l. 
Lieutenant DkWINTON, Royal Artillery. 

H i is 

IJ', I J I. 

IK n ■■■t 



■ccretarjr nnd Treatarer, 

LUnUnant TAI.HOT, ^ItU ReKtinont. 

C. B. Roche, Eiq.. 34tb UnKt.. Br. Mar* Pollj/— 

6 yaars old— Mr. Nornmn, 34th, 
Otpcaln ByroD. 3Uh, Ch. Ul. Ilncket-AKed- 

Captain Arthur, A. D. C, Bay G. Reindeer— 
— ftgft' -Owner. 
Colonvi Mnckenzie Fraser, Bay O. The Oeneral 

—aged -Dr. Ilynn. 
Lieiitenanl Colvllle. 85th Lt, Iiif'y, A. D. C, 

Cli. O. Iavr by }f'its—6 years-Owner. 
Lieut. Ltng, 31Ui, Ch. U. Niagara— o years 

Lieut. TalI)ot, 34th, Bay M«ro Maiden—O years 

Lieut. Uutton. 34th, Bay G. The Cobbler-d 

years— Owner. 
Lieut. Tallujt, 3Jth. Ul. G. nobtail-a.goa - 

Liru'. Col. Winclicld, 32nd, Grey cJ. Whitby— a 

years- -OwniT. 
Capiaiii !M,'\ikh:uii,32nd, Br. yiiXTe Sleeji;/ Mdi-ij 

—aKO<l— Owner. 
Lifut. ("ill. Airev, 34th. Bl. Maro Placid— o 

ypara <!\viier. 
Liciif. Ciimiibi^ll, 32nd. Bay G. I.itUc John, alias 

Ji'ic!;cli'cr—i yours— Owner. 
Mr. llobyna, 32nd, G. M. Cho})—a yeurs— 

Major McGrath, Br. M. A'ora Crr in a— Owner, 
Cajjlain James McGral.h, B. II. Lanidarinn— 

Llout. Heath, R. O. /i'o(7>io/i;c— Owner. 

Toronto, olli Nov., 1840. 
1 hia 'utin<{ a private meeting, the result 
appears never to have been puhli.iliod. 

i'' e next race course after Scarlett's was 
the on* k' own as Boulton'a. It occupied 
the ground bounded on the nortli by Bloor 
street, on the south, east and west by Bald- 
win and .McCauI streets and .Spadina avenue 
reipectively. A portion of the stands were re- 
maining as recently as 1S88, at tiio rear of th* 
Orange, and p*esibly may be tli*re now (1893). 

Thi« course belonged to the iloultons, 
and the meetings were projected by Mr. W. 
H. Boulton, popularly known ainonc his 
friendi as " I'dll Boulton," and of whom many 
amusing stories src told. It was of)one ! about 
1841 or 1842, and was in use for some years. 
When Boulton's course ceased to be used 
for hor.te racing another one was opened to 
the right of the Kingston road, east of the 
Don. This was always known as Jack M ait- 
land's course. It lay to the south of the pre- 
sent baseball grounds on what is now Queen 
It. east, having the present Broadview ave. 
as its eastern boundary, the Marsh as the 
louthtrn and a heavy fence, on liic farm of one 
Clark, who was also a butcher, on the 
Among well-known men who attended 
here was Ten I'roeuk, a wealthy American, 
Dr. Carrell, of Rochester, also Harper, a 
Virginian, who was as open-handed as he 
was passionate, ard that is saying a great 
deal. Besides these there was Caswell, who, 
itrange to say, was totally blind, yet so fine 
was his sense of hearing that he could tell 
the various horses when at exercise hy their 

■tep and thus judge, or calculate ra her. tiioir 
chances of success. Another well-known 
figure at the meetings held on tliis ground 
was Parish of Ogdenabiirg. James .Miicliell, 
of Torento, was his trainer. The luttir kept 
\\. tavern on King street west on tlie site ol 
the present Canada Lif* Building. 

Succeeding .Maitland's cuma what wa* 
known as (Jates' course, situated o;i rjie |).-r. 
and Danforth road, some distance north of 
th* \\'oodbin*, used only oca- ioh:iUy. 
Trottinj; matches were somctinad held 
tliere, and now (1893) it is used to :i jliglit 
extent as a training ground. 

In iS.'i? tlie (y'arlton raoe CDUr.iO was laid 
out by the late Mr. \V. C. K' elo and his 
son Mr. ^V'illiam Koele, It wai altotit two 
hundred yards to tli* south of Duuda.-. trout, 
to the west of what was tlinu tlio ro:ii > .iMioa 
line, but is now Keole slre»t., Toronto . I unc- 
tion. It was oval in shapti and was rather 
more than a niilo round. There were exten- 
sive stands, weighing rooms, and u'co^ary 
offices. Among the visitors heie mi;; lit be 
seen Lieut. -Col. K, L. Denis n, gouerally 
driving a celebrated trotter known as Milk- 
maid, " Bob" James from I!ro(Vi<ton, Hen- 
derson from the same locality, Irvine, from 
Weston, and alway.-t the oIlictTS of tlie Royal 
Canadian Iliiles stationed at the barraoka. 
Occasionally Captain C'ark, of the I'KHh 
Regiment, with his quiet deternuned lace, 
and Lis measured walk, put in an appear- 
ance, and so long as the depot was in To- 
ronto there were always some of the rank 
and file under liis command also present 

Sir Casimir Gzowski (then Mr. (izowski) 
was for some time president. Colonel (J. T. 
Denison was starter and Mr. .lohn Boulton 
clerk of the cours*. ! he Queen's Plate of 
fifty guineas was always thu great event of 
the meeting. In 1860 this was won by a 
hors ■ owned by Mr. White. 1 here wer* 
nine entries. Tlie ho; se was called Don Juan. 

At the 1860 meeting, the Toronto pur-e of 
$200 only attracted two entries The county 
purse o' $75 had but one entry, but so as to 
make a race, Mr Beard entered his horse 
'J'om Sayers on the course and won the race. 

There was another event known us the 
Scurry Stakes, this in the same year was 
won liy a lad of eight years old, by the name 
of Irvine, whose father was a fre(iuent ir- 
tendant at the course. The name of nit 
mount is not given 

Bac ng in Toronto until the present 
Woodbine track was opened was at a pretty 
low ebb : however, the Carlton races 
dragged out an existence for some y^ars. 
They were finally discontinued about 1S76. 
The grouad i» now covered by houses. Of 
subsequent r^ciu^ fixturefl it is notnecsssarj 
to speak. 

• ■ n 





;'»'■ '■■ ■ 


Tlir »rowlb and FluetiiMllon of Hriilinieiil 
In F«v«ur or Fr«« Itmdlns Itoonit for 
Ilia re«pl« rr«iii 1831 !• I8h:i. 

The first Mechanina' Inttitut* in this city 
wai cAtaMislied in 1831, thrfe yaars before 
York vi'i'eived it« cliariar of incurporation 
aii 1 hail in iii.ino of Toronto restored to it. 
Th« Institute nia> probably tra 8 its origin 
»(■ .losopli Bate*, tlien just arrived in Yorli 
from London, England, where tie had bsen 
ffonnecttd with one of these lociaties, and 
h , thinking a similar institution might be 
established with advantage in Vork, con- 
siilted with Mr. .Tanaes Lep^tlie, late of Kglin- 
ton, who entered heartily into the project. 
Tin in:uigur.\l nie(!'.i"2 ^''•■"' bo^d in danuary, 
1S!U NlLiny of the iiniicipal inhabitants of 
the town were fiie.spnt, Mr. J.esslie presiding. 
The tir^t riuarterly nueting w.a > liold m Mr. 
Thotnp^o'i'.'* ■ci.ool ro(-nfJi, when the report 
read by .Mr. Hues eli iwed n list of fiftyeix 
iriflmbcts. A;non^' j)'.oiiii:i2nt workers in the 
:;i,.-f. were I>r«. W. \V. J'.ildwin, Dun*- 
oofiibc, J. F. Cablicoft, Dm. lop and Holph ; 
M ssr:-. Jnnios Cockshult, T. t'arfrae, .lames 
full, I^eiiiiarn, (', C!. Small, James \Vort», 
I'aniea (i. Worts, (apt. Fiizpibbon, and 
many otlier?. It is noj c irtain where the 
Insititute bud its tirst liAMtation. I'robab'y 
in it.s very car'.y days meetings were con 
vened ..t any good-sized room t'.uil could be 
procured, easily accessible to the mem- 
liers Some meetings wer^, we know, 
hrid in rooms in a wooden building in 
C'olUorne street, tlien called 2darket 
itreec. Known as the " Masonic i^iMigu. " 
A library, or rather che nucleus of a lil)rary, 
was begun, lectures were delivered, evening 
jlasses established for the beneht of the 
membi'rs and a museum commenced 

