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Full text of "The castles of England, their story and structure"












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Zhe Castles of Englanb 



THE 



Caetlee of ]£nglan6 



THEIR STORY AND STRUCTURE 



BY 

Sir JAMES D. MACKENZIE, 

BARONET OF SCATWELL AND TARBAT 

WITH FORTY PLATES, ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY-EIGHT TEXT 
ILLUSTRATIONS AND SEVENTY PLANS 



IN TWO VOLUMES 
Vol. II. 




NEW YORK 
THE MACMILLAN CO. 

1896 



All rights reserved 



(^'iu€<h^ V ^ 



Contents 



ARTS 



Cornwall 
Devonshire . 
Somersetshire . 
Monmouthshire 
Herefordshire . 
Shropshire . 
Cheshire 
Lancashire . 
Yorkshire 
Westmorland 
Cumberland 
Durham 
Northumberland 



PAGE 

I 

21 

45 
74 
94 
123 
162 
182 
207 
280 

295 
334 

358 



U.C.L.A. 
Arts Library 



Xi8t of Iplatcs 



Durham Castle 

Restormel Castle 

St. Michael's Mount 

Tintagel 

CoMPTON Castle 

Dunster Castle 

Taunton Castle 

Raglan Castle . 

Ludlow Castle 

HoGHTON Castle Courtyard 

Lancaster Castle . 

Bolton Castle . 

Knaresborough Castle 

Richmond Castle 

Skipton Castle 

Skipton Castle Courtyard 

Appleby Castle 

Alnwick Castle 

Bamborough Castle 

Warkworth Castle 



Frontispiece 




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ST. MAWliS 



Cornwall 



BOSCASTLE {nou-cxisknl) 

A lUX'T three miles along tlie coast N.E. of Tintagel is the scarped 

/% and jiartly terraced mound upon whicli once stood the Castle of 

/ % Bottreaux. On the slope of the hill at the junction of two valleys, 

M \. through each of which courses a stream, the Xorman-P'rench faniily 

of De Bottreaux built a castle in the time of Henry II., and from them the little 

town that afterwards grew round the stronghold took its name of Boscastle. 

Not a stone remains now of the building, whose site is marked only by a grassy 

mound called " ]ordans." 

William de Bottreaux and his vounger brother Reginald espoused the side 

of the Barons in the Civil War with Henrv III., 1264; and the last of the 

family, William, was killed at the second battle of St. Albans in 1461, leaving an 

only daughter, who married Robert, Lord Hungerford, with issue a daughter 

Mary, who was esteemed to be at the time the richest heiress in the country, 

being seised in her own right of over one hundred manors in ditlerent 

counties. Her husband, Lord Hastings, sold Boscastle in the reign of Elizabeth 

to John Hender, from whose daughters it has descended to its present owner, 

Miss Amy Hellier. The Marquis of Hastings still has the title of Baron 

Bottreau.x, though he owns no estate here. 

VOL. II. A 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



CARDINHAM, anciently called CARDINAN {nou-cxistcnt) 

CARDINHAM lies in the very centre of the connty, N.E. of Bodnnn. U 
seems to have been the seat of Robert de Cardinan (temp. Richard I.), who 
is said to have lield no less than seventy-one knights' fees in these parts, which 
he acquired by his marriage with the heiress of Robert Fitz-William. After- 
wards it was the abode of the Dynhams, or Dinhams, who derived from the 
former lord ; Oliver de Dinliam being summoned to Parliament as a baron 
in 24 Edward 1. After him came five direct generations of sons who were 
all knighted, and then John Dinham of Old Cardinham, SheritT of Devon 
(39 Henry \'l.), who was a zealous Yorkist, and was knighted for his active 
services by Edward 1\'., in whose sixth ye:ir he was created Baron Dynham 
and K.G. It appears curious that after this he should have acquired the favour 
of Henry VII., who made him Lord High Treasurer. This lord died in 
17 Henry VII., aged 72, and, his son Charles dying s.p., the estates were shared 
among his four sisters, who were all married to noblemen. Carew in his Survey 
says that " formerly at Cardinham lived Lord Dinham." One of the sisters, 
Margaret, was the wife of Sir Nicholas Carew, and her share of the Cardinham 
lands passed in 1573 to the Arundel family, from whom it was purchased in 
1800 by Edward Glynn, whose descendant, Lord \'ivian, now possesses the 
property. 

This castle, the seat of the Dinhams, was situated on a considerable enunence, 
about half-a-mile from the church ; the site is still called The Castle, and 
traces of the old foundations, which were laid bare some years ago, arc yet 
to be seen (compare Wardoiir, Wilts.). 



CARN BREA {minor) 

Ox a rocky hill standing over Redruth, with an elevation of 738 feet, 
are the remains of a very ancient tower, about 20 feet square and 
40 feet high, which once contained two timber floors, as may be seen 
from the beam-holes, windows, and chimneys, and a roof platform. There 
is but one entrance into it, through a small hole cut in the rock under the 
foundations. It stands at the E. end of the Carn Brea hill, on a ledge of 
vast rocks, which have been connected by arches turned across the cavities 
between the rocks. One part is ancient and is loopholed, but the other is of 
more modern construction, and seems to have been built in order to com- 
mand the very extensive view. On the N.W. were some outworks, and on 
the \V. side, near the sununit, is a circular forlilication called Old Cattle 
{Pokv/u'lc). 



CORNWALL 



F O W E Y {winoy) 

THIS place was once one of tlie mi)st impDitant bur^Iis in Connvall ; in 
1347 it supplied forty-seven ships for the expedition of Edward 111. to 
Calais. Leland writes: "The Frenchmen diverse tynies assailid this Town, at 
last most notably about Henry VI. 's tyme : when the wife of Thomas Treury, 
the 2 with her Man, repelled the French out of her House in her House- 
bande's Absence. Whereupon Thomas Treury buildid a right fair and stronge 
embatelid Towr in his House : and embateling al the waulles of the House 
in a Maner made it a Castelle : and onto this Day it is the glorie of the Town 
Building in Faweye." Place House is the seat of the Treft'ry family, and in 
its grounds is a statue of Elizabeth, the wife of Thomas Treffry, whose action 
is told by Leland. 

Mucli of the house has been rebuilt, but its castellated appearance still 
remains. The princijial entiance is tiiuu the churchyard through a ruined gate, 
with a strong wicket, Hanked by a lodge pierced with loopholes. 

Buck shows, in a drawing of 1734, a si]uare tower on each side of the 
narrow entrance into P'owev Haven. From one of these to the other an iron 
chain was stretched, but this was removed, iiuniediately after being placed 
there, by King Edward IV., who took umbrage at certain acts of piracy com- 
mitted by the townspeople against the French. On a high rocky eminence 
outside on the W. are shown the remains of a large circular fort with embattled 
approaches. This fort of St. Catherine, built for the protection of the harbour 
in the reign of Henry VIII., is still in existence, and formerly mounted 
four guns. 

H A Y L R {iion-c.xistciil) 

AT the mouth of the estuarv formed by the river once stood a castle for 
the protection of this port, but of what descrijition cannot now be 
determined. Leland says : " Ryvier Castel almost at the est part of the mouth 
of the Hayle river, on the North se : now, as sum think, drownid with sand. 
This was Theodore's Castelle" {Polwhek). 



H E L S T O N (,wu-cxislrnl) 

THIS town, which stood on the great road from London to the Land's 
End, is a place of considerable anticpiity, having been made by King 
|iihn one ol the loui' coinage towns. A castle was erected at Helston shortly 
alter the Contiuest, which fell into ruin about the time of Edw.ird I\'., and in 
the Itinerary of William of Woicesler of 147S, given bv (lilbert, it is called 



4 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

"dirutiim." It stood on the site of the present howling-green. Leland 
ohserved some vestiges of it, hut at tliis date nothing whatever remains. 

William of Worcester mentions thirty-four castles in Cornwall, eighteen of 
which were already destroyed, and he speaks of Helston Castle as sometime 
the residence of Edward, Earl of Cornwall, the grandson of King John, and as 
then hcing in ruins. 

I N C E (minor) 

THIS was more a fortified house than a castle, being situated pleasantly 
almost on an island in the estuary of the Lynher or St. Germans River. 
It was a fortress built entirely of brick, with a flanking tower at each angle, and 
in 1646, during the Civil War, was garrisoned for the king, but soon surren- 
dered to the Parliamentary forces. It was purchased by Mr. Alexander Baring, 
and is now a farm-house. 



LAUNCESTON, once called DUNHEVED (Mr/) 

BORLASE calls this " by far the strongest of our Cornish castles." It stands 
over the little stream Attery, nearly a mile distant from the banks of the 
Tamar, which here divides Cornwall from Devon, upon a high and rocky 
conical hill, commanding the principal ford of the river. Leland, writing in 
the middle of the sixteenth century, says : "The large and auncient Castelle of 
Lavvnstun stondith on the Knappe of the Hille by S. a little from the Parsche 
cliirch. Much of this Castel yet stondith ; & the Moles that the Kepe standeth 
on is large & of terrible highth, & the Arx of it, having 3 severale Wardes, 
is the strongest, but not the biggest, that ever I saw in any auncient Worke 
in Englande." 

This castle is not named in the Domesday Survey nor in the list of the Earl 
of Mortain's castles and lands ; but though perhaps no masonry castle existed 
here before the Conquest, it is certain that this was one of the chief seats of 
the Earls or Princes of Cornwall from Roman times, if not before these 
{Borlase). It is said that Robert, Earl of Mortain, was established here bv 
William I. in place of Othomarus de Knivet (of Danish extraction), who was 
hereditary Constable of Launceston Castle, that is, of the stronghold existing 
on the mound for centuries previous. This earl received from his half-brother 
the Conqueror, 280 manors in Cornwall, and 558 in other counties, together 
with the earldom of Cornwall. He was succeeded by his son William, who 
lost all by rebellion, his possessions being confiscated by the Crown, and 
retained until the creation of Richard, King of the Romans, as Earl of Cornwall 
by his brother Henry III. His son Edward inherited all after him, and at 
the death of this second earl s.p., Edward I. laid hands on his lands and castles. 



CORNWALL 



5 



In 1 V) tlif earldom was confiiTL'cl on Jolm of EUliani by Edward 111., Init at 
his death without issue this castle was settled, with the other possessions, npon 
the Black Prince, and thus passed into the Duchy of Cornwall, of which it 
still remains a part. 

After its union with the duchy the fortress appears to have been little 
needed, and so fell into nei^lect and the ruin observed by Leland. But during 
the Civil War, in 1643, the fabric was partially repaired and strengthened for 





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LAUNCESTON 



the reception of Parliamentary troops under the command of Sir Richard 
Buller, who, however, evacuated it on the approach of Sir Ralph Hopton with 
a force of 3000 men. In May of that year, Major-General Sir George Chudleigh, 
whilst endeavouring to prevent assistance reaching the castle, was attacked and 
beaten in the neighbourhood by the forces of Sir Richard and Sir Beville 
Grenville, who entered and garrisoned the place. In the next year Launceston 
was forced to surrender to the Karl of Essex, but it again fell into the king's 
li ukIs ;il the capitulation of Essex at Eowey, and in 1645 ^''' Kichard Cjrenville, 
li.aing refused to serve under Lord Hopton's command, was committed 



6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

prisoner to this castle by the Prince of Wales ; he was removed hence to St. 
Michael's Mount, from whence he escaped by sea to Flanders, dying three 
years after in f^reat destitution at Ghent. In March 1646 the fortress was 
surrendered by Colonel Basset to the army under Sir Thomas Fairfax. After 
the Restoration, Sir Hugh Piper for his services was granted a lease of this 
castle and was made Constable of it, and it continued in his family till 1754, 
when it passed to Hugh, 3rd Duke of Northumberland, remaining with his 
descendants till 1867. During the occupation of this family, about ;43°°° 
was expended upon the castle and its grounds. It is now the property of 
Mr. J. C. Williams. A large extent of forest originally surrounded the town 
of Launceston, where in the time of Edward III. there was a deer park 
a league in length. 

In the drawing given in Buck (1734), as also in that by Borlase, of later 
date, there is shown a large rectangular enclosure with a ruined wall. This 
formed the outer ward of the castle, and is now covered by the town, — the 
curtain wall being partly built on a rampart of earth, and defended by a large 
encircling ditch on the S. and E. sides, while on the other quarters it was 
protected by a deep valley. The chief entrance was on the S., where still 
stands the large square gatehouse, with a broad Early English low-pointed gate- 
way with portcullis grooves at the end of a walled passage, 120 feet in length ; 
access to this being bj' a drawbridge across the ditch. Some part of the arch- 
way remains, and also traces of the wall on the W. side. At the S. corner 
of the rampart was a large circular bastion, called the Witches' Tower, which 
fell down at the time a new road was constructed there ; and there was also 
a semi-circular tower with a gatehouse and guardroom, near the E. corner, 
where rises abruptly the immense conical mound, crowned by the ancient 
keep or dungeon. 

This lofty hill, which occupies the X.E. angle, is partly natural and partly 
artificial, and was orginally about 320 feet in diameter, rising to a height of 
about 100 feet above the lower court. The ascent to the keep is from the 
gatehouse up a flight of stairs between loopholed side-walls, the width being 

7 feet. Around the sununit of the mound at the edge ran a low stone wall 
or breastwork, 3 feet high and 93 feet in diameter, behind which, at a distance 
of 6 feet, is an annular wall 12 feet thick, with an entrance on the S. side 
under a Norman arch, and containing a staircase which admits to the top of 
the wall. In the centre and concentric with this outer wall, at a distance of 
10 feet between, rises the inner tower of the keep, having an inside diameter 
of 18 feet and a height of 32 feet, its walls being 10 feet through, with a 
staircase contrived in the thickness running up to the top. This tower was 
divided by a wooden floor into two rooms, the first being a store without 
exterior lights, and the upper one having a large window on its E. and W. 
sides. Below the ground-level is a cellar or prison. The space between 



CORNWALL 7 

the tower and the encircling wall was covered with a wooden roof, at the 
level of the first fioor, restin,!^ on the top of this wall. 

Following the line of the keep court wall to the N., and passing the deep 
ravine which protected the castle here, one comes to the E. gate, the most 
perfect part of the ruins, which contained the Constable's i-iuarters. Beneath 
the gatehouse, and entered by a small lancet doorway, is a chamber having 
no chimney and only a loophole for air and light; this was the "noisome 
den " in which George Fox, the P'ather of the Quakers, was confined for 
eight months, in 1656, for contempt of Court in wearing his hat at his trial, 
and for distributing tracts at St. Ives. Roman coins have been found here. 
Laimceston was sometimes called "Castle Terrible." 



L I S K I^: A R D {i/ou-cxistcn/) 

THE very ancient place of this name was one of the four original stannary 
and coinage towns, and as such was possessed by Robert de Mortain or 
Moreton, Earl of Cornwall, in Domesday. Richard, Earl of Cornwall, the 
brother of Henry 111., made it a free borough, and is said to have built the 
castle here, and to have lived in it. William of Worcester, who visited 
Cornwall in the reign of Edward IV., speaks of Liskeard Castle as then standing, 
and as one of the palaces of the duchy, but when Leland came there, about 
1540, he says, it is "now al in mine; fragments and pieces ui waulle yet 
stonde : the site of it is magnificent and looketh over all the towne." Carew 
supposes it to have been of no great antiquity : " Of later times," he says, " the 
castle served the Earl of Cornwall for one of his houses ; but now that later 
is worm-eaten, out ol time and use." In the Survev of i()-^f), this castle was 
found to be so much decayed that the materials were not worth taking down. 
Some crumbling ruins only stand upon an eminence X. of the town, and 
contiguous to these is a large tield still called the Castle Park : the phice was 
disparked by Ilenrv \'11I., and once fed 200 deer. 



PENDENNIS {c/uc/) 

THIS castle is built on a high and projecting peninsula on the W. side 
of l""almoulh Haven, nearly 300 feet above the sea, and a mile in compass. 
In early limes, the Danes visiting Coiinvall seized this site and raised here a 
rude trijile entrenchment of eaith and stt)nes, but no regular fortification was 
erected on the spot till tiie reign of Henry \'II1. In 1537, in consequence 
of Henry's relations with tiie Catholic powers, general insecuritv was felt by 
the country, and proteetivin Irom threatened foreign invasion was demanded. 
.Accordingly, survey^ and reports were ordered on those parts of the co.t-,t 



8 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



where .111 invading army could most easily land ; plans were submitted to 
engineers in London, and the works were at once taken in hand with most 
creditable promptitude, so that, in two years after, the greater part of all the 
exposed points suitable for a hostile landing were guarded either by a block- 
house or a fort, or by earthworks, fron: St. Michael's Mount to Portsmouth, 
and thence by Dover to the Thames. The king spared himself no exertion, 
and came personally to visit many spots chosen on the southern coasts, even 
to Cornwall. 

In 1538 a small blockhouse was built, it is thought, under Pendennis Point, 
close to the water's edge and near the present rifie range, and in the next 
year the order was given for the erection of Pendennis Castle, which was 
completed in 1542-44, when Leland saw the work. At the same time, to 

support this fortress a cor- 
responding castle was built 
on the opposite side of the 
^ water, called St. Mawes. 

The tradition is generally 
believed in Cornwall that 
Henry VIIl. came to view 
the situation of these two 
castles, as proposed, and 
passed two nights at the 
Arundels' seat of Tolvern, 
whence he crossed the estu- 
ary to St. P>ock at a pas- 
sage that has ever since 
gone by his name. Eliza- 
beth caused the castle to 
be greatly strengthened and enlarged, and a governor was appointed to it with 
a garrison of 100 men. 

Pendennis consists of a large circular tower, 56 feet in outside diameter 
and 35 feet high, built of granite with walls 11 feet thick, which are 
pierced in three tiers with embrasures for guns, and carrying artillery 
likewise upon the roof, where a heavy sloping parapet protects the guns. 
Above this is a turret for observation. The arms of Henry \'II1. are over 
the doorway. 

On the N. side of the round tower projects a large embattled square 
building of two stories, in which are the lodgings, entered from a drawbridge 
across the wide moat, and through a highly ornamented gateway. A parapet 
wall pierced for guns surrounds the outside, and beyond are a ditch and 
glacis, and also an irregular fortification strengthened by four bastions, one 
of them mounting a large battery, and with a lunette on the E. side. The 




I ' I Mil \ M - 



CORNWALL 9 

whole work covers an larea of over three acres. Tlicrc are ^lill traces of a 
honuvork constructed during the Civil War. 

The ancient family of Killigrew, whose residence of Arwenack stood directly 
below at the shore, furnished the three first governors of Pendennis Castle, 
which tliev held from the Crown, and on the death of Sir lohn, in 1597, Queen 
Elizabeth appointed Sir Nicholas Parker to the post. In 1626 Sir Robert 
Killigrew was governor and captain, his son Sir William being associated with 
him two years later ; but in 1634 we find that from the governor's neglect the 
castle was reported to be in a ruinous state, and Sir William the next year 
gave place to Sir Nicholas Slanning, an energetic royalist, who was killed at 
the siege of Bristol in 1643. Then the king appointed Colonel John Arundel 
of Trerise to the governorship. During the next year Queen Henrietta Maria, 
who had just been delivered oi her youngest daughter, was driven into 
Cornwall — always a loyal county — and rested at Pendennis for a night before 
embarking early the next day (June 29) in a Dutch vessel for France. 

On February 12, 1646, the Prince of Wales, whose person the Parliament 
was anxious to seize, being in Cornwall, retired for safety to Pendennis, but 
after the flight of Sir Ralph Hopton, following the battle at Torrington, the 
place was deemed no longer safe for him, and on the night of March 2nd he 
went on board a ship which conveyed him to Scilly. The room in the castle 
where Charles lived is still called the king's room, and above it was contrived 
a closet with a fireplace, in which tradition relates that the prince was concealed. 
Tile place, however, with a recess opposite the fireplace, was removed in 1808 
during some repairs in the castle. 

Shortly after (March 16), in expectation of the immediate arrival of the 
Parliamentary army under P'airfax, Colonel Arundel sallied from the castle 
and caused fire to be set to the old house of the Killigrews, Arwenack, which 
lay directly below, surrounded by trees, in order to prevent its occupation by 
the enemy, purposing also to burn the adjoining town of Pennyeomequiek 
(the forerimner of Falmouth). But the sudden arrival of Roundhead troops 
prevented this, and saved also a part of Arwenack Ht)use, then esteemed to 
be "the finest and the costliest in the countv." Fairfax arrived next day, 
establishing himself and his headquarters in the house, and witii two regiments 
at once blocked up Pendennis. 

Colonel Arundel had added to the defences, by forming a hornwork consist- 
ing of a pentagon redoubt, with flanks ai tciiailU-, and had thrown up various 
other earthworks within the tracing of his lines. "The parapet and ditch oi 
the redoubt still remain, though overgrown with bushes" {Oliver). He was a 
line old cavalier, at that time, by his own account, seventy years of age, but 
probably older, as he is said to have been M.P. for Cornwall in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and to ha\e been present at (he review by her of her troops at 

Tilbury in 1588, on which account he went by the name of "Old Tilburv." 
VOL. II. ' 13 ' 



lO 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



From liis firm adherence to the cause of Charles, lie was also known by the 
sobriquet of " John-for-the-King." 

The castle contained a garrison of nearly 800 men, and was furnished with 
plenty of ammunition and provisions, as was supposed, for a nine months' 
siege; so when summoned on March liSth by Fairfax to surrender, old 
Arundel at once returned a decisive refusal. Thereon the place wasclosely 
invested by land across the isthmus, while Captain William Batten, the Parlia- 
mentary vice-admiral, blockaded it by sea. There appears to have been 
little actual bombardment, though shot-marks can still be seen on the N.W. side 
of the castle ; hut the besiegers trusted to reduce the fortress by famine, and 
in this they at last succeeded. Twice again a summons was delivered, but 
although provisions ran scarce, and the garrison was at last reduced to great 
extremities, the gallant old governor held out for hve months, till August 17th, 
when only food for one day remained, and he then surrendered on excellent 
terms. The victors, on whom the investment had fallen very heavily, entering 
found in the castle only a cask of horse meat salted, " noe bread nor drink." 
Clarendon says that Pendennis " endured the longest siege and held out the 
last of any fort or castle in England," — but Raglan appears to have been surren- 
dered on August 19th. The list of the defenders includes 92 officers and 732 
soldiers, of whom 200 were sick, and there were 200 women and children. 
The besiegers lost 17 men. 

At the Restoration, Sir Peter Killigrew was appointed governor, and the 
town received a charter and its new name of P'aimouth. Sir Peter died in 1662, 
and was succeeded by Colonel Richard Arundel, the son of Old Tilbury, who 
had assisted him in the siege. He was created Lord Arundel in 1665, and 
was followed at Pendennis by the Earl of Bath, who published here " with 
great contentment " the proclamations of the Prince of Orange on his landing in 
Torbay. In 1795 the Pendennis lands were purchased from the Crown in fee 
by tile Killigrew family. 



PENGERSIC [minor) 

IX the S. of the parish of St. Breage, beautifully situated in a valley near 
the sea, is the site of an old fortress, which belonged since the Conquest 
mostly to the great family of Godolphin. The existing remains are those of 
a castellated blockhouse erected by Henry \'lll., and consist of a square 
embattled tower of three storeys, and a small one annexed, with fragments 
of walls. In the lesser tower are winding stairs leading to the top ; the walls 
of the ground floor are loopholed, and the door on the N. side is machicoiated. 
Many of the apartments have fallen in. The wainscoted walls of the larger 
tower are enriched with carvings, paintings, and inscriptions. It was once 
occupied as a hiding-place by one Milliton, who in repentance for a secret 



CORNWALL II 

murder, havinj^ iiurch:ise(l lliis barton and manor, secluded liimselt Iiere for 
many years. 

In Buck there is a drawinj^ i^iven of the place as it stood in 1734, showinf^ 
a large oblong building of three storeys, battlemented at top, with a square 
tower attached to one corner rising above the roof, being the entrance tower, 
with a circular doorway. In front are the ruins of a still larger building. The 
place is the property of the Duke of Leeds. 



RESTORMRL {mhwr) 

THIS interesting ruin of an important stronghold stands on the crest of 
a rocky eminence, about a mile to the N. of Lostwithiel, with the rapid 
Fowey flowing below the precipitous face of the hill, which is covered with a 
thick wood. Leiand wrote: "The Park of Kestormel is hard by the N. side 
of the town of Lostwithiel. Ther is a castel on an hill in this park, wher 
sumtymes the erles of Cornwall lay. The base court is sore defaced : the 
fair large dungeon (keep) yet stondith." 

The Conqueror supplanted the last native Earl of Cornwall, giving his lands 
and title to his own half-brother, Roger le Mortain (or Moreton, as it came to 
be written), but on the subsequent attainder of Roger's son William the whole 
was conliscatcd, and the valuable property and the title of this earldom was 
ever after vested in the Royal family or the Crown itself. The Castle of 
Restormel may have been built by either of the Mortains, but is also said to 
have been reared by one of the Cardinham family, in the reign of Richard 1., 
since they, as well as the Tracys, lived here in early times. Henry III. gave 
Restormel with other possessions to his brother Richard, King of the Romans, 
who was created Earl of Cornwall, and as one of the chief seats of this ancient 
earldom, it was used by him as a residence, and after him his son Edward 
kept his court here. At the death of this second earl without issue the whole 
again reverted to the Crown, and Edward III. annexed it to the Duchy of 
Cornwall ; since which time this castle and honour have never been alienated 
therefrom, though leased by the duchy from time to time. It must, however, 
have fallen early into neglect and ruin, and its great park was disparked by 
Henry VIII. at the instance of Sir Richard Pollard. In that reign the castle 
was unroofed and defaced. 

During the Civil Wai' of the seventeenth century Restormel, after these ages 
of ruin and desertion, was partially repaired by the Parliament and received a 
garrison ; and in the year 1644, when King Charles found himself in force in 
his loyal county of Cornwall, and was driving Essex before him, he came to 
Lostwithiel with his ainiy, and on August 21st Restormel was stormed by 
Sir Richard (jrenville. 



12 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

The construction of tlie original fortress is that of a shell or annular keep, 
but in this case, being built upon the living rock and not on an artificial mound, 
its structure is much more massive than the ordinary masonry of a shell keep. 
An outer circular wall, g feet thick and about 34 feet high, having a diameter 
of 105 feet, fronts the open country, with its embattled parapet ; within this 
and concentric with it is an iimer wall of lighter masonry, and within the 
annular space between the two walls are contained the apartments of the castle, 
nineteen in number, on two storeys ; there is the width of 19 feet between 
the outer and inner walls, the centre being an open circular court 64 feet in 
diameter. Three staircases lead up to the lamparts on the outer wall. Borlase 
gives a ground plan of the structure, the entrance to which is under the ruins 
of a square tower, and through a vaulted passage and second archway into 
a small open quadrangle adjoining the inner court. 

On the opposite side to the entrance, that is on the E.N.E. quarter, is 
projected a tower called the Chapel, which afforded a flanking defence on 
that side as far as the centre of the deep ditch, 9 yards in width, encircling 
the whole castle. The outer wall contained some fine pointed-arch openings, 
perhaps for lighting the principal apartments, which were generally lighted 
from the inner court. 

The lower or base court has perished, but in the reign of Elizabeth, when 
Carew wrote, some fragments remained of this portion of the fortress ; and 
there was another large and deep moat, filled with water brought in pipes 
from the adjoining hill. Among these ruins was a huge ancient oven 14 feet 
in width. 

ST. M A W E S {luiuor) 

THIS fort, a smaller work than Pendennis, on the opposite side of the haven, 
was commenced by Henry VIII. before the present Castle of Pendennis, 
and, like it, was completed about 1544, being stated to have cost X5000. Over 
the great door are Henry's arms, and on the doorways are these lines : — 

" Semper vivat anima regis Henrici octavi qui anno 34 sui regni hoc fecit fieri." 

"May the soul of King Henry YIII. live for ever, who in the 34th year of his reign 
commanded this to be built." 

It is a circular fort like Pendennis, with embrasures for guns on two 
storeys and the roof, having a small conning turret with a cupola roof. On 
the ground floor are three circular bastions with embattled parapets, embracing 
the central tower, which is 64 feet high, and stands 63 feet above sea-level. 
Of late years a formidable battery has been added below the old blockhouse, 
which can cross lire with the fortress opposite. It is quite commanded bv 
higher ground in rear. 




u 
J 

H 

< 
u 

w 

OS 

o 

H 
W 



CORNWALL 13 

The first governors were all members of tlie \'ivian family till i(')3o, when 
Sir Robert le Grys was appointed, in whose time much dispute arose with 
Pendennis regarding their relative rights over the shipping. Earl Arundel 
and Surrey became captain of the fort in 1635, with a garrison of sixteen men ; 
and at his death the lieutenant, Major Bonithon, was made keeper or captiin. 
The latter, having been accused in 1644 of embezzlement, at once sum-ndered 
St. Mawes to General Fairfax in March i64(), with its armament of sixteen guns. 
After the Restoration, the Vivians again became the governors. 



ST. MICHAEL'S M O U N T (c/»>/) 

THIS is a pyramidal isolated granite crag, in the parish of St. Hilary, 195 
feet high and 5 furlongs in circumference, standing in Mounts Bay, E. of 
Penzance. It is said to have been cut off from the mainland by a mighty 
inundation which occurred in ioqq, and is now joined to the shore only by 
a low causeway, 560 yards long, of land which is covered by the tide for 
sixteen hours out of the twenty-four. 

The hill is crowned with an ancient building originally founded by Edward 
the Confessor as a priory for Benedictine mdnks, and which in after years was 
fortified. The first military occupation of this structure was effected by Henry 
de Pomeroy, who, having during the absence of King Richard I. at the Holv 
War assisted the usurping Prince John, was summoned by the vicegerent, 
Bishop Longchamp, from Berry Pomeroy (q.v., Devon). He, however, stabbed 
the messenger, and then tied to his castle of Tregony, the strength of which 
mistrusting, he thence proceeded with some followers to the Mount, where 
tile party, disguised as pilgrims, introduced themselves into the monastic 
buildings, seized and fortitied them, and remained there for several months. 
On the return of the king from his Austrian jirison, Pomeroy, fearing 
the consecjuences, is said to have bled himself to death, and the Mount was 
surrendered to Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, the Chancellor, who was sent 
to regain the place (1194). The king then restored the monks, placing a small 
garrison at the Mount to guaid it in future. This Henry de Pomeroy being 
the grandson of the illegitimate daughter of Henry I., was thus a relation of 
Richard 1. and his brother John. 

The next we hear of the place is its capture in the lifteenlh century bv John, 
13th Vl:\\\ of Oxford, on fleeing from the battle of l)arnet (1471). He came 
to Wales, and taking ship coasted round the S. coast to this place, where his 
grandfather had acquired possession. Here, after the example of Pomerov, 
Oxford and his men, disguising themselves, obtained admission and seized the 
fortress, occupying it as they alleged fur King Henry. Edward 1\'. at t)nce 
sent a force under Sir John .\inndel, the slK-riff, to besiege and reduce the 



14 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Mount : Oxford, Iiowcvlt, refusing to surrcMul("r, made a vigorous resistance, 
driving the besiegers hack on the sands, where tlie sheriff and some of his 
men were killed. Tliereon a new sheriff was despatched against Oxford, who 
again repulsed the force with loss, and on this being reported to the king he 
sent to learn on what terms Oxford would surrender. He demanded their 
lives, liberties, and lands, and Edward granted the terms asked, whereupon the 
fortress was delivered up. But the earl was sent prisoner to Ham in France, 




ST. MlCH.'VEL'S MOUNT 



where he lived till the expedition of the Earl of Richmond against Richard 111., 
which he joined, and, leading the van at Bosworth, was slain. In the reign of 
Henry VII. Perkin Warbeck landed here, and on proceeding on his raid in 
Cornwall left his wife. Lady Catherine Gordon, in security at the Mount. 
During the Cornish insurrection of 1549 (Edward VI.), many of the best families 
in the West fled for shelter to this stronghold, and were there besieged by the 
rebels under its governor, Humphrey Arundel. The place was stormed and 
taken, yielding rich plunder to the victors, who in their turn, however, were 
driven out. 

Ill the great Civil War the Mount was made, as supposed, impregnable, and 




1 
^ 

."s. ^ 

S' 



CORNWALL 15 

was lield for King Charles by Sir Arthur Basset, hut in April 1646 tlie 
Pariiamentar}' troops, under Colonel Hammond, succeeded after a siege of 
fifteen days in reducing the place, when fifteen guns and 400 stand of arms fell 
into their hands {Sprigg). 

A steep and difficult path leads up to the summit, defended midway by a 
battery, with another liattery at the top. The church crowns the crest of the 
hill, surrounded by the old monastic buildings. On the centre tower is a 
turret once used as a beacon for sailors, and on the S.W. angle of this, 
overhanging the sea, is the famous seat called St. Michael's Chair. The 
whole structure has for long been the property of the St. Aubyn family 
(Lord St. Levan), and has been adapted to form a comfortable modern dwell- 
ing. It is a castellated house, retaining much of the monastic masonry, but 
great alterations were made in it during last century ; the dining-room was 
the refectory of the convent, and the chapel has been fitted up in the 
Gothic style. 

Queen Elizabeth granted the manor to Thomas I^ellot, who conveyed it to 
Cecil, Earl of Salisbnry ; then, when forfeited by that family. King Charles gave 
it to the Bassets of Tehidy, but at the Restoration the St. Aubyn family purchased 
it from them and made it ever since their principal residence. 



ST. KUAN, LANIHORNE {mmor) 

ABOUT three miles from Tregony, at the head of the creek of this name, and 
near the church, are some remains of a magniiicent castle, which was 
the seat of the ancient family of Erchdeckne or Archdeckne. Leland writes : 
"At the Hed of Lanyhorne Creeke standith the Castelle of Lanyhorne, sumtyme 
a Castelle of an N Towres, now decaying for lack of Coverture. It longgid as 
principal House to the Archedecons. This landes descended by Heires general 
to the best Corbetes of Shropshir, and to Vaulx of Northamptonshir." Hals, 
writing early in the last century, states that six of the towers of this castle were 
standing a little time before he wrote, and that the largest of them, 50 feel 
in height, was tlien in existence ; but in lyiiS this was pulled down by one 
Grant, with the leave of the owner, and with its materials several houses were 
erected. 

The family of Archdeckne was an ancient one in the country, Thomas le 
Arcedeckne being a knight of Parliament (33 Edward 1.), and one of the 
same name was sumnu)ned to Parliament as a baron (14 Edward II.), as 
was likewise his son. His grandson left three daughters, coheiresses, by 
whom the estates came to tiie fauulies of \'aux, Corbett, I)e Lacy, anil the 
Tregrans. 



i6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



T I NT AGE L {mmor) 

THIS (kciiycd fortress," s:iys Carcw in 1602, "more famous for his anti- 
qiiilic tlian rcgardable for his present estate, abutteth on the sea ; yet 
tlie mines arijue it to liave been once no unworthie dwelling for tiie Cornish 
Princes;" and lie continues: " Halfe the buildings were raised on tlie con- 
tinent and the other half on an iland continued together (within men's 
remembrance) by a draw-bridge, but now diuorced by the downefaln steepe 
clififes on the farther side." 

Here by tradition, about the year 450, the British King Arthur, the illegiti- 
mate son of Uther Pendragon, was born, and here it is said he kept his court 
and held his diversions of the Round Table. At all events there e.xisted here, 
in early ages, a rude stronghold of the British earls of Cornwall, of which the 
first mention is made by Geoffrey of Monmouth, about the year 1150; the 
castle was probably built after the Conquest. 

It consisted of an outer court on the mainland, enclosed by a curtain wall, 
defended on the E. and X. outwardly by a ditch. Xurden's sketch in 1626 
shows on the land side a gate leading to a large square gatehouse, with a corner 
watch-turret, from whence steps descended into a second ward, where a very 
strong semi-circular wall, 7 feet thick, extended along a steep crag to the edge 
of the cliff at the E. Toward the \V. the wall rises to an eminence surrounded 
by an embattled parapet, which is continued on that side to the cliff" edge. 
Beyond this comes the island or peninsula on which the keep and main part 
of the fortress is said to have stood. 

The great difficulty arises from the separation of this peninsula, wliich is 
supposed to have been effected by the weathering, during the lapse of time, of 
the sijft schistose claj'-slate which forms the rocks at this point of the coast, 
hi Wvc Journal of the Royal Institute of Cornwall (\o\. iv.), the Rev. R. B. Kinsman 
states his opinion that originally this island was merely the point of the pro- 
jecting headland of Tintagel Head, and that its isolation is due to the above 
cause, which has formed a cove on both the E. and W. sides of it, and that 
the original stronghold was one continuous fortress without any separation. 
If so, the building must have been placed there in extremely remote ages, 
since Geoffrey of Monmouth implies the situation as surrounded by the sea, 
and with a narrow neck of land only joining it to the mainland, "which three 
men shall be able to defend against the whole power of the kingdom." Since 
that time this narrow neck, being broken through bv the sea, gave place to a 
drawbridge, which Hals in 1602 says was then remembered, and by degrees 
the opening has been worn into the present chasm. 

The ruins, as we see them, may have been of Plantagenet origin. In 
^lyi (temp. Edward 111.) the buildings were in a ruinous state, a part of 




H^ 



^ 



^ 



CORNWALL 17 

them joining the work on the mainland to that on the island having fallen 
into the sea : the drawbridge fell in the sixteenth century. The chasm which 
forms so picturesque a feature in the scenery is now about 200 feet across, 
and is gradually widening. For some time after the drawbridge went, the 
opening was crossed by a timber structure. 

Leiand wrote in 1538 regarding Tintagel : "This Castelle hath bene a 
marvelous strong and notable forteres, and almost situ loci inexpugnabile, 
especially for the dungeon that is on a great high terrible cragge, environed 
with the se, but having a drawbridge from the residew or the Castelle luito it. 
There is yet a chapel standing within this dungeon of St. Ulette alias Ulianne. 
Shepe now fedc witliin the dungeon. The residew of buildings of the Castelle 
be sore wether-beten and yn ruine, but it hath bene a large thinge. The Castelle 
had belykhod 3 wardes, whereof 2 be woren away with gufying in of the se : 
without the isle renneth alonly a gate house, a walle, and a fals braye dyged 
and walled. On the isle remayne old walles, and on the E. part of the same, 
the ground beyng lower, remayneth a walle embatelcd, and men alive saw 
ther, yn a postern, a dore of yren. There is in the isle a prety chapel, with a 
tumbe on the left syde." 

The inner ward on the island contained the keep and the chief buildings, 
including the great hall, the timber of which was taken away by John of 
Eltham, then Earl of Cornwall, "when the hall was ruinous and its walls of 
no value." Adjoining the N. wall are still the ruins of six apartments where 
lived the Constable and the chaplain. The chapel, of the thirteenth century, 
measuring 54 feet by 12, has been unroofed and in ruins for several centuries ; 
part of its altar with a granite slab was unearthed in 1855. it had some 
mouldings of Transition Norman style. 

Mr. Wilkinson {Journal R. Inst. Corn?) is of opinion that Richard, Earl 

of Cornwall (created 1225), built Tintagel, since he was active in repairing and 

enlarging other castles in the duchy, as Restormel, Liskeard, and other places, 

and it is likely that he added to any fortress he found there. In 1245 he 

entertained his nephew David, Prince of Wales, then in rebellion against 

Henry 111. {Matt. Paris). His son Edmund, the last earl who resided in 

Cornwall, appointed in 1291 his "dearly beloved servant John, called le Barber, 

to be Constable of Tintagel for life, with a chaplain. After his death in 1300 

all Cornish castles, except Launceston, ceased to be kept up, and so in 1337 

there was no chaplain, and the castle was described as in a very dilapidated 

state ; it was then that the great hall was destroyed by John of Eltham. Some 

repairs, however, may have afterwards been made, as we find this castle in 

1385 converted into a prison, where was then confined John of Northampton, 

Lord Mayor of London, condemned for his "unruly maioralty," and again 

in 1397 Thomas, Earl of Warwick, was imprisoned in the castle. Thenceforth 

a small sum was granted for repairs until the reign of Elizabeth, when the 
VOL. II, C 



i8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Ldid Treasurer Burleigh struck out tlie item as "a superfluous expense to 
the Ciown." Since tlien the ravages of time, aided by Atlantic storms and 
landslips, have completed the wreck. 

In the reign of Richard II., when much of the duchv lands were alienated 
for a time, Tintagel Castle and Manor were given to John Holland, Earl of 
Huntingdon, who had married the king's sister Elizabeth, and after he was 
beheaded his widow held the property' till her death, when it reverted to the 
Crown. Mr. Wilkinson prints at length the Report and Survey on the fortress 
in December 1583, by Sir Richard Grenville, which speaks of the defensible 
landing-place on the E. side of the island called the Tron Gate. It was n(jf 
a place of sufficient importance in the succeeding Civil War to cause anv 
contention for its possession, and seems to have passed into oblivion. 



T R E G O N Y {mu-cxistrnt) 

AT the lower end of this town on the E. side of the Fal River, a little below 
the hospital, is an earthwork on a hill, still called the Castle Hill, 
where are some scanty remains of a castle built by Henry de Pomeroy (temp. 
Richard 1.). Tradition says that this baron, being appointed lord of the manor 
in the reign of Henry II. on behalf of Prince John, Earl of Mortain and 
Cornwall, espoused the cause of John when in rebellion against his brother 
Richard, during his absence in the Holy Land. 

The castle was standing and remained the seat of these Pomeroys till 
the reign of Edward VI. The last Pomeroy (temp. Elizabeth) left issue a 
daughter, married to Richard Penkivell of Resuna, whose descendant, having 
been ruined in the time of Charles I., sold the manor to Hugh Boscawen, 
Sheriff of Cornwall, in whose family it was settled on the Lady Anne Fitzgerald, 
who carried it to her second husband, Francis Robertes, youngest son of the 
Earl of Radnor {Hals). 

Whitaker ascribes the site of this castle to the choice of the Romans, who 
placed a fort there to command the lowest ford of the Fal, having a high 
precipice on each side, and a brook which joined the river beneath it. The 
trenches of the later fortress built here are visible. 



T R E J A G O {iiou-fxisteul) 

AT the head of the large creek on the E. side of the Fal River is this place, 
which gave its name to a family who in Norman times built a castle here 
{Hals). This family of Trejago became extinct in the reign of Edward I\'., at 
that time owning the manor of Fentongollan. 



CORNWALL 19 



TREMATON {chief) 

OX ;i lii<;h eminence over the river Lynher, whicli Bows into the Hamoaze 
near Saltash, stands tlie most entire of all the ancient castles of 
Cornwall. Leland wrote : "Thegreaunt and auncient Castelle of Tremertoun 
is upon a Rokky Hille : whereof great Peaces yet stond, and especially the 
Dungeon. The Kuines now serve for a Prison. Great Libertees long to this 
Castelle. The \'aletortes, Men of great Possession, wer owners, &, as far as 
I can gather, Builders of this Castel." 

But its antiquity is probably superior to this, as the castle appears to have 
been erected soon after the Conquest, on an ancient earthwork fortress belong- 
ing to the Saxon earls of Cornwall. Here, at the time of the Domesday 
Survey, William, Earl of Mortain, or Moreton, and Cornwall — half-nephew 
of the Conqueror — had the head of his great barony ; but on the confiscation 
of his possessions the Crown retained Trematon, which is said to have been 
bestowed afterwards on a native British prince. From him it came by an 
heiress to Reginald, the natural son of Henry I., and by their daughter to 
Walter de Dunstanville, baron of Castlecombe, Cornwall, whose issue failing 
it passed, in tiie reign of Richard I., by nianiage to Reginald de \'alletort, 
whose grandson again passed Trematon, by his daughter Eglina, to Sir Henry 
Pomeroy of Berry Pomeroy, Devon. His son made over the property to 
King Edward III. in his eleventh year, and on the investment of the Black 
Prince as Duke of Cornw.dl, this honour and castle, with the manor, were 
granted to him and made part of the duchy, in which it still remains. 

The fortress, as we see it, consists of a large oval enclosure of stone curtain 
wall, 6 feet in thickness and 30 feet high, with an embattled parapet, encircling 
an area of about tiiree-quarters of an acre. In the direction of the longer 
axis of this enceinte, in the N.W. corner, is a lofty and steep artificial mound, 
on the top of which stands a line Norman shell keep, oval in form and over 
30 feet high, the walls of whicii are 10 feet thick, with crenellated parapet, 
and measure 24 yards on the longest and 17 on the least diameter. The 
entrance is through a circular-headed doorway at the top of the mound, which 
is surrounded by a ditch of its own. The entrance to the castle is o\\ the 
S.W., under a square gatehouse, having a gateway with three arches and a 
portcullis groove, with a guardroom over in a fair state of repair. Nothing 
remains of the lodgings and buildings within the enclosure ; nor of those 
within the keep which were built against the wall, as at Lincoln, without 
any exterior lights. On tiie N. is a postern, and other buildings stood there- 
about. A deep ditch surrounds the whole fortress. 

During Kilter's insurrection of 1394, Sir Richard GreiiviUe and his wile 
took refuge in Trematon Castle, and were there besieged by the rebels at 



20 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

three separate points, hut unsuccessfully, until, by the treachery of some 
within the castle, Sir Richard was induced to leave its walls in order to parley 
with the enemy, when he was seized and made to yield up tiie fortress to 
the mob, who plundered the building and stripped their prisoners even of 
their clothing. 

TRURO {noH-cxislcnt) 

THIS castle, of which no remains now exist, stood on an eminence on 
the \V. of the town, where now is the head of St. Pancras or Pydar Street. 
Leland wrote : " Ther is a Castelle a quarter of a mile by West out of Truru 
longing to the Erie of Cornwale now clene down. The site thereof is now used 
for a shoting and playing place." It is supposed to have been the origin of 
the town, having served as a residence of the earls of Cornwall in very early 
times, as is evidenced by the artificial mound upon which it stood, but 
which is now constantly decreasing, as the site is included within the town, 
and its materials are being taken away. 

Lysons says that the manor passed by coheiresses of the Lucy family, 
one moiety with the castle going to Thomas, son of Reginald de Prideaux, 
whose family conveyed the property in 1366 to the Bodrugans, and on the 
attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugans (temp. Henry VII.) it was given to Sir Richard 
Edgecombe, and still is included in the Mount-Edgecombe estates. 

On the site of this building, when it was prepared in 1840 for the erection 
of a cattle market, the wall of the ancient castle was discovered, being possibly 
that of the keep. It had a diameter of 75 feet, and was built of slate. There 
is no sign at present left of any wall. 




SALCOMUli 



iDev>onsbire 



A F T O N, OR ASTON {minor) 

THIS place is situated in the middle of X. Uevoii, in the parish of W. 
W'oilington, at the stream of the Little Dart, a tributary of the river 
Taw ; it was once the stronghold of the Devonshire Stucleys, and 
was restored by Sir George Stukeley. Lysons states that the manor 
belonged to a family who took the name of their residence (temp. Henry 111.) ; 
a coheiress brought it in marriage to Crawthorne, and the heiress of this family 
to Marwood. In or about 1350 it was purchased of the Marwoods by Thomas 
AlTeton of Afton, in the same paiish. The heiress of Affelon brought it lo Sir 
Hugh Stucley, or Stewkley, and it was long the seat of that family. The 
building is now a farm-house, but there are some remains of the more ancient 
castellated mansion which was the seat of the Affetons. 



B A M P T O N {non-cxisliHt) 

I^OLW'HKLK claims this locality for a Roman station; at the Contpu-st it 
was a king's demesne, and was presented by the king to Waltei cle Donav. 
His son Robert, called l)e I5,iuiil(in, held the l.incK, which hv the marriage n\ 
his daugiiter Julian descended, in the reign of Richard 11., to William Paganel, 
the brother of Kulk Paganel of Dudley, StalTord (Rist/oii). His son Kulk, Lord 



11 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

of Braunton, married Ada, the heiress of Gilbert d'Albrincis, through whom 
Bampton came by an heiress to Sir Milo Cogan (temp. Henry III.). "A very 
stately family who kept great entertainment when they lived here, but residing 
chiefly in Ireland" (Risdoii). Sir fames Cogan dying s.p. (12 Richard II.), 
Bampton came to the Fitzwarrens, and then to the Bourchiers of Tavistock, 
with whom it continued for six descents, and then fell by an heiress to the 
Wrays of Cornwall, and afterwards to the family of Fellowes. 

Richard Cogan had a licence from the Crown in 1336 to crenellatc his 
man sum at Bampton, and enclose his wood of Uffculme and 300 acres for 
a park. The site of the keep of this castle is known near the town, but of 
the building itself there are no vestiges. 



BARNSTAPLE {non-c.xi&tent) 

THE original settlement of this ancient town stood in the angle between 
the Taw and Yeo rivers, and a castle is said to have been built here 
by King Athelstan, of which the mound still exists. The manor was bestowed 
at the Conquest on Joel de Totnes (see Totnes), who founded here a priory 
for Cluniac monks, and is supposed to have built a Norman keep on the 
Saxon site, to which his son Alured retired. The manor followed the fortunes 
generally of the Totnes estates, but the castle must have been destroyed at 
an early date, as little mention exists of it. In Leland's time (cir. 1538) there 
were "manifest ruins & a piece of the Dungeon" or keep, but at this date 
nothing remains except the mound and a few fragments of walls. 



BEER FERRERS (mn-cxisti-nl) 

THIS is a small hamlet on the point of land lying between the Tamar 
and the Tavy rivers, on the \V. side of the latter, and almost at its 
extremity. The lands here and northward were given by the Conqueror to 
a Norman follower from Alengon, which word was corrupted into Alston, a 
name taken by his family, and continued in the neighbouring village of 
Beer Alston. In the reign of Henry II., Henry de Ferrariis, or Ferrers, 
ancestor of the numerous branches of the ancient family of F"errers in Devon 
and Cornwall, held this honour and had his castle here. Many knights of that 
family followed him (Risi/oii). In 1337 Sir William de Ferrers had a licence 
for crenellating his manor-house at this place, and the last of the family was 
Martin Ferrers, who was entrusted with the defence of the S. coasts against 
an invasion of the French in the reign of Edward III. He left issue three 
daughters, one of whom brought this estate to Alexander Champernown, from 
whom it passed by his granddaughter to Robert Willoughby, Lord Brooke, 



DEVONSHIRE 23 

and thence through the Rlounts (Earl of Newport, temp. Charles I.) by 
purchase to Sir John Maynard, whose (granddaughter brought it in marriage 
to the Earl of Stamford. Afterwards Beer P'crrers came to the Duke of 
Northumberland. 

The Lords Brooke resided in the old castellated mansion, which seems 
to have stood on the shore, and had a park here ; but there are no remains 
of the castle (Ljsotis). 

BERRY POMEROY (r/»V/) 

THESE magnihcent ruins, the linest in the county, stand on a locky ledge 
above a small stream flowing into the Dart, 2! miles from Totnes, and 
in the midst of a thick wood. The manor of Beri was bestowed by the Con- 
queror on one of his followers, Ralph de I^omeroy or Pomerat (variously 
written), together with fifty-seven others in Devon, and the erection of the 
original castle is said to have been carried out by him. The family appear 
to have llourished, since Joel his son is said to have married one of the 
natural daughters of Henry I., and his successors were barons and nobles 
till 1257, after which date no Pomeroy was summoned to Parliament. 
Dugdale informs us that alter this date (41 Henry III.) it became the 
custom for none to claim the peerage but such barons as were summoned 
to Parliament by the king's writ. The Pomeroys are said to have come from 
Cinglais, near Ealaise in Normandy, where a fragment of their castle still 
remains. 

But though not as nobles, the family maintained their lands here till the 
reign of Edward \T., the last of them being Sir Thomas Pomeroy, who served 
with distinction in France, and acquired the confidence of Henry VUl. In 
1549 the new- Act for reforming the Church Service was enforced for the first 
time on Whitsunday, and the riots which ensued in favour of the old ritual 
assumed in Devonshire the appearance of an insurrection, the whole county 
being speedily in a state of disorder. Sir Thomas, the last of his ancient family 
who resided at Berry, became the chief of the discontented gentry, and headed 
a force of 2000 men, who besieged Exeter, and kept up the blockade for a 
month, when a strong force under Lord Russell, partly of German horse and 
300 Italian arquebusiers, came to the relief, and after some reverses succeeded 
in wholly defeating the insurgents, now 8000 strong, on Clist heath, and so 
ending the rebellion. Several of the leaders were beheaded, but Pomeroy 
managed to escape with the loss of his lands, which were confiscated, and 
were then acquired, probably by purchase, from the Crown by Lord Edward 
Seymour, son of the Protector Somerset. 

The descendants of Sir Thomas Pomeroy afterwards resided in llic jiarish of 
Harberton, till Ihe beginmiig of the eighteenth century. A grandson of tiie Rev, 



24 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Arthur PomcrDV, tlie cliaplain to Lord Essex in 1672, was raised to the peerasj;e 
in 1783 as Baron Harherton. 

The Seymour family at once inhabited Berry Castle, and Sir Edward 
Seymour, who succeeded in 1593, erected within the quadrangle of the castle 
the magnificent mansion whose outer walls still remain, and on which he is 
said to have spent ^^^20,000. In the Civil War of the next century the castle 
was dismantled, hut it was in a condition to he inhabited by Edward Seymour 
in the reign of James II. After his death, however, it went to decay, and being 




BERRV POMEROV 

set on fire in a thunderstorm in 1O85 it became a ruin, and is now but an 
ivy-draped relic of its former state. 

By the failure of the elder branch of the Seymour family, Berry became 
the property of the dukes of Somerset, to whom it still belongs, they being 
of the junior branch. It is said that William III. remarked to Sir Edward 
Seymour, on his presentation to him in 1686, that he believed Sir Edward 
was of the family of the Duke of Somerset. "Pardon me, sir," said he, "the 
Duke of Somerset is of my family." Macaulay says of Sir Edward Seymour, 
who was speaker temp. Charles II., that his fortune was large, and his influence 
in the west of England extensive, for he had long been at the head of a strong 
Parliamentary connection which was called the Western Alliance, and which 



i 



DEVONSHIRE 25 

included iiKiny gentlemen of Devon, Somerset, and Cornwall. Born in 1633, 
he plaved a prominent part in four reigns. He was one of the first who 
joined William of Orange on his landing at Torbay (November 5, 1688), and 
Berry Pomeroy Castle was made one of the first halting-places of the draggled 
army, toiling towards Exeter through the Devonshire lanes. Sir Edward died 
in 1708, and his son obtained the dukedom. 

The S. front of the enceinte remains much as shown in Buck's drawing : 
at the \V. end is the nearly perfect gatehouse, three storeys in height, with two 
hexagonal Hanking towers supporting the great arched gateway, which is 
sculptured with the arms of Pomeroy. The passage is furnished with two 
portcullis grooves, and over it is a loopholed guardroom ; stairs lead from 
this chamber down to small \aulted rooms in each side-tower, and a spiral 
stair ascends to the summit of the W. tower. The whole is embattled. A 
covered way leads from the guardroom to the E. end of this front, where is 
a large turret called Lady Margaret's Tower, in which it is said that Eleanor 
de Pomeroy, once mistress of the castle, was confined by her sister. 

The walls of the castle formed a quadrangle within, and inside are the 
remains of the splendid mansion, four storeys high, built in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, but never linished on the W. side. The remains of the hall are there, 
and those of numberless apartments and offices, some of which must have 
been very line. 

Buck shows, on the \V. side of the old castle, a square keep standing on 
the edge of the steep declivity of the valley. 



C H U L M L E I G H {non-cxislcit) 

Ar this village, near the junction of the Little Dart with the Taw River, 
not far from Eggesford, it is said by Lysons that tiie Courtenav family 
possessed a castle, of which there are now no vestiges ; they also had a park, 
which has been converted into tillage lor more than two hundicd yeais. 



C O L C O M B E {mtnor) 

THE quondam ^cal of the Pole lauuly is close to Colytou, and although 
it cannot ever have been a castle, it seems to ha\e been a fortilied 
house, the original building being alleged l(i have been erected by an earl 
of Devon (temp. Edward 1.). It was rebuilt about the year 1600 by Sir 
William Pole, the county historian, who resided there till his death in 1635, 
when, the tainily leaving this house for the neighbouring one of Sluite, 
Colcombe fell into decay. It is still owned by the Pole fannly, and is partly 
used as a tarm-house. 

VOL. II. D 



26 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



CO MPT ON {minor) 

AX ancient seat of the Pole family, in the parish of Marldon, about live miles 
from Newton Abbot, this is an excellent specimen of a fortified house 
of the fourteenth century. At the time of the Domesday Survey the manor 
was held by one Stephen, under Joel de Totals (see Totnes), and in the 
time of Henry II. was the property and seat of Sir Maurice de la Pole. In 
the succeeding reign Alice de la Pole bestowed the place on one Peter, who 
took the name of Compton, and after seven descents in his family a Compton 
heiress brought the estate in marriage to the Gilberts of Greenway, from whom 
it was purchased, about the beginning of the present century, by James Templer 
of Stover Lodge. In 1808, however, the estate was sold off in lots, when the 
ancient castellated seat of the Poles was bought by IMr. John Bishop and 
converted into a farm-house ; the hall was destroyed at that time, and several 
rooms at the back were pulled down. The Alice de la Pole who alienated the 
property originally must have been the widow of William de la Pole, the 
powerful statesman of the reign of Henry VI., who as Duke of Suffolk was 
murdered in the Channel in 1450 (see DoHiiitigton, Berks) : she was the grand- 
daughter of Geoffrey Chaucer the poet. 

The structure is an interesting one, even in its ruins, as, having no moat, 
it shows the means adopted by its builders of protecting the foot of the walls 
from being undermined in an attack, by the provision of an overhead defence 
by means of projecting machicoulis and garde-robes at all vulnerable points, 
from which stones and burning matter could be discharged upon the heads 
of assailants. 

Part of the N. front with its machicolated gatehouse and a part of the 
chapel still remain, but the ruin is partially filled up with modern farm- 
buildings, having been degraded from its high state to this purpose. The 
structure was originally in the form of a small quadrangle, with a square 
tower at each corner, the curtain wall, the greater part of which exists, being 
20 feet high. Within this outer wall are seen the holes for the timbers of the 
roofing of the buildings or sheds which were ranged against it. The postern 
gate is at one end of the front, just within the wall of enceinte, and had a 
portcullis. The principal entrance was on the centre and also had a portcullis, 
being protected by very bold projecting machicoulis instead of side flanking 
towers. The outer ward in front was enclosed by a low wall t)nly {Parker). 
The chapel is tolerably perfect, with a plain vault, and a priest's room over it. 
There is a good guardroom over the entrance. 




►J 

E- 

< 
O 

Z 

o 



O 



J 



DEVONSHIRE 27 

DARTMOUTH {minor) 

THE estuary i)l the Dart, bein.Li a seaport of nuieh importance from an early 
period, has received several fortifications at various times. At its nn)utli 
on the W. side, at the extreme point of tlie land, stands Dartmouth Castle, con- 
sisting of a sciuare bastion and a round tower, embattled, in rear of which 
is the small church of St. Petrox. The round tower was built in the reiqn 
of Henry \'1I. by the Corporation of Dartmouth, who received X40 per 
aniumi for building "a strong and mighty tower, and arming the same with 
ordnance, and finding a chain of suf^cient length and strength to close the 
entrance." The other end of this chain was made fast to the rocks, under 
a small turreted fort situated on the opposite side of the channel, where its 
groove can still be seen. Adjoining the before-mentioned tower is a gun 
platform, and the site of a far earlier fortress, for the erection of which a 
licence was obtained in the fourth year of Henry IV. (1403) by Johannes de Corp 
to crenellate "quoddam hospitium juxta introitum portus vill de Dertemuth, 
Devon." Polwhele says the chapel attached to this castle e.xisted in the time 
of Edward III., and belonged to the neighbouring church of Stoke Eleming. 
On the eminence above the castle, at a height of 300 feet, are the remains 
of another strong work, which in the Civil War of the seventeenth century 
was called "The Gallant's Hower," and is spoken of in the despatches of 
Eairfax to the Parliament. 

Across the harbour on the E. side, opposite to Dartmouth, is the still older 
town of KiXGSWKAR, where on the hill above the church are the earthworks 
of a fort called Mount Ridky, but mentioned by P'airfax as Kingsworth Voii. 
Close to the sliore, not very far below, stands the weather-beaten ruin of 
Kingsvvear Castle, an ancient defence of the harbour about which there is 
little or no information. 

Altogether this group of fortilications formed an exceedingly strong position 
for the I^)yalists, heavily armed as it was with 106 pieces of ordnance, with 
ammunition and provisions, and a strong garrison of 800 troops. 

Towards the end of 1645, after the fall of Basing House and Winchester, 
a final effort was determined on by the Parliamentary generals to clear out of 
Devon (never very loyal) the remaining strongholds of the king, which were 
chiefly on the S. of Exeter ; Dartmouth and its port forming the headquarters 
of the district. (General Fairfax reached Totnes on January 11, 1646, and 
at once made pi'eparations foi- reducing I)artini>utli, which had been fortified 
at considerable cost and with much skill. At the outbreak of the Civil War 
it had declared for the Parliament, and in 1643 was besieged and taken by 
Prince Maurice, since when its defences had been greatly strengthened, and 
earthwork forts and batteries erected. 



28 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Two mcii-of-\v:ir lav in the liarboiir, and at the mnutli of tliis was Dait- 
moiitli Castle, commanding the entrance, having on the hill above the fort 
called the Gallant's Bower. Paradise Fort and Mount Flag^on guarded the 
line on the W., while Tunstall Church with outworks around it stood next, and 
Hardress with Mount Boon protected the N. These were supported on the 
other side of the water by Kingswear and Kingsworth Fort. The governor, Sir 
Hugh Pollard, was suppoited by some sixty officers. 




DARTMOUTH 



The harbour was blockaded by Captain Batten, tiie Parliamentary admiral, 
and three or four days were spent in preparations for storming. At last, on 
Sunday, January i8th, all was readv for the assault that night, and the troops 
were told off to their several stations. The dragoons with 200 sailors from the 
fleet were to threaten Kingswear, which, being a very strong place, the besiegers 
did not expect to take. Colonel Fortescue was appointed to attack the work 
;it Tunstall Church, and Colonel Hammond the Westgate, Flaggon, and 
I'aradise forts ; the attack on Mount Boon and Hardress falling to Colonel 



DEVONSHIRE 29 

]'ric!c. Tl'c nimninn; was -pfut in prcacliiiiu and pi ayt r, tlic passwurd lu-in^ 
"(loci with lis," while the distin.miishin,<4 badge of the alt.ieking force was the 
wearing of theii" shirts outside the trousers. 

At eleven o'clock at night the assault began, and was delivered with such 
vigour that the royal troops had but time to (ire one round from their big guns 
and then, overpowered and disheartened, gave in after very slight resistance. 
The Roundheads were successful at each point, and after seven hours be- 
came possessed of the whole town, with the loss of only a single man ; the 
governor retreating to Gallant's Hower, which fort, together with the castle, 
being summoned next morning, were surrendered by the governor, who lay 
wounded in the fort. Then the fort on the Kingswear side capitulated, and 
the whole position was won (Spn'g'g). 

The defences of the castles being wholly seaward, their armament could 
have been of lillU- avail against a land attack. 



EXETER (c/n-rf) 

THIS beautiful city, "Queen of the West," was originally a British settle- 
ment and an early fortified post under the name of Carr H'isr: then it 
became the Isca of the Romans, and in Saxon times figures in the reign ol 
Alfred as Exanceaster, or the castle on tJie E\e, having an KnglisJi fortress, ol 
great importance. It was the centre of the Cc^rnish metal trade, and an object 
of capture and recapture more than once between the great king and the Danes. 
Athelstan surrounded the town with a defensive wall of stone with towers, 
preserving generallv the plan of the Roman castniiii wliicli he loniul there ; 
this was in 926. Then we read that the year after Duke William's victory 
at Senlac, or Hastings, he came as king into the West and advanced against 
this hill foit, in which (jytha, the Danish mother of King Harold, had taken 
shelter, with Harold's sons, and took the place by assault, whereupon he at once 
ordered the construction of a Norman castle upon the ancient British mound, 
to overaw'e the country round and the disaffected city ; and thus reared upon 
the earthworks of earlier davs, like so many other fortresses founded in those 
times, it effectually secured William's power in the West. 

from its earliest days this Castle of Exeter was known by tin- name of 
Ro7(s;cmont. It is referred to in Shakespeare's "Richard III.," where that 
usurper quails at the name, confounding it with Richmond. 

In the Conqiiei(>|-'s days it withstood one or two sieges al the hands of 
the West Saxon insurgents, when its Constable and owner was one Baldwin ol 
Okehampton, who had married William's niece Albreda, and in whose family it 
rested till 1230. In 1 137 ICxetei' took the part of the Empress Maud, and King 
Stephen himself besieged and captured the fortress, destioying its outworks. 



3° 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



In Tiicloi times the castle was attacked, unsuccessfiilly, hy the liost that 
collected in tiie West in favour of Perkin Waibeck, in 1497 ; and again in 
1549, when the religions insurrection, in defence of the old forna of worship 
and the possessions of the Church, grew to an alarming height in this district, 

Exeter was threatened, hut was 
r relieved hy a force under the 

' command of Lord Russel. 

But neglect fell on the for- 
/' M tress, as it did upon most of 

the castles of the kingdom in 



^"TT^ 



the reign of Elizabeth, so that 
in the next century it is spoken 
of as entirely ruinous, and it is 
doubtful if in the Civil War the 
castle was of any actual value 
to the defences of the town. 
Exeter was taken in 1643 by 
Prince Maurice, hut in 1646 
was surrendered to F'airfax on 
the first summons and without 
sustaining a siege. 

The ancient fortress is de- 
scribed by Clark as standing 
in the N. corner of the city, 
on the summit of a natural 
eminence of reddish stone, 
having the sides which grow 
out of the valley below arti- 
ficially scarped ; the knoll is 
abrupt on the N.E. and N.W., 
sloping somewhat on the other 
sides. At the foot of the scarped 
front is a ditch, outside which 
the hill is again scarped down 
to the bottom of the valley : 
and a second ditch once existed on the S. At the top was a rampart of earth 
30 feet high, but this has been reduced and the main ditch on the N.E. and 
N.W. tilled up and converted into a boulevard ; the ditch on the S. and S.E. 
remaining still unaltered. 

The Conqueror came before Exeter on the N.E., and summoned the city 
just below the castle at the E. gate, entering it through a breach in Athelstan's 
wall. The gatehouse is the oldest part left, and is probably his building ; it is 




EXETER 



DEVONSHIRE 31 

in two storeys, with a drawbridge over tliu ditch in front. At tlic W. angle, 
wlicrc the city wall sprang from the castle, stood a square bastion, the base 
of which remains, and a similar one stood at the N. angle, with the N.W. 
curtain between them, whereon there remain two half-round solid bastions, 
both of rough Xorman work in rubble. A portion of the X.E. front is built 
of ashlar blocks of the time of Richard II. The bank and wall have been 
removed from the X.W. front to give place to an odious modern sessions 
iiouse. The chapel was near the \V. corner, but it cannot be told what 
buildings were contained in the enceinte, though it is evident that, as at 
Corfe and Taunton, no regular keep was ever erected here. The ancient 
entrance has been walled up, the existing one being on the W. of the main 
gatehouse. 

The city walls were probably built at the same time as the castle, as tiiere 
was a water-gate of Norman construction (removed in 1815) ; the walls crossed 
ditches and terminated on the castle. The E. wall has been rebuilt, but that 
on the N.W. is very perfect and strong {Clark). 

In the Report of the Devon Association for 1895 is a paper by Sir J. B. 
Phear, giving an account of the repairs carried out in i8yi, with photi)graphs 
and sections of the old gatehouse, or Athelstan's Tower. 



FORT CHARLES, or SALCOMBE CASTLE {mmun 

THE ruins of this building are situated upon a rock in tlie Kingsbritlge 
or Salcombe River, and are at high-water nearly surrounded by the tide. 
The position was an excellent one in early days for stopping the passage of 
ships up the river, and one authority speaks of the fortress as of Saxon origin. 
Hearne mentions this castle as " a round fort, built in the reign of Elizabeth 
a little before the Spanish invasion"; but it is more probable that it was 
one of Henry V'lll.'s blockhouses, erected after his survey of the southern 
coasts, together with Pendennis and St. Mawes castles in Cornwall. Along 
with all other national defences, this one had been neglected from Elizabeth's 
to the Stuarts' time, and when it was taken in hand by Sir Echnund l-'ortescue. 
High Sheriff of Devon ; during the Civil War it was known only by the name 
of "the olde Hullworke." A copy of the payments and disbursements made 
upon Port Charles in January 1645 by Sir Edmund still exists "for the 
buildynge, victuallyne and fortifying it with great guns and nuisquets," and 
amounts to ^1355, i8s. yd. for building, and ^1031, 19s. yd. for the armament. 
The Parliamentary Admiral Batten had sailed up this creek previously, and 
on this account it was resolved to secure these waters, which formed a haibour 
of refuge for Royalist pri\atcers. 1 leiice, aftei' tlie fall of Dartmouth, Colonel 
Ingoldsby was sent with a force to reduce Port Charles, which was said to 



32 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

he "a vcrie stronge place," and imprei^nablc to any but siege guns, which 
accordingly were sent for from Plymouth. 

Colonel Fortescue, who held the place for King Charles, had a garrison of 
lifty-thrce men only and ten officers in the fort with him, but with these he held 
out valiantly as long as resistance was possible. We have no account of the 
incidents of the siege, but it is supposed that the Parliamentay aitillery was 
placed on Kickham Common, where are still the remains of earthworks. One 
night Sir Edmund's sleep was disturbed by a shot carrying away the leg of 
his bedstead, "causing his sudden appearance among his men in his shirt"; 
but only two casualties occurred in the fort, and he held out till May 7th, 
when articles of capitulation were arranged, and the fort was surrendered. 
The key of P'ort Charles, as it was named by its defenders, or Salcombe 
Castle, is now in the possession of Sir E. P'ortescue's descendant, Mr. 
Fortescue of Octon, Torquay ; it was the last place that held out for the king. 
Sir Edmund escaped to Delft in Holland, where he died soon after, and his 
son was made a baronet bv Charles 11. 



G I D L E I G H (wiuor) 

THIS fragment of an old Norman castle lies on the X.E. confines of 
Dartmoor, near Chagford. In the time of William I. the lands were 
possessed by a family named Prouse or Prowse, by ancient grants from the 
Crown ; and here they had their castle. Adjoining is an extensive walled 
enclosure of moorland, three sides of it having a stone wall, while the 
remaining side is protected by a fine gorge of the river Teign, which rises 
up in this district. The Prouses became extinct in the reign of Edward II., 
and Gidleigh Castle and manor passed with its heiress to Mules, and from 
Unit t.unily in the same wav to Damerell. William Damerell of Gidleigh 
ga\e the estate to his daughter, wife to Walter Coade of Morval in Cornwall, 
with whose descendants it long continued. In later years the place belonged 
to an ancient family taking their name from the property ; one Bartholomew 
Gidleigh being lord of the manor in 1772, and by marriage with this family 
the possessor at the time t)f Polwhele (1797) was one Ridley; after that time 
there was a Chancery suit respecting the property, followed by a sale. 



HEMYOCK {miuor) 

THIS place lies in the valley of the river Culm or Columb, on the N.E. 
border of the county, south of Wellington, Somerset. An ancient family 
called Hidon had their settlement here from the time of the Conquest, and 
it was doubtless one of them who built the ancient castle at this place. 



DEVONSHIRE 33 

Pohvhele says (temp. Edward 1.) that the property was brought by Margaret, 
only daughter of Sir Richard Hidon, in marriage with Sir Joel Dinham or 
Dynham (see Okehtunpeoii), m whose possession Hemyock remained till the 
reign of Henry Vll., when it was parted between the four sisters of John, 
Lord Dynham, High Treasurer of England, and then passed (temp. Elizabeth) 
by sale to Sir |ohn Popham. After that time other divisions took place, and 
the estate and castle passed into the hands of various families. The descent, 
however, as given by Lysons, is that Roger de Hemiock possessed the lands 
at the Conquest ; his son William had a daughter Beatrix, the wife of Sir 
Gerard de Clift, knight, and that from them it came by Isabel, daughter of 
William de Clift, to Richard Tremenet, and by an heir-general of that family to 
the Dynhams. Early in this century the castle and a quarter of the lands were 
purchased by General Simcoe. 

Hemyock Castle stood out for Charles 1., having been taken in 1642 by 
Lord Poulett, but it was held later and garrisoned as a prison by the 
Parliament. Soon after the Restoration it was dismantled. 

The castle is situated at a little distance W. of the church, and was a regular, 
if not a very extensive, structure. The main entrance gateway and two flanking 
towers, built of flint, remain ; the latter were tolerably entire till the end of the 
last century, when the tenant took down the upper part of them. The gateway 
has a portcullis groove. The enclosing curtain wall with its mural towers can 
still be made out, and there was a moat surrounding the fortress, lillecl by a 
rivulet running close by. A farm-house is on the site. 



LYDFORD, OR LID FORD {mmor) 

THE town of this name which lies on the western edge of Dartmoor, nuie 
miles from Okehampton, was one of the earliest in Britain, and one of 
the chief towns in Devon during the Heptarchy, possessing a mint for tin 
pennies in the tune of Ethelred the Unready. At Domesday it was a walled 
town, and assizes were held there. The castle in this case dates many ages 
after the town, though a stronghold of some sort must have been placed on 
the mound, where, in the thirteenth century, Lydford Castle was built. 

rattle remains of the fortress except the walls of the square keep on this 
earthwork by the roadside ; it is supposed to have been erected by Richard, 
" King of the Romans," the brother of Henry 111., wiio created him Earl of 
Cornwall in 1225, with the gift of the Manor of Lydford, and also of Daitnioor 
Chase. Appointed to this important earldom, he worked strenuously to develop 
the mineral resources of his estates, and it was doubtless he who built the 
castle, nn the site of a former stronghold, since a " Castrum de Lydtord " is 

mentioned ni tiie Close Rolls of 1216. 

VuL. 11. E 



34 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

It was an important military point, commanding as it did the road on the 
W. of Dartmoor, but in the thirty-third year of Edward 1. it had passed into 
the hands of the civil power, and is called " our prison of Lydeford," for the 
detention of offenders against the stannary laws. 

In 1650, under the Commonwealth, a survey was held which reported that 
Lydford Castle was " very much in decay, & almost totally ruined. The walls 
are built of lime & stone, within the compass of which wall, their is 4 
little roomcs, whereof 2 are above stairs, the flore of which is all broken, 
divers of the chiefest beames being fallen to the ground, & all the rest is 
following ; only the roof of the said castle being lately repaired by the Prince 
[Charles I.] and covered with lead, is more substantial than the other parts. 
The scite of the said castle with the ditches & courte, contain half an acre of 
land." A valuation of the ruin follows, and the dismantling seems to have been 
carried out in a very thorough manner. In 1703, the want of a prison being 
again felt, the castle was partially restored, and appropriated accordingly. 

The Rev. E. A. Bray, early in the present century, describes the castle as a 
square building standing on an artificial mound, and entered at the N.W. side. 
Before it is a spacious area, having a gentle slope, and on the X.W. is the outer 
or " base " court, enclosed by tw^o parallel earthworks, enclosing an oblong area 
of ninety paces in length, at the end of which is a precipitous declivity, or brae, 
which continues on the opposite side till it joins the river near the bridge. It 
was approachable only from the X.E. The stairs and floor were then in a 
ruinous state, but the Judge's Chair, with the royal arms over it, last occupied 
by the infamous Jeffries, still remained. A staircase in the wall led to the roof, 
while below is a cellar or dungeon, 16 feet by 10, attained by a ladder through 
a trap-door, and lighted by loops. 

At the present time nothing remains but the bare walls, the decay having 
been caused by the removal, by George IV. when Duke of Cornwall, of the 
courts to the Duchy Hotel at Prince's Town, thus made the capital of Dartmoor. 
Lydford then fell into neglect. 

The square keep stands on a moderately high mound on the N. side of the 
road, to the E. of Lydford Church. A low-pointed archway forms the door\vay 
to the lower stage, which is not lighted, the upper storey having three square- 
headed loops, and slits for lighting the garderobes. On the S.W. face is a 
wide-arched window, with four openings, tw-o on each storey ; and on the 
right of the entrance is the staircase, at the head of which is the opening 
into the hall, or chief apartment. The whole building is divided by a 
transverse wall running E. anil W , dividing it inti> two unequal portions, 
the lower stage having three rooms, and the upper stage two. There is but 
one fireplace in the castle. 



DEVONSHIRE 



35 



O K E H A M P T O N (chi,-/ ) 



OX tilt* western contiiies of Dartmoor the ruin> of tliis ancient castle stand 
boldly on a hill in the valley of the Okement or Ockment River, com- 
mandin<4 the main road into Cornwall on the N. of Dartmoor from Exeter to 
Launceston. The rocky hill, still crowned by the castle keep, is about a mile 
SAV. of the town, being protected by a ravine on the X., and by a deep ditch 
on the \V. side, and 
with the river defence 
on the S. It is a very 
strong position, ap- 
proachable only on the 
E. slope, and from the 
extensive area covered 
by the ruins, the castle 
must have been a 
large and important 
fortress. The partly 
artificial mound on 
which the keep stands 
shows that long before 
Norman days this site 
was occupied by a 
stronghold and home 
of the former lords of 
the county. 

In the Domesday Survey of 1089 it is written : " Haldwinus tenet de Kege 
Ochementon, et ibi sedet castelliun " ; the Conqueror having given the lands 
to Baldwin de Hrioniis, who made here the head of his barony. After him 
Richard Fitz-Baldwin held this honour, being Sheriff of Devon temp. Henry 1., 
and on his death s.p. his property descended to another line, and from them was 
inherited by the great family of Courtenay, earls of Devon, by the marriage 
of Reginald Courtenay with Hawise, coheiress of Richard de Redvers, the 
eldest son of the last Hrioniis baron. Their son Robert succeeded in the 
reign of King John. The Courtenays were Lancastrians, and Earl Thomas 
was beheaded by Edward 1\'. after Towton at Pontefract in 14O1, his 
head being set up at York in place of that of Edward's father, the Duke ot 
York, which was taken down. His possessions were drafted to Sir Humphrey 
Stafford, knight, afterwards created Earl of Devon, who, however, in his 
turn came to the block (() Edward IW), when the castle and honour oi 




()KEHAI\n'TON 



36 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Okehanipton were f^raiited to Sir |ohn Dynhani, who yielded them to tlie Duke 
of Clciience. After the murder of this unhappy prince in the Tower, these 
estates were retained hv the Crown till Henrv \'ll. restored the Courtenays 
here as elsewhere. 

Henry VIII. beheaded Henry Courtenay, Marquis of E.xeter, alleging a 
secret and treasonable correspondence between him and Cardinal Pole, and 
with vindictive barbarism destroyed the ancient castle of Okehanipton and 
devastated its noble park. The son of his victim, Edward Courtenay, was 
imprisoned in the Tower of London by Henry, but was released by Queen 
Mary and much favt)ured by Elizabeth. He died at Padua s.p., and his 

large estates were divided between 
the descendants of the four sisters 
of his great-grandfather, Okehanip- 
ton becoming the property of the 



■""^•If^ 



m 



^£^ 



^•^ 




famous rowdy Whig noble, Charles, 
5th Lord Mohun, the duellist. In 
171 2 Mohun quarrelled with James 
Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton, 
concerning the reversion of the estate 
of the Earl of Macclesfield, and chal- 
lenged the duke. A furious duel 
took place in Hyde Park in the early 
morning of November 15th, when, 
neither Mohun nor his adversary 
attempting to parry, both simplv 
giving point, Mohun fell riddled with 
wounds, and is said to have given 
the duke a death-stab with a short- 
ened sword as Hamilton was bending 
over him. 

The castle then came to Chris- 
topher Harris of Heynes, M.P. for the 
borough in the reign of Anne, by 
marriage with the heiress of that family. It was purchased about forty years 
ago by Sir R. R. Vyvyan, Bart., of Trelowarren, but is now the property of 
Mr. Reddaway. 

Orose's drawing of 1768 shows the vast range of the outer walls support- 
ing the interior lodgings, with some bastions and a large outside garderobe 
and buttresses ; all which was possibly the building of Thomas de Courtenay, 
the first earl of that family (beheaded 1461), as stated by William de 
Worcester. 

The remains now consist of the small quadrangular Norman keep on the 



«..Alh\\ AV 



DEVONSHIRE 37 

crest of tlic lull, .1 portion onlv existing, which contains a small oratory, wliile 
below are parts of the hall and chapel, and ruins of the lodgings on the eastern 
slope, between walls narrowing to the main gateway. Beyond this are fragments 
of a barbican. The main buildings were probably erected by Hugh Courtenay, 
first earl, who succeeded 1292, and are in two ranges, divided by the yard; 
the least intact remains are those of the great liall with the solar and the cellar 
or undercroft. The hall was large, 45 feet long by 25 wide, lit by two large 
windows in the S. wall. On the S. range were a lodge, at the E. end, ne.xt 
two guardrooms, and then the chapel, all of Early English style ; over the 
ground floor were the state apartments of the lord of the castle, with a 
central garderobe tower (see details in paper by Mr. Worth, Devonshire 
Association Reports, 1895). 



PLYMOUTH CITADEL {ehief) 

THE town of Plymouth in 141 t was described as being without any 
defences, and it was not till after several attacks by the French that in 
1439 the townsmen were granted a toll to enable them to fortify and protect 
themselves ; at this time St. Nicholas or Drake's Island was fortified. Then in 
151 2 an Act of Parliament was passed for adding fortifications at Plymouth 
and other western seaports, and sometime after this Leland wrote regarding 
this place : "The mouth of the Gulph wherein the shippes of Plymmouth lyith 
is waullid on eche side, and chained over in tyme of Necessite. Un the S.W. 
side of this mouthe is a Blok House : and on a Kokky Hille hard by it is a 
stronge Castel quadrate having at eche Corner a great Rounde Tower. It 
semith to be no very old Peace of Worke." 

The existing citadel was built on the site of the old fort at the E. end 
of the Hoe, after the Restoration by Charles II., who went to see it in 
1670. It consisted of three regular and two irregular bastions, with ravelins 
and hornworks. 

Plymouth was the principal fortress and headquarters of the Parliamentary 
army in the West, from the commencement of the Civil War, and succeeded 
in 1643 and 1644 in beating off the attacks of the royal troops, who never were 
able to take the outworks of the town. 



38 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



PLYMPTON EARL, or ST. MAURICE {minor) 

PLYMPTOX EARL is the ruin of a circular Norman keep on a very lofty 
mound. The town lay on the ancient Roman road from Exeter into 
Cornwall, and was a chartered stannary borough in 1241. The honour was 
granted bv Henry I. to Richard de Redvers, afterwards Earl of Devon, who 
made it the head of his barony ; from which cause its following name of " Earl " 
was derived, distinguishing it from the neighbouring Plympton St. Mary. The 
castle is said to be the work of Baldwin de Redvers, who took the side of the 
Empress Maud against Stephen, and was holding Exeter against him, when the 
knights whom he had entrusted with the defence of Plympton and its garrison 
revolted, treated with the king, and in 1136 surrendered the castle; Stephen 
then sent thither a force of 200 men and demolished it. The fortress appears 
to have been partially restored afterwards, since in John's reign some fighting 
took place there. It was then the dowry of Margaret, wife of Baldwin, 6th 
Earl of Devon, at whose death King John gave his widow, against her con- 
sent, in marriage to his worthless favourite Falk de Brent (see Bedford), after 
whose fall this castle and barony went to Isabella, sister of Baldwin, the 
wife of William de P'ortibus, Earl of Albemarle, and who was called Countess 
of Devon and Albemarle (see Bytltam, Liticolii). On her death in 1 292 Sir 
Hugh Courtenay, baron of Okehamptom, succeeded to the estates of De 
Redvers and to the earldom, till the death of the last earl in 1566, when this 
and his other large estates were divided between his four aunts or their 
representatives. The whole of this property became vested at last in the 
Earl of Morley, its present owner. 

Leland wrote : "In the side of this town is a fair large Castelle & Dungeon 
in it, whereof the WauUes yet stonde, but the Logginges within be decayed." 
The earthworks on which this castle rested may have been British or even 
Roman originally, and within the last three centuries the upper waters of the 
Plym estuary were navigable up to the castle walls. 

A fragment only of the keep remains crowning the mound, which is 70 feet 
high and 200 feet in circumference. The fortress enclosed two acres of ground, 
with a high rampart and a very deep ditch, but its walls have disappeared. 
It formed the headquarters of Prince Maurice's army during the siege of 
Plymouth in 1643, but was taken by Essex the following year. Scarcely any 
masonry remains, though the earthworks show it to have been a place of 
great strength. 



DEVONSHIRE 39 



POWDERHAM {chief) 

THIS ancient inheritance of the Courtenays, possessed by tliem for over 
500 years, stands on the W. side of the estuary of the Exe, three miles 
from the sea. " Powderham," says Leland, " hite Sir VVilham Courteneis 
Castelle, standith on the haven shore a httle above Kenton. Some say that 
it was builded by Isabella de Fortibus, a widdowe of an Earl of Devonshires. 
It is stronge, & hath a barbican, or bulwark, to beate the haven." The site 
is near the confluence of the little stream Kenn with the E.\e, about seven 
miles S.E. from Exeter. Polwhele supposes the original fortress to have been 
built to protect that district from the Danes, who landed at Teignmouth in 
970. The Conqueror bestowed the lands on William, Count d'Eu, together 
with many other estates in different counties : he is styled in Domesday 
" Comes d'Ou." This lord conspired with Robert Mowbray, Earl of Northum- 
berland, and others against Rufus, and being tried for treason by a council 
assembled at Salisbury in 1090, was afterwards vanquished in the duel which 
was granted to him, whereupon, according to the brutal course of law, he was 
by the still more savage king deprived of his eyes and barbarously mutilated 
(see Hutchins' "Dorset"). His lands being forfeited went to various new holders, 
and in the time of Edward I. this place, with its existing stronghold, together 
with Whitstone, Hereford, was held by John de Powderham, after whose 
death the property came to Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and 
Essex, whose daughter Margaret, the granddaughter of Edward 1., brought 
it in marriage to Hugh, Earl of Devon, in 1325. His hfth son, Sir Philip 
Courtenay (born cir. 1337), "^^^ obtained it, and the property has ever since 
been in the hands of that branch of the earls of Devon. It was this Philip 
who built the castle, which retained much of its media-val structiue till 1752, 
when, Polwhele says, "the avenue to the castle was surrounded with stonewalls, 
having battlements on the top ; and in the middle, opposite the front of the 
castle, there was a square gatehouse." At that time there existed six square 
towers which, as well as the walls containing the quadrangle and the dwellings, 
were furnished with battlements. Over the gateway or entrance from the 
park was an antique tower also battlemented ; and in the N. wing was a neat 
chapel, which was rebuilt and beautified in 1717, having over it a library. 
But in 1752 Lord Courtenay remodelled and modernised the old fortress, and 
only two of the towers now exist, the chapel being converted into a new 
drawing-room, and another chapel which had long been used as a barn being 
restored to its proper character. 

At Christmas 1645 Sir Thomas Fairfax, being then at Crediton with the 
headquarters ot the I'aiii.iuKMitaiv army, detached a force of 200 men anil 
some dragoons to take Powderham Castle, but the Royalists, having been rem- 



40 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

forced hy an addition of 150 men to tlieir garrison, made a stout resistance ; 
and upon the enemy entrenching themselves in the church harassed them so 
warmly with hand-grenades and musketry that they forced them to withdraw. 
Then on January 24, 1646, Sprigg relates that Fairfax starting from Totnes "on 
the Lord's day, after forenoon's sermon, marched to Chudleigh, endeavouring 
first to take a view of Pouldram [Powderham] ; before which place Colonel 
Hammond was set down with some force. But night coming on (whilst he 
had yet two miles thither) he was forced to return to Chidley without viewing 
the castle, which ere the next day was happily put out of a capacity of being 
viewed by him ; for about twelve at night, the news came to him of the 
surrender thereof, and therein five barrels of powder, match and bullet pro- 
portionible, and four pieces of ordnance." Sir Hugh Meredith was the king's 
governor, and the garrison numbered 300. 



TIVERTON (mino,-) 

THE town of Tiverton stands on a point of land between the river Exe and 
the stream Lowman, flowing into the former, and above the town on the 
W. is a little hill which was chosen for the site of a castle, built early in the 
twelfth century by Richard Redvers, Earl of Devon, on whom Henry 1. had 
conferred the town and tiie lands. The last of this family, Baldwin de I^edver.s, 
dying in 1262, left the manor in dower to Amicia his wife, upon whose death 
(12 Edward 1.) it came to Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle, the 
second wife of William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness (see 
Plyiiipton Earl), and her daughter. From her it passed to the great family of 
Courtenay, who enjoyed possession almost continuously, till the attainder of 
the Marquis of Exeter (20 Henry VHI.), when Tiverton came to the Crown, 
and was given by Edward \T. to his uncle the Protector Somerset, after whose 
fall the property was bestowed on Sir Henry Gate. From him it was taken 
by Queen Mary and given to Edward Courtenay, the prisoner of the Tower, 
son of the Marquis of Exeter, at whose demise at Padua, x/., his property was 
divided between his numerous coheirs. This castle and much of the property 
has long been vested in the old family of Carew. 

The fortress appears to have been quadrangular in form, enclosing about 
an acre of ground, and to have been protected by a surrounding wall from 
20 to 25 feet high. It had round towers at the S.E., N.E., and N.W. corners, 
35 feet in height, battlemented, and a square one at the S.W. angle. A 
spacious gateway under a large square tower, projecting a few feet from the 
E. front, gave entrance to the quadrangle, and on the W. front was a some- 
what similar buildmg. A steep declivitv, 60 feet deep, below the W. wall 
protected the castle on that side, and on the X. and S. sides were two wide 



DEVONSHIRE 41 

and deep moats filled by the town ieat ; these formed the defences as 
far as the causeway leading to the entrance at the E. side, and over one 
of these moats, near the round tower at the S.E. angle, was a drawbridge. 
The causeway and the outer gate were protected by battlements and 
machicoulis. Two other strong arched gateways, 18 feet apart, further 
defended the entrance passage, which was 36 feet long and 15 feet wide, 
all vaulted with stone. The vaultings were mostly removed at the end of 
the last century, as they threatened to fall. The chief apartments of the 
castle were towards the X., and are all now destroyed; the rocMus of the 
gateway, however, are tolerably entire. On the top of the stone staircase is a 
small ruined turret called the Earl of Devon's Chair. A hundred years ago 
the remains of this fortress were extensive, but little is left now except the 
great gatehouse. 

The second Earl Baldwin took the part of Maud against King Stephen, who 
came against him in force and deprived him of the castle. In later times, both 
Isabella de Fortibus, and the first Couitenay Earl of Devon lived here, and in 
the Wars of the Roses it was several times assaulted. It was afterwards chosen 
as a residence for the Princess Catherine, daughter of Edward IV., and widow 
of William, Earl of Devon. Her son, Henry, jMarquis of Exeter, was beheaded 
by Henry V'lII., and after his death the castle fell into decay and ruin, and 
the parks and much land were alienated from the estate and sold. 

During the Civil War, Tiverton Castle was repaired and garrisoned for King 
Charles, its governor in 1645 being Sir Gilbert Talbert, but when in October of 
that year, after the fall of Winchester and Basing House, the army of Fairfax in 
the West detached General Massey with his cavalry and a brigade of foot umler 
Colonel Welden to besiege this place, it was ill fitted to stand an attack. Talbert, 
however, having a force of 300 men and a few horse, did what he could to 
.strengthen the defences, placing round the battlements a tjuantity of wool- 
packs, which had been stored for sale under the chapel, and including the 
church within the earthworks which he threw up. On Sunday the H)th, 
Fairfax, who was himself present, inspected the batteries and caused lire to be 
opened previous to storming the work, when Sprigg relates: "Our ordnance 
playing hard against the works and castle, the chain of the drawbridge with a 
round shot was brnkeii in two, whereupon the bridge fell down, and oui- men 
immediately, wiliiout staying for orders, possessed themselves of the bi'idge, 
and entered the works and possessed the churchyard, which so terrified the 
enemy, tiiat it made them quit their ordnance, and some of their posts and line, 
and Ikcl into the church and castle ; the governor shut himself up in a room 
of the cattle and hung out a white tiag foi- a parley, while the besiegers had 
forced their way by the windows into the church, and had made prisoners 
and stripped to their shirts all thev loiind within. Fair quarter was however 

granted, and much plunder was found inside, besides provisions. 

VOL. II. F 



42 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

There was taken a Major Sadler, a former Parliamentary officer who had 
deserted and had made overtures of service again ; to him had been committed 
the defence of the bridge, and treachery on his part was believed. The 
victors now condemned him to death for his former desertion, after a forinal 
court-martial. He managed, however, to escape, and got to Exeter ; there, how- 
ever, he fared worse, for the Royalists tried him and hanged him, having 
detected him in treacherous correspondence with the enemy. 

The capture of Tiverton opened tiie Western road between Taunton and 
Exeter to the Roundhead armv. 



TORRINGTON {nou-c.xisknl) 

ON the Torridge, S. of Bideford in North Devon, and S. of the town, are 
some scanty fragments of a Norman castle which once stood here. 
Leland wrote: "Ther was a great Castelle at Taringtun on Turidge Ripe, a 
litle above the S. Bridge, of 3 Arches of Stone. Ther standith only a Chapelle 
yn the Castelle Garth. I hard that one Syr William of Turrington & his Sunne 
after hym were Lordes of it." Early in the reign of Henry III., in 1228, we 
learn that the Sheriff of Devon was commanded to throw down the castle here 
of Henry de Tracy, and a little more than a century after, in 1340 (temp. 
Edward III.), Richard de Merton is said to have rebuilt it. 

Lysons says that the place belonged to an ancient family who took their 
name from it, and made this their abode. After five descents the property 
fell to be divided between the coheiresses of Matthew, baron of Torrington, 
one of whom married Merton. 

Little remains now but the site and traces of its protecting moat. It stood 
near the edge of a high and steep precipice overlooking the Torridge, upon 
what is now a bowling-green called Barley Grove. 



TOTNES {minor) 

THE ancient fortress of Totnes, which occupies the summit of an eminence 
near the town, is said to have been built by judhael, or Joel, a Breton 
follower of Duke William and his grantee of the lands here. Leland says : 
"The Castelle waul and the stronge dungeon [keep] be maintained, but the 
logginges of it be cleane in ruine." The entrance is near the N. gate of the 
town, which is still standing, as are also the walls of the circular Norman keep, 
which this Joel raised on the lofty artificial mound of far earlier date that 
commanded the main road passing here from the important port of Dartmouth 
to Plymouth. The general area of the castle, which is irregular in foriu, con- 
tains several acres of land, and was wholly surrounded by a ditch. It closely 



DEVONSHIRE 



43 



resembles in its plan and defences llie Castle of Plyniptcin, placed, like it, on 
the ancient British road from Exeter into CornwaH. 

Joel de Totnais, having espoused the cause of Robert Courthose, the 
Conqueror's elder son, was deprived of his lands by the Red King, who 
bestowed them upon Roger de Nonant ; Joel thereupon retired as a monk to 
the Benedictine priory which he had founded at Barnstaple. 

The Nonants continued at Totnes till the 9th year of John, while Alured, 
the son of Joel, occupied a castle at Barnstaple or Barum in North Devon, 
and took the side of the Empress Maud with Baldwin de Redvers against 




TOTNES 



Steiiiieii, being mentioned in the Ccstn Stepliani. He could have left no 
posterity, as we find that the descendant of his sister, who married into the 
great family of Braose (see Brainber, Sussex), William de Braose, the great- 
grandson of Joel de Totnais, claimed and obtained the honours of both 
Barnstaple and 'I'otnes. His possessions were, liowever, afterwards seized, and 
conferred upon Henry, the natural son of Reginald, Earl of Cornwall. On 
the accession of Henry III., Reginald de Braose, the third son of William, 
had restitution of the estates, which passed in marriage by his sister Eva to 
William de Cantelupe, whose daughter iMillicent married into the family of 
La Zouche ; her son Willi, un thus obtained the honour and castle of Totnes, 



44 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

and, after i8 Edward I., the manor and the possessions of the Braoses. 
The Nonants were succeeded in their portion of the hinds by the family 
of Valletort, and after the faikire of this Hne, the Nonant estate also fell to 
William la Zoiiche. 

On the attainder of John de la Zouche in the reign of Henry VII., Totnes 
was granted (1485) to Richard Edgecombe, ancestor of the present Mount 
Edgecombe family, whose grandson (2 Elizabeth) conveyed the borough and 
manor to the Corporation of Totnes, and sold his interest in the honour and 
castle, with its fifty-six knights' fees, to Sir Edward Seymour, Lord of Berry ; 
from that family it was conveyed in 1655 ^o William Bogan of Gatcombe, 
with whose descendants the property remained till 1726, when it was sold to 
John Taylor, whose son resold it to the Jeffery family. They, again, in 1764 
parted with it to Edward, Duke of Somerset, and with this family it remains. 

Although situated in an important position, there are no military events 
recorded in relation to Totnes Castle. It formed the temporary quarters 
of Lord Goring, in October 1645, and it was held by the king's forces in 
the following January, until the approach of Sir Thomas Eairfax towards 
Dartmouth. 




NUNNIiY 



Soniersetsbire 



BRIDGWAT]\R {>wn-exisle,it) 

BRIDGWATER is one of the many splendid fortresses in the kins^dom 
which, havinj» survived from earhest times in a defensible concHtion 
until the Civil War of the seventeenth century, were then, by order 
of a commission which sat in London to attend to such matters, so 
thoroughly destroyed -either as a measure of precaution or from mere vindic- 
tiveness — that few traces of their very existence remain at the present day. 

The lands were granted to Walter de Douai, perhaps a Netherlander who 
took kindly to the flat land and the waters, and who, having founded or im- 
proved a settlement at the furthest inland navigable [loint of the river Parret, 
called it "Walter's Bridge," or "Brugge-Walter," corrupted later into Bridge- 
watcr. He was followed by a son whose daughter-heiress married Paganel ; 
her son Falk de Paganel conveyed the property to William de Briwere, who 
originated the prosperity of the borough. He was high in favour with four 
kings — Henry II., Richard I., John, and Henry III. and was for many years 
sheriff of this and eleven other counties, obtaining from King John a free 
charter for Brugge- Walter, with licence to erect a castle there. He also 

4S 



46 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

founded here the hospital of St. John, and formed the haven, where he began 
the building of the original stone bridge of three arches across the river. The 
castle is said to have been built by him between 1202 and 1216, and although 
in 1540 Leland, passing there, describes "the Castelle, sumtyme a right fair & 
strong Peace of Worke," as then ruinous, it was in good preservation towards 
the middle of the seventeenth century, and owes its destruction to the Parlia- 
mentary War in 1645. 

The second De Briwere dying s.p., Bridgwater went to his eldest sister 
Graecia, the wife of the great noble, William de Braose, lord of Bergavenny, 
Bramber, Brecknock, &c., whose son William was killed by Llewellyn, when 
the borough of Bridgwater fell to Eve, the second daughter of De Braose, 
and wife of W. de Cantelupe ; her sister Millicent succeeded, and brought 
these lands to her husband Eudo, Lord Zouch, but on the attainder of John, 
Lord Zouch and Seymour, the manor was given to Giles, I>ord Aubeney, witii 
reversion to Lord Zouch, — Lord Aubeney being appointed Constable of the 
castles of Bridgwater and Richmond. Henry VIII. created his son Earl of 
Bridgwater in 1539, and on failure of the title it was revived by James 1. in 
the person of John Egerton, Baron Ellesmere. George I. advanced this family 
to the dignity of dukes of Bridgwater. The castle was sometimes held by 
queens of England, and Charles II. conferred the manor and castle on Sir 
William Whitmore, knight, but, soon after, the property was purchased by the 
Harvey family. 

Little can be gathered regarding the structure of this castle, the only visible 
relic of it being a Norman archway, which perhaps formed the water-gate. 
There are also some bonded wine-cellars below the present custom-house and 
Castle Street, which formed part of a passage of communication between the 
castle and the river. In the Proceedings of the Somerset Arc/iceological Society 
for 1877, Mr. George Parker says he remembered the site of the castle in 
King's Square, now partly built over, as surrounded with wooden palings, 
with some of the walls still remaining. Vestiges also remained towards the 
W., leading to Dr. Morgan's school, which formed part of the defences, 
and at the E. side of the town, near Barclay Street, were some very 
high mounds of earth, in which, on their removal, were found bones, bullets, 
swords, and other weapons. At the end of 1645, when orders came for the 
demolition of the castle and tlie works around it, a dissension arose between 
the soldiers of the garrison and the country people, the latter insisting on the 
removal of the outside works, which the soldiers wished to retain ; and the 
quarrel ended in the shooting down of numbers of the rustics. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax and Cromwell, the general and the lieutenant-general 
of the "New Model" armj', invested Bridgwater on July 11, 1645, the day after 
the rout of Goring at Langport, and just four weeks after the king's defeat at 
Naseby. As they were reconnoitring together, Cromwell was nearly killed by 



SOMERSETSHIRE 47 

a shot from tlie castle, lirccl by Mrs. Wyndliam, the wife of tlic governor, an 
officer to whom lie was speaking being killed by his side. Several councils of 
war were held to decide on the operations to be commenced. Sprigg says the 
fortitications were very regular and strong, the ditch about 30 feet wide and 
very deep ; the garrison was about 1000 strong, and on the ramparts and castle 
were mounted 44 guns. It was desired to storm the defences on the 14th, but 
delay was required in order to make bridges for crossing the ditches. Meantime, 
as the place was so strong, Fairfax was perplexed as to what course to pursue ; 
he could not pass it by, nor could it be masked, because of the river. Again, 
regular approaches would be too tedious a process, and not easy in such low- 
ground ; so it was resolved to storm on the 21st. This was done at two 
o'clock on the morning of that day, when the Parliamentary troops, well led, 
crossed the moat, and, in spite of a very heavy fire, scaled the works and broke 
into a suburb of the town, called Eastover, capturing 500 Royalists, when the 
garrison retreated into the inner work and castle. From thence they tired the 
suburb, and next day great destruction was caused to the town. Colonel 
Edmund Wyndham, the governor, peremptorily refused the summons sent 
him, whereon Fairfax offered that all the women should leave the castle, 
and, as soon as they were out, the artillery, aided by guns taken at Naseby, 
played on the place with such dire effect that the garrison felt obliged to 
seek terms ; these were at last arranged, and the town and castle surrendered 
on July 23rd. The Roundheads acquired great booty, in addition to the 
stores of provisions and 3000 stand of arms, since the country gentry, relying 
on the notion that the castle was impregnable, had sent in their jewels, and 
gold, and plate, for safe keeping, to the value of nearly ;^'ioo,ooo. Resting 
only a day after this fighting, Fairfax at once passed on to attack Bath, 
and then to the siege of Sherbourne Castle. 



BRISTOL {non-existent) 

I\ Saxon times Bristol was a town of no mean hnportance : it had battle- 
mented walls with five gates, one at each extremity of its main streets. 
Centuries later the Normans reared, on rising ground upon a neck of land 
between the river Frome and the Avon, a mighty fortress covering an area 
nearly as large as the old city, at some distance to the E. of it. Leland says 
that this castle was built by Robert, the Red Earl of Gloucester, the natural 
son of Henry I., by Nesta, daughter of Rhys, Prince of S. Wales ; but it is 
probable that the founder was Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, who in ioiS6 
was in receipt of a large part (one-third) of the revenues of Bristol ; he received 
large grants of land in this county from the Conqueror, and may have chosen 
the site of Bristol Castle for his chief fortress, as it held llic only road by which 



48 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



FROMB. 



Bristol could then be approached from Gloucestershire, and as, besides, it com- 
manded the harbour of this Western port. 

Nor was this the first occupation of the important site, for a Saxon castle 
had been founded, as supposed, by King Edward the Elder, about 911, on the 
E. of the existing town ; defended on the N. bv the Frome, S. by Avon, and 
having a deep ditch on the E. where an arm of the Frome flows into the greater 
river ; while on the W. was another deep moat meeting the Avon on the S. 
Probably there was also a wall inside the ditch, and stockades, and it seems 
certain that some stone buildings stood within the enclosure. 

When the conspiracy of Bishop Odo was raised in the first vear of the 
Red King, with the intent to dethrone him in favour of his elder brother Robert, 

the leaders of it used this for- 
tress of Bristol as their head- 
quarters. They were Odo 
and Robert de Mortain, the 
Conqueror's half - brothers ; 
Eustace, Count of Boulogne ; 
Robert de Belesme ; Robert, 
Earl of Shrewsbury and Arun- 
del ; William, Bishop of Dur- 
ham ; Geoffrey, Bishop of 
Coutances, and Robert de 
Mowbray, his nephew ; Roger 
Bigod, Hugh de Grantmesnil, 
and some others. Having 
crushed this rebellion, Rufus 
bestowed Bristol Castle and 
the earldom of Gloucester 
upon Robert Fitz-Hamon, one 
of the few Norman knights 
faithful to him, at whose death in 1107 his daughter Mabile brought both 
castle and title to Robert, King Henry's natural son, to whom Henry had 
married her, somewhat in despite of her dignity. This Earl Robert, however, 
proved himself the most valiant captain of his time, and was the stout supporter 
of his half-sister, the Empress Maud, throughout her war with Stephen. He 
was also the guardian of her son Henry, whom he kept for four years at Bristol, 
while his education and training were carried on. Lord Lyttleton bears testi- 
mony to the great benefits which the young prince derived thus from his uncle. 
No doubt at this time Earl Robert added to the castle, and perhaps, as 
Leland says, built "the great square stone dungeon (keep) ; the stones whereof 
came out of Caen in Normandy." It was scarce finished when (1138) it was 
besieged by Stephen, who found it too strong and had to withdraw from before it. 




BRISTOL 



SOMERSETSHIRE 49 

When Stephen was taken prisoner at the battle of Lincohi in 1141 by Earl 
Robert, he was sent to his cousin the Empress for safe keeping in Bristol Castle ; 
but Gloucester himself being captured soon afterwards whilst escorting Maud to 
Ludgershall, Wilts (t/.r.), these two prisoners were exchanged, and the Civil 
War commenced again. with more fury than ever. The earl died of fever 1 147, 
— it is supposed at Bristol, since he was buried at the Priory of St. James. His 
son William had Bristol, but when his daughter Hawisia was married to King 
John, that monarch retained the place himself. He afterwards divorced his 
wife for a similar reason to that which separated Josephine from Napoleon 
— the want of issue — but Bristol remained with the Crown. Here the cruel 
king kept in conlinement the unhappy Princess Eleanor, the Dainoiselle of 
Brittany, after his murder of her brother Prince Arthur ; she remained a close 
prisoner in this castle, and at Corfe, for forty years, till her death in 1241 
(25 Henrv III.), and this for no crime except her title to the crown. The boy 
king Henry was brought to Bristol Castle in 12 16 to keep Christmas in it. 

In 1263, Prince Edward was sent by Henry III. to secure Bristol at the 
opening of the Barons' War, when his troops behaved so badly to the burghers 
that they attacked him, and he had to take refuge in the castle, whence, fearing 
to stand a siege, he retreated in haste and left the west country. 

Edward II. came here early in his reign to speed his favourite. Piers 
Gaveston, on his way to the government of Ireland ; and four years later, 
Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, held the castle against the king, continuing there 
for three years, but it was finally taken in 1316. In 1326 the two Despencers, 
who had incurred popular dislike, fled hither with the king for safety, when 
Queen Isabella and Mortimer returned from France. Sir Hugh Despencer, 
who was ninety years old, was delivered up to the people of Bristol, and was 
"drawen, hanged, and beheaded," and his body in full armour having been 
hung up for four days, with two strong cords, was cut to pieces, "and dogges 
did ete it ; and because he was Counte of Wynchestei', his Ledcle was sent 
thither" {Lcland). This was done in sight of the king and his son in the castle. 
The king and the younger Despencer then attempted to escape by water, but 
being forced by ill winds to land in Wales, were captured and sent to the queen 
at Hereford, who caused Despencer, and also the Earl of Arundel and others, 
to be executed with much barbarity, — the She-Wolf of France being present, 
as is said. The king was sent to Kenilworth, and thence, after his enforced 
abdication, to Corfe ; then to Bristol Castle again, where, a movement of 
tlie townspeople being made in liis favour, he was sent off secretly with his 
keepeis to Berkeley to his cruel end. It was in this castle that the Council sat, 
in Edward's absence, and proclaimed his son Edward guardian of the realm. 

In 1399, Richard II. passed from here to Ireland, whence he only returned 

to find his throne usurped. In the same year, when William Scrope, Eaii of 

Wilts, Sir [ohn Bushv, Sir John Green, and Sii" John Bagot were attainted, 
VOL. 11. c; 



50 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

they fled from London to this castle, being followed by the Duke of Lancaster, 
who stormed the fortress, and took it in four days, when the three first named 
were seized and beheaded, Bagot escaping to Ireland. 

Edward IV. came here in one of his progresses, and seems to have been 
present in the castle when Sir John Fulford and his companions were beheaded 
there. Next, in the 26th of Henry VIII. (1534), we get from Leland an insight 
into the castle and its condition. He says : " In the castell be two courtes ; in the 
utter courte, as in the N.W. part of it, is a great dungeon tower, a praty churche, 
a stone bridge, and 3 bullewarks. There be many towres yet standyng in both, 
the courtes, but alle tendeth to ruine." In Elizabeth's reign it was inhabited 
by beggars and thieves. 

Again a lapse of a centiny, and in 1631 we hear of the sale by King Charles 
of the castle and all its lands to the municipality of Bristol, for the sum of 
;^959 ; and this Corporation, at the commencement of the Civil War, thought 
it right that the walls and fortihcations of the castle and town should be 
repaired, which was done in 1642, for, old as they were, the walls of the keep 
were strong. In addition, also, they built three regular forts to protect the 
town. Bristol was at first occupied by both sides in turns, but ultimately 
became the principal royal fortress in the West, and its loss, under Prince 
Rupert in 1645, was one of the final blows which the cause of the king received. 
Invited by the citizens, Rupert in 1643 came to Bristol with 20,000 troops, 
and at once attacked it, receiving the capitulation of its defenders after a 
siege of three days, when King Charles and his two sons visited the town. 

Sprigg says that Bristol was at the time of its final siege the only con- 
siderable port which the king had in the whole kingdom for shipping and 
trade, and it was also his magazine for all sorts of ammunition ; so in August 
1645 it was determined to attempt its capture, and orders were given to the 
Parliamentary army, under Sir Thomas Fairfax and Cromwell, to march 
against it. The town was accordingly invested about the 22nd of August. 

As the siege and capture of Bristol concerned only the outlying forts and 
the defences of the city itself and did not apparently affect the castle, it will 
not be necessary to recount here the occurrences of the storming, which took 
place on the early morning of September loth, when the defences were forced, 
and the chief fort of Priorshill was taken, its garrison being all put to the 
sword : Prince Rupert then made terms and surrendered, marching out on 
the nth. Nothing seems to have taken place at the castle, which was victualled 
for six months. 

Ten years after, the castle was slighted and demolished by order of 
Cromwell, and in 1656 a new road was opened through the site on which 
it had stood. 

In Barrett's "History of Bristol" a drawing is given, copied from an 
ancient MS. of 1440, by the monk Rowlie, which shows a circular enclosure 



SOMERSETSHIRE 51 

of embattled walling with the keep of Earl Robert in its centre, and a 
watch-tower on both the E. and \V. sides of it. Its shape is a hollow 
square, with a cross in the niiddk-. The elevations of the fronts of the 
keep shows embattled walls with turrets, having enriched Norman ornamen- 
tation. A chapel seems to have also existed in it. 



CASTLE GARY (nou-exis/eni) 

THE old stronghold of Castle Carey, belonging to the Percevals, stood on 
the brow of the hills above the sources of the Carey streamlet, upon an 
eminence called Lodgehill, in a fertile country, and in the midst of most 
picturesque scenery. The town was anciently called Carith and Kari. The 
existing remains of it would scarcely be worthy of notice, but for some historical 
associations connected with them. Two large mounds — grass-covered, lying in 
a field immediately above the lake, on its E. side, defended on the S. side by a 
deep ditch, and X.W. by a wall built against the hill-side — are all that is to be 
seen of that ancient fortress, which for nearly 300 years was the seat of the 
Perceval Lovells, and which in early history resisted the attacks of even royal 
armies. In Barlow's Peerage, published 1773, it is stated, in a notice of Perceval, 
that the Xorman Castle of Cary consisted of a mound with a great tower thereon, 
situated in an angle of a very extensive court, which was defended at other 
points by several lesser towers around the enceinte, and having a great gate- 
house ; and CoUinson says that upon this site implements of war and iron bolts 
have been dug up. Above the castle is a range of strong earthworks, supposed 
to have been thrown up by Henry de Tracy in 1153, but which are more 
likely to represent an original fortification of British tribes, as indeed is 
indicated by the prefix Cner. 

The Conqueror took this place away from the Abbot of Glastonbury, and 
gave it first to Walter de Douai, with Brugge-Walter (now Bridgwater) and 
other lands. Soon after Domesday, however, it is found in the possession of 
Robert Perceval de Breherval or Bretevil, lord of Ivri and other places in 
Normandy, and in this family the lands continued till 25 Edward 111. (1351), 
when they passed by an heiress to the St. Maur family, and afterwards by another 
heiress to Lord Zouche of Heniingworth ; but on the attainder of this noble 
by Henry VII. for his support of King Richard, Cary Castle and manor were 
granted to Lord Willoughby de Broke. They were then purchased by Edward, 
ist Duke of Somerset, and in 1675 passed in marriage to Thomas, Lord Bruce, 
eldest son of the Earl of Aylesbury. In i6<S4 the estates were divided and sold 
to two persons, the manorial rights going to Henry Hoare, whose descendants 
still possess this part of the property. 

The first Lord Cary, Robert Perceval, retired to Normandy after the battle 



52 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

of Hastings, and became a monk in the abbey of Bee, leaving liis castle to his 
eldest son Ascelin, who, being a warrior of unusual fierceness and rapacity, 
acquired the name of Lupus. He married Isabel, daughter of the Earl of 
Bretteville, after storming her father's abode, and was succeeded at Gary by his 
second son, William Gouel de Perceval, who, according to the monks, was 
called Liipellus, or "The Little Wolf," — a word softened later into Ljipell, and 
then Lovell, which thenceforth became the name of two great families in the 
peerage. 

This William Perceval, the first Lovell, is supposed to have built the castle, 
and it is certain that a Norman castle did exist in these times, for we are told 
by chroniclers of two sieges which it endured; one in 1138, and another in 
1 153. Henry of Huntingdon, an historian of the twelfth century, says that 
"in the third year of Stephen the rebellion of the English nobles burst out 
with great fury : Talbot, at their head, held Hereford Castle in Wales against the 
king, which place Stephen besieged and took. Robert, Earl of Gloucester, — the 
natural son of Henry L, — w-ith other lords, entrenched himself in the strongly 
fortified castle of Bristol {q.v^, and again in that of Leeds in Kent ; William 
Lovell held Castle Gary ; Payne held Ludlow ; William de IMohun, Dunster 
Castle ; Robert de Nichole, Wareham Castle ; Eustace Fitzjohn held Melton, 
and William Fitzalan Shrewsbury Castle, which the king stormed." 

The Gesta StcpJiani chronicle says the king lost no time in besieging Carith, 
and pressed on the siege with vigour, throwing by his machines showers of 
missiles and fire, without intermission, among the garrison, and reducing them 
to starvation, so that he at last forced them to surrender on terms of submission 
and alliance. Thereon he garrisoned and held it until 1153, when the Percevals 
recovered it by the aid of the Earl of Gloucester, son of the great Robert. At 
this time Henry de Tracy was keeping Castle Gary for Stephen, and had 
fortified it anew, but Earl William marched suddenly upon him with a large 
force, and demolished the works he had raised, compelling him to retreat. 
A brother of William, this Lord of Gary, was John, fourth son of Ascelin, 
who had Harptree, or Richmond, Castle, which Stephen took from him by 
stratagem. 

