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AGGREGATE DEGRADATION 
IN 
BITUMINOUS MIXTURES 




* tiii 



Technical Paper 
AGGREGATE DEGRADATION IN BXTUMBSDUB MIXTURES 



TOi K. B. Woods, Director January 30, 1963 
Joist High-way Research Project 

FROM; E. L. Michael, Associate Director Filet 2-8-3 

Joint Highway Research Project Project: C-36-21C 



Attached is a paper titled "Aggregate Degradation in Bituminous 
Mixtures" Which has been authored by F. Moavenzadeh, formerly of our 
staff, and W. H. Goetz. The paper was presented at the 1963 Annual 
Meeting of the Highway Research Board in Washington, B.C., on January 30 • 

The paper is a summary of the research performed by Mr. Moavenzadeh 
under the direction of Professor Goetz -which "Has presented to the Board 
several months ago. It is proposed that the paper be offered to the 
Highway Research Board for publication. 

The paper is presented to the Board for the record and for 
approval of the proposed possible publication. 

Respectfully submitted, 



Harold L. Michael, Secretary 

HIM/llsc 

Attachments 

Copy: F. L. Ashbaucher F. S. Hill R. E. Mills 

J. R. Cooper G. A. Leonards M. B. Scott 

W. L. Bolch J. F. Mclaughlin J. 7. Smythe 

V. Bo Goetz R. D. Miles J. D. Haling 
F. F. Havey E. J. Ybder 



Technical Paper 
AGCREG&3E lECSUU&aiCH US BOTfflG&XJB JUXKE^ 



by 



F. Kosveaaadeh 

and 

W. 2. Goets 



Joint Higltfiay Besearch Project 
Files 2-8-3 
Project: C-36-21C 



Purdue University 
Lafayette, Indiana 

January 30, I963 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation; Indiana Department of Transportation 



http://www.archive.org/details/aggregatedegradaOOmoav 



INTRODUCTION 

A bituminous mixture is essentially a three-phase system consisting of 
bitumen, aggregate and air. In order for such a mixture to serve its purpose, 
it is compacted to a certain degree during construction. During its life, 
the mixture is subjected to further compaction due to the action of traffic. 
This further densification of a bituminous mixture under traffic may 
produce progressive deterioration of the pavement, either by reduction of 
voids to the point where a plastic mixture results, or by producing ravelling. 
In either case, degradation of the aggregate may play an important role. 

Compaction is an energy-consuming process, which results from the 
application of forces to the mixture. The mixture withstands these forces 
in many ways, such as by interlock, by frictional resistance, and by viscous 
or flow resistance. T/uhen the applied forces have a component in any direction 
greater than the resistance of the mat, the material will move and shift 
around until a more stable position is attained. This rearrangement of 
the material, especially the aggregate phase, causes a closer packing of 
particles, a new internal arrangement or structure, and a higher unit weight. 

The energy required for the relocation or rearrangement of particles 
is provided by contact pressure, and the particles while adjusting to their 
new locations are subjected to forces which cause breakage and wear at the 
points of contact. This phenomenon, called degradation, reduces the size 
of particles and changes the gradation of aggregate which in turn causes 
a reduction in void volume and an increase in density. Any change in the 
gradation of the aggregate in a mix causes an associated change in basic 
properties of the bituminous mixture, namely, stability and durability. 
In some mixtures the change of gradation due to degradation of aggregate 
causes the asphalt present in the voids to be pushed out and an unstable 



It was the purpose of this investigation, then, to evaluate the 
degradation characteristics of aggregates in bituminous mixtures and to 
analyze the factors which are effective in c ausing this degradation. 
In so doing, the following factors were investigated: (l) type of aggregate, 
(2) gradation of aggregate, (3) aggregate shape, (4) aggregate size, 
(5) asphalt content, and (6) compactive effort. 

MATERIALS AiMD PROCEDURE 

Three kinds of aggregates were used in this study, dolomite, limestone 
and quartzite. Their selection was based on a relatively wide range of 
Los Angeles values and on petrographic structure. Table 1 includes data 
on origin, specific gravity, Los Angeles value, and compressive strength, 
while Table 2 shows a summary of petrographic analysis results for the 
materials used. 

An 85-100 penetration grade asphalt cement was used in this study. 
The results of tests *n the asphalt are presented in Table 3. 

The three gradations selected for this investigation are shown in 
Table 4. They ranged from an open grading, consisting only of the top four 
sizes, to a Fuller gradation for well-graded material. The maximum size 
of all three gradations was 5 in. Figure 1 shows these three aggregate 
gradations graphically. 

The aggregates used for each specimen were batched by component 
fractions according to the blend formula. A batch consisted of 1000 grams. 
The blended aggregates for specimens containing asphalt were heated to 
275° * 10°F. The asphalt was heated separately to 290° - 300°F. The mixing 
was accomplished using a Hobart electric mixer modified with a special aslxLng 
paddle and a scraper. The mixing continued for two minutes. For those cases 
in which the aggregate was tested without asphalt, the aggregate was not heated 
or subjected to the mixing operation with the Hobart mixer. 



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Due to the fact that this study was solely a laboratory investigation, 
a fundamental part of it was the selection of testing equipment which 
would produce specimens similar to the pavement with respect to density and 
structure. Many methods of compaction have been devised and used to 
simulate field compaction in the laboratory. Most of these methods are 
based principally upon the concept of equal density. Equal density without 
regard to orientation and degradation of particles cannot produce representative 
specimens and unfortunately there is no way to measure the structure of 
specimens quantitatively. The only way in which it seems possible to compare 
the structure of the compacted materials is to compare the forces involved 
in producing the laboratory specimen and the field mat. The methods that 
incorporate horizontal forces and apply shear to the specimen throughout its 
depth would seem to be the most suitable ones. Therefore, of all available 
methods, gyratory compaction appeared to be the most promising one to produce 
specimens similar to the field mat from the density and structure standpoint. 

