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f 'O 









(Straits Settlements Civil Service). 

Part I. 


Singapore : 




32, Raffles Place, 






1^1 o 






\ The letter alif; the alphabetical symbol for 
the number i in the abjad, q. v. 

^«^\ aba. 1. Glow, warmth, C. and S. ; (Kedah) 

behaba, v. haba, 

II. The smallest imaginable atom ; C. and S. 

(== Jmma ?) 

III. ALso abah, q. v. 

\j\ aba. Arab. Father. Cf. abA 

\j\ iba'. Arab. Refusal ; rejection ; disobe- 
dience ; unwillingness. 

iJc:j\ ibtida'. Arab. Beginning; commencement; 

HtiYiifu 'Uibtidd ' : expressions used to open 
a sentence. 

LiVibtidA ' : to begin with ; firstly ; = saber- 

J^} abtar. Arab. Curtailed; docked; shortened 
in the tail. 

-X.1M abjad. [Arab. : a composite word made 
up of the first four letters of the alphabet 
arranged in their ancient order.] The alpha- 
bet following the old order of the letters — an 
order still observed in Hebrew; the numeri- 
cal alphabet, each letter having a successive 
numerical value, viz. : — 


c^ J- 


• * i 


To these purely Arabic letters are added the 
following non-Arabic letters : — 






These numerical values of the letters are 
much used in calculating horoscopes and in 
other methods of divination. 

-Xj\ abad. Arab. Eternity; the endless future. 
Daripada azal datang kapada abad: from 
the endless past to the endless future; 
Bust. Sal. 

(5-Xi\ abadi. Arab. Eternal; everlasting. 


abadiyyat. Arab. Eternity. 

\ abar. Mengabar: to check or restrain any- 
thing in motion ; Kl. 


abor. Mengabor: to lavish; to waste; to be 
prodigal in expenditure ; cf. ambor and tabor. 

ibrahlm. Arab. Abraham. 

ifS>jA abras. Arab. Leprous. 
^J^ abrak. Arab. Mica. 




abus. I. A small coin ; the tenth portion of 
a Hmah or kepeng ; Kl. Also habus. 

II. (Kedah.) The name of a tree (uniden- 

abis. Better habis, q. v. 

ab'^ad. Arab. More remote ; far distant. 




jo\ abang. I. Elder brother or cousin; a 

^ friendly or familiar expression descriptive of 

male relatives not much older than the speaker ; 

a term used by a woman in addressing her 

lover or husband. Cf. kakanda. 

In North Malay (Kedah and Perak) abang 
is never used of an elder sister. In South 
Malay (Riau, Johor and Selangor) ahang 
peremptiwan is used, in courtly language only, 
of a slightly elder female relative. Cf. kakak, 

II. Jav. Red ; v. ebang and bang, 

«)\ dbang. [Jav. abang.] Red. Cf. bang. 

^\ abok. Dust, chaff, powder ; = habok, q, v. 

IS abSlor. [Pers. J^^. .] Crystal; clear white 
of the eyes ; (Kedah) piebald, of a horse ; the 
name of a medicinal shrub, = ladapahit; Kl. 

Also habelor, q. v. 
^JlA abilah. Pers. Chicken-pox. 




iblis. Arab. Satan; the arch-fiend; a 
spirit of evil. 'Adat iblis: evil customs; 
laws inspired by the spirit of evil ; Ht. Abd., 
416. Iblis taut dan iblis darat : sea-devils and 
land-devils ; Muj. 84. Nischaya jatoh-lah aku 
ka-dalam keluboran pBlaniek iblts: I should 
certainly have tumbled into the pitfalls of 
Satan ; Ht. Abd., 448. 

\ Sbaxn. See bam. 

\ ibn. Arab. Child; son; descendant. Ibnu's- 
sabil: "a son of the road,'* — i.e., a traveller; 
a wayfarer. 

Between two proper names, the form bin is 
used — i.e., Mat bin Deris: Mat, the son of 

Cf. banil and bant. 

\x^\ abSntara. A herald ; v. btntara. 

^\ abau. (Kedah.) A land tortoise common in 
marshy ground, and very destructive to padi. 

Also abau kekura ; v. kura. 
Main a. : (Kedah) amor lesbicus ; (Riau- 
Johor) main tampok labu. 

u\ abu. I. Ash ; cinders. 

Jikalau tuwan hendak ka-Jambi, 

Ambil che' Tahir juru batu-nya; 
Jikalau tuwan hBndakkan kami, 

Bakar4ah ayer ambil abu-nya: 

if you desire to marry me, burn water and 
collect the ashes thereof, — a proverbial setting 
of an impossible task. 

Sudah jadi abu arang : it has long been dust 
and ashes (literally : cinders and charcoal) ; it 
is ancient history. Prov. 


Smiting a. : (Kedah) a sort of swordstick. 

Ular tedong a.: (Riau, Johor, Malacca) 
the hamadryad ; naia bungarus : = (Kedah) 
ular tedong selar. Ikan ular abu: a saltwater 

Cf. abok, debUy lebu, kelabu, etc. 

II. Arab. Father; owner; possessor. 
Abu bakr (in Malay usually pronounced Abu 

bakar, and often contracted to Bakar) : a 
proper name; **the father of the maiden,'* 
the name of Muhammad's first successor, who 
was so called as the father of Ayesha, the only 
one of the Prophet's wives who was not a 
widow when he married her. 

III. Abuwan: a complete set of anything; 
(also) a share ; a portion. Often habuwan. 

^J\ ububan. Jav. Bellows. 
^jj)\ abuwan. See abu III. 
fjj\ abawi. Arab. Fatherly. 

isJ\ aboe. [Chin, a-poeh, a-peh: uncle, elderly 

" gentleman.] A respectful form of address 

when speaking to the headman of a Chinese 

village; the head of a gang of miners; a 

leading Chinaman on a country estate. 

^} abah. I. Sending on an errand; orders or 
directions regarding a journey ; an order to go 
anywhere, as distinct from an order to do 
anything (kerah), 

11- Abah-abah: tackle, gear, harness; 
anything, the appearance of which is sug- 
gestive of tackle ; the entrails of an animal. 

Abah-abah tenun : wearing gear. 

Also aba. 

III. Abah-abah: a porch or verandah built 
under the projecting eaves of a house. 

j^\ abi. Arab. To disregard a command. Min- 
gabi : to disobey. 

Juj\ abid. Arab. Eternal. 
xj\ abiadl. Arab. White. 

BahruH-abiadl : the White River, i.e., the 
White Nile. 

'\J\ abaimana. [Cf. Hind. apamanya: dis- 
^- graced ?] The lower orifices of the body. 


\j\ utara. [Skr. uttara.] The North. 

U. tepat: due North. 
U.baratlaut: North-North-West. 

17. timer laut: North-North-East. 

Musim u. : the period of the year during 
which the prevailing winds are northerly ; the 
North-East Monsoon. 


[ 3 ] 


*u\ Utama. I. [Skr. uttama.] Supreme excel- 
' lence ; superiority. Terutama matt dengan 

yang baik daripada hidop dengan nama yang 
jahat: far better die with credit than live 
in disgrace; Ht. Abd., 295. Yang terutama 
G^bernor: H. E. the Governor. Also written 

\i\ q. V. 