There is no mention of Castle Gary after the twelfth century, and it is 
possible that before it passed to the Lords St. Maur, in 1351, it had fallen into 
decay. Some successor erected a grand manor-house near the site of the old 
fortress, and Gollinson speaks of the "tine arches and other remains" of this 
second edifice as being visible in his time. Within comparatively recent times 
there was a large arched gateway, with stabling on one side, and a large 
groined room, which in the time of the war with France was used as a depot 
for military stores. 

It was in this house that Charles II. is said to have slept after his escape 
froaa Worcester. He came from Colonel Lane's, at Bentley, safely to Colonel 



SOMERSETSHIRE 53 

Norton's at Leigh Couit, near Bristol, disguised as Mrs. Jane Lane's serving-man, 
witii tiiat lady riding on a pillion behind hiin. Then from Leigh he came to 
Castle Gary on September 16, 165 1, and stayed there the night, passing on next 
day to Trent, the house of Colonel Francis Wyndham. In the Boscobel Tracts, 
Castle Cary is spoken of as the house of Mr. Edward Kirton, but no persons 
there are mentioned ; therefore it is likely that Kirton was the steward of 
William Seymour, Marquess of Hertford, and afterwards Duke of Somerset, 
who was then proprietor of the Cary manor-house, which he had purchased, 
and in which his steward received the king. 

During their long hold of this property, the Perceval or Lovell family threw 
off several distinguished offshoots. The fourth son of William, Lord Lovell, 
was ancestor of the Lords Lovell of Titchmarsh, Northants ; one of whom, in 
29 Edward L, was among the barons who supported this king in his pretensions 
to the sovereignty of Scotland against Pope Boniface VII L, in a letter which 
defied the Papal jurisdiction in this matter. Another was Lord High Chamberlain 
to Richard 111.; a personage of such great importance that the poet Colling- 
bourne inveighed against him, with Catesby, Sir Thomas Ratcliffe and the king, 
in his verses beginning — 

" The cat, the rat, and Lovell our dog, 
Doe rule all England under the hog ; " 

The last word meaning the device of Richard ; and for it and the rest the poor 
poet lost his head. It was this Francis, Lord Lovell, aliout whose uncertain fate 
there is so curious a story. He was one of Richard's commanders at Bosworth, 
having been created viscount by him, and, escaping to Flanders to the court of 
Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, joined the conspiracy of Lambert Simnel against 
Henry VH., and with Mai tin Swartz invaded England in June 1487, with the Earl 
of Lincoln ; after their defeat at the battle of Stoke, Lovell was supposed to have 
been drowned in crossing the Trent, and was never heard of more. Another 
story, which is well autiienticated, was to the effect that he lived long after in a 
cave or vault ; a propos of which report it is a fact that in 1708, on the occasion 
of adding a chimney to the house of Minster Lovell near Burford, there was dis- 
covered a large room or vault undergroimd, in which was the entire skeleton of a 
man, sitting in a chaii' at a table, with a mass-book, paper, pen, &c., before him, 
while near him lay a cup, "all much mouldered and decayed." This was judged 
by the family to be the remains of Francis, Viscount Lovell, who might have 
been shut up thus by friends, and by misadventure neglected and starved to 
death. The clo'tlTing of the body had been rich, but on the admission of air 
all soon fell to dust (see Grey's Court, Oxoii). 

The hfth son of the same Lord William of Cary was Sir Richard de 
Perceval, ancestor of the present Lord Egmont, who is Lord Lovell and 
Holland in England, as well as Earl of Egmont in Ireland. Another de- 



54 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

scendant of this fifth son was Richard, born 1550, whose family retained the 
Perceval name ; having resided long in Spain, he was sought by Lord Burleigh, 
from his knowledge of the language, to decipher some letters supposed to refer 
to the Armada, which an English ship had taken out of a Spanish one in 1586. 
Perceval was able to read them, and thus to make known the designs of Spain 
against his country in time for preparations against the arrival of that dreaded 
armament. 



DUNSTER {chief) 

THE ancient stronghold of Dunster stands on the western edge of a deep 
valley, upon a tor, or hill, 200 feet in elevation, whence the valley passes in 
a short distance to the sea near Minehead, on the N. coast of the county. The 
old town of Dunster nestles at the foot of the castle hill — a quaint and interesting 
collection of old-fashioned and half-timbered houses. The old west-country 
name for the hill, of Tor, originally attached to the castle which in Saxon times 
stood on the summit of this natural mound or b2tr/i, probably a timber and 
stockaded fortress with a ditch, that in the time of the Confessor belonged to 
one Aluric. Soon after the Conquest, it passed into the hands of William de 
Mohun, and his family (whose name in modern days has been corrupted into 
Moon) held Dunster for nearly three and a half centuries. 

This William was a landowner from the Cotentin in Normandy, who had 
followed Duke William and his fortunes, and having fought for him well at 
Senlac, was rewarded with some sixty-eight manors in the west of England, 
which were formed into an honour or barony, of which Dunster was the 
caput. On the site of the fortress of Aluric — which doubtless was a strong 
one for protection against the sea-rovers, and also from the Welsh of the west — 
De Mohun built a stone Norman castle, which early in the next century was 
considered one of the most important in the west country, and was held by 
the second baron, also William by name, for the Empress Maud against King 
Stephen, who feared to attack it ; the character of this lord may be judged 
from the name which he acquired, in those terrible and lawless days, of " The 
Scourge of the West." In the time of King John, the owner, Reginald de 
Mohun, was a minor, and was kept in ward by the king, who appointed 
his trusty henchman, Hubert de Burgh, custodian of Dunster. This baron 
dying in 12 13, the castle again fell to the Crown in ward till the heir, another 
Reginald, came of age. It is probably this baron or his son, who between 1246 
and 1278 may have built the existing walls and towers of the lower court, — 
the keep having been erected long before. 

John de Mohun, 8th baron, died 1376, leaving daughters only, when his 
widow, Lady Joan, sold the estate and castle to Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh 
Courtenay, Earl of Devon, the widow of a second husband. Sir Andrew 




^ 

-^ 

^ 






SOMERSETSHIRE 55 

Luttrell of Chilton. She was a dame of high birtli and great wealth, and lier 
son, Hugh Luttrell, eventually succeeded to the honour and castle of Dunster ; 
but Lady Joan de Mohun retained possession for her life, and outlived Lady 
Elizabeth Luttrell, and when Sir Hugh succeeded, vexatious legal proceedings 
were instituted against him, by the daughters of the last De Mohun. He was 
poor, and had to borrow ^^'50 from the Abbot of Cleeve to defend the suit, 
which terminated at last in 1404 in his favour {Barrett). Sir Hugh made many 
additions to the castle, and strengthened the gatehouse with two buttresses, 
which are still to be seen. He died in 1428, and his son John in 1430, wiiere- 
upon his young son James, an infant, succeeded, who became a Lancastrian, and 
was killed on that side, at the second battle of St. Albans, in 1461, leaving two 
sons, minors. Edward IV. confiscated the Luttrell estates (1463), granting 
them to tile Earl of Pembroke, and it was only after Bosworth that the 
family regained their possessions, and Hugh I^uttrell the heir came to Dunster. 
Three generations of knighted Luttrells then continued here, the latter one, 
Sir John, serving in the war in Scotland and in France. He was knighted at 
Leith, after Flodden, and died in 1551, leaving three daughters, when the 
estate went to his brother's issue. Other three Luttrells succeeded him, of 
whom the last, Thomas, was owner during the Civil War, and seems to have 
begun as a Parliamentarian, like many of his neighbours, but to have faced 
both ways, since he was found even paying for the support of royalist troops 
when Colonel Wyndham managed to obtain possession of Dunster Castle for 
the king. It seems that in September 1642, when the Marquess of Hert- 
ford with a force of 400 men came to Minehead, Thomas Luttrell was ordered 
by the Roundhead general to defend Dunster, and being siunmoncd by the 
Royalists, " Mistress Luttrell commanded the men within to give fire . . . which 
accordingly they did," from behind the castle rampart ; whereon the king's 
troopers retreated, much to the vexation of Hertford, who charged them 
with cowardice. After this the castle was held for the Parliament till after 
the fall of Bridgwater, in 1643, when the king's star was so much in the 
ascendant, that Luttrell surrendered his castle to the royal troops, and it was 
garrisoned for the king under Colonel Francis Wyndham. 

In 1645, after the reverses of Charles and the fall of Bridgwater and 
Bristol, Dunster remained the only fortress in the county held by king's 
troops, and Colonel Blake (afterwards the great admiral and vanquisher of Van 
Trompj, with Colonel Sydenham, was sent from Taunton to reduce it. They 
opened the siege early in November, and so completely blockaded the place 
that relief was impossible, and a speedy surrender was looked for ; but the 
besieged, though straitened both as to water and provisions, gallantly held 
on, and returned a curt refusal to Blake's repeated summons. Meantime the 
approaches and batteries were pushed nearer, and mines were worked, which, 
however, the governor countermined, so that when on January 3, 1646, Blake 



56 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

sprang three mines, no great amount of damage was clone, and the breach 
that was made was so inaccessible, that the intended storming could not be 
carried out. Incessant attempts were made for Wyndham's relief, and at last 
a force of 1500 horse and 300 foot managed to reach Dunster, and on 
F'ebruary 5th threw in a welcome aid of four barrels of powder, thirty cows 
and fifty sheep ; having done this, they spoilt the mines and destroyed 
the works of the enemy, and retreated to Devon. Then Exeter and other 
strong places in the West were lost to the king, and fresh troops were sent by 
Fairfax to the siege of Dunster ; and at last, in April, on a fresh summons being 
made by Blake and Skippon, Colonel Wyndham, learning the king's losses and 
deprived of all hope of relief, demanded a parley, the result of which was that, 
after sustaining a close siege for a hundred and fifty days, with tlie loss of 
twenty men, he surrendered the castle on April 22nd, when six guns and 
two hundred stand of arms were all that fell to the captors. With this the 
fighting in Somerset ended. The war was then practically over, and the king's 
power destroyed. 

Luttrell then felt the effects of his undecided policv. The Council sent 
down some one to supersede him, and gave orders for the castle to be pulled 
to pieces, which fortunately was not done as intended, nor was the building 
"slighted"; so the Luttrell family happily continue in the enjoyment of their 
old stronghold. 

Nothing remains of the Norman keep which crowned the tor or mound, 
and its very shape is unknown. The mound is oval in shape and of natural 
formation, but has been scarped all round to render it less accessible, lielow 
the tor on the N. side is a level platform of about half an acre, forming the 
lower ward, which conforms to the curve of the hill, and is continued on the 
N. by a curtain wall with flanking towers, below which the hill, somewhat 
scarped, falls thence to the valley. The ancient gateway from the lower ward 
is no longer used ; it contains the old timber and iron gates of Henry VIlI.'s 
time, or older, and stands at an angle with the old gatehouse to which the road 
from the town leads up. This fine building is still perfect, 45 feet in height, 
with two lofty octagonal towers, heavily battlemented, but without either port- 
cullis or drawbridge. It is in three floors ; the first with two good rooms and 
two closets ; the second, which was formerly on the same plan, has been 
of late years converted into a fine hall, with an open roof : in it there are five 
Tudor windows and a fireplace. Upon exterior panels are carved various arms 
of the Luttrell family and their connections. 

There seems to be no masonry here of earlier date than Henry 111., who 
spoke of Dunster as " my castle." The curtain wall and low towers may be 
of that reign, while the gatehouse is Edwardian. The grand structure of 
the inhabited portion was rebuilt in the time of Elizabeth, on the old 
foundations. 



SOMERSETSHIRE 57 



E N M O R E {iion-e.xistCHi) 

THE site of llie ancient castle of Enmore is four miles \V. from Bridgwater. 
Before the Conquest the hinds belonged to a Norman family named 
Courcelle, but soon afterwards we find them in the hands of the family of 
William Malet, the famous warrior of Duke William's army. His son Robert 
appears to have been the grantee, and after him the next brother Gilbert held 
the lands, and left them to his son and heir, William Malet. Of the same family 
were William and Robert Malet, who took part with the Duke of Normandy 
against Henry I., and were banished from England ; and Baldwin, the eldest 
son of the former of these, on reconciliation with the king, settled at Enmore, 
which became the chief seat of the family. This Baldwin was a knight, and is 
designated " de Enmore." His son Sir William Malet followed, and then his son, 
likewise a knight ; and so the succession went on in this family, generally from 
father to son, in curious and uneventful regularity, through all the changes of 
tile country for more than 500 years, until John Malet in the seventeenth century 
dying, left an only daughter and heir, Elizabeth, married to John Wilmot, the 
Earl of Rochester, who thus acquired Enmore. Rochester, in 1684, left three 
daughters, coheiresses, the eldest of whom, Anne, was wife to Henry Bayntun 
of Spye Park, Wilts, and brought him this manor ; from them it descended 
to Sir Edward Bayntun Rolt, Bart., who at the close of the last century sold 
Enmore to James Smyth, and from him it was conveyed to the Earl of 
Egmont. His son, Earl John, in 1833 sold the property to Mr. Nicholas 
Broadmead, whose son, Mr. Thomas P. Broadmead, is the present owner. 

Nothing seems to be known about the earlier manor-house, which was 
undoubtedly protected by the existing ditch, and sufticiently fortilied. It was 
pulled down on the purchase of the estate from I^ord Egmont, and the present 
structure was reared in its place. It stands on gently rising ground in a very 
fine park. 

FARLKIGH, or FARLEIGH HUNGERFORD {mhwr) 

FARLEIGH, being partly in Somerset, is sometimes claimed iiy that county ; 
it lies about eight miles S.E. of Bath, and five W. of Trowbridge. 
The castle stands on a rockv terrace, below which flows the Fromc Rivei", 
giving protection on the N.E., N., and N.W. sides, but there are commanding 
heights upon the S. side. Of the original Norman stronghold iiolliing can 
be said to remain ; what now exists there is the work of the Hungerlortls, 
some part being of the fourteenth century, but most of it belonging to the 
early fifteenth {Parker). 

The lordship was given by the Ci>ni.[ueror to Roger de Courcelle, and on its 
VOL. II. " H 



58 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

reversion to the Crown, the Red King bestowed it on Hugii de Montfort, 
then lord of Nunnev, a son of Thurstan de Bastenburgh, another Norman 
of distinction, — killed in a duel, — who left a son having as his only issue a 
daughter, wife to Gilbert de Gant, whose son Hugh assumed the name of 
Montfort. This Hugh married Adeline, daughter of Robert, Earl of Mellent, 
and from his eldest son Robert was descended Sir Henry de Montfort, who, 
towards the close of the reign of Henry 111., had his seat at Farleigh ; whence 
this castle was also called Farleigh Montfort. After him followed later Sir 
Reginald de Montfort, who in 1337 alienated his property to Henry Burghersh, 
Bishop of Lincoln. He left it to his brother Bartholomew, Lord Burghersh, 
a baron of much power in the reigns of Edward 11. and III., who did good 
service in the French and Scottish wars, and fought at Cregy. His grand- 
daughter, an heiress, married Edward, Lord Despencer, and dying s.p., 
Farleigh was sold in 1369 to Sir Thomas Hungerford, knight, then of Hey- 
tesbury, who, with money acquired in the French wars (Leland says by the 
ransom of the Duke of Orleans), fortified the old manor-house with the four 
mighty towers and walls, and with two embattled gateways, in 7 Richard H. ; 
but having done this without a licence, he had to pay a small line and 
received the king's pardon. He died 1398, leaving Farleigh in dower 
for his wife Joan, who was succeeded by her son. Sir Walter Hungerford, 
in 141 2. 

The services of this knight must have been important in the French War, 
since he enjoyed a grant of a hundred marks a year (or about ;^i335 of our 
currency), secured on the town and castle of Marlborough, and the wool rates 
of Wells, in compensation for his outlays in that war. Henry VI. summoned 
him to Parliament as Lord Hungerford some years before his death, in 1449. 
On the death of his son Robert, ten years later, the widow founded the Hunger- 
ford chapel and chantry at Farleigh. Robert, the third lord, was a zealous 
Lancastrian, who married, in his father's lifetime, Alianore, daughter and heir 
of Lord William Molyns, and was in consequence occasionally called Lord 
Molyns. After the terrible defeat of Towton, on March 29, 1461, which 
established Edward \\ . on the throne. King Henry, his queen and his son, Hed 
northward in company with a few noblemen, of whom Lord Hungerford was 
one, and came to Scotland, where safety was purchased by the cession, to 
the King of Scots, of Berwick, a fortress captured fifty-six years before by 
Henry 1\'. Hungerford was attainted by the Act of Parliament i Edward IV'., 
and when, two years later, Queen Margaret renewed the war, and got 
possession of some of the northern castles, lie was the chief of those who 
defended Alnwick Castle with 500 or 600 P'rench soldiers. Soon afterwards 
he was taken prisoner after the battle of He.xham, conveyed to Newcastle, 
and there beheaded, being afterwards buried in the N. aisle of Salisbury 
Cathedral. His eldest son, Thomas, joined Warwick upon his defection 



SOMERSETSHIRE 59 

from Edward I\'., and being taken and tried for high treason at Salisbury 
(8 Edward IV.), was condemned and beheaded. Edward IV. then gave Far- 
leigh to his brother I^ichard, and George, Duke of Clarence, lived here. 
In the first year, however, of Henry VII. his attainder, and that of his father, 
were reversed by Parliament, and his heir had restitution of his lands and 
honours {Brooke). 

This Lord Hungerford married .Anne, daughter of Henry Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, and left only a daughter, when, as the estates were entailed 
on heirs male, they descended to Walter, second son of the third lord. Sir 
Walter had naturally taken the side of Richmond, joining him on his march to 
Tamworth, and fighting at Bosworth with him. He was a Privy Councillor 
aftei^wards with Henry VIII. His grandson. Sir Walter, created Lord Hunger- 
ford of Heytesbury, was concerned in the troubles of 1540, at the time when 
Cromwell, Earl of Essex, was beheaded, and he also lost his life on Tower 
Green, at the same time and place, when his estates were confiscated. His son 
Sir Walter, how-ever, recovered them, and eventually the property passed to 
the son of this man's daughter, Lucy, who had married a relative. Sir Anthony 
Hungerford of Black Bourton, Oxfordshire, — namely, to Sir Edward Hunger- 
ford of Corsham, K.C.B., who died in 1648, leaving everything to his half- 
brother Anthony, whose son. Sir Edward, succeeding, was knighted at the 
coronation of Charles II. He, in those spendthrift days, so involved his estates 
that they had to be sold by his trustees to Henry Baynton of Spye Park, 
Devizes, who with his wife. Lady Anne W^ilmot, sister of the Earl of Rochester, 
resided at P'arleigh ; and they appear to have been the last occupants of the old 
fabric. The lands were afterwards resold, in 1702, to Joseph Houlton, the 
squire of a neighbouring property, and his descendant, Sir E. Victor Houlton, 
G.C.M.G., owned the property for many years. The castle, however, did not 
come to the Houltons till 1730, when it had fallen greatly to decay, and when 
a great part of its materials had been renioved for other uses. It was advertised 
for sale in 1891, and was sold to the first Baron Donington, whose wife, Edith 
Maud, Countess Loudoun in her own right as daughter of the second Margaret 
of Hastings, was descended from Sir Thomas Hungerford (executed at 
Salisbury in 1469) by his only daughter Mary, married to Lord Hastings. Lord 
Donington, who died in 1895, settled the Farleigh Hungerford estate on the 
children of his third son, Gilbert, who are to bear the name of Hungerford- 
Hastings. 

At Farleigh Castle was born the unfortunate lady, Mary Plantagenet, 
Countess of Salisbury, the daughter of George, " false, fleeting Clarence." After 
the murder of her brother, Edward, Earl of Warwick, by Henry VII., she 
petitioned and obtained from Parliament the restitution of his estates. She 
married Sir Richard Pole, a Welsh knight, cousin to Henry VII., and was made 
Countess of Salisbury by Henry VIII., having a fair claim to the title by her 



6o 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



birtli. One of her two sons was Reginald, Cardinal Pole, who excited the 
king's enmity by his opposition at the Papal court, and Henrv accusing both 
his brother Henry and his mother of being implicated in a conspiracy against 
him, lodged them both in the Tower on a charge of high treason in 1538. First, 
the king caused her son, who was Henry, Lord Montague, to be beheaded, and 
after a rigorous imprisonment of two years, he brought the countess, who was 
nearly seventy years old, to the scaffold. Here a dreadful scene ensued, as 

the old countess refused to lie 
down at the block, and the 
executioner had to seize her 
grey hair and chop her head 
off the best way he could. 

There is a story connected 
with Farleigh, also at the time 
of Henry VI II., which relates 
to Sir Walter or "Lord" Hun- 
gerford of Heytesbury. This 
man had three wives : how he 
dealt with the first two is not 
known, but a doleful tale exists 
about the third, Joan, daughter 
of Lord Hussey of Sleaford. In 
a " Humble Petition" addressed 
by her to one of the Secretaries 
of State, she complains that her 
lord had kept her locked up in 
one of the towers " for three 
or fower years, without comfort 
of any creature, & under the 
custodie of my lord's Chaplain, 
Sir John a Lee, who hath once 
or twice poyson'd me, as he 
will not deny upon examina- 
tion. He hath promised my lord that he will soon rid him of me ; & I 
am sure he intendeth to keep his promise, for I have none other meat nor 
drink, but such as cometh from the said priest, & brought me by my lord's 
foole ; which meat & drink 1 have often feared, & yet do so every day more 
than another, to taste ; so that I have been well-nigh starved, & sometimes 
of a truth I should die for lack of sustinence, & had, long ere this time, had 
not poor women of the country of their charity, knowing my Lord's demayne 
always to his wives, brought me to my great window in the night such meat 
Tfe drink as they had ; & gave me for the love of God ; for money have I 




FARLEIGH 



SOMERSETSHIRE 



6i 



none, wherewith to pay them, inn- yet have had of niv Lord, these 4 years, 
four groats." This lord, who seems to have been crazy, was the man who was 
charged witli other high crimes in connection with the Lincohishire rebeUion 
of 1536, and beheaded in 1540. His wife, whose father, Lord Hussey, had 







Wi/.h; 




FARLEKlll 



previously shared the same fate for the same offence, then married, as her 
second husband, Sir Robert Throckmorton ; she died in 1571. 

Farleigh held a garrison for Charles 1. under Colonel Hungerford, biother of 
the owner, Sir Edward Hungerford, who actually was at the time conunander 
of the Parliament forces in Wiltshire ; but after the fall of Bristol and other 



62 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

fortresses in the West it surrendered, on the 15th September 1645, and thereby 
escaped demolition. 

In the most perfect state of this stronghold, it consisted of two wards, sur- 
rounded by a high crenellated wall, outside of which, where not defended by 
the river and ditch, there was a moat. It had two entrances, the principal one 
being on the E., in the embattled gatehouse, the shell of which remains, having 
a drawbridge over the moat. There are some fragments of the other entrance, 
on the W. side. A spring of water in the adjacent hill supplied the moat, by 
means of pipes which were discovered in late years. This gate led into the 
outer ward, round which were placed the stables and offices, from whence 
another gateway opened to the N. or inner court, measuring 189 feet by 144. 
The wall of this court was flanked by four large circular towers, 60 feet high, 
containing three storeys ; of these only the towers at the S.E. and S.W. 
corners remain. The N.W. and N.E. towers, with the intermediate buildings, 
are quite destroyed, except a small piece of parapet overlooking a deep 
dell, called Danes' Ditch. In the inner court were the great Hall and the 
State apartments, which are said to have once been magnificent in their ap- 
pointments, "above any other baronial residence in England"; these were 
entire in 1701, but have now quite disappeared. They were decorated with 
tapestry, sculpture, and paintings, and the hall was hung with suits of armour, 
worn by possessors of Farleigh, and with spoils from the fields of Cre9y, 
Poictiers, Agincourt, and Calais ; but all has vanished except the lines of 
foundations. The chapel, on the right hand at entering, is the most entire of 
the buildings, and adjoining it, on the N., is the chantry or oratory dedicated 
to St. Anne, before mentioned. There are some interesting tombs of the 
Hungerfords, and below the chantry is a collection of bodies in lead cases, 
moulded to the shape of the figures and faces. E. of this building is a house 
built for the two chantry priests, and now converted into a dairy farm-house. 
The later owners have endeavoured to preserve the remains of these buildings, 
and have decorated the interior of the chapel with a fine collection of ancient 
armour. The park, which was 2f miles in circuit, lay on the N. and W. sides. 
The chief front of the castle in the inner ward, shown in Buck, faced the 
E., a grand flight of stairs leading up to its doorway. 



MONTACUTE {non-existent) 

THE village of this name, in the hills four miles to the W.of Yeovil, stands 
at the foot of a steep conical hill, somewhat detached from the ridge, 
which, as Mons anitus, is given by some as the derivation of the name. 

In the time of Canute, that king's standard-bearer, Tofig, a Dane, owned 
the lands here, then called Lutcgarsbury, and to the summit of this hill is 



SOMERSETSHIRE 63 

attached the legend of tlie Holy Rood of Waltham, which is briefly as follows : 
The blacksmith of Montacute dreamed on three occasions of a vision enjoining 
him to (jbtain the aid of the priest and to dig on this hill-top ; at last he obeyed, 
and under a stone were found two crucifixes, an ancient book, and a bell. Tofig 
being informed of the treasure thus miraculously troven, brought a waggon 
and oxen to cart it away to some minster. Glastonbury and Canterbury and 
others were named, but the oxen refused to move. Tofig went through a list of 
holy places in vain, and at last named Waltham in Essex, a place also belonging 
to himself, whereon the cart at once started off and came to Walthani in time. 
Here he built a small church wherein to house the Holy Rood and attract 
pilgrims. In the course of years Tofig's lands became the property of Earl 
Harold, afterwards the king, who built at Waltham a grand church for an abbey 
of canons and a dean, and thus originated tiie Holy Rood or Cross of Waltham 
which gave a war-cry to the English at Senlac. 

After the Conquest, Tofig's lands were held by Drogo or Dru de Atontacute, 
— deriving his name from a township of that name in Normandy, — a follower 
of Duke William, in the retinue of Robert de Mortain, or Morton, Earl of 
Cornwall, under whom he held the manor, and who is said to have reared a 
castle on the summit of the same hill soon after the Conquest. This castle was 
attacked in 1069 by the men of Somerset and Dorset, in a last struggle for 
freedom against their new and savage masters, but they were routed by the 
warlike Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, when horrible sufferings were inflicted 
upon the vanquished tribesmen. In 1091 William the son of Robert de Mortain 
founded here a priory of Cluniac monks, and endowed it with this manor 
and its castle. In the reign of Henry 1., the castle being decayed, a chapel 
was built on its site which existed in the time of Leland, but of which 
no vestiges whatever remain at present. Round the hill are some traces of 
earthworks which may be survivals of the old Norman castle, and a modern 
look-ont tower now occupies the hill-top. 

Drogo's descendants held the rest of the lands here for many generations, 
and in the persons of the earls of Salisbury became the greatest nobles in 
England. Simon de Montacute was both a great soldier and an admiral 
(temp. Edward I.), and his son was siunmoned to Parliament as baron in 
2 Edward 11. The next, William, Lord Montacute, after performing great 
services for Edward 111., was in 1336 made Earl of Salisbury, and was Earl 
Marshal ; and his son seems to have gone back to the old form of the name, 
Montagu, which was adopted, and which followed the illustrious succession of 
nobles and warriors and statesmen of the family who flourished after him. 

The beautiful mansion known as Montacute House is in the possession 
of a fine old Somersetshire family named Phelips, who have been settled at 
Montacute since the middle of tlie lifteenth century. 



64 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



NETHER STOWEY {non-eistent) 

ON the northern slopes of the Quantock Hills, some nine miles from 
Bridgwater, upon the hill still called Castle Hill, above the E. end of the 
village of the above name, are the remains of an extensive fortification, which, 
in view of the artificial character of the mound, must be of remote origin. 
To the eastward of this site the steep hill rises another 300 feet, and within 
a mile in the same direction, on the highest point of the Quantocks, 
is Dowsborough Castle, an early British or ante-Roman earthwork of oval 
form. The mound of Stowey, which rises out of the steep slope of the 
Castle Hill, is circular and about 100 yards in diameter at its base ; a 
steep ascent leads to the edge of a circular ditch, now 10 feet in depth, 
which environs the upper and quite artificially formed mound above, on 
the summit of which are the foundations of a large tower, measuring about 
60 feet by 50, and 7 or 8 feet in thickness, said to be those of a somewhat 
modern erection, pulled down about fifty years ago. The. plan of these 
foundations has, however, a close resemblance to that of a Norman keep, 
with its forebuilding for the staircase, and it seems probable that below the 
later erection may lie the walls of the Norman castle alleged to have stood 
on the mound. 

There do not appear to be any notices or records of this fortress in history, 
nor do we know who were its owners or builders, except that it is said to have 
been the residence of James (Touchet), Baron Audley, who was one of the 
leaders of the Cornish insurgents who in 1497 were defeated by the forces of 
Henry VII. at the battle of Blackheath (June 24). Lord Audley being taken 
prisoner, is said by Lord Bacon to have been " led from Newgate to Tower 
Hill, in a paper coat painted with his own arms ; the arms reversed, the coat 
torn, and he at Tower Hill beheaded." 

Leland wrote : " Here is a goodly Maner place of the Lorde Audeley's, 
stonding exceeding pleasauntly for good Pastures, & having by it a Parke of 
redde Deare & another of falow & a faire Brooke serving al the offices of 
the Maner Place. Lord Audeley that rebelled yn Henry the 7th Tyme 
began great Foundations of Stone-work to the enlarging of his House, the 
which can yet be scene onperfect." 

Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peerages shows that Sir James de Audley, 
4th Lord Audley (originally Alditheley), the great warrior of Poictiers 
{Froissart), and one of the original knights of the Garter, was succeeded 
by his son Nicholas, who died s.p. 1392, when the barony of Audley devolved 
on the grandson of his sister Joane, the wife of Sir John Touchet. His 
descendant, Sir George Touchet, i8th Baron Audley, was created Earl 
Castlehaven in the Peerage of Ireland, in 1616. The second earl, his son 



SOMERSETSHIRE 65 

Mervyn, 19th B;iron Audley, beinj^ convicted of high crimes, was sentenced 
to death, and executed on Tower Hill, August 14, 1631. 

The site of the tower commands a wide prospect, — across the Bristol 
Channel to the Welsh mountains on one hand, and away to the Mendips 
and Glastonbury Tor on the other. 



N U N N E Y {iiiiiior) 

ABOUT three miles from Frome, and the same from Witham Station, this 
castle stands in the lowland under the hills, among the trees which grow 
around the still perfect moat which almost washes the foot of the walls. It is 
described by Parker as a good example of a tower-built house or castle, that 
is, a house of tolerable refinement built in the form of a keep, in three or 
four storeys, with windows on all four sides of each floor, and having four 
towers or turrets, one at each angle, large enough to contain in one, bed-rooms, 
in another, closets, the third being devoted to offices, and the fourth to the 
staircase. In Nunney, the circular corner-turrets are so large as almost to 
meet at the two ends of the house, which is long and narrow, and with walls 
so thick as to curtail much the interior space. It is a strongly fortified 
dwelling-house of the fourteenth century, and an interesting one ; along the 
top of the walls outside are ranged the stone corbels, or brackets, which carried 
the wooden gallery for defence of the walls in place of machicolations. 

The first notice of the place is in 1259 (temp. Henry III.), when its 
manor is granted to Henry de Montfort, the eldest son of the Earl of 
Leicester; but in 1262 the owner is Elias de Noney, ancestor of the 
Delameres, and in 1315 (2 Edward II.), when a second Domesday Register 
was made of all owners of manors, " Noin " was owned by Nicholas de la 
Mare, and Alexander and Delicia de Montfort ; then followed a Thomas, 
whose son John Delamere is in 1372 scheduled as holding Nunney under 
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex. This is the Sir John who, 
according to the Patent Rolls, obtained a licence in 1373 (47 Edward 111.) 
as " John de la Mare, chivaler," to crenellate his house of " Nonny." He was 
a soldier of eminence, who served with Edward in the French wars, where no 
doubt, like others, he amassed sufficient wealth by ransoms and loot to build 
a suitable dwelling; he served as sheriff in 1377, and dying about 13H9, was 
succeeded by his son Philip, who had sufficient wealth to found a chantry 
there. After him John Uelamere held the property, which is ne.xt found in 
the hands of an heiress Constantia, who had been the wife of one John Poulet, 
and at her death in 1443, her son John Poulet, aged fourteen, succeeded to 
the estate. He died in 1492, leaving a son and heir |ohn, who is there in 1518. 

.At the dissolution of monasteries, this estate and chantry seems to have 
VOL. II. 1 



66 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

fallen to the Crown, for in 1560 the descendant of these Poultrts, having 
become Lord St. John, Marquess of Winchester and Treasurer of England, 
obtained from Elizabeth a grant of the house and the chantry of Nunney. 
Then the estate is sold to Richard Parker, who again alienates to Richard 
Prater ; and it was this man's grandson, Colonel Richard Prater, who sustained 
the siege in 1645, and surrendered the castle after a fight of two days. He 
hoped to save his property, but it was sequestered and ordered to be sold. 
Prater died before this could be carried out, but in 1652 the estate and castle 
were divided and sold to various persons, and the widow and family left 
to penury. 

The walls of the castle are nearly perfect, and are 63 feet in height, the 
oblong building measuring 61 feet by 25, but the roof and floors have gone ; 
these have all been of timber, without any stone vaulting. The kitchen is on 
the ground floor, where are two large fireplaces ; above on the first floor was 
the hall, occupying the whole stage, and the two upper storeys contained the 
family rooms and State apartments. The N.W. tower held the staircase, 
which seems to have been of wood, and in the S.E. turret, second floor, is a 
very perfect example of a private chapel or oratory, the entrance to which 
is contrived curiously through the jamb of a deeply recessed window, 
perhaps in order to secure orientation ; the other window opens eastward, 
and its sill, bracketed out, forms the altar ; there is a piscina also. The 
windows and architecture generally are of the transition from Decorated to 
Perpendicular. 

Leland visited Nunney twice ; for the first time in 1540, when he writes : 
"A praty Castell, at the VV. end of the Paroche church, having at eche end by 
N. & S. 2 praty round Towres, gatheryd by Compace to joyne in to one. 
The Waulls be very stronge & thykke, the Stayres narrow, the Lodginge within 
some what darke. It standeth on the left ripe of the Ryver [which] dividithe 
it from the Church Varde. The Castell is servid by Water conveyed into it 
owte of the Ryver. There is a stronge Waulle withe oute the Mote rownde 
about, savinge at the E. Parte of the Castell, where it is defendyd by the 
Brooke." 

In the Additional MSS. in the British Museum Library (No. 17062) is a 
diary kept by a Royalist officer at this time, giving a rough sketch of the castle, 
which shows the turrets with conical tops and a high roof to the main building. 
The outer wall of defence is not shown in Buck's drawing — it was only 12 feet 
high — nor are the gatehouse and drawbridge shown. 

This, then, is the fortress which in 1645 Colonel Prater, its owner, garrisoned 
for the king, and held against the Parliamentary force which Fairfax, on the 
march to attack Bristol, detached under Colonel Rainsborough to besiege it, 
and which consisted of the Colonel's own regiment and Colonel Hammond's 
with two guns. Fairfax himself rode over to view Xunney, and found it to 



SOMERSETSHIRE 67 

he a verv stronjj place {Sprigg). However, it was ill munitioned and pro- 
visioned, and after a day's battering, during which a breach was made in the 
castle wall, Colonel Prater surrendered next day (September 20th), when his 
garrison of eighty men were made prisoners. It is said that one of these, who 
were chiefly Irish, deserted to the enemy and betrayed a weak spot in the 
walls, — which is unlikely to have been known to him. The effects of the firing 
are still visible on the wall, and were chiefly the work of a 36-poundcr gun 
brought over from Shepton Mallet. The besiegers lost five men, chiefly by the 
lire of one marksman who seldom failed to hit his man. One of them had the 
temerity to climb a tree in the garden, where now stands the manor-house, to 
steal fruit, but he was brought down at the first shot. The castle flag, a red one 
with "a crucifix-cross" in the centre of it, was sent to London as a Papist 
trophy. Then the old castle was burnt, to prevent further use of it to the king, 
and it was ordered to be "slighted," wliich happily could only partially have 
been carried out. 



RICHMONT, OR HARPTREE {un„.cxi,tcui) 

OX the northern slopes of the Mendips, near the village of East Harptree, 
stood a castle which was a stronghold of the Gournay branch of the 
Harptree family. After the Conquest this parish was granted to Geoffrey, 
Bishop of Coutances, another of the warrior churchmen of the period, and 
it was held of him by Azelin Gouel de Perceval, ancestor of the Perceval 
family, and, by a younger son, of the barons Harptree and Gournay. 

From Sir John de Harptree, in the reign of Henry 1., descended Sir Robert 
(temp. Henry III)., who assumed the name of Gournay, and was ancestor of 
several barons of that name, long seated at this their castle of Richmont ; 
Joan, the daughter and heiress of the last of them, Sir Thomas, conveyed 
the estate to her husband Walter de Cadicot, and thereafter it descended, 
with the castle, by marriage to the family of Hampton, and then to that of 
Newton, being held by Sir Richard Newton, who was Lord Chief-justice 
17 to 22 Henry VI. His family continued to possess the property till the 
reign of Charles 11., after which date it came to the Scropes of Louth in 
Lincolnshire. 

It is likely that Azelin built a strong Norman castle here in the time of the 
Conipieror, or soon after, since in the time of Stephen, that king marched to 
Richmont Castle, after the siege of Bristol, pretending to lay siege to it in 
the ordinary way with his military engines. The garrison organised a sally 
in force to some distance, when the king, galloping up to the walls with his 
horsemen, before the garrison could get back again, set fire to the castle gate 
and secured the walls, and so obtained possession of the fortress. 



68 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



The old structure is said to have continued in preservation till the time 
of Henry VIII., when Sir John Newton destroyed it, even to the foundations, 
in order to build a new house near by, called Eastwood. It has now utterly 
vanished, but the site, overhanging on the N. and E. a narrow wooded ravine, is 
picturesque. It was an irregular fortress, approached from the S.W. only, and 
Collinson states that vestiges of a circular keep were visible in his time. 



STOKECOURCY (pronounced Stogursey) {minor) 

ON the border of the Lowlands, about two miles from the shore of Bridg- 
water Bay, lie the lands which were the head of the barony of Robert 
and William de Courcy, Sewers to the Empress Maud and to Henry II. 
William de Courcy died at the end of this king's reign, leaving a daughter and 

heiress Alice, who carried 
the estate, then of twenty- 
four knights' fees, to War- 
ren Fitzgerald, Chamberlain 
to King [ohn. Thev had 
two daughters, Margaret and 
|oan, who divided the pro- 
perty ; Margaret married (r) 
Baldwin de Redvers, s.p., and 
(2), against her will, Falk de 
Brent or Brente, a Norman 
of mean extraction, who, 
being disaffected to Henry 
III., fortified and garrisoned 
against him the manor-house 
of this barony ; and it be- 
came under him such a 
grievance to the country round, that, on complaint made to the king, a 
writ was sent to the sheriff to dismantle it (see Bedford). Falk, who had 
been high in favour with King John, was banished 9 Henry III., and died 
not long after. Margaret, his wife, lived till 20 Edward I., but did not 
recover possession of the estate, which was granted to Hugh de Neville, and 
at his death to his son-in-law, Robert de Waleron. In the time of Edward II. 
it was the barony of Robert Fitzpayne, and from him, with the title of Lord 
Fitzpayne, it descended to Eleanor, wife of Henry Percy, Earl of North- 
umberland. During her lifetime, in 33 Henry VI., soon after the first battle 
of St. Albans, the castle was surprised and burned by William, Lord Bon- 
ville, the brother-in-law of the King-maker, and has lain in ruins ever 




STOKECOURCY 



SOMERSETSHIRE 



69 



since, contimiiiis^ in the Percy family till 1682. The castle is on the S. of 
the village. 

Buck's view of Stokecourcv (1733) shows a great de il of the fabric then 
remaining ; there were half of the two round towers commanding the gateway, 
hut the drawbridge is not given. In rear is a large rectangular enclosure with 
square towers at the extremities of the walls, remaining to about half their 
original height, and from thence is a long bank sloping to the moat surrounding 
the whole. The site only of the circular keep and a postern remain. A stream 
from the Ouantock 
Hills supplied the 
moat, and worked 
the castle mill, 
which is still in 
use. 

In the Proceed- 
ings of tite Somerset 
A rchceolog teal So- 
ciety, vol. viii., it is 
said that e.xcava- 
tions have been 
made in and 
around the re- 
mains, but that 
very few charac- 
teristic portions of stokecourcy 
the original struc- 
ture are left, except the ancient bridge across the moat and parts of the 
main building, some walls, and the sally-postern. 

It was a member of the De Courcy family who subdued the pro\ince of 
Ulster, of which he was created earl. 




TAUNTON [clurf) 



1XE, king of the West Saxons, in the beginning of the eighth century having 
extended his kingdom beyond the I 'arret Kiver, built a strong fortress on 
his far west frontier, to protect his newly conquered lands from the Welsh of 
Devon. It was an earthwork, with a timber palace, smromided by a moat and 
palisades, and some traces of it are said to be still visible ; but it was captured 
and destroyed in 722 by Queen Ethelburga, and we hear of no stronghold at 
Taunton from that time till the reign of Henrv 1., when, a town having mean- 



70 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

time arisen, the lordship belonged to the diocese of Winchester, and William 
GifYord, Bishop of Winchester, erected on the old site a stone Norman castle. 
Great additions were made by his successors in the Decorated or Edwardian 
period, of which there are still considerable remains. 

The situation is on the right bank of the river Tone, upon a low elevation 
of gravel that rises above what was then a waste of fen land, which added 
strength to the position. The N. front, i8o yards in length, lies along the 
river, while the W. face is protected by a mill-stream, falling into the Tone 
here at right angles, and to obtain a water defence on the S. and E., a curved 
ditch, 340 yards in extent, was cut from the smaller stream round to the 
river, the whole enclosure thus forming somewhat the figure of a quadrant. 
An artificial ditch separates the inner court in the N.E. corner of this area, 
covering its S. and W. fronts ; and this court was again divided by a wall 
into two parts, that on the W. containing the keep, which stood on the 
enceinte wall. The outer court is called the "Castle Green," and in it the 
dead were buried in war time, in the same way as the ground at the Tower 
of London, on the N. of the White Tower, was until of late years occupied 
by a graveyard. 

Little is heard about the castle for a very long period after its building, 
except that it is known from deeds dated there that the bishops of Winchester 
occupied it, and from time to time enlarged and strengthened the fabric. In 
1490 it had become ruinous, and Bishop Langton repaired the whole building, 
and on the strength of this placed his arms upon the inner gatehouse. In 1496 
the Cornish miners and others rose against the taxation incurred by a subsidy 
given to King Henry by the Parliament, for prosecuting his war against the 
Scottish king, who espoused the cause of Perkin W^arbeck. The rioters marched 
through Devon without committing any excesses, but on reaching Taunton, 
we learn from Lord Bacon that ''thev killed in fury an officious and eager 
commissioner for the subsidy, whom they called the Provost of Penrhyn," and 
who had sought shelter in the castle. The next year Perkin himself landed at 
Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth, under the title of Richard IV., and being re- 
pulsed at Exeter, came on to Taunton with between 6000 and 7000 men on 
September 20, 1497, and made show of attacking the castle ; but being apprised 
of the near approach of the king with a formidable army, about midnight, he 
fled with sixty horsemen from Taunton to the New Forest in Hants, and took 
sanctuary at Beaulieu Priory there, leaving his supporters to their fate. On 
Henry's arrival at Taunton he was received with acclamations, and, the danger 
being past, he wisely pardoned the rebels. Again in 1577 we hear of this 
castle requiring repairs and alterations, which were then made by Bishop 
Home, who built the Assize Hall. 

When Sir Thomas F'airfax in May 1645 marched forth with his New Model 
army, the king held the whole of Somerset with the exception of Taunton, 




H 

< 

u 
o 

>^ 



SOMERSETSHIRE 



71 



whicli liad been secured in 1642 by Waller, but was retaken soon after by Lord 
Hertford, who drove out the Roundheads, and held the town and castle for the 
king. This was only for a time, as in July 1644, soon after Marston Moor, Colonel 
Blake (who was afterwards also the great admiral) and Sir Robert Pye again 
captured the place, when they found in tlie castle one demi-culverin, and ten 
other small pieces, two tons of match, eight barrels of powder, and also arms and 



■ilTarsh 



es 




^'^^ 



TAUNTON 



amnuuiition, furniture, and plenty of provisions. Early the following spring. 
Lord Goring was sent witii 10,000 troops to attack the town, when he summoned 
the castle, but was disdainfully refused by Blake. Meanwhile the army of 
P'airfax had advanced to within ten miles of Taunton, and the Royalists, being 
repulsed by Hlake in a linal assault of tjie trenches, after setting hre to two 
whole streets of the town, drew off, and on May iith tlic I'ai-liamenlary force 



72 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

relieved their besieged comrades. The Royahsts soon returned to the attack 
under Goring, and carried on a fresh investment of Taunton till July 3rd, 
when the advance of a strong Parliamentary force again obliged the raising 



of the siege. 



In 1685 (June i8th) Monmouth entered Taunton and suffered himself to be 
proclaimed king here, but the castle of Taunton was not then concerned. 
After the collapse of this rebellion, the infamous Judge Jeffreys held his Bloody 
Assize in the great hall of the castle, causing it, according to his custom, to be 
draped in red hangings for the occasion ; and here he sat, usually drunk, and 
subject to wild outbursts of passion, showing neither justice, pity, nor mercy. 
At this time the ancient castle must have become a heap of ruins, since at 
the Restoration, Charles II., taking a leaf from Cromwell's book, had caused 
the walls and defensive works of the fortress to be demolished, in return for 
the republican zeal of the town, whose charter also he annulled. 

The entire enclosure, surrounded by river, stream, and moat, contains about 
seven acres, the inner bailey or citadel occupying its N.E. corner. Nothing 
remains of the outer walls of the lower bailey except a considerable part of the 
E. gatehouse, defending the entrance on that side to a road which passed 
through to the W. side, where the gatehouse has disappeared ; there were 
drawbridges at each of these entrances over the moat and stream, and on the 
other side of these were wooden barbicans, some timbers of which have been 
dug up. None of the buildings exist now of the lower ward, — Bishop F"ox's 
school being, of course, early "sixteenth-century work. A good deal of the 
Norman building of the inner ward remains ; on the W. side is a portion of 
the rectangular keep, forming part of the wall along the inner moat, and 
measuring about 50 feet by 40, with walls 13 feet thick. The stone vaulting 
of its basement remains, and there was a staircase in the N.E. corner, from 
which extends the outer wall, forming, as at Leicester, the wall of the great 
hail. The W. wall of the keep ends in a large circular tower, of early 
Decorated or Edwardian architecture, and thence the S. inner ballium wall 
ran for 123 yards; but the E. end of it, with the base of a circular tower, 
has of late been removed. The inner moat was filled in by a municipal 
"benefactor," one Sir Benjamin Hammet, who likewise greatly injured the 
fabric. He also "restored" the great Hall, and placed therein a wall dividing 
the building into two courts. 

In the centre of the S. front is a gatehouse with an Edwardian portal, port- 
cullis groove, and gates, and in front are the holes for tiic drawbridge chains. 
On the E. side of this ward was thrown up the earth excavated from the 
ditches, forming a raised platform, whereon, in all probability, was erected the 
dwelling of King Ine. Thus we have here earthworks of the eighth century, 
v\'alls and keep of the early twelfth, and towers and gatehouses of the thirteenth 
or early fourteenth century [Clark). The inner moat was 25 feet broad and 



SOMERSETSHIRE 73 

12 feet deep. Jeffrejj's guards were taken from Kirke's regiment, who iiad 
lately formed the garrison of Tangiers (now 2nd Foot); these men were 
encamped during the assize on the W. of the Castle Green, which part, 
therefrom, is still called " Tangiers." 



WALTON IN GORDANO {minor) 

WALTON cannot be classed as a mediaeval castle, having been built 
probably in the reign of James 1. as hunting quarters of the Paulett 
family. It lies VV. of Bristol near the village of Clevedon, standing on the 
southern slopes of the hills there descending to the sea, and on the brink 
of the Bristol Channel. 

It is an octagonal enclosure having a turret of like shape at its S.E. face. 
The place has a medi.cval look, but its embattled walls are slight, and the 
windows are large, and there is nothing venerable in the ruin, of which the 
roof and floors had fallen in at the beginning of the present century. The 
entrance is through a crenellated gateway. 

The manor of Walton was given by the Conqueror to his kinsman, Robert 
de Mortain, Earl of Cornwall, one of the leaders in his army of invasion, and 
its possession followed the fortunes of the lest of his estates. In the third 
year of Edward I\'., the manor was held by Sir Thomas de Cheddar, whose 
daughter brought it in marriage to Sir John Newton (see Richuiont). In the 
reign of Mary it was owned by Sir Edward Seymour, who sold it to Sir John 
Thynne, and from him it passed to Christoplier Ken of Ken, whose daughter 
and heiress conveyed the estate to the lamilv of Paulett. 



VOL. 11. 




CHEPSTOW 



/Iftoninoutbsbire 



ABERGAVENNY (»iuwr) 

AN observer in 1801 writes that "only a few scattered portions of the 
walls and one poor gate are left" of this historic fortress, and guide- 
books to-day say that what is left is " a shattered and shapeless ruin." 
L But Coxe's " Tour in Monmouthshire " gives a very intelligible plan 
of these remains, which exist on a hill near the S. extremity of the town of 
the same name, meagre though they be. The castle is said by Camden to have 
been founded by Hameline de Baladun (or Barham) soon after tiie Conquest. 
He left his nephew Brian of Wallingford, surnamed Fitz Count, his heir ; but, 
this man's two sons being lepers, he left the greatest part of his estate to Walter, 
son of Milo, Earl of Hereford. To him succeeded his brother Henry, who was 
slain by the Welsh during an invasion upon his lands, when the property was 
brought by his sister and heir to the Braoses of Bramber, and from them, by 
marriage, by the Cantelupes and Hastings family to Reginald Grey of Ruthin 

{Dugdalc^ i, 716). William dc Beauchamp, however, recovered it by conveyance 

74 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



75 



from Grey ; and he aj^ain, in default of further issue, made it over to his hrotlier 
Thomas, Earl of Warwick, and his heirs male. William de Beauchamp, lord of 
Aberj^avenny, had a son named Richard, who for his valour was created Earl of 
Worcester, and beinj* slain in the French wars, his only daughter brought the 
estate in marriage to Edward Nevill. From that date the Xevills bore the style 
of Barons Bergavenny, although they did not then obtain the castle. Henry, 
the fourth lord, dying in 1586, left an only daughter Elizabeth, who married 
Sir Thomas Fane, knight, between whom and Sir Edward Nevill, knight, the 
castle and the greater part of the lands had fallen. The titles, then, of Berga- 
venny and Le Despencer 
were contested by these 
two aspirants, when the 
House of Lords deter- 
mined theinatter by Sir E. 
Xevill being summoned 
as Baron Abergavenny, 
while Elizabeth, Lady 
Fane, was made, or re- 
stored to the title of, Bar- 
oness le Despencer. The 
castle natiiially remained 
with the heirs male. 

The castle is now a 
picturesque ruin of the 
walls and towers of the 
fortifications, with no do- 
mestic portion left. In the 
centre of the outer court 
or bailey is a vast mound, 
where stood the keep until 
it was carted away as 
material for mending the 

roads. There are vestiges only of various chambers, and some fragments of walls 
on the third storey remain, overhanging their supports. On the W. side, where the 
walls are now nearly gone, is a grand and uninterrupted view of the valley below 
the castle, with a chain of hills called the Blorenge rising beyond it, and the 
river winding along through the meadows, passing an ancient bridge of many 
pointed arches. The great gate of entrance remains, but the groining of its 
roof has fallen. In the court it is still possible to make out the great hall, the 
kitchens and other offices. Before the pacification of Wales and the Borderland, 
there was a constant struggle between the Welsh and their rulers and oppressors, 
the Lords Marchers, as the custodians of the marches were called, when this 




AliliRGAVKNNV 



76 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



castle was more tlian once the scene of bloody deeds and murders. Giraldus 
Cambrensis declares it was dishonoured by treason oftener than any other 
castle in Wales. It was here that William de Braose — grandson of the lord of 
Bramber of same name, whose family was starved to death by King John (see 
Braiiibei; Sussex), one of the most powerful and unscrupulous of the Norman 
nobles, and famous, according to Matthew Paris, for his cruelty and treachery, 
even in those times — invited some Welsh chieftains to meet in friendship to 
arrange their differences, and whilst they were seated, unarmed, at table in 
his hall, caused them to be assassinated. It is satisfactory to read that this 
villain was afterwards hanged on a tree by Llewellyn, Prince of Wales. 

The lordship passed through the above-named succession of families into 
the keeping of the Nevills, in which noble family it has remained since the 
reign of Henry VI., the Marquis of Abergavenny deriving his title from it. 




CALDICOT 



CALDICOT {chief) 

CALDICOT, which is the most westerly place mentioned in Domesday, was 
originally held by Sheriff Durand, and afterwards by ten successive De 
Bohuns, earls of Hereford and hereditary Constables of England, who held 
it by this service. It passed from them by Eleanor, who was coheir of Earl 
Humphrey (see Pleshy, Essex), in marriage to Thomas of Woodstock, Duke 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



77 



of Gloucester, and was afterwards annexed as royal property, by Henry \'lll., 
to the Duchy of Lancaster. 

It must have been a fortress of considerable importance in early days, 
since, from its position near the Bristol Channel and the port of Portskewit, 
it protected the ingress and egress of Norman ships, and of the Angevin kings. 
Great care was evidently lavished upon the building of this castle, in the 
strength and finish of the masonry, which is all ashlar and of extraordinary 
fineness, most of the latter work appearing to be of the time of Edward II., 




CALUICOT 



though the great gatehouse and north postern are the work of Thomas of 
Woodstock (I-iichard 11.;. 

The plan is that of an irregular oblong, forming six or eight angles, two of 
which corners are occupied by towers, while on the lines of the curtain stand 
other towers. The VV. front is the chief feature, having on it the principal 
vaulted entrance gateway. The portal is vaulted and groined, the coibels 
being portraits. The portcullis and bridge arrangements are by far the 
most finished in the kingdom, and tlie machicoulis are worked on corbels 
sculptured with portiaits, of a richness rarely met with in this country. The 



78 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



flanking towers on each side of the entrance are machicohited, beint^ in fact 
garderobe turrets, but the gateliouse lias not this defence. On the otlier side 
of the court is a postern, defended by a portcullis and bold machicolations ; 
and on the E. of the gate tower is the great Hall, the windows of which still 
retain their tracery. 

On the N.E. side is the circular keep, of thirteenth-century work, standing 
on a mound, and suiTounded by its own ditch. The lowness of this keep tower 
is one of the peculiarities of Caldicot, a form which is shared also by Hawarden, 
but the excellence of its masonry is unsurpassed in England. 



# ^ C''""**%/, 

#il» " ' ' .,„ ""zi ,i::^f-- ^%X:' 



»' 




^■■^^^^^kimmm^' 






CALIMCOT 



The exterior walls, with their turrets, fortunately remain in very perfect 
condition, except on the E., and upon the inside of these curtains it is 
possible to observe how the offices and dwellings were contrived and built 
against them, probably in timber or half-timber work ; the fireplaces recessed in 
them, and the holes for the beams and rafters still remain. The most perfect 
of the towers is tliat at the N.E. angle, in which, in one of the window-sills, is 
an opening which may have led to a well. The towers attain a height of 
about 30 feet, and, with the walls, enclose an area of about ij acres. The 
great gatehouse, of Decorated style, is a noble structure ; it is still used as a 
residence, and has a high roof. The S. front was protected by a moat. 

Caklictit gives a title to the dukes of Beaufort, who, however, were never 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



79 



nunc llian lessees ; it derives all its dignity from the grandeur of its design 
and from its architecture, since the position is not eiuioMing, being in low- 
ground in the vale of the Trogoy, which falls into the Severn near this castle, 
and being only about a mile distant from tiie shore of the Channel, where 
troops and stores intended for South Wales were landed. The place is the 
property of Mr. Joseph H. Cobb, F.S..A. 



CHEPSTOW (c/i,r/) 

CHEPSTOW is a vast pile, to which or to its predecessor in Saxon or British 
times the naine of Castle Gwent was given. It stands grandly on a rocky 
platform above the river Wye, on the summit of a perpendicular escarpment, 
being on the N. side in this maiinei' Lpiite inaccessible, and protected mi the 
other three sides by deep 
ditches of great breadth. 
The general plan con- 
sists of four large courts 
having an entrance both 
on the E. and W. The 
narrow parallelogram 
enclosed by the for- 
tress is about three 
acres in extent, and 
each of the courts is 
defensible. On the X. 
side, overhanging the 
river, are placed the 
principal apartments, 
the great hall with the 
kitchens, and all the 
chief chambers and 
"bowers" ; here it was 
safe to indulge in deco- 
rations and line win- 
dows and mouldings, 

while on the . other fronts, susceptible of attack, the simiilesl and most de- 
fensible masonry was adopted, and the openings are loopholes and crenella- 
tions only. The main entrance is on the town side, on the E., by a gatehouse 
flanked by two circular foweis, grooved for the portcullis. ' The whole is ill 
a tolerable state of preservation. • Near this entrance is the lesser hall, with 
windows of early Decorated >tyle (about the lime of ICdward 1. 




CHKl'STOW 



and the chief 



8o 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



offices, with the lord's oratory in the angle. Thence, passing through into 
the inner bailey, we arrive at the great Hall, of the same period, with rooms 
below it having some Norman work. Beyond this is another courtyard with 
entrance into the fourth, and leading to the western entrance. 

The lords of this place were the Clares, earls of Pembroke, commonly 
called Earls of Strighull and Pembroke from the neighbouring castle of 
Strighall, where they resided ; though some wrongly assert that Chepstow and 
Strighull mean the same place. The last of the earls was Richard, a man of 
invincible spirit and of amazing strength of body, to whom, from the strength 




CHEPSTOW 



of the bow which he bent, the surname of "Strongbow" was given; and he 
it was who by his valour lirst opened the conquest of Ireland to the English. 
By his daughter and heiress Isabel, Chepstow came to the Bigots, the Marshalls, 
and afterwards by marriage to the Herbert family, from whom the present 
noble family ot Somerset, who now own it, acquired the property. 

On entering the chief court, on the left is a large round tower in the 
angle of the wall, named Martin's Tower, because it served for twenty years 
as the prison of the regicide and wit, Henry Martin, till his death in 1680. 
His room was above and is still in fair condition ; in the basement of this tower 
there appears to have been a dungeon. Here also was imprisoned Bisliop 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 8i 

Jeremy Taylor, upon ;i charge of complicity with ;i Royalist insurrection. In 
rear of the last and western court is another entrance, strongly defended, of later 
date. Chepstow Castle endured many hard blows during the Civil War, being 



,1«^ ^^^. 







CUILPSTOW 



taken and retaken several times ; once it was besieged by Cromwell in person 
in 1645, and was taken by assault ; it was again attacked in 1648, when its 
commander, Sir Nicholas Kemyss, and forty of his garrison were killed. The 
Long Parliament granted the castle, together with several estates belonging 
to the Marquis of Worcester and others, to Oliver Cromwell, but they were 
restored at the accession of Charles II. 



D I N H A M {iiou-c.xistent) 

DINHAM is situated about one and a half mile X.W. of Caerwent, the 
Roman station of Venta Silurum. Here was formerly a castle mentioned 
as one of the six that compassed the forest of Wentwood. The ruins stand oh a 
gently rising ground near the road, and are so overgrown with trees as to be 
scarcely discernible. They are on a bank above the combe through which an 
old road led to Wentwood, and show foundations of some of the walls. Dinham 
Castle is said to have been built upon the spot where the heroic British king 
Caractacus was buried. It was built by the family of Le Walleys or Walsh, 
who were here for many generations, and existed in 1128. In the reign of 
Elizabeth, Dinham was purchased by William Blethyn, Bishop of Llandaff 
(1575-1591), whose descendants lived in a mansion that stood on the site of 
the present great Dinham farm, and from them the property came to tlie 
Bayly family, with whom it still continues. It must have been demolished in 
very distant times, since neither Lelaiid nor Camden make any mention of 

Dinham Castle. 

VOL. II. L 



82 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



GREEN CASTLE (;;»;/or) 

ABOUT one and a half mile S.VV. of Newport are ruins, not mentioned 
^ by Leland or Camden, on the left bank of the Ebwy near its confluence 
with the Usk River. The castle formerly belonged to the dukes of Lancaster, 
and was esteemed a place of strength and security in the Civil Wars. The 
remains consist now of a building used as a farm stable or byre for cattle, 
a square tower with a spiral staircase, a building containing several apart- 
ments, one of which has a large fireplace, and a fine Gothic entrance and 
doorways. Close at hand is a circular mound surrounded by a foss over- 
grown with thicket, overhanging the old channel of the Ebwy, the probable 
site of the keep. The place now belongs to the family of Tredegar, and the 
farm is called Greenfield (Coxc). 



GROSMONT, OR GRISMONT {minor) 

IN the N.E. corner of the county is the celebrated "Trilateral" of Monmouth- 
shire, being a group of three castles planted at a distance of from four to 
five and a half miles apart from each other, in the form of a triangle, the centre 
of which is occupied by the eminence known as the Graig Hill ; the other two 
fortresses being the castles of Skenfrith and Whitecastle. Grosmont Castle, the 
most northern of the three as well as the latest built, stands on an eminence 
above the right bank of the river Monnow, on the confines of the county, and 
at the foot of the Graig Hill. It is in a verv ruinous condition, and the remains 
are not extensive ; they consist chiefly of a gateway and two circular towers, 
with a quadrangular enclosure of walls, attached to which is the shell of a great 
baronial hall, 80 feet by 27, lighted by four windows on each side. There are, 
too, on the N. side, the foundations of an apartment with a Gothic octagonal 
chimney, high and tapering, and surmounted by a sort of coronet or Ian- 
thorn. The castle is surrounded by a large and deep moat, and it was further 
strengthened by ancient earthworks. On the S.E. are more outworks, still 
partly visible, containing the barbican, and there are vestiges also on the S. 
of further works. Grosmont was granted, together with Skenfrith, by King 
John to William de Braose, the lord of Bramber ; and Henry III. gave 
all three castles to Hubert de Burgh, who afterwards was forced to give 
them back to that monarch, who then annexed them to the Duchy of 
Lancaster (see Skenfrith and Whitecastle). The architecture is Early English of 
Henry III., with Decorated additions {Clark). Grosmont was once a favourite 
residence of the dukes of Lancaster, and Henry, grandson of Edmund Crouch- 
back, was born there, and was from that fact surnamed " Grismont." In the 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 83 

time of Henry 111. this fortress was invested by Llewelyn, Prince of Wales 
but the king relieved it by moving thither with a large army, when the Welsh 
fled. Some time later this king, marching against Richard Marshall, Earl of 
Pembroke, retreated to Grosmont in order to protect his supplies, and encamped 
there ; but he carelessly allowed his army tt) be surprised by Pembroke, who 
beat up his quarters at night, and carried off 500 horses and much plunder. 
The views here of the river Howing below the castle and of the country about 
are very beautiful. 



LLANGIBBY, formerly called TRAYGRUCK {minor) 

LLANGIBBY is on the Caerleon road from Usk. It stood on a hill now 
J overgrown with brushwood, where little but the lines of the outer walls 
can be traced. This castle was the possession of the earls of Gloucester, of 
the family of Clare, and is given among the lands appointed as dowry to Maud, 
the widow of Gilbert, the last male of that line, through whose daughter it 
came to the earls of March of the Mortimer line. Roger Mortimer styles 
himself Lord of Tragrucke in a charter granted to the town of Usk. In the 
beginning of the seventeenth century it belonged to the Williams family, and 
is mentioned by Oliver Cromwell as "a very strong house, well stored with 
arms." Llangibby then belonged to Sir Trevor Williams (created baronet 
1641), who, says Crcjmwell, is "a man full of craft and subtiltye, very bould & 
resolute, — and very malignant." 

The trace of the castle is a long parallelogram, now a cider orchard, 
having the front above the ditch protected by a circular tower on the E., 
and an entrance between two circular towers on the left witii a cuitain 
between. There are the vestiges of three or four other towers flanking the 
long line of walls, a postern, some walls of apartments with columns, and 
part of a roof supported by them ; but all are greatly dilapidated. By the 
several pointed arches, it must date subsequent to Norman times {Coxe). 



L L A N V A I R {minor) 

ANOTHER fortress of twelfth-century origin is Llanvair, prettily situated on 
the declivity of a hill, on the road to Usk across Wentwood Forest. It is 
not of any great extent, but has been of considerable strength. There were three 
round towers connected by walls, and one square one joined to a modern farm- 
house ; but the place has been too effectually destroyed to make out the buildings. 
Llanvair was the ancient residence of the Kemyss family. Edward Kemyss, 
who attended Hameline de Baladun in his conquests in Gwent, received these 
and other lands for his services. 



84 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



MONMOUTH {minor) 

IN tlic middle of the town near tlic market-place are the ruins of this castle, 
which appears to have existed in the Conqueror's days. It belonged to 
John, Baron of Monmouth, from wliom it came to the house of Lancaster, 
when Henrj'III. stripped him of his estates, because his heirs had taken the oath 
of allegiance to the earls of Brittany. The fact that it was thus in the possession 
of John of Gaunt and his son, in later years, accounts for Monmouth Castle 
being the birthplace of Henry Y., hence called " Harry of Monmouth." An old 
writer in 1801, visiting the ruins, says: "Of the castle a poor diminished spot 
remains, a part of the walls of the chamber where the hero of Agincourt, the 
Conqueror of France, first drew his breath. The proportions of this chamber 
show an air of grandeur, and the decorations (from one perfect window yet in 
view) are of the tirst degree of refined taste." Only a small fragment exists of the 
great hall. Monmouth was certainly a Norman walled town, but only one gate is 
left — namely, the Bridge Gate, standing on the bridge leading to Abergavenny, — 
under which Henry Y. may often have passed — and there are but few remnants 
of the walls. In 1646, Colonel Kyrle, who had originally sided with the king's 
party, made his peace with the Parliament by betraying his trust and handing 
over Monmouth to General Massy. 

Here also was born, in 1152, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Bishop of St. Asaph, 
the compiler of the romancing chronicle which bears his name. 



NEWCASTLE {mn-cxisknt) 

A SHORT distance on the Monmouth road S. of Skenfrith are the vestiges 
of another castle to which this name was given, but they consist only of 
some tumuli surrounded by a moat 300 feet in circumference. Of the origin 
of this castle and of its demolition there are no records whatever in history. 



NEWPORT {minor) 

NEWPORT is not a large castle, but it deserves attention as a fine instance 
of the adaptation of the Perpendicular style to a strictly military structure. 
It stands on the right bank of the Usk, the walls and towers rising directly 
out of the water. Williams says that this part of the country was subdued 
by Martin, Lord of Cemais, who caused the castle to be built at the N.E. 
angle of the town, on the W. side of the river. Other authorities state that 
Robert Fitzhamon, the conqueror of Glamorgan, originally reared the edifice 
at the end of the eleventh century, to defend the passage of the river at this 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



!5 



point ; the present fortress, however, was built by the Stafford family, who 
inherited the manor from the De Clares. Parker declares the river front, 
which alone remains perfect, to be "a beautiful composition," particularly in 
the way in which the towers, square and splayed at the base, become round 
or octagonal as they rise, and he remarks on the way in which round towers 
gave way to octagonal or square ones, as being better adapted to receive the 
newer square-headed or pointed windows. The castle is sadly degraded by 
being occupied as a brewery, which either destroys or conceals all except 
some few walls and two towers. There is a fine gateway tower with octagonal 




NEWPORT 



turrets, and a large pointed window over the entrance, but sadly blocked and 
mutilated. .Along the river front three towers supported the curtain, but on 
the reverse side there is only the wall, without flank defence. The three front 
towers were in existence at the beginning of the present century in nearly a 
perfect state ; at each end of this face was an octagonal tower, with a large 
square tower in the centre having turrets at each angle. This latter formed the 
keep, which had a vaulted chamber called the State-room ; at the foot of it 
is the water-gate, beneath a high arched passage, defended by a portcullis ; 
between this and the lower tower was the hall, which can still be traced. 
The enceinte is a right-angled parallelogram, measuring about 46 yards N. and 
S.,by 32 E. and W., and is built of rubble masonry, with ashlar quoins. The S. 
tower was once used as a nail factoiv. 



86 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



PEN CO ED {miuor) 

TEN miles from Chepstow, this castle stands on a gentle ascent overlooking 
the Caldecot level, with a commanding view of the Bristol Channel. The 
original castle belonged to the twelfth century, but the ruins are chiefly those 
of an old mansion built in the reign of Henry VIII., partly with the materials 
of the former structure. The principal remains consist of a gateway with 
circular arches flanked by two narrow pentagon tuirets, a round embattled 
tower, and portions of an ancient wall. It was the time-out-of-mind seat of the 
Morgan family, and afterwards of the Montagues, who divided possession of 
this county with the Herberts, Somersets, Seymours, and Morgans. Sir Walter 
Montague obtained the estate by marriage with the heiress of Sir Edmund 
Morgan, but it passed afterwards into several hands. When in the possession 
of a Mr. Jeft'eries it was lost at play, and then came into the possession of 
Admiral Mathews, whose grandson enjoyed it at the beginning of this century. 

It is conjectured that Pencoed, with Troggy, Dinham, and many other petty 
castles existing in this district, were built for the protection of the fertile Went- 
wood district by the retainers of the Bohuns and Clares, or other great lords in 
the county. 

P E N H O W {minor) 

THIS castle, which is of small size, is built on the top of a hill, on what was 
perhaps a Roman site, two miles from Pencoed Castle. It is now a farm- 
house, and the chief remains of the old fortress are a square embattled tower of 
the twelfth century and some low irregular walls ; the masonry generally is 
indifferent, being composed of rubble plastered and grouted. Penhow was for 
centuries the residence of the St. Maur, or Sevmour, family, whose arms, cut in 
stone and painted on glass, appear in the neighbouring church dedicated to 
St. Maurus, whence is derived the name of St. Maur. 



RAGLAN, OR RAGLAND {chief) 

NOTICED by Parker ("Domestic Architecture," vol. iii. Part II.) as being a 
splendid ruin of the fifteenth century, more of a military than domestic 
character, the castle is still clearly inhabited as a nobleman's mansion of the 
period. It is believed to have been chiefly built by Sir William Herbert ap 
Thomas, who served with distinction in the French wars with Henry V. and 
was knighted by that king. His son William was created (8 Edward IV.) 
Earl of Pembroke, a title exchanged by his son and successor for the earldom 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



87 



of Huntingdon in 1479. Dying s.p. male, his only daughter and heiress 
Elizabeth brought Raglan in marriage to Sir Charles Somerset, who assumed 
the title of Lord Herbert, and for his services in France was in 1514 created 
Earl of Worcester by Henry V'lII. The fifth earl, Henry, the gallant defender 
of Raglan for King Charles, was advanced to the dignity of Marquess of 
Worcester in 1642. The third marquess, Henry, was created Duke of Beaufort 
in 1682, and this family still includes Raglan Castle as one of the most cherished 
portions of their extensive domain. 

The castle stands on rising ground, and is now almost hidden by trees. 




KAULAN 



Its thoroughlv defensible nature is shown at once in the noble gateway, which is 
contrived for this end as much as any castle of Norman or Edwardian times. 
Flanked by two hexagonal towers set cornerwise to the front, the entrance has 
grooves for two portcullises, being approached, after various external defences, 
by a bridge over a moat. Two massive towers stand on the extreme right and 
left of the fortress, that on the left of the entrance having the name of "The 
Yellow Tower of Gwent," and supposed to have been added temp. James I. 
This forms a genuine keep, standing detached on an island surrounded by 
a walled moat, with an outer circuit of low curtain walls, and only con- 
nected with the body of the castle by a drawbridge. The entrance gateway 
leads into the first court, at the far end of wiiicli is a pLMit.igoiiai tower contain- 
ing the kitchens and offices ; on the right is the breach made by Fairfax at the 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



siege, when he opened fire on the walls at a range of only sixty yards. On the left 
or W. side of the first court is the great hall, the walls of which remain, with 
its bay window ; the roof, which was of Irish oak, is entirely destroyed. This 
hall is of stately proportions and preserves its importance, as in earlier times, 
while alongside it is the chapel, and on the other side of these chambers lies 
the fountain court, witli the grand staircase and approach to the state apart- 
ments. In the N.E. angle of 
these are tlic rooms occupied 
by Charles 1. when he stayed 
at Raglan after the defeat of 
Naseby, one of the windows 
still bearing his name. A gate 
tower leads from this court 
out upon the terrace, which is 
called King Charles' Walk. The 
smaller gate, with its simple 
pointed arches, is one of the 
most pleasing portions of the 
castle. An old writer in the 
Gentleman's Magazine remarks 
how, on entering into the great 
court, the visitor sees the rich 
and uncommon front of the 
gallery-range, behind the en- 
trance, the baronial hall with 
its porch and oriel, and the gal- 
lery door ; while on the left is 
one of the gate towers, — the 
whole " presenting one of the 
most interesting castellated 
court scenes to be witnessed 
in the kingdom. The interior 
of the hall shows the grandeur 
of the style of what it once was, 
as does every other apartment 
in this once splendid residence. Then there are the vestiges of the chapel, 
and the fountain court, and, passing on to the terrace with its still smooth 
enamelled surface, one beholds the mountains of Abergavenny with their 
cloud-capped summits." 

The siege of 1646 was sustained by the old Marquess of Worcester, aged 
eighty-four, in company with his daughter-in-law. Lady Glamorgan, his sixth 
son, Lord Charles, his chaplain, Dr. Bailey, and a few friends, with a garrison 








R.\GLAN 


I. 


GATEHOUSE AND 


MAIN 


14. 


CHAPEL. 




ENTRANCE. 




■5- 


CHARLES l's APARTMENTS. 


3- 


BARRACKS. 




16. 


FOUNTAIN COURT. 


4- 


GARDEROBE TOWER. 




18. 


gallekv. 


5- 


officers' (JUARTERS. 




19. 


GRANn STAIRCASE TO STATE 


6. 


THE I'AVED court. 






APARTMENTS. 


8. 


KITCHEN TOWER. 




21. 


PORTAL TO GRAND TERRACE. 


II. 


GREAT HALL. 




25- 


MOAT. 


n- 


SECOND HALL. 




26. 


TOWER OF GWENT, OR KEEP. 







^ 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



89 



of 800 men, Iiorse and foot. The attack, whicli lasted for two months, was at 
fust under the command of Colonel Morgan and a captain-engineer named 
Hooper, who had reduced Banbury a short while before, and a besieging force 
of 1500 men. The garrison made many desperate sallies, and in one of these 
captured a Parliamentary ctilour, while they lost several officers and men killed 
and wounded. Then 2000 troops reinforced the besiegers, and Sir Thomas 
Fairfax came himself from Bath to press the siege, and summoned the defenders. 
But the old man.]uess, with many excuses and objections, put off the demands 
of Fairfax for many weeks, 
until, in the middle of 
August, the artillery of the 
besiegers being now ad- 
vanced in the trenches 
close to the castle walls, 
he found it necessary to 
treat, and articles for sur- 
rendering the castle were 
eventuallv agreed on, and 
carried out on August 19th, 
the garrison marching out 
with all the lionouis of war 
(see Sprigg's " England's 
Recovery"). In the worst 
of bad faith, the Parlia- 
ment refused to ratifv Fair- 
fax's articles of treaty, and 
sent the Marquess of Wor- 
cester to London, where 
he died in a few months. 
He had spent ^"60,000 in 
ei-iuipping and maintain- 
ing I ^00 foot and 500 horse 
soldiers for the king, though 
cester without striking a blow 




RAGLAN 



hev tlid small service, being routed at ('.lou- 
His estates with a revenue of ;^"2o,ooo a year 
were confiscated, the woods of his three parks were destroyed, the deer 
killed, and the castle of Raglan was dismantled and "slighted," the lead and 
the timber being carted to Bristol. The great tower, after being battered 
at the top with pick-axes, was undermined, and the weight propped up with 
timbers, which being burnt, a great portion of the structure fell in a lump, 
and so remains to this day. The staircase fortunately was uninjured, so 
the sununit of this keep is still attainable. The greatest injury to this 
splendid castle, however, was caused by the depredations of the country 
VOL. II. '^^ 



90 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

people, who for moie tlian :i century were allowed to use the place as a 
cjuarry, to obtain buildinj^ stone. 

Among the many historical personages who were immured in this castle 
was Henry, Earl of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII. As a scion of 
Lancaster (on his mother's side), Edward I\\ conceived a particular jealousy 
against this youth, and committed him for safe keeping in this fortress to the 
custody of Sir William Herbert, Lord of Raglan. Then, after the lapse of 
some time, Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, the lad's uncle, who had stayed in France 
since the battle of Tewkesbury, came over and paid a secret visit to the castle 
of Raglan in the absence of Sir W. Herbert ; he managed to elude the vigi- 
lance or corrupted the fidelity of Lady Herbert, and carried off his nephew 
to Pembroke Castle, the place of Henry's birth, and soon after found means 
to send him over into Brittany, to the castle of Elven, where he remained 
hidden for a great many years, until the time came for him to strike for tlie 
crown of England. 



SKENFRITH (mmor) 

THIS castle forms the S.E. point of the Trilateral group, about five miles S. 
of Grosmont, in the low land close to the same river, the Monnow (see G/vs- 
iiio)it). It is built in trapezium form, with four outer walls and circular flanking 
towers at the angles, one of which is absent, and has in the midst a disconnected 
circular tower or keep, upon a low artificial mound. The walls are in good con- 
dition, but the upper parts are ruinous. It is probably the most ancient castle 
m the county, and during tiie prevalence of border warfare was of uuich import- 
ance, but after the settlement of Wales by Edward I., the necessity for these 
fortresses no longer existed, and from neglect they rapidly fell into decay. 
Skenfrith was conveyed with the other castles to Hubert de Burgh, but was 
afterwards seized again by Henry III. and granted to his son Edmund, Earl of 
Lancaster. It then, with the others, passed to John of Gaunt, and temp. Henry 
V. became parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster. In the reign of James I. it was 
reported as " ruinous and decayed, time out of the memory of man." 

From the fact of the ground inside being from 6 to lo feet higher than 
the level outside, there seems to have existed here an ancient earthen platform, 
having a mound on it, with probably a wooden fort and palisading defences, 
along the four sides of which the Xorman curtain wall was built. Upon the 
mound was erected a circular stone tower 36 feet in diameter and from 
45 to 50 feet high, having a battering base, like Coningsborough. There is a 
basement chamber for stores, a chief room above, 22^ feet in diameter and 
14 feet high, with two windows, wherein was the only entrance. From this 
Hoor a mural spiral stair led to the upper storey, in which is a recess for the 
kitchen lire, and tiie roof. The floors were all of timber. 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 91 

The ciiitain wall of the work measures 74 and 71 yards N. and S., and 31 
and 59 E. and \V., has a thickness of 8 feet, and is from 30 to 40 feet 
in height, the battlements having been removed. The foiu" circular corner 
towers are 11 feet diameter internally, closed in the gorge and entered by a 
door on the ground, and had three floors each ; the S.W. tower has been 
removed. There is on the S. front a solid half-round buttiess tower, and 
opposite this is a low-arched opening in the curtain, supposed by Mr. Clark 
to have admitted boats from the river, as was done at Tonbridge and Leeds. 
The moat cut from the Monnow River protected the three sides, while the 
river flowed bene ith the X. front of the fortress. Leland mentions a stone 
bridge here, which crosses the river just below the castle. 



STRIGUIL, OR ST R I GIL {minor) 

THE castle of Stiiguil is live miles \V. of Chepstow, on the small stream of 
^■st|■iguil, which falls into the I'sk. It stands in an extremely beautiful 
situation, on gently rising ground, commanding fine views of the valley. 
Williams says it was built by Gilbert, Earl of Ogie, the father of Richard 
Strongbow, and must be of Liter date than Chepstow, having Gothic windows 
and doorways. It was built, according to the Domesday Survey, by William 
P'itz-Osborn, Earl of Hereford, and it afterwards became the residence of the 
earls of Pembroke of the great house of Clare ; it is remarkable in having 
given its name to a branch of this ancient family, who were called earls of 
Striguil from this their abode. Afterwards it was a seat of the Kemyss family, 
and in more modern times was acquired by the dukes of Beaufort. It has 
been a common error to give this name to the castle of Chepstow, which is 
sometimes called Chepstow or Striguil, the dif^culty arising from both castles 
being possessed by the same family. 

The remains are those of a square redoubt, having one face only e.xistcnt, 
wliich contains a good circular tower attached to a piece of semicircular wall, 
and a straight curtain wall ending in part of a hexagonal tower, w'ith some 
outwi^jrks and the remains of a moat in front. 



T R O G G Y {mino,) 

CAMDEX says: "The little river Trogoy falls mlo the Severn ne.u' 
Caldicot, where 1 saw the walls of a castle belonging anciently to the 
Constables of England," and held bv the service of that oilice. It lies live 
or six miles from Chepstow, in a forest under a hillside, — "very notable 
ruins." At the present dav, an octagon tow-er with arched windows is all 
that is left. 



92 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



U S K {minor) 

THE ruins of tins ciistlt- stand over tlic little town of Usk, on the h:uik of 
the river of the same name. It is believed to have been commenced by 
William, Earl of Ewe and Matterel, who came to England with Duke William the 
Conqueror, and received from him certain manors in this west country, and "all 
he could conquer from the Welsh." With so promising a future, the noble 
Norman appears to have presumed too far, since he was banished for rebellion, 
and his lands were conferred on Walter Fitz Richard his nephew, who settled 
at Usk and built there ; after which, carrying his inroads towards the west, he 
acquired Chepstow and Striguil. On his death without issue, his estates were 
granted to his nephew Gilbert de Clare, a still greater chieftain. In the time 
of Henry III., the castle belonged to Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester 
and Hereford. In the fifteenth century it was the property of Edward I\\, 
and before that time had been a favourite resort of his father Richard, 
Uuke of York ; it was afterwards in favour with Henry \'I1., and with William, 
Earl of Pembroke, from whose female descendant's son by her last husband, 
Thomas, Viscount Windsor, it passed by purchase to the dukes of Beaufort. 

Usk Castle has considerable remains, including the keep, the gatehouse, and 
the great hall. The outer walls are extant, enclosing a court and some outworks 
to the W^, formed by two walls united by a round tower. At the end of the S. 
wall is a grand pointed gateway, grooved for the portcullis, and there remains 
a chamber of the castle, with an arched window and fireplace. 



WHITECASTLE {chief) 

WHITECASTLE, the third fortress of the Trilateral (see Grosiuoiin, placed 
on its W. point, five and a half miles from Skenfrith, and live miles 
from Grosmont, upon very high ground, was one of the strongest castles of 
the W'elsh marches. It consists of a central elliptical or hexagonal fortress, the 
longer axis of which lies N. and S., with a large outwork at each of these 
points, and the walls and towers are mostly standing. The centre ward is 
formed by a curtain wall lo feet thick at base, and 30 feet high to the rampart 
walk, with circular towers at each angle, about 45 feet in height, all these 
towers having three storeys with wooden floors, and communicating with the 
wall. The two adjacent towers on the X. form between them the chief 
entrance or gatehouse, defended by gates and a portcullis, beyond which was 
a bridge over the moat, at this place 100 feet wide and nearly 40 feet deep. 
At the S. end of the ward was a smaller entrance, close to the S.W. angle tower. 
There was no keep, and the contained lodgings or barracks must have been 
of timber, as at Skenfrith ; nor are there anv traces of a hall or chapel. 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



93 



^.#WI||)/,;, 









'III ■ ^'' 






3/^^ /^ 









ivur<J 



w 






In front of tlie main entrance is a large open barbican or outwork, some- 
what rectangular in shape, and measuring 56 yards in depth, with a front of 
74 yards, formed of a masoniy wall 15 to 18 feet high, having flanking towers 
at intervals, three of which are circular, and a square tower containing the 
kitchen. A lesser outwork of half-moon shape similarly covers the S. entrance ; 
it is composed entirely of earthwork, and connected with the main work by a 
bridge across the ditch, which encircles this outwork as well as the castle itself. 
The N. barbican is also defended throughout by a ditch, carried in a wide 
bend on the E. of the castle, and is defended on the outside by another huge 
earthwork, cover- 
ing the Hanks of 
the barbicans. 
The whole work 
is to afford pro- 
tection to a large 
body of troops, 
as well as to the 
country people 
and theii cattle, 
by earth works and 
ditches of very 
great strength. It 
is believed to 
have been built 
by King John, and 
was conveyed by 
him,togetherwith 
the other castles, 
to William de Hra- 
ose (see Skcnfrilli 
and Grosiiwnt). 

Henry 111. first gave these castles to Hubert de Burgh, and afterwards 
demanding them from him, imprisoned and almcjst starved him to death, nor 
did De Hurgh obtain his liberty until he had surrendered the castles to the king. 
From the Duchy of Lancaster thev were held on lease by a family called 
Powell, of Llandilo, and afterwards by one John Lewis, who married the 
heiress of the Powells, and then by his son, after which they were demised 
to the dukes of Beaufort. The lirst Norman who overran the north of 
Monmouth was Brian Fit/ Count, a companion of the Conqueror ; he obtained 
these three castles, and also the castle of Abergavenny, in mariiage, but they 
afterwards passed to the Braoses and the Cantelupes as lords of the manor of 
Abergavenny. 



''''''mius^x^m.^^ 




'%. 



\. 



CtJ.l-1/vor^. 



'''''''''i>'>n.,n,.Uu ' li^ 

'"""'"•ii)Wii»<.'<ii|||||„„miuu>*»"""' 



x^ .<? 



wiirriccASTi.K 




\\ILTON 



IfDercforbsbire 



A L M E L E Y {uon-existent) 

IT is supposed that a Roman encampment first occupied tiie site of the 
lost castle of Almeley, which is on a turf-covered mound at tlie side of 
a small stream near the church of Almeley ; at least it is thought that the 
keep was erected on this artificial mound, and there was a moat which 
was supplied by the rivulet. The name of the stronghold was Old Castle, and 
the site is now called Old Court, but nothing is to be ft)uncl in history regarding 
its erection, except that the family of Oldcastle dwelt there in the fourteenth 
centurv, and the tradition goes that Sir John Oldcastle, better known as Lord 
Cobham, lived within its walls, his family being connected with this county 
at that period. Sir |ohn was arrested for spreading the doctrines of Wicliffe, 
by command of that virtuous zealot Henrv \'., who caused him to be brought 
to London, and after interrogation, finding he denied the supremacy of the 

94 



HEREFORDSHIRE 95 

Pope and other Catholic doctrines, handed him over to the priests ; they 
caused liini to he hun,ii in ciiains over a bonlire on Cliristmas Day 1417, and 
so roasted him to de.itli. He was hotli a most learned and accomplished man, 
and had been a j^reat soldier in France. He was esteemed as the first English 
martvr after his cruel death (see Couling, Kent). 



ASHPERTON ( non-c.xhle„f) 

IX the parish of Stretton Gransham is a mout still Iiolding water, which is 
all that remains of a castle of the Grandisons, who held lands in this county 
in the thirteenth century, and had a licence to crenellate a "mansum" or 
manor-house, in 20 Edward I., obtained by Willielmas de Grandison, the 
son of a Burgundian noble, the castle of whose territory is still on the Lake 
of Xenchatel {Robinson). It was this William's brother, or son, who was made 
Bishop of Exeter in 1327, and his elder brother, Sir Peter, was buried in 
Hereford Cathedral, on the N. side of the Lady Chapel, in a well-known tomb 
there. Sir Otho Grandison was a warrior and alderman temp. Edward 11., 
and was sent by that king as ambassador to the Pope. Tw^o hundred years 
ago there existed at this place a noble park belonging to the Lingen family ; 
this is now a coppice wood, the property of Lady Emily Foley. 



BRAMPTON BRIAN («»//«;) 

THIS castle, which was built in the latter end of the reign of Henry L, seems 
to have been conferred on Barnard Unspec, Lord of Kinlet in Salop, as he 
made it his abode and took the name of De Brampton. His great-grandson 
married Matilda de Braose (see Castles in Monmouth), and their descendants 
for four generations held this castle, after which time it passed in marriage to 
Kobert de Harley. In I39<S, at the death of the last Bryan de Brampton, it is 
stated to have been held under the Mortimers, by the performance of a castle 
guard at Wigmore, for forty davs in war time. Bryan, second son of Kobert 
de Harley, succeeded to his mother's property, and serving with great dis- 
tinction under the Black Prince, was made a Knight of the Garter by him. 
Either he or his son built the gateway at Brampton, the most ancient part 
of the ruins now existing, and of Edwardian date. The Harleys espoused 
the side of the White Rose ; John Harley fought at the battle of Tewkesbury, 
and was knighted by Edward W . ; his grandson fought at Flodden. 

Thomas Harley of Brampton Brian was sheriff 36 Elizabeth (1594), and 
was a distinguished councillor in the reign of James I., from whom he had a 
grant of the honour of Wigmore Castle. His son Robert was born in 1571), 
and was made a Knight of the Bath at James I.'s coronation ; he was M.P. 



96 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

for Radnor, and in 1623 married for liis tliird wife Brilliana, second daughter 
of Lord Conway, who had been horn and bred in HoUand (whence Iier name), 
and who keenh' joined in the extreme Puritanism of her husband, a strenuous 
supporter of Cromwell. Naturally, therefore, in the Civil War the Harleys were 
objects of offence in so loyal a county as Hereford, and Lady Harley, in the 
absence of her husband at Westminster, was harassed by the Royalists, and at 
last was shut up in Brampton with her family and some of her neighbouis who 
sought shelter there with her. The eldest son, Edward, was serving with the 
Parliament army at Plymouth in 1643, when the long-expected attack was 
made upon the castle ; but the Lady of Brampton was equal to the occasion, 
and placed her house in a fit state of defence, throwing up earthworks and 
getting in provisions and ammunition. She writes to her son in May (see 
her Letters, published by the Camden Society) : "The water is brought quite 
into the greene court, & I think you will like the worke [fortifications] well. 
I like it soe well that I would not haue it undoun for a great deal." On July 25th 
the castle was besieged by Sir W. Vavasour and a force of 600 men, but so 
stout a defence was maintained by Lady Brilliana and her servants, that after 
six weeks no impression had been made, and, fearful of the enemy's operations 
in the Forest of Dean, the Rovalists retired. But the strain was too much for 
the brave Lady Harley ; delicate always, and with her health undermined 
by repeated illness and the anxieties involved by her troubles, she took " a 
verie bad colde " towards the end of the siege, and died a month only after its 
termination. 

Early in 1644 Sir Michael Woodhouse, the Roundhead governor of Ludlow, 
came against Brampton again, after the taking of Hopton Castle, when the 
place was gallantly defended for a period of three weeks, but was then 
forced to surrender at the mercy of the victors, whose artillery had battered 
down some of the walls, the spoils being sixty-seven prisoners, a hundred 
stand of arms, two barrels of powder, and a whole year's provisions. Tiie 
spelling of the name at that time was always " Brompton." 

No traces exist of the original Border fortress, which the Rev. C. J. 
Robinson, in his " History of the Castles of Hereford," thinks may have stood 
on the N.W. side. The entrance gateway, with its pointed arches and vaulted 
passage with portcullis, has on each side a low circular flanking tower, with 
loopholes and crenellated parapets ; the rest is what remains of the Tudor 
buildings, made in the middle of the sixteenth century. Sir Edward Harley, 
on his return from the governorship of Dunkirk, did what he could to repair 
the ruin of the Civil War, and built a new hall, partly on the site of the old 
structure. Some rooms over tlie inner gateway were inhabited till about the 
middle of the last century, when a violent storm did so much injury to the 
fabric that it was rendered unsafe and was dismantled. The existing front 
was added about 1748, on the marriage of Edward, 4th Earl of Oxford, 



HEREFORDSHIRE 97 

of tlio H alley title. Here was born Robert, the first earl, grandson of Sir 
Robert Hurley of the Civil War, the illustrious minister who in 171 1 was 
created Baron Harley of Wigmore, Earl of Oxf(Md and Earl Mortimer, Lord 
High Treasurer, and Knight of the Garter ; and here he died in 1724. Why 
tiiey renewed in him the splendid dignity of the old De Veres is hard to say. 
Here too was formed the great Harleian Collection of MSS. and books, now in 
the British Museum. Brampton is nt)w owned by Mr. Robert W. D. Harley. 



BREDWARDINE {uon-existcnt) 

THE manor belonged at the Contiuest to John de Bradwardyn, and after- 
wards was the property of the Baskerville family, and later of the V'aughans. 
The site of this castle is now merely a huge green hillock, ornamented with 
trees, with a few fragments of masonry appearing. There remain some cellars 
and passages underground, whose entrance is choked with thicket. 

B R O N S I L {minor) 

HERP2 in the parish of Eastnor was a castellated and defensible mansion 
of the Beauchamps. The ruins, overgrown with copse and ivy, lie in a 
deep glen below Midsummer Hill, a branch of the Malvern range. 

Richard Beauchamp, son and heir of John, ist Lord Beaucliamp of 
Powyke, who was Lord High Treasurer to Henry VI., obtained a licence in 
29 and 36 Henry VI. to enclose lands and to crenellate a mansion. In 1496, 
on the death of Richard, 2nd Lord Beauchamp, without male issue, his three 
daughters divided the estates ; one of them married William Rede of Lugwardine, 
and brought Bronsil to him. Mr. Robinson says that their occupation of the 
castle was much disturbed by ghosts, so that in 1600 Mr. Gabriel Rede went 
to consult the learned Mr. Allen of Gloster Hall, Oxford, on the subject. His 
advice was that some of the bones of old Lord Beauchamp should be taken 
from the distant place at which they were interred and brought to Bronsil. 
This was accordingly done, and the bones were taken in a box to Bronsil, 
" which ever after was quiet." These bones, which were portions of the 
vertebrae, were long regarded as heirlooms in the Rede family, and escaped 
destruction during the Civil War, when the castle was burnt. Bronsil was 
purchased from the Redes in the middle of the last century by Mr. Cocks of 
Castleditch, whose descendant now owns the propertv. 

The enclosure of the walls was quadiangular, with an octagonal tower at 

each corner, one of which only was standing in 1779. A sketch made in 1731 

of the ruins shows most of the outer walls and the towers then standing. It 

was defended by two moats, placed two yards apart, and these can easily be 

traced. The entrance gateway was on the W. side. 

VOL. II. N 



98 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



CLIFFORD (nimor) 

THIS historic fortress, the liome of the Chffords, stands on the summit of 
a lofty escarpment of the bank of the Wye, guarding an important ford, 
from wlience the name is derived. It is one of the five castles of Herefordshire 
mentioned in the Domesday Survey as belonging to Ralph de Todenei, and 
was built by William P'itz Osborn, Earl of Hereford, — the same who built 
Wlgmore, — to whom the Conqueror gave lands here. On his son's revolt and 
confiscation, it passed to the above-named Norman, his cousin, and went in 
dower with his daughter Margaret to Richard des Fonts ; the second son of this 
marriage succeeding to his mother's property of Clifford, assumed that surname. 
His eldest daughter was the lady known as Fair Rosamond, the mistress of 
Henry II., who may have been born at this castle, having spent her early life 
there. Walter de Clifford, her brother, succeeded in 1221, and had many 
contests with King Henry III., one of these being occasioned by his obliging a 
king's messenger to eat up the royal letter that he had brought, seal and all, — a 
joke which cost him a thousand marks. His only daughter Maud was married 
to her cousin, William Longepee (the great-grandson of Fair Rosamond), who 
was killed at a tournament in 1256, when his widow, in default of heirs male, 
inherited the best estates of the De ClilTords. She was forcibly carried off and 
married against her will by John, Lord Giffard of Brimpsfield (q.v., Gloucester- 
shire), who fought on the king's side in the Barons' War, and died in 1290. He 
was made to pay a fine of 300 marks for his escapade, which reminds one of 
a similar feat perpetrated bv Simon, Lord Lovat. J^Iaud's daughter Margery 
married Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, and in 4 Edward IV. is represented 
as holding this manor and castle. Clifford ne.xt appears to have been given by 
the Crown to the Mortimers, and after the House of York came to the throne, 
it was retained as royal property. It is probable that at that period Clifford 
Castle ceased to be inhabited, and therefore fell into neglect, disrepair, and ruin. 
An account of the place, written early in the present century, says that from 
the antiquity of some oak-trees growing about the ruins and mounds, 300 or 
400 years old, it is likely that the castle has been disused as a fortress, if not 
in ruins, at a very distant period. It speaks of the picturesqueness and beauty 
of the scenery amid which Clifford stands, with the W^ye flowing round it, and 
winding about in glittering clearness among the rich meadows, encircled with 
fine hills, which are fringed with forest and excellently cultivated fields. 

The remains of this fortress, Fair Rosamond's cradle, are not very extensive ; 
they consist of a fragment of the N. wall, very massive, standing on the edge 
of the cliff. At the N.W. is a round tower, and there are scanty vestiges of the 
square E. tower, which perhaps was the keep. There were an outer and an 
inner bailey, or ward, and the existing remains belong solely to the latter. 



HEREFORDSHIRE 



99 



which seems to have measured about loo feet square. Only one of its many 
towers survives, with some garclerobes. On the N. front are to be traced the 
foundations of the two circuhir towerS flanking the gatehouse to the inner ward, 
in front of which was a ditch dividing the two wards, and running from the 
ravine on the E. to the river, along which ran the curtain wall. On the S. is 
a curious triangular outwork without any traces now of masonry, perhaps 
defended by a stockade. The outer ward had the river bank for its defence 
on the W. and on the S. tlie ditch, the other sides being protected by the 




CI.IKl-ORD 



ravine and a wall. In the centre is a mound, and the approach appears to 
have been from the N. side. Whatever the antiiiuity of the earthworks, the 
existing masonry does not appear to be older than Henry II. or Henry III. 
The castle chapel, on the E. of the outer ward, was standing in 1657, near the 
present cottage, which seems to have been built from its ruin. 

There is an island higher up the river, below which was the ford ; this was 
a very shallow one, and there is another and a deeper one lower down the 
stream. On the island stood the Castle Mill, and the Castle Park extended from 
the river downwards, where is a tract still called " The Parks." 

The manor of Clifford, together with the castle, was in 1547 granted to Lord 



loo CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Clinton for his services against the Scots at the memorable battle of Pinkie. 
Clinton was admiral in command of the English fleet which co-operated with 
great effect with the land forces under the Protector Somerset, by lying in 
the bay of Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, and supporting them with lire 
from the ships. The late owner was Mr. Tomkyns Dew, whose grandfather 
obtained the ruins from the Wardour family. 



CROFT {wino,-) 

AT the time of the Domesday Survey, one Bernard held the manor of Croft, 
^ and from him the family of Croft deduce their origin, having been 
landowners in this county from the time of Edward the Confessor until 
the close of the eighteenth century. Richard Croft captured Prince Edward, 
son of Henry VI., at Tewkesbury, and for his valour during the insurrec- 
tion under Lambert Simnel, was made a knight banneret on the field of 
Stoke by Henry VII. In the sixteenth century (1551) James Croft, only son 
of Richard Croft of Croft Castle by Catherine, daughter of Richard Herbert 
of Montgomery, was appointed, by Edward VI., Lord Deputy of Ireland, 
and was afterwards made Deputy Constable of the Tower of London ; but 
when he headed the Protestant movement in Herefordshire in favour of 
Lady Jane Grey, he was himself brought to the Tower, and being examined 
on the charge of being also concerned in Wyatt's rebellion, was condemned, 
but allowed to escape. Queen Elizabeth made him governor of Berwick, and 
he was comptroller of her household. His grandson. Sir Herbert, succeeded 
him, whose son Sir William was killed in 1645 at Stokesay Castle, Shropshire, 
fighting for King Charles. His brother was Herbert, Dean and Bishop of Here- 
ford, and chaplain to the king, whose son and heir, long time M.P. for the 
county, was made baronet. Sir Archer, the third baronet, straitened in means 
through the losses of the family in the Civil War, was in 1746 obliged to part 
with his ancestral estates, and the castle passed from the mortgagee to the 
families of Knight, and then Johnes, and then by sale to Mr. Somerset Davies 
of Wigmore, whose grandson, the Rev. W. K. Davies, is the present proprietor. 

The approach to the ruins is through a line avenue of beeches half a mile 
in length. Leland, early in the sixteenth century, speaks of Croft as a ditched 
and walled castle set on the Virow of a hill. Perhaps a castle existed here in 
Norman times, but there are now no traces of any building earlier than the 
fourteenth century. Croft is a quadrangular structure having a circular tower 
at each of the four corners of the outer wall, enclosing a fine courtyard ; but in 
1746 there was no fourth side, and the building stood in the form of an E, after 
a custom not unusual in those days, in compliment to Queen Elizabeth. 

In 1645 Croft was dismantled by the Royalists, to prevent the fortress proving 



HEREFORDSHIRE loi 

of utility to the enemy, and much damage was wrought on it tlicn. The N. 
side, wliere is a square centre turret between tlie two corner towers, sutTered 
least. Since then the whole fabric has been modernised, and West Hall 
was built probably on the site of the old castle hall. 



A 



CUBLINGTON, or CUBBESTON {uou-e.xiste„t) 

LL traces of this castle, which was in the parish of Madley, have long 
disappeared. 

C U S O P {non-existent) 



THIS was a peel, the site of which is no longer visible. It belonged to 
a family named Clavenogh from the time of Henry 111. to that of 
Edward IV. 

D O R S T O N {uuu-c.xistent) 

MR. ROBINSON savs this castle was situated on the river Dore, at the head 
of the Golden Valley, but it has disappeared. Henry IV. entrusted it 
to Sir Walter P'itzwalter, when the place was probably captured by Glenchvr 
and destroyed. During the Civil War in 1645, it is mentioned that the forces 
of Charles met " neare Durston Castle." The lands belong to the Cornewall 



lannlv. 



E A R D I S L ^: Y (mm-cxislrut) 

THIS is included in a list of Hereford castles early in the reign of Henry III., 
and from its situation in the rich valley of the Wye, was exposed to 
the frequent inroads of Welsh invaders. The De Bolums held it during the 
Barons' War, but Edward 1. gave it to Roger de Clifford, who iiad afterwards 
to restore it to De Bohun {Kolnnsou). On the extinction, however, of the 
earldom of Hereford, it vested in the Crown. Next it became the pro- 
perty and abode of the Baskervilles, a family of warriors who lived in 
the reigns of Henry V. to Henry \'ii. In the Civil War of the seventeenth 
century Sir Humphrey Baskerville took the king's side, and his castle was 
burnt to the ground, only one of the gatehouses remaining intact, in which 
the unfortunate family, then reduced to poverty, were living m 1O70, but 
soon after the family was extinguished. 

The castle stood on the W. side of the church, insulated by a threefold 
moat ; but these and the mound of the keep are the only relics ; not a 
fragment of the castle exists. 



I02 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

EATON TREGOZ {uon-c.xiste,it) 

BUILT perhaps temp. John, in the parish of F'oy, this castle was the property 
of the Tregoz family. Robert de Tregoz carried the Barons' standard at 
Evesham, and fell in that field of slaughter ; then it came to the Grandisons, 
who had licence to crenellate in 1309, and who were extinct in 1375. There is 
no further notice of the place. 

ECCLESWALL {non-existent) 

THE castle now called Eccleswall Court lies 3I miles from Ross, on the 
road between Broms Ash and Castle End, and is interesting as the cradle 
of the great family of Talbot in England, a castle being erected here be- 
tween 1 160 and 1 170 by Richard de Talbot, who obtained the lordship from 
Henry H. He was succeeded by his eldest son and their direct descendants. 
In 1331 Sir George Talbot had summons to Parliament as Baron Talbot, and 
Richard, the second baron, died in 1356 possessed of immense estates, including 
Goodrich Castle, where he resided {q.v.), giving up Eccleswall, which accord- 
ingly declined, and finally, like Goodrich, on the death of the last Earl of 
Shrewsbury, in 1616, passed with his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to Henry 
Grey, Earl of Kent, and was sold. 

About 100 yards E. from the farm-house is a circular green mound, about 
40 yards in diameter, upon which, within the memory of living people, there 
stood a large square tower of masonry, and a building used as a barn. Theie 
existed also here at one time a chapel, and on the N. side is a large pond and 
a line of fish stews. 

At the end of the last century, a silver seal of Philip de Henbury was found 
in the ruins. 

ELLINGHAM (non-existent) 

ELLINGHAM, in the parish of Much Marcle, was in the fourteenth century 
the property of the Audley family. It was the home of Sir James Audley, 
K.G., the hero of Poictiers, told of by Froissart. Nothing is recorded concerning 
the castle, the site of which is near the town, within a thick wood, but there is 
nothing to be seen (see Stowey, Somerset). 

EWIAS HAROLD {non-existent) 

THIS castle stood in the S.W. corner of the county, about six miles from 
the border, and being liable to attacks from the Welsh frontier, was well 
fortified against them. The position chosen for it was where two streams 
uniting formed an elevated triangle of ground, the larger one defending the 



HEREFORDSHIRE 103 

N. side, wiiile on the S. and E. were a brook and ravine ; then a deep ditch 
was cut across the neck, and the excavation thrown up into a huf^e mound, 
in the usual manner, possibly in the tenth century. This circular burh, 
measuring 120 feet across, and from 60 to 70 feet high, occupied the W. end 
of the area, and upon it in Norman times was built a circular or polygonal 
shell keep. On the E. was a courtyard where were placed the castle buildings, 
and a curtain wall surrounded the whole, outside of which the slopes of the 
ground fell thirty or forty feet. 

Not a particle of masonry exists, everything, even to the foundations, having 
been overthrown and removed for building purposes elsewhere. 

In Domesday, this castle was held by Alured de Merleberge, or Marleboro, 
a great tenant-in-chief in Wiltshire ; and in iioo it was owned by one Harold, 
son of Randulph, Earl of Hereford, "The Timid," of Sudeley, Gloucester, a 
grand-nephew of the Confessor. He had five sons (the castle of Sudeley 
going to John), the eldest of whom, Robert de Ewias, had this castle, and 
his grand-daughter Sybilla maixied (i) Robert de Tregoz, (2) William de 
Newmarch, s.p., (3) Roger de Clifford, from whom sprung the earls of 
Cumberland. Sybilla died 20 Henry III. Her son Robert de Tregoz was 
one of the barons killed at Evesham in 1265, and his son John de Tregoz, 
dying in 1300, left three daughters, the eldest of whom, Clarice, married Roger 
la Warre, whose descendants for three generations succeeded at this castle ; 
but in 13 Richard 11. it had been permanently alienated into the hands of 
the Montacute family, and in 1429 (7 Henry VI.) Thomas, Earl of Salisbury, 
possessed it. Thence it went, like other estates, to the Beauchamps, and finally 
Edward, L<;rd Abergavenny, died seised of the castle and manor, as well as 
of the manor of Trel^ort Ewias, W' iltshire. 



F R O M 1^, K I N G S L A N D, an o KINGTON {non-existent) 



A 



LL these places are known to have existed in Herefordshire, but even 
their sites cannot now be traced. 



GOODRICH {chief) 



THIS splendid fortress occupies a commanding position on the top of a 
red sandstone hill, forming a small promontory in the S.E. corner of the 
county, on the border of Monmouthsliiie, and, environed with woods, has a 
line appearance with the Wve sweeping along its base. It was founded in 
very early days, after an incursion of the- Welsh hordes, in order to protect 
the ferry below it, which lormed part of the chief thoroughfare between 
England and the marches of Wales. We find the possession of this castle by 



I04 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



William the Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, confirmed by King John in 1203, the 
king being strenuously supported by him against the rebellious barons. He 
became, however, at the death of John, the mainstay of the kingdom, and was 
appointed governor of the young Henry III. ; being chosen Protector of the 
realm, he delivered it from the presence of a foreign army, defeating the French 
with great loss at Lincoln, and thus putting an end to the Civil War. He died 
in 121Q, leaving five sons, who all succeeded to Goodrich, but all of whom died 
without issue — the eldest son, William, having married one of the king's daughters. 




GOODRICH 



The tomb of this great noble is to be seen in the Temple Church, together 
with those of two of his sons. His daughters therefore succeeded to his estates, 
the eldest bringing Goodrich in marriage to Warren de Monchensi (Mont Cenis). 
Her onlv son William fought on the popular side in the Barons' War at Lewes, 
and accordingly, after his capture at Kenilworth, his estates being forfeited 
were granted by Henry III. to William de Valence, the P'rench half-brother to 
the king, who was married to Monchensi's sister Joan ; he obtained restitution 
of them later, but was killed some years after, by the fall of a tower at the 
siege of Drossellan Castle, when fighting under Edward I. He left an only 
daughter, but the De Valences seem to have enjoyed Goodrich. William died 
in 1296, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, and his son Aymer de Valence 



HKRKKORDSHIRK 



105 



was murdered in r323, when attending Queen Isabella in P>ance ; then Goodrich, 
fallin<4 to his niece Elizabeth Coniyn, went in marriage with her to her husband, 
Richard, 2nd Baron Talbot. This nobleman served in tiie Krciicli wars of 
Edward 111., and ijained nuich ransom-money theie, whicli he expended on 
the fortress ; he died in 1356, and was succeeded by his eldest son Gilbert, who 
also served in France under tiie Black Prince. His grandson was Sir John 
Talbot, ist Earl of Shrewsbury, who, after taking his share of all the lighting 
in France during this reign and that of Hcnrv V., was killed when eighty years 
of age at Chatillon in 1453 (see Slief- 
field). His son was one of the band 
of nobles who were killed fighting 
round the tent of their sovereign at 
the battle of Northampton in 1640, 
when his possessions were seized by 
the Yorkists and given to William 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke ; how- 
ever, John, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 
managed, probably after the reverse 
of the White Rose at Wakefield four 
months later, to recover his estates, 
and Goodiich remained with his de- 
scendants till the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Gilbert, the seventh earl, died 
in 161 6 without male issue, and Good- 
rich was inherited by his daughter 
Elizabeth, wife of Henry Grey, Earl 
of Kent. The castle was held in the 
Civil War for the king, and bravely 
defended against the forces of the 
I'arliament by Sir Henry Lingen in 
1O46 until, the fabric being much in- 
jured by the besiegers' heavy artillery 

and the stores of the garrison being consumed, the fortress was surrendered, 
when it was slighted by order of Parliament, and left a wreck. 

The general plan of the castle is a parallelogram with large towers at the 
four corners, protected by the river and a steep cliif on the N. and W. sides, 
and on the landward side by a deep dilch cut in the rock, with a circular 
barbican leading to a drawbridge at the N.E. angle, where the entrance lies 
through a nairow vaulted passage, 50 feet in length, defended by gates and 
two portcullises, and rows of machicoulis. Close to the entrance, on the left 
hand entering the courtyard, is the chapel, restored temp. Henry VI. and \'ll., 
and attached to it is the warder's or deacon tower, a tall octagonal turret ; 

vol.. 11. t) 




COOHKICH 



I. Al'l'KOACH. 

■2, llAKIilCAN. 

3. MOAT. 

4. DRAWItKIDGE. 

5. KN lUANCK. 

6. I'OKTiiH'S LODGE. 

7. INNliK WARU. 

8. IlKACON TOWER, 
g. ClIAl'Iif.. 

10. STAIJLUS. 

1 1. GARDKROEtFS. 
IJ. STATE I'RISON. 



13. DUNGEON (below). 

14. KEB1>. 

15. I-RISON. 

16. officers' TOWKR. 

17. great hall. 

18. antkroom. 

19. / DRAWING-ROOMS (kitchens 

20. t under). 

21. ladies' tower. 

22. garrison staiilks. 

23. ureacm in wall. 

24. i'lkasaunce tower. 



io6 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



next to wliich extended alont; the E. front a range of stabling for the lord 
and his knights, with windows and seats looking down on the deep ditch. 
Then comes a garderobe tower, and next to it at the S.E. angle the prison 
tower in three storeys, on the recesses of which in the middle storey are 
some curious carvings in relief, perhaps of the time of Henry IV., whose 
cognizance, a swan, together wnth that of his victim Richard II., a white hart 
couchant, are there sculptured, with other figures. The old Norman keep 
of the twelfth century stands near the prison tower, close to the outer S. 




GooiiuicH (i,.\T)n':s' towf.k) 



wall. It is a small building, 14 feet square internally, in three storeys, the 
Hoors having been of timber, and its inner front contains two windows ; a 
spiral stair in the N.W. corner leads from the first floor to the roof, the 
entrance having bet-n in llie usual wav by an exterior staircase, in a fore- 
building, to the first floor on the E. side. Here is the breach made in the 
outer wall by the Parliament cannon, at point-blank range, from the other 
side of the S. ditch. The S.W. angle is occupied by the great circular W. or 
officers' tower, which, togetlur with the noble adjoining banqucting-hall, is 
of the time of Edward 1. ; this hall is 65 feet long by 30 broad, a proportion 
usual in Edwardian halls, and has a good fireplace and trefoil-headed lancet 
windows, together with a fine oriel ; at its N. end is the solar, with a window 



HEREFORDSHIRE 107 

lookinji into the hall, beyond which, alonj^ the N. face, is the .^leat reception 
or baronial hall, at the \V. end of which is a very tine double-pointed arch, 
supported by a single shaft, at the X.W. aniile, leadin,^ to tiie Ladies' Tower, 
which formed the lodging of the family. A large portion of this tower has 
fallen— the work, it is said, of the siege in 1646 ; but it is difficult to see where 
the battering-guns of that period could have been placed. Below tiiis was 
the pleasaunce or garden, witii a small tower, and the garrison stabling. 

In 1740, on the death of Heniy, Duke of Kent, s.p., Goodrich was sold to 
.Admiral Thomas Griflin, from whom it passed to his brother George, whose 
daughter Catherine, married to Major Marriott of Sellarsbrooke, inherited the 
property. In 1876 Mrs. Marriott gave the castle to her adopted daugliter on 
her marriage with Mr. Edmund F. Bosanquet of Goodrich Court, and Mrs. 
Hosanquet is the present lady of the manor and castle. 



H E R E K O R D i^uoii-iwisu-ut) 

THE absence of all vestiges of this great fortress exenqililies the lengths to 
which a spirit of reckless destructiveness and careless vandalism, exerted 
in favour of some supposed " benelit " to their precious townsfolk, frequently 
lead municipalities. This we have seen of recent years in the lamentable 
destruction worked in Rome, where, amongst other outrages on that ancient 
mother of cities, the beautiful gardens of Sallust with tiieir buildings have 
been swept away, and tlie pleasant valley levelled up, to build a vulgar 
boulevard. Leland savs that Hcrefoid Castle had been "one of the fayrest, 
largest and strongest castells in all England." It was neai ly as large as 
Windsor, enclosing an area of about 5J. acres. A great iiortie)n ot it re- 
mained into the last century, but in 1741S the site was levelled and converted 
into "a public promenade." Stukeley speaks of it as "a noble work, built by 
one of the Edwards before the Conquest." He savs, "The city of Hereford 
is encompassed with strong walls, towt-rs, and lunets, all which with the 
embattaihnents are pretty perfect, and enabled them to withstand a most 
vigorous siege of the Scots army under General Lesly." The situation ot the 
castle was by nature very strong ; on the S. side, the river Wye, Howing below 
tile steep bank jo feet high, and the eminence whereon it was built, ellectiially 
defended that front ; while the little stream Eign in a deep ravine kept the E. 
front ; and the N. and W. lines were protected by a broad moat. Speed gives 
a rough view of this castle, showing on the E. the great outer court, called 
the Castle Green, or bailev, surrounded by strong walls with Hanking towers, 
the entrance gatehouse being on the N. side, approached by a drawbridge 
w'th stone arches across the moat ; on the W. end was a smaller enclosure 
ot pentagonal trace, walled, and with lowers at the angles, which formed the 



io8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

inner court, in the centre of which stood, on a higli artificial mound, the great 
keep, consisting of a cUister of four or five lesser embattled towers with one 
lofty tower in the centre. Of this massive and extensive fortress not a vestige 
now remains ; even the great mound of the keep was levelled, and all that is 
left are the names of the localities, Castle Green, Castle Street, and Castle Mill. 