A gyratory testing machine of the design shown in Figure 2 was used 
in this study. With this equipment it was possible to change the compactive 
effort in two different ways, (1) change in magnitude of load, and (2) change 
in repetition of load. The magnitude of load, controlled by vertical pressure, 
was varied from 50 to 250 psi, and the repetition of load, controlled by 
the number of gyrations, ranged from 30 to 250, for the most part, but in 
some cases up to one thousand gyrations were used. 

The mixtures were brought from the mixing temperature to 230°F and 
were placed in the gyratory machine for compaction. Electric heating elements 
around the mold were used to provide an elevated temperature throughout the 
test. After each mix had been subjected to the gyrating action, an extraction 
test was made on the whole specimen and the gradation of the extracted 
aggregate was determined for comparison with the gradation before mixing and 
compaction. 




FIG. 2 GYRATORY TESTING MACHINE 



In order to study the effect of shape of particles on degradation, it 
was desirable that the rounded pieces not differ from the crushed ones in 
their composition. Therefore, artifically rounded pieces were produced 
by subjecting angular pieces to a few thousand revolutions in a Los 
Angeles machine. See Figure 3. 

To investigate how various sizes of aggregate degrade in an aggregation 
of pieces of different sizes, the three top sizes were dyed different colors 
so that after compaction and extraction of asphalt the newly-produced pieces 
could be associated with the original piece by colored faces. For this 
purpose the dyes had to be soluble in water, stay on the surface of the piece, 
and not be soluble in asphalt or the trichloroethylene used in extraction. 
The following dyes were found to have such characteristics: (l) Orseillin 
BB Red, (2) Crystal Violet, (3) Malachite Green Oxalate. 

RESULTS 

Of the several methods available to represent the degradation characteris- 
tics of aggregate, two were chosen for this study; one was a simple gradation 
curve of percent smaller than certain sizes, and the other was based on surface- 
area concepts. Using the surface area concept, measurements of the degradation 
were made on the basis of surface-area increase as determined by sieve analysis. 
The factors used for computing surface areas are given in Table 5 for an assumed 
specific gravity of 2.65. These values were calculated on the assumption that 
all material passing the No. 4 sieve was spherical and that retained was one- 
third cubes and two-thirds parallelepipeds with sides of 1:2:4 proportions. 

It was decided that numerical increase in surface-area, which is merely 
the difference between the final surface area and the original surface area, 
is not a satisfactory measure of aggregate degradation. For example, when a 
mixture with an original surface area of 2.2 cm /gr has increased 2.2 cwr/gv 




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in surface area after compaction, and another mixture with 67.3 cm2/gr has 
increased the same amount, we cannot consider that the two mixtures have under- 
gone equal degradation. The first mixture has gained 100 percent in surface 
area or, in other words, its final surface area is twice the original, while 
the second mixture has increased only 3 percent in surface area. Therefore, 
it was decided to express the data in percent increase in surface area rather 
than increase in surface area. Another advantage of the percentage method 
is the elimination of the necessity for correction of surface area values for 
specific gravity. 

The term degradation is used in this study to include all of the aggregate 
breakdown due to mechanical action regardless of the type of mechanical action 
causing it. Degradation can result from aggregate fracture or breakage through 
the piece, from chipping or corner breakage, and f rom t he rubbing action of 
one piece or particle against another. In parts of this study, attempts were 
made to separate degradation into two parts, one due to fracture through the 
piece and designated as breakage, and the other due to corner breakdown and 
attrition which collectively has been designated as wear. 

Degradation of One-sized Aggregate 
Size of particles and maximum size of particles are cited in the literature 
among the factors controlling degradation. In order to determine whether or 
not change of size will change the degradation characteristics of an aggregate, 
and in order to investigate the effect of combinations of pieces of different 
sizes on degradation, specimens of one-sized aggregate were tested. The results 
are presented in Table 6. This table includes the results of sieve analysis 
together with percent increase in surface area for 12 specimens. Specimens 
containing one thousand grams of one-sized aggregate of g" - 3/8", 3/8" - #3* 



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#3 - #4 * and #4 - #6 of each of the three aggregates, dolomite, limestone and 
quart zite, were compacted in the gyratory compactor under 200 psi ram pressure 
and 100 revolutions. 

Figure 4 shows the results of sieve analysis on specimens made of lime- 
stone aggregate. These results show that regardless of size of aggregate, all 
the curves appear to be approaching a parabolic shape. A plot of the data 
in Table 6 for the other two aggregates would show that this statement can be 
made with respect to type of aggregate as well. The results also indicate 
that as original size of particles decreases there is a corresponding increase 
in fine material, which might suggest that degradation increases as size of 
the particle decreases. Figure 5 presents the percent increase in surface area 
versus average size of original particles for the three kinds of aggregate. 
This figure shows that as the size of one-sized aggregate increases, the 
degradation under equal compactive effort (200 psi and 100 revolutions) 
increases. 

Therefore, at first glance it appears that the results of the two methods, 
sieve analysis and percent increase in surface area, are in conflict. Clarifi- 
cation lies in the fact that sieve analysis representation only indicates what 
percent of material is of which size, without considering through what changes 
this material has gone and what was its original condition. A piece of larger 
size has to undergo more breakdown than a smaller particle to be reduced to a 
certain size. Therefore, it can be seen that sieve analysis representation, 
although it is an excellent means for studying the pattern of degradation, 
by no means can be used as a measure of degradation and the concept of percent 
increase in s urface area, obtained by relating the produced area to the 
original area, is a much better means of measuring degradation. 



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Figure 5 also shows that degradation increases from quartzite to lime- 
stone to dolomite, which follows the same pattern as indicated by the Los 
Angeles rattler test. In other words, degradation of one-sized material 
increases as the material becomes weaker and softer (higher Los Angeles 
value ) . 

Figure 6 shows the percent increase in surface area for different 
original one-sized fractions versus Los Angeles values of the three kinds 
of aggregate. This figure indicates that there is a linear relationship 
between the Los Angeles values of the three kinds of aggregate used in this 
study and the degradation of the one-sized aggregate when tested in the 
gyratory compactor and measured in percent increase in surface area. 