11. [Skr. atma.] Utama jiwa (a corrup- 
tion of atma jiwa): life ; the breath or spirit of 
life. Maka tersebut-lah perkataan BUara Guru 
menitahkan BUara Indera turun birsama sama 
dengan Begawan Narada membawa ayer utama 
jiwa akan menghidopkan Sang Ranjuna: — 
the story relates how Betara Guru (Siva) 
ordered the Holy Indra and the Blessed 
Narada to descend (to earth) bearing the 
water of life for the revivification of Arjuna ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Utama jiwa is also used as a term of endear- 

See also U\ 

A u\ atawa. [Skr. athawa.] (Kedah) either ; or ; = 
(Riau-Johor) atau, 

^^ul\ itbsib. Arab. To weaken ; to enervate. 

^\Ji\ ittihsld. Arab. Union ; concord. 

y\ atar. [Arab. J^a^-] Scent; fragrance; aroma. 
Minyak a, : otto of roses, 

j\ atur. Order, arrangement; setting in order. 
Di-atur-nya meriam berkeliling : cannon were 
set all round it. 

Hairdn sa-kali di-dalam hati, 

Meriam di-atur, perang ta-jadi : 

it is a most surprising thing ; the cannon are 
in readiness but no fighting ever takes place ! — 
a proverb ridiculing empty boasts. 

Aturan: the order in which anything is 
disposed ; the method of arrangement. Pera- 
turan : id. 

Aturi; aturkan; mengaiur and mengaturkan: 
to set in order; to dispose or arrange any- 
thing methodically. 

Beratur: in order; arranged. 

yj\ atas. Position over or above. Di-atas meja : 
^^"^ on the table. Ka-aias meja : to a position on 
the table. 

Atas angin; v. angin, 

Baris di-atas: the Malay name descriptive of 
the vowel point fathah. 

In many Malay idioms atas is used in the 
sense of ^'according to," ^'relating to,'* "with 
reference to;'* t.^., in the sense of interrela- 
tion without the special meaning of super- 
position. Menyertai aku atas pekerjaan yang 
sadikit ini : to assist me as regards this little 
matter. Atas beberapa sebab: for many 

reasons. Atas undang-undang : according to 
the laws. Befirmdn atas lidah : to speak by 
the tongue (of another) — of God's utterances 
by the lips of his Prophets. 

Atas also occurs in the sense of ** against"; 
Ht. Zaly., 21. 

^\ atus. (Kedah.) Rinsing or filtering (a liquid) 
through anything ; usually tapis, 

^uil\ atishn&k. Pers. Fiery; glowing. 


ittis§;f. Arab. Description; quality. 

Jua;\ ittis&L Arab. To be interconnected. 

Ittisdlkan : to reach ; to attain to ; = sampaikan, 

^ atong. The motion of a boat on the water 

^ when the tendency to drift is impeded (but 

not altogether prevented ) by an anchor with 

a short cable or by any similar means. Cf. 

apong and katong, 

Udang a, : a lobster ; Kl. 

;\ju\ ittifak. 

Arab. Concord; harmony. 

ij\ atap. I. A roof; roofing — especially (but 
not necessarily) a roof of leaves in contradis- 
tinction to one of tiles or shingles. Atap-nya 
daripada zamrM yang hijau: it was roofed 
with green emerald. Rumah atap: a house 
made of roofing, i,e., of palm leaves dried 
and worked in a certain way. 

A . ayan : a corrugated iron roof, 

A . batu : a tiled roof. 

A, bintang-bintang : n, roof with many holes 
in it. 

A . genting : = a, batu, 

A. gajah menyusu: a roofed (but not walled) 
passage connecting a kitchen or outhouse 
with the main building. 

A, limas: v. limas, 

A . rungkup : a roof with overhanging eaves. 

Bengkawan a, : the lath passing through a 
piece of Malay thatching; the numeral co- 
efficient of pieces of thatching. 

Chuchor a, : (i) also chuchoran a, ; the runnels 
on a roof between the rows of tiles ; (2) the 
name given to a medicinal drug. 

Kasau a. : the rafters on which a Malay roof 

n. Teratap: a rough lean-to or shed; 
properly teratak^ q. v. See Ht. Best., 71. 

yjp^ atal. A medicinal drug of a hard, stone-like 
character; Kl. =^ artal? 

u\ utama. Skr. The ancient and literary form 
of a word now pronounced utdma, v. j»v » I. 


[ 4 ] 


U\ atma. Skr. The ancient and literary form 
of a word now pronounced utama, v. ^vi II. 

(^\ ati. Better hati, q. v. 

atau. Skr. (Riau-Johor) Or; either; else; 
(Kedah) atawa. 

^\j\ ithbftt. Arab. Affirmation ; to affirm ; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 410. 

Ithbdtkan (and mengithbdtkan) : to confess ; to 
avow. Yang di-ithbdtkan itu melainkan 
Allah: he only avowed (his belief in) the one 
God; Ht. Sh. Mard. See also Sh. L M. P., 
10; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 10. 

i\ athar. Arab. Trace; sign; impression; 

Al-athar: the traditional sayings of the 

\\ij\ athk&L [Arab. Plur. of Jsi.] Burden, load 
— especially the load of sin. 

O^^ itlmain. [AvBbr,yaumii*l-ithnaini: the second 
day of the week; Monday.] Hart ithnain: 
Monday; also pronounced isnen^ senen and 

This word is sometimes used as a proper 

^W\ ij&b. Arab. To hear (and fulfil) a prayer. 
Also written ^^; Arabian Nights, 18. 

i;\>-\ ijiibat. Arab. The hearing of prayer. 
^\>\ y&d. Arab. Kindhearted. 
53W\ ijMat. Arab. Kindheartedness. 

©^W\ ijfi'rah. Arab. Wages (of a coolie); daily 
^ * payment of ijrat, q. v. 

e)W\ ijd^zah. Arab. Diploma; certificate; the cer- 
tificate of competency given by a teacher to a 
pupil; a licence to practice; leave; permission. 
Memohunkan ijdzah-ijdzah kaluwar menchari 
bunga ubat-nya itu: asking for permission to 
depart in search of the flower which was to 
serve as a remedy; Ht. Gul. Bak., 6. Idzin 
danijazah: permission and licence; Muj., 9. 
Cf. also Muj., 7, 15; Sh. Laili Mejn., 11. 

^j^W\ ijfi,s. Arab. Damson-plums. 

L^.^\ ajab. Better ^^^ , q. v. 

X^ ijb&r. Arab. Compulsion. 
-/ • • 

3\4:>-\ ijtih&d. Arab. Zeal; solicitude; diligence; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 128. 

ajar. I. Instruction; teaching. 

Ajaran : instruction. 

Ajari and mBngajari: to instruct (any one). 

Ajarkan, mimpelajarkan and mengajarkan : to 
teach (any subject). 

BBlajar: to learn. 

M^ngajar : to teach ; to be engaged in teaching. 

Pilajaran: teaching; instruction; the subject 

P^ngajar: a teacher; an instructor. 

P^ngajaran : the work of instruction. 