Jd \H^r-> the Institute received a grant from 
(.Government of £'200, equivalent to $800. 
This w IS expended upon icientificapparatus 
The celebrated Dr. Birkbeok, founder of the 
Birkbeck Institution of Loridon, Eni{l&nd, 
was commissioned to purchaie this ap- 
pn.ratus. Ic was not only very expensive, 
Du' was nevor wholly complete or at any 
time of much benefit to the Institute. Littl* 
progress was made by the Institute in 
1837 owin,' to the excitement caused by 
political events and the outbreak of the 
rebellion. But when affairs in Toronto had 
resumed their normal condition in 1838 tb« 
managers of the Institute obtained from the 
City Cnnncil a suite ot rooms for th« ac- 
commodation of the Institute in the aouth- 
•ast comer of the market building; where St. 
Lawrence Market now itands. They ia 

sue a notice on March 16th which readi 
thus : — 

Mechanics' iNSTixaTE.— A meeting of th« 
members of tlie Mechanics' Institute viU be 
held at tlis lucture room, market build itii;s, 
on Friday, the '23rd inst., at three u'clock 
p. m , to elect a commi'itae for the present 
year. By order of the committee, J. F. 
NVk.stlasd, Secretary. 

Sir Francis Bond tfead, then Lieutenant- 
Governor of the I'roviuco, was patron, and 
occasionally wih his suite attended the 
weekly lecturer 

Mr. William Ross was librarian and 

In 1841 the committeo presented their re 
port, and as it gives a fair idea of the 
society's progress it is given in extenso : — 

Annual lt>>pnrt of llie 4'ainnillti'fi of the 
TUltO.Vro Nerlianlcs' lusiliute. 

Head at Ike SDciely'n Itn iw-j, Ifeb. "rd. H',1, 

The Cominittco on deliverinif up th ir trust t'- 
thoT sul•(•essor^. rfspcclfnily rer""' - 

That diiriii'.? 22 now 'iii^fnUers have 
joincil. but owint; to rernora s. ami Kumo mem- 
bers doc'.ininsf to coiititiiK! tiieir subHcriiuioni, 
the real inrreaso in onlr seven -the whole r;um 
ber nf miMnburs being about 01. 

The Financial Ac(!ouiitt arc -(^a'^h rerpived. 
liic'.udiiiK bai >iiee in the 'Ire^surer -s tia-nls pt 
thf* coroinen(;ement of the year. £4S 28, Od. ; of 
which has been exnonded £23 1%^. Od.. I'^aving 
a balance in the Treasurer's handn of £22 4s. (ki 
a (ii-lailed account of which in on the tablp, for 
th': j-xaniination cf the members. 

Diii'infc the season the Lectures linvo been 
continual weekly witli one or two exceiitions. 
They have consisted of courses by tlie He v. Jlr. 
LiUoy on the tniitd ; by the Itev. Mr Leach, 
President, on education ; by Dr. Lansr, on chtra 
ii'ry ; and one by th" Rev, Mr. Uoaf. on pco. 
loicy ; for tiie nnt irinvr zeal of these Rcntlenien, 
under the deiires3in.!.c eircutiHtancos which the 
Institute has b id io strufjKle with, the Commit- 
tee tender their Rratoful aeknowieilgiiionti. 
'I'hey have also to return their thanks to Ur. 
Boys, Vice-I'iesidont, for a donation ^of an 
English translation of Linnaeus' System of Na- 
ture in 7 volumes. An address ot congratula- 
lation to theOov.-General on tiis arrival in the 
city from the Institute, whieh was numeromly 
signed by the members, was presented by the 
Committee, which was Rraciou-ly received. 
His Excellency in his reply was pleased to ex- 
press his approbation of the princinles on which 
the Institute is founded, and to promise what- 
ever assistance was in his power to forward ita 

There has been added to the library the re- 
prints of the London and Edinbursb Reriewi 
and Mafcazines, which Ir. is expected will be 
continued. The property of the Institute has 
been insured from Are in the British North 
American Insurance Ofllce for the sum ot £209. 

A large part of the balance in the treasurer's 
hands will be required to place the library in 
an eiflei«int state for circulation. It is t» be 
regretted that many members neglect to return 
the books within the time limited for read- 
ing. Their attention to this is respectfully re- 

An attempt was made to establish a class, to 
meet five nlgbts in tbe wees, intended to eo(n« 
bine I he advantages of a reading room and an 
academy, which unfortunately failed from the 







nnexpocfed opposition of the persons chiefly 
intended to be bonefltted iiy it. The Comniiitoe 
owe their best thanks to those gentlemen who 
10 liberally Kare their names as contributors 
(or that purpose. Respectfully submitted. 
By order of tbe coinmittee, 
John Hoys. 

Vice President. 

In the following year, 1842, Sir Charles 
Bagot, Governor tJeneral of ('anada, was in 
Toronto in the latter end cf April, princi- 
pally for the purpose of lavin • the founda- 
tion stone of tlie Toronto University. Tak- 
ing; advantage of the occasion, the meiulieis 
of the Ins itule presented his Excellency 
with an adJrcss of welcome, Vilieroin tliey 
refer gratefully to a pr.ijecicd j^eologioal 
iu:vcy of tlie Crovii "o, anl they also refer 
"nith still greater su. afactioii,'" to quote the 
vioiiis of their ailiiress, to tlie opening up of 
new channels of commerce under hi» Excel- 
lency's aus))ice3. 1 hey co elude by assur- 
ing tlio Queen's representative of their '• un- 
feigned loyalty to our .'■overeigii." 

In ]SH in considtTiUion ot the tum of 
£16 cuncncy, eouivivlunt to .S(J4, the Innti- 
ttits gave up po38e3siu;i of tlio build- 
in^' rooms an(l rsmovtii to others .situated 
over the store No 12 \VeHin„'io!i lUiildinjs, 
Ki:ig street, having,' also, through the kind- 
ness of .Sheriff \\. 1> Jiuvis, the use of tlic 
Court lloom for its lecture {uirposes. 

Daring tlie same year the City Council 
were constructing a two-storey fire hall on 
tbe site of the present one and tho I'olico 
Court in Ccmrt street 

On the memorial of the Institute ths 
Council consented to extend its ground plan 
10 as to give the Fire Department all the 
accommodation required on tho ground floor 
on condition that the Institute should build 
te second storey for its library, reading, lec- 
ture and board room, and puy to the con- 
tractors the difference in co:j;: of thtbuildlnsr 
«o extended, and as it was originally con- 
trA'^'-ed for. 

This ditiference amounted to £465 53 Gd 
currency ($l,Sm 10) and was raised by 
Voluntary contributions. 

The foundation stone was laid on August 
'.'7th, 1845. These new rooms were opened 
on February 12th following,. when the annual 
n\eeting was held, with Mr. John Ewart in 
tic chair, and the inauL'ural address was 
delivered by tho Honorable R. B. Sullivan 
when he took occasion to congratulate tbe 
Institute on its possession of^ such a con- 
venient building for their various require- 
ment -. 

On July 28th, 1847, the Institute was 
oorporated by Act of Fariiament, receiving a 
(rant of money at the same time from the 
Government, la 1848 th^ first of a series 
ef exhibitions of fire arts, mechanism, ladies 

work, etc., was held and remained open for 
ten weeks. The financial result was fairly 
B tisfactory, there being a prof. L of nearly 


In tho following year the Institute issued 
for the first time a diploma to its exhibi- 
tors at the annual exhibition. Tliis was <.e- 
signed by \ir. Sauiiford Flemiii.', and wa» 
lithograjihed by Messrs. Scobio & Half our. 