The effect of change of compactive effort on the degradation of one- 
sized aggregate was studied by changing the number of revolutions of gyra- 
tory compaction. Five specimens of each kind of aggregate having an original 
size of 3/8" - No. 3 were compacted under 100 psi ram pressure and five 
different numbers of revolutions in the gyratory machine. Table 7 gives 
the results of sieve analysis and percent increase in surface area for each 
specimen. Figure 7 shows the results of sieve analysis of dolomite aggregate 
after compaction* These results also indicate that the general shape of 
the gradation curve is not changed by a change in compactive effort; as 
compactive effort increases the curve shifts upward. Figure 8 shows the 
degradation versus number of revolutions. It can be seen that as compactive 
effort increases the degradation also increases, but generally a significant 
portion of the degradation occurs under the first few hundred revolutions 
and then the curves start leveling off. The figure also indicates that as 
the material becomes softer or weaker, the slope of the latter part of the 
curves increases, which indicates that the degradation of such materials is. more 
susceptible to change in compactive effort. 



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Los Angeles Value % 

FIG. 6 DEGRADATION VS LOS ANGELES VALUE- GYRATORY 
COMPACTION, ONE-SIZED AGGREGATES 



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17 

Degradation of Individual Sizes in an Aggregation of Sizes 

From the previous section it was found that degradation of one-sized 
aggregates when illustrated by sieve analysis curves has a constant pattern 
of a smooth curve approaching a parabolic one. It also was found that size 
of aggregate, kind of aggregate, and degree of compaction have no influence 
on the shape of the sieve analysis curve, while the magnitude of degradation 
is a function of these variables. In addition it was found that; the larger 
the size of particles, the greater the degradation; increase in compactive 
effort increases degradation; and aggregates with high Los Angeles values 
degrade more than those with low Los Angeles values. 

Before making a detailed analysis of the effect of variables on degrada- 
tion of different mixtures, it was necessary to investigate the changes which 
might occur in degradation characteristics of each size of particle due to the 
presence of other sizes in the specimen. For this purpose, a dyeing process 
was utilized to determine the size fraction from which each particle was 
produced when degradation occurred. Because it was found from studies on single- 
sized aggregates that kind of aggregate only changes the magnitude of degradation 
and has no effect on its pattern, it was decided to use only one kind of 
aggregate for this part of the study. The limestone which had the intermediate 
Los Angeles value and which could be satisfactorily dyed was used. Due to the 
time-consuming process of separating the fractions of different colcrs by hand, 
it was decided to dye only the top three sizes; namely l/2" - 3/8", 3/8"-#3, 
and #3 - #4. If a difference in pattern of degradation due to the size was 
noticed, then other sizes would have been dyed also. The materials were 
separated only down to the #30 sieve. The factors which were considered as 
variables in this part of the study were gradation of aggregate, compactive 
effort, and presence or absence of asphalt. 



18 

The three gradations which are given in Table 3, gradings 0, B, and F, 
were used in this part of the study. Twenty-four samples were used which 
were of three gradations, without asphalt and with k percent asphalt, and were 
tested under four different compactive efforts in the gyratory machine. The 
results of sieve analysis of each fraction (colored for identification), along 
with sieve analysis of the total specimen are presented in tabular form in 
Tables 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13. 

Figure 9 shows the sieve analysis of each fraction of a specimen without 
asphalt having an original open gradation and being subjected to 200 psi ram 
pressure and 100 revolutions in the gyratory compactor. From left to right 
the curves show the degradation of particles of original sizes of l/2"-3/8", 
3/8" - #3> ff3 — #4, and ftU - ti&° These curves indicate that the degradation of 
each fraction has a constant pattern of a smooth curve approaching a parabolic 
one. Figures 10, 11, and 12 which show the sieve analysis of each fraction 
for specimens with four percent asphalt and original gradings 0, B, and F, also 
indicate that the pattern of degradation of each fraction is a constant. 

From the results obtained with the aid of colored aggregate it can be seen 
that, when particles of different sizes are mixed together and subjected to a 
certain compactive effort, each size will break down into smaller particles whose 
new gradation has a characteristic size distribution. The produced size distri- 
bution follows a curve which is smooth and approaches a parabolic one similar 
to the curves obtained for specimens made of one-sized aggregates tested separ- 
ately. Therefore, this portion of the study indicated that degradation of one- 
sized particles follows a definite pattern regardless of its size or the gradation 
with which it is associated, magnitude of compactive effort, or presence of 
asphalt. Also, from the first part of the study it was found that the degradation 
pattern is independent of kind of aggregate. Hence ; it can be concluded that when the 



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pattern of degradation of each fraction is constant, then the combination 
of particles of different sizes will have a pattern which depends only on 
the blending ratios of these sizes rather than on type of aggregate or magni- 
tude of compactive effort. 

Thus, it can be stated that if pattern of degradation is a matter of 
concern, which is the case in ore treatment and in mining and metallurgical 
engineering, then this pattern can be predicted beforehand by knowing the 
gradation of feed material. But if magnitude of degradation is a matter of 
concern, additional variables have to be investigated thoroughly before any 
prediction can be made concerning this factor. In other words, in addition 
to gradation, the magnitude of degradation in a degradation process is dependent 
upon compactive effort, shape of particles, and type of rock even though these 
factors do not affect its pattern. For example, a change of gradation will 
not eliminate production of a certain size of particles when particles of 
larger size than this size are produced. The change in gradation will reduce 
or increase each size in such a proportion that the final gradation of each 
fraction will follow a smooth curve approaching a parabolic one. However, this 
change of gradation will change the magnitude of degradation, because the 
magnitude of degradation depends on energy consumed for breakage. So any factor 
affecting the breakage energy will affect the magnitude of degradation. For 
example, higher compactive effort corresponds to higher breakage energy and 
thus has to result in higher degradation. But the pattern of degradation is 
not energy dependent and can be considered as a constant c 

Since, for any original gradation, the pattern of degradation is constant, 
and it is only the magnitude of degradation which varies with other factors, 
we can deduce that the effects of degradation on the properties of a given 



24 

bituminous mixture have to be due to the magnitude of degradation. Therefore 
in the detailed study which follows only the magnitude of degradation has been 
considered, and attempts are made to find which factors are more effective in 
reducing the magnitude of degradation and what protective measures can be 
taken against degradation of aggregate in bituminous mixtures. 