P^lok ttiboh m^ngajar dirt: hug your body 
and lecture yourself; ponder on your own 
folly; Prov. J. S. A. S., I., 95, 

1 1 . Ajar-ajar : [Skr. acharya ?] A devotee ; 
the disciple of an ascetic or of any one pro- 
fessing to teach supernatural wisdom; a 
hermit, Ada-pun hamba datang ka-mari hendak 
mengisldmkan ajar-ajar yang di-Bukii Feringgi 
itu: I have come here to convert to Muham- 
madanism the hermits upon Mt. Feringgi; 
Ht. Jaya Lengg. Segala jogi Berhamman 
ajar-ajar sakaliyan : all the Yogis, Brahmins 
and ascetics. Ht. Sh. Cf, also Cr. Gr., 47; 
Sh. Panj. Sg.; etc, 

5^'>-\ ujrat. Arab. Wages, salary, rent. Cf. ijdrah. 

^' §jing. Better jing, q. v. 


H Sjong. Better jong, q. v. 

\ ajak. Invitation ; suasion to the performance 
of anything, Di-ajak-nya masok dudok: he 
invited him to come in and sit down; Ht. 
Abd., 310. Ajak-lah Jenohati bersama-sama : 
invite Yajnawati as well; Ht. Sg. Samb, 
Cf. also Sej. Mai., 104. 

Berajak (Ht. P. J. P.) and mengajak (Ht. 
Ind. Jaya) : to invite. 


\ ajok. Mimicry, imitation ; ridicule by mimi- 
cry ; ** taking off" a person; ridiculing a 
person's mannerisms. 

Mengajok : to mimic ; to ridicule by mimicry. 
Terlalu banyak yang mengasut dan yang meng- 
ajok : there were very many people ridiculing 
him and taking him off; Ht. Koris. 


ajal. Arab. Appointed time; term; destiny; 
the predestined period of death. Dari sibab 
belum sampai ajal-nya belum-lah iya mati : as 
his hour had not yet come he did not then 
perish; Ht. Abd., 69. Hampir-lah sampai ajal- 
ku akan mati : my predestined time of death 
is drawing nigh; Sej. Mai., 71. 

Wangkang b^rpintu empat ; 

Ke-empat-empat pintu ka-laut; 
Anak dagang menchari t empat , 

Ajal di-tunda mdlikuH-mdut: 

the stranger seeks a habitation, but his fate is 
in tow of the Angel of Death ; Pel. Abd., 115. 

The form (J>-\ is also found in this sense; 
Sh. Bur. Pungg., 17. 


[ 5 ] 


jJ>-\ ajla. Arab. Clear ; convincing — as a proof. 

^\^\ ijm&'. Arab. To come together ; a gathering 
V- * or meeting; Majm. al-Ahk., 12. 

Jl2^\ ijm&l. Arab. Definition. 

Ijmdlkan : to define ; to give a definition. 

jyuA ijma'tlna. [Arab. Plur. of ^\ .] All ; 
altogether ; Ht. Zaly., 14. 

^y>^ ^jan. To press out; to squeeze out. Cf. 
rejan. Kl. 

^^\ ajun. Widest from the mark; last in the 
race; worst in the competition. 



iU>-\ ajnas. [Arab., the plural of jins; varieties, I 
sorts ; V. jenis,] TuhfatuH-ajnds : a gift of 
various articles; a miscellaneous gift — a 
common expression in epistolary language — 
a survival of the period when gifts invariably 
accompanied letters. 

4>-A>-\ ajujah =^ jtijaf, q. v. 

^^jsA ajuwaf. Arab. Hollow; cavernous. 

\ aji. I. Kawi. A king ; kingly; royal. 

Bapa a, or rama a, : royal father ; sovereign ; 
sire. Kakang sudah memberi malu rama aji 
ibti suri : you, my brother, have brought 
shame upon the king, your father, and the 
queen, your mother ; Ht. Sh. ; Ht. Mas. Edan. 

Kakang aji: my royal brother — an expres- 
sion used by the queen to the king ; Ht. Sh. 

Paku aji : cyca. 

Sang aji: the king; the sacred person of 
the sovereign. Sang aji Berunai : the ruler 
of Brunai; Sej. Mai., 155. 

Tuwanku aji mahkota : my lord, the reigning 
king; Ht. Koris. 

The word aji is used in literary but not in 
colloquial Malay. 

n. Mengaji: to study — especially in the 
sense of religious study; to read; to read 
religious books. 

MBngaji batang: v, batang, 
Pengajiyan : the ability to read ; the know- 
ledge acquired by study. 

ni. Jav. A secret magic formula. 

IV. Jav. Price, value. 

V. Hind. An interjection used to call or 
bespeak the attention of a person with whom 
one is familiar. 

\>-\ ajlr. Arab. A coolie; a labourer for daily 
wages (ujrat). 

s\>\ achara. [Skr. dchAra,] Rule of conduct; 
' religious observance; regulated manner of 

A achat. (Kedah.) A small leech, larger than 
a pachat but smaller than a lintah. 

-\ achita. A kind of rice ; Kl. 





achar. I. [Hind, achdr.] Pickles; fruit or 
vegetables preserved in vinegar. Cf. jirok and 
halwa. Kam. Kech., 11 ; Ht. Abd., 292. 

n. (Kedah.) A sink; a gutter; a rubbish 
hole ; a drain ; a puddle ; any place into 
which slops are emptied or dirt is thrown, 
Kain dalam achar; kutib chuchi diya hendak 
ka-longkang juga: a garment thrown away 
in the sink; you may pick it up and clean 
it, but it will always find its way to the drain 
in the end ; (irreclaimable) ; Prov. 

A char an: id. 

achang. A messenger ; an informer. 

achap. 1. Deeply im.mersed or stuck in 

n. A chap -achap : swiftly; speedily; Kl. = 
(Kedah) chap-chap. 

achum. Stirring up anger by tale-bearing; 
repeating to one person what another person 
has said about him; Ht. Best., 42. 

Achuman: a cause of such irritation; the 
malicious stirring up of enmity; Sh, Bid., ill. 

Mengachum: to libel; to excite enmity by 
slander. Di-chari bichara mengachum anak-ku : 
a pretext was sought to slander my child; 
Ht. Best., 56. 

achan. I. Interfering with a person's 
movements by continually getting in his 
way, either intentionally, by way of teasing 
him, or unintentionally, as sometimes happens 
when two people coming from different direc- 
tions meet each other and both move aside 
in the same direction. Achan hantu: obstruc- 
tion in the latter sense. 

II. To attract small deer by imitating 
certain sounds. Cf. tikut. 

achll. Menacing, but not carrying out one's 
threat; a threatening gesture not followed 
by attack ; an act such as lifting a stick but 
not striking, or shaking one's fist without 
further action. Di-genggam-nya tangan-nya 
di-achukan-nya di-muka tuwan itu : he closed 
his fist and shook it before that gentleman's 
face ; Ht. Abd., 250. 

The word is also used of a blow being actu- 
ally attempted or a lunge being unsuccessfully 
made. Maka tangan-nya UrkHdr-ketar duwa 
tiga kali di-achu-nya tiyada dapat di-tikam-nya: 
his hand shook, and though he made two or 
three lunges he did not succeed in stabbing 
him ; Ht. Perb. Jay. 

Achuwan: a matrix; a mould; a model; Ht. 
Abd., 234. 