The second exliiljition in 1S41) was a 
greater success tlan its predecessor, as it ro- 
Bultcd in a net ^ain of more than i'2'2'K 

1 hree very activ workers wore in this 
year remuvc-d by death, namely Me-srs. 
Charles Sevvell, Henry Parry and John 

Tlic iinnual E.Nliibition was again held in 
ISo'), when one of the jirincipal exhibits 
was a niiKkd of a locomotive, wliioii ran on a 
raised track round the room, tlu; steam to 
propel it beiiij,' j.'enerated by a .small spirit 
i.'vinp. Thiri attracted a great deal of atten- 
tion. It was made by Mr. A. l\irkes, a 
wood-turner w ho resided on Adoluide olrcet. 
Th? proiit fio.n l!ie l^xiiiliilio.'i thi.s ycur was 
t-'-MO, a bligiit decrease fiom that of ha pre 

'i'ho rej)ort picsciitcd to the in';ni!jU!s in 
iS.")l drew atieniiou to liie fact that 
the atcoinniodatiou provided wi.s insuilicieut 
for th • nee. Is of I'tie Institute, and tliat 
.-iiop.j iiuisL be taken to j!;'0'.niio larger 
promise.'". It also referred "witii great re- 
t;ieL to the expre-:.-j.'d inttution of Air. Wil- 
liam Edwanls to re.-ig!\ the ofli;-.; of Bocri'- 
tary." That i;i.utleman hail fiilcil the posi- 
tion for t ii^ht years, and the co i inittce con- 
cluded tlicir report bj- saying that he had so 
discliarged his duties that they "are at fault 
for sullicient pow«r of language adequately 
to express th^ir indebtedness to iiim " 

Subsequently tbe niembors ])t evented Mr. 
Edward* with a complimentary address and 
a purse of sovereigns. He wus alio created 
a life member of the Institute. 

The Exliibition ol 1851 was, as regard* 
the quality of the exhibits, one of the best 
ever held, but financially it was ud but a 
failure, as the balance, after payment of ex- 
penses, only amounted to a little more than 
!r48. The events of the following year call 
for no comment, the Institute not being able 
to provide itself with the reiiuisite new 
buildings which were so badly recpi red. 

In September, 1853, the site oii the corner 
of Church and Adelaide streets was pur- 
chased by auction for $G,529; plans for a new 
building were prepared and the publ'c ap- 
pealed to for subscriptions. This uppea'. 
brought in before the year closed 1^4, SOO 

On the following April 17th, the corner 
stone of the now Mechanics' Institute was 
laid with Mi^souic honors. The brethren. 

I ¥ 


i> • \ 

1 ^i 


;ii ■' 



attired in regalia and accompanied by the 
otiicers of tlio Inatiiute, headed by the band 
of the Royal Canadian Rifles, marched in 
procession from St. Lawrence Hall along 
King to Church stroet, thence to the corner 
of Adelaide street, where the proceedings 
commenced by Air. 'ihoinas (iibbs Ri out, 
D.(J. M., of Canada, addressing the meeting. 
He, after some few preliminary remarks, 
dwelt upon the reason for their all beiii<; 
engaged I's they then were, and concluclcd 
by saying : " To day we are here asaunibled 
in the presence of you all to build a hal! fo.- 
the public use of the mechanics of tliis city, 
which we pray Ciod may prosper if it aeeia 
good to Tlim, and that it may become a 
buildiii!,' f')r good men and good deeds, and 
promote Isiu-nony and hrotlierly love, till 
the world itself shall end So mote it e." 

Mr. ! hdfnas .J. Robertson, the president, 
presented .Mr Hidout "ith a silver trowel, 
suitably inscribed, which .Mi. Ridout briefly 
acknowli'd^'cd, and then ptoceeded to lay 
the stone Tliis bavin;,' been ilfwie, praver was 
offered. Ilieu addrossos were ilelivered liy the 
president, tlin llov. i)r. .McC-'aul, ami also by 
Mr. l-'atrick Ire'anil, tlie .senior vicei)rcsi- 
dent. A small cannou had l)oe;i phvceil on 
the opposite side of the street close to St. 
James' fchool liou^'e, from which a salute 
of thi'ee rounds was iired and the proceed- 
ings then came to an end by tiio whole 
company <,'iviii!^ three cheers for the Queen. 

Two able otlicials of tlie instituie passed 
away in 18r)4— Messrs. W. Atldnson and F. 

In 185;") tl.c Provincial Government 'eased 
the nnfinislied building for four yoar-j for 
official purposes, at tln' simo time paying the 
Institute S.^.SS.*^ tn eiKiblethem to pay oil' the 
outstandini: liabilitips upon the structure. 

When the lease expired the Ciovcri.ine t 
paid the Institute a further sum of §10,000 
to enable it to complete the building in ac- 
corrlance with tiie original desig'ia. 

I he alterations required were at once 
commenced and in ISGl were cnmpleteil and 
the rooms ready for occupation. The total 
cost was S48,;580 78. 

It is necessary now to recall some few 
ear. ior facts. In the winter of ISf)? and 
1858 a course of lectures was delivered in St. 
Lawrence Hall, of which the lollowing is the 
programme : — 

1867 — THURSDAY. 

Nov. 26—" The Infancy of AnBloSaxondom— 

Origin of the Langnagre." 

Dan'kl Wilson, LL.D. 

Jan, 8— 

H, Y. Hind, M.a. 
, li.A, 
. B.-V. 


15-" OpUcs.". . IlEv. E. K. Kendall, 

•' 22- iJo Key. E. K. Kkndall, 

" 2J— " KnRiijh Language and J. iter 
(with illu-strative roadinRS)" 

T. J. U()iu:>{TsnN- 

Feb. 5— Do T. J. Uoukht.s:).v 

•• I-.'—" On Sound. "..J. H. Ciiekrim an. 
*' 19— " Astronomy. (Fixed Stars 

..C'( L. I'.AROX 1)K U()TTK.N-|irH() 

" 2G— Conch d ag l^ecturcH. Y. IIinu 


Doc, 4- 



The Lectures will commence each ovcniiia: at 
8 o'clock. 

1 lOKKTS for the course, Ta 61 ; Ladies, .3s 9d ; 
Monibors 01 the InslituLc, lis 9d. Admission tii 
single Icci are, Id 3d ; Ladir and Aleraberj uf 
Institute, 74rt. 

The Institute lost by death in 18i)7 one 
of its beat friends and workers * !oh i 
Ewart, whfin we have previously i -loneJ 
1 ho cour.?e of lectures for 18.")8 &,id 185'J 
began in November, in the hall of the In- 
stitute, none of the lecturers of t e jirocecd- 
ing year thou. h re-appearing. This is the 
profiramme : — 


Nov. 2(5 -'Tlie Advertisements otfhn Ancient 

Uomaiis." Hkv. Du. Ah ('aul, 

Dec, 3 -" Air and its Hoiaiions." 

\Vai.tki{ a. \Va rr.s, M. A. 

" 10— "The I'oc ry oflii-inilr." 

1)K. A. (). Ki':LLOoa, Port Hope. 

" 17— " Water, lIydrvn:o!\. etc." 

NS' Ai.rKit A. Watts, M. a. 

Jan. 7—" Coal Gas and Carbonic Acid ani 

their Uelal inns." 

WALTKit A, Wat IS, M. a. 

" li — " The Avonuciof Wfvst.ini I'l-aie. '. . . 

Kivas 'I'lJi.i.v. /sc,. 

■' 21 — ■' Sulphur and Phosvihonis." 

Waltkk .\. ^VA•rTS, ■".A. 

" 28 -" Chcinisry of Common Liic." 

1)K. 'rilOUIiCliX. 

Feb. 4 — " .Sea Salt and ils l)iv.'ivativ(M. " 

Wai.tkk a. Watt^ .M. a, 

•' U— " The Anatom.v and Comparative An- 
atomy of the lOye." 

Hhvkklut K. Moisnis, M. D. 

" 18— " Glass and f'oreela n." 

WALTEit A. Watts. M. A. 

" 25— " The Luminous Appearances) of the 
S-a."...BKVEItLF.Y H. MoHUts, M. D. 

March 1— The Concluding Lecture 

Mk. J. K. Pkll. 

' Origin of the Literature." 

Daniel a ilson, LIj.D. 

Heat and Light in their Chemical 

relaLloiis. ' II. H. Ckokt, D.C L. 

l^" Tlie Clhcmical History of Iron and 
Copper." il. H, Ckoft, D.CU 



Mostly all of which will be illustrated by ex- 
perimonii- and diagrams. 

Tickets for the Cou'ser—Non • members. $1 ; 

Ladies and .Mf mbi^rs of the Institiitc, 50 

cents. .Singii? Admission. 12^ cfnti. 

IlOliKllT KDWAKD8, Hecrdar'j. 
TORO.NTO, November, 1858. 