It is probable that in very early times a Saxon stronghold of earth was 
formed here, upon which Earl Harold began to erect a castle of stone, 
completed by others after his death. In the time of William the Conqueror, 
Fitz Osborn, the first Norman earl of Hereford, was governor of this castle, 
and these earls held it until Earl Milo, the son of Walter, the Constable of 
England, espousing the side of the Empress Maud, received the castle of 
Hereford from her, during her short period of success ; he was displaced by 
Stephen, but his son and heir, Roger, was made governor by Henry II., who 
also restored to him his father's lost honours, together with " the mote and 
whole castel of Hereford." This earl, however, joined with Mortimer in resist- 
ing this king's order for the demolition of the numerous unnecessary castles 
that had been reared in England during the wars of Stephen and Maud, 
especially on the Borderlands, and Henry withdrew to himself the earldom of 
Hereford and the castle (cir. 1115). King John frequently came here, from 
1200 to 1 2 17, when endeavouring to obtain for himself the assistance of the 
Welsh, and in his time the castle was committed to the tutelage of Hubert de 
Burgh, his Grand Justiciary. Henry 111. was here as often as his father, and 
it was at Hereford that the first hostile acts occurred at the opening of the 
Barons' War. Peter, son of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, was tiien 
governor, and hither was brought prisoner, after the battle of Lewes, Prince 
Edward. Here too it was that the prince eleverlv escaped on the horse he was 
exercising on the plain of Widemarsh, N. of the town, by previously tiring out 
his companions' horses, and then riding awav to the castle of Wigmore (q.i'.). In 
Hereford Castle, 17 Henry III., "a fair and decent chapel " was added to the 
king's apartments. Here it was that Queen Isabella, the " She-Wolf of France," 
declared her son, afterwards Edward 111., Protector of the Realm ; here too 
the yoimger Despencer, — the great favourite of Edward II., — who had been 
taken at Bristol, was hanged on a gallows 50 feet high. For a time this castle 
was under John of Gaunt, but after the disturbances had been quelled on the 
Welsh border, and no more troubles were expected, its repairs were neglected, 
and so fell rapidly into disrepair. " It hath been decayed," says Leland in 1520, 
" since the Bohuns' time " ; the last De Bohun, Earl of Hereford, being 
Humphrey, who lived late temp. Edward 111., and he adds that in his time the 
drawbridge was " cleane down, and the whole castel tended towards ruine." 

After the battle of ;\Iortimer's Cross, Owen Tudor, stepfather to King 
Henry VI., and some other officers of rank suffered death here, after confine- 
ment in the castle. In the Civil War of the Conmionwealth, the keep, being 



HEKKKORDSHIRE 109 

fortified ;ind defended, received inucii chunage ; it \v;is held by tlie Royalists 
ill April 1643, but on Sir William Waller appearing before it with a strong 
force, it was surrendered to him after a very short resistance. 

By a survey made in 1652, we learn that the outer court and governor's lodge 
were then completely ruinous, for the fabric had evidently been deserted before 
that date. At last a Colonel Birch sold to the county members and sundry 
other representatives, for ;^6oo, " all the circuit and precinct of the ruinous 
castle of Hereford," when the ancient structuie was left to the mercy of the 
town authorities. 

HUNTINGTON {nou-cxisknt) 

MR. ROBIXSON shows us that a few fragments of walls standing on 
a circular hillock are all the remains e.\isting of this castle, which was a 
large one standing at the brink of a steep ravine which defended it on the 
N. and W., while 011 the S. and E. it was protected by a moat, supplied by a 
neighbouring rivulet. 

North of the early mound, the outer walls formed an oval enclosure, 
probably with towers, and on the mound there was a keep on the E. side, of 
usual Norman construction. The entrance was approached by a tlrawbridge, 
but what the buildings were in the court cannot now be known, though by 
the manor rolls they seem to have been complete. The earthworks are very 
perfect, and we see the outer and inner wards with the ditches and moat. 

This castle seems to have been built temp. Henry 111., and was then owned 
by William de Braose, Lord of Bramber Castle and of Brecknock, and many 
other places, which passed with Huntington to his widow Eva, sister of Richard 
Marshall, Earl of Pembioke, and in i -'48 to her daughter Elenor, married 
to Humphrey de Ijohun, eldest son of the Eail of Hereford. He joined 
the side of Simon de Montfort in llic liaioiis' War, and after the light and 
slaughter of Evesham, was sent prisoner to Heeston Castle in Cheshiie, 
where he soon after died. Still Huntington continued with the Bohuns 
toi- lour generations, and the story of this race of warriors is a part ol the 
history of our country. The last of them dving 1372 without male issue, his 
two daughters inherited, the eldest marrying Thomas of Woodstock, sixth 
son of Edward 111., and the other Heniy, then Earl t)f Derby, afterwards King 
Henry 1\'. The latter, created Duke of Hereford by his cousin K'icliaid II., 
possessed Huntington Castle among others through his wife, and lived here 
occasionally until his accession to the throne ; and it was here, at the ferry of 
Huntington, that he heard of tlu- biiih at Monmouth Castle of his eldest son 
Henry, who thereby acquired the name ol Henry ot Monmouth. The earldom 
of Hereford was then renewed in the person of Edmund de Stafford, Earl of 
Buckingham, who niiiried the only dauglitn of Thomas of Woodstock ; he 



no CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

was killed at tlie battle f)f Shrewsbury (July 31, 1403) fighting on the king's side, 
when the castle came to Humphrey de Statiford, ist Duke of Buckingham, at 
whose death in 1460 it was found to be in a ruinous state. The unfortunate 
second duke Henry vainly sought refuge here from the wrath of Richard III. 
A survey of the castle was made when Edward, the last duke, fell a victim 
to Henry VIII. and Wolsey (see Thonibuty, Gloucester), when there was 
evidently a tower in it used as a prison, and in 1670 tlie keep too was 
standing. After the attainder and execution of this last duke, the manor 
and the ruins became the property of the Crown, and then passed through 
many hands by sale. In 1818 Huntington was bouglit by Eldward Watkins 
Cheese, whose representatives continue to hold it. 



K I L P E C K {uuii-cxiskiit) 

ABOUT seven miles from Hereford stood this once important Border 
fortress. It was by design of great strength, in order to restrain the 
incursions of the Welsh tribes. The Conqueror granted it to William 
Fitz Norman, who was succeeded by his son Hugh, and grandson Henry de 
Kilpeck. King John seems to have used the place as an abode when on his 
frequent journeys to the Welsh marches. Hugh de Kilpeck, about the middle 
of the thirteenth century, left a daughter who married William de W'aleraund 
or Waleran, who thus obtained Kilpeck. His son Robert was a Royalist 
baron of much importance during the Civil War in Henry III.'s reign ; he 
was one of the ambassadors to the PYench king in 1253 and 1260, and Sheriff 
of Kent and Gloster. The insurgent barons confiscated his lands, but the 
King, for whom he fought at Evesham, rewarded him with grants of Hugh 
de Neville's forfeited estates, and made him one of the four governors over 
London. He died without issue in 1272, leaving Kilpeck to his nephew and 
heir, Alan de I^lukenet. In the Wars of the Roses, Kilpeck fell to the Crown, 
and was given by Edward W. to William Herbert, ist Earl of Pembroke ; 
he however was taken prisoner at the battle at Edgecote (1469), and was 
beheaded at Northampton by order of the Earl of Warwick. After this, the 
castle came into the possession of |ames Butler, 1st Earl of Ormond, and 
early in the seventeenth century it passed to the family of Pye, at which 
time it was in a decayed condition, and though during the war in Charles' 
reign it held a garrison under Sir Walter Pye, it was of little use as a fortress, 
and was slighted and demolished. The Pyes followed James II. into exile, and 
had the title of Barons Kilpeck. Two large fragments of the keep, enclosing 
a space of from 70 to 80 yards in diameter, are all that remain now of this 
Border stronghold, built of massive masonry upon an elevation near the 
chinch. The site is partially surrounded by two wide moats or ditches, and 



HKREFORDSHIRE m 

as the hill they enclose is lofty, and the sides very steep, the situation was a 
commanding one in the valley of the river Worme. The keep was a polygonal 
shell one, set on an ancient Saxon artificial mound, and surrounded by earth- 
works of still greater antiquity. 



KINNERSLEY {uo„-cxisk„i) 

THERE was a medi;eval castle here, belonging to the De la Bere family, 
who held it from the fourteenth till late in the sixteenth century, but 
the existing Elizabethan house, which was built on the site of the castle, 
has obliterated all traces of it. 



LONGTOWN {wiuor) 

THIS is one of a ciiain of fortresses liuilt along Ihe frontier to re- 
strain the incursions of the Welsh, and was formerly called Ewias Lacy, 
or Clodock Castle. It stands on the site of a Roman station, and was reared by 
W. Kitz Osborne, the first Norman Earl of Hereford, who also built the castles 
of Wigmore and Clifford, and others; from him it went to Walter de Lacy, a 
warrior of Senlac, who died in 1085, when his family continued in possession. 
We find Walter de Lacy (see Lini/ow, Sn/op) rebelling against John, and having 
a heavy tine to pav to retain his lands, a usual method with that king for obtain- 
ing money. He was son-in-law to William dc IrJraose, Lord of Bramiier and 
Brecknock, and Maud his wife, who with some of her family were starved to 
death by John at Windsor (see Braiitlwr, Sussex). De Lacy was faithful to 
Henry 111., and died worn out and blind in 1241, when his two grand-daughters 
inherited his estates; the voungcr ni tluni married Joini de Verdon and 
brought him Longtown. De Verdon went to the Holy Land as a Crusader 
with the expedition which Prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.) led there in 
1270; he died in 1274, and when his son died without male issue, his grand- 
daughter Elizabeth succeeded to the property ; she was married to liartiiolomew 
de Burghersh, who was one of the most distinguished warriors of Edward 111. 
in the French wars, and was made a Knight of the (Jarter. Their son was the 
famous Thomas de Spencer, Earl of (iloucester, who adhered too closely to his 
king, Richard II., and thereby lost both his lands and his life. 

His only daughter Isabel married Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Worcester, 
whose heiress Elizabeth Beauchamp became wife of Sir I-Cdward Neville, K.G., 
1st Lord Bergavenny, who thus obtained Longtown, and with whose descen- 
dants tile lands still remain. 

Longtown clearly occupied a position of much importance in times of 
border warfare, and was a place of great strength, its trace resembled that of 



112 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

inruiy siniihii- fortresses. An (inter wall, about 20 feet Iiigh, enclosed a bailey or 
court raeasurin,g nearly 100 yards on the square, in the N.W. ant«le of which, 
on an artificial mound, stood a circular tower or keep, of which the greater 
part still remains, having three round buttresses or turrets at equal distances, 
between which are circular openings for windows (Jl/urray). The walls are 
verv thick, and are composed of a hard laminated shale built in thin layers. 
Access to the inner court is through an arched gateway defended by a portcullis 
and strong circular flanking towers. 



LYONSHALL {mmor) 

LYONSHALL is mentioned in the Survey of Domesday as Lenehalle, in the 
_j possession of Roger de Lacy, and was temp. Edward the Confessor the 
property of Earl Harold, son of Godwin, and under the De Lacys it was held by 
a branch of the family of d'Ebroicis or Devereux, who afterwards became its 
lords. One Stephen of that race adhered to the fortunes of King John, and his 
successor fell fighting on the side of the barons at the battle of Evesham, in 1265, 
when his lands were seized and granted by Henry III. to Roger Mortimer of 
Wigmore ; the disinherited son, William Devereux, however, on payment of the 
fine of 100 marks, obtained restitution of Lyonshall Castle. Litigation appears 
to have supervened, and the castle afterwards passed to William Touchet (temp. 
Edward II.), on whose death it became part of the estate of Bartholomew, Lord 
Badlesmere, " a great baron and as great a rebel," as he is called. The story 
of the offence given to Queen Isabella in 1321 is told in the account of Leeds 
Castle, Kent {(/.v.), and it is probable that the ignominious death inflicted on 
this baron, who being taken in arms with the Earl of Lancaster at Borough- 
bridge the next year was brought to Canterbury and hung there, was owing to 
the resentment of the queen at the insult oft'ered to her by his wife at Leeds. 
At anv rate Badlesmere's son Giles was permitted to succeed in the estates, 
and the attainder was reversed in 1328 in his favour; he died, however, s./>. 
in 1338, and his sister Maud inheriting Lyonshall, brought it to her husband, 
Jt)hn de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford, who fought at Ciecy and Poictiers. 

Towards the end of the fourteenth century, we find the estate transferred to 
Sir Simon Burley, who was a Knight of the Garter, and had been a favourite 
companion of the Black Prince ; but he did not long enjoy it, for being con- 
cerned in the attempt of the Duke of Gloucester, uncle of Richard II., to 
usurp the royal authority, he was charged with high treason, and executed. 
Richard then conferred Lyonshall upon Sir John Devereux, the husband 
of Margaret, daughter of John, 7th Earl of Oxford, who also succeeded 
Burley in his stall at Windsor and other honours ; but in default of male 
issue, his daughter brought the castle in marriage to Walter, 5th Baron 



HEREFORDSHIRE 113 

Fitz Walter, and again in the same way (temp. Henry \'.) Lyonshall got 
back into the Devereux family, where it remained until the death of 
Robert, 3rd Earl of Essex, in 1641. His daughter, who was Duchess of 
Somerset, inherited it, and at Iier death bequeathed it to the Thynnes, whose 
descendant, the first Marquess of Bath, sold Lyonshall to John Cheese, and the 
representatives of that gentleman still possess the castle site. 

The fortress was never made use of as a residence after the early part of 
the fifteenth century, :uid so fell into decav, as has been the fate of all such 
structures not suited to the improved requirements of the age. If the owner 
at that era was not wealthy enough to remodel or rebuild, he deserted the old 
fortress, whose accommodation was too scanty or too rude for the growing 
refinement of the family. Leland says, " It seems to have been a noble structure, 
but now [cir. 1538] nothing remains of it but the old walls." At the present day 
one can trace the form and extent of the castle by the two moats which still exist, 
and by the walls of the inner bailey, which are tolerably perfect. These walls 
enclosed an irregular space, about 60 vards across, with towers at the angles. 
On the N. side was a circular keep, about 12 yards in diameter, entered by a 
flight of steps on the S. As was generally the case in this country, the church 
was built close to the castle, and now the former alone survives. 



M O C C A S {iiou-existent) 

HrOH DE FRENE had a licence in 1291 (21 Edward I.) to build a stone 
and lime wall to fortify his house, such wall to be of the height of 
ten feet below the crenellation or battlement ; and his family were here in 
1375. The site can still be traced in a meadow on the E. side of the park, 
having a swampy circle rouiul it, and a few grassy iiillocks (Robinsou). 



MORTIMER'S CASTLE 

VERY little is known about the castle that bore this name, except that it was 
one of the fortresses belonging to that powerful family. In the begiiniing 
of the last century its site could be traced near tiie church, but all marks are 
now effaced. 

PEMBRIDGE {mimr) 

THIS castle, distant five miles from Monmouth, was a fee of the Honour 
of Wigmore, and was thus held in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century by K.alph de Pembridge, whose abode it was, though their chief seat 

was at Pembridge town. It was afterwards appended to the manor of 
VOL. II. r 



114 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Newland, and was held temp. Edward III. by Richard Pembridge, whose 
son Richard was a great warrior, and a very important officer on King 
Edward's staff in the French wars, fighting at Cre9y, and at the siege of 
Calais, and obtaining great renown at the battle of Poictiers. The king 
rewarded him with many honours, making him Custodian of Southampton 
Castle in 1361, and then of Bamborough Castle ; he was also Lord Warden 
of the Cinque Ports. In 1368 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and 
appointed Chamberlain of the Royal Household ; he died in 1375, and his 
tomb in Hereford Cathedral is well known. His castle of Pembridge was 
inherited by his sister, who was the wife of his comrade in arms, Sir Richard 
Burley, a nephew of Sir Simon Burley of Lyonshall (q.v.), and a soldier of 
almost equal renown. Sir Richard had one of the principal commands at 
the battle of Auray, Brittany, in 1364, and distinguished himself greatly in 
other engagements in France ; he likewise obtained the Garter in 1382, and 
a splendid monument adorned his tomb in old St. Paul's. He too left 
no issue, and after his death we find Pembridge possessed by the Hopton 
family ; they gave way in 1427 to Thomas, Duke of Exeter, the third son 
of John of Gaunt. It then fell into the hands of the Knights of St. |ohn, 
and after the Reformation, in the sixteenth century, it belonged to a family 
named Baynham, and in the next century it was sold to Sir Walter Pye, knight. 

During the Civil War it was held, in 1644, as an outpost of the royal 
forces, lying at the king's fortress of Monmouth. After the dastardly betrayal 
of the latter castle, Pembridge underwent some severe usage at the hands 
of the Parliamentary forces under General Murray, and was taken after a 
two days' siege ; it was, however, recaptured by the Royalist troops, when, 
after an investment lasting two weeks, provisions failed the garrison. The 
castle was afterwards bought from the Pyes by one George Kemble, who 
repaired the ruins and rendered the place habitable in 1675. Afterwards 
we find it sold by the Townley family to Sir Joseph Bailey, baronet, and 
the structure is still owned by his descendants. 

The trace of this fortress is quadrangular, enclosing an area of 45 yards by 
35, the walls being protected by a moat 36 feet wide, with a defensible banquette 
of earth behind it. Part of it is in a tolerably perfect condition, although 
many of the buildings have disappeared, and what is left has been con- 
verted into a farm-house. The entrance is on the S. side, and is flanked by 
two unequal circular towers, the approach being through a long vaulted passage 
of pointed arches, 33 feet in length, well defended throughout by three 
gates and two portcullises. Of the keep in the S.W. angle only the basement 
remains ; and the great hall has been converted into a parlour and kitchen 
for the farmer. In a square turret is a curious staircase formed of solid 
blocks of oak 5 feet long, which is undoubtedly original ; there are also in the 
old fortress some remarkable towers which well deserve examination. 



HEREFORDSHIRE 



115 



PENZARD 

THIS was a castle belonging tn the Talbot family in the thirteenth century, 
or perliaps only a fortified hunting lodge, like Knepp in Sussex {q.v.), in 
the wooded hillside above Weston, near Ross. There are still to be seen some 
fragments of massive walls and the remains of groinings {Robinson). 



RICHARD'S CASTLE {non-cxisleut) 

THE place of this name is remarkable as having been possessed and built by 
a Norman lord, one Richard Fitz-Scrob, of the court of the Confessor, before 
the Conquest. It stood below the summit of the Vinnall Hill, which extends 
from Ludlow, on the borders of Shropshire, and commanded a grand and very 
extensive prospect 

over the rich lands -sjoi)^ 

of the Welsh fron- 
tier. Placed on the 
very high ground of 
the spur, it is amply 
defended on the W. 
and S. by a broad 
and deep ravine in- 
clining to the S., and 
by a lesser valley on 
the N. which meets 
the gorge below the 
castle ; upon the E. 
side had been raised 
vast preiiistoric de- 
fences of earthwork, 
just above the meet- 
ing of the two glens 
had been thrown up 
a vast and steep 
mound, 60 feet in 

height, with a summit 30 feet in diameter, 300 feet above the vaiky, ami sur- 
rounded by a deep ditch, beyond which was a higli rampart of earth, and, on 
the E. side, a second ditch. 

The Norman parvenu coming here found himself opposed by Earl God- 
win and the English in 1052, and again by Harold in 1056, but he appears 




'mwrnrnm 



RICHARU'S CASTI.K 



ii6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

to have held Iiis ground, and after the coming of Duke WiUiam, Fitz-Scrob 
received from the Conqueror further grants of land in this county and else- 
where. He probably was at the outset obliged to further fortify his position, 
and this he did by erecting on the crown of the mound some sort of Norman 
keep, supporting it by two massive wing walls of masonry on either side, which 
ran down the sides of the mound, and thus divided it in half, N. and S. ; 
he connected their two extremities by a semicircular wall, along and round 
the counterscarp of the ditch ; then within this segmental enclosure were 
built the lodgings and other works of the castle. Outside this wall encircling 
the mound ran the outer moat, which was supplied with water from a brook 
above. 

From this founder and his son Osbert, came Hugo P'itz-Osbert or Osborne, 
in the reign of Henry I., whose descendant dying cir. 1200, left a daughter 
Margaret at that time married to Robert de Mortimer, but who had, as her 
third husband, William de Stuteville, the possessor of the manor. He died 
in 1259, and devised the manor and castle to his stepson, Hugh de Mortimer, 
who actively espoused the king's side in the Barons' War, and received other 
lands from Henry in reward for his services. His descendants enjoyed 
the property until from want of male issue an heiress brought it in marriage 
to Sir Richard Talbot of the Eccleswall family ; but after the lapse of 
many years this estate seems to have fallen to the Crown, since we find 
Edward VI. granting Richard's Castle to Nicholas, Bishop of Worcester. 
Then one Rowland Bradshaw obtained a long lease of it, and marrying into 
the Solway family, his son and grandson possessed the place, and the latter 
sold it to Richard Solway, the son of a member of the Long Parliament, 
whose descendants are still proprietors of the old ruin and of the parish of 
Richard's Castle. 

Leland says : " It standeth on the toppe of a very rocky hill, well wooded. 
The Keep, the walls, and the Towers of it stand, but going to Ruyne." A serious 
engagement took place near this castle during the Civil War in 1645, between 
a body of Royalists 2000 strong, under Sir Thomas Lansford, who was sur- 
prised by the Parliamentary leader. Colonel Birch, and was routed with much 
slaughter. At the present day, all that survives to show us where this important 
old border stronghold stood are some fragments of very massive walls hidden 
in woods. The wall on the N.E. slope is " tolerably perfect" {Cl(irk), as is that 
on the N.W. front. " P'arther on the wall seems to have been lifted with gun- 
powder, and a vast fragment lies in the ditch." The entrance was in an arch 
on the S. side. 



HEREFORDSHIRE 117 



SNODHILL {mmor) 

THE ruin of this fortress, for 200 years the abode of the Chandos family, 
is on the top of a low hill in the Golden Valley, and near the vanished 
castle of Dorston. The manor was a barony of this family under the 
Plantagenet kings, and their manors were held subordinate to the superior 
court held within these walls. A follower of the Conqueror, with the queer 
surname of I'Asne, held Snodhill at the Domesday Survey. Then we find 
(temp. Henry I.) that Roger de Chandos owned it, and his descendants appear 
to have held the honour of Snodhill during the time of John and during the 
four succeeding reigns. A Roger de Chandos was knighted, and was governor 
of Hereford Castle, dying in 1355. His grandson Sir John held this castle 
against Glendower in 1403 ; he died s./>. in 142 1, w^hen the Chandos ownership 
ended. The castle during the reign of Henry VI. became the property of 
Richard Nevill, the mighty Earl of Warwick, in right of his wife Anne 
Beauchamp, who after her husband's death at Barnet, and the accession of the 
Lancastrian King Henry VII., settled this castle on the king. Queen Elizabeth 
conferred it on her worthless favourite Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester ; 
and in 1665 we find it purchased by one William Prosser of London, whose 
initials with the date 1665 appear on the house of Snodhill Court, which he 
erected out of the materials of the old castle. It still continues in the Prosser 
family. 

The keep is Norman and octagonal in shape, and therefore it is likely 
that the castle was built before the end of the twelfth century. One of 
the gateways is tolerably perfect, being of Edwardian architecture, and with 
a portcullis groove, and there are still some fragments of the walls of the 
outer bailey. The place was ruinous even in Leland's time, and it suffered 
severely at the hands of the Parliamentary forces. Many cannon-balls have 
been found amoniJ the ruins. 



STAPLETON 

ON the extreme N.W. confines of the county was a medi;eval castle, 
an appanage of Richard's Castle. In 1314 it became the property 
of Sir Geoffrey de Cornwall, a natural son of Richard, king of the Romans, 
brother of Henry III., and a family of the name of Cornewall held it till 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. The castle was demolished in 
1645 by the Parliamentary troops, to prevent it falling into the king's hands, 
and a farmhouse occupies its site. 



ii8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



WEOBLEY 



THIS castle stood on the S. side of tlie town of that name; it was held 
by one William Talbot on behalf of Maud the Empress against Stephen, 
but it was captured by that king, as were the neighbouring castles of Hereford 
and Ludlow. A sketch of the plan of Weobley is to be found in the Harleian 
MSS. (6726), Library of the British Museum, which shows its appearance in the 
seventeenth century. The trace is a four-sided enclosure of considerable length, 
having the S. wall much longer than that on the N. side, with circular towers 
at the four corners, and a semicircular bastion midway on each E. and W. 
curtain. The entrance was on the N. side between two square towers. At 
the S. end of the area, almost touching the S. curtain, was the keep, a square 
building with round towers at each angle, standing on a mound, and having 
walls 12 feet thick. In front of the keep are shown two quadrangular buildings, 
marked " dwellings." 

At the entrance of the town exist some large grassy mounds, surrounded 
by a wide ditch, the ground enclosed being planted with tine timber trees. 

Walter de Lacy was lord of this castle temp. John, and was married to 
Margery, daughter of William de Braose, the powerful lord of Bramber, 
Sussex ('/■'^'■), whose family were starved to death by John ; De Braose took 
refuge here in 1208-9. After De Lacy the castle was owned in succession by 
the Verdons, the Blounts, and then by the family of Devereux, and so it came 
to Walter Devereux, the unfortunate favourite of Elizabeth, by whose daughter 
Frances, Duchess of Somerset, it passed in time into the hands of the Marquis 
of Bath. 

WIGMORE (Mr/) 

WIGMORE is a most interesting ruin among the many castles of the 
Welsh borderland, having been in its days of prosperity the splendid 
abode of the warlike family of the Mortimers, who intermarried with the 
Plantagenets, and themselves begat kings of England. 

Ralph de Mortimer, one of the most valiant among the followers of Duke 
William at Hastings, whose kinsman he was, being sent by him against 
Edric, Earl of Shrewsbury, the then lord of Wigmore, gained possession of 
his castle of Wigmore, after a siege, and led the earl himself in bonds to the 
king, who consigned his prisoner to perpetual confinement, and granted his land 
to Mortimer. Ralph's grandson Hugo or Hugh took part against Henry II., 
but being worsted was forced to surrender the castle to the king. In the fourth 
generation later we find Roger de Mortimer, during the Baron's W^ir, an eager 
and active supporter of the side of Henry 111.; he was married to Maud, 



HEREFORDSHIRE 119 

daughter of William de Braose, the lord of Bramber in Sussex {q.v.) and of 
large estates in Wales, whose bloodthirsty character seems to have been inherited 
by iiis daughter, as we shall see. This Roger Mortimer was a young, violent 
partisan, who, in 1263, by his desolating ravages on the neighbouring pro- 
perties of barons opposed to the king, which naturally provoked retaliation, 
may be said to have begun the war. He was prominent at the storming of 
Northampton, and took part in the battle of Lewes in 1264, when, after being 
made prisoner, he must have found means to get back to Wigmore, since in the 
following year we find him assisting there at the escape of Prince Edward from 
the custody of the barons at Hereford. This escape was cleverlv managed. The 
prince, who was treated as a prisoner on parole, was allowed the companionship 
of soiue of his fiiends, and took riding exercise with them beyond the town. 
A fine and spirited horse was presented to him, whose paces and speed he 
expressed a wish to try in order to approve its fitness for a tournament ; so the 
party with the escort repaired to the plain N. of Hereford, called Widemarsh, 
where the prince, first trying and retrying the horses of his escort, galloped them 
till they were exhausted, and tiien mounting his own fresh horse rode straight 
away from the party, followed by two or three of his friends who were in 
the plot, and who, meeting the horsemen sent out by Mortimer to assist him, 
conducted the prince in safety the twenty-four miles to Wigmore Castle (see 
Hereford and Kcnihvorth). This escape raised at once the hopes of the 
Royalist party, and obliged a counter-movement on the part of Simon de 
Montf(3rt and the barons, who on both sides collected their forces, and in 
August of the same year (1265) the fatal battle of Evesham was fought, where 
De Montfort lost his life, and where Mortimer commanded the third division of 
the Royal army. Not however content with his death, the old hero's body was 
mutilated in a horrible manner by the Royalists, and, with an excess of savagery, 
Roger de Mortimer caused de Montfort's head, fixed on a spear-point, together 
witli his hands, cut from the body, to be sent as a worthy offering to his wife at 
Wigmore. When the messenger arrived there with this fearful trophy he found 
the Lady Maud away from the castle, attending mass at the neighbouring abbey 
founded by the Mortimers, and thither he followed her, still bearing the head, and 
having in his bosom the maimed hands, sewn up in a cloth. It is said that the 
lady refused to admit the hands into the castle, which implies that she received 
the head. Mortimer was rewarded for his services with the forfeited earldom of 
Oxford and tiie lands, hut tlie De Veres managed to recover both shortly after. 

The grandson of this man was the historical character of Edward the 
Second's reign. When in 1322 Queen Isabella took up her quarters at the 
Tower of London, she found in prison there two Mortimers, condemned for 
treason and attack on the property of the king's favourite, Despencer. The 
elder of them, Roger, the uncle, died of starvation ; but Roger the nephew, 
the heir of Wigmore, being a handsome fellow of good address, managed 



I20 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

to get into the good graces of the queen, and eventually became her 
paramour. With Isabella's help, he obtained commutation of his death- 
sentence into imprisonment in the Tower, and afterwards, when convicted 
of further treason, he made his escape by the queen's aid, and fled 
to Paris. Then began the hostility of Isabella to the Despencers, and 
later to the king, from whom she separated in 1325 for ever, to go to 
Paris to her brother Charles le Bel, King of F"rance — the cruel torturer and 
murderer of the Knights Templar, — where she was joined by Mortimer. The 
scandalous attachment of the queen to Mortimer, leading to the murder 
of King Edward, attracted the odium of the nation against him. He was 
taken from the queen's side in Nottingham Castle in 1330 (see Notting- 
ham), conducted to London and hanged at Tyburn (being the first person 
executed there), and all his estates and honours, including the earldom of 
March, were forfeited to the Crown. His grandson, however, obtained 
their restoration, dying Earl of March and K.G. in 1360. His only son 
married the Lady Philippa Plantagenet, daughter and heiress of Lionel, Duke 
of Clarence, third son of Edward III., whose son, Roger Mortimer, was, 
in his mother's right, declared by Parliament heir presumptive to the Crown, 
failing issue of Richard II. He, however, was killed when Deputy in Ireland 
(1398), and his only son Edmund, 5th Earl of March, died s.p., when the 
representation of the great house of Mortimer devolved on the son of his 
sister Ann, married to Richard, Duke of York, grandfather of Edward IV. 

ThusWigmore and the vast estates of the Mortimers fell to the throne, where 
they rested till Elizabeth granted them to one or two persons ; but in 1601 
Wigmore, with a large estate, was conveyed to Thomas Harley of Brampton 
Brian {q.v.) for £2600. Here Sir Robert Harley was born, and, when Lord 
High Treasurer to Queen Anne, took his titles of Earl of March and Baron 
Wigmore from them, and his descendants continue in possession of the property. 

The ruins of Wigmore extend over a large area, standing on rising ground 
above the stream that flows around. On the W. and N. it is defended by 
precipitous ground, but the dismantling which it received after the Civil War 
has destroyed most of its features. It has a square trace in the outer walls 
with four corner towers. The Norman keep, placed on a still more ancient 
high artificial mound, overlooks a wide range of country, and from this tower 
a strong battlemented wall is continued to the main buildings of the castle ; 
at the bottom of the hill is a second wall, each wall being defended by a 
ditch. A drawbridge led to the entrance gateway, on the S. side of the 
castle, and this is the most perfect part remaining ; the right tower has a 
staircase leading to the porter's room, from which the portcullis w-as worked. 
Lady Brilliana Harley wished to garrison it for the Parliament, like 
Brampton {q.v,), but Colonel Massy not being able to spare men and stores 
for its defence, it was decided to slight the fortress. 



HEREFORDSHIRE 121 



WILTON (vwtor) 

THIS castle stands on the rii^ht bank (if llic Wye, which in former times flowed 
beneath its E. front, opposite the town of Ross, and is almost hidden by 
overshadowing trees. Leland says it was built by Stephen in 1 141, to defend 
the ford over the river, but Henry I. had before granted the manor of Wilton 
to Hugo de Longchamp, to hold by service of two men-at-arms in the wars in 
Wales, and so it is possible that it was Longchamp who bLiilt the castle. His 
descendant, Henry de Longchamp, had a daughter Hawisia, who brought it and 
tiie lands in marriage to Reginald de Grey, Lord of Monmouth. Their descen- 
dant, Henrv de Grey of Wilton, the lifth baron, was ancestor of that noble 
family, who held the title of Wilton till the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and the lands belonged to Lord Grey de Wilton till 1555, when 
Edward, Lord Grey, being prisoner in France, had to sell Wilton to pay his 
ransom ; then in the reign of Elizabeth the property was conveyed to the Hon. 
Cliarles Brydges, second son of Sir John Hrydges, ist Baron Chandos (see 
Siidhy Castle, Gloucester), who was in Oueen Mary's household. He was 
Deputy -Lieutenant of the Tower when the warrant was issued for the 
execution of the Princess Eli/.alKtli, and iiis delay in obeying the mandate 
was the means of saving her life. It was in his clay that the castle was 
rebuilt and added to. His eldest son, Giles, was created a baronet in 1627, 
whose successor. Sir John, incurred the enmity of his compeers and ol the 
county by abstaining from taking any part in the war between king and 
Parliament, as he preferred to keep out of the way, and betook himself to 
Ireland. On his return after the war was over, the people of the county 
showed their aversion to him liy burning down the greater part of Wilton 
Castle. At his death in 1651, his only son, Sir James, succeeded to the barony 
of Chandos; he died in 1714, and was succeeded by his son— the "Timon " 
of Pope — who was created Marquess of Carnarvon and Duke of Chandos. 
He parted with all his HereftJrd property about 1732, when Wilton Castle was 
purchased by the trustees of (iuy's Hospital, and is still held by that instilution. 
A small modern house has been incorporated with the S. end of the rum. 

The castle commanded the strong five-arched bridge (built 1599) which 
spans the rushing Wye opposite the (own. It was a quadrilateral enclosure 
of 75 yards by 65 (about an acre), surrounded by a high ciutain w.ill with towers 
at the four corners. That on the X.W. angle is a line octagonal turret of 
three storeys, in tolerable preservation, the nndclle floor being furni.shed with 
good pointed windows. The N.IC. tower has vanished, as likewise that which 
held the S.E. angle. The ciutain wall, wliieli was baUlemenled, leniaiiis upon 
three sides, and has a semicircular bastion on the E. face, i.e. fronting the river ; 
the entrance was probablv in the S.W. corner (where was a gateway that lias 
VUL. II. C 



122 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

disappeared), with a drawbridge across the broad and deep moat which still 
surrounds three of the faces. This was probably supported by a barbican. 
On tlie S.W. angle was the keep, of which a large portion exists, and upon 
the S. side are two large portions of the walls of the sixteenth-century mansion, 
which was burnt after the Civil War. The kitchens, at a great depth below 
the present level of the ground, can also be seen, and a fine bay-window 
in the apartments which are said to have received Queen Elizabeth. These 
later buildings are of the soft red sandstone of the district, and the whole of 
the area within the walls is now a fertile kitchen and fruit garden. All traces 
of buildings and of the lodgings, which must have been reared against the walls 
within the enceinte, have quite vanished, but in the cellars beneath the inha- 
bited part of the castle are several lancet and pointed arches of the thirteenth 
centuiy, with stairs in perfect preserv'ation. The three lofty openings in the W. 
wall mark the position of the great hall. 




SHREWSBURY 



Sbropsbire 



ACTON BURNP:LL (miuor) 

L ELAND wrote that Acton Hunicll was "a t^oodly manor place and 
castle, 4 myles from Shrewsburie, where a ParHament was kepte in 
a <<reat harne. It lonj^ed once to the Lord Lovel, then to tlie Duke 
-^ of Xorfoike, ik now to Sir John Dudle. N.B. Burnellcs daugiiter was 
married to the Lorde Lovel, thereby the Lovelle's landes increased." 

Robert Burnell was a priest who in tiie rei^n of Henry IH. was tutor to 
Prince Edward. The kinj^ wrote of him as his "beloved clerk," and sent him 
with tile prince to the Crusade ; but Burnell returned home before his master, 
and at the death of Henry ill. in November 1272 was appointed, witli tlie 
Archbishop of York and i'Joj^er de Mortimer, to the Kes^ency durinj^ Edward's 
absence, wiio on his return in 1274 liestowed the Great Seal on Burneil. 
Having tluis become Lord Ciianceiior as well as Lord Treasurer, Burnell was 
the followinji year consecrated Bishop of Bath ;uid Wells. Acton was his native 
place, and he purchased the manor of it, and had here a house and a park. 
Edward I. stayed with him here in 1282, and two years later {^ranted his old 
tutor a licence to strenj^then with a wall of stone and lime, and to crenellate 
his mansion here, and also one to cut timber in the kinj^'s forests for the 
building;. It is likely, therefore, that the old house was pulled down, and the new 
buildiiij4 erected some time between 1284 and 1292, the year of the bishop's 

death ( 7". //. Turner). 

123 



124 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Tliis eminent man died at Berwick while attending the king, when his 
nephew and heir, PiiiHp Burnell, obtained his large property. He must 
have been a man of high standing, for he married Matilda, the daughter of 
Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel ; but he enjoj'ed his fortune for two years 
only, dying 1294, and was succeeded by his son Edward, who, however, 
died s.p. in 13 15, when his sister Maud inherited, and carried Acton to her 
husband, John Lovel, ancestor of the Lords Lovel, in which family the castle 
and lands continued till their forfeiture by Henry \'ll., after the battle of 
Stoke (see Castle Cary, Somerset). 

Henry VIII. gave Acton Burnell to the Earl of Surrey, among other 
rewards, for his great services in the war which ended in Flodden Field. 

Afterwards the property came into the possession of the family of Lee, 
and in the reign of Charles II. Sir Edward Smythe married the heiress of Sir 
Richard Lee of Acton Burnell, and in his family it still remains, the present 
owner being Sir C. F. Smythe, Bart., whose seat is the more modern mansion of 
at the same locality. 

The ground plan of the building is a parallelogram measuring about 
95 feet by 60, each corner being capped by a projecting turret, and the whole 
was battlemented throughout, and defended by a broad moat. The tower 
walls are very thick, and they contained dwelling apartments, the whole 
internal space of the building being occupied by large chambers, of which 
the hall, on the N. side, was 54 feet by 24 feet, and took up in height the 
whole of the three storeys of which the castle was composed. All this internal 
building has been destroyed, and stabling erected in its place ; but the fine 
transomed pointed windows of the hall remain, and many interesting archi- 
tectural details which are treated of in detail, and illustrated in the valuable 
work of Mr. Hudson Turner. Since Bishop Burnell also built the episcopal 
palace at Wells, the style of both buildings is similar, being Early English 
passing into Decorated. 

Close to the castle are two curious gable walls, the remains of the earlier 
buildings, which formed the two ends of a huge barn, whose length was 
157 feet, and width 40 feet. To these remains a high interest attaches, since 
this barn is supposed to have witnessed, in the autimin of 1283, the assembly, 
by adjournment from Shrewsbury, of the first Parliament in which the 
Commons had any share by legal authority. " In this assembly we fmd the 
earliest legitimate traces of that popular representation of the constitution, to 
which, luider God, Englishmen have been indebted for all their subsequent 
prosperity." 

The nobles were probably assembled in the manor-house hall, under the 
presidency of the king, and the Commons are said to have met in a tithe 
barn near by. The laws confirmed here are known as the Statute of Acton 
Burnell. 



SHROPSHIRE 125 



albi:rbury {miuo,-) 

ALBERBURY was a small manor, on tiie \V. of Shrewsbury, held at 
Domesday hv Roger Corbet of Cans, and under the Corbets there was a 
castle which served as the fortress of the Fitzwarines before they obtained 
Whittington, as feoffees of the Corbets. Apparently, in 1145 Fulk Fitzwarine 
was here. All the family seem to have had the pre-name of Fulk, and were 
men of importance and power, esteemed by their sovereigns. The third F'itz- 
warine of King John's leign turned against that monarch and joined the side 
of the barons, and he was among the exconununicated ones in the Bull of 
Innocent 111. in 1215. He made his peace, however, with the young King 
Henry in 1221, and was permitted to strengthen Whittington Castle. The 
fourth Fitzwarine was killed at the battle of Lewes in 1264, hghting on the 
king's side, being drowned in crossing the river. Towards the end of this 
reign Alberbury passed to a junior branch of the Whittington family, namely 
that of Fulk Glas, who were there in 1324. 

The drawing given by Eyton shows the massive walls of a small keep of 
rectangular form, of which two corners exist, and the curtain wall is extended 
to the church, which, as usual, is close at hand. 

This castle, as well as that of Wattlesborough, stood in the ancient park 
of Loton. 

APLIlY (uon-cxisli-iil) 

APLEV is situated one mile to the X. of Wellington. It is said to be the 
third castle built here, the original one having been erected by John de 
Charlton, who owned the manor and married Hawise, the heiress of Powis 
Castle ; he obtained in 1308 a licence to crenellate his house. The present 
owner of the site. Colonel Sir Thomas Meyrick, Bart., who is a descendant 
of this founder, still holds the original document. 

There are no remains whatever of this first castle, and what is left of the 
fine Jacobean mansion that succeeded it is used as an outhouse for a third 
castle of Apley. The second house was built at a cost of ^6000 by one 
Thomas Hanmer, who had married tiie widow of Francis Charlton, and was 
living when the Civil War broke out. P>eing so near to Shrewsbury, the 
fortress was coveted by both sides, and the owner, being obliged to declare 
himself one way or the other, or have his house blown up, fortilied it for the 
king, arming his servants and tenants for a garrison. But the place was very 
soon taken from him, and at once dismantled, after being plundered to the 
extent of _/.'i500, and the lead of the roof taken awav for the repairs of 
Shrewsbury Castle. 



126 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



BISHOP'S CASTLE, or LYDBURY {non-existent) 

THIS castle, which was six miles N. from Chin, was reported by Leland to 
be " well mainteined " and " set on a stronge Rokke, but not very hy." 
There are now no traces of it, — the site being occupied by a bowling- 
green attached to the Castle Hotel, — with the exception of the old wall 
enclosing the green, on a level with the second floor of the inn. It was 
built about seventy years after Domesday by a bishop of Hereford, — that 
is, between 1085 and 1154, and it was then called Lydbury Castle, its inten- 
tion being to guard the great episcopal manor of this name, whose lands 
had been given to the Church by a Saxon lord before the Conquest, in 
memorv of his having been cured of palsy at St. Ethelbert's shrine. The 
bishops incurred the military service of Lords Marchers by virtue of their 
tenure here. 

In the reign of Henry II. it was in the hands of Hugh de Mortimer, 
who, however, had to surrender it to the see. The bishops do not appear 
to have cared for it as a palace, for in the Barons' War we find the king 
insisting on the personal residence of a bishop, under threats of forfeiture, 
whereon the prelate returned to Lydbury, but only to fall into the hands 
of the rebellious barons, and to suffer imprisonment in the castle of Eard- 
island. In July (47 Henry 111.) Sir John Fitz Alan of Arundel came to Bishop's 
Castle, and took it by storm, its Constable being treacherously slain, when its 
contents were plundered, much grain and some armour, including "an iron 
surcoat of the Bishop," being taken. 

There is an account of a visit here of four days, in May 1290, by Bishop 
Swinfield with a large suite, and thirty or forty horses. The bishops of 
Hereford enjoyed full feudal rights of the seniory, with their forest lands, 
deer park, dovecotes, and gardens, and the garrison of the castle was effi- 
ciently provided for by the tenants of the great Lydbury estates, who all 
owed service here. 

In 1610 James I. granted the manor and castle to Arthur Ingram and 
Thomas Williams, who in 1618 transferred the same to Henry, Earl of Arundel, 
together with the honour of Clun. From that time the castle appears to 
have been neglected, and allowed to go to ruin, since no allusion occurs to 
it during the Civil War of the seventeenth century. 

An old sketch of the fortress shows an outer ward surrounded by a wall 
on one side and a rampart on the other, with an entrance gatehouse and 
a drum tower in front of the keep, which appears as a rectangular building 
with turrets at the four corners, and its entrance flanked by two circular 
turrets. It was built in two storeys and a basement, and was evidently a 
place of great strength. 



SHROPSHIRE 127 



BRIDGNORTH, anciently called BRUGGE and BRUGES {minor) 

ETHELFLEDA'S Mound, raised by that Lady of the Mercians in 912 at 
the river-side as a fortification aj^ainst her neighbours, is still there ; it 
was called in the time of Edward I. the Old Castle, and its modern appellation 
is Pam-pudding Hill. It is but a short distance from the commanding site 
above the bridge over Severn whereon afterwards the fearful third Earl of 
Shrewsburv, Robert de Beleme — "The Devil Beleme " — built his castle. On 
the death of Hugh de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, in 1098, his elder 
brother Robert, of Beleme in Normandy, obtained the earldom from the Red 
King, but retained it for four years only, being then outlawed for treason against 
Henry I., in suppoiting the just claims of that king's elder brother Robert, 
Duke of Normandy. 

During his tenure he had transferred the settlement of a borough with 
a castle and church, made by his father and mother, Earl Roger and the 
Countess Adeli/.a, at Quatford, a short distance down the river, to this place, 
where he reared a very strong Norman castle on a barren rock, which was 
naturally fortified on three sides by ravines, and on the fourth overhung the 
Severn at a still greater elevation. The original building was doubtless the 
usual square keep, called for long after in the Rolls, the Tower of Brug, and 
though it is said to have been erected w itliin a year, was yet of sufiicient strength 
to stand a vehement siege. 

The king having with great sagacity first come to terms with his brother, 
Duke Robert, and induced him to return to Normandy, promptly proceeded 
in force against the conspirators. He cited Beleme to appear before him, 
and then, proclaiming him an outlaw, went with u strong force against his 
castle of Arundel in Sussex, which he took, and sending the I5ishop nf I.dudon 
to besiege the earl's house of Tickiull, he passed northwards against him in 
person at Bridgnorth, where he had been working day and night to complete 
the defences of the new fortress. Beleme had effected this before the king 
could arrive, and had garrisoned the castle with stipendiary soldiers under the 
conmiand of Robert Corbet, while he himself retired to await the king at 
Shrewsbury Castle. Henry came with all his army to Bridgnorth, and laid 
siege to the castle ; after three days he summoned the fortress a second time, 
threatening to hang the whole garrison, whereon Corbet surrendered the place 
to him. The king then advanced to Shrewsbury, and Robert de Beleme, seeing 
the game was up, hastened to make peace, and meeting the king on the road, 
threw himself at his feet, and sued for mercy. His life was spared, but he 
was sent prisoner into Normandy, and his estates and castles were forfeited 
to Ihe Crown. It is said that this Earl Robert died paralytic in St. Osyth's 
I'liory in Essex, a place founded by him as a set-off against his many crimes. 



128 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Thenceforth Bridgnorth was a royal castle, whose importance may be 
fairly estimated from the large amounts expended on its repairs and improve- 
ments during succeeding reigns, its custody being remitted to the sheriffs 
of the county. 

In 1 155 Hugh de Mortimer of Wigmore, a supporter of King Stephen, 
defying Henry II. here, was besieged by him, but was soon forced to 
yield the place, which was at once garrisoned for the Crown. The most 
interesting story connected with this siege is that of the devotion of Hubert 
St. Clair, Constable of Colchester, who, while reconnoitring with the king, 
saved Henry's life at the sacrifice of his own by interposing his body to 
receive a shaft aimed at him from the walls. 

King John was here on live several occasions, on one of these being 
entertained with costly festivities. On another visit here it is related of this 
scrupulous monarch that, having on a P'riday indulged in food twice, he 
atoned for this misdeed by feeding one hundred paupers with bread, fish, 
and beer. Henry III. also was frequently at Bridgnorth on account of 
the disputes between himself and Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and its 
Constable, Hamo le Strange, held the castle bravely for him against De 
Montfort. 

During the civil war, about 1321, which Inllowed Edward 11. s pursuit of 
Badlesmere, the confederate barons besieged Bridgnorth, burned the town 
and took the castle, when the king came with a strong force and retook it. 
He came here again, a fugitive from Mortimer, who led him thence to his 
deposition at Kenilvvorth (q.v.). Shakespeare makes Henry IV'. name Bridg- 
north as the point for assembling his army before the battle of Shrewsbury. 

Charles I. in the fourth year of his reign granted the castle to Gilbert North, 
one of his gentlemen, who at once sold it to Sir William Whitmoie of Apley, in 
whose family it has ever since continued. The town was Royalist in the seven- 
teenth century, when it and the castle were put into a state of defence in 1642, 
and Charles and his two sons were there and lodged in the castle eight days 
before the battle of Edgehill. He was here again in 1645. In March 1646 
the Parliamentary Committee holding Shrewsbury sent a party of horse and 
foot against Bridgnorth and summoned the place, but received from Colonel 
Howard, commanding in the castle, a defiant reply. The Roundheads then 
attacked the town at three points, and penetrating through St. Leonard's 
churchvard opened the town gates and took possession, the Royalists retreat- 
ing to the castle and firing the town. A furious siege against it was then 
commenced ; a battery was established on Ethelfleda's Mound, and a bom- 
bardment kept up for three weeks, but with little effect. It was next 
determined to undermine the walls, and a large hole was made on the 
S. side of the hill, which can still be seen, called Lavingstone's Hole ; 
the governor, accordingly, being short of anmiunition, and foreseeing that 



SHROPSHIRE 129 

the explosion of a mine liere wmilcl ruin his defences, capitulated with 
all honours. 

By order of the committee, the castle of Bridgnorth was entirely demolished, 
and in the lapse of time the whole of the ruins have been taken away with 
the exception of an immense corner fragment of the Norman keep, on 
the S.E. of the Castle Hill, which having been undermined and partially 
thrown over, is called the Leaning Tower. 

King, in his Munivicnta Antiqua, says that, from the fragment left of the 
keep, it was a building 41^ feet square, containing three storeys, and had walls 
8 to 9 feet thick. The side of the tower next the town was covered with iron 
hooks, said by tradition to have been placed for hanging woolpacks during 
the siege ; but King thinks them far more ancient, and that they rather remind 
one of the savage custom which sometimes prevailed of fastening the bodies 
of enemies on the outside of the walls of fortresses. 

Mr. Eyton in his paper on Bridgnorth shows that in 1281 this castle was 
in grievous disrepair ; the great tower was rotted, from the lead having been 
carried away from the roof ; the chambers in the barbican were uninhabitable 
and threatened to fall; the king's and the other stables were thrown down and 
the woodwork was stolen ; the bridge, too, was in so bad a state that it 
could scarce be crossed on foot. Again, after the lapse of 250 years, Leland 
wrote thus of the fortress : " The walles of it be of a great height. There 
were 2 or 3 stronge wardes m the Castle, that nowe goe totally to mine. 
1 count the Castle to be more in compasse than the third part of tiie 
towne. There is one mighty Gate by North in it, now stopped up, and one 
little posterne made by force thereby through the wall to enter into the 
Castell. The Castell ground & especially the base court hath now many 
dwelling houses of tymbre in it newly erected." 

Tiiere is a pleasant teiiace walk about the ancient walls nearly 600 yards in 
compass, which was much athnired by King Charles I. 



BRONCROKT {.uoii-cxhimi) 

Ll'lTLE is known of the origin of this castle. Leland calls it "a very 
J goodly place like a Castell longging to the Krle of Shrewsbire. It stondeth 
in the Cle Ililles." The present building has the apiiearance of a farm-house. 
It was made a royal garrison in King Charles' war, but, like other untenable 
quarters hereabout, was abandoned by the royal troops in January 1645. 
A strong force of 500 foot and 300 horse from Shrewsbury garrison then made 
a reconnaissance through that part of the eoiuitrv t<i block Ludlow, and viewed 
Broncroft and Holgate, both of wiiich stations had been greatly demolished. 
The latter place was left untouched, but at Broncroft they made repairs, and 
VOL. II. '^ 



I30 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

placed a garrison under Lord Calvin, who fortified it anew. It was then the 
property of Mr. John Lidley, whose family inhabited the house for nianv 
generations. 

Of late years the castle, which is believed to have been built in the 
fourteenth century, has been restored, and converted into a stately residence 
by the present owner, Mr. James Whitaker. It lies about five miles S.E. from 
Rushbury station. 



CAUS {minor) 

CAUS is believed to be the place called " Alretone " in Domesday, whose 
lord, then Roger Fitz Corbet, built a castle and called it Caux, from his own 
Norman home. The situation is most imposing, being on an isolated eminence 
overlooking the valley of the Rea, about ten miles W. of Shrewsbury. 

Cans is shown to have been by some means in the hands of Pagan or 
Pain Fitz John, sheriff of this county in 1134, at which time Ordericus relates 
that it was taken and burnt by the Welsh. The Corbets renewed their 
teniae at the accession of Henry II., and Roger Corbet became baron of 
Cans, and in 1155 attended the king at the siege of Bridgnorth (ij.f.) against 
Robert de Beleme. In 1165, probably on the death of this Roger and the 
minoritv of his heir, it was gairisoned by the king. 

In 1217 the castle was again in royal hands, owing to a recent rebellion of 
Thomas Corbet, eldest son and heir of Robert, the holder of the barony, but 
it was restored to the family at the end of the same year. The three grandsons 
of this Thomas Corbet all dying s.p. before the middle of the fourteenth century, 
the barony passed (temp. Edward III.) to the descendants of his daughter 
Alice, the wife of Robert de Stafford, and thence to the earls of that name. 
With them it remained, like their other properties, till the execution of the 
last Duke of Buckingham, when it was forfeited to the Crown, but was at 
length restored to his son, by whom the property was sold to Robert Howard 
(temp. Elizabeth) ; from him it came to Lord Weymouth, whose family held 
it during the Civil Wars. 

The ruins of Cans Castle give no clue to the date of its erection ; for 
the masonry remaining is little more than rubble hearting, from which all 
the ashlar facing and dressings have been removed. The massive keep, which 
stood on the summit of a lofty conical mound, partly raised and scarped 
from the natural hill, and proving the prior antit-juitv of a former fortress 
here, can be traced. 

An old drawing, copied into "The Garrisons of Shropshire in 1642 to 1648," 
shows this castle with its lofty and steep mound, its enceinte wall forming a 
parallelogram roimd the crest of the hill, with a massive round tower at each 
corner. This formed the outer ward or bailey, from the E. end of which — that 



SHROPSHIRE 131 

nearest to the mound — is formed a three-sided inner ward, having another 
round tower at its inner corner, with its walls running up to the mound, 
half of which is thus included in the work, as at Castle Acre, Clare, and other 
places. The commantliug keep was ])rohaiily one of the shell type, and the 
whole formed an enclosure of about six acres. At the foot of the hill was a 
ditch. In the time of King John there was a town which covered eight acres at 
the base of the hill. An enormous well existed in the castle, which can still 
be traced, and vestiges of other water-works can be found on the N. side, 
near the brook supplving the great ditch, intended for the necessities of the 
crowd of country-folk who, with their cattle, might take refuge in this strong- 
hold during a sudden irruption of the Welsh. 

In the Civil War a force of 300 men held Cans f(5r King Charles, and in June 
1642, as it still displayed the royal colours, a strong force under Colonel Hunt 
was sent against the place, and, as is related, "sat down before Cause Castle, a place 
of great strength and little inferior to Basing : it standing on a rock not mineable ; 
which was surrendered to them after seven days' siege. By this the country is 
cleared on that side Severne to Ludlow, and so quite up to Montgomery." 

To exemplify the effect of the war on the proprietors of such castles, Lord 
Henry V. Thynne, the owner of Caus, having submitted to the committee at 
Shrewsbury, before December 1645, was imprisoned and hned ^1750. He 
then went to the F'leet, and so late as 1652 was unable to raise sufticient 
money to clear the claim. His family appears to have been in great 
distress. 

C LU N (minnr) 

THE village, chuich, and castle of Clun stand in an amphitheatre of hills 
in the ancient forest of Clun, on the left bank of a bend of the ri\er of 
the same name. The castle is placed on a mound which has been originally 
formed by cutting and scarping a natural elevation of rock surface, surrounded 
by a deep ditch on its S. and E. sides, the river bank forming its defence N. 
and W. It was further defended on the S. and E. by three other raised and 
scarped platforms on the other side of the castle ditch, each of these again 
being separated and insulated by ditches or moats. It is not known when 
these four mounds, or burhs, were formed, but the strength of the position 
was early recognised by a Norman follower of the Conqueror, Picot de Say, 
and taken possession of and held by him, together with Hopton, as a fief of 
Roger de Montgomery, the great Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Picot lived till 1098, and was succeeded by his son Henry (alive in 
1 130), and next by Helias de Say, whose daughter Isabel, the Lady of 
Clun, married, hrst, William FitzAlan ; secondly, Geoffrey de Vere ; and 
thirdly, William Boterell, in whose time the castle was stormed and burned 



132 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



hy Llewellyn. FitzAlaii left a son, William, who inherited Clun, and 
probably built this castle on the site of the original timber one which 
had been burnt. John, the third HtzAlan from him, acquired through 
his mother Anmdel Castle in Sussex ; he died 1267, leaving John P'itz- 
Alan, lord of Clun and Earl of Arundel; he died in 1272. 



.i;,er C^on.e 




\%7yLcTool % 






r'^ 




About that time a report was made on this fortress, in which it appears 
that a bridge existed, and that outside the castle was a bailey enclosed by a 
ditch and gatehouse. Clun continued to be held by the FitzAlans, but 
they no longer resided here, and when Philip, Earl of Arundel, died under 
attainder in 1595, his son Thomas did not retain Clun, which King James 
granted to the brother of that earl's grandfather, Henry Howard, Eail of 
Southampton, and his descendants sold the property. It lately passed to the 
Duke of Norfolk, under whom careful restoration is proceeding. 



SHROPSHIRE 133 

The barony or lionoiir and hundred of Clun formed a tract of vast 
extent, havinj^ on the N. and \V. sides the ancient forest of the same name, 
extending to a rathus of about live miles, l-'rom this forest four streams descend- 
ing combine to form the river Clone or Clun, which, a short distance from tlicir 
union, now a stream of considerable volume makes a sudden bend to the 
S. and tlien again anotlier eastward, enclosing a space in which, on the 
left or inner bank, the ft)rtress of Clim is situated, thus suriounded on 
three sides by the river. Within this space there is a cluster of rocky knolls 
that have been artificially scarped and formed into raised platforms and 
mounds, whereon the works of the castle were placed. The most nortiiern 
forms a loftv mound, the top ot wlmh is 40 yards in diameter, and standing 60 
feet above the enclosing ditch, which area formed the inner ward, on which are 
the remains of the keep. Southward are three other islands, forming the defences 
and approaches on this side, and divided from each other and the first mound 
by ditches. On the inner side of the platform on the \V. appear thr nidnnenls 
of the bridge which led to the cential mound, the approach road from 
the village lying through this work. In the middle of the third platform on 
the E. is a hollow pool which perhaps formed a stew* and was furnished 
with sluices. 

When these earthworks were formed it is impossible to decide, but it was 
prcjbably in the ninth or tenth century {Clark) ; they were taken by the 
Normans, and made into a stronghold, which in the twelfth century developed 
into buildings of which we have now some remains. 

The keep is a rectangular tower built, like Guildford, on the edge of the 
mound, meastu-ing 68 feet by 42 feet, with walls 11 feet thick, and with three 
storeys. Its height is about 80 feet, and the floors were of timber. The W. 
wall has disappeared. The quoins were strengthened with pilasters of the late 
Norman style, and ended perhaps in corner turrets. Each floor had five 
windows and a fireplace, the second ct)ntaining the state rooms, and the upper 
one the bed-ciiambers. The entrance door is on the S. side, and a mural stair- 
case led to the several floors. Kound the summit of the mound ran a curtain 
wall attached to the keep on two sides, two large fragments of which remain, 
and within the enceinte is a small artificial mound, which seems to have carried 
a separate tower. There are no traces of walls on the outer platforms, the 
defences of which may have been of timber. 

Eurther earthworks appear some way to the E., and beyond the line old 
church of St. George, where is a natural ravine, whose sides have been 
scarped. 

Clun is supposed to form the scene of Sir Walter Scott's " Betrothed." 



134 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



ELLESMERE {mn- existent) 

ELLESMERE, wliich lies between Oswestry and Whitchurch, was the most 
important castle entrusted or granted hy Henry I. to his half-brother 
William Peverell of Dover, and was fortified against Stephen in 1138 by his 
nepiiew, William Peverell the younger, for this lord naturally and gallantly sup- 
ported tlie cause of his cousin, the Empress Maud, in the south, afterwards 
ending his life of devotion in Palestine. Henry II. on his accession resumed 
possession, but in 1177 gave Ellesmere to David ap Owen, who had married his 
illegitimate sister Emma. 

King John held the castle himself, but gave it in 1205 to his son-in-law, 
Llewellvn ap Jorworth, the husband of his natural daughter Joan, who forfeited 
it by rebellion, recovering it afterwards from Henry III. In the Welsh wars it 
again became royal property, and was granted to Prince Edward, after being 
repaired at the king's expense. The " Mad Parliament" of 1258 made Peter de 
Montfort governor of Ellesmere, and in 1260 Hamo le Strange was rewarded 
for his loyal services by a grant of the place for seventeen years, which on the 
death of Simon de Montfort was extended into possession of the fee ; he died 
at the Crusade of 1270, s./>., when Ellesmere was seized, but was given up in 
1276 by Edward I. to Roger le Strange, Hamo's brother, a great and successful 
man, who was Sheriff of Yorkshire, and Justice of the Forests E. of Trent. At 
his death, it again reverted to the Crown (131 1), and was farmed to different 
people till 1330, when Edward 111. gave it back to the Strange family, in the 
person of Eubolo le Strange, and then to his brother, who transmitted the 
property to his descendants. Thus it continued till the heir-general carried 
Ellesmere to the Stanleys. Eyton says that at present this barony is in abeyance 
between the representatives of the three daughters and coheirs of Ferdinando 
Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby of his line (see Middle Castle). 

In 1644 Prince Maurice took up his residence at Ellesmere, defeating a 
cavalry attack by Colonel Mytton ui the neighbourhood at Oateley Hall. The 
fortress was utterly destroyed, and its site is now occupied by a bowling-green. 



HOLGATE (nwior) 

THIS castle lies about six miles to the N. of Ludlow, in the head of Corve 
Dale. It was owned bv a soldier of the Conqueror named Helget, whose 
son or grandson, Herbert Fitz Helget, entertained Henry I. in 1109 at this place, 
which at that period must have been a timber stronghold taken from its Saxon 
lord, and strengthened by its new Norman master. In 11 15 a court was held 
here to settle some disputes regarding the estates of the priory of Wenlock. 

In the reign of Richard I. the manor and castle passed to the Mauduits 



SHROPSHIRE 135 

of Warminster, as collateral heirs of Helget, hut the harony was forfeited by 
them in the Barons' War, and, temp. Edward I., was sold to Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, the kint^V uncle, who conveyed it to Robert l>ui nell, Bishop of Bath and 
WVlls, the chancellor (see Acton Burndl). By an inquest held in 1295 it is thus 
recorded : "The old castle is not to be retained because it is worth nothintj." 

In the next reign the heiress of Burnell brought Ilolgate by marriage to the 
Lovels, with wiiom it rested till the forfeiture t)f the last lord, Francis Lovel, 
in the reign of Henry VII. (see Castle Caiy, Somerset), when that king gave 
Holgate to Jasper, ]3uke of Bedford, at whose death it reverted to the Crown ; 
Henry V'lll. granted it to the Duke of Norfolk, beheaded by Elizabeth, but 
before his death he had exchanged it for lands of the Diiclkv family. 

Holgate became the property of the Cressetts before 1584, and it continues 
with their descendants, being now in the possession of Mr. Thursby Pelham. 

When the Civil War broke out between King Charles 1. and the Parliament, 
Holgate received a royal garrison, but, as it was deemed untenable, the K'oyalists 
abandoned it, as they did Broncroft, and they then dismantled and demolished this 
fortress so completely, that in 1645 the Parliamentary Committee of Shrewsbury 
reported it as too far dilapidated to be worth holding, and in this state it was left. 

Tile ruins consist of a tine circular tower, Inult into the modern farm-house, 
which tower is perhaps the surviving portion of the Norman castle, while an 
ancient lofty mound, standing near it on the edge of what was the water 
defence, shows that a far earlier settlement had been formed, where perhaps 
the Norman lord built a keep. The tower, which has a conical roof of wood, 
has a broad spreading base, and is lighted by loops on two tloors. When this 
castle was rebuilt is not recorded. 

The neighbouring church is Norman. 

HOPTON {minor) 

THE c.istle of Hopton lies about live miles S.E. of Clun, and one mile trom 
Hopton Heath railway station. The remains consist of the strong square 
keep of a fortress oi the Decoratetl period, in good preservation, standing on 
a knoll of gravel in a low situation, and surrounded by a circular moat fed by 
a passing streamlet. The manor was granted by the Conqueror in his third 
year, as we learn by a curious metrical deed, which runs thus : 

" I, Will king, tile tiiird of my reign, 
Give to the Northern Hunter, 
To me that art both Lainc and Deare, 
The Hoi)pe and ihc Hoptoune, 
And all the bounds up and downe, 
Under the earth to Hell, 
Above the eartli to Heaven," i!v:c. 



136 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

TliL- place was a lief of Clun, and was held hy Picot as the successor of Edric. 
In 1 165 it was held by Walter de Opton, as two knights' fees, under Geoffrey de 
V'ere, one of the three husbands of Isabel de Say (see Whittingtoii) — that is, 
Sai near Exmes, the Norman viscounty of Earl Roger) — and by Peter de Opton 
in 1 201. Then two Walters de Hopton succeeded from 1223 to 1272, on the 
tenure of war service to Clun Castle, and the family continued here for many 
generations, enjoying much of the surrounding property. 

In the reign of Henry VI. the heiress of Thomas Hopton married, first, Sir 
Roger Corbet of Moreton ; secondlv, tiie Earl of Worcester ; and lastly, SirWilliam 
Stanley. Hopton went to the Corbets, and by an heiress of that family to the 
Wallops of Hampshire, one of whom, Henry Wallop, a tierce republican, owned 
it during the Civil War of the seventeenth century, wheii'the old castle was still 
strong enough to stand a violent siege. It was held for the Parliament by one 
Samuel More with a small garrison of thirty-one men, and was attacked in 
February 1644 by a Royalist force which took the outer wall, and then retired 
for a week or so, returning 500 strong, under Sir Michael W\)odhouse, when 
the place was summoned in the name of Prince Rupert. A fierce attack fol- 
lowed, in which a breach was made, but was repulsed, v^'hereon the Royalist 
force again retired for a week, and came back with three pieces of ordnance. 
A fresh summons being rejected they bombarded the castle ; ninety-six shots 
were tired, and a breach was again made, and unsuccessfully stormed ; but the 
next day the governor, finding the castle was mined, asked for a parley, and 
surrendered imconditionally, other terms having been refused him. 

The Parliamentary account makes out that the garrison were inhumanly 
mutilated and butchered by the king's troops, which is a very unlikely story, 
although 150 Royalists were killed in the siege. The fortress was then 
dismantled. 

Hopton was long the property of Mr. Salwey Beale, whose ancestor purchased 
it earlv in the last centiu-y, but Sir Edward Ripley, Bart., is the present owner. 

From the tower mound with its earthworks and ditches, the work is evidently 
of Saxon origin. The keep measures 50 feet by 48, and the walls are 10 feet 
thick ; each angle is strengthened by a broad projecting pilaster on both faces, 
which (.[uoins were probablv carried up in turrets above the battlements. The 
entrance is in the N.W. angle by a circular stair, and a gateway without port- 
cullis, but well guarded by a bold machicoulis chamber overhead. The base- 
ment forms a single large chamber with several mural recesses and a garderolie ; 
the floors above this were of timber, and a spiial stair led to them, the first 
ha\ing recesses like the lowest stage, and some windows of large size. The roof 
was formed with two gables, N. and S., and a ridge roof over, and altogether 
it was more like a Scottish than an English tower ; it is all of one date, being 
probably the work of Walter de Hopton, who died 1304 or 1305, and who seems 
to have been a man of wealth and power {Clark). 



SHROPSHIRE 137 



K N O C K Y N {7ion-exisleiit) 

THE fortress of Kiiockyii, which lies six miles S.E. from Oswestry, was one 
of the outer chain of castles on the borders of Wales, it was founded 
hy Guy le Strange of Weston and Alveley (temp. Henry II.), and passed at his 
death in 1179 to his son Ralpli, who dying s.p. 1195, left his three sisters his 
coheirs. Thev and tiieir husbands concurred in transferring Knockvn, manor 
and castle, to their cousin jolui le Strange of Ness and Cheswardine, since "a 
Border Castle and Estate was no fit matter for female coparcenary" {Eyton). 

This castle followed the fortunes of Middle Castle {g-v.), and passed to the 
Stanleys. It was first demolished in the troublous times of King John, and was 
repaired by John le Strange in the following reign. 

There is now scarcely a vestige of the castle remaining, its stones having 
been appropriated for building tiie churchyard wall and tiie adjacent bridge, 
and even for road mending. The site of the keep is to be seen. 



LUDLOW {chief) 

LUDLOW, the glory of the Border castles, chief of the thirty-two that guarded 
J the Welsh Marches, occupies the summit of a rock which stands over 
the river Tene at the point of its confluence with the Corve, from whence 
they Bow togetlier to meet the Severn. The green meadow-lands on the N., as 
we now see them, were anciently a marsh protecting the fortress on that side 
as effectively as did the river channels elsewhere. The broad point of this 
promontory, having thus a natural defence upon two sides, was chosen, in very 
early times probablv, for the site of a fortress. One Osborne Fit/. Richard 
was the Norman lord of the place called Lude, after the Conquest, and from 
him Roger de Lacy is believed to have obtained enough land to build a castle 
shortly after Doomsday. In 1088, however, he rebelled against Rufus in favour 
of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, and again in io<j5 he took part in the 
Mowbray or second rebellion, when he was e.xiled, and his possessions, torn 
from him, were bestowed on his more loyal brother Hugh, who died s.p. 
between 1108 and 1121, wlien the estates were escheated to the Crown. 
Henry 1. then gave Ludlow to Pagan, or Pain, Kit/ioliii, but on his being slain 
by the Welsii in 1136, Stephen placed here a Flemish knight, Sir Joyce de 
Dinant, who is said to have completed the building of the castle, and is called 
"a strong and valiant knight." He it was wiio built at this time the beautiful 
circular Norman chapel m the middle ward, and extended the structure gene- 
rally over the ground as we now see it. Before, however, Sir Joyce could 
obtain his grant King Stephen had to wrest the castle from Gervase de Faganel 
VOL. II. s 



138 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



who in 1131; held it on behalf of the Empress Maud, and who offered an 
obstinate and successful resistance. It was at this siege of Ludlow that Stephen 
is said to have b}^ bodily strength and great courage rescued his hostage, Prince 
Henry of Scotland, from being seized and dragged off his horse by a grappling- 
iron {unco fcrrco) thrown on him from the walls which he had incautiously 
approached. 

On the accession of Henry II. we find Jovce de Dinant at war with Hugh 
de Mortimer, lord of Wigmore, whom he contrived to waylay and capture, and 




LUDLOW 



then immmx'd in a high turret at Ludlow, called to this day Mortmier's Tower. 
Sir Hugh only regained his liberty by payment of 3000 marks, together with 
all his plate, horses, and hawks. Sir Joyce died s.p. about 1166, when Henry 11. 
gave Ludlow to Hugh de Lacy, a descendant of the original lord by a sister of 
Roger and Hugh de Lacy. This Hugh was a powerful baron both here and 
in Ireland; but on his suspected treachery the king seized on Ludlow in 1181, 
and retained it till ii(;o, when, Hugh de Lacy being slain in Ireland, he allowed 
the lands to go to his son Walter, who was made to pay a line for Ludlow in 
1206 by King John. That monarch, however, seized the castle the next year, 
and gave it in charge temporarily to several barons, restoring it at last in 1214 
to Walter de Lacy. He died in 1241, when Ludlow went to a granddaughter, 



SHROPSHIRE 139 

who was married, first to Peter de Geneva, one of the foreign favourites of 
Henry HI., and, secondly, to Geoffry de Geneville or Joinville, who had custody 
of Ludlow and lield half the manor, Matilda's other sister Marjory having 
the other half, and being married to Joim de Yerdon. Matilda's son Peter de 
Geneville then succeeded. 

Rishanger says that Simon de Montfort, in his raid into Wales after the 
victory of Lewes, actually reduced Ludlow Castle (1264), but it was certainly 
recovered by the Royalists after the escape of Prince Edward from Hereford 
Castle in May 1265, and it was here that the prince assembled his friends and 
their forces before the battle of Evesham, being joined by Gilbert de Clare, 
Earl of Gloucester. 

Peter de Geneville had Ludlow from his father and mother in 1283, but 
he predeceased them in 1292, leaving three daughters, two of whom became 
nuns. The other, Joan, carried the whole Geneville property, and a moiety 
of the great estates of De Lacy, to her husband Roger de Mortimer, ist Earl 
of March (born 1287), famous as the paramour of Queen Isabella, the " She- 
Wolf of France," and who, taken at Nottingham Castle (q.v.) by Edward 111., 
was hung at Tyburn in 1330. 

Ludlow soon eclipsed Wigmore as the caput of the Mortimer baronies ; 
hence in a short time Wigmore was deserted for Ludlow, and fell into neglect 
and consctiuent ruin. Roger Mortimer's story is sufficiently told in the memoirs 
of Nottingham and other castles. His eldest son Edmund died the year after 
his father's e.xecution, leaving a son Roger, in whose favour Edward 111. 
repealed the judgments against his grandfather, and restcired to him his title, 
with Ludlow and other large possessions. He died in 1360, and was followed 
by his son Edward (born 1351), whose marriage with the Lady Philippa, the 
daughter of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, third son of Edward III., gave to his son 
and heir, Roger, a title to the tiirone of England, as heir-presumptive, which 
was recognised by Richard 11., and worked incredible woe to his country in 
the Wars of the Roses. Being appointed Viceroy of Ireland, he was slain 
there by a party of rebels when his son and heir was a child of six years. The 
fourth earl obtained by exchange with the Ferrars family the moiety of Ludlow 
wjiich had gone to the Verdons by the marriage of the coheiress Marjory, 
and the fifth earl therefore, Edmund, now enjoved the entire Ludlow estates. 

This Earl Edmund held a command in the P>ench wars under Henry V., 
having been as a boy, together with his brother, tiie jealously watched 
prisoner of Henry IV'., whose right to the crown was undoubtedly second to 
his (see Berkhainstcad and Windsor). He died s.p., at the age of only twenty- 
three, when his nephew Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, son of his sister 
Anne, Countess of Cambridge, was returned heir to his honours, including 
Ludlow ; his son, afterwards Edward I\'., enjoyed them as an appanage then 
of the Crown. 



140 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Ludlow Castle became famous in its later days as the place where the Lords 
Marchers {Barones Marchice) held the courts of their peculiar jurisdiction. 

In 1472 Kinij Edward gave the Castle to his two voung sons as a residence, 
and here they remained till 1483, when they were taken by their mother to the 
sanctuary of Westminster, from which their uncle Richard III. removed them to 
their prison in the Tower of London, where they were subseqi:ently murdered. 
Henry VH. also made Ludlow the abode of his eldest son, Prince Arthur, 
coming here frequently to visit him ; and here the prince died in 1502. Under 




I,LM)Lt)\V 



Henry VIII. it was neglected and fell into disrepair, although still used by the 
Lords President as the Court of Council of the Marches under the Prince of 
Wales. In 1559, however, Sir Henry Sidney was appointed by Elizabeth Lord 
President of this Council, and he retained the post and lived here in much state 
for twenty-seven years, during which time large alterations were made on 
the castle. Sidney built the gatehouse into the middle ward (on which is an 
inscription dated 1581) and the bridge leading to the castle, and he repaired 
the chapel and the structure generally, particularly the keep, which was used 
as a prison for the principality, the inner ward forming the exercise ground 
for the prisoners. He died in 1586. 

In 1642 the Earl of Essex with an army of 20,000 horse and foot advanced 



SHROPSHIRE 



141 



against Ludlow, where Prince Rupert liad entrenched himself very strongly, 
and opened batteries against it, which were replied to by guns from the 
castle. It was shortly after abandoned by Rupert and taken possession of by 
the Parliament, which could not have held it long, as in May 1643 we find Sir 
\V. Waller a-jain besieging the castle, to which it had been planned that the 
king should retire in the 'event of the fall of Oxford. In March 1645 Prince 
Rupert was here again preparing levies to receive the king, and in May Colonel 
Birch sat down before it with 700 horse and foot, the castle being under the 
command of Sir M. Woodhouse with 250 foot and 100 horse. By July, however. 
Birch must have re- 
tired, as Charles came 
there after Naseby, and 
held a council in the 
castle, at which a levy 
was decreed of one 
foot soldier from every 
person worth £30 a 
year, to be maintained 
at his charge, and from 
those of an income of 
;^200 was demanded a 
horse and rider. In 
May 1646 Ludlow, the 
only royal garrison in 
Shropshire, was sur- 
rendered t(j tile Parlia- 
ment. Then it was 
dismantled by order 
of the committee, and 
in 1 65 1 the fittings and 
furniture were sold. 

The Court of the Council continued to be held iiere nominally after the 
Restoration, but this was abolished by William 111., at which time the rooms of 
state were all in tolerable repair. Ceorge I., however, caused the destruction of 
the old fortress by selling the lead olf the roofs. Buck's drawing of 1731 shows 
the outer walls almost uninjured, therefore much ruin must have accrued since 
that time. The Powis family held a lease of the place, wiiich was in iSii 
converted into a freehold. 

At the site of the castle, before described, the point of the promontory was 
cut off by a great ditch like a quadrant excavated in tlie rock iVoni cliff to clilf, 
13 yards wide and 4 yards deep, inside which the main fortress was erected, 
with a line of walls f(jllowing the cliff edge and carried round tiie curve of the 




I.UDI.OW 



142 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

ditch. By prolonging tlie \\ and W. walls and returning them on tlie E. and 
S. a large outer court was formed, of rectangular figure, containing about 
four acres. 

The entrance gatehouse is in the middle of the E. curtain, and N. of it is a 
square Norman tower projecting from tlie wall. On the W. curtain is an 
Early English bastion of semicircular form, closed at the gorge, called 
Mortimer's Tower, in three storeys ; and in the S.W. corner, where was the 
junction with the town wall, are the ruins of some later buildings. Against the 
E. wall is a range of Tudor stabling. 

The entrance in Castle Street is through a Decorated gatehouse with two 
flanking walls covering the drawbridge, and under a low-pointed gateway— the 
walls here being 35 feet high and 6 feet thick. Crossing the outer ward we 
enter through a second gateway, by a bridge over the ditch, under a low arch 
which is a Tudor insertion in the Norman wall. There is no portcullis, and the 
long passage has doors on the left into the keep and porter's lodge, and on the 
right into the lodgings. 

The keep, which stands on the highest part of the ground, and consists of 
a basement and three floors, was probably built by Roger de Lacy, and forms 
on its S. face part of the wall of the ward ; it is rectangular, and has had later 
constructions added to it on the E. and W. The basement is vaulted, and has 
an arcade of Norman work. A newel stair conducts to the several floors ; the 
first being a room 30 feet by lyi feet, having a mural chamber and a garde- 
robe, and the stair communicates on both sides with the walls, an unusual 
feature in a keep. The floors were of timber, and Tudor windows have 
replaced the Norman lights. 

The salient is formed by a group of towers with wondrous thick walls, 
having the buttery below, and giving exit to a large sewer. Set against this is 
a second tower, half octagonal, from which stretches S.E. a strong short wall 
forming the W. end of the great hall, of which the curhiin continuing is its 
N. side, pierced with three tall Early English windows on the exterior. Below 
this wall on the outside is a broad platform, whence a second steep slope 
descends to the fields beneath. Beyond the Hall are the state apartments, and 
attached to these, projecting from the wall, is an immense garderobe tower 
of five stages. Then come the private lodgings, of Decorated style, with much 
Tudor alteration and insertion. The N.E. angle of the inner ward ends in a 
Norman tower at the junction of the inner and outer curtain walls. This outer 
wall, which continues along the X. face and curves round to the first-named 
square Norman tower, seems to have been partly rebuilt in Elizabeth's reign as 
far as a small postern. The outer ditch has been filled in for a great length of 
time. The Hall was a grand chamber, 60 feet long, 30 feet broad, and 35 feet 
high to the springing of its open roof ; all this and the state rooms are of 
Decorated work of the fourteenth century. 






iMbri'^ Jh?'-"*'^'^'*^'**-'"^**'^*'' 



J)u//(>U^ G^A/^f 



Y-f. 



SHROPSHIRE 



143 



Tlic cliapcl of St. Mary Mai^jdalene is " tlic most rcinaikable part of the 
castle," standing alone in the centre of the ward between the gatehouse and 
the hall. Only its circular part remains, being twelfth-century work, with a 
good Norman doorway. This is 28 feet in diameter inside, with walls 4 feet 



^#/ll|l'//"%4/^^ 




'I . . , .-T, 



1 1,1 



?< 



LUDLOW 



thick, and there is a chancel arch on the K. side, but the chancel has vanished. 
It has three Early English windows. 

It is of interest to know that Milton was from Ludlow, and wrote his 
Coiiius there, taking as his scene a lovely valley some two miles out on the 
Wigmore road. The masque was first acted in May 1633 in the banqueting- 
hall of this castle. 



144 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



T 



MIDDLE CASTLE {minor) 

HE remains of this castle are situated between Shrewsbury and Chester, 
about 2% miles from Baschurch. It was embattled and fortified in 1308, 
in the reign of Edward II., by John, Lord le Strange, who held the manor 
under the FitzAIans. The original founder is said to have received from the 
Conqueror, Myddle, Knockyn, and Nesse Strange, and this manor remained in 
the same family for over 400 years, during the reigns of eighteen kings. 
In the time of Henry VII., on the failure of male issue, Joan, daughter of the 
last Lord le Strange, brought it to her husband Sir George Stanley, the son of 
Lord Stanley, who being held by Richard III. as a hostage for his father's 
loyalty, was ordered to be executed by the king, just before the commencement 
of the battle of Bosworth, when Lord Stanley failed to join the royal army. He 
took the title of Lord Strange, and dying before his father, was succeeded by 
his son Thomas, 2nd Lord Derby. 

The Stanleys held Middle for about no years, when William, Earl of Derby, 
sold it to the Lord Keeper Egerton, who was created Baron Ellesmere and 
became Lord Chancellor. After his death King James made his" son Earl of 
Bridgwater, and in Uiat family Middle continued. 

The castle was a small one, of which Richard Gough (born 1634) gives a 
description as he remembered it sixty years before. It was built square, with 
a courtyard in the centre, and stood within a moat ; beyond it on the E. side 
was a piece of land, nearly an acre in extent, also enclosed by a moat, evidently 
the site of an outer ward. There was a drawbridge and a gatehouse near the 
N.E. corner of the castle moat, the latter containing two chambers on each side 
of the entrance passage which led into the courtyard. On the S. side was a 
large room, supposed to be the kitchen, having a huge fireplace, and another 
pleasant apartment ; on the \V. were two rooms together, perhaps the hall and 
solar, that were used for holding " the court leet of the manor." The castle was 
only two storeys in height, and had a flat roof. In the N.E. corner of the 
inner court was a high tower with a staircase, giving access to the upper 
floors and the roof, a part of which tower was thrown down by an earthquake 
in 1688. Another stair was in the S.W. angle. The whole buildings stood 
in the N.E. corner of a pretty large park which had a lane round it, called 
Moor Lane. 

This castle appears to have been committed to the charge of a constable 
or keeper, who at one time was Sir Roger Kynaston of Hordeley, being 
succeeded in the ofHce and as tenant by his son Humphrey about 1564 — a 
dissolute man who was called Wild Humphrey, and was outlawed for debt ; he 
allowed the fabric to go to ruin for want of repairs, and after him it was 
never inhabited, and became a wreck. 



I 



SHROPSHIRE 145 



M O R E T O N CORBET {miuor) 

THE beautiful ruin of Moreton Corbet is situated about nine miles N. from 
Shrewsbury, liaving been erected in 1576 and 1578, adjacent to the 
foundations of a more ancient castle, which was probably demolished to make 
room for it. This early building may have been the work of one of the 
Turret family who were long settled here, and from them the place received 
its name of Moreton Turret, and continued to be so called until the year 
1516. The heiress of that family married, in the reign of Henry 111., Sir 
Richard Corbet of Wattlesbury, and the Corbets have possessed the place and 
lands ever since. 

The above dates are those of Sir Andrew Corbet, knight, who died in 1578, 
and of his son Robert, who, having travelled in Italy, brought back a craze for 
renaissance art and a design for a house in that style. Camden says that he 
began to build " a most gorgeous and stately house, after the Italian model ; 
but death prevented him, so that he left the new work unfinished, and the old 
castle defaced." He died of the plague in London s.p., and his estates passed 
to his cousin Sir Richard, who died 1606, and was succeeded by his brother 
Sir V^incent, created a baronet in 1642. He served King Charles zealously, and 
had afterwards to compound for his estates so heavily that he was obliged to 
sell a part, including Moreton Corbet, but this property was redeemed in 1743 
by Andrew Corbet of Shawbury Park. 

The ruin consists of two houses of different characters, and, not being 
defensible, could not have been noticed iiere, but for the fact of its representing 
an ancient castle now vanished. It must have been sufficiently completed 
to contain, witli closed doors, a small garrison of eighty foot and thirty 
horse, to keep tiie place for the king in 1644. In September of that year, 
however, a Parliamentary force was sent against Moreton Corbet under Colonel 
Rinking, who, coming from Wem in the night, surprised the garrison and 
captured the house wilh liltie difiiculty, losing only one man. After that the 
building was ruined and the roof removed. It is now the properly of Sir 
Walter O. Corbet, of Acton-Reynald, Bart. 



O S W 1^ S T R Y, OR OSWALD l^ S T R E {uon-cxisirni) 

OSWESTRY is so called in memory of a bailie fougiit here A.I). 642, when 
Oswald, King of Northumbria, fell lighting against Penda, the pagan 
Prince of Mercia. Within a mile is the ancient earthwork called (^Id Oswestry, 
the British Caer Ogyrvan, the birthplace, it is said, of King Arthur's tiiird wife, 

the fair and frail Guinevere. 

vol.. 11. T 



146 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Oswestry lies on (he N.W. frontier of Salop, almost upon Welsh territory, 
having been supported by the castle of Whittington, two miles off. In Saxon 
times it was the head of the lordship, and here was one of the many earthwork 
moiuids which are found in this region, where the Saxon chief had his timber 
house fortiiied witli palisades and ditches. 

In 1071, when Morcar and Edwin were deprived of their possessions, the 
Conqueror bestowed this district on Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
who granted the fee to Warin the Bald, Sheriff" of Shropsliire under him — "a 
man little in body but great in soul " — married to the earl's niece. On the death 
of Warin in 1085, Oswestry, or as the place is called in Domesday, Meresberie, 
was enjoyed by Reginald de Bailleul, who married his widow, and built a castle 
here, called " Luure " or Luvre (i.e. I'CEuvre, or T/w Work), held after him by 
his stepson Hugh, the son of Warin. He died young, and was succeeded here 
by Alan Fitz Flaen. 

In the metrical Norman history of Fulke Fitz Warine (translated by Mr. 
Thomas Wright) is given the first mention of this castle, such as it then was, 
in the year 1608, when all the N.W. and S.W. of England rose against the 
Normans, and York was stormed, 3000 of the usurpers being massacred (a 
manifest exaggeration). William 1. travelling in the Poorest of Dean, learning 
this, swore "by the splendour of God" to avenge himself, and the Norman 
garrison at Shrewsbury being besieged at the time, he marched thitiier and 
relieved the place. Then he is said to have come to a little castle " which is 
called 'The Tree Town of Oswald,' but now Oswaldestre. Here the king called 
a knight Aleyn or Alan Fitz Haen and gave him the little castle and the honour 
appertaining to it ; and from this Alan came all the lords of England who had 
the surname of P'itzAIan. Subsequently, this Alan caused the castle to be 
much enlarged." 

Eyton, however, shows that Alan did not obtain Oswestry till after William's 
death, and tradition traces him to the court of Macbeth in Scotland. He was 
undoubtedly of the royal house of Stuart, and the ancestor of the FitzAlans 
of Oswestre. His eldest son William acquired also the lordship of Clun {q.v.), 
by his second wife Isabel de Sav, and both places were long held by the F'itz- 
Alans, earls of Arundel, and afterwards by their representatives the Howards. 
His second son was Walter, Steward of Scotland, who supported the Empress 
Maud, and during her reverses took refuge in Scotland at the court of her 
relative David 1.; he died in 1177, and his great-great-grandson Walter, who 
died cir. 1320, married Marjory Bruce, whose son was Rcjbert Bruce, King of 
Scotland. His successors were Lords Marchers, who, with other Norman nobles, 
had power and lands conferred on them on condition that they kept the Welsh 
quiet, and any territory they were able to aiuiex was to be counted their own. 
It followed therefore that these Itorder fortresses of theirs should be strongly 
built and garrisoned, and in their dealings with the wretched natives these lords 



SHROPSHIRE 147 

were domineerin<«, rapacious, and unscrupulous, ill-treatinj:; the inluibitants, 
coniiscatini* their property, and ignoring tlieir rights. Many of the castles in 
this district were held by military service due at Oswestry Castle. 

William Fitz.Xlan dying in 1160, during the minoiity of his son William, 
the sheriff, (Juy le Strange, had custody of Oswestry and Clun, with other 
castles, and in 1165 a determined onslaught was made on the Welsh by 
Henry II., who advanced to this castle and encamped his forces near it. in 
1 188 William FitzAlan entertained here Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Giraldus Cambrensis ; he died in 1210, when, his son being a minor. King 
John seized the place, and during his wars in Wales made Oswestry his head- 
quarters, storing in the castle immense quantities of munitions of war. Upon 
his coming of age young FitzAlan was called on to pav a fine for his in- 
heritance of 10,000 marks (equal to about -^70,000 now), and as he was unable 
to do this his lands were given to Thomas de Eardington. William FitzAlan 
died, and his brother John at once attacked and took Oswestry Castle by force, 
and joined himself to the party of the barons in their revolt. When in 12 16 
the raging king proceeded to retaliate on his opponents, he came to avenge 
himself at Oswestry and burned that town to the ground. During the next 
reign Prince Llewellyn overran the district, burning Clun and Kedcastle, but 
Oswestry was too strong for him. 

Then came King Edward 1., whom Green describes as "a born soldier, tall, 
deep-chested, long of limb, capable alike of endurance and action, and sharing 
to the full his people's love of venture and hard lighting." He, in 1277, built 
a wall round Oswestry, including the castle in its circuit ; he visited the place 
in 1282, and again in 1295 after an insurrection of the Welsh. During the 
minority of Richard, the young Earl of Arundel (8 Edward I.), his mother 
Isabel had the custody of this castle; he died in 1302, and his son Earl 
Edunnid became a warm >upp()iter of Edward II., in whose defence he 
gathered a force together at Oswestry, but being taken prisoner at Shiewsbmy, 
was executed at Hereford in 1326. His enemy the notorious Roger Mortimer 
then took possession of Oswestry Castle, on being made Lord of the Welsh 
Marches (from whence his descendants took their title of Earls of March), 
but after his execution the family estates were restored to Earl Edmund's son 
Richard. This earl was present at Cre^y with 200 retainers from Oswestry 
and Clun. 

In 1397, on the attainder and execution (if Kiehard, E,u 1 ot .\rundel, 
Richard 11. gave his estates to William Scrope, the newly created Earl of 
Wiltshire ; but when Henry IV. led that unfortunate king from Flint Castle 
to Chester, he delivered the captive prince to Thomas, the son of Earl Richard, 
saying : " Here is the nuirderer of your father, you must be answerable for 
him." It was shortly before this time that Richard 11. had adjourned the great 
Parliament of Shrewsbury to Oswestry, when the remarkable scene took place. 



148 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

wrongly portrayed by Shakespeare as happening at the Tower of London, — 
when the king determined the dispute between Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, 
and Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, these two nobles having there referred their 
quarrel to the king, wlio directed that they should fight out their feud at 
Coventry (see Bagiutoti and Caliidon, W'anvickshiii'). 

Little is heard of Oswestry during the Wars of the Roses, and the property 
went to heirs male, with the earldom of Arundel, till 1580, when, on the death 
of Earl Henry FitzAlan s.p. male, his daughter and heiress Mary married 
Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, and carried the titles and honours of FitzAlan to 
the Howards, with whom the title of Baron Oswaldestre still remains. Philip, 
Earl of Arundel, died in the Tower in 1595, when the Crown took possession 
of his lands, but James I. in 1603 granted, by letters patent, the lordship, 
manor, and castle of Oswestry, to Philip's half-brother, Thomas Howard, 
Earl of Suffolk, one of the captains of the fleet which defeated the Armada. 
He sold the property to Dame Elizabeth Craven, from whom it descended 
to William Herbert, Marquess of Powis, and by the female line to the present 
lord of the manor of Oswestry, the Earl of Powis. 

In June 1644, Oswestry town having been captured by the Earl of Den- 
bigh with a large Parliamentary force, the besieged took refuge in the castle, 
which was held ior the king ; but the gate was blown in with a petard, 
and the garrison surrendered, 400 of them marching out. Then in 1647, 
by order of the committee, the castle was demolished, and that so 
effectually that after the Restoration a proclamation was made at Oswestry 
that "the swine market will be kept on the hill or vovd place where the 
castle is." 

The mound, which recent excavations have proved to be chiefly a natural 
elevation, has on it some fragments of the ancient keep which crowned it, 
and this is all that is left of the historic Border fortress. The hill is about 
30 feet high and 200 feet in circumference ; according to Mr. Clark the 
keep was one of the shell type, and polygonal. The moat, which extended 
to the Beatrice Gate of the town on the one side and to the Willow (Wallia, 
or Wales) Gate on the other, has disappeared with all the walls and buildings. 
A sketch of the last century given in the Transactions of the Shropsliire 
Archaological Society (vol. vi. Part 11.), shows that a considerable portion of 
the castle was then standing, a plain strong building with a gatehouse and 
drawbridge. Edward's "History of Oswestry" (1815) says: "It had a tower 
called Madoc's Tower, while the Bailey's Head, as we now term it, formed 
the ballium or courtyard. The barbican or outer gate, where the maimed 
and blind were relieved, would be situate on the mound in Castle Street, — 
cleared away about thirty years ago, and then called Cripple's Gate." It was 
probably approached by a bridge over the moat, which ran across the site 
of the new municipal buildings. 



SHROPSHIRE 149 



OUATFORD {>ioit-existe,)t) 

THIS district is an important Iiistoric position on Severn-side, where 
the Danes in tlieir last campaign with Alfred had left their name at 
a ford on the river, still called Danesford. Near to this, on the right bank, 
they appear to have raised a mound, or rather scarped and fortilied a natural 
eminence, which at the Domesday Survey was called Oldbury, and still hears 
that name, 'llien, after sixteen vears, came the Lady of Mercia, Ethelfleda, 
who on a high cliff on the same side, separated from Oldbm-y by a marshy 
tract of land, reared a Saxon timber fortress at the place called Brugge or 
Bridge, afterwards Bridgnorth {q.v.). 

About two miles lower down the river, and on the E. side of it, is the 
ditched and scarped natural mound where was a Saxon stronghold called 
(Juatford, and near it, on a little isolated hill, somewhat above on the river- 
side, Earl Roger de Montgomery, soon after the Conquest, with his pious 
countess, erected a Norman castle and a chuich, and lived here when not at 
Shrewsbury or at his southern home of Arundel. At his death his possessions 
went to his second son Hugh, who, being killed in 1094, ^^'•^^ succeeded by 
his terrible elder brother Robert. He had hitherto been in the enjoyment 
of Belcme (or Belesme) and all the other family possessions in Normandy, 
and now came over to espouse the cause of his patron, Duke Robert of 
Normandy, eldest son of the Conqueror, against the Red King. This " Devil 
of Beleme," as he is called, seeing the inferiority of his father's castle at 
Quatford, demolished it, and transferred the stones to the very superior site, 
higher up the river, at lirugge, where, on a commanding position not far 
from Ethelfleda's Mound, he built, in the short period of twelve months, the 
strong Norman castle of Bridgnorth {/■'nriiitui). 



RE DC AST LK (niiuo,-) 

THIS ancient ruin lies about four nules E. from Wem in Hawkstone Park, 
the seat oi Viscount Hill. Camden wrote : " Upon a woody hill, or 
rather rock (which was anciently called Radclilfe), stood a castle, upon a very 
high ground, called from the reddish stone, Redcastle, and by the Normans 
Castle Rous, heretofore the seat of the Audleys by the bounty of Mawd the 
stranger, or Le Strange : but now there is nothing to be seen but decayed walls." 
And Leland, cir. 1339, declared it to be " now al ruiiuis. It hath been strong 
cS: hath decayid many a Day." Henry, the lirst of the Aldithley or Audley 
family noted by Dugdale, had a licence in 16 Hen. 111. to build a castle upon 
his demesne, but it is believed that the hill was fortilied in earlier days. 



I50 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

The most famous of the Audlcys was James, Lord Audley, who, accord- 
ing to Walsingham, by his extraordinary valour at the battle of Poictiers in 
30 Edward 111., "brake through the French army, and caused much slaughter 
that dav to tlie enemy." And Kroissart recounts how, witli his four esquires, 
" he fought always in the chief of the Battle. He was sore hurt in the body, 
and in the visage. As long as his breath served him he fought ; " for which 
service the Black Prince gave him a yearly fee of 500 marks, and wlien Lord 
James handed this to his esquires, the prince added 600 marks a vear more. 
He died in 1386. 

In 1459, James Touchet, Lord Audley, issuing from Kedcastle with the 
Lancastrian forces 10,000 strong, to oppose the march of the Yorkists before 
the battle of Bloreheath (a place distant ten miles only from Redcastle), was there 
defeated and killed. Lord James, the son of John, Lord Audley, was in 1497 
beheaded for his share in the Cornish rising, after the battle of Blackheath 
(see Nether Stoivey, Somerset), when his possessions were confiscated, but re- 
stored to his son Joim 25 Henry VIII., though he regained his title in 1513. 

Then we hear no more of that family, and Redcastle passed through many 
hands, a partition of it being made in 1654. 

The ruined castle and the demesne were purchased in the last century by 
Sir Rowland Hill, between 1737 and 1756, and his family have continued 
there. The ruin spoken of in the si.xteenth century must have been repaired 
subsequently, since during the Civil War " Mr. Rowland Hill of Hawkstone, 
a zealous Royalist, hid himself in the Tower glen, and being discovered, was 
imprisoned in the adjacent castle, commonly called Redcastle, wiiilst his house 
was pillaged and ransacked by the rebels. The castle was soon after 
demolished." 

A few remains exist. One ancient tower, perhaps the keep, is still standing, 
in great dilapidation, and there is a part of a tower containing the well, 200 feet 
deep. A ravine divides the Castle Hill into two parts, and this has been fortified 
by a cross ditch, while a wall carried round the top of the rock defended the 
buildings on it. 

R O W T O N (inmo,) 

ROW'TON is on the W. of Shrewsbury, near the Severn, and is said by 
Camden to be the most ancient of Shropshire castles. It was held in 
the twelfth century by Roger de Say, under the Honour of Montgomery, and 
from him passed to his two daughters, Lucia and Amice. Towards the end 
of the thirteenth centurv, Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, obtained a 
grant of the estate, holding it of the king in capitc by the serjeantry of providing 
two archers at Montgomery Castle in war time. The value was small. Thence 
it came to the Le Strange family, and was held by John le Strange of Knockyn, 



SHROPSHIRE 151 

when Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, levelled it to the ground in 1282. In 1482 
William Lyster was in possession of Rowton, and his family retained it, as in 
the seventeenth century we iind its owner was Thomas Lvster, an active 
Royalist, whose wife, on his being taken prisoner at Shrewsbury, continued 
to hold the castle against the Parliamentary general, Mytton, and with such 
effect as to obtain good terms for its surrender. Sir Thomas, who was 
knighted by Charles I., had to pay a heavy composition for its restitution. 

It is now the property of Lord Rowton, who as Mr. Montague Corry was 
long the private secretary and close friend of Lord Beaconslield. 



SHRAWARDINE (no„-c.xisia,t) 

THE name of Shrawardine is derived from the words Shirc-rccve-ivcordine 
(the county of the shire reeve, or sheriff) : the locality having been the 
residence of Saxon sheriffs before the Conquest and of Norman ones after it. 
It occupied a commanding position guarding an important ford over Severn, 
K. of vShrewsbury, and on the E. side of the river is the Saxon or Danish 
mound, which was left by the Normans who built their castle opposite to it. 

Mr. Evton says the fortress stood upon land of the F'itz Alans, but was 
probably built by order of King Henry I. It was for about a hundred years 
repaired and garrisoned by the Crown, and at least twelve estates were held 
in this county and in Stafford by serjeantry, or the service of certain quotas 
of castle-guard at Shrawardine, of which records exist as being returned 
as early as 1165. At the close of John's reign this castle was razed by the 
Welsh, when its ruins were handed by the king to the first FitzAlan, who 
rebuilt it about 1240. Its name was commonly "Castle Isabel," perhaps 
from the coincidence that one of its possessors, William Fitz.Alan, married 
Isabel de Say ; and his grandson the first John, who rebuilt it, married 
Isabel de Albine, a coheiress of the Earl of Aiundcl, while the wife of his 
son John was Isabel de Mortimer, whose dower house it became. Ceasing 
thus to be royal property, the fortress lost the feudal services rendered 
there, which were transferred to Montgomery. 

On the death of Richard, Earl of Arundel, in 1302, this castle was deemed 
of no annual valiu', hut in 1322, when Edward II. commenced the war 
against his barons. Earl Edmund joining him (as is shown also at Oswestry), 
came to his castle of Shrawardine, and f(jr long held the Welsh Marches. 
In 1326, when Queen Isabella and her "gentle" Mortimer appeared in arms 
against the king. Earl Edmund was seized by the townsfolk near Shrewsbury, 
and being handed over to the queen's party was beheaded at Ilenford, when 
his lands were seized by Mortimer. 

Nothing is recorded after this of Shrawardine until August 1485, when 



152 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Henry, Duke of Richmond, on his way from Milford Haven to the field of 
Bosworth, came here desiring to pass at Shrewsbury. Leland says the place is 
two miles from Montford Bridge, and elsewhere mentions a child of FitzAlan's 
"which by the Neclygeance of his Norice, fell, as is sayd, out of his norice's 
armes, from the Batlements of the Castle of Shrawardig, and was killed." 

Sir Thomas Bromley, afterwards Lord Chancellor, who presided over the 
mock trial of Mary Queen of Scots at Fotheringhay, purchased the Shrawar- 
dine Castle estates in 1583, and his son Sir Henry made the castle his chief 
residence. In the time of his grandson Henry Bromley, the fortress was 
garrisoned for King Charles under Colonel Sir William Vaughan, who from 
his successful sallies and his long resistance in 1644 was called "The Devil 
of Shravvardine " ; but the castle was taken by treachery at last, burnt down 
and totally destroyed by the Parliament forces in 1645, its very stones being 
taken away for repairing Shrewsbury. Vaughan's descendant Henry was 
created Lord Montfort in 1741, a title which died with his grandson, the third 
baron. A story is related that during the investment (which could not have 
been very close) Colonel Mytton, the Parliamentary commander, coming on 
Sir W. Vaughan and twelve of his officers abroad, out of the castle, made 
prisoners of them and brought them before the walls, summoning the place, 
" which upon capitulation seemed willmg to surrender, but Sir William, slipping 
in, drew up the bridge and returned a denial," when the other officers were 
carried off. 

About 1760, after his return from India, Robert, the great Lord Clive — 
among his other purchases of land — acquired Shrawardine and Montford 
from the second Lord Montfort. 



SHREWSBURY (chfef) 

BOTH Britons and Romans possessed themselves in turn of the vantage 
point of land where the river Severn, in its course southward, forms a 
large loop of fiat ground, about 500 yards across, leaving a narrow neck on 
wiiich was a natural eminence commanding the passage of the river between 
England and Wales. Here afterwards the Saxons erected a lofty mound, 
where now is Laura's Tower, and a line of earthworks, within which, after 
the fifth century, grew the town of Shrewsbury. 

The Conqueror bestowed nearly the whole of Shropshire on his kinsman 
Roger de Montgomery, besides 158 manors in other parts ; and here, as Earl 
of Shrewsbury, he installed the cap/a of his earldom, and about the year 1080 
commenced to build a Norman castle, clearing away fifty-one houses of the 
town on the northern isthmus to procure a site for it. At first there was pro- 
bably only a keep with its surrounding wall ; and this his successor, Robert de 



SHROPSHIRE 153 

Beleme (see BridgitortJi), extended on both sides to the river bank, where 
stood the Norman Gerewald's Tower. This (temp. Henry III.) formed 
the starting-point of the circuit of the city walls, which were carried thence 
on the W., and round the city back to the castle again, including on each side 
the approaches to the two bridges over Severn. 

The same "Devil of Beleme" fortified this castle against Henry 1., at the 
beginning of his rebellion (1102), but when his other castle of Bridgnorth 
had fallen, and Henry advanced to Shrewsbury, Earl Robert, forsaken by 
his friends and seeing no means of resistance, left his castle here, by the 
gateway which we still see, and, meeting the king on his road to Shrewsbury, 
threw himself at Henry's feet, giving up the keys and suing for mercy. The 
cruel and crafty rebel received a safe-conduct to the coast, but all his lands 
and honours were taken from him. Afterwards, in 11 13, King Henry put an 
end to the mischief which Beleme was still working in Normandy, by seizing 
him and sending him over to Wareham Castle in Dorset, where he died 
in captivity. 

The castle thenceforth became royal property, and was entrusted to a sewer 
or steward, one Richard de Belmeis, and ne.\t to Pagan Fitz John, and so it 
remained for twenty-four years, when Henry gave it to his second wife, who 
placed it in the hands of William de FitzAlan, the elder brother of Walter, 
Steward of Scotland, and ancestor of the Arundel family. FitzAlan adhered 
to the cause of the rightful heir to the crown, the Empress Maud, and 
Shrewsbury had to stand a siege in 1138 by King Stephen, who carried the 
fortress by assault after four weeks, and ruthlessly hanged the captain, Arnulf 
de Hesding, and ninety-three men of his garrison. William FitzAlan fortu- 
nately escaped. When the young Duke Henry, afterwards Henry II., came 
over, he obtained possession of Shrewsbury Castle, and it was once more 
attached to the Crown. 

During the Barons' War, although this part of the country was greatly dis- 
turbed, no mention of this castle occurs ; it contiiuied to be held by the sherilts 
of Salop. In 1283 the Parliament which sat at Shrewsbury under Edward I., 
after his final defeat of the Welsh, executed the barbarous sentence for 
treason on David, the sovereign of Wales, which was carried out here, with 
all its horrors, probably in the castle-yard, under the eye of the king. After- 
wards the whole assembly adjourned to the castle of Bishop Burnell at Acton 
Burnell {q.v.), where was held the celebrated parliament in which lor the first 
time the Commons of England participated. 

To Shrewsbury Henry IV. brought his forces on the eve of the battle with 

Hotspur, in 1403, arriving there only a few hours before the insurgents, who 

also were advancing on this town. By this measure he secured the passage of 

the Severn and cut off the assistance which Percy was expecting from Owen 

Glendower from Oswestry. The tight, fatal to him, took place on the second day 
VOL. II. U 



154 • CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

at the place since called Battlefield, three miles from Shrewsbury, but there was 
some skirmishing the day before under the N. walls of the town. 

Many succeeding sovereigns came here ; but after the union with Wales the 
importance of this fortress, as the door of Wales, passed away, and when Leland 
visited it he wrote : " The Castle hath beene a stronge thynge. It is now much 
in mine." In the reign of Elizabeth it was leased to one Richard Onslow, who 
conveyed his interest in it to the corporation. 

In the Civil War of the seventeenth century the place was garrisoned for the 
king, the outer walls being repaired and the gates strengthened. Charles visited 
Shrewsbury on several occasions. In February 1645 a Parliamentary force of 
1200 men under Colonels Bowyer and Mytton managed to surprise the castle 
at night, a bad watch being kept. A party coming round on the E. side 
by water obtained possession of the palisading and let in the rest of the force, 
which captured the stronghold almost without a blow, losing only two men ; 
the place was surrendered the same day, upon which the town also was taken. 

Somehow the castle escaped destruction at the hands of the London Com- 
mittee, and at the Restoration was given back to the municipality, who kept it 
in a fortified state till the reign of James II., when the guns and ammunition 
were removed, together with the outworks. It is probable that the fine Norman 
church of St. Nicholas was removed at that time. 

What remained was leased (about 1730) to a Mr. Goswell, who made the 
old place into a gloomy habitation, in which state it remained till Sir William 
Pulteney improved the appearance of it, as now seen. 

The castle, which is built of a reddish coloured stone, still retains a consider- 
able portion of its old fabric. The keep is a square building with circular 
turrets at the angles, and a good deal of the walls of the inner ward remain, 
together with the old Norman gateway. Modern constructions have been erected 
on the mound. 

STOKESAY {minor) 

THIS fine structure stands at the foot of the hills at the N. entrance of the 
valley of the Onny River, seven miles from Ludlow, and is an almost 
unique specimen of a mansion of the thirteenth century, fortified subsequently 
to the erection of its domestic portion. Its principal defence consists in a moat, 
which points to its being intended rather for use as a family abode than for 
military purposes. Stokesay is of peculiar interest to the archaeologist and 
historian, since of all early embattled houses in this county it retains most 
of its original character. 

The De Lacys of Ludlow, who from Domesday till 1241 held this and 
other manors directly from the Crown, about the year 11 15 enfeoffed at 
Stoke the De Says, whose ancestor, Picot de Sai (a place nine miles to the W. 



SHROPSHIRE 



55 



of Exmes in Normandy), had followed Duke William, and fought for him 
at Senlac. Five generations of De Says dwelt here, and in 1241, when the 
last of the De Lacys, their superiors, died, a blind old man, his estates were 
divided between his two sons-in-law, Peter of Geneva, married to his daughter 
Matilda, and John de Verdun, the husband of the younger, Margaret, by whom 
he obtained Stokesay with other manors. He died in 1274, and during the 
Ufa of his son this manor was conveyed to Lawrence de Ludlow, who in 1291 
(19 Edward L) obtained a licence to crenellate his house of Stokesay and 
strengthen it with a wall of stone and lime. He seems at this time to have 
built the great S. towei, the Hall having been previously * built in all probability 
by John de Verdun, 
who was an active 
Royalist during the 
Barons' War, and re- 
sided here as one of 
the Lords Marchers. 

After this, ten gene- 
rations of Ludlows 
held Stokesay : they 
seem to have been 
prosperous merchants, 
and to have made 
their money in trade. 
At last, in 1497, the 
property fell with 
Anne, daughter of 
John Ludlow, to 
Thomas Vernon, son 
of Sir Richard Vernon 

of Haddon, and they were living here when Leland visited Stokesay Castle. 
Their son held the place and died in 1570, when Stokesay was sold to Sir 
George Mainwaring, and after being settled in 1616 on the families of 
Baker and Francis, was in 1620 resold to a Shropshire lady, the widow 
of the wealthy Sir William Craven, knight. Alderman of London. Her 
eldest son, the heir of Stokesay, who is spoken of as one of the most 
accomplished and honoured gentlemen in P2uropc, distinguished himself as 
a soldier at the early age of seventeen, in the Low Countries under Henry, 
Prince of Orange, and was knighted in 1626, being created Baron Craven 
eight days after. 

The story of this nobleman's life is romantic and interesting. His admiration 

* As the style of this castle is c.irlicr than th.it of Acton-Iiurnell, whose licence is dated 1284, it seems 
likely that the licence granted to Ludlow was only for an addition to an already existing fortress. 




STOKESAY 



156 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

of the beautiful but unhappy EHzabeth, daughter of James I., and wife of the 
Elector Palatine Frederick, called the Queen of Hearts, led him to adventure 
his life in the enterprise for placing the Elector on the throne of Bohemia ; 
he was taken prisoner, and was obliged to purchase his liberty with £['20,000. 
Then when Elizabeth's kingdom was gone, and she and her family were 
destitute. Craven continued her friend and adviser ; he is said also to have 
bought Combe Abbey near Coventry, from the romantic wish to possess the 
place where Elizabeth had passed her childhood. In her early days she had 




JSrid^e 



STOKESAY 



been placed here under the guardianship of Lord Harrington, who was 
entrusted with her education, and it was while she was here that the gun- 
powder plotters formed a plan to surprise Lord Harrington, and seize the 
princess, whom they intended to proclaim a Catholic queen. She was removed 
then for safety to Coventry. To Craven's munificence it was due that Elizabeth 
in 1661 was enabled to return to her native country ; Combe Abbey was placed 
at her disposal, and it was there, 'tis said, that she gave her hand and was 
privately married to her devoted friend. Lord Craven (see the Verney Papers, 
vol. i.). But she died the next year, leaving him her papers, books, and 
pictures, which are still in the collection at Combe. Additional interest attaches 



SHROPSHIRE 



157 



to this princess, since she was the mother of Prince Rupert, the gallant general 
of the great Civil War, and of his brother Prince Maurice, and was the 
grandmother of our hrst Hanoveiian king, George I. 

Lord Craven lost ;^"5ooo in assisting the Royal ^"amily of England during 
the war, and in their exile, and was by Charles II. in 1663 created Earl of 
Craven. He died in 1697, aged nearly eighty-nine, and was succeeded in his 
estates by his cousin, on whom the barony alone descended. During Lord 
Craven's absence, Stokesay was let on a very long lease, not many years 
expired, to a family called Baldwyn, and it was surrendered to the Parliament 
forces besieging Ludlow, thereby escaping demolition, only the battlements 
of the N. tower being re- 
moved. The old mansion 
recently passed into the 
hands of the late Mr. 
Allcroft, who has pre- 
served the fabric with 
much skill and judgment, 
and his son, Mr. H. J. 
Allcroft, is the present 
owner. 

The buildings, which 
are set in a courtyard 
of oblong shape, are 
surrounded, close to the 
walls, by a moat 22 feet 
wide, and now 6 feet 
deep, fed from a small 
stream flowing into the 
river Onny. The present 

gatehouse is a line half-timbered Tudor building, replacing the old drawbridge 
house which led into the courtyard, where traces of several buildings may 
be seen, in e.xistence at the beginning of the century, including the kitchen 
and buttery. 

The Hall is, with that of Winchester, the most perfect remaining of the 
thirteenth century. It is the main feature of the house, standing opposite the 
gateway, and measures 51 feet by 31 feet internally- It has a line open roof, 
and is lighted by four Early English windows on the W. over the moat, and 
by three on the E. There is no lireplace, the fire being put into a central 
brazier, and the roof is blackened with smoke. At the N. end some steps 
lead into what is probably the oldest part of the fabric, a small defensible out- 
building, the ground floor of which is a cellar with a large chamber upstairs, 
and at the end of which is a small tower projected into the moat. At the S. 