[ 6 ] 




achah. Mingachah: to feint; to pretend to 
be about to strike a certain kind of blow in 
order to cover a different attack. Kl. 

acheh. I. The name of a small wood-leech ; 

II. Acheen. 

aohi. I. (Pahang?) Achi-achi : the lever 
by which the boom of a Malay boat is turned 
over and over and the sail furled ; C. and S.=: 
chachif q. v. 

II. Done? — an expression used by people 
in bargaining or betting to signify that every- 
thing is settled. Achi-achi : id. Ta'-achi: 
the bet is off, the offer is not closed with; = 

III. Tarn. Elder sister ; a respectful form 
of address in speaking to elderly Tamil women. 

ihatah. Arab. To surround. 


\. ^^ ^\ ihtisdib. Arab. Imputation ; to impute. 

ihtishd,m. Arab. Reverence ; obedience. 

jU^X>-\ ihtik&r. Arab. Buying up and cornering 

food-grain ( a great sin in Muhammadan 

^ji>^ ihtimfi,!. Arab. To bear; to suffer; to 

-i>-\ ahad. Arab. One. Maka Kddli pun tarn- 
pil'lah ka-hadapan mengahad-kan keduwa-nya: 
the Kali stepped forward to make the pair one 
(to unite them in marriage); Ht. Gul. Bak., 13. 

Hart ahad : the first day of the week ; 

eJ^ ahadah. [Arab. The feminine form of 
ahad.] Sole; single; first; Sh. I. M. P., 7. 

AjJ^\ ahdiyyat. Arab. Unity; concord; union. 

A/^^ ihr&m. Arab. Anathema ; interdict ; the 

period during which certain things are for- 

^^w>-\ ihsto. Arab. Beneficence; favour; kindness. 

m6s>A ahk&m. [Arab. Plur. of J>-.] Laws; the 

law. Majma 'u' l-ahkam: the Muhammadan 
Code of Laws; the (Johor) Code. 

-X-^^ ahmad. Arab. Highly praiseworthy; a 

proper name often occurring among Muham- 









Red; Ht. Zaly., 16; Arabian 

Foolish ; stupid ; ignorant ; 

easily angered; Ht. Abd., 280; Sej. Mai., 79; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 77. 

j\j>-^ ahwal. [Arab. Plural of hdl : state ; thing ; 
event.] Hdl ahwdl : events ; occurrences of 
all sorts ; general state of affairs. Segala hdl 
ahwdl zamdn-zamdn yang tersebut itu : all the 
incidents of the period in question ; Ht. Abd., 6. 

Usually pronounced ahowdL 
\^\ ihyS,'. Arab. To restore to life. 
SiW^ ikhadzat. Arab. A fief. 

j\jA akhMr. [Arab. Plural of v^^>• , q. v.] News ; 
information ; (sometimes) a newspaper. 

jU>-^ ikhbar. Arab. News-giving; reporting; 
making known. 

,Ual>-\ ikhtisar. Arab. Definition. 


^jfi>Uaxi-\ ikhtisis. Arab. To belong to. 

^'^1>.\ ikhtilfi.S. Arab. Robbery ; to rob ; high- 
way robbery. 

i.J'ibji-^ ikhtilaf. Arab. Discord; difference; dis- 
parity; inconsistency; Ht. Kal. Dam., 197. 

ilaj>-\ ikhtiy&r. Arab. Choice; election; free will; 
a deliberate decision ; a carefully thought out 
plan for attaining any object. Di-serah- 
kan ikhtiydr kapada-nya daripada haik dan 
jahat-nya : he was permitted to choose freely 
between good and evil; Ht. Abd., 402. Men- 
chart ikhtiydr hendak mengambil gemala itu : to 
think out a scheme for securing possession of 
that talismanic stone ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 84. 
Dengan ikhtiydr-nya sendiri juga : of his own 
choice ; of his own free will. 

Pulang ikhtiydr : to allow another person to 
think a matter out ; to hand over to another 
the responsibility of deciding any point. 

Bagaimana ikhtiydr kamu : what do 
think ; what is your plan or proposal ; 
Best., 91. 


JoA akhidz. Arab. A collector ; 

a receiver. 


akhir. Arab. Last, remotest ; the end. 
Akhir-nya: in the end; ultimately; the end 
of anything. Akhir-nya iya hinggap di-bela- 
kang kerbau : it finally perches on the buffalo's 
back; Ht. Abd., 115. Daripada awwal hingga 
akhir-nya: from first to finish; from first to 

A khir zamdn, or akhir dan zamdn , 
and ever; to the end of time. 

for ever 


[ 7 ] 


\ akhirat. Arab. The future life; eternity; 
the day of judgment. Dart dunya sanipai ka- 
akhirat : from worldly to heavenly life ; from 
our days on earth to those in heaven. 

a>\ akhdlar. Arab. Dark green. 

Vi>-\ ikhfa'. Arab. To hide. 

^^y6^ ikhl&S. Arab. Sincerity; candour. Sttratu 
H'ikhlas : a letter written in sincere friendship ; 
Ht. Abd., 222, 466; Ht. Koris; Muj., 14, etc. 

^^ ada. Existence ; actual presence ; present 
condition ; to be. Ada laut ada4ah perompak : 
the existence of a sea (means) the existence of 
pirates; Prov. Ada bangkai ada-lah hereng : 
where a carcase is, there will vultures also be ; 

Adakan and mengadakan : to bring into ex- 
istence ; to create ; to appoint. Nyawa sehaja 
tiyada buleh di-adakan-nya : life alone they 
cannot call into existence ; Ht. Abd., 299, 
Hubongan huruf yang bukan-bukan di-adakan- 
nya : he kept making impossible combinations 
of letters ; Ht. Abd., 185. Mengadakan bentara 
empat puloh : to appoint forty poursuivants ; 
Sej. Mai., 87. 

Keadaan : state ; conditions or mode of life 
or existence. Hina keadaan diri-ku : my 
position is a humble one. 'Ilmu kejadiyan dan 
tabPat dan keadaan *dlam : the science of the 
creation, nature and present condition of the 
earth — i.e., cosmogony, geology and geo- 
graphy; Ht. Abd., 5. 

Ada-nya: (literally) its state; it is so — an 
expression often used to close a sentence or 

Tiyada : non-existence ; not — the negative of 

Ta'-dapat tiyada or tadapatiyada : there is no 
denying it ; no negation is possible ; must ; 
of necessity. 

^y\ adab. Arab. Refinement of manners ; court- 
esy; politeness. Dengan adab: courteously. 
Balek adab and biadab, q. v. : discourtesy ; 


iw\ udara. See udard. 


y\ adar. I. Aged; advanced in years ; Marsd., 
Cr., R. V, E. Also iidar. 

n. To sleep at a friend's house; = tandang 
or bertandang. 

\^y\ udara. [Skr. adhara.] The atmosphere ; the 
air; the folds of air round the earth. Burong 
yang di-udara : the birds of the air. Menyu- 
chikan udara : to clear the atmosphere. 

Also pronounced udara, 

Q\.y\ udana. Seri udana : a Kedah title of distinc- 

Z']j'^^ adiraja. See adi. 
(j**i^«^' idrts. Arab. A proper name ; Enoch. Nabt 

Idrh: Enoch. 