At the annual meeting held in ISJiO the 
committee record " with deep regret the loss 
by death of its lale, and for many years in 
defatigable, secretary, Mr. Robert Ed- 



Id memory of this most estimable man 
the members of the luslitute subscribed for 
a memorial portrait of him, which until 
1S83 hung in the re<idin^-rooni of tlie Insti- 
tute. In that year, by a unanimous vote of 
the then director*, the Institute being 
tout to I e closed, it was presen..<i. to Mr. 
William Edwards, I rothor of the ;ate, and 
hiiiiself as we ha^ e already seen, a former, 
stcretary. That gentleman not long after- 
wards offered the portrait to the City fublic 
Library, whode custodians gratefully ac- 
cepted it, and where it now hangs. 

in 1862 a series intended to be annual, of 
literary and musical entertainment ', was 
instituted and proved most successful. 

in the i<ame year the evening classes which 
had been instituted on the inauguration of 
the Institute were mad ' much more efficient, 
ind were carried on with great success until 
18S0, when they were discontinued in conse- 
quence of the School Board having estab- 
lished similar classes la three of their 

In 1868 it was proposed by the committee 
to h Id an exhibition of fine arts, and in 
August the following circular was issued : — 




comprising the 


Will open In the Music Hall of the Institute, 

ON FltlDAY, OCrOBEU 2nd, 1868. 
aod continue open for at least ten days. 

THEDIRECTOIIS respectfully solicit from 
the Artists and Ladies of Toronto and vici- 
nitT, and the public goaerally, contributions on 
loan of urtvclcs in 

(1.) lino Arts and Decorations, ancient and 
modern, embracing Architecture. I'aittitiK-' 
in Oil and Water Colors, Dpa>viiiKJ. Sciilti- 
ture and Modelling, Dyosinkins and !'.n- 
praving. Photography, and Decorations and 
IJcsiKnsof cverv kind. 
(!.) Spooinions of all kiiul.s of L;vdies' Work. 

ThH obiects of the Exhibition are :— Ut. To 
afford Artist .s Ladies, an 1 possoasorsof intop- 
cstinganrl : are specimens of Art na opponun.- 
ty of exhibiting Ihoir various nriiclea or pro- 
ductions. 2nd. To rcalizi! funds towards reduc- 
ing the H.-ibilities of the Institute. 3rd To 
afford IntcrestinK and Instructiro amusement 
to ihti public. 

Tlie greatest cart> will bo given to the safe 
keeping and return of all specimens entrusted 
to the Committee of Management. 

The Kxhibltion, comniencing on Friday, the 
2ndof October, will bo open to visitors from 10 
o'clock, a. m. to 10 o'clock, p. m.. each day of 
its continue .oc. The charge for admission will 
be ten codU., 

IntenJ^ni? contributors are respectfully ro' 
questo 1 to'.ominiinicai(i with the undoraigned, 
or with any monibcr of the Exhibition fJoininit- 
tco, viz : VV. Edwards, cliairinau. Danii^l Hurj', 
W, K Masiun. J. J. Withrow. T. McCros.^on. 
and T. L»avison, or with any member of the 


Toronto l,th August, 1S6S. 

At this Exiiibition over 700 pictures wero 
lexhibited Among them were many works 
of the old masters, lent for the occasion, the 
rest beintr the works either of Canadian 
artists or their pupils This e.Khibition re- 
sulted in a loss of more than SlUO. 

From this year until 18SI5 whrn the Insti- 
tute was merged into the L^ublic Library, 
esiat)li3hed under the Fiee Libraries' Act of 
1882, there is little of moment to record. 

Recreation rooms which contained billiard 
tables, chess and kindred games were opened 
in the buildini;, besides a reading room spe- 
cially set apart for ladies. 

These all proved successful and tended 
th popularize the institute. But " the 
old order changeth and gireth place 
to the new." On March 29th, 1883, at 
a special general meeting of the niumbei's of 
the Institute it was by an all but unanimous 
vote resolved to make over all the property 
of the Institute with its assets and liabili- 
ties to the City Corporation for library pur- 
poses. This resolution was duly c^.rried in- 
to effect on June 30th following. It only 
remains to mention some of the more 
prominent workers for the Institute in its 
half century of existence. They were : — 
W. Edwards for 30 consecutive years, W. 
Atkinson 17, •'. E. Pull 15, Hiraui I'iper, 
R. Edwards and Thomas Davi.ion for 13, 
and many others whose services extended 
from eight to twelve years. 

Th ' following is a list of the Trcsidents, 
excepting for the years 1833-5 8-9 anil 1840, 
the records ot which have liucn lost, .lohu 
E.vart (1831, 18U), Dr. lialdwin (18.32-4- 
7). Dr. Ilolpn (18.36), R. S. Jameson (1841), 
Rev. W. T. Leach (1842), W. B. Jarvis 
(1843), T. G. Kidout (1845 6■8^ R. B. 
Sullivan (1847), Professor Croft (1849,1850), 
F. VV Cumberland (1851-2, 18(15 6). T. J. 
Robertson (1853), Patricl: Freehiid (1854-9) 
Hon. G. VV. Allan (1855-1808 9), E. V. 
Whittemore (1856), J. E. Pell (1857), 
.John Harrington (1858), J. D. Ridout 
(1860), Rice Lewis (1861-2), W. 
Ed.>ard3(1863), F. W. Coate (1864), J. J, 
Witiirow (1867), James McLounan (part of 
1870), .)ohn Turner (part of 1870), M. 
Swdetiiani (1871-2-3-4^ Thos. Daviiou 
(1875 6 8), Lewis Samuel (1877), Donald C. 
Ridout (1879), W. S. Lee (1830-1), JkUM 
Masou (1882-3). 

, i{ii 

li I : ;. 


^ l-'ilt 

M. I 



Tho recording sccretariea bav« been in the 
followinir order and number of years' service: 
Jo3. Hates (1831), T. i'atson (1832 3 4-') G). 
C. Sowell (1837-8 and 1841), J. F. West- 
land (1840 and 1842), \V. Elv.ards (1843- 
4-5-6-7-8-9. 1850. 1859, 18G0), R. Edwards 
(18r)l-2-3-4 5-6-7-8), C. Longman (1861-2 3- 
4-5-6), John Mo^s (1867), Rioliaid Lnwis 
(1868), Samuel IJrodio (1869, ISTD-l), Joliu 
Davy (1872-3-4 5 6 7-8 9, 1880-1-2 3). 

The correspu'uling secrotarie.s liaTe been 
A. T. McCord (1836), C. Sewell (1842 3 4-5), 
J, F. Weailand (1841), W. Steward (1816), 
Ale.T. Christie (1847-8-9, 18,")0-3), Patrick 
Freelaiid (18.jl 2), M. Swe«tnam (18.')4-r)), 
J. J. Woodhouse, (18.')r>), John Elliot (1857), 
J. 11. Mason (1858-9, 18;i0). Fro u this dale 
the oliica was not continued. 

The ti'casurers have been James Lcsslie 
1831-4 5-6) II. M. Mosley (1832), T. Carfrae 
(183:5), W. Atkinson (1840-1-2-3 4 5 6), John 
Harrin'jttoii (1817-8 9, 185 )-l-2-3-4 5 6), John 
PatPi son (1857-8-9. 1860 1-2), .lohn Co van 
(1863), W. Mdwards (1864-5-6-7-8-9, 1870), 
John llallam (1871), Thomaa .Mallear (1872, 
3-4 5), Vv. i; llartill (1876), II. JI. Ramsay, 
(1877, 1881-2-3), U. B .Morris (1878-9), John 
Taylor (188).) 


And I's Iiniiieiliale Kucc*««or— Coiidiilons 
or Sri-virr aci<t Oilier U.ita— The .\islit 
<iuar<i mill It* IHiiiei. 

In 183? and ti.e folio vng year during th ; 
re! elliou there wiia mu':'ii iiiilitai-v enthusi- 
asm in tlie Province. Young, niiddlca.ed, 
;nde\encld men buckled on their rirnior, 
figu atively sj eaking, determiuid to stand 
l.y heir country and maintain the loner of flag 

In tlie British Colonist of January, 1838, 
two months after ho iuadtnt at Mont 
gomer>'8 tavern in Yoi ge street, we find 
this notico : — 

" ll:o Army. — On Tuesday the Queen's 
Rangers, our effective colonial corps, returned 
from Niagara to Toronto, having been 
reliered by the Queen's Light Infantry, 
anotlier of the gallant and loyal regiments, 
so promptly formed on the spur of patriotic 
excitement, at lh«ir country's call. 