Effect of Mixture and Compaction Variables 
In this portion of the investigation, the magnitude of degradation, 
measured by percent increase in surface area, was determined for the three 
types of aggregate, dolomite, limestone, and quart zite. Three gradations, 
grading 0, grading B, and grading F, were used. Compactive effort applied 
by the gyratory compactor was changed both in ram pressure and number of 
revolutions. For this purpose 450 specimens were formed and tested, the 
asphalt was extracted, and a sieve analysis made on the dry aggregate from 
which the percent increase in surface area for each specimen was calculated. 
Tables 14, 15 and 16 present data for the percent increase in surface 
area for each of the three kinds of aggregate. Each value is for a specimen 
whose original gradation, percent asphalt, and effort used in testing it can be 
read from the table. Similar data for specimens made of rounded quartzite are 
given in Table 17. 

Ram Pressure and Number of Revolutions 
Figure 13 illustrates the percent increase in surface area versus number 
of revolutions for specimens made of limestone with zero and 4 percent asphalt. 
All specimens were made of grading 0. The ram pressures are indicated on each 
curve. This figure shows that degradation increases very rapidly in the first 
part of the test and then continues to increase at a decreasing rate until 



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26 

about 250 revolutions after which the rate of increase remains constant in each 

case. It can also be noticed that as ram pressure increases the degradation 

in the first few revolutions increases drastically. For a ram pressure of 

250 psi, almost 70 percent of the degradation that occurred at 1000 revolutions 

had occurred in the first hundred revolutions, while at 50 psi ram pressure 

only 50 percent of the degradation had occurred in the first hundred revolutions. 

Figures 14 and 15 show degradation versus ram pressure for specimens 
made of limestone with zero and 4 percent asphalt, In this case the results 
for all three gradings are shown „ Degradation on the ordinate is plotted on 
a log scale, while ram pressure on the abscissa is plotted to an arithmetic 
scale. Gradation designations of original mixtures are shown at the left side 
of the curves. These figures indicate that degradation increases both with 
increase in ram pressure and increase in number of revolutions. This means that 
degradation increases with increase in compactive effort. 

In Figures 16 and 17 degradation is plotted versus number of revolutions,. 
Each curve is for a single ram pressure as indicated on the curve. In these 
figures degradation for each gradation is plotted on different scales, and 
from left to right the results are for gradings 0, B, and F, respectively. 
These figures also indicate that as compactive effort increases degradation also 
increases. 

It can be seen that when ram pressure was kept constant and compactive 
effort was increased only by the number of revolutions, the increase in degradation 
depended on type of aggregate and gradation of aggregate. The softer and weaker 
the aggregate (higher Los Angeles value) the greater was the increase in degra- 
dation caused by increase in number of revolutions, while the harder (lower 
Los Angles value) the aggregate the less was the increase in degradation from 



27 




100 200 250 

Ram Pressure in psi 
FIG. 1 4 DEGRADATION VS RAM PRESSURE FOR 
LIMESTONE- 0% ASPHALT 



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200 




100 200 250 

Ram Pressure in psi 

FIG. 15 DEGRADATION VS RAM PRESSURE FOR 
LIMESTONE-4% ASPHALT 



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31 

this cause. These figures also show that increase in degradation caused by- 
increase in number of revolutions depends upon gradation. The slopes of curves 
for open-graded mixtures are much steeper than those for dense-graded ones. 

Type and Gradation of Aggregate 
Even more pronounced than the effect of compactive effort is the effect 
of the original gradation of the mixture on the degradation of aggregate. It 
can be noted from Figures 14 and 15 that as gradation becomes more dense, 
degradation decreases,, Open-graded mixtures which contain only the four top 
sizes of aggregate produced the highest degradation for all three kinds of 
aggregate, at all compactive levels, and for all asphalt contents. At the same 
time, grading F which corresponds to Fuller's gradation for maximum density 
gave the lowest values of degradation under the same conditions. Although it 
isn't at once apparent because a log scale has been used to plot degradation, 
it should be noted that open-graded mixtures experienced some twenty times 
more degradation than dense-graded mixtures under the same conditions. 

Figures 16 and 17 indicate that the amount of degradation also depends 
on kind of aggregate. The softer and weaker (higher Los Angeles value) the 
aggregate the more the degradation. The curves for dolomite always lie above 
the curves for the other two kinds of aggregate. However, the effect of aggre- 
gate softness and strength on degradation also depends on gradation of the 
mixtures e For example, in Figure 16, the change in degradation due to kind 
of aggregate is a matter of a few hundred percent for the case of the open- 
graded mixtures, while for the dense-graded mixtures this change is around 
50 percent at most. 

Cognizance of the scale of degradation for each gradation in Figures 
16 and 17 makes one aware that original gradation of aggregate has a very 



32 

pronounced effect on magnitude of degradation. Degradation for open-graded 
mixtures (grading 0) ranges from 100 percent to 1400 percent depending on 
the type of aggregate and compactive effort, while for dense-graded mixtures 
(grading F) this range is between 5 and 40 percent, or only about l/20 to 
l/35 pf the values obtained for open-graded mixtures. This indicates that 
the original aggregate gradation is the most important factor in degradation, 
because the results indicate that changes in compactive effort, changes 
in kind of aggregate, or changes in aggregate shape (as discussed later), 
did not produce as much change in degradation as changes in original gradation. 
This point can easily be related to the previous finding with regard to 
mechanism of degradation. In a previous section it was said that magnitude 
of degradation cepends on distribution and magnitude of forces applied to the 
specimen. When a dense mixture is used the number of contact points is 
numerous and any applied force will be distributed to many more points in much 
less intensity than for more open mixtures, which in turn produces much less 
breakage. In open mixtures the number of contact points are few, and particles 
are subjected to much higher contact pressures, which in turn causes much 
more breakage than in dense-graded mixtures. 