^^^ aaas. Adasmanis: aniseed (ilicium anisatumj; 
Kam. Kech., 9. 

-y^ adas. 

A, pedas: fennel; fceniculum vulgare. 

9'^\ adaug. I. Obstruction; barring a passage; 
^ lying in wait in an ambush to stop the progress 

of an enemy ; intercepting a blow struck. 

Hamba adang diya di-jalan: I will waylay 

him; Ht. Sri. Rama. 

Batu a. : wall-like masses of rock impeding 
operations in alluvial mining. 

Mengadang: to intercept; to stop; to oppose 
a barrier to. 

To' Laksamana memerentah laut, 
Mengadang musoh orang jahat : 

the Dato Laksamana rules the sea, guarding 
us against foes and the wicked; J. I. A., 
Vol. L, 150. 

Mengadangkan: to interpose (anything) as a 
barrier or defence; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Pengadang: anything interposed as a pro- 
tection; e.g., a shield. 

Sudah berbunyi gendang perang, 

Tenter a lashkar ka-luwar ka-padang; 

Pedang lembing tombak bendBrang, 

Perisai menjadi guna pengadang: 

when the drum of battle beats, when the 
armies appear on the field with swords, spears 
and pikes of state, then shields become useful 
for warding off (blows). 

Cf. s^kat, gBdang, etc. 

n. Adang-adang: sometimes; at times. 
Better kadang-kadang, q. v. 

ni. Mengadang-adang : to shake grain on a 
winnowing pan ; Kl. 

i'ys ading. Younger brother or sister; Sh. Panj. 
Sg. Usually adek or adinda. 

V— 5j>\ adap. See hadap. 

x^^ Sdap. I. A kind of tambourine. Also adap. 

n. (Siam?) A long knife or sword. 
Better dap, q. v. 

JUj\ adipati. See adi. 
is\ adak. See tiradak. 

I^\ adek. Younger brother or sister; a term of 
endearment used by an elder to a slightly 
younger person, especially by a husband to 
a wife. 

Adek beradek: brothers and sisters. Di-pan- 
dang orang saperti adek beradek ada-nya: so 


[ 8 ] 


far as could be seen they behaved to each 
other as brothers. Mengaku adek bBradek: 
(literally) to accept as a brother or sister; a 
friendly termination of a closer relationship or 
a limit to possible relations. Also ambil akan 

Adek kakak: relatives; immediate relatives. 

Adeksa-pupu: a younger first cousin. 

Adek duwa pupn: a younger second cousin. 

The word adek is, however, often used of a 
cousin without any closer definition of the 

Bintang tiga beradek : a constellation of three 

The form adinda is more respectful than adek. 
The form ading is also met with. 

y\ adok. (Batavian and Sumatran Malay; occa- 
sionally heard in the Peninsula.) Stirring up; 
thoroughly mixing; stirring about. Champor 
adok : mixing and stirring up — «. e., the 
blending of various ingredients. A char champor 
adok : mixed pickles. 

adikara. See adu 

Adam. Arab. Also Nabt Adam and Nabi 
Allah Adam: Adam; the common ancestor of 
mankind. Adam bernama N4r Hayyati : Adam 
known as the Light of Life; Sh. L M. P., 4. 

Anak Adam or bant Adam: the descendants 
of Adam ; mankind. 

Ktilit adam : the peculiar light-coloured base 
of the nail; the nail before discoloration 
through exposure. According to native 
tradition this represents the complexion of 
Adam before the Fall. 

^^ adon. L Fastidiousness or care in adorning 
one's self; finery or neatness in dress. 

Beradon : to be careful about dress ; to be 
a dandy. 

Adonkan pengantin : to dress a bridegroom. 

IL Mengadon: to knead. 
Adonan: dough, 
Cf. adok* 

^S\ adinda. A derivative of <3^d^^, q. v.; a term 
of endearment, having the same meaning as 
adekf but not its associations of familiarity; 
a vocative implying respect as well as 
fraternal affection. For similar derivatives, 
cf. anakanda from anak; ayahanda from 
ayah, etc, 

^^\ adu. L Contention ; contest ; competition; 
reference to a tribunal or to arbitration. 
Mingadu: to contend; to compete. M. biri- 
biri: to make rams fight; Ht. Sh. Mard. 
M. tentera: to make armies fight; Ht. Isk. 
Djz., 7. Adayang mengadu kerbau lembu-nya 
bertarohkan gunong padang-nya : some started 
contests between their buffaloes and bulls 


staking their hills and plains on the result ; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. Maka sBgala anak raja-raja 
itupun sakaliyan mengadu-lah kBsaktiyan-nya : 
all the princes tested their supernatural powers 
one against the other ; Ht. P. J. P. 

Adukan and mingadukan : to institute a 
contest ; to get up a fight ; to institute legal 
proceedings ; to refer one's case to the 
judgment of a Court or individual. 

Barang apa salah isUri-ku itu aku adukan 
kapada-nya: whenever my wife was guilty 
of any fault, I referred the matter to him. 
MBngadukan hdl: to lay one's case (before 

Aduwan : a lawsuit. PBngaduwan : a com- 
plaint ; a judicial information ; the laying 
of one's case before a Court. 

IL Beradu: to sleep; to be asleep — in Court 
language. Raja biradu: the name of a well 
known Malay tune. 

Peradtiwan : a couch or sleeping place ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Sej, MaL, 45; Ht. Gul. Bak., 
41, 106; etc. 

Geta peraduwan : a sleeping platform. Bilek 
peraduwan : a bedroom. 

Oj)"^^ adiwama. See adi. 



adohi, or aduhai. An exclamation of pain, 
sorrow or regret ; alas, oh ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 8, 

PBgang adohi, buka ambohi : you seize it with 
a cry of pain, you open it with one of 
astonishment ; a riddle descriptive of a durian. 

o-^\ adoh or aduh. Better adohi, q. v. 

t^-^i adi. [Skr. adhi.l Excellent ; eminent ; sur- 
passing ; an expression much used as a prefix 
to exalted titles, and usually contracted to di, 
Adohi tuwan ariningsun emas tempawan agong 
adi ratna pekacha : alas, my lady, my love, my 
fair one, perfect and excelling (in beauty), my 
gem of purity ! Ht. Sh. Pendekar adi : a 
warrior of surpassing skill ; a champion ; a 
pahalawan; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 6. Adi is often 
used by itself in this latter sense; Sh. Panj. 
Sg. ; Ht. Koris ; Ht. Hamza, 37. 

Adikara : majestic. 

Adiraja: altogether royal; royal both de jure 
and de facto — used of a reigning sovereign 
who has obtained the throne by inheritance. 
This word, usually in the contracted form 
diraja, serves as a component of many Malay 
titles and dignities. Angkatan raja diraja : 
a hearse for dead sovereigns. Dato' seri nara 
diraja, dato' seri amar diraja : Malay titles of 

Adipati (sometimes contracted to dipati) : 
a Javanese expression of distinction ; a com- 
ponent part of many Javanese titles, e. g,, 
pangeran adipati, raden mas adipati, etc. 

Adiwarna: excellent in colour; glowing or 
beautiful in tints. 


[ 9 ] 


v-y-j[^\ adib. Arab. Mannerly ; courteous. 