" A detachment of volunteers hare arrived 
from Perth composed entirely of young, 
active dcotchmon. They number 104, rank 
anJfila, and are accompanied in their march 
by tk purser. 1 he otQcera are Capt. A. 
Fraser, Capt. J. Voung, Lieuts. Muirhcad 
aud Montgomery,and Ensign^* A. Fraser and 
C. Fraser. I'hey are now attached to the 

Pro-/ineial Militia, or Queen's Rangers, ooni. 
manded by Col. Kingsmill " 

But in a somewhat later edition of the 
Coloimt the editor announced that he had 
said too mu h when he described thes-a 
volu:ree:» as being all Scot;timen, for on 
February 8th, in reference o the cnrj s, ha 
curtly remarks : — '• It is denied that they 
were all Scotch, but English, Irish and 
Scotch, and one of ihe officers an Irish- 

Sl'.ortly after the return of tho Queen's 
Regiment, described elsewhere as the 
Que n's Racers, but » ho must on no 
account be confounded with the Qiiceii'j 
Rangers of the rovolnt'onary period, who 
afterwards became the 104th Regiment of 
tho line, and wer finally disbanded in this 
province in tha e\rly " twenties," there 
was formed in Toronto what was 
ki.own as thu "Night Guard," i nder 
ihe ccimand of Clarke (lanible, Eoi|. 
This gentleman is sill resiiUng in the 
city, and almost as active as win n he led a 
c nnpny of militi.k in the a*t ck uion Mont- 
gomery's ta\ern. 

The duties of the Nighi Guard were to 
pitrol the streets of Toronto from 9 p. in. 
unii 5 a.m Tho Guard was " told oil" into 
t! rco .scjuads or pitrols. The first of thf'.so 
pa' rolled tho streets west of Y(.n:;o 
from 9 until 12 under Mr. Gamble ; 
the 8C3ond went on Irom 12 until 3 
under the Hon. William Cayley, an; 
tlie third again in charge of Mr. Gambia 
f:om3until5. The streets east of Yon;,'e 
V ere similarly p.^troUed by others of the 
Guard. Mr. G unble continuetl this duty 
or about a month, when he was t: lieved bv 
Captain Murray, who formed another <!uar<l. 
Tho men who performed these duties w-to 
all paid for their w rk by the i Joverno cnt of 
the day. Captain Murray, whom wo have 
just mentioned, was one of a Wfll-known 
lirm, Me^ r». Murray & Newbigjing. I'iie 
latter gcnlleii an died during die reb' llif)!), 
and of hi.-) funeral and burial tlio Ih-ilish 
Colonist of ISth February, 18.38, says : — 
" His remains were interred in the Kjjisco- 
pal burying ground, and being an Alderntan 
of the city, and the Captain of a conipanv in 
the City (Juard, the Mayor, Alder.nen and 
Common Council of the city, the otfi.^er.i of 
the City Guard, the otficers of Jie Queen's 
R'.ingcrs, a large and respectable concourse 
of the inhabitants of the city, and the soldisrs 
of the company he commanded, aocompauied 
his remains to the grave." 

Gndually matters assumed their nor- 
mal condition in Canada, aud tlie n ilitia 
were sent to their homes and the Nighb 
Guard dismissed, but a permanent mi itary 
force was deemed by the Imperial Govern- 



ment a necfssity, for we find in the Qlobe of 
October lOth, 1840, the following short para- 
graph : — 

" It is said that a provincial regiment is 
;o be raised in Canada, to be called the 
'Royal Canadian Regiment ' to bo com- 
:Tiai ded by I lie Gover. or as Colonel, and to 
be coinposed of men who have !\pent fifteen 
ye rs in the regular service. 1 he men are 
to be enlisted for twenty years, and to ie 
iillovved to work as artiticei a and laborers 
when not ot; er.^ ise employed." 

On March "J'ind following there is a n.uch 
longer notice copied from the Monreal 
Herald, giving full details of the sclieme. It 
runs I bus : — 

"Some months ago «c mentioned 'hat it 
wa in contemplation by the Government to 
raise n ve eran hattal on in Canada, to be 
ailed 'The Royal Canaiian Iteginunt,' 
L'Oinposed of soldiers of the line '.vho have 
served lifccen years This rcgii ent is to 
be stationed on the frontier, and from the 
enlistment being voluntary as well as on 
highly favorable terji s, tliere \^ ill be little 
chance of any desertions taking place, while 
the corps may be depended upon as an elli- 
cieni body. 

"Tlie pay is to he the same .us that of the 
Foot (juanls, and tiie ii en are ;o I e allowed 
tn LO to agricultural labor and handicraft, 
\Then not eu.;aged on military liutie^j. A 
general oriler to tlds eil'ect was isf-ued by 
His Kxcellency Sir iliehard Jackson, Com- 
iiianiier oi the Forces, on the 4th instant. 
We hope the veteran adjutants who served 
ill the vdunteer battalions will not bo for- 
jjolten by His K.xcclle: cy in bestowing com- 
mis.'i' ns in 'The Roval Canailiau Regi- 
ment. '" 

The 12th Article of the condition of ser- 
vice, as promulgated in the general order, is 
important to those soldiers who, after fifteen 
years' servi' e, have alrcudy procured thei 
free discharge and received the gratuity. It 
is as follows : — 

"12. — Any man who ha; accepted free 
dischu'gc with a gratuity after lifteen years' 
service ii-.ay, if deemed eligible from charac- 
ter and found tit for the sci'vic •, bo jiermit- 
ted to enter, an 1 bo allowed to reckon his 
former service, upon the condition that he 
sliall not receive any addit onal pay for 
length of service, or good conduct pay, until 
the amount of gratuity paid to him on his 
discharge shall have been saved. Officers 
commanding stations will, on, 
forward, in duplicate, to tiie Deputy Ad ju- 
tant General, & return of candidates of tlii- 
description according to the prescribed form 
(the character to be ex racled from the 
parchment certificates), accompanied by a 
declaration oi' their fitness for servi.e, aiijnail 

by a military ti edical officer. This i etura 
will also show whether each candidate in 
married or unmirried, and the number of 

This was the Roy. I Canadian Rifle Regi- 
ment which, its day of usefulness haviui; 
ppssed a\«ay, was linally disbandc i nbou'i 
twentv-two years sini e. its otfi era 
in its thirty years of existence \' ere several 
well-known men. One of these was Colonel 
-Muter, who had served in the Peninsul* 
and was wounded ar Talaver* ; luiiuj 
the war of 1812, \< he i he was present at th« 
attack upon New Orleans. 

Lieutenant and Adjutant MeDuneli waa 
also a well-known man. He had been ,i:; 
active ofliecr of tl;e Canadian Militia during 
the rebellion. (Haptain .loliu Clarke was 
another of it.s oiiieers, having exehangeil 
into it from the lOOth Regiment. Iliilier 
Givins, a grandson of Colonel (iivins, the 
Indian Commissioner, also iicld a lifutcit:- 
ant's comuiission therein. It posscs.sed u 
sjilendid band. One of its masters, Mr. 
H.irkness, was killed in the calamitoui Dee- 
jardins Canal accident. It is almost neec- 
less to add that as a regiment this Cfirp 
never saw a shot fired in anger, yet its niea- 
bers iiad served in all quarters of the ;4e)i.>'.v 
and at one lime more than four-ti tl: *" 
them wore medals for war serv'ces. 

Like all colonial corps, it was never verT 
popular ;uuon_' youui; men entering the 
army as ofliccrs eitiicr in England or C.v 
nada, few Canadians seeking to obtain com.- 
mis.sion.s in it, yet when it was disbanded 
there were many who regretted it. 

The Onicrr* or the Oltl <iiicen'!t l{nn:;er< 
Who Selllc4l iu Toronto ami their Ott- 

Of the ofliccrs of 
who eventuallv, on 
regiment, settled at 
having des endants 

the tj^uecn's Rangers, 
the disbanding of the 
Vork |(now Toiuntcji, 
here, were Colonid* 
Smith and Shaw, afterwards Major-(Jenor:ii 
.Shaw and one of the members of the first 
Mxecutive Council. Captain Givins. whose 
daughters only passed away in 1890 in To» 
ronto, and whose oraiuidaughtcr still re.~idee 
he e ; Alexander MclDonell, the father of ne 
four well-known brothers of that name ; Dr. 
Macaulay, father of the late Chief Justie* 
Gamble, father of Mr. Clarke Gan.ble, and 
grandfather of .1. VV. G .-.mble Wlatney, of 
Toronto and Meaford ; lastly, Christopher 
Robinson, father • f the late revered Chief 
Justice and grandfather of the present (1803| 
Baronet S r Lukin Robineon. 

i J! 