STOKESAY 



158 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

end are the lower apartments, and an external staircase to the solar above, from 
whence a covered passage leads into the great tower, which has the appearance 
of two octagon turrets joined together. It is in three storeys, with a conical 
roof, and is of an imposing appearance, being 66 feet high, with walls 2 yards 
thick. Hudson Turner declares Stokesay to be one of the most perfect and 
interesting buildings of the thirteenth century which we possess. 



T O N G {nou-e.xistetil) 

TONG lies on the E. of the county, near Boscobel. Leland says of it : "There 
was an olde Castell of stone cauUid Tunge Castel. It standeth half a myle 
from the towne, on a Broke. Sir Henry Vernoun a late dales made the Castel 
al of bricke." 

Its early history is not known ; that ascribed to it regarding King Vortigern 
and Hengist belongs to a castle of the same name in Kent, with which this one 
has been confused. 

Tong passed through the hands of various families. At one time it was 
owned by the Pembrugges, the last of whom. Sir Fulke, dying s./>., his sister 
and heir, Benedicta, carried Tong to William Vernon of H addon ; from 
whom it came by an heiress to the Stanleys, and was purchased from them 
by a lawyer, Sir Thomas Harris. His daughter marrying William Pierre- 
point in 1638, brought the property to the dukes of Kingston. Evelyn, 
the last duke, sold Tong in 1764 to George Durant, whose family were 
here for a hundred years. The Earl of Bradford purchased Tong from 
Captain Durant. 

George Durant, having as Paymaster of the Forces acquired a large fortune, 
built the present curious house in the place of Sir H. Vernon's. The view 
of the old house, as it was in 1731, is given by Buck. 

In Symon's list of Shropshire garrisons in May 1645 it is added : "Tong 
Castle, — first the king had it, and then the rebels gott it ; then Prince 
Rupert tooke it, and put in a Garrison, who afterwards burnt it, when he 
drew them out to the battails of York." ... "A fayre old Castle neere the 
Church called Tong Castle belonging to Pierrepoint this 18 years." 

The owner was then William Pierrepoint, second son of the Earl of 
Kingston, who was killed in Charles' service ; his son being on the side of 
the Parliament. 

The castle is partly surrounded by a deep artificial ditch ; the entrance 
gateway is curiously carved with a representation of the ancient castle. 



SHROPSHIRE 159 

WATTLE SBOROUGH (imnor) 

THE castle of this name lies to the W. of Shrewsbury, a little beyond 
Rowton Castle, in a district once traversed by a Roman road — a branch 
of the Watling Street. The manor was among those held by Roger Fitz Corbet 
of Caus, whose Corbet ancestor had received it from the Conqueror, and the 
house formed the Border residence of that family. A Richard Corbet is 
shown here in 1179 (26 Henry II.), belonging to a branch of the Caus family 
and holding under them ; and after four more generations of these Corbets 
the lands came to the De la Poles, by the marriage of Elizabeth, only child 
of Sir Fulke Corbet, with John de la Pole, Lord of Mawddy, or Moethe, 
and other lands, through his mother, the daughter of Llewellyn. She died 
in 1403, her son, P'ulke de Mawddy, being born 1390, and her grandson, 
Sir John de Burgh — the son of her daughter Elizabeth, the wife of Hugh de 
Burgh — succeeded. 

The family of Leighton then obtained Wattlesborough by the man iage of 
Ankaret, a daughter of this last Sir John de Burgh, with John Leighton, wiiose 
family thenceforth made it their principal seat until the year 171 1, when 
Sir Edward Leighton removed to Loton, about a mile distant. Since that 
time Wattlesborough has been used as a farmer's house. 

There is not much recorded regarding the place, except that in 1584 
the Earl of Essex, Elizabeth's favourite, stayed here with Sir Edward 
Leighton for nearly eight weeks, perhaps "with a view of raising forces 
for the expedition against Holland " (Canon Blake's paper in iha Archceological 
Journal, 1868). 

The engraving of this building, as it lately was, shows a tolerably perfect 
square Norman keep of small size, having double pilasters at the end of 
each face, not meeting but with an open arris, as is seen at Helmsley, 
Yorks. Some Norman windows remain, but most of them are enlarged 
loopholes with square heads, one being of later insertion. The roof is 
formed by a four-sided frame and is tiled. The tower now has but lluee 
stages, but by tradition there was formerly a fourth, and also a battle- 
mented parapet ; while the original roof was flat, and had a look-out turret 
above it. 

The remains now consist of this tower only, with a small building or wing 
on the N. side ; but it is said that there once were four such towers, 
the stones of which were used in the construction of the neighbouring 
church. Traces of foundations occur in various spots, and there are vestiges 
of the moat. Connected witii the tower is a large earthwork, 56 yards square, 
of possibly prehistoric origin. 



i6o CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



WHITECHURCH {non-cxislcnt) 

WHITECHURCH was formerly called Weston, and was situated in the 
N.W. corner of the county, near Flint and Cheshire. Some ruins of 
the walls of this castle existed as late as 1760, on the Castle Hill on the side 
of the mill, hut they have now vanished entirely. The manor belonged at the 
Conquest to Harold tiie king, and was given by William 1. to his stepson-in- 
law William, Earl Warren, afterwards Earl of Surrey. Eyton says that the 
Warrens held this place until the death of Bertred in 1281, when Whitechurch 
passed to his sister Eleanore, the wife of Robert le Strange. Thenceforth the 
history of Whitechurch merges in that of the Barons le Strange of Blackmere. 



WHITTINGTON (minor) 

THE remains of the castle of Whittington stand on low marshy ground near 
the railway station. The manor, after the Conquest, was held by a Welsh 
owner named Tudor, under Earl Roger de Montgomery ; his younger son 
Ranulph, styled "Pefr" (the "Fine," or the "Swell"), married Maud, daughter 
of Ingelric, a noble Saxon, once the mistress of the Conqueror, and who had 
by him a son called William. She had also by her husband three other sons, 
who, being all brought up together, bore the name of Pefr, anglicised into 
Peverell. The king's bastard son received grants of land in Notts, North- 
amptonshire, and Derby, and Maud's other sons also were provided for ; one 
of them, on the attainder of Robert de Beleme (see Osu'estiy), had Whittington, 
which afterwards went to his niece Miletta Peverell, who w-as the wife of Warine, 
the son of Fulke Fitz Warine, who thus became possessed of the property. 

Henry 11. annexed it to the Crown, placing there first Geoffrey de Vera, and 
then Roger de Powis, who was Lord of Whittington temp. Richard I. ; but 
in the sixth year of King John, F"itz Warine succeeded in recovering his 
family property. He was a strenuous supporter of that reckless king, and 
was at one time lord of Ludlow. A story is told of his once playing a game 
of chess with King John, when the monarch, losing the game, in a rage 
broke Fitz Warine's head with the chess-board ; " but Fulke, nothing daunted, 
returned the blow, and almost," says an old writer, "demolished the king" 
(see Harper's "Marches of W'ales," 1894). In 1219 his son, the third Fulke, 
paid Henry 111. X262 and two chargers {destriers), for the possession of this 
castle, with licence ne.xt year to fortify it. This we can take as the date of 
the castle. Fulke was slain at Lewes in 1264, fighting on the king's side, when 
Henry was forced by De Montfort, his captor, to grant Whittington to 
Llewellvn of Wales. 



SHROPSHIRE i6i 

The fourth Kuike served with such gallantry in the Welsh campaigns under 
Edward I. that Whittington was restored to him, and his son, the fifth Fulke, 
was summoned to Parliament as a baron, in 1295, till 1314. After him the 
descent of the Kit/. Warines of Whittington Castle and manor continued for 
a long period, until by the failure of heirs male the propei-ty passed by 
Elizabeth, a sister of the tenth Kulke, to her husband, Sir Richard Hankford, 
knight. Their daughter and heir, Thomasine, married William Bourchier, 
ancestor of the Bourchiers, earls of Bath, whose descendant Earl John 
exchanged Whittington with Henry VI 11., and from the Crown it passed to 
the P'itzAlan family, from whom, in 1570, it was purchased by William Albany, 
and the manor has since continued with the descendants of that gentleman. 

Mr. Clark shows that this place is the site of a very early fortification, in 
which water formed the main defence, the proof of which is in an artificial 
mound, 30 feet high, with sides about 150 feet long by 100, that have been 
scarped and revetted. A wall surrounded this, defended by five or six circular 
towers, of which the two supporting the entrance remain entire, and there is 
the base of another. In front of this mound was another large earthen 
platform, separated from it by a moat, containing the main entrance and 
the outer ward. Westward of these islands are two others, likewise divided 
by water, and behind these ranges a sort of semicircular work, with three more 
islands forming long ramparts and ditches, protecting the inner fort from the 
S.VV'. to the S.E. A swiftly running stream from the E. supplied water, Hooding 
the whole intermediate ground between the islands, and rendering them quite 
unapproachable. 

Upon the mound, which must have been formed by Saxon or Danish hands, 
was the keep, or an enclosed fort within a strong revetment wall, 30 feet in 
height, with a second gatehouse aiul drawbridge. The outer ward was 
approached by a drawbridge and the gatehouse, of wliicli part is still 
tolerably perfect ; this enclosure was rectangular, with strong walls Hanked 
by circular towers at the angles, and having the entrance on its E. side. The 
whole of the older part seems of the reign of Henry III., and is, no doubt, 
Fitz Warine work, but there is a chamber in the S. wall with a sharp- 
pointed window of late Decorated style. No masonry remains on the t)ther 
islands {Clurk). 

in a drawing of this castle dated 1790, five towers are shown in the outer 

ward, with a large extent of curtain wall, each tower being battiemented, and 

a low-pointed entrance doorway with machicoulis over is given. In that year 

the E. tower fell, and the N. one was then undermined for the purpose of 

getting stone for road repairs. In 1809 the smaller tower was taken down to 

repair the gatehouse, which is now nearly all that remains of the castle of the 

F'itz Warines, who were lords here for nine generations. Their shield is still 

to be seen on the wall. 

VOL. II. X 




BEESTON 



Cbesbire 



A L D F O R D {non-cxislail) 

ON tlie right bank of the river Dee, three miles S. of Chester, and 
I near Pulford, is the village of Aldford, and below it is the ford 
' across Dee, from which it derives its title. On an eminence above 
are the earthworks of a castle, erected for the defence of this 
important point, the ancient jnnction of the North and South Watling Streets. 

The fortification is of singular shape, somewhat resembling a harp in the 
outline of its earthworks and ditches, which alone remain. The outer ward 
forms a large triangle, whose sides measure respectively 130, 120, and 55 yards 
along the enclosing ditch, which is 20 yards wide, where unaltered. The 
N.W. angle of this figure is occupied by a large circular mound, 40 yards in 
diameter, surrounded by its own moat, 40 yards wide, and intersects the main 
ditches before mentioned. Upon this mound of still earlier origin was the 
Norman keep of the castle of a family who took their name from the locality, 
but the buildings of which have quite disappeared. The country people call 
the mound Blobb Hill, and the lower or outer court, the Hall Croft, it being 
the site of a mansion built by the Arderne family, which, like the castle, has 
vanished. 

It is probable that the structure was built in the reign of Henry II., when the 
Aldford family lived here, having succeeded to certain manors of the Bigods. 



CHESHIRE 163 

Richard de Aldford was succeeded in his fee and castle of Aldford, between 
10 John and 13 Henry III., by Sir John Arderne, who appears to have been 
either iiis son or his son-in-law, and who was confirmed here by Randle, Earl 
of Chester, as his miles (" pro honiagio et servitio suo "). This family of Arderne 
continued here in a direct line till the reis^n of Henry IV., when, towards the 
end of that time, Matilda de Arderne brought Aldford to her husband, 
Thomas Stanley, the third son of Sir John Stanley, of Lathom and Knowsley, 
K.G. (see Liverpool). On the attainder and execution of Sir William Stanley, 
Aldford fell to the Crown, and temp. Henry VIII. was bought by Sir William 
Brereton, who was himself beheaded in 1546, when the property was again 
seized by the Crown, and granted by the king to Edward Peckham. It after- 
wards passed to various persons, among whom was the infamous Lord Mohun, 
whose second wife sold Aldford manor to the Grosvenor family, in whom it 
is now vested. 



B' 



BEE ST ON {chief) 

EESTOX stands on the summit of a bold liill of new red sandstone, which, 
rising out of the flat, plain country, attains an elevation of nearly 400 feet 
above it. Towards the S. the hiil slopes evenly and swiftly downwards, but 
i denudation on the N. and E. has left a precipitous cliff, on the brink of 

which Randle the Third, surnamed Blundeville or Blondeville. sixth Earl of 
Chester, in 1220 built a magnificent castle. There are no records of any earlier 
work, but we mav well surmise that so commanding a position, overlooking an 
immense panorama of country, and so close to the main roads passing through 
this district, was occupied by the original possessors of this county long before 
Norman days. Little is known of the early history of this fortress. Randle, 
the founder, was certainly the greatest of the Norman earls of Chester, and to 
his support King John was mainly indebted for his security on the throne ; 
while the reign of the young king, Henry III., was established by the victory 
which Earl Randle gained over the French troops at Lincoln. He raised an 
army, and, taking Henry with him, inarclicd to Lincoln, where the Comte de 
Perche and the Dauphin lay waiting for him. Walter de Wittlesey, the Peter- 
borough monk, relates how the two earls met before Lincoln Cathedral, when 
De Perche, observing the small stature of Randle, exclaimed, " Have I waited 
here all this while for so small a dwarf!" To which Randle replied, " I vow 
to (iod and Our Lady, whose church tliis is, that before to-morrow evening I 
will seem to thee greater and taller than that steeple." 

The following day he gave battle to the French, destroyed them, and 
slew the Comte de Perche. Then seizing on Louis the Dauphin in the 
cathedral, he made him swear on the relics on the high altar never to claim 
the crown of England, and to quit the country with all his followers. This 



164 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

being done, he sent for the young king, Henry, a child of ten, who had been 
waiting in the cow-house of Bardley Abbey near Lincoln, and placing him on 
the altar delivered him seisin of the kingdom by a white wand, and did 
homage to him, as did all the nobles present. This Earl Randle died without 
issue in 1232, having held his earldom fifty-one years, and his nephew, John 
Scott, Earl of Huntingdonshire, succeeded as seventh and last Earl of Chester. 
On his death in 1237, Henry seized the castles of Chester and Beeston, 
and caused homage to be done to Prince Edward by the Cheshire nobles and 
gentry as Earl of Chester. 

Later, in 1264, Simon de Montfort after the battle of Lewes took possession 
of Beeston Castle, and governed it with his supporters ; but he could not have 
held it in force, as the next year the king's men, James de Audley and Urian 
St. Pierre, took it on behalf of the king. After this, nothing is recorded about 
the place until the last year of Richard II., who, on his way to carry out his fatal 
expedition to Ireland, chose Beeston Castle for the repository of his treasure 
and jewels, leaving them here to the amount of 200,000 marks (^'134,000), in 
charge of a garrison of a hundred men. But on the coming of Bolingbroke all 
was delivered over to him. The last mention of it as a regular fortress is in 
1460, during the Wars of the Roses, when it is recorded among the castles and 
manors belonging to the earldom. 

In Leland's time it was in ruins, and so continued till the Civil Wars of 
the seventeenth century. In 1640 it was taken and held by the Parliamentarians 
with a garrison of three hundred, when occurred the only warlike incident 
connected with the place of which we have any account. In December of 
that .year Captain Landford with some Royalist soldiers came here, and, 
attended by only eight men, scaled the steep side of the rock and got into 
the upper ward, and then, as is believed, by the treachery of Captain Steel, the 
Parliamentarian governor, gained possession of the castle. The whole transac- 
tion seems to have been peaceably arranged, but, when Steel marched out 
after giving up the castle and all its contents, his soldiers mutinied against 
him, and he was put in prison, and finally shot for his act at Nantwich. 
Mention of his death is found in the diary of the siege of Nantwich, in 
which an entry for January 1643 records that "Steel, late governor of Beeston 
Castle, was shot to death in Tinker's-croft by two soldiers, according to the 
judgment against him ... he confessed all his sins, among the rest, that of 
uncleanness ; he prayed a great while, and to the judgment of charity died 
penitently." 

By the capture of Beeston Castle ammunition and stores for one and a half 
years were secured for the king, and much treasure also was taken, which 
the country people had sent in for safe custody. Further vicissitudes were in 
store for Beeston Castle, however, for in 1644 the Parliamentarians advanced 
from their quarters at Nantwich and besieged it. The Royal garrison, ill 



CHESHIRE 



165 



provided with both fuel and stores, gallantly held out from October till the 
middle of the following March, when the princes Rupert and Maurice came in 
force and compelled the siege to be raised. It was at this time that Prince Rupert 
caused the manor hall to be burnt, in order to avoid its being used by the enemy ; 
and it is said that, being at dinner in this building, "he did not communicate 
his intentions to the lady of the house until he rose from dinner, when he ex- 
pressed his regrets at being compelled thus to requite her hospitality" {Ayrlon). 




liKKSTON 



The Roundiieads returned to the attack again in the next niontii, and 
raised a strong mound and other works against the fortress, but the approach 
of the king again obliged them to retire. The Royalists continued their gallant 
resistance here till 1C145, when, after the defeat of Sir Marmaduke Langd, ik- 
on Rowton Heath, the king's power in that quarter was destroyed. Tiien 
on November i6th, after a further protracted defence of eighteen weeks, the 
garrison of fifty-six men had to surrender the place, marching out with ail 
fh(; honours of war. It is said there were no provisions found, with the 
exception of a turkey-pie, the garrison having been reduced even to eating all 



i66 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

the cats in the place. The next year Beeston Castle was dismantled and 
left to ruin. 

The manor of Beeston remained with the family of the name of Bunbiiry, 
descended from the Bunburys who held it in Henry II.'s time. Sir George 
Bunbury had it in 44 Queen Elizabeth, and at length, by the marriage of 
the daughter of Sir Hugh to William Whitmore, it went to the latter, but was 
soon after transferred by Bridget his heir to Thomas, Viscount Savage of 
Rock Savage, whose granddaughter Bridget brought it to Sir Thomas Mostyn, 
Bart., from whose heiress. Lady Champneys, Beeston was purchased by the 
Tollemache family, and they still own it. 

The main fortress stands on the crown of an abrupt precipice, which 
renders it inaccessible on three sides, i.e. on the N., \V., and S. sides, the 
N. and S. faces being connected by an immensely deep ditch at the base 
of the walls enclosing the inner ward, which is a rectangular space of an 
acre. The entrance to it is by a drawbridge and a gatehouse, having two 
semicircular flanking towers, and an Early English pointed archway with 
portcullis. This gateway and the castle wall, which descends to the level of 
the brook at the foot of the cliff, 90 feet below, are all that remains perfect 
in any degree. There are hut few vestiges of the rooms in the castle. 

From the drawbridge, externally, stretches the outer ward, a large area 
of 7 or 8 acres, sufficient to give shelter to flocks and herds, enclosed by 
an irregular circular wall, strengthened by eight mural towers, which extends 
across the neck of the hill from N. to S. The entrance to this ward was 
by a gatehouse similar to that of tiie inner ward, and it was defended by a 
strong square tower. Owing to the repairs and additions of the seventeenth 
century all the masonry of the thirteenth has now quite vanished. 



BRUNSTATH, or BRIMSTAGE {wimr) 

ON a bleak tract of moorland lies this original settlement of the Domvilles, 
who were probably a younger branch of the barons of Montalt, under 
whom they held their lands. The elder line is represented by the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, and another branch continued in uninterrupted male descent at 
Lymme in this county until the beginning of the last century. 

The lirst Hugh Domville appears in the reign of Henry 111., and his descen- 
dants continued until the time of Richard II., when an heiress brought the 
lands to Sir Hugh de Holes or Hulse, by whose granddaughter they passed 
to the Troutbecks in 10 Henry VI., and from them the property came to the 
Earl of Shrewsbury, as it is now vested. 

At the end of the village is the hall, a building of no great antiquity ; but 
attached to it is a lofty and ancient peel tower, the surviving member of the 



k 



CHESHIRE 167 

former fabric. It is a massive building of four storeys, connected by a newel 
staircase, and surmounted with a heavy crenellated parapet and machicoulis. 
The lowest stage has a stone ribbed vault, said to have formed the chapel. 

Hugh Hulse and his wife Margery had a licence in 1398 to build an 
oratory at this place, and the tower is supposed to have been built temp. 
Henry V. The period of the castle's demolition is uncertain ; it was habitable 
at the end of the si.xteenth century, and was then tenanted by John Pool of 
Poole, as the superior bailiff of the Talbots. 



CHESTER CASTLE (.7m/) 

THE foundation of this castle is ascribed by Ordericus Vitalis to William 
the Conqueror three years after the Conquest. It was not only the chief 
stronghold, but often also the palace of the powerful earls of Chester, and 
this dual character it retained until alterations made at the beginning of the 
present century utterly destroyed its interesting details ; a Grecian barrack 
or court-house was then erected, with a Doric temple by way of entrance. 
One portion only of the old building remains in the shape of a square tower, 
called Cajsar's or Julius Agricola's Tower, which was long used as a powder 
magazine. This tower dates from a period later than the Conquest, being 
Transitional Norman in style, and stands partly on the Roman walls of the 
ancient city. Within it is the Chapel of St. Mary, infra castrum, built between 
iiyo and 1200, measuring 19 feet 4 inches by i6i feet in area, and i6i feet in 
height, the roof being vaulted and groined. In this chapel King James II. 
received mass on his visit to Chester. 

The castle is situated near the S.W. angle of the city walls, the upper wartl 
standing on high ground which falls precipitously on the S. and W., and it is 
further defended on the N. by an artificial elevation. Pennant describes the 
castle of his time (1784) as "composed of two parts, an upper and a lower, 
each with a strong gate, defended by a round bastion on either side with a 
ditch, and formerly with drawbridges. Williin the jirecinets of the upper 
ballium are to be seen some towers of Norman aiehitecture, square, with 
square projections at each corner, slightly salient. The handsomest is that 
called after Julius Cresar. The arsenal, some batteries, and certain habitable 
buildings occuiiy the remaining pait. On the side of llie lower court stands 
the noble room called Hugh Lupus' Hall, in which the courts of justice for 
the county are held ; its length is very nearly 99 feet, and the breadth 
45 feet ; the height is tremendous, being 50 feet, and the chamber is htling 
for the state apartments of a great baron. Adjoining the end of this great 
hall is the Court of E.xcheiiuer, or the Chancery of the County Palatine of 
Chester. This very building is said to have been the Parliament house of 



i68 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

the little kings of the palatinate. It savours of antiquity in architecture, and 
within are a number of neatly carved seats enclosed by Gothic arches and 
pillars. At the upper end are two chairs of state, one for the earl, the 
other for the abliot. The eight others are allotted to his eight barons, and 
occupy one side of the room." Ormerod gives the rare plate by Hollar, of 
Earl Lupus holding his parliament here. This beautiful Hall was ruthlessly 
demolished in 1830 to make room for the Grecian designs of Mr. Thomas 
Harrison. The upper ward remained little altered, however, except that the 
gatehouse and its towers were removed. Lysons' Magna Britannia gives a 
bird's-eye view taken from the Harleian MSS. (2073.) William 1. granted to his 
nephew Hugh, surnamed Lupus, son of Richard, Earl of Avranches, the County 
Palatine of Chester " to hold by the sword, as he held England by the crown " 
(as see under //«//<;//). Hugh divided the county between four barons; i. his 
cousin, Sir Nigel of Halton; 2. Sir Piers Malban of Nantwich; 3. Sir Eustace of 
Malpas; 4. Sir Warren Vernon of Shipbrook. Hugh's son Richard was drowned 
at Barfleur in the shipwreck which caused the death of Prince William, son of 
Henry I., in 1120 ; and as he left no issue, the earldom of Chester then descended 
to his cousin, Ranulph Bohun, as third earl. Ranulph married Maud, daughter 
of Aubrey de Vere, Earl of O.xford, and died in 1130, being succeeded by his 
son Ranulph, who took the side of the Empress Maud, and was the great warrior 
by whom Stephen was defeated (see Lincoln). He married Alice, daughter of 
Robert, Earl of Gloucester, and died in 1152. His son, Hugh, the fifth earl, 
took the part of the sons of Henry II. against their father, whom he fought 
in Normandy, but was defeated and made prisoner by the king. Hugh died 
in 1 181, and his son Ranulph, surnamed Blondeville, became sixth Earl of 
Chester, being also Earl of Lincoln. This earl was not only a very learned 
man, but also a good soldier. He defeated the French army at Lincoln, thus 
ending the claim of the Dauphin to the English throne. His first wife was 
Constance, widow of Geoffrey, third son of Henry II., and father of Prince 
Arthur, killed by King John at Rouen, and of the hapless Princess Isabel, his 
sister. Earl Ranulph died at his castle of Wallingford in 1232, s.p., when his 
lands were divided, his nephew John, surnamed " Scot," succeeding as seventh 
earl. John married Jane, daughter of Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, by whom 
he was poisoned {Mattkcia Paris) in 1 237. Dying without issue, his four sisters 
became his heirs — i. Margaret, married to the Earl of Galloway ; 2. Isabel, 
married to Robert Bruce, and grandmother to King Robert Bruce ; 3. I\Iaud, 
died s.p. ; 4. Eva, wife of Henry, lord of Abergavenny, one of the competitors 
for the crown of Scotland, temp. Edward I. At Earl John's death Henry III. 
annexed Chester and its title to the Crown, and his descendants were earls 
until the time of Edward the Black Prince, since when the eldest sons of 
all sovereigns of England have from tiieir birth borne the title of Earls of 
Chester. 



CHKSHIRK 169 

It was in Chestei Castle, in the year 1477, that Eleanor, Duchess of 
Gloucester, was confined. The most inemorahle event which t)cciirred in its 
history was the j^reat siege, begun in 1643, and lasting, on and off, lor tliree 
years. The castle itself is not especially mentioned in the accounts of this 
siege, but we are told that the city had received a tolerably strong line of 
fortifications, and was able to sustain repeated attacks of the enemy — Lord 
Byron being in command, with twelve commissioners. The besieged refused 
nine summonses for capitulation from the Parliamentarian general, Sii- William 
Brereton ; but at last, towards the end of January 1645, having consumed all 
their horses, dogs, and cats, they made an offer to treat. Articles of surrender 
were drawn up and at length agreed to, and Chester and its castle were on 
very honourable terms given up on February 3, 1643. 

The old walls which surround the city and their towers are still kept in 
good order, and afford a pleasant promenade, two miles in length. At their N.W. 
angle is the Water Tower, which has been rebuilt on the site of the ancient one 
which stood on the N. bank of Uee for five hundred years. It is described by 
Fuller in 1662, and in an old record of events at Chester by Hemingway it is 
said : " 1322. In this year the new Tower was built at the cost of the city by 
John Helpstone, a mason, who conditioned to build the same for the sum of 
;^'ioo." It is of circular shape, io\ yards in diameter and 24 yards in height, 
having at convenient distances loopholes for the discharge of missile weapons. 
But by the desertion of the old river channel, and the sanding up of the haven, 
this ancient tower has been left high and dry ever since the days of Richard II. 



D O D D I N G T O N CAS T L E {minor) 

IX the fourtli year of Henry IV. 's reign Jolui de Delves iiad licence to crenel- 
late a tower in Doddington Park, about four nules S.F. of Nantwich, where 
there is a sumptuous house, built about iifty years since. A short distance N. 
of this modern building are the ancient remains of a castle, or fortihed mansion, 
erected by Sir John Delves in 1364, to which, ju-i haps, the above mentioned 
licence applied. Whether the tower was a detached building or an addi- 
tion to the castle does not appear. 

The Delves family was in Staffordshire m the time of Edward 1., and its 
members were esquires of the lords Audley. In 38 Edwanl HI. Sir John Delves 
had a licence to fortify Doddington, which he had purchased thirteen years 
previously from John de Brescy (25 Edward 111.). It was his grandson wlu) 
obtained permission from Henry IV'. to build the tower ; his great-grandson, Sir 
John Delves, knight, being slain at Tewkesbury. This Sir John's son, also called 
John, was beheaded after that battle. In 1621 Sir Thomas Delves of Doddington 
was made a baronet, and his great-grandson, also Sir Thomas, left an only daughter 

vol.. 11. Y 



lyo CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

and heiress, Elizabeth, wlio brought Doddington to her husband, Sir Brian 
Broughton — whence the family of Delves-Broughton, the present owners. 

The drawing in Onnerod shows a square tower of two storeys, of four- 
teenth-century style, with a later outer stair of approach, having a battlemented 
turret capping each angle. "A mansion of middle date, built in the reign of 
Elizabeth near this castellet, and which was thrice occupied by the Parlia- 
mentary troops during the Civil Wars, has been wholly taken down ; but five 
statues of Lord Audley and his esquires, which decorated the portico, and 
some other ornamental stone-work of the mansion, are preserved in the outer 
staircase attached to the remains of the castellet." 

In January 1643 the Royalists besieged Doddington Hall, when held by 
Captain Harwar and 160 men, and took it, but it was retaken in February by 
the Parliament, who planted " great ordnance " against it. 



DODLESTONE {no,,- existent) 

ON the S.W. of Chester, opposite to Eaton, is the site of a castle, once 
the seat of a family named Boydel, descendants of Osbern P^itz Tezzon 
or Taisson, who held Dodlestone at the Domesday Survey. This Tezzon 
family was an illustrious one in Normandy, and once held in fee a fifth 
part of that province, being seigneurs of Cinqueleiz. Kaval Taisson fought 
at Hastings, and seems to have been the first of this English branch {Onnerod). 
Osbern's son was Hugh, and his grandson, Helto, who assumed the name 
of De Boydel. He had two brothers, Alan and William, who both succeeded 
during the reign of King John, and were known as benefactors to the Church. 
The son of the latter brother. Sir William de Boydel, knight, made grants 
also in 1245 to the abbey of Dieulacres. 

Here the Boydels continued for many generations, maintaining themselves 
" with a degree of consequence little inferior to that of the barons of the 
earldom." A partition of the estate took place temp. Edward 111., when 
Dodlestone fell to Howel ap Owain Vaughan, whose son and heir, William, 
assumed the name of Boydel, and his descendants continued here till 3 
Henry VI., when tlie castle and lands were brought in marriage by a daughter 
tt) Hugh de Radyche or Redishe. This family remained long in possession, 
until an heiress, Maud, in the eleventh year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, married 
William Merbury, when a part of the property was sold to the Grosvenors. 
They conveyed it afterwards to Thomas Egerton, the Lord Chancellor, who 
made his residence at Dodlestone Hall. The residue of the estate was sold 
in 1627 by Thomas Merbury to several holders, from whom it came to the 
Grosvenor family, its present owners. 

The site of the old home of the Boydels can still be traced on the W. of 



CHESHIRE 171 

the church, where is a rectangular enclosure, about a Cheshire acre in extent, 
formed by the moat, having in its N.E. corner a circular mound, the site of 
the ancient keep, surrounded by its own moat, which is connected with the 
principal ditch, outside of which again are the remains of a circular earthwork. 
The Manleys of Lache erected within this enclosure a house which formed the 
headquarters of Sir William Brerett)n during the siege of Chester, but it has now 
vanished. 



D II N H A M-M A S S Y (uon-,:xislcnl) 

THE castle of Dunham-Massy was formerly the seat of the ancient Barons 
Massy, and was situated near .Altrinchani. The lirsl baron, Hamon Massy, 
held his lands under Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, temp. William the Conqueror. 
Sir Hamon, the sixth and last baron, left four daughters, the eldest of whom. 
Cicely, married John Fitton of BoUin, temp. Edward 11. On the death of Sir 
Hamon, who had sold Dunham to Oliver de Ingham, a judge of Chester, a law- 
suit subvened, after the settlement of which Ingham held Dunham till his death, 
when the Fittons entered into possession. Thereafter Henrv, Duke of Lancaster, 
bought the manor and gave it to Roger le Strange, lord of Knocking, whose wife 
was heir to Ingham. Dunham seems, however, to have reverted to the Fittons, 
and from them to have come, through the V'enables of Kinderton, to Sir Robert 
Booth of Barton, Lancaster, descending from the P'ittons by an arrangement 
dated 11 Henry \'l. In the first year of Richard II I. 's reign George Bothe, 
armiger, son of William Bothe, iiiilcs, was seised of the moiety of Dunham- 
Massy among others. His descendant. Sir George Booth, having represented 
the county in the Long Parliament, and having been actively engaged in the 
service of the Commonwealth, "conceived a subsequent disgust" for that 
cause, and became a prime mover in the Restoration. For this tardy piece 
of loyalty, and for his losses, he subsequently received _^"io,ooo, and was 
created Baron Delamere of Dunham-Massy. His son Heiu-y, who strongly 
espoused the cause of the Prince of Orange, was raised in 1690 to the earldom 
of Warrington, and his granddaughter and sole heiress mai ried in 1736 Harry, 
4th Earl of Stamford, whence came the union of these titles. 

The Norman barons constituted Dunham the chief seat of their barony, 
and built a castle at this place, of which, however, nothing whatever remains. 
Nor, indeed, are there anv local traditions of it having existed, although there 
are charters which mention both the castle and the dependent fort of Ullers- 
ford. A drawing exists of the mansion of Diuihaiu as it appeared 200 years ago, 
standing within a garden surrounded by a moat, and having in one angle of 
the grounds a high circular mound, similar to all such round nioumls, on 
wliich sometiiues were built the Norman shell or hollow keeps. Doubtless 
this drawing represents the last relic of the fortress of Hamon de Masci. 



172 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



FRODSHAM {no,i-rxislc„l) 

THE town of this name lies at tlie foot of the lofty and precipitous Overton 
Hill, on the S. side of the Weaver River near its continence with the Mersey 
estuary. The lands here were amonj^ the possessions of the Norman earls 
palatine of Chester, and there exists a charter to the burgesses of P'rodsham, 
dated in the early part of the twelfth century, from Randle Blundeville, Earl of 
Chester, who appeals to have lived in P'rodsham Castle, built perhaps by his 
ancestors. 

The position of this castle was important, commanding as it did a narrow 
pass on the road to Chester from Lancashire, between some marshes and the 
steep sides of Overton Hill ; in ancient times it was protected by the waters of 
the Mersev, and in front by marshes. There are no longer any remains of the 
fortiess, the site of which was at the \V. end of the town, but in the collections 
of the Bucks is a drawing of it as it appeared in 1727, when a good deal 
of the Norman fabric still existed. Ormerod says that the building was of 
stone with semicircular arches of early Norman work, and walls of enormous 
thickness. 

From the reign of Edward 111. to that of Elizabeth the castle seems 
to have been used as a manor gaol, and the office of Constable to it was 
hereditary. After its acquisition by the Savages of Rock Savage (a place 
on the opposite side of the stream), that family resided there till 1654, 
when the castle was consumed by fire, on the day of the death in it of 
John, Earl Rivers. 

The ruins were taken down to make room for the erection of the house 
called Castle Park, the residence of Mr. D. Ashley, who bought the site, under 
an Act of Parliament, from the Daniels of Daresbury. They had acquired 
it in 1721 by purchase from the trustees of Lord Barrymore. Then from 
Mr. Ashley the property came for a time to descendants of his, called Wright. 
Portions of the foundation walls of the old castle form the cellars of the 
modern house. 

The manor is said to have been granted by the Earls of Chester at an early 
period to a family who assumed the name of Frodsham, the first of the name 
whom we meet with being Hugh de Frodsham (temp. Henry 11.), but there is 
no proof that they possessed a castle for a long period after this. In John's 
reign they farmed the lands here, and there is a pedigree of their family up 
to 1396. 

In 1279 Edward 1. granted the place and lands to David, brother of 
Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, with whom he had been at variance, in order 
to give him an interest outside his own country ; but David, being afterwards 
reconciled to his brother, broke his treaty with Edward I., and having surprised 



CHESHIRE 173 

and captured the castle of Hawardcn in Flint, put its garrison to the sword. 
For this, after Llewellyn's death, and the subju-^ation of Wales, David, though 
a sovereign prince, was seized by Edward and tried for higii treason at Shrews- 
bury in 128s, and was put to death there with every circumstance of lionible 
cruelty borne in the sentence, which was now for the first time passed and 
practised, the savage king looking on wiiiie his royal victim was partially 
hanged, but cut down alive and disembowelled, his members being then 
severed and distributed througli the kingdom (see S/iirivshuiy). 

In n57 Thomas de Frodesham performed important services for Edward III. 
and the Black Prince in (jasconv and at Poictiers, for which he obtained 
rewards. 

Henry VI. in his thirty-second year granted Frodsham and its appurtenances 
to Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, the father of Henry VII., though the 
lordship was still attached to the royal earldom of Chester. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century the property was bestowed on 
the Savages of Clifton, whose representative, the t2arl of Rivers, enjoyed it till 
deprived of it by litigation (temp. George 1.). At a later date it passed to 
Lady Penelope Barry, the wife of Lord Barrymore, and daughter and heir 
of Earl Kivers. She afterwards brought the estate in marriage to the Earl 
of Cholmondeley, whose descendants still own the lands. 



HA ETON (chief) 

AT the head of the Mersey estuary, to the N.E. of Chester, on the brow 
^ of a lofty hill, was built this fortress shortly after the Conquest. When 
William I. had concluded the pacilication of the kingdom in 1070, he ap- 
pointed all this part of the countrv to one of his Norman earls, Hugii Lupus, 
"to hold from him by the sword as he himself held the realm of England by 
the crown." Hugh at once divided his great palatinate between his eight 
followers, who were constituted barons, on conditi<Mi of supporting him, in 
some maimer, by the sword. One of these was Nigel, a Norman warrior, who 
became the first baron of Halton, and made it the head of his barony, it being 
his chief fortress. Nothing, however, remains now of the Norman castle, which 
in its general plan, before its dismantling, resembled Beeston. 

Nigel's son and grandson succeeded, and at the death of the lattei- in 
Normandy temp. Stephen, s.p., his sister's husband, Eustace Fit/Roger, 
acquired the lands and castle as fourth Baron of Halton. This m:m had 
already inherited Knaresborough (^'orks) from his uncle, Serlo de Burgli, and 
had also obtained the valuable baronies of Ilaltoii aini .\lnwiik IIikiul;!! liis 
first wife, the daughter and heiress of Ivo de Vescy, and to him Earl Randle 
Gernons gave the hereditary Constableship of Cheshire. He fell in the Welsh 



174 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

campaign of 1157, and was succeeded hy liis son Richard, whose son John 
after his mother's accession to the vast estates of Robert de Lacy, her halt- 
brother, assumed the great name of Lacy. He died in the Crusade before 
Tyre in 1190. 

His son Roger followed as seventh Baron of Halton (see Clithcroe, Lanca- 
shire), and was known as a valiant soldier who fought together with Coeur de 
Lion at Acre in 1191. He it was who defended the Chateau Gaillard so long 
against the P'rench king, and was taken prisoner when, vanquished by famine, 
he and his men were trying to cut their way through the French host. 

Roger Lacy married Maud de Clare, and dying in 121 1, was succeeded by 
his son John, who was one of the Magna Charta barons appointed to see that 
the faithless king executed the requirements laid upon him. In 1218, after 
serving in the Crusade at Damietta, he obtained from Henry III. the earldom 
of Lincoln. This elevation of the Lacys, however, brought ruin to Halton, 
since, no longer needing that castle for their constant abode, it was deserted 
and neglected by theni. 

John de Lacy died in 1240, and his son Edmund dying before his mother, 
never became Earl of Lincoln, but lived as Baron of Halton only. He died 
in 1258, being followed by his son Henry, tenth baron, whose name is historic. 
After receiving knighthood from Henry 111., in the fifty-seventh year of that 
king's reign, he became a companion-in-arms, [and likewise a trusty councillor, 
of Edward L, whom in energy of character and in bravery he resembled. In 
1272 he assisted Edmund, the king's brother, in the siege of Chartley Castle, 
wliicli had been seized bv Robert, Earl Ferrers. In 1290 Edward appointed 
him Chief Commissioner for reforming law abuses. In 1296 he commanded 
the English forces in the south of France, when he expelled the P'rench from 
Toulouse. We next find Baron Henry in 1299 leading the van at the battle 
of Falkirk, where 40,000 Scots are said to have been slain. 

At the Parliament of Carlisle of 1307 our Baron of Halton was placed above 
all peers except the king's son ; and such was his high standing in the country, 
that when Edward II. advanced into Scotland, Henry de Lacy was appointed 
Protector of the Realm during the king's absence. He died in his great 
mansion of Lincoln's Inn in 13 10, when, leaving no son, his honours fell to his 
young daughter Alice, who, as a child of nine, was married to Thomas, Earl 
of Lancaster, whose rebellion in 1321, and retreat from Tutbury, with the loss 
of his treasure-chest, are mentioned in the account of Tutbury (Stafford). 
Taken prisoner at Boroughhridge and then beheaded at Pontefract, his posses- 
sions were seized by the Crown, and we hear no more of his poor child-wife. 
Although probably a weak man, he was idolised by the monks, who, after 
their own fashion, canonised him after his death. Edward II. came soon 
after this to inspect Halton Castle, and stayed there several days. 

When the lands were restored, it was Henry of Lincoln, surnamed 



CHESHIRE 175 

Grismond, wiio obtained tliein as twelftli Baron of Halton, and was succeeded 
at Halton in 1345 by his son Henry, Earl, and afterwards Duke, of Lancaster. 
He claimed the right to have his castle of Halton crenellated and embattled, 
together with a castle ward and a prison. Duke Henry's daughter Blanche 
brought Halton to John of Gaunt, as fourteenth baron, and he seems to have 
built here as he did in so many other places, so that his name still lingers in 
the neighbourhood. At the death of "time-honoured Lancaster," Halton 
fell to his son Bolingbroke as the tiftecnth and last baron, and on his death 
passed to the Crown. 

In 10 Henry V'l. Sir John Savage was made Constable of Halton Castle, 
and mustered the Cheshire men under its walls. Afterwards, little is heard 
of the fortress during the Wars of the Roses, and in 1579, after a century of 
neglect, this proud castle, so long the head of a great barony, was turned 
into a prison. 

James L came here in August 161 7 to hunt, and killed a buck in the park. 
The importance of Halton was recognised at the opening of the Civil War, 
when a garrison was placed there for the king by Earl Rivers in June 1643, 
but a year after the post was reduced and taken possession of for the 
Parliament by the force under Sir William Brereton. Shortly afterwards the 
castle was dismantled and turned into a ruin. 

An ancient print reproduced by the Historic Society of Cheshire {Journal, 
vol. ii.) shows the old fortress standing (jn a cliff over the river, with the town 
below it ; the enclosure of high embattled walls is of circular form, holding 
nine large square mural towers, at intervals, tiie lower gatehouse being Hanked 
by two of them. On the opposite side of the enceinte is shown a similar 
gateway, leading probably to an inner ward not seen. Ormerod too gives a 
sketch of the ruins as they may have been at the beginning of the present 
century. This view shows half-octagonal Hanking towers to the entrance 
gateway, with the lofty Edwartlian windows of John of Gaunt's period. 



KIND 1<: R r N C A S I" I , E (uo„.,:xixi,ni) 

SITUATED on the nver Dane at Middlcuich, this place belonged at the 
Domesday Survey to Gilbert de \'enables, a Norman from the town of 
X'enables, between Rouen and I'.iris, and near to X'ernnn. This Gilbert is 
supposed to have been a ynunger brother of Stephen, Earl of Blois, and his 
descendants contiiuied here as Barons of Kinderton for many generations. 
Sir Richard de Venables was beheaded after the battle of Shrewsbury, in which 
he took part against Henry 1\'. Sir Hugh served on the side of Lancaster 
under Lord Audley, and was slain at Bloreheath. Peter, the liaron of Kinderton, 
died in 1679, and his sister's daughter, Anne, the sole heiress, having mariied 



176 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Henry Vernon of Sudbury, county Derby, her son George Venables Vernon 
was in 1762 created Baron Vernon of Kinderton. 

The ancient hall of Kinderton stood near the banks of the Dane, two fields 
distant from the supposed Roman work of Condate. A part only of the moat 
remains, but formerly it enclosed a parallelogram of several acres, in the SAV. 
angle of which is still left a large circular mound. All remains of the ancient 
castle and of the later hall which succeeded it have been removed, and a brick 
mansion called Kinderton Lodge was erected by Lord Norreys in another part 
of the manor ; this also has in its turn vanished. It was a large quadrangular 
fabric of timber and plaster, decorated on the e.xterior of the upper storey with 
imaginary portraits of the Barons of Kinderton. 



MACCLESFIELD {iwn-cxistent) 

MACCLESFIELD was a castle which belonged in demesne to the Earls of 
Chester, and seems to have been fortified at the Domesday period by a 
1/(71(1 or palisade. At the extinction of the local earldom, the manor passed 
to the Crown, where it is still vested. 

On the S. of the church, and in a steep and narrow pathwav leading 
from the town to the river, called the Black Wall Gate, is a lofty stone wall, 
behind which were once the remains of a castellated palace built by Humphrey, 
Duke of Lancaster. In the lower part of the wall is a small doorway under 
a pointed arch of considerable antiquity. 

Ormerod also says that near the Congleton road is a place called Castle 
Field, which is probably the site of the local palace of the Earls of Chester. 
In this a circular mound, or tumulus, is still remaining. 



M A L P A S {tioii-existeiit) 

THIS position was chosen by the first Earl of Chester as the site of one oi 
his many Border castles, and was given by him to one of the eight barons 
of his court, Robert FitzHugh, who was said to be his bastard son. He 
obtained the forfeited estates of the dispossessed Earl Edwin, and of other 
Saxon owners, and at his death s.p. male, his two daughters divided his lands 
between them. One of them, Letitia, was the wife of Richard Patric, whose 
heiress (temp. Henry II.) carried the Malpas manor, with others, to the family 
of De Sutton of Shropshire ; the other, Mabel, married to William Belward, 
became the ancestress of the elder line of Egerton, afterwards represented by 
the Breretons. 

The FitzHugh estates, thus divided, were reunited in the reigns of 
Henry VIII. and Elizabeth by purchases carried out by the Egertons ; and in 



CHESHIRK 177 

the eleventh year of Charles 1. Sir Richard E<^erton of Shotlack ((].v.) and his 
brothers parted with the property, which was afterwards conveyed to Robert, 
Viscount Cholmondeley, ancestor of the present marquess, whose second title 
is Baron Malpas, and in whose family the Malpas estates remain. 

The Castle of Malpas, the orij«inaI head of the barony, has long been 
destroyed. The only remains are those of the circular mound, measuring 
40 yards in diameter, the relic of a still earlier fortress, on which it is likely 
that the new Norman lord erected his tower or keep, soon after the Conquest, 
to strengthen the earldom against tiie Welsh. The castle ditch has been traced 
out for a long distance. 

Like most fortresses in Cheshire upon tiie Welsh marches, this castle was 
situated immediately adjacent to the church, which most probably was compre- 
hended within the works. 

The intricate pedigrees of the various families connected with the succession 
to these lands, are given at length by Ormerod. 

NORTHWICH i„o„-e.xisti'ut) 

THE site of the ancient fortress lies on the road to Chester from North- 
wich. After passing the bridge the road ascends a very steep hill, on 
the right of which arc the remains of this stronghold, in a small field 
bounded on one side by a brook. It commanded the junction of the Dane 
with the Weaver at a point where the latter stream was crossed by the Watling 
Street. 

However important this point may have been in Roman or Saxon times, 
it is doubtful whether any stone fortress was e\er placed here, since no 
mention is made of any military service connected with the castle, nor was 
it ever in the hands of any but obscure families. 

The remains consist of two high mounds of unequal height ; the higher 
is nearly circular, and about 30 yards in diameter, while the lower one 
measures only 17 yaids across. There are no remains of walls or of 
other earthworks ; but for all that, a formidable stronghold may have been 
fcjrnied hei'e in Saxon times in timber with jialisades. 



O L 1) C A S T L ]^ (i,oi,-r.yistciit) 

Ol.nCASTLE was situated S.E. of Malpas, directly on the Welsh frontier, 
from which a little brook divides it. The surface of the land here 
rises in a number of small hills and inequalities, and on the summit ot 
one of them are indications of the works ot this ancient fortress, which was 
perhaps one of a line of forts erected along the liorder after the Norman 
VOL. II. '/. 



178 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Conquest, or mav be of still earlier derivation, — as might he inferred from 
the name. 

On the subdivision of the Malpas estates, Oldcastle passed to the St. Pierre 
family, and ivom them to the Cokesays ; thence it went to the Dudleys, and 
in the reign of Henry VIII. to Sir Rowland Hill. 

In 1644 Oldcastle Heath was the scene of a bloodv encounter between 
2500 Royalist cavalry, who had been driven out of Lancashire, and goo 
Parliamentary troops from Xantwich, when the king's troopers were routed, 
leaving Colonel Vane and Colonel Conyers dead on the field, with si.xty 
of their men. 



P U L F O R D (nou-rxistenf) 

THIS fortress stood on the road from Chester to Wrexham, in a flat country, 
on the bank of a small brook dividing Cheshire from Denbighshire. All 
that remains is a strong semicircular earthwork facing the N.E., containing 
within it a round mound, the rear of the work being protected by the brook. 
The whole encloses about an acre, and in front stands a church, the prede- 
cessor of which was there in the time of the Confessor. 

Hugh Fitz Osborn ejected the Sa.xon owner of the place, and was succeeded 
in it by his son. Subsequently it was divided between the Ormesbies and the 
Pulfords, the latter family being the supposed descendants of the Norman 
grantee; but their estates were united again (28 Henry 111.) by Ralph de 
Ormesbie, who gave his moiety to Robert de Pulford, with the castle of 
Pulford. The father of Robert had granted some of his lands to the neigh- 
bouring Cistercian abbey of Pulton, which no longer is visible. 

The Pulfords were a numerous and strong family, and retained the propcrtv 
till the reign of Richard II., when Joan, the sister and heiress of the last Pulford 
owner, married, first, Thomas de Belgrave {s.p.), and second. Sir Robert le 
Grosvenor of Holme, becoming the ancestress of the Grosvenor family, to 
whom these lands descended. In the time of Edward IV. they passed by 
an heiress to the Winningtons, who held them under Henry VII. as Earl of 
Chester ; and thence they came by marriage, at the end of Henry VIII.'s reign, 
to the Warburtons. In this family the estate descended regularlv until carlv in 
the present century, when it was bought by the Earl of Grosvenor, to whose 
domain of Eaton it is contiguous. 

There is little recorded about the castle ; the last occasion on which its 
defences were in requisition, was during the rebellion of Owen Glendower 2 

(4 Henry I\'.), when Sir Thomas de Grosvenor received a mandate to hasten 
to his castle of Pulford for the defence of the marches of Wales. 



J 






CHESHIRE 179 



SHIP BROOK (uou-,:x:s/ain 

SHlI'liKOOK is situated on the S. of Xorthwich, on the rij^lit bank of the 
Weaver, and opposite to the town of Uavenliam. The position, being a 
strong one on higli ground, was chosen by the Norman lords of Shipbrook for 
tlieir residence, and the site of their castle is still indicated by the name of 
Castle Hill attached to an elevation between Shipbrook Bridge and Shipbrook 
Farm. The remains existed till the middle of the last century, when they are 
said to have been cleared awav bv one Tomkinson, a tenant. 

Richard de X'ernon, deriving fioni \'eriu)n in Xormandy, was grantee of the 
lands at the Domesday Survey, and his descendants continued here till the reign 
of Henry \'l., — one of them, called " Sir Ralphe the Okie," living as is alleged to 
the age of 150 years, and dying during the reign of Edward II. 



SHOTLACK ( non-cxistcnt) 

SHOTLACK was a Welsh frontier fortress on the banks of the Dee. The 
manor was held at Domesday by Robert FitzHugh of Malpas, who had 
dispossessed Dot the Sa.xon proprietor, and at his death it passed to the Suttons 
and the St. Fierres. John de Sutton held it 17 Edward III., and at the end 
of the reign of Henry VH., it had come from that family to Lord Dudley, the 
judge; and, again (temp. Henry VIII.), from Dudley by the family of Hill to 
Sir Richard Corbett of Stoke, who sold it in the fourteenth year of P:iizabeth 
to Sir Randolph Brereton, knight, from wiiom it went by marriage to die 
Egertons. At the wreck of the Egerton property, in the reign of Charles I., 
it passed by purchase to the Pulestons of Emral. The Breretons were high 
in the favour of Henry YIIl., Sir William being Groom of the Chamber to 
that king, hut he was one of the unfortunates whose head Henry brought 
to the block at the time of the trial of Queen Anne Boleyn (1536;. 

Shotlack formed an important link in the chain of Cheshire castles 
between Aldford and Malpas, the Chester road passing through the fortress. 
Lord Dudley claimed the right, in 15 Henry Vli., to maintain this castle 
fortified, ditched, and crenellated ; and as he does not mention the castle of 
Malpas, it is possible that that castle was not in such good repair as Shotlack. 
The earthworks of the place were very strong, occupying an important pass, 
near the church, where the present rcxid to Chester crosses a deep ravine, 
watered by a small brook. On the W. side of the road is a lofty circular mound 
or burh, 30 feet high, of very early derivation, on the top of which the 
Normans placed their keep ; it is half encircled by a deep ditch, close to the 
road, and on the left or W. side, where must have existed the castle buildings, 



i8o 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



the ground falls rapidly towards the ravine. On the E. side of the road is 
another raised platform, shaped like a kite, also of ancient formation, which 
seems to have protected the cominimications between the Watling Street on 
the N. and that on the S., commanding as it did the road passing through. 
The area of the castle occupied about an acre, and its situation, protected as 
it must have been by marshes and forests, would be impregnable. 

There are now no vestiges of the masonry of this castle, and " the fair and 
goodly seat " of Sir Richard Egerton, called Shotlack Hall, is also completely 
destroyed. 



S H O T W I C K {mu-c.xistcut) 

THIS was one of the Norman forts erected by the Earls of Chester to 
protect their frontier from the Welsh, Shotwick being intended to guard 
the shallow channel of Dee in the Wirral Hundred. In later times, when the 
river at Chester shrunk back, the embarkation of soldiers for Ireland became 

difficult theie, and the Cheshire 
archers and other troops were then 
collected on the shores of Wirral 
and embarked from this point. 
The castle was more than once 
honoured by the presence of the 
sovereign when starting on these 
expeditions. Leland speaks of it 
as existing in his day. "A myle 
lower is Shottewik Castle, on the 
very shore, longing to the king, 
and therby ys a parke." 

In the Harleian MSS. (2073) is 
a drawing and plan of this fortress 
by Kendle Holme, as it appeared 
then, in a ruinous condition. Its 
trace was a pentagon strengthened 
bv six towers, one of which, ac- 
cording to Camden, was five storeys 
high. The wash of the tides, and tiie cultivation of the lands, have not 
quite obliterated these remains, those seen at present consisting merely of a 
large mound, supported by a huge earthwork of crescent form, and two deep 
entrenchments on the land side. 

In 1256 Fulco de Orreby, Justiciarv of Cheshire, received charge of 
Shotewyke Castle as one of the chief strongholds of the palatinate. Various 
persons are spoken of as being wardens of it, or of the royal park, during 




Shotivick 



CHESHIRE i8i 

successive rcij^ns, but after a time the castle is no longer mentioned, and in 
17 Charles II. this and other manors were sold to Tliomas Wilbraham. 

Ill 1734 the property was bequeathed to the Brereton family, and afterwards 
passed from them to the Trelawnevs of Slu)t\vick Park at the be.ifinning of the 
present century. 

Sl'OCKPORT UiOH-rxis/en!) 

THE fauuiy of De Stockport, or Stokeport, derived the manors at this locality 
from Waltheof, in the reign of Richard I., and, intermingled in blood with 
another family named De Eton, were here at the end of the reign of Edward III. 
Stockport is linely situated on the Mersey, and appears to have been a place of 
importance from the time of the Romans to that of William 1., although it is not 
noticed in the Domesday Survey. 

On the X. of the church is the site of the ancient castle, and of some Roman 
works which originally held the position and guarded the fords and passes to 
Chester. The castle, which may have been founded by the Earls of Chester, 
was in 1173 held against Henry II. by Geoffry de Cotentin, a Norman sup- 
porter of Henry's son whose title is obscure. Afterwards the place became the 
property of the Despencers, and was held under them by the Stockports. 
Subsequently, after the forfeiture of Hugh Despencer, Earl of Winchelsea, for 
the part he took with Simon de Montfort, the headship reverted to the Earls of 
Chester. From the Stockports the property descended to the family of Warren 
of Poynton, and through them to the Lords Vernon. 



U L L E R S K O R D CASTLE (,io„-:xisiai/) 

ON a neighbouring pait of the property of Mamon de Masci was a place 
called the Ullerswode, to the N. of Bollin, also called in one deed Ulres- 
ford, whence came the name given to another fortress held by the same Baron 
Hamon, together with his baronial castle of Dunham, against Henry II. About 
one mile W. of this point and at the back of Bollin is Castle Mill, where there 
are vestiges of earthworks, being the site of Ullersford Castle, which was 
perhaps an outwork of Dunham Castle. 




^^ 



<^. 




HOUHTON TOWER 



Xan cash ire 



BURY iiioii-cxislcnl) 



IX 1865 some labourers, while constructins4 a sewer in a piece of waste 
^rouiul called Castle Croft, came upon the foundations of the ancient 
castle of Burv. F'urther examination showed the walls, 6 feet thick, 
of an entire paralleloi^ram measuring 82 feet by 63 ; and more extended 
investigation opened up the outer walls, wiucii jiroved to form a hgure 120 feet 
by 113, in the centre of wliich stood the inner enclosure, or bailey, built with 
very thin walls. It was evident that a mound had also existed, on which this 
inner court abutted. There was little to show the date of the building, but 
some pieces of carved stone which lay about were of the Decorated period. 

Aiken's map shows that the castle of Bury was protected on the N. and \V. by 
a steep bank, below which ran the Irwell. The name and the mound both point 
to a Saxon settlement and stronghold at this spot, probably of the usual type. 

The earliest known reference to the place occurs temji. Henry II., when 
Robert de Lacy luade a grant of lands here ; and the name of Adam de Bury 
is entered in 12 Henry 111., in the Lansdowne MSS. 

The chief part of the lands was afterwards held by Pilkington of 
Pilkington and Bury, which familv came imder forfeiture at the termination 

i8i 



LANCASHIRE 



183 



of tlu- Wars of the Roses, and Henry \'I1. conferred the estate on liis 
supporter, Lord Stanley, afterwards first Earl of Derby of the present family, 
with whose heirs it continues. Leland speaks of the ruins of a castle here, 
and there remained some portions above-f^round ;it the end of the last 
centurv. 



C L I T H R R O R (minor) 

THIS name luay come from Cled-dwr (Brit., "The rock bv tiic water "). Tiie 
castle stands on the summit of a bare isolated limestone hill, or rock, that 
rises boldly in the valley of the Kibble which flows at some distance below. 
Camden says that Roller de Poictou at the time of the Domesday Survey 
owned all the land 
between the Ribblc 
and the Mersey ; he 
was the son of Roj^er 
de Montf^omeri, who 
coiumanded the centre 
division of the \or- 
man host at Senlac, 
and upon whom the 
Conqueror conferred 
the two earldoms of 
Shrewsbury and Arun- 
del. Rofjerde Poictou 
obtained the lordship 
and honour (or sei.i^- 
niory) of Lancaster, 
but taking part with 
the cause of the H^m- 
press Maud, his pro- 
perty was confiscated 
by Stephen. 

Whitaker (Histoiv 
of \Vhalley)s:iys" there 
can be little doubt tliat 
Roger of Poictou was 

the real founder of the castle of Clitheroe," though Gregson believes it to have 
been built by Robert De Lacv (temp. Henry II.). It was certainly one of the 
residences of the De Lacy familv in Norman times, the other being at Ponte- 
fract. Alice, daughter of Henry, Karl of Lincoln, the last of the De Lacys, 
in 1310 brought the honour of C'lilheroe bv nianiage to Thomas I'laiitagenet, 




CI.ITHEROK 



i84 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Earl of Lancaster, the son of Edmund Crouchback, fourth son of Henrv III. 
b}' Blanche, Queen-Dowager of Navarre. He being beheaded 15 Edward II. 
(1322), Clitheroe was forfeited and became Crown property, being absorbed 
into the Duchy of Lancaster, where it remained until Charles IL gave it to 
General Monk, from whom it passed to the Duke of Buccieuch. 

The cap of the rock on which this castle is built is not sufticientlv large 
to admit of a very spacious structure, and nothing more appears to have 
been intended by the founder than to provide a temporary residence when 
called to this part of his domains. The castle was slighted by order of 
Parliament after the Civil War, and therefore little now remains of it ; but, 
from a drawing made just before its destruction, it appears that there was a 
fine entrance gate-tower of circular form, on the site of the present gates, 
having a semicircular Xorman archway, and a K)fty embattled wall running 
round the brink of the hill, turning first on the back of the present steward's 
house, and secondly behind the present courthouse, towards the keep. It 
is recorded that coeval with the foundation of the castle, and forming part 
of it, was the chapel of St. Michael de Castro, erected and endowed by the 
founder, but within the whole bailey there is no appearance of this chapel, 
nor of any other building except the keep, which is of the usual Xorman 
form, square, with flat square towers at each of the four corners, or rather 
turrets, one of which has a spiral staircase. This keep is well built and 
is of small dimensions, and though much undermined, stands as firm as the 
rock upon which it was erected. The other remains consist of portions of 
the castle wall, several feet in height, and of great thickness. 



D A L T O N (niinor) 

THIS castle is near Ulverston, in the Furness district. What is called the 
Castle of Dalton stands in the town of that name, formerly the capital 
of Furness, and occupies the site of a castelluvi of Agricola, of the fosse of 
which there are yet traces to be seen in an advantageous position commanding 
the valley below {Gregson). All that remains is a plain oblong structure of 
two storeys, the upper part of which is of the Decorated period, perhaps temp. 
Edward III. The Abbot of Furness held his secular court here, and for 
many years the chief chamber has been used as a gaol for debtors. In 
Baines' " History of Lancashire," we are told that the frecjuent irruptions of 
the Scots, and the exposed situation of the northern parts of Lancashire to 
their inroads, during the reigns of the earlv Edwards, rendered frontier for- 
tresses necessary for the protection of the inhabitants, and the tower of 
Dalton, which is supposed to have been erected by the monks of Furness, as 
well as the peel of Fouldrv, contributed to their securitv. In the district of 



f 



LANCASHIRE 185 

Furness a number of beacons were erected, and wlien the hills of Langdale 
and Coniston were illumuiated with tiiesc ominous presages, the more opulent 
inhabitants flocked to their castles, and removed their effects out of the reach 
of their unwelcome visitors, to await more tranquil times. 

F"or some time before the Dissolution this castle had been falling to ruin, 
and in 1544 a commission ordered its repair with stone, lead, and timber from 
the dismantled abbey of Furness ; after which it " was used for a pryson and 
common gaole for the whole lordship and domynyon of Furness in the 
liberties of the same." Later on, the courts of the Duke of Buccleuch, lord of 
the liberties and manors of P'urness, were convenable here, and in 1850 the 
old tower was put into a thorough state of repair. It is now also used as the 
armourv of the Rifle Volunteers. 



FARLETON (non-e.xistcut) 

AT this place, about a mile S. from Hornliy, on low ground near the banks 
of the Lune, is the site of a castle which in the fifteenth century belonged 
to a younger branch of the Harrington family. How the lords of Hornby 
became possessed of it cannot now be ascertained, but in a survey of that 
honour in 1581, the park and castle of Farleton are enumerated. Even at 
that time it was probably much dilapidated. 

Adam de Mont Begon gave to Geoffrey de \'alons, to be held by knights' 
service, certain lands in Farleton and Cancefield, which in an inquisition of 
12 Edward II. are described as the manor of Farleton, being then in the hands 
of the lady of the castle and honour of Hornby, Margaret, widow of Cleoffrey 
Nevile (see Hornby). As it was then a dependence of Hornby, it followed the 
fortunes of that estate, and in the reign of Edward 111. a younger braneli ol 
the Harringtons of Aldingham was seated here, and Sir Williani Harrington, 
who fell at Agincourt, became lord of the property wth Hornby. 

There was formerly a park with the castle, but two and a half centuries 
ago the castle had gone into ruin, and the park has quite disappeared. 
There are still some vestiges of the castle. 



FOULDRY {minor) 

THE strong castle called the I'iel (or peel; of Fouldry stands on a small 
Hat island of nineteen acres extent on the N. shore of Morecambe Bay, 
just where the coast-line turns towards the open sea, a fordable narrow 
channel separating the island from the shore. It is thought that the Danes had 
a fortification here of earlier date, but this stronghold was built originally in 
the reign of Stephen for the protection of the excellent harbour, as well as 
vol.. II. 2 A 



i86 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

against Border inroads. It was rebuilt in the fourteenth century as an outpost, 
and in all probability greatly strengthened by the Abbot of Furness and his 
monks, who were alarmed by the terrible invasion of Scots which followed their 
victory of Bannockburn in 1322. Here, in 1487 (temp. Henry VII.), a landing 
took place of the Earl of Lincoln and Lord Lovel, with 2000 German soldiers, 
in support of Lambert Simnel, who was joined by Sir Thomas Broughton at 
this place, in their attempt to dethrone the king, — an attempt which ended 
in the battle of Stoke. In the Survey of Elizabeth's reign the fortress is called 
" ane old decayed Castell." 

The castle is an early instance of a concentric fortress — a keep or central 
tower surrounded by an inner girdle of fortified wall, and, beyond that, an 
outer wall of curtains and bastions, each wall being protected by a wide ditch. 
Buck gives a view of the work as it was in 1727, from which we see that a 
considerable change has taken place. There is no trace of the outer entrance, 
and the N.E. tower has lost its sea front and its wooden floors on both 
storeys, most of the outer towers being of similar construction. Adjoining 
this tower was the chapel, which was small, measuring 34 feet by 15 feet. 
There are steps up to the ramparts which communicated with each of the 
towers, and the wall, including battlements, was 8 feet thick ; part of it has 
vanished, but most of the towers remain. Across this outer ward is the moat 
defending the inner wail, thrt)ugh which the entrance lies on the W. side, where 
is the barbican with drawbridge and portcullis groove ; and the other towers 
with the curtains remain. The entrance to the central tower or keep is on the 
N. side, through a projected approach guarded by a portcullis at either end, 
and partly vaulted. The main staircase is here, and there is another on the 
S. side. The keep was a square of about 60 feet inside, but its E. face has 
gone. It has two lofty storeys, and its corners were supported by grand and 
bold buttresses, the total height being 45 feet, with two centre and four corner 
turrets of fine construction. The roof and floors were of wood ; the pointed 
windows had muUions and quatrefoils. 

Before the days of artillerv the castle must have been impregnable. It is 
constructed of excellent concrete formed of the shingle of the beach, but the 
whole has been much injured by the action of the sea. The port of Fouldry 
is very large and commodious, and a battle-ship of the first class could float 
safely in it at low water. Some fifty years ago there were dredged up at 
Walney Island, off the coast at this spot, some specimens of early English 
guns, the origin of which has been referred to the time of Richard II., when 
John Bolton, Abbot of Furness, made an attempt to demolish the peel of 
Fouldry, rather than be at the cost of keeping it up against the enemies of the 
country, i.e. the Scots. This was a ditlicult measure for a churchman to adopt, 
when so little could be known about the power of artillery, and so little 
strength was in either guns or powder ; the pickaxe would have been more 



LANCASHIRE 187 

certain. The guns in those days were only rough tubes of either brass or 
sheet-iron, welded at the overlap on a mandrel, and having iron iioops shrunk 
or driven on them (IVj/ie). 

At the Restoration this castle and its manors were given to the Duke of 
Albemarle by Charles II., and through him came to the Dukes of Biiccleuch. 
The whole edifice was repaired, and some restorations made, by the late duke. 



GLEASTON (mmor) 

THIS castle lies at the foot of a hill in Dalton in Furness, two miles E. of 
Furness Abbey, and is pleasantly situated on a trout stream flowing 
through the fertile valley. 

The castle is a qu:idrangular figure whose N. end is larger than tiiat on the S., 
and consists of four corner towers connected by curtain walls, which enclose 
a ward about 265 feet in length, and measuring 170 feet at the X., and 120 feet 
at the S. end. The walls are three yards in thickness, and the towers were of 
great strength and lofty, but the masonry is bad, and the lime mortar used for 
the hearting earthy and poor, so that a great part has crumbled away into 
mere mounds. 

The keep was at the N.W. corner, at the highest point of the ground, and 
was exterior to the enceinte. Two fragments of it remain, from 30 to 40 feet 
high, showing that it consisted of two floors and a dungeon or cellar. Close to 
it is a postern in the W. wall. In the centre of the wall was a semicircular 
bastion, which has fallen. At the end of this curtain is the S.W. tower, which 
is square and has a basement without lights, with three floors over, tlie whole 
being 43 feet high, with a newel stair leading to the battlements and several 
garderobes. At a distance of 120 feet from this, and connected by a straight 
curtain, stands the S.E. tower, of larger size than the last, having two floors 
only ; there is a newel staircase, and the upper room led on to the allure. The 
greater part of the X.E. tower and the whole of the N. curtain have perished. 

Buck gives a drawing showing the ruin to have been in much the same 
condition in 1727 as we see it now. It is difficult to say where the principal 
entrance was situated, and there is no ditch. 

The lands at the Conquest were possessed by one Ernulph, who gave way 
to a Fleming named Michael, and his domain was formed into a manor called 
Muchland, after him (Michael being corrupted into the old Northern word 
iiiicklc, or vtucli). After three or four generations of Flemings, the manor 
passed (about 1270) by an heiress to a family named Cancefield, from whom it 
went with an heiress in 1293 to Kobert de Harrington, whose family remained 
here till 1457, when the property was again transferred by an heiress to Lord 
Honville of Shaton. He took the name of Lt)rd Harrington, and his grand- 



i88 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

daughter hrouglit it in marriage to Thomas Grey, created Duke of Suffolk, the 
father of Lady Jane Grey. In 1554, after Wyatt's rehelhon, he with liis two 
brothers, his daughter — the nine-days' queen — and her husband, Lord Guildford 
Dudley, were beheaded, when his estates, including Gleaston, were forfeited to 
the Crown, being afterwards bestowed separately on various people, first to the 
queens of Charles I. and IL, and afterwards to the Duke of Montague on lease. 
At a point on the coast i] miles S.E. of this castle is the ancient mound, 
called Aldingham Moat Hill, where no doubt Ernulph and the Flemings had 
their "burh" and wooden fort, before the building of Gleaston. The writer 
of a paper in the Tran.uictio)is of the Cumberland Antiquarian Society (H. S. 
Cowper, F.S.A.) is of opinion that this castle is the work of the owners, Cance- 
fields or Harringtons, late in the thirteenth century, or temp. Edward I. In 1340 
John de Harrington had leave to enclose a part. The dwellings and domestic 
buildings were probably built of wood or wattle against the inside of the 
curtain wall. 



GREENHALGH (mmor) 

THIS is about a mile N.E. of Garstang, and is called by Gough "a pretty 
castle of the Lord of Derby ; only one tower remains near the town ; " this 
tower is now in a very shattered state. There appear to have been seven or 
eight towers of great height and strength. Greenhalgh Castle was erected by 
Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby, under a licence dated at Lancaster, August 2, 
5 Henry VII. (1490), "to build and crenellate and embattle," also to make 
there a park, with free warren and chase. He built the castle for his pro- 
tection, being under apprehension of danger from certain of the nobility of this 
county who had been outlawed, and whose estates, having been confiscated by 
Henry, had been conferred upon him ; several hostile attempts had already been 
made against him. "The Wyr, a little river coming from Wierdale, runs with 
a swift stream by Greenhaugh Castle" (Camden). The plan of the work was a 
rectangle, approaching a square, with a tower at each corner standing diagonally 
to each adjoining wall. Between the walls the distance was only 14 yards on 
one side and 16 yards on the other, and the whole was surrounded by a circular 
moat. The masonry of what is left is extremely plain and unfeatured. 

The castle was garrisoned for the king in 1643 by James, Earl of Derby, 
and it was besieged unsuccessfully in 1644. Kushworth, in his " Historical 
Collection," says: "There remained, in 1645, of garrisons belonging to the 
king unreduced, Lathom House and Green Castle in Lancashire, besieged 
by the Lancashire forces." On the death of the governor, however, Green- 
halgh surrendered, and was dismantled and destroyed in 1649 or 1650. In 
1772 Pennant speaks of the single tower as "the poor remains of Greenhaugh 
Castle." A few years since Lord Derby sold the castle to Lord Kenlis. 



LANCASHIRE 189 



HOGHTON TOWER (sometimes spelt Houghton) {chi,'/) 

IN tlic valley of the Kibble, live and a half miles to the W.S.W. of Black- 
burn, is a lofty ridge of rock on the summit of which stands the old 
mansion of the Hoghton family, between the two streams of the Deiwent 
and the Orr. It is an eminently fine situation for a stronghold ; on the 
E. the cliff is steep and very rugged, and the hill slopes gently to the N. 
and \V. It is the only specimen in this neighbourhood of a true baronial 
residence, and is well worthy of comparison even witli Haddon Hall, foi" 
its extent is such that from a distance Hoghton appears almost like a fortified 
town. 

The familv of De Hoghton held property here in the time of Henry 11., 
but their first residence was built down at the foot of the hill, by the riverside. 
The existing castle was built by Thomas Hoghton in 1565, after the most 
approved rules then observed in domestic architecture, with an upper and 
a lower court, divided by a very strong tower or gatehouse, which in the 
Civil War appears to have been used for storing powder, and was accidentally 
blown up, together with the adjacent buildings, when Captain Starkey and 
200 men were killed. The stables and oflices of the farm constitute the 
lower court, in exact conformity with Andrew Borde's directions for the con- 
struction of great houses (1542). 

For ages the castle was a dilapidated ruin, and Britton wrote in 1818 : 
" Within a few years the roof of the gallery and some of its walls have fallen 
prostrate, though some parts of this ancient and extensive building are 
inhabited by a few families of the lower class. The building is falling fast 
to decay, and presents a view at once picturesque, grand, melancholy, and 
venerable." It is satisfactory to lind that the old fabric has since then been 
put into partial repair. 

Sir Richard Hoghton obtained permission to enclose a park, and the 
place was once surrounded with a large park full of fine timber, though 
too closely planted, which has now mostly disappeared. In those days it 
was well stocked with game of all sorts ; there were wild cattle of the white 
Roman breed, red deer, and wild boars, and we possess an account (given 
by Whitaker) in the Journal of Nicholas Assheton, of a sporting entertain- 
ment offered here to King James I. in 1617. He came from Preston, on 
one of his roval progresses, on August 15, with a great train of courtiers and 
servants, and half Lancashire came to assis' at the sports, and to pay respects 
to their sovereign, — Sir Richard Hoghton, the proprietor, meeting the king 
at the foot of the hill with a large company of the chief country gentry. 
James remained at the Tower until August i<S, and was amused each day 
with sports of various kinds, feasts, dancing, masques, and stag hunts. The 



I90 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

diary contains tlic following entries, which give us some insight into court 
life 300 years ago : — 

" Soe away to Houghton: there a speche made. Hunted and killed a 
stagg. Wee attended at the Lord's table [that means as gentlemen waiters]. 
August 16. — The king hunting, — a great companie : Killed afore dinner a brace 
of staggs. Verie hot : we went in to dinner. About 4 o'clock the king went 
down to the Allome [alum] mines, and was there an hower and viewd them 
precisely, and then went and shot at a stagg and missed. The king shot again 
and brake the thigh bone. A dogge long in coming, and my Lord Compton 
shott again and killed him. Late in to supper. August 17 (Sunday). — We 
served the Lords with hriskett, wyne, and jellie. The Bishopp of Chester 
preached before the king. To dinner. About 4 o'clock there was a rush- 
bearing and pipering afore them, afore the king in the Middle Court : 
then to supper. Then about 10 or 11 o'clock a maske of noblemen, knights, 
and gentlemen, and courtiers afore the king [see Cattermole's painting of 
this], in the middle room in the garden. Some speeches : of the rest, 
dancing the Huckler, Tom Bedlo ['-Tom of Bedlam," an interlude], and 
the Cowp Justice of Peace. August 18. — The king went away about 12 to 
Lathom. Ther was a man almost slayne with fighting. Wee back with 
Sir Richard ; as merrie as Robin Hood and all his fellowes." It was during 
one of these banquets at Hoghton that King James is said to have knighted 
the loin of beef, and ordered it ever after to be called Sir Loin, although, 
according to some, the joint was already called sur-!oin, and his Majesty only 
made a pun. 

The main building, which is entered from the quadrangle by a circular fiight 
of steps, contains some fine rooms, including the King's Room, where James I. 
was lodged at his visit above described. 



T 



HORNBY {minor) 

URNER has placed this castle and the svupassinglv beautiful scenery of 
the Lune valley among his grand delineations of English hill and dale. 
On a tongue of land between the rivers Lune and Wenning, about a mile 
distant from their confluence, the Romans selected the site of a post for 
guarding the fords here, and some remains of their buildings, coins, and 
perhaps of a villa, have been found. The termination by would lead to the 
inference that a Dane named Home had his dwelling here (there is a town in 
Denmark called Hornby), and not far ofi' are the earthworks of a grand Saxon 
fortress, of elliptical trace, covering 2 acres 9 perches, and proving the position 
to have been one of importance. 

The Norman builder chose for the site of his castle an abrupt cone-shaped 



LANCASHIRE 191 

rock, at the base of which flows the Wcnniiig River, hut the date of this 
construction is not known. Alric, a Saxon, is mentioned as hvin.ij here at 
the Conquest, and his grandson Adam Fitz-Swain left two daughters, one of 
whom, Maud, married a Norman named Adam de Montbegon. In the fifth 
year of Stephen we find Roger de Montbegon here, and again in 1225 the 
castle is given into the custody of William, Earl Warren ; but only temporarily, 
for three years later (13 Henry III.), the king granted the manor, castle, and 
honour of Hornby to his great minister and justiciar Hubert de Burgh and 
his wife Margaret ; and after the death of Hubert in 1242, his widow, Countess 
of Kent, continued in possession during her litetime. 

On her death in 1259 claimants deriving from the Montbegons appeared 
in the family of Longuevillers, who succeeded in recovering the property, 
which passed with an heiress Margaret, daughter of Sir John Longuevillers, 
in marriage to Geoffrey Xevile, who obtained from Edward I. a grant of 
free-warren here and a market. 

This Geoffrey died in 1285, and his widow held Hornby until 1318, when 
it went to her grandson John Nevile, and at his death to his cousin Sir Robert 
Nevile, who dving in 1413, left the estates to his daughter Margaret, the wife of 
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of E.xeter. This nobleman left Hornby to two cousins 
of the Xeviles, John Langton and Sir William Harrington, between whom the 
property was partitioned, Hornby Castle falling to Harrington, who was killed 
at Agincourt. After him, his son Sir Thomas and his grandson Sir John both 
fell at the battle of Wakefield, fighting on the over-matched Yorkist side. The 
great rampart and ditch foiining a boundary between Hornby and the forest of 
Bowland are called the Harrington Dyke. 

Sir Thomas left a son James, and Sir John two daughters, Anne and 
Elizabeth, who were harshly treated and imprisoned by their uncle James. 
He took possession of Hornby, and ruled there until Lord Stanley obtained 
from Edward IV. the custody of the castle, and a deed of wardship over the 
sisters and heiresses, together with the attainder of James Harrington ; then 
Lord Stanley married Anne, the elder girl, to his own son Edward Stanley, 
and Elizabeth to his nephew, John Stanley of Melling. Edward Stanley and 
his wife took up their abode in the castle in 1485, and, on Anne's death 
(4 Heiirv \'ll.), Stanley obtained a right to one moiety of the estates. At 
the death of John and Elizabeth Stanley, he obtained from his father, now 
Earl of Derby, a re-lease of the entire property in his own favour, and 
he is said to have even caused the death of his cousin John, a son left 
by the attainted |ames Ilarrmgton, by means of poison achuinistered by 
a servant. 

Murderer and perjurer as Sir Edward Stanley is said, on no certain founda- 
tion, to have been, he must have been a stout soldier. At Bosworth he 
commanded a wing of his lather's troops, and at Modden held, in 1513, where 



192 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

he led tlie tliird line or rear of the English forces, under the Earl of Surrey, 
he stopped and routed, with the archers of Lancashire and Cheshire, the fierce 
attack of the Highlanders under Lennox and Argyll, and, later in the day, by 
a flank movement over the hill, brought his men upon the rear of the Scottish 
troops that were fighting round their king, completing their overthrow. For 
these services. Sir Edward was created Lord Monteagle by the king at Eltham. 
He died in 1524, and sometime before had, by way of strengthening the credit 
side of his account, begun to build the chapel of St. Margaret near the castle, 
whereon is still read the inscripticjn : 

(5 »»tanlc5: ia^ilc?: 3Dn0: iT,^oiitc5lc ine fieri fee'. 

The octagonal tower and chancel were finished soon after his death, but the 
nave was completed by the parish in an inferior manner. It has all, however, 
been restored recently in excellent taste. 

On the S. side of the tower Sir Edward's shield of arms, surrounded by 
the motto of the Garter, is still perfect. His will is dated in April 1523, and 
in it he gives explicit directions for his burial, and temporary interment in 
the priory ground pendmg the completion of the " new Chancell to be made 
at his cost and charges and with all convenient haste at the East ende of the 
Chapell of Saint Margaret at Horneby." Whitaker gives an engraving of the 
old chapel with its Stanley additions. During the ownership of Mr. Marsden 
the old nave was totally destroyed, the pillars and arches removed, and the 
walls taken down and reconstructed ; and thus this poor edifice stood until 
Colonel Forster and his brothers restored the church and rebuilt the nave 
in admirable manner. The work of Sir E. Stanley remains in excellent 
preservation. 

Of his son Thomas, the second lord, there was a tradition, long preserved 
in the country, tliat it was his hand which gave the final a'u/' de grace to 
King James at Flodden ; he died 1564, and his son William held Hornby 
until his death in 1581. This third lord left a daughter Elizabeth, married 
to Edward Parker, Lord Morley, whose son William became fourth Lord 
Morlev and Monteagle ; he was one of the commissioners who sat at the 
trial, ending in the judicial murder, of Mary Queen of Scots at Fotheringay, 
but he was an enthusiast for the Catholic cause, and in 1601 was sent to the 
Tower, and heavily fined for participation in the rebellion of Essex. On the 
accession of James, Monteagle modified his ways, and was in full favour at 
court. He it was who on October 26, 1605, while at supper in his house at 
Hoxton, received the letter, now preserved in the Record Office, warning him 
of the "terrible blow" intended for those who would come to the meeting of 
Parliament on November 5th. Monteagle at once took the letter to Whitehall, 
whereupon the arrest of Guy P'awkes and the other conspirators followed, and 



LANCASHIRE 193 

he was rewarded witli a grant of ;^200 a year in land, and a further amuial 
pension of ^'500. The letter was written by P'rancis Tresham, the brother 
of Lady Monteagle. In 1617, King James stayed with Lord Monteagle at 
Hornby Castle for the night of August nth. 

This lord was succeeded in 1622 by his son Henry, who as a Catholic 
suffered severely under the Penal Acts, his castle being searched for arms 
in 1625, when all that were found, with the armour, were confiscated. 

During the Civil War, Hornby received a royal garrison, and repulsed a 
strong assault made on it in May 1643 by three companies of foot under 
Colonel Ralph Assheton. Having, however, acquired the knowledge that the 
cast window of the hall was a vulnerable point, the Roundheads renewed 
the attack on the gates, while a second party provided with ladders assailed 
the back of the castle. After a stout resistance of two hours the defenders, 
taken in rear, were driven back and the fortress was captured. Its demolition 
was at once decreed by Parliament, but could only have been carried out 
partially, since at the time of the second siege of Thurland Castle the 
Parliamentary forces made it their headquarters. 

Lord Morley and Monteagle was deprived of his estates after the war, 
and died in 1655, and his son, though he recovered the castle, was reduced 
to part with it and its lands in 1663 to Robert, 2nd Earl of Cardigan, whose 
successor George, the third earl, sold Hornby in 1713 for ^^"14,500 to Colonel 
Francis Charteris. This disreputable man, who had been turned out of 
Marlborough's army in the Low Countries, amassed a fortune by gambling and 
cheating at cards, and lived at the castle, which he altered and disligured. His 
only daughter married the fourth Earl of Wemyss, and their son Earl Francis 
sold the property in 1789 to John Marsden of Wennington Hall. Mr. Marsden 
died in 1826, and his will, devising Hornby, was contested by his cousin 
Admiral Tatham, whereon ensued the memorable lawsuit of Tatham 7'. Wright, 
commenced in 1830, in which the ablest judges and barristers of the day 
were concerned, and which was only ended in 1838, when the family of 
Lister-Marsden were ejected fmally by Admiral Tatham, who then entered 
into possession. He died seventeen months after, and was succeeded by a 
relative, Mr. Pudsey Dawson. His nephew sold the estates and castle to 
Mr. John Foster of Queensbury, Yorks, whose grandson. Colonel W. 11. 
Foster, ALP., is the present owner. 

Nothing now remains of the original castle of the Montbegons, but the 
foundations of two round towers and of the ancient keep, 36 feet across, 
were laid bare during various rebuildings : these were perhaps early Nevile 
work. The oldest existing portion is the great tower erected by the first 
Lord Monteagle, which bears his crest of an eagle's claw. In front of 
this tower was a large quadrangle, while an outer or lower court extended 
to the town. All this was perhaps destroyed after the Civil War. A new 

VOL. 11. 2 B 



194 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

front seems to have been built by the Charteris famih', as shown by Buck's 
drawing, with its octagonal eagle tower built by Lord Wemyss in 1743. 
Lord Elcho slept at Hornby during his march south in 1745 with the 
Pretender's army, and when Lord Wemyss returned here a year or two 
later, he was so ill received that he left Hornby in disgust, and allowed the 
castle to go to ruin. Later restorations and additions to the fabric by 
Pudsey Dawson and the Foster family " have built up a castle which adorns a 
landscape scarcely rivalled for beauty in the length and breadth of England." 



LANCASTER {chief) 

WHERE this castle stands, on a hill above the river Lune, or Loyne, was 
the Roman camp and settlement of Longovicum, and Stukeley declares 
that portions of Roman walls might be seen there in 1721 ; traces certainly of 
the Roman fosse are still to be found on the N. side of the Castle Hill. Then 
followed a Saxon wooden fort or blockhouse, which gave way to Norman 
erections at the hands of Roger de Poictou, to whom the Conqueror gifted 
398 English manors, including the honour and nearly the whole county of 
Lancashire, and who built the Lungess Tower in 1094. He was the yoimger 
son of Roger de Montgomery, who also came over with Duke William, and both 
father and son seem to have deserved well at the Conqueror's hands by their 
services at Senlac. Roger de Poictou fell on evil days in the time of Stephen, 
who deprived him of his lands, and conferred them on his own son William. 
John kept court here in 1206, receiving within the walls an embassy from 
France, perhaps in the tower which had been erected about that time by his 
friend and supporter Hubert de Burgh. Later in the thirteenth century, Henry 
III. bestowed all the lands that had been held by Simon de Montfort, Earl 
Ferrers, and John of Monmouth, on his second son Edmund Crouchback, 
with the title of Earl of Lancaster ; these lands, being inherited temp. 
Edward HI. by his descendant Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster, were brought 
in marriage by her to Edward's fourth son, John of Gaunt, who was then 
created Duke of Lancaster, and who lixed his residence at this castle and 
made several noble additions to the fabric. To him succeeded his son 
Henry of Bolingbroke in the title of Lancaster, which dignity, on his 
accession in 1399, was absorbed in the Crown. As Henry IV. he held his 
court for some time here (cir. 1409), and in one of the smaller rooms 
of the gate-tower received the King of Scotland, and also the French 
ambassadors. 

During the Civil Wars of the seventeenth century Lancaster Castle was 
besieged and taken more than once, and the lemains of earthworks and batteries 
raised for breaching the walls may still be traced on the S.W. side. In 1745 



I 




a!. 

W 

< 

< 



LANCASHIRE 



195 



■■ '^"Ctijed tri- 
or removeeL , 



Prince Cliarles Edward entered Lancaster on his march to Derbj', passing 
there again on his retreat. This was not the first Scottish invasion which 
Lancaster had seen, since the Scots imder Bruce, in their Southern foray 
after the English defeat at Bannockburn, laid waste the town and inihcted 
much injury upon the 
castle. 

The great feature 
of the building is the 
superb gatehouse, 66 
feet high, erected by 
John of Gaunt, partly 
with Norman materials. 
It has two fine octa- 
gonal flanking towers, 
a four-centred arch to 
the gateway and port- 
cullis, a fine machicou- 
Us carrying an allure, 
or rampart terrace, and 
a battlement {Parker). 
The oldest portion is 
the massive keep 
of Roger de Poictou, 
80 feet square, with 
walls 10 feet thick ; 
this too was niuch 
altered by John of 
Gaunt, but the original 
Norman windows are 
intact. The upper 
portion was rebuilt, 
temp. Elizabeth, though 
the S.W. turret is still 
popularly known as 
John of Gaunt's Chair. 
There is a chapel in 

the basement, and the dungeons arc placed in two floors below the ground 
level {Grindon s Lancashire). There are now four grand towers in all, the ancient 
dungeon tower on the S. side, which had been used as a debtors' prison, having 
been demolished in 181 2. The entire area of the castle measures 380 feet by 
350 feet, but the old courtyard has now a sufficiently modernised appearance 
from the erection of modern courts and prisons necessary for the adaptation 




I.ANC.\STER 



196 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

of the castle to its present purposes of county buildings, courts, and jail. Here 
too are held the assizes of the county of Lancashire. 

Hadrian's Tower was cased over, at the time when the new buildings were 
formed, and made into a muniment store for the county records. 



LATHOM HOUSE {non-existent) 

LATHOM is a township, three miles N.E. of Ormskirk, where was the ancient 
, baronial residence of the Lathams of Lathom, a family who had held these 
estates from Saxon times, and whose heiress brought them in marriage to Sir 
John Stanley in the reign of Edward III. (see Liverpool Tower). The estates 
continued in the Derby family for 300 years, and at the death of the ninth earl 
they were sold to the Bootle Wilbrahams, ancestors of Lord Skelmersdale, who 
was created Earl of Lathom in 1880, and whose seat the existing structure is. 

The old house was a noble and strong fortress, and from its siege in the 
seventeenth century has a memory of unfading historic interest, second to 
few in the country. Of this structure nothing whatever remains, and as the 
line mansion built in its place in 1724 has nothing in common with it, it 
will be well to record here what was the nature of the old place, called Lathom 
House, and also, briefly, the outlines of the siege which it stood so gallantly 
in 1643, under the command of an hei'oic woman, against very superior forces. 

The house stood on a low site, on soft and boggy earth, and was surrounded 
by a high stone wall, 2 yards thick, furnished with a very line gatehouse 
defended by two flanking towers, and having no less than nine strong towers 
in the length of the wall, on each of which were mounted six guns. Outside 
the wall was a moat, 8 yards wide and 2 yards deep, encircling the whole, 
and between the moat and the wall was a strong row of stout palisades. The 
mansion, in the centre, which is described in Bishop Ratter's MS. as being 
large enough to receive three kings and their trains, had in its midst a high 
and strong building called the Eagle Tower. On all sides the house was 
screened by high rising ground which effectually covered the place, so that an 
enemy could not open batteries for direct fire upon the walls ; and thus we 
find the garrison annoyed by the fire of "grenades," or shells — that is, by vertical 
fire, from which they suffered latterly. 

At the time of the outbreak of civil war in England, James, 7th Earl of 
Derby, the owner of Lathom, had been sent, as Lord of the Isle of Man, to 
preserve the peace in that island among the Manx population, who being 
disaffected, were also expecting there an invasion of a Scottish force; thus 
he was long detained there, and during his absence his Countess Charlotte, 
«/(? De la Tremouille, a worthy descendant of the renowned Count William 
of Nassau, was in charge of Lathom House and her husband's property in 



LANCASHIRE 197 

the district. This was the state of affairs wIiL-n, in May 1643, tlie Parliamentary 
general at the nearest station sent her a summons to yield up Lathom House. 
Her answer was a refusal : that she had been entrusted with the place, and 
that without contrary orders from the earl she would hold and defend it to the 
last extremity ; and drawing all her garrison within the walls and closing the 
gates, she endured something like a state of siege there till February 1644. 
At this time Sir Thomas P'airfax sent her a fresh summons, and repeated it 
several times, offering the countess leave to transport her arms and goods, 
and liberty for all to move where they pleased, on yielding up the house ; 
but she returned a final reply, that not a man should depart from her house 
— that she would keep it, whilst God enabled her, against all the king's 
enemies, and that she would await her lord's pleasure. Her garrison con- 
sisted of eleven officers and three hundred men. Little went on during the 
first few days, while the besiegers were drawing their lines and raising 
batteries against the place; but on March 12th a notable sally was made by 
a party of horse, who killed thirty of the enemy and took several prisoners. 
Then batteries were advanced, but the guns could make no impression on 
the big walls ; while it does not appear that the " grenades," when they 
managed to throw them into the enceinte, did much harm, though they were 
an object of dread to the plucky garrison, including the countess and her 
children and chaplain (see "Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson"). Thus the 
siege lingered on, the forces of the Parliament being variously put at from 
1000 to 2000 men, until on May 29th Prince Rupert came to the relief of 
the sore-tried and gallant defenders, when their enemy raised the siege and 
decamped. Of the garrison only si.\ men had been lost. 

In July the siege was renewed by General Egerton, with a force of 4000 men ; 
but just at that moment occurred the battle of Marston Moor, which cleared 
the North of the friends of Lathom, and gave Rupert other work to look after 
than its relief. The place also was badly provided with munitions of war, 
and necessaries and food for the garrison. The king therefore advised that 
both parties should treat, and commissioners were being named, when, through 
the treacherv of an Irish soldier connected with Lathom House, this compromise 
was defeated and the defenders were led to surrender to the Parliamentary forces 
on the 2nd of December. It was one of the last places that held out for Charles. 
Then the order came for its demolition, which was carried out effectively, the 
materials being sold, and part given away to any who chose to help themselves. 

At the Restoration, Lathom returned into the possession of the Earl of 
Derby, but as the house was almost destroyed, the family residence was now 
fixed at Knowsley. The ninth earl, intending to rebuild it, erected a sumptuous 
and grand front, part of the S. front of the present house, but did not live 
to complete his design, the execution of which should have devolved upon 
his eldest daughter Henrietta, the wife first of the Earl of Anglesey, and secondly 



198 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

of Lord Ashburnham. She, however, sold the place to Henry Furnese, from 
whom it was purchased in 1724 by Sir Thomas Bootle, Chancellor to Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, whose niece and heiress married Richard Wilbraham of Rode 
Hall, Cheshire ; the estate thus came to Lord Skelmersdale, the eldest son of 
that marriage, and is now possessed by the same family. To finish the personal 
history : the brave countess joined her husband in the Isle of Man, but she had 
to send her children to England, under a safe-conduct from Fairfax, in spite of 
which they were made prisoners by order of the Parliament. 

In 165 1 the Earl of Derby joined Charles II., and after the defeat of Wor- 
cester surrendered as prisoner of war, and was beheaded by the Parliamentary 
generals on October 15th, in his own town of Bolton-le-Moors, upon a scaffold 
made of timbers taken from Lathom House. His heroic countess, betrayed 
into her enemies' hands, remained a prisoner till the Restoration, and died at 
Knowsley in 1663. 

" Of Lathom-house by line came out, 
Whose blood will never turn their back." 

— Ballad of Flo d den Field. 

It is believed that no drawings or plans are in existence to show what 
Lathom House was, or the nature of its fortifications ; and we have therefore 
to content ourselves with the little that is known of this famous place, as 
repeated by Whitaker (" Richinondshire," vol. ii. p. 254). 

" The whole nmst have been surrounded by a deep fosse, immediately 
within which, and beyond the drawbridge, would appear a strong gateway, 
more lofty and of larger dimensions than the other towers. The curtain walls 
ranging off to right and left from the great gateway would have eight angles, 
in each of which was placed a flanking tower. Within this outer enclosure 
would be another fosse, with its drawbridge, and an inner gateway opposite to 
the former ; but the eight towers of the second enclosure, instead of flanking 
a curtain wall like the former, must have been attached to the walls and angles 
of the body of the house, and from the time at which they were erected, may 
have been either square or octagonal. One of these was unquestionably the 
Eagle Tower, known from the account of the great siege to have contained 
70 yards of flooring, in which were probably the principal apartments." 



LIVERPOOL {non-existent) 

ACCORDING to Camden, Roger of Poictou, lord of the honour of 
Lancaster, who at the time of the Domesday Survey owned all the lands 
between the Mersey and the Ribble, built the castle of Liverpool on the 
south side of the town in 1076, and bestowed the custody of it on the noble 



« 



LANCASHIRE 199 

family of Molyneux, whose seat was at Scfton, their descendants being the 
Earls of Sefton, who were constables of this castle. 

The keep of Liverpool Castle was a square buildinj^, heavily battlemented, 
having four circular flanking towers at the angles, with an enclosed area of 
50 square acres. It was surrounded by a deep moat 30 yards broad, with a 
drawbridge and a fosse partly cut out of the live rock ; there was also an 
entrance gatehouse, — the strongest part of the fortress,— and other buildings 
were enclosed. The whole structure had been pulled down before 1663, and 
since then, the church of St. George has been built on the site of it. Early 
in the lifteenth century Sir Richard Molyneux was hereditary Constable of 
this, the king's castle, while Sir John Stanley lived in his own tower, 
higher up the river ; between these two there were constant fighting and 
disturbances, highly prejudicial to the town and its prosperity. 



LIVERPOOL TOWER {non-cxistenf) 

THERE was also a strongly fortified tower at the bottom of Water Street, 
called the Tower of Liverpool, the origin of which is ejuite forgotten. 
Sir John Stanley, a young knight, attended a tournament in London in the 
reign of Edward III., and being conspicuous by his courage and his good 
looks thereat, did gain the affections of the beautiful daughter of Sir Thomas 
Latham of Lathom, Isabella, whour her father unwillingly gave to this knight 
in marriage ; being the heiress of Lathom, she brought that estate, and also 
this tower by the river, to the Stanleys. Sir John Stanley obtained a licence 
in 1405 to fortify his house, and he built or enlarged this tower in 140C), 
after which, through the reign of Henry VI., it served as an occasional residence 
for the Stanley family, lords of Man, and was their town abode. It was a 
square embattled building with corner towers, forming three sides of a 
quadrangle, and commanded both the town and the Mersey, where lay the 
ships of the Stanleys, in which they sailed to their new kingdom of the 
Isle of Man. In the lapse of time the destinies of the old tower changed, 
and it became an assembly-room, and latterly a prison. It was razed to 
the ground in 1820, and the site of it is now covered by Tower Buildings. 
The area it occupied was 3700 square yards. 

Tower (non-c.xixUitt) 

AT one time there was, commanding the Pool on the west side of 
Liverpool, a forlalice built by King John, who was windbound here 
when on an expedition to Ireland, and conceived the necessity of the fortress. 
This has of course vanished. 



200 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



MANCHESTER {non-existent) 

CAMDEN says : "Two flyte shottes without the town beneth on the same 
side of Irwell yet may be seen the dikes and foundations of old Man 
Castel yn a ground now enclosed : the stones of the ruins of this castel were 
translated towards making of bridges for the town." 



PENWORTHAM {non-cxistcul) 

THE Castle Hill of Penwortham is on the N.E. spur of the heights 
below Preston ; in front of it is a level area, and on the S. it is 
divided by a deep gully from the site of the church. In early times the 
river Ribble, when the channel of that stream was larger than it now is, 
washed two sides of the conical rocky clitT whereon the castle stood, 
and on the W. a sunk lane ran below it. Thus the position was an 
extremely strong one, and had been selected in very early times for a 
stronghold, since, in 1856, some e.xcavations made in the hill exposed the 
remains of prehistoric wooden dwellings of probably British origin, and a 
Saxon kitchen-midden ; a prick-spur and some ironwork of refined make 
were also found. 

The Conqueror bestowed Penwortham manor on Roger de Busli, and 
his son, Warin de Busli, or Bussel, succeeded him, and ranks as the hrst 
baron of Penwortham ; he it probably was — if not Roger de Poictou — who 
reared a fortalice at this spot. The property remained with his family until 
the time of John, who succeeded in wresting the estate from Hugh, the 
fourth baron, and then sold it to Roger de Lacy for 310 marks of silver. 
Next it is recorded that Ranulph, Earl of Chester, held his courts at Pen- 
wortham Castle, and after the Earls of Chester and Lincoln, the barony 
passed by marriage to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and became merged in 
tiiat duchy. 

The castle has totally disappeared, owing perhaps to the great land- 
ships which have taken place on the river banks, and no signs of a 
ditch or of the walls are to be seen ; but the memory of the place is 
retained, as usually is the case, in the name of Castle Hill. It is believed 
to have been a strong square Norman keep, surrounded by a rampart and 
ditch. 



LANCASHIRE 201 



RADCLIFFK TOWER (minor) 

AHLUF'F, or clilT of red stone immediately opposite and ovcrhanj^ing the 
river Irwell at this point, seems to have been the origin of the name of 
one ot the noblest, most ancient, and most honourable families in this kingdom. 
Sir Bernard Bmke, no mean authority, declares that the house of Radcliffe has 
produced fourteen earls, one viscount, live barons, seven knights of the Garter, 
several bannerets and knights of the Bath, together with many privy coun- 
cillors, warriors, and statesmen. It is stated in Murray's guide-book that 
Edward tiie Confessor bestowed RadclilTe on Roger de Poictou ; but there was 
an Edward K'adeclive here at the time of the Domesday Survey, therefore Roger 
cannot have held it long, and the manor appears to have fallen to the Crown 
and so remained till the reign of Stephen, when it was given to Ranulph de 
Gernons, Earl of Chester. It is in the time of Henry II. that we first hear of 
a De Radeclive, and the pedigree of that family shows that in 6 Richard 1. there 
was a William de Radeclive of Radcliffe Tower, Sheriff of Lancaster ; and these 
lords bear this name down to the si.xteenth century. In the time of Henry IV., 
James Radclyffe had a licence to enclose his manor of RadclitTe, and to crenel- 
late and embattle his house and walls. One of the family, Sir John Radclyffe, 
was a great commander of the armies of Henry \'., his father being Sir Richard 
Radclyffe, Seneschal of the Royal Forests; his grandson Sir John married the 
heiress of Walter, Lord Fitzwalter, and succeeded to that title, and it was he 
who, riding without his helmet, was killed at the skirmish at Ferrybridge, the 
night before the bloody battle of Towton. One of the Sir John Radcliffes 
lost live sons in dilfercnt battles in the years 1598-99, and his daughter, who 
was maid of honour to Oueen Elizabeth, died of grief for the loss of her 
brothers. 

The grandson of the Lord Fitzwalter slain as above, named Robert, Lord 
F'itzwalter, succeeded in 1511S to Radcliffe Tower, and was created Earl of 
Sussex in 1529. Edward Radcliffe, the sixth and last Earl of Sussex, died 
without issue in 1641, aged eighty-seven. 

What was called Radcliffe Tower was enlarged into a manor-house of the 
first rank. It has been a quadrangular structure, but two sides only remain. In 
1X01 it contained a noble old hall, 42 feet in length, with a splendid ancient 
roof of oak, and oaken windows and doors, and other fittings in good order ; 
but now, alas, all this has disappeared, and the fine old mansion, a mixture 
of stone and timber, has been all but destroyed. In decay it shows traces 
of strong masonrv, but the lower storey alone is now remaining ; the old hall 
and the adjoining tower having been taken down of late to make room for a 
row of modern cottages. 

To this ancient building and to the fannly that owned it are attached the 
VOL. II. 2 C 



202 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

ballad and tradition given in Dr. Percy's "Reliques" under the name of "The 
Lady Isabella's Tragedy ; or, The Stepmother's Cruelty," which are sometimes 
given under the title of " Fair Ellen of Radclyfle." The story is that of the 
sacrifice and murder of a young and beautiful heiress by her stepmother, the 
Lady of Radclyffe, who causes the cook to kill the fair Isabella, "the white 
doe," and serve her up for the repast of her father. This Thyestian story is 
related in this wise : — 

" I'air Isabella was she called, 
.\ creature fair was she ; 
She was her father's only joye, 
As you shall after see. 

Therefore her cruel step-mother 

Did envy her so much, 
That daye by daye she sought her life. 

Her malice it was such." 

So the dame " bargains with the master-cook to take her life awaye," and 
then sends the fair Isabella to him with this message : — 

" And bid him dress to dinner straight 
That fair and milk-white doe. 
That in the park doth shine so bright. 
There's none so fair to showe." 

But when she gives the cook the message he says, "Thou art the doe that 1 uuist 
dress," and prepares accordingly. 

" O then cried out the scullion boye, 
As loud as loud might bee, 
' O save her life, good master-cook, 
.\nd make your pyes of mee ! ' " 

However, the tragedy is accomplished, and the pye is made ; and when the 
lord of the tower comes home from the chase, and is set down to dinner 
with the pye before him, he calls for his daughter deare, and says he will 
neither eat nor drink, until he did her see. 

" O then outspake the scullion boye. 
With a loud voice so bye, 
' If now you will your daughter .see, 
My lord, cut up that pye. 



LANCASHIRE 203 

' Wherein her flesh is minced small, 

And parched with the fire, 

All caused by her step-mother, 

Who did her death desire.' 



Then all in black this lord did mourne, 
And for his daughter's sake. 

He judged her cruel step-mothe'r 
To be burnt at a stake. 

Likewise he judged the master-cook 

In boiling lead to stand, 
And made the simple scullion boye 

The heir of all his land." 



THURLAND {,umor) 

TV\ E cuNtle stands on slit^Iitly elevated ground in the \'ale of Lune, about 
twelve miles from the countv town, near the high-road, but shrouded by 
trees. It is one of the few old moated mansions in Lancashire. In very early 
times a fortress was placed at this point to assist in repressing the border 
forays, which perhaps served as an abode to the Tunstalls who owned 
the lands. 

There appear to liave been lords of Tunstall in the county ot Lan- 
caster since the time of William the Conquerer, as Topsi, the then lord, 
gave one messuage and one toft in l:}olton (le Sands) to the Abbot of 
Rivaulx ; and they are frequently mentioned in Henry 1. and following 
reigns. Sir Thomas Tunstall is spoken of by Camden as an cques auratus 
living here under Edward 111., Richard II., and Henry IV. and V., serving 
with the last king in his I^'rench wars, and being jnesent at .Agincourt. In 
1402 (4 Henry I\'.j this knight obtained a licence " kernellare manerium 
suum de Tliorslond," and also to enclose the manor. This date, therefore, 
may be taken for the foundation of the existing castle. The grandson of 
this man. Sir Richard Tunstall, was a man of high rent)wn dining the Wars 
of the Roses, and a staunch Lancastrian, holding Harlech for Henry VI. 
longer than anv place in England ; still in spite of this he was highly 
esteemed by the Yorkist kings, and Richard III. employed him and made 
bun a Knight uf the Garter. He died in 1492. His nephew was the great 
Hishop Tunstall of Durham, the friend of Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, and 
other great men little liked by Henry VIIL, who placed him in confinement 
in Lambeth Palace, where he died in 1550, aged eighty-live. Sir Richard's 
son, Bryan Tunstall, must have been a warrior of note, having confuied to 



204 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

liini, witli Sir Edward Howard, the command of the EngHsh right wing at 
Floddcn. 

The poet of this terrible hght niakes a most important character of this 
"stainless Knight of Flodden," and in the ballad many stanzas are devoted to 
him, descriptive of his valour and of his slaying. 

" And never a nobleman of fame, 
But Bryan Tunstal bold, alas ! 
Whose corpse home to his burial came, 
With worship great, as worthy was." 

— {See also " Marmion.'') 

There is no record of Bryan Tunstall having been knighted, and he is 
described elsewhere in the ballad as " that bold Esquire." Neither is there 
any authority for believing that his body was brought home. He is not 
buried in Tunstall Church. His son Sir Marmaduke succeeded him at Thur- 
land, and his descendant of the third generation, Francis Thurland, owing to 
the encumbered condition of the estate, exchanged the manor of Tunstall, 
Thurland Castle, &c., for the manor of Hutton Longvillers. 

Thurland Castle has changed hands several times. The Tunstalls were, 
with the exception of a period between 1466 and 1474, the owners until 159S. 
Sir Richard Tunstall, the son of Francis, having been attainted, forfeited his 
estates; but these, including the castle, were restored to him in 1474. In 1598 
the castle and manor were sold to John Girlington, the head of a wealthy 
Catholic family, whose grandson, Sir John Girlington, fought and died for 
Charles 1. In 1643 this Sir John garrisoned his house, and sustained a short 
siege in it by Colonel Assheton, but had to yield. It is said that a large 
quantity of money and plate, together with a number of disaffected ladies 
and gentlemen of the county who had shut themselves up in the castle, fell 
into the enemy's hands. 

A month later, however, we find Sir John holding the castle against a 
fresh enemy. Colonel Higby : he sustained a seven weeks' siege and again 
had to yield possession. The castle was then dismantled, and it remained in 
ruins till 1663. Sir John is said to have been killed in a light at Melton 
Mowbray, and his family sank into poverty. In i0y8 Thurland was sold to 
John Borreti of Shoreham, Kent, from whom it passed to his daughter, whose 
husband, Evelyn, sold it in 1771 to one Welch, of Leek, from whom it 
was purchased by Miles North, of Kirkby Lonsdale, in 1781. It was sold by 
North's grand-nephew in 1885 to the present owner. Colonel Edward B. Lees. 

The castle was rebuilt early in the present century from the designs of 
Wyatt, and little remains of the original massive pile. A s;nall stone vaulted 
building with one narrow window, called by W'hitaker the gatehouse, is all 



LANCASHIRE 205 

that is k't't of :i laiL^c block of buildin^^ tliat extended alon,i4 the western side 
of tile court, removed, together with a tine gateway which spanned the 
approach near the gatehouse, some seventy or eighty years ago. 

The castle stands on a gravel mound about 40 feet high, and is surrounded 
by a moat, 30 feet wide and 6 feet deep. It is a L-shaped building, the walls 
in the old part being from 6 to 14 feet thick. During recent alterations, several 
portions of hinnan skeletons have been discovered. 



TURTON TOWER (mnwr) 

FOUR miles X.E. from Bolton, is one of the oldest halls in England, 
and as it is said to have been built originally in the time of Henry II., 
it follows that in those times it must have been a defensible work, although, 
rebuilt as it was, it can scarcely be called a castle now, bting chiefly an 
Elizabethan house, with a square stone tower, battlemented. It was sur- 
rounded by a moat, of which there are still some traces, and is a picturesque, 
irregular old pile, partly of stone and partly half-timbered, or " black-and- 
white," the latter portion being gabled, with each of the four storeys pro- 
jecting. The walls of the tower, which is three storeys high, are 5 feet in 
thickness. 

The manor of Turton in the reign of John was held by Roger Kitz Robert 
(l)e Holland); afterwards it belonged to the good Duke of Lancaster, from 
whom it passed into the hands of an ancient and famous family called 
Orrell, whose seat it was from 1408 to 1628, when they became impoverished 
and sold Turton to the philanthropist Humphrey Chetham for ^^'4000. He 
resided here, and dying in 1653 the place next went to the Blauds by a 
Chetham heiress, from whom it came by a similar way to the Greenes, 
and from them by marriage to the father of Sir Henry Bartle Frere, and 
thence by purchase to Mr. J. Kay, with whose family Turton remains. It 
was almost entirely rebuilt in 1596 by William Orrell, who carefully retained 
the old timber and plaster construction and the ancient square tower. Mr. 
Kay m 1835 restcMed and renewed the fabric in the state in whicii we 
now see it. 

The chief curiosity here is a number of subterranean passages. One is 
entered at the foot of the staircase and leads towards the neighbouring 
village of Chapelton — originally, it is said, to Holton ; and there are others. 
In tile breakfast-room is a secret niche behind the panelling, whei'e, it is 
said, a concealed spy overheard the orders of Cromwell when he rested 
here on his way to meet the Royalist forces after he had gained the victory 
at Dunbar. He ordered an attack on Wigan that somewhat failed, owing, 
as said, to the pl.m being divulged. Near the dining-room, oil the passage 



2o6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

to the billi;u"cl-rooin, is a priest's hole, giving access to the battlements, and 
another has been found lately. A steep circular stair leads to the cellars, and 
beyond, to a circular chamber supposed to be a dungeon, with loop-holed 
walls. The old house was well filled with curious oak furniture, which has 
of late years been in great measure sold and dispersed. 



WRAYSHOLME {minor) 

THIS tower is on the way to Gleaston, a little S. of the village of Allithwaite. 
All that remains of the place is a massive tower. There is a tradition 
tliat tlie last of the English wolves was killed near this building {Grindon), 
which is an ancient peel, erected on the marches, and once belonged to the 
Harrington family. 




MIIHilJ.HA.M 



l^orhebire 



BARDEN TOWER ( mmor) 



IN the neighhourhood of Bolton Priory, where tlie Strid comes down 
from the liij^li moors, in the old forest of the Cliffords, is this rmcieiit 
buiidini:^. Originally one of the six lodges with which the Harden f()re>t 
was provided, it was chosen for a retreat by Henrv Clitfoid, the 
Shepherd lord of Skipton, whose story is noticed under Skipton. It is probable 
that during his twentv-fonr vears of exile from society, he came frecpiently into 
this district and got to lo\e the [ilace, so that when the accession of Henry \'ll. 
enabled him to return to his property, he rebuilt this house, to form for himself 
a quiet home for studv and retirement. And here he generally dwelt, resorting 
to the company of the monks of Bolton for assistance in his favourite studies 
of astrology and alchemv. After his death the tower was neglected, and so 
in the time of Countess Anne had become ruinous, and was repaired and rebuilt 
by her in 1659. Whitaker saw it entire, he says, in 1774, but it is once more 
a ruin. It is a large square building, and has a chapel attached. The walls 
are strong, but it does not seem more capable of detence than an ordinary 

peel tower would be. 

207 



2o8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



B E D A L E [iioii-iwisteiit) 

THERE was a castle here belonging to Sir Brian P'itzAlan, the viceroy 
of Edward 1. for Scotland, whose tomb, together with that of his wife, 
is in the church of Bedale. He was a very distinguished baron in the reigns 
both of Henrv III. and of his son (see Richviond, Yorks). This was his 
residence, and was probably built by him ; it was placed in a jiosition, without 
any natural advantage, a little to the S.W. of the church, and its foundations 
have been traced to a considerable distance, extending from the gardens of 
the house of the owner of the site into a field X.W. of the church ; no vestiges, 
however, remain above-ground. 



BOLTON (chiefs 

THIS grand and grim old castle of the Scropes, which they built in the 
days of Richard 11., and inhabited with baronial splendour till nearly the 
epoch of the Long Parliament, stands on the edge of high, bleak, and barren 
moors, on the N. side of Wensleydale, in the N. Riding, three miles from 
Wensley, and four miles from Middleham Castle, across the river Ure, on the 
opposite side of the valley. Above, at the back of the castle, the ground 
rises to Stainton Moor, from whence it falls again into the vallev of the Swale. 
Dreary and desolate as was its situation, the wealthy Scropes continued to use 
it as their home while their race lasted, and much additional interest attaches 
to the grev ruin in the c.istle which was one of the prisons of Mary Queen of 
Scots. The Scrope family seem originally to have been of plebeian origin, 
perhaps deriving from Normandy, and Dugdale traces them back to one 
Robert le Scrope, who in 13 Henry 111. obtained a footing in Yorkshire. 
The elevation of the family was effected by the two able sons of Sir 
William le Scrope (temp. Edward 1.), Bailiff of Richmond, who both rose to 
be Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and each of whom purchased lands in 
this county and elsewhere. The elder brother, Sir Henry le Scrope, died in 
1336, and was followed by his son Richard, who served in the wars of 
Edward 111., and was twice Chancellor ; he inherited vast property from his 
father in Herts, Middlesex, Yorkshire, and other places, and was the founder of 
Bolton Castle. Leland {Itin., vol. viii. f. 53) says: '^Richard, Lord Scrope, 
was Chancelor of England in Richard the 2 Dayes. This Richard made out 
of the Grownd the Castle of Bolton of 4 greate stronge Towres and of good 
lodgings. It was a making xviii yeres, and the Chargys of the Buyldmge 
came by yere [annually] to 1000 marks. ... It was linished or King Richard 
the 2 dyed. . . . Most parte of the Tymber that was occupied in buylding of 




u 
7. 

o 



o 

CO 



YORKSHIRE 209 

this Castell was fett out of the Forest of Eiigleby in CunibeilaiKi, and Riciiard 
Lord Scrope for conveyance of it, had layde by the way dyvers drawghts of 
oxen to carry it from place to place till it came to Bolton." 

