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RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS 



OF THE 



NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 



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ANNUAL REPORT 












The major purpose of standards for measurement is to provide 
a basis to assure the stability and compatibility of measurements 
from time to time and from place to place. If the accuracies with 
which measurement standards are known and utilized are less than 
the corresponding accuracies required in laboratories and on pro- 
duction lines then problems ensue. Data cannot then be exchanged 
with optimum confidence, and tests performed on the same mate- 
rials or devices in different places may be incompatible or uncertain 
in terms of predicted performance. It is therefore imperative that 
those responsible for developing, maintaining, and disseminating 
the measurement standards keep ahead of the important needs of 

science Bfj<g itiEiedybyTlH^iegl redeiE^feelrArc^ciiiSifiement is the 

dominant anj^ng^ 2 1 ^^ l ^ 1 fftf ffffl ffbffa tional Bureau of 
Standards. ^ 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation^ 

A. V. Astin, Director, 1\BS. 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofna1962unit 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Luther H. Hodges, Secretary 

J. Herbert Hollomon, Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 
A. V. As tin, Director 



1962 
Research Highlights 

of the 

National Bureau of Standards 



Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1962 



December 1962 




Miscellaneous Publication 246 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 70 cents 





The National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., laboratories (top) and 
Boulder, Colorado, laboratories (bottom). 



II 



Contents 

Page 

General review 1 

Standards and measurement methods 2 

Matter and materials 4 

Astrophysical and plasma physics research 7 

Radio propagation studies 8 

Automatic data processing . . 10 

Building research study 11 

Measurement services 11 

National conference of standards laboratories 13 

Cooperative activities 17 

International activities 18 

Administrative activities 19 

Publications 21 

Highlights of the research program 22 

2.1. Physics, electronics, and measurement standards 22 

2.1.1. Metrology 22 

Photometric units internationally intercompared 23 

Slant visibility meter developed. 24 

Four -filter thermoelectric colorimeter 24 

Refractive index measurements extended 24 

Fiber optics 25 

Luminance standards developed for photographic exposure 

meters 25 

Absolute measurement of sphere diameters 25 

Revised length calibration equipment and procedures 26 

Glass bead standard samples 26 

Gaseous laser for interferometry 26 

Gear metrology laboratory established 27 

Wave front shearing interferometer 27 

Standards of mass and weighing techniques 28 

Surface roughness standards 29 

2.1.2. Mechanics 30 

Infrasonic waves in the atmosphere and in the earth 31 

Elastic changes caused by static loads 31 

Acoustical repulsion of birds at airports 32 

Reverberation-chamber technique for calibration of standard- 
type noise sources 32 

Field measurements of airborne and impact sound insulation . 33 

Pressure measurement 33 

Hydrodynamic effect of hydrophobic materials 34 

Culvert hydraulics 34 

High-temperature impact tests 35 

Spectrum fatigue of aircraft structures 36 

Strain gage evaluation 36 

High-temperature tests of vibration pickups 36 

Rheology 36 

Hypersonic combustion . 37 

Fluid metering 37 

High- temperature thermocouples 38 

Stability tests of a new thermocouple 38 

Catalytic effects of thermocouple materials 39 

2.1.3. Electricity 39 

Absolute measurements 39 

Precision measurements at high voltages 40 

Rapid calibration of resistance voltage dividers 41 

Vicious cycle in storage batteries 41 

Electrolytic conductance in porous media 41 

Corrosion of single crystals of silver in molten salt 43 

Microwave absorption in compressed nondipolar gases 43 

Magnetism 43 

III 



Highlights of the research program — Continued 

2.1. Physics, electronics, and measurement standards — Continued Page 

2.1.4. Radio standards 44 

Radio physics 45 

United States frequency standard 45 

Atomic time scale 4^ 

Ft. Collins radio station 45 

Fundamental constants 47 

Speed of electromagnetic radiation 47 

Fine structure measurements 43 

Millimeter waves 43 

Coherent light 49 

Radio plasma studies 50 

Bounded plasma calculations 50 

Reaction rate coefficients 50 

Plasma waves 51 

Particle-plasma interaction 51 

Radio and microwave materials 51 

Applied mathematics 52 

Microwave spectral tables 53 

Theoretical physics 53 

Circuit standards 54 

Low-frequency activities 54 

High-frequency activities 55 

Microwave activities 57 

2.1.5. Heat 59 

Analog computer for plasma thermometry 60 

Fluorine combustion calorimetry 61 

Gaseous heat transfer at low temperatures 62 

Nuclear reactions with oriented nuclei 62 

Low-temperature thermometry 62 

Steady-state measurements of molecular lifetimes 63 

Thermodynamic tables 63 

Kinetic theory of dense gases 64 

Pair-distribution function in dense gases 65 

2.1.6. Atomic physics. 65 

Laboratory astrophysics 65 

Atomic energy levels 65 

Transition probabilities 67 

Collision cross sections 67 

Far ultraviolet radiation physics 68 

Infrared spectroscopy of gases 69 

Infrared reference standards 69 

Electron scattering 69 

Biological constant studied 69 

Electron optics 69 

Solid-state physics 69 

Lasers 71 

2.1.7. Radiation physics 71 

Radioactivity standards 71 

Radiation theory 72 

Cross sections 72 

Penetration and diffusion 72 

Shielding engineering for civil defense 72 

Linear accelerator 73 

High-energy radiation 74 

Ionization dosimetry 74 

Large ionization chamber 75 

Cavity corrections 75 

Scattering measurements 75 

Photographic dosimetry 75 

Solid-state dosimetry 77 

Nucleonic instrumentation 77 

Neutron physics 77 

Radiation protection recommendations 78 

International standards 79 



IV 



2. Highlights of the research program — Continued Page 

2.2. Chemistry and properties of materials 80 

2.2.1. Analytical and inorganic chemistry 80 

Plutonium standard issued 80 

Atomic weight of chlorine 80 

Trace level analysis 80 

Uranium analysis standard 81 

Water determination in commercial products. 81 

Determining transition probabilities using the gas-stabilized 

arc 81 

X-ray analysis of noble metal alloys 82 

Trace element standard samples 82 

Test mixture for fractionating columns developed 82 

Improvements in liquid-solid chromatography 83 

Dielectric constant change. 83 

X-ray diffraction 84 

Internal crystal study . 84 

Crystal growth 84 

2.2.2. Physical chemistry 84 

Precision calorimetry 85 

Reactions of hydrogen atoms 85 

Ionization processes at surfaces 85 

Field emission microscopy, 86 

Conformational anaylsis 87 

Isotope effects 87 

Higher ketoses 87 

Molecular isomerism 87 

Low-temperature spectroscopy 88 

Collision and ion-decomposition processes 88 

Collisional energy transfer 88 

Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry. 89 

Radiolysis of simple hydrocarbons 90 

lsotopic abundance ratio determined 90 

Thermodynamic reviews 91 

2.2.3. Inorganic solids . 91 

Vaporization of refractory substances 92 

New microbalance required to study refractory substances. ... 92 

Studies of alumina 92 

Plasma torch used in crystal growth 92 

Rare gas crystals and vapor "snakes" . 93 

Fibrous form found in silica 94 

Polymorphic transition at high pressure. 94 

Properties of silver iodide studied 96 

Symmetry of crystals under strain 96 

2.2.4. Metallurgy 97 

Method developed for slack-quenching steels 97 

Metal fatigue phenomenon 97 

Gage block stability 98 

Stainless steel diagram completed . 98 

Tensile properties of nickel-aluminum alloy 98 

Electronprobe microanalyzer completed . 98 

Computer produces quantitative metallographic data ........ 99 

Standards produced for gas content in metals 99 

Corrosion reactions observed on metal surfaces 99 

Stress corrosion cracking 99 

Polarization measurements used to study corrosion rates 99 

Alloying behavior of uranium 100 

Ni-Cr alloy resists oil-ash attack 101 

Nuclear magnetic resonance 101 

Soft X-ray spectroscopy utilized 101 

Crystal diffusion equations modified 101 

Metal crystallization process investigated 102 

Physical behavior of metals studied 103 

Low-temperature study of metals initiated 103 

Electrochemical reactions 103 

Hydrogen embrittlement studied . 103 

Tungsten deposition 103 



2, Highlights of the research program — Continued 

2.2 Chemistry and properties of materials — Continued Page 

2.2.5. Polymers 104 

Molecular weight distributions of polymers studied 104 

Ellipsometry used to measure polymer adsorption 105 

Rubber hardness testers compared 105 

Apparatus measures thermal expansion of small specimens .... 106 

Air drag on fibers under impact 106 

Interlaboratory evaluations of test methods 106 

Atomic radiation affects polystyrene and cellulose 107 

Thermal decomposition of polystyrene 107 

Fluorescence of cellulosic polymers 107 

Viscoelastic behavior of rubbers investigated 107 

Color phenomena observed in polymer fracture 108 

Ethylene-propylene copolymers studied 108 

Polymer degradation . , 109 

Wearing quality of U.S. currency determined 109 

Fluoropolymers synthesized 109 

Nonrubber constituents of natural rubber identified 110 

Free radicals in small molecules HO 

Light-scattering phenomena studied in solutions HO 

Configuralional distributions in polymer chains HI 

Conformational changes in pep tide-containing polymers 112 

Kinetics of collagen precipitation 112 

Mercury-tin system investigated 112 

2.3. Special technical service programs 113 

2.3.1. Applied mathematics 113 

Asymptotic expansions . 113 

Matrix and determinant theory 114 

Numerical experimentation. 114 

Machine translation 114 

Mathematical tables 114 

Digital computation . 115 

Statistical engineering 116 

Probability and mathematical statistics 116 

Experiment design and consultation 116 

Mathematical physics , . 117 

Plasma research 117 

Theory of satellite orbits 117 

Operations research 118 

2.3.2. Data processing systems 118 

Research facilities: SEAC, ANALOG, PILOT 119 

Research information center 119 

Components and techniques 120 

Automatic data retrieval 120 

Technical assistance for data processing 121 

Development of information-retrieval systems 122 

Special-purpose computer systems 122 

Pictorial data processing 122 

Engineering applications . 123 

Engineering application devices 123 

Data processing applications , . . . „ 124 

Mechanization of patent searching 125 

Automatic mail-sorting developments 125 

2.3.3. Instrumentation 126 

Electronic equipment fault location 126 

Second breakdown in transistors 127 

Semiconductor contact studies and surface physics 128 

FOSDIC 128 

Electronic scanning microscope 128 

Hygrometry 129 

Telemetering pickups 130 

2.3.4. Radio propagation 130 

Ionosphere research and propagation 130 

Second topside sounder rocket test 130 

Solar flares and their radio effects 131 

Theory of the formation of the ionosphere 132 

Low-latitude propagation effects 133 

Operations research 133 

VI 



2. Highlights of the research program — Continued 
2.3 Special technical service programs — Continued 

2.3,4. Radio propagation — Continued Page 

Tropospheric propagation and radio noise 133 

Reports to the C.C.I.R 134 

Electromagnetic theory 135 

Reflection coefficients 135 

Propagation in irregular layers 135 

Field intensity in waveguide 135 

Reflection from changing strata 135 

Field at localized obstruction 135 

Reflection from a grid ground plane 135 

Reflections at stratified plasma 136 

Path impedance formulas 136 

Point-point moon communication 136 

VLF microwave models 136 

Analog correlation computer , 136 

Statistical studies 137 

Samples of atmospheric radio noise 137 

Efficient television assignment 138 

Over-water transmission loss measurements 138 

Bandwidth of tropospheric scatter systems 138 

Surface-satellite communication-interference 138 

Air-ground UHF-T V measurements 139 

Special refraction effects 140 

Refraction effects in microwave tracking systems 140 

Sky temperature theory 140 

Radio systems 141 

Frequency utilization 141 

Applied electromagnetic theory 142 

Experimental ionospheric propagation 143 

Antenna research . 145 

Modulation research 145 

Upper atmosphere and space physics 147 

Jicamarca radio observatory . 147 

Cylindrical shock waves from exploding wires 147 

Study on radiation hazard in space completed 148 

Studies conducted on gaseous electronic processes 148 

Geophysical studies conducted at conjugate points 148 

High-speed camera developed for plasma physics research. . 150 

Satellite radio signals used to study structure of ionosphere. 150 

New digital recorder speeds analysis of airglow observations. 150 

Atmospheric spectroscopy , 151 

Cosmic noise study completed at USSR Mirny y Base, 

Antarctica 151 

2.3.5. Cryogenic engineering . 151 

Properties of parahydrogen 152 

Phase transformations in steels 152 

Physical equilibria 152 

Cold neutron moderator 153 

Magnet research 154 

Instrumentation and cryogenic equipment 154 

Cryopumping 154 

Heat transfer 155 

Two-phase fluid phenomena and fluid flow 155 

Refrigeration processes 156 

Consultation and advisory services 156 

Low-temperature seals 157 

Cryogenic materials data handbook . 158 

Cryogenic engineering literature 158 

Compilation of thermophysical property data 158 

Liquefaction of gases 159 

2.3.6. Building research . 160 

Shear strength of concrete beams studied 160 

Effect of mortar properties on strength of masonry 161 

Instrumentation for fire extinguishment studies . 161 

Fire studies of gypsum plasters 161 

Electric energy usage in houses equipped with heat pumps. . 162 

Environmental factors in an underground fallout shelter. . . . 162 

VII 



Highlights of the research program — Continued 

2.3 Special technical service programs — Continued 

2.3.6. Building research — Continued Page 

New method for predicting roofing asphalt durability 163 

Weathering resistance of plastics determined 163 

Performance of roofings 164 

Safety codes revised 164 

Fluid dynamics of plumbing systems reviewed 164 

Thermal conductivity measurements and reference samples . . . 165 

Proceedings of Cement Symposium published 166 

Standard samples now available for portland cement analysis. 166 

Cement-aggregate bond in concrete studied 166 

Resistance of exterior-finish porcelain enamels to weathering. 166 

New image-gloss test method developed 167 

Standardization of thermal emittance measurements 168 

2.3.7. Weights and measures 168 

Appendixes 172 

3.1. Organization 172 

3.2. Summary of NBS staff 178 

3.3. Financial data on NBS program 179 

3.4. Advisory committees 179 

3.5. Awards and honors 184 

3.6. Education and training program 185 

3.7. List of publications and patents 187 



VIII 



1. GENERAL REVIEW 

Programs in measurement standards, materials research, and radio propa- 
gation continued, during the past year, to constitute the major effort of the 
National Bureau of Standards. Because these programs are in direct support 
of science, technology, and industry, they contribute to that complex of 
forces, events, and factors which determine the rate of the Nation's economic 
growth. Science and technology are indeed prime factors in economic 
growth, and the Bureau plays a unique and vital role in science and 
technology. 

As industrial technology becomes increasingly complex, urgent demands 
arise for greater measurement precision, for assurance of closer consistency 
among the countless individual measurements that are being made throughout 
the Nation. A radio transmitter, a space vehicle, an automatized production 
line — each requires hundreds and even thousands of individual parts and 
components whose electrical, mechanical, and chemical characteristics must 
be carefully controlled for successful operation. And as more complex sys- 
tems are developed, requiring even more parts to perform more sophisticated 
functions, the acceptable production tolerances for individual parts are con- 
tinually being reduced. Thus, to an increasing extent, technological prog- 
ress — particularly in such fields as automation, nuclear power, and the space 
effort — has come to depend upon the ability to make measurements with 
extremely high accuracy and reliabilitv. 

The central mission of the National Bureau of Standards is to make this 
measurement competence possible — to provide national leadership in the 
development and use of accurate, uniform techniques of physical measure- 
ment. It is the Bureau's responsibility to develop and maintain the national 
standards upon which our measurements are based and to make these stand- 
aids available to American science and industry through its measurement 
services program of calibrations, reference materials, and measurement 
assistance to other laboratories. Through an extensive program of research 
in the pnysical sciences, the Bureau continually strives to meet the expanding 
requirements of science and industry, to provide the standards and measure- 
ment methods that are required in new or rapidly-developing areas 

A second important NBS responsibility is to develop and apply measure- 
ment techniques for determining the intrinsic properties of matter and mate- 
rials. Here effort is focused on obtaining and publishing accurate measure- 
ment data that are of great importance to science and industry. Methods 
of precise measurement are employed to make accurate determinations of 
natural constants such as atomic weights or the speed of light, and to measure 
the fundamental properties of metals, ceramics, plastics, rubbers, and other 
materials. 

1 



Other NBS responsibilities include the operation of central research and 
technical service programs for the Federal Government. Such programs 
are carried on by the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory, the Data 
Processing Systems Laboratory, the Building Research Division, the National 
Hydraulics Laboratory, and the Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory. 

This report attempts to present the highlights of the Bureau's program 
for the fiscal year 1962. In section 2, the body of the report, studies and 
achievements from the various fields in which the Bureau is active have 
been selected for brief presentation. However, the breadth of the program 
and diversity of projects may make it difficult for the reader to obtain a 
coherent picture of the year's activity. The remainder of section 1 is there- 
fore devoted to a brief summary of the more important accomplishments and 
activities of the year. 

STANDARDS AND MEASUREMENT METHODS 

Advances were made in the precision measurement of high voltages. 
Design of a highly stable, shielded 100-megohm resistor made it possible 
to measure d-c voltages up to 100,000 volts to within 20 parts per million. 
For determining the voltage ratio and phase angle corrections of instru- 
ment voltage transformers, a 1-picofarad, 350,000-volt free-air capacitor 
was designed and constructed. With this device an accuracy of 3 parts 
per hundred thousand is obtained in calibrating instrument transformers 
for use on 350,000-volt power lines. 

In other work on electrical standards, a rapid, convenient method was 
devised for calibrating the standard-resistance voltage divider (volt box) 
at its rated voltage. In recent years the volt box has become part of the 
basic equipment of many standardizing laboratories. Although this type 
of standard has usually been calibrated at NBS in the past, its growing 
use made necessary the development of a method by which other qualified 
standardizing laboratories may perform the task. 

The dielectric properties of materials often set operating limits for elec- 
trical equipment. Standard reference specimens of dielectric materials are 
thus needed to check techniques and equipment for measuring these prop- 
erties. To aid in establishing the necessary standards, the Bureau designed 
and constructed an improved three-terminal dielectric specimen holder 
with which high-precision dielectric measurements can be made at room 
temperature. 

Progress was made in research on methods for measuring both very high 
and very low temperatures. For temperature measurements up to 36,000 °F 
by spectroscopic means, an inexpensive analog computing device was devel- 
oped which greatly improves the efficiency of spectroscopic studies of cylin- 
drically symmetric temperature sources, such as high-current plasma arcs. 
Previously extensive calculations had been required in order to separate 
the contributions of the different radial zones of the arc. With the analog 
device, the true radial characteristics of the arc are available in the laboratory 
as the data are obtained. 



In the very low-temperature region from 1.5 to 20 °K (i.e., from 2.7 to 36 
Fahrenheit degrees above absolute zero), the Bureau has been investigating 
an acoustical interferometer as means for precise temperature measurement. 
With this instrument, temperature is determined by measuring the velocity 
of sound in helium gas. Preliminary results obtained during the year indi- 
cate that the acoustical interferometer is competitive with the gas thermome- 
ter for primary thermometry at low temperatures; in addition, the acoustical 
interferometer eliminates a number of the sources of error that are inherent 
in conventional temperature-measurement methods. 

In research directed toward the extremely accurate measurement of dis- 
tances up to a meter or more, a gaseous (helium-neon) laser was constructed 
and put into operation. Experimental results already obtained indicate that 
it is theoretically possible with this device to make measurements over a dis- 
tance of 100 kilometers with a precision of a part in a million. Plans have 
been developed for using the laser to redetermine the speed of light with an 
accuracy that will meet the expected requirements of space technology. 

The accuracy requirements of modern mass production have made neces- 
sary the use of master spheres, whose sizes are known to a very high degree 
of accuracy, for size control in manufacturing plants. During the last year 
methods were developed for measuring the diameters of master spheres up 
to 3 inches in diameter with a certified accuracy of 2 millionths of an inch. 
An interferometer was also developed for measuring deviations from 
sphericity of small spheres. 

Modern technology is also imposing increasingly severe dimensional re- 
quirements on gear elements and gear teeth. Both research in precision gear 
metrology and the development of highly accurate master standards for indus- 
trial use are needed. To aid in this work, the Bureau established a gear 
metrology laboratory — believed to be the first of its kind in the country — in 
which equipment for measuring elements of both large and small gears is 
operated under closely controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. 
As a first step in the gear metrology program, master gear involutes were 
measured and compared with the standards of commercial gear laboratories 
scattered throughout the country; a need for precision-calibrated master 
involutes at the various company inspection departments was indicated. 

Neutron sources are employed in a wide variety of scientific applications, 
including the production of radioisotopes, the study of the structure of atoms 
and nuclei, and the initiation of nuclear fission. In order that the emission 
rate of these sources may be accurately known, the National Bureau of 
Standards maintains a national standard neutron source consisting of an 
aluminum-covered beryllium sphere, inside of which is a platinum-iridium 
capsule containing 1 gram of radium in the form of radium bromide. Dur- 
ing 1962 this source was absolutely calibrated by a new method involving 
the use of a manganese sulfate bath filled with heavy water. The uncertainty 
of this measurement is about 1 percent, representing a considerable improve- 
ment over previous determinations. 



For almost all experiments performed with X-rays, such as measuring the 
X-ray energy incident on a patient being treated for cancer, it is necessary 
to know the total beam energy. To meet the need for a simple, accurate 
means of making such determinations, the Bureau developed an ionization 
chamber capable of determining the total amount of energy transported in a 
betatron or synchrotron X-ray beam to within 2 percent. For routine cali- 
brations this ionization chamber will replace the more time-consuming abso- 
lute techniques that have been used in the past. 

Two sets of transfer instruments were prepared and calibrated for use by 
the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in indirect comparisons 
of national standards for measurement of ionizing radiations. In October 
I960 the General Conference of Weights and Measures approved the extension 
of the work of the International Bureau into this area, and NBS has been 
providing technical assistance in the program. 

The United States Frequency Standard, which is derived from a natural 
frequency of the cesium atom, was improved to the point where its present 
accuracy is better than one second in 3,000 years. In addition, a complete 
multiplier chain and servosystem was added to control the frequency of a 
quartz oscillator with the cesium resonance frequency. This modification 
results in increased stability of the system, and greater precision than can be 
obtained with a manual method. In related work, two approaches, mechani- 
cal and mathematical, are being explored for counting the number of cycles 
which occur during elapsed time of atomic frequency standards. This is 
necessary in order to use atomic clocks to actually measure time. 

MATTER AND MATERIALS 

A new value for the atomic weight of chlorine was determined during 
the year. The atomic weight of this element, together with that of silver, 
forms a basis for the determination of atomic weights of many of the other 
elements. Natural chlorine consists of two isotopes of mass numbers 35 
and 37 in relative abundance of about 3 to 1. The new atomic weight de- 
termination was based on a mass-spectrometric determination of the iso- 
topic abundance ratio of natural chlorine which was carried out by the Bu- 
reau with the cooperation of the Atomic Energy Commission. 

In an effort to learn more about the basic properties of matter, the Bureau 
has been studying the transformations and interactions that substances 
undergo at high pressures. During 1962 direct visual observations were 
made of phase transitions and other changes occurring in transparent solids 
and liquids subjected to pressures of more than a million pounds per square 
inch. The experiments were carried out with a tiny diamond pressure cell 
and a microscope which focuses through the diamond onto the specimen. 
By passing infrared radiation and X-rays through the diamond pressure 
cell or viewing the transformations through a microscope, the investigator 
can relate changes in crystal structure to changes in atomic bond energies. 
force constants, and vibration frequencies. An X-ray diffraction camera 

4 




A new technique developed at the Bureau makes possible for the first time direct 
visual observations of phase transitions and other changes occurring in materials 
under extremely high pressures. The four photomicrographs above show a 
crystal front growing through potassium nitrate as the pressure is raised. (See 
P. 4.) 

which incorporates the diamond cell was developed to obtain detailed infor- 
mation on the phases present at the various pressures. 

A preparative-scale chromatograph developed during the year makes pos- 
sible fully automatic purification of liquids by gas-liquid chromatography. 
Using automatic, timed sample injections and automatic collection based 
on peak height on a recorder, the apparatus has produced materials of 99.95 
percent purity. In purifying large quantities, it can be operated without 
interruption for an indefinite period. It has been found especially suitable 
for purifying the major component in a solution containing small amounts 
of impurities. 

The requirements for extremely high-purity materials in such fields as 
atomic energy and semiconductors have brought about a corresponding need 
for samples of standard materials, certified for purity in the trace element 
(parts per million) region, which can be used to calibrate analytical instru- 
ments. The Bureau has therefore been working to extend the certification 
of present standard materials to include more trace elements, and to de- 
velop new standards for high-purity metals. As a beginning, two sets of 



three samples each of zirconium and a zirconium alloy were prepared in 
cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Bureau of Mines. 
Zirconium is used for structural members in atomic power units and the 
presence of even trace amounts of neutron absorbers causes deleterious ef- 
fects. These standards, when analysis is finally complete, will be certified 
for more than 25 chemical elements, at concentrations of a few parts per 
million or less. As a step toward standards for ultra-pure metals, a refer- 
ence sample of selected platinum wire of highest purity has been prepared 
with the cooperation of other interested laboratories. This sample will be 
used in research for the extension and improvement of several methods of 
trace analysis. 

By exposing substances to gamma radiation under high pressure, it was 
found possible to prepare polymers (long-chain molecules) from monomers, 
such as carbon disulfide, which do not normally polymerize. With such a 
combination of conditions, solid polymers can be obtained from monomers 
which, at best, normally produce oils. This work, which may provide a basis 
for the production of new types of polymeric materials, was part of a pro- 
gram conducted for the Office of Army Research to increase knowledge of 
radiation and polymerization processes. 

An investigation of the fundamental chemistry of aromatic fluorocarbon 
compounds was 'conducted for the Bureau of Naval Weapons to provide 
basic data needed for the development of heat-resistant materials, especially 
elastomers. New methods for producing polyfluoroaromatic species from 
presently available aliphatic fluorocarbons were discovered. 

Problems in the design of space vehicles have brought about a greatly 
increased demand for data on the heat radiation properties of materials. 
Although many new laboratories have been established to perform the 
required measurements, widely divergent values have been reported by differ- 
ent laboratories on supposedly identical materials. To help correct this 
condition, the Air Force requested the Bureau to establish standard equip- 
ment and procedures for measurement of normal spectral emittance, to 
prepare and calibrate working standards of normal spectral emittance for 
use in verifying equipment and procedures used by Air Force contractors. 
and to provide technical information in this area to interested laboratories. 
Equipment has now been developed for direct measurement of normal thermal 
emittance, and working standards representing low, intermediate, and high 
emittance have been prepared and calibrated for use by other laboratories. 

Fatigue failures in metal parts are progressive and consist of two phases : 
the first, crack initiation, extending from the start of the stress application 
to the appearance of the first crack (which ultimately causes specimen 
failure) ; the other, a period of crack propagation, which terminates with 
abrupt fracture of the piece. In a study sponsored by the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration, it was found that the rate of fatigue crack 
propagation through a metal specimen is significantly reduced by the presence 
of an organic liquid, such as dodecyl alcohol, on the test section. The 



study indicates that the coating, by limiting the access of molecules of oxygen 
or water to the metal surface, reduces the rate of detrimental surface reactions 
that normally occur when specimens are stressed in air. 

A fast, dependable method has long been sought for measuring asphalt 
degradation from weather exposure. The usual laboratory method in which 
the specimens are exposed to accelerated weathering conditions until failure 
occurs, is very time-consuming. During 1962, a rapid, reproducible method 
was developed for predicting the durability of roofing asphalts, In this 
method infrared spectroscopy is used to determine the oxidation rates of 
thin film specimens; these rates then provide an accurate measure of asphalt 
durability. Thus, data that would require weeks to obtain by the usual 
accelerated weathering techniques can now be secured in a few hours. The 
rapid method should be of particular value in developing improved specifi- 
cations for asphalt roofing materials. 

ASTROPHYSICAL AND PLASMA PHYSICS 

RESEARCH 

The Bureau's program in this area is designed primarily to provide the 
measurement standards and basic atomic data that are needed to determine 
the fundamental properties of plasmas (extremely hot gases occurring in 
thermonuclear devices and outer space) and to solve important problems 
in modern astrophysics. The national space effort is now providing a great 
deal of spectroscopic data on the sun and the stars from equipment carried on 
rockets and satellites above the earth's atmosphere. The value of these 
data can be greatly enhanced if they can be accurately described in measure- 
ment units based on precise laboratory standards. 

The Bureau has long been making accurate measurements of atomic prop- 
erties which provide a basis for quantitative interpretation of astronomical 
observations. With the increased need for such information, the program 
has been unified and strengthened. Significant advances have been made in 
the determination and cataloging of data on atomic transition probabilities 
and in the detailed understanding of the more complex atoms through 
exhaustive analysis of their spectra. More precise information on atomic 
collision cross sections has also been obtained. 

During the year, spectroscopic studies of hydrogen plasmas were carried 
out in a wall-stabilized high-current arc chamber operating at temperatures 
from 11,000 to 27,000 °F. Precision measurements of the line profiles of 
the Balmer lines of hydrogen were found to be in very good agreement with 
profiles predicted by line broadening theory; this result suggests that the 
theoretical profiles should be applied to the diagnostics of dense plasmas. 

Thermal plasmas in the temperature range from 36,000 to 180,000 °F, 
which are needed for measuring the transition probabilities of ionic lines 
of excitation potentials, are conveniently produced behind energetic shocks. 
For studies of this kind, a magnetically driven shock tube was put into 
operation and temperatures of about 54,000 °F were obtained behind the 



shock fronts. Measurements of relative transition probabilities for lines 
of singly ionized oxygen are now being carried out. 

Experimental and theoretical studies on the special properties of perturbed 
spectral lines resulted in a new approach to the determination of the radiative 
and collisional lifetimes of molecules. Information of this sort, combined 
with measured spectral intensity distributions of such luminous gaseous sys- 
tems as comets and the terrestrial upper atmosphere, should make it possible 
to deduce the physical properties and conditions of excitation of these remote 
systems. At present lifetime information on important cometary and upper 
atmosphere molecules is fragmentary. 

Publication of An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table, NBS Circular 488, was com- 
pleted during the year. This five-section series of publications has been 
prepared in conjunction with a program on atomic energy levels which has 
been in progress at the Bureau for approximately 10 years. It will help to 
fill the need for multiplet data in the interpretation of rocket solar spectra. 

In April 1962, the National Bureau of Standards and the University of 
Colorado announced the collaborative establishment of the Joint Institute 
for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) on the campus of the University at 
Boulder, Colo. This unique organization will provide a center for both 
research and advanced training in areas of physics and astrophysics vital 
to the space program. It will bring together scholars in many specialties 
for exchange of ideas and data; it will also train graduate and postdoctoral 
students in atomic physics and astrophysics, fields in which there is now 
an acute shortage of qualified workers. Through laboratory and theoretical 
studies, it will endeavor to provide better understanding of the basic physical 
phenomena and properties of gaseous matter, such as the atmospheres of 
stars, which must be understood to interpret astronomical and geophysical 
observations. 

RADIO PROPAGATION STUDIES 

The NBS Central Radio Propagation Laboratory (CRPL) has the central 
responsibility within the Federal Government for collecting and disseminat- 
ing information on radio-wave propagation. Its technical program includes 
research on upper atmospheric and solar phenomena, studies of radio-wave 
propagation, advance predictions of radio propagation conditions, and issu- 
ance of warnings of solar and ionospheric disturbances. Its findings are of 
value to radio and television broadcasters, the military services, space sci- 
entists, and operators of many types of communication systems. 

An installation for ground-based explorations of upper atmosphere and 
outer space was constructed by CRPL and the Instituto Geofisico de Huancayo 
(Peru) at a site 17 miles east of Lima, Peru. Known as Jicamarca Observa- 
tory, this installation makes use of a scatter radar technique developed by 
NBS in 1959. It employs a 6,000,000-watt pulse transmitter and a 22-acre 
antenna to transmit to great heights a very high frequency radio wave lasting 
from 50 to 1500 millionths of a second. The antenna is also used to detect 

8 



the faint re-radiation of the pulsed radio wave by free electrons in the upper 
atmosphere. With this equipment, electron densities 3000 miles above the 
earth have already been measured. The installation will also be used in 
limited observations of radar echoes from the sun's corona and from solar 
gas clouds emitted by solar disturbances, in studies of small-scale irregulari- 
ties in the earth's outer atmosphere, and in studies of the Z)-region of the 
ionosphere, particularly its turbulence and meteorology. 

On October 13, 1961, a second suborbital rocket-borne sounding of the 
ionosphere was made at an altitude of about 600 miles. Data collected during 
this and an earlier rocket firing in June 1961 confirm that the proposed Top- 
side Sounder satellite should be a valuable source of new information con- 
cerning the ionosphere. These experimental rocket launchings thus pave the 
way for placing In orbit the S-48 Topside Sounder satellite equipped to 
probe the ionosphere from above. The instrumentation to be contained in 
the S-48 satellite is expected to remain operational for 6 to 12 months. Dur- 
ing this period studies will be made of such ionospheric properties as top- 
side electron densities, ionization diffusion, vertical movements of the iono- 
sphere, tidal fluctuations, and the mechanisms that produce ionospheric 
storms. 

Both rockets were launched from the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration's Wallops Island (Va.) facility. NBS responsibilities in the 
program include overall planning, design and performance of the experiment, 
and analysis of the resulting data. Airborne Instruments Laboratory (Cutler- 
Hammer, Inc.) is responsible for design and construction of the satellite as 
well as the rocket payloads. The project is under the technical management 
and sponsorship of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and is part of an 
international cooperative program for space research. 

When man lands on the moon, one of his first needs will be for reliable 
means of communication between points on the moon's surface. Under the 
sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an analysis was made of the 
factors affecting point-to-point radio communication on the moon. In order 
to specify suitable radio frequencies for use, assumptions were made regard- 
ing lunar conditions that affect propagation but are not yet precisely known. 
The data obtained were used to determine the power required for sample 
transmission distances and bandwidths. 

By treating very short radio waves as light waves, the Bureau developed a 
cavity resonator technique for probing "millimeter waves" — a largely in- 
accessible region of the radio spectrum — and determining their lengths with 
great accuracy. These waves, which form a band of frequencies between 
microwaves and the infrared region of the spectrum, offer a promising tool 
for studying the properties of materials, such as superconductors, and for 
investigating the electron density of heavily ionized gases. However, because 
of their extremely short wavelengths, there has been no efficient way either 
to generate or to resonate them. 



662336 0—62- 



AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING 

The Bureau continued to serve the Government as a central research and 
development agency in automatic data processing and as a readily available 
information center for the solution of specific problems in this field. During 
1962 services to other Federal agencies included assistance to the Weather 
Bureau in connection with the processing of data from the NIMBUS satellite 
series, a study for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of 
automatic data processing requirements for satellite control calculations, 
assistance to the Bureau of Naval Weapons on problems relating to missile 
control and test range instrumentation, and studies of the feasibility of ap- 
plying automatic data processing techniques to the operations of the Office 
of Technical Services, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 

The Bureau contributed both computational techniques and facilities in 
a cooperative program of the Office of Civil Defense to assess the usefulness 
of large buildings throughout the Nation as fallout shelters. Purpose of 
the nationwide survey was to identify not only those buildings that can 
serve as fallout shelters as they stand but also those which can be modified 
for this purpose, and to help identify geographic areas in which there is 
need for more shelter. NBS involvement in the program was twofold. 
First, it developed the mathematical procedures and theoretical data neces- 
sary for estimating the protection factors of a wide variety of buildings. 
It then used these procedures to convert the field data on several hundred 
thousand actual structures throughout the country to protection factors 
through the use of high-speed electronic data processing. Other govern- 
ment agencies assisting in the survey were the Census Bureau, the Army 
Corps of Engineers, and the Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks. 

A number of computer programs were developed for specific purposes. 
One of these instructs the computer by means of simple English sentences 
to carry out mathematical calculations or to perform a wide variety of 
numerical and statistical analyses of tabulated data. It thus makes the high- 
speed computer as accessible to the laboratory scientist as his desk 
calculator. 

Another computer program developed during the year made possible 
automatic composition of the extensive tables of atomic transition prob- 
abilities. This program causes the computer to produce a magnetic tape 
written in the proper form to operate a photocomposition machine. The 
machine produces film positives from which printing plates can be made. 
In recent years the direct numerical print-outs of automatic computers some- 
times have been published to avoid the possible introduction of errors when 
these outputs are handset in type. However, the direct print- outs are not 
comparable in appearance with hand-set material. The final published 
material obtained using the Bureau's method is of a quality comparable 
with that of hand-set material, and the probability of error is substantially 
reduced. In addition the time required for preparation of data for print- 
ing is decreased by approximately 50 percent, resulting in appreciably 
lower cost. 

10 



BUILDING RESEARCH STUDY 

A special study of the role of the National Bureau of Standards in build- 
ing research was completed during the year. The study was made by a 
committee of the National Academy of Sciences at the Bureau's request in 
accordance with a recommendation of the Academy's 1960 report to the 
Secretary of Commerce on the role of the Department in science and tech- 
nology. The committee reviewed national needs for building research and 
identified subjects of research now being neglected. In its report (released 
in July 1962) it recommended a Federally coordinated, comprehensive 
attack on the many complex problems of the building industry. The report 
suggests the establishment of a National Institute of Building Research under 
the National Bureau of Standards as the mechanism for solving these prob- 
lems. It recommends that the Bureau incorporate its long-standing building 
research activities into a program to stimulate and sustain a continuing 
effort in building research. 

MEASUREMENT SERVICES 

The demands made upon the Bureau for measurement services increased 
during the year, in terms both of additional services and refinements of exist- 
ing services. This situation is to be expected, of course, in a dynamic and 
expanding science and technology. Fortunately, the importance of the 
measurement sciences as a foundation for technology is more widely recog- 
nized now than was the case several years ago. A supplemental appropria- 
tion of $1.5 million was made available to the Bureau in Fiscal Year 1962 
to provide for a substantial effort on some of the problems pinpointed earlier 
by the survey of the Aerospace Industries Association. Major emphasis was 
given to problems in radio standards, temperature measurements, and atomic 
constants. 

Statistical work has continued on the determination of the accuracies at- 
tainable in various measurement areas at NBS, and on the development of 
generalized techniques and procedures for intereomparisons of standards 
or measurement results to confirm continued accuracy of measurement 
standards. 

A special effort has been made to prepare charts showing the ranges and 
corresponding accuracies of measurement and calibration capabilities of NBS. 
Such charts also provide a useful format for showing the measurement capa- 
bilities of other laboratories, or needs for extended ranges or accuracies in 
relation to Bureau services. Several of these charts are now being prepared 
for publication. 

The year's calibration and testing activities are summarized in tables 1 and 
2. A total of 138,712 calibrations and tests were performed for Government 
and industry; fees collected for these services totalled $3,378,820. 

The Bureau's activities in standard materials compliment the program of 
precision calibration. Over 500 different standard materials are available for 
use in controlling chemical processes and maintaining the accuracy of ap- 
paratus and equipment. The primary purpose of the program is to help pro- 

11 



H NBS CAPABILITY AND PROGRAM 

■ INDUSTRIAL AND SCIENTIFIC DEMANDS 



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REFRIGERATION 8 
CRYOGENIC 
INDUSTRIES 

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PHYSICS Fuels 

RESEARCH 

Super Conductors, 
NUCLEAR Guidonce 
l-PHYSICS Systems 

RESEARCH 



CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES 
Plastics Metallurgical 8 
Petroleum Products 



POWER GENERATION 



HIGH TEMPERATURE 
MATERIALS 
Rocket Solid Fuels 
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THERMONUCLEAR 
FUSION RESEARCH 



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— NBS CAPABILITY IN REPRODUCING TEMPERATURE SCALES 

ACCURACIES BASED UPON LIMITS OF ERROR ASSIGNED TO CALIBRATION RESULTS 

DEGREES CELSIUS (CENTIGRADE) 
-262 -183 630 1063 4000 



PLATINUM RESISTANCE THERMOMETER 




STANDARD PLATINUM THERMC0UPLE 



PLATINUM METAL THERMOCOUPLES 



STANDARD OPTICAL PYROMETER 



BASE METAL THERMOCOUPLES 



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BASE- 7 \ \ 

METAL \ * 

THERMOCOUPLES in OPTICAL PYROMETERS 



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10 100 1000 10,000 

TEMPERATURE, DEGREES KELVIN (INT. 1948) 



100, 



Tap: Qualitative graph showing NBS capability in various regions of the temper- 
ature scale, compared with the most immediate accuracy demands of science 
and industry. Bottom: accuracies achieved in NBS calibration of specific 
temperature-measuring instruments. 

vide a central basis for uniformity and accuracy of measurement. Emphasis 
is given to providing NBS Standard Materials (a) where attainment of 
needed accuracy of analysis or accuracy of measurement of characteristics 
is not economically or technically feasible elsewhere, and where such ac- 



12 



curacy is important to users widely, (b) where industrywide standards 
for commerce are needed from a disinterested supplier who is not otherwise 
available, and (c) where continuing availability of material from a common 
source is important to science or industry. 

During the year, 66,048 samples were distributed to other laboratories 
(table 3). New standards issued during the year include: plutonium of ex- 
tremely high purity — 99.97 percent — developed in cooperation with the 
Atomic Energy Commission; cobalt 57, sodium 22, and zinc 65 radioactivity 
standards; a standard paper for increasing the accuracy of measuring the 
internal tearing strength of paper ; and a zirconium alloy for calibrating the 
spectrochemical analysis of zirconium and zirconium-base alloys. 

To meet the need for further information concerning thermal conductivity 
of building materials, a chromium-nickel alloy and a microcrystalline glass 
have been adopted as reproducible standards of thermal conductivity. It is 
hoped that work with these materials will allow accurate measurements to be 
made to as high as 1,000 °C. Other new standard samples made available 
during the year include metal samples with known gas content; specifically, 
of oxygen in titanium and titanium alloys. 

The Bureau continued, insofar as possible, to restrict its calibration work 
to master standards and high-precision instruments, leaving the calibra- 
tion of lower-echelon standards to other standards laboratories. Thus the 
Bureau no longer accepts for calibration, except under special circumstances, 
unsaturated standard cells. Certification of haemocytometer cover glasses 
and testing of reference fuel gas standards have been discontinued. 

National Conference of Standards Laboratories, The Bureau has 
worked in close cooperation with the National Conference of Standards 
Laboratories since its inception in September 1961. This Conference and its 
continuing committees bring together representatives from military, com- 
mercial, and university standards laboratories, to promote cooperative action 
on common problems of management and operation of measurement stand- 
ards and calibration laboratories. Several standards laboratory manage- 
ment workshops have been held by the Conference on Bureau grounds; 
the first national meeting of the NCSL was to be held at NBS Boulder in 
August 1962; and several Bureau staff members hold memberships on the 
general or special committees of the Conference. 

A number of publications dealing with standards and calibrations were 
issued during the year. Among these were Miscellaneous Publication 241, 
which contains a descriptive listing of all NBS standard materials; Mono- 
graph 39, which describes calibration procedures for direct-current re- 
sistance apparatus; and Technical Note 121, Precision Calibration of RF 
Vacuum Tube Voltmeters, Handbook 77, Precision Measurement and Cali- 
bration, a 3-volume publication containing reprints of Bureau papers 
pertinent to the measurement field, underwent a second printing to meet 
a continuing demand for this information. A Standards and Calibration 
column was established in the Technical News Bulletin to keep readers aware 
of developments, both in and out of the Bureau, in these fields. 

13 



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16 



COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES 

In order to bring the results of Bureau research and technical programs 
to bear on current problems of science and technology, NBS cooperates ex- 
tensively with Federal, State, and local governments, national professional 
scientific societies and standardization groups, and many international 
bodies. Cooperation with other Federal agencies ranges from the supplying 
of technical information upon request to long-range projects undertaken 
through various scientific and technical committees. An important example 
of interagency cooperation is the development of government purchase spec- 
ifications and test methods at the request of the General Services Admin- 
istration. Cooperation with State and municipal governments is principally 
in the field of weights and measures. Although the Bureau itself does not 
have regulatory powers, it offers technical advice and consultation to local 
regulatory bodies and it calibrates and adjusts State standards of weights 
and measures. 

Through the participation of Bureau staff members in the work of national 
professional societies and standardizing bodies, the Bureau plays an active 
role in the development of test methods and criteria, in the application of 
scientific discoveries, and in fundamental research programs of national 
scope. During the past year Bureau staff members held 1,250 committee 
memberships in 150 national groups such as the American Society for 
Testing and Materials, the American Standards Association, American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, American Chemical Society, Institute of 
Radio Engineers, and Instrument Society of America. In many of these 
groups NBS staff members work with industry to provide codes and speci- 
fications, standard test methods, and standard data on the properties of engi* 
neering materials. 

Other means of Bureau-industry cooperation include the Research Associ- 
ate Plan and the donor program. Under the Research Associate Plan, tech- 
nical, industrial, and commercial organizations can support work at the 
Bureau that is of special interest to them, yet of sufficient general interest to 
justify use of government facilities. The work is done by research associates 
who are paid by the sponsor but otherwise function as members of the 
Bureau staff. At the present time, the following groups are supporting 
research associates at the Bureau : 

Sponsor Field of Activity 

American Dental Association Dental research 

American Electroplaters' Society Galvanic effects associated with coating 

failure 
American Society for Testing and Materials Cement reference laboratory 
American Standards Association Codes, specifications, and standards 

Asphalt Roofing Industry Bureau Asphalt roofing research 

Bone Char Research Project, Inc. Studies of adsorption and adsorbents 

NBS-Joint Committee on Chemical Analy- Standard X-ray diffraction powder patterns 

sis by Powder Diffraction Methods: 

ASTM, American Crystallographic 

Assoc, Institute of Physics (British), 

National Assoc, of Corrosion Engineers 

17 



Sponsor Field of Activity 

National Science Foundation-National Re- Atomic physics 

search Council 
Porcelain Enamel Institute Studies of metallic coatings 

The donor program was authorized in 1950 by Public Law 619 under 
which the Bureau may accept funds for the purpose of furthering its work. 
This arrangement permits individuals as well as technical, industrial, and 
commercial organizations to support work at the Bureau when the results are 
expected to be of value to the general public. During the past year, the 
following projects were supported by gifts: 

Donor Field of Activity 

American Iron and Steel Institute Durability of steel pilings 

American Iron and Steel Institute Standard samples program 

Corrosion Research Council of the Engi- Reactions at metal surfaces and stress cor- 

neering Foundation rosion 

Edward Orton, Jr., Ceramic Foundation Research in clays 

Expanded Shale, Clay and Slate Institute Shale aggregate 

International Activities. On an international basis, the Bureau rep- 
resents the interest of the Government and American science in matters 
dealing with the establishment and maintenance of standards and estab- 
lishment of values for physical constants. Most of this work is done through 
participation in a large number of international groups such as the Inter- 
national Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Union of Pure 
and Applied Chemistry, International Scientific Radio Union, International 
Commission on Illumination, and International Organization for Standard- 
ization. Staff members attend a large number of international meetings 
during the year, and the Bureau frequently plays a major role in organizing 
international committees. 

An important aspect of the Bureau's international activities is the con- 
tribution to the establishment or development of foreign standards labora- 
tories. This is particularly important for newly developed countries where 
the experience of the Bureau and its personnel can be usefully applied toward 
a new activity. This type of aid takes two forms : the loan of Bureau experts 
to the countries interested in establishing new laboratories, and foreign 
specialists coming for training to the Bureau. During the past year, 187 
trainees and guest workers from 48 countries came to NBS. In addition, 
590 foreign scientists visited the Bureau from 54 countries. 

There are NBS field stations located in several countries of the world, 
as part of the Bureau's radio propagation program. One of the most sig- 
nificant is the Jicamarca Observatory in Peru, set up in cooperation with 
the Instituto Geofisico de Huancayo for ground-based explorations of the 
upper atmosphere and outer space. 

For the first time this year, the Bureau engaged in a program of granting 
funds to scientific institutions in certain foreign countries, in order to support 
scientific research supplementing the Bureau's own in-house research pro- 
gram. These grants are financed from local-currency funds accruing to 
the United States from the sale of surplus farm products: they are therefore 

18 



limited to countries where an excess balance of such funds has accumulated. 
The program has thus far operated in India, Israel, and Pakistan. Eleven 
grants were conferred during the first year, about 20 more were initiated 
and are being processed, and an additional 30 requests for support are under 
consideration. 

Grants already in effect cover such topics as calculation of atomic proper- 
ties of rare earth elements from their optical spectra, lifetime and line shape 
measurements of spectra of rare earth ions in crystals, study of molecular 
interactions by means of infrared spectroscopy and of the effects of adsorp- 
tion on infrared spectra, theoretical and experimental investigations of the 
Moessbauer effect, studies of the excluded volume in multi-component poly- 
electrolyte systems and other investigations in statistical mechanics, X-ray 
crystallographic research in solid-state polymerization, separation of optical 
isomers by gas-liquid partition chromatography, and solution of boundary 
value problems on a digital computer. 

In addition to the scientific results of these activities, the program has 
resulted in an increased interest among foreign scientists in the kinds of 
problems relevant to the Bureau's mission, in greater awareness among 
Bureau staff members of the scientific potential in other countries, and in 
intensified communications and exchanges of visits. 

ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES 

Several organizational changes were made during 1962 to strengthen 
various program areas and to accommodate changes in program orientation. 
As part of the Bureau's intensive efforts to improve its standards and 
measurement capabilities in the field of electronics, a Radio Standards 
Laboratory was established at Boulder. The new Laboratory, which replaces 
the former Radio Standards Division, includes two divisions, Radio Physics 
and Circuit Standards (see appendix 3.1) . This will provide for subdivision 
of this rapidly expanding program while preserving unified direction. 

More appropriate titles were selected for two divisions. Organic and 
Fibrous Materials was changed to Polymers Division, and a new section 
structure was established to reflect that division's increasing concern with 
the physical and chemical properties of polymers. Mineral Products be- 
came the Inorganic Solids Division, since this title is more descriptive of 
the division's current program. In addition, the section organization of 
the Metallurgy Division was realined to provide increased emphasis on the 
interpretation of properties of materials in terms of their structure. 

A new position, Assistant to the Director for Weights and Measures 
Administration, was established with responsibility for administrative 
advisory services to officials of the States on weights and measures matters. 
Technical services to the States and business and industry in this area 
of measurement remains with the office of Weights and Measures, which has 
become a technical division of the Bureau. 

In a significant effort to meet urgent demands for basic atomic data 
in support of space sciences, and to offset the growing shortage of scientists 

19 




Architects rendering of the administration building now under construction at 
the new NBS laboratories in Gaithersburg, Maryland. (See p. 20.) 



trained in atomic physics and astrophysics, the Bureau joined with the 
University of Colorado to establish the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astro- 
physics on the University campus at Boulder, Colo. (See p. 8.) The 
joint institute arrangement is an innovation in Government-university rela- 
tionships, providing for the collaboration of university and government 
scientists in an institute which will undertake the training of scientists and 
students as well as providing a unique center for research in this highly 
specialized field. 

During fiscal year 1962 funds obligated by the Bureau totaled $74,238,000. 
This included $29,082,000 for construction and facilities. Of the $38,764,000 
devoted to research and development activities, $23,759,000 came from 
direct appropriations to the Bureau, and $15,005,000 from other govern- 
ment agencies and private sources. Calibration, testing, and other services 
amounted to an additional $6,392,000. A statement of financial data is 
contained in appendix 3.3. 

By the end of the year, the total staff of the Bureau was about 4,000 persons. 
Approximately one-third of these employees were attached to the Boulder 
Laboratories. Additional information concerning the staff may be found 
in appendix 3.2. 

Good progress was made during the year toward completion of the 
Bureau's new facilities near Gaithersburg, Md. Construction of Phase I, 
which was started in 1961, has moved forward as planned and should be 
completed during the next year. This includes the Boiler Plant, which 
will provide heat and cooling for all buildings presently planned for the 
site, and the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory, which will house the large 
force-measuring machines, some of which are urgently needed for more 
precise measurements of the very large forces involved in modern rocket 
development. Phase II of the construction was placed under contract in 
June 1962. It includes the Radiation Physics Laboratory, Administration 

20 



Building, Instrument Shops, Supply and Plant Building, and Service Build- 
ing. During the year much effort was devoted to the detailed planning of 
the seven General Purpose Laboratories which will comprise Phase III, the 
heart of the Bureau's new facilities. In addition preparations for seeking 
bids on the National Bureau of Standards Nuclear Reactor were nearly 
completed. 

PUBLICATIONS 

Publications are a major end product of the Bureau's research effort. 
They are the principal means by which the results of NBS projects are made 
available to science and technology. The publications of the Bureau are 
therefore suggestive of the scope and level of its technical program. During 
the year these totaled 989 formally published papers and documents. In 
addition some 367 classified and unclassified reports were issued to other 
government agencies. 

Among the major publications of the year was Experimental Transition 
Probabilities for Spectral Lines of Seventy Elements (NBS Mono. 53) . This 
Monograph presents further data on the spectral lines tabulated in the two- 
volume Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (Mono. 32) published last year. 
For the present work, absolute transition probabilities for 25,000 lines were 
calculated, and the results are tabulated by spectrum. 

Another major publication, and two-volume work, was Chemistry of 
Cement (Mono. 43). It contains complete texts of all papers given at the 
Fourth International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, held in Wash- 
ington, D.C., in October 1960. The Monograph is one of the most complete 
reference works available on the subject, and presents the latest informa- 
tion in most of the fields of cement chemistry research. 

Also notable among the year's many publications was Weights and 
Measures Administration (Handb. 82). This publication presents, in con- 
venient handbook form, a comprehensive guide for the establishment and 
conduct of an effective weights and measures program, whether at the State 
level or for a smaller jurisdiction. Structure Shielding Against Fallout 
Radiation from Nuclear Weapons (Mono. 42), summarizes the results of a 
varied research program at NBS which developed engineering methods and 
data for solution of fallout shielding problems. 

Of the 989 formal publications issued during the year, 160 were published 
in the Journal of Research, and 616 in the journals of professional and 
scientific societies. Also, 122 summary articles were presented in the Bu- 
reau's monthly Technical News Bulletin. In the nonperiodical series of pub- 
lications, 91 papers were published: 19 in the Monograph series, 5 in the 
Handbook series, 3 in the Circular series, 6 in the Miscellaneous Publication 
series, 1 in the Applied Mathematics Series, and 57 in the Technical Note 
series. 

Basic Radio Propagation Predictions, the Bureau's third periodical, which 
is published for a 1-month period 3 months in advance, presented radio 
propagation data needed for determining the best radiofrequencies to use in 
long-range radio communications. 

21 



A list of publications for the fiscal year, which includes several papers 
published in the previous year but not reported, is given in the appendix, 
section 3.7 (p. 187). 

During the year, the Bureau participated in 29 scientific and technological 
exhibitions, with exhibits depicting the Bureau's research programs. Typical 
of the year's shows were: National Academy of Sciences, Washington, 
D.C. ; Space Age Industries and Engineering Exposition, San Francisco, 
Calif.; International Conference on Spectroscopy, College Park, Md.; and 
American Standards Association, Houston, Tex. 

The Bureau's motion picture program included 3,148 showings of NBS 
films to a total audience of 604,222, including educational television. 

2. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 
RESEARCH PROGRAM 

The Bureau's technical program is carried out through organizational units 
called divisions. These are shown in appendix 3.1 in numerical order. A 
review of selected research and development programs is presented in this 
section under headings corresponding generally to these organization units 
but rearranged to bring together related types of activity. 

2.1. PHYSICS, ELECTRONICS, AND 
MEASUREMENT STANDARDS 

2.1.1. METROLOGY 

The metrology laboratories of the Bureau maintain, develop, and dissemi- 
nate standards for the commonly used physical quantities, including length, 
mass, volume, density, and angle, as well as light, color, radiation, refractive 
index, and other optical and photographic quantities. Although some 
measurements are made of quantities measured by the ancients, scientific 
techniques now used provide a considerably higher accuracy than they were 
able to obtain. For example, studies of the properties of a recently con- 
structed gaseous laser indicate that the laser output is sufficiently coherent 
to theoretically permit measurements to wavelength precision over dis- 
tances of 100 kilometers or more. Plans have been developed for using the 
laser to redetermine the speed of light with an accuracy consistent with future 
space requirements. 

Industrial needs accentuate the problem of length measurements when the 
shapes of objects, such as gears, ball bearings, or other moving parts, are 
involved. To aid industry in meeting these needs, a gear metrology labora- 
tory has been established — the first of its kind in the country — and master 
involutes were measured and compared with the standards of commercial gear 
laboratories. Methods were also developed for measuring diameters of 
master spheres up to 3 inches in diameter with a certified accuracy of two 
millionths of an inch. The need for extremely accurate spherical components 

22 



of missile guidance systems is responsible for a considerable portion of the 
demand for precise measurements of spheres. 

Other developments having important industrial implications for eco- 
nomic growth and progress include the measurement of standards for surface 
finish by interferometric means, and the completion of an interferometer for 
measuring gage blocks to one ten-millionth of an inch. 

An example of contribution to national scientific needs is the completion, 
in cooperation with investigators from outside of the Bureau, of a revision 
of the values of physical constants, such as electronic charge and Avagadro's 
number. This work is particularly timely because of the recent interna- 
tional adoption of a new scale for atomic masses based on the isotope 
carbon 12. 

Photometric Units Internationally Intercompared. Lighting equip- 
ment (incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and luminaires) made in this 
country is sold all over the world in competition with the products of other 




Ultra-precise gage block interfermoter developed as part of a program to pro- 
vide length calibrations to 1 part in 10 million. During operation, the alumi- 
num bell jar (left background) covers the optics and working area of the 
instrument, and all manipulations are performed from a control panel removed 
far enough from the instrument to prevent the operator's body heat from 
affecting the measurements. (See p. 26.) 

23 



countries. To assure a fair competitive basis, the light output of this equip- 
ment must be evaluated in comparable terms. Hence, the various national 
photometric units must be in close agreement. Periodically, these national 
photometric units are intercompared at the International Bureau of Weights 
and Measures by means of photometric standards (incandescent lamps) from 
each nation. The latest international comparison showed only small devia- 
tions between the U.S. national standards and the average of the national 
laboratories of Canada, England, France, Eastern Germany, Western Ger- 
many, Japan, and Russia. 

Slant Visibility Meter Developed. Application of measurements made 
by a slant visibility meter to airfield operations requires two assumptions: 
(1) Transmission of the atmosphere is uniform horizontally but may vary 
vertically; and (2) conditions are stable so that the visual range does not 
change significantly between the time an aircraft is cleared to land and the 
time the landing is made. However, experience has shown that under fog 
conditions the horizontal variations in transmission are as great as or greater 
than the vertical variations, and that conditions often change significantly 
within a very few minutes. Thus the accuracy or usefulness of such a 
meter is limited by natural conditions, and a complex instrument will have 
little more value than a much more simple instrument. 

These factors were considered in the design of a simplified slant visibility 
meter for the Bureau of Naval Weapons. An instrument was developed that 
gives a clear indication of ceilings and the tops of fog layers which are below 
700 feet for any visibility greater than 1/16 mile; gives a readily interpretable 
indication of whether the fog increases, decreases, or does not change with 
height; and, if the fog density changes with height, gives an indication of the 
rate of change. 

Four-Filter Thermoelectric Colorimeter. To utilize the superior 
stability of the thermopile as a detector of heat, such a detector was substi- 
tuted for the less stable photocell in a colorimeter used at the Bureau for 
calibration purposes. Four filters designed to convert the nonselective re- 
sponse of the thermopile into responses proportional to the color-matching 
functions of the average normal human eye were designed and built. The 
instrument provides a rapid means of measuring the color coordinates of 
the light filters used in color measurements, and, unlike photoelectric color- 
imeters, it probably will not require frequent recalibration. 

Refractive Index Measurements Extended. Calibrated wavelength 
standards are available from the Bureau for making high-precision meas- 
urements of refractive index at discrete values of wavelength. However, re- 
refractive index over a range of wavelengths is often needed by users of op- 
tical materials. To provide an accurate means for interpolating the Bureau's 
measured values to the desired range, refractive index data were fitted to the 
classical Sellmeier formula relating wavelength to refractive index. A three- 
term Sellmeier equation containing six parameters was used. Three of the 
parameters enter the equation nonlinearly, precluding the use of a straight- 
forward least-squares process. So an iterative least-squares procedure was 

24 



developed by means of a high-speed digital computer. A large number of 
refractive index measurements can now be fitted in only a few minutes with 
a precision consistent with the accuracy of the original measurements. 

Fiber Optics, Although the principle of fiber optics has been studied 
for many years, only recently has any serious work been done toward mar- 
keting items utilizing this principle. As a result, the refractometry laboratory 
of the Bureau is being called upon to evaluate the image-producing qualities 
involved in fiber optics materials. Hence, methods are being developed to 
determine the resolution, numerical aperture, and transmittance of such 
materials. 