^y\ adzSn, Arab. The announcement of prayer, 
Sh. Lail. Mejn., lo. 

jU3\ idzk§.r. Arab. Remembrance, especially of 
the name of God and constant repetition of it. 

^y^ adzlak. Arab. Eloquent; incisive in argu- 

^J-i^ idziu. Permission, Meminta idzin : to request 
permission. Mimhiri idzin (Ht. Abd., 60, 347) 
or idzinhan (Sh. Lamp., 27 ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 4, 
27): to grant permission. 



ara. I. A generic name applied to various 
species of ficus, and to some trees resembling 
the jkus. 

MinanH ara ta'-bBrgetah : to wait for the fig- 
tree to lose its sap— an endless waiting ; Prov. 
J.S.A.S., XXIV., 118, Hufang kayu ara: a 
** fig-tree " debt, i.e. a debt never paid, — being 
paid when the fig-tree loses its sap. 

A . akar : ficus binnendykii. 

A . batu : ficus miquelii, 

A . buloh : ficus villosa. 

A . daun lebar : ficus vylophylla. 

A . gajah : ficus dubia. 

A . jangkang : cynocephalus ammnus. 

A . jejawi : ficus retusa, 

A.jBloteh: ficus alHssima and ficus diver- 

A . ktchil : ficus microstoma. 

A, kelalawar : ficus globosa, 

A . kubang : = a. huwap, 

A . kubong : ficus annulata, 

A . kuwap : ficus dubia, 

A. lampong : = a. batu, 

A , lidah rimau : ficus pisifera, 

A • lumut : croton caudatus, 

A . nasi : ficus glabella, 

A • pay a : ficus globosa, 

A . perak : ficus alba reinwardt. 

A, iampok pinang or a, tandok: ficus indica. 

A . tanah : euphorbia pilulifera. 

A kar a. : aristolochia roxburghiana, 

Ara apt, a, siyalang, a.punai: (unidentified). 

II. See arah. 

ir&dat. Arab. Will ; intention ; decree— used 
especially of the decrees of the Almighty. 
Melakukan irddat-nya : to work His will — of 
God; Sej. Mai., 119. Dengan irddat mdlikuH- 
jabdr : by the will of the Almighty Lord ; by 
the will of God ; Sh. Dag., 7. 



irama. Payong irama: better payong tram- 
iram; v. iram, 

arb&b. [Arab. Plur. of rabb,] Lords; 

6rbab. See Mrbab and rebab, 

arba'S.. Arab. Four. Hari arba*d: the 
fourth day, Wednesday ; usually corrupted in 
form to hari rabu, Malam arba'd: Tuesday 
evening, or Tuesday night ; Ht. Abd., 422. 

arta. [Skr. arta,] Property; wealth; Ht. 
Isk. Dz, = hertat q. v. 

arit. Jav. Slightly curved ; a slightly curved 
reaping knife = sabitf q. v. In Malay it is 
used of cutting to draw nira in making toddy. 

>j\ erat. = rat and hBrat, q. v. 








firtawan. [Skr. the adjective of arta, ] 
Wealthy ; = hBrtawan, q. v. 

artal. Saffron. Also hartal. 

Srti. Meaning; signification. Sq& hMi, 

irth. Arab. Inheritance. 

arjiuia. Skr. The third of the Pandawa 
brothers. Usually Rajuna or Ranjuna, q. v. 

archa. [Skr. archd,] An image ; a fresco or 
carving representing some religious or his- 
torical event. 

arham. Arab. Most merciful ; most com- 

firda. Better reda, q. v. 

urdi or ordi. Eur. Order; instructions; 
directions; command. 

arz. Arab. The cedar or pine tree. 

aras. I. Rising to; up to; to a level with, 
Mengaras : to rise to a line with ; to rise to 
the apparent level of. Naik ka-udara sam- 
pai pergi mingaras awan : rising in the air 
till he was in a line with the clouds — i.e., in 
a line between the spectator's eye and the 
clouds ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

MBngaras awan is also used of the sunset glow 
seeming to '* lift up" the sky. Jif^gg^^ p^^- 
garas (Ht. Mas. Edan.): the colour of a 
garment, may possibly be used of this golden 
yellow glow. 


[ 10 ] 


II. [Arab. \j'j>' .] An expression in chess ; 

** guard your queen"; **the queen is *m 
^vhe ' " ; — only used, however, when the queen 
is threatened by the knight. 

III. (Kedah.) Connection; v. iras, 

^\ aris. I. [Arab. ^^W .] A husbandman. 

II. [Arab.^jW.] Wise. 

III. The sap or gum of plants; the soft 
portion of the trunk. Saperti umpama gajah 
memamah aris; baik di-ikat : like the case of 
an elephant which eats up the sap of a planta- 
tion and is only fit to be tied up ; Ht. Ism. 
Yat., I. Cf. eriyas, 

IV. A rope sewn round the margin of a sail 
to give it strength ; a bolt-rope. 

V. Eng. Arrest. 

\\^A irs&l. Arab. Apostleship; mission. 

^V-i%\ aJ^shstd. Arab. Religious direction or guid- 
^ ance. A rshddaka'llah : may God lead you on 
the right path ; adieu; good-bye. 

. A \ orghan. [Eng. organ.] A concertina; an 
accordeon. Also ^yy, 

L\ arang. 

C-^ bakar a 

I. Charcoal ; charcoal dust. Mem- 
: to burn charcoal. Sudah jadi abu 
arang : it has become cinders and charcoal ; it 
is an old and forgotten story ; Prov. 

Putus benang, buleh di-hubong ; 
Patah arang, sudah sa-kali : 

a broken thread may be joined again ; a 
broken piece of charcoal is broken for ever ; 
there are quarrels that can be settled and others 
that rankle for ever ; Prov. 

A . batii : coal. 

A , di-muka : disgrace ; defilement ; v. infra, 

A . kayu : charcoal, when special definition 
is required, eg., arang kayu jati : charcoal 
made from teak, etc. 

A . para or a. para-para : soot. 
A . periyok : soot on pots and pans which 
have been placed directly on the fire. 

Benang a, : a carpenter's line made with a 
piece of charcoal. 

Kayti a, : ebony. 

The smearing of charcoal dust on the face 
is a metaphorical description of extreme defile- 
ment or insult, and occurs in many idioms, 
e.g*, jika tiyada tersapu arang di-muka, dart 
hidop baik'lah mati : if a disgrace is not wiped 
out, better die than live; Prov. J.S.A.S., 
III., 32. Hapuskan apa-lah arang di-muka 
kita ini : wipe away somehow this disgrace 
which has been put upon me ; Ht. Hg. 
Tuah, 51. 

Bintang dt4angit dapat di-bilang, 
Tidak sedar muka-nya arang : 

they can count the stars in the heavens but 
fail to perceive a smut on their faces — i.e., 
their knowledge may be greater but th,eir 
senseof shame is dulled; Marsd. Gr., 211 ; cf. 
also Sh. Put. Ak., 26; Ht. Abd., 396 ; etc. 

The form haraitg also occurs. 

11. Arang-arang : the ring to which the 
stays of a ship are fastened. 

p j\ aiing. I. Foul-smelling — as a urinal. 

II. The small piece of worked steel at the 
top of the blade of a kris. This piece, though 
forming part of the blade rather than of the 
handle, corresponds in some respects to the 
guard on a foil. 