The "Horse B«al," iti Owner and HU 
Hi«iiir3' — .';!t«rU and I'aitlmai of Louc 


The past half ceatury has brought with it 
Diiiiiy chap<;es, as all such periods of time 
must do, ami, perliaps, nowhere fire these 
Tii'iro manifest or p. greater metamorphosis 
•xliibited than in that part of St. George's 
ward in the City of Toronto, known as the 
'• island." 

Where palatial residences, as well as those 
of less pretentious aspect, but probably with 
•qua! interior comfort, now stand, only forty 
years ago was a waste of sand and shinijle, 
nnrelieved as now by houses with gay gar- 
dens and joyous resiilcnts. 

The site of Tlie Lakeside Home for Little 
Children and ilanlan's Hotel was entirely 
nnoccupied, save by scattered trees and here 
and there a fisherman's rude hut. 

impossible from the nature of the soil to 
build a brick foundation. The lower storev 
was of brick : the second and upper on* 
were of wood. To the east of it was 
another small dwtdling, occu])ied by the 
kecpet of the lighthouse, James Durning, 
while about one hundred yards to the west 
was a third house, known afterward.s as 
Parkinson's Hotel. I', the huts wc 
have before mentioned, and the liglithouse, 
were, until i85l?, the only dwelliugs upon 
the Island. Uetweeu where now is Island 
Park, and the Eastern gap, were a great 
many trees, chiefly pines and Balm of 
Gilead. Exactly opposite the present 
Alert House is one of each of these trees, 
and this spot waa a favorite rendezvous 
for picnic parties. To the east are several 
other scattered pines, much the same now as 
then, and from them one of the adjacent 
villas cakes the very appropriate name df 
" The Pines." 
In 1843 Louis Privat (always, though 



There werein 1843 three houses only on the 
Island. U ith the exception of the few very 
primitive dwellings, these were mere cabins, 
used by tt:e tisher follis. Strictly speaking, 
the " Island" was not an island at all but a 
peninsula. It was not until 1857 or 1858 that 
the inroads of the waters of the Lake dur- 
ing a great storm caused what is now known 
as the Eastern gap, and converted the pen- 
jn^u'a into an actual island. The tirst 
steamer tliat passed through this gap was 
the Bowmanville, on April 19ih, 1859. 
Of tlie hvuises on the Island, the principal 
was a lur^e partly brick three-storey 
dwelling trected by Lord Sydenham, 
in 1839 as u summer residence, for 
himself, in consequence of Toronto at the 
time sutfering from a visitation of that 
dread pest, cholera. This house. 50 x 40 
feet, and of which an illustration is given, 
was built upon a layer of four-inch planks 
■ouk about two feet iu the sand, it being 

erroneously pronounced Prevs), took up his 
residence in the house built by Lord Syden- 
ham , and opened it as an hotel. 
He was joined there in 1844 by his brother, 
Louis .Joseph Privat, with his family. 
Tlmse brothers, as may be inferred from their 
name, were of French extraction, thougli they 
came to Canada from the United Stales, 
where they had rcbided since tlicir depar- 
ture from Germany and arrival there in 
1837. They were descendants of one Louis 
Privat, who at the time of the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes lived in tlie province 
of Languedoo, in France, and to escape the 
cons quenoeaof that infamous "revocation" 
ded to Friedrichsdorf, in Germany, some 
few miles from Frar.kfort-on-tlie->'ain, one 
of the four Hans towns. It will probably 
strike readers as soniewhat singular that both 
brothers should bear the same Christian 
name of Louis. As a matter of fact Louis 
Joseph waa the only one who waa at bis 



christening given the first of these two 
names . The real baptismal name of the 
other brother was Peter. He in his earlier 
clays was employed by a French nobleman, 
an adherent of the Bourbon dynasty, Count 
Duchatfl, as a valet. Among the Count's 
numerous retinue of servants was another 
man also in slose attendance upon his 
nioster, who was li ewise called Peter. To 
avoid confusion, it was decided tliat Privat 
should be known as Louis, and so he was, 
becoming accustomed to the name. On leav- 
ing his master's service lie did not discard 
it, but continued its use so long as he lived, 
fie, with his family, left Toronto in Vio'S, 
removmf; to the village of Durham, County 
(jrey, where he kept another hotel until 
his death, which occurred on April 28rh, 
I860, in his 61st year. 

on a circular table set (lush with the deck 
in its centre. This table as it revolvtd 
worked upon rollers, which, being connected 
with the shaft, set ilie p^iddlos in motion. 
The horses were stationarv ; the table on 
which they trod was furnished with ridgea 
of wood radiating like spokes from the 
centre, wliich the horses caughl 
with their feet, thus setting the table in 
motion. For some time the boat was worked 
with only two horses, but after about two 
years an alteration was elfectud in the ar- 
rangements, and in the vessel as well. In 
stead of two horses, five were introduce i, 
and they walked round and round the deck, 
exactly as horses do when employed in 
workiui; a threshing machine, and the vessel 
was set in motion precisely as such a ma- 
chine is. Two pictures are given of the old 


Louis Joseph Privat, though in his 7Gth 
year, is yet hale and vigorous. 

liut it was one thing to open an hotel; it 
was another to make ic pay. So the two 
brothers decidcd[that the one should " run " 
the hotel, while the other should devote his 
cmrgies, and these were by no means in- 
considerable, to obtaining visitors and 
customers to the same. 

In furtherance of this object they pur- 
chased a ve.sacl which had been running on 
the Niagara below the Falls to ply for pas- 
sen. ers between Toronto and the isUud. 
This, under command of L. J. Privat, they 
called the Peninsula Packet, but it is very 
doubtful if one person in a hundred who 
visited the Island by her means ever knew 
whather real."name was.foi- from the mode by 
which she was propelled she was invariably 
known as '* the horse boat," and by none 
other. She was by no means a very large 
vessel, bein? only sixty feet in length by 
twenty three feet wide, and had what are 
now known as side wheels. These poddies 
were set in motion by two horses who trod 

" horse boat," still remembered with affec- 
tion by many residents of Toronto in the 
•' forties" and very early "fifties." The old 
vess<.4 was. in 1850, taken off her route. 

L J. Privat then built a steamer, called 
the Victoria, with a steam engine of 25 horse 
power, built by Mr. James (Jood, of Toronto, 
and ran it as a ferry from Mr. Robert Mait- 
land's wharf, foot of Church street, every 
hour from 10 o'clock a.m. until 7 p.m. every 
day curing the summer, returning at the 
half hour to the hotel on the Island, until 
the end of the year 18f3, when he .suid the 
Victoria to (ieorge Tate, Esq., then super- 
intendent of the Grand Trunk Railway, and 
ran it for them until the fall of 1855, after 
which he moved with his family to tiie then 
"bush" of the township of Uentinck, County 
Grey, where he lives now (1893). 

Mr Knott, the soap manufacturer, owned 
one of the early soap factories of Toronto, 
which was situated on the Island, near und 
east of the site of Privat's house He also 
had a soap factory near the Hon. William 
Allan's wharf at the foot of Sherbourne or 










Frederick street, and converted some of the 
■torchouses belonging to Mr. Allan into tiie 

Mr. Halloway. the lirst keeper of the 
lighthouse, had the (irst liousu on the Island. 
It was close to the lif^hthou^e, about 30x20, 
and was built of frame. It stood noith-wesr, 
of the pp. sent lif,'hli.oute. He had two or 
three (iaiii^htcrs and a nephew who lived 
with him Mrs. Ilailoway had a narrow 
escape friiiii drowning, being rescued by 
Capt, Mc(!ill Strachan, and ever after- 
wards \\ lull slie would meet him she made 
him tlKJroui^'lily embarrassed by throwing 
her arms about him, and once, 'tis said, .she 
ki:-'.=ifd him. '1 he lit;hlhou.-<e was built in 
18'K) ly John Thomson, a Toronto builder. 
Ttiis sva.s the njan who, w\vn\ the Uiiiicd 
Stales declared war, carried the news to the 

hotel, and was dismantled after the war of 
1815. Mr. Bloor, of Hlocr's brewery, and 
George Cooper, who lired on the Davenport 
Hill, took part, by instruction of 
the Government, in dismantling the 
old house. There were two lart;e 
guns, wliich they hauled around the Island 
from what is now Hanlan's Point, along the 
road by The Lake»ide Home, and then over 
to the main land, via the Big and Little 
Don These were then shipped finally on 
sciiooneri belonging to the Mackintosh 
brothers, of whom there were five, John, 
Cliarles, James, Robert and Daniel. The 
guns wore sent to Prcscott and tlu-u t[an.s- 
shipped on wliat was known as Hiirliam 
boata to (Quebec 

Cornelius Van Nostrand, an old To 
rontonian, wiien he saw the guns bein;^ 





zji^:^y^^' ■•■ ';:.:j^r\.^45S*f VICTOR! A Vs^r-;i^s.^3Lsi^i^: i^..^:i^ 


west and to the Mauitoulin Island. General 
Brock, who had charge of the militia, 
wanted someone to undertake this mission 
tor him, but none of his men or officers 
would volunteer to do it. Thomson, who 
was present, said, " Well, Generai, I will 
go." Brock took him at ins word, proTided 
for him an Indian guide, and it was in that 
way thai tho inhabitants of the far west 
first heard of the war. Halloway was tlie 
keepei of the lighthouse, and he is credited 
with a ereat fondness for his iieer, and is 
■aid to have occasionally " found" a keg at 
the brewery. 