Luminance Standards Developed for Photographic Exposure 
Meters. To obtain a good photograph, the exposure must be adjusted to 
the speed of the photographic material. This adjustment is accomplished by 
a photocell which either automatically adjusts stop size and exposure time 
or else provides the operator with information enabling him to do so. At the 
request of the photographic exposure-meter industry, acting through the 
American Standards Association, the Bureau developed luminance stand- 
ards for the calibration of exposure meters. They take the form of an incan- 
descent lamp combined with a blue glass to duplicate average sunlight, and 
a diffusing plate of white plastic. This combination of lamp, filter, and 
diffusing plate provides a 5-inch square of uniform luminance. 

Absolute Measurement of Sphere Diameters. Interchangeability 
in industry requires the use of master spheres whose absolute sizes are known 
to a very high degree of accuracy, and a few sets of these master spheres 
having roundness deviations of less than 2 microinches and diameter toler- 
ances of 20 microinches, were recently manufactured. Consequently, spe- 
cial fixtures were designed and built by the Bureau so that a sphere could 
be calibrated by placing it as a spacer between interferometer plates. 

Fizeau interference fringes are produced when the plates are in the path 
of a collimated beam of light from either a mercury 198 or a cadmium lamp. 
The fringe fractions from selected visible radiations are read, and the plate 
separation at the points of contact with the sphere is determined by the 
method of excess fractions. Corrections are made for elastic deformation, 
for thermal expansion, for phase retardation of the light due to penetration 
and reflection at the base interference plate, for wavelength due to the effect 
of air temperature and pressure and water vapor pressure, and for an ac- 
cessory block to give sphere diameter in its free state at 20 °C. Diameter 
measurements to an accuracy of 2 microinches were obtained on spheres up 
to 1% inch diameter. The apparatus has a capacity of 3 inches. 

An interferometer was also developed for measuring deviations from 
sphericity of small spheres. It consists primarily of a Koesters double-image 
prism having a portion of a sphere as its base, combined with a microscope 
objective of short focus and large normal aperture. The center of the sphere 
is placed at the point where the rays from the interferometer prism are 
focused by the objective. Straight-line interference fringes are observed over 
a relatively large area of the sphere surface when it is truly spherical. 



662336 0—62- 



25 



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Photomicrograph of interference pattern of a surface roughness standard used 
for calibration of stylus-type roughness measuring instruments. The depth of 
the grooves averages 20 microinches. (See p. 29.) 

Revised Length Calibration Equipment and Procedures, The 

intercomparison method of mechanical measurement for 0.01- to 0.09-inch 
gage blocks was developed to replace the accurate but costly interferometric 
method. For the first time gage blocks measured only by mechanical 
methods were certified to an accuracy of ±2 microinches, equal to the 
accuracy of routine interferometric calibration. Plans are now under way to 
extend this service to the size range 0.1 to 1.0 inch. 

Construction and preliminary testing of an ultra-precise gage block inter- 
ferometer was completed during the year. This instrument provides abso- 
lute length measurements of gage blocks in terms of the wavelength of light. 
To achieve the uniform and constant temperature condition necessary for 
length measurements accurate to 1 part in 10 million, a polished aluminum 
bell jar is used to cover the optics and working area of the instrument. 
Unique features include an optical compensating device that modifies the 
observed measurement patterns to facilitate optimum precision of measure- 
ment, and a temperature-measuring system that provides a representative 
internal temperature measurement of the gage blocks under test. 

Glass Bead Standard Samples. New standard samples of glass beads 
were prepared to provide a distribution of beads having specified diam- 
eters. These beads are used by the scientific and industrial community for 
routine calibration of sieves. The new sample, No. 1019, together with the 
two samples previously available, may be used to grade diameters from 
50 to 2600 microns. 

Gaseous Laser for Inter ferometry. A helium-neon optical maser with 
external confocal reflectors was constructed to study the mode patterns and 

26 



frequency distribution of laser output. Interference fringes of the 11,522.82- 
Angstroms (A) spectral line were observed in Fabry-Perot interferometers 
up to one meter in length. Analysis of the fringes showed that maser action 
occurs at five different infrared frequencies spaced by about 75 megacycles 
per second (Mc/s) (or 0.0033 A) within this spectral line. Radiofrequency 
beat notes between these frequencies were also observed. The beat note 
spectrum exhibited a splitting that varied between and 20 kilocycles per 
second (kc/s), probably due to a "hole burning" effect previously suggested 
by others. 

Gear Metrology Laboratory Established. Research in precision gear 
metrology, and the development and calibration of highly accurate dimen- 
sional masters for elements of gears and gear teeth, as well as master gears 
of improved design, are needed for the improved performance of gear 
trains. To fulfill these needs, a gear metrology laboratory was established, 
having temperature controlled closely at 20 °C and a relative humidity of 
less than 50 percent. Equipment for measuring certain elements of both 
small and large gears was installed. As a first step in this program, highly 
amplified charts of the involute form of a series of accurately made master 
involutes were made by means of a recording involute-form rolling instru* 
ment having amplifications up to 8000 X . With one of these master involutes 
and accompanying charts for comparison purposes, a survey was made of 
the performance of involute checking instruments used by industrial plants 
throughout the country. Improvised high amplifications were applied to 
these instruments in place of the 500 to 1000 X amplifications usually availa- 
ble. Agreement within about 50 microinches (or 1.2 microns) was found, 
but the comparisons pointed up the need for precision-calibrated master 
involutes in the various inspection departments of the plants. 

Wave Front Shearing Interferometer. A prism type of wave front 
shearing interferometer was developed. The instrument measures the abso- 
lute shape of wave fronts that are produced by any optical element or com- 
bination of elements (reflectors or refractors). The magnitude of the 
aberration in the interferometer is found to be insignificant for beams smaller 
than an //3.5 cone. If spherical entrance faces are used, this aberration 
can be reduced to zero for any size of beam. 

In the construction of the device, a ray trace through the prism verified 
the observation that the two images of the wave front were rotated relative 
to each other slightly when the shearing action was produced by rotating 
one prism relative to the other. However, other means of producing shear 
were found in which no rotation of wave fronts occurred. For extreme 
accuracy this rotation is undesirable when testing large angle cones of light. 

The fringes produced by the prism are nonlocalized, so the shape of the 
wave front at any position or distance from the lens is obtained by simply 
focusing the camera or other receiver on the desired location. Thus, the 
change in the shape of a wave front, and consequently the change in phase 
at the point of convergence, may be obtained by measuring the wave front 
shape before, during, and after it passes through the point or area of 
convergence. 

27 



It was recently found that the number of reference points that may be 
used (previously believed to be limited to only a few) is unlimited. Thus, 
a continuum of points may be approached and all details of the wave front 
obtained. 

Standards of Mass and Weighing Techniques. An arresting mecha- 
nism was developed for knife-edge balances which requires only one moving 
part and permits all knives and flats in the system to remain in contact during 
the unloading and reloading process. The arrestment error associated with 
this device is a few parts in one billion, at the one-kilogram level. 

No practical method has been available for hydrostatically weighing frac- 
tional-gram weights, due to uncertainties in the meniscus correction. How- 
ever, the Cartesian diver, operating completely submerged, offered a possible 
solution. Hence, a crude closed-body Pyrex diver was blown and allowed 
to fall under constant pressure. It was loaded first with one, then with a 
second, 150-milligram weight, the two differing by about 15 micrograms in 
weight. The difference in fall rate, clearly visible to the naked eye, demon- 
strated the practicability of such a device for the hydrostatic weighing of 
small weights. 

Experiments conducted in NBS shops showed that Hull's method of bur- 
nishing stainless steel to a high finish with a diamond tool was satisfactory 
for standard weights. The use of this process eliminates much of the time- 
consuming and costly polishing which weight manufacturers previously 
performed in order that weights would meet acceptable standards. 

For a given material the surface-to-mass ratio of weights increases as their 
size decreases. It is desirable to minimize this ratio; however, fractional 
gram weights are usually constructed from sheet metal or wire which tends 
to increase this ratio. A method of melting fine wire and letting the surface 
tension of the liquid metal form a sphere — which has the most favorable 
ratio — was developed, and several platinum weights were constructed. 

Recent experiments demonstrated that the passage of small amounts of a-c 
power through a knife-flat contact did not result in a measureable change 
in balance performance. A condenser plate was therefore attached to the 
beam of the NBS one-kilogram balance and energized through the knife 
edge. This device permitted mechanical manipulation of the beam by a 
small externally controlled variable electrostatic force, and eliminated most 
of the uncertainties of operation associated with mechanical members being 
brought into contact with the beam. 

As a part of a continuing program for improving the precision of mass 
measurements and mass standards, a 200-milligram torsion fiber balance 
was put into service for calibrating weights 200 milligrams and smaller. It 
is an equal-arm balance in which torsion fibers (instead of the conventional 
fulcrum knife edge and plane) and suspension fibers (instead of the termi- 
nal knife edges and planes) are used. These fibers, made of fused silica, 
are fused to the beam, which is also made of fused-silica fibers fused to- 
gether to form a one-piece unit. The free end of one of the torsion fibers 
is fixed to the case and the free end of the other torsion fiber is attached 

28 



to a rotatable graduated dial. The pans are suspended in wells from the 
suspension fibers. The position of the beam is indicated by a horizontal 
fiber seen as two parallel horizontal lines in the eyepiece of an optical sys- 
tem similar to that of a comparison microscope. With this system the bal- 
ance is readable to 0.01 microgram. 

To improve the usefulness of the torsion fiber balance as a calibration 
instrument, the illumination of the index fiber was improved and a loading 
platform was added at pan level. The platform can be moved in and out 
of the pan well with the well door open. To further facilitate handling of 
small weights, a binocular microscope is focused on the balance pan. With 
this arrangement, a standard deviation of a few hundredths of a micro- 
gram is attainable. To fully utilize the precision inherent in this balance, 
two sets of suitable national reference standards were made and carefully 
calibrated. 

Surface Roughness Standards, Two types of surface roughness 
standards are used for the calibration of 3tylus-type roughness measuring 
instruments. One, a 2 X 3 inch rhodium-plated plaque, has a 150-degree 
triangular pattern, and the other, a similar plaque made of glass, has an 









Diamond burnishing was shown to give the necessary high surface finish to 
standard weights. The process eliminates much of the time consuming and 
costly polishing previously necessary in production. (See p. 28.) 

29 



etched trapezoidal pattern. Slight deviations from the basic waveforms 
of these patterns recently caused difficulty in instrument calibration, so a 
reevaluation of the calibration techniques used was made. 

The measuring force on the stylus was reduced to a point where no visible 
permanent deformation of the standard occurred, and the traversing velocity 
was reduced enough so that dynamic tracking effects were eliminated. Inter- 
ferometric measurements on gage steps permitted investigation of the 
instrument magnification, linearity, and hysteresis. 

A simple method was devised for the measurement of radius of curvature 
of the tracing stylus. Measurements of the average curvatures in the 
"corners" of the samples were made by microinterferometry, providing 
corrections for the differences between the locus of the stylus motion and 
the true waveform of the sample. Measurements were also made of the 
uncertainty in using a planimeter for the evaluation of roughness, and one 
of the triangular-wave-type standards was calibrated by the planimeter 
method for use as a master for calibration by comparison. 

A series of comparisons of measurements on surface roughness stand- 
ards was undertaken. A British manufacturer of surface roughness meas- 
uring equipment supplied samples, and measurements were compared with 
those of an Atomic Energy Commission laboratory. Average deviations 
from the mean values on four samples were very small, and further work 
with other laboratories is contemplated. 

2.1.2. MECHANICS 

The Bureau's work in mechanics is primarily in the development and 
improvement of methods of measurement of mechanical phenomena in solids, 
liquids, and gases; the establishment of required standards in mechanics 
and the relation of such standards to the prototype standards; the support 
of these activities by theoretical and experimental researches into mechanical 
phenomena; the determination of physical constants of particular importance 
in mechanics; and provision of assistance to other laboratories in relating 
their measurements to a common basis (or to established standards) by 
transfer standards, calibration services, and other means. Measurement 
areas include sound pressure and intensity, shock, vibration, force, strain, 
pressure, vacuum, viscosity, and rate of gas and liquid flow. 

These measurement areas are of vital importance in the missile and space 
programs, which require great accuracies over widely extended ranges under 
extreme temperature environments. Special emphasis therefore is given 
to research directed toward meeting these needs. 

Because of the increasing requirements for measuring mechanical quan- 
tities in defense industries and in government laboratories, and because of 
the requirements of missile and space projects, requests for calibration 
services continued to increase. 

Considerable progress was made in the design of the special-purpose 
equipment to be housed in the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory now under 

30 



construction at Gaithersburg, Md. Detailed data necessary for the planning 
of the Sound Laboratory and the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory were developed 
for use in preliminary work on the design of these buildings. The avail- 
ability of these facilities will make it possible to provide more comprehen- 
sive services in several of the measurement areas in mechanics. 

Infrasonic Waves in the Atmosphere and in the Earth, Infrasonic 
waves having fairly constant periods of about 6 seconds pass through the 
atmosphere of the Washington area. These waves — usually called micro- 
baroms — come mainly from easterly directions and travel parallel to the 
ground. A mathematical analysis of the influence of ocean waves on the 
atmosphere shows that these might be the source of the infrasound. The 
impact of waves on a beach produces the familiar audible sounds of surf, 
and, in addition, the periodic arrival of the waves can generate infrasound of 
the same period in the atmosphere. Experiments are being planned to check 
the validity of this hypothesis. 

The infrasound generated by geomagnetic storms comes mainly from 
northerly directions, possibly from the auroral zone in the Arctic. A new 
infrasonics station is being installed at the Bureau's Boulder (Colo.) Labora- 
tories to obtain data that will supplement data from the Washington station. 
The two stations will show a directional effect that may make possible a 
decision as to whether or not these waves originate in the auroral zone. 

The microbaroms in the atmosphere have their counterpart in the micro- 
seismic waves in the earth's crust, as these waves also have periods near 6 
seconds. Three seismometers of a pattern developed at the Bureau are being 
installed at sites spaced far enough apart to allow determination of the 
propagation speed and direction of the microseisms. It seems unlikely 
either that the microbaroms cause microseisms, or vice versa. Whether or 
not they have a common origin is one question to be studied with the com- 
bined infrasonics and seismics stations. 

Elastic Changes Caused by Static Loads. The nature — even the ques- 
tion of the existence — of the so-called Fitzgerald "resonances" in various 
crystalline materials has engendered much discussion and controversy in 
recent years. According to Fitzgerald's theory, certain static stresses, either 
residual (built-in) or due to external load, cause severe changes to occur in 
the dynamic elastic constants of these materials. Characteristic of these 
changes are sharp resonances and high internal friction at various frequencies 
in the range 100 to 5000 cycles per second (c/s). There is also a general 
loss of elastic stiffness over this range, particularly at the lower frequencies. 

The implications of such effects in the fields of fatigue failure of machine 
and structural elements, particularly those associated with aircraft, are 
serious, as are also the fundamental solid-state problems raised. For this 
reason, the Bureau undertook measurements on quartz, fused silica, and 
polycrystalline aluminum. The technique used was designed to allow easy 
detection of these effects, provided that they actually are associated with 
the theory proposed to explain them or with any similar theory. No trace 
of the predicted effects on the elastic constants was found. This negative 

31 




Stress-strain characteristics of metals at high temperatures (up to 1,460 °F) 
were obtained by impacting cylindrical specimens in a furnace (barely seen at 
right) with projectiles impelled by an air gun (foreground). (See p. 35.) 



result lends support to the conception that either the theoretical background 
employed by Fitzgerald to explain his results is not relevant to them, or 
that the observed resonances are artifactitious. 

Acoustical Repulsion of Birds at Airports. The Fish and Wildlife 
Service is studying the use of acoustical stimuli to repel birds from airports. 
At airports near the ocean, the presence of sea gulls on or about the runways 
presents a great hazard to aircraft. In order that the acoustical signals 
used in this program may be accurately controlled, NBS is working with 
the Fish and Wildlife Service — giving technical advice on equipment and 
on its operation and calibration. As part of this study, scientists from 
these organizations made two field trips to a nearby area frequented by 
these birds. The scientists played at various sound levels previously recorded 
tape of the distress cries of sea gulls. At most of the sound levels, 10 seconds 
of signal was enough to repel the gulls out of sight. Generally, within an 
hour or two gulls would again be feeding at the site. It is not known at this 
time whether the same gulls returned or a new group of gulls flew in. 

Reverberation-Chamber Technique for Calibration of Standard- 
Type Noise Sources, A new reverberation-chamber method of test was 
developed for the measurement of sound power output of noise sources in 
both 1 and I/3 octave bands covering the frequency range 40 to 10.000 c/s. 
The development of the method required specialized calibration of the rever- 
beration chamber and of all instrumentation over an extended frequency 
range. 

32 



The test method was developed primarily for the calibration of standard- 
type noise sources, which, by means of a substitution technique, are used 
in determining the acoustic power radiation of various types of noise sources 
in field environments. The substitution technique may substantially increase 
the accuracy of such measurements in field installations, where conditions 
depart drastically from the closely controlled ones in laboratories. 

Field Measurements of Airborne and Impact Sound Insulation. 
Many nations throughout the world have had rather stringent noise-control 
requirements embodied in their national building codes for the past two 
decades. These requirements have served to restrain the growth of noise 
levels and to suppress the tendency toward inferior sound insulation often 
produced by modern building technology with its emphasis on economy 
and lightweight construction. 

In the United States, the building codes contain no noise-control require- 
ments. However, the FHA has recently taken positive action to incorporate 
noise-control requirements in its building requirements, which are presently 
undergoing revision. 

A considerable amount of work bearing on the development of such re- 
quirements, closely coordinated with the FHA's activity, was undertaken at 
the Bureau. The work dealt with the most pressing noise-control require- 
ment, that of developing impact sound insulation criteria. Reviews and 
analyses were made of numerous foreign publications and building codes 
pertaining to sound insulation in dwellings and of field measurements. A 
series of impact tests was conducted on more than 15 basic types of floor- 
ceiling structures for the collection of data essential to the establishment of 
noise-control criteria in building codes. 

Pressure Measurement. Providing standards and measurement tech- 
niques over the range of pressures of current interest in science and industry 
is a formidable task, for these range from about 10~ 15 millimeters of mercury 
in the ultra-high vacuum range to about 2.5 XlO 9 millimeters of mercury 
(about 50,000,000 pounds per square inch (psi) ) in shock-wave measure- 
ments. At present, standards and techniques are adequate for only a few 
decades above and below atmospheric pressure (760 millimeters of mercury 
(mm Hg) ). Work is in progress on methods of generating and measuring 
pressures to extend the range covered by adequate standards and techniques 
to both higher and lower pressures. Production and measurement of pres- 
sures at the extremes of the 24-decade range of interest involve great diffi- 
culty because of limitations of material properties, etc. 

Advances were made at several levels of vacuum measurement, such as 
in the evaluation of McLeod and ion gages by means of the volume expansion 
technique. The first experimental model of one of the instruments being de- 
veloped for the vacuum range was put into operation. This apparatus, 
which is known as an interferometer — oil-manometer, makes use of an inter- 
ferometer for measuring the difference in height between the two surfaces of 
oil in a manometer. Preliminary results indicate that the sensitivity of the 
instrument is adequate to permit its use for measurement of pressures as 
low as 10 -5 mm Hg. 

33 



In the range of high-pressure measurements, a new controlled-clearance 
piston gage was put into operation at pressures up to 120,000 psi. The gage 
is of an improved design with a piston 0.080 in. in diameter. Some idea of 
the performance of the instrument, which met all expectations, may be gained 
from the fact that the oil leaking past the freely rotating, unpacked piston 
would amount to only 1 cubic inch in 20 years at a pressure of 110,000 psi. 
Readings were reproducible to ±1 psi at 100,000 psi. This piston gage is 
being used for a new determination of the freezing pressure of mercury at 
°C and approximately 109,800 psi. These conditions are of considerable 
importance as presenting a fixed point for the calibration of other pressure- 
measuring instruments. 

Ultra-high pressure measurement work continued with the multiple anvil 
devices capable of generating pressures in excess of 1,000,000 psi. Explora- 
tory work was done on additional types of apparatus in an effort to evaluate 
transitions useful for fixed points at higher pressures. One of these is a 
"two-stage" modification of the tetrahedral device. This modification in- 
creased the pressure range of the apparatus while retaining its capability 
of generating high temperatures through internal heating. 

Hydrodynamic Effect of Hydrophobic Materials, It is well known 
that water will not cling to certain materials when their surfaces are clean 
and no wetting agent has been added to the water. Such materials are termed 
hydrophobic or, since this is a surface effect, the surface may be called a 
hydrophobic surface. Questions have often arisen in regard to the hydro- 
dynamic effect of this property, such as whether the friction between a fully 
submerged surface of this kind and the water is less than it would be for a 
wetted surface. An investigation conducted a few years ago with Teflon as 
the hydrophobic material showed no effect on the friction to flow through a 
tube. 

In a recent investigation supported in part by the Office of Naval Research, 
another situation was studied in which a difference was found between the 
behavior of hydrophobic materials and wettable, or hydrophilic, materials. 
In this situation, the material in the form of a plate was moved in and out 
through a water surface. The hydrophobic material came out "dry," while 
the wettable material retained a film of water on its surface. An added 
force opposing the motion was found to be associated with the peeling off 
of the water from the hydrophobic surface when the plate was moving out, 
and an equal and opposite force, again opposing the motion, was associated 
with the replacement of water in contact with the surface when the plate 
was moving in. As soon as the plate started to move in or out, the force 
appeared and was independent of the rate of motion. 

The forces that in this case — of the nonwettable property — affect the 
movement of a fluid are several times larger than those due to surface tension. 
While their action is of a different nature, the conditions under which they 
become significant are similar. 

Culvert Hydraulics. For the past several years, the Bureau of Public 
Roads has sponsored an experimental investigation of culvert hydraulics. 

34 




Recording data on the performance of resistance-type strain gages when sub- 
jected to varying thermal and mechanical loads. Modern structures, especially 
missiles and space vehicles, must be designed to sustain high loads at high tem- 
peratures — environmental testing of such structures requires strain gages which 
will perform reliably under the same conditions. (See p. 36.) 



A major portion of the study has been concerned with the factors controlling 
the hydraulic efficiency of pipe culvert inlets. However, since the design 
problems of box culverts are also of importance, recent emphasis has been 
directed toward the investigation of their flow characteristics. The box 
culvert is a culvert of rectangular or square cross section, frequently used in 
situations where pipe culverts would not be economical. 

The development of improved inlet structures for box culverts is the prin- 
cipal goal, as it was for the pipe culverts. It has been shown that culvert 
inlets are sensitive to the ventilating effects of vortices over the inlet and 
are significantly affected by approach channel conditions. Consequently, it 
is difficult to define their performance with a single and unique discharge 
relationship. The investigation has furnished adequate methods of bound- 
ing the region of performance to be expected in the field. General design 
criteria for the utilization of susbtantially improved inlets, similar to those 
derived for pipe culverts, are under development. 

High-Temperature Impact Tests. Techniques and equipment were 
developed for impacting cylindrical specimens at temperatures up to 1,460 °F 
with known instantaneous contact stresses up to 90,000 psi. In one method, 
an air gun accelerates an elongated bullet to strike an anvil bar to which 
strain gages are attached, which in turn enters a furnace and impacts a 
heated specimen. As the strain sensors remain substantially at room tempera- 

35 



ture, wire strain gages can be used on the anvil to yield impact stresses with 
an accuracy of 5 percent or better. The gage output is recorded continu- 
ously on oscilloscopes. The technique has been used for determining high- 
temperature stress-strain characteristics of metals at rates of straining up 
to 1,000 in./in./see, and also for evaluating high-temperature instrumenta- 
tion under impact conditions. 

Spectrum Fatigue of Aircraft Structures. Under sponsorship of the 
Bureau of Naval Weapons, programed variable-amplitude fatigue tests were 
carried out on built-up aluminum alloy beam specimens using variations of an 
aircraft loads spectrum. The fatigue properties of the beam specimens were 
found to be similar, in several respects, to those of certain full-scale aircraft 
structures. The test results showed that none of the currently available 
theories of cumulative fatigue damage were adequate for the dual purpose 
of predicting spectrum fatigue life and evaluating the relative effects of indi- 
vidual load levels in the spectrum. However, the spectrum fatigue behavior 
of the specimens was consistent with the measured effects of preloading- 
periodic overloading, and periodic underloading. 

Strain Gage Evaluation. Modern structures, especially missiles and 
space vehicles, must be designed to sustain high loads at elevated tempera- 
tures. Some of the more severe operating conditions involve transient loads 
applied simultaneously with intense heat. Strain gages capable of reliable 
operation under these conditions are needed to determine the capability of 
materials and structural configurations. In cooperation with the Bureau of 
Naval Weapons and Aeronautical Systems Division of the Air Force Systems 
Command, the Bureau developed equipment for evaluating the performance 
of various types of strain gages as they are subjected to rapid loading while 
being heated at 40 °F per second to temperatures as high as 1,500 °F. 

High'Temperature Tests of Vibration Pickups. Modifications made 
in a commercial vibration calibrator and special heat sources permit tests 
and calibrations of vibration pickups at frequencies from 10 to 2,000 c/s and 
at temperatures up to 1,000 °F. A mounting table with a built-in heating 
element is isolated thermally from the shaft and driving coil of the moving 
element by a compact, circulating water, heat exchanger. This simulates the 
situation of a pickup mounted on a hot body and surrounded by relatively 
cool gas. For the condition of uniform temperature, a furnace with radiant 
heat sources is placed around the pickup. Studies of effects of temperature 
on sensitivity factors and measurements of temperature coefficients were made 
on selected devices for the Bureau of Naval Weapons. 

Rheology. Three independent techniques for the absolute measurement 
of viscosity are under development. Studies are being made of the inertial 
effects of a hollow sphere full of test fluid, the loading on a cylindrical 
crystal in torsional oscillation immersed in a test fluid, and an experimental 
technique to eliminate end effects in capillary flow. These studies should 
result in a check on present standards of viscosity, and possibly a convenient 
way of eliminating the need for standard viscosity samples. Some unusual 
methods for calculating nonlinear hydrodynamic effects are being developed. 

36 



These refer, in particular, to the nonlinear effects of inertia and of viscous 
heating. 

Stress relaxation measurements were made on certain rubberlike polymers 
in simple extension. Concurrently, a simple nonlinear theory of viscoelastic 
solids was worked out. This theory, which is only second-order in a certain 
sense, seems to explain stress relaxation data over a surprisingly large range 
of deformation ratios and accounts for several phenomena previously attrib- 
uted to ad hoc molecular mechanisms. A more crucial test of the theory will 
be undertaken with experiments on biaxial stress relaxation. 

Hypersonic Combustion. Stabilization of combustion in hypersonic 
streams of air and fuel is a prerequisite to application of combustion to 
hypersonic propulsion. Research on stabilization and properties of combus- 
tion by detonation continued by observation of a hypervelocity missile in a 
stationary combustible gas. A detonation is regarded as a shock wave fol- 
lowed by combustion. Ignition delays for various fuels were determined 
from observed separation of shock and comoustion waves at the front of the 
missile. Wave shape and position are being used in calculations to derive 
the structure and rate of heat release in the detonation wave. 

Fluid Metering. In an attempt to attain increased accuracy in the cali- 
bration and application of instrumentation, the Bureau of Naval Weapons 
requested NBS to plan and conduct a Colloquium on Fluid Metering. Those 




Final operational checkout for a velocity type vibration pickup prior to testing 
it at elevated temperatures. The pickup (center) will be heated in the furnace 
at left to determine the effects of high temperatures on its operating 
characteristics. (See p. 36.) 

37 



attending were engineers and senior technicians from Naval Air Stations 
and Naval laboratories. Speakers from industry, Naval laboratories, and 
NBS presented selected topics which included the theory and application of 
turbine, variable-area, positive displacement, and differential pressure flow- 
meters with both compressible and incompressible fluids. Calibration tech- 
niques were discussed and laboratory demonstrations were arranged to 
illustrate calibration procedures using liquids, LP gas, and air as the cali- 
bration fluids. Data work sessions were conducted to illustrate the appli- 
cation of existing codes, standards, and recommended procedures to specific 
problems encountered in fluid metering. 

Calibration of transfer reference flowmeters for the fuel flow rate stand- 
ardization program was continued. These meters are used by others in 
the aircraft industry to evaluate the accuracy of their calibration facilities. 
Other work included calibration of reference fuel control units for gas- 
turbine engines and a preliminary investigation into swirl or rotational 
flow and its influence on conventional flowmeters. 

High-Temperature Thermocouples. At least three iridium-rhodium 
versus iridium thermocouples are in current use in various laboratories for 
measurement of high temperature. The alloy wires of these thermocouples 
contain 40, 50, and 60 percent iridium, and 60, 50, and 40 percent rhodium, 
respectively. Reference tables giving temperature-emf relationships up to 
3,800 °F have been published for the 40 percent iridium-60 percent rhodium 
versus iridium thermocouple. 

Observations have been completed on the 60 percent iridium-40 percent 
rhodium versus iridium thermocouple up to 3,900 °F, and reference tables 
for it are being compiled. Preliminary observations up to 3,900 °F have 
been taken on the 50 percent iridium-50 percent rhodium versus iridium 
thermocouple. 

Stability Tests of a New Thermocouple. The Aeronautical Systems 
Division of the Air Force Systems Command sponsored evaluation tests of 
a new thermocouple known as Platinel II, which was developed by an indus- 
trial corporation for use in the temperature range somewhat above that of 
currently used base-metal thermocouples. Ten thermocouples from three 
lots of wire were heated in oxidizing atmospheres at various temperatures 
and for different lengths of time to determine the stability of their cali- 
brations. 

Some of the thermocouple wires were heated by passing an electric 
current through them; others were heated in a muffle furnace. With the 
exception of one sample, the thermocouple calibrations were fairly stable 
after being heated for 1,500 hours up to 2,200 °F. After heating at 
2,300 °F, the deviations from the original calibration were quite large. 

Twenty-four commercial-type Platinel II thermocouple probes were 
exposed to a thermal shock test. Most probes failed before completion 
of the specified duration; however, the test conditions are probably more 
severe than those encountered in most applications. 



38 



Catalytic Effects of Thermocouple Materials. Work to determine 
the catalytic effects of several of the commonly used thermocouple mate- 
rials on gaseous mixtures containing combustible gases and oxygen has 
been completed. The work, sponsored by the Aeronautical Systems Division 
of the Air Force Systems Command, included experiments in low-velocity 
gas streams of prepared mixtures of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, propane, 
and methane in air. Experiments were also made in the more realistic 
gas flows from the burning of hydrocarbons in air. The composition, 
velocity, and temperature of these gases simulated those in gas exhausting 
from a conventional turbojet burner. 

In all these experiments, gold, silver, Chromel, Alumel, and constantan 
were found to be noncatalytic. Platinum, palladium, iridium, and alloys 
containing these metals were found to catalyze the combustion of the 
unburned products. The use of base-metal thermocouples is therefore 
recommended where appreciable amounts of combustible gases and oxygen 
are present. 

2.1.3. ELECTRICITY 

The Bureau's work in electricity is primarily the development, improve- 
ment, and dissemination of the standards of measurement for electrical 
quantities; and the study of the electrical and magnetic properties of mate- 
rials. Electrical standards must be established that are constant over long 
periods of time, uniform throughout the Nation, and compatible with other 
standards used throughout the world. Measurements of electrical quan- 
tities directly in terms of length, mass, and time ("absolute measurements") 
are extremely difficult and are made only in the realization and confirma- 
tion of electrical standards of resistance, capacitance, inductance, and volt- 
age; calibration work is done by comparison with these electrical standards. 

Absolute Measurements, A new evaluation, in terms of the prototype 
standards of length and time, of the unit of resistance maintained at the 
National Bureau of Standards was completed. The evaluation was based on 
a nominally 1 -picofarad symmetrical cross capacitor having a value that 
could be computed to high accuracy from its mechanical dimensions. The 
computable capacitor was used to establish the value of a 0.01-microfarad 
capacitor which then, through the medium of a frequency-dependent bridge, 
established the value of a 10,000-ohm resistor. A measurement of that 
resistor in terms of the unit maintained by the group of 1-ohm standard 
resistors currently used to maintain the National Bureau of Standards unit 
of resistance agreed with the value of the unit with a precision of approxi- 
mately two parts in ten million. It is expected that a comparable precision 
will be attained in the repetition of these measurements. Such a result will 
greatly improve the Bureau's ability to check on maintenance of the unit 
of electrical resistance using a group of standard resistors. 

In addition, repetitions of determinations of the gyromagnetic ratio of 
the proton in a field at the center of a solenoid gave the same value within 
one part in a million. As the field in the solenoid was computed from its 

39 




Highly stable shielded 100-megohm resistor designed and constructed for use 
in the very precise measurement of high voltages. (See p. 40.) Measure- 
ments can be made to within 20 parts per million. 



dimensions and from a current determined with standard cells and stand- 
ard resistors, as had been done a year previously, it may be concluded that 
the NBS unit of current did not change during the year. Since the other 
experiment showed that the unit of resistance maintained with standards 
did not change, this experiment shows that the NBS unit of electromotive 
force was also maintained without a signficant change by means of a group 
of saturated standard cells. 

Precision Measurements at High Voltages, Direct voltages up to 
100 kilovolts can now be measured to within 20 parts per million by using 
a highly stable, 100-megohm resistor of unusual design. The resistor is 
made up of 100 individually shielded 1-megohm resistors which are con- 
nected in series and arranged to form a vertical helix between a ground 
plate and a high-voltage electrode. Brass shields completely enclose each 
resistor and prevent formation of corona at the surface of the resistance coil, 
no matter how high the potential of the shield is above ground. 

Standard instrument transformers for use at 350,000 volts can now be 
calibrated with an accuracy of 2 to 3 parts in 100,000 by employing a ca- 
pacitance voltage-divider technique. This accuracy is significantly better 
than has been available previously even at lower voltages. A 1 -picofarad. 3- 
terminal free-air capacitor is used. Its housing is an aluminum can 7 feet 
high and 7 feet in diameter. NBS measurement techniques and results 
have been compared with those of the National Research Council of Canada 

40 



through cooperative tests of a 350,000-volt transformer built for the Ontario 
Hydroelectric Power Commission. Agreement of test results between the 
two national laboratories has been within about 2 parts in 100,000 on trans- 
former ratios ranging from 2,000/1 to 4,000/1, and over a voltage range 
from 100 to 350 kilovolts. 

Rapid Calibration of Resistance Voltage Dividers. Because of scien- 
tific and technical advances in recent years, the standard resistance voltage 
divider ("volt box") with its self -calibrating feature has become part of the 
basic equipment of many standardizing laboratories. In the past, users 
have generally depended on NBS for calibration of this type of standard. 
With more widespread use of volt boxes, however, it becomes necessary to 
equip other qualified laboratories to perform this task. 

To facilitate the gradual transfer of the calibration of standard volt boxes 
and the evaluation of their performance to other standardizing laboratories, 
the Bureau developed a method which permits the rapid calibration of 
standard volt boxes at their rated voltages. The technique employs a direct- 
reading ratio set and a group of standard resistors or their equivalent. All 
components are incorporated in a test console. The only external connec- 
tions required are those to the d-c supply and standard volt box under test. 
Since most standardizing laboratories already have the necessary com- 
ponents, additional outlay for equipment is not required. 

Vicious Cycle in Storage Batteries. Storage batteries may go into a 
"vicious cycle" during charging under constant potential maintained by a 
generator and suitable voltage regulator. Battery temperature invariably 
rises during charging, causing internal resistance to decrease. If this de- 
crease is sufficient to more than offset the increasing counter-electromotive 
force, the charging current rises. As the current rises, so does the tempera- 
ture — leading to "vicious cycling." Under these conditions, battery tempera- 
ture becomes excessive and deleterious effects result. 

A theoretical study showed that "vicious cycling" could be produced in 
any type of storage battery by limiting the heat transfer to the surround- 
ings. It was found that the rate of increase in current is nearly linear, 
whereas that for temperature is logarithmic. The mechanism controlling 
the temperature-current relation is the activation overpotential for the over- 
charge reactions, namely, the electrolysis of water for which the overpotential 
depends on electrode material and condition. The theoretical predictions 
were checked by charging lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries in Dewar 
flasks at constant potential. Experimental and theoretical results agreed 
except for long charging periods, when heat losses to the surroundings be- 
came significant. 

Electrolytic Conductance in Porous Media. Close-packed beds of 
spheres provide an easily obtained reproducible medium for studying the 
effect of capillary or pore size on electrolytic conductivity. For a rhom- 
bohedrally packed column of equally sized inert spheres, the fraction of 
space occupied by the spheres is 0.74. This value is independent of sphere 
size. Thus, if the electrical conductance of an electrolytic solution is meas- 



662336 0—62- 



41 



ured in a particular cell in the presence of spheres (beads) and then in their 
absence, the ratio of the conductances would be 0.26 if the change in volume 
were the only effect and the conductance of the beads themselves was 
negligible relative to that of the medium. With increasing dilution of the 
electrolytic solution, however, this ratio would be expected to increase be- 
cause of surface conductance, electro-osmosis, and the increased importance 
of the conductance of the beads. 

The Bureau checked these predictions using glass and plastic beads, 
300 ±50 microns in diameter, in aqueous solutions of potassium chloride 
and hydrochloric acid. For potassium chloride of concentrations 0.02 
normal or greater, the conductance ratio was slightly less than 0.26, probably 
because the unequal size of the beads permitted tighter packing. Below 0.02 
normal, however, the ratio steadily increased, reaching 0.31 at 0.002 normal 
after corrections were made for the conductance of the beads themselves 
(determined in distilled water). Thus surface conductance and electro- 
osmosis produce a 20 percent increase in the electrolytic conductance in 
porous media. For hydrochloric acid and plastic beads over the same con- 
centration range, the conductance ratio is nearly constant at 0.24. This 
result indicates either that surface conductance and electro-osmosis are 
inoperative or that specific interaction occurs between the beads and the 
acid medium. 




As part of an international comparison of voltage measurements, a Canadian 
350,000-volt instrument transformer (foreground) was calibrated to an ac- 
curacy of a few parts in a hundred thousand using a new capacitive-divider 
technique. The 7-foot high, 1-picofarad capacitor to the left of the transformer 
was specially constructed for use in such calibrations. (See p. 40.) 

42 



Corrosion of Single Crystals of Silver in Molten Salt. In the 

presence of a temperature gradient, the corrosion rate of single crystals 
of silver in molten sodium chloride is independent of the crystallo graphic 
orientation of the silver, but extensive mass transfer of silver occurs. This 
transfer, resulting from dissolution and deposition of silver, occurs from the 
hot to the cold end of the crystal and results from a shift in the equilibrium 
between ionic and atomic silver from the ionic to the atomic state. In the 
absence of a temperature gradient, some effects due to crystal orientation 
occur, but no mass transfer of silver takes place. Spirals and square pits 
form on the [100] surface at dislocations in the interior of sub-grains in 
concentrations somewhat less than 10 6 per square centimeter. Some spirals 
and pits also form on [111] surfaces, but not [110] or [211] surfaces. 

Microwave Absorption in Compressed Nondipolar Gases. As part 
of the systematic study of the dielectric behavior of compressed gases in the 
microwave region, measurements were made on a number of pure gases and 
mixtures which do not have permanent dipole moments and therefore do not 
produce ordinary microwave spectra. Significant loss was found in carbon 
dioxide, nitrogen, and ethylene. This loss is attributed to the existence of 
transient dipoles induced by molecular force fields during collisions. The 
losses observed have so far been confined to gases having permanent molec- 
ular electric quadrupole moments, for which the force field has a compara- 
tively long range. These results are of interest in that they provide ,indirect 
information on the magnitude of the quadrupole moments, for which direct 
methods of measurement are not presently available, and on the dynamics 
of collisions. This mechanism of absorption can also have a very significant 
effect on planetary heat balance and on the interpretation of observations of 
the planets using radioastronomy. Venus is of particular interest in this 
respect because of its carbon dioxide atmosphere. 

Magnetism. The nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies of various 
cobalt- and nickel-rich alloys were determined so that these values could be 
used in calculating the internal magnetic fields that exist at the cobalt and 
nickel nuclei for the various alloys. These results will provide information 
to be used in theoretical studies of the behavior of ferromagnetic alloys. For 
the cobalt-rich alloys, isotopically enriched Ni 61 was used. This enriched 
nickel contained 99.9 percent of isotope 61 as compared with approximately 
1.5 percent of isotope 61 found in ordinary nickel metal. The alloys were 
prepared in powder form, in which the largest particle size was 10 microns, 
and carefully annealed. A successful search was then made for the nuclear 
magnetic resonances of Co 59 and Ni 61 . 

At the cobalt nucleus in the 99 percent and 1 percent Ni 61 alloys, the 
same value of internal field was found as for the 100 percent cobalt metal 
( — 212,000 gauss). The same value of magnetic field existed at the nickel 
nucleus for the pure nickel metal as for the 99 percent Ni-1 percent Co alloy 
( — 57,000 gauss). The value of the magnetic field at the cobalt nucleus 
in the 99 percent Ni-1 percent Co alloy was found to be —112,000 gauss, 



43 



and the magnetic field at the nickel nucleus in the 99 percent Co- 1 percent 
Ni alloy was found to be — 170,000 gauss. 

The calculated magnetic fields at the nickel nucleus are based on a value 
of a nuclear moment of Ni of 0.9 nuclear magneton instead of on the usually 
accepted value of 0.3. Several groups of investigators are presently at- 
tempting to remeasure this quantity. 

A series of Os +4 complexes were prepared and measurements made of 
their magnetic susceptibilities. The paramagnetism of the osmium (iv) 
complexes was found to be independent of temperature and to increase as 
the osmium ions are separated. An equation was derived to describe the 
results. The results were shown to be in agreement with the intermediate 
coupling scheme, and values for the spin-orbit coupling constants and 
coulomb interactions were calculated to a relatively high degree of accuracy. 

Absolute measurements of susceptibilities were made for more than a 
year on two compounds, [CoHg(CNS) 4 ] and (NH 4 ) 2 OsCl 6 , which are being 
considered for standards of paramagnetic susceptibilities. These materials 
are performing in a very satisfactory manner. It is hoped that such stand- 
ard materials will improve the accuracy with which equipment capable of 
making only relative measurements can be calibrated. 




Deposition of silver on silver single crystal after exposure to molten sodium 
chloride in a silver crucible for 15 hours. Such studies have shed much light 
on electrolytic processes. (See p. 43.) 

2.1.4. RADIO STANDARDS 

The Bureau program in radio standards, centered at the Boulder Labora- 
taries, plays an important part in the economy and defense of the country. 
As the electronic industry continues to expand, the role of this program 
becomes increasingly important. Its aim is to provide the central basis 
for the complete, consistent, uniform, and accurate measurement of physical 
quantities relating to radio science, and to assure international coordination 
in such measurements. 

44 



The results of this program include, for example, the determination of 
new theories which radio scientists can exploit, the invention and develop- 
ment of new instruments and measuring devices which the instruments 
industry can produce, the provision of accurate data on the properties of 
materials, the provision of calibration and broadcast services which furnish 
yardsticks for radio measurments to hundreds of industrial and military 
laboratories over the country, and consultation and instruction which assist 
in the solution of industrial and government research, development, operation 
and training problems. 

With the continued rapid expansion of the electronics industry and the 
development of systems and space vehicles of increasing sophistication, 
increasing demands have been made on the Bureau to increase the scope 
of its radio standards and services. Since the requirements have increased 
more rapidly than standards could be supplied, some standards are neces- 
sarily lacking. This lack constitutes significant portion of what is referred 
to as a "measurement gap." 

As an initial step in closing this part of the "gap," the radio standards 
program was expanded appreciably during the year, following the appro- 
priation of supplemental funds. Based upon available information con- 
cerning measurement needs and apparent trends, a systematic plan is being 
developed for defining the expansion of effort required to meet these needs 
and as an aid in establishing the optimum program with available facilities. 
Efforts are also being intensified to find and use other effective ways to assist 
electronic laboratories in their use of the National standards. These ways 
include publications, sponsoring of conferences, conducting of courses, and 
participation in the National Conference of Standards Laboratories. 

Radio Physics 

In its program on radio physics, the Bureau conducts research concerning 
the interaction of electromagnetic fields with matter. Such studies have 
possible application to radio standards, frequency standards, time scales, 
atomic and aggregate properties of matter, and constants of nature. This 
research leads to the development and international coordination of certain 
national standards of measurement. The dissemination of such standards 
is accomplished by broadcast and calibration services, and results of the 
complete program are made known by publication and consultation. 

United States Frequency Standard, The United States Frequency 
Standard, whose present accuracy is better than one second in 3,000 years, 
has been modified to provide a complete multiplier chain and servosystem 
for controlling the frequency of a quartz oscillator with the cesium resonance 
frequency. This improvement will reduce the quartz spectral line width 
by a factor of one-half, thereby increasing the stability of the system. The 
performance of the servo system has been evaluated by observing frequency 
shifts as a function of many of the system parameters, such as gain, modu- 
lation frequency, bandwidth, phase shift and others. It was found by com- 

45 



parison with results of more direct manual methods of measurements that 
systematic errors were ±3 X 10~ 12 . The servosystem approach to the 
problem of using cesium or thallium as a frequency standard permits the 
realization of greater precision than can be obtained with a manual method. 
At the same time, more meaningful long term averages of the frequency of 
the working standard may be obtained less tediously. Further, equipment 
to permit the simultaneous operation of two cesium beam machines in the 
servo mode has been constructed and initial performance tests have been 
made. 

Atomic Time Scale, In order to use atomic frequency standards to 
measure time it is necessary to count the number of cycles which have 
occurred during the elapsed time. During the past year an apparatus 
which counts cycles directly has been built and is being improved. Another 
method of obtaining time is by a mathematical analysis of data pertaining 
to a number of continuously operating frequency standards. If the fre- 
quencies are measured at periodic intervals and plotted against the nominal 
value of the time, the exact time can be shown to be proportional to the 
area under the curve: that is, the integral of the frequency with respect to 
the nominal time evaluated from the beginning to the end of the desired 
interval. Considerable effort has been devoted to exploiting this method. 
The procedure was applied to several quartz oscillators, including the one 
which controls WWV. Data going back to 1957 are being studied. The 
purpose of this study was to test the consistency of various determinations 
of atomic time — to see whether it could live up to its expectation as the 
ultimate standard of time suitable for such critical activities as aerospace 
navigation, etc. 

Ft, Collins Radio Station, For many years the Bureau has operated 
high-frequency standard frequency stations WWV at Greenbelt, Md., and 
WWVH at Maui, Hawaii. However, the accuracy attainable from the use 
of these high-frequency broadcasts is inadequate for many present-day 
satellite and missile programs. Experimental low frequency broadcasts 
from WWVL Sunset, Colo., at 20 kc/s and WWVB Boulder, Colo., at 
60 kc/s have indicated that considerable improvement in accuracy can be 
obtained at these frequencies. Since October 28, 1961, the carrier fre- 
quency of WWVL has been automatically phase locked to the United States 
frequency working standard located in the Boulder Laboratories by a radio 
link. This arrangement has maintained the carrier stability as trans- 
mitted to about two parts in 10 11 . The success of these experimental broad- 
casts provided technical justification for the construction of new facilities 
at Ft. Collins, Colo. 

The Ft. Collins site was selected because it most nearly met all of the 
required technical conditions including that of exceptional ground con- 
ductivity. The installation will cover a land area of approximately 379 
acres and the antenna system will be supported by eight steel towers approxi- 
mately 400 feet in height, weighing about 60,000 pounds each. Trans- 
mitters presently under construction are of greatly increased power (7-kw 

46 




In addition to improving frequency measurements by modifying the existing 
cesium frequency standards, NBS has started construction of an entirely 
new cesium-beam device. This NBS III atomic frequency standard has an 
oscillating field separation of approximately 3 meters. (See p. 45.) 



radiated power on 60 kc/s and 1-kw on 20 kc/s) and range in order that a 
more favorable signal-to-noise ratio may be achieved and thus ' a more 
reliable coverage during any given 24-hour period. The accuracy of the 
present system is analogous to a clock having the capability to maintain the 
time to within two seconds in 300 years. However, efforts are being 
exerted continually to improve this accuracy. 

Fundamental Constants 

Speed of Electromagnetic Radiation. The speed of electromagnetic 
radiation is being redetermined using a Michelson interferometer at 6-milli- 
meter wavelength. Experimentally, this consists of a 2-foot square horn and 
a 5-foot square plane mirror which can be moved through a known distance 
of about one meter. The horn is excited by a klystron of very accurately 
known frequency. The wavelength in room air is measured by counting the 
number of minima in the signal leaving the interferometer as the mirror is 
moved. Corrections must be made for both refraction in the air and diffrac- 
tion effects. The latter provide a serious difficulty and require extensive 
mathematical analysis. The apparatus was placed in operation during the 
past year, and a preliminary value agreeing with the accepted one within a 
few parts in a million has been obtained. It is expected that the experiment 
will be completed during the next year. 

47 



A more novel method for the redetermination of the speed of electro- 
magnetic radiation employs gamma rays and the Mossbauer effect. This 
experiment is unusual in that it involves radiation traveling only in one 
direction over a path. A source and absorber are mounted on piezoelectric 
transducers which vibrate at a frequency of about 1000 Mc/s. The absorp- 
tion goes through a maximum when the distance is such that the time neces- 
sary for the radiation to travel between the transducers is a whole number oi 
periods of vibration. The time is also equal to the distance divided by the 
speed of propagation. The assembly of the apparatus is approaching com- 
pletion, and it is hoped that a preliminary experiment will take place shortly. 
Ultimately, it is hoped that an accuracy of the order of one part in 10 7 can 
be achieved. 

Fine Structure Measurements. The fine structure constant a, for which 
two previous measurements have given values containing significant differ- 
ences, is also being remeasured. This constant is related to the charge of 
the electron, e, the speed of light, c, and Planck's constant, h, by means of 
the equation a=27re 2 /hc. This direct connection with the other atomic 
constants is an indication of its importance. 

A program to redetermine this constant by a microwave measurement of 
the fine structure of singly ionized helium has been started in the past year. 
This new measurement is expected to resolve the discrepancy between the 
two previously obtained values of a. The measurement will also be a test of 
the validity of the theory of the fine structure of hydrogenlike atoms. When 
the magnetic field is zero, the fine structure of singly ionized helium exhibits 
two resonances. The 14 Gc/s resonance, known as the "Lamb Shift," has 
been previously measured to within ±4.5 Mc/s. The present experiment is 
intended to observe the other resonance at 161 Gc/s per second, which has not 
been observed by microwave methods. 

Millimeter Waves. NBS, one of the first to construct and operate micro- 
wave Fabry-Perot interferometers with both flat and spherical mirrors, is 
vigorously exploring the operation of these devices in detail. It is expected 
that the present theory will be substantiated to a large degree and modified 
in some deails. Microwave engineering has been given a completely new 
type of resonator by this recent result from physical optics. 

Attention is being devoted to the application of these resonators as refrac- 
tometers and spectrometers. During the past year an absorption cell, using 
a parallel plate interferometer for the observation of Stark effects in molecu- 
lar spectra, has been constructed. The Stark effect concerns the splitting of 
spectral lines by the application of electric fields, and provides an unex- 
ploited possibility of measuring d-c and low-frequency voltages to very high 
precision. It is expected that in the next few months preliminary experi- 
ments on the use of the Stark effect as a method of measuring voltage will 
be completed. 

A very efficient method for transmitting millimeter wave power has been 
designed in which spherical mirrors are used as part of a periodically re- 
focused transmission line. Alternatively, the mirrors may be replaced by 

48 



lenses, in which case the Goubau transmission line results. These are prom- 
ising new methods for handling millimeter wave power, which suffers such 
prohibitive attenuation in conventional waveguide circuits. An experimental 
evaluation of these various new transmission techniques will be undertaken as 
part of the millimeter wave research activity. 

Coherent Light. The extension of the realm of coherent radiation 
through the advent of the optical maser provides many opportunities for new 
methods of communication and for measurement of fundamental constants. 
Therefore it is necessary for the Bureau to develop competence in this field. 

During the past year a pulsed ruby laser has been assembled at the Boulder 
Laboratories. This laser, powered by powerful xenon flash lamps, has a 
coherent light output at a wavelength of 6943 A which can be focused by 
means of an ordinary lens to provide a high-energy density of optical radia- 
tion, making feasible experiments that a few years ago were impossible. 
One such experiment now under investigation consists of irradiating certain 
organic crystals with the intense light of the ruby laser. These organic crys- 
tals have optical absorption bands at nearly twice the frequency of the ruby 
laser. In order that the crystals absorb photons from the laser beam one 
must have what is known as a two-photon process. The organic crystal ex- 
cited through photon absorption decays back to the ground state via a 5000 A 




The Stark effect — splitting of spectral lines by the application of electric 
fields — is being investigated as a means for measuring d-c and low-frequency 
voltages to very high precision. This experiment employs millimeter wave 
techniques which were developed at NBS. (See p. 48.) 

49 



fluorescent state. The detection of the two-photon process will be accom- 
plished by observing the 5000 A emission line on spectrographs plates. 
The experiment should provide a better correlation between experiment and 
theory of two-photon processes. 

In addition to this experiment two helium-neon gas masers are under con- 
struction, and it is expected that they will be placed in operation during the 
next year. They will be studied with regard to communication possibilities 
and with regard to use in new determinations of the velocity of light. 

Radio Plasma Studies, A broad program designed to delve into the 
basic physics of plasmas, principally as related to the interaction of plasmas 
with electromagnetic radiation, is currently under way. A laboratory pro- 
gram in this field can be expected to yield valuable information concerning 
fundamental processes of the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere 
and exosphere and in the transmission of signals through the plasma sheath 
surrounding a satellite. Moreover, such investigations are likely to lead to 
the development of new devices, such as mixers and harmonic generators, 
useful in the millimeter and submillimeter region. 

Bounded Plasma Calculations. An important result of the past year's 
work has been the theoretical analysis of an experiment concerned with the 
propagation of a wave through an over-dense, highly magnetized bounded 
plasma. Carried out in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Research Estab- 
lishment in Harwell, England, this work was predicated upon the so-called 
"whistler" plane wave mode derived in basic magneto-ionic theory. Com- 
plete analysis of the results, however, indicates frequency regions, both of 
propagation and of attenuation, that are not explained by the original 
"whistler" mode theory for unbounded plasma. The detailed bounded 
plasma solution not only predicts many "whistlerlike" modes, but also new 
sets of modes that are relatively nondispersive. 

Reaction Rate Coefficients. Much of the work carried on in the plasma 
area is of particular interest to the upper atmospheric physicist. One task 
is concerned with determining atomic and molecular reaction rate coeffi- 
cients, especially of gases associated with ionospheric phenomena. The 
present state-of-the-art is such that the known data constitutes only a small 
part of that which is required, and even that small fraction is subj ect to large 
uncertainities. Present work is concerned with refinement of microwave 
and optical plasma diagnostic tools, and with development of new techniques. 
Two such new techniques, which are particularly suited to investigating a 
far afterglow of a nitrogen discharge, are a microwave surface wave device 
using a helical structure, and an audio frequency technique involving the 
Hall effect. Optical and infrared spectroscopic techniques are being used 
on both carbon and nitrogen atoms and on such molecules as C 2 , C 3 , CH. CH : . 
H 2 , CN, and NO. The carbon processes are characteristic of comet tails 
and the others are evolved in upper atmospheric mechanisms. The partic- 
ular aim of this work is to evaluate the probabilities of some of the transi- 
tions from the excited states of these species. In addition, the energy ex- 
change processes involving these species are being investigated. 

50 



Plasma Waves. Plasma waves, or oscillations, are a function of such 
properties as electron density and temperature and consequently offer a 
possible key to determination of these parameters. Further, various in- 
stabilities that are preventing successfully controlled thermonuclear re- 
actions are intimately related to these plasma waves. An experiment is cur- 
rently under way in an attempt to generate such oscillations in the form 
of a longitudinal electro-acoustic wave and to compare the propagation 
constant and other properties of this wave with those predicted by theory. 

Most of the previous and present work is based upon various linear or 
at least linearized theories. While the most pressing need is for completion 
of these tasks, other future work involves the extension into the domain of 
non-linear phenomena. This includes the generation and detailed investiga- 
tion of plasma "striations" and the use of an arc discharge as a means of 
harmonic generation in the millimeter wave region. 

Particle-Plasma Interaction. Some exospheric and solor phenomena 
result from the interaction of beams of charged particles with plasma, par- 
ticularly the generation of electromagnetic waves in space. During the past 
year a laboratory experiment has been set up to produce some of these 
effects — particularly to study the effect of the finite temperature on the 
evolving of "pass" and "stop" bands where none are predicted for zero 
temperature. 

Radio and Microwave Materials. Investigations of the interaction of 
electromagnetic waves with materials are primarily directed toward advancing 
the present understanding of solid state phenomena as well as toward improv- 
ing and developing standards and measuring techniques for determining 
material properties. 

Studies of magnetic resonance phenomena using a recently completed spin 
resonance spectrometer resulted in the observation of interesting electron 
paramagnetic resonance spectra in amethyst, topaz, and aragonite crystals. 
Attention was concentrated on the amethyst spectrum and a serious attempt is 
being made to characterize the spectrum completely and to correlate it, if 
possible, with other known physical phenomena which take place in 
amethyst. » \ 

The synthesis of selected specimens for magnetic spin resonance work also 
received considerable emphasis during the year. In particular, a process 
was developed for growing single crystals of anhydrous sulfates such as 
copper or cobalt sulfate, which are of interest in studies of antiferromagnetic 
properties. Preliminary experiments also indicate the possibility of growing 
sizable single crystals of zinc sulfate, dense with paramagnetic ions. This 
work is in accord with the recommendation of the Aerospace Industry Asso- 
ciation which emphasized the desirability for a concentrated effort on the 
study of materials of known composition and purity. 

Several contributions were made in the continuing effort to obtain better 
measuring techniques for evaluating the properties of radio and microwave 
materials. For example, more accurate measurements of very small dielectric 
losses of material at microwave frequencies were made possible through 

51 




A new technique utilizing the interaction of a surface wave with a plasma is 
being used to investigate the ambipolar diffusion process, a fundamental loss 
mechanism in the plasma. Knowledge of the details of such processes is vital 
to a more complete understanding of plasma physics, and to its application 
to communication and energy generation. (See p. 50.) 

the development of improved TE n mode cavity employing a concentrated 
dielectric post. Research is also continuing in the development of better 
variable length re-entrant cavities for complex dielectric constant measure- 
ment in the region of a few hundred megacycles per second. Four-terminal 
techniques for making measurements in the kilocycle region were completed 
during the year. 

Improved techniques were developed for measuring the reversible complex 
permeability spectra of ferrites with d-c fields applied parallel to the RF 
fields, including the development of variable length cavities for measurements 
of this type. This represents considerable improvement over previously 
used slotted lines. Facilities for paramagnetic resonance measurements on 
ferrite spheres at several frequencies ranging from L band through K band 
were completed, and work continues in evaluating the merit of tensor 
permeability data versus ordinary ferromagnetic resonance data at various 
microwave frequencies. 

The effort in the area of conductivity phenomena was directed primarily 
toward a theoretical study of the electric current density produced by the 
action of an electromagnetic field in electron gas. This work included the 
case where a static magnetic field is applied to the electron gas. and although 
as yet the work is preliminary in nature initial efforts indicate promising 
results. 

Applied Mathematics. Much of the effort in this field was devoted to 
analysis and computation as related to the diffraction correction for the 
determination of the velocity of light with a microwave Michelson inter- 
ferometer. Neglecting the multiple reflections and assuming the mirror to 
be infinite, the correction is obtained from a two-dimensional integral over 
the weighted product of the complex vector, radiation, and receiving pat- 

52 



terns, which are given by two-dimensional Fourier transforms of the (com- 
plex vector) field in an aperture plane. Analysis and programing have been 
carried out for the fitting — with tests of statistical significance — and plotting 
of residuals of the rapidly varying aperture field, using a linear combination 
of products of generalizations of the Fresnel integral functions (each arising 
from an infinite slit with the illumination expressed by a term of a Fourier 
series). Exact expressions have been obtained for the Fourier transform 
of the basic functions, and approximate expressions for the needed diffrac- 
tion correction integrals have been obtained and programed. The analysis 
and computations relating to the velocity of light measurements, including 
studies of minor effects such as mirror tilt, finite mirror, multiple reflections, 
variation of reflection with angle of incidence, aperture probe pattern, 
evanescent waves, and transverse aperture field component perpendicular 
to the nominal direction, will be published within the foreseeable future. 