III. Urang-aring : the name of a plant 
( unidentified ) in use in the Malay pharma- 

IV. A snare for catching small game by 
means of a noose. A . chachak : this snare, if 
the noose is on the ground. A, terbang : this 
snare, if the noose is suspended in the air. 

9'j\ arong. I. Wading ; pushing through water ; 
^ fording. This word implies that the progress 

is made across the river or sea and not merely 

by wading along near one bank. 

Arongan : the central (and presumably 
deeper) portion of a sea or river; the part 
which must be traversed if one desires to get 
across ; the crossing. Di-tengah arongan : in 
the deepest portion of the crossing. Ht. Raj. 
Don., 21; Ht. Mar. Mah. Arongan besar : 
the great deep ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

Pisau raut dalant kuwali 

Hendak meraut bingkai ialam ; 

Di'tengah arongan lautan Bali, 
Ada-kah buleh di-layarkan malam : 

in the midst of the deep seas by Bali, dare 
any person sail by night ? Pel. Abd., 113. 

Mengarong : to ford ; to wade across ; to 
traverse the deep ; to cross the sea ; ( by 
metaphor) to cross a sea of forest. 

Belayar mengarong : to put out from the 
shore in contradistinction to hugging it ; Ht. 
Raj. Don., 22. Beberapa mengarong j or ong yang 
dalam-dalam : many deep estuaries did they 
traverse; Ht. Sh. Ka-dalam kolam patek men- 
garong : 1 shall wade into the pool. 

Mengarong is also used of tramping about in 
water or any other liquid; = merandok* 
Saperti gajah mengarong minyak : like an 
elephant pressing out oil ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Mengarong darah : to wade through blood ; 
a metaphorical expression for great slaughter ; 
Ht. Raj. Kh., 18, 24. Biyar mati mengarong 
darah : may I die wading through blood ( as a 
man running amok). 

The form harong is also found. 

11. Slender, slight ; = ramping. Kl. 


[ " ] 







Srang. Meng^mng : to groan with pain, 
Kena s^ngat sembilang karang, 
Siyang malam dudok mengerang : 

if you are stung by the sembilang karang (a 
fish), day and night you will be sitting and 

The form herang is also found. 

fireng. The vulture; a bird known in the 
northern Malay States only. Ada bangkai 
ada-lah ereng: where there is a carcase there 
will also be vultures; Prov. 

Also hereng, reng, and nokreng, 

arip. I. Jav. Sleepy; weighed down by 
sleep. Arip sangat mata kakanda: my eyes 
are heavy with sleep; Ht. Koris. 

II. [Arab, v-J^W . ] Knowing; wise, 

arpus. [Derivation?] Catgut; the material 
of which fiddle strings are made. 

arak. I. [Arab. 3/^.] Arrack; spirits; dis- 
tilled liquors generally. Bekas berisi arak dan 
darah : a vessel filled with spirits and blood ; 
Ht. Abd., 310. Also Sh. Bid., 95. 

1 1 . Processional progress ; bearing or march- 
ing in procession ; carrying about in triumph. 
Di-arak-lah di-atas kereta: he was borne in 
procession on a carriage. 

Arak-arakan: processional. Gendang arak- 
arakan: a drum used in processions; a drum 
of a portable character; Sh. Sri Ben., 87. 

Berarak : following one after another as in a 
procession. Saperti awan berarak: like driv- 
ing clouds; Ht. Sg. Samb.; Sej. MaL, 38. 
Berarak-arakan: in continual succession; — - 
berarak, but more frequentative. 

Mengarak: to walk in a procession; to walk 
after anything at a regular interval as in a 
procession. Saperti bintang timor mengarak 
akan siyang: as the evening star follows upon 
daylight; Ht. Sh. Kub. Mengarak naga: to 
go in procession bearing an artificial dragon — 
of a Chinese procession; Sh. Jub. MaL, 12. 

Sekarang adinda baginda hendak mengarak 
kapada Indera Nata: now the Queen will go 
in procession to (the house of) Indra Nata; 
Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Pemarakan (Sh. Paiij, Sg.) and per arakan: 
a processional car or emblem. Maka per ara- 
kan ihi'pim mengarak sendiri-nya berjalan: the 
processional car travelled automatically along 
with the procession; Ht, Sh, Kub. Segala 
bunyi-bunyiyan yang di-atas pirarakan itu-ptm 
di-palu orang : all the musical instruments on 
the processional car were beaten by the band ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Perarakan berjentera : a processional car, the 
top or cupola of which revolves horizontally 
round a pivot; Sh. Put. Ak., 13; Sh. Bid., 84. 
Cars of this description are occasionally seen 
in kudu processions in Singapore. 




arik. Arab. Sleeplessness; insomnia. 

arok. A sort of war-dance, said to be of Bugis 
origin, and danced as an act of fealty or 
homage before a reigning sovereign. Men- 
garok : to dance this dance. 

arka. Arab. Weak; enfeebled. 

araWyan. Furthermore; moreover; thus; 

This word is a compound of ara II. and kiyan, 
q.v. , but is usually pronounced arkiyan. It is 
used at the commencement of a paragraph or 

arga. Skr. Price; value; = herga, q, v. 
organ. Eng. A concertina; an accordeon. 

aral. [Arab. «j^ .] An obstacle; a misfor- 
tune; a difficulty which stands in the way of 
progress. Suwatu pun tidak aral melintang : 
there is absolutely no obstacle across the 
path; Sh. Bid., 120. Jikalau iiyada aral 
gendala:i( there is no unfortunate obstacle; 
Sh. Ik. Trub., 6. 

urlit. An ear pendant with a metallic tassel, 

orlong. A land measurement; = 20 jumbas 
(linear) or 400 jumbas (square measurement). 
A square orlong is about ij acre. 

Also (Kedah) relong. 

^_Jl^ A orlop. A nautical term; orlop. 

^yy orloji. Eur. A watch; a clock. Also horloji, 

A A aram. I. Suspicion; feelings of watchful 
'"^ mistrust or hostility. 

Bidan terang, terang temaram, 
Hantu berjalan laki-bini; 

Jangan tuwan di-aram-aranty 
Sehaya tidak lama di-sini : 

do not look upon me with suspicion ; I do not 
intend to stay here long. 

II. Aram-temaram: dimmed in lustre; half 
lustrous only — as a clouded moon. Bulan pun 
aram-temaram saperti belas akan orang yang ber- 
cherai : the moon's face was clouded as though 
in pity at the parting (of the lovers) ; Ht. Perb. 


The forms terang-temaram Sindterang temarang 
are also found. 

III. Aram-aram : a temporary and easily 
moveable light lean-to, such as is used by a 
road coolie for protection against the sun 
while doing his work. 

IV. M^ngaram: = mengeram;v, next word. 



jfc%\ dram. Crouching; brooding; sitting crouched 

^ down on the ground ; sitting on eggs — of a 

fowl. M^^g^^ra^f^; to sosit; to crouch. Sapirti 

harimau mingiram bangkai rupa-nya : like a tiger 

crouching over a carcase ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

In many cases the word has also the sense 
of growling or murmuring; cf. irang. Pujok 
samhil mengiram : murmuring endearments ; 
Ht. Perb. Jay. 