This first lord of Bolton was actively employed in the French wars of 
Edward I., and in the forty-fifth year of that monarch's reign was made 
Treasurer of the Excheciuer ; in 2 Richard II. Ik- became Chancellor of 
England and Keeper of the Great Seal. He died in 1403, leaving three sons — 
William, created Earl of Wilts, who was beheaded at Bristol in the revolution 
of 1399 for fidelity to King Richard ; Roger, who became second lord of 
Bolton, and died six months after his father ; and Stephen, who was Deputy- 
Lieutenant of Iieland. The brother of Sir Henry the Chief Justice was Sir 
Geoffry Scrope, who also rose to be Chief Justice, temp. Richard II. Henry was 
also a brave soldier, and was knighted for his prowess at a royal tournament. 
He purchased Upsall and Clifton on the river Ure, a short distance to the 
S.E. of Masham, and his son Henry became first lord of Masham. Henry was 
a very warlike personage, and of great repute, who served actively in all the 
foreign and other wars of Edward III. (see Wylic, ii. 197), and his third son 
Richard, born 1346, was the pugnacious Archbishop of York, who, opposing 
the distasteful rule of Henry IV., was ruthlessly beheaded by him. This 
Archbishop Scrope had been one of Henry's strongest supporters at his 
outset, and had himself obtained from King Richard in the Tower his renuncia- 
tion of the throne ; he had read it to the Parliament at Westminster, and 
had assisted in placing the crown on Henrys head. Soon after, with the 
Percys, he became hostile to the king, and being taken in arms at the insurrec- 
tion of 1405, was brought from Pontefract to his palace at Bishopthorpe. The 
Chief Justice Gascoigne refused to pass sentence on a prelate of his rank ; he 
was, however, condemned by a mock tribunal at Henry's bidding, and executed 
at once in the fields near York. His tomb is in that Minster. The eighth Lord 
Scrope of Bolton was a stout Yorkist during the Wars of the Roses ; and 
Henry, the ninth lord, is celebrated in the Ballad of Klodden Field as bringing 
thither all the men of that country-side with him to join the English host, and 
marshalling them lielow this castle. 

When Queen Mary of Scotland sought an asylum in England, after the 
fatal battle of Langside, in May 1568, she was brought to Carlisle, being there 
attended by Henry, loth Lord Scrope, as Warden of the IMarches, and was 
by him, in compliance with orders from London, conducted to his castle of 
Bolton, where his wife, sister to the Duke of Norfolk, was detailed to wait 
on her. But when Mary realised the intentions of tlie English to make a 
prisoner of her, she warned her captors that they would have a dilficult task, 
and so, for fear of her escaping, the queen's windows at Bolton were grated 
with iron, her male servants were sent out of the castle at sunset, and when 
she walked or rode out she was attended by a hundred nun of the Berwick 

VOL. II. ^ ^ 



2IO CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



t> 



guard. She came to Bolton in July 1568 and remained until January 26, 
1568-9, when, after the discovery that Lady Scrope had acted as a means 
of communication between the queen and the Duke of Norfolk, she was 
removed to Tutbury in Staffordshire and placed under the care of that dour 
and grim pair, the Earl of Shrewsbury and his wife. An episode in Mary's 
life at Bolton is given in Froude's History (vol. ix.), affording an interesting 
view of life in that fortress. Many plots were formed to eft'ect the queen's 
escape during her detention here, but they all miscarried, including the one 
of local tradition, which tells how, having passed through one of the windows 
in the S.W. tower close to w'hich her apartments are said to have been 
located, she had managed to escape as far as the " Queen's Gap " on Leybourne 
Shaw, when she was overtaken and brought back. Her signature, " Marie R.," 
long remained scratched on a window-pane of her room, but this being 
removed for better preservation to Bolton Hall, it was accidentally broken ; 
the fragments, however, are preserved. The Queen's Room has one window 
looking into the court, and another over the coimtry to the W. In 1645, 
after the reduction of Tickhill, Knaresborough, Scarborough, and other York- 
shire castles, Bolton, which was held by a garrison for the king under 
Colonel Scrope and Colonel Henry Chaytor of Croft, was seriously attacked 
by a strong Parliamentary force, and after a lengthened resistance, in which 
the garrison were reduced to the eating of their horses, was surrendered, and its 
defenders were removed to Pontefract. 

The structure consists of a huge square central block, having a quadrangular 
courtyard in its midst, round which the apartments stand, and at each of the 
angles were the great strong towers of Leland, one of which has disappeared, 
for the N.E. tower, having been injured by artillery tire in the siege, fell to 
the ground suddenly in 1649 ; tlie rest of the walls are nearly perfect. The 
great hall is on the N. side, and there is on the S. front also a banqueting-hall, 
with the kitchens and offices. The only entrance is at the E. end through a 
well-protected gateway, and each of the small doors into the buildings from 
the court is said to have had a portcullis — the fire from which would have 
rendered this courtyard untenable by an enemy. There is no ditch, nor are 
there any outworks to the castle, which is gaunt and devoid of ornament, while 
the rooms are small, and many of them dark and sombre. The chapel is 
outside the walls. The ground rooms were vaulted, and the upper floors were 
of timber, and the roofs nearly fiat. The garderobes are placed in a turret in 
the centre of the S. front, and have passages leading to them in the walls. 
Bolton is altogether the most perfect house of its period remaining in 
England {Parker). 



YORKSHIRE 211 

BOWES {minor) 

ORIGINALLY written Boshes, near Barnard Castle, on the crest of the hill 
S. of the town, this castle was erected by the Earls of Richmond at the 
site of the Roman station of Lavatr?e, the stones of which furnished a vast and 
ready quarry for the building of the castle and the (.hurcli. The fortress was 
intended as a defence on that side against the incursions of the Scots, and they 
placed at this spot a large Norman rectangular tower, with the usual pilasters in 
the centre of the faces and double at the angles, with walls 4 yards in thickness. 
It is called Bowes Castle, but, as is observed by Mr. Clark, a keep or tower like 
this is only a part of a castle proper, " a single structure being usually termed 
a tower or peel." It is evident that no other buildings ever existed here. It 
stands near the high road, which replaces the Roman road from Greta Bridge 
by Brough, Appleby, and Brougham, and is actually within tiie camp of the 
Roman station. Roman remains have been discovered round it. 

Little is known as to the history of this tower, which was always held by 
the Earls of Richmond, who had highway rights, and set up a gallows. King 
John was here in 1206, and again in 121 2. What part of the coimtry did that 
restless and active monarch not visit ? Boghes or Bowes is mentioned in 
many grants, in conjunction with Richmond, from Henry III. to Henry VI. 

The tower is very late Norman, built probably in the twelfth century. It is 
82 feet long bv 60 feet, and about 50 feet high, and contained a basement and 
two upper storeys. It is built in the usual way, with broad double pilasters at 
the angles, and a single one in the centre of each face ; the top storey is ruined, 
and there are no remains of battlements. One angle on the S.E. held the 
staircase, which probably terminated in a turret. Two cross walls divided the 
basement into three chambers, whose roofs were vaulted, and one of tiiese 
cross walls, rising, divided the lirst floor into a large hall and a solar ; the 
entrance was on this floor, on the E. side, 10 feet above the ground, imder a 
round arch, and defended only by a door. Several small apartments and a 
garderobe were contrived in the thickness of the walls, lighted by loops, and 
three windows lighted the laige rooms. The floor above was timber. A mill 
on the river Greta ground the corn for the garrison. 



CASTLE TON (»o,i-existeiit) 

ON the N. face of Cleveland, near the station of Danliy, on the railway from 
Whitby to Stockton, is a village of this name, which has a mound called 
Castle Hill, and probably represents one of the earliest holdings of the l^ruces 
in England. After the Conquest Robert de Brus was granted the manor of 
Danby (q.v.) at this place, which he must have fortified. The presence of a 



212 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

mound refers almost invariably to a settlement of Anglo-Saxons or Danes, and 
we have the Danish name D.uiby to prove the residence of some settler of 
the latter nation. And we can still see the trace of the early fortress — the 
usual mound surrounded by a ditch formed by the deblai, and protected 
by a close double palisadin.i^, somewhat like that of a New Zealand Prah. 
This fortified point must have been adopted, as in other places, by the 
incoming Norman, who strengthened it with further defences, and perhaps 
with stonework, and whose representatives continued in it until the building 
of a fit and proper castle at Danby {q.v-)- 



CAWOOD PALACE {>uiuor) 

ORIGINALLY, it is said. King Athelstan had a stronghold here, which 
was held by the archbishops as a palace long before the Conquest, 
probablv by royal grant. In the reign of Richard II., his faithful friend 
Archbishop Nevill used this house in preference to his other palaces in the 
county, Bishopthorpe, Sherburn, Ripon, and Otley ; but at the deposition of 
that prince he had to flee the country, dying in extreme poverty at Louvain. 

The palace was fortified and made into a castle temp. Henry IV., and 
was added to and strengthened by Archbishop Bowett, temp. Henry \'l., and 
by his successor Archbishop and Chancellor John Kempe, who added the great 
"atehouse which is still remaining. He was translated to Canterburv, and died 
in 1415. 

The chief interest of the place is its association with Wolsey, at his fall. 
In 1529, when his relations with the king were broken off, Wolsey came to 
Cawood to brood over his disgrace, and passed the autumn at this palace. 
Then the Earl of Northumberland was sent hither to arrest him, and on 
November 6th he was removed by the earl, through Pontefract and Doncaster, 
to Sheffield Castle, where he was received by the Earl of Shrewsbury, and was 
treated with every mark of respect. Wolsey remained here for sixteen days, 
and it appears that the profound melancholy in which he was plunged resulted 
in a mortal attack of dysentery. Ill as he was, however, he was urged on, by 
orders from London, where he was to take his trial for high treason, and came 
the first night to Hardwick Hall (Shrewsbury's house also), and the ne.xt to Not- 
tingham, and thence to Newark. On arriving at Leicester Abbey next day he 
was unable to proceed, and there on the 28th he died, in his fifty-ninth year. 

In 1642 Cawood received a garrison for King Charles, which did good service 
the next July in attacking the retreating forces of Sir Thomas Fairfax while 
crossing the ferry at Selby after the repulse at Adderton Moor. But in 1644 
the castle was surrendered to Sir John Meldrum, the Parliamentary chief, 
and two vears after was dismantled and made untenable. 



YORKSHIRF. 213 

The principal huildiiij^ rcinaininti is Kcmpe's Gatehouse, a large and lofty 
structure witli buttresses at the angles, and between them are the broad entrance, 
under a low-pointed archway. — through which the dejected cardinal must have 
ridden on his mule, — and a narrow one for foot-passers. On a broad panel 
running across aie displayed eleven shields of arms, not decipherable. In 
the cliauiber above is still held the court of the manor, and above this there 
is another storey ; both rooms have pointed lights. There is also a chapel of 
brick, now used as a barn, on the right of the tower, while a modern farm- 
house is joined on the left. 

Cawood stands in a flat country by the river Ouse, about five miles 
from Selby. 



CLIFTON-UPON-URE {,wu-cxisicni) 

THIS ancient stronghold of the Scropes stands four miles to the \. of 
Masham, and its possession generally followed that of Upsall {q.v.). 
There are but scanty vestiges of it remaining ; some tottering piles of masonry 
with small-pointed windows, standing on the banks of the Ure, are all. 
Leland says that Clifton was only a tower or castlet, and Camden speaks of 
it as in inins, " fornierlv the seat of the Lords Scrope of Masham," part of it 
being then inhabited by a farmer. And it is evident that, being so small, 
the abode of the Scropes must have generally been at Upsall and not here. 

In White's "Gazetteer of Yorkshire" we are told that the manor of Clifton 
passed (like ('psall) from the lords Scrope to Sir Ralph Kit/ Randolph, and 
afterwards to the Wyvills, the Daltons, and the I'restons, a member of which 
last family sold Clifton to John Hutton in 1735. 

From its nearness to Masham, Clifton seems to have stood in the place of a 
manor-house to that town. 



C O N I N G S B O R O U G H (chu/) 

THE town of this name is on the banks of the Don, hve miles from 
Doncaster, and was a place of importance in earliest times. The manor 
was in Earl Godwin's family, and belonged at the Conquest to King Harold. 
At Domesday it was held by William de Waieiine, the lirst Earl of Surrey, 
who was son-in-law to King William, and one of the most important of his 
Norman followers. He seems to have lived much here when in England, 
and would no doubt strengthen and fortify the old dwelling of his Saxon 
predecessors, until the time arrived for the building of a strong fortress. 
This place, which became the mpitt of his Yorkshire estates, was to Earl 
Warenne the same as Lewes was to his great possessions in Sussex, and he 



214 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



cemented tlie connection between the two districts by giving the cluirch of 
Coningsborough to Lewes Priory. 

His son William, 2nd Earl of Surrey, was a supporter at first of Robert, 
Duke of Normandy, but made his peace later with Henry I., and retained and 




CONIiNCSIiOKOUCH 



transmitted the estates and honours of his earldom, which were enjoyed by his 
son, who left but one daughter, Isabel de Warenne, who in 1163 married as her 
second husband Hanu-line IMantagenet, the brother of Henry 11. He became, 
jure uxoris, Earl Warenne, being an active soldier, and serving with Richard 
Cneur de Lion ; their son William succeeded in 1201 as fifth Earl of Surrey, 
and was one of the great barons concerned in Magna Charta. His son and 
heir |ohn was the fierce and blunt soldier who defied the "Quo Warranto" 



YORKSHIRE 



215 



edict of Edward I.; he was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Surrey and 
Sussex. His grandson, the last earl, John, died in 1347, his will being dated at 
Conesburgh Castle, when his title of Surrey, in default of legitimate heirs, went 
to Hugh, Earl of Arundel, his sister's son. This estate was left, by royal 
permission, to his natural 
sons. In I Edward III. 
homage had been done 
for this castle by Thomas, 
Earl of Lancaster, but 
soon after John, Earl 
Warenne, held it for his 
lifetime, and after hisdeath 
it fell to the Crown, when 
King Edward granted 
Coningsborough to Ed- 
mund of Langley, his tifth 
son, who died 1402, when 
it went to his son Edward, 
Duke of York, who was 
stifled in his armour at 
Agincourt, 1415. He was 
succeeded by his brother 
Richard, called of Conis- 
burgh, Earl of Cambridge 
(beheaded 1415), whose 
son and successor was 
Richard, Duke of York, 
the father of Edwaid IV. 
and Richard 111. His 
second wife and widow, 
Maud Clifford, had this 
castle in dower, and died 
there in 1446, when Con- 
ingsborough again be- 
came Crown property, and 

appears thenceforth to haw been neglected. Edward 1\'., its ownei', was king, 
and did not want the castle, and his brothei" Richard of Clo'ster had Middiehani 
and Barnard. Constables were appointed and stewards, &c., of "the lordships 
of Conysborowe" from time to time, and at last James 11. bestowed the place 
on Carey, Earl of Dover ; it in later times became Conyers' property. 

Coningsborougii is best known in its connection with " Ivauhoe," where the 
Wizard of the North has described its position thus: "There are few more 




•I'UK ki:l:i' 



2i6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

beautiful or striking scenes in England, than is presented by the vicinity of 
this ancient Saxon fortress. The soft and gentle river Don sweeps through an 
amphitheatre in which cultivation is richly blended with woodland, and on a 
mount ascending from the river, well defended by walls and ditches, rises this 
ancient edifice, which, as its Saxon name implies, was, previous to the Con- 
quest, a royal residence of the Kings of England." The natural mound of 
gravel and rock, steep on all sides, rises 175 feet above the river, its summit 
having been levelled into a platform measuring | of an acre, 60 feet below 
which the scarped sides end in an immense ditch. On the W. side is the 
village, between which and the hill is the outer ward of the castle, from 
whence a path rises to the entrance between lofty parallel walls. There is 
no gatehouse into the inner ward, and none perhaps ever existed, though the 
entrance may have been w^ell protected in the passage through the dwellings, 
which were built against the curtain wall ; right and left extended a range 
of these containing the hall, kitchen, and offices, and probably a chapel. The 
wall of this ward follows the edge of the platform, and is from 20 to 35 feet 
high, but the allures and battlements have disappeared. On the S. and E. 
sides some flanking defence was obtained by five half-round turrets, and other 
towers may have stood where the wall is broken. 

But the chief object and glory of this castle is the Keep standing at the 
N.E. corner, on the line of the curtain which abuts on it, and without any 
special ditch of its own. It is a huge cylindrical building, almost solid below, 
being 60 feet in diameter, and even now 90 feet in height ; its base is broadly 
splayed, and the sides are supported by six huge buttresses, each of which pro- 
jects 9 feet, and is also splayed outwards for 20 feet above the foundations. The 
masonry is magnificent. Entrance is had by an outer staircase to the level of 
the first floor, through a flat-headed doorway which had no protection. There 
are four stages, the uppermost being in the roof, which was conical, and all the 
apartments are circular. The room on the first stage is 22 feet in diameter and 
had no light or air except from the doorway ; it was doubtless a store. A small 
mural stair with a loop conducts to the next, or state floor, 25 feet in diameter, 
lighted by a square-headed window, in two lights. Opposite is a huge iireplace, 
and near the entrance is a wall passage conducting to a garderobe furnished 
with a loophole. On the opposite side is the opening of the staircase which leads 
to the third stage, or oratory floor, 27 feet in diameter, containing a window 
and other arrangements as the floor below, both of these rooms having had 
timber floors. The remarkable feature is the small oratory, contrived within the 
S.E. buttress, the roof being groined and vaulted, and ornamented with Norman 
mouldings. The piscina is there, but the altar is gone ; it had a vestry and three 
lights. Another wall staircase leads to the uppermost stage, the opening being 
on the allure behind the parapet. Above this parapet the buttresses rise in 
turrets, three of them containing a half-round cavity, one forming an oven. 



YORKSHIRE 



217 



and two being cisterns ; the third was a dove-cote, in all probability. Helow 
the lirst floor is a large domed cellar, and in the centre of it is the well opening. 
The thickness of the wall at the ground level is 5 y:uds between the buttresses. 

The curtain wall and buildings attached are the work of an early Norman 
owner, perhaps of William, the third and last original Karl W'arenne, while the 




CONINGSBOROUC.U 



keep is certainlv liftv vears later, and may be the building of Hamcline 
Plantageiiet, who held the place from 1163 to 1201. The keep of Orford, 
Suffolk, ^(Mnewhat resembles this one (Clarh). 



C O T H E R S T O N V. {>ioi,-existei,l) 

THIS was another manor of the Fitzhughs, in which they occasionally 
resided from very early times. The date of the castle is uncertain, but in 
a charter given between the years 1182 and 1201 mention is made of the Porta 
de Cutherston, then the residence of the lord. The tradition runs that it was 
burnt and destroyed in one of the Scottish raids, the plunderers having been 

irritated at some expressions used by the lady of the castle. But the marauding 
VOL. II. 2 E 



2i8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

liordes who came for booty would not want a reason for tlieir acts. At all 
events, fragments of charred wood have been dug up on the site. Cotherstone 
stands in a highly picturesque position near the confluence of the Balder Beck 
with the Tees, on an eminence between the streams, but only some fragments of 
the tower survive. In the chapel garth have been dug up some stones of pointed 
windows, and an ancient font, proving that a domestic chapel must liave existed. 
The P'itzhughs, deriving from one Boden, lord of Ravenswath before the 
Conquest, continued in Richmondshire until the fourth year of Henry VIII., 
when their ancient line ended in George, lord of Ravenswath, who died s./>. 
One of them, Henry Fitz Henry, was summoned to Parliament as a baron in 
15 Edward II. ; his grandson adopted the name of Fitzhugh, and this man's 
son attended Henry V. in France. Thev are described as a noble and chivalrous 
race (see Kirkhy Ravenswath, Yorks). 



COTTINGHAM, or BAYNARDS CASTLE {mn-e.xisteni) 

ABOUT three miles from Beverley stood this old twelfth-century fortress 
^ of the Stutevilles and Wakes. Leland says : " Entering into the South 
part of the great Uplandish Town of Cotingham, I saw wher Stutevilles Castelle, 
dobill dikid and motid, stoode, of the which nothing now remaynith." 

Robert de Stuteville was Sheriff of Yorkshire in 21 Henry II., and is said 
to have built the castle. His descendant William, who was here in John's 
reign, qu.irrelled with the churchmen at York, and was excommunicated by 
the archbishop ; and the king, with a fellow-feeling, paid him a visit to inquire 
into the matter, which ended in a victory for the layman, and permission 
granted to fortify his house. William's great-granddaughter Joan brought 
the manor and castle of Cottingham to her husband, of the De Wake familv, 
and her son Baldwin de Wake inheiMted these, with many other lands. 

In 1319 Thomas de Wake obtained a charter of confirmation, and a furlhei" 
licence to convert his manor-house into a castle of defence, luidcr the name 
of Baynard's Castle, with authority to keep it armed and garrisoned, which 
patent was renewed by Edward III. on his accession. 

The vast property of the Wakes then came to royal hands, by the marriage of 
Edmond of Woodstock, youngest son of Edward I., to Margaret, the sister of 
Thomas dc Wake ; she bore him a daughter, Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent, who 
had as her first husband the warrior Thomas, Earl of Holland, and after his early 
death held the manor of Cottingham and its dependencies ; afterwards, becoming 
the wife of the Black Prince, she was the mother of King Richard II. 

Xothing is known as to the description of the buildings which composed 
this castle. It was burnt to the ground in the reign of Henry VHI., and 
was never rebuilt. There is a story given by Allen, but scarcely worthy 



VOKKSHIRK 219 

of belief, that tlic- Lord Wake during; that period himself caused his house 
to be destroyed by lire, to prevent the coming thither of the king, whose power 
and fascinations he dreaded on behalf of his beautiful wife. 

The last Wake dying s.p., the manor was divided into three parts, in favour 
of his three daughters, who were married respectively to the Duke of Richmond, 
the Earl of Westmorland, and Lord I'owis, and the names of these nobles 
are still attached to the properties. 

The area covered by the castle was about two acres, hut nothing now 
remains to mark its site except the traces of the outer and inner moats and 
some banks. 



C R A Y K E {minor) 

THREE miles from Easuigwold, on the summit of a hill, stand Ihe remains 
of this old castle of the Bishops of Durham, the lands of it having been 
made Church property as far back as .\.D. 685. There was an early castle 
here, built by one of the bishops in Norman days, but the existing later 
structures were added by Bishop Xevill (1438 -1457). 

Leland described the castle thus: "There remaineth at this tvme smaul 
shew of any Castel that hath beene there. There is a Haul, witli olhei- offices, 
and a great stable voltid with stone, of a meatly auncyent building. The great 
si.)uar towre, that is thereby, as in the toppe of the hille, and supplement of 
loggings, is very fair, and was erected icholly by Nevill, bishop of Duresme." And 
there is a survey extant, made a hundred years after Bishop Nevill, in Elizabeth's 
time, from which it appears that the bishop only added to an earlier castle. It 
appears that the base of the " New Tower " belongs to a work built between UcSo 
and 1320, and that at the beginning of the lifleeiith century the Cheat Chamber, 
i.e. the present castle, was built, after winch the New Tower, containing a hall 
and solar, was erected on the N.E. Then were appended by Bishop Nevill the 
kitchen and larder to the Great Chimber. The parlour of the tower has a 
garderobe attached, with a sunk pond below lur drainage. Tlieie are some traces 
of the gatehouse near the present entrance to the grounds, but the bai n and the 
chapel have disappeared, together with the surrounding wall. The whole stood 
once in a large and well-wooded paik, which was provided with a sunk fence 
called a sAWnry (saltatoniiiii), or trap foi' deer, which leaping into, thev could 
not leave ag.iin (Canon Raine in . I rc/iitccliiral Societies' Report, 1869;. 

The conuuitlee that sat in London on the castles, doomed this one to 
destruction, and it was accordingly slighted, and remained in this ruined slate 
until restored bv .Mr. Waite, who made tin- place into a modern residence. 

As we see it, it is a square building (jf Tudor style, four storeys in height, 
with a battlemented parapet, from which a lovely view of the Vale of 
Mowbray is obtained, and away to the hills of Craven and Westmorland. 



220 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



D A N B Y (iiunor) 

AT Dauby and in the neighbouring ancient fortress of Castletox, tlie 
f\ Xorman follower of Duke William, Robert de Brus, obtained his first 
shelter in tiiis part of Cleveland. He held ninety-three manors in all in 
Yorkshire, and dying cir. 1094, was followed by his direct descendants, lords 
of Skelton, who continued here till 55 Henry III., when, by the marriage of 
Lucia de Brus, a coheiress, Danby went to Marmaduke Thweng. There had 
been a break, however, and a difficulty with the Crown, for Adam de Brus 
took part with King Stephen, and when Henry II. ascended the throne, it 
was natural that he should, in his raid against the Stephanie strongholds, 
remember his grudge against De Brus. Accordingly, he seized Danby Castle 
— which proves that some edifice existed here at that time — and it was not 
recovered until 2 John, when Peter de Brus had to yield lands and a large 
sum of money to the king for its restoration. 

From the Thwengs the manor and lordship passed, temp. Edward I., with 
Lucia, heiress of Robert de Thweng, to the powerful Latimers, and from them 
through their heiress Elizabeth, cir. 1374, to the Xevills of Raby (g.v.). John Xevill, 
4th Lord Latimer (temp. Elizabeth), left four daughters, the youngest of whom, 
Elizabeth, brought Danby in marriage to Sir John Danvers, whose grandson. Sir 
Henry, sold the property to five freeholders ; and from them, in 1656, Danby 
was acquired by John Dawney, an ancestor of the present owner, Lord Downe. 

The castle is a picturesque ruin, commanding from its elevated site, about two 
miles from Castleton, a very fine prospect over the Esk valley. The present build- 
ing is not earlier than the reign of Edward I., and was probably built by William 
Latimer on acquiring the manor from the Thwengs (Ora). The Latimer arms, 
with those of Bruce and Thweng, appear on the walls, as if anterior to the 
Nevill marriage. The buildings covered a space about 1 20 feet square, with a 
court in the centre, and corner turrets projecting diagonally at eacii exterior 
angle, which latter seem to have been additions. A farm-house occupies part of 
the later buildings. The kitchens, a room in the W. tower, and other parts are 
tolerably perfect, and the S. wall exhibits the magnificence of the ancient fabric. 

A tradition exists that the bridge near the castle was built by three sisters, that 
is, by Lucy, Margaret, and Catherine de Thweng, daughters of Marmaduke de 
Thweng. And it is asserted that a Queen of England once lived here, — a tradi- 
tion which refers to Queen Catherine Parr, the sixth wife of Henry VIII., and 
daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal Castle {(/.v.). She married John Xevill, 
3rd Lord Latimer, as her second husband, and subsequently the king, and imme- 
diately after his death — as her fourth husband — Admiral Seymour, the luckless 
brother of the Protector Somerset. They were both beheaded (see Sudeley, 
Gloucestershire). As Lady Latimer she must have resided at Danby. 



VORKSHIKK 221 



G I L L I N G iiiiiiior) 

THIS castle of the F"airfaxcs is ikmi" Byland Abbey, and the name must 
not be confounded witli the parisli in Kichmondshire, the patrimony of 
Earl Edwin. It stands on an eminence on the \V. side of the village of tiiat 
name, and was originally a fee of the Mowbray family, lords of Thirsk and the 
V'ale of Mowbray. 

One of the most notable warriors who came over to the Conquest of 
England was Roger de Mowbray (spelt variously), whose name is in the roll 
of Battle Abbey, and his son Robert succeeded to the large tract of country 
with which his father had been endowed by William 1. He took pait with 
Duke Robert against the Red King, with whom he was afterwards reconciled, 
and was by him created Earl of Nortiuimberland. He did good service 
in 1093 in repelling the invasion of Malcolm, King of Scotland, but soon after 
he again broke into rebellion. Rufus came against him at Hamburgh (</.v.), 
and in the end Mowbray was captured, and died a prisoner at Windsor 
after thirty years of confinement. All the Mowbray estates were conliscated, 
and were held by the Crown until granted by Henry 1. to Nigel de .\ibini, 
brother to the P3arl of Arundel, who assumed the name of Mowbray. His son 
Roger succeeded him, and was one of the leaders at the Battle of the Standard 
(1138;. Besides Gilling, he owned in Yorkshire the castles of Thirsk, Slingsby, 
and Kirkby Malzeard, and he it was who founded the abbey at Byland, whither 
he retired to die in peace at the close of his long and troublous life (see 
Bainbiirgli). 

This great house of Mowbray, and their successors, are intimately woven 
into the history of the country, but there is little regarding them connected 
with Gilling Castle, wiiicli in after-times became the property and the scat 
of the Etton familv. 

In the seventh year of I lenry \'I I. Thomas Fairfa.x of Walton niarned tiie 
heiress, Elizabeth Etton, and Gilling has been in the possession of his descen- 
dants or representatives ever since, though on some occasions it has passed by 
marriage. P'rancis Cholmeley received it through his wife, Harriet Fairfax, 
and the present owner is Mr. Hugh C. Kairfax-Cholmeley. 

The keep is a square one of Edwardian architecture, built temp. Edward 11., 
and the basement of the eastern portion contains much Decorated work. 
The buildings on the other side are of Tudor date, the rooms being 
ornamented with line sixteenth-century carvings and painted glass. Tiie 
castle is well situated and surrounded iiy timliev, and tiie views eastward 
are verv fine. 



222 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



GUISBOROUGH Own-existent) 

GL'ISBO ROUGH Priory, in Cleveland, where was buried Koberl Bruce, 
who contested the crown of Scotland with Baliol, was built in 1120, and 
it is likely that a castle of some sort existed here even earlier than this date. 
The manor was among the many given to Robert le Brus by the Conqueror, 
and here, as at Castleton (q.v.), was an ancient stronghold, probably a British 
earthwork, but no appearance of masonry remains. 

It stood in a field near the lane leading from Church Street to Redcar, 
called War's Field, and can still he traced by the moat in this and in the adjoin- 
ing field, having well elevated ridges and uneven surfaces, the whole occupying 
several acres of ground {On/}. 

HAREWOOD (niuwr) 

CAMDEN, who passed here about the year 1582, says: "Afterwards the 
river [Wharfe] runs between the banks of limestone, by Harewood, where 
1 saw a handsome and well-fortified castle, which has often changed its lords 
by the vicissitudes of time. It formerly belonged to the Curceys ; but came 
by their heiress, Alice, to Warin Fitz-Gerald, who married her ; whose daughter 
and coheiress, Margery, was given in marriage, with the fine estate belonging 
to her, to Baldwin Rivers, Earl of Devon, who died before his father ; after- 
wards to Falcasius de Brent, by favour of King John, for his good services in 
pillaging. But upon the death of Isabella de Rivers, Countess of Devon, s./>., 
this castle fell to Robert de Lisle, son of Warin, as kinsman and coheir. Lastly, 
by the family of Aldburgh, it came to Rithers." 

The original ancient date of the castle is shown in the drawing given by 
King in Arc/ucologia, where two windows of late Norman type appear — now 
not in existence ; but the present remains belong to a much later date. The 
castle is supposed to have been built in the reign of Edward I. or Edward II., 
and to have been iinished temp. Edward 111. Over the entrance are the arms 
of Sir William de Aldburgh, who married Elizabeth, only daughter of Robert, 
Lord de Lisle, about 1327, and obtained this castle with her ; he repaired and 
added to it, and made it his chief residence. He was called (Harleian MSS. 
vol. Ixxxv. f. 5) " the messenger of Edward Baliol, King of Scotland," a post 
of high rank ; and the Baliol arms appear with his above the doorway. After 
Baliol's deposition he lived at Wheatley, near Doncaster, where Sir William 
was his close and faithful attendant. Sir William died without male issue, 
leaving two daughters who divided his estates: Elizabeth, married to Sir Richard 
Redmayne or Redman, and Sybil, the wife of Sir William Ryther of Ryther 
Castle, Yorks. But the two families continued to live together, alternately, at 



YORKSHIRK 223 

Harewood, where the last inhabitant was James Ryther, an esquire of Queen 
Elizabeth, and his only son Robert, who left Harewood in 1620. The castle 
was dismantled durin<; the Civil Wars, and was thus purchased in 1657 by 
Sir John Cutler, a London merchant, cruelly and unfairly satirised by Pope. 

In 1582 the manor had come into tlie possession of Thomas Wentworth, 
married to Marj^aret, the heiress of Sir William Gasccut^ne, who inherited the 
Redmayne moiety, and had bouf^ht the Ryther half. The j^randson of this 
Thomas Wentworth was the unfortunate Lord Str.ifford, whose son subse- 
quently recovered the confiscated estates, but was forced to sell them, when 
the manor was bought by Cutler. 

The castle is in the form of a rectangular parallelogram, with two lofty 
towers at the S.E. and X.K. angles, four storeys in height ; there were also 
towers on the X. and S. sides. The main entrance is on the X., and was 
defended by a portcullis. The great hall is 55 feet long by 29 feet, and in it 
are still the stone seats used at times of courts ; at one end is a curious arched 
recess in the wall which appears to have covered a buffet or sideboard. The 
portcullis room over the entrance communicates by stairs with the hall, and 
with the rooms over it, and the chapel, wherein are many shields bearing the 
arms of the different allied families. A dungeon exists under the entrance 
tower, and beneath the hall is a cellar or store. Access to all paits of the 
castle was gained by imual passages. 

Sir William Aldburgh obtained in 40 Edward 111. (1367) a license to 
crenellate his imiiisiiiii inanciii, and the building seems to have been embattled 
throughout. 

Harewood Church contains the tombs of many of the above-named persons, 
including that of the celebrated Chief Justice, Sir William Gascoigne, who was 
born, lived, and died almost beneath the shadow of these walls, and whose 
daughter was the wife of Sir Richard Redman, befoie mentioned. Shakespeare 
in the play of J/oiiy I]'., part ii., makes the young king, Henry \'., to reappoint 
Gascoigne as Chief Justice in return for his coiumittal, but this does not appear 
to have been done. 

H A K I.S ]•: Y (iioi!-c.\is/eii/) 

THIS castle was in the neighboui hood of Sigston or Heresend Castle, and was 
held by the family of Strangewaies, who twice intermarried with the I'ygot 
family, the owners of the Sigston and Winton estates. It was probably a build- 
ing of similar form and date to the latter stronghold. Some portions still remain 
incorporated with the farm buildings belonging to a modern farm-house. 

Leiand mentions the jMace as "where Strangwaise the Judge hnikled a 
pretty Castle." His family had succeeded that of Hotliam, who long held 
possession of Harlsey (see Si[i;'s/t»/, )'(ir/,-s). 



224 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



HELMSLEY, near Rievaulx Abbey {chief) 

THE lordship of Helmsk-y was granted by the Conqueror to the Earl of 
Moreton, but passed, temp. Henry I., to Walter d'Espec, or Spec, the great 
leader at the Battle of the Standard. He, losing his only son in 1122, devised 
Helmsley to his youngest sister Adelina, wife of Peter de Ros or Roos, after 

whom it went to her son 
Robert, called " Fursan," 
who was one of the 
twentv-five barons chosen 
to carry out the pro- 
visions of Magna Charta. 
He built here a castle 
about 1200, called "Castle 
Fursan," of which we see 
some remains in the lower 
part of the keep with its 
circular - headed aper- 
tures. He married Isabel, 
daughter of William the 
Lion, King of Scotland, 
and at her death joined 
the Templars, — his effigy 
being still at the Temple 
Church, London. Robert 
de Ros died seised of the 
manor and castle, 13 Ed- 
ward 1., and left them to 
his son and heir, William, 
who for eminent services 
performed temp. Edward 
II. received from King 
Edward 111. a tower in 
London to hold as an 
appurtenant to Helmsley. 
In 1339 this king, appre- 
hending an invasion by 
the Scots, placed tins William de Ros in command of the northern district, 
acting from his castle of Helmsley. He died in 1343, and his descendants 
continued to possess the property, till it was temporarily confiscated by 
It was afterwards restored to Edmund, the last De Ros, whose 




HKI.MSI.EY 



Edward IV. 



YORKSHIRE 225 

sisters became his heirs, and one of them, Eleanor, marrying Sir Robert 
Manners of Etall, Northumberland, brought him Helmsley, and also Belvoik 
(^.v.), which had previously been brought into the De Kos family by marriage. 
One of this family was created Earl of Rutland by Henry VIII. in 1525, and 
the sixth earl of this name, temp. James I., had an only daughter, Catherine, 
married to George \'illiers, ist Duke of Buckingham, who was stabbed by 
Kelton, and thus Helmsley became a part of his large possessions. In 
the Civil War, in 1^)44, the castle was granted by the Parliament to Sir 
Thomas Fairfa.x, the general, but being held for the king by Colonel Jordan 
Crossland, an able and determined cavalier, it was besieged after Marston 
Moor, by P'airfax himself, who was shot in the shoulder by a musket-ball 
during the siege ; he was removed to York in a dangerous condition, 
and it was feared that the wound would prove fatal. The castle being 
forced to surrender was dismantled by order of the House, and partly 
blown up. 

The trustees of the last duke, who recovered Helmsley at the Restoration, 
sold the property in 1695 to Sir Charles Duncombe, a Secretary to the 
Treasury, for ^^'95,000, when 

" Helmsley, once proud Buckingham's delight, 
Slid to a scrivener, and a City knight." 

He left it to a nephew, one Thomas Brown, who took the name of Dun- 
combe, and in 171X built the house and formed the place called Duncombe 
Park, at the gates of which the castle stands. His great-grandson was made 
Lord Faversham in 1826. 

The ruins, standing on a gentle eminence on the W. of the town, with the 
keep rising above the grove of trees which surrounds it, form a picturesque 
object. The whole is encircled by a double moat — the outer one — wide and 
deep, lilled from the river Rye, and at the distance of 27 feet is the inner moat, 
50 feet wide, and 20 feet deep ; the extent of the area contained is about 
10 acres. 

The main entrance is on the S., through a square tower with a portcullis, 
embattled and machicolated above, and strengthened by two circular flank- 
ing towers. There is a gateway into the river court or bailey, of which not 
nuicli remains ; the portcullis groove of it can be seen. Tiie great keep 
occupies tiie N.E. corner of the inner bailey, its E. side being quite de- 
stroyed, the fragments of it lying in the mcjat ; injured as it is, the structure 
rises to a height of nearly 100 feet above the dungeons below it. The lower 
part dates from the reign of John, and the turrets and battlements were 
added in the reign of Edward II. The fine barbican between the moats 
and the gatehouse was perhaps of the time of John. Tiie outer walls of the 

VOL. II. 2 F 



226 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



enceinte on the E. and X. sides have been destroyed, and the moat filled 
up. There was an entrance to the castle also on the N. side, and part of 
a bridge across the moat remains. On the \V., against the inoat, is the later 
mansion, added in Elizabeth's reign, with square-headed, heavy muUioned 
windows, this range being in good preservation, with many windows still 






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HELMSLF.Y 



glazed, and a part remaining roofed. A large upper room, indeed, is still used 
for the rent audit of Lord Favershani ; and here doubtless the last duke 
carried on his gay life. Beneath the high building, in the corner, is a sub- 
terranean passage said to extend to the neighbouring abbey, for not far off, 
in the sweet valley of the Rye, is old Walter d'Espec's own abbev of Rievaulx, 
certainly one of the most beautiful monastic ruins in the country. 



YORKSIIIRb: 227 



HORNBY (chief) 

THIS stately structure, like Belvoir, has little to show of antiquity in its 
walls, though replacing or overlaying a more ancient abode, as it is 
thought to do, of the St. Quintins, and having been built by the first Lord 
Conyers early in the sixteenth century. All the knowledge we have of its 
origin is from the Itinerary of Leland, who says tiiat tiie Conyers rose to 
importance through the patronage of Richard, Lord Scrope of Bolton, temp. 
Richard II. "Richard, Lord Scrope that buildid Bolton Castle boute the 
heire generall of St. Quintine, that was owner of Hornby Castle in Richemount- 
shire. This Richard was content that one Coniers, a servant [vassal] of his, 
should have the preferment of this warde, and so he had Hornby Castle. 
Gul. Coniers, the Hrst lord of that name, grandfather to him that is now (1540), 
dyd great coste on Horneby Castle. It was before but a meane thing." 
Perhaps a border tower only. 

John Conyers was a Chief Justice, and married Margaret, daughter and heir 
to Anthony St. Quintin. Their son Christopher is described as of Hornby, 
and his son, again, Sir John Conyers "of Hornby Castle," was grandfather to 
William, first Lord Conyers, the holder of the existing castle. His family ended 
in his grandson's children, the two sons dying s.p., and the property going to 
the eldest daughter, Elizabeth, married to Thomas Darcy (died 1605), whose 
grandson, Conyers Darcy, was summoned to Parliament in 1661 as Baron 
D'Arcy and Conyers, and was in 1689 created Earl of Holderness. 

The fourth earl left an only daughter to inherit his lands, Amelia Darcy, 
and she, by her marriage in 1773 with Francis Osborne, afterwards lifth duke 
of Leeds, brought Hornby to that family, whose residence it is. 

The castle, which is not very extensive, is built in the form of a quadrangle, 
and has been modernised to accord with the requirements of the day. One 
ivy-clad tower remains, to which is attached the name of St. ^uintin, in memory 
of the early possessors. 



HULL {noii-cxistciil) 

IX 1541 King Henry VIII., accompanied In' iiis queen, Katherinr Howard, 
made a progress to the North, and came to Kingston-upoii-I lull. Ik- 
surveyed the town with a view to its security, and ordeied tiiat a castle and 
two blockhouses should be erected, with other fortifications for the defence 
of the town. The works were carried out at a cost of i;23,755, which was 
found by the king. Hollar's plan of Hull shows a strong fortilication on the 
left bank of the river Hull, extending from the North Bridge over that river 



228 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

to its mouth in the Humber. This fort consisted of two strong circular block- 
houses, one beside the bridge, and another at the junction of the two rivers, the 
centre of the line being occupied by a larger fortress, called the castle, a rec- 
tangular structure with semicircular bastions ; these three works are connected 
by a strong curtain wall about three-quarters of a mile in length. A citadel 
was erected here in the reign of Charles II. The blockhouses were of brick. 

In the commencement of the Parliamentary War, King Charles attempted 
to make himself master of the important position of Hull, but the gates of 
the town were closed against him by the governor. Sir John Hotham, and 
a more serious attempt in the same year (1643) made by a strong force under 
the Marquess of Newcastle, failed after a six weeks' siege, — the new governor, 
Fairfax, placing the country all round under water by means of the sluices. 
We know not what part in the warfare was taken by Henry VIII.'s forts. 



KILT ON {luiuor) 

LIES near the coast, on the way from Whitby to Saitburn. Here are the 
J remains of an immensely strong fortress, built in Norman times, on the 
summit of a bold promontory, 300 feet long and 60 feet wide, with precipitous 
sides, and ending in a narrow ridge on the W. side, which was defended 
by strong walls still standing : an ancient road led up to this point. The 
outer earthworks have vanished, with the barbican and other defences, but 
the position of the gatehouse and main entrance can be traced, with its 
protecting ditches, one of which measures 26 feet across. Ord laments the 
destruction which has been permitted, the masonry having been used as a 
quarry for the neighbourhood. Still the buildings can be made out, — the 
hall with its two huge fireplaces, and the great tower on the E., which con- 
stitute the most interesting part of the ruins. The castle was semicircular 
in plan, of Early English style, built perhaps at the end of the twelfth 
century ; there are good loops and two lancet windows in it. 

Kilton Manor, like Danby, came to the Thwengs by Lucia, the daughter 
of Peter de Brus, lord of Skelton, and her granddaughter, also Lucia, being 
a coheiress, brought Kilton to her husband. Sir Robert Lumley, temp. 
Edward III. With this family it remained till 29 Henry VI 11., when George 
Lumley, the owner, was tried for his share in the insurrection called the 
" Pilgrimage of Grace," and was beheaded ; then Kilton Castle passed by 
attainder to the Crown. 

Afterwards the place became the property of a family called TuUie, and 
from them came to the Rev. Dr. Waugh, Chancellor of Carlisle, whose 
daughters sold it to Mr. John Wharton, the predecessor of the present 
proprietor. There are some remains of the old manor-house. 



YORKSHIRE 229 



KIRKBY-MALZEARD {non-cxiste„t) 

THIS stronghold of the Percy family was situated a few miles to the E. of 
Ripon, upon an eminence commanding an extensive range of coimtry to 
the X.E. and E., in the district once called Mashamshire. It was one of the 
many belonging to Roger de Mowbray (see Thirsk and Gilling), a great warrior 
who fought at the Battle of the Standard (1138), and who, on his return from 
the Crusade in 1 173, took part with Prince Henry against his father ; but after 
losing his castle of Epworth in the Isle of Axeholme (Lincoln), and being taken 
prisoner by Geoffrey, the Bishop Elect of Lincoln, a natural son of the king, 
he was made to surrender his castles of Malzeard and Tiiirsk to Henry II., wlio 
at once caused them to be demolished. The work was oval in shape, covering 
about half an acre. Not a stone, however, remains above ground to show what 
this building was, but much carved stone of Norman workmanship has been dug 
up on its site. It was probably within sight and signal of Thirsk Castle, and 
its traces are still apparent in the huge earthworks seen at the E. of the church- 
yard. The foundations can be traced of tiie hall, kitchen, and chapel, and some 
other buildings in the inner bailey. The position was a strong one sloping in 
front to the Kesbeck stream, and with a pool on the north side. 



KIRKBY-RAVENSWATH {jmnor) 

ABOl'T live miles N.W. from Richmond, was the seat of the historic family 
of Kitzhugh. At the time of the Domesday Survey, Bodin, the progenitor 
of that line, obtained the manor here, and as tlie high ground was already 
occupied by the churcli, either he or his successor was forced to make their 
dwelling and fortress in the swampy ground below. Leland says (cir. 1538) : 
" I^avenswarthe Castel, in a mares [marish] grownde, and a parke on a litle 
hangginge grownde by it. . . . Loid Parr is owner thereof. The castle, except- 
ing 2 or 3 square towers, and a faire stable ,with a conduct [conduit] cumming 
to the hauU-side, hath nothing memorable." 

And Camden, sixty years later, wrote : " Ravensworth Castle rears its head 
with a large extent of ruinous wails, which had barons of its own, named Fitz 
Hugh, of old Saxon descent, . . . and famous to the time of Henry V'll., for tiieir 
great estates acquired by marriage with the heiresses of the illustrious families 
of Furneaux and Marmion, which at the last came by females to the Fienes, 
Lords Dacre of the South, and to the Parrs." The Fitzhughs were a notable 
family, many of them being renowned in the history of the country, and some 
being crusaders. They were usually buried at Jervaux Abbey, where, among 
others, is the tomb of Henry, Lord Fitzhugh, who attended Henry \'. at Agin- 



230 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

court with 66 men-at-arms and 209 archers ; he fought also in the Holy Land, 
and died at Ravensworth. 

The remains of this castle, which, like Richmond, covers a much larger 
space of ground than any other in this part of the country, consisted of three 
quadrangles formed by the buildings around them, and of eight chief towers, 
all of them square; but their remains are so broken up and so little distinguished 
architecturally, that it is impossible to determine their antiquity, though there 
are certain Norman forms {VVhitaker). The S. front seems to have been semi- 
circular. The whole area is covered with hillocks and low banks indicating 
the remains of masonry. In a tuiret, near the middle and between two of the 
courts, is the following inscription in the black-letter of Henry VlII.'s time : — 

{The fp'c . iius . I'lj'c . tiia . fons . & oritjo . alplja . ^'t 00 . 

Labarum.) Christus dominus Jesus via fons et origo alpha et omega. 

This seems to be the work of some disciple of the Reformation, and surrounds 
a small oratory of the castle. Ravenswath was transferred, at the death of Lord 
Fitzhugh (10 Henry VIII.), to the Parrs, one of whom, being a Protestant, may 
have caused the inscription to be set up. 



KNARESBOROUGH {mimr) 

IX the beautiful valley of the Nidd, where a lofty cliff projects into the stream; 
on the summit of this, some 250 feet above the river, was built this old 
fortress. Knaresburg was in Saxon times the head of an extensive lordship, 
including the large tract of the forest of the same name, and was royal 
property. William I. granted the lands to one of his followers, Serlo de Burg, 
who probably began the buildings which his grandson Eustace Fitz John, 
a lusticiary in the North with Walter Lespec of "the Standard," completed. 
Eustace was the lord of Alnwick Castle also by his marriage with Beatrice de 
Vescy, and their eldest son took his mother's name and continued at Alnwick. 
His other son Richard married Albreda de Lacy, heiress of Pontefract Castle 
and honour, to which her son John succeeded in 1193, together with 
Knaresborough, and then took his mother's name of De Lacy, for hitherto the 
family seem to have had no name. Eustace Fitzjohn built Alnwick Castle, 
and added to Knaresborough, dying in 1157, when the Crown granted it to 
various castellans. 

One of the first of these was Hugh de Morville, one of the murderers of 
Thomas k Becket in 1170, and one of the memories of this castle is that it 
afforded a refuge to the four assassins during a whole year. The Estotevilles 
or Stutevilles were governors there, and temp. King John it was held by Brian 
de Lisle, who added the ditch and some buildings to the castle. Henry III. 







K 
O 
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a 
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YORKSHIRE 



'31 



granted Knaresborougli to Hubert de Burgh, and afterwards conferred the 
manor and honour on his brother Richard, King of the Romans, who founded 
a priory on the river hank below the castle. Edward 11. gave the place to 
Piers Gaveston, and in 1371 Edward III. granted all to his son John of 
Gaunt, since when it has ever remained in the Uuchy of Lancaster. They 
shut up the captive King Richard 11. here before taking him to Pontefract, 
and from this the keep has ever since been called the King's Tower. 

The area enclosed, 
which was oval in shape, 
is 2i acres ; the lines of 
the external walls being 
discernible, with six cir- 
cular mural towers. Be- 
sides the gorge of the 
Nidd there are two ravines 
which protected the castle 
on other sides, while there 
is a broad ditch on the 
land front. The outer 
wall was 7 to 8 feet thick, 
and from 30 to 40 feet 
high, but it has been quite 
destroyed and removed, 
except close to the keep ; 
it edges the cliff and the 
ravines and ditch, outside 
which latter is the town, 
built under the castle's 
shelter, the entrance gate- 
way being in front of 
the town between two 
flanking mural towers ; 

the arch of the gateway is gone, but the portcullis and gate grooves re- 
main, and the place of the drawbridge over the ditch. A cross wall divided 
the area into an E. and a W. or inner ward, the keep being placed on the line 
of this wall, whereby it was made to form the passage, or gatehouse in fact, 
from one ward to the other, and was provided with drawbridges. 

There are considerable remains of the keep, which must have been of grand 
design and finish ; it was rectangular, 64 feet long by 52 feet broad, but the N. 
angle is lost. The W. angle has a turret, some 60 feet above the court. The 
S.W. front, looking into the inner court, is the most perfect ; it consists of a 
large apartment on the first floor with Decorated windows and a liieplace ; 




KNARESBOROUGH 



232 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

below in the basement is a large kitchen having a beautifully vaulted roof, 
and supported by two pillars, with three or four other rooms, underneath 
being a small dungeon with a staircase. On the first floor are two fine pointed 
doorways, one with a portcullis groove, and with arrangements in the masonry 
for raising and lowering a bridge which gave access from the roadway on 
arches in the outer court, a part of which roadway remains. There is nothing 
left of the upper room in the keep, which had a wooden floor. The ornaments 
and details are late Decorated of Edward II. {Clark). 

We owe the destruction of this fine castle and its beautiful details chiefly 
to the fire of Parliamentary guns in the Civil War, at which time, in 1644, it 
was besieged for about a month by Colonel Lilburn, who was sent, after the 
easy capture of Tickhill, to demand the surrender of Knaresborough, then 
held for the king by the townsmen, who determined to hold out, relying 
on a promise of assistance from the North. Unprepared for such resistance, 
Lilburn sent to York for two guns with which he battered the walls from 
Gallow Hill, but to little effect, until he was traitorously informed of a weak 
point in the defences, and opened fire upon this from a new battery near Brig- 
gate, then a garden. The garrison, who were meanwhile reduced to a state 
of famine, maintained an heroic defence, and made serious sallies on the 
besiegers' lines, but a breach being effected and the storming imminent, they 
offered a parley, and surrendered on honourable terms. In the castle were 
found four pieces of fine ordnance, a large store of arms and powder, and 
silver plate and valuables worth 4.1500, with other booty. In 1648, the castle 
was dismantled and made into the ruin we see. 



LECON FIELD {non-existent) 

AX old castle of the Percys, 2i miles \. from Beverley. Leland wrote : 
" Lekingfeld is a large House & stondith withyn a greate mote yn 
one very spalius Courte. 3 partes of the House, saving the meane gate that 
is made of Brike, is al of tymbre. The 4 Parte is made of Stone & sum 
Brike." The lands were given to the De Brus family, and in the reign of King 
John Henry Percy married Isabel de Brus, and received from her brother 
Peter de Brus certain lands in Leconfield, on the curious tenure that every 
Christmas day he should call upon the lady of Skelton Castle (q.-c:), and should 
lead her to mass. In 1308 Henrv Percy obtained a licence to crenellate and 
fortify his house of Leconfield, and his successor Henry, 2nd Earl of 
Northumberland, made this castle his chief residence, some of his children 
being born in it. 

After Towton Field the manor was granted to George, Duke of Clarence, 
but in 1469 the Northumberland estates were restored to the new earl, who 



I 



YORKSHIRE 233 

lived here till he was slain by the mob at Cockledge. The fifth earl, Henry 
Algernon, lived in great state here and at Wressel, as is shown by the regula- 
tions for his household, drawn up in 151 2 ; and in 1541 he entertained at this 
castle and at Wressel King Henry \'1I1., when on his northern journev, but 
was himself absent. 

After the attainder of the Percys, John Dudley, the new Duke of Northum- 
berland, obtained Lecontield and its castle, but when Queen Mary deprived 
him of his head (1553), the place was restored to Thomas Percy, seventh earl. 

But further affiiction befell the Percys. The ninth earl was fined ^'30,000 by 
the Star Chamber, and was imprisoned during fifteen years for neglecting to 
administer the oath of supremacy to a Percy relative, who had been concerned 
in the Gunpowder Plot. This fine so greatly impoverished him that he could 
no longer find money to keep up his castles, and so they fell to decay. The 
site of Leconfield is a little S.W. of the village, and it must have been a very 
large and strong place ; the moat spoken of by Leland is about half a mile in 
circumference, enclosing nearly 4 acres. In 1574 it was reported that the decay 
of this castle was much more serious than that of Wressel ; that new roofs were 
required and new timbers ; that the surveyors "cannot speke of the particular 
harmes of the said howse, the waste is so universal." And in all probability it 
never was repaired, but was afterwards demolished, and the materials used 
for the mending of Wressel ; a return of these is extant, showing what wood, 
glass, and carved or painted work was thus removed in the reign of James 1. 
This seems an authentic instance of the causes which have effected the dis- 
appearance of so many of our mediaeval fortresses. 



L K F, D S (un7i-rxistc)!t) 

IT seems likely that the castle of Leeds was built shortly after the accession of 
William I., by one of the Paganel family, who were feudatories of the great 
Anglo-Norman house of De Lacy of Pontefract {IVardtlP). The site of it is 
the ground now surrounded by the streets called Millhill, Bishopsgate, and the 
W. part of Boar Lane. It is said to have been besieged and taken by Stephen 
on his march into Scotland in 1139, and the only other historical interest 
attached to it is that it was the scene of the imprisomnLMit of King Richard 11. 
after his deposition. Hardyng's Chronicle says : — 

" The King then sent Kyng Ricliard to Lcdis, 

Thcri; to be kepte surely ; 

Fro thens after to Pykeryng went he nedes, 

And to Knauesburgh after led was he, 

But to Pountfrctu last where he did die." 
vol.. 11. 2 G 



234 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

After this the castle is not noticed, nor is anythin*; known of its destruction ; 
nothing whatever remains of it. There was an outpost work on the N. belong- 
ing to it, a tower near Lydgate, the foundation stones of which were chanced 
on many years ago, deep in the ground. 



M A L T O N {non-c.xislcut) 

THE lordship of Malton was given by the Conqueror to one Gilbert 
Tyson, who left it with other lands to his son William, whose daughter 
possessed it at her death. Her son Eustace Fitzjohn held the lordship 
and castle of Malton temp. Henry I., with whom he was in great favour, 
and who gave him the towns of Malton, and of Alnwick in Northumberland. 
He took the side of the Empress JNIaud, and opposed Stephen to the length 
of giving over Alnwick and Malton Castle to David, King of Scotland, who, 
occupying the latter, did much injury to the neighbourhood, till Thurstan, 
Archbishop of York, defeated and drove out the Scottish garrison. Then 
Eustace shelved his patriotism so far as to fight in the ranks of the Scots 
army at the Battle of the Standard ; but making peace afterwards with 
Stephen, he rebuilt the burnt town of Malton, which was thereafter called 
"New Malton," and died fighting in Wales for Henry 11. in 1156. His 
son William assumed the name of Vescy, and in the family under that 
name Malton continued till temp. Edward II., when, the owner being 
killed at Bannockburn without heirs, the estates fell to the Crown. The 
manor remained in the possession of a family who took the name of 
Vescy until the reign of Henry \T11., when it was broken up by mar- 
riages among the families of ClilYord, Conyers, and Eure, which last obtained 
Old Malton. Ralph, Lord Eure, temp. James 1., built a fine mansion on 
the site of the Norman castle ; but in 1674 his two granddaughters, being 
heiresses of the estate, quarrelled over its division, and the whole edifice, 
with the exception of the lodge, was pulled down to satisfy their claims. 
Then this lodge and the manor were acquired bv Sir Thomas Wentworth, 
who in 1728 was made Lord Malton, and afterwards Marquis of Rock- 
ingham, and his son's nephew. Earl p-itzwilliam, succeeded in 1782 to the 
manor of Malton. 

In Leland's Itinerary, he says : " The Castel of Malton hath been larg, 
as it apperith from the mine. There is at this time no habitation in it, but 
a mene house for a farmer." Of course nothing now exists. 



YORKSHIRE 235 



MARKENFIRLD (minor) 

AGRAXD castclhilcd and moated liouse of defence, situated tliree miles 
S.W. from Ripon. It was tlie Iiome of a family of that name of lonj4 
standing in the county and of importance, one of whom, John de Meikyngfeld, 
in the reign of Edward II., obtained a licence to crenellatc his house in 1311, 
and erected this castle. One of the family. Sir Thomas, with his wife Uionisia, 
is buried in a line tomb in Ripon Minster. They died at the end of the 
fifteenth century. 

In 1513, among the gentry wiio went with Lords Lumley and Latimer and 
Conyers to Flodden P'ieid, with their tenants and servants, rode 

" Sir Ninian Markenville 
In armour coat of cunning work," 

having succeeded his father Sir Thomas (as above) in iiis honours and estates. 

He died 20 Henry VIII., and was followed by his son Sir Thomas, knight, who 

died 1550, and was succeeded by his son Thomas, aged seventeen, who had 

livery of his father's inheritance in the second of Elizabeth. But he had little 

good from it, for in 1569 he took an active part in the insurrection called "The 

Rising of the North," being prompted thereto by his uncle, Richard Norton, 

who was one of the more prominent leaders, and who was the bearer of the 

famous banner : 

" The Norton's ancyent had the crosse, 

And the five wounds our Lord did beare." 

This rebellion is written of in the accounts of the castles of Barnard and Brance- 
peth, Durham, and was of terrible conseciuences to those who took part in it. 
YcKing Markenheld, after being hidden, like the Earl of Wcstmoiland, in Scotland 
by Lord Hume, escaped to the Low Countries, and like the earl also dragged out 
a weary existence in e.xile, a pensioner on the pittances doled out by the King 
of Spain. His estates were forfeited to the Crown, and Markentield became 
the property of the Egertons, Earls of Bridgwater, and was so held until its 
purchase by Sir P'letcher Norton, the first Lord Grantley, and Baron Marken- 
tield — being now held by his descendants. The house is still inhabited, being 
built on the plan of a large courtyard made up of the main building, which 
is in the form of the letter L, in the N.E. angle, and the stables and out- 
buildings, surrounded by a wide moat. The hall occupies the whole N. side — 
a noble building, about 40 feet long, lighted by four Decorated pointed 
windows, two on either side — with its wooden screens and minstrels' gallery. 
At the S.E. is the chapel, which is reached also by a doorway from the dais 
of the hall. At the E. end of the hall is the solar, with a large g.u'derobe 



236 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

attached to it. The rest of the house is Perpendicular, of the fifteenth century. 
The kitchen and cellars, &c., are in the vaulted basement. Access to the upper 
rooms is given by a newel stair enclosed in a turret, which leads to the battle- 
ments, and is capped with its original pointed roof. Nine shields of arms 
ornament the courtyard, bearing the coats of the various families related. 

J. H. Parker observes that this manor-house bears a greater resemblance to 
Southern than to Northern buildings, since the use of large Decorated windows, 
facing the moat, is not characteristic of a house built for defence. 



M 1 D D L E H A M {Me/) 

THIS famous stronghold of the Nevills, the most important after Raby of 
the many they possessed, and the favourite fiome of the great Earl of 
Warwick, the King-maker, stands on high ground over the river Ure at the 
entrance of Wensleydale in the moor country of the North Riding, N.W. of 
Ripon. The lands of Middleham were part of the territory granted to Alan, 
son of Eudo of Brittany, by the Conqueror. This Alan founded Richmond 
Castle, which is not far off, and he gave the manor of Middleham to his brother 
Ribald, whose grandson Robert Fitz Ralph was the builder of the keep of this 
castle in 1191. He married Helewise, daughter and heir of Ralph de Glanville 
of Coverdale, where that lady founded the abbey of that name. His grandson 
Ralph Fitz Ranulph left three daughters only, the eldest of whom, Mary, married 
Robert, eldest son of Robert de Nevill, lord of Raby and Brancepeth, and 
thus brought the honour and castle of Middleham to the Nevills, who enjoyed 
the possession for nearly 250 years. This Robert was caused by his wife to 
be barbarously mutilated on account of a liaison which he had formed with a 
lady in Craven, and died soon after, when his son Ralph succeeded, who, dying 
in 1331, was followed first by his eldest son Robert, called "The Peacock of the 
North," and then by his second son Ralph. This lord of Middleham died 
41 Edward III. (1367), and was succeeded by his son John, Baron Nevill, 
whose eldest son by his first wife was Ralph, the great Earl of Westmorland, 
Earl Marshal of England, whose abode was at Brancepeth. This John Nevill 
must have been a personage of high worth and importance, since he married 
as his second wife Joan Beaufort, the daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of 
Lancaster, by whom he had a daughter, Cecilia or Cicely, "The Rose of Raby," 
mother of King Edward IV. and of Richard III. (see BcrkJuviistcad, Herts), 
by Richard, Duke of York ; and an eldest son Richard, created Earl of S.disbury, 
who was Lord of Middleham, and was beheaded after the battle of Wakefield, 
and whose eldest son was Richard the King-maker, Earl of Warwick in his 
wife's right, killed at Barnet in 1471, when all his property, including Middleham, 
was confiscated by the Crown. This great man lived chieHy at Middlehaiu, 



YORKSHIRE 237 



incl seems to have sout'ht the soHtude ami secuiity o( Ihis fortress in tli 



c 



many troubled periods of his life. It was here that it is said he conhned 
Kin<^ Edward IV. after surprising and capturing him in his camp at Wolsey. 
Edward was placed there by Warwick under the custody of the Archbishop 
of York, Warwick's brother. Edward was allowed to hunt in the park, anil 
one day was met by a strong force of his friends, who enabled him to make 
good his escape. Edward gave Middleham to his brother Richard, Uuke of 
York, afterwards Richard III. He seems to have been attached to this place, 
and to have lived there frequently, and his only son by Anne, the daughter 
of Warwick, was born in this castle and died in it. There is scarcely any 
mention of Middleham in history after that epoch, and the fabric was probably 
neglected, though inhabited partially in the seventeenth century ; the hnishing 
stroke being put to its existence when the Roundhead Committee at York, 
during the Civil War, sent orders to make the place untenable, at which time 
the walls were rent and greatly injured by gunpowder, — huge masses of them 
now lying about the ruins. The castle was sold long ago to Mr. Wood of 
Littleton, an ancestor of the present owner. It stands a little above the town, 
the X. side of the fortress, where is the entrance, being next the town ; the whole 
is in ruins. The plan is an oblong rectangular enclosure, measuring 245 feet 
by 190 feet, having at three of the corners of the outer wall a square tower, 
and at the fourth a circular or drum tower, three storeys in height. The walls, 
which are about 30 feet high, and 3 to 4 yards thick, and exist partly on three 
sides, had attached to them inside numerous chambers and offices, the designa- 
tion of which can now scarcely be made out. In the centre of the area stands 
the Norman keep of 1191, measuring 100 feet by 80 feet, and 55 feet in height, 
having at its E. face a grand ascent of many steps leading to the entrance, and 
a barbican which contained an oratory ; besides the gate at the top of the 
stairs there was another half-way up, and a third at the vestibule. The keep 
is built of coursed rubble with ashlar diessings, and is divided unequally b\' 
the usual Norman wall in the middle, with a vaulted basement of two chambers 
on the ground level, and state rooms upon the first floor, where was the grand 
hall, very lofty, and lighted by round-headed windows, with an adjoining apart- 
ment on the W. side ; there were two large lireiilaces, the shafts of which rise 
clear of the roof. There are two small rooms, perhaps garderobes, in the centre 
buttresses. The buildings of the outer ward, which are of the Decorated period, 
and were rebuilt by the Nevills between 133 1 and 1367, encroach so much 
r(jund the keep as to leave little space between the buildings ; some of the slate 
chambers of these dwellings must have been very grand. On the outside 
of the enceinte, on the S. and E. fronts, are indications of a ditch. The 
home of a character so interesting in English history as the Earl of Warwick, 
Richard the Third, and Anne Nevill, is worthy of more than a passing glance, 
however ruined. 



238 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

MULGRAVE {,/iuwr) 

ABOUT ;i quarter of a mile from the modern seat of the Normanby family, 
near Whitby, hes the ruin of this ancient castle, on a ridge between 
two ravines, through which Bow two rapid streams, rendering it difilicult of 
access. It is supposed to have been formed in very early times upon the site 
of a Roman work, by a Northumbrian earl named Wada, who was concerned 
in the murder of " Ethelred of Northumberland" {HinderzveU), but the whole 
tradition savours of folk-lore and fiction. The place was long a stronghold 
of the De Mauleys, whose fortunes are said by Dugdale to have been formed 
by King John, who had used the services of one of them, named Peter, in 
the murder at Rouen of his nephew Prince Arthur. This man he caused to 
be married to Isabel, daughter of Robert de Turnham, and heiress of Mulgrave. 
Seven De Mauleys of the name of Peter successively enjoyed the estate 
and castle, but the seventh dying without issue, the inheritance passed by 
his sisters into various hands. At last, about 1625, it came to Edmund, 
Lord Sheffield, whom Elizabeth had made a Knight of the Garter, and who 
was created Earl of Mulgrave by Charles I. The family failing temp. 
George II., a lease of the Mulgrave estates was granted to Constantine Phipps, 
of the Anglesea family, who was made Lord Mulgrave in 1767, and who 
permanently acquired the estates by purchase, for the sum of ;/.'30,ooo, and 
an annual quit-rent to Government. 

There have been considerable buildings on this rugged site, consisting of 
large state rooms and domestic offices, bakeries, &c., and the remains are 
mostly Edwardian, with additions of later days. There are some very large 
fireplaces and chimneys, but not much remains that is of interest or remarkable. 
It is said that many farm-houses have been built from these ruins. The entrance 
to the outer court is on the W. between two circular towers, one of which is 
of great height, and is covered with ivv ; outside the walls there is a deep 
ditch crossed by a drawbridge. The keep is square, with a round turret at 
each angle ; at the S.E. angle of the outer wall are the remains of a square 
tower, the inside measurement of which is 12 feet by 9 feet ; it is two storeys 
high, and a fireplace exists in it. The whole is in a very ruinous state. The 
area is irregular in shape, and extends no yards E. to W., by 80 yards. 



NORTHALLERTON ^nou-cxistcui) 

A CASTLE stood at this place, on the \V. side of the town, said to have 
been built by Bishop Galfridus Rufus, who was Chancellor in the reign 
oi Henry 1. William Cumin, Chancellor of Scotland, on the death of the 
Bishop of Durham in 1140, usurped the see, and held this fortress for three 



YORKSHIRE 239 

years ; lie is said by some to liave been its Imilder : lie yielded it to Bishop 
Hiif^h Piidsay in 11-14, and this Prince Bishop added to and fortified it in 
the year 1173, and then j^ave it over to his nephew Hiij^h, Count of Barre. 
This must have drawn on him tiic wrath of that royal destroyer of castles, 
King Henry 11., who obiij^ed the bishop to demolish the buiidini;, thou,gh he 
offered a larj^e sum to redeem it ; nor does it appear to have been ever rebuilt. 
All that Leland saw in 1538 was "the ditches and the dungeon hille wher it 
sumtyme stood." 

The bishops had also a palace which stood near the church, said to 
have been " stronge of building & welle motid." It was quite a ruin in 
1638, and is represented as being in 1694 "a weather-beaten castle, demo- 
lished with age and the ruins of time — a receptacle for bats and buzzards, 
owls and jackdaws." A considerable portion of the gatehouse was standing 
about 140 years ago, of which not the smallest vestige now remains. 

The castle mound is a relic of still earlier times ; it is 100 feet in dia- 
meter and 20 feet in height, and is surrounded by a dry ditch. At a slight 
distance are the remains of a rampart and a ditch, beyond which a third dry 
ditch and rampart formed an outer defence. The whole must have been a 
formidable work. 

P I C K l', R I N G {luiuor) 

LELAXD in his Itinerary says : "This Castelle hath longgid to the Lancaster 
^ bloode ; but who made the Castelle, or who was the owner of it before 
the Lancasters, I could not Jerne there." Indeed there is no record of the place 
until 32 Henry 111. (1250), when William, Lord Dacre, was constituted keeper 
of Pickering Castle. After this Henry gave it to his son, Edmund Crouchback, 
from whom it came to his son Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, who was beheaded 
after the defeat at Boroughbridge, at Pontefract, in 1322, when his estates were 
forfeited by Edward 11., who made Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, 
governor of Pickering. The castle and manor have both been attached to 
the Duchy of Lancaster ever since John of Gaunt obtained them and the other 
estates through his wife lilanche, the granddaughter of Henry, brother of the 
beheaded earl, who obtained a reversal of the attainder. Henry of Boling- 
bioke, when he landed at Havenspur in 1399, came first to this castle, where 
he was joined by his Northern allies, and to Pickering also was his victim, 
Richard II., taken before being made away with at Pontefract, as is recorded 
in Hardyng's Chronicle (see Leeds, Yorks). 

In the Parliamentary War, Cromwell's troops opened a battery against this 
castle from the opposite side of the valley, and succeeded in driving a large 
breach into the W. wall. One may still see, on the crest of the opposite hill, 
two or three grassy hillocks which mark the site of this battery. William 111. 



240 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

sold a lonj^ lease of Pickering to one Hart at a yearly rent of Xio, after which it 
passed into the possession of various persons. 

The castle stands at the N. of the town, on the brow of the hill ; the walls of 
it and the towers being continued round the hill side ; in the words of Leland : 
"In the first Court of it be 4 toures, of the which one is called Rosamonde's Toure. 
In the ynner Court be also 4 toures, whereof the kepe is one. The Castelle 
waulles and the toures be neatly welle. The loggins that be yn the ynner Court 
that be of timber, be in ruine." The cross walls divide the area into three 



PICKERING 



courts, and where they meet is the keep, which is multangular, and stood on 
a circular mound surrounded by a deep ditch. The Mill Tower, on the left of 
the entrance, and the Devil's Tower, on the outer wall, close to the moat of 
the keep, and the Rosamond Tower (so called because Fair Rosamond is said 
to have been imprisoned there), in the outer court, three storeys high, are 
tolerably perfect, and are of Edwardian architecture, but there are some 
remains of earlier Norman work. There is a sallyport in the Devil's Tower 
giving to the outer ditch. The chapel is poor. Lovely views are seen from 
various parts of this castle over the well-wooded country around. 



PONTEFRACT (.///</) 

WHERE the ruins of this fine castle stand on its commanding height, 
was an earlier fortress from which its English lord was e.xpelled by 
the Conqueror, to make room for Ilbert de Lacv, to whom he granted 150 
manors in Yorkshire. In most cases the Xorman choice of sites followed the 
Saxon lead, which in very many cases throughout the land had depended 



YORKSHIRE 241 

on (lie previous military experience of the Romans or of tlie Britons. 
William ordered the erection of this castle, recognising the great importance 
of its position, which commanded the main road from Doncaster to York, 
with the passage of the river Aire, and also the intersection of the road from 
Chester and the Riching Street at Castleford, where was the Roman station 
of Lagentium {Stiikdey). De Lacy founded the castle about 1080, together 
with the chapel of St. Clement inside it. He was succeeded by his son 
Robert (who, or perhaps his brother, built Clitheroe, Lancaster), and with his 
son Ilbert, on the death of Riifus, espoused the cause of Robert Courthouse 
against Henry I., who in return dispossessed them of their lands, and granted 
these first to William Traverse, and afterwards to Guy De la Val, a baron who 
was there temp. Stephen. Then Ilbert de Lacy regained his property, and 
Henry his brother succeeding, built the later Norman work of the castle. 
In 1 193 Albreda, his sister and heiress, brought it in marriage to Richard 
Fitz Eustace, Count of Chester, and their son assumed his mother's name of 
De Lacy. John de Lacy succeeding in 1213, married Margaret, daughter of 
Hawise, Countess of Lincoln, and coheir of Ranulph, Earl of Chester and 
Lincoln, at whose death these titles were transferred to John de Lacy, before 
his death in 1240. The grandson of this man, Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 
was perhaps the best of his race ; he married the daughter of Longspec, and 
in her right became Earl of Salisbury. Earl Henry lost his two sons early, 
one of them being drowned at Denbigh Castle, and the other killed by falling 
when he was attempting to run round the battlements of one of the towers 
of I'omfret Castle. After the death of this poor boy, De I^acy, dying in 13 10, 
made King Edward I. heir to all his estates, and at his death the king 
conferred them on his own brother Edmund " Crouchback," Earl of Lancaster. 
Queen Margaret "of P'rance," Edward's second wife, was staying at Pontefract 
when, on a hunting expedition to Brotherton, she was unexpectedly conlined 
of her eldest son Thomas, who was surnamed of that place. Then, after tiie 
failure of the De Lacys, Pontefract became indeed " a bloody prison." 

Earl Henry left a daughter Alice, who was married to the king's nephew 
Thomas, the son of Edmund Crouchback : this was Thomas Plantagenet, the 
great Earl of Lancaster, the bitter enemy of his weak cousin's favourites, 
Gaveston and the twt) Despencers, and therefore the beloved of England, 
and, like Simon de Montfort, worshipped as a saint when dead. He was 
a mighty builder, and, as owner of Dunstanburgh, at that fortress erected 
extensive additions, while at Kenilworth he made the Lancaster Buildings. 
Here at Pontefract he built the Swillington Tower, and some of the best 
portions of the structure. After the defeat at Boroughbridge he was taken to 
Pontefract, where his cousin, the weak and vindictive Edward, awaited him, 
and imprisoned lum in the Swillington Tower; then, brought into his own 
hall, he was trietl and condemned by his enemies, and was beheaded on the 

VOL. II. 2 11 



242 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

hill above, wiiich still bears the name of St. Thomas. The earldom and 
property were suffered to pass to his brother Henry, whose son was created 
in 1351 Duke of Lancaster. He died without male issue, and the castle 
and honour of Pontefract went with his daughter Blanche in marriage to 
John of Gaunt, fourth son of Edward III., who in her right became Duke 
of Lancaster. He lived partly here, and rebuilt and restored some portions 
of the castle, which at his death (1399) passed to his son Henry of Bolingbroke, 
Duke of Hereford, who at once deposed his cousin, Richard II., and usurped 
the crown. Then occurred at Pontefract the cruel murder of Richard — either, 
as given by Shakespeare, at the hands of Sir Piers Exton, or more probably, 
according to Archbishop Scrope, by the slow torture of starvation. Richard 
had confiscated Bolingbroke's estates, and thus Henry took his revenge. 
Since the accession of Henry I\'. Pontefract has always vested in the 
Crown. 

This king was a frequent visitor at Pontefract, and in 1405 came thither 
to receive from his crafty supporter the Earl of Westmorland, Archbishop 
Scrope, and Mowbray, the young Earl Marshal, victims of Nevill's treachery 
at Shipton Moor. The warlike prelate, having acted as a prime mover in 
placing the crown on Henry's head, took in 1405 a leading part in a Northern 
revolt, set about ostensibly to lighten the burdens of the clergy and others, 
and to free the country from unjust e.xactions. A Yorkshire force, 8000 strong, 
led by Scrope and Mowbray, advanced from York against the royal troops 
under the earl and Prince John, encamped on Shipton Moor, six miles N.W. 
of York. Here Nevill, at a parley held between the two forces, pretending 
sympatiiy with Scrope's manifesto, and extreme friendship, joined hands with 
him over a friendly cup of wine in view of the rebel troops, who were thereby 
persuaded that all was conceded, and at once disbanded in large numbers. 
Then the earl's men took possession of the ground, made prisoners of the 
archbishop and the Earl Marshal, and hurried them off imder guard to 
Pontefract to await the king's arrival. When Henry arrived, the archbishop, 
who had been watching for him from the castle battlements, came down 
to meet him, throwing himself at his feet ; but the king, refusing to hear 
him, had him hustled away to Bishopthorpe, and following thither himself, 
caused trial and condemnation to be carried out at once in the hall of that 
palace. The Chief Justice, Gascoigne, refused to pronounce sentence of death 
upon an Archbishop of York, but by Henry's order both Scrope and the 
Earl Marshal were led away towards York and were beheaded in a field 
near the city. 

Here were tried the abettors of the Earl of Northumberland and Lord 
Bardolph ; and Pontefract became the prison of the unfortunate King James I. 
of Scotland, made prisoner, and so long held by Henry IV. ; and in the ne.xt 
reign the accomplished Duke of Orleans, with other prisoners from Agincourt, 



YORKSHIRE 243 

was confined in it. Henrv V. writes in 1419: "Wherefore I wolle that tlie 
Due of Orliance be kept stille within the Castil of Pomfret with owte goynjf 
to Robertis place or to any othrc disport, for it is bettre he hik his disport then 
we were disceyued " {Facsiini/e autographs, British Museum). 

Many stirring events occurred lierc chiring the Wars of the Roses. At the 
close of the year 1460 the Royalist leader, the Duke of Somerset, repaired to 
Pontefract before the battle of Wakefield, with his Lancastrian contingent, and 
after that bloody fight, the Earl of Salisbury, Richard Nevill, father to the King- 
maker, was carried wounded to the castle, with other Yorkist persons of 
distinction, all of whom were, with short shrift, next morning beheaded. 

Three months after this (March 1461), the newly proclaimed king, Edward 
IV., and the Earl of Warwick were at Pontefract with their forces two days prior 
to the great battle of Towton ; but the story of Warwick killing his charger 
under the castle walls, to animate his troops when on the march towards the 
enemy, is not worthy of credit, although from the legend of the Red Horse in 
Warwickshire (see Fulbroke) some foundation for it may have occurred during 
a panic at Towton Field. Tiien Edward, returning to Pontefract, reverently 
restoied to the coffin of his father, Richard, buried there, the head which, since 
his death at Wakefield, had surmounted one of the gates of York. Edward IV. 
was here again in 1463, and again, in great state, in 1478, remaining a week. 
Hither were sent by Richard III., in 1483, his unfortunate victims, Earl Rivers, 
Sir Richard Gray, Sir Thomas \'aughan and Hawse, for execution without even 
the formality of a trial, and they were beheaded at this bloodstained castle. 
The leaders of the insurrection called "The Pilgrimage of Grace," which broke 
out in defence of the old creed in 153''), came to Pontefract with their whole forces 
and succeeded in obtaining temporary possession of the fortress from Lord 
Darcy, and Lee, the Archbishop of Yoik, who were secretly favourable to their 
cause. Elizabeth, towards the end of her reign, repaired the castle and 
restored the chapel ; and in 1603 James 1. eame thither, tiie castle and honour 
being part of his queen's dower. 

In the Civil War, Pontefract became a military post of great importance, 
keenly contended for on both sides. It was the rallying-place for the cavaliers 
of Yorkshire, and was garrisoned by a very strong force of gentry and 
volunteers, under the command of Sir William Lowther. At Christmas, after 
the victory at Marston Moor (July 1644), Fairfax came before the castle and 
opened the siege ; his main attack was on the N.W. angle, where he threw 
down one of the seven towers, called the Piper, which Hanked the defences, and 
which carried down with it a part of the wall. The breach was made good 
with earth at once, and the enemy then ruined the S.E. angle, near the King's 
Tower, an attack which the garrison met by countermining, no easy matter in 
the solid rock. Great spirit was shown on b<ith sides, especially in tln' heroic 
sallies of the garrison, who were at length weakened by losses of men and by 



244 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

dearth of stores. At this moment they were reheved h\ Sir M. Lant^dale and 
2000 men from Oxford, at whose coming tlie enemy (Marcli i, 1645) broke 
lip in liaste, and raised the siege. Very shortly after, however, they again 
beset the place, and after a second siege, which lasted three months, succeeded 
in obtaining its surrender. In 1648 Pontefract was recovered for the king by 
a ruse ; Colonel Morrice, a young officer who had faced both ways, introduced 
some carts with provisions into the castle, accompanied by a few soldiers 
disguised as peasants, who surprised the guard and captured the fortress. It 
was an old trick, which succeeded at Scarborough Castle and on other occa- 
sions in ancient times, and irritated by it, the Parliamentary forces soon after 
appeared again before the castle, whose garrison had by that time been greatly 
reinforced. Cromwell himself, having viewed the works, wrote to the Council 
of War in London stating that as " the place is very well known to be one 
of the strongest inland garrisons in the kingdom, well watered, situated upon 
a rock in every part of it, and therefore difficult to mine," he desired additional 
troops and monev, " 500 barrels of powder, and 6 good battering guns, with 
300 shot for each." Too much honour cannot be accorded to the brave 
garrison for the stand they made, for at that time the Parliament had triumphed 
all along the line. The king had been killed, and only Scarborough Castle 
held out ; but they proclaimed Charles II., and made such vigorous sallies 
on the enemy's works as to prolong the siege for six months, when their 
lessened numbers, reduced from 500 to 100 men, obliged them to capitulate. 
Six persons were excepted from mercy, including Morrice and another who 
cut their way through and escaped for a time ; the other four were walled up 
in an underground chamber, and so eluded capture till opportunity occurred 
to get away. The Parliament immediately ordered the wreck of this blood- 
stained old fortress to be demolished, and the materials to be sold ; the only 
marvel being that anything of it should have survived to our day. 

The summit of the elevated rock, from which Pomfret Castle looked down 
on the surrounding country, occupied an area of 7 acres, with a high wall, 
having large, flanking, mural towers at intervals, and a deep ditch encom- 
passing the whole. Two huge round towers remain, portions of the keep, the 
lower part of them probably the work of the great Earl of Lancaster. The 
entrance to the keep is by a long flight of stairs ; it contains in its chapel 
some Norman work. Narrow staircases lead in it to a sallyport and to a 
dungeon, and below are vast subterranean passages and chambers in the rock 
of the time of Edward II. The walls are those built by Henry I., Duke of 
Lancaster. 

In Drake's Journal of the two first sieges (published by the Surtees Society), 
a drawing is reproduced giving a bird's-eye view of the fortress as it appeared 
in 1648. By this the great keep, with its clustering round towers, is shown 
on the W., with the square mural towers in succession on the outer curtain 



YORKSHIRE 



245 



wall : first the Red, or Gascoyiie's Tower ; the Piper Tower (\vron<4ly called 
the I'ixi, with a doorway, wliich lay next the keep, having been destroyed in 
1645 ; then the Treasurer's Tower ; the Swilhngton, advanced from the wall ; 
the Queen's Tower ; the King's Tower ; the Constable's Tower, with its chapel 
of St. Clement attached on the W., of which the basement remains ; and the 
great gatehouse into the inner ward occupying the whole summit — all, except 
the keep, being perhaps Norman {Clark), as is the greater part of the masonry. 
Only the keep and the ruin of the Piper Tower are now traceable, the rest, with 
the hall, kitchens, and the lodgings, having been removed by the Parliament. 







Sujtlltngf-on. Totoer 
Qu-een's Tower 







^rt.son^ 



'in^S T<"oer 



e Catehou.-'e 




S. Cat is 



PONTEFRACT 



In front of the gatehouse stood the barbican, whose wall on the E. ended in 
the E. or lower gatehouse ; and further S. was another enclosure of wall, com- 
mencing at the keep and continued on three sides of a square to the lower 
gatehouse, with a lower barbican and gateway in its midst. On the W. below 
the keep was the west gate, with a bridge and guardhouse in front. 

The keep was formed upon the ancient moimd, faced with mascMirv, and 
supporting a regular shell keep 60 feet in diameter. From the irregularity of 
the rock base this building was supported by the circular bastions mentioned 
by Leland, only two of which now remain ; on the S.VV. is the platform, 
20 feet above the main ward, and at its S. angle rises the conical mound. 
Among the ruins of early masonry is the end of an arched vault, which bears 
the name of " King Richard's Prison," having near it the shaft of a garderobe. 

Mr. Clark alleges the greater part of the remains to be early Norman work ; 



246 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

while the enceinte wall, the buildings on the W. platform, the old postern, 
the interior of the keep, and the deep magazine seem also to be Norman ; very 
little being extant of Early English or Decorated. 

The purpose to which this historical enclosure, so full of tragic memories, 
has been applied is the cultivation of liquorice. 



RICHMOND {chief) 

IT was probably during his marches through Yorkshire when engaged in his 
fiendish destruction of that North country, that William I. observed and 
chose as a point to be fortified the rocky peninsula here, around which the 
Swale — that " ryght noble ryuer " — bends its dark course. The lands below 
this height were the home of his friend, or prisoner, the Saxon Earl Edwin, 
who had his earthwork and timber fortress of Gilling there ; but a stronger 
position was needed for the Norman tower to which was to be confided the 
subjugation of this wild country, and the Breton count to whom the lands 
were given was directed to build his castle on these well-protected heights. 
This was Alan Fergeant, the second son of one of Duke William's followers, 
Eudo, Duke of Brittany, on whom, possibly at his Christmas festivities at 
York amid the ashes of that city (December 1069), the Conqueror conferred 
199 manors, chiefly then " waste," and after Earl Edwin's defection and death 
the bulk of the estates of that noble. The " Registrum honoris de Richmond " 
tells how this Alan, who was a cousin of William, and is called Rufus, at once 
drew a protecting line of wall round the site, and in 1071 began his castle of 
the French name of Richmond ; he took also the title of Richmond for his 
earldom. His brother Alan Niger succeeded him, and dying in 1093, was 
followed by another brother, Stephen, whose son Alan, marrying the heiress 
of Conan, Duke of Brittany, united in his son Conan this dukedom and the 
earldom of Richmond. To him is ascribed the existing keep of the castle. He 
seems to have been worked on by King Henry II. to resign the Breton Duchy, 
and also to betroth his daughter Constance to Henry's son Geoffrey. This 
is Shakespeare's Constance in King John, the mother of the murdered Prince 
Arthur, Duke of Brittany, after whose death the earldoms of Richmond devolved 
upon his half-sister Alice, the daughter of Constance by her third husband, 
Guy de Tours. But the richness of Earl Edwin's patrimony caused it to be 
coveted by English monarchs to such an extent that the succession to the 
honour of Richmond was greatly disjointed over a long period. First, the 
estates were arbitrarily seized and retained by Richard I., and John followed 
his example, Richmond Castle being placed under Geofi^rey de Nevill as 
Constable. Alice, meanwhile, the sister of Prince Arthur, was titular Countess 
of Richmond and Duchess of Brittany, of which latter possession her husband. 




1 



■ V 



YORKSHIRE 247 

Peter dc Dixnix, was deprived by Louis IX., (in his becoming a vassal of 
Henry III. (1237), tlie unfortimate condition of an owner of rank and lands 
in two opposed countries. His son, however, at last obtained restitution of 
Brittany, and also in 1266 of the county, honour, and castle of Richmond. 
Dying in 1286, he was followed by his son John, Earl of Richmond, whose 
wife was Beatrix, the daughter of Henry III. ; he was accidentally killed at 
Lyons in 1304, leaving two sons — Arthur, who became Duke of Brittany, and 
Joini, who succeeded to Richmond, and who was made by his brother-in-law, 
Edward I., Regent of Scotland (35 Edward L), an honour continued by the 
ne.xt king. This earl was taken prisoner at Bannockburn, and was deemed 
of so much importance that the Queen of France and the Bishop of Glasgow 
were exchanged for him; poor compensation perhaps "for an active and 
warlike earl." He again fell into the hands of the Bruce at the disaster of 
Byland Abbey, and paid ransom, but soon after retired to France, giving up 
his earldom. On his death in 1330, John his nephew was admitted by 
Edward 111. to the honour and dignity, and at his death s.p. in 1341, his 
honours were claimed by John de Montfort, son of Duke Arthur of Brittany, 
but his claims were put aside by Edward III., who, anxious to retain this 
great fief, conferred the earldom on his fourth son, an infant, afterwards 
John of Gaunt, and conlirmed his title to Richmond in his twenty-seventh 
year, under the Great Seal. In the eighth year of Richard 11., this earldom 
was conferred on Anne his queen. The Dukes of Brittany, however, long 
after continued ineffectually to seek restitution of the lands and dignity ravished 
from John de Montfort. 

Henry IV. bestowed the county of Richmond, but not the title, upon his 
then faithful friend Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, for his lifetime ; and 
he was followed in the possession by John, Duke of Bedford, and next by 
I'rince John of Hadham, half-brother to Henrv V'l., whose title of Earl 
of Richmond expressly gave him precedence of dukes. His wife, Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond, was one of the most illustrious women in the world, 
for learning, wisdom, and piety; she was the mother of Henry VII. by her 
Tudor husband, and her son only resigned this title of hers for that of king 
on the iield of Boswoitli. 

The ground plan of the castle is triangular, with its apex pointing N., and 
occupied by the keep, in front of which is a circular barbican, covering the 
main entrance. The base is the curtain, 159 yards long, below which runs 
the cliff, 30 feet high, and then a long slope down to the river, while the W. 
side, 130 3^ards in length, crt)wns a very steep depression to the town. The 
E. side has in front of it the outer ward on a gentle slope towards the river. 
A portion of the barbican wall remains, connected with what has probably 
formed part of an outer gatehouse ; all its \V. side has been built over. 

The great Xormaii keep measures 52 feet by 45 feet, and is nearly 100 feet 



248 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

high. Its walls at the base are 10 feet thick, the usual broad pilasters 
forming the angles on each side, with two pilasters strengthening the wide 
fronts, and one on each of the others ; each angle carries a turret at top, 
which had two stages. The lower part of the keep building being of better 
masonry than the upper part, would suggest an addition in the upper of the 
three floors. 

The basement is a chamber 32 feet by 21 feet, having lights or recesses, 
and in Decorated times the wooden floor above it was removed and a vaulted 
roof substituted for this stage, with ribs supported by an octagonal pier of 
stone, at the foot of which is the castle well. A Decorated spiral stair ascends 
from this chamber to the first floor, tlie chief apartment, lighted by three 
windows on the N. side. The only entrance was, as now, by a door on the 
S. face, inside which a straight stair leads up in the wall to the floor above, 
which is provided with three sleeping apartments in the thickness of the W. 
and E. walls, that on the N. being quite solid. The upper floor has a stair to 
the roof and battlements. The entrance to the basement was by an enormous 
archway, that to the first floor by an outer stair. There were neither fireplaces 
nor garderobes in the building. 

Near the keep was the chapel founded in 1278 by Earl John, which, with 
the various domestic offices, kitchens, hall, &c., was built against the wall. 
The most perfect of these is called Scotland's Hall, standing against the S. 
wall, through which its ground floor has loopholes. Its upper floor measures 
70 feet by 26 feet, and is lighted at its E. end by a Decorated window, and 
at the W. by one of Early English construction, the side windows being 
Norman. Next to this fine building is a rectangular tower occupying the S.E. 
angle of the outer walls, having once an ancient postern in its basement. 

E.xtending from the hall along the E. wall is the kitchen, which had 
over it a large apartment, and next to that is the chapel. Outside the E. 
wall and sloping down towards the river is the outer ward, now a garden ; 
it is known by the name of " The Cockpit." 

Although so near the great road to the North through Doncaster, Ponte- 
fract, and Boroughbridge, there is no recorded siege of this fortress, nor any 
account of warfare in or al:)Out it. 



RIPLEY (minor) 

ON a slope of ground on the side of the Nidd stands this fine residence 
of the Ingilby family, who have been here for more than five centuries. K 

Originally there was here a tower of the Ripleys, the heiress of which family, 
marrying Sir Thomas Ingilby about the year 1378, brought him these lands, 
and his descendants continued here till 1642. At the breaking out of 



1 



YORKSHIRE 



249 



tliL- Civil War, a baronetage was confcncd on Sir William Ins^ilby. By the 
death of the fourth baronet, Sir John, in 1779, unmarried, the title became 
extinct, but was revived by patent in 17S1, in favour of his successor in 
the property. 

It appears from an inscription on the oaken wainscoting of an ajiart- 
ment in the tower, that the castle was built bv Sir William hi-^ilby in 1555, 
and in later years many additions have been made to the structure. 

Xotiiing of his- 
toric interest is re- 
corded regarcUng the 
place, but a note- 
worthy incident hap- 
pened here when 
Cromwell, after the 
victory of Marston 
Moor, came through 
Kipley, and desired 
to be received for the 
night in the castle. 
Sir William Ingilbv 
being absent with 
the king, his wife, 
a daughter of Sir 
James liellingham, at 
first refused to admit 
him, saying she had 
strength enough to 
defend herself and 
her house against all 
rebels ; but at length, 

lieing persuaded not to resist, Lady Ingilliy received _the general in the great 
hall, with a pair of pistols stuck in her apron-strings, and told him she 
expected that both he and his men would behave properly. Then, to assure 
herself, she kept watch over him, and " there, sitting or reclining, each on a 
sofa in dilYerent parts of the room, these two extraordinary personages passed 
the night, ec^ually jealous of each other's intentions. At his departure in the 
morning, this high-spirited dame caused it to be intimated to Cromwell that 
she was glad he had behaved in so peaceable a manner, for had it lieen 
otherwise, he would not have left that house alive " {Baiiic). 

The lodge and the great tower are battlemented, and preserve their original 
traces of strength and securitv. 




RIPI.RV 



\ui.. II. 



2 I 



250 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



SANDAL (7iou-e.\istent) 

WAKEFIELD formed a part of the fee of the great family of De 
Wareiine, of wliich Coningshorough was the head. John, the eighth 
and last Earl of Wareniie, succeeded his grandfather in the barony in 1304, his 
father having been killed in a tournament in 1286. Edward 1. honoured him 
by giving him his granddaughter, Joan de Barr, in marriage ; hut it was not a 
happy union, and both parties would have had a divorce if they could, but 
the Pope would not grant one. The earl separated from her, consorted with 
a Norfolk lady of rank, Maud de Narford, formerly the wife of Thomas, Earl 
of Lancaster, and if he could, would have made her his countess, and the two 
sons he had by her owners at his death of Coningsborough, and all his other 
property N. of Trent. It was as a residence for her that he built this castle 
of Sandal about the year 1320 ; he, however, survived both her and her sons, 
and when he died in 1347, his estates fell to the Crown. In the time of Edward 
III., John Baliol resided at Sandal during the time that an army was being 
raised to place him on the throne of Scotland. But the strongest interest 
which attaches to this fortress centres in its connection with the war of York 
and Lancaster. In 1446 Richard, Duke of York, father of Edward IV., entered 
into possession of Sandal, deriving it from his uncle Edward, Earl of Rutland, 
and he was slain there fourteen years after, at the battle of Wakefield. 

After the battle of Northampton, in which Warwick captiued King Henry 
and drove Queen Margaret into Scotland, the Duke of York made formal claim 
to the throne, and it was settled in Parliament that after Henry's death he 
should succeed. But to this negation of her son's rights the queen was 
naturally opposed, and gaining over the king and nobility of Scotland to her 
cause, she collected, with their aid, a large army and invaded England ; her 
forces were stated to be 22,000 strong, and were under the chief command of 
the Dukes of Somerset and Exeter. The Duke of York, getting together what 
troops he could, left London in December to meet the queen's army, though 
his numbers did not amount to 5000 men. At Worksop his van came in collision 
with Somerset's rear and suffered a slight check ; but York pushed on, and 
on December 21 reached his castle of Sandal, where he intended to await 
the arrival of his son Edward, Earl of March, with reinforcements, before 
attacking the enemy. After a short armistice during Christmas, the Royalists, 
breaking up from Pontefract, advanced to Wakefield, from whence Sandal 
was about a mile distant, and coming near the castle, sought by taunts 
and menaces to draw Richard of York out of his moated stronghold. Unfor- 
tunately for his cause — perhaps straitened for provisions after nine days — 
he allowed himself to accept battle without waiting for the rest of his army, 
and on December 30 drew his small force out of the castle to meet his 



1 



YORKSHIRE 251 

clialleiij^ers. Sandal Castle stood 011 the summit of a conical mound, pro- 
bably of Saxon or Danish origin, and its chief gate opening to the S., York 
was obliged, in order to meet the hostile army in the N., to wheel round the 
base of his castle hill, a movement which gave Somerset time to make his 
arrangements for entrapping the Yorkists, which was effected by advancing 
his two wings to a position on the right and left of the road by which York 
would have to attack his main body. Thus it came about that as soon as 
the head of the Yorkist column came to close quarters witii the Royalist 
centre, posted across the roadway, these wings were brought round and fell 
upon the flanks and rear of Duke Riciiard's force, which had marched blindly 
into the snare, and was at once overwhelmed and cut to pieces by overpowering 
odds- some 2800 being said to liave fallen. The duke himself was slain, with 
many of his best ofiticers, and the whole affair was over in Iialf-an-hour. The 
duke's body was beheaded, and tlie head set up over the iMicklegate Bar 
of York : 

"So York may overlook the town of York." 

But Shakespeare's account is poetical, and there is no doubt that at that time 
Oueen Margaret was not in Yorkshire. Two months later, however, the 
yoiuig Edward was proclaimed king, and his first act was to take down his 
father's head, and give proper binial to the remains at Pontefract. 

The ground slopes gently down from Sandal Castle to Wakefield Bridge, 
where the murder of Richard's young son, the Karl of Rutland, by Lord 
Clifford occurred, and where is still the beautiful chapel of Edward 11. 's reign. 
The spot on which tradition place> the death of Ivichard of York is about a nnle 
from this bridge, near the Barnsley road, where in a marshy place stood till 
lately two very aged willow trees ; here it is likely the fugitives were rallied 
by the duke, but soon overpowered. 

Meagre, indeed, are the vestiges of this castle, consisting of tlu' nibble 
hearting of some pieces of wall, from the outside of which the ashlar has been 
lorn, and many heaps of rubbish ; a circular moat, which has been wide and 
deep, surroimds the castle still, 40 or 50 feet below its site. 

Richard, Duke of Gloucester, inhabited Sandal at times during his brother's 
reign. The place was always the manor-house of the barony of Wakefield, and 
the Saviles of Thornhill, who acted as hereditary stewards of these estates, some- 
times resided here. It was held for Charles 1. by Colonel Bonivert, and after 
a siege was surrendered to the Parliamentary forces in October 1645 ; the ne.\t 
year it was slighted and dismantled bv orders fioni the Council. 



252 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



SCARBOROUGH {chief) 

THERE could be no finer ideal situation for a fortress of a maritime power 
than that held by the Castle of Scarborough, reared on the simimit of its 
lofty headland or scar, 300 feet high, and peering thence over hundreds of 
square leagues of ocean. The promontory forms a bav and harbour on its S. 
side, while on the N. it advances boldly into the North Sea, so that the precipi- 
tous cliff is washed by the waves on all sides, except where its neck of rock 
joins the land side, and here the cliff is scarped, and deep ditches cut off all 
access to the castle. 

The chief authorities for this part of Yorkshire are the chronicle of William 
of Newburgh, an East Riding man, who wrote at the end of the twelfth century, 
and the writings of the antiquary Thomas Hinderwell, published in 1798. From 
these it appears that the noble castle of Scarborough was built (temp. Stephen) 
about the year 1136 by William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle and lord of 
Holderness, who commanded one of the divisions of the English army at the 
Battle of the Standard in 1138. This William was the grandson of Odo de 
Campania, a follower of Duke William, whose daughter Adeliza he married, 
receiving also from the Conqueror the lands of Holderness by the Humber, 
with other gifts. His son was Stephen, who married the granddaughter of 
Malcolm, King of Scotland ; thus William le Gros was of roval blot)d on both 
father and mother's side. He, says the Chronicler, " viewing well, and seeing 
it to be a convenient plot to build a castle upon, helping nature forward witli a 
very costly worke, closed the whole plaine of the rocke with a wall, and built a 
toure within the very streight of the passage." And from this fortress he ruled 
over the country X. of Humber with king-like power, until Henry 11., bent on 
putting a stop to the lawless excesses of the nobles, decreed the demolition ol 
a vast number of their castles, Scarborough among the rest. This mandate 
being resisted by Le Gros, Henry came in person to see his orders carried out, 
but being struck with the useful situation of the castle, he not only preserved 
it, but built a new keep and greatly improved its strength and magnificence. 
But he annexed it to the Crown, and Le Gros in dudgeon retired to Thornton 
Abbey in Lincolnshire, and died there, 1179. Thenceforth the custodians of this 
stronghold were appointed by the king, sometimes from among the highest of 
the nobility. In 131 2, when Edward 11., desirous of reinstating his minion, 
Piers Gaveston, who had been banished, recalled him to York, the confederated 
barons, fearful of Gaveston's power, raised an army, headed by the Earl of 
Lancaster, and advanced against the king and his favourite, who together fled 
to Newcastle, and then taking ship at Tynemouth, sailed to Scarborough, 
where Edward left Gaveston. Thither came the Earl of Pembroke with 
a strong force to besiege the place. Gaveston repulsed several assaults 



YORKSHIRE 



253 



with much bravery, Init want of provisions coinpellL-d Inni to surrender himself 
on terms wliich were at once set aside ; he was taken as a prisoner towards 
Warwick, where the Earls of Warwick and Lancaster met him, and struck off 
his head at Blacklow Hill ; at which place a stone monument has been erected, 
markinj* the spot where he suffered (see Dcddiiigton, Oxoii). 

Kins^ Robert Bruce after Bannockburn, and later the Earl Douglas, wasted 
the northern counties and burned Scarborough, but the castle seems to have 




>c \Ki;<)i<ouiai 



been too strong for them to master, it was placed in tlioiougli repair iiy 
Edward III. in 1343. The castle, town, and port were granted in 1473 to 
the Duke of (lloucester, afterwards Richard HI., and Anne his wife, in 
e.xchange for the manor of Bushey. 

In 27 Henry Vill. (1536) the fanatics who led the insurrection known 
as "The Pilgrimage of Grace" assaulted this castle, but it was bravely de- 
fended by Sir Ralph Eure, the governor, and the assailants were beaten off. 
Again, at the time of Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary in 1553, Thomas, 
second son of Lord Stafford, led a daring attack by stratagem on the castle. 
Dressing up some thirty followers as countrymen, he strolled with them, on a 



254 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

market-clay, into the castle without exciting suspicion, and suddenly took 
possession of the entrance and secured the sentries ; then admitting the rest 
of his adherents, he held the castle for three whole days, when the Earl of 
Westmorland, coming with a considerable force, recovered it without loss. 
Stafford and four others of the leaders were sent to the Tower of London, 
where the former was beheaded, and three of his associates were hanged 
and quartered. 

Nothing memorable occurred here afterwards until during the Civil War, 
when the castle was besieged by a Parliamentary army under Sir John 
Meldrum, who opened batteries against it in February 1644 ; besides these, 
he brought guns into the adjacent Cluu-ch of St. Marv, tiring from the E. 
window of that church ; but these guns were silenced by the tire from the 
castle, that also brought down the chancel, which indeed is still in ruins. Sir 
J. Meldrum was wounded and died in |une, and the siege was continued by 
Sir Matthew Boynton. The clever defender of the fortress was Sir Hugh 
Cholmley, who, being at first Parliamentary governor, had gone over to the 
Royalist side. He was assisted by his heroic wife, who remained during the 
whole siege and tended the sick. At last the garrison, reduced by sickness 
and want of provisions, became disheartened, and Sir Hugh surrendered upon 
very honourable terms in July 1645. 

In 1648 Boynton, who had replaced Cholmlev as governor, in his turn 
declared for the king, but fearing a nuitinv of his garrison, he surrendered to 
Lord Fairfax, and was allowed to march out with all the honours of war in 
December 1648. 

In 1665 George Fox, the founder of the ^ect of Huakers, wa> nnpnsoned 
here, in one of the rooms facing the sea, now in ruins, remaining there a 
twelvemonth. We read that in 1745, when the country was in a state of panic 
on account of the Pretender's invasion of England, the castle received repairs, 
and next year barracks were built there, but, injured as the fabric was by the 
siege in 1645, it fell into hopeless decay and ruin, winch its exposed position has 
served to increase. 

In spite, however, of the wreckage caused by time and gunpowder, we 
still see at Scarborough sufficient remains of the " great and goodly castle " 
to afford an interesting example of what these ancient fortresses were. 
Approaching from near the E. end of S. Mary's Chinch, we enter by the 
barbican, repaired after the great siege, along the narrow causeway and 
across the ditch, originally defended by a double drawbridge, whence the 
approach entered the inner ward on the N. side of the keep. The 
whole enclosure included nearly 20 acres, of which the greater portion is 
in the outer court or castle green, where were the chapel and the principal 
offices and barracks for the garrison. The keep or hold is that built by 
Henry 11., but of it only the E. side remains perfect, and also part of the 



YORKSHIRE 



255 



X. and S. faces ; the W. side was destroyed, probably after the siege. It 
has been a grand tower, nearly 100 feet in height, of the same character 
as that of Rochester, though smaller, having a vaulted crypt, and three 
vaulted storeys of rooms, divided by a CLMitral wall. The walls are 12 feet 
through, built of excellent rubble with ashlar facing, and with mund-hcaded 



I 

E 




lag Staff 



SCARIiOROUc;!! 



Xorman windows. The curtain wall, which was strongly embattled, and 
provided with a defencible and machicolated gatehouse and many flanking 
towers, w^as carried across the isthmus between the precipices of cliff on 
either side. The remains of a deep well were discovered within the inner 
court in 1783, this portion being divided off witii the keep by its own moat 
and wall ; in it were the habitable buildings of the castle, and the towers 
mentioned by Leland, containing the queen's lodging. 



256 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



SHEFFIELD {non-e.vislnit) 

EXCEPT the words "Site of Sheffield Castle" upon the Ordnance maps, 
there is nothing to show of the existence of this once splendid and important 
fortress, the home of the great Earls of Shrewsbury, and interesting in history 
as the scene of the captivity of the hapless Queen of Scots for nearly twelve 
years. Some vaulted cellars may still exist helow the factories and streets 
that now cover its site, hut not a vestige remains aboveground, though the 
name of Castle Hill preserves its memory. 

The castle stood on gently rising ground at the confluence of the rivers 
Sheaf and Dun, and covered more than four acres. It was one of the strongest 
places in the north : the broad river Dun on the \. side, and on the E. 
the Sheaf or Sheath, from which the town is named, flowing beneath the 
walls, formed its defence, whilst on the S. and W. a wide ditch had been 
cut connecting the two streams, and thus encircling the walls with water. 
The entrance was on the S., or the castle-folds side, by a drawbridge across 
the moat under a gatehouse admitting to the outer bailey, around which 
were the stables and dwellings. Over the rivers lav the castle orchard, and 
bevond, the great park, eight miles in circuit, stocked with deer, and full 
of the finest timber in the country, some trees, says Harrison, being from 
12 to 15 feet in girth. A great avenue of walnut trees led from the park 
gates towards the lodge or manor-house near the centre of the park, built 
by the fourth earl in the beginning of the fifteenth century. 

This strong castle, remote on the moors, and its manor-house, which 
has disappeared almost as totally as the fortress, were chosen by Elizabeth 
as a safe prison for her cousin and victim. 

The family of De Lovetot held all the lands here temp. Stephen, and 
in the reign of Richard Creur de Lion, Maude de Lovetot, lady of Hallamshire, 
married Gerard de Furnival, of a Norman family, and brought him the lordship. 
In 50 Henry 111., Thomas de F"urnival had a licence to crenellate a stone castle 
on his manor of Shefeld, Ebor. {Patent Rolls), perhaps on the site of a former 
one ; and he dying soon after its erection, was succeeded by his son. Other 
families are mentioned by Hunter ("History of Hallamshire") as possessing 
the castle, which, however, was act.]uired earlv in the fifteenth century by 
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsburv, on his marriage with Maud, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Nevile, Lord Furnival. He was the celebrated commander 
of the English in France, when they were making the last struggle to retain 
their possessions in that country — " tlie great Alcides of the Held." He 
was, however, routed by Joan of Arc in 1429, and was at last slain by a 
cannon-ball when eighty years old, at the battle of Chatillon on the Dordon, 
near Bordeaux, in 1453, where the English made their final stand. His 



YORKSHIRE 257 

sword, manufactured at his forges at Shefiield, was found in llie river 
long after, with the inscription : — 



'Sum Talboti M.ini.c.xi..in. 
Pro vincere ininiico nieo." 



— Hunter. 



His many titles are thus summed up by Shakespeare {Henry fV., Part 1. 
Act iv. Sc. 7). 

"Valiant Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 

Created for his rare success in arms. 

Great Earl of Washford, Waterford, and Valence, 

Lord Talbot of ("loodrig and Urchinfield, 

Lord Strange of Blackfielde, Lord Verdun of Alton, 

Lord Cromwell of Wingfield, Lord Furnival of Sheffield ; 

The thrice victorious Lord of Falconbridge, 

Knight of the noble order of St. George, 

Worthy St. Michael, and the (Jolden Fleece ; 

Great Marshall to Henry the Sixth, 

Of all his wars within the realm of France." 

There is no mention of this castle during the Wars of the Roses, but 
John, the second earl, together witli his brother Sir Christopher Talbot, was 
killed at the battle of Northampton in 1460, on the side of Lancaster ; this 
second earl was Lord Treasurer of England. Francis, the fifth earl, was born 
here in 1500, and seven Earls of Shrewsbury resided in the castle of Sheffield. 
George, the sixth earl, married in February 1567 Lady Cavendish, known as 
" Hess of Hardwick," being her fourth husband, and within a year was chosen 
by Elizabeth to be the custodian of the captive Queen of Scotland ; she said 
"she dyd so trust him as she dyd few." Mary had been removed from Bolton 
castle iq.v.) and the care of Lord Scrope in January 1569, on account of the 
plot for her proposed marriage to the Duke of Norfolk, whose sister was Lady 
Scrope, and on Shrewsbury and his grim wife accepting the charge (which they 
were possibly obliged to do), the queen was taken to Tutbury Castle Uj.i:) in 
Staffordshire, a place which Shrewsbury held of the Crown. There she 
remained, on and off, till December 1570, when the castle of Sheffield, being 
the earl's own home, was adopted as her prison, and in it twelve of her 
nineteen years (nearly) of captivity were passed in severe durance. Shrewsbury 
wrote to Elizabeth : " I have hur sure inoughe, and shall keep inn- for the 
comyng at your Majesty's commandment, either quyke or ded, ... so if any 
forsabull attempts be gyven for hur, the gretest perell is sure to be hurs." The 
standing orders being that in case of any rising or attempt to release her, Mary 
should be at once killed, the strictest rules were enforced in regard to the 
thirtv-nine persons composing her suite. Shrewsbury writes to Burleigh in 

VOL. II. 2 K 



258 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

1571 that he does not allow the queen " Hbertie out of the f^ates, her principall 
drift," but that he lets her "walk upon the leads in open ayre, and in my large 
dining chamber and also in this courtyard, so as both myself or my wife be 
ahvaies in her company, for avoiding all others talk either to herself or any 
of hers." It came out, however, that at Easter 1571 Sir Henry Percy nearly 
succeeded in a scheme to release her, only failing through an unexpected 
change of the queen's apartments. The Duke of Norfolk was now imprisoned 
again, after he had managed to keep up a frequent correspondence with Mary ; 
early in the next year, 1572, Shrewsbury had to preside at his trial, and pro- 
nounced sentence of death upon him, Norfolk being beheaded on June 2nd. 

During the earl's absence at this time, Sir Ralph Sadler was sent to watch in 
liis place at Sheffield, and during the whole of the queen's captivity Elizabeth 
constantly kept spies about her, who sent word immediately to London of 
everything that passed. Five uneventful years were passed at Sheffield after 
Norfolk's death, during which Mary's sole occupation was her needlework. 
How she must have groaned for liberty over that "nyddyll." Between 1570 
and 1584, when on September 3rd she finally left Sheffield Castle, Mary was 
on three occasions taken for a short visit to Buxton for her health's sake, and 
twice to Chatsworth ; for imprisonment, and the damp, cold air of her jail, had 
seriously affected her; in 1581 she is described as weak and bed-ridden, with 
her hair turned grey, and weak in body, though only thirty-eight years old. 
Mary Stuart having been defeated at Langside on May 13th, took refuge in 
Cumberland on May i6th, and wrote to her cousin craving her promised good 
services and shelter ; but Elizabeth, congratulating her upon her escape from 
Loch Leven, proceeded to close the gates of Carlisle upon her at once, and 
then fearing the proximity of Scotland, caged her far inland at Bolton Castle. 
From the date of the queen's landing at Workington on May 13, 1568, to her 
execution on February 8, 1587, is a period of eighteen years eight months 
and twenty-two days, and the proportions of her time spent in the various jails 
she occupied are given by Hunter as follows : — 

1 part in Cumberland. 

2 parts in Coventry, Worksop, and on journeys. 

3 parts at Chartley. 



4 




Bolton. 


4 




Wingfield. 


4 




Buxton. 


7 




Chatsworth. 


12 




Tutbury. 


63 




Shefifield. 



During the next fifty years little or nothing is recorded of Sheffield Castle ; 
the later lords seem to have preferred the better, purer air at the manor-house, 



YORKSHIRE 259 

and so the old castle was deserted by the family, and fell into disrepair. In 
the Civil War, however, it was made stron<f enough to hold a garrison for the 
king. The Earl of Newcastle marched thither, and taking possession in Charles' 
name, placed there as governor Sir William Savile, who appointed Major 
Beaumont his lieutenant-governor. On August 4, i'>-14, Major-General Crawford 
was sent with a force to summon the castle, "having three of their biggest 
peices of ordnance " to take it with, if necessary. Within was " a troop of 
horse and 200 foot ; it was strongly fortified with a broad and deep trench of 
18 foot deep, and water in it ; a strong breastwork pallizadoed, a wall round 
of 2 yards thick, 8 peices of ordnance, and 2 morter-peices." Fire was opened 
on the castle, but with the small guns of the Parliamentarians little execution 
was done, so word was sent to Lord Fairfax for "the Queen's pocket-pistoll 
and a whole culverin," which being obtained and brought to bear on the walls, 
speedily shot down a portion of the outer wall into the ditch, doing also very 
great execution on one side of the castle buildings. Arrangements were at 
once made for storming, but, on a summons being again sent in, the garrison 
surrendered. The victors found 400 stand of arms, 12 barrels of powder, 
and ;^'400 worth of provisions. An order was then sent from London that 
the castle should be made untenable, but this was followed by one directing 
that it should be slighted and demolished, which was carried out in 
1648, when the walls and most of the buildings were pulled down, and 
the lead and materials sold. A part, however, of the fabric survived these 
operations, but this, for want of repair, also went to ruin, whilst the growth 
of the busy town gradually encroached on the Castle Hill, until all vestiges of 
the castle disappeared, so that now a few vaults or undercrofts are all that is 
left of it. 