Asphalt Content 
Figure 18 illustrates the effect of change in asphalt content on degra- 
dation for the three gradings of limestone aggregate. This figure, as well as 
the results for the other two kinds of aggregate, indicates that depending on 
compactive effort, kind of aggregate, and gradation of aggregate there is in 
general an asphalt content for which the degradation is minimum. The results 
also indicate that asphalt content is not an independent variable with respect 
to degradation as was shown to be the case for kind of aggregate and aggregate 



33 




<£> 



CVI 




D9^y aoDpns u| asoajoui iiiaojad 



34 

gradation. For an independent factor, such as kind of aggregate, it could be 
said that when aggregates become softer and weaker the degradation increases 
regardless of other variables, but for the asphalt content variable there is 
no such trend. 

This result may be viewed with respect to the role of asphalt in the 
mechanism of degradation. It was found that magnitude of degradation depends 
on distribution of load and intensity of contact pressure. Considering asphalt 
as a viscous material which covers the particles, its effect on degradation 
may be influenced by the effect of its viscosity on magnitude of contact pressure, 
Also, for a particular arrangement of particles and a particular condition 
of load the asphalt may help the particles to rotate and slip over each other. 
Rotation and slippage of particles will increase the probability of wear of 
corners of particles and will also increase the probability of obtaining a 
denser mixture. If these effects result in an increase in contact pressure, 
degradation will increase, but if the effect is to reduce contact pressure, 
degradation will be decreased. Since these effects of asphalt change as the 
specimen undergoes densification, the net result is a complex one in which no 
definite pattern for effect of asphalt on degradation is apparent. 

Aggregate Shape 
In order to investigate the effect of aggregate shape on degradation, a 
limited number of tests were performed on specimens made of rounded pieces 
of quartzite. Table 17 contains the percent increase in surface area for 
such specimens. The same gradings (0, B, and F) as used before were used in 
this part of the study„ The levels of compactive effort used were 100, 200, 
and 250 psi ram pressure, and 30, 100, and 250 revolutions. Eighteen speci- 
mens of each grading were tested, half of them without asphalt and the other 



iey 



35 

half with 4 percent asphalt. Therefore, a total of 54 specimens were used. 
Figure 19 presents the results obtained from specimens with 4 percent 
asphalt. The degradation of rounded and angular quart zite are compared. 

This figure shows that curves for rounded aggregate lie below those 
for the angular material. Also, both the flatness and spacing of the curves 
for rounded pieces are less than those for angular ones, indicating that 
increase in compactive effort produces less degradation in the case of rounded 
aggregate regardless of whether the increase is due to pressure or number of 
revolutions. The cause of this phenomena can be attributed to the reduc- 
tion, in the case of rounded aggregate, of that part of degradation which 
is due to wear rather than breakage. V.ear phenomenon occurs due to the rounding 
off of corners of particles when they rotate or slip over each other. 
Breakage occurs when the contact pressure between two particles exceeds their 
strength, resulting in fracture or splitting. Theoretically, by using rounded 
particles we should be able to eliminate that portion of degradation due 
to wear. Practically, however, we can only reduce this portion rather than 
eliminate it, because when particles start to break, the newly produced 
pieces are no longer rounded and wear starts to occur. 

This reasoning leads to the conclusion that the major part of the 
difference between degradation of rounded and angular particles can be considered 
as reduction of wear. Figure 19 shows that the rounded aggregate experienced 
almost 50 percent less degradation than the angular one, which then can be 
considered as almost 50 percent less wear. This reduction of degradation due 
to the shape of particles should decrease as softer material is used, because 
in soft aggregates probability of breakage is high and, thus, after few 
applications of load, the amount of angular pieces should increase and wear 
start o This was one reason that in this portion of the study the quart zite 
which had the lowest Los imgeles value was used. 



:■ ■ ■!':-.;■*•[■ i 



36 




D9J\/ 9DD^jns ui asDajoui juaaod 



37 

Degradation Versus Los Angeles Value 
In order to see whether there is any relationship between the Los 
Angeles value and degradation of aggregate, degradation values were plotted 
versus the Los Angeles values for the three kinds of aggregate used in this 
investigation. Among the three gradings used for the Los Angeles test 
(Table l), grading C was used to determine the correlation between Los Angeles 
value and degradation merely because the maximum size of grading C is the 
closest to the maximum size used in this investigation. 

Figures 20, 21, and 22 show the results obtained from testing gradings 
0, B, and F respectively. Each curve is for a certain number of revolutions 
which can be read on the curve. The three points on each curve are the results 
obtained from specimens made of the three kinds of aggregate tested under 
equal efforts. 

Figure 20 shows that as the Los Angeles value increases the degradation 
value also increases, but the rate of increase is not constant, and the 
relationships are not linear until the compactive effort is about 200 psi ram 
pressure and 250 revolutions. Below this level of compactive effort the 
Los Angeles machine produces more degradation for soft or weak aggregate than 
the gyratory machine, while above 250 revolutionr oiore degradation is experienced 
by the less resistant material in the gyratory compactor than in Los Angeles 
machine because the curve for 500 revolutions is concave rather than convex. 
Figure 21 shows that for grading B this linearity occurs somewhere between 
200 psi ram pressure and 250 revolutions, and 200 psi ram pressure and 500 
revolutions, while Figure 22 shows that such linearity was not reached for 
specimens with grading F under compactive efforts used in this study. 



