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R.A'iibvw-i I'liiuiir. 



THE 



AMERICAN 



QUARTERLY REGISTER. 



Conducted by 

B. B. EDWARDS, 

RECORDING SECRETARY OF THE AMERICAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 



VOL. IV, 



BOSTON: 

PERKINS & MARVIN, 114, WASHINGTON STREET. 



1832. 



1792356 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Through the goodness of God, we are enabled to bring the 
Fourth Volume of our work to a close. While we feel grateful to 
Him for the success with which our humble efforts have been attended, 
we take this opportunity to express our thanks to those gentlemen 
who have essentially aided us, by contributing articles for our pages, 
or by extending the circulation of the work. 

We now enter upon our fifth volume with the expectation of ren- 
dering the publication still more worthy of patronage. We have made 
but a slight approximation to the idea, which we have in our minds, 
of the perfection to which such a work may be carried. The two 
great objects which we have had in view have lost nothing of their mag- 
nitude. One of these is the Record of Facts. We consider it to 
be of great importance that one publication should be a repository of 
such things as are worth recording, and transmitting for the benefit of 
future times. No other periodical in the Christian world is devoted 
to this object. Six or eight volumes — -should the work be continued 
no longer — of well arranged and condensed facts on Education, Lite- 
rary Institutions, Population and Resources of the United States and 
of other Christian countries, State of the Religious Denominations, 
Condition of the heathen world, and a History of the various efforts for 
the universal diffusion of Christianity, will be of inestimable value at 
the distance of centuries. Accurate and faithful recorders and chro- 
nologists are the benefactors of mankind. Polybius among the 
Oreeks, Tacitus among the Romans, Sharon Turner among the his- 



iv ADVERTISEMENT. 

torians of England, Thomas Prince, Abiel Holmes and Hezekiah 
Niles among American authors, will always be remembered with re- 
spect and gratitude. 

The other object, which we also esteem to be of primary impor- 
tance, is the DISCUSSION or principles, or the examination of certain 
topics which lie at the foundation of all our efforts for meliorating the 
condition of the human race, and in which all denominations of Chris- 
tians are alike interested. So far as it is in his power, the editor in- 
tends that the Register shall be a work for Christian America, and for 
the Christian world, bounded by no sect, nor river, nor territorial limit. 
Its results he would estimate, not by the accessions, which it brings to 
a denomination, but by the substantial benefits which it confers on hu- 
man kind, and by the honors, which it gathers around the common 
Redeemer of our race. This high ground he may take without pre- 
sumption, considering the character and ability of those who have 
contributed, and who will continue to contribute to the pages of the 
publication. Those subjects which pertain to the Christian ministry, 
will receive special attention. The union of hterature and science, 
with elevated moral principle, will be always kept in view, in every 
discussion, and in the notices of all new publications. 



INDEX 



TO THE PRINCIPAL MATTERS CONTAINED IN 



VOL. IV. 



Page. 




Page. 


Abyssinia, Roman Catholics in . 


216 


Bill relieving Roman Catholics, . 


28 


Adams Nathaniel, life described, 


47 


Biography of distinguished men 




Address before Temp. See. by Pres. 




noticed . . . . . 


107 


Wayland, 


231 


Bingham Caleb, life described . 


115 


Africa, Western .... 


40 


Biirningham, England, manufactures. 


35 


" Southern .... 


40 


Bolivar, ...... 


60 


•' Missions in . 


216 


Book of the priesthood, noticed . 


234 


Ag;ents State, ^reat importance of 


163 


Books that will be perpetuated . 


9 


Aids to Devotion noticed, . 


143 


Bouton's century sermon, noticed 


52 


Algiers, war in 


54 


Brainerd David, labors of 


304 


Alfred, Enoland, king of . 


23 


Brougham, labors of . 


41 


American Revolalion described. 


27 


Brigham, E. life described 


112 


Amer. Board Com. Foreign Missions, 




British ministry, organization of 


59 


organization of . 


75 


British Empire, view of . 


21 


Amer, Col. Soc. annual meeting of . 


61 


British West Indies, . 


40 


Amer. Almanac and Repository, 


228 


Bruen Matthias, memoirs of noticed 


50 


Ambition, political .... 


149 


Brussels, insurrection at noticed 


57 


Amherst College, present condition of 


331 


Burton, Asa D. D. . 


320 


Annals of Yale'Coll., by E. Baldwin, . 


141 






Analogy, Philosophy of, by Pres. 




Canada described, 


40 


Wayland, noticed 


146 


Canals in Great Britain, 


33 


Anecdotes and Incidents, . 


149 


Capuchin's, Carmelites, and Friars, 


214 


Anniversaries of benevolent societies, 


63 


Cape Town, description of 


40 


Applicants to Amer. Education Soc. 




Carey, Dr. of Serampore, . 


92 


directions to ... . 


157 


Cassimir, Polish king. 


98 


Armenia, Mission in . 


218 


Causes of piety of first settlers o 




Army, British . . . . 


33 


New England, . 


127 


Assembly, General proceedings Board 




Catharine of Russia, life described, 


99 


of 


164 


Characteristics of revivals of religion 




Associate Presbyterians, . 


226 


from 1720 to 1750, . 


29 


Attainments, eminent ministerial 


134 


Charles I., character of 


. 26 


Augustine, learning of 


88 


Census of the American Colonies, 


. 118 


August, 1830, events of . . , 


56 


Census of the United States at variou. 








periods, .... 


\ 119 


Baccalaureate Address, by President 




Charles XII., described . 


. 99 


Lindsley, .... 


332 


Chauncy, Dr. his book. 


. 304 


Bank of England, 


33 


Child's Instructor, Hall's, noticed 


. 333 


Baxter Richard, character of 


1 


Children, religious education of 


. 133 


Bellamy, Dr. character of . 


303 


China, Roman Catholic Missions 




Belgium, independence of declared, 


58 


noticed .... 


. 219 


Bennett George, Journal noticed 


231 


Christians, dying testimonies of 


. 151 


Bigotry, freedom from 


131 


Chronological Table, 


. 58 



VI 



INDEX. 



Christian Offering, for 1832, . . 228 
Christianity, spirit of . . . . 181 
Christian Student, by E. Bickersteth, 

noticed 234 

Churches first established in United 

States of America, . . . 124 
Church Psalmody, noticed . . 53 

Cincinnati Lane "Seminary, notice of . 332 
Claims of the Bible, noticed . . 229 
Claims of the Africans, noticed . . S32 
Classical learning, Chancellor Kent's 

opinion of 272 

Clark, Ansel R. reports of 68, 241, 345 
Cogswell, Wm. Rev. reports of 67, 159, 245 

Coke Dr 20 

Colleges in United States, No. of . 185 

location of . . . .185 

" state of religion in . 165,348 

Colonies British enumerated, . . 39 

Coleridge, remarks of on Plato, . 275 

Commerce and finances of G. Britain, 30 

Comparison, striking .... 187 

Condition moral of London, . . 37 

Convention of Ministers in Boston, . 299 

Congress, twenty-first session . . 60 

Conscience good, remark on . . 197 

Converted Jews in Poland, . . 110 

Copernicus Nicholas, notice of . . 107 

Corporations of London, ... 37 

Cornelius, Dr. Elias . . . .250 

Cornelius, Rev. E. . , . . 250 

" birth, childhood, . . .250 

'■^ enters Yale Coll. becomes pious, 251 

" studies with Dr. Dwight, . . 252 

" appointed agent by Amer. Board 

Com. For. Miss., visits South, 253 

" western portions of the U. S. A. 254 

" settles at Salem, . . .256 

" becomes Sec. Amer. Ed. Soc. . 259 

" appointed Sec. of A. B. C. F. M. 263 

" sickness and death, . . . 264 

Corporation and test acts abolished . 27 

Cotton, John noticed . . . 134 

Cracow Republic of . . , . 103 

Cromwell, Oliver character of . .26 

Croly's George IV., .... 22 

Church, Presbyterian notice of . . 223 

" Calvinistic Baptists, . . . 224 

" Methodist Episcopal, . . 224 

" Evangelical Lutheran, . . 225 

" Dutch Reformed, . . .225 

" German Reformed, . . .226 

" Cumberland Presbyterian^ o 226 

Dark ages, ...... 88 

Dartmouth College, Alumni, 45, 112, 328 
Davenport, James .... 308 

Dean, James biography of. . .46 
Deaths of clergymen, theol. students, 

missionaries, quarterly list of 64, 152, 
240, 336 
Debt unredeemed, funded of Great 

Britain, ..... 33 
December, 1830, events of . .60 
Decision of the Sup. Jud, Court of 

Massachusetts, noticed . . 332 
Denominations, religious in G. Britain 334 
P^s'ign of Education Society, . . 155 



Dependencies, British . . . 39 
Directors of Pros. Ed. Soc, responsi- 
bility of 154 

Dissenting Academies in England, . 42 

Discourse on ministerial qual. noticed 144 

Divisions municipal of Great Britain, . 38 
Doctrines preached to the Puritan 

churches, 132 

Durbin, John P. Essays of . . 10 

Dupin remarks on Great Britain, . 21 

Eaton, Instructor at Harvard, . . 117 

East India Company, ... 33 

Earthquake, great influence of . . 291 

Education, important views on . . 10 

Education in England, ... 41 

Education Society, Northern Baptist . 69 

Edinburgh Royal Society, ... 43 

Edwards, Jona. Pre?, notice of . . 293 

Edward I. king of Eng., character of. 24 

" IL " " . 24 

" III. " " . 24 

" VI. " " . 25 

Ecclesiastical history, Dr. Miller on, . 85 

Effects of bad government on mind, . 170 

Egypt, Mission to ... . 216 

Eliot, labors of . . . . . 199 

Eiizabeth, Queen of Eng. character of 24 

Essay on Hieroglyphic system, noticed 85 

Essay on reasoning, noticed . . 236 
Ethiopia and Levant, efibrts in . .217 

Exchange, Royal described . . 37 

Expenditure, net public, Brit. Emp. . 31 

Extent of the revivals of religion, . 305 

Extent and boundaries Brit. Empire, . 22 

Fall of Poland, . . . . .100 

Fasting and Prayer for Colleges, . 186 

Fathers, Pilgrim morality of . . 130 

Fayetteville, N. C. burnt, ... 63 

February, 1831, events of . . . 61 

Felton, lecture on classical learning, . 275 

Financial reform, Parnell on . . 40 

Finance and Commerce of G. Britain, 30 

France and England compared, . . 30 

French Revolution of 1830, . . 54 

" cause of . . . . 1£0 
Frisbie, sketch of . . . .45 

Fenelon on Female education, . . 237 
Funds, Am. Ed. Soc, 70, 107, 247, 350 

Gallicia, ...... 103 

Gaming houses, London, . . .38 

Geography of Poland, , . . 102 
George 11., reign of . . . .27 

" HI., " .... 27 

" IV., " . . . .27 

Gibralter, description of . . . 39 
Gilbert Sylvester, . . . .329 

Glasgow, Scotland, .... 36 

Gospel, preaching of great means of 

salvation, 155 

Grammar, Hebrew language Stuart's 

noticed, 142 

Gray Samuel, life noticed ... 45 

Grecian literature superior to Roman, 282 

Guiana, 40 

Gurley, Ebenezer noticed . . , 45 



INDEX. 



Hall, Robert .... 
Hall's Child's Instructor noticed, 
Hampshire, revival of religion in 
Harmony of Divine attributes noticed 
Heaven described, 
Henry Plantagenet, king of England 
Henry HI. English king, notice of 

Henry IV 

Henry V 

Henry VI 

Henry VII 

Henry VIII. .... 
Hindoos, covetousness of . 

« stoicism of . 

History, advantages of the study of 
History of Great Britain, . 
History of London University, . 
History of Poland, . 
History of Roman Catholic religion, 
History of revivals of religion in Am 
Hobart, Bishop J. H. 
Hooker's sermon noticed, . 



62 

33.3 

295 

232 

96 

23 

24 

24 

24 

24 

25 

26 

149 

149 

271 

22 

136 

142 

213 

198 

48 

230 



Ionian Islands noticed, . . .39 
Imports and exports of Great Britain, 32 
Improvements, internal. Great Britain 33 
Incidents and Anecdotes, . . . 149 

India, notice of 39 

India, missions in ... . 218 
Indian Question, decision of . .62 
Indians on Martha's Vineyard, . . 203 
Influence of learning, ... 18 
Influence of a College on a commu- 
nity, 188 

Intelligence, religious . . . 163 

" select literary foreign 147, 237, 334 

« select literary domestic 148, 238, 335 

Introductory obs. to views of Brit. Emp. 21 

Ireland, notice of . , . . 37 



I 



James VI. of Scotland, I. of England, 

reign of ... . 
January, 1831, events of . 
Japan, mission in . . . 
Jesuits, history of . . . 
Jews in Poland, condition of 
Journal Am. Ed. Soc. 65, 153, 241 
" of Tyerman and Bennet noticed, 
July, 1830, events of . 
Julius Csesar lands in Britain, 

Kent, Chancellor, opinion of 
Kings of Eng. chronological list of 
Kosciusko, Thaddeus, notice of . 
Knapp's Theol. noticed 
Knill, Rev. Richard, letter from 

Languages, study of practical . 
Learning essential to the ministry, 
Lectures on Christian Theol. Knapp 

noticed . . . 
Leighton, character and writings, no 

ticed 

Leo, Emperor .... 
Levant, efforts in . . . 
Library of Old Eng. prose writers, no 

ticed ...... 



25 

61 

221 

215 

109 

335 

231 

54 

22 

272 
29 
108 
140 
349 

289 

85 

226 

235 

87 
217 

231 



140 

332 
28 
41 

105 
68 

102 

155 
57 

136 

234 
57 

183 

47 
24 



Life of Isaac Newton, by Brewster, 
noticed ..... 

Lindsley, Pros. Inaugural address, no- 
ticed . 

List of Eng. Sovereigns, 

Literature of England, 

Literature of Poland, 

Little, Henry, report of 

Lithuania, . 

Locins, assistance by . 

London, notice of 

London University, history of . 

Lothrop, Mary, memoirs of, noticed 

Louis, Philip 1. king of France, 

Luther, moral power of . . , 

M'Keen, Joseph, Pres. Bowdoin coll 
Magna Charta, .... 

Malta, notice of .... 39 

Manufactures of Great Britain, . . 33 
March, 1831, events in . . .62 

Mary, Queen of England, character of 25 

Mather, Increase, notice of . . 292 

Mather, Cotton, character of . . 292 
Mather, Wm. L. reports of . 246, 346 

Mattoon's life described, ... 48 

May, 1831, events in ... 63 

Mayhew, success of . . . . 202 
Memoirs and Confessions of Reinhard 

noticed, . . . .333 
" of J. Townsend noticed, . . 53 
Methodist Episcopal church, state of . 224 
Methodists, measures recommended to 15 
Methodist Seminaries, . . .11 
Miltimore, James, life described . 47 
Mind, waste and misapplication of . 169 
Ministers of Connecticut, list of . 307 
" civil intercourse of . . . 4 
" engaging in relig. controversy, . 8 
Ministry, civil, Eng. change in . .28 
Missions, foreign, personal duty con- 
cerning . . . . 265 
" Roman Catholic, history of . 213 

" in Africa 216 

" ^Ethiopia and Levant . , 217 

" Armenia and India . . . 218 

" Chinese .... 219 

Motley, Joseph, life described . . 112 

Museum, British , ... 43 

New Jersey, religion in . . . 302' 

New Hollanders, idleness of . , 149 

New Testament noticed, . . . 331 

Nevins's lecture noticed, . . . 229 

Newspapers enumerated, ... 44 

North American Review, . . . 228 

Northampton, revival of religion in . 294 



Observations on revivals of religion, . 305 
October, 1830, events of . . .58 
Ordinations and Installations, Quar- 
terly Lists of . 64, 152, 240, 335 
Orme's Life and Times of Baxter, al- 
lusion to . . . . .229 
Owen, John J. report of . . . 243 
Oxford, Ohio, revival of religion in . 16S 



INDEX. 



Offerino;, Christian noticed 
Officers Pres. Ed. Soc. 



22S 
159 



Patten William, life described . . 114 
Pearson Abiel, life described . .113 
Pettinoell Amos, notice of . . 236 

Petitioning in bebalf of public objects, 195 
Peters Absalom, life described . . 830 
Plato misunderstood, .... 276 
Plan of founder of Christianity noticed, 140 
Pleasing expositor, .... 227 
Pilgrims, sufferings of . . . 129 
Podolia, province of Poland, . . 102 
Poland, history of . . . .129 
Police of London, .... 38 
Policy of England, pacific, . . 27 

Pomeroy, Dr. notice of . . . 303 
Population of British empire. . . 29 
" of the British colonies, . . 118 
" of the United States, at vari- 
ous periods, . . . 119 
Presbyterian church, history of . . 223 
Pres. Ed. Society, annual report of . 65 
" address to the Christian public, 153 
" union with Am. Ed. Society, . 153 
" organization and principles of 

union, . . . 153, 154 

" design and catholic nature of 155, 156 
Prayer for literary institutions, . . 185 
Press, periodical Great Britain, . . 40 
Propaganda at Rome, . . . 213 

Publications new, notices of . .50 
Pulawski Count, sketch of . . 108 

Purity of Grecian literature, . . 282 



Quakers, . 

Quarterly Journal, British 



226 
44 



Rail Roads of Great Britain, , . 34 
Reformers, character of . . .90 
Reform bill, England, . . 62, 63 
Reinhard's Plan of the Founder of 

Christianity, .... 140 

Relief bill, 28 

Register, Ecclesiastical . . . 222 
Retrenchment in Great Britain, . . 36 
Reports of A. E. S. Agents, 67, 159, 241, 346 
Report of Prison Dis. Soc. sixth ann. 333 
Report of Boston ministerial conven- 
tion, 300 

Resources, extraordinary of G. Britain 31 

Reyten, notice of ... . 107 
Revivals of religion, history of 122, 183, 291 

" general divisions of . . . 122 

Review, North American . . . 228 

Revenues, ordinary of Great Britain, . 31 

Robinson John, character of . . 129 

Royal society of London, ... 42 

Sergeant, John mention of . . 305 

Saxon Heptarchy .... 23 

Schauffler's sermon noticed, . . 143 

Scotland, sketch of the history of . 25 

Scottish Literary Societies, . . 43>' 

Scriptures, veneration for in N. Eng. . 133 

Seminaries in Great Britain, . . 42 

Seminaries, Methodist ... 11 

Sermon on the death of A. Pettiogell, 236 



September, 1830, events in 

Shakers, 

Shepard Thomas, notice of, and char 

acter of ... . 
Sherman John, of Watertown, <. 
Siam, Catholic mission in . 
Sixth Ann. Report Pris. Dis. Soc. 
Skrysnecki, Polish general, 
Slavery, African 

Smith John, D. D. hfe noticed, . 
Societies, literary and philosophical in 

Great Britain, 
State and Church, 
Stoddard Solomon, sketch of 
Storr's inaug. address, 
Stuart's Sermon, 

Study of Greek literature, effects of 
Suwarow Gen. enters Poland, . 
Sydney, description of 
Systems of religion, influence of 
Swedenborgians, 

Ten Commandments explained, no 
tice of ... . 

Testimonies of dying Christians, 

Ticknor Elisha, life described . 

Thibet, new mission in 

Thomson Andrew, Scotland, 

Thoughts on religion, noticed . 

Thoughts, miscellaneous . 

Tragedians of Greece, 

Translations deficiencies of 

Treatise on Female Education, Fen^ 
elon, 

Trial French Ministers, 

Trust in God, anecdote, . 

Tyerman and Bennet's Jour., noticed 

Ukraine, province of Poland, 
Unitarians, ..... 
United Brethren, .... 
University of London, history of 
Universahsts, 



$8 
226 

126 
134 
221 
333 
103 
173 
46 

42 
2U 
292 

51 
235 
273 
104 

40 
174 
226 



234 
151 

832 
221 
62 
142 
150 
278 
279 

227 

60 

149 

231 

104 
226 
226 
137 
226 



Vail, Franklin Y. reports of 161, 144, 343 

Vienna taken — rescued, . . . 101 



Volcanoes, number of 
Volhynia described, . 

Waldenses, allusion to 
Walley Thomas, remarks of 
Warsaw taken by storm, . 
Water companies in London, 
Waters Cornelius, life noticed . 
Wayland's Philosophy of Analogy, 
Wheelock John, life described . 
Whitefield Henry, returns to England 
Williams Gilbert, biography of . 
Wilson on the Sabbath, 
Wilson John, pastor of 1st church 

Boston, .... 
Winthrop, family of Gov. . 
Witherspoon's Treatise noticed, 
Whitefield George, biography of 
Wellington's ministry, England . 

Yale College, annals of 
Young's Address noticed, . 



147 

102 



131 
110 

37 

49 
146 

45 
135 
117 

50 

125 
125 
145 

297 
59 

141 
229 



THE 



QUARTERLY REGISTER. 



Vol. IV. 



AUGUST, 1831, 



No. 1. 



For tlie Quarterly Register. 
RICHARD BAXTER. 

The name of Richard Baxter is 
associated, in the minds of most Ame- 
rican Christians, with the " Saints' 
Everlasting Rest," the " Call to the 
Unconverted," the " Converse with 
God in Solitude," the " Dying 
Thoughts," and the " Reformed Pas- 
tor." His character has been in- 
ferred from these works, rather than 
actually known from biography ; and 
it has doubtless been the wish of 
many, to know something of the his- 
tory of the man whose contempla- 
tions were so spiritual and heavenly, 
whose powers of appeal to the unre- 
newed heart were so masterly, and 
whose views of the manner of " ful- 
fiUing the ministry " were so elevated 
and enlarged. The memoir of his 
"Life and Times" has doubtless 
gratified these wishes to some ex- 
tent; and it has placed before the 
Christian world a valuable fund of 
instruction respecting a good man, 
living in " a time which tried men's 
souls." 

Here we offer a remark on the im- 
portance of transferring the influence 
of good men from past ages to our 
own, by a new biography. To recall 
such a man as Baxter before the 
Christian world, after the lapse of a 
century, is not less useful than to pre- 
sent a new subject of biography. To 
know how good men lived, labored, 
suffered, and prospered in " the work 
of Christ," in ages past, while it ac- 
quaints us with former works of 

VOL. IV. 1 



'* that one and the self-same Spirit" 
now blessing souls with renewal unto 
life eternal, also brings salutary re- 
proof to that pride . of generation 
which inclines to say, " we are wiser 
and better than the men of former 
ages ;" shows us to be behind them 
in some of the attainments of the 
Christian life, and should excite to 
greater energy in the service of the 
Lord Jesus. Moreover, it acquaints 
us with the circumstances under 
which Christian ministers in other 
times, have been formed for high ser- 
vices, and with the afflictions which 
purified and brightened them ; helps 
us better to understand that counsel, 
*' think it not strange concerning the 
fiery trials which try 7/ou, as though 
some strange thing had happened 
unto you ;" shows us that we know, 
in these days, comparatively little 
what it is to " suffer for the name of 
Jesus," to " resist unto blood," striv- 
ing against " principalities and pow- 
ers ;" it also continues unbroken, the 
chain of Christian biography and in- 
fluence, from the days of our Lord 
and his apostles, showing that Chris- 
tian character, like its author, is 
'"' the same yesterday, to-day, and 
forever." That taste for antiquity is 
well directed, which thus employs 
itself in causing some of the good 
men of former times, " though dead, 
to speak" again; and to live, once 
more, for the good of the Christian 
world. 

The expectation of being intro- 
duced into Baxter's closet, and to an 



RICHARD BAXTER. 



[Aug. 



acquaintance with his private habits 
and experience, as a Christian, has 
not probably been answered fully in 
the recent work by Mr. Orme. After 
having been humbled, quickened, and 
feasted, in perusing the diaries of 
Brainerd, Martyn, and Payson, it 
w^as quite natural to wish the same 
gratification in a memoir of Baxter. 
Instead of this, to be introduced to 
him, not in his closet, but in the 
camp ; not among the scenes of the 
pastor's life, but in the field of con- 
troversy, *' contending earnestly for 
the faith ;" at one time in the hall of 
the stormy council ; at another in 
the court room ; at another in the 
prison, has been perhaps a disap- 
pointment to some. It is to be re- 
membered, however, that the purposes 
of the " Head of the Church," re- 
specting his kingdom in the world, 
do not permit that all his ministers 
should live in like circumstances of 
personal and parochial retirement 
and quietness, that they may prepare 
and leave behind them rich journals 
of their pilgrimage, for the gratifica- 
tion of those who come after. Not 
alone is it needful for us to know 
how they fed in secret upon the bread 
of heaven, and "drew water out of 
the wells of salvation." How they 
labored in the " harvest of the earth," 
how they wielded the " sword of the 
Spirit" upon the "high places of 
the field ;" how they stood the trials 
of " the days of rebuke and blas- 
phemy ;" how they laid, " in troublous 
times," the " foundations of many 
generations ; " prepared the way for 
our enjoyment of the precious privi- 
leges of these days; these are matters 
of important interest. Other objects 
of the divine mind likewise, in the 
lives of his servants, doubtless are, to 
show, that grace is not given to be 
simply as the sunshine, in which to 
take comfort and rejoice ; but that 
by its light and influences there may 
be much done, for the glory of Christ 
and the good of men : to show that 
grace fits for more than one sphere 
of movement and influence : that 



the religion which thrives in the 
closet, accomplishes most for God out 
of it, and in the perishing world ; and 
that the Christian, asking " Lord, 
what wilt thou have me to do ?" 
should hold himself ready to enter 
any field of labor— perhaps one of 
which he had never thought, .and 
which, one loving Christian retire- 
ment and quietness, would never 
have chosen ; and to try the experi- 
ments of Christian influence in a 
situation where it had been thought 
a Christian could not live and prosper. 

The limits of this paper will per- 
mit little more than an outline of the 
character of Baxter, and the sugges- 
tion of some practical topics illus- 
trated in his public life. 

The early life of Baxter shows 
him a " plant of righteousness " in a 
very unfriendly soil, as to the ministry 
under which he lived ; and yet, 
" growing in grace," in such a man- 
ner as magnifies the work of the 
Holy Spirit, and proves what can be 
done by one who is " strong in the 
grace which is in Christ Jesus." The 
conversion of his father from a 
course of profligacy, to form the 
young mind of his son for Christ, was 
oneof those events, on which — though 
not more remarkable than many other 
occasions — we look with interest, as 
the first link in a chain of events, 
taking hold on the salvation of mul- 
titudes, and the glory of God. In 
his education, Baxter was what we 
call a self-made man. His habits as 
a Christian, doubtless derived no 
small portion of their energy from 
this circumstance. His early experi- 
ence as a Christian was marked with 
much of doubt and perplexity re- 
specting his spiritual state. It is obvi- 
ous that his was one of those cases, 
in which the enjoyment of religion 
is abridged by the infirmities of the 
body. This circumstance, however, 
in connection with his living with 
" one foot in the grave," made his 
manner of life and preaching to be 
of that serious, tender-spirited and 
earnest character, which best enforces 



1831.] 



RICHARD liAXTER. 



truth, and docs most, by tlic divine 
blessing, to win dying men to holi- 
ness of life. 

In contemplating his numerous and 
interesting traits, the following are 
among the most prominent : — his 
transparency and simplicity of char- 
acter ; his large acquaintance with 
the heart, both as unrenewed and as 
under the influence of divine grace ; 
his exemplary humility, united with 
great talents ; his love of his work, 
as a minister ; his high valuation of 
time and close occupation of it ; his 
conscientious and efficient turning of 
a little health and strength to great 
account, — for with the constant pres- 
sure of disease and languor, he ac- 
complished more than many men 
who never know what sickness is ; — 
his undauntedness by difficulties in 
the characters of those among whom 
he ministered ; his habits of close 
and diligent watchfulness for the 
spiritual safety and prosperity of souls ; 
his special interest in the young, 
while abundant in his labors for the 
families of his congregation, as such ; 
his prayerfulness for his people ; his 
jealousy of whatever in himself might 
hinder the efficacy of his labors ; his 
prudence and decision,Mn maintain- 
ing the discipline of Christ's house ; 
his " great plainness of speech ;" his 
thorough consistency of character ; 
his wase and tender counsels to those 
who sought his advice in matters of 
conscience or spiritual difficulty ; his 
Christian temper under trials ; his 
tenderness of spirit respecting the 
danger and necessities of dying sin- 
ners ; his exalted views of Christ ; 
his clear conceptions of the spirituality 
and holiness of the divine law ; his 
low estimate of things earthly, and 
his great heavenly-mindedness ; his 
close study of his own character, and 
the candor and readiness with which 
he acknowledged errors in judgment 
or practice ; his steady devoted ness 
to his Lord and Redeemer ; — in short, 
a strength and activity of all the 
graces of the Christian character, 
well fitted to assist our conceptions of 



what is " pure and undefiled religion 
before God and the Father." We 
migiit add on his character as a 
preacher, his peculiar tuct in the dis- 
cernment and description of the vari- 
ous Ibrms of unconverted character, 
in different classes of men ; his sim- 
plicity, point, solemnity, ardor, ten- 
derness, wisdom ; the iullncss of his 
discourses with sound scriptural truth, 
and their careful adaptation to the 
capacities of his hearers; his freedom 
from ambition respecting the station 
he should occupy, and his preference 
of a retired and humble sphere of 
usefulness ; his powerful influence 
on other ministers and private Chris- 
tians, for the production of pious ac- 
tivity ; his exemplary patience under 
the trials to which he was subjected 
by his faithfulness ; his delight in 
calling sinners to repentance ; his 
study of the various hindrances in the 
Christian life, of Christian infirmities, 
and of the great subject of conver- 
sion, as to its means, operations, and 
evidences, qualifying him to be a 
successful guide in the way of holi- 
ness. He had the kind of popularity, 
and the measure of it too, which God 
usually gives to men of such a char- 
acter ; not that which testifies itself 
in showy and noisy admiration, bul 
that which is evidenced by the fer- 
vent attachment of Christian people, 
and by the extensive success of his 
preaching on multitudes of those who 
attended upon his ministry. The 
private Christian and the minister, 
who would find something to stimu- 
late them to increased activity in the 
divine life, and in the work of Christ, 
cannot fail to derive benefit from 
studying the character of Baxter. 

We may add to these interesting 
traits of character, his ardent and un- 
tiring devotion to the cause of Chris- 
tian charity and union, — as a peace- 
maker eminent, and therein proving 
himself a child of God ; his prospec- 
tive benevolence, also ; for in his 
mind were the germs of some of those 
great plans of Christian benevolence 
which are in operatiou at the present 



RICHARD BAXTER. 



[Aug. 



day ; particularly those of furnishing 
the Bible to the destitute, of educat- 
ing pious young men for the minis- 
try, and of missions among the In- 
dian tribes. 

We ha^^e thus given an imperfect 
miniature of this excellent man. 
Those who would see the full length 
portrait, in its just proportions, and 
something in the impressive dignity 
which belonged to the original, will do 
well to study it as exhibited in the 
volumes of Mr. Orme. The details 
of an extended and particular biog- 
raphy alone, indeed, can give any 
just conceptions of the entire charac- 
ter of one of these " men of God," — 
this class of veterans, who have so 
valiantly fought and conquered under 
the banners of '* the captain of our 
salvation." 

The inquiries are interesting and 
important, — " What should the min- 
ister be, in the situation in which he 
comes in contact with influential or 
public men, perhaps great men ? 
What as a Christian citizen and 
patriot concerned in the moral and 
religious interests of his country ? 
What as a controversialist and de- 
fender of the faith ? and, if by talents 
quahiied for it, and by providential cir- 
cumstances called to it, — What as an 
author and writer of books ?" Baxter 
was placed by divine providence, at 
different periods of his life, in situa- 
tions to furnish, by his practice, an- 
swers to these inquiries, to some extent. 

He v/as an eminent instance of a 
Christian, carrying into public life 
the humility, devoutness, decision, 
and energy of character, which ap- 
pear in the more retired life of others. 
Gentlemen of the sword and of the 
parliament, Cromwell, and Charles, 
nobility, gentry, bishops, clergy, pri- 
vate citizens, learned men and igno- 
rant, rich men and poor, were all one 
to him where were concerned matters 
of duty and responsibility to God. 
Whatever called by duty to say, in 
his intercourse with these, he said 
with becoming courtesy, and yet 



with dignity and fearlessness. What- 
ever called by duty to do — as answer- 
able to Him who has said, " call no 
man master upon earth," — he did it ; 
no matter whether it was to be done 
in the presence of the king, or in his 
own pulpit, or seated in his study 
with a private individual. As a Chris- 
tian patriot and citizen, to describe 
him in one sentence, we should call 
him the Jeremiah of the British na- 
tion. His principle of action seems 
to have been contained in that divine 
direction, " And seek the peace of 
the city whither I have caused you 
to be carried away captives, and pray 
unto the Lord for it ; for in the peace 
thereof shall ye have peace." As a 
defender of the faith, he is presented 
before us as possessing a fervent love 
for divine truth ; a keen discernment 
of errors, however substantially pre- 
sented ; a lively sensibility to attacks 
made upon any fundamental article 
of the Christian faith ; and prompti- 
tude, courage, diligence, and faith- 
fulness, in commencing and carrying 
on the contest for the faith. Not 
without his faults as a controversialist, 
was he, it must be conceded, as we 
shall notice hereafter ; but it would be 
strange if a man who has fought as 
many battles as Baxter, should com- 
mit no errors. He was not the man 
to fly, when it was time to fight ; nor 
when he could have peace on the 
right terras, had he any unconquer- 
able preference of controversy before 
quietness. As an author, he was a 
miracle of industry and efficiency. 
Books and pamphlets dropped from 
his pen, almost like sermons from the 
pens of other men. Whether he in 
all instances rightly interpreted the 
voice of divine providence, as calling 
for a book, might perhaps be doubted. 
Of most of his publications it cannot 
probably be questioned that they 
were useful, as adapted to the exigen- 
cies of the times then present, and 
in giving a right direction to men's 
minds on subjects under discussion. 
The judicious editor, however, in 
publishing for the benefit of the Chris- 



1831.] 



RICHARD BAXTER. 



tian world, would probably leave 
many of his productions in the ven- 
erable obscurity of some retired alcove 
of the library. 

With this brief sketch before us, 
and with our eyes on some of the 
parts which are the basis of it, we 
would offer a few remarks in the way 
of comment. 

The intercourse of ministers with 
influential men, in spheres of differ- 
ent degrees of eminence and extent, 
is a point of great practical impor- 
tance. Baxter illustrated on a large 
scale, what needs to be done by every 
parish minister, on this subject. Min- 
isters have advantages for access to 
men of influence, perhaps office and 
reputation, which are to be well con- 
sidered and turned to account for the 
interests of religion. 

Let not any reader be startled by 
this remark, in the apprehension that 
we are about to advocate a system of 
clerical influence and policy, aiming 
at the establishment of an ecclesias- 
tical domination, and a union of 
church and state, — ^those horrible 
daily predictions of jealous politicians. 
Looking on the nmltiplicity of reli- 
gious denominations in our country, 
the influence which the ministers of 
them have ; and on these denomina- 
tions and their ministers, as watch- 
ing each other with a closeness and 
jealousy, interfering often with Chris- 
tian charity ; we ask, how could such 
an object be accomplished in this 
republican country. It would require 
a more ingenious system of espionage, 
and a more deep laid policy, than 
has ever yet been invented , and an ec- 
clesiastical Fouche to manage them. 

We speak of advantages which re- 
spect the advancement of" pure and 
undefiled religion," and national vir- 
tue ; and of influence, which, we 
need not be ashamed to avow, is to 
be sought, and prayed for devoutly, 
by every minister of Christ, — the in- 
fluence of character and principle ; 
not secret, and fearing betrayment, 
but open, " known and read of all 



men," influence like that of Nathan 
the prophet v/ith David ; and like that 
of Elijah upon Ahab, troubling of his 
conscience, if not clfectually hinder- 
ing of his iniquities ; and like that of 
Daniel upon Darius ; and of Paul 
upon Felix, and Sergius Paulus ; and 
like that of Luther, and Knox, and 
Swartz, in later times. 

There is doubtless a strong temp- 
tation to ministers to be reserved in 
their intercourse with men of public 
character and standing ; to consider 
them as men who will not relish plain- 
ness of speech ; to whom we must 
give place, and not venture on pre- 
sentations of duty which will cross 
their course. It ought to be directly 
the reverse. The very fact that a 
man has influence, talents, a post of 
oflice and honor, is a reason for re- 
garding him with special interest. 
He stands for a large number of his 
fellow men, in town, district, or state, 
— perhaps nation. Whether or not 
there shall be a right and safe direc- 
tion given to the popular sentiment 
and feeling, depends much upon him. 
If there be any man who should find 
in the ministers of religion, serious- 
ness, and a faithful exhibition of reli- 
gious truth and principle, it is the man 
of influence, standing, and oflice. In- 
tercourse with such men should be 
marked with the full respect due to 
them, which courtesy and the rules 
of the Christian religion demand ; 
with candor ; with a becoming defer- 
ence to their opinions respecting all 
public subjects upon which they may 
be supposed to have thought and ar- 
rived at just conclusions ; and with 
affectionate confidence as guardians 
of our civil interests. Where they 
are right according to the principles 
of the divine law, on points of morals 
and religion, the minister's duty is to 
hold with them firmly. Where they 
are wrong, through misjudgment or 
prejudice, he should dissent from 
them, respectfully, but decidedly, and 
in a full and fair showing of the 
" reason why and wherefore." Wo 
to that land in which the ministers 



6 



RICHARD BAXTER. 



[Aug. 



of religion, the constituted watchmen 
for the public morals, are afraid to 
open their mouths in dissent from 
great men, when they do wrong. It 
has been asserted, and we suppose 
with good reason, of one man in our 
country, who to eminent talents and 
usefulness as a statesman, united sen- 
timents on morals and religion ex- 
ceedingly loose, that there was in the 
State in which he resided, one min- 
ister of the gospel, who really stood 
more in the way of his accomplishing 
some undesirable plans, than any 
other man in that State. This is as 
it should be. Every minister of the 
gospel should hang heavily upon the 
wheels of evil, — should make it hard 
labor for public men to do wrong. 

We are aware that the habits of 
feeling generated by party collision, 
do place many men much out of the 
reach of that direct moral and reli- 
gious influence which it is desirable 
should bear upon all classes of men, 
and the tendency of the minds of some 
religious men probably is to the con- 
clusion that a man who comes into 
office in the tide of party feeling, is 
not accessible upon matters of moral 
and religious principle, where his 
political interests are concerned ; and 
that the ministers of religion espe- 
cially are not the men to have influ- 
ence with him. Supposing this to 
be so, it should only lead to more 
faithful endeavors by ministers, to 
commend themselves to the conscien- 
ces, good sense, and respect of those 
men, by steady integrity, decision of 
character, openness of conduct, and, 
as the life of these, by that devoted 
and exemplary piety, which never 
fails, sooner or later, to inspire con- 
fidence. Daniel made his way to the 
confidence of three kings ; and had 
a recognition, by their consciences 
and those of princes around them, 
more to his honor, than all the official 
dignity with which he was invested. 
Swartz stood at one time between 
two nations, enjoying the confidence 
of each, and as a "daysman" be- 
tween them, when they were distrust- 



ful of each other. Buchanan stood 
high among the men of British India, 
in the moral devotion and dignity 
which his character, as a devoted 
Christia,n minister, gave him. And 
of Baxter, Cromwell and Charles, 
and other men about them, had pro- 
bably more thoughts, and by their 
consciences, as perceiving his moral 
greatness, were brought more under 
his influence, than they ever fully 
acknowledged. 

The minister of the gospel, as a 
Christian patriot, is bound to concern 
himself in the public interests of his 
country, and to act with reference to 
their advancement in such ways as 
the word and providence of God 
point out. In these tumultuous times, 
when our own country is sympathiz- 
ing in the agitations of other coun- 
tries ; when such a vast variety of 
elements enter into American society ; 
and where there are so many tenden- 
cies, which awaken solicitude for the 
future ; it will not do for the minister 
to shut himself up in his study, or 
within the bounds of his parish, 
knowincr and concerning himself little 
on what takes place in this land, and 
in the wicked world at large. True, 
he might thus secure his own pre- 
sent enjoyment, and do good in his 
place of residence ; but might by and 
by be startled by the breaking in of 
men of violence upon him ; and by 
the demonstration that wickedness 
has gained the ascendency, and that 
good men must die in the retirement 
in which they had secluded them- 
selves. He is bound to study, atten- 
tively, the circumstances of his coun- 
try at large, the passing events which 
have a connection with its moral and 
religious interests, as securing its 
civil and political ones. He should 
do this by the light of God's word, 
as furnishing, both by precept and 
history, important instruction for na- 
tions and every individual member 
of the body politic. This will doubt- 
less bring before him many subjects 
for deep solicitude ; and his heart 
will be filled at many times with fear 



1831.] RICHARD BAXTER. 

and trembling, at the apprehension of 
national degeneracy and guilt. But 
this is the only way in which to learn 
how to pray for his country, and to 
confess to God the sins of the people, 
of which so many are insensible. 
He should gather around him also, 
those who will join him in his anxious 
observance of public things, and in 
his supplications for the divine for- 
bearance and mercy. And whatever 
called to do, and to excite others to 
do, he should wisely consider, and 
unshrinkingly and faithfully perform. 
The time has been, when a wrong 
apprehension of our Saviour's mean- 
ing, in that declaration, " my king- 
dom is not of this world," led minis- 
ters and private Christians to regard 
it rather in the light of a duty to 
withdraw themselves from the scenes 
of public action, when they became 
the scenes of public agitation, as be- 
ing unfavorable to Christian feelings. 
It is most devoudy to be hoped, that 
this opinion and feeling are giving 
place to the conviction that the Chris- 
tian is to carry his principles into every 
scene of duty to which Providence 
opens the door ; and to act on them 
there, in the fear of God, and with 
holy, unshrinking energy. Men of 
violent party feelings, having their 
political plans to accomplish, and 
fearing that the introduction of the 
stern principles of religious integrity, 
especially by ministers, might cross 
their course, have set forth the doc- 
trine, that ministers of religion have 
no right to concern themselves or 
appear in the movements which touch 
political affairs, and the interests of 
parties. Tendering to such men our 
thanks for their solicitude that we 
shall not sin on this score, — albeit 
they may not be perfectly disinter- 
ested in their solicitude, — we would 
take the liberty to say, we have yet 
to learn that Christian ministers are 
to go into a species of expatriation ; 
to surrender their liberty of thought, 
speech, and action, in regard to points 
of national morality, because that 
such points happen sometimes to be 



made party questions : — that they 
are to be mere passengers in the pub- 
lic ship ; and though they may see 
'* breakers ahead," still must hold 
their peace, and let all go on quietly 
to destruction. We set up no plea 
for entering into the scrambles of 
party politics. The minister, espe- 
cially, who descends from the dignity 
of the sacred oflice, consorts with a 
mere political clan, and " throws up 
his hat" with the multitude, let liim 
receive as a deserved punishment, 
the usage which he is likely to suffer, 
for entering into such associations. 
No sympathy or tears are to be spent 
upon even a good man, who thus in- 
volves himself in difficulty. We are 
simply maintaining that the minis- 
ter of religion has rights in common 
with other men ; that out of those 
rights arise important moral duties as 
a member of the body politic : that 
those duties cannot be neglected by 
him without guilt in the sight of God, 
and that they should be performed in 
the fear of God, and in the energy 
and faithfulness of Christian princi- 
ple ; that there is no necessary alli- 
ance between doing these duties, and 
devotion to the interests of a party ; 
and that on his fearless, straight-going 
performance of these duties, is de- 
pending the promotion of the national 
righteousness, and the averting of 
divine judgments. He is to speak 
freely and decidedly, when points of 
public morality are concerned, and 
as an individual, is to act as he speaks. 
If wrangling politicians please to put 
a political construction upon his sen- 
timents and conduct, on such points, 
he cannot help that; neither is he 
responsible for it. With his con- 
science to acquit him of blamewor- 
thiness on this score, let him move 
straight onward in the path of duty, 
and await the vindication of his mo- 
tives, which Providence will in due 
time assuredly bring. There are 
circumstances under which, for a 
minister to be timid and over-cautious, 
is to invite encroachment upon his 
rights, and interference with his do- 



s 



RICHARD BAXTER. 



[Aug. 



iiig his duties ; and under which, on 
the other hand, to speak his mind 
and do his duty like a Christian and 
a gendeman, will prevent difficulty, 
command respect, do good to the 
cause in hand, and give him influ- 
ence with the consciences at least, 
of those at variance with him. 

On engagincf in religfious contro- 
versy, there are some interesting 
points of instruction in the history of 
Baxter and his contemporaries. He 
had rare talents for this department 
of labor. His industry as a contro- 
versial writer was not probably sur- 
passed by any in his day, or in any 
other ; for he kept not a few bishops 
and clergy, besides some laymen, 
awake and busy, by that industrious 
setting forth of truth, which always 
makes its opposers uneasy. With a 
few exceptions, he appears to have 
possessed admirable command of his 
temper in controversy ; and to have 
manifested a good measure of candor 
and kindness in his feelings towards 
his opponents. And yet, he probably 
would have suffered less agitation of 
his spirit, and been at leisure to im- 
prove his more doctrinal and practical 
writings, had he resisted the tempta- 
tions arising from his talents as a 
controversialist, and not allowed him- 
self to be so easily induced to take 
up his pen. It is sometimes more 
wise to be silent, than to speak, and 
to leave an opponent to think of his 
own book, rather than to write an- 
other for him, which may give him 
importance, and increase the irrita- 
tion of his feelings. 

Were we to take a text from Bax- 
ter's own words, on which to base 
a few hints respecting the real neces- 
sity for continuing a controversy, in 
certain cases, we should quote his 
remark, in the Baxterian simplicity 
of his heart, respecting the animad- 
versions of Dr. John Wallis, on one 
of his works ; " to which," says he, 
" I began to write a reply, but broke 
it off in the middle, because he little 
differed from me." While we be- 
lieve in the imperious necessity of 



controversies touching tlie great and 
essential truths ; yet, doubtless, many 
a controversy might have been "bro- 
ken off in the middle," or rather not 
commenced, by the parties first look- 
ing at the points in which they were 
agreed, and then carefully and prayer- 
fully estimating the real importance 
of those on which a difference of sen- 
timent existed. It is not an unfre- 
quent occurrence, that two good men, 
whom all the friends of truth love, 
fall to disputing and hair-splitting, 
upon points not fundamental, and, 
after a few exchanges of pamphlets 
and an armistice, by mutual consent, 
or from mutual uneasiness on both 
sides, they are brought together for 
more important purposes, and shake 
hands with all good humor and 
brotherliness, wondering, doubtless, 
within themselves, how they came to 
waste their time, stationary and pa- 
tience, in a dispute of which there is 
little left, besides the remembrance 
and the printer^s bills. There was 
some wit, and more wisdom, in the 
remark of a preacher of our own time 
and country, — " the truth has been 
found out at last, (the wonder is that 
it was not found out long before,) that 
I may differ from my neighbors, and 
yet neither of us be possessed of a 
devil ; and that there is nothing to 
prevent us from uniting our hearts 
and prayers in the noblest and best 
of causes."* 

A more cool and deliberate asking 
of the question, *' cui bono?" before 
putting pen to paper, for the com- 
mencement of a controversy ; a more 
conscientious and anxious desire to 
avoid it, especially with one who 
may be sound in all the main articles 
of the Christian faith ; a manner of 
treating those who are in some de- 
gree of error, conciliating, frank, and 
adapted to call their attention to the 
great essentials of truth, and to the 
momentous and necessary contest 
with the enemies of the truth of 
Christ ; more watchfulness against 

* M'CIelland's sermon before the New York 
Missionary Society, 1820, p. 21, 



1831. 



RICHARD BAXTER. 







the ambition of outstripping Solomon 
in making great discoveries of light 
and wisdom ; more readiness to con- 
fess mistakes and to suppress pride 
of opinion as sin against God, and, 
when necessary, to treat witli the 
silence of Christian meekness, and 
yet with Christian dignity, the chal- 
lenge of a disputatious man ; would 
doubtless prevent many an unneces- 
sary controversy, and much solicitude 
among good men in the churches. 
And another point ; to look forward, 
and by anticipation to bring the tests 
of a dying day and of the judgment, 
and of heavenly scenes and enjoy- 
ments, to bear upon the matter, will 
help to correct much wrong feeling 
and prevent misjudgment. One of 
Baxter's opponents died in the midst 
of a controversy, in which it would 
have been well if both of them had 
been in better temper, Baxter's feel- 
ings as a Christian were awakened by 
the solemn event ; and his reflections 
upon it should be those of every man 
engaged in controversy. " While we 
wrangle here in the dark, we are 
dying and passing to the world that 
will decide all our controversies. 
And the safest passage thither is by 
peaceable holiness." 

It is a fact worthy of considera- 
tion, that the works of Baxter, in 
which he has most skilfully blended 
the two characteristics, doctrinal and 
practical, are the only ones which 
are passing down from generation to 
generation. The question is an in- 
teresting one, therefore, for religious 
authors to ask, — What will last long- 
est, and be worth most to another 
generation ? There are many books 
written, no doubt with the grave in- 
tention and the very sanguine expec- 
tation, that posterity will read and 
admire them ; but which may never 
reach the hands of posterity ; for the 
plain reason that they are not com- 
posed of sufficiently rich and durable 
materials. Specially is this true of 
vast multitudes of books of unneces- 
sary controversy and speculation, and 
of wrangling metaphysics. A cause 

VOL, IV. 2 



of thankfulness it is, truly, that the 
great proportion of such works are 
lioated into the eddies, or cast up dry 
as their contents, on the shores of the 
river of time ; and forbidden by a 
merciful Providence to float down and 
perplex or disturb posterity ; espe- 
cially a posterity sufficiently fruitful 
itself in such productions. This is 
becoming the case with many of the 
writings of Baxter. It is somewhat 
surprising, to find the author of the 
" Saint's Everlasting Rest," the '' Re- 
formed Pastor," and the other books 
we have already named, spending 
time, wasting strength, and perplex- 
ing himself and others, with unprofit- 
able discussions of speculative and 
metaphysical niceties, when his heart 
seems to have been the seat of such 
elevated Christian experience, and 
his life so exemplary and influential. 
This is not, however, to be regarded 
as the Christian in him, but as the 
man ; and as designed in the wisdom 
of Providence, to show, that the best 
man on earth has occasion to " watch 
and pray" against the temptation to 
employ his powers on matters " un- 
profitable and vain." Baxter's honest 
conviction and confession, bearing 
on this subject, deserve the serious 
consideration of ministers of the 
gospel. " To tell the truth, while I 
busily read what other men said in 
these controversies, my mind was 
so prepossessed with their notions, 
that I could not possibly see the truth 
in its own native and naked evi- 
dence ; and when I entered into 
public disputations concerning it, 
though I was truly willing to know 
the truth, my mind v/as so forestalled 
with borrowed notions, that I chiefly 
studied how to make good the opin- 
ions vv^hich I had received, and ran 
farther from the truth. Yea, when I 
read the truth in Dr. Preston's and 
other men's writings, I did not con- 
sider and understand it ; and when I 
heard it from them whom I opposed 
in wrangling disputations, or read it 
in books of controversy, I discerned 
it least of all. Till at last, being im 



10 



IMPORTANT VIEWS ON THE 



[A, 



my sickness cast far from home, where 
I had no book but my Bible, I set to 
study the truth from thence, and so, 
by the blessing of God, discovered 
more in one loeek, than I had done 
before in seventeen years' reading, 
hearing, and wrangling.^' 

The latter years of Baxter's life are 
the portions of it which will be con- 
templated with deepest interest. It is 
instructive to view hira in his earlier 
years ; and in the various situations 
in which he labored to win souls to 
Jesus ; stood '' faithful among the 
faithless;" proved himself a "good 
soldier of Jesus Christ," and " suf- 
fered shame for his name." Who 
can fail to admire and love "the 
spirit of Christ" in him, which all 
his frailties of judgment, feeling and 
action, could not prevent from putting 
itself forth, with high energy, and to 
great purpose. But to sit down with 
this long tried and venerable " soldier 
of the cross," in the evening of his 
life, and in the full possession of his 
faculties ; and listen to his commen- 
tary on that scripture, " having there- 
fore obtained help of God, I continue 
unto this day, witnessing ;" to see 
his humble review of his life and 
doings ; his close and faithful exami- 
nation of his motives of action ; his 
acknowledgments, in the simplicity 
of a true child of God, of his mis- 
judgments, mistakes, sins, as min- 
gled with all his labors for Christ, 
and also the changes and corrections 
of his opinions as built upon them ; 
and to find him recording such rich 
pages of experience for the counsel, 
caution, and encouragement of those 
coming after him : specially to con- 
template his " fruits in old age ;" his 
exhibition of the long tried graces of 
the Christian character, in the ma- 
turity, vigor, and richness, which 
have been in acquirement for years ; 
and to witness his descent to the 
grave, " rejoicing in Christ Jesus," 
and happy in the consciousness that 
it is only the way to his " everlasting 
rest;" this is a scene in the cham- 
ber of godly old age which is worth 



ten thousand of those in which the 
" pride of life " displays itself. The 
lessons of Christian wisdom from 
such lips are exceeded only by those 
coming from lips " touched as with a 
live coal from off the altar" of God, 
and uttering the revelations of the 
Holy Ghost. The beauty and bright- 
ness of Christian holiness in such a 
venerable " man of God," is exceeded 
only by that of " the just made per- 
fect" "within the veil." 

IMPORTANT VIEWS ON THE SUB- 
JECT OF EDUCATION. 
We commend the following remarks to 
the serious attention of our readers. They 
will amply repay a careful perusal. We 
have rarely seen more comprehensive and 
liberal sentiments in reference to the great 
topics discussed. We copy the article from 
several numbers of the New York Christian 
Advocate and Journal. The author is the 
Rev. John P. Durbin, a professor in the 
college at Augusta, in the State of Ken- 
tucky. They were addressed to the mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
through the columns of their principal news- 
paper, but they are in many respects appli- 
cable to all our religious communities. The 
question in regard to the expediency of the 
multiplication of colleges in our country is 
one of vast practical importance, and one on 
which there is great difference of opinion. 
There is no doubt but that a small number 
of colleges would furnish means for a far 
more extended and thorough education, than 
is now generally acquired, or is indeed prac- 
ticable. In founding a literary institution, 
there is frequently exhibited a lamentable 
want of foresight and judgment. Local 
prejudices, or the offer of a few thousand 
dollars, are sometimes permitted to decide 
questions affecting the interests of a great 
community, and of a distant posterity. A 
college ought not to be hurried into exist- 
ence. It may be very proper to adopt such 
a course with a cotton manufactory, but it 
is not proper for a college. Time should be 
taken io deliberate, where such vast inter- 
ests are at issue. A miscalculation at the 
beginning, has sometimes rendered it neces- 
sary to miscalcidate ever after, in order to 



1831 



SUBJECT OF EDUCATION. 



11 



preserve a uniformity in a bad arrangement 
or in bad taste. Several new colleges are 
now contemplated in various parts of our 
country. To all engaged in founding such 
institutions, or in devising plans for them, we 
would say, — Be deliberate. Look onward. 
Consult for the United States. Consult for 
the millions of your posterity. Lay your 
plans, not for present effect, but for prospec- 
tive and permanent benefit. 

We cannot but rejoice to see the awaken- 
ing interest which our Methodist brethren 
manifest in the diffusion of knowledge. — 
Taking education in its widest senses, they 
cannot be too zealous in efforts to increase its 
power and diffuse its blessings. Their useful- 
ness as a church of the Lord Jesus Christ, is 
essentially depending on education. Their 
strongest hold, too, is in the most important 
portion of the United States — the Central 
Valley. They number almost tivo hundred 
thousand members, in those regions, equal 
to all others of all denominations. The 
ultimate and complete happiness, we might 
almost say civilization of this country, is 
depending very much on the education of 
that -class of the community which will fall 
under the influence of the Methodist church. 
We are sure, therefore, that we speak the 
sentiments of every Christian denomination 
in this country, when we say that we wish 
a complete fulfilment to the most sanguine 
expectations, which their most enlightened 
advocates may entertain on this subject. It 
cannot be a matter of indifference to any 
benevolent man, whether the two millions 
and a half of Methodists in this country, 
the germ and the stock of future and un- 
counted millions, shall be thoroughly edu- 
cated or not. 

It may be proper here to say, that the 
college in which Mr. Durbin is professor^fis 
in Augusta, Ky. in Bracken county, on the 
Ohio river. It went into operation as an 
academy in 1822. The first commence- 
ment as a college was in 1829. The number 
of academic instructers is seven. The num- 
ber of students in the college at the begin- 
ijing of this year was ninety-eight. There 
is in connection, a preparatory department. 
The location of the college is favorable for 
the exertion of a great influence. 

The Methodists have under their care, 



Madison college, at Union Town, Pa. ; and 
flourishing academies at Readfield, Me., 
Wilbraham, Mass., New York City, White 
Plains, N. Y., Cazenovia, N. Y.,Mt. Ariel, 
S. C, and others at different places. The 
Wesleyan University, at Middletown, Ct., 
goes into operation on the third Wednesday 
of the present month. Another college, 
called Randolph Macon, has been chartered 
in Virginia. 

In March, 1828, I addressed a long paper 
on the subject of education to our church. In 
the eighty-second number of the Christian 
Advocate and Journal, at the close of my 
communication, is this postscript : — " I would 
suggest the propriety of a general school for 
the benefit of our people in the United 
States, or two of them if necessary." This 
suggestion was approved by several of the 
ablest members of the last General Confer- 
ence, though the Committee on education 
reported differently — not precisely against 
it, but intimating that the time had not yet 
come for such a plan. Since the last Gen- 
eral Conference, I have been diligent in 
examining the expediency of this plan, and 
have had opportunities of m.entioning it to 
many of our most intelligent and influential 
friends, by all which means my convictions 
are much strengthened, not only in regard 
to its expediency, but its absolute necessity, 
with this qualification: possiS/y the number 
might be increased a little, but very little. 
I would offer the following reasons for this 
plan : — 

1. A greater number of students can be 
educated at a less expense in one or twq> 
large institutions than in several smaller 
ones ; because it is a well known fact, that 
an extensive and efficient course of collegiate 
education requires the same number of pro- 
fessors for fifty students as for five hundred. 
Let us suppose six professors necessary in a 
college of the first rank, with five hundred 
students, and that each professor receives 
$'1,000. Six thousand dollars will pay 
them all. Now let us suppose five colleges 
with one hundred students each. In order 
to render the course of instruction in each 
of the first grade, there must be six pro- 
fessors in each. Their salaries aggregately 
would be $30,000. By reducing the five 
colleges to one, we reduce the expense of 
the instruction of five hundred students from 
$30,000 to $6,000. The same reduction 
would be made in the expenses of the libra- 
ry and apparatus, and in some degree in the 
college buildings. A library and philosophi- 
cal apparatus, in a first rate college, will 
cost $15,000. If the students in this first 
rate college were divided into five colleges 
of first rate grade, then the library and phi-- 
losophical apparatus for them would cost 
$75,000. These few remarks will show the 



12 



IMPORTANCE OF UNIVERSITIES. 



[Aug. 



vast advantage of concentrating the funds, 
in order to extend their operation, so as to 
perform the greatest amount of good with 
the least amount of means. 

2. If the whole population in the United 
States were in our interest, it is very obvi- 
ous that it would be much easier to obtain 
six. or eight suitable professors than thirty or 
forty. But when we recollect how small 
the number is among us who are well quali- 
fied to sustain an elevated reputation as 
literary professors, the difficulty comes to 
us with tenfold force. A superior literary 
and scientific faculty, throughout, is a rare 
assemblage of talent, and but rarely seen in 
any country. One or two members gene- 
rally give the character and reputation to 
the school. What a vast advantage is ob- 
vious, if the few proper and well qualified 
professors were associated in the same school, 
or in a small number of schools. This, in 
my opinion, is absolutely necessary in regard 
to the success of our efforts at this time. 
The operation of two or three schools of 
first rank as colleges and universities, would, 
in a few years, extend our interest in regard 
to education, and furnish the proper materi- 
als for extending our operations, which we 
cannot now do with success. 

3. Though the nuniber of scholars might 
be smaller at first on this plan, they would 
be much better scholars, which would ulti- 
mately extend the character and influence 
of these two or three schools, and thus in- 
crease and elevate their patronage, and ulti- 
mately produce not only better but a greater 
number of scholars. The rank of the insti- 
tutions at which they graduated would fa- 
cilitate their applications for employments, 
especially as professors in colleges, or princi- 
pals of grammar schools or academies, or as 
teachers of common English schools. Thus 
the influence of these two or three schools 
of first rank would be extended quickly all 
over the country, and in every department 
of honorable employment. And surely none 
are ignorant how strongly students are biased 
through life by the opinions and manners of 
able, influential, and popular professors. 
Here lies the true secret of the vast advan- 
tage of educating the youth of the country. 
Let the conferences, and societies, and indi- 
viduals, therefore, patronize decidedly those 
well qualified teachers whose religious 
views and customs we think correct. True, 
by thus patronizing them they may make 
the profit, but they will, in their measure, 
be co-workers together with the church of 
God. The youth will be saved from impro- 
per religious prejudices, and their hearts 
will be ground prepared for the good seed. 
It is indeed to be regretted that we have 
not a greater number of suitable persons for 
such employments. The number of faniilies 
and children connected with our church is 
greater ih'd.n any other in the United States ! 
and yet by whom are our children educated .' 
We have occasionally thought it strange 



that a sister denomination possessed, by 
means of her friends, almost all literary and 
influential employments in the country, and 
we have been sometimes disposed to com- 
plain. But let me ask if it be not the neces- 
sary result of this one circumstance : they 
have the materials always ready — we have 
riot? They take care to keep them ready, 
and to facilitate their applications. I ap- 
plaud them for it. We should and must do 
the same. The country demands it of us, 
and is anxious to avail itself of our means, if 
we will furnish them. The above plan is 
the only one which can furnish them speedi- 
ly and successfully. 

4. It is a fact which cannot be denied, 
that we have not one single institution in 
successful and extensive operation, of the 
rank described in the above remarks. It is a 
matter of rejoicing, hov/ever, that several are 
in an incipient state. Their success, con- 
sidered separately, is problematical. Yet 
any one would see that if their resources 
and energies v/ere thrown together at a 
suitable place, the success would be more 
certain, speedy, and extensive. This will 
appear clearly if we observe the amount of 
funds all our colleges have, taken aggregate- 
ly. 1 have taken some pains to ascertain, 
and am satisfied that the whole available 
funds, buildings, &c. ofall our colleges, do not 
now amount to more than one hundred and 
seventy thousand dollars ! — a sum insuffi- 
cient to make one first rate college take 
successful and continued effect. Will not 
their separate action be feeble ? 

5. 1 know, indeed, that the friends of each 
institution hope for an increase of funds; 
and I admit it is possible, it may be probable, 
their expectations will be realized. I hope 
sincerely they may. But I am convinced 
that some means must be used to limit the 
nuniber of our colleges /or the present, in 
order to obtain a few superior ones. The 
funds would not be wanting if we could pre- 
sent a proper foundation to the liberal and 
wealthy among us. We have many wealthy 
and enlightened persons who would contri- 
bute thousands, if they could feel assured 
their contributions would take effect. One 
or isNO such schools as I have mentioned 
would, as soon as they proved they deserved 
it, receive a handsome and ample endow- 
ment from the liberal and wealthy, while 
living, and by testament. Such institu- 
tions would attract the attention of the en- 
lightened to the founding of scholarships. 

Might I not venture to hope that these 
remarks may meet the eye of some benevo- 
lent individual, who, to accomplish so much 
good, will lay the foundation of the certain 
success of a first rate institution among us 1 
The good which he would do would live 
many centuries after him, and generations 
to come would bless him. Some of the first 
schools in the United States were founded 
in this way. The name of Mr. Yale is in- 
separably connected with Yale college. 



1831.] 



PRESBYTERIANS AND CONGREGATIONALISTS. 



la 



6. In addition to these sources of revenue, 
I beg leave to suggest tlie propriety of es- 
tablisliing a general education society in 
some central and large city as a parent 
society, and form branches throughout the 
country auxiliary to it. This I have long 
conteuiplated, and have mentioned it to mnny 
intelligent and inlluential friends, and have 
found a general approval of the plan. It 
would operate to two ends. — 1st. It would 
make a good impression, and awaken the 
people to the importance of our schools. 
2dly. It would produce a large amount of 
funds. All funds, as I think, should be re- 
turned to the parent society, to be applied 
by them according to some fixed method. 
They should be applied for the benefit of 
colleges at first, and only to those colleges 
which have been previously recognized by 
the society, and in proportion to the num- 
ber of collegiate students at the time of dis- 
bursement. This would be appropriating in 
proportion to the amount of success in each 
school, and would also produce e^nulation 
in each school. The society should employ 
a suitable general agent to go abroad. This 
I think important. Possibly it might be best 
for the next General Conference to take 
some measures to limit the mimber of col- 
leges, and increase the number of acade- 
mies ; also to make some general arrange- 
ments for establishing the education societies. 
The colleges must be limited, or never rise 
to reputation. Possibly it might be best to 
recognize those now in successful operation, 
and institute a parent society for each in the 
bounds of the country in their interest. 

The second communication of Mr. Durbin 
describes the various means which the 
Presbyterian Church adopt, either formally 
or incidentally, to extend the influence of 
knowledge and religion. We suppose that 
the author includes the Congregationalists 
of New England with the Presbyterians. 

I am not about to produce these, in order 
to disapprove of them, but to commend them 
to the attention of other churches, especially 
our own. They are instrumental, greatly, 
in facilitating the success of that church, 
and therefore I approve of them ; because, 
I believe every Christian denomination is 
bound to promote the kingdom of God, by 
all proper means. — Those which are men- 
tioned below appear to be legal and proper. 

1. They take every means to produce 
unity of action under the same impulses, 
in every great undertaking. 1 do not con- 
demn, but approve this : they, as we, are 
one church : " and let there be no schisms 
among you," says Paul. Where the centre 
of this unity of action is, I pretend not to 
know. It may be in the General Assembly. 
That there is such a common spring is evi- 
dent to every observer. The same schemes 



are advocated, and precisely with the same 
arguments, in the north, soulh, and west; 
by the ministry and people. By this policy 
they bring their whole influence and re- 
sources to bear on any undertaking. They 
are certainly, notwithstanding their doctrinal 
diflferences, the most united in enterprise of 
any churches in the land. 

2. They lend decided and uniform coun- 
tenance and support to all measures by 
which they may, in any degree, mould and 
direct the public mind. Upon the suppo- 
sition (and this is the supposition on which 
I go) that their object is to use their influ- 
ence to the glory of God, I approve. Hence 
they patronize the various projects and so- 
cieties of a benevolent (thougli not r.trictly 
religious) nature ; as the Colonization and 
Temperance Societies. I rejoice we are 
turning towards this policy also. 

3. They take care to have a sufUcient 
number of persons properly educated, to 
fill up all the ofiices, agencies, and employ- 
ments, presented in the services of the 
public, or societies. Every person must 
see, at a single glance, how vastly this adds 
to their resources and influence, and of 
course adds greatly to their ability to do 
good, by using their resources and influence 
in the service of religion. 

4. It is a matter of peculiar care with 
them to have a sufficient number of suitable 
persons to possess the appointments in 
universities, colleges, academies, and com- 
mon schools, AND TO HAVE THEM IN- 
TRODUCED INTO THEM. The vast advan- 
tage of this measure is extremely obvious ; 
and so important do they consider it, and 
justly, too, that they have made it a matter 
of particular calculation to know how many 
colleges they direct, by means of their 
friends ; and some have even ventured to 
affirm, that the President of a superior 
college had it in his power to do more 
harm or good, than the President of the 
United States. This measure is not only 
their policy, but they practise it with great 
success. Of all the colleges in the United 
States they have possession of a large ma- 
jority ; though, as a people, they have not 
founded one first rate one ; and do not num- 
ber, in their communion, half as many as 
our own church. This fact is astonishing, 
yet true ; and is the result of the measures 
mentioned above. 

5. The excess of their educated fiends 
and members necessarily gives them per- 
sons who seek employment as Editors of 
political, literary, and religious papers : — 
hence, the vast majority of these papers are 
in their interest : and it is well known that 
the press of the country moulds and moves 
the public mind. The advantage of this 
may be partially appreciated by recollecting, 
that by this means a summary, or expose 
of all their business, and plans, is circulated 
throughout the country, and thus find tacit 
or open defenders in almost every print. 



14 



EDUCATION SOCIETY. VALLEY OF MISSISSIPPI. 



[Aug. 



The information, therefore, conveyed to the 
public mind, is directly connected with them 
as a people. It must be so, even without 
design on their part. 

G. The seniinaries generally produce the 
literati of a country, and these are the 

AUTHORS, COMPILERS, and EDITORS, of 

the circulating books of the nation. — These 
are, of course, essentially in their interest, 
as editors, authors, compilers, or booksellers. 
The advantage of this measure is incalcula- 
ble. The geographies, histories, and statis- 
tical tables, which iind their way into every 
neighborhood, are, from a very natural bias 
of their authors, made to present their 
church frst, and pre-eminent, in the pub- 
lic eye, and thus continually occupy the 
pu-blic mind. By means of the bookstores 
in their interest, their works are widely cir- 
culated, and thus the reading public is im- 
pressed in their favor. 

These are all I propose to mention at this 
time. And, upon the supposition that they 
are pursued with an eye single to the glory 
of God, they are praiseworthy. And as they 
are the great levers which move the pub- 
lic mind, they merit our attention particu- 
larly. In order to use them successfully, 
we must provide the materials. In my last 
I suggested that the most speedy and suc- 
cessful way to do this, is to erect and endow 
a few superior colleges under our patronage. 
These, with our increasing interest in the 
country, will in a few years put us in pos- 
session of many of the schools whiclt they 
now direct, and which our increasing inter- 
est authorizes us to expect, if we could pre- 
sent suitable persons for appointments, when 
vacancies occur. These remarks apply ex- 
clusively to public institutions founded by 
the several States, to which the country at 
large has contributed, and which of course 
cannot be the property of any particular 
church. Yet it is a well known fact, that 
the constitution of society seems to deter- 
mine that each seminary must fall under 
the prevailing influence of some Christian 
denomination. It is right, and should be so. 

Therefore, if the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and her friends will be active, lib- 
eral, and diligent, she may quickly com.pete 
honorably with her sister churches in the 
ranks of science and literature. It will 
form a new era in her history, operations, 
and influence. What good may she not do, 
"when, to the purity of her doctrines, and the 
energy and diffusiveness of her institutions, 
she shall add the immense weight of the 
above measures ? 

The means by which the funds may be 
raised, I mentioned briefly in my last. Let 
us have a well organized and energetic 
EDUCATION SOCIETY, whosc Operations 
shall be as extensive as our country, by 
means of auxiliaries, formed by suitable 
agents. — This I have long contemplated, 
and have been privately preparing the way. 
I cannot say, positively, that my plan of a 



s\ns;]e pare7it society -would be best: but I 
think it would. It might, upon examina- 
tion, be found to be best to have one in the 
Avest, and one in the east; or one for each 
college. It is sufficient if the plan of opera- 
tion be sufficiently extensive and energetic as 
to operate on the ivhole community. Think 
but a moment of the resources we ought to 
command. We have more than four hun- 
dred thousand communicants : say three 
hearers only to one of these, and we have 
more thd^n fifteen hundred thousand actual 
friends. Suppose but one in thirty should 
give but a single dollar per year, this would 
be fifty thousand dollars per annum. In 
seven years it would amount to three hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars. These 
calculations are remarkably low, and can be 
realized under an efficient plan. They 
have been far exceeded in some recent ef- 
forts made in the west for Augusta college. 
Other churches have profited largely by 
such societies, and their agents are now ac- 
tively employed. 

The valley of the Mississippi is now claim- 
ing the attention, and calling forth the most 
remarkable activity and resources of the 
Presbyterian churches. Their efforts are 
astonishing and praiseworthy, to extend and 
settle their influence in this valley. They 
very justly consider it the most important 
section of our world. It is the last retreat 
of liberty, learning, and religion. The tide 
is rolling into it with astonishing rapidity. 
In a very few years, it is well ascertained, 
the balance of population in the United 
States will be in this valley. The eyes of 
Europe are on this spot. It is to be the last 
and greatest theatre of the grand display of 
the world's energies. It may be destined 
to be the redeeming power to the old world. 
From these considerations, who does not see 
the importance of having the foundations of 
society w^ell and correctly laid. Our breth- 
ren of other denominations see this, and 
astonish us by their exertions. Single in- 
dividuals in eastern cities give thousands of 
dollars each at a single donation, to carry on 
their operations here. So)7ie of them have 
given tive7ity thousand dollars to a single 
object. They act nobly. But while I thus 
approve, I turn with anxiety to our own 
church, and anticipate that there is now liv- 
ing some noble, Christian, ivealthy, and 
benevolent person, who laill, by one hand- 
some and. sufficient donation, lay the foun- 
dation of a grand literary institution, 
under our patronage, which shall exert a 
salutary influence on the future millions 
who shcdl live here. By this means he may 
be the instrument of doing more good, and 
to a greater number of human beings, than 
even now live on the face of the globe. I 
do not exaggerate. Think of the extent of 
this valley ; three thousand miles long, and 
fourteen hundred broad, capable of sub- 
sisting a population four times as great as 
the eastern states can — think of our interest 



1831.] 



EDUCATION OF YOUTH. 



15 



here, now by far the greatest, but which 
can only be nuiinlained by laying hold on 
the education of the youth. The individual, 
therefore, who shall eflcctually accomplish 
this great object, may, and will be called, 
through successive ages — the benefac- 
tor OF THE WORLD. Until such can be 
found, let our education societies advance 
the great work. 

In two former papers we have seen the 
necessity of concentrating our efforts on a 
few superior schools, which will, in a short 
time, provide us with the materials for ex- 
tending our efforts in educating our youth, 
and the youth of our country. We have 
seen also that we are more deeply inter- 
ested in the business of education than any 
other people in the land; because, AVe have 
a much greater number of children and 
youth directly or remotely connected with 
us as a people. We have seen, too clearly 
to be misunderstood, the vast advantages 
which other Christian denominations are 
deriving from their attention and zeal in 
educating the youth of our country. The 
same advantages may be obtained by us, if 
we will only put forth a united effort in a 
proper manner. The manner is so obvious 
it cannot be misapprehended. We see the 
same operation in every section of our 
country. We see agents whose business it 
is, not only to raise thousands of dollars, 
which they actually do annually, but, also, 
to direct the attention of students to those 
colleges which are under the particular di- 
rection of their own people. This is an 
important measure ; and closely pursued. 
We ourselves have known students leave 
home for one college, and enter others. 
Let us wake up to .all these remarkable 
facts. 

I propose in this paper to show, that it is 
our duty to take effectual measures to par- 
ticipate in educating the youth of our 
country, in proportion, at least, to our 
interest in it. It is obvious to every one, 
that the impressions received in childhood 
and youth have an important and decisive 
bearing on after life. They take the deepest 
hold on the heart, influence it the most 
strongly, and are the most difficult to sup- 
plant. How unutterable the interest, then, 
which every parent and every Christian 
must feel, to have his children, and the 
children of his people, and country, rightly 
instructed ? Though we are aware that 
literary institutions are not for the purpose 
of teaching religion, yet they are surely 
not for the purpose of teaching irreligion, or 
erroneous religious opinions ; and it is so 
obvious that the students of a school imbibe, 
insensibly, the opinions, principles, and 
prejudices, both moral, religious, (and 
political, in some measure,) of their pre- 
ceptors, simply from their relation and 
associations, that it is not necessary to take 
great pains to influence them in these mat- 



ters. Hence the necessity of educating our 
children by teachers who have correct reli- 
gious views and feelings, if we wish them 
also to have such. But it is our duty to 
have our children thus instructed and nur- 
tured ; hence it is absolutely our duty to 
lend a vigorous, ready, and liberal hand to 
the interests of education under our pat- 
ronage ; not as a mere incidental act of 
benevolence, but as one of our cardinal 
duties. / 

It is no less our duty as Christians ; be- 
cause we are under obligations to extend 
the Redeemer's kingdom by all lavvful and 
proper means. We are assured that to 
direct propei'ly the education of the youth 
is not only lawful, but highly praiseworthy ; 
and no means (save the living ministry of 
God's word) can be used so effectually for 
this purpose, as this. Of this great truth, 
all must be sensible. Some of our sister 
denominations are so sensible of this, that 
all their friends, old and young, rich and 
poor, are contributing liberally to maintain 
their influence in this way. I praise them 
for it. They think their views of the Re- 
deemer's kingdom are correct, and they feel 
under the force of a moral obligation to 
spread it. To possess the opening mind of 
youth with their opinions, principles, cus- 
toms, and prejudices, they know to be the 
most effectual way of advancing their in- 
terest. Surely, in this they are the children 
of wisdom. 

Is it not a well known fact, that we (Metho- 
dist ministers) have first to combat what we 
conceive erroneous principles, and prejudi- 
ces in the minds of our hearers, before we 
can hope to reach their hearts to convince 
them of sin ? All this is owing to their hav- 
ing previously imbibed these errors and pre- 
judices. Our sister denominations do not 
have to encounter these things : they have 
possession of the confidence and belief of 
their hearers, and it only remains for them 
to illustrate and enforce. These advantages 
they have chiefly because they influenced 
the youthful mind. 

True, we have astonished the world with 
the success we have had in the combat : 
but how much more would we have been 
able to have done, if we had had possession 
of the public mind when we entered the 
field ? 

Dear brethren, as a Christian, I feel un- 
utterable interest in this matter. Believing, 
as I do, the doctrines and usages of Metho- 
dism to be according to the wull of God, I 
cannot stop short of using every proper 
means in ray power to spread these holy 
doctrines and practices through the world. 
We have heretofore trusted to the strength 
of truth, and have been successful. But 
we were compelled to make truth combat 
under disadvantages which we now pro- 
pose to relieve. What would we do in half 
a century, if we took such an interest in 
educating the youth of our country as it is 



16 



SIGNS OF THE TIMES. 



[Aug. 



our duty to do ? Our living, clear, and 
glorious Scripture doctrines, joined with a 
previous possession of the youthful mind in 
our favor, and a general consequent rise in 
public estimation and confidence, would 
actually triumph throughout the land, and 
influence the world. And is it not our duty 
to bring this about by all proper means ? 
Let each one, far and near, come up to the 
help of the Lord. 

Moreover, this measure is a measure of 
self-defence in the present juncture of affairs 
in our country. Possibly the present state 
of things may have been imposed by neces- 
sity. 1 blame no one. Such is the number 
and wealth of our people now, that they 
furnish many students for the colleges. 
These young men, generally the most 
promising of our best families, ivill be edu- 
cated someivhei'e. If there be not proper 
and elevated institutions under our own pat- 
ronage, they will be sent to others. What 
is the consequence ? Many of them return 
with prejudice against the religious opinions 
and practices of their parents : not only in- 
jured themselves, as we think, but prove a 
great mortification to their parents. They 
frequently forsake our assemblies, and be- 
come able and efficient supporters of other 
people. Let me ask you, my brethren, if 
these things ought to be so ? Think of our 
immense loss in this way, and then think of 
the means to remedy it. An active, unani- 
mous effort throughout the connection would 
set this matter right in less than ten years. 

I v/ish to present this important subject 
in another light. It is well known that one 
of the greatest difficulties in our travelling 
connection, is the difficulty of bringing up 
our children as they ought to be brought 
up. This is owing to two things. 1. We 
are absent from them so much. 2. We 
have but slender means. Both of these dif- 
ficulties may be obviated by the plan which 
we are now proposing, if we had proper 
institutions under proper teachers, these 
teachers and institutions would be zsjyarents 
to the children of our travelling ministers. 
Do but see v/hat you would gain in this 
single point. Again : " preachers' aid so- 
cieties" might be formed in every Confer- 
ence, and these institutions would afford the 
best facilities for applying the intended 
relief. For instance : the institution being 
already built, and provided with proper 
teachers, library, apparatus. &c. the " aid 
societies" need not expend anything in this 
way, but only appropriate their funds to the 
support of the children, and the institutions 
would give the appropriations the best effect. 
I commend this view of the subject to all 
my brethren. Other denominations practise 
on similar principles in reference to their 
youth, and other colleges. 

Let this paper be concluded by a sug- 
gestion which is always in place in such 
cases. Let us not be divided : let no sec- 
tional differences obtain to thwart the great 



design. Let us be as citizens of one country, 
members of one family, and make our ar- 
rangements for the whole, not a part. Let 
us recollect that when once the action 
becomes extensive, every part will feel the 
beneficial efiects, even the remotest neigh- 
borhood. Let us be reminded that we 
must forego small interests in order to 
obtain the great and universal interests of 
society and religion. 1 shall neither alarm 
your fears, nor flatter your vanity when I 
say, it is probable that we, as a church, 
hold the only effectual position which can 
ultimately guard true and undefiled religion. 
The diffusiveness of our institutions, the 
simplicity, plainness, and reasonableness of 
our Scripture doctrines, the unanimity with 
which we have always held them, seem to 
form the only barrier which can success- 
fully oppose dangerous doctrinal innovations. 
Let us as a people wake up to our relations 
to community, and feel our responsibility 
to God, and take every proper means to 
strengthen our cause, which we believe to 
be the cause of God. 

I again propose for consideration, a con- 
centration of our forces on a few schools, 
and the introduction of Education Socie- 
ties. 

I intimated in the previous communica- 
tion that I was of opinion, there ought to be 
one parent society, and auxiliaries through- 
out the country. " I still think this is best 
for our ultimate and great interest. Others 
think there should be a society for each 
college, and auxiliaries in the country in 
the interest of each college ; and that half 
the funds should go to the support of the 
sons of those who give, or have given, 
their labors to the work of the ministry. 
This modification of the plan has been in- 
troduced in the west by Dr. M. Ruter, for 
Augusta college, and promises very fair. 

I feel strong hopes of success from the 
peculiar, and prevailing spirit of the age. 
For the last hundred years there has been 
a sensible rise in every department of hu- 
man action ; but since the commencement 
of the nineteenth century this rise has as- 
sumed an energy, and extent of bearing, 
unparalleled in the history of the world. 
Never was there such an age, as the one in 
which we live. The human intellect, not 
individually, but by nations — throughout the 
world — has received an impulse which has 
awakened energies, raised a tone of moral 
and mental action and daring, and produced 
combinations, mechanical, scientific, politi- 
cal, moral, and religious, which are now 
shaking, and shall hereafter more powerfully 
agitate the earth from the centre to the cir- 
cumference. The constitution of society 
must undergo a radical and total change : 
and it is yet doubtful whether that change 
will be for the better or for the worse. This 
only we say ; the competent, elementary 
principles of such a revolution are at work 



1831.] 



NECESSITY FOR EXEUTTON. 



17 



among all the nations of the earth ; hut the 
character and hearing of the revolution is 
contingent. The agitation is commenced, 
and the tempest must come ; let the Chris- 
tian world take care boldly to seize upon 
the whirlwind and direct the storm. 

To this bold and glorious effort I call the 
attention of the ministers and members of 
the church of God among us. If there is a 
people in this land that ought to hear this 
call, and obey it promptly, we ai'e that peo- 
ple. It is very probable that the founders 
of our Zion contributed, essentially, to pro- 
duce the mighty impulse which has awaken- 
ed the Avoi'ld, and will bring on the grand 
revolution ; and shall not we, their children, 
take a lively interest in directing it to the 
glory of God ? Others have advanced before 
us, and though we have, as a religious de- 
nomination, probably been Jirst in the origi- 
nal impulse, they are now giving increase 
and direction to the mighty force. I do not 
blame them : I applaud them. But let us 
also come up to this work with unanimity 
and earnestness. 

If there is any one thing that will impede 
us it is this : we are astonished at the suc- 
cess we have had in the world, notwith- 
standing our means have been simple. 
Hence we are tempted to suppose we should 
adhere closely to the beaten path. This 
was not the doctrine of that extraordinary 
man, John Wesley. He expressly says, the 
system of Methodism grew up under the 
influence of circumstances, without design, 
and in obedience to the signs of the times. 
This, then, is the point: let us follow the 
signs of the times, and take advantage of 
them skilfully and successfully, by making- 
such improvements and additions, as the 
grand object we have in view requires. 
And this object is nothing more nor less than 
to direct public opinion, and give it a high 
moral bearing. Let us but reflect properly 
on the simplicity, reasonableness, and energy 
of our doctrines ; and the diffusive nature of 
our institutions ; and we will, in mass, come 
to their aid with all our abilities, physi- 
cal, mental, moral, and pecuniary ; that 
they may have their full effect in moving 
the public mind. The great moral tide is 
up throughout the world, and seems to be 
pausing at its height, in awful suspense 
whither shall be its direction. It is a mo- 
mentous crisis, and the people of the present 
century are charged with the awful respon- 
sibility of deciding its character. Hundreds 
of millions of human beings yet unborn will 
be affectedj throughout their existence, by 
the conduct of the present generation. Such 
is the condition of the world ; — such the rapid 
and extensive diffusion of information; — such 
the strong excitement, sympathies, alliances, 
and combinations, that every act, of every 
human being, makes an estimable impres- 
sion upon the community. Never was there 
an age so favorable for giving full effect to 
every action. Let us seize the opportunity. 
VOL. IV. 3 



Two very important questions present 
themselves: — J^FAo shall act .' What shall 
we do ? Let every human being that has 
a benevolent heail, interested in the good 
of mankind, and anxious ibr the glory of 
God, bring all his powers into action. Jf he 
be eloquent, let him speak and persuade 
men : if he be learned, let him instruct and 
form the human intellect : if he be strong 
and vigorous, let him endure the toils : if he 
be young and unincumbered, let him con- 
secrate himself to distant and dangerous 
service : if he be poor, let him contribute 
his mite : but if he be rich, let him make 
haste to consecrate, liberally, his substance 
to the service of that God who gave it. 
There is yet one other class, on whom, 
especially, I would call to act : those who 
are in easy and independent circumstances, 
retired from business, and therefore at leis- 
ure. Some of them have talents for com- 
position : let them compose tracts, Sunday 
school books, and other such pieces, designed 
to move the hearts of men to great and glo- 
i-ious deeds. Others, and indeed most of 
them, have talents for business, and means 
to aid tliem : let them take a deep interest 
in the finances of the church, and in the 
accomplishment of all her plans : by estab- 
lishing Tract, Bible, and Sunday school de- 
positories ; by becoming directors, and even 
founders and patrons of Sunday schools, ^nd 
other noble and benevolent institutions of 
the church. Let them consecrate their 
talents and time for correspondence, to the 
secretaryships of the great societies of the 
church. 

The second question. What shall we do ? 
would require a volume to answer it, as it 
ought to be answered. Never could the 
words of our Saviour be more truly said of 
any age than this : " The fields are white 
to the harvest." Nay, our brethren of other 
denominations are already in the field, and 
reaping a rich reward. It is our duty, and 
in our power, to emulate them nobly and 
successfully. The elements of the grand 
and combined machinery of an action which 
can be made to communicate an impulse 
throughout the world, are in our hands. It 
is only necessary that these elements be 
well arranged, and that we put them into 
successful operation. The benevolent indi- 
vidual who gives but a single dollar in the 
western wilds, to any of the great societies 
of the church, contributes directly to impart 
an impulse which may, hereafter, move a 
million of human hearts towards God. His 
dollar assisted the Missionary Society to 
place an Indian boy in the mission school, 
in which his heart and mind were formed 
for the work of an apostle to his brethren of 
the woods : or it assisted the Bible Society 
to diffuse the word of God, by w^hich a hun- 
dred men of God have been raised up to do 
the work of an evangelist : or it assisted the 
Sunday School Society to keep up its schools, 
collect the young minds, the hope of future 



18 



INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION. 



Aug. 



generations, provide proper books for them, 
and train thca\ up, possibly, to shape speed- 
ily the moral bearing of the world's immense 
energies : or it assisted the man of God now 
in the field to continue there, by giving to 
him and his family the needed bread of this 
life, while he was breaking the bread of 
eternal life to the flimished world. These 
are some of the things we may do, and, 
thank Heaven, many are doing. But are 
they doing with all their might, and in pro- 
portion to their ability ? Are they, as Mr. 
Wesley said a Christian man must do, giving 
all they can ? 

But 1 am drawn away from my special 
object by the wide field which opened be- 
fore me. I must call up the action of the 
church, in mass, to one grand object : The 
education of our youth, and the youth of 
our country. Our people and our ministry 
must assume a higher rank on this subject. 
Society is rapid in its march onward and 
upway^d. It will leave us unless we rise to 
action. Is it not our business to lead the 
public mind, rather than to be found in the 
rear ? Is not this a duty we owe to the 
world, and to God ? But how shall this be 
done ? The experience of the world, the 
consent of mankind, and the conscience of 
every one must say, one grand means is, to 
give the infant mind the proper cast by 
education. In doing this, we accomplish 
two grand objects : iirst, we save the per- 
sons so educated from infidelity, and eternal 
perdition : secondly, we bring the finest, 
strongest, purest, and best cultivated intel- 
lects into the service of rehgion : the intel- 
lects which have in all ages past, and will 
in all to come, hold, and use the power of 
giving constitution and character to the 
community in which they live. It is only 
within a few years past that my mind has 
been properly awake to the importance of 
this great object; and I am sure it rests on 
the church, preachers, and people, with the 
force of a moral obligation. 

It has been suggested by the editors,* as 
well as by myself, that this matter is a 
necessary measure of defence. I have no 
doubt of it. It is our only preservation, un- 
der God, judging according to human calcu- 
lation. In saying this, I do not blame those 
denominations Avho possess and direct the 
influence of our colleges : they had the 
men — the qualified materials — we had not 
heretofore ; nor have we yet in sufficient 
quantities. To provide these materials, that 
we may have a suitable share in directing 
the public nurseries of learning, compiling, 
and originating the current reading of the 
country, and editing the public journals and 
papers, which give and continue an impulse 
which the whole community feels and obeys ; 
this is one grand object in calling your atten- 
tion to the subject of the erection of colleges 
and academies. 

* Editors Cliristian Advocate and Journal. 



Let us recollect what the legislature in 
each State is doing, in regard to education. 
They are providing literary funds, and 
causing common schools to rise in every 
neighborhood : they are organizing institu- 
tions for the express purpose of qualifying 
teachers. Such is the astonishing excite- 
ment on the subject, that none, who reflect, 
can doubt, but that the business of education 
will rise tenfold in twenty years. And have 
we no interest in this matter ? I know it 
will be said, if the States are engaged in the 
business of education, why need the church 
be concerned ? But let us recollect, it mat- 
ters not who plan an institution, or who fur- 
nish the funds, it will ultimately fall under 
the predominating influence of some de- 
nomination of Christians : this is perfectly 
natural, and flows from the constitution of 
society, and is right and proper. Let us 
then as a people prepare to enjoy a proper 
proportion of the benefit which the States 
confer. 

That we may see the extent and bearing 
of the influence of education, let us look for 
a moment into the history, and products of 
our colleges. There are, probably, fifty 
colleges in the United States, exclusive of 
theological seminaries, in respect to which 
we have not written heretofore, and do not 
now write. In the April number, 1829, of 
the Journal of the American Education So- 
ciety, we have the statistics of about forty 
three colleges, from which the following 
particulars are extracted. The returns are 
not complete from each institution. 

Number of colleges, 43 

Ingtructers in 32 colleges, 217 

Whole num. of students educated in 28 coll. 20,520 
Ministers who were educated at 20 colleges, 4,235 
Students professing religion in 22 colleges, . . 587 
Students assisted by college funds in 15 colleges, 321 
Students assisted by Ed. Societies in 14 colleges, 148 

Now let us look but for a moment at the 
elements of power and influence in these 
few items in the history and products of not 
much more than half the colleges in the 
United States. I tremble at the thought of 
where we are as a church, and the vantage 
ground of those who sometimes give strong 
indications of an inclination to crush us, if 
we cannot follow in their train. 

Add to this that of the 43 presidents of 
these colleges, only two are of us : and of 
the 217 teachers, not 10 are of us. And one 
more fact must not be forgotten : the presi- 
dents are all ministers except three ! ! 
See what a host of superior, and cultivated 
talent, consecrated, and rendered imposing 
by the sanction of religion, lies at the very 
fountains of thought, knowledge, principle, 
morals, and action, for this vast country ! ! 
And can any one doubt what the influence 
which it exerts is ? Nor is that influence 
always either regardless of, or friendly to us. 

The learning and influence of the country 
have been possessed by others by means of 
the colleges ; and thus they have been ena- 
bled to hold their own, and advance. And 



1831.] 



PLAN PROPOSED. 



19 



thoiip;]! wc have kept far in advance in 
iiunil)crs, — yet what could wc oflcct, if we 
should bring their learning and influence to 
co-operate with the pure and heaven-horn 
energy of our doctrines and institutions ? 
Would to heaven my brethren could catcli 
a glimpse of the vision which I see clearly ! 
It is this : Solid and elevated literature 
toill yet combine with pure and undeJiJed 
religion in this country ; and happy, and 
honored of God, will be that people which 
ahall first effect the combination : they will 
literally possess the land ; possibly the 
world. 

At present the prospect stands thus : We 
have the balance of vital religion — others 
the balance of literature. If we carry our 
religion into a combination with their learn- 
ing, we shall gain the prize. But if they 
bring their learning and combine with our 
doctrines and zeal, they have the prize : I 
must confess this is the most likely result. 

There is yet another possibility, nay, pro- 
bability : if we rise up to the interests of 
education, as they are advancing in piety, 
we shall meet, coalesce, and conquer the 
world. My heart almost bursts with joy at 
this prospect, and I challenge the Chiistian 
world to a general amnesty ; to a reciprocity 
of good feeling, and congratulation on mu- 
tual success in the great enterprize of 
conquering the world for the Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

In my last communication I endeavored 
to excite the whole church to action, in 
consideration of the peculiar age in which 
we live. More will be won or lost by this 
and the succeeding generation, in regard to 
the Redeemer's kingdom, than has perhaps 
been in all times past. I feel a sacred emu- 
lation that we should do our part in the 
great Christian enterprizes of the day. I 
have chosen to present the subject and in- 
terests of education to your consideration. 
Others have done and are doing the same. 
Success to every effort. 

I am still more clearly convinced of the 
correctness of the view which was offered 
to the last General Conference through this 
paper, and repeated in these recent com- 
munications. It is deemed by many a great 
misfortune that the measure was not adopted 
then. It is proposed to present this view 
somewhat more in detail ; and we are ena- 
bled to do this the more clearly and confi- 
dently, because of the aid received from a 
free conversation with one of the most dis- 
tinguished citizens of these United States, 
who is deeply interested in the measure. 

The plan is simply this. Let the next 
General Conference take measures to estab- 
lish two superior universities, one in the 
east and one in the west ; and direct each 
annual conference to establish a superior 
academy under its own patronage. All this 
can be done by commissioners appointed by 
the General Conference, in conjunction with 



a similar number of commissioners, (lay 
mend)ers,) to be appointed by the annual 
conferences in the east and west. That is, 
the western commission shall consist of one 
member from each annual conference in the 
west, to be aj)pointcd by the General Con- 
ference, and one commissioner for each an- 
nual conference in the west, which shall be 
a lay-member, and appointed by each annual 
conference. The same in regard to the 
east. Possibly it might be advisable, even 
now, to extend this plan to the south. 

The academies under the patronage of 
the annual conferences could be located by 
commissioners appointed by each confer- 
ence, which should be half of its own 
body, and half from the laity. These com- 
missioners should have full powers to lo- 
cate the institutions, and make all neces- 
sary arrangements for carrying them into 
effect. In their decision they would be in- 
fluenced only by a desire to accomplish the 
greatest possible good. Any institutions 
now in operation might come in competition, 
if they could offer superior advantages. 

There can be no doubt but that such ar- 
rangements, and such commissions from the 
General Conference, would meet with such 
decided approbation as to secure a general 
and liberal subscription throughout the 
church, and among all its friends. In addi- 
tion to this, the competition to procure or 
secure the location of these institutions, 
would warrant, and certainly procure a 
heavy subscription at the point of location. 

It is also necessary to advert to the fact, 
that the more extensive the school, the less 
expensive the education, when considered 
in regard to the number educated. It is 
therefore a matter of economy. 

There is also another vast advantage in 
this measure. It will confer reputation and 
influence by securing the success of the 
graduates, because of the character of the 
institutions from whence they come. In- 
deed, the measure will give elevation, char- 
acter, and weight to the whole connection. 

It must be recollected that this measure 
is advocated on the grounds of expediency 
at this time. It is not intended to confine 
the action to those liiuits any longer than it 
is necessary. As soon as these schools shall 
furnish the materials, it is expected that the 
action will take effect throughout the coun- 
try, and operate on the State institutions in 
proportion to our general interest in the 
country. 

In this measure it is necessary that we 
lay aside all sectional feelings, and act as 
citizens of the world, and members of the 
universal church of Christ. Let our motto 
be, The good of the whole forever. 

We have resources abundantly, if we can 
only inspire confidence enough to call them 
into action. Many among us are able and 
willing to give whole foundations for profes- 
sorships, or possibly, for colleges, if we 
could present them a suitable occasion in 



20 



NATURE OF THE PLAN. 



[Aug. 



which they would be assured their donation 
w^ould take eliect. 

This measure would produce a jterfect 
system. The students would be prepared 
in the diiferent academies to enter the uni- 
versities. The arrangement would produce 
uniformity, which w^ould heighten the ef- 
fect, and have a powerful tendency to bind 
the whole connection together. Let the 
wealthy look into this field of doing good, 
and work while it is day. 

Upon reflection on the above, there is 
reason to beUeve that it would be better 
that the commissioners for the location of 
each institution should be appointed at the 
General Conference, but not 63/ the Gen- 
eral Conference as a body ; but the delega- 
tion from each annual conference should 
elect from their own conference one min- 
ister and one lay member as commissioners. 
The commissioners thus elected by each 
annual conference, associated, form the 
Board. This will have the advantage of 
gaining one whole year in advance. 

When the commissioners are appointed, 
then let the General Conference organize 
an Education Society, and appoint the ne- 
cessary agents, for the purpose of raising 
the necessary funds. Probably it might be 
best to institute one society for each insti- 
tution, and confine its operations to the 
bounds of the conferences united in its 
support. This, however, can be arranged 
at the General Conference. 

Our brethren must not mistake us. We 
do not aim at theological seminaries under 
any form. Nor do we aim at grandeur or 
splendor in our schools. Nor do we wish 
to tax the public in building colleges, when 
every body must see that the United States 
have too many now for the interests of 
education. Their number is great, but few 
are really eminent institutions. There are 
about sixty colleges in the United States, 
and of this number not one in twelve has 
any permanent and extensive celebrity. 

What then do we propose ? We propose 
a plan which is necessary to give elevation, 
influence and character to the church, 
by bringing into its service the power of 
education over the minds of the youth. We 
also propose, by the operation of two or 
three superior institutions, to provide suita- 
ble persons for professorships and presi- 
dencies in the State institutions, to which 
we are more entitled than any people in the 
land, because we are more numerous than 
any other, and have contributed, as they, 
in our commonwealth capacity. We have 
a right, therefore, to an interest in these 
public institutions, corresponding to our in- 
terest as citizens in the commonwealth. 
But we have not the men yet. The above 
plan is to provide them. 

If this plan be adopted, and vigorously 
executed, wc need not continue many years 
to call on the public to aid us in the erec- 
tion of colleges ; but, like some of our sister 



denominations, we shall possess eufficient 
interest in those built by the public to 
answer all our good and reasonable pur- 
poses. I pray you, my brethren, let us 
get in a state of preparation to enjoy our 
privileges as common citizens in this great 
republic. Do but look into my last com- 
munication, and see how small a share we 
have in the public colleges of our country ! 
You will be surprised and mortified. 

It is also well known to us in the west, 
that management has been had to prevent 
the appointment of any from among us as a 
people, to some of the infant institutions in 
the western States, though we have more 
than three times the interest in the country 
that those have who do manage. And 
when such appointments were not made, 
even when properly requested by those 
whose business it was, the reason assigned 
was. We were not able to procure any 
suitable persons from among them ! 



It may not be known to all our readers, that 
tlie leading members of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church have ever been awake to the impor- 
tance of colleges and schools for education. In 
1785, Dr. Coke, ordained by Wesle}' as the 
first Bishop of the American Methodist church 
came to the United States. Soon after, in con- 
nection with Bishop Asbury, he determined to 
establish a school or college. Four acres of 
land were purchased, at £60, twenty-eight miles 
from Baltimore, and a college was founded, 
named, after its founders, Cokesbury college. 
An able President was obtained, and a good mas- 
ter, and in the course of a few years, the institution 
acquired so much repute, that young men from 
the southern States, came there to finish their 
education. By the rules of the college, the 
students were to rise at five, summer and winter. 
At six, they were to assemble for prayer, and 
the interval, till seven, was allowed for recrea- 
tions ; such as gardening, walking, riding, and 
bathing; and within doors, the carpenters', join- 
ers', cabinet makers', and turners' business. 
Nothing like play was permitted. In 1792, the 
college was set on fire, and burnt to the ground, 
with its apparatus and library. Soon after, a 
large building in Baltimore, which had been in- 
tended for balls and assemblies, was purchased, 
with all the premises belonging to it, for £5,300. 
This college was more successful than the first, 
but unhappily it shared the same fate, being 
burnt, together with a neighboring church, in 
1797. By both fires the Methodists lost £10,000. 
No efforts were made to rebuild the establish- 
ment. 

An attempt was early commenced to found a 
college in Georgia, to be named Wesley col- 
lege, but it did not succeed.* 



*See Southey's Lifs of Wesley, Am. edit. vol. ii. 
pp. 326, 327. 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE: 

A VI E W 



HISTORY, RESOURCES, AND PRESENT MORAL AND POLITICAL CONDITION 
OF GREAT BRITAIN, HER COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES. 



1831. 



INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS. 

" Great Britain," says the Baron Charles Dupin, " presents a spectacle un- 
exampled in history. In Europe, the British empire borders on Denmark, 
Germany, the Netherlands and France, in the north ; on Spain, Sicily, Italy, 
in the south ; it commands the outlet of the Black Sea, and of the Baltic. In 
America, it touches Russia and the United States, and stands in presence of 
the new republics of the south. Between these two continents and on the 
route of both of them to Asia, she holds the rock where her hands have chained 
the modern Prometheus. In Africa, she holds in check the Barbary powers, 
and watches over the safety of the negro nations. Beyond, where the Portu- 
guese found only a watering place, and the Dutch constituted a plantation, 
she has created a new British people. The conquests of her merchants 
in Asia begin where those of Alexander ended, and where the Roman 
Terminus never reached. From the banks of the Indus to the frontiers of 
China, the country is ruled by a mercantile company in a narroAv street of 
London. Thus, by the vigor of her institutions, and the perfection of her arts, 
an island, which, in the Oceanic Archipelago, would hardly rank in the third 
class, extends the influences of her industry and her poAver to the extremities 
of the four divisions of the globe, and, in the fifth, peoples and civilizes regions, 
which will follow her laws, speak her language, adopt her manners, her com- 
merce, her arts, and her literature. This immense dispersion of colonies, which 
would ruin any other nation, constitutes the strength of the British empire." 

The authority of Britain extends over two thirds of the globe in reference to 
longitude ; and it is literally true that the sun never sets upon her possessions ; 
for within this vast range, various places have noon and midnight at the same 
moment. Stretching also from the arctic circle to the thirty-third degree of 
south latitude, the four seasons are experienced within her dominions at the 
same time.^ 

"The immense magnitude of the Roman empire might well have justified the 
Roman pride. It covered a million and a half of square miles of the finest 
portion of the globe. Stretching three thousand miles, from the Atlantic to the 
Euphrates ; and two thousand miles, from the northern borders of Dacia to the 
tropic of Cancer ; it was the seat of all the choicest fertility, beauty, and wealth 
of the world. Imagination sinks under the idea of this prodigious power in the 

* EncyclopEedia Americana, vol. v. p. 588. 



'21 EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES. [AuG. 

hands of a sing'Ie nation, and that nation in the hands of a single man. But 
another paramount dominion was yet to be created of a totally different nature ; 
less compact, yet not less permanent ; less directly wearing the shape of au- 
thority, yet, perhaps, still more irresistible ; and in extent, throAving- the power of 
Rome out of all comparison — the British empire. Its sceptre is influence."* 



I. EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES. 

The term, Great Britain, was first applied to England, Wales, and Scotland, at the 
accession of James L to the throne of England. It did not become common till the days 
of Queen Anne. In addition to these three countries, the British Empire embraces Ire- 
land ; the islands in the British Seas, as Guernsey, Man, Jersey ; the fortress of Gibral- 
tar ; Malta; the protectorship of the Ionian islands ; British India ; the African colonies ; 
North American British dominions ; West Indies ; South American dominions ; Australia. 
Hanover, in Germany, does not belong to the British empire, but to the male line of 
the present royal family. The island of Great Britain lies on the west of the continent 
of Europe, and extends from about 50° to 58° 30' north latitude; and from 2° of east 
longitude from Greenwich, to 6° of west. It is about 580 miles in length, from north to 
south, and 370 in its greatest breadth from east to west. It is separated from the con- 
tinent by the English channel and the German ocean. The North sea washes the north- 
ern shores. Ireland is separated from it by St. George's channel, the Irish sea, and the 
Atlantic ocean. It has a large number of good harbors, on account of the great irregu- 
larity of the coasts. Including the windings caused by the indentations of the sea, the 
circuit has been estimated at 1,800 miles, and the area at 87,000 square miles. Ireland 
is the most western land in Europe, except Iceland. The body of water which separates 
it from England, varies in breadth from 40 to 120 miles. The greatest length of Ireland 
is 306 miles, and the greatest breadth 182 miles. 



II. CIVIL. HISTORY. 



The earliest population of Britain is generally believed to have been Celtic. To the 
Celtic succeeded the Gothic. Long before the Christian era, the Scythians or Goths, 
advancing from Asia, drove the Cimbri, or Northern Celts, before them, and seized on 
that part of Gaul, which is nearest Great Britain, where they acquired the provincial 
denomination of Belgce. These Belgse may justly be regarded as the chief ancestors of 
the English nation. The Saxons, who made the second conquest of England, were small 
in numbers. From the two Gothic dialects of the conquerors and the conquered, sprung 
the Anglo Saxon, the parent of our English language. The Britons, at the time of 
Caesar's arrival, hke the Gauls, from whom they sprung, were divided into many petty 
kingdoms. Tacitus says, " It was rare that even two or three of them united against a 
common enemy." Hence they were easily conquered. Britain was the great sanctuary 
of Druidism. The Druids were the law-makers, the physicians, the poets and philoso- 
phers of their country. No public affair could be transacted without their sanction. 
Their ceremonies were equally inhuman and mysterious. The Britons, though savages 
in point of art and industry, are respectfully spoken of by several Roman historians in 
regard to moral and intellectual character. 

About fifty-five years before the Christian era, Julius Cassar determined to add Britain 
to his empire. On the morning of the 25th of August, A. C. 55, he landed near Dover, 
with two legions. His progress was warmly contested, and but little footing was gained 
on the island. In the following year, Cassar returned with five legions, and reduced the 
country to submission. In the reign of Vespasian, Agricola, the ablest and best of all the 
Roman governors, who knew how to retain with the humane policy of a statesman, what 
he had won by his bravery as a soldier, entirely subjugated the island. His fleet sailed 
round Scotland, and subdued the Orcades. He did much to civilize the Britons. He 
taught the youth of their nobility the language and sciences of Rome, and encouraged 
ornamental as well as useful public works. He was all the benefactor to Britain that a 
conqueror could be. After this time the island is seldom noticed by the Roman historians. 
In A. D. 218, Severus erected a stone wall, from the Solway to the Tyne, on a system so 
permanent, that the foundations are to this day to be seen. During the decline of the 
Roman empire, great disorders were experienced in Britain. The Picts, Scots, and other 

* Croly's Georgo IV. 



1831.] 



CIVIL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. 



23 



barbarians, poured in upon all quarters, and ravap;cd tbc country. About tbc year A. D. ^120, 
or 55 years after tbe invasion of Julius Ca;sar, tbe Romans took their linal (lci)arturc froiri 
the island. In tbc year 449, the Saxons from tbe North of Germany, under Hengist and 
Horsa, came to the aid of the Britons, against the Scots and Picts, who were desolating 
the fairest portions of the island. From auxiliaries they became conquerors of the 
natives, and reduced the Britons to submission. Hengist fixed his royal seat at Canter- 
bury, and after reigning forty years, he died about tbe year 488. Multitudes Hocked over 
from Germany, and the natives were driven to the fastnesses of Cornwall and of Wales. 
After a violent struggle of near 150 years, the Heptarchy, or seven Saxon kingdoms, of 
Kent, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia, Essex, and Northumberland, were estab- 
lished. After about 200 years of almost continual dissension among these Stales, Egbert, 
king of Wessex, united them into one great State. This was about the year 827. The 
first appearance of the Danes in England was in the year 787. Ethelwolf, the son and 
successor of Egbert, was unable to resist the torrent of Danes, who poin-ed into the 
island ; and they firmly established themselves in the islands, Thanet and Shepey. 
Ethelhald and Ethelhert succeeded their father. The former soon dying, Etbclbert 
became sole master of the kingdom. In 866, he was succeeded by his brother Ethelred. 
His brother Alfred succeeded at the age of 22 years. His reign began with war. The 
Danes had overrun the kingdom, and treated the inhabitants with tbe greatest cruelty 
and scorn. Alfred soon brought them to submission. The more turbulent retired to 
Flanders, and England enjoyed a state of tranquillity. This period was wisely improved 
by Alfred. He rebuilt and strongly fortified the city of London, established a regular 
militia, and built a fleet of 120 ships. After a reign of about thirty years, he died, in the 
full strength of his faculties, a blessing to his country, and an ornament to mankind. 

He is deservedly esteemed the greatest and best man of bis age, and the founder of the 
English monarchy. His son Edward, denominated the Elder, inherited the kingdom 
and military genius of his father. Edward reigned 24 years, and his son Athelstan suc- 
ceeded him, Edmund, Edred, Edwy, Edgar, and Edward II. successively took posses- 
sion of the throne. In this period flourished the notorious Dunstan, Abbot of Canterbury. 
In the latter part of his life he acquired a high reputation for sanctity and devotion, by 
his numerous austerities. By his means the controversy about the celibacy of the clergy 
was fiercely agitated, and was the means of almost rending the kingdom in sunder. The 
monks, with Dunstan at their head, were arrayed against the secular clergy — at that 
time a powerful body. On the death of Edward II., the Danes again made incursions 
into the kingdom. In tbe reign of Ethelred, the successor of Edward, there was a gen- 
eral massacre of the Danish troops throughout England. Edmund Ironside, the son of 
Ethelred, was compelled to divide his kingdom with Canute, king of the Danes. On the 
assassination of Edmund, Canute took possession of the whole kingdom. He reigned 18 
years, with great reputation as a moderate and impartial ruler. His sons, Harold and 
Hardicanute, reigned successively, for short periods. They were the last of the Danish 
race. Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred, was called to the vacant throne, by the 
unanimous wish of the nation. Some time before his death, he made William, Duke of 
Normandy, heir to his throne. This was disputed by Harold, son of one of the English 
earls, whose daughter Edward had married. The English and Normans met on the field 
at Hastings. Harold was slain, and his army totally defeated. The victory was dearly 
earned. The Normans lost 15,000 warriors. William, for a few years, was popular ; but 
at length, by a series of oppressive measures, which destroyed the very semblance of 
English liberty, he became in the highest degree odious. He attempted to obliterate the 
name of Englishmen, by the destruction of their language. The French was the lan- 
guage of the Court and of law, and it was ordered to be taught in schools. He made a 
general survey of all the lands in the kingdom, the record of which is still preserved,, 
and called the Domesday book. William II., surnamed Rufus, succeeded his father. 
Ambition and avarice were the principal features in his character. He was constantly 
harassed by insurrections. He was accidentally killed, in the 40th year of his age. 
His brother Henry succeeded to the throne. After he had gained the summit of his 
wishes, and had secured a profound tranquillity throughout his dominions, he was severely 
afflicted by the death of his only son AViUiam, who was drowned. When Henry heard 
of the disaster, he fainted, and never laughed after. He died in the 67th year of his age, 
and was succeeded by his grandson Henry /., surnamed Beau-derc, or the scholar. By 
his prudence, talents and bravery, he would have shone in any sphere. Though he pos- 
sessed the prejudices of his family against the native English, yet the tranquillity of his 
English dominions was never once disturbed. 

Henry was succeeded by Stephen, grandson of William, the conqueror. The next 
sovereign who ascended the throne, was Henry Plantagenet, or Henry II., son of Ma- 
tilda, the sister of Stephen. Henry, at the time of his accession, was the ablest and 
most powerful sovereign in Europe. He was master of above a third of the w^hole French 
monarchy. His reign was in many respects useful and prosperous. The abuses, in 
the ecclesiastical establishment, which had now become enormous, and which Henry 



24 SKETCH OF ENGLISH HISTORY. [AuG. 

attempted to remove, were the source of much trouble. More money was drawn from 
the people, by the priests, in the way of penances, than was produced by all the funds 
and taxes in the kingdom. The efforts of Henry to reduce the power of the priests were 
severely contested, especially by Becket, archbishop of Canterbury. This ambitious and 
haughty prelate was at length assassinated. Heniy was severely tried by the undutiful 
conduct of his sons, who several times conspired against him. Though he was guilty of 
some very reprehensible conduct, yet perhaps no monarch ever extended his dominions 
so far, with so little violence and injustice. 

Midiard I., surnamed dew de Lion, on account of his bravery, succeeded his father 
Henry. He passed several years in Palestine, in the crusades against the infidels. On 
his return, he was thrown into prison by the emperor of Germany, from which he was 
released only by the payment of a heavy ransom. He was generous and sincere, but 
cruel, haughty, and ambitious. 

John, his younger brother, was his successor on the throne. His character included 
almost every vice that belongs to our nature. He was involved in a long controversy 
with the Pope, by whom he was excommunicated. The subjects of John were also at 
one time absolved from all allegiance to him. He was received again into favor by the 
most abject submissions. What principally distinguishes his I'eign was the obtaining of 
the Magjya Charta, (at Runnemede,) which secured very important powers and 
privileges to every order of men in the kingdom. 

Henry III., the son and successor of John, was gentle, humane, but without activity 
and vigor. He was so fickle and irresolute, that men neither valued his friendship, nor 
dreaded his resentment. His life was a series of vexations. The Pope was in fact the 
controlling power in England. The Barons were, at the same time, opposed to the king 
and to the Pope, and to the best interests of the people. 

Edicard I., his son, ascended the throne on the death of Henry. He possessed great 
military courage and ability, but some of his actions were stained with cruelty. He 
made a complete conquest of Wales, Sensible how much traditionary poetry and music 
are calculated to keep alive the idea of national valor and glory, he assembled together all 
the Welsh bards, and ordered them to be put to death. He died in the 35th year of his 
reign, and 69th of his age. The many wise statutes which he enacted, obtained for him 
the appellation of the EngUsh Justinian. His violent and arbitrary temper was the occa- 
sion of much trouble, and sometimes brought him to the brink of ruin. 

His son, Edivard II., was a most unfortunate and weak prince. Indolence and attach- 
ment to favorites were the great blemishes in his character. His queen was unfaithful to 
him, took up arms against him, caused him to sign his own resignation, and to complete 
the horrible work, procured at last his assassination. 

The reign of Edivard III, the next king of England, is one of the longest and most 
glorious in her annals. He curbed the licentious spirits of the nobles, by the prudence 
and vigor of his administration ; and gained their affections by his affability and munifi- 
cence. His foreign wars were very expensive and unnecessary. At the battle of 
Cressy, he left 36,000 of his enemies dead on the field. His queen, Philippa, is a noble 
example of courage, generosity, and conjugal fidelity. His son Edward, Prince of Wales, 
called the Black Prince, from the color of his armor, won all hearts by his affability, kind- 
ness, and moderation ; and the many eminent virtues, which he possessed, would have 
rendered him an ornament to any age or country. He died of a consumption. 

Richard II., the son of the Black Prince, ascended the throne of his grandfather, when 
only twelve years of age. His reign, and the succeeding reigns, were distracted with 
constant troubles and insurrections. Richard, during his whole fife, was the dupe of 
worthless favorites. He was weak and pusillanimous, his errors proceeding more from 
the head than from the heart. He was dethroned and assassinated in the 34th year of 
his age. 

Henry IV., Duke of Lancaster, usurped the throne. His father, the Duke of Lan- 
caster, was the great patron of the Wicklitfites, or Lollards of England. He was under- 
stood to have been educated in the principles of the Reformation, but on his elevation to 
the throne, he made his faith yield to his interest. He obtained an act of Parliament 
against the Lollards, by whicli it was enacted, that if any heretic should relapse, or re- 
fuse to abjure his opinions, he should be delivered over to the civil magistrate, by the 
church, and be committed to the flames before all the people. 