PVom the Talbots the llallamshire lands passed by the marriage of the 
seventh earl's daughter to the family of Howard, and by the middle of the 
seventeenth century the property had been restored to the Dukes of Norfolk, 
in whose possession the lands remain. 



S H K R I K F-H U T T O N {chief ) 

THIS line and interesting ruin stands on a hill, in the middle of the village 
of the same name, about ten miles from York, S.W. of Malton. The 
castle was built temp. Stephen, by Ik-rtram de Buhner, the Sherilf of Yorkshire 
(whence the name is in part derived), and, together with the manor, belonged to 
the demesnes of the bishopric of Durham. During the Civil War that ensued 
between Stephen and the Empress Maud the castle was seized for the former 
by Alan, Earl of Brittany, but being recaptured, was deliwred to the Earl of 
Chester. Atleiwai'ds it was |iuicliase(l by Bertram, a descendant oi the lounder, 



26o CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

who gave it in marriage with his only daughter Emma to Geoffry de Nevili, 
whose descendant, Ralph de Nevili, ist Earl of Westmorland, repaired and 
greatly enlarged the structure, and at his death left it to his grandson, Ralph. 
This hrst earl deserted Richard II. when the star of Bolinghroke rose, and was 
one of the first to attach himself to this claimant of the throne on his landing 
at Ravenspur. It is he who in Shakespeare's play is called by King Henry 
" my cousin Westmoreland," his second wife Joan being a daughter of John 
of Gaunt. The ne.xt earl bequeathed this and other lands to his son Richard 
Nevili, who was created Earl of Salisburv, and during the Wars of York and 
Lancaster, being taken prisoner at the battle of Waketield, was beheaded at 
Pontefract, and his immense estates, attainted by the Parliament at Coventry 
(1460), were seized by the Crown. Of course, in the see-saw of events during 
these wars, his son Richard, the great Earl of Warwick, shortly after regained 
the property, including Sheritl^-Hutton, but at the King-maker's death on Barnet 
Field, King Edward 1\'. laid hold of the lands and castles, and bestowed them 
on his own brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. When Richard of Gloucester 
became king he imprisoned at Sheriff-Hutton Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord 
Rivers, and the Princess Elizabeth, his niece, and future Queen of England ; he 
also incarcerated here his young nephew Edward, Earl of Warwick, son of the 
unfortunate Duke of Clarence, who continued a prisoner until the death of 
Richard at Bosworth. But the change of dynasty brought small alleviation 
of his fate to the poor lad, who, having been a captive from his earliest youth, 
continued so to his death, and thus grew up ignorant of the ordinary affairs 
of life and in an almost imbecile condition of mind. After the coronation of 
Henry VII., Sir Richard Willoughby was despatched to Sheriff-Hutton to fetch 
the Earl of Warwick to London, where he was closely confined in the Tower 
for another fourteen years, until the conspiracy of Perkin Warbeck furnished 
the unscrupulous king with a pretext for attainting his wretclied victim, who 
was beheaded on Tower Hill in 1499. 

It was from the gateway of this castle that in i486 Elizabeth, the White 
Rose of York, set out for London, to be married to Henry VII. — a destiny 
little to be envied. 

There is a licence to crenellate at " Shirefhoton," obtained 5 Richard 11. by 
Sir John Nevili of Raby, whose buildings, together witli those of his successor, 
above mentioned, constitute the principal remains now existing. It is a 
venerable and striking ruin, with its stately towers and connecting walls ; the 
S.W. tower being 100 feet high, rising from a vaulted basement or dungetMi 
40 feet long by 20 wide. There are in it two spacious rooms, the uppermost 
nearly entire, in which, at the end of the last century, might still be seen the 
remains of a painting on the wall {Himiciivell). The castle stood on a high 
mound and had a square trace, with a large square tower at each of the 
four angles. The arched gateway of the chief entrance remains on the E. side. 



YORKSHIRE 261 

showing still four shields carved on it, :md there are remains of ontworks on the 
W., and some vestiges of the outer wall. The castle is moated in front, but 
only partly so on the N., while there is a double moat on the S. 200 yards 
in length and full of water ; these meet on the VV. with the moat coming from 
the N. side. 

This castle and manor were retained by the Crown until granted to Charles I. 
when Prince of Wales, but it was in so ruinous a condition that it was deemed 
best to employ workmen to destroy it still further. Then Charles I. bestowed 
the castle and honour on Sir Thomas Ingram and his heirs, whence the ruins 
came into the possession of Mr. Meynell Ingram of Temple Newsaui, whose 
widow now owns them. 

The great park was sold in the reign of Charles 11. to Edward Thompson, 
whose descendant possesses the lands still. 



S I G S T O N {iiou-cxisteiit) 

OX the W. side of Cleveland, three miles from Northallerton, was a castle 
of early foundation, called Siggeston and Beresend, variously. It was 
allied to another neighbouring castle of West Harlsey (y.z.'.) by marriage between 
the families owning these fortilied houses. 

No vestige of masonry remains above-ground, but the earthworks and 
foundations are well delined, and a considerable area was enclosed by a wide 
moat, still to be seen. 

Hugh Pudsey, Bishop of Durham (1158-1195) granted to his seneschal Philip 
Colville certain townships, including Siggeston, and the estate of Winton, on 
which the castle stood. Colville's daughter Joan brought part of these estates 
in marriage to John F"itz Michael de Kyhiil, between 1260 and 1270, and in 
1313 their descendant John Kit/. Michael de Siggiston held the lands. In 
1323 John de Wau.xand and Joan his wife granted to Sir John de Siggeston, 
knight, certain lands in Winton ; he perhaps having married their daughter. 
And this is the probable date of the building of this castle, as about that 
time "John de Siggeston, iiii/cs, liabuit eastellum de Berford in Siggiston" 
{Dodswort/i, xci. 177), and in 1336 licence was granted at Knaresborough to 
the same knight to crenellate his manor-house of Beresende. His daughter 
Joan married Thomas Ploys, and their granddaughter, an heiress, carried the 
property to Sywardby, from whom it came to the Pygols (middle of fifteenth 
century). Thomas Pygot left three daughters, coheiresses, between whom a 
division of the property was made, but eventually the estate of Winton, 
and this castle, came to Elizabeth, daughter of one of these heiresses, whose 
daughter brought it to the Latons. I'"nini tlieni it passed to the Krewens, in 
which familv it continues. 



262 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

The castle perhaps ceased to be Hved in after the partition of the property 
between the Pyj^ot heiresses, and would in that case fall into decay, as did their 
Chantry Chapel at Sigston Church, where are some memorials of the families. 
The last mention of " Bereshend Castle" occurs in 1555. 



S K E L T O N, NEAR Sai.tburn-by-the-Sea {uoti-cxistent) 

AT Domesday most of the lands here belonged to Robert, Earl of 
^^ Mortain, whose son William, rebelling against Henry I., lost them 
(see Trcinatofi and others, in Connvall), the king bestowing them on Robert 
de Brus, whose origin is still in doubt, but it is certain that he founded 
Guisborough Priory in 11 20, near this place. From the Bruces, Skelton 
descended with Agnes, daughter of Peter de Brus (55 Henry III.), to her 
husband Walter de Fauconberg, and their family flourished here through 
many generations, till early in the reign of Henry VI., when Joan, daughter of 
Sir Thomas P^auconberg, brought the place in marriage to Sir William Nevill, 
knight, who was created Earl of Kent by Edward IV. He left three daughters, 
coheiresses, of whom Alice, the youngest, married Lord Conyers, and had the 
manor and castle of Skelton, which remained with their descendants till the 
4th year of Queen Mary, when, at the death of Lord Conyers, his property was 
divided between his daughters. One of these portions was bought by one 
Robert Trotter, w'hose descendants succeeded in acquiring all the Conyers' 
lands here, and in keeping them till 1727, when they were sold to Mr. Joseph 
Hall, whose representatives still possess the property — the present owner being 
Mr. John T. Wharton. 

Mr. Atkinson (" History of Cleveland," 1874) quotes from an old Cottonian 
M.S. an early notice of this castle : " On the righte Hande an antyent castle 
all rente and torne, and yt seemed rather by the wit and wyolence of men, 
than by the envye of Tyme, shewed itself on the syde of a broken banke." 
Of what it was like we have no account, but it is said to have been " a 
beautiful specimen of antiquity," and Graves says that late in John's reign 
Peter de Brus " delighted soe much in the beauty of the chapelle, that he 
gave certain landes unto Henry Percye, upon condition that every Christmasse 
daye he should come to that castell, and leade his wife by the arme from her 
chamber to the chapell." The destruction of the old castle was effected in 
1788 by the grandson of John Hall, who assumed the name of Wharton, and 
" pulled down every reuuiant of Norman antiquity, including a magnificent 
tower" (Onf). The present house was erected in 1794. 




Id 
J 
r' 

< 
U 

O 

H 

Q. 
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YORKSHIRE 263 



S K I P S E A {non-existent) 

ABOUT six miles N. of Hornsea, within Bridlington Bay, is tliis site of an 
ancient fortress, said to have belonged to Drngo or Drogo de Beurere, 
the first Norman lord of Holderness, of which no remains exist. It is, however, 
supposed to have been placed on the immense circular mound which stands in 
the low marsh on the W. of the village of Skipsea, and has the usual name of 
Castle Hill. It is the largest hill-fort in this part of England, being 50 feet 
high, and 30 yards in diameter at the summit ; its circumference at the base is 
300 yards, and at the foot is a ditch. The marsh is so low as to be flooded 
occasionally, and accordingly we find a raised causeway connecting it wnth its 
outwork, which is an enormous rampart of crescent shape called the Welts, 
half a mile long, and with an elevation above the marsh of 20 and 25 feet, 
protected in front by a ditch. Between this and the great tumulus are remains 
of an inner or second rampart. The whole is probably an ancient British 
fortification or camp of refuge, which the Normans fortilied. There are 
fragments on the S. side of the mound of a strong concrete wall of defence. 

No history otherwise is attached to the place ; but on the W. of the mound 
are four prints of feet on the turf, which are carefully scoured or cleaned 
yearly at Martinmas, being by tradition the marks made three centuries ago by 
two heroes who fought together for the possession of a lady, like farmyard 
cocks, and killed each other. 

Leland writes that the Earl of Albemarle and Holderness, Lord of Skipton 
in Craven, had "a castle and great manor jilace at Skipsey in Holderness, not 
far from the shore." 

SKIPTON {chief) 

THE whole of Craven was shared between the two great families of Percy 
and Clifford, and the head of the latter lordship was Skipton. It formed 
part of the extensive patrimony of Earl Edwin, at whose death and forfeiture 
the Conqueror gave these lands to one of his followers, Robert de Romille, 
who is said to have built a castle at Skipton towards the end of William's reign. 
His daughter, Cecilia, brought Skipton and the barony to her husband, William 
de Meschines, lord of Coupland, and by her granddaughter's marriage (second) 
with William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, the lands and honour went for several 
generations to this family of De Fortibus, till an heiress, Aveline, by marriage 
with Edmund Plantagenet, called Crouchback, in 1269, carried them to 
the Crown. 

Among other profuse gifts to his uinvortliv favourite, I<"(hvar(I 11. bestowed 
Skij-iton on Piers Gavcstoii, and after his sudden i-ncl, the king gave the manor 



264 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



and castle, in i^io, to Robert de Clifford, in whose race and their descendants 
Skipton has continued ever since, save in one case of attainder. 

The Cliffords, who originated at Clifford Castle, Herefordshire (temp. 
Henry II.), were a fighting family, and, having done good service for Henry III. 
and his son, received both endowments and, honours. The Robert who obtained 
Skipton was summoned to Parliament as Baron Clifford in 1299. He was slain 
at Bannockburn, 25th June 13 14. His eldest son, Roger, rebelling in the unquiet 
reign of Edward II., and being taken at Boroughbridge, was attainted, and his 
lands were given to the Le Scropes, but soon after were restored to his brother, 
whose son, fourth lord of Skipton, fought at Cre9y (1340). John, the seventh 

lord, was killed in 
F"rance, his wife being 
the daughter of Harry 
Hotspur. The eighth 
lord was a Lancastrian, 
and was slain at the 
first battle of St. Albans, 
and then came his son 
John, the "butcher" 
lord of Clifford and 
Westmorland, who at 
Wakefield stabbed the 
young Earl of Rutland, 
falling himself next day 
at Ferrybridge (1461). 
Thenextwasthe "Shep- 
herd Lord," Henry, 
who, for fear of the 
reigning Yorks, was hidden for twenty-four years among the fells of Cum- 
berland and moors of Yorkshire, living the life of a shepherd, and residing 
chiefly in Barden. When Bosworth Field had given him safety, he came back 
to his own, but from habit he preferred Barden Tower and retirement to a life 
at Skipton, and therefore resided there chiefly. He led the men of Craven at 
Flodden in 1513 (when he was sixty years of age), and held a command in 
the centre of the hrst line or van. His son, the eleventh lord, was a favourite 
of Henry VIII., and was made by him Earl of Cumberland and K.G., honours 
which he repaid by holding out at Skipton for the Crown when besieged in 
Aske's rebellion of 1536, called the Pilgrimage of Grace. His wife, the daughter 
of the fifth Earl of Northumberland, added to Skipton the Percy lands of 
Craven. This earl built the great gallery at the castle, in honour of his son's 
bride, the Duke of Suffolk's daughter, and niece to the king. 

The thirteenth lord left a daughter, Anne Clifford, married first to the Earl 




GATEHOUSE 










1 



YORKSHIRE 265 

of Dorset, and secondly to the Earl of Pembroke. She repaired the then 
dilapidated castle in 1657, placing over the gate the still existing inscription 
regarding this her work, which is also seen in other castles of hers (see 
Cumberland, ike). 

Skipton Castle had been besieged from the end of 1642 until December 
1645 by the Parliament, being held for the king by Sir John Mallory, who 
had at last to surrender it ; it was llien the property of Henry, 5th Earl of 
Cumberland, in whom that title was extinguished. Skipton, at the death 
of the Countess Anne in 1675, went by will to her grandson John Tufton, 
fourth Earl of Thanet, her daughter, Margaret Sackville, having married the 
third earl, and with their descendant and representative, Sir Henry Jaques 
Tufton, the property continued till lately. 

Skipton Castle stands on high ground at the end of the town, having on 
its N. front a ravine which it overhangs. If Robert de Romille ever built a 
keep here, there is no part of it remaining, and the only Norman work is 
perhaps the western door of the inner ward. Robert de Clifford, the grantee, 
must have built the chief part of the castle on the W., the curtain walls, 9 feet 
thick, and the seven round towers at the angles of the square enceinte and 
between them. All this, we are told, had been in a ruinous state from the 
time of the Albemarles. The range of buildings on the E. having a length 
of 60 yards, and terminated by an octagon tower, was the work of the first 
Earl of Cumberland for the reception of his daughter-in-law in 1535, and 
this part not being destroyed after the Civil War, was the residence of 
Countess Anne, the great restorer of castles. 

The great gatehouse, with its twin round turrets, and the open-work motto 
of the Cliff^ords, DES OR MAis, carved in the parapet, is very fine. Below is 
a dungeon, and perhaps some of the foundations of the earlier work. 



S L I N G S B Y (mmor) 

ABOUT nine miles from Malton, was anciently a stronghold of the 
Mowbrays, given, as to the manor, among other rich possessions, to 
Roger de Mowbray by the Conqueror. Camden affirms that the family had 
a castle here for many generations, "the ruins of which are still visible." It 
came from the Mowbrays to the family of Wyvell, possibly on the confiscation 
of the Mowbray estates by Edward 11. after the battle of Boroughbridge in 
1322. Leland wrote : " VVyvel of the Northe, that was the ancientest of that 
name, had his principal house at Slingesby yn Yorkshire. And this Wyvelle 
was a man of fair landes. The House of Slyngesby and the landes of this 
Wyvelle be devolvid to the Lord Hastinges by heires general." 

In i-i3.H Ralph de Hastings received a licence to crenellate his house at 
VOL. ii. - ^ 



266 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Slingshy and to impark his woods, and this was probably tlic origin of the 
old castle, which has now quite passed away, since in the iirst year of James I. 
Sir C. Cavendish began to build a mansion on the foundations and vaults of 
the old structure, which he must have pulled down completely. 

This Jacobean house was never completed. The plan is a rectangle, measur- 




SLINGSBY 



ing about 40 yards by 30, with a turret at each angle, and the design and 
the masonry are exxellent, the particular features being the large square 
Tudor windows, now draped in ivy. Slingsby is the property of the Earl of 
Carlisle. 



S N A P E {luiuor) 

THIS castle, lying one mile from Well, though not mentioned in Domesday, 
is among the earliest subsequent grants to Richard, lord of Middleham. 
The word is the same as Knepp or Knapp in Sussex, from Cncep, the brow 
of a hill. 

The castle is supposed to have been built by the Nevills before they took 
the name of Latimer, or, may be, the work of John, hrst Lord Latimer. 
Leland describes it as "a goodly castel, in a valley longing to the Lord Latmier, 



YORKSHIRE 267 

and twi) or three parkes welk- wodid about it. It is his chiefc howsc, and staiuHth 
about 2 miles from Great Tantield." Here hved Katheriiie Parr, afterwards 
Queen of England, being tlien the wife of Lord Latimer. 

The Xevills gave way to tiie Cecils about 1587, and they at once converted 
a mediaeval castle into an abode better suited to the tastes of the age, trans- 
forming Snape into a commodious and well-lighted house with a courtyard. 
The whole is enclosed in a rectangular form, and is partlv Perpendicular and 
partlv Elizabethan, the old foundations having been generally preserved. The 
interior likewise is changed, but the chapel was not altered ; and here in the 
S.E. corner is an entire survi\al of the old castle, the walls of which are 
massive and have the old windows. 

The Exeter family inherited this beautiful place until the death of Charles 
Cecil in 1725, after which time it was wholly neglected and greatly fell to ruin, 
much of it having been roofless since about 1745. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century the then Marquess of Exeter sold the castle and the 
estate ; then the deer were killed oti' and the park was cultivated. The S. 
side of the court has, however, been kept in repair, and affords a farm-house 
to the tenant. 

A good drawing of Snape is given by Whitaker, but the fine tower on the 
N. side is now draped in ivy. It is handed down that the great oaken tables 
in the hall had, by way of trenchers, holes scooped out to receive the food, 
while a knife and fork were chained on eacii side of the hollows. Snape is 
now the property of Sir Frederick A. Milbank, Hart. 



S P O F F O R T H (nimor) 

THREE miles from Wethcrbv, was a seat of the Percy family before 
they obtained Alnwick, these lands having formed part of the territory 
conceded to William de Percy. Hut it was not until 1309 (2 Edward II.) 
that Henry de Percy received a licence to fortify his house here. In 1407 
Henry, the first Earl of Northumberland, was slain at Hramham Moor, within 
a few miles of his home, in his revolt against Henry IV. Next, when, at 
the fatal battle of Towton, in 1462, another Earl of Northuniherland and 
his brother. Sir Richard Percy, were killed, these estates were laid waste, 
and the buildings injured by the Yorkists under Warwick. They lay in 
ruins for a long time, until the middle of the sixteenth century, when 
we lind Henry, Lord Percy, obtaining a licence to fortify both Spotlorlh 
and Leconlield Castles. Finally, Spofforth was dismantled after the Parlia- 
mentary War. 

The shape of the building, which v^-as never probaiijy a very strong place, 
was a parallelogram, wilii a seiuare tower at tiie X., and an octagonal tower 



268 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

on the N.W., with a circular stair. Tlie former contains a dungeon-Hke 
room Hghted by loops. The N. front is about 70 feet long, and contains 
two storeys. 

The great hall has been a magnificent room, 75 feet long and 35 broad, 
built in the fourteenth century, but after destruction it was rebuilt in 
the fifteenth. The apartment below is of late Norman style, and attached 
to it are the kitchen, with a vaulted room, and the withdrawing-room, or 
solar, — all Edwardian. 

The place is the property of Lord Leconfield, inherited, like Wressel, from 
the Seymours in 1750, with the rest of the Percy property in Yorkshire. 

This castle never possessed a moat or other outer defences, but its situation 
was strong, on an elevation over a brook, and the walls were thick, and 
loopholed below ; therefore it seems to have been erected in troubled times, 
but when more comfort and better accommodation were designed for the 
inmates. 

TANFIELD (mmor) 

THE church and castle of this name stand on the X. bank of the river 
Ure, a few miles N.W. of Ripon, in the beautiful scenery of this rapid 
stream. 

Robert Marmion was here early in the thirteenth century, and in 1215 
his grandson, John Marmion, who died in 1323, had a licence to castellate 
and embattle his house in Tanfield Wood, called the Hermitage. His 
son was John, married to Maud, daughter of Lord Furnival, who perhaps 
rebuilt the church where sleep so many generations of Marmions in their 
sculptured tombs. The Marmions were a devout family, and ALaud founded 
here a chantry also. The architecture of both church and castle is Perpen- 
dicular of Edward 111., and the windows of the steeple and of the castle 
gatehouse are identical. 

The son of these good people, Robert, the last Marmion, died s./>., and 
Taniield went to their daughter Avice, who married Sir John Grey of 
Rotherlield (died 1359), the children of the marriage taking the mother's 
name. These Grey-Marmions ended, in the second generation, in a daughter, 
Elizabeth, who brought the property to her husband, Sir Henry Fitzhugh 
(died 1424), and the Fitzhughs lasted here till 1513, when, in default of male 
heirs, Tanfield came to the Parrs by the marriage of Sir William Parr with 
Elizabeth, sister of the last F"itzhugh, their son. Sir Thomas, being the father 
of William Parr, Marquess of Northampton, who was attainted, and of yueen 
Katherine Parr. 

After the attainder of the Marquess, Tanfield fell to the Crown, and was 
granted to the great Lord Burleigh, from whose family it seems to have 



YORKSHIRE 269 

come to Lord Bruce (temp. James I.), ancestor of the Earls of Aylesbury, 
with whom it remains. 

Leland wrote : "The castelle of Tanlield, or rather, as it is now, a meane 
manor place, stondeth hard on a ripe of We [Ure], wher I saw no notable 
buildiiii^, but a faire toured gatehouse, and a hall of squarid stone." This 
was in the time of the Parrs, who lived elsewhere. 

It was a place of no great extent, and its outline can barely be traced, little 
of the building remaining now except the gatehouse, which is entire, and is 
Perpendicular with an oriel window, and shrouded in ivy. Grose informs 
us that: "Tradition says, when Tan held Castle was destroyed, the materials 
were purchased by several of the neighbouring gentry, and the Earl of Exeter's 
house at Snape, and the seat of the Wandisfords, at Kirklington, were built 
with them." 



T H I R S K {uou-c.xislcnt) 

THIS was one of the fortresses belonging to Roger de Mowbray, as did 
Kirkby-Malzeard, which, on the suppression of his revolt against Henry 
II. in 1 173, was destroyed by that king. It is supposed to have been a large 
building, but nothing whatever is to be seen of it now, except the moats, which 
may still be traced. The materials of it are said to have been taken for the 
erection of Thirsk Church. 

The powerful house of Mowbray possessed four seats, castles attached to 
their different baronies in this part of Yorkshire — the first at Thirsk, which 
dominated the \'ale of Mowbray, still so called ; the second at Kirkby- 
Malessart or Malzeard, in Craven ; the third, controlling the country from the 
N.W. of Craven to Westmorland ; and the fourth was the Isle of Axeholme, 
with Eppleworlh, or Epworth, Castle. 



T I C K H I L L (cim'f) 

THIS is the most southern of the Yorkshire fortiesses, being seven miles 
S. of Doncaster, in the We^t Riding. The manor was held after the 
Conquest by Roger de Busli, who either erected or rebuilt this castle, and 
at his death in 1098 the Red King gave it to Robert de Beleme, who 
claimed it as being a ki^^man of the founder. After his submission Henry I. 
took possession of the castle, for it was of importance, standing in the narrow 
part of the level country between the hills of Derbyshire and Trent, upon the 
high road to the north, and near the Roman way from Lincoln to \'()rk ; 
a position which had been seized on in very early times, and fortilied by 
a mound piled upon a scarped rock. Stephen granted the place In tlu' 



270 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Count d'Eu of Normandy, who also had Hastings, and Ralph, Earl of 
Chester, held it for him 1151-1153. Then it reverted to the Crown, and Queen 
Eleanor of Acquitaine, wife of Henry II., held it in dower. John fortified and 
held this castle against his brother Coeur de Lion, but on King Richard's 
sudden return from captivity it was given up, and its defenders were hanged 
by Roger de Leir, the king's custodian. John when king came here six times, 
although there was no park or chase belonging to the manor. His son 

Henry III. restored it to the Count d'Eu, 
but Tickhill afterwards returned to the 
Crown and was settled upon Prince 
Edward, and in 1254 it formed part 
of the dower of Eleanor of Castile, his 
wife. In 1263 Edward granted the 
place to his cousin Henry, son of 
Richard, King of the Romans. In 1322 
the castle was besieged for three weeks 
by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, against 
Piers Gaveston, and was gallantly de- 
fended till relieved by the king in per- 
son. Edward HI. settled it on his 
queen, and at her death it was given by 
Richard II. to his uncle John of Gaunt, 
who rebuilt or added to it, and it 
remained an appanage of the duchy 
thereafter. 

At the commencement of the Civil 
War in the seventeenth centurv Tickhill 
was considered a very strong fortress, 
and it received a garrison for King 
Charles of eighty men and thirty horses. 
It sustained a siege in 1646, and after 
two days was surrendered to a force under Colonel Lilburn, when by order 
of the Parliament it was slighted and rendered untenable. 

Mr. Clark afttrms that Tickhill is a fine example of a pre-Norman or 
English earthwork, consisting of a mound, fosse, and lower ward, converted 
into a Norman fortress, and demonstrates how such existing forts were 
treated in the erection of either the square or the shell keep thereon. Here 
the mound has been placed on the top of a sandstone rock which was 
scarped around, the material, with the excavations from the ditch around it, 
being thrown up. This mound is 60 feet in diameter, and is 60 feet above the 
level of the lands. The keep was ten-sided, and was entered from a flight 
of seventy-five steps on the W. face ; its foundations are visible, and the 




TICKHILL 



YORKSHIRE 271 

ditch, with part of the outer walls, is in a tolerably perfect state. The 
original Early Norman gatehouse remains in a dilapidated state at tiic S. 
of the lower ward, between the keep and the castle buildings ; it has a 
round-headed gateway, and in front were added a Decorated gateway with 
pointed arch and portcullis groove, and four gates in the passage, also walls 
supporting the drawbridge. The rampart was carried across this gateway 
in front. The hall and the chape! mentioned by Leland exist no more. 
The outer ditch, partly a moat, is broad and deep, and was supplied by 
a stream, the Thorne, which covers the S. front. Outside of all was a 
bank of earth. The N. part has been converted into a modern residence, 
and the grounds have been formed into gardens and shrubberies. The 
area of the whole is about seven acres. Tickhill is now the property of 
the Earl oi Scarborontih. 



T O P C L I F K E Oiou-rxis/c;,t) 

Ox the banks of the Swale, N.W. of Kipon, is known to have stood one 
of the strongholds and residences of the Percy family, who received 
the manor among their other lands from the Conqueror. The position of the 
place had been marked in earlier times as a desirable one to hold, as we see 
from the mound, now called Maiden Bower, about a mile S. from Topclifl'e 
village, where the Danish or Saxon lords had their burh, and which now, 
thick with lir trees, alone marks the site of the Percys' castle. 

Topcliffe enters on more than one occasion into the fatalities which befell 
the Percy family. It was at Topcliffe that Henry, the fourth earl, was murdered 
by a mob in 1489. and it was at this castle that the insurrection in Elizabeth's 
reign, to restore the ancient forms of religion, and called the Rising of the 
North, was planned, the hrst meetings of the conspirators being iield here. 
It is said that it was here that, when the Rising had been precipitated by the 
action of the queen's officers, the Earl of Northumberland was aroused from 
bed, and caused to ride in haste to Brancepeth to concert with the Earl of 
Westmorland on the immediate necessity of taking arms (see Brancepeth and 
Barnard Castle, Durliavi). 

King Charles 1. was a prisoner in the castle of Topcliffe, while- the treaty 
was in progress by the Scots Commissioners for his sale- t(i tlic Parlia- 
UK-ntary authorities. Tlii> alone should iiave caused the preservation of 
the remains. 



172 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



U P S A L L (iiiiiiur) 

THE word seems to be of Scandinavian origin, since Upsala in Sweden is 
the name of one of the most important sacrihcial places in the North- 
At Domesda}' the lands belonged to Earl Mortain, and next they are found 
in the hands of the Mowbrays ; then in 1277 one Hugh de Upsall was here, 
taking his name from the place, and from this family Upsall must have been 
purchased by the successful lawyer Geoffry de Scrope. This founder of the 
Scropes of Masham is said to have been a younger son of Scrope of Bolton, 
or, at all events, of the family, who, rising under the patronage of the Xevills, 
first appears in Coverdale, 5 Edward II. Six years later, adding to his 
possessions through extensive practice of the law in Lincolnshire, Kent, and 
Northumberland, he grew in wealth, and being in favour with Edward II., 
was by him, in his seventeenth year, made Chief Justice of King's Bench, and 
he soon after, on the attainder of Roger de Clifford, received a grant of the 
castle and honour of Skipton. As early as 1309 he had a charter of free 
warren for his lands (including Upsall), and is said to have obtained a licence 
to fortify this manor-house of Upsall, but it does not appear in the Patent 
Rolls, and we therefore are not certain of the date or founder of this castle. 
Geoffry died, a knight banneret, in 13 Edward 111. 

His son Henry I'Escrope was a military man, and died 15 Richard 11., seised 
of Upsall and Clifton. He was succeeded by his son Stephen, who as a soldier 
served in his father's train, and in the first year of Richard II. was summoned 
to Parliament, in the lifetime of his father, as first Lord Scrope of Masham. 
He died 7 Henry IV., leaving issue, his son Sir Henry I'Escrope, 2nd Lord 
Scrope, who obtained a grant of Thirsk and Hovingham from Henry IV., — 
a valuable gift to the Lord of Upsall, whose castle overlooked the Vale of 
Mowbray. 

The third lord was married to Joan, Duchess of York, the sister of Holland, 
Earl of Kent ; he was made Treasurer of the Exchequer, but joining in the 
conspiracy of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, cousin to Henry \'., to place on 
the throne young Mortimer, brother-in-law to Cambridge, he, together with 
the earl and Sir Thomas Grey, lost his head at Southampton (141 5), when 
his estates were forfeited. His brother, Sir John Scrope, recovered part of 
the lands, and signs himself of Masham and Upsall. Whitaker is of opinion 
that at this date no castle existed here. Leland has (vol. viii. fol. 56^) : " Dominus 
Johannes de Scrope de Upsaule ohiit 1455." He left a son, Thomas, who, 
dying 38 Henry \'I., was followed by his son, another Lord Thomas, and other 
issue of three sons and three daughters. All the sons died s./>., and their sisters 
inherited the property on the death of Thomas, the last lord of Masham, in 
1515. In 1520 a division of the estates took place, when Elizabeth, the third 



YORKSHIRE 273 

daughter of Lord Thomas, obtained Upsall, and biouglit it in marriage to 
Sir Ralph Fitz Randolpli, knight, of Spennithorn, by whom she had one son, 
who died in iiis father's Hfctime, and live daughters, to one of whom, Agnes, 
Lady Randolph devised Upsall. She was mother to Sir Marmaduke Wyvill, 
whose son Christopher succeeded to this property. But in the Northern 
troubles of 1569 this Christopher Wyvill must have fallen a victim, since we 
find Upsall in the hands of the Crown, and in 1577 Elizabeth granted it to one 
John F'arnham. 

Ne.xt, early in liie reign of James I., Upsall is owned by Joseph Constable 
of Burton Constable, in Holderness, and it was retained by this family for 
nearly 200 years, until 176S, when Dr. William Constable, an eminent physician 
at the court of George 111., dying s.p., bequeathed Upsall to Edmund, third 
son of the Rev. W. I'eters, chaplain to the King ; Mr. Peters assumed the 
name of Turton, and his son, Edmund H. Turton, is the present owner. 

The old castle was a quadrangular building, measuring about 64 yards by 
58 yards, with :i courtyard in the centre, and turrets at each angle. The 
towers at the X.E. and S.W. have been square — as can be made out from 
their foundations— the most perfect fragment being the N.W. tower, which 
was octagonal, and contained the chief rooms. A piece of the N. wall 
remains, about 15 feet high, having an arched gateway, which admitted into 
the outer ward. The site of the X.E. tower and of the interior buildings is 
occupied by a farm-house, built from the ruins, which have long been used 
as a quarry. The largest tower, that on the S.W., had a bold projection from 
the walls. There was a large park of 600 acres attached to Upsall, which 
was disparked in 1599. 



W H O R L T O N (;;///«;;•) 

APL.'XCE romantically situated on the E. side of Cleveland, in the North 
Riding, beneath a lofty range of hills ; fnMU one of which, cone-peaked, 
called Whorl-hill, it obtains its name. Leland wrote : " Whorlton in Cliveland 
was the principal Ikium.- of the Lord Meinell, which came since to Master 
Strangwaves in particion." It was called "old and ruinous" by Camden. 

The castk' is supposed to have been built by one of the Meinell or Meynell 
family, who, deriying from a Norman, Robert de Maisnell, had lands in these 
jiarts temii. Heiny 1. Sir Nicholas de .Meinell was sunuuoned to Parliament 
22 Edward 1. According to an inquisition taken 30 Edward 111. (1346), on 
the death of John, Lord Darcy, it was found that the manor and castle of 
Whorlton, which came to him by marriage with Elizabeth, heiress of Nicholas 
de Meinell, had been granted in trust to Sir Thomas Swinford, knight ; 

lliercfore this castle nuist have an earlier origin than that usually given it, of 
vol.. II. J .M 



274 CASTLP:S of ENGLAND 

Ricluird II.'s reign. The Darcys continued here till the last lord, Pliilip, died 
in 1419, leaving an only daughter, Elizabeth, who brought Whorlton in 
marriage to Sir James Strangwayes of Harlsey Castle, whose descendants 
possessed both estates until the last Sir James Strangwayes died in 1541, 
when in some way not shown Whorlton fell to the Crown, and was given to 
Matthew, Earl of Lennox. Early in the reign of Charles 1. the manor was 
granted to Edward Bruce, 2nd Lord Bruce, whose_ brother became the first 
Earl of Elgin, and it was held by that family until quite lately, when it was 
purchased by Mr. James Emerson of Easby Hall, Yorks. 

The trace of this castle was circular, enclosing an area of about 2 acres, 
and surrounding the whole was a ditch with drawbridge. But little remains 
now of all the structure except the gatehouse, which is nearly perfect. The 
gateway is in a low-pointed arch, whence a once vaulted passage, defended 
by a double portcullis, leads into the courtyard ; on each side of the entrance 
are rooms, and a staircase to the guardroom over. There is a second storey 
above this. Over the gatewav are three shields charged with the arms of Meinell, 
Darcy, and Grey, while another one above has those oi Darcy impaling Meinell. 
The foundations only exist of the kitchens and the lodgings, and there are some 
huge vaults underground. The remains of ancient earthworks are to be seen 
also in the vicinity. 

There is a tradition that in one of the rooms in this castle was signed the 
contract betrothing Mary Stuart to Henry, Lord Darnley ; and this is possible, 
since Whorlton Castle was granted by Henry VIII. to his niece, Margaret, the 
wife of the Earl of I^ennox, and the mother of Darnley. 



WILTON (noii-cxisfenl) 

OX the northern conHnes of Cleveland, not far from Redcar, is the modern 
castle which occupies the site of the Bulmers' ancient abode. The 
Bulmers were a family who had large possessions in this county and in Durham 
in very early times ; as to when thev became seated at Wilton we have no clue. 
Emma, the daughter of Bertram Bulmer, married Geoffrey Xevill of Raby, 
and brought to that family both Brancepeth and Sheriff-Hutton in Yorkshire. 
John Bulmer was Lord of Wilton 53 Henry III. In 4 Edward II. Ralph de 
Bulmer obtained a charter of his lands here, and in i Edward III. received a 
summons to Parliament amongst the barons. Three years after he had a licence 
to fortify his manor-house of W^ilton, being at the time Governor of York, and 
we may therefore take this date of 1330 as that of the late castle. 

The lands and castle continued in the hands of the Bulmers for a long series 
of generations, until Sir John Bulmer in 28 Henry VIII. was attainted for his 
participation in the rebellion called the Pilgrimage of Grace, and was hanged at 



YORKSHIRE 275 

Tyburn, while L:idv Hulmcr, Iiis unfortunate wife, was, under the infamous law 
refjarding treason in females, drawn on a hurdle from Xewf^ate to Smithlield, 
and there burnt to death (1537). Generally, after the punishments that followed 
on this attempt to vindicate the ancient faith of the country, the property ot the 
sufferers was not forfeited, but the lands of the Buhners were confiscated by 
the Crown, and were in the reij^n of Oueen Mary granted to Sir Thomas 
Cornwallis, whose descendant. Lord Cornwallis, sold the estate to Lord Holland 
(Fox), from whom it was purchased by the Lowther family, and it is now the 
seat of Sir Charles Lowther, Bart. 

Until some time after the beginning of this century there existed a tower of 
the old castle, and some other buildings, but being very ruinous they were 
removed, and a new mansion was built upon the site by the Lowthers. 



W R E S S E L (niumr) 

THIS line castle of the Percys is in the fiat country S.E. of York, on a site 
slightly elevated above the bank of the river Derwent, the navigation of 
which it was evidently intended to command at a short distance from its junction 
with the Ouse. It was of the usual quadrangular type, of four towers connected 
by curtains two of these towers, which are very large, surviving, together with 
the S. curtain. The moat encompasses three sides, the fourth, wherein is the 
entrance, being dry. The front contains a basement, and on the first floor is 
the hall, with the chapel on one side, and the state lodgings on the other. 
There was a gatehouse once, where the causeway enters, and it was doubtless a 
strong fortress ; but the towers gave no flanking fire, and the main protection 
was in the broad and deep moat, defended by a high and strong wall. Beyond 
this there was the power of the Percy name. 

Wressel is said to have been founded by Sir Thomas Percy, the brother of 
the first Earl of Northumberland, who is introduced by Shakespeare in the first 
part of Henry IV. as plotting with Hotspur, his nephew, the overthrow of the 
unpopular king. He had been made Earl of Worcester and Li^rd High Admiral 
of England by Kichard II., and joined his nephew in the insurrection that was 
quelled by the battle of Shrewsbury (1403). Worcester was taken prisoner, 
and beheaded two days after at the High Cross in Shrewsbury. Since the 
manor is named in an inquisition of 9 Edward 11. as a lordship of William de 
Percv, it probablv came to Worcester by inheritance, and not as Leland says by 
purchase. Wressel falling to the Ciown on his attainder, Henry 1\'., alter 
keeping it iox some time, gave the place to his son John, Duke of Bedford, who 
died possessed of it 12 Henry \'l. (1434), leaving Wressel to the king, who in 
his thirty-sixth year (1457) granted it to Sir Thomas Percy, son ol lleiuy, -'nd 
E.irl ol Xorthumberland. During llie xieissitudes of the Wars ol the Rost's it 



276 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

seems that this phice was at one time held by Xevill, Lord Montague (brother 
of the King-maker, Warwick), togetiier with all other estates of the Percys, but 
in 1469 King Edward revoked the grants, and restored Henry, the fourth earl, 
to the Percv property. The Earls of Northumberland frequently inhabited this 
castle, and kept up their state therein with royal magnificence, with a household 
established on the same plan as that of a royal court ; and in September 1541 
Henry Vlll. was entertained at Wressel for several days, on his excursion into 
the North ; but at that date the owner was under a cloud, and was not present 
to receive his sovereign. 

At the death of Joceline, the eleventh earl, the barony of Percy went with 
his daughter and heir, Lady Elizabeth Percy, in 1682 to her husband Charles 
Seymour, Duke of Somerset. But only the wreck of Wressel was then left. 
In 1642 it had been garrisoned by the Parliament, when much injury was 
done to the place, and again in 1648 this was repeated ; but in the latter 
year the capture of Pontefract Castle by the king determined the London 
Council to take measures to prevent any similar surprises elsewhere, and 
sudden orders were sent to the York Committee on April 17 to make Wressel 
untenable, by throwing down three sides of the quadrangle, and leaving the 
S. front only, in which face large windows were to be broken out. All this 
was to be done in four weeks, and without any reference to the owner. In 
pursuance of this order three sides of the great castle were entirely demolished, 
but the work was only begun in December 1648, and the destruction was 
not completed till May 1650. 

The Seymours continued lords of Wressel until 1750, when the Duke of 
Somerset dying s.p. male, his estates were divided among the heirs ; those 
which had come by Lady Elizabeth Percy went witii his daughter to her 
husband, Sir Hugh Smithson, who became Earl of Northumberland, and the 
rest of the Percy lands in Yorkshire were inherited by his nephew, Sir Charles 
Wyndham, now represented by Lord LeconHeld. 

Leiand, visiting Wressel about 1538, saw it in its untouched state, and 
describes it at unusual length. Modernising his spelling, the account runs 
thus : " Most part of the base court of the castle is all of timber. The 
castle itself is moated about on three parts, the fourth part is dry where 
the entry is into the castle. The castle is all of very fair and great squared 
stone, both within and without, whereof (as some hold opinion) much was 
brought out of France. In the castle be only 5 Towers, one at each corner, 
almost of like bigness. The gatehouse is the 5th, having 5 lodgings [storeys] 
in height, 3 of the other Towers have 4 [storeys]. The 4th containeth the 
buttery, pantry, pastry, larder, and kitchen. 

" The Hall and the great chambers be fair, and so is the chapel and the 
closets. To conclude, the house is one of the most proper beyond Trent, 
and seemeth as newly made. . . . The base court is of a newer building. 



YORKSIIIKI", 277 

and the last Earl of Xurthumberland saving one made the brewhousc (if 
stone without the castle walls, but hard joining to the kitchen of it. One 
thing I liked exceedingly in one of the towers, that was a study called Paradise, 
where was a closet in the middle of S squares latticed about : and on the 
top of everv square was a desk lodged to set books on." . . . "There is a 
park hard bv the castle." He speaks also of the gardens and the orchards. 

The remaining S. side is a line object, with its large, square towers ; 
each of these had a circular newel stair to the roof, ending in an octagonal 
turret ; the turret on the S.W. having borne at top a fire-beacon. The W. 
tower contained a dining-room ornamented with carved wood, and the chapel 
was in that on the E. ; as the Roundheads ruined the parish church, this chapel 
was long used in its place. Above the chapel was the library. The S. front 
contained the state drawing-room and an ante-chamber, with two curious 
staircases in octagonal cases or screens, the flights of stairs winding round 
eacii other, as some are seen in France. These rooms must have been 
magnificent, having a carved frieze running round the walls, and the windows 
filled with painted glass, chiefly heraldic. This part was used as a farm-house 
till the year 1796, when a fire destroyed everything except the walls, which 
seem imperishable. 

Parker calls Wressel a line specimen of the castellated mansions of the 
period of Richard II., of early Perpendicular character. 



YORK (minor) 

SINCE York was in the earliest times the chief town of the land, when 
London was only a mart for traders, a high antiquity must attach to the 
great burh or mound upon which subsequently was erected the keeji of 
a Xornian castle, and which still bears the curious structiu'e called L'lilloi-d's 
Tower. 

The river Ouse flows past what was the \V. side ol the town, and at the 
southern point of this it receives the waters of a strong stream called the 
Koss, coming down from Cleveland. Here, in the very usual manner, on tile 
intervening tongue of land, sheltered thus on both sides, some early settlers 
had fixed their camp, and at some time or other, two huge mounds of earth, 
formed bv the dt'b/ni of surrounding moats, were thrown up, one on the lork 
of land, and the other on the opposite side of the Ouse, between them com- 
manding that river. These mounds would receive the usual Saxon tortilication 
of water ditches defended by wooden stockades, with a dwelling and barracks 
of timber on the summit of each. 

And thus probablv they remained on the occasion ol the Conqueror's (irst 
visit to York in the summer of io6,S, when "as usual he ordered a castle 



278 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

to be built, and L-qu;illy a^ usual the place selected was the mciund of the 
existing stronghold' (CViirA-). The position between the rivers was hurriedly 
strengthened, and occupied with a garrison of 500 selected men under Sir 
William Malet. Next year, however, the citizens revolted and besieged Malet 
in his fortalice, which was strong enough to hold out until the king came to 
his assistance and relieved the garrison. A second fort was then ordered to be 
built upon the other mound, across Ouse, now called the Bail Hill ; and as 
this was done in eight days, its construction must have been also of wood. 
Next year came an expedition of Danes up the Humber, to their old hunting 
grounds, when thev were met as friends by the Saxons, and an alliance was 
formed to make common cause against the usurping Normans and to thrust 
them out. An attack on the castle ensued, and the garrison sallying out were 
cut oft' and overcome, some 3000 being said to have fallen, and the forts taken 
and destroyed. When these tidings were brought to William, who was hunting 
in the Forest of Dean, he swore " by the splendour of God " that he would 
avenge his men, and collecting his forces came northward to Pontefract, 
where he bought oft the Danes, and then to York, which the enemy, now 
scared, had evacuated. Then began the cruel and fiendish harrying of the 
North, in which the Norman king destroyed the life of the country, and made 
of the land between York and Durham a burnt and desolated desert : the 
crowning infamy of his violent life. 

The York castles were of course at once renewed, but, in all likelihood, with 
such materials as were at hand. It is not probable that, in such pressing 
times, architects and masons and workmen could have been procured from 
Normandy lo build what we call Norman keeps, but they had to content 
themselves with lines of palisades along the crest of earthworks, and deep 
ditches, with perhaps gatehouses alone of masonry (Clark). The more serious 
constructions could only have come later, when time had been given for their 
preparation. There is but little of Norman work in York, and that is of a later 
style. The wall "upon the P'oss may, in parts, be early twelfth century, but 
the round mural towers cannot be earlier than the reign of Henry 111.' Little 
is known about the different portions of the main fortress, or its builder. 
In its best days it must have been a very strong place, encircled by the waters 
of the Foss and only aiiproachable by two drawbridges. The approach was on 
the E. side, near the castle mills, and there was a gatehouse on the side of the 
town, which was rebuilt many years ago, having a drawbridge. The works on 
the E. have been entirely swept away, but until the end of the last century the 
sallyport and some towers remained, and the moat connected with the fosse, 
which latter defence was then filled in. 

The chief object of interest now is the great building which clusters on the 
Castle Mound, called Clifford's Tower, from the name of its custodian. This is 
of singular form, being built as a (.jualrefoil, or four circular bastions conjoined, 



YORKSHIRE 279 

measuring 60 feet and 80 feet in its diameters, with wails 3 yards tliick and 
40 feet high. Outsidi.', above tlic first stage, are tliree circniar turrets corbelled 
out, with a square one in tiie fourtii angle, which latter contains an oratory. 
The groiuid floor is defended by loops, and commanded tlie moat surrounding 
this tower, and the only entrance from the inner ward was by a drawbridge. 
Mr. Clark is of opinion that this tower may be of the reign of Richard 1. 
or Jolui. 

It could scarcely, however, have been built at the date of the terrible 
massacre of the Jews wiiicii took place in the castle in the reign of Kiciiard 
(ii(;o) ; when 500 Jews with theii' families and goods took refuge in the castle 
from the furv of the jieoj-ile of ^'o^k, who had risen against them and their usurv. 




THF, W.\I,LS 0|- YORK 



They managed to get the castellan out of the fortress and shut themselves in, 
being tlien besieged by an armed crowd. Soon tliey were in a starving con- 
dition, and in despair a large lunuber of them kilK'd tliemselvL's, after slaughter- 
ing their wives and children, and having set lire to the tower. When the 
citizens got in all the surviving Jews were put to the sword. 

Clifford's T(jwer, together with other quarters, was strengthened at the 
outbreak of the Civil War of the seventeenth century, and carried three guns 
on the top. Sir Thomas Cobb was governor during the siege of York in 1644, 
and after the surrender to the Parliament chiefs the castle was dismantled. 
In 1684 a fire, supposed to be tlie work of an incendiary, broke out in Clifford's 
Tower and consumed all within it, greatly injuring the struetuie. The castle 
was bought, about 1X25, for the formation of a county gaol, and though the 
main fortress has much disappeared, the keep tower was reserved intact. 




SISERC.H 



XL'Clcstniorlanb 



A [MM, ]'■. B Y {chief) 

A1'I'LKI5^' is built on the crest of the hill along the slope of which 
stands the count}' town of Westmorland. It is believed to have 
been founded by Randolph de Meschines while in possession of 
L the earldom of Caerleolium (see Carlisle), since from his charter of 
1088 he evidentlv iiad a castle here. Whitaker ascribes to him the castles of 
Appleby, Brough, Brougham, and Pendragon, which must have consisted of the 
usual Xorman square keep towers only, with their three storeys of chambers. 

Applebv had changed ownership three times by heiresses before it came to 
Simon de Morville ; then from Robert de Veteripont it passed, like Brougham 
{q.v.), to the Cliffords, by Isabella his daughter. It was much exposed to the 
inroads of the Scots, and in the time of Richard II. and Henry IV. great injuries 
were done to the fabric. In or before 1454 (temp. Henry VI.), Thomas, Lord 
Clifford, built the greater part of what we now recognise as the older portion. 

The chief feature still remaining is the great keep, 80 feet in height, and 
called, as are manv other similar towers, by the inappropriate name of Caesar's 
Tower. The gatehouse is supposed to have been built by John, Lord Clifford, 
in 1418, as his arms and those of his wife are upon its walls, and it was his 
son Lord Thomas (who fell at St. Albans in 1455) who erected the eastern 
portions, that is, the hall, the chapel, and the great chamber. The castle is 
said to have been ruined during the insurrection of the Earls of Northumber- 
land and Westmorlmd in i^(k), and it remained in this state and uncovered 







> 

w 

< 



WESTMORLAND 



281 



for nearly 100 years, until in 1651 Anne, Countess of Pembroke, the famous 
castle-builder — who detied the orders of tlie Protector himself — repaired and 
restored the castle, when, as one of many Clifford strongholds belonging to that 
lady (see Brough and others), she made it her residence. She had in 1641 
garrisoned Appleby for King Charles, and committed the charge of it to Sir 
Philip Musgrave ; but in 1648 he was forced to surrender the fortress to the 
Parliament forces, who took prisoner there 121 otBcers and 1200 horse. 

The keep is an interesting structure ; it has newel staircases in the S.E. and 
S.W. corners leading to the several floors, and in the other angles are similar 
ones to the roof only ; there are also mural passages and small chambers with 
stone seats. About the middle of the wall on the E., towards the river, is the 
sallyport, which has portcullis grooves. Outside the walls are seen tiie outer 
and inner moats, defending all sides of the fortress except the face towards the 
river. It is the property and the residence of Lord Hothfield. 



ARNSIDK TOWER {mimn) 

ARXSIDE TOWER stands in a very exposed situation on tiie lH)rder of 
\^ Morecambe Bay. , 

It is a line peel tower 
of the lifteenth century, 
which belonged in 
former times to the 
Harrington family, and 
afterwards to the Stan- 
leys, lords Mounteagle ; 
perhaps it may have 
served as a resting-place 
for them in breaking 
their journey from the 
south to the Isle of 
Man. It was once a 
Border stronghold of 
some importance, and 
was formerly given to 
Lancashire, but now 
under the Parliamen- 
tary census is included 
in Westmorland. It is a 
quadrangular building, 
with walls of amazing thickness, having projecting square turrets, on one of 




AKNSmii TOWEK 



VOL. II. 



2 N 



282 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

which the hiittlements and machicoulis remain. The windows are small and 
squaie-headed. The interior is a mere shell, with the remains of a narrow 
staircase ; the best delined part is the kitchen, which has a large chimney- 
corner with seats for the cook and turnspit, and there is an oven, above 
which are bed-closets cleverly contrived to be warmed by the oven. In the 
Parish Register is an entry of November 1602, with these words: " M<' that 
y' 16 day of October, att nyght, being a myghtie wynde, was Arnehead Tower 
burned, as it pleased y^ Lord to p'mitte." 

B ROUGH {chief) 

THE castle of Brough is in the N.E. part of the county, and occupies a 
commanding position on a height above the \V. bank of the river Eden. 
The remains consist of the magnificent square keep, with its corner towers of 
the usual Norman type, similar to those of Rochester, Dover, and the Tower of 
London ; the walls are of immense strength, and the masonry is admirable ; 
there are also remains of the castle habitations. It possibly occupies the site 
of a Roman fort, which may account for the name of " Cajsar's Tower " given 
to the keep. Camden suggests that it was built before the time of an English 
conspiracy that was raised against the Conqueror. William the Lion, King of 
Scotland, invading England in 1174 at the head of an army of Flemings, 
captured this castle. An inscription plate, formerly placed over the principal 
gateway, but now removed, declares that the castle was put into proper 
repair in 1659 by Anne Clitford, Dowager-Countess of Pembroke, and that 
she had since inhabited it in 1661. It had been burnt in 1521, soon after 
Henry, Lord Clififord, known as the " Shepherd Lord," had held high Christmas 
festivity under its roof two years before his death, and had Iain ruinous 
ever since. This Anne was daughter of George Clifford, Earl of Cumbeiland ; 
she married, first, Lord Buckhurst, afterwards Earl of Dorset, and secondly, 
Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, and inherited the vast property 
of the Clifford family, which had been derived from the grants by King John 
to Robert de Veteripont, and his successors, Barons of Westmorland. She 
spent the end of her life in the North, repairing her castles, especially those 
injured by the Parliamentary forces, and her memory was long cherished in 
tlie Northern counties. Her death occurred in 1676, when her property was 
inherited by her daughter and sole heiress, who married the Earl of Thanet, 
and the Clifford estates passed to the Tufton family (see the castles of 
Brougham, Appleby, Pendragim, Barden (Yorks), and "others). 

The Tower of Brough, once an important Border fortress, was demolished 
to the bare walls by Thomas, Earl of Thanet, about 1695, when he was 
repairing Appleby Castle. Nicolson in 1777 says the ruins then presented "a 
scene of venerable magnificence." 



WESTMORLAND 



283 



BROUGHAM {clurf) 



THIS large, strong, and magnificent edifice — now in utter ruin — stiuids at 
the confluence of the Lowther with the river Eamont, about i^, miles 
from Penrith, having been in its day one of the most important of the Border 
fortresses. The entrance to it is along a series of arches by the river-side. 
One part of the ruin consists of three square towers, with the remains of their 
connecting wall stretching for a considerable distance towards the S.W., and 
terminating in atower. 
In the centre of the 
main group rises the 
keep, "a lofty square 
tower, frowning in 
Gothic strength and 
gloomy pomp." The 
turrets on its summit 
have disappeared, to- 
gether with the para- 
pet and galleries. The 
lowest storey has a 
vaulted stone roof 
with eight arches, sup- 
ported by one centre 
shaft. It is of Norman 
origin, but the date f)f 
its building is uncer- 
tain. On the S. are 
traces of the Roman 
camp which stood 
here on the road from 

York to Carlisle. The Conqueror William granted it and the manor to his 
nephew, Hugh d'Albini, in whose family, and that of the Meschines, it re- 
mained until 1 170, when it passed to the De Morvilles, but being forfeited 
under them to the Crown, King John gave it to a Norman knight of high 
repute and power, Robert de Veteripont (or Vipont), Baron of Westmorland, 
together with other lands of great e.xtent in that county. His son and grandson 
held these possessions in the reign of Henry III., when Robert de Veteripont 
fought on the side of Simon de Montfort, and died of his wountis after 
either the battle of Lewes or that of Evesham, the estates being forfeited 
to the king, but they were soon after restored to the two infant daughters of 
Earl Robert. These two heiresses, Isabella and Idonea (or Ivetta), being com- 




BROUr.HAM 



284 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



mitted by the king to the care of two knights, Roger de Chfford, of Hereford, 
and Roger de Leyhoiirne, of Kent, were in time married by these guardians to 
their own eldest sons, when a division of the Veteripont property was made 
between them ; the elder daughter, Isabella, who had married young De 
Clifford, holding Brougham as a residence. When, however, her sister died 
without issue, Isabella de Clifford succeeded to the entire estate, and in the 

possession of her de- 
scendants, the Earls 
of Clifford, it con- 
tinued for about four 
centuries. 

The castle was re- 
built and added to 
by the first Roger de 
Clifford, who indeed 
reared the greater part 
of the fortress, and he 
caused an inscription 
to be placed over the 
inner door, with the 
words " Thys made 
Roger." He died in 
the reign of Edward I. 
Standing as it did 
on the old Roman 
"Maiden-way" on the 
borders of Cumber- 
land, it was subjected 
to much ill-treatment, 
being attacked in 
some of the inroads made by the Scots in Henry IV.'s reign, about 1412, 
and nearly destroyed. In 1617 James 1. was here on a hunting expedi- 
tion, and was entertained with masquerades. In 1652, the old Countess 
of Pembroke, Anne, who inherited the vast estates of the Clifford 
family, thoroughly repaired Brougham Castle and made it one of her 
principal residences ; but after her death it was allowed to go to ruin. In 
1691 her grandson. Lord Thomas Tufton, pulled down a great portion of 
the castle, and in lyo.S it was further demolished, and some of the materials 
were sold. 

On the N. of the Norman keep are two distinct gateway towers, coiuiected, 
and abutting on the keep. On the opposite side of the river is the old castle 
mill, and this, viewed together witli the castle and the river, forms a highly 




p LA n or 
5R0UCHAM CASTLE 



Scale. Cof to I inc 

f f P ' !* so JO /o Af 60 ro go so too 



Hi /til. 



WESTMORLAND 285 

picturesque scene. Licence to crenclhite his house was granted (i Edward II.) 
to Ricardus de Brun of Dummaloch (a neighbouring hill), but this refers pro- 
bablv to Brougham Hall, since the castle at that period belonged to the 
Clifford family. The ruin is owned by Lord Brougham and Vaux. 



BROUGHAM HALL {minor) 

BROUGHAM HALL is situated about half a mile from the castle, on the brow 
of a hill, and commands one of the finest views in England. It has been 
generally rebuilt, but still retains some very ancient portions of the fourteenth 
and even of the twelfth centuries. The entrance gate is temp. Edward I. The 
manor, apart from Brougham Castle, is shown to have been in the possession of 
Ciilhert de Broham in the second of King John, and it is still the property of 
his descendants, having been repurchased in 1727 by the grandfather of Lord 
Chancellor Brougham. A portion of the estate is held by the curious Border 
tenure of "cornage," which service has been said to consist in blowing a horn 
to give notice of the arrival of marauding Scots, or others, in the vicinity. This 
was a signal for lighting up Penrith beacon, and for communicating by similar 
signals with Appleby, and so into Yorkshire on one side, and into Lancashire 
on the other, whereby all the barons of the Marches were put on the alert. 
The original horn bv which this service was performed is still preserved at 
Brougham Mall, the residence of Lord Brougham and Vaux. 



BULKY (mu-cxiskut) 

BLJLEY was an ancient residence of the Bishops of Carlisle, on the S. side of 
the Eden, opposite to Crackenthorpe. Nicolson in 1777 describes it as 
a mean and ruinous building, and even this has now perished. It was probably 
built by a John de Builly, whose daughter Idonea married a Norman knight, 
Robert de Veteripont, a noble of high repute in the reign of John, to whom 
that king granted the lands and castles of Appleby and Brough in Westmorland, 
and other large possessions (see Brougham). 



B Y T H A M OR B !<: T H A M HALL {iui„o,) 

OX the river Bytli, there was anciently a large handsome building, called a 
ca-^tle by Leland, and described by Cough (1762) as then in ruins. The 
manor was held, temp. 17 King John, by the heir of Thomas de Bethun, and in 
20 Edwaicl 111. Ralph de Betham is directed to send prisoners from his castle 
to the Tower of London. In 3 Hetu-y VI. Thomas de Betham is the represen- 



286 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

tative in Parliament of Westmorland, and he is the last found of tlie name 
The tradition is that after Bosworth the manor was forfeited and given to the 
Stanleys, hut from the absence of records, it was more probably purchased 
by that family. 

Ascending from the Byth you come to the gateway and grand entrance 
into the castle-yard, which measures 70 yards by 44, and has a wall of the 
enceinte, with the marks of soldiers' barracks along the side. On the left 
is the loopholed castle with a hall of the fourteenth century, now used as 
a barn. The windows are small, and are raised high from the ground for 
purposes of defence. The greater portion is of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries. The fortress stands near the bay at Milthorp, the only seaport in 
the county. 



CASTLE EDEN {iwu-cxhie>u) 

CASTLE EDEN is a place near the coast, a few miles N. of Hartlepool. 
It was of some importance in Saxon times, and suffered much from 
Danish invaders. 

It is said that a castle existed here, but its site cannot he traced, and all 
records refer to the manor. 



HARTLEY {»mwr) 

THIS was once a noble structure, standing on an eminence over the village 
of Hartley and town of Kirkby Stephen. As long as the Musgraves 
resided here, the castle was kept in good repair, but nothing now remains 
except the venerable ruins of part of the walls. The ancient name of this 
manor was Hardclay, indicating the nature of its soil, and its possessors, who 
held from the Veteriponts, from earliest times (Henry I.) were called De 
Hardclay or Harcla through many succeeding reigns. In 8 Edward II. 
Andrew de Harcla held the manor, and seven years later was created Earl 
of Carlisle for his great services to Edward II. in having vanquished the Earl 
of Lancaster, together with John de Mowbray and Roger de Clifford, in the 
fight at Boroughbridge, Yorkshire. But the very next year, King Robert 
Bruce having raided that part of the Border without hindrance from the king, 
the earl repaired privately to the Bruce at Lochmaben, and there made 
a treaty for mutual support and defence with him. This being told to 
Edward II., he resented the action of the Earl of Carlisle, proclaimed him 
a traitor, and sent Anthony, Lord Lucy, to apprehend him at Carlisle Castle, 
which was ably done by Lucy with an armed force. The Chief Justiciar 
was then sent to try the earl, who was next day sentenced to be degraded, 
hanged, and quartered, and the sentence was at once carried out with all the 



WESTMORLAND 287 

brutality of tlic law of lii.Uh treason (see Carlisle, Cumberland). The estate 
was then confiscated by the Crown, and granted to Nevill, Baron of Raby, 
who sold it to Sir Thomas Musgrave of Musgrave, knight, the representative 
of an ancient family dwelling in these parts since the days of Stephen. His 
lineal descendant was created a baronet by James I., and the son of this man, 
Philip, distinguishing himself on the king's side during the Civil War in the 
next reign, was given at the Restoration a warrant as Baron Musgrave of 
Hartley Castle, but never took out the patent. This grand castle was 
destroyed by Sir Christopher Musgrave in order to build his new house of 
Edenhall. 

The sentence e.xecuted on Andrew, Earl of Carlisle, the lord of Hartley, 
in 1322, was to this effect : "He and his heirs are to lose the dignity of the 
earldom for ever ; he is to be ungirt of his sword, and his golden spurs are 
to be hacked from his heels. He is further adjudged to be drawn, hanged, 
and beheaded ; one of his quarters to be hanged at the top of the Tower of 
Carlisle ; another at the top of the Tower of Newcastle ; the third on the bridge 
at York ; the fourth at Shrewsbury, and his head to be spiked on London 
Bridge." His remains were collected in 10 Edward 111., fifteen years after, 
by the king's order, and given for burial to Sir Andrew's sister Sarah, the 
widow of Robert de Leybourne. 



HAZLESLACK TOWER (,un,or) 

Tins lower, which is of similar character to Arnside, and probably of the 
same date, is now a ruined farm-house. These buildings may have been 
erected for the defence of the lands round Morecambe Bay, as on the opposite 
side are vestiges of " Broughton Tower" and of "Bazin Tower;" and in the 
centre of the Bay is "Peel" Castle. Again at Haverbrack Park, near the estuary 
of the Kent River, is a small hill on the top of which was formerly a circular 
castle, whence it is still called Castle Hill. There is no history attached lo 
Hazleslack. It possesses garderobes of better construction than are usually 
found, and may therefore be of comparatively late date. 



HOWGILl, (minor) 

THIS was oiiginally a stionghold cif llie De Stutcvilles, \\\w held tiie hkuum 
of iMilburn under De Meschines in the reign of Henry 1. It lies up in 
the hills where are tiie heail waters of Tees, about live miles from Appleby. 
The family of Lancaster, descended from the Barons of Kendal (r/.i'.), succeeded 
the De Stutevilles, and the last of them, William de Lancaster, dying .s./., his 
inheritance was divided between his two sisters, Hawise and Alice, an illegiti- 



288 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

mate son named Roger coming in for certiin lands, including this manor and 
Howgiil. This was towards the end of Henry IIl.'s reign, and Koger Lancaster 
died 19 Edward I., leaving three sons, John, William, and Christopher. 
John, who succeeded to Howgiil, died 8 Edward II. s.fi., when his brother 
William's son, John, obtained the property, and it descended in the family until, 
in the time of the Roses (1438), the succession ended in four daughters, one of 
whom, Elizabeth, brought this Lancaster property to her husband, Robert de 
Crackenthorpe, the brother of her neighbour at Newbiggin. It went again by 
an heiress, her great-granddaughter, to Sir Thomas Sandford of Askham, and 
the Sandfords continued here till the beginning of the eighteenth century, when 
the property again went, by default of heirs male, to the Essex family of Honey- 
wood. Howgiil is now the property of Lord Hothlield. 

The site is a strong position, on the brow of a ravine through which runs 
a hill stream, and seems to have been considered sufficiently defensible without 
earthworks or ditches. We know nothing as to the nature of the original 
dwelling of the De Stutevilles, if they had one here ; but it is probable that 
when Roger de Lancaster succeeded, in the thirteenth century when much 
castle-building was going on, he erected what was perhaps a North-country 
tower or peel for his safe abode, to be extended in later times in the form in 
which we see the place. 

Howgiil Castle consists of a central block between two immensely strong 
rectangular towers, each measuring 64 feet long by 33 wide, with walls 9 feet 
and 10 feet thick ; the basements have barrel-vaulted roofs, with two stages 
above, and formerly a battlemented roof. Wide-splayed loops gave light to 
the ground floor of each side tower, and small staircases, in the thickness of the 
walls, lead to the first floor, from whence each has a newel stair to reach the 
upper stages. The central block originally contained the hall, which has been 
destroyed at some time or other, and rebuilt with thin walls, and subdivided, 
perhaps at the end of the seventeenth century. Access is obtained to the side 
towers by pointed-arch doorways, and Tudor, with later insert.^d, windows, give 
light to the apartments (Dr. M. ]V. Taylor). 



KENDAL (minor) 

THE original stronghold which occupied this commanding site over the 
Kent valley was brought in marriage, together with the lands, by Lucy, 
the heiress of Turold, lord of Spalding, to Ivo de Taillebois of Anjou, a 
Norman companion of the Conqueror, from whom he obtained the barony 
of Kendal. His descendants were called De Lancaster, and the male line 
failing at William de Lancaster, seventh in descent, the Honour of Kendal 
and its estates passed to his sisters Hawi.se and Alice. Then Margaret, the 



WESTMORLAND 



289 



eldest coheir of Hawise by Robert le Brus, married tlie younger son of 
Robert, Lord Roos of Hamlake and Werks, bv Isabel, daii,t;hter of Alexander II. 
of Scotland. 'I'lieir grandson Sir Thomas de Roos married Katheiinc, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Strickland of Sizergh, Westmorland, and had an only daughter 
Fllizabeth, who brought Kendal Castle and a rich inheritance to the I'arrs, 




KICNDAL 



by her marriage with Sir William de Parr, knight. Theii' giandson Sir 
William I'arr, K.d., married Elizabeth, one of the coheirs of Lord Kitzhugh 
by Alice, daughter of Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, and Joanna 
Beaufort, the child of John of Gaunt. Alice's sister was Cicely Nevill, "The 
Rose of Raby," mother of Edward I\'. and Richard HI, and the great-grand- 
mother of Henry VIII., who thus married his fourth cousin in Katherine Parr, 
the first Protestant Oueen of England, born at this old castle in 1513. After 
the Crown had granted it to various favourites, it was sold and resold many 

times. 

vol-. II. 20 



290 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



The ruin is finely situated on :i circular mound about half a mile E. of the 
town, on the opposite side of the river, having a wide prospect from its walls. 
There is a good fifteenth-century gatehouse, and parts of the keep and two 
of the round towers exist. The remains of the chief apartments and of a 
dungeon or cellar may be traced, the whole being surrounded by a moat. 

The place was decayed 
even in Camden's time, 
and it has never been 
repaired. "This crum- 
bling relic rises like a 
grey crown over the 
green hills of Kendal, 
situate on a lofty emi- 
nence, with panoramic 
views over the town 
and picturesque vale of 
the clear and rapid 
Kent. A circular tower 
is the most considerable 
portion of the ruins, 
but there is a large en- 
closure of ivy-mantled 
walls remaining, with 
a few broken arches " 
{Agnes Strickland). 

The strength of the 

walls is very great, but 

they have been built 

in rude early Norman 

fashion. The earliest 

portion is the tower on 

the N.W., which may 

have been erected about the time of Ivo de Tailk-bois ; the tower opposite, 

on the S.W., is likewise ancient and strong, that on the S.E. being of 

later construction. 

It is probable that during its long possession by the Parrs this fortress 
of the Barons of Kendal was altered many times and adapted to more modern 
requirements, and it is difficult now to trace the old Norman arrangements. 




#;!'.# 



KKNDAL 



WESTMORLAND 291 



I. A M M J^ R S I D E {uoii-exisleiil) 

THIS is an ancient ruin near Wharton, in a fine situation, but only a 
few remains appear, in fragments of walls and a part of a tower, with 
its dungeon. 

NEW BIGG IN (minor) 

ALTHOUGH tile present hall does not pretend to be a castle, yet it is 
on llie site of an early Norman fortress which gave shelter to the owners 
of the lands here for many generations. There exist charters of grants to one 
Laurence de Xewbigginge, whose race continued in the male line for seven 
generations, when Robert de Newbiggin married Emma, daughter of Threlkeld, 
and left one daughter and heiress, who brought Newbiggin to her husband, 
Robert de Crackenthorpe. This was early in the reign of Edward 111. Then 
followed lifteen generations of Crackenthorpes of Newbiggin, an ancient family 
of Danish origin, as the name implies, which held a strong position in the county, 
and intermarried with most of the leading families of Westmorland and 
Cumberland. They were Lancastrians, and two brothers of the family shed 
their blood at Towton Field in 1461. 

An inscription over the door shows that the existing manor-house was 
built by Christopher Crackenthorpe in 1533 (25 Henry VIIl.), and this owner 
added to the estate by the purchase from the Crown of some of the Church 
lands at the Dissolution. 

According to tradition, the original castle was built temp. Edward I., and 
it was in all likelihood a rectangular peel tower of strength ; but there are no 
vestiges of it left. The situation was in a low ground capable of being flooded, 
and hence perhaps its chief defence. 

The existing building is of the same design, having, like Howgill, a central 
block supported at either end by strong rectangular battlemented towers. 



PEN DRAGON (minor) 

PENDR.AGON is said by Camden to have been called ancientlv the "Castle 
of Mallerstang," from the neighbouring forest of that name. It takes its 
name of Pendragon from a Welsh tradition about its founder, and is believed 
to date from Saxon times. The ruin is linely situated on a mound above the 
Eden, and a deep moat alforded protection on the other side. One of the 
Hanking towers is still tolerably perfect. 

Owned temp. Edward 1. by Roger de Clillord, it was burned to the ground 



292 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

by the Scots in 1341 (temp. Edward III.), but was afterwards rebuilt and 
possessed continually by the Cliffords. This was one of the castles of Anne 
Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, repaired by her in 1661, and stated on the 
usual inscription stone set up by her to have lain ruinous without timber 
or any covering since 1541. This lady also built the bridge over Eden, 
near the castle. The building was demolished in 1685 bv Thomas, Earl of 
Thanet, its owner. 



SIZERGH {minor) 

SIZERGH is a venerable fortified mansion belonging to the ancient family 
of Strickland (orig. Stirkland), who have owned estates in that district 
since the first year of King John. There exists one lofty tower, or peel, of 
the time of Henry VII., a square building 60 feet in height, defended by 
two square turrets ; it has good battlements and a fine chimney. A few of 
the original windows are left ; but the house has been much altered in the 
time of Elizabeth and at later periods, being still inhabited {Parker). It is 
three miles from Kendal. To Sizergh came Katherine Parr, about the year 
1530, when a young widow of about eighteen, at the death of her first husband, 
Lord Borough, to live with her kinswoman. Lady Strickland ; and here she 
occupied herself much in embroidery, specimens of which are shown at 
the castle. The apartment she occupied is still called the Queen's Room, — 
a fine state chamber in the ancient portion of the building called the 
D'Eyncourt Tower, opening from the drawing-room, and panelled with richly 
carved black oak, which is covered with tapestry of great beauty {Agnes 
StrickiiDid). 

WHARTON HALL {minor) 

WHARTON HALL is the seat of an old Westmorland family, near Kirkby 
Stephen, dating from the time of Edward I. -A considerable portion 
of the house still remains, partly converted into a farm-house. There is a 
quadrangle with an entrance gatehouse, showing the date of 1539, possibly 
erected by Sir Thomas Wharton, ennobled by Henry VIII. The principal 
tower exists with its staircase, the great hall, and many of the domestic offices. 
The family of Wharton came to an end at the death of the last heir male, the 
eccentric Duke of Wharton, born 1698, who was raised to that dignity by 
George 1. in 1718, and whose character is well given by Pope. This place 
was then purchased by the Lcnvthers, and is now the property of Earl 
Lonsdale. The first Baron Wharton won his elevation by his surprising 
conduct and success in the signal defeat of the Scots at Solway Moss, in 
November 1542, in which a force of 500 under the Duke of Norfolk routed 



WESTMORLAND 293 

King James V'.'s army of 10,000; "perhaps," Gough says, "the most considerable 
victory tlie English ever gained over the forces of the neighbouring kingdom." 
He died in 1568, being succeeded by his son Thomas, who died in 1372, and had 
as successor his son Philip, a distinguished Whig temp. Queen Anne, created 
Viscount Winchendon and Earl of Wharton, and afterwards Marquis of Wharton 
in 1715, in which year he died. His only son was the profligate character 
mentioned above as the last of the faniilv ; he is said to have replied in the 
House of Lords with such vigour to the first Earl of Stanhope, the minister of 
George 1., on the matter of the South-Sea Bubble (1721), as to have caused the 
death of Stanhope, who succumbed to a fit of apoplexy the next day. 



YANWATH HALL (mnmr) 

THE Manor of Vanwath Hail lies nearly three miles S. of Penritii, on tlie 
Westmorland side of tiie Eamont River, a few miles after it leaves the 
lake of rilswater, and was placed there to guard an important ford in the river, 
on one of the main Border roads. A wooded bank slopes precipitously 
down to the river at the back of the house, and the tower, as is generally 
the case, conuuands a wide view over the adjacent country. In one of the 
papers published by the Arch;eological Society of the county, it is said that 
no part of these counties is so rich in examples of old manorial houses as 
the district around Penrith. They are generally tenanted now by farmers. 
Yanwath was a peel, and a good specimen of a fourteenth-century fortress, 
being built, like all Border towers of the same epoch, for defence and also 
as a refuge for men and cattle from the incursions of Scottish marauders. 
It occupies a commanding position on the S. bank of the stream, like all 
these English peels, in order to impose the river between the castle and 
the enemy. Parker (vol. ii. p. 216) says that this castle is of two very di^tinl:t 
periods; the original structure is believed lo have been bvnlt by Jt)hn de 
Sutton, who married Margaret, the heiress of the family of De Somerie, in 
1322. The heirs of this union became Barons Dudley, and in tlie reign of 
Henry VIII., Thomas, the eldest son by the second wife of Ednumd, Lord 
Dudlev, settled at Yanwath, and married Sarah, the daughter and coheiress 
oi Sir Lancelot Threlkeld of Yanwath, a member of an ancient county family. 
It was sold in 1654 to the Lowthers, and is still owned bv the Earl of 
Lonsdale. 

The building is in the form of a tiuadrangle, three sides ot which now 
are standing, enclosing an inner bailey or " barmkin, ' as it used to be called. 
The fourth side was possiblv closed by a wall, or by wooden buildings. On 
the S. side are the chief tower, the hall, and the kitchen. The present gateway 
is modern, the old entrance having existed at tlie arch of the N.E. angle, 



1 



94 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

where are the guardrooms, and a thick wall, with crenellated parapet. At 
the W. end stands the great peel tower of three storeys, with its battlements 
and watch-turrets at each angle. There is a vaulted basement to the tower 
quite untouched. The hall, which was probably rebuilt in the Bfteenth century, 
was originally a fine apartment, 42 feet by 24 feet, but it was altered then, and 
later additions have quite spoilt it. The oldest portions of Yanwath are early 
fourteenth century, but the tower received many alterations in Elizabeth's time. 
At the N.E. angle is more of the early work, with an interesting look-out and 
platform for the warder. In Xicolson and Burns's History, it is said that 
there existed a chapel over the gate, but the buildings here are now used 
as stables, and it is difficult to say if it was so. The present gateway is 
entirely modern. 




DACKF. 



Cuinbciiant) 



A R M A T H W A I T K ( mhwr) 



THIS was tlic fortified maiiDi-liousc bclonqin^ to tlic Skeltoiis of 
Skelton, and was tlicir chief seat. John Si<i,lti)ii, tiic \M)t:{ laureate of 
Henry VIII., was one of this family and was born here. Tiiey retained 
it till 171 2, when it was sold by Richard Skelton tt) William Sanderson, 
from whose family it passed to the Milbiirns, and in 1S46 became the pioperty 
of the Earl of Lonsdale, the present proprietor. Jefferson says that the Skeltons 
frequently represented this connty and Carlisle in Parliament, between the 
reigns of Edward II. and Henry VIII., and distinguished themselves in the 
Scottish and I*'rencli wais. Before coming here, they were a considerable 
family (temp. Edward II.) in the \V. of Cumberland. Richard, a son of Sir 
Clement, was at Agincourt in the suite of the Duke of (lloster, and his 
nephew, John Skelton, who was also a warrior, and much esteemed bv the 
duke, was the first to seat himself at .Armathwaite, where, in 1445, he built 
a house of defence against the Scots. 

The castle stands on the site of an ancient fortress, upon a rock washed 
by the river Eden. It has a modern front of ashlar stone, and has received the 
addition of a new wing of offices. 

205 



296 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



A S K E R T O N (nmwr) 

THIS is a lonely fortified house, built by Thomas, Lord Dacre, when 
Warden of the Marches, to i^uard against inroads from Liddesdale by 
Bewcastle and the Maiden Way, as an advanced post above Naworth 
Castle, and for the protection of the barony. It stands on the banks of the 
Cambock, and was the usual residence of an officer called the Land Serjeant, 
whose duty it was to take the couuiiand of the inhabitants in repelling the 
inroads of the borderers ( Wluilan). 

In a MS. in the British Museum, published in the Scottish Arclurologia, 
dated 1590, Askerton is thus mentioned : " Upon the E. side of Eden lyeth 
the barony of Gilsland, under the government of a Steward who ought to be 
at Askerton Castle. In his charge is all the safety of that Barony, without 
either help of warden or other. . . . This Castle since the Rebellion is sore 
spoyled, and ever since worse governed." 

It was a Border watch-tower, whose uses ceased after the union of England 
and Scotland. Mr. P'erguson calls it a building of great interest, occupying 
three sides of a quadrangle, the fourth or E. side being completed by a 
curtain wall. There are towers on the S.W. and S.E. The W. wall is thin 
and modern, but on tliat side stood the hall, of which a part remains at the 
N.W. angle, with a three-light window in its N. end, and part of a staircase 
to the battlements above it. The fine massive original roof is still in its place. 
This hall was once embattled. The interiors of the towers have been dis- 
mantled, having had formerlv two small rooms with fireplaces and windows, 
and garderobes. On the N. side is a stable with hayloft over. The design of 
the whole was a quadrangle in which the entire garrison, horses and all, 
could be contained, the gates shut, and a short siege stood, until rescue from 
Naworth or Carlisle was forthcoming. 

There is nothing to show that any previous building ever existed at this 
point. The fabric, which was in great decav, as we have seen, in the reign 
of Elizabeth, has since been repaired and converted into a farm-house. There 
was once a park attached to it. 



BEWCASTLE, or the CASTLE OF BUETH (mhwr^ 

ITS Celtic predecessor (see Triennain and Irthington) was a remote Cumbrian 
fortress on the Maiden Way, " rugged and solitary," and not easy of 
access. There are the remains of a Roman camp. The lands were granted 
by Henry II., by charter, to Hubert de Vallibus or Vau.x, the lord of Gilsland, 
after the death of Gilles Bueth, but it was rather regarded as a part of the 



CUMBERLAND 297 

barony of Burg. The De Multons, or Moultons, however, took possession of 
it after they had obtained Gilsland by marriage. In the reign of Edward III. 
Bewcastle was held by tiie Swinburnes, after whicli time it got into the 
hands of the Crown, and then was held by the Miisgrave family, from the 
time of Henry V'lII. till the seventeenth century, Jack jMnsgrave being captain 
of it at the period of the Commonwealth. 

Bushworth says Bewcastle had a garrison of a hundrt-d men in 1639, wliich 
was afterwards withdrawn to Carlisle, when this castle was dismantled ; though 
Hutchinson states that it was destroyed by the Parliament forces in 1641. Its 
latter proprietors have been Grahams. 

All that remains of the castle is a large enclosure of 87 feet square, with 
four huge walls, much broken down on the X. and E. The date of its erection 
is not known, and there are no details whereby this can be traced. As the 
windows are insertions of late Tudor work, the castle may have been rebuilt 
when the Tudors came to the tiirone. A gateway has been added on the W. 
The lodgings and offices appear to have been built round the walls of the 
enceinte, as at Askerton, and had two storeys and a basement. The doorways 
remain, and are furnished with the long holes for the wooden bars to fasten 
the doors. 

Many are the stories of the lawlessness of the Bewcastle folks, in the times 
of disorder ; they were all moss-troopers, " and many of them appear in the 
lists kept by Lord William Howard of those whom he had either hanged upon 
the fatal trees at Xaworth, or sent to Carlisle, where the officer ' does his work 
by daylight.' " 

CARLISLE {cliirf) 

THE city of Carlisle (Caerluel), placed on the western approach to Scot- 
land from London, is the successor of British, Roman, Saxon, and 
Danish settlements, whose occupants in earliest ages chose this well-protected, 
elevated rock of new red sandstone for their stronghold against the Scots. 
Three rivers — on the \. the Eden, \V. the Caldew, and E. the Petterill - cover 
its three sides. 

When the Red King settled the boundaries of England and Scotland at 
this point, he drove out the owner of the lands and connnenced the Iniikiing of 
a Norman castle upon the N. and most elevated spot of this piece of higli 
ground, rising 60 feet above the Eden. The slopes of the hill on the 
N., E., and W. are very steep towards the meadows intervening between 
the three rivers lielow. Rufus retained the district in his own hands, hut 
Henry I. granted it as the earldom of Caerleolium to Ranulph ie Meschines, 
who soon after (through his mother Maud, sister of Hugh d'Avranches, sur- 

named Lupus, Earl of Chester) inherited the earldom of Chester, on the 
VOL. II. 2 P 



298 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

drowning of Earl Richard, together wilii Prince William and many other 
young nobles, on board the IV/it'U Ship at Barfleur. He thereon surrendered 
Caerleolium to the king, and the earldom was divided into two parts, the 
eastern portion going to form the county of Westmorland, and the rest 
being divided into baronies. 

During Stephen's reign, Cumberland was given over to the Scots, and 
it is probable that Carlisle and its walls were finished by King David of 
Scotland, who sometimes resided here. Fordun fixes his occupation in 1138, 
and Carlisle remained in the hands of the Scots till 1157, when King Malcolm 
surrendered the city and castle to Henry II. In 1174, William the Lion 
besieged the place with a force of 80,000, as is said ; but on his capture at 
Alnwick the siege was raised. Here in 1186 King Henry attended with 
a large army to meet this same Scottish king and his brother David, then on 
friendly terms. But in 1216 King Alexander II. laid siege again to Carlisle, 
when the castle held out, but from the injuries it received became so dilapi- 
dated that in 1256 a survey was ordered for its repair. In 1296 an incursion 
of the Scots under the Earl of Buchan was beaten off, and a system of 
fire-beacons was instituted in the surrounding country to give notice of an 
enemy's approach. Soon after Edward I. arrived here with his army, this being 
the first of four visits which he paid. The last occasion was in 1307, when he 
kept his last birthday here, and shortly after died at Burgh-upon-Sands, in 
the neighbourhood. Most of the Edwardian additions to the castle are of 
this reign [Clark). It was in 1305 that the heroic Sir William Wallace was 
confined in irons here on his way to his cruel death at Smithfield. 

The Bruce laid siege to Carlisle in 13 15, directing the attack chiefly against 
the city walls ; but Sir Andrew de Harcla, the governor, drove him off after a 
hard-fought siege of eleven days, for which service in 1322 Harcla was made 
Earl of Carlisle and Lord Warden of the Marches ; he had also that year 
earned the gratitude of Edward II. by vanquishing at Boroughbridge the 
Earl of Lancaster, John de Mowbray, and others, and quelling their insur- 
rection. But the next year, wearied with the weakness of the king, whom 
perhaps he thought likely to lose his kingdom, Harcla sought Robert 
Bruce at Lochmaben and entered into traitorous terms with him for mutual 
support. This was brought to the notice of Edward, who sent at once Sir 
Anthony de Lucy with three knights to apprehend Earl Harcla. On February 
23rd, Lucy with a few followers entered Carlisle Castle, concealing their arms 
under their cloaks, and passed without challenge into the inner ward, and 
thence to the great hall, whence they proceeded to the private apartments of 
the governor, whom they found there unarmed and engaged in writing. He 
was at once arrested ; but the sound of voices alarmed the retainers, who 
came to the rescue, and the keeper of the inner ward was killed by Sir 
Richard Denton in his attempt to close the gate. Lucy's warrant, however. 



CUMBERLAND 299 

prevailed ; the castle was surrendered to him, and tlie "governor made cl(«e 
prisoner. On Marcli 2nd the Cliief Justiciary, Sir leltVey le Scrope, arrived, 
and on the following day the earl was arraigned and tried, found guilty, de- 
graded, and sentenced to be hung, drawn, and quartered. The sentence was 
at once carried out with all its barbarous crueltv, his quarters being distributed 
over the country, one of them disfiguring the castle keep. 

Edward III. in 1334, being in Scotland, sent Edward Baliol to Carlisle 
to defend Cumberland ; and in 1337 and 1345 the Scots made incursions 
against the fortress, which must have needed repairs, as a survey was 
ordered at that period. During the weak reign of Richard II., the Scots 
made several attempts against the place, in 1380, 1385, and 1387 ; and in 
the Civil Wars of the 
fifteenth century Car- 
lisle tiuffered greatly, 
though we hear little 
regarding its castle. 
Edward IV. made his 
brother Richard of 
Gloster governor of it, 
and he resided here, 
one of the towers be- 
ing called after him. 

Henry VIII., in or- 
der to adapt the castle 
for m^mi^^^^^ll^yi^lll^ 

many alterations to 

, , •, ,. CARLISLE 

be made, buildmg a 

blockhouse or citadel 

on the S. side, of similar form to those which he provided along the S. coast. 

Pemiant describes it as oblong in shape, with three circular bastions, and a 

strong machicolated gateway, defended in front by a moat and drawbridge. 

Elizabeth built the chapel and barracks, her arms being placed thereon ; 
but the survey of 1563 shows that large repairs were then necessary, 70 feet 
of the wall of the outer ward, 9 feet thick and 18 feet high, having fallen, 
and both the keep and tlie captain's tower needed repair, the parapets also 
being ruinous and deficient. 

In 1568 Mary Oueen of Scots was brought here with some state, after 
her landing at Workington on Sunday, May 16th, by the sheriff, Sir Richard 
Lowther, and she remained here until her removal to Bolton Castle on 
July 13th, thus spending six weeks at this castle, where she must have received 
the insulting and pitiless rejt)inders of Elizabeth, and realised the loss of 
her liberty. She occupied a tower in the S.E. corner of the inner ward, 




300 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

wliich was of finer architecture tlian the other parts, and contained the state 
apartments for distinguished visitors ; the lower part was Norman, with a 
circuhir-headed gateway, holding a portcullis, and having a postern on the 
right. The upper part was Early English. A sketch of this tower and its 
description are given in the " History and .Antiquities of Carlisle," published 
by Jefiferson in 1838 ; three years after, the tower was pulled down on account 
of its insecure state — a fate shar&d also by the chapel. 

In 1644 General Leslie brought a Parliamentary force to Carlisle, which 
was occupied for the king by a large garrison under Sir Thomas Glenham 
and Sir Henry Stradling. After a siege prolonged for ten months, the garrison 
was starved out and surrendered, when the castle was occupied in force 
by the Roundheads. 

Prince Charles Edward arrived before Carlisle at Stannix Bank on 
November 9, 1754, with a force of about 7000 men and si.x six-pounder guns, 
retreating to Brampton on being fired upon ; but on the 13th they returned 
and opened trenches against the city, and when on the 15th scaling-ladders 
were brought and an assault ordered, the garrison, whicii consisted of 300 
militia only, hung out a white flag and offered to surrender. The prince 
required that the castle should be given up as well as the town, and this 
being agreed to, the Highland army entered, and obtained a large booty 
of arms and stores and 100 barrels of powder. The people of the neigh- 
bourhood had sent their plate and valuable effects into the castle for safety, 
but these were ordered to be restored to their owners. A garrison was left 
in the castle of 100 men, and the prince's army then proceeded on their 
incursion into England, from which they returned on the 20th December, 
passing one night at Carlisle to change the garrison, and retreating ne.xt day 
into Scotland. The same day the king's army under the Duke of Cumberland 
marched from Penrith to Carlisle, and being received with artilleiy fire, raised 
batteries against the place and summoned it, whereupon the town and castle were 
delivered up to the royal troops. Nearly 400 prisoners were sent to London 
with Mr. John Hamilton of Aberdeenshire, the governor, who, with another 
officer, was hung, drawn, and quartered. There are traces of two field- 
works in the meadows N. of the castle, evidently prepared for the reception 
of the Scots army as they approached over the brow at Stannix in November 
1745 {Clark). 

The plan of the castle is a right-angled triangle, of which its right angle 
is on the S.W., and the longest side, somewhat curved, from N. to E. ; the 
area contained being about 3 acres. A strong buttressed wall with bastions 
crowns the edge of the slope, and is carried on the E. and \V. sides past 
the castle to unite with the city walls. The S. front is separated from the 
town by a deep ditch 30 yards broad and 10 vards deep, and a glacis. 

The walls of the inner court converge on a flat salient, in the middle of the 



cumb?:rland 



301 



outer court at the gatehouse, called the Captain's Tower. This is rectangular, 
with a low-arched Decorated gateway and vaulted passage furnished with 
gates and portcullis ; in front was once a ditcli and a dr.iwhridge. Old plans 
show a small lunette battery placed near in front, and communicating with 
the outer gatehouse by a covered-way ; but all this outside work has been 



^ifj, 



ll»/^.l/| 



:l:^ 

,^< 



;? 



"•^/cxQ^^ 




CARI.ISLK 



removed. The wall is backed by a rampart and masonry, probably of llie time 
of Henry VIIl. 

The keep measures 66 feet X. and S., and (>i feet E. and W., and is now 
68 feet high. It has been so much altered that the old plan cannot be well 
seen. The entrance, which had an Edwardian portcullis, is on the ground 
level on the E. face. The basement is vaulted in four compartments, and had 
a stair in the X.W. angle to the first floor, which has been vaulted in brick 
and is used as a mess-room ; it has a large Nt)rmaii iireplace now walled up. 



302 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

The second floor, reached from tlie exterior, has a wooden ceiling, and its E. 
wall has a mural chamber once used as a prison, and bearing inscriptions by 
prisoners. The third floor is vaulted in modern brick to carry a gun platform 
on the roof. An external stair (Edwaidian), built against the N. face, leads 
up to the ramparts. 

The hall and the domestic buildings, with Queen Mary's Tower, were at 
the S.E. angle, but all is now gone save a fragment of panelled work, part of 
a grand staircase of early Edwardian work which led to the chief apartments 
{Clark). 

The N. wall of the inner ward is protected by a rampart 27 feet thick, and 
on the outside are six enormous buttresses (Decorated or Perpendicular), to 
support it. Formerly in the centre a spur curtain wall extended down the 
slope, ending in a round tower, for flanking this N. wall : it is now removed. 
The N. face of the curtain and its N.W. corner have been restored in Decorated 
style, but most of the W. wall is original (Clark). In the centre of this W. 
wall is a small projecting Norman tower, open at the gorge, with a postern 
close to it ; it is continued to join the city wall across the outer ditch, and 
some wav along this is the tower called after Richard 111., or "Tile Tower," 
which mav be Norman work altered. There was, it is said, an underground 
passage below this tower and the enceinte. The S. wall is original, with 
Norman pilasters. Here is another postern in the wall from the S.E. angle 
to the city wall, now banked up ; this led to what is called the Lady's Walk, 
at the foot of the S. wall as far as the S. gatehouse, which is alleged to have 
furnished the usual promenade of the captive Mary Stuart. 



CASTLE CRAG {nou-c.xistcut) 

ON the sides of Lake Derwentwater, overlooking the Vale of Keswick, is an 
eminence of this name which was once occupied by a Roman fort, and 
afterwards by a fortress of the Norman lords of Der. The materials of this 
structure are said to have been employed in building a house on one of the 
three wooded islands of the lake, called Lord's Island, upon which the Radclifte 
family had a stately mansion. The island was originally a peninsula, but was 
cut off from the mainland by a ditch with a drawbridge, remains of which are 
still visible. This residence was given to a younger branch of the family : 
Sir |ohn, the brother of Sir Cuthbert Radclifte, lived and died here. It 
then fell to decay, and nothing now remains of it, nor of the Roman castrum 
and the Norman tower ; for it is alleged that the stones of all were carried 
away to build the town-hall of Keswick. The Derwentwater estate extended 
for two miles along the shore and for half a mile in depth, between the present 
road to .Ambleside and the Falls of Lodore. 



CUMBERLAND 303 

The Der\veiit\v;itcrs appear to have been settled in Cunibeiland as early as 
the time of King John, and continued there til! 48 Edward III., when Sir John 
de Derwentwater was sheriff of the county, a post he also filled in the reij^n 
of Richard II. He was the last of his race, and his property was inherited by 
his daughter Margaret, who, temp. Henry V., married Sir Nicholas de KadclilTe, 
of a family coming from the village of that name in Lancashire, near Bury 
(see Dtlston), whose pedigree assumes a De Radcliffe prior to the time of 
Henry II. {Gibson). Many of these Cumberland Radcliffes were buried at 
Crossthwaite. 



CASTLESTEADS {,in„-exisknt) 

HUTCH IXSOX says (vol. i. p. 102) that the ancient mansion-house of 
Gilsland was at a place in the parish of Walton called Castle Steed, and 
that Gilbert Bueth dwelt here (see Irthington) ; also that the lords of Gilsland 
used its luins for building Xaworth Castle. But the fact is, that there is no 
evidence for the existence of any castle or tower here at any time : there 
seems to have been nothing but a Roman camp, the ramparts and ditches 
of which are still very apparent, and from this site many altars and Roman 
remains have been dug. 



CATTERLEN HALL {minor) 

THREE miles X.W. of Penrith, situated on a hill at the base of which 
flows the Petterill, is a good specimen of a Border peel tower, wilJi later 
additions, which increased civilisation required and improved security allowed. 
It is not known by whom the ancient tower was erected ; it probably dates 
from the Wars of the Roses, and is similar to others in the district. It was 
added to in the iifteenth century, and, in the middle of the seventeenth, it 
received the more imposing buildings, approached by a flight of stairs. 

The peel is a small one, 30! feet long by 19! broad, and consists of a 
single barrel-vaulted basement lighted bv narrow slits and old loops enlarged, 
the walls being 4 feet thick. In the S.W. angle a low-pointed doorway leads 
to the newel stair by which the other floors are reached. The first story is 
the solar, in a single apartment, with a small closet having a window on 
the E., over which is a shield with the arms of Vau.x of Catterlen. The 
flooring of both storeys is gone, but the joist corbels remain. The second 
floor was the ladies' chamber, w'ith windows on the X. and E. sides. The 
parapet round the roof was crenellated. 

The ranges of building added at the end of the tower consist of a two- 
storeyed erection 22 yards long, with a hail and kitchen and sleeping rooms 



304 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

overhead. Over the doorway is an inscription hy the builder, Rowland V^aiix 
(1577). The hall, with a wooden roof, is a good Tudor building, where the 
lord and his guests dined in common with his retainers. 

The second addition was made by the Richmond family, about 1657, ^^ 
right angles to the last range ; this contains a courthouse and a retiring-room 
reached by stairs from the court, with inferior rooms below, all built in the 
style of the Elizabethan and Jacobean ages. 

After the Conquest, Hubert de Vallibus (V'aux) wrested the lands from 
Wilfrid, son of the Saxon thane, and Heniy 1. granted them to him, 
together with Gilsland, despoiled from the Saxon Beuth. The family of Vaux 
continued to hold the property till the last John Vaux died, s.p., in 1642, when 
the manor went with his daughter Mabel to a neighbouring squire, Chris- 
topher Richmond of Highhead Castle, from whose family it came in 1775 by an 
heiress to the Duke of Norfolk, and it is now the property of the Howards. 



COCKERMOUTH {dmi) 

THIS castle stands on a steep and rocky knoll on the point of land 
formed by the confluence of the Cocker with the river Derwent. Such 
a position was in earliest times a favourite one for the placing of a strong- 
hold ; and upon this triangular space of scarped rock, defended on all sides 
but one by water, and perhaps following Roman foundations, the Norman 
baron built a keep, with a bastioned curtain wall around the highest ground 
enclosing his bailey or ward, and protected on the open side by a ditch 
with a barbican. This early castle must have been that destroyed by 
Henry III. in his vengeance on William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, 
in 1 221 (see Bytliavi, Lincohi) ; for the remains of these buildings are trace- 
able, and the greater part of what now exists was erected in Decorated and 
Perpendicular styles between 1360 and 1400. 

When Ranulph de Meschines succeeded to his cousin's great earldom 
of Chester (see Carlisle), he ceded to Henry I. the rights and fief of Caerleol, 
whereon that king created five new baronies, Copeland or Allerdale above 
Derwent, Allerdale below Derwent, Wigton, Greystock, and Levington, 
reserving to the Crown Inglewood Forest and Carlisle ; the rest of the fief 
went to Westmorland. Ranulph's brother, who had obtained the barony 
of Gilsland, resigned it in exchange for that of Copeland, between Dudden 
and Derwent ; while Waldeof, son of Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland, 
obtained Allerdale below Derwent, which passed, four generations later, 
to William Fitz-Duncan, Earl of Moray, the nephew- of Malcolm, King of 
Scots. Meanwhile, Copeland had come to Cicely de Meschines, the grand- 
daughter of William, and then to her daughter Alice (by Robert de Romilly, 



CUMBERLAND 305 

lord of Skipton), wlio was married to tiiis same William, Earl of Moray ; 
and tliL-ir only son, who is known in poetry as " the Boy of Egremont," 
became lieir to ail these large possessions in England, as well as to his father's 
vast territory in Scotland. But an even greater future seemed possible for 
this son — the victim of the Wharfe — for when David, King of Scotland, died, 
Malcolm his successor was not favoured by the Highland clans, because he 
had acted as a vassal or feudatory to his cousin King Henry II. of England 
at the siege of Toulouse, and they desired to see this cousin, this Boy of 
Egremont, on the throne in his place (Skene's "Celtic Scotland," vol. i. 

P- 456). 

But the catastroplie of Wharfe, 

" When Lady Adali/.a mourned 
Her son, and felt in her despair 
The pang of unavailing prayer," 

ended all these bright visions, and the English lands fell to the tiuee sisters 
of the Boy — Cicely, Amabel, and Alice — who all, in themselves or their descen- 
dants, possessed Cockermouth. 

Cicely, the eldest daughter of William Fit/.-Duncan and his wife Alice de 
Komilly, carried Skipton to her husband, William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle 
(see Scarborough). And their only daughter Hawise married successively William 
de Mandeville, William de Fortibus, and Baldwin de Belhunc, by the second 
of whom she left an only son, William, who through her became the second 
Earl of Albemarle, and was the rebel in the early part of Henry III.'s reign. 

Alice was the wife of Robert de Courtenai, as her second husband (1196), 
and paid to King |ohn a Inie of ;^"5oo, ten paltreys, and ten oxen, to have the 
liberty of her inheritance, and not to be compelled to marry again. She 
died s.p., when her property of Allerdale went to the descendants of her 
sister Cicely, and to those of her other sister Amabel, who had married Reginald 
de Lucy and had obtained the barony of Copeland. 

There is a connnand of the young King Henry III. in 1221 tt) the sheriff 
of Westmorland, following on Albemarle's rebellion, that he should cause the 
castle of Cockermouth to be besieged and destroyed to its very foimdations. 
This order seems to have been carried out, though, peihaps, only in part, for 
we see in the W. tower evidence that it was built early in the thirteenth 
century, and was destroyed very soon after, a fourteenth-century building 
being afterwards erected on the old foundations. William de Fortibus, how- 
ever, managed to make his peace, and pei haps rebuilt the castle. He married 
Aveline, the heiress of Robert de Montlichet, and died in 1241, leaving an only 
son, William, whose second wife was Isabel de Ripariis (1247), ^'^t<-"'" '"''1 
heiress of Baldwin de Redvers, Earl of Devon. William died in 1260, and his 

vuL. II. 2 Q 



3o6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

widow had Cockermoiilli as her dower ; but the immense possessions of tiie 
Earls of Devon and of De Fortibus fell to Aveline, sole heiress of this last 
William and Isabella de Redvers, so that she became a suitable match for Prince 
Edmond " Crouchback," Earl of Lancaster, whom she married in 1269. She 
died six years afterwards, and her vast property was escheated to the Crown, 
though descendants of the two sisters Cicely and Amabel were still living. 

Edward I. retained Cockermouth Castle in his own hands, and Edward 11. 
handed it over first to Piers Gaveston, and afterwards to Sir Andrew Harcla, 
whose rebellion and destruction are related under Carlisle Castle. 

Then Antliony de Lucy, who had claimed the property, being a descendant 
of Amabel, tlie second sister of the Boy of Egremont, was, in return for his 
capture of Harcla, presented with Cockermouth. He died in 1343, and liis 
son Thomas married Margaret, one of the three coheiress sisters of John de 
Multon ; the other two being married, Elizabeth to Robert de Harrington, 
and Joan to Robert de Fitzwalter ; and each of the three became entitled to 
a third of the Egremont barony. This Tiiomas de Lucy is given bv P'roissart 
as one of the companions of Edward 111. in Normandy in 1346, and he pro- 
bably fought at Cregy. He repaired the bastion at tiic W. salient of this castle 
and built the great hall. His son Anthony succeeded him in 1365, but died in 
the Holy Land, whereupon his sister Maud, the wife of Gilbert de Umfraville, 
Earl of Angus, became heiress of the Lucy line. This Anthony de Lucy was 
lord of Cockermouth from 2 Edward II. to 17 Edward 111., and being a 
high military chief on the marches, probably kept his castle in proper order. 
It may have been he who remodelled the Norman work, and built the new 
front of the inner ward and the great kitchen, in the Decorated period {Cltrrk). 
The Lady Maud had by the Earl of Angus a daughter, who after the earl's 
death (8 Richard II.) married Henry Percy, ist Earl of Nortluimberland. 
Failing her own heirs, the honour of Cockermouth was settled on the heirs 
male of her husband, who were to wear the arms of Percy (a blue lion), and 
of Lucy (3 lucies), quarterly ; and the remainder taking effect, Cockermoutli 
passed to the Percy descendants of Earl Henry's first wife Margaret, daughter 
of Ralph, Lord Nevill of Raby. The arms of all these families appear on the 
shields over the castle gatehouse built by this earl, by whom the area of the 
fortress was trebled by the extension of the outer ward, eastward. Maud died 
in 1398, and Earl Henry, like many other nobles, after helping to place Boling- 
broke on the throne, turned against him and joined Owen Glendower and 
Roger Mortimer ; he was beheaded after the light on Bramham Moor in 
1408, his eldest son, Henry, " Hotspur," having been slain at the battle of Shrews- 
bury five years before. His grandson, the second earl, fell at St. Albans, and 
the third earl at Towton (1461), when the estates became forfeited to the Crown 
by attainder, and this castle and honour were then granted to Richard, Earl 
of Warwick, and, after his death, to Henry, 4th Earl of Northumberland, who 



CUMBERLAND 307 

was inurdcred at liis seat of Cock Lodge, Yorkshire. Tlie fifth earl, wlio did 
not five here, died in 1527, being the first of these lords who died a natural 
death during 150 years, and the sixth died s./>., leaving his property to the 
Crown. 

The Percys were thus dispossessed for twenty years, but in 1557 Thomas 
Percy was restored, and when Queen Mary Stuart landed at Workington, at the 
mouth of the Derwent, in 1568, and was by the sherifif, Sir Richard Lowther, con- 
ducted to Cockermouth Castle, Earl Thomas hastened to receive her there, and 
desired to bring her to his grander home of Alnwick, which, from the proximity 
of that castle to the coast, was not permitted by Elizabeth. 

In 1577 a survey of the castle was made, which stated tliat the fabric was 
then in a great state of decay " as well in the stone work as timber work thereof." 
This was in the time of Henry, eighth earl, who, being confined in the Tower for 
complicity in Throgmorton's plot for liberating the Queen of Scots, was in 1585 
found dead in his bed in tiie Bloody Tower, w^ith three bullets in his side. His 
son Henry, ninth earl, called "The Wizard," was also committed to the Tower 
on the charge of being concerned in the Gunpowder Plot, and remained there 
for fifteen years ; he died in 1632, and was followed by Earl Algernon, whose son 
Earl Jocelyn (eleventh) ended the male line of his race, and Cockermouth came 
by his daughter and sole heiress to Charles Seymour, Duke of Somerset. Their 
son, Duke Algernon, created Earl Egremont and Baron Cockermouth, died in 
1750, leaving a daughter, but Cockermouth Castle and the earldom were settled 
on Sir Charles Wyndham, the grandson of Duke Algernon, and thus descended 
to George, the last earl, who died s.p. legitimate, leaving this castle to his 
natural son. 

The entrance is at tiie X. end of the E. front, formerly through an open 
barbican with a drawbridge, and thence through a three-storeyed gatehouse 
(cir. 1400) which has a fine newel staircase with groined roof. Inside the walls 
are modern buildings and traces of early ones, and on the left is an ascent to 
tiie flagstaff tower at the S.E. angle of the wall, and to the wall allure. In 
front is the great face of the inner ward (1390), which once had before it a 
dry ditch across the courtyard. Passing through the inner gateway in the 
centre we cross the cellars or prisons, formed within what was originally the 
first moat, and by a steep flight of stairs ascend into the innei- ward, where, on 
the right, is the castle well, and an entrance into the great hall which alnits on 
the kitchen. This is a huge tower, open to the roof, and having a gallery across 
its N. side which led into the hall, with recessed pantries below it, and on its 
opposite side a newel staircase in the wall to the roof. The hall measures 
48 feet in length by 30 feet, and beyond it runs a range of solar or state apart- 
ments, whose inner wall has disappeared. In the salient circular tower at the 
W. the archers' seats still remain in the windows. Perhaj-'s the chapel stood 
ever the great entrance. 



3o8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

In August 1648 the castle was held for the Parliament, and being attacked 
by a Royalist force it held out for a month, until relieved by General Ashton. 
As there are no battlements remaining, there seems good reason to believe that 
the fortress was dismantled at this period. 



CORBY {luiuor) 

ON the E. side of tiie Eden, four miles E.S.E. of Carlisle, stood this fortress, 
built on a precipitous cliff impending over the river, on the site of a 
still earlier work. The square walls of its keep were incorporated in the 
later mansion built about the middle of the sixteenth century. 

The manor of Corby was given by Henry II. to Hubert de Vaux, who 
gave it to one Odard, whose descendants assumed the name of De Corby. 
In the reign of Edward I. this De Corby family gave way to the Richmonds, 
who 16 Edward II. conveyed the property to Andrew de Harcla, afterwards 
Earl of Carlisle, after whose execution (see Carlisle) it was bestowed in 1335 
on Richard de Salkeld for his former good service in assisting in the capture 
of the earl. His descendant in the reign of Henry VII. left two daughters, 
and the families derived from them owned Corby, and in 1606 and 1624 
sold their moieties to Lord William Howard, who gave the place to his 
second son. Sir Francis, ancestor of the present proprietor. Lord \V. Howard, 
or Belted Will, is written of in the Memoir of Naworth (</.z\). 

There is little of antiquity apparent in the existing structure, so many 
and various have been the alterations and additions made thereto. The castle 
is surrounded by celebrated and very beautiful grounds. 



D A C R E (nimor) 

THE river Eamont, flowing E. from Ullswater, receives at its N. bank 
the small stream of the Dacre beck, and about a mile from this place 
up the beck, at the mouth of a pleasant valley, stands this castle on a spur 
of high ground, with the village of Dacre close beside it. William of 
Malmesbury, writing A.D. 11 31, mentions a castle at Dacre as being the place 
where Constantine, King of the Scots, and Eugenius, King of Cumberland, 
put themselves and their kingdoms under Atheistane, the King of England, 
about the year 927. But whatever may have been the rude fortress of 
those days, the present one, from its Early English style, was not built 
till some time in the thirteenth century. It was perhaps erected by 
Ranulph de Dacre, who was a firm Royalist during the Barons' War, and 
was sheriff of the county, as his father was before him, dying 14 Edward I. 



CUMBERLAND 



309 



His family doubtless took their name from the plaee, and lived here probably 
till by the abduction of Marj^aret de Multon, the heiress of Gilsland, in 1313 
(see Nawortk and Kirkoswald), Ralph de Dacre obtained the line seat of 
Kirkoswald, wliich formed an abode more behtting the increased importance 
of his person and family. These Dacres were bold men of high spirit and 
reputation, and were as successful in love as in the State. Sir Thomas at 
the end of the fifteenth century followed his ancestor's example in actiuiring 
the loi'dship of Greystoke by a marriage of elopement. 



^^fP^YW^ 



^^mMMmm^ '''■- 





^mM^^^A%h}k}m» 




DACUE 



In the seventeenth centiuy Thomas, Lord Dacre of the South, created 
Earl of Sussex 1674 (see Hurstmonccanx, Sussex), made many additions to 
the building, inserting also the square-headed windows, and placing his arms 
(which quartered Lennard, P'iennes, Dacre, and Multon) over the entrance. 
He died in 1715 s.p. male, when his earldom ceased, and the barony of 
Dacre fell into abeyance between his two daughters, Barbara and Aiuie, who 
sold Dacre to Sir Cluistopher Musgrave of Edenhall. It was afterwaids sold 
to Mr. E. \V. Hasell of Daleiuain. 

Dacre Castle consists of a plain massive stone tower, almost s^piare in 
form, with large square turrets projecting at the E. and W. corners, square 



3IO CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

with tlie tower, and at the N. and S. angles two other smaller turrets, set 
diagonally like buttresses. The summit of both tower and turrets has a 
crenellated parapet, the height of this from the ground being about 66 feet. 
The large turret on the W. contains a broad newel staircase leading to the 
upper storeys and the battlements, and the one on the E. side has four small 
apartments. Against this latter is built, on the outside, a flight of stairs giving 
access to the pointed doorway of the castle. Of the two smaller turrets, that 
on the N. contains rooms for sleeping accommodation, and the opposite one 
was appropriated to garderobes and drains, and is now blocked up. 

The outer walls are very strong, being 8| feet thick. The basement has 
two barrel-vaulted chambers for cellars or dungeons, dimly lighted. Above 
these, with its oven and fireplaces, is the original hall or kitchen, formerly 
a single apartment 36 feet long by 21 feet wide ; opposite the fireplace is a 
curious recess with a shelf and water drain, like a piscina. The chamber 
of the second floor is called by tradition "The Room of the Three Kings," 
from the legend of William of Malmesbury ; it is 17 feet high to the wooden 
ceiling, and a minstrels' gallery seems to have formerly occupied its E. wall, 
reached by a stair from the turret and a mural passage. 

A large moat, once 15 to 20 feet deep, and from 30 to 50 feet wide, 
extends from the N.E. of the castle, and forms a quadrangular enclosure 
150 feet square, being still filled with water. The court thus enclosed probably 
held the stables and offices, and the outer defences were perhaps closed on the 
tower by palisades. 

DALSTON HALL {mhwr) 

THE manor-house of Little Dalston, Iving four miles to the S.W. of 
Carlisle, is a building which, like Naworth, has expanded from the 
original peel, the tower at the E. end of the range of building measuring 
31 feet by 25I feet. Little Dalston was a manor within the barony of Dalston, 
which was presented by Ranulph de Meschines, Earl of Cumberland, to 
Robert de Vallibus or Vaux, the brother of Hubert of Gilsland. He took 
the name of the place, which he enjoyed until Stephen ceded Cumberland 
to King David ; but this manor he gave to a younger brother, whose descen- 
dants kept it till 1761. 

Sir William Dalston, created baronet in 1640, was a staunch Royalist and 
suffered considerably in the cause. During the long siege of Carlisle in 1644, 
he had to retire before General Lesley, who seized on his house and converted 
it into headquarters. He died in 1657, and the male line failed at the death 
of Sir George, the fifth baronet, in 1765, who, however, had sold the property 
five years before to Monkhouse Davison, after whose death it was purchased 
(1795) by James Sowerby, in whose family it remains. 



CUMBERLAND 311 

This old fort is situated on an eminence overlookin<5 tlie valley of Caldew, 
and is at present used as a farm-house. It consists of two square embattled 
towers echeloned 50 feet apart, and connected hv infeiior buildings. Upon 
a cornice is seen this old inscription: ''Joljn 2Dal£(tCIIl (£ll|dlicrl) tUiplje lliaO 
pS bplDPriff," which is thought to refer to an owner in the middle of the 
fourteenth century. The fabric itself is ancient, but the square-headed 
windows are of the date of Henry \'11I. The tower is o( the same type as 
all peels, in three storeys, with a staircase in the wail. 



DRAWDYKES {mn-cxis/ent) 

THP^ tower of this name, in the township of Linstock, was built in 1676 
by John Aglionby on the site of an old Border fortress, which was 
removed during that century, but of which there ai e no remains, nor any 
history. The vallinii of the Roman wail is clearly traceable in front of the 
castle ; the three busts on the top of the tower are said to have come from 
the wall, but they have nothing Roman about them (/. C. Hjucc). 