The Block House stood at Hanlan's Point, 
» few hundred feet north-cast of the present 

moved, tlicught they would liave been muon 
better left where they were. 

The Island afforded its visitors many 
other attractions besides the journey tliere, 
which, by the way, generally occupied 
thirty and sometimes, forty minutes. Op- 
posi»:e the hotel was a merry-go-round and 
two large swings, the one to the cast, tlie 
other to the west of the merry-go-rounJ. 
1 he first was eighty feet hig , the second 
but thirty, and all three were largely 
patronized by the younger portion of the 
Island's visitors. For the elders there w;is 
a bowling alley, known as ' Ten Pin Alley," 
while to ensure instruction as \\ ell 
as amusement there was a small 

wolf, a wh 
or three 
of annuaer 
the sport 
IfU*d for 

tioD at th 

i 1 



zoological collection eoDsutiag of a bear, 
wolf, a white deer, aeverat rarcooos ind two 
or three earles. There was also a good deal 
of amuaemeat ef a somewhat miscellaneous 
nature. Every Queen's Birthday many of 
the sportsmen of Toronto journeyed to the 
IsUMid for blackheart shooting. These were 
hirdM of paflsa(!« of the plover tribe, who in- 
variably were making their anDual migra- 
tion at this period of the year. 

Another, though somewhat crnel, pastime 
consisted of trap pigeon shooting, wild 
pil^eons being netted by bird catchsrs and 
aolid to Privat for that purpose. 

of shooting this animal with a rifle ostensi- 
bly loaded only with an ordinary tallow 
candle. To see this performance a small 
sum was ciiarged and those who witnessed 
it went away believing the bear had met hia 
(juietu-s solely through the force of the candle 
striking him. They were not told, and pro- 
bably would not have believed it had they 
been so, that when the candle was put in the 
rifle a bullet had preceded it, nevertheless 
such was the case. This "sport" always took 
place in the winter and there was from 
time to time an occasional fox hunt also, a 

i fox being let loose the night before to fur- 


Besides these contests to test the prowess 
of marksmen, there was turkey shooting. 
This it must be confessed was very sorry 
sport. A turkey was tied and placed on an 
eltfvatioa about fifty yanls from where the 
sportsmen (?) stood. Everyone who chose 
to eater, and pay a York shillini; for each 
siioi, was allowed to fire at the poor bird ; 
the first who hit it became possessor of the 
tfurkiay. This anuable pastime continued 
Qotit the supply of turkeys was exhausted. 
Tkere was yet one other occasioual diversion, 
e^aaUy reprehensibU but perhaps not quite 
so crnsl as the one jast mentioned, this was 
shooting a bear with a candle. A bear was 
porehasvd, and forty years ago these w ere 
not difficult to «bt*in, and a omji resident in 
Toronto lued to give an exhibition 

sish the sport, and a very sxhiraratihg amuse* 

ment was the result. 

When the Frivat brothers left the Island, 
they were succeeded by John Qainn. 
Where th'?ir house stood is now covered 
by the waters of tiie lake 1 he exact spot 
is about 200 yards to the wsst of where the 
red buoy now rides, marking the propo:-ed 
crib work which will extend to the point 
where forty years ago was dry land. An- 
other 100 yards to the west is the place 
where the sunken boiler of the steamer 
Monarch lies, which was wrecked in 185t> 
and where . everal years later was also 
wrecked the steamer Southern Belli". 

There is not much more to relate respecting 
the old Island. Among the fishermen who 
lived thee were David Ward and William 

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d-(0Wb\ND5 A\ILLS 1S40 — 

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Strowger, who were partners. David Ward 
wos succeeded by liis son William, who was 
born on tho Island in 1848 and still resiilos 
there, having a sort of general charge. 
William Geddes and John Jordan were aUo 
well-known fishermen. They, like thebcafh 
upon they often liauled up tiieir nets, have 
cone elsewhere never to return. To return 
for a few moments to Louis Jos«ph I'rivat. 
During tho time he lived on the Island two 
of his family wore born ; one of these fought 
on the Federal side all through the War of 
Secession, being twice wounded, once most 
severely. Ho still lives, though in soinowhat 
shattered health L. J. Privat was as 
humane a man as he wa» enterprising, and 
on several occa.'<ions saved the lives of care- 
less boatmen. Among others so rescivjd 
were two brothers named Martin, 'J'homas 
Carfrae and two young men named llaigh 
and Osier. Of Privat it may be said with 
safety that ha was revered by his family and 
respected for his integrity and 
ness by all who knew him, and if some of the 
amusements in his day were somewhat out 
of unis n with the teelings of to-day one 
can reply by quoting the French proven), 
"autres temps autres moeurs. " 


rirty Years Since— The Old NllU— Respect- 
ing the Oainble. Flsber aud Uswland 

Less than fifty years since, any one who 
wished to proceed from Toronto to Lambton 
by Dundas street not only ilid so under 
conditions differing widely from those which 
ol>taiu to-day, hut liad also for nearly two 


miles of t!io (listan-'o to pass througli a 
orost almost untouched by the axe of tiie 
lumberman, and in wliioh bears, as late as 
1840, we-e still to bo found, besides game ot 
many dififoront descriptions. V\ hero tho 
Suburban electric car track on Dundas 
street, to the o.xlrenio west of Toronto 
Junction, HOW turns out of that thorough- 
faro and runs almost at a right angle to- 
wards the lake, was all but unbroken 
forest save for the road ruiming through its 
midst. J4J;av ng Toronto and proceodiug 
west on f)iuida3 street towards the Hum- 
ber, the last house on tho left hantl side for 
nearly two miles was in 1849 a ymall 
wooden tenement, some few hundred yards 
to tlio ve.Ht of the junction of the then con- 
cession, uow Keele street, with Dundas 
street. On the right hand aide, Runny- 
inede, Mr. John Scarlett's residence, 
erected in 1838 and situated about a third 
of a mile from the concession, was the last 
building from there until the site of the old 
racecourse on the Hnmber plains was 
reached. All was bush land, on the southern 
side of the road, almost to the lake, and on 
the opposite side also for a distance of near- 
ly it not quite two miles ;o the north. 
The race-course known as Scarlett's 
ground was on the plains lying to 
the north of Dundas street, bounded on the 
east by the concession runnius; towards 
Weston, and on the west by the woods on 
the top of the hill overlooking the Hnmber. 
it is fully described in another chapter of 
the Landmarks, no more need be said of 
it in this sketch. Passing the race coarse 
on the right was a famous tavern, kept for 
many years by a .Mr. Featb vrstoiie, and at 
race times a great resort for those who fre- 





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11 ,1 


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qmanUd ihoae meetings, '[ixen is still an 
bote OD the same spot, but tho old hostolry, 
beloved as a calliiii^' place by tho Weston and 
Idimico farmurs, aa well as by tlie sporting 
fraternity, has given place to a more pre- 
te'itiuns though probably not more comfort- 
able dwelling. 