Henry V. came to the throne with the tide of popularity flowing full in his favor. 
His youth had been marked with many extravagances, but on ascending the throne, he 
exhibited great firmness, moderation, and propriety of deportment. His conduct, how- 
ever, towards the Protestants, is a strong and most melancholy exception. Lord Cobham, 
a man of valor and abilities, but a follower of Wickliffe, was hanged, and his body burned 
on the gibbet. Henry died in the zenith of his glory, in the 34th year of his age. In 
magnanimity and true greatness of soul, he has been surpassed by very few of the kings 
of England, 

In the reign of Henry VL, commenced the bloody wars between the houses of York 



1831.] SKETCH OF ENGLISH HISTORY. 25 

and Lancaster. This fatal quarrel, which lasted nearly thirty years, was signalized ly 
twelve pitched battles ; and 80 princes of the blood are computed to have perished in the 
field, or on (he scaffold. The ensign of the house of Lancaster was a red rose, that of 
York a white one ; and the civil wars were known Ihrougbout Europe, under the name 
of the quarrel between tlic two roses. At one ba((le, ;J6,0()0 J.ancastrians were slain. 
Several monsters in wickedness led the forces of the two parties. " The character of 
Edward IL," says an elegant writer, " is easily summed up: his good qualities were 
courage and beauty ; his bad qualities — every vice. The hisiory of England, during his 
reign, was a history of blood. Richard IIL, who perished at Bosworth!^ waded through 
blood to his throne ; he considered no enormity too gi-eat, and no action too mean, 
provided it led him to the object of his ambition." His body and mind were equally 
deformed. 

Henry VII. was, next to Alfred, politically, the most useful prince, who had at that 
time swayed the English sceptre. He commenced the English navy, by building a ship 
which cost £14,000. He effected a great and beneficial change in the state of the 
kingdom, by enacting many wise and salutary laws. Towards the close of life, he 
applied himself with great earnestness to acts of justice and benevolence. He paid the 
debts of all persons, who were imprisoned in London for small sums. He directed two 
thousand masses to be said for his soul within a month after his decease. 

The reign of Henry VIII. was eventful in the highest degree. The Papal power in 
England received its death blow. The king was acknowledged io be the only supreme 
head on earth of the Church of England ; and all tithes, which had been paid to the 
See of Rome, reverted to him. This renunciation of the Papal authority, was imme- 
diately in consequence of the Pope's refusing to annul the marriage of Henry with 
Catharine of Spain At different times, Henry suppressed 645 monasteries, 90 colleges, 
2,-374 chantries and free chapels, and 110 hospitals. A new translation of the Bible was 
made, and permitted at first to be freely circulated. At the same time, with a caprice 
and levity which were very characteristic of Henry, some of the most revolting dogmas 
of the Romish church were maintained with unrelenting pertinacity. This conduct gave 
occasion to the remark, that, " in England, those who were against the Pope, were 
burned, and those v/ho were for him, were hanged." Henry died in the 56th year of 
his age, and the 38th of his reign. He possessed great vigor of mind, and an extensive 
capacity. But his vices comprehend some of the worst qualities of human nature. He 
had an insatiable love of pleasure, and a radical cruelty of disposition. He married suc- 
cessively six wives, two of whom were beheaded, and two were divorced. 

Edward 777., the son of Henry VIH. and Jane Seymour, succeeded to the throne. Dur- 
ing his short reign, the Reformation was greatly advanced, especially by the influence of his 
minister, the Duke of Somerset, and the excellent Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Somerset was an able counsellor, a man of courage, and obviously influenced by religious 
considerations. Unhappily, the true principles of religious liberty were scarcely known 
yet, and the Protestants were guilty of persecution in its last forms at the stake. Ed- 
ward VI. died at sixteen years of age, universally lamented. He possessed uncommon 
sagacity, great mildness of disposition, and true piety. He never signed the orders of 
execution against any party without tears in his eyes. 

The bloody Mary next ascended the throne. She possessed few qualities that were 
either estimable or amiable. With the exception of the single virtue of sincerity, her 
character was a complication of the most odious vices, of obstinacy, tyranny, malignity, 
and revenge. In three years, 277 persons were burnt at the stake ; among whom were 
Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, Bishops Ridley, Hooper, Ferrar, and Latimer, 21 
clergymen, 55 women, and 4 children. The marriage of Mary with Philip of Spain, 
rendered her exceedingly unpopular. She died of a fever, in the sixth year of her reign, 
and in the 43d of her age, and was succeeded by Elizabeth, daughter of Henry, by Ann 
Boleyn. Elizabeth was in the 25th year of her age. She had been imprisoned by Mary, 
and had carefully improved her opportunities to cultivate her mind. The principles of 
the Reformation were now completely established, and the public system of religion was 
placed in nearly the same state in which it is at present. The people were now Protes- 
tants from inclination. Of 9,400 beneficed clergymen, only about 120 quitted their pre- 
ferments on account of the Reformation. In point of vigor, steadiness, magnanimity, and 
penetration, EUzabeth may stand a comparison with any sovereign in any age of the 
world. She at the same time exhibited some of the greatest moral weaknesses. She 
was vain, deficient in sympathy, jealous, and ungovernable in her passions. Her treat- 
ment of Mary of Scotland, is an indelible stain on her character. The progress of the 
English nation, during her reign, in arts, arms, science, commerce and agriculture, is 
unparalleled in history. The English language was essentially improved. It has been 
called the Augustan age in EngUsh literature. 

Elizabeth was succeeded by James VI. of Scotland, and /. of England, son of Mary of 
Scotland. From the period of his accession, the history of both kingdoms is united. 
The early history of Scotland is enveloped in darkness. The Celts were, probably, 

VOL. IV. 4 



26 HISTORY OF SCOTLAND GREAT BRITAIN. [AuG. 

the first settlers. The Romans hivaded Scotland, A. D. 75. The length of the Roman 
wall, erected under Antoninus, and which was repaired by Severus, was 63,980 yards. 
After the Romans left Britain, the Picts became the most potent people in the north of 
Caledonia. A list of their kings, 40 in number, reigning from 500 to 843, is preserved. 
The Scots came from Ireland in 503. Chalmers gives a catalogue of 50 Scottish kings, 
who reigned frojn 503 to 1097. The Scots and Picts were united about 843. In the 
reign of Edward I. of England, a violent contest arose, in regard to the succession to the 
Scottish throne. Edward was chosen vimpire, and immediately took measures, which 
secured to himself the power of Scotland. In a short time, however, arose Sir William 
Wallace, who, in connection with Sir William Douglas, and young Robert Bruce, finally 
achieved the deliverance of Scotland. After a series of heroic actions, Wallace was de- 
feated at Falkirk, and was soon after taken and executed. Scotland was again reduced 
under the dominion of England. Robert Bruce soon appeared in arms, and the people 
flocked around him in defence of their country. The forces of Edward II., who had suc- 
ceeded to the English throne, met the Scots under Bruce, near Bannockburn, and were 
totally defeated. Brace became sole master of Scotland. The history of Scotland, be- 
fore its union with England, presents little but a series of troubles, of border warfare, of 
insurrection, and sometimes of complete anarchy. At the accession of James VI., the son 
of the unfortunate Mary, the kingdom was in a miserable condition. Assassination and 
murder were perpetrated with impunity. The belief in sorcery and witchcraft was 
general. At length Queen Elizabeth died, and James quietly took possession of the 
British throne. James reigned 13 years over Scotland, and 22 over Great Britain, and 
died at the age of 59. He was a very unpopular monarch. He was vain, weak, acces- 
sible to flatterers, arbitrary in his principles, and so devoted to episcopacy, as to thoroughly 
disgust and alienate many classes of his subjects. The colonization of North America, is 
the most memorable circumstance in James's reign. Elizabeth had done little more than 
give a name to Virginia. 

Charles L inherited the throne, and unhappily, the same principles in government, as 
had actuated his father. His life was terminated on the scaffold. There were some 
amiable traits in his character. His conduct at his trial and execution was calm and 
dignified, and calculated to excite a deep compassion. He was, notwithstanding, strikingly 
deficient in those qualities which were indispensable in a king at that stormy period. 
He lacked prudence, foresight, independence of mind, frankness, and knowledge of men. 
At the same time the Parliament that opposed him and procured his execution, in many 
of their measures in the latter j^ears of Charles's life, were as arbitrary, and reckless of 
right and of the Constitution, as the king himself. 

Oliver Cromwell, a distinguished leader in opposition to Charles, succeeded to the 
chief authority, under the title of Protector. Cromwell was a man of consummate ability 
in the cabinet and in the field. His name struck terror into every part of Europe. The 
Dutch were completely humbled at sea. The fortresses of Tunis, and every ship in the 
harbor, were torn in pieces by his artillery. Spanish ships of immense value were burnt 
under the very guns of the castles which defended them. At the same time his domestic 
administration was upright. In England, he had Matthew Hale for a judge. In Scot- 
land, the decisions of his judges were long remembered as the purest and most vigorous 
dispensation of justice which the nation had enjoyed. He maintained a national church, 
which was liberal in its character, being neither Episcopal nor Presbyterian. The most 
contradictory accounts of his private character meet us on the page of the historian. 
That he was free from faults, no one will affirm. That some of his measures were arbi- 
trary, no one will deny. But that he was governed by a sincere desire to promote the 
true glory of his country, and that his private life was marked by distinguished virtues, is 
apparent to every unprejudiced observer. He died Sept. 3, 1658. His son Richard 
succeeded him for a short time. Principally by the influence of Gen, Monk, Charles II. 
was called to the throne in less than a year after the death of Oliver Cromwell. The 
character of Charles is well described in the following passage. " He was the secret 
pensioner of France and a traitor to the liberties of England, selfish beyond the semblance 
of benevolence, and voluptuous without the decency of shame. His court was filled with 
the companions of his pleasures and the panders of his impurity. His reign was disaster, 
his name is infamy."* Charles died at the age of 55, and was succeeded by his brother, 
James 11. To the joy of both hemispheres this miserable dynasty came to an end. The 
Prince of Orange, a branch of the house of Nassau, was invited to the throne. The reign 
of William (Mary his consort vs^as associated with him in the government) was prosper- 
ous. His mind was ever intent on great designs. He had a sound judgment, fertile in- 
vention, calmness in danger, fidelity, and a strong attachment to public liberty. Mary, 
who died several years before him, was an amiable and excellent woman, William was 
succeeded by the Princess Anne, who had married George, Prince of Denmark. She 
ascended the throne in the 38th year of her age. The power of the British arms was 

* Christian Spectator, Sept. 1829. 



1831.] SKETCH OF BRITISH HISTORY. 27 

carried to an liithcrto unparalleled height, by the Duke of Marlborough, and Prince 
Eugene, in the wars against France. The most important event of this reign was the 
union, which took place between (he kingdoms of England and Scotland, in 1706. By 
this it was agreed that the two kingdoms should be forever subject to one crown and 
Parliament, should enjoy the same privileges, and be subject to the same regulations in 
trade. Anne was the last of the race of the Stuarts, llie succession was secured to the 
widow of the Elector of Hanover, Sophia, grand-daugliter of James I. The Elnglish 
national debt was now increased to more than £50,000,000. Anne died Aug. 12, 1714, 
and was succeeded by George I., son of Sophia of Hanover. He reigned from 1714 to 
1727. The nation was now divided into whigs and tories. The former were led by Sir 
liobert Walpole, and were strongly opposed to the Stuart family. George died of the 
apoplexy, June 22, 1727. The principal defect in his character was an excessive par- 
tiality to his German dominions. 

George 11. succeeded to the throne. He continued all the alliances of his father, and 
his plan of maintaining the balance of power in Europe. In 1739, a commercial war 
was carried on against Spain. Soon after^ England was involved in a war with France. 
At the same time, the grandson of James H. made two attempts to restore the family of 
Stuarts to the British throne. He was totally defeated at Culloden, in 1746. A general 
peace took place in 1750. In 1758, the seven years' war against France was com- 
menced, in which Canada was wrested from France, and great possessions acquired in 
the East Indies. 

George II. died in 1760, and was succeeded by his grandson, George III. Never did 
a king ascend a throne under more favorable circumstances. The purity of his private 
life, and the affability of his manners, inspired the most sanguine hopes of the prosperity 
of his reign. In 1763, a period was put to the JVench war. The national debt was 
increased to £145,000,000. The British navy amounted to 374 ships of war ; the crews 
were reckoned at 100,000, and the ordnance at more than 14,000 pieces. Capt. Cook 
greatly extended the interests of science and navigation, by his voyages round the world. 
In 1775, a war, instigated by the weak and wicked measures of the British ministry, was 
commenced with the thirteen North American Colonies. In 1783, peace was concluded, 
and the independence of the Colonies acknowledged. England was a gainer by this 
event. She was no longer at the expense of protecting them, and she derived great 
advantages from their trade. The national debt was increased to £240,000,000. Soon 
after, the Fiench revolution commenced, which shook the whole civilized world to its 
foundations. It was a contest among the nations for life or death. The war raged, with 
short intermissions, from 1793 to 1815. The English naval force was spread over every 
ocean. Its power was felt in Egypt, at the gates of Copenhagen, in both the Indies. 
The armies of Britain triumphed in Syria, subdued the French power in Spain, called a 
new empire into existence in Southern Asia, and annihilated the power of the Colossus of 
modern times, on the fields of Flanders. The most eminent men who led her navies, 
were Howe, Collingwood, and Nelson ; her armies, Wellington ; and her councils, Chat- 
ham and Pitt. All the wars on the European continent, which were undertaken against 
the revolution, and against the empire, were begun by England, and supported by 
English gold. 

Since 1815, the policy of England has been pacific. She has a debt, whose capital 
amounts to more than 40 years' revenue of the kingdom. Frugality has been the first 
law of the government since 1815. For several years, the British government have 
withdrawn very much from interference with continental politics. The peace produced 
such a stagnation of business, that great distress was produced among many of the work- 
ing classes in Britain. By firm and moderate measures, on the part of government, these 
excesses were quieted. 

George HI. died in 1820. He had suffered, for several years, a mental alienation, 
which totally incapacitated him for business, and the government was administered by a 
Regency. George was not a man of great abilities, but he was possessed of that which 
is of far greater moment, an estimable moral character, and a sincere regard to true 
piety. His influence on public morality was most decisive and salutary. About the 
time of his death, his daughter in law, the wife of the Prince Regent, (George IV.) was 
most unfortunately brought to a public trial. She had been separated several years from 
her husband. However unjustifiable her conduct had been in several instances, yet the 
trial, and the developements made at it, were still more disgraceful to the ministry, who 
were the authors of it. 

George IV. died on the 26th of June, 1830. He had considerable powers of mind, and 
much good humor ; but the greater part of his life was passed in a profligacy, condemned 
by all good men, and least of all justifiable in a prince. In his reign, the Corporation 
and Test acts were abolished. The Corporation act prevented any person from being 
legally elected to any office belonging to the government of any city or corporation in 
England, unless he had, within the twelvemonth preceding, received the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England ; and enjoined him to 



28 



LIST OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



[Aug. 



take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy when he took the oath of office. The Test 
act required all officers, civil and military, 'to take the oaths against transubstantiation, in 
the court of king's bench, or chancery, within six months after their admission ; and also 
to receive the sacrament of the Supper, according to the usage of the Church of England, 
in some public church. In 1S2S, both were abolished. 

On the 10th of April, 1S29, a relief bill, abolishing the civil disabilities on Roman 
Catholics, was carried through the Commons by Mr. Peel, with a majority of 178; and 
tlu-ough the Lords by the Duke of Wellington, with a majority of 104. By this bill, 
Catholics are eligible to all offices of state, excepting the lord chancellorships of England 
and Ireland, the lord lieutenancy of Ireland, the office of regent of the United Kingdom, 
and that of high commissioner to the Church of Scotland. They are still denied the 
right of presentation to livings, and all places connected with the ecclesiastical courts and 
establishment. 

On the 2Sth of June, 1830, William Henry, Duke of Clarence, succeeded to the 
throne of England. 

In tlie autiunn of 1S30, after the revolutionary movements on the continent of Europe, 
much excitement occurred in England. The ministry, of which the Duke of WelUngton 
w^as head, became unpopular ; and on a debate in the house of Commons, (Nov. 15,) 
respecting the civil list, the majority against the ministry was 29. The ministry imme- 
diately resigned, and a new one was formed, at the head of which is Earl Grey. Mr. 
Brougham was appointed Lord Chancellor ; Lord Goderich, Secretary of the Colonial 
Department ; the Marquis of Anglesey, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; Lord Althorpe, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, &c. A plan of reform in the representation in the house 
of Commons was soon introduced by the new ministry. A small majority proved to be in 
opposition to the measure, whereupon the king, vv'ith great promptitude, dissolved the 
house, and a new election was ordered. In the result of this election, intense interest 
has been felt. A large majority of members in favor of reform, has been returned. 
These events have secured an unbounded popularity for king William. What the final 
results of these extraordinary movements will be, are known only to Him who doeth his 
pleasure among the inhabitants of the earth. 

Some of the principal facts in the foregoing sketch are here embodied in a tabular form, 
for the sake of convenient reference. 



Name. 


Length 
ofreigri 


Died. 


Manner of 
death. 


General Remarks. 


Saxon Line. 










Egbert, 


11 


838 


Died. 


A brave and prudent king. 


Eihehvolf, 


20 


858 


Died. 


Weak, superstitious. 


Ethelbald, 


3 


860 


Died. 


Profligate. 


Ethelbert, 


G 


866 




Reigned well, disturbed by the Danes, 


Elheired L 


5 


871 


Killed in batt. 


Brave, constantly harassed. 


Alfred the Great, 


2S 


899 


Died. 


Pre-eminent in virtue, and capacity to govern. 


Edward the Ekier, 


25 


924 




Military genius, continual wars. 


Athelstan, 


16 


941 


Died. _ 


x4!)le, active. 


Edmund I. 


7 


948 


Assassinated. 


Killed at dinner by a robber, brave. 


Edred; 


7 


955 


Died. 


Very sijperstitiou.s, under the swayof Dunstan. 


Edvvy, 


4 


959 




Amiable, very unfortunate. 


Edgar, 


IG 


975 


Died. 


Yevy licentious, guilty of murder. 


Edward Martyr, 


3 


978 


Murdered. 


Amiable, assassinated by the vile Elfrida. 


Etiielred 11. 


37 


1015 




Properly surnamed Unready. 


Swejii, Dane, 


G mo. 


1015 




Fierce, brave. 


Edmund Ironside, 






Murdered. 


Brave, not able to save his country. 


Danish Line. 










Canute (he Great, 


19 


1036 


Died. 


Impartial, popular, wise, powerful. 


Harold I. 


4. 


1040 




Unlaraented,no virtue cxceplspeedin running. 


Llardicanute, 


3 


1043 


Died. 


Debauched, licentious, weak. 


Saxons, restored. 










Edwarti the Confessor, 


24 


1065 




Weak, irresolute, frigid, superstitious. 


Harold II. 




1066 


Killed, 


At Hastings, able, beloved. 


P^ORMANS. 










William I., Conqueror, 
William 11., Rufus, 


21 


1087 


Died. 


Great hunter, cruel, ambitious, vigorous. 


13 


1100 


Killed. 


Ambitious, avaricious, perfidious. 


Henry I., Ecauclerc, 


35 


1135 




Great scholar, able, aUached to favorites. 


Stephen, 


19 


1154 


Killed. 


Powerful, unfortunate, courageous. 


rr>ANTAGENI-,TS. 










Henry 11. 


35 


1109 


Died. 


Brave, affectionate, wretched in his children. 


Richard I., Cof'in- do lion, 


11 


1199 Killed. 


Crusader, haughty, cruel, generous. 


John Lackland, 


17 


1216 Died. 


Weak, passionate, wretched. 


Ilenry 111. 


56 


12721 Died. 


Irresolute, gentle, humane. 


Eflward I. 


35 


1.307 


Died. 


Conquered Wales, affable, beloved. 


Ivlwcinl 11. 


20 


1.327 


Assas.sinated. 


Mild, gentle, indolent. 


Edward IH. 


50 


1377 


Died. 


Very able, impetuous, warlike. 



1831.] 



POPULATION OP GREAT BRITAIN. 



'29 



Nan.c. 




Did. 


WllMIHMM.l- 

(icaii. 


(icumMl I!oiumI;h. 


Lancastkk. 










Richard 11. 


22 


1399 


Starved. 


Weak, unfortunate. 


Ik'iiry IV. 


11. 


1143 


Died. 


Government seven;, hut wise. 


lieiii y V. 


9 


1422 


Died. 


Distinguished for bravery and ability. 


Henry Vr. 


3D 


MGl 


Died. 


Weak, involved in constant trouble. 


HoiJSK OF York. 










Edward IV. 


0)2 


1483 


Died. 


Brave, active, cruel, deficient in judgment. 


Edward V. 




1183 


Violent. 


Murdered, as well as his brother, by Rich'dlll. 


Richard III. 


9 


M85 


Killed. 


Battle of Bosworth, equally deformed in body 
and mind. 


Tudor. 










Henry VII. 


24 


1509 


Died. 


Politic, able, but avaricious and severe. 


Henry Vill. 


38 


1547 


Died. 


Capricious, passionate, violent, some learning. 
Mild, religious, Protestant, excellent prince.* 


Edward VI. 


6 


15531 Died. 


Mary, 


5 


1558 Died. 


Bigoted, died hated by most of her subjects. 
Great abilities, learned, put to death Mary of 


Ehzabeth; 


45 


1603 


Died. 










Scotland. 


Stuart. 










James I. 


s)2 


1625 


Died. 


Unwise, bigoted, little energy. 


Charles 1. 


24 


1649 


Beheaded. 


Despotic, intractable, some good qualities. 


O. Cromwell, (republic,) 


7 


1658 


Died. 


Protector, great abilities, despotic. 


Charles 11. 


24 


1685 


Died. 


Licentious to an extreme, arbitrary. 


James II. 


4 


1688 




Better seaman than king, deposed. 


William and Mary, 


12 


1702 


Died. 


Puritans admitted to privileges, liberty of the 
press established. 


Anne, 


12 


1714 


Died. 


Weak, very prosperous reign. 


Brunswick. 










George I. 


13 


1727 


Died. 


Wise administration, prosperous. 


George II. 


33 


1760 


Died. 


Continued the plans of his father. 


George III. 


70 


1820 


Died. 


Good man, eventful reign. 


George IV. 


10 


1830 


Died. 


Dissipated, humorous, not of great abilities. 


William IV. 


1 






Third son of George III., very popular. 



III. POPUIiATION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

According to the census of 1821, the whole population of Great Britain was 14,391,631. 
This gives 165 persons for each square mile — a greater comparative population than that 
of any of the large European States, except the Netherlands. If we adopt that of Great 
Britain for unity, the ratio stands thus : 

Great Britain, 1,000 Austrian empire, .... ,661 

Netherlands, 1,297 Prussia, ,551 

France, ,873 Spain, ,352 

Germany, ,824 

The first census of Great Britain was taken in 1801, when the population was found to 
he 10,942,646 ; in 1811, it amounted to 12,598,803. The census of 1821 gives 2,429,630 
houses, occupied by 2,941,883 families, of which 978,656 wei'e employed in agriculture, 
1,350,239 in manufacture or trade ; families not included in the two preceding classes, 
612,448. The number of males was 7,137,018 ; of females, 7,254,613. The number of 
acres in Great Britain is 57,952,489 ; of these, 34,397,690 are cultivated, 10,100,000 un- 
cultivated, 13,454,794 unprofitable. Between 1801 and 1811, the rate of increase of the 
inhabitants of England, was 14J per cent; of Wales and Scotland, 13. Between 1811 
and 1821, 18 per cent in England, 17 in Wales, 16 in Scotland. In the army and navy, 
50 per cent decrease. The population of England and Wales in 

1700 was 5,475,000 1740 was 6,064,000 1780 was 7,953,000 

1710 5,240,000 1750 6,467,000 1790 8,675,000 

1720 5,-565,000 1760 6,736,000 1801 9,168,000 

1730 , 5,796,000 1770 7,428,000 1811 12,596,803 



In 1825, the population of England alone amounted to 12,422,700. 
tion of the British empire is estimated as follows : 



The total popula- 



Great Britain and Ireland, . . 21,380,000 
British Islands, Man, &c. . . 90,000 

Gibraltar, Malta, &c. ... 140,000 

Ionian Islands, 227,000 

West Indies and South America, 810,000 
British India, 83,000,000 



Ceylon, &c 

Indian tributaries, . . , 
African colonies, . . . 
North American dominions, 
Australia, 



1,200,000 

40,000,000 

243,000 

1,000,000 

50,000 



Total, 148,140,000 ; or the British empire may be said to have under her control one 
hundred and fifty millions of human beings. 



30 



POPULATION AND RESOURCES. 



[Aug. 



The following calculations of the Baron Dupin, show the comparative amount of inani- 
mate Ibrces appUed to agriculture and the arts, in Great IJritain and France, based on a 
population of 15,000,000 In the former, and 31,800,000 in the latter. 

France, Great Britain. 

Men. Men. 

Human agricultural power, . . 8,406,038 Human agricultural power, . . 2,132,446 
Commercial and manufacturing, 4,203,019 Commercial and manufacturing, 4,264,893 

Eeckoning the labor of other animals, we find the whole animate power applied to 
agriculture as follows ; 

France. Great Britain. 

Men. Men. 

Horses, .... 1,600,00 = 11,200,000 Horses, . . . 1,250,000= 8,750,000 
Oxen, asses, &c. . 7,213,000 = 17,672,000 Oxen, asses, &c. 5,500,000 = 13,750,000 
Human power, as above, . . 8,406,038 Human power, as above, . . 2,132,446 

Total animate agricultural force, 37,278,038 Total animate agricultural force, 24,632,446 

The total human force applied to agriculture in Great Britain is, therefore, to the total 
agricultural force, nearly as 1 to 12 ; while in France, the ratio is as 1 to about 4J. We 
obtain similar results from an examination of the animate force applied to maimfactures 
and commerce. The human force in France is 4,203,019 working men ; 300,000 horses 
employed in these branches, carry the whole animate force to 6,303,019 men. In Great 
Britain, the human force is 4,264,893 men; allowing for the power of 250,000 animals, the 
whole animate force is 6,014,893. The total animate force of France is 43,581,057 men ; 
of Great Britain, 30,147,339, or of the whole United Kingdom, (allowing for Ireland an 
agricultural force of 7,455,701 men, and a commercial and manufacturing force of 
1,260,604,) 39,363,644 effective laborers. To these animate powers should be added, in 
both countries, the inanimate powers, or the force supplied by wind, water and steam. 
The total number of mills in France has been computed at 76,000, of which 10,000 are 
wind-mills ; the total force of hydrauhc machines employed for forges, furnaces, and 
machinery of every kind, is equal to the third part of that of the 10,000 wind-mills ; the 
wind employed in navigation is equivalent to the power of 3,000,000, and the steam 
engines to that of 480,000 men turning a winch. Besides the wind-mills, hydraulic 
machines, &c., the steam engines of Great Britain are calculated to exert a moving 
power equal to that of 6,400,000 men. We have, then, the inanimate powers of the two 
countries as follows : 



France. 

Men. 

Mills and hydraulic engines, . 1,500,000 

Wind-mills, 253,333 

Wind and navigation, .... 3,000,000 
Steam engines, 480,000 



Great Britain. 

Mills and hydraulic engines. 

Wind-mills, 

Wind and navigation, . . 

Steam engines, 6,400^000 



Men. 

1,200,000 

240,000 

12,000,000 



Total, 



.5,233,333 



Total, 



19,840,000 



If we add to this 1,002,667 for Ireland, the total inanimate commercial and manufac- 
turing force of the United Kingdom is equivalent to 20,842,667 men ; nearly four times 
that of France. 



IV. FINANCE AND COMMERCE. 

Abstract of the Net Produce of the Revenue of Great Britain, in the years ended 
on the 10th of October, 1828, and the 10th of October, 1829. 





1828. 


1829. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Customs, . : . . 
Excise, .... 
Stamps, .... 
Post Office, 

Taxes, .... 
Miscellaneous, . 


£16,358,170 

17,905,978 

6,575,318 

1,387,000 

4,836,464 

556,171 


£15,961,206 

17,904,027 

6,704,792 

1,396,000 

4,905,886 

600,848 


£129,374 

9,000 

69,422 

44,677 


£396,964 
1,951 


Deck 


£47,619,101 
ict Increase, 


£47,472,659 


£252,473 


£398,915 
252,473 


Docreaso on the Year, .... 




£146,442 



1831. 



RESOURCES OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



31 



An Account of the Ordinary Revenues, and Extraordinary Resources, 
constitulinp; tlie Public Income of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for 
the year ended 5th January, 1829. 



IIKADS OV RKVENUK. 



7'ut. hicoine 
inrludlir^ 
Balances. 



Ordinary Revenues, 



■19,816,937 
2:3,:353,431, 
7,613,720 



Customs, 

Excise, 

Stamps, 

Taxes, under the manfigemont of the Com- 
missioners of Taxes, .... 5,265,604 

Post Office, 2,3B6,73'2 

One Shilling in the Pound, and Sixpence 
in the Pound, on Pensions and Salaries, 
and Four Shillings in the Pound on 

Pensions, .59,468 

Hackney Coaches, Hawkers and Pedlers, 77,614 

Crown Lands, 525,750 

Small branches of the King's hereditary 

Revenue, 12,328 

Surplus fees of regulated Public Offices, 67,081 

Poundage Fees, Pells Fees, Casualties, 
Treasury Fees, and Hospital Fees, . 9,353 



IIKAUS OP REVKNUK 



Tol. Income 
including 
liataiicen. 



Totals of Ordinary Revenues, . . £59,188,042 



Oilier Resources. 

Money received from the East India Com- 
pany, on account of Retired Pay, Pen- 
sions, &c. of His Majesty's Forces, 
serving in the Ea.sl Indies, . 

Money received from the Trustees of Na- 
val and Military Pensions, . 

Imprest Monies, repaid by sundry Public 
Accountants, and other Monies paid to 
the Public, 

Repayment on account of Money advan- 
ced out of the Consolidated Fund, in 
the year 1825, for silver coinage, . 

From the Bank of England, on account 
of Unclaimed Dividends, 



Actually paid into Excheque 



£60,000 
3,082,500 

260,530 

94,000 
25,034 
£62,710,108 
£55,187,142 



An account of the Net Public Expenditure of the United Kingdom. 



Expenditure. 
Dividends, Interest, and Manage- 
ment of the Public Funded Debt, 
(exclusive of 4,667 ,965Z. 5s. is- 
sued to the Commissioners for 
the reduction of the National 

Debt,) 

Interest on Exchequer Bills, 
Trustees for Naval and Military 

Pension Money, 
Trustees of Bank of England, 
Civil List, 4 Quarters, to Jan. 5, 

1829, 

Pensions, 4 auar. to Oct. 10, 1828, 



Net Expenditure. 

£ s. d. 



27,146,076 8 1^ 
949,429 13 7 



1,107,130 
585,740 



1,057,000 
370,867 12 8 



Expenditure. 

Salaries and Allowances, 4 Q,uar. 

Couits of Justice, ditto, 

Mint, ditto, 

Bounties, ditto, .... 

Miscellaneous, ditto. 

Ditto Ireland, ditto. 

For the purchase of the Duke of 
Athol's Interest in the Public 
Revenues of the Isle of Man, . 

Army, 

Navy, 

Ordnance, 

Miscellaneous, .... 



Total Expenditure, 

Surplus of Income over Expenditure, 

Total Income, .... 



£49,336,973 
5,850,169 10 



Net Expenditure. 

£ 78,204 

150,365 3 3^ 

16,813 9 7 

2,956 13 8 

227,387 10 9 

303.959 m 



132,944 
8,084,042 11 0^ 
5,667,969 12 1 
1,446,972 
2,012,115 17 11 



6s. IM. 



n 



£55,187,142 16 III 



Unredeemed Funded Debt, and charge thereof. 

Debt. Charge. 

Total Debt, 5th January, 1829, 

Great Britain, £741,089,836 £26,436,359 

Ireland, 31,232,704 1,165,897 



£772,322,540 £27,602,256 



Windows, 

Servants, . 

Carriages, 

Horses for riding, 

Dogs, 

Hair Powder, . 



Principal Direct Taxes. 



Net Produce. 

.£1,151,073 17 5i 

. 272,234 3 11' 

. 331,891 2 11 

. 341,832 5 7 

. 183,161 1 0| 

21,129 2 b 



Armorial Bearings, 
Game Duties, 
Composition Duty, 



Net Produce. 

.£ 50,292 10 

. 159,372 18 8 

. 31,442 18 8 



£2,542,430 



The Land Tax. 
Land Tax on lands and tenements, £1,188, 



Direct Taxes on Capital. 

Legacies, ' j Great Britain, . . 

" ' \ Ireland, .... 

Probates, Administrations, Testamentary \ Great Britain, 
Inventories, \ Ireland, 



£1,030,341 10 2) , 

35,750 9 j ' 

809,202 6 I 

29,018 S 



,066,091 10 11 
838,220 6 



£1,904,311 11 5 



32 



RESOURCES OP GREAT BRITAIN. 



[Aug. 



Trade. 
Value of the Imports into, and of the Exports from, the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, during each of the three years ending the 5th of January, 1829. 





Value of Tinpnrts into 
the United Kino-dom, 
calculated at the Offi- 
cial Rates of Valua- 
tion. 


Value of Exports from tlie United Kingdom, calculated at tlie 
Official Rates of Valuation. 


Value of tlie Produce 


ending 
5th January. 


Produce and Manu- 
f u-tniys of the United 


Foreign and Colonial 
Merchandise. 


Total Exports. 


United Kingdom, Export- 
ed tlierefroni, according to 
the real or declared value 
thereof. 


1827 
1828 
1829 


£ 

37,636,113 

44,837,774 
45,028,805 


£ 

40,965,735 
52,219,280 
52,797,455 


£ 

10,076,286 

9,830,728 

9,946,545 


£ 
51,042,022 
62,050.008 
62,744,000 


£ 
31,536,723 

37,182,857 
36,814,176 



Number of Vessels employed in the Trade of the United Kingdom, entered inwards, 
and cleared outwards, (including their repeated voyages,) for the year ending 5th Jan- 
uary, 1829. 



Inwards. 


Outwards. 


British. Foreign. 


British. Foreign. 


Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. 

3,436 2,094,357 4,955 634,620 


Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons. 

12,248 2,006,397 4,405 608,118 



Amount of Toivnage and number of Men employed in the Coasting Trade, who have 
entered and cleared out of the Ports of Great Britain, for 1828. 



Inwards. 

8,911,109 tons. 512,584 men. 



Outwards. 

8,957,236 tons. 517,129 men. 

Number of Steam Vessels, with the amount of Tonnage and number of Men, be- 
longing to the several ports of the United Kingdom, for the year 1828. 

338 vessels. 30,912 tons. 2,708 men. 

Account of the quantity of Tonnage employed by the East India Company, confined to 
such ships as returned to England with cargoes. 

'''<■-■■ „ Cleared out from Can- 

^^'^^^- ton to England. 

1827, 37,385 tons. 

1828, 29,556 tons, 
the year not complete. 

Account of the number of Ships, with the amount of Tonnage, which have entered 
Inwards and cleared Outwards, at the several Ports of Great Britain, from and to the 
East Indies, in the year ending 5th January, 1829. 

Inwards. Outwards. 

153 ships. 64,436 tons. 192 ships. 80,537 tons. 



Years. 


Indian 
Possessions. 


China. 


1826-7, 


6,972 tons. 


28,571 tons 


1827-8, 


7,911 tons. 


27,868 tons 



Prime cost and quantity of Tea exported from Canton, by the East India Company, 
from 1824-5, to 1827-8 ; together with the quantity sold, and amount thereof, in England 
and the North American Colonies, during the same period. 

Sales. 

Exported from Canton, 
lbs. Prime Cost. 

1824-5 28,697,088 £1,900,666 

1825-6 27,821,121 1,729,949 

1826-7 40,182,241 2,368,461 

1827-8 33,269,333 2,086,971 

An account of the annual value of the Trade between the Subjects of Great Britain 
and China in the following years. 



England. 


N. Amer. 
Colonies. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


Sale Amount. 


26,523,327 




£3,741,402 


27,803,668 


512,314 


3,946,770 


27,700,978 


723,081 


3,567,737 


28,120,354 


941,794 


3,468,590 









Value of Exports 






Value of Exports and Imports be- 




and Imports be- 








tween England 










and China on 


Total value of 






TOTAL. 


account of the 


the British Trade 




Individuals. tlie Company. 




Company. 


with Cliina. 


1825-6 


£3,943,729 £291,603 


£4,235,332 


£2,687,013 


£6,922,345 


1826-7 


3,764,404 362,405 

Value of the Trade 


4,126,809 

Value of the Trade 


3,176,901 


7,303,710 




of Individuals with 


of the Company 


Total Values 






with China. 


as above 






1825-26 £3,943,729 


£2,978,616 


£6,922,345 




1826-27 3,764,404 


3,539,306 


7,303,710 



1831.] RESOURCES OF GREAT BRITAIN. 33 

British Army. 
The amount of the land forces voted for the service of tlie year 1829, was 89,723 men, 
exclusive of the men employed hy the East India Company. Tlie sum voted for the 
whole expenses of the army, including every charge connected with it, was £6,.33f),231. 
The British army is composed of 103 battalions. About twenty of these are in the 
service and pay of the East India Company, and fifty-four more are disposed of in the 
colonies. Four battalions, on an average, are constantly on their passage to relieve the 
regiments on foreign stations, leaving twenty-five battalions (exclusive of guards) for 
the service of the \jnited Kingdom. The casualties in the army, according to Sir Henry 
Hardinge's estimate, amount to about one-eleventh or one-twelfth of the whole forces 
annually. The Mutiny Bill underwent an alteration in the session of 1829. The clauses, 
which used to amount to 163, are now condensed to 77, and the Bill is rendered more 
concise and plain. It enables general commanding officers in a district to order district 
courts-martial, instead of general regimental courts-martial. The oath is the same for all 
members of courts-martial. 

Bank of England. 
Samuel Drewe, Esq. Governor. J. Horsley Palmer, Esq. Deputy Governor. 

The charter by which this Company subsists is the eighth that has been granted to 
them since their incorporation. It was granted in 1800, and will expire on the 1st 
of August, 1833. On the 28th Feb. 1829, their advances to Govei-nment amounted to 
upwards of twenty millions and a half sterling. The balance of public money in their 
hands is from three to live millions on the average ; and they are paid more than a 
quarter of a million yearly for the management of the Pubhc Debt. The amount of 
their circulation in September, 1829, was £18,873,740. From the 1st January, 1826, 
to the 1st May, 1828, the Bank issued £21,766,905 in sovereigns and half-sovereigns, 
of which £1,090,858 7s. were issued in exchange for guineas. 

The dividend is eight per cent per annum on Bank Stock. 

£500 Bank Stock qualifies a holder for voting at a general court, if he be in possession 
of it for six months ; £2,000 quaUfies the holder for a Director ; £3,000 for Deputy 
Governor; and £4,000 for Governor. No proprietor can have more than one vote. 

East India Company. 
William Astell, Chairman of the Directors. 
This Company was incorporated in 1700 ; but their present charter was granted in 1813 ; 
and it will expire in 1834. The proprietors of East India Stock consist of about 3,000 
persons. A proprietor of £1,000 stock, is entitled to one vote ; of £2,000, to two votes ; 
of £3,000, to three votes ; of £10,000 and upwards, to four votes. The dividend is 10^ per 
cent per annum. The produce of the Company's trade with India, in 1828, was 
£5,891,000; the value of their exports to China (of which they have the monopoly), 
was £863,494. 
The Receipts, territorial and commercial, (exclusive of the duty on 

tea) for the year ending May, 1829, were £9,371,230 12 6 

Expenditure, 8,298,667 9 5 



Balance, £1,081,563 3 1 

The gross produce of the tea sold in 1828, was £4,254,000. 

From 1814 to 1826, there were sent out to India, 3,174 cadets ; in the year 1828, 77 
writers, 357 cadets, and 59 assistant surgeons. 



V. INTERNAL. IMPROVEMENTS, MANUFACTURES^ 
PUBIilC WORKS, 

Canals. The English were a century after the French, in commencing the con- 
struction of canals upon a large scale. The first considerable work of this description, 
was the Sankey Canal, for which an act of Parliament was passed in 1755 ; the object 
of the act being the improvement of the Sankey brook — which plan was afterwards 
changed to that of a separate canal of twelve miles in length. While the work on this 
canal was in progress, in 1758, the Duke of Bridgewater obtained an act of Parliament^ 
for making Worsley brook navigable, from Worsley Mill to the river Irwell, for the pur- 
pose of facilitating the transportation of coal from his estate to Manchester ; but, seeing 
the advantages of still water navigation over that of a river, he conceived the project of a 

VOL. IV. 5 



34 



CANALS AND RAIL ROADS. 



[Aug. 



canal over dry land, passing tlie river Irwell by an aqueduct, and thus making commu- 
nication between his coal mine and the town of Manchester on one level. The plan 
was subsequently greatly extended. It was called the Bridgewater canal. Its length 
is 40 miles. Its depth is 5 feet, its breadth, at the bottom, 52 feet. The whole lockage 
is the 83 feet at the Mersey. About 16 miles of the canal are under ground, within the 
mountains at Worsley. The embankment over Stratford Meadows is 900 yards long, 
17 feet high, and 112 feet wide at the base. 

The Grand Junction Canal is 93 miles in length, and is part of the line between 
London and Liverpool. It has 101 locks, passes the river Ouse and its valley by an 
embankment half a mile in length, and 30 feet high. It has a tunnel at Blisworth, 
3,080 yards in length, 18 feet hi2;h, and 16^ wide. Number of shares, 11,657; origin- 
ally worth £100. Price in 1824, £270. 

The Caledonian Canal is 21 miles in length, and passes through a chain of lakes or 
lochs, and narrow arms of the sea ; and by making about 22 miles of canal, by deepening 
two rivers, and a lake, an internal navigation is opened across the central part of Scot- 
land, from the Murray Frith, on the eastern coast, to Cantyre, on the western, being 
a distance of 250 miles. In a distance of 8 miles, the canal crosses by aqueduct 
bridges, three large streams, and twenty-three smaller ones. Since its construction, 
more than 1,000,000 forest trees have been planted along its borders. It was made 
in 1822. 



The management cost £ 29,000 



Timber, . . 
Machinery, . 
Quarries, &c. 
Shipping, 
Labor, . . 



68,000 
121,400 
195,800 

11,000 
418,000 



Horses, ...... £ 4,60a 

Purchase & damage of land, 47,000 

Horse Labor, 3,000 

Road Making, 4,000 

Incidental, 2,000 

Dredging, 7,200 



Total, £912,500. 

The whole number of canals in the United Kingdom, of all kinds, is about one hundred 
and thirty. The whole length is not far from two thousand eight hundred miles. In 
accomplishing these great works, the names of the Duke of Bridgewater, and of Brindley, 
will ever be most honored and illustrious. One sacriticed the energies of a powerful, 
original intellect, and eventually his life ; the other expended his time, his influence, and 
his princely estate. Some of the canals are likely to be rendered useless by another 
work, exhibiting a still more wonderful triumph of genius over difficulties. 

Rail Roads. On the l5th of Sept. 1830, a rail road was opened between the towns 
of Liverpool and Manchester. The occasion was one of great interest. The carriages, 
which were of every variety and form, amounted to 28 in number, and could not have 
afforded accommodations to less than 800 persons. 

The following are the items of expense in the construction of the railway. It will be 
readily seen that a considerable part of the expense would not be incurred in this country. 



Parliamentary and law expen. $1 26,511 38 

Land for the road, 423,575 16 

Land and buildings for stations, 185,320 00 
Tunnel and damage for same, . 198,968 88 

Gas light account, 4,662 22 

Side Tunnel, 11,044 44 

Chat Moss account, .... 123,195 55 
Brick making account, . . . 43,217 77 
Engines and coaches, . . . 48,888 88 

Wagons, 107,488 88 

Surveying account, .... 88,128 88 
Total, .... 



Complete system of wagons, $ 75,555 55 
Anticipated for Ware houses, . 111,111 11 

Salaries, 21,906 66 

Travelling expenses, . . . . 434 44 

63 Bridges, 440,288 88 

Excavation and embanking, . 887,837 33 

Iron, 301,840 00 

Stone sleepers, 91,200 00 

Forming road, 91,413 33 

Fencing, 45,342 22 

Charges for direction, . . . 8,493 33 
. . $3,436,424 89. 



The difficulties surmounted in this prodigious undertaking were truly appalling. The 
Liverpool tunnel is a mile and a quarter in length, 22 feet wide, and 16 feet high, and 
cut for the greater part of the way through rock. Through Olive Mount the traveller 
passes through a deep and narrow ravine, 70 feet below the surface of the ground, little 
more space being opened out, than is sufficient for two trains of carriages to pass each 
other. The great JRoby Embankment stretches across the valley for about two miles, 
varying in height from 15 to 45 feet, and in breadth at the base from 60 to 155 feet. 
Here tlie traveller finds himself affected by sensations the reverse of what he felt a few 
minutes before : mounted above the top of trees, he looks around him over a wide ex- 



1792356 

1831.] RAIL ROADS MANUFACTURES. 35 

panse of country. Over the great valley of the Sankey, the railway passes by nine 
arches, each lifty ieet span, 70 feet above the canal. From the Kenyon excavation, 
800,000 cubic yards of sand and clay were dug. 

It has been estimated that the expense of transporting by horse power 2,-560 tons one 
mile, will be twenty-seven dollars and fifty cents. A single locomotive engine of the 
power of ten horses, will transport 32 tons, (inclusive of cars) or 21.',- tons of goods 120 
miles in twelve hours ; which is equal to 2,.5t)0 tons carried one mile. Mr. Stephenson, 
the proprietor of the " Rocket," the engine which took the prize of £500 at the trial, the 
last season, upon the Liverpool and Manchester railway, has ascertained from a great 
number of experiments, that the fuel required for a locomotive steam engine, will not 
exceed 1^ lbs. of coal per ton, per mile. For the above stated day's work of the ten horse 
engine, there would, therefore, be required 4,480 lbs. of coals, which at $9 per chaldron 
will amount to $13 36 ; for the use of the locomotive engine, $2 14 ; for engine-man, one 
day, $1 25 ; for boy, assistant, one day, 75 cents. Total expense of steam power, &c. to 
transport two thousand five hundred tons one mile, $17 50 ; the average inclination per mile 
of the Manchester and Liverpool railway, is eleven feet. The greatest inclination, and 
which is surrounded entirely by locomotives, is 55 feet. The tunnel at Liverpool is lighted 
up every Friday, for public inspection, and many ladies have descended in a carriage at 
the rate of twenty-five miles in an hour, performing the whole distance through the tun- 
nel in three minutes, without experiencing any alarm or disagreeable sensation. Over 
the Chat Moss, a marshy ground of twelve miles, horses with loaded wagons, each 
weighing five tons, are constantly moving on those parts of the moss, which would 
originally scarcely bear a person walking over it. 

The Cromford and High Peak railway, connecting Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester, 
with Manchester, is a most interesting work. It passes over the limestone mountains of 
Derbyshire, ascending to a level of 992 feet above the Cromford Canal, and 1,270 above 
the sea. The ridge is penetrated by means of a tunnel, 580 yards long, 21 feet wide, and 
16 feet high above the surface of the railway. It was accomplished by blasting with 
gunpowder. The whole of this tunnel is arched with masonry.* 

Manufactures. The chief manufactures of Great Britain are of wool, cotton, linen, 
silk, leather, glass, pottery, and metallic wares. The fabric of woolens is the most an- 
cient, and it is the staple manufacture of the country. It employs half a million of people, 
while the value of the articles is estimated at £ 18,000,000 annually. The number of 
sheep in England and Wales is estimated at 26,000,000 ; their annual produce of wool at 
400,000 packs, of 240 pounds each. Adding those of Scotland, the number of sheep in Great 
Britain is about 35,000,000. The amount of wool imported in 1827 was 15,996,715 lbs. ; 
in 1828, 29,142,290 ; in 1829, 30,246,898 ; of which, Germany supphed one third, and 
Spain one tenth. The cotton manufacture was unknown till the middle of the 17th 
century ; it is now unrivalled in any other nation. Manchester, Glasgow, and Paisley, 
may be considered as the principal centres in this branch of industry. The application 
of machinery has been carried to such an extent, that, notwithstanding the cheapness of 
the articles produced, the total value is estimated at £20,000,000, and the number of 
individuals employed at from 500,000 to 600,000. Linen has been nearly superseded by 
cotton. The total annual value of the metallic manufactures has been estimated at about 
£18,000,000; employing 400,000 people. Large quantities of silk goods are made in 
London, and other places near the centre of England, estimated to be worth annually 
£4,200.000, and to employ 70,000 people. Leather, including the articles into which it 
is wrought, amounts to £10,000,000 annually, and employs 300,000 workmen. The 
whole manufacturing industry of the United Kingdom, amounts to £114,000,000, 

BiRMiisTGHAM. This town is 109 miles northwest of London, and 87 north of Bristol. 
In 1821, it had a population of 85,763, of whom 81,642 consisted of families connected 
with trade and manufactures. It is distinguished for its charitable institutions, and has 
various schools and several libraries, one of which contains 10,000 volumes. It has the 
benefit of several canals. The soil about the town is remarkably dry, and the cUmate 
is healthy. The average mortality of Birmingham, for six years, ending 1801, was only 
1 to 59 ; of Manchester, 1 to 37 ; of London, 1 to 31. It has long been distinguished for 
the variety, extent, and excellence of its manufactures, particularly in hard ware. 
Among the principal manufactures are buttons, in immense variety ; buckles and snuff- 
boxes ; toys, trinkets, and jewelry ; plated, japanned, and enamelled goods ; fire arms, and 
indeed, every hard ware article, ornamental or useful. The manufactories are established 
on the largest scale, and with the most astonishing ingenuity. A coining mill was erected 
in 1788, which is now capable of striking between 30 and 40,000 pieces of money in an 
hour. Before the close of the last war, no less than 14,500 stands of arms were delivered 
per week at the ordnance office. At the pin works, it is said, 12,000 pins can be cut and 
pointed, and 50,000 pin-heads can be made from the wire, in an hour. 

* Seethe Report of James Hay ward, Esq. to the Boston Rail Road CSommittee, Jan. 1831. Also the 
Companions to the British Almanac for the years 1829, 1830, and 1831. 



36 MISCELLANEOUS — IRELAND. [AuG. 

Glasgow. This city has long been distinguished for its extensive commerce and 
manufactures. The manufacture of linens, lawns, cambrics, and other articles of similar 
fabric, was introduced into Glasgow about the year 1725 ; in 1787 it was superseded by 
the introduction of muslins. There are great establishments for cotton manufacture. 
There are 54 works for weaving by power, which contain 3,700 looms, producing 
1,924,000 pieces, containing 48,000,000 yards, annually ; and it appears from a late in- 
vestigation that there are about 32,000 hand looms. There are 12 calender houses, which 
have 32 calenders moved by steam. These calender daily 298,000 yards of cloth, besides 
dressing 530,000, and glazing 30,000 yards. There are 38 calico printing works, 18 brass 
foundries, and 310 steam engines connected with the city. There are 46 steam boats 
which ply on the Clyde. In''l821, Glasgow contained 147,043 inhabitants. 

Miscellaneous. The amount of the income of Great Britain at the revolution has 
been computed at £43,000,000. In 1776, Mr. Arthur Young estimated it at £100,000,000. 
Mr. Lowe says, in his work on the state of England, that the taxable income of it amount- 
ed, in 1793, to £125,000,000, and in 1806, to £170,000,000. Of late years, says Sir 
Henry Parnell, the general income has been computed at £300,000,000. The increase 
of a million a year in the rateable income of Lancashire, is said by Mr. Peel to have taken 
place between 1815 and 1829. The following are interesting items, showing the increase 
in the consumption of the undermentioned articles. 

1790. 1815. 1827 or 1828. 

Cottonwool, 31,400,000 lbs. 99,300,000 249,700,000 

Sheep's wool, 3,200,000 14,900,000 30,200,000 

Raw silk, 745,000 1,400,000 4,200,000 

Tallow, 225,000 cwt. 641,000 cwt. 1,100,000 cwt. 

Bricks and tiles, 727,000,000 no. 1,381,000,000 no. 

There is no reason to doubt, says Parnell, that a continued augmentation will take 
place. The free constitution of the government, the exact administration of the laws, 
the protection afforded to foreigners, and the toleration of all religions, will continue to 
produce the same results. 

In 1827, out of a revenue from duties of £36,000,000, £27^000,000 were for articles 
of luxury — articles which are not used by the laboring classes. 

Retrenchment. The present charge of collecting £54,000,000 is £4,000,000, or 7^ 
per cent. It is supposed that it could be collected for 5 per cent. About £114,000 was 
paid in 1828 as a tax on East India sugar, for the benefit of the West Indian sugar-makers. 
Nearly £400,000 might be saved by abolishing the bounties on linen, fisheries, and 
sugar. Since 1816, England has been in a state of profound peace, yet from that time to 
1829, no less than £156,000,000 have been expended on soldiers, sailors, ships, and 
artillery. The common argument that it is necessary in peace to be prepared for war, 
has lost much of its force. The barren nature of military trophies, and the substantial 
advantages of peace, have been fully exhibited within the last forty years. The laws 
most offensive to foreign trade have been expunged from the English statute books ; 
every country now sees the wisdom of seeking commercial prosperity in connection with 
that of its neighbors ; the discovery of the real sources of wealth has shown the folly of 
wasting lives and treasures about colonial possessions ; and now nothing is more univer- 
sally acknowledged than the fallacy of expecting any national advantage from war. 

In 1793, France had 80 efficient ships of the line, and a large number capable of being 
made efficient. Now she keeps but 40 in good order, and has but 20 more. In 1793, 
Holland had a large and very efficient fleet. Now none of any importance. In 1793, 
Spain had 76 sail of the line. Now she has a very small navy. The additional ships of 
Russia and the United States make good but very little of the loss sustained by France, 
Spain, and Holland. In the wars with France, and the other powers, England destroyed 
of her enemies' fleets, 156 sail of the line, 382 large frigates, 662 corvettes, which with 
other vessels, make 2,596 in all. Since the close of this war, however. Parliament has 
granted £63,000,000 for the effective naval service. For ships employed in endeavoring 
to put an end to the slave trade, the British government has expended £5,700,000, or 
£400,000 a year. But the attempt seems to have altogether failed. The slave trade 
rages with unabated fury. 

Ireland may now be considered as the source of great financial support. The obser- 
vation of Mr. Malthus has peculiar applicability to Ireland, " that among the primary and 
most important causes, which influence the wealth of nations, must be placed those which 
come under the head of politics and morals. Security of property, without a certain 
degree of which there will be no encouragement to individual industry, depends mainly 
upon the political constitution of a country, the excellence of its laws, and the manner in 
which they are administered ;" and those habits which are the most favorable to regular 
exertion, as well as to the general rectitude of character, and are consequently most 
favorable to the production and maintenance of wealth, depend chiefly upon the same 
causes, combined with moral and religious instruction. Now, the law v^hich deprived 



1831.] MORAL CONDITION OF LONDON. 37 

several millions of Catholics in Ireland of their civil rights, established that hostility to 
laws of all kinds, which occasioned general discontent, and that series of outrages and 
insurrections, which kept the whole country in a state of constant alarm and agitation. It 
placed society in that form that it did not admit of the existence of security of property to 
that degree as to render it safe to invest capital, or so as to promote industry. Ireland is 
not now a poor country, and her people unemployed, because she has not had opportu- 
nities of being a rich and industrious country, but because her habits have been such that 
these opportunities have been thrown away. Had she possessed the same [roe and tolerant 
laws, and the same habits as England, Scotland, Holland, Switzerland, and the United 
States, an immense accumulation of wealth would have been secured before the fall of 
prices which took place subsequent to 1816.* 

Now, however, as the main evil is removed, security of property will be established, 
cvei-y sect being free from all restraint. The markets of England are open to all Irish 
productions. The net revenue now paid by Ireland is, with reference to her population, at 
the rate of about 9s. a head ; whereas that paid in Great Britain is at the rate of 70s. a 
head. If, then, the future improvement of Ireland shall so far increase its wealth as only 
to make the revenue amount to 18s. a head, England will receive £3,800,000 a year more 
from Ireland than she now receives. 

LojvDOJv. Corporations. The commercial industry of the city of London, is sub- 
divided into forty-nine branches, which form so many corporations, enjoying at the same 
time, mercantile, municipal, and political rights, of a very extensive and important 
nature. Each of them has its common hall for the transaction of business. Persons of 
the highest distinction belong to these companies. They assemble to treat of the general 
affairs of the city, in the ancient building, Guildhall, erected in 1411. This edifice is in 
the Gothic style of architecture, and is at once grand and elegant. The citizens of 
London, in the assembhes of Guildhall, exercise the rights of electing the Common 
Council, and the members of Parliament for the city. The city is divided into 24 wards, 
each ward administered by an alderman. They form the council, at which the Lord 
Mayor presides. They are generally tradesmen, and are all chosen by the citizens. 
The Lord Mayor has, for his residence, a splendid edifice, called the Mansion House ; 
the entrance of which, is by a majestic portico, formed of lofty Corinthian columns. 
The city provides an annual sum, exceeding £8,000, towards maintaining the dignity 
of the Mayor's office. In many cases, he provides a larger sum from his own purse. 
He unites the offices of prefect, aedile, and tribune of the people. 

Bank of England. The foundations of this structure were laid in 1732. It was not 
completed till 1804. It is a vast rectangular building, insulated by four streets. 

Royal Exchange. This edifice is separated from the Bank merely by the breadth of 
a street. It is built of Portland stone, and cost £80,000. In this building is the cele- 
brated office of maratime insurances, commonly known by the name of Lloyd's. The 
admission to this Society, is £25 sterling entrance, and an annual subscription of four 
guineas ever after. This money is appropriated to the purchase of journals, and to current 
expenses. This establishment has rendered signal service both to the commerce of 
Britain, and that of other States. It has agents in most of the principal ports, in all parts 
of the world ; and it makes public, the events which it learns through their means. 

East India Company^s Ware House. This bespeaks the grandeur and glory of an 
association which rules over more than 80,000,000 of subjects. Here are the library, 
arms, and canopy, of Tippoo Saib, and many splendid eastern trophies. 

Water Companies. There are six grand companies formed for conveying and dis- 
tributing to the inhabitants of London, the water necessary for the common purposes of 
fife. The JSTew River has been established for more than two centuries. The water on 
reaching the reservoir, is found to be 85 feet above the level of the Thames : it is raised 
thirty-five feet and a half higher, by means of steam. Hence the water is conducted by 
pipes to the upper stories oif the highest houses. The New River Company furnishes 
above 13,482,000 pints of water every twenty four hours, at the rate of two shillings for 
every 6,300 pints. 

Moral Condition of London. The number of inhabitants in London and its sub- 
urbs, was in 

1700 674,350 1801 900,000 1821 1,274,800 

1750 676,250 1811 1,050,000 1828 1,492,228 

The population of all the parishes within eight miles of St. Paul's Cathedral, in 1821, 
amounted to 1,481,500, double the population ascribed to Paris, within the same limits. 
The burials have absolutely decreased within the bills of mortality, while the population 
has increased as three to two. The average deaths in London are about one fifth less 

* Malthas, quoted in Parnell's Financial Reform. 



3S MORALITY OF LONDON. [AuG. 

than those in Paris ; and the average mortality of London, a vast and luxurious metropo- 
lis, differs only by a small fraction from that of the whole of France. 

Municipal Divisions. The city of London comprehends 113 parishes, and is 
governed by its own corporation, whose authority is derived from ancient charters, public 
statutes, and acts of common council. The corporation is chosen directly or indirectly 
from the freemen. The whole civil and municipal government of the city is vested in 
this body alone. 

Police. The total civil force of the metropolis, including marshals, watchmen, sur- 
veyors, clerks, magistrates, &c. amounts to 4,365 persons. To this may be added 1,000 
justices of the peace for London and Westminster. The number of police offices is 
nine, two for general purpsoes, and seven for particular districts. The annual expense 
of the nine public police offices is limited by act of Parliament to £68,000, exclusive of 
sums for repairs, new buildings, &c. In the city, the charge for the night-watch alone, 
amounted in 1827, to £35,240. The total expense of the metropolitan police may be 
estimated at about £207,615 per annum. This is the direct charge. Besides, there is the 
immense loss from depredations, expense of prosecutions, transporting convicts, &c. In 
1827, the expense of the maintenance, prosecution, and conveyance of prisoners, cost the 
city of London £22,674. Dr. Colquhoun estimated the annual amount of the depreda- 
tions committed on property in the metropolis and its vicinity, in one year, at £2,000,000. 
In 1827, the number of persons committed for criminal offences in the county of Middle- 
sex, amounted to 3,381. The committals to the different county gaols in England and 
Wales to 17,921. Thus while the proportion of population between the city and country 
is one twelfth, the criminal commitments are upwards of one sixth. 

Gaming Houses. The French emigrants, at the revolution, were the means of 
greatly increasing this vice in England. The chief site of them at present is at the west 
end, in Bury street, Pail-Mall, King street, Piccadilly, James street, and Leicester 
Place. The chief houses, or hells as they are termed, are open only during a period 
when the town is filled with the idle, the opulent, and luxurious. In 1821, there were 
twenty-two gaming houses, at which play, in one or the other, was continued with little 
interruption from one o'clock, P. M. throughout the night. They are now reduced by 
consolidation into larger establishments. The profits of one season at a well known 
PandcBinonium in St. James's, are supposed to have amounted to £150,000 over and 
above expenses. Most of those who keep the houses have carriages, mistresses, and 
servants, vying with the aristocracy in costly magnificence. The expense of Crock- 
ford's hell is stated to have been £ 1,000 a week. Dr. Colquhoun gives the following 
facts as occurring twenty years ago. 

Persons attached. 

7 Subscription houses, open 100 nights in a year, 1,000 

15 Superior houses, 100 nights, 3,000 

15 Houses of an inferior class, 150 nights, 3,000 

6 Ladies' gaming houses, 50 nights, 1,000 



Imprisonment for Debt. In two years and a half 70,000 persons were arrested 
in and about London, for debt, the average of whose law expenses could not be less 
than £500,000. In 1827, in the metropolis and two adjoining counties, 23,515 warrants 
to arrest were granted, and 11,317 bailable processes executed. More than 11,000 per- 
sons were deprived of their liberty, on the mere declarations of others, before any trial or 
proof that they owed a farthing. The following paper was presented to Parliament in 
1828, showing the number of persons committed in the several prisons of the metropolis 
in 1827. 

Sums above Between Between Under T^tni ^" custody, 

£100. £100 and £50. £50 and £20, £20. ^°^^^- January, 1828. 

King's Bench Prison, 474 354 550 213 1,591 674 

Fleet Prison, 206 141 223 113 683 253 

White Cross Street Prison, 206 273 816 600 1,893 378 

Marshalsea, 20 30 166 414 630 102 

Horsemonger Lane, 57 58 134 923 1,172 105 

Total, 963 856 1,889 2,263 5,969 1,512 

Some of the prisons are described to be perfect hells, in which deeds of the most re- 
volting nature are of ordinary occurrence. 

From the report of the Society for the Discharge and Relief of Small Debtors, it ap- 
pears that they discharged 44,710 debtors, of whom 28,651 had wives, with 79,614 chil- 
dren, making a total of 152,975 persons, benefited by an expenditure of £133,983 
averaging ISs. 8|d to each individual. 



loney played 


Yearly lost and 


nightly. 


won. 


£2,000 


£1,400,000 


2,000 


3,000,000 


1,000 


2,215,000 


2,000 


600,000 




£7,215,000 



1831.] COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 39 

VI. BRITISH COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES. 

Gibraltar, a rocky promontory, from 1,200 to 1,400 (cet above the level of the 
sea, lies at the southern extremity of the Spanish province of Andalusia, at the entrance 
from the Ath^ntic to the Mediterranean, on a strait about 15 miles across. It is every 
where precipitous, and in some parts perpendicular. Nature and art have conspired to 
make it an impregnable fortress. The great works are on the western front. The other 
sides bid complete defiance to attack. The yearly support of this fortress costs 40,000 
pounds sterling. It has been in the possession of England since 1704. Tiiis fortress, 
which is the bulwark of the Mediterranean trade, she has spared no expense in fortifying. 
The population is 12,000. 

Malta. All the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black seas are within a few days' 
sail of this island. The climate is not unhealthy ; the government is kind and liberal in 
its protection ; and few eastern countries afford so many of the comforts of life as may be 
here found. As a post of observation, and as the centre of an extensive commerce, Malta 
is unrivalled in importance. Population, 100,000. 

The Ionian Islands are under the protection of Britain. The constitution provides 
also for the general and liberal education of the people. About 3,000 scholars are in 
the schools. 

India. In 1600, Queen Elizabeth gave to the merchants of London, an exclusive 
right to the commerce of India for 15 years ; and, soon after, the four first merchant ships of 
the East India Company sailed from Liverpool to the Moluccas. In the middle of the 17th 
century, the commercial power of the British and Dutch rose upon the ruins of that of the 
Portuguese. The original capital of the Company amounted to 30,130 pounds sterling. 
Until 1613, the Company consisted of a society subject to no particular regulations; each 
member managed his afltairs on his own account, and was only bound to conform to cer- 
tain general rules. In 1613, the capital was united. The concerns of the Company were 
so prosperous, that in the course of four years, the shares rose to the value of 203 per 
cent. During the time of the Commonwealth, the public opinion became very strong 
against monopolies, and Cromwell, by destroying the charter, in 1655, attempted to make 
the East India trade free. But it was impracticable. To give up the Company was to 
destroy the whole capital of power and influence obtained in India. Cromwell was 
obliged to renew the charter. In 1688, Madras and the Coromandel and Malabar coasts 
were acquired, and the foundation was laid for the extension of the Company's possessions 
into the interior. The affairs, however, of the Company, were not in a prosperous state. 
In 1698, Parliament granted a charter to a new Company, on condition of a loan of 
£2,000,000, at 3 per cent, for the services of the State. But the great contentions be- 
tween the two Companies soon made it necessary to unite them. In 1708, an act of Par- 
liament was passed establishing the English East India Company very much on its 
present footing, under the title of the United Company of Merchants of England, trading 
to the East Indies. The capital was raised by the sale of the shares. The shares being 
transferable, the great mass of stockholders are constantly changing, and take no per- 
sonal interest in the affairs of the Company. The whole management being thus left 
to the Board of Directors, all the numberless abuses of an oligarchal institution have 
crept in. 

The renewal of the charter in 1732, was not obtained without great difficulty. In 
1744, the Company advanced 1,000,000 pounds sterling, at 3 per cent, for the service of 
government, in consideration of an extension of their grant till 1780. In 1718, the politi- 
cal power of the Enghsh in India commenced. It now began to operate on the defen- 
sive. Edmund Burke, in the case of Hastings, accused the Company, not without reason, 
" of having sold every monarch, prince, and State in India, broken every contract, and 
ruined every prince and every State who had trusted them." The direction in London was 
soon nothing more than a control of the real government which had its seat in India, 
Long after the Directors had forbidden the officers of the Company to accept presents 
from the Indian princes, it was proved that they had openly received them to the amount of 
£6,000,000, from the family of one nabob alone. In 1773, £1,000 was made necessary to 
give one vote in the Board of Directors ; £3,000 for two ; £6,000 for three ; £10,000 for 
four. The political importance of the East Indies, in their present state, is too important to 
allow us to expect an essential improvement in the moral condition of the country, from any 
efforts of their own. It must be expected from philanthropists and Christians, if from any 
source. A taxable population of 83,000,000, with 40,000,000 under dependent native prin- 
ces ; an army of 200,000 men in the service of the Company ; about 16,000 civil officers ; 
an annual export of about £14,000,000, and an import to the same amount from all parts 
of the world ; £4,000,000 paid to the British government in the shape of duties, and an 
annual contribution of £11,000,000 for the general circulation of the British empire, are 



40 BRITISH COLONIES. [AuG. 

olijects which go far to outweigh all moral considerations. The funded stock of the 
Company is £b\000,000 ; their iiuctuating property, £50,000,000; and the annual land 
tax, £28,000,000.* 

New Hollakd. The first vessel laden with convicts arrived in Botany Bay, in New 
Holland, Jan. 20, 17SS. Sydney is the capital of the colony. It contained, several years 
since, 7,000 inliabitants. it has a bank with a capital of £20,000, and a savings bank. It 
has also excellent academies, and a weekly newspaper. The other towns are Paramatta, 
"Windsor, Liverpool, Newcastle, &c. The colony has its regular establishment of courts 
for the administration of justice. Roads have been formed, and many pleasing evidences 
of civilization manifested. The climate is salubrious. On one of the rivers an acre of 
land has been known to produce in one year, 50 bushels of wheat and 100 of maize. The 
whole capital invested in colonial manufactures has been estimated at £50,000. The 
British have extended their settlements to the island of Van Dieman. 

Southern- Africa. The Cape of Good Hope was taken from the Dutch by the 
English in 1795. The colony extends about 230 miles from north to south, and 550 from 
east to w^est. The space included within these limits is about 120,000 square miles, with 
a population of one to a square mile. Some British merchants have settled at Cape Town, 
and the trade seems to be increasing. The average amount of imports is about one mil- 
lion of dollars. The principal export is Cape wine. The value of the colony is principally 
to be estimated from the fact that it is a connecting link between England and her Indian 
possessions. Cape Town contains about 18,000 inhabitants. 

Western Africa. In 1787, an English settlement was formed in Sierra Leone, for 
the express purpose of laboring to civilize the Africans. Great numbers of liberated 
slaves have been carried to this colony. At one time thei'e were 12,000. By the exer- 
tions of the African Institution, aided by the missionaries of the Church Missionary So- 
ciety, very great and salutary changes have been produced in the character of multitudes 
of negroes. The colony, as it is stated, is an expense to the British government, and will 
probably be given up. 

Guiana, and British West Indies. The Dutch settlements of Essequibo, Deme- 
rara, and Berbice, form what has been called British Guiana ; which is inhabited by 
9,000 whites, and 80,000 negroes. Guiana is of a mild climate, and it is overspread with 
the most luxuriant vegetation ; abounding in the finest woods, in fruits of every de- 
scription, and in a great variety of rare and useful plants. Jamaica is the principal of the 
islands of the West Indies, in the possession of the British. Before the abolition of the 
slave trade, 20,000 negroes were annually imported into the colonies by British settlers. 
The value of the sugar imported annually into England, was calculated some years since, 
to amount to £7,063,265. 7'welve hundred thousand puncheons of rum are distilled on an 
average annually. The number of slaves is now about 800,000, and is constantly diminish- 
ing. The system is upheld contrary to the wishes of a vast majoiity of the British nation. 
The day of its total abolition is approaching. The obstinacy of the colonial assemblies, and 
of the West Indian proprietors in England, have upheld a system which is in entire oppo- 
sition to the claims of justice, to every sentiment of compassion, and to the interests of 
the islands themselves. The sugar planters are able to appear in the markets of England 
only by means of a heavy tax annually, which is laid on East Indian sugar. 

Canada. This country is divided into Upper and Lower Canada. Lower Canada 
contains a mixture of French Canadians, English, Scotch, Irish inhabitants, and emigrants 
from the United States. The population in 1823, was 427,425. The principal towns are 
Montreal and Quebec. About nine tenths of the inhabitants are Catholics. The exports 
in 1808, amounted to £1,156,000 ; the imports to £610,000. Upper Canada is very rap- 
idly increasing. The country has been principally settled by emigrants from Great 
Britain and the United States. Population in 1814, 95,000 ; in 1826, 231,778. The coun- 
try has a much milder climate than Lower Canada. It seems that the possession of the 
Canadas subjects Great Britain to a heavy pecuniary expense, and to much vexation. 
The question of their independency will be agitated probably at no very distant day. 

The other North American possessions of Britain are New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Newfoundland, Cape Breton, and the Bermudas. New Brunswick contains 180,000 in- 
habitants. Nova Scotia and Newfoundland furnish excellent facilities for the fisheries.! 

* American Encyclopaedia, vol. iv. p. 376. 

f Sir Henry Parnell, in his Financial Reform, says that " there are only three ways in which the colonies 
can be of any advantage. 1. In furnisiiing a military force; 2. In supplying the parent State with a reve- 
nue J 3. In affording commercial advantages. In regard to the first, the colonies are always a great drain 
upon the military resources of the country, particularly in time of war. In regard to the second, an act 
of Parliament declares that no taxes or duties will be levied in the colonies, except for their use. In 
reference to the third point, it is clear that the net profit that may be obtained by the employment of 
capital in commerce with independent countries, will always be as great as if employed in the colonial 
trade." 



1831.1 POPULAR EDUCATION. 41 



VII. STATE OF EDUCATION AND OF LITERATURE. 

Education-. In the last number of our work we gave such no(ice;J of primary 
education, and of the condition of the public schools, as we could compile from the docu- 
ments within our reach. We have now but a few things to add. We shall, probably, 
resume the subject at a future day. 

It is a well known fact that Mr. Brougham, the present Lord Chancellor of England, 
lias done more than any one else to awaken the attention of the English community to 
the subject of education. In 1816, Mr. Brougham made a motion, in the House of Com- 
mons, for the appointment of a committee to inquire into the state of education among 
the lower orders of the metropolis. The committee consisted of 40 members, of which 
Mr. Brougham was chairman. An elaborate report was presented. In 1818, this com- 
mittee was revived, and clothed with larger powers. Great numbers were examined on 
the general subject of education, and on the application of charitable funds. The whole 
vast mass of evidence was digested into a second report. These reports furnished a com- 
plete chart of the state of education throughout the kingdom. The following enormous 
abuse was only one among many. The master and usher of a free school, in a certain case, 
enjoyed a clear income of £4,000 a year ; besides houses for both, and two closes for the 
master. The school room had gone to ruin, and was converted into a carpenter's shop. 
There was one scholar who was taught in another room. The master, as he said, had 
been obliged to be a great deal absent from home, much against his inclination, and the 
usher, of whom he had the appointment, was deaf. In 1819, Mr. Brougham introduced 
a bill recommending a parliamentary commission of inquiry into the condition of chari- 
table endowments. This measure met with a fierce opposition. In the following year 
the commission was appointed with ample powers. Their reports contain a full account 
of all the important English charities. In 1820, Mr. Brougham brought into Parliament 
his celebrated bill for the general education of the poor ; providing for the instruction of all 
the children of all the people in common schools. This bill became an object of virulent 
assault. It would ruin the establishment, and annihilate all the dissenting sects. Some 
went so far as to ascribe the plan to the instigation of the devil, though the study of the 
Bible without note or comment, was a part of it. The bill was arrested, and Mr. Broug- 
ham's efforts in Parliament were suspended. 

Some years since, Mr. Brougham published a pamphlet on popular education, which 
has gone through more than twenty editions ; a work exhibiting very comprehensive 
views of the whole subject of education. Soon after, at his suggestion, " the Society for 
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge" was formed. This association immediately com- 
menced the publication of the " Library of Useful Knowledge." This series has reached 
the 82d number. The books are in general admirably adapted to their purpose.* In 
London they can be had for sixpence a number, containing 32 pages. In this country 
for 14 or 15 cents. Five hundred copies are circulated in Glasgow, principally among 
the mechanics. A series of a " Library of Entertaining Knowledge;" a series of valua- 
ble Maps ; a series devoted to Agriculture ; an Annual Almanac and Companion — a sta- 
tistical work of great importance ; and a Quarterly Journal of Education, of 200 pages 
octavo, are now published by the Society. The average sale of nearly all these series 
rather exceeds 20,000 copies ; making a grand total, exclusive of maps and of the Journal, 
of almost a million of little books, put into circulation in a single year, by a single society. t 

Several voluntary associations are doing much in the diffusion of knowledge. The 
National Education Society has expended about £100,000, since 1811. It has been the 
means of estabUshing 2,609 schools. The British and Foreign School Society have had 
at the model or central school 8,780 scholars. The great majority of the children of the 
lower orders are yet in profound ignorance. The children of the middling class are 
taught at private schools, or by family tutors ; the children of the gentry by tutors and 
governesses. The condition of the children of Catholics in Ireland, is still deplorable 
enough. Societies are doing something, but they do not reach the main evils. 

Scotland, with the exception of some portions of the Highlands, enjoys peculiar facili- 
ties for education, — superior to any portion of Europe, unless Prussia, and some parts of 
Germany, furnish an exception. 

Schools and Academies. The most celebrated schools, preparatory to the Uni- 
versities of Cambridge and Oxford, are Eton, Westminster, and Winchester. Particular 
attention is paid at these institutions to instruction in the languages. A foundation is laid 
in them for that thorough acquaintance with syntax and prosody, which is matured at the 

* We observe that the London Gluarterly, and the Westminster, have opened their batteries on these 
publications. The latter on the alleged want of adaptedness of the publications to the popular mind. 

t We have compiled the facts in the preceding sketch, from an article in the last number of the North 
American Review. 

VOL. IV. 6 



42 STATE OB^ LITERATURE. [AuG. 

Universities, and which is frequently exhibited in the courts of law, and in Parliament. 
Very little attention is paid to the natural sciences. Some excellent private classical 
schools are taught by country clergymen. They are frequently driven to the measure 
by the inadequacy of their ecclesiastical support. Some public grammar schools, of a 
high order, exist. 

The Dissenters have a large number of seminaries, which are termed Academies. 
The principal are at Homerton, Mill Hill, Highbury, Exeter, Wymondly, Bristol, &c. 
Most of these institutions are of a mixed character, combining elementary, collegiate, and 
professional instruction. Some of the teachers, as Drs. Payne and J. P. Smith, are 
eminent men. The establishment of the University of London, will probably change the 
character of these academies to some extent — giving them the single department of ele- 
mentary, or of professional instruction — as far superior advantages for collegiate culture 
will be ofiered at London, Many of the Dissenters are accustomed to send their sons to 
the Scottish Universities — there being no restriction in them in regard to religious sects. 

Colleges and Universities. Oxford had on its books, in April, 1831, 5,258 
members ; of these, 2,529 are members of convocation.* The number at Cambridge is 
somewhat less. The Greek and Roman classics are the main subjects of interest and at- 
tention at Oxford ; the mathematics at Cambridge. Very little alteration takes place, in 
the systems of study, from year to year. 

The other Universities are Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, St. Andrews, the 
London University, King's College, &c. The last two were lately established. 

The influence of the Universities on the discovery of truth, and the advancement of 
knowledge, it seems, is very feeble, " The great inventions and discoveries which have 
been made in England, during the last century, have been made without the precincts of 
the Universities. In proof of this we have only to recal the labors of Bradley, Dollond, 
Priestley, Cavendish, Maskelyne, Rumford, Watt, WoUaston, Young, Davy, Chevenix ; 
and among the living, to mention the names of Dalton, Ivory, Brown, Hatchett, Pond, 
Herschell, Babbage, Henry, Barlow, South, Faraday, Murdock, and Christie ; nor need 
we have any hesitation in adding, that within the last fifteen years not a single discovery 
or invention, of prominent interest, has been made in our colleges ; and that there is not 
one man in all the eight Universities of Great Britain, who is at present known to be 
engaged in any train of original research, "t 

One of the principal reasons of the languishing state of science is the want of patronage. 
Scientific men are compelled to become editors, or teachers, in order to support their 
famines. There is not, with a single exception, within the British Isles, one philoso- 
pher, however eminent may have been his services, who bears the lowest title that is 
given to the lowest benefactor of the nation, or to the humblest servant of the crown. 
There is not a single philosopher who enjoys a pension, or an allowance, or a sinecure, 
capable of supporting him or his family, in the humblest circumstances. In every nation 
on the continent of Europe, with the exception of Turkey, and perhaps, of Spain, scienti- 
fic acquirements conduct their possessors to wealth, to honors, to official dignity, and to 
the favor and friendship of the sovereign. Berzelius has a seat in the house of peers in 
Sweden, tiansteen, of Norway, had £-3,000 for his magnetic journey into Siberia. 
Humboldt was received with extraordinary honors at a visit in St. Petersburg. Among 
the members of the National Institute of France, are 23 noblemen. Sixty-three ordinary 
members receive an annual pension from government of 1,500 francs each. 

Literary and Philosophical Societies. Royal Society of London. This 
institution had its origin in 1645 ; in 1662, it was established by royal charter. It has 
published 118 volumes of Transactions ; 28 of which have been published since 1800. 
Drs. Hutton, Pearson and Shaw have abridged this work, and published an abridgment 
in 18 volumes quarto. A learned history of the society has been published in one volume, 
by Thomas Thomson. This society adjudges three medals. 1. Copley Medal. This 
medal is adjudged to foreigners as well as Englishmen. Its value is about £5 55. 
2. Rumford gold and silver medals. Given by Benjamin Count Rumford. He pre- 
sented in 1796, £1,000 of 3 per cent stock, for the most important discovery on heat 
or light. It has been adjudged to Count Rumford, Prof, Leslie, M. Malus, Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy, Dr. Wells, Dr. Brewster, M. Fresnel. 3. Royal medals. Granted by the 
King in 1825. One hundred guineas annually to establish two scientific prizes. The 
prizes have been adjudged to John Dalton, James Ivory, and Davy. The Royal Society 
has a valuable library. The admission fee amounts to nearly £50. Each member re- 
ceives the Transactions gratis. 

In 1830, Charles Babbage, Esq. one of the members of this society, and Lucasian Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at Cambridge, published a volume entitled, " Reflections on the 

* The members of convocation are allowed some privileges, which are denied to the others, 
t London Quarterly Review, vol. 43, p. 327. 



1831.] PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETIES. 43 

decline of science in England, and on some of its causes." The pjreater part of the book 
is devoted to the Royal Society. We gather from it a nuivd)er of interesting facts. 

In England every 32,()()() inhabitants produces a nicinbcr of the lioyal Society. In 
France one ineud)er of the Institute for every 127,000 inhabitants. In Italy and Prussia, 
one out of 300,000 persons is a member of their Academies. 

Pnnulition No. inninlicrs of No. of Foreign 

France, 32,058,000 75 8 mem. 100 corr. 

Prussia, 12,415,000 38 

Italy, 12,000,000 40 16 

England, 22,299,000 685 50 

In the Royal Society there are nearly 100 noblemen who are members. In 1827, there 
were 109 members, who had furnished papers for the Transactions. Out of these, there 
was 1 peer, 5 baronets, and 5 knights. Sir Everard Home has published 109 papers; 
Thos. A. Knight, 24 ; John Davy, 24 ; Charles Davy, 16 ; Brande, 12 ; Dr. Brewster, 16 ; 
Capt. Kater, 13; John F. W. Herschel, 12; John Pond, 19; Edward Sabine, 13. The 
President retains his office two years. At the last election, the contest was between the 
Duke of Sussex and Mr. Herschel. The Duke was elected by a small majority. There 
has been recently much complaint of the inefficiency and mismanagement of the Society. 

Royal Society of Edinburgh. A literary Society was established by Ruddiman and 
others, in 1718. In 1731, it was succeeded by a Medical Society. In 1739, it was ex- 
tended under the name of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh. Three volumes of 
Transactions were published. In 1783, it received a royal charter of a most degrading 
kind, being prohibited from forming a library or museum. In 1811, a more liberal char- 
ter was obtained, but they were still prohibited from appointing a lecturer, professor, or 
doctor in the natural sciences. It has now a respectable library and museum. It has 
published 10 volumes of Transactions. It adjudges one prize by the name of the Keith 
medal, Dr. Brewster has had the only prize. Its value is £60. There are 300 ordinary 
members, 31 honorary and 36 foreign. 

Royal Irish Academy. This institution was incorporated by charter in 1786, for the 
advancement of science, polite literature, and antiquities ; and consists of 300 members. 
They had pubUshed, some years since, 10 volumes of Transactions. 

Royal Academy of Arts, London. Established in 1768 for the encouragement of de- 
signing, painting, sculpture, &c. The King is the patron ; and it is under the direction 
of 40 artists, of the first rank in their several professions. 

London Institution. The library of this institution is very valuable, especially in 
works on classical literature and British biography. Hitherto no lectures have been de- 
livered. Besides this, and resembling it in character, are the Surry Institution, and the 
Russel Institution. The lectures delivered in various parts of London are very numerous. 
About 1,000 students attend the lectures on medicine, surgery, and the kindred subjects. 

Other Societies are, the Geological, Linnagan, Horticultural, Society of Antiquaries, &c. 
All these societies promote the various objects of their establishment by publishing a 
selection from their papers. 

British Museum. This institution is in Russel street. It owes its origin to Sir Hans 
Sloane, who bequeathed it to Parliament on condition that £20,000 was paid to his execu- 
tors. It was first opened in 1759. Very valuable additions have been made since. 
40,000 persons have been admitted in a single year to see the museum. 

Scottish Societies. The publishing, literary, and philosophical societies in Scotland, 
are the following. 1. Royal Society, (already noticed.) 2. Antiquarian Society ; institu- 
ted in 1780 ; it has published two and a half volumes of Transactions. 3. Wernerian 
Natural History Society, instituted in 1808 ; has published 5 volumes of Memoirs. 4. 
Edinburgh Medico Chirurgical Society, instituted in 1821 ; published 3 volumes of Trans- 
actions. 5. Highland Society, formed 1784 ; 8 volumes. 6. Caledonian Horticultural, 
founded in 1809 ; 4 volumes. 

The Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society have published several volumes of 
a highly interesting character. The Society consists of about 86 ordinary members, and 
50 corresponding. Societies of a similar character are found at Bath, Bristol, Leeds, 
Southampton, and many other places. In 1817, the Liverpool Royal Institution was 
opened by an address from Mr. Roscoe. The establishment cost £30,000. 

Periodical, Press. Edinburgh Review. This journal was established in 1782. It 
was edited during the first year by Rev. Sydney Smith, then by Francis Jeffiey. It 
is now edited by Mr. Napier. Among the principal writers are Playfair, Leslie, Broug- 
ham, Mackintosh, Dugald Stewart, Williams, Macauley, Macculloch. Dr. Thomas 
Brown wrote but one article — that on Kant. It has been in the hands of the whigs. In 
regard to religion it has been sceptical. At one time it had 12,000 subscribers. Its 
patronage has decreased as other kindred works have arisen, and its own intellectual 
power has diminished. 



44 PERIODICAL PRESS. [AuG. 

Quarterhj Review. Established in London in 1819, in opposition to the Edinburgh. 
It was conducted lor many years by William Gififbrd. It is now in the hands of Mr. J. G. 
Lockhart. It has advocated tory principles in politics, and high church principles in re- 
ligion. To evangelical Christianity it has frequently manifested an unfriendly spirit. 
Many of its literary articles have been written with much abiUty. Southey has been 
a frequent contributor. 

Blackwood's Magazine. This has been tory in its political principles, and in opposi- 
tion to the Edinburgh. It has exerted, to a considerable extent, an unfavorable influence 
on the cause of morality and religion. Some articles have exhibited great intellectual 
power. It was first edited by Lockhart ; now by Prof. Wilson. 

Christian Observer. This work has long had the first place in the religious world. 
It is conducted by Rev. C. S. Wilks : it was for some time, under the care of the excel- 
lent Zachary Macauley. It is supported by the evangelical portion of the Established 
Church. In literary ability some articles will bear a comparison with those of any other 
work. 

Eclectic Revieiv. This is a monthly journal, principally devoted to reviews and notices 
of publications. It is devoted to the interests of the Dissenters. Among its contributors 
have been Robert Hall, John Foster, James Montgomery, and Olinthus Gregory. It is 
now conducted by Josiah Conder. 

British Critic. This is the advocate of the high church party in religion. It was for 
some time conducted by the late Archdeacon Nares. 

Quarterly Journal of Education. The second number of this work has just been 
published. It is the organ of the Society for the Diffusion of Knowledge, of which the 
Lord Chancellor is the head. It is conducted on liberal principles, and promises to be a 
valuable auxiliary in the great cause of education. 

Besides these, are the Foreign Quarterly, Gentleman's, New Monthly, Monthly, Im- 
perial, European, Evangelical, Congregational, Baptist, Methodist, Englishman's, Asiatic, 
and many others. 

JVewspapers. The number of newspapers published in London, in 1829, has been 
stated at 55 ; in other parts of England, 158 ; in Scotland, 38 ; in Ireland, 74. Total, 325. 

The following table exhibits the number of stamps issued for some of the principal 
London newspapers, in 1829, and the amount of duty received for them. 



Stamps. 



Duty. 



Times and Evening Mail, 

IMorning Chronicle, Observer, Bell's Life in London, and Englishman, 

Morning Herald and English Chronicle, 

Standard; St. James's Chronicle, London Packet, and London Journal, 

Morning Advertiser and Weekly Register, 

Courier, 

Globe and Traveller, 

Bell's Weekly Despatch, 

Sun, 

Morning Post, 



3,275,311 

2,331,450 

2,000,475 

1,367,000 

1,145,000 

995,200 

864,000 

780,552 

625.000 



£54,538 10 4 
38,857 10 
33.341 5 
22,783 6 8 
19,083 6 4 
16,586 13 8 
14,400 
13,009 4 
10,416 13 4 



698,5001 9,975 

" There are printed in London 50 newspapers ; in the country parts of England, 155. 
These consume 25 millions of stamps in the year. The principal London papers are the 
Times, Morning Herald, Morning Chronicle, Morning Post, Morning Journal, Morn- 
ing Advertiser, and Ledger, morning papers : the Courier, Globe, Standard, British 
Traveller, Sun, and Star, evening papers. Most of these journals are conducted with 
amazing ability. Articles almost daily appear in the Times, which, for rhetorical merit, 
would adorn some of the most illustrious names in English hterature. The subscription to 
the morning papers is £2 6s. per quarter. The charge for advertising is 7s. for each 
advertisement at and under seven lines, and at the rate of 6d. a line afterwards." 

Note. — It was our intention to have closed the above article with an exposition of the moral 
and religious condition of Great Britain, but we choose for several reasons to defer it to a future 
occasion. It well deserves a separate consideration. Some materials for the article, which we 
have expected, have not yet arrived from England. Besides, the events which are taking place, 
in the providence of (lod, in that country, may, in the course of a few months, very much modify 
the existing aspect of things. In our number for August last, we gave many statements of the 
operations of the charitable societies; in February last, we collected some of the ecclesiastical 
statistics; and in May, we described the slate of education and of literary institutions. 

We have fallen into an error on the 23d page of this number — all which is mentioned betv/een 
the record of the death of William Rufus and the accession of Stephen, should be ascribed to but 
one king, Henry I., or Beauclerc. 

The principal works which we have consulted in the preceding article, are Dupin on the Com- 
merce, (fee. of Great Britain ; Sir Henry Parnell on Financial Reform; a recent anonj-mous work on 
the Police of London ; Babhage on the Decline of Science; and various Almanacs, and Reviews. 



1831.] 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



45 



AL.UMJVI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 

For the following biographical sketches of the first graduates of Dartmouth college, 
we are indebted to JoHisr Farmer, Esq. of Concord, New Hampshire, Corresponding 
Secretary of the New Hampshire Historical Society. Mr. Farmer will continue the 
notices, in the future numbers of our work, in regard to several succeeding classes of the 
alumni. We think that they will be read with interest, especially by the friends of 
the college. We are preparing a brief history of this institution, which we shall insert 
in a subsequent number. 



1771. 

Levi Frisbie, A. M., the first named 
graduate on the catalogue of Dartmouth 
College, was a native of Branford, Con- 
necticut, and born in April, 1748. At the 
age of sixteen or seventeen, he was plac- 
ed under the patronage of Rev. Eleazar 
Wheelock, D. D. with a special view to the 
ministry. In 1767, he entered Yale Col- 
lege, where he continued more than three 
years ; but his college studies were com- 
pleted at Dartmouth, in 1771. He was in- 
stalled as the successor of Rev. Nathaniel 
Rogers, at Ipswich, February 7, 1776, hav- 
ing been the preceding year ordained as a 
missionary, in which character he extended 
his labors to different parts of the country, 
and into Canada. There is an abstract of 
his Journal of a mission with Rev. David 
M'Clure to the Delaware Indians, west of 
the Ohio, in the years 1772 and 1773, an- 
nexed to Rev. Dr. E. Wheelock's continua- 
tion of the narrative of the Indian charity 
school, printed at Hartford, in 1773. 

Mr. Frisbie was highly esteemed at Ips- 
wich, and his ministry was peaceful and 
happy, and at different periods eminently 
useful. His life displayed the meekness, 
humility and benevolence of the Christian. 
He died February 25, 1806, after a ministry 
of thirty years, and in the 58th year of his 
age. The late Levi Frisbie, professor of 
the Latin language, and afterwards of Moral 
Philosophy at Harvard University, was his 
son. He graduated at that institution in 
1802, and died July 9, 1822, aged 38 years. 
Allen's Biog. Diet. 

Samuel, Gray, A. M., the only gradu- 
ate of the first class now living, belongs to 
Windham in Connecticut, where for more 
than forty years previous to 1828, he had 
discharged the duties of clerk of the court. 
He was engaged in the war of the revolu- 
tion, soon after which he returned to his 
native place, where he has resided ever 
since. He was clerk for the county of 
Windham of the superior court, and a ma- 
gistrate of the county in 1821. He attended 
the commencement, at the college at which 
he graduated, in 1827. 

Sylvanus Ripley, A. M., was early 
ordained as a missionary. He became the 
first professor of Divinity in 1782. He had 



previously been a tutor. The next year 
after he graduated, he went on a mission 
to the Indian tribes in Canada, from which 
he returned on September 21, 1772, and 
" brought with him eight youths from the 
Cahgnawaga, and two from the Loretto 
tribe of Indians," to receive an education 
at the Indian charity school, incorporated 
with the college. The number of Indian 
children, then at Hanover, was eighteen. 
Professor Ripley was appointed a trustee of 
the college in 1776, and remained as such 
until his death in July, 1787. He minis- 
tered, for a number of years, to the church 
connected with the college. See President 
E. Wheelock'' s JVarrative. Rev. Messrs. 
M'Clure and Parish's Memoirs of Rev. 
Eleazar Wheelock. 

John AVheelock, LL. D., S. H. S., 
Massachusetts and New York, was son of 
Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, D. D., the founder 
and first President of the college, and was 
born at Lebanon, Connecticut, in 1754. He 
succeeded to the Presidency on the death 
of his father in 1779, and was inducted into 
the office of Professor of Civil and Ecclesi- 
astical History in 1782. For a considerable 
period, historical investigations employed 
much of his time, and he once issued a pros- 
pectus for publishing a philosophical history, 
which was probably relinquished for want 
of sufficient patronage. His printed works 
were only a few occasional pamphlets, 
which are sufficiently known to the public. 
President Wheelock was member of several 
of the learned societies of this country. 
He was elected a corresponding member 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
August 25, 1807, but he never contributed 
anything to the volumes of their collections. 
He was the President of the college until 
1815. He died April 4, 1817, aged 63. 
This sketch is purposely made short, as 
there is a full account of him in the Eulogy 
by the Hon. Samuel C. Allen. 

1772, 

Ebenezer Gxtrley, a. M., of whom 
the writer has obtained no information ex- 
cepting what the catalogue furnishes, it 
appears received ordination as a minister, 
and died as early as 1798. 

Augustine Hibbard, A. M., was a 



46 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



[Aug. 



native of Windham, Connecticut, and born 
April 7, 1748. He was ordained the second 
minister of Clareniont, as successor to Rev. 
George Wheaton, October 20, 1774. He 
joined the American army in 1776, as chap- 
Uiiu in the regiment under the command of 
Col. Timothy Bedel, and returned in De- 
cember following. In July, the following- 
year, he was appointed chaplain in the 
brigade of General John Stark, when des- 
tined for Saratoga. He retured in October, 
1777, to his people, with whom he remained 
until 1785, when he was dismissed, Mr. 
Hibbard removed to the British dominions, 
and in 1830, resided at Stanstead, Lower 
Canada, where he has sustained the office 
of magistrate, under the crown, many 
years. 

1773. 

Stephen Davis, A. M., appears to 
have been living when the last triennial 
catalogue was printed. 

James Dean, A. M., was early em- 
ployed on missionary service. In the month 
of May, before he graduated, he sat out 
with Mr. Ripley, of the fust class, on a 
mission to visit the Indians at Penobscot, 
and on the Bay of Fundy. In President 
Wheelock's Continuation, printed at Hart- 
ford in 1773, I find the following : " Mr. 
Dean has now finished his course of studies 
here, and upon finding, as I have already 
mentioned, that he may, with little expense, 
be able to preach to the Hurons, freely in 
their own tongue, has determined, if God 
pleases, when he has perfected himself in 
the French tongue, to enter on a mission, 
and with a proper companion, preach as an 
itinerant, not only to the Six Nations, 
(with whom he lived many years fi'om his 
youth,) but to the tribes that can understand 
him, to a thousand miles end, if such there 
are at that distance." Mr. Dean was an 
agent for Major General Schuyler, among 
the Oneida tribe of Indians in 1778. I have 
seen several letters written by him while 
engaged in this agency, giving an account of 
the views of the disposition of the tribes of 
the six nations. 

Emerson Foster, A. M., brother of 
Rev. Dan Foster, for many years a 
preacher at Charlestown, New Hampshire, 
was ordained minister of the North parish 
in Killingly, Connecticut, from whence he 
was dismissed. He was also the minister 
of Orange, Massachusetts. 

Joseph Grover, A. M., was settled in 
the ministry, and was living in 1828. 

David Huntington, A. M., a native 
of Lebanon, Connecticut, was ordained the 
minister of Marlborough, in that State, from 
whence he was dismissed. He was in- 
stalled over the Strict Congregafionalists 
within the First Society of Middletown, 
Connecticut, November 8, 1797; dismissed 



in 1800, and was afterwards settled over the 
Third Society in Lyme, where he died 
April 13, ISll, in the 67th year of his age, 
having sustained the character of a very 
pious man. — Field's Statistical Account of 
Middlesex County, 48, 139. 

John Smith, D. D., was born in the 
parish of Byfield, in Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 21, 1752, and was prepared for college 
at Dummer Academy under the celebrated 
Master Samuel Moody. He was appointed 
professor of the Greek, Hebrew, and other 
oriental languages in Dartmouth college, in 
1778, and continued in that office until his 
death, May, 1809, at the age of 56. He 
published the " New Hampshire Latin 
Grammar," an edition of Cicero's Orations, 
in Latin, with notes, and a " Hebrew 
Grammar, without points, designed to fa- 
cilitate the studies of the scriptures," &c. 
Professor Smith left several children, of 
whom John W. Smith, born April 25, 1786, 
died in London, February 19, 1814. — See 
President J. Wheelock's Eulogium. 

1774. 

Thomas Kendall, A. M., was em- 
ployed as a missionary before he graduated. 
He set out on a mission to the Indians in 
Canada, with several other members of 
the college, June 15, 1773, intending to 
learn the Indian and French language. In 
the continuation before quoted, I find the 
following respecting him. " Mr. Kendall 
found a very eminent situation for learning, 
what he had in view at Mrs. Stacy's at 
Cahgnawaga, and soon found himself so 
happy as to gain the respect of ail about 
him, both French and Indians, and had as 
many Indian boys applying to him for his 
instruction, and more than he was well able 
to attend upon, which gave him an oppor- 
tunity to be immediately profitable to them, 
while he was under the best advantage to 
prosecute the design of fitting himself for 
that service." He was afterwards settled 
in the ministry, and for some time, it is 
believed, preached at Millbury, Mass. 

David M'Gregore, A. M., youngest 
son of Rev. David M'Gregore, and grand- 
son of Rev. James M'Gregore, one of the 
first settlers and the first minister of Lon- 
donderry, was a native of that town. He 
went into the army the next year after he 
graduated, as a heutenant under Major 
Daniel Livermore, of Concord, New Hamp- 
shire. He served his country during all 
the war, after which he lived in Dunbarton. 
He obtained a captain's commission either 
before or soon after he left the service. He 
died about the year 1827, in the western 
part of the State of New York. His 
brother James, of Londonderry, was a sena- 
tor in the New Hampshire legislature in 
1793. Robert, another brother, resided in 
GofFstown, where he was a magistrate from 
1784 for many years, and was appointed 



1831 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



47 



colonel of the 9th regiment of militia, De- 
cember 22, 17S6. 

Joseph M'Keek, D. D., A. A. S., was 
born at Londonderry, October 15, 1757, and 
was ordained at Beverly, in Massachusetts, 
in May, 1785, as the successor of Rev. 
Joseph Willard, who was called to the 
Presidency of Harvard college in 1781. He 
remaine<l the minister of Beverly, about 
seventeen years, when he was invited to 
become the President of Bowdoin college, 
in Maine. He was inducted into this 
office, September 2, 1803 ; died July 15, 
1807, in the 50th year of his age, and was 
succeeded by the late Jesse Appleton, D. D. 
He published several works which possess 
a respectable character, of which the titles 
are given in Allen's American Biographical 
Dictionary. He left several children, of 
whom Joseph M'Keen, Esq. of Brunswick, 
is Treasurer of Bowdoin College, and James 
M'Keen graduated at that institution in 
1817, and received from Harvard college 
the degree of M. D. in 1820. President 
M'Keen's first American ancestor was 
among the first settlers of Londonderry. 
His name is attached to a petition dated in 
1721, which is in the Secretary's office of 
New Hampshire. For an account of Presi- 
dent M'Keen's character, the reader is re- 
ferred to the Eulogy of Rev. William Jenks, 
D. D. then a Professor at Bowdoin college. 

James Miltimore, A. M., son of 
James Miltimore, was a native of London- 
derry. He was ordained at Stratham, New 
Hampshire, as the successor of Rev. Joseph 
Adams, February 1, 1786, and after a min- 
istry of more than twenty-one years, was 
dismissed October 15, 1807. He was after- 
wards installed minister over one of the 
churches in Newbury, Mass. where he 
still officiates. While in New Hampshire, 
he published a number of sermons, among 
which was the Election sermon for 1806. 

Elisha Porter, A. B., was for some 
years with President Wheelock, preparing 
for a mission to the Indians in Canada", 
where he intended to spend some time, to 
obtain an acquaintance with the inhabitants, 
and to learn the customs and languages, 
both of the French and Indians, in order 
to qualify himself for a mission there. He 
set out in company with Mr. Kendall in 
June, 1773. It appears from the triennial 
catalogue of 1828, that he was living when 
that was published. 

Eleazar Sweetland, A. M., a native 
of Hebron, Connecticut, was ordained over 
the society of MiUington, in the east part of 
East Haddam, in Connecticut, May 21, 
1777, and died March 25, 1787, aged 36. 
Field's Statistical account of the County 
of Middlesex, Conn. 79, 138. 

Samuei. Taggart, a. M., son of Mat- 
thew Taggart, of Londonderry, was born in 
that town about the year 1754. He was 
ordained over the Presbyterian church and 



society of Colerain, in the county of Frar\klin, 
Massachusetts, as early as 1781. He was 
elected a representative in Congress, as 
early as 1804, and continued in that office 
fourteen years. He is said to have remark- 
ed to a Christian friend, that he had read 
the Bible through at Washington, every 
year, during the time he served as a mem- 
ber of Congress. He died at Coleiain, 
April 25, 1825, at the age of 71, having re- 
tained his connection with his society until 
the close of life. 

CoRNEi.ius Waters, A. M., was born 
at Millbury, in the county of Woi'cester, 
Massachusetts, May 20, 1748. He was 
ordained the second minister of Gof!stown, 
New Hampshire, 1781, and was dismissed 
in 1795. His successor was the Hon. 
David L. Morrill, late governor of New 
Hampshire, and now editor of the New 
Hampshire Observer, a religious paper 
printed at Concord. Mr. Waters was in- 
stalled at Ashby, Massachusetts, June 14, 
1797 ; was dismissed by the town, January 
10, 1816, and died July 30, 1824, at the age 
of 76. 

1775. 

Nathaniel, Adams, A. M., was ap- 
pointed clerk of the Superior Court of New 
Hampshire, soon after the revolutionary 
Avar closed, and remained in office until his 
death, August 5, 1829, and was attending 
to his official duties at Exeter, at the time 
he died. He was the oldest justice of the 
peace throughout the State, in New Flamp- 
shire, having been appointed to that office, 
February 28, 1792. He was one of the 
founders of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society in 1825, and contributed the first 
article in the first volume of their collec- 
tions. Besides discharging the duties be- 
longing to his office, which for many years 
were very arduous, requiring his attendance 
in all the counties in the State, he found 
time for collecting many historical materi- 
als, and in 1825, presented to the public 
his " Annals of Portsmouth, comprising a 
period of Two Hundred Years from the 
First Settlement of the Town ; with Bio- 
graphical Sketches of a few of the most 
respectable inhabitants." 8vo. pp. 400. 
It was expected that a particular memoir 
of his life would appear from some of his 
friends at Portsmouth, soon after his de- 
cease. He was about 73 years of age. 

Samuel, Collins, A. B., was ordained 
the second minister of Sandown, being the 
successor of Rev. Josiah Cotton, December 
27, 1780, and was dismissed April 30, 1788. 
The same year of his dismission, he went to 
Hanover, New Hampshire, and was install- 
ed over the church and society in that place 
in November, from which he was dismissed 
in 1795. He died in Craftsbury, Vermont, 
January, 1807, aged about 53, 

Sylvester Gilbert, A. M., from Con- 
necticut, was admitted to the degree of Mas- 



48 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



[Aug. 



ter of Arts at Yale College in 1788. From 
the catalogue of that institution, it appears 
that he was a member of Congress. 

Elisha Hutchijntson-, a. M., from 
Connecticut, was ordained the first minister 
of Pomfret, Vermont, December 14, 1784, 
and was dismissed January 8, 1795. He was 
succeeded in 1805, by Rev. Ignatius Thomp- 
son. — Tliompson'' s Gazetteer of Vermont, 
p. 220. 

James Hutchinson", A. B., probably 
died young, as the triennial catalogue for 
1798 has his name starred. 

Andrew Judson, A. M., was early em- 
ployed as a missionary, and accompanied 
Messrs. Kendall and Porter on their mission 
to Canada, in 1773. He was afterwards 
settled in the ministry at Ashford, Connecti- 
cut. 

David Kellogg, D. D., has long been 
the minister of Framingham, Massachusetts, 
having been settled there as early as the 
year 1781. He was admitted to the degree 
of Master of Arts at Yale College in 1778. 
His doctorate he received from his Alma 
Mater in 1824. 

William May, A. M., died before the 
year 1816. Nothing has been obtained re- 
lative to him. 

Benjamin Osborn, A. B., was or- 
dained at Tinmouth, in Vermont, Septem- 
ber, 1780; dismissed October, 1787. He 
was afterwards the first minister of Walling- 
ford, in the same State. — Thompson' s Ga- 
zetter of Vermont, 259, 270. 

Davenport Phelps, A. M., from Con- 
necticut, was settled in the ministry, from 
which he was dismissed, and died sometime 
before 1816, it is believed in Piermont, New 
Hampshire. 

Samuel Stebbins, A. M., from Con- 
necticut, was settled over the Congregation- 
al society in Simsbury, Connecticut, where 
he was in office in 1798. He was admitted 
to the degree of Master of Arts in Yale col- 
lege in 1778. 

1776. 

Abel Curtis, A. M., died in early life. 

Experience Estabrook, A. M., was 
ordained the first minister of Thornton, in 
the county of Grafton, New Hampshire, 
August 10, 1780, and was dismissed October 
18, 1787. He went the same year to Plain- 
field, in the county of Cheshire, now Sulli- 
van, and was installed minister of the second 
Congregational church in that town, June 
6, 1787. He was dismissed May 9, 1792, 
and a correspondent informs me that he died 
at Thornton in 1810, although the triennial 
catalogue for 1798, has a star prefixed to his 
name. A gentleman informs me that he 
was a native of East Haddam, in Connecti- 
cut. 

Caleb Jewett, A. M.. studied theology, 



and in August, 1781, was engaged to preach 
six months in Gorham, Maine. In January, 
1782, he received an invitation to settle 
there, and was ordained in November, 1783. 
He continued the minister there seventeen 
j^eai's, and ceased preaching in 1800, but 
was not formally dismissed. He died soon 
after his ministerial labors closed. — Green- 
leaf's Ecclesiastical Sketches, 90. 

Silas Little, A. M., appears to have 
been living in 1828. 

Stephen Marsh, A. M., died between 
the years 1821 and 1825, as appears from 
catalogues. 

Ebenezer Mattoon, a. M., son, it is 
believed, of Ebenezer Mattoon, of Amherst, 
Massachusetts, was a civil magistrate in that 
town as early as 1790. He was elected a 
member of Congress from Massachusetts, in 
room of Samuel Lyman, and took his seat 
February 2, 1801. Soon after this period, 
he was appointed sheriff of the county of 
Hampshire, and was in office as late as 1816. 
It appears that he was captain of the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery company at Boston, 
previously to which he had been major-gen- 
eral of the fourth division of Massachusetts 
militia. He was also, at one time, adjutant 
general of the militia. 

Jonathan Sherburne, A. B., was 
from Portsmouth. It appears that he was 
living in 1828. He had a brother Henry, 
who graduated at New Jersey College, and 
was a preacher. 

John Samuel Sherburne, A. M., 
was cousin of the preceding, and son of John 
Sherburne, Esq. of Portsmouth, where he 
was born in 1757. He studied the profes- 
sion of law, and settled in practice in his 
native town. He was appointed to the of- 
fice of civil magistrate for the county of 
Rockingham, October 10, 1788. In 1792, 
he was elected one of three members from 
New Hampshire to the Third Congress, and 
was re-elected to the Fourth, in 1794. — 
From 1801 to 1804, he officiated as attorney 
for the United States District Court, and 
in May, 1804, presided as Judge of the 
same court, and continued in that office un- 
til his death, August 2, 1830, at the age of 
73. He was succeeded in 1831 by Hon. 
Matthew Harvey, who was then governor 
of the State. 

Eleazar Wheelock, A. M., son of 
the founder of the college, died before the 
year 1816. 

James Wheelock, A. M., brother to 
the preceding, was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace for the county of Grafton, February 
12, 1788. He resided in Hanover. 

Levi Willard, A. B., was living in 

1828. 

Solomon Wolcott, A. B., from Con- 
necticut, was settled in the ministry in 
Windsor, in that State. 



1831] 



GRADUATES OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



49 



1777. 

Asa Burton, D. D., was ordained tlie 
first minister of Tiiolford, in Vermont, Jan- 
uary 19, 1779, and remained in the mini^.lry 
till ins dcatli, al)out 1S27. He received Iii.s 
doctorate from Middlebury College, of which 
he was one of the fellows. Rev. Charles 
"White was ordained as his colleague, Janu- 
ary 5, 1S25. He has since been dismissed. 

Zacchkus Colby, A.M., was a native of 
Newtown, New Hampshire, and was born in 
1749. After having completed his education 
at college, he began the study of theology, 
and was ordained at Pembroke, New Hamp- 
shire, March 22, 178G. He was dismissed 
May 11, 1S03. He was installed over the 
Presbyterian church in Chester, October 
15, 180.3, and remained in that connection 
until 1808. After this period, he was not 
again settled in the ministry. He died at 
Chester, August 10, 1822, aged 73 years. 

Daniel Foster, A. M., a native of 
Western, Massachusetts, was ordained at 
New Braintree, in that State, as colleague 
with Rev. Benjamin Ruggles, October 29, 
1778, and died September 4, 1795, aged 44. 

Joel Foster, A. M., was ordained at 
New Salem, Massachusetts, June 9, 1779, 
from whence he was dismissed June 21, 

1802. The cause of his dismission was the 
want of an adequate support. He was in- 
stalled at East Sudbury, Massachusetts, as 
successor of Rev. Josiah Bridge, Sept. 7, 

1803, and died Sept. 25, 1812, in the 58th year 
of his age.— 2 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 62. 

David Goodall, A. M., was born at 
Marlborough, Massachusetts, August 24, 
1749 ; studied theology with Rev. Benjamin 
Brigham, of Fitzwilliam, and was ordained 
at Halifax, in Vermont, the first minister of 
that town, in 1781, and was dismissed in 
1796. He afterwards settled at Littleton, 
in New Hampshire, and represented^that 
town in the New Hampshire Legislature 
from 1800 to 1807, and in 1809. ^He Avas 
appointed a civil magistrate for the county 
of Grafton, June 13, 1801, and was advanced 
to the quorum, February 2, 1805. He died 
at Littleton, March 4, 1830, in the 81st year 
of his age. An account of his character 
was published in the New Hampshire Ob- 
server of March 31, 1830. His son, Ira 
Goodall, Esq. is an Attorney at Law in Bath, 
N. H., and has represented that town in the 
New Hampshire Legislature. 

Ebenezer Haseltine, a. M., a native 
of Methuen, Massachusetts, was born Octo- 
ber 28, 1755. He entered Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1773. He was examined with re- 
spect to his qualifications for the ministry 
by the Grafton Presbytery ; was approved 
and took license to preach, July 24, 1779. 
He was ordained the second Congregational 
minister ofEpsom, New Hampshire, January 
21, 1784. During his ministry, 87 were 
admitted to the church, and 363 received 
VOL. IV. 7 



the ordinance of baptism. He died Novem- 
ber 10, 1,S13, in the 59th year of his age. 
He published a sermon at the ordination of 
Rev. David Lawrence Morril, at Goflstown, 
and a sermon addressed to young people. — 
liev. Jonalhan Curtis's Historical Sketch 
of Epsom, 10 — 13. 

Solomon Howe, A. B. 

Walter Lyon, A. M., was settled over 
the second church in Pomfret, Connecticut, 
where he died, February 14, 1826, aged 68, 
and in the 44th year of his ministry. 

WiNSLOw Packard, A.M., received or- 
dination, but where, if ever permanently set- 
tled in the ministry, I have not ascertained. 

Daniel Simons, A. M., was the first 
Indian who received a degree at Dartmouth 
college. He was ordained at Hanover as 
an evangelist. Rev. Dr. Whitaker assisted in 
the ordination services. He appears to have 
been living in 1798, but died before 1816. 

George Trimble, A. B. 



CORRECTION. 

To the Editor of the auarterly Register. 

Sir, — In your number for May, I per- 
ceive an error, which I am sure your sense 
of justice will lead you to correct as soon as 
it shall be pointed out to you. In your 
sketch of the life of the late illustiious Robert 
Hall, it is stated that, " In his church. Bap- 
tists and Pa^dobaptists were alike admitted 
to communion." 

This statement, though not designed to 
mislead your readers, has such a tendency ; 
and I take the liberty of presenting to them 
the case as it was. 

At Harvey Lane, Leicester, Mr. Hall, 
though ministering to but one congregation, 
was in fact the pastor of two churches ; a 
Baptist and a Pa;dobaptist one ; and to these 
distinct churches, he administered the com- 
munion at two several times. To one in 
the forenoon, and to the other in the after- 
noon of the same day, and to both, if I mis- 
take not, in the meeting house. But at 
Broadmead, Bristol, the very few Pasdo- 
baptists to whom Mr. Hall administered the 
communion were not constituted a church ; 
and the communion was not administered to 
them in the meeting house, but in the vestry. 

It is a singular fact that Mr. Hall's church, 
both at Leicester and at Bristol, was, in its 
corporate character, at variance with him- 
self on the subject of communion ; and no 
less singular is it that his opponent, Mr. 
Kinghorn, of Norwich, and his church, were 
opposed to each other ; so that in neither of 
these churches were " Baptists and Paedo- 
baptists alike admitted to communion :" not 
in Mr. Hall's, because the church, as a body, 
could not receive Pagdobaptists ; and not in 
Mr. Kinghorn's, because he could not ad- 
minister it to them. 

Yours respectfully, 

An English Baptist. 



50 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



[Aug. 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBILICATIONS. 



Memoirs of the Life and Character of 

the Ilov. Mattliias Bruen, lute Pastor of the Pies- 
byteri;ui Chinch in Bleecker Street, New York. 
John r. Haven, G. C. & H. Curvill. New York. 
Carey &; Lea, Towar &. Ilogan, Philadelphia. 
Peirce ik. Parker, Boston. 353 pp. 8 vo. 

Mv. Brue.]v was born in Newark, New 
Jersey, April 11, 1793, From the age of 
eight to fifteen he resided witli his paternal 
grandfather. In 1808 he entered Columbia 
college. Though early the subject of seri- 
ous impressions he did not attain to satisfac- 
toiy views of his interest in the Redeemer 
till his eighteenth year. Soon after leaving 
college he commenced his theological studies 
under the care of the Rev. Dr, John M. 
Mason. In 1816. in company with Dr. 
Mason, he travelled through a considerable 
portion of southern Europe. After Dr. Ma- 
son's return to the United States, Mr. Bruen 
again visited the continent, remaining some 
weeks at Amsterdam. On the eve of sailing 
for America in 1818, he received a pressing 
invitation to officiate in the church of the 
Oratoire, at Paris. From Nov. 1818, to 
May, 1819, he ministered in that church 
very much to the edification of his hearers. 
After his return to the United States in 1819^ 
he preached in various places, till in the 
autumn of 1822, when he commenced the 
undertaking which resulted in his settlement 
as pastor of the Bleecker Street Church. 
During a considerable part of the time in 
whichhe officiated in this church, he per- 
formed the duties of Secretary to the Domes- 
tic Missionary Society, which was at length 
merged in the American Home Missionary 
Society. In June, 1823, Mr. Bruen was 
married to IMiss Mary A. Davenport, daugh- 
ter of Hon. James Davenport, of Stamford, 
Conn. In the efforts, which were made in 
this country for the relief of the sulfering 
Greeks, as well as in other enterprizes of 
mercy, Mr. Bruen took a most efficient part. 
At -length, after a short and painful illness, 
he entered into rest, on the 6th of December, 
1829, in the 37th year of his age. Funeral 
sermons were preached by the Rev. Dr. 
Cox, of New York, and the Rev. Dr. Skin- 
ner, of Philadelphia. The expressions of 
sorrow at his early removal were numerous 
and heartfelt. 