DRUMBURGH {mluor) 

CLOSE to the Koman wall, at the head of the Solway Kirth, 4/, miles from 
Burgh, are considerable remains of a tine specimen of an old fortified 
manor-house. Leland, writing of it in 1539, says: "At Drumburygh, the Lord 
Dacres father builded upon old mines a prety pyle for defence of the country. 
The stones of the Fict wall were pulled down to build it." It was anciently a 
seat of the l^runs, lords of Bowness, and afterwards belonged to the barony of 
Burgh, which passed by heiresses thrcjugh the several great families of Estriver, 
Eugaine, De Morville, Dacre, and Howard (see Naworth, &c.). It now belongs 
to the Earl of Lonsdale, since in 1678 Henry, Duke of Norfolk, sold the demesne 
to John Aglionby, who repaired the castle, then in ruins, and later conveyed 
it to the earl's ancestor. Sir John Lowther, in exchange for Nunnery, the head 
of the Armathwaite manor. Thomas, Lord Dacre, rebuilt the structure in the 
reign of Henry VIII., and in j68o John Aglionby inserted new square windows ; 
so although built at the end of the fourteenth, or at the beginning of the lifteenth 
century, its appearance is quite changed, and there is nothing now of a castel- 
lated nature remaining. 



312 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



DUNWALLOGHT (uon-existenl) 

THIS castle was in tlic parish of Ciinirew. Here William de Dacre had 
a manor-house, which in i Edward II. (1307) he obtained a licence to 
fortify. It was then written as Dunmalloght, and there are some existing 
traces of it. 



EGREMONT {minor) 

THE castle stands on a remarkable hill close to the town, commanding the 
ford over the Eden and the bridge of later date, — a most favourable site 
for a fortress, but no traces exist of any fortification earlier than the twelfth 
century, though there may have been a hill-fort in prehistoric times. 

When William de Meschines obtained the barony of Copeland from 
Henry II., he built on this "cop" a fort to protect himself against a hostile 
population and also from the attacks of the Scots. There is shown under 
COCKERMOI'TH how Allerdale below Derwent came to Alice de Romilly and 
William Eitz-Duncan, Earl of Moray, and also the disposition of the lands after 
the death of their son, " The Boy of Egremont," — so called, perhaps, from having 
been born here in the castle of his grandmother Cicely de Meschines. His sister 
Amabel or Annabel married Lambert de Multon, the eldest son of Thomas de 
Multon of Holbeach, Lincolnshire, and brought to her husband these lands and 
the castle, to which he is said to have added the great hall. He died in 1247, and 
the property descended for three generations of the same family to Thomas 
De Multon in 1293, who, an important man of his day, figures in the Roll of 
Caerlaverock. He died about the time of the Bruce's raid into England in 
1315, leaving a widow Eleanor, who had for her dower the castle of Egremont 
with its lands. 

John de Multon, the last of his race, died s.p. in 1335, when the barony 
passed to his three sisters, the caput baronia:, i.e., the castle and lands, falling 
through the eldest, Joan, to Robert Fitzwalter. 

We next hear of Egremont in 1371, when Walter, the son of this Joan and 
Robert Fitzwalter, being taken prisoner in the invasion of Gascony, had to 
mortgage the castle in order to raise ;^iooo for his ransom. Perhaps this 
money was furnished by the Percy family and was never redeemed, since in 
1449 Thomas Percy, a son of Hotspur, was created Baron Egremont of 
Egremont Castle; he was slain at the battle of Northampton in 1460, when the 
title expired, but this property remained with his family. 

About the year 1528, Henry Algernon Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland, 
the early lover of Anne Boleyn, bought from Robert, Viscount Fitzwalter, one 
liiiid part of this ancient barony and castle, whereby he seems to have acquired 



CUMBKKLAND 



3n 



the greater portion of tlie whole property ; but on the death of this earl 
in 1537 the entire Percy estates fell to the Crown, and were afterwards 
granted by Philip and Mary in 1557 to his nephew Thomas, at whose exe- 
cution, in connection with the rising in the North in 1572, his brother 
Henry inherited. 

A survey was then made of the Percy estates, and at Egremont it was found, 
in 157X, that "the Castle of Egremont is now almost ruinated and decay'd, 
save that some part of the old stonework & walls thereof are yet standing, 
& one chamber therein now used for the Court house in like ruin & decay. 
About which castle is a pleasant dry dich, & without the said dich hath been 
the base court now called the Castle-garth, the site of which said Castle together 
with the said Castle-garth contain by est. 2 acres & worth to he Ictt p. ann. 
14s. 6d." Such condition of 
the old fortress at that date 
is sufficient to account for its 
present state, without ascribing 
its further ruin to the Parlia- 
mentary forces of the seven- 
teenth centiuy. 

The castle occupies an oval- 
shaped eminence, the sides of 
which have been scarped on 
all sides, its highest point being 
at the N., where perhaps stood 
the original tower of the Mes- 
chines, and where Buck's draw- 
ing of 1739 shows a high raised 

tower fronting the road from St. Bees Abbey (also founded by William de 
Meschines) to Egremont. Pound the crest of this hill ran the enceinte wall, 
which once had bastion towers at various points. 

The square entrance tower remains at the S.W. corner, the lower part of 
which, with a considerable length of the curtain wall adjoining on the left of 
it, is of the first half of the twelfth century, according to Mr. Jackson {Trans- 
actionx of the Cumberland and Westuiorland Antiquarian Society, vol. iv.), and 
contains herring-bone work, as appears on the drawing given. There was a 
steep approach up to the drawbridge, and a circular Norman gateway opened 
into a groined archway, defended by strong doors. 

The outer ward is 120 feet in length and ends in front of the great hall, 
built cir. 1260, which formed a defensible dwelling of the nature of a keep 
(as at Knaresborough), with an entrance defended by a portcullis. Traces 
of screens and window seats remain, but little of this building now exists ; 
the lights were double, and raised far above the court. No chapel is to be 

VOL. II. 2 R 




EGREMONT 



314 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

found, but as the walls of the inner bailey have nearly perished, this and 
other buildings which we now seek in vain may have been situated 
here. 

The salient on the S. was formed by a thirteenth-century circular bastion, 
which has vanished. 

Below the upper ground there runs round the castle a broad lower terrace, 
also scarped : on the inner side of this was the ditch, of which a portion 
remains near the S.W. entrance. The barbican at the main entrance has 
gone entirely, as likewise have defences which perhaps stood at two other 
points of approach up the scarp of the terrace, round which probably ran 
a strong palisade. Below the S. end of the hill were the pleasaunce and 
gardens, and perhaps the tilt-yard. This is the castle to which, as told by 
Wordsworth, is attached the legend of the Horn of Egremont, relating to its 
possession by the Lucys, which could not, however, have lasted many years 
after 1335. 



GREYSTOKE, or GREYS TOCK {chief) 

THIS beautiful mansion of the Howards, occupying the site of the ancient 
castle, was built in the seventeenth century by the Hon. Charles 
Howard ; but subsequent owners, Dukes of Norfolk, have added to and 
greatly embellished the work of those days. It stands on an eminence 
protected on the E. and S. by a rocky bank, below which a small stream 
flowed on its way to join the Petterill. There are but few remains of 
the ancient fortress, which was demolished by the Parliament after its 
capture in the Civil War. " Some broken towers are seen to the E., and 
in the back part of the present mansion some other old edifice appears " 
{Hutchinson). 

The Conqueror gave Cumberland to Ranulph de Meschines, who granted 
this barony to one Lyulph, to whom it was confirmed by Henry I., and 
whose posterity assumed the name of Greystock. The Greystocks continued 
here in unbroken succession, generally from father to son, with nuich honour 
and wealth, intermarrying with the best families in the land, until the reign 
of Henry VII., when Robert, the son of Ralph, Lord Greystock, concluded the 
line, leaving an only daughter. She, being lady of Greystock and Wem, eloped 
from Brougham Castle one night and married Thomas, Lord Dacre of Gilsland, 
whereupon her estates went to the Dacres, whose race ended in the male line 
at the death of George, an infant, from the effects of a fall in the nursery, in 
II Elizabeth. His sisters then succeeded. The eldest, Anne, became the wife 
of Philip, Earl of Arundel, eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk, and brought 
Greystock to that family (see Naivorth). The old castle must have been built 



CUMBERLAND 



315 



ill tile foiirtccntli century by William, Lord Grevstock, who obtained a licence 
from Edward III., and wlio built also the castle of Morpeth ; he died in 1359. 
Greystoke was garrisoned and held for King Charles, but in 1648 it was 




GREYSTOKE 



captured by a Parliamentary force of General Lambert's division, and was then 
burnt and destroyed. It stood in a park of 500 acres. 



HARBY BROW {muwr) 

NEAR the village of Allhallows and not far from Aspatria, on the X. bank 
of the Eden, is an old peel tower, 30 feet square and 60 feet high, now used 
as a farm-house. 

HAY, OR HAYES (non-exisknl) 

IN the Whitehaven district, half a nnle from Distington, was once the 
residence of the Moresby family, and the manor-house of tlie lords of 
Distington. Little remains of the place except a portion of the N. wall, but 
its foundations may be traced over a considerable area. 



3i6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



HIGHHEAD {»m,or) 

THIS place lies about eight miles S. of Carlisle, in the township of Ivegill. 
The tower belonged to the barony of Dalston, and is called in old records 
"Pela de Hivehead," — showing that originally it was a peel tower only. The 
manor belonged to Sir Andrew Harcla (see Carlisle), and after his execution to the 
Crown. In 1326 Ralph Dacre obtained a grant of it and of the tower for ten years, 
after the e.xpirv of which William L'Angleys, or L'Englise, was made custodian for 
life. In 1342 (16 Edward III.) Willielmus Lengleys, "dilectus vallettus noster," 
had a licence to crenellate his house of Heyheved, and this is probably the date 
of the new buildings then added to the old peel. His son in 1358 built the 
chapel, which was but a mean edifice. F"rom the Langleys the property passed 
in 1550 by sale to John Richmond, in whose time the building was altered 
and enlarged, and all that remains of the old castle was then incorporated. 
His descendant Christopher Richmond left two daughters, the elder of whom 
became the wife of S. Gledhill, and the younger, Elizabeth, married Peter 
Brougham of Skelton, whose son, Henry Richmond Brougham, the High 
Sheriff of Cumberland, spent Xio.ooo upon new buildings here, procuring 
workmen from Italy to carry out the plaster-work. He died in 1749, before the 
place was finished, and the house passing into the hands of two families, 
half of it to each, was neglected by both, and fell partially into ruin. In 
the present century, the famous lawyer, Lord Chancellor Henry Brougham, 
a descendant of one of the owners, became purchaser of the castle, which 
has since been placed in better repair, and is now used as a farm-house. 
There was once a good deal of carved woodwork about the building, which 
has been removed to Brougham Hall. 

Mr. F^erguson says that the remains of the ancient peel have to be sought 
behind the panels of upper bedrooms. Buck gives a drawing of Highhead as 
it appeared in 1739. 

This grand structure stands on the brink of a rocky ravine, overhanging 
the Ive rivulet which flows below. Upon three sides the position is strong 
by nature, and upon the fourth the defences were assured by a massive wall 
and iron gates. In Buck's view there is shown the ruined gatehouse with a 
staircase turret in the inner corner, ending in a look-out, and on each side 
a high embattled wall ; on the brink of the rocks stand the shattered remains 
of a large tower. H. R. Brougham's work must have commenced immediately 
after the taking of this sketch, and the building as erected by him is in a 
singularly inappropriate Italian style, with a balustrade parapet at top support- 
ing a grand pediment decorated with figures in high relief. A double flight 
of stairs leads to the entrance, which conducts to a great hall with rows of 
Ionic columns, and corridors branching off right and left to the various 



CUMBERLAND 317 

apartments ; in tlie midst rises a fine staircase, in two Higlits, to the 
upper storeys. 

The only remaining portion of the ancient building is at the S.W. side, 
incorporated in the present house, and made to match the new work by a 
new stone facing. 



'&• 



HUTTON JOHN (mmor) 

THIS is a peel belonging to the chain of Border towers extending through 
the Eamont and Eden valleys, among which are Yanwath and Dacre, 
and perhaps Blencowe, which is, however, a Hall of the fourteenth centurj'. 

It is a square embattled tower, with added wings of later date, the work 
of Andrew Hudleston in 1662, when, after being driven away from his other 
possessions, he retired here with his family. The building was altered again at 
the end of the last centurv, but still retains its ancient appearance. 

The old peel seems to date from about 1362, when it was the property of 
William de Hoton, being held under Greystoke. The Hotons were here in 
the thirteenth century, and possibly began to build at that period. 

The structure is in two storeys, and measures 38 feet long by 30 feet wide ; 
it has some interesting masonry and arms upon it. A branch of the Hotons 
or Huttons held it till 1564, when an heiress, Margaret, sister of the last male 
heir, brought the property to her husband, Andrew Hudleston, whose family 
afterwards parted with the greater part of the lands to Charles, nth Duke 
of Norfolk. It was a member of this family, Father John Hudleston, who 
assisted in the escape of Charles II. after the battle of Worcester (September 
1651), and followed him in his exile and wanderings, attending him on his 
deathbed. A portrait of this priest is preserved here. 



IRTHINGTON (no,t-cx/sh;it) 

THV. Chronicle of Lanercost shows the aip^t baronia; of the barony of 
Gilsland to have been at Irthington, a village on the N. side of the river 
Irthing, 2\ miles from Brampton. Here was once a Roman camp, where 
now stands the Nook farm-house, alongside of which is an ancient mound, 
on which the English owners, the Irthingas, built their wooden homestead, 
and which was perhaps included in the Noiman castle afterwards erected 
upon the site of the Roman camp. 

Ranulph de Meschines, after the Conquest, had granted the barony of 
Gilsland to his kinsman or follower Hubert de Vaux or Vallibus, and with 
the consent of Henry II. his family continued to possess it. The lands had 
belonged to a Celtic familv called Bueth, one of whom, Gille Mor, was 



3i8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

driven out bv the Conqueror ; but when King David obtained Cumberland 
from Stephen, he supported Gille Mor Bueth against the Norman possessor, 
Robert de Vaux. On Henry II. regaining Cumberland from the Scots, 
this Robert re-entered on his property, and the legend runs that he invited 
his rival Bueth to a friendly tryst at Castle Steads, and there treacherously 
murdered him. It was by way of expiating this deed that, about 1169, 
Robert de V'aux is said to have founded the priory of Lanercost. 

There is no evidence as to when Irthington Castle was destroyed ; the 
foundations of it are well ascertained. Maclauchlan (" Memoir of the Roman 
Wall") says that the centre of the present farm-house occupies what was once 
the site of the ancient castle : its dimensions were about 96 feet by 75 feet, 
with a tower at the S. angle, and perhaps at the others. The middle of the 
castle was about 50 yards from the mound, and the walls were some 10 yards 
clear of the ditch sunounding that elevation. The mound has been lowered 
in order to form a garden on its summit. Many Roman remains, coins, &c., 
have been found here. 



I R T O N {minor) 

THIS is an early Border tower, square and embattled, on the \V. side of 
the county, which has been incoiporated in the modern dwelling-house 
with other portions of the old building — the home of an ancient family 
who took their name from the place and the river Irt. The manor was 
held as far back as the reign of Henry I. by their ancestor Bertram de Irton, 
whose successor Adam became a Knight Hospitaller and went to the Crusades. 
The family has continued here in high standing and honoiu through all the 
vicissitudes of the country. One member. Sir Thomas Irton, was knighted 
for his conduct at Hodden (15 13), and others have filled the office of High 
Sheriff for Cumberland until late in the last century ; the present owner is 
Mr. Samuel Irton. 



KIRKOSWALD {minor) 

THE remains of this once magnificent abode of the Dacres are situated 
on rising ground about 200 yards S.E. of the town, in a fine valley, 
eight miles from Penritii. The town was called after St. Oswald, King of 
Northumbria. 

This favourite residence of the lords of Gilsland is said to have been built 
originally by Ranulph or Randolph de Engain, Baron of Burgh, who married 
the heiress of the Trivers family not long after the Conquest. His grand- 
daughter Ada brought the inheritance to Simon de Momlle, and, in the 



CUMBERLAND 319 

second year of John, Sir Hugh dc Moiville obtained a hcence to fortify the 
castle and enclose a park. This Hugh, Baron of Burgii and Kirkoswald, has 
in error been confounded witii his notorious namesake who was one of the 
murderers of Recket. The assassin of St. Thomas, however, was Hugh, lord 
of Westmorland and Knaresborough at the time when Kirkoswald was held 
by Simon de Morville, the grandfather of Sir Hugh, who fortified the castle. 

After three generations of this family the lands went with an heiress to the 
Multons of Holheach, who as owners greatly enlarged the fortress (temp. 
Edward II. J. In the seventh year of this king, the castle and manor passed 
by the runaway marriage of Margaret de Multon to Kanulph de Dacre of 
Dacre (see Naworth), and the new owners made this place their favourite 
residence ; so that in the fifteenth and si.xteenth centuries, Kirkoswald rose 
to its full splendour, and in or about 1500 the castle received its last 
additions from Thomas, Lord Dacre, who " encompassed it with a large 
ditch for better security, and beautified it at great expense." This Sir Thomas 
held the property from 1485 till 1525, and by carrying off at night from 
Brougham Castle the young heiress Elizabeth, daughter of the last Lord 
Greystoke, he united her barony of Greystoke to Kirkoswald. During his 
wardenship of the Marches he lived chiefly here, and scime of his despatches 
are dated from this place. 

Upon the division of the vast possessions of the Dacres into the two 
branches of Dacres of the North and Dacres of the South, this castle fell 
to the latter, that is, to the Kiennes and Lennard families ; the last of wiiom 
marrying a natural daughter of Charles II. by the Duchess of Cleveland, 
was created Earl of Sussex, and died in 1715, leaving two daughters. The 
property was then exposed for sale, and was purchased by Sir Christopher 
Musgrave, Bart., of Edenhall, in whose family it continues. 

These South Dacres, however, did not live here, and under their rule the 
place was little cared for and fell into ruin ; at last it was dismantled by 
order of Lord Dacre, and was also subjected to spoliation to a vast extent, 
a quantity of the carved wood and of painted glass finding its way to Lowther 
and Corby. Lord William Howard enriched his castle of Naworth with 
curious genealogical glass windows and the panelled ceiling of the hall 
all miserably burnt there in the fire of 1844 (see Nmvorth). In 1622 the 
beautiful chapel roof of Kirkoswald was removed, and put up nver the 
library of Belted Will ; so that in 16H8 Thomas Denton wrote of this castle 
as "a bare shell or heap of stones." Buck's drawing of 1739 shows it almost 
as ruinous as it is at present ; some walls, however, were then standing which 
have since been removed for use in other buildings. 

The castle stands in the centre of a space of about i :] acres, enclosed 
by a rectangular moat, 30 to 40 feet wide, and from 12 to 18 feet deep, 
which is supplied by a brook in the park above. In the W. angle of the 



320 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

moat is a separate outwork, an outlying mound wiiich once was fortified, 
surrounded by water, and flanking the drawbridge on the \V. side. There 
are no traces of the gatehouse which, with this bridge over the moat, 
gave admittance to the outer ward. The buildings of the castle formed a 
square of about 150 feet, and two towers partly remain on the S. face of it, 
having a vaulted basement and two floors. On the \. side stands a tall 
slender tower, tolerably entire, 65 feet in height, built diagonally to the castle 
wall ; it contains a spiral staircase, admitting to the three floors of the castle 
by mural galleries, the doorways to the several entrances still remaining. 
There is a fourth doorway leading to the battlements, which have all dis- 
appeared. On this N. face were situated the chapel and chief apartments, 
the great hall lying probably on the E. side. 

Sandford, visiting Kirkoswald in 1610, declares this castle to have been 
"the fairest fabrick that ever eyes looked upon. The hall 1 have seen 100 
feet long, & the great portraiture of King Brute lying at the end of the 
roof of this hall and of all his succeeding Kings of England. In this grand 
Castle I was some 60 years agoe, when there was many fair towres and 
chambers & chapels." 

On the W. face, among grassy mounds and heaps of rubbish, can be 
traced the site of the inner gatehouse, and in the outer ward that of the 
stables and ot^ces. It seems possible that before the moat was added by 
Sir Thomas Dacre, in 1500, there was an outer wall of defence. Nothing 
remains now of the Norman castle, all that we see being chiefly the buildings 
of the time of Edward II. 



LIDDELL, OR LYDDAL {non-existent) 

AT Liddell there is a strong earthwork entrenchment, about two miles from 
Netherby, called the Mote, situated on a lofty cliff overlooking a vast 
expanse of country. At one end of the enclosure is a high mound, and in 
the middle lie the foundations of a square building. The work is further 
strengthened on its weaker side by a curved lunette in front. 

Leland appears to be the authority for this work having contained a castle. 
He says : "This was the noted place of a gentilman cawled Syr Walter Seleby, 
the which was killed there, & the place destroyed yn King Edward the Thyrde 
time, when the Scottes went to Dyrham." It is said to have been taken by 
storm by David II., who caused the two sons of Sir Walter to be strangled 
before their father's face, and then commanded their parent to be beheaded. 

This is all disallowed, however, in a paper on the work by Mr. K. S. 
Ferguson, published in the Transactions of the Cumberland ArchcBological Society, 
vol. ix. He affirms it to have been purely a Roman post, and denies that any 



CUMBERLAND 321 

castle existed here, thoui^h pciliaps tlicre mav have been an early sixteenth- 
century abode of the Graham faniilv. 

The barony of Liddell was held by the Crown from 1343 till the seventeenth 
century, when James I. granted it to Francis, Earl of Cumberland, who sold 
Liddell in 1629 to the ancestors of the Grahams of Netherby, of whose estates 
it still forms a part. 

LINSTOCK (mmor) 

LINSTOCK is a square peel on the Borderland N.W. of Carlisle. It was 
J granted by Henry I. to his chaplain Walter, and given by him to the prior 
and convent of Carlisle ; afterwards, from the foundation of the bishopric in 
1133, it was for nearly 200 years the residence of the bishops. Bishop Irton, 
a prelate employed by the king in negotiations with the Scots, died here in 
March 1292, after a tedious journey in the snow to attend the Parliament in 
London. The next year Bishop Halton entertained here John Romaine, Arch- 
bishop of York, and a suite of 300 persons, on his way to Hexham. In 1307 
Edward I. came with his queen, and was sumptuously lodged for six days 
by the Bishop. Linstock was, however, an insecure retreat, lying exposed 
to the incursions of the Scots, who were small respecters of persons, and during 
the time of the soldier bishop, who was governor of Carlisle, the annoyances and 
the difhculties of defence were so great that about this time it was abandoned 
and deserted ; and so it remained till about a century ago, when the castle was 
rebuilt and modernised by one James Nicolson, lessee of the estate. 

The ancient square tower or keep, built of red sandstone, still exists. Its 
walls, which are very massive, contain four chambers ; the ground floor is 
vaulted, and is lighted by a single loop. From the large room on the first floor 
a stair contrived in the wall leads to the second floor, which is in two rooms. 
It was repaired and modern windows were inserted in 1768, and it is now used 
as a farm-house. Part of the moat which once surrounded the building still 
exists. There is no way of fixing the date of erection, but originally the castle 
must have been of much larger extent to have accommodated the bishops with 
their retinue and their visitors. 



M I L L O M {minor) 

MILLOM is on the extreme S.W. point of the county, between the sea and 
the Duddon sands, in the barony of Egremont, and was granted by 
William de Meschines to one Godart de Boyville or Boisville, temp. Henry 1. 
His family retained the property till the reign of Henry III., taking the name 
of De Millom, and ending, after live generations, in an heiress, Joan, who 
brought the lordship to her husband. Sir John Hudleston, knight, with whose 
VOL. II. 2 s 



322 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

descendants it continued for nearly 500 years. These Hiidiestons were a 
very ancient stock, whose origin is traced back long anterior to tlie Conquest ; 
Sir John served at the siege of Caerlaverock, and in 1301 signed the celebrated 
letter of the barons to the Pope, under the title of Lord of Anneys in Millom. 
Another, Sir Richard, fought as a banneret at Agincourt (1415). Sir William 
Hudleston was a distinguished and devoted Royalist in the Civil War, being 
made a knight banneret on the field by Charles I., for his great personal 
bravery at the battle of Edgehill, where he recovered the royal standard. 
Millom is said to have been beset by the Parliamentary forces in 1648. The 
Hudlestons were still living there in 1688, but the castle was then in a 
ruinous state. William Hudleston left a daughter Elizabeth, who in 1774 
sold the estate, for about ^20,000, to Sir James Lowther, Bart., and it now 
belongs to his successor, the Earl of Lonsdale. 

There are considerable remains of the castle, which was fortified by Sir 
John Hudleston by licence obtained 9 Edward 111. (1335), on the plea of 
defending himself against the raids of the Scots. In early time there were 
tile s^urroundings of a fine park, but most of the timber was cut down in 
1690 tor fuel to work iron furnaces ; as late as 1774 the park was well 
stocked with deer, but in 1802 it was disparked by the Lonsdales. 

Canon Knowles states (1872) that the house of the thirteenth century 
consisted probably of a hall, a solar chamber and cellars, a palisaded court 
and offices. It had on the E. a stone gatehouse flanked by two semicircular 
turrets, of which there are traces. Sir John Hudleston added a kitchen on 
the site of the old hall, with dormitories above ; as well as the present entrance 
tower and the new hall and solar, with the corridor buildings. In the fifteenth 
century some rooms occupied the site of the old hall, and late in the sixteenth 
the great tower, 50 feet square, was built. It is a quadrangular buildmg. The 
entrance tower on the E., now a ruin, leads into the courtyard, in which can 
be seen traces of the original gatehouse ; on the N. is the kitchen, and S. the 
solar. On the W. corner is the ancient hall, dismantled perhaps in 1322, and 
next to it is the great tower, the battlements of which have disappeared. 

Of late the fabric has been used as a farm-liouse. 



MUNCASTER {minor) 

THE manor of Mealcastre or Mulcaster was, like Millom, held of the 
barony of Egremont, and lay between the rivers Esk and Mite, about 
a mile from the railway at Ravenglass, where these two streams unite with 
the Irt in the estuary of Esk, and flow thence into the Irish Sea. 

There was an ancient castle here upon an eminence N. of the Esk, 
belonging to the Penningtons, a family wliose domicile, prior to the Conquest, 



CUMBERLAND 323 

had been at a place of that name in F'lirness, where they resided till 
1242. The fee of Ravenglass had been given to Alan Pennington temp. 
Jolui, and his descendant Sir John Pennington, a steady Lancastrian, residing 
at the time at Muncaster, gave shelter there to King Henry VI. after the 
disaster at Hexham in 1464, on his flight from Bywell Castle in Northumber- 
land to find an asylum in the Lake Country. On leaving the friendly castle, 
he is said to have presented his entertainer with "an ancient glass vessel 
of the basin kind, about 7 inches in diameter, ornamented with some white 
enamelled mouldings," which has been preserved here with pious care ever 
since, and is called the " Luck of Muncaster." Like a similar relic at Eden- 
hall, it was gi\en with a prayer that as long as it should he preserved the 
family should prosper, and never want a male heir. There is an old painting 
representing this incident in what is called King Henry's Bedroom here. 

Sir John was a distinguished soldier, and led the left wing of the English 
army in an expedition into Scotland. His grandson touglit at Klodden, and 
one of his descendants was a trusted admiral of Charles 1. In 1783 Sir John 
Pennington was created Baron Muncaster, and the property continues with 
his descendants. 

The present castle is chiefly modern, hut the principal tower of the 
ancient castle has been preserved, though it has no longer its original out- 
ward appearance. The place is surrounded with line grounds and woods, 
and has a magnificent prospect over Eskdale. 

Near Ravenglass is a very curious relic of a building called Walls Castle, 
said by Canon Knowles to be decidedly of late Roman construction. It 
consists of some low walls forming a series of rooms, with doorways and 
traces of windows. 

NAWORTH {chic/) 

NAWORTH was probably erected about 1385, "in magno periculo propter 
Scotos," and is a truly beautiful castle, formed by the enlargement of 
an original peel, which was placed here in very early days. It is an irregular 
quadrangular building, defended on three sides by a deep ravine, and formerly 
on the fourth by a moat with gatehouse and drawbridge, and lies about twelve 
miles N.E. of Carlisle, in the parish of Brampton. Ranulph de Dacre, Sherill 
of Cumberland 20 Henry III., was its first possessor, and had a licence to 
crencllate in 9 Edward III. (1336) ; he was governor likewise of Scarborough 
and Pickering, and of Carlisle at his death, 52 Henry 111. 

Mr. Ferguson says that he found the lower part of the Carlisle or old tower 
at Naworth and the S. curtain wall of a date not later than the tenth century, 
and that this was the original peel from which the famous castle grew. 

When Henry II. recovered Cumberland from the Scots, he granted the 



324 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

barony of Gilsland to Hubert de Vallibus or Vaux, whose family had come 
from Normandy some years after the Conquest, and this property descended 
from ancestor to heir in unbroken series, through the successive noble families 
of De Vaux, Multon, Dacre, and Howard, to its present possessor, the Earl of 
Carlisle ; it has never been sold or alienated for a period of over 700 years. 
Robert de Vaux, the second baron, founded the neighbouring abbey of Laner- 
cost, and defended Carlisle in 1174 against William the Lion. In 6 Henry III. 
we find Robert de Vaux, a crusader, at Gilsland. His son, the fifth baron, 
who succeeded him 1234, left an only daughter, Maud, who brought Gilsland 
to her husband, Thomas de Multon, who was of a Lincolnshire family, and 
thus obtained the De Vaux estates in Cumberland, Yorkshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, 
Somerset, and Devon. Thomas de Multon, his great-grandson, was summoned 
to Parliament among the greater barons, and died in 1313, leaving an only 
daughter and heiress, Margaret, married to Ranulph de Dacre, who came from 
a place of that name in the same county, in the barony of Greystoke. This 
Ranulph had eloped in 131 3 with Margaret, a girl of seventeen, from Warwick 
Castle, where she and the Gilsland lands were placed under the tutelage of 
the Earl of Warwick. He was a man of much importance on the Borders, 
and suffering from an inroad of Scots under Lord Archibald Douglas in 1333, 
obtained licence to fortify his house at Naworth in 1336 ; he died in 1340. 
His great-great-grandson Ralph, Lord Dacre of Gilsland, was killed at the battle 
of Towton, and his possessions were forfeited, a great part going to his niece 
Lady Joan, married to Sir Richard Fiennes, (through her) Lord Dacre of the 
South. His brother Humphrey, however, made his peace with Edward IV., 
and was summoned to Parliament as Lord Dacre of the North ; he was Lord 
Warden of the Marches, and died in 1485. To him succeeded Thomas, Lord 
Dacre, who in 1487, following the example of his ancestor, carried oH by 
night from Brougham Castle Elizabeth, the heiress of Greystoke, a ward of the 
king, and in the custody of Henry Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, who perhaps 
intended her for one of his own family. Thus was Greystoke added to the 
Dacre inheritance, and the united estates were possessed by this lord's de- 
scendants till 1569. This Thomas was a notable figure in history; he 
accompanied, in 9 Henry VII., the Earl of Surrev in his relief of Norham 
Castle. At Flodden he commanded the cavalry : 

" The right-hand wing with .ill his rout, 
The lusty Lord Dacres did lead ; 
With him the bows of Kendal stout, 
With milk-white coats and crosses red.'' 

He filled the office of Warden of the East and Middle Marches, and later of 
the West also, and carried out many negotiations with the court of Scotland. 
In 1523 he led the cavalry in Surrey's attack upon Jedburgh, and after an 



CUMBERLAND 



325 
He died :i Kniiiht ol the 



obstinate conflict, took tlic castle of Fernhurst. 
Garter in 1525. 

William, Lord Dacre, who was governor of Carlisle temp. Edward VI., 
Mary, and Elizabeth, died in 1563, and was followed by his eldest son, Thomas. 
He died two years 
after, leaving an infant 
son George, who died 
1569 from falling off a 
wooden rocking-horse, 
when the barony of 
Dacre of Gilsland 
(of the North) fell 
into abeyance be- 
tween three coheir- 
esses. Their uncle 
Leonard tried to wrest 
the lands from them, 
but failing in this 
he embarked in the 
Northern Rebellion. 
Laying hold of Na- 
worth, he fortified and 
held it, but being de- 
feated by Lord Huns- 
den, the governor of 
Berwick, at the Gelt 
Bridge, he betook 
himself to the Low 
Countries, and died in 
exile there (1573), as 
did his next brother 
Edward. 

The mother of the 
infant Lord George had 
married, as her second 
husband, Thomas, 
Duke of Norfolk, who 

was beheaded by Elizabeth, and who had appori 
minors, to his three sons. Ann accordingly married the Earl of Arundel. Mary 
was given to Thomas, Lord Howard de Walden, and Elizabeth to Lord William 
Howard, his third son. Mary, however, died before her marriage ; Arundel was 
imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth, and died in the Tower, and Lord Willi, nn had 




rtioned the three heiresses, then 



326 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

to purchase Naworth and the estates for ^^'10,000. He and Ehzabeth Dacre 
were married in 1577, and they hved together for sixty years. The persecu- 
tion of his family ended at the death of the queen, and on the accession of 
James, Lord Wilham was restored in the blood, and in 1605 made Warden of 
the Marches. He at once occupied Naworth and commenced repairing and 
altering tlie old stronghold, whose chief interest perhaps is gained from him. 
He was not only a bold soldier and the terror of marauders in the Borderland, 
but was also a man of culture, the friend of Camden and Cotton, and one of 
the original members of the Society of Antiquaries. Legend and poetry have 
thrown a charm over the name of him whom Scott calls "Noble Howard — 
Belted Will." Another Border name for him was " Bauld (or bold) Willie." 

" Howard, than whom knight 
Was never dubb'd, more bold in fight ; 
Nor when from war and armour free, 
More famed for stately courtesy." 

He is said by a strong hand to have given peace to the Borders, and substituted 
obedience for anarchy. He died at Naworth m 1640, aged seventy-seven. 
His eldest son Philip died during his lifetime, leaving a son. Sir William 
Howard, who was by Charles H. created Lord Dacre of Gilsland and Earl of 
Carlisle, and whose family have since then possessed the lands and Naworth. 

The castle stands on a triangular tongue of land formed by the castle 
stream on the N., and a little rivulet on the S., which unite and flow into the 
Irthing ; from their banks, which on either side are rocky and precipitous, 
rise the castle walls. It has been said to be " one of England's choicest 
architectural monimients." 

In the S. front, close to the old tower, is the entrance, admitting under the 
main building into the courtyard or quadrangle, around which the castle is built. 
The outer defence in front consisted of a deep ditch extending from one stream 
to the other, but stopped at each end and crossed by a drawbridge. The E. 
front cont.iins the chief rooms, the N. side being occupied mostly by the great 
hall, which is entered by a flight of stairs from the court ; it has sixteenth- 
century windows on the inner side (enlarged afterwards), and is 70 feet long 
by 24 feet wide. At the end is the dining-room, and the kitchens are at the 
W. end of this front. The W. front contained the chapel and the lodgings, 
the S. side being chiefly a curtain wall. 

The hall and gatehouse into the small outer ward, as well as other buildings 
taken down after the great fire, were erected by Lord Thomas Dacre, the 
great builder of the family. But the Dacres, who created Naworth, resided 
principally at Kirkoswald, and the successors of Lord Thomas did little for 
Naworth, which after 1569 was unoccupied for thirty years; so that in the 



CUMBERLAND 327 

Survey of 31 Elizabeth it is stated to be "in very j»reat decay in all parts." 
Then succeeded Lord William Howard, who repaired Lord Thomas' work and 
rebuilt a threat part, including the upper portion of the tower bearing his name, 
and the long gallery in the E. front; some of his work bears the mark 1602, 
about which time he came to reside here. The iirst Earl of Carlisle repaired the 
castle, and the third earl, who built Castle Howard, did more in that way, his 
architect \'anbrugh adding the music-gallery and the hall-screen. The old or 
Carlisle Tower is like the Strickland Tower at Rose Castle. The E. front is 
shown by Buck with its two great flanking towers ; that on the S.E. being the 
old tower, which is 29 feet square, and that on the N.E. Lord William Howard's 
or Belted Will's Tower. 

On the loth May 1844 a fire broke out, during the absence of the family, 
which destroyed the greater part of the castle, but was fortunately stopped before 
it reached the N.E. tower of Belted Will, where the apartments remain much in 
their original state. These are closed with iron doors, and contain his furniture, 
and his scholarly library of books is still in the room in which he used to sit. 
Near this room is an oratory, and the fire revealed below this tower three priests' 
holes lighted by slits. Beneath the great S.E. tower are three dungeons on the 
ground floor, and one above, quite unlighted, with iron doors and a ring in the 
wall to which prisoners might be chained. In the "Legend of Montrose" 
is mentioned a private stair and passage from Lord William's room to these 
prisons, and the fire revealed others. Here he used to immure the daring 
moss-troopers, and there are two magnificent oaks near the entrance on 
which he is said to have hanged his victims. He kept a garrison of 140 men 
at Naworth. 

PENRITH {luuior) 

SINCE the men of Penrith obtained a licence to fortify their town in 1347 
(20 Edward 111.), it is evident that no castle of any sort was then in existence 
here. In 1397 Richard 11. granted the manor of Penrith to Ralph Nevill, 
Earl of Westmorland, and to his heirs, his son Richard succeeding ; and it is 
likely that Penrith Castle was built at this time. When the Earl of Salisbury 
had been beheaded after the battle of Wakeiield, Henry VI. gave Penrith to 
Jolni, Lord Clifford of Brougham Castle ; and when he fell at the battle of 
St. Albans in 1461, this manor and casde were given by Edward IV. to the 
Earl of Warwick, the king-maker, on whose death at Barnet, in 1471, tliey 
reverted to the Crown. Edward then granted them to his brother Richard, 
who is said to have lived here when engaged in the defence of Cumberlaml 
against the Scots ; for five years he is described as sherifi', and of Penrith 
Castle, which fabric he greatly enlarged, but after this the castle seems to have 
been neglected. The Crown held it till 1616, when it was devised in trust for 



328 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Charles, Prince of Wales, and in 1672 it formed part of the jointure of Queen 
Catherine of Braganza, who possessed it on the death of Charles II. In 1696 
William III. granted the honour and castle of Penrith to his friend William 
Bentinck, Earl of Portland, and in 1787 the Duke of Portland sold the 
property to William, 5th Duke of Devon. 

In the Survey of Elizabeth's reign in 1572, two towers are mentioned : 
one the Red Tower, and the other the White, or Bishop Strickland's Tower, 
with one great chamber adjoining the latter, a bakehouse, brewhouse, &c., all in 
good repair. The outer gatehouse, with the gates, was in utter ruin, as were 
also the chapel, the great hall and solar, and the kitchens ; these could not be 




PENRITH 



repaired, for already much stone material had been abstracted from the ruin 
and carted away for building purposes since 1547. 

Penrith was captured in 1648 by General Lambert, who made it his head- 
quarters for a month, and the castle seems to have been demolished at this 
time, the lead and timber being sold for the use of the Commonwealth. 

The castle stands on rising ground near the railway station. It was built 
in the form of a parallelogram, and was fortified with a very deep ditch outside, 
and a walled rampart. There was one entrance on the side of the town, where 
an opening still exists, and where the approach lay over a drawbridge. 

Buck's view in 1739 shows two large detached fragments of the main building 
with windows of the hall, and a long range of the outer walls with supporting 
turrets, having the corbels for carrying a wooden allure outside. There are still 
many cellars and dungeons remaining. 



CUMBERLAND 



329 



ROSE {chief \ 

ROSE, the episcopal palace of the see of Carlisle, is situated by the 
Caidew river, seven miles S. of the city. The origin or nucleus of the 
tine group of towers and hanging gardens which we see now, was the baronial 

manor pee! of Dalston, granted to tlie see by Henrv ill. in 1 228, the remains 
of this building forming the present Strickland Tower on the N.E. corner ot 




ROSE 



the X. front of the fabric. The name of The Rose was borne l\v the tower 
at that time. 

The hrst historical notice we get of the place is in 1300, when Edward I. 
was residing here, after the siege of Caerlaverock, probably as a guest of liishop 
Halton. Whilst here he summoned a parliament to meet him at Lnicoln, 
the writs for which .ire dated "Apud la Rose, Sep. 25, 1300." In 1322, 
during an inroad by King Robert Bruce, the buildings were burnt, and the 
same thing happening a few years later, Bishop Joim Kirby in 1336 obtained 
a licence to crenellate his house called La Roos. This bishop then built himself 



VOL. 11. 



1 r 



330 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

a spacious mansion within the walls, and the works were continued by his 
successor, Bishop Welton. The castle then formed a quadrangle, the hall 
being on the E. side, to the S. of the old tower ; on the \V. side was a council 
chamber, and at the end of this was the chapel, with the Constable's tower 
beyond. All this stood within an inner court surrounded by its own moat : 
outside of this was the outer bailey, around which a second wall was drawn, 
with towers at intervals, and a strong gatehouse at the point of the present 
entrance. The whole was encircled by a moat supplied by a spring from the 
bank above. 

In the fifteenth century Bishop Strickland restored the old peel or keep, 
which has since borne his name, and by the provision of larger windows and 
better sleeping accommodation, the fortress was rendered more habitable and 
convenient. Bishop Bell afterwards built another tower on the N. front, which 
bears his monogram of a bell ; and Bishop Kite in the sixteenth century added 
a third tower on the W. side, and more private apartments ; the total number 
of rooms being sixty. Later in that century Bishop Meye complained, in the 
reign of Elizabeth, that he was turned out of the Rose by the Warden of the 
Marches, who occupied it as a stronghold against the Scots. Xo historical 
interest attaches to it till 1645, when the castle, being held for the king by Mr. 
Lowther, the Constable, with only twenty or thirty men, was attacked and 
taken by a detachment of Colonel Heveringham's regiment, and was used as a 
prison for Royalists. In 1648 it seems to have changed hands again, and 
was once more beset and summoned. After sut^ering a storm of two hours' 
duration it was taken and burnt, so that in the Survey of 1680 the castle was 
reported to be in a state of great decav, its materials being valued at onlv ^^42^ ; 
and when Bishop Rainbow came here after the Restoration, no part of the 
fabric was habitable. 

Succeeding bishops repaired the building and added to it, but its present 
state is due to Bishop Percy, who in 1827 restored the place to a condition 
worthy of its ancient name, and in the style which prevailed at the date 
when the older portions were erected, that is, in the fourteenth century. 
Beyond Kite's Tower at the S.W. angle was another, called Pettenger's 
Tower, where once some one of that name had hanged himself, but this 
was removed. The gatehouse contains a room for the warder, above the 
archway, which may be of as early a date as Bishop Halton : a rose is 
sculptured on it. 

The original retreat of the bishops of Carlisle was at Linstock (q.v.). 



CUMBERLAND 



331 



SCALl-'.BY {wwor) 

SCALEBY lies about six miles N.E. of Carlisle. The manor was given by 
Kclwarcl 1. to Richard de Tilliol, surnamed the Kider, and in 1307 
(i Edward 11.) a licence was granted to Robert de Tylliol to crenellate his 
honse. The last of the family, Robert, died j./. in 1435, leaving two sisters, 
the eldest of whom, Isabel, brought this estate to John Colville, whose son 




scAi.iajN 



William left only two danghters ; they both married into the Musgrave 
family, the youngest, Margaret, conferring Scaleby on hei- husband, Nicholas 
Musgrave, whose descendant. Sir Edward Musgrave, largely rebuilt the castle 
in 15</). His grandson. Sir Edward, created a baronet in 1638, was a zealous 
Royalist, and garrisoned Scaleby Castle for the king in 1644, but during the 
siege of Carlisle in 1645 it was taken from him. Recovering it, however, 
he held it again for King Charles in 164.S ; but the place had suffered st) 
much in the first siege that it was now too weak to hold out, and after tiring 
a single shot. Sir Edward had to surrender to (k-neral Lambert, whose soldiers 
are said to have set lire to the castle. 



332 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Then, to relieve himself from his heavy losses in the Civil War, Sir Edward 
was obliged to sell his property, which was conveyed to Dr. Richard Gilpin, 
who repaired \he castle and fitted it up for his own residence. Here in 
1724 was born the Rev. William Gilpin, the voluminous author. Afterwards 
the place was accjuired hy the family of Stephenson, or Standish, and is now 
the property of their descendant, Captain W. P. Standish. After the Gilpins 
the castle was long deserted, and fell into a state of decay ; but it was again 
put into good repair by a Mr. Rowland Fawcett, whose family inhabited it 
for many years. 

Although the castle stands on a Hat site it is a place of considerable 
strength, having two broad and deep moats for an outer defence, one of 
which, partly filled with water, still remains : the circumference of the outer 
one measured nearly a mile. With the dcblai of these moats a mound was 
formed, upon which part of the castle was built. The entrance was across 
two drawbridges defended by a strong tower with a portcullis, and a very 
lofty battlemented wall. A considerable portion of the old work remains 
in a tolerably perfect state, the walls being immensely thick. The vaulted 
hall is a fine apartment, and beneath it are large cellars. 

Perhaps the large area contained within the moats was intended for the 
protection and the support of cattle, which would be driven in at a time of 
alarm on the Border. 



S E A T O N {iion-cxislciit) 

NEAR Workington, on the W. coast and close to the sea, there was a castle, 
once the seat of the Curwen family, who left it as early as the twellth 
century, and removed to Workington Hall, on the other side of the Derwent 
River. A few remains exist, and are known as the Barrow Walls, being 
used for shooting-butts by the local volunteer force. The Curwens trace 
their descent from John de Tailbois, a brother of the Count of Anjou, 
before the Conquest. 



TRIERMAIN (minor) 

TRIERMAIN, an ancient fief of the bart)ny of Gilslaud, is situated at 
some distance from the left front of Birdoswald, the Roman station of 
Amboglaiina, and the largest one, upon the line of the great wall of Hadrian. 
The Celtic possessors of Triermain before the Normans were named Bueth, 
of which family one Gille-mor, or "the big gillie," or servant (hence Gillesland, 
or Gilsland), was deprived of his lands by Henry 1. in favour of one Hubert de 
Vaux or Vallibns (see Irt/iiiixtoii). Robert de N'aux had the place in 1169, and 



CUMBKRLAXD 3,13 

it was held by a succession of male De Vauxcs until the reign ol Edward IV., 
when Jane, dau<^liter and licircss of the last of them, brought it to Sir Richard 
Salkeld of Corby, whose daughter inherited Triermain, and from her it passed 
in several changes to the family of Dacre, and linaliy to that of Howard in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. 

This tower may have been erected by an early De Vaux of Triermain, it 
being built of stones taken from the convenient neighbouring cjuarrv of the 
Roman wall. It was a total ruin temp. Elizabeth, and is thus described in 
an inquisition taken in the thirty-iirst year of her reign : "The scite of the 
said manner of Tradermayne, was sometime a fair Castle called Tradermayne 
Castle, a house of great strength & of good receipt ; it stood and was built 
opposite U) the coasts of Scotland and Tyndell, and about vi miles distant 
from Lydderesdell, and was a very convenient place for both annoying of the 
enemy and defending the country thereabouts, but now the said Castle is 
utterly decayed." 

In 1832 great portions of the ruin fell, but before its collapse it was described 
as an oblong quadrangle, turreted at the eastern and western extremities and 
moated round. The principal entrance was underneath a massive archway in 
the western turret. This is the castle celebrated by Scott in hi^, romantic 
poem of "The Bridal of Triermain." 



W O L S T Y {iioii-c.xistnil) 

THIS castle, wliich was two miles from Silloth, must in early times have been 
a position of strength and importance, since Roman pottery has been 
found in tlie earthworks. The place became Church property, and a licence 
to crenellile a castle was granted lo Die abbots of Holme by Edward 111. in 
n4(;. It was afterwards used by the abbots (^f Holme Cultrani as a strong- 
hold wherein to preserve their treasure. It belonged to nine generations of 
the family of Chamber of Holderness, afterwards of llanwortii, Middlesex. 
The only existing remain-, are those of the site of a part of tJie ditch, which 
was large and deep. 




iDurbani 



AUCKLAND, or BISHOP AUCKLAND {chief) 

AUCKLAND CASTLE stands on a hill ten miles SAV. of Durham. Of 
the fourteen castles and manor-houses once held by the ancient 
bishops palatine, this is the only remaining episcopal residence. It 
L stands in a well-timbered park — the remains of the chase which 
originally perhaps attracted the early bishops, who were mighty hunters, to 
the manor-house; and it is stated that Bishop Anthony Bee (1283 to 131 1) 
"did sumptuously build and incastellate the ancient manor place of Auckland." 
He is said to have built " the great hall with its divers pillars of black marble 
speckled with white " — though this is now thought to be of earlier date — but he 
certainly added a hall, of which portions are to be seen in the present kitchen, 
as well as the chapel, the great chamber, and many rooms adjoining. The 
succeeding three bishops made large additions to the buildings, until their 
palace became a very grand edifice. It was not a highly defensible place, and 
was called a manor-house, and not a castle, till the sixteenth century, but it 
was certainly strong enough to afford protection to the bishops in troublous 
times. Bishop Ruthal (1509-1522) built a dining-hall, the great window of 
which was completed in the reign of Henry VIII. by Bishop Tunstall 
(1529-1558), who also added that part of the castle stretching westward, 
called "Scotland," from the fact thai it was set apart for the lodgings of 

Scottish hostages. All this has been modernised. Beneath are the cellars, 

334 



DURHAM 335 

and on the first floor the servants' dwellings, with a long line of bedrooms 
above, built by Bishop Tunstall. 

Thus Auckland remained in the seventeenth century, a stately and luxurious 
seat, of considerable strength, compassed with a thick stone wall on the side 
of its hill, below which runs the river. In the park were wild cattle, such as 
are still seen at Chillingham — "all white, which will not endure your approach, 
very violent and furious." 

In 1611 it was determined to send to Auckland, to the custody of Bishop 
James, the Lady Arabella Stuart, who had married contrary to the intent of 
her tyrant cousin, King James. On the road thither she managed to escape 
from her conductors at Highgate, but being retaken, was afterwards confined 
in the Tower of London, where she lost her reason and died a prisoner. 
Six years after this. Bishop James was so roughly upbraided by the king, in 
his own castle of Durham, that he retired to Auckland and dieil there tiiiee 
days after of "a vitilent lit of strangury," brought on by vexation — "scolded 
to death," as was stated in the Mortality Rolls. 

In May 1633, Charles I. spent three days here, on his journey to Scotland, 
and was magnificently entertained. He was here again in 1647, a prisoner 
with the Scottish armv, at which time the castle was in the hands of his 
enemies. In this year the castle palace was confiscated and was conveyed 
by the Parliamentary Commissioners to Sir .Arthur Hastlerigg of Noseley, 
Xorthants, for the sum of _/.0io2, Xs. 1 1 .Id., when the purchaser began to con- 
struct for himself a magnilicent mansion within the castle yard, using the 
materials of the chapel, which he destroyed with powdei- ; but he meddled very 
little with the castle itself, in spite of the assertions to the contrary of Bishop 
John Co^tin, who, coming in at the Restoration, made as an excuse for his own 
alterations, that Hastlerigg had " ruined and almost utterly destroyed " the castle. 
This prelate removed the new mansion of Hastlerigg, and built the courtyaid 
walls shown in Buck's drawing of 172S. Succeeding bishops added rooms on 
the S. front and carried out various "improvements," spoiling thereby uhkIi 
good old work. 

All that remains of Bishop Bee's work is the chapel in the X.E. corner, 
called after its founder, and perhaps a small towei' in the S.VV. corner of the 
outiiuildings. 

B A R N A K n Oninnr) 

0\ the summit of a high rocky cliff, W. of the town of the same name, 
are the ruins of this once magnilicent fortress. The position is an ideal 
one for securitv, defence, and picturesqueness, overhanging the Tees at a 
considerable elevation, with far-reaching prospects up and down the valley, 
and over the spreading country below. William the Red King gave to 



33^ 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



Guy Baliol — one of his fatlier's followers from Xorniandy — tlie forests of 
Teesdale and Marwood, with tlie lordsliips of Middlehani and Gainfoith, and 
Guy's eldest son Bernard built this castle about the year 1130. He was one 
of the barons who defeated the army of the Scots at the Battle of the Standard, 
and he was taken prisoner with Stephen at Lincoln in 1 142, when that restless 
and valiant kinj* was struck down, iij^htinq as^ainst overpowering odds, in the 




|:ARN.\K1) 



decisive battle there. In 1174 (20 Henry II.), when the Scots under their 
kinq William the Lion laid siege to Alnwick Castle, Bernard de Baliol, 
Robert de Stuteville, lord of Knaresborough, and others, collected their forces 
and marched to its relief. A thick fog coming on, a halt was advised, 
when Baliol exclaimed that he would push on alone if the rest waited, and 
so tliey all moved forward, and with such despatch that they surprised the 
enemy, and in a short skirmish took the Scottish king prisoner, and sent 
him to Richmond Castle. Dui-mg the time of the next lord, Hugh Baliol, 
Alexander, King of Scotland, came before Barnard Castle with an army, and 



DURHAM 337 

reconnoitred it to ascertain if it were assailable. While the enemy was thus 
occupied, some one from the walls with a crossbow-shot killed the kin<4's 
brother-in-law, Eustace de Vescy, lord of Alnwick, whereon the northern 
force decamped. This Hugh was in great favour with King John. On the 
forfeiture of the estates of John Baliol, King of Scotland, in 1294, Edward I. 
gave Barnard Castle to Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in whose family 
it remained through five descents. After them, Anne Nevill, daughter of the 
King-maker, brought the property in marriage to King Richard 111. (at that 
time Duke of Gloucester), who resided at the castle as one of his favourite seats. 
The sculpture of his cognizance, the white boar, is still visible on the ruins, and 
there is a fine oriel window in the W. front which is said to have belonged 
to his state chamber. 

The castle and manor were restored by Henry VII. to W^u^wick's widow, 
but that greedy king afterwards obliged her to reconvey them to him. Then 
they passed, through several other possessors' hands, to Charles, Earl of 
Westmorland, who with the Earl of Northumberland headed the Catholic 
insurrection in 1569, known in history as the " Rising of the North." The 
deep attachment of the northern provinces to the old faith seems to have 
been stiried by the zealous proceedings of Pilkington, the first Protestant 
Bishop of Durham, while at the same time the misfortunes of Mary Queen 
of Scots had evoked general interest, which was quickened by the imprison- 
ment, on her account, of the Duke of Norfolk, head of the ancient nobility 
of England, and brother-in-law to Westmorland. At the first alarm of a 
disturbance in tlie North, Elizabeth summoned botii Westmorland and 
Northumberland to London, as the chief men of those parts both in dignity 
and property. Being neither of them strong men, they were worked upon 
to believe that their lives and estates were to be forfeited, and that the royal 
troDps were on their way to seize them. The Km\ of NorthunilKriand 
therefore left his house by night, and sought the Earl of Westmorland at 
Brancepeth, where he found him similarly alarmed, and arming his followers, 
— the bells ringing backwards, and beacon-fnes blazing. The two earls had 
no difticulty in rasing 1500 men, a force which was doubled as they proceeded 
to Durham. Here they made a Catholic demonstration, celebrated mass in 
the cathedral, and then proceeded southwards, their forces numbering 4000 
foot and 600 horse. Meantime the queen's forces under Kadclilfe, Earl of 
Sussex, and tlie Earl of Warwick with 3000 men in support, were couung 
to meet the insurgents, while the bulk of the Catholic nobility and gentry 
abstained from giving any assistance. At this critical moment the two earls 
showed neither talent nor decision, but retreated to Raby, and tiien turned olf 
to besiege Sir George Bowes, wIki had taken possession of Westmorland's 
castle of Barnard. The rebels gained the outer bailey and the outer circuit 
of the castle walls without difticulty, but the strong keep dehed them, obsti- 

VOL. II. 2 U 



338 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



nately defended as it was. Sir George Bowes held out for ten days, and 
then surrendered upon good terms from want of provisions ; but this delay 
enabled the queen's forces to come up to Northallerton, when the insurgents dis- 
banded and fled. The earls made their way into Scotland, and there Northum- 
berland was betrayed by a faithless Borderer named Graham, to the Regent 
Moray, who sent him to Berwick, where he was beheaded. The Earl of 
Westmorland escaped to Flanders, where he survived to old age (see Rahy 
and BniHccpctli). On the forfeiture which followed this foolish rebellion, 



2^e 7(^1^/1 



,>^^^' 



,l\U^»>i'i 



lllJlUVLIUMMlllllll,, 







BARNARD 



under the Act of Henry V'lll., the castles of Barnard, Raby, and Brancepeth, 
with all the manors, ought to have vested in the see of Durham, but Elizabeth 
obtained an Act enabling the Crown to retain the whole properties {Surtees). 

Barnard Castle was then leased to Sir George Bowes, whose own castle 
of Streatlam had been entirely wrecked by the rebels. James 1. gave it to 
his minion, Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, on whose attainder it reverted 
to the Crown, and became part of the provision of the Prince of Wales. 
Afterwards the castle, honour, and privileges were purchased by an ancestor 
of the present Duke of Cleveland, and in 1640 Sir H. Vane obtained a grant 
of these, which were afterwards made into a barony by William III. During 
the Civil War the castle was held for the king, when it was besieged by 



DURHAM 339 

Cromwell, who opened batteries upon it from tlie otliur side of the Tees, 
on Towlei' Hill, with such effect that the garrison were soon oblij^cd to 
capitulate. 

The circuit of the walls of this grand fortress covers an area of nearly 
seven acres, hut the remains are now nothing more than a shell. The 
strongest part of the castle, whose situation is so charmingly described in 
" Kokeby," stands on the brink of the cliff, 80 feet above the Tees at its N.W. 
corner. The whole is enclosed by the ancient walls, the portion on the N. 
being the oldest, and the W. front overlooking the river containing the 
chief apartments. At the N.W. corner is Bahol's Tower, a circular structure 
of great size and antiquity, and of excellent masonry ; it was in such good 
preservation that at one time it was let for a shot factory, an employ- 
ment which caused some serious damage to the fabric, especially to the 
vaulting of its curious floor and staircase. The wall on the S. is very thick, 
and was strengthened by balks of oak, laid in tiers in the centre of the 
wall, for resisting the blows of battering-rams. The outer court is separated 
from the inner by a deep ditch which svurounds the rest of the fortress. 
There is one entrance from the market-place into the outer bailey, where 
perhaps was the chapel spoken of by Leland as having sculptured iigines of 
the Baliols, but all this has vanished. Another gatehouse, with a circular 
arch, having a semicircular flanking tower, led from the flats adjacent and 
the old Roman road communicating with the ford. In the interior is the 
building known by tradition as Brackenbury's Tower, which was anciently 
used as the castle keep. It is supposed to be named after Hichard's ofhcer, 
the notorious Constable of the Tower of London, who was entrusted with 
the nuirder of the princes. 



B R A N C K P r: T H (dur/) 

OK Brancepeth Sir Bernard Burke writes : " Of all the feudal fortresses 
of England, whether we regard their venerable antiquity, the rank and 
authority of their early possessors, or the wealth and taste which have been, in 
modern times, expended upon them, there are few which can claim precedence 
over this home of the Nevills." Still, so much of this castle has been rebuilt 
and so much modernised, that as a building, and standing as it does on a low 
site, its effect is disappointing. 

Brancepeth is five miles S.W. from Durham, on the road by Nevill's 
Cross. It was originally erected by the family of Buhner, seated here for 
many generations, till the death of their last male representative Bertram, 
whose only daughter Emma married Geoffrey Nevill, a grandson of that (Gilbert 
Nevill who was admiral in the fleet of Duke William of Normandy. Their 



34° 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



daughter and heiress, Isabel, married Robert Htz Meldred, lord of Raby, 
whose son Geoffrey assumed the name of Nevill, and from whom sprang the 
noble line of warriors and statesmen of that name, whose principal seat for 
so long was at Raby {q.i'.). Ralph, Lord Nevill, in 1398 was created Earl of 
Westmorland by Richard II., and the lordship and castle of Brancepeth con- 
tinued with this family till the time of Elizabeth, when Charles, the sixth earl, 
joining in the Rising of the North (1569), the object of which partly was 
to effect tiie marriage of his brother-in-law, the Duke of Norfolk, with Mary 
yueen of Scots, his lands were forfeited to the Crown (13 Elizabeth), with 




BRANCEPETH 



the castles of Raby and Brancepeth (see Baiiiard Caslli-). Under the Act of 
Henry VIII., all this large property ought to have vested in the see of Durham, 
but Elizabeth obtained a special Act to retain it in the Crown. James I. granted 
it to his favourite Robert Carr, who lived here as Baron Brancepeth from 1613 
until his trial and condemnation (see Greys Court, O.tvii). Thus Brancepeth 
remained until the eighth year of Charles I., when the castle and lordship 
were sold to Lady Middleton and others ; then to the Cole family ; and in 
1701 a new sale was made to Sir Henry Bellasys, whose grandson devised 
the property to the Earl of Fauconberg, and he sold it in 1776 to John 
Tempest. Twenty years after it was purchased by Mr. William Russell, and 
his son Mattliew, considered the richest commoner in England, at enormous 
cost re.ired the present stiucture in 1S18. In 1828 the marriage of Emma 



DURHAM 341 

Marie Russell with the eldest son of Viscount lioyne broui^lit Brancepelh into 
that family. 

Leland says that " Ralph, Earl of Westmoreland, huildcd much of this house 
A.D. 139H," and as Brancepeth was nearer to Durham and to the Marches than 
Raby, it was oftener used by the Nevills as their residence ; the fourth, iiftli, and 
sixth earls seem from their correspondence to have spent nnich time llicre. 

At the present day there is little of the orij^inal fortress visible. It consisted 
of four square towers with their connecting curtain walls built as a quadrangle, 
each corner tower having four turrets. The entrance gatehouse was on the 
N., flanked by two square towers, with a portcullis. E. of this was the 
battlemented wall connecting another large S(.|uare tower, and so round the 
enceinte. There may originally have been eight of these towers. On the N. and 
E. the castle was defended by a moat, but on the W^. it stands on a rock with 
a small stream running below, and this side alone gives a picturesque view of 
the fortress. An old ruin, rootless and decayed, is a venerable object of interest ; 
every one of its stones seems imbued with historic associations ; but when the 
old work gives place to new, and ancient walls are rebuilt or covered up lo 
meet modern re(.|uirements and modern taste, with nineteenth-century windows 
and sham battlements, then, alas, good-bye to all interest in the fabric. 

The word Brancepeth is said to have been derived from " Brawn's path," 
or the track of a great wild boar which tradition says had its lair there and 
was accustomed to pass through the manor in search of its prey. 

In the barons' hall is the original sword of l\ichard Nevill, with which he 
fought at Nevill's Cross, bearing his name, with the date 1345. 



DURHAM {rlurf) 

EXCEPT at P2dinburgh, we have in this kingdom no combination of 
architecture and scenery so fine as the view of Durham Castle and 
Catliedral standing over the woods and gorge of Wear. The original church, 
which was reared over St. Cuthberl's grave in 999, was standing when the 
Conqueror ordered the rebuilding, in 1072, of the palace of the Saxon bishops 
of Durham, which had been burnt down two or three years before. This edifice 
did not perhaps suit the taste or requirements of the proud and wealthy prelates 
who came after, and in 1174 Bishop Pudsey rebuilt the whole, with great addi- 
tions, in the best late Norman style of military architecture. Ereeman says : 
"The bishop of the days at once following the Norman Conquest, turned by 
Norman polity into a military tenant of the Crown, dwelling commonly as a 
stranger among a strange and often hostile people — often raised to his see as 
the reward of temporal services to the Crown — as soon as he found himself on 
his rural estates began to feel like any other baron. He raised for himself, not 



342 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

a house, not a palace, but a castle in the strictest sense ; a fortress not merely 
capable of defence in case of any sudden attack, but capable of being made a 
centre of military operations in case the bishop should take a fancy, in times 
of civil strife, to make war upon some other baron, or upon the king himself." 
William placed Bishop Walcher as a ruler both spiritual and temporal over 
the turbulent and wild natives of the district, and him they besieged and 
murdered. Then Rufus had to lay siege to Durham, and afterwards Henry II. 
took possession of both castle and town. In Clark's work is given a curious 
poem by Lawrence, the prior in 1140, describing the castle as it was during 
the strife between Stephen and Maud, which raged with great severity in 
that part of the kingdom, on account of the claim of King David, Maud's 
imcle, to the old inheritance of Northumberland and Cumberland. The castle 
still retains manv features there depicted. 

It is built on a high rocky hill of horse-shoe shape, round which the river 
Wear flows, under steep cliffs, 80 or 100 feet below, serving as a moat to the 
fortress. The line of walls, with their five gates, extended round that side of the 
hill not occupied by the cathedral, enclosing the courtyard or bailey. The 
great N. gate, which flanked the keep to the E., and the space leading down to 
the town commanded the most important approach, and was rebuilt and much 
strengthened by Bishop Langley in 1417 ; it had double gates towards the 
bailey, and one towards the city, with portcullis and battlements. The old 
gate had a postern and a round tower at the end of the ditch, still existing. 
The second gate, called the King's Gate, commanded a ford on the river, but 
has disappeared. Two others stood where are now Queen Street and Dimcow 
Lane ; and the fifth, or water gate, being that of the outer court, stood in its 
ancient form until of late years. 

The mount on which the keep stands is 44 feet high, and was vaulted beneath. 
The tower was an irregular octagon 63! feet across, and four storeys high, with 
an entrance on the \V. ; the eight angles were supported by buttresses, and a 
battlemented parapet ran round the siuumit. Nothing, however, remains of 
this edifice but the mount, the vaults, and the outer shell ; it was probably the 
work of Bishop Hatfield in the middle of the fourteenth century, who also built 
the great hall. Bishop Morton entertained Charles I. here and all his retinue, 
with a magnificence that cost £1500 a day. The bishops palatine of Durham 
seem to have vied with each other in enlarging and beautifving their dwelling, 
which continued to be their residence till 1833, when the Durham University 
was founded, and the castle given up to accommodate the members. 

Many royal visitors have stayed in this grand fortress since William I. Most 
of our Angevin and Plantagenet sovereigns came there, and also James I. of 
Scotland and his English queen ; the saintly Henry \T. ; the Princess Margaret 
on her way to join her husband, James IV. of Scotland ; James I. of England, 
and Ciiarles 1. his son. 



DURHAM 343 



HOUGH TON-LE -SPRING (mumr) 

THIS tower, like tlie one of Coibridj^e in Nortliunilurbiul, is ;ui instance 
of a rectory liouse wliich the state of the country made it necessary to 
fortify. In 1483 the then incumbent, John Kelyng, bej^an to crenellate and 
embattle a peel tower without fust obtainin,^ a licence, for which lie was 
called to account by the prince bishop, and only pardoned on payment of a 
line. To this was afterwards attached a large dwelling, in which the famous 
divine, Bernard Gilpin, known as the "Apostle of the North," lived and 
ministered with profuse hospitality for the many years in which he was rector 
of Houghton, and where he died in 1583. This building was destroyed in 
1664 by a succeeding rector named Davenport, who built it anew and added 
another tower and a chapel. The whole of Davenport's work, however, 
was demolished by the last rector. 

The appellation added to Houghton is derived from a family named I^e 
Spring, who possessed the manor in the thirteenth century. One of them, 
Sir John le Spring, was murdered in his house at Houghton in the sixth 
year of Edward 111., as is related in a pathetic ballad given by Surtees. His 
effigy is in the church at the side of Gilpin's tomb. 



HYLTON (c/m/) 

THIS castle, or what is left of the ancient structure, stands on the N. bank 
of the Wear, about 2 J miles on the W. of Sunderland, in a low situation, 
surrounded by trees, and well sheltered from the N. by a hill on which formerly 
stood the vill of Hilton. In the days of its baronial grandeur the castle must 
have been of great extent and strength, to judge from its gatehouse, the only 
part of it remaining, which is a massive, imposing edifice, five storeys in height, 
resembling in form a superior peel tower, 66 feet long by 36 feet deep, having 
on its \V. or principal front angle turrets formed by the junction of broad 
projecting pilasters on either side, with two equidistant pilasters, one on each 
side of the gateway ; all these turrets are continued above the roof, and are 
terminated in octagonal super-turrets boldly projected beyond the face on 
corbels, and machicolated on all sides. The E. front has a circular tunet at 
each angle, and in the centre a single broad projecting tower, the whole of the 
roofs being screened by a heavy crenellated parapet. The walls are from 
8 feet to 12 feet thick. During the restorations in 1869 a square courtyard was 
disclosed on the \V. side, which seems to prove that the main buildings of the 
castle were on that quarter. 

The origin of the Hilton family is hidden in its antiquity. The first member 



344 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



recorded is one Romanus, in the reign of Henry II., who then appears in 1166 
in an application for a chaplain to officiate in his chapel of Hylton, and therefore 
the tradition of the Hiltons being here long before the Conquest is possibly true. 
The Prince Bishops of Durham were sovereigns in their own domain ; they had 
a mint, and sustained a court of barons, in which the Hiltons, as powerful lords 
holding a very extensive territory both in this county and in Northumberland 
and Cumberland, and in Yorkshire, always had a seat, the name of the Baron 
of Hylton always standing first on the list. 

The names of the successors of Romanus are proved by charters, licences, 
and other documents as far as the middle of the fifteenth century, with a steady 
succession throughout from father to son as barons of the bishopric, and 

nothing is recorded of them 
of a stirring nature almost 
throughout their story. Baron 
Alexander was summoned to 
Parliament by Edward III., 
having served in his Scottish 
wars, where he held a com- 
mand in 1333, under Lord 
Nevill. He died in 1361, 
seised of many manors. Wil- 
liam, who was born in 1356, 
was probably the builder of 
the existing structure. 

Baron William in 1513 is 

said to have fought at Flodden, 

and his son Sir Thomas Hilton 

joined Aske in the Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536 with Lord D'Arcy and others, 

but does not appear to have suffered for his participation in that rebellion. 

Henry Hilton, who died in 1640, "by a will such as a madman only could 
make," alienated the properly and ruined his family. He left his entire estate 
to the Lord Mayor and Corporation of London, and so reduced the Hilton 
possessions to little more than a name. His brother Henry was a stout 
Royalist, and served King Charles under the Marquess of Newcastle. He 
was included among the malignants, and though his son obtained a re-grant 
of the lands after the Restoration, the property was little more than a name, 
when saddled with the encumbrances raised by Baron Henry. 

The last baron was Jolni, who died in 1739, having devised the estates to 
his nephew, Sir Richard Musgrave of Hayton Castle. This owner took the 
name of Hilton, but obtaining an Act of Parliament to enable him to dispose 
of the estate, sold the manor of Hilton in 1750 to Mrs. Bowes, widow of Sir 
George Bowes of Streatlam, from whom it was inherited by the Earl of 




HYLTON 



DURHAM 345 

Strathmore. Then it passed tlirougli several hands, until in 1863 the castle 
and lands were purchased by Mr. \\\ Briggs of Sunderland, whose son, 
Colonel Charles j. Briggs, is the present owner. 

Sir Richard Hilton's grandson was Mr. Hylton Joliffe, M.P., created Lord 
Hylton in 1866. Sir Richard soon after obtaining the property, spent a large 
sum in Italianising the fabric, adding two huge wings to it, wliich were found 
in 1869 to be in so decayed a state that they were removed, and the building 
was then restored and greatly improved ; the windows being remodelled 
from an ancient one which the S. wing had hidden. On the W. front are 
a number of heraldic shields exhibiting the arms of various families allied to 
the Hiltons, the Percys, Viponts, Lumleys, Feltons, Bowes', and others. In 
the centre is the banner of France and England quartered ; that of France 
bearing only three fleurs-de-lys instead of five, a change made late in the 
reign of Henry \'., and therefore fixing the date of the sculpture and perhaps 
of the building. The ruins of the castle chapel, dedicated to St. Katherine, 
lie to the N.E. of the castle. In it most of the Hilton barons were buried. 
They had also a chantry within the castle. 

Many legends hang over this ancient family : amongst others there is that 
of "The Cauld Lad of Hilton," a brownie, or familiar sprite, whose gambols 
for many years disturbed the household of Hylton. Sleepers used to be 
awakened by violent noises in the kitchen ; plates and dishes were broken, 
and pewter thrown about in confusion, when things had been left in good 
order there. But if, as did happen often, the servants left things in disorder 
downstairs, then the brownie arranged everything carefully in its proper 
place ; so he was looked on as a benefactor by them. " One night," as the 
English Fairy Tales so daintily tell, " they heard a noise, and peeping in, 
saw the brownie swinging to and fro on the jack-chain, and saying : 

' Woe's me ! woe's me ! 
The acorn's not yet 
Fallen from the tree 
That's to grow the wood 
That's to make the cradle 
That's to rock the bairn 
That's to grow to the man 
That's to lay me. 
Woe's me ! woe's me ! ' 

Then they took pity on the poor brownie, and asked the nearest hcnwife 
what they should do to send it away. ' That's easy enough,' said the henwife, 
and told them that a brownie that's paid for its service, in aught that's not 
perishable, goes away at once. So they made a cloak of Lincoln green, with a 
VOL. II. 2 X 



346 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

hood to it, and put it by the hearth and watched. They saw the brownie 
come up, and, observing the hood and cloak, put them on, and frisk about, 
dancing on one leg and saying — 

' I've taken your cloak, I've taken your hood : 
The Cauld Lad of Hilton will do nae mair good.' 

And with that it vanished, and was never seen or lieard of afterwards." 

This of course is a folk-lore tale, common to other languages, and other- 
wise told in Grimm's " Elves and the Shoemaker ; " but at Hylton they connect 
the sprite with the story of an unfortunate stable-boy, whom one of the lairds 
killed, accidentally as some say, with a pitchfork, and then threw into a pond, 
where his bones were found in the time of the last Hilton. Surtees tells 
of the inquest in 1609 on one Roger Skelton, who was killed by Robert 
Hilton of Hylton accidentally with a scythe, when Hilton got off with 
a free pardon. 



LUMLEY {chief ) 

A MILE to the S. of Chester-le-Street, near the old Roman road to the 
north, stands this seat of the Earls of Scarborough, on elevated ground 
sloping down to the river Wear. 

The Lumleys descend from a Saxon thane named Liulph, of high repute 
in the time of the Confessor ; his son, or grandson, assumed the surname 
of De Lumley from this place, and from him the property has come down 
with the name, generally from father to son, in direct succession to the 
present time. 

The original manor-house or castle was built (temp. Edward I.) by Sir 
Robert Lumley, knight, and was enlarged by his son Sir Marmaduke ; but in 
16 Richard II. (1392) a royal licence was obtained by "Ralph de Lomley, 
chivaler, quoddam castrum apud Lomlay de novo facere et construere," and 
he had also one from Bishop Skirlaw, to repair and crenellate his castle. He 
was summoned to Parliament in this reign, but joining in the insurrection of 
Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, was slain in a skirmish at Cirencester, and 
his estates were forfeited. His son Sir John, however, succeeded in obtaining 
livery of all his lands, castles, and manors, and was restored in blood by the 
Parliament in 141 1, as Baron Lumley. He served in the French w.us of 
Henry IV. and Henry V., and lost his life, with the Duke of Clarence, at 
Beauge in 142 1. 

His descendant John, Lord Lumley, in 28 Henry VIII. joined in the 
popular religious movement called the Pilgrimage of Grace, but afterwards 
shared in the king's clemency. His only son, George, who succeeded him, 



DURHAM 



347 



being tried also for treason witli Lord Darcy and Sir Tliomas IV-rcy, was 
committed to tlie Tower, and was convicted and executed. 

The son of tiiis man, John, was restored in the hiood, and created 
Lord Lumley in 36 Henry VIII. ; he fought at Klodden, and was 
chosen as one of the peers to sit in judgment on the unhappy Queen of 
Scots. He is styled 
by Camden " a per- 
son of entire virtue, 
integrity, and inno- 
cence, and in his old 
age, a complete pat- 
tern of true nobility." 
Dying in 1609, he be- 
queathed Lumley and 
all his lauds to a dis- 
tant cousin, Richard 
Lumley, elevated to 
the peerage of Ireland 
as Viscount Lumlev 
in 1628. He was a 
faithful supporter of 
Charles 1., and held 
this castle as a gar- 
rison for the king, for 
whom he commanded 
a force under Prince 
l\upert, ill the W. (il 
England, and at the 
siege of Bristol. His 
grandson Richard 
came next into the 
estates, being created 
in 1681 Baron Lum- 
ley, and by William 
and Mary, V'iscount, 
borough. 

The castle forms a quadrangle with a large courtyard, <So feet square ; in 
the centre of the building and at each corner rises a projecting massive square 
tower, the whole of the parapets being battlemenled with turrets, octangular 
in shape and machicolated, at each angle of the towers. The entrance is on 
the W. side by a broad staircase and large platform, which admits to the great 
Hall. This is 60 feet long by 30 feet, with a minstrels' gallery at one end. 




LUMLEY 



and fuitluT liy them, in 1690, Earl of Scar- 



348 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

The S. front is modern, and that on the N. is occupied by the offices. The E. 
front retains its ancient character, with a noble projecting gatehouse, carrying 
turrets and a machicouhs gallery. On its face are si.\ stone shields of arms, 
corresponding to the time of Richard 11., bearing the devices of Lumley, Grey, 
Ncvill, and others. 

The original house of the family before the present castle was erected seems 
to have been at a site about a mile distant, where are some traces of it. The 
whole interior of Lumley Castle was subjected about 200 years ago to a complete 
remodelling and renovation in an Italian style, whereby its antique character has 
quite disappeared. 

RABY {chief) 

THE superb fortress of the Nevills, Earls of Westmorland, "can boast," 
remarks the Duchess of Cleveland in her interesting Memoir, " of having 
had a hearth-tire always alight since the days of Edward the Confessor." The 
name is of course Danish, and tradition assigns to the site of it a palace of King 
Canute, standing upon a rocky eminence about a mile from the village of Stain- 
drop. The Saxon Earl Uchtred was one of the very few lords of the soil whom 
the Confessor permitted to continue in possession, and his family remained here 
for five centuries. In the fourth generation from Uchtred, Robert Fitz-Maldred 
married Isabel de Nevill, from whose mother Emma, the daughter and heiress of 
Bertram de Buhner, lord of Brancepeth, she inherited that territory as well as 
Sheriff Hutton in Yorkshire. Emma de Buhner had married Geoffrey de 
Nevill, the descendant of Gilbert, admiral of Duke William's fleet, who came 
from Neuville in Normandy. Geoffrey, the son of Isabel and Robert, lord of 
Raby, adopted his mother's name of Nevill, and thus commenced the male line 
of a mighty and princely family, second to none in the kingdom. His son 
Robert was made by Henry 111. captain-general of the royal forces north of 
Tweed, but he afterwards joined the popular side in the Barons' War. He had 
a son of the same name, who marrying Mary, daughter of Ralph FitzRandolph, 
added through his wife the manor and castle of Middleham to the other large 
estates of the NeviUs. His son Ralph de Nevill was summoned to Parlia- 
ment as a baron in 1294, and served in the Scots and French wars of Edward 1. 
Ralph died in 1331, and his son Ralph, the second baron, held high employment 
under Edward III. in Scotland and France, and was one of the leaders at the 
battle of Nevill's Cross ; he died in 1367. His son Sir John, whom, when a 
child of five years, he had taken to witness the great light near Durham, became 
an illustrious warrior, and is said to have won during his military service no less 
than eighty-three walled towns and fortresses. He also tilled the post of admiral 
of the royal fleet from the Thames northward, and he attended Richard II. to 
Scotland with his own forces of 300 archers and 200 men-at-arms. 



DURHAM 



349 



In 137!^ he obtained froiii the Prince Bishop of the Palatinate, Hatfield, a 
licence to crenellate his castle of Raby, and bnilt tiie Nevill gateway, whereon 
we see three shields bearing St. George's Cross between the arms of Xevill and 
Latimer — his second wife being the heiress of the latter family ; each shield is 
encircled by the garter, of which order Lord Nevill was made a knight in 1369. 
Dying in 1388, he was buried like his father in Durham Cathedral ; his brother, 
Sir Ralph, being slain at tlic Ixittle of Otterburn ((/.:'.) or Chevy Chase in the same 
year. With his son, also Ralph, the fourth baron, the fortunes of the Neviils 
reached their zenith. Holding high office under Richard 11., he was created Earl 
of Westmorland, but he nevertheless became a strong supporter of Henry IV., 
whom he assisted in placing on tiie throne, receiving from that king for his 
services a grant of the county and honour of Richmond for his life, antl the high 




R.\By 



ol^ce of P^arl Marshal of England. He supported Henry IV. against the Percv 
rebellion, and did great service for him at the battle of Shrewsbury ; and in 
1405, by artful treachery towards Archbishop Scrope and the Earl Marshal, he 
brought tiieir formidable insurrection to an end fsee Pontefract, Yorks) in a 
bloodless campaign {Henry IV., Part ii. Act iv. Scene 2). In the next reign we 
find him at Agincourt, being at that time Earl Marshal, with a following of his 
own of five knights, thirty men-at-arms, and eighty archers. By his second mar- 
riage with Joan de Beaufort he was uncle to King Henry V., though Shakespeare 
makes the king to call Westmorland his "cousin." By his two wives this earl 
had twenty-three children ; nine by his iirst wife, Lady Margaret Stafford, and 
the rest inherited the blood royal through their mother, the daughter of John 
of Oaunt by Katharine Swynford. The youngest daughter of this large family 
was Cicelv, the fair " Rose of Raby," who married in early youth Richard 
Plantagenet, Duke of York, by whom she became the mother of the two kings 
Edward 1\'. and Richard III. (see Berkhainstead, Herts). 



350 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

This great noble died in 1426, and was followed at Raby by his eldest son 
Ralph. The elder son of the second marriage was Richard Nevill, created Earl 
of Salisbury, who, with the rest of his kith, became a strenuous supporter 
of the White Rose of York, through his youngest sister's marriage, though 
so closely allied through his father to the house of Lancaster. He fought at 
the lirst battle of St. Albans, and afterwards defeated Lord Audley at Blore- 
heath, and was a leader at Northampton fight in 1460 ; he was slain, 
however, at Wakefield with his brother-in-law the Duke of York, as was 
also his second son, and his head, like that of the duke, was mounted over 
one of the gates of York. Salisbury's eldest son was Richard Nevill, the 
stout Earl of Warwick, the King-maker, thrm whom few better known figures 
exist in history. 

Ralph, lifth lord of Raby and second earl, managed to live through the Wars 
of the Roses, in spite of, perhaps because of, his close relationship to the chiefs 
of both the contending factions, and died at Raby the year of the last battle, 
which placed the crown on the brow of Henry, Earl of Richmond. There is 
little to remark in the history of the succeeding three earls, who lived out 
their days at Raby and Brancepeth. 

Then came the end of the Nevills, in Charles, the sixth Earl of Westmor- 
land, who joined with the Earl of Northumberland in the insurrection of 1569 
(13 Elizabeth), called the Rising of the North — a movement which resembled 
the rebellion called the Pilgrimage of Grace during the reign of Henry VIII. 
— the object of both being the restoration of the ancient faith of the country. 
The account of the rising of 1569 is given in the Memoir of Barnard Castle, 
where the two earls were unwise enough to delay until the queen's forces 
arrived in the neighbourhood ; then the rebel party broke up, and the earls 
sought safety over the Scottish border. The Earl of Westmorland was long 
concealed by the Kerr family at Fernhurst Castle, Roxburgh, and, more fortu- 
nate than the Earl of Northumberland, contrived to escape to Flanders. His 
vast property had, however, been confiscated ; his wealth had fled, and his title 
was gone ; so that in poverty he ended his days in 1584, after subsisting mean- 
while on a "miserable pittance" bestowed on him by the King of Spain. He 
left four daughters only, from whom Oueen Elizabeth, while appropriating 
their father's estate, withheld even a bare subsistence, leaving them literally 
without bread. 

The possessions of the Nevills under Earl Charles' attainder should have 
devolved upon the see of Durham, but the queen, by an Act which she 
obtained, caused them to vest in herself, and the whole, inclusive of Raby, 
continued Crown property till James I. in 1613 granted them to his worthless 
favourite Carr, Earl of Somerset ; on whose degradation on account of the 
Overbury murder they were lirst made over to the citizens of London, and 
afterwards were devised for the suppt)rt of the Prince of Wales, under trustees 



I 



DURHAM 351 

who sold the lands ultimately, with Raby and Barnard Castle, to Sir Henry 
Vane, a distinguished statesman in the reign of James 1., and Treasurer of the 
Household. 

There is a story that Vane, wishing to underrate the value of his purchase 
to the king, called Raby " a hillock of stones " ; and that on a subsequent visit 
to the place James, remembering what Vane had said, exclaimed : " Gude sakes 
— ca' ye thot a hullock o' stanes ? By me faitii, I hae nae sic anithcr hullock 
in my realm." The story is ascribed also to Charles 1. 

Sir Henry's son, likewise so named, was a violent republican and Puritan, 
and was in the time of the Parliament the principal mover of the Solemn League 
and Covenant, and of the Self-denying Ordinance. By his evidence he pro- 
cured the condemnation of Stafford, and after the Restoration he was tried as 
a regicide and was beheaded (1662) on Tower Hill. In 1645, a Royalist force 
from Bolton Castle scaled the wall and surprised and took possession of Raby ; 
but after about si.x weeks it was invested by a body of 300 men raised by 
Sir George Vane, Sir Henry's second son (ancestor of the Londonderry 
family), and the garrison forced to surrender. Again in 1648 the castle was 
besieged by the Royalists, but no record exists of the hghting, except an 
entry wiiich appears in the parish register of Staindrop. " Aug. 27, 1648. — A 
souldier slaine at the seidge of Raby Castle was buried in the church. Memo. 
Many souldiers slaine before Raby castle, which were buried in the Parke, 
and not registered." Charles 1. was here twice. 

Sir Henry was followed by his son Sir Christopher, created in 1698 Baron 
Barnard. It was this owner who in 1714, in order to injiue his eldest son, who 
had displeased him and his virago wife (Lady Elizabeth Holies) by his marriage, 
endeavoured to ruin Raby Castle. He caused the lead to be stripped off the 
roofs, and the ironwork and glass and tlie flooring taken away and sold, employ- 
ing 200 workmen for the purpose. The old timber was cut down, the deer 
killed and the park ploughed, and he was beginning to throw down the walls 
when the heir obtained an injunction against his parents, who were forced by 
the court to make good all they had injured, under the eye of a Master who was 
sent down to carry out the order. This unworthy lord died in 1723 ; and 
Henry Vane, grandson of the last (married to the Lady Grace, daughter of 
Charles F"itzroy, Duke of Cleveland, the son of Charles II. by Barbara 
Villiers), succeeding in 1753, was created Viscount Barnard and Earl of 
Darlington the next year. In 1827 his grandson was made JMarquess of 
Cleveland, and Duke in 1833. 

Leland, who visited the place before its forfeiture, says : " Raby is the largest 
Castel of Logginges in al the North Countery, and is of a strong Building, but 
not set other on Hil or very strong Ground. . . . The Haid and al the Houses 
of Offices be large & stately, and the Great Chamber was exceeding large, Init 
now it is fals rolid and divided into 2 or 3 Partes. 1 saw thei' a litle Cli.unnber 



352 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



wherin was in Windowes of colerid Glasse al the Pedigree of Neville : hut it 
is now taken down." 

The position thus spoken of by Leland was rendered a strong one by the 
water defences ; a moat, now filled in on all but the S. side, surrounded the 
castle, and was supplied by a small burn which, being dammed, formed an 
artificial lake around it. The entrance is on the W. front in the Nevill Tower, 




RABY 



or inner gatehouse, built by Sir John XeviU in 1378, and bearing the three 
stone shields of arms, the passage guarded by an outer and an inner portcullis. 
Adjoining this is Joan's Tower, at the S.W. angle of the fortress, called after 
Lady Joan of Beaufort, the mother of the King-maker ; in this are the family 
apartments, and beyond it the S. front consists of the modern buildings of Inigo 
Jones, and later fanciful additions of an octagon tower and a dining-room ; 
to fit them in the (jld vaulted fourteenth-century rooms were sacrificed, 
and a huge gap was made in the Bulmer Tower at the S.E. angle, the 



DURHAM 353 

Danish arrow-pointed structure of the orij^inal castle, wliich mav be considered 
as the Keep. 

Next to tliis, on tlie E. front, is the great Chapel Tower, containing tiie 
chapel and priest's room, with a guardroom above, and between it and the 
next tower, called Mount Raskelf (from one of the \evill manors), is the chapel 
gateway with its two picturesque turrets, in front of which stood the barbican, 
destroyed by Lord Darlington in the last century, whereon was sculptured the 
huge Nevill bull with the saltire banner, now removed to a modern (.-ntrancc to 
the home farm. 

F"rom Mount Raskelf at the N.E. corner a modern circular curtain leads round 
to the remarkable Kitchen Tower on the N. front, built about 1370, with its three 
immense fireplaces, vaulted roof, and mural passages. At its S. wall remain the 
stairs leading up to the Barons' Hall. Below is a great cellar with vaulted roof 
supported by a massive central column, and from it descends a long staircase 
leading to a subterranean passage to Staindrop Priory, but now walled up. 

From hence an ancient curtain wall — pierced with a postern into the inner 
court — conducts the N. front to Clifford's Tower, at the N.W. angle, the 
largest in the castle, having walls 10 feet thick, in which are mural passages 
between the loopholes for the bowmen ; and thence by the two-storeyed vaulted 
guardrooms (now the servants' hall) we pass by the W. watch-tower once 
more to the great entrance with its two splayed turrets. Passing through, 
we arrive at the central courtyard and at the entrance hall built by Lord 
Darlington, who opened up a broad avenue thi ough the building to the chapel 
gateway. This hall, supported on lofty columns, contains the state staircase 
to the new apartments, and to the ancient Barons' Hall above — " the great 
historical room, where the 700 knights that held of the \evills assemliled once 
a year, and where the council that decided upon the fatal Rising of the North 
was held in 15^)9" — built by Sir John Xevill in the fourteenth century, but 
much injured and altered by modern architects. 

The park is nt)w reduced in size, but still contains 400 fallow and 100 
red deer. 

Since the death of the fouitli Duke of Cleveland, Raby Castle has become 
the propertv of Lord Barnard. 



RAVENSWORTH {chief) 

RAVENSWORTH, a seat of the Liddells since the hfth year of James I., 
stands about four miles S. from Gateshead, on gently rising ground a 
mile from the river Team. The present mansion was built in 1808 on the site 
of an ancient castle, two towers of which remain. The name is sometimes 

written Ralfensweath, and hence is thought to relate to a defeat of the Danes 
VOL. 11. _> V 



354 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

here, in allusion to the Danish Standard of the Raven ; and there is no record 
of any licence to crenellate, as in other residences of the bishops, which would 
seem to show the antiquity of the settlement. 

The manor was granted by Bishop Flambard to his nephew Richard, for 
half a knight's fee, and in the twelfth year of Bishop Hatfield (1345-1377)1 
we read of a lady of Ravensworth. In 1370 the family of Lumley is mentioned 
in connection with the place, and in 1384 Robert de Lumley is seised of 
the manor of Ravensholm. This Lumley family became extinct in Isabel, 
wife of Sir Henry Boynton, at the end of the fifteenth century, and their 
only daughter Elizabeth married Sir Henry Gascoygn, whose descendant. 
Sir William Gascoygn, 5 James I. (1607), sold Ravensworth to Thomas Liddell, 
a Newcastle merchant. His son, also Thomas Liddell, defended Newcastle 
against the Scots, and was made baronet in 1642. Sir Henry, the fourth 
baronet, was created Baron Ravensworth in 1747, but at his death in 1784 
this title became extinct, the baronetcy devolving on his nephew. Sir Henry 
George, whose son was raised to the peerage as Baron Ravensworth in 1821, 
and in 1874 the second baron was advanced to an earldom. 

The ancient castle was built in the usual form of a quadrangle with a 
tower at each corner, connected by curtain walls, and before the existing 
mansion was erected in 1808, two of these old turrets remained, forming 
a part of the offices, the other two, as now, projecting in front. 



STOCKTON-ON-TEES {non-c.xistet,f) 

THE bishops palatine had a castle at Stockton, with which the borough 
was closely connected, erected in early times of the see. In 1214, 
King John visited Bishop Philip de Poictou here ; and in the fourteenth 
century the castle was rebuilt by Bishop Kellew, and again renovated in 1578 
by Bishop Barnes. Several of the bishops between 1241 and 1640 made use 
of this fortress as a retreat or a refuge in times of danger. It was besieged 
and captured by the Parliamentary troops in 1644, and in 1652 was dismantled 
and destroyed. Nothing now remains of the castle except the names of 
Castle Street and Moat Street, but until lately there was still a fragment of a 
low massive tower at the end of the High Street. 



STREATLAM {minor) 

STREATLAM lies in the S. of the county, two miles N.E. of Barnard Castle, 
and between that place and Raby, in a low situation surrounded by a fine 
timbered park. The present mansion was built early in the eighteenth century, 
and encases whatever remains of the ancient castle, erected here, as supposed. 



DURHAM 355 

by the Baliol family, to whom tlie lands bcloiiLied. Bernard Baliol qave 
Streatlam and other lands in dowry with Agnes his niece, dauglitcr and 
sole heiress of Ralph de la Haye (Lord Percy), on her marriage with Sir 
John Trayne, who may have built this castle. The sole issue of the union 
was a daughter, Alice, who married Sir Adam Bowes in the beginning of the 
fourteenth century. 

The Bowes family were a martial race ; Sir Adam's grandson. Sir William 
Bowes, was created a banneret at the battle of Poictiers in 1346, and his son, 
Sir Robert, was slain at the battle of Beauge with the Duke of Clarence in 1419. 
The son of this man, knighted during the French wars at the battle of Verneuil 
in 1424, was chamberlain to the Duke of Bedford in F'rance. He sent home 
a model for the reconstruction of Streatlam Castle, and the plan was carried out 
on his return from the wars. 

Another Bowes, Sir Ralph, received the honour of knighthood after Flodden 
Field, and his brother Sir Robert was a Privy Councillor to Henry VIII. The 
direct line ended in Sir George Bowes, the grandson of Ralph, who left three 
daughters only, and the line was carried on by his cousin. Sir Robert, who acted 
as ambassador to Scotland. It was this Sir Robert's son, Sir George Bowes, 
who withstood so strenuously, and unsupported, the insurrection of the 
Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland, called the Rising of the North, in 
1569, in his defence of Barnard Castle (g.v.), in recognition of which service 
Queen Elizabeth made him Knight Marshal. The last of this valiant race was 
George Bowes, whose daughter and heiress Mary-Eleanor married in 1767 
John, 9th Earl of Strathmore, who took the name of Bowes on the strength 
of his wife's propertv. 

The story of this Lady Strathmore is a sad one. After the earl's death, when 
she was but twenty-nine years old, and a " pretty, lively, and accomplished 
lady," she bestowed her great wealth, her property, and herself, on a worthless 
scoundrel from King's County, named Andrew Robinson Stoney. This fellow, 
who had been a lieutenant in the army, and already by cruelty had done one 
wife to death and dissipated a large fortune, contrived to inveigle the unfor- 
tunate countess to marry him, and adopting her name, proceeded to run riot 
over her property. He spent her money, cut down her splendid old trees, sold 
her horses, confiscated her plate, and outraged her feelings by leading openly 
the wildest of lives. At last the broken-hearted woman managed to escape from 
iiim, and commenced proceedings at law against him ; but, waylaying her, 
Stoney effected her capture, and shutting her up in Streatlam Castle, recom- 
menced his cruel Ireatnienl. Here, however, the people of her estates inter- 
fered, and Stoney took to Hight, carrying off the countess from the back of the 
castle, lying across the horse's neck in front of him, and in this w'ay he brought 
her through deep snow to Darlington. Here, however, thev were tracked 
and overtaken, and the country people, knocking the villain off his horse 



356 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

and nearly killing him, rescued the wife. She obtained a divorce, and Stoney 
Bowes was shut up for some years in prison. 

No traces remain of the two former castles, the earlier of which was cleared 
away by Sir William Bowes in the iifteenth century wlien he reconstructed the 
building, and this castle too, in its turn, was removed when the present one was 
built at tlie beginning of this century. The shape of the original castle cannot 
be known ; the existing one was built by Sir George Bowes on the old founda- 
tions, and it retains manv of the old apartments. The situation is in a low 
vale, surrounded by high hills, and enshrouded in forests. The moat which 
encircled the original fortress can still be traced. 

Leland's account says that " the Castle had 2 or 3 Towers and a faire Stable." 



WITTON-LE-WEAR (»mwr) 

THIS castle stands on the S. bank of the Wear, near Bishop Auckland. The 
Crown held the lands until Henry II. granted them to Henry Pudsey, 
nephew of Bishop Pudsey (1153-1 196), who was a kinsman of King Stephen. 
It is not known at what date the Eure or Ever family first came here ; they 
were anciently derived from the old lords of Warkworth and Clavering (temp. 
Henry II.), and Ralph Eure is found seised of the manor of Witton in the 
time of Bishop de Bury (1333-1348), it being held of the bishop hi capite. 
In 1410 Bishop Langley granted a licence to Sir Ralph Eure to fortify and 
crenellate his castle of Witton, and "to entower the same"; and this may 
be taken therefore as the date of the main building. The family of Eure 
ended in a female representative early in the reign of Henry VII., but before 
that time the manor and castle of the Eures, Barons of Witton, were sold, we 
are told, to the Darcys, which family sold them in 1743 to William Cuthbert 
for about ^15,000. 

The old castle, so long the home of the Eure family, was burnt down late 
in the last century, while undergoing repairs, and the present house was 
built upon its site, preserving what remained of the former structure, 
including the keep. 

These Eures seem to have been a martial family of consequence, and 
were connected by marriage with many noble houses. One of them, Sir 
Ralph, was killed at Tcnvton Field, and another of the same name in a tight 
in Northumberland. Sir William Eure was created Lord Eure in 1584 ; 
he was a famous man during the Border warfare, and died in 1592. His 
descendant was the Colonel William Eure who was slain at Marston Moor 
on King Charles' side, and his son Thomas also fell in the Civil War. The 
last Lord Eure, George, who was living in 1674, dying s.p. male, the family 
became extinct. 



DURHAM 357 

Sir William Darcy held Witton Castle for the king, and was besieged in 
it by Sir Arthur Ha/.lerigg of Auckland Castle {(j.v.). The place was taken 
and its contents were sequestered, but no injury was done to the building by 
the Parliament. A subsequent owner, however — James, Lord Darcy — in 1681 
destroyed the place ; he took away the lead, timber, and chimney-pieces to 
help in building a house at Sudbury, near Richmond, but this plan was never 
carried out, and the spoil of the old castle of Witton was afterwards sold at 
a lower price than the demolition had cost him. 

It was originally a place of great strength ; rectangular in shape, it had 
strong embattled curtain walls enclosing a large area, with projecting turrets 
or bartizans, three circular and one square, at the four angles. At one end 
and on the line of wall stands by itself a lofty square keep with a crenellated 
parapet throughout ; it is two storeys only in height, with a staircase turret in 
one corner giving access to the roof, and its windows are square and modern. 
The entrance was in the centre of the N. wall through a gateway which is 
defended by a projecting gallery. 

This important and interesting castle is now the propeity and residence 
of Henry Chaytor, Esq. 




WARRWORTH 



IRortbmnbeiianb 



ALNWICK {chief) 

AFTER the Conquest, the lands and the existing castle at Alnwick, of 
whatever sort it was, were bestowed upon Ivo de Vescy, a Norman 
noble, who, dying without male issue, left them to his daughter 
L Beatrice. She married Eustace Fitzjohn (temp. Henry I.), one of 
the Justices Itinerant with Walter Espec, the leader of the English at the Battle 
of the Standard (see Helmsley, Yorks). 

In the reign of Rufus, in 1093, Malcolm Ceanmor, King of Scotland, in one 
of his incursions into Northumberland, was met on the banks of the Aln by 
a strong force under Morel, the sherifT of the county, the nephew of Robert de 
Mowbray, and was defeated and slain, together with his son Edward. 

The need of a strong fortress at this point, to restrain these murderous 
Border raids, was naturally felt, and in 1140, or thereabout, Eustace F"itzJohn 
set himself to erect the castle of which the splendid Norman arches of the 
innermost gateway, and some fragments of the outer curtain wall, still remain. 
His son William took the name of his mother's family, de Vescy ; he sup- 



NORTHUMBERLAND 359 

ported tlie cause of the Empress Maud against Stephen, and lie dehveicd his 
castle of Ahiwick into tlie keeping of Maud's uncle, King David of Scotland. 
He was afterwards killed in an expedition against the Welsh, when his son 
Eustace de Vescy succeeded him. In his day in 1174 King William the Lion 
invaded England, on one of his attempts to compel the restoration of the 
earldom of Northumberland that had belonged to his ancestors, and his 
savage and undisciplined soldiery spread through the country, burning and 
destroying as they went. This aroused the indignation of the neighbour- 
ing barons in the north of England, and Kalph de Glanville, Bernard 
Baliol (see Barnard Castle, Diirliain), Odinel de Umfraville of Prudhoe {q.v.), 
and others raised a force of 400 heavy armed horsemen, and hastened bv a 
fatiguing march to Newcastle to check the career of the Scots. Nesting here 
for the night (nth July), they pressed on early next morning towards Alnwick, 
where the Scottish king was lying in fancied security ; but on their way they 
were overtaken by a mist so dense, that fearing the proximity of the enemy, 
and having lost their way, they thought of retreating, and would have done so 
but for the intrepidity of Baliol, who urged on the march, and soon the sun, 
lifting the mist, showed them the towers of Alnwick. They then came by 
surprise on the king, who was attended by sixty horsemen only, all his force 
having dispersed in pursuit of plunder. William boldly charged them, but 
being unsupported, was speedily overpowered, unhorsed, and made prisoner. 
The gallant band then, to secure their prize, wisely galloped off the Held and 
returned to Newcastle, whence the king was taken prisoner to Richmond, from 
whence he was despatched to Falaise Castle in Normandy. The Scottish army, 
blind with rage at the loss of their king, at once broke up from Alnwick and 
tumultuously dispersed. 

King John visited Alnwick on four different occasions. Eustace de Vescy 
married a daughter of the King of Scotland, and in 1216 accompanied 
Alexander II., his brother-in-law, in an expedition against Barnard Castle 
in Durham, and while riding round the fortress reconnoitring it, was slain by 
a bolt from the walls, to the grief of the Scottish army, which at once left the 
place. His son William succeeded, who was married to Agnes, daughter of 
William P'errers, Earl of Derby, by whom he had two sons, John, who sided 
against Henry 111., and was made prisoner at Evesham, and who died i2iS8, 
and William, who died 1297, '"•""^ without issue. Thus the family of de Vescy 
came to an end, and the castle and manor of Alnwick became by royal licence 
the possession of Anthony Bek, Bishop of Durham, from whom the lands and 
castle were purchased in 1309 by Sir Henry de Percy, ist lord of Alnwick, a 
name so intimately connected with the history of this country, and with all 
that is chivalrous and martial in it for so many centuries, that a short account 
should be here given of the family which at this time acquired Alnwick. 

Their ancestor, William de Percy, coming from the quiet little village of 



36o CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Perci in Calvados, Normandy, had accompanied Duke William to England, 

and his son and grandson succeeded to the lands bestowed upon him by the 

Conqueror ; but the family of his grandson ended in a daughter and heiress, 

Agnes de Percy, married to Joscelin, the brother of Adeliza de Louvaine, Queen 

of England. Their son and successor, Henry, assumed the name of his mother's 

family, and thus recommenced the family of Percy. He married Isabel de Brus, 

obtaining with her the lordship of Skelton and its castle in Yorkshire. His son 

William succeeded, and died 1245, when his son Henry de Percy came into the 

estates, which included also the lordship of Petworth in Sussex. This Percy 

marrying Eleanor, daughter of John, the great Earl de Warenne, was led by him 

to espouse the side of Henry 111. in the Barons' War, and he was taken prisoner 

at Lewes. In the Chronicle of Dover he is spoken of as "unus de melioribus in 

regno." He died 1272, leaving a son. Sir Henry de Percy, a warrior of distinction, 

who was knighted by Edward I., and accompanied that king in his wars ; he 

was, together with his grandsire John de Warenne, at the siege of Caerlaverock, 

and at Berwick 22 Edward I., and, like his father, he took a wife in Sussex, 

namely, Eleanor, daughter of the powerful noble Richard FitzAlan, Earl of 

Arundel. He it was who in 1309 purchased Alnwick of Bishop Anthony 

Bek, but he only enjoyed it for six years, dying in 1315. Up to this date little 

perhaps had been done on the old fabric in the way of additions, but we are told 

that iiis son and successor most excellently repaired the castle. At this period 

were added or remodelled the barbican and the magnificent gatehouse with its 

two octagonal towers, and also those called the Abbot's, the postern, the 

Constable's, and the Friar's Towers, and the gatehouse between the outer and 

middle bailey ; also one on the foundations of the present Record Tower, and all 

the intermediate ones westward to the barbican. He also added the great hall 

and the vaults below it, as the latter still exist. This Percy married a daughter 

of Robert, Lord ClilTord, and so we find the Clifford escutcheon carved on the 

wall of the inner gatehouse. He served throughout the wars of Edward 111. 

in P"rance and in Scotland, and with the Black Prince, fighting at Halidon Hill 

and at Nevill's Cross, and is described as being a personage only second to the 

king in importance. He died in 1352, when he was succeeded by the oldest 

of his four sons, whose marriage with Mary Plantagenet, daughter of Henry, 

Earl of Lancaster, shows that the Percys were esteemed worthy of alliance 

with the blood-royal ; he fought at Cre^y, and died in 1368, after completing 

the remodelling of Alnwick Castle. His eldest son, the father of " Hotspur," 

was in great favour at first with Richard 11., but transferred his allegiance to 

Henry IV'. on his claiming the crown. He was created Earl of Northumberland, 

and married as his second wife Maud, the ^ister of Anthony, Lord Lucy, and 

widow of Gilbert Umfraville, by whom he obtained the manors and castles of 

Cockermouth and Langley, and whom he succeeded in tiiose of Prudhoe. 

Both he and his son Henry " Hotspur " revolted against King Henry, the latter 



.»' ?• 



I 



NORTHUMBERLAND 361 

bciiij^ killed at tlic battle of Slircwsbury in 1403, antl the earl at a skiniii>,h 011 
Braniliaiii Moor in 1407. 

hi 1405 Alnwick sustained a short siege, and was yielded to Henry IV. It 
was defended by Sir Henry Percy of Athol, as he was called, the j^randson of 
the Earl of Northumberland, but on the fall of Berwick he surrendered. 
Hotspur's son Henry, the heir, who throu<^h his mother inherited the blood 
of the royal stock of the Mortimers, was an e.xile in Scotland till 1416, 
when Henry V. restored him to his family possessions, creating him Earl of 
Northumberland. He repaired the castles of Alnwick and Warkworth, possibly 
adding the keep of the latter. He w.is an active Lancastiian, and was killetl al 
the first battle of St. Albans in 1455. His son Henry, the third earl, had a licence 
to crenellate the town of Alnwick from Henry VI., and built the Bondgate 
Tower at Alnwick. He was slain on the bloody field of Towton in 1461, lighting 
like his father for the Red Rose. The fourth earl was massacred by the mob 
at Thirsk in 1489, when he was striving to collect Henry VII. 's ta.xes. In his 
time Alnwick was the centre of much hghting. In 1462, being held by the 
Lancastrian William Tailbois, it was besieged by Lord Hastings and Sir Ralph 
Grey and taken, but on Oueen Margaret's landing shortly after at Bam- 
burgh, siege was again laid to Alnwick Castle, which from lack of provisions 
was forced to surrender. The next year the Earl of Warwick retook it, but a 
few months after it was treacherously yielded by its governor. Sir R. Grey, to 
Lord Hungeiford and a French force, and again, after the battle of the Limiels 
at Hexham, it was given up to Warwick. 

The Percys, as leaders of the northern barons, resided at Alnwick, and 
entertained here King Edward II. in 131 1 and 1322, and also Edward III. in 
1335 ; '""It 'li^' I^'ti^'" earls lived much in Yorkshire and at Petworth, and on the 
death of the seventh earl and the imprisonment of his brother the family ceased 
to live at Alnwick, and the castle came to be neglected. 

We have recounted seven lords of Alnwick who died violent deaths, and the 

list increases: Thomas, yth Earl of Northumberland, was beheaded at York 

in 1572 for the Rising in the North, and the eighth earl died mysteriously in the 

Tower of London : with the eleventh earl, Jocelyn, the male line of the Percys 

— the most historic perhaps of all our English families — comes to an end in 1670. 

The last earl's daughter. Lady Elizabeth Percy, who was twice a wife and twice 

a widow before she was sixteen, became (1682) the wife of Charles Seymour, 

Duke of Somerset, to whom she brought her great wealth. Their daughter 

Catherine married Sir William Wyndham, and conveyed to his family the estates 

of Petworth, Egremont, and Leconlield. In the next century, Algernon Seymour, 

Duke of Somerset, left one child. Lady Elizabeth, who inherited Alnwick and 

married Sir Hugh Smithson, created Earl Percy and Duke of Northumberland 

in 1766, — the ancestor of the present noble owner of Alnwick Castle. 

This magnificent fortress stands on high ground on the S. bank of the Aln 
VOL. II. 2 z 



362 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

River. The view is comparatively confined. The enclosure of the walls is of 
irregular shape, in tiie form of two loops or links, with the great keep and its 
approaches forming the junction between them. This keep consists of a cluster 
of towers and walls set round a central court, having a superb gateway- with 
two highly ornate Norman arches, the work probably of Eustace Fitzjohn, 
cir. 1 140. There is also a great deal of Norman masonry remaining in the 
walls of the enceinte. Originally there was a deep dry ditch surrounding the 
keep, which is spoken of in the Survey of 1587. The Norman gateway was 
built into the later work of the middle of the fourteenth centurv, when also the 
two lofty flanking towers were added. 

The central "Prudhoe" Tower is modern, but adds much to the elevation 
of the castle. There is a curious garrison well in this part, which may have 
been built by the second Percy lord (1315), who did so much to the structure. 
The great gatehouse and barbican are fine examples of the military architecture 
of the fourteenth century. The latter gave access over a drawbridge across a 
moat which originally encircled the building, besides the bridge operated on 
Irom the gatehouse ; these were not in existence in 1556. This entrance is 
the work of the second Lord Percy of Alnwick, who also built most of the 
towers of the outer wall. After his time little mention is made of the fabric 
till 1538, when the first survey was made (given by Hartshorne in extcnso), and 
there was another in 1586, wherein the chapel is mentioned, removed in 1755. 
In 1764 repairs were imperative, and Hugh, ist Duke of Northumberland, was 
advised to remove the chapel, and the Exchequer Tower, and to " restore " 
the fabric after the lamentable Strawberry-Hill Gothic taste which then prevailed. 
The original arrangements of the interior were entirely destroyed at that time, 
and in 1854, when a new building was carried out in the keep, it was found 
necessary to pull down the old Hall, which was in a dangerous state: the marks 
of the dais across the hall were then discovered, and over it a buffet or side- 
board for the display of cups and plate; also water drains, and the hooks for 
suspending tapestries upon the walls were found in the old plaster (Hartshorne). 
The hall was rebuilt in 1863, but the vaults below are original. 



A Y D O N {minor) 

THIS fortress stands on the N. side of Tyne, one and a half miles from 
Corbridge, in a secluded wood ; on two sides the building is protected 
by a deep ravine and on the others by a ditch. It was built in 1305 by 
Robert de Reymes or Raymes, who then obtained a licence from Edward I. 
to crenellate his house (" mansum suum de Eydon "). At the same date this 
Robert also built under royal licence a similar tower at ShoRTFLAT, but 
Aydon exceeded it greatly in extent. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 363 

Robert dc; K;iymes owned the manor, castle, and halt the villa;4e of Aydon, 
and his descendants retained some interest in it till tiie reij^n of James I., 
though the family of Carnaby became possessed of the castle in 1542, their 
arms being cut on a stone mantelpiece in the castle. It was afterwards the 
prcjperty of the Collinsons, " but the last of that family was ruined by being 
bond for a friend." Then Aydon was purchased by onejohn Doug las, from 
whom it descended to the Blacketts of Matfen, and it is now the property of 
Sir E. W. Blackett, Bart. 

In the " Domestic Architecture " of Hudson Turner are admirable drawings 
and details of Aydon, which in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries was called 
Aydon Hall, as being a Border house, in reality, carefidly fortilied. In plan 
it was a many-sided enclosure of high walls, forming three courts attached to 
a strong house of three storeys, gabled at the ends and battlemented through- 
out, standing on the edge of the ravine. vSome good rooms are on the upper 
floor, one measuring about 30 feet by 20 feet ; there are four original lire- 
places with good chimneys, and some of the windows are square-headed, witli 
double lights. 

BAMBOROUGH, formerly called BAMBURGH {chi.-f) 

NO spot in England, remote though this one be, is more intimately bound 
up with the early memories of the country than Bamborough. A bold 
plutonic rock of black basalt, a natural fortress overhanging the North Sea 
was chosen by Ida, at the head of a powerful force of Angles, in 547, as his 
camp, " which he surrounded with palisades and afterwards with a wall " 
{Flares Hist.). It is not possible to prove the tradition that Agricola had been 
there before him. Ida became king of that country called Bernicia, extending 
from the Tyne to the F^orth, which joined in the next century to Deira, and 
reaching to the Humber, long formed, under the name of Northumbria (or 
lands north of the Humber), the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon states, 
whose king was then Ethelfrith, and their capital Bamburgh or Bebbanburgh, 
so called from Bebba, Ethelfrith's c]ueen. It covered no more ground than 
the existing castle, but formed in those wild times a camp of refuge, where 
the Bernician kings and their Thegns might be secure from the inroads of 
Scots and Danes. It was spoken of in 774 as "a most strongly fortified city ;" 
yet in 993 the Danes broke in and injured its defences, and again in 1015 they 
took it by assault. 

In the spring of 1095, Robert de Mowbray, the third Xorman Earl of 
Northumberland, who had two years before killed Malcolm Ceanmore, the 
Scottish king, and his son before Alnwick, took on himself to wantonly plunder 
four Norwegian ships lying in some northern harbour. The merchants pre- 
ferred a complaint to the king, William Rufus, who, glad perhaps of a cause 



364 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

against tliis turbulent earl, sent positive orders to de Mowbray to restore 
what he had taken ; but of this the earl took no notice, and on being 
summoned to court to give an account of himself, stoutly refused to go. 
This defiance was more than the Red King would endure, so, gathering a 
strong force together, he put himself at its head and marched to the north 
to chastise the earl, and put a stop to the conspiracy which he knew existed 
there. Arrived at Newcastle, the fortress, which his brother Robert had built 
to defend the Roman road to the north, soon fell into his hands, and he then 
laid siege to the castle of Tynemouth, which was held by the earl's brother, 
and which, after a delay of two months, he took, and at once pressed on to 
attack de Mowbray in his citadel of Bamburgh, where the earl lay, accom- 
panied by his newly married wife, Matilda de I'Aigle. The old fort, described 
as " a city small but strong, and its steep height approached only by steps," 
had then been replaced by a Norman castle fortified by all the military 
science of the age. Rufus found it impregnable, and contented himself with 
forming close to its walls a strong earthwork, which he called Malvoisin, or 
the Bad Neighbour, as cover for a force placed there, to harass and watch 
his foe, and then left the place for the south. De Mowbray, deceived by false 
news that Newcastle wished to open its gates to him, escaped by sea to go 
there, leaving in charge of Bamburgh his countess and his nephew Morel, 
the knight who had slain King Malcolm in 1093 ; but arrived at Newcastle, 
he found himself mistaken and the enemy in possession, and just managed 
to throw himself into Tynemouth, where he was besieged, and, after a 
defence of six days, overcome, wounded, and taken prisoner, awaiting the 
king's disposal. The lady of Bamburgh continued the defence there, and reso- 
lutely refused to yield ; whereupon Rufus sent orders to parade her husband 
before the walls of Bamburgh, with the threat that unless the castle was given 
up his eyes should be torn out. Then the countess gave in, and the castle 
was surrendered to the king, but the earl was sent prisoner to Windsor, and 
condemned to perpetLial captivity, which some say he endured for thirty years, 
another account being that he became a monk at St. Albans and died there. 
The poor bride, who had seen little of pleasure or quiet in her short married 
life, after some time received a Papal dispensation to marry again, and she 
became the wife of Nigel de Albini. Henry I. entrusted this castle to the 
keeping of Eustace Fitzjohn, Lord of Alnwick. 