Microwave Spectral Tables,, The primary aim of this project is the 
publication of a comprehensive set of tables of observed microwave line 
spectra, their intensities, and molecular constants derived therefrom. Present 
literature on microwave spectroscopy has grown to such an extent that the 
existing compilation contains only a small fraction of the available data, 
and some proposed work involving unstable molecules is impractical until 
and up-to-date catalog of information is available. Present activity involves 
the compilation of three volumes as follows: Volume 1 — Line Strengths of 
Asymmetric Rotors, Volume 2 — Diatomic Molecules, and Volume 3 — Hin- 
dered Rotors, 

Volume 1 contains a computation of the subject transition possibilities for 
/=0 to 7=30. Volume 2 will contain tables of Casimir's function and of 
the hyperfine intensity splitting factor computed to I and /, for I and / half- 
integral as well as integral. Volume 3 will contain the microwave spectra 
of molecules undergoing internal rotation. Two additional volumes are 
scheduled for publication during the next year. They are: Volume 4 — 
Symmetric and Asymmetric Rotors, and Volume 5 — Serial Frequency List- 
ings (of Lines of all Atoms and Molecules) . 

Theoretical Physics. Studies in theoretical physics are conducted which 
contribute to basic aspects of the radio standards program. In addition 
to being end products in themselves, these studies occasionally provide key 
theoretical developments on which further work may be based, and form a 
basis for consultative services in both mathematics and physics. 

Perturbation formulas, along with some of the underlying theory, were 
refined and applied to more problems. Specifically, finite conductivity cal- 
culations were made for half-round inductive obstacles in a rectangular wave- 
guide. In the same vein, the general concepts of perturbation theory were 
restudied and some difficult points clarified. A particular point of interest 
was the realization that in many problems to which perturbation theory is 
applied the required power series expansions in the perturbation parameter 
may not be valid. 

53 



A good deal of work was performed in proposing expository notes on 
the advanced theory of waveguide junctions. Many known properties were 
formulated more clearly and some new results obtained. 

A major work which was accomplished during the past year involved cal- 
culating the bound state energies of an exponentially-shielded Coulomb 
potential, which is identified with the Debye-Huckel potential in ionized gases. 
The perturbation treatment of this problem appears to give the most useful 
results obtained to date. 

Circuit Standards 

The Bureau's program in radio circuit standards includes basic research 
on physical principles and fundamental engineering techniques having appli- 
cations in the field of precision electromagnetic measurements. This research 
leads to the establishment, maintenance, continued improvement, and inter- 
national coordination of a comprehensive set of national standards and pre- 
cision measurement techniques for fundamental electromagnetic qualities 
in radio circuits. Dissemination of measurement accuracy is accomplished 
in large part through calibration services, and information on precision 
electromagnetic measurements is disseminated widely through publication, 
consultation, conference papers, invited talks, committee work with the 
technical societies, individual visits to other laboratories, the NBS-Air Force 
Working Group visits to Air Force contractors, and through a Low Frequency 
Workshop for members of Department of Defense standards laboratories. 

Low-Frequency Activities. The design has been substantially com- 
pleted for new instrumentation for the rapid calibration of volt boxes. This 




Measuring the impedence of a high-frequency resistance standard. The resistor 
is one of a new set, ranging from 1 ohm to 2 megohms, for use in the lower 
rf region. (Seep. 55.) 

54 



equipment will incorporate a digitally programed analog computer. The 
elimination of hand computations and data handling will facilitate operation 
of the equipment and preparation of calibration results, and should eliminate 
several potential sources of error. 

Investigation of inductive voltage dividers has led to the construction 
of a number of single-decade dividers having extremely small ratio errors 
(a few parts in a hundred million of input) . Methods are being developed 
for using this type of divider to establish a ratio in a simple manner. 

Repeated measurements on a group of six saturated standard cells at both 
NBS Boulder and NBS Washington indicate that calibrations of electromotive 
force of cells at the two laboratories agreed within 0.4 microvolt. 

Comparisons of three Thomas-type 1-ohm resistors at both Boulder and 
Washington revealed a maximum change of only 0.1 microhm. Measure- 
ment agreement between the two sites also has been to this order of accuracy. 
This is better than the best certified calibration accuracy, so that resistance 
calibrations made at Boulder and at Washington have been nearly identical. 

High-Frequency Activities, A significant addition to the NBS meas- 
urement capability was made in the field of pulse radiofrequency power, 
where no measurement capability has existed previously. In this new method 
the power level of a selected portion of the pulse is compared with a known 
amount of cw power at approximately the safe frequency. The measure- 
ment range extends from 0.25 watt to 10 kilowatts, with a limit of error 
of 3 percent. The pulse width may be as small as 0.5 microsecond, the 
minimum duty cycle is 0.0005, and the frequency range is 30 kc/s to 1000 
Mc/s. This work will form the basis for a new calibration service. 

On a project sponsored by the Naval Bureau of Ships, a special set of 
filter units covering the frequency range from 14 kc/s to 1000 Mc/s was 
developed and constructed for use in the measurement of spurious outputs 
of radio transmitters. These filters allow the measurements to be made 
with the transmitters operating into standard 50-ohm dummy loads, thus 
avoiding the interference that would be created if antennas were used 
during the measurements. Techniques were employed which made the 
characteristics of the filters independent of transmitter power level. The 
design achieved optimum bandwidths while providing less than 10-decibel 
(db) attenuation outside of the rejection band in the frequency range from 14 
kc/s to 1000 Mc/s. The high sensitivity of the units permits the measure- 
ment of spurious signals as much as 145 decibels below the carrier level. 

An experimental attenuator operating in the TM i mode using cylindrical 
waveguide was constructed for investigation. A special two-stage input 
impedance matching unit, necessary to prevent the burnout of some of the 
capacitors due to high currents, was incorporated into the attenuator. The 
unit worked well and, for the minimum launching and pickup probe separa- 
tion which could be used while maintaining a linearity of 0.001 db, pro- 
duced a maximum output of 1.5 volts into a 50-ohm load. Preliminary 
measurements over the maximum range (120 db) of the experimental 
attenuator showed no evidence of the presence of the TE 1X mode. The 

55 




Comparison of a 1 -picofarad incremental capacitor with an accurate section of 
coaxial line. The accuracy of the high-frequency corrections to the 1 -picofarad 
incremental derived standard has been improved. (See p. 56.) 



measurement accuracy at the upper end of this range has not yet been 
determined. 

This investigation was made necessary by the fact that the conductivity of 
the waveguide wall of waveguide-below-cutoff attenuators operating in TE X1 
mode is a limiting factor in the operation of this type of attenuator. Since 
this effective conductivity is difficult to measure accurately, it may not be 
possible to use this form of the attenuator as an accurate measurement stand- 
ard for frequencies below 1 Mc/s. This effect is less serious in attenuators 
operating in TM 01 mode (capacitive type). For successful use of this latter 
mode in a standard attenuator, the less rapidly attenuated TEn mode must 
be adequately suppressed. 

Several improvements were made in high frequency resistance standards. 
A new set of standards, ranging from 1 ohm to 2 megohms, was completed 
for use at the lower radiofrequencies. This set has metal film and solid wire 
cylindrical center conductors with linearly tapered outer conductors. A 
new type of resistor was developed which can be used at high frequency 
with 0.02 percent nominal accuracy and ±10 parts per million per degree 
temperature coefficient. The use of photoconductors for adjustable resistance 
standards has proved successful in calibrating the residual reactance of 
resistance standards. 

Improvements have been made in high-frequency capacitance standards 
by further analysis of losses through utilizing capacitors with different rela- 
tionships between loss and capacitance, by use of mercury contacts rather 
than solid metal sliding contacts, and by analysis of losses from capacity 

56 



coupling through the bearings supporting the rotors of variable capacitors. 
The accuracy of the high-frequency corrections to the 1 picofarad (pf ) incre- 
mental derived standard was improved by use of a new 1-pf fixed capacitor. 

Coaxial line techniques were advanced by the development of a three- 
terminal method of evaluating discontinuities experimentally and by im- 
provements in the mathematical analysis. A bead was developed for use in 
the NBS-Woods connector which makes possible the construction of trans- 
mission line standards. 

Radiofrequency voltage calibration services were expanded to include 500, 
700, and 1000 Mc/s. This was accomplished by using thermal voltage con- 
verters compensated so that their frequency response is uniform to within 
1 percent over a 2 percent frequency range at each of the operating fre- 
quencies. The accuracy of RF voltage calibrations was improved by reduc- 
tion of distortion in the sinusoidal voltage sources and by improving the 
long-time stability of the micropotentiometers to better than 0.1 percent. 

The high-frequency impedance calibration service was considerably im- 
proved by the procurement and evaluation of two three-terminal bridges and 
associated standards. This service was further improved by additions of 
tapers and adapters to various connector types, by improvements in the 
system for calibrating the working standards against the standard 1-pf 
capacitor, and by addition of a six-terminal mount to connect as many as 
five impedance standards in parallel. 

The calibration accuracy supplied for attenuators in field strength meters 
was improved from ±0.8 db to ±0.2 db over the frequency range 400 to 
1,000 Mc/s. By comparing balanced voltages with the unbalanced voltage 
standards, dipole antenna measurement accuracy was improved to ±5 per- 
cent (formerly ±15%) over the 30 to 300 Mc/s range. Attenuation calibra- 
tion services at spot frequencies from 1 to 300 Mc/s were improved to 
give an accuracy of ±0.005 db. The range of attenuation measurement 
was increased by 10 db to a total of 150 db by addition of a new detection 
system. 

Microwave Activities, When microwave instruments having rectangular 
waveguide inputs are calibrated, they are connected to NBS calibration equip- 
ment having rectangular waveguide outputs. The NBS waveguide is usually 
made to closer tolerances than commercially available waveguide, and in 
particular, the rectangular cross section of the waveguide has sharp, rather 
than rounded, corners. 

When the calibrated microwave instruments are used in various applica- 
tions, they often may be connected to apparatus having output waveguide 
with rounded corners. This difference between the measurement conditions 
during calibration and during use, while usually a small one, may produce 
significant errors which cannot be evaluated without a knowledge of the 
magnitude of the reflection at the junction of a waveguide having rounded 
corners with one having sharp corners. 

During the past year this problem was investigated both analytically 
and experimentally, and data were obtained on the magnitude of the reflec- 

662336 0—62 5 57 



tion from such a junction as a function of the radius of the corner. A simple 
formula also was obtained which closely fitted the measured data. 

Since 1958 NBS has had a regular calibration service for microwave bo- 
lometer mounts for only one of the many waveguide sizes, WR90 (8.2 to 12.4 
Gc/s). This calibration service is based principally upon the microcalorim- 
eter, in which the efficiencies of bolometer mounts can be determined to 
an accuracy of 0.2 percent. Additional microcalorimeters have been con- 
structed for WR62 (12.4 to 18.0 Gc/s) and WR42 (18.0 to 26.5 Gc/s) 
rectangular waveguide. The evaluation of errors in the microcalorimeter 
for WR62 waveguide and the design, construction, and evaluation of bar- 
retter mounts have been completed to form the basis of a calibration service 
in the WR62 rectangular waveguide. 

The development of a microwave standard phase shifter for WR90 wave- 
guide has been continued. A satisfactory sliding short-circuit has been 
produced. When the sliding short-circuit is used with a tuned single direc- 
tional coupler, a signal is produced from the side arm of the coupler which 
has a nearly constant amplitude and a variable phase. The phase of the 
signal tracks the position of the sliding short-circuit and can be used to 
calibrate phase shifters. A preliminary error evaluation indicates that the 
phase of the signal in the side arm can be determined to an accuracy of 
better than 0.1 degree. 

The pulse technique for horn gain calibrations has been developed to the 
extent that it gives results comparable with those obtained by unmodulated 
techniques. The pulse measurements are performed under regular labora- 
tory conditions, while the unmodulated measurements were made in the 
small microwave enclosure currently available at the Boulder Laboratories. 
The pulse equipment is capable of resolving a 0.02-db change in a 2-nano- 
second pulse while rejecting a 2-nanosecond pulse of comparable amplitude 
arriving at the detector only 4 nanoseconds later. 

A calibration service for noise sources in WR90 (8.2 to 12.4 Gc/s) wave- 
guide was initiated. This service represents the culmination of experimental 
and theoretical work in the past several years at NBS, and provides a useful 
service to the electronic industry. Measurements of excess noise ratio can 
be made to an accuracy of ±0.1 db (±250 °C effective noise temperature) . 
The basis of the service was verified experimentally with the use of two 
different hot-body standards, one consisting of a gold waveguide section with 
silicon carbide as the load material, and the other consisting of a platinum- 
rhodium waveguide section with zinc titanate as the load material. The 
agreement between the average of measurements made with the two standard 
noise sources was 0.007 db. The oven developed for use with the standard 
maintains the temperature to within ±0.3 °C at 1.000 °C, and the modified 
radiometer developed for the measurement is capable of 0.005 db resolution. 

The calibration of a special cavity wavemeter in WR90 waveguide was 
performed with an accuracy of ±0.0001 percent. This is more than ten 
times the calibration accuracy required for the usual device of this type and 
the full capabilities of the present calibration system were required for the 

58 




Significant advances were made in NBS measurement capabilities in the high- 
frequency power area. Here, a new self-balancing bolometer bridge is used 
for calibrating high-frequency power standards. (See p. 55.) 

first time. An analysis of the rotary-vane attenuator has revealed that attenu- 
ators of this type are potentially capable of better resolution than the usual 
dial mechanisms provided; a rotary-vane attenuator was modified to demon- 
strate this. An improved procedure for the initial setting of the vane has 
been developed which provided a substantial increase in the overall accuracy 
of the dial readings. Also, improved models of fixed waveguide attenuators 
have resulted in greater stability and reduced reflection at the terminals. 



2.1.5. HEAT 

Heat measurements, standards, and related research play a most important 
role in modern science and technology. The Bureau discharges important 
responsibilities in these areas through the maintenance of the National 
standards for such heat measurements as thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, 
and heat of combustion. Internationally agreed upon temperature standards 
are maintained to assure a common scale upon which all temperature meas- 
urements are based. A strong research program aims to keep these standards 
adequate for the expanding scientific needs. In addition, supporting research 
on the physical properties of solids and gases at both low and high tempera- 
tures includes studies in low-temperature physics, statistical thermodynamics, 
high-temperature processes, high-pressure thermodynamics, and in various 
aspects of plasma physics. 

59 



Substantial advances have been made recently in thermometry at both 
high and low temperatures. An inexpensive analog computing device has 
been devised for the spectroscopic investigation of high current density 
arcs, and the acoustic resonator has been developed to the point of direct 
competition with the gas thermometer for primary thermometry at low tem- 
peratures. Combustion calorimetry employing fluorine as the oxidizing 
agent is leading to improved accuracy in the determination of the heat of 
formation of technologically important compounds. Noteworthy theoreti- 
cal advances were made in the statistical mechanics of time-dependent 
phenomena. Nuclear cross sections are being determined using oriented 
nuclear targets at very low temperatures. Experimental and theoretical 
work on the special properties of perturbed spectral lines has resulted in a 
new approach to the determination of molecular lifetimes. A new program 
in molecular spectroscopy has as its aim the precise determination of the 
spectroscopic properties of simple radicals and molecules. 

Analog Computer for Plasma Thermometry. An inexpensive ana- 
log computing device has been developed which greatly improves the effi- 
ciency of spectroscopic investigations of cylindrically symmetric sources. 
The immediate application of this instrument will be the determination of 
spectral line widths and intensities in high current density arcs. Such 
information can often be used for determining electron densities and 
temperatures. It is expected that the principles of this computer also will 
find application in other fields where "side-on" measurements must be 
made of inhomogeneous objects possessing cylindrical symmetry. 

In the determination of temperatures and other physical parameters 
in cylindrically symmetric arcs, spectroscopic observations are usually 
carried out on a small cross section of the arc midway between the electrodes 
and in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the arc. Such "side-on" 
measurements include contributions from the outer, cooler regions of the 
discharge as well as from the hot core. In order to separate the contribu- 
tions of the different radial zones and to obtain the true radial characteristics 
of the arc, rather extensive data handling and calculations are required. 
High-speed digital computers have been employed for this analysis, but a 
significant time delay (days) persists between the recording of the "side-on" 
observations and the availability of the true radial characteristics. By 
using the recently developed analog device, this conversion is performed, 
with an estimated accuracy of within 5 percent, in the laboratory as the 
data are obtained. 

The operating principle of the new instrument involves scanning repeatedly 
an image of the arc cross section across the entrance slit of the spectrometer 
by means of a rapidly rotating prism. The waveform of the resulting train 
of photomultiplier current pulses is then Fourier analyzed and the Fourier 
coefficients reassembled by the computer to give the desired recorder signal. 
In conjunction with a spectrometer scanning in wavelength, it is possible 
to record directly the spectrum appropriate to whatever radial distance has 
been dialed into the computer, just as if the arc were a homogeneous unit 

60 



volume of gas with the properties prevailing at that particular radial 
distance. 

Fluorine Combustion Calorimetry. The thermodynamic quantity 
called heat of formation is used to predict chemical equilibria and to estimate 
heats in such chemical reactions as the oxidation of rocket fuels. Values of 
heats of formation are usually obtained from combustion experiments in 
calorimeters, using oxygen as an oxidizer. Since in many cases it is im- 
possible to obtain complete combustion using oxygen, calorimeters have been 
developed which use fluorine instead of oxygen. The principal advantage 
of fluorine is that the fluorides resulting from combusion are more volatile 
than the oxides, allowing better contact of the fluorine with the sample for 
more complete combusion. Using the special sample preparation technique 
of mixing aluminum powder with finely divided Teflon, it was found possible 
to obtain combustion of better than 99 percent of the aluminum. The heat 
of formation of aluminum fluoride has been determined to be —357.1 kilo- 
calories per mole, and the same technique is now being employed to determine 
the heats of formation of other metal fluorides and borides. 

In view of the increasing importance of fluorine compounds in both na- 
tional defense and in industry, a compilation was made of the heats of for- 
mation of inorganic fluorine compounds, and of organic fluorine compounds 
containing one carbon atom per molecule. This survey, covering the litera- 
ture from 1949 to 1961, lists heats of formation obtained from 625 references. 




Spectroscopic measurement of extremely high temperatures is a useful but very 
complex technique. This inexpensive analog computing device was developed 
to improve the efficiency of NBS investigations of high-temperature arcs. (See 
p. 60.) 

61 



Gaseous Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures. Experimenters in the 
low-temperature field frequently encounter a very large undesired gaseous 
heat transfer associated with tubes leading to the low-temperature region. 
This heat transfer, which may be as large as 100 to 1,000 times normal heat 
conduction, is apparently caused by a gas vibration which can be simul- 
taneously detected in the tube. The transfer, for which no completely ac- 
ceptable mechanism is known, has often been reduced by empirical change 
of the mechanical configuration in the apparatus. 

It has been found possible to eliminate essentially all of this vibrational 
heat transfer in one apparatus with a simple device used as an appendage to 
each tube where the tube is accessible at room temperature. The device con- 
sists of a tubular constriction leading to a chamber whose minimum size is 
partially determined by the size of the constriction. While the device has 
proved extremely useful, the data obtained in the present investigation indi- 
cate that additional systematic experiments are needed to understand this 
phenomenon better. 

Nuclear Reactions with Oriented Nuclei. Experiments were initiated 
on the measurement of nuclear cross sections using oriented nuclear targets. 
This interdisciplinary program (see p. 74) was aimed initially at meas- 
uring the (y,rc) cross section for the nucleus Ho 165 in the region of the giant 
resonance. A cryostat incorporating a He 3 refrigerator was built for attain- 
ing temperatures just below 0.3 °K, where the nuclear alinement, f 2 , is 
about 0.27. The cryostat was of special construction so that the incom- 
ing photon beam would need to traverse only thin aluminum windows before 
reaching the target. The target consisted of a single crystal of holmium 
ethyl sulfate, or in some occasions a single crystal of holmium metal, weigh- 
ing about 7 grams. The design was such that operation could continue with 
the nuclei oriented for many hours, and provision was also made for both 
rotating the specimen and lifting it up out of the photon beam. The cryostat 
was made portable so that after it had been built and tested it could be moved 
easily to the betatron. This work could possibly be extended to other types 
of nuclear reactions, e.g., photo-pion production, elastic and inelastic neutron 
scattering, etc. 

Low-Temperature Thermometry. Primary thermometry experimen- 
tation in the region of 1.5 to 20 °K has led to the development of an acousti- 
cal interferometer for measuring the velocity of sound in helium gas. Meas- 
urements thus far completed indicate that the acoustically determined values 
of temperature are within 0.003 and 0.010 °K respectively of the temperatures 
associated with the liquid helium (at 2 °K) and hydrogen (at 20 °K) 
vapor pressure scales, and the reproducibilities appear to be ±0.002 and 
±0.007 °K, respectively. 

The acoustical thermometry offers the advantage of eliminating some of 
the more serious concerns that are inherent in conventional thermometry, 
i.e., dead space corrections, gas absorption, and required accuracies of pres- 
sure and volume determinations. While these results should be considered 
as preliminary in a precise thermometry program, they do indicate that 
primary thermometry based on the velocity of sound in helium gas is com- 

62 



petitive with primary isotherm and gas thermometry in the region below 
20 °K. 

Steady-State Measurements of Molecular Lifetimes. Several prob- 
lems of current astrophysical interest require for their solution knowledge of 
the radiative and collisional lifetimes of certain simple molecules and 
molecular ions in their excited states. Information of this sort, combined 
with measured spectral intensity distributions of such luminous gaseous 
systems as comets and the terrestrial upper atmophere, would permit deduc- 
tion of the physical properties and conditions of excitation of these remote 
systems. 

Laboratory measurements of molecular lifetimes are ordinarily performed 
by timing the fluorescent decay of a pulse-excited gaseous sample. An alter- 
native approach now being investigated, capable of achieving much better 
sensitivity and spectral resolution, employs a continuous but selective excita- 
tion technique. The molecular lifetimes are determined from an analysis 
of the spectral intensity distribution of the fluorescent light. The analysis 
depends on the special properties of perturbed spectral lines, and so is appli- 
cable only to molecular spectra which exhibit these perturbations. Examples, 
however, include the spectra of such important cometary and upper atmo- 
sphere molecules as CN, N 2 + , and CO + , for which lifetime information is 
at present fragmentary. 

Recently a complete intensity analysis has been made on the CN fluores- 
cence spectrum emitted by the active nitrogen flame — the luminous chemical 
reaction between active nitrogen and a carbonaceous vapor. The chemical 
excitation process in this emission source has the selective nature required 
for lifetime determinations, and the intensity analysis has yielded valuable 
new information on radiative and collisional lifetimes of the CN molecule. 
Similar measurements on N 2 + and CO + require the development of appro- 
priate emission sources. 

Thermodynamic Tables. The mechanized computation of thermo- 
dynamic and related tables of physical data has progressed significantly 
during the year. Calculations have been completed for two monographs, 
one being a detailed presentation of Tables of Einstein Functions (NBS 
Monograph 49). These functions are useful to research workers in such 
fields as spectroscopy and molecular structure, low-temperature calorimetry, 
and the measurement of electrical and thermodynamic properties of crystals. 
The other work, Ideal Gas Thermodynamic Functions for Atoms and Atomic 
Ions, presents tables from 100 to 10,000 °K for 73 elements and their unipos- 
itive ions. These tables have important application in a wide variety of 
fields ranging from the chemical industry, aerodynamic, jet and rocket 
propulsion, to research in high-temperature phenomena, plasmas, nuclear 
energy, and space. Publication of this work is planned for late in 1962. 

Mechanization of thermodynamic calculations has produced general-pur- 
pose computer programs which have application outside the thermodynamics 
field. A second 1 generation general-purpose computer program, OMNITAB, 
was developed for the Bureau's electronic digital computer which makes the 

63 




Complex of equipment used to measure nuclear cross-sections with oriented 
nuclear targets. The plywood box houses a neutron detector and the sample; 
the plumbing is part of a He 3 refrigerator which maintains the sample at 0.3 °K. 
(See p. 62.) 

high-speed computer as accessible to the laboratory scientist as his desk 
calculator. The program instructs the computer, via simple English sen- 
tences, to carry out calculations involving elementary, transcendental, and 
algebraic functions, or to perform a wide variety of numerical and statistical 
analyses of tabulated data. Although the program was designed largely for 
relatively small calculations of a nonrepetitive type, the language, logic, and 
operating feature are such as to make it highly efficient for more extensive 
calculations such as tabulations for two or more arguments, and the numeri- 
cal evaluation of complicated integrals. 

Kinetic Theory of Dense Gases. An analysis of the assumption, which 
is universally understood to underlie the kinetic theory of gases, that the 
/V-particle distribution functions are in some sense functionals of the single 
particle distribution function, has been made. This analysis gives, on the one 
hand, an explicit expression for all orders of density and. on the other hand, 
a series of correction terms depending on initial circumstances, as well as 

64 



the single particle distribution function, which show in some detail how a 
system of distribution functions obeying a functional assumption develops 
from an arbitrary system of distribution functions. This work clarifies the 
theory of time-dependent phenomena in gases and has future applications in 
the theory of chemical reactions in gases and in quantum transport 
phenomena. 

A study was also made of the structure of the H0 2 radical by the LCAO- 
MO-SCF (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals — Molecular Orbital — 
Self -Consistent Field) methods. Based on computations using the 7090 com- 
puter and an analysis of correlations of molecular states with those of the 
combined and separated atoms, the work has developed a new idea of the 
structure of the H0 2 radical. Instead of the linear shape customarily as- 
sumed, the work showed an isosceles triangle configuration is most likely. 
This new idea of the structure may yield information by which this elusive 
radical so well known in chemical kinetics will be finally observed by phys- 
ical means. 

Pair-Distribution Function in Dense Gases, A two-year investiga- 
tion of the equation of state of simple gases and liquids, using the newly 
developed diagram summation methods in equilibrium statistical mechanics, 
has been completed. A complicated nonlinear integral equation for the 
pair distribution function also has been completed. The results these com- 
putations gave are in very good qualitative and good quantitative agreement 
with experimental results on liquid and gaseous argon. In particular, the 
critical constants are given by the theory to within 10 percent. The inves- 
tigation shows that this method is a good first approximation and that succes- 
sive terms of the formal development can be used to give more and more 
accurate computation of the equation of state of simple fluids. The equation 
was solved also for the theoretically interesting case of the hard sphere gas 
and shows no evidence of a phase transfer to a solid state. 

2.1.6. ATOMIC PHYSICS 

The emphasis in atomic physics research has continued to be on the ac- 
curate determination of atomic constants and the detailed properties of 
atoms. Valuable contributions are being made to the national effort in 
space and plasma research and to the national materials program. Signif- 
icant progress has been made in determining and cataloging data on atomic 
transition probabilities and in gaining a better detailed understanding of 
the more complex atoms through exhaustive analyses of their spectra. More 
precise information on atomic collision cross sections has also been obtained. 
The continuing effort expended in studying these fundamental atomic prop- 
erties is yielding the data necessary for a detailed understanding of stellar 
atmospheres and hot plasmas. 

Laboratory Astrophysics, 

Atomic Energy Levels. Information concerning the various discrete 
energy levels within an atom can be obtained from the study of spectrograms 

65 



on which spectra of atoms in different states of ionization can be separated. 
Such spectrograms are especially needed for the interpretation of the com- 
plex spectra of rare-earth elements of the lanthanide group. For this rea- 
son, emphasis centered on the development of sources that will produce such 
spectrograms. One such source is a pulsed-arc type of discharge which 
produces self-reversed lines in selected first and second spectra of rare-earth 
elements. These lines represent transitions to the ground or nearby states 
of the atom. Interpretation of these spectra led to the determination of the 
ground states of terbium I and uranium n. 

Cerium spectra from 3300 to 4400 Angstroms (A) were observed using 
various sources, and some 300 lines of cerium in between 840 and 2000 A 
were measured. A general description of praeseodymium I and n spectra 
is nearing completion. An intensive study of the energy levels and atomic 
structure of these atoms is under way. Theoretical prediction of the posi- 
tions of unknown energy levels of praeseodymium in has aided in the classi- 
fication of about 1,600 lines and the derivation of the ionization potential. 
Investigation of tantalum II was completed. A new description of thulium 
spectra is being determined. The analysis of ytterbium II was essentially 
completed, and a similar study of ytterbium I is in progress. Conclusion of 
the analysis of the spectrum of bromine I leaves this element with one of 




Pulsed arc light source which produces numerous self-reversed lines in the 
spectra of rare-earth elements. Self-reversal greatly simplifies the interpreta- 
tion of these complex spectra. (See p. 65.) 

66 



the best known atomic spectra descriptions. The energy levels were deter- 
mined from observations from 1060 to 23,750 A and the ionization potential 
was established. 

Theoretical research paralleled the laboratory investigations. A Fortran 
code was written which instructs the 7090 computer to calculate two-electron 
interaction integrals from orbitals given in analytic form. With the aid 
of this code, second-order perturbations can be evaluated with minimum 

effort. 

An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table, NBS Circular 488, was published. Sec- 
tion 3 parallels Volume III of Atomic Energy Levels, including selected 
spectra of the elements molybdenum through lanthanum and hafnium 
through radium. Finding lists of sections 1 through 3 constitute sections 
4 and 5. 

Transition Probabilities. Experimental transition probabilities on an 
approximately absolute scale have been derived for the 25,000 classified lines 
listed in NBS Monograph 32. In this Monograph, the relative intensities 
of 39,000 lines of wavelengths between 2000 and 9000 A of 70 elements are 
presented on a calibrated scale of radiant power. In the conversion of the 
intensity values to transition probabilities, /-values were obtained. A critical 
analysis of the chromium I /-values yielded a normalization factor for the 
reduction to absolute values that agrees well with those factors derived inde- 
pendently for 20 elements. These data will be used to derive solar curves 
of growth and to make abundance determinations for additional elements. 

More precise transition probabilities for some neutral oxygen lines in 
the visible region of the spectrum were determined in a wall-stabilized arc. 
In another arc experiment, the profiles of Balmer lines were studied and com- 
pared with those obtained using line-broadening theory. The agreement is 
excellent and makes possible the application of line broadening to the diag- 
nostics of dense plasmas. 

A magnetically driven shock tube was put into operation, and tempera- 
tures of about 30,000 °K were obtained behind the shock fronts. Measure- 
ments of relative transition probabilities for lines of singly ionized oxygen 
are presently being made. Calculations of transition probabilities of lines 
of neutral helium and the lithium I sequence are in progress. This work 
is sponsored in part by the Office of Naval Research and the Advanced Re- 
search Projects Agency. 

The Data Center on Atomic Transition Probabilities and Collision Cross 
Sections, under the sponsorship of the Office of Naval Research and the 
Advanced Research Projects Agency, completed a general bibliography of 
all known publications on atomic transition probabilities, published as NBS 
Monograph 50. All the available data on the ten lightest elements were crit- 
ically analyzed and the "best" values are being tabulated. 

Collision Cross Sections. Photodetachment of negative iodine ions has 
been observed in a crossed-beam experiment. The apparatus used was 
essentially similar to that of previous photodetachment experiments. Good 
"effective" resolution was obtained close to threshold, but an independent 

67 




Measurement of the infrared absorption spectra of gases reveals details of mo- 
lecular structure. This high-resolution grating spectrometer was developed es- 
pecially for these studies. (See p. 69.) 

determination of the behavior of the cross section as a function of wave- 
length could not be made. A step-function cross section, shown by Berry 
and coworkers to approximate closely the true cross-section behavior, was 
used to provide an upper energy limit to the electron affinity shown to be 
close to the actual value. 

A unique method for studying rates of certain types of ionic reactions 
important in gases at atmospheric pressures was developed in connection 
with a study of mobilities of ions in gases in the presence of uniform electric 
fields. The measured mobilities of ions are used to distinguish among species, 
and the relative populations of various species are found to depend on the 
elapsed time following production of the ions in an electrical discharge. 
Elaborate timing techniques permit measurements of the rates at which 
ions are converted from one species to another. 

Far Ultraviolet Radiation Physics. A new group was created at NBS 
in September 1961 with the support of the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. This group is responsible for research activities in the 
area of far ultraviolet radiation physics — the absolute measurement of far 
ultraviolet radiation and the use of this radiation for physical experiments. 
A program investigating the usefulness of thermal detectors as absolute 
standards and another concerned with the physical mechanisms operative 
in flash discharge light sources are fully instrumented and under way. 
The group also calculated in detail the characteristics of the far ultraviolet 
radiation theoretically expected from the radially accelerated electrons in 
the NBS 180-Mev synchrotron. These calculations show that the highly 

68 



polarized continuum emitted by these electrons has a unique application in 
physical experiments. The radiation is also a potential primary standard 
of radiant flux. 

Infrared Spectroscopy of Gases, Measurements of the absorption 
spectra of several gases led to several important results. The high-resolu- 
tion absorption spectrum of acetylene-d^ was studied in the 1,900 to 3,400 
cm -1 region, and the ground state and equilibrium bond distances of the 
acetylene molecule were calculated. 

The combination band v 2 + v 6 of ethane was reexamined in order to 
resolve a discrepancy in the ground-state rotational constants obtained in 
earlier infrared and Raman studies. 

Infrared Reference Standards, A report was issued on the calibration 
of spectrometers from 16 to 65 microns. A number of the rotational lines 
of water vapor were measured for the calibration in this region, but the 
final values are based on the measurements of the rotational structure as 
found in the near infrared as well as the measurements in the far infrared 
region. Work is now in progress to continue the measurements to 200 
microns. Also, the rotational lines of HC1 were observed in the region from 
30 to 150 microns and found to be useful for reference standards. 

Electron Scattering, Most substances that absorb energy from electrons 
do so mainly by interaction with the atomic electrons or with those free 
electrons in metals which take part in electrical conduction. An exception 
to this behavior that is of considerable interest has been discovered in the 
loss spectrum of polystyrene. A prominent feature in this spectrum is a 
loss due to a resonance in the benzene ring. This loss is an unusual case 
of a collective interaction of limited extent. 

Biological Constant Studied. An important constant in biological radia- 
tion physics is the average energy loss per inelastic event, which in electron 
sterilization is closely related to the dosage necessary for complete bacterial 
kills. This constant is also related to radiation damage in biological tissue. 
In collaboration with the Biophysics Department of Yale University, a 
study of electron interaction with tissue-equivalent materials was completed. 
The results of this study, besides illuminating the overall nature of electron 
scattering, showed that the value of this biological constant had been greatly 
overestimated. 

Electron Optics, Being a young branch of science, electron optics has 
proceeded in a nonrigorous manner and many much-used devices are only 
partially understood. As part of a continuing effort to improve the situation, 
the Bureau for the first time undertook a systematic treatment of energy 
analyzers of the retarding type and of the effects of space charge in deflection 
analyzers. Systematic procedures were developed for designing electron 
guns for low-energy beams. These developments open the way for greatly 
improved experiments of physical interest. 

Solid-State Physics, Increased emphasis was placed on the capabilities 
for growing single crystals of oxide semiconductors and insulators used in 
solid-state studies at NBS. Single crystals grown by the flame fusion 

69 




Inside of an electron optical bench which is used for testing electron optical 
components. It was set up at NBS to test a retarding field analyzer. (See 
p. 69.) 

technique at high temperatures ^1800 °C (Ti0 2 , ruby, sapphire), from the 
melt at rather low temperatures '--'200 °C (ammonium sulfate), and from 
solutions (silver iodide, lithium trihydrogen selenite) are now available for 
the many and varied investigations of the solid state. The defect structure 
and mechanisms of bonding for most of these materials were investigated 
by electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and pure quad- 
rupole resonance techniques. 

Through studies of the electronic transport properties of rutile, under- 
standing of the energy levels and conduction mechanisms was appreciably 
advanced. The possible role of polarons and limitations of conventional 
polaron theory were pointed out. This has stimulated theorists to explore 
this difficult field further. Improved methods of preparing homogeneous 
samples of reduced rutile permitted the Hall coefficient to be measured at 
lower temperatures (~2 °K) than had previously been possible. New 
phenomena were revealed in this material which were interpreted as impurity 
level conduction. Analysis of data near room temperature also suggests 
that the energy-band structure of reduced rutile may be more complicated 
than previously considered. 

Optical absorption studies on rutile doped with most of the transition 
metals were carried out over the range 0.1 to 3.0 electron volts at room 
temperature, and in a few cases at liquid helium temperatures. The data 
obtained give new evidence for absorption by the excitation and ionization 
of the added impurities (doping material). A theoretical calculation of 
the energy-level system for the case of vanadium-doped rutile showed that 

70 



a reasonable explanation of the observed spectrum requires considerable 
electronic bonding between the vanadium and the surrounding oxygen ions. 

Theoretical investigations of the equation of state indicate that Gruneisen's 
equation is more general than usually believed and applies when the heat 
capacity is a function of T/6, where T is the absolute temperature and 
is a function of the volume. When this condition applies to the liquid 
phase, only a minor additional assumption is necessary to derive the Simon 
melting equation. 

Lasers. The advent of the laser has made possible for the first time an 
experiment to check on the frequency ratio of the fundamental and second 
harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals in the optical range. The 6°43 
A output of a ruby laser was used as the light source. The accuracy of the 
experiments was determined by the resolution of the grating spectrograph, 
the line width of the laser radiation, and the imperfection of the piezoelectric 
crystals, which in the best case was -*=3 parts per million. Within this 
accuracy, the second harmonic generated in the piezoelectric crystals was 
found to be exactly twice the fundamental radiation. 

Early predictions based upon the power level of the ruby laser and the 
coupling constant for the production of the second harmonic suggested an 
accompanying d-c polarization effect in the piezoelectric crystal of the order 
of 0.1 millivolt across the crystal. After unsuccessful attempts to measure 
this effect, the coupling constant was investigated and measured to be some 
two orders of magnitude smaller than was predicted. New attempts to 
measure the d-c polarization will be made with more powerful lasers. 

2.1.7. RADIATION PHYSICS 

The increasing application of atomic and nuclear technology to industrial, 
medical, and defense activities has resulted in an expansion of the demands 
placed upon radiation research. Industrial uses of radiation have brought 
about a growing need for improved standards and dosimetry at high dose 
levels and high energies. Medical users increasingly turn to higher energies 
and call for improved determination of both source output and absorbed 
dose. Research workers interested in the effects of radiation on various 
materials have need for more information in their field. The Bureau has 
attempted to meet these increasing demands with its radiation research 
program. 

The research of the Bureau is directed toward obtaining basic experimental 
and theoretical data concerning the interactions of radiation with nuclei, 
atoms, and molecules, as well as with bulk matter; the investigation, de- 
velopment, and improvement of radiation sources and standards; and the 
development of improved techniques and instruments for the detection and 
measurement of these radiations. 

Radioactivity Standards. The growing use of radioactive materials for 
industrial and medical applications, in addition to their utility in scientific 
research, has created an ever-increasing demand for a greater variety of 
standards and greater accuracy in existing standards. Effort to meet this 

71 



demand resulted in completion of the following projects during the past 
year: (1) Development of chlorine 36 and calcium 45 beta-ray solution 
standards; (2) development of a cobalt 57 radioactivity standard; (3) 
development of an yttrium 88 point-source gamma-ray standard to supple- 
ment the existing gamma-ray "kit"; (4) restandardization of the hydrogen 
3 beta-ray solution standard by gas counting; and (5) participation in five 
international intercomparisons involving four different radionuclides. 

Radiation Theory. The broad long-term program in radiation theory 
continued, emphasizing the following areas: The evaluation and systematic 
tabulation of elementary cross sections for the interaction of high-energy 
radiation (gamma-rays, neutrons, and charged particles) with matter; the 
penetration and diffusion of radiation in extended media due to multiple 
interactions; and the application of radiation transport theory to shielding 
problems such as those arising in the context of Civil Defense. 

Cross Sections. An exact quantitative theory has been developed which 
allows the evaluation of gamma-ray polarization from measured angular dis- 
tributions of electron-positron pairs. Work is also in progress on the eval- 
uation of the pair production and bremsstrahlung cross sections in the sec- 
ond Born approximation, and on the large-angle inelastic scattering of elec- 
trons from nuclei, taking into account nuclear transitions. This research 
has been supported in part by the Office of Naval Research. 

Penetration and Diffusion. The deep penetration of electrons has been 
studied in an approximation assuming that all scattering angles are small 
and neglecting fluctuations in energy loss. A computer program for deter- 
mining the electron flux without making these approximations is in an 
advanced state of development. The transport of electrons and positrons 
in bounded media has been investigated by a technique combining analytical 
and random sampling methods, and results have been obtained for the re- 
flection and transmission by foils, and for energy dissipation in semi-in- 
finite media. The slowing-down spectrum of neutrons has been studied by a 
numerical method which allows one to take into account all the available 
information about neutron cross sections, in spite of their irregular and 
highly complicated nature. 

Shielding Engineering for Civil Defense. This program is sponsored 
by the Office of Civil Defense (DOD) and by the Defense Atomic Support 
Agency, and proceeds on various levels. The foundations and basic input 
data for radiation shielding engineering, derived from the theory of gamma- 
ray penetration and diffusion, have been published in NBS Monograph 42. 
Using these results, a practical shielding manual was prepared, in collabora- 
tion with staff members of the Office of Civil Defense, for engineers and 
architects concerned with protection against radiation from fallout. A 
simple survey guide to evaluate quickly the protective characteristics of 
various types of buildings was also prepared. This survey guide has been 
programed for the NBS electronic computer, and the program is being used 
on a large scale in the National Shelter Survey currently undertaken by 
the Office of Civil Defense. (See p. 115.) 

72 



Linear Accelerator. Progress continues in the design and construction 
of the NBS linear accelerator. Tests of the first prototype accelerator sec- 
tion have been valuable in fixing the final production phases of the new 
machine. Completion of the accelerator is expected in the fall of 1963 
and installation in the new laboratory at Gaithersburg in the spring of 1964. 
Research with the accelerator will meet the increasing need for basic data 
and physical measurement technique developments in the uses of intense, 
high-energy electron beams in radiography, radiology, nuclear physics re- 
search, and radiation processing of materials. 

Two investigations initiated during the past year will allow definition 
of the ultimate performance of the NBS linear accelerator facility as well 
as other comparable facilities around the country. 

(1) The theory of heavily beam-loaded linear accelerators has been poorly 
understood. The traveling-wave linear accelerator waveguide is essentially a 
band pass filter with a pass band of only a few megacycles per second. The 
consequences of this fact are usually ignored in calculations of the behavior 
of linear electron accelerators. During the past year, the theory of linear 
electron accelerator operation has been extended to include these dispersive 
effects. 

(2) The second investigation related to the development and handling 
of an accurately-defined high-intensity electron beam is the production of a 
well-collimated beam of krypton ions. This ion beam will have a magnetic 




A viewing port has been installed in the NBS 100-Mev synchrotron to study the 
visible and ultraviolet light radiated by high-energy electrons moving in a cir- 
cular orbit. The port can just be seen through the opening in the lead shielding 
wall at the left of the picture. The mirror located to the right gives a front 
view of the port and the visible synchrotron light. (See p. 74.) 



662336 0—62- 



73 



rigidity of 250 Mev/c (where c is the speed of light) per elementary charge 
and will simulate the momentum of 250-Mev electron beam. Thus, the 
optical properties of a magnetic beam deflection system or of experimental 
magnetic spectrometers can be measured in a small laboratory without re- 
quiring the use of the large accelerator facility to produce the test beam of 
electrons. The ion beam is accelerated by a 400-kilovolt Van de Graaff ac- 
celerator. Preliminary measurements show that the position of the center of 
the ion beam can be determined with an accuracy of better than ±0.05 mm. 

An investigation has been also made of the properties desired in a spec- 
trometer for elastic and inelastic electron scattering. Calculations show that 
the resolutions obtained with the double-focusing (rc = 1 /2) 180° deflection 
magnets often used can be substantially improved by reducing the deflection 
to the "magic angle" of 169.8°. 

High-Energy Radiation. In order to extend the general utility of the 
180-Mev electron synchrotron for radiation-physics research as well as 
atomic spectroscopy, a new accelerator tube was designed, built, and in- 
stalled during the past year. This tube permits the study and application 
of the ultraviolet and visible light (100 to 500 A wavelength) radiated by 
high-energy electrons in a circular orbit. This experimental arrangement is 
unique in that the light produced is available in a vacuum, is intense, has a 
reasonably well-known spectrum, and is polarized. 

During the last five years, the Bureau has actively investigated the inter- 
action of high-energy photons with nuclei known to have large deformations 
(i.e., nuclei with large quadrupole moments). Studies were made of both 
the scattering and the absorption of photons by these nuclei. The analysis of 
these data indicated that such nuclei probably had a large intrinsic tensor 
polarizability. During the last year this facet of the polarizability of the 
holmium nucleus was confirmed directly in an experiment that showed that 
the nuclear absorption cross section in the giant resonance energy region de- 
pended upon the orientation of the nucleus with respect to a beam of photons. 
This represented the first direct experimental verification of the theoretical 
prediction that nuclei with large deformations should have large intrinsic 
tensor polarizabilities. Nuclear alinement was produced by cooling single 
crystals of either holmium metal or holmium ethylsulfate to 0.3 °K by 
means of a He 3 refrigerator. (See p. 62.) The refrigerator and a neutron 
detector were designed such that the yield of photoneutrons produced by an 
X-ray beam from the NBS 50 Mev betatron coulld be measured as a function 
of the orientation of the holmium nuclei with respect to the X-rav beam axis. 
This experiment represented the first successful attempt to study a nuclear 
reaction using a target of orientated nuclei in the beam from an accelerator. 
The use of such targets offers new possibilities for studies of nuclear 
structure. 

Ionization Dosimetry. Radiation effects on materials are most closely 
correlated with the radiation absorbed in the material. One of the factors 
needed to determine this absorbed energy from ionization measurements is 
the average energy required to produce an ion pair in gas (W) . For alpha 

74 



particle radiation, two different methods of determining W have been used 
over the past few decades. One of these methods depends upon the fast 
collection, and the other upon the slow collection of the ionization produced 
in the gas. Different laboratories in the past have obtained differences of as 
much as 5 or 6 percent between the two methods. An investigation and in- 
tercomparison of the two methods has been undertaken at NBS. It was 
found that when the electronic instrumentation was carefully calibrated and 
the effects of the chamber geometry were taken into account, the agreement 
was within the experimental error of a few tenths of a percent. 

Large Ionization Chamber. The development of a large ionization 
chamber for the rapid and accurate determination of the total energy trans- 
ported by a high-energy X-ray beam was completed during the past year. 
Two experimental methods have been used to calibrate this chamber with an 
accuracy to within 2 percent in X-ray beams with peak photon energies 
between 6 and 170 Mev and energy fluxes of 4 milliwatts. A description of 
the chamber, its calibration, construction, drawings, plus additional infor- 
mation about the variation of this calibration with changing experimental 
conditions, has been published in NBS Monograph 48. The calibration has 
been experimentally transferred to betatron laboratories in France, Germany, 
Switzerland, and Yugoslavia. 

Cavity Corrections. Collimated-beam gamma-ray ranges are calibrated 
at NBS using a cavity ionization chamber whose characteristics have been 
carefully investigated. The use of a cavity chamber for measurement in 
terms of roentgens requires corrections for various physical factors, most 
of which must be obtained experimentally. Recent investigations have indi- 
cated that the end walls of cylindrical chambers, under some circumstances, 
do not contribute uniformly to the electron flux in the cavity. Tests to deter- 
mine the magnitude of the effect have been carried out with cylindrical 
chambers of various dimensions as well as with spherical chambers. Re- 
sults indicate that the effect of orientation of cylindrical chambers may be 
as large as 2 percent. 

Scattering Measurements. Measurements have been made to deter- 
mine the intensity and energy of scattered radiation from large cesium 137 
sources such as are used for instrument calibration and radiation treatment. 
Though the investigation was based on a source and geometry that approxi- 
mate that of the 2,000-curie installation at the Bureau, it goes beyond this 
in determining the effect of both thicker and thinner sources, of the source 
capsule, and of the head and collimator. 

The measurements indicate the influence of source size and collimator 
geometry on the beam spectra. These data are of value in the design of 
source assemblies for instrument calibration. In addition, the information 
provided on the energy spectra of the radiation from cesium teletherapy 
units is useful in correlating physical data from different sources. 

Photographic Dosimetry. The main emphasis of the Bureau's work 
in photographic dosimetry has been on the extension and refinement of 
knowledge basic to the photographic process and of concern in the photo- 

75 




New control console increases efficiency in precise international comparison of 
primary X-ray standards and routine calibration of laboratory and clinical 
instruments. (See p. 77.) 

graphic measurement of radiation. Current effort involves the extension of 
the useful range of photographic dosimetry to exposures of 1 milliroentgen or 
less of cobalt 60 gamma-rays, without introducing rate dependence. Post- 
exposure to infrared radiation, treatment of the films with thallium and silver 
nitrate or thallium sulfate before and after exposure, as well as addition of 
salicylic acid, sodium hydroxide, or sodium thiosulfate to the conventional 
X-ray developer, showed promise. Work was continued on extending the 
photographic process to dosimetry of X- and gamma-ray exposures in the 
range from 1000 to 10,000 roentgens. Sugar and 6-nitrobenzimidazole 
were used as development retarders. Also, various silver solvents were in- 
vestigated in their action of removing the image from grain surfaces, thus 
freeing the internal image for development. The methods were tried on 
three widely used dosimeter films. Internal development with X-ray de- 
veloper, to which a small quantity of buffered potassium thiosulfate (hypo) 
was added, proved most effective. With this method, a 5.000-r cobalt 60 
gamma-ray exposure could be determined with a precision to within 5 per- 
cent with two types of film and an exposure of 10.000 r with comparable 
accuracy with a third type of film. A disadvantage in the method is that 
a certain amount of rate dependence is introduced. However, internal de- 
velopment with hypo reduces the film's energy dependence in the 15- to 
50-kev region. 

76 



A detailed study was performed of the energy dependence of the response 
of X-ray film in the region of medical diagnostic X-rays and of means for 
influencing it by the use of absorbers and electron emitters. Above the silver 
^-absorption edge, tinfoil in contact with the film surfaces was found use- 
ful. In order to investigate the influence of rubidium below this edge, the 
feasibility of pressing rubidium sulfate powder into thin plaques as electron 
emitters is being investigated. 

Solid-State Dosimetry. An investigation was made of the response to 
X-rays of silicon radiation detector cells of the diffused p-n junction type 
which are now widely used for charged particle energy spectroscopy. It was 
expected that such cells should be more sensitive to X-rays than silicon solar 
cells, previously investigated, because of their larger charge collecting volume 
and higher resistance. 

The investigation has shown that it is possible to use silicon radiation 
detector cells as photodiodes for X-rays, especially for relative measure- 
ments of high dose rates when large voltage signals are required. For 
small dose rates of the order of a few roentgens per minute, these cells 
are preferably to be used as photovoltaic cells, thus eliminating the dark 
current which at higher voltages becomes unstable and at small dose rates 
reaches values larger than the photocurrent. 

The photovoltaic current measured with low-energy X-rays was found to 
be proportional to exposure dose rate of values up to approximately 5000 
r/min, and linear response could be preserved with load resistances much 
larger than those which could be used with silicon solar cells. The photo- 
voltaic current per unit surface area was approximately three times, and the 
photo-emf approximately a hundred times, larger than measured values of 
silicon solar cells. The energy dependence of the photo-response to X-rays 
measured under conditions approaching electronic equilibrium was found 
to be similar to that measured on silicon solar cells. 

Nucleonic Instrumentation. A new control console has been designed 
and constructed for use in precise international comparison of primary X-ray 
standards and routine calibration of laboratory and clinical instruments. 
This console, which makes possible high accuracy with minimum effort, 
includes equipment for automatic regulation of the X-ray tube voltage and 
current to maintain constant X-ray output. Instruments are also included 
for the accurate measurement of minute ionization currents by determining 
the time required to accumulate a known charge on a standard capacitor. 
Auxiliary equipment supplies stable voltages to the ionization chambers, 
provides temperature measurements, and permits control of the X-ray 
shutter. 

Neutron Physics. Standard radioactive neutron sources are widely used 
to produce known thermal and fast neutron fluxes, for neutron instrument 
calibration, and for calibration of film badges and neutron survey meters 
used in neutron radiation protection. The national standard radium-beryl- 
lium (y,/i) source has been absolutely calibrated by a new method involv- 
ing the use of a manganese sulfate bath filled with heavy water. Most 

77 




Detector used in measuring scattered radiation from cesium 137 sources such as 
are used for instrument calibration and radiation treatment. The detector 
assembly is mounted behind the 12-inch-thick lead colimator in the foreground. 
(See p. 75.) 

absolute measurements of neutron source strength have been made in baths 
of light water with either calibrated thermal neutron detectors or manganous 
sulfate in solution as the detector. In a light water bath many of the neutrons 
are captured by the hydrogen in the bath and, as a result, a large correction 
must be made for these neutrons which escape detection. In the present 
experiment, hydrogen (mass 1) is largely eliminated and nearly all of the 
neutrons are captured in the manganese 55. When a neutron is captured 
by the manganese, radioactive manganese 56 is produced and this is ab- 
solutely counted by beta-gamma coincidence counting. The water of the 
bath was about 94 percent heavy and 6 percent light water, and a correction 
was made for the neutrons captured by the small amount of light water 
present. The uncertainty of the new value is about 1 percent, a considerable 
improvement over previous measurements. 

Radiation Protection Recommendations. Research on the funda- 
mental properties of radiation and on radiation standards has placed trie 
Bureau in a unique position to translate the latest information in these 



78 



fields into practical recommendations for radiation protection, quantities, and 
units. The Bureau has assisted in the dissemination of this information by 
publishing as NBS Handbooks the recommendations of the National Com- 
mittee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the Inter- 
national Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU). 
During the last year, three new handbooks have been published. These in- 
clude: NBS Handbook 79, Stopping Powers for Use with Cavity Chambers; 
NBS Handbook 80, A Manual of Radioactivity Procedures; and NCRP 
Report No. 29, Exposure to Radiation in an Emergency (University of 
Chicago Press) . A number of handbooks are presently in preparation, 
including a series which will comprise the 1962 report of the International 
Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements. Staff members par- 
ticipate actively in this work, as well as in the work of the International 
Commission on Radiological Protection and the Federal Radiation Council. 
The recommendations of these groups represent the latest scientific thinking 
in the broad area of radiation protection, measurement, quantities, and 
units. 

International Standards. In October 1960 the General Conference of 
Weights and Measures approved the extension of the work of the Interna- 
tional Bureau into the area of ionizing radiation. A working group was 
set up to make recommendations on immediate and long-range programs 
for this area, a laboratory design for this work, laboratory equipment, and 
staffing. Members of the Bureau staff involved in neutron measurements, 
radioactivity measurements, and X- and gamma-ray measurements were 
invited to participate in this effort. During a meeting held early in 1961, 
this group considered the entire program and made recommendations. 
The staff of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is now in the 
process of implementing these recommendations. 

During the past year, two sets of X-ray transfer instruments were pre- 
pared and calibrated. These will be placed on loan to the International 
Bureau of Weights and Measures for an indefinite period. The cavity cham- 
bers, the diaphragm, and the capacitors of these transfer instruments may be 
calibrated at a national laboratory by comparison with the standards of 
that laboratory. The ratio of the calibrations obtained at different labora- 
tories is then a measure of the relative values obtained by the national 
standards. 

Such an indirect intercomparison has just been completed between the 
National Research Council, Canada, and the NBS. The ratios obtained 
for the cavity chamber at the two laboratories may be compared with the 
results of a direct intercomparison of the national standards themselves. 
The two sets of intercomparisons differed by a maximum of 0.5 percent with 
a mean deviation of about 0.3 percent. Thus, it appears that transfer in- 
struments can be used for international intercomparisons instead of the 
direct comparison of national standards. There is considerable advantage 
in the use of such transfer instruments as they weigh only a few pounds even 
in their shipping container, whereas the national standards themselves weigh 
many hundreds of pounds. 

79 



2.2. CHEMISTRY AND PROPERTIES OF 

MATERIALS 

2.2.1. ANALYTICAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 

In response to the general demand for more detailed knowledge on the 
properties of materials, the Bureau carries out an extensive program of re- 
search in the areas of preparation, purification, and characterization. Under 
this program, new and improved methods of measuring chemical properties, 
composition, and behavior of substances are developed; standard reference 
materials of known composition or properties are prepared; fundamental 
investigations of chemical phenomena on which the behavior of chemical 
systems is based are carried out; and technical and advisory services in 
specialized areas of modern chemistry are provided. 

Special investigations carried out during the year include studies of the 
preparation and stability of inorganic compounds, new and improved meth- 
ods of purification and separation of chemical substances, and the develop- 
ment of criteria for measuring purity and chemical constants of pure 
materials. New programs were initiated in X-ray diffraction, atomic ab- 
sorption, electron-spin resonance, and high-temperature purification 
processes. 

Plutonium Standard Issued, High-purity plutonium for use as a 
standard reference material has been prepared and analyzed in cooperation 
with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Considerable expansion of 
atomic energy use has underlined the need for standard materials on which 
to base measurements of high precision and accuracy. The plutonium chem- 
ical standard can be utilized as a comparison standard for all plutonium 
chemical analyses. It is issued as NBS Standard Sample 949, and is available 
to persons licensed to possess special nuclear materials. 

Atomic Weight of Chlorine. The atomic weight of chlorine has been 

redetermined by coulometric analysis to be 35.45273 j — 0000071* (See 

p. 90.) This electrochemical method employs the precise relationship that 
exists between the amount of electricity used in an electrolysis and the amount 
of chemical reaction produced. Modification of the electrolyte cell developed 
in previous coulometric work, and improved techniques in sample handling 
and end-point determination, have resulted in analyses having a standard 
deviation of five parts in 100,000. 

Trace Level Analysis. Methods for determining trace level impurities 
in copper-, iron-, and zirconium-base alloys were developed. Adaption and 
extension of existing methods as well as the development of new procedures, 
such as the ion-exchange spectrographic approach for hafnium in zirconium- 
base alloys (parts per million) , were employed. 

The anion-exchange process developed for zirconium in hafnium metal 
was expanded to cover zirconium up to 80 percent in oxide or metal. This 
procedure should be useful in following the fractionation of hafnium from 

80 



zirconium to prepare nuclear-grade hafnium as well as in inspecting the 
final product. 

Uranium Analysis Standard. Single-crystal uranyl nitrate hexahydrate 
is being studied as a primary analytical standard for uranium analysis. Con- 
trary to expectations, the crystals have been found to exhibit weight changes 
at relative humidities at which they should have been stable; no region of 
moisture stability has been found. The reason for this unexpected behavior 
is still under investigation. 

Water Determination in Commercial Products. Investigation of 
methods for determining water content in various materials, including agri- 
cultural products, has been initiated recently. The Office of Weights and 
Measures is particularly interested in this program for the possibility of 
developing and calibrating a device for determining moisture content in 
grains. The States are looking to the Bureau for such a device, as they do 
for the development and calibration of other measuring equipment. A gas- 
chromatographic method appears especially promising and is being studied 
intensively. 

Determining Transition Probabilities Using the Gas-Stabilized Arc. 
Transition probabilities are of basic importance to studies of excitation of 
spectra in analytical and basic spectroscopic research and in astrophysics. 
A gas-stabilized arc giving accurate intensity and temperature measurements 
has provided particularly uniform conditions for the excitation of elements 




Experimental observations of spectral line intensities made with this spectro- 
graph formed the basis for a catalog of 39,000 spectral lines for 70 elements. 
(See p. 67.) 



81 



introduced in solution form. The arc was demonstrated to be an especially 
useful tool in the accurate measurement of spectral line intensities for the 
spectrum of iron. The ease with which mixed solutions may be introduced 
into the arc permits the measurement of transition probabilities for two or 
more elements on the same scale. Knowing the absolute transition probability 
of one of these elements allows the possibility of placing all measurements 
on the aboslute scale. 

X-Ray Analysis of Noble Metal Alloys. The application of X-ray 
spectrometry to the analysis of gold alloys was investigated to establish the 
value of the method as a substitute for tedious chemical or assay methods. 
Procedures were established to determine the alloying elements in the gold 
alloy — gold, platinum, palladium, silver, copper, and zinc. Precisions were 
found to lie between 1 and 2 percent of the amounts present. The spec- 
trometric procedure with a single-channel X-ray spectrometer required 5 
man-hours as compared to 3 man-weeks for chemical analysis. A similar 
procedure is under investigation for the analysis of silver-base alloys. 

Trace Element Standard Samples. Attention is being given to means 
for extending the certification on present standard samples to include more 
trace elements (parts per million), and to develop new standards for high- 
purity metals. These standards will provide certified values for more than 
25 chemical elements, many at concentrations of a few parts per million or 
less. 

As a beginning on trace element standards, two sets of three samples each 
of zirconium and zirconium alloy (98 Zr-2 Sn) have been prepared in 
cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Bureau of Mines. 
Zirconium is used for structural members in atomic power units and the 
presence of even trace amounts of neutron absorbers causes deleterious 
effects. Three of the standards have been issued by the Bureau with tenta- 
tive concentration values for the more common impurities; the standards 
issued are two for the analysis of zirconium metal and one for Zircalloy. 

A reference sample of selected platinum wire of highest purity has been 
prepared with the cooperation of interested outside laboratories. This sam- 
ple and another containing added impurities in the range 1 to 10 parts per mil- 
lion will serve in research for extending and improving several methods of 
trace analysis. 