The Memoirs are compiled, as we gather 
from the volume, by Mrs. Lundie, of Scot- 
land, the wife of a clergyman, in whose 
family Mr. Bruen found a cherished and 
most hospitable home. The greater part of 
the volume is occupied with the letters of 
Mr. 33ruen to Mrs. L. Some of the closing 
pages of the book contain a letter from the 
Rev. Dr. Taylor, of New Haven, describing 
an interesfing conversation which he held 
with Mr. Bruen just before his death, on 
the grounds of the Christian hope ; a letter 



of condolence from Prof Stuart to Mrs- 
Bruen : a letter from Mr. Peters, Secretary 
of the American Home Missionary Society, 
delineating the character of Mr. Bruen, as 
his predecessor in the secretaryship of the 
Society ; and a communication from the 
compiler of the book to a friend in the United 
States on the subject of voluntary Associa- 
tions. 

Mr. Bruen published, in 1821, a thanks- 
giving sermon ; and in 1822, a little volume, 
entitled, " Essays Descriptive and Moral of 
Scenes in Italy and France, by an Ameri- 
can." He was also the writer of the Re- 
view of " Unitarianism at Geneva ;" and a 
Review of " Douglas on the Advancement 
of Society," both published in the Christian 
Spectator. 

As a friend, and as a man &f refined taste, 
Mr. Bruen had very few equals. This was 
manifested by the ardor with which he en- 
tered into the cause of the suffering Greeks, 
He felt for them as a scholar as well as a 
Christian. In his thanksgiving sermon, one 
knows not whether most to admire the ele- 
vated tone of the thoughts, or the delicacy 
and music of the language. The mild and 
attractive features of the Christian faith 
were eminently exemplified in his life and 
character. 

The Divine Authority and Perpetual 

Obligation of the Lord's Day, asserted in Seven 
Eermong, delivered at the Parish Church of St. 
Mary, Islington, in the months of July and August, 
1830, by Daniel Wilson, M. A., Author of Lec- 
tures on the Evidences of Christianity ; witlv 
a Recommendatory Preface, by Rev. Leonard 
Woods, D. D., of Andover. Boston; Crocker &• 
Brewster. New York: Jonathan Leavilt, 183L 
212 pp. 8vo. 

In the spring of 1830, Bishop Blomfield,- 
of London, addressed a long letter to the 
clergy and people of his diocese, on the neg- 
lect and profanation of the Lord's day. 
Public attention was immediately called tO' 
the subject. In Mr. Wilson's parish, a so- 
ciety was formed for promoting the observ- 
ance of the Sabbath, the constitution of 
which was signed by more than 400 of the 
most respectable house-keepers. Mr. Wil- 
son was induced, in consequence of these 
circumstances, to institute a thorough ex- 
amination into the nature and claims of the 
Sabbath. The book,- of which we have 
given the title, is the result of this investi- 
gation. 

The following is a brief analysis of the 
volume. The first sermon is occupied with 
an account of the institution of the Sabbath 
in Paradise, the notices of a weekly rest 
during the patriarchal ages,, and of the ?nan- 
ner in which the Sabbath was revived be- 
fore the commencement of the Mosaic econo- 
my. The second sermon asserts the au- 



1831. 



WILSON ON THE SABBATH. 



51 



thority and dignity of the Sabbath under the 
law of Moses, its insertion in the deca- 
logue, its place, as high above all the cere- 
monial usages, the great importance attached 
to it as of moral obligation, by tlic prophets, 
show that it was to be a part of the Chris- 
tian dispensation. In the third sermon it is 
maintained tlrat the gospel sets forth the 
Sabbath in more than its original glory. 
Our Lord honored the Sabbath on all occa- 
sions. He freed it from some pharisaical 
peculiarities. From its moral character 
neither he, nor his apostles, took aught. 
The fourth sermon treats of the transfer of 
the Sabbath from tlie seventh to the first 
day of the week, and the reasons on which 
the change is founded. Some preparatory 
circumstances are delineated. The fifth 
sermon is on the practical duties of the 
Lord's day. The sixth is employed in en- 
forcing the unspeakable importance of the 
right observance of the Sabbath. The Sab- 
bath includes all the application of the Chris- 
tian religion and its preservation in the world. 
It holds together all the links and obliga- 
tions of human society. In the last sermon 
the subject is considered in a national point 
of view, with an outline of the practical 
measures which may be adopted in reform- 
ing communities and nations. 

Mr. Wilson looks over the whole ground 
as a patriot and a Christian. He maintains 
the high moral obligation of the Sabbath. 
All the principal difficulties are met in a fair 
and candid manner. The blessings of a 
strict observance of the day are presented in 
an attractive form. Throughout the course 
of argumentation, earnest and affectionate 
appeals are intermingled. 

The appearance of the volume is very 
timely. The attention of the religious com- 
munity in this country will soon be exten- 
sively called to this subject. We would 
recommend that several copies of this vol- 
ume be circulated among the members of 
our churches in every town. It would not 
be amiss, also, to place a few copies in our 
steam boats and canal boats for the benefit 
of those Christians who travel on the Sab- 
bath. 

A recommendatory letter by Eleazer 
Lord, Esq. of New York, and a preface by 
Rev. Dr. Woods, of Andover, well describe 
the nature of the work.** 



* The following i)articulavs in regard to the author 
may be new to some of our readers. He is the son 
of Thomas Wilson, Esq. the well known patron of 
the Dissenting College at Highbury, and of other 
benevolent enterprises. He received liis education 
at Edmund Hall, Oxford. He has officiated as a 
minister of the Established Church at various places. 
He preached, for some time, as successor to Mr. Cecil, 
in Bedford Row. He is now ministering to a large 
congregation in Islington, one of the parishes in 
London. It is stated that on one occasion, 700 indi- 
viduals received the rite of confirmation in his church. 
He has frequently appeared as an author ;— he has 
published several occasional sermons, a volume of 
sermons, a journal of travels, a defence of the Church 
Missionary Society, a long and excellent essay pre- 



American Annals of Education. Con- 
ducted by William C. Woodbridge, assisted by 
several Friends of Education. 

The first series of the Journal of Educa- 
tion was commenced in .January, 1826, un- 
der the care of Mv. William Russell. This 
was continued for three years. The second 
series was specially devoted to the subject 
of Lyceums. The third series was com- 
menced in August last, under the editorial 
care of Mr. Woodbridge. Many of the sub- 
jects discussed in this Journal are of the high- 
est practical importance. Mr. Gallaudet, of 
Hartford, is a regular and frequent contribu- 
tor, as well as others of our most enlightened 
school teachers. The information in refer- 
ence to the plans and methods of education 
on the continent of Europe, which the per- 
sonal knowled<re of the editor enables him to 
communicate 
to the work. 

We sincerely hope that it will be liberally 
patronized. Those, who are engaged in 
communicating instruction, cannot discharge 
their duties intelligently, without the aid of 
such publications. Carter, Hendee & Bab- 
cock, Boston, are the publishers. The work 
is issued in monthly numbers of 40 or 50 
pages each. Price, three dollars a year in 
advance. 

An Address delivered at the Western 

Reserve College, Hudson, Ohio, February 9, 183J, 
by Charles B. Storrs, at his Inauguration 
to the Presidency of that Institution. Boston : 
Peirce &. Parker. 1831. 19 pp. Bvo. 

The position, maintained and illustrated 
in this Address is, '• That education, in every 
stage of its progress, from the nursery to 
the university, should be adapted to raise 
our moral character to the highest elevation 
of which it is capable." The wisdom and 
goodness of God will be recognized in pro- 
portion to the excellence of our moral char- 
acter ; and in the same proportion our use- 
fulness to our fellow men will be extended. 
Moral principle is necessary to inspire the 
student with the spirit of vmwearied appli- 
cation and wakeful diligence. Social happi- 
ness is essentially depending upon it. On 
account of our political relations, also, moral 
culture should receive special attention. 
Respect for the rights of man is inseparable 
from a sense of accountability to God. 

In attaining the moral ends of education, 
systems of manual labor are considered to 
be far preferable to mere diversion or gym- 
nastic exercise. The principle of emulation, 
Mr. Storrs would discard from schools of 
education as essentially wrong, and of course 
as injurious to moral character. The study 
of the original scriptures is warmly recom- 
mended, while a very extended use of the 



fixed to Wilberforce's Practical View, and two vol- 
umes on the Evidences of Christianity. The three 
last named, have been republished in Boston, by 
Crocker & Brewster. Mr. Wilson is one of the ^uri- 
cipal contributors to the Christian Observer 



53 



nOUTON S SERMONS HIEROGLYPHICS, 



[Au. 



Greek and Roman classics, especially in the 
earlier stages of education, is reprobated as 
injurious to the moral feelings. 

JMr. Storrs, for two or tliree years before 
his election to the presidency, was Professor 
of Theology in the college. His place is 
now supplied in that department by the 
Rev. Beriah Green, formerly of Brandon, Vt. 

Two Sermons, delivered Nov. 21, 1830, 

in commemoration of tlie organizing of the First 
Churcii in Concord, N. H., and the Settlement of 
tlie First Minister, on the 18th of i\ov. 1730, by 
Rev. Nathaniel Bouro!>r. Concord: Asa -^Jc- 
Farland. 1831. 102 pp. 8vo. 

Concord was settled a century ago, prin- 
cipally by emigrants from Andover, Brad- 
ford, Salisbury,"and Haverhill, Mass. They 
were selected by a Committee of the General 
Court of Massachusetts, and were all men 
of property and of good character. The 
first minister of the place, Rev. Timothy 
Walker, was ordained, Nov. 18, 1730, and 
continued in the office till his death, in 1782. 
The population of Concord, at that time, 
amounted to 1,500. Rev. Israel Evans, the 
next pastor, ren\ained in the office, from 
Sept. 1788 to 1797. March 7th, 1793, Rev. 
Asa McFarland, D. D. was ordained pastor. 
In 1824, he resigned the situation, on ac- 
count of bodily infirmities. He died in Feb. 
1827. In 1825, Mr. Bouton, the present 
minister, entered on his duties. Since the 
formation of the church, 793 individuals have 
been connected with it. About ^500 an- 
nually, arc given by members of Mr. Bou- 
ton's church and congregation, for general 
benevolent purposes. Twenty-six individu- 
als from this town have acquired a public 
education. Appended to these sermons is a 
valuable collection of notes. Some of them 
furnish a singular view of the olden time. 

We cannot but applaud the practice of 
" gathering up the fragments" of the early 
history of our New England villages and 
towns. The day, we are persuaded, is not 
very distant, when there will be a printed 
historical record of every town in the north- 
ern States. They will furnish materials, 
of untold value, for the future historian of 
the land of the Pilgrims. 

Essay on the Hieroglyphic System of 

M. Champollion, Jan., and on the Advantages 
which it offers to Sacred Criticism, by J. G. H. 
Greppo, Vicar General of Belley. Translated 
fVom the French, by Isaac Stuart, vvith Notes 
and Illustrations. Boston: Perkins & JVIarvin, 
1830. 276 pp. 12mo. 

This book records the results of the labors 
of Champollion in deciphering the Egyptian 
Hieroglyphics. As this is likely to becoiiie 
a subject of great interest, we will give a 
short, and if possible, an intelligible analysis 
of it. According to Champollion, the hiero- 
glyphics are divisible into three distinct 
classes: 1. Figurative signs ; 2. Symbolic; 
3. Phonetic, or expressive of sound. The 
FIGURATIVE occur oftcn, either in an en- 



tire or an abridged form. Thus the sun is 
represented by an exact image ; the firma- 
ment by the section of a ceiling, with or 
without stars. The first is termed figura- 
tive proper, the second figurative coaveri' 
tional. The plan of a house is given, in- 
stead of the house itself. This is termed 
figurative abridged. The second form of 
hieroglyphics is the symbolical. These 
are the characters generally alluded to by 
the ancients, when they speak of hiero- 
glyphics. Two arms stretched up towards 
heaven expressed the word offering; the 
four quarters of a lion, strength; an asp, 
power of life and death. As the Egyptians 
were a very civilized nation, it is clear that 
hieroglyphics like those described were not 
by any means sufficient to designate their 
various wants, occupafions, and ideas ; and 
this want may have led to the invention of 
what Champollion calls the third class of 
hieroglyphics, phonetic, or designating a 
sound. He has also discovered the princi- 
ple on which these signs Vi^ere chosen to 
express one certain sound ; it is this, that 
the hieroglyphic of any object might he 
used to represent the initial sound, or as 
IOC should say, the initial letter, of the 
na.me of that object. This is shown in the 
following manner : The first column gives 
the letter expressed by an hieroglyphic ; 
the second, the English name of the object 
represented ; the third, the Egyptian name. 

Letter. Hieroglyphic. Egyptian name. 

A an eagle, apom 

— a piece of meat, ab or af 
R mouth, ro 

— tear, rime 

— pomegranite, roman 

As the great number of hieroglylphies 
which this principle would assign to each 
of the 29 elementary sounds, (the number 
in the Egyptian alphabet,) would have been 
a continual source of error, the characters 
were soon reduced to a few. As far as 
ascertained, 18 or 19 is the largest number 
assigned to any one letter, while few have 
more than five or six representatives, and 
several only one or two. The rule which 
was generally adopted in choosing between 
so many signs for the same sound, was to 
take that sign which seemed most appropri- 
ate to the meaning of the word which was 
to be written phonetically. Thus if the 
name of a king was to be written, those pho- 
netic hieroglyphics would be taken, which 
represented things of a noble character. 
The eagle is frequently used for A in the 
names of the Roman emperors. 

It is said, that, notwithstanding all the 
sorts of hieroglyphical characters are used 
together, Champollion has acquired much 
skill in deciphering them, and reads most of 
them with comparative ease. In his great 
work. Precis du Systeme Hieroglyphique, 
(second edifion, 1828,) he has deciphered 
the proper names of sovereigns of Egypt 



1831, 



TOWNSEND S MEMOIRS CHURCH PSALMODY. 



5;j 



from the Roman emperors back through the 
Ptolemies, to tlie Pharaohs of tlic elder 
dynasties, and detected the hicro;^lyphical 
expression of a large number of natural re- 
lations, grammatical accidents, and terms of 
the vocabulary. His labors have already 
thrown a great deal of light on the early 
history of Egypt. He has lately returned 
from that country with a great mass of ma- 
terials. 

It is confidently anticipated that the re- 
searches of Chanipollion will throw con- 
siderable light upon the scripture history. 
Several important illustrations have been 
already furnished. 

The translation of the Essay of Greppo is 
made in a manner very creditable to Mr. 
Stuart. Prof. Stuart has added some valua- 
ble notes to the volume. 

Memoirs of the Rev. John Townsend, 

founder of thn Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, and 
oftiio Congicgationa! Scliool. Boston: Crocker 
& Brewster. New York: Jona. Leavitt. 1831. 
244 pp. 8vo. 

The following extract from Mr. Town- 
send's journal, shows his spirit and manner 
of life. " I hope to die either in my study, 
or in my pulpit, that I rnay be found work- 
ing ; not loiiering nor sleeping." 

Mr. Townsend was born in one of the 
parishes in London, March 24, 1757. His 
father and mother were very estimable peo- 
ple. They were attendants for some time, 
on the preaching of Mr. Whitetield. Young 
Townsend was greatly indebted to the in- 
structions of his excellent mother. For five 
years he attended the Christ's Hospital 
School. In hearing a sermon of Dr. Peck- 
well, in 1774, he received religious impres- 
sions, which produced a permanent change 
in his character. He soon after commenced 
preaching in the Methodist chapels with 
great acceptance. Conscious of his want of 
proper preparation for this work, he de- 
voted himself with much assiduity to collect 
all the sources of reading and reflection in 
his power. He read the works of the Puri- 
tans, constantly heard Mr. Cecil preach, 
commenced the study of Hebrew and Greek, 
spending 14, and sometimes 16 hours a day 
in study. He now connected himself with 
the Congregational Dissenters, and was set- 
tled at Kingston in 1780 ; in 1784 he re- 
moved to Bermondsey, near London^where 
he remained till his death. In IT92, Mr. 
Townsend, becoming interested in the case 
of a deaf and dumb child, decided on the 
practicability and necessity of a charitable 
institution for their benefit. The subscrip- 
tion was commenced, June, 1792, and the 
amount raised was four guineas, one of 
vv^hich Mr. Townsend subscribed. The next 
morning he communicated the plan to Mr. 
Henry Thornton, who entered warmly into 
the measure, and became the treasurer of 
the institution. In eight years it was recog- 
nized as a great national charity. Mr. 
Townsend was unwearied in his efforts to 



sustain the establishment. In tliree years 
he collected £6,000 for the funds of the 
Asylum. He visited Ireland, and found that 
there were 3,000 deaf and dumb children in 
that island. Before his death the nund^er 
resident in the London Asylum was 220, and 
the whole nundjcr of admissions had been 
almost 900. The Duke of Gloucester was 
its patron, and the Marquis of Buckingham 
its President. The Duke has presented a 
marble bust of Mr. Townsend, to perpetuate 
his memory. It is placed in the hall of the 
institution. 

Mr. Townsend was one of the individuals 
who commenced the Evangelical Magazine, 
From the proceeds of this work, £16,000 
have been given to charitable purposes. In 
1794, he was one of the eight wlio met to 
devise means to establish a Missionary So- 
ciety, On the news of the loss of the Duff, 
Mr. Townsend immediately preached a ser- 
mon, fi'om the passage, " Speak to the chil- 
dren of Israel, that they go forward," On 
the formation of the Tract Society, Mr. 
Townsend was .soon appointed on the Com- 
mittee. Lie wrote 12 Tracts, six of which 
were translated into all the languages of 
Europe, and one into several of the Asiatic. 
On the formation of the British and Foreign 
Bible Societ}^ he was appointed on the Com- 
mittee, On account of his activity he was 
made an honorary life member, A veiy 
favorite object with him was the Congre- 
gational School, for the children of poor 
Dissenting ministers ; but it did not receive 
that patronage which was necessary to its 
extended usefulness. 

Mr. Townsend rested from his labors on 
the 7th of February, 1826, in the 69th year 
of his age. His life furnished a most strik- 
ing illustration of the real nature of Chris- 
tianity. He went about doing good. He 
lived for the temporal and eternal happiness 
of his fellow men, in an eminent degree. 
His affections were uncommonly tender, and 
his disposition amiable and winning. As 
an instance of the respect in which he was 
held, it is stated, that a venerable prelate 
of the Episcopal Church, once said to him 
in a public company, " Mr, Townsend, if 
you come to our city, and take up your 
quarters any where but in the bishop's pal- 
ace, I shall be quite affronted with you." 

We will only add that the Memoir is 
written in a simple and unpretending style ; 
well adapted to exhibit the character of such 
a man as Mr. Townsend, 

Church Psalmody ; a new Collection of 

Psalms and Hymns, adapted to public worship. 
Selected from Dr. W^atts, and other Authors, 
Boston: Perkins & Marvin, 1831, 

We wish to do little more than to mention 
the fact of the publication of this work, in 
our present number. We shall offer some 
extended remarks upon it hereafter. It con- 
tains about 450 metrical pieces from the 
psalms, and above 700 hymns. 



REVIEW 



PRINCIPAL EVENTS OF THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1831. 



JULY, 1830. 

On the 80th of June the French commenced the siege of Algiers. On the 
1st, 2d, and 3d of July, they continued their operations, and erected their bat- 
teries. In the mean time an attack was made by the tleet on the forts of the 
sea side, in order to withdraw the enemy's attention from the army. By three 
o'clock on the morning of the 4th, the batteries were all ready. The artillery 
consisted of 26 pieces. In four hours the enemy's fire was nearly extinguished. 
At 10 o'clock a terrible explosion took place Avhich blew into the air a part of 
the fortress. The powder magazine had been fired by order of the dey. The 
report was heard 60 miles at sea. As the city could now be bombarded from 
the heights as well as from the fleet, the dey saw that it was in vain to continue 
the struggle. After a good deal of negotiation, a capitulation was accepted. 
The dey was allowed his liberty, and the possession of all his personal effects. 
He might retire with his family and property to any place he chose, out of Africa. 
The same engagement was made in regard to all the Turkish militia. The 
personal rights and religion of the Algerines were to be respected. By two 
o'clock on the afternoon of the 5th, the French flag waved from all the towers 
of the city, and from the palace of the dey. All the treasures of the regency 
and 1,500 pieces of cannon were the fruits of the expedition. The whole booty 
obtained in Algiers was worth about 60,000,000 francs, or £2,500,000. The 
expenses of the army and navy amounted to about this sum. 

It seems probable that the French intend to colonize in Africa. Courts of 
justice have been organized at Algiers, and an experimental farm commenced. 
Every exertion is made to increase the confidence of the natives in the French 
government. A bey, who reigned near the foot of Mount Atlas, has been de- 
posed and sent to France, and another substituted. A French colony would 
become a nucleus of civilization for the whole of that barbarous but celebrated 
region. 

For a long time, the government of Charles X. had been growing unpopular 
in France. The Chamber of Deputies, showing many signs of disaflfection, had 
been dissolved, and a new election ordered. But the result was the return of 
a new Chamber still more charged with the elements of opposition. The min- 
istry were able, for a time, to occupy the attention of the people with the bril- 
liant expedition to Algiers. But the crisis now approached. The ministers 
told their sovereign that his only choice lay between an act of unconstitutional 
vigor and the scaffold. The revolutionary spirit must be put down at all hazards. 
At 11 o'clock at night, on Sunday the 26th of July, M. Sauvo, the editor of the 
Moniteur, received an order to meet two of the ministers. One of them delivered 
to him for publication, the ordinances of the ministers. On reading them he 
exclaimed, " I have witnessed all the days of the revolution ; and I withdraw in 
deep terror to publish these decrees." The nature of them fully warranted these 
alarms. The Chamber of Deputies, Avhich had been convoked to meet on the 
4th of August, was dissolved. This was in fact an attack on the rights of the 
electors, declaring that the electoral colleges had been misled and deceived. 
A new ordinance reduced the number of deputies from 430 to 258. 



LATE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 55 

The popular colleges of electors were deprived of their rights, and the con- 
stituent body of the whole of France was reduced to about 20,000 wealthy pro- 
prietors. Tlie mode of election by ballot was also virtually annulled. To 
complete the work, another ordinance re-established the censorship of the press, 
and deprived the proprietors of newspapers of the right of publishing them with- 
out previous license. Thus in respect to literary productions, France Avas placed 
in the same state as Turkey. On Monday morning, the first feeling excited on 
reading the publication was astonishment and indignation. There were various 
meetings of the friends of liberty at which nothing was determined beyond 
general protestation against the illegality of the ordinances. It was late on 
Monday before the news of the publication was generally known. Despatches 
were however sent by the friends of liberty to some of the deputies — among 
the rest to Lafayette and M. Lafitte. Mobs begain to collect in the Palais 
Royal, and the hotels of the ministers suffered some damage. Charles was out 
on a hunting expedition. By the morning of Tuesday the 27th, the news of the 
ordinances wa.s generally spread, and angry crowds began to collect. Scarcely 
any but the official journal appeared. No one could be published without au- 
thority. The printers and compositors being told that their " occupation was 
gone," were turned into the streets. Forty-four editors of daily papers issued 
a protest against the ordinances on Tuesday morning, in which they say, " the 
government has lost to-day that legal character which commands obedience. 
We shall resist it, therefore, in all Avhich relates to us." This paper was exten- 
sively circulated, and gave a definite direction to the efforts of the people. Two 
of the papers persisted in their publication in defiance of the ordinance. The 
doors of one of«the offices were broken open, the types were scattered, and the 
presses destroyed. Immense crowds of the working classes began to assemble 
around the public places. The hotels of some of the ministers were attacked. 
At half past four in the afternoon, the military under Marshal Marmont were in 
motion. The whole force which was called out during this week was about 
12,000 men, of whom 3,800 Avere Swiss guards. As the cavalry passed, a shower 
of stones Avere throAvn on them by the populace. In one case the Swiss guards 
fired repeated volleys on the people, by Avhich a great number Avere wounded, 
and one Avoman killed. The operations of the day terminated by the destruc- 
tion of all the lamps of the toAvn. This was a night of fearful preparation. 
" The fauxbourgs of the French capital decided the problem of a revolution 
Avhich overthreAv the dynasty of the Bourbons, and shook many of the thrones of 
Europe." 

On Wednesday morning all Avas activity. The gunners' shops had been 
broken open, and their contents distributed among the populace. The shops 
were partially opened in the morning, but they Avere soon shut, and an end was 
put to all business except that of arms. 

In the morning an ordinance Avas issued by the ministers, declaring Paris to 
be in a state of siege. Through a considerable part of the day the troops of 
Marmont were engaged with the citizens. At the Hotel de Ville there was a 
most destructive scene of warfare. From every AA^indoAv and from the tops of 
the houses a deadly fire Avas kept up, and the battle raged for five or six hours 
with unintermitted fury, till the troops, through the failure of ammunition, were 
compelled to retire. At this place from one hundred and fifty to two hundred 
of the troops Avere killed or wounded. In other parts of the city there had been 
much skirmishing. Notwithstanding the signal failure of the troops during this 
day, yet the infatuated ministers determined to persevere. Wednesday night 
was a period of busy counsels and active preparations. The principal streets 
were barricaded. The trees Avere cut doAvn, and converted into ramparts of 
defence. The streets next day had all the stillness of midnight. Additional 
bodies of citizens joined their brethren, particularly the young men of the Poly- 
technic and other schools. Reinforcements of 1700 or 1800 men had joined the 
king's troops. The morning dawned. The troops Avere pressed upon by an 
armed and enraged populace. Near the Palais Royal the fire Avas heavy and 
the carnage great. 

About 11 o'clock the king consented to change his counsels, and to AvithdraAv 
his ordinances. Some of the troops of the line Avent over to the people. Before 



56 EVENTS OF AUGUST, 1830. [AuG. 

3 o'clock in the afternoon of Thursday, July 29, Paris was completely evacuated 
of the royal troops. Three days in Paris had done the work of campaigns, and 
for the whole of France. The moderation of the Parisians, after the victory, 
was admirable. Property was everywliere respected. Paris Avas never more 
free from private disorders than on the last day of this warfare. The citizens 
returned to their Avork as though nothing had happened. The number of deaths 
amounted to about 700, and the whole number of killed and Avounded to 3,000, 
including soldiers as well as citizens. 

On Thursday afternoon, a considerable number of the deputies held a meet- 
ing at M. Lafitte's, and nominated a provisional government, consisting of three 
members, — the Duke de Choiseul, Gen. Lafayette, and Gen. Gerard. Gen. 
Lafayette took the command of the National Guard, repaired to the Hotel de 
Ville, and issued animated proclamations. Towards evening a deputation arrived 
from St. Cloud, proposing to form aliberal ministry, but it came too late. Charles 
X. had ceased to reign. The deputies met on Friday morning in their own 
chamber, and a considerable number of peers convened in their hall. In the 
Moniteur appeared the nomination of a municipal commission. The first step 
taken by the deputies, now 89 in number, Avas to invite tlie Duke of Orleans to 
undertake the executive poAver, Avith the title of Lieutenant General. Public 
opinion had long pointed him out as the heir presumptive of a revolutionary 
throne. He had always had a reputation for patriotism and liberal principles. 
On the three days of the war in Paris he had remained at his country seat 
at Neuilly. After repeated and strong entreaty he came into Paris on Friday 
evening. On Saturday morning he issued his proclamation announcing his 
acceptance of the office of Lieutenant General. 

On the 16th of July, the funeral ceremonies of George IV. of England took 
place. He died on the 26th of June. Plis death had been so long expected, 
that it produced but little sensation. He Avas born August 11, 1762. In 1811, 
on account of the severe malady Avith Avhich his father was visited, he was 
created Prince Regent. In 1820, on the death of his father he exchanged the 
title of Prince Regent for that of king. 

16. Died at Peacham, Vt., Mr. W-illiam Chamberlain, Professor of Languages 
in Dartmouth College, aged 33. Mr. Chamberlain Avas a man of uncommon 
powers of mind, and died deeply lamented. 

24. The British Parliament was dissolved by the king in person. 

25. Died in Boston, Isaac Parker, LL. D., Chief Justice of the Supreme Ju- 
dicial Court of Massachusetts ; aged 62. He had just commenced the cele- 
brated trials at Salem, when he Avas attacked by an apoplectic fit, Avhich termi- 
nated his valuable life. Pie succeeded Judge Sewall. 

26. Very heavy rains in the northern part of Vermont, and the northeastern 
part of New York. The rivers Avere suddenly raised to a great height, and the 
loss of property was severe, supposed to amount to $1,000,000 ; 14 persons, Avho 
resided on Otter Creek, perished. 

AUGUST. 

1. At four o'clock in the morning of August 1st, Charles X. left St. Cloud 
with a large retinue. The number of troops Avas about 15,000. They halted at 
Rambouillet, 30 miles west of Paris. 

2. Commissioners Avere sent to Rambouillet to treat with the king. After 
some negotiation he consented to abdicate his croAvn. He named as his suc- 
cessor his grandson, the Duke of Bourdeaux. The commissioners agreed to 
give him 4,000,000 of francs, 1,000,000 of which were immediately paid. 

2. Rev. Messrs. William Hervey, Hollis Reed, and William Ramsey, with 
their wives, embarked on board the Corvo, at Boston, as missionaries to Bom- 
bay. Also, Rev. John T. Jones, to join the American Baptist mission in Birmah. 

3. Charles X. having received an accession to his forces of 15,000 men, re- 
fused to comply with the terms which he had dictated. In consequence it was 
determined at Paris to compel him to come to terms. A large force of the Na- 
tional Guard, and of the citizens, proceeded to Rambouillet. The king took the 



1831.] EVENTS IN AUGUST. 57 

alarm, and made an unconditional abdication. The Duke of Orleans opened 
the session of the Chamber of Deputies. An immense crowd listened to his 
speech. 

7. A violent hurricane in Jamaica, W. I., by which several towns and villa- 
ges were destroyed, several lives lost, and much damage done to the shipping. 

7. The Chamber of Deputies declared the deposition of the Bourbons, and 
the vacancy of the throne, and called to the sovereignty the Duke of Orleans, 
by the title of Louis Philip I., King of the French. The charter underwent 
material alterations. The provision which made the Catholic the religion of 
the state is abolished. The state is entirely divorced from the church. The 
censorship can never be again imposed on the press. The Peerages granted by 
Charles X. were annulled. The vote on proposing the Duke of Orleans as 
sovereign, was 229 in favor, and 33 against. The full complement of the Cham- 
ber amounted to 430. The Royal Duke immediately accepted all the con- 
ditions of the arrangement. Some disturbances happened on the 6th and 7th, 
occasioned by the dissatisfaction of those who wished for a republic. 

9. The ceremony of taking the oath to the charter, as modified, was observed 
in the hall of the Chamber of Deputies in the presence of an immense concourse 
of spectators. 

9. A treaty of peace was concluded between France and Tunis, by which 
the commerce of the latter is opened to all nations. A similar treaty was just 
before concluded at Tripoli. 

12. The Paris Moniteur contained an ordinance nominating the following 
list of ministers : — M. Dupont, Keeper of the Seals ; Gerard, Minister of War ; 
Duke de Broglie, Minister of Public Instruction ; M. Guizot, Minister of the 
Interior ; Baron Louis, of Finance ; Mole, of Foreign Affairs ; Sebastiani, of 
Marine. Four members of the Cabinet were added who had no ministerial de- 
partment, — Lafitte, Perrier, Dupin, and Bignon. 

14. Died at Washington, Gen. Philip Stuart, an officer of the revolution. 

15. The Prince de Polignac was apprehended, at Granville, in Normandy, 
as he was about to pass to Jersey. Three others of the late ministers, Pey- 
ronnet, Chantelauze, and Ranville, were arrested at Tours. Haussez and Ca- 
pelle had escaped to England, and Montbel to Switzerland. Those who were 
taken, were transferred by order of the deputies to the castle of Vincennes. 

17. Violent storm along the coast of the southern and middle States. 

18. Charles X. landed in England, with the royal family. 

19. The American Institute of Instruction was organized in Boston. The 
meeting was composed of gentlemen from ten States. The last three days of 
the meetings were occupied in hearing lectures from various members. Rev. 
Dr. Wayland, President of Brown University, was chosen President of the 
Institute. 

23. Louis Philip issued an ordinance restoring certain political rights to those 
who were banished from France in 1816, and permitting their return. 

25. An insurrection commenced at Brussels, one of the capitals of the Nether- 
lands. The Belgians of all classes had been, for a long time, dissatisfied with 
the government. The proceedings in Paris hastened on the revolution. An 
immense multitude assembled, and committed several acts of violence. 

26. Early in the morning a contest between the citizens and the troops com- 
menced, and soon became bloody. At length the troops, to the number of about 
5,000, left the city, and the tri-colored flag Avas soon floating on the Hotel de 
Ville. The number of the killed amounted to 14. Serious disturbances also 
happened at Antwerp, Louvain, and Bruges. 

27. Died at St. Leu, France, Prince Bourbon de Cond6, aged 75. 

27. A revolution in opposition to the government of Colombia, South America, 
at Bogota. Battle between the partizans of the government and its opposers, in 
which the latter, commanded by Col. Pincres, v/ere victorious. 

VOL. IV. 8 



58 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE, [AuG. 

SEPTEMBER. 

4. Died at Lynn, Mass., Donald M'Donald, aged 108 ; born in Scotland in 
1722. He was with Wolfe, at Quebec. 

4. The journeymen printers in Paris, formed a combination to compel the 
publishers of the journals to destroy their machines, and to return to the old 
mode of printing by hand presses. 

6. Insurrection at Brunswick ; the Duke, Charles Frederick, soon after fled 
to England, and was succeeded by his brother William. 

13. An extraordinary session of the States General of the Netherlands, 
opened at the Hague for the purpose of reconciling the Belgians. 

15. The Liverpool and Manchester rail road was opened. The Rt. Hon. 
William Huskisson, member of Parliament from Liverpool, and one of his Majes- 
ty's ministers, was killed, by the passing over him of the Rocket engine. The 
rail road was commenced in 1826, and was completed at an expense of nearly 
£800,000. The distance is 34 miles. Mr. Stephenson, the proprietor of the 
Rocket engine, passed the whole distance at the rate of about one mile a min- 
ute, for which he received a reward of 1,000 guineas. 

16. Great fire at Gloucester, Mass. Loss estimated at $100,000» 

17. The celebration of the second centennial anniversary of the settlement 
of Boston, took place. Josiah Q,uincy, LL. D., President of Harvard University, 
delivered an oration. 

20. Died at Auburn, N. Y., Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, D. D., Bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of New York, in the 55th year of his age. 
He was a graduate of the College of New Jersey, elected Bishop in 1811, and 
was the next in rank to the venerable Bishop White. He was a man of vigorous 
intellect, and great decision of character. He died calmly. 

20. Public meeting at Columbia, S. C, on the subject of" State Rights." 

23. The royal troops, to the number of about 18,000, entered Brussels, under 
the command of Prince Frederick. 

27. The conflict between the troops and the citizens, in Brussels, which had 
lasted four days, terminated. Not a soldier was to be seen. About 1,000 of 
the inhabitants perished — besides 1,400 wounded. Of the Dutch troops, 133 
were killed, and 596 were wounded. The Dutch were also driven from Bruges, 
Ostend, Atii, Louvain, and other places. 

27. Polignac accused of high treason, by the French Chamber of DeputieSj 
by a vote of 244 to 47. 

OCTOBER. 

1. Rev. Messrs. J. J. Robertson, awd J. H, Hill, Episcopal missionaries, em- 
barked at Boston for Greece. 

4. The independence of Belgium declared by the Central Committee at 
Brussels. " The province of Belgium, violently separated from Holland, shall 
constitute an independent State." 

6. The twenty-first annual meeting of the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions was held in Boston, and continued by adjournment, till 
the 9th. Hon. John Cotton Smith presided, and in his absence, Hon. Stephen 
Van Rensselaer ; 28 members Avere present. Rev. Thomas De Witt, D. D., 
of New York, preached the annual sermon, in the Park Street church, on the 
6th, from Matt. ix. 37, 38. A public meeting was held in the evening of the 
same day, at v/hich a part of the Annual Report was read, and Addresses were 
made by Drs. Allen, Bates, and Miller. The receipts of the Board, for the year, 
amounted to about $75,000, and the expenditures to $84,000. A long and very 
able discussion took place on the Indian question, or the expediency of prepar- 
ing a memorial to Congress, expressing the views of the Board on the subject. 
A memorial was voted. The next annual meeting was appointed in New- 
Haven, Conn., on the first Wednesday in October, 1831. 



1831.] BRITISH MINISTRY POLAND. 59 

14. Died at Shawneetown, Illinois, Hon. John McLean, senator of the United 
States from that State. 

20. A convention of the friends of education was held in New York city, by 
invitation of the New York University. About 100 gentlemen were present. 
Rev. Joshua Bates, D. D., President of Middlebury College, Vt,, was appointed 
President, John Delalield, Esq. Secretary, and Rev. William C. Woodbridge 
Assistant Secretary. About 20 essays and communications were received, and 
a great variety of important topics were discussed. 

NOVEMBER. 

7. One of the British East India government papers, the Bengal Herald, 
published a regulation, declaring the practice of Suttee, or of burning or burying 
alive the widows of Hindoos, illegal, and punishable by the criminal courts. It 
is a practice nowhere enjoined by the religion of the Hindoos as an imperative 
duty. 

16. The British Ministry resigned. On the day before, a debate took place 
in the House of Commons, on the appointment of a select committee with respect 
to the Civil List. On the question, 204 voted with the ministers, and 233 in 
opposition. In the morning, the Ministry announced their resignations. The 
downfall of the Wellington Ministry is attributed to a variety of causes. The 
repeal of the Test and Corporation acts, and the Catholic Relief bill, especially 
the latter, awakened a conscientious opposition to the ministry from a great 
majority of Avhat is called the religions world. William the Fourth, a man of 
liberal principles, came to the throne. The new election of members of Parlia- 
ment had weakened the ministry. In the speech from the throne, at the open- 
ing of Parliament, the ministers were peculiarly unfortunate. The declaration of 
interference in the Belgic war, and the omission of any mention of Parliamentary 
reform, were very offensive. The assertion of the Duke of Wellington of his 
entire opposition to reform, widened the difficulty. Other unfavora!3le circum- 
stances were, the nomination of Dr. Philpott to a bishopric, the sudden postpone- 
ment of the King's visit to the city, and the extensive burning of property in 
Kent, and elsewhere. 

The following are the prominent members of the new ministry. Earl Grey, 
first Lord of the Treasury ; Marquis of Lansdown, President of the Council ; 
Mr. Brougham, Lord Chancellor ; Lord Althorpe, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
and leader of the ministry in the Commons ; Lord Palmerston, Foreign Affairs ; 
Lord Durham, Privy Seal ; Lord Goderich, Colonies ; Mr. Denman, Attorney 
General, &c. 

17. Previous to this date, 2,089 petitions were presented to Parliament for 
the entire and early abolition of West Indian slavery. A great multitude of 
others have since been presented. 

29. The revolution commenced in Poland. It began in the military school 
of ensigns. The young men to the number of 500 or 600 took up arras, and 
spread themelves through the town of Warsaw, calling the citizens to arms. 
The arsenal was taken about 10 o'clock in the evening. Several regiments of 
infantry soon joined the standard of revolt, and the Grand Duke, Constantine, 
when on the point of being surrounded in his palace, effected his retreat upon 
Praga. Forty-one Colonels and Majors were killed in endeavoring to rally the 
troops. Gen. Klopiecki took command of the Polish troops. A corps of Na- 
tional Guards was organized, and a provisional government established. 

The population and territory of Poland, as divided between the three powers, 
at the Congress of Vienna, are as follows. Prussia, 29,000 square miles, 
1,800,000 population; Austria, 30,000 square miles, and 3,500,000 population ; 
Russia, 178,000 square miles, and 6,900,000 population ; the kingdom of Poland, 
47,000 square miles, and 2,800,000 population. Total, 470,000 square miles, 
and 15,000,000 population. The kingdom of Poland, as constituted at the Con 
gress of Vienna, is the seat of the present revolution. It has now a population 
of 4,000,000. Though subject to Russia, it Avas governed in many respects, as 



60 president's message BOLIVAR. [AuG. 

a separate monarchy. The majority of the inhabitants are Catholics. The 
Protestants of different sects are numerous. One seventh of the population are 
supposed to be Jews. The oppression which the Russians practised was severe. 
The Poles were imprisoned within their own frontiers, and kept for the gloomy 
pleasure of Russia. No man, in any station of life, was permitted to marry or 
to dispose of his own inheritance without license from the government. The 
revolution is now extending into other parts of Poland. 

DECEMBER. 

4. Died at Glastenbury, Ct., Rev. Samuel Austin, D. D., aged 70, formerly of 
Worcester, Mass., and afterwards President of the University of Vermont, at 
Burlington. He graduated at Yale College in 1783. As a theological writer 
he attained considerable distinction. 

4. Died at his residence in Amelia county, Va., Hon. William B. Giles, late 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and for many years a prominent 
member of Congress. 

6. The second session of the 21st Congress of the United States commenced. 
The message of the President is a long and elaborate document. He advises 
that measures be taken as speedily as possible to extinguish the titles of the 
Indian lands, within the chartered limits of the States, and also to effect the 
speedy removal of the southwestern tribes to the territories A\^est of the Mis- 
sissippi. The President asserts what is utterly incapable of proof, that the 
individual States possess entire sovereignty over the persons and property of the 
Indians residing within their limits. The President suggests the inexpediency 
of re-chartering the Bank of the United States. He also proposes some altera- 
tions in the Constitution of the United States, so that in no case an election of 
President shall devolve upon the House of Representatives, and also providing 
that the President shall be ineligible to office, after serving one term. 

The receipts of the Treasury for the year, Avere $24,161,018 ; and the expen- 
ditures, exclusive of payments on account of the public debts, $13,742,311 ; the 
payments on account of the public debt were $11,354,690, and the balance in 
the treasury, Jan. 1, 1831, $4,819,781. 

10. Died in Bucks County, Pa. Rev. James P. Wilson, D. D. for many years 
pastor of the first Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. Dr. Wilson's repu- 
tation for theological and general knowledge, his talents as displayed orig- 
inally at the bar, and afterAvards in the pulpit, his personal character and useful- 
ness, long rendered him one of the most eminent clergymen in this country. 

17. The Liberator Bolivar, expired at one o'clock, P. M. at San Pedro, about 
a mile from Santa Martha, in a calm, collected manner, confessing, and receiv- 
ing the sacrament at the same time. He made a will in Avhich he displayed 
much generosity. He died poor. His remains were interred at Caraccas. He 
Avas born July 24, 1783, at Caraccas. He spent some time in his youthful days 
in Europe, completing his education at Madrid. He was one of the chief 
promoters of the revolution of April 19, 1810. By a series of splendid actions 
he freed his country from the Spanish yoke, and Avas named dictator, Jan. 2, 
1814. The present constitution of Colombia Avas adopted Aug. 30, 1821, and 
Bolivar was elected first constitutional President. In 1825, a portion of Buenos 
Ayres detached itself from the government, formed a noAv republic, and named 
it Bolivia. During the last years of his life, and particularly in consequence of 
his Bolivian code, he is supposed to have cherished designs unfavorable to the 
liberties of his country. His po\A^ers of mind Avere of the highest order, and his 
general character of an ardent, lofty cast. 

21. The trial of the French ministers for high treason closed. It had lasted 
one week. So strong was the excitement against these unhappy men, that 
nothing but a strong armed guard could have saved them from the popular fury. 
At one time there Avere from 70,000 to 80,000 men under arms. The ministers 
were ably defended, and the whole trial Avas marked with great moderation and 
decorum. The punishment Avas imprisonment for life on all the prisoners, ac- 



1831.] JANUARY, FEBRUARY, 1831. 61 

companied with the additional penalty of civil death on Polignac. They are 
confined in the castle of Vincennes. 

24. A resolution was passed by the Chamber of Deputies, declaring the office 
held by Gen. Lafayette, as commander in chief of the National Guards, unneces- 
sary. The same day he resigned his commission into tlie hands of the King. 
Philip treated him with great respect. Count Lobau was named in his stead. 

28. Rev. Messrs. Dwight Baldwin, Reuben Tinker, Sheldon Dibble, and 
Mr. Andrew Johnstone, with their wives, embarked at New Bedford, Mass., to 
reinforce the American Mission at the Sandwich Islands. 

30. Died at Hartford, Conn. Miss Alice Cogswell, aged 25, daughter of the 
late Mason F. Cogswell, M. D. She was deprived of hearing and speech, by 
the spotted fever, when between two and three years of age. The interest 
which was awakened in her case, led to the establishment of the American 
Asylum for the deaf and dumb. 

JANUARY, 1831. 

19. The annual meeting of the American Colonization Society was held in 
the Hall of the House of Representatives at Washington. Gen. Mercer of Vir- 
ginia took the chair. Addresses were made by Mr. Elliott Cresson, Mr. Gerrit 
Smith, Rev. C. Colton, Hon. Philip Doddridge, Hon. Isaac C. Bates, Hon. 
Theodore Frelinghuysen, and other gentlemen. The Society has been unusually 
prospered during the last year. The income exceeded that of any preceding 
year by more than six thousand dollars. The agriculture of the colony is fast 
improving, and the commerce increasing. The slave trade is still carried on 
with undiminished cupidity and cruelty. At the Gallinas 900 slaves were ship- 
ped in three weeks. 

The plans of this Society are regarded Avith increasing favor in most parts of 
the United States. In the State of Kentucky, great numbers of slaves are ready 
to be delivered up, were the Society prepared to receive them. A committee 
of Congress have recommended an appropriation from the National Treasury, 
for transporting free persons of color to the colony, provided the expenditure 
does not exceed annually the sura of $50,000. $25 will transport one emigrant. 

19. A motion was made in the House of Representatives of the United 
States, to repeal that part of the Judiciary Act, extending the jurisdiction of the 
Supreme Court of the United States over final decisions in State Courts, Avhich 
impugn the validity of any laws or treaties of the United States. It was rejected 
by a most decided vote, before it had passed to its second reading ; 50 voted in 
favor of the motion, 137 in opposition. 

21. The Senate of the United States acquitted James H. Peck, Judge of the 
District Court of the United States for the District of Missouri, from various 
charges of mal-administration, which had been preferred against him. The 
vote was 22 against impeachment, 21 in favor. Two thirds of the Senate, 
by the Constitution, are required to sustain an impeachment. 

FEBRUARY. 

During this, and several succeeding months, an unusual interest was exhibited 
on the subject of religion, in all parts of the United States. Thousands, who 
had before lived in a great measure heedless of their duty, and of their immor- 
tal destiny, were awakened to the subject of personal salvation. 

It is estimated, on credible evidence, that within five months, from February 
1st, a special religious interest was felt, in scarcely less than 1,500 towns in the 
United States, and that more than 50,000 individuals professed to have become 
partakers of the blessings of salvation through Jesus Christ. It is a most im- 
portant fact that from 300 to 400 of this number are members of the colleges of 
the United States. Many others are eminent in knowledge and Aveight of 
character, and as far removed from the influence of mere enthusiasm as any men 
in the community. The principal cities have been signally favored. AH the 
important Christian denominations in the country, have vigorously and kindly co- 



63 CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. [AuG. 

operated in efforts to extend the benefits of real religion. As a general thing, 
those who have professed to have partaken in this special divine influence, have 
not been received as members of the churches, till after a sufficient period for self- 
examination and prayer. Very few extravagances or improprieties have been 
witnessed. The substantial fruits of repentance have been abundant. In-, 
stances of reparation for previous injuries inflicted, and restitution for plundered 
property, have been numerous. In many towns there have been protracted 
meetings, generally of four consecutive days, in which the gospel has been 
faithfully and plainly preached. The services on these occasions have differed 
very little from those which are common on the Sabbath. 

3. By a vote of the Overseers of Harvard College, 34 to 12, the Theological 
School at Cambridge was made a part of the University. The new statutes 
provide for four Professorships, in the Theological Faculty ; one of the Professors 
to act as Dean. The President of the University is to he the official head of 
this Faculty. One of the Professors is at the same time Professor of Divinity in 
the College. 

12. There Avas an annular eclipse of the sun, visible in many parts of the 
United States. Robert Treat Paine, Esq., who observed the eclipse near the ex- 
tremity of Cape Cod, in his report, says, " that Venus was distinctly visible for 
more than an hour, and Jupiter, for a less time ; fowls were observed returning 
to their roosts, and cattle to their stalls ; the color of the sky became of an 
indigo blue ; the thermometer in the shade fell from 27 to 23 ; a thermometer in 
the sun from 71 to 29 ; the duration of the ring was 1 min. 27 sec." 

16. An interesting meeting was held in Washington, in favor of Sundav 
schools- Hon. Felix Grundy, Senator from Tennessee, took the chair. The 
following members of Congress addressed the meeting; Messrs. Webster, 
Whittelsey, Crane, Coleman, Haynes, Frelinghuysen, and Wickliffe. The 
meeting was conducted with great unanimity, by distinguished men of every 
political party. 

16. Died at Edinburgh, Scotland, Rev. Andrew Thomson, D. D. ; unques- 
tionably the most energetic, intrepid, indefatigable minister of the Scottish 
National Church. His death produced a deep sensation throughout Scotland. 
The immediate cause was probably an ossification of the heart. His age was 53. 

21. Died at Bristol, England, the celebrated, and truly reverend Robert Hall ; 
aged 66. He was the son of the Rev. Robert Hall, of Arnsby, and was born 
May 22, 1764. He resided four years at King's College, Aberdeen. He was 
probably the most distinguished Christian minister of his age. A complete col- 
lection of his works, with a Memoir of his Life, is preparing by Olinthus 
Gregory, LL. D. 

MARCH. 

1. Lord John Russell brought forward his celebrated motion for parlia- 
mentary reform in the British Plouse of Commons. It totally disfranchises 60 
boroughs, and confers their privileges upon large towns and counties, and ex- 
tends the right of suffrage to 500,000 persons who do not now possess it. 

18. The opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States, was given by 
Judge Marshall, on the Indian question. The Indians prayed for an injunction 
from the Court, to stay the proceedings of Georgia, relative to the Cherokee lands. 
The injunction was denied by the Court, on the ground that the Indians are not 
foreign nations. Judges Thompson and Story dissented from the decision. 

APRIL. 

1. The first of a series of splendid victories was gained by the Poles over 
the Russians. In two days the Russians lost 12,000 men, and more than 20 
pieces of cannon. 

9. A new victory was obtained by the main body of the Polish army under 
Skrzynecki, among the fruits of which were several cannon, 3,000 or 4,000 
prisoners, including nearly 300 Russian officers. 



1831.] EVENTS IN MAY. 63 

5. Died at Seneca Falls, N. Y., Josiah Bissell, .Tr. Esq., of Rochester, N. Y., 
aged 40 ; an able, active, and most efficient friend of the various benevolent 
objects of the day. 

14. By letters from Rio Janeiro, it seems that the two Landers had arrived 
in that city on their way to England from Africa, having succeeded in ascertain- 
ing the true source of the Niger, and in discovering the long sought manuscripts 
of Mungo Park. 

14. The ministers were defeated in the Reform bill in the House of Com- 
mons. For the ministers, 291, against them, 299. Soon after, the ministers 
tendered their resignations, which were not accepted. 

24. The King, with a boldness and decision which have gained for him un- 
bounded popularity, proceeded in person to dissolve the Parliament 

MAY. 

4. Annual meeting of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The number 
of copies of the Scriptures circulated last year, was 343,849, being an increase 
of 35,500 over those of the preceding year ; the number of copies circulated 
since the commencement of operations, is 7,424,727. Funds received last year, 
£95,424 25. 3t/. being an increase of £10,441, over those of the preceding year. 
Total, since the Society was formed, £], 779,972 2^. 3c^. 41,000 copies of the 
Scriptures were sent last year to France. 

6. Annual meeting of the London Religious Tract Society. New publica- 
tions, 233 ; publications circulated during the year, 11,090,254, being an in- 
crease of 520,322 over those of the preceding year. Receipts, £27,060 145. 2d. 

10. Died at Charleston, S. C, Jeremiah Evarts, Esq., of Boston, the Friend 
of the Indians, and Corresponding Secretary of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, aged 50. He graduated at Yale College in 
1802. For the last 20 years of his life, his great and various talents had been 
constantly devoted to the promotion of the temporal and eternal happiness of his 
fellow men. 

11. Anniversary of the American Home Missionary Society, at New York. 
Employed 463 missionaries ; 3,491 individuals have been added to the churches 
where these missionaries have labored ; 20,000 Sabbath school scholars. 

11. Annual meeting of the American Tract Society. Receipts $42,922. 
Publications, 5,38-3,500. Number of pages, 61,764,000. Whole number of 
pages since the formation of the Society, 227,923,000. 

12. Annual meeting of the American Bible Society. 757 auxiliaries. Re- 
ceipts, $125,316 79. 270,000 copies of the Bible and Testament have been 
printed. 41,618 increase over those of the preceding year. Every family in 
13 States and Territories have been supplied with the Bible. About two thirds 
of eight other States have been supplied. 

18. Meeting of American Temperance Society, at Boston. 3,000 Temper- 
ance Societies ; 18 of them State Societies ; 1,000 distilleries been stopped ; 
3,000 merchants given up the traffic ; 300,000 members of Temperance Socie- 
ties ; 300,000 who are not members, abstain from the use of ardent spirits. 

23. Meeting of the American Education Society, at Boston. Receipts, 
$37,086 ; $11,000 more than Avas received last year ; 157 new applicants ; whole 
number assisted, 604 ; whole number since the Society was organized, 1,204. 
Beneficiaries earned during the year $11,460. 

24. American Sunday School Union at Philadelphia. Receipts, $77,454 86 ; 
schools, 7,244; teachers, 64,315; pupils, 451,075. About $24,000 have been 
contributed for Sabbath schools in the Valley of the Mississippi. 

29. Town of Fayetteville, N. C, laid in ashes. The town may almost be 
said to be annihilated. Loss, $1,500,000. Number of inhabitants, 3,500. 

JUNE. 

Elections in Great Britain proceeding triumphantly for the friends of Reform. 
Nearly 150 majority returned in favor of the measure. 



64 



QUARTERLY LIST OF ORDINATIONS AND DEATHS. 



[Aug. 



QUARTERLY LIST 

OF 

ORDINATIONS AND INSTALLATIONS. 



OILMAN BACHELLER, ord. pastor, Conj. Machias, Maine, 

WILLTAM FARMER; ord. pastor, Universalist, Belgrade, 

Me. May 18. ^^ . ,^ ^ 

OREN SIKES, ord. pastor, Cong. Union, Me. June 8. 

JOSEPH LANE, inst. .pastor, Cong. Meredith, New Hamp- 
shire, April iO. 
JAIRUS E. STRONG; ord, pastor, Cong. Guilford, N. H. 

Eaton' MASON, ord. pastor. Bap. Springfield^ N. H. April 28. 
BENJAMIN P. STONE; ord. pastor, Cong. Frankim, N. H. 

JOHN S, EMERSON, ord. miss. Cong. Meredith, N. H. 
ISAAC WESTCOTT, ord. pastor, Bap. Whiting, Vermont, 

ELTJ ik W. PLUMB, ord. pastor, Cong. Pawlet, Vt. May 18. 
SAMUEL ICINGSBURY, insL pastor, Cong. Jamaica, Vt. 

May 19. 
PROSPER POWELL, ord. evang. Bap. Richland, Vt. June 2. 

GEORGE W, DO ANE, instituted rector, Epis. Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, .A-pril 19. ,,,,,, 
BANCROFT FOWLER, inst. pastor, Cong. Northfield, Mass. 

Arthur' GRANGER, ord. pastor, Cong. Medfield, Mass. 

ARTEMASBULLARD, ord. evang. Cong. Andover, Mass. 

ANSON DYER, ord. evang, Cong. West Hawley, Mass. 

BELA^WILCOX, inst. pastor, Bap, Marblehead, Mass. May 3. 
TIMOTHY R, CRESS Y, ord. pastor. Bap. Hingham, Mass. 

Mav 5. 
■FRANCIS NORWOOD, inst. pastor, Cong. Wilmington, Mass. 

Mav 18. 



ABTJAH CROSS, inst. pastor, Cong, Haverhill, Mass. May 18. 

- tWITH, ' ■ "■ - '"--' ""-^ 

June : 



BARUCH B. EECIO 



ord. miss. Cong. Athol, Mass. 



SHERM VN HALL, ord, miss. Cong. Woburn, Mass. June 7. 
WILLIAM T, BOUTWELL, ord, miss. Cong. Woburn, Mass. 

JOSIAH W. POWERS, inst, pastor, Cong. Kingston, Mass. 
June 15. 

CHARLES G. SELtiECK, ord. pastor, Cong. Ridgefield, Con- 
necticut, May -^3. „ „ , , „ 

CIEORGE J. TILLOTSON, ord. pastor, Cong. Brooklyn, Ct. 
May 25. 

JAMES H. LINDSLEY, ord. evang. Bap. New Haven, Ct. 

WILLIAM M. CORNELL, inst. pastor, Cong. Woodstock, 

Ct. June 15. 
IMBROSfj EDSON, inst. pastor, Cong. Berlin, Ct. June 15. 
FOSTER THAYER, ord. pastor, Cong. North Woodstock, Ct. 

June 29. 
HENRY ROBINSON, inst. pastor, Cong. Suffield, Ct. 

WILLIAM POLLARD, ord. miss. Bap. New York, N. Y. 

April 21. 
THOMAS BARRASS, ord, miss. Bap. New York, N. Y. 

April 21. 
SAMUEL R. CLARK, ord. evang. Pitcher, N. Y. May 11. 
■GEORGE BRIDGMAN, ord. deacon, Epis. New York, N. Y. 

May 22. 
STEPHEN OSTRANDER, inst. pastor, Bloomingrove, Rens- 
selaer Co. N. Y. May 26. 
SOLOMON STEPHENS, inst. pastor, Cong. Danby, N. Y. 

June 4l. 
HENRY HUNTER, insL. pastor, Pres. New York, N. Y. 

June 9. 
EBENEZER MASON, inst. pastor, Pres. New York, N. Y. 

July 5. 
HENRY VOGELL, ord. pastor. Bap. Vernon, N. Y. 
R. MONTGOMERY DAVIS, ord. evang. Cong. Parma, N. Y. 
EDWIN BRONSON, ord, evang. Cong. Parma, N. Y. 
ROBERT H. CONKLIN, ord. evang. Cong. Parma, N. Y. 



PETER KANOUSE, inst. pastor, Pres. Wantage, New Jersey, 

June 9. 
WII/LIAM R. BOGARDUS, inst. pastor, Ref. Dutch, Aquack- 

nock, N. J. June 22. 

SAMUEL R. BERTRON, ord. evang. Pres. Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

JAMES C. HOW, inst. pastor, Cong. St. George, Delaware, 
April 27. 



WILT JAM N. HAWKES, crd. deacon, Epis. Norfolk, Virginia, 

March 20. 
LEONIDAS POLK, ord. priest, Epis. Norfolk, Va. May 22. 
ZACHARIAH MEAD, ord. priest, Epis. Norfolk, Va. May 22, 
F. W. TAYl,OR, ord. deacon, Epis. Norfolk, Va. May 22. 
CHARLES W. TALIAFERRO, ord. deacon, Epis. Norfolk, 

Va. May 22. 

JOHN B. VAN DYCK, inst. pastor, Pres. Charleston, South 
Carolina, April 27. 

ABRAHAM HAGAMAN, inst. pastor, Pres. Pine Ridge, Mis- 
• • • April 17. 



SILAS H. HAZARD, inst. pastor, Pres. Friendship, Louisiana, 
May 12. 

Whole numher in the above list, 56. 
Whole number of Beneficiaries, 12. 





SUMMARY. 




Ordinations . . . 


. . 35 


STATES. 




Installations . . . 


. . 20 


Maine 


. 3 


Institutions . . . 


. . 1 


New Hampshire . . 


. 5 








. 4 


OFFICES. 




Massachusetts . . . 


. 13 






Connecticut . . . . 


. 7 


Pastors ..... 


. . 34 


New York . . . . 


. 12 


Evangelists . . . 


. . 9 


New Jersey . . . . 


. 2 


Missionaries . . . 


. . 6 


Pennsylvania . . . 


. 1 


Priests 


. . 2 




. 1 


Deacons .... 


. . 4 


Virginia 


. 5 


Rectors . . . . , 


. . 1 


South Carolina . . . 


. 1 






Mississippi . . . . 


. 1 


DENOMINATIONS. 


Louisiana 


. 1 


Congi-egational . . 
Presbvterian . . . 


. . 29 


DATES. 




. . 7 


1831. March . . . . 


. 1 


Baptist 


. . 9 


April . . . . 
May . . . . 


. 13 


Episcopal .... 


. . 7 


. 20 


Universalist . . . 


. . 1 


June . . . . 


. 14 


Ref. Dutch . . . 


. . 1 


July .... 


1 


Not specified . . . 


. . 2 


Not specified . , 


. 7 



QUARTERLY LIST 

OF 

BEATHS 
of Clergymen and Students in Theology. 



JAMES N. SEAMAN, Bap. Hampden, Maine. 
ICHABOD PLAISTED, Cong. a:t. 35, Gardiner, Me. 

DANIEL CHAPLIN, art. 88, Cong. Groton, Massachusetts. 
DAVID I.ANG, c-et. 79, Bap. Colerain, Mass. May 13. 
JOHN E. WESTON, Bap. Cambridge, (drowned,) Mass. 
July 2. 

BELA KELLOGG, Cong. at. 51, Avon, Connecticut, April 30. 
CLAUDIUS HERRICK, Cong. a:t. 56, New Haven, Ct. 

LUTHER BOOTH, Meth. Shandahen, N. York, May 28. 
NATHANIEL DWIGIIT, a;t. 63, Cong. Oswego, N. Y. June 11. 

WILLIAM HODGSON, at. 56, Meth. Doylestown, Pennsyl- 
vania, Amil 2. 

NICHOLAS A. WILSON, Pres. at. 28, Philadelphia, Pa. 
June 18. 

LEMUEL GREEN, at. 80, Meth. Philadelphia, Pa. 

JOHN PRICE, at. 76, Talbot county, Maryland. 

CHARLES A. G. STORKE, ast. 67, Rowan, North Carolina, 
March 27. 



ALEXANDER AIKMAN, Pr 



28, Natchez, Mississippi. 





SUMMARY. 










AGES. 






STATES. 


From 20 to 30 . 




2 


Maine 2 


30 40 . 




1 


Massachusetts . 








3 


50 60 . 




3 


Connecticut 








2 


60 70 . 




2 


New York . . 








2 


70 80 . 




3 


Pennsylvania . 








3 


80 90 . 




1 


Maryland . . 








1 


Not specified 




3 


North Carolina 
Mississippi . . 








1 
1 






15 

707 




Sum of all the ages specified 




Average age . . 




59 


DATES. 








1831. March 1 


DENOMINATIONS. 




April 2 


Congregational . 




5 


May 2 










Baptist .... 




3 


July 1 


Methodist . . . 




3 


Not specified ... 7 


Not specified . . 


. . . 


2 













1831.] 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



65 



JOURNAL 

OF 

'THE AMERICAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 

AUGUST, 1831. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN EDUCATION 

SOCIETY. 



The Society held its Fifteenth Anniver- 
sary in Boston, on Monday, the twenty- 
third day of May, in Park vStreet church. 
The officers chosen were the same as last 
year, excepting Rev. John Codman, D. D. 
elected to fill the vacancy in the Board of 
Directors occasioned by the resignation of 
Rev. John Brown, D. D. The Treasurer's 
Report was read and accepted. The second 
Thursday in JVuvember next was recom- 
mended to the yl3ung men under the patron- 
age of the Society, and to their instructers, 
guardians and benefactors, to be observed 
as a day oi Fasting ajid Prayer, with refer- 
ence to a more copious effusion of the Holy 
Spirit on all who are preparing for the min- 
istry. The following persons were unani- 
mously elected members of the Society. 

Hon. Lewis Strong, Northampton, Mass. 
Hon. WiUard Hall, Judge of the U. S. 

Circuit Court, Wilmington, Del. 
Hon. Thos. S. Grimke, Charleston, S. C. 
Thomas Cummings, Esq. Augusta, Ga. 
Rev. Samuel B. How, D. D. Pres. of 

Dickinson College, Penn. 
Rev. David Elliott, Pres. Wash. Coll. Pa. 
Rev. Luther Halsey, Prof, of Theology in 

West. Theol. Seminary. 
Rev. Thomas Goulding, D. D. Prof, in 

Southern Theol. Seminary. 
Rev. John Matthews, D. D. Prof, in Han- 
over Academy, Indiana. 
Rev. John C. Young, Pres. of Centre 

College, Ky. 
Rev. Edward Beecher, Pres. of Illinois 

College. 
Rev. Charles B. Storrs, Pres. of Western 

Reserve College. 
Rev. William Cogswell, Gen. Agent of 

Am. Ed. Soc. 

Public exercises commenced in the even- 
ing at a quarter before 8. Hon. Samuel 
Hubbard, President of the Society, in the 
chair. Prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. 
Fay, of Charlestown ; the Report was read 
by the Secretary, and the following resolu- 
tions were offered, accompanied with ad- 
dresses by the gentlemen who moved them. 

On motion of Rev. John Blatchford, of 



Bridgeport, Con., seconded by Rev. David 
Oliphant, of Beverly, Mass., 

Resolved, Tbat the increasing prosperity 
of this Society affords just cause of gratitude 
to God ; and that the Report of the Direc- 
tors, which has now been presented, be ac- 
cepted and published. 

On motion of Rev. Artemas Boies, of 
South Hadley, Mass., seconded by Rev. 
John Codman, D. D. of Dorchester, 

Resolved, That the American Education 
Society commends itself to the affections 
and confidence of the churches, from the 
important and salutary infiuence it exerts 
on the character of the young men enjoying 
its patronage. 

On motion of Mr. Bela B. Edwards, of 
Boston, seconded by Rev. Sylvester Holmes, 
of New Bedford, Mass., 

Resolved, That since all efforts to educate 
men for the ministry must be ineffectual 
without the blessing of the Holy Spirit, the 
friends of the American Education Society, 
and of similar institutions, are bound to re- 
gard with thankfulness and joy the recent 
and extensive revivals of religion in our 
landi especially in our seminaries of learning. 

On motion of Rev. Lyman Beecher, D. D. 
of Boston, seconded by Samuel T. Arm- 
strong, Esq., 

Resolved, That the obscurations which 
occasionally cross the path of the church of 
Christ, are no ground of despondence, but, 
judging from the word and providence of 
God, may be expected to be followed by a 
brighter and more glorious manifestation of 
the Sun of Righteousness. 

Abstract of the Fifteenth Annual Report. 

The Report commences by adverting to 
the extensive effusions of the Holy Spirit, 
by which the present period is distinguished. 
It is worthy of special notice that cities and 
colleges have shared largely in this divine 
blessing. The colleges most favored are 
Yale, Amherst, Middlebury, Bowdoin, Wil- 
liams, Hamilton, Jefferson, Kenyon, Union, 
Hampden Sidney, New Jersey, Western 
Reserve, Brown University, and the Uni- 



VOL. IV. 



9 



66 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 



[Aug. 



versity of Ohio.* In these institutions, the 
number of students hopefully converted is 
three hundred and twenty. Many pastors 
and missionaries, will no doubt enter the 
field in consequence of these revivals. The 
annual concert of prayer for Colleges was 
observed on the 2d Thursday of February, 
as in former years. It was a day of unusual 
solemnity. United and fervent prayer was 
offered ; and an abundant blessing has fol- 
lowed. 

The wants of the Society have never 
been greater than during the past year, and 
never has the community showed more de- 
cided liberality in regard to them. 

Since the last annual meeting there have 
been assisted from the funds, 157 young 
men in 10 theological seminaries, 274 in 21 
colleges, 166 in 59 academies, and 7 under 
private instruction ; making a total of 604 
young men assisted in 90 institutions of 
learning. Of these, there have been aided 
in New England, 411 students at 47 places 
of education. In other parts of the United 
States 193 students at 4S places of educa- 
tion. Of these, 369 have their native resi- 
dence in New England, 205 in other parts 
of the United States, and the residences of 
SO have not been reported. 174 have been 
received during the year who have not be- 
fore been assisted, one half of whom are 
in academies, preparing to enter college. 
Fifty beneficiaries in 6 theological semina- 
ries will this year enter the ministry. Most 
of them are already licensed. Three young 
men of promise have died during the year. 
Patronage has been withdrawn from 9 young 
men, of whom all but two were in the first 
stage of education. 

In performing the duties of pastoral super- 
vision the Secretary has been assisted by 
the agents of the Society, and by the Rev. 
John Brown, D. D, of Hadley, Mass, and 
the Rev. Asahel Nettleton. 500 copies of a 
pocket manual entitled " Daily Food," have 
been distributed among the young men. A 
special day of fasting and prayer was ob- 
served by the friends and beneficiaries of 
the Society on the second Thursday of No- 
vember last. 

The result of the efforts made by the 
young men to support themselves is as fol- 
lows: 90 students in theological semina- 
ries have earned $*2,268; 197 in colleges, 
,$6,562 ; 97 in the first stage, f 2,630 ; mak- 
ing a total of 384 students, who have earned 
#11,460. To this sum add the amoimt of 
earnings for the four i)receding years, and 
it gives a total of #40,347. 

The amount refimded in 11 years up to 
May, 1826, was #339 60 ; in the year 
ending May, 1827, #90 ; May, 1828, 
#816; May, 1829, #830 90; May, 1830, 
#1,007 84 ; and the last year, #2,647 63. 
Total, #5,731 97. 

* To these may now be added, the Universities 
of North Carolina and Georgia, and Dartmouth 
College. 



The receipts of the last year amount to 
#40,450 34. Of this sum #3,264 02 have 
been received on account of permanent 
scholarships, #100 on account of the per- 
manent fund ; leaving #37,086 32 for the 
current use of the Society, which is #11,000 
more than was received last year for the 
same purpose. 

The expenditures for the year amount to 
#41,544 89, which added to the debt of 
the Society, viz. #8,347 91, makes the 
whole charge upon the Society for the year, 
#49,892 80. To meet this charge there 
have been appropriated from the current 
fund the above stated sum, #37,086 32; 
from the scholarship permanent fund, trans- 
ferred by request of the donors, #3,809 87, 
and froui the general permanent fund, trans- 
ferred by order of the Directors, .f 8,120 ; 
making a total of #49,016 19, and leaving 
a small debt upon the Society of #876 61. 
The appropriations to young men in the first 
stage of education, will be reduced after 
October next, to the former rate of #48 a 
year. The rule to apply to those under the 
Immediate patronage of the Parent Society, 
and of Branches, such as may concur. It is 
found by experiment that this amount better 
secuves personal exertion on the part of the 
young men, to support themselves, which 
the Directors deem of special importance. 

The following table exhibits at one view, 
the operations of Branch Societies, and of 
the V/estern Agency ; including funds ap- 
propriated by the Branch Societies, and re- 
mitted by the Parent Society to supply their 
deficiencies during the year, together with 
the number of young men assisted by each 
Branch Society respectively. 



00 

63 

P 

r 

3 
p. 


Maine, 

New Hampsliirc 
North-Western, 
Connecticut, 
Presbyterian, 
Western Reser\ 
Western Agenc 
eluding Indian 
Illinois Branc 


to 




3-jav; o J- 




> 


S p1- 


s. 


OS 

o 




3 


g' 


3 


v.^-v^ 














^ 








03 




^ 


JSTumber 


2 


^ 


o^S^^^^ 


assisted. 


JO 


l-i 


-Jji.JOj-',^-' 






2 

^ 


wo lO^C^tg 


Amount ap- 
propriated. 


O 


J-, 


o ooooo 




o 


* 


oooooo 




5 


^ 


^ h-1 






£ 


M) Oi^j^. rfi. fO O) 


Paid by the 


o 


5 


00 O Ol 1— ' Ol CO 


Branch, 


<! 


o 


O O tOOOOJ 




w 


o 


OO-J o^tc 










Paid by the 


^ 




OS OH-tOOO 
4^ 00 Ol Ol 4i. 


Parent 


lO 




O OO CD to 


Society, 


-^ 




O COOWH^ 




J^ 




JO 


Remitted to 


o 




§ 


the Parent 


o 




o 


Society. 


o 




o 





1831.] 



The ap;ents, menlloned in Ihe last report, 
have, with one exception, continued tlicir 
labors {luring the year. Their efforts have 
been liifrhly successful. 

The Western Agency established in Cin- 
cinnati, of which the Rev. Franklin Y. Vail is 
Secretary, has continued in active operation 
during the year. A Branch Society has 
been formed "in Illinois. The Miami Pres- 
bytery, Ohio, and the Franklin Education 
Society, Mass., have been recognized as 
auxiliaries. 

A reorganization of the Presbyterian 
Branch has recently been made, in conse- 
quence of which its operations will hereafter 
be conducted on a more extended scale. 
The Secretary of the Parent Society has 
been invited to become Secretary of the 
Presbyterian Society, and the Directors 
have consented that he remove to New 
York for this purpose, still holding the same 
general relation he now does to the Parent 
Society, and especially his pastoral rela- 
tion to the young men under the care ol the 
Society. 

The whole number assisted by the Society 
since its organization in 1815, is twelve 
HUNDRED AND FOUR. 0( \hcse, four hun- 
dred have been or are soon to be licensed 
to preach the gospel. About six hundred 
others are now pursuing study. Thirty-four 
have died while under patronage, and as 
many more have failed for want of health. 
A number have been found unsuitable can- 
didates for patronage and have been dropped, 
and from more than fifty, no information has 
been received so late as to enable the Direc- 
tors to classify them with accuracy. The 
Report concludes by alluding to the death 
of Jeremiah Evarts, Esq. in the following 
manner : " By this event, the cause of 
Foreign Missions has been deprived of a 
distinguished leader ; philanthropy and re- 
ligion have lost an eminent advocate ; but 
the friends of a pious and educated ministry 
participate deeply in the afflictive bereave- 
ment. To many who are engaged in this 
sacred cause, the name of Jeremiah Ev- 
arts is not less endeared by services ren- 
dered, than it is to multitudes who are asso- 
ciated in support of other objects of Christian 
benevolence. But though dead he yet 
speaketh. His example lives, and, like a 
star of the first magnitude, sheds a cheerful 
ray upon the path of those who survive him. 
May his useful life, and his triumphant death, 
incite them to similar diligence in their 
Master's work, that when their course shall 
be finished, they also, may, with him, shine 
as the brightness of the firmament, and as 
the stars forever and ever." 



REPORTS OF AGENTS. 



67 



REPORTS OF AGENTS. 

Rev. William Cogswell. 
Since the last Quarterly Meeting of the 
Board of Directors, besides attending to 
some general concerns of the Society, I 



have spent a number of weeks in behalf of 
the New Hampshire Branch. Dining the 
lime I was in the State, five county aux- 
iliary societies, and a number of Gentlemen's 
and Ladies' Associations were formed ; more 
than fourteen hundred dollars were paid into 
their treasury, and sonie subscriptions, be- 
sides, were obtained, which will be collected 
at some future tiine. The State is now 
completely organized into county societies, 
auxiliary to the Branch. I was kindly re- 
ceived by the people whom I visited, and 
especially by the gentlemen connected with 
Dartmouth college. While I was at Han- 
over, the officers of college, and individuals 
resident in the neighborhood of the college, 
finished payment of the Dartmouth Scholar- 
ship, some years since subscribed, and also 
commenced a subscription for a temporary 
scholarship, and paid the first annual instal- 
ment. The state of the college is good, and 
while God has been pleased in the pleni- 
tude of his mercy, to bless other institutions 
with the outpouring of his Spirit, he has not 
forgotten this. In the town and college a 
revival of religion now exists, which pro- 
mises to be happy in its results. 

A sufficient sum of money, without doubt, 
will be raised within the bounds of the 
Branch to support its present number of 
beneficiaries, and it is confidently hoped, 
that its liberality will be inci-eased, as the 
revivals of religion, now enjoyed within its 
limits, shall furnish subjects worthy of the 
sacred assistance afforded by the Education 
Society. 

The proposition made by Ira Goodall, Esq, 
of Bath, that he would establish a Temporary 
Scholarship, provided nine individuals, or 
any number of societies, would raise nine 
other such scholarships, will, I trust, be 
complied with. Pledges to this effect are 
given. 

A number of clergymen in the State have 
been commissioned to labor for county aux- 
iliaries, as they shall have opportunity and 
convenience, by exchanges and otherwise. 
This service, from a benevolent regard to 
our institution, they will perform gratui- 
tously. 

During the quarter, I have attended the 
anniversaries of a number of Auxiliary and 
Branch Societies. The meetings were pleas- 
ant, and showed most evidently, that the 
Education Society is rising in the public 
estimation. At the meeting of the Branch 
Society in Connecticut, arrangements were 
made for completing, next autumn, the or- 
ganization of the State, by county Societies. 
Three have already been formed, one for 
Fairfield county, another for Tolland county, 
and the third for Windham county. Of the 
organization of the last, I received no ac- 
count, till my recent visit to Connecticut. 
Many of the towns in this county have been 
visited by the Rev. Samuel Backus, of 
Woodstock, who was instrumental of form- 
ing the Auxiliary Society. His agency, 



REPORTS OF AGENTS. 



[Aug. 



though not greatly productive in raising 
funds, was, nevertheless, happy in its gen- 
eral effects upon the minds of the people. 
It is my conviction that the whole of New 
England must be thus organized in order to 
bring the community into operation perma- 
nently in behalf of our cause. This, too, 
must be the case in relation to the country 
at large. I am very desirous of seeing the 
time when there shall be a National Society 
for every great benevolent operation of 
the present day, a Branch Society in every 
State in the Union, an Auxiliary Society in 
every county, and a Gentlemen's and Ladies' 
Association or committee in every town or 
parish. This should bo the case in refer- 
ence to the Bible, Education, Home and 
Foreign Missionary, Sabbath School and 
Tract Society, and all other benevolent so- 
cieties. These should celebrate their anni- 
versaries at the same time, and together, 
whether they are Town Associations, County 
Auxiliaries, Branch Societies, or National 
Institutions. And then to these religious 
festivals, the people would go up, as did the 
Jews to the great festival at Jerusalem. 
On these occasions large assemblies would 
ordinarily convene, and, in every point of 
view, they would be most profitable seasons. 
A happy and powerl'ul impulse would be 
given. Here I would remark, that where 
suitable individuals can be found, different 
persons ought to be appointed as officers of 
these several societies. For while every 
officer should feel interested in all the be- 
nevolent movements of the present day, 
yet those who are to take the most active 
parts should possess a holy zeal, a sort of 
religious enthusiasm in the particular object 
for which they are severally engaged, in 
order to accomplish the greatest amount of 
good. And no individual can be devoted, as 
he ought to be, to more than one object of 
this nature, at the same time. The labor 
and expense of such services will also be 
more justly apportioned, (and as ordinarily 
they are gratuitous, they ought to be divid- 
ed,) and more persons will be brought to 
engage actively, particularly, and publicly, 
in the great enterprizes for the conversion of 
the world. My present intention is to visit, 
in the ensuing two or three months, the 
State of Vermont, and to awaken, if possible, 
a greater interest in our cause throughout 
that community. To the Lord would I look 
for help and success in all my efforts. And 
to him be the glory of all that may be ac- 
complished through my instrumentality. 



Rev. Ansel R. Clark. 
Mr. Clark has been prosecuting his labors, 
since his last report (published in February), 
with encouraging success. He first visited 
Portsmouth, New Richmond, West Union, 
Felicity, Ebenezer, and Hamilton, all in the 
State of Ohio ; then proceeded to Versailles, 
Danville, Lexington, Frankfort, Mount 
Pleasant, Mayslick, Millersburg, Hopewell, 



Walnut Hill, Springfield, Clear Creek, and 
Nicholasville, in Kentucky. In this State, 
Mr. Clark spent 9 Sabbaths, preached about 
20 times, attended a large number of private 
meetings, and rode 700 miles, raised a yearly 
subscription for seven years, including some 
donations, of #531 82 ; $147 82 of which 
was paid. After leaving Kentucky, in the 
early part of May, Mr. Clark proceeded to 
Ohio, and visited Chillicothe, Athens, Mari- 
etta, Zanesville, Huntsburg, &c. The Ath- 
ens Presbytery have formed themselves into 
a Society auxiliary to the American Educa- 
tion Society. 

It will be recollected that Mr. Clark was 
appointed, some time since, a permanent 
agent of the American Education Society, 
having for the sphere of liis labor, the West- 
ern Reserve in Ohio, and the Territory of 
Michigan. We are happy to say that he 
has accepted this appointment, and entered 
upon his duties. 



Rev. Henry Little. 

During an agency of a few weeks in 
Kentucky, Mr. Little visited a part of the 
congregations in the Presbyteries of Louis- 
ville and Transylvania, and one congregation 
in the Ebenezer Presbytery. Including $40 
raised in Ohio, he secured subscriptions 
amounting to #785 62, of which #267 37 
have been paid. Agents of responsible 
character were appointed in every place 
which Mr. Little visited, and a definite time 
was specified, in which the subscriptions 
will be paid. 

We regret to be obliged to say that Mr. 
Little has resigned his agency, after nearly 
two years of efficient and successful service. 



INTELLIGENCE. 
American Education Society. 
Quarterly Meeting of the Directors. 

The Quarterly meeting of the Board was 
held on the 13th uU. About the usual num- 
ber of young men were admitted to the pat- 
ronage of the Society. We are gratified 
in being able to state, that the funds, through 
the unremitted exertions of the agents of 
the Society, were adequate to meet the 
demands which were made on the treasury. 
Some of the Branch Societies are making 
most praiseworthy exertions to sustain the 
men patronized within their hmits. 

To remind those who are immediately 
concerned, we publish again the following 
vote of the Directors which was passed in 
April last. 

Voted^ That appropriations to beneficiaries in tlie 
first stage of study, under the immediate care of tlie 
Parent Society and of such Branch Societies as may 
concur, be reduced to the former rate of twelve dol- 
lars per quarter, commencing; with appropriations to 
be wade in October next. 



1831.] 



INTELLIGENCE. 



69 



ENLARGEMENT OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
BRANCH. 
This Branch has hitherto confined its op- 
erations to the States of New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, and a part of the State of 
New York. The plan of its operations has 
recently been somewhat modifieJ, and the 
sphere of its labors extended, so as to em- 
brace all the territory of the United States, 
which lies south and west of New England. 
It is to be hereafter called the Presbyte- 
rian Education Society. The follow- 
ing are some of the more important provisions 
of the new arrangement. The principles and 
rules of the American Education Society, as 
now existing, or as they may be hereafter 
determined in concurrence with the Pres- 
byterian Society, to be received and ob- 
served in all cases where they are capable 
of being applied. The Presbyterian Society 
assumes all the engagements of the Ameri- 
can Education Society within its limits. — 
Branches and Agencies, within the territory 
of the Presbyterian Society, to make all 
their returns to the said Society, unless such 
Branches and Agencies should dissent from 
the arrangement. The votes of the Pres- 
byterian Society upon all applications for 
patronage, or for cancelling obligations with- 
in its limits, &c. to be final. An accurate 
report is, however, to be forwarded every 
quarter to the Parent Society, with the 
documents on which it is founded, to be 
deposited in the records of the Parent So- 
ciety. Notes of beneficiaries, under the 
care of the Presbyterian Society, to belong 
to said Society, and to be held and collected 
by its treasurer. 

In consequence of this arrangement, the 
Rev. E. Cornelius, Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Education Society, and Corresponding 
Secretary of the Presbyterian Education 
Society, has removed his residence from 
Boston to New York. Letters on all sub- 
jects of a general nature, including those 
from young men under patronage, through- 
out the United States, and all returns from 
Branch Societies, out of New England, 
should be directed to him, at No. 144, Nas- 
sau street, New York city. 

Letters in regard to pecuniary concerns 
may be forwarded to Oliver Willcox, Esq., 
Treasurer of the Pres. Ed. Soc. Front Street, 
New York. 



Board of Education of the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church. 
The Rev. William Neill, D. p., has re- 
signed his office as Secretary of the Board, 
and the Rev. John Breckenridge, of Balti- 
more, has been chosen to fill his place, 
and has accepted the appointment. 



Northern Baptist Education Society. 

Extracts from the Seventeenth Annual Report. 

The whole number, who have been aided 
by the Society in a course of study prepara- 
tory to the Christian ministry, is 174, most 
of whom have become ^^ood ministers of 
Jesus Christ. Some of them now dwell in 
the most extreme quarters of the globe, and 
are daily going forth as the messengers of 
salvation. 

Your beneficiaries are confined to no one 
institution. They are dispersed into various 
States, and in a variety of institutions. They 
are pursuing their studies in four academies, 
three colleges, and two theological schools. 
Twenty-two are fitting for college, ten of 
whom will be prepared to enter in the en- 
suing autumn. Two are pursuing a shorter 
course of English theology ; eighteen are 
preparing for the study of theology ; eleven 
are in college; and twelve are in a regular 
course of theological studies. 

In relation to the length of time to be 
spent in study, the Board do not prescribe 
any uniform period. 

We should not think it desirable, did we 
possess the means, to give to young men an 
entire support, so as to relieve them wholly 
from all care and solicitude concerning their 
pecuniary alTairs. By such a course it would 
be questionable whether the good, which 
we might do, would not be more than over- 
balanced by the mischief which we should 
create. The men thus educated might per- 
haps possess great mental accomplishments, 
but then they would be unprepared for the 
practical duties of life ; or at least we should 
have done every thing in our power to dis- 
qualify them for such duties ; to meet the 
world as it is, where every man is his own 
guardian, and must provide for his own 
wants. It is not for the entire support of 
young men that we propose to provide, but 
merely relief for those who are struggling 
to obtain an education by their own exer- 
tions. All appropriations are made in the 
character of loans, to be held without inter- 
est until the individual shall be able to re- 
fund. The amount refunded the last year by 
former beneficiaries is one hundred and 
twenty-four dollars and fifty cents. 

The Board are happy to state that during 
the past year the receipts into the treasury, 
as appears from the Treasurer's report, have 
a little more than equalled the expenditures. 



70 



FUNDS. 



[Aug. 



FUNDS. 

Receipts into the Treasurtj of the American Edu- 
cation Society, and cfits Branches, from April 
1st, to Jujie mh, 1831. 

DONATIONS. 
Boston, Fern. Aux, Ed. Soc. by Miss Miriam 

Pliillips, Tr. " 

Contribution at annual meeting 
From a friend, by J. B. 
Bethel, Me, ft. Peter Twitchell 
Bakersfield, Vt. fr. Rev. Sam'l G. Tenney 
Graftsbury, Vt. a widow's mite, by Rev. W. 

A. Chapin 
Hartford, Ct. fr. Mrs. Charles Whiting- 
Hamphreysville, Ct. fr. Rev. E. G. Swift, bal- 
ance of a remittance 
Hunter, N. Y, a teacher's offering-, by Rev. C. 

Durfy 
Ludlow, fr. Rev. E. B. Wright, contributions 
Norfolk, Va. fr. Benj. Emerson 
New Hampshire Branch, remitted by the Tr. 

188 31 and 400 00 
New York, N. Y. fr. Hon. Richard Varick S 

Fr. a friend to the cause, saved by abstaining- 

from superfluities 
Fr. a little boy in the same family 
Putney, Vt. collection at Men. Concert 
Richmond, Va. by Rev. A. Converse, Agent, viz. 
Fr. Mrs. Mary Braxton, Kinsr William "Co. 
A friend to the Soc. 50 ; E."P. B. 2 00 
Mrs. E. C. Clark, Pittsylvania Co. 
A. Z. 10 00 ; fr. O. 10 00 
Thornton Rogers, Albemarle Co. 
Mrs. Louisa Cooke, Fluvanna Co. 
Mrs. Mary G. Braxton, Middlesex Co. 
Rindge, N. H. Fern. Con. of Prayer, by Mrs. 

Tirzah K. Burnham 
Fr. a friend, by Mrs, Burnham 



91 00 

97 38 

25 00—213 38 
5 00 
4 50 




1 25 
50 




25 




4 00 

5 07 
5 50 



00 

00—211 00 
6 00 

00 
50 
75 
00 
00 
00 
00 61 25 



^1,114 01 
REFUNDED BY FORMER BENEFICIARIES. 



By a former Ben. of the Western Ed. Soc. 
Whole amo. loaned from No. 275 

with int. 
Part amo. loaned 



Part amo. of gratuitous appro. 
Balance of amo. loaned 



67 
131 
363 

26 

228 
225 



89 27 
100 00 
83 20 
10 00 
54 00 
60 00 
7 50 
50 00—453 97 



INCOME FROM SCHOLARSHIPS. 
One year's interest on the following, viz. 



Parker 


60 00 


Cobb 


60 00 


Edward Henry Cobb 


60 00 


Train 


60 00 


Proctor 


60 00 


Barllett Judson 


60 00 


Newton 


60 00 


\mo. due on Banister 


98 63 


" " " ./. Wheelwright 


30 00 


" " " 1-2 of Martyn 


30 00 


" " " Lathrop 


20 00-598 



TEMPORARY SCHOLARSHIPS. 

Baltimore, Md. Roswell L, Colt, 3d payment 75 00 
Cincinnati, O. Rev. Franklin Y. Vail, Ist pay't 75 00 
Monson, Ms. Balance of 1st pay't 23 00—173 00 

LIFE SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Rev. John Allan, fr. Rev. Wm. Potter, mis- 
sionary at Creek Path, contributed by the 
Huntsville Fem. Ben. Society 40 00 

Rev. Emerson Davis, by ladies and gentlemen 

of his Society, Westfield, Ms. 40 00 

Rev. Abel McEwen, fr. an individual in New 

London, Ct. by J. W. McLane 40 00 

Rev. Isaac Paul, Cove church, Albemarle Co. 
Va. fr. members of his church, by Rev. A. 
Converse 40 00—160 00 

LEGACIES, 

Concord, N. H., T. W, Thompson, additional 

pay't, by S. Fletcher, Esq. 167 44 

Newark, N. J. Miss Frances Forman, late of 

2d church, by Rev. Philip C. Hay 500 00 

New Windsor, N. Y. Mr, Daniel Clememe 500 00-1167 44 



INCOME FROM FUNDS. 



lies, by 
M. 



AUXILIARY SOCIETIES, 
Berkshire County. 

By J. W. Robbins, Esq. Tr. 

Lee, a contribution 

Lenox, donation, by C. Belden, 1 00 ; a contri- 
bution, 17 88 

Pittsfield, Yo. Lad. Ben. Soc. 2d ann. pay't, 
for Tappan Temp. Scho. by Miss Amelia 
Danforth, Sec'y and Tr, 

Richmond, contrib. toward the R. Tem. Scho. 

Essex County. 

Andover, So. Par. from an Asso. of ] 
Miss M. W. Newman, Sec'y 

Danvers, N. Par. fr. individuals, by Rev. 
P. Braman 

Gloucester, fr. Fem. Ben. Society, by Miss L. 
Dane, Sec'y 

Hamilton, fr. Rev. Joseph B. Felt, donation 

Ipswich, fr. Miss Zilpah P. Grant, contribution 
by teachers and members of the Fem. Sem- 
inary, to const. Miss Grant and Miss 

Lyon, L. M. of the Am. Ed. Society 

Fr. a Society of Yo. Ladies, by Miss Susan C. 
Farley, Tr. to const. Mr. Caleb Kimball 
(a licensed preacher) a li. M. of A. E. S. 

Fr. a fem. member of So. Ch. " a mite," being 
the avails of industry 

Fr. a Fem. Praying Cir. 1st church, by Mrs. 
D. T. Kimball 

Manchester, fr. Fem. Ben. Soc. by Rev. S. M. 
Emerson 

Marblehead, fr. Cent Society, by Wm. Reed 

Newburyport, a donation, by Sam'l Tenney 

Salem, fr. Miss Anna Batchelder, toward 2d 
yearly pay't of Union Temp. Scho. 

Fr. a friend in Massachusetts, by Rev. Brown 
Emerson, Salem 



24 75 
18 86 



75 00 

10 34—1-28 



25 00 
13 00 
16 40 

40 00 

100 00—502 32 



Dividends on Bank Stock 
Interest on money loaned 



147 50 

T36 72—884 22 



Franklin County. 



Buckland, fr. ladies of the Soc. of Rev. B. F. 
Clark, in part to constitute him a L. M. of 

the A. E. S. 32 69 

Deerfield, So. fr. Fem. Ed. Soc. by Rev. Ter- 

tius Clarke H 00 

Northfield, fr. Charles Barber 60 00—103 69 

Middlesex County. 

Bedford, fr. Dr. Aaron Kittredge 13 25 

Concord, fr. Sam'l Hoar, by L. Shattuck 5 00 

Charlestown, fr. individuals, towards T. Scho. 79 00 
Bal. in the hands of the committee for the Fay 

Scho. after pay't of principal and int. 30 16 

Dracut, fr. individuals, by Rev. J. Merrill 9 00 
Framingham, fr. Rev. Geo. Trask, on ace. F. 

Temp. Scho. 20 00 
Holliston, fr. Un. Char. Soc. by B. F. Batchel- 
der, Sec'y 5 00 
Jas. Wight, 10 00 ; Lewis Slocum, 10 00 20 00 
Miss Elizabeth Prentiss 10 00 
Union Char. Soc. 1 00 ; B. F. Batchelder, 2 00 3 00 
Jno. Batchelder, 3 00 ; Isaac Smith, 5 00 8 00 
Baruch Perry, 1 00 ; H. E. Jones, 1 00 2 00 
Randall Francis, 3 00 ; N. Johnson, 50 3 50 
Wm. Batchelder 1 00 
Hopkinton, fr. indiv. and the Cent Soc. to con. 

Rev. Amos A. Phelps a L. M. of A. E. S. 41 50 
Lowell, fr. ladies of tlie cong. of Rev. Amos 

Blanchard, to const, him a L. M. of A. E. S. 40 00 

Lincoln, fr. Rev. E. Demond 1 00 

E. Wheeler 1 00 

J. Smith 1 00 

P. Fiske 1 00 

C, Smith 1 00 

Mrs. Farrar 1 00 

Miss Mary Edwards 50 

Mrs. Adams 50 

Miss Mary Childs 1 00 
Medford, in part towards Tem. Scho. by Dea. 

James 34 00 

Newton, fr. Benj. Eddy, donation 2 00 
Fr, individuals, E. Par. to constitute Rev. Jas. 

BatesaL. M. of A. E. S. 40 07 
Fr. Rev. Wm Greenough, to constitute him- 
self a L. M. of Co. Soc. 10 00 
Nalick, fr. Sam'l Fisk, Esq. to const, himself a 

L. M. of the Co. Soc. 10 00 

Fr. Abel Drury, a donation 5 00 

Waltham, fr. Miss A. Warren 40 00 

Fr. 2 fem. friends, 15 00 ; Fem. Ch. Soc. 25 00 40 00 
Woburn, from Rev. Joseph Bennett, viz. 

Male Centre Concert, by Dea. B. Wyman, Tr. 16 00 

Fem. " " " Mrs. Mary Bennett 7 00 

1st Fe. Con. Richardson Row , Mrs. E. Richardson 4 58 

2d " " " " " F. Johnson 10 35 

New Bridge Concert, Mrs. S. Thompson 4 18 

Monthly " Dea. U. Manning 40 47 

West Side Male " Dea. H. Gardner 47 77 

Do. Fem. " Mrs. L. Wyman 39 57 

Male Con. Richardson Row, Wm. Grammer 11 62 

Subscription of individuals 24 00 

Collection at the annual meeting, in Lowell 46 09 — 731 11 
Most of the above was rec'd through Mr. E. P. ' 
Mackintire, Treasurer. 



1831.] 



FUNDS. 



71 



Norfolk County. 
Fr. Rev. John Codinan, D. D. Tr. 



by Rev. R. S. 



South Massachusetts. 

Abingtun, fr. Fern. Bcu. Soc. 1st Parish, by 

Mrs. Miiry H. Shedd, Tr. 
East Bridgewater, fr. Alvan Shaw 
Hanson, Ir. Mrs. Nabby Gushing, (byDea. M. 

hVlily, Tr,) to con-st. lier son, N. W. Cusli- 

in<r, al,. M. ofthe Aiix. Soc. 
Sandwldi, the licqnest of Miss Achsah Dilling- 
ham, to constitute Rev. Asahel Cobb, of S. 

a L. M. of A. E. Soc. by Rev. Jona. Burr, 

of Boston 
Taunton, fr. ladies and gent, of the Society of 

Kev. Mr. Maltby 
Fr. M. Kddy, Tr. ann. subscription of Ichabod 

Thomas and JHenry Homes 

Worcester South. 

Brookfield, fr. George Merriam 
Fr. a friend, by Peirce & Parker 
Charlton, from ladies of the Soc. of Rev. John 

Wilder, to constitute him a L. M. of the 

Aux. Soc. 
Orafton, fr. Rev. Mr. Searle's Society, for the 

support of a Tern. Scho. by Dea. A. Stone 
MUford, fr. Rev. David Long, contribution by 

young male members of his Soc. to consti- 
tute him a L. M. ofthe Aux. Society 
Fr. do. contribution by young ladies of liis Soc. 

to const. Mrs. Sophia Long a L. M. ofthe 

Aux. Soc. 
Oxford, fr. Rev. Eben'r Newhall, to constitute 

himself a L. M. of A. E. S. 
A collection in Mr. N's Soc, by Peter Butler 
Sutton, fr. Jno. Leland, Tr. 1st Society, by 

hands of Rev. Mr. Maltby 
Western, fr. members ofthe Soc of Rev. Oren 

Catlin, to const, him a L. M. of A. E. S. 
Worcester, fr. Miss Thankful Hearsev, contrib. 

by lad. of 1st Par. for the Miller T. Scho. 
Fr. Capt. I^evvis Chapin, contribution by gent. 

of 1st Par. for Miller T. Scho. 
Most ofthe above rec'd through Hon. Abijah 

Bigelow, Tr. 

Worcester North. 
Rec'd fr. Dea. Justus Ellingwood, Tr. 
" " " " byRev. E.Cor- 

nelius, amo. contributed by individuals— 
p'd over by Sam'l Harrington of Hardwick 

Whole amount received for present use 



73 64 
526 41 



35 00—635 05 



25 GO 
4 00 



40 00 
80 00 
11 00—124 00 



57 01 
3 00 



15 00 

75 00 



75 00 
40 00 
37 50 
37 50—423 01 



27 21 

21 00. — 48 21 



PRINCIPAL OF SCHOLARSHIPS, 

Wisner, fr. Miss Harriet Cutler, Tr, of subscri- 
bers 
Worcester, fr. Mr. Joseph Adams 



#7,247 61 



51 00 

24 72 — 75 72 



MAINE BRANCH. 
Augusta, fr. ladies, a donation 
Annuities. — T. Bridge, jr. 

B. Davis 
Lebanon, fr. Cong. Soc. by their pastor 
Dividend on shares in Augusta Bank 
" " Portland Bank 

Interest on Dunlap Scholarship 

" Funds 

Refunded by a former Beneficiary 



17 83 
2 00 

2 00—4 00 ^21 83 

23 00 
22 00 

24 00 — 46 00 
60 00 
6 00. — 66 00 

18 00 

35 00 53 00 

$209 83 



NEW HAMPSHIRE BRANCH. 
Bath, fr. individuals, in part towards the Ha- 
verhill and Bath Temp. Scho. by James T. 

Woodbridge 18 75 

Fr. individuals, by do. 17 OO 

Fr. Miss Pamela Peaslee 
Concord, fr. a friend, a donation 
Fr. Miss Nancy Hubert, to const. Sam'l Hubert, 

Esq. a L. M. of Merrimack Co. Aux. E. S. 
Fr. Female Edu. Society, in part, towards the 

Bouton Temp. Scho. 
Fr. individual gent, in part, do. do. 
Campion, fr. Rev. J. L. Hale, to const, himself 

a L. M. of Grafton and Coos Co. Aux. Ed. 

Society 
Fr. Dr. J. W. Kimball, in part to const, himself 

a L. M. of Gi-aftou and Coos Aux. Ed. S. 
Canaan, fr. Rev. Aaron Foster 
Pitzwilliam, fr. Fern. Ed. Soc. by Mrs. Mary 

Sabin 13 oO 

Crroton, fr. individuals, by A. P. Tenney 2 00 

Hillsboro' Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. fr. Miss Sarah 

Fairbanks, to const, herself a L. M. 15 00 



50 00 

40 25—106 25 



7 50 — ^22 50 
2 00 



Amherst, from Ladies' Aux. E<I. Soc. 

by Mr.s. Edmund Parker, Tr. 25 56 

Fr. Mr. Aaron Lawrence, Agent 60 00 85 56 

Antrim., fr. a member ofthe Presb. Church 6 30 

Bedford, fr. gent, hy Dea. Jno. French 28 50 

" ladies, " " 24 07 — 52 57 

Dunstable, fr. 1st Cong. Church, by Sam'l W. 

Blake 27 00 

Prancestowv , fr. Ed. Soc. by Hon. T, Brown 43 50 
Goffstown, fr. Cephas Kent, ann. sub. by Mr. 

Young 2 00 

Hollis, fr. ladies, by Dea. Barge 13 45 

" gentlemen " 19 oO 

Fr. indviduals, by Capt. P. Woods 3 •^2 — a5 67 

Hancock, from ladies, by Rev. A. Burgess, to 

const, him a L. M. of tiie Co. Soc. 15 00 

Hillsboro', fr. ladies, by T. F. Simonds 16 00 

" gentlenien, by do. 4 00 — 20 00 

Lyndeboro', fr. Ed. Soc. by' Dea. Wm. Jones 26 80 
Mason, fr. ladies, by Rev. E. Hill 
Pelham, fr. Rev. Dr. Church 1 00 

Fr. Mr. Daniel Gage 1 00 2 00 

Peterboro', fr. ladies of Rev. Peter Holt's Soc. 

to const, him a L. M. ofthe State Ed. Soc. 30 00 
Temple, from individuals, collected by 

Stephen Brown 5 00 

Fr. ladies, by Miss Sally Heald 3 67 8 67 

Wilton, fr. gent, by Rev. Mr. Richardson 9 00 

Fr. Fem. Ed. So. by Miss S. Rockwood 12 57 — 21 57- 

Hanover, fr. Rev. Nathan Lord, D. D. 

to const, himself a L. M. of Grafton 

and Coos Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 15 00 

Fr. Mills Olcott, Esq. do. do. do. 15 00 

Fr. Dr. Daniel Oliver, do. do. do. 15 00 

Fr. individuals, in part, towards Dart. 

Coll. T. Scho. by Prof. Hadduck 36 00 — 81 00 
Fr. Lad. E. S. by Mrs. Betsey K. Lord, in full 

for pr. and int. of Dart. Coll. Per. Scho. 
Haverhill, fr. Fem. Aux. Ed. Society, by Mrs. 

Mary Webster 
Fr. individuals, towards the Haverhill and 

Bath T. Scho. by Hon. S. P. Webster 
Fr. individuals, by do. 

Keene, fr. the Education Society 
Fr. individuals, to constitute Rev. Zedekiah S. 

Barstow aL. M. ofthe A. E. S. 40 

Fr. Lad. Aux. Ed. Soc. by Miss Hannah Lam- 
son, Tr.— 15 00 of which to const, herself a 

L. M. ofthe Co. Soc. 37 

Fr. Mr. Abijah Kingsbury, Agent— 37 50 of 

which to sustain the Barstow Temp. Scho. 65 
Lyme, fr. Rev. Nath'l Lambert 
Lancaster, fr. individuals, by Rev. L. A. Spof- 

ford, to con. him a L. M. ofthe State E. S. 
Northwood, fr. Dea. Wiggin, a donation 
Nelson, public contribution in March, by H. 

Melville 
New Ipswich, do. by Rev. C. Walker 

Orford, fr. Jno. B. Wheeler, Esq. to constitute 

himself a L. M. of A. E. S. 100 

Alex. Strong, Esq. 5 00 ; Mr. S. Willard, 5 00 10 
Mrs. J. B. Wheeler, 3 00 ; Mr. Jno. Cole, 2 00 5 
Fr. Rev. J. D. Farnsworth, to const, himself a 

L. M. ofG. andC. Co. Aux. Ed. Soc. 
Plymouth, from the following persons, to const. 

themselves L. Members ofthe Grafton and 

Coos Aux. E. S. by Wm. Green, Afr. viz. 
Moore Russell, 15 00 ; Wm. Webster, 15 00 30 

D. C. Webster, 15 00 ; Wm. Green, 15 00 30 

Jno. Rogers, 15 00 ; W. C. Thompson, 15 00 30 
Madam Elizabeth Thompson 15 

W. W. Russell, 15 00 ; D. M. Russell, 15 00 30 
Fr. individuals, toward the Plym. and Camp- 
ton T. Scho. by Wm. Green, Agent 18 
Fr. individuals, a donation, by do. 
Fr. Lad. Ed. Soc. to support P. and C. Temp 

Scho. by W. Green, Agent, paid by Mrs. 

G. Punchard 18 ' 

Rochester, fr, Mrs. Judith C. Upham, a dona- 
tion at the Concert of Prayer for colleges 10 
Fr. Benj. Barker, to const, himself a L. M. of 

Co. Society 15 < 

Pr. Mrs. J. C. Upham, to const, herself do. 15 

Fr. Lad. Aux. Ed. Soc. by Ruth C. Upham, to 

const. Rev. Isaac Willey a L. M. of Co. S. 15 : 
Fr. a lady 1 ( 

Fr. Francis Wm. and Albert Gallatin Upham, 

5 00 each 10 

Fr. gentlemen, by Mr. B. Barker, Agent for 

Rochester 12 

Rindge, fr. Mrs. Tirzah K. Burnham, Female 

Mon. Con. 
Strafford Co. Aux. Ed. Society, fr. Hon. Wm. 

Badger, to const, himself a L. M. of the 

Co. Soc. by Dea. J. French, Tr. 15 

Fr. individuals, ann. subscribers 4 

Somersworth, (Great Falls,) fr. Sam'l Rice, to 

const, himself a L. M. of Co. Soc. 15 

Fr. Rev. Wm. Twining, do. do. 15 

Fr. gentlemen ofthe Soc. of Mr. T. to const. 

him a L. M. of N. H.Branch of A. E. S. 30 
Fr, ladies and gentlemen of do. to const, him a 

L. M. of A. E. S. 40 



9 37- 


-90 37 


14 11 




18 75 

52 25—85 11 

30 00 



00—172 50 
2 00 

30 00 

25 

15 00 

9 75 

00 
00 
00 

15 00—130 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
30 00 

18 75 
11 25 



00 

00 — 78 25 
4 00 



$1,497 12 
Most ofthe above sums in N. H. were collected by Rey. Mr. 
Cogswell, Gen. Agent, while on an agency in tlie State. 



72 



FUNDS. 



[Aug. 



NORTH WESTERN BRANCH. 
Berhn, fr. Mrs. Peter Hubbard and Miss Mary 

Hubbard 
Cornwall, fr. Female Ed, Society 
Dorset, fr. Dea. Smith, two years' subscription 
Fair Haven, fr. Joel Colvin 
Middlebui-y, fr. Cousc- Society, contribution 
Fr. Female Ed. Socfety 
Manchester, additional pay't of Joseph Burr's 

legacy 
Pittsford, fr. Gentlemen's Association 

" Ladies' do. 

Poultney, fr. Cong. Soc. by J. R. Wheeler, Tr. 
Rutland, East Par. collected in Cong-. Society 
Fr. sundry individuals 

Fr. an Individ, out of town, by Rev. C. Walker 
Interest on bequest firom Thos. D. Rood, dec'd 
Rutland West, contributed in Cong. Society 
Rochester, bequest fr. estate of Dan'l Emerson, 

by Thomas King, Esq. 
Shoreham, contributed in Cong. Society 
Waitsfield, fr. Hiram Jocelyn, refunded 



CONNECTICUT BRANCH, 
Interest on Temporary Loans 
Avon, fr. the estate of Joel Wheeler, deceased 
East Hartford, bal. of T. Scho. by W. Merrow 
Middletown, donation from C. Wetmore, by S. 

Southmayd 
Donation fr. Rev. J. Noyes, by do. 
Milton, fr. the Fern. E. So. by Hawley Olmsted 
New Canaan, from the ex'rs of T. Fitch, bal- 
ance of legacy, by Clark Bissell 





2 00 




14 50 




2 00 




I 00 


30 69 




25 00 — 55 69 




875 00 


49 04 




16 30 65 34 




4 81 


38 75 




33 00 




50 




6 00 — 78 25 




11 00 




60 00 




11 00 




12 00 


$1 


^Fsg 




13 00 




250 00 




11 50 




3 00 




1 00 




37 50 



258 37 

$574 37 
Clothing. 
North Coventry, fr. the Female Fragment Society, by C. Root, 
Tr. viz : — 4 bedquilts, 2 comfortables, 3 pr. sheets, 2 pr. 
pillow cases, 4 pr. stockings, and 19 shirts. 



5 00 



PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY, 
Ark Port, Fem. E. S. by Mrs. S. Hurlburt, Tr. 
Carlisle, Pa. fr. ladies of Rev. Mr. Duffleld's 

Cong. 61 47 

Coxsackie, fr. Mr. Abraham Van Dyck, a don. 100 00 

Danville Village, Fem. Ed. Soc. by Mrs. E. 

Hurlburt, Tr. 8 00 

De Kalb, fr. Rev. Thos. Kennon, for the young 

man at Oxford college, Ohio, who lives on 

12 1-2 cts. per week 5 00 

Harpersfield, fr. Mr. Penfield, by Dr. Porter 5 00 

New York, fr. Dr. Lewis, by Mr. Z. Lewis 20 00 

Brick Church Scho. by F. Howe, Tr. viz. 
J. D. Holbrook 37 50 

E. A. Russell 37 50 

Ladies' Association 84 87 

Fragment Society 42 00 

Of F. Howe, Treasurer, viz. 
Collected of Mrs. H. & M. Murray, 4th 

year 75 00 

Collected of Lockwood D 'Forest 50 00—326 87 

Bowery Church Scho. received of John 

Wheelwright, Esq. 37 50 

Of sundry persons, by D. McArthur 65 00—102 50 

Central Presb. Ch. Scho. rec. bal. of 3d year 375 00 
Collection at anniversary meeting 151 50 

Fayette Scho. rec'd of Miss Shattuck 18 75 

Ixvight St. Church Sch. fr. Jno. Rankin, 

3d year, by C. Baker 75 00 

Fr. Chas. Starr, 3d year, by do. 75 00—150 00-1144 62 

South Hampton, L. I. rec'd from the church, 

which, with a previous pay 't last year of 

24 76, is to const. Rev. Dan'l Beers a L. M. 
Western Ed. Soc. rec. fr. the Tr. J. S. Seymour 200 00 
do. do. do. 300 00 

do. do. do. 

Rec. of Rev. Wm. R. Weeks, coll. at Paris Hill 
Wilmington, Del. rec. fr. Rev. E. W. Gilbert, 

the gift of Mr. B. 
Rec. of do. the gift of Mr. J. B. 
Reftinded by a Beneficiary, the appropriation of 

Jan'y, 1831 19 00 



26 50 



250 00 
37 00—787 00 



5 00 
10 00 — 15 00 



WESTERN AGENCY. 

Belpre Con"', in part to const. Rev. E Kings- 
bury a L. M. of A. E. S. 

Brownsville, Ind. by C. Spinning 

Bloomingburg, fr. individuals 

Cincinnati, fr. Rev. Joseph Gallagher 

Casper Hopple, 37 50 ; A. Knox, 5 50 

Jas. Furguson, 100 00 ; F. W. Athean, 12 50 

Rev. Oman Eastman, Temp. Scho. 

D. Ames, do. 

Circleville, fr. James Torbert, 1-2 Scho. 

Granville, fr. ladies, to const. Rev. Jacob Little 
aL. M. of A. E. S. 

Fr. other subscribers 

Fr. Rev. A. Little 

Fr. Gerard P. Bancroft, Temp. Scho. 

Georgetown, fr. Rev. Mr. Higley 

Lebanon, fr. Mr. Smith 



$2,176 59 



5 00 
22 50 
25 SO 
12 50 
43 00 
112 50 
50 00 

25 00—243 00 
38 00 

40 00 
17 00 
20 00 

75 00—152 00 
19 00 
5 00 



Oxford, fr. C. Spinning 
Pisgah congregation, by J. Law 
Paddy's Run, fr. individuals 
Redding, fr. Rev. Mr. Graves 
Red Oak, fr. Mr. Merrill 
Ripley, fr. individuals 
Rocky Spring, fr. Dr. Burgess 
Springfield, fr' Jno. Ambler 
Troy, fr. Mr. Skinner 

" A. Tilford 
Zanesville, fr. individuals 
Agency of Rev. A. R. Clark, rec'd fr. the Pres- 
bytery of Athens 
Do. of Mr. Clark in Kentucky 



45 00 
9 00 
4 00 
9 00 
15 00 
10 00 
28 CO 
10 00 
20 00 

10 50 30 50 

77 00 



147 82—656 12 



$1,403 62 



WESTERN RESERVE BRANCH 
Aurora, fr. Young Lad. Ed Soc. by Miss L. 

M. Wright 
Claridon, fr. Fem. Ed. Soc. bv Horace Taylor 
Hartford, fr. Fem. E. S. by Rev. Mr. Isham 
Hantsburg, fr. gentlemen, 6 50 ; ladies, 7 39 ; 

by Rev. A. R. Clark 
Kinsman, fr. Fem. Ed. Soc. 
Madison, fr. Ed. Society, by C. Cunningham 
Warren, fr. Fem. Ed. S. by Rev. I. Seward 

" Peter Ailing, by do. 

Fr. Rev. Joseph Badger, by Dr. Wm. Hudson 
A friend, QZ ; friend, 78 
Fr. Herman Kingsbury, by Rev. A. R. Clark 



Clothmg received, value about $15 00. 




$89 24 



Clothing rec^d at the Rooms of the Parent Society, 
during the quarter ending March 31. 

Boston, fr. Mrs. Christiana Baker, 4 sheets and 6 pr. socks. 
Braintree, fr. Fem. Aux. Ed. Soc. 4 cotton and 4 flannel shirts, 

3 sheets, and 2 prs. socks, valued at $3 54. 
Belchertown, fr. Mrs. Maria Colman, 9 prs. socks, by Rev. Wm. 

Cogswell, and delivered by him to students in Amherst 

College. 
Berlin, fr. Fem. Ed. So. by Miss Mary Fay, Tr. 1 pr. drawers, 

yarn, and 4 prs. socks. 
Fitzwilliam, N. H. fr. Fem. Ed. Soc. by Mrs. Mary Sabin, 16 

yds. flannel, and 18 yds. fulled black cloth, valued at $29 00. 
Northampton, fr. ladies, 4 prs. woollen socks. 
Newton, East Parish, Friendly Society, 28 shirts and 3 collars, 

valued at $29 00. 
Do. West Parish, Fem. Ben. Society, 6 shirts, 6 cravats, and 1 

pr. socks. 
New Ipswich, N. H. fr. Fem. Reading Char. Society, by Miss 

Lydia Saffbrd, Tr. 1 comforter, 11 bedquilts, 22 prs. socks, 5 

prs. pillow cases, 8 towels, 4 shirts, and 5 collars, valued at 

$47 08. 
Townsend, Fem. Char. Soc. 2 bedquilts, 1 comfortable, 8 sheets, 

12 pillow cases, and 8 prs. socks, valued at $^2 18. 
Fr. Miss Rebecca Wheeler, 1 bedquilt, valued at $7 00. 
Tewksbury, fr. ladies, by Rev. J. Starloveather, a shirts and 1 

pr. socks. 
Wallham, Juvenile Soc. 8 shirts, 7 collars, 10 cravats, and 2 

prs. socks, valued at $15 33. 
Whately, 1 box containing the following articles, viz : — 23 yds. 

flannel, 4 sheets, 1 blanket, 6 bedquilts, 2 comforters, 4 pil- 
low cases, 8 shirts, 3 collars, 1 vest, 9 prs. socks, and 2 

towels. 