The forms ram and mBngaram also occur, 
^U A aimada. Port. A fleet. 

^\ aran. A night line for catching fish. 

^j\ aron. To rub pulut rice into coco-nut milk 
until the oil of the latter comes out and is 
mixed with the rice. 

Aronan: the mixture so prepared. 

Cf. adon, of which aron is probably only a 
variant used in a special sense. 

QjS uma. Better warna, q. v. 

V*^ ' amab. [ Arab. A hare.] A rabbit ; M uj ., 19, 
50; Hay. Haiw. 

The word is also applied to a guinea-pig. 

*: \ 
Cr**"j^ armingsun. (Jav.) My younger sister — an 

expression used as a term of endearment in 

addressing a wife or mistress ; = adinda, but 

confined to romances and poetry of Javanese 

origin and to a few pantuns; see Sh. Ik, 

Trub., 9; Sh. A. R. S. J., 7; Sh. Bid., 70; Ht. 

Sg. Samb., etc. 

The word is often pronounced arya-ningsun, 
or arya-ingsun in pantuns, and is sometimes 
contracted to ingsun, or ningsun. 

•ij\ arau. Better haratiy q. v. 

4%\ aru. Agitation, stirring up; better haru, q. v. 

j^^ Sru. The casuarina; casuarina equiseiifolia. 
Also called Bru laut, 

£ni bukit: a tree found on mountains of 
some considerable elevation, dacrydium elatum. 
This tree resembles the casuarina. The form 
m also occurs. 

]pj^ arwa. A saw-edged knife said to be of Indian 

^L A arw&h. [ Arab. Plur. of r4h : spirit or breath 

of life.] The vital elements in man ; the vital 
principle (s^mangat) ^nd (sometimes) the soul. 

Hilang arwdh : loss of consciousness, diminu- 
tion of vitality consequent on a sudden mental 
shock; Ht. Abd., 364. Tirbang arwdh: id.; 
Ht. Abd., 282; Marsd. Gr., i^^;=ierbang 
shnangat, Tumpah arwdh; id.; Sh. Bur. 
Pungg., 4. 



Makan arwdh : to feast in honour of the dead ; 
to hold a *'khanduri.** Arwdhkan: id.; Sh. 
Ul., 15. Bulan arwdh, or bulan ruwdh : a name 
given to the month Sha*aban because of a 
great festival in honour of the dead. Khand4ri 
akan arwdh puUri : a feast to honour the soul 
of the princess; Ht. Hamza, 99. Khanduri 
beri arwdh: id.; Ht. Ahm. Muhd., 32. 

Arwdh is specially used with reference to 
these feasts in honour of the dead ; ruh, the 
singular, is used of the soul of a man when 
there is no feast in question. For the use of 
arwdh and ruh in the sense of vital principle, 
see s. V. semangat. 

'^Jijr aruda. 

Port. Common rue; ruta graveolens. 

Q^j\ aruwan. Ikan amwan: a freshwater fish; 
ophiocephahis punctattis. 

A. tasek: a salt-water fish; elacate nigra. 
Also haruwan and ruwan. V. haru, 

Oj» arah. Also ara (Arab. \/^ ?) Direction; 

course ; the quarter towards which anything 
faces; direction or instruction regarding a 
route. Tiyada siapa ketahuwi arah iaman itu : 
no one knew the direction in which the 
garden lay: Ht. Gul. Bak., 24. Rumah-nya 
arah sa-belah laut: his house faced the sea; 
Ht. Abd., 194. 

Sa 'keliling arah : on all sides. 

Tiyada ketahtiwan arah: not knowing one's 
position; not knowing whether one is standing 
on one's head or on one's heels; Sh. Pr. Turk., 
12 ; Sh. Sg. Kanch., 15 ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 19. 

Ta'4entu arah: in confusion. Ta'-berarah: id; 
Sh. Kamp. Boy., 10. 

^\ ari. I. Day; = hari, q. v. 

II. Ari-ari: the pubes; the extreme lower 
portion of the abdomen ; Ht. Abd., 302. 

III. Ktditari: the epidermis; the thin outer 
skin which if scratched does not bleed or 
give pain, 

IV. Ularari: a very venomous sea-snake; 
KI. [= ular tampong (or tedong) matahari?] 

Rtmiput tdar art: a plant; erycibe angulata. 
Also tampong ari. 

V. Burong ari-ari: a bird (unidentified); 
Ht. Raj. Sul., I. 

VI. Arab. Manger, stable; peg or rope 
for tethering a horse; halter. 

VII. Bantal susii ari: a square low cushion 
with a stiff border. Also bantal suwari. 

^j\ arai. I. (Achin.) A measure of capacity = 
2 chtipak, q. V. 

II. Arai'jemarai : (Selangor) hanging loose 
= (Kedah) jirai-jemarai, Cf. berjari-jari, 
urai and dirai. 


[ 13 ] 





arya. I. [Skr. avya.'X A title borne by 
members of the Kshatriya princely or warrior 
caste in ancient Java. 

I L A rya-ningsun : younger sister or brother ; 
a common corruption of ariningsun, q. v. 
Also arya-ingsun, 

urita. [Skr. vartta.] Story, news; = warta, 
Maka urita-nya baginda birisUrihan puUri 
bongsu kunun: the story runs that the king 
married the youngest princess; Cr. Gr., 56. 

Sriyas, The soft inner portion of the trunk 
of a pisang tree. Cf. arts. 

The form riyas occurs. 
aris. Arab. A peasant ; a tiller of the soil, 
firingan. Light in weight ; = ringan, q. v. 

aiiningsun. Jav. Younger brother or sister ; 
V. ^- 



azM. Pers. Faultless; healthy; wiry. 

izS^lat. Arab. Conclusion; making an end 
of something. 

azal. Arab. Time withoiit beginning; the 
endless past; infinity — with reference to 
the past rather than to the future; Tarn. 
Perm., 14. 

Daripada azal datang kapada abad : from the 
endless past to the endless future ; Bust. Sal. 

azali. Arab. The adjective of azal, q. v.; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 344. 

azhar. Arab. Resplendent. AUmasjidu 7- 
azhar : the shining mosque — the name given 
to the great mosque at Cairo to which an 
important theological school or university is 

a\ as. Arab. Myrtle. 


^ is. An exclamation of hostility or aversion. 
Also his. 

-\ asa. I. [Skr. dsd.] Hope. 

Putus a : loss of hope ; despair ; Ht. Gul. j 

Bak., 60, 77, Hilang a. : id. Putuskan a, : to \ 

destroy hope ; to deprive a person of hope. j 

H. Pokok asa : mint (the plant) ; Kl. 

-^ fisa. One; unity— usually met with coUo- I 

quially in the contracted form sa* | 

K^sa: (rare) the first; Sh. Raj. Haji ; = | 

yang pMama* i 

Menghakan: to unify; to make or declare 
one. Srti-nya tauhid mSnghakan Tuhan : the 
meaning of the word tauMd is to represent 
God as One, i.e., to declare that there is no 
God but Allah ; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 14. 

Mengesakan Allah ta'ala: to acknowledge 
the unity of God ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

usaha. [Skr. 
usahdf q. V. 

titsdha,] Diligence ; usually 


asahan. I. Kain