Test Mixture for Fractionating Columns Developed. A test mix- 
ture has been developed for use in evaluating high-efficiency fractionating 
columns. The test material consists of two isomers of heptane: 2.3- 
dimethylpentane, and 2-methylhexane. Because this mixture has a low rela- 
tive volatility and each of its components can be easily identified, improved 
calibration and evaluation of high-efficiency fractionating columns will be 
possible. The difference between the boiling points of 2.3-dimethylpentane 
and 2-methylhexane is 0.268 °C, providing narrow limits within which the 
test column may separate substances by fractional distillation. The refrac- 
tive index difference between the two components is nearly twice that of test 
mixtures used in evaluating columns of medium efficiency. This property 

82 



permits the use of a differential refractometer for identifying the separation 
point of each of the heptane isomers. 

Improvements in Liquid-Solid Chromatography. Closer control of 
variables in liquid-solid chromatography has resulted in an improved and 
more efficient system. For example, by recording the temperature of a 
thermistor placed in a selected position of a column of adsorbant, the prog- 
ress of the effluent front may be followed, since the thermistor senses a func- 
tion of the heat of adsorption. The temperature generated bears a rela- 
tionship to the adsorbability of each of a series of compounds. This may al- 
low a reasonable prediction of their separability in an infinitely long column. 

Relatively constant pressure throughout the column is desirable in order 
to avoid certain unwanted results, such as vaporization of the liquid. Bet- 
ter results are also obtained by pumping the starting material through the 
column, rather than using gas pressure. 

Dielectric Constant Change. The dielectric constant of a liquid 
changes with temperature, primarily due to a change in density. As the 
material begins to freeze there is a very large change in dielectric constant 
until the sample is frozen. An investigation of this property as a func- 



-■m^m^k 







W' 



Single crystals are often used to investigate the fundamental properties of 
materials. This set of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, grown from 
solutions containing chromic ion, represents various stages of growth from the 
seed (left) to the final crystal. The tapered prism faces of the crystals are 
contaminated with chromium. (See p. 84.) 

83 



tion of time and temperature is being conducted and may offer a convenient 
means for determination of purity. 

X~Ray Diffraction. Crystalline ozone and two forms of solid ammonia 
have been used to derive simple and direct information on the molecular 
geometry of crystals. The radial distribution functory, which can be de- 
rived for any phase from the powder X— ray diffraction intensities, has been 
tested. Rather serious errors tend to accumulate, which indicates that only 
the best obtainable data are likely to yield useful results. This study in- 
dicates care should be taken when using the radial distribution method for 
amorphous solids for which other conventional crystallographic methods 
are not available. 

Internal Crystal Study. Large single crystals can be examined by 
conventional X-ray diffraction procedures only at their surface or by de- 
structive sectioning. A new method for studying the perfection of large 
single crystals has been shown to be feasible. It employs high-voltage (up 
to 250 kilovolts) X-rays collimated and scattered coherently by the crvstals. 
The technique is analogous to the Laue method of X-ray crystallographic 
photography in which the interior crystal structure is examined. 

Crystal Growth. To provide means for measuring and controlling the 
supersaturation of aqueous solutions of inorganic salts during the growth 
of large single crystals, a method based on the electrolytic conductivity of 
solutions in the saturation region was developed. The conductance, meas- 
ured by means of a cell immersed in the growth bath, has been found to be 
most sensitive to small changes in temperature and concentration near 
saturation. By using precise measurements and curve-fitting procedures. 
empirical formulas have been developed for the specific conductance of 
ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solutions. 

2.2.2. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 

The Bureau's program of basic research in physical chemistry covers a 
broad spectrum of theoretical and experimental activities. The primary 
objective of this program is to develop an understanding of the molecular 
basis of bulk properties and macroscopic processes. Particular emphasis 
is placed on precise determinations of structural parameters of stable and 
transient molecular species and descriptions of elementarv molecular proc- 
esses in well-characterized systems. Considerable effort is directed to the 
design and development of special techniques and instrumentation and to 
the evaluation of theoretical models of molecular structure and processes. 

The following examples of research conducted during the year illustrate 
the scope of the physical chemistry program : Studies on synthesis of labeled 
carbohydrates, isotope effects, and conformations of sugars; spectroscopic 
determinations of structural constants of free radicals and simple organic 
molecules; analysis of elementarv processes in flames: investigations of 
radiolysis and vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of organic molecules: precise 
measurements of heats of reaction and formation; studies of chemical reac- 

84 



tions and ionization processes at crystal surfaces; determinations of atomic 
weights; and measurements of nuclear spin-spin interactions. 

Significant progress was made in the following areas: Development of 
special mass spectrometric instrumentation required for studies of the kinetics 
of ion decompositions and of photoionization processes, the construction 
of a microwave spectrometer for operation at high temperatures, and the 
design and construction of a calorimeter for precise measurements of heats 
of solution. 

Precision Calorimetry. Recent calorimetric investigations have in- 
volved measurements of the heats of solution and liquid-phase reactions of 
beryllium compounds. The solution calorimeter currently in use consists of 
a 500-milliliter vacuum-jacketed glass vessel fitted with a 100-ohm glass- 
enclosed heating coil, stirrer, and an assembly used to introduce the 
sample into the calorimeter fluid. Temperature changes in the calo- 
rimeter are measured by a platinum resistance thermometer. Uniform 
stirring is achieved by a glass screw-type impeller driven by a synchronous 
motor. Measurements have recently been completed for the Advanced 
Research Projects Agency on the heats of solution of metallic beryllium 
and beryllium hydride in dilute hydrochloric acid. Additional measure- 
ments on the heat of solution of anhydrous beryllium chloride are currently 
in progress. 

Measurements have also been made on the heat of solution of sulfur 
dioxide in water. These data have been combined with measurements made 
at the University of Lund, Sweden, on the heat of reaction of sulfurous 
acid with bromine to yield a value for the heat of formation of aqueous 
hydrobromic acid. 

Other measurements have been completed recently on the heats of forma- 
tion of lithium, ammonium, and sodium perchlorates. These values are 
based on the heats of reaction of the salts with potassium chloride solutions, 
and the heat of formation of potassium borohydride. 

Reactions of Hydrogen Atoms. Hydrogen atoms react with unsat- 
urated hydrocarbons down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. In a technique 
developed at the Bureau to study these reactions, hydrogen atoms are gen- 
erated in the gas phase and react with a condensed film of the unsaturate 
(olefin) diluted in an inert matrix. The matrix in which the olefins are 
deposited has a marked effect on the rate of the reaction. This was shown 
to be the result of a diffusion-limiting process. The reaction occurs on the 
surface and is maintained by a flow of olefin molecules from the interior of 
the film. If the matrix does not permit ready diffusion of the olefin mole- 
cules, reaction does not occur after the surface molecules have been exhausted. 
These researches may be expected to shed some light on the question of the 
possibility of reactions occurring in interstellar space between hydrogen 
atoms and cometary particles. 

Ionization Processes at Surfaces. The importance of surface ionizing 
processes for ion-propulsion systems has been recognized. A basic study 
of some of these processes has been undertaken to determine the mean life- 

85 




Solution calorimeter used in precise measurements of heats of solution and 
liquid phase reactions. Recent studies have concentrated on beryllium com- 
pounds. (See p. 85.) 

time of ions on refractory metal surfaces. This was done by directing a mo- 
lecular beam of cesium against a heated tungsten ribbon. Cesium ions re- 
sulting from the process were collected. The variation in the temporal inten- 
sity of the collected ion beam was analyzed in terms of the adsorbed life- 
time of the cesium atoms on the surface. The results have shown that bind- 
ing force between the cesium and tungsten is essentially electrostatic in 
nature. Gases adsorbed on the tungsten surface reduce the mean lifetime 
of the cesium ion and decrease the desorption energy. 

Field Emission Microscopy. Field electron emission studies of 
molecules adsorbed on tantalum surfaces have been made. The technique 
permits observation of surface phenomena on an almost molecular scale. 
Studies of carbon monoxide on tantalum showed that carbon monoxide is 
dissociated. Both carbon and oxygen on tantalum were separately inves- 
tigated. It was demonstrated that oxygen is held to the surface by very 
strong bonds, while work with carbon on tantalum confirmed that tantalum 
carbide is extremely stable. The carbide phase forms precipitates which are 

86 



deposited around the cube face planes and, at somewhat elevated tempera- 
tures, cluster preferentially along certain zones of the tantalum crystal. 

Conformational Analysis. Study of the shape or conformation of 
molecules of cyclic organic compounds has become a subject of paramount 
importance for correlating chemical and physical properties. The first at- 
tempt to correlate reaction rates with ring conformation was made 25 years 
ago at the Bureau. Recent work has established that differences in rates 
of oxidation of aldoses with bromine, studied earlier, can be ascribed to 
differences in the conformational stability of the pyranose ring. The rate 
of oxidation for an aldose depends largely on the energy required to change 
the conformation of the ring, in the ground state, to that of a transition 
state wherein the ring oxygen and carbon atoms 1, 2, and 5 lie in a plane. 

Work was begun on the determination of free-energy differences between 
the various conformations for each of several aldoses, and also of free- 
energy differences between the various aldoses in a given conformation. 
Correlations of structure with infrared absorption spectra were made for 
a series of sugars and glycosides. 

Isotope Effects. Isotope effects (differences in the behavior of isotopi- 
cally labeled and nonlabeled molecules) frequently lead to serious errors in 
chemical and biological research in which the isotopes are used as tracers. 
On the other hand, isotope effects (particularly of tritium and carbon 14) 
provide an extremely important tool for determining how organic chemical 
reactions take place. Methods previously devised at the Bureau for measur- 
ing isotope effects have been used for studying a variety of reactions of 
aldoses labeled with carbon 14 and tritium. These include: (1) oxidation 
reactions; (2) rearrangement (isomerication) reactions; (3) formation (as 
well as recrystallization) of phenylhydrazones. 

The isotope effect, k*/k, for the oxidation of aldoses- 1-^ to lactones was 
found to range from 0.12 to 0.69 and to depend on whether the oxidation 
takes place directly, or whether it is preceded by a rate-determining 
isomerization. 

Higher Ketoses. In the past few years there has been a growing realiza- 
tion of the fact that higher ketoses (seven-carbon or more) play important 
roles in biological systems; presumably, these materials are formed by con- 
densation of smaller units. It has recently been found at the Bureau that 
a variety of higher sugars can be formed, in vitro, by aldol condensations. 
In the synthesis, the carbon chain of the aldose is extended by three carbons 
with the production of new asymmetric centers at carbons 3 and 4. Thus, 
condensation of 2,4-ethylidene-D-erythrose with dihydroxyacetone gave four 
heptuloses. Three of the heptuloses were separated in pure condition and 
their structures were determined; the fourth was identified chromatograph- 
ically. The procedure provides a means for preparing higher ketoses of bi« 
ological interest. 

Molecular Isomerism. A number of molecules which exhibit rotational 
isomerism have been studied by the techniques of microwave spectroscopy. 

87 



These molecules are capable of existing in two or more distinct geometric 
forms which interconvert so rapidly that they cannot be separated. The 
high resolution obtainable in the microwave spectral region permits de- 
tailed study of the individual isomers in the mixture. Useful informa- 
tion has been obtained in this way on rc-propyl chloride and on several 
butadiene derivatives. In particular, the frequency of the torsional oscilla- 
tion about the carbon-carbon single bond in butadiene-type compounds has 
been accurately measured for the first time. 

Low-Temperature Spectroscopy, Recent research has provided the 
first definite evidence that hydrogen halide molecules trapped in solid 
rare-gas matrices do in fact rotate almost freely. The evidence is based on 
the observation of the fundamental rotation-vibration bands of a hydrogen 
halide, e.g., hydrogen chloride, with grating dispersion as a function of 
temperature over the range 4 to 20 °K. Other spectral features that were 
detected have been tentatively attributed to rotationless vibrational transi- 
tions and are being studied with the expectation that they may provide a 
novel and important approach to the measurement of intermolecular forces 
in molecular crystals. 

Collision and Ion-Decomposition Processes. A retarding-potential 
technique has been developed for use with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spec- 
trometers. Many ionic processes which were formerly difficult to study can 
be easily observed with the new method. In a linear, pulsed TOF mass 
spectrometer, ions of a particular mass travel down a field-free drift tube 
in a focused bunch, and give a sharp-pulse electrical signal when they strike 
a detector at the end of the tube. If events occur in flight (grazing collisions 
with residual gas molecules in the tube, or spontaneous ion dissociation. 
for example), the products (neutral species and small fragment ions) gen- 
erally travel along with the group of ions and arrive at the detector at about 
the same time. Thus a single pulse, or mass peak, may actually be com- 
posite. By application of a retarding field near the end of the drift tube. 
the mass peak can be separated into its components: Neutral species are 
not affected by the field and their arrival time does not change; unaltered 
ions are retarded but still focused as pulses arriving after the neutrals: 
fragment ions, being lighter, are retarded still more and can be separated 
as a third component. This technique provides a way of detecting charge 
exchange, collision-induced dissociation, and spontaneous ion dissociation 
during the time of flight. It is expected to be particularly useful in making 
surveys of polyatomic ion decomposition and in measuring kinetic energies 
of charged and neutral fragments. 

Collisional Energy Transfer. Collision processes involving transfer 
of energy play an important role in determining the structure and properties 
of shock waves encountered in supersonic flight and missile reentry: also in 
determining the efficiency of rocket combustion. A knowledge of rates of 
exchange of energy in molecular collisions is particularly important in inter- 
preting temperature measurements on hot. nonequilibrium gases such as 
rocket exhausts. 

88 



A prime objective is to carry out the experimental isolation of selected 
energy-transfer processes for spectroscopic study, as free as possible from 
extraneous environmental complications. Following this mode of attack, 
probabilities for exchange of known quanta of energy in single molecular 
collisions have been obtained for the OH radical, an important reactant in 
flames, and for nitric oxide, a gas important in atmospheric phenomena. 

Statistical treatment developed for interpreting the laboratory data can 
be extended to the fluorescence of diatomic molecules in comet heads. This 
fluorescence is responsible for most of the observed luminosity of comets, 
from which comet "temperatures" have been estimated in the past. The new 
treatment takes account of the random nature of successive absorption and 
emission of light (in the region of the comet nucleus) by the molecules undei 
solor illumination. It shows that comet "temperature" deduced in some 
cases may have no physical significance at all, and provides for the first time 
a statistical interpretation of the fluorescence observed. 

Vacuum Ultraviolet Photochemistry. In order to understand the 
nature of the chemical events attending the absorption of light by hydro- 
carbon molecules, the Bureau is engaged in studying the photochemistry of 
hydrocarbons in the vacuum ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spec- 
trum. During the past year it has been discovered that when propane absorbs 
a quantum of energy at 1470 Angstroms, the most probable result is that a 
molecule of hydrogen is expelled, both atoms having been attached originally 




Chromatographic purification of materials to be used in vacuum ultraviolet 
photochemistry. The Bureau is systematically charting the many chemical re- 
actions triggered by absorption of light by hydrocarbon molecules. (See p. 89.) 



662336 0—62- 



89 



to the central carbon atom. Another highly probable process is the molecu- 
lar elimination of methane. Photolysis of cyclopropane and isobutane have 
also been studied. The techniques employed involve labeling the hydro- 
carbons with deuterium in specific positions. 

New techniques in vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry currently being used 

are high-temperature photochemistry and photochemistry in the ionizing 
region (argon resonance line). The former is being used to explore the 
chemistry of carbenes formed in the primary photochemical process, while 
the investigations involving the argon resonance lamp permit studies to be 
made in the overlap region between photochemistry and radiation chemistry. 

Radiolysis of Simple Hydrocarbons. Deuterium-labeled compounds 
are used to determine the nature of the chemical processes occurring as a 
result of the absorption of ionizing radiation by simple hydrocarbons. Proc- 
esses in which hydrogen and methane are eliminated as molecules from the 
parent hydrocarbon have been observed. Work on the radiolysis of propane 
and isobutane has been completed and studies on Ai-butane and neopentane 
will be made. Complicating factors, such as free-radical and ion-molecule 
reactions, are controlled by irradiating specifically deuterium-labeled hydro- 
carbons in the presence of scavengers. Using this technique, the isomeriza- 
tion of alkyl ions has been demonstrated and the kinetics of the transfer of 
hydride ions to the ethyl ion are being studied. 

New methods of investigating ion-molecule reactions include radiolysis 
in an applied electric field. It is possible by this means to sweep out the 
ions and electrons formed by the ionizing radiation and to alter the product 
distribution substantially. This work is partly sponsored by the Atomic 
Energy Commission. 

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Determined. Natural chlorine consists of 
two isotopes of mass numbers 35 and 37 in relative abundance of about three 
to one. The atomic weight of this element together with that of silver forms 
a basis for the determination of atomic weights of many of the elements. 
The isotopic abundance ratio of chlorine was determined by the Bureau with 
the cooperation of the Atomic Energy Commission, using 60° surface emis- 
sion mass spectrometers with a 12-inch radius of curvature. The instruments 
were calibrated with synthetic mixtures made from separated chlorine iso- 
topes (see p. 80) leading to an absolute value for the natural chlorine 

r _|_ 0.0079 i * . 

abundance ratio of C1 35 /C1 37 = 3.1272 \ ' . This value, combined 

I O.OOoz J 

with accurately known atomic masses led to a new atomic weight value of 

f _|_ o 00092 ] * 
35.45273] ,v",ww» I • Using the chemically determined combining weight 
I — U. 00097 J 

ratios for chlorine and silver, the present atomic weight supports the physical 

determi 

Bureau. 



determination of the silver atomic weight which was done earlier at the 



*The quantities in brackets are estimated limits to the uncertainties in the reported value arising from 
known sources of error, both random and systematic. 

90 




The high resolution and sensitivity of the microwave spectrometer reveals many 
fine details of molecular structure. Recent studies have been made of mole- 
cules which exhibit rotational isomerism. (See p. 87.) 

Thermodynamic Reviews. The program on compilation and critical 
evaluation of data on the chemical thermodynamic properties of chemical 
substances has continued under partial AEC support. A review of all of the 
available data on the heat capacities and heats of solution and dilution of 
univalent electrolytes in aqueous solution has been completed and the data 
assembled in tabular form. A review of the entropies of a number of 
aqueous ions has also been completed. These reviews have been carried 
out in order to establish some of the basic thermodynamic values needed for a 
systematic self-consistent tabulation of the heats and free energies of forma- 
tion of chemical substances. 



2.2.3. INORGANIC SOLIDS 

The importance of obtaining a better understanding of the physical prop- 
erties of inorganic nonmetallic materials has been accentuated by the rapid 
development of space technology. Materials are now required which must 
meet extreme environmental conditions such as high temperatures in corro- 
sive atmospheres or very low temperatures under constant irradiation. One 
of the promising classes of materials for use under these extreme conditions 
is the metallic oxides. Thus, as part of the research on inorganic solids, the 
Bureau is seeking to develop new techniques of preparing and measuring 
fundamental parameters of well-characterized specimens of these materials. 
In addition, research is continuing on other materials of specific interest to 
industry and the scientific community. Such research includes working on 
crystal growth, determining crystal structures and imperfections in solids, 

91 



studying high-temperature reaction kinetics at solid-gas interfaces, and in- 
vestigating the properties of glass. 

Vaporization of Refractory Substances, Investigations continued on 
vapor pressures, rates of vaporization, and associated thermodynamic and 
kinetic properties of refractory elements and compounds. In this program, 
the vapor pressure of ruthenium was measured and its heat of vaporization 
determined. Similar measurements were started on osmium. At the request 
of the Defense Department, the application of a mass spectrometer to study 
the high-temperature vaporization of selected light-element compounds was 
continued; modifying the apparatus has increased its reliability and accuracy. 

Major emphasis was placed on the study of the beryllium-oxygen-fluorine 
(Be-O-F) system in the temperature range 900 to 2,000 °C. The thermo- 
dynamic goal of this work is to measure all of the gaseous and solid-gas 
equilibria at different temperatures. Results so far show several vapor 
species of beryllium fluoride (BeF 2 ), some of them resulting from the pres- 
ence of water in the condensed material. The existence of these species is 
also, however, of interest. The study of this system is complicated by the 
widely different volatilities of BeO and BeF 2 . A new double-oven experi- 
ment, designed to investigate the system, is currently being evaluated. 

New Microbalance Required to Study Refractory Substances, The 
rate of vaporization of refractory substances is of interest to the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration, which requires such data to select 
suitable substances for the development of thermionic heat engines. The 
necessity of making measurements under much higher vacuum conditions 
than are usually employed has required construction of a new microbalance 
apparatus which can obtain a vacuum of 1 X 10~ 9 torr without bakeout. 
This apparatus will be used initially to measure the rates of vaporization of 
the nitride and borides of tantalum, and of selected faces of ultra-high purity 
tungsten single crystals. 

Studies of Alumina, An arc-image furnace was used to study the high- 
temperature vaporization of solid and liquid alumina in vacuum and in the 
presence of other gases. Such studies indicate that liquid alumina dissolves 
water vapor and that the water vapor (or an alumina-water reaction product) , 
being less soluble in solid alumina than in liquid alumina, vigorously boils 
out of solutions when the molten substance solidifies. When liquid alumina 
evaporates in vacuum, it deposits as a transparent, amorphous film of alu- 
minum oxide. The characteristics of this film and the crystallographic 
course of its thermal transformation to alpha-alumina were investigated. 
The rate of sublimation of alumina in vacuum was also measured by a micro- 
balance technique and a novel method of heating by radiofrequency induc- 
tion. These measurements indicated that the rate of free evaporation of 
alumina is not significantly less than the rate at which it is transported in an 
equilibrium vapor. 

Plasma Torch Used in Crystal Growth, An adaptation of the Ver- 
neuil process for growing crystals, utilizing the inductively-coupled radio- 
frequency plasma torch was successfully applied in recent studies of stabilized 

92 



zirconium, chromium, aluminum, and titanium oxides. The process has 
three distinct advantages over related techniques: (1) the maximum tempera- 
ture obtainable is sufficient to melt materials having melting points up to 
approximately 3,300 °C; (2) the ambient atmosphere can be controlled to a 
greater degree than in an oxyhydrogen torch; and (3) no contamination 
problem is encountered from electrode erosion of the type found in direct 
current plasma torch arrangements. 

Research is continuing to improve certain aspects of plasma torch opera- 
tion, such as thermal gradient control and feed delivery, and to solve the 
problem of containing plasmas having an extremely high heat content. 
Major efforts are being directed toward evaluating the chemical and crystal- 
line perfection of plasma-grown crystals, and toward producing hydrogen- 
free rutile. Also efforts are being made to grow other high-melting-point 
oxide crystals using the plasma torch technique. 

Rare Gas Crystals and Vapor ''Snakes." Studies of crystal growth 
were carried out using the rare gases argon and krypton. As atoms of 




Fibrous silica grown in a study of the structural relationship of the amorphous 
forms of silica to each other and to the crystalline forms. The exact nature 
of this form of silica is now being investigated. (See p. 94.) 

93 



these gases exert only very weak forces, theoretical analyses of their crystal- 
line states are relatively easy to determine. Idealized assumptions which 
loosely apply in the case of metals and more complicated polar molecules, 
often closely approximate the rare gas-solid situation. Extensive work 
has been done on applying crystal growth theory to rare gases, but so far 
there has been a dearth of experimental data because large single crystals 
are difficult to prepare. 

Since temperatures at which the rare gases melt are much lower than 
are those of most other substances whose crystals have been studied, and 
since the properties of rare gases are so unusual, other techniques were 
recently adapted which produced striking results. For example, cooling 
the melt under certain conditions resulted in the formation of a long, 
snakelike cylinder of vapor with a solid sheath wall. The cylinder travels 
through the melt and bends as it hits a solid of any kind, hence the name, 
vapor "snake." These studies proved useful in examining such phenomena 
as plastic crystals, and dendritic growth and grain boundaries. Other work 
is now under way on the connection of vapor snakes to supercooling and 
to crystal growth rate. 

Fibrous Form Found in Silica, Three-fourths of the existing solid 
matter of the earth consists of silica, the combination of silicon and oxygen. 
Pure silica is found in many different crystalline modifications and as an 
amorphous substance in a variety of forms such as gel and glass. How- 
ever, precise structural information on silica, especially regarding its amor- 
phous forms, is very incomplete. In studying the structural relation of 
amorphous forms of silica to each other and to the crystalline forms, silica 
formations were grown by directing a preheated mixture of nitrogen, silicon 
tetrafluoride, and water vapor against an electrically heated platinum target. 
Experimental conditions could be produced under which the deposition 
of silica on the target occurred in the form of round fibers or whiskers. 
The silica thus produced has certain attributes of silica glass, such as low T 
refractive index and optical isotropy, yet its shape suggests a higher degree 
of molecular order than is generally assumed for glass or other amorphous 
formations. 

Polymorphic Transition at High Pressure, The arrangement of 
atoms or molecules in crystalline solids, as determined by X-ray diffraction, 
is of fundamental importance in understanding the interatomic and inter- 
molecular forces which ultimately determine the properties of matter. 
Although most solids exist in only a single structure under normal condi- 
tions, temperature or pressure changes often transform the ordinary struc- 
ture into a new stable structure by a process known as polymorphic transi- 
tion, or, more simply, transition. 

In previous Bureau work, an instrument using diamonds was constructed 
to permit spectroscopic studies of solids to pressures of at least 50.000 atmos- 
pheres (750,000 pounds per square inch) : it was recently modified to permit 
routine X-ray diffraction studies of solids at pressures as high as 70.000 
atmospheres. In this device, X-rays transverse two diamond anvils and a 

94 




Rate of vaporization of refractory substances at extremely high temperatures 
and low pressures can be measured with this newly constructed vacuum micro- 
balance. Such data is needed for predicting the behavior of refractories in 
thermionic engines and the other extreme environments. (See p. 92.) 

thin film of material squeezed between flat surfaces of the diamond anvils. 
The diamonds are forced together by hydraulic pressure to produce a pres- 
sure on the solid film. On passing through the film of solid, the X-ray beam 
is diffracted and the diffraction pattern is recorded photographically as a 
series of rings or arcs. Knowledge of the diameters of the rings or arcs 
permits calculation of the interatomic spacing of the atoms in the solid. Since 
the diamond surface areas are very small (approximately 1 X 10~ 4 square 
inches), rather small forces on the diamonds are capable of producing ex- 
tremely high pressures. Structures and atomic spacings were determined 
with this device for many high-pressure phases of metals and salts. 

95 



Properties of Silver Iodide Studied. The physical properties of silver 
iodide crystals were extensively investigated with respect to their structures 
and imperfections. A marked change of intensity after extended exposure 
to light was found for several lines in an X-ray powder diffraction pattern. 
This change apparently indicates a decreased crystal perfection involving 
lattice distortion and the separation of colloidal silver particles. A number 
of chemicals were found which would inhibit this process with varying 
degrees of effectiveness. The shapes of the ice crystals nucleated could be 
correlated with the process, supporting a theory of epitaxial growth. 

The structure of the hexagonal phase of silver iodide was redetermined 
from precise single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The refinement was per- 
formed by a least-squares reduction on an electronic computer. The results 
showed virtually no deviation from an ideal wurtzite-type structure, but a 
much greater thermal motion for the silver than for the iodine atoms. The 
oscillation was only slightly anisotropic for both atoms. This program was 
sponsored by the National Science Foundation. 

Symmetry of Crystals Under Strain, A study of the symmetry of 
crystals resulted in a scheme for reducing the 32 crystallographic point 
groups to subgroups by homogeneous strain. It might be supposed that the 
point group of a crystal could be lowered to any of its subgroups by such 
strain, but this is not so. Only those subgroups can be reached which require 
a change of crystal system and which preserve the centrosymmetric or non- 
centrosymmetric properties of crystals. For example, the piezoelectric coeffi- 
cients of point group 43/71 can be changed to those of point group 3m by 
homogeneous strain, but a crystal with point group m3m cannot have the 
coefficients appropriate to 3m, even though 3m is a subgroup of m3m. 




"Vapor snake" growing in crystallizing argon. Starting with a bubble at the 
surface of the melt (left) the snake grows downward as a vapor-filled solid 
sheath (right). This unusual phenomenon is shedding much light on the 
fundamental crystallization processes in the rare gases. (See p. 93.) 

% 



The scheme developed in this study was applied in internal friction experi- 
ments on crystals, and rules were formulated for predicting the splitting of a 
set of equivalent positions in an unstrained crystal into inequivalent subsets 
in strained crystals. Large strains are known to exist in the neighborhood of 
dislocations, and point defects in such neighborhoods should have a decided 
preference for one subset when splitting exists. This preferred distribution 
may help to make dislocations easier to observe. 

2.2.4. METALLURGY 

Metallurgical research is directed primarily toward increasing our under- 
standing of the properties of metals, in order to encourage the optimum use 
of existing metals and alloys and to stimulate the development of new ones 
having desirable properties. Broad programs of fundamental and applied 
research are conducted which attempt to relate the macroscopic properties 
of metals and alloys to their known structure. Crystal structure and the 
role of dislocations and point defects are of primary importance, although 
in some cases more gross structural features such as grain size, shape, and 
distribution are investigated. The electronic structure of metals and alloys 
is investigated to obtain basic knowledge of the cohesion of metals. Im- 
portant phenomena in metallurgy such as diffusion, crystal growth, fatigue, 
plastic deformation, and corrosion are studied intensively, and explanations 
in terms of atomic mechanisms are developed. 

The metallurgy laboratories also provide advisory services to other Gov- 
ernment agencies, particularly in connection with the investigation of serv- 
ice failures of transportation equipment. Participation in the Bureau's 
standard samples program by the development of specific standards of gases 
in metals is another activity. 

Method Developed for Slack-Quenching Steels, The best combina- 
tion of high strength and ductility of structural steels is usually obtained by 
complete hardening and tempering. Although it is known that complete 
hardening (slack quenching) without tempering results in an inferior com- 
bination of strength and ductility, quantitative evaluation of its deleterious 
effect has not been possible because no means have been available for com- 
pletely controlling the amount of slack quenching. Such means were de- 
veloped during the year and the effect of slack quenching upon the mechani- 
cal properties of certain selected steels is being studied. 

Metal Fatigue Phenomenon. Under certain circumstances gas is 
evolved at the surface of metal specimens undergoing repeated stressing. 
This observation, first made at the Bureau several years ago, was investi- 
gated further in recent work sponsored by the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. Gas evolution can be readily detected under a piece of 
transparent pressure-sensitive tape that has been applied to a specimen before 
fatigue testing. The gas forms bubbles under the tape as the specimen is 
stressed. 

In the present study, analysis with a mass spectrometer indicated that the 
gas was hydrogen, probably resulting from surface reactions associated with 

97 



fatigue damage and crack propagation. Experiments are now under way 
to attempt to use this phenomenon as a tool to learn more about the nature 
of fatigue failure in metals. 

Gage Block Stability. Observations of gage block materials and treat- 
ments that show promise of fulfilling the target requirement for dimensional 
stability of 0.1 microinch per year are continuing. This extremely minute 
tolerance (it may be visualized by the fact that this is the amount of change 
that would be caused in a 1-inch length of steel by a temperature change 
of 0.01 °C) is being met by five materials or treatments. In addition, these 
blocks have all other characteristics that are considered necessary for gage 
blocks. Studies are now in progress to establish the nature and kinetics 
of some of the less understood processes causing instability in some of the 
additional materials under investigation. 

Stainless Steel Diagram Completed. Hardenable stainless steel con- 
taining approximately 16 percent chromium and 2 percent nickel is widely 
used in applications requiring high strength and corrosion resistance. How- 
ever, its constitution diagram had never been established. Because such 
a diagram is necessary to a basic understanding of the steel, various analyses 
of the material were conducted during the year to provide the necessary data 
for constructing the diagram. Its recent completion provides useful infor- 
mation on the several phases present. 

Tensile Properties of Nickel- Aluminum Alloy. The effects of tem- 
perature on the tensile deformation of an age-hardenable alloy containing 
94 percent nickel and 4 1 / 4 oercent aluminum were evaluated. As this is a 
metastable alloy, its tensile properties were influenced markedly by prior 
aging and by precipitation-hardening during deformation. Mechanical 
properties such as hardness, ductility, and strength were found to be affected 
both by the number of active slip systems present in the system and by the 
nature and distribution of the precipitation, principally Ni 3 Al. 

Electronprobe Microanalyzer Completed. An electronprobe micro- 
analyzer was completed and put into service. With this instrument a quan- 
titative chemical analysis in situ may be performed at a one-micron level of 
spatial resolution. Characteristic X-rays emitted from the one-micron spot 
undergoing bombardment are collected and measured with the aid of two 
focusing spectrometers. A light optical system centered on the electron- 
beam axis permits the spot being irradiated to be observed directly. 

The superconducting phase, Nb, ; Sn, of the niobium-tin system, recently 
found to resist fields of 188 kilogauss at liquid helium temperatures, was 
identified with the aid of this microanalyzer. Identification of the other 
phases present, NbjSn, Nb^Sn, and Nb 2 Sn 3 , by the same technique permitted 
the construction of a new constitution diagram of the system. Microstruc- 
tures such as impurities in silver grain boundaries, columnar nitride grains 
in a nitrided titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy, and impurities in uranium- 
palladium alloys were also successfully investigated and analyzed with the 
newly constructed instrument. 

98 



Computer Produces Quantitative Metallographic Data. The physi- 
cal and mechanical properties of metallic objects, as considered in engineering 
applications, bear only an indirect relationship to the physical and chemical 
properties of metallic atoms. Qualitative information on the sizes and 
shapes of the individual crystalline metal grains and on the manner in which 
different varieties of grains are fitted together is supplied by micrographic 
inspection of metallic specimens. The Bureau is now obtaining correspond- 
ing quantitative data by feeding photomicrographs directly to an electronic 
computer which reads the micrographs, performs the desired measurements, 
produces descriptions of the individual grains, provides statistical tabulations, 
and plots the distributions of the various geometrical parameters. 

Standards Produced for Gas Content in Metals, The Bureau is now 
in the process of producing standards for oxygen content of unalloyed 
titanium metal, a titanium alloy containing 8 percent manganese, and an 
alloy of titanium containing 6 percent aluminum and 4 percent vanadium. 
Work is also under way on gas standards for an ingot iron, a stainless steel 
(type 431) , a vacuum-melted and cast alloy steel, and a valve steel containing 
high nitrogen. 

Such standards are necessary for the calibration of chemical analytical 
equipment used to measure the gas content of metals. Low gas content 
is a characteristic of metals with desirable properties, and the acceptable 
amount of gases present is often stipulated in procurement specifications for 
metal products. 

Corrosion Reactions Observed on Metal Surfaces, A study was 
undertaken on the influence of light on the film-growth kinetics of copper 
surfaces immersed in pure water containing oxygen. The results so far 
indicate that white light speeds up the formation of cupric oxide. Both 
the rate of oxidation and the type of rate law obeyed are influenced by the 
light. 

Studies of the kinetics of metal oxidation are also being made with an 
ultra-high-vacuum field emission microscope. In this work, the rates of 
formation of the initial oxide monolayers are being determined on clean 
metal single crystals of iron and nickel. Preliminary iron experiments 
showed that crystal growth could be initiated by heating in an electric field. 

Stress Corrosion Cracking, Stress corrosion cracks occurred in type 
304 stainless steel specimens exposed at 57 °F to corrodents containing as 
little as 5 parts per million of chloride ion, provided oxygen was also present. 
The specimens were subjected to stresses of 20,000 pounds per square inch 
(psi). In notched specimens of low-carbon steels, cracks occurred in pairs 
in the regions where shear strains were believed to be highest. Crack propa- 
gation most probably results from strain rates of the order of 0.001 to 0.01 
per second. 

Polarization Measurements Used to Study Corrosion Rates, 
Polarization techniques used at the Bureau in calculating corrosion rates 
(based on total weight loss) of low-alloy ferrous metal exposed to aqueous 
media, and of aluminum and steel underground, were successfully applied 

99 




The NBS-developed electronprobe microanalyzer performs a nondestructive 
quantitative chemical analysis on a preselected, 1-micron diameter spot of a 
metal specimen. An optical system permits simultaneous visual observation of 
the spot being irradiated and analyzed. (See p. 98.) 

to measuring the total corrosion on a series of ferrous alloys containing 
up to 18 percent of chromium and 3.5 percent of silicon. In this work. 
the apparent area corroded varied from 85 percent of the exposed surface 
for unalloyed iron under cathodic control to less than one percent for 
the 18-Cr iron under anodic control. Thus, since the polarization method 
seems to be quite flexible, it may be of value in studying the effects of 
alloying constituents on corrosion behavior, or for the screening of alloys 
for long-time exposure tests. 

Alloying Behavior of Uranium. Studies of metal reactions are 
dependent upon the results of phase equilibrium studies, which at the Bureau 
are presently concerned with uranium alloyed with the individual elements 
of the platinum-metal family. Recently completed binary phase diagrams 
for the various systems reveal apparent anomalies existing between these 
diagrams that are as intriguing as are their similarities. For example, the 



100 



compound adjacent to the uranium-rich side of the uranium-iridium system 
is the U 3 Ir phase; in the uranium-ruthenium system it is U 2 Ru; and in the 
uranium-platinum system it is UPt. This program, undertaken to pro- 
vide information on the reactions of the platinide metals with uranium for 
nuclear reactor applications, was sponsored by the Atomic Energy 
Commission. 

Ni-Cr Alloy Resists Oil-Ash Attack, Recent studies of the reaction of 
experimental alloys to vanadium-rich salts showed the superiority of 
chromium-nickel binary alloys and of ternary alloys based on chromium- 
nickel in resisting the attack of oil ash in oil-fired naval boilers. The 
resistance properties of these alloys can be further improved by utilizing 
alloying techniques such as vacuum melting, and by selecting ternary addi- 
tive elements such as magnesium, titanium, and yttrium. This research 
was sponsored by the Navy Bureau of Ships. 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, An improved technique was developed 
for measuring nuclear resonance frequency shifts that are much smaller 
than the resonance line width. In this method, resonances are obtained by 
varying the frequency of the radiofrequency magnetic field of a crossed- 
coil spectrometer, instead of by the usual method of varying the steady 
magnetic field. Nuclear magnetic resonance holds this field constant. 
Voltage pulses from a frequency counter are used to mark frequency pips 
that are 200 to 300 cycles per second apart on the recorded resonance line, 
and the value of the frequency corresponding to each pip is simultaneously 
printed out. Thus, the central frequency of a broad, weak line can be 
measured to within one percent of the line width. The technique is being 
applied to the study of lead-indium and other lead alloy systems to obtain 
information on their electronic structures. 

Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy Utilized, Soft X-ray spectroscopy, using a 
grating spectrometer at grazing incidence, was selected to obtain infor- 
mation on the distribution of electronic states in the valence band of metals 
and alloys. With this technique, it is possible to develop distribution data 
throughout the width of the valence band, although other techniques often 
yield more detailed information about the shape of the Fermi surface. In 
the present program, studies are planned of the effects of crystal structure 
transformations, of magnetic transformations, of superconducting transition, 
of temperature, of intermetallic compound formation, and of solid solution 
alloying. The results will help in formulating a quantitative theory of metal 
bonding. 

Crystal Diffusion Equations Modified. When diffusion in crystals 
occurs by means of vacancies, the random-walk diffusion equations must 
be modified. Theoretical research on these modifications now in progress 
include studies of (1) vacancy-flow effects with an external driving force 
and (2) correlations between successive atom jumps in the absence of an 
external driving force. Equations modified according to (1) and (2) were 
recently applied to the simultaneous diffusion of two isotopes of an ionic 

101 



impurity in an electric field. The results obtained provide additional 
information on vacancy- jump frequencies. 

Metal Crystallization Process Investigated. In Bureau studies of the 
basic process of metal crystallization, the growth kinetics of potassium- 
whiskers were observed by means of an electron field emission tube, and 
crystallization rates were measured as a function of time, temperature, and 
supersaturation. These metal whiskers, grown from the vapor phase, are 
nearly perfect crystals, extremely small in size. However, the patterns 
appearing on the fluorescent screen of the tube during crystal growth are 
greatly magnified so that precise measurements may be made. 

Results of the present study indicate that sputtering and photoemission 
may play important roles in the growth of alkali metal whiskers when an 




An optical pyrometer is used to determine the furnace temperature of the 
vacuum fusion gas analysis apparatus which measures quantitatively the 
amounts of gases in metals to be issued as NBS standard samples. (See p. 99.) 

102 



electron field emission technique is employed. The work represents the 
first known use of an alkali metal as a field emitter. 

Physical Behavior of Metals Studied. Single crystals of 99.999 per- 
cent copper were deformed from 12 to 20 percent by rolling, and then 
thinned for examination by transmission electron microscopy. A high con- 
centration of small prismatic dislocation loops was observed, in addition to 
a cellular distribution of glide dislocations. Quantitative data were obtained 
on the dislocation loop density and line density as a function of deformation. 
The experiments revealed the large numbers of point defects generated dur- 
ing plastic deformation, as well as some of the annealing processes that reduce 
these defects. 

Low-Temperature Study of Metals Initiated. A program was 
recently undertaken to study the thermal properties of metals at low tempera- 
tures. Investigations will be made of specific heats of various metals at low 
temperatures to obtain information on the electronic density of states at 
the Fermi surface. Also, the nuclear magnetic and electrical quadrupole 
interactions, and the magnetic and superconducting transitions of the metals 
will be studied. The resulting data are expected to aid in the understanding of 
fundamental interactions in metals. 

Electrochemical Reactions. A new technique for studying electro- 
chemical reactions was developed. In this technique, a column of liquid is 
suspended under tension in a glass tube about 1 meter long. Electrodes 
are inserted into the top of the tube, and the most minute discharge of gas 
at an electrode causes the column to drop. This "dropping" is used as an 
indicator for studying the decomposition potentials of liquids, hydrogen 
and oxygen overvoltage, and rates of electrode reaction, and for determining 
the concentration of electrolytes in a solution. 

Hydrogen Embrittlement Studied. High-strength steel subjected to 
electrodeposition absorbs a small amount (in parts per million) of hydrogen 
which apparently causes some loss of ductility in the metal. In a study of 
this effect, the gas content of embrittled steel was measured. Both hydrogen 
and deuterium were used as embrittling agents. Data from the experiments 
showed the concentration of gas in the steel did not vary in a systematic 
manner with the degree of embrittlement. Thus it appears that the present 
theory accounting for the phenomenon may have to be revised. 

Tungsten Deposition. In investigating some of the variables affecting 
the deposition of tungsten from the vapor phase, it was found that the rate 
of deposition was increased by increasing the concentration of tungsten 
hexafluoride in the vapor phase, even though the concentration was greater 
than that which corresponded to stoichiometric proportions. However, since 
tungsten hexafluoride is rather costly, a simple and inexpensive process for 
its production was developed. In this method, hexafluoride is prepared by 
passing hydrogen fluoride gas through tungsten hexachloride at about 70 °C. 
The reaction produces tungsten hexafluoride which, being gaseous, can be 
led directly into the reaction chamber. 

103 



2.2.5. POLYMERS 

Research on polymeric materials — rubber, textiles, paper, leather, and 
plastics — is directed toward (1) development of new and improved measure- 
ment techniques for evaluating the physical and chemical properties of these 
materials: (2) determination of the structure and properties of pure polymers 
to advance our understanding of the chemical and physical factors involved 
in their behavior; and (3) utilization of these measurement techniques and 
fundamental data in standardization programs of scientific and technological 
organizations. The contribution made by such activities to the Nation's 
economy is reflected in the continuing expansion of the polymer industries 
and in the corresponding demand for national standards for polymeric 
materials. 

During the year studies were made of molecular weight distributions in 
polymers, thicknesses of adsorbed polymer films, methods for measuring hard- 
ness of rubber, thermal expansion of microspecimens, air-drag effect on 
fibers subjected to high-velocity impact, and interlaboratory evaluations of 
test methods. Among the properties of materials investigated were atomic 
radiation effects on polymers, thermal decomposition of polystyrene, 
fluorescence of cellulosic polymers, viscoelastic behavior of rubbers, fracture 
phenomena, structural relationships in ethylene-propylene copolymers, 
degradation of polymers, and the wearing quality of U.S. currency. Chemi- 
cal studies were made of fluoropolymers, nonrubber constituents in natural 
rubber latex, and free radicals in small molecules. Basic investigations were 
undertaken of light scattering in solutions, configurational distributions in 
polymer chains, conformational changes in peptide-containing polymers, 
kinetics of collagen precipitation, and the constitution of mercury-tin dental 
alloys. 

Molecular Weight Distributions of Polymers Studied, All synthetic 
polymers have a distribution of molecular weights which theoretically can 
be determined from the moments of this distribution. Evaluation of each 
successive moment requires a successively higher order derivative of the 
equilibrium sedimentation curve. However, it is difficult to measure even 
the first few moments accurately, in particular the third and fourth, both 
of which are needed to interpret the rheology and polymerization kinetics of 
polymers. 

In a recent study, samples of polystyrene, in which the actual distribution 
was known from laborious fractionation, were analyzed in three different 
ultracentrifuges. These centrifuges represent the most advanced type of 
existing instrumentation. However, even with this advanced equipment it 
was not possible to determine an accurate third moment of molecular weight. 
The ratio of the third moment to the second moment differed from the true 
value by 8 percent in the most favorable determinations and deviated by 15 
percent in others. Even greater difficulty was encountered in experiments 
with different solvents and very high molecular-weight samples. The fourth 
moment could not be determined with any reliability. 

104 



Ellipsometry Used to Measure Polymer Adsorption, When polar- 
ized light is reflected from a substrate surface with or without a thin film 
coating, the differences in the state of polarization that occur can be meas- 
ured with an ellipsometer. The resulting data can be used to calculate the 
optical properties of the surface or the thickness and refractive index of the 
covering film. In investigations sponsored by the Army Research Office and 
the Bureau of Naval Weapons, this technique was used to determine the 
thickness of polymer layers adsorbed from solution onto highly polished 
chrome and optical glass surfaces. 

In both polystyrene from cyclohexane and poly (ethylene orthophthalate) 
from acetone, the adsorbed polymer layers were found to be 100 to 400 
Angstroms (A) thick, depending on the concentration, and to contain from 
10 to 30 percent polymer, with the remainder being a solvent. When dried, 
the thicknesses decreased to about 25 A. This investigation is being extended 
to determine film thicknesses adsorbed from polymer solutions in solvents of 
various efficiencies. 

Rubber Hardness Testers Compared, A comparison of the results 
obtained with both the standard and microtesters for measuring hardness of 
rubber indicated that the two instruments are equivalent. The microtester 
was more responsive to surface conditions, such as surface hardening caused 
by oxidation, and to nonuniformities in the rubber at or near the surface. 



,r j 2043$ Stmr " 




Automatic recording interferometric apparatus for measuring thermal expan- 
sion of solid materials. Specimens are in the interferometer in the cylindrical 
furnace to the right of the observer. Data on length change, temperature and 
time are collected electronically and automatically recorded on the printer while 
the specimens are being heated or cooled. (See p. 106.) 



662336 O— 62- 



105 



This feature makes the instrument useful in research investigations as well 
as for the measurement of hardness on small rubber parts, but causes a small 
increase in replication error. 

Apparatus Measures Thermal Expansion of Small Specimens. A 
digital-recording interferometric apparatus was developed for measuring the 
thermal expansion of small, solid specimens of dental materials, in a study 
sponsored by the American Dental Association and the Federal dental serv- 
ices. The instrument contains two quartz plates, one placed under and one 
over the specimens. In the apparatus, interference fringes are produced by 
the 5461— A green line from a mercury 198 source reflected from the two 
plates. Expansion or shrinkage of the specimens is indicated by movement 
of the fringes, with the passage of each fringe representing a change in 
length of approximately 0.00001 inch. A step, one-eighth wavelength in 
height on one of the interferometer plates, displaces a portion of each fringe 
by one-quarter of the fringe-to-fringe distance, and thus provides a means 
for directional (expansion or contraction) fringe counting by means of 
photomultiplier tubes. A recorder with a shaft position encoder attachment 
provides temperature data and automatically controls the rate of heating of 
the specimen over a wide range of temperatures. Fringe count, temperature. 
and time are printed automaticallv on a tape at the passage of each fringe. 

Air Drag on Fibers Under Impact. When a textile fiber is subjected 
to high-speed transverse impact, transverse waves are initiated which travel 
along the fiber away from the point of impact. Although the fiber between 
the impact point and front of the transverse wave was expected by theory to 
be straight, it was found to be curved. This curvature was shown to be due to 
air drag, and an equation for calculating the amount of curvature was de- 
rived. The results will aid in the interpretation of transverse impact measure- 
ments on fibers at very high rates of straining. 

Interlaboratory Evaluations of Test Methods. A procedure orig- 
inated at the Bureau for evaluating the reproducibility of test measurements 
made in various laboratories was applied to analyses of minerals, measure- 
ments of physical properties of textiles, rubber, papers, and other materials. 
and chemical determinations on cellulose, leather, oils, rubber, and blood. 
Two standardizing groups, the American Society for Testing and Materials 
(ASTM) and the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry 
(TAPPI), adopted "recommended practices" based on this approach. 

Several interlaboratory studies of test methods were conducted at the 
request of technical and industrial groups, including a tongue tear test 
of textiles for ASTM Committee D-13, a spectrophotometric test for bright- 
ness of paper for TAPPI, tensile energy absorption of paper for the Paper 
Shipping Sack Manufacturers Association, and internal tearing resistance 
of paper for TAPPI. The last investigation showed that a reference material 
for calibration of the measurement process would reduce the coefficient of 
variability to less than one-half of the value found. Accordingly. NBS 
Standard Sample No. 704, Reference Paper for Tearing Test, was developed 
and issued with a certified average value for internal tear strength. 

106 



Atomic Radiation Affects Polystyrene and Cellulose. Atomic radi- 
ation alters the structure of polymers in many ways, and the chemical and 
physical mechanisms of the process vary from polymer to polymer. Electron 
spin resonance studies showed that two or more radicals are produced by 
irradiating polystyrene, deuterated polystyrenes, and cellulose derivatives. 
The lifetimes of these radicals were measured in post-irradiation studies 
and the changing character of the electron spin resonance spectra was ob- 
served. The results yield an improved comprehension of the mechanisms 
involved in atomic radiation processes and of the molecular structure of 
irradiated materials. 

Thermal Decomposition of Polystyrene. Earlier Bureau studies on 
the thermal decomposition of polystyrene at elevated temperatures in a 
vacuum showed that the long polymer chains of the material split at random 
positions along the chain to form smaller molecules with free-radical chain 
ends. These smaller molecules do not continue to split at random; they 
decompose by "unzipping" from the free-radical end into very small com- 
ponents, chiefly monomer units. At pyrolysis temperatures near 350 °C 
the rate of degradation increases to a maximum and then immediately de- 
creases; at lower temperatures, however, the rate remains at the maximum 
value over an extended range of decomposition. 

Recent decomposition studies at the lower temperatures on fractionated 
polystyrene samples of molecular weights varying from 24,000 to 5,000,000 
showed that the rate of decomposition maintains a constant value only when 
the molecular weight is high. Evidently, under these conditions, a state 
of equilibrium is established in which the number of polystyrene chain ends 
disappearing through the unzipping reaction is exactly balanced by the num- 
ber of chain ends formed through the random scission reaction of the larger 
chains. This constant rate of decomposition indicates that the overall 
degradation reaction is of zero order. 

Fluorescence of Cellulosic Polymers. Ultraviolet radiation, which 
causes many polymeric materials to fluoresce, was recently used to identify 
and analyze cellulose derivatives. Results of the study showed that these 
polymers consistently fall into three groups: (1) cellulose nitrate, which 
has a weak fluorescence with a maximum at 3200 A; (2) aliphatic esters 
and ethers of cellulose, which have fluorescent maxima at 3400 to 3600 A; 
(3) cellulose derivatives containing either double bonds (e.g., benzyl) or 
carboxyl groups (e.g., cellophane) which have maxima at 4400 A. Cellulose 
itself exhibited strong fluorescence with a maximum at 3650 A. 

Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbers Investigated. Measurements of 
the indentation of a flat rubber surface by a rigid sphere as a function of 
time and temperature were made over a range of times, beginning at the 
lowest temperature at which rubberlike deformation becomes perceptible 
and extending upward to room temperature. The compliance / (limit of 
the ratio of strain to stress at zero deformation) was computed from each 
observation. / was multiplied by the absolute temperature T and an empiri- 
cally-determined number was added to the logarithm of the time at each 
temperature to make the values of JT agree. 

107 






The shift required for a pure-gum vulcanizate of natural rubber from + 25 
to — 40 °C corresponded to a constant "activation energy" of 38 kilocalories 
per mole (kcal/mole) ; that required for butyl rubber. 20 kcal/mole; and 
styrene-butadiene rubber, 22 kcal/mole. The resulting curve of JT against 
log-time had a sigmoid form, with an increase of slope over 2 to 3 decades 
and a decrease at higher values. An extended region of nearly constant 
slope, corresponding to the conditions of normal use of rubber products, was 
usually found. For natural rubber this slope was 1 to 2 percent per decade; 
for the synthetics it was appreciably higher, reaching a value of 15 percent 
per decade for nitrile rubber. This behavior differs from the behavior of a 
classical idealized polymer network, for which the compliance would ap- 
proach an equilibrium value at long times. 

Color Phenomena Observed in Polymer Fracture. A film contain- 
ing predominantly red and green colors was recently observed on the frac- 
tured surface of a poly (methyl methacrylate) specimen after it was broken 
under static tensile conditions. Specific colors differentiated individual 
markings in the surface and the colors were reversed in the two matching 
sides of broken surfaces. Strong colors were also observed in large internal 
cracks, called "craze" cracks, developed by tension in polystyrene and in 
copolymers of styrene. 

Data obtained from light and electron-optical studies indicate that the 
colors were due to interference effects in a thin layer of oriented molecules 
which were sheared by the primary fracture front. Fracture films and craze 
films were found to vary greatly in their physical properties and in their ad- 
herence to the polymer matrix. 

Ethylene-Propylene Copolymers Studied. Ethylene-propylene copol- 
ymers, currently the subject of intense developmental activity by industry 
because of the low cost of the raw materials and the wide range of physical 
properties attainable, were investigated for the Office of Naval Research. 
Specimens used consisted of industrial pilot-plant copolymers and experi- 
mental copolymers varying in propylene content from 10 to 50 mole percent. 







Left: Multiple-beam interferogram, and right: electron micrograph of a frac- 
ture surface of poly (methyl methacrylate). The numbers identify displaced 
lengths of the same interference fringes. Study of the failure of materials 
under stress yields much information on intermolecular forces. (See p. 108.) 

108 



The degree of unsaturation of the specimens was, in general, about 0.15 
percent, and one pilot-plant sample had 0.90 percent unsaturation, com- 
parable to that of butyl rubber. Observations of specimen compliance and 
creep at temperatures from —50 to +25 °C indicated that a copolymer con- 
taining 50 mole percent propylene, compounded with carbon black and cured 
according to an American Society for Testing and Materials formula, be- 
haves similarly to commercial styrene-butadiene rubber, type 1500. 

Polymer Degradation, To provide data needed for the utilization of 
polymers in outer space environments, studies are being made of polymer 
degradation by thermal, radiative, and chemical processes. The work is 
sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Recent studies of thermal decomposition during and after irradiation 
showed that the kinetics of the degradation process differ for polyolefins and 
polytrifluoroethylene. An increase in the amount of irradiation prior to 
heating promotes a more rapid thermal decomposition in both polymers. 
Alkali-treated halopolymers, particularly pc lytrifluoroethylene, decompose 
more slowly and leave an increasingly greater amount of a thermally stable 
residue as the alkali treatment is increased. 

These results indicate possible new approaches to the production of mate- 
rials of improved heat resistance. 

Wearing Quality of U.S. Currency Determined. A comparison of 
the wearing properties of two types of one-dollar notes, one printed by a wet 
intaglio process and one by a dry intaglio process, was made in an investiga- 
tion sponsored by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Data on the type, 
fitness, and age were obtained for 30,000 notes representing several sam- 
plings of dollar notes in circulation in the Washington, D.C., area. 

Statistical survival curves were drawn for each of the two types, relating 
the percentage of remaining "fit" notes to the time of their circulation. Ac- 
cording to U.S. Treasury Department standards for the evaluation of fit- 
ness, the median life of the notes printed by the dry intaglio process was 
found to be approximately 30 percent longer than was that of the notes 
printed by the wet method. 

Fluor o polymers Synthesized. The fundamental chemistry of aromatic 
fluorocarbon compounds is being investigated for the Bureau of Naval Weap- 
ons to provide basic data needed for the development of heat-resistant mate- 
rials, especially elastomers. In one part of the research, the nucleophilic 
reactions of hexafluorobenzene were found to be convenient for replacement 
of a fluorine atom by a hydroxyl, amino, alkoxy, alkene, or aryl group. Con- 
densation polymerization of the resulting pentafluorophenol, pentafluoro- 
aniline, and pentafluorotoluene into long chain polymers is being studied. 

New methods were found for producing polyfluoroaromatic species from 
presently available aliphatic fluorocarbons. For example, 4-chloroperfluoro- 
heptadiene-1,6 could be "telomerized' to cyclic compounds capable of de- 
halogenation to polyfluoroaromatics. The heptadiene thus produced poly- 
merized to give a polymer of greater thermal stability than polychlorotri- 
fluoroethylene. 

109 



Other new monomers prepared for polymerization studies were trifluoro- 
vinylphenyl ether, trifluorovinylpentafluorophenyl ether, octafluorostyrene, 
andalpha-hydroheptafluorostyrene. 

Nonrubber Constitutents of Natural Rubber Identified. An analy- 
sis of Hevea brasiliensis latex was made to determine the identity of the com- 
pounds present other than the natural rubber hydrocarbon, c«-l,4-polyiso- 
prene. Paper chromatography showed that the serum of latex had nine amino 
acids — alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, ornithine, serine, 
threonine, and tyrosine — present in the free state. Glutathionine (glutamyl 
cystenyl glycine) was also identified in the latex, but cysteine was not found 
to occur in the free state. 

A protein of latex having an isoelectric point of pH 9.5 was isolated by 
paper electrophoresis methods; its /V-terminal amino acid was identified as 
phenylalanine, and it also contained aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, 
serine, tyrosine, and leucine and/or isoleucine. Of the trace metals studied, 
copper was found associated only with the rubber hydrocarbon; magne- 
sium and zinc were associated with the serum as well as with the polyiso- 
prene. The nucleoprotein of latex was identified as having an isoelectric 
point of pH 4 to 4.5. 

Free Radicals in Small Molecules. Free radicals and atoms, elusive 
and extremely reactive species, are intermediates in numerous chemical reac- 
tions and in radiation chemistry. At 4 °K these species can, in many in- 
stances, be trapped in solid matrices and observed. A recent study of the 
kinetics of buildup and disappearance of species such as hydrogen, deuterium, 
and nitrogen atoms and small radicals such as hydroxyl and methyl demon- 
strated the complex nature of the formation and decay processes. An auto- 
ignition theory may explain the observed behavior. The results obtained 
will aid in predicting and choosing conditions for observing free radicals 
in irradiation studies. 

Light-Scattering Phenomena Studied in Solutions. Many solutions 
have a phase transition similar to the transition of a gas to a liquid. At one 
particular "critical" composition, an initially homogeneous solution becomes 
increasingly turbid as the temperature is lowered to a "critical" temperature. 
Below this critical temperature, the homogeneous solution separates as two 
distinctly different phases of differing composition. An investigation was 
made of the intense scattering of light which gives rise to the milky appear- 
ance of an otherwise clear solution just prior to phase separation. Solutions 
of polystyrene in cyclohexane were used for the work. 

The angular correlations of scattering differed from the earlier theoretical 
predictions of statistical mechanics. The activity isotherms and phase dia- 
grams obtained may provide a basis for refinement of the theory of phase 
equilibria and for the determination of molecular weight distributions. 

In other work, light scattered from solutions of cyclohexane-aniline was 
measured to within 0.001 degree of the critical temperature. The correla- 
tion of concentration fluctuations was found to be very long-range near this 

110 




Data on light scattering in solutions, obtained with this apparatus, can be used 
to calculate the weight-average molecular weight of polymers, to characterize 
molecular size, shape, and distribution, and to define interactions between 
solvent and polymer molecules. (See p. 110.) 

temperature. However, further work with less intense scattering solutions 
is necessary before it can be stated definitively that there are clear deviations 
from the classical theory of light scattering. 

Configurational Distributions in Polymer Chains, One feature of 
linear polymeric systems is the capability of their elements for being ordered 
in one-dimensional (that is, straight-line) arrays. In certain cases, the 
position or state of a given element is a random variable influenced only 
by its predecessor in the array. The process of ordering the elements in 
such systems, known as a regenerative process, was applied to some problems 
of configurational distributions in real polymer chains. One of these prob- 
lems dealt with length-force relationships in an array of mesh points con- 
nected by flexible chains. This array simulates in one dimension a real 
rubber network in which individual chains cannot cut through each other, 
and thus it preserves the topology of the network under the influence of ex- 
ternal forces. Another of these problems dealt with the arrangement of 
alternating crystalline and amorphous sequences of chain units in a semi- 
crystalline polymer. 