Clothing rec'd at the Rooms of the Parent Society, 

during the quarter ending June 30. 
Ashby, fr. Mrs. Sally L. Manning, 2 shirts,, and 2 prs. socks, 

valued at 3 00 

Boston, fr. Mrs. Christiana Baker, 6 shirts, 6 cravats, and 6 

prs. socks. 
Exeter, N. H. fr. Mrs. Elizabeth Oilman, 6 prs. socks. 
Franklin, from Miss Harriet Ware, 2 shuts and 1 pair socks, 

valued at 2 60 

Gloucester, fr. Fem. Ben. Society, by Miss L. Dane, Sec'ry, 3 

prs. socks. 
Grafton, fr. Yo. Lad. Sewing Circle, 4 shfrts and 2 prs. socks. 
Holliston, 1 hat, 1 pr. socks. 
Rowley, 5 shirts, 3 prs. socks. 
Tewksbury, fr. Fem. Reading Circle, 8 shirts. 
Worcester, fr. the Fem. Ed. Soc. of the 1st church, 7 sheets, 6 

pillow-cases, 8 shirts, 5 prs. socks, and 1 bedquilt. 
Fr. Miss Lucy Glover, by Rev. Dr. Codman, 1 pr. socks, valued 
at 50 cts. Norfolk Aux. Ed. Soc. 



Parent Society 
Maine Branch 
N. Hampshire do. 
North Western do. 
Connecticut do. 
Presb. Ed. Society 
Western Reserve Br. 
Western Agency 



SUMMARY 






Present use. 


Sch. Fund. 


Whole amo. 


'6,659 30 


75 72 


6,735 02 


209 S3 




£09 83 


1,497 12 




1,497 12 


1,192 59 




1,192 59 


574 37 




574 37 


2,176 59 




2,176 59 


89 24 




89 24 


1,403 62 




1,403 62 



* This 
Branch. 



$13,802 66 $75 72 $13,878 38 

exclusive of the 588 31 received from the N. H. 



THE 



QUARTERLY REGISTER. 



Vol. IV. 



NOVEMBER, 1831. 



No. 2. 



For the Quarterly Register. 
JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 

Mr. Evarts was born of respecta- 
ble parents, in the town of Sunder- 
land, Vermont, on the 3d of February, 
1781. At the age of ten years, he 
removed with his father to the town of 
Georgia, in the same State. In this 
place he acquired the usual English 
education, and commenced prepara- 
tion fo^ college. In January, 1798, 
he repaired to East Guilford, in 
Nev.' Haven county, Connecticut, 
and pursued his studies under the 
diiection of the Rev. Dr. Elliot, the 
Djinister of the place. In October of 
the same year, and in the eighteenth 
year of his age^ he entered Yale Col- 
lege. Here he had the high privilege 
of listening to the instructions of Pre- 
sident Dwight, both as a preacher, 
and as the director of the studies of 
the senior class. Mr. Evarts has left 
some brief journals of this period of 
his life, notes of the lectures which 
he heard, and records of facts which 
came to his knowledge. The class 
with which he was connected, con- 
sisted of nearly sixty members at the 
time of graduation, and contained an 
unusual amount of talent. It has fur- 
nished, perhaps, as great a number 
of useful and distinguished men, as 
any class which has received the 
honors of the institution. Mr. Evarts, 
as we learn from one of his class- 
mates, was much beloved and re- 
spected by his fellow students. He 
applied himself to his various studies 
with great diligence ; he then gave 

VOL. IV. 10 



much promise of his future eminence 
as a writer, by the facility and cor- 
rectness with which he communi- 
cated his thoughts. There were 
men in his class who pushed their 
researches farther than Mr. Evarts 
did, into some of the branches of 
literature and science. As a general 
scholar, however, he had no superiors. 
In his senior year, during the win- 
ter of 1801-2, Yale College was visit- 
ed with an interesting revival of reli- 
gion. Among the fruits of it was 
Mr. Evarts. His feelings, though 
generally calm and equable, were, 
sometimes, characterized by great 
warmth and tenderness. In the 
April following, he made a public 
profession of religion, and joined the 
church in the college. At the time 
his class graduated, in 1 802, he united 
with those of his classmates, who 
were professors of religion, in a mu- 
tual covenant J a copy of which has 
been found among his private papers, 
to pray for each other, to learn one 
another's circumstances, and to cor^ 
respond with and counsel one another 
in subsequent life. It was a singular 
felicity for Evarts, and his young 
friends, to enjoy the instructions of 
such a man as President Dwight — • 
one, " who did his duty with his 
whole mind and heart, who thought 
nothing adequately done, till all was 
done which the case admitted of" 
" Into his recitations and discussions 
he also threw a vast fund of practical 
instruction, on almost every subject 
of life^ manners, and human busi- 



74 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



ness; for few men ever observed 
more carefully and extensively." In 
the various subjects, which came be- 
fore the senior class, it was usual for 
the President to assume a considera- 
ble range of statement and argument, 
so that the driest parts of logic and 
metaphysics were rendered exceed- 
ingly interesting and instructive. To 
the counsels and labors of this ex- 
cellent man, the successive classes 
of students were greatly indebted. 
While attending upon his instruc- 
tions, Mr, Evarts was in the habit of 
taking notes, or short memoranda — 
a habit which he continued through 
life. His appointment at the com- 
mencement, in which he received 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts, was 
an oration. His subject was the 
" Execution of Laws." " At the 
close of it," says one who was present, 
'' when, in a strain of commanding 
eloquence, he introduced Lord Mans- 
field as rebuking the British commu- 
nity, it seemed as though every heart 
anticipated in the youthful speaker, 
some future champion of liberty and 
law, that should be the pride of his 
country." This performance subse- 
quently appeared in a series of num- 
bers from a weekly paper printed in 
Wiscasset, Maine, and was publicly 
attributed by the editor, to the pen of 
President Dwight. 

After leaving college, he engaged 
in no settled employment till April, 
1803, when he took charge of an 
academy, in the town of Peacham, 
in Vermont. In this employment, he 
remained nearly a year. Soon after 
the close of his connection with this 
academy, he returned to New Haven, 
and entered himself as a student at 
law, in the office of the late Judge 
Chauncey. In this office, Mr. Evarts 
enjoyed eminent facilities for obtain- 
ing a knowledge of his profession. 
Mr. Chauncey was a striking instance 
of a self-taught man, rising, by native 
energy and unwearied application, to 
a post of great usefulness. Without 
the advantages of a public education, 
he reached a commanding eminence 



[Nov. 

in his profession. He was attorney for 
the State of Connecticut, and in 1789, 
was appointed a Judge of the Supreme 
Court. Under him Mr. Evarts ac- 
quired a famihar acquaintance with 
the principles of law, and political 
economy. Early in the summer of 
1806, he took the oath of admission 
to the bar, and opened an office for 
the practice of his profession in New 
Haven. His business in the profes- 
sion which he had chosen was very 
limited, and his income from that 
source, did not much exceed the 
mere expenses of his office, the charge 
of his family being defrayed princi- 
pally, by keeping boarders. This 
fact is, doubtless, to be ascribed, not 
to the want of energy and skill in 
his business, but to the well known 
circumstance, that in this profession 
especially, years of industry and ap- 
plication to study, must be expended, 
before the general confidence of the 
community can be acquired. 

In May, 1810, Mr. Evarts removed 
to Charlestown, near Boston, for the 
purpose of pursuing the duties oi liis 
profession, and also to take charge of 
a literary and religious monthly publi- 
cation — the Panoplist. This work 
was commenced in June, 1805, and 
was discontinued in 1820. With 
what ability Mr. Evarts discharged 
the duties of editor, thousands in 
the Christian community well know. 
While the literary character of the 
work is, in general, very respectable, 
there are occasional articles of great 
ability. Mr. Evarts, it is well known, 
was the author of a large part of the 
original matter inserted in its pages, 
from 1810, to 1820. His published 
pieces in June, 1814, amounted to two 
hundred and twenty-nine. Most of 
these were inserted in the Panoplist. 
As a vindicator of the great doctrines 
of the gospel, as a repository of inter- 
esting biography, as a record of the 
first thoughts and earliest aspirations 
of those, who laid the foundations of 
our benevolent societies, as an index 
of the literary character of the religious 
community in this country, and in its 



1831.] 

last years, as the organ of the Ameri- 
can Board of Missions, the files of 
the PanopHst will be of great value 
to future generations. 

In June, 1810, the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, was formed at Bradford, 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of 
devising and prosecuting measures 
for the extension of the gospel 
in heathen lands. In 1812, at 
the third annual meeting of the 
Board, Mr. Evarts was elected 
Treasurer, and in 1813, was 
chosen a member of the Board, 
and of the Prudential Committee. 
Besides these duties, Mr. Evarts was 
intimately associated with Dr. Wor- 
cester, the Corresponding Secre- 
tary, in conducting the correspond- 
ence of the Board, in maturing the 
plans for the complete organization 
of the Christian community into 
auxiliary associations, and in all the 
concerns of the missions. 

In 1821, Dr. Worcester died, and 
Mr. Evarts was, with great unanimity, 
chosen to succeed him as Correspond- 
iiag Secretary. His field of labor 
was now much enlarged. It was 
such a sphere as would call forth his 
great powers. In 1811, it was thought 
that the American churches had 
not zeal and ability enough to sustain 
a single mission to the heathen, and 
one of the missionaries actually re- 
ceived a few hundred dollars in 
England. In 1810-11, the income 
of the Board was about jfourteen hun- 
dred dollars ; in 1821-22, when Mr. 
Evarts became Secretary, it was more 
than sixty-'One thousand dollars. So 
remarkably had the Lord of Missions 
smiled on this infant enterprize. 
Since that time, the progress of this 
noble institution has been equally 
cheering. In 1827-28, the income of 
the Board exceeded one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. The number of letters 
now prepared, annually, at the Mis- 
sionary Rooms, many of them long, 
and requiring much thought, exceeds 
twenty-five hundred. For several 
years, Mr. Evarts bad little to do with 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



75 



the minute details of business and 
correspondence, or even with con- 
ducting the periodical publications of 
the Board. The last ten annual 
Reports were written by him, and 
most of the instructions to the 
missionaries. In 1818, and again 
in 1822, he visited the Cherokee 
Indians. He visited the Cherokee 
and Choctaw Indians in 1824, 
and the Cherokee, Choctaw, and 
Chickasaw Indians, again, in 1826. 
He also spent three or four winters, 
in the city of Washington, during the 
sessions of congress, where his prin- 
cipal object was to exert an influence 
in favor of the civilization and edu- 
cation of the Indians, and especially 
to protect them from the operation 
of unjust and iniquitous laws. For 
two or three years past, his exertions 
in favor of these forlorn and desolate 
children of the forest, were very 
great and arduous. These exertions, 
though proceeding from the most ex- 
pansive philanthropy in the bosom 
of Mr. Evarts, were in direct con- 
nection with the great object of his 
life — the promotion of the missionary 
cause. The Board has more than 
thirty stations among the Indian 
tribes ; all of them will be in some 
measure affected, and several of them 
utterly destroyed by the proposed re- 
moval of the Indians, 

In the autumn of 1829, a series of 
papers, over the signature of " Wil- 
liam Penn," appeared in the Wash- 
ington National Intelligencer, one of 
the most important political papers 
published in the United States ; in 
which Mr. Evarts very ably dis^ 
cussed the whole subject of the Indian 
rights. Their lawful claims to the 
possession of the territory which they 
occupy, were completely vindicated. 
These papers were copied into at 
least forty other newspapers, and 
also collected and published in a 
pamphlet form. They were proba- 
bly read by more than half a million 
of the citizens of this country. The 
whole subject was investigated to the 
foundation. The familiar acquaint- 



76 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



[Nov, 



aiice of Mr. Evarts with political law, 
and with the great principles, which 
ought to regulate the intercourse of 
nations, gave to his opinions a weight 
of authority, and an extent of influ- 
ence, which will render the papers 
of ' William Penn' an important part 
of the political history of the times. 
No attempt has ever been made to 
answer them. He also wrote various 
articles in many of the newspapers of 
the country, particularly just before 
the bill for the removal of the Indians 
was agitated on the floor of congress. 
All which he did will not be known 
till the oppressor and the oppressed 
stand before the throne of final judg- 
ment. His feelings, which on all 
other subjects seemed to be calm, 
unruffled, and perfectly under the 
control of his reason, could hardly 
be repressed, when he thought of the 
indignities which were heaped on the 
hapless Indians. The writer of these 
remarks well recollects seeing his 
feeble frame agitated almost beyond 
endurance, when conversing on this 
subject, at the Missionary Rooms, 
|}ut a few months before his death. 
Still he knew that the Judge of the 
nations will bring good out of this 
enormous and high-handed oppres- 
sion. When the vote was passed, 
which stigmatizes this Republic as 
guilty of perjury towards its depend- 
ants, Mr. Evarts, who was in the 
Hall of the House of Representatives, 
remarked to a member of congress 
who sat near him, " My comfort is, 
that God governs the world ; and my 
hope is, that when the people of the 
United States come to understand 
the subject, there will a redeeming 
spirit arise ; for I will not believe that 
the nation is yet lost to truth and 
honor." In other concerns affecting 
the welfare of this nation, Mr. Evarts 
took a deep interest. 

In the measures adopted to prevent 
the transportation of the public mail 
on the Sabbath, he was earnest and 
efficient. He wrote circulars and 
petitions, and presented them for sig- 
natures, attended meetings of the 



friends of this object, conversed ex- 
tensively with members of congress, 
and compiled and published a pam- 
phlet, consisting of extracts from me- 
morials to congress from different 
parts of the country, together with 
an introduction and conclusion, writ- 
ten by himself. This was attended 
with much labor and pecuniary sacri- 
fice. Probably no man in this coun- 
try felt more deeply the importance 
of the sanctification of God's holy 
day. 

In the efforts which have been 
made to train men for the Christian 
ministry, Mr. Evarts was always 
ready to give his valuable counsels 
and influence. He appeared publicly 
as the advocate of this cause on more 
than one occasion. At the anni- 
versary of the American Education 
Society, in 1827, he argued its 
claims at length, and with his usual 
sound and discriminating sense. 

The health of Mr. Evarts had been 
declining, for more than a year be- 
fore his decease. During the winter 
of 1829-30, though feeble, and evi- 
dently needing the benefit of relaxa- 
tion and a warm climate, he con- 
tinued his labors at the Missionary 
Rooms till about the first of April, 
when he repaired to the city of Wash- 
ington. The debates on the Indian 
bill, and subjects connected with that 
great question, contributed to exhaust 
his already feeble frame. After his 
return to Boston, he was laboriously 
employed in preparing the annual 
report, (a paper which, for power of 
expression, and comprehensiveness of 
view, was never surpassed by any 
similar document in this or any other 
country,*) publishing the speeches 
on the Indian bill, writing on the 
Indian question, and attending to 
the common business at the Mission- 
ary Rooms. After the annual meet- 
ing of the Board, in October, these, 
or similar labors continued; and in 
addition, he spent a fortnight at New 
Bedford, superintending the embark- 



* See the article in the Novembei- number of the 
auarterly Register, 1830. 



1831.] 

ation of several missionaries for the 
Sandwich Islands. Here he was ex- 
posed to cold and storms, and exerted 
himself in writing, and in addressing 
public assemblies in the vicinity, on 
the subject of missions. He returned 
from New Bedford, Dec. 29th, much 
debilitated, and could labor only at 
intervals afterwards. He, however, 
wrote the memorial of the Board to 
congress, in behalf of the Indians, 
while he was so weak, as every hour 
or two to be obliged to lie down and 
rest. He wrote, also, a number of 
important letters. His last letter, as 
Corresponding Secretary of the Board, 
was written to the missionaries in the 
Cherokee nation. His anxiety and 
labors on the Indian question, the 
distress which he felt in view of the 
violation of the good faith of the na- 
tion, and of the rights of the Indians, 
his apprehension of the judgments of 
heaven, which would visit this coun- 
try for their treachery, kept his mind 
in a state of exhausting excitement 
for the last year and a half of his 
life. 

As his strength declined, and he 
became entirely unable to attend to 
business, he seemed to possess a 
mind remarkably detached from 
earth, and to enjoy peculiar fellow- 
ship with God. He spent much 
time in reading Baxter's Saint's 
Rest, and in contemplating, by faith, 
those new heavens and new earth, 
wherein dwelleth righteousness. He 
had himself made arrangements for a 
journey by land, with some hope of 
recovering his health, at least for a 
season, and, with this view, attended 
minutely to his secular affairs. His 
own plan was to proceed to Washing- 
ton, and to endeavor to exert his in- 
fluence in favor of the Indians, till the 
close of the session of congress, and 
then go on an agency for the Board 
of Missions, in the middle, or south- 
ern States. This expectation he 
continued to cherish, till advised by 
his physician that a voyage to a 
warmer climate was the only proba- 
ble means of restoring his health. 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



77 



In this arrangement he acquiesced ; 
and in an interview with his asso- 
ciates in office, with great tenderness 
and affection, told them to proceed 
in their work, without reference to 
him. This, to his own feelings, was, 
probably, the most trying moment of 
his life. He took passage in the ship 
Fama, for the island of Cuba, on the 
i5th of February, 1831. When in 
sight of Abaco, one of the Baha- 
ma islands, he wrote the following 
paper : 

'' Daily, and many times a day, I 
have been disposed, I trust, to ac- 
knowledge the goodness of God, and 
to consecrate myself anew to his ser- 
vice. I had thought of making a 
written and formal consecration of 
myself to the Lord, this forenoon ; 
but my mind is so weighed down by 
my feeble body, that I can write 
nothing except of the simplest kind, 
and cannot adequately dwell upon 
the amazing theme of being a ser- 
vant of God, and of having Him for 
my portion forever." 

At half past 3, P. M. he wrote 
thus : — " We have turned the south- 
west end of Abaco ; I have looked at 
this work of God, which it is not 
likely I shall see again ; and have 
turned my thoughts many times to 
the great and blessed Creator of all. 

*' Here, in this sea, I consecrate 
myself to God as my chief good ; — to 
Him as my heavenly Father, infi- 
nitely kind and tender of his chil- 
dren ; — to Him as my kind and mer- 
ciful Redeemer, by whose blood and 
merits alone I do hope for salvation ; — 
to Him as the beneficent renewer and 
sanctifier of the saved. I implore the 
forgiveness of my numerous and ag- 
gravated transgressions; and I ask 
that my remaining strength and time 
may be employed for the glory of God 
my portion, and for the good of his 
creatures. 

" Whether I make my grave on the 
land, or in the ocean, I submit cheer- 
fully to Him. It will be as He pleases ; 
and so it should be. I pray that the 
circumstances of my death, be it 



rs 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



[Nov. 



sooner or later, may be favorable to 
religion ; that I may not deceive 
myself in the great concerns of my 
soul ; that I may depart in peace, and 
be received, through infinite mercy, 
to the everlasting kingdom of my 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 
Amen." 

Mr. Evarts reached Havana, after 
a favorable voyage, on the 2d of 
March. But his health had not re- 
ceived much benefit. After spend- 
ing some time at Havana, and Ma- 
tanzas, and in the interior of the 
island, enjoying every advantage of 
climate, exercise, and kind attention 
of friends, he took passage for Sa- 
vannah, Georgia, and arrived there 
on the 24th of April, much exhausted 
by the voyage. In a few days his 
symptoms became alarming, and he 
proceeded to Charleston, South Caro- 
lina. There were now evident indi- 
cation of his being in the last stages 
of a consumption. 

He was cordially welcomed at the 
house of the Rev. Dr. Palmer. He 
appeared very much exhausted, and 
retired immediately to rest. On 
Friday, as his strength continued to 
diminish, several ministers, at his re- 
quest, met in his chamber, when, 
though very weak, he remarked, that 
he knew his case to be exceedingly 
critical, that he found it pleasant to 
be in the hands of God, who would 
do all things well, that he had no 
painful solicitude as to the result of 
his sickness, but thought it to be his 
duty to use every means for his re- 
<iovery. He then requested an in- 
terest in their special and united 
prayers; 1st, that if consistent with 
God's will, he might recover ; 2d, 
that he might have a sweet sense of 
pardoned sin, and an unshaken con- 
fidence in the Saviour ; 3d, that if 
God should spare his life, he might 
be wholly and entirely the Lord's ; 
4th, that, if it should please God to 
remove him, by this sickness, he 
might be able to glorify him, on a 
bed of languishing and pain, and 
that his precious c^use might be pro- 



moted by his death. Saturday even- 
ing, May 7th, he remarked, "To- 
morrow is the rest of the holy Sab- 
bath. I may be in eternity before 
it arrives. My mind is so weak, I 
cannot pursue a train of thought ; but 
I bless God it is tranquil. Not my 
will, but thine, O God, be done." 

About 9 o'clock, he said, " Oh, 
dear Saviour, if this is the last night 
I have to pray on earth, let my un- 
worthy prayer be exchanged for praise 
in thy kingdom above. Amen." On 
Sabbath morning, his appearance 
was greatly changed, and he seemed 
to be gradually sinking in the arms 
of death. To a youthful professor of 
religion, who was in attendance, he 
said, " You have professed religion 
while young ; so did I ; I rejoice in 
it. All 1 have to say to you is, en- 
deavor to aim at great attainments. 
The present age demands great 
things of Christians. Be not satis- 
fied with being half a Christian. Be 
entirely consecrated to his service." 
To several other young Christians 
he rem^arked, " I feel a great interest 
in young Christians. I want to ex- 
hort you to help each other. Live 
near to God. Be bold in his service. 
It is the only thing worth being bold 
in. Do not be afraid. The Lord be 
with you." In the evening, he spent 
some time in silent meditation. 

The Rev. Dr. Leland came in, 
with whom Mr. Evarts conversed 
with great interest. In the course 
of his remarks he observed, *' I have 
given myself all away." " This is 
the land of Beulah," said Dr, Leland, 
" is it not ?" " I think it would be," 
he replied, " if I had strength to* con- 
template it." 

The next morning, Tuesday, May 
10th, his symptoms of approaching 
dissolution seemed to increase. Rev. 
Dr. Palmer asked him if he felt that 
he was near home. *' Yes, yes," 
was his reply. After a little while 
he said, " Attend now to what I say, 
as the words of a dying man." After 
affectionately commending the mem- 
bers of bis family to God and the 



1831.] 

word of his grace, he said, *' I wish in 
these dying words, to recognize the 
great Redeemer as the Saviour from 
sin and hell ; able and willing to save 
all that come unto God by him. To 
Him I commend my spirit, as to an 
all-sufficient Saviour. He is the great 
champion and conqueror of death and 
hell. And I recognize the great Spirit 
of God, as the renovator of God's 
elect, and herein, if I gather strength, 
I wish to recognize, and acknowledge 
the church of God, containing all, 
who have truly dedicated themselves 
to Him, in a new and everlasting 
covenant. And here permit me, a 
poor, unworthy worm of the dust, to 
give thanks to many of the children 
of God, from whom I have received 
confidence, kindness and favor, as a 
disciple of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
And one more duty ; Brother P., if 
in any respect, I have offended the 
children of God, 1 ask their forgive- 
ness. If I have grieved them by 
impatience, or, in any other way, I 
ask their forgiveness." 

About two hours after, a gentleman 
asked him. Have you anything to say 
to the missionaries — any message ? 
He said, "O yes, O yes; but I am 
afraid I shall make distinctions. Do 
not let me make distinctions." No, 
was the reply. All missionaries. 
Does not the missionary cause appear 
more precious and important than 
ever ? After considerable pause, and 
with much expression of countenance, 
and emphasis of manner, he said, 
" You have called me back to the 
world." With a view to recal his 
thoughts to heaven, it was asked, 
Can you realize the following words : 

" The world recedes, it disappears. 
Heaven opens to my view." 

" Not Strongly." But heavenly things 
are in your mind ? " Yes," but 
added he, with characteristic energy, 
'' Look here, see here ; if I am re- 
quired to give intelligible answers, I 
must be prepared ; I am in great 
pain." 

About a quarter past nine o'clock, 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



in the evening, he burst forth, with 
expressions of rapture, which cannot 
be described — " Praise him, praise 
him, praise him in a way which you 
know not of" It was said, you 
will soon see Jesus as he is, and 
you will then know how to praise 
him. " Wonderful, wonderful, won- 
derful, glory. We cannot under- 
stand, we cannot comprehend — won- 
derful — glory — Jesus reigns." " Call 
all in ; call all ; let a great many 
come — I wish to give directions — 
wonderful — glory — Jesus reigns." 

Before the members of the family 
could be collected, he sank exhausted, 
and scarcely spoke again. About 
a quarter before 11 o'clock he fell 
asleep. 

The body of Mr. Evarts, at his 
request, was examined by his attend- 
ing physicians, and the result proved 
that his disease was a chronic, pul- 
monary consumption. All the vis- 
cera, except the lungs, were perfectly 
sound. The lungs were almost 
completely decayed. 

His funeral service was attended, 
the following afternoon, and addresses 
were delivered, by the Rev. Drs. 
Palmer, and McDowell. 

On the arrival of his remains 
at Boston, a funeral discourse was 
preached, in Park Street Church, 
(May 25th,) by the Rev. Dr. Beecher 
— from the passage, Hebrews iv. 11, 
" and by it, he being dead, yet speak- 
eth." By the request of the Auxiliary 
Foreign Missionary Society of New 
York and Brooklyn, an address, 
commemorative of his character, 
was delivered in New^ York, by the 
Rev. Dr. Spring. The Rev. Dr. 
Woods, of Andover, a member of 
the Prudential Committee of the 
Board, delivered a sermon at An- 
dover, by appointment of the Pruden- 
tial Committee, on the 31st of July. 
A very full and interesting view of 
his life and character, was commen- 
ced in the Missionary Herald for 
October of the present year. It is 
expected that an extended Biography, 
with a selection from his writings. 



so 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



[Nor, 



will be prepared, by some competent 
writer. 

In attempting to give a sketch of 
the character of Mr. Evarts, the 
writer is not so presumptuous as 
to imagine that he can do any- 
thing like justice to the subject. 
Our most able and practised writers, 
might well shrink from the task. 
To give the intellectual portrait of 
Mr. Evarts, requires patient and long 
continued reflection. It is not the 
delineation of one or two traits of 
character, which were so prominent 
as to strike every observer. It is not 
the description of two or three splen- 
did achievements, where the multi- 
plication of striking incidents, or of 
adventitious circumstances atones for 
the want of accurate analysis and 
discriminating remark. Mr. Evarts 
was a plain man. There was nothing 
about him which would attract the 
admiration of the casual beholder. 
His character was not moulded or 
essentially modified, by any one or 
two incidents in his life, or by a sin- 
gle prominent event in the providence 
of God. His power to exert an in- 
fluence was the result of severe and 
long continued self-discipline. His 
reputation did not come up as the 
gourd of the night, nor pass away 
like the flower of the morning. We 
do not know of an individual, who 
has lived in this country, or who is 
now alive, with whom Mr. Evarts 
can well be compared. There are 
men of great intellectual power, who, 
by strength of reasoning, and elo- 
quence of diction, can control a great 
community. There were many in- 
dividuals, whom our revolutionary 
struggle brought out, men of uncom- 
mon sagacity, who have left imper- 
ishable monuments of wisdom and 
genius. There are men, now living, 
to whom the community are under 
great obligations. But some of them 
have read more than they have rea- 
soned ; others have great defects 
along with great excellencies. We 
admire them at a distance, but shrink 



from coming into contact with them. | 
We submit our judgment and under- 
standing to them, but we cannot 
yield our hearts. 

We ought to be grateful to the 
God of providence and of grace, that 
we have such a character as that of 
Mr. Evarts to contemplate. When 
we are looking at its interesting and 
lovely features, we are not haunted 
with the thought that there is- a draw- 
back to them all, — that while we are 
gazing on the verdant and beautiful 
slope of the mountain, we must recol- 
lect that there is another side, bald, 
rugged, and scorched with lightning. 
The characters of John Newton, and 
of Thomas Scott, derive very much 
of their interest from comparison. 
In their early days, they manifested 
some of the worst qualities which be- 
long to our nature. When we con- 
template the excellence of their sub- 
sequent lives, we are compelled to 
stop and admire the riches of that 
sovereign grace which rescued them 
from the grasp of evil habits, and 
from the power of the evil spirit. 
The excellence of Mr. Evarts's char- 
acter is indeed to be ascribed to the 
grace of God ; but that grace diffused 
itself so gently, and mingled itself so 
imperceptibly with his natural traits 
of character, and with his own vigor- 
ous and patient efforts, that we do 
not lose sight of the man, while we 
see the finger of God. It is Josiah, 
yielding, " while he is yet young," to 
the sweet influences from on high, 
and not Saul stricken to the ground 
by the blazing and intolerable bright- 
ness. It is not the impetuous tor- 
rent; it is the dew descending on 
the mountains of Zion. 

One of the practical lessons which 
we derive from the review of Mr. 
Evarts's life, is the value of the dis- 
cipline which can he acquired in our 
public institutions. 

Some students seem to suppose 
that acquisition rather than discipline, 
that learning, and not mental energy, 
is the object of a college life. A 
great amount of time is wasted, a 



1831.] 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



81 



great amount of intellectual strength 
is wasted, by the loose, and indis- 
criminate habits of reading, in which 
many scholars indulge. A book, or 
a pamphlet, or a newspaper, or what- 
ever casually meets the eye, is taken 
up and cursorily read, without analy- 
sisj without rellection. In this way 
the mind is essentially injured, and 
a miserable habit is formed for life. 
All cursory, desultory reading, is by 
no means to be interdicted. It is 
sometimes beneficial, as an inter- 
change to weightier cares, or as a 
grateful relaxation to the exhausted 
intellect. But there is a limit to it. 
Power to think, power to do good, 
are not increased in this loose, in- 
definite way.* A disciplined mind 
does not come to one accidentally. 
Valuable knowledge cannot be ac- 
quired without self-denying, strong, 
systematic effort. The object of 
spending four years in college is to 
attend to the prescribed course of 
study — to acquire the elements of the 
languages and sciences. It is not to 
go over a great extent of ground. It 
is to do a limited work thoroughly. 
If collegiate institutions were entirely 
devoted to the inculcation of the theo- 
ry of the sciences, without one prac- 
tical application, they would be wor- 
thy of all the patronage, which they 
ever received. 

Mr. Evarts, says one of his fellow 
students, " was proverbially the sever- 
est scholar in college." In subse- 
quent life he was distinguished for 
the extent of his attainments, on 
a great variety of subjects. But in 
college he applied his mind vigorous- 
ly, to the prescribed course of studies, 
'' without neglecting any from dislike, 
or a too common opinion, that they 
would be of little use to him in the 
business of life. He conscientiously 



* The followirrg extract from the journal of the 
holy Benry Martyn, shows how a tender conscience 
regards this point. " I found a want of tlie presence 
of God from the fear of having acted against the sug- 
gestion of conscience, in indulging myself with read- 
ing the amusing account of Dr. Vanderl:cmp, instead 
of applying to the severer duties of the morning." 
May not this be one cause of the languishing piety 
of some of our religious students.^ They spend too 
aiuch time in Reading Rooms. 



attended to every duty. The extent 
to which he pushed his study of the 
classics, or the sciences, or the num- 
ber of books which he read in other 
departments^ do not appear to have 
been very great, but in respect to 
habits of laborious and successful in- 
vestigation, an extensive and thorough 
knowledge of all the branches of study, 
and an ability to bring all the facul- 
ties of his mind, and all his acquisi- 
tions into judicious use, when occa- 
sion required it, he probably had no 
superiors in his class. Mr. Evarts, 
as is well known, placed a high value 
on the study of the languages. He 
retained a knowledge of them, in a 
remarkable degree, during life. He 
was accustomed, in conversation on 
theological topics, to quote the origi- 
nal of the New Testament, with great 
facility and propriety."* 

From Mr. Evarts's character we are 
taught the perfect compatibility of 
great comprehensiveness of mind in 
connection with minute accuracy. 

We meet with an individual who 
has the power to define a single, sepa- 
rate topic with logical precision. He 
can pour upon it the light of the most 
powerful illustration. He has unity, 
point, perfect discrimination. He 
has given this cast to his mind by 
severe training, by close and con- 
fined habits of thinking. Another 
individual appears with advantage in 
the exposition of a great subject ; in 
the array of an immense host, where 
numbers and tolerable order will out- 
weigh the advantages of mioate dis- 
cipline and perfect arrangement. Mr. 
Evarts was an example of both united. 
He was acute and comprehensive. As 
the Persian king knew every officer 
in his army, by name, so Mr. Evarts 
knew most intimately all the elements 
of the power, which was given to- 
him. 

So thoroughly did he comprehend 
the great subjects of political kw, 
and national morality, that some of 
his friends thooo;ht it might become 
his duty to relinquish his particular 



lissionary Herald, Oct. 1831, p. 306. 



VOL. IV, 



11 



82 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



[Nov. 



connection with the Board of Foreign 
Missions, and devote himself to the 
conducting of a paper, which should 
have for its leading object, a refor- 
mation in the maxims, rules, and 
administration of civil government. 
In the essays which he wrote on the 
Indian question, a very general and 
comprehensive exposition is given of 
the duties and rights of nations, com- 
bined with minute specification, and 
close reasoning. His mind was not 
a map of generalities, nor a mathe- 
matical point. He never exhausted 
himself by labors at unimportant po- 
sitions, as those will certainly do, who 
lack the power of generalization. 
In the capacity of his mind, as well 
as in the sensibilities of his heart, 
Mr. Evarts was Non sihi solum, sed 
toto mundo natus. 

To the great duties connected with 
the salvation of mankind, he brought 
a mature, liberal, comprehensive 
intellect. He was accustomed to 
stand on the high lands of faith, and 
to include in his compassionate re- 
gards the entire race of man. 

Mr. Evarts had a very tenacious 
memory. He could readily recal 
minute occurrences which had hap- 
pened years previously. His mind 
was a store-house of dates and names 
and figures, well arranged indeed, 
and never impeding the free exercise 
of his reasoning powers. This re- 
markable trait in his mind was owing 
to several causes. He observed ac- 
curately. As an instance, in the 
course of his journeys, he took the 
measurement of a great variety of 
objects, such as the depth and width 
of the streams which he crossed. He 
made it a matter of conscience to 
relate facts accurately. He never 
subjected himself to the charge of 
moral delinquency, by adopting the 
random and excursive manner in 
which many good men indulge, in 
their statements. He, furthermore, 
made it an invariable rule to collect 
incidents and facts, for the purpose 
of helping him to form an opinion on 
some important subject. The facts 



in his memory, minute and multifa- 
rious as they were, were connected, 
doubtless, by principles of association, 
different from those which exist in 
ordinary minds. 

Mr. Evarts taught a valuable les- 
son hy his style of writing. 

We can scarcely refer to any 
American author for better specimens 
of pure English. The main quality, 
in his written compositions, is perspi- 
cuity. There is nothing ambiguous, 
nothing to induce hesitation or doubt. 
The clear thought flows out in clear 
expression. The honesty of his 
mind has a counterpart in the trans- 
parency of his language. His gene- 
ral manner is plain, (sometimes ap- 
proaching almost to quaintness,) di- 
rect, forcible, unembarrassed with 
ornament. He also frequently exhib- 
its what the Latins mean by Curiosa 
Felicitas, — a phrase not to be ren- 
dered into our western tongues. He i 
selected the language which express- 
ed what he intended, perfectly, noth- 
ing more, and nothing less. This 
enabled him, when he pleased, to 
write with a condensed energy, and 
brevity, which gives to every sentence 
and every word a point and a power 
truly admirable. His writings are 
remarkably free from what have been 
termed, in some instances improperly, 
Americanisms.^ In his writings he oc- 
casionally rises to the highest strains 
of eloquence. The conclusion of his 
last Report, before referred to, ex- 
hibits an energy of diction, a force 
and propriety of illustration, in admi- 
rable accordance with the grandeur 
of the design, and the weight of the 
sentiments. His great excellence, 
as a writer, is, doubtless, to be at- 
tributed very much to his unwearied 
efforts in his early days. In the latter . 
part of his life, writing seemed to be 
merely pastime. 

In the midst of his multiplied duties 
and cares, his health feeble and some- 



* So far as I have had opportunity to examine, 
Mr. Evarta never suffered himselfto use such phrases 
as, " tell on the destinies,''^ " talented many''^ &c. 
Everything is pure, manly, and correct. It seems 
that he began to make a collection of American- 



1831.] 

times requiring unremitted attention, 
Mr. Evarts was remarkably calm and 
unruj^cd. 

For the last twenty years of his 
life, he was subject to innumerable 
calls, and frequently at those very 
times when a great intellectual effort 
was pressing upon him, yet he did 
not break out into expressions of dis- 
content and vexation. In 'patience 
lie possessed his soul. Connected as 
he was with so many men of all char- 
acters, in all parts of the United 
States, and with not a few in other 
portions of the world, there must 
have occurred, frequently, things cal- 
culated to try his feelings, and in- 
terrupt his equanimity. But in pros- 
perity, he was humble ; in adversity, 
he was rarely ever dejected. 

The cause of this calmness and 
serenity was not the lack of deep 
emotions. Mr. Evarts had too good 
an intellect to be destitute of feeling. 
His sensibilities were exquisite, as 
those know who have seen him when 
conversing on the subject of the In- 
dian and the African wrongs, or who 
have read his pathetic, and earnest 
appeals. 

The principal cause of this fact in 
his character was his intelligent and 
habitual trust in the wisdom and 
goodness of God. Evil tidings did 
not throw him into despondency; 
prosperous events did not elate him ; 
pressure of avocations did not disturb 
him. He referred all these things to 
an overruling Providence. Another 
circumstance, which contributed not 
a little to this state of mind was, that 
he was prepared, in almost every 
subject, to give his opinion immedi- 
ately. His judgment had been formed 
before. He had collected the facts, 
and weighed the reasons. Conse- 
quently, if several individuals applied 
to him for advice, at the same mo- 
ment, he could give his opinion dis- 
tinctly and intelligently, without de- 
laying them, and without disturbing 
himself. 

Mr. Evarts' s history furnishes a 
remarkable instance of the consecra- 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



83 



tion of great talents to one object, 
and yet of entire freedom from 
bigotry and exclusivencss. 

The horizon of some men is bound- 
ed by the society, or the cause in 
which they are concerned. It is 
almost sacrilege to speak and act in 
behalf of any other good thing. In 
this way their associations, and modes 
of thinking, become extremely con- 
fined, and their general usefulness is 
much diminished. Mr. Evarts loved 
the missionary cause ; in his dying 
moments, it seemed to be almost the 
only thing which could abstract his 
thoughts from the heavenly kingdom. 
Yet he was accurately acquainted 
with the plans of every other benevo- 
lent association of the present day ; 
and he delighted to assist them all 
by counsel, and personal sacrifice, 
and prayer. Hardly a man in the 
country better understood the nature 
of the slave system, or felt more 
deeply for the unutterable woes of 
forlorn, and bleeding Africa. Hardly 
any one would have been more able 
or more willing, to have devoted his 
life, as Clarkson did in England, to 
work out the deliverance of the 
oppressed. 

Mr. Evarts furnished an instruc- 
tive example of a cordial attXLchment 
to the doctrines of the gospel in con- 
nection with an expansive benevolence. 
The conductors of our charitable 
societies are exposed to great danger 
of losing sight of the essential truths 
of Christianity ; and in their anxiety 
to urge forward the cause in which 
they are engaged, to forget the high 
motives which ought to animate them. 
It is much easier, oftentimes, to ex^ 
cite a community to benevolent ac^ 
tion, by the presentation of unworthy, 
or at least of inferior motives, than to 
arouse them in view of conscience, of 
imperious duty, of the love of God, 
and of the retributions of eternity. 
But Mr. Evarts was not of this super- 
ficial, temporizing class. He under- 
stood himself the nature of the Chris- 
tian religion. He knew that its very 
spirit is benevolence. The feelings 



84 



JEREMIAH EVARTS, ESQ. 



[Nov. 



which prompted him to action, flowed 
from clear views of truth. He medi- 
tated and then he felt. To do orood 
was a matter of conscience with him, 
not to be postponed, not to be set 
aside any more than the care of his 
family, or any other relative duty. 
What he wished to see with unuttera- 
ble desire, as that upon which the 
salvation of a dying world is depend- 
ing, under God, was the whole 
church of Christ pervaded and con- 
trolled by such a spirit as reigned in 
him who said, I am a debtor both to 
the Greeks and barbat^ians, to the 
loise and to the unioise. He knew 
that the heathen were in a perishing 
condition, and that Christians were 
charged with the duty of sending to 
them the gospel. To see the apathy 
and cold indifference of many of the 
professing followers of Christ, some- 
times filled his benevolent heart with 
inexpressible anguish. 

Another lesson furnished in the 
history of Mr. Evarts, was the mani- 
festation, at all times, of decision of 
character in connection with mildness. 

It is a remark of John Foster, " That 
it is the rarest endowment of human- 
ity, though not, perhaps, an impossi- 
ble constitution of mind, to be trem- 
blingly alive to gentle impressions, 
end yet to be able to preserve, when 
the prosecution of a design requires 
it, an immovable heart, amidst the 
most imperious causes of subduing 
emotion." This constitution of hu- 
manity Mr. Evarts showed, in his 
own case, to be a possible thing. 
Says one who well knew him, " If 
he had lived in the days of persecu- 
tion he would have been among the 
f7.rst to have gone to the stake." Ear- 
ly in life, he suffered severely, both 
in his reputation and property, from 
his unbending rectitude. But noth- 
ing could induce him to make a 
compromise with conscience. When 
he had formed his opinions of truth 
or duty, no human being, no human 
tribunal could have diverted him 
from his purpose. Notwithstanding, 
hi3 had very few, if any enemies. In- 



dividuals who differed from him, in 
opinion, essentially, were his personal 
friends. Political men, who might 
have deemed his missionary zeal, 
fanaticism, admired him for his hon- 
esty and integrity. Numerous ex- 
pressions of sorrow for his removal 
were manifested by those who had 
no connection with him in his labors 
of love. In his social character, 
there was nothing harsh, nothing re- 
pulsive. He was uniformly kind, 
and affable. In his conversation, he 
was as much characterized for amen^ 
ity, as for good sense. Little chil- 
dren shared in his notice and conde- 
scending regards. 

Another great lesson taught us by 
the experience of this beloved and 
revered man is, that we may expect 
to die as ive live. 

Mr. Evarts lived to the glory of his 
Redeemer, and he had strong conso- 
lation on the bed of languishing. 
He was an intelligent Christian, 
living and dying. In his last conflict 
he found the benefits of those habits 
of reflection, which he had sedu- 
lously cultivated, during his days of 
health. He had obeyed both parts 
of the apostolic injunction — Grow in 
grace and in the knoicledge of our 
Lord and Saviour. He had thus 
taken one of the most effectual ways 
to guard against self-deception. He 
kneiD in whom he had believed. 
He had given himself loholly away : 
and the Saviour, having loved his 
own, while he was in the world, loved 
him unto the end. 

The good which Mr. Evarts accom- 
plished, by his consistent example, 
by his labors, as a conductor of the 
periodical press, as a fearless vindi- 
cator of the rights of the oppressed, 
as an expounder of the law of nations, 
as a wise counsellor, as the leading 
mind, for many years, in the mission- 
ary enterprize in this country, and 
as a friend of the human race, is, in- 
deed, inestimable. The words which 
were used by him in reference to the 
early settlers of this country, may, 
with equal justice, be applied to him. 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



1831.] 

** Posterity will remember him, with 
inexpressible gratitude ; and his name 
will receive new tributes of admira- 
tion with every succeeding age. His 
labors will contribute, in an eminent 
degree, to raise up, and purify, and 
ennoble the future millions of Amer- 
ica, and to bring unnumbered muhi- 
tudes to glory and virtue, to heaven 
and to God." 

NoTE.-r-In giving the facts in the history 
of Mr. Evarts's life, the language used in 
the Rev. Dr. Spring's sermon has been fi"e- 
quently adopted. 



To the Editor of the Quarterly Register. 

IMPORTANCE OF AN EDUCATED MIN- 
ISTRY, SHOWN FROM ECCLESIAS- 
TICAL HISTORY. 

My Dear Sir, 

You have requested me to prepare, 
for the next number of your work, 
some remarks on the following sub- 
ject — " The light lohich Ecclesiasti- 
cal History throivs on the importance 
of thorough education in the Chris- 
tian Miiiistry.''^ 

I understand this inquiry as having 
a particular respect to the literary 
and theological furniture of gospel 
ministers. The indispensable im- 
portance of PIETY in the sacred office, 
being so evident, and having been 
made the subject of specific attention 
in some excellent communications in 
preceding numbers of your work, 
will here be taken for granted. All 
experience teaches that learning with- 
out piety cannot fail of being a curse 
to the church. It is your special ob- 
ject, if I understand your design, that 
I should make some remarks, chiefly 
drawn from historical testimony, on 
the great importance of being com- 
petently learned, as well diS fervently 
pious. 

It will readily occur, on the slight- 
est reflection, that there is a difficulty 
in the discussion of this subject, grow- 
ing out of its very extent. Even if I 
w^ere much more capable of doing 
justice to it than I am, I should almost 
despair of bringing within the com- 



85 



pass of eight or ten pages, to which 
I am necessarily confined, that sort 
of inductive demonstration, the chief 
value of which depends on its being 
manifestly and uniformly founded on 
a long Geries of consistent/wtis. Yet, 
as your request is connected with a 
cause in which I feel the deepest in- 
terest, I will try to say something, 
which, if it should fail of impressing 
conviction on every reader of your 
valuable work, the failure, I am very 
sure, will arise rather from want of 
room or skill on the part of the advo- 
cate, than from any defect of justice 
in his cause. 

The instruction furnished by ec- 
clesiastical history is rich, and, in 
some respects, unerring. As it is the 
record of God's dealings with his 
church, we are, of course, to regard 
this record as something more than 
a mere table of names and facts. 
\Ve are to peruse it as a great moral 
exhibition of embodied and exempli- 
fied truth. We are to consider it 
as ascertaining the most important 
analogies of action ; as establishing 
fundamental rules of judgment ; as 
teaching precious lessons of wisdom ; 
as verifying the word of God ; and as 
pouring light on his providence. " As 
in water face answereth to face, so 
the heart of man to man." Of course, 
" the thing which hath been, is that 
which shall be ; and that which is 
done, is that which shall be done." 
It is this principle, which gives value 
and importance to correct histories 
of ecclesiastical men and affairs. 
Place any considerable number of 
men, at different times, under similar 
circumstances, and their conduct will 
be similar. In exact proportion as 
their circumstances correspond, the 
future may be predicted from the 
past; and we shall find the experi- 
ence of the human family to be an 
uninterrupted certification of the 
preacher's maxim, that " there is no 
new thing under the sun." Here is 
the source of that ardent and unex- 
tinguishable thirst for historical in- 
formation which ever has prevailed, 



86 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



[Nov, 



and ever will prevail in the noble and 
vigorous mind. Such a mind will 
feel all the force of a sentiment ut- 
tered, by an eloquent Pagan, many 
centuries ago, — *' Not to know what 
happened before you were born, is 
to be always a child." 

Now there is, perhaps, no subject 
concerning which the voice of eccle- 
siastical history speaks in more de- 
cisive, solemn, and uniform language, 
than with regard to the character of 
the Christian ministry. The testi- 
mony which it bears in regard to 
piety, as before hinted, is of the 
strongest kind. But the testimony 
which it bears with respect to the im- 
portance of sound theological know- 
ledge, is no less distinct and powerful. 
We no sooner read, in the Old 
Testament Scriptures, of leaders and 
guides as existing in the house of 
God, than we begin to read of the 
importance of their being well fur- 
nished with knowledge and wisdom, 
as well as with grace. " Take ye 
wise men,'' said Moses, and ''under- 
standing, and known among 
tribes, and I will make 
over you." We read again, as an 
admitted principle, that " the priest's 
lips ought to keep knowledge ;" and 
that it was considered as their offi- 
cial duty ^' to feed the people with 
knowledge, and with understanding.'' 
Plainly implying, not only that this 
was an expectation which every dic- 
tate of reason warranted, but to 
which experience also gave its deci- 
sive sanction. 

Accordingly, after the date of these 
Scriptures, as the ecclesiastical men, 
toward the close of the Old Testa- 
ment economy, became more and 
more ignorant, they became more and 
more regardless of practical piety ; 
more unfaithful, of course, in the dis- 
charge of their practical duties ; and, 
in consequence of their defection, a 
curse rather than a blessing to the 
church of God. No one can take 
even a cursory view of the deplora- 
ble character of the Jewish priest- 
hood during the four centuries which 



your 
them rulers 



preceded the coming of Christ, with^ 
out perceiving that their moral quali- 
ties, their diligent attention to the 
duties of their office, and their official 
usefulness, all declined in nearly an 
exact proportion to their decline in 
knowledge. As the spiritual leaders 
and guides became less and less ca- 
pable of "feeding the people with 
knowledge and understanding," the 
mournful effects of their incompe- 
tency appeared on every side. Truth 
and virtue were trodden down in the 
streets. " The people perished for 
lack of vision." Divine institutions 
were dishonored. Idolatry lifted its 
head, and public profligacy and mise- 
ry followed in its train. Indeed, this 
was so steadily the course of things, 
throughout the whole of the Old 
Testament economy ; the maxim, 
" Like priest, like people," was so 
invariably exemplified, that to quote 
all the examples of it on record, would 
be to repeat the greatel: part of the 
Jewish Scriptures. 

Nor is the history of the New 
Testament church, less distinct and 
impressive in teaching the same les- 
son. Even the character of the apos- 
tles, though frequently perverted by 
superficial and erroneous reasoners, 
and made to countenance a different 
doctrine, is clearly and strongly in 
favor of the doctrine which I wish to 
establish. For although they were 
illiterate fishermen, yet they were 
supernaturally instructed by their 
Master, and endowed with the power 
of working miracles, and speaking 
with tongues in aid of their ministry ; 
and long before this period of mira- 
cles and inspiration was ended, we 
find careful study, and mature know- 
ledge enjoined by an apostle, who 
knew their value by experience, and 
inculcated them upon principles which 
apply to all ages. Paul had himself 
been " brought up at the feet of Ga- 
maliel," and seems to have been well 
skilled in every branch of literature 
and science then taught. And, what 
is particularly worthy of our notice, 
this only man, among all the apostles, 



1831. 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



87 



who was fovorcd with ample and ripe 
learning, was by far the most emi- 
nently useful of the whole number. 
He not only " labored more abun- 
dantly than they all," but was, proba- 
bly, during his life, and has been, 
assuredly, since his decease, instru- 
mental of more benefit to the souls 
of men, than any other man that ever 
lived. Accordingly, he gave direc- 
tions which plainly establish not only 
the truth, but also the importance of 
the doctrine for which I am contend- 
ing. The candidate for the ministry, 
according to the injunction of this 
apostle, must not be " a novice," but 
" apt to teach," and " able to teach;" 
he must " give himself to reading," 
and " let his profiting appear to all." 
Nay, inspired and eminently learned 
as the apostle himself was, still he 
did not consider himself as having 
attained so much, either in grace or 
learning, as to render further study 
unnecessary. For, notwithstanding 
his itinerant life, he still valued 
*' books," as we learn from the close 
of his second epistle to Timothy, and 
made them, as far as possible, the 
companions of his travels. 

In the second, third, and fourth 
centuries, study for the holy ministry 
seems to have been considered as a 
serious and most important aflfair, by 
no means to be slighted or abridged. 
Several years of laborious study were 
not thought too much to be submitted 
to for this purpose. Schools for the 
special purpose of training youth for 
the sacred oflice, were founded, and 
the most learned and pious instructors 
that could be procured, placed over 
them. By some of the early Coun- 
cils it was solemnly decided, that no 
man ought to be ordained to the work 
of the ministry under thirty years 
of age ; because they thought that 
none could be qualified for the office 
at an earlier period ; because the 
Lord Jesus Christ himself began his 
ministry at that age ; and because 
they considered it as the most per- 
fect age of man. 

Accordingly, those who are famil- 



iar with the character of the leading 
ministers who flourished, and guided 
the church during the centuries just 
mentioned, will perceive in their his- 
tory an ample confirmation of the 
principle for which 1 plead. Justin 
Martyr, Tertullian, Cyprian, Ori- 
gen, Jerome, and Augustine, were 
the greatest ornaments of the church 
during the period contemplated ; more 
active and more useful than any other 
contemporary servants of Christ, with 
whose names we are acquainted. 
But every one knows that these were 
the most learned men of the times in 
which they respectively lived ; and 
that it was their learning and talents 
which enabled them, under God, to 
exert so extensive an influence, and 
to accomplish so much good, in the 
diffusion of truth, and in the promotion 
of evangelical piety. Indeed with the 
last of the venerated names just men- 
tioned, the intelligent Christian is 
wont to connect everything interest- 
ing in the revival of the cause of 
pure and undefiled religion, at the 
close of the fourth, and beginning of 
the fifth century. 

After the age of Augustine, the 
decline of the Christian ministry in 
learning, went hand in hand with its 
decline in piety. The Emperor Leo, 
who flourislied about A. D. 460, ren- 
dered himself remarkable by provid- 
ing that the church should be fur- 
nished with " able bishops ;" because 
he decreed, that none should be or- 
dained to the office of bishop but 
those who had " learned the Psalter" ! 
and, in accordance with this humiliat- 
ing fact, a Council held at Rome, in 
467, solemnly decreed, that no one 
should be ordained a bishop who 
" could not read" ! Nay, it appears 
from the records of the Councils both 
of Ephesus and Chalcedon, in the 
same century, that, of the bishops 
present in those Councils there were 
a number who were not able to write 
their own names, but were glad to 
get others to subscribe for them. 
The subscription of two bishops in 
one of those Councils is in the follow- 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



[Nov. 



ing style — " I Helius, bishop of Ha- 
drianopJe, have subscribed by Myro^ 
bishop of Home, being myself igno- 
rant of letters." And again, — " I 
Caiumus, bishop of JPhcetiicia, have 
subscribed by my colleague, bishop 
Dioiujsius, because I am unacquaint- 
ed with letters." We are also ex- 
plicitly informed, that, in this century, 
it was the fixed plan and habit of 
some of the leading prelates, not to 
ordain any but those whom they knew 
to be weak and ignorant, and might 
be easily managed and guided, ac- 
cording to their pleasure. 

Now, when we recollect how rap- 
idly, after this period, the body of 
the clergy declined in piety and fi- 
delity, and how extensively the most 
deplorable ignorance and superstition 
spread over the Christian church ; 
that the faithful study of the Bible, 
and, of course, the knowledge of 
sound Christian doctrine, were al- 
most lost sight of; and that, from 
this time, a long night of darkness 
and moral desolation covered Chris- 
tendom ; — is it possible to doubt that 
the ignorance of the clergy was the 
grand cause of this melancholy apos- 
tacy, in which the very theory of re- 
ligion was almost entirely banished 
from the church, while it still bore 
the name of Christ ? I am aware 
that a view of this portion of ecclesi- 
astical history is sometimes taken, 
which does by no means accord with 
the use of it which I now aim to es- 
tablish. It has been said, that the 
original fault of the ministers of the 
second, third, and fourth centuries 
was, not that they had too little learn- 
ing, but rather that they were dis- 
posed to refine, and philosophize, and 
pervert their knowledge to the pur- 
poses of unhallowed speculation : — 
that they had, in fact, too much learn- 
ing, and were ensnared by it, rather 
than aided in the discharge of their 
professional duties. There is, no 
doubt, a mixture of truth in this rep- 
resentation ; that is, that some of the 
fathers of the centuries referred to, 
were led astray by the speculations 



of a vain " philosophy, falsely so cal- 
led," and were by this means chargea- 
ble with disguising or perverting the 
doctrines of the gospel, from which- 
perversion great and wide -spreading 
mischief to the church arose. But 
the fact is, their knowledge was not 
of the right sort ; nor was it under 
proper direction. They were liable 
to the same charge which may be- 
brought against some at the present 
day. They deferred more to their 
own philosophical speculations, than 
to the word of God. Had their learn- 
ing been sanctified, it would have: 
been, as PaiWs was, a noble aux- 
iliary in the best of causes. It would 
have led them to the Bible, and pre- 
pared them for the diligent and hum- 
ble study of that fountain of divine 
knowledge. This, and this only, is- 
the furniture for which the enlighten- 
ed friends of a learned ministry are 
disposed to plead ; — sober, sanctified 
knowledge ; — that knowledge which 
binds to God and his Word, instead 
of leading away from both. Every' 
one acquainted with the history of 
those times, knows that it was the 
learning of Augustine, which ena- 
bled him, in union with his piety, to 
stand forth as the champion of gospel- 
truth; to oppose and refute the Pe- 
lagian heresy, and other plausible 
errors in his day ; to contend with 
learned and artful Pagans with skill 
and success ; and to favor the church 
with writings on a variety of subjects, 
which were not only of incalculable 
use in the age in which they w^ere writ- 
ten ; but continued to subserve the 
cause of truth and righteousness up to 
the period of the reformation ; — and 
which are to this time exerting air 
influence by no means of small value. 
During the dark ages which fol- 
lowed that of Augustine, the deplora- 
ble effects of ignorance — general and 
humiliating ignorance — among the- 
leaders and guides of the church, are 
so well known, as to render either 
proof or detailed illustration altogether 
unnecessary. The political state of 
Christendom was in the highest de- 



1831] 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



89 



grce unfavorable both to literature 
and piety. Tlie laws and habits of 
barbarians gradually took the place 
of civilization and Christianity. Co- 
pies of the Scriptures were rare, and, 
of course, were little studied, even by 
the clergy. Many of the sacred pro- 
fession were unable to read. An ac- 
quaintance even with the doctrines 
of religion, to say nothing of its spirit, 
every day declined. Preaching was 
in a great measure discontinued ; 
partly because a great majority of the 
ecclesiastics were too ignorant them- 
selves to instruct the people ; and 
partly because those who had intelli- 
gence enough to discharge this part 
of their duty, were too much sunk in 
voluptuousness and profligacy to sub- 
mit to the requisite labor. The con- 
sequence was, that Christian know- 
ledge was in a great measure ban- 
ished from the world. The most 
childish and miserable superstitions 
usurped the place of pure and undefiled 
religion. Only here and there an 
individual appeared, who either knew 
enough, or was faithful enough to 
teach men the real way of salvation. 
The appearance of the church, for a 
number of centuries anterior to the 
glorious reformation, may, with pro- 
priety, be compared to the sky, when, 
in a dark and troubled night, it is so 
much overcast with clouds, that only 
half a dozen stars are to be seen faintly 
glimmering through the murky va- 
pors. Gloomy and wide spreading 
indeed was the darkness ! 

I have alluded, in the last para- 
graph, to the very few 'Mights" 
which appeared in the church dur- 
ing the period to which reference 
was had ; — to the " Witnesses who 
prophesied in sackcloth" amidst the 
surrounding gloom. But few and 
feeble as these were, they were all 
so many witnesses in favor of the im- 
portance of sacred knowledge among 
the leaders and guides of the church. 
The Paidicians, who flourished in 
the seventh and eighth centuries, as 
" witnesses of the truth," were for 
nothing more remarkable, than for 

VOL. IV. 12 



their diligent study of the Scriptures. 
Indeed, some have supposed that 
their devoted attachment to the study 
of the Scriptures, and especially of 
the epistles of the apostle Paul, gave 
rise to the title by which they are 
known. Claudius of Turin, the 
apostolic luminary of the ninth cen- 
tury, was no less distinguished by his 
love of knowledge, and his rich com- 
parative furniture for the sacred office, 
for the time in which he lived, than 
for his piety, zeal, and unwearied 
labor for the benefit of his fellow 
men. The same characteristic, as 
far as circumstances admitted, was 
found in the churches of the pious 
and devoted Walcknses. They were 
always poor, and always severely per- 
secuted. And yet they required all 
their candidates for the holy ministry,, 
as far as possible, to be diligent stu- 
dents. They prescribed a certain 
course of study ; made all candidates 
for the sacred office pass through a 
specific examination ; and when, af^ 
ter all their care on this subject, they 
had been misrepresented by the sur- 
rounding devotees to the Church of 
Rome ; when it was calumniously 
alleged concerning them, that they 
preferred ignorance to learning in 
their pastors— they replied, — as their 
authentic records, preserved by John 
Paul P err in, and Sir Samuel Mor- 
land, attest — they replied, — with a 
pathetic solemnity of appeal, truly 
characteristic — that the most of their 
pastors were not indeed, so deeply 
learned in biblical and theological 
knowledge as they wished them to 
be ; that this, however, was the re- 
sult, not of choice on their part, but 
of painful necessiti/ ; that they were 
perfectly sensible their pastors would 
be far more capable and more useful, 
as spiritual instructors and guides, if 
they were more richly furnished with 
knowledge ; but that their situation 
as an impoverished and persecuted 
people rendered it impossible for them 
to attain, in this respect, what they 
considered as highly desirable. 

If ever a historical fact bore a pow- 



90 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



[Nov. 



erful testimony in favor of a well fur- 
nished ministry, this of the Walden- 
ses deserves to be so considered. 
Their peculiar poverty ; their con- 
stant exposure to the rigor of perse- 
cution ; and their simple piety, might 
have been expected to turn away 
their minds, in a considerable de- 
gree, from the refinements, and even 
from the more solid parts of ministe- 
rial furniture. But this was so far 
from being the case, that, we see, 
they invariably insisted upon as much 
learning in their pastors, as could 
possibly be obtained ; and mourned, 
in the most touching manner, that 
they were not able to secure for them 
a more ample and suitable training. 

In the thirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth centuries, the interests of 
literature and science were in a course 
of gradual, but very sensible im- 
provement. But so far as we are 
acquainted with the facts and char- 
acters which distinguished those cen- 
turies, we may lay it down as a prin- 
ciple steadily, and, with few excep- 
tions, throughout exemplified, that 
the better informed the clergy were, 
the more elevated was their sacred 
character, and the more marked and 
extensive their usefulness. Those 
who are familiar with the character 
of some of the more eminent of the 
ministers of the gospel who adorned 
the period under consideration, will 
not hesitate a moment respecting the 
truth of this statement. Roger Ba- 
con^ Bishop Grossetcste, and Arch- 
bishop Langton, of the thirteenth 
century ; WicJcliffe and Bradwardin, 
of the fourteenth, and IIuss, Jerome, 
Gerscn, and Smmnarola, of the fif- 
teenth century, with many more who 
might be mentioned,- — are standing 
and unquestionable witnesses that 
great learning, united with fervent 
piety, enables its possessor to serve 
the church of God far more exten- 
sively and more effectually, than can 
possibly be accomplished by those 
who, however honest their intentions, 
and fervent their piety, have but a 
small amount of knowledge. Had 



not WicMiffe, " the morning star of 
the reformation," been one of the 
most learned men in Europe of his 
day ; had he not been a voluminous 
and able writer, as well as a fervently 
devoted preacher, a large portion of 
that eminent usefulness which attend- 
ed his labors, not only in England, 
but also in large continental portions 
of the western church, — could never 
have been attained. The same re- 
mark may be applied, in a measure, 
to Huss and Jerome — who, in conse- 
quence of their rich erudition, and 
powerful talents, exerted an extensive 
and most salutary influence, not only 
while they lived, but long after their 
mortal bodies v/ere committed to the 
dust. 

The history and character of the 
principal reformers, as well as of their 
active enemies and opposers, teach 
with equal decision, the lesson for 
which I am now pleading. The ig- 
norance which generally prevaded in 
the Romish church, when Luther 
began his glorious work, was as won- 
derful as it was humiliating. The 
celebrated Hochstraten, a zealous 
Dominican, entered the lists against 
ReucMin, a learned friend of the 
reformation, and endeavored to de- 
monstrate that the study of Greek 
and Hebrew was pernicious to the 
faith. Even the faculty of theology 
of the University of Paris, about 
the same time, maintained before 
the Parliament, that religion was 
undone if the study of Greek and 
Hebrew was permitted. Conrad de 
Heresbach relates, that a monkish 
writer, of no small note, at that peri- 
od, was actually capable of expressing 
him.self in the following extraordinary 
terms — " A new language is invent- 
ed, which is called Greek. Guard 
carefully against it ; it is the mother 
of every species of heresy. I observe 
in the hands of a great many people, 
a book written in this language, which 
they call the Nev^^ Testament. It is 
a book full of thorns and serpents. 
With respect to Hebrew, it is certain, 
my dear brethren, that all who learn 



1831.] 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



91 



it are immediately converted to Ju- 
daism." When an ecclesiastic, ca- 
pable of writing at all, could write 
thus, the ignorance with which he 
was surrounded, and which he wished 
to perpetuate, must have been deep 
and dreadful to a degree which we 
are now little able to conceive. 

On the other hand, when we turn 
to those reformers, who were most 
eminently instrumental in stripping 
off the mask from popery, in expos- 
ing the enormous corruptions of the 
man of sin, and holding forth the 
'' light of life" to a dark world, — we 
see the value of learning to the gos- 
pel ministry displayed in the most 
striking manner. It may be main- 
tained, almost without exception, that 
the most learned of their number, 
were the most deeply and extensively 
useful ; and that, humanly speaking, 
had their knowledge been less, the 
blessings which, under God, they 
were instrumental in conferring on 
the church, and on distant genera- 
tions, would have been far less rich, 
vital and permanent than they were. 
Nay, it is not saying too much to 
assert, that, had not the leading re- 
formers been men amply furnished 
with human and divine knowledge, 
they could not possibly have render- 
ed those incalculable services to the 
cause of Christ, which altered the 
face of Christendom, which sent bles- 
sings to the ends of the earth, and in 
which we have yet reason to rejoice. 
The accomplishments of which we 
speak, were those which enabled 
those great and good men to trans- 
late and expound the Scriptures ; to 
explain and defend the precious 
doctrines of the gospel ; to meet 
the learning of Romanists with still 
sounder learning ; to repel their 
plausible logic, with logic still more 
legitimate and powerful ; to exhibit 
the real character of the heresies and 
superstitions which they opposed, by 
tracing their history, as well as ex- 
posing their native tendency and ef- 
fects ; and to command the confi- 
dence, and guide the opinions of 



thousands who never saw their faces 
in the flesh. 

The same important principle is 
plainly established by the character 
and history of the great mass of the 
pastors and missionaries who have ex- 
tensively served the church in every 
part of the world, since the age of the 
reformers. It cannot be said, indeed, 
that the clergy have been always and 
invariably useful, within the last three 
centuries, in direct proportion to their 
learning. Some remarkable instan- 
ces of learned heretics, and of learned 
cumberers of the ground, have, no 
doubt, disgraced the sacred office ; 
and, instead of proving blessings to 
the church, rather been perverters of 
the truth, and obstacles to the pro- 
gress of the gospel. But the con- 
verse of this statement cannot, as- 
suredly, be maintained : — that is, it 
cannot be said, of any pastor or mis- 
sionary, who was remarkably igno- 
rant, however pious, that he was ex- 
tensively and permanently useful. 
Such an one may have been the 
means of doing some little good, for 
a short time, and in a narrow sphere ; 
but extensively useful he never was. 
The annals of the Christian church 
afford no such instance. But when 
we turn to the lives of Rivet, Owen^ 
Baxter, Usher, Flavel, Charnock, 
Leighton, Howe, and other men of 
the same class, who flourished in the 
seventeenth century ; and to those of 
Walts, Doddridge, Boston, Brown, 
Gill, Scott, and many more, who 
adorned the eighteenth, we are con- 
strained to say, without a single ex- 
ception, that those men, who, to ex- 
emplary piety and zeal, added ample 
official knowledge — have been, in all 
cases, the most eminently useful in 
their generation. 

Even in the case of missionaries, 
the principle for which we contend, 
has been, with scarcely an exception, 
remarkably exemplified. Whose la- 
bors, among this class, have been 
most remarkably blessed to the con- 
version of the heathen 1 Undoubtedly 
those who, to fervent piety, united a 



93 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



[Nov. 



competent store of literature and sci- 
ence, and especially an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the Bible and with 
gospel truth. If any doubt of this, 
let them think of the labors and use- 
fulness of such men as Eliot, and 
Brainerd, and Spangenberg, and 
Vanderkcmj), and Sioariz, and Bu- 
chanan, and Blartyn, not to speak of 
a number more, whose names will 
instantly occur to every well informed 
reader ; and then ask, whether it had 
been possible for those holy and de- 
voted men to accomplish what they 
did, if they had been illiterate and 
ignorant, however ardent and devoted 
in their Christian feelings 1 The 
very suggestion is absurd. We might 
as well expect men, according to the 
unreasonable demand of the Egyp- 
tians, to ''make brick without straw." 
The most permanent and truly valua- 
ble part of the services which they 
rendered to the cause of the Redeem- 
er, were precisely those which their 
learning enabled them to accomplish, 
and which, had they been illiterate 
men, must, of course, have entirely 
failed. When we read the deeply 
interesting Memoirs of these men, 
especially those of Buchanan and 
Blartyn, we perceive, at once, that 
their indefatigable devotion to study 
in the University, was so far from 
having been lost upon them, even in 
their missionary labors, that it all 
turned to important account. It serv- 
ed to invigorate and enlarge their 
minds ; to prepare them for the more 
advantageous acquisition of every sub- 
sequent attainment ; and thus greatly 
to extend their usefulness. Neither 
of these men could possibly have 
shone so brightly in his oriental min- 
istry, had it not been for his diligent 
and successful labors in college. 

Some have been so inconsiderate 
as to adduce the case of the venera- 
ble and excellent Dr. Carey, of Se- 
rampore, as a proof that illiterate men 
may render most worthy and noble 
services in the missionary field. It 
is true this eminent missionary, when 
lie went to India, was comparatively 



illiterate. That is, he had little, if 
anything more than a common Eng- 
lish education. Yet he had good 
sense ; great decision of character ; 
unwearied industry, and persever- 
ance ; fervent piety, and a deep and 
governing conviction of the duty and 
importance of doing his Master's 
work with fidelity, and with his best 
powers. He had scarcely entered 
on the field of labor before he per- 
ceived how indispensable was more — 
much more knowledge than he pos- 
sessed, to the due performance of 
his missionary work. He, therefore, 
while he attended to the practical 
duties of his mission, with exemplary 
diligence, applied himself to study 
also, with unremitting industry ; and 
so successful have been his studies, 
that he is probably, at this time, one 
of the most learned men in Asia. 
And the advantages which his ac- 
quaintance with the oriental tongues, 
as well as other departments of litera- 
ture, have afforded him, in translat- 
ing and expounding the Scriptures, 
and in almost every part of his mis- 
sionary work, can only be estimated 
by those who are intimately acquaint- 
ed with what he has done. The 
truth, therefore, is, that although he 
began his missionary labors in a great 
measure an illiterate man, he has 
gradually become, by indefatigable 
labor, after entering the ministry, one 
of the most accomplished philologists 
and biblical scholars of his time. So 
that, instead of serving the cause of 
those who would plead for the suffi- 
ciency of an unlearned ministry ; his 
case furnishes one of the strongest 
examples of the importance and ne- 
cessity of learning to ministers of the 
gospel, that modern times have af- 
forded. Dr. Carey is so far from 
being a witness against the value of 
knowledge, that all his testimony is 
decisively and most powerfully on the 
other side. 

The foregoing statements are all 
confirmed by the history of the most 
useful divines and pastors of our own 
country. Of living men, or of recent 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



1831.] 



events, nothing will here be said. 
But it may be asserted, that ever 
since evangelical churches have had 
an existence, on this side of the At- 
lantic, those ministers of the gospel, 
in whom fervent piety and ample 
theological furniture were united, 
have been, invariably, the most emi- 
nently useful. They have had a weight 
and influence which no others could 
acquire. They have diffused around 
them a degree of light, as well as 
warmth, which less accomplished men 
could never have imparted. And 
they have been able to give an im- 
pulse to the public mind, and to cor- 
rect prevailing abuses, to an extent 
which rendered them great public 
benefactors. Of what is here assert- 
ed, I shall offer only two examples ; 
I mean those which are furnished by 
the attainments and services of the 
venerable Presidents, Dickinson and 
Edwards. An eminent living writer, 
in speaking of the great importance 
of the union of piety and science in 
the sacred profession, speaks of these 
distinguished ornaments of the Ameri- 
can church in the following language. 
"^ Among the very first men of their 
time, in this country, for intellectual 
strength and furniture, they were 
still more distinguished for piety 
than for learning. In their day en- 
thusiasm appeared in the church to 
which they belonged. Few other 
men could gain an audience of the 
deluded ; but these men obtained it, 
because the reality and eminence of 
their piety were questioned by none. 
They spake and wrote so as happily 
to correct the spreading evil ; and the 
good which they effected, was great 
and lasting."* Indeed, it may well 
be doubted whether any single writer 
in the western hemisphere, in any 
period of its history, ever exerted an 
influence, especially on the religious 
mind, so extended, benign, and per- 
manent, as that of the illustrious 
Edwards. 

Do any ask, in what manner his- 
tory represents the want of mature 



93 



* President Green's Discourses, pp. 1.3, 14. 



knowledge in ministers as having in- 
terfered with their usefulness 1 The 
answer is multiform, but decisive. 
When ministers have had slender 
furniture themselves, it was impossi- 
ble for them to impart much instruc- 
tion to others. They were found 
unable to " feed the people with 
knowledge and with understanding." 
Those to whom they ministered soon 
discovered their ignorance ; felt that 
they were not fed ; became tired of 
their preaching ; lost their respect 
for them ; neglected their ministra- 
tions ; and, perhaps, neglected all 
Christian ministrations, and became 
totally regardless of religion. Thus, 
instead of being a rich blessing, those 
who ought to have been teachers 
and guides, became useless, and 
finally an incumbrance and an in- 
jury, to those whom they were bound 
to have benefitted. Nor does history 
represent the evils of the want of 
suitable furniture in ministers as hav- 
ing been confined to those to whom 
they ministered. This deficiency has 
proved, in innumerable instances, as 
injurious to themselves, as to others. 
They have become the dupes of de- 
signing men, who had more know- 
ledge, and wished to make them sub- 
servient to their sinister designs. Or 
they have been, before they were 
aware of it, entangled in the deplora- 
ble toils of childish superstition, or 
wild enthusiasm ; and thus becoming 
" blind leaders of the blind," they 
have contracted more guilt, and done 
more injury to that hallowed cause 
which they professed to serve, than it 
was possible by human arithmetic to 
estimate. The truth is, a man who 
has but a smattering of indigested 
knowledge, however pious, as all ex- 
perience has evinced, must be not 
only an incompetent guide, but an 
unsafe one. In a day of commotion 
and trial, he knows not what to do. 
He is ready to adopt every project 
which ignorance, vanity, or a spirit 
of innovation may propose. The 
results of former experience and wis- 
dom are, of course, lost upon him. 



94 



THOROUGH EDUCATION IN THE MINISTRY. 



[N 



ov. 



for he knows them not. The conse- 
quence is, that, in all his movements, 
he betrays total incompetence to the 
work which he undertakes : he draws 
down upon himself the deep regrets, 
if not the unmingled contempt of the 
wise and good around him ; and the 
church, instead of blessing him, as 
her leader, guide, and benefactor, 
has reason rather to weep over his 
character and labors, however well 
intended, as really, taken in the ag- 
gregate, so much thrown into the 
scale of the adversary. 

Such, beyond all doubt, is the tes- 
timony of unvarnished history on the 
subject before us. It teaches, on the 
one hand, that unsanctified know- 
ledge has always been a curse to the 
church, leading to pride, ambition, 
unhallowed speculation, heresy, strife, 
and every evil work. And it teaches 
with no less distinctness, on the other 
hand, that ignorance never ivas or 
can be sanctified; that an ignorant 
or superficially informed ministry, 
never can be either a respectable or 
useful one ; that it must either sink 
d'own into miserable, inert, unin- 
structive insignificance, or betray 
into vanity, empty rant, enthusiasm, 
lay-preaching, and endless disorder. 
Nothing but the union of fervent 
fiety and sound learning, can possi- 
bly secure to any Christian ministry, 
for any length of time together, the 
precious results of true respectability, 
and genuine evangelical usefulness. 

Seeing, Mr. Editor, that the voice 
of history is so unequivocal and loud 
on this subject, it has often filled me 
with the deepest astonishment that 
candidates for the ministry, who have 
any acquaintance with that history, 
should yet be so slow in learning its 
most solemn lessons. Such, how- 
ever, is the demented course of many. 
They are so infatuated as to pass 
hastily and slightly over all their aca- 
demical and collegiate studies ; and 
yet hope to have well disciplined and 
cultivated minds. They are so much 
in haste to get into the active field, 
that they will not take the time or 



the pains to make themselves ac- 
quainted, even tolerably, with the 
original language of Scripture : and 
yet are so unreasonable as to expect 
to be sound, intelligent, and able ex- 
positors of the word of God. They 
spurn at the labor of studying theolo- 
gy in a systematic manner, and of 
patiently comparing system with sys- 
tem ; and yet irrationally dream that 
they shall be able, by and by, to 
" bring out of their treasure things 
new and old." Surely, such youth 
set at defiance all reason and all 
experience. When our theological 
seminaries were first established, the 
friends of a well qualified ministry, 
were sanguine in their expectations 
that theological education would rap- 
idly rise to a high standard ; and that 
all who enjoyed the opportunity of 
mature study, would faithfully and 
cheerfully avail themselves of it. But, 
alas ! how grievously, in very many 
instances, have such expectations 
been disappointed ! How difficult is 
it, after all, to persuade, even a ma- 
jority of our theological students of 
the importance and necessity of am- 
ple furniture in those who bear the 
sacred office ! They read, in every 
history of the Christian church which 
they open, the deplorable consequen- 
ces of ignorance and incompetence 
in the gospel ministry. They can- 
not open their eyes on the ministers 
and churches of the present day, 
without seeing the most humiliating 
effects arising from the want of suita- 
ble furniture in those who have un- 
dertaken to be " watchmen on the 
walls of Zion." They cannot help 
seeing, if they look at all, that the 
minister who has but small know- 
ledge, with few exceptions, must con- 
tent himself with small usefulness. 
They ought to know that the state of 
society in our country, as it advances 
in refinement and intelligence, is, eve- 
ry year, calling for more ample furni- 
ture in candidates for the sacred of- 
fice. They ought to remember that 
Christian ministers of the present day 
are called upon more loudly than ever 



DEPENDENCE ON THE SPIRIT OF GOD. 



1831.] 

before to serve the cause of Christ 
with their yens, as well as in the pul- 
pit, in the lecture-room, and in the 
pastoral visit. And they ought to 
bear in mind, that they have oppor- 
tunities of instruction presented to 
them such as no former generation of 
candidates for the ministry ever en- 
joyed. They are often and faithfully 
warned, too, of the danger of imma- 
ture study, and superficial knowledge ; 
and entreated to avail themselves of 
the means placed within their reach 
for preparing, in the most advan- 
tageous manner, to serve the church 
and their generation. But with re- 
spect to many — alas ! too many — all 
is in vain ! Only a lamentably small 
portion can be prevailed upon, with 
these considerations in view, to pur- 
sue the full course of study prescribed 
in our theological seminaries. And 
even some who do consent, and pro- 
fess, nominally, to go through that 
course, engage in study, for the most 
part, viiih so little zeal, and suffer 
themselves to be diverted from the 
requisite application of mind to their- 
studies, by so many distracting avo- 
cations ; that but a small portion of 
the nominal time of study, is really, 
and in good earnest, devoted to its 
professed object. 

I am not forgetful of the various 
pleas, by which those who act thus, 
in opposition to the clearest light of 
experience, attempt to justify their 
blind and infatuated conduct. The 
urgent need of ministers ; the solici- 
tations of friends ; their desire to be 
in the field of labor ; the inconven- 
ience of obtaining the means of sup- 
port in the usual course, are all urged 
with confidence and zeal. But such 
pleas are all illusory and vain. Those 
who offer them forget that it is no 
real blessing to the church to multi- 
ply ignorant and incompetent minis- 
ters, but rather a curse. That, of 
course, if the call for more laborers 
were a hundred-fold more loud and 
importunate than it is, it would be 
worse than useless to the church as 
well as ourselves, to go forth un- 



95 



furnished '' novices." They forget 
that they have but one life to live ; 
and that, if they allow themselves to 
launch forth unprepared, they may, 
and probably will, never be able to 
repair the mischief of this one pre- 
mature step. O when will those be- 
loved sons of the church who have 
" a price put into their hands to get 
wisdom," learn to value it correctly, 
and to improve it faithfully ? I can 
only say, with respect to those who 
act otherwise, that, if they ever come 
to their senses, they will be ready, 
like Peter, to "go out and weep 
bitterly." 

I am, my dear sir, with the best 
wishes for your success in endeavor- 
ing to spread and inculcate these 
sentiments, your friend and fellow 
laborer in the bonds of the gospel, 
Samuel Miller. 

Princeton, Au^. 27, 1831. 



For the Quarterly Register. 
DEPENDENCE ON THE SPIRIT OF 
GOD. 

If there be one truth of paramount 
importance, at the present day, it is 
that contained in the inspired decla- 
ration, Not by might, nor hy poiver, 
but by my Spirit, saifh the Lord of 
Hosts. In view of the difficulties in 
the way of the conversion of the 
world, whose heart would not fail 
within him, were the work depend-^ 
ing on the efficacy of human means ? 
Who would not give up the enter- 
prize in despair ? The hindrances 
to the conversion of a single soul, are 
immense. What must they be in 
the regeneration of a world ? We 
are not to look, simply, at a mass of 
depravity, however dark and appal- 
ling. There are systems of error 
and iniquity, each fortified and con- 
solidated by their appropriate de- 
fences. It is as if the spirits of dark- 
ness had had each assigned to them 
a specific, a particular work, in which, 
with horrid rivalry, they had exhaust- 
ed their mighty intellect of evil. 
What multitudes of men, in Chris- 
tian nations, are spending their days 



96 



HEAVEN. 



in forming and maturing a character, 
which is at total variance with tite 
requisitions of God's law. How deep, 
and how dreadful are those clouds of 
error, which rest on the minds of a 
great majority of educated men in 
reference to moral and religious sub- 
jects. Flow few nations conduct any 
of their important measures on the 
principles of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ. How few statesmen prefer 
the good of the whole human race to 
the glory and happiness of their own 
country. How few of our periodical 
publications are thornughly Christian. 
They may laud Christianity, in gen- 
eral, to the skies, and yet come to a 
particular institution, like that of the 
Sabbath, without which the religion 
itself cannot exist, and you will find 
them bitter opposers. 

But we need not despair. Thanks 
be to God, it is not by might, nor by 
power, but by the Spirit of the Lord 
of Hosts. There is a mighty agency, 
which we do not see with our eyes, 
at work in this world. We cannot 
discern the form thereof; we can see 
no image ; but the same energy, 
which operates silently in the world 
of matter, operates as surely in the 
world of mind. He, who formed the 
mind, can change the mind. He 
can scatter the thick mists of preju- 
dice, and reveal to the soul, the per- 
fect beauty of truth. He can induce 
men to abhor themselves, and repent 
in dust and ashes, and as their eyes 
open on a holy Saviour, to exclaim, 
Whom have we in heaven but thee, 
and there is none on earth that we 
desire in comparison to thee ! He 
can open the two- leaved gates, and 
cut in sunder the bars of iron. He 
is with kings on their thrones, and is 
able to abase those who walk in pride. 
The systems of heathenism and idola- 
try, though grown up to heaven, he 
can consume with the breath of his 
mouth, and destroy with the bright- 
ness of his coming. Through all the 
abominations in Christian countries 
He can send the healing waters of 
the river of life. The erroneous max- 



[Nov. 

ims in politics, the false theories in 
morals, by his almighty influence, 
can be made to give way to the pure 
and heavenly precepts of the gospel 
of Christ. 

Here then let us place our confi- 
dence. The mighty men, of past 
ages, here found firm support. Out 
of weakness they were made strong. 
They went from prayer to the den 
of lions ; from the closet to the con- 
flict ; from communion with God to 
the embrace of the burning stake. 
In themselves all weakness, in Christ 
mightier than legions of enemies, visi- 
ble and invisible. Here let us place 
our confidence — always abounding in 
the work of the Lord, as knowing 
that our labor is not in vain, in the 
Lord. 

HEAVEN. 

It is a treasure that can neither fail 
nor be carried away by force or fraud ; 
it is an inheritance uncorrupted and un- 
defiled, a crown that fadeth not away, a 
never-failing stream of joy and delight ; 
it is a marriage feast, and of all others 
the most joyous and sumptuous ; one 
that always satisfies, and never cloys 
the appetite ; it is an eternal spring, 
and an everlasting light, a day without 
an evening ; it is a paradise, where the 
lilies are always white and full-blown^- 
the trees sweat out their balsams, and 
the tree of life in the midst thereof; it 
is a city where the houses are built of 
living pearls, the gates of precious 
stones, and the streets paved with the 
purest gold. There is neither violence 
within doors, nor without, nor any com- 
plaint in the streets of that blessed 
city ; there no friend goes out, nor 
enemy comes in. There is the most 
delightful society of angels, prophets, 
apostles, martyrs ; among whom there 
are no reproaches, contentions, contro- 
versies, nor party spirit ; no ignorance, 
no blind self-love, no vain glory, no 
envy. There is perfect charity, where- 
by every one, together with his own 
felicity, enjoys that of his neighbors, 
and is happy in the one, as well as in 
the other ; hence there is among them 
a kind of reflection and multiplication 
of happiness, like that of a spacious hall 
adorned with gold and precious stones. 
Leigh TON. 



HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION 



POLAND 



Poland, though erased from the list of nations, is not likely soon to be for- 
gotten. It will be remembered by geographers as long as any attention is 
paid to natural divisions. It will be remembered by the friends of liberty 
throughout the earth. It will not be forgotten by the partitioning powers. The 
sense of the deep injury, which was inflicted on the general opinions of man- 
kind on the 21st of October, 1796, will never be obliterated. To Poland many 
eyes in the Christian world will turn with mingled anxiety and hope, till she is 
free indeed. 

The following division of Poland, and the one which still remains, was made 
by the Congress of Vienna, on the 3d of May, 1815. 

The Republic or Cracow, on the west, is under the protection of Austria, 
Prussia, and Russia. The peasants, formerly protected by the clergy, were not 
so poor or ignorant, as those in the rest of Poland, and additional benefits 
have been conferred on them by the present government. Cracow is the 
capital. 

The Great Duchy of Posen, on the northwest, is added to Prussia. 

The southern portion of the region on the Vistula, or the real Poland, forms 
the present kingdom of Gallicia, or Austrian Poland. It includes the high 
country in the ancient monarchy. Although subject to Austria, it is in some 
respects independent. 

The large provinces of Lithuania, and the Ukraine, were added to Russia. 

The country in the centre, or a part of the former Great and Little Poland, 
forms the Kingdom or Poland, which is united to Russia. This is the country 
in which the revolution commenced. 

The following table embodies some of the principal facts in relation to these 
divisions. 

J\rame. Country. Population. Fop. to a sq. mile. 

Cracow, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, 

Posen, Prussia, 

Gallicia, Austria, 

Lithuania, Russia, 

Ukraine, Russia, 

Kingdom of Poland, Russia, 
Total population of all these provinces, 15,659,1 15. 



100,000 


4,118 


1,800,000 




3,873,125 




3,385,600 


3,509 


2,958,490 


2,614 


3,541,900 


1,544 



I. CIVIL HISTORY. 



Poland, or Polska, signifies a plain ; the early inhabitants, like many tribes, denomi- 
nated it from the nature of the country.* Low hills and head lands only can be dis- 

* An observer in a balloon, might pass at the height of twenty toises, (about 120 feet,) over almost the 
whole of Poland, without fear of coming in contact with mountains and other obstructions. 

VOL. IV. 13 



98 EARLY HISTORY OF POLAND. [NoV. 

covered throughout the vast region from the Baltic to the shores of the Euxine. The 
mass of the Polish nation is descended from the ancient Leches, the same people as the 
Lygians of Tacitus, and the Licicavians of the middle ages. At an early period, however, 
the Western or Visigoths, were settled on the banks of the Vistula; and formed, perhaps, 
in many places, the dominant race. From the nature of the population many revolutions 
must have early taken place in the country. It seems to be evident that the Poles were 
not descended from the Sarmatians. 

In consequence of the dissensions of the nobles about the year 830, Piast, a poor artisan 
of Cracow, was elevated to the seat of power. His authority was controlled only by his 
own will, and the fear of his subject barons. He however exercised his authority for the 
good of his people. The Poles were at this time, like all other barbarous nations ; the 
mass of the population were almost slaves to the voyvodes, or barons, whose sole business 
was war and hunting; the only laws were will and fear. Their taste was exercised only 
in the embellishment of their arms, and their judgment in the choice of their horses. 

The royal power remained in the family of Piast, with some interruptions, from 
A. D. 830 to A. D. 1386. The most distinguished prince seems to have been Boleslas. 
Among his other exploits, was the capture of Kiow, the most opulent city in that part 
of Europe. In a battle, which was fought by Boleslas on the Bug, the river was so 
stained with blood, that it has retained ever since the name of horrid, and Boleslas was 
called Chroby the terrible. He extended his conquests to the Elbe, on the banks of 
which he erected two iron columns, to mark the bounds of his victories. Casimir, the 
grandson of Boleslas, was compelled to abdicate his throne in consequence of the tyranni- 
cal conduct of his mother, who was associated with him in the government. A general 
scene of anarchy followed. The serfs, imitating the example of their masters, rose in a 
body, and retaliated the cruelties, which they had so long suffered. The whole system 
of servitude was at an end. Bibles, churches, monks, and masters, were involved in one 
indiscriminate sacrifice. The lex talionis was the code of the infuriated serfs. Casimir 
was at length recalled, and succeeded in re-establishing peace. One of his successors, 
Boleslas II., was constantly engaged in wars, having been conqueror in forty battles. 
In 1147, a numerous army of Polish volunteers, under Henry, a brother of the king^ 
followed the crusaders into the Holy Land. 

The following anecdote is given of Casimir II., who ascended the throne in 1178. 
" He was one day at play, and won all the money of a nobleman, who, incensed at his 
ill fortune, suddenly struck the prince a blow on the ear. He fled immediately from 
justice ; but being pursued and overtaken, was sentenced to lose his head. But the 
generous Casimir revoked the sentence, returned the nobleman his money, and declared 
that he alone was faulty, as he encouraged, by his practice, a pernicious custom that 
might terminate in the ruin of hundreds of his people." He was the most amiable 
monarch that ever swayed the Polish sceptre. He has the enviable appellation of Casi- 
mir the just. Casimir III., was called the Polish Justinian, as he made a complete code 
of the laws, appointed regular courts of justice, and by his regard for the happiness of the 
lower orders, obtained the appellation of king of the serfs. With all his good qualities, he 
seems to have been gay and licentious. 

Louis, the nephew of Casimir, dying without male heirs, the Poles called his daughter, 
Hedwiga, to the throne in 1384. She married Jagellon, Duke of Lithuania. Jagellon 
was baptized under the name of Wladislas ; and Poland and Lithuania were henceforward 
united under one crown. This duchy, Lithuania, was a great accession to the geo- 
graphical magnitude of Poland. It extended from Poland on the west, to the Dnieper on 
the east, and from Livonia on the north. 

Jagellon established the Polish law on a firmer basis in the diets of 1422 and 1423, and 
gave an additional sanction to the code, which Casimir had begun. He passed the fa- 
mous law that no person is to be imprisoned till convicted. 

The reign of Casimir IV., the third of the Jagellon family, was one of considerable 
interest. In a war against the Teutonic knights, who were in possession of a considera- 
ble part of Prussia, the Poles overran all the Prussian territory, which continued to take 
part with the knights. Out of twenty-one thousand villages, scarcely more than thirteen 
thousand survived the flames, and nearly two thousand churches were destroyed. 

In the year 1467, the foundation of the Polish diet or parhament was laid. Before that 
period, the senate consisted only of the bishops and. great officers of the kingdom, who 
formed the king's council, subject also to the interference of the nobility. The son and 
successor of Casimir, John Albert, in attempting to lessen the power of the nobility, only 
increased their claims, and rendered their supremacy over the serfs more intolerable. 
One great cause of the troubles and final overthrow of Poland, was the want of a third 
estate, sufficiently strengthened with wealth and arts to counteract the encroachments 
of the haughty nobles. The influence of the trading classes was checked by two causes. 
In the first place, every gentleman, who had a house and a few acres of land, could enjoy 
all the privileges of nobility ; hence none but the lower orders, or foreigners, would en- 
gage in mercantile pursuits ; and secondly, the towns were composed chiefly of German 



1831.] HISTORY OF POLAND. 99 

strangers, Jews, and even Armenians, who had been ahiiost considered out of the pale 
of the law. 

In 1572, died Sigismund, the last of the house of Jagellon. Under the dynasty of this 
family, which lasted 186 years, Poland attained its perfect growth and dimensions, and its 
constitution had ariived at equal maturity. There being no third order wluch the kings 
could raise up against the nobles, which would have rendered the monarchy limited, but 
have shielded it from total subjection to the aristocracy, there was no alternative but to 
make the government a perfect despotism, as in Russia, to preserve the regal authority. 
The kings, who succeeded Sigismund, successively, were Stephen Batory, Sigismund III., 
Wladislas VII., Casimir III., and Michael. 

On the 19th of May, 1674, John Sobieski was elected king of Poland. He studied the 
art of war in France, and became a very renowned general. On one occasion, with 
15,000 troops, he encountered the Turks and Tartars in Gallicia, 600,000 in number, and 
left 10,000 of his enemies dead on the field. In May, 1683, the Turks, with 300,000 men, 
appeared before the gates of Vienna, and closely invested that proud metropolis. In this 
emergency Sobieski was entreated to hasten in person to Vienna. He soon appeared 
with his little army, and 28 pieces of canon, to oppose 300 pieces of the enemy. But 
Sobieski was a host. The immense Turkish army was broken, and Vienna was saved, 
Poland thus saved a serpent from death which afterwards turned and stung her for her 
kindness. After this, the Turks gained no ground in Europe. Poland also became the 
theatre of discord and faction. " In war, Sobieski was a lion, but in peace he was the 
plaything of others." He was ruled by his wife, an intriguing woman, and by the 
Jesuits. Sobieski died on the 17th of June, 1696. Glorious as his reign had been in 
many particulars, it has had a very pernicious effect on Poland. 

Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, a young and ambitious monarch, after a severe 
contest, was chosen king of Poland. This forced election was the first of a series of dis- 
graceful events, which laid the yoke on the necks of the Poles. Since this period, 
Poland has received her kings under the compulsion of foreign arms. Augustus, in at- 
tempting to get possession of Livonia, a province of Sweden, was obliged to call in the aid 
of Peter the Great. Before they entered on their work, Peter and Augustus indulged in 
a debauchery, which was a fit preparative for such iniquities as they were about to per- 
petrate. For fifteen days, both were in a continued state of intoxication. 

The designs of Peter and Augustus were opposed by Charles of Sweden, with great 
vigor. Charles, at length, reached Warsaw, which capitulated, on the first summons, on 
the 5th of May, 1702. Young Stanislas Leszczynski, son of the Palatine of Posnania, was 
elevated to the throne in place of Augustus. He had considerable talent and education. 
In the mean time, Peter the Great was not idle. Charles and Peter met at Pultowa. 
Charles was defeated and compelled to seek an asylum in Turkey. Stanislas was de- 
throned, and in attempting to visit Charles, was apprehended by the Turks. In 1718, 
Charles died, and Poland enjoyed a few years of tranquilUty, if tranquillity it could be 
called, under the weak and miserable Augustus, who was little more than a viceroy of 
Peter. After the death of Augustus, Stanislas attempted to gain possession of the throne. 
But Russia and Austria were not to be easily foiled. Stanislas was stripped of his 
ephemeral honors, and took refuge in Dantzig. The city defended itself with great 
obstinacy. One part of the entrenchments is still called the " Russian cemetery," 
Treachery at length led to its surrender. Stanislas escaped, and retired to his hereditary 
estates. Augustus HI., son of Augustus II., was placed on the throne. His reign lasted 
thirty years. The generality of the Poles passed this time like their king, in idle volup- 
tuousness. He died on the 5th of October, 1763. Several rival candidates now appeared 
for the vacant throne. Catharine, misnamed the wife of Peter, then swayed the Russian 
sceptre. Through her influence, Poniatowski, her former paramour, was elected king by 
a hireling diet. He assumed the name of Stanislas Augustus, No prince ever ascended 
the throne under more unfortunate circumstances. Catharine soon withdrew her support. 
More than 20,000 Russian troops were scattered over the kingdom, and 40,000 were on 
the frontiers. Poland was now completely in the power of Russia. The principal patriots 
were transferred to the great northern dungeon, Siberia. The spirit of Polish indepen- 
dence was not entirely annihilated. The venerable bishops of Kamieniec, and Cracow, 
the Pulawski family, and the Radziwills, were on the alert. In a very short time they 
mustered 8,000 men, sent deputies to Turkey, Saxony, and Tartary, and openly invited 
all to join them. The rashness of Joseph Pulawski. occasioned a failure of their plans. 
The town of Bar, where they were assembled, was taken by assault, and 1,200 prisoners 
were carried in chains to Russia. Pulawski retired to the mountains of Moldavia. 

The confederates, however, again rallied, and in the winter of 1770 and 1771, occupied 
many advantageous posts. An attempt, which was made by them to seize the person of 
Stanislas, and which failed, brought much discredit upon the cause. The odium which 
was studiously attached to this attempt, indeed greatly injured the cause of the patriots. 
They were denounced as rebels, assassins, and brigands. Every thing conspired to ren- 
der the approaching year, 1772, the last of Polish independence. Russia, Prussia, and 



100 FALL OF POLAND. [NoV. 

Austria, commenced their work in earnest. The Prussians advanced into Great Poland, 
and being joined by the Russians, compelled the confederates to surrender the castle of 
Ci-acovv. From Austria 10,000 men entered Poland, under the command of Esterhazy. 
All the posts were deserted, and the chiefs dispersed into foreign countries. 

It is made a matter of dispute, which of the three nations started the iniquitous plot of 
partition. The fact, no doubt was, that in this, as in all other unjust coalitions, they did 
not, in the first instance, act on a preconcerted plan ; but each individual power cher- 
ished secretly its design, and were naturally drawn together by the similarity of reckless 
atrocity in their plans. Catharine had long been the real mistress of Poland. Frederick 
began to throw out hints of claims on certain Polish districts. The young Poles were 
enrolled in his armies by force, and the Polish girls were carried away to some of the de- 
populated districts of Prussia. Austria, with great diligence, made researches into old 
records to establish her claims to the district of Zips, and engineers were employed to 
mark out the frontier. The first communications between the three powers, occurred in 
December, 1770, and in January, 1771. In a conference at Petersburg, the fate of Poland 
was decided. Russia had by the arrangement the palatinates of Polock, Witebsk, and 
Mscislaw, about 3,000 square leagues ; Austria had Gallicia, a portion of Podolia, and 
Little Poland ; in all about 2,500 square leagues ; Frederick was contented with 900 square 
leagues, a part of Polish Prussia and of Great Poland, The rest of the kingdom was 
ensured to Stanislas.* The three royal plunderers attempted to give some color of 
right to their proceedings by public manifestoes, Catharine set in her claims, by endeav- 
oring to prove, from old authors, that it was not till 1688, that the Polish limits were 
extended beyond the mouth of the Dwina. The Austrian pretensions were argued with 
still more profound sophistry. Frederick was a philosopher, and he argued his cause 
on the general principles of civil law. 

A corrupt Polish diet was made to sanction the act of the sovereigns. 

"Sarmatia fell unwept." 

France was silent. A few patriots in England lifted their voice against it, but the nation 
was occupied with the American war. No general note of remonstrance was heard. 
These proceedings aroused many minds in Poland. An unsuccessful attempt was made 
to emancipate the serfs. The diet increased the army to 100,000 men, and demanded 
that the Russian troops should immediately evacuate the kingdom. In March, 1790, the 
diet were so weak as to form a treaty of alliance with Prussia, which involved them in 
new troubles with Russia. A constitution was soon after formed, which drew forth the 
admiration of Europe. " Humanity," exclaimed Edmund Burke, " must rejoice and 
glory when it considers the change in Poland." 

The French revolution which now burst out, had great influence on the fate of 
Poland ; dangers drew the monarchs of Europe more closely together. Catharine was 
still engaged in her diabohcal work. On the 18th of May, 1792, 100,000 Russian troops re- 
ceived ordej-s to enter Poland. The Polish army, in three divisions, was led by Poniatowski, 
a nephew of the king, by Wiethorski, and the celebrated Kosciusko, Headed by this last 
named general, the Poles withstood an enemy three times their number, and made an 
honorable retreat, after much slaughter. Early in 1793, the Prussian troops entered 
Poland, and Frederick William declared his intention to incorporate several districts of 
Great Poland, and the towns of Thorn and Dantzig, with the Prussian States. This in- " 
tention was executed. Catharine advanced her frontier into the middle of Lithuania, and 
Volhynia. The Russian ambassador was absolute master at Warsaw, and Russian troops 
were the garrison. The principal Polish patriots retired to Dresden and Leipzig. 

The Poles, however, could not long remain in bondage. On the 24th of March, 1794, 
Kosciusko was proclaimed Generalissimo at Cracow ; a deed of insurrection was drawn 
up, by which this great man was appointed dictator. His power was absolute, both in 
military and civil affairs. On the 4th of April he left Cracow, at the head of about 4,000 
men, most of whom were armed with scythes. In about six or seven miles, they met 
the Russians. The Poles were victorious ; 3,000 Russians were killed or taken prisoners. 
On the 17th the arsenal and powder magazine in Warsaw were seized, and arms were 
distributed to the populace. A very bloody battle took place in the streets, which lasted 
two days. The patriots were victorious; 2,200 of the enemy were killed, and nearly 
2,000 were taken prisoners. Igelstrom, the Russian ambassador, escaped with great dif- 
ficulty to the Prussian camp. On the 15th of May, Cracow fell into the hands of the 
Prussians. On the 30th, the Emperor of Austria announced his intention to enter Poland. 
The insurrection soon extended to the Polish provinces, which had been annexed to 
Prussia. The 10th of October was the decisive day. Kosciusko, at the head of his prin- 
cipal officers, made a grand charge into the midst of the enemy. He fell, covered with 
wounds, and exclaiming, " Finis Poloiviae ;"t all his companions were killed, or 

* The pledge was worth about as much, as the pledges which the United States are in the habit of giving 
to the Indian emigrants, who remove over the Mississippi, 
t See a short memoir of Kosciusko, in the sequel. 



1831.] REVOLUTION OF 1830. 101 

taken prisoners. The news of his fall went like lightning to Warsaw. Every one re- 
ceived it as the announcement of the country's fall. Men and women were seen in the 
streets, wringing their hands, beating their heads against the walls, and exclaiming in 
tones of despair, " Kosciusko is no more ; the country is lost!" The Poles immediately 
fortified Praga, one of the suburbs, separated from Warsaw by the Vistula. The 
Russian General, the barbarian Suwarow, attacked the Poles on the 26th of October, and 
drove them into their intrenchments. The batteries of Praga mounted more than 100 
cannon, and the garrison was composed of the flower of the Polish army. On the 4th of 
November, Suwarow ordered an assault. After a severe struggle, Praga was carried. 
8,000 Poles perished, sword in hand. The bridge was burnt, and the retreat of the inhab- 
itants cut off. Above 12,000 old men, women, and children, were murdered in cold 
blood ; dead bodies floated down the Vistula to Prussia ; in a few hours the whole of 
Praga, inhabitants and buildings, were a heap of ashes. Stanislas Augustus was thus left 
without a kingdom. A third partition was made of Poland. 

The death of Catharine, on the 9th of November, 1796, delivered the Poles from one 
of their tyrants. Her successor, Paul, commenced a new era in Eussian history — that 
I of clemency. He set at liberty all the Poles, whom Catharine had immured in prison, 
and allowed those who had been sent to Siberia, amounting to nearly 12,000, to return 
to their homes. Prussia also liberated her prisoners. Austria, however, did not strike oft' 
a single link from the Polish chains. The Poles entered the service of the French, with 
great enthusiasm. Dombrowski, with 8,000 men, in 1798, marched into Rome. In 1806, 
Bonaparte made the most pressing invitations to Kosciusko, who then resided near Paris, 
to enter the Polish service, and to issue addresses to his countrymen, calling on them to 
embrace the present opportunity to recover their liberty. But Kosciusko conjectured 
that the military despot would be equally treacherous as hereditary tyrants. In conse^; 
quence of his refusal to join Napoleon, most of his countrymen remained inactive. 

In the following years, Poland was subjected to many varieties of distress, overrun as 
she constantly was, by the troops of France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and tantalized 
with the ample promises of Bonaparte. 7,000 Poles marched with him into Russia, in 
1812. They distinguished themselves at Smolensko, Borodino, and at the passage of the 
Beresina. Poniatowski, with 13,000 men, was at the battle of Leipzig, on the 19th of 
October, 1813. After the battle, in attempting to cross the river, he was drowned. 

On the 3d of May, 1815, the Congress of Vienna decided the fate of Poland. The 
arrangements, which were then made, we have given on the first page of this article. 
On the 20th of June, Alexander was proclaimed king of Poland, at Warsaw. Religious 
toleration was granted. The government consisted of three states, the king, and an upper 
and lower house. The diet was to meet every second year at Warsaw. All motions to 
be decided by a majority of votes. The king's consent was made necessary to every bill. 
Constantine, a brother of Alexander, was appointed commander in chief of the Poles. 
From the time of the first re-establishment of the kingdom, till 1820, the affairs of Poland 
went on appai-ently in conformity with the constitution, but perpetual breaches were 
made on that formal grant of liberty. Constantine soon gave the most unrestrained 
license to his capricious and violent disposition. Taxes were levied without consulting 
the diet. Some of the publishers of Warsaw, having incurred his displeasure, he sent 
soldiers in the middle of the night to destroy the printing presses. Shaving the heads of 
females, who displeased him, was a common occurrence. Alexander appointed, in 1820, 
a miUtary commission, which tried and condemned civiUans without any of the pre- 
scribed formalities. A certain individual, by Constantine's order, was condemned to per^ 
petual imprisonment, and a weekly floggijvg. 

In consequence of these and many similar acts of oppression, the spirit of the Poles was 
at length aroused. The feeUngs of the people appeared in the following manner : — The 
police of the Grand Duke planned an association for the purpose of involving the most 
respectable families in Poland ; and for that purpose, inveigled a number of ardent youths, 
just after the revolution in Paris, to attend meetings, and to avow patriotic opinions. 
The prime conspirator used a plan of organization for the association, which had been dis- 
covered during the early proceedings against the patriots ; a copy of this scheme falling 
into the hands of some of the members of the actual associations, excited a suspicion that 
they had been betrayed ; and the recollection of former horrors, decided them to take 
instant measures for liberating themselves from their hated thraldom. Constantine had 
established a school for the education of inferior ofiicers, with a view of destroying the 
national character of the army. The numbers at the establishment, at this time, were 
180, of whom not more than six or eight were parties to the association. These, how- 
ever, went early in the evening of the day already mentioned, to their barrack, addressed 
their comrades, explained their views, and without a single dissentient, not excepting one 
who was sick in bed, they armed themselves, and commenced operations. 

At 7 o'clock in the evening, the young soldiers proceeded to the bridge of Sobieski, 
where the main body posted themselves, while a dozen of the most determined pressed 
into the palace of Constantine. The Russian General Gendre, a man infamous for his 



102 DIVISIONS OF THE COUNTRY. [Nov. 

crimes, was killed in the act of resisting. When on the point of reaching the chamber 
of the Duke, a servant, by closing a secret door, enabled his master to escape undressed 
through the window. 

He fled to his guards, who instantly turned out. Disappointed in their prey, the de- 
voted band rejoined their companions at the bridge. In returning from the palace (in 
the outskirts of Warsaw) to the city, they were obliged to pass close to the barracks. 
Here they received the fire of the soldiers, but they returned it so briskly that they 
killed 300 before they retreated. On reaching the city, they instantly liberated every 
state prisoner. They were soon joined by the school of the engineers, and the students 
of the University. The arsenal was forced, and in one hour and a half from the first 
movement, so electrical was the cry of liberty, that 40,000 men were in arms. By 11 
o'clock all the Polish troops in Warsaw espoused the popular cause. On learning this, 
Constantine fell back, forcing two regiments of Polish guards with him. With the hope 
of accommodation, the patriots allowed him to retire, under a convention, when they 
might have captured his entire army. A thousand demonstrations of joy were given at 
this unexpected liberation ; but no excesses were committed. Chlopicki, a man of stern 
character, declared himself dictator — a declaration that was universally satisfactory, 
though he proved unequal to his arduous trust. A deputation was sent to Petersburg to 
propose a negotiation. They returned unsuccessful, as the basis of negotiation insisted 
■on by the Emperor, wa.s unconditional submission. Chlopicki retired from office. With 
the approval of all classes, Skrzynecki, the present generalissimo, assumed the com- 
oiand. 



II. GEOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES OP POLAND. 

Voi.HYNiA. This province is a part of the Polish Ukraine, and is the adopted country 
-of the Lubomiriski and Czartoriski, two illustrious Polish families. The Polish nobles are 
supposed to amount to 60,000 individuals. The number of inhabitants is 1,496,300, or 
about 1,072 to a square mile. The country is level and the climate mild. Most of the 
towns are ill built. The largest is peopled by 10,000 individuals, most of whom are 
Jews. The peasants are, generally, poor and wretched, covered with rags, and inhabit- 
ing dirty cottages. The Dnieper is the principal river. 

PoDOLiA. This is also a portion of the Polish Ukraine. The principal rivers are 
the feeders of the Bug and Dniester. The inhabitants amount to 1,462,190, or 1,542 to a 
square mile. This is a very fruitful province. So much corn is raised above what is 
consumed by the inhabitants, that it is often difficult to find a market for the redundant 
produce. The land is indented by the vallies through which the rivers flow, and varied 
by waterfalls, caverns, and romantic landscapes. The population is divided in about the 
following proportions ; Jews, 136,000, Christians of the Latin church, 197,000, of the 
Greek church, 838,000, other sects the remainder. 

Lithuania. This is the former name of an extensive tract of country, lying be- 
tween Poland and Prussia, and governed by Grand Dukes. It was annexed to Poland 
in the fourteenth century, but it was not till 1561, that the respective countries were 
united into one state, or an elective monarchy ; and that the right of election was vested 
in the two nations. The sovereign obtained the double title of king of Poland, and Great 
Duke of Lithuania. Lithuania, however, has always retained, in some measure, its dis- 
tinct character. The nobles only adopted the manners of the Poles, and spoke their 
dialect. The great majority of the people never changed their customs ; they speak the 
Rousniac language, and adhere to the tenets of the Greek church.* 

Lithuania was formerly divided into Lithuania Proper, and Samogitia. This last 
named region bore the title of county. It lies to the south of Courland, and to the north of 
Prussia Proper, having a part of the western boundary along the Baltic, but without any 
harbor of consequence. The whole territory is not large, but it is well wooded ; the 
land consists of a rich clay, and yields immense harvests of flax and lint. Both Lithuania 
Proper and Samogitia are divided into the six Russian governments — Wilna, Grodno, 
Bialystock, Witepsk, Mohilew, and Minsk. The industry of the inhabitants of these 
countries does not correspond to the liberality which the Author of nature has bestowed 
upon them. The best lands are uncultivated, the finest hay is suffered to decay on the 
meadows, and from the negligence of the rural authorities, whole forests are sometimes 
destroyed by fire. In consequence of the great number of Jews, the interest of money 
is seldom less than ten per cent, although every article of consumption may be obtained 
at a very moderate price. The Jews monopolize all the commerce. Wilna, the capital 

* The reason why the inhabitants of Lithuania refused to march under the ensigns of Bonaparte into 
Russia, in 1812, seems not to have been from any partiality to the Russians, as Malte Brun thinks, but be- 
cause Kosciusko declined the enterprise. 



1831.] 



GALLICIA POSEN CRACOW. 103 



of Lithuania, covers a great extent of ground. The population exceeds 40,000, of whom 
SjOOO are Jews. A mosque, a synagogue, one Lutheran, three Russian, one Calvinistic, 
and thirty-two Cathohc churches, are the different places of worship, and consequently 
three holy-days are observed every week. All the sects live in peace with each other, 
beinc- more intent about trading, than spiritual concerns. Grodno, on the Niemen, was 
peopled in 1790, by more than 4,000 individuals, of whom nearly a fourth were Jews ; 
but its palaces are now deserted, its silk, velvet, and cloth manufactoiies are ruined. 
The last Polish diet was held at Grodno, and Russian soldiers compelled the deputies to 
put their names to the treaty, by which the division of their country was sanctioned. 

The A^iernen, or the largest river in the country, is navigable, and its course is tranquil ; 
but it discharges itself into a Prussian bay ; thus commerce is shackled, and the articles 
exported from the province are subject to oppressive duties. 

" The Lithuanians," says a physician, who visited the country, " resemble the Poles 
•and Russians, although they are even less advanced in civilization than the inhabitants of 
these nations. Struggling against poverty, oppressed by slavery, their appearance indi- 
cates their degraded condition. The country is humid and marshy, but intermittent 
fevers are of rare occurrence. Plica is not so common as in the rest of Poland, and it 
appears that nine persons out of ten, among the lower orders, are never afflicted with 
this loathsome disease."* 

Gallicia. The Austrian possessions in Poland are officially designated Galitzia 
and Ladomiria. The last term is used only in public documents. The southern part of 
JGallicia is mountainous, but the greatest elevations are lower than those in Hungary ; 
none reach to the height of 6,000 feet, and few are equal to 4,000 feet. Gallicia is ex- 
posed, from its position, to a northeast wind that arrives from the central ridge of Russia, 
and is often accompanied with excessive cold. The soil is very humid, and the quantity 
of rain that falls during the year, is much greater than in any of the neighboring coun- 
tries. The Gallicians and the Poles eat the same coarse and unwholesome food ; both 
are greatly injured by the use of ardent spirits, and the want of good physicians is severely 
felt in both countries. At Wieliczka are the celebrated salt mines. The town is not 
only completely undermined, but the works extend on the one side to the distance of 
6,000 feet, from east to west, and on the other 2,000, from north to south. The depth 
beneath the lowest part of the valley is about 800 feet. A few years since, about 700 
workmen were employed. Salt is found in large and shapeless masses in the two first 
stories, and the workmen may cut blocks of three, four, and five hundred cubic feet. 

Lemberg, or Leopol, as the Poles call it, was formerly the capital of Red Russia, and 
it is, at present, the capital of Gallicia. The place is large, the streets are spacious, 
cleanly, and well paved. The public buildings, and many private houses add much to 
the imposing appearance of the city. The population is 50,000. 

Grand Duchy of Posek. This forms, physically, a part of Poland ; the same 
plains, the same kind of sand intermixed with clay, and black loam, the same fertility in 
corn, and the same sort of forests may be observed in the two countries. The peasants 
are said to be slothful, ignorant and superstitious ; drunkenness is a common vice among 
them. All the efforts of the Prussian administration to reform their condition have been, 
in a great degree, unavailing. It is difficult to improve a race, degraded by ages of ser- 
vile habits, particularly if superstition occupies the place of morality and religion. The 
Catholic clergy are now improved ; but in 1781, they burned witches and prohibited the 
reformed religion, and all of them sold indulgences. Many of them are still opposed to 
the enlightened system of the Prussian government, for it tends to diminish their reve- 
nue and power. The nobles are very much opposed to a union with the Germans. It 
is said, however, that a change has been gradually taking place. Of the population, one 
hundred and sixty thousand are Germans, and more than 24,000, of the reformed religion. 
This change has been effected by the successive migrations of industrious manufacturers 
from Silesia, and the agricultural colonies of Swabia. 

' The Wartha is the principal river in Posen. Poznan, or Posen, the ancient capital of 
Great Poland, is situated between two hills, on the banks of the Wartha, and the Prosna. 
The population amounts to 23,000. The town is enlivened by three annual fairs. Gnesne, 
a very ancient Polish city, was the metropolis of a diocese, in the year 1,000. It is now 
peopled by about 4,400 souls, and has some trade in cloth. 

Republic of Cracow. The country, which makes up this republic, is equal ta 
ninety-four square leagues, and the population amounts to 100,000. The peasants, for- 
merly protected by the clergy, were not so poor and ignorant as those in the rest of Po- 
land, and additional benefits have been conferred on them by the present government. 
Agriculture and gardening are much more faithfully attended to, and the general appear- 
ance of the country shows it to be in an improving state. Cracow, once the metropolis 
of Poland, was the place where the ancient kings were crowned and interred. The 

* Plica is endemical in Poland, and in some of the neighboring provinces. As the peccant matter ex- 
pands, it passes into the hair, and binds it so closely together that it cannot be separated. 



104 KINGDOM OF POLAND. [NoV. 1 

cathedral is remarkable for its numerous mausoleums. The population of the town amounts ! 
to 26,000 souls ; its commerce and manufactories have long been in a state of decay, j 
The university, formerly called the school of the kingdom, though open at present to ', 
every Pole, is not attended by many students. I 

Kingdom of Poland. This kingdom is the centre of the country, and a part of the I 
former Great and Little Poland. It is situated on the Vistula. It was divided by the . ' 
Russians, a few years since, into eight waiwodais, or palatinates. Cracow is a differ- 
ent territory from the republic just named. 