38 



1200 



1000 



800 



0) 

o 
o 

H- 



</> 
O 

2? 

o 

c 



c 

§ 600 

Q_ 



400 



200 



Grading 

0% Asphalt 

200 psi 



500 Rev. 




250 



olOO 



60 



30 



22 



34 



26 30 

Los Angeles Value for Grading C 

FIG. 20 DEGRADATION VS LOS ANGELES VALUE, 
GRADING 0, 200 PSI 



39 



140 



120 



S 100 
< 

o 

o 

M— 

L. 



C 
0) 



80 



60 



40 



Grading B 

0% Asphalt 

200 psi 




500 Rev. 



p250 



o 100 



o 60 



30 



34 



22 26 30 

Los Angeles Value for Grading G 
FIG 21 DEGRADATION VS LOS ANGELES VALUE, 
GRADING B, 200 PSI 



40 













Grading F 




o500 Rev. 




0% Asphalt 








40 


200 psi 











/ o250 


















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ol00 




o 

0) 








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< 30 






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/ 


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O 
O 






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Percent increase 
o 




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10 




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l 
i 








1 

i 






o 


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1 

1 

1 
__1 







22 26 30 34 

Los Angeles Value for Grading G 
FIG. 22 DEGRADATION VS LOS ANGELES VALUE 
GRADING F, 200 PSI 



41 

The foregoing discussion indicates that, depending on gradation of the 
aggregate, there is a certain level of compaction for which the plot of 
degradation versus Los Angeles value of the aggregate is a straight line. 
For compactive efforts higher than that, soft and weak aggregates experienced 
more degradation in the gyratory machine than in the Los Angeles machine, 
and for compactive efforts below that soft and weak materials experienced 
more degradation in the Los Angeles machine. Therefore, as far as degradation 
is concerned, depending on the gradation of the material, the Los Angeles 
test corresponds only to a certain level of compaction. This level of 
compaction, as can be seen in Figures 20, 21, and 22 increases as gradation 
of material becomes more dense. Noting that these levels of compaction, 
especially in dense-graded materials, are much higher than those the material 
is normally subjected to in the field, imposes some doubts on the validity 
of the Los Angeles test as a measure of quality of aggregate with respect to 
degradation. This becomes especially apparent when it is noted that the 
dolomite aggregate with a high Los Angeles value (Figures 16 and 17) when 
tested in a Fuller gradation produced less than one-tenth of the degradation 
under equal compactive effort of that produced by the low Los Angeles value 
quartzite when tested in the open gradation. 

It was mentioned before that degradation occurs due to two phenomena, 
wear and breakage. Wear was considered responsible for that portion of 
degradation which is caused by rotation and slippage of particles over each 
other, while breakage was considered to occur when the contact pressure 
exceeds the strength of the particle in a certain direction. Thus under 
traffic compaction the particles either break or rotation wears off their 
corners,, In either case the result is production of particles of smaller 



42 

sizes. These two actions, rotation and breakage will result in a denser packing, 
thus producing a mat whose particles have more contact points and less chance 
for rotation. This reduces the rate of degradation under further compaction. 
But in the Los Angeles rattler test the particles do not experience this dense 
packing or cushioning effect which occurs in a road mat and consequently the 
material is subjected to a more severe degradation condition than actually 
exists in the field. 

Petrographic analysis 
A comparison of petrographic analysis (Table 2) with degradation and 
Los Angeles values of the materials reveals that nature of grain boundaries, 
cementation, and percent of voids influence the resistance of aggregates to 
degradation. Good interlocking between the grains present in limestone, 
results in a low Los Angeles value and low degradation. Loose interlocking, 
present in dolomite, results in a high Los Angeles value and high degradation. 
In quartzite strength is due to silica cementation^ which results in a compara- 
tively strong and resistant rock. If the material had not been highly 
stressed, this strong cementation would have resulted in a very low Los Angeles 
value. But the directional weakness due to cracking and fracturing makes the 
material susceptible to impact breakage, which may be the reason for its high 
Los Angeles value as compared to the nature of its cementation. The results 
also show that degradation increases as percent voids of the material increases. 



.[.:' ,■■ ■JJ.flr 



UrL iiG-I 



43 

CONCLUSIONS 
The results obtained from this study appear to justify the following 
conclusions. It should be realized that they are specifically applicable 
only to the particular kinds of aggregate used in this study. Furthermore, 
it should be noted that all the tests were performed in the laboratory, 
and there exists no field correlation study to specifically evaluate the 
field behavior of the materials. Also, it has to be noted that all con- 
clusions and recommendations deal with degradation characteristics of 
mineral aggregate. Protective measures suggested in this study are made 
only with respect to the reduction of aggregate degradation without con- 
sidering their effects on other properties of mixtures. 

1. Vnithin the range of the materials and procedures used in this 
study, there appears to be a unique pattern for degradation of 
each aggregate fraction of a bituminous mixture. This pattern 
does not vary with kind of aggregate, compactive effort, 
presence of asphalt, or original gradation of the mixture. 

2. The magnitude of degradation of a bituminous mixture, as measured 
by percent increase in aggregate surface area, depends on the fol- 
lowing factors; kind of aggregate, gradation of the aggregate, 
compactive effort, and shape of particles. The effect of asphalt 
on the magnitude of degradation is dependent on other factors 

and cannot be considered as an independent variable. 

3. Physical characteristics of the aggregate, as reflected by its 
Los Angeles value or by petrographic analysis, has a dominant 
effect on degradation. Mineral aggregates with low Los Angeles 
values will produce less degradation than those with high Los 



44 
Angeles values. Rocks with good interlocking or cementation 
between grains are more resistant to degradation than others. 

4. From the results of tests on mixtures ranging in gradation from 
open to dense, tested with compactive efforts ranging from low 
to high, it can be concluded that some aggregates having a 

Los Angeles loss greater than the minimum commonly specified 
may, from the standpoint of degradation, be satisfactory 
materials especially if used in dense gradings subjected to 
low compactive effort. 