Closely adjacent to this tavern stood, in 
1849 and for many years afterwards, thn 
well-known flour barrel manufactory of Mr. 
A. 1) Arche ; this coiisisteil of two buildings 
di>tani from each other about fifiy yards. 
The first was that in which tho ribs of the 
barrcl.i were put together, the socoiul thfit 
where llic}' were headed, luiishod and 
Bliipped to the tuitouier.s of the firm. A 
great deal of amusuun-ut was alibrded the 

despatched from tho former to the latter, 
they were shot along thii slide with wonder 
ful rapidity, as many as '280 and even 300 
boing sent down m half an hour. Occasion- 
ally it happened that one of the bairels was 
arres td midway in its progrcis, either 
through being made badly or from some 
other cause. IJefore it could bo removed or 
started again on i s journey, it was gener< 
ally struck by the next one descending, when 
both always toj)plo 1 over and were dashed 
tn piuce.s below. Th s, when it happened, 
alsvayd afl'orded the crowd of young folks 
who were wato iiig and admiring tho oper- 
ations immense gratilication, and was 
gi'ueraily gn-'tttid willi a shrill clieer Ai 
the Loitum of the hill on tho right was a 

•mall boys of the neighbourhood once or 
twice a day by the mode adopted to pass the 
partly-finished goods from one building to 
the other. The finishing shop was bomc ten 
or twelve feet lower than the one where the 
barrels were beeiUB. This was owing partly 
to the mode of its construction, and partly 
to the fact that it was on the desc nt of the 
hfOl, while tb« former was on the 
BBmmit A Ion? slide exactly resem- 
bling a ladder with range twelve or 
fifteen feet apart, extended from the 
firit to tiM aecoBd shop, and when a sutQ- 
fltont MiiBb«r of barrela were ready to be 

large tavern, still extant, much used by 
farmers and others who had business in the 
neighborhood. Next to that again was 
Howland's store with its fli.'ht of broad, 
wooden steps, some twenty in number, 
cending to it from the street. This L 
has not been altered in any material 
for more than forty years, and it is, n >re 
assured, practically in the same state i^w 
externally as when it was built. 

Immediately in the rear ot the store there 
was erected by Mr. F. A Howland a hand- 
some brick residence, facing the river, of 
which ther^ j a sketch giTen. It still 





sxistB anil is ocoupicd by Dr. Co ton On tlie 
right I ami side of Uiimlas street, goiiiL; west 
aftfr crossing the ilumlier an i asc 'Ufling tiic 
hill, were several small hoii.*cs, all 
built of wcoci, and still remaining: (IHOIJ) in 
nnicli tho samo stuto as they wore foily-fivc 
yt.irs c'lyo. Almost at the top of the hill 
was a small cooper's, or rather \vhcel\vri<,'ht;; 
Bliup ; the I'Usines • has disappeared, lthon;,di 
till' liuildini; remains. Next to it was a black 
Biiiith'.s shop, which is there now as it was 
in the •' Forties." In fro it of this shop 
stood for many years, linally disappearing 
about ISOO. a curious contrivance which was 
used for shoeing oxen. 

It consisted of a frame work, four feet 
wide, of strong hardwood bars about four 
inches square, and six feet long, dovetailed 
into four posts about five feet high and six 
inches square, forming the corners of '.he 
stand, and resting on a substantial floor of 
two-inch planks. There were three of the 
horizontal bars on each side of the frame, 
and on the top and ends it was held 
tnnether in its length and width by timber 
he same size as the posts. At the upper 
II, 1 of tnis contrivance, midway between | his death in 1867. 
the two corner posts, were two perpendicu- ] tirely rebuilt. A 

It was an operation not often performed, 
and when it was, wa5 iitt ended with a great 
deal of trouble, not only to the worknian, 
but pretty ypnerally to tin; ox This repre- 
sents a jihaso of colonial life long {>assed 
away, but tiiere are still many living who 
can remember wlien sucli an occurrence was 
by no means uncommon. P<v-<t the bUck- 
sinitli's shop, still ascending the hill, were 
twc or three cottages whiidi yet remain, 
though somewhiit weather-beaten, and 
then camo (Jainble's store, or, as 
it was sometimes called, Milton Mills depot. 
It is there to-day as it was half a century 
since, altered in scarcely a detail and look- 
ing as if it might remain for another titty 
years. For some time it was the post-office, 
but that has been removed els uhere long 
ago. Of its proprietor, William Uamble, 
more will be said presently. Still going 
westward, there were a few cottages, soirie 
of which, though altered, are still standing ; 
then came a handsome rough-cast cottage, 
occupied for several years by tho late Fred- 
erick Augustas Whitney, who was a well- 
known Toronto resident up to the time of 
This honse has been en- 
little further to the west 

I'l rirs, oiie fast, the other moving from 
r. L to left on a pivot at the bottom, and 
capable of being made fast by a bolt at the 
top When an ox was br ught to be shod 
he was driven into this framework stall, his 
head secured bv the movabl'^ bar, and the 
blacksmith the commenced his anything 
but agreeable task of shoeing tb* animal 

was a harness maker's shop, which still 
exists under a different proprietor. Past 
that again wm a small wooden school house, 
which was as late as 1854 the only educa- 
tional establishment for miles around. Of 
the education given there little can be said, 
except that it was of the moat meagre order. 
The building has been grMtly altered siaM 
















J 5 




i ii 





1854, and Public sohocis are \< ilhin enyy dia- 
t«nc« of kU th« rcsiJenU ot that iuciility, 
but it le yet standing and is used as a place 
of wcrthip by tlis IVjinan Catholics. As- 
cending St. George'8 Hili, at itp. Bummit ou 
tin) ligiit, stood, in 1848, the recently erect- 
ed church belongiui/ to '■.he Anylioaii coin- 
aianlon known a» St. (leorgc'n, I'ltohicoka, 
row as luiinston. It was aitacliod lo the 
lectory ci Mimico, <«'i;ich li.iii, prior to 1848, 
as roct-or the P.srerend hocior i'tiillips, who 
was ehaplsin lo th» Lugislattve Assembly, 
and WAS noted in the time of tlio rebellion 
of 1837 f'>r h;a uncompromising Toryism, 
tbi.ti his mdnereiice to the political parly 
known as the " family compact.'' i he kite 
\\ illiain Lyon Mackenzie on more than one 
ccca-iui: sinjijled lum out aa a victim for his 

Iti is now necessary to refer to 
the eastern 'lide of Dundas street, opposite 
Scarlett's race course. Here on the brow 
of the hill were two houses which hu i 
originally b«en a waggon aliop.but were con- 
verted into '1 welling houses by Mr., now 
Sir, William IVaice Howland. One of 
tiic.-fo was occupied by Mr. Howland him- 
.self until 1854, when Mr Pele;,' Howland 
lived in it, after the destruction by tiro of 
his tir.-ii residence, which occupied the .site 
upon which F. A. Howland afterwards 
built the house already spoken of. PassiiiLr 
a hundccd yards or so lo the west an i on the 
veiy edge of the hill orerlookint; liie lliun- 
bcr, '.viis Mr. l>"Arche's house. I'olh it and 
Mr. Howlftud's (hvellinu' luive been lit'J.c 
t.llcrcd in the forty years. Sonic lev" 

OBsparins' invective and biting sarcasm. 
Dr. Phillips was never backward in retort- 
ing, though it must be confessed he gener- 
ally came ofT second best in these encounters, 
*'t. (Jeorge's presents no architectural 
oeauty. tliough it is prettily situated, in 
1848 Dr. Phillips rejigned; he was succeeded 
by the Rev. H. C. Cooper, a 15. A. of Cam- 
bridg.', who for nearly thirty years held the 
factory He died in 1877, and of hiin it 
waa remarked at his death, " that he never 
lost a friend or made a.i enemy !"There is one 
distinction attached to>t. (^eorge's tiiat is 
■nhappily shared by very few Anglican 
thuiches in the Province of Ontario ; it is 
free from debt, and being consecrated for 
divine service, is with its surrounding erave 
yard, the absolute property of the Episcopal 

very small tenements were closely adjacent, 
one occupied by a man named (Jood, a iiiill- 
wriglit of enormous stature, being six feet 
nine tall. 

At the bottom of tiio bill was Howland'i 
ilotir mill, and in its rear a small disrilk-ry, 
also the property of the fnmiiy. The prfscut 
mills were built in 1843. Strictly speaking, 
they were rebuilt, for they occupy the site 
of an older naill purchased by Mr. Flowland 
from one Thomas Cooper. The latter at one 

j lime owned a wliarf in Toronto, which he 
exchanged wilh another member of his 

I family for Lainbtoii mills. This old mill 
was of very primitive fashion. It had only 
one " boiilt" and one " hand-packer," and 

I the whole ()f the gearing, with the exception 

i of the gudgeons and spiiiille,-!, was of wood. 

j It was worked by water, of course, and had 



»vn.*ti3now most, ai\ undershot 
wlieel. It was 40 )■}• 50 feet and two ur.ila 
.I'alf storeya high. Tlic lU'w mills uere most 
euccestiful, though Mi. ilowUnd met with 
no small nmount of ot>noaitioii, which by 
dint of en rpy and persevenvucc