Not all problems in polymer configuration may be treated by the method 
applicable to regenerative processes. For example, polymer configurations 
with excluded volume affects arising from solvent-polymer interactions are 
no longer regenerative. The probability that a given element of the polymer 
can be found in a given location depends on the locations of every other 
element of the same polymer. The best approach to such problems is a 

111 






numerical one. Random-walk polymers subject to given preimposed restric- 
tions on the propagation of their elements can be generated on a high-speed 
digital computer. The effect of the configuration of the entire polymer 
chain on the distribution of individual elements can thus be considered. This 
method was utilized in calculating the mean dimensions of polymers subject 
to solvent-polymer interactions. 

Conformational Changes in Peptide-Containing Polymers, Nat- 
urally occurring proteins and synthetic polypeptides contain peptide bonds 
whose ordering (as in a crystal) and disordering (as in a liquid) allow 
the remarkable dimensional changes of fibrous proteins (wool, hair) and 
the conformational changes in solution of soluble proteins (gelatin). In 
recent research, lithium salts caused dimensional changes in alpha-keratin, 
beta-keratin, and elastoidin fibers that appeared to follow all of the criteria 
adduced previously for melting in synthetic polymers. The transformation 
of alpha-keratin to beta-keratin that occurred was reversible and thus was 
considered to be a crystal-liquid transformation. 

Ribonuclease in solution underwent a change of optical rotation in lithium 
bromide solutions analogous to transitions of length or volume in a melting 
process. Poly-L-proline also showed the same type of optical rotation change 
when the solvent composition was changed from pure acetic acid to almost 
pure-/i-propanol. The environmental effects on bulk protein systems like 
the keratins or on solutions like those of ribonuclease therefore appear to 
be related. 

Observations of the effect of anhydrous lithium perchlorate on /V-methyl 
propionamide indicated that the carbonyl bond of this low molecular weight 
amide interacts with the lithium ion and disrupts the hydrogen bonding in 
the liquid amide system. These same effects may account for the conforma- 
tional changes in the synthetic and natural polypeptide systems. 

Kinetics of Collagen Precipitation. It is well known that degraded 
collagen in the form of gelatin solutions forms aggregates on cooling and 
redisperses on warming. Only recently, however, was it established that 
native undegraded collagen in solutions of proper concentration, /?H, and 
ionic strength forms a rigid opaque gel as the temperature is raised to 37 °C. 
This change occurs without alteration of the unique helical structure of the 
collagen monomer units. 

The kinetics of this change were analyzed over a wide range of temperature, 
concentration, pH, and salt content of the medium. The rate of gelation 
was found to be markedly sensitive to temperature, decreasing a thousand- 
fold over a 10-degree temperature drop. This reaction is consistent with 
a system possessing a negative temperature coefficient of solubility. The 
analysis substantiated the concept that a phase transition was involved. 

Mercury-Tin System Investigated. The mercury-tin binary system 
was investigated because of its importance in the setting reactions of mercury- 
silver-tin dental amalgams. Thermal analysis, diffusion-chemical analysis, 
metallographic microhardness, and X-ray diffraction data showed that the 
system is more complicated than previously reported. The beta phase 

112 



indicated by Pytherch was confirmed by determining the separate peritectic 
temperatures of the beta and gamma phases. The limits of the gamma 
phase were shifted, Gayler's delta phase was confirmed, and a new epsilon 
phase was discovered. On the basis of these results, a revised tin-mercury 
diagram was proposed. This study was sponsored by the American Dental 
Association and the Federal dental services. 

2.3. SPECIAL TECHNICAL SERVICE 

PROGRAMS 

2.3.1. APPLIED MATHEMATICS 

The Bureau's applied mathematics facility performs basic and applied 
research and renders advisory services in various mathematical fields. These 
services are available to other government agencies as well as to the Bureau's 
staff. Modern computing equipment is used by the facility in support of its 
program. 

During the past year the Bureau continued to give special attention to the 
mathematical fields fundamental to its mission, such as statistical and 
numerical analysis, mathematical physics, and operations research. Exten- 
sive assistance was rendered in these areas and in digital computation. Em- 
phasis was placed on problem formulation and analysis in order to select 
and develop numerical methods for the solution of problems in engineering 
and the physical sciences. Automatic high-speed computing machines were 
utilized when appropriate. An appreciable share of the mathematical pro- 
gram was devoted to government problems of business management and 
operation, sometimes called data processing problems. Significant progress 
was achieved in exploring the use of modern digital computers in the mechani- 
cal translation of scientific publications, for which there is an urgent need. 

As in previous years, the Bureau's applied mathematics program was 
strenthened by the active interest and support of other government agen- 
cies. The Office of Naval Research, the USAF Office of Scientific Research, 
the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration supported basic and applied research in numerical analysis 
and mathematical physics. The National Science Foundation continued to 
support the compilation of a handbook of mathematical functions. The 
study of mechanical translation of scientific publications was jointly sup- 
ported by the U.S. Army Signal Corps and the U.S. Army Research Office. 

Asymptotic Expansions, Frequently, in calculating a function f(x) for 
large values of the argument x, mathematicians must use what is known as 
an asymptotic series. These series are divergent, but they have the property 
that their early terms steadily decrease in size, and at first the nth partial 
sum s n appears to be settling down as n increases. After n passes a certain 
value, however, the terms begin to increase and the series assumes its true 
divergent character. If an asymptotic series is truncated at (or near) its 
smallest term, the resulting partial sum is often a good approximation to the 

113 



wanted function fix), particularly for large values of x. Because of this 
property these series are frequently used in computations, even though they 
are really divergent. Only a few scattered special results are known con- 
cerning the precise magnitude of the error committed by approximating a 
given function by a partial sum of its asymptotic series. 

Current research is directed toward filling this gap. Considerable success 
has already been achieved with certain types of asymptotic series originating 
from second-order ordinary differential equations; some general theorems 
have been established giving precise, and realistic, errors bounds which are 
easily evaluated. The theorems also show, for example, why these series 
provide inaccurate results near the boundaries of their regions of validity in 
the complex #-plane. 

Applications of the theorems have been made to determine error bounds 
for asymptotic expansions of Bessel functions, parabolic cylinder functions, 
and Hermite polynomials. Another application has been to determine error 
bounds for the so-called WKB approximation frequently used by mathe- 
matical physicists, particularly in diffraction problems. 

Matrix and Determinant Theory, A significant breakthrough was 
achieved in the study of a function of fundamental importance, the "perma- 
nent-function." A long-standing conjecture concerning the nature of this 
function was proved to be true for the positive semidefinite case. The per- 
manent was characterized as an inner product in a suitable unitary space, and 
application of the well-known Schwarz inequality yielded a large number of 
significant facts about this function. 

Numerical Experimentation. There are areas of numerical analysis 
in which either no theory exists or existing theory is merely suggestive of 
possible approaches to problem solution. In these areas, numerical experi- 
mentation may provide insight into a method of problem solution. The 
Bureau has undertaken a series of numerical experiments to investigate one 
such area of great importance in engineering and physics, the evaluation of 
\ ighly multiple integrals, such as those of fundamental importance in sta- 
tistical mechanics. 

Machine Translation, Further progress was made on the mechanical 
Russian language translation scheme being developed by the Bureau. Special 
attention has been given to one of the significant innovations by the Bureau 
in this field, called "profiling," by which clause and phrase boundaries are 
recognized mechanically and which effects a substantial speed of translation. 
Computer programs for a rather large portion of the Bureau's translation 
method have been prepared and successfully tested on selected sentences of 
considerable grammatical complexity. 

Mathematical Tables. Ten volumes of the Bureau's applied mathe- 
matics series of publications, eight of which were mathematical tables, were 
reissued in response to demand. Completion of a Handbook of Mathematical 
Functions is near. Still to be accomplished are only the updating of biblio- 
graphical material, preparation of indexes, and checking of galley and page 
proofs. 

114 






Digital Computation. The Bureau strengthened its computational 
facility by replacing the IBM 704 with an IBM 7090-1401 computing system. 
Extensive application of digital computers continued in both the scientific and 
data processing fields. In addition to performing computations on its own 
equipment, the Bureau assisted other government agencies in setting up 
problems for other computing machines. The experience gained in the 
performance of service computations stimulated significant research in pro- 
graming and computational methods. 

About half the computing services tasks performed during the year orig- 
inated in the Bureau. The remainder were performed as services to such 
agencies as the National Institutes of Health, Diamond Ordnance Fuze 
Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Bureau of 
Public Roads, Weather Bureau, Treasury Department, Veterans Administra- 
tion, and Federal Communications Commission. Significant computations 
were performed on problems in the thermal dissociation of diatomic mole- 
cules, diffusion and reactions in gases, trajectory computations, multilayer 
adsorption studies, thermal boundary-layer studies, paramagnetic relaxation 
investigations, and contour plotting of magnetic fields. Important data 
processing problems handled were mortgage loan surveys, tax deprecia- 
tion revisions, availability of television service by ultrahigh frequency TV 
stations, analysis of interhospital differences of effective treatment of 
patients, and a fallout shelter survey. Services were provided on a con- 
tinuing basis throughout the year on domestic airline traffic surveys, electro- 
cardiographic analysis, highway planning and traffic studies, and monetary 
research reports. 

The fallout shelter survey deserves special mention. This task was per- 
formed at the request of the Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense. 
The technical data needed were furnished by the NBS radiation physics 
laboratory; the field data were collected under the direction of the Army 
Corps of Engineers and the Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks, and were 
prepared by the Bureau of the Census for transmittal to NBS for processing. 
In performing this task, the Bureau received the whole-hearted and effective 
collaboration of the other agencies involved. The Bureau itself made a 
significant contribution by decreasing the time and cost required — the 
latter decrease being one of millions of dollars — through modification of 
computational techniques made possible by analysis of the mathematical 
model. 

Extensive research was continued in the fields of automatic programing 
and artificial, programer-oriented computer languages. A monitoring sys- 
tem which utilizes the 1401 computer as a secretary for the 7090 computer 
was installed. This system accepts programs in the Fortran language, trans- 
lates these into machine code, supplies useful subroutines, and assists in 
code checking. The Bureau cooperated in efforts to maintain and improve 
the Algol 60 programer-oriented language. Studies were conducted on 
artificial mechanical languages as participation in the work of the Business 

115 



Equipment Manufacturers Association subcommittee on standard computer 
languages. 

Statistical Engineering. The principal function of the Bureau's statis- 
tical engineering program is to advise the Bureau's scientific and technical 
personnel on the application of modern probability and statistical methods 
to physical science and engineering experimentation. The aim of this 
service is to help the Bureau's scientists and technicians conduct their 
research, development, and testing programs so as to reach conclusions of 
desired scope and reliability at the lowest possible cost. This goal must be 
achieved under existing limitations of funds, equipment, materials, and 
personnel, through effective use of modern probability and statistical 
methods. Extensive services were rendered, ranging from short informal 
conferences to active collaboration with project leaders for periods of several 
months. 

Probability and Mathematical Statistics. Basic research in probability 
theory and mathematical statistics was conducted to maintain and increase 
the effectiveness of the statistical engineering program. This research, 
geared to fit the particular needs of the Bureau's laboratories, was concerned 
with (a) the shortcomings of confidence limits derived from a small number 
of measurements, as part of a program related to the evaluation of the pre- 
cision and accuracy of measurement processes; (b) methods for making 
confidence interval estimates of the variances of two measurement processes 
in a situation where simultaneous measurements of a series of objects are 
obtained by two instruments, but repeated measurements of the same object 
are unobtainable; and (c) studies of nonparametric statistical techniques. 
i.e., techniques that do not depend upon assumptions regarding the under- 
lying distribution. 

Research was also continued on applications of probability theory and 
mathematical statistics to problems and measurement of the reliability of 
complex systems. New methods were developed for the derivation of approx- 
imate nonparametric confidence limits for the reliability of multicomponent 
systems, using data obtained from component tests. These methods can be 
applied when the probability distributions of component characteristics are 
unknown, and can be adapted to many forms of functional relationship be- 
tween system performance and component characteristics. 

Experiment Design and Consultation. Major cooperative activities were 
carried out in connection with the Bureau's calibration programs. Methods 
for representing the precision and accuracv of measurement processes, and 
statistical designs for eliminating the effect of environmental factors were 
the subjects of most of the consulting activities. 

One especially noteworthy achievement in statistical engineering was the 
development of statistical tests for use in the interpretation of experiments 
involving the measurement of a number | of objects bv different methods, 
operators, laboratories, or other such categories. The interpretation of such 
tests is almost always complicated by the presence of one or two categories 
having results which are fairly consistently divergent from the consensus of 

116 



the remaining values. A test was developed based on the ranking of the 
results for use in detecting those categories having systematic differences 
with respect to the others. The mathematical properties of the test, such 
as its asymptotic properties and its power under different conditions, were 
investigated. 

This test is simple to compute in that it involves only sums of small whole 
numbers, is easily understood and interpreted, and has all the mathematical 
advantages associated with tests that do not require that the measurements 
follow a specified distribution such as the normal (i.e., Gaussian) in order 
that the interpretation of the results be correct in the probability sense. 

This new test is of great value in the interpretation of interlaboratory test 
programs as it calls attention to nonconforming laboratories by a simple, 
easy-to-understand method based on a minimum of mathematical 
assumptions. 

Mathematical Physics. In its research in mathematical physics, the 
Bureau continued to emphasize the formulation of mathematical theories 
basic to the development of theoretical physics and engineering science. In- 
vestigations included research in the dynamics of plasmas, the determination 
of bounds on the solutions of various types of problems in linear elasticity — 
for example, the solution of the first boundary-value problem of plate 
theory — a combined theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear visco- 
elasticity, and the behavior of the trajectories in the phase plane of a non- 
linear differential equation which arises in acoustical problems and vibration 
theory. 

Plasma Research. Increased knowledge of the physics of ionized gases 
is essential for the Bureau's performance of its mission and is extremely 
important to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This 
fact has been demonstrated by studies of the propagation of electromagnetic 
waves through the ionosphere, and by phenomena occurring in devices pro- 
posed for plasma propulsion. During the past year, the mathematical re- 
search in the field was pursued from three different but fundamental view- 
points: kinetic, magnetohydrodynamic, and stochastic. Results obtained 
were applied to find the mathematical structure of electric shielding and 
plasma oscillations, and as an application of the magnetohydrodynamic ap- 
proach, turbulence in plasma was studied. A weekly seminar discussing 
fundamental advances in plasma dynamics was instituted for the purpose of 
stimulating and coordinating research in this important field. 

Theory of Satellite Orbits. Investigations concerning satellite orbits 
were continued. Emphasis was placed on the development of the theory of 
perturbations produced in the intermediate orbit of a satellite of an oblate 
planet in the case where the orbit has been calculated by theory developed by 
the Bureau. Such an orbit is associated with an assumed gravitational po- 
tential which is closer to the empirically accepted value for the earth than 
those which have been proposed earlier. Work was begun and substantial 
progress was made on improving the accuracy of the calculated orbit by 
taking into account deviations from the model used, such as equatorial 
asymmetry. 

117 



Operations Research. General areas of investigation during the year 
included game theory, graph theory, weapon simulation, Boolean functions, 
and mathematical models of distribution networks. 

Significant progress was made in devising a procedure for finding maxi- 
mum matchings (isolated sets of edges) in linear graphs. Algorithms were 
developed generalizing the Hungarian method from bipartite graphs to more 
general ones. Investigations continued on the embeddings of graphs in 
surfaces. 

In connection with a study of optimal radar site distribution, systematic 
computer experiments were carried out to compare several methods for 
maximization of analytically intractable functions. Work continued on a 
long-range study of mathematical models of distribution networks, with a 
view to optimizing the location of sorting centers and the degree of system 
centralization. Other major activities included continuation of the analysis 
and computer simplification of Boolean functions (important in network and 
circuit theory) and the analysis and simulation of missile system operation. 

The Bureau's endeavors in operations research have been geared to a two- 
fold objective — the determination of appropriate approaches to problems 
encompassing several professional fields, and the achievement of the inter- 
disciplinary collaboration for necessary successful handling of such problems. 
Significant accomplishment was made in this direction during the past year. 
In addition, there was increasing demand for consulting and advisory serv- 
ices in operations research. 

2.3.2. DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS 

As one of the special mission laboratories of the Bureau, the data processing 
systems division continued to provide information-processing services to the 
Bureau's own research laboratories and to other agencies of the Govern- 
ment. A primary function is to devise, test, and demonstrate theoretical and 
operational approaches to both systems design and the appropriate equip- 
ment for the handling, processing, and presentation of information necessary 
for the varied activities of the Government. In meeting its central responsi- 
bility to provide such services, the division engaged in a program of research 
and development using the techniques of several scientific disciplines. The 
Bureau maintains a technical facility and staff competence to foster and assist 
in automation studies within the Government. 

Present areas of activity include study of new components for use in com- 
puter circuitry; exploratory investigations in artificial intelligence, particu- 
larly the syntax of natural and artificial languages, the logic of computing 
processes, and the theory of automata; design procedures for assembling 
electronic, magnetic, electromechanical and optical components into proto- 
type equipments; application of computer technology to laboratory data 
gathering; the solution of data processing problems involving both human 
performance and equipment operation; and application of related sciences 
in solving information processing problems arising in government activities. 

118 



Research Facilities: SEAC, ANALOG, PILOT. During the design 
and construction of the new PILOT data processor, the SEAC continued to 
be utilized as a major research tool, particularly in the fields of linguistic 
data processing, picture processing, and patent search experiments. The 
addition of four tape units made possible the preparation of patent data for 
an exhaustive series of tests of the HAYSTAQ search system. Instruction 
in using the analog facility for research problems was given to a selected 
number of the Bureau's scientists. The analog facility was used for the 
following problem types: multivariable derivatives, temperatures in refrac- 
tory furnace, squaring and rooting, dynamics of scale-pan balances, mass cor- 
rections, ordinate selection for spectrometer flux, optimum postal distribution, 
membrane transport properties, magnetization reversal, and mechanism of 
oxidation. 

The initial configuration of the PILOT Data Processing research facility 
was completed and is now available for use on selected information processing 
tasks. The installation, essentially a network of computers served by a 
variety of input-output devices, consists of (1) a primary computer with 
a 256-word, 1-microsecond memory for arithmetic and logical processing 
operations, (2) a secondary computer having a register-memory for manipu- 
lating pieces of data, keeping track of them, and supplying them as needed 
to the primary computer, (3) a format controller, the third computer, to 
select and convert data in anticipation of their requirement as input to the 
primary computer, (4) input-output facilities comprised of a Flexowriter, a 
magnetic wire unit, a high-speed paper tape punch and reader, and four 
magnetic tape units. Plans are already being made, on the basis of best 
technical appraisal of additional requirements for handling government 
problems in the forseeable future, for the first set of auxiliaries augmenting 
the present installation, i.e., a large-volume, high-speed magnetic core mem- 
ory, a large-volume magnetic disk file, several high-speed, high-performance 
magnetic-tape units, and an off-line, high-speed printer-plotter. An interim 
computer-assembler was prepared for the programer's uses as well as diag- 
nostic and service routines for the maintenance staff. 

Research Information Center. The Research Information Center and 
Advisory Service on Information Processing, under joint sponsorship of 
the National Science Foundation and NBS, continued its collection and or- 
ganization of literature and bibliographic references concerning information 
storage, selection, and retrieval. The compilation of literature and biblio- 
graphic references (now over 10,000 items), information on current and 
proposed research projects, and the list of research workers continued to 
grow. The work of abstracting, indexing, and establishing subject control 
of the pertinent literature received expanded attention. Two state-of-the-art 
studies, one a revised guide to the literature of automata theory and the 
other a survey of information selection systems yielding facsimile copies, 
were completed and two more studies contracted for. The survey of informa- 
tion selection systems was partially supported by the Council on Library 
Resources, Inc. 

119 






Work was initiated on a report reviewing psychological research poten- 
tially applicable to the problems involved in improving the utilization of 
scientific information. 

The center continues to give bibliographic and other services to cooperat- 
ing workers in the field, government agencies, and interested correspondents. 

A comprehensive literature search of character recognition efforts, includ- 
ing a survey of existing equipment and developments for printed character 
recognition, speech recognition, and code recognition, is being made under 
the sponsorship of U.S. Army Signal Supply Agency. The special problems 
associated with recognition of Chinese characters and possible approaches 
to Chinese character recognition are also being studied. 

Components and Techniques, New components were evaluated and 
old ones investigated further for their possible contributions in the develop- 
ment of faster, more complex, and more reliable computers and data proc- 
essors. A study of the rotational mode of magnetization reversal elucidated 
the role of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy and the demagnetizing 
energy peculiar to this film geometry. A number of iron films were studied 
by means of electron diffraction in an attempt to correlate the crystal struc- 
ture with anisotropy energy. A study of the hysteresis loop tracer indicated 
its possible usefulness for quantitative anisotropy determinations with some 
changes in its design. Thus strip chart recorders were added to the vacuum 
evaporator to obtain a simultaneous recording of pressure, crucible current, 
and substrate temperature during deposition. N 

The tunnel-diode large-signal simulation study was continued, using an 
analytic approximation to the static voltage-current characteristics displayed 
by the diode in the negative-resistance region. Investigation and measure- 
ment of high-speed junction transistor parameters also continued. Charge 
control techniques for optimum high-speed circuit design were investigated 
and a 50-megacycle per second (Mc/s) pulse generator and a collector-trig- 
gered flip-flop designed. Semiconductors and storage devices are still being 
studied for use in basic solid-state circuits for memory and logical func- 
tions in computing and control devices. A reappraisal of the requirements 
for signal stability in the general binary-signal computer net led to a mathe- 
matical description of the net in terms of the signal-script transfer-functions 
of the digital repeaters. This description's independence of particular physi- 
cal realization and logical organization makes it possible to compare com- 
puter nets that differ widely in physical and logical aspects. Feasible appli- 
cations in the design of new high-speed circuits are in the planning stage. 

Automatic Data Retrieval, Work continued on the development of 
automatic programing systems for processing information in collections of 
documents, under the sponsorship of the Patent Office and the National 
Science Foundation, using syntactic analysis of natural language text and 
associated pictorial information. 

The machine sentence grammar was enlarged to accommodate more Eng- 
lish syntactic structures and research begun on a new type of constituent 
structure grammar which will allow more than two constituents per construc- 

120 




Control module for special multi-purpose data-logging equipment developed 
to record experimental observations. Pin board (left) is used to program the 
control sequence. The modular approach makes possible assembly of data- 
logging systems appropriate to individual experiments. (See p. 121.) 

tion but disallow discontinuous constituents. Programs for generating 
sentences from grammars, compiling concordances of elements within gram- 
mars, and checking grammars for mistakes and inconsistencies were writ- 
ten, debugged, and run on the 704 computer, in the COMIT language of the 
7090, and on the 7090 itself. A recognition routine, also written in the 
COMIT language, analyzes input strings with respect to the generative gram- 
mar. 

Research continued on formalizing (in a logical notation) the English 
sentences produced by a grammar for a fragment of English. The formaliza- 
tion is expressed in an applied first-order functional calculus. The "forma- 
lizer," which converts an English sentence and its syntactic analysis into an 
expression in the functional calculus, is a necessary step in developing a 
question-answering routine, which has been designed but is not yet pro- 
gramed. 

Technical Assistance for Data Processing. Increased assistance in 
using automatic data processing techniques to laboratories throughout the 
Bureau, many of which have special data-conversion problems, led to the 
identification of several more potential areas for automatic data recording 
and processing. Technical assistance included determining whether analog 
and/or digital techniques were applicable and demonstrating the feasibility 
of selected techniques. The program of designing special data-logging 
equipment for other laboratories was expanded through the development of 
five wide-utility modules, each including several functional circuit "pack- 
ages." These modules are capable of flexible interconnection and operation 
^under the control of a supervisory module equipped with an internally stored 
program similar to that of a digital computer. This modular approach per- 



662336 0—^62- 



121 



mits the ready assembly of data-logging systems appropriate to the par- 
ticular requirements of the individual experiments. 

Typical problems on which assistance was provided include photodetach- 
ment of negative ions, study of electron scattering in gases, and determination 
of color of light sources. 

Development of Information-Retrieval Systems. Under the spon- 
sorship of the Navy Bureau of Ships, the specifications for a new improved 
film transport for high-speed coded microfilm search were completed and 
a contract let for its construction. It will be incorporated in the new infor- 
mation selector system for retrieving information from large files of docu- 
ments stored on coded microfilm. Other modifications included (1) 
redesign of the interrogator to set up the search Question by use of a punched 
card, and (2) the preparation of specifications for two types of input 
cameras, one a flow camera and the other a fixed frame camera to provide 
a built-in code raster using separate optics to insure precise alinement and 
permit the use of various reduction ratios. An IBM 026 card punch and 
printer were modified for preparing the encoding and question cards; a 
6-bit, 45-character punch was ordered for encoding alphanumeric symbols. 

An automatic message-generating system, developed for the Navy Bureau 
of Supplies and Accounts for ordering Federal stock items, was completed 
and its operation analyzed. A systems study of the input and output require- 
ments of the data processing installation, the cataloging procedures, and the 
data transmission requirements was begun. 

Work was started, under the sponsorship of the Naval Intelligence Agency, 
on the design, development, and updating of an efficient, low-cost, informa- 
tion-retrieval system centered around the Lodestar reader /printer. 

Special-Purpose Computer Systems. AMOS IV, a special-purpose 
digital computer, was developed in a program sponsored by the Weather 
Bureau as the central element in an automatic weather station to collect 
and reduce weather data prior to transmission. Five AMOS IV machines 
were assembled by the Weather Bureau, based upon the design of the proto- 
type unit built by NBS for use at field sites. A training program conducted 
for the Weather Bureau on the operation and maintenance of the machines 
included working out a variety of sample programs and concluded with the 
development of various operational routines. 

A high-capacity system capable of multipurpose data conversion and editing 
is being developed and constructed under the sponsorship of Office of Emer- 
gency Planning for damage assessment and resource status information in 
case of a national emergency. The integrated system design has as major 
components a central data processor, a FOSDIC scanner and control, a 
Flexowriter, a communications system, four magnetic tape units and control, 
and a plotter controlled by the processor. A map scanner with preprocessor 
and display is an additional component now under development. Approxi- 
mately 80 percent of the system was designed in detail and about 30 percent 
constructed and tested. 

Pictorial Data Processing. Continuing research in and development 
of techniques for scanning aerial stereophotographic information and com- 

122 



puter programs for translating the scanning information into a form suitable 
for auomatic production of three-dimensional terrain models was sponsored 
by the Naval Training Device Center. A high-resolution scanner was 
developed for use with a digitizer and magnetic tape-recorder to convert 
pictorial information into a form suitable for computer processing- 
Additional research efforts were directed to processing pictorial informa- 
tion from photomicrographs of metallic crystals. A program for determin- 
ing the perimeter length of a crystal boundary was written and technical as- 
sistance was provided to the Metallurgy Division in developing computer 
methods for quantitative metallography. 

Engineering Applications, An evaluation of the automatic data 
processing requirements at the Goddard Space Flight Center for orbital 
determinations, telemetered data reduction, and satellite control calculations 
for nonmilitary satellites was undertaken for the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. Preliminary recommendations, hardware sugges- 
tions, and refinements in the specifications for two new automatic data proc- 
essing systems, were made. 

Consultative services were supplied to the Weather Bureau in connection 
with processing and transmitting photographic and infrared data from the 
new weather satellites of the NIMBUS series. On the basis of this advice, 
the Weather Bureau decided to replace the alphanumeric dial indicators in 
the high-speed photographic-copy camera systems used in the TIROS satel- 
lite with the more versatile CRT character generation. 

Technical assistance was rendered to the Defense Communications Agency 
in connection with procurement and use of a simultation program for the 
defense communications system. The DCA controls a worldwide communi- 
cation system, a composite of the separate long-line communication systems 
of the three services, that provides service to defense and related organiza- 
tions on both regular and emergency bases. The Bureau simulated the oper- 
ation of this system to determine effects of proposed changes in equipment 
and operating procedures, without the cost or disruption which would result 
from trial runs of the fully integrated systems. 

Studies of evaluation and test procedures for analog-digital encoders were 
continued for the Bureau of Naval Weapons. The increased use of digital 
techniques for test-range instrumentation and for missile control and sensing 
elements created a need for procedures to determine the performance of 
interface equipment. The prototype system procured and assembled by 
NBS demonstrated to the sponsor an approach to testing and evaluating 
analog-digital encoders. In addition, consultative services were provided 
for the Bureau of Naval Weapons to a contractor developing a direct digital 
transducer for measuring pressure from to 15 psi, and specifications were 
developed to prove the feasibility of a unique and promising technique for 
high-speed digitizing of analog voltages. 

Engineering Application Devices, A combined analog-digital differ- 
ential analyzer (CADDA) was under development for the Bureau of Naval 
Weapons to demonstrate the feasibility of representing each variable in a 

123 



computing system partly in digital and partly in analog form. Critical 
areas in two of its major components, integrators and multipliers, were exam- 
ined, and their appropriate circuitry and logic evaluated and redesigned as 
necessary. The revised integrator is now nearing completion. 

A prototype personnel peer-rating machine, to make rapid measurements 
of performance and evaluations of leaders for platoons, was designed under 
the sponsorship of the Department of Army and is nearing completion. 
The logical design, the electronic and mechanical design, and the procure- 
ment of all necessary components were completed. A technical description 
of the overall operation, including keying of plug-in packages, color-coding 
for system wiring, and the design of a new type of package used in this de- 
vice, was written. 

Technical assistance was given to the U.S. Air Force in connection with 
evaluating proposals for a Versatile Automatic Test Equipment (VATEl 
for Inertial Guidance Packages including the Error Signal Computer. Five 
proposed systems were studied and evaluated prior to Air Force award of a 
contract for standardized automatic test equipment capable of insuring the 
readiness of complex inertial guidance systems now employed in ballistic 
missiles. 

Data Processing Applications, Study of the objectives, functions, and 
operational units of the Office of Technical Services, Department of Com- 
merce, was continued to determine the feasibility of applying automatic data 
processing techniques to its operations. This necessitated a survey of the 
information processing activities of the Armed Services Technical Informa- 
tion Agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, the principal contributors to the OTS document 
collection, to determine the feasibility of exchanging data in machineable 
form. Study objectives were set and a sequence of mechanization was pro- 
posed and accepted. 

A feasibility study was made of the information-handling procedures of 
the Bureau of Medicine, the Bureau of Biological and Physical Sciences, and 
the several District Offices of the Food and Drug Administration, to deter- 
mine to what extent such procedures could be improved in speed, efficiency. 
and economy by use of mechanized systems. Attention was centered on the 
Pesticides Branch of the Food Division of the Bureau of Biological and Physi- 
cal Sciences, since its problems were typical of those in other parts of FDA 
and the sets of data were fewer in number. A preliminary report of the 
NBS findings and recommendations to date was submitted to FDA in Feb- 
ruary 1962 and a final report in May 1962. In addition, an experimental 
computer program was written to process findings reported by hospitals on 
adverse reactions to drugs. 

Exploratory investigations were conducted into possible computer appli- 
cations in some of the Public Health Service's Division of Radiological 
Health's long-range studies dealing with radionuclide intake distribution. 
diet selection for minimal radiation hazard, and methods for control radio- 

124 



nuclide testing. Two operational programs were started : a linear regression 
program for the IBM 1620 and a geographically-oriented printout system 
for processing radiation sample data. 

Technical assistance was continued in analyzing the Interstate Commerce 
Commission's major objectives, functions, and operational units to determine 
the feasibility of applying automatic data processing techniques to selected 
activities and operations. Computer programs were written for several of the 
cost-finding activities and are currently in production-run status. A system 
analysis of the Inventory of Motor Carrier Authorities was completed, and 
the design and programing of an experimental retrieval system were 
undertaken. 

New computer programs, needed because of changes in legislation effective 
January 1, 1962, were written to aid the Public Housing Administration in 
its review of reports on low-rent housing occupancy. These reports cover 
reexaminations for continued occupancy and new admissions. The computer 
program analyzes the reports for errors aiid inconsistencies, makes correc- 
tions where possible, writes letters to the authority submitting the report, and 
accumulates approximately 30 statistical arrays comprised of about 9,500 
tally counts. 

Mechanization of Patent Searching, Major emphasis in the coopera- 
tive program with the Patent Office for mechanizing composition-of-matter 
patent search operations was on preparing data for trial runs of the com- 
puter search program, HAYSTAQ, and on establishing record-keeping pro- 
cedures for each stage of the data preparation. A report describing the 
system's data-checking, data-compiling, and assembly routines was written. 
Research on methods of file organization continued, the objective being to 
develop more effective screening techniques to increase the efficiency of 
mechanized search operations. Preliminary investigation of mathematical 
models for information retrieval was undertaken to ascertain whether any 
existing models can be applied to Patent Office operations and requirements. 
An attempt is being made to model the HAYSTAQ system in such a way 
that the philosophy of the system will be more generally applicable. A 
preliminary survey of the attitudes of patent examiners was conducted to 
assess the opinions of the examining corps toward their profession and the 
idea of mechanized search. The report submitted recommended a full-scale 
survey. 

Automatic Mail-Sorting Developments. The Bureau continued its 
assistance to the Post Office Department's Office of Research and Engineering 
in applying automatic equipment and data-handling techniques to mail- 
sorting operations. A new computer program developed selects "optimal" 
paths, for which speed and cost are the criteria, in routing mail; this is a 
variation of the well-known "shortest route problem." The new program 
can handle 45 cities and 2,500 scheduled nonstop trips. Adaptations of 
the Washington, D.C., manual-sorting procedures for use with codesort 
equipment were designed to take full advantage of its flexibility and to serve 
both as a model for short-term system planning and as a base for future 

125 



research and development. The updated sorting schemes were written and 
procedures for routine updating of the codesort schemes developed. Liaison 
with the contractor developing the equipment was maintained to assure 
compatibility between the sorting schemes and the equipment. NBS per- 
sonnel also assisted in monitoring a large-scale simulation project and in 
initiating and coordinating several human factors projects in connection 
with development contracts of the Post Office Department. The network 
studies of the overall sorting and transportation problem also were continued. 

2.3.3. INSTRUMENTATION 

Measurement precision depends on two factors: The natural limitations 
of the measurement process, and the realizable performance of measuring 
instruments. Under a broad instrumentation program, the Bureau investi- 
gates both of these factors to improve its measurement capability in research 
and calibration activities. The fundamental properties and limitations of 
instruments, their components and materials, as well as measuring, record- 
ing, and signal-processing methods, are studied. The program also includes 
study of basic phenomena that may be usefully applied to instrumentation. 

Modern instrumentation frequently uses electronic techniques, even when 
the initial measurement problem is not fundamentally electrical. The elec- 
tronic program includes investigation of the materials used in vacuum and 
semiconductor electron devices, study of the characteristics and capabilities 
of electron devices themselves, the development of improved electronic 
instruments to meet the needs of the Bureau's research program, and a 
variety of projects undertaken for other Federal agencies. 

Mechanical instrument activities include development of standard hygrom- 
eters and humidity generators, calibration methods for pressure and displace- 
ment transducers, and study and development of instruments needed specifi- 
cally by other Federal agencies. 

To avoid duplication of scientific research effort, it is necessary to keep 
abreast of the instrumentation art. The Bureau therefore maintains an 
extensive reference file of literature on instruments and measurement meth- 
ods. The file itself is designed so that its data can be retrieved partly by 
mechanical means. 

Electronic Equipment Fault Location. The goal of the fault location 
program sponsored by the Navy Bureau of Ships is to develop measuring 
techniques to replace present manual techniques. Much research is being 
undertaken today in the area of semiautomatic fault location in electronic 
equipment. Unfortunately, however, most of the fault location test sets are 
large, costly, complex, specialized, or require highly trained operators. The 
NBS fault location program is intended to develop quick and easy measure- 
ment devices for such variables in electronic equipment as the following: 
a-c, d-c, and RF voltages; peak voltages of periodic waveforms: pulse widths: 
pulse rise time; rate of rise time; amplification; limiting action: frequency 
response; resistance; inductance; capacitance: a-c impedance: current: and 

126 




Cross section photograph of a failed transistor sliced in half shows the perfora- 
tion (large vertical dark region) which forms a short circuit between the 
emitter (top) and the collector (bottom). (Small divisions of comparison 
scale through middle of view are approximately 0.00035 inch.) Recent NBS 
transistor failure studies have clarified the mechanisms of such breakdowns. 
(See p. 127.) 

temperature. All of these measurements are automatically programed in a 
simple manner and the test information so displayed that no interpretation 
of the measurements or special training is required of the operator. 

Second Breakdown in Transistors, The Bureau undertook a study 
of the second breakdown of transistors in response to a need expressed by 
industry. It was believed that a better understanding of the physical proc- 
esses involved must precede either the elimination of the effect or the develop- 
ment of a basis for rating transistors to permit avoiding the effect. 

Second breakdown of transistors is evidenced by an emitter-to-collector 
short circuit resulting in the catastrophic failure of the device. It occurs 
under many operating conditions and some internal changes accompanying it 
are well known. In typical alloy junction transistors which undergo second 
breakdown, the emitter alloys with the collector through a tunnel crossing 
the base region. Hypotheses previously advanced to explain second break- 
down did not aid in obtaining a practical solution to the problem. 

The Bureau study disclosed new characteristics of the second breakdown 
phenomenon which indicated that it was more fundamentally rooted in the 
character of the transistor than previously thought. The energy absorbed 
by the transistor, the ambient temperature, and the duration of the causative 
conditions were found to control initiation of second breakdown, which was 
further found to occur in all types of transistors and under all base bias 

127 



conditions. A means of rating transistors on the basis of the factors identi- 
fied was introduced for use, pending further results of this continuing 
research program. 

Semiconductor Contact Studies and Surface Physics. A study of 
the effects of various electrodes on such semiconductors as silicon and sili- 
con carbide has provided new insights into processes taking place at the elec- 
trode and within the semiconductor. Work function considerations con- 
trolled conduction of pulses near 100 volts; the effects of surface states were 
so inconsequential that two-terminal resistivity measurements could be made. 

Data obtained with the use of low and intermediate voltages, however, 
were used to calculate surface barrier height and width. Porous electrodes 
were used in a variation of the experiment to determine the effects of various 
gases, such as water vapor and ammonia, in the ambient. Selection of par- 
ticular ambients transformed the normally ohmic interface into a rectifying 
one. By applying pulses to such selectively conducting layers in p-type 
silicon, it became possible to measure the charge stored in the surface states. 
The current conducted was found to be independent of the applied pulse 
voltage, but controlled by a small bias (such as ± 1 volt at ±0.1 milliam- 
pere) which could change the surface potential. 

The use of porous electrodes has opened up a new method of studying 
semiconductor physics and also has made possible the design of new de- 
vices for such applications as pulse shapers, delay lines, and logic circuits. 

FOSDIC. A Film Optical Sensing Device for Input to Computers. 
FOSDIC V, is being developed for the Office of Emergency Planning. The 
new unit is part of a large data processor being developed by the NBS Data 
Processing Systems Division for OEP. Features of the FOSDIC V include 
a scanning unit that is a transistorized version of that of FOSDIC III. elec- 
tronic programing of all FOSDIC functions, low heat dissipation, and com- 
pactness. Electronic programing using the magnetic core and drum memo- 
ries of the data processor will greatly increase the versatility of the FOSDIC 
scanner. 

As the processing of the 1960 Decennial Census data came to an end at the 
Bureau of the Census, FOSDIC III was applied to other data-collecting sur- 
veys of the Government. The monthly collection of employment and unem- 
ployment information of the Census Bureau was converted to FOSDIC III 
processing in October 1961. The National Fallout Shelter Survey? con- 
ducted by the Department of Defense, was carried out by means of a 
machine system using FOSDIC as the input device. Both the Census Bureau 
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are converting their 
personnel records to magnetic tape, using FOSDIC as the primary vehicle. 

Electronic Scanning Microscope. An improved model of the electro- 
mechanical scanning microphotometer was constructed to read data from 
spectrographic plates more nearly automatically. This device measures the 
light-transmission density of an incremental area on a previously exposed 
and processed spectrographic plate as it is slowly moved by mechanical 
means across the area sensed. The photometer signal and a signal repre- 

128 



senting the plate position are converted into a display of wavelength versus 
density on X-Y coordinates. 

In practice the density signals from a pair of microphotometers are scaled 
by a digital voltmeter and the density and wavelength readings automatically 
recorded in digital form on punched cards. The densities are obtained as 
three-digit numbers on a logarithmic scale and the wavelengths as seven- 
digit numbers by micrometric translation of the spectrograph plate position. 
Resolution of the plate's position is obtained with a consistency better than 
0.001 millimeter. 

The X-Y coordinate display provided by the equipment as an oscilloscope 
presentation is a greatly magnified plot of density versus wavelength for a 
small portion of the spectrographic plate, obtained by a combination of the 
mechanical and an electronic scan. It is used in making manual settings on 
the equipment. 

Hygrometry. The development of a secondary humidity standard, 
arranged in a Wheatstone bridge configuration was begun. A pneumatic 
bridge hygrometer, containing four critical-flow nozzles, with a pressure 
gage connected across the bridge, and with a desiccant inserted in one branch, 
was constructed and tested. The differential pressure across the bridge is 




Improved electro-mechanical scanning comparator makes reading data from 
spectrographic plates more nearly automatic. (See p. 128.) 

129 



a measure of the moisture content of the test gas flowing through the bridge. 
The bridge response is essentially linear with vapor pressure over a range 
of 1 to 22 mm Hg vapor pressure. An effort is being made to improve 
the design and to determine the accuracy with which this instrument will 
measure the moisture content of gases. 

Telemetering Pickups. The Bureau is conducting a continuing investi- 
gation of the characteristics of telemetering transducers, a program sponsored 
jointly by the Bureau of Naval Weapons, the Army Ordnance Corps 
(WSMR), and the Air Force Aeronautics Systems Division. During the 
year the Bureau was concerned principally with the development of test 
methods and equipment. 

Work on a liquid step function pressure calibrator which will produce 
a monotonic step function of pressure of 500 psi with a 1 -millisecond rise time 
and 1,000 psi with a 2-millisecond rise time is nearing completion. It is 
anticipated that this equipment will permit the determination of nonlinear 
creep, commonly associated with hysteresis, in transducer responses of 5- 
millisecond duration or longer. Selected transducers were tested, calibrated, 
and evaluated to keep abreast of the state of the art of commercial pickups 
and to determine the adequacy of test methods and equipment. 

2.3.4. RADIO PROPAGATION 

The Central Radio Propagation Laboratory, located at Boulder, Colo., has 
the primary responsibility within the U.S. Government for collecting, analyz- 
ing, and disseminating information on the propagation of radio waves at all 
frequencies along the surface of the earth, through the atmosphere, and in 
outer space. 

Ionosphere Research and Propagation 

The Bureau conducts and coordinates research on the propagation of 
radio waves as affected by the ionosphere and on the special factors (such 
as solar flares) which can give rise to large departures from the normal be- 
havior. It is also concerned with research on the nature of the media 
through which these radio waves are transmitted and the interaction of 
radio waves with the media. One of the important functions of the Bureau 
is the preparation of predictions of radio wave propagation and warnings of 
solar and geophysical disturbances. 

Second Topside Sounder Rocket Test. The second rocket test of a 
topside ionospheric sounder, conducted at about midnight on October 13. 
1961 from Wallops Island, Va., was characterized by excellent instrumenta- 
tion performance and provided much useful data on the nature of ionospheric 
irregularities. In this test the rocket was fired into the ionosphere during 
known disturbed conditions, bearing a 4.07 megacycles per second (Mc/s) 
ionosonde to an altitude of about 1,070 kilometers (km) to the east of the 
launching site. This experiment was performed, like the previous rocket- 
borne sounding of June 1961, to determine if ionized layers appear the same 

130 



when probed from above as when investigated by conventional earth-bound 
sounders, as well as to observe soundings made during transit through the 
ionized layer. 

The rocket was intentionally fired while spread-/ 1 echoes were observed 
using the bottomside sounder, to determine if similarly disturbed condi- 
tions prevailed on the upper side also. Both normal echoes and spread echoes 
were observed during the first half of the flight. The spread echoes were 
at a range six to eight percent greater than the normal echoes, suggesting 
that they were due to longitudinal propagation in ducts caused by ionization 
alined along the earth's magnetic field. 

Analysis of data obtained in this experiment showed that ionization 
irregularities responsible for spread-/^ conditions noted in bottomside 
measurements actually extend into the upper ionosphere to an altitude of at 
least 1,000 km. The local ionization irregularities detected were typically 
about 2 km in diameter and at an east-west spacing of 1 to 30 km. Analysis 
of the variation of virtual ionospheric depth with rocket altitude determined 
the neutral atmosphere scale height to be 53 ±2 km between the altitudes of 
375 and 600 km, equivalent to a temperature of about 850 °K in an atmos- 
phere composed predominantly of atomic oxygen. This can be compared 
with a scale height of 72 km and temperature of about 1,150 °K obtained 
in the first rocket test, which took place about sunset in late June 1961. 

These results have several important effects on the design of a satellite 
topside sounder experiment. The receiver characteristics, for example, 
are being modified to accommodate the strong signals received as the 
ionosonde passes through a duct. Also, preparations are being made in 
the satellite sounder data analysis program for handling longitudinally 
propagated echoes as well as normally propagated returns. This program 
is a joint effort with the Airborne Instruments Company and is sponsored 
by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

Solar Flares and Their Radio Effects, Recent worldwide cooperation 
of more than fifty solar observatories achieved an almost continuous solar 
flare patrol. This is of interest to NBS because the appearance of solar 
flares is accompanied by marked radio disturbances. Unfortunately, sys- 
tematic errors in estimates of flare areas and magnitude are inevitably 
present because of the large number of investigators involved. A machine 
program to group reports of a single flare and to normalize on a common 
scale each reported area and importance value was completed. The pro- 
gram was applied to the flares reported in the CRPL F-series for the IGY; 
the resulting grouped and normalized flare list and a description of the 
methods used were published in the IGY Solar Activity Report Series, 
No. 17. 

The phase of VLF radio waves is proving to be a sensitive indicator of 
radiation from solar flares. Changes in phase indicates a change in reflec- 
tion height and is a measure of the ionizing effect in the lowest part of the 
ionosphere. It is found that the phase excursion can indicate quite different 
ionizing properties for the flare than would be deduced from optical 

131 





,1 



( 



A 




Four-stage, solid-propellant rocket which carried the second topside sounder 
package to a height of 1070 kilometers for soundings of a disturbed ionosphere. 
Results of the sub-orbital flight suggested modifications to make the proposed 
satellite package more effective. (See p. 130.) 

measurement of flare importance, based on the affected area of the suns 
physical surface. An example is a flare of optical importance 3+ on 
March 22, 1962 which produced small ionospheric effects. 

The ionospheric effects of solar flares have also been studied by spectral 
analyses of reflected HF radio signals. A statistical study of transmissions 
from WWV and Boulder transmitters showed that more flare events can 
be detected by this technique than by those which depend on increased ioniza- 
tion produced in the D-region. In this technique excursions of received 
frequency, from a few tenths of a cycle to the order of ten cycles, identify 
the presence of ionization produced between the E and F layers, in addition 
to that in the D-region. The frequency variations observed bear a direct 
relationship to the time variation in the flux of solar ionizing radiation. 

A study of certain solar flares indicates that large solar flares followed 
by cosmic ray increases at sea level often produce a short increase in F-region 
ionization. 

Theory of the Formation of the Ionosphere. Recently H. E. Hin- 
teregger of the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories made accurate 



132 



rocket observations of the solar extreme ultraviolet flux for various heights. 
The rates of photoionization of the atmospheric gases can be computed from 
these fluxes. With known rates of photoionization and a reasonable scheme 
of recombination reactions it is now possible to achieve a fit between the 
theoretical and observed ionospheres by adjusting the rate coefficients of 
the different reactions. For this it was necessary to assume that (a) the 
rate of the ion-atom exchange reaction, N + 2 + 0->NO + N, is greater than 
the dissociative recombination of N + 2 ; (b) the rate coefficients for dissocia- 
tive recombination of 2 + and N0 + are of the order of 10~ 7 cm 3 /sec (con- 
sistent with laboratory measurements but ten times larger than most 
previous ionospheric determinations) ; and (c) that these rate coefficients 
are proportional to T~ n where n lies between ^2 an d 1« 

Further study of these processes should lead to more precise values of the 
rate coefficients, to an evaluation of other reactions, and to a more detailed 
understanding of the neutral atmosphere. 

LoW'Latitude Propagation Effects. Low-latitude radio propagation 
experiments were performed in Africa, sponsored jointly by the United 
States Information Agency and the Bureau. Time-delay and fading meas- 
urements over a six-week period in September and October 1961 were made 
of high-frequency transmissions over the 3,300-km path from Tripoli, Libya, 
to Accra, Ghana. The most interesting phenomenon discovered was the 
appearance of highly spread echoes on the records just after sunset, at 
maximum frequencies exceeding 50 Mc/s. The time-delay varied from 
one ionogram to the next, suggesting that the reflections resulted from 
scattering by rapidly moving clouds of electrons. 

A similar conclusion was obtained from spectral analyses of fading 
signals. It was deduced that during the evening signals are reflected from 
electron clouds elongated along the earth's magnetic field and moving from 
west to east with velocities on the order of 100 meters per second. 

Operations Research. The previously used methods of predicting the 
monthly median value of the critical frequency were analyzed statistically, 
with the assistance of the mathematical statistics consultant, in a study of 
the ionospheric prediction services. A new method of predicting the critical 
frequency developed is based solely on past data, but produces prediction 
accuracies comparable to those using present counts of sunspot numbers. 
This study is being continued. 

Tropospheric Propagation and Radio Noise 

Most efficient use of the radiofrequency spectrum is the aim of the Bureau's 
program in tropospheric propagation and radio noise. Attaining this objec- 
tive requires a basic understanding of radio-wave propagation, noise, and 
interference. To this end theoretical and semi-empirical prediction methods 
are developed and compared with statistical samples of data on radio-wave 
propagation and radio noise. During the past year, a major part of the 
effort was devoted to work in support of the activities of the Consultative 

133 



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Array of 25 antennas used to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on 
radio signals propagated over long distances. (See p. 144.) 

Committee on International Radio. This change of emphasis was made in 
anticipation of the Xth Plenary Assembly of the C.C.I.R. to be held in New 
Delhi, India, in January and February of 1963 and the International Tele- 
communications Union Extraordinary Administrative Radio Conference on 
Space Radiocommunication, including Radio Astronomy, to be held in 
Geneva, Switzerland, in September 1963. 

Reports to the C.C.I.R. The advent of space radio communication 
focused attention on the need for more precise methods for predicting the 
characteristics of radio signals after propagation through the troposphere. 
It is now generally recognized that the large portions of the radio spectrum 
needed for long-range space satellite communications systems can be obtained 
only by developing cooperative use techniques for the portions of the spec- 
trum (between 1 and 10 gigacycles per second (Gc/s) ) now extensively used 
for line-of-sight radio relays. Such sharing appears feasible and it only 
remains to develop (1) methods for assigning the locations of the earth space 
service stations for negligible mutual interference between the space and 
terrestrial radio relay services and (2) methods for maintaining a proper 
balance between the radio power radiated by the two systems. 

In support of the C.C.I.R. program the Bureau prepared 16 reports for 
several C.C.I.R. study groups. Reports were made to the receiver study 
group on figures of merit for radio receiving systems in the presence of noise, 
system sensitivity, receiver and operating noise factors, and operating noise 
temperature. The three reports to the study group on space systems dealt 
with spectrum sharing by earth and space telecommunication links, tropo- 
spheric factors affecting this sharing, and the feasibility of radioastronomical 



134 



observations in bands used by terrestrial communications systems. The 
reports to the propagation study group covered the topics of transmission loss 
prediction, climatological data, radio-meteorological parameters, the radio 
refractive index of air, and tropospheric factors affecting sharing of space and 
terrestrial communications systems. The reports submitted to the iono- 
spheric propagation study group discussed the measurement of atmospheric 
and manmade radio noise. The C.C.I.R. study group on standard frequen- 
cies and time signals was given a report on a cause of reduced stability and 
accuracy of received time- and frequency-standard signals. 

Electromagnetic Theory. A number of seemingly unrelated topics, 
loosely classified under electromagnetic theory, were considered by methods 
having much in common. 

Reflection Coefficients. Previously developed theory for propagation 
between a spherical earth and a concentric ionosphere was advanced by em- 
ploying an idea of Brekhovskikh to derive an expression for the reflection 
coefficient of a continuously stratified ionized medium. The result is in the 
form of a series whose first term is a Fresnel-type coefficient and succeeding 
terms account for the finite thickness of the transition layer. 

Propagation in Irregular Layers. Understanding propagation in 
irregular layers was aided by an approximate treatment of modes in a wave- 
guide of variable width. It was assumed that the boundaries satisfy imped- 
ance-type boundary conditions. The model used consists of two parallel- 
plate waveguide regions connected by a linearly tapered section. The results 
have application to the theory of VLF radio-wave propagation when the ion- 
ospheric heights are not constant along the path. 

Field Intensity in Waveguide. A simplified treatment of propagation 
in the earth-ionosphere waveguide was carried out to describe some of the 
broad features of VLF propagation in a relatively concise fashion. It was 
shown that if the square of field amplitude is averaged over the width of the 
waveguide a very simple formula for the averaged intensity is obtained. 

Reflection From Changing Strata. The oblique reflection of plane 
electromagnetic waves from a continuously stratified medium was considered 
by means of various approximations. The WKB (Wentcel-Kramers-Bril- 
louin) method and its extension are most suitable for slowly varying profiles, 
but certain modifications must be made when the ray has a turning point. It 
was shown that under this situation the phase integral method is applicable 
and that when the medium is rapidly varying the adoption of an alternative 
approach is particularly suitable at low frequencies. 

Field at Localized Obstruction. The field of an electric dipole at a 
smooth spherical or cylindrical surface containing a localized obstruction 
was studied for application to ground wave propagation. An approximate 
solution was obtained by combining the rigorous theory of diffraction by a 
sphere and the approximate Kirchoff diffraction theory for black screens. 

Reflection From a Grid Ground Plane. The reflection of electro- 
magnetic waves from a parallel wire grid near the interface plane of two 
media was applied in the design of radial wire ground systems for vertical 

135 



monopole systems. It was found that when the incident wave is polarized 
with the magnetic vector perpendicular to the grid wires the grid can be rep- 
resented by a pure shunt element in the equivalent transmission line circuit. 

Reflections at Stratified Plasma. Boundary value problems involving 
plasma media in certain two-dimensional configurations were analyzed for 
exact solutions. Explicit results were obtained for the reflection coefficients 
of stratified plasma in planar and cylindrical geometry. 

Path Impedance Formulas. Mutual impedance formulas were devel- 
oped for two- and three-section paths between two vertical electric dipoles on 
the surface of an inhomogeneous spherical earth in a form suitable for compu- 
tation. The path parts between the dipole antennas were homogeneous and 
surface impedances were constant. Specific numerical results were presented 
for combinations of frequencies from 20 to 1000 kc/s and conductivities from 
10 millimhos/meter to 4 mhos/meter. 

Point-Point Moon Communication. Manned flights to the moon were 
anticipated in a program sponsored by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to 
establish guides for planning communications between exploring parties 
and base installations on the surface of the moon. The transmitter power 
needed to obtain a desired receiver signal-to-noise ratio at specified distances 
was predicted. Plots of lunar ground-wave attenuation were derived in this 
project and ground-proximity losses for the antennas suggested and the 
expected noise sources discussed in the report on this work. 

VLF Microwave Models. A multimode waveguide is being constructed 
for simulating low-frequency propagation between the earth and ionosphere 
with frequency scaled upward to the microwave region. This waveguide. 
now nearing completion, is approximately 8 free-space wavelengths in height 
and 250 wavelengths long. In this double-height waveguide, the field in the 
lower half of the guide corresponds to the field in the earth-ionosphere 
"waveguide." It was constructed in such a manner that perturbations in the 
ionosphere can be simulated in it. During construction of the waveguide, 
experimental and theoretical studies were conducted on launching the desired 
modes in the waveguide and on methods of measuring the field in the guide to 
determine the effect of perturbations in the walls. 

Analog Correlation Computer. An analog system for computing the 
statistical correlation coefficients for radio propagation and associated data 
was developed. Signals to be analyzed are derived from data recorded on 
magnetic tape. The analysis can be performed in either real time or speeded 
up in playback time by factors as high as 100, referenced to recorded time. 
The system was designed to provide two basic types of correlation analysis. 
using both standard and modified analog computing techniques. Auto- or 
cross-correlation parameters can be computed for discrete values of time 
delay (r) for a wide range of sample lengths or averaging time, chosen for a 
sample length or, with a series of averaging periods, a time-history of the 
parameter. 

A complete correlogram can be derived and plotted automatically as a 
continuous function in (r), in place of the conventional point plot of the 

136 



function for discrete values of (t). This type of analysis is performed on 
finite data samples, using a dynamic time delay translated to the computer 
from a special-purpose tape transport as a linear function in time. The com- 
puter contains an automatic self-normalizing system for computing the cor- 
relation coefficient and accepts input data in the —100 to + 100-volt range 
over a bandwidth of to 10 kc/s. 

Statistical Studies, Data on distribution functions of vector time series 
were studied, with the assistance of the mathematical statistics consultant, to 
obtain more reliable estimates of distribution, density, and other functions 
of transmission. 

Samples of Atmospheric Radio Noise. A magnetic-tape system for 
recording atmospheric radio noise was developed and put into operation. 
The various statistical analyses performed on the recorded sample of the 
noise envelope are extremely useful in determinating the correlation be- 
tween various parameters of the noise and error-rate measurements. 

The tape system consists of a seven-track tape recorder and auxiliary 
equipment using the noise to frequency-modulate the recorded signal. The 
auxiliary equipment breaks up the IF signal received from the ARN-2 
Radio Noise Recorder into five detected noise envelopes of specific band- 
widths and amplitudes for the tape recorder. The radio noise in the 20-c/s 
(approximate) bandwidth is recorded on one track and the low-probability, 
high-amplitude, and the overlapping low-amplitude noise in the 200-c/s and 
2000-c/s (approximate) bandwidths are recorded on individual channels of 
the tape. 




Tape recordings of VHF signals scattered from the ionosphere are analyzed to 
determine the characteristics of this type of propagation. (See p. 144.) 



662336 O— 62- 



-10 



137 



The recorded noise information is reduced to the following statistical 
functions by equipment previously developed at NBS: The amplitude-prob- 
ability distribution function, the amplitude-probability density function, 
the envelope crossing rate distribution for varous levels, and the pulse-spac- 
ing duration distribution function for various levels. The autocorrelation 
function is also to be investigated. Parameters derived from these functions 
are compared with error rate measurements by an electronic computer to 
predict the performance of a given communication system in the presence 
of atmospheric noise. 

Efficient Television Assignment. The growth in the number of tele- 
vision channel assignments makes it advisable before making future assign- 
ments to determine the geographical separation of VHF television stations 
required for interference-free reception. Meeting the demands for assign- 
ments now anticipated will require that this portion of the spectrum be used 
as efficiently as possible, which implies that station separation be reduced 
until service is limited by interference, rather than by natural noise. 

Methods of making television channel assignments are now being studied 
by the Bureau, making use of alternating polarization, precise offset carriers, 
and antenna directivity, to discriminate between the wanted and unwanted 
signals. 

The study indicates that present minimum co-channel spacings could be 
halved with only a minor reduction in the areas served by individual stations. 
Assignments from the 12 VHF channels could be made to twice as many 
markets as at present, with the possibility of six outlets for 102 markets and 
four or more for 167 markets, instead of for only 17 markets, as at present. 

Over-Water Transmission Loss Measurements. Transmission loss 
measurements are being made over a 300-km path across a portion of the 
Gulf of Mexico, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to improve propaga- 
tion prediction methods. Simultaneous radio and meteorological measure- 
ments will be made for a period of one year. The data obtained will help 
to improve prediction methods for over-water scatter paths, for which data 
at this latitude are very limited. 

Bandwidth of Tropospheric Scatter Systems. Tests have been made 
which will lead to improved prediction of the bandwidth capabilities of long- 
distance tropospheric-scatter radio paths. Tests in a continuing series of 
experiments indicate that the commonly used distance dependence may not 
adequately describe the variations actually encountered on paths of different 
lengths. The present experiments are investigating the correlation of band- 
width to the performance of specific systems. 

Surface-Satellite Communication-Interference. Artificial earth sat- 
ellites have opened up new horizons in long-distance communication possibili- 
ties. Optimum frequencies for satellite communication purposes lie 
generally in the 1 to 10-Gc/s portion of the radiofrequency spectrum. This 
portion of the spectrum is now used by many communication services, with 
which satellite communication systems using these frequencies would be 
expected to share the use. 