Bamburgh resisted the attack of David, King of Scotland, when he invaded 
the Marches in the interest of the Empress Maud, and the value of this 
fortress to the English Crown is shown by the reservation of it in the grant of 
the earldom of Northumberland to Earl Henry, David's son. 

Henry 11. was a great castle-builder, and in his time the keep was erected, 
cir. 1 164. King John, in his endless journeys, came here four or live times, 
and Henry III. in 1221. The Constables of Bamburgh seem to have always 




^ 






•^ 



.S 



NORTHUMBERLAND 



365 



lield royiil appdintmciits. It \v;is here tliat Edward I. vainly summoned Jdhn 
Baliol to attend and do liim homaf^e for Scotland. Edward 11. granteil tiie 
castle to Isabel de Beaumont, widow of John de Vescy of Alnwick, a favour 
which she repaid by j^ivinq shelter there to Piers Gaveston. To HamburLjh 
tiiey took the youn;^ '"^iUfi "' Scotland, David, son of the Bruce, when captured 
at the battle of Nevill's Cross in October 1346, before sending him to London. 
He was only twenty-one years old, and had shown great courage at the battle, 
being with difficulty taken prisoner, wounded as he was in face and leg; and he 
was now in a pitiable state, since two barber-surgeons were sent for from York 
to extract an arrow with which he had been wounded, and to heal him " with 
despatch," — services which they appear to have performed satisfactorily, since 




BAMROROUGH 



i. st. oswald s gate. 
3. smith's cats. 



3. KKEP. 

4. THE king's HAI.L. 



5. KITCHEN. 

6. CHACRL. 



they received the sum of £(> for them, a sum ei.]ual to peihaps _4i-° *'f ''"f" 
money,— but it was five months before David could be moved to London. In 
1336 Edward, proceeding to attack Berwick Castle, left his queen, Philippa, at 
Bamburgh, when the Scots, under Archibald Douglas the Regent, attempted 
to draw him oil by besieging that fortress, but, stunulaled by the presence 
of their queen, the garrison made so strenuous a defence that they beat off 
their assailants, and then Berwick fell. Edward spent ten days here in 1356, 
when he was in treaty with Edward Baliol for the surrender of the Scottish 
crown. Henry I\'. gave the constableship of H.uuburgh to Henry Hotspur, 
for his assistance in effecting the dethronement of Richard 11., but after the 
battle of Shrewsbury this post was given to Hotspur's great enemy, the Earl 
of Westmorland. In the wars of the Roses Bamburgh played an important 
pait. Being surrendered to Edward 1\'. after Towton, it was soon after 



366 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

recovered by Oueeii Margaret, who (2 Edward IV.) gave it into the keeping 
of the Duke of Somerset and Lord Koos, with a garrison of 300 men. Edward 
coming north with an army of 10,000 men, then laid siege to the three castles 
of Alnwick, Hamburgh, and Dunstanburgh, the conduct of the operations 
being superintended by the Earl of Warwick, wiio, taking up his lodging at 
Warkworth, rode thence daily to look after the conduct of these three sieges. 
He commenced the attack on Bamburgh on the loth December, and the 
garrison bravely defended the castle till Christmas Eve, when, in the face of 
the great odds against them, they were forced to surrender. Meantime, the 
queen had managed to escape in a small ship, intending to go to France, but 
her ever-pursuing evil fortune prevailing, a violent storm drove her to Berwick, 
where she was glad to land, with the loss of the treasure she had on board the 
vessel. After its fall Sir Ralph Grey was left in charge of the castle, but in 
Lent, 1463, he betrayed it to the Lancastrian troops, with Queen Margaret, 
who entered Bamburgh with her ill-fated husband, Henry, only to quit it 
again in April, when she sailed for Flanders. The king, thus left alone in the 
castle, remained there for a whole year. The next year, after the disastrous 
battle of Hexham, or the Linnels (May 1464), King Henry fled from Bywell 
Castle, where he was staying, leaving behind his " bycocket," or coronetted 
cap, and other effects, and returned to Bamburgh, which, however, he soon 
quitted for the loyal district of the Lakes. Then Sir Ralph Grey, who had 
fled at Hexham before the battle, threw himself into Bamburgh, with many 
other Lancastrian fugitives, and was followed shortly after by Warwick and 
his brother Northumberland, who laid siege to the castle. Grey, on being 
summoned, defied them, when he was warned that it was intended to take 
the fortress, even if the siege lasted seven years, and that for every shot fired 
from their guns a head should fall from a member of the garrison. The 
siege was then commenced, and heavy ordnance was opened on the castle, 
doing great injury to it, and sometimes sending their shot through Sir Ralph 
Grey's quarters. At last, one of the towers being ruined, in falling injured the 
captain, Grey, so severely that he was taken up for dead, when the defenders 
lost heart and at once yielded. Sir Ralph, however, recovered, and being 
carried to Edward at Doncaster, was executed. 

In the sixteenth century, Bamburgh, like all the Border castles, was suffered 
to fall into decay, and the survev (temp. Elizabeth) shows that it was ruinous. 
Sir John Foster succeeded as captain, and was charged, 1584, with having by 
his cupidity laid parts of it waste; yet in 1610 James I. bestowed it and the lord- 
ship upon Claudius Foster, the son of one of Sir John's illegitimate children. 
The estates of the Fosters were sold in 1704 to meet their debts, and were 
purchased by Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, who had married the beautiful 
Dorothy Foster. The bishop dying without heirs in 1720, left the greater part 
of this property to trustees for charitable purposes, and in 1757 the restoration 



NORTHUMBERLAND 367 

of Bamhurtjh Castle hej^aii viiulcr the auspices of Dr. Sliarp, Archdeacon of 
Northunibeiiaiicl, who carried nut hi> own plans very zealously, and partly at 
his own cost. He repaired the Norman keep, and lived in it with his family, 
manaf^in}» the various charitable desi<^ns of the founder, dispeiisin<^ corn to the 
poor and housinj^ shipwrecked seamen. 

The enceinte of the castle follows the bends of the clilf, enclosing nearly 
live acres of ground, and from the entrance to the brink of the cliff, where the 
wall stands 150 feet above the sea, is nearly | mile. There were three wards or 
courts ; the W. or lower ward, and the E. or middle ward, have been at one 
time covered with the buildings of the ancient town, anil at the extreme \V. end 
was situated the Church of St. Peter. The original entrance was by a Hight of 
steps at the N.W. or lowest corner, where now are modern stairs. The great 
quadrangular Norman keep was built (temp. Henry II.) after the foreign pattern 
adopted at London, Dover, Newcastle, and other places ; it had originally only 
tw'o storeys, with galleries and staircases in the wall. A deep draw-well exists 
in the keep ; it is 145 feet deep, cut through the hard rock, and the water, 
" sweet and very pure," is said in the Chronicle to have existed in 774. There 
has been much fanciful restoration, but happily some old work has escaped, 
and on the W. is the wall of the Captain's Lodgings, where probably the shot 
from the brazen gun penetrated Sir Ralph Grey's quarters. The gatehouse is 
all changed. Dr. Sharp kept exact drawings of the old work as he found it, 
and he ga\e these to an antiquary, one Edward King, but they cannot now be 
traced. Under the Captain's Hall is a very fine vaulted chamber of the best 
masonry in the castle ; it is now divided and used as a coal-cellar. Above this 
were the kitchens. It is deplored by Mr. Bates in his " Border Holds of 
Northumberland" that a grand old fortress of such historic interest as this, 
which was successfully defended by Margaret I'Aigle, by Queen I'hilippa, and 
by (Jueen Margaret of Anjou, " sanctiHed for more than a year by the solitary 
agony of Henry VI.," should now- be "degraded into a £c, a year boarding- 
school for thirty girls, with its keep let as a lodging-house during the summer 
months," and he urges that the fabric should be made use of in ways consonant 
with the wishes of Lord Crewe. This is right, and one is therefore glad to read 
(April 30, 1894) that "the historic Castle of Bamburgh has just been purchased 
from the trustees of Lord Crewe's Charity by Lord Armstrong, who has under- 
taken not to alter the historic character of the building, but to restore all the 
parts that have fallen into decay in accordance with the original design. A 
considerable portion of the castle will be devoted to an endowed Home for the 
reception of impoverished persons of cultivated habits and acquirements." The 
good work was at once set in hand, and ranges of buildings, ct)mmensurate 
with the scheme and of a dignilied character, arc now rising upon the ancient 
foundations. 



368 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



BELLISTER (niinor) 

WITHIN a short distance to the E. of tliis castle, and opposite to it on 
the S. bank of the Sonth Tyne, in a beautiful situation near Haltwhistle, 
stands Bellister Castle, the seat of a younger branch of the Blenkinsops. It is 
a rude irregular structure, and a gloomy-looking one, built upon an artificial 
mound, and surrounded by a broad moat. It belonged to a Thomas Blenkinsop 
in tile reign of Edward VI., and to George Blenkinsop temp. Elizabeth. The 
manor came during this century into the possession of the Ellisons of Hebburn, 
and this castle and estate to the Bacon family. 



B ELS AY {minor) 

THIS ancient seat of the Middleton family dates from the reign of 
Edward II., cir. 1317, the modern mansion ol Belsay Hall being the 
residence of a descendant of the founder. Sir Arthur E. Middleton, Bart. 
It lies about nine miles S.W. from Morpeth, and in the park is the old 
castle, or rather peel tower, one of the largest in the country. The 
Middleton family continued here through all the vicissitudes of the country, 
till at the Restoration the proprietor was, in 1662, created a baronet, and was 
high sheriff in 1666, from which time the succession to the present holder has 
been unbroken. 

The tower is described as a highly picturesque structure, built of a rich 
yellow sandstone, and environed with hue timber. It is four storeys in height, 
and measures at its base an area of 56 feet by 47 feet. The ground-floor is 
vaulted, and the second floor contains a state apartment, 41 feet long and 
21 feet wide, with a height of 17 feet. A newel stair in a square turret leads 
to the roof, which is masked by a fine embattled parapet, projected on corbels 
over the face of the wall, and having overhanging circular bartizans at the 
angles. Additions were made to it temp. James 1., one of which remains in a 
steward's house, with the date 1614. 



BLENKINSOP {miuor) 

IS a peel castle or Border fortress, 2i miles from Haltwhistle, on the S. side 
of the Tippalt, in a cold bare country. The number of these fortified houses 
is very great, because every chief residence in these lawless regions had to be 
protected against, not only the enemies of England across the Border, but 
also from the raids and injuries of thieves and moss-troopers. This one is a 
strong square tower with a vaulted basement, surrounded by a high wall at the 



NORTHUMBERLAND 369 

distance of four yards, and again by a deep ditcii on tlie N. and \V. sides, a brook 
on the S. and a steep bank E. It appears to have been built out of the Roman 
wall, from which it is not far removed, being, next to Thirlwall, the most 
westerly of the Northumbrian castles. It is in a ruinous state, but partly 
inhabited, having a farm-house added to it. The family of Blenkinsop held 
it in Henry III.'s reign : it was perhaps built about 1340 by a Raliih Hlen- 
kinsope de Boltby, Baron of Tynedale, and continued for centuries in that 
family, going by marriage at last to the Coulsons of Jesmond, Jane, the 
heiress of the Blenkinsops, who in the seventeenth century lived at Dryburn- 
haugh, marrying in 1727 William Coulson. In Murray is given the tradition 
that e.xists in this family of a black dog which appears as a warning before 
the death of any member of it, and reappears in the house again at the moment 
of dissolution. 

BOX HAL (minor) 

THE site no doubt of a verv early fortress or "Bottle." This ancient seat 
of the Ogle family stands on an eminence above the Wansbeck River, 
on its N. bank, in a romantic situation, enveloped in woods, between Morpeth 
and the sea. The lands here belonged to the Bertrams, one of whom, Robert 
Bertram, served in the Welsh War of 1277, and his son was sheriff of the 
county. Robert, fifth of his name, built the castle of Botha) 1343, luider 
licence to crenellate 17 Edward III., when twenty-one years of age. He 
was knighted and received the thanks of Edward III. for his bravery at 
Nevill's Cross ; dying in 1362, his only child Helen married Robert Ogle, 
and as she had four husbands, it was not luitil 1405 that her son Sir Robert 
Ogle came into possession of Bothal. This estate he entailed on his second 
son John, who took his mother's name of Bertram, with remainder to his elder 
brother Sir Robert Ogle, who the next day after their father's death in October 
1409, came with a force and besieged Bothal Castle, and took it after four 
days' fighting. Sir John Bertram died in 1449, and his male line failing with 
his grandson, Bothal passed to the Ogles. Sir Robert Ogle had been created 
Lord Ogle by Edward IV., 1461. The seventh Lord Ogle died 1601, s.p. male, 
when the barony fell into abeyance between his two daughters, the younger 
of whom, Catherine, marrying Charles Cavendish of Welbeck, Notts, was 
mother of William Cavendish, the famous Marquis of Newcastle, King 
Charles I.'s general. Again, on the death of the second Duke of Newcastle 
in 1^)91, the title of Ogle again fell between his three daughters, the eldest 
of whom, Margaret, married Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford, and acquired 
the property of Bothal, which has descended to her representative, the present 
Duke of Portland. 

A Decorated gatehouse, which is still inhabited, is the principal feature 
VOL. II. ^ A 



370 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

of tliis fortress, having two semi-octagon towers covering the entrnnce, with 
portculHs groove under the archway. Above are sculptured a curious series 
of shields giving the arms of Edward 111. and the Black Prince, with those 
of the warrior families of Wake, Aton, Greystock, Percy, Bertram, Conyers, 
Darcy, and Felton. Around the courtyard were placed the great hall, parlour, 
seven bed-chambers, chapel, kitchens, stables, and all the domestic offices. 
Bates gives a drawing of the castle dated 1724, and Grose another of 1773, 
since which time it has been kept in good order, and a great deal remains. 
The outer wall runs round the edge of the cliff, and encloses half an acre. 



BY WELL {minor) 

STANDS on the N. side of the Tyne, about seven miles E. of the town of 
Hexham, in the most picturesque part of the Tyne Valley. It was an 
ancient barony of the Baliols and the Nevills, having attached to it a large 
park, which in the middle of the sixteenth century was full of " redd deare." 
The castle seems to have been the stronghold of a large barmkin, or walled 
enclosure, built at the E. end of the town for the protection of the people 
and their cattle from the raids of Tynedale robbers. Formerly it was a seat 
of the Baliols held in capite by five knights' fees, from the time of the Red 
King; then in the reign of Richard II. it came to the Nevills, lords of Raby, 
and afterwards Earls of Westmorland, who lost the property in 1571, when 
it was purchased by the Fenwicks. This family held it till 1713, when an 
heiress brought Bywell to another family of Fenwicks, of Stanton and Brink- 
burn ; in 1802, the proprietor dying s.p., bequeathed it to his widow, and the 
estate was sold to Thomas Wentworth Beaumont for Xi45,ooo. It was to the 
shelter of this castle that Henry VI. fled after the battle of the Linnels, or 
Hexham (1464), but not feeling safe here, he escaped to Bamburgh, leaving 
behind him at this castle his helmet and sword, with the war trappings of 
his horse, and also a cap of state adorned with a double crown. 

The building is actually a grand fifteenth-century gatehouse, with turrets, 
battlements, and machicoulis {Parker), whose walls are almost intact. It is 
an oblong structure, measuring about 61 feet by 38 feet, standing close over 
the steep bank of the river. There was a portcullis in the gateway, and the 
old oak gate is still in its place. In the gateway passage are two doors facing 
each other ; one leads to the vaults below, and the other, which is an ancient 
one with an iron grating, opens to a staircase leading to a good chamber 
above, having a garderobe in the corner, and good windows. A newel stair 
leads to the upper room, nearly 50 feet long, with two fireplaces and Perpen- 
dicular windows. Above is the heavily battlemented roof, with four fine 
turrets. A portion of the enceinte wall remains. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 371 



C A L L A L y {minor) 

THIS place is two miles W. from Whittiiii^ham, and was the residence of tlie 
ancient family of the Claverings. The bnilding includes at the VV. end 
an oris^inal Border tower of great antiquity, that on the E. and the centre being 
of a later date. 

Callaly was the vill of William de Callaly, early in the reign of Henry III., 
and his son Gilbert granted it to Robert Fitz-Roger, Lord of Warkworth and 
of Clavering in Esse.x. The family of Fitz-Roger descended from the Norman 
De Hurghs, ancestors of many noble families in England, and this Robert was 
called to Parliament in 23 Edward I., and died 4 Edward II. At this time the 
want of surnames was found to be of great inconvenience, and in the general 
adoption of territorial names. King Edward gave to John the son of this 
Robert that of Clavering, from the name of the chief part of his estates. 
He inherited the vast property left by his father, but left only a daughter, Eva, 
who had four husbands, the second being Ralph, Lord Nevill of Raby. At 
his death he left his lands in this county to the Crown, by whom they were 
passed on to the Percys. The youngest brother of this |c>hn Clavering was 
the ancestor of the Claverings of Callaly, which place remained their home 
until of late years. It is ncjw the property of Major Alexander H. Brown. 



CARTINGTON {minor) 

THE castle is two miles X.W. of Rothbury, on the hillside. It was a detached 
portion of the bartjny of Ditchburn, and was in early times held by the 
owner of Embleton, whose lands after the death of Simon de Montfort were added 
to the possessions of the Earls of Lancaster. Although the Cartington family 
became tenants originally of the place about the year 1316, yet the tower is 
first mentioned only in 1415. The last John Cartington (they were almost all 
named John) died about 1494, when the place came to the Radcliffes, his 
daughter and heiress Anne having become the wife of Edward, son of Sir 
Thomas Radcliffe of Derwentwater. In November 151H, Queen Margaret, the 
widow of James IV. of Scotland, who had married Arcliibakl Douglas, Earl of 
Angus, so(jn enough after P'lodden, came to Cartington from Harbottle with 
her newly-born daughter, Margaret Douglas, born at Harbottle a month 
before, and remained here a week. This little child afterwards married the 
Earl of Lenno.x, and was the mother of Darn ley, and so grandmother to 
James VI. and I. of England. In 1601 Cartington was settled on an elder 
daughter, Elizabeth Radclifle, married to Roger Widdrington, and their son 
was in 1642 made a baronet by Charles I., — Sir Edward Widdrington of Carting- 



372 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

toil. The Scottisli army when it moved south entered and pkindered this 
castle, and after Marston Moor the owner, who had fought there on Charles's 
side, was sequestrated, the castle being vahied at ;^'8ooo, and ordered to be 
slighted. But in 1648 it was strong enough to make front against the Parlia- 
mentary troops and sustain a siege for a short while ; this was on the occasion 
when the Koyal troops, 1200 strong, under the command of Sir Richard 
Tempest, commander of the forces of Durham, and Colonel Edward Grey, in 
command of the forces in Northumberland, being encamped carelessly along 
the Coquet, allowed themselves to be surprised in their beds by the Round- 
heads, when the greater part were made prisoners. From tlie Widdringtons, 
Cartington passed by marriage to the Charltons, and again to one or two other 
families, till at last, when in a woeful state of neglect, it was sold in 1883 
to Sir William G. Ainnstrong of Cragside, now Lord Armstrong ; he rescued 
the old stronghold from ruin, and rebuilt and restored the castle. There 
are two good towers at the E. and W. extremities of the other buildings, 
remains of the ancient structure ; the tower on the E. was originally four 
storeys in height, having bartizans at the angles, and rising one storey above 
the W. tower. The paved courtyard has been restored and some seventeenth- 
century work removed. 



CASTLE STONE-NICK {minor) 

THIS is the name given to a fortified building surrounded by a ditch which 
stands about a quarter of a mile from the great bridge over Tweed 
opposite to Coldstream. It is the only remaining portion of the stronghold 
besieged and captured in the incursion of the French auxiliaries from 
Scotland into England, which took place in 1549. It is described as a house 
of considerable strength, and much booty was found in it. This happened 
during the Protectorate of Somerset. 



CHILLINGHAM {chic/) 

THE castle stands on rising ground in the midst of a wild and picturesque 
park. Licence was granted 18 Edward III. (1344) to Thomas de Heton to 
crenellate " mansum suum ac castrum sive fortalitium inde facere " at Chevelyng- 
ham. The Hetons possessed it till the death of William de Heton s.p. male, 
when the property passed to married female heirs. It is not known how and 
when the Greys of Wark first obtained this castle. There is a splendid altar 
tomb to Sir Ralph Grey, who died 1443, in the parish church, in a side chapel. 
His son, the Lancastrian leader of the same name, who defended Hamburgh 
Castle against the Earl of Warwick, and was beheaded after the final surrender 



NORTHUMBERLAND 373 

of tli;it fortress in 1464, wisely had this property and castle conveyed to trustees, 
and thus his widow Jacquctta was able to enjoy them after his death. After the 
insurrection in defence of the old faith in 1536, called the Pilgrimage of Grace, 
some of the king's supporters took refuge here, whereupon Sir Ingram Percy 
sent for heavy guns from Berwick to besiege the castle. In 1541 it was owned by 
Ralph Grey, a minor, and in the custody of his stepfather, and was then in fair 
repair. The Greys remained lords of Cliillingham until the death of Ford Grey, 
Earl of Tankerville, in 1701, when the whole went to his only daugliter and 
heiress. Lady Ossulton, whose husband was created Earl of Tankerville, and his 
family are still the possessors. On the N. side of the estuary of the River Seine, 
not far from the town of Havre, is the county of Tanquerville, which was granted 
by Henrv V. to Sir John de Grey, a brother of the ancestor of these Greys of 
Cliillingham, for services rendered in the French war in 1419 ; it was lost by his 
son Henry de Grey in 1449, when the armies of France overran Normandy, in 
the weaker days of Henry VI. 

The chief remains of the mediaeval castle are the corner towers, two of which, 
those on the S.E. and S.W. angles, belong to the middle of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, together with a dungeon in the N.W. tower, and are probably the work of 
Thomas de Heton ; but the structures connecting these towers, that is, the N. 
and S. fronts, are of much later construction. Inside is an arcade by Inigo 
Jones, with a stone staircase leading to the dining-room. In the beautiful and 
extensive park attached to the castle exists a famous breed of wild cattle, all 
white, very shy and fierce, but of unknown origin. 



CHIPCHASE {minor) 

AN ancient and beautiful structure, nine miles N.W. from Hexham, situated 
on a declivity on the E. bank of the North Tyne amid the finest scenery 
of that river : it is in a state of good preservation. The original tower is a 
rectangular building, about 52 feet long and 38 wide, by 50 feet in height. 
Adjoining it on the S.E. is the old manor-house built in 1621 by Cuthbert 
Heron ; it is said to be the finest specimen of Jacobean architecture in the 
county. The entrance to the tower is through an archway ne.xt to the manor- 
house, and over this entrance is a small room for working the portcullis, the 
groove of w^hich remains, and the framework of which is still in place, being 
made of oaken bars [Hartshorne). On the first floor there is a single dark, 
gloomy apartment, but tiie second floor has a good pointed window with two 
lights; a small oratory is contrived in the w.iU, adjoining the large room. 
There were good rooms on the third floor, which is provided with mural 
passages and a garderobe ; a wheel stair leads to a square turret. The old 
stone roof is very perfect. At each corner there is an embattled turret. 



374 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

corbelled out over the face of eacli wall, and between them was a heavy 
parapet with bold machicoulis projecting 2 feet from face of walls. 

Chipchase was a portion of the manor of Prudhoe, belonging to Odinel 
de Umfraville in 18 Henry II.; and he had a small fort here. In the reign of 
Edward I. it was possessed by Peter de Insula (De Lisle), and next by a branch 
of the Herons of Ford. In Elizabeth's reign Chipchase belonged to Sir George 
Heron, High Sheriff 13 Elizabeth, who was killed in a Border fray. He w-as 
succeeded by his cousin Cuthbert Heron, whom Charles II. made a baronet 
in 1662, perhaps because his brother was killed at Marston Moor. He built 
the manor-house. His grandson sold the castle, which in 1732 became the 
property of the Reeds. In the first quarter of the present century, owing to 
losses by banking failures, the estate came to the hammer, and is now the 
property of Mr. Hugh Taylor. There is a chapel in the park S. of the castle. 



COCKLAW TOWER {minor) 

THIS small peel tower stands near the conflux of the Erring burn — coming 
from the N.E. — with the North Tyne River, N. of Hexham, and within sight 
of the Roman wall. It also has the name of West Errington Tower, and is 
supposed to have been built by the Errington family in the fifteenth century. 
Mr. Bates remarks, in regard to the rude and ancient appearance which some of 
these fortalices bear, that " it is necessary to remember that towers of this class 
were the work of the country people themselves, and consequently look con- 
siderably earlier than they really are." 

There are two floors above the basement or ground floor, which is entered 
by a low-pointed doorway on the S. front, the door of which was fastened in 
the usual way by a wooden bar in sockets. At its right hand is a circular stair, 
in the S.E. angle, leading to the upper stages and roof, and opposite to this in 
the vaulted passage is a small dungeon, the sole admission to which is by a hole 
in the vaulting of it. At the end of the entrance passage of 10 feet is a fine 
pointed doorway leading into the basement vault, the usual feature of Border 
peels, measuring about 32 feet by 20J feet, into which the stock was accus- 
tomed to be driven for security ; a narrow loop or slit being given for light and 
air. It has a masonry barrel roof. 

The first floor has a fireplace, and two lights, and a loop, and on the E. wall 
is a passage which led to an outside building, perhaps a chapel, now vanished. 
The top floor has only two small windows and a fireplace. On the S.W. of 
each floor is a small chamber apart, and on the first there is a mural passage 
leading to a garderobe. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 375 



COCKLE OR COCKLEY PARK TOWER (mmo?-) 

ON the road northward, four miles from Morpeth, is the ruin of a fine 
fifteenth-century peel of the Ogles, Lords of Bothal, whose scutcheon is 
borne on a large panel on the E. wall. A farm-house has been formed in the 
centre with the N. end wall which remains, since it was the property of Lord 
Oxford in 1724. The tradition is that the S. end was destroyed hv fire several 
centuries ago. 

It is probable that the tower, which stands in a hleak position, with a very 
extended prospect, was reared by Robert, ist Lord Ogle, who came info actual 
possession of Bothal in 1465 ; it does not appear in the list of these fortalices in 
the survey made in 1415. Hodgson shows that in 1543 Sir Robert, 5th Lord 
Ogle, settled the building and lands upon his wife Jeyne, prior to which they 
had been in the occupancy of his mother, Anne Ogle. Lord Robert was killed 
at the battle of Ancrum Moor a few days after he had made the above disposi- 
tion " in case of being slain by the chance of war." Since then the place 
has descended in the same way as Bothal to its present possessor, the Duke 
of Portland. 

The length of the W. front is 54 feet, and that of the N. 30 feet, including 
its projection at the E. end, which carries the staircase, — this N. end being 
the only original part left. The entrance doorway is near the staircase, which 
leads up to tiie first and second floors, and terminates in a small gable giving 
to the battlements. These are carried on boldly projecting brackets, the 
corners being rounded at the four angles, which seem to have thus formed 
angle turrets. In the centre of the N. wall is a fine pointed fifteenth-century 
window, the others being oi later dale. 



C O L D M A R T I N TOW I{ R {wn-rxis/e,,/) 

WAS a small peel situated on an eminence on the E. marches, opposite 
to the Cheviots — about 27 feet square. In the inquest of 1584 it is thus 
spoken of : " Cadmertowne, one tower of stone and lime, of Roger P'owberry's 
of P'owberry, gent., — utterly decayed, notwithstanding il hath land belonging 
to it able to keep two men and horse fit for service." 

The remains consist of a fragment <) feet high of the S.W. wall, 6 feet tliiek, 
standing above Wooler Water. 



376 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



CORBRIDGE {luimr) 

IN a corner of the market-place of this town is a massive peel tower of 
Edward II., 33 feet in height, which has been used sometimes for a rectory 
house and sometimes as a prison. The parapet is embattled, and forms square 
projecting bartizans at the four corners. The walls are four feet thick, and there 
is a garderobe outside carried on corbels. The interior is in perfect condition, 
and exhibits completely the domestic arrangements peculiar to the period. 



COUPLAND {viinor) 

THIS Border tower stands on the N. bank of the Glen stream, on the N.W. 
of Wooler, to which barony the manor belonged, and which was held, 
together with Akeld Manor, under the Muschamps, the grantees of Wooler from 
Henry I., by the family of de Akeld. These de Akelds were here until late 
in the reign of Edward II., when they are lost sight of. Previous to this, about 
the middle of the thirteenth century, there appears in the district a family of 
the name of Coupland, though not apparently holding any land in the manor 
of Coupland. One of them, John de Copeland, was chosen as one of the twelve 
English knights appointed in 1245 to settle disputes on the Border marches; 
and it is possible that his namesake, who at the battle of Nevill's Cross in 1346 
took prisoner David, King of Scotland, was also of this family ; for this deed 
Sir John Copeland was made a knight banneret, and had ;{,'5oo a year settled 
upon himself and his heirs. 

The Prenderguests next appear as owners of the Akeld estates, perhaps by 
an heiress, and after them, in the reign of Henry IV., the Greys are lords of 
Akeld and Coupland, a family which continued to exercise signorial rights here, 
and to own Coupland until the middle of the last century. Then, in 1734, the 
Earl of Tankerville, representing the old Greys of Chillingham, sold Coupland 
to Robert Paul of Tower Hill, London. 

Other families also held lands in this lordship, amongst them the Forsters 
of Hamburgh and the Halls of Otterburn. The first of these introduced the 
family of Wallis as landowners here, and this family, originally written Whaleys 
or Wallace, became later the chief proprietors after the Greys. 

Leland speaks of no castle here, and in the survey of Border castles and 
towers made in 1552 it is said "the towneshippe of Coupland hath yn it 
neither fortresse or barmekyne ; " therefore this tower must be of late date. 
On a chimney-piece in the oldest part of the tower there is the date 1619, with 
the initials G. W. and M. W., which probably represent George Wallis and his 
wife, who are said to have erected or rebuilt the stronghold, a1 a time when 



NORTHUMBERLAND 



377 



these Border kinds were in a very disturbed state, and protection for life and 
property was necessitated. The oldest portion consists of a strong tower and 
side turret containing eleven rooms, with a curious newel stair ; the walls being 
6 and 7 feet thick {Paper by the Rev. Mattlteto Culley). 

The Coupland Castle estate had come to the Ogles from the Wallises in 
1713, and in 1H06 passed to the family of Bates of Brunton, and in 1830 
Matthew Culley of Akeld (who had obtained those lands in 1765) succeeded 
to the whole of this property in right of his mother, the sister and heir of 
Thomas Bates. His son, the Rev. Matthew Culley of Akeld and Coupland, 
is the present owner. 



DALLE Y, OR DALA {iion-exL<.lnit) 

THE site of this old fortress is about a mile S. of Tarset, on the 
opposite side of Tyne, on the N. bank of Chirdon burn, and is said by 
the tradition of the country to have a subterranean communication with 
Tarset {q.'i'.). 

It is thought that this is the tower in Tynedale alluded to in a letter (still 
e.xtant) written in 1237 to Henry 111. by Hugh de Bolebec, his " custos " 
of Northumberland, complaining that a certain Scottish knight, David de 
Lyndesey, was building a house in Tynedale (which was then held by the 
King of Scotland) ; that it was already built up to the walks of the battlements 
(allures), and was intended to be crenellated. This Lindsay, as Justiciary of 
Lothian, was at the head of the Scottish Commission for determining the 
marches at Carham ; and in 1255 Henry III. confirmed to him and his heirs 
the property in Chirdon given him by Margery, the sister of Alexander II. 
Henry, therefore, did not take the same view as Bolebec. 

There are vestiges of the walls of this fortalice, in some places standing 
7 feet above the ground. 



D I L S T O N {lumor) 

SOUTH of the Tyne, and E. of Hexham, stand, on the brink of a deep 
ravine, through which runs the stream of the Devil's-water, the shattered 
remains of the old castle which was once the home of the Radcliffe family. 
One John d'Eivill is said by Dugdale tt) have been a powerful personage 
at the time of the Barons' War, in Henry lll.'s reign. His family, 
seated here from the days of Henry 1., prc^bably gave their name in a 
corrupted form to the river and the locality. Robert de Dyvilston was 
assessed for scutage iS and 23 Henry 111., and his grandson. Sir Thomas 
de Dyvilston, was sheriff of the county in the ninth year of Edward I. His 
VOL. II. 3 " 



378 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

barony was inherited hy his cousin, William de Tynedale, Lord of Langley, 
a barony about ten miles distant westward. Thomas de Tynedale left a son, 
William, who succeeded to Dyvilston at his mother's death in 1317, and 
whose grandson, Walter de Tynedale, dying during the reign of Richard II., 
left two daughters. Both these ladies died without issue in 1416, whereon Sir 
William Claxton, a grandson of Thomas de Tynedale's wife, succeeded to 
Dyvilston and to all the estates of the Barons of Tynedale. In the second 
year of Richard III., Johanna, second daughter of Sir Robert Claxton, became 
Lady of Dyvilston, being married to John Cartington of Cartington Tower, 
whom she survived. By her will (A.D. 1521), Dyvilston was devised to her 
grandson. Sir Cuthbert Radcliffe, knight, and his heirs male — by reason that 
her daughter and heiress, Anne Cartington, had (before 1494) married Sir 
Edward Radclif¥e, knight-banneret, who was High Sheriff of Northumberland 
in 17 Henry VII. Anne Cartington inherited the Cartington, Whittonstell, and 
Hawthorn estates ; and her husband's father, Sir Nicholas Radclitle, had 
succeeded to the possessions of the old lords of Derwentwater, Cumberland, 
by his marriage with Margaret, daughter of the last of the Derwentwater 
family (see Castle Crag, Cumberland). This Margaret had issue Sir Thomas, 
who married Margaret, daughter of Sir William Parr of Kendal Castle {q.v.), 
the ancestor of the last queen of Henry \'III., and Sir Edward Radclitie was 
their third son ; he finally inherited all the property. He had two sons by his 
marriage with Anne Cartington, Sir Cuthbert and Sir John — both knights — the 
eldest succeeding him as Sir Cuthbert Radclift'e of Dilston, SheriiT of Cumber- 
land, 19 Henry VIII. Sir Cuthbert married in 1514 Margaret, daughter of 
Henry, Lord Clifford, and, dying in 1545, was succeeded by his son, Sir 
George Radclifife of Dilston and Derwentwater. 

Sir George's son and heir was Sir Francis, created baronet in 1619, who was 
succeeded in 1622 by his son. Sir Edward. Being a distinguished Royalist, 
and also a Catholic, Sir Edward suffered sequestration at the hands of the 
Parliamentarians. He had married, clandestinely it is supposed, Elizabeth 
Barton, heiress of Whenby, Yorkshire, and lived at Dilston, dying in 1663 at 
the age of seventy-five. To his already large property he had added the 
estates of Alston, and of Langley with its castle, his heir being his only 
sur\'iving son. Sir Francis Radcliffe.* 

Sir Edward built an addition to the ancient tower and mansion of Dilston, 
where he lived and died, and the whole was incorporated with the large 
additions made by his son, the second Sir Francis, which for a century and 
a half formed the abode of the family. These new buildings were on the 
N. of the existing tower, and being chieflv of brick, fell into such decay that 
in 1768 they were removed, leaving once more standing alone the older stone 
tower, whose ruins we still see. An avenue of chestnuts led up to the large 

The rent-roll of Sir Francis .-it this time (1672) was ^6263. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 379 

gateway (now removed), and the approach road passed round the side of tlie 
hill nearest the river, and to the W. of the mansion. The chapel still remains, 
and is on the X. side, adjacent to the old gateway, built about 1616 by the 
first Sir Francis. 

In the third year of James II., Sir Francis married his son Edward to the 
Lady Charlotte, the youngest natural daughter of Charles II. hy the Duchess 
of Cleveland, then aged fourteen. This Edward was created in 1688 Earl of 
Derwentwater, Baron Tynedale, and Viscount Radcliffe and Langley. He died 
in 1696, aged seventy-two, and was succeeded by Edward, his son, the second 
earl. He also left three daughters. Earl Edward, wlio died 1705, had issue 
James, his elder son and heir, born 1689, and Charles, who was beheaded in 
1745 ; also a daughter. Lady Mary. He and his countess separated in 1700. 
James Radcliffe, the third earl, was brought up at St. Germains at the court 
of James II., in company with his young cousin, the royal prince, afterwards 
called the " Pretender," whom he served with attachment and devotion to 
the end. He first visited his estates in 1710, when twenty-one years old, going 
first to Dilston and then to his Derwentwater property. He is described as a 
gentle and lovable youth, of rather short stature, slender of person, and of a 
handsome countenance, with light hair and grey eyes, being also of active 
habits. He wrote his name Darwentwater, which is the old and correct 
pronunciation. At Dilston Earl James kept up a generous hospitality, and 
was much beloved by rich and poor. In 1712 he married Anne Maria, eldest 
daughter of Sir James Webb, Bart., of Canford, Dorset, like himself a Catholic, 
educated in France, where, at the court of St. Germains, he iirst made 
her acquaintance. Some additions were at this time made to Dilston Castle 
while the earl and his wife lived with the Webbs at Hatherhope, near 
Fairford, Gloucestershire. 

King James II. dying on September 16, 1701, the English at St. Germains 
saluted his son as James III., but it was not until August 1715 that the Earl of 
Mar raised the standard proclaiming this prince as James VI 11. of Scotland. 
It is not known if the Earl of Derwentwater was in the secret of this rising, 
but, in their precautions against a rebellion, the Government issued warrants for 
the apprehension of him and his brother Charles, so as to prevent their joining. 
Being warned of this, the earl and his brother withdrew from Dilston and hid 
themselves in the country during the whole of September. The earl seems 
to have hesitated long before risking his life and large possessions in the 
cause of the Pretender, and it is said to have been his lady who at length 
goaded him on to action, reproaching him "for continuing to hide his head 
in hovels from the light of dav when the gentry were in arms for tlie cause 
of their rightful sovereign, and, throwing down her fan before her lord, bade 
him take it and give his sword to her." At all events he soon did espouse 
the cause, heart and soul, and having arranged a meeting with his friends, 



38o CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

ordered every retainer in his castle to be ready to follow him in the early morn 
of October 6, 1715, when from his ancient halls 

" Lord Derwentwater rode away 
Well mounted on his dapple-grey," 

accompanied by his brother and "some friends and all his servants, mounted, 
some on his coach-horses and others upon very good useful horses, and all 
well armed." They crossed the Devil's-water at Nunsborough Ford, and rode 
on to meet the main party at the Waterfalls Hill, crossing the Tyne close to 
Hexham, where their force was increased to almost sixty horse. After halting 
near Errington's at Beaufront, they proceeded to the Coquet and the small town 
of Rothbury. Continuing their ride through the night, they came on the 
morning of the 7th to Warkworth Castle, where Lord Widdrington, another 
Catholic peer, joined the party with others. By Lord Mar's arrangement, 
j\Ir. Forster of Bamburgh Castle was elected leader, who, though a civilian 
and a Protestant, forthwith with sound of trumpet proclaimed James IIL 
The party then moved to Alnwick, described as being at that time " an old 
dilapidated house of the Duke of Somerset," and thence to Morpeth, which 
place had through the accession of Border volunteers grown to the strength 
of 300 fighting men. From thence thev intended to proceed to and enter 
Newcastle, but the loyal folk of that town had closed their gates and manned 
the walls, which still existed at that time, being reinforced by some Govern- 
ment troops under Lieutenant-General Carpenter. So Earl Derwentwater 
and his party returned to Hexham, and from thence, being joined by Lord 
Kenmure and his followers, they retreated to Rothbury. Their next move 
was northwards to Kelso, where Lord Mar's contingent was to unite. At 
this place serious deliberation took place whether to continue the march 
north to attack the force under Argyll, and so to secure Scotland, or whether 
to invade England. The latter counsel prevailed, and the Pretender's forces 
marched to Hawick and thence to Penrith, which place they entered, 1700 
strong, on November 2nd. The militia forces had disbanded before their 
advance, and General Forster at once proclaimed the prince as James llL, 
levying ;^5oo in his interest from the town. Next day the force marched to 
Appleby, where (hey rested till the 5th, and from thence went to Kendal, Lord 
Derwentwater taking up his lodging in the "White Lion " in Strickland Gate. 

On November 7th the force entered Lancaster in parade order, with 
colours flying, and to the music of drums and pipes. P'irst came 200 English 
noblemen and their followers, all mounted ; next came the Highlanders ; 
then 200 Lowlanders, followed by the Scottish horse. Here in Lancaster 
Lord Derwentwater and his colleagues were the guests of Mr. Dalton at 
Thurnham Hall, where they spent a day. On the 9th the whole party 



NORTHUMBKRLAND 381 

marched by way of Garstan.q to Preston, preceded by an advance-guard of 
Northumbrian horse, the infantry arriving on the morning of the loth. 
At Preston they were joined by 1200 half-armed followers of the Roman 
Catholic gentry of the district, but it was evident that the county itself stood 
aloof from the rising, and that the support calculated upon was not forth- 
coming. Meantime the Government troops were advancing on the invaders, 
and ultimately took them by surprise, for Geneial Willes, with live regiments 
of foot and one of cavalry, marched to Wigan, and thence, early on the 12th, 
set out for Preston. The unexpected news of this advance seems to have 
paralysed the prince's amateur general ; a council was held, and, brought to 
bay as the invaders were, they proceeded to defend themselves in the centre 
of the town by barricading the streets in three places, each barricade being 
defended by two pieces of ordnance. But they omitted to secure the bridge 
over the Ribble, and the hollow pass from it to the town, hv doing which 
they might have greatly checked the enemy. As it was, the town was left 
open on all sides to Willes, who, arriving at one o'clock, at once attacked the 
barricades in two places. These were, however, gallantly defended, and after 
a light which continued luitil midnight, King George's troops withdrew, 
having lost about 2(10 men ; a result which is said to have been greatly due 
to the bravery and the example of Lord Derwentwater and his brother. 

Ne.xt day the fortunes of war changed, for. Carpenter's troops having come 
up, the town was invested on all sides, and it was evident that the Jacobite 
cause was lost. The prevailing tlu>ught among the Northern forces was to 
cut their way out through the ranks of the enemy. Forster, however, of his 
own accord sent overtures for a truce to General Willes, and a capitulation 
ensued, the besieged laying down their arms. Then the six insurgent lords, 
Derwentwater, Nithsdale, Kenniure, Widdrington, Carnwath, and Nairn, were 
arrested at the Mitre Tavern, and being sent with many other prisoners to 
London, were lodged in the Tower. Altogether, some 1700 of the insurgent 
force were captured at Preston, and were imprisoned at Chester and Lancaster 
and in other jails, the rest making good their escape. 

The utmost efforts were made to obtain remission of the capital punish- 
ment passed on the young Lord Derwentwater, but George H. was incapable 
of generosity to a fallen foe, and his reply to a petition of the House of I^tjrds 
was an order, issued on the 23rd February, for the iuunediate execution of 
Lords Derwentwater, Nithsdale, and Kenmure. Lady Derwentwater, supported 
by many other ladies of high rank, made repeated touching appeals for mercy 
personally, but without any effect. When the news of Lord Nithsdale's escape 
on the eve of his intended execution, by means of his br.ive and clever wife, 
reached the king, he gave way to an excess of passion at having his vengeance 
thus thwarted. Lord Derwentwater saw his wife for the last time twenty-four 
hours before his death, which took place on the morning of February 24th. 



382 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

At ten o'clock he was taken from the Tower to tlie scaffold on Tower Hill, and 
there beheaded. The body was brought back to the Tower, but the earl's friends 
contrived to get possession of it, and it was taken to Dagenham Park, near 
Romford, to a house which the countess had rented. Finally it was removed 
to Dilston after being embalmed. The countess survived her husband seven 
years; aged but thirty years, she died in 1723 at Louvain, where she was 
buried. Her eldest son died from an accident, and was buried there also in 
1731, before he reached his twenty-first year. Thereby the estates devolved 
on Charles RadclifYe, the brother of Lord Derwentwater, who, being also 
condemned to death in 1716, managed to escape from Newgate, and lived for 
many years abroad. In November 1745 Charles and his son were by accident 
captured on board a P'rench privateer, being at first supposed to be the Pre- 
tender and his son ; when their true identity was recognised, Charles Radcliffe 
was arraigned on the old conviction for high treason, recorded in 1716, and 
being sentenced to death, was e.xecuted on this charge, now thirty years in 
abeyance, on the 8th December 1746, aged fifty-three. 

The vast estates of the Derwentwater family, inherited at the death of Earl 
James's son in 1731 by Charles Radcliffe, should, at the death of the latter, have 
passed to his son James Bartholomew Radcliffe, hut they had become vested 
in the Crown after 1749, when the Government caused an Act to be passed, 
vesting them absolutely in the hands of trustees for the benefit of Greenwich 
Hospital, which institution enjoyed their possession until quite recently. The 
confiscated lands included, besides the manor and demesne of Derwentwater, 
the estates of Langley, Meldon, Wark, and many others in Northumberland and 
He.xhamshire, as well as the Cumberland property ; in all about 41,000 acres. 
The rental returned in 1816 was £^Ti,^^j, besides what was brought in by the 
mines, whose produce in 1823 was estimated at ;4"23,ooo. Of late years these 
princely inheritances of the Derwentwater family have been claimed by a crazy 
person calling herself the heiress of the Radcliffes. She attempted to take 
forcible possession of Dilston, encamping in gipsy fashion near the castle, 
from whence she was with difHculty ejected by the agents of Greenwich 
Hospital. 

Dilston Hall, as it stood in the days of Earl James, is stated, in the exhaus- 
tive narrative of Mr. Gibson, to have lieen "a plain, e.xtensive building, two 
storeys in height, which occupied three sides of an oblong, rectangular figure, 
enclosing a courtyard paved with dark-veined limestone in diamond-shaped 
slabs, and entered by the great gateway, which was built in the reign of James I. 
This gateway is still standing in another site. The longest range of building 
occupied the northern side ; in the centre was a large entrance hall, approached 
from the paved court by a few raised steps. The courtyard was bounded on 
the western side by the old tower or castle, which still remains, and against the 
\V. front of which a range of building was added by Lord Derwentwater, but 



NORTHUMBERLAND 383 

never linished in the interior." There is a vault said to exist below the old 
tower, and some subterranean passages with a eiiamber attached. As soon as 
the Royal Commissioners obtained possession, the materials of Dilston were 
valued. The house was dismantled and its contents sold and dispersed, while 
the walls were demolished piecemeal for building purposes, only the more 
ancient castle being left. This, the "old original" tower of the Dyvilstons, 
was probably at first a strong Border peel, to which the newer mansion 
was eventually attached. 

The last request of the ill-fated young earl, that he might be buried with 
his ancestors, was refused, in view of the excitement prevailing in the North, 
and it was supposed that the body had been interred in the churchyard of 
St. Giles, Holborn. But, in fact, the coffin was removed, and carried secretly 
by friends, resting by day, and travelling by night only, into Northumberland, 
and was deposited with the remains of his father in the chapel vault of 
Dilston. 

In 1805 an unworthv curiosity to ascertain if the earl's head had been 
buried with his body moved the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital to 
open the interment, when the body was found well embalmed, and but little 
decayed, the head lying beside it, with the mark of the axe clearly visible. 
The coffin had been placed in a row with five others of his line, and below 
was found a leaden box, in which the heart had been deposited. 

It is noteworthy, in connection with Lord Derwentwater's memory as 
retained in his own countiy, that the aurora borealis, which appeared very 
vividly on the night of his execution, is still known there by the name of 
Lord Derwentwater's lights. 

Dilston was purchased in 1S74 from Greenwich Hospital by Mr. W. B. 
Beaumont, when the remains in the crypt were removed. The old gateway, 
once the entrance to Dilston Hall, now stands near the chapel, bearing its 
date of 1616, with the initials F. K. and ]. H. 



D U D D O {minor) 

THIS was another I5order tower in Norhamsliire, two miles on the X. side 
of the Till, standing on a precipitous crag of rock, 300 feet above sea- 
level. Only tile S. side of the tower remains, but it appears to have been a 
square in form, measuring about 36 feet square, with a staircase turret. The 
wall is rent from bottom to top. Over the entrance is a round bartizan, well 
corbelled out, but tliere is little to remark as to the architecture {Bates). 

The manor was anciently held by the Stryvelings or Stirlings, and it 
descended in 1391 to the Claverings. When James IV. invaded England in 
support of Perkin W'arbeck in 1496, he caused this fortress to be partly 



384 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

tlirown down ; but between 1541 and 1561 the remaining half of it was 
repaired, and an enclosure or baruikin was built round it for the safe-guarding 
of cattle. There is nothing remaining of the fifteenth-century tower of William 
Clavering of Duddo, who was third son of Robert Clavering of CaJlaly, killed 
in a skirmish with the Scots in 1586. 



DUNSTANBURGH (chief) 

THE castle is six miles N.E. of Alnwick, and two from Embleton ; it stands 
on the brow of a great basaltic headland of the same range as that of 
Bamburgh, which here is displayed in black perpendicular columns, above 
which the fortress frowns over the wild North Sea like Scarborough and 
Bamburgh. Its name shows that it was originally a " burli " of the Angles, 
but nothing is known about its early history. The manor named Dunstan 
was granted by Henry I. to a family whose founder, Liulf of Bamburgh, 
and his son Odard, having been Sheriffs (vicecomites) of Northumberland, 
retained in later times the title of "Viscount" as a family name. John de 
Viscount, the last of his race, dying in 1244, left a daughter, Rametta, his 
sole heiress, whose husband, Hereward de Marisco, sold the barony in 1256 
to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester. John de Vesci, lord of Alnwick, 
fleeing from the slaughter at Evesham (1265), carried home one of the feet 
from the earl's mutilated body, and deposited it, encased in a silver shoe, 
as a relic in Alnwick Abbey. Henry III. seized this barony and granted 
it to his younger son, Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, whose son, 
Thomas Plantagenet, succeeding (1296) to the earldom, proceeded to build 
at Dunstanburgh. He erected the gatehouse with towers 80 feet high, and 
formed the moat, and we hear of coal being brought from Newcastle for 
burning the lime. In 9 Edward II. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, has a licence 
to crenellate. He was a great builder, as his castles of Kenilworth and 
Pontefract testify, and, as the king's cousin, was the greatest and most powerful 
and opulent nobleman in the kingdom ; he headed the movement against Piers 
Gaveston which ended in the beheading of the favourite near Warwick, for 
which the king vowed vengeance on him. Lancaster was also suspected of 
taking bribes from the Scots, because he abstained from assisting the king 
in his expedition to Scotland in 1314, and is said to have jeered at his army 
and himself as they passed Pontefract Castle on the return from Bannockburn. 
Certain it is that in the subsequent invasion of England by a Scottish army, 
his castle of Dunstanburgh was respected by them, and his property was 
not molested. In 1322 it was to Dunstanburgh that the confederate Earls of 
Lancaster and Hereford were retreating, in order to unite with their Scottish 
contingent, when the fight of Boroughbridge took place, ending in the capture 



NORTHUMBERLAND 



385 



and execution of Lancaster. Two years after, Edward restored Diinstanburgh 
and the earldom to the late earl's younger brother, Henry, whose son, Henry 
"Tort-col " or Wryneck, created Duke of Lancaster 1351, left three daughters, 
the youngest of whom, Blanche, married John of Gaunt (his first wife), and 
brought him Dunstanburgh among other places, and the dukedom. Coming 
to the castle, he made many additions to it, building a new gatehouse, 
with a barbican and drawbridge, and a postern. WIkii his son Henry 
ascended the throne, Dunstanburgh became Crown property, and continued 
a Lancastrian stronghold throughout the Wars of the Roses. After Towton 
this castle, as well as 
others in Northumber- 
land, was provisioned and 
manned with an Eng- 
lish, French, and Scottish 
garrison. 

In October 1462 Queen 
Margaret landed from the 
Continent, and divided her 
forces between Alnwick, 
Hamburgh, and Dun- 
stanbiugh, whereupon the 
king, Edward IV., marched 
north with a large army 
to attack them, the sieges 
of all three being super- 
intended by the Earl of 
Warwick (see BaiiibiirgJi). 
The siege of Dunstan- 
burgh was committed to 
the Earl of Worcester and 
Sir Ralpli (irey, wiiile in 

its garrison were Sir Richard Tunstall, Sir I'iiilip Wenlworth, Dr. Morton, 
and 700 men. The place was forced to capitulate, honourably, at Cliristnias, 
and was, together with Hamburgh, placed under the custody of Sir K'alpli 
Percv, on his swearing allegiance to King Edward ; this, iiowever, did not 
prevent him from yielding both places to the Lancastrians the ensuing spring. 
After the rout at the Linnels (He.xham) in May 1464, Dunstanburgh was 
taken by storm, and its captain, John Gosse, was carried to York and lulieadcd, 
when the great Earl of Warwick entered the fortress as a victor. 

In 1538 the Royal Commission, consisting of Bellasis, Collingwood, and 
Horsley, reported to Henry VIII. regarding this castle as "a very reuynus house, 
and of smalle strengthe," but little could have been done to the fabric, since 
VOL. 11. 3 '^ 




DUNSTANnUKGH 



386 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

a report in Elizabeth's time is equally condemnatory. James I. gave it to 
Sir William Grey of Wark, and it continued the property of his descendants 
until the Earl of Tankerville sold it in 1869 to the trustees of Mr. Samuel Eyres 
of Leeds. 

The original walls and towers built by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, must have 
been of better materials and workmanship than the buildings of John of Gaunt, 
for while they have withstood the climate and storms in their so exposed 
situation, the latter have almost disappeared under the same conditions. The 
outer walls, ranging on three sides of an oblong enclosure of about nine acres 
extent, stand on the bank of a deep chasm or indentation of the rock on the 
E. side, and along the edge of the cliff on the W., — the S. or landward face 
having the great gatehouse and three mural towers, while the N. front faces 
the ocean. The principal feature remaining is the gatehouse, which consists 
of two huge semicircular towers, 80 feet in height, flanking a circular archway 
under a building of two storeys ; the room over the passage having an opening 
along the back wall for containing the portcullis, and side chambers in the front 
wall for firing from cross-loops. The passage was at one time walled up to 
convert the structure into a keep, when the entrance to the castle was through 
a postern added by John of Gaunt, about 20 yards along the \V. wall. The 
inner ward, now a rnass of ruin, perhaps contained the chapel. The Lilburn 
Tower on the W. was built by a Constable of that name in 1325, and E. of the 
gatehouse is the Constable's Tower, of two storeys, having in rear of it the ruins 
of the hall, which we read was glazed in 1444. Farther on, at the S.E. angle, 
stands the Egginclough Tower, on the very brink of the rocky chasm, now 
called the Rumble Churn ; its S. wall has collapsed, and one side of it is 
given up to a series of latrines or garderobes having an outside shaft, lately 
fallen down. 

EDLINGHAM 0"'"or) 

THE village lies six miles to the S.W. of Alnwick, and near it, at the head 
of a narrow valley, are the ruins of a twelfth-century castle, of which 
the tower remains, and contains carved stone in fireplaces and doorways of 
some interest ; there is also a spiral staircase in the tower. 

In the reign of Henry H., John, son of Walden, held it under Earl Patrick ; 
and in the fourteenth century it belonged to Sir John Felton. In the end of 
Henry VII., the manor and castle were owned by Sir Roger Hastings, knight, 
and temp. Henry VIII., by Thomas Swinburn of Nafferton Hall. By the failure 
of heirs male to his descendant, John Swinburne, in the reign of Charles I., his 
daughter and heir, Margaret, brought Edlingham in marriage to William Swin- 
burne of Capheaton, thus uniting the two properties as well as the families, and 
the present owner is Sir John Swinburne of Capheaton, Bart. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 387 



E T A L {minor) 

THE remains of this fortress stand on the E. side of the river Till, opposite 
to the Field of Flodden, near the borders of Norhamshire, on gently rising 
ground. This was the principal seat of the Manners family, who were persons of 
distinction even in the reign of Henry 11. At that time Robert de Manners held 
Ethale for a half knight's fee under the barony of Muschamp, and his descendants 
were there in the time of Henry III. In 1341, the date of the fortress. Sir 
Robert Manners obtained a licence to crenellate his house of Etal. He was 
Constable of the important castle of Norham, and must therefore have been a 
personage of note ; he died in 1354, and was succeeded by his son, whose posterity 
continued at Etal, from father to son, till towards the end of the fifteenth century. 

In 1487 Sir George Manners succeeded to his mother's inheritance of the 
barony of Ros, and of the baronies of \'aux, Triesbut, and Belvoir, and became 
twelfth Lord de I^oos, or Ros. His father had possibly deserted the small castle 
of Etal for the larger halls of Belvoir, on his marriage with the heiress, Eleanor, 
sister and coheir of Edmund, nth Lord Ros (see Belvoir, Lcicestersliire). 

Thomas, 13th Lord Ros, was chosen for many honourable posts by 
Henry VIII., and was made a Knight of the Garter by him in tlie seventeenth 
year of his reign ; and in the same year he was created Earl of Rutland. 
The tenth Earl of Rutland was raised in 1703 to the dignity of Marquess of 
Granby and Duke of Rutland. 

In 1522, when the Borders were set in a state of defence, Etal, then tiie 
property of Lord de Ros, was given a garrison of twenty men under John 
Coliingwood. 

Then, in 1542, the Survey of Sir Robert Bowes says of Etal, that it was "for 
lack of reparacons in very great decaye, and many necessary houses within the 
same becom ruynous and fallen to the ground ; " but that it might be fit for a 
garrison of 100 men or more in war time. The bridge of Etal had at that time 
fallen down. And in the survey made in 15CS4 this castle is described as lying 
in tJie same neglected state. 

The fortress is square in form, enclosing a quarter of an acre ; at the S.E. 
corner is a strong gatehouse, with the shield and crest of the Manners family 
carved on it. Portcullis grooves exist at the outer doorway, but there was no 
door at the side next the courtyard. The keep stands in the S.W. corner of the 
quadrangle, measuring 30 feet by 17 feet ; it is four storeys in height, its lower 
basement having been vaulted. A spiral staircase to the different stages was con- 
tained in the N. wall, and there are many mural recesses. Its mullioned windows, 
with transoms, betray tiie date of the castle. The wall on the S. side is massive 
and strong, and is 30 feet high, and a small tower is found in the S.E. corner. 

Etal Castle is now the property of Mr. James Laing of Etal Manor. 



388 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



FEAT HE RST ONE {winor) 

ABOUT 2i miles S. of Hiiltwliistle, on a grassy spot (liaiigh) on the S. side 
of Tync, in an open and fertile country, is this picturesque old castle, 
originally a strong square peel tower with two watch-turrets, and surrounded 
by a ditch ; the lower floor is vaulted in a chamber provided for the protection 
of the cattle and flock. To this has been attached a modern castellated house 
with a tine gallery. 

It was the seat of the ancient family of F'eatherstonehaugh, who possessed 
it in the reigns of Edward 1., II., and III. Sir Albany Featherstonehaugh was 
High Sheriff, 2 Elizabeth, as his eldest son was thirty years after ; his second 
son being appointed by James I. receiver of the king's revenues in Cumberland 
and Westmorland. The son of this man, Timothy Featherstonehaugh, espoused 
the side of King Charles and raised a troop of horse for him ; he was knighted 
under Charles's banner, and fought bravely at the fatal held of Worcester 
(September 3, 1651), where he was taken prisoner, and was afterwards be- 
headed at Bolton in Lancashire. His lineal descendant, Matthew Featherstone- 
haugh of Newcastle, afterwards obtained a re-grant of the castle and the estate, 
but was unable to keep them, and the manor was sold to the Earl of Carlisle. 
His descendant. Sir Matthew Featherstonehaugh, Bart., sold the rest and the 
castle to the father of the Right Hon. Thomas Wallace, in whose family the 
place remains. 



FORD {chief) 

THE river Till meanders in the low lands below and E. of Branxton Hill, 
which originally gave its name, in English mouths, to the battle of 1513, 
afterwards known only by its Scottish title of Flodden Field, the Gilboa of 
Scotland ; and the road beneath Branxton crosses the Till to the village of 
Ford, above which, on the hill, stands the castle of the same name, on the 
E. side of the river. In 1338 (12 Edward III.), William Heron had licence to 
crenellate " the mansion of his manor," and this was in all probability the 
date of the erection of Ford Castle by Sir William Heron, since in 1385, 
when the Scots, under the Earls of Douglas, Fife, and March, broke into 
England at the same time as the English host was wasting the Lowlands, they 
took by assault F'ord Castle and dismantled it, as they did also to Wark and 
Cornhill. When, on 22nd August 1513, King James IV., previous to the 
battle of Flodden, broke through the English Border at Coldstream and other 
points, he was unable to leave these hostile fortresses in his rear, while pro- 
ceeding into the heart of Northumberland, and therefore directed part of his 
host upon the castles of Norham and Wark, Etal and Ford, and took them. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 389 

This must liave occupied some time, and meanwhile his army lay encamped 
principally on the high ground about Flodden, the king himself taking up his 
quarters in the Castle of Ford, a short distance in front. This place was 
partly burnt by his soldiers, who, it is said, " threw down that stronghold, by 
falling of the timbers thereof, whereby several of his men were injured." The 
owner of Ford, Sir William Heron, was at the time a prisoner in Scotland, 
but in the castle were his wife Elizabeth and her daughter ; and although 
tradition has taken great liberties with the reputation of the former ladv, 
nothing is recorded in history but that Lady Heron prayed the king to spare 
her house, and that he agreed on condition that certain friends of his, prisoners 
in England, the Laird of Johnstoun and Alexander Hume, should be given up 
to him by September 5th ; that she went to Alnwick and met the Earl of 
Surrey with his army advancing against the Scots, when the king's request 
was agreed to, provided he guaranteed under his royal seal protection to the 
castle ; then came challenges of battle and defiances between heralds and the 
king, who replied by burning P'ord Castle {Rii/patk). 

This is all that is known in history as to the proceedings before the battle at 
Ford, the burning of which is confirmed by the report of the Border Survey 
of 1541. The treatment of Lady Heron and her property is certainly much 
at variance with the story of "an affair of gallantry," which is probably an 
entire fiction. 

Sir William Heron died 1535, leaving a grandchild si.\ years old, his heiress 
geneial, to inherit Foid. In 1549 Scottish invaders again entered England 
under a French General D'Esse, with four field-guns ; they attacked Ford, 
and again burnt the greater part of the place, but had to retire, leaving one of 
the towers unreduced, which was defended by Thomas Carr, a younger son 
of the governor of Wark, and his brave conduct led the heiress of Ford to 
bestow her hand on him. Soon afterwards the heirs male of the Heron 
family made a serious disturbance, claiming the property, and blood was shed 
in the quarrel, but in the end Carr regained the castle, which in 1584 was 
in possession of a William Carr, " decayed by want of reparation of a long 
continuance." These Carrs of Ford came to an end in 1685, and Ford went 
by successive heiresses to the families of Blake and Delaval, and hnally to the 
Marquess of Waterford in 1822. Sir John H. Delaval in 1761 destroyed 
the architectural beauty of Ford by sham (Gothic additions of evil taste, 
but the late ownei-, Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford, repaired the mischief 
and made this castle "one of the most beautiful houses in the N. of 
England " (Bates). 

The situation connnands a line view up the Till Valley to Wooler, bounded 
by high hills. There are two ancient towers, one on the E., and one on the 
W. flank, and these are nearly the only remains of the old castle. The top 
room in the tower which goes by the name of King James, who is said to have 



390 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

slept there before Flodden, lias a narrow staircase contrived in the thickness 
of the wall, which was lately brought to light, and is now said to be connected 
with the king's intrigue with Dame Heron. Hodgson (vol. ii. part 3, p. 191) 
gives at length Sir Robert Bowes' Report of 1550 upon the state of the frontiers 
(thirty-seven years after Flodden). He says it " was brounte by the laste Kinge 
of Scots a lytle before he was slayne at Flodden Fielde — some parte thereof 
hath bene rep'elled again sythence that tyme, but the great buyldinges and most 
necessarye houses resteth ever sythens waste and in decave." 



HA ETON (innwr) 

ABOUT four miles to the N. of Hexham the Roman Wall is crossed at 
right angles by the Watling Street, or the continuation of this great 
southern road from Yorksiiire, made by Agricola through Durham county to 
Corbridge-on-Tyne, and thence direct round the X. of lofty Carter Fell in the 
Cheviots into Scotland to Jedburgh. Thongh in some places grass-grown 
and lost, the road is here, as in many places, still the highway, retaining for 
miles together the features of its original construction (Bruce). Within half 
a mile E. of this crossing is the Wall Station of Hunnum, a sort of English 
Pompeii, like many other places along this most interesting track ; and close 
under the Roman camp, on the side of a ravine, and a stream which protected 
the situation tin the W., stand the remains of Halton Castle. Bates describes 
it as "set in a quaint garden of old-fashioned flowers ;" and at a short distance 
to the E. of it is a curious little chapel with an early round chancel arch ; 
this perhaps marks the spot where Alfwold, King of Northumbria, was assassi- 
nated in 788. 

In the middle of the twelfth century the place appears in the possession 
of Waldief de Haulton, and it was held by his descendants till the death of 
Sir John de Haulton in 1345, when Halton passed, through the marriage of 
his daughter, to the Lowthers ; but in 1383 William de Carnaby (Yorkshire) 
took possession of Halton, and his son William was alive and died there in 
1453. After the Pilgrimage of Grace, Sir Thomas Percy sent his priest to 
take possession of the dwelling of Sir Reynold Carnaby's grandfather at Halton, 
"as Sir Reynold was fled and was against the Commons." Sir William Carnaby 
fought against the Parliament at Marston Moor in the Northumbrian regiment, 
commanded by the Marquess of Newcastle ; his lands were seized and he fled 
the country. The last Carnaby buried in Halton Chapel was William Carnaby, 
who died 1698, the last perhaps of his race. Halton was bought in 1706 
by John Douglas, a Newcastle lawyer, and in 1713 it went with a daughter 
and heiress to Sir Edward Blackett, Bart., whose descendants hold it still. 
Attached together are the original tower of 1415 (if not older), and a 



NORTHUMBERLAND 391 

seventeenth-century house. The tower has one room on the first floor, and 
two above, whicii until recently were unroofed. In the N.E. an^le is a small 
stair leading to the roof. Here the low circular corner turrets iiave been 
boldly corbelled out, and the battlements are very good. 



HARBOTTLE {minor) 

THIS old fortress formed an outlying post to the N. of tiie wild and 
dangerous country of Redesdalc, on tlie verge of the Cheviot Hills. 
It must have been of considerable utility to iMigland from early times for 
protection on the W. of the county among the dreary wastes which stretch 
along the Marches of Scotland. The castle of Harbottle was built by King 
Henry II. cir. 1159, on a high eminence standing over the Coquet. It lay within 
about ten miles of tlie Border, and in the direct road of a Scottish army breaking 
into Northumberland from Jedburgh. The land belonged to the Umfraville 
family, who had settled in those parts so early as nine years after the Conquest, 
when Robert de Umfraville, surnamed "cum barba," obtained a grant of the 
Redesdale country and other large estates. In 1174 Odinel de Umfraville's men 
had to defend it against an attack by King William the Lion, on which occasion 
it was taken and partly destroyed. His grandson Richard, taking up arms 
against King John, lost his estates, but recovered them again from Henry III. 
in 1221. He probably added greatly to the strength of the place, since in 
1296 it withstood a desperate attack made by the whole Scots army for two 
days. After Bannockburn the Scots again besieged Harbottle and took and 
destroyed it a second time. It belonged to Robert de Umfraville, 18 Edward II., 
and to Gilbert de Umfraville at the close of the reign of Edward III., and 
after the extinction of the male line of this family in 1436 it still continued the 
property of their representatives. 

In 1515, two years after the battle of Flodden, Queen Margaret, widow of 
King James IV. and daughter of Henry VII., having married Douglas, Earl 
of .Angus, retired to this fortress for the birth of her daughter, who afterwards 
became the mother of Darnley, and consequently the grandmother of James I. 
of England. In the reign of Henry VIII. a complete survey was made of this 
place, with an estimate of the cost of repairing the work. Again in 1546, when 
it was still in bad repair. Sir Robert Bowes in his report recommended that 
the king should take this fortress into his own hands, it being the key and 
chief defence to one half of the Middle Marches, and the Crown obtained it 
in exchange for the manor of Brailes in Warwickshire. It was evidently at 
one time a place of very great strength, but has now a sadly ruinous appearance, 
as most of the massive building has slipped, and huge portions lie half-way 
down the hill-side, embedded in the ground. There was formerly an outer 



392 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

bailey, witli a deep ditch crossed bj' a drawbridge. The keep stood on an 
insulated mound, and the masonry generally partakes of the character of 
that of Prudhoe, and also of Northampton Castle, which was built about the 
same time by Simon de Liz. The termination " bottle " shows the importance 
of Harbottle before the Norman Conquest. 



HARNHUM {fuhwr) 

THIS was a small fortress, but situated in a position of great strength, on 
an eminence protected on the N. and \V. by a high range of rocks, 
and a morass on the S. A lofty wall crossed the neck of ground uniting 
the position with the heights, and there was an iron gate of great strength 
at the entrance, said by Wallis to have been standing within the recollection 
of people living at the end of the last century. 

The place was held in 1272 by Bernard de Babington, of an ancient family 
in England, which appears to have continued at Harnhum till the end of the 
seventeenth century. In the reign of Charles II., either the old tower or 
the later mansion was inhabited by Colonel Philip Babington, the governor 
of Berwick, who was married to Katherine, the widow of Colonel George 
Fenwick of Brinkburn, and daughter of Sir Arthur Haselrigg, both famous 
characters in the Puritan Commonwealth. This lad}' was a celebrated beauty, 
who having strong Covenanting tendencies, felt herself privileged to oppose 
the re-entry, after tlie Restoration, of the regular clergy into their pulpits. 
She caused the new vicar at Shortflat to be pulled out of his, and thereby 
incurred episcopal excommunication, so that when she died in 1670 (aged 
tiiirty-five only), burial in tlie church being refused, her husband had to 
excavate a cave in the rock under the garden, where the body of the lovely 
Kate lay until quite latelv. A window-pane in the house had her name 
written on it with a diamond, " K. Babington, June 9, 1670. How vain is 
the help of man. Omnia Vanitas." This date was only two months before 
her death. 

The remains of the old fortalice are considerable in rear of the present 
house. One of the ceilings is painted with a pedigree and arms of the 
Babingtons, with the motto " Foy est tous," acquired by Sir John Babington 
when serving in France under Henry V. The king sent him on some special 
service with five other young knights, and on quitting the presence, young 
Babington brandished his sword, using this expression, which was adopted 
by the family. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 393 



HAUGHTON {mmo>-) 

THIS ancient stronghold, first mentioned in 1373, stands about 3 miles E. 
from Simonhurn, in a most picturesque situation on the sloping S. bank 
of Tyne, a little below Chipchase and Wark. From original charters in the 
possession of Sir J. E. Swinburne, it is shown that William the Lion, King of 
Scotland, granted in 1177 to Reginald Prath of Tynedale the one-third part of 
Haluton, and that he re-granted the same lands between 1236 and 1245 to William 
de Swyneburn : a grant which was confirmed in 1267 by Alexander III., coupled 
with further gifts at the instance of Queen Margaret, whose treasurer he was. 

Haughton Castle was in 141 5 the property of Sir John Widdrington, in 
whose family it remained till its purchase by Robert Smith of Tecket in 
1642. It now belongs to Mr. W. Donaldson Cruddas. 

It has been a place of immense strength, and the fabric has still that 
character ; the figure of the tower is an oblong rectangle, measuring 100 feet 
by 44 feet, built on two parallel vaults, and crowned with five square turrets ; 
that at the S.W. is 63 feet in height, and contains a staircase from the ground 
to the top. Its S. front has the most ornamental work, and on the N. side 
are projecting garderobes and work on corbels. 

There was an outer wall of defence, surrounding the castle at a distance 
of about 60 yards, which was taken down early in this century by the owner to 
build a farm-house. The ruins of a chapel are in the field in front. There 
is a large room left in its original state in the upper storey, and on a lower 
floor is seen in one of the walls a fine Early English ornamental doorway. The 
external walls have been built with relieving arches, which improve the effect 
outwardly, and add to the strength of the building, the walls being generally 
8 feet thick. 

HEBBURN TOWER {mwor) 

THIS, a fine peel tower in the S.E. corner of Chillingham Park, is the ruin 
of the home of the ancient family of Hebburn, which can be traced back 
to one Nicholas de Hebburn in 1271 ; and owners of the same name held it 
temp. Elizabeth, when, in 1588, there occurred here the settlement by arbi- 
tration of a blood-feud between the Hebburns and a family named Story for 
the slaughter of one John Story. The family possessed the place till the end 
of the last century, when their heiress married a clerical adventurer named 
Hrudenell, and it was soon after sold to the Earl of Tankerville (cir. 1770). 

The tower is a large oblong block, a "bastle" or bastille house, with a 
vaulted basement and a dungeon. It is two storeys high above the entiance, 

with gables at the E. and W. ends, and tlic windows are good. 

VOL. II. '^30 



394 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



HEPPLE TOWER, or HEPPEDALE (minor) 

THE lands here were united in a barony by King John in favour of the 
heiress of the Heppedale family, who had married a favourite, Ivo de 
Tailbois, but later the barony was divided between these two families, and in 
1331 Jane de Hepple brought her portion in marriage to the all-pervading 
Ogle family. Hepple continued with the Ogles and their successors until the 
third Duke of Portland sold it in 1803 to the father of its present possessor, 
Sir Walter B. Riddell, Bart. 

It lies on the N. side of the Coquet, about 5 miles W. of Rothbury, and 
is a small peel tower, probably of the fourteenth century, of oblong shape, 
26 feet long by 17 feet wide. It belonged to Sir Robert Ogle, who fought at 
Nevill's Cross, 1346, and in Leland's time was, like so many other towers and 
castles, in bad repair. 

A high stone vault runs through the basement, the entrance being by a 
pointed doorway on the S. side, closed by a door with wooden bar, the 
sockets of which remain. The entrance passage is defended from its roof by 
a meurtriere opening. A circular staircase in a mural shaft on the W. side 
leads to the upper stages. Late buildings have been erected against the old 
tower, as at Whitton. 

HETON {minor) 

HETON, or Heaton Castle, stands upon high ground, 100 yards from the 
Till on its W. bank, and about two miles from where that river falls 
into the Tweed. The manor belonged temp. Edward I. to William de 
Heton, but soon afterwards became the chief property of the Grey family. 
In 141 5 its owner was Sir Thomas Grey, who was executed at Southampton 
for plotting against Henry V. When James IV. of Scotland was invading 
England in 1496 in favour of Perkin Warbeck, this fortress stood in his way 
and was " casten down," and at the time of his next invasion in 15 13, before 
Flodden, it was still in ruins. Sir Robert Bowes, in his Survey of the Marches, 
reports regarding Heton that " a great part of the vaults and walls are yet 
standing w'out any rouffes or flores, a great pyte." At this time it was 
the property of the Greys of Chillingham, who, living at that castle, allowed 
Heton to be neglected. In a survey temp. Elizabeth it is said to have been 
formerly " a pleaseant and beautifull beuilding, with goodlie towers and turretts, 
as yet remaininge," but the report says that the large room, which in the pre- 
ceding reign was considered fit to receive a hundred horses, was " now ruinsome 
& all in decaie." Heton was a large and very strong rectangular enclosure with 
four heavy battlemented towers at each corner, and buildings on the wall and 



NORTHUMBERLAND 395 

detached ones within the cnclosnre. It was considered lit to receive a garrison 
of 300 horsemen. It had on tlie W. a large tower called the Lion's Tower. 
Now it is almost entirely demolished, and its site occupied by farm buildings, 
the chief remains of tlic ancient castle being a large stable 70 feet long, with 
vaulted roof. 



HOLY ISLAND {minor) 

THIS stronghold was anciently called Landisfarne, and consisted of two 
separate castles, both built since the Reformation. The older building 
stands, facing the south, on a high rocky eminence of trap, which rises some 
60 feet above the beach and is called Beblowe, which name it gave to the 
fort itself. Raine places the date of this castle at 1539, at which period the 
coasts of England were placed in a state of defence by Henry VIII. It is 
mentioned in Sir Robert Bowes' Survey of 1550, with the recommendation that 
an outer wall with flanking bastions should be added, together with a wet ditch 
towards the land. Another survey of the year 1560 reports on its efficiency. 
The outer fort, supporting it on the W., was built in 1675. This is of irregular 
form, following the shape of the rock on which it was built. The ruined walls 
still remain of a small tower, 24 feet by 21 feet, with parts of an outer surrounding 
wall and terrace, the whole only occupying a rood of ground. Architecturally 
there is nothing worthy of remark concerning these buildings, to which access 
is given by a winding path on the south side of the rock on which they stand. 

In 15X4, when certain Scottish nobles fled across the Tweed for protection, 
an asylum was offered them in Holy Island ; but in later days that castle was 
considered too important for strangers to be allowed in it, and a captain was 
appointed with a garrison under him. Occupied at first for King Charles, the 
fort fell during the Civil Wars into the hands of the Parliament, and in the 
beginning of 1646 the Commons sent a force thither, as it was considered "of 
such consequence to the northern parts of the kingdom." 

In the month of October 171 5, at the time of Lord Mar's rising, the castle 
was the subject of a daring capture perpetrated by one Launcelot Errington, 
master of a ship then lying in the harbour. This man, with the aid of his 
brother, succeeded in seizing the fortress for the Pretender, obtaining entrance 
at a moment when but two out of the garrison of fouiteen were present. 
Errington, by merely presenting a pistol at them, managed to secure and eject 
these two men, and then signalled for help from his ship. The castle was, 
however, soon retaken, and the Erringtons were sent to Berwick jail, from 
whence they eventually escaped. Launcelot Errington, who was a zealous 
Jacobite, afterwards kept an inn in Newcastle, and is said to have died of 
grief after the battle of Culloden. 

The castle is still used as a station iov the Royal Artillery Coast lirigade. 



396 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



HORTON-NEXT-THE-SEA {nou-cxisiaii) 

HERE was once a strong castle of high antiquity, standing near the road 
from Newcastle to Blyth, cir. three miles from the coast. Temp. Henry HI. 
the lands belonged to a family who took their name from the place, but in 
1293 one Guischard de Charron had a licence to crenellate his house of Horton. 
His successors were the Monbouchers, and after them the Delaval family, 
through a conveyance to them by Sir Edward Fitton, the lineal descendant 
of the Monbouchers, temp. Elizabeth, to Sir Robert Delaval, who died seised 
of Horton in 1606. In that family it passed regularly to its possessor when 
Hodgson wrote {i'&2,2), Sir Jacob Astley of Seaton Delaval. He became in 1841 
Baron Hastings, and his grandson, the present peer, now owns the estates. 

The whole was razed to the ground, and even the foundations were taken 
up in 1809 to build a farm-house close to the old site. The castle was defended 
by a double moat and earthen rampart, which latter was levelled and the moat 
filled up with it. Some thick walls of the building remain in the farm-house. 



HOWTELL TOWER {minor) 

STANDS in the open valley between the hill of Flodden and the Beaumont. 
The lands were granted with many others to Robert de Ross, the Lord 
of VVark, who married Isabella, daughter of William the Lion, King of Scot- 
land, and held the office of Chief Justice of the northern forests in England 
from 21 to 28 Henry III. The tower was one of those thrown dowMi by King 
James IV. when he invaded England in the interests of Perkin Warbeck in 1496. 
In 1541 it belonged to John Burrell, when the greater part of it was standing. 
Now there is but little to be seen. 

A part of the S. front, three storeys high, remains, in excellent masonry, 
but the quoins have been abstracted. It was a small building, the interior of 
the basement measuring but lyi feet by 16A feet. There seem to have been 
two doorways on the S. side, and in the N. wall are traces of a first-floor 
window ; the floors were of timber {luitcs). 

The ruin is the property of Mr. Watson Askew-Robertson of Pallinsburn. 



L ANGLE Y {minor) 

THIS castle stands on sloping ground at the junction of two small streams 
about I A miles S. of the Tyne, near Haydon Bridge, and is called "a 
noble and tolerably perfect remain of feudal grandeur." The ancient barony 
of Langley, 13,000 acres in extent, was the property of Adam dc Tindal, who 



NORTHUMBERLAND 397 

died in 1 191, and in 1195 his son Adam paid a iialf-ycar's rent (£"12, 4s. 4d.), 
on the barony towards the ransom of Kin<J Coeur de Lion. 

In 1235 Langley was possessed by Xiciiolas de Hoitby of Kavenstliorp, luar 
Thirsk, wlio had married Pliihppa, the daugliter of the younger Adam de Tindal, 
and succeeded to the entire barony of Langley; he formed a park there, and 
received from Henry 111. a grant of free warren. Dying in 1273, he was 
followed by his son Adam de Boltby, who left Langley to his daughter Isabel, 
the wife of Alan de Malton (from Moulton near Spalding), who had adopted 
his mother's name of Lucy. Their son Sir Thomas de Lucy succeeded, and after 
him his brother Anthony de Lucy, the latter being best known as a baron of 
Parliament, and lord of Egremont and Cockerniouth in Cumberland; the fee 
of which latter fortress he obtained 17 Edward II., with its honour, having 
previously for his services to the Crown l^een made governor of Carlisle and 
Appleby. These appointments were in return for his clever capture in 1323 
of Sir Andrew de Harcla, the traitor Earl of Carlisle (see Carlisle). 

Anthony's son, Sir Thomas Lucy, was a valiant knight who in 1339 had 
so distinguished himself as to receive from Edward III. a grant of forty 
sacks of wool for his better support in Flanders. He it was who brought 
relief so ably to the English garrison of Lochniaben in Dumfries in 1343 
(in which year he succeeded to Langley), and in 1346 he sailed with King 
Edward in his expedition to raise the siege of Aguillon, which led to the 
glorious victory of Cregy. After Crecy, when Edward sat down to reduce 
Calais, fearing an invasion of the Scots at home, he sent Sir Thomas de Lucy 
with two other knights to conclude a treaty with King David, or, on failure, 
to assist in the defence of the country. But when they arrived in the North 
the war had already begun, and de Lucy took part in the great battle of 
Nevill's Cross (i7tli October), where he held a comnuuid in the fourth division, 
or the reserve. In their advance from the peel of Liddel and Lanercost to 
Beaurepaire near Durham, the Scots army had passed Langley, and there is 
a petition from Sir Thomas for compensation for damages caused to his 
property by the invaders. It is prt)bable that the unjirotected state of tiie 
place occasioned the founding of Langley Castle, in about 1350, with funds 
acquired in the French war, and with what Lucy received for the Scottish 
depredations. 

Sir Thomas died in 1365, and three years after his son Anthony died, leaving 
an infant daughter Joan, when Langley passed to Maud, the daughter of Sir 
Thomas, the wife of Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus. At his death she 
married Henry Percy, ist Earl of Northumberland, to whom she brought 
the honour of Cockerniouth, with Langley, in 13X3. Maud de Lucy died in 
1398, and the earl and his son, the Hotspur of history and of Shakespeare, 
having acquired so great wealth, commenced to intrigue against King Henry IV., 
with a view to their own aggrandisement in the North. 



398 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

After Hotspur had fallen at the battle of Shrewsbury, his father was called 
on to give up his castles to the king, who, proceeding in force to Berwick, took 
the castle there at once with his artillery, and then Alnwick, and Warkworth, 
and other castles belonging to the Percy family. 

In July 1405 Langley was surrendered to Henry IV. without showing any 
fight, being taken over with its arms, artillery, and victuals by Sir Robert 
Umfraville in the king's name. Nor did its garrison show greater courage 
when summoned to surrender to the victorious Lord Montagu after the battle 
of Hexham in May 1464. 

Under the will of the ruined sixth Earl of Northumberland, Langley became 
the property of King Henry VIII. It was, however, leased for a long term to 
a branch of the ancient family of Carnaby. Edward \'I. restored the estate to 
the heir of the unfortunate Percys, but when, on the accession of Queen Mary, 
Thomas Percy became seventh Earl of Northumberland, and obtained possession 
of all the other lands of his house, it was forgotten to insert Langley, which he 
owned already in the general entail. 

Then, on this earl's attainder and execution, after the Rising in the, North 
in 1569, instead of passing with the estates in tail to his brother the eighth earl, 
the ancient barony of Langley was escheated by the Crown. 

In Sir Robert Bowes' Survey of 1542, Langley is described as : "The walles 
of an olde Castell, . . . late thinherytance of therle of Northumberland. All the 
roofes and flores thereof be decayed, wasted, and gone, and nothyng remayning 
but only the walls, . . . and it standes in a very convenyant place for the 
defence of the Incourses of the Scottes of Lyddesdale and of the theves of 
Tyndale, Gyllesland, and Bowcastell when they ryde to steall or spoyle in the 
byshoprycke of Durham." 

Again in 1608 a Survey describes this "auncient stone Castell" as "utterly 
ruined and decayed, and soe hath been tyme out of mynde." 

The Carnabys parted with their leasehold interest in 1619 to the fortunate 
adventurer John Murray, ist Earl of Annandale, who seems to have acquired 
the whole barony in 1625. Sir Edward Radclifte of Dilston purchased it in 1632, 
and his son Sir Francis was created by James II. Baron Tindal, Viscount Langley, 
and Earl of Derwentwater. His son James, the second earl, was beheaded 
on Tower Hill after the Jacobite rising, connected with Lord Mar's rebellion, 
of 1715 (see Dilston) ; and on the death of his son, Langley was confiscated. 
In 1749 the Radclitfe estates were settled on the Governors of Greenwich 
Hospital, and Langley has been sold by the Lord of the Admiralty to Mr. 
Cadwallader J. Bates. 

The castle is a structure oblong in shape, with massive rectangular towers 
at the four corners ; the walls are 4 feet thick, and had ashlar facing on both 
sides. The interior space measures 82 feet by 25 feet. There was no original 
vaulting, and the upper floors were carried on timber beams. 



NORTHUMBERLAND 399 

For a building in so good a state of preservation, the absence of any clue 
to the ancient destination of the various rooms is most remarkable. In this 
respect Langley is quite the antithesis of Warkworth. The entrance was in a 
block attached to the E. tower, on the X. side at the ground level, where the 
sole defence was a portcullis, whence a large circular staircase gave access to the 
different storeys, of which there were three, the corner turrets having four 
successive rooms, each 14 feet square. The S.W. tower was given up to a 
series of garderobes, four imi each floor, of singular construction : as Viollet-le- 
Duc says : "d'une manicre tout-a-fait nionumentale." There were two fireplaces 
on each floor of the main block, and the upper rooms of the corner towers 
had each one, the chimneys being carried up in the thickness of the wall. 

The elaborate tracings of the pointed windows is typical of the last half of 
the fourteenth century, passing stage by stage from pure Decorated, through 
traces of flamboyancy, up to forecasts of Perpendicular (Ba/cs). Parker gives a 
sketch and plan of the building. Hodgson remarks that " Langley Castle seems 
to bid a stern defiance to the attacks of time, as if determined once again to 
resume its roof and hang out over its battlements its blue flag and pillared 
canopy of morning smoke, as emblems that joy and high-minded hospitality 
have returned to reside in it." 



LONG HORSLEY TOWER (mhwr) 

THE number of these strong houses, or peel towers, is very great in this part 
of the country, and is accounted for by the fact that in early and lawless 
times every possession of importance had to be defended against not only the 
enemies of the country — such as the Scots — but also against the attacks of 
robbers and moss-troopers coming from the uplands. Among a selected number 
of these peels, Long Horsley is one of the larger, lying about six miles to 
the N.W. of Morpeth, and long the residence of an ancient family of the name, 
the last of them being Sir Thomas Horsley, who received General Monk here, 
with his force, in January 1660, and entertained him with much hospitality. 

The peel is a rectangular building, about 42 feet by 30 feet, containing a vaulted 
basement and two upper stages, a circular staircase leading from the ground 
at the S.E. corner up to the battlements, and ending in a small turret, with 
a bell. A gabled building seems to have been added on the E. face, towards 
the end of the seventeenth century, and originally there were two entrances on 
the E. and S. sides at the ground level. 

The knightly family of Horsley early acquired an estate here, which de- 
scended by marriage to the Widdringtons and Riddells. The tower was pro- 
bably built by the Horsleys about the reign of Henry VII. Long Horsley was 
a manor of the De Merlays, Barons of Morpeth (t/.v.), and of their descendants 



400 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



tlie lords Greystock, and the Dacres and Howards. The castle now belongs to 
Mr. John Gifford Riddell of Felton Park, but is under long lease to the Catholic 
Bishop of Hexham and Newcastle, as the residence of the clergy of the village ; 
the present priest and occupier being the Rev. Matthew CuUey of Coupland 
Castle (g.v.). 



«i|| 



MITFORD {minor) 

TWO miles above Morpeth, situated amid the beautiful scenery of the 
Wansbeck, where that river is joined by the Font, is the ancient village 
of Mitford. Here the river makes a sharp bend, enclosing on its right hank a 
small tract of land, upon which we sje three successive generations of house- 
building. First there is the ori- 
ginal medic-eval fortress, built 
probably temp. Henry 11., cir. 
1 150-1 170 ; second, the seven- 
teenth-century Tudor hall of 
the Mitfords, built partly from 
the ruins of the first, and itself 
a wreck ; and third, the modern 
mansion of the present family; 
and with these there is the 
Church of St. Andrew. Mit- 
ford appears to have been 
erected into a barony by 
Henry I., for William Ber- 
tram, a brother of Bernard 
Baliol, the founder of Bar- 
nard Castle. Roger Bertram, 
his great-grandson, having 
espoused the cause of the 
confederate barons in John's 
time, that king sent an army 
of Flemings to seize the 
castle and burned the town ; 
he visited it in 12 16, staying 
three days there. It had its 
share, too, of the incursions 
of the Scots, for in 121 7 it was besieged for seven days by Alexander II., who 
despoiled and dismantled it. The Bertrams retained the property for eight 
generations, until Agnes, the heiress of the family, in 1275 sold the estate 
to Alexander de Baliol, from whom it passed to Adomer de Valence, Earl 




MITFORD 



NORTHUMBERLAND 401 

of Pembroke. This noble was one of the favourites of Edward II., and 
sat at the trial of Thom.is, Earl of Lancaster, at Pontefract ; he was killed 
at a tournament on his third wedding day, and of his property Mitford was 
assigned to his widow for her life. His heirs were John de Hastings, and 
John Cumyn of Badenoch, whose sistei' Johanna married David de Strath- 
bolgi, Earl of Athol, and with her other sister Elizabeth Cumyn shared their 
father's property in Mitford. This Uavid, Earl of Athol, was slain s.p. male, 
leaving only two daughters, Elizabeth, who was married to Sir Thomas Percy, 
and the other to his brother Ralph, but the entire propertv of Mitford and Athol 
came to the son of Sir Thomas Percy, namely, Sir Henrv Percv, lord of Athol. 
He again left only daughters, by one of whom the half of Mitford came to 
the family of Borough, and the otlier half to Sir Henry Grey, knight. Lord 
Borough possessed this castle and manor temp. Henry VIII., but they were 
granted by Charles II. to Robert Mitford, a descendant of Sir John de 
Mitford of Molesden, a knight of considerable note in the fourteenth century. 
Three moles still figure in the arms of the Mitfords, to whom the castle 
now belongs. 

The ancient castle, built probably by Roger Bertram in the early part of 
the reign of Henrv II., stands on an eminence of freestone rock, 70 feet 
above the river, and is protected on the N.E. and W. by the Wansbeck, wliich 
flows around, and S. by the small stream Font. The walls of the enceinte, 
enclosing about an acre, are built along the edge of the cliff, being about 
20 feet high, and much broken ; that on the X. is tolerably perfect. A cross 
wall with a strong doorway parts off the inner ward, in which stands the 
square Xorman keep, built upon a raised poition of rock. Its N. front projects 
in a salient angle, the basement only remaining, divided into two vaulted 
cellars. The entrance into the inner ward is commanded bv the keep ; the 
gatehouse is ruined. On tlie marshy ground also at the foot of the Castle 
Hill there appears to have been a wet ditch, and in its prime this castle must 
have been an important and strong fortress. 



MORPETH {luiuor) 

MORPETH CASTLE is well situated on a lofty ridge of land, with the 
ground sloping away on all sides e.xcept on the \\\, where a deep ditch 
formed its defence. The site measures 82 yards N. and S., and 33 from E. to W. 
As early as 1095 there seems to have been a small fortalice (jiiunitiuncida) 
at Morpeth {Bates), and a castle is mentioned as existing in 1138, which King 
John demolished in 1215. In early Xorman times William de Merlay, called 
"tile good lord," had the baronv and honour of Morpeth, and he probably 
built the first castle : his property was held in succession by his descendants till 
VOL. II. 3 E 



402 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

the last owner, Roger de Merlay, died, in 1265, and ]\Iorpeth went to his 
daughters, one of whom, Mary, was married to WiUiam, Lord Greystock. The 
issue of all the other sisters dying out, Morpeth came to the family of Lord 
Greystock, who died 17 Edward I. His son John died s.p., having settled the 
estate upon Ralph P'itz William, a near relative, who assumed the title of Lord 
Greystock, and the third in descent from him, William, was summoned to 
Parliament 26 Edward IIL (1352). This lord built the castle of Morpeth and that 
of Greystock in Cumberland, and died in 1358, his family continuing here till the 
death in 2 Henry VIL (i486) of Lord Ralph, whose granddaughter succeeded 
him as Baroness Greystock. This heiress was carried off and married by 
Thomas, Lord Dacre of Gilsland, from Brougham Castle (see KirkoswaUi and 
Greystoke, Cumberland), and through her the Dacres obtained Morpeth and 
continued in possession till the death of George, Lord Dacre, s.p. and under 
age, when his property came to his two sisters ; Ann, married to Philip, Earl of 
Arundel, and Elizabeth to Lord William Howard, second son of Thomas, Duke 
of Norfolk, the " Belted Will " of Border story (see Naivorth). As the family 
preferred to live at Naworth, it is possible that Morpeth thenceforth became 
neglected. The great-grandson of Elizabeth and Lord William, Charles Howard, 
was in 1661 created Baron Dacre of Gilsland, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, 
and Earl of Carlisle. 

Leland, writing after visiting this place about 1540, says : "Morpeth Castle 
stondythe by Morpethe Tovvne. It is set on a highe Hill, and about the Hill is 
inoche Wood. The Towne & Castle belongeth to the Lord Dacors. It is 
well mayntayned." 

William, Lord Greystock, built the tower between 1342 and 1359. It is said 
to be the only instance of one built with a peaked roof, and is a square massive 
structure, defended by machicoulis and angle turrets or bartizans. The original 
Norman walls are now but broken fragments. The onlv circumstance con- 
nected with the history of the county regarding this fortress is its being occupied 
in 1646 by the Scottish army for tvventv days, at the end of which they were 
turned out of it by the great Montrose. It still belongs to the Earls of Carlisle. 

W'allis wrote in 1769 : "Only an old tower of this castle is standing, with 
part of two speculating turrets." 



NAFFERTON {minor) 

THIS castle stands in the open country N. of the road from Heddon on the 
Wall to Corbridge, midway between Ovington and the Roman wall. It 
was built by Philip de Ulecotc, a man of no great origin, who was forester of 
Northumberland in the reign of John. He managed to get into the favour of 
that king, and is said by Roger of Wendover to have been his " iniquitous 



NORTHUMBERLAND 403 

councillor," obtaining from him the baronies of Matfen, Naft'erton, and Lorbottie. 
In 14 John he became sheriff of the county, when, presuming on his infiuencc 
with the Crown, he began to erect a castle, taking the materials from the Roman 
wall in the vicinity. But Richard de Umfraville made complaint of the injury 
this castle would be to his fortress of Prudhoe, and got the Crown to issue a writ 
to Philip commanding him to desist. Hartshorne says that the building remains 
much in the same state as it was left by the workmen when they were stopped, 
6 Henry III., at which date the sheriff had orders to cast down the birtcsc/ics, 
or outside defences of wood ; which, however, seems to show that the castle 
had been nearly completed. There are the remains of a keep, 20 feet square, 
and of two outer baileys, placed on sloping ground. 



NEW BEWICK {iion-cxislenl) 

THIS was a tower or stronghold, built in 1509, about three miles S. of 
Chillingham near tiie Till River, which was owned by the Priory of 
Tynemouth. The Itinerary of Leland (1538) says: "At Bewyke ys a good 
Tower of tiie Kinge's majestie inheritance, late belonging to the suppressed 
monastery of Tynniouthe. A parte thereof ys newly covered with leade and 
thother parte ys not well covered nor in good reparacions. It is able in tyme 
of warre to conteyne fyftye men in garryson, and yt is much requysyte that 
the said tower were kept in convenyent repare for yt standeth in a fytte place 
for the defence of the countrye thereaboutes." 

In 1608 it was still standing, "a faire stronge tower," but much decayed. 
Nothing remains at this time but the foundations, across which is carried 
the high load, to form which this once royal stronghold was probably 
destroyed. 



NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE (chic/) 

THE important Roman station of Pons ,Klii stood here on an eminence 
fortified by Agricola. It commanded tiie bridge built by the Emperor 
Hadrian (whose family name was .-Klius) in A.D. 118 across the Tyne, protecting 
also at this point the Roman wall which passed here towards its termination 
at Wall's End. The Chronicles state that Robert Courthose, having been sent 
by his father, the Conqueror, in 1080 against King Malcolm of Scotland, built 
on his return a castellum or small fortress upon the Tyne, in the vill now called 
Novum Castrum, but then Monke Chestre. Perhaps it was merely a wooden 
and palisaded structure on a mound, of the usual Danish or Saxnn character ; 
but it was Robert's brother, the Red King, who placed here a strong masonry 
fortress, utilising, perhaps, stone from an ancient work. Ere this the old 



404 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

Roman bridge had disappeared, and the place was called, according to 
Huntingdon, Novum Castellum. Hardyng's account runs thus : 

" He buylded then the Newcastell upon Tyne, 
The Scottes for to gaynstande and to defende, 
And duelte therein." 

And the townspeople he made to build the town also, and "to wall it all 
aboute." Stow places the date of this at A.D. 1090. Five years afterwards 
the Earl of Northumberland, Robert Mowbray, being in possession of this 
castle, formed a conspiracy with others to rid the land of the Red King (see 
Banihorougli). Rufus came north with an all-England army, besieged and 
took the earl's castle at Tynemouth, and then, turning to Newcastle, captured 
that fortress also, and with it the best followers of the earl. After the imprison- 
ment of Mowbray his earldom was held bv Rufus, and next by Henry I., but 
on the accession of Stephen in 1135 King David of Scotland, who pretended to 
Northumbria y«yr uxoris, espoused the cause of Maud and took possession of 
the castle upon the Tyne, by craft. Thither in 1 1 37 King Stephen came with 
an army, and a temporary truce was made between them. After the second 
invasion of England in the following year, when he had been defeated at the 
Battle of the Standard, David made a more lasting treaty with Stephen, by 
which Northumbria was ceded to Scotland, and, according to Wynton, after 
this event " in New Castell then Kyng Dawy of Scotland dwelt than comownaly." 
After the death of Stephen Henry II. in 1157 repudiated this treaty and seized 
Northumberland, setting aside the claim of William the Lion. 

The next record of the Newcastle fortress dates in 1 168, when the present 
keep was commenced by Conan, Earl of Brittany. It was finished in 1171, 
and after that time the castle was so strong under the command oi the valiant 
chevalier Robert VW?. Richard, that William the Lion on coming before it, 
"with armed people and naked," during his invasion of 1174, was fain to leave 
it alone, and to turn and besiege Carlisle instead. In the July of that same 
year, however, the Scottish king was captured by Odinel de Umfraville and 
other knights at Alnwick (see Alinvick), and brought prisoner to Newcastle 
for a night on his way to Richmond and the South. Large sums continued 
to be spent on the keep, according to the Pipe Rolls, until 11 76, when a sum 
equal to about ;^8o,ooo of our money had been expended on it. In the reign 
of John further expenditure was incurred on a tower and ditches, and on 
outworks between the castle and the river. 

In 1237 King Alexander of Scotland met Henry III. at this castle, on which 
occasion the English king had his chamber in the Old Tower, and also used the 
"old hall and old kitchen," a new hall and chamber being in course of con- 
struction for him. It was at this meeting that Alexander renounced his rights 



northumbp:rland 



405 



in Northumberland, Cinnheiiand, and Westmorland. In 1292 John Baliol 
did homage for his crown to Edward I. in the king's hall of the castle, 
and in the succeeding reign this fortress was used for stores during Edward's 
expedition into Scotland. Early, howcwr, in the year 1334 the castle is 
described as being in so very dilapidated a condition that not one gate of it 
could be closed. Repairs 
were e.xecuted, and we find 
in 1341 Lord John Nevill 
of Hornbv captain of the 
castle, and holding the Earl 
Murray in custody therein. 
Five vears later John de 
Coupland, the sheriff, kept 
the Scotch king David 
Bruce here in ward, he 
having been taken prisoner, 
grievously wounded, at the 
battle of Xevill's Cross in 
1346. In i3iS8 Percy Hot- 
spur threw himself into the 
castle to defend it from the 
attack of Earl Douglas, who 
found the place too strong 
for him, and retired to 
Otterburn, where followed 
Chevy Chase, or the battle 
of Otterburn. 

In 1400 Henry IV., pre- 
paring to invade Scotland 
to enforce his absurd claim 
of over -lordship, lay at 
Newcastle from July 25th 
to August 7th, and came 
thither again on his return 
from iiis futile expedition. 

Later in tliis same reign, however, the building fell again into neglect, and 
remained thus during the reign of Edward IV., so that at the end of the 
tifteentii century the keep was used as the county gaol, and tiie king's hall 
as the courthouse of assize ; and to these ends the building was appropriated 
until our (iwn times. 

In Elizabeth's day this Northern fortress was described as "an old and 
ruinous castle," and its buildings were rented out to various persons. In 




NEWCASTI.E-UPON-TYNIi 



4o6 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

1619 one Alexander Stevenson, a page of King James I., obtained a lease for 
fifty years, liaving begged tlie castle of the king ; and under him and those 
that followed him, the structure went further to neglect and disrepair. The 
castle, nevertheless, bore a part in the siege of Newcastle in 1644, being 
the last resort of the gallant defenders of the town, after the surrender 
of which it also was ceded to the Parliament army. At the expiration of 
Stevenson's lease in 1664, Lord Gerard obtained a grant of the castle for 
ninety-nine years, but litigation ensued between him and the Corporation, 
who obtained from James II. certain rights, which on the earl's death were 
confirmed, possession of the castle being retained by the civic authorities 
in 1701. 

In the year 181 1 the original mound to the SAV. of the keep was levelled 
and removed, and Castle Street was laid out. Eleven baronies, holding fifty- 
si.x knights' fees for their lands by service at the castle of Newcastle, possessed 
houses in the castle ward, distinct from the towers on the walls. Until 1790 
much remained of the outer walls, particularly in the south and west, as well 
as an ancient south postern to the Old Half-Moon Battery. The site was well 
planned for defence, being protected on two sides by a precipitous and scarped 
hill, and by a moat or ditch at the junction of the neck with the main ground. 
The whole enclosure of walls was of the shape of a quadrant, the arc portion 
lying towards the river, and the entrance by the Black Gate being at the apex 
on the north. This same Black Gate, all Early English work, was built in 1 247, 
and, though it had become ruinous in Tudor times, still remains the sole relic 
of Henry III.'s extensive works. It is a huge oval structure, protected in 
part by a barbican built in 1358, the vaulted passage through which is defended 
by two portcullises, the outer groove being still visible. From this gate a 
drawbridge over the moat gave access to the second gate, which stood in Black 
Gate Street, having had on its east side a square tower called the Great Pit, 
which was used as a prison, the basement having no lights, and being entered 
only by a trap-door. Three sides of this tower have vanished, but that on the 
east remains. 

On the opposite side, and behind the second gate, stood another prison, 
called the Heron Pit (Heron having been a sheritt" from 1247 to 1257), and both 
these structures were ruinous in the year 1334, when they received repairs. 
The prison of Heron Pit was likewise in the dreadful lower storey of the tower, 
and was entered by a trap-door. Part of its lower walls are in the cellars of 
the "Two Bulls' Heads Inn." 

Passing the second gate, the way led into the castle garth, a large triangular 
space, with the ancient mound in its S.\\\ corner, and its S.E. angle formed 
by a huge semicircular tower, called the Half-Moon, which was reinforced 
on its face by several large projecting square turrets or buttresses, with 
similar smaller ones between them. The whole structure rose high above the 



NORTHUMBERLx\ND 407 

rest of the walls, dominating the ground below and the bridge, and was called 
the Tower. From the Roman remains found on this site, it would seem to be 
the original position chosen and fortilied by Agricola, and afterwards occupied 
by the old castle of Monkchester. This tower was destroyed in 1787, rmd its 
site utilised for the building of the new Moot Mall and County Courts, while 
the front of it was encased with a row of houses. 

Immediately at the northern abutment of the Half-Moon, Henry 111. built 
in 1237 his "New Hall and New Chamber." The former became the Great 
or Moot Hall, being the same that witnessed the homage of Baliol in 1292, and 
which was used centuries after for assizes, and at its S. end was the King's 
Chamber, converted in later days into the Grand jury Room. These interesting 
structures were all pulled down in 1809, and the site occupied by the New 
County Court. 

The original entrance to the castle ward or bailey was in the centre of the 
W. wall, through a circular arched gateway between two square towers. It had 
in front low wooden palisades, called "The Barriers," and was built in 1178; 
but after the erection of the Black Gate it became a postern merely, and was 
linally destroyed in 181 1.* Here it was that in 1388 took place the encounters 
between the Scottish force under James, Earl Douglas, and the English who 
held the fortress under the Percys. During one of the many feats of arms 
performed here, the following incident is said to have occurred. Hotspur and 
his brother Ralph were, as ever, foremost at the barriers, when the Douglas, 
tilting against Sir Henry Percy, not only had the fortune to drive him out of 
his saddle, but also to snatch from him his lance with its silken pennon. 
Waving this aloft, the Douglas vowed he would plant it on his castle at Dalkeith. 
"That shall thou never accomplish," cried Percy, grieved at his loss. "Then 
you must come," replied the Douglas, " and seek it to-night, for 1 shall plant 
it in the ground before my tent, and we will see if you will venture to take it 
awav." That night the Scots drew off and marched to Otterburn, followed 
ne.xt day by the English, and two nights after (August 19th) was fought the 
fierce fight of Otterburn, or Chevy Chase, at which Percy was captured, and 
the Douglas slain (see Otterburn). 

From the \V. or old gate of the castle, ran E. and W. the wall of the inner 
ward, called the Cross Wall, which terminated at the Half-Moon. The W. 
face of the curtain contained two other square towers, one being at the S.W. 
corner, from whence extended the S. front round to the Half-Moon. On this 
S. wall was another square tower, and the S. postern, over which was the 
county gaoler's house. There was another postern on the E. face near the 
second gate. The whole face to the N. and W. was defended by a ditch, 
22 yards broad, which also extended on the eastern and partly on the southern 
sides. Beyond this moat was an outer wall of defLiice. 

* JclVcrson's drawing »f it, willi llic keep, is yivcii in vol. iv. ,\. 5. Arc/i. .■Eliana. 



4o8 CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

After the castle and its buildings were leased out, which had already 
taken place, as we have seen, in the sixteenth century, houses began to be 
erected round about it. An old description in 1790 states that "the castle 
yard is now crowded on all sides with shops," most of these being for the 
sale of old clothes, and that the inhabitants were numbered by " many 
hundreds." 

There remains to describe the old "Donjon" keep, which is still standing. 
It is of late Norman style, and was built by Henry 11. between the years 1172 
and 1177, at a cost of X892, i8s. gd. It stands at about 30 feet from the 
centre of the W. wall of the castle enclosure, and is a building of four stages 
and a basement. It is nearly square, three of its angles being carried up by 
pilasters in square projecting turrets, ending in machicolations and battle- 
ments, with other strong pilasters in the intervals. The N. angle is a half 
polygon of six faces. The keep is entered by a forebuilding on the E. side, 
where is a stair giving access to the great hall on the third floor. Below 
is the chapel, which had a separate entrance on the E. The chancel has at 
its further end an oriole, and in the stage above is a highly ornate room, 
formerly an oratory, to which access is given by a staircase passing half-way 
up a small gateway tower. The lowest stage was the prison, and still holds 
the rings to which prisoners weie attached when the place was converted 
into a gaol. 

The roof vaultings spring from a centre column, which perhaps served as 
a drain for the upper storeys. The second stage is now divided, and used as 
a library ; it appears to have formed, with the third stage, the dwelling, and 
is provided with fireplaces and garderobes. The third stage, till the building 
of the new hall, formed the king's chamber, a newel stair communicating with 
the floor below. A "well-room" was at the end of the hall, and mural 
passages and closets extend around. The fourth stage was for the defence of 
the castle, and has a mural gallery, with loops in the outer wall. 

It was customary to display on the walls of the keep the heads and quarters 
of traitors, as was certainly done at Carlisle Castle in the case of Andrew 
Harcla, Earl of Carlisle, temp. Edward 11. 

In 1644, when the town of Newcastle was taken, its defenders sought refuge 
in this keep, but they had to surrender it after three days. 



NORHAM (iiunor) 

IN Northumberland, the land of castles, there is no more interesting fortress 
than "Norham's castled steep," wrapped as it is in the chivalrous story of the 
Border, and the halo of Scott's undying song. No stouter stronghold than this 
existed between Berwick and Carlisle. For twelve miles alonii the Border from 



NORTH UMBKHLAND 



409 



Berwick to Coldstream, tlie lands belonged to the mighty and wealthy bishops 
of Durham, Counts Palatine, and here early in the twelfth century, upon a 
rocky elevation on the S. side of Tweed, which at this place forms a large 
bend, Ralph Flanihard, Prince Bishop from 1099 to 1 1 28, reared Xorhani 
Castle ; and Hugh Pudsey, the reputed nephew of Stephen, his successor in 
St. Cuthbert's chair from 1153 to 1195, with his immense wealth rebuilt the 




work and added to it. In 1136, King David, invading England in the cause of 
his niece, the Empress Maud, took the castle and held it until its restoration 
under treaty to Stephen ; hut two years after he took it again and dismantled 
it. Henry 11. laid his hands on both castles of Durham and Norham, but after- 
wards restored them to the see of Durham for a fee of 2000 marks (or ;^"i333, 
13s. 4d., equal to about ;4'35,ooo of our time), but on terms that allowed it to fall 
again to the Crown at the death of Bishop Pudsey in ii<)5. King John came to 
Norham four times, one of these being at the time he was preparing to invade 
Scotland, and again when he v.as negotiating a treatv with William the Lion, 
vol.. II. ? K 



4IO CASTLES OF ENGLAND 

In 1 215 lie came and besieged the castle in revenge for the homage paid by 
the Northumbrian barons to King Alexander, but after forty days was forced 
to raise the siege and depart. The place was Crown property in the reigns of 
Henry 111. and Edward I., and the latter came here in 1291 to decide regarding 
the claimants to the Scottish throne, and to advance his own claims. He 
resided in Norham Castle, while the Scots' camp lay at Ladykirk, on the 
opposite side of Tweed. This was the time of the warlike Bishop of Durham, 
Anthony Bek, who attended Edward at the head of 140 knights, 1000 foot, and 
500 horse — himself clad in complete armour — and with them proceeded as far 
as Aberdeen. In i3i<S the Scots attacked the castle again and raised two forts 
against it, but without any effect ; however, four years after, they succeeded in 
taking the fortress, but Edward 11. coming, in person, retook it after ten days' 
fighting. At this time extensive repairs were carried out, and afterwards the 
bishop recovered his property. It was in this reign that the gallant feat of 
arms occurred at Norham related by Leland, and woven into Bishop Percy's 
ballad of "The Hermit of Warkworth"; when Sir William Marmion of 
Scrivelsby came to this "dangerest place in England" to "fame" his golden- 
crested helmet among the Scots of Berwick (see Note g of "Marmion"). Again 
in 1327 there was a tire and sword raid, when the Scots laid siege to Norham, 
and succeeded in taking it the next year ; but it was retaken at last in 1355. 
The castle had its share in all the military occurrences going on at the 
Border during the reigns of Henry 1\'., Henrv \'., and Henry VI., being 
within sight of the battlements of Berwick when the former of these kings 
was battering that castle with his guns in 1405. In 1435 the bishops began 
the practice of letting the castle to some nobleman or knight of approved 
merit, which saved them much cost in upkeep. Bishop Richard Fox, a 
great prelate, and the strenuous supporter of Henry VII., held the see of 
Durham from 1494 till 1501, and as, in the words of Richard III. to the 
Pope, the first duty of a Bishop of Durham was to protect the realm 
against the Scots, he came to Norham at an early date to superintend, as 
an engineer, various improvements there ; he deepened the outer ditch, and 
uniting it with the stream on the E. side, dammed up the water and thus 
formed a moat. Lord Bacon says that F^ox " caused his castle of Norham 
to be strongly fortified and furnished with all kinds of munitions, and 
had manned it likewise with a very great number of tall soldiers;" and 
that " he had caused the people to withdraw their cattle and goods into 
fast places that were not of easy approach," when in 1497 King James IV. 
coined his golden chain to provide funds for his raid into Northumberland 
in favour of Perkin Warbeck. But the bishop, according to Polydore Vergil, 
held the castle of Norham against his attack for lifteen days, and the Earl 
of Surrey, summoned by him in haste, coming to the rescue with a strong 
force, James raised the siege and retired to his own country (Chisholm 



NOKTHUMBl'.RLAND 



411 



Batten's "Life of Kox"). In 1513, Kinj^ James on his way to Kloddcn Field 
aj^aiii laid siege to Norham, and for five days assaulted it in front with 
his artillery in vain. Then, according to the Ballad of Hodden, the weak 
point in tlic lortilications was pointed out to him by a traitor from tlie 
garrison ; the wall soon yielded, and the castle fell. King |ames hanged 
the traitor, and passed on to Ford Castle. After the battle oi Flodden, 
Bishop Ruthall repaired and strengthened the castle, and when in 1530 
another hostile visit was paid by the Scots, they were driven oil bv the valour 
of Archdeacon FVanklin, to 






whom Henry \'1I1. assigned 
a special coat of arms for his 
services. In Elizabeth's reign 
Xorham, like all other nor- 
thern fortresses, was in bad 
repair, and Sir George Bowes 
made a report on the place : 
then v.irious works were 
set in hand there — a storey 
was taken off the keep, 
and the outworks were 
strengthened. At the death 
in 1559 of Bishop Tunstall. 
who had laid out large sums 
on this castle, Norham was 
finally and by law detached 
from the see of Durham 
and held thereafter by the 
Crown. Klizabeth gavi' a lease 
of it to Lord Hunsdon, which 
his representatives, the Careys, 
were induced to part with to 

Home, Karl nf Dunbar, in favour of whom Norham was converted into a 
freehold. It was kept in a state of defence as late as 1583, but of course, 
with the accession of James VI. to the English throne, all use for Border castles 
was at an end. 

The Tweed forming the front defence of the castle, a deep ravine with a 
small stream in it divides the platform on which it is placed from the rest of 
tile hiiih ground on the E., and a broad ditch is continued from it round the S. 
and S.W. of the fortress. There are on the S. the remains of earlier enliench- 
nients. The area of the castle works is 2680 square yards, and the imier ward 
with the keep stands on the E. over the ravine and river, protected by an immense 
wall N.K. and S.E. The keep, built by Hugh i'udsey (Bishop of Durham 




NORUAM 



412 



CASTLES OF ENGLAND 



1 1 



^.■) 



-1 197), is a mere ruin, rectangular in shape and originally 90 feet in height ; 
this is all Xorman work, in which Decorated windows have been inserted ; in 
the W. wall is a spiral stair leading to the roof, and terminating