5. Gradation of the mixture is the most important factor controlling 
degradation, as the gradation becomes more dense, degradation 
decreases. The magnitude of this decrease is much greater than 
that brought about by changes in other variables. Soft or weak 
materials with high Los Angeles values can produce much less 
degradation than hard and strong materials if the former are 
used in dense-graded mixtures and the latter in open mixtures. 
Therefore, from a degradation point of view, dense-graded 
mixtures offer the best use of local aggregates with high 

Los Angeles values. 

6. Increase in compactive effort results in increase in degradation 
of the mixture regardless of the form of this increase in effort, 
but degradation is more susceptible to change in magnitude of 
load than to change in repetition of load. The rate of change 
in degradation is high during the initial part of the appli- 
cation of compactive effort, and thereafter becomes less as 

the compactive effort is increased. 



k5 

7. When the degradation of rounded particles is compared with that 
of angular particles of the same kind of aggregate, the rounded 
aggregate can be expected to produce less degradation because 
of a reduction of that portion of degradation which is due to 
wear. Use of rounded material will be helpful in reduction of 
degradation providing its use does not impair other properties 
of the mixtures. 



46 



LIST OF REFERENCES 



1. Aughenbaugh, N. B., Johnson, R. B,, and Yoder, E. J., "Available Information 
on Aggregate Degradation (a Literature Review)," Purdue University , April 
1961, (unpublished). 

2. Bond, F. C, "The Third Theory of Comminution," Transactions , American 
Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 193> 1952. 

3. Charles, R. J., "Energy-Size Reduction Relationships in Comminution," 
Transactions , American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 208, 1957. 

4. Collet, F. R., Warnick, C C, and Hoffman, D. S., "Prevention of 
Degradation of Basalt Aggregates Used in Highway-Base Construction," 
Proceedings , Highway Research Board, Vol. 41* 1962, 

5. Cook, F. C„, "Report of the Road Research Board," Department of 
Scientific and Industrial Research, London, England, 1935. 

6. Croeser, H. M. W„, "Bituminous Mixtures," Unpublished M.S. Thesis , 
University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1944. 

7. Day, H. L., "A Progress Report on Studies of Degrading Basalt Aggre- 
gate Bases," Proceedings ;, Highway Research Board, Vol. 41, 1962. 

8. Ekse, M. and Morris, H. C, "A Test for Production of Plastic Fines 

in the Process of Degradation of Mineral Aggregates," Special Technical 
Publication No„ 277 , American Society for Testing Materials, 1959. 

9. Endersby, V. A. and Vallerga, B. A., "Laboratory Compaction Methods and 
Their Effects on Mechanical Stability Tests for Asphaltic Pavements," 
Proceedings , The Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 21, 
1952. 

10. Erickson, L. F. , "Degradation of Aggregate Used in Base Courses and 
Bituminous Surfacings," Circular 416 , Highway Research Board, March 
I960. 

11. Erickson, L. F., "Degradation of Idaho Aggregates," Pacific Northwest 
Soils Conference, Moscow, Idaho, February 1958„ 

12. Faust, A. S., Wengel, L. A,, Clump,, C, W„, Maus, L„, and Anderson, 

L. B., "Principles of Unit Operations," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., I960. 

13. Goetz, W. H., "Flexible Pavement Test Sections for Studying Pavement 
Design," Proceedings , Thirty-Seventh Annual Purdue Road School, 1952. 



47 

14. Goldbeck, A. T., "Discussion on the Los Angeles Abrasion Machine," 
Proceedings , American Society for Testing fete rials, Vol. 35, Part II, 
1935. 

15. Goldbeck, A. T., Gray, J. E., and Ludlow, L. L., Jr., "A Laboratory 
Service Test for Pavement Materials," Proceedings , American Society 
for Testing Materials, Vol. 34, Part II, 1934. 

16. Gross, J., "Crushing and Grinding," Bulletin No. 402, U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, 1938. 

17. Gross, J. and Zimmerlgy, S. R. , "Crushing and Grinding," Transactions , 
American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 87, 1930. 

18. Havers, J. A. and Yoder, E. J., "A Study of Interactions of Selected 
Combinations of Subgrade and Base Course Subjected to Repeated Load- 
ing," Proceedings . Highway Research Board, Vol. 36, 1957. 

19. Herrin, M. and Goetz, W. H., "Effect of Aggregate Shape on Stability 
of Bituminous Mixes," Proceedings , Highway Research Board, Vol. 33, 
1954. 

20. Holmes, J. A., "A Contribution to the Study of Comminution - A Modified 
Form of Kick's Law," Transactions , Institute of Chemical Engineers, 
Vol. 35, 1957. 

21. Idaho Department of Highways, "Standard Method of Test for Degradation 
of Aggregates," T-15-58 , State of Idaho, Boise, Idaho, 1958. 

22. Laburn, R. J., "The Road Making Properties of Certain South African 
Stones," Unpublished M.S. Thesis , Part II, University of Witwatersrand, 
Johannesburg, South Africa, 1942. 

23. Macnaughton, M, F. , "Physical Changes in Aggregates in Bituminous 
Mixtures Under Compaction," Proceedings , The Association of Asphalt 
Paving Technologists, Vol. 8, January 1937. 

24. Mather, B., "Shape, Surface Texture, and Coatings," Special Technical 
Publication No, 169 , American Society for Testing Materials, 1955. 

25. McLaughlin, J. F., "Recent Developments in Aggregate Research," A paper 
presented at the IV World Meeting of the International Road Federation, 
Madrid, 1962. 

26. McRae, J. L and Foster, C. R. , "Theory and Application of a Gyratory 
Testing Machine for Hot-Mix Bituminous Pavement," Special Technical 
Publication No, 252 , American Society for Testing Materials, 1959, 

27. Minor, C. E., "Degradation of Mineral Aggregates," Special Technical 
Publication No. 277 , American Society for Testing Materials, 1959. 