138 



The conditions under which these frequencies can be shared by conven- 
tional point-to-point microwave relays and satellite systems were predicted. 
Studies indicate that frequency assignments can be shared with adequate 
geographical separation of terminals and proper consideration to antenna 
directivity. Theoretical studies and an experimental program using 60- 
foot parabolic antennas were conducted to determine the minimum separation 
distance and antenna elevation angles for the space communication system, 
to keep the unwanted signals at the receiver input terminals below the inter- 
fering level. The effects of scattering from aircraft were reported. Meas- 
urements of the cumulative distributions of the directive gain of a 60-foot 
diameter parabolic antenna provide the basis for a tentative description of 
antenna patterns for predicting possible interference. These measurements 
will be conducted over an extended period in order to make reliable estimates 
of interfering conditions. 

Air'Ground UHF~TV Measurements. Data on air-to-ground trans- 
mission are now being collected to predict coverage attainable for airborne 
broadcasts. The study of signal variability is of primary importance in 
determining the reliability of service fields and the potental interference to 
other services for air-ground communication systems. Only relatively low 
terminals (with a mountain top simulating the aircraft in flight) were used 
in previous systematic data recording plans, and the applicability of such 
data to aircraft flying at great heights was not known. Signal variations 
depend on the terminal height as well as on the steepness with which radio 
waves traverse atmospheric irregularities, such as layers. 




The complex antenna system of the U.S.N.S. Eltanin was evaluated using a 
60:1 scale model ship and the NBS antenna test range. The Eltanin is a Na- 
tional Science Foundation ship designed for geophysical research in the Ant- 
arctic. (See p. 145.) 

139 



A unique opportunity for the systematic collection of data on transmission 
was presented by the television transmissions from an aircraft flying at 23,000 
feet elevation, undertaken in connection with the Midwest Program on Air- 
borne Television Instruction. Signals in the 800 to 850 Mc/s range received 
over several different paths from within to slightly beyond the radio horizon 
are being recorded. Analysis methods now being developed will permit 
separation of the flight pattern of the aircraft as a component in the observed 
signal variations recognizable from the variability introduced by the atmos- 
phere. Ultimate results of this study may permit performance prediction 
of air-ground communication systems in the UHF range for given system 
parameters and for a given flight pattern of the airborne terminal. 

Special Refraction Effects. A system of equations has been derived 
for determining range errors as a function of refractive index characteristics 
(primarily the surface value, N s ). The system forms a general method for 
correcting baseline type tracking systems at any arbitrary location, and 
allows between 97 percent and 98.5 percent of the systematic error due to 
tropospheric refraction to be removed. This method was checked against 
hypothetical cases for targets located in observed two-dimensional /V-profiles. 

Refraction Effects in Microwave Tracking Systems. Modern pre- 
cision missile radio guidance systems using microwaves are limited in ulti- 
mate accuracy by refractive index irregularities in the troposphere. An 
improvement in accuracy is being sought by conducting a program to measure 
the effects of atmospheric inhomogeneities and turbulence on such systems. 
An experimental tracking system was constructed on the unique terrain of 
the Boulder area, using specially developed techniques, to simulate the basic 
functions of the Mistram system being built for the Air Force. This system 
is being used to record variations in apparent positions resulting from 
atmospheric variations. Simultaneous recordings are made of atmospheric 
variations and refractive index at each of the antennas in the system and 
at various levels on a tower near the system terminals. Microwave refrac- 
tometer measurements are made, in addition, by aircraft flying approximately 
along the propagation paths. These data are being examined for correlation 
with the apparent position variations of a fixed target simulating a missile to 
investigate the feasibility of using such data for correcting the radio system 
data. Preliminary work showed that some of the long-term (several hours 
and more) errors can be reduced significantly by proper atmospheric meas- 
urements. However, no methods have been found as yet to make significant 
or reliable correction for the short-term (hourly or less) effects. 

Sky Temperature Theory. A computer program was developed to 
calculate the thermal noise temperatures to be expected in the troposphere. 
Preliminary calculations, made using older estimates of water vapor and 
oxygen molecules, are now being revised in accordance with the present 
estimates of water molecule parameters. Further modification may be neces- 
sary when more exact parameters for the oxygen molecule are known. 

The program includes rain absorption parameters. Sufficient information 
for other gaseous and nongaseous components is not available for inclusion 
in the present calculations. 

140 





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— ./'. ., 









< *-^J' *A$m. .*j*dfc9«ss£ 




The NBS Jicamarca Radio Observatory located near Lima, Peru. This facility 
provides a powerful and very sensitive research tool for ground-based observa- 
tions of the ionosphere, exosphere, interplanetary medium, and the sun. (See 
p. 147.) 

Radio Systems 

The aim of the Bureau's program in radio systems is to provide technical 
information to Government and industry on radio propagation factors affect- 
ing design and use of radio systems. The emphasis of this work is on long- 
range radio transmission problems and methods of measurement for radio 
communication, navigation, timing, detection, and positioning systems. 
Radio wave propagation studies are carried out for ionospheric, ground- 
wave, and line-of-sight paths to define the limitations, disturbances, and 
capacity of the transmission medium as a channel. The information ob- 
tained is directed toward guidance of engineering practices, allocation and 
use of radio frequencies, and evaluation of system capabilities and limita- 
tions. Standards and methods of measurement are developed for radio sys- 
tems to fulfill the needs of federal agencies and industry involved in radio 
telecommunication operation and regulation. Studies of information theory 
and coding, modulation, and antenna design are directed toward improve- 
ment of the reliability of systems and to the efficient utilization of the radio 
frequency spectrum. Consulting and advisory work is done in accordance 
with the needs of other government, commercial, and scientific agencies. 

Frequency Utilization. New services were established for computation 
of HF radiopath performance and optimum frequencies. Comprehensive 
computer programs were completed for obtaining maximum usable frequency, 

141 



frequency of optimum transmission, lowest usable frequency, field strength, 
signal-to-noise ratio, and circuit reliability. A fee schedule was proposed 
for services such as making these computations for government and com- 
mercial agencies. 

Applied Electromagnetic Theory. The nature of low-frequency 
radio wave propagation around the earth is, in large measure, determined 
by the shape of the lower ionosphere electron-ion density transition region. 
A computational technique which has been developed utilizes a flexible 
theoretical plasma model which can fit most measured electron-ion altitude 
profiles. The reflections and transmissions in the ionosphere can be deter- 
mined with the aid of this model, together with available geophysical data 
on the ionosphere and with the aid of classical magneto-ionic theory for 
quiescent and disturbed propagation conditions. The complex indices of 
refraction of the medium were deduced and a coupling in the plasma between 
ordinary and extraordinary, upgoing and downgoing modes of propagation 
investigated. The corresponding reflection and transmission coefficients 
were then calculated and certain phenomena predicted as the expected results 
of a solar disturbance on the reflection process. The average electron-ion 
collision frequencies of the classical magneto-ionic theory were modified to 
introduce electron collisions with a linear Maxwellian energy distribution 
dependence. Although some interesting changes of detail in the reflection 
coefficients were obtained, in general the application of the continuously 
stratified layer concept to models of the ionosphere having such electron 
collisions does not drastically change the coefficients. 

The rigorous mathematical treatment for the propagation of a radio wave 
from a Hertz dipole source current moment around a finitely conducting 
spherical earth surrounded by a concentric electron-ion plasma can be 
expressed as a series of zonal harmonics. Such a solution to the problem 
was previously obtained for the terrestrial sphere without a concentric 
plasma, but the summation of the series was then considered to be imprac- 
tical and the Watson transformation was introduced. A new numerical 
technique was developed at the Bureau whereby the field of the propagated 
radio wave less than 50 kc/s can be evaluated by a summation of a series 
of zonal harmonics. The speed with which the terms can be summed on an 
electronic computer makes it feasible to use the summation technique. 
despite the large number of terms, instead of the Watson transformation. 
The structure of the field in the absence of a concentric plasma is charac- 
terized by the quite regular behavior of the ground wave as a function of 
distance. The steady decrement of the ground wave field is modified only 
near the antipode, at which a standing wave pattern which is a function of 
distance is created where waves circling the sphere in different directions 
meet. The concentric electron-ion plasma shell traps the waves heading 
out into space and reflection from the plasma augments traveling waves at 
increased distances from the transmitter. Thus, the series of zonal har- 
monics is comprised of individual waves traveling in the radial direction 

142 



LERELAIS, CANADA 




Receiving stations at opposite ends of a magnetic line of force can often 
observe the same geophysical event simultaneously. Many such events were 
recorded at the conjugate stations of Le Relais, Canada, and Eights (Sky-Hi), 
Antarctica. The information contributed to a better understanding of the 
behavior of energetic particles and their effect on the earth's ionosphere, and 
the mechanisms of the production and propagation of VLF emissions. (See 
p. 148.) 

with respect to the center of the sphere and standing in the direction of 
increased angular distance around the sphere, building up in the direction 
of increased angular distance. Under special circumstances, standing 
waves can be noted, especially near the antipode of the transmitter. 

Experimental Ionospheric Propagation, The continuing program 
using the Loran-C navigation system (,100 kc/s) in propagation studies has 
revealed that some solar flares produce a phase advance in the first-hop 
sky wave, corresponding to a lowering of the D-region, while other flares 
produce a phase retardation, and still other flares cause little if any change. 
Usually an increase in signal amplitude accompanies the phase advances, 
while either an increase or a decrease in amplitude may be associated with 
the retardations. A sparsely ionized begion below the D-layer could con- 
tribute significant attenuation with virtually no influence on the phase, 
while somewhat greater ionization would affect the phase. The measure- 
ments tend to confirm that such a sparsely ionized region below the ZMayer 
does exist, and that some sort of particle bombardment is responsible for 
the ionization in this region, since amplitudes have been related to magnetic 
latitude. 

High-frequency propagation studies have been carried on in behalf of the 
Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Measure- 

143 



ment of wave-phase-path changes, wave-group path time delays, and relative 
absorption of continuous wave (cw) signals reflected from the ionosphere at 
near vertical incidence have been made to determine the short-term behavior 
of the natural ionosphere in relation to limitations in detection of nuclear 
explosions at long ranges. Both short- and long-term variations are being 
measured in an effort to determine sporadic and cyclic effects. Observations 
of solar flare events indicate that phase path change is much greater at 
4 Mc/s than at 2 Mc/s, abnormal rates of phase change occur from a fraction 
of a minute to several minutes after time of visual observation, and the mag- 
nitude of phase change has not shown a relation to the visual importance of 
the flare. This program is being expanded to study short-term phase changes 
occurring on HF oblique paths. 

A study is being conducted for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships to obtain 
information on sun-earth relationships and ionospheric variations to im- 
prove predictions of HF circuit performance. Special problems studied were 
the inclusion of the sporadic-^" mode in prediction computation, worldwide 
patterns of f F 2 variation and repeatability, and backscatter techniques for 
monitoring ionospheric conditions. 

A comprehensive HF propagation study was undertaken for the Rome Air 
Development Center to obtain information on ionospheric irregularities and 
their effect upon signals propagated over long distances. Observations of 
the time variation in phase, range, and angle of arrival are being made on 
both backscattered and forward propagated signals. A direction-finding 
array of 25 log periodic antennas covering the range of 12 to 25 Mc/s was 
recently put into operation, using a beam-scanning rate of 500 per second to 
observe azimuthal variations of signal arrival. Another scanning array is 
under construction to provide data on the variation in vertical angle of 
arrival. 

The study of VHF signals scattered from the D-region was continued. 
Analyses of fade duration at different thresholds of scattering loss at five fre- 
quencies gave characteristic wave length dependencies of speed and duration 
of fading. Little difference was found in diurnal curves of signal intensity 
obtained in 1958 and in 1961. This is another confirmation that sunspots 
have negligible control of scatter signals. Observation of the azimuthal 
variation of angle of arrival of the scatter signal began, utilizing a VHF 
scanning array. Cumulative distributions of the signals received at various 
angles of arrival differ greatly from a Rayleigh distribution, however, and 
indicate that the system noise level is so great that the data obtained so far 
are due principally to reflections from bursts. 

A program for investigating the characteristics of HF signals propagated 
through the exosphere along the earth's magnetic field lines was continued. 
Around-the-world echoes were observed on numerous occasions. Signals 
which could be ducted exospheric echoes, or other than around-the-world 
echoes were small in number and very low in amplitude when observed. 

Surplus radar equipment from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System 
was obtained to serve as a nucleus of a 5-megawatt transmitter to be built 

144 



as a basic ionospheric and propagation research tool. One possible future 
application is for solar radar research. Further planning for construction 
of the transmitter is underway. 

Installation of equipment to make infrasonic observations at Boulder was 
begun. Observation of the low frequency atmospheric pressure variations, 
made in conjunction with a similar station operated in the Washington, D.C., 
laboratories, will be correlated with other investigations of ionospheric 
characteristics. 

Antenna Research. The principles of electronic scanning previously 
developed were adapted for long range ionospheric radar study to an array 
of 25 planar type log-periodic dipole antennas. The broadside array is 
operable over a frequency range of 12 to 25 Mc/s; its beamwidths vary 
from 3° at 12 Mc/s to 1%° at 25 Mc/s, and its azimuthal scan sectors vary 
from 90° at 12 Mc/s to 40° at 25 Mc/s. A method of vertical scanning 
to determine the elevation angle of arriving signals is in process of develop- 
ment. The vertical scanning system will use 10 planar log-periodic dipole 
antennas mounted 16 meters apart on a 500-foot supporting tower. The 
vertical scan will extend from to 51° at an operating frequency of 12 
Mc/s and from to 22° at 25 Mc/s. 

Studies are being conducted to provide an antenna with a relatively 
narrow beam which can be steered through 360° in azimuth. A receiving 
array of this type, made up of concentric circles of elements with close 
spacing between elements, was developed under Air Force sponsorship for 
air/ground communication applications. The load on amplifiers resulting 
from varying mutual impedances between closed-spaced elements of the 
array would cause problems during steering in a transmitting array. Large 
element spacings in a lattice array, with phasings departing from "co-phasal" 
just enough to suppress the secondary lobes, are being considered to over- 
come the variations in load. Separate RF power amplifiers driven by a 
central driver stage could be used at each element of the array to minimize 
the problems inherent with high voltage and high power transmitters. 

Gain contours for rhombic antennas can be plotted directly by use of 
programs written for the electronic computer. Contours of constant gain 
for elevation and azimuthal angles and elevation angle as a function of 
frequency can be obtained directly from the computer printer. Programs 
are also available for plotting the radiation patterns in any plane. 

A study is being conducted on techniques and methods of measuring radio- 
frequency fields under practical conditions. An aperture-synthesis method 
developed for measuring amplitude, direction of arrival, polarization, and 
relative phase of multipath components of a complex field is now being tested. 
Field strength meters are being examined to determine their adequacy for 
both cw and pulse measurements. 

Modulation Research. Theoretical element error rates in multiple- 
frequency-shift keying systems were calculated. Symbol error rate in fre- 
quency-shift keying systems and the signal-to-noise figures of frequency mod- 
ulation and pulse code modulation frequency shift systems were studied 

145 



for wide ranges of system parameters. A continuing analysis is being made 
of the advantages and capabilities of error-detecting and error-correcting 
digital codes when used in radio links that are subject to signal fading and 
interference. It was found that for certain shifting of bits within a cyclic 
code word the linear encoding matrix is invariant and that certain error- 
correcting patterns are more effective than others. Calculations were made 
which show the effectiveness of a number of Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghen 
codes for realistic conditions of atmospheric noise interference and Rayleigh 
signal fading. Instrumentation was partially completed on a large, flexible. 
digital encoding-decoding system for studying error rates and distributions 
and their relationship to noise and fading of digital HF signals. 

A program was initiated to determine experimentally the optimum param- 
eters of a LF digital communication circuit which will provide extremely 
reliable, low-error-rate long-distance communication under all ionospheric 
conditions. Investigations of effective methods of reducing the interference 
of atmospheric noise in VLF communication systems were continued. 

An investigation is now in progress to determine the maximum information 
rate at 10 Gc/s of signals between a space vehicle and the earth at low ele- 
vation angles. The maximum information or bandwidth will be determined 




A digital recorder of the data output from night airglow photometers has re- 
duced the time necessary for processing of the data through the high-speed 
computer. (See p. 150.) 

146 



by multipath propagation effects of the atmosphere, since the ionosphere has 
negligible effect on propagation at this frequency. Propagation information 
applicable to space vehicle-to-earth links will be obtained by operation of 
an experimental system now nearing completion. It consists of equipment 
to transmit nanosecond pulses from a mountaintop to lower receiving sites, at 
which the arrival times of the short pulses will differ for different transmis- 
sion paths. 

A study of the psychological aspects of visual perception was made in 
cooperation with the University of Colorado Medical Center to determine 
how patterns of visual perception can be used in reducing television band- 
width requirements. Tests on the five cognitive styles involved in visual per- 
ception studied verified that the styles do not involve value judgments and are 
not independent of one another. The results of this program can be very 
significant in evaluating television bandwith reduction tests. 

Upper Atmosphere and Space Physics 

The research program in upper atmosphere and space physics made nota- 
ble progress during the past year, using three very different experimental ap- 
proaches: Ground-based geophysical observations, satellites, and experiments 
conducted in the laboratory. All three approaches are valuable and neces- 
sary in the continuing search for new knowledge and understanding of the 
physical properties of and processes in the media surrounding the earth and 
in interplanetary space. Such knowledge and understanding are essential 
to the expanding application of radio communications in the space age 
and to inform man of his environment in space. 

Jicamarca Radio Observatory, The Jicamarca Radio Observatory, 
located close to the magnetic equator near Lima, Peru, was completed after 
a major construction effort over the past two years. The transmitter was 
successfully tested for reliability; results from the antenna tests exceeded 
expectations for gain and sidelobe configuration. Measurements of the in- 
tensity of the incoherent scatter are in excellent agreement with predictions 
based on the theory of incoherent scatter of radio waves from free electrons. 
This achievement marks one of the first known times when precise findings 
from a plasma experiment agree with theory, thus providing a firmer basis 
for continuing experiments. 

This powerful and sensitive research facility achieved some notable new 
observations during the past year. Measurements of electron density were 
made to a height of 7000 kilometers and prospects are favorable for extend- 
ing measurements to greater heights. Also of significance is the fact that 
direct measurements were made of diffraction due to spread-/ 1 irregularities 
in the F-region. Radio star signals observed were spread over a 5° to 10° 
beam width, providing a definite explanation for radio star and satellite 
signal fadeout in the equatorial regions. 

Cylindrical Shock Waves from Exploding Wires. A series of experi- 
ments in plasma physics is being performed in an attempt to duplicate in 

147 



the laboratory the phenomena occurring when bursts of plasma enter and 
perturb the media surrounding the earth. The radio properties of similar 
perturbations can be studied in detail in the laboratory by controlled and 
reproducible experiments using diagnostic techniques. 

Shock waves from exploding wires are used to produce a dense, highly 
ionized plasma in a current series of experiments. The velocity of the 
ionization front is measured by a microwave Doppler technique at pressures 
ranging down to 1/100 atmosphere. The energy in the shock wave, deter- 
mined from the velocity measurements, can consist under optimum conditions 
of nearly half of the energy available from the capacitor bank. Unexpected 
ionization far in advance of the shock front has been detected and studied. 
Hydromagnetic interactions have been observed between the expanding 
shock front and a strong magnetic field parallel to the wire axis. 

Study on Radiation Hazard in Space Completed. An understanding 
of the variation with time of the energy spectrum of solar cosmic rays near 
the earth is essential for estimating radiation hazards in nearby space. A 
study based on the results of continuous radio observations of the effect of 
solar cosmic radiation on the very low ionosphere at high latitudes was 
completed and published. These observations were combined with the direct 
determinations of the solar cosmic-ray fluxes and energy spectra made with 
balloons, rockets, and satellites during the past three years. This investiga- 
tion indicates that solar cosmic radiation near the earth is not the severe 
hazard predicted by earlier estimates. Such studies have a significant impact 
on the design of the radiation shielding used in spacecraft. 

Studies Conducted on Gaseous Electronic Processes. During the 
past year the ability to calculate electron energy distribution functions in 
air in the presence of electric and magnetic fields was steadily improved 
to permit application under wider ranges of experimental conditions. As 
a result a number of researches were undertaken which would not otherwise 
have been possible. The conditions controlling stimulation of optical emis- 
sions from the atmosphere in the presence of high-power-density radar beams 
were calculated for a number of wave lengths. Recent studies also con- 
sidered the point at which atmospheric breakdown can occur. 

The theoretical studies of the behavior of the atmosphere in a high-density 
radio field was the basis for two investigations of d-c electric fields in the 
atmosphere, being carried out in collaboration with scientists from other 
laboratories. In addition this work was part of the motivation for starting 
a gaseous electronics laboratory, the experimental data from which will be 
interpreted with the aid of the theory which has been developed here. 

Geophysical Studies Conducted at Conjugate Points. It is well 
known that auroral disturbances occur at high latitudes in both hemispheres, 
but detailed, quantitative information on the degree of correlation between 
events occurring simultaneously in the two hemispheres is almost completely 
lacking. This information would be of considerable importance in auroral 
theory, particularly when referred to events occurring at opposite ends of 

148 



a magnetic field line. For this reason a pilot study was set up during the 
1961-62 Antarctic summer. 

A temporary station was established in a previously unvisited region of 
Antarctica and three similar stations, one at the conjugate point and the 
other two 80 km north and south of it, were set up near Quebec, Canada. 
Magnetometers, ionosondes, riometers, and VLF-receiving equipment were 
used at the Antarctic and the central Quebec stations; riometers and 
magnetometers were used at the two outlying Quebec stations. 

Although analysis of the data obtained in the eight weeks of simultaneous 
measurements in the two hemispheres is taking place at present, it is possible 
to make some clear statements now about the correlation observed between 
geophysical phenomena occurring simultaneously at both ends of the 60 
degree geomagnetic field line (L value — 4.0). Excellent and detailed cor- 
relation was observed on many occasions between riometer and magnetometer 
data obtained at the points in the two hemispheres, separated by 14,000 km 
along the earth's surface and 55,000 km along the field line. At times the 









Balloon-borne spectrometer used to measure the composition of the atmos- 
phere by means of its infrared absorption spectrum. The sun serves as the 
infrared source. 



149 



correlation between the data at the conjugate stations was better than between 
the two outlying Quebec stations, separated by the 160 km. 

One unexpected result was that the riometer absorption at the northern 
end is typically twice as great as at the Antarctic station, despite the fact 
that both the mirror height for energetic particles and the solar zenith angle 
are lower for the Antarctic station. Information obtained on the size and 
shape of the conjugate areas suggests that the northern one is not fixed, 
but tends to move toward the equator as the magnetic activity increases. 
In addition, the observation of many VLF events at both conjugate points 
contributed to an improved understanding of VLF emissions, the mechanisms 
of their production and propagation, and their relationship with subsequent 
absorption events. The initial results of the short-term experiment, analysis 
of which is still proceeding, are sufficiently exciting to warrant a year-round 
study at conjugate locations during 1963 and 1964. This work w T as in 
large part supported by the National Science Foundation. 

High-Speed Camera Developed for Plasma Physics Research, A 
high-speed framing-type camera was perfected for use in conjunction with 
experiments in laboratory plasma physics. The original design of a camera 
developed at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds was modified and improved to 
enable the camera to be used for streak photographs, stroboscopic effect 
photographs, and single-exposure photographs. The precision and flexibility 
of this laboratory instrument permit diagnostic analysis of the behavior and 
characteristics of the luminosity front in a strong shock wave. These studies 
are basic to understanding of shock wave effects in a hot plasma and the 
mechanisms leading to the generation of radiofrequency radiation by a 
plasma. 

Satellite Radio Signals Used to Study Structure of Ionosphere. 
Radio waves received at the earth from a vehicle in space are frequently per- 
turbed by irregularities in the electron density of the ionosphere. Observa- 
tion of variations in the polarization of the radio wave provide a particularly 
sensitive measurement of large-scale irregularities which have dimensions of 
50 to 300 km. Recordings were obtained of satellite radio signals received 
simultaneously at three separate field sites, selected at spacings of 30 to 100 
km and in both triangular and straight-line configurations. Information con- 
cerning magnetic alinement, height, location, and shape of the large scale 
ionospheric irregularities is expected to result from these records. 

The spaced-station technique permits the observation of ionosphere struc- 
ture irregularities in electron density along the track of a satellite. The three- 
dimensional structure of these irregularities is not revealed by conventional 
techniques of resolution of radio signals from either above or below the 
ionosphere. The "strip photographs" obtained should show, when compared 
and analyzed, the large-scale internal irregularities within the ionospheric 
layers. This work is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 

Neiv Digital Recorder Speeds Analysis of Airglow Observations. 
During the past year the flow of new airglow observation data increased sub- 

150 



stantially, largely as a result of the successful operation of the observatory 
on Mount Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii in collaboration with the University of 
Hawaii. Particular interest in the red line (6300 A) airglow intensities en- 
couraged development of an efficient method for observing and recording 
airglow data automatically. A digital punched-paper-tape recorder was 
designed, constructed in the instrumentation laboratory, and placed in service 
at the Fritz Peak Observatory near Boulder to record the data output from 
airglow photometers. Its use substantially reduced the time required to 
process the raw data through a high-speed computer to prepare it for analysis. 

The finished recorder can record and visually indicate the intensity of 
the airglow, the orientation of the photometer, and the time of the observa- 
tions. Such auxiliary data as the observing station designation, filter color, 
photometer sensitivity, and date are also recorded. Measurements of air- 
glow intensity can be made at rates up to 17 per second and are recorded at 
an accuracy of one percent. In normal operation a survey of the whole 
sky, consisting of 2160 measurements of intensity, is made each five minutes. 

Atmospheric Spectroscopy. The constituents of the atmosphere are 
being determined in a continuing study, using the services of the Consultant 
in Physics of the Atmosphere, of radiation transfer, transmission, and spec- 
troscopic measurements of atmospheric absorption and emission. A prom- 
ising technique uses a balloon-borne, far-infrared spectrometer kept con- 
stantly aimed at the sun, used as light source, by a "sun-seeker." It is hoped 
that this technique will produce concentration measurements of carbon diox- 
ide, ozone, methane, heavy water, and other constituents of the troposphere 
and lower stratosphere. 

Spectrometer measurements of the OH emission of the night sky have 
also been made with a specially designed Ebert instrument, permitting ex- 
tremely fine spectral resolution. 

Cosmic Noise Study Completed at USSR Mirnyy Base, Antarctica. 
A cosmic noise absorption experiment conducted by an American scientist 
attached to the USSR Antarctic Base, Mirnyy as part of the cultural exchange 
program has been completed. This work provided the first systematic data 
on anomalous ionospheric absorption recorded within the southern auroral 
zone. The data were compared with similar data obtained from Spitsbergen 
which is near the magnetic conjugate to Mirnyy. Since there is a wide 
variation in the solar zenith angle difference between the two stations in 
the course of a year, it has been possible to make quantitative measurements 
of the strong solar zenith-angle control of the ionospheric absorption dur- 
ing polar cap events. Funds for the conduct of this program were supplied 
by the National Science Foundation. 

2.3.5. CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING 

The Bureau's activities in cryogenic engineering, a rapidly growing spe- 
cialized field, center at the Boulder Laboratories. The Bureau provides 
information needed for practical applications of materials, systems, and 

151 



techniques at very low temperatures, and assists Government and industry 
with problems arising in this field. 

Demand for assistance in projects involving cryogenics has increased 
greatly as a result of missile and space programs which rely on cryogenic 
liquids as propellants. The growth of cryogenic engineering has been ac- 
companied by emphasis on purely scientific programs which require the use 
of extremely low temperatures. To cooperate in these activities, the labora- 
tory conducts research on the physical properties of materials and proper- 
ties of fluids, as well as on cryogenic processes and equipment. In addition, 
it maintains a national Cryogenic Data Center where information on cryo- 
genic engineering is collected and organized for use by other government 
agencies, industry, and the public. 

Properties of Parahydrogen. The most advanced chemical and 
nuclear rockets utilize hydrogen as a fuel and as a propellant fluid, respec- 
tively. Data on the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen 
now need to be known with higher accuracy and over wider ranges of 
temperature and pressure than have been necessary before. With the sup- 
port of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Air 
Research & Development Command, the Bureau has been engaged in an 
extensive program to determine these properties. In the past year, in 
response to urgent demands, provisional tables and charts of the thermo- 
dynamic functions of parahydrogen were prepared and published. These 
were based on pressure-volume-temperature measurements recently made by 
the Bureau. Measurements of the specific heat were completed while refine- 
ment of the calculations of thermodynamic functions and experimental 
measurements of viscosity, thermal conductivity, sonic velocity, and dielec- 
tric constant remain to be completed. 

Phase Transformations in Steels. Austenitic stainless steels are 
widely used in cryogenic equipment because of their toughness at low tem- 
peratures. Certain of these steels transform partially to martensite on cool- 
ing or during plastic deformation. This has been a cause for concern, as 
the martensite phase is brittle. However, extensive experimentation, car- 
ried out under sponsorship of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, has 
shown that the austenite-martensite matrix produced on cooling the alloys in 
question is generally well-behaved as a structural material, although minor 
anomalies, found at temperatures below 100 °K, are attributable to the trans- 
formation. A recently discovered new phase having hexagonal crystal struc- 
ture has been shown by X-ray techniques to be present in surprisingly large 
proportions (up to 35 percent) at intermediate stages of plastic deformation. 
Mechanisms were deduced for the austenite-martensite transformation via 
the hexagonal phase as an intermediate structure. 

Physical Equilibria. A major problem in liquefaction and refrigera- 
tion processes is to eliminate the collection of frozen impurities in low-tem- 
perature heat exchangers through adequate purification.. Research in physi- 
cal equilibria is necessary to establish accurate design criteria for impurity 
removal. In addition, physical-equilibria research yields information on the 

152 





Instrument for measuring densities of flowing cryogenic fluids. The develop- 
ment of new measuring techniques and devices is essential to the rapidly 
expanding cryogenic field. (See p. 154.) 

nature of forces between molecules of different species that is vital to under- 
standing mixtures and solutions^ Experimental studies were conducted in 
the areas of pure component and impurity adsorption. Second virial coeffi- 
cients for several fluids of cryogenic interest have been calculated. In addi- 
tion, the vapor pressures of nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, methane, and 
ethylene have been calculated to temperatures well below the normal boiling 
point. 

Cold Neutron Moderator, In certain types of solid-state physics in- 
vestigations it is desirable to have available an intense beam of low-energy 
neutrons. This may be accomplished by extracting a neutron beam from a 
moderator, maintained near 20 °K, located close to a nuclear reactor core. 
The thermalization of neutrons liberates energy within the moderator that 
must be removed by a cryogenic refrigeration system. A preliminary study 
of feasible refrigeration systems was made under the joint sponsorship 
of the Argonne National Laboratory and the NBS reactor group. Two 
basic refrigeration processes are considered applicable. The first is a con- 
ventional Joule-Thomson hydrogen refrigerator coupled to a cold helium 
gas loop for in-pile service; the second utilizes an expansion engine in 
an all-helium-gas refrigerator circuit. A further study was performed relat- 
ing to the final design, acquisition, assembly, and installation of a refrig- 
erated cold moderator system. 



662336 O — 62- 



-11 



153 



Magnet Research. Problems associated with the production of high- 
intensity magnetic fields by means of low-temperature, normally-conducting, 
solenoids are being investigated. The results of these investigations are 
expected to be useful for thermonuclear power reactors, particle accelerators, 
and other applications where large volumes of high-intensity fields are re- 
quired. A liquid hydrogen cooled, high-purity aluminum-foil magnet has 
been built and is operational. This magnet, designed to produce a steady- 
state field of 100,000 gauss in a cylindrical volume 3 inches in diameter by 
8 inches long, is being evaluated while it is being used as a research tool, 
the maximum field depending upon the research needs. To date, the maxi- 
mum field produced is 70,000 gauss. Measurements of the effects of tem- 
perature, strain, purity, and magnetic-field intensity on the electrical resistiv- 
ity of aluminum are being made. The results are most important to progress 
in this area, and will permit the optimization of these types of solenoids. 

A high-energy power supply (130,000 joules) for pulsed magnets has 
been designed and built and is being used for research on superconducting 
materials. It is also to be used in the development of very high field inten- 
sity, low-temperature pulsed solenoids with long time constants. 

Instrumentation and Cryogenic Equipment. The growing use of 
cryogenic fluids in general, and liquid hydrogen in particular, necessitates 
research into measurement problems and into considerations which limit 
ability to design and predict the behavior of equipment. Investigations 
concerned with the characteristics of pressure transducers down to 20 °K 
have been completed. Both theoretical and experimental work on the dy- 
namic characteristics of temperature sensors has been undertaken ; one piece 
of experimental apparatus has been completed and data are being accumu- 
lated and analyzed. A cryogenic prototype for measuring the density of 
flowing cryogenic (and normal-temperature) fluids has been built and 
evaluated. The tests indicate that the densitometer performs satisfactorily 
with both single- and two-phase fluids; however, due to the low density of 
hydrogen, some modifications may be necessary to obtain the desired accu- 
racy with that fluid. An experimental program to determine all of the 
information necessary for the design of carbon resistance liquid level instru- 
mentation is almost complete. An apparatus for the evaluation of hydrogen 
liquid level instrumentation has been designed, and is being fabricated. 

A program, undertaken with the Air Force, NASA, and the AEC, to de- 
velop standardized liquid hydrogen couplings, is in the active testing and 
evaluation phase. Two units have been designed and built, and are ready to 
be evaluated in the test apparatus which is now operating. More advanced 
designs have been completed and will be fabricated in the near future. 

Cryopumping. The most promising method for achieving the low 
pressures found in outer space and for obtaining the pumping speeds re- 
quired for space simulation is cryopumping, the freezing and adsorption 
of gases on cold surfaces. Investigations oriented towards the evaluation 
of cryopumps as vacuum pumps have been pursued. Pumping speeds and 
capture coefficients of readily definable cryopump configurations have been 

154 



measured. The data indicate that pumping speeds greater than theoretical 
can be achieved. To date, data have been accumulated and analyzed for 
C0 2 and N 2 on surfaces at 77 °K and 20 °K. 

Heat Transfer, As heat transfer must be controlled and/or predicted 
in most cryogenic systems, there are numerous problems in this area which 
must be investigated. A current study is concerned with heat transfer be- 
tween the atmosphere and surfaces at low temperatures (20 to 90 °K) . The 
experimental apparatus for conducting this investigation has been perfected 
and information is being accumulated and analyzed. The ranges of the 
atmospheric parameters are: wind velocity, 5 to 60 mph; temperature, 40 
to 100 °F; and specific humidity, 17 to 325 grains per pound. Tests with 
a horizontal cylindrical surface at 77 °K have been completed. Information 
on heat transfer mechanisms, the mechanism of frost formation, and frost 
conductivity has been obtained. A most interesting result is that the con- 
densation which takes place in the boundary layer, but which does not con- 
tribute to the frost layer on the surface, has an important effect on the heat 
transfer; it is expected that the theoretical analysis being done on frost for- 
mation will quantitatively predict this effect. 

Two-Phase Fluid Phenomena and Fluid Flow. Because the fluids in 
cryogenic systems are usually close to saturation, the simultaneous existence 
of both liquid and vapor phases together (two-phase fluids) is common. A 
fundamental understanding of the behavior of these systems therefore re- 
quires basic knowledge of two-phase fluid phenomena. To contribute to 




Miniature high-speed turbine expander is a vital component in a cryogenic 
refrigeration system. The turbine rotates at speeds up to 9000 revolutions 
per second. The shaft is supported by hydrostatic helium gas-lubricated 
bearings. (Seep. 156.) 

155 



such understanding, choked flows of two-phase fluids are being investigated 
theoretically and experimentally, basic work concerned with cavitation is 
being pursued, and an investigation of the behavior of cryogenic systems 
during cooldown is well under way. 

Work on the bulk density of boiling liquid oxygen is essentially com- 
pleted. This work was stimulated by needs in the rocket propulsion pro- 
grams — what weight and what volume of propellant are aboard a vehicle 
at any time during loading? Preliminary computations based upon the 
theoretical analysis compares favorably with the experimental results. Ex- 
perimental work will be extended to liquid hydrogen to determine the pre- 
dictive accuracy of the theory for this fluid. 

A project concerned with the cooling of cryogenic liquids by the injec- 
tion of a noncondensible gas has been completed. The results of this inves- 
tigation are extremely important to our space effort because gas injection 
is one of the most effective techniques for achieving the cooling necessary 
for the reliable starting of large rocket propulsion systems. The experi- 
mental results which were obtained with liquid hydrogen, using helium as 
the injection gas, agree extremely well with the predictions of the theoretical 
analysis. 

Refrigeration Processes, The development of methods for providing 
refrigeration in the cryogenic temperature range is of considerable impor- 
tance in present-day military, industrial, and research programs. With the 
partial support of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Bureau has con- 
ducted a theoretical study of feasible cycles adaptable to the temperature 
region 1.5 to 30 °K and a consideration of components necessary to provide 
a reliable, maintenance-free refrigeration unit. 

A vital component of refrigeration systems is the expansion engine needed 
to produce the required refrigeration. Considerable progress has been 
made on the development of a miniature high-speed turbine expander sup- 
ported by hydrostatic helium gas-lubricated bearings. The turbine is 0.3116 
inch in diameter and rotates at speeds up to 9,000 revolutions per second. 
Successful tests have been performed on a system which provides 200 watts 
of refrigeration at 21 to 30 °K and 8 watts 4.2 °K. 

Computational work, with the aid of a digital computer, is being per- 
formed on the analysis of refrigeration systems applicable to a particular 
task. This work has centered on the compilation, correlation, and tabulation 
of the properties of helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, and neon gas. 

Consultation and Advisory Services, The Bureau is providing con- 
sultation and advisory services of a cryogenic engineering nature in several 
areas. The broad accumulated experience of NBS personnel is being utilized 
by commercial contractors to government agencies in the design of equip- 
ment and in the handling of cryogenic fluids. 

Assistance is being given to Projects Centaur, Rover, and NERVA under 
the sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The 
Centaur is the first space vehicle to use liquid hydrogen as a propellant. The 
nuclear engine development programs, Rover and NERVA. are now using, 

156 



and are planning more extensive use of, liquid hydrogen. The physical 
properties of hydrogen are sufficiently different from other propellants to 
present many new problems to the industry. Support has been given to the 
principal contractors on these programs in the areas of ground support 
equipment, insulation, low-temperature seals, and rolling element bearings. 
In addition, an investigation was started on solid formation in cryogenic 
propellants. 

Facilities and operating staff were provided to test a zero-gravity centrif- 
ugal liquid-vapor separator for a government contractor, Beechcraft Re- 
search and Development. The separator, designed by General Dynamics/ 
Astronautics as part of the Centaur program, was operated at exhaust pres- 
sures of 1 to 3 pounds per square inch absolute. NBS has the only known 
facility which can conveniently pump the turbine exhaust to such a low 
absolute pressure. 

Under the sponsorship of the Bureau of Naval Weapons, assistance was 
given to establish equipment and techniques for producing, transporting, 
storing, and handling large quantities of liquid helium. As a consequence, 
large shipments of helium may be transported, in liquid form, at a greatly 
reduced freight rate compared to compressed gas transport. Technical 
guidance was given in the development of a portable helium liquifier with a 
capacity of 65 liters per hour, an 850-liter liquid-helium transport container, 
and a 722,000-standard-cubic-foot capacity (7700 gallons) helium transport 
container. 

A study was performed relating to the storage and distribution of liquid 
nitrogen from different sites of the University of California Lawrence Radia- 
tion Laboratory. On the basis of facts accumulated during the engineering 
evaluation, recommendations were made leading to more efficient use. 

The Bureau is providing consultation and advisory services to the Air 
Force Cambridge Research Laboratory in connection with the cryogenic 
problems encountered in the development of a cryogenic "whole air" sam- 
pler. The sampler, which is carried by rockets into the upper atmosphere, 
uses liquid hydrogen to condense the sample of atmosphere which is collected, 
and will provide a means for sampling the atmosphere which promises to be 
much more effective than equipment currently in use. 

Low-Temperature Seals. There are numerous applications in indus- 
trial and research activities for seals which must operate successfully at all 
temperatures from ambient to cryogenic. A study of elastomeric seals for 
these applications, sponsored by the Aeronautical Systems Division of the 
U.S. Air Force, has progressed from the initial development and functional 
testing to a more analytical and fundamental program. Several pertinent 
physical properties of elastomeric polymers, such as thermal expansion, 
resilience, and force-temperature relationships, as well as seal performance 
under standardized conditions, are being measured. These measurements 
will provide data which will aid in predicting seal effectiveness. The me- 
chanical behavior of plastics and elastomers, which are derived from chain 
polymers, is in itself a subject of great fundamental interest. 

157 



Cryogenic Materials Data Handbook. Under Air Force sponsorship, 
a handbook consisting of 800 loose-leaf pages in two volumes has been 
completed. The handbook presents mechanical and physical properties 
data on about fifty structural materials, mostly alloys but including a few 
plastics. Some of the data were compiled from the literature, but a large 
part resulted from new experimental measurements by the Bureau. The 
original goal was to make possible improved reliability of missile-control 
components through making available more extensive and accurate design 
data. However, the handbook should prove to be generally useful in low- 
temperature technology. The Air Force has arranged to make it available 
through the Office of Technical Services, U.S. Department of Commerce. 

Cryogenic Engineering Literature. The Cryogenic Data Center 
maintains a centralized activity for the procurement, distribution, storage, 
and retrieval of world literature of cryogenic interest and the preparation 
of bibliographies for both the Bureau staff and the cryogenic industry. 
Nearly 2,000 documents were procured for projects during the last year: 
over half of these documents were not previously recorded and were there- 
fore added to the bibliography system. More than 1,000 additional citations 
were also added to the system as a result of systematic searching of current 
journals and abstract bulletins. This search for citations was restricted 
to literature concerning "properties of fluids" and "properties of solids" in 
order to be able to provide a comprehensive coverage of these categories. 
Over 16,000 items, including reprints, reports, and thermodynamic charts, 
have been distributed to the cryogenic industry during this past year. 

More than 5,000 listings of properties of fluids and solids are now coded 
on magnetic tape for automated bibliography searching. A computer pro- 
gram using the CDC 1604 digital computer has been developed that will 
process as many as 99 requests for selected bibliographies in one pass of 
this search tape. Considerable progress has also been made in converting 
the bibliography citations to an eight-channel flexowriter tape. These tapes 
are currently being used for assembly of bibliographies and will later be 
printed out as a Catalog of References. Ultimately they will be transferred 
to magnetic tape for automatic printing of bibliographies. 

Compilation of Thermo physical Property Data. The Cryogenic 
Data Center has accelerated the collection and evaluation of thermophysical 
property data from the scientific literature, with the emphasis on the evalu- 
ation and the selection of "best values." These data are compiled for a wide 
range of temperature and pressure in tables and charts of property values in 
a form convenient to the engineer and scientist engaged in the design of 
cryogenic systems. 

During the year, considerable progress has been made in the compilation 
and evaluation of the thermodynamic property data for several cryogenic 
fluids. A compilation of the thermodynamic properties of helium has been 
published; a compilation of P-V-T values of neon extending the range of 
values to higher pressures and lower temperatures by the "theory of corre- 
sponding states" has been completed for publication ; and considerable prog- 

158 



■ . ■ ■ ■ ■ 

■■'■■■'■■■':■"..-.■■■ , t '>/ : i-'$yy ; :-' 




U.S. NAVY 

BUREAU OF NAVAL WEAPONS 




Helium transport container with a capacity of 7,700 gallons. With this con- 
tainer, large shipments of helium, in liquid form, are possible at a reduced 
freight rate compared to compressed gas transport. Development of the con- 
tainer by a private firm was supervised by NBS. (See p. 157.) 

ress has been made in the evaluation of the data for argon, oxygen, and 
carbon monoxide. A compilation of the surface tension data for the cryo- 
genic liquids is essentially complete and additional property compilations 
for cryogenic materials, such as surface tension, dielectric constant, thermal 
conductivity, viscosity, and Prandtl number, are in progress. A series of 
graphs of the thermodynamic properties of parahydrogen has been con- 
structed for the new data from the Bureau project on hydrogen properties. 
Bibliographies of the literature on these subjects have been compiled and 
copies of the pertinent literaure obtained. A comprehensive bibliography 
on the properties of oxygen has been published, and bibliographies on the 
properties of fluorine and on the two-phase properties of the cryogenic fluids 
have been undertaken. 

In all of these studies, use is made of the large digital computer for the 
many calculations made in the evaluation of data. Considerable effort is 
also given to theoretical considerations and mathematical analysis tech- 
niques. Procedures for producing extensive and comprehensive graphs of 
properties have also been instituted to assure accurate representation of 
the data on charts particularly useful in cryogenic systems design. 

Liquefaction of Gases, Until liquid helium became commercially 
available in the spring of 1962, the CEL helium liquefier was operated and 
over 3500 liters of liquid helium were produced this year for NBS projects 
and for several research laboratories throughout the country. Liquefied 
gases purchased for distribution during the year included 52,000 liters of 
liquid hydrogen, 410,000 liters of liquid nitrogen, and 100 liters of liquid 
helium. Purified gases handled included 215,000 scf of hydrogen gas re- 
covered from liquid evaporation, 100,000 scf of nitrogen gas produced in 
CEL facilities, and 180,000 scf of helium gas which was purchased and 
included 107,000 scf used for liquid helium production. Liquefied and 



159 



pure gases were also distributed to 19 laboratories outside of NBS which 
had no other convenient source of supply; this included the liquid helium 
and purified hydrogen and nitrogen gas produced in NBS facilities and a 
small amount of liquid hydrogen, liquid nitrogen, and gaseous helium to 
a few others in the vicinity of the NBS Boulder Laboratories. 

2.3.6. BUILDING RESEARCH 

An objective of the building research program is the development of new 
knowledge through chemistry, physics, and engineering research to solve 
problems related to building materials, structures, equipment, and facilities. 
Another objective is the development of measurement and test methods so 
that such knowledge may be used by the building industry. In one part of 
the program, assistance is given to other laboratories by devising techniques 
for accurate measurements, by developing and supplying calibrated labora- 
tory reference standards, and by participating in interlaboratory programs 
for checking measurement precision. The program also provides for ad- 
visory services to government agencies on building problems, and to public 
and private organizations on the formulation of specifications and national 
standards affecting the building industry. 

During the year, experimental data were obtained for developing and 
improving building codes, standards for materials, and methods of testing 
materials and building equipment. Other typical work dealt with the shear 
strength of concrete beams, and the effect of the properties of the mortar 
on the strength of masonry walls. 

Studies were made of a family-size underground fallout shelter tc obtain 
engineering data on environmental factors that affect shelter habitability. 
Methods of predicting the performance of building materials when exposed 
to the weather were continued with emphasis on asphalt roofing materials, 
plastics, and porcelain enameled steel. 

Investigations were continued on methods of retarding and extinguishing 
fires, ranging from experimental studies of the effects of variations in the 
composition of gypsum plaster to studies of the possibility that ionic proc- 
esses are important in fire extinguishment. Progress was made in devel- 
oping both standard methods for measuring thermal conductivity and the 
reference materials to be used with these methods. 

Shear Strength of Concrete Beams Studied. It is known that the 
resistance to shear of reinforced concrete beams depends to a great extent 
on the level of stress in the longitudinal reinforcement. In order to formu- 
late satisfactory design criteria for beams in which the stresses in the rein- 
forcement are at various levels, a series of beams made without web rein- 
forcement and designed to fail in shear were tested; both the ratio of shear 
span to beam depth and the ratio of reinforcement were varied. In beams 
with the same shear span to depth ratio, the shear stresses at diagonal tension 
cracking decreased roughly linearly as the stresses in the reinforcement 
increased. An empirical formula was developed that predicts the shear 

160 



strengths of beams with highly stressed reinforcement with greater accuracy 
than does the formula currently in use. 

Effect of Mortar Properties on Strength of Masonry. A compre- 
hensive study of the structural properties of masonry walls constructed with 
mortars made from different types of cementing materials was sponsored by 
the National Research Council — National Academy of Sciences. The com- 
pressive, flexural, and racking strengths of specimens of full-scale walls were 
determined for masonry of hollow concrete unit construction, and for 
masonry of composite construction. The compressive strength of the 
walls increased, in general, with the compressive strength of the mortar. 
The racking and flexural strengths of the walls increased with the bond 
strength, as determined with a test specimen developed to measure the bond 
between the masonry mortars and masonry units. The data provide infor- 
mation not previously available on the effect of properties of mortars on 
the structural properties of masonry. 

Instrumentation for Fire Extinguishment Studies. A study of 
about 25 fire-extinguishing agents indicated that a general property of such 
agents is their tendency for attaching electrons. This observation sug- 
gested that an ionic process may be important in the mechanism of extin- 
guishment. Hence, a new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer was built 
to study the reactions involved. In this instrument, the ions to be analyzed 
are sent with equal initial energy through a field-free drift tube. A radio- 
frequency (RF) voltage is applied at the ends of the drift tube so that the 
electric field at the entrance is negative to that at the exit. Ions which pass 
through the drift tube in a whole number of RF cycles, therefore, lose the 
energy at the exit which they received at the entrance. Ions of different 
masses which do not traverse the drift tube in a whole number of cycles 
experience some change in energy. The number of ions with unchanged 
energy is measured by a technique known as the retarding field method. 
The new instrument needs no narrow resolving slits as do magnetic mass 
spectrometers, and, unlike other time-of-flight instruments, it utilizes a con- 
tinuous nonpulsed stream of ions. The first investigations conducted with 
the spectrometer involved electron bombardment studies of extinguishing 
agents without a flame. However, it is expected that this instrument will 
be useful in experiments using a flame as the ion source. 

Fire Studies of Gypsum Plasters. An experimental study intended to 
furnish information on the effects of "variations of mix" ratio, aggregate, 
and aging conditions on the fire performance of gypsum plaster was com- 
pleted. Small specimens tested without either structural load or restraint 
were exposed to controlled fires similar to the fires large building elements 
are subjected to in tests by a recognized standard method. Performance 
of the small specimens was evaluated on a time-to-temperature-rise criterion. 
It was found that mix ratio and density of lightweight aggregate materials 
over the ranges normally used, had little, if any, effect on performance. 
The times-to-temperature rise for such aggregate plasters was essentially 
equal, but shorter times were observed for sanded gypsum plasters. Dura- 

161 




In fundamental research to clarify the mechanism by which chemical com- 
bustion inhibitors work, a new type of mass spectrometer is used to study 
electron capture behavior of inhibiting agents. (See p. 161.) 

tion of aging periods and relative humidity of the ambient had significant 
effects only for short aging periods and very high relative humidity condi- 
tions. 

Electric Energy Usage in Houses Equipped with Heat Pumps. An 

analysis was made of metered electrical energy usage and power demand 
for all purposes in 16 sample houses out of a total of 1,535 houses constructed 
at Little Rock (Ark.) Air Force Base. The monthly and annual energy uses 
by the air-to-air heat pumps, the electric water heater, the electric range, and 
the miscellaneous electric devices were determined, and the effect of the 
electric energy used by appliances other than the heat pump on the heating 
and cooling loads was evaluated. Energy usage factors relating the amount 
of energy used, the severity of the weather, and the size of the house were 
computed for winter and summer conditions. The daily pattern of power 
demand, the coincidence of component and total power demands, and the 
frequency of recurrence of high power demands were studied. Program 
devices were suggested for limiting the maximum demand in the entire hous- 
ing area. These and other facts regarding the use of energy in all-electric 
houses were published in NBS Monograph 51. The analysis was made in 
a study sponsored by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. 

Environmental Factors in an Underground Fallout Shelter. Clas- 
sical mathematics and digital computer methods were used to predict the 
temperature and humidity conditions in an underground shelter in terms of 

162 



the variables of shelter construction, climate, earth characteristics, ventila- 
tion rate, and internal heat release. Predicted values of temperature agreed 
well with the values observed in the family-size shelter installed at the Bu- 
reau. The digital computer technique is more versatile and requires less 
information about the test conditions than do classical methods. Shelter 
humidity, condensation in the shelter, interior surface temperature, heat 
flow rate into the walls, heat removed by the ventilating air, and the tem- 
peratures in the earth surrounding the shelter were also determined by com- 
puter techniques. The study was sponsored by the Office of Civil Defense. 
Further work is under way to simplify and shorten the computation time and 
to compare predicted and observed results in other shelters. 

New Method for Predicting Roofing Asphalt Durability. A fast, 
dependable method has long been sought for measuring the degradation of 
roofing asphalt from weather exposure. Based on experiments with eight 
roofing asphalts procured from four different sources, California, south- 
eastern United States, central United States, and Venezuela, a rapid, repro- 
ducible method for predicting resistance of roofing asphalts to weathering 
was developed. Thin films (25 ±2 microns) of the samples are made by 
pressing vacuum-dried pellets (4 millimeters in diameter) between sheets 
of unlacquered cellophane in a hydraulic press heated to 250 °F. The thin 
films are separated from the cellophane, mounted in holders, and scanned 
in an infrared spectrophotometer. The specimens, at a temperature of 120 
°F and a relative humidity of 40 percent, are then exposed to the radiation 
from a carbon arc for selected periods. The increased absorbance at the 
5.88-micron wavelength is used to determine the oxidation rates of the speci- 
mens. Results obtained with this method showed oxidation rates and time 
to film failure of the asphalts to be in the same order with respect to resist- 
ance to weathering as were results obtained with other techniques and from 
actual outdoor exposure tests. 

Weathering Resistance of Plastics Determined. The increasing use 
of plastics as building materials has focused attention on their weathering 
properties. In a program to develop rapid methods for comparing the 
weathering resistance of plastics, it was found that weathered specimens de- 
velop a pronounced color when treated with a diamine, one of the most 
effective being /V,/V-dimethyl-p-penylenediamine. Two methods of measure- 
ment may be used, either independently or together, to evaluate the extent 
of degradation. One method is based on the treatment of the specimen 
with a known amount of the diamine in a benzene-methanol solution. The 
extent of coloration is determined by reflectance measurements, with a differ- 
ential colorimeter, of treated weathered and unweathered specimens. The 
other method depends upon the quantitative determination of the amount 
of diamine that has reacted with the surface of the weathered specimen. The 
two methods yield results with samples exposed to either natural or accel- 
erated weathering conditions that agree within the limitations imposed by 
the nature of the material. 

163 



Performance of Roofings. The construction agencies of the Defense 
Department have long recognized that roofing failures account for a large 
portion of building problems both in new construction and in the mainte- 
nance of existing structures. The elimination of these problems in the de- 
sign and construction stages of a project would result in substantial savings. 
Hence, the Directorate of Civil Engineering, U.S. Air Force; the Office of the 
Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army; and the Bureau of Yards and Docks, U.S. 
Navy, are "sponsoring a program to investigate the performance of roofing 
materials and roof systems for both flat and steep roofs. The program in- 
cludes investigations of the chemical and physical properties of organic 
roofing materials and of the durability and performance of a roof system 
when exposed to various climatic conditions. The study will be accom- 
plished in three phases: Laboratory experiments to determine composition 
and chemical and physical properties; simulated service tests; and field sur- 
veys to observe actual performance. Information thus obtained is to be 
incorporated into material, design, and construction specifications of the 
Defense Department. 

Safety Codes Revised. The Bureau participated in a revision of Part 2 
of the National Electrical Safety Code, and the results of this work were 
published as NBS Handbook 81. Through membership on committees, as- 
sistance was given in developing or revising other codes under the procedures 
of the American Standards Association. They include the National Elec- 
trical Code, sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ; 
the Code for Protection Against Lightning, sponsored by NFPA, the Ameri- 
can Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the Bureau; the National Plumbing 
Code, sponsored by the American Public Health Association, the National 
Association of Plumbing Contractors, and the Building Officials Conference 
of America; Dimensional Standardization of Plumbing Equipment, spon- 
sored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American 
Society of Sanitary Engineering; and Standards for Mobile Homes and 
Travel Trailers, sponsored by the Mobile Homes Manufacturers Association 
and the Trailer Coach Association. 

Fluid Dynamics of Plumbing Systems Reviewed. Rational economic 
design of plumbing systems depends on adequate knowledge of hydraulic and 
pneumatic capacities, and of probable peak demands by plumbing fixtures. 
Traditionally, Bureau publications on the fluid dynamics of plumbing have 
provided the basis for pipe sizing criteria utilized by plumbing codes. 

In this area, publications are now in preparation which outline (1) the 
application of experimental results to the computation of hydraulic loads 
on horizontal drain systems, and (2) methods for estimating loads on plumb- 
ing systems in terms of actual plumbing fixtures. Another publication 
(NBS Monograph 31) was recently issued on the criteria for sizing main 
vertical drains and vents. 

Preliminary findings in a laboratory study of the fundamental mechanisms 
of venting indicate that certain significant factors may not be satisfactorily* 
accounted for in current methods for sizing vent pipes. 

164 



Thermal Conductivity Measurements and Reference Samples. 

Industry, defense agencies, and research laboratories have pressing needs 
for thermal conductivity reference materials, which will enable them to check 
their own measurements, or to use simplified comparative methods for de- 
termining thermal conductivity. In efforts to satisfy these needs, conductiv- 
ity measurements were made by two or more independent absolute methods 
on two materials which appear promising for reference use: a chromium- 
nickel alloy and a microcrystalline glass. Results obtained in the alloy 
measurements by three methods, covering the temperature range — 150 to 
1200 °C, agree within a few percent where the temperature ranges overlap. 
Samples of the alloy were furnished as informal references to seven labo- 
ratories in this country, and they were also sent to another laboratory in 
this country and to three national laboratories in other countries for co- 
operative independent measurements. The measurements on microcrystal- 
line glass are not complete, but they indicate good stability of conductivity 
up to 1,000 °C. 

Samples of low and moderate thermal conductivities for use as references 
in checking or calibrating apparatus for determining the conductivity of 
insulating materials are now made routinely available on a fee basis. De- 
velopments of apparatus and methods are in progress so that reference sam- 
ples for use at temperatures up to and over 500 °C may also be made 
available. 




Measuring the bond between concrete aggregate (quartz, granite, etc.) and 
Portland cement paste in pure shear (torsion). The study is aimed at finding 
how the mineral nature of the aggregate affects the bond strength. (See 
p. 166.) 

165 



Proceedings of Cement Symposium Published, The Proceedings 
of the Fourth International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, held 
at the Bureau, are now available as a Bureau publication, NBS Monograph 
43, in a set of two volumes. The work provides a comprehensive review 
of all aspects of cement chemistry, and also includes 67 research papers on 
special topics in this field. In collaboration with the Portland Cement As- 
sociation, the Bureau undertook the editing, proofreading, and indexing 
of the material presented during the symposium. It is expected that the 
Proceedings will become a major reference work in cement chemistry. 

Standard Samples Now Available for Portland Cement Analysis. 
In the chemical analysis of portland cement and related materials, new 
techniques are frequently replacing traditional methods of gravimetric chem- 
ical analysis. Two examples are the use of a flame photometer to measure 
the alkali constituents in portland cement and the use of a quantitative X-ray 
fluorescence spectrometer to measure its other constituents. In some cases 
the apparatus employing these new techniques must be calibrated by the 
use of samples of known composition, and in others the use of such samples 
is required in the evaluation of the performance of the instruments. In 
addition, the availability of accurately analyzed samples may be useful in 
the older methods of analysis. During the past year the Bureau made avail- 
able for sale five such standard samples whose composition covers the 
range generally encountered in commercial cements. 

Cement" Aggregate Bond in Concrete Studied. It has long been 
recognized that the particle shape and texture of concrete aggregates affect 
the bond strength between the aggregate and cement matrix in portland 
cement concrete. The nature of the mineral is also thought to influence 
the bond strength, and experiments to find if such a relationship exists are 
under way. A bond test was developed in which polished cylindrical pieces 
of aggregate with one end embedded in cement mortar are subjected to tor- 
sion, and the shear strength at the mortar-aggregate surface is measured. 
Concurrent experiments are being made in which the surface charges on the 
aggregate materials are measured by electrophoretic techniques. It is an- 
ticipated that a relationship between the two properties will be found. 

Resistance of Exterior-Finish Porcelain Enamels to Weathering. 
The use of porcelain enamel on steel and aluminum as an exterior finish for 
various building structures has been expanding rapidly during the past 
decade. The factors responsible for this increase are the trend in the build- 
ing industry towards curtain wall construction, the emphasis on color in 
modern architecture, the ease with which most porcelain enamel finishes 
can be cleaned, and the good stability of most porcelain enamel finishes. 

An earlier Bureau investigation resulted in the development of tests that 
would eliminate the use of porcelain enamels having poor durability. Four 
geographical sites were used in making the survey, all in the eastern part 
of the United States. 