Square Leagues. Pop. in 1819. Square Leagues. Pop. in 1819, I 

Cracow, 587 445,000 Plock, (Plotsk,) 805 364,000 

Sendomir, 784 432,000 Masovia, 890 481,000 : 

Kalisch, 892 512,000 Podlachia, 633 286,000 

Lublin, 881 490,000 Augustowo, 894 335,000 ' 

The river Bug, which is sometimes confounded with the Bog, rises in the lofty hills, 
near Lemberg, in Gallicia. It joins the jYarew, which flows from the plains of Lithu- 
ania. The Vistula descends from the mountains of Silesia, is enlarged by the Narew, 
the Pilica, and most of the other rivers of Poland. All the Polish rivers, except the 
Niemen, overflow their banks, and leave a rich deposit, by which the inundated lands 
are fertilized. 

The climate of Upper Poland is cold, as it is surrounded on the east and north by the 
central ridge of Russia, and on the south by the Carpathian mountains, which are exposed 
to an almost perpetual winter. The climate of the low country is also cold, though the 
north wind is mild and rather humid. The west wind is the harbinger of dense and un- 
wholesome mists. The Polish winter is not milder than that of central Sweden, although 
the difference in latitude is equal to ten degrees. There are valuable mines of silver,- 
lead, iron, and calamine in Poland. The soil in the kingdom of Poland is not, in general, 
so rich as that in Lithuania, and the Ukraine. The lands of the nobles are too extensive 
to be well cultivated. The Jews, the wealthiest men in the country, are by law pre- 
vented from purchasing heritable property. For that reason the price of land is very 
low, but the land owners cannot obtain the necessary funds for improving their estates, 
without paying an exorbitant interest. 

The Poles are a strong, active, well made people ; their physiognomy is frank and pre- 
possessing ; light and chesnut hair is very common. Mustachios are worn by men of 
every rank ; to shave the head is as general a practice ; and a small tuft of hair, which 
is left on the crown, gives the people an Asiatic appearance. The fair sex are celebrated 
in the north for their beauty. They are better educated, more animated and agreeable 
in their manners than the women of Russia. The fact that the Poles are exposed to a 
greater number of diseases than their neighbors, is attributed to the quality of the air, 
which is rendered unwholesome by large and numerous marshes, to the want of good 
water, and the uncleanly habits of a great majority of the people. Some mahgnant dis- 
eases are not unfrequent in Poland, though unknown in Russia. The smallpox, owing 
to improper treatment, bad diet, and the habitual negligence of the people, is the most 
fatal of any. It is calculated that the mortality is in the proportion of six or seven to ten. 
Such as survive, are often frightfully disfigured. Syphilis is very common. Men 
wanting the nose may be seen in every Polish village. The Plica, a very troublesome, 
though not fatal disease, is nearly confined to Poland. 

Warsaw, or as it is styled by the Poles, Warszawa, contains 120,000 inhabitants, and 
more than 9,000 houses. The population is rapidly increasing, but although the town 
has been much embellished, many ancient buildings, narrow streets, and houses covered 
with straw, are suffered to remain. Warsaw is a place of great antiquity, though it was 
not of much note till the union of Poland, and Lithuania. The diet was not transferred 
to it till 1566. The most remarkable suburbs are Nowy Swiat, or New Town, and Alex- 
andria, on one side of the Vistula, and Krakow and Praga, on the other side. The old 
city consists of a long and narrow street. The streets in the suburbs are spacious and 
clean. Praga, in 1782, contained 6,690 souls ; after the visit of Suwarow, in 1795, it was 
reduced to 3,100. Warsaw was stripped of its finest ornaments, during the sad vicissi- 
tudes, which it has experienced. The library of Zaluski, containing 200,000 volumes, 
was sent to Petersburg. 

Great improvements have been made in Warsaw, since the peace. Many of the streets 
are well lighted, and macadamized. Churches and public buildings have been erected ; 
also a monument to Copernicus. 

The different classes of the population of the kingdom of Poland, in 1829, were as 
follows. The total varies somewhat, from our previous estimates. The number of Jews 
is undoubtedly too small. 

Real Poles, 3,000,000 Jews, 400,000 

Rousniacs, 100,000 

Lithuanians, 200,000 Total, 4,000,000 

Germans, 300,000 



1831. 



LITERATURE OF POLAND. 



105 



Agriculturalists, landholders, 

Their families, servantSj &c. 

Manufacturers, 

Their families and dependents, 

Tradesmen, 

Their families. 



The total population of the kingdom, in 1829, exclusive of the army, (which was then 
about 30,000,) amounted to 4,088,290. Since 1815, the population has increased, on an 
average, 100,000 a year. The inhabitants were classed according to their occupations, 
in the followins; manner. 

871,258 Landed proprietors, 4,205 

2,221,188 Copyholders, 1,886 

140,377 Free holders, in towns, 41,654 

358,135 Persons employed under gca'ernrnent, 8,414 
44,888 Number supported in 592 hospitals, 5,376 
131,331 Prisoners in 76 prisons, 7,926 

The number of princes was 12 ; of counts, 74 ; of barons, 20. The number of nobles 
to the peasants was as 1 to 13. In the duchy of Warsaw, the peasants have been in a 
degree, emancipated. Each family has a cabin, and 13 acres of land to cultivate, and are 
obliged to labor three days in a week for the landholders. Others have adopted a system 
of free, hired labor. 

The following were the receipts into the treasury in 1827. A Polish florin is about 
six pence sterling. 

Florins. 
17,646,652 Mines, mint, &c« 

40,685,630 
7,148,265 Total, 

3,769,945 
The expenditures amounted to 69,016,030 florins. 
The balance of trade with other countries was as follows. 
Floi'ins. 
Imports from Russia, 11,000,000 Imports from Austria, 

Exports to " 14,500,000 Exports to " 

Imports from Prussia, 20,300,000 Imports from Rep. of Cracow, 

Exports to " 15,500,000 Exports to 



Direct taxes. 
Indirect taxes, 
Income from lands, &c. 
Tolls, roads, &c. 



Florins. 
2,837,600 

72,088,090 



Florins. 
8,500,000 
92,000 

748,000 
2,880,000- 



HI. LITERATURE OP POXANDc 

The Polish language is sprung from the Russian, the" Bohemian, the Wend and Sla- 
vonic dialects of Illyria ; but it resembles the Bohemian, perhaps, more than any other, 
and both are distinguished by harsh sounds and crcvfded consonants. It has, however, 
considerable harmony. A;n imaginative writer has compared the conversation of Polish 
ladies to the warbling of birds. The difficulty of the pronunciation cannot be easily over- 
come by foreigners. The sonorous majesty of the Russian is more adapted for music, but 
the Polish is rich in grammatical forms, figures and inversions, and well fitted for every 
sort of style. It has, in later times, become the latiguage of poets, historians, and orators. 
Bowring has translated into English, and published some interesting selections fi'om the 
Polish poets. Between the years 1110 and 1135, the monkish historian Gallus flourished. 
He wrote in Latin verse. In the latter part of the 12th century, Vincent Kadlubeck 
wrote a history, in which he attempts to penetrate the mysteries of the Polish origin. 
The circumstance which contributed most to the promotion of learning in Poland, was 
the foundation of the University of Cracow, by Casimir the Great, in 1347. It was regu- 
lated in imitation of that of Paris ; and such eminence had its professors attained, in a 
short time, that Pope Urban V. estimated it, in 1364, to be equal to any of the univer- 
sities of Europe. The first printing press was erected at Cracow in- 1474. The language 
began to be cultivated and even written elegantly. Schools were generally established, 
to which the sons of citizens, and of the serfs, had the same access as the nobles. Kro- 
mer, the historian, called the Livy of Poland, and Janickl, both sons of peasants, were 
among the numerous authors who then flourished. Gregory Sanok, the Polish Bacon,- 
was born about the year 1400. He was a professor in Cracow, and introd\iced a spirit of 
liberal and independent inquiry, almost unparalleled in that age. He hated the scholastic- 
dialect, ridiculed astrology, and introduced a simple mode of reasoning. He was also a- 
great admirer, and patron of elegant learning, and was the first who introduced the woi'ks 
of Virgil into notice, in Poland. Copernicus, the father of th<i modern astronomy, was 
born at Thorn, in 1473, where his father, a citizen of Cracow, had settled, after the 
accession of Polish Prussia to Poland, Adam Zaluzianski, the Polish Linnaeus, published 
a work, about the same time, which he entitled, Methodus Herbaria. There were, 
perhaps, at this time, more printing presses in Poland, than there have ever been since, 
or than there were in any other country of Europe at the time. There were eighty- 
three towns where they printed books ; aiid in Cracovt? alone there were fifty presses,. 



VOL. IV. 



14 



106 LITERATURE AND EDUCATION. [NoV. 

The chief circumstance, which supported so many, was the liberty of the press ; which 
allowed the publication of the writings of the contending sects, which were not permitted 
to be printed elsewhere. The Catholics printed their books at Cracow, Posen, Lublin, 
&c. ; the Lutherans at Dombrowa, Paniowica, &c. ; the Arians at Rakow, Zaslaw, &c. ; 
and the Greek sectarians at Wilna and Oslow. In the latter part of the 16th century, 
Stephen Batory, King of Poland, founded a university at Wilna, and very inconsiderately 
intrusted the care of it to the Jesuits. The curious reckon 711 Polish authors, in the 
reign of Sigismund IIL 

The Polish language became more generally diffused in Lithuania, Gallicia, Volhynia, 
&c. where formerly the Russian was the prevalent dialect. In the stormy reign of John 
Casimir, learning sadly languished. The incursions of the Swedes, Cossacks, and Tar- 
tars, swept away the libraries, and broke up all literary society. The reign of Augustus 
III. was more propitious. The Bishop Zaluski, and the Abbe Konarski visited France, 
and carried back with them to Poland an ardent enthusiasm for studious pursuits, and a 
desire to elevate their national literature from its debasement. Zaluski traversed almost 
all the countries of the continent, in quest of books, and manuscripts, devoting the whole 
of his revenues and property to this noble purpose. After forming a collection of more 
than 200,000 volumes, he made a present of it to the public. The exertions of Konarski 
were not less praiseworthy. He was of the Society of the Piarists, an order which had 
been introduced into Poland in 1642, on precisely opposite principles to the Jesuits. He 
established a college at Warsaw, at his own expense. His publications on learning, 
politics, and religion, were written in the boldest style of reform. He freed education 
from the shackles of the Jesuits. His exertions were unnoticed at first, but they soon 
spread wider and wider throughout Poland. In 1767, the venerable Zaluski was arrested 
by the infamous Catharine, and conducted, with his brother patriots, to the frontiers of 
Poland. Catharine offered them their liberty, if they would promise to desist from their 
opposition ; this proposal was made to each separately in their dungeons, but rejected 
with disdain by every one. They were transferred to Siberia, and their names were 
forbidden to be mentioned. 

The following notices in regard to the present state of learning, have recently appeared 
in the British Quarterly Journal. 

" State of Education of the Kingdom of Poland, as it was in 1830. — 
The University of Warsaw, founded by the Emperor Alexander in November, 1816, 
and substituted for that of Cracow, (the latter city having been separated from the king- 
dom,) consists of five faculties : theology, (of the Roman Catholic faith,) having six pro- 
fessors ; law and administration, having eight professors ; physics and mathematics, ten 
professors ; medicine, ten professors ; literature and arts, fourteen professors. The rector 
and the elders of each faculty compose the council of internal administration. The 
university reckoned 300 students the first year of its foundation, and it counted 750 in 
1830. The prizes consist of valuable gold medals. There are also an observatory which 
has cost 800,000 florins, a botanic garden containing ten thousand plants, a zoological 
cabinet, a museum of ancient and modern works of art, medals, minerals, &c., and a 
public library, containing 150,000 volumes. 

" Besides the university, there are in Warsaw four lyceums or colleges, having 1,613 
pupils, a preparatory school, five schools for the Jews, a Roman Catholic seminary, a 
school for midwives and matrons, a school for the deaf and dumb ; also several military 
schools, such as one of the cadets at Kalisch, that for engineers and artillery, one for 
ensigns of infantry, and one for sub-lieutenants of cavalry : there is a school for the con- 
struction of roads and bridges, one for the forests, one for agriculture, and one for the 
mines. 

" There are also eleven palatine schools distributed among the various palatinates or 
provinces, besides district schools in the country ; also elementary schools for children of 
both sexes, and Sunday schools for the instruction of mechanics. 

" In all the kingdom, out of a population of about four millions, there were last year 
1,746 professors or teachers, 29,750 male students, and 11,157 female pupils. 

"A committee of public instruction had the superintendence of all these establishments, 
examined the candidates, books, &c. 

" There were, in the city of Warsaw, twenty-eight journals, newspapers, and reviews, 
including daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly publications. There was also a news- 
paper published in the chief town of each palatinate. — Dr. Badedii's Statistical Tables. 
Warsaw, 1830. 

" JVote. — The above is from an Italian Journal : what follows is from a different source. 

" In the expose presented by the Polish minister of the interior to the Diet of last year, 
it is mentioned that the females, who are intended to take the charge of boarding schools 
fur those of their own sex, receive such instruction as may qualify them for the various 
grades in those establishments, under the direction of commissioners, specially appointed 
for that purpose. We observe, on the same authority, that the sum annually assigned for 
the furtherance of public education, is about two millions of florins, independently of one 



■£g3| 1 NOTICE OF COPERNICUS AND llEYTEN. 10' 

hundred and sixty tliousand bestowed in aid of indigent scliolars. The number of students 
at the university of Warsaw last summer was stated by the minister as bemg ob9 ; and 
the whole of the Polish youth, educating in the high schools, as amountmg to 8 6b2. He 
likewise remarked, that, although the elementary schools had experienced a decrease ol 
five and thirty in their number since the year 1823, the scholars had actually increased, 
and that they might be estimated at an average of 28,000 per annum." 



IV. BIOGRAPHY OF DISTINGUISHED INDIVIDUALS. 

Nicholas Copernicus. Thorn, on the Vistula, the birth place of this distinguished 
philosopher, though commonly reckoned in the Prussian dominions became an mdepen- 
dent town or republic, about the year 1454, under the protection of Poland. On this ac- 
count as well as in reference to the place of his education, Copermcus may more properly 
be said to be a Pole than a Prussian. He was bom in February, 1473. His family came, 
oriAnally, from Westphalia. From a school at Thorn, Copernicus went to Cracow, where 
he studied medicine, and received the degree of doctor. At the same time he studied 
^athemaScHnd asti'onomy. At the age of twenty-three, he went to aly, where the 
Sts anTsciences were beginning to flourish, after the fall of the Byzantine empire. A 
Bo lo'na he Ttudild astroLmy.^ In 1500, he taught mathematics, at Rome, with great 
success and was already placed by the side of Regiomontanus. He was employed by 
he government of his country in 1521, in plans designed to put an end ^ the d«^^^^ 
whidi had arisen from the irregular coining of money. He proposed a plan for estab ish- 
^g a general mint at the publil expense. This was not carried into effect. He now ap- 
Dlied his whole strength to the great subject of astronomy. At this time the belief in the 
Fmmobihty of the earth was universal.'' The prevalent system, which was called the 
system oI Ptolemy, had been adopted by Pythagoras, Aristotle, Plato, Hipparchus, Ar- 
ch m^des, fnd othe 3. Copernicus doubted whether the motions of the heavenly bodies 
coiW be o confused and complicated as this system would make thern. He found in the 
wr tings of the ancients, that Nicetas,Heraclides, and others, had thought of the possi- 
bility 5f a motion of the earth. This induced him to examine the subjec more at large. 
He now assumed that the sun was the centre of the system and that the earth was a 
Saner-evolving like Mars and Venus, around the sun. According to this system he 
fully explained Sll the motions of the heavenly bodies. Thus was discovered the true 
system of the universe, a hundred years before the invention of telescopes. Copernicus 
had only ndsemble wioden instruments, on which the lines were frequently ma.^ed 
Smply with ink. On account of the prejudices of the times, he .advanced his system 
merely as an hypothesis. Excommunication was issued against him from the Vatican 
STdl was not till 1821, 278 years after the sentence, that the court of Rome annulled 
the excommunication. Copernicus died June 11, 1543, aged 70 years. 

Reyten When Russia, Austria, and Prussia, were accomplishing their nefarious 
nufooles fn partitioning Poland, Reyten was one of the few patriots, who raised his voice 
^gafnst t. fie was a ilpresentative in the diet of Poland from Nowogrodek, and a Lithu- 
aman by descent. Poninski, a creature of the allied powers when the session of the diet 
opened,^ was nominated, by one of the deputies as marshal. As he was P|:oceeding to 
take his seat, several of the members protested against it as a breach of privilege, and 
Reyten exckimed, " Gentlemen, the marshal cannot be thus self-appoined; he whole 
assembly must choose him : I protest against the nomination of Poninski Some of the 
member^s Znediately shouted, " Long live the true son of his country, Marshal Reyten. 
OnX neS day, Poninski made his appearance with a guard of foreign soldiers whom 
h^TstationedatThe doors to prevent the entrance of the public. Reyten, and the little 
bLd of patbts were soon at their posts. Reyten, perceiving that t^he people were not 
allowed to entei^ exclaimed, " Gentlemen, follow me. Poninski shall not be marshal of 
?heXt to-day if I live" ! It was already twelve o'clock, and Pomnski did not appear, 
but a messenger arrived to state that he adjourned the meeting. " We do not acknow- 
?edge TonTnsli for marshal," replied Reyteir ; and seeing many of the members about to 
retire, he placed himself before the door with his arms crossed, and aUenip ed to s^p Ae 
deserters. But his exertions proving useless, he threw himself along tl^^ door- way 
exclaiming, with a wearied but determined voice " Go, go and sea yo^^ own m^^^^^^ 
first trample on the breast which will only beat for honor and liberty. ^^^^en emained 
at his DOst all niffht On the next day, the corrupt diet held their assembly without the 
hall su h wL IS di^ad of one patriotic individual On the 23d of April, when Pomn 
ski, and his party entered, they found Reyten stretched senseless on the flooi, in which 
sta e he must have lain thirty-six hours. Such was the determination, ^ith which he 
resisted the oppression of his country; so entirely were all his energies devoted to the 
cause! thatvvhen he learned its failure he lost his reason. When Pomnski informed Reyten 



108 PULAWSKI KOSCIUSKO. [NoV. 

that the ministers had condescended to set aside the sentence of outlawry against him, 
and besides, offered him 2,000 ducats to defray his travelling expenses to whatever country 
he chose, he nobly answered, " I have with me 5,000 ducats ; I make you an offer of them 
provided you will resign the marshal's staff, and with it corruption and dishonor." One 
of the Prussian generals, who was present, struck with the disinterestedness of the patriot, 
exclaimed, Optime vir, gratulor tibi ; optime rem tuam egisti. This truly great man, 
in one of his violent fits of insanity, brought on by distress at the fate of his country, 
seized a glass from which he had been drinking, broke it to pieces with his teeth, and 
swallowing the fragments, expired on the 8th of August, 1780. 

Count Pulawski. Joseph Pulawski, a rich and noble Pole, in his early years 
followed the profession of law. Repnin, the creature of Catharine, at Warsaw, on a 
certain occasion, threatened to strike Pulawski, because he put on his cap in his presence, 
though he had done the same. This personal insult added fresh fuel to Pulawski's patri- 
otic fire. On the 29th of February, 1768, with about 300 others, he formed what was 
called the confederacy of Bar, or a combination to resist the imposition of the Russian 
yoke. In a short time, they mustered 8,000 men. After one of the incursions of the 
Russians, Pulawski was told that his three sons had perished in the skirmishes. His 
answer was, " I am sure they have done their duty." It proved, however, that young 
Casimir Pulawski was still living, and had repulsed the Russians, three different times, 
with the determination of a veteran, though he was but twenty-one years of age. His 
father, soon after trusting himself imprudently to a Tartar governor, was arrestedin 1769. 
Of all the family, young Casimir alone survived, and he saved himself by a retreat to 
Hungary, with an escort of only ten men. In the latter part of August, 1770, Pulawski 
came down from the mountains, and seized a fortified abbey on the banks of the river 
Warta. Four thousand Russians laid seige to it, in January, 1771. The patriots were so 
badly supplied with clothes, that even at this season of the year, the sentinels were 
obhged to leave their dresses for those who relieved guard ; and in case of an attack, 
many were obliged to fight in their shirts. Every assault fui-nished them Avith a new 
supply of dress, and by the end of the seige, all the garrison were dressed in uniform. 
The enemy were obhged to raise the seige, leaving 1,200 men dead. In the beginning 
of 1771, the confederates under Pulawski, had about 5,000 cavalry in the palatinate of 
Cracow. An attempt to seize the king, Stanislas, which was made under the auspices of 
Strawinski, and which failed, brought much odium on the popular cause. Pulawski 
refused his sanction, v/hiie he withheld his dissent. On the 22d of April, 1772, the Rus- 
sian and Prussian troops appeared before the castle of Cracow, which was obliged to 
surrender. Nearly 10,000 Austrians, under Count Esterhazy, entered Poland from Hun- 
gary. The council was broken up ; all the posts were deserted, and the confederation 
was at an end. The chiefs retired into foreign lands. Pulawski came to America, 
and offered his services to congress. They were accepted, and Pulawski was honored 
with the rank of Brigadier General. He discovered great intrepidity in an engagement 
with a party of the British, near Charleston, South Carolina, in May, 1779. In the assault 
upon Savannah, Georgia, on the 9th of October, by General Lincoln, and the French 
Count D'Estaing, Pulawski was wounded, at the head of two hundred horsemen, as he 
was galloping into the town, with the intention of charging in the rear. He died on the 
eleventh, and congress resolved that a monument should be erected to his memory. 

Thadeus Kosciusko. This illustrious man was born on the 12th of February, 
1746, at the chateau of Sienniewrcze, in Lithuania. He was descended from a noble, 
hut poor family, and was early initiated in the science of war at the military school of 
Warsavi^. Early in life he repaired to France, relaxing his labors, in the art of war, by 
attention to literature and the fine arts. On his return to Poland, he was refused a mili- 
tary appointment^ because he was a friend to Adam Czartoriski, whom Stanislas disliked. 
In consequence, Kosciusko hastened across the Atlantic, and offered his services to Gen. 
Washington. His labors were immediately appreciated, and Kosciusko was soon made 
aid-de-camp to Washington. He was the companion of Lafayette, and acquired his cor- 
dial and lasting friendship. At the close of the war, having received the public thanks of 
congress, he returned to Poland. He lived in retirement until 1792. He was then 
nominated, by the Polish Diet, commander in chief of the forces, which were employed 
against Catharine, and her alhes. On the 18th of June, the Poles, at Dubienka, headed 
by Kosciusko, withstood an enemy three times their number, and made an honorable 
retreat, after much slaughter. On the failure of the efforts of the patriots, Kosciusko 
retired to Leipzig, in Germany. Here he was not permitted, however, long to remain. 
The patriots of Warsaw, in September, 1793, had sent two messengers to communicate 
with him on some plans, which had been formed for the deliverance of Poland. The 
few months following were spent in making preparations. At length, on the 23d of 
March, 1794, Kosciusko reached Cracow, where Wodzicld, with a body of 400 men, was 
ready to receive him ; on the following day, he was proclaimed generalissimo. A deed 
of insurrection was drawn up, by which Kosciusko was appointed dictator. He had 



1831.1 CONDITION. OP THE JEWS. 109 

intrusted to liim the regulation of all affiiirs, political and civil. Never before was confi- 
dence more fully placed in an individual, and never were expectations better grounded. 
He had the gallantry and noble-mindedness of a Pole, and the prudence and wisdom of 
Washington. He immediately issued a summon to the nobles and citizens, imposed a 
tax, and made all requisite arrangements. On the 4th of April, at the head of 4,000 men, 
he met the Russians, a few miles from Cracow. After a battle, of nearly live hours' 
continuance, victory declared in favor of the Poles ; 3,000 Russians were left dead on the 
field. The Cossacks, in case of an insurrection at Warsaw, which was expected on the 
18th, had received orders to fire the city. This was happily discovered, and it was 
determined to anticipate it, by unfurling the standard of insurrection, on the 17th. 
Early in the morning, the Polish guards attacked the Russian picket, and took possession 
of the arsenal, and powder magazine. A most obstinate and bloody battle followed, in 
the streets of Warsaw, which lasted two days. Nothing, however, could stand the 
impetuosity of the Poles. The Russian governor fled, and Kosciusko took possession of 
the city. The Lithuanians did not long delay to obey the call of their Polish brethren. 
Wilna Ibllowed the example of Warsaw. A body of 40,000 Prussians soon effected a 
junction with the Russians. To meet the combined forces, Kosciusko advanced with 
16,000 regular troops, and 10,000 peasants. The contest was a severe one, and Kosci- 
usko made good his retreat. In the summer, the emperor of Austria joined the Russians 
and Prussians. Several warmly contested engagements between different portions of the 
contending armies followed. On the 16th of September, Suwarow defeated a detachment 
of the Polish forces. This laid open the road to Warsaw. To prevent the junction of 
Suwarow with Gen. Fersen, Kosciusko attacked the troops of the latter, with desperate 
courage, on the 10th of October. He fell, covered with wounds. As the Cossacks were 
preparing to strip his body, he was recognized by some officers, and even the Cossacks 
forbore to insult him. Catharine, with characteristic cruelty, ordered him to be trans- 
ported to Petersburg, and plunged into a dungeon. The death of the empress changed 
his destiny, Paul, soon after his accession to the throne, "brought him forth out of 
prison, and spoke kindly unto him, and changed his prison garments." Paul gave him 
12,000 roubles, and 1,500 serfs, as a testimony of his regard. Kosciusko returned the 
presents, and then came, by way of England, to America. While at Bristol, England, 
Dr, Warner, who had an interview with him, gives the following account. 

" I never contemplated a more interesting human figure than Kosciusko stretched upon 
his couch. His wounds were still unhealed, and he was unable to sit upright. He 
appeared to be a small man, spare and delicate. A black silk bandage crossed his fair 
and high, but somewhat wrinkled, forehead. Beneath it his dark eagle eye sent forth a 
stream of light, that indicated the steady flame of patriotism, which still burned within 
his soul, unquenched by disaster and wounds, weakness, poverty, and exile. Con- 
trasted with its brightness was the paleness of his countenance, and the wan cast of 
every feature. He spoke very tolerable English, though in a low and feeble tone ; but 
his conversation, replete with fine sense, lively remark, and sagacious answers, evinced a 
noble understanding, and a cultivated mind. On rising to depart, I offered him my hand ; 
he took it. My eyes filled with tears ; and he gave it a warm grasp. I muttered some- 
thing about ^ brighter prospects and happier days.' He faintly smiled and said, ' Ah ! sir, 
he who devotes himself for his country must not look for his reward on this side the 
grave.' " 

He was received with great enthusiasm in America, returned to France, in 1798, 
where he took up his residence. He lived, for the most part, at Fontainbleau. He 
refused to join in the designs of Bonaparte, though warmly pressed. In 1815, he exerted 
his influence with the Emperor Alexander, in behalf of his country, but unsuccessfully. 
He soon after retired to Soleure, in Switzerland. In 1817, he publicly abolished slavery 
on his estate in Poland. Soon after, a fall from his horse occasioned his death. His- 
remains were carried to Poland, and interred in the metropolitan church, in Cracow. 
The Polish ladies^ with unanimous accord, put on deep mourning, and wore it as for a 
father. 



V. CONDITION OP THE JEWS IN POLAND. 

The Jews, very early found a resting place in Poland. It is an interesting historical 
fact, that they have been treated with more uniform kindness in that kingdom, than in 
any other country of their dispersion. Boleslas II. granted them a charter, in 1264, and 
the same protection was extended to them by Casimir the Great. It was said that this 
prince was interested in their favor by the influence, which Esther, a young Jewess, had 
over him. The Jews had sometime before obtained possession of most of the ready money 
in Poland, The exchange at Cracow, still standing, impresses us with a high idea of the 
commerce of this age, thus intrusted to the Jews. At the marriage of Casimir's grand- 



110 JEWS IN POLAND. [N( 



daughter Elizabeth, Wierzynck, a Jewish merchant of Cracow, requested the honor of | 
being allowed to make the young bride a marriage present of 100,000 florins of gold, an '> 
immense sum, at that time, and equal to her dowry from her grandfather. In 1540, it I 
was ascertained that there were not, in the whole of Poland, more than 500 Christian ! 
merchants and manufacturers ; wiiile there were 3,200 Jewish, who employed 9,600 | 
artisans in working gold, silver, &c., or manufacturing cloths. In the reign of Sigismund t 
Augustus, the Jews were prohibited from deaUng in horses, or keeping inns. Poland 
was the seat of the Rabinnical papacy. The Talmud ruled supreme in the public mind ; 
the synagogues obeyed with implicit deference the mandates of their spiritual superiors, 
and the whole system of education was rigidly conducted, so as to perpetuate the authority 
of tradition. | 

The policy of the Russian government seems to have been to endeavor to overthrow \ 
the Rabbinical authority, and to relieve the crowded Polish provinces by transferring the I 
Jews to less densely peopled parts of their dominions, where it was hoped they might be I 
induced, or compelled, to become an agricultural race. An ukase of the emperor Alexander, i 
in 1803-4, prohibited the practice of small trades to the Jews of Poland, and proposed to I 
transport numbers of them to agricultural settlements. He transferred, likewise, the J 
management of the revenues of the communities from the Rabbins, who were accused of , 
malversation, to the elders. A recent decree of the emperor Nicholas, appears to be 
aimed partly at the Rabbins, who may be immediately excluded by the police from any | 
town they may enter, and partly at the petty-traffickers, who are entirely prohibited .1 
in the Russian dominions ; the higher order of merchants, such as bill-brokers, and con- 1 
tractors, are admitted on receiving an express permission from government ; artisans and 
handicraftsmen are encouraged, though they cannot move, without a passport. 

Poland, with the adjacent provinces of Moravia, Moldavia, and Wallachia, is the great 
seat of the Jewish population. The number has been stated at three millions, but it is 
probably not more than, two millions. The rapid increase of the population beyond all 
possible means of maintenance, has very much embarrassed the governmeuft. The Jews 
are in circumstances, in which they can neither ascend nor descend. They may not 
become possessors, and they are averse to becoming cultivators of the soil. In some 
districts, as in Volhynia, they are described as a fine race, with the lively, expressive 
eye of the Jew, and forms, active and well proportioned, though not robust. A Jewish 
free corps served under Kosciusko. The Jews, as a body, are in a state of great igno- 
rance, poverty, and wretchedness. 

Very deep interest has been felt in the condition of the Jews, for several years, particu- 
larly by Christians in Germany, and in England. The great question is how to provide 
an earthly support for those Jews, who embrace Christianity. They are at once cast off, 
and sometimes persecuted by their own people. To overcome this difficulty, an institution 
was established some years since at Warsaw, into which Jewish converts are taken. 
They receive the necessary religious instruction, and at the same time learn a trade, by 
which they may afterwards support themselves. A number of converted, or inquiring 
Jews reside in it, and the avails of their labors more than defray the expense.* The 
London Society, at one time, employed six missionaries in Poland. The Grand Duke 
Constantine, on a certain occasion, stood sponsor, at the baptism of a Jewish girl at Warsaw. 
In very many cases, the Jews are willing to listen to the truth. During the sanguinary 
scenes, which were witnessed in Warsaw, in November, 1830, the missionaries were 
mercifully preserved. One of them, writing on the 9th of December last, says, "You 
can easily imagine what we all felt at the first report of the revolution, when at the same 
time, the city was on fire. On the second evening, we could clearly hear how shutters 
and shops were violently opened, at no great distance from us. In much mercy, the 
Lord preserved us. During the first night, the whole people were supplied with arms 
from the armory, but the word of God and prayer, were our weapons. God grant that 
the like bloody scenes may never occur again." It is stated that many of the Jews were 
in great alarm, and that it was found a most precious season to direct them to the 
only Refuge. 

It is an interesting fact that the Polish Jews, generally, entertain the fond hope of one 
day returning to the Holy Land. Dr. Henderson says that " it cannot admit of a moment's 
doubt, that should the Ottoman power be removed out of the way, and no obstacles be 
presented by those who may occupy the intermediate regions, the Jews will, to a man, 
cross the Bosphorus, and endeavor to re-establish their ancient polity. To this all their 
wishes bend ; for this they daily pray ; and in order to accomplish this, they are ready to 
sacrifice any, even the most favored advantages, they may possess in Europe." 

* The institution at Warsaw was commenced on the 13th of October, 1826. In February, 1831, twenty- 
nine persons had enjoyed the benefits of the seminary. Seven were then remaining. Seventeen had been 
baptised, and all of the twenty-nine, fully believed the great truth that Jesus Christ is the only Saviour of 
men. A few of them have disappointed the expectations of their friends. Most of the students have been 
«?mployed in printing and book-binding. 



1^331.] DESTITUTE RELIGIOUS STATE. Ill 

I VI. RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF POLAND. 

Christianity was introduced into Poland, in the reign of Micc/yhis I., in the latter part 
of the tenth centiu-y. This was in consequence of the refusal of a Bohemian princess to 
marry the Polish monarch unless he would receive Christian I)aplism. He became a 
most ardent champion of the gospel ; broke down, even vvith his own hands, the idols of 
his country, and built Christian churches on the ruins of pagan temples. He founded 
the archiepiscopal sees, of Gnesne and Cracow ; and appointed St. Adalbert, who had 
been most instrumental in the introduction of Christianity, to be the first diocesan of the 
former see. He issued an edict that when any portion of the gospel was read, the hearers 
should half-draw their swords, to testify their readiness to defend its trutlis. His son, 
Boleslas, was equally zealous. In later ages, the Poles seemed to be more tolerant than 
any of the European nations. While the Lutherans were perishing in Germany, and the 
Huouenots in France, while Mary was kindling the fires of Smithfield, and Elizabeth 
persecuting the Nonconformists, the Poles opened their gates to all classes of religionists. 
Leopol was the seat of three bishops, Greek, Armenian, and Latin. 

The following statements show the present condition of the different sects in Poland. 
The Roman Catholic religion is under the special patronage of governmeyit, though a 
perfect freedom of all other forms of religion is allowed. The Cathohc archbishop at 
Warsaw is primate of Poland. There are eight bishops, one to each palatinate, 1,638 
parish churches, 117 auxiliary churches, 6 colleges, 11 seminaries, 151 male convents, 29 
female convents. In 1819, Pope Pius VII. suppressed 31 male convents, and 13 female 
convents. The number of clergy of the Latin Catholic church is 2,740 ; of the Greek 

|Catholic, 1 bishop, 287 parish churches, 1 seminary, 5 male convents, and 345 priests. 
Of the Russo-Greek church, 6 priests ; of the Lutheran, 29 priests ; of the Calvinist, 9 ; 
of the Phillippines, 2 ; of Jewish synagogues, 274 ; of Mohammedan mosques, with their 

limams, 2. The destitution of religious "instruction in Poland is very great. It appears 
from the communications of the Rev. Dr. Pinkerton, a fev/ years since, that copies of the 
Holy Scriptures were exceedingly rare. There have been four translations of the Bible 
into the Polish language, for Protestants. The first is called the old Cracow Bible, and 
was printed in 1561. Many passages of this Bible being taken from the Bohemian Pro- 
testant Bible, it never received the sanction of the Pope. However, it went through two 
other editions, in 1575 and 1577, both printed in Cracow. A copy of this version is very 
rarely to be met with. The second version is called the Radziwill Bible, as it was pub- 
lished at the expense of Prince Radziwill, a protestant. It appeared in 1563. His son, 
a catholic, after the death of his father, carefully bought up the edition, and burnt it ! 
The third translation, by Simeon Budney, is called the Socinian Bible. This translation 
went through two editions, the first in 1510, the second in 1512, both printed in Lithu- 
'Ijania. It is said that only three copies remain of this version. The fourth translation 

[into Polish is the Dantzig Bible, made and printed by the Reformed church in Dantzig. 

I It has passed through seven editions. Dantzig, 1632; Amsterdam, 1666; Halle, 1726; 

I Kojnigsberg, 1737 ; Brieg, 1768 ; Krenigsberg, 1799 ; and Berlin, 1810. The first edition, 
for the most part, was burnt by the Archbishop of Gnesne. It is supposed that of six 
editions of the Protestant Bible, printed between 1632 and 1779, 3,000 copies were 
destroyed, principally by the Jesuits. The whole six editions did not, probably, amount 
to more than 7,000 copies. The edition at Berlin of 8,000, printed at the expense of the 

: British and Foreign Bible Society, will go a very small way, towards supplying the 
demand among several hundred thousand Protestants, who speak the Polish language. 
The only authorized version, which is circulated among the Catholics, is that which was 
published, in 1599, at Warsaw, and which was approved by Pope Clement VIII. This 
translation is considered to be a very good one. It has never been reprinted in Poland, 
and but twice out of the country — at Breslau, in 1740, and in 1771. The whole number 
of copies of these editions, for ten or eleven millions of Catholics, did not exceed 3,000. 
Hence it is that a copy is not to be obtained for money, and you may search a hundred 
thousand families in GalUcia, and Poland, and scarcely find one Bible. 

Note. — The works, which we have used in the preceding article, are Fletcher's History of Poland, heiong- 
ing to Harper's Family Library; a History of Poland, being one of the series of Dr. Lardner's Cabinet 
CyclopsBdia; Malte Brun's Geography ; Milman's History of the Jews; an article in the London Foreign 
(Quarterly ; London Jewish Expositor, &c. We have, in many cases, adopted the language of the writers 
referred to. The history of Poland, in Dr. Lardner's series, is much the best work, which we have seen. 
It is thorough, impartial, and dignified. While it manifests a warm sympathy for the Poles, it does not 
abuse Nicholas and the Russians. It asserts what we fully believe, that Nicholas is the ablest and best 
disposed of any monarch in Europe. We have abundant direct testimony to this fact. It moreover ac- 
knowledges, with reverence, the j)rovidonce of God. Fletcher's History is spirited, enthusiastic for the 
Poles, and will be read with great interest. We were sorry to see the proiane use which it frequently makes 
of Scripture, and the flippant manner in which it alludes to the most serious subjects. Accompanying the 
English edition is a valuable map of Poland. 



112 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



[Nov. 



AliUMIVI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 

We are gratified in being able to continue the sketches of the graduates of Dartmouth 
College. Mr. Farmer will receive the sincere thanks of the community, for the many 
valuable facts, which he brings to light. 



1778. 

Labaw Ainsworth, a. M., son of Capt. 
William Ainsworth, was born at Woodstock, 
Connecticut, July 19, 1759. He was or- 
dained the first, and has been the only set- 
tled Congregational minister in the town of 
Jaffrey, New Hampshire, December 10, 
1782. His son, William Ainsworth, gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth college, in 1811, and is 
settled as an attorney at law in his native 
town. 

Elijah Brigham, A. M., was son of 
Col. Levi Brigham, of Northborough, Mas- 
sachusetts. He commenced the study of 
divinity after leaving college, but he soon 
rehnquished it, and engaged in mercantile 
business with his brother-in-law, Breck 
Parkman, Esq., of Westborough. In 1795, 
he was appointed one of the justices of the 
court of common pleas ; in 1796, he was 
elected a senator ; and in 1799 and 1800, a 
counsellor of the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts. He was afterwards a justice 
through the State, and representative in the 
congress of the United States, from 1810 to 
the time of his death. Judge Brigham died 
suddenly, at the city of Washington, Febru- 
ary 22, 1816, aged 64. — Worcester Maga- 
zine, ii. 172. 

Eli Brigham, A. M., from the trien- 
nial catalogue just published, is still living. 

Moses Brigham, A. M., after he gradu- 
ated, remained at Hanover ; commenced 
trade, in which he did not succeed ; was un- 
fortunate, and removed to the State of New 
York.— MS. Letter. 

Ebejvezer Brown, A. B., was a preach- 
er, and for some time resided in that capacity 
in Bethel, Vermont. After quitting the 
ministerial profession, he became a farmer, 
and died at Norwich, Vt. about three years 
since. — MS. Letter of Hon. J. P. Buck- 
ingham, 1830. 

Benjamin Burt, A. B., appears to 
have died before the year 1799. 

Nehemiah Finn, A. B., died as early 
as 1798. 

David Foot, A. M., from Colchester, 
Connecticut, became an Episcopalian min- 
ister, and died soon after. 

Ebenezer Johnson, A. B., from Elling- 
ton, Connecticut, taught school a number 
of years. He removed to the westward. — 
MS. Letter. 

Abraham Jones, A. B., died young, or 
at an early period of life. He is starred in 
the catalogue of 1799. 



JosiAH KiLBURN, A. M., minister of 
Chesterfield, Massachusetts, was ordained 
November 9, 1780, and died in September, 
1781. — MS. Letter of H. Davidson, Esq. 

Joseph Motley, A. M., was born at 
Salem, Massachusetts, May 14, 1756. After 
having been employed as an assistant in 
Phillips and Dummer Academies, he was 
ordained at Lynnfield, then the third parish 
in Lynn, Massachusetts, September 24, 
1783. He died July 9, 1821, aged 65 years. 
Mr. Motley was characterized by an extreme 
degree of sensibility, and an uncommon 
fondness for retirement. He performed the 
ministerial duties in his parish for nearly 38 
years, and though he resided within nine 
miles of bis native town, he never preached 
in it. His manners were affable, his con- 
versation easy and agreeable, and his mode 
of preaching mild and persuasive. His pub- 
lications were the right-hand of fellowship 
at the ordination of Rev. Thomas C. Thacher, 
1794 ; two sermons on the death of Joseph 
Roby, 1803 ; an address on the establish- 
ment of peace, 1805 ; and an article on 
original sin, in the Christian Disciple, in 
1820. — Lewis'' s History of Lynn, 220. 

Solomon Richardson, A. M., appears 
to be living from the triennial catalogue just 
published. 

Nathaniel Smith, A. B., appears to 
have been living in 1830. 

Joseph Vaill, A. M., was a native of 
Litchfield, Connecticut. He was ordained 
at Hadlyme, in the town of East Haddam, 
as successor to Rev. Grindall Rawson, Feb- 
ruary 9, 1780, and has been in the ministry 
more than fifty years. — Field's Statistical 
Account of Middlesex Co., (Con.) 80, 138. 

John Webster, A. M., was son of 
Col. John Webster, a merchant of Chester, 
New Hampshire. He studied theology, 
and preached for a short time. " He was a 
sober and discreet man, but was very diffi- 
dent, and gave up the ministry." He Avent 
to Canada, and settled there as a farmer. — 
MS. communication of Rev. Josiah Webster. 

Jacob Wood, A. M., was a native of 
Boxford, Massachusetts. He was ordained 
at Newbury, Vermont, January 9, 1788, and 
there died, February 10, 1790, at the age of 
32, leaving no family. He was admitted to 
the degree of A. M.^ at Yale College, in 
1783.-316'. Letter. 

1779. 

Jeremiah Bradford, A. B., son of 
Dr. Bradford, and a descendant of William 



1831.] 



ALUMNI OP DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



113 



Bradford, Governor of Rhode Island, was 
born at Chatham, in Connecticut, in tlie 
year 1757. He now resides as an inde- 
pendent farmer in Berlin, Vermont.— Jkf-S'. 
Letter of Hon. J. P. Buckingham, 1831. 

Samuel Brigham, A. M., was a native 
of Shutesbury, Massachusetts, and born 
about the year 1756. He studied medicine, 
and practised as a physician. He died about 
three years since. — Ibid. 

Jedidiah p. Buckingham, A. M., son 
of Capt. Jedidiah Buckingham, was born at 
Lebanon, Conn., April 7, 1758. His grand- 
father was Capt. Thomas Buckingham, of 
I Say brook, who was son of Stephen Bucking- 
ham, Esq., of the same place, who was son 
of Rev. Thomas Buckingham, the second 
Iminister of the ancient town of Saybrook. 
Mr. Buckingham was in the practice of law 
in Vermont, about ten years ; was after- 
wards Chief Justice of the Court of Orange 
County, and Judge of Probate for the same 
County. He was ten years a Representa- 
tive in the Assembly or Legislature of the 
State, and a member of the Executive Coun- 
cil. He resides in the town of Thetford, 
where, since he retired from public life, he 
has attended to the cultivation of a small 
farm. — Ibid. 

Sewall. Chapin, a. B,, son of Elisha 
Chapin, was born at West Springfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1754. He studied the pro- 
fession of theology, and afterwards engaged 
in the instruction of an academy in the west- 
ern part of Virginia, where he died in the 
year 1787, in the 33d year of his age. — 
Sprague, Historical Discourse, 76, 77. 

EzEKiEL CoLBURW, A. M., SOU of John 
Colburn, who early went from Connecticut 
to Lebanon, New Hampshire, was a native 
of Connecticut, and born about the year 
1754. He studied theology, and preached 
some time at Chester, in Vermont. He be- 
came a farmer, and died about 20 years 
since.— MS. Letter of Rev. S. Wood,D.D. 

William Demijvg, A. B., a native of 
Connecticut, and born about the same time 
[with the preceding, is a respectable farmer 
in Cornish, New Hampshire. — MS. Letter 
\of Hon. J. P. Buckingham. 
\ Elijah Dewey, A. B., a native of Leb- 
anon, Connecticut, commenced the study of 
-physic, and died soon after. — Ibid. 

AsHUR Hatch, A. M., born at Preston, 
lin Connecticut, about 1753, taught an acad- 
emy several years, and became a farmer in 
Brookfield, Vermt)nt, and died about six 
years since. — Ibid. 

Abraham Holland, A. M., a native 
of Massachusetts, and born about 1754, 
preached a short time after he graduated ; 
but acquired the profession of medicine, and 
settled in practice. in Walpole, New Hamp- 
shire. He was appointed, by the executive, 
a justice of the peace for the county of 
Cheshire, January 5, 1795. He has lately 

VOL, IV. 15 



removed to Vermont, either to Westminster 
or Newfane. — Ibid. Council Records of 
JV. H. 

John Jones, A. B., a native of Massa- 
chusetts, was born about the year 1756, and 
died soon after he left college. — MS. Letter 
of Hon. J. P. Buckingham. 

Nathaniel Mann, A. M., a native of 
Hebron, Connecticut, and born in 1757, 
studied physic and practised in the State of 
North Carolina. He died about twenty 
years since. — Ibid. 

Jeremiah Osborn, A. M., was born at 
Litchfield, Connecticut, about the year 1747. 
The most inteUigent of his class seem not to 
know anything respecting him. 

Isaac Osborn, A. B., brother of the 
preceding, did not, it would seem from Mr. 
Buckingham, graduate with the class. In 
some catalogues his name is omitted. 

Abiel Pearson, A. M,, M. D., a native 
of Byfield parish, in Massachusetts, studied 
medicine under the direction of the late Ed- 
ward Augustus Holyoke of Salem, and was 
a respectable practitioner in the South Par- 
ish in Andover, where he settled in the 
year 1787. He was esteemed as a physi- 
cian, and respected as a good citizen. He 
died in May, 1827, aged 71, leaving two 
sons, David Sewall, and Samuel M., and 
two daughters. He was a member of the 

Massachusetts Medical Society. Abbot, 

Hist. Andover, 151, 

Elisha Smith, A. B., a native of Leb- 
anon, Connecticut, and born, says Mr. Buck- 
ingham, in 1745, became a large landholder 
in Vermont, and now owns a large landed 
and personal property in Washington, in 
that State.— Jf-S. Letter of Hon. J. P. 
Buckingham. 

Jonathan Wilkins, A, M,, a native 
of Marlborough, Massachusetts, studied the- 
ology, and on December 17, 1786, received 
from the first Congregational church in 
Concord, New Hampshire, a unanimous in- 
vitation to settle in the ministry, in which 
the parish concurred. He returned a nega- 
tive answer, but soon became a resident of 
the town, mai'ried, and settled on a farm. 
In 1797, he was clerk of the church ; in 
1802, was appointed a justice of the peace ; 
was one of the selectmen in 1801, and 1803 
to 1805, four years, and several times mode- 
rator of the town meetings. He was elected 
deacon of the church, September 6, 1811, 
and held that office until his death, which 
occurred March 9, 1830, at the age of 75. 
— Bouton, Appendix to Century Sermons, 
1830. Records of the Church and Town. 
JV^. H. Council records. 

S'amuel Wood, A. M., D. D., was born 
at Mansfield, Connecticut, May 22, 1752, 
and accompanied his father to Lebanon, 
New Hampshire, on his settlement in that 
place, at the age of fourteen years. He 
entered college in 1775, and began to preach 



114 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



the same year that he graduated. He was 
ordained the fourth minister of the first 
church in Boscawen, New Hampshire, Oc- 
tober 17, 1781, and for ahnost fifty years has 
been able, with few intermissions, to dis- 
charge his ministerial duties. He has done 
much for the education of young men for 
the ministry. About eighty pupils have 
been prepared by him for admission to col- 
lege. He is a member of the Phi Beta 
Kappa, and received from his alma mater in 
1820, the honorary degree of Doctor in Di- 
vinity. — Price, Hist. Boscawen, and MS. 
Letters. 

A member of the class of 1779, says in a 
letter to me, " that the war interrupted our 
studies, and none of us acquired a good edu- 
cation, and several neglected a public pro- 
fession. Many of the class were poor, and 
worked out their education by their own 
personal exertions. Some probably entered 
college to avoid going into the army." 

1780. 

Amos Chase, A. M.,son of Moses Chase, 
Esq., was born at Sutton, Massachusetts, in 
1757, removed with his father to Cornish, in 
New Hampshire, in 1766. After completing 
his college course, he attended to the study 
of theology, and was ordained the minister 
of the second church in Litchfield, Connec- 
ticut, where he remained more than twenty 
years. He was dismissed and went to Cen- 
treville, Oil Creek township, in the county 
of Crawford, Pennsylvania, where he still 
resides. He was admitted to the degree of 
A. M. at Yale College, in 1195.— MS. Letters. 

Edward Lo]vgfel,low,A.M., was from 
Byfield parish, in Massachusetts. He died 
at an early age, before the year 1799. 

Noah Miles, A. M., a native of West- 
minster, Massachusetts, is among the oldest 
clergymen in New Hampshire. He was 
oi'dained the second minister of Temple, 
being the successor of Rev. Samuel Web- 
ster, October 2, 1782. The only publica- 
tion of his, known to the writer, is a eulogy 
on President Washington, printed in 1800. 
One of his sons, Solomon Pearson Miles, 
graduated at Harvard College in 1819, and 
is known as a successful instructor of youth. 

William Patten, A. M., D. D.. son 
of Rev. William Patten, minister of Hali- 
fax, in Massachusetts, was ordained over 
the Congregational church at Newport, in 
Rhode Island, where he still officiates. He 
was long a trustee of Brown University, 
where, in 1787, he was admitted to the de- 
gree of Master of Arts, and from which, in 
1807, he received the honorary degree of 
Doctor in Divinity. He was admitted to 
the degree of A. M. at Yale College in 
1785. 

Absalom Peters, A. M., son of Dr. 
Peters, lived in Wentworth, New Hamp- 
shire, and was appointed a justice of the 
peace for Grafton county, September 25, 



[Nov. 



1800, and on the expiration of his commis- 
sion in 1805, was advanced to the quorum. 
He was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 
thirteenth regiment of militia, September 
29, 1794, and brigadier-general of the sixth 
brigade, June 12, 1801. — Council Records 
ofJYew Hampshire. 

George Peirce, A, M., a nephew of 
the Hon. George Jaffrey, of Portsmouth, 
was an attorney at law, and commenced 
practice as early as 1787, at Portsmouth, 
where he died of consumption. — Manu- 
script A'^ote of Charles Walker, Esq. 

Peter Pohqvonnoppeet, A. B., an 
Indian, was prepared for college at the In- 
dian Charity School under Dr. Wheelock. 
He was a man of good talents and character, 
and was commonly called Sir Peter. In 
the government of his tribe, (the Stock- 
bridge Indians,) he was connected with Jo- 
seph Quanaukaunt, Capt. Hendrick Aupau- 
mut, and Capt. John Konkapot, in a council, 
which, after the decease of Solomon Un- 
haunnauwaunnutt, who was known by the 
name of King Solomon, regulated the affairs 
of the tribe. — Hist, of Berkshire County ^ 
249, 250. 

John Rolphe, A. B., was from Massa- 
chusetts, was ordained as a minister, and 
went to Gennessee in New York, or in that 
region. He died a number of years since. 

Joseph Steward, A. M., was a preach- 
er, and much esteemed ; but losing his 
health, devoted himself to painting, and was 
under the instruction of Col. John Trumbull. 
He established a museum at Hartford, Con- 
necticut. He died several years since. — 
MS. Letter of Hon. J. P. Buckingham. 

Daniel Storey, A. M., preached as a 
candidate for the ministry at Concord, New 
Hampshire, but did not receive a call on 
account of his Arminian sentiments. He 
was, however, ordained as a minister, went 
to Ohio, and is said to have died at Marietta, 
before the year 1815. He was admitted to 
the degree of A. M. at Yale College, in 
1815. — Bouton, Century Sermons at Con- 
cord, 33. 

1781. 

John Bruce, A. M., a native of Marl- 
borough, Massachusetts, was born August 
31, 1757. He was admitted a student of 
Dartmouth College in 1777, and soon after 
he graduated, fixed on the study of divinity 
as a profession. After preaching two or 
three years as a candidate, he was invited 
to settle at Mont Vernon, then the second 
parish in Amherst. The invitation he ac- 
cepted, and was ordained November 3, 1785, 
where he continued with faithfulness and 
exemplary punctuality to discharge the 
duties of his sacred office, until his death, 
which occurred March 12, 1809, in the 
fifty-second year of his age. He left six 
children. Two of his sons have been mem- 



1831.] 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



115 



bers of the legislature of New Hampshire. — 
Farmer's Cabinet, June, 1809. Appendix 
fo Tivo Sermons of Rev. S. Chapin. JVew 
Ifampshire Observer, May 21, 1831. 

Jasper Murdock, A. M. engaged in 
business as a trader, settled in Norwich, 
Vermont, and died sometime before the year 
1816. 

James Barnet Porter, A. B., son of 
Deacon Porter, died in early life. The tri- 
ennial catalogue for 1799, has his name 
starred. 

Lewis Vincent, A. B., an Indian from 
Conada, to which place, it is believed, he 
returned after he graduated. He is con 



5t published. 



1782. 



Caleb Bingham, A. M., son of Daniel 
I Bingham, was born in Salisbury, Connecti- 
I cut, about the year 1757. On the maternal 
I side he was descended from Roger Conant, 
! one of the first settlers of Salem, Massachu- 
setts. While at college, he was admitted a 
member of the church under the care of 
Rev. Eden Burroughs. When he gradu- 
ated, he delivered the Latin valedictory. 
For about two years after he completed his 
college course, he was the tutor and in- 
structor of Moor's School. He then went 
to Boston, and opened a school exclusively 
devoted to the instruction of females, and 
met with great encouragement. The want 
of elementary books on grammar and prac- 
tical geography, at that time, led him to 
publish his " Young Lady's Accidence," 
and a " Catechism of Geography and Astro- 
nomy," for the use of his scholars. The 
success which attended his mode of teach- 
ing, called the attention of the town to the 
sutiject, and the system of public instruc- 
tion was so altered, as for the first time to 
allow females to participate in its benefits. 
Mr. Bingham, without previous notice, was 
appointed the first public instructor on the 
new plan. In this situation he had to en- 
counter the prejudice of parents, and their 
attachment to ancient usage, to which were 
added the evils of poverty and ill health. 

Having published several school-books, 
which had become popular, and his health 
having become impaired by his close appli- 
cation to the duties of his station, he resigned 
his situation, and devoted his whole atten- 
tion to a small bookstore, which he had pre- 
viously opened in Cornhill. He was after- 
wards appointed a director of the Massachu- 
setts State Prison, which opened a new field 
for the exercise of his philanthropy. By 
his exertions, in this department, the ex- 
penses of the institution were greatly re- 
duced ; and the minds of some of the pris- 
oners were awakened to good principles ; 
and a relish for the honest pursuits which 
they had disregarded, was induced. Mr. 
B. was of a social and hvely disposition ; 



friendly in liis manners, remarkably tender 
and humane in his disposition, and faithful 
in the performance of all relative duties. 
His mind was never powerful, but always 
bent upon some useful design. His reli- 
gious opinions were professedly Calvinistic, 
although he sometimes expressed his doubts 
in regard to some of the articles of that 
creed, and grew more catholic as he ap- 
proached that world where Christians will 
cease to differ. He died at Boston, after an 
illness of nearly four months, April 27, 1817, 
in the 60th year of his age. His wife, 
whom he married in 1786, was Hannah 
Kemble. He had four daughters, (two 
dying in infancy,) the eldest of whom had 
married Lieut. Col. Nathan Towson, and 
the youngest was single at her father's de- 
cease. The number of the editions and 
copies printed of Mr. Bingham's school- 
books, will appear from the following : 
Young Lady's Accidence, 20 Editions, 100,000 Cop. 
Cliild's Companion, 20 " 180,000 " 

American Preceptor, 64 " 040,000 " 

Geograpbical Catechism, 22 " 100,000 " 

Columbian Orator, 23 " 190,000 " 

Juvenile Letters, 7 " 25,000 " 

Total, 1,235,000 " 

Besides these, he published several other 
books, and translated Atala, a novel from the 
French of M. Chateaubriand. — Abstracted 
from an interesting Memoir of Mr. Bing- 
ham, communicated by his nephew, Mr. J. 
Bingham, of Boston. 

Jacob Cram, A. M., son of Col. Jona- 
than Cram, who was descended from John 
Cram, one of the first settlers of Exeter in 
1639, was born at Hampton Falls, New 
Hampshire, October 12, 1762. He was or- 
dained the successor of Rev. Elijah Fletcher, 
at Hopkinton, N. H., February 25, 1789. 
He was in the ministry until January 6, 
1792, when he was dismissed. He removed 
to Exeter in 1804, where he has since re- 
sided, and has been at different times em- 
ployed in missionary service. 

Hugh Holmes, A. B., from Montreal, 
in Lower Canada, became an agriculturist. 
He died before the year 1816. — Verbal 
communication of the preceding. 

Timothy Reed, A. M., son of Rev. 
Solomon Reed of Middleborough, Massa- 
chusetts, and brother of the late Rev. John 
Reed, D. D., of West Bridge water, engaged 
in mercantile pursuits. He was admitted 
to the degree of A. M. at Yale College, in 
1782. It appears that he is still living.-™ 
Ibid. 

1783. 

Thomas Archibald, A. B., son of 
Robert Archibald, was born in Londonderry, 
New Hampshire, where his ancestors were 
among the early settlers. He studied a 
theological profession, and was settled the 
first minister of Acworth, in his native State, 
November 11, 1789. His dismission took 



116 



ALUMNI OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. 



[Nov. 



place, June 14, 1794. — MS. Letters of Rev. 
P. Cook, and R. Means, Esq. 

Isaac Babbit, A. B., became a preach- 
er, but appears not to have been settled. 
He went to the State of New York, and 
appears to have been living in 1830. 

Joseph Blodget, A. B., a native of 
Stafford, Connecticut, was ordained the min- 
ister of Greenwich, Massachusetts, Novem- 
ber 8, 1786, and still continues in the min- 
isterial office. 

Asa Day, A. M., was employed as a 
schoolmaster. He appears to be living. 

Elijah Dunbar, A. M., studied law, 
and settled in practice at Claremont, New 
Hampshire, as early as 1797, and while 
there was appointed a civil magistrate in 
1802. He removed to Keene in 1804, and 
represented that town in the legislature in 
the years 1806, 1808, and ISK) .—Records 
in Secretary's Office. 

John Foster, A. M., D. D., brother of 
Rev. Daniel Foster, who graduated in the 
class of 1777, was born at Western, Massa- 
chusetts, April 19, 1763. He very early 
fitted himself for a preacher, as he was or- 
dained at Brighton, Massachusetts, the next 
year after he graduated. He was dismissed 
from his ministerial office October 31, 1827, 
having on that day completed forty-three 
years of service. He died September 15, 
1829, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. 
His doctorate he received from Harvard 
College in 1815. He published fourteen 
occasional sermons, and wrote the Third 
volume of the Christian Monitor, published 
in 1806, containing eight short sermons. — 
Christian Register of October 3, 1829. 

Tilly Howe, A. B., from Henniker, 
New Hampshire, was a preacher, and for a 
number of years officiated at Sharon, New 
Hampshire. He died at Fryeburg, Maine, 
in October, 1830. The newspaper stated 
his age at 80. 

Henry Huntington, A. M., from 
Norwich, Connecticut, has acquired a large 
property by land speculations in the State 
of New Yovk.~MS. Letter from Hon. J. 
P. Buckingham. 

Calvin Knowlton, A. M., son of the 
Hon. Luke Knowlton, one of the early set- 
tlers of Newfane, Vermont, was an attorney 
at law, and settled in Newfane, where he 
died January 20, 1800, aged 39. He sus- 
tained several civil offices, was a respecta- 
ble lawyer, and a worthy man.— Thompson, 
Gazetteer of Vermont, 196. 

Samuel Sargeant, A. M., from Mai- 
den, Massachusetts, was ordained the min- 
ister of the Congregational church in Wo- 
burn, in that Statej March 14, 1785. He 
was dismissed May 27, 1799, afterwards 
went to Vermont, and died at Chester, in 
that State, in the year I818.— Chickering, 
Dedication Sermon at Woburn. 



Peleg Sprague, a. M., was admitted 
to the practice of law in 1787, settled at 
Keene, which he represented in the New 
Hampshire legislature. He was appointed 
solicitor for the county of Cheshire as early 
as 1794, and in 1797 was elected represent- 
ative in Congress, and took his seat Decem- 
ber 15. In this office he remained two 
years. He died in 18Q0.— MS. Records. 
Journals of Congress. 

Elisha Ticknor, a. M., a native of 
Lebanon, New Hampshire, settled in busi- 
ness in Boston, where he was deacon of the 
church. His son, George Ticknor, gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1807, and is 
Smith Professor of the French and Spanish 
Languages and Literature, and Professor of 
Belles-Lettres at Harvard University. 

Hercules Weston, A. B., was ordained 
the minister of Cornwall, in Connecticut, in 
1791, and was living the present year, as 
appears from the triennial catalogue. 

1784. 

Solomon Aiken, A. M., a native of 
Hardwick, Massachusetts, was ordained the 
minister of Dracut, in that State, June 4, 
1788, and was in the ministry more than 
twenty years. He was known as a politi- 
cal partisan, and published several ser- 
mons, in which he vindicated the measures 
and principles of the party then in power, 
and which had a considerable circulation 
in New England. These works were 
two sermons delivered at Dracut, April 6, 
1809 ; a letter addressed to Rev. Samuel 
Spring, D. D. of Newburyport, on the sub- 
ject of his sermons, 12mo. pp. 34 ; and a 
Fast sermon, on the rise and progress of 
religious dissention in the United States, 
preached May 11, 1811, 8vo. pp. 22. Mr. 
Aiken left Dracut, and it is believed went 
to the State of New York. He has been 
dead one or more years. 

Benjamin Chapman, A. M., is said to 
be the same with Benjamin Chatman, men- 
tioned in Greenleaf's Ecclesiastical Sketch- 
es, p. 152, as being settled in Edgecombe, 
in Maine, March 4, 1801, and who died 
July 13, 1804. 

Nathan Church, A. M., from South 
Hadley, Mass., was ordained the first minis- 
ter of Bridgton, Me., June 17, 1789. 

RuFus Fairbanks, A. B., from Brim- 
field, Massachusetts, settled as a merchant 
in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was living in 
ISSO.— MS. Letter of Rev. W. F. Rowland. 

Thomas Gross, A. M., was ordained the 
first minister of Hartford, Vermont, June 7, 
1786; dismissed February, 1808.— T/iom^- 
son, Gaz. Vermont. His son, Hon. Ezra 
C. Gross, a member of Congress from New 
York, and of the New York Legislature, 
died at Albany, April 9, 1829. 



1831.] 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 



117 



William Montague, A. M., from 
South Hadley, Massachusetts, became the 
Episcopal minister of Christ Church in Bos- 
ton, April, 1786, and left within about six 
years. He went to Dedham in 1791, and 
became the rector of the Episcopal church 
in that place, where he remained until he 
was dismissed by Bishop Griswold, in July, 
1818. He was also during some part of the 
last period, the preacher at Quincy, where, 
on 8th of April, 1793, the Episcopal society 
contracted with him to preach monthly, 
which he did until 1799.— Bowen's Picture 
of Boston, 133. Worthington, History 
of Dedham, 123. Whitney, History of 
Quincy, 42. 

Ethan Osborn, A. B., a native of Litch- 
field, Connecticut, was settled as a preacher 

j at Fairfield, New Jersey.— MS. Letter of 
Rev. W. F. Rowland. 

I Jacob Osborn, A. M., was also a native 
of Litchfield, in Connecticut. — Ibid. 

Christopher Paige, A. M., son of 
William Paige, was born at Hardwick, Mas- 
sachusetts, June 12, 1762. He was ordain- 
ed the first minister of Pittsfield, New 
Hampshire, in 1789, and was dismissed in 
1795. He was installed the first minister 
of Roxbury, in the same State, November 
21,1816; was dismissed March 11, 1819, 
and died at Salisbury, New Hampshire, 
October 12, 1822, in the 60th year of his 
age. His wife was the widow of Rev, 
Elijah Fletcher, second minister of Hopkin- 
ton. One of his sons, Elijah Fletcher Paige, 
graduated at Harvard College in 1810, and 
died young. 

Elijah Payne, A. M., son of Col. 
EUsha Payne, of Lebanon, an early trustee 
of Dartmouth College, settled in Lebanon; 
was appointed justice of the peace for the 
county of Grafton, January 5, 1795, and died 
in early life. 

David Porter, A. B., D. D., from He- 
bron, Connecticut, settled in the ministry at 
Catskill, in New York, and has been emin- 
ent in his profession. He received his doc- 
torate from Williams College. 

Ambrose Porter, A. B., cousin of the 
preceding, was from Hebron, and died soon 
after he left college. — MS. Letter of Hon. 
J. P. Buckingham. 

William F. Rowland, A. M., son of 
Rev. David S. Rowland, was born at Plain- 
field, Connecticut. He was ordained at 
Exeter, New Hampshire, as the successor 
of Rev. Isaac Mansfield, June 2, 1790, and 
was dismissed December 5, 1828, but still 
resides at Exeter. He preached the Elec- 
tion Sermon in 1796, and again in 1809, both 
of which were published by authority of the 
Legislature. 

Nahum Sargeant, a. M., brother of 
Rev. Samuel Sargeant, who graduated in 
1783, was ordained in Reading, Vermont, 



November 23, 1787. While on a visit to 
his friends in Chelsea, Massachusetts, he 
was disposed to have the small pox by inocu- 
lation, of which he died, October 7, 1792. — 
Thompson, Gazetteer of Vermont, 226. 

David Searl, A. B., a native of South- 
ampton, Mass., and appears to be living 
from the triennial catalogue just published. 

John Wilder, A. M., son of Major 
Wilder, of Lancaster, Massachusetts, was 
ordained in 1790, at Attleborough, Massa- 
chusetts, as the successor of Rev. Habijah 
Weld, from which place he was dismissed 
several years since. 

Gilbert Tennent Williams, A. B., 
son of Rev. Simon Williams, was born at 
Fogg's Manor, New Jersey, [J. Coffin,] and 
was ordained over the church in Linebrook, 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1789, was dis- 
missed in 1813, and installed over the second 
church in Newbury, June 1, 1814, and died 
September 24, 1824, aged about 60. I am 
informed by a member of this class, that 
every graduate was a professor of religion at 
the time of leaving college. 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. 

la our last number, page 46, we stated that Prof. John Smith 
published an edition of " Cicero's Orations." It should have 
been " Cicero De Oratore." He also published a "Greek Gram- 
mar," which is not there stated. On pa^e 49, it is mentioned 
that Rev. Asa Burton, D. D. died in 1827. We are happy to 
learn that he is still alive. The following facts may be added to 
the statements in regard to Silas Little, A. M., of the class of 
1776. A native of Newbury, Massachusetts, studied theology, 
and preached a short time, but afterwards diverted his attention 
to agricultural pursuits ; settled in his native town, which ho 
has represented in the State legislature, and where he has been 
a magistrate many years. In our number for May last, we 
ofave a short sketch of the history of Harvard University. Mr. 
Farmer has forwarded the following interesting notices, which 
he copied from the original MS. Diary of Rev. Thomas Shep- 
ard, of Cambridge. 

"Thus the Lord having delivered the country from war with 
Indians and Familists, (who arose and fell together,) he was 
pleased to direct the hearts of the magistrates (then keeping 
court ordinarily in our town, because of these stirs at Boston) to 
think of erecting a School, or College, and that speedily, to be a 
nursery of knowledge in these deserts and supply for posterity ; 
and because this town (then called Newtown) was through God's 
great care and goodness kept spotless from the contagion of the 
opinions ; therefore at the desire of some of our town, the Depu- 
ties of the Court having got Mr. Eaton to attend the School, the 
Court for that and sundry other reasons determined to erect the 
College here, which was no sooner done, but the chief of the 
magistrates and elders sent to England to desire help to forward 
the work, but they all neglecting us, (in a manner,) the Lord 
put it into the heart of one Mr. Harvard, who died worth £1,600, 
to give half his estate to the erecting of the School. The man 
was a scholar, and pious in his life, and enlarged toward the 
country, and the good of it in life and death. 

" But no sooner was this given, but Mr. Eaton (professing 
eminently, yet falsely and most deceitfully the fear of God) did 
lavish out a great part of it — being for his cruelty to his scholars, 
especially to one Briscoe, as also for some other wantonness in 
life not so notoriously known, * * * the country, the Lord 
about a year after, made up the breach by one Mr. Dunstcr, a 
man pious, painful, and fit to teach, and very fit to lay the foun- 
dation of the domestical afi'airs of the College, who (5od hath 
much honored and blessed. 

" The sin of Mr. Eaton was not at first so clearly discovered 
by me, yet after more full information, I saw his sin great, and 
my want of wisdom and watchfulness over him very great, for 
which I desire to mourn all my life, and for the breach of his 
family. 

" But thus the Lord hath been very good unto us in planting 
the place I live in with such a mercy to myself, such a blessing 
to my children, and the country such an opportunity of doing 
good to students as the school is." 

The number of ministers in New England in 1698, as enume- 
rated in Mather's Hecatompolis, [Magnalia, ii. 79—83,] appears 
to be, according to ray estimate, 123. The number who gradu- 
ated at Harvard College was but one hundred and three. Wil- 
liam Brinsmead, Samuel Paris, Jeremiah Peck, Jolm, James, 
and Zechariah Walker, although they have the H. C. added to 
their names, do not appear on the college catalogue as gradu- 
ates, and the name of but one of them appears there at all. 
They were doubtless educated at Harvard College, but left with- 
out receiving a degree. 



118 POPULATION OF THE ENGLISH COLONIES. [Nov. 

POPULATION OF THE ENGLISH COLONIES, AND OF THE 
UNITED STATES, AT VARIOUS PERIODS. 

We had intended to present, in this number of the Register, a full view of the popula- 
tion of the United States, according to the census of 1830. But no detailed, official report 
of that census has yet been pubhshed. The aggregate population of the different States, 
with the exception of the State of Mississippi, which is derived from another source, is 
given from the official returns published in the Pennsylvania Intelligencer. For the 
estimates of the population of the colonies, at different periods, we are indebted to the 
Appendix to the second volume of Dr. Holmes's American Annals. The authorities, on 
which his estimates are founded, are stated at length in the Annals. 

I. POPULATION OF THE ENGLISH COLONIES IN 1701. 

New Hampshire, 10,000 New York, 30,000 

Massachusetts, 70,000 East and West Jersey, 15,000 

Rhode Island, 10,000 Pennsylvania, 20,000 

Connecticut, 30,000 Maryland, 25,000 

Virginia, 40,000 

New England, 120,000 North Carolina, 5,000 

Middle and Southern Colonies, 142,000 South Carohna, 7,000 



Total, 262,000 142,000 
II. POPULATION OF THE COLONIES IN 1749. 

New Hampshire, 30,000 New York, 100,000 

Massachusetts, 220,000 East and West Jersey, 60,000 

Rhode Island, 35,000 Pennsylvania and Delaware, 250,000 

Connecticut, 100,000 Maryland, 85,000 

Virginia, 85,000 

New England, 385,000 North Carolina, 45,000 

Middle and Southern Colonies, 661,000 South Carohna, 30,000 

Georgia, 6,000 



Total, 1,046,000 



661,000 



III. POPULATION OF NEW ENGLAND IN 1755. 
New Hampshire, 34,000 Connecticut, 133,000 

Massachusetts, 234,000 

Rhode Island, ^ 35,939 Total, 436,939 

The population of Rhode Island is, probably, too low according to this estimate. 

JV. POPULATION OF INDIVIDUAL COLONIES AT VARIOUS PERIODS. 

Connecticut, in 1774 197,856 Maine, in 1765 20,788 

Maryland, 1755 107,208 New Hampshire, 1730 12,000 

Massachusetts, 1763 245,000 " " 1767 52,700 

1765 248,714 " " 1775 80,038 

V. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES ; CENSUS OF 1790. 





Free whites. 


Other free persons. Slaves. 


Total. 


Maine, 


96,002 


538 




96,540 


New Hampshire, 


141,097 


630 


158 


141,885 


Vermont, 


85,268 


255 


16 


85,539 


Massachusetts, 


373,324 


324 




378,787 


Rhode Island, 


64,470 


3,407 


948 


68,825 


Connecticut, 


232,374 


2,808 


2,764 


237,946 


New York, 


314,142 


4,654 


21,324 


340,120 


New Jersey, 


169,954 


2,762 


11,423 


184,139 


Pennsylvania, 


424,099 


6,537 


3,737 


434,373 


Delaware, 


46,308 


3,899 


8,887 


59,094 


Maryland, 


208,649 


8,043 


103,036 


319,728 


Virginia, 


442,117 


12,866 


292,627 


747,610 


North Carolina, 


288,405 


4,975 


100,571 


393,951 


South Carolina, 


140,178 


1,801 


107,094 


249,073 


Georgia, 


52,886 


398 


29,264 


82,548 


Kentucky, 


61,133 


114 


12,430 


73,677 


Western Territory, 


31,913 


362 


3,417 


35,691 



Total, 3,173,319 53,373 697,696 3,929,326 



1831.] 



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



119 



VI. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1800, AND IN 1810. 




Census 


of 1800. 


Census 


0/1810. 




Slaves. 


Total. 


Slaves. 


Total. 


Maine, 




151,719 




228,705 


New Hampshire, 


8 


183,858 




214,460 


Vermont, 




154,465 




277,895 


Massachusetts, 




422,375 




472,040 


Rhode Island, 


380 


69,122 


108 


76,931 


Connecticut, 


951 


251,002 


310 


261,942 


New York, 


20,613 


586,058 


15,017 


959,049 


New Jersey, 


12,422 


211,149 


10,851 


245,.562 


Pennsylvania, 


1,706 


602,548 


795 


810,091 


Delaware, 


6,153 


64,273 


4,177 


76,674 


Maryland, 


107,707 


349,692 


111,502 


380,546 


Virginia, 


346,968 


886,149 


392,518 


974,622 


North Carolina, 


133,196 


478,103 


168,824 


555,500 


South Carolina, 


146,151 


345,591 


196,365 


41.5,115 


Georgia, 


59,699 


162,686 


105,218 


252,433 


Kentucky, 


40,343 


220,959 


80,561 


406,511 


Tennessee, 


13,584 


105,602 


44,535 


261,727 


Mississippi Territory, 


3,489 


8,850 


17,088 


40,352 


Indiana Territory, 


135 


5,641 


237 


24,520 


Ohio, or N. W. Territory, 




45,365 




230,760 


Territory of New Orleans, 






34,660 


76,556 


Louisiana Territory, 






3,011 


20,845 


Illinois Territory, 






168 


12,282 


Michigan Territory, 






24 


4,762 


District of Columbia, 


3,244 


14,093 


5,395 


24,023 



Total, 896,749 5,319,300 1,165,441 7,203,903 

The North West Territory, in 1800, comprehended a vast region north and west of the 
Ohio river. Nearly all the inhabitants were at that time comprehended within the 
present limits of the State of Ohio. 

VII. POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1820, AND IN 1830. 
Eastern States. 



States and Territories. 


Square Mile 


s. Pop. in 1820. 


Pop. in 1830. 


Increase. 


Rate ofinc 


Maine, 


32,600 


298,335 


399,462 


101,127 


33.9 


New Hampshire, 


9,500 


244,161 


269,533 


28,372 


11.6 


Vermont,- 


10,200 


235,764 


280,665 


44,901 


19.0 


Massachusetts, 


7,500 


523,287 


610,100 


86,813 


16.6 


Rhode Island, 


1,340 


83,059 


97,211 


14,152 


8.1 


Connecticut, 


4,700 


275,248 


297,711 


22,463 


17.0 


Total, 


65,840 


1,659,854 

Middle St^^ 


1,954,682 

TES. 


297,828 


18.0 


New York, 


46,000 


1,372,812 


1,934,496 


561,684 


40.8 


New Jersey, 


8,300 


277,575 


320,779 


43,204 


15.5 


Pennsylvania, 


44,000 


1,049,453 


1,350,361 


300,903 


28.6 


Delaware, 


2,100 


72,749 


76,737 


3,988 


5.5 


Maryland, 


14,000 


407,350 


446,913 


39,563 


9.9 


Total, 


114,400 


3,179,939 


4,129,286 


949,342 


29.2 






SouTHERiv States. 






Virginia, 


64,000 


1,065,366 


1,211,250 


120,931 


11.3 


North Carolina, 


48,000 


638,829 


738,470 


99,641 


14.3 


South Carolina, 


28,000 


502,741 


581,478 


78,838 


15.6 


Georgia, 


62,000 


340,989 


516,567 


175,578 


51.5 


Total, 


202,000 


2,547,925 


3,047,765 


474,988 


18.6 






Western States. 






Ohio, 


39,000 


581,434 


937,679 


356,245 


61.5 


Kentucky, 


42,000 


564,317 


688,844 


124,527 


22.0 


Indiana, 


37,000 


147,178 


341,585 


194,404 


132.0 


Illinois, 


55,000 


55,211 


157,575 


102,364 


185.0 


Missouri, 


60,000 


66,586 


137,427 


70,841 


106.0 



Total, 



233,000 1,414,726 2,263,110 



848,381 



60.0 



120 



POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF THE STATES. 



[Nov. 



South Western States. 



States and Territories. 


Square Miles 


Pop. in 1820. 


Pop. in 1830. 


Increase. 


Rateofinc 


Tennessee, 


40,000 


422,813 


684,822 


262,009 


61.9 


Louisiana, 


48,000 


153,407 


215,275 


62,168 


40.5 


Alabama, 


46,000 


127,901 


309,216 


181,351 


142.0 


Mississippi, 


46,000 


75,443 


95,865 


22,417 


29.7 


Total, 


180,000 


779,564 
Territori 


1,305,178 

ES. 


527,945 


67.7 


District of Columbia, 


100 


33,039 


39,858 


6,819 


16.6 


Michigan, 


40,000 


8,896 


31,696 


22,812 


259.0 


Arkansas, 


121,000 


14,246 


30,380 


16,134 


113.0 


Florida, 


50,000 




34,725 






Total, 


211,100 


56,181 


136,659 


45,765 








Recapitulatiok. 






Eastern States, 


65,840 


1,659,854 


1,954,682 


297,828 


18.0 


Middle States, 


114,400 


3,179,939 


4,129,286 


949,342 


29.2 


Southern States, 


202,000 


2,547,925 


3,047,765 


474,988 


18.6 


Western States, 


233,000 


1,414,726 


2,263,110 


848,381 


60.0 


South Western States, 


180,000 


779,564 


1,305,178 


527,945 


67.7 


Territories, 


211,100 


56,181 


136,659 


45,765 





Total, 1,006,340 9,637,179 12,836,680 3,144,249 32.7 

The following table shows the political influence of each State, in the national councils, 
according to the new census. Five slaves having the same weight as three freemen, we 
have given the representative numbers opposite to each State, and the number of senators 
and representatives in Congress. The table was first published in the Pennsylvania In- 
telligencer. 

States. 

Maine, 

New Hampshire, 

Vermont, 

Massachusetts, 

Connecticut, 

Rhode Island, 

New York, 

New Jersey, 

Delaware, 

Pennsylvania, 

Maryland, 

Virginia, about 

North Carolina, 

South Carolina, 

Georgia, 

Ohio, 

Kentucky, 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Missouri, 

Tennessee, 

Louisiana, 

Mississippi, about 

Alabama, 



Representa- 


Ratio 50,000 


Unrepresented 


Ratio of 


. 


Present number 


tive Nos. 


Represent's. 


fractions. 


48,000. 




Representatives. 


399,462 


7 


49,462 


8 


15,462 


7 


269,533 


5 


19,533 


5 


25,533 


6 


280,665 


5 


30,665 


5 


40,655 


5 


610,100 


12 


10,100 


12 


34,100 


13 


297,688 


5 


47,688 


6 


9,688 


6 


97,205 


1 


47,205 


2 


1,205 


2 


1,983,495 


39 


33,495 


41 


15,495 


34 


319,881 


6 


19,881 


6 


31,881 


6 


75,417 


1 


25,417 


1 


27,417 


1 


1,350,261 


26 


29,846 


28 


6,651 


26 


405,771 


8 


5,771 


8 


21,771 


9 


976,000 


19 


26,000 


20 


16,000 


22 


639,885 


12 


39,885 


13 


15,885 


13 


455,212 


9 


5,212 


9 


23,212 


9 


429,589 


8 


29,589 


8 


45,589 


7 


837,678 


16 


37,648 


17 


21,678 


14 


622,707 


12 


22,707 


12 


46,707 


12 


341,582 


6 


41,582 


7 


5,682 


3 


157,277 


3 


7,277 


3 


13,277 


1 


127,492 


2 


27,492 


2 


31,492 


1 


622,070 


12 


18,070 


12 


42,070 


9 


171,722 


3 


21,722 


3 


27,722 


3 


85,000 


1 


35,000 


1 


37,000 


1 


262,210 


5 


12,210 


5 


22,210 


2 



Total, 



223 



234 



VIII. POPULATION OF VARIOUS TOWNS AND CITIES. 



212 



Boston in 


JSTew York in 


Philadelphia in 


Baltimore in 


1722 


10,567 


1731 


8,620 


1731 


12,000 


1790 


13,758 


1765 


15,520 


1756 


10,381 


1753 


18,000 


1800 


23,971 


1790 


18,038 


1773 


21,876 


1790 


43,525 


1810 


46,556 


1800 


24,937 


1786 


23,614 


1802 


42,000 


1820 


62,738 


1810 


33,250 


1790 


33,131 


1810 


92,247 


1830 


80,526 


1820 


43,298 


1800 


60,489 


1820 


108,116 






1830 


61,381 


1820 
1825 

1830 


123,706 
167,059 
200,942 


1830 


167,688 







'Nov.' 



MISCELLANEOUS STATISTICS. 



121 



Charleston, S.C., in 1790 16,359; 1800 18,712; 1810 21,711; 1820 24,780; 1830 30,289 

Washing-Ion, D. C, 1800 3,210; 1810 8,028 ; 1820 13,247 ; 1830 18,833 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 1805 500; 1810 2,590 ; 1820 9,732 ; 1830 26,515 

Albany, N.Y., 1800 5,689 ; 1810 9,356 ; 1820 12,630 ; 1830 24,216 

Providence, R. I., 1800 7,614; 1810 10,071 ; 1820 11,761 ; 1830 17,000 



IX. MISCELLANEOUS TABLES. 



The following tables we extract from a paper printed 

Table showing the composition of the Legislatures 

twenty-four States of the Union 





SGnatorSi 


Representa- 


Total Senators 






tives. 


and Rep. 


Maine, 


20 


150 


170 


New Hampshire, 


12 


220 


232 


Massachusetts, 


40 


*501 


541 


Vermont, 


12 


212 


224 


Connecticut, 


21 


207 


228 


Rhode Island, 


10 


72 


82 


New York, 


32 


128 


160 


New Jersey, 


14 


42 


56 


Delaware, 


9 


21 


SO 


Pennsylvania, 


33 


100 


133 


Maryland, 


15 


80 


95 


Virginia, 


32 


134 


166 


North Carolina, 


62 


130 


192 


South Carolina, 


45 


124 


169 


Georgia, 


76 


140 


216 


Alabama, 


22 


72 


94 


Tennessee, 


20 


40 


60 


Kentucky, 


38 


100 


138 


Ohio, 


35 


70 


105 


Illinois, 


18 


36 


54 


Indiana, 


23 


54 


77 


Mississippi, 


11 


36 


47 


Missouri, 


15 


42 


57 


Louisiana, 


16 


50 


66 



in Worcester, Mass. 
and population in 1830, of the 



Population. 

399,462 
269,533 
610,100 
280,665 
297,811 
91,211 

1,934,496 

320,779 

76,737 

1,330,034 
446,913 

1,186,297 
738,470 
581,478 
516,567 
309,216 
684,822 
688,844 
973,179 
157,575 
341,535 
97,865 
137,427 
215,275 



* Sometimes more or less. 



Table showing the population, number of members of the Legislatures, the pay of 
members per day, and their pay for one month in the several States of the Union. 





No. of 


Pay of each 


Pay of Members 


Year which Constitu- 




Members. 


Mem. pr. day. 


for one month. 


tion was formed. 


Maine, 


170 


$2 00 


f 10,200 


1819 


New Hampshire, 


232 


2 00 


13,920 


1792 


Massachusetts, 


541 


2 00 


32,460 


1780 


Vermont, 


224 


1 50 


10,080 


1793 


Rhode Island, 


82 


1 50 


3,690 


none. 


Connecticut, 


228 


I 50 


10,260 


1818 


New York, 


160 


3 00 


14,400 


1821 


New Jersey, 


56 


3 00 


5,040 


1776 


Pennsylvania, 


183 


3 00 


11,970 


1790 


Delaware, 


30 


2 50 


2,250 


1792 


Maryland, 


95 


4 00 


11,400 


1776 


Virginia, 


166 


4 00 


19,920 


1776 


North Carolina, 


192 


3 00 


17,280 


1776 


South Carolina, 


167 


4 00 


20,040 


1790 


Georgia, 


216 


4 00 


25,920 


1798 


Alabama, 


94 


4 00 


11,280 


1819 


Tennessee, 


60 


2 00 


3,600 


1796 


Kentucky, 


138 


2 00 


8,280 


1799 


Louisiana, 


66 


4 00 


7,920 


1812 


Ohio, 


105 


3 00 


9,450 


1812 


Indiana, 


77 


2 00 


4,620 


1816 


Illinois, 


54 


3 00 


4,860 


1818 


Mississippi, 


47 


4 00 


5,640 


1817 


Missouri, 


57 


3 00 


5,130 


1820 


VOL. IV. 


16 









122 REVIVALS OF RELIGION. [Nov. I 



HISTORY OF 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION, 



FROM THE SETTLEMENT OF THE COUNTRY TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



A REVIVAL of religion is the manifestation, in a community, of an unusual 
interest on the subject of religion ; or it is a period, when the concerns of the 
soul become, to a greater or less extent, prominent objects of attention. From 
the earliest records of Jewish national history, to the present day, there have 
been times of extraordinary moral reformation. It is a fact as indisputable as 
any other in the records of the human race. Communities of men have been 
refined, transformed, spiritualized. To deny this, is to reject the repeated, une- 
quivocal, unimpeached testimony of a great multitude of witnesses. 

The inhabitants of this country, particularly, ought to be the last to be scepti- 
cal on this point. Nearly all the original settlers of New England were pious 
men. As communities, they were pervaded by a religious influence. It was 
their great object, in leaving their native land, not so much to promote indi- 
vidual Christianity, as it was to form societies of Christians. They could have 
maintained silent, personal communion with their Heavenly Father, in Lincoln- 
shire, or in Holland, as some of the recluses did in the monasteries of the middle 
ages. But this was not their purpose. They wished for a diffusive, all pervad- 
ing Christianity. They looked upon religion not only as a concern between 
man and his Redeemer, but as a matter in which society at large ought to be 
deeply interested. Hence we might expect, what we find to be the fact, puri- 
fied and spiritual communities — righteousness exalting and beautifying whole 
towns and colonies — men dwelling together in peace because they dwelt to- 
gether in the fear of God, and in the love of the Saviour. Revivals of religion 
are not new events in the history of this country. They were not new 'in the 
days of Whitefield and Edwards. Our earliest progenitors witnessed these 
years of the right hand of the Most High. The Indian wilderness was made a 
fruitful place, and the desert as a garden of the Lord. 

It is proposed in this, and in some subsequent numbers of our work, to review 
the religious history of this country somewhat in detail, to trace the progress of 
vital Christianity, to collect and arrange all the important facts which have 
reference to special periods of religious attention, in short, so far as our materi- 
als and the limited nature of our publication will allow, to write tlie history of 
REVIVALS OF RELIGION. In doiug this it will be the purpose of the writer to 
show the causes of them, the reasons of their decline, the characters of the 
instruments by whom they were conducted, and their immediate and ultimate 
results, so far as the light of history may reveal them. 

We shall collect our facts, and dispose of our remarks under the following 
distinct divisions : — ■ 

PERIOD I. From the settlement of Virginia in 1607, to 1662 ; a period of 
ffiy-fve years. 

These were the days of primitive and golden piety. These were the days of 
the Joshuas, and of the elders who outlived them. Then there was pre-eminently 
one Lord, one faith, and one baptism. The civil rulers, especially of New 
England, were " as the light of the morning, when the sun riseth, as a morning 



J331.] HISTORY OF THE FIRST PERIOD. 123 

Without clouds." The pastors fed the people with wisdom, and with under- 
fstanding. Righteousness was the stability of those times. 

PERIOD 11. From 1662 to 1720; a period ofJJfty-eight years. 

Owing to various causes, this was a season of great decline in vital Chris- 
Itianity. There were some partial revivals of religion, but there was but little of 
that all pervading piety, which characterized the first generation. The light of 
holiness grew feeble and faint. The general interests of morality also suffered 
ja corresponding degeneracy. 

PERIOD III. From 1720 to 1750 ; thirty years. 

This period was marked by great and powerful revivals of religion, which 
lextended over nearly all New England, and into some portions of New York, 
New Jersey, and other States. It embraces a variety of interesting events. 
It, indeed, teaches most important and striking lessons in regard to the whole 
economy of the kingdom of grace. 

PERIOD IV. From 1750 to 1790 ; forty years. 

A time of signal and melancholy declension. The public mind was engrossed 
and enchained by the French war, by the causes, progress, and results of the 
revolutionary struggle, and by the establishment of a new form of government. 

PERIOD V. From 1790 to the present time. 

During the whole of this period, with very short intermissions, the churches, 
in all parts of the country, have experienced the reviving influences of the Holy 
Spirit. A new era of light and grace has commenced. New causes, and new 
results are witnessed. Efforts for the universal diffusion of Christianity have 
produced a powerful reaction at home. Some of the principal hindrances to the 
thorough and permanent conversion of men have been removed. A great 
amount of talent and learning has been consecrated by the grace of God. Our 
principal difficulty, in this period, will be to make a proper selection and arrange- 
ment, where the materials are so rich and abundant. 

We now proceed to the consideration of the 

First Period, or the time included from the settlement of the Colonies, to the 
year 1662. 

Our notices of the actual state of vital Christianity in this period, must be 
desultory and incidental. Much of the evidence of the flourishing condition of 
the churches is indirect or inferential. No faithful, and accurate chronologist, 
like Prince, or Holmes, has transmitted to us records of the religious history of 
those times. We have carefully examined the principal sources of information 
within our reach,* and we will proceed to give the result of our inquiries. 

On the 13th of May, 1607, one hundred emigrants made the first permanent 
English settlement in the United States, on the north side of Powhatan, or James 
river, in Virginia. In honor of James I., the settlement was named Jamestown. 
In 1619, we find the following record : " The king of England having formerly 
issued his letters to the several bishops of the kingdom, for collecting money, to 
erect a College in Virginia, for the education of Indian children, nearly £1,500 
had been already paid toward this benevolent and pious design, and Henrico 
had been selected as a suitable place for the seminary. The Virginia Company, 
on the recommendation of Sir Edwin Sandys, its treasurer, now granted 
10,000 acres of land, to be laid off for the University at Henrico." ^^ The first 
design," says Anderson, "was to erect and build a College in Virginia, for the 
training up and educating infidel children in the true knowledge of God." 

* The following list comprises our principal authorities. Governor Winthrop's Journal, edited by 
Savage; Prince's (Thomas, J un.) Christian History, Boston, 1744; Collections of the Massachusetts and 
New Hampshire Historical Societies ; Morton's New England's Memorial, edited by Judge Davis ; Prince's 
New England Chronology ; several volumes of Tracts collected by Prince, and now deposited in the Library 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society; Holmes's Annals; Mather's Magnalia; Mayhew's Indian Con- 
verts ; Gookin's Historical Collections; Snow's History of Boston ; Emerson's History of First Church; 
Wisner's History of Old South Church; Trumbull's History ; Hutchinson, &c. &c. 



124 FIRST CHURCHES ESTABLISHED. [NoV. 

Another object was to found a seminary for the education of the English. Most 
of the original settlers of Virginia were Episcopalians. It does not appear that 
the promotion of religion was a prominent object of attention, for many years. 
In 1620, there were but five ministers in Virginia ; and eleven boroughs erected 
into eleven parishes. 

On the 22d of December, 1620, (corresponding to the 11th of December, old 
style,) the foundation of Plymouth, the first English town, built in New Eng- 
land, was laid. Nineteen families, in all 101 persons, composed the infant set- 
tlement. A great mortality, that commenced among the people, swept off" half 
of their number, within the first three months, leaving scarcely fifty persons 
remaining. The dead were buried on the bank, at a little distance from the 
rock where the fathers landed ; and lest the Indians should take advantage of 
the weak and wretched state of the English, the graves were levelled and sown 
for the purpose of concealment.* Mr. William Brewster was the minister of 
the first settlers. He had been ruling elder of the congregation at Leyden, of 
which Mr. John Robinson was the pastor. The emigrants, and their brethren 
remaining in Holland, were to continue to be one church, and to receive each 
other to Christian communion, without a formal dismission or testimonial. In 
the middle of July, 1621, as there had been no rain since the third week in 
May, the colonists " set apart a solemn day of humiliation, to seek the Lord by 
humble and fervent prayer in this great distress." In the evening of the day of 
the fast, " there were such sweet and gentle showers, as gave them cause of 
rejoicing and blessing God."f The religious exercises, on this occasion, con- 
tinued eight or nine hours. A day of joyful thanksgiving was soon after 
observed. 

In the early part of the year 1628, John Endicot, with a few people, were sent 
over by a company, which had been formed in London, and commenced a set- 
tlement at Naumkeag, which they called Salem.^ A church was formed at 
Salem, on the 6th of August, 1629. Thirty persons accepted a confession of 
faith and church covenant, which had been drawn up by Mr. Francis Higginson, 
who had been chosen teacher of the church. Mr. Samuel Skeltoa was the 
pastor. 

In the summer of 1630, a fleet of fourteen sail, having on board Gov. John 
Winthrop, Deputy Gov. Thomas Dudley, with about 840 passengers, arrived in 
Charles river. A part of the company coming before the rest, ascended Charles 
river to Watertown, or the " well watered place," landed their goods, and in a 
few days, proceeded to Matapan, afterwards Dorchester. Here was established 
the second church in the colony, in June, 1630. The Dorchester settlers were 
embodied into a church before they left home. John Maverick, and John War- 
ham, were the ministers. 

The great body of the emigrants had landed at Charlestown. On the 30th of 
July, a day of solemn prayer and fasting was observed, when the foundation 
was laid of the first church in Boston, and the third in the colony. Mr. John 
Wilson was chosen teacher, and Mr. Increase Nowel ruling elder. Probably 
sixty-four men, and half as many women, signed the covenant. Their first 
meeting-place Avas under the shade of a large tree. The settlers soon began 
to remove to the peninsula. In a little time, public worship was celebrated on 
both sides of the river. At length the church took its station altogether in Tri- 
montane, which was soon after called Boston. 

On the same day, July 30th, the settlers who had fixed their residence at the 
" pleasant spot which has since been called Watertown," set apart a day for 
solemn fasting and prayer, and entered into a covenant. It was signed by Sir 
Richard Saltonstall, at the head of forty names. Rev. George Phillips was the 
pastor. The church in Roxbury was formed in July, 1632. One in Lynn about 
the same time, being the sixth in the colony. On the 11th of October, those 
members of the first church, who belonged to Charlestown, finding it trouble- 
some to worship in Boston, were peaceably dismissed from their relation to the 
church, and were formed into a new church and society, constituting the sev- 

* Holmes, i. 168. f Morton, p. 99. 

X As early as ]626, a few people from Plymouth commenced a settloment on Naumkeaij river. 



1331.1 COTTON MISSION TO VIROINIA. 125 

enth in the colony. They wore thirty-three in number. Rev. Thomas James 
was chosen pastor.* 

On the 10th of October, 1G33, the Rev. John Cotton was established teacher 
of the church in Boston, in connection with Mr. Wilson as pastor. He exerted 
a great and most beneficial influence over the whole colony. His labors, soon 
after he came to Boston, were more effectual than those of any minister of the 
country. He was the means of exciting great attention to religious subjects, 
and some of the most profligate individuals were brought to renounce their 
iniquities. His sermons were simple and plain. His Christian character 
amiable and interesting. Gov. Winthrop, in his journal of December, 1633, has 
the following sentence. " It pleased the Lord to give special testimony of his 
presence in the church of Boston, after Mr. Cotton was called to offlce there. 
More were converted and added to that church, than to all the other churches 
in the bay. Divers profane and notorious evil persons came and confessed their 
sins, and were comfortably received into the bosom of the church. Yea, the 
Lord gave witness to the exercise of prophecy, so as thereby some were con- 
verted, and others greatly edified. Also, the Lord pleased greatly to bless the 
practice of discipline, wherein he gave the pastor, Mr. Wilson, a singular gift, 
to the great benefit of the church." Two or three months after, we find the 
following record, which Mr. Savage supposes to refer to Stephen Winthrop, a 
son of the governor. 

" Among other testimonies of the Lord's gracious presence with his own 
ordinances, there was a youth of fourteen years of age (being the son of one of 
the magistrates) so wrought upon by the ministry of the word, as, for divers 
months, he was held under such affliction of mind, as he could not be brought 
to apprehend any comfort in God, being much humbled and broken for his sins, 
(though he had been a dutiful child, and not given up to the lusts of youth,) and 
especially for his blasphemous and wicked thoughts, whereby Satan buffetted 
him so as he went mourning and languishing daily ; yet, attending to the means, 
and not giving over prayer, and seeking counsel, &c., he came at length to be 
freed from his temptations, and to find comfort in God's promises, and so, being 
received into the congregation, upon good proof of his understanding in the 
things of God, he went on cheerfully, in a Christian course, falling daily to labor 
as a servant, and as a younger brother of his did, who was no whit short of him, 
in the knowledge of God's will, though his youth kept him from daring to offer 
himself to the congregation." This last mentioned son was probably Deane 
Winthrop, born March, 1622-3. 

The following fact, strikingly shows the orthodoxy of our fathers. A greater 
part of the church in Dorchester having removed to Connecticut, the remainder 
desired the approbation of the churches and magistrates, in a design to found a 
noAv church. But upon examination, it was judged best not to comply, at that 
time, with the wishes of the Dorchester people, for the following reasons. 1. 
With two exceptions, (Mr. Mather and one other person,) the applicants did not 
appear to hate sin, because it was filthy, but only left it, because it was hurtful. 
2. That, by reason of this, they had never truly closed with Christ, or rather 
Christ with them, but had made use of him only to help the imperfection of their 
sanctification and duties. 3. They expected to believe by some power of their 
own, and not only and wholly from Christ.f In 1622, an individual came from 
Virginia, with letters from many well-disposed people there, "bewailing their 
sad condition for want of the means of salvation, and earnestly entreating a 
supply of faithful ministers, whom, upon experience of their gifts and godliness, 
they might call to office." After setting apart a day for prayer, it was agreed 
that Mr. Phillips of Watertown, Mr. Tompson of Braintree, and Mr. Miller of 
Rowley, could best be spared, as the churches in those towns had each of them 
two ministers. Mr. Miller did not accept the call. Mr. Knolles, a fellow-elder 
of Mr. Phillips, went in his place, in company with Mr. Tompson. " The main 

* According to a note in Savage's Wintluop, the churclies were formed in the following order, seven 
already named. 8, Cambridge, Oct. 11, 1033; 9, Ipswich, 1634; 10, Newbury, 1635; 11, Vi^eymouth, July, 
1635; 12, Ilingham, Sept. 1635 ; 13, Concord, July 5, 1636 ; 14, Dedham, Nov. 8, 1638 ; 15, auincy, Sept. 17, 
1639 ; 16, Rowley, Dec. 3, 1639; 17, Salisbury; 18, Sudbury, August, 1640; 19, Gloucester, ]642; 20, VVoburn, 
Aug. 24, 1642; 21, Hull, July, 1644; 22, Wenham, Oct. 8, 1644 ; 23, Haverhill, and 24, Andover, Oct. 1645; 
25, Reading, Nov. 5, 1645 ; 26, Manchester ; 27, Maiden ; 28, Boston 2d, June 5, 1650. f Winthrop, i. 184. 



126 REVIVALS OF RELIGION. [NoV. 

argument," says Wintlirop, "which prevailed with the churches to dismiss 
them to that work, and with the court to allow and further it, loas the advance- 
ment of the kingdom of Christ in those pai'ts, and the confidence they had in 
the promise, that whosoever shall part with father, &c. We were so far from 
fearing any loss by parting with such desirable men, as we looked at them as 
seed sown, which would bring us in a plentiful harvest, and we accounted it no 
small honor that God put upon his poor churches here, that other parts of the 
world should seek to us for help, in this kind."* 

Messrs. Tompson and Knolles " found very loving and liberal entertainment 
in Virginia, and were bestowed, in several places, not by the governor, but by 
some well-disposed people, who desired their company." In the following 
spring, Mr, Knolles returned to Boston, with letters, which were read at the 
public lecture, whereby it appeared that God had greatly blessed their ministry 
in Virginia. When they were silenced from public preaching because they 
would not conform to the established church, the people resorted to them in 
private houses. 

It was a signal advantage to the cause of vital religion in this country, that 
the church at Cambridge had such a minister as Thomas Shepard. While a 
member of the University of Cambridge, England, after a season of deep dis- 
tress, he became a humble disciple of Jesus Christ. He was the Baxter of 
New England, radiant in holiness. It was on account of the energy and search- 
ing character of his preaching, and his skill in detecting errors, that when the 
foundation of a college was to be laid, Cambridge, rather than any other place, 
was fixed upon. Of his flock at Cambridge, his successor, Mr. Mitchell, gives 
the following character. " They were a gracious, savoury — spirited people, 
principled by Mr. Shepard, liking an humbling, mourning, heart-breaking min- 
istry and spirit ; living in religion, praying men and women." The eminent 
preachers who were trained at Cambridge, were greatly indebted to Mr. Shep- 
ard. His words came with power to the heart, and his example was a constant 
reproof to sin. Mitchell, the holy, and meek, and heavenly Mitchell, was 
scarcely inferior to his predecessor. Of Rev. George Phillips it is said, " About 
fourteen years continued he in his ministry in Watertown ; in which time his 
ministry v/as blessed, for the conversion of many unto God, and for the confir- 
mation and edification of many who were converted." 

The Rev. Thomas Prince, in a sermon preached by him before the General 
Assembly of the province, in May, 1730, has the following sentence : — 

" It must be here observed, that though the generality both of the first leaders, 
heads of families, and freemen, were persons of noted piety ; yet there were 
great numbers, not only of the younger sort, both of children and servants, but 
also of elder, of every age, who came over, both in the year 1630, and the ten 
following years, that came hither only under the common impressions of a pious 
ministry or education, or the religious influence of their friends, or heads of 
families they belonged to ; and who were therefore fit materials for the numerous 
conversions which quickly followed, under the lively, searching, and awakening 
preaching of the primitive ministers." " The Spirit from on high was poured 
upon them, and the wilderness became a fruitful field. In twenty-seven years 
from the first plantation, there were forty-three churches in joint communion with 
one another. And in twenty-seven years more, there appear above fourscore 
English churches of Christ, composed only of known, pious, and faithful pro- 
fessors, dispersed through the wilderness ; viz. twelve or thirteen in Plymouth 
colony, forty-seven in Massachusetts colony and province of New Hampshire, 
nineteen in Connecticut, three in Long Island, and one at Martha's Vineyard."! 
In 1659, Mr. John Norton, the successor of Mr. Cotton, in the first church in 
Boston, thus wrote. " It concerneth New England always to remember that 
originally they are a plantation religious, not a plantation of trade. The pro- 
fession of the purity of doctrine, worship, and discipline, is written upon her 
forehead."! The following passages are from a Tract published by Captain 
Roger Clap, who came with Warham and Maverick, in 1630, and settled in 
Dorchester. 

* Winthrop, ii. 78. f Christian History, pp. 63, 64. % lb. p. 66. 



|g81.] INUFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT. 127 

" Then in those days did God manifest his presence among us, in converting 
many souls, in gathering his dear ones into church fellowship each with other, 
by solemn covenants ; wherein they gave up themselves and their seed to tlic 
Lord. The Lord Jesus Christ was so plainly held out in the preaching of the 
gospel unto poor lost sinners, and the absolute necessity of the new birth, and 
God's Holy Spirit, in those days was pleased to accompany the word with such 
efficacy upon the hearts of many, that our hearts were taken off from Old Eng- 
land, and set upon heaven. The discourse not only of the aged, but of the 
youth, also, was not. How shall we go to England, but how shall we go to 
heaven ? Have I true grace wrought in my heart ? Have I Christ or no ? 
Oh how did men and women, young and old, pray for grace, beg for Christ, in 
those days ; and it was not in vain. Many were converted, and others estab- 
lished in believing. Many joined unto the several churches where they lived, 
confessing their faith publicly, and showing before all the assembly their expe- 
riences of the workings of God's Spirit in their hearts to bring them to Christ; 
which many hearers found very much good by, to help them to try their own 
hearts, and to consider how it was with them ; whether any work of God's Spirit 
was wrought in their hearts or no ? Oh the many tears that have been shed in 
Dorchester meeting-house, at such times, both by those that have declared 
God's work on their souls, and also by those that heard them. In those days- 
God, even our own God, did bless New England."^ 

In 1678, the venerable Increase Mather thus writes. " Prayer is needful on 
I this account, in that conversions are become rare in this age of the world. They 
I that have their thoughts exercised in discerning things of this nature, have sad 
I apprehensions in reference to this matter ; that the work of conversion hath 
I been at a great stand in the world. In the last age, in the days of our fathers, 
I in other parts of the world, scarce a sermon preached, but some evidently con- 
verted, and sometimes hundreds in a sermon.f Which of us can say, we have 
seen the like. Clear, sound conversions are not frequent in some congrega- 
j tions." Again, in 1702, Dr. Mather says, that "the life and power of godliness 
j has been the singular glory of New England. The generality of the first 
planters, were men eminent for godliness. Time was, when these churches 
were beautiful as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem, terrible as an army with banners^ 
j What a glorious presence of Christ was there in all his ordinances. Many were 
converted and willingly declared what God had done for their souls ; and there 
were added to the churches daily, of such as should be saved."J 

Mr. Prince, in a manuscript sermon, has the following remark concerning Mr. 
Shepard, of Cambridge. " I was told when a youth, by elderly people, that he 
scarce ever preached a sermon, but some or other of his congregation were 
struck with great distress of soul, and cried out aloud in agony, What shall I do 
to be saved ? Though his voice was low, yet so searching was his preaching, 
and so great a power attending, as an hypocrite could not easily bear it, and it 
seemed almost irresistible." The same efliect was often visible after the 
preaching of Mr. Mitchell. It is stated, that it was a common question for those 
who were detained at home, to put to their friends, who had attended meeting, 
Whether anybody appeared to be wrought upon to-day ?" 

In 1650, the number of churches in New England, was fifty-eight, and the 
number of communicants, 7,750.§ On the 23d of December, 1652, died the 
Rev. John Cotton, at the age of 67. During his ministry, from 1634 to 1652, 
there were received into the first church, 306 men, and 343 women, in all, 649. 

In closing our notices of the history of the first period, it may be proper to 
exhibit some of the causes of the flourishing state of vital piety among the 
primitive settlers. While the Holy Spirit was signally manifest, with his con- 
verting and sanctifying grace, many causes conspired to invite and prolong his 
life-giving presence. The soil, on which the dews of Zion descended, was well 
prepared. The fathers united a deep feeling of dependence on God, Avith 
strenuous effort. They obeyed the whole of the inspired direction, Trust in the 

* Cluistian History, pp. 71, 72, t Doubtless Dr. Mather refers to Scotland in this sentence. 

1 Christian History, passim. 

<J Emerson's History of the First Church, p. 8L He gives the number of churches at about forty. 



128 REVIEW OF THE FIRST PERIOD. [NoV. 

Lord and do good. Many circumstances, also, additional to their own efforts, 
combined in producing a state of society, the like of which, in all respects, has 
not been seen on earth. 

1. They were descended from excellent families in England. It is a well 
known saying, uttered first, we believe, by William Stoughton, Governor of 
Massachusetts, in 1692, " God sifted a whole nation that he might send choice 
grain over into this wilderness." The family of Ames, who settled at Dedham, 
were descended from the celebrated Dr. William Ames, author of the Medulla 
TheologicE, and Professor at Rotterdam. Charles Chauncy, President of Har- 
vard College, was descended from parents " in Hertfordshire, that were both 
honorable and religious." The parents, grand-parents, and great-grand-parents 
of Mr. John Fisk, of Chelmsford, "were eminent in zeal for the true religion." 
Three of his family had the honor of being persecuted by Mary. The father 
and mother of the celebrated Peter Hobart, of Hingham, "were persons eminent 
for their piety, and even from their youth feared God." Of John Sherman, 
assistant minister of Watertown, it is said, that he was born of godly and worthy 
parents. "While he was yet a child, their instructions, joined with the ministry 
of the famous Rogers, produced in him an early remembrance of his Creator." 
A great proportion, indeed, of the first settlers of New England, were children 
of "parents who had passed into the skies." This was doubtless one cause of 
the blessings which have descended on New England. God keepeth covenant 
and remembereth mercy. 

2. The objects for which they came to this country were worthy and noble. 
In the statement of the reasons given by the emigrants from Leyden for their 
removal, is the following. " Fifthly and lastly, and which was not the least, a 
great hope and inward zeal they had of laying some good foundations, or at 
least to make some way thereunto for the propagating and advancement of the 
gospel of the kingdom of Jesus Christ in those remote parts of the world ; yea, 
although they should be but as stepping stones unto others for the performance 
of so great a work."* Eliot and the Mayhews, Sergeant and Brainerd did not 
forget this. Mr. Clap, before quoted, thus expresses the objects which the 
original settlers had in view. " What a wondrous work of God was it, to stir 
up such worthies to undertake such a difficult work, as to remove themselves, 
their wives, and children, from their native country, and to leave their gallant 
situations there, to come into this wilderness, to set up the pure ivorship of God 
here.'''' The venerable John Higginson, first of Guilford, Conn., afterwards of 
Salem, thus remarks in a sermon : " Let merchants and such as are increasing 
cent per cent remember this, let others that have come over since, at several 
times, understand this, that worldly gain was not the end and design of the 
people of New England, but Religion. And if any man among us make reli- 
gion as twelve, and the world as thirteen, let such an one know that he has 
neither the spirit of a true New England-man, nor yet of a sincere Christian."! 

3. In the attainment of their object, the fathers of New England made great 
sacrifices. As truly as any men who ever lived they brought themselves w^ithin 
the comprehension of the promise, that whosoever forsake houses, and lands, 
father and mother, for Christ's sake, shall inherit an hundred fold. Gov. Win- 
throp had a fine estate, in England, of six or seven hundred per annum, which 
he sacrificed. He died a poor man. Several gifts were bestowed on his family 
by the legislature. Many others sacrificed what were considered, in those 
days, large estates. Isaac Johnson, " the father of Boston," was one of the 
richest men in the colony. As a proof of it, he limited his funeral expenses to 
£250. The people manifested their attachment to him by requesting that their 
bodies might be buried near his. The lady Arabella, his wife, was the daughter 
of the earl of Lincoln, and "came from a paradise of plenty, into a wilderness 
of wants."! Not a few of the ministers relinquished prospects of splendid pre- 
ferment. John Norton had talents such as would have qualified him for a 
station in almost any department of life. He was offered a fellowship in the 
University of Cambridge. Peter Bulkly, of Concord, left in England " a good 
benefice, — and the estate of a gentleman." 

* New England's Memorial, p. 20. j Christian History, p. 68. J Sec Judge Story'g Cent. Discourse. 



1831.] SUFFERINGS OP THE PILGRIMS. 129 

The sufferings which they endured were many and severe. In the winter 
of 1629-30, eighty persons, out of about three hundred in the colony, had died, 
and many of those that remained, were in a weak and sickly condition. When 
the Arbella arrived at Salem, on the 12th of June, there was not corn enough 
to have lasted above a fortnight, and all other provisions were very scarce. 
They had only three or four months to look out for convenient settlements. 
Being destitute of necessary accommodations, they dropped aAvay, one after 
another. Before December, 200 of those who came with Winthrop, including a 
few who had died on the passage, were in their graves. Such a winter the 
settlers had never seen before. " The poorer sort," says Hutchinson, " were 
much exposed, lying in tents, and miserable hovels, and many died of the 
scurvy and other distempers. They were so short of provisions, that many 
were obliged to live on clams, muscles, and other shell-fish, with ground-nuts 
and acorns, instead of bread. One that came to the governor's house, to com- 
plain of his sufferings, was prevented, being informed that even there the last 
batch was in the oven. Some instances are mentioned of great calmness and 
resignation in their distress. A good man, who had asked his neighbors to a 
dish of clams, after dinner, returned thanks to God, who had given to them to 
suck of the abundance of the seas, and of the treasures hid in the sands."* 

4. The feelings of the emigrants towards their brethren, in England, and 
towards the members of the Established Church, were eminently kind and 
Christian. 

One reason, why the congregation of Mr. Robinson, in Leyden, did not 
choose to remain in Holland, was, that "their posterity would, in a few genera- 
tions, become Dutch, and so lose their interest in the English nation ; they 
being rather desirous to enlarge his Majesty's dominions, and to live under 
their natural prince. "f 

The following letter from Governor Winthrop, and others, written in April, 
1630, just as they had embarked, is so fraught with pious and fraternal feeling, 
that we cannot forbear quoting it entire. It is written in a noble spirit,^ 

The humble request of his Majesty's loyal subjects, the Governor and the 
Company late gone for New England ; to the rest of their brethren in and 
of the Church of England. 

Reverend Fathers and Brethren, — The general rumor of this solemn enter- 
prize, wherein ourselves with others, through the providence of the Almighty,- 
are engaged, as it may spare us the labor of imparting our occasion unto you^ 
so it gives us the more encouragement to strengthen ourselves by the procure- 
ment of the prayers and blessings of the Lord's faithful servants : for which end 
we are bold to have recourse unto you, as those whom God hath placed nearest 
his throne of mercy ; which as it affords you the more opportunity, so it imposeth 
the greater bond upon you to intercede for his people in all their straits, we 
beseech you therefore by the mercies of the Lord Jesus, to consider us as your 
brethren, standing in very great need of your help, and earnestly imploring it. 
And howsoever your charity may have met with some occasion of discourage- 
ment, through the misreport of our intentions, or through the disaffection, or 
indiscretion, of some of us, or rather, amongst us : for we are not of those that 
dream of perfection in this world ; yet we desire you would be pleased to take 
notice of the principals, and body of our company, as those who esteem it our 
honor, to call the Church of England, from whence we rise, our dear mother, 
and cannot part from our native country, where she specially resideth, without 
much sadness of heart, and many tears in our eyes ; ever acknowledging that 
such hope and part as we have obtained in the common salvation, we have re- 

* Hutchinson i. pp. 27, 28. t J^'ew England's Memorial, p. 20. 

J There is scarcely one of the settlers of New England, who is eo worthy of love and veneration, as 
Gov. Winthrop. He was generous, kind, true-hearted, in an eminent degree. The description of a good 
man, in the 15th Psalm, would apply to him admirahly. In the Appendix to his Journal, vol. I. tliere is a 
large number of his letters, principally to his wife. They show great delicacy, purity, and tenderness of 
feeling towards " the loved and the left behind,'^ and a spirit of entire and sweet resignation to the will of 
God. We cannot refrain from quoting his record of her death. "In this sickness, the governor's wife, 
daughter of Sir John Tindal, Knight, left this world for a better, being about 50 years of age : a woman of 
singular virtue, prudence, modesty and piety; and especially beloved and honored of all the country." 

VOL. IV. 17 



130 MORALITY OF THE FATHERS. [NoV. 

ceived in her bosom, and sucked it from her breasts : we leave it not therefore, 
as loathing that milk wherewith we were nourished there, but blessing God for 
the parentage and education, as members of the same body shall always rejoice 
in her good, and unfeignedly grieve for any sorrow that shall ever betide her, 
and while we have breath, sincerely desire and endeavor the continuance and 
abundance of her welfare, with the enlargement of her bounds in the kingdom 
of Christ Jesus. 

Be pleased, therefore, reverend fathers and brethren, to help forward this 
work now in hand ; which, if it prosper, you shall be the more glorious, howso- 
ever, your judgment is with the Lord, and your reward with your God. It is an 
usual and laudable exercise of your charity to commend to the prayers of 
your congregations, the necessities and straits of your private neighbors ; do 
the like for a church springing out of your own bowels. We conceive much 
hope that this remembrance of us, if it be frequent and fervent, will be a most 
prosperous gale in our sails, and provide such a passage and welcome for us, 
from the God of the whole earth, as both we which shall find it, and yourselves, with 
the rest of our friends, who shall hear of it, shall be much enlarged to bring in 
such daily returns of thanksgivings, as the specialties of his Providence and 
goodness may justly challenge at all our hands. You are not ignorant, that the 
Spirit of God stirred up the apostle Paul to make continual mention of the 
church of Philippi, (which was a colony from Rome,) let the same Spirit, we 
beseech you, put you in mind, that are the Lord's remembrancers, to pray for 
us without ceasing, (who are a weak colony from yourselves,) making continual 
request for us to God in all your prayers. 

What we intreat of you that are the ministers of God, that we also crave at 
the hands of all the rest of our brethren, that they would at no time forget us 
in their private solicitations at the throne of grace. 

If any there be, who through want of clear intelligence of our course, or 
tenderness of affection towards us, cannot conceive so well of our way as we 
could desire, we would intreat such not to despise us, nor to desert us in their 
prayers and affections, but to consider rather, that they are so much the more 
bound to express the bowels of their compassion towards us, remembering 
always that both nature and grace, doth ever bind us to relieve and rescue with 
our utmost and speediest power, such as are dear unto us, when we conceive 
them to be running uncomfortable hazards. 

What goodness you shall extend to us in this or any other Christian kindness, 
we, your brethren in Christ Jesus, shall labor to repay in what duty we are or 
shall be able to perform, promising so far as God shall enable us, to give him no 
rest on your behalfs, wishing our heads and hearts may be as fountains of tears, 
for your everlasting welfare, when we shall be in our poor cottages in the wil- 
derness, overshadowed with the spirit of supplication, through the manifold 
necessities and tribulations which may not altogether unexpectedly, nor, we 
hope, unprofitably befall us. And so commending you to the grace of God in 
Christ, we shall ever rest Your assured friends and brethren, 

Jo. WiNTHRop, Gov, Isaac Johnson. 

Charles Fines. Thos. Dudley. 

George Phillips. William Coddington. 
Rich. Saltonstall. 

From Yarmouth^ aboard the Arhella^ April 7, 1630. 

5. Another cause of the flourishing state of vital piety among the first settlers 
was their morality. They furnished a most striking example of the tendency and 
effect of the doctrines of the cross. They relied wholly on a gratuitous and pur- 
chased salvation. They renounced, with abhorrence, all idea of the merit of human 
works. Yet they were not antinomian. They believed, with Pres. Chauncy, that 
" Christians, notwithstanding the forgiveness of their sins, ought often to renew 
all the expressions of repentance for their sins, and still to be fervent and instant 
in prayer for pardon." While they magnified the grace of the gospel, they main- 
tained the dignity and everlasting obligation of the law. In nothing were they 
more exemplary than in the observance of the Sabbath. Of Eliot, the Indian 



1831.] FREEDOM FROM BIGOTRY. 131 

apostle, it is said, " That the sun did not set the evening before the Sabbath, 
till he had begun his preparation for it ; and when the Lord's day came, you 
might have seen John in the spirit. The Sabbath day was a type, a taste of 
heaven to him." In 164G, three Frenchmen spent a Sabbath in Boston. "The 
Lord's day they were here," says Winthrop, " the governor acquainting them 
with our manner, that all men either come to our public meetings, or keep 
themselves quiet in their houses, and finding that the place Avhere they lodged, 
would not be convenient for them that day, invited them home to his house, 
where they continued private all that day till sunset, and made use of such 
books, Latin aril French, as he had, and the liberty of a private walk in his 
garden, and so gave no offence." In a company of emigrants, who came from 
England, in 1637, was an individual who Avas " examined about his going to 
divert himself with hook and line on the Lord's day. He protested that he did 
not know when the Lord's day was ; he thought every day was a Sabbath day ; for, 
he said, they did nothing but pray and preach all the week long." Dr. Increase 
Mather, in the preface to his sermons on early piety, printed in Boston, in 1721, 
says, " There was a famous man that preached before one of the greatest as- 
semblies that ever was preached unto, seventy years ago ; and he told them, I 
have lived in a country, seven years, and all that time I never heard one profane 
oath, and all that time, I did never see a man drunk, in that land. Where was 
that country? It was New England." In 1641, Gov. Winthrop makes the 
following entry in his journal. " A great training in Boston two days. About 
1,200 were exercised in most sorts of land-service ; yet it was observed that 
there was no man drunk, though there was plenty of wine and strong beer in 
town, not an oath sworn, no quarrel, nor any hurt done." In another place, the 
following record is inserted. " The deputy granted license to Andrews, of 
Ipswich, to sell ivine, by retail, for six months, provided he did not wittingly sell 
to such as were likely to abuse it by drunkenness." It is stated by one of the 
annalists of those times, that servants and vagrants were the authors of most of 
the open crimes, which were committed. Some individuals, who found the 
moral atmosphere too pure, and religion too prominent, returned in disgust to 
England, and there exerted their influence to the prejudice of the colonists. 

6. Another circumstance, Avhich exerted a favorable influence on piety, was 
the remarkable freedom from bigotry and intolerance which prevailed. It is 
asserting nothing but what is susceptible of the fullest proof, that the early 
settlers of New England were in advance of all other communities on earth, in 
freedom from a spirit of exclusiveness and bigotry. John Robinson has the 
following passage in a letter to that portion of his flock, which sailed for the 
new world. " If God reveal anything to you, by any other instrument of his, 
be as ready to receive it, as ever you were to receive any truth by my ministry ; for 
I am very persuaded — I am very confident, that the Lord has more truth yet 
to break forth out of his holy word. For my part, I cannot sufficiently bewail 
the condition of the reformed churches, who are come to a period in religion, and 
will go, at present, no further than the instruments of their reformation. They 
cannot be drawn beyond what Luther saw. Whatever part of his will our 
good God has revealed to Calvin, they will rather die than embrace it. And 
the Calvinists, you see, stick fast where they were left, by that great man of 
God, who yet saw not all things." Many of the emigrants acted in accord- 
arice with this advice of the excellent Robinson. Thomas Walley, a venerable 
minister of Barnstable, uttered on an important occasion, these memorable 
sentences. "It would not consist with our profession of love to Christ or saints, 
to trouble those that peaceably differ from the generality of God's people in 
lesser things ; those that are like to live in heaven with us at last, we should 
endeavor they might live peaceably with us here. A ivell-bounded toleration 
were very desirable in all Christian commonwealths, that there may be no just occa- 
sion for any to complain of cruelty or persecution ; but it must be such tolera- 
tion that God be not publicly blasphemed, nor idolatry practised." Governor 
Winthrop Avas a man of enlarged and liberal principles. When near death he 
expressed a wish that more moderation had been practised toward those who 
■were termed " heretics." It is true that there were many things, which oc- 
curred in reference to Gorton, Mrs. Hutchinson, Roger Williams, the Quakers, 



132 SOUND DOCTRINAL VIEWS. [NoY. 

and others, which can be justified on no correct principle. The descendants 
of the pilgrims would gladly consign some pages of their history to ob- 
livion. Their spirits were not entirely emancipated from the thraldom of the 
dark and persecuting ages. Still they acted from a stern sense of duty. They 
were determined to obey their conscience, though that conscience sometimes 
misled them. They hearkened to the precepts of Scripture, though they some- 
times mistook their spirit, and misinterpreted their injunctions. They were far 
in advance of any of the communities of that generation in understanding the 
nature, and in acting according to the true design of civil and religious liberty. 
Before we administer to them unmitigated censure, we must Recollect the in- 
tolerant spirit which reigned in England ; we must remember that the excellent 
Matthew Hale punished witchcraft capitally ; we must also consider that they 
came to this new world to find a sanctuary, where they could have a pure and 
holy community. Those who came in to distract and pollute their societies, 
intentionally, or unintentionally, were regarded with unjustifiable, but not with 
unaccountable aversion. It is also to be observed that they had such clear 
views of the transcendent importance of personal religion, that they could 
hardly refrain from drawing men, by violence, from their destructive courses. 
Much of that which would be called bigotry, in these days, was a reasonable 
and a rational concern for the spiritual interests of men. True Christian liberty 
not only allows a man to think as he pleases, but to use all proper ways to 
induce others to think as he does, or in other words, to make known his opinions. 
It is an undoubted fact that our forefathers were men of enlarged views, and of 
generous sentiments. They consulted, in a remarkable degree, for the interests 
of posterity. They lived for future ages, and for the human race. This trait 
in their characters had a very favorable effect on their piety, and on the pros- 
perous state, generally, of vital godliness. Civil freedom operates most bene- 
ficially, and in a thousand ways, upon that freedom wherewith the Son of God 
makes his people free. 

7. The doctrines, which were maintained, and which were preached, was one 
cause of the religious prosperity of the primitive churches. Our fathers were 
" in doctrine uncorrupt." They held forth the word of life in scriptural purity. 
The ministers were such as we should expect from the countrymen of Bates, 
Howe, Manton, Owen, and Baxter. The fall of man, his total alienation from 
God, the supreme Divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ, atonement by his suflierings 
and death, the necessity of regeneration by the influence of the Holy Spirit, the 
perseverance of believers in holiness, and their kindred truths and doctrines, 
were heartily embraced, and faithfully preached. Doubtless there were defects 
in their mode of presenting the doctrines of the gospel, which detracted from 
the weight and pungency of their preaching. Still the great truths of redemp- 
tion were understood and proclaimed with singular earnestness, and fullness, 
and solemnity. The Bible was made the only standard of appeal. The reve- 
rence paid to that book was very great. We doubt if it has been exceeded 
among any class of Christians in any age of the church. A principal cause 
of the unjustifiable opposition to the Quakers, was the little esteem with which 
that sect was supposed to regard the Scriptures, The fathers were rooted and 
grounded in the faith. Conversions, in those days, were frequently the result, 
so far as human agency was concerned, of long continued, personal application 
to the truths of religion. Feeling flowed from contemplation. Anxiety of 
mind was caused by the clear apprehension of truth. They had but few books, 
and the Bible Avas the one great and inestimable treasure in every family. 
The books which they did possess were thoroughly read and digested. The 
ministrations of many of the preachers were characterised by great solemnity. 
This was doubtless owning to the spirit of prayer which they possessed in an 
uncommon degree. One of them was accustomed to say that a minister's great 
work was prayer. Another used to spend the whole of Saturday afternoon, in 
imbuing, by earnest prayer to God, his own soul, with the sentiments of the 
discourses, which he was expecting to deliver on the following day. The holy 
Shepard said, on his dying bed, that he never preached a sermon but what cost 
him tears. " He wept in the studying of every sermon. Before he preached 
any sermon he got good by it himself He always went up to the pulpit as if 



J1831.] RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF CHILDREN. 133 

he was to give up his accounts unto his Master." Men, who could with truth 
make such declarations, and not a few closely followed tlie example of Shepard, 
must have, indeed, been burning- and shining lights. Their piety warmed and 
illuminated their doctrines. Their near communion with the Holy Spirit, 
breathed light and life into all their ministrations. 

8. The exemplary religious education of children was, unquestionably, one of 
the principal causes of the flourishing state of true religion. Of John Eliot, of 
Roxbury, it is said, that " whatever decay there might be of family religion 
generally, he would command his children, and his household after him, that 
they should keep the way of the Lord. His family was a little Bethel, for the 
worship of God constantly and exactly maintained in it ; and unto the daily 
prayers of the family, his manner was to prefix the reading of the Scriptures ; 
which being done, it was also his manner to make his young people choose a 
certain passage in the chapter, and give him some observation of their own 
upon it." Of the house of Mr. Peter Hobart, of Hingham, it is said that " it was 
edified and beautified with many children, on whom when he looked, he would 
say, with much thankfulness. Behold, thus shall the man be blessed who feareth 
the Lord ! And for Avhom, like another Job, he offered up daily supplications." 
Mr. James Noyes and Mr. Thomas Parker, both of Newbury, who lived in the 
greatest intimacy, who taught in one school, came over in one ship, lived in the 
same house, Avere pastors together of the same church, used to sing four times 
a day in the public worship, and always just after evening-prayer in the family, 
where reading the Scripture, expounding and praying were the other constant 
exercises. Governor Eaton, of the New Haven colony, in the management of 
his family, " was prudent, serious, and happy to a wonder. He sometimes had 

ij a large household, consisting of no less than thirty persons, yet he managed 
them with such an even temper, that observers have affirmed. They never saw 

I an house ordered with more wisdom. By taking care of his aged mother, he 
secured his own prosperity as long as he lived. His children and servants he 

! would mightily encourage unto the study of the Scriptui'es." Nearly half of 
the ministers, who came from England, and who remained in this country, 
"were signally blessed with sons, who did work for our Lord Jesus Christ, in 
the ministry of the gospel. Yea, some of them, as Mr. Chauncy, Mr. Eliot, Mr. 
Hobart, Mr. Mather, had four or five sons each, employed in the ministry." 
"None of the least concerns," says Cotton Mather, "that lay upon the skirts 
of these reformers, was the condition of their posterity ; for which cause, in 
the first constitution of their churches, they did more generally, with more 
or less expressiveness, take in their children as under the church-watch with 
themselves." 

9. But the revivals of religion, or the eminent piety which prevailed in the 
days of our fathers, is to be attributed, under God, to the high character of the 
Christian ministry, more than to any other cause. New England, and the 
United States, have cause of unceasing gratitude to God, for the blessing of a 
learned and faithful ministry, existing at the settlement of the country. For 
original talent, for thorough scholarship, for discriminating sense, and for com- 
prehensiveness of view, they were inferior to no men of the age in which they 
lived. It is not pretended that they were faultless. Their system of biblical 
interpretation, was, in many respects, erroneous. Mental philosophy had not 
then been transformed and illuminated by the labors of Locke and Reid. The 
principles of correct taste were not well understood. Hence wretched doggerel 
was mistaken for poetry, ingenuity in the inversion of syllables for genius, and 
pedantry for sound learning. The endless divisions and subdivisions of the 
schools disfigure the productions of the press. A singular species of humor 
and witticism, employed on the most solemn subjects, and sacred occasions, 
offends every person of genuine sensibility. It is not pretended, moreover, that 
indiscriminate and fulsome eulogy has not frequently been applied to the fathers 
of New England. Cotton Mather, with all his good qualities, sadly lacked 
judgment. He had knowledge, but had no discrimination. But with all these 
abatements, the early New England ministers united distinguished piety and 
learning. They understood, and they relished well, Latin, and Greek, and 
Hebrew. An earnest pursuit of these studies, through the whole course of 



134 EMINENT MINISTERIAL ATTAINMENTS. [NoV. 

their ministry, did not interfere with the most faithful and self-denying labors. 
These studies made them to be men of rich, deep, and various thought. Learn- 
ing did not make them less ardent in the pursuit of holiness. It is an un- 
questionable fact that the most learned ministers were the most godly ministers. 
Knowledge and grace exerted a powerful reciprocal influence. By the com- 
bined effect of piety and of cultivated intellect, they were enabled to detect 
errors, to meet skilful opposers to religion, to look at remote consequences, to 
lay foundations for other ages, and for a distant posterity. John Cotton, of 
Boston, was fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, afterwards fellow, head 
lecturer, dean, and catechist in Trinity College. He was able to converse in 
Hebrew ; he wrote and spoke Latin with great facility. He would often say, with 
regret, after the departure of a visitant, " I had rather have given this man an 
handful of money, than have been kept thus long out of my study." He called 
"twelve hours" the scholar's day. A Dutchman, of great learning, having 
heard Mr. Cotton preach in Boston, declared " that never in his life had he seen 
such a conjunction of learning and plainness, as there was in the preaching of 
this worthy man." John Wilson, of Boston, obtained a fellowship in King's 
College, in Cambridge. Thomas Hooker was a fellow of Emmanuel College. On 
a certain occasion, after his removal to Hartford, he visited Cambridge. Such 
was his extraordinary ability that Governor Winthrop, (" which was not com- 
mon with him,") and a great crowd went over from Boston to hear him preach. 
From the imperfect notices now remaining of Mr. Hooker, it seems that he was 
more characterised by a very accurate knowledge of the human heart, and of 
the great principles by which human society are regulated, than he was for 
profound classical scholarship. He was a man fitted to exert a great influence. 
He had much more liberality than was common with many in those days. Presi- 
dent Dunater, of Cambridge, translated a great part of the metrical version of 
the Psalms, which was printed at Cambridge in 1640. Richard Mather, of 
Dorchester, the first of the name in this country, was an indefatigable student. 
So intent was he upon his studies, that the morning before he died, he impor- 
tuned his friends to help him into the room where " his works and books awaited 
him." President Chauncy, of Cambridge, by all accounts, was, for those days, 
an eminent oriental scholar. "He found the conjunct pleasure and profit of the 
Hebrew inexpressible." Pie rose and commenced his studies about four o'clock, 
both winter and summer. He was very judicious in the application of his 
knowledge. He made no display, but was unaffectedly modest and plain. He 
was also eminent for his attachment to the Christian doctrines, and for personal 
religion. In his last moments President Oakes asked him to give a sign of his 
hopeful and joyful assurance of eternal life ; the speechless old man instantly 
raised his arms high towards heaven. He had six sons, all educated at Cam- 
bridge, and all ministers of the gospel. Thomas Thacher, of Weymouth, com- 
posed an Hebrew Lexicon. It was his custom, once in three or four years, to 
review all his studies ; in this way he attained to eminent facility in them. 
Yet he was most exemplary in the discharge of all the duties of a pastor. He 
had the charge of a large and excellent church, made so very much by his 
prayers and toils. Samuel Whiting, of Lynn, " for his learning was many ways 
well accomplished ; especially he was accurate in Hebrew, in which primitive 
and expressive language, he took much delight ; and he was elegant in Latin, 
whereof, among other demonstrations, he gave one, in an oration at one of our 
commencements." John Sherman, of Watertown, "making the mathematics 
his diversion, did attain unto such incomparable skill therein, that he was un- 
doubtedly one of the best mathematicians that ever lived in this hemisphere."* 
His hearers used to call him " a second Isaiah, the honey-dropping and golden- 
mouthed preacher." John Eliot translated the whole Bible into the Indian lan- 
guage, also Baxter's Call, Practice of Piety, and many primers, catechisms, &c. 

* It seems that there was a Christian Almanac before the existence of the American Tract Society. 
"This great man, Sherman, would sometimes give the country an Almanac, which yet he made an op- 
portunity to do good, by adding, at the end of the composures, those holy reflections, which taught good 
rnen how to recover that little but spreading thing, the almanac, from that common abuse of being an en- 
gine to convey only silly jmpertinencies, or sinful superstitions, into almost every cottage of the wilder- 
ness." 



1831.] AMPLE PASTORAL INSTRUCTION. 135 

Richard Baxter said, " there was no man on earth, whom I honored above Eliot. 
It is his evangelical work that is the apostolical succession, which I plead for." 
The first churches, though their numbers were small, and though they had to 
meet all the hardships, dangers, and expense of new settlements, commonly- 
supported two able, experienced ministers. With the first three churches 
settled in Connecticut, there were at Hartford, the Rev. Thomas Hooker, and the 
Rev. Samuel Stone; at Windsor, the Rev. John Warham, and Ephraim Hewit;"^ 
and at Weathersfield, the Rev. Peter Prudden, in 1638, while his people were 
making preparations to remove from New Haven to Milford. At New Haven, 
at first were stationed the Rev. John Davenport, and Mr. Samuel Eaton, a 
brother of Gov. Eaton. The Rev. Henry Whitefield, was pastor, and the Rev. 
John Higginson, son of the Rev. Francis Higginson, of Salem, was teacher, of 
the church at Guilford. Rev. Abraham Pierson was pastor of the church at 
Branford, and it seems that one Mr. Brucy assisted him for some time. The first 
six towns in the Connecticut and New Haven colonies, enjoyed the constant 
labor of ten able ministers. This was as much as about one minister to fifty 
families, or to two hundred and sixty or seventy souls. Mr. Neal, after giving 
a catalogue of the ministers, who first illuminated the churches of New Eng- 
land, bears the following testimony concerning them. " 1 will not say that all 
the ministers mentioned, were men of the first rate for learning, but I can 
assure the reader, they had a better share of it, than most of their neighboring 
clergy, at that time. They were men of great sobriety and virtue, ptain^ serious, 
affectionate preachers, exactly conformable to the doctrine of the church of 
England, and took a great deal of pains to promote a reformation of manners in 
their several parishes." It was the opinion of the principal divines, who first 
settled in New England, that in every church, completely organized, there was 
a pastor, teacher, ruling elder, and deacons. From the passages, Romans xii. 
7, 1 Corinthians xii. 28, 1 Timothy v. 17, and Ephesians iv. 11, they argued that 
it was the duty of all churches, which had the ability, to be thus furnished. 
The churches which were not able to support a pastor and teacher, had their 
ruling elders and deacons. The pastor's work consisted principally in exhorta- 
tion, " in working upon the will and affections." The teacher was doctor in 
ecdesia, whose business it was to teach, explain, and defend the doctrines of 
Christianity. The ruling elder's office was to assist the pastor in the govern- 
ment of the church, to prepare and bring forward all cases of discipline,, to visit 
and pray with the sick, and, in the absence of the pastor, and teacher, to pray, 
and expound the Scriptures. From this view it appears that the first towns 
and churches in New England were remarkably well instructed. At the time 
of the union of the New Haven and Connecticut colonies, in 1665, there were 
about 1,700 families, and eight or nine thousand inhabitants, and they con- 
stantly enjoyed the instruction of about twenty ministers. Upon an average 
there was about one minister to every 85 families, or to about 430 souls. In 
some of the new plantations, thirty families supported a minister, and commonly 
there were not more than forty, when they called and settled a pastor. In 
several of the first churches, at the time when they were formed, there were not 
more than eight, nine, and ten male members. The General Court of Con- 
necticut would not allow a plantation to be established which would not support 
an able, orthodox preacher.f 



* The ancestor of the Rev. Nathaniel Hewit, D. D. The name is spelt variously. Rev. Ephraina Hewit 
came from England in 1639, settled in Windsor, Connecticut, died in 1644, of whom Johnson, in Ms- 
Wonder Working Providence says, 

"And Hewit had his arguings strong and bright." 

t See TrumbuU'a History of Connecticut, vol. I. chap. 13. 



13G 



ORIGIN OF THE LONDON UNIVERSITY. 



[Nov. 



HISTORICAL. SIO^TCH OF THE LONDON UNIVERSITY. 

Compiled principally from the London University Calendar for 1831. pp. 262. 



A LARGE number of the youth of 
England, and especially those resident 
in London, whose future professional 
duties rendered an university education 
very desirable, were, owing to various 
causes, deprived of that most important 
privilege. None, but members of the 
Established Church, as is well known, 
are admitted to the universities of Ox- 
ford and Cambridge, while there is a 
large number of individuals in opulent 
circumstances, out of the pale of the 
National Hierarchy. The expenses, also, 
of a residence at those universities, are 
such as to preclude many worthy young 
men frorii making application for ad- 
mission. It is also to be observed, that a 
professional course of study in law and 
medicine does not really rank among 
the leading objects of education at Ox- 
ford and Cambridge ; and independently 
of that circumstance, there are local 
advantages in the metropolis, for con- 
necting the theoretical with the practi- 
cal parts of those branches of knowledge, 
which cannot equally be enjoyed in any 
provincial situation. In law and in 
medicine, at Oxford, the only requisite, 
beyond the degree of M. A., is the time 
during which the name of the candidate 
must be on the university register, and 
the discharge of the appointed fees.'^ 

It has been stated that about one 
hundred, only, of all the physicians now 
practising in England, have been edu- I 
cated at Oxford and Cambridge, while i 
there are more than 300 licentiates of 
the College of Physicians, besides many 
hundreds of country practitioners, who 
have never been candidates for the 
privileges of the licentiate. 

There are now 6,000 members of the 
College of Surgeons, not six of whom, 
it has been stated, have graduated at 
the universities. In the higher branch 
of the law, a very considerable pro- 
portion have graduated at Oxford and 
Cambridge ; but among those, who be- 
long to a very important branch of the 
profession — the attornies, of whom there 
are not less than eight thousand in 
England, it is believed that scarcely 

* See the first article in the third number of the 
British Quarterly Journal of Education. 



one in a thousand has had the advanta- 
ges of an university education. Those, 
v^ho hold places in the offices of gov- 
ernment, a class that ought to enjoy the 
benefits of a liberal education, are also 
unable to avail themselves of the fa- 
cilities afforded at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, because they usually enter such 
offices at or before the age of the 
youngest under-graduates of those uni- 
versities. 

If another university was demanded 
to meet the wants of a large and in- 
creasing population, London was obvi- 
ously the situation where it could be 
most advantageously located. Accord- 
ing to the most accurate data, there 
are, in London, not less than five thou- 
sand young men from the age of six- 
teen to twenty-one, the children of per- 
sons who can easily defray the expense 
of an education in their own city. Lon- 
don is the resort of the most celebrated 
persons of every description ; and among 
others, of those most eminent in the 
cultivation of the arts, the sciences, and 
letters. Thus the greatest genius and 
skill become available to the purposes 
of education in all the branches of know- 
ledge. The capital is the most con- 
venient situation for all those young 
men, who are sent from the country for 
education, on account of the greater 
probability of their finding connections 
interested in their welfare, and greater 
facilities for adopting a style of living 
suited to their circumstances. The 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge 
supply ample opportunities for the edu- 
cation of the clergy of the Established 
Church."^ It is manifestly impossible 
to provide a course of professional edu- 
cation for the ministry of the Dissenters. 
It is equally impossible to institute theo- 
logical lectures for the instruction of 
lay students of different religious per- 
suasions, which would not be liable to 
grave objections. 

Colleges for the education of the 
ministers of different bodies of Dis- 
senters had long existed ; but leading 



* This remark needs qualification. Neither of the 
universities have made arrangements for the study 
of theology, which promise much good. 



1831.] 



SKETCH OF THE LONDON UNIVERSITY. 



137 



persons of some of the more numerous 
sects, especially among the Baptists, 
had formed a design for the establish- 
ment of an institution where not minis- 
ters only, but- the sons generally of 
those members of their congregations, 
who were in easy circumstances, might 
obtain a complete literary and scientific 
education without being called upon to 
take oaths, or subscribe articles of re- 
ligion. 

Opinions so strongly and so generally 
entertained on this most important sub- 
ject required only a fit opportunity in 
order to be publicly expressed, and 
waited only for an able leader to be 
brought into action. Such a leader was 
Mr. Brougham. A few individuals, en- 
tertaining the same liberal sentiments, 
being collected together, a plan was 
organized by which this great work 
was to be accomplished. Among these 
individuals were found some of the 
most eminent persons in the congrega- 
tions of Baptists, Independents, and 
Presbyterians, who, relinquishing their 
separate scheme, threw the weight of 
their influence into the scale, for the 
sake of securing with greater certainty 
the establishment of one great univer- 
sity, where persons of all forms of re- 
ligious belief might receive education 
in literature and science. 

After preliminary meetings, the for- 
mation of a provisional committee, and 
the distribution of a brief prospectus in 
the spring and early part of the sum- 
mer of 1825, a great public meeting 
was held in the city of London Tavern, 
convened by public advertisement, on 
Friday, the first day of July, 1825, at 
which the Lord Mayor presided. On 
that occasion Mr. Brougham, and other 
members of the provisional committee, 
developed their views, and a series of 
resolutions was adopted for establishing 
an university, by raising a capital of 
£300,000, in shares of £100, or dona- 
tions of £50 each, and laying down the 
principles upon which it was to be con- 
ducted. Shortly after this, a portion of 
freehold ground, of nearly seven acres 
in extent, in a central situation, was 
obtained, for the sum of £30,000, a cir- 
cumstance of no small moment for the 
speedy execution of the scheme, as 
afterwards appeared from the difficulty 
which the founders of King's College 
experienced in finding a proper site for 
their building. On the 19th of Decem- 
ber following, a general meeting of 

VOL. IV. 18 



proprietors was held, for the purpose of 
appointing a council, in whom the whole 
power of management should be vested. 
The following persons constituted the 
first council : — 

Rt. Hon. James Abercrombie, M. P. ; 
Rt. Hon. Lord Auckland ; Alexander 
Baring, Esq., M. P. ; George Birkbeck^ 
M. D. ; Henry Brougham, Esq., M. P., 
F. R. S. ; Thomas Campbell, Esq. ; Rt. 
Hon. Vis. Dudley and Ward, F. R. S. ; 
Isaac L. Goldsmid, Esq., F. R. S. ; Olin- 
thus Gregory, LL. D. ; George Grote, 
Jr. Esq. ; Joseph Hume, Esq., M. P., 
F. R. S. ; Marq. of Lansdowne, F. R. S. ; 
Zachary Macauley, Esq., F. R. S. ; Sir 
James Mackintosh, M. P., F. R. S. ; 
James Mill, Esq.; Duke of Norfolk, 
F. R. S. ; Lord John Russell, M. P. ; 
Benjamin Shaw, Esq. ; John Smith, Esq., 
M. P. ; William Tooke, Esq., F. R. S. ; 
Henry Warburton, Esq., F. R. S. ; Hen- 
ry Waymouth, Esq. ; John Wishaw, 
Esq., F. R. S. ; Thomas W^ilson, Esq. 

In February, 1826, the council ar- 
ranged the terms of the deed of settle- 
ment. The following are some of the 
provisions of this instrument. Object — 
the education of youth resident in, or 
resorting to London and its vicinity, at 
a moderate expense. Capital to be not 
more than £300,000, nor less than 
£150,000, in shares of £100 each ; coun- 
cil to stipulate that capital shall be the 
sole fund for payment. Shares to be 
deemed personal estate. Shares to be 
transmissible by Avill, or to personal 
representative, but not divisible, nor 
council bound to attend to trusts or 
equitable interests. Institution to be 
conducted by a council of twenty-four 
proprietors, who shall make contracts, 
appoint officers, build, have custody of 
funds and books, regulate plan of edu- 
cation, and frame rules. Members of 
council to go out so that, each year, 
there shall be an election of three new 
members. Council not to sell, borrow, 
or mortgage, without sanction of pro- 
prietors. Four auditors to be appoint- 
ed, and to be elected, as also the 
coimcil, by ballot. Council may accept 
endowments. Council to meet once a 
month in session. Annual meeting of 
proprietors last Wednesday of February. 

On account of the commercial dis- 
tress of the country, the requisite sum, 
£150,000, was not subscribed till the 
close of 182(3. The building Avas com- 
menced on the 30th of April, 1827, 
according to the design of Williami 



138 



SKETCH OF THE LONDON UNIVERSITY. 



[Nov. 



Wilkins, Esq. His Royal Highness 
the Dul^e of Sussex, laid the first stone 
of the university. Rev. Dr. Cox read 
the inscription, which was in Latin, en- 
graved on a plate of copper, and placed 
in a cavity of the stone. Rev. Edward 
Maltby, D. D., F. R. S., offered up 
solemn prayer to Almighty God, the 
whole surrounding assembly standing 
uncovered in profound silence. Stephen 
Lushington, LL. D., of Doctors' Com- 
mons, M. P., representing the proprie- 
tors, addressed the Duke of Sussex, in 
a very emphatic and dignified manner. 
His Royal Highness replied to Dr. 
Lushington, after which 430 proprietors 
and friends of the institution dined in 
Freemason's Tavern. In May, 1827, 
Leonard Horner, Esq., F. R. S., was 
appointed to the general management 
of the affairs of the institution, subject 
to the council. The building stands in 
an area of about six acres, between 
Russell-square, and the New-road, the 
chief access to it being by Gower street, 
Bedford-Square. The building, when 
completed, will consist of a central part, 
and two wings advancing at right an- 
gles from its extremities. The central 
part only has been yet erected. It is 
entirely devoted to lecture rooms, libra- 
ries, museums, and the various apart- 
ments necessary for the purposes of 
instruction ; there are no residences 
for the professors or students ; when 
the structure is completed, it is intend- 
ed that there shall be a house for the 
warden. There are four semicircular 
theatres, sixty feet by fifty, each capa- 
ble of containing 600 persons. Two 
lecture rooms, of forty-four feet by 
thirty-eight, each capable of containing 
about 250 persons, and three lecture 
rooms, forty feet by twenty-four, each 
of which will accommodate 120 persons. 
There are, besides, an extensive suite 
of dissecting rooms, a chemical labora- 
tory, a laboratory for the professor of 
materia medica, a large anatomical 
museum, a great library, one hundred 
and twenty feet by fifty, not yet finish- 
ed ; and a smaller library, which now 
contains 8,000 volumes. There are 
separate rooms for the medical and law 
libraries, and a great museum of natu- 
ral history. There are common rooms 
for the students to retire to in the inter- 
vals of lecture, and an extensive range 
of cloisters for exercise. 

The following is the list of profes- 
sors and instructers : Thomas H. Key, 



M. A., Latin Language and Literature ; 
George Long, M. A., Greek Language 
and Literature ; Alexander Blair, LL. D., 
English Philology, Literature, &c.; 
Ludwig Von Muhlenfels, LL. D., Ger- 
man Language and Literature ; Anto- 
nio Panizzi, LL. D., Italian Language 
and Literature ; Frederic Rosen, Philos- 
ophy Doctor, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, 
and Hindustani ; Hyman Hurwitz, Esq., 
Hebrew Language and Literature ; P. 
F. Murlit, Esq., Teacher of French 
Language ; Augustus De Morgan, 
B. A., Mathematics ; Rev. D. Lardner, 
LL. D., F. R. S., Natural Philosophy 
and Astronomy ; Edward Turner, M. D., 
F. R. S., Chemistry ; , Geolo- 
gy and Mineralogy ; John Lindley, 
F. R. S., Botany ; Robert E. Grant, M. D., 
F. R. S., Zoology ; Rev. John Hoppus, 
M. A., Mental Philosophy and Logic ; 
, Moral and Political Philoso- 
phy ; , History ; John R. Mac i 

Culloch, Esq., Political Economy ; John ' 
Austin, Esq., General Jurisprudence ; ! 
•, Roman Law ; Andrew Amos, 



M. A., English Law ; G. S. Pattison 
and J. R. Bennett, B. A., Anatomy ; J. 
R. Bennet, R. Quain, and B. Phillips, 

Dissections and Demonstrations; 

, Physiology ; Robert E. Grant, 

M. D., F. R. S., Comparative Anatomy ; 
John Conolly, M. D., Practice of Phy- 
sic ; G. S. Pattison, Esq., Surgery ; Da- 
vid D. Davis, M. D., Midwifery, &c. ; 
Thomas Watson, M. D., Clinical Medi- , 
cine ; Anthony T. Thomson, M. D., 

Materia Medica ; , Medical 

Jurisprudence ; Rev. F. A. Cox, LL. D., 
Librarian ; Thomas Coates, Esq., Clerk 
of the Council. 

The session of the university of 
London commences on the first of Oc- 
tober for the medical classes, and on , 
the first of November for the others. 
It terminates in the former in the mid- , 
die of May ; in the latter in July. The 
classes are so arranged that the stu- ; 
dent may attend them in a convenient ' 
order, whether for general or profes- 
sional education. He is at liberty to 
attend those which best suit him, but 
the professors may be consulted by all 
who desire assistance in settling their 
plans of education. A single course of 
lectures may be attended ; so that it is 
practicable for those who must enter 
upon their profession at an early peri- 
od of life, to carry on their education at 
the same time. It is recommended 
that those who are beginning their 



SKETCH OP THE LONDON UNIVERSITY CORRECTION. 



1831.] 



icademical general education, should 
ittend only three classes. There is an 
inrestricted admission for all persons 
kvithout previous examination, except 
n the case of junior students for the 
classes of Latin, Greek, and mathemat- 
ics ; in these it is recommended that no 
person should enter who is under fif- 
teen years of age ; if any one should 
resent himself under that age, he must 
e privately examined by the professor. 
The manner of teaching languages 
[and mathematics is by direct communi- 
ation between the teacher and pupil ; 
nd also by written exercises and con- 
stant oral examinations of the class. 
The instruction in the classes of Latin, 
reek and the modern languages, is 
communicated by daily examinations, 
questions, translations, by aid of maps, 
plans, coins, medals, &c. In all the 
classes, attended chiefly by the younger 
students, a daily record is kept of the at- 
tendance and general conduct of the 
students in the lecture room, and a re- 
port is sent every month to their pa- 
rents and guardians. In the other 
classes, weekly examinations form a 
part of the plan of instruction for every 
professor. There are, in all the classes, 
regular examinations at Christmas, 
Easter, and the close of the ses- 
sion, conducted chiefly after the Cam- 
bridge plan, by written answers to 
questions previously printed ; by these 
it is determined to whom certificates of 
proficiency shall be granted and the 
prizes awarded. A gold and two silver 
medals, or a first, second, and third 
prize in books, are given in each class, 
besides certificates of honor to all who 
deserve them. A general university 
certificate or Diploma is to be given 
at the close of three . years' attendance 
to those who prove themselves to have 
been diligent in their studies. 

The whole yearly expense of the 
university, to a student attending three 
classes of the highest rate, of eight 
months' duration, and which meet five 
times a week, is £24, if he is nominated 
by a proprietor, and £28 10*. if not 
nominated. Very strict rules are re- 
quired to be observed by all who keep 
boarding-houses for the students. The 
housekeeper must present a testimo- 
nial from the minister to whose congre- 
gation he belongs, certifying in regard 
to the correctness of his moral habits, 
&c. He must require his boarders to 
be home at an early hour of the night. 



139 



He must not suffer gaming or licen- 
tious conduct. He must require his 
boarders to attend some place of pub- 
lic Avorship. In case of irregularity of 
conduct, or serious illness, he must 
make an immediate report to the 
friends of the boarder. He must not 
receive any boarders except students 
of the university. 

The university commenced with 
about 600 students. Some serious dif- 
ficulties have occurred, at various times, 
especially between the warden and 
professors. The warden and two or 
three professors have recently resigned 
their offices. We believe that these 
difficulties are now in a fair way of 
adjustment. Ten of the dissenting 
congregations in London own shares 
in the stock. 

Connected with the university is a 
preparatory school, or seminary from 
which the Latin, Greek, and mathemati- 
cal classes of the London university 
are to be furnished with a regular sup- 
ply of properly qualified pupils. No 
boy is permitted to remain at the school 
after he shall be found competent to 
enter those classes, nor in any case af- 
ter he is sixteen years old. The annual 
fee for each pupil is £15, which in- 
cludes all charges, the pupil providing 
books. The business of each morning 
commences with a short prayer, accom- 
panied at stated times with the reading 
of the scriptures. Rev. Henry Browne, 
M. A., of Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, is Head Master. This school 
was opened on the first of November, 
1830. Number of pupils, in January 
last, 80, 



CORRECTION. 

In the number of our work for August, 1830, 
p. 68, we stated that thie Gospel Propag-atioH So- 
ciety owned slaves on their Codrington estates, in 
Barbadoes, and that the course which they pur- 
sued met with severe and just reprehension. We 
are happy to say that we were misinformed, and 
that the Society are adopting very satisfactory 
measures for the happiness and complete eman- 
cipation of the negroes, on an estate which was 
given to them in trust more than a century ago, 
and which they do not feel at liberty to alienate. 
It seems that the Society are determined to take 
the lead in a gradual but sijstematic emancipation. 
We shall give a full account of their proceedings, 
and of the history of the Society, hereafter. 

In the number for August last (1831), page 23, 
second line, it should read 473 years after the 
invasion of Julius Caesar, instead of 65. Same 
number, page 43, the Edinburgh Review was 
commenced in 1802, not in 1782 : and on the 
following page, the London Quarterly was com^^. 
meuced iu 1809, not in 1819, as there stated. 



140 



KNAPP S THEOLOGY — REINHARD. 



[Nov. 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Lectures on Christian Theology, by 

George Christian Knafp. Translated by 
Lkonard Woods, Jun., Abbot Resid. at the 
Theol. Seminary in Andover, Mass., in two vol- 
umes, vol. I. New York: published by G. & C. 
&. H. Carvill, 108, Broadway. Andover: printed 
at the Codman Press, by Flagg & Gould, 1831. 
pp. 539. 

Dr. Knapp, late Professor at the Univer- 
sity of Halle, was born at Glancha, in Halle, 
on the 17th of September, 1753, and re- 
ceived his early education in the Royal Pae- 
dagogium, one of the institutions of the pious 
Francke. At the age of 17, he entered the 
university at Halle, and attended the lec- 
tures of Semler, Noesselt and Gruner, with 
more than common success. The Bible was 
his great object of study, while the Latin 
and Greek classics still received a degree of 
attention which enabled him ever afterwards 
to adorn, enrich and illustrate from classical 
literature whatever he said or wrote in the 
department of Theological science. In 1774 
he completed his course of study, and in 1775, 
after a short absence, he began to lecture, 
at Halle, with much success upon Cicero, 
the New Testament, and the more difficult 
portions of the Old Testament. He was 
appointed Prof. Extraordinary in 1777, and 
Prof. Ordinary in 1782. He then lectured 
in Exegesis, Church History, and in Jewish 
and Christian Antiquities. On the death of 
Freylinghausen (1785), he and Niemeyer 
were appointed Directors of Francke's In- 
stitutes ; and continued jointly to superin- 
tend these establishments for more than 40 
years. In the division of duties, the Bible 
and Missionary establishment fell to Dr. 
Knapp, which brought him into near con- 
nection with the Moravians. The lectures, 
of which this volume forms a part, he com- 
menced during the summer of the same 
year. In consequence of illness, and the 
variety and extent of his other duties, he 
did not complete them, however, until 1789 
when they were first read before a class of 
186 students. He continued to lecture on 
Theology, until his death, to auditories no 
less numerous. Such was his popularity 
(notwithstanding his orthodox sentiments !) 
that when in 1825 he closed the 50th year 
of his connection with the theological fac- 
ulty of the university, and the accustomed 
jubilee was held in his honor, the most flat- 
tering marks of affection and respect were 
poured upon him from every side. He died 
the 14th day of October, 1825, in the 73d 
year of his laborious life. At his request he 
was interred privately in his family tomb ; 
and in the public notices of his decease, 
nothing was to be said in his honor, except 
that he lived in the faith of these words, / 
know that my Redeemer liveth. 

The volume before us is an important 
addition to our helps in the department of 



Theology. That it is an independent work, 
a comparison with other systems on the 
same subject will demonstrate. Its logic 
may be seen by a mere inspection of the 
index. If the entire inability of Dr. Knapp 
to get into the tide of German mysticism 
(in the better sense) could not injure the 
popularity of this work in Germany, how 
much more welcome must it be to the 
American student in the present state of 
things. The preface prefixed to it by the 
translator, contains fine historical remarks, 
and some important hints as to the influence 
and necessity of Christian experience with 
reference to the explanation of the sacred 
text, and the framing of its contents into 
a connected whole. They may lead the 
student of sacred criticism to detect a defi- 
ciency in Ernesti's principles of interpre- 
tation which can never be enough deplored. 
The translator's notes, specially on the 
doctrine of the Trinity, and on fallen 
spirits, will prove an acceptable addition to 
the work. We look with desire for the 
publication of the second volume, which 
contains rather the more interesting part of 
the whole system, namely the appropriate 
revealed truths of the Bible, as professed 
and defended by the venerable Knapp, in 
the midst of the most powerful opposition. 
To the believer of the truth as expressed in 
the Bible and felt in the heart, it affords no 
small degree of satisfaction to observe that 
the combined learning of the world is as in- 
sufficient to deduce Rationalism, Unitarian- 
ism, or Deism from the Bible, as it is to 
prove that twice two makes six. One 
learned and pious man can do more for the 
truth, than a hundred learned enemies can 
do against it. 

Of the correctness of the translation, no 
one will doubt, who is acquainted with the 
translator ; and our only desire is, that he 
may burst the shackles of English lexicog- 
raphy, which would fain confine us to just 
such and so many ideas, and with a set of 
new words for new ideas give us the results 
of the pious and learned efforts of men like 
Schleiermacher,Neander,and Tholuck; that 
we may not despise unknown things, but 
" prove all things, and hold fast that which 
is good." 

Plan of the Founder of Christianity, by 

F. V. Reinhard, S. T. D., Court Preacher at 
Dresden. Translated from the 5th German ed. by 
Oliver A. Taylor, A. M., Resident Licentiate, 
Theological Seminary, Andover. New-York : 
Published by G. & C. & H. Carvill, No. 108 Broad- 
way. Andover: Printed at the Codman Press, 
by Flagg & Gould. 1831. pp. 359. 

Francis Volkmar Reinhard was decidedly 
the greatest writer of sermons Germany , 
ever produced. The purity of his style has 
been equalled only by Campe. Th.tt he 



1831.] 



|was not the worst reasoner of his country, 

he volume before us may prove. If this 
work should remain unread, it w^ill not be 

n account of the looseness, but of the se- 
|verity of its logic. So is the forgotten 

'aco?z just rising in England from his grave 
in which he slept too long, and Hamann in 
Germany waits yet for the resurrection day 

f his invaluable writings. 
F. V. Reinhard was born March 12, 1753, 

t Vohenstrauss, a town in Sulybach. His 
father, J. S. M. Reinhard, was pastor of 

hat place. His religious feelings were 
jearly awakened by a dihgent and untiring 
study of the Bible, to which his father in- 
duced and trained him, and for the right un- 
derstanding of which he fitted himself by 
extensive and philological acquisitions, and 
by early formed habits of close reflection 
guided by the severest logic. In 1773 
he entered the university at Wittenberg, 
in 1777 he became magister legens, and in 
1778 adjunctus of the philosophical faculty. 
The title of Professor Extraordinary was 
conferred upon him in 1780, when he be- 
gan to lecture in philology and philosophy 
to the great satisfaction of his pupils. Soon 
after, he obtained the rank of Professor Ordi- 
nary in the Department of Theology. The 
high excellency of his pulpit efforts in- 
duced the Government to promote him 
(1792) to the stations of Chief Court 
Preacher (Oberhof prediger), Ecclesiastical 
Counsellor (Kirchenrath), and Chief Asses- 
sor of the Consistory (Oberconsistorialrath). 
This led him to take up his residence at Dres- 
den, where he performed the duties of his 
stations to the. end of his life. He died 
Sept. 6, 1812. Like Knapp he had entered 
the field at the most perilous religious peri- 
od Germany ever saw. He set out as a sa- 
gacious and independent thinker, and as a 
sceptical inquirer, and closed his course 
as a pious and orthodox Christian and theo- 
[j logian. The preface of our translator gives 
a connected view of the circumstances 
which occasioned the repeated publication 
of the work before us, which view we do 
not wish to anticipate here. If we may not 
warrant the perfect correctness of every 
phi-ase in this translation, we are at least 
confident to say that as a whole it is a faith- 
ful and successful attempt to exhibit in 
English the close, nice, and often complicated 
reasoning of one of the most powerful and 
discriminating German thinkers. The abil- 
ity and scrupulousness of the translator, to- 
gether with the favorable circumstances 
under which he performed his task, will 
suffice to inspire the public with confi- 
dence, wherever they are known. 

This work has gone through five editions 
in German, and has been enlarged and im- 
proved with every successive publication. 
The 5th German edition is the one of which 
we now possess a translation. Heubner, 
under whose supervision this edition is issu- 
ed, has made valuable additions to the work 



ANNALS OP YALE COLLEGE. 



141 



in his notes at the bottom of the pages, and 
in part in the Appendix. 

The simple plan of the work is to show 
that Jesus formed the most exalted, wise, 
benevolent, and extensive plan which was 
ever formed to better the moral condition of 
our race, by establishing a divine, spiritual 
kingdom upon earth, which should at last 
embrace all men, and by moral ties unite 
them again to God their rightful Sovereign ; 
that such a plan impHes a degree of wisdom 
and benevolence to which Jesus cannot rea- 
sonably be supposed to have attained by the 
most faithful improvement of the advanta- 
ges he enjoyed, or by anything short of di- 
rect divine agency upon his mind ; and that 
therefore he must be received by us as the 
most exalted Ambassador, sent by God him- 
self, and as our Saviour. 

That Reinhard could not demonstrate by 
this process of reasoning the absolute divine 
character of Christ, is plain from the nature 
of the case. But it is equally plain, that if 
we acknowledge the correctness of Rein- 
hard's reasoning, and if Christ has said any 
thing with reference to his divinity ; then 
we arrive at the conclusion that he is di- 
vine with the very next step, and establish 
this doctrine upon the unshaken foundation 
of his own testimony. This work is looked 
upon in Gerrnany about in the same light as 
we look upon Butler's Analogy, and its ef- 
fects have been very beneficial. May it do 
good also in this land of religious inquiry. 

For the two preceding notices we are in- 
debted to a highly valued friend, who has 
no connection with the works in question, 
but who understands well thsir contents. 

[Ed. 

Annals of Yale College, in New Ha- 
ven, ct. from its foundation to the year 1831, 
■with an Appendix, containing statistical tahles, 
and exliibiting the present condition of the Insti- 
tution. By Ebenezer Baldwin. New-Haven: 
Hezekiah Howe, 1831. pp. 324. 

We gave a brief view of the history of 
Yale College, in the number of our work 
for May last. We gather from the volume 
of Mr. Baldwin a number of additional facts. 
The book is so miscellaneous in its charac- 
ter that it is difficult to give a distinct analy- 
sis of its contents. It is, strictly, as its name 
imports. Annals, a chronological history of 
the college, interspersed with occasional re- 
marks by the compiler. 

The Legislature of Connecticut, at vari- 
ous times, have given to Yale College the 
sum of $78,582 60. The last grant was 
made in May, 1831, and amounted to f 7,000, 
being a part of the bonus, on the grant of a 
bank charter to Bridgeport. This estimate 
does not include the avails of a lottery 
which was authorized by the General As- 
sembly, in 1747, and from which the sum 
of $2,220 was obtained. In addition, the 
nominal sum of ^30,000 was granted to the 



143 



STUART S GRAMMAR— PASCAL S THOUGHTS. 



[N( 



Medical Institution in 1814. Thus in the 
period of one hundred and thirty years, a 
State, which has ever been eminent in in- 
telligence, and in the almost universal dif- 
fusion of knowledge, and which has a school 
fund of nearly two millions of dollars, has 
given to a college, which was for more than 
a century the only institution of the kind, in 
the Commonwealth, which has educated 
about four thousand five hundred men, in- 
cluding most of the members of all the 
learned professions in the State, an institu- 
tion which has furnished no less than twen- 
tyrsix college presidents, and which would 
be a glory and an honor to any cominunity 
in the old world, the sum of about one 
hundred thousand dollars.^ 

In 1822, a fund was raised, amounting to 
^27,612 44, to found the Dwight Professor- 
ship. Of this sum $9,200, vested in the 
Eagle Bank, was lost, by the failure of that 
institution. Towards this Professorship, Mr. 
Timothy Dwight, of New Haven, gave 
^5,000. Towards founding a Sacred Litera- 
ture Professorship, $9,229 22 have been 
given. In 1825, the citizens of New-Ha- 
ven raised $10,000 towards purchasing Col. 
Gibbs's splendid and very valuable Minera- 
logical Cabinet. Above $3,500 was contrib- 
uted in New York city for the same pur- 
pose. The whole expense of the cabinet 
was $20,000. In 1828, Arthur Tappan, 
Esq., of New York, agreed to pay for the 
tuition of beneficiaries of the American Ed- 
ucation Society, of the classes entering in 
the years 1828 and 1829, more or less. On 
this benefaction there has been paid in 2 2-3 
years, $2,350. Its continuance for 1 1-3 
more is estimated at $1,750. Total $4,100. 

In 1827, the Alumni of Yale College form- 
ed a Society for the general object of sus- 
taining and advancing the interests of Yale 
College. An Alumnus, who pays two dol- 
lars annually, is a member of the Society. 
The payment of $15, at one time, consti- 
tutes a membership for ten years ; of $25, 
membership for life. About $4,000 have 
been raised. At the late commencement, 
Sept. 1831, a proposal was made to raise 
$100,000 for the general interests of the 
institution. About one third of that sum 
was pledged on the spot, to be paid in case 
the whole sum, 100,000 dollars, is pledged 
before 1833.t We observed that the Rev. 
Richard Salter, D. D., of Mansfield, gave, 
in 1781, a tract of land, worth about $1,566, 
to encourage the Hebrew and other Orien- 
tal Languages. In 1723, Madam Abigail 
Woodbridge, of Hartford, gave a bell worth 



* A single college in the State of New York has 
received nearly an equal sum, in a single grant from 
the Legislature. Harvard College received an equal 
Bum from a tax on the Massachusetts Bank in 1814, 
in ten annual instalments. Five or six college 
buildings at Cambridge have been erected entirely 
at the expense of the Legislature. 

t We are rejoiced to see that a distinct Professor- 
ship is established for the noble language and litera- 
tare of ancient Greece. 



£5 to the College. In 1733, Bishop Berkely, ' 
of Ireland, gave 96 acres of land on 
Rhode Island, and 1,000 volumes of books, 
worth £400. Hon. Elihu Yale, of London, 
in 1716, presented to the College, 300 vol- 
umes of books, worth £100, and goods to 
the amount of £400. Drs. Philip Dod- ' 
dridge and Isaac Watts, were frequent con- ' 
tributors. [ 

A Grammar of the Hebrew Language, : 

by Moses Stuart, Associate Professor of Sacred i 

'Literature in the Theological Institution at An- 1 

dover. Fourth edition, corrected and enlarged. | 
Andover, 1831. Flagg & Gould, pp. 252. 

The present edition of the Hebrew 
Grammar retains all the essential features 
of the third edition, and in nearly every 
case the same notation of sections with their 
respective subdivisions. This edition has 
been subjected to a most thorough revision, 
and a great number of additions and correc- 
tions, of a subordinate kind, have been made. \ 
After every sheet had passed through at '' 
least five revisions, the whole book was i 
submitted to the inspection of Mr. Joshua j 
Seixas, a native Jew, and the son of a ' 
Rabbi. A considerable number of small 
errors were discovered by him, and are print- i 
ed at the close of the volume. To detect I 
many of them required an argus-eyed vision. '■ 

We are gratified to see the Codman 
Press still maintaining its high character for i 
accuracy and neatness. \ 

Thoughts on Religion and other sub- 
jects, by Blaise Pascal. A new Translation and 
a Memoir of his Life, by the Rev. Edward Craig, 
Oxon. Member of the Wernerian Society', to 
which are added introductory and other notices. , 
Amherst, Mass., first American edition. J. S. &. C. 
Adams, 1829. pp. 316. ; 

Pascal, by universal consent, stands in : 
the same rank with the gifted few — with 
Isaiah, Homer, Sir Isaac Newton, Milton, ! 
and Butler. Pascal united, perhaps, in a ; 
degree never equalled by man, the powers , 
of the severest and closest analysis, and of 
the widest and most comprehensive gene- 
ralization. He was equally at home in the ' 
investigations of the Integral Calculus, and , 
in the results of the great system of human 
redemption. If an individual wishes to get 
an exalted conception of the dignity of" a ' 
human soul, let him contemplate the arch- 
angel mind of Pascal. If he wishes to see i 
the effect of the religion of the gospel, 
though deprived of a portion of its inherent 
vigor by Roman Catholic inventions, let him 
look at the meekness, the patience in ex- 
tremest suffering, the blessed charity, the pu- 
rity, shrinking from the least touch of defile- 
ment, the undying love, the ardent hope, the 
heavenly aspirations of Pascal. We would 
not recommend the thoughts of Pascal, for 
the same reason that we would not recom- 
mend the Analogy, or Bacon, or the Bles- 
sedness of the Righteous, or the incompara- 
ble Leighton. The Thoughts of Pascal are 



TEMPERANCE SCHAUFFLEr's SERMON. 



831.] 



he outlines simply of a great system. They 
re fragments, but fragments of gold. 

.^^ourth Report of the American Tem- 
perance Society, presented at the meeting in 
Boston, May, IdSl. Boston: Perkins & Marvin. 
pp. 110. 

This Report contains a detailed and faith- 
ul history of one of the greatest changes 
vhich was ever effected in the condition of 
human race. The temperance refor- 
nation will form a most important chapter 
n the history of navigation and commerce, 

f political economy and morals, of manners 
nd fashions, and of the Christian religion, 
ts effects in the United States are hardly 

isible yet. Inveterate habits are not 
hanged in a day. Still, there is reason to 

elieve that a great proportion of the youth 
nd children of the United States, and of 
he young men under thirty years of age, 
ire acting on the temperance principle. 
Those who drink, and those who distil, or 
nanufacture the poison, are generally over 
hirty years of age. Their bodies will soon 
all in the wilderness, where they have 
empted God, and their fellow men ; a new 
generation, who have not been slaves in 
^gypt, will rise up and enter a land flowing 

ith what is better than milk and honey — 

ith water, pure and refreshing. A vision 
f glory and beauty, such as the dying leg- 
slator of Israel did not see from the top of 
^isgah, opens to the eye of the philan- 
hropist and Christian of this country. 

IThe obvious duties of all the friends of 
emperance are the following : — 
1. To give hearty thanks to God for the 
uccess which He has been pleased to grant 
;o this enterprise thus far, and to implore, 
most earnestly, his continued and increasing 
[favor. 

I 2. To enter more vigorously than ever 
into the work. We ought to deprecate a 
Jefeat now, as the sorest of all evils. Every 
jjman, woman, and child, who cares anything 
about the happiness of his fellow men, should 
be awake at this juncture. There is a 
great personal responsibility resting on every 
individual in every station of hfe. 

3. To afford patronage, wherever it is 
[practicable, to all those classes of persons, 
jwho perform their business without ardent 
jspirits. 

4. To circulate information on the sub- 
ject in all lawful ways. Great numbers are 
[not informed yet. We would recommend 
the Report of the Temperance Society, 
whose title we have given, with all the 
earnestness in our power. We wish it 
could be circulated by hundreds of thou- 
sands. It contains facts, and reasonings, 
and appeals, which are absolutely irresisti- 
ble. It is precisely the pamphlet which 
was wanted. Why will not every Tempe- 
rance Society in the land supply all their 
members with a copy ? 

Wor^s cannot express the guilt of those 



143 



individuals who are now engaged, in any- 
way, in manufacturing or vending ardent 
spirits. How far short do they come of 
knowingly violating the command of Al- 
mighty God, Thou Shalt not kill? Will 
their alleged ignorance be an excuse for- 
ever ? 

A Sermon preached in the Chapel of 

the Theological Seminary, Andover, Sept. 11, 
1831, by WilliamG.Schauffler, M.A., Abbot 
Resident in the Theological Seminary, Andover. 
Boston : Peirce &c Parker, 1831, pp. 22. 

Mr. Schauffler, the author of this sermon, 
is expecting to sail from this country, in a few 
weeks, as a missionary to the Jews, on the 
shores of the Mediterranean. He has pursu- 
ed his studies at Andover for four or five years 
past, and has acquired a familiar acquaint- 
ance with several of the Oriental languages. 
The sermon, whose title has just been 
named, and v^hich is dedicated to the many 
and endeared friends, whom he will leave 
in this country, shows that Mr. SchaufHer, 
though a German by birth, understands the 
English tongue, or rather that universal 
language, which is recognized by all Chris- 
tian hearts. In the following passage, Mr„ 
Schauffler is speaking of the happiness 
which a pious man may enjoy in his 
sufferings. 

" The pious man has meat to eat which 
the world knoweth not of. His comforts 
and sufferings are dependent upon very dif- 
ferent circumstances than those of other 
men. They flow from another world than 
this which he sees and handles, and upon 
which imperfection and dissolution is writ- 
ten in characters large enough to be read 
by any one. He is like to the high moun- 
tains, whose lower parts may be shrouded 
in gloom, swept by the hail storm and the 
rain, shaken by the roaring thunder, and 
terrified by one continued stream of fire 
from the gathering cloud, whilst their higher 
peaks and plains enjoy the most perfect 
peace, and shine with undiminished bright- 
ness, capable of being darkened only when 
the king of day himself hides his face. He 
is like the deep ocean, whose surface may 
be roughened and torn by raging hurri- 
canes, while its unexplored depths remain 
undisturbed and unmoved, as they were on 
the morning of creation. He is like that 
little plant, which, indeed, grows with many 
of her sisters out of the same humble clod ; 
but soon winding itself around the tall cedar, 
or the strong oak, draws out its slender root 
from the ground, derives nourishment from 
a new and higher source, and is but little 
careful in the year of drought." 

Aids to Devotion, in three parts, in- 
cluding Watts's Guide to Prayer. Boston : Lin- 
coln & Edmands, 1831. pp. 288. 
In the first part of this book is condensed 
a large portion of the Rev. Edward Bicker- 
steth's (late Secretary to the Church Mis- 



144 



AIDS TO DEVOTION RHETORICAL READER. 



[Nov. 



sionary Society) excellent treatise on the 
nature, duty, and privilege of prayer, with 
various other topics, forming an appropriate 
introduction to the work. The second part 
consists of the entire treatise of Dr. Watts, 
entitled a Guide to Prayer. The third part 
comprises devotional exercises, selected prin- 
cipally from the passages of Scripture, ar- 
ranged by Mr. Henry, in his Method of 
Prayer, and from Mr. Bickersteth's Forms 
of Prayer. In these days of the effusions 
of the Divine Spirit, when the attention of 
thousands and tens of thousands in our coun- 
try, is, for the first time, directed to the sub- 
ject of intercourse with the Father of Spirits, 
no publication can be more important and 
timely than this. It is true that the gift of 
prayer is worthless without the grace of 
prayer. Nevertheless, the prayers of all 
Christians in social and public meetings 
ought to be intelligent, appropriate, and 
edffying. This, however, cannot be ex- 
pected, without the cultivation of proper 
habits in secret prayer. Premeditation 
and arrangement are important when we 
are in the closet attempting to address Him 
who is pure Intelligence. A serious and 
calm recollection was the state in which 
Henry Martyn loved to speak to his Saviour. 
A great variety of valuable directions and 
judicious remarks is embodied in the " Aids 
to Devotion." It deserves a wide circu- 
lation. 

The Rhetorical Reader, consisting of 

instructions for regulating the voice, with a rhe- 
torical notation illustrating inflection, emphasis, 
and modulation ; and a course of rhetorical exer- 
cises. Designed for the use of Academies and 
High Schools, by Ebenezer Porter, D. D., 
President of the Theological Seminary, Andover. 
Andover: Flagg & Gould. New-York: J. Lea- 
vitt, 1831. pp.300. 

The first edition of Dr. Porter's Analysis 
of Rhetorical Delivery was published in 
1827. The fourth edition is now in the 
press at Andover. The Analysis is design- 
ed especially for the colleges and higher 
seminaries. The present work is intended 
for schools and academies. The first third 
of its matter is an abridgement of the Analy- 
sis, though with new discussion and eluci- 
dation of some important principles. In re- 
gard to about two^ thirds of its contents, the 
book is new. In* the selection of Exercises, 
we think that Dr. Porter has been very 
happy. They include a large number 
which we have not seen in any other read- 
ing book.* 

Our readers will be highly pleased to 
learn that Dr. Porter contemplates publish- 
ing a separate collection of Biblical Ex- 
ercises, of perhaps 150 pages, to which a 
rhetorical notation will be applied, and 
which may be a proper sequel both to the 
Analysis, and Rhetorical Reader. 



A Discourse on Ministerial Q,ualifica- I 



*The spirited effusion entitled "African Chief," 
which is mentioned as anonymous, is from the pen 
of Bryant. 



ions, delivered at Hanover, Indiana, June 29, 
1831, by Rev. Benjamiw C. Cressy, together ' 
with an Address by Rev. John Matthews, D.D. I 
on occasion of his inauguration as Professor of 
Didactic and Polemic Theology in the Indiana ' 
Theological Seminary. Madison, Indiana, 1831. I 
pp. 30. 

Sincerely thankful are we to hear such 
sentiments as the following coming from i 
our brethren beyond the Alleghanies. 

" The pastor after God's own heart should \ 
evidently be capable of instructing others. I 
This is fully asserted in the text, 1 will give 
you jJostors after mine own heart, who 
shall feed yoi.i with knowledge and 
UNDERSTANDING. But how shall the 
pastor impart that to others, which he pos- 
sesses not himself.'' We naturally infer, 
that the qualifications of men should be pro- 
portioned to the nature of the office which 
they sustain. The minister of state should 
be extensively acquainted with the law of 
nations, and the various usages of diplomatic 
intercourse. When reputation and property 
are at stake, men act consistently in com- 
mitting their cause to an able counsel whose 
acquaintance with civil jurisprudence, and 
whose well known powers of eloquence jus- 
tify the cheering hope that justice will be 
awarded to the oppressed. When disease is 
undermining the constitution, who would 
knowingly trust his life in the hands of a 
physician destitute of a thorough knowledge 
of his profession 1 It is admitted, that the 
holy ministry is of all offices the most im- 
portant and responsible. While then the 
voice of the world requires that men in 
every other calling should be qualified for 
their station, how absurd to suppose, that it 
is either pleasing to God, or profitable to 
men, that the weak minded and ignorant 
should fill the sacred office." [Cressy, p. 8. 

On the same topic Dr. Matthews thus 
speaks. 

" The Bible is written in languages not 
spoken by any people now on earth ; they 
are dead languages. The preacher must, 
therefore, either obtain a knowledge of 
these languages by close and persevering 
study, or he must be dependent on the 
learning of others to translate them for him. 
As no translators are inspired, every one 
must admJt that he who can read these lan- 
guages and judge for himself, will possess ■ 
great advantages in explaining the word. 
For it is a fact that there are different 
shades of meaning suggested by the origi- ' 
nal, which no translation, though upon the 
whole correct, can possibly convey ; all this ' 
is lost through this ignorance. Now, 
although we admit that some men are useful 
in the ministry who are unacquainted with 
these languages, yet we cannot but think that, 
with this knowledge, they would have been 
more useful ; and it is our honest convic- 
tion, that this ignorance should be the cause 
of sincere regret, and not of boasting. This 



1831.] 



BARR S HELP WITIIERSPOON ILLINOIS COLLEGE. 



145 



ignorance and this boasting are, to say the 
least, no proof of greater zeal for the cause 
of Christ. Whatever else they may prove, 
they do not prove the possession of other 
qualifications for the ministry." 

We gave sonic notices of the new institu- 
tion at Hanover, page 129 of our last vol- 
ume. Sev^eral tiiousand dollars have re- 
cently been subscribed by gentlemen in the 
Eastern States, in aid of its funds. 

A Help to Professing Christians, in 

judging of tlicir Spiritual State and Grovvtii in 
Grace. By the Rev. John Barr, Author of the 
Scripture Student's Assistant, Plain Catechetical 
Instructions on the Lord's Supper, and on Infant 
Baptism. From the Edinburgh edition. Boston : 
Perkins & JWarvin, 1831. pp. 307. 

This book is written in a plain and simple 
>tyle. We know nothing of the author ex- 
:;ept what we derive from this volume. He 
lere shows himself to be a serious, dis- 
criminating, and highly practical writer, 
mxious to lead his readers into the paths of 
loliness and peace. In the first chapter he 
liscusses the importance and duty of know- 
ng our religious character. He then pro- 
ceeds to the consideration of the difficulties 
n the way of this self-knowledge. Direc- 
ions for self-examination are given ; false 
narks, which are frequently mistaken as 
enuine evidences of a gracious state, are 
pointed out; genuine evidences of piety; 
iddresses to those who have no such evi- 
ience ; the nature and grounds of assur- 
mce ; the properties, evidences, hindrances, 
neans, and advantages of growing in grace. 
3ne excellence of the work is, that it makes 
he evidence of the existence of piety in the 
;oul depend on the growth of piety ; another 
s, that it avoids every controverted point, 
ill Christians will agree in the views which 
u-e presented. It is at the same time per- 
fectly intelhgible to individuals of every 
capacity. 

Treatises on Justification and Regen- 
eration, by John VVitherspoon, D. D., with an 
Introductory Essay, hy W^illiam Wilber- 
FORCE, Esq., Author of Practical View of Chris- 
tianity. Amherst, Ms. : J, S. & C, Adams & Co., 
1830. pp.292. 

Id the burying ground, a few rods west 
of the village of Princeton, N. J., are laid, 
ide by side, the remains of Presidents Burr, 
Edwards, Davies, Witherspoon, and Smith. 
Perhaps no church-yard in the country 
ontains a more precious deposit. All of 
hem were men of eminent intellectual and 
moral worth, though strikingly dissimilar in 
their original and acquired powers. All of 
them are exerting an extensive influence 
by their writings, except President Burr, 
of whom very few, if any published memo- 
rials remain. Dr. Witherspoon was a Scotch- 
man by birth, and a Scotchman in intellect. 
In the General Assembly of his Church he 
was the leader of the Orthodox party, in 
opposition to Dr. Robertson, the historian. 
jHe was the first individual who made known, 



in this country, the philosophy of Reid. He 
was not a man of the most extensive learn- 
ing, but he understood human nature ad- 
mirably. He took a strong grasp of every 
subject, politics or morals or philosophy, in 
which he was engaged. He Was a man of 
the same cast as Chalmers, and Andrew 
Thomson. His treatises on justification and 
regeneration, exhibit great clearness of 
thought and strength of reasoning, on sub- 
jects confessedly deep and intricate. It is 
sufficient commendation of the work that 
Mr. Will^erforce has written an Introductory 
Essay to it. 

An Appeal in behalf of the Illinois Col- 
lege, recently founded in Jacksonville, Illinois. 
New York: D. Fanshaw, 1831. pp. IG. 

It was the boast of the "Romans that their 
empire covered a million and a half of square 
miles of the finest portion of the globe. It 
was three thousand miles in length from 
the pillars of Hercules to " that great river," 
the Euphrates. It was two thousand miles 
in breadth, from the borders of the present 
kingdom of Poland, to the tropic of Cancer. 
This comprehends just about as large a 
territory as the United States 2>ossess be- 
tween the Alleghany and Rocky mountains. 
This territory extends over twenty degrees 
of latitude, and forty of longitude. It doubles 
its population in less than ten years. At the 
present rate of increase, the population of 
the Valley will be, in seventy years from 
this time, or at the close of the present 
century, more than five hundred millions. 
Even with half that population, how mighty 
the tide of human life which will roll through 
that Valley into the ocean of eternity. The 
importance of the establishment of literary 
institutions now is so great, that it is idle to 
waste words upon it. He who cannot see, 
and feel, and act in regard to it, has very 
little of the political economist, the p'hilan- 
thropist, or the Christian in him. Perhaps 
the State of Illinois, though east of the 
centre of the Valley, is destined to be the 
Italy of it. Its soil is richer than that of 
Campania. Darby says, that " Illinois is, 
in genei-al fertility of soil, the first State in 
the Union. It has more rich plain than 
Ohio and Indiana together." In territory it 
falls but little short of the whole of New 
England. It has no Bay of Naples, but it 
has what is better — the river Mississippi. 
It has no Golconda nor Potosi, but it has 
what is better^ — inexhaustible mines of lead 
and coal. Its population has doubled in the 
last^ue years. 

We recommend the " Appeal" of the' 
Trustees of the Illinois College, to the at-> 
tention of all the patriotic in the Atlantic 
States. We are glad to learn that in one of 
our eastern cities the appeal has not been 
made in vain. We hope that the college 
will prove another Yale In the West — a 
great fountain-head of blessings for ouv- 
country and the world. 



VOL. IV. 



19 



146 JOURNAL OF TYERMAN AND BENNET — WAYLAND — LEIGHTON. [Nov. 



Journal of Voyages and Travels, by 

the Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George Ben- 
net, Esq., deputed from the London Mission- 
ary Society, to visit their various Stations, in 
the South Sea Islands, China, India, &c., between 
the years I82I and ]829. Compiled from original 
documents, by James Montgomery. Boston: 
Crocker & Brewster, 1831. 3 vols. 

We have looked over the volumes of the 
London edition of this work, with no Uttle 
interest. The descriptions of natural scenery, 
and of the various incidents of an eight years' 
adventure on land and sea, are given with 
great vigor and sprightliness. The deputa- 
tion consisted of men, of decidedly religious 
principle, and they were engaged in a very 
sacred enterprise, yet we do not see any 
obtruding of religious opinions, or display of 
pious sentiments. There is a large number 
of anecdotes illustrating the manners and 
customs of various tribes, in almost every 
stage of civilization. These are generally 
told with peculiar tact and naivet6. We 
presume that the books will have special 
attractions for all classes of readers ; for who 
is not interested in voyages and travels, 
written in a lively style, with integrity as 
to the statement of facts, and with watchful 
regard to Christian delicacy and purity. 
The work will constitute another monument 
of the high value of the labors of Christian 
missionaries to the cause of science and 
of geographical discovery. It will also fur- 
nish an excellent confutation to the stories 
of Percival, Beechey, and other calumnia- 
tors of missions. 

A Discourse on the Philosophy of 

Analogy, delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa So- 
ciety of Rhode Island, Sept. 7, 1831. By Francis 
Wayland, D. D., President of Brown University, 
"ZviinaOrj eivai ra avu) Toig kuto). Boston: Hil- 
liard, Gray, Little, & VVilkins. pp. 32. 
From this original and highly finished per- 
formance, we make the following extract. 

" We may anticipate the greatest im- 
provement in the science of analogy from 
the progress of our race in the knowledge 
of the character of God. Beside the works 
which he has created for our instruction, 
he has condescended to make himself known 
to us in a written revelation. Here he has 
taught us the infinity of his power, the un- 
searchableness of his wisdom, the bound- 
lessness of his omnipresence, the tenderness 
of his compassion, and the purity of his 
holiness. Now, it is evident that the system 
of things around us must all have been con- 
structed in accordance with the conceptions 
of so ineffably glorious an intelligence. But 
to such a being as this we are infinitely 
dissimilar. Compared with the attributes 
of the Eternal, our knowledge, and power, 
and goodness are but the shadow of a name. 
As the heavens are higher than the earth, 
so are His ways higher than our ways, and 
His thoughts than our thoughts. So long, 
then, as we measure his works by our con- 
ceptions, is it wonderful if we are lost in 
inextricable darkness, and weary ourselves 



in asking of nature questions to which the 
indignant answer is invariably no ! It is 
only when, in the profoundest humility, we 
acknowledge our own ignorance and look 
to the Father of light for wisdom, it is only 
■wiien, bursting loose from the httleness of 
our own limited conceptions, we lose our- 
selves in the vastness of the Creator's in- 
finity, that we can rise to the height of this 
great argument and point out the path of 
discovery to coming generations. While 
men, measuring the universe by the stand- 
ard of their own narrow conceptions, and 
surveying all things through the distem- 
pered medium of their own puerile vanity, 
placed the earth in the centre of the system, 
and supposed sun, moon and stars to revolve 
daily around it, the science of astronomy 
stood still, and age after age groped about 
in almost rayless darkness. It was only 
when humility had taught us how small a 
space we occupied in the boundlessness; of 
creation, and raised us to a conception of the"^ 
plan of the Eternal, that light broke in like 
the morning star upon our midnight, and a 
beauteous universe rose out of void and 
formless chaos." 

The Select Works of Archbishop Leigh- 
ton. Prepared for the practical use of private 
Christians. With an introductory view of the 
Life, Character, and Writings of the Author. By 
George B. Cheever. Boston : Peircc & Parker, 
1831. 2 vols. 

We trust that this attempt to introduce 
the writings of the holy Leighton into general 
circulation, will be regarded with favor by 
the whole Christian commimity. Edition 
after edition of the whole works of Leighton, 
in large octavo volumes, is sold in Great 
Britain. It is a deep disgrace to us that the 
writings of Bates, and Howe, of Leighton, 
and Owen, and of other great men of the 
seventeenth century, are not eagerly sought, 
and extensively circulated. Every indi-- 
vidual, clergyman or layman, who knows 
how to appreciate such works, ought to feel 
a strong obligation to extend to their pub- 
lishers, a liberal patronage. Some of the 
best productions in the language cannot be 
printed, on this side the Atlantic, because 
they cannot be sold. Every species of trash 
finds a ready market. Probably the de- 
mand for novels was never greater in this 
country than at the present moment. Every 
importation of books from Europe, contains 
some of these miserable effusions of immo- 
rality and bad taste. Some of our book- 
sellers are thoughtless or avaricious enough 
to pamper to the full, a depraved and mor- 
bid propensity. We hope that all who feel 
an interest in the great work of creating 
and extending a sound, healthful. Christian 
literature, in this country, will use every 
proper means to recommend and circulate 
good books. An incalculable good may be 
accomplished in this way. 

We shall notice the selections from 
Leighton again. 



831.] 



FOREIGN LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. 



147 



SELECT MTERARY INTELLIGENCE. 



JForctflti. I 

An Ilislorical Atlas, or a series of Maps of ihe 
Vorld; as known at different periods, accompa- 
ed by a narrative of the leading events, by 
idward Quin, M. A., of Oxford, has re- 
ently been published in London. It is highly 
poken of in the British Reviews. — Rev. John 
cott, of Hull, is continuing Milner's Church 
istory. Three volumes of the continuation, 
nding with a view of the reformation at Geneva, 
ave been published. — A Memoir of the Life and 
[rimes of Bishop Hall, by John Jones, M. A.^ 
as been recently published. — The first volume 
f the writings of Robert Hall has recently been 
sued. The collection will be embraced in six 
olumes, octavo, under the care of Olinthus 
Gregory, LL. D., of the Royal Military Acade- 
ny, at Woolwich. Sir James Mackintosh, M. P., 
ho was fellow-collegian of Hall, at Aberdeen, 
vill write the Memoir. — The Urliversity of Ox- 
brd has recently conferred the degree of LL. D. 
)n Washington Irving. — Rev. Samuel Lee, Pro- 
fessor of Arabic, in the University of Cambridge, 
as been unanimously appointed Regius Profes- 
or of Hebrew, in the place of Dr. Lloyd, de- 
eased. Rev. Thomas Jarrelt; of Catharine 
lall, succeeds Mr. Lee, in the Arabic Professor- 
hip. — Rev. J. J. Blunt has been nominated as 
ijlhe Hulsean Lecturer, at Cambridge. — To the 
jPtoman Catholic College, in Maynooth, Ireland, 
Parliament annually gives £8,929. — Dr. Mc- 
Culloch, the geologist, reports, that he trav- 
{elled, in a late tour, 7,978 miles, in 180 consecu- 
tive days. " I had seldom,'' says he, " an hour's 
rest, or a single Sunday for months !" — The fol- 
lowing statements show the proportion of the 
number of educated men, of criminals, and of 
lunatics, to the population, in England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, respectively. 

Educated Men. Criminals. Lunatics. 

England, 1 to 20 1 to 900 1 to 783 
Scotland, 1 " 17 1 " 5,093 1 " 652 
Ireland, 1 " 35 1 " 468 1 " 911 
Prof. Lee, of Cambridge, has issued a pro- 
spectus of a very full course of lectures, which he 
is about to deliver, on the rhetoric, philology, 
antiquities, &c. of the Hebrews. — Mr. Rose, of 
Cambridge, has published a new and highly 
improved edition of his " State of the Protestant 
Religion in Germany." It is said to be incom- 
plete as to data. — A posthumous work of Thomas 
Hope, Esq. entitled, " Origin and Prospects of 
Man," in three volumes, has lately appeared in 



London, It is likely to excite much attention. 
Mr. Hope was the author of Anastasius. — Rev, 
Dr. Bell, the well known founder of the Madras 
system of instruction, has recently given the sum 
of £120,000, for the establishment of a seminary 
of education, in his native city, St. Andrews. 
He has also given a piece of land, worth £1,100, 
as a site for the institution. — The schools, in the 
Highlands of Scotland, are rapidly dispelling the 
ignorance, which has long prevailed in those 
districts. The number of schools is stated to 
amount to 511 ; and of scholars, 37,000. 

The Academy of Sciences, at Paris, have ap- 
pointed a Committee, to examine and report on 
all the works, which may be sent to them, on 
Cholera Morbus. — The Asiatic Society, at Paris, 
have assigned to M, Saint Martin the superin- 
tendence of the publication of the Georgian 
Grammar 5 to M, Abel Remusat, the Mandchou 
Grammar, and the Chinese Dictionary ; to M. 
Stahl, the Laws of Menu ; to Klaproth, Yu Kiao 
Li J to Reinard, Abulfeda. — Remusat is en- 
gaged in preparing, in two volumes, quarto, a 
work on the botany, zoology, mineralogy, and 
medicine, of the Chinese, Japanese, and Tartars. 
The same indefatigable orientalist is engaged in 
preparing a Memoir on " Budhuism." — Captain 
Herbert, Assistant Surveyor General of India, 
says, that France has done more to elucidate the 
physical geography of India, since 1815, than 
England has done since she has had a footing in 
those regions. 

M. Ordinaire says that the number of active 
volcanoes, now known, is but 205 ; 101 of which 
are on islands, and the remainder on continents — 
but all in the vicinity of the sea. The only active 
volcanoes in Europe are iEtna, Vesuvius, Strom- 
boli,Hecla, with five others in Iceland. — The first 
translation of Brougham's Essay on the objects, 
pleasures, and advantages of science, in Italian, 
was published in 1830, by Pomba, of Turin. — At 
the Leipsic Fair, in 1831, the catalogue of new 
works, was 2,920, a less number than in 1830. 
This was exclusive of maps, charts, musical pro- 
ductions, and foreign books. Among the books 
presented, were Heeren's and Uckert's History 
of the European Nations ; Cotta's Library of 
Universal History, POlitz's Collection of Foreign 
Modern Historians 5 the eighth volume of Ham- 
mer's History ; the seventh volume of the History 
of the Crusades, &c,— On the 20th of March, 
died C. F. Von Gluck, the veteran of German 
jurists, and Professor of Law in the University 



148 



DOMESTIC LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. 



of Erlangen, in his GCth year. About thirtij 
minutes before his death he was correcting proof 
sheets. 



American. 

Rev. Professor Schmucker, of Gettysburg 
Theological Seminary, is engaged in preparing 
an original system of Mental Philosophy. Rev. 
Dr. Hazelius, of the same Institution, is translat- 
ing from the German, the Life of Stilling — a 
work which has been translated into nearly all 
the languages of continental Europe. 

Rev. James Murdock, D. D., of New Haven, 
Conn., has prepaj-ed a new and literal transla- 
tion, froni the original Latin, of the Ecclesiastical 
History of Dr. Jphn Lawrence Von Mosheim. 
It will be illustrated by copious additional notes, 
original and selected. It will be embraced in 
three volumes octavo, of about ^00 pages each, 
printed on new type, and furnished to subscribers 
at ^3 a volume. This history is now jn the 
press. 

The Life of Governeur Morris, with selections 
from his writings, in three volumes octavo, com- 
piled by Jared Sparks, will be published jn a 
fev! months by Gray & Bowen, Boston. 

The third volume of the American Almanac 
will be published about the first of November. 
Tliis work is now prepared by Mr. Joseph E. 
Worcester, of Cambridge. It is expected to con- 
tain full details of the last census of the United 
States. 

Perkins & Marvin, of Boston, have in press a 
complete edition of the works of Jane Taylor, to 
be comprised in six or eight volumes. The 
Contributions of Q,. Q. are already printed. 

Crocker & Brewster, of Boston, and Jonathan 
Leavitt, of New York, intend speedily to put to 
press, Noehden's German and English Diction- 
ary. From the 30th London edition, revised by 
H. E. Lloyd. First American edition, revised 
and corrected by Edward Robinson, Professor 
Extraordinary in the Theological Seminary, 
Andover. 

Peirce & Parker, Boston, have in press an 
edition of Montgomery's Christian Psalmist. 

Flagg & Gould, of Andover, will soon publish 
a new edition of Professor Upham's Biblical 
Archseology. 

Carey & Lea, of Philadelphia, have just re- 
published a valuable work on Greek Literature, 
from the pen of Kenry Nelson Coleridge, of 
England. It is the first of a series containing 
familiar illustrations of the principal Greek 
writers, designed for young persons. The first 
volume is occupied with a general Introduction, 
followed by notes and remarks upon the Poems 
of Homer. 



[Nov. 

The new University, at Middletown, Ct., was 
opened on the 28th of August. Rev. Dr. Fisk 
was inaugurated President. Between forty and 
fifty students entered the Institution, 

More than seventy individuals have joined Am- 
herst College since the late Commencement. — 
The time of the annual Commencement at Yale 
College has been changed from the second 
Wednesday in September to the third Wednes- 
day in August. — The injunction of secrecy has 
been removed from the proceedings of the 
Phi Beta Kappa Societies of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, at the late meetings of the members. 
— A history of Harvard University, commenced 
by the late Benjamin Pierce, Esq., Librarian, it 
is understood, will be soon completed by another 
individual. — A complete Catalogue of the Li- 
brary of the Theological Seminary, Andover, is 
preparing, under the superintendence of the 
Librarian. — John Quincy Adams has the hfe of 
his father nearly ready for the press. His leisure 
hours are employed in the preparation of some 
other works, among which is a poetical version of 
David's Psalms. 

Rev. Mr. Ulhorn, junior pastor of the German 
Lutheran Church, in Baltimore, has accepted 
the Professorship of the Greek Language and 
Literature, in the University of Maryland. — Mr. 
Calvin E. Stowe, formerly assistant Instructer 
in the Theological Seminary, Andover, and 
more recently Editor of the Boston Recorder, 
has been appointed Professor of the Latin and 
Greek Languages, in Dartmouth College. — Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Brownell, of Connecticut, has re- 
signed the Presidency of Washington College, 
Hartford, and Rev. Nathaniel S. Wheaton, of 
Hartford, has been chosen to fill the place. — 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Chase, of Ohio, has resigned 
the charge of his Diocese, and also the Presi- 
dency of Kenyon College. Rev. Charles P. 
Mcllvaine, of Brooklyn, N. Y., has been elected 
to supply both vacancies. — Mr. Theodore Dwight 
Woolsey, of New York, has been chosen to the 
Greek Professorship lately established in Yale 
College. — Rev. Thomas H. Skinner, D. D., of 
Philadelphia, has been unanimously chosen to 
fill the Professorship of Sacred Rhetoric, in the 
Auburn Theological Seminary. Rev. William 
Lehman, of Pittsfield, Ms., a native^of Germany, 
educated at the University of Bonn, and ac- 
quainted with most of the modern tongues of 
continental Europe, has been elected to the 
Professorship of Modern Languages in the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, at Athens. — Robert Dungli- 
son, M. D., Professor of Medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, will soon publish a new Dic- 
tionary of Medical Science and Literature. 



1831.] 



SELECTION OF ANECDOTES. 



149 



INCIDENTS AND ANECDOTES. 

Sons of God. When the Danish missionaries 
appointed some of their Malabrian converts to 
translate a catechism, in which it was mentioned 
as the privilege of Christians, that they became 
the sons of God 5 one of the translators, started 
at so bold a saying-, as he thouglit it, and burst- 
ing into tears, exclaimed, " It is too much ; let 
us rather render it — They shall be permitted to 
kiss his feet." 

Political Ambition. The late English minister, 
Canning, in conversation with a friend, remark- 
ed, that he had been induced to leave the Secre- 
taryship of Foreign Affairs, and take upon him- 
self ihe duties of first Lord of the Treasury, in 
consequence of having received a letter from an 
old friend of Mr. Fox, in which it was stated that 
Mr. Fox always regretted that he had not taken 
the Treasury Department, as there lies the pat- 
ronage. " And," said Mr. Canning, " although 
1 might have put a friend there, it is very differ- 
ent my asking a favor, or a favor being asked of 
me." ^' I am determined," he continued, mov- 
ing his hand with a most emphatic gesture, " to 
hold the reins, while I live." He lived just four- 
teen daijsfrom that time ! 

Covetousness of the Hindoos. When sick and 
apprehensive of danger, they often bury their 
treasure within the house, and under the place 
■whereon they sleep, to secure it during their 
illness, and have it at hand if they recover. 
Sometimes, out of spite to their heirs, they hide 
it in holes, where they hope neither the latter, 
nor any one else, can find it after their decease. 
It is not uncommon, when the possessor of a 
hoard, which he has not made away with, is 
dying, for him to say to his wife, or his friend, 
(to whom he may have given it in charge,) " Oh, 
do bring me that bag of money, that my eyes 
may once more look upon it before I leave the 
world." — Tyerman and Bennet. 

Stoicism of the Hindoos. A Hindoo, being 
sentenced to be hanged on the following day, 
made a low salaam to the judge, and coolly re- 
plied, " Buhoot atcha," "■ very good." Another, 
when asked if there was anything which he par- 
ticularly wished for, before leaving the world, 
answered, " Your food is much better than mine ; 
now, before you hang me, pray give me such a 
good dinner as you have." The indulgence was 
granted, and he ate with no small appetite. A 
third, when the same question was asked him, 
replied, ''Yes 5 I never saw a great heap of 
rupees together, and of all things, I should like 
to have that pleasure before I die." — lb. 

Inveterate Idleness of the New Hollanders. A 
colonist had quitted a cottage to dwell in a more 



commodious house, which he had prepared for 
himself and family. A few of the savages took 
possession of the cottage during the rainy season, 
as a place of most luxurious shelter. But, rather 
than go a few steps from the door to collect fire- 
wood, they pulled the house to pieces, as they 
had occasion, till from the thatch on the roof to 
the last stake in the wall, they had burnt the 
whole tenement, and left themselves bare to the 
inclemency of the elements, which they had 
sought to avoid. They were then fain to flee 
into the bushes, and cover themselves with shreds 
and patches of barks. — lb. 

Trust in God. Five natives of one of the 
South Sea islands, in a small canoe, in going, in 
the night, from one island to another, were driven 
utterly beyond their reckoning. For six weeks 
they were floating, they knew not whither, in a 
fathomless and pathless ocean. Yet their faith 
never failed. When asked, if, in their forlorn 
situation, they did not expect to perish of famine, 
or be drowned in the ocean, they replied, " Oh, 
no 5 for we prayed to God !" When first carried 
away they had with them a quantity of vi-apples, 
cocoa-nuts, bananas, a little water, and two 
bamboos (about a gallon and a half) of cocoa-nut 
oil. On these, by taking only a small portion 
twice a day, they subsisted five weeks, when 
the solid food, being all exhausted, and every 
drop of water long ago spent, they kept life in 
them by dipping a few fibres of the cocoa-nut 
husk in the oil, and masticating these between 
their teeth, to extort the slight nourishment, and 
moisten their mouths, parched with tormenting 
thirst. Thus, morning, noon, and night, as long 
as they were able, they worked at the oars, 
prayed, and sang ; they read the Scriptures as 
the daily bread of their souls, and duly remem- 
bered the Sabbaths. It was very affecting to 
hear one of them say how, amidst the roaring of 
the sea, they sang till their " voices went aioaijj^ 
Yes, truly, but it was " into heaven'' that their 
voices M'ent away. Their prayers of faith, and 
their songs of thanksgiving, were heard before 
the throne, even tvhen their lips had no longer 
power to utter them, and they were answered 
by deliverance. At the end of six weeks they 
were drifted, by the millions of waves on which 
they had been borne, to a place near the island 
of Atui, (one of the Harvey islands,) where some 
of the natives found them, worn to skeletons with 
hunger, and slrengthless with fatigue, but ^' re- 
joicing in hope, patient in tribulation." By these 
they were fed and nursed, and as soon as they 
could bear it, removed to Atui, where they 
gradually recovered health, and afterwards 
preached the gospel with such power, that the 
remaining half of the population, till then uncon- 



150 



MISCELLANEOUS SELECTIONS. 



verted, believed, and cast away their idols. — 
Tyer-man and Bennet. 

Speech of a South Sea Islander. At a general 
assembly of the chiefs and representatives of the 
Windward and Leeward islands, the question of 
the penalty for the crime of murder, whether it 
should be death, or banishment to some unin- 
habited island, being under consideration, one of 
the little men, or commoners, thus spoke. " All 
that Pati said was good ; but he did not mention 
that one reason for punishing is, to make the 
offender good again, if possible. Now, if we 
kill a murderer, how can we make him better ? 
But if he be sent to a desolate island, where he 
is all solitary, and compelled to think for himself, 
it may please God to make the bad things in his 
heart to die, and good things to grow there. But 
if we kill him, where will his soul go V — lb. 

Royal Funeral. The body of Radama, king 
of Madagascar, was deposited in a silver cojfin, 
all made of Spanish dollars, ivoehe thousand of 
which were employed in the construction. Ten 
thousand hard dollars were laid in the coffin, for 
him to lie upon. The whole expense was not 
less than £60,000.— lb. 



THOUGHTS. 

Ingratitude. I should be ready and willing to 
show my warmest gratitude to the person who 
can give me ease from pain, or tell me of a cure 
for my body. O Jesus ! What hast thou not 
done and suffered for my soul ! how coldly do I 
think of it ; how poorly do I requite it. — Thomas 
Adam. 

Confession of Sin. There can be no repenting, 
asking forgiveness or desiring a change, upon a 
general, confused apprehension of our unworthi- 
iiess. We can only come to Christ with a cata- 
logue of sins in our hands ; and if the Holy 
Spirit does not assist us in drawing it up, we 
shall omit a hundred times more than we set 
down. — lb. 

Prayer. If I acquiesce in the act of prayer, 
without desiring to receive what I ask for, I 
never pray. — lb. 

Influence of Great Actions. They often save, 
and always illustrate the age and nation in which 
they appear. They raise the standard of morals; 
they arrest the progress of degeneracy ; they 
diffuse a lustre over the path of life; monuments 
of the greatness of the human soul, they present 
to the world the august image of virtue in her 
sublimest form, from which streams of light and 
glory issue to remote times and ages; while 
their commemoration by the pen of historians 
and poets, awakens in distant bosoms the sparks 
of kindred QxceWQuce.— Robert Hall, 



[Nov. 

The Supreme Being. The idea of a Supreme 
Being has this peculiar property, that, as it 
admits of no substitute, so, from the first moment 
it is impressed, it is capable of continual growth 
and enlargement. God himself is immutable; 
but our conception of his character is continually 
receiving fresh accessions, is continually grow- 
ing more extended and refulgent, by having 
transferred upon it new perceptions of beauty 
and goodness ; by attracting to itself, as a centre, 
whatever bears the impress of dignity, order or 
happiness. It borrows splendor from all that is 
fair, subordinates to itself all that is great, and 
sits enthroned on the riches of the universe. — Ih. 

True Happiness. Nothing can support my 
spirits, or enable me to pass through the world 
with any degree of constant satisfaction, but 
walking with God, in the faith of Christ, as a 
reconciled Father, doing his will, under his eye, 
with his help, acquiescing in this state of mind, 
looking no farther, desiring no other riches, 
living for no other end. — Adam. 

God. Let the societies of angels be rather 
employed in singing thy praises; but let us, with 
silence and astonishment, fall down at the foot- 
stool of thy throne, while they are taken up in 
the repetition of their celebrated doxology, Holy, 
holy, holy. Lord God of Hosts, who fillest heaven 
and earth with thy glory ! But O that we had 
within us proper powers for exalting that most 
sacred name ! that name, which, according to 
their measure, is celebrated by all the parts of 
this visible world which surround us, the heaven, 
the stars, the winds, the rivers, the earth, the 
ocean, and all the creatures therein. — Leighton. 

Prayer. Prayer soars above the violence and 
impiety of men, and with a swift wing, commits 
itself to heaven, with happy omen. Fervent 
prayers stretch forth a strong, wide extended 
wing ; and while the birds of night hover be- 
neath, they mount aloft, and point out, as it 
were, the proper seats to which we should 
aspire. — lb. 

Terinination of Controversies. When a larger 
influence is vouchsafed from the Divine Spirit, 
and the minds of men are led into all truth by 
their divine guide, there will be no need of the 
fires of controversy, while his pure and peaceful 
light is shining everywhere around us. When 
all are cherishing the truth for its own sake, the 
weapons of controversy will be thrown aside as 
useless, and sects will cease, for there will be no 
further occasion for them : earnestness for the 
truth will supersede all party zeal for peculiar 
opinions, and full knowledge of the truth will set 
aside all partial views. — Douglas. 

True Religion. It cannot be too often re- 
peated, that religion consists simply in confor- 



1831 



TESTIMONIES OF DYING CHRISTIANS. 



151 



inity to the Divine will and likeness, and that 
oilier tiling's may be pleasant accessaries, but are 
not the essentials of our duty. Many are evi- 
dently seeking- after comfort rather than truth, 
but the only true comforter is the Holy Spirit, 
who comforts us by means of the truth, who lays 
a deep foundation for heavenly joy, by first con- 
vincing us of sin, that we may receive with ear- 
nestness, the glad tidings, when he testifies of the 
Saviour. — Douglas'' s Trutlis of Religion. 

Human Nature. Human nature is like a bad 
clock. It may go right now and then, or be 
made to strike the hour, but its inward frame is 
to go wrong. — Thomas Adam. 

Delight in the Works of God. With the love 
of God in our hearts, we need not fear to use 
freely those powers he has bestowed upon us, or 
to find refreshment and delight in anything he 
has condescended to make. With all allowances 
for the mistakes of different periods of the world, 
much of this scrupulosity is being righteous over- 
much ; and this, in the mildest form of it, is sad 
self-deception. And there is no little danger in 
the endeavor to annihilate the variety of our oc- 
cupations and enjoyments J there is a perpetual 
risk of some awful outbreak ; whereas, let the 
thoughts and feelings of a sanctified man run 
gently, and they will become purer and purer 
as they flow along. Why ! out of " a pestilen- 
tial congregation of vapors," what glories has 
God spread over the skies 5 and yet, there are 
persons, who, if they could have had the making 
of the world, and have carried out into creation 
the principles they apply to men, instead of a sky 
piled up with clouds of dazzling whiteness, and 
a sun setting in gorgeous yet solemn pomp, from 
one end of the heavens even unto the other they 
would have had one dull, heavy cope of cold, 
melancholy blue. It is as weak in this case, as it 
is in all others, from the abuse, to reason against 
the use, of these things. — Review of Marttjn, in 
Spirit of the Pilgrims. 

Do Good. Beside the sorrowful hours that we 
must pass on account of our sins, it may be said, 
' Is not the world all around us lying in wicked- 
ness, and how can we talk of being happy V 
We will tell you how. Set immediately about 
making the world better. When a man is in 
earnest in God's work, he has very few spare 
minutes to be unhappy in. It is the old slug- 
gish system of waiting God's time, which breeds 
melancholy and every unclean thing. Men had 
much rather mope over the world than labor for 
it. But this will no more carry on the work of 
sanctification and peace and joy in the soul, than 
it will convert a soul. God's time is now 5 and 
he who waits for it never sees it. Then act. 
And while you do your part, depend upon it. 



God will do his. And along with this, take care 
that there be an entire absorption of your will 
into the will of God. Learn to rejoice with all 
your heart and mind in his glorious sovereignt}' ; 
then will you sec the wrath of man praising him, 
and the remainder of wrath restrained. Do you 
think the angels in heaven are made miserable 
by the thoughts of their fallen compeers, or by 
the folly and madness of men ? — Ibid. 



TESTIMONIES OF DYING CHRISTIANS. 

my heavenly Father, though I be taken out 
of this life, and must lay down this frail body, 
yet I certainly know that I shall live with thee 
eternally, and that I cannot be taken out of thy 
hand. — Martin Luther. 

1 fear not to die, firmly trusting that I shall 
enjoy that most blessed Saviour, whom I have 
so long- preached to others, and whose face I 
have so long desired to see, in that state where 
is the fullness of joy forever. — Leo Judae, a Swiss 
Reformer. 

I am sick not to death, but to life. — Blyconius. 

I have not lived so that I am ashamed to live 
longer} neither do I fear to die, because we 
have a merciful Lord. A crown of righteous- 
ness is laid up for me. Christ is my righteous- 
ness. This day, quickly let me see the Lord 
Jesus. — Bishop Jeivel. 

A poor wretch and a miserable man as I am, 
the least of all saints, and the greatest of all sin- 
ners, yet I trust in, and, by the eye of faith, I 
look upon Christ, my Saviour. As there is but 
one sun in the Avorld, so there is but one right- 
eousness. Were I the most excellent of all the 
creatures in the world, yet I would confess 
myself to be a sinner. — Deering. 

I find my foundation able to bear me. — Thomas 
Adam. 

I have peace of mind. It may arise from 
stupidity, but I think that it is founded on a be- 
lief of the gospel. My hope is in the mercy of 
God through Jesus Christ. — Fisher Ames. 

Glory to God in the highest, and on earth 
peace, good will towards men. — Dr. C. Backus. 

I would not exchange my hope in Christ for 
ten thousand worlds. I once entertained some 
doubts of his divinity} but, blessed be God, 
these doubts were soon removed by inquiry and 
reflection. I shall soon be at rest. I shall soon 
be with my God. Oh glorious hope. Blessed rest. 
— Judge Bayard. 

Directly I am going to glory. My master 
calls me, I must be gone. — Rev. John Blair. 

I shall be the most glorious instance of sove- 
reign grace in all heaven. — Rev. Thos. Walter. 

Mercy is triumphant. — Dr. Rice. 



152 



QUARTERLY LIST OF ORDINATIONS AND DEATHS. 



[Nov 



QUARTERLY LIST 



ORDIiNATIONS AND INSTALLATIONS. 



JOSEPH MUENSCHER, instituted rector, Epis. Saco, Maine, 
Sept. 21. 

EDWIN JENNISON, ord. pastor, Cong. Walpole, New Hamp- 
shire, AngT.ist 17. 

FRANCIS DAN FORTH, inst. pastor, Cong. Winchester, N. H. 
August 18. 

FOSTER THAYER, ord. pastor, Cong. North Woodstoclt, 

"Vermont, June 29. 
WILLIAM S. PLUMMER, inst. pastor, Pres. Petersburgh, 

Vt. July 10. 
MOSES FIELD, ord. pastor. Bap. Manchester, "Vt. August 16. 
JULIUS C. BARLOW, ord. evang. Hubbardston, Vt. Aug. 31. 
AMZI JONES, ord. Cornwall, Vt.^Sept. 16. 

ORRIN FOWLER, inst. pastor, Cong. Fall River (Troy), 

Massachusetts, June 19. 
CULLEN TOWNSEND, ord. pastor, Bap. Middlefield, Mass. 

June 29. 
T. C. TINGLEY, ord. pastor. Bap. Foxborough, Mass. July 14. 
JAMES H. FRANCIS, ord. pastor, Cong. Dudley, Mass. 

August 24. 
ELIJAH FOSTER, ord. pastor. Bap. Salisbury, Mass. Aug. 24. 
JOHN WALKER, inst. pastor. Bap. Sutton, Mass. Sept. 7. 

CHARLES G. SELLECK, ord. pastor, Cong. Ridgefield, Con- 
necticut, May 23. 

GEORGE J. TILLOTSON, ord. pastor, Cong. Brooklyn, Ct. 
May 25. 

JAMES H. LINDSLEY, ord. evang. Bap. New Haven, Ct. 
June 9. 

WILLIAM M. CORNELL, inst. pastor, Cong. Woodstock, Ct. 
June 15. 

AMBROSE EDSON, inst. pastor, Cong. Berlin, Ct. June 15. 

GEORGE B. IDE, ord. evang. Cong. Coventry, Ct. June 29. 

ALVIN BaYLEY, ord. evang. Cong. Coventry, Ct. June 29. 

GARDNER BARTLETT, ord. evang. Cong. Coventry, Ct. 
June 29. 

WILLIAM HODGE, ord. pastor. Bap. Hartford, Ct. July 13. 

LENT S. HOUGH, ord. pastor, Cong. Chaplin, Ct. August 17, 

MOSES B. CHURCH, inst. pastor, Cong. Stafford, Ct. Aug. 25. 

THEOPHILUS SMITH, inst. pastor, Cong. New Canaan, Ct. 
Autfust 31. 

HENRY ROBINSON, inst. pastor, Cong. Suffield, Ct. 

ANSEL Nash, inst. pastor, Cong. Wintonbury, Ct. 

THOMAS M. SMITH, inst. pastor, Pres. Catskill, New York, 

Junes. 
JOHN H. BISHOP, ord. pastor, Bap. Evan's Mills, N. Y. 

June 22. 
BENJAMIN D. HAIGHT, ord. deacon, Epis. New York, 

N. Y. July 3. 
JOSKPH H. NICHOLS, ord. deacon, Epis. New York, N. Y. 

July 3. 
WILLIAM NORWOOD, ord. deacon, Epis. New York, N. Y. 

July 3. 
TALCOTT BATES, inst. pastor, Pres. Manlius Square, N. Y. 

July 14. 
REUBEN SMITH, inst. pastor, Pres. Waterford, N. Y. Julv 15. 
DANIEL VAN VALKENBURG, ord. evang. Pres. New York, 

N. Y. Julv 15. 
ERASTUS n: NICHOLS, inst. pastor, Pres. New York, N. Y. 

July 15. 
LEWIS THIBON, ord. deacon, Epis. Ballston Spa. N. Y. 

July 17. 
LUKE LYONS, inst. pastor, Pres. Rochester, N. Y. July 27. 
WILLIAM WISNER, inst. pastor, Pres. Rochester, N. Y. 

July 28. 
JOHN H. VAN WAGENEN, inst. pastor, Ref. Dutch, near 

Schenectady, N. Y. July 28. 
ROBERT W. CONDIT, inst. pastor, Pres. Oswego, N. Y. 

July. 
JOSEPH B. BALDWIN, ord. evang. Pres. New York, N. Y. 

August 4. 
WALTER G. DYE, ord. pastor. Bap. Cortlandville, N. Y. 

August 25. 
ISAAC'W. PLATT, inst. pastor, Pres. Bath, N. Y. Sept. I. 
FREDERICK E. CANNON, inst. pastor, Pres. Potsdam, N, Y. 

Sept. 8. 
ASA BRAINERD, ord. evang. Pres. Potsdam, N. Y. Sept. 8. 
WIIjLIAM L. KEESE, instituted rector, Epis. Albany, N. Y. 

Sept. 12. 
DANIEL NEWELL, inst. pastor, Pres. Winfield, N. Y. 

Sept. 22. 
MANSFIELD BARLOW, ord. evang. Bap. Kingston, N. Y. 
F. J. BROOKS, ord. evang. Pies. Oneida Co. N. Y. 

JOHN TUCKER, ord. evang. Bap. Chester Co. Pennsylvania, 

August 4. 
ALEXANDER SMITH, ord. evang. Bap. Mount Republic, 

Penn. August 18. 



WII-LIAM H. BRISBANE, ord. pastor. Bap. Charlesto 

South Carolina, Nov. 7. 

Whole number in the above list, 54. 



SUMMARY. 
Ordinations 31 STATES. 



Installations 
Institutions 



Total 



21 

2 Maine \ 

— New Hampshire ... 2 

54 Vermont 5 

Massachusetts .... 6 

OFFICES. Connecticut I4 

Pastors 35 New York 23 

Evangelists 12 Pennsylvania .... 2 

Deacons 4 South Carolina .... 1 

Rectors ,2 ^ 

Not specified 1 Total , 54 



Total 



54 



DATES. 



DENOMINATIONS. 1830. November .... 1 

Congregational .... 17 1831. May 2 

Preshvterian 15 June H 

Baptist 13 July 15 

Episcopal ...... 6 August 13 

Ref. Dutch 1 September ... 8 

Not specified 2 Not specified ... 4 



Total 



54 Total 



54 



QUARTERLY LIST 

OF 

BEiLTHS 

of Cle7'gymen and StvAents in Theology^ and 



Missionaries. 



MARSHFIELD STEELE, Cong. Machias, Maine, 1831. 

THEOPHILUS B. ADAMS, a;t. 42, Baptist, Acworth, New 
Hampshire, Aug. 15. 

GEORGE LEONARD, a;t. 29, Bap. Worcester, Massachusetts, 

AuE-ust 12. 
JEREMIAH DALE, Bap. Danvers, Mass. Sept. 4. 
NEHEMIAH THOMAS, at. 66, Cong. Scituate, Mass. 

NATHANIEL DWIGHT, at. 69, 
late of Nonvich, Ct. 

BENJAMIN COLLINS, Meth. New Providence, New Jersey, 
August 14. 



s. Oswego, New York, 



JACOB VAN VLECK, a;t. 81, Moravian, Bethlehem, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

ROBERT SPARKS, near Centreville, Maryland. 

JOHN H. RICE, D. D., jst. 53, Pres. Prince Edward County, 

Virginia, Sept. 3. 
JACOB BEECHER, Ger. Ref. Shepherdstown, Va. 

WILLIAM ALLEN, at. 73, Georgetown, Dis. of Columbia. 

DAVID B. SLATER, at. 54, Meth. Montgomery Co. Tennes- 
see, August 1. 

O. B. ROSS, Meth. Lexington, Kentucky. 
GEORGE D. BOARDMAN, Bap. Miss'ry to Birmah, Feb. 11. 
Whole number in the above list, 15. 



AGES. 

From 20 to 30 . 

30 40 . 

40 50 . 

50 60 . 

60 70 . 

70 80 . 

80 90 . 

Not specified . . 



Total 

Sum of all the ages speci 
Average age . .- . . 



Maine 

1 New Hampshire 



Massachusetts 3 

New York - . 1 

I New Jersey ...... 1 

1 Pennsylvania 2 

7 Maryland 1 

.- Virginia 1 

15 Dis. Columbia 1 

fied467 Tennessee 1 

. 58 Kentucky 1 

Birmah 1 



DENOMINATIONS, 

Congregational .... 2 

Presbyterian 2 

Baplist ....... 4 DATES. 

Methodist 3 1831. February . 

Ger. Ref. 1 August . . 

Moravian 1 September . 

Not specified 2 Not specified 



Total 15 



Total 



15 Total 15^ 



1831.] 



ADDRESS OF PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 



153 



JOURNAL 

OF 

THE AMERICAN EDUCATION SOCIETY 

NOVEMBER, 1831. 



ADDRESS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
EDUCATION SOCIETY TO THE CHRISTIAN PUBLIC. 



The twenty-third day of October, 1S18, 
marks an important period in the history of 
the benevolent exertions of the Presbyterian 
church. On that day, while as yet no Edu- 
cation Society had been formed within its 
bounds upon an extensive scale, a number 
of Presbyterian clergymen and laymen con- 
vened in the session room of the Brick 
church, in the city of New York, and unani- 
mously resolved, ''That it is expedient to 
attempt the formation of a Society for the 
charitable education of poor and pious youth 
for the gospel ministry." A committee was 
appointed, at the head of which was placed 
the venerable Dr. Boudinot, to prejiare and 
report a plan for organizing the Society. 
The committee met, agreeably to their in- 
structions, on the 10th of November follow- 
ing, in the session room of Wall street 
church, and, with entire unanimity, agreed 
upon the form of a constitution. This was 
submitted to a public meeting of ministers 
and laymen held in New Brunswick, on the 
27th of the same month, and the Society 
was organized. Dr. Boudinot was chosen 
President, and continued to hold that office 
till his death. 

Such was the origin of the " Education 
Society of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of jlmerica ;" a title which, 
in 1820, was exchanged for the present more 
convenient name of Presbyterian" Edu- 
cation Society. The great motive which 
led to the enterprise was not to extend the 
influence of any religious party, but to mul- 
tiply the means of grace, by increasing the 
number of pious, well-qualified ministers of 
the gospel. The conviction was deep and 
general that, without special effort, it would 
be impossible to supply the nation with pas- 
toral instruction, or to send the blessings of 
salvation to the destitute in other lands. 
To do nothing, and to attempt nothing, un- 
der such circumstances, would be treachery 
to the cause of Christ, and would render 
those who were guilty of such supineness 
accessary to the ruin of the souls of men, 
Hesults under the original organization. 

It was a part of the original plan of the 
Society, that the General Board should 



operate through the medium of Executive 
Committees, formed in different portions of 
the country. Of these, there were, in 1824, 
nineteen, besides seven auxiliary societies 
holding the relation of Executive Commit- 
tees. The imperfect returns received from 
these subordinate branches of the general 
system, rendered it difficult to furnish a 
complete account of funds raised, or of 
young men assisted. The average amount 
of funds annually collected for a number of 
years, may be placed at five thousand dol- 
lars, and the number of young men assisted, 
in a smgle year, at one hundred. 

Union with American Education Society. 

For want of a permanent agent, the so- 
ciety languished until the year 1826, when 
a proposition was made by this Board to the 
Board of Directors of the American Educa- 
tion Society, for union. The history of 
other benevolent enterprises had shown 
that union is strength. It could not be 
doubted that the cause of Education Socie- 
ties would be promoted by the same means. 
The Presbyterian Education Society agree- 
ing with the American in the great princi- 
ples which formed the basis of its operations, 
was, accordingly, united with it, under the 
name of the Presbyterian Branch of the 
American Education Society. This ar- 
rangement took place in May, 1827. From 
this time, till May, 1831, the Branch, by 
mutual agreement, confined its efforts within 
the States of New York, New Jei"sey, and 
Pennsylvania, except as assistance was 
occasionally rendered to the Parent Society 
in sustaining the common cause. 

God evidently smiled upon the union. 
Although the Branch Society was confined 
to three States, its funds were doubled in a 
little time, and it had a larger number of 
young men under patronage than when its 
field was spread over the country indis- 
criminately, and twenty -six Executive Com- 
mittees and Societies acted in connection 
with it. 

Present Organization. 

Inasmuch, however, as the American 
Education Society was located in the heart 



VOL. IV. 



20 



154 



ADDRESS OF PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 



of the Congregational churches of New 
England, and the Presbyterian Branch had 
an annual surplus income to be appropriated 
in destitute oarts of the country, it was 
judged best th..t the Branch should enlarge 
its sphere of operations to its former di- 
mensions, and appropriate its own funds ; 
especially, as those most needing them were 
in the limits of the Presbyterian church. 
This, beside being the most natural method, 
would be less likely to excite jealousies of 
denominational influence : at the same time, 
it would give an opportunity of exhibiting, 
in one view, the result of all efforts made in 
the Presbyterian church through this or- 
ganization. It is due to the Directors of 
the American Society to state, that on 
this, as well as on former occasions, a dis- 
position was manifested to conform to any 
measures which would best secure the 
great end of both institutions. The propo- 
sition for an enlargement of territory and 
responsibility, was no sooner made than it 
was acceded to, and upon terms mutually 
satisfactory. 

Principles of Union. 

By virtue of this new arrangement, the 
Branch resumes its former name of Pi'esbyte- 
rian Education Society, and occupies its for- 
mer limits. It takes, as its own, the rules of 
the American Society, and assumes its en- 
gagements within prescribed limits. The en- 
tire concerns of that Society, out of New 
England, are now committed to this, as a co- 
ordinate institution ; under no other restric- 
tion in the administration, than that of con- 
forming to received rules, and reporting pro- 
ceedings regularly. In regard to the impor- 
tant trust of holding, collecting, and cancelling 
obligations for funds loaned to beneficiaries, 
the American Society has no pecuniary inte- 
rest, and retains no control. Both institutions 
agree to furnish aid, when needed, should 
circumstances permit ; and in the alteration 
of rules intended to apply within the bounds 
of the Presbyterian Society, such alteration 
must be concurred in by its executive au- 
thority, before it can take effect. 

Mesponsibility of the Directors and of the 
Society. 

Under these highly important and liberal 
provisions, the Board finds itself invested 
with increased responsibilities. As tribu- 
tary to the ecclesiastical judicatories of the 
church, its office is, to bring forward young 
men of suitable character, who have not the 
means of acquiring a competent education, 
for the ministry, and by a judicious applica- 
tion of pecuniary relief, to prepare them to 
receive, from the constituted organs of the 
church, the high commission of ministers of 
Christ. For the funds necessary to accom- 
plish this object, the Directors have nowhere 
to look, hut to a benevolent community. 
To that community, having the manifest 
right to supervise their own donations, and 



[Nov. 



to the great Head of the Church, they hold 
themselves responsible for all their acts. 
Should they prove unfaithful to their trust, 
the remedy is sure, and at hand. Let the 
streams be cut off by which their treasury 
is supplied. The means of influence posses- 
sed, beyond what the voluntary and con- 
tinued offerings of the community furnish, 
are insignificant and powerless. Without 
permanent funds, and without chartered 
privileges of any kind, it is obvious that the 
Presbyterian Education Society must live 
or die, according as those shall decree by 
whom it is supported. The Directors do 
not regret this dependence. They rejoice 
that they are made responsible, in the most 
direct manner they can be, to the contribu- 
tors of the sacred funds placed at their dis- 
posal, and who may be supposed to have as 
deep an interest in the management of these 
funds as any men can have. It is a respon- 
sibility under which the enterprises of be- 
nevolence that characterize and adorn the 
age, have, almost without exception, been 
conducted ; which most happily coincides 
with the spirit of Christianity, as a religion 
of LOVE ; and which God has owned by 
signs and wonders, scarcely less intelligible 
than those which originally attested the truth 
of divine revelation. 

When it is considered that the proper end 
of all organization in the church is, to build 
up, and extend, and perpetuate the king- 
dom of Christ, it will not be thought strange 
that the watchword now most commonly 
heard among his devoted followers, is ; — Ac- 
tion, U one 7node of doing good is pre- 
ferred to another, let every man use the 
liberty which God has given him, of de- 
ciding for himself; but let him do with his 
might what his hand finds to do. Millions 
perish while he halts and hesitates. It will 
be well, also, if all keep in mind what a 
celebrated controvertist of a former age said, 
in an hour of solemn and tender review: — 
*' While we wrangle here in the dark, we 
are dying and passing to the world that will 
decide all our controversies ; and the safest 
passage thither is by peaceable holiness." 

The Directors of the Presbyterian Educa- 
tion Society would impress these truth? 
deeply upon their own minds, and the minds 
of those with whom they are associated. 
Losing sight of every other consideration, 
they would fix their eye upon a single ob- 
ject ; — the glory of Christ, and the salvation 
of sinners from hell. Whatever will best 
promote that end, they pray may be pros- 
pered. To all, who, with the spirit of their 
Divine Master, are seeking it, they bid 
" God speed." And, the only privilege 
which they claim for themselves, is that of 
doing all they can to promote the same end. 

The preaching of the Gospel the great 
means of Salvation. 

In deciding what means will be most likely 
to promote the salvation of men, it can 



ADDRESS OP PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 



1831.] 



never be forgotten that the preaching of the 
gospel is the great instrument appointed by 
Heaven for this purpose. In all ages, as in 
the age of the apostles, it hath pleased God 
by the " foolishness of preaching" to save 
them that believe. If it be true, that " who- 
soever shall call upon the name of the Lord 
shall he saved ;" it may with no less assur- 
ance be asked, "How then shall they call 
on him in whom they have not believed ? 
And how shall they believe in him of whom 
they have not heard ? And how shall they 
hear without a preacher ? And how shall 
they preach except they be sent ?" 

Let the believer of God's truth ponder 
this short but inspired argument. Let him 
examine for himself the moral statistics of 
the world, and measure the length and 
breadth of those spiritual desolations which 
spread over it like the pall of death, and he 
will not refuse his tears, his prayers, or his 
efforts, in behalf of a cause which seeks to 
multiply the faithful heralds of God's word. 
Here, in our own land, blessed as it is with 
the light of truth and with the means of 
grace, he may find moral wastes, shades of 
spiritual night, as thick and dark as any 
which brood over pagan lands. Take the 
organized churches of the Presbyterian de- 
nomination alone, and the demand for pasto- 
ral instruction is loud and urgent enough to 
justify ten fold greater effort to raise up 
ministers, than has ever yet been made. 
In one State, the best supplied of any west 
of the Alleghany mountains, containing about 
two hundred Presbyterian clergymen, and 
more than one third of all the ministers of 
that denomination residing in the ten States 
of the great western valley, — in this highly 
favored State, says an intelligent resident, 
We are compelled to deplore the condition 
of one hundred and fifty churches, which 
are now languishing for want of stated pas- 
tors ; and the still more affecting condition 
of twelve adjoining counties, without a single 
Presbyterian minister. In view of these and 
other similar facts, which have urged them- 
selves upon our attention while surveying 
this immense field of labor, we think we 
speak advisedly when we say, that, if we 
now had one thousand additional ministers, 
of able and devoted character, they might 
all, within the current year, be located in 
the heart of this great valley, in important 
and promising stations for usefulness," 

Design of Education Societies. 
Who will doubt that the finger of God 
points to Education Societies, as one of the 
principal means of supplying these spiritual 
wants. Whatever the reason may be, the 
fact is, that by far the greatest part ef able 
and faithful ministers and missionaries have 
arisen from the middle and laboring classes 
of society. Their names are encircled with 
a halo of glory, but it was in the school of 
poverty that they were disciplined to great 
undertakings. Compelled in early life to 



155 



make vigorous efforts to sustain themselves, 
they learned how to " endure hardness, as 
good soldiers of Jesus Christ." The worth 
of such men, and the need of them, in an 
age of enterprise and of great moral revolu- 
tions, like the present, cannot be too highly 
estimated. It is not the legitimate object of 
Education Societies to lessen the number of 
such men, or to impair their energies. 
Sooner than lead to such a result, it were 
well for the church and for mankind that 
every Education Society were blotted out 
of existence. The proper business of such 
societies is, by a wise and wholesome pat- 
ronage, to increase the number of self made 
men; of men, capable of performing any 
service, and of enduring any hardship for 
Christ, to which they may be called. 

Assistance by Loans. 
It does not belong to the Directors of this 
Society, nor of the Society with which they 
are so harmoniously co-operating, to speak 
of facts farther than they may come under 
their own observation. But so far as they 
are permitted to give their testimony, they 
feel constrained, from a regard to the purity, 
the energy, and the success of the Christian 
ministry, to state, that the system of patron- 
age which has been found by them best 
adapted to secure these important ends, is 
that of loans, made in the customary form, 
but without interest, until a suitable time 
shall have elapsed for paying; and with the 
further equitable provision, that, in case of 
inability to pay, arising from providential, or 
other good and sufficient reasons, the obli- 
gation shall be cancelled.* Assistance in 
this way furnishes but few motives to un- 
worthy men to apply for patronage ; it leads 
to economy, to diligence, to personal effort, 
and by necessary consequence to self respect 
and independence ; and it economizes the 
funds of the church, so as to render them 
far more useful. In proof of the soundness 
of these conclusions, it may be observed, 
that, while nearly every Education Society 
has commenced operations with a system of 
charity merely, experience has in a little 
time suggested the necessity of exchanging 
it for a system of loaning ; and even in those 
instances where the former method has 
been retained, it is easy to perceive that 
there is a tendency to its ultimate and com- 
plete abandonment. The reports of this So- 



* " In case the future condition of those who 
are patronized by the Society, in consequence of any 
calamity, or of the service of the church to which 
they may be providentially called, or the peculiar 
situation in which they may be placed, shall, in tlie 
judgment of the Board, be found to be such, as to 
render it unsuitable for them to be called upon to 
pay the debt contracted for their education, it shall 
be understood to be tlie right and duty of the Board 
to cancel such debt in whole, or in part, whenever 
they shall judge proper. The notes of young men 
patronized by a Branch Society, shall be cancelled b^ 
the concurrent vote of the Board of the Parent Soci- 
ety (in the present case Presbyterian Education 
Society) and of such Branch.'' Rules, chap. vi. $ 5. 



156 



ADDRESS OP PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 



ciety will show, that as long ago as 1821, 
before a union with the American Education 
Society was thought of, the Board felt it 
incumbent on them to suggest for the con- 
sideration of their Executive Committees, 
" whether the practice of loaning the sums 
which are advanced to beneficiaries might 
not, under certain modifications and restric- 
tions, be adopted with advantage."* 

Amount Appropriated. 
In this connection it is proper also to 
state, that taking into view the numerous 
facilities for self support which are afforded 
young men, in many places, and the aid 
which they frequently derive from funds 
belonging to the seminaries with which they 
are connected, the directors cannot, without 
unfaithfulness to those under their care, as 
well as to the public, recommend a larger 
sum, as a uniform appropriation, than that 
which is now made, viz. seventy five dollars 
a year. To this rule, as to all others of a 
general nature, there are exceptions; but 
in the present case, they are exceptions 
which go to show the propriety of lessening, 
rather than increasing the amount appropri- 
ated ; especially, since to cheapness of 
living, there are now added in many places, 
all the advantages derived from uniting 
labor with study. 

Thorough Education, 
Another principle which is deemed of 
great importance is, that those who are 
patronized, shall aim at a thorough course 
of education for the ministry. If ever this 
requisition was called for by the highest 
good of mankind, it is so at the present 
time. Such have been the advances in 
knowledge, and such the facilities for diffus- 
ing it widely and rapidly, that it is impossi- 
ble for ignorant men, or for men possessing 
less intellectual furniture than belongs to 
educated men generally, to exert that influ- 
ence for truth, and for the good of souls, 
which the cause of Christ requires. While 
the adversaries of the church are burnishing 
their armor, and preparing for new modes 
of attack, it does not become the soldiers of 
the cross to throw away the weapons of 
defence, which Providence has put within 
their reach. 

No attainments in learning can indeed 
supply the want of a warm and active piety ; 
and, it should be the care of Education Soci- 
eties, to patronize none but those who ex- 
hibit evidence of possessing this essential 
qualification: nevertheless, "without know- 
ledge deep and various, even piety cannot 
achieve the highest success of which it is 
capable. There are other principles which 
are regarded as having great importance in 
forming the character, and guarding against 
abuses ; such as, requiring of all who re- 
ceive aid from the funds, a faithful pecu- 

*See Third Report, p. 13. 



[Nov. 



niary accountability, and the exercise 
toward them of an affectionate pastoral care, 
but, upon these, the Directors forbear to 
dwell, since they have already been fre- 
quently made the subject of former com- 
miinications. 

Catholic JYature of the Society. 
The name of the Society, it will be per- 
ceived, is Presbyterian. It is so in fact. 
It has been nurtured in the bosom of the 
Presbyterian Church, and owes its success 
to the liberality of its members. But though 
Presbyterian, it is noi z. sectarian institution. 
It has aimed to accomplish the catholic 
object for which it was formed, by catholic 
measures, and with a catholic spirit. In 
the exercise of this spirit, it has occasionally 
lent a helping hand to young men of ap- 
proved piety and qualifications, of other 
evangelical denominations, who had no 
prospect of assistance from any other quar- 
ter. These young men have, however, in 
all cases, submitted to the regular Examin- 
ing Committees of the Society, and have 
been able to commend themselves as worthy 
applicants, before receiving any aid from the 
funds. While this liberality, on the part of 
a denomination which, more than any other, 
has of late years been " every where spoken 
against," has been calculated to soften as- 
perities, and to " stop the mouths of gain- 
sayers," it has excited the different denomi- 
nations to make provision for their own 
young men, and thus has indirectly con- 
ferred on them a greater benefit than could 
have been derived from a few acts of 
liberality. 

Enlightened and Catholic Spirit of the 
Confession of Faith. 

It is the glory of the Presbyterian Church, 
that she has ever encouraged in her minis- 
ters the union of high attainments in learn- 
ing with elevated piety. Believing, as she 
does, that ignorance is a fitter ally of super- 
stition than of truth, she has had a deep in- 
terest in raising, so far as she was able, the 
standard of ministerial education in other 
denominations of Christians ; and hence, her 
seminaries of theology, as well as of litera- 
ture and science, have ever been free of 
access to all who have sought admission. 
In taking this enlightened and dignified 
course, she has acted no less in accordance 
with the spirit and letter of her venerable 
standards, than with the precepts of the 
gospel. For while those recognize, as be- 
longing to the true church, all " that have 
been, are, or shall be gathered into one under 
Christ the head thereof;" and while they 
teach that " all saints that are united to Jesus 
Christ their head, by his spirit and by faith,, 
have fellowship with him in his graces, suf- 
ferings, death, resurrection and glory; and 
being united to one another in love, have 
communion in each other's gifts and 
graces:" they inculcate it, as a solemn duty 



1831 



DIRECTIONS FOR APPLICANTS. 



157 



to manifest this communion, " in relieving 
each other in outward things, according to 
their several abilities;" which communion it 
is further declared, "a.9 God offereth oppor- 
tunity, is to he extended unto all those luho 
in every place call upon the name of the 
Lord Jesus."'* 

Conclusion. 
With these unreserved remarks respecting 
the history of the Society, its present or- 
ganization, and the leading principles upon 
which it is conducted, the Directors once 
more commend it to the friends of Zion, 
and invoke for it the continued blessing of 
God. Especially do they make their appeal 
to the various Associations, Branches and 
Agencies connected with the Society, and 
to the numerous and long-tried patrons, by 
whose benefactions and prayers it has been 
enabled to send already a host of laborers 
into the vineyard of Christ. If any doubts 
could have been entertained of the favorable 
opinion with which its object, principles, 
and measures have been regarded, they 
would have been dissipated by the cheering 
tokens of confidence which have been af- 
forded by those liberal donations that have 
been sent to its treasury. It was with an 
anxious desire to render the Society a still 
greater blessing to multitudes famishing for 
the bread of life, that the Directors consent- 
ed to the enlargement of their field of labor, 
and to a corresponding increase of responsi- 
bility. Among the engagements, to which 
they are pledged, is one ; — that no young 
man of proper character and qualifications 
within the territorial limits of this Society, 
who shall apply for aid upon the principles, 
and in conformity with the rules which it 
adopts, and who is not otherwise provided 
for, shall fail of ohtainirig the means of a 
thorough education for the ministry. This 
pledge is to be redeemed, not by taking the 
work out of the hands of others who are 
already successfully engaged in it, but in see- 
ing that no young man, of the character and 
qualifications required, fails of his object for 
want of the means of obtaining an education. 
Hitherto, through the favor of God, and the 
benevolent exertions of his people, no appli- 
cation of the kind referred to, has failed. 
To the friends and patrons of the Society in 
every part of the country, the Directors 
look with confidence for the ability to re- 
new this declaration with each revolving 
year. Followers of Jesus ! Benefactors of 
the souls of men ! you will not disappoint 
the hopes of the devoted youth who have 
been encouraged by your sympathy and aid 
to seek the office of ambassadors of Christ. 

To the rising sons of the church, whose 
hearts burn with desire to become instru- 
ments of salvation to their fellow men, we 
say, come ! If you are ready for self-denial, 
for untiring industry, and for " patient con- 
tinuance in well-doing" — if, like your Divine 



'Confession of Faith, chap. xxv. xxvi. 



Master, you seek " to minister unto others," 
rather than " to be ministered unto" — in a 
word — if you are willing to inscribe your 
name upon the list of self-made men, your 
way is plain. You need not ask. Who will 
open to us the door of usefulness .' The 
answer has already been given. If you can 
find it nowhere else, you cannot fail to dis- 
cover it in the solemn pledge, which this So- 
ciety, in the name of the clmrch, gives you ! 
The hill which you nuist ascend is steep 
and difficult; but the road to the highest 
posts of honor and usefulness lies across it. 
Hundreds have trod it before you, who are 
now reaping a glorious harvest of souls ; or, 
who, like Hall, and Fisk, and Parsons, are 
wearing crowns of rejoicing in the kingdom 
of their Father. Between one and two 
hundred young men, under the care of this 
Society, and several hundreds more under 
the care of the Society with which this is 
connected, are at this time making their 
way over the same rugged path, and will 
ere long enter the whitening fields which 
lie beyond them. They beckon to you as 
they go, and invite you to share with them, 
the sacrifices and perils, the labors and tri- 
umphs of ministers and missionaries of the 
cross of Jesus Christ. The cries of your 
fellow men, as they sink from your sight 
and pass into a hopeless eternity, reprove 
your delay ; while a bleeding Saviour points 
you to the sacrifice which he has made, and 
bids you, as you love him, " Go into all 
the world, and preach the gospel to every 
creature." 

By order of the Board of Directors, 
E. Cornelius, Cor. Sec'y. 
JYew York, Oct. 1, 1831. 



DIRECTIONS TO THOSE WHO WISH TO 
APPLY FOR PATRONAGE. 

It is not necessary, at any time, to write 
to the Secretary of the Presbyterian Edu- 
cation Society, nor to the Secretaries of 
either of the Branches connected with it, 
merely to inquire whether a young man can 
he patronized. Such inquiries may be con- 
sidered' as already ansioered by the repeat- 
ed and solemn pledges which the Society 
has given of assistance to every deserving 
applicant who is not otherwise provided for, 
and whose character and qualifications are 
such as the rules require. It is hoped that 
this declaration will be understood every 
where ; and that no more expense of time 
and money will be consumed in unnecessary 
correspondence. Let the applicant, or his 
friends, attend carefully to the following ex- 
tract from the Rules, and if, upon examina- 
tion, the candidate is found worthy of pat- 
ronage, he will experience but little delay 
in obtaining the aid which he needs. 

Chapter V. — Of Bevef claries. 
1. No person shall be considered a candidate 
for assistance who has not pursued classical 



15S 



EXAMINING COMMITTEES. 



studies for at least three months, and who has 
not attained to fourteen years of age. 

2. No person shall be patronized who does 
not furnish satisfactory evidence of promising 
talents, decided piety, and who is not in the way 
of obtaining Ti. thorough classical and theological 
education 5 that is, either preparing to enter col- 
lege 5 or a member of some regularly constituted 
college where a thorough classical course is pur- 
sued ; or engaged in theological studies with the 
design of taking a regular three years' course. 

3. When a young man wishes to apply for 
patronage, he must pursue the following steps : 
First. He must obtain unequivocal testimonials 
from three or more serious and respectable per- 
sons best acquainted with him and his circum- 
stances, (e. g.) his minister, instructer, a magis- 
trate, or some other principal man in the vicinity, 
stating his age, place of residence, indigence, 
moral and religious character, including his 
church connection, talents, previous education, 
and serious desire to devote his life to the Chris- 
tian ministry. These testimonials should be 
sealed papers, that the writers of them may speak 
freely, concerning the character of the applicants. 
Secondly. Having obtained these testimonials, 
the applicant must present his request for exami- 
naiion and recoinmendation to some Examining 
Committee in his neighborhood, or within the 
portion of the country to which he belongs. If 
no such Committee is known to have been ap- 
pointed, the applicant or his friends may write, 
for information, to the Secretary of the Parent 
Society; or if he resides within the limits of a 
Branch Society, to the Secretary of that Branch. 

4. Whenever a young man has taken the 
above course, and been examined and recom- 
mended by an authorized Committee, to the 
Board of Directors of the Parent Society, or of 
one of its Branches, he may be admitted on trial, 
at the discretion of the Board, for a period of 
three months. 

Examining Committees may be found at 
either of the places menlioned below. 
Where a College or Seminary is instituted, 
the presiding officer will generally be able 
to give the necessary information. 



Town. 

New York, 

Schenectady, 

Clinton, 

Potsdam, 

Auburn, 

Geneva, 

Rochester, 

Princeton, 

Gettysburg, 

Carlisle, 

Pittsburg-, and > 

Canonsburg-, ) 

Washington, 

Baltimore, 

Prince Edward, 

Lexington, 

Chapel Hill, 

Charleston, 

Athens, 

Maryville, 

Knoxville, 

Nashville, 

Danville, 

Cincinnati, 

Oxford, 

Athens, 

Hudson, 

Bloomington, 

Hanover, 

Jacksonville, 



State. Gent, to whom app.?nay be made. 

New York, Rev. E. Cornelius. 

do. Rev. EliplMlet Nott, D. D. 

do. Rev. Asahel S. Norton, D. D. 

do. Rev. Asa Brainerd. 

do. Rev. James Richards, D. D. 

do. Rev. E. Phelps. 

do. Rev. Joseph Penney. 

New Jersey, Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D. 

Pennsylvania, Rev. S. S. Schmucker. 

do. Rev. Samuel B. How, D. D. 



do. 



Rev. Moses Brown, D. D. 



Dis. Columbio 


,Rev. 


Maryland, 


Rev. 


Virginia, 


Sen. 


do. 


Rev. 


N. Carolina 


Rev. 


S. Carolina, 


Rev. 


Georgia, 


Rev. 


EastTenn. 


Rev. 


do. 


Rev. 


West Tenn. 


Rev. 


Kentucky, 


Rev. 


Ohio, 


Rev. 


do. 


Rev. 


do. 


Rev. 


do. 


Rev. 


Indiana, 


Rev. 


do. 


Rev. 


Illinois, 


Rev. 



. Stephen Chapin, D. D. 
William, Nevins. 
Prof, of Union Seminary. 
E. A. Baxter, D. D. 
Joseph Caldwell, D. D. 
Jasper Adams, D. D. 
Alonzo Church, D. D. 
Isaac Anderson, D. D. 
Charles Coffin, D. D. 
Philip Lindsley, D. D. 
John C. Young. 
Franklin Y. Vail. 
R. H. Bishop, D. D. 
R. G. Wilson, D. D. 
Charles B. Storrs. 
Andrew Wylie, D. D. 
John Matthews, D. D. 
John M. Ellis. 



The following extracts will sufficiently 
explain the duties to be performed by Ex- 
amining Committees. 



[Nov. 



CHAPTER I v.— 0/ Examining Committees, i 

2. When a candidate for patronage applies for ( 
examination, it shall be the duty of the Examining 
Committee, to whom the application is made, to 
institute a personal and faithful inquiry respectin"- 
his testimonials, his studies, his religious charac" 
ter, his motives in seeking an education for the 
Christian ministry, and his willingness to conform 
to the rules of the Americfin Education Society. 
If, after serious and full examination, the Com- 
mittee shall be satisfied that the applicant pos- 
sesses the character and qualifications required of 
beneficiaries by the Constitution and Rules of ' 
the Society, it shall be their duty to recommend | 
him for patronage to the Board of Directors of j 
the Parent Society, or, of one of its Branches, if 
the applicant reside within the limits of a Branch I 
Society. In their recommendation, the Com- j 
mittee shall state very particularly', the name, age, \ 
residence, place of education, church connection, I 
and other important facts connected with the 1 
history or character of the applicant, together I 
with an account of the testimonials furnished, and \ 
the names of the persons by whom they were | 
furnished, \ 

3. If, after examining a candidate, the Com- j 
mittee shall have doubts respecting his character ! 
and qualifications, while yet they are so far ■ 
satisfied as to be unwilling to reject the applica- 1 
tion, they may state the grounds of their doubts, j 
and recommend the applicant on condition of re- 
examination after a suitable period. | 

4. It shall be the duty of the several Examin- I 
ing Committees, to endeavor to impress the minds ' 
of those who apply for patronage with a deep [ 
sense of the momentous and solemn nature of | 
their undertaking, to explain to them the princi- ' 
pies upon which appropriations are made by this 
Society, and to apprize them of the necessity, 
which the rules of the Society lay upon them, of 
making vigorous efforts to sustain themselves. 
It is recommended that every examination of 
candidates be introduced and closed with prayer." • 

The concerns of this Society are so ex- ' 
tensive and complicated, that a rigid confor- ' 
mity to the Rules is indispensable. [ 

The Quarterly Meetings of the Board, 
when appropriations will be made, are on ' 
the last Tuesday of March, June, September, j 
and December. All returns and applica- | 
tions should be in the hands of the Secre- | 
tary of the General Society by the middle | 
of each of these months. The Boards of ' 
the several Branch Societies meet a few 
weeks previous. Returns and applications \ 
from young men within the limits of the i 
respective Branches, should be sent to their i 
several Secretaries, in early season for these 
meetings. ! 

Blank Schedules, Notes, and copies of the 
Rules of the Society, may be had gratui- 
tously, at any time, by applying to the 
Secretary of the Presbyterian Education 
Society, or to the Secretaries of either of 
the Branches. 

PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY. 
CONSTITUTION. 

Article I. This Society shall be known by 
the name of The Presbyterian Education Society. 

II, The object of the Society shall be to edu- 
cate young men for the ministry, upon the prin- 



1831.] 



REV. MR. COGSWELL S REPORT. 



159 



ciples, and in conformity with the rules of the 
American Education Society, as existing at llie 
time of adopting ihis constitution, or, as they may 
hereafter be determined, witii the concurrence 
of the executive authority of this Society. 

III. 'I'his Society shall transmit a copy of its 
Annual Report to the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

JV. Every person paying any sum annually 
shall be a member of the Society; every person 
paying" thirty dollars at one time shall be a mem- 
ber for life, and every person paying one hun- 
dred dollars shall be a director for life. 

V. The business of this Society shall be con- 
ducted by a Board of Directors, which, exclusive 
of their officers, shall consist of twenty-four mem- 
bers, who shall be elected annually. The Board 
shall annually elect their own officers, consisting 
of a President, Vice Presidents, Secretaries, 
Treasurer, and such other officers as may be 
necessary. They may fill their vacancies, ap- 
point executive committees, and do every thing 
not contrary to this constitution which they may 
deem expedient. Five shall constitute a quorum. 

VI. The Treasurer shall give bonds in a 
reasonable sum, to be determined by the Direc- 
tors, for the faithful discharge of his duties. 

VII. The annual meeting of the Society shall 
be held in the city of New York, on the second 
Thursday in Maj'. Special meetings may be 
called by the Directors. 

VIII. Members of Auxiliaries and Branch 
Societies are entitled to vote in all meetings of 
the Society. 

IX. Alterations in this constitution may be 
made by vote of two thirds of the members pres- 
ent at an annual meeting, provided such altera- 
tion shall have been submitted to the Society in 
writing, at a previous meeting or session. 

OFFICERS FOR 1831—2. 
President. 
Arthur Tappan, Esq. 
Vice Presidents. 
Rev. James Richards, D. D. Rev. David Porter, 
D. D. Rev. Thomas McAuley, D. D. Rev. John 
Brown, D. D. Hon. Jonas Piatt. Hon. George Hun- 
tington. Hon. Joseph C. Hornblower, Hon. Theo- 
dore Frelinghuysen. Mr. Israel Crane. Rev. Eli- 
phalet Nott, D. D. Rev. Asa Hillyer, D. D. Rev. 
T. H. Skinner, D. D. Rev. N. S. S. Beman, D. D. 
Rev. G. Duffield. Mr. John Adams. Mr. James 
Montgomery. Thomas Bradford, Jr. Esq. Mr. Wil- 
liam Wallace. Mr. Peter Ludlow. Mr. Zach. 
Lewis. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

Rev. E. Cornelius, 144 Nassau St., N. Y. 

Recording Secretary. 

Horace Holden, Esq. 

Treasurer. 

Oliver Willcox, Esq. 144 Nassau St., N. Y, 

Directors. 
Rev. Samuel Fisher, D. D. Rev. Gardiner Spring, 
D. D. Rev. Philip C. Hay. Rev. William Patten. 
Rev. Elias W. Crane. Rev. Cyrus Mason. Rev, 
Eiihu W.Baldwin. Rev.G.N. Judd. Rev. William 
T. Hamilton. Rev. Henry White. Rev, D. S. Car- 
roll. Rev. S. II. Cox, D. D. Rev. J. Woodbridge, 
D. D. Mr. Eleazer Lord. Mr. John Morrison. Mr. 
George Douglass. Dr. A. W. Ives. Mr. Caleb O. 
Halsted. Mr. Fisher How. Mr. Knowles Taylor. 
Timothy Hedges, Esq, Mr. John North. Mr. R. T. 
Haines. Mr. Cornelius Baker. 

Executive Committee. 
Mr. Arthur Tappan. Rev. Dr. Hillyer. Rev, Dr. 
Spring, Rev. Dr, Woodbridge, Rev. W. Patton. 



Rev. H. White. Rev. G. N. Judd. Rev. E. W. 
Baldwin. Mr. Caleb O. Halsted. Mr. Oliver 
Willcox. Mr. Fisher How. Mr. Horace Holden. 

lAst of Presidents, Corresponding and Recording Secret/!^ 
ries, and Treasurers, from the formation of the Society, wiUk 
the year of their several apiiointinenls . 

Presidents. 
Hon, Elias Boudinot, LL, D,, 
Hon. Jonas Platt, 
His Excellency De Witt Clinton, 
Arthur Tappan, Esq., 

Corresponding Secretaries. 
Rev, James Richards, D. D., 
Rev. Philip M. Whelplet, 
Rev. Ward Stafford, 
Rev. Samuel H. Cox, P. D., 
Rev. Austin Dickinson, 
Rev. Henry White, 
Rev. William Patton, 
Mr. B. B. Edwards, 
Rev. E. Cornelius, 



1818 
1822 
1824 



1818 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 



1830 
1831 



Recording Secretaries. 



Rev. M. L. Perrine, D. D., 
Rev. P. M. Whelplev, 
Horace Holden, Esq., 

Treasurers. 

John Adams, Esq., 
Daniel Boardman, Esq., 
Arthur Tappan, Esq., 
Peter Ludlow, Esq., 
Oliver Willcox, Esq, 



1818 
1821 
1824 



1818 
1822 
1826 
1827 
1830 



REPORTS or AGENTS. 

Rev. William Cogswell. 

The last three months I have spent in 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Ver- 
mont ; — most of the time I spent in the last 
mentioned State. As 1 had never visited 
that portion of New England before, on be- 
half of the American Education Society, 
except to attend the Annual Meeting of the 
Branch, two years since, I felt it my duty 
to ascertain the statistics of the State in a 
religious view, in order to determine what 
aid in our cause nnght be, or ought to be, 
expected from that portion of our Zion. 
My conclusion is, that Vermont is the third 
State in New England, as it respects the 
number and wealth of persons embraced 
within the pale of the church. Her ability, 
therefore, to contribute towards the benevo- 
lent enterprises of the present day, is very 
considerable. For some of these, she has 
made laudable efforts. In regard to the 
Education Society, if I may be allowed to 
speak in the strain of the last report of their 
Branch, " There has been a strange indif- 
ference, an unaccountable langour seems to 
have seized the minds of the people." Four 
hundred and forty-one dollars only, during 
the last year, the year ending with the ad- 
measurement of time by our Society, be- 
sides a part of a legacy left some years since 
by Joseph Burr, Esq., were paid into our 
treasury, from the whole State, as appears 
by their Treasurer's Report, and our ac- 
count current. During the same time, the 
Parent Society paid over to beneficiaries in 
that State, two thousand one hundred and 






160 



REV. MR. COGSWELL S REPORT. 



[Nov, 



fifty-six dollars, that is, one thousand seven 
hundred and fifteen dollars more than was 
remitted by their Branch to the Parent So- 
ciety from annual collections in the differ- 
ent parts of the State. This ought not so 
to have been. The fair proportion of money 
to be raised in Vermont, for the support of 
beneficiaries in New England, probably 
would be not far from three thousand dol- 
lars annually. This sum of money, I am 
persuaded, the State can raise for this ob- 
ject, with great ease, and not diminish ought 
from other charitable purposes, if the good 
people will take up this subject with any 
degree of zeal. I am rather inclined to think 
that this may be the case in time to come, 
from present appearances. The local jeal- 
ousies, having a bearing upon the Education 
Society, v.'hich have hitherto existed in dif- 
ferent parts of the State, seem now in a 
very great degree to have subsided ; and 
there is a prevailing desire that societies 
may be formed in the several counties, aux- 
iliary to the State Branch, that the whole 
community might be brought up to effort 
in this good cause. At least, this is the 
case so far as my knowledge extends. 
While I was in the State, six County Educa- 
tion Societies were formed under favorable 
circumstances. The counties, in which such 
societies have been organized, are Franklin, 
Chittenden, Addison, Rutland, Windham, 
and Wmdsor. It is expected that tlie other 
counties, at some future time, will be or- 
ganized in the same manner. This mode 
of awakening and keeping up an interest in 
our cause among the people generally, it 
was deemed best to pursue, and has been 
the one adopted in other parts of New Eng- 
land. In all the towns which I visited, the 
Education Society was favorably regarded, 
and the people seemed disposed to patronize 
it according to its importance among the 
benevolent enterprises of the present day. 
The officers connected with both the col- 
leges in the State, are very cordial to our 
Society, and the measures pursued by the 
Directors. The beneficiaries, connected 
with the different literary institutions in 
Vermont, very generally sustain, to a good 
degree, the character required by the rules 
of the Society of those who receive its 
patronage. In the present revivals of re- 
ligion, God is converting a multitude of 
young men, and hereby speaking too plainly 
to be misunderstood. In his providence he 
is saying, Take these young men and edu- 
cate them for me — educate them to be 
ministers of the gospel of my grace. It is 
confidently expected, that many a youth, 
renewed by the Spirit of God, and educated 
by the charities of the church, will go forth 
from that State to bless Zion, in the admin- 
istration of the word and ordinances of eter- 
nal life. At the last Annual Meeting of the 
Branch, which was held at Windsor, and 
which I attended, a pledge was given to 
raise a sufficient sum of money in the en- 



suing year, to sustain the beneficiaries at 
their different Institutions. Should this 
pledge be redeemed, a new aspect will be 
given to the state of things there, in relation 
to the interests of the Education Society. 

The Anniversary of the New Hampshire 
Branch was held at Concord, at which I 
was present. The Reports of the Secretary 
and Treasurer were interesting. During the 
current year of the Branch, more than two 
thousand dollars had been raised in thai 
State, — more than enough to sustain their 
beneficiaries, and six times as much as had 
been paid into the treasury the previous 
year. The Secretary, Professor Hadduck, . 
in his P.eport dwelt much upon the selection 
of beneficiaries and the character they 
should sustain. The consideration of this 
subject was timely. It is highly important 
that the community at large should well un- 
derstand the nature and extent of the requi- 
sitions made by the Education Society, and 
that these requirements will be strictly ad- 
hered to in the admission of young men to 
a participation of its sacred charities. There 
is danger that while God is pouring out his 
Spirit and bringing such numbers of our 
youth into the churches, and that while so 
much is said and justly said in regard to the 
destitution of Ministers in this and other 
countries, and such strong appeals are made 
to the pious young men of the land in rela- 
tion to preparation for the ministry — I say 
there is dang;er that some not deserving of 
patronage may apply for aid. Great atten- 
tion, therefore, must be paid to this subject. 
For the Society will rise or fall according 
to the character of those, to whom assis- 
tance is afforded. As I spoke particularly 
of the situation of things in New Hampshire 
in reference to the Education Society in my 
last Report, it is not necessary that I should 
enlarge, especially as but a small portion of 
my time during the quarter has been spent 
in the State. 

1 have visited also a few towns in Massa- 
chusetts. This Commonwealth has, from 
the time the American Education Society 
was formed, been foremost in contributions 
for this object. And it is most ardently to 
be hoped that her zeal and exertions in this 
great and good cause will not abate. She 
must continue to hold the front rank in New 
England of all those Christian efforts which 
are made for the conversion of the world. 
Indeed her charities as well as the charities 
of the church generally must be far more 
abundant. The pulse of Christian feeling 
must be raised a thousand fold. In view of 
the spiritual woes and wants of a perishing 
world, every pious soul should be ready to 
exclaim in the fullness of its desires, O, for 
the superabundant riches of Christendom, 
and then for a heart that shall embrace in 
its benevolence the great family of man, that 
this holy, heavenly and mighty work may 
be accomplished. It is more noble to bear 
a part in the salvation of men, than to wear 



1831] 



REV. FRANKLIN Y. VAIL's REPORT. 



161 



the crown of Caesar. Is this called enthu- 
siasm .' Would to God the world was hlled 
with it, and then the millennial day would 
soon be ushered in. 

Mr. William L. Mather, who recently 
closed his studies in the Theological Semi- 
nary at Andover, has been appointed by the 
Executive Committee to act as a temporary 
agent in those parts of New England, which 
need most to be visited on behalf of our So- 
ciety. He will commence his labors in 
Franklin County, Ms. That County has 
had for some years an Education Society, 
but it never became auxiliary to our Insti- 
tution till within a year. The Directors of 
that Society have long wished to have an 
agent employed in that section of the State 
in raising funds and giving a new and greater 
impulse in the cause they have espoused. 
And now Mr. Mather has gone among them, 
I trust he will tind " a great door and effec- 
tual is opened unto him." A number of 
settled clergymen, in different parts of New 
England, have been appointed to an agency 
in the Counties where they reside, so far as 
the duties of their pastoral charge will per- 
mit, and they can address the churches on 
the Sabbath by exchange with their brethren 
in the ministry. Their services will be la- 
bors of love and gratuitous. It is hoped 
that something may be done in this way for 
our cause. The Lord reward them a thou- 
sand fold for all the sacrifices they shall make 
in this way for the Church. 

My attention will next be directed to 
Connecticut. Agreeably to an arrangement 
with the Directors of that Branch, 1 am to 
visit the State about this time for the pur- 
pose of completing its organization into 
County Societies, and also the raising of 
funds within their bounds. This seems in- 
dispensably necessary ; for during the last 
quarter there was paid into their treasury 
but three hundred and forty nine dollars, and 
yet for the same quarter, nine hvmdred and 
thirty six dollars were appropriated to their 
beneficiaries. I anticipate a ready co-ope- 
ration of the friends of Zion in the accom- 
plishment of the objects before me. 



Rev. Franklin Y. Vail, 

To the Corresponding Secretary of the Presbyterian Educa- 
tion Society. 

Cincinnati, I5th Sept. 1831. 
In presenting, through you, my semi- 
annual report of the doings of the Western 
Agency of the Presbyterian Education So- 
ciety, it being the first presented to that 
Board since we have sustained the same 
relation to them which we formerly sus- 
tained to the American Education Society, 
it may be proper, in order to their future 
successful operations in the West, for me to 
present, in the first place, a brief general 
view of the character and wants of this 
great field of labor, in reference to the cause 
of Education Societies, as developed by the 

VOL. IV. 21 



operations of this Western Agency, since its 
establishment in the fall of 1829. 

Extent and Importance of the Field. 

The design we believe of the American 
Education Society, in the establishment of a 
Western Agency, and the appointment of a 
Western Secretary, was, to extend, as far as 
the character of the country would permit, 
their operations over the entire Valley of 
the Mississippi — to develope in their length 
and breadth, the great moral wants of the 
community generally, and particularly their 
affecting destitution of able and faithful min- 
isters of the gospel — to awaken a powerful 
interest both at the east and west, in the 
cause of Education Societies, as an indispen- 
sible means under God, of christianizing 
this vast population, who are now fast form- 
ing the character, and will quickly decide 
the destiny of this nation — to look out and 
bring forward for education, every young 
man of suitable character in the churches, 
for the Christian ministry— and to exercise 
a strict pastoral supervision aver them dur- 
ing their preparatoiy course — calling forth 
atlhe same time, as far as practicable, the 
resources of the friends of Education So- 
cieties for their support. In a word, we be- 
lieve it was the great object of the Parent 
Board, to accomplish, in behalf of the West, 
not merely a part of the business of Educa- 
tion Societies demanding to be done, but to 
do, as soon and as far as practicable, the 
whole work unattempted by others, in this 
department of benevolent enterprize ; and 
in doing this, carefully to avoid interference 
with the efforts of other societies— and never 
aiming to take the work of education out of 
the hands of our presbyteries, or ministers, 
but merely to aid them in doing that work, 
of obtaining funds, collecting young men, &c. 
which their official duties often prevent 
them from doing, and leaving them at the 
same time to determine what young men 
shall be patronized, licensed, ordained, and 
settled within their bounds. 

Efforts of the Society sustained by the 
Ministers and Churches. 
While we have often had occasion to thank 
God, and take courage, in view of what our 
eastern brethren have done for us, in the 
distribution of Tracts, and Bibles,— in the 
establishment of Sabbath schools, and in the 
successful labors of their missionaries among 
our destitute population, yet we have been 
deeply impressed with the fact, that all 
these means of moral improvement, how- 
ever important, can never bring the great 
mass of our community under the influence 
of the gospel, without an able and faithful 
ministry; and that the great work now 
especially to be done, is to raise up hundreds 
of our pious, gifted, and indigent young men 
on the field of labor to be occupied, and who 
by being natives of our ow^n soil, ac- 
quainted with the manners and customs ot 



i 



162 



REV. FRANKLIN Y. VAIL S REPORT. 



[Nov. I 



the people, and trained up in habits of 
economy, industry, and self-denial, will be 
peculiarly fitted to exert an extensive and 
controlling influence over this great Valley. 
While our brethren at the East have often 
read and heard of the great want of minis- 
ters at the West, it has been the painful ex- 
perience of ministers and churches here, to 
witness as well as deplore the moral deso- 
lations of Zion, in every direction around 
them — to see hundreds of churches, anxious 
to enjoy the labors of stated pastors, favored 
only at distant intervals with irregular and 
occasional preaching — and hundreds of other 
important and promising posts of usefulness, 
where new churches might be immediately 
formed and built up, if laborers could be 
found to occupy them. To mention one 
fact among multitudes that might be enu- 
merated illustrative of our great destitution 
of ministers, we may remark that in the 
single State of Ohio, a State better supplied 
with ministers than any other west of the 
Alleghanies, containing about two hundred 
Presbyterian clergymen, and more than one 
third of all who now reside in the ten States 
of our great Valley — in this highly favored 
State we are compelled to deplore the con- 
dition of 1.50 Presbyterian churches, which 
are now languishing for want of stated pas- 
tors, and the still more affecting condition of 
twelve adjoining counties, without a single 
Presbyterian minister. In view of these, 
and other similar facts which have urged 
themselves upon our attention, while sur- 
veying this immense field of labor, we think 
we speak advisedly when we say, that if we 
now had 1,000 additional ministers of able 
and devoted character, they might all, within 
the current year, be located in the heart of 
this great Valley, in important and promis- 
ing stations for usefulness. It is not strange 
then, that in view of the benevolent objects 
of the American Education Society, and the 
great want of ministers at the West, our 
ministers and churches have extensively 
appreciated your undertaking, and heartily 
co-operated in its successful progress. 

What has been actually accomplished in 
this great work. 

It is not necessary to enter at this time 
into a detailed enumeration of facts on this 
subject, as they have been fully disclosed to 
the Parent Board in former communications. 
A recapitulation of some prominent facts, 
however, may not be unnecessary. Though 
the American Education Society has assist- 
ed a few young men in the West in obtain- 
ing an education, for several years past, yet 
the number has been very small, and 
nothing, we believe, had been done, until 
within the last two years, by this institution 
in calling foith the resources of the churches. 
Previous to the fall of 1829, no organiza- 
tion, in connection with the American Edu- 
cation Society, had been attejnpted at the 



West; and at that time but 10 or 12 young 
men were under their patronage. Very 
little, previous to this, had been done in this 
great work by our churches or presbyteries. 
By the efforts made by the American Edu- 
cation Society, a new impulse has been 
given to Education Societies at the West. 
A General Agency has been established at 
Cincinnati, as the centre of western opera- 
tion, through which the general concerns of 
the Society at the West, (with the exception 
of the Western Reserve Branch,) have been 
transacted. A Branch has been organized, 
embracing the synod of Western Reserve, 
by Rev. A. R. Clark, who is now its per- 
manent agent, and by whose efficient exer- 
tions it is now going forward with encour- 
aging success, and by the influence of late 
revivals within its bounds, is now rapidly 
increasing both in the number of its ben- 
eficiaries and the means of their support. 
A State Branch Society has also been formed 
in Indiana, by the Secretary of the Western 
Agency ; and by the important aid of Rev. 
Mr. Little, near 20 Temporary Scholarships 
have been obtained, and as many of the 
young men of the State have commenced, 
or are about to commence, a course of study 
for the ministry. In Illinois and Missouri, 
a Branch has been established, embracing 
those two States. Several of their young 
men are in a course of training for the min- 
istry ; but owing to the want of an agent, 
no efforts have yet been made by this 
Branch to obtain funds, and to extend their 
operations. In Kentucky, principally by 
the labors of Rev. Messrs. Clark and Little, 
your efficient and devoted agents, about 20 
Temporary Scholarships have been recently 
secured — a considerable number of young 
men found suitable to receive your patron- 
age,— and the way, it is hoped, is thus pre- 
pared for the establishment of a Branch in 
that State, to be auxiliary to your Society, 
at a period not far distant. It is well known 
that the Secretary of the Western Agency 
has been absent from his western field of 
labor, by consent of the Parent Board, a 
large portion of the last year, in promoting 
a kindred enterprise for the establishment of 
the Lane Theological Seminary, in which, 
by the advantages of its manual labor de- 
partment, our young men in that institution 
are now defraying the entire expense of 
board by three hours daily labor. Notwith- 
standing this interruption, which we trust 
has not been at the expense of the great 
cause of education, your Secretary has been 
enabled to secure about fifty Temporary 
Scholarships, mostly in the State of Ohio, 
while a large portion of his time has been 
necessarily employed in conducting an ex- 
tensive correspondence — in attending to all 
the office-business of the Western Board — 
extending a pastoral supervision over our 
beneficiaries, and in looking out and bring- 
ing forward new candidates for our pat- 
ronage. 



1831. 



INTELLIGENCE. 



163 



JVumber and increase of Beneficiaries. 

The number of young men under patron- 
age at the commencement of our western 
operations was 10 or 12 ; they have since 
increased to about 60. Besides these, who 
are now receiving aid from our funds, the 
names of about 100 others have been taken, 
most of whom will probably need our assist- 
ance, should they give full evidence of their 
qualifications to study for the Christian min- 
istry. The present number of our beneficia- 
ries would have been considerably increased, 
had we not made it a special object to en- 
courage every young man to sustain himself 
by his own exertions as long as practicable. 
It is now a settled point in our minds, in 
view of examinations made in those parts of 
the West visited for this purpose, that seve- 
ral hundred young men of suitable character 
might immediately be found in this great 
Valley, if the whole field could be explored 
by a competent agent. 

Revival in Oxford, Ohio. 
A most interesting revival of religion has, 
for some time past, been going forward in this 
town. Near 200 hopeful converts have 
within the last two months been added to 
the church, and among these, between 20 
and 30 of the students of the college, most 
of whom, it is hoped, will devote themselves 
to the Christian ministry. While we re- 
joice at this blessed work, and at the bear- 
ings which it will have upon the cause of 
Education Societies, it is our happiness to 
regard our beneficiaries in this institution as 
exerting a most powerful influence in origi- 
nating and carrying forward this good work. 

Pastoral Supervision and the Religious 
Character of Beneficiaries. 
A considerable portion of my time has 
been occupied in the important and delight- 
ful work of pastoral visitation among our 
young men, with a view to administer that 
caution, warning, and advice, which the in- 
experience and temptations of youth, re- 
moved from parental care and pastoral 
fidelity, may demand, and to deepen the work 
of faith and love and holiness in their souls. 
And while we believe that the exigencies 
of the church call for nothing so loudly as 
an increase of deep-toned and ardent piety, 
of holy and self-denying Christian enterprise 
among the sons of the church, we are 
happy to bear testimony that our beneficia- 
ries, as a body, exhibit a depth of piety, a 
warmth of zeal, a holy activity and 
enterprize, which inspires the hope that 
God is fitting them by his Spirit for distin- 
guished usefulness in the church. As the 
present result of such piety and activity, we 
are permitted to see an influence exerted 
by these young men— in colleges, in Sab- 
bath schools, in private families and neigh- 
boring congregations, and in promoting re- 
vivals ; which would more than compensate 
the church for all the expense incurred in 



their behalf, if they should never live to 
enter the ministry. 

Great importance of Permanent State 
Agencies. 
It is a settled point in this new country, 
whatever may be your experience in the 
old States, (and we believe it perfectly ac- 
cords with our own,) that no benevolent 
enterprise can be carried forward with en- 
ergy and success, without some competent 
agent to give his whole time and attention 
to the object ; and who can visit his whole 
field of labor as often as once a year. With- 
out such a main spring to every great un- 
dertaking of a religious kind, all former ex- 
perience proves that the most popular and 
interesting, and best organized Society, must 
be revived by the presence of an agent, or 
it will soon languish and die. 



Rev. Ansel, R. Clark. 
Mr. Clark is successfully prosecuting his 
labors in the Western Reserve, and in the 
Territory of Michigan. A detailed report 
may be expected in the next number of the 
Journal. The recent revivals of religion 
within the limits of the Western Reserve 
Branch, will doubtless much increase the 
number of applicants for the patronage of 
the Society, 



Rev. John J. Owen. 
Mr. Owen, recently from the Theological 
Seminary, Andover, has proceeded to Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, with the expectation of labor- 
ing within the limits of the Western Agency 
during the autumn and coming winter. 

INTELLIGENCE. 

Presbyterian Education Society. 
Quarterly Meeting of the Directors. 
The Quarterly Meeting of the Board 
of this Society was held in New York, on 
Tuesday, the 27th of September. Returns 
were received from the various Branches 
and agencies connected with the Presby- 
terian Society, and the usual appropriations 
were allowed. Twenty new applicants 
were received on probation. 

American Education Society. 

Quarterly Meeting of the Directors. 

The usual meeting was held in Boston, 

on Wednesday, the 12th day of October. 

Thirty-one new applicants, connected with 



164 



INTELLIGENCE. 



[Nov. 



fifteen different literary institutions, were 
received on probation, making tiie whole 
number received by the American and Pres- 
byterian Education Societies this quarter, 
fifty-one. The applicants belong to nine 
different States. 

The following communication from a ben- 
eficiary of the Society, who is about to pro- 
ceed on a mission to the South Sea islands, 
was received. 

October I, \SZl. 

Dear Sir, — Expecting in the course of the 
next month to embark for the islands of the 
Pacific, as a missionary of the American 
Board, and having no means of refunding 
the money which I have received from your 
Society, I wish to avail myself of the pro- 
vision usually made by you in like cases. 

Praying that you may receive abundant 
encouragement and aid, in the great work 
of furnishing our country and the world with 
an educated and pious ministry, 

I remain, yours respectfully. 

Whereupon it was voted by the Directors, 
" That the Secretary be authorised and di- 
rected to furnish Mr. with a certificate 

stating, that so long as he shall continue in 
the service of Christ among the heathen, 
his obligations to the Society shall not be 
considered as binding.'* 

PROCEEDINGS OP OTHER SOCIETIES. 
Board of Education of the 
General, Assemblt. 
Rev. John Breckenridge has entered 
upon the duties of his office, as Secretary of 
this Board. From a circular address to the 
churches, signed by Alexander Henry, Esq. 
President of the Board, we make the follow- 
ing extract. 

It is probably known to you, that we 
have already resolved to refuse no appli- 
cant who comes properly qualified and 
recommended. Even at this early date in 
the year's operations, we are receiving 
young men, at the rate of one per diem. 
The expenses also which necessarily attend, 
even the most economical forms of efficient 
agencies, five or six of which we are now 
engaged in estabHshing in different parts of 
the church, must be met by extra contri- 
butions • as they can never properly be 
derived from moneys directly devoted by 
the donors to the business of religious edu- 
cation. 

It is, therefore, obvious, that we cannot 
long sustain ourselves on this ground, with- 
out the spirited and extensive co-operation 



of the church. To meet the exigency of 
the present moment, some of the churches 
in Philadelphia alone, have given us 
J|10,000 ; and if their sister churches would 
now follow their most generous example, 
our Board would be prepared at once to 
educate all the sons of the church needing 
our assistance. 

We solicit pastors and elders of the church, 
and all others having influence, and all the 
friends of the church, to unite with us in 
carrying forward this important work. Ev- 
ery church might, on an average, sustain 
one scholarship of $75 per annum, and to 
this form of aid we are especially attached. 
In general, the very greatly enlarged ope- 
rations of the Board, require a proportionate 
augmentation of patronage ; and, as we need, 
so we confidently believe we shall receive, 
the hearty aid of the great body of our 
churches. We refer you for further infor- 
mation, to our newly issued constitution and 
rules, and you will, in due time, be visited 
by our general or some subordinate agent, 
who will more fully communicate to you 
our plans, our state, &c. But we earnestly 
ask, that in the mean time, this great inter- 
est may not be permitted to linger in your 
vicinity. If you have suitable young men, 
we are prepared to receive them, without 
limit as to number ; and, we ask in return, 
your energetic aid, and your remembrance 
of us, from day to day, at the Mercy Seat. 



Northern Baptist Education 
Society. 

The Quarterly Meeting of the Board of 
this Society was held on the 13th of Sep- 
tember. From the notice of the meeting 
published in the last American Baptist 
Magazine we extract the following : 

The number of young men received upon 
the funds of theParent Society, at this meet- 
ing, was thirteen, — increasing the number 
reported at the last meeting to eighty-two. 
At this meeting, also, two young men were 
dismissed from the Society's patronage for 
want of suitable promise, leaving the present 
number eighty. If we add to these the 
beneficiaries of the several Branches, the 
number is increased to one hundred and two. 
Maine, has eight ; New Hampshire, four ; 
Rhode Island, four ; and Connecticut, six. 

This number of beneficiaries, when it is 
known that they are supported almost en- 
tirely by the churches in New England, 
may seem large to some. But comparing 
them with the wants of our country, and of 
the world, we may say of them as was said 
of the five loaves and the two small fishes, 
with which the Saviour proposed to feed 
five thousand — " What are these among so 
many ?" But four young men leave New- 
ton Theological Institution this fall. One ot 



RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF THE COLLEGES. 



1831] 



them goes to India, to join the Birman 
mission, and one to the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

We will suppose that the number of young- 
men preparing for the Christian ministry is 
twice as large as the number of beneficiaries, 
which will give us a fraction more than two 
hundred. The number of destitute churches 
in New England, at this moment, actually 
amounts to more than this number. 

Besides, before these young men shall 
have completed their preparation for the 
ministry, many new churches will have 
been constituted, and the ranks of ministers 
now living, as well as those of the young 
men themselves, will have become greatly 
thinned by the certain ravages of death. 
Within four short months we have had re- 
peated and solemn admonitions of the frailty 
of man and of the brevity of human life. 
Weston, Leonard, and Dale, have fallen by 
our side. Others, too, have fallen, whom we 
miss the less, only because they were more 
remote. Make, then, a distribution of the 
probable number who four or six years 
hence will be ready to enter upon the pas- 
toral office, and the number who can be 
spared to the famishing churches of New 
England will be small indeed. For let it 
never be forgotten, that a portion must be 
given to Birmah, to the far distant Indians, 
and to the wide-spreading West. 

In consequence of the numerous applica- 
tions for patronage, and the depressed state 
of the treasury, the Board have diminished 
the amount of appropriation in all cases 
where the comparative cheapness of living 
and the increased facilities which the young 
men enjoy for earning something by their 
own industry, render it possible for them 
to prosecute their studies for a less sum than 
seventy-five dollars per annum. 

The Board, at their late meeting, appro- 
priated between twelve and thirteen hun- 
dred dollars to meet the current expenses of 
last quarter, which as appears from the 
treasurer's quarterly report exceeds the 
amount in the treasury for current expenses 
by about two hundred dollars. At the last 
quarterly meeting our deficiency was one 
hundred and twenty dollars, which, on its 
being made known to a generous friend, 
was supplied from his own pocket. 



STATE OF RELIGION IN THE COL- 
LEGES, DURING THE LAST YEAR. 

In the revivals of religion, with which 
our country has been signally favored, 
during the last twelve months, the col- 
leges and other literary institutions 
have largely participated. Never be- 
fore have they contained so great an 
jamount of talent set apart and conse- 



165 



crated to the service of Jesus Christ. 
Never have visions so glorious opened 
upon our country. In the prospective 
results of a revival of religion in a col- 
lege, the whole community are deeply 
interested. Many sinners in conse- 
quence repent unto life everlasting; 
the churches are beautified with salva- 
tion, and built up in faith and purity ; 
literature is purified and invigorated; 
peace and love are transfused into the 
intercourse of society ; waters spring 
forth in desert lands ; and distant re- 
gions rejoice and are glad. 

It is our intention in a future num- 
ber of the Register, with which this 
Journal is connected, to write in detail 
the history of revivals of religion in the 
literary institutions of the country. In 
the mean time we shall furnish such 
miscellaneous notices as our corres- 
pondence and the public religious pa- 
pers shall enable us. 

The following is an extract of a let- 
ter from Williams college. It bears 
date June 7, 1831. 

" Since my last communication with 
you, we have enjoyed, as you have un- 
doubtedly heard, a season of refreshing 
from the presence of the Lord. It was 
nearly at the commencement of the last 
term, when an unusual religious interest 
was felt in college ; prayer meetings 
became frequent and well attended, 
and, for a time, there seemed to be a 
nearly general anxiety among those 
who were impenitent. Twenty were, 
in the course of a few weeks, num- 
bered as converts." 

The following is from Bowdoin col- 
lege, dated February 19, 1831. 

" During the college term, which 
ended December 17, 1830, God was 
graciously pleased to pour out his Spirit 
in this institution ; and some fifteen or 
twenty, it is believed, met with a change 
of heart. The most interesting season 
was at the very close of the term. The 
present term commenced on the 11th 
inst., and the work of grace still goes 
on. Many very interesting facts could 
be stated in respect to your beneficia- 
ries." 



166 



STATE OF THE COLLEGES. 



The ensuing extract is from Amherst 
college, and bears date, April 4, 1831. 

" There is now in progress, in col- 
lege, an interesting revival of religion. 
It commenced some two or three weeks 
since, and has now assumed an aspect 
truly interesting. Christians are awake, 
and seem to be walking, really, in 
newness of life. Between twenty and 
thirty are rejoicing in hope, and many 
are anxious. The work is remarkably 
still. There appears to be very little 
animal excitement. Convictions are of 
short duration, but exceedingly pun- 
gent. The converts appear humble, 
trembling, and yet joyful. It is, indeed, 
' the work of the Lord, and it is marvel- 
lous in our eyes.' " 

Of the Revivals of Religion in Yale 
and Middlebury colleges, we published 
some accounts in the Number of the 
Journal for May last. 

From the Western Reserve college, 
Ohio, we learn the following. The 
date is May 4th, 1831. 

" During the last five months, much 
good, we hope, has been done in this 
institution. Several have indulged a 
hope, and give evidence of piety. Three 
or four others have been anxious, and 
were so when they left at the close of 
the term. The work, as near as I can 
learn, (for I have not been present but 
a small portion of the time,) has been 
gradual. The cases of conviction have 
been deep and pungent, to all appear- 
ance, originating, not from the power 
of sympathy, but from the operation of 
the Spirit of God on the heart. Some 
of the most hopeless have been brought 
from darkness to light. Our prayer 
meetings, while the number has been 
nearly trebled of late, have been attend- 
ed with an unusual degree of solemnity. 
God is, and will be, glorified." 

The following information has been 
communicated in regard to the college 
in Athens, Georgia. 

"In the college the work has been 
great. It is believed that 22 or 23 of 
the students may be considered as 
hopeful subjects of rencAving grace. 
Of these, 19 have made a public profes- 
sion of religion. Though many of God's 
people at this time, have great enjoy- 
ment, and our meetings are still solemn 



[Nov. 

and interesting, yet I dare not say that 
the revival is still advancing." 

The subsequent extract relates to the 
Episcopal college at Gambler, in Ohio. 
It bears date, February 18, 1831. 

" During the last six months, the stu- 
dents of Kenyon college have been 
highly blest. Twice during that time 
has the Spirit of the Lord, to an uncom- 
mon extent, been felt among us. The 
first revival commenced in October, 
during our fall vacation, when only 
about sixty students were at the col- 
lege. Seven students professed their 
faith in Christ. 

" Prayer meetings have been regu- 
larly held every Sunday morning at 
sunrise, and in the evening at 7 o'clock. 
— From Christmas, it was deeply im- 
pressed upon the minds of some of the 
oldest brethren, that the Lord was about 
to visit us again, and that it was the 
duty of the brethren, (28 students are 
communicants,) to be much engaged in 
prayer. The whole number of students 
is about 160, who are, on account of 
the situation of their rooms, naturally 
divided into four divisions ; in each of 
these divisions a prayer meeting was 
commenced, to be held on week-day 
evenings. The brethren set apart ten 
days for fasting and prayer for the out- 
pouring of God's Holy Spirit among the 
students. The number that attended 
the prayer meetings continually in- 
creased." 

From the Pittsburgh Pa. Herald, we 
learn the following in reference to Jef- 
ferson college at Canonsburg. 

" Our pious readers will be glad to 
hear that previous to the administration 
of the Lord's Supper at Canonsburg, 
which took place on last Sabbath, twenty- 
four persons were admitted as members 
of the church, and that eleven of these 
were students of Jefferson college, 
which has long been a blessing to the 
church of Christ. We are glad to state 
that there are others under exercise 
of mind, who have not as yet given 
decided evidence of regeneration, and 
that the religious prospects of the insti- 
tution are promising." 

An individual reports the subsequent 
facts concerning the college in Prince 
Edward county, Virginia. 



1831.] 



FUNDS. 



167 



"We are informed that a revival has 
commenced in the vicinity of Hampden 
Sydney college, and that many in that 
place, both citizens and students, feel 
that they are, indeed, most deeply in- 
terested in it. A large number, it is 
stated by our informant, are anxiously 
inquiring what they must do to be saved. 
We name the fact of this revival, that 
Christians in every part of the country, 
while earnestly imploring the blessing 
of God on the Union seminary, may 
offer special prayer for the college and 
all its members." 

From the University of North Caro- 
lina we gather the following facts. 
May 27, 1831. 

" In little more than one week, about 
twenty conversions have taken place 
among the students. This is the first 
revival since the institution was found- 
ed — its commencement is powerful. 
Many more seem to be under deep im- 
pressions, the work is still and solemn. 
I will just add that some idea of the 
deep interest felt, in a short time, may 
be formed from the fact, that, the 
next morning after I preached the first 
time, eight students called on me to 
inquire what they must do to be saved. 
Prom that time (Wednesday morning) 
till Saturday, the number of inquirers 
increased to about 20." 

From Union college, New York, the 
following statements were some time 
since published. 

"jPe&. 21. — It may be gratifying to 
you to know that we have an interesting 
state of religious feeling throughout col- 
lege. The tone of piety has not been 
apparently so high for some years. We 
have morning prayer meetings of half 
an hour's length every morning, com- 
mencing at six o'clock. They were be- 
gun at the commencement of this term. 
And we have likewise either preaching 
or conference meetings nearly every 
evening. Two are indulging hope that 
they have passed from death unto life. 

From three hundred to four hundred 
individuals, at the various colleges, 
have, within the last year, devoted 
themselves to the service of the Re- 
deemer. 



FUNDS. 

Receipts into the Treasury of the Anuvican Edu- 
cation Society, and if its Branches, from July 
1st, to September 30th, 1831. 

DONATIONS. 

Boston, from the ladies of Pino Street church 

and coiiq-., liv Rev. Klias Conielin.s 32 16 

Ceylon, t'r. Doct. Scudder, by H. Hill, Ksq. 5 oo 

Charlotte County, Va., fr. Dr. R. PatiHo, by 

Rev. A. Converse 5 gg 

Middle Granville, fr. the church, by Solomon 

Warriner jg 2-5 

Pres. Ed. Society, am't received fr. the Treas- 
urer, paid hira by Rev. A. Francis, for tlie 
Presbytery of Long- Island 100 00 

Richmond, Va., fr. S. J., by Rev. A. Converse 5 00 

Fr. Rev. A Converse, 1 00, 3 50 4 50 9 50 

Russell, fr. Thomas Russell, by Solomon War- 
riner 50 

Wilmington, Del., fr. Fem. Aux. Ed. Society, 

by Mrs. M. A. Jones 20 00 

190 41 

REFUNDED BY FORMER BENEFICIARIES. 
Part am't loaned from No. 582 12 00 

By two former beneficiaries of the Maine 

Branch, $18, 35 53 00 

Balance of am't loaned from No. 168 1 50 

Whole am't loaned " 884 24 00 

Part " " « 1,014 12 00 

Whole " " " 65 32 50—135 00 

INCOME FROM SCHOLARSmPS, 
One year's interest on the Dixon 60 00 

Am't due on part of the Osgood 44 50 

" in full on the Metcalf 240 00—344 50 

INCOME PROM FUNDS. 
Dividend on Bank Stock 122 50 

Interest of money loaned 99 23—221 72 

AUXILIARY SOCIETIES. 
Essex County. 
Andover, (South) from Gent. Association, by 

Dea. Paschal Abbot, Tr., 1st pay't towards 

So. Andover Temp. Scho. 87 00 

Fr. Mrs. Mark Newman, Tr. of the Lad. Ass. 71 00 
Bradford, (West) fr. gentlemen, by Doct. G. 

Cog-swell, in part tor the first pay't of the 

Bradford Academy Temp. Scho. 30 00 

Haverhill, fr. gent., by I. R. Howe, Esq. in part 

for the first pay't of the Phelps T. Scho. 32 00 

Methuen, fr. the church, by Rev. S. F. Beard, 

in addition to former receipts 1 00 

Newburyport and vicinity, Fem. Miss, and Ed. 

Society, by Miss Ann Hodge, Tr. 11 50 

Rowley, fr. Fem. Ed. Soc. 1st parish, by.Miss 

Mehitable Hobson, Tr. 5 00—237 50 

Hampshire County. 
Sunderland, fr. Mrs. Thankful Smith 5 00 

Middlesex County. 

East Sudbury, fr. Fem. Ed. Society, by Miss 
Susan Grout, Tr. towards life membership 
of Rev. Levi Smith 12 00 

Framingham, fr. ladies of the Soc. of Rev. G. 

Trask, to const, him a L. M. of the A. E. S. 40 92 

South Reading, by Mrs. S. H, Yale 4 50 — 57 42 

Norfolk County. 
Brookline, avails of a small cherry-tree 3 81 

South Massachusetts. 

AUngton, fr. Mrs. Mary H. Shedd 3 00 

Berkley, by Barzillai Crane 5 00 

Bridgewater, fr. individuals 3 50- 

Carver, fr. Rev. Plumer Chase's Society 5 00 

Falmouth, fr. Miss Salvina Hatch 15 65 
Hanson, Ir. Rev. F. P. Rowland's Society 20 
dolls., 14 of which from Mrs. Tamar Bar- 
stow, to const, herself a L. M. of the So. 

Mass. Ed. Soc. 20 00 

MiddJeborough, by Zechariah Eddy 10 00 

Fr. Rev. Wm. Eaton's Society 22 00 

" N. Eddy 3 00 

" Josiah Eddy, Jr. 5 00 

"W.S.Eddy 2 00 
North Bridgewater, fr. Rev. D. Huntington's 

Society 37 00 

Fr. Mark Perkins 5 00 
New Bedford, fr. Rev. S. Holmes's Soc. 40 50 
And a watch valued at 5 00 — 45 50 

Plymouth, fr. Josiah Robbins 5 00 

Plympton, fr. Rev. E. Dexter's Society 5 00 

Rochester, fr. Lot and Polly Haskell 2 Off 

Fr. Rev, J. Bigelow and lady 3 00 



168 



FUNDS. 



[Nov. 



Wareham, fr. Rev. Samuel Nott's Society 12 86 

Collection at the annnaj meeting- iu Waveliam 11 69 
Bet'unded by a former beneficiary of the Soutli 

Mass. Ed. Soc. 15 00—236 20 

Worcester South. 

Northbo7-ough, fr. Fem. Cent Society, by Mrs. 

Alice Rice, Tr. 7 23 

Uxhri(ls:e, fr. ladies, by Miss Sophia Whipple, 

Collector, through A. Bigelow, Tr. 21 00 
Weslhoroush, Tern. Sch. in part, by J. LonD-ly, 

Treas. 43 00 — 71 28 

Worcester North. 

Ashburnham, fr. individuals 
Fitchbiirg, fr. Younsr Men's Ed. Soc. 
Holden, fr. friends of the A. E. S. 
Avails of a contrib. box, by I. Lovell 
Princeton, fr. individuals 
Fr. Jonas Brooks, to const, himself a 
L. M. of the Co. Soc. 





6 00 




33 00 


53 50 




2 50- 


-56 00 



15 00—53 80—148 



Whole amount received for present ' 



$1,651 64 



PRINCIPAL OF SCHOLARSHIPS. 



10 60 
15 00 




-9 40 

1 00 

10 00 56 00 

2 00 

2 00 4 00 


2 00 
2 00 

2 co- 


se 55 
—6 00 



Greenwich, paid to Tr. of Presb. Ed. Soc. by 

Miss Sarah Lewis, on account 100 00 

Brown Emerson, rec. of Caleb Warner on aco. 79 37—179 37 



MAINE BRANCH. 
Augusta, donation from young- men 26 00 

Bath, donation fr. Dea. F. Clark 10 00 

Hancock Co. Aux. Ed. Soc, life membership 

of A. E. S. fr. Treas. of the Co. Society 40 00 

Somerset Co. Aux. Ed. Soc, contribution at 

annual meeting of Co. Society 15 48 

York Co. Aux. Ed. Soc, Kennebunk Port, 

donation fr. A. S. McDonald and others 10 00 
Kennebunk, fr. members of Rev, Mr. Fuller's 

Society 
Limerick, fr. Rev. C. Freeman 
Newjield, fr. ladies of the cong. of Rev. 

C. Adams, towards life membership 3 15 
Fr. E. I. " " " 6 25- 

Saco, fr. Miss J. Hall 

Donation fr. Mr. Jas. Titcomb, Tr. of Co. Soc. 
Annuities — Rev. Thomas Tenney 

" David Shepley 
Contribution at annual meeting of Branch 

Society 
Donation fr. Rev. N. Bishop 

" " " Mr. Adams 

'< " a lady, by Dr. Gillet 

$214 03 
Received on Scholarships. 
Saco and Biddeford, fr. ladies in Saco 20 00 

Ellmgwood, rec'd balance of 1,000 dolls. 240 00—260 00 



NEW HAMPSHIRE BRANCH. 
Derry, donation fr. the church, by Rev. Edw'd 

L. Parker 13 00 

Francestown, in addition to former payment, 

by R. Boylston 4 75 

Goffslown, fr. individuals in Rev. Mr. Wood's 

Society, in part to const, him a L. M. of 

N. H. Branch of A. E. S. 5 00 

Haverhill, Female Aux. Ed, Society, by Mrs. 

Mary P. Webster 8 38 

Kingston, in part to const. Rev. O. Pearson a 

L. M. of N. H. Branch of A. E. S.. 10 00 

Mason, in addition to former payment, by R. 

Boylston 12 25 

Fr. Rev. Henry Wood, annual subscription 1 00 

" " Jno. M. Whiton do. do. 1 00 14 25 

Newport, rec'd fr. Ladies' Aux. Ed. Soc, by 

Mrs. Mary Hatch, Tr. and fr. gentlemen,. 

$40 to constitute their pastor, Rev. John 

Woods, a L. M. of the Am. Ed. Society, 

through Dr. A. Boyd, Tr. of the Sullivan 

Co. Ed. Soc. 40 00 

Nelson, collected in a charity box 50 

New Boston, fr. gent, and ladies, to constitute 

Rev. E. P. Bradford a L. M. of N. H. Br. 30 00 
Fr. Mr. Joseph Shattuck, annual subscription 1 00 

" Rev. Robert Pa^e, two years do. 2 00 33 00 

Strafford Co., additional subscription 2 00 

Wilton, fr. ladies, to const. Rev. William Rich- 
ardson a L. M. of Hillsboro' Co. Aux. Ed. 

Society, by Richard Boylston 16 51 

A contribution in Rev. Mr. R's Society, by R. 

Boylston 4 95 

Fr. Rev. Gad Newell, ann. subscription 1 00 — 22 48 

WiruUiam, Aux. Ed. Society, balance to const. 

Rev. Calvin Cutler a L. M. of N. H. Br. 

of A. E. S. 18 36 

$171 70 
Dunba/rton Female Benevolent Society, by Miss Olivia Ireland, 
Treaeurer, 4 shirts, 3 prs, footings, and 1 collar. 



NORTH WESTERN BRANCH. 
Principally from Ira Stewart, Esq. and Wm. R. Bixby, Esq., 

former and present Treasurers of the Branch ; viz. 
Burlington, fr. Col. Ozias Buel, his ann. sub. 
towards the Vt. University Temp. Scho., 
by Pi of. Benedict, Ag't, tiirough Henry 
Leavenworth, Esq. Tr. of Chittenden Co. 
Ed. Society 
Bennington, it. Mr. John Vail 
Bethel, fr. Rev. W .rren Swift 
Danville, fr. Hon. I. P. Dana 
Hartford, fr. Rev. Austin Haxen 
Middlebury, fr. individuals in the college and 
town, by the hands of De'. Elisha Brew- 
ster, towards the Middlebury Temp. Scho. 
through Mr. Geo. W. Root, Tr. of Addi- 
son Co. Ed. Society 
Royalton, fr. Gen. John Francis 
Fr. Jacob Collamer, Esq. 
" Nathaniel Sprague, Esq. 
" Mr. Geo. Lyman 
St. Albans, fr. individuals, by the hand of Mr. 
C. F. Satibrd, Asent, through Mr. N. W. 
Kingman, Tr. ofFranklinCo. Ed. Society, 
$111— $75 of which is for the 1st pay't of 
the Smith Tern. Scho.^ — residue a donation 
Sharon, fr. Mr. Chester Baxter 
Fr. Samuel Steele, Esq. 
Windsor, a contribution 
Fr. Hon. Thomas Emerson 
" Rufus Emerson, Esq. 
Woodstock, fr. Hon. Titus Hutchinson 
Fr. Benjamin Swan, Esq. 
" Hon- Job Lyman 
" " Charles Marsh 



10 00 
5 00 
1 00 
10 CO 
10 00 



49 00 



10 00 
5 00 
1 00 
1 00 — 17 00 



11100 

5 00 

5 00 — 10 00 
18 32 
10 00 

2 00 — 30 32 
10 00 

5 00 

2 00 

3 00 — 20 OO 



$273 32 

CONNECTICUT BRANCH. 

Enfield, a donation, by O. Allen 73 

Glastenbury, fr. sundry individuals in 1st Soci- 
ety, by Geo. Plummer 10 59 

South Cornwall, fr. Fem. Aux. Ed. Society, by 

Electa Goodyear, Sec'y and Treas. 10 00 

Proceeds of uncnrrent bills, sold 2 00 

Interest on Wilcox Scholarship, in part 2 40 

" on Funds loaned 108 16 

Balance fr. Hartford Young Men's Scholar- 
ship, transferred to current Fund 6 25 

Dividend on Phenix Bank Stock 60 00—178 81 

$•^00 13 
Scholarship Fund. 
Hawes Scholarship, in part, by Mrs. Chester 72 00 

Wilcox " " " D. P. Hopkins 10 00 

Balance of 1,000 dollars, by A. M. Collins 100 00—110 00 



$182 00 



PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATION SOCIETY 
Erie, Pa. rec'd fr. Judah Colt, Esq. 
Harrisburgh, fr. cong. of Rev. W. R.Dewitt 
New York, Central Pres. Ch., Broome St. qr. 

yearly pay't for 12 Scholarships, being an 

addition of 2 to last year 
Newark, N. J., fr. J. S. Caudit, Esq. 
Fr. Fem, Asso. of 1st ch., 3d ann. contribution 
" Yo. lad. of 2d ch., by Miss Van Wasrenen 
Philadelphia, Pa. fr. G. W. McClelland"^ Esq. 
Sleubenville, Ohio, fr. J. H. Hallock 
Washington, fr. Mr. Alexander Reed, 2d and 

3d year 
Wayne Co., collection in Beaulaw cong., by 

Rev. John Ross, missionary 
Western Ed. Soc, from Rev. Dr. Schmucker, 

loans refunded 
Fr. J. S. Seymour, Tr. 
Donation fr. Dr. Cyrus Baldwin 
Fr. Mr. P. Officer 
Fayette Scholarship, rec'd fr. Miss Shattuck 



20 00 
75 00 



225 00 
75 00 
10 00 
U 00 — 96 00 

479 12 
10 00 

10 00 



30 00 
900 00—930 09 
2 00 

1 00 3 00 

18 75 



SUMMARY - 
Present Use. Sch. Fund. 



Parent Society 
Maine Branch 
N. Hampshire do. 
North Western do, 
Connecticut do. 
Presb. Ed. Society 



1,651 64 
214 03 
171 70 
273 3-2 
200 13 

1,868 87 

$4,379 69 



179 
260 



$621 37 



$h 



Wliole amo. 

1,831 01 

474 03 

171 70 

273 32 

1,868 87 

$5,001 06 



Clothincr rec^d at the Rooms of the Parent Society, 
during the quarter ending September 30. 

East Sudbury, fr. Miss Susan Grout, Tr. of the Fem. Ed. Soc, 
1 bedquilt, 3 shirts, 2 prs. socks, 7 collars, valued at $9 73. 

Hanover, fr. Miss Lucinda Eels, Sec'ry of Ladies' Corban So- 
ciety, 12 shirts, 20 prs, socks, 6 cravats, 15 collars, valued 
at $20 28. 

Hanson, fr. Mrs. D. Howland, Sec'ry of Fem. Char. Society, 
6 shirts, 2 prs. socks. 



THE 



QUARTERLY REGISTER. 



Vol. IV. 



FEBRUARY, 1832. 



No. 3. 



For the (Quarterly Register. 

ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICA- 
TION OF MIND. 

The character of man and the 
state of the world as they now are, 
contrasted with what they might have 
been, if the perverting and destroy- 
ing influence of sin had never been 
feh, is a painful subject of contem- 
plation. We are prevented, howev- 
er, from measuring this contrast with 
any good degree of accuracy, by the 
low standard of human excellence 
and human enjoyment, which we 
must have adopted from what we find 
within us and around us. What can 
a man, who, in all that he has read, or 
seen, or felt, has been familiar with 
intellect neglected, debased, or tram- 
melled ; with passions perverted or 
infuriated ; and with conduct, which, 
having its origin in covetousness or 
pride, has terminated in jealousy and 
bloodshed among nations, and in 
fraud, strife, and base indulgences 
among individuals — know respecting 
that state of human character and 
society, which would have been the 
result of having every mind cultiva- 
ted to the greatest possible extent, 
and of having every heart animated 
by the precept, Do good to all men 
as you have opportunity 1 The sav- 
age cannot understand the advanta- 
ges of civilization. The devotee of 
pleasure cannot know the enjoyments 
of sober, active life. Nor can we 
form any adequate conception of a 
state of man and of society so un- 
voL. III. 22 



like any model which has met our 
observation. 

Yet, by looking at the character 
which individuals of mankind have 
sustained, we may see that it has 
been very different from what it might 
have been, if their minds had been 
properly directed, properly cultiva- 
ted, and properly employed. 

From the earliest ages, we know 
that a vast tide of mind has been 
poured in upon this world. Some 
being who might have stood by, and 
looked on its scenes as a spectator, 
would have seen a multitude of gen^ 
erations making their entrance and 
exit ; coming from the land of si- 
lence, acting a hurried part on this 
narrow stage, and then passing out 
of view to give place to their succes- 
sors. To such a spectator, these en- 
tering, passing, retiring generations 
would seem like a river, every rod of 
whose rapid stream represented an: 
age of men ; all of whom were capa- 
ble of becoming thinking and active- 
beings,- of contributing much to the- 
welfare of their race, of brightly re^- 
fleeting the image of their Creator 
here, and of becoming more intelli- 
gent, more happy, and more godlike 
in the future world. My questions 
with respect to this incalculable 
amount of mind are. How has it been, 
cultivated 1 What use has been made^ 
of it 1 What good has it done ?'. 

No one, after a moment's reflec- 
tion, can forbear to answer, that alto- 
gether the larger portion of it has 
not been cultivated at all ; that there 



170 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



[Feb. 



has been an absolute waste of mind 
— of that which is the noblest work 
of God. But we may be sure that 
the beneficent Father of the spirits 
of men has not been so prodigal of 
intelligence, as to create minds to be 
neglected or squandered away. He 
designed that the minds to which he 
has given existence, should be culti- 
vated, made the most of, and profit- 
ably employed. The world has need 
of the most powerfid and best direct- 
ed action, of which all the minds in 
it are capable ; and our world is what 
it is, because it has been defrauded 
of that intellect to the vigorous ex- 
ercise of which it had a rightful 
claim. While we have systems of 
economy, teaching us how to render 
a given amount of capital, employed 
in agriculture, or manufactures, or 
commerce, most productive, why 
should there not be some science in 
respect to the mind, teaching us how 
it may be most advantageously culti- 
vated, enlarged, and rendered most 
productive ? 

It may be well to look at some of 
the causes of that waste of mind 
which has been going on in the world 
during all past ages. 

The first cause which I shall men- 
tion is the infiuence exerted by bad 
systems of liuman government. 

The few, who by the weakness 
and ignorance of the many, and by 
their own ambition and superior 
shrewdness, have acquired the rank 
of rulers, do not seem to have had a 
thought that the ignorant and submis- 
sive mass placed under their control 
were intellectual and moral beingSj 
or that their excellence and glory 
consisted in the cultivation of their 
intellect and moral feeling, and exer- 
cising them about proper objects. 
They seem to have regarded men as 
a mysterious sort of commodity, com- 
mitted to them, which in its phenom- 
ena perplexed them exceedingly. 
There was a body before them, which 
was put into motion by strong animal 
passions, and could not be very easily | 



controlled. Then there was, out 
of sight, the moving power of this 
machine, exhibiting phenomena still 
more perplexing. They who by 
some means had the management of 
this mysterious, unwieldy people, 
with whom they felt no sympathy, to 
whom they owed no duties, and 
whom they regarded as a sort of 
property made for them, committed 
to them, and to be used for their ag- 
grandizement, seem never to have 
conjectured that man was designed 
by his Creator — if he had any Crea- 
tor — for any other purpose than to 
fight their battles and bear their bur- 
dens. They never thought that any- 
thing could be made of him. They 
did not wish to make anything of 
him. They used him for a purpose 
but little higher than that of a horse. 
To have cultivated him to any con- 
siderable degree — to have given him 
intelligence, will, conscience, inde- 
pendent moral action — would have 
spoiled him for their purpose. What 
could Nimrod, or Alexander, or Cae- 
sar have done with an empire or 
an array of men with understanding 
and heart as much cultivated, and 
possessing as much of individual 
character, as was possessed by the 
fathers of New England ? 

Rulers have manifested an igno- 
rance of the manner of managing 
men, and of the real use and object 
of their being, similar to that which 
Archimedes, it may be supposed, 
would have manifested, had a well 
constructed and powerful steam en- 
gine been placed at his disposal. He 
would have known neither what was 
the moving power of the machine, 
how it could be controlled, how it 
could be rendered most efficient, nor 
to what uses it could be most advan- 
tageously applied. By a series of 
experiments he might have learned 
that it would do something ; but he 
would have applied it without skill 
or economy of force. That mass of 
human beings, which in an unbroken 
current has been passing over this 
world has, in a similar manner, been 



18;J2.] 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OP MIND. 



171 



put at the disposal of a few, by whom, 
instead of being cultivated, and turn- 
ed to some good account, and train- 
ed for immortal life, their intellect 
and moral feeling have been utterly 
neglected. 

Nor has it been owing to neglect 
merely, that the mass of the people 
in all nations, ancient and modern, 
if our own be excepted, have had 
no intellectual or moral cultivation. 
There has been an obvious design, 
and a successful adaptation of meas- 
ures to bring about with certainty 
this specific result. The objects at 
which rulers have aimed have been 
ease, power, and self-aggrandize- 
ment; and as they have found it 
easier to maintain their superiority 
by depressing others, than by elevat- 
ing themselves, they have been led 
to adopt a course founded on the 
principle, that the mass of the people 
were stupid, and were to be kept so. 
The intelligence, the responsibility, 
the power, and the honor, have all 
been possessed by the few. The mass 
of human beings, inactive, and as 
it were, dead around them, have been 
controlled almost in the same man- 
ner that the movements of a machine 
are controlled by the laborer, until 
nations made of one blood have been 
divided into nobles and plebeians ; 
the former of whom no ignorance 
and no crimes could degrade ; and 
the latter no genius and no virtue 
could elevate. No call was made 
on these for the exercise of any of 
the higher qualities of an intellec- 
tual and moral being. Every attempt 
to rise was frowned upon and put 
down as rebellion. There is rarely 
such a tendency in man to self-im- 
provement, as will carry him forward 
to a high point of human excellence, 
in spite of the want of all means and 
all excitement to action. There will 
not be mental cultivation where there 
is not a field for exertion which de- 
mands and rewards it. 

A similar ignorance of the nature 
of man, and a similar tendency to 
depress him may be seen in the 



methods adopted to restrain and re- 
form him. In order to accomplish 
this, rulers have not taken pains to en- 
lighten the intellect, or to instil sound 
moral principles. They have en- 
deavored to subdue and break down 
the human mind ; not to elevate it, 
and qualify it to govern itself They 
would make new statutes, annex se- 
verer penalties, institute a more vig- 
ilant police ; but they seem to have 
been universally and irreclaimably 
ignorant of the power of moral caus- 
es, especially of knowledge and re- 
ligion, to restrain men, to elevate and 
reform them, and almost to supersede 
the necessity of laws and penalties. 
Notwithstanding all the evidence fur- 
nished by history and observation, 
rulers have believed men too brutish 
to be governed in any other manner 
than by coercion ; and whenever the 
proposal has been made to give a 
people instruction, or to instil reli- 
gious principle, as an aid to govern- 
ment, it has been treated as vision- 
ary and utterly rejected. 

What now has been the fact in 
regard to the nations of the world ? 
If we go back to any of the nations 
of antiquity — to those which surpass- 
ed all their contemporaries as much as 
did Egypt and Babylon, what notion 
does history warrant us in forming of 
the intellectual state of the mass of 
the people ? We think of them as 
growing up on the soil very much as 
do the vegetables around them ; with 
no fostering care put forth to encour- 
age and guide them ; with no streams 
of knowledge winding their way to 
every hamlet, gratifying an eager cu- 
riosity, and furnishing nutriment for 
growing minds ; with no eye to look 
out on the widely extended and va- 
ried scenes of the world ; and no 
public spirit to feel an interest in the 
concerns of their fellow men. They 
grew up on the spot, obtained a hard 
earned subsistence for a few years, 
never roused from their stupidity, 
but to repel an invasion, to ravage a 
state, or to build a city, and they 
died on the spot, their life no benefit 



172 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



[Feb, 



to the world of men around them, 
and their death no loss. 

We often read of the splendid 
achievements of ancient armies. But 
what notion are we warranted in 
forming of the multitudes of human 
beings congregated in these armies ? 
They were brave, but their bravery 
was insensibility. They were pow- 
erful, but their power was mere brute 
force, having not many more marks 
of intelligence in it than were in the 
power of their battering engines. 
They accomplished the will of a more 
thinking leader, but their obedience 
was an almost instinctive recognition 
of a master. Think of the five mil- 
lions whom Xerxes is said to have 
led into Greece. Five millions of 
human beings, made to think and 
act, and to take on themselves an in- 
dividual responsibility, and at last to 
render an account for their thoughts 
and actions! But how many minds 
do you suppose there were in this 
moving nation, in which you could 
have found traces of intelligence 
much beyond common animal instinct 
and mere contrivance to exist? The 
proud and unhappy monarch looked 
over this vast assemblage, and with a 
sickening and gloomy sensibility wept 
to think that all the individuals of it 
would be dead in less than a hun- 
dred years. But what if they did 
die ? What effect could their death 
have upon the world ? They had 
done nothing for it. They were ca- 
pable of doing nothing for it. Ex- 
cepting that the physical strength of 
the empire would be somewhat di- 
minished, the world would be no 
more affected by their death, than by 
the felling of so many trees in the 
forests of Scythia. They might have 
gone with the armies of locusts, and 
perished on the shores of the Levant, 
the existence and the movements of 
the one, as well as the other, having 
been known to the world only by the 
desolations that marked their pro- 
gress. 

The same might be said of the 
Crusaders, when, urged on by a few 



misguided enthusiasts, they rolled 
from west to east a sea of animated 
beings — without thought, without 
calculation — put into motion by a 
blind frenzy. Not one in a thousand 
of all this multitude ever read in the 
Bible the history of that land which 
they aimed to deliver from the infi- 
del, or had any apprehension of the 
real preciousness of that cross which 
appeared on their banners, and the 
thoughts of which so fired their souls. 

We may trace the same modifica- 
tion of political institutions down to 
the present day, and find more or 
less of it in all the nations even of 
Europe. It was seen especially in 
the feudal system. We should think 
that system designed expressly to 
relieve the mass of the people of 
all individual responsibility, together 
with all necessity for mental exertion, 
so ingeniously was it adapted to this 
result, and so perfectly did it accom- 
plish it. 

Thus the world, instead of enjoy- 
ing the fruits of the labors of mil- 
lions of minds that have existed up- 
on it, enlightened, strengthened, and 
guided by suitable cultivation, and 
spurred on to effort by a desire of 
knowledge, a feeling of responsibili- 
ty, and a fair competition in the race 
for happiness and advancement, has 
been turned off with what it could 
derive from the feeble and ill direct- 
ed labors of hundreds. This state of 
ignorance and mental inaction among 
the mass of the people may indeed 
have been, to some extent, the occa- 
sion, as well as the effect, of the char- 
acter of the political institutions that 
have prevailed. It is certain that these 
have harmonized perfectly with it, 
and instead of exerting a vivifying 
and meliorating influence, have tend- 
ed to deepen and perpetuate intel- 
lectual darkness. 

But we see this waste of mind ef- 
fected more directly, and with more 
fatal completeness, by systems of 
personal servitude. 

Slavery, in one view of it, is tyran- 
ny carried out into detail. It is like 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OP MIND. 



1832.] 

giving ubiquity to the tyrant, and 
making his presence and the irksome- 
ness of his capricious authority felt 
directly in every dwelling. In anoth- 
er view of it, it is tyranny concentra- 
ted. It is gathering up that despot- 
ic power, which, when diffused over 
a nation, consumes the life and spirit 
of man, and pouring it upon a sin- 
gle estate, to do its work more thor- 
oughly. We see it in the customs of 
antiquity, which permitted bellige- 
rent nations to enslave prisoners of 
war. But we see a process altogeth- 
er more systematical carried on, and 
the result wrought out altogether 
more unmitigated and complete, in 
the system of African slavery. It 
has been computed that more than 
twenty-eight millions of human be- 
ings have been stolen from the con- 
tinent of Africa, and reduced to ser- 
vitude, since the slave trade was 
commenced ; and considering the 
length of the period during which 
this slavery has existed, we may 
doubtless estimate the increase of the 
slaves in the house of their bondage 
at five times the number originally 
imported. We shall then have nearly 
one hundred and seventy millions of 
thinking and immortal minds which 
nations professedly Christian have, 
within the space of four centuries, 
virtually and directly devoted to ig- 
norance and debasement. This they 
have done to a number of human be- 
ings equal to the whole present pop- 
ulation of Europe. It is not to the 
purpose to say that the minds of 
these Africans are as much cultiva- 
ted and as active in their state of sla- 
very as they would have been in their 
state of savage freedom in Africa. 
By taking the control of them, we 
assume a responsibility, and we must 
compare their present intellectual 
and moral state, not with what it 
would have been, had they remained 
in the land of their fathers, but with 
what it might have been where they 
are, had suitable pains been taken 
with them. 

Immortal minds, capable of inde- 



173 



finite expansion, have been taken, 
when they came from the hand of the 
Creator, and placed in circumstances 
where they could not expand, just as 
the infant body might be encased in 
some iron mould, so that when you 
should look for the size and vigor of 
manhood, you would be sickened by 
the sight of the puny infant of a 
month. Christian nations, by delib- 
erately enacting laws for regulating 
this traffic and this servitude, have 
sanctioned this arrest of intellectual 
growth, this effacing of the image of 
the Creator from such a multitude of 
human beings. Their plan required 
them to do this, and they justify them- 
selves in continuing to do it, because 
these human beings cannot otherwise 
be made the fit and quiet instruments 
of ministering to their wealth and 
pleasure. Our own nation has par- 
taken largely in this work of blotting 
out the human intellect from the hu- 
man form. In many portions of our 
country our citizens have gone sys- 
tematically to the work, and have 
enacted laws having the certain ef- 
fect, and for the express purpose of 
erasing from men the marks of hu- 
manity, and transforming them al- 
most into brutes. This has been di- 
rectly the business of some of our 
legislative assemblies. To accom- 
plish it was, I had almost said, their 
avowed object ; — an object never so 
directly aimed at, or prosecuted with 
so fatal success at any other period, 
as at this of the brightest gospel 
light, and of the most varied and ac- 
tive benevolence — or in any other 
country, as in one so free and so sig- 
nally blessed of God as ours. It is 
a legislation that darkens the under- 
standing and corrupts and hardens 
the heart — a legislation which virtu- 
ally dooms men to hell. 

It would seem as if God had per- 
mitted such an evil to exist, and grow 
to this appalling ripeness, under the 
influence of the Christian religion, at 
this age, and in this country, for the 
specific purpose of exhibiting to the 
world how the depraved heart of man, 



174 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OP MIND. 



[Feb. 



under the best moral cultivation, and 
amidst the purest light, will develop 
itself in the most enormous blind- 
ness and iniquity ; and, as I would 
fondly hope, for the purpose of show- 
ing to the universe of his creatures 
the excellency of the power of the 
gospel, in rectifying this perverse- 
ness, and in removing such an evil 
from the world. 

Our own country has now within 
its bosom two millions of human be- 
ings thus legally unmanned. The 
British empire has nearly as many 
more, not to mention those held by 
nations where the gospel shines less 
clearly, and exerts less power. The 
amount of guilt thus accumulating 
before God is unspeakable. It were 
better that another deluge should 
overwhelm our land, leaving desola- 
tion from one end of it to the other, 
than to draw down on ourselves the 
wrath of the Most High, by volunta- 
rily continuing to counteract him, in 
legally consigning over to littleness, 
inaction, and debasement, millions 
of minds which he made to expand 
and strengthen, and rise to glory, and 
honor, and immortality. 

Wo for those who trample o'er a mind ! 

A deathless thing.— They know not what they do, 
Or what they deal with! Man, perchance, may bind 

The flower his steps have bruised ; or light anew 
The torch he quenches ; or to music wind 

Again the lyre-string, from his touch that flew: 
But for the soul ! Oh tremble, and beware 

To lay rude hands upon God's mysteries there. 

Another cause of this waste of 
mind is the influence 7vhich has been 
exerted hy religious systems, operat- 
ing either naturally or hy perversion. 

It is, indeed, a fact to be wonder- 
ed at and lamented, that anything 
under the name of religion — a name 
that should suggest what is best 
adapted to purify the affections, guide 
and invigorate the faculties, and car- 
ry them forward to the fullest matu- 
rity — should have been made an in- 
strument to corrupt and enfeeble the 
mind. Yet such is most obviously 
the truth. As soon as history com- 
mences, we find sufficient proofs of 
it. We know that among the Egyp- 



tians, the priests, in league with the 
civil rulers, contrived to engross all 
the knowledge. They made religion 
an engine for acquiring and retaining 
civil power. But not knowing how 
it could be applied to enlighten and 
reform men, and thus become a pro- 
per and efficient instrument of gov- 
ernment, they changed the character 
of it, perverted it from its proper 
use, and taking advantage of the 
proneness of the depraved heart to a 
servile superstition, they made reli- 
gion, according as their purpose re- 
quired, at one time a mere instru- 
ment of terror ; and to compensate 
for this, they made it at another the 
occasion and the sanction of the 
grossest sensuality. Knowing that 
religion thus perverted could not bear 
the eye of scrutiny, they involved it 
in various mysteries ; and, at last, to 
keep its real character out of public 
view, to inspire higher notions of 
their own superiority, and to prevent 
any portion of their knowledge, scan- 
ty as it was, from eluding their grasp, 
and being disseminated among the 
vulgar, they invented or adopted a 
language for their own peculiar use, 
which it was deemed a sacrilegious 
crime for any other class of the peo- 
ple to learn. These depositaries of 
knowledge, thus partitioned off from 
their fellow men, and locked in their 
citadel, looked out with a proud, un- 
pitying survey on the ignorant and 
servile multitudes, controlling their 
movements and receiving their ven- 
eration. 

A course very similar to this we 
know was pursued by the ancient 
Druids of Britain and Germany, and 
with similar results. Very similar, 
also, is the character of the exist- 
ing religious systems of central and 
southern Asia. These last, perhaps, 
are more complicated, and more in- 
geniously adapted to produce the in- 
tended effect. A jealous watchful- 
ness also is maintained lest their 
secrets should be exposed to the 
common people. 

The points at which all systems of 



1832.] 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



175 



paganism have failed to enlarge and 
purify the human mind, and have ex- 
erted an influence to debase and cor- 
rupt it, arc very obvious. The hea- 
then had no clear view of man as an 
intellectual and moral being ; did not 
discriminate sufficiently between his 
animal and spiritual existence ; had 
no distinct and firm belief in his im- 
mortality ; were ignorant of what 
men were living for, or wherein his 
highest excellence and happiness 
consisted. They had no conception 
of an infinite, spiritual and holy Be- 
ing, the Creator and universal Gov- 
ernor ; no perfect and authoritative 
law, and no controlling sanctions ; 
no feeling of responsibility and ac- 
countableness ; no high standard 
of character ; no perfect examples, 
among gods or men ; no powerful 
motives : in short, paganism contains 
no soul-stirring truths — nothing to 
control the passions, to intellectual- 
ize the man, and be an antagonist 
power to his inherent proneness to 
sensuality. Its gods were weak, 
mean, and corrupt ; its morals sanc- 
tioned or connived at the very worst 
of crimes. It is, and has been in all 
ages, a system made by corrupt men, 
to suit corrupt men. It was con- 
trived at first, and has been enlarg- 
ed, and modified, and interpreted by 
corrupt men since, so as best to coun- 
tenance themselves in their wicked- 
ness and alienation from God. In- 
deed it is not to be wondered at that 
corrupt men, who undertook to make 
or modify a religion for themselves, 
should make one that would sanction, 
and not condemn, their own charac- 
ter and conduct. The water in the 
reservoir will not rise above the foun- 
tain. The fact is, depraved men 
need a fixed, distinct, authoritative 
revelation from a perfect God, em- 
bracing laws, sanctions, motives, ex- 
amples, to keep them from sinking. 
To suppose that they will institute a 
perfectly holy moral government over 
themselves, or devise any adequate 
means for their own moral elevation, 
is as preposterous as to suppose that 



a man can lift himself Hence, with 
a few exceptions at different periods 
of the world, which may be account- 
ed for by extraordinary local causes, 
of temporary duration, heathen na- 
tions, after paganism had become 
thoroughly established, have uniform- 
ly degenerated, their systems have 
become more absurd and polluting, 
their intellect more feeble, their char- 
acter and habits more corrupt, until 
they absolutely run out. The politi- 
cal fabric, like a worn out and rotten 
garment, could no longer sustain it- 
self, and it fell to pieces. The Egyp- 
tians, the Babylonians, the Romans, 
and the Hindoos furnish illustrations 
perfectly in point. The inhabitants 
of the Sandwich and South Sea Isl- 
ands were on the rapid march to ex- 
tinction, when Christianity interpo- 
sed to arrest their progress. Who 
would now think of looking to hea- 
then nations for any great effort of 
intellect ; any enlarged and compre- 
hensive views in science, morals, or 
politics ; any enterprise or valuable 
improvement in agriculture or the 
arts ; or any specimens of purity or 
general excellence of character? 

In estimating the influence of Pa- 
ganism in destroying the human 
mind, we may simplify the matter 
very much, by striking off at the 
outset, with a few inconsiderable ex- 
ceptions, the whole female part of 
the population, who, supposed to be 
destitute of souls, and designed only 
to minister to the ease and pleasure 
of the other sex, have had their 
minds kept in a state of waste and 
barrenness. If we begin with the low- 
est of the remaining half, and proceed 
upward, how little shall we find of 
what the human mind is capable of 
becoming. How immeasurable the 
difference, as to the amount of 
thought and intellectual power, to 
say nothing of moral principle and 
feeling, between a horde of Tartars 
and the Puritan emigrants ; or be- 
tween the inhabitants of a Hottentot 
kraal and of a New England village. 

In respect to the effect which the 



176 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



[Feb. 



Jewish religion, the first written rev- 
elation which God gave to men, had 
in calling the human mind into ac- 
tion, Ihtle need be said. We know 
that the true character and object of 
the system were, by the mass of the 
people, and at most periods of their 
history, lamentably misapprehended. 
As it practically existed among them, 
it had nothing diifusive in it. The 
people generally regarded its services 
as a mere form, and took little inte- 
rest in them, except so far as they 
supposed them to be indicative of the 
special favor with which Jehovah 
honored their nation. Thus a proud 
and selfish spirit was generated and 
fostered. The miserably low con- 
ceptions which they formed of the 
Being whom they professedly wor- 
shipped may be understood by ob- 
serving how easily an idolatrous king 
carried almost the whole nation with 
him over to idolatry. As their ritual 
and the revelations contained in their 
sacred books were generally regard- 
ed, there was little in the system 
adapted to elevate and expand the 
mind. The religious orders, espe- 
cially during the latter periods of 
their history, pretended to peculiar 
sanctity, and arrogated to themselves 
all the honors and privileges, and 
took no pains to diffuse knowledge 
among the common people, whom 
they treated with great contempt. 
The whole nation manifested a sur- 
prising degree of stupidity respecting 
the character and offices of the Mes- 
siah, and at last perished with a 
strange infatuation. We know that, 
in fact, the system contributed little 
to enlighten the mass of the people. 
The system of religion which is 
the purest and best adapted to ex- 
pand and elevate the mind is the 
Christian ; and from the spiritual na- 
ture of the objects it reveals, and its 
addressing itself to every individual, 
giving him something to do, and im- 
posing on him a separate responsi- 
bility, we should suppose it would be 
least liable to perversion. This is 
undoubtedly the fact ; and therefore 



peculiar ingenuity has been display- 
ed in moulding the various parts of 
this religion into a system which 
might hold the human mind in a state 
of inactivity or deep delusion. A 
philosophical writer has remarked 
that, *' to keep men's minds in per- 
fect stupidity on certain subjects, and 
to keep as many empty spaces in 
them as possible, in order to be able 
to fill them up at pleasure, and the 
more conveniently to instil supersti- 
tion into them, is the fundamental 
maxim of the Catholic religion." 
Accordingly we find that the religious 
orders gathered nearly all the books 
from the hands of the people and de- 
posited them in monasteries or libra- 
ries under their own control. The 
schools of learning were filled almost 
exclusively with those who were de- 
signed for the church, and instruct- 
ed and managed by those interested in 
keeping up its influence. In order 
that their perversion of the Christian 
religion and their introduction of 
vain ceremonies might not be detect- 
ed, they took away the Bible, and 
made it a crime for the common peo- 
ple to read it. They caused the ser- 
vices of religion to be performed in 
a language utterly unknown to nine- 
ty-nine in a hundred of all those on 
whom religion ought to operate. 

After the invention of printing, 
and when the means of spreading 
knowledge had become more abun- 
dant and effectual, the religious or- 
ders v;ere obliged to watch and re- 
strain the progressive spirit of the 
community with peculiar vigilance. 
To keep men from inquiring and 
judging for themselves, a task which 
they before found comparatively easy, 
they now found to be peculiarly dif- 
ficult. But they showed an ingenuity 
adequate to the emergency ; and 
by establishing the inquisition and a 
system of espionage, with a severity 
of punishment commensurate with 
men's love of knov\dedge and inde- 
pendence, they made the withering 
influence of their power felt through 
the whole Catholic community. They 



1832.] 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



177 



checked the first risings of mental 
activity. As far as possible they 
threw their chains on the press in its 
infancy ; and on one occasion, by a 
single decree, branded as heresy all 
that might issue from sixty-two press- 
es ; and in anticipation, excommuni- 
cated all who should be presumptu- 
ous enough to read such works. 
They imprisoned the philosopher who 
attempted to enlarge the boundaries 
of science ; burned at the stake 
those who dared to entertain or pro- 
mulgate a new opinion in science or 
religion ; and, in short, adopted every 
possible device to keep men from 
thinking and knowing. The conse- 
quence has been, as all history and 
existing facts testify, that there never 
has been a papal community, where 
the mass of the people, feeling them- 
selves excused from all thought and 
responsibility, have not been sunk in 
the profoundest ignorance, the vic- 
tims of bigotry, superstition, and cre- 
dulity. To make it a part of such a 
system, whose foundation is blind 
faith and blind obedience, to enlight- 
en the people, to raise them to a 
thinking, active, separate responsi- 
bility, would be to make it light the 
fire of its own funeral pile. When- 
ever knowledge has entered such a 
community, it has led to tiie break- 
ing up of the papal system, or to such 
a modification as was consistent with 
a concealed but real infidelity. The 
truth is, that the Papal religion pos- 
sesses no redeeming spirit. It ad- 
mits of no reformation. It must be 
renounced and overthrown, and that, 
too, not by instruments of its own 
creation. The characters of Wick- 
liffe and Luther were no more the 
product of Romanism, than that of 
Moses was the product of Egyptian 
idolatry, or Hebrew vassalage. The 
Christian reformers, as much as the 
Hebrew lawgiver, were specially 
raised up and qualified for their work. 
It cannot be necessary even to say 
that Mohammedanism has done no- 
thing to improve those who have been 
subjected to its influence. While it 

VQL. III. 23 



has left the intellect wholly unculti- 
vated, and even introduced institu- 
tions and customs altogether incon- 
sistent with the(iuict pursuit of know- 
ledge, and with free inquiry, it has 
openly fostered the fiercest and vilest 
passions, and contributed more, per- 
haps, than any other religious sys- 
tem, to make men sensual and cruel. 

Thus the human mind has been 
undervalued and arrested in its 
growth, and used by men in power 
merely as an instruuient of accom- 
plishing their selfish purposes. Thus 
has the world been defrauded of al- 
most all the intellectual energy which 
has been bestowed on our race ; for 
that small portion which has been 
brought into healthful exercise is 
really so small, when compared to the 
whole which God has given to the 
generations of men, that it may be 
omitted in the calculation. If, instead 
of the hundreds of minds which have 
been brought into action, there had 
been as many millions, who can say 
what the result would have been in 
inventions to facilitate labor and pro- 
mote the convenience of man, and 
in the progress of the arts and sci- 
ences, and of civilization and gov- 
ernment ; or how many ages since, 
the world would have reached and 
passed its present stage of advance- 
ment ? 

The economy of the world has 
been such, that, not only has the great 
mass of mind which has been given 
to our race been left to dwindle with- 
out enlargement or activity, but most 
of that small part which has been 
cultivated has been misapplied. 

We know that in each age of the 
world, men possessed of the greatest 
genius and energy of character, and 
favored with all the means of intel- 
lectual culture which were allowed 
to their generation ; and who, by the 
admiration which their powers excit- 
ed, might have accomplished an in- 
calculable amount of good, have yet 
been the scourges of mankind. It 
would be an interesting, though 
gloomy and mortifying task, were it 



178 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



[Feb. 



practicable, to ascertain how large a 
part of all the intellectual power 
which has been put forth by men has 
been spent to no purpose, or in doing 
mischief. Some things, which help 
us in such an inquiry we know, and 
it may be worth while to look at 
them. 

From the almost earliest ages of 
the world, loar has been the great 
business of man. Men have been 
trained for it. Genius has been 
allured into it, and has here made 
the brightest displays of itself This 
work of human butchery has associ- 
ated with itself the names valor, mag- 
nanimity and patriotism ; and thus 
adorned, has presented itself to men 
as the most splendid object of con- 
templation within the grasp of hu- 
man thought, the amplest field for 
noble achievement, and the surest 
path to glory. Now what have ge- 
nius, and enterprise, and energy done, 
when put forth in this direction ? 
What have they done? Go to Troy, 
to Babylon, to Tyre — they can tell. 
Ask the countries devastated, the in- 
habitants plundered, maimed, bro- 
ken hearted — they can tell. Go to 
the battle grounds of modern Eu- 
rope, and ask the earth which slowly 
drank the blood, and reluctantly cov- 
ered the bones of the slain, and learn 
there what they have done. 

But not only have these minds, 
powerful and highly cultivated as 
they were, been themselves lost to the 
world by the wrong direction which 
has been given them, but they have 
exerted a baleful control over innu- 
merable other minds, and given to 
them a similar direction. All those 
heroes of ancient and modern times, 
whose names have been so often men- 
tioned that it is an offence against 
taste to repeat them, were only mas- 
ter builders in schemes of mischief, 
and controlled, and furnished em- 
ployment for, their nation, or perhaps, 
for their own and succeeding ages. 
Look at the last and most ambitious 
of them all. What did Europe do 
for the last fifteen years of his reign, 



but labor to forward or to frustrate his 
purposes 1 Yes, that one man fur- 
nished fifteen years' employment to 
nearly all the disposable force of 
Europe ; and the whole work was 
the destruction of human life and 
happiness. 

The capacious and cultivated 
minds of men have been turned in 
another direction, and to no better 
account. 'Yo say nothing of ail 
those literary productions whose ten- 
dency, whatever may have been the 
design of their author, has been to 
corrupt society and ruin the souls of 
men, we may be astonished to think 
how much talent and effort has been 
employed with no higher aim than 
merely to amuse mankind. What a 
prostitution of intellect — what mad- 
ness — to lay all the power of thought 
and fancy under contribution to 
amuse a world of dying sinners like 
us ! It is as if the poet, and the 
actor, and the musician, on the day 
of Sodom's overthrow, had combined 
their efforts to dispel anxiety and 
make the guilty inhabitants merry, 
when the fires of heaven were gleam- 
ing in at their windows. 

How many more men of cultivated 
minds, owing to their rank, or their 
wealth, have felt themselves too ele- 
vated to make effort, even in doing 
good, and have, therefore, like some 
splendid piece of furniture, designed 
for ornament rather than for use, 
been laid by, never to contribute 
anything to the welfare of their race. 

I might proceed to almost any ex- 
tent in enumerating classes of men 
whose intellectual power has either 
done no good, or that which they 
have accomplished has been wholly 
incidental, converted to good by an 
overruling Providence, and not so 
designed by the actors. And then I 
might enumerate many other classes 
of men who have accomphshed only 
a small part of the good of which 
they were capable, had they made 
all possible effort to acquire intellec- 
tual power, and to exert it to the best 
advantage. And then I might sup- 



1832.] 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



r 



pose, for the sake of illustration, that 
all the schemes of ambition and cru- 
elty and intrigue were blotted from 
the page of history ; and that against 
the names of the splendid and guilty 
actors, whom the world for ages has 
wondered at, there were written 
achievements of Christian benevo- 
lence equally grand and characteris- 
tic ; and then ask what a change 
would there be, in the scenes which 
the world has beheld transacted, and 
what a difference in the results ! Al- 
exander should have won victories 
in Persia, more splendid than those 
of Granicus and Arbela ; he should 
have wandered over India like Bu- 
chanan, and wept for another world to 
bring under the dominion of the 
Saviour ; and returning to Babylon, 
should have died like Martyn, the 
victim of Christian zeal. Csesar 
should have made Gaul and Britain 
obedient to the faith, and crossing the 
Rubicon with his apostolic legions, 
and making the Romans freemen of 
the Lord, should have been the fore- 
runner of Paul, and done half his 
work. Charlemagne should have 
been a Luther. Charles of Sweden 
should have been a Howard ; and 
flying from the Baltic to the Euxine, 
like an angel of mercy, should have 
fallen while on some errand of love, 
and numbering his days by the good 
deeds he had done, should have died 
like Mills in an old age of charity. 
Voltaire should have written Chris- 
tian tracts. Rousseau should have 
been a Fenelon. Hume should have 
unravelled the intricacies of the- 
ology, and defended, like Edwards, 
the faith once delivered to the saints. 
Governments, too, as well as indi- 
viduals, should have changed their 
character and purposes ; and instead 
of that testy humor and jealous rival- 
ry, which they have cherished, and 
inspired into their subjects, they 
should have learnt to " love one anoth- 
er with pure hearts fervently." In- 
stead of expending much to gain 
little, and going in senseless and haz- 
ardous chase after honor and power, 



I and contending most tenaciously and 
most profligately for their imagined 
rights, they should have felt their 
relationship to God and to one anoth- 
er; they should have said, "Oh 
come, let us worship and bow down, 
let us kneel before the Lord our 
Maker ; for he is our God, and we 
are the people of his pasture, and the 
sheep of his care." 

To prevent all this destruction or 
prodigal waste of mind, and to bring 
the whole amount of intellectual and 
moral power belonging to our race 
to its most vigorous and best directed 
action, different classes of men pro- 
pose different measures. The one 
talk of the progressive energies of 
the human mind; of the resistless 
march of knowledge and improve- 
ment ; and predict the ultimate per- 
fection of the human character, and 
of human society, as the effect of free 
inquiry and the knowledge of an 
infidel philosophy. They accuse re- 
ligion of cramping the intellect and 
perverting the noblest affections; and 
they scorn its professors as visiona- 
ries, entertaining the most delusive 
expectations. 

There can be no doubt that the 
extent to which infidel writers have, 
in many instances, urged literature 
and philosophy, with their laborious 
researches and valuable discoveries, 
has contributed much to increase 
the activity of the human mind, to 
enlarge the boundaries of knowledge, 
and to benefit society. These are 
what the gleaning and filtrating 
spirit of Christianity appropriates to 
her own use. But facts show that 
their efforts alone are not only inade- 
quate to meliorate the character and 
condition of man, but that, wherever 
there has been a fair experiment, they 
have had a directly opposite tenden- 
cy. 

To allude to revolutionary France, 
is to make a very trite allusion ; but 
such a fair experiment is a rare 
thing ; and so is such a decisive 
issue. God in mercy does not often 



180 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



[Feb. I 



make this world such a theatre of 
retribution as he made it thirty years 
ago. Let us not desire him to repeat 
that scene, but be content for instruc- 
tion and warning to make so trite an 
allusion. This 1 say was a fair ex- 
periment of what the efforts of un- 
modified infidelity can do for man. 
The issue was most decisive. And 
what was it 1 All that is perfidious 
and unrighteous and cruel in ambi- 
tion ; all that is frightful in tyranny 
and anarchy ; all that is base and 
disgusting in licentiousness ; and all 
that is blasphemous and shocking in 
impiety, met together at that era in 
France. The nations stood round, 
and with a sort of fearful shrinking 
looked on that devoted country as 
the valley of slaughter. It seemed 
for a time to be the very mouth of 
hell, which alternately emitted and 
engulphed again the foulest spirits 
that the world ever sav/. 

Nor was this direful issue the 
effect of accident, or of some mo- 
mentary and prodigious excitement 
of human passions, which could be 
traced to no visible preceding cause. 
The cause was simple. It was obvi- 
ous through the whole course of its 
operation. Nearly all the piety of 
the kingdom had been expelled with 
the Huguenots ; the whole religious 
system had come into contempt ; in- 
fidel tracts had been circulated and 
read and understood, not only by the 
intelligent and restless classes of the 
community, but also by the peasant 
and the groom. The whole political 
body had in this manner been infect- 
ed to its extremest members. It 
would seem to have been the design 
of God to permit this experiment to 
be made, with the fewest possible 
counteracting circumstances, so as 
to produce in the mind of the Chris- 
tian, the philanthropist, and of the 
philosopher even, the fullest convic- 
tion, that their hopes of bringing the 
powers of man into their highest and 
best directed action, of reforming or 
even preserving mankind, must rest 
on something else than any system 



of rules or motives which human 
wisdom has devised ; and to make 
the infidel himself feel that society 
does not advance because he lives 
and writes, but in spite of his living 
and writing ; and that his efforts, left 
to operate alone on the world, would 
ruin it. The truth is that infidelity 
brings no testimonials. The nation 
or tribe cannot be named, that has 
been enlightened or improved by it ; 
and whoever expects a favorable re- 
sult from the experiment, must expect 
it on the ground of her arrogant but 
unsupported assertion. He must ex- 
pect it against the evidence of past 
facts ; and against theory too : for 
the very uncertainty and incomplete- 
ness of infidel systems — their dark- 
ness respecting the character and 
wdl of God and the retributions of a 
future state, and their want of au- 
thority render them utterly defective 
in power of motive, either to incite 
or restrain. 

The other class of men to whom I 
alluded, have looked to the dissemi- 
nation of pure Christianity as the 
only adequate means of raising men 
from their degradation — of calling 
all the powers of intellect and moral 
feeling into healthful action, and di- 
recting them in their proper chan- 
nels. This class of men have rea- 
sons for thus judging. They see in 
the history of the world, that Chris- 
tianity has been the only thing which 
has taken the lead in reforming men. 
Other causes may have contributed 
to carry on the reformation which 
religion had begun ; but none of 
them have had boldness or energy to 
begin. So far are they from it, that 
they are constantly giving ground 
before the evil passions of men, and 
are wholly unable to keep up a stan- 
dard of morals, and to prevent its 
fluctuation. Individual enthusiasm 
in the pursuit of science, foreign 
dangers, or great national enterprises 
may hold society together for a time, 
and give it a pleasing and flourishing 
aspect ; but ts internal energies, as- 
sisted by all that philosophy can fur* 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



1832.] 

nish, are not able to maintain success- 
fully the struggle with the causes of de- 
terioration existing in the human char- 
acter. India and Egypt, Greece and 
Rome are proofs of this position. 
They are not now what they once 
were. Certain causes, operating in 
combination, gave them for a while 
an artificial health ; but disease was 
in them, and there was nothing there 
to eradicate it. They soon grew 
sickly ; decayed gradually ; some- 
times imperceptibly ; and at last died. 

In the two ancient republics, so 
famous for the literary legacies which 
they have bequeathed to us, there 
were indeed many splendid instances 
of intellectual cultivation ; but in 
these very minds, which shine upon 
us from antiquity like stars from the 
distant and dusky horizon, there was 
no desire, and no benevolent princi- 
ple to inspire the desire, to send 
knowledge down through all the 
ranks of society. Did Pericles, or 
Cicero, or the Antonines ever invent 
a system of free schools ? And what 
amount of argument may it be sup- 
posed would have been necessary to 
convince them that tne common peo- 
ple had minds worthy of cultivation? 
or that any system of general instruc- 
tion was practicable or useful 1 It 
is perfectly safe to say in the most 
unqualified manner, that the mass of 
mind in a nation has never been so 
called into action as to constitute an 
enlightened community, where the 
Christian religion did not prevail. 

This proposition asserts just what 
we might be prepared to expect, in 
view of the truths which pure Chris- 
tianity brings to bear on man. It is 
itself knowledge, and that of the 
most awakening and ennobling kind. 
It presents objects and considerations 
which it requires the greatest effort 
to apprehend, and which are of im- 
mediate personal concern, and excite 
the deepest personal interest. It pla- 
ces before man an infinite God, cre- 
ating and governing the world, self- 
existent, almighty, omniscient, ab- 
horring sin, requiring of him su- 



181 



preme and constant love, uninter- 
rupted obedience, the highest service 
of the whole soul and the whole body. 
It tells him of his own character, 
condition, and destiny ; of the retri- 
butions of eternity, and the part he 
must share in them. It imposes a 
great work upon him, lays him under 
a solemn responsibility, and is con- 
tinually urging him on to make the 
most of himself, of his time and his 
faculties. It teaches him that to his 
own master he standeth or falleth ; 
and that he must learn the truth him- 
self, form his opinions himself, and 
himself abide the consequences of 
his own errors and misconduct. The 
Protestant feels that he has much 
more at stake than the Papist or the 
Pagan ; and will, therefore, think 
more, know more, and have more 
character. 

The spirit of Christianity is a spirit 
of benevolence. It places men in a 
new relation to each other, ties them 
by new cords, sets them to the per- 
formance of new duties. This be- 
nevolent spirit of Christianity is en- 
terprising in devising schools and 
other means of instructing and ben- 
efiting mankind. It has a special 
regard for the ignorant, the debased, 
and the miserable— classes wholly 
neglected by heathens and Catholics 
— and seeks to enlighten and improve 
them. Almost every thing promotive 
of these ends, has been devised by 
men filled with the Christian spirit. 
Nearly all the free civil institutions, 
free schools, Sabbath schools, mission- 
ary societies, and other similar in- 
stitutions, have been projected, and 
have struggled into successful opera- 
tion, by the energy of Christian phi- 
lanthropy alone, and amidst the op- 
position of the men of the world. 
After these devices have been suc- 
cessfully tried, men possessed of en- 
larged views, though not of the 
Christian temper, have been obliged, 
in order to maintain their character, 
to fall in with them ; and having com- 
mand of more means, have pushed 
them forward farther than their pro- 



182 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



jectors expected ; and then they have 
claimed to themselves the honor of 
them. But it was the Christian who 
contrived them, and to him the honor 
is due. And to him the honor will 
be awarded, when the accounts of 
this world are balanced at the judg- 
ment day. 

Pure Christianity, thus operating 
to produce a spirit of benevolent en- 
terprise in society, to present new 
objects for consideration, and to put 
men under a new responsibility, has, 
wherever it has freely exerted its in- 
fluence, been the means of calling 
a vast amount of dormant intellect 
into healthful action. We may see 
its effect among the Waldenses, and 
in all the Puritan sects which grew 
up between France and Italy, during 
the dark ages. It showed itself most 
manifestly in their characters, not- 
withstanding all the poverty and per- 
secution they were made to undergo. 
One of their Catholic adversaries 
says, " It is truly remarkable that 
persons externally so savage and rude 
should have so much moral cultiva- 
tion. They can all read and write. 
You can scarcely find a boy among 
them who cannot give you an intelli- 
gible account of the faith which they 
profess." This it seems was the fact, 
when not one half of the ecclesias- 
tics of the Catholic church could 
either read or write. Another Cath- 
olic doctor who was sent as a spy 
among them, declared, on his return, 
" that he had understood more of the 
doctrines of salvation from the an- 
swers of the little children in their 
catechism, than from all the disputa- 
tions he had ever heard." We may 
indeed learn how much pure religion 
was doing to bring the minds of these 
persecuted sects into action, and how 
perfectly their religion was contrast- 
ed with the Catholic, from the errors 
with which the latter charged them. 
Among these errors were such as 
follow : *' They hold that the Holy 
Scriptures are of the same efficacy 
in the vulgar tongue as in the Latin ; 
hence they communicate and admin- 



[Feb. I, 

ister the sacraments in the vulgar 
tongue." " They can say a great 
part of the Old and New Testaments 
by heart." 

Nor was their knowledge limited 
wholly to matters of religion. The 
Bible makes men think, and think 
correctly, too, on all the important 
concerns of life. They had notions 
of civil and religious liberty good 
enough, and broad enough, to be the 
basis of any modern political code. 
'I'hey advocated such principles as 
these — " A man ought not to be de- 
livered up to the officer of justice to 
be converted ;"— *' The benefits of 
society belong alike to all the mem- 
bers of it." These notions they en- 
tertained in the tenth century, that 
midnight of the dark ages, and un- 
der Gregory VII., that prince of ty- 
rants. 

Christianity operated just so in 
Germany. When Luther fixed his 
thirty-five propositions respecting in- 
dulgences on the church at Wittem- 
berg, it opened a new and wide field 
of thought and conversation, and the 
spirit of reform and investigation 
went on together. It also showed its 
character and tendency during the 
reformation in Scotland. The Cath- 
olic clergy placed their whole depen- 
dence on the French troops, and took 
no pains to instruct the people. But 
the Protestant clergy were busy in 
disseminating knowledge and piety 
among all ranks, and when things 
came to their crisis, the effect was 
evident. It is not necessary now to 
compare the state of the Scots in the 
feudal times, which preceded the 
reformation, with what they became 
afterwards, and have eminently been 
ever since, or to make any extended 
remarks respecting the Huguenots of 
France, or the Protestant Swiss. All 
know that, as communities, they were 
the most enlightened, the most indus- 
trious, and the most attached to ra- 
tional freedom, of any communities 
on the earth ; and all know that their 
character was owing to their religion, 
for almost every other cause was 



1832.] 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OP MIND. 



183 



against them. The effect of Chris- 
tianity to call the mind into action, 
to elevate the character, and to 
give men power, is seen even more 
conspicuously, perhaps, in the reform- 
ers themselves. How immensely did 
it raise the apostles out of the com- 
mon mass, in which, without this in- 
fluence, they would have been sunk 
and unknown, and place them on an 
eminence, not merely as men holding 
peculiar opinions, but as men of in- 
tellectual strength and activity, of 
moral courage, and irresistible force 
of character, capable of confronting 
and confounding their mightiest ad- 
versaries. The truth is, that where 
Christianity takes firm hold of a man, 
it gives him an elevation and reach 
of thought, a feeling of responsibil- 
ity, a seriousness and inflexibility of 
purpose, an energy of action, and a 
disregard of all minor consequences, 
which can be derived from no other 
source. How was it with Luther 1 
He was the most powerful man of 
his time. Charles, with all his king- 
doms and armies, did not possess half 
the power over the minds of men, 
that was possessed by Luther with 
his Bible. No monarch in Europe 
was so much feared by Charles or 
Francis, or the Pope, as he. What 
man of mere science or literature 
ever exerted an influence to be com- 
pared to his, as to extent or duration, 
or the importance of the effects pro- 
duced? This was all the conse- 
quence of his enlightened religious 
zeal. 

Nearly the same is true of some 
of the associates of Luther, and with 
Knox of Scotland. 

It was this spirit of pure Chris- 
tianity, stimulating men to get know- 
ledge, cherished by such men as 
Claude of Turin, Berengarius, Ar- 
nold of Brescia, Wickliffe, Huss, and 
Jerome of Prague, which was the 
redeeming spirit of man during the 
dark ages, kept the lamp of science 
from going quite out, and called the 
minds of men so into action, that 
a revival of literature was eflfected 



in the fifteenth and sixteenth centu- 
ries. 

Pure Christianity is not only favor- 
able to the universal dissemination of 
knowledge, but to all the higher ef- 
forts of mind. The number of those 
whose minds are highly cultivated, 
and of reputable authors, even in 
P^rance, notwithstanding all the pat- 
ronage which learning receives from 
the Institute, bears no comparison to 
the number of the same class of men 
in Britain and Germany, where the 
effects of the Protestant religion are 
felt. 

But nowhere is the power of reli- 
gion to make men thinking and act- 
ive beings so obviously manifested as 
in the missionary enterprises of the 
present day. To allude to this, with 
a single illustration, is sufficient for 
bringing it fully before our minds. 
Think for one moment of the Sand- 
wich Islands, and of the effects 
which Christianity has wrought there. 
Twelve years ago those islanders 
were perhaps as brutish a race of 
beings as could be found in the 
world ; — mere animals. Now they 
have a written language, books, 
schools, and good civil institutions. 
This has been effected by the intro- 
duction of Christianity. The change 
is like transforming so many leopards 
into men ; — like creating so many 
human, enlightened. Christian men, 
and giving to themselves and to the 
world the benefit of their Christian 
action. Indeed the work of evan- 
gelizing the world, with which God 
has kindly intrusted and honored 
men, does appear, in its nobleness, 
something like the work of creation. 
It is bringing mind into action which 
before seemed not to exist. 

These islands are only a specimen 
of the effects of Christianity, though 
a striking one. Every missionary 
station exhibits, in kind, the same 
thing. 

They, therefore, who speak dis- 
paragingly of Christianity and its in- 
fluence in promoting civilization, and 
in expanding and invigorating the 



i 



184 



ON THE WASTE AND MISAPPLICATION OF MIND. 



[Feb. 



human mind, and who boast of what 
philosophy and free inquiry have 
achieved, and what they promise to 
do for mankind, may be safely chal- 
lenged to find the country in all the 
world, in any age, where a good sys- 
tem of schools, accessible to the mass 
of the people, or where liberty of 
opinion and of speech have existed 
without the prevalence of Protestant 
Christianity ; or where Protestant 
Christianity has prevailed without 
drawing these after it. ^I'hey may 
be pressed even further, and be chal- 
lenged to point out the place where 
any sect of philosophers or free-in- 
quirers ever made, directly or indi- 
rectly, a systematic and vigorous ef- 
fort to extend knowledge in(o an 
unenlightened community. Where 
have they sent forth their missiona- 
ries to establish schools, to furnish 
books, to instruct in the arts of civ- 
ilized life, to elevate the character, 
and to promote social happiness ? 
The truth is, that, so far from having 
tried the power of their system, and 
being able to appeal to nations or 
tribes that have been disenthralled 
and reformed by it, they have not 
even made the attempt. The only 
exertions now making to enlighten 
the ignorant and barbarous nations 
of the earth are making by the ad- 
herents of Christianity. Look through 
the benighted tribes of Asia and Af- 
rica ; penetrate the forests of this 
continent ; search out every Pagan 
island of the sea, and you will not 
find one free school, nor any other 
worth the name of a school, which 
has not been established by Chris- 
tian benevolence. It is certain, not 
merely that Christianity is the only 
thing that has successfully engaged 
in enlightening and reforming the 
world, but that it is the only thing 
that has ever in good earnest at- 
tempted the work. It is on Christian- 
ity, then, that all our hopes of the 
universal diff"usion of knowledge, and 
civilization, and domestic happiness, 
as well as of piety, must be built. It 
is by the operation of it, that, I had 



almost said, the whole human race 
are yet to be raised up from the black- 
ness of darkness into which they are 
sunk, to the life and dignity of think- 
ing, intelligrnt men ; — and we may 
make this infinite addition, that it is 
by the influence of Christianity, that 
purity and immortal life are to be giv- 
en to the souls of men. 

Nor is this the period for delay or 
relaxation of effort in the work of 
meliorating the condition of man- 
kind. We may think, when we see 
what Christian benevolence has ef- 
fected — how much knowledge and 
enterprise and piety there is in the 
world — that nearly all has been done 
for man that can be done. But, in 
truth, almost all yet remains to be 
done. Not more than one quarter of 
the population of the earth is even 
nominally Christian, and not more 
than one fifteenth are Protestants ; 
and even among these last, how lim- 
ited are the knowledge and influence 
of the gospel ! The bright spots 
which Christian activity has lighted 
up in the world are like the tops of 
the mountains gilded by the rising 
sun, while all the surrounding coun- 
try is covered with damp, gloomy 
shade. Suppose that Luther and his 
fellow reformers had thought in their 
day, that all had been done for the 
human family that could be done, 
what would now have been the con- 
dition of what we call Christendom 1 
It would have been now very nearly 
what it was then, covered with the 
grossest political and ecclesiastical 
abuses, with superstition, and intel- 
lectual night. We see in history the 
stream of knowledge and piety wind- 
ing its narrow and sluggish current 
through the dark ages till it comes to 
their time. It then suddenly takes 
a broader channel ; and by their con- 
tributions this stream of knowledge 
and enterprise and piety has been 
widening and rolling a deeper tide of 
light down to us. These were men 
who laid succeeding ages under ob- 
ligations to them. We should look 
back to them as our own individual 



1832.] PRAYER FOR LITERARY AND PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 185 



benefactors. Shall the men who may 
live two hundred years hence so look 
back to us, as they see the results of 
our pious enterprise borne down to 
them on the stream of time, and trace 
them in the enlargement of the fields 
of knowledge, the augmented vigor 
of the human mind, the improved 
systems of civil government, and the 
greater prevalence of social virtue 
and happiness? 

Though others may talk much and 
boastfully, yet the Christian communi- 
ty, and especially Christian ministers, 
should remember that whatever is to 
be done to meliorate the condition of 
mankind must be done by them. 
They are God's appointed instru- 
ments for reclaiming the world from 
its state of darkness and sin. Nor 
should they think that merely the 
spiritual welfare of the world is de- 
pending on their enterprise and faith- 
fulness, while its reformation and ad- 
vancement in other respects are to 
be wrought out by other agents. 
The truth is, that, if the human 
mind is ever to be raised from its in- 
action and debasement ; if it is ever 
to accomplish the noble purposes for 
which it was designed ; if knowledge 
and independence of character are 
ever to prevail among all ranks of all 
nations; if civil freedom is every 
where to take the place of tyranny 
and misrule ; if domestic virtue and 
happiness are to bless all the families 
of men, Christians must do the work : 
and they must do it with very little 
assistance from any quarter, except 
heaven, and in the face of systematic 
and unwearied opposition. As the 
preaching of the gospel is the great 
and divinely appointed means of dis- 
seminating pure Christianity, and 
giving it a controlling influence, ev- 
ery suitable effort made to increase 
the number of faithful Christian min- 
isters, or to give additional efficiency 
to their labors, is so much done, most 
directly, not only to promote universal 
piety and righteousness, but also to- 
wards introducing and perpetuating 
intellectual and civil freedom, a gen- 
voL. III. 24 



eral elevation of the human charac- 
ter, and the augmentation of human 
enjoyment throughout the world. 



For the duarterly Register. 
PRAYER FOR LITERARY AND PRO- 
FESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 

It is a subject for gratitude to God, 
that in his providence he has ordered 
the establishment of institutions in 
every part of our country, affording 
valuable advantages for education. 
The statistics of these, as furnished 
in recent publications will not, per- 
haps, be uninteresting to the friends 
of learning and religion, and will as- 
sist our conceptions of the impor- 
tance of the subject proposed. 

According to these tables the sta- 
tistics stand thus : The number of 
colleges in the United States, 59 : 
theological institutions, 22 : medical 
schools, 18 : law schools, 5 : the num- 
ber of instructers connected with 
colleges, 400 : students in the clas- 
sical departments of the colleges, 
4,100: medical students, 1,863: law 
students at five colleges, 88 : theo- 
logical students at eighteen institu- 
tions, 709 : whole number of stu- 
dents at colleges and professional 
schools, 6,770. 

The location of these institutions 
is as follows : In the New Eng-=- 
land States, 12 : Middle States, 13 : 
Southern States, 15 : Western States 
and Territories, 19. So that the ad- 
vantages of college and professional 
education are, in local respects, 
within the convenient reach of most 
of the young men of the United 
States.* 

The proportion of young men in 
different portions of our country, 
found in these institutions, is as fol- 
lows: In the New England States, 
one college student for every 1,331 
inhabitants : Middle States, one for 
every 3,465 : Southern States, one 
for every 7,232 : Western States and 



* Same of these estimates wejo :,nade in 1830. 



186 



PRAYER FOR LITERARY AND 



[Feb. 



p^ 



Territories, one for every 6,060. 
An interesting proportion, then, of 
the youthful talent in our country, 
is in a course of preparation for 
something, favorable or unfavora- 
ble to the interests of relio;ion. This, 
as appearing in a survey of our col- 
leges, to say nothing of young men 
in other situations, who, by self-edu- 
cation, and the force of circumstan- 
ces, are in the process of training to 
some important purpose. 

I will not believe myself writing 
for any readers who do not ac- 
knowledge the importance of our in- 
stitutions being the seats of religious 
as well as literary and professional 
character and influence. The pres- 
ent proportion of those hopefully pi- 
ous in them should be seriously con- 
sidered by us. According to sched- 
ules of the American Quarterly Reg- 
ister in 1830, there were 683, out 
of 3,582, in the colleges as distinct 
from the professional schools — leav- 
ing 2,899, not professedly pious. We 
have occasion for lively gratitude to 
God, that in the revivals of religion 
in the colleges since the commence- 
ment of the present year, there have 
been, as near as can be ascertained, 
between 300 and 400 more, appa- 
rently converted to God. With this 
pleasant increase, however, taking 
the census of the colleges for 1830 
as the basis of our estimate, there 
still remain more than 2,000 of the 
young men of our country in the col- 
leges, and preparing for stations of 
influence less or greater, and who 
have not yet '' known the grace of 
God in truth.'' 

The proposal of the annual fast 
and concert of prayer for colleges 
was a happy thought. A delightful 
scene it is, now annually presented, 
of the churches of the United States 
humbling themselves before the throne 
of grace, and praying for the visita- 
tions of the Holy Spirit in our seats 
of science and education. To any 
who perhaps regard this as an inex- 
pedient addition to the number of 
concerts already established, we 



would recommend — along with the 
facts already stated — the following 
considerations, in brief; that our 
colleges stand closely connected with 
the prosperity of Zion : that the 
subjects of prayer impressed by the 
Holy Spirit on the minds of Chris- 
tians cannot be safely dispensed 
with, or neglected : that Christians 
must make up their minds to devote 
themselves more and more to seek- 
ing the prosperity of Christ's king- 
dom, if they would have the millen- 
nium ever arrive : that, moreover, it 
is the divine direction, " pray for a// 
men," — and who more interesting 
subjects of prayer than young men 
in a course of education ? Let it be 
remembered, also, how ready God 
has shown himself to bless, in his 
granting the gracious influences of 
his Spirit repeatedly, in former years, 
to several of our colleges ; and espe- 
cially that in this present, a year of 
college revivals, truly, fourteen of 
these institutions have been graciously 
visited : and moreover that the com- 
mencement of these rich dispensa- 
tions of the Divine Spirit was ap- 
parently — in one college particularly 
— on that twenty-fourth day of Feb- 
ruary, while God's people were " yet 
speaking." For it was very soon af- 
ter that we began to receive intelli- 
gence of college revivals. Let an 
argument for this concert also be 
drawn from among the scenes of a col- 
lege revival. There are doubtless some 
of my readers who in former years 
have resided in colleges, while " the 
Lord was there." You have seen, 
with joy and reverence, the evidences 
of the divine presence, in the solem- 
nity visible in many a young man's 
countenance : have observed how it 
has repressed the conflict of unholy 
rivalry and ambition ; silenced the 
revels of dissipation, the laugh of 
thoughtless gaiety, and the scoflT of 
unbelief; how it has made the chapel 
truly a place of prayer ; the lecture 
room a place of deep seriousness and 
of occasional and earnest exhorta- 
tions from teachers ; has made the 



1832.] 



PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



187 



student's walk to be the season of 
thought, and conversation on the 
tilings of eternity, perhaps of sweet 
Christian communion. You have 
seen students become solicitous and 
earnest inquirers, of whom you once 
scarce dared to hope any such thing ; 
have heard from lips which perhaps 
once dealt in ribaldry and profane- 
ness the question. What shall I do to 
be saved ? have witnessed with holy 
reverence and delight, the solemn 
stillness and deep attention pervading 
the lecture room, converted for an 
evening into a conference room, and 
there rejoiced, with " the angels of 
God in heaven," over many a young 
man repenting. And you have seen 
the young man of talents, acquisi- 
tions and promise, " confessing Christ 
before men," and taking a new di- 
rection for life here, and eternity 
hereafter, as one " born of God " 
and in a course of education for His 
service. In a word, you have seen 
things which have made you, with 
admiration, to exclaim, "what hath 
God wrought!" Yes, Christian, you 
who have rejoiced in the scenes of a 
parish revival, only, there are scenes 
which surpass even these, interesting 
as they have been, and which it would 
greatly rejoice you to see, within the 
walls of college, when " the Lord is 
there." 

We have spoken of the desirable- 
ness of continued influences of the 
Holy Spirit upon our seminaries, for 
a reason additional to those which re- 
spect a common church and society. 
There being, in the college, once in 
four years, an entire change of mem- 
bers ; and, in the professional semi- 
nary, an entire change once in three 
years ; if revivals of religion occur 
only at intervals of possibly several 
years, many young men come and 
go, without being residents, at the 
time of one of these interesting sea- 
sons of the divine visitation. 

This subject stands related to the 
consecration of talent and attain- 
ment to the service of Christ. There 
Is a vast amount of mind in a form- 



ing state, in our seminaries of learn- 
ing. The right formation of it de- 
pends much on the state of the moral 
atmosphere around it. A melan- 
choly amount of talent and attain- 
ment has been perverted in times 
past ; and most affecting have been 
the cases of young men who might 
have stood among the foremost in the 
ranks of usefulness and religious in- 
fluence. Many have been poisoned 
by religious error, while they have 
maintained respectable moral char- 
acters. Many have debased them- 
selves, and made their talents and at- 
tainments useless, by vice. Others 
have been comparatively useless, by 
indolently " burying them in the 
earth ;" and their influence has but 
helped forward the general deteriora- 
tion of society around them. In il- 
lustration of these remarks, so far as 
they relate to the merging of talent 
and education in vice, on the author- 
ity of a gentleman educated at one 
of our first colleges, were given, 
through the medium of one of our 
periodicals,* not long since, the fol- 
lowing facts, respecting the class to 
which he belonged less than thirty 
years since. " It was a class from 
which much was expected, as the in- 
structers were often heard to declare ; 
and was certainly not deficient, when 
compared with other classes, either 
as to numbers or talents. Unhappily 
a very low standard of morals was 
prevalent ; only two of the class 
were free from the habit of profane 
swearing ; and nearly all except 
these two, would occasionally get in- 
toxicated. This class went out into 
the world as one of the hopes of the 
country." Its subsequent history 
showed, that " comparatively a small 
number of them ever occupied re- 
spectable and conspicuous situations. 
In twenty-two years after leaving col- 
lege, two thirds of that class were 
known to have died ; and of these, 
full one half died the victims of in- 
temperance. Of the survivors, some 



* The American Pastor's Journal, 



188 



PRAYER FOR LITERARY AND 



[Feb. 



now living are known to be in the 
lowest state of degradation." As a 
contrast to this, another individual 
gave the character and history of 
another class, of less than forty years 
since. " It was numerous ; the in- 
fluence was decidedly in fivor of 
morality. Before leaving college, a 
large proportion came under the pow- 
er of religious principle, in conse- 
quence of a general revival of reli- 
gion. Twenty-Jive years after the 
time of graduation, only one quarter 
of the class had died ; and of the 
surviving three quarters, a large pro- 
portion were occupying stations of 
considerable usefulness." 

Young minds, in a course of edu-^ 
cation, need guidance, formation, and 
establishment by the grace of God ; 
and their services should be then se- 
cured for the advancement of Christ's 
kingdom, in whatever stations they 
shall be placed. What can be more 
delightful to the eye of the Christian, 
than to see a young man of talents, 
attainments and promise, as he comes 
forward in life, laying all at the feet 
of Christ Jesus his Lord ; and going 
on to act upon that instruction, "ye 
are not your own, for ye are bought 
with a price ; wherefore glorify God 
in your body and your spirit, which 
are God's." 

This subject stands related to the 
consecration of influence to the ad- 
vancement of religion. The student 
in college, and the same individual 
subsequently, as a man of education, 
in professional life, unavoidably ex- 
erts influence of some kind. His 
opinions, his moral habits and exam- 
ple, will give a direction, right or 
wrong, to other minds. Especially 
his habits of thinking and speaking 
upon religious subjects will have in- 
fluence upon other men. Suppose 
him to be simply careless and indif- 
ferent to religion, and living in a 
quiet course of respectable un conver- 
sion ; he will countenance the like 
in many others. Or suppose him an 
unbeliever in religion, as an experi- 
mental and holy affair ; perhaps a 



derider of it and its truths ; he will 
pass on in life, keeping in counte- 
nance a circle of other men, in errors 
and guilt like his own, and making 
himself a heavy *' partaker in their 
sins." Suppose him to go dashing 
along up one political eminence af- 
ter another, and cutting a figure as 
** a people's man," i. e., a man who 
loill do almost any thing to 'please the 
people, and get their votes for him- 
self or men of his party. What has 
the kingdom of the Lord Jesus in 
the world to expect from him 1 What 
other calculation can be made, than 
that he will exert an influence against 
religion — that he will trample on re- 
ligion, whenever it is in the way of 
the attainment of his ,own objects 1 

On the other hand, if he be a man 
who has " the love of God shed 
abroad in his heart by the Holy 
Ghost ;" one who daily lives, as 
" seeing Him who is invisible," and 
who communes with God daily in his 
closet, and comes from his closet to 
exhibit the light of a Christian ex^ 
ample ; he cannot fail to be a bless- 
ing in the community. But, not to 
anticipate a topic of remark in an^^ 
other division of this subject : — 

We speak here more particularly 
of the influence of a college, in its 
collective capacity, upon the com- 
monwealth in which it is situated. 
It embodies, in its Boards, and Fac- 
ulty ; and in its classes, even down 
to the youngest Freshman ; men who 
constitute a source of influence not 
exceeded by any equal number of 
men in their collective capacity ; or 
by any other species of establish- 
ment. Fx)litical men, heretical men, 
infidels, aiid religious men, all keep 
a steady eye upon the colleges, as 
sources of influence ; and they indi- 
cate their consciousness that a col- 
lege is a powerful engine, to be 
wrought for some purpose or other, 
according to the views and aims of 
those who superintend its concerns. 
In some particular institutions in our 
own country, it is very observable 
what a vast amount of influence a 



1832. 



PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



189 



college may exert, for the dissemina- 
tion of truth or error, virtue or vice. 
Look at the character of some Euro- 
pean Universities, particularly in Ger- 
many ; illustrious, truly, as seats of 
learning ; but, as to moral and reli- 
gious condition, and consequent in- 
fluence, appearing to the eye of a 
Christian, like "' the mountains of 
Gilboa," on which there is " no rain, 
neither any dew." A commonwealth, 
or a country, in various ways, feels 
the influence of its literary institu- 
tions, as favorable or unfavorable. 
A neutrality, as respects some deci- 
ded moral and religious influence, is 
out of the question, notwithstanding 
all the dreams and theories and pro- 
fessions of men who want learning 
without religion. A college will in- 
evitably bless or blast ten thousand 
•immortal spirits. And the Holy Spirit 
of God alone can secure the one, and 
forbid the other. 

This subject stands related to the 
occupancy of various important sta- 
tions, with '* men of God,^' men of 
prayer, faith, supreme consecration 
to the interests of the kingdom of 
Christ. 

The ministry is one of these. To 
our colleges, principally, we look for 
those who shall be future guides to 
50uls, in this country, especially. It 
would not be necessary, at a period 
like this, to urge the indispensa- 
bleness of piety in ministers, were it 
not that in the minds of many men 
of education and standing, especially 
in some of our college Boards and 
Faculties, there is entertained the 
sentiment, that talents, learning, and 
morality, are sufficient qualifications 
for the office of the ministry : while 
religion, as a subject of experience, 
under the influences of the Holy Spirit 
of God, and to be shown in holiness 
of life, is disbelieved and contemned : 
and also, that we are every year be- 
'coming more exposed to the danger 
of having the ministry become here, 
what it long has been to such an ex- 
tent in some other countries — a mere 
profession to live by. But let, now, 



the questions go round among the 
churches of the Lord Jesus, and 
among reflecting men who give only 
a speculative assent to the truths of 
the Bible. Who will commit him- 
self to the religious instruction of a 
man who knows and believes nothing 
about the grace of God, as a matter 
of experience 1 Who is willing to 
seat his family, Sabbath after Sab- 
bath, and year after year, before a 
pulpit from which an unconverted 
man, in the pride of talent and the 
flippancy of unbelief, delivers the cold 
maxims of a heartless morality, or 
the sickening sentimentalism of grave 
ungodliness, or the announcements 
of " damnable heresy '"? Who that 
cares anything respecting religion, is 
willing to see ordinations become, 
extensively, the putting of men " into 
the priest's office that they may eat 
a piece of bread ;" the " laying of 
hands suddenly" on "sculls that can- 
not teach and will not learn " which 
be '' the first principles of the ora- 
cles of God ?" thus, in truth, making 
one of the holiest solemnities in the 
church, to be the profane setting 
apart of men to the solemn service 
of the devil, as " blind leaders of the 
blind." It is enough to make angels 
weep, to see such things done ; and 
in this comparatively religious coun- 
try of ours too ; things they are, 
which, " in the day of judgment," 
will fill the transactors in them with 
horror and despair, as the transac- 
tions of impiety and blasphemy. 

To avert and remove such evils 
from our churches and from the 
country, prayer must be made, " in 
faith," and " without ceasing, unto 
God," for his continual blessings up- 
on our seminaries of learning. We 
want our pulpits filled with men who 
know, love, and preach " the truth 
as it is in Jesus," and on whose min- 
istry will descend an " unction from 
the Holy One." Our country-— 
thanks to the Great Head of the 
Church — has been blessed with a 
goodly number of ministers, whose 
consecration to Christ began within 



190 



PRAYER FOR LITERARY AND 



[Feb. 



the walls of college. Many a church 
knows what a blessing is a faithful 
minister ; and when called to weep 
over his orave, and to gather the re- 
membrances of his early life, they 
have associated with his endearing 
useftdness to them, that college where 
he was renewed by the Spirit of the 
Lord, and his preparation begun, to 
be an '^ ascension gift " to them. 
Thousands of such ministers are 
wanted at this moment in our own 
country ; and tens of thousands 
more for the conversion of the hea- 
then world. For with the progress 
our Education Societies and Theo- 
logical Seminaries are making, in 
training such ; the wants of our 
own country — to say nothing of the 
rest of the world — cannot be overta- 
ken, these many years. Hundreds 
of young men are wanted, where tens 
can be had to answer yearly applica- 
tions for preachers. And death, all 
this time, is sweeping ministers into 
the grave, as rapidly as any class of 
men whatever. 

We ought not, however, to desire 
that every converted collegian should 
become a minister, much as ministers 
are wanted. For men of devoted 
piety are needed also, in the profes- 
sion of laio. The lawyer has inter- 
course with men of all classes. He 
generally takes rank among the first 
men, in town, county, state ; and in 
the country at large. He lives in a 
professional station of influence ; and 
as we shall yet notice, he is occasion- 
ally in other stations of importance. 
He is, inevitably, a man of some in- 
fluence or other. If unfriendly to 
serious religion and the doctrines of 
the cross, no man can do more than 
he, to oppose them. In the place of 
his residence, he can be the respect- 
able and influential patron of error. 
In his intercourse with men of his 
profession, and with numerous oth- 
ers, he can, if he is disposed, raise 
many a smile of contempt at reli- 
gion ; give many a wound to the 
cause of Christ ; and possess many a 
mind with the errors which darken 



his own. With my eye upon an ac- 
tual case — formerly existing in our 
country — I will suppose him to rise to 
the bench, and to circulate around 
him, in the social intercourse of each 
season of court session, the influence 
of his own loose sentiments on reli- 
gion ; to deal out the doctrines of a 
subde heresy to a circle of lawyers ; 
a jurist of commanding talents and 
high professional attainments, and 
having a powerful influence over his 
juniors, and doing as much to fill 
their minds with specious error, and 
prejudice against the religion of Je- 
sus, as any minister, of his faith, in 
all the country. And who can cal- 
culate the vast amount of moral mis- 
chief such a man in such a station 
will do ? 

" The faith once delivered to the 
saints," ought to have lovers and de- 
fenders among the members of the 
bar, as well as in the pulpit. Not 
that every lawyer should be a critical 
theologian ; nor that religion should 
be discussed in the court room ; but 
that men who can so well put forth 
powers of argumentation in that 
place, should be, as Christians, well 
read in that grand text-book of the- 
ology, the Bible ; and should be dis- 
posed and ready to defend its great 
truths, and urge its holy duties, 
whenever it is needful in their inter- 
course with other men. Such an 
one, it is believed, was Hale, among 
English jurists. Such a man was 
Reeve, among Americans. Some few 
men there are, of like character, at the 
present time. But we want our bench- 
es and bars composed of such men. 

Men of devoted piety are also want- 
ed in the medical profession. The 
intercourse of the physician is of a 
peculiarly interesting character, and 
with all classes of society. He is 
with them in scenes of suffering and 
danger; and at times when their 
hearts are bursting with solicitude ; 
or broken with sorrow, as mourners. 
He has some of the best possible ad- 
vantages for doing good to men's 
souls, when called to prescribe for 



1832. 



PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



191 



their bodies. He often finds men 
under circumstances in which they 
cannot help thinking, feehng, and 
trembling, in regard to their eternal 
interests. What a delightful qualifi- 
cation in a pliysician, then, to know 
how to minister to the *' wounded 
spirit," as well as to the frail, dying 
body. 

I know a physician, who is in the 
practice of kneeling by the bed-side 
of his patients, and imploring the 
blessing of God upon his medical 
prescriptions. I have been informed 
of another, respecting whom are 
stated the following interesting facts. 
He was called to a surgical case, of 
a very critical character. An opera- 
tion was required speedily ; which 
might save the man's life ; but, from 
peculiar circumstances, so critical, 
that the man might die under it. 
This pious physician and surgeon 
having examined the case, made his 
patient aware of his situation, and of 
the hazard which would attend the 
operation ; and referred it to him to 
decide whether it should be perform- 
ed. The patient said, " Do it." '' I 
leave you then, my dear sir," said 
the physician, *' for half an hour, 
which I shall spend in prayer to God. 
Let me beg you also to spend it in 
preparing for the worst." The phy- 
sician went to " the throne of grace ;" 
and came from it to his critical work. 
God had heard his prayers. The 
operation was successful ; and the 
man's life was saved. His soul, too, 
it is believed, received good through 
the faithfulness of the praying physi- 
cian. What a different matter, to be 
under the hands of such a physician ; 
and to be under those of one who 
perhaps never lifted a prayer to God 
for his patients, in the whole course 
of his practice. I do not say that 
successful practice can be expected 
only from the pious physician. But 
I do say, whenever I lie trembling on 
the side of the grave, bring to my 
bed-side, of all human physicians, a 
son of the " Great Physician ;" one 
who will remember my immortal soul, 



while he prescribes for my perishable 
body. 

'J'he interest is peculiar which a 
family feel in a physician, who has 
been with them in some trying scene. 
He has perhaps been instrumental, 
through divine goodness, in bringing 
up a beloved member of their circle 
from the borders of the grave ^ and 
has mingled his joys with theirs^ in. 
that recovery. Or, after his best,, 
but fruitless efforts, he has wept with 
them by the dying bed of one very 
dear to them. He is thus brought 
into a kind of contact with them,, 
and they feel an interest in him, and 
a regard for his character, as a man 
and a physician, which will influence 
their minds — it may be powerfully — 
in regard to his religious opinions 
and character. Of first importance, 
then, is it, that these be such that 
his influence upon them shall be sal- 
utary. The pious physician may 
even vie with the minister of reli- 
gion himself, in influence and use- 
fulness for good to souls ; and like 
Luke, the companion of Paul, in his 
work of winning souls to Jesus, may 
well deserve the appellation of " the 
beloved physician." We might fol- 
low the physician into the various 
other parts of his sphere of influence 
and usefulness ; and give examples 
of piety in such men. We might 
also look at instances of men of pro- 
fessional skill and excellence, who 
have united with these, still, the dan- 
gerous faith of false doctrines, or the 
gloomy skepticisms of atheism; and 
who have spent their lives in taking 
good care of men's bodies, but have 
ruined their souls by an unhappy 
moral influence. All would go to 
make urgent the duty we are consid- 
ering, of prayer for the influences of 
the Holy Spirit upon our colleges and 
professional seminaries. 

Men of piety are wanted in the sta- 
tions of official and political duty and 
influence ; as filled in considerable 
measure from the Bar, and occasion- 
ally from other institutions. There is 
a very intimate connection between 



Mte»- 



193 



PRAYER FOR LITERARY AND 



[Feb. ; i 



revivals of religion in our seminaries 
of learning, and the future furnishing 
of our country with religious rulers 
and legislators. Countless dangers 
beset men in public life. This arises 
in part from their dependence, to such 
an extent, on popular favor and elec- 
tion ; and from their being called to 
enter into the conflicts of parties, and 
the scrambles of ambition and pride. 
To read the debates of a session of 
congress or state legislature, or to 
watch the course of an election, is suf- 
ficient to convince any man of com- 
mon discernment, that men who 
enter into political life, perhaps into 
official stations, are put to frequent 
and severe tests of moral and reli- 
gious principle; by the state of opin- 
ions and feelings among those from 
whom they receive their places. They 
are often tempted to do wrong, in the 
*' fear of man," instead of right in 
^nhe fear of God." 

That which was seen in an emi- 
nent British statesman, in taking an 
independent stand where national jus- 
tice was concerned, in advocating the 
claims of America, sixty years since ; 
is also necessary in the American 
legislator, to secure legislative respect 
for religion and sound national mor- 
als. For example ; on two great sub- 
jects before the people of this coun- 
try ; Indian rights, and the withdraw- 
ment of the mail from our public 
roads on the Sabbath. I am aware 
that these are considered party ques- 
tions by many ; and that it is demand- 
ed that ministers shall neither preach 
nor pray about them ; and that some 
ministers have allowed themselves to 
be frightened into silence respecting 
them. They are subjects of too high 
importance and solemnity ; and the 
honor of God's holy law, and the 
well-being of this nation, are too deep- 
ly concerned in them ; that they 
should be treated as " party ques- 
tions." And ministers who are silent 
upon them, are silent to the dishonor 
of their sacred office, and under a 
fearful responsibility to their " Lord 
and Master." 



For the security of right delibera- 
tions and safe decisions, on subjects 
of such a character as these named ;- 
steady religious principle needs to 
come into operation, — the fear of God, 
as a gracious and soul pervading prin- 
ciple. Biasses, prejudices, self-inter- 
est, need to be held in check, from 
inducing wrong decisions. True, 
under the influence of human feelings, 
and simple moral principle, and even 
under the influence of party feelings, 
men may providentially legislate safe- 
ly and uprightly. But there is no se- 
curity for it ; and the probabilities 
are in strong majority against it. The 
truth is, it needs religion in the heart, 
and a sacred regard to the decisions 
of the Statute Book of the Lord Jeho- 
vah, to ensure a man^s acting right^ 
in the fear of God, on such subjects 
and under such circumstances. 

Let the individual influence of our 
public men, and of our legislatures, 
upon the state of public opinion on 
moral and religious matters, be con- 
sidered ; and also the dangers to a na- 
tion, which spring from having un- 
righteous rulers, of whatever political 
creed or party they may be; and, 
moreover, what have often been the 
judgments of God upon nations, on 
their account. Let it also be consid- 
ered what a blessing pious rulers and 
legislators are ; and the concern they 
have in securing our own internal 
happiness and prosperity, and the 
right character of our influence on 
other nations. 

All these things point us to the 
forming period of the lives of our 
young men, as the time when, and to 
the academy, the college, and the pro- 
fessional school, as the places where, 
the prevention of evil and the secu- 
rity of good must be in train. Fer- 
vent and devoted piety is seriously 
needed by all at present "in author- 
ity." But it needs to be in existence 
and growth in the future legislator 
and ruler, while in the different 
stages of education. The training of 
his spirit, by the grace of God, needs 
to^go on, with the training of his men- 






1832. 



PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS. 



193 



tal powers, under '* tutors and gover- 
nors." Could you s?jow us a represen- 
tative, a senator, a member of cab- 
inet, or the president of these United 
States, just converted; you would 
only show us a *' babe in Christ," in 
the first breathings of spiritual life; 
and needing to grow, many a year, 
before he would be at the "measure 
of the stature of manhood in Christ," 
and in the strength and firmness of 
holiness, which he needs noio, every 
hour, in his responsible station. And 
if it be a miracle of grace that -he is 
converted to God, amidst the tempta- 
tion and labors of office : it will 
require the continuance of the mira- 
cle to keep him alive under such cir- 
cumstances. No; while we pray for 
them who *' are in authority ;" would 
we have rulers for time to come, 
who shall be " strong in the grace 
which is in Christ Jesus," we must 
ask of God, that in the youth, in the 
preparatory school, and in the college, 
and the young man in the professional 
seminary, there may be the com- 
mencement of the work of grace; and 
that they may have as long time as 
possible to "grow in grace and in the 
knowledge of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ," before they shall be 
called to trie temptations and dangers 
of public life. We must thus antici- 
pate their wants, and what we would 
have them to be ; and pray that they 
may be prepared to go up upon the 
high places of our land clothed with 
the humility of grace, and yet strong 
in the holy might of grace. Thanks 
for some such, now. May the day 
soon be given us, when our seats of 
office and our halls of legislation shall 
be filled with such. But to this end, 
let every Christian daily pray that 
our seminaries may be the dwelling 
places of the Holy Spirit. 

Men of piety are wanted as teach- 
ers in our seminaries. There is in 
our country a great and growing in- 
terest in the subject of education. 
Professional schools, colleges, acade- 
mies, lyceums, high schools, &lc. are 
going up, every where. There is a 

VOL. IV. 25 



consequent growing importance of 
the profession of teaching, in its va- 
rious departments ; and in its differ- 
ent grades, from the instructor of a 
village school up to the president of a 
college. Education may become, in 
this country, through the irreligion of 
teachers, what we have already said 
it is in some portions of Europe, the 
handmaid of error, or even of atheism ; 
and may poison all our fountains of 
science and learning. The whole 
spirit and habits of our literary men 
may become deadening to religious 
interests; cold, speculative, proud, 
philosophizing, daring, deistic, athe- 
istic, demoralizing. Wo to the reli- 
gious interests of our country, if the 
day come when the spirit of unsanc- 
tified literature, in our faculties of 
instruction, shall have such ascend- 
ency, here as elsewhere, over the spirit 
of piety. 

Men of education, and of a spirit 
of literary enterprize, loving religion, 
and " living according to God in the 
spirit," are blessings to a country. 
They put honor upon the word of 
God, and upon the religion of the 
gospel, as the only true elevator of the 
soul, and adorner of character. They 
attach an importance to the pursuit of 
things heavenly and divine, which 
commends it to the minds of their 
pupils. They are seen by their pupils 
laying down their honors at the foot 
of the cross ; and bringing the rich 
resources of science and learning to 
the aid of the great object of spreading 
the knowledge of God in the earth. 
Look at such men as Edwards, and 
Dwight; and others that have been, 
and some that now are in collegi- 
ate offices ; men of talents and learn- 
ing ; sitting and teaching their pupils 
to sit " at the feet of Jesus," and to 
"learn of Him." Good and honora- 
ble eminences are such. Would we 
have our chairs of instruction filled, 
and kept occupied, by such men, we 
must pray and look for the divine in- 
fluences on our seminaries, where 
are resident, from year to year, the' 
future ca,ndidates for these places. 



194 



PRAYER FOR COLLEGES. 



[Feb. 



In the persons of our young men, we 
must by faith see the future champi- 
ons of the Christian rehgion, as well 
as the eminent sons of science and 
learning. 

In the way of warning to the 
churches, let us here draw one or two 
pictures, from actual cases ; present- 
ing melancholy contrasts to those we 
have named. Upon one, our eye 
rests ; learned enough he was, but 
affording proof that learning may be 
associated with utter indifference and 
even hatred to evangelical religion. 
At the head of an institution, which 
educated under his presidency, many 
a young man of talents ; and laid the 
foundation for many accomplished 
scholars and men of taste ; he un- 
blushingly " denied the Lord who 
bought him" and them ; made the 
ways of error, in appearance, ways of 
pleasantness, and its paths to give de- 
ceitful promise of peace ; took away 
— with others — the foundations of the 
sanctuary of truth, and built up a shin- 
ing fabric of error, on which belonged 
the inscription, " the way to hell, 
going down to the chambers of death." 
And will there ever be a return, from 
their strayings out of the path of 
truth, of the melancholy numbers, 
whom he, in his responsible station, 
encouraged to shut their eyes against 
the light, and to turn their backs up- 
on God and that eternal life which is 
in his Son ! — Upon another we look ; 
he was literary, tasteful, accomplish- 
ed, witty, wicked ; a hater of the doc- 
trines of " the cross," and a reviler 
of that " name which is above every 
name." Profligacy in him also vied 
with heresy and the spirit of blas- 
phemy. Into a fountain of science, 
of which he had the keys, he poured 
the poison of his own detestable irre- 
ligion and licentiousness; till God 
removed him, and called him to his 
last account. 

Christian, will you place under such 
influence the " son of your vows ?" 
Can you bear the thought, that when 
you and your fellow Christians of this 
age are in your graves, your ^nd their 



" children's children" shall be for 
generation added to generation, thus 
the prey of the destroyer ? No. Sup- 
plicate then for the residence and 
guardianship of the Holy Spirit in 
our colleges, now, and henceforth, so 
long as " the sun and the moon shall 
endure." Be treasuring up prayers 
for our seats of science and learning, 
that there the Lord will "command 
a blessing," when you shall have 
been long gone down to the grave. 

Our time permits little more than 
to name a few others of the many sta- 
tions which demand learning and tal- 
ents sanctified by the grace of God; 
and which are to be filled, principally, 
from the ranks of our young men 
educated at colleges and professional 
schools. The editor of a periodical 
journal ; the professional author ; 
the artist, and man of practical sci- 
ence ; the agent of Christian benev- 
olence ; the trustee and visitor of a 
literary or professional institution ; 
the merchant; the traveller upon 
enterprizes of literary and philosophi- 
cal research ; each and all need the 
grace of God to dwell in their hearts ; 
that they may be blessings to society, 
their country, and the world. With- 
out this, it cannot be predicted 
where shall be the limit of their 
unhappy influence on the minds of 
tens of thousands. Each one can 
nobly help, or most disastrously hin- 
der, the progress of Christian truth 
and holiness, and the salvation of 
men. Each one of them needs to 
bring with him to his work, a " heart 
established with grace ;" a mind en- 
lightened and sanctified by the truth 
of Christ; and an eye single to the 
divine glory. We should pray for 
such men now in station and influ- 
ence ; but especially for those who 
are and will be, continually, in 
those interesting places of prepara- 
tion, the college and the professional 
seminary. Your prayers of faith and 
fervency. Christians, through the di- 
vine blessing, can obtain a meeting, 
in those places, between the Holy 
Spirit and their immortal spirits. And 



1832.] 



PETITIONING IN BEHALF OF PUBLIC OBJECTS. 



195 



the consequence may be, joy to you, 
and "among the angels of God in 
heaven ;" and the giving of a blessed 
direction to their course, and that of 
unborn millions, throughout eternity. 
Christians, you cannot, you will not 
let such prayers be vi^anting I 

Did time permit, we might speak 
of many other important relations sus- 
tained by this subject; for example, 
the protection of students from the 
temptations of a purely literary spirit ; 
and from the unhappy influence of 
ambition and literary rivalry ; from 
the backslidings, among college 
scenes and temptations, which some- 
times appear in apparently pious 
young men ; and from the coldness 
and formality in religion too often 
seen, in both instructors and students 
professedly pious, where the spirit of 
literature is suffered to rival or out- 
strip the spirit of piety. We might 
■also dwell on some animating encour- 
agements in this duty. But we close 
with a remark or two upon the thought 
ihat 

Prayer for our colleges and profes- 
sional institutions takes hold on that 
.great object, the conversion of the 
world. The desolations of Christian 
lands are yet in aflfecting measure 
•undiminished. Added to these, " the 
heathen" have yet to be "given to 
Christ for his inheritance." Vast 
wildernesses and countless " solitary 
places" yet remain to be "made 
glad ;" and almost a world of " des- 
ert," untrodden by the messengers of 
salvation, remains to be made to " re- 
joice and blossom as the rose." Six 
hundred millions of dying sinners are 
in want of the "joys of God's salva- 
tion," this very hour. There is a 
blessed song, destined to "employ all 
nations" of this globe. But, with the 
most earnest efforts which the whole 
church on earth can make, and with 
the most speedy and happy success 
which can be attained ; millions on 
millions from among these present 
nations, before their wants can be 
overtaken, will have gone, unblessed 
with the gospel, down to eternal night 



and despair. The Lord has given 
"the word;" but "great"' must be 
"the company of them that pub- 
lish it." Let us then fix our eyes 
on the colleges of America, and of 
every other country called Christian, 
— upon these hopes of the church 
and of a perishing world ; and lift 
them, too, with our supplications, 
to the eternal "hills from whence 
Cometh our help," to Zion's God 
" who only doeth wondrous things." 



For the Q,uarterly Register. 

PETITIONING IN BEHALF OF PUB- 
LIC OBJECTS. 

Within thirty years past, the philan- 
thropists and Christians of England have 
accomplished several important objects 
by petitioning Parliament. Among 
these are the abolition of the slave 
trade ; the introduction of Christianity 
into British India ; the Catholic eman- 
cipation bill ; and the abolition of the 
practice of burning widows in India. 
These same men are now calling the 
attention of Parliament to the sub- 
ject of the final and total abolition of 
slavery throughout the British domin- 
ions. There is an impatience, a rest- 
lesness in the public mind on this sub- 
ject, Avhich will never grow weary till 
the work is done. Rather than that 
involuntary servitude should continue 
in the West Indies, many years longer, 
they would see the Atlantic ocean 
sweep over the whole of the islands. 

In this country, also, we have fre- 
quently presented petitions to our gov- 
ernment, but we have almost as uni- 
formly failed. Questions in regard to 
the transportation of the mail on the 
Sabbath ; the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia ; the removal of 
the Indian tribes ; and others of great 
importance, have agitated the public 
mind, and have been the subjects of 
public petition and remonstrance. But 
all these efforts have thus far ended in 
disappointment. Some minor objects 
have been gained, but the main thing 
aimed at has been lost. What is the 
cause of these different results in the 
two countries? Why should the Bri- 
tish philanthropists meet with almost 
uniform success, and we with almost 
uniform failure ? Not surely because 
our brethren in Britain possess more of 



196 



PETITIONING IN BEHALF OP PUBLIC OBJECTS. 



[Feb. 



public virtue, of enlightened conscience, 
of philanthropy, of love of freedom, of a 
spirit of industry or perseverance . 

One cause of our failure, in this coun- 
try, is the unwillingness, on the part of 
many, to interfere in what they call 
political concerns. They choose to suf- 
fer some heavy political evils, rather 
than submit to the trouble of seeking- 
constitutional redress. They are accus- 
tomed to interpret the declaration of 
Christ, that his kingdom is not of this 
world, as excusing them from all con- 
cern with the civil government under 
which they live. They are to submit 
quietly, whatever be the nature of the 
authority which is exercised over them. 
Or they may suppose that any atten- 
tion to such subjects will subtract from 
that spirituality of mind, which it is 
their duty to cherish as the subjects of 
the heavenly kingdom. They may, per- 
haps, imagine that to engage to any 
extent in political matters supposes that 
they must become familiar with the arti- 
fice, and miserable chicanery, and par- 
tyism, in which mere worldly men are 
conversant. But there are matters, 
connected with civil government, Avhich 
.concern every man in the community, 
that has a conscience, or an obligation to 
discharge. If upright and conscientious 
men keep aloof from the great field of 
civil and political affairs, most disastrous 
will be the consequences. How can 
an honest Christian " pray for kings and 
for all in authority, that we may lead a 
quiet and peaceable life," if he does not 
look, with a vigilant eye, on the move- 
ments of his government, especially, if 
he lives in a country where power em- 
anates from the people, and where every 
man is, in a sense, a guardian and ruler 
of the nation. Such a man does not 
look through the whole circle of his 
duties. His conscience is not in a per- 
fect and healthy state. He is willing to 
perform what devolves upon him of a 
quiet, social nature, but shrinks away 
from those duties which call for self-de- 
nial and firmness. 

Another cause of our failure, in this 
country, is a disposition to act too 
exclusively as individuals. We have 
not learned yet the power of associ- 
ated effort. We are willing to think 
right ourselves ; we fire willing to 
place our names on a paper; but we are 
not willing to carry that paper to our 
neighbor, and see that he understands 
|he subject, and feels^ and acts as he 



ought. But we have not done our duty, 
when we have come to a right conclu- 
sion ourselves,. The great law of Chris- 
tian love enforces its claims upon us 
collectively as well as individually. To 
a certain extent we are responsible for 
our neighbor's belief and practice. The 
individual, who, twelve months since, 
subscribed his name to a petition in 
behalf of the Indians, did not perform 
his duty unless he used his whole influ- 
ence to bring all within his reach into 
fervent co-operation. A question of 
great solemnity, appealing to all, which 
there was in him of sensibility, and con- 
science, and Christianity, came before 
his consideration. Was his duty dis- 
charged, in the sight of his omniscient 
Judge, when he had recorded his own 
silent, single, insulated protest? The 
voice of the moral law is. Take others 
with you to your duties. The voice of 
selfishness always has been, I am not 
my brother's keeper. 

Another cause of our frequent disap- 
pointment is the too great extension, 
in some respects, of the doctrine that 
no appeal is to be made to the legis- 
lature, or to the law, but that public 
opinion is first to be changed, and that 
then the legislative enactment will fol- 
low of course. This doctrine, in gen- 
eral, is certainly correct, as our own 
experience most abundantly affirms. 
But in the reformation of morals, it may 
be carried to an unwarrantable extent, 
or it may be made to exclude us from 
doing that which it is our duty to do. 
There are certain classes, in every com- 
munity, who are reformed, or efifectually 
restrained only by positive enactment 
and penalty. The public opinion of all 
civilized nations has long been unani- 
mous in opposition to the slave trade ; 
yet there are thousands of the subjects 
of Christian governments who are, at 
this moment, engaged in it. Public 
sentiment will never touch them. The 
public sentiment which they need, is a 
grappling iron for their ships, and a 
penitentiary or a gibbet for their bodies. 
Those measures, which some Christians 
may regard as violent, or unauthorised, 
or inexpedient, may powerfully aid in 
changing the public opinion. The ex- 
citement produced by petitioning for a 
public object, does more than anything 
else to enlighten the public mind. 
Without the strong feeling produced 
by the very act of addressing the leg- 
islature, tracts and pamphlets might 



1832. 



A GOOD CONSCIENCE. 



197 



deluge the land, and all the ordinary 
means of correcting" public opinion 
might be exhausted in vain, simply be- 
cause the community would not feel a 
sufficient degree of interest to read 
them. A people may be sometimes 
compelled to think, when the ordinary 
means of enlightening their minds have 
failed to produce their effect. 

Another cause of our repeated dis- 
appointment is faint-heartedness. We 
do not expect success. We are rather 
afraid that we shall succeed. We make 
some efforts more to accomplish cer- 
tain subordinate purposes, it may be, 
than the great end in view. Many, 
who signed a petition some time since 
against the removal of the Indian 
tribes, did it with the gloom, with 
which they would have signed a death 
warrant. In many cases, he, who con- 
fidently expects success, will attain it. 
Discouragement is the parent and pre- 
cursor of defeat. It may be that we 
are too much terrified at the formidable 
difficulties in our way. We do not 
allow sufficient weight to the sense of 
moral obligation which exists in our 
public men. We are too much afraid 
of their sneers at what is moral and 
religious. Political men are more un- 
der the influence of an early Christian 
education, or of a natural conscience, 
than we are sometimes apt to imagine. 

Petitioning, therefore, or a frank and 
earnest exposition of our views and 
feelings, should be regarded by Chris- 
tians as a most sacred duty, and a most 
invaluable privilege. Whenever we 
see a great public interest neglected, 
an important right invaded, or an ordi- 
nance of heaven, which is cognizable 
by, human statute, infracted or dese- 
crated, by our rulers or by any class of 
men, it is our business respectfully, 
firmly, unitedly to tell them so. We 
neglect a momentous trust when we 
slight or undervalue the elective fran- 
chise. Alike blameworthy are we also, 
if we do not lift our voice in solemn re- 
monstrance, and earnest petition, when- 
ever the providence of God calls us to 
it. A half civilized people, when their 
rights are invaded, will assert them in 
blood and in fire. A conscientious 
Christian community will vindicate their 
rights by clear argument and strenuous 
appeal. 

In the whole history of the human 
race, tl^ere is hardly a more sublime 



spectacle than was exhibited in Britain, 
when hundreds of thousands, year after 
year, for the space of thirty years, ad- 
dressed Parliament, in behalf of African 
rights. No event on record so raised 
up the whole moral capabilities of a 
nation. It made philanthropists, not 
only of Wilberforce and of Clarkson, 
but of multitudes of others, from the 
Land's End to the Orkneys. The same 
awakened conscience, the same ardent 
love of mankind, the same indomitable 
perseverance, which triumphed in the 
House of Commons, triumphed also 
among the manufactories of Manches- 
ter, and in the mines of Cornwall. That 
event — the abolition of the slave trade 
— exerted a very great collateral and 
indirect influence. The power to do 
good, which England now possesses, 
and which she so gloriously illustrates, 
was called into vigorous being more 
by that event than by anything else. 

When shall such a day come here. 
When shall the whole conscience, and 
virtue, and sensibility of this nation 
utter its loud remonstrance, its implor- 
ing prayer, its overwhelming appeal in 
behalf of humanity crushed into the 
dust. We have made very feeble efforts 
in favor of a noble and fast vanishing 
race. When shall we act according to 
the exigencies of the case. When 
shall we feel for entire nations of men 
on the point of utter extinction. When 
shall we feel for the honor of this 
great country, about to be tarnished 
forever. 



A GOOD CONSCIENCE. 

He, who has lived as man should live, is 
permitted to enjoy that best happiness which 
man can enjoy — to behold in one continued 
series, those years of benevolent wishes or 
of heroic sufferings, which are at once his 
merit and his reward. He is surrounded by 
his own thoughts and actions, whicb from 
the most remote distance, seem to shine 
upon him wherever his glance can reach ; 
as in some climate of perpetual summer, in 
which the inhabitant sees nothing but fruits 
and blossoms, and inhales only fragrance 
and sunshine and delight. It is in a moral 
climate as serene and cloudless, that the 
destined inhabitant of a still nobler world 
moves on, in that glorious track, which has 
heaven before, and virtue and tranquillity 
behind ; and in which it is scarcely possible 
to distinguish, in the immortal career, when 
the earthly part has ceased, and the heav- 
enly begins. — Dr. Thomas Brown, 



198 



VIEW OF THE SECOND PERIOD. 



[Feb. 



HISTORY OF 



REVIVALS OF RELIGION, 

JFROM THE SETTLEMENT OF THE COUNTRY TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

[Continued from page 135.] 



Secohd Period. From 1662 to 1720 ; fifty-eight years. 

In the last number of our work, we gave such notices, as we could collect, 
of the state of religion in this country, for the first half century after its settlement. 
Before we proceed to the consideration of the Second Period, Ave wish to devote 
a little space to the early efforts for the propagation of Christianity among the 
Indian Tribes. The labors of Eliot, Gookin, the Mayhews, and others, were 
worthy of primitive times. They nobly vindicated an original design of the 
first settlers of the country — the religious instruction of the natives. With 
enlarged views and with joyful hope, they looked forward to the universal reign 
of the Redeemer. Some of the fathers of New England, regarded with deep 
compassion the outcasts of the forest, and maintained towards them an entire 
and uniform friendship. It is really refreshing to turn from the pages of the 
Magnalia, and other historical records of those times, containing as they do 
many misropresentations of the Indian character, to the truly fraternal, disin- 
terested, and comprehensive charities and labors of Eliot and his associates. 

The principal tribes of Indians in New England, were the Pequods, Narra- 
gansetts, Pawkunnawkutts, Massachusetts, and Pawtucketts. The Pequods 
inhabited some towns in the north eastern parts of Connecticut. They were, at 
one time, able to raise 4,000 warriors. The Narragansetts held dominion over 
the southern part of Massachusetts, particularly the county of Bristol, and Rhode 
Island. The seat of the principle sachem was about Narragansett bay, and Ca- 
nonicut island. They were able to arm 5,000 men. The Pawkunnawkutts were 
a numerous people, and inhabited the islands of Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, 
and the neighboring shores. They resided mostly within the limits of the 
Plymouth colony. They could raise 3,000 fighting men. They were often con- 
federated with the Massachusetts Indians against the Narragansetts. Great num- 
bers of them were sv/ept away, by an epidemical and most terrible disorder, in the 
years 1612 and 1613, about six or seven years before the settlement was made 
in Plymouth. The Massachusetts Indians had possession of the country around 
the Massachusetts bay. Their principal sachem exercised sovereignty over 
several smaller tribes. They could muster 3,000 warriors. They were frequently 
in alliance with the Pawkunnawkutts and Pawtucketts, and at enmity with the 
Narragansetts. A mortal sickness had almost entirely wasted them. The 
Pawtuckett Indians numbered, in their most prosperous days, 3,000 " mighty 
men of valor," and inhabited the country north and east of the Massachusetts, 
extending into Maine and New Hampshire as far as the English settlements 
reached. They had jurisdiction over smaller tribes. Sickness had also greatly 
reduced their numbers. In fifty years after the country was settled by the 
English, their number was but about 250 men besides women and children. 

All these nations were sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. Scarcely 
a gleam of light from the invisible world shone on their path. The prince of 
the power of the air led them captive at his will. They paid some kind of 



1832.] LABORS OF ELIOT. 199 

adoration to the sun and moon and other material objects. They were held in 
most profound bondage to a system of conjuring-, or of professed intercourse 
with the evil spirit. It is truly affecting to see their wretchedness at the periods 
of the sweeping- mortality referred to — all their miserable refuges utterly failing 
them before the fell destroyer ; whole nations sinking at once into the grave, 
cold and cheerless. 

It was the contemplation of their sad and miserable condition which awakened 
the benevolent feelings of John Eliot. He was educated at the university of 
Cambridge in England, came to Boston in 1631, and Avas settled as teacher of 
the church in Roxbury, on the 5th of November, 1632. In the year 1646^ when 
a little past forty-one years of age, Mr. Eliot commenced in earnest the work of 
learning the Indian language. The first place, in which he began to preach to 
the Indians, was Nonantum, (now the east part of Newton,) near Watertown 
mill, upon the south side of Charles river, about four or five miles from his own 
house. In this place resided Waban, one of the principal chiefs. " His man- 
ner of teaching them," says Gookin, " was first to begin with prayer, and then 
to preach briefly upon a suitable portion of Scripture ; afterwards to admit the- 
Indians to propound questions ; — and divers of them had a faculty to frame hard 
and difficult questions touching something then spoken, or some other matter in 
religion, tending to their illumination ; — which questions Mr. Eliot, in a grave 
and Christian manner, did endeavor to resolve and answer to their satisfaction." 
His efforts were soon attended with considerable success. Another lecture was 
established by him for the benefit of the Indians, who lived at Neponset, a 
place about four miles south of his house, in the bounds of Dorchester. Among 
these Indians were several persons of intelligence and sobriety. At Nonantum, 
Waban became a very zealous and efficient helper of Mr. Eliot. Besides 
preaching, he compiled tAvo catechisms, in the Indian tongue, containing the- 
principles of the Christian religion. These he communicated to the Indians 
gradually, a few questions at a time, according to their capacity to receive 
them. The questions were propounded at one lecture, and answered at the 
next. He encouraged the children to commit the answers to memory, by giving 
them an apple, or a small biscuit. In this way he won their affections to him- 
self, and to the truths which he taught. Many of the Indians became thoroughly 
imbued with the facts and doctrines of the Christian religion, and were able 
readily to answer any question of the catechism. Great numbers of them 
adopted the practice of praying in their families, morning and evening. These 
labors of Mr. Eliot were of the most disinterested character. For a long time 
he received no salary or reward whatever. The motives which influenced him, 
as he declared to Mr. Gookin, were first, the glory of God, in the conversion of 
some of these poor, desolate souls ; secondly, his compassion and ardent affec- 
tion to them, as of mankind in their great blindness and ignorance ; thirdly, and 
not the least, to endeavor, so far as in him lay, the accomplishment and fulfilling 
the covenant and promise, which the people of New England made to the king, 
when he granted their charters — namely, that one great end of their emigration 
to the new world, was to communicate the gospel unto the native Indians. 

His great work of translating the Bible into the Indian language was the 
means of drawing the attention of the Society in England for Propagating the 
Gospel. This Society immediately assumed the expense of printing it, as well 
as the Catechisms, Psalms, Primers, Grammars, Practice of Piety, Baxter's Call, 
and other books, which Eliot composed or translated. They also erected a 
building at Cambridge, at an expense of between three and four hundred pounds. 
This building could accommodate about twenty scholars with lodging rooms. 
Much pains were taken to fit the Indian youth for usefulness, by public educa- 
tion, but the efforts were not very successful. Only two individuals resided at 
tlie college, and but one received his degree, the other having unhappily per- 
ished on a voyage to Martha's Vineyard. Mr. Eliot took great care that schools 
should be planted among the praying Indians. Some persons he taught him- 
self, so that they might be instructers of others. 

In order to provide for the proper government of the Indians, and to extend 
among them the arts of civilization, the General Court of Massachusetts, at the 
instance of Mr. Eliot, appointed some of the most prudent and pious Indians, in 



200 SUCCESS OF THE GOSPEL AMONG THE INDIANS. [FeB. 

every Indian village that had received the gospel, to be rulers and magistrates 
among them, and to superintend their affairs, both civil and criminal. The 
Court also appointed one of the English magistrates, to unite with the chief of 
their rulers, and to hold a higher court among them. The first individual 
appointed to this office was Gen. Daniel Gookin, author of the Historical Collec- 
tions. This took place in 1756. Gookin was at first a planter in Virginia, but 
preferred to spend his days in New England. He became a freeman of Massa- 
chusetts in 1644. " He had formerly," says Johnson, " been a Kentish soldier, 
and a very forward man to advance martial discipline, and withal the truths of 
Christ." Soon after he Avrote his Collections, the harmony which had long sub- 
sisted between the English and Indians, was interrupted. The General Court 
of Massachusetts passed several severe laws against them; and the Indians of 
Natick, and other places, who had subjected themselves to the English govern- 
ment, were hurried down to Long Island, in the harbor of Boston, where they 
remained all winter, and endured inexpressible hardships. Mr. Eliot had firm- 
ness enough to stem the popular current. But the only magistrate, who op- 
posed the people in their rage against the wretched natives, was Mr. Gookin ; 
in consequence of which, he exposed himself to the reproaches of the other 
magistrates, and to the insults of the populace as he passed the streets. Gookin 
bore it calmly, and soon recovered the confidence of the people. " He knew 
more about the Indians," says Rev. Dr. John Eliot, "than all the other magis- 
trates." He used to accompany Eliot in his visits of mercy to the Indians, and 
act as a kind and faithful counsellor, rectifying disorders, hearing appeals from 
the Indian courts, and in many ways promoting their happiness. He died so 
poor, that Mr. Eliot requested the Hon. Robert Boyle, to bestow ten pounds 
upon his widow. 

The following facts will show the general results of Mr. Eliot's labors. The 
first town of praying Indians in Massachusetts, was Natick, eighteen miles 
southwest from Boston. It had twenty-nine families, and about one hundred 
and forty-five persons. The town was regularly laid out into streets, had a fort, 
and a house for public worship. " In a corner of this house Mr. Eliot had an 
apartment partitioned off, with a bed and bedstead in it." A church was formed 
in 1660. In 1670 there were between sixty and seventy communicants. It is 
here to be observed that the praying Indians were not all members of the 
churches, but included all serious Indians, who Avere inquirers or catechumens. 

The following interesting anecdote is related of an Indian youth, who died at 
Natick, at the age of eleven years. This child heard Mr. Eliot preach, on a 
certain occasion, Avhen the ordinance of baptism was to be administered to some 
children, whose parents had joined the church. In the course of his remarks, 
Mr. Eliot said that baptism was Christ's mark, which he ordered to be set upon 
his lambs, and that it was a manifest token of Christ's love to the offspring of 
his people, to set this mark upon them. The child took special notice of this 
passage, and often solicited his father and mother that one or both of them 
would endeavor to join the church, that he might be marked for one of Christ's 
lambs before he died. Not long after the mother and father united with the 
church, and the lad was baptized. He greatly rejoiced that he was marked for 
one of Christ's lambs ; and now said to his father and mother, that he was wil- 
ling to die. This event shortly after took place, and the " little one " was, doubt- 
less, gathered into the heavenly fold of his Redeemer. Mr. Eliot, in order to 
prepare young men to explain and apply the Scriptures, established a lecture 
among them in logic and theology, once in two weeks, during the summer. A 
number of individuals were thus prepared to speak methodically and with much 
propriety. This was a kind of seminary for all the other towns. 

Another place where Eliot labored was Pakemitt, in the limits of the present 
town of Stoughton, about fourteen miles from Boston. Here Mr. John Eliot 
Jr. preached once a fortnight. In its most flourishing state it contained tAvelve 
families, and sixty souls. Here were several Indians of much ability, Avho were 
employed as teachers. 

The third town of praying Indians was Hassanamessett, in the present town 
of Grafton, thirty-eight miles from Boston, containing about sixty souls. There 
were sixteen persons connected with the church, and about thirty baptized per- 



: 



183^.] RELIGIOUS STATE OF T/Ii: INDIANS. 201 

Bons, The church had a pastor, ruling elder, and deacon, all exemplary men, 
and Indians. 

About thirty miles from Boston was the fourth town of praying- Indians, 
Okommackamesit, or Marlborough, containing about fifty souls. They owned 
about six thousand acres of land. Wamesit, the fifth praying town, was on 
Concord river, twenty miles from Boston, in the present limits of Tewksbury, 
and contained about seventy-five souls. Nashobah, the sixth town, was situated 
betweeen Chelmsford, Lancaster, Groton, and Concord, about twenty-five miles 
northwest from Boston. It contained about fifty souls. It seems that the vice 
of drunkenness very much prevailed in this town. Gookin says, " I have often 
seriously considered what course to take to restrain this beastly sin among them, 
but hitherto cannot reach it." Magunkaquog, or Hopkinton, twenty-four miles 
from Boston, was the seventh town. It was a flourishing plantation. There 
were resident about eight members of the church established at Natick, and 
fifteen baptized persons. 

The above seven were the principal towns of praying Indians. In addition, Mr. 
Eliot, accompanied by Mr, Gookin, the Aaron and Moses of this most benevolent 
work, used to visit the Indians, at Avhat are now the towns of Oxford, Dudley, 
Ward, Uxbridge, Brookfield, and Woodstock in Connecticut. At all these places 
were more or less praying Indians. Indians were in the habit of proceeding 
from Natick and elsewhere, to teach in these then distant settlements. 

Thus there were fourteen towns and two churches of praying Indians, and, as 
Gookin says, about eleven hundred souls who yielded obedience to the gospeh 

The example and labors of Mr. Eliot were the means of turning the attentidii 
of benevolent men in other portions of New England, to the hapless condition 
of the Indians. In the colony of Plymouth, it pleased God to excite Mr. Richard 
Bourne, of Sandwich, to engage in the enterprize. He acquired a good know- 
ledge of the Indian language, and was indefatigable in his eflTorts. Mr. John 
Cotton, of Plymouth, also engaged with much zeal in the work. In the year 
1685, the praying Indians in this colony amounted to fourteen hundred and. 
thirty-nine, besides boys and girls under twelve years of age, who were sup- 
posed to be more than three times that number. In the year 1693, there were; 
within the limits of Eastham, five hundred and five adult Indians, to whom Mr^ 
Treat preached ; two hundred and fourteen adults^ besides wanderers, at Marsh- 
pee, and places adjacent, under the care of Mr. Rowland Cotton, minister of 
Sandwich ; one hundred and eighty Indians, to whom Mr. Thomas Tupper 
preached ; and five hundred more under the care of Mr. Cotton, of Plymouth. 
Of these Indians, Mr. Bourne remarks, "There is good hope of divers of thera^ 
some of them being lately dead, having given a good testimony of their being 
in the faith ; and so lifting up their souls to Christ, as their Saviour and' their 
all in all ; as divers of the well affected English know, and have been present 
among some of them, who departed this life." 

" As concerning the messengers that were present, when the church was 
gathered, there were present our honored governor, with divers of the magis- 
trates ; there were also seven of the leading elders, with the messengers of their 
respective churches ; besides, I suppose, five hundred people ; some of the chief 
of them declaring their satisfaction and s>pprobation ©f the present work at 
that time." ^ 

At Martha's Vineyard, the gospel #ks preached with great efficiency and 
perseverance. The Mayhews will be had in everlasting remembrance. 

Mr. Thomas Mayhew, senior, came over to New England, as a merchant, very- 
soon after the settlement. Meeting with disappointments in his business, he 
purchased a farm in Watertown, and in 1641, procured of Sir Ferd'inando- 
Gorges, a grant or patent for Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and Elizabeth 
Isles, in order to establish on them an English settlement. In 1642, he sent his 
only son, Thomas Mayhew, Jr., a scholar, about twenty-one years of age, with 
some other persons, to the Vineyard. They established themselves on the 
eastern side. Mr. Thomas Mayhew, senior, soon followed, and became gover- 
nor of the plantation. His soa, who had been educated at Cambridge, was in- 

* Morton's New England's Meraoriial. 

VOL. IV. 26 



202 LABORS OP THE MAYHEWS. [FeB. | 

vited to be the minister. "But his English flock," says Prince, '• being small, 
the sphere was not large enough for so bright a star to move in. With great 
compassion he beheld the wretched natives, who were several thousands on those 
islands, perishing in utter ignorance of the true God and eternal life, laboring 
under strange delusions, enchantments, and panic fears of devils whom they 
most passionately Avorshipped. But God, who had ordained him an Evangelist 
for the conversion of these Indian Gentiles, stirred him up with an holy zeal 
and resolution, to labor for their illumination and deliverance. He first en- 
deavors to get acquainted with them, and then earnestly applied himself to learn 
their language. He treated them in a condescending and friendly manner. 
He denied himself, and did his utmost to oblige and help them. He took all 
occasions to insinuate and show the sincere and tender love and good will he 
bare them ; and as he grew in their acquaintance and affection, he proceeded to 
express his great concern and pity for their immortal souls. He told them of 
their deplorable condition under the power of malicious devils, who not only 
kept them in ignorance of those earthly good things, Avhich might render their 
lives, in this world, much more comfortable, but of those also, which might bring 
them to eternal happiness in the world to come." 

The first Indian who embraced Christianity was Hiacoomes, a man of a sober, 
thoughtful, and ingenuous spirit. This was in 1643. Mr. Mayhew used to invite 
him to his house every Lord's day evening, gave him a clear account of the 
nature of the Christian religion, and speedily brought him to an intelligent and 
resolute adherence to it. A mortal sickness which prevailed in 1G45, and which 
was much more fatal in its ravages with the heathen than with the praying 
Indians, was the means of considerably extending the gospel. Two or three of 
the principal chiefs listened to Mr. Mayhew with much seriousness. In 1646, 
Mr. Mayhew was invited to hold a public meeting, so that he might be to them, 
as the sachem expressed it, " as one that stands by a running river, filling many 
vessels ; even so shall he fill us with everlasting knowledge." This public meet- 
ing was continued once a fortnight, with manifest good effects. At one assem- 
bly twelve young men declared that they would go "in God's way." At another 
of these meetings, composed of praying and pagan Indians, the question in regard 
to the truth of Christianity came into a fierce debate. The interrogation was 
boldly made, Who is there that does not fear the poivows 7 It was replied that 
there was not a man who does not. Numerous instances of their power to hurt 
and to kill were alleged. At length Hiacoomes arose, and declared, with great 
firmness, that though the poivows might hurt those who feared them, yet he 
believed and trusted in the great God of heaven and earth, and therefore all the 
powows together could do him no harm, and he feared them not. Hiacoomes fol- 
lowed this intrepid declaration with earnest prayer and preaching to the whole 
multitude. In the course of his remarks, he mentioned " forty-five or fifty sins 
committed among them, and as many contrary duties neglected ; which so amazed 
and touched their consciences, that at the end of the meeting, there were tiventy- 
hvo Indians who resolved against those evils, and to walk with God, and attend 
his word." Upon this advantage, Mr. Mayhew redoubled his diligence. He 
spared himself neither by night nor by day. He travelled and lodged in their 
smoky wigwams. He usually spent a great part of the night "in relating the 
ancient stories of God, in the Scriptures, which were very surprising and enter- 
taining to them, and other discourse vv^hich he conceived most proper. He pro- 
posed such things to their consideration as he thought important, fairly resolved 
their subtle objections, and told them they might plainly see, it was purely in good 
will to them, from whom he could expect no reward, that he spent so much time 
and pains, and endured so much cold and wet, fatigue and trouble. Mr. May- 
hew, indeed, counted all things loss for the sake of preaching the gospel to these 
poor wanderers. In order to support his wife and three small children, he was 
obliged to labor with his own hands, not having half the yearly income, which 
some common laborers enjoyed. 

About the middle of October, 1651, there were 199 men, women, and children, 
who had professed themselves to be worshippers of the one living and true God. 
Two meetings were held, every Sabbath, and the services were conducted by 
Indians. A school was also established, in which were collected about thirty 



1832.] INDIANS ON Martha's vineyard. 203 

scholars. By the end of 1C52 there were 282 Indians, besides children, who had 
renounced the worship of false gods, and eight of the poivows had forsaken their 
trade. In three or four years the number of praying Indians was greatly 
increased. 

In 1(j57, Mr. MayhoAV sailed for England, to give a particular account of the 
Indians to the Society for Propagating the Gospel, and to others. But neither 
the ship nor any of the passengers were heard of more ! 

He was so affectionately beloved and esteemed by the Indians, that they could 
not easily bear his absence so far as Boston, before they longed for his return ; 
and for many years after his departure, he was seldom named without tears. The 
place on the way-side, where he solemnly took leave of his poor and distressed 
people, was remembered with sorrow by all that generation. 

His excellent and venerable father, Mr. Thomas Mayhew, senior, was not at all 
disheartened by the sad loss of his son. He went once every week to some of 
the Indian plantations. When nearly sixty years old, he set himself with 
unwearied diligence to learn their difficult language, and, though a governor, was 
not ashamed to become a preacher. He sometimes travelled nearly twenty miles 
on foot, througli the woods, to preach and visit. In a few years, with the assist- 
ance of the pious Indians, the gospel was carried to the west end of the island, till 
then in darkness ; so that Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket could both be called 
Christian. There were then on these islands about 3,000 adult Indians. The 
venerable Mayhew lived till he was more than ninety-two years of age, perse- 
vering till the very close of his life, in his labors of love. He was succeeded by 
his grandson, Mr. John Mayhew, who followed closely in the steps of his father 
and grandfather. He died on the 3d of February, 1G89, in the 16th year of his 
ministry, and in the 37th of his age, in joyful hope of eternal life, persuaded, as 
he said, that God would not place him with those after death in whose company 
iie could take no delight in his life-time." 

His eldest son, Mr. Experience Mayhew, on the death of his father, entered on 
the same field of labor. He preached to the Indians for more than thirty- 
two years. In 1702, Dr. Cotton Mather thus writes, "That an hopeful and 
worthy young man, Mr. Experience Mayhew, must now have the justice done 
him of this character, that in the evangelical service among the Indians, there 
was no man that exceeds this Mr. Mayhew, if there be any that equals him." 
This Avas at a time when there were more than thirty Christian assemblies, and 
3,000 praying Indians. By the request of the commissioners in England, of the 
Society before mentioned, Mr. Mayhew made a new Indian version of the Psalms, 
and the Gospel of John. 

Mr. Mayhew spent a life protracted several years beyond fourscore in the ser- 
vice of Christ among the Indians. In 1727, he published an octavo volume, in which 
he gives an account of more than thirty Indian ministers, and about eighty Indian 
men, women, and children, who resided within the limits of Martha's Vineyard. 
His son, Zacheus Mayhew, was employed by the Massachusetts Society for 
Promoting the Gospel among the Indians and others, in North America, till his 
death in 1803. In 1720, there were in the Vineyard, six small villages, contain- 
ing about one hundred and fifty-five families, and about eight hundred souls. 
Each of these villages was supplied with an Indian preacher. Nearly all the 
remnants of these Indians have now disappeared. 

On the island Nantucket, in 1674, there were three toAvns of praying Indians, 
containing about 300 individuals, one church, and 30 communicants. 

The aggregate number of praying Indians in 1674, has been estimated as fol- 
lows : 

In Massachusetts, principally under Mr. Eliot's care, .... 1,100 

In Plymouth, under Mr, Bourne, 530 

In Plymouth, under Mr. Cotton, 170 

On the island Nantucket, 300 

On Martha's Vineyard and Chappequiddick, under the May hews, 1 ,500 

3,600 
In 1698, the Rev. Grindal Rawson and the Rev. Samuel Danforth visited the 
several plantations of Indians in Massachusetts, and made report to the commis-r 



204 NOTICES OF THE RELIGIOUS DECLENSION. [Feb. 

sioners of the Society for Propagating the Gospel. They reported thirty distinct 
assemblies of Indians, which they visited, having thirty-six teachers, five school- 
masters, and twenty rulers. The whole number of Indians under this arrange- 
ment, was 3,080. Of this aggregate number, 1,290 Avere in that part of Massachu- 
setts which was formerly Plymouth colony, 1,585 were on the islands of Nan- 
tucket, Martha's Vineyard, Chappequiddick, and the Elizabeth islands, and 205 
only in the other parts of Massachusetts, which exhibited 1,100 in Mr. Gookin's 
account in 1674. All the rulers, teachers, and school-masters above named, 
were Indians. The teachers Avere, however, occasionally assisted by the neigh- 
boring clergy, and several of them Avere employed as school-masters. The 
commissioners gave a favorable opinion, generally, of the improvement and 
manners of the Indians, of their sobriety, decent dress, and proficiency in reading 
and Avriting. These facts show conclusively the blessed results of the labors of 
Eliot, the MayheAvs, and their coadjutors. A few efforts were made in Con- 
necticut and Rhode Island by the Rev. Messrs. A, Pierson, James Fitch, Roger 
Williams and others, but without great success. 

We now proceed to exhibit the religious state of the country during the period 
of fifty-eight years, from 1662 to 1720. We shall, in the first place, bring for- 
ward testimony in proof of the lamentable decline of vital godliness ; then fur- 
nish some statements of the partial revivals of religion which took place in dif- 
ferent portions of New England ; and complete our review of this period with 
some general observations. 

The Rev. Thomas Prince, in one of his sermons, thus remarks. " This won- 
derful Avork of the grace of God, begun in England, and brought over hither, was 
carried on while the greater part of the first generation lived, for about thirty 
years. And then the second generation rising up and growing thick on the 
stage ; a little after 1660, there began to appear a decay. And this increased to 
1670, when it grew very visible and threatening, and Avas generally complained 
of, and bewailed bitterly among them ; and yet much more to 1680, when but 
few of the first generation remained." 

Mr. Stoughton, afterwards deputy governor, in an election sermon in 1668, 
thus pours forth his lamentations. "The death and removal of the Lord's eminent 
servants, in .one rank and in another, this also hath manifested the lie in many of 
us. Whilst they lived, their piety and zeal, their light and life, their counsels and 
authority, their examples and awe kept us right, and drew us on in the Avays of God, 
to profess and practice the best things ; but now that they are dead and gone, 
ah, hoAv doth the unsoundness, the rottenness and hypocrisy of too many amongst 
us make itself knoAvn, as it was with Joash after the death of Jehoida." The Rev. 
Thomas Walley, of Barnstable, in a sermon before the General Court of the 
Plymouth colony, in 1669, has the folloAving sentence. "Are we not this day 
making graves of all our blessings and comforts ? Have Ave not reason to expect 
that ere long our mourners will go up and down and say. How is NeAv England 
fallen ! The land, that Avas a land of holiness, hath lost her holiness ; that Avas a land 
of righteousness, hath lost her righteousness ; that was aland of peace, hath lost 
her peace ; that Avas a land of liberty, hath lost her liberty, and is in sore bon- 
dage !" The Rev. Samuel Danforth, of Roxbury, in 1670, says, "Is not the tem- 
per, complexion, and countenance of the churches strangely altered ? Doth not 
a careless, remiss, flat, dry, cold, dead frame of spirit grow upon us secretly, 
strongly, prodigiously. They that have ordinances are as though they had none ; 
they that have the word, as though they had it not ; they that pray, as though 
they prayed not ; they that receive the sacraments, as though they received 
them not -, and they that are exercised in the holy things, using them by the by 
as matters of ceremony." The venerable Dr. Increase Mather, in a treatise, 
printed in 1676, thus remarks. "Prayer is needful on this account, in that con- 
versions are become rare in this age of the world. They that have their thoughts 
exercised in discerning things of this nature, have had sad apprehensions with 
reference unto this matter, — that the work of conversion hath been at a great 
stand in the world. Clear, sound conversions are not frequent in some congre- 
gations. The body of the rising generation is a poor, perishing, unconverted, 
and, except the Lord pour down his Spirit, an undone generation. Many that 



1832.] MEETING OF THE SYNOD. 205 

are profane, drunkards, lascivious, scoffers at the power of godliness, despisers of 
those that are good, disobedient. Others, that are only civil, and outwardly con- 
formed to good order, by reason of their education, but never knew what the 
new birth means." In 1683, the Rev. Samuel Torrey, of Weymouth, in the 
election sermon, says, "Oh, the many symptoms of death, that are upon our reli- 
gion. Consider we then how much it is dying respecting the very being of it, 
by the general failure of the work of conversion ; whereby only it is that religion 
is propagated, continued, and upheld in being among any people. As convert- 
ing work doth cease, so doth religion die away, though more insensibly, yet most 
irrecoverably. How much religion is dying in the hearts of sincere Christians, 
iby their declensions in grace, holiness, and the power of godliness." The Rev. 
Samuel Willard, pastor of the South Church in Boston, and vice president of 
■Harvard College, in a sermon printed in ]670, remarks : "How few thorough 
-conversions are to be observed ? How scarce and seldom ? Men go from ordi- 
■nance to ordinance, and from year to year, and it may be are a little awakened 
jan-d affected, but how few are effectually turned from sin to God. It is to be 
■hoped that there are more than we know of. This work of God is secret. How- 
,ever, this is a certain observation, which may be safely made, that where there is 
■no outivard conversion, charity hath no ground to proceed on to believe that 
there is an inward one, for were the heart savingly changed, that would influ- 
ence the life ; yea, were men pricked to the heart under ordinances, they would 
cry out for help and direction, and we should hear of them." Dr. Increase 
Mather, in 1702, wrote as follows : " Look into our pulpits, and see if there is 
such a glory there as once there was ; New England has had teachers eminent 
for learning, and no less eminent for holiness, and all ministerial accomplish- 
ments. When will Boston see a Cotton and a Norton again ? When will New 
England see a Hooker, a Shepard, a Mitchel, not to mention others. Look into 
our civil state. Does Christ reign there as once he did ? How many churches, 
how many towns are there in New England, that we may sigh over them and 
say. The glory is gone." 

The same excellent man, of blessed memory, in a preface to a course of ser- 
mons on early piety, by some of the Boston ministers, printed in 1721, writes : 
"I am now in the eighty-third year of my age, and having had an opportunity to 
converse with the first planters of this country, and having been, for sixty-five 
years, a preacher of the gospel, I cannot but be in the disposition of those 
ancient men who had seen the foundation of the first house, and wept with a 
loud voice to see what a change the Avork of the temple had upon it. I Avish it 
were no other than the weakness of Horace's old man, the laudator tempoiis acti. 
When I complain there is a grievous decay of piety in the land, and a leaving of 
the first love, and that the beauties of holiness are not to be seen as once they 
were ; a faithful Christian growing too rare a spectacle ; yea, too many are given 
to change, and leave that order of the gospel, to set up, and uphold which, was 
the very design of these colonies ; and the very interest of New England seems 
to be changed from a religious to a worldly one. Oh ! that my head were 
waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears." The same state of things existed, 
perhaps not to an equal degree, in Connecticut. Dr. Trumbull says that, " the 
general state of the country was greatly altered from what it was at its first set- 
tlement. The people then were generally church members, and eminently pious. 
They loved strict religion, and followed their ministers into the wilderness for 
its sake. But with many of their children, and with others who had emigrated 
into the country, it was not so." 

In September, 1769, by recommendation of the General Court, a synod of 
ministers, elders, and delegates, from various churches in Massachusetts, con- 
vened in Boston, to consider the deplorable declension in morals and religion, 
and to devise means for a reformation. Rev. Pres. Oakes, and Rev. John Sher- 
man were appointed moderators. A day of fasting and prayer was solemnly 
observed by the synod. A committee was named to draw up the opinions of 
the assembly ; which being done, it was repeatedly read over, and each para- 
graph distinctly weighed. The whole was then unanimously adopted. The 
General Court, in the following October, " commended it unto the serious con- 
sideration of all the churches and people in the jurisdiction, enjoining and 



206 MEASURES OF THE SYNOD. [FeB. 

requiring- all persons, in their respective capacities, to a careful and diligent refor- 
mation of all those provoking evils mentioned therein, according to the true 
intent thereof, that so the anger and displeasure of God, many ways mani- 
fested, might be averted, and his favor and blessing obtained." The principal 
evils enumerated by the synod, were the following: A great and visible decay 
of the power of godliness among many professors of religion ; communion with 
God, especially in secret, much neglected ; pride, manifested in a refusal to sub- 
mit to the appointments and ordinances of God ; contention, &c.; neglect of 
church fellowship and other divine institutions ; irreverent behavior in the wor- 
ship of God ; Sabbath breaking in various ways, and a careless and heartless 
manner of performing the duties of the Sabbath. Many families do not pray to 
God morning and evening, and many more where the Scriptures are not daily 
read. '''■Most of the evils,^^ say the synod, " that abound among us proceed from 
defects as to family government.''^ Censoriousness, tale-bearing, law-suits. Much 
intemperance. The heathenish and idolatrous practice of health-drinking is too 
frequent. "And not English, but Indians have been debauched by those who call 
themselves Christians, who have put their bottles to them and made them drunk 
also. There are more temptations and occasions unto that sin, publicly allowed 
of, than any necessity doth require, the proper end of taverns, &c. being the 
entertainment of strangers. Church members frequent public houses, to the 
dishonor of the gospel." Other notorious breaches of the ten commandments 
were enumerated. Violation of truth; inordinate love of the world; want of 
public spirit. Hence schools of learning and other public concerns are in a lan- 
guishing state. Opposition to a reformation, in some cases, bitter and long con- 
tinued. Sins against the gospel. Sins, which were formerly acknowledged, 
not repented of nor forsaken. 

But enough has been quoted to prove that there had been a melancholy 
declension from the days of the first fathers. The fine gold was changed. The 
peculiar people, with whom God had established his covenant, and whom he had 
blessed in a most wonderful manner, had become like the other nations, weary 
of the service of their Benefactor and Redeemer. 

Notwithstanding, the aspect of the country was not one of unmingled gloom. 
There are some circumstances, which refresh and gladden the observer, as he 
casts his eye over these years. The Holy Spirit, in his renovating poAver, was 
not withdrawn entirely from the pleasant land of our fathers. The tears and 
prayers which had been poured out by Shepard, and Mitchel, by Clap, and Brews- 
ter, and Rogers, and Richard Mather, and thousands of others, were numbered in 
heaven, and the second and the third generation felt the benefit of them. 
Increase Mather, and many others of kindred spirit, still lifted up their voice of 
warning and entreaty. 

The synod before mentioned, and which was termed the " Reforming Synod," 
recommended the adoption of several measures to promote a reformation. 
"Those in the higher ranks in society should first reform themselves of all which 
was amiss. None ought to be admitted to the communion without making a 
personal and public profession of their faith and repentance, either verbally or in 
some other way. The discipline of the church was to be immediately revived, 
and to be thoroughly and perseveringly attended to. The utmost endeavors 
were to be used to seek a full supply of officers in the church. " The defect of 
these churches on these accounts is very lamentable, there being in most of the 
churches only one teaching officer, for the burden of the whole congregation to 
lie upon. Civil magistrates were to take care that proper maintenance and sup- 
port be provided for the ministers of religion. "Effectual care," say the synod, 
"should be taken respecting schools of learning. The interest of religion and 
good literature have been wont to rise and fall together. When New England 
was poor, and we were but few in number, comparatively, there was a spirit to 
encourage learning, and the college was full of students, whom God hath made 
blessings, not only in this but in other lands ; but it is deeply to be lamented that 
now when we are become many, and more able than at our beginnings, that 
society, and other inferior schools are in such a languishing state. Wherefore, 
as we desire that reformation and religion should flourish, it concerns us to 



1832.] REFORMATION OP MORALS. 207 

endeavor that both tlie college, and all other schools of learning-, in every place, 
be duly inspected and encouraged." 

The main thing, however, recommended by this venerable assembly was, that 
all church members should renew their covenant, solenmly promising as churches 
and as individuals to abstain from all sin, to bo more entirely the Lord's, and to 
strive for a general and thorough reformation of all which was wrong. All these 
things were to be done in a spirit of entire dependence on God, and Avith earnest 
prayers to the Great Head of the Church for his enlightening and sanctifying 
grace. 

It is gratifying to learn that these measures were followed by happy 
results. " Very remarkable," says Cotton Mather, " was the blessing of God upon 
the churches, which renewed their covenant, not only by a great advancement in 
the holiness of the people, but also by a great addition of converts unto their fellow- 
ship." It was customary to observe days of preparatory fasting and prayer. This 
was followed by a general meeting, " whereat a vast confluence of their neigh- 
bors were usually present; on this day, the minister of the place having prayed 
and preached suitably to the occasion, proceeded then to read the covenant ; 
whereunto the assent of the churches was then expressed, by the brethren lift- 
ing up their hands, and by the women only standing up ; and, though in some 
churches none but the communicants, yet in others, those also which we call the 
children of the church, were actively concerned in these transactions. But 
ordinarily, in the afternoon, some other minister prayed and preached, and incul- 
cated the covenant obligations ; and many thousands of spectators will testify, 
that they never saw the special presence of the great God our Saviour, more 
notably discovered, than in the solemnities of these opportunities." 

In these praise -Avorthy efforts to effect a reformation, the people of Massa- 
chusetts were followed by the inhabitants of Connecticut and Plymouth. The 
civil fathers and the ministers held mutual consultations. The ministers drew up 
the result of these deliberations, and the magistrates recommended them to the 
consideration of the people. Some clergymen reduced these instructions into a 
catechetical form, and propounded them to the children of their congregations. 
The General Court of Massachusetts issued an instrument, in March, 1689, 
enjoining upon all civil officers the execution of the laAvs, and earnestly recom- 
mending to all the people a ready compliance and co-operation. 

In 1705, there was another partial reformation. A minister of Boston, in 
November of that year, thus writes: "Our societies for the suppression of disor- 
ders, increase and prosper in this toAvn ; there are two more such societies added 
unto the former ; there are also religious societies without number in this 
country, that meet at proper times, to pray together, and repeat sermons, and 
forward one another in the fear of God. In some towns of this county, the min- 
isters who furnish themselves with a society for the suppression of disorders, 
hardly find any notorious disorders to be suppressed. But then their societies 
are helpful unto them in doing abundance of good for the advancement of serious 
religion in the neighborhood, and to make their ministry much more profitable in 
the weekly exercise of it." 

Rev. Samuel Danforth, of Taunton, son of Rev. Samuel Danforth, of Roxbury, 
thus writes in February, 1705: " We are much encouraged by an unusual and 
amazing impression, made by God's Spirit on all sorts among us, especially on 
young men and women. It is almost incredible how many visit me with 
discoveries of the extreme distress of mind they are in about their spiritual con- 
dition. And the young men, instead of their merry meetings, are now forming 
themselves into regular meetings for prayer, repetition of sermons, signing the 
same orders, which I obtained, some years ago, a copy of, from the young men's 
meeting in the north of Boston." A few days afterwards he writes, "We 
gave liberty to all men and women, from sixteen years old and upAvards, to act 
with us, (in signing the reformation-covenant, as it was called); and had three 
hundred names given in to list under Christ, against the sins of the times.* The 
whole acted with such tears of gravity and good affection, as would affect an 

*The practice of giving personal pledges, and of forming associations for the suppression of vice, it 
seems, is not a new thing. The more we search into the records of the former days, the more we shall find 
that wise and benevolent men lived before our generation. 



5i08 PARTIAL REVIVALS OF RELIGION, [FeB. 

heart of stone. Parents weeping- for joy, seeing- their children give their names 
to Christ. And we had several children of the church, in the neighboring towns, 
who came and joined with us in it* We have a hundred more that will yet bind 
themselves in the covenant, that were then detained from meeting. Let God 
have the glory. Yesterday, fourteen were propounded to the church : some for 
full communion; other for baptism, being adult persons. I have little time to 
think of worldly matters ; scarce time to study sermons ; as I used to do. I 
think sometimes that the time of the pouring out of the Spirit upon all flesh, may 
be at the door." 

The Rev. Jonathan Edwards, of Northarrjpton, in some accounts of a revival 
of religion in Northampton, has the following paragraphs. "I am the third min- 
ister that has been settled in this town ; the Rev. Mr. Eleazar Mather, who was^ 
the first, was ordained in July, 166L He was one whose heart was much in his 
work, abundant in labors for the good of precious souls. He had the high 
esteem and great love of his people, and was blessed Avith no sm.all success. 
The Rev. Solomon Stoddard, who succeeded him, came first to the town, the 
November after the death of Mr. Mather, but was not ordained till September, 
1672. He died Feb. 1, 1729. So that he continued in the work of the ministry 
here, from his first coming to town, nearly sixty years. And as he was eminent 
and renowned for his gifts and grace, so he was blessed, from the beginnings 
with extraordinary success in his ministry, in the conversion of many souls. He 
had five harvests, as he called them. The first was about the year 1679 ; the 
second in 1683 ; the third in 1696 ; the fourth in 1712 ; the fifth in 1718. Some 
of these times were much more remarkable than others, and the in-gathering of 
souls more plentiful. Those that occurred in 1683, in 1696, and in 1718, were 
much greater than either the first or the last; but in each of them, I have heard 
my grandfather say, the greater part of the young people in the town seemed 
to be mainly concerned for their eternal salvation." 

The following paragraph relates to the town of Windham, in Connecticut: 
"God hath been pleased to make him (the Rev. Samuel Whiting, ordained Dec. 
4, 1700) a very rich blessing among them, and doubtless many will have reason to 
bless God forever in that their lot hath been cast to dwell under his ministry. 
He hath seen the town flourishing to that degree, that in this short space of 
time, (thirty years,) two other societies are already sprung out therefrom." 

Notwithstanding the reformations in morals, and the partial revivals of reli- 
gion, which took place during the period under review, it is very evident that 
New England in 1720, and New England in 1640, were exceedingly altered. 
There had been manifestly a sad degeneracy. In looking for the causes of this 
melancholy change, we find among the most prominent, the difference in the 
nature of the population. New England had lost, in some measure, that homoge- 
neousness of character, which was her glory and her strength in the first period. 
Difficulties in the middle and southern colonies had been the occasion of some 
emigration to New England, from those quarters. A considerable number from 
France, Ireland, and other countries of Europe, had removed to New England, 
while the emigrants from the parent seat, Old England, were actuated, in many 
instances, by other motives than those which animated the early fathers. It was 
not so much to enjoy an asylum of rest from religious persecution, nor to diff'use 
the gospel among the aborigines of these western regions, as it v/as to escape 
from the civil wars of the first Charles, and the proscriptions of the second, or 
what was Averse, from the deserved execution of civil penalties. The great 
body of the inhabitants of these States Avere, indeed, descended from the old 
stock. But there was a considerable admixture of " aliens and foreigners," rest- 
less, impatient of civil or religious discipline, and frequently embroiling the 
magistrates and ministers in controversies, alike destructive to civil prosperity, 
and religious improvement. In addition to this, "several of the most consider- 
able colonists, and many of the ministers, had returned to England." 

Another principal cause of the religious declension was the stormy political 
aspect of the country. The whole period, from 1662 to 1720, was one of fre- 
quent and violent change. For nearly the first half of this period, Charles II. 
was on the British throne, " a prince, who was a traitor to the liberties of Eng- 
land, selfish, beyond the semblance of benevolence, and voluptuous, without the 



1832.] STATE OF THE COUNTRY. 209 

decency of shame. His reign was disaster. His death was infamy." This 
prince was the lawful sovereign of such men as the Winthrops, the Rogerses, 
the Winslows, the Mathers of New England. To his court, licentious and 
debauched almost beyond Babylonian or Corinthian precedent, the people of 
New England were compelled to apply for rights, and privileges, and charters. 
James H., who succeeded Charles, and who reigned from 1685 to 1688, was a 
better seaman than king, and was deposed to the joy of all parties. The reigns 
of William HI. and of Anne, which occupied nearly all of the remainder of the 
period, though in many respects prosperous, and though, to some extent, bene- 
ficial to the colonies, were still involved in almost constant wars. The relation 
of the following facts will show the extremely uiisettled state of the country. 

In 1663, Charles issued a commission empowering Col. Richard Nichols, Sir 
Robert Carr, George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick, Esquires, to "hear and 
determine complaints and appeals, in all causes, as well military, as criminal and 
civil," within New England ; and to proceed in all things for settling the peace 
and security of the country. In 1665, the commissioners appeared in Massa- 
chusetts, and began to execute their important trust. Their efforts were firmly 
resisted by the General Court. Thus commenced a long and angry controversy 
between the colony and the mother country. Lord Clarendon said that the 
"colonies had already become hardened into republics." In 1675, the memora- 
ble war between Philip, king of the Wampanoag Indians, and the New England 
colonies, began. It closed in 1676. In this short but most terrible war, 
600 of the inhabitants of New England, composing its principal strength, were 
either killed in battle, or murdered by the enemy ; 12 or 13 towns were entirely 
destroyed ; and about 600 buildings, chiefly dwelling-houses, were burnt. In' 
addition to these calamities, a large debt had been contracted, and a Vast quan- 
tity of goods, cattle, and other property had been destroyed. Nearly every 
eleventh family had been burned out, and an eleventh part of the militia 
throughout New England had been slain in battle. A great part of the inhab- 
itants were in mourning. There were but few which had not lost a relative. 

In 1684, the charter of Massachusetts was declared to be forfeited, in the 
court of chancery in England; and the liberties of the people seized into the 
king's hands. Under this charter, the colony had enjoyed fifty-five years of liberty 
and prosperity, though for a few of the last years, the threatened invasion of the 
privileges which it secured, was the occasion of great distress. In 1686, Sir 
Edmund Andros came over as governor of New England. His lawless and arbi- 
trary measures excited great commotion, and a determined spirit of resistance' 
to his measures was avowed. The whole country was in a state of alarm. At 
length, in April, 1689, Andros and about fifty other persons were seized and con- 
fined, A new charter was granted by William, but it was not, in several par- 
ticulars, so full and satisfactory as the old charter. 

In addition to all the preceding causes of excitement, which were calculated! 
to divert the minds of the people from the interests of religion, there was an 
earthquake, which produced great alarm ; several extensive fires in Boston, by 
one of which, £200,000 Avorth of goods was consumed ; several fatal disorders, 
particularly the small pox and yellow fever ; the strange and most melancholy 
infatuation in regard to witchcraft; the failure of some important expeditions 
against the French possessions, &c. The minds of the people were, in fact, in 
a state of anxiety and gloom, for a number of years, almost amounting to 
derangement. They saw things throtrgh a discolored medium. They had felt 
the first impulse of that freedom, which, in a century after, burst out into a flame, 
but now they hardly knew wha^ their rights were, nor how they were to be 
maintained. As it was, their minds were altogether unfitted to enter warmly 
and earnestly into the spirit of Christianity. 

However, in accounting for the* languishing condition of vital Christianity^ 
there was another cause most disastrous and long continued in its operation — ' 
the change in the requisitions for church-membership. The aspect of this change 
on the purity of the churches has been most malign. In fact, it levelled the 
enclosure between the church and the world. It destroyed the fundamental 
distinction between the church, as a separated and consecrated community, and- 
the mass of unbelieving men. 

VOL. IV, 27 



210 MANNER OF ADMISSION TO CHURCHES. [FeB. 

As this is a matter of vital importance, and as its effects are yet visible, after 
the lapse of a century and a half, we shall allot considerable space to the con- 
sideration of it. 

In 1631, at the second General Court held after the establishment of the col- 
ony of Massachusetts bay, an order was passed, "that for the time to come, 
none should be admitted to the freedom of the body politic, but such as were 
church-members." And the tenure of church-membership, and of the enjoyment 
of any church-privilege, was, at that time, that of the New Testament — satisfac- 
tory evidence of regeneration. This most extraordinary law continued in opera- 
tion for nearly sixty years, till the new charter, obtained from William and Mary, 
abrogated it. It occasioned discontent from the beginning ; for there were, 
from the first settlement, a considerable number of persons, not church-mem- 
bers, who were, of course, excluded from all civil offices, and from having any 
voice in elections, and yet were subject to taxation and the various burdens of 
public service.'^ 

The careful manner in which churches were constituted, and the privileges 
of church-membership granted, may be seen from the following account of the 
organization of the church in Woburn. As soon as there were a competent 
number to support a minister, the inhabitants considered themselves "as surely 
seated, and not before, it being as unnatural for a right New England man to 
live without an able ministry, as for a blacksmith to work his iron without a 
fire." This people, therefore, like others, laid their "foundation stone" with 
earnestly seeking the blessing of heaven in several days of fasting and prayer. 

" They then took the advice of the most orthodox and able Christians, espe- 
cially the ministers of the gospel, not rashly running into a church state before 
they had a prospect of obtaining a pastor to feed them with the bread of life. 
They soon obtained Mr. Thomas Carter of Watertown, a reverend, godly man, 
apt to teach the sound and wholesome truths of Christ, to preach for them." 
They were then formed into a church, after Mr. Symmes of Charlestown " had 
continued in preaching and prayer about the space of four or five hours." The 
other ministers present were Messrs. Cotton and Wilson of Boston, Allen of 
Charlestown, Shepard and Dunster of Cambridge, Knowles of Watertown, Allen 
of Dedham, Eliot of Roxbury, and Mather of Dorchester. 

" After public worship, the persons intending to be formed into a church, 
stood forth, one by one, before the congregation and these ministers, and con- 
fessed what the Lord had done for their souls, by his Spirit, under the preaching 
of the gospel, and the events of his providence, that all for themselves, might 
know their faith in Christ ; the ministers or messengers present, asking such 
questions as they thought proper, and when satisfied, giving them the right 
hand of fellowship. Seven were thus formed into a church, who in ten years, 
increased to seventy-four." A few days after, Mr. Carter was ordained pastor, 
by a council, " after he had exercised in prayer and preaching the greater part 
of the day." When a person desired to join the church, he visited his minister, 
" declaring how the Lord had been pleased to work his conversion ;" if the min- 
ister found the smallest ground of hope, he propounded him to the church, after 
which some of the brethren, with the minister, examined him again, and reported 
their opinion to the church. After this, all the congregation had public notice 
of his design, and he " publicly declared to them the manner of his conversion." 
If any were, " through bashfulness, unable to speak for edification, less was 
required of them." Women were never called to speak publicly. All this was 
done " to prevent the polluting of the ordinance by such as walk scandalously, 
and to prevent men and women from eating and drinking their own condemna- 
tion."! Such being the strictness of the terms of admission to the church, it is 
very manifest that many individuals would be effectually excluded from the 
privileges of freemen. For such persons, there were two alternatives ; either to 
attempt to lower the terms of admission to the church, or to procure the aboli- 
tion of a profession of regeneration as a test of citizenship. The latter course 
was first taken. One of the assistants in the government of Massachusetts, in 
1630, was William Vassal. In 1635 he settled in Scituate, in the Plymouth 

* W^isner's Historical Sermons, p. 4. f Morse and Parisli's History of New England, p. 205. 



1832.] CONNECTION OF CHURCH AND STATE. 211 

colony. "He was a gentleman," says Hutchinson, "of a pleasant, affable dis- 
position, but always opposed to the government, both in Massachusetts and 
Plymouth." Scituate in Plymouth, being contiguous to Hingham in Massachu- 
setts, Mr. Vassal had much influence in the latter colony'' as well as in the 
former, and had laid a scheme for petitions, of such as were non-freernen, to the 
courts of both colonies, and upon the petitions being refused, to apply to the Par- 
liament, pretending that they were subjected to an arbitrary power. The two 
first of the Massachusetts' petitioners were Samuel Maverick and Robert Child. 
Maverick was a freeman before the law confining freedom to such only as 
were members of churches was in force, but being an Episcopalian, had never 
been in office. Child was a young man who had studied law at Padua in Italy. 
The substance of their petition was, that civil liberty and freedom might be 
forthwith granted to all truly English, and that all members of the church of 
England or Scotland, not scandalous, might be admitted to the privileges of the 
churches of New England ; or, if these civil and religious liberties were refused, 
that they might be freed from the heavy taxes imposed upon them, and from the 
impresses made of them or their children or servants in the war ; and if they 
failed of redress there, they should be under the necessity of making application 
to Parliament, who they believed would answer their prayer. 

The court and a great part of the people of the country were much offended 
with this petition. A declaration was drawn up, and published, by order of the 
court, in answer to the petition, and in vindication of the government. The 
petitioners attempted to interest the English government in their behalf, but 
their claims received but little attention, at that time, in consequence of the rep- 
resentations of Mr. Winslow, agent for the colony in England. 

The following facts will show how closely identified were the civil and reli- 
gious concerns of the country. In 1665, the General Court restrained the North 
Church in Boston from calling Mr. Powell to be their minister, who had the char- 
acter of a gifted though illiterate man, and went so far as to recommend 
to them Mr. Reyner, a minister of Plymouth. Just before, they had laid a large 
fine upon the church at Maiden, for choosing a minister without the consent and 
approbation of the neighboring churches, and allowance of the magistrates.* 

The dispute in regard to making church-membership a qualification for civil 
rights extended through all New England. " There was a strong party in the 
colony at Connecticut," says Dr. Trumbull, "who were for admitting all persons 
of a regular life to a full communion in the churches, upon their making a pro- 
fession of the Christian religion, without any inquiry with respect to a change of 
heart ; and for treating all baptized persons, as members of the church. Some 
carried the affair still farther, and insisted that all persons who had been mem- 
bers of churches in England, or had been members of regular ecclesiastical 
parishes there, and supported the public worship, should be allowed to enjoy the 
privileges of members in full communion in the churches of Connecticut. They 
also insisted that all baptized persons, upon avowing the covenant, as it was 
called, should have their children baptized, though they came not to the Lord's 
table. Many of the chidren of the first settlers, and others, who had since emi- 
grated into the country, had made no open profession of religion, and their 
children were not baptized. This created uneasiness in them, in their ministers, 
and in others. They wished for the honors and privileges of church-members 
for themselves, and baptism for their children ; but they were not persuaded that 
they were regenerated, and knew not how to comply with the rigid terms of the 
Congregational churches. A considerable number of the clergy, and the 
churches in general, zealously opposed all innovations, and exerted themselves 
to maintain the first practice and purity of the churches. Hence the dissensions 
arose."f 

In consequence of these difficulties, the General Court of Massachusetts, in 
1657, advised to call a general council of the ministers, and sent letters to that 
eflfect, to the other courts. The General Court of Connecticut, on the 26th of 
February, 1657, appointed Messrs. Warham, Stone, Blynman, and Russell, to 
meet the elders, who should be delegated from the other colonies. The Gen- 

* Hwtchinson, i. p. 174, t Trumbull, i. 297, 298. 



212 CHANGE IN TERMS OF COMMUNION. [FeB. j 

I ., 

eral Court of New Hav€n were entirely opposed to the measure, and in a long 4i 

letter remonstrated against it. They expressed their apprehensions that a 
general council, at that time, Avould endanger the peace and purity of the 
churches. The council met, however, in Boston, June 4, 1657, and after about 
fifteen days' deliberation, published an elaborate answer to twenty-one questions. 
The main question was decided in the following manner. " That it is the duty of 
infants, who confederate in their parents, when grown up unto years of discretion, 
though not yet fit for the Lord's Supper, to own the covenant, they made with 
their parents, by entering thereinto, in their own persons ; and it is the duty of the 
church, to call upon them for the performance thereof; and if, being called upon, 
they shall refuse the performance of this great duty, or otherwise do continue 
scandalous, they are liable to be censured for the same by the church. And in 
case they understand the grounds of religion, and are not scandalous, and 
solemnly own the covenant, in their own persons, wherein they give up both 
themselves and their children unto the Lord, and desire baptism for them, we 
see not sufficient cause to deny baptism unto their children."* The elders from 
Connecticut carried back a copy of the result of the council, which the court 
ordered to be printed and forthwith sent to all the churches in the colony ; if 
any of the churches should have objections, they were directed to transmit them 
to the General Court. The answers were afterwards printed in London. The 
decisions of the council do not appear to have had any influence to reconcile, 
but rather to inflame the churches. '* A number of ministers," says Trumbull, 
^' and the churches pretty generally, viewed this as a great innovation, and 
entirely inconsistent with the principles, on which the churches of New Eng- 
land were originally founded, and with the principles of Congregationalism." 

In consequence of this general opposition to the new measures on the part of 
the churches, the General Court of Massachusetts appointed a synod of all the 
ministers in the colony, to deliberate and decide on the following questions. 
L Who are the subjects of baptism? 2. Whether, according to the word of 
God, there ought to be a consociation of churches? The synod met in Boston, 
in September, 1662. The General Court of Connecticut took no notice of the 
synod. The churches and ministers of New Haven, were still unanimous in 
opposition. The answer to the first question was substantially the same with 
that given by the council, in 1657. The vote was about "-seven to one" in 
favor. Several learned and excellent men, however, protested earnestly against 
the opinion. Among the dissentients were President Chauncey of Harvard 
College, Dr. Increase Mather of Boston, and Mr. Eleazer Mather of North- 
ampton. Mr. John Davenport of New Haven, and also Mr. Increase Mather, 
published powerful arguments against the result of the synod. Mr. Mather of 
Northampton, thus writes to Mr. Davenport. "There was scarce any of the 
Congregational principles but what were layen at (assailed) by some or other 
of the assembly ; as relations of the work of grace, power of voting of the fra- 
ternity in admission, profession of faith and repentance not to be required of 
such as were baptized in the church, in reference to the baptism of their chil- 
dren." Increase Mather afterwards changed his opinion, and wrote in favor of the 
synod. Most of the churches, throughout New England, adopted the innovation 
with great reluctance. " Very various," says Dr. Cotton Mather, who was in favor 
of the opinion of the synod, "have been the methods of the pastors, to bring their 
churches into the desired order ; many the meetings, the debates, the prayers, 
and the fasts, with which this matter has been accomplished. Some churches 
most unaccountably will not baptize the offspring of parents, who are not them- 
selves communicants." In some places it produced most fearful divisions. In 
Hartford, there was a very great contention, which agitated all New England. 
Its termination, at length, was mentioned in the proclamation of the governor 
at the annual thanksgiving, as one of the causes of gratitude. The first 
church in Boston was torn in sunder. The two portions had no church fellow- 
>ship, for fourteen years. " The whole people of God, throughout the colony," says 
Mather, " were too much distinguished into such as favored the old church, and 
such as favored the new church, whereof the former were against the synod, 

t Magnalia, (Hartford Ed.) Book v. p. S38, 



1832.] SOCIETY FOR PROPAGATING TUB FAITH. 213 

and the latter were for it." In 1667, not one church in Connecticut (with wliich 
New Haven was now united) had complied with the recommendation of the 
synod. The first church in Hartford led the Avay in adopting what has been 
frequently termed the half-ivay covenant. At one time, more than 100 persons 
owned it. But so late as 1711, many churches in Connecticut refused to bap- 
tize the children of any except such as were in full communion. In Massa- 
chusetts it seems to have met with less opposition. This was very much owing 
to the powerful influence of a few such men as Dr. Increase Mather of Boston, 
and Mr. Solomon Stoddard of Northampton. At length it became a very 
general practice. The churches lost their spirituality and purity. Wordly 
men were admitted into its privileges, and hung like an incubus on its bosom. 
Efforts for discipline and for the reformation of morals, or the promotion of 
revivals, were sure to be opposed and prevented. The way was gradually pre- 
paring for Arminianism, and Unitarianism, and years of spiritual death. 



HISTORICAL, VIEW OF ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS. 



In giving a brief survey of the efforts of the Roman Catholic church in establishing 
Foreign Missions, I shall in the fi,rst place look at the means which they have employed 
for this purpose. 

It will be obvious to every one, that so far as human means are concerned, the Romish 
church has every possible advantage over the Protestant church. Whilst the Protestants, 
in their various sects, amount only to 57,694,000, the Roman Catholics form one solid 
body of 129,5.50,000, Whilst on the Protestants no principle will operate but that of true 
Christian benevolence, which alas! so few of them possess, tbe Roman Catholics 
are wrought upon and drawn into the Pope's interests by selfish motives, by a hope of 
purchasing heaven by indulgences, and by ail the unnumbered considerations and 
motives flowing from selfishness and superstition. Whilst the Protestant churches have 
no other missionaries but the few volunteers that offer themselves for this field, the Pope 
has but to open a couple of monasteries, or give a hint to the General of the Company of 
Jesus, to fill any country with his missionaries. Their institutions for this purpose are great 
and extensive. Tbe m