28. Nevitt, H. G., "Compaction Fundamentals," Proceedings , The Association 
of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 26, 1957, 



48 

29. Pauls, J. T. and Carpenter, C. A., "Mineral Aggregates for Bituminous 
Construction," Special T echnical Publication No. 83, American Society 
for Testing Materials, 1948. 

30 c Piret, E. L., Kwong, J. M. , Adams, J. T., and Johnson, J. F., "Energy- 
New Surface Relationship in the Crushing of Solids," Chemical Engineer- 
ing Progress , Vol. 45, 1949= 

31. Rhodes, R„ and Mielenz, R, C, , "Petrographic and Mineralogic Charac- 
teristics of Aggregates," Special Technical Publication No. 83, 
American Society for Testing Materials, 1948. 

32-. Scott, L, E., "Secondary Minerals in Rock as a Cause of Pavement and 
Base Failure," Proceedings , Highway Research Board, Vol. 34> 1955. 

33. Shelburne, T. E«, "Crushing Resistance of Surface-Treatment Aggregates," 
Engineering Bulletin 8 Purdue University, Vole 24, No. 5, September 1940. 

34. Shelburne, T. E„, "Surface Treatment Studies," Proceedings , The Asso- 
ciation of Asphalt Paving Technologists , Vol,, 11, 1940. 

35. Shergold, F„ A 0J "A Study of the Crushing and Wear of Surface-Dressing > 
Chippings Under Rolling and Light Traffic," Research Note No. RN/2298/FAS , 
B. P. 397 , Road Research Laboratory, London, 1954» 

36. Turner, R. S„, and Wilson, J = D s , "Degradation Study of Some Washington 
Aggregates," Bulletin No, 232 , Washington State, Institute of Technology, 
1956. 

37. U„ S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicks- 
burg, Mississippi, "Development of the Gyratory Testing Machine and 
Procedures for Testing Bituminous Paving Mixtures," Technical Report 
No. 3-595 . February 1962, 

38. Woods, K. B. , "Highway Engineering Handbook," Section 16, "Distribu- 
tion, Production, and Engineering Characteristics of Aggregates," by 
McLaughlin, J„ F Q , Woods, K B„, Mielenz, R. C., and Rockwood, N. C, 
McGraw-Hill, i960. 

39. Woolf, D. 0., "Results of Physical Tests of Road Building Aggregates," 
Bulletin , Bureau of Public Roads, 1953. 

40. Moavenzadeh, F„, "A Laboratory Study of the Degradation of Aggregates in 
Bituminous Mixes," Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the Ph.,D„ degree, Purdue University, July, 1962 
(unpublished). 



V J. , 



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# 



TABLE 1 



RESULTS OF LOS ANGELES ABRASION 
AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTS* 

Los Angeles Abrasion 



Grading *"> : ~ 



Type of Aggregate A B. 



Dolomite 40.0 41.0 33.0 

Limestone 26.7 25.0 27.5 

Quartzite 22.0 23.7 24.9 



Compressive Strength PST**-"- 









Size 


of Spe< 
Inches 


:imen 




Type of Aggregate 


1, 


,0 


x 1.0 x 


1.0 




1. 


,0 


x 1.0 x 2.0 


Dolomite 






10,100 






8,500 


Limestone 






15,000 










14,300 


Quartzite 






25,200 










29,600 



* Each value is the average of three tests 
** According to aSTH Method C 131 
*** Rate of loading .025 in/min 



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ct) 



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51 



TABLE 3 
ORIGINAL GRADATIONS 
Percent Passing 



Sieve 


Grading 


1/2" 


100.0 


3/8" 


75.0 


£3(1/4") 


50.0 


#4 


25.0 


#6 


0.0 


#8 




#12 




#16 




#30 




#50 




#100 




#200 





ding B 


Grading F 


.00.0 


100.0 


86.0 


86.6 


62.0 


70.7 


50.0 


61.2 


45.0 


51.4 


36.0 


43.3 


25.0 


36.3 


16.0 


30.0 


11.0 


22.0 


6.0 


15.0 


4.0 


10.9 


3.0 


7.7 



52 



table 4 

RESULTS OF TESTS ON ASPHaLT CEMEWT 



Specific Gravity, 77/77°F 1.032 

Softening Point, Ring and Ball, °F 114.0 

Ductility, 77°F, cm. 200 + 

Penetration, 100 grams, 5 sec, 77°F 90 

Penetration, 100 grams, 5 sec, 32°F 20 

Flash Point, Cleveland Open Cup, °F 600 

Solubility in CC1, , percent 99.8 



53 



TABLE 5 
SURFACE -AREA FACTORS 



Fraction of Material Factor 

Passing Retained Sq. cm. per gram 

2.2 

3.2 

4.5 

5.7 

7.9 

12.7 

30.0 

100 o0 

205.0 

615.0 



Note: Assumed sp,, gr„ = 2,65. For values other 
than 2„65j multiply the above factors by 
2.65 
sp. gr. 



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<n\0 H CM OS 



o 

CM 



65 



T..BLE 17 



PERCENT INCREASE IN SURFACE AREA 
Rounded Quartzite 



Original 
Grading 


G 
Grad 


ing 


Grading B 


Grading F 




Rev. 


% AS 


phalt 


% Asphalt 


% asphalt 


PSI 





4 





4 





4 


100 


30 
100 
250 


67.8 
116.0 
138.0 


82.9 

110.0 


7.2 
14.0 
19.0 


10.8 
16.5 
20.5 


1.0 
1.9 

4.2 


0.7 
3.2 
6.0 


200 


30 
100 
250 


114.0 
178.0 
212.0 


142.4 
173.4 
198.0 


12.2 
21.5 
28.0 


20.0 
23.5 
28.5 


2.6 
4.8 
7.7 


2.5 
5.5 

8.0 


250 


30 
100 
250 


128.0 
185.0 
231.0 


175.0 
215.0 
250.0 


13.3 
23.0 
29.0 


23.3 
27.5 
32.0 


2.9 
5.7 
8.6 


4.5 
6.2 
9.0