Recently a new investigation was started in order to compare older enamel 
types with those introduced since World War II. and also to obtain addi- 

166 




An image-glossmeter was developed to measure the image-forming properties 
of a surface. Image-gloss is an important attribute of some types of building 
exteriors. (Seep. 167.) 

tional information on the effect of geographical location on the rate of 
weathering. An examination of specimens exposed for three years in the 
southwestern and western parts of the country showed that exposure condi- 
tions are less severe than they are in the east. Air pollution by acid gases 
was found in the present study to be an important factor in determining the 
rate of attack. The investigation resulted in the development of an improved 
laboratory test that provides increased reliability for the selection of the 
most durable enamel types. 

New Image-Gloss Test Method Developed, Exterior walls of build- 
ings with smooth finishes often reflect distorted images of adjacent objects 
and structures, as a result of small deviations from flatness and from minor 
misalinements in panel mountings. Because this condition detracts from 
appearance, many architects and owners in their specifications now stipulate 
finishes that do not form images. 

A portable image glossmeter for measuring this property of a surface was 
developed during the year. In this apparatus, the image gloss of a speci- 
men is determined by observing the reflected images of a series of randomly 
oriented characters (Landolt C's) through a suitable optical system. The 

167 



observer starts with a pattern containing characters that are too small to 
be discernible, and views successively larger ones until he sees an image 
distinctly enough so that he can report its orientation correctly. The image- 
gloss rating is the number assigned to the smallest pattern that the observer 
can identify correctly. 

The equipment and test method were adopted as a tentative standard of 
the Porcelain Enamel Institute in 1962. Although the test was designed for 
porcelain enameled metal, it is also applicable to any material that may 
form images by surface reflection. 

Standardization of Thermal Emittance Measurements, Thermal 
radiation properties of materials have always been important in the design 
of buildings and structures, but with the advent of the space age, the demand 
for these data has greatly increased. Dozens of new laboratories established 
to perform the required measurements were necessarily manned largely by 
personnel with scant background in the field. Hence, widely divergent 
values were reported by different laboratories on supposedly identical 
materials. 

To help correct this condition, the Air Force requested the Bureau to estab- 
lish standard equipment and procedures for measuring normal spectral 
emittance, to prepare and calibrate working standards of normal spectral 
emittance for use in verifying equipment and procedures used by Air Force 
contractors, and to conduct an educational program for interested labora- 
tories. 

A report was issued shortly after the project was undertaken, briefly re- 
viewing the basic principles of radiant heat transfer, and making general 
recommendations with regard to instrumentation and procedures for meas- 
uring thermal emittance. The educational program resulted in over 200 
consultations. 

The equipment developed at the Bureau for direct measurement of normal 
spectral emittance makes use of a double-beam ratio-recording infrared 
spectrometer. The hot specimen serves as the source for one beam of the 
spectrometer, and a laboratory blackbody furnace for the other. Extensive 
tests indicate that the precision of measurement on platinum specimens, ex- 
pressed as the standard deviation of repeated measurements on the same 
specimen, is within ±0.005 in emittance, and that the measurement bias is 
less than 0.01. 

Working standards of platinum, oxidized Kanthal. and oxidized Inconel. 
representing low, intermediate, and high emittance, respectively, were pre- 
pared and calibrated for use by other laboratories at temperatures of 800. 
1100, and 1300 °K (1400 °K for platinum) over the wavelength range from 
1 to 15 microns. 

2.3.7. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

In the United States, the actual control over weighing and measuring in 
the buying and selling of goods and services is largely within the respon- 

168 



sibility of the country's political subdivisions, that is, the States, the coun- 
ties, and the municipal governments. To preclude the possibility of many 
different weights and measures systems, the U.S. Department of Commerce — - 
and through it, the National Bureau of Standards — has been charged by 
the Congress with the custody, maintenance, and development of the na- 
tional standards of measurement, and with the provision of means and 
methods for making measurements consistent with those standards. Par- 
ticularly with relation to the State weights and measures programs, the 
Bureau performs the testing, calibration, and certification of standards and 
standard measuring apparatus, provides technical advisory service, and 
extends general cooperation in securing uniformity in weights and measures 
laws and in methods of inspection. 

To implement this cooperation, the Bureau maintains an Office of Weights 
and Measures which is responsible for (1) technical services to the States 
and to business and industry in the area of measurement; (2) the design, 
construction, and use of weights and measures standards and of instruments 
associated with such standards; (3) the training of weights and measures 
officials in the technical aspects of their programs; and (4) the collection, 
arrangement, and dissemination of technical data on measurement units 
and systems. 

Technical Services Provided, Among the technical services provided 
to industry during the year was the establishment of methods for determin- 
ing the exact quantity in packages of caulking compound and in aerosol 




Checking the fifth wheel distance-measuring device used to obtain informa- 
tion regarding the accuracy of vehicle odometers. The investigation is designed 
to provide car-rental agencies with accuracy requirements, and to provide 
weights and measures officials with a performance code, testing equipment 
design, and test methods. (See p. 170.) 



662336 O— 62- 



-12 



169 



containers. A study, including a test series, was made of a positive-dis- 
placement meter designed to measure the flow of fresh, raw milk. 

An extensive investigation of the performance of odometers on automo- 
biles rented by the mile was undertaken. This will ultimately provide rental 
car agencies with accuracy requirements, and will provide weights and 
measures officials with a performance code, testing equipment design, and 
test methods. 

In other studies, testing equipment was designed for large-capacity scales 
and vehicle-tank meters, special glass flasks were developed for the control 
of packaged commodities sold by liquid measure, and, cooperatively with 
industry, refinements were brought about in the weighing instruments used 
by weights and measures officials in their general package-control programs. 

Mass Standards Material Developed, Recent metallurgical develop- 
ments led to a stainless steel of unusual composition for mass standards. 
Special melting techniques were used in which a consumable electrode under 
vacuum insures low gas and nonmetallic inclusion content and provides 
uniformity in structure and analysis. The resulting austenitic alloy, ex- 
tremely stable and having a density of 8.0 ±0.1 grams per milliliter at 25 
°C, seems ideally suited for State reference standards. 

The Technical Training Program. Technical training of State and 
local weights and measures officials falls into three categories: Formal 
courses of one-week duration offered to small classes of supervisory per- 
sonnel in a training laboratory at the National Bureau of Standards; two, 
three, or four-day formal courses conducted in the various States for all 
State and local officials; informal training at NBS and in the field to cover 
laboratory procedures and the use of special testing equipment. Such 
technical training undoubtedly is a factor in the rapidly developing uni- 
formity and effectiveness of weights and measures regulatory services in 
the United States. 

Technical Information Provided. A basic responsibility is the dis- 
semination of accurate information on units, systems, and equivalents of 
weights and measures. Tables of interrelation in forms that facilitate ready 
leference are published, and a large volume of inquiries is handled even* 
year. Two indexed collections of books — an archival collection and a ref- 
erence collection — and other documents comprise a weights and measures 
library. This library affords the staff and outside researchers and students 
complete references on the history and present status of weights and measures. 

National Conference on Weights and Measures. The Bureau 
sponsors an annual National Conference on Weights and Measures, a rela- 
tively informal meeting of weights and measures officials, representatives of 
various agencies of the Federal Government and of equipment manufacturers 
and users, and others interested in orderly and effective weights and meas- 
ures control. The Conference sessions develop technical and general 
recommendations for weights and measures administration, contribute to in- 
terstate coordination of weights and measures activity, and explore the entire 

170 




I~~l BOTH 

H SUPERVISOR TRAINED AT NBS 

1 1 FORMAL TRAINING COURSE IN THE STATE 



Map shows technical training classes for weights and measures officials, con- 
ducted by NBS. The classes are a major factor in maintaining uniform and 
effective weights and measures administration within the United States. (See 
p. 170.) 

area of this economically important segment of governmental regulatory 
service. Among Conference accomplishments are a Model State Law on 
Weights and Measures, and model regulations covering devices and packages. 
The Model Law is included among recommended legislative efforts of the 
Council of State Governments. 

The 47th National Conference was held during the year. Thirty-eight 
States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada, Japan, and Scotland 
were officially represented among a registered attendance of 420. The prin- 
cipal topic discussed was package labeling and quantity control. The tech- 
nical papers presented dealt with subjects such as odometers on rental cars, 
mechanical measurement of milk, and the weights and measures programs 
in Japan and in Scotland. 



171 



3. APPENDIXES 

3.1. ORGANIZATION OF THE NATIONAL BUREAU 

OF STANDARDS* 

The Bureau is headed by a Director who is appointed by the President with Senate 
confirmation. The Director is assisted by a Deputy Director, who is responsible for 
internal operations. Several Associate Directors participate in the leadership function. 
coordinating related technical work across division lines, heading important policy 
committees, and handling special assignments in a staff capacity. One of the Associate 
Directors, in addition to being responsible for administration and support activities 
of a continuing nature, is in charge of an extensive special project — planning for the 
Bureau's new laboratories which are being constructed at Gaithersburg, Maryland. 
In charge of the Boulder Laboratories is a Director who also has the status of Associate 
Director of the Bureau. Program activities are conducted in 25 scientific divisions. 
Most divisions correspond roughly to a major field of physical science or engineering, 
and are divided into sections responsible for technical areas within each field. Six- 
teen of the divisions are located in Washington and nine in Boulder. Below the sec- 
tion level, the staff is organized into project groups which may be easily regrouped, 

DIRECTOR 

Allen V. Astin 

DEPUTY DIRECTOR 

Robert D. Huntoon 

Associate Directors 

I. C. Schoonover 
R. S. Walleigh 

W. A„ WlLDHACK 

F. W. Brown, Director, Boulder Laboratories 

Assistants to the Director 

G. E. Auman 
W. S. Bussey 

Special Research Group 

H. P. Broida 
U. Fano 

Staff Advisers 

NBS Reactor Program C. 0. Muehlhause 

Patent Adviser D. Robbins 

Program Adviser C. N. Coates 

Director Emeritus 

Lyman J. Briggs 



* As of September 1, 1962. 



172 



NBS WASHINGTON 
SCIENTIFIC DIVISIONS AND SECTIONS 

(In numerical order) 
ELECTRICITY 



Chief 

Resistance and Reactance 
Electrochemistry 
Electrical Instruments 
Magnetic Measurements 
Dielectrics 
High Voltage 

Chief 
Assistant Chief 

Photometry and Colorimetry 

Refractometry 

Photographic Research 

Length 

Engineering Metrology 

Mass and Scale 

Volumetry and Densimetry 



METROLOGY 



HEAT 



Chief 

Assistant Chief for Thermodynamics 

Temperature Physics 

Heat Measurements 

Cryogenic Physics 

Equation of State 

Statistical Physics 

RADIATION PHYSICS 

Chief 

X-ray 

Radioactivity 
Radiation Theory 
High Energy Radiation 
Radiological Equipment 
Nucleonic Instrumentation 
Neutron Physics 



C. H. Page 
J. L. Thomas 

W. J. Hamer 
F. M. Defandorf 

I. L. COOTER 

J. D. Hoffman 
F. R. Kotter 

A. G. McNish 

D. B. Judd 
L. E. Barbrow 

F. E. Washer 
C. S. McCamy 
T. R. Young 
I. H. Fullmer 
P. E. Pontius 
J. C. Hughes, Acting 



R. P. Hudson 
C. W. Beckett 
J. F. Swindells 

D. C. GlNNINGS 

E. Ambler 
J. Hilsenrath 

M. S. Green 



L. S. Taylor 

H, O. Wyckoff 

W. B, Mann 

M. Berger, Acting 

H. W. Koch 

S. W. Smith 

L. Costrell 

R. S. Caswell 



ANALYTICAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY 



Chief 

Assistant Chief 
Consultants 

Pure Substances 
Spectrochemistry 
Solution Chemistry 
Standard Reference Materials 
Applied Analytical Research 
Crystal Chemistry 



Chief 
Consultants 

Sound 

Pressure and Vacuum 

Fluid Mechanics 

Engineering Mechanics 

Rheology 

Combustion Controls 



MECHANICS 



H. C. Allen, Jr. 
R. G. Bates 
R. Gilchrist 
C. P. Saylor 
F. L. Howard 
B. F. Scribner 
R. G. Bates 
J. L. Hague 
J. K. Taylor 
H. S. Peiser 



B. L. Wilson 
J. M. Frankland 
E. C. Lloyd 
R. K. Cook 
D. P. Johnson 
}. B. Schubauer 
L. K. Irwin 
R. S. Marvin 
F. R. Caldwell 



173 



POLYMERS 
Chief 

Macromolecules : Synthesis and Structure 
Polymer Chemistry 
Polymer Physics 
Polymer Characterization 
Polymer Evaluation and Testing 
Applied Polymer Standards and Research 
Dental Research 



METALLURGY 



Chief 

Assistant Chief 
Consultant 

Engineering Metallurgy 

Microscopy and Diffraction 

Metal Reactions 

Metal Physics 

Electrolysis and Metal Deposition 



INORGANIC SOLIDS 



Chief 

Assistant Chief 

Consultant 

Engineering Ceramics 

Glass 

Solid State Chemistry 

Crystal Growth 

Physical Properties 

Crystallography 



BUILDING RESEARCH 



Chief 

Consultant 

Structural Engineering 
Fire Research 
Mechanical Systems 
Organic Building Materials 
Codes and Safety Standards 
Heat Transfer 

Inorganic Building Materials 
Metallic Building Materials 



G. M. Kline 

D. McIntyre 
L. A. Wall 

E. Passaglia 
N. P. Bekkedahl 

R. D. Stiehler 

R. B. Hobbs 

W. T. Sweeney 



L. M. KUSHNER 

G. A. Ellinger 
L. L. Wyman 
S. J. Rosenberg 
H. C. Vacher 
G. A. Ellinger 

L. M. KUSHNER 

A. Brenner 



A. D. Franklin 
C. H. Hahner 
R. E. Lippincott 
M. D. Burdick 
C. H. Hahner 
Vacant 
F. Ordway 
J. B. Wachtman, Jr. 
H. F. McMurdie 



D. E. Parsons 
W. F. Roeser 
D. Watstein 
A. F. Robertson 

P. R. ACHENBACH 

W. W. Walton 

Vacant 

H. E. Robinson 

B. E. Foster 

W. N. Harrison 



APPLIED MATHEMATICS 



Chief 

Assistant Chief 

Consultant 

Numerical Analysis 
Computation 
Statistical Engineering 
Mathematical Physics 
Operations Research 



DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS 



Chief 

SEAC 
PILOT 

Research Information Center and Advisory 
Service on Information Processing 
Components and Techniques 
Computer Technology 
Measurements Automation 
Engineering Applications 
Systems Analysis 



E. W. Cannon 
F. L. Alt 
W. J. Youden 
P. Davis 
D. I. Mittleman 

C ElSENHART 

W. H. Pell 
A. J. Goldman 



S. N. Alexander 
J. F. Rafferty 
P. D. Schupe 

Miss M. E. Stevens 

R. D. Elbourn 

J. A. Cunningham 

R. T. Moore, Acting 

N. Alexander. Acting 

N. Alexander. Acting 



174 



ATOMIC PHYSICS 



Chief 

Spectroscopy 
Infrared Spectroscopy 
Far Ultraviolet Physics 
Solid State Physics 
Electron Physics 
Atomic Physics 
Plasma Spectroscopy 



K. G. Kessler 

W. C. Martin, Jr. 

E. K. Plyler 

R. P. Madden 

H. P. R. Frederikse 

J. A. Simpson 

H. BOYNE 
W. L. WlESE 



INSTRUMENTATION 



Chief 

Engineering Electronics 
Electron Devices 
Electronic Instrumentation 
Mechanical Instruments 
Basic Instrumentation 



G. F. Montgomery 

G. Shapiro 

C. P. Marsden 

G. F. Montgomery, Acting 

A. Wexler 

J. Stern 



PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 



Chief • 
Assistant Chief 

Thermochemistry 

Surface Chemistry 

Organic Chemistry 

Molecular Spectroscopy 

Elementary Processes 

Mass Spectrometry 

Photochemistry and Radiation Chemistry 



M. B. Wallenstein 

F. Buckley 

E. J. Prosen 

R. Klein 

H. S. Isrell 

D. E. Mann 

R. E. Ferguson 

H. Rosenstock 

J. R. McNesry 



OFFICE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



Chief 



M. W. Jensen 



ADMINISTRATIVE AND SERVICE DIVISIONS 



Office of Technical Information 

Accounting 

Personnel 

Administrative Services 

Shops 

Supply 

Management Planning 

Budget 

Internal Audit 

Plant 

NBS Library 



W. R. Tilley 

J. P. Menzer 

G. R. Porter 

H. P. Dalzell 

F. P. Brown 

G. B. Kefover 

A. J. Muller 

J. E. Skillington 

J. Seidenberg 

F. P. Brown, Acting 

Miss S. Jones 



BOULDER DIVISIONS 



Director, Boulder Laboratories 



F. W. Brown 



Consultants 

Mathematics Group and Computation Facility 

Mathematical Physics and Educational Director 

Statistics 

Radio Wave Propagation 

Physics of the Atmosphere 

Communications Liaison Officer 

CRPL Liaison and Program Development 

Executive Officer and Chief of Administrative Division 

Technical Information Officer 



J. J. SOPKA 

E. H. Brown 

E. L. Crow 

J. R. Wait 

D. M. Gates 

Allen Barnabei 

A. H. Shapley 

S. W. J. Welch 

J. R. Craddock 



175 



CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING 



Chief 

Assistant Chief 

Cryogenic Equipment 
Cryogenic Processes 
Properties of Materials 
Cryogenic Technical Services 



R. B. Scott 

B. W. Birmingham 

R. B. Jacobs 

B. W. Birmingham 

R. J. Corruccini 

V. J. Johnson 



^IONOSPHERE RESEARCH AND PROPAGATION 



Chief 

Assistant Chief 

Assistant Chief 

Assistant to Chief for Technical Planning & Coordination 

Consultants 

Low Frequency and Very Low Frequency Research 

Ionosphere Research 

Prediction Services 

Sun-Earth Relationships 

Field Engineering 

Radio Warning Services 

Vertical Soundings Research 



E. K. Smith, Jr. 
T. N. Gautier 
R. W. Knecht 
J. A. Kemper 
D. K. Bailey 
H. H. Howe 
A. G. Jean 
K. Davies 
Miss J. V. Lincoln 
R. W. Knecht 
H. G. Sellery 
Miss J. V. Lincoln 
J. W. Wright 



*RADIO PROPAGATION ENGINEERING 



Chief 

Assistant Chief for Research and Development 

Consultant — Terminal Equipment 

Data Reduction Instrumentation 

Radio Noise 

Tropospheric Measurements 

Tropospheric Analysis 

Propagation-Terrain Effects 

Radio Meteorology 

Lower Atmosphere Physics 

*RADIO SYSTEMS 

Chief 

Assistant Chief 
Assistant Chief 
Consultant 

Applied Electromagnetic Theory 

High Frequency and Very High Frequency Research 

Frequency Utilization 

Modulation Research 

Antenna Research 

Radiodetermination 



K. A. Norton 
J. W. Herbstreit 
E. F. Florman 
W. E. Johnson 
W. Q. Crichlow 
M. T. Decker 
P. L. Rice 
R. S. Kirby 
B. R. Bean 
M. C. Thompson, Jr. 



R. C. Kirby 

D. W. Patterson 

W. F. Utlaut 

G. W. Haydon 

J. R. JOHLER 

W. F. Utlaut 

G. W. Haydon 

C. C. Watterson, Acting 

H. V. Cottony 

G. Hefley 



*UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND SPACE PHYSICS 



Chief 
Consultants 



Upper Atmosphere and Plasma Physics 
High Latitude Ionspheric Physics 
Ionosphere and Exosphere Scatter 
Airglow and Aurora 
Ionospheric Radio Astronomy 



RADIO STANDARDS LABORATORY 



Chief 

Assistant Chief for Planning and Coordination 

Consultant 



C. G. Little 
R. J. Slutz 

D. K. Bailey 
R. M. Gallet 

H. J. A. Chivers 

K. L. Bowles 

F. E. Roach 

R. S. Lawrence 



M. Richardson 

E. C. Wolzien 

D. M. Kerns 



*The9e divisions comprise the Central Radio Propagation Laboratories. 



176 



RADIO PHYSICS DIVISION 



Chief 
Consultants 

Assistant Chief for Technical Planning and Coordination 

Radio Broadcast Service 

Radio and Microwave Materials 

Atomic Frequency and Time Interval Standards 

Radio Plasma 

Millimeter- Wave Research 



Yardley Beers 
W. D. George 
P. F. Wacker 
W. D. Goring 

A, H. Morgan 

J. L. Dalke 

R. C. Mockler 

B. Wieder, Acting 

R. W. Zimmerer, Acting 



CIRCUIT STANDARDS DIVISION 

Chief 

Assistant Chief 

Assistant to the Chief for Technical Planning and Coordination 

Consultants 



Coordinator Calibration Service 
High Frequency Electrical Standards 
High Frequency Calibration Services 
High Frequency Impedance Standards 
Microwave Calibration Services 
Microwave Circuit Standards 
Low Frequency Calibration Services 



G. E. Schafer 
H. W. Lance 
W. J. Anson 

R. W. Beatty 
M. C. Selby 



W. F. Snyder 
C. M. Allred 

R. C. Powell, Acting 
R. C. Powell 
R. E. Larson 
R. W. Beatty 

F. D. Weaver, Acting 



JOINT INSTITUTE FOR LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS 

NBS GROUP 
Chairman L. M. Branscomb 



FIELD ESTABLISHMENTS 



Visual Landing Aids Field Laboratory 
Master Railway Track Scale Depot 
Materials Testing Laboratories: 



Radio Transmitting Station WWV 
Radio Transmitting Station WWVL 



Central Radio Propagation 

ALASKA 

Anchorage 
Barrow 

ANTARCTICA 

Eights Station** 

ELTANIN** 

(Floating Research Vessel) 
Marie Byrd Station** 
Pole Station** 

AUSTRALIA 

Cook** 



Laboratory Field Stations: 
BOLIVIA 
La Paz** 

BRAZIL, S.A. 

Sao Jose dos Campos** 

CANADA 

Cape Jones** 

Great Whale River** 

Manitoba** 

CHILE 
Concepcion** 

COLORADO 
Beulah 



Areata, Calif. 

Clearing, 111. 

Allentown, Pa. 

Denver, Colo. 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Greenbelt, Md. 

Sunset, Colo. 



Brighton 

Chalk Cliff Site 

Cheyenne Mountain 

Erie 

Fritz Peak 

Gunbarrel Hill 

Haswell 

Hygiene 

Karval 

Kendrick 

Kolb 

Lafayette 

Table Mesa 

Sunset 



**Contract or Mutual Cooperation. 



177 



Central Radio Propagation 


Laboratory Field Stations — C 


ontinued 


COLOMBIA 


KANSAS 


PANAMA CANAL ZONE 


Bogota** 


Garden City 


Balboa** 
PERU 


GREENLAND 


MALAYA 


Lima** 


Thule** 
Goodhavn** 


Singapore** 


Jicamarca Radio 
Observatory 


Narsarssuak** 


MISSOURI 


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 


HAWAII 


Warrensberg 


Poro Point** 


Maui (WWVH) 


MOROCCO 


Baguio 


Kekaha 


Rabat** 


PUERTO RICO 


Mt. Haleakala 


NEBRASKA 


San Juan 


ICELAND 


Shickley 


SOUTH AFRICA 


Keflavik** 




Pretoria** 


Reykjavik** 


NIGERIA 


SWEDEN 


ILLINOIS 


Ibadan** 


Enkoping** 


Long Branch 


NORWAY 


UTAH 


INDIA 


Andenes** 


Salt Lake City** 


New Delhi** 


OKINAWA 


VIRGINIA 


ISRAEL 


Onna** 


Fort Belvoir 


Haifa** 


Okuma** 


Front Royal 


JAPAN 


OKLAHOMA 


WYOMING 


Ohira** 


Altus 


Bill 



3.2. SUMMARY OF NBS STAFF 





Washington 


Boulder 


Total 


Total permanent staff 

Other staff** 


2,351 
342 


1,126 
197 


3,477 
539 






Total on rolls 

Research associates & guest workers 


2,693 
149 


1,323 
20 


4,016 
169 


Total on rolls at NBS 


2,842 


1,343 


4,185 


Professional staff*** 

Physicists 

Engineers 


439 
276 
172 

57 
65 


222 

8 

165 

62 

20 


661 

284 
337 


Other 


119 
85 


Total professional staff 


1,009 


477 


1,486 



*Asof June 30, 1962. 

**WAE, consultants, students, teachers, postdoctoral fellows, and temporary-limited employees. 

***Full-time permanent (excludes any under **). 



178 



3. 3. FINANCIAL DATA ON NBS PROGRAM 

The activities of the National Bureau of Standards are financed from 
three sources: from appropriations provided by the Congress; from pay- 
ments by other agencies for specific research and development tasks; 
and from payments by industrial concerns, universities, research institu- 
tions, and government agencies for specific calibration or testing services. 
The following tabulation is a summary of the financial aspects of the 
Bureau programs for 1962: 



Program and source of financing 


Obligations incurred (rounded) 


Supported by NBS appropriations: 
Operating programs: 

Research and technical services . . 
Special foreign currency program . 


$23, 359, 000 
400, 000 


$23, 759, 000 
29,082,000 




Subtotal 


1,628,000 
27, 454, 000 




Construction and facilities program: 

Plant and facilities 

Construction of facilities 




Subtotal 


14, 674, 000 
331, 000 








Total NBS appropriation 


$52,841, 

15, 005, 000 

5, 282, 000 
1,110,000 


000 


Supported by other funds: 

Research and development programs: 

Other Federal agencies 

Nongovernmental sources 




Calibrations, testing, standard 
samples, and other technical 
services 

Reimbursable administrative 
services 






Total supported by other funds . 


21,397, 


000 


Total program 


74, 238, 


000 



3.4. ADVISORY COMMITTEES 

STATUTORY VISITING COMMITTEE 

(Reports annually to Secretary of Commerce on NBS activities (Dates indicate expira- 
tion of appointment) ) 

Dr. M. J. Kelly, Former President and Chairman of the Board, Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories, Inc. (1962), Chairman 
Professor Frederick Seitz, University of Illinois (1966) 
Dr. Lloyd V. Berkner, President, Graduate Research Center, Inc. (1963) 
Mr. Crawford H. Greenewalt, President, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (1964) 
Professor Charles H. Townes, Provost, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1965) 



179 



TECHNICAL ADVISORY PANELS 

(Appointed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council in co- 
operation with the leading scientific and technical societies to advise NBS Director 
in specific technical areas. Cooperating societies are: American Ceramic Society 
(ACerS) ; American Chemical Society (ACS) ; American Institute of Chemical En- 
gineers (AIChE) ; American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) ; American 
Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) : American In- 
stitute of Physics (AIP) ; American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ; American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ; Conference Board of the Mathematical 
Sciences (CBMS) ; and Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE). Appointments at 
large (AL). Members listed served during fiscal year 1962.) 

Dr. Paul D. Foote, National Research Council, Executive Secretary 

Advisory Panel to Electricity Division 

Prof. W. A. Lewis, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chairman (AIEE) 

Prof. Norman I. Adams, Jr., Yale University (AIP) 

Dr. William G. Amey, Leeds & Northrup (AIEE) 

Dr. Richard M. Bozorth, Bell Telephone Laboratories (AIP) 

Dr. John Brainerd, University of Pennsylvania (IRE) 

Prof. Henry B. Linford, Columbia University (ACS) 

Mr. J. T. Lusignan, The Ohio Brass Company (AIEE) 

Dr. Ernest Weber, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (AIEE) 

Advisory Panel to Metrology Division 

Dr. Brian O'Brien, Pomfret, Conn., Chairman (AIP) 
Prof. Isay A. Balinkin, University of Cincinnati ( ACerS) 
Prof. Clarence E. Bennett, University of Maine (AIP) 
Dr. Alsoph H. Corwin, The Johns Hopkins University (ACS) 
Mr. C. L. Crouch, Illuminating Engineering Society ( AL) 
Mr. A. M. Dexter, Pratt and Whitney Company, Inc. (AL) 
Dr. Robert E. Hopkins, Tropel, Inc. ( AL) 
Mr. Floyd W. Hough, Arlington, Virginia (ASCE) 
Mr. J. J. Moran, Kimble Glass Company (ACerS) 
Mr. Louis Polk, The Sheffield Corporation (ASME) 
Prof. John Strong, The Johns Hopkins University (AIP) 
Dr. J. H. Webb, Eastman Kodak Company (AIP) 

Advisory Panel to Heat Division 

Prof. Joseph E. Mayer, University of California, Chairman (ACS) 

Prof. James A. Beattie, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (AIP) 

Prof. Henry A. Fairbank, Yale University (AIP) 

Prof. Joseph Kestin, Brown University (ASME) 

Dean R. B. Lindsay, Brown University (AIP) 

Dr. Charles Squire, United Aircraft Corporation (AIP) 

Prof. Glenn C. Williams, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (AICE) 

Advisory Panel to Radiation Physics Division 

Dr. H. M. Parker, General Electric Company, Chairman (AIP) 
Mr. Everitt P. Blizard, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (AIP) 
Dr. Martin Deutsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (AIP) 
Dr. A. 0. Hanson, University of Illinois (AIP) 

Dr. William A. Higinbotham, Brookhaven National Laboratory ( IRE) 
Prof. Harold A. Lamonds, North Carolina State College (AIEE) 
Prof. George T. Reynolds, Palmer Physical Laboratory (AIP) 
Dr. Leonard Schiff, Stanford University (AIP) 

Advisory Panel to Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry Division 

Dr. T. Ivan Taylor, Columbia University, Chairman (ACS) 
Dr. Clark E. Bricker, Princeton University (ACS) 

180 



Dr. Norman D. Coggeshall, Gulf Research and Development Company (AIP) 

Dr. W. D. Cooke, Cornell University (ACS) 

Dr. Herbert A. Laitinen, University of Illinois (ACS) 

Dr. W. Wayne Meinke, University of Michigan (ACS) 

Dr. J. R. Ruhoff, Malinckrodt Chemical Company (ACS) 

Dr. Charles E. White, University of Maryland (ACS) 

Advisory Panel to Mechanics Division 

Prof. S. R. Beitler, Ohio State University, Chairman (ASME) 

Prof. Lynn S. Beedle, Lehigh University (ASCE) 

Prof. Arthur T. Ippen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (ASCE) 

Dr. Harry F. Olson, Radio Corporation of America (AIP) 

Prof. Jesse Ormondroyd, University of Michigan (ASME) 

Dr. Milton Plesset, California Institute of Technology (AIP) 

Advisory Panel to Polymers Division 

Dr. C. G. Overberger, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Chairman (ACS) 

Dr. Raymond F. Boyer, Dow Chemical Company (ACS) 

Dr. J. H. Dillon, Texile Research Institute (AIP) 

Dr. Milton Harris, Harris Research Laboratories, Inc. (ACS) 

Dr. Frank C. McGrew, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (ACS) 

Dr. Norman A. Shepard, Stamford, Connecticut (ACS) 

Dr. J. F. Downie Smith, Carrier Research and Development Company (ASME) 

Dr. Charles Scott Venable, Wallingford, Pa (ACS) 

Advisory Panel to Metallurgy Division 

Mr. Francis L. Laque, International Nickel Company, Chairman (ACS) 

Dr. D. J. Dienes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (AIP) 

Dr. Morris Eugene Fine, Northwestern University (AIME) 

Mr. A. R. Lytle, Linde Company (AIME) 

Dr. Oscar Marzke, United States Steel Corporation (AIME) 

Prof. E. F. Osborn, Pennsylvania State University ( ACerS) 

Dr. Joseph A. Pask, University of California (ACerS) 

Dr. Albert J. Phillips, American Smelting and Refining Company (AIME) 

Mr. D. B. Rossheim, M. W. Kellogg Corporation (ASME) 

Mr. J. H. Scaff, Bell Telephone Laboratories (AIME) 

Advisory Panel to Inorganic Solids Division 

Prof. Pierce Selwood, Northwestern University, Chairman (ACS) 

Dr. Orson L. Anderson, Summit, New Jersey (ACerS) 

Prof. C. Ernest Birchenall, University of Delaware ( AL) 

Dr. Joseph E. Burke, General Electric Research Laboratory (ACerS) 

Dr. James R. Johnson, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (ACerS) 

Dr. Norbert J. Kreidl, Bausch and Lomb Optical Company (ACerS) 

Prof. J. W. Mitchell, University of Virginia (AL) 

Dr. E. F. Osborn, Pennsylvania State University (ACerS) 

Mr. Karl Schwartzwalder, General Motors Corporation (ACerS) 

Dr. Robert B. Sosman, Rutgers, The State University (ACerS) 

Advisory Panel to Building Research Division 

Dr. W. C. Hansen, Valparaiso, Indiana, Chairman (ACS) 

Prof. Jesse H. Day, Ohio University (ACS) 

Dr. Albert G. H. Deitz, Massachusetts Institute of Techonology (ASCE) 

Prof. Robert A. Hechtman, The George Washington University (ASCE) 

Mr. Paul V. Johnson, Structural Clay Products Research Foundation (ACerS) 

Prof. James T. Lendrum, University of Florida (AIA) 

Dean Warren L. McCabe, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (AICE) 

Dr. John S. Parkinson, Johns-Manville Products Corporation (AIP) 

Prof E. R. Queer, The Pennsylvania State University (AL) 

Mr. Raymond C. Reese, Toledo, Ohio (ASCE) 



181 



Advisory Panel to Applied Mathematics Division 

Prof. A. H. Bowker, Stanford University ( AL) 

Prof. Jesse Douglas, City College of New York ( AL) 

Prof. William Feller, Princeton University (CBMS) 

Prof. George E. Forsythe, Stanford University (CBMS) 

Dr. Alston S. Householder, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (CBMS) 

Prof. B. O. Koopman, Columbia University (CBMS) 

Dr. Elliott W. Montroll, International Business Machines Corporation (CBMS) 

Prof. R. D. Richtmyer, New York University (CBMS) 

Dr. J. Barkley Rosser, Cornell University (CBMS) 

Prof. M. M. Schiffer, Stanford University (CBMS) 

Advisory Panel to Data Processing Systems Division 

Dr. Alston S. Householder, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chairman (CBMS) 

Prof. George E. Forsythe, Stanford University (CBMS) 

Mr. John C. McPherson, International Business Machines Corporation (IRE) 

Prof. Charles L. Miller, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( ASCE) 

Prof. Raymond Pepinsky, Pennsylvania State University ( AIP) 

Prof. William H. Radford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (IRE) 

Prof. Morris Rubinoff, University of Pennsylvania ( AIEE) 

Advisory Panel to Atomic Physics Division 

Prof. R. H. Dicke, Princeton University, Chairman (AIP) 

Prof. Benjamin Bederson, New York University (AIP) 

Prof. Peter Franken, University of Michigan (AIP) 

Prof. Jesse L. Greenstein, California Institute of Technology ( AL) 

Prof. Vernon W. Hughes, Sloane Laboratory (AIP) 

Prof. Mark G. Ingrham, University of Chicago (AIP) 

Dr. Benjamin Lax, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (AIP) 

Dr. M. Kent Wilson, Tufts University (ACS) 

Advisory Panel to Instrumentation Division 

Mr. R. W. Larson, General Electric Research Laboratories, Chairman (AIEE) 

Dr. A. 0. Beckman, Beckman Instruments, Inc. (AL) 

Mr. D. G. Fink, Philco Corporation (IRE) 

Dr. R. J. Jeffries, Data-Control Systems, Inc. (AL) 

Col. J. Z. Millar, Western Union Telegraph Company (AIEE) 

Mr. Leon Podolsky, Sprague Electric Company (IRE) 

Mr. Ivan G. Easton, General Radio Company (AIEE) 

Mr. William R. Hewlett, Hewlett-Packard Company (AIEE) 

Advisory Panel to Physical Chemistry Division 

Prof. Henry Eyring, University of Utah, Chairman (ACS) 
Dr. A. 0. Allen, Brookhaven National Laboratory (ACS) 
Dr. Paul Cross, Mellon Institute (ACS) 
Prof. Hans H. Jaffe, University of Cincinnati (ACS) 
Dr. Daniel R. Stull, The Dow Chemical Company (ACS) 

Advisory Panel to Cryogenic Engineering Division 

Dr. Clyde McKinley, Air Products Incorporated, Chairman (AICE) 

Prof. S. C. Collins, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (ASME) 

Dr. Hugh M. Long, Tonawanda, New York (AIP) 

Dr. Loyd B. Nesbitt, General Electric Laboratory (AIP) 

Dr. David White, Ohio State University (ACS) 

Advisory Panel to Central Radio Propagation Laboratory 

Prof. Arthur H. Waynick, The Pennsylvania State University, Chairman (IRE) 
Mr. Stuart L. Bailey, Washington, D.C. (IRE) 
Prof. Henry G. Booker, Cornell University (IRE) 

182 



Mr. A. B. Crawford, Bell Telephone Laboratories (AL) 

Dr. R. A. Helliwell, Stanford University (IRE) 

Dr. S. W. Herwald, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (AIEE) 

Dr. John B. Smyth, Smyth Research Associates (AIP) 

Dean George Town, Iowa State University (AIEE) 

Dr. Alrert D. Wheelon, Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. (IRE) 

Advisory Panel to Radio Standards Division 

Prof. Arthur A. Oliner, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Chairman (IRE) 

Prof. Walter Gordy, Duke University (AIP) 

Prof. E. L. Hahn, University of California (AIP) 

Dr. E. W. Houghton, Bell Telephone Laboratories (AIEE) 

Prof. E. C. Jordan, University of Illinois (IRE) 

Dr. R. Kompfner, Bell Telephone Laboratories (IRE) 

Prof. W. A. Lewis, Illinois Institute of Technology (AIEE) 

Prof. N. F. Ramsey, Harvard University (AIP) 

Dr. John C. Simons, National Research Corporation (IRE) 



ADIVISORY COMMITTEE ON ENGINEERING AND RELATED 

STANDARDS 

(Members are nominated by the American Standards Association (ASA) and the 
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ) 

Mr. W. A. Wildhack, National Bureau of Standards, Chairman 

Dr. A. A. Bates, New York University (ASTM) 

Mr. Roger E. Gay, American Standards Association (ASA) 

Mr. F. L. LaQue, The International Nickel Company, Inc. (ASTM) 

Mr. John W. McNair, American Standards Association (ASA) 

Mr. N. L. Mochel, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (ASTM) 

Mr. Frank H. Roby, American Standards Association (ASA) 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON CALIBRATION AND MEASUREMENT 

SERVICES 

(Members are appointed on the basis of their broad personal knowledge of industrial 
measurement problems) 

Mr. W. A. Wildhack, National Bureau of Standards, Chairman 

Dr. William G. Amey, Leeds & Northrup Company 

Mr. H. C. Biggs, Sandia Corporation 

Mr. E. J. Brazill, The Martin Company 

Mr. Ivan G. Easton, General Radio Company 

Mr. Bruno Weinschel, Weinschel Engineering 

Mr. L. B. Wilson, Sperry Gyroscope Company 

Mr. A. J. Woodington, Convair Astronautics 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

(Members are nominated by the National Conference on Weights and Measures) 

Mr. W. S. Bussey, National Bureau of Standards, Chairman 

Miss Genevieve Blatt, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 

Mr. C. G. Gehringer, Howe-Richardson Corporation 

Prof. L. J. Gordon, Weights and Measures Research Center, Denison University 

Mr. Rollin E. Meek, State Board of Health, Indiana 

Mr. J. E. Moss, American Petroleum Institute 

Mr. E. C. Westwood, City Sealer of Weights and Measures, Salt Lake City, Utah 

183 



3.5. AWARDS AND HONORS 

Recognition of the Bureau's contributions to science and technology often takes the 
form of awards and honors from government, academic, professional, and industrial 
groups. The following list reflects such recognition bestowed on Bureau staff members 
during fiscal year 1962. 



RECIPIENT 



AWARD 



Ambler, Ernest 
Astin, Allen V. 
Branscomb, L. M. 

Brenner, Abner 
Harrison, William N. 
Hoffman, John D. 
Jddd, D. B. 
Kline, G. M. 
Michaelis, Robert E. 

Montgomery, G. F. 
Ondik, Helen M. 
Plyler, E. K. 
Schiefer, Herbert F. 
Scribner, Bourdon F. 

Sitterly, C. M. 
Smith, J. C. 
Joint Award : 

Lawrence, Robert S. 

Little, C. Gordon 



Fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 

American Ordnance Association's Scott Gold Medal Award 

Arthur S. Flemming Award of the Junior Chamber of Commerce, 

Washington, D.C. 
Scientific Achievement Award of American Electroplaters' Society 
John Jeppson Award by American Ceramic Society 

Certificate of recognition from the Washington Academy of Sciences 
Gold Medal of Illuminating Engineering Society 

Elected a Distinguished Member of the Society of Plastics Engineers 
Steel Ingot Award of the Ferrous Metals Subcommittee, ASTM Com- 
mittee E-2 on Emission Spectroscopy 
Elected Fellow in the Institute of Radio Engineers 
Hunter College Award for Outstanding Achievement 
Elected Honorary Fellow of Indian Academy of Sciences 
Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from North Carolina State College 
Medal Award in Spectroscopy of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, 

New York Section 
Honorary Doctor of Science Degree from Swarthmore College 
Elected a Fellow of the British Textile Institute 

RESA Boulder Scientist Award 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MERITORIOUS SERVICE AWARDS 



RECIPIENT 



TECHNICAL AREA 



ACKERMAN, ROLLAND F. 

Bay, Zoltan L. 

Bfown, William W. 
Ehrlich, Marcarete 
Goodwin, Robert D. 
Haven, Clyde E. 

HEFLEY, GlFFORD 

Krucer, Jerome 
Lance, Harvey W. 
Meyerson, Melvin R. 
Mijares, Anilo 
O'Brien, Aucusta H. 
Richmond, Martha S. 
Roth, Robert S. 
Schilling, Reinhold F. P. 
Schlarman, Wilfred L. 
Scott, Arnold H. 
Sera, Frederick 
Swan, Reta K. 
Thompson, Moody C, Jr. 
Wiese, Wolfgang L. 
Joint Award : 

Spencer, Lewis V. 

Eisenhauer, Charles M. 



Calibration of "long distance" tapes 

Determinations of average energy required to produce an ion pair in 

gases 
Long-wave standard frequency broadcast stations 
Photographic emulsions for measurement of radiation 
Low-temperature physics 
Dimensional metrology and standardization 
"Loran-C Clock" development 
Surface metallurgy 

Electronic standards, measurements, and calibrations 
Physical metallurgy 
Instrument craftsmanship 
Administrative competence 
Analytical chemistry of uranium 
Non-metallic mineral products 
Instrument craftsman 
Instrument craftsman 

Precision measurements of the dielectric properties of matter 
Technical radio services from station W\^ V 
Administrative competence 
Troposphere physics 
Plasma physics 

Radiation shielding engineering 



184 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE AWARDS 

RECIPIENT TECHNICAL AREA 

Cannon, Edward W. Electronic digital computers 

Kessler, Karl G. Atomic physics 

Koch, H. William Radiation physics 

Norton, Kenneth A. Radio propagation research 

Plyler, Earle K. Infrared radiation physics 

Wall, Leo A. Fluorocarbon compounds for preparation of organic polymers 

Youden, William J. ' Mathematical statistics 

3.6. EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM 

The Bureau sponsors a broad employee development program oriented to 
the education and training needs of all staff members. Primary program 
objectives are the increase of efficiency in the conduct of official assigned 
duties and systematic preparation for increased responsibilities. The pro- 
gram is implemented primarily through the NBS Graduate School and train- 
ing through nongovernment facilities. It covers educational levels up 
through postdoctoral research and includes general staff development courses. 
Comparable programs are available in both the Washington and Boulder 
Laboratories. 

The curriculum of the Graduate School includes graduate and undergradu- 
ate courses in the physical sciences, mathematics, and certain branches of 
engineering; and a series of scientific colloquia and seminars led by research 
leaders from the Bureau staff and from other research centers. A series 
of general staff development courses is also offered through the Graduate 
School. Typical examples in this category are scientific German, practical 
metallurgy, and mathematical symbolism and terminology. Educational 
counseling and a program of thesis accreditation are also provided. 

Course offerings are determined by the NBS Educational Committee 
through periodic need surveys. The curriculum is divided into NBS in- 
hours and NBS-university-sponsored out-of-hours courses and is flexible to 
meet the varied and changing needs of the staff. The Technician Career 
Program, for example, was established in 1960. Through a series of in-hours 
courses in the fundamentals of science and mathematics, the Program helps 
to increase job efficiency and offers educational opportunities for subprofes- 
sional laboratory personnel. The Clerical Training Center, initiated in 1961, 
makes it possible to fill clerical vacancies with fully-oriented employees who 
can become productive in their permanent assignments in the shortest length 
of time. 

Since the establishment of the Washington educational program in 1908, 
282 graduate degrees have been awarded by 45 different universities partly 
on the basis of credits obtained or thesis work carried on under the Bureau 
Graduate School program. 

During the year the Graduate Program at Boulder has been strengthened 
by the initiation of a Joint-Course program and an Adjoint Professor plan 
with the University of Colorado. Under the Joint-Course program, courses 
are offered simultaneously by the appropriate graduate departments of the 

662336 O — 62 13 185 



University and by the NBS Graduate School with mutual benefit to both 
the Government and the University. Bureau staff members who teach the 
courses have the title of Adjoint Professor at the University. Another 
cooperative program with the University of Colorado was the three-week 
Radio Propogation Course offered during the summer of 1962. Thirty 
Boulder scientists and seven noted authorities from outside the Bureau 
prepared the lectures for this highly successful program. In addition to 
NBS staff members, approximately 200 students from other government 
agencies, industry, universities, and foreign research laboratories participated 
in the course. 

In another phase of the Bureau employee development program, NBS 
sponsored three major training programs through nongovernment facilities 
under authority of the Government Employees Training Act of 1958. 
These are: 

1. Full-time (3 to 12 months) postdoctoral study and research assignments at 
universities and research centers, both in this country and abroad. 

2. Full-time (less than 3 months) attendance at institutes, seminars, short con- 
centrated courses, workshops, etc. Generally, these are offered through the educational 
facilities of major universities and industrial laboratories throughout the country. 

3. Part-time job-related academic courses at local educational institutions, generally 
in early evening classes. 

Three hundred and eighty-nine staff members at Washington and Boulder 
were trained through nongovernment facilities in 1962. Fourteen selected 
career scientists were selected for full-time research assignments at univer- 
sities and research centers. Seventy-four staff members, primarily scientists 
and subprofessional laboratory personnel, attended short concentrated 
courses and training programs at universities and in industry. Three hun- 
dred and one employees, mostly from technical divisions, attended job- 
related courses at local educational facilities. The Bureau paid full salaries 
and expenses for participants in approved full-time nongovernment training 
programs. These included tuition, related fees, travel and per diem, as 
well as transportation of family and household effects for long-term training. 

Each summer the Bureau sponsors a student trainee program open to 
college students majoring in the physical sciences, mathematics, and certain 
branches of engineering. An integrated work-study program, this activity 
includes lectures, tours, demonstrations, supervised laboratory assignments, 
and professional counseling. The purpose of the program is to acquaint 
young people with career opportunities in scientific research at the NBS 
Laboratories and to prepare select students for such careers. The 1962 
student program had a total enrollment of 212 students which included 120 
returnees from previous summers. The new group included 10 high school 
students who had obtained recognition through the \^ estinghouse Science 
Talent Search or other national science competition. Approximately 40 
percent of the 1962 group were at the graduate level. Students from 65 
colleges participated in the 1962 program. 

186 



In collaboration with the National Research Council, the Graduate School 
offers postdoctoral resident research associateships to young scientific investi- 
gators of unusual ability and promise of becoming creative leaders in basic 
research in the various branches of the physical and mathematical sciences. 
While acquiring basic knowledge, they have opportunities for developing new 
scientific approaches and laboratory skills, thus advancing scientific knowl- 
edge. Twenty new Research Associateships are open each year and are 
tenable at both the Washington and Boulder Laboratories. During 1962, 
the following young men were selected and served: Robert A Beaudet, 
Merritt M. Birky, Gerald T. Cargo, George E. Chamberlain, Sam R. Coriell, 
Richard D. Doepker, Gordon H. Dunn, John A. Eddy, John L. Hall, Sigurd Y. 
Larsen, William S. Layne, Melvin Linzer, John T. MacQueen, Billy W. 
Mangum, Terence L. Porter, Joseph Powers, Terry E. Sharp, William A. 
Thompson, Jr., and Edward S. J. Tomezsko. 

Scientific staff meetings, held weekly from September through May, are 
also included in the Bureau's educational program. The staff meetings are 
of a less specialized nature than colloquia and seminars offered in the Grad- 
uate School program. They are open to all professional staff members of the 
Bureau and to scientific personnel from neighboring laboratories. 

3.7. PUBLICATIONS AND PATENTS 

Publications in the Bureau's Series* 

Journal of Research. Contains full research papers, including laboratory data, ex- 
perimental procedures, and theoretical and mathematical analyses. Advances in meas- 
urement standards and techniques . . . physical constants . . . properties of materials 
. . . instrumentation . . . radio propagation. 

The Journal is published in four separate sections . . . 

A. Physics and Chemistry — issued six times a year. 

B. Mathematics and Mathematical Physics — issued quarterly. 

C. Engineering and Instrumentation — issued quarterly. 

D. Radio Propagation — issued six times a year. 

The papers listed below have appeared in the four-section Journal since July 1961 

Volume 65A (Phys. and Chem.), No. 4 (July-Aug. 1961) 

Electrical properties and kinetics of electrode reactions. R. J. Brodd. 

Effect of hydrostatic pressure upon the relaxation of birefrigence in amorphous solids 

R. M. Waxier and L. H. Adams. 
Vapor pressures of platinum, iridium, and rhodium. R. F. Hampson, Jr., and R. F 

Walker. 
Crystallization of bulk polymers with chain folding: theory of growth of lamellar spheru 

lites. J. D. Hoffman and J. I. Lauitzen, Jr. 
Phase equilibrium relations in the binary system barium oxide-niobium pentoxide 

R. S. Roth and J. L. Waring. 
Solid state reactions involving oxides of trivalent cations. S. J. Schneider, R. S. Roth, 

and J. L. Waring. 
Gamma irradiation of fluorocarbon polymers. R. E. Florin and L. A. Wall. 
Inhibition of diffusion flames of methyl bromide and trifluoromethyl bromide applied to 

the fuel and oxygen sides of the reaction zone. E. C. Creitz. 

♦Publications in these series are available, unless otherwise indicated, from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. For a discussion of the publications program, 
see p. 21. 

187 



Volume 65A (Phys. and Chem.), No. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1961) 

Calibration of a monitor for use in bremsstrahlung beams. E. G. Fuller and E. Hayward. 
Mass spectrometric study of NF 2 , NF 3 , N 2 F 2 and N 2 F 4 . J. T. Herron and V. H. Dibeler. 
Rate of the reaction NO-f-N, and some heterogeneous reactions observed in the ion 

source of a mass spectrometer. J. T. Herron. 
Synthesis of the humites raMg 2 Si(VMg(T,OH) 2 . A. Van Valkenburg. 
Phase equilibria in systems involving the rare earth oxides. Part III. The 

Eu 2 Os-In 2 0:i system. S. J. Schneider. 
Heats of hydrolysis and formation of dimethoxychloroborane. M. V. Kilday, W. H. 

Johnson, and E. J. Prosen. 
Tritium-labeled compounds VII. Isotope effects in the oxidation of D-mannitoIs-C 14 

and D-manitols-£ to D-fructoses. L. T. Sniegoski, H. L. Frush, and H. S. Isbell. 
Franck-Condon factors to high vibrational quantum numbers I: N 2 and NI. R. W. 

Nicholls. 

Volume 65A (Phys. and Chem.), No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1961) 

Comparison of lens response for sinusoidal and square-wave targets at several focal 

positions. S. H. Emara. 
Wavelength shifts in Hg 198 as a function of temperature. S. H. Emara. 
Variability of spectral tristimulus values. I. Nimeroff, J. R. Rosenblatt, and M. C. 

Dannemiller. 
Extension of the Flory-Rehner theory of swelling to an anisotropic polymer system. S. D. 

Bruck. 
Fiber structure-property relationships: a disulfide-crosslinked self-crimping polyamide, 

S. D. Bruck. 
Acidity functions. Values of the quantity p(«HyCi)for buffer solutions from to 95 °C. 

R. G. Bates and R. Gary. 
2,3-O-Isopropylidene-a-D-lyxofuranose, the monoacetone-D-lyxose of Levene and Tipson. 

R. Schaffer. 
Effect of perchloryl fluoride additions on the flame speed of methane. C. Halpern. 

Volume 66A (Phys. and Chem.), No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1962) 

Absolute isotopic abundance of terrestrial silver. W. R. Shields, E. L. Garner, and V. H. 

Dibeler. 
Temperature of a copper arc. C. H. Corliss. 
Melting process and the equilibrium melting temperature of polychlorotrifluoroethyleiu. 

J. D. Hoffman and J. J. Weeks. 
Tritium-labeled compounds VIII. Confirmation of the position of the tritium in 0- 

glucose-6-f and D-glucitol-5-£. L. T. Sniegoski and H. S. Isbell. 
Infared absorption spectra in the study of mutarotational equilibria of monosaccharides. 

R. S. Tipson and H. S. Isbell. 
Preparation of high purity trimethylborane. G. S. Ross, D. Enagonio, C. A. Hewitt, and 

A. R. Glasgow. 
Reaction of several aminopyrimidines with formaldehyde. G. L. McLeod. 
Acidic dissociation constant and related thermodynamic quantities for diethanolam- 

monium ion in water from to 50 °C. V. E. Bower, R. A. Robinson, and R. G. Bates. 
Fiber structure — property relationships II: Macroscopic deformations of alkylene sulfide 

crosslinked polycaprolactam fibers. S. D. Bruck. 
Ion transport across membranes: I. Definitions of membrane electromotive forces and of 

flows of electrolytic solutes. B. C. Duncan. 

Volume 66A (Phys. and Chem.), No. 2 (Mar.-Apr. 1962) 

Correction factors for the calibration of encapsulated radium sources. R. M. Lee and 

T. P. Loftus. 
Description and analysis of the second spectrum of tantalum, Ta II. C. C. Kiess. 
Vibration-rotation bands of carbonyl sulfide. A. G. Maki, E. K. Plyler. and E. D. 

Tidwell. 
Ionization in the plasma of a copper arc. C. H. Corliss. 
The vapor pressure of palladium. R. F. Hampson and R. F. Walker. 
Revised standard values for pH measurements from to 95 °C. R. G. Bates. 
Conductometric determination of sulfhydryl groups in swollen polycaprolactam fibers 

having disulfide and alkylene sulfide crosslinks. S. D. Bruck and S. M. Bailey. 
Chromatographic analvsis of petroleum fractions used in oil-extended rubber. D. j. 

Termini and A. R. Glasgow. 
Cross-sectional correction for computing Young's modulus from longitudinal resonance 

vibrations of square and cylindrical rods. W. E. Tefft and S. Spinner. 

188 



Volume 66A (Phys. and Chem.), No. 3 (May-June 1962) 

Glass filters for checking performance of spectrophotometer-integrator systems of color 

measurement. H. J. Keegan, J. C. Schleter, and D. B. Judd. 
Calibration of small grating spectrometers from 166 to 600 cm -1 . L. R. Blaine, E. K. 

Plyler, and W. S. Benedict. 
Franck-Condon factors to high vibrational quantum numbers II: SiO, MgO, SrO, AlO, 

VO, NO. R. W. Nicholls. 
Oxidation of aldoses with bromine H. S. Isbell. 

An analysis of the solid phase behavior of the normal paraffins. M. G. Broadhurst. 
Methylene groups in determination of disulfide and methylene sulfide crosslinks in poly- 

caprolactam fibers. S. D. Bruck. 
Purification by automatic gas chromatography. M. Tenenbaum and F. L. Howard. 
High resolution investigation of some infrared bands of carbon disulfide. D. Agar, E. K. 

Plyler, and E. D. Tidwell, 

Volume 65B (Math, and Math. Phys.), No. 3 (July-Sept. 1961) 

Theory of an accurate intermediary orbit for satellite astronomy. J. P. Vinti. 
Note on the "baffled piston" problem. F. Oberhettinger. 

Some results on non-negative matrices. M. Marcus, H. Mine, and B. N. Moyls. 
Probability inequalities of the Tchebycheff type. I. R. Savage. 

Volume 65B (Math, and Math. Phys.), No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1961) 

Physical entities and mathematical representation. C. H. Page. 
On the range of a fleet of aircraft. A. J. Goldman. 

Measurement of wave fionts without a reference standard: Part I. The wave-front-shear- 
ing interferometer. J. B. Saunders. 

On the evaluation of the function <p(\)=- — . I e ulnu+Xu du 

for real values of \. W. Borsch-Supan. 
Analyticity and probability properties of one-dimensional Brownian motion. A. Ghaffari. 
Some higher order integral identities with application to bounding techniques. J. H. 

Bramble and B. E. Hubbard. 
A priori bounds in the first boundary value problem in elasticity. J. H. Bramble and 

L. E. Payne. 

Volume 66B (Math, and Math. Phys.), No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1962) 

Error bounds for eigenvectors of self-adjoint operators. N. W. Bazley and D. W. Fox. 

Intermediary equatorial orbits of an artificial satellite, J. P. Vinti. 

Selected bibliography of statistical literature 1930 to 1957: V. Frequency functions, mo- 
ments, and graduation. L. S. Deming. 

Measurement of wave fronts without a reference standard: Part 2. The wave-front- 
reversing interferometer. J. B. Saunders. 

Volume 66B (Math, and Math. Phys.), No. 2 (Apr.-June 1962) 

Hindsight technique in machine translation of natural languages. I. Rhodes and F. L. 

Alt. 
An extension of Jensen's theorem for the derivative of a polynomial and for infrapoly- 

nominals. O. Shisha. 
Two matrix eigenvalue inequalities. S. Haber. 
Graphs for determining the power of Student's Mest. M. C. Croarkin. 

Volume 65C (Eng. and Instr.), No. 3 (July-Sept. 1961) 

Prediction of symptoms of cavitation. R. B. Jacobs. 

Heating and cooling of air flowing through an underground tunnel. B. A. Peavy. 

Stress-corrosion cracking of the AZ31B magnesium alloy. H. L. Logan. 

Coatings formed on steel by cathodic protection and their evaluation by polarization 

measurements. W. J. Schwerdtfeger and R. J. Manuele. 
Calibration of inductance standards in the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit. T. L. Zapf. 
Calibration of loop antennas at VLF. A. G. Jean, H. E. Taggart, and J. R. Wait. 
Location of the plane of best average definition with low contrast resolution patterns. 

F. E. Washer and W. P. Tayman. 
Influence of temperature and relative humidity on the photographic response to Co 60 

gamma radiation. M. Ehrlich. 

Volume 65C (Eng. and Instr.), No. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1961) 

A new airglow photometer. C. M. Purdy, L. R. Megill, and F. E. Roach. 
A guide to the use of the modified reflectometer technique of VSWR measurement. 
W. J. Anson. 

189 

662336 0—62 14 



An X-ray diffractometer cryostat providing temperature control in the range 4 to 300 °K. 

F. A. Mauer and L. H. Bolz. 

Apparatus for determination of pressure-density-temperature relations and specific heats 

of hydrogen to 350 atmospheres at temperatures above 14 C K. R. D. Goodwin. 
The use of a thermistor for detecting eluent fronts in liquid-solid chromatography. 

G. S. Ross. 

Radiation field from a circular disk source. J. H. Hubbell, R. L. Bach, and R. J. 
Herbold. 

The Bauschinger effect and residual microstresses in alpha brass. C. J. Newton. 

A study by polarization techniques of the corrosion rates of aluminum and steel under- 
ground for sixteen months. W. J. Schwerdtfeger. 

Volume 66C (Eng. and Instr.), No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1962) 

Reference tables for 40 percent iridium-60 percent rhodium versus iridium thermocouples. 

G. F. Blackburn and F. R. Caldwell. 
A method for the self-calibration of attenuation-measuring systems. R. L. Peck. 
Special shielded resistor for high-voltage d-c measurements. J. H. Parks. 
Voltage ratio measurements with a transformer capacitance bridge. T. L. Zapf. 
Weight calibration schemes for two-knife-edge direct-reading balances. H. E. Aimer. 

L. B. Macurdy, H. S. Peiser, and E. A. Week. 
Tunnel diode large-signal equivalent circuit study and the solutions of its nonlinear 

differential equations. S. B. Geller and P. A. Mantek. 
A missile technique for the study of detonation waves. F. W. Ruegg and W. W. Dorsey. 
Creep of cold-drawn nickel, copper, 70 percent nickel-30 percent copper, and 30 percent 

nickel-70 percent copper alloys. W. D. Jenkins and W. A. Willard. 

Volume 66C (Eng. and Instr.), No. 2 (Apr.-June 1962) 

Effect of vibration and shock on unsaturated standard cells. R. J. Brodd and W. G. 

Eicke, Jr. 
Experiments on the burning of cross piles of wood. D. Gross. 
Transfer of NBS X-ray beam calibrations. J. S. Pruitt, A. Allisy, G. Joyet, W. Pohlit, M. 

Tubiana, and C. Zupancic. 
Identification of metallurgical reactions and their effect on the mechanical properties of 

17-7 PH stainless steel. H. C. Burnett, R. H. Duff, and H. C. Vacher. 
The ideal Lovibond color system. D. B. Judd, G. J. Chamberlin, and G. W. Haupt. 
Systems of electrical units. F. B. Silsbee. 

Volume 65D (Radio Prop.), No. 4 (July-Aug. 1961) 

Almost fifty years of URSI. J. H. Bellinger. 

Power density requirements for airglow excitation by gyrowaves. V. A. Bailey. 

On the validity of some approximations to the Appleton-Hartree formula. K. Davies 

and G. A. M. King. 
Amplitude and angular scintillations of the radio source Cygnus-A observed at Boulder. 

Colorado. R. S. Lawrence, J. L. Jespersen, and R. C. Lamb. 
Digital methods for the extraction of phase and amplitude information from a modulated 

signal. R. S. Lawrence, J. L. Jespersen, and R. C. Lamb. 
Comparison between mode theory and ray theory of VLF propagation. H. Volland. 
Antenna coupling error in direction finders. C. W. Harrison, Jr. 
The electrically short antenna as a probe for measuring free electron densities and 

collision frequencies in an ionized region. R. W. P. King, C. W. Harrison, Jr., and 

D. H. Denton, Jr. 
Effect of multiple atmospheric inversions on tropospheric radio propagation. F. H. 

Northover. 
A few observations of the perturbations in the phase of the low-frequency ground 

wave. J. M. Ross and J. E. Kirch. 
Smooth earth diffraction calculations for horizontal polarization. L. E. Vogler. 
On the theory of mixed-path ground-wave propagation on a spherical earth. J. R. Wait. 

Volume 65D (Radio Prop.), No. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1961) 

Frequency dependence of D-region scattering at VHF, J. C. Blair. R. N. Davis. Jr.. 

and R. C. Kirby. 
Theoretical scattering coefficient for near vertical incidence from contour maps. H. S. 

Hayre and R. K. Moore. 
Mutual interference between surface and satellite communication systems, W. J. Hartman 

and M. T. Decker. 
VHF and UHF signal characteristics observed on a lone knife-edae diffraction path. 

A. P. Barsis and R. S. Kirby. 

190 



Experimental study of inverted L-, T-, and related transmission-line antennas, S. Prasad 

and R. W. P. King. 
Reflection from a sharply bounded ionosphere for VLF propagation perpendicular to 

the magnetic meridian, D. D. Crombie. 
Resonance of the space between earth and ionosphere, H. Poeverlein. 
Observed attenuation rate of ELF (region below 1 kc/s) radio waves, A. G. Jean, 

A. C. Murphy, J. R. Wait, and D. F. Wasmundt. 
A note concerning the excitation of ELF electromagnetic waves, J. R. Wait. 
Computation of whistler ray paths, I. Yabroff. 
On the analysis of LF ionospheric radio propagation phenomena, J. R. Johler. 

Volume 65D (Radio Prop.), No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1961) 

The solar wind, E. N. Parker. 

Attenuation coefficients for propagation at very low frequencies (VLF) during a sudden 

ionospheric disturbance (SID), E. T. Pierce. 
Dipole radiation in a conducting half space, R. K. Moore and W. E. Blair. 
Reliability of atmospheric radio noise predictions, J. R. Herman. 
Effects of the ionosphere on VLF navigational aids, W. T. Blackband. 
On the spectrum of terrestrial radio noise at extremely low frequencies, H. R. Raemer. 
The nonsingular embedding of transition processes within a more general framework 

of coupled variables, J. Heading. 
Worldwide VLF standard frequency and time signal broadcasting, A. D. Watt, R. W. 

Plush, W. W. Brown, and A. H. Morgan. 
Design of panoramic ionospheric resources, L. H. Heisler and L. D. Wilson. 
A quick method for estimating the stage of the sunspot cycle, W. B. Chadwick. 
Measurements of low-angle radiation from a monopole, A. C. Wilson. 

Volume 66D (Radio Prop.), No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1962) 

A survey of the very wide band and frequency independent antennas — 1945 to the 

present. J. D. Dyson. 
Numerical investigation of the equivalent impedance of a wire grid parallel to the 

interface between two media. T. Larsen. 
Current on and input impedance of a cylindrical antenna. Y. M. Chen and J. B. 

Keller. 
Radar corner reflectors for linear or circular polarization. G. Latmiral and A. Sposito. 
On the theory of wave propagation through a concentrically stratified troposphere with a 

smooth profile. H. Bremmer. 
On the propagation of VLF and ELF radio waves when the ionosphere is not sharply 

bounded. J. R. Wait. 
Fields of electric dipoles in sea water — the earth-atmosphere-ionosphere problem. W. L. 

Anderson. 
Reflection of electromagnetic waves from thin ionized gaseous layers. F. H. Northover. 
Reflection and transmission of radio waves at a continuously stratified plasma with 

arbitrary magnetic induction. J. R. Johler and J. D. Harper, Jr. 
On the diffraction of spherical radio waves by a finitely conducting spherical earth. L. 

C. Walters and J. R. Johler. 
An approximate full wave solution for low frequency electromagnetic waves in an un- 
bounded magneto-ionic medium. W. C. Hoffman. 
VHF radio propagation data for the Cedar Rapids-Sterling, Anchorage-Barrow, and 

Fargo-Churchill test paths, April 1951 through June 1958. G. R. Sugar and K. W. 

Sullivan. 

Volume 66D (Radio Prop.), No. 2 (Mar.-Apr. 1962) 

Atmospheric phenomena, energetic electrons, and the geomagnetic field. J. R. Winckler. 
The summer intensity variations of [01] 6300 A in the tropics. D. Barbier, F. E. Roach, 

and W. R. Steiger. 
Generation of radio noise in the vicinity of the earth. P. A. Sturrock. 
Fading characteristics observed on a high-frequency auroral radio path. J. W. Koch 

and H. E. Petrie. 
Some problems connected with Rayleigh distributions. M. M. Siddiqui. 
Impedance of a monopole antenna with a radial-wire ground system on an imperfectly 

conducting half space, part I. S. W. Maley and R. J. King. 
Theory of the infinite cylindrical antenna including the feed-point singularity in 

antenna current. R. H. Duncan. 
The .E-field and //-field losses around antennas with a radial ground wire system. T. 

Larsen. 
The electric field at the ground plane near a disk-loaded monopole. J. Hansen and 

T. Larsen. 

191 



Volume 66D (Radio Prop.), No. 3 (May-June 1962) 

A theory of radar reflections from a rough moon. D. F. Winter. 

A lunar theory reasserted. K. M. Siegel and T. B. A. Senior. 

Statistical distribution of the amplitude and phase of a multiply scattered field. P. 

Beckmann. 
Amplitude distribution for radio signals reflected by meteor trails, II. A. D. Wheelon. 
High resolution pulse measurements of meteor-burst propagation at 41 Mc/s over a 

1,295-km path. R. J. Carpenter and G. R. Ochs. 
Ionospheric irregularities and long-distance radio propagation. H. A. Whale. 
On the role of the process of reflection in radio wave propagation. F. du Castel, P. 

Misme, A. Spizzichino, and J. Voge. 
Correlation between hourly median scattered signals and simple refractivity parameters. 

A. S. Dennis. 
Observations of radio wave phase characteristics on a high-frequency auroral path. J. W. 

Koch and W. M. Beery. 
Diurnal and seasonal changes in structure of the mid-latitude quiet ionosphere. J. W. 

Wright. 
Schumann resonances of the earth-ionosphere cavity — -extremely low frequency reception 

at Kingston, R. I. C. Polk and F. Fitchen. 
Propagation of plane electromagnetic waves past a shoreline. J. Bazer and S. N. Karp. 
Currents induced on the surface of a conducting circular cylinder by a slot. G. 

Hasserjian and A. Ishimaru. 

Technical News Bulletin. This monthly publication summarizes the current research, 
development, and test activities of the Bureau. The articles are brief, with emphasis 
on the results of research and their significance, chosen for their importance to other 
scientists, engineers, and to industry. Resumes of longer research reports, important 
national and international conferences On fundamental science in which the Bureau has 
represented the Nation, and a bibliography of all publications by members of the staff 
as published are included. The Bulletin is designed to give a succinct account of the 
current work of the Bureau. (Annual subscription: domestic, $1.50: foreign, $2.25.) 

Basic Radio Propagation Predictions. This is a monthly publication for those con- 
cerned with radio communication in determining the best skywave frequencies over any 
path at any time of day for average conditions for the month of prediction, which are 
made 3 months in advance. Charts of extraordinary-wave critical frequency for the F2 
layer and of maximum usable frequency for a transmission distance of 4.000 km. of 
highest frequency of sporadic E in excess of 15 Mc are included. In addition, there are 
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Monographs. These are usually contributions to the technical literature which are 
too lengthy for publication in the Journal of Research. They often provide extensive 
compilations of information on subjects related to the Bureau's technical program. 
Until July 1959 most of this type of material was published in the Circular series. 

25. Standard X-ray diffraction powder patterns. Section 1. Data for 46 substances, 
H. E. Swanson, M. C. Morris, R. Stinchfield, and J. H. deGroot. March 9. 1962. 
40 cents. 

31. Capacities of stacks in sanitary drainage systems for buildings, R. S. Wyly and H. 
N. Eaton. July 3, 1961. 35 cents. 

32. Tables of spectral-line intensities, Pt. I, Arranged by elements, and Pt. II, Arranged 
by wavelengths, W. F. Meggers, C. H. Corliss and B. F. Scribner. Pt. I. Decem- 
ber 29, 1961, $4.00; Pt. II. October 2, 1961, $3.00. 

33. An experimental study of phase variations in line-of-sight microwave transmissions. 
K. A. Norton, J. W. Herbstreit, H. B. Janes, K. O. Hornbers, C. F. Peterson. A. F. 
Barghausen, W. E. Johnson, P. I. Wells, M. C. Thompson, Jr.. M. J. Vetter, and A .W. 
Kirkpatrick. November 1, 1961. 55 cents. 

34. Tables of chemical kinetics. Homogeneous reactions. (Supplementary Tables). 
September 15, 1961. $2.75. 

35. Bibliography and index on vacuum and low pressure measurement. W. G. Brom- 
bacher. November 10, 1961. 60 cents. 

36. Effect of mortar properties on strength of masonry, C. C. Fishburn. November 21. 
1961. 30 cents. 

37. International practical temperature scale of 1948. text revision of 1960. H. F. 
Stimson. September 8, 1961. 10 cents. 

38. Radiation patterns in the lower ionosphere and Fresnel zones for elevated antennas 
over a spherical earth, R. G. Merrill and W. V. Mansfield. April 2. 1962. .0 cents. 

192 



39. Calibration procedures for direct-current resistance apparatus, P. P. B. Brooks. 
March 1, 1962. 40 cents. 

40. Thermocouple materials, F. R. Caldwell. March 1, 1962. 30 cents. 

41. Theory and methods of optical pyrometry, H. J. Kostkowski and R. D. Lee. March 1, 
1962. 25 cents. 

42. Structure shielding against fallout radiation from nuclear weapons, L. V. Spencer. 
June 1, 1962. 75 cents. 

44. Effect of exposure site on weather resistance of porcelain enamels exposed for three 
years, D. G. Moore and A. Potter. April 10, 1962. 15 cents. 

45. Fire test of precast cellular concrete floors and roofs, J. V. Ryan and E. W. Bender. 
April 12, 1962. 15 cents. 

46. Analysis of coaxial two-terminal conical capacitor, M. C. Selby. April 6, 1962. 
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47. Basic magnetic quantities and the measurement of the magnetic properties of mate- 
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48. Determination of total X-ray beam energy with a calibrated ionization chamber, 
J. S. Pruitt and S. R. Domen. June 5, 1962. 20 cents. 

Circulars. The National Bureau of Standards Circular series was discontinued in 
July 1959 with the inauguration of the NBS Monograph series. However, since the 
first two Sections of Circular 488 were published before 1959, the Circular designation 
is being retained for the remaining three Sections of this Circular. 

488. An ultraviolet multiplet table, C. E. Moore. Sections 3, 4, and 5 (April 6, 1962). 
Section 3, 60 cents; Section 4, 45 cents; Section 5, 30 cents. 

Miscellaneous Publications. As the name implies, this series includes material, 
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Reports, Weights and Measures Conference Reports, and other subjects appropriate to 
the Miscellaneous series. 

238. Hydraulic research in the United States 1961, H. K. Middleton. August 15, 1961. 
$1.25. 

239. Report of the 46th National Conference on Weights and Measures, 1961. Jan- 
uary 18, 1962. 65 cents. 

241. Standard materials issued by the National Bureau of Standards. A descriptive 
list with prices. March 2, 1962. (Supersedes C552.) 30 cents. 

242. Research highlights of the National Bureau of Standards, Annual Report 1961. 
December 1961. 75 cents. 

243. Index to the Reports of the National Conference on Weights and Measures, from 
the first to the forty-fifth, 1905 to 1960. June 28, 1962. (Supersedes M203.) 40 
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Handbooks. These are recommended codes of engineering and industrial practices, 
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others concerned. In many cases the recommended requirements are given official status 
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70. Tabulation of data on microwave tubes, C. P. Marsden, W. J. Kerry, and J. K. 
Moffitt. November 1, 1961. $1.00. 

79. Stopping powers for use with cavity chambers. September 1, 1961. 35 cents. 

80. A manual of radioactivity procedures. November 20, 1961. 50 cents. 

81. Safety rules for the installation and maintenance of electric supply and communi- 
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sixth edition of the National Electrical Safety Code. November 1, 1961 (Supersedes 
H32 and amends in part, Pt. 2, Definitions and the Grounding Rules of H30 and 
H43). $1.75. 

82. Weights and measures administration. June 22, 1962. (Supersedes H26.) $1.75. 

Applied Mathematics Series. Mathematical tables, manuals, and studies. 

58. Fractional factorial designs for experiments with factors at two and three levels, 
W. S. Connor and S. Young. September 1, 1961. 40 cents. 

Technical Note Series. This series was initiated in 1959 to supplement the Bureau's 
regular publications program. Technical Notes provide a means for making available 
scientific data that are of transient or limited interest. They are available by purchase 
from the Office of Technical Services, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, 
D.C. (Order by PB number only.) 

193 



18-10 (PB151377-10). Quarterly radio noise data— March, April, May 1961, W. Q. 

Crichlow, R. T. Disney, and M. A, Jenkins. August 14, 1961. $1.50. 
18-11 (PB151377-11). Quarterly radio noise data— June, July, August 1961. W. Q. 

Crichlow, R. T. Disney, and M. A. Jenkins. November 16, 1961. $1.50. 
18-12 (PB151377-12). Quarterly radio noise data — September, October, November 

1961, W. Q. Crichlow, R. T. Disney, and M. A. Jenkins. February 23, 1962. $1.00. 
18-13 (PB151377-13) . Quarterly radio noise data — December. January, February 

1961-62, W. Q. Crichlow, R. T. Disney, and M. A. Jenkins, May 22, 1962. $1.75. 
40-4 (PB151399-4) . Mean electron density variations of the quiet ionosphere. No. 

4— May 1959, J. W. Wright, L. R. Wescott, and D. J. Brown. May 1961. $1.50. 
40-5 (PB151399-5) . Mean electron density variations of the quiet ionosphere. No. 

5— July 1959, J. W. Wright, L. R. Wescott, and D. J. Brown, August 1961. $1.50. 
40-6 (PB151399-6) . Mean electron density variations of the quiet ionosphere. No. 6 — 

August 1959, J. W. Wright, L. R. Wescott, and D. J. Brown. September 1961. $1.50. 

13, Summary of one year of data, May 1959-April 1960, J. W. Wright. April 15, 
40-7 (PB151399-7) . Mean electron density variations of the quiet ionosphere, No. 

7— September 1959, J. W. Wright, L. R. Wescott, and D. J. Brown. April 1962. 

$1.50. 
40-13 (PB151399-13) . Mean electron densitv variations of the quiet ionosphere. No. 

13, Summary of one year of data, May 1959-April 1960, J. W. Wright. April 15. 

1962. $1.50. 

81 (PB161582). An evaluation of Kacser's second order Born approximation to the 
bremsstrahlung differential cross section, G. S. Ofelt. June 1961. 75 cents. 

89 (PB161590)r Collisions of liquid drops with liquids, 0. G. Engel. May 1961. 
$2.00. 

90 (PB161591). Flux switching mechanisms in ferrite cores and their dependence on 
core geometry, G. W. Reimherr. May 1961. $1.25. 

91 (PB161592). Determination of the K fluorescence yield of argon by proportional- 
counter spectrometry, C. Godeau. May 1961. 50 cents. 

92 (PB161593). Research program of the Radiation Physics Division, National Bureau 
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93 (PB161594). An experimental study of beta decay using the radiations from oriented 
nuclei, D. D. Hoppes. August 1961. $1.50. 

94 (PB161595). Bibliography on meteoric radio wave propagation. W. Nupen. Mav 
29, 1961. $2.75. 

95 (PB161596). Characteristics of point-to-point tropospheric propagation and siting 
considerations, R. S. Kirby, P. L. Rice, and L. J. Maloney. October 19, 1961. $2.50. 

96 (PB161597). On the climatology of groundbased radio ducts and associated fading 
regions, E. J. Dutton. June 16, 1961. $1.75. 

97 (PB161598) . Techniques for computing refraction of radio waves in the troposphere. 

E. J. Dutton and G. D. Thayer. October 17, 1961. $1.50. 

102 (PB161603). Performance predictions for single tropospheric communication links 
and for several links in tandem, A. P. Barsis, K. A. Norton, P. L. Rice, and P. H. Elder. 
August 1961. $3.00. 

106 (PB161607). The integrated starlight over the sky March 1961, L. R. Megill and 

F. E. Roach. June 1961. $2.00. 

107 (PB161608). A fixed frequency, 9.1 Gc, field intensity recording receiver with 
extremely narrow bandwidth, R. W. Hubbard and J. V. Cateora. June 1961. 75 cents. 

108 (PB161609). A compilation of the physical equilibria and related properties of the 
hydrogen-carbon monoxide system, D. E. Drayer and T. M. Flynn. May 1961. $2.25. 

109 (PB161610). A compilation of the physical equilibria and related properties of 
the hydrogen-helium system, T. M. Flynn and D. E. Drayer. June 1961. $1.25. 

110 (PB161611). A compilation of the physical equilibria and related properties of 
the hydrogen-nitrogen system, D. E. Drayer and T. M. Flynn. May 1961. $1.75. 

111 (PB161612). Data reduction instrumentation for radio propagation research. \\ . 
E. Johnson. July 1961. $1.00. 

112 (PB161613). Automatic character recognition: a state-of-the-art report. M. E. 
Stevens. May 1961. $2.50. 

113 (PB161614). A transistor-magnetic core digital circuit, E. W. Hosue. June 1961. 
$3.00. 

114 (PB161615). Mode calculations for VLF propagation in the earth-ionosphere 
waveguide, K. P. Spies and J. R. Wait. July 17, 1961. ^$1.50. 

115 (PB161616). Load carrying capacity of gas-lubricated bearings with inherent ori- 
fice compensation using nitrogen and helium gas, H. Sixsmith, W. A. Wilson. B. W. 
Birmingham. August 1961. $1.00. 

194 



116 (PB161617). Astrophysical and plasma physics research at the National Bureau 
of Standards — Highlights for 1961, L. M. Branscomb, K. E. Shuler, and J. A. Suddeth. 
October 1961. $1.00. 

117 (PB161618) . Variations in frequency of occurrence of sporadic E, 1949-1959, W. B. 
Chadwick. October 1961. 75 cents. 

118. (PB161619). A note on the propagation of certain LF pulses utilized in a radio 
navigation system, J. R. Johler. October 27, 1961. 75 cents. 

119 (PB161620). Computer simulation of street traffic. M. C. Stark. November 1961. 
$2.25. 

120 (PB161621). A tabulation of the thermodynamic properties of normal hydrogen 
from low temperatures to 300 °K and from 1 to 100 atmospheres, J. W. Dean. Novem- 
ber 1961. $1.75. 

121 (PB161622). Precision calibration of RF vacuum tube voltmeters, L. F. Behrent. 
December 1961. 50 cents. 

122 (PB161623). A survey of the literature on heat transfer from solid surfaces to 
cryogenic fluids, R. J. Richards, W. G. Steward, and R. B. Jacobs. October 1961. 
$1.25. 

123 (PB161624). Functional and design problems of the NBS RF voltage bridge. 

1961. $1.00. 

124 (PB161625). Papers from the Symposium on Collision Phenomena in Astrophysics, 
Geophysics, and Masers, M. J. Seaton, M. J. Dalgarno, and C. Pecker. December 1961. 
$1.00. 

125 (PB161626). OMNIFORM 1: A general purpose machine program for the calcu- 
lation of tables of functions given explicitly in terms of one variable, J. Hilsenrath and 
G. M. Galler. May 1962. $1.00. 

128 (PB161629). Bibliography on auroral radio wave propagation, W. Nupen. January 
12,1962. $2.75 

129 (PB161630). The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen from 64 to 300 °K between 
0.1 and 200 atmospheres, T. R. Strobridge. January 1962. $2.25. 

130 (PB161631). Provisional thermodynamic functions for para-hydrogen, H. M. Roder 
and R. D. Goodwin. December 1961. $3.00. 

131 (PB161632). Photoionization of atoms and molecules, F. L. Mohler. January 

1962. $1.25. 

132 (PB161633). Evaluation of convolution integrals occurring in the theory of mixed 
path propagation, J. R. Johler and C. M. Lilley, November 8, 1961. $1.00. 

133 (PB161634). Historical survey of fading at medium and high radio frequencies, 
R. K. Salaman. January 1962. 75 cents. 

134 (PB161635). Airborne television coverage in the presence of co-channel inter- 
ference, M. T. Decker. January 1962. $2.00. 

135 (PB161636). Ionosonde observations of artificially produced electron clouds, Fire- 
fly 1960, J. W. Wright. April 1, 1962. $2.50. 

136 (PB161637). Some problems of fatigue of bolts and bolted joints in aircraft appli- 
cations, L. Mordfin, January 1962. $1.25. 

137 (PB161638) A bibliography of the thermophysical properties of oxygen at low 
temperatures, J. C. Hust, L. D. Wallace, J. A. Crim, L. A. Hall and R. B. Stewart. Feb- 
ruary 1962. $2.25. 

138 (PB161639). Vertical cross sections of the ionosphere across the geomagnetic 
equator, J. W. Wright. April 6, 1962. $1.00. 

139 (PB161640). Siting criteria for HF communication centers, W. F. Utlaut. April 
1962. $1.25. 

140 (PB161641). Detailed techniques for preparing and using hard gallium alloys, G. 
G. Harman. April 1962. 75 cents. 

142 (PB161643). Atlas of fourier coefficients of diurnal variation of foF2, W. B. Jones. 
April 1962. $2.50. 

143 (PB161644). Numerical results for the surface impedance of a stratified conductor, 
C. M. Jackson, J. R. Wait and L. C. Walters. March 19, 1962. $1.25. 

144 (PB161645). Dielectric constant of liquid para-hydrogen, R. J. Corruccini. April 
1962. 50 cents. 

146 (PB161647). Analysis of ionospheric vertical soundings for electron density profile 
data, III. Procedures for obtaining monthly summary virtual height curves for N(h) 
analysis (composite virtual height curves), J. W. Wright. May 1, 1962. 75 cents. 

147 (PB161648). Cryogenic temperature measurement with platinum resistance ther- 
mometers — Is fixed-point calibration adequate? R. J. Corruccini. April 30, 1962. 
50 cents. 

148 (PB161649). A wire exploder for generating cylindrical shock waves in a con- 
trolled atmosphere, D. L. Jones and K. B. Earnshaw, May 1962. 50 cents. 

195 



Publications in Outside Journals* 

Achenbach, P. R., Chilled-air distribution in refrigerated trailers, Suppl. Bull. Intern. 

Inst. Refrigeration, p. 9 (1961-1962). 
Achenbach, P. R., Design requirements for mechanical systems in protective shelters, 

Heating, Piping, Air Conditioning 34, No. 2, 73-79 (Feb. 1962) . 
Achenbach, P. R., The ventilating problem in fallout shelters, Am. Artisan 99, No. 5, 

64-70 (May 1962). 
Achenbach, P. R., Drapeau, F. J. J., Phillips, C. W., Environmental characteristics of a 

small underground fallout shelter, ASHRAE J. 4, No. 1, 21 (Jan. 1962) . 
Acton, L„ Some relationships between shortwave fadeouts, magnetic crochets, and 

solar flares, J. Geophys. Res. (letter to editor) 66, No. 9, 30, 60-63 (Sept. 1961). 
Agy, V., The types of blackout, their time variations and the mechanisms producing 

them, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, 93-97 (Sept. 1961). 
Agy, V., Davies, K., Worldwide patterns of ionospheric blackout occurrence, J. Atmos- 
pheric Terrest. Phys. 23, 202-205 (Dec. 1961) . 
Aitken, J. H., DeLaVergne, R., Henry, W. H., Loftus, T. P., Comparison of United 

States and Canadian free-air ionization chambers, Brit. J. Radiol. 35, No. 409, 65-70 

(Jan. 1962). 
Alexander, S. N., A report on computer technology outside the United States, Proc. 

Executive Seminar on High Speed Calculators for the Solution of Naval Problems 

Report No. 1519, 45-90 (May 1961) . 
Alexander, S. N., Computing and data processing capabilities in the Soviet Union, J. 

Digest Automatic Data Processing, pp. 1-22 (1962) . 
Alexander, S. N., The information problem in government, Proc. Engineering In- 
formation Symp. (Sponsored by the Engineers Joint Council), pp. 15-16 (Jan. 17, 

1962). 
Allen, G. F., Robinson, R. A., Bower, V. E., The ionization constant of p-nitrophenol 

from to 60°, J. Phys. Chem. 66, No. 1, 171-172 (Jan. 1962). 
Alt, F. L., Digital pattern recognition by moments, J. Assoc. Computing Mach. 9, No. 2, 

240-258 (Apr. 1962). 
Alt, F. L. Fifteen years ACM, Commun. Assoc. Computing Mach. 5, No. 6, 300-307 

(June 1962). 
Ambler, E., Schooley, J., Eisenstein, J.. Traces of products of angular momentum 

matrices. I. Cartesian basis, J. Math. Phys. 3, No. 1, 118-130 (Jan.-Feb. 1962). 
Anderson, J. N., Paffenbarger, G. C, Properties of Silico-phosphate cements, Dental 

Progr. 2, No. 2, 72-75 (Jan. 1962) . 
Anson, W. J., Niesen, E., Fast-melting alloy forms water jacket for small klystrons, 

Electronic Design, pp. 42-45 (Mar. 1962). 
Armstrong, G. T., Fluorine flame calorimetrv, Book, Experimental Thermochemistry II, 

Ch. 7, 129-145 (Interscience Publ. Ltd., London, England, Feb. 1962). 
Armstrong, G. T., Fano, L., Jessup, R. S., Marantz, S., Mears, T. W.. Walker, J. A.. Net 

heat of combustion and other properties of kerosine and related fuels J. Chem. Engr. 

Data 7, No. 1, 107-116 (Jan. 1962) . 
Armstrong, G. T., Krieger, L. A., Heats of formation of inorganic fluorine compounds — 

A survey, Progress in Intern. Research on Thermodynamics and Transport Properties, 

pp. 8-77 (Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs. and Academic Press Inc.. New York, N. Y., 1962). 
Arnett, R. W., On the bulk density of boiling liquid oxygen (Proc. 1961 Cryogenic Eng. 

Conf.), Book, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 7. Paper F-4. 214-218 (Plenum 

Press, Inc., New York, N. Y., 1962) . 
Ami, H. T., Blaine, R. L., Evaluating the freezing-and-thawing durability of concrete by 

laboratory tests in the U.S.A., Symp. Durability of Concrete of RILEM, Prague. 

Czechoslovakia, pp. 218-231 (July 1961) . 
Arp, V., Wilson, J. H., Winrich, L., Sikora, P., Thermal expansion of some engineering 

materials from 20 °K to 293 °K Cryogenics 3, 230-236 (June 1962) . 
Ausloos, P., Intramolecular rearrangements. II. Photolysis and radiolvsis of 4-methvl- 

2-hexanone, J. Phys. Chem. 65, No. 9, 1616 (1961). 
Ausloos, P., Gorden, R., Jr., Hydrogen formation in the gamma radiolvsis of ethvlene. 

J. Chem. Phys. 36, No. 1, 5-9 (Jan. 1962) . 
Ausloos, P., Lias, S., Gas-phase radiolysis of propane, J. Chem. Phvs. 36. No. 14. 

3163-3170 (June 15, 1962). 
Ausloos, P., Rebbert, R. E., Intramolecular rearrangements. III. Formation of 1-methyl- 

cyclobutanol in the photolysis of 2-pentanone, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 83. 4897—1899 ( 1961) . 
Bailey, D. K., The detection and study of solar cosmic rays by radio techniques. Intern. 

Conf. Cosmic Rays and the Earth Storm (Pt. I), J. Phvs. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-I. 

106-112 (1962). 



*For completeness, a few references to publirations issued previous to July 1961 are included. 

196 



Bailey, D. K., Time variations of the energy spectrum of solar cosmic rays in relation to 

the radiation hazard in space, J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 1, 391-396 (Jan. 1962). 
Bailey, D. K., Harrington, J. M., A survey of polar cap absorption events (solar proton 

events) in the period 1952 through 1960, Intern. Conf. on Cosmic Rays and the Earth 

Storm (Pt. II) , J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 17, Suppl. A-II, 334-336 ( 1962) . 
Barger, R. L., Kessler, K. G., Kr 86 and atomic-beam-emitted Hg 198 wavelengths, J. Opt. 

Soc. Am. 51, No. 8, 827-829 (Aug. 1961) . 
Barghausen, A. F., Peterson, C. F., Path loss measurements versus prediction for long 

distance tropospheric scatter circuits, IRE Trans. Commun. Systems. CS— 9, No. 4, 

439-445 (Dec. 1961). 
Barker, V. S., This works for us — approval, books for a science library, Special Libraries 

52, No. 8, 471-472 (Oct. 1961) . 
Barnes, J. A., Allan, D. W., Wainwright, A. E., The ammonia beam maser as a standard 

of frequency, IRE Trans. Instr. 1-11, 26-30 (June 1962) . 
Barsis, A. P., Kirby, R. S., VHF and UHF signal characteristics observed on a long 

knife-edge diffraction path, IRE Natl. Conv. Record, pp. 17-34 (1961). 
Barsis, A. P., Norton, K. A., Rice, P. L., Predicting the performance of tropospheric 

communication links, singly and in tandem, IRE Trans. Commun. Systems CS— 10 

No. 1,2-22 (Mar. 1962). 
Bass, A. M., Mann, D. E,, Absorption spectrum of CF 2 trapped in an argon matrix, J 

Chem. Phys. 36, No. 12, 3501-3502 (June 15, 1962) . 
Bates, R. G., Preparation, transfer, and dilution of a 50% sodium hydroxide solution 

Chem.-Anal. 50, No. 4, 117-118 (Dec. 1961) . 
Bates, R. G., Hetzer, H. B., Absorption of carbon dioxide by solutions of 2-amino-2 

(hydroxymethylM, 3-propandediol, Anal. Chem. 33, No. 9, 1285 (Aug. 1961). 
Bazley, N. W., Fox, D. W. A procedure for estimating eigenvalues, J. Math. Phys. 3 

469-471 (May-June 1962). 
Bazley, N. W., Fox, D. W., Lower bounds for eigenvalues of Schroedinger's equation 

Phys. Rev. 124, No. 2, 483-192 (Oct. 1961) . 
Bean, B. R., Comparison of observed tropospheric refraction with values computed from 

the surface refractivity, IRE Trans. Ant. Prop. AP-9, No. 4, 415-416 (July 1961). 
Bean, B. R., Concerning the bi-exponential nature of the tropospheric radio refractive 

index, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 34, No. 1/2, 81-91 (1961) . 
Bean, B. R., The radio refractive index of air, Proc. IRE 50, No. 3, 260-273 (Mar. 1962) . 
Bean, B. R., Dutton, E. J., Concerning radiosondes, lag constants, and radio refractive 

index profiles, J. Geophys. Res. 66, No. 11, 3717-3722 (Nov. 1961) . 
Bean, B. R., Fehlhaber, L., Grosskopf, J., Die Radiometeorologie und ihre Bedeutung 

fur die Ausbreitung der m-, dm- und cm-Wellen auf grosse Entfernungen, Nachr. Z. 

(NTZ),pp.9-16 (Jan. 1962). 
Bean, B. R., Horn, J. D., On the average atmospheric radio refractive index structure 

over North America, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 34, No. 1/2, 92-104 (1961) . 
Beatty, R. W., Decibels return loss to magnitude of voltage reflection coefficient, Micro- 
wave Eng. Handb. and Buyer's Guide, pp. TD 188-192 (Nov. 1961). 
Beaty, E. C, Mobilities of positive ions in argon, Proc. Gonf. Ionization Phenomena in 

Gases, Aug. 28-Sept. 1, 1961, Munich, Germany, p. 183 (North Holland Publ. Co., 

Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1962) . 
Becker, J. H., Frederikse, H. P. R., Electrical properties of nonstoichiometric semi- 
conductors, J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 33, No. 1, 447-453 (Jan. 1962) . 
Beers, Y., Treacy, E. B., The hyperfine structure of the rotational spectrum of HDO, J. 

Chem. Phys. 36, 1473 (Mar. 1962). 
Bennett, J. A., Attempts to eliminate fatigue damage by heat treatment, Am. Soc. Metals 

Trans. Quart. Tech. Notes 55, No. 2, 362-363 (June 1962) . 
Bennett, L. H., Streever, R. L., Internal magnetic fields in nickel-rich nickel cobalt alloys, 

J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 33, No. 3, 1093-1094 (Mar. 1962) . 
Bennett, L. H., Streever, R. L., Nuclear moment of Ni 6 \ Phys. Rev. Letters 121, No. 6, 

2141-2142 (June 15, 1962). 
Berger, R. T., The X- or gamma-ray energy absorption or transfer coefficient: tabulations 

and discussion, Radiation Res. 15, No. 1, 1-29 (July 1961) . 
Bidelman, W. P., Corliss, C. H., The presence of singly-ionized gallium (Ga n) lines 

in stellar spectra, Astrophys. J. 135, No. 3, 968-969 (May 1962) . 
Birmingham, H., Sixsmith, H., Smith, W. A., The application of gas-lubricated bearings 

to a miniature helium expansion turbine, (Proc. 1961 Cryogenic Eng. Conf.), Book, 

Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 7, Paper A-4, 30-42 (Plenum Press, Inc., New 

York, N.Y., 1962). 

Birnbaum, G., Maryott, A. A., Collision-induced absorption in compressed gases. II. 

Molecular electric quadrupole moments, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 2032-2036 (Apr. 1962). 

197 



Blackburn, G. F., Caldwell, F. R., Reference tables for 40% iridium-60% rhodium 

versus iridium thermocouples, Book, Temperature, Its Measurement and Control in 

Science and Industry 3, Pt. 2, 161-175 (Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, N.Y., 1962). 
Blaine, R. L., Proton magnetic resonance in clay minerals, Highway Res. Board Bull. No. 

287,44-55 (June 1962). 
Bloss, R. L., Trumbo, J. T., Measuring the instability of resistance strain gages at ele- 
vated temperatures, Instr. Soc. Am. Conf. Paper No. 161-LA-61, 1 (Sept. 1961). 
Boone, T. H., Smith, J. R., Causes and measurement of walkwav slipperiness, Natl. Acad. 

Sci.-Natl. Res. Council 899, 1-26 (1961) . 
Borkowski, R. P., Ausloos, P., Intramolecular rearrangements. IV. Photolysis of 2- 

pentanone-4,5,5-</.3, J. Phys. Chem. 65, No. 12, 2257-2260 (1961) . 
Bowen, R. L., Evaluation of the nature of the surfaces of hard tooth tissues by surface 

activity test, Proc. Workshop on Adhesive Restorative Dental Materials (Indiana 

Univ., Bloomington, Ind., Sept. 28-29, 1961 ). 
Bowen, R. L., Rodriguez, M. S., Tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of tooth 

structure and several restorative materials, J. Am. Dental Assoc. 64, No. 3, 379-387 

(Mar. 1962). 
Boyle, D. R., Ledley, R. S., Multivalued logic devices for simulating threshold neutrons, 

Proc. First and Second Annual Symp. Switching Circuit Theory and Logical Design 

1,77-82 (Sept. 1961). 
Branscomb, L. M., Photodetachment, Book, Atomic and Molecular Processes, ed. D. R. 

Bates, pp. 100-138 (Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962) . 
Branscomb, L. M., The program at the National Bureau of Standards, Book, Optical 

Spectroscopic Measurements of High Temperatures, ed. P. J. Dickerman, p. 235 

(Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111., 1961 ). 
Branscomb, L. M., The radiative formation and destruction of negative ions, Proc. Fifth 

Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena in Gases, Munich, Germany I, 1-18 (North Hol- 
land Publ. Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1961) . 
Brauer, G. M., Poiarography, Book, Analytical Chemistry of Polvmers, ed. G. M. Kline, 

Pt. II, Ch. 11, 405-485 (Interscience Publ. Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962) . 
Brauer, G. M., Horowitz, E., Systematic procedures, Book, Analytical Chemistry of 

Polymers, ed. G. M. Kline, Pt. Ill, Ch. 1, 1-140 (Interscience Publ. Inc., New York, 

N.Y., 1962). 
Brauer, G. M., Newman, S. B., Color tests, Book, Analytical Chemistry of Polymers. 

ed. G. M. Kline, Pt. Ill, Ch. 2, 141-259 (Interscience Publ. Inc., New York. N.Y., 

1962). 
Brennan, J. A., Wilson, W. A., Radebaugh, R., Birmingham, B. W., Testing of ball bear- 
ings with five different separator materials at 9200 RPM in liquid nitrogen ( Proc. 

1961 Cryogenic Eng. Conf.), Book, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 7, Paper G—2. 

262-272 (Plenum Press, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962). 
Brenner, A., Deposition of metals from the vapour phase and similarity of the process 

to electrodeposition, Trans. Inst. Metal Finishing 38, No. 4, 123-130 (Aug. 1961). 
Broadhurst, M. G., The extrapolation of the orthorhombic N-paraffin melting properties 

to very long chain lengths, J. Chem. Phys. 36, No. 10, 2578 (May 15, 1962). 
Broadhurst, M. G., Theoretical dielectric behavior of an ethyl stearate-heneicocane mix- 
ture, J. Chem. Phys. 33, No. 1, 221-256 (July 1960) . 
Broida, H. P., A study of electronically excited hydroxyl radicals in the H-f-O. atomic 

flame, J. Chem. Phys. 36, No. 2, 444-448 (Jan. 1962) . 
Broida, H. P., Tanaka, I., Double probe measurements of ionization in active nitrogen. 

J. Chem. Phys. 36, No. 1, 236-238 (Jan. 1962) . 
Brown, E. H., On the thermodynamic properties of fluids, Suppl. Bull. Inst. Intern, du 

Froid, Commission 1, Eindhoven 1960, Annexe 1960-1, 169-178 (1960) . 
Brown, R. R., Campbell, W. H., An auroral zone electron precipitation event and its 

relationship to a magnetic bay, J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 4, 1357-1366 (Apr. 1962). 
Bruck, S. D., Extension of the Flory-Rehner theory of swelling to an anisotropic svstem, 

J. Polymer Sci. 55, 29-31 (Dec. 1961). 
Bryson, J. O., Mathey, R. G., Surface condition effect on bond strength of steel beams 

embedded in concrete, J. Am. Concrete Inst. 59, No. 3, 397-405 (xMar. 1962). 
Bryson, J. O., Watstein, D., Comparison of four different methods of determining drying 

shrinkage of concrete masonry units, J. Am. Concrete Inst. 58. No. 2. 163-183 ( Aus. 

1961). 
Caldwell, F. R., Thermocouple materials, Book, Temperature, Its Measurement and 

Control in Science and Industry 3, Pt. 2, 81-134 (Reinhold Publ. Corp.. New York. 

N.Y., 1962). 
Calvert, W., Cohen, R., The interpretation and synthesis of certain spread-F configura- 
tions appearing on equatorial ionograms, J. Geophys. Res. 66, No. 10. 3125-3140 (Oct. 

1961). 
Campbell, W. H., Magnetic field micropulsations and electron luenisstrahluns. J. 

Geophys Res. 66, No. 10, 3599-3600 (Oct. 1961) . 

198 



Campbell, W. H., Some auroral zone disturbances at times of magnetic micropulsation 
storms, J. Phys., Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-l, 112-116 (Jan. 1962). 

Campbell, W. H., Matsushita, S., Auroral-zone geomagnetic micropulsations with period 
of 5 to 30 seconds, J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 2, 555-573 ( Feb. 1962) . 

Candela, G. A., Mundy, R. E., Absolute magnetic susceptibilities by Thorpe-Senftle 
method, Rev. Sci. Instru. Note 32, No. 9, 1056-1057 (Sept. 1961) . 

Cannon, E. W., The reflection of logistics in electronic computer design (Proc. Logistics 
Research Conf., George Washington Univ., Wash., D.C.), Naval Res. Quart. 7, No. 4, 
365-371 (Dec. 1960). 

Carleton, N. P., Megill, L. R., Electron energy distribution in slightly ionized air under 
the influence of electric and magnetic fields, Phys. Rev. 126, No. 6, 2089-2099 (June 
15, 1962). 

Carpenter, F. G., Use of gas phase chromatography for rapid determination of carbonate 
at low levels, Anal. Chem. 34, 66 (Jan. 1962) . 

Carrington, T., Fluorescence and rotational relaxation of OH radicals in flames, Eighth 
Symp. (Intern.) on Combustion, pp. 257-262 (The Williams and Wilkins Co., Balti- 
more, Md., 1960) . 

Carrington, T., Fluorescence in comets as a Markov process, Astrophys. J. 135, No. 3, 
883-891 (May 1962). 

Carrington, T., Transition probabilities in multilevel systems: Calculation from impulsive 
and steady-state experiments, J. Chem. Phys. 35, No. 3, 807-816 (Sept. 1961) . 

Carwile, N. L., Meyerson, M. R., Rosenberg, S. J., Apparatus for controlled slack 
quenching, Mater. Res. Std. 1, No. 7, 532-636 (July 1961 ) . 

Cassel, J. M., Chromatography, Book, Analytical Chemistry of Polymers, ed. G. M. Kline, 
Pt. II, Ch. 10, 359-404 (Interscience Publ. Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962 ). 

Cataland, G., Edlow, M. H., Plumb, H. H., Liquid helium vapor pressure regulator, 
Rev. Sci. Instr. 32, No. 8, 980-982 (Aug. 1961) . 

Chapman, S., Sun storms and the earth: The aurora polaris and the space around the 
earth, Am. Scientist 49, No. 3, 249-284 (Sept. 1961) . 

Chapman, S., The international geophysical year world magnetic survey, ICSU Rev. 3. 
77-80 (1961). 

Chelton, D. B., Mann, D. B., Birmingham, B. W., An intermediate size automatically 
controlled hydrogen refrigeration system, Suppl. Bull. Inst. Intern, du Froid, Com- 
mission 1, Eindhoven 1960, Annexe 1960-1, 73-81 ( 1960) . 

Chivers, H. J. A., A statistical study of ionospheric drifts measured by the radio star 
scintillation technique, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 21, 221-224 (1961). 

Chrzanowski, P., Greene, G., Lemmon, K. T., Young, J. M., Traveling pressure waves as- 
sociated with geomagnetic activity, J. Geophys. Res. 66, No. 11, 3727-3733 (Nov. 
1961). 

Chrzanowski, P., Young, J. M., Greene, G., Lemmon, K. T., Infrasonic pressure waves 
associated with magnetic storms, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-II, 9-13 (1962). 

Cline, D., Kropschot, R. H., An electrically controlled guarded flat plate calorimeter 
(Proc. 1961 Cryogenic Eng. Conf.), Book, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 7, 
Paper L-5, 534-538 ( Plenum Press, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962) . 

Cline, D., Kropschot, R. H., The thermal properties of powder insulators in the tem- 
perature range 300°-4°K, (Proc. Conf. Radiative Transfer from Solid Materials, Bos- 
ton, Mass., Dec. 12-13, 1960), Book, Radiative Transfer from Solid Materials, ed. H. H. 
Blau, Jr., and H. Fischer, Sec. I, pp. 61-81 (Macmillan and Co., New York, N.Y., 
1962). 

Cline, D., Kropschot, R. H., Arp, V., Wilson, J. H., The resistive transition in Nb.-sSn 
(Proc. Intern. Conf. High Magnetic Fields), Book, High Magnetic Fields, pp. 580-583 
(Mass. Inst. Technol. Press and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1962). 

Clinton, W. L., New potential energy function. I. Empirical, J. Chem. Phys. 36, No. 2, 
555-556 (Jan. 1962). 

Clinton, W. L., New potential energy function. II. Theoretical, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 
No. 2, 556-557 (Jan. 1962). 

Cohen, R., Bowles, K. L., Calvert, W., On the nature of "equatorial slant sporadic E," 
J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 3, 965-972 (Mar. 1962) . 

Connor, W. S., Severo, N., Distribution of total service time for a fixed observation 
interval, J. Am. Statist. Assoc. 57, 376-386 (June (1962) . 

Cook, R. K., Sound absorption by areas of finite size, Proc. Third Intern. Congress on 
Acoustics II, 883-885 (Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1961). 

Cook, R. K., Strange sounds in the atmosphere, Part I, Sound — Its Use and Control 1, 
No. 2, 12-16 (Mar.-Apr. 1962). 

Cook, R. K., Young, J. M., Strange sounds in the atmosphere, Part II, Sound — Its Use 
and Control 1, No. 3, 25-33 (May-June 1962) . 

Cooper, J. W., Martin, J. B., Electron pho! odetachment from ions and elastic collision 
cross sections for O, C, CI and F, Phys. Rev. 126, No. 4, 1482-1488 (May 1962). 

199 



■■ 



Corliss, E. L. R., Smith, E. L., Magruder, J. 0., Hearing by bone conduction, Proc. 

Third Intern. Congress on Acoustics I, 53-55 (Elsevier Publ. Co., x\msterdam, The 

Netherlands, 1961). 
Costrell, L., Scattered radiation from large cobalt-60 calibrating sources. Health Phvs. 

J. 8, No. 3, 261-272 (June 1962). 
Costrell, L., Brueckmann, R. E., Charge-storage techniques for pulse-height analysis, 

Nuclear Electronics (Intern. Atomic Energy Agency) 11,29-39 (1962). 
Couch, D. E., Preparation of and electroplating on uranium, Plating 49, No. 4. 363-367 

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of importance and area, IGY Solar Activity Report Series 17 (Intern. Geophys. Year, 

World Data Center A. Solar Activity, High Altitude Observatory, University of 

Colorado, Boulder, Colo., May 1, 1962) . 
Warwick, C. S., Propagation of solar particles and the interplanetary magnetic field, 

J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 4, 1333-1346 (Apr. 1962) . 
Warwick, C. S., Athay, R. G., Indices of solar activity, Advances in Geophys. 8, 

1-2, 83 (Academic Press, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1961) . 
Warwick, C. S., Haurwitz, M. W., A study of solar activity associated with polar-cap 

absorption, J. Geophys. Res. 67, No. 4, 1317-1332 Apr. 1962) . 
Warwick, C. S., Haurwitz, M. W., Hoff, C. E., Investigation and elimination of system- 
atic errors in measures of solar flares, Astron. J. 67, 123 ( 1962 ) . 
Warwick, C. S., Lincoln, J. V., Relation of solar active regions at general meridian 

passage to ionospheric disturbance, AGARDograph, Proc. Sixth AGARD Conf. 

Ionospheric Res. Comm. Meeting, Rome, Italy, May 15-18, 1961. 
Warwick, C. S., Wood, M., A study of solar activity associated with polar cap 

absorption (abstract), Polar Cap Absorption Conf., Kjruna, Sweden, Aug. 8-11, 

1960, Arkiv Geofysik 3, No. 21, 457 ( 1962) . 
Waterhouse, R. V., Precision of reverberation chamber measurements of sound absorp- 
tion coefficients, Proc. Third Intern. Congress on Acoustics II, 886-889 (Elsevier 

Publ. Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1961) . 
Watson, T. W., Robinson, H. E., Thermal conductivity of some commercial iron-nickel 

alloys, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engr. J. Series C, Heat Transfer 83, No. 4, 403-408 

(Nov. 1961). 
Weber, L. A., Diller, D. E„ Roder, H. M., Goodwin, R. D., The vapour pressure of 20 °K 

equilibrium hydrogen, Cryogenics 3, 236-238 (June 1962). 
Wegstein, J. H., Youden, W. W., A status report on ALGOL 60, Datamation 7, 24-26 

(Sept. 1961). 
Wegstein, J. H., Youden, W. W-, A string language for symbol manipulation based on 

ALGOL 60, Commun. Assoc. Computing Mach. 45, No. 1, 54-61 (Jan. 1962). 
Weinstock, J., On the binary collision expansion of the classical TV-body Green's func- 
tion, Phys. Rev. 126, No. 1, 341 (Apr. 1962) . 
Weir, C. E., Spinner, S., Effects of ultrahigh pressures on glass, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 

45, No. 4, 196 (Apr. 1962). 

215 



Weir, C. E., Van Valkenburg, A., Lippincott, E., Optical studies at high pressures 

using diamond anvils, Book, Modern Very High Pressures Techniques, ed. R. H. Wen- 

torf, Jr., pp. 51-69 (Butterworth & Co., London, England, 1962) . 
Weissberg, S. G., Rothman, S., Wales, M., Molecular weights and sizes, Book, Analytical 

Chemistry of Polymers, ed. G. M. Kline, Pt. II, Ch. 1. 1-77 CInterscience Publ. Inc.. 

New York, N.Y., 1962) . 
Wharton, M. K., Forziati, F. H., Identification of fiber blends by infrared spectroscopy, 

Am. Dyestuffs Reptr. 50, No. 14, 33-36 (July 10, 1961) . 
Wiese, W. L., Paquette, D. R., Solarski, J. E., Experimental study of the stark broaden- 
ing of the Balmer line Hy, Proc. Fifth Intern. Conf. Ionization Phenomena in Gases. 

Munich, Germany, pp. 907-912 (North Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, The Nether- 
lands, 1961). 
Wiese, W. L., Shumaker, J. B., Jr., Measurement of the transition probability of the 

i multiplet at 6157A, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, No. 9, 937-942 (Sept. 1961). 
Wiggins, T. A., Plyler, E. K., Tidwell, E. D., Infrared spectrum of acetylene. J. Opt. 

Soc. Am. 51, No. 11, 1219-1225 (Nov. 1961). 
Wilson, W. K., Chemical research at the universities in the Washington area. Capital 

Chemist 12, No. 3, 103, 105, 108 (Apr. 1962) . 
Wilson, W. K., Position titles of chemists. Capital Chemist 10, 145 (May 1960). 
Woelfel, J. B., Paffenbarger, G. C, Stability of plastic impression trays, J. Am. Dental 

Assoc. 63, No. 5, 705-706 (Nov. 1961) . 
Wood, L. A., Roth, F. L., Creep of pure-gum rubber vulcanizates from indentation-time 

measurements, Fourth Rubber Tech. Conf., London, England. 10 pages (1962). 
Wood, M. B., Slow drift solar radio bursts: harmonic frequency ratios, solar longitude 

dependence, and frequency draft rates, Australian J. Phys. 14, No. 2, 234-241 (June 

1961). 
Wright, J. R., Campbell, P. G., Determination of oxidation rates of air-blown asphalts 

by infrared spectroscopy, J. Appl. Chem. 12, 256-266 (June 1962) . 
Wyckoff, J. M., High-energy X-ray spectrometer using large anticoincidence sodium 

iodide crystals, Proc. Total Absorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Symp., Gatlinburg. 

Tenn., May 10, 1960, pp. 201-210 (1960) . 
Wyman, L. L., Moore, G. A., Impurity effects in high purity metal, (Symp. Major Effects 

of Minor Constituents on the Properties of Materials. Sixty-Fourth Annual Meeting 

ASTM, Atlantic City, N. J., June 26, 1961), Am. Soc. Testing Materials Spec. Tech. 

Publ. No. 304— ASTM Materials Sci. Series 2, 3-16 (June 26, 1961) . 
Wyman, L. L„ Penrod, P. E., For a unified grain-size standard, Mater. Res. Std. 1, 

No. 8,638 (Aug. 1961). 
Wyly, R. S., How to determine stack load limits, Contractor, pp. 19-20 (Aug. 15. 1961). 
Wyly, R. S., New plumbing stack data disclosed, Contractor, p. 17 (Aug. 1. 1961). 
Yahia, J., Frederikse, H. P. R., Electrical conduction in p-type titanium sesquioxide. 

Phys. Rev. 123, No. 4, 1257-1261 (Aug. 1961) . 
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169-173 (Feb. 1962). 
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in the Chemical Industry, Feb. 4, 1961 (Sponsored by Am. Soc. for Quality Control. 

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(Nov. 1961). 
Youden, W. J., How to evaluate accuracy of analytical procedures. Fourth Annual Na- 
tional Plant Food Industry Conf. Chemical Control Problems, pp. 36-74 I Mar. 1962 ). 
Youden, W. J., Interpreting preliminary measurements, Mater. Res. Std. 1, No. 12. 987, 

991 (Dec. 1961). 
Youden, W. J., Partial confounding in fractional replication. Technometrics 3, No. 3, 

353-358 (Aug. 1961). 
Youden, W. J., Physical measurements and experiment design. Le plan d'exper. Centre 

Natl. Recherche Sci.. Paris, France, p. 110 (Aug.-Sept. 1961). 
Youden, W. J., Statistical problems arising in the establishment of physical standards. 

Proc. Fourth Berkeley Symp. Mathematical Statistics and Problems III. 321-335 

(1961). 
Youden, W. J., Systematic errors, Ordnance XLVI. No. 248. 299-301 (Sept.-Oct. 1961) . 
Youden, W. J., Systematic errors in physical constants. Phvs. Todav 14. No. 9. 32-42 

(Sept. 1961) ; Technometrics 4, 111-123 (Feb. 1962) . 
Youden, W. J., What is the best value? J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 51, No. 6. 95-97 ( Oct. 1961 ) . 
Young, J. P., Salmon, H. I.. Circumferentiallv uniform electroplatins of tube bores. 

Plating 48, No. 7, 783, 787-788 (July 1961) . 
Zimmerer, R. W., Anderson, M. V., Strine. G. L.. Berrs. Y.. Millimeter wavelength 

resonant structures, IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. Natl. Svmp. Program 

and Digest, pp. 1-3 (1962). 

216 



Zwanzig, R. W., Memory effects in irreversible thermodynamics, Phys. Rev. 124, No. 4, 
983-992 (Nov. 15, 1961). 

PATENTS 

The following U.S. patents have been granted to NBS inventors; assigned (or 
licensed as indicated) to the United States of America, as represented by the Secre- 
tary of the department noted in parentheses: 

Allred, Charles M., and Hudson, Paul A., No. 2,991,430, July 4, 1961. Automatic R-F 
level control. (Commerce.) 

Barbrow, Louis E., and Wyly, Robert S., No. 3,009,751, November 21, 1961. Externally 
illuminated exit indicator for an enclosure. ( Commerce.) 

Brenner, Abner, and Sherfey, Joseph M., No. 3,019,174, January 30, 1962. Process for 
electrowinning titanium from lower valent titanium alkali chlorides. (Army.) 

Carter, Thomas J., No. 3,028,755, April 10, 1962. Apparatus for water penetration test- 
ing of sole leather. (Commerce.) 

Chelton, Dudley B., No. 3,034,319, May 15, 1962. High-efficiency fluid transfer line 
coupling. (Commerce.) 

Cleek, Given W., and Hamilton, Edgar H., No. 3,022,182, February 20, 1962. Infrared 
transmitting glasses. (Navy.) 

Davis, Benjamin L., and Nyberg, Wilbur C, No. 3,019,150, January 30, 1962. Tape 
capacitor. (Navy.) 

Davis, Merlin, No. 3,030,806, April 24, 1962. Seebeck-Peltier flowmeter. (Commerce.) 

Duncan, Richard L., Miller, David J., Caldwell, Frank R., Ruegg, Fillmer W. and Fiock, 
Ernest F., No. 3,016,704, January 16, 1962. Apparatus for introducing a reactive 
chemical into the pilot zone of a combustion chamber. (Navy.) 

Engen, Glenn F., No. 2,997,652, August 22, 1961. Self-balancing D.C. bolometer bridge. 
(Commerce.) 

Hakkarinen, William, No. 3,020,963, February 13, 1962. Cup anemometer. (Navy.) 

Hudson, Paul A., and Allred, Charles M., No. 2,995,708, August 8, 1961. Dry static 
calorimeter for RF power measurement. (Commerce.) 

Lederer, Paul S., No. 3,034,332, May 15, 1962. Step function pressure calibrator. 
(Navy.) 

Loebenstein, William V., No. 3,009,121, November 14, 1961. Adjustable frequency re- 
jection filter. (License.) 

McClintock, Ralph M., No. 3,005,332, October 24, 1961. Strain gage calibration device. 
(Commerce.) 

Macpherson, Alan C, No. 3,030,577, April 17, 1962. Apparatus for calibrating micro- 
wave reflectivity coefficient standards. ( Commerce.) 

Montgomery, George Franklin, No. 2,995,712, August 8, 1961. High-input-impedance 
transistor amplifier. (Commerce.) 

Montgomery, George Franklin, No. 3,032,611, May 1, 1962. Combined frequency-phase 
modulation telegraph system. ( License.) 

Moon, Charles, and Driscoll, Raymond L., No. 3,012,502, December 12, 1961. Depth 
regulating device for subfloating bodies. (License.) 

Paquette, Donald R., No. 3,031,617, April 24, 1962. Linear capacitive probe detecting 
device. (Commerce.) 

Petree, Ben, No. 3,033,985, May 8, 1962. Radiation calorimeter-dosimeter. (Commerce.) 

Plitt, Karl F., No. 3,028,351, April 3, 1962. Pressure sensitive adhesive composition 
comprising polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyethylene polyamine article coated there- 
with and method of making same. (Commerce.) 

Reid, Walter E„ Jr., No. 3,002,899, October 3, 1961. Adhesion of nickel to chromium. 
(Navy.) 

Saunders, James B., No. 3,031,914, May 1, 1962. Parallel testing interferometer. 
(Commerce.) 

Saunders, James B., No. 3,034,397, May 15, 1962. Parallel testing interferometer. 
(Commerce.) 

Skramstad, Harold K., Wright, Julius H., and Taback, Leonard, No. 2,998,193, August 
29, 1961. Electronic analogue computers for radioactive fallout prediction. (Com- 
merce.) 

Skramstad, Harold K., Wright, Julius H., and Taback, Leonard, No. 3,012,729, December 
12, 1961. Function generator for analogue computers. (Commerce.) 

Taback, Leonard, No. 3,025,000, March 13, 1962. Function generator for generating a 
function of two independent variables. (Commerce.) 

Witt, Richard P., No. 3,036,222, May 22, 1962. Plug-in packages for electronic circuits. 
(Commerce.) 

Selby, Myron C, Behrent, Lewis F., and Ries, Francis X., No. 3,041,533, June 26, 1962. 
R-F voltmeter calibration console. (Commerce.) 

217 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1962 O — 662336 



REPORTING . . . NBS Research and Development 

j{ Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards contains full research papers, 
including laboratory data, experimental procedures, and theoretical and mathematical 
analyses. Advances in measurement standards and techniques . . . physical constants 
. . . properties of materials . . . instrumentation . . . radio propagation. 
The Journal is published in four separate sections . . . 

A. Physics and Chemistry — issued six times a year; Annual subscription: Domestic, 

$4.00; Foreign, $4.75. 

B. Mathematics and Mathematical Physics — issued quarterly; Annual subscription: 

Domestic, $2.25; Foreign, $2.75. 

C. Engineering and Instrumentation — issued quarterly; Annual subscription: Do- 

mestic, $2.25; Foreign, $2.75. 

D. Radio Propagation — issued six times a year; Annual subscription: Domestic, 

$4.00; Foreign, $4.75. 

■^f National Bureau of Standards Technical News Bulletin — illustrated concise articles 
on NBS programs in the physical sciences, with emphasis on results of research, are 
chosen on the basis of their scientific and technological importance. The Technical 
News Bulletin reports advances in measurement standards and techniques, the latest 
information on NBS calibration services and Standard Materials, and announces all 
publications and patents of staff members. Special events and technical meetings 
involving the Bureau are summarized. 

Issued monthly. 

Annual subscription: Domestic, $1.50; Foreign, $2.25. 



•^T ORDER FROM Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 

Washington 25, D.C. 




PENN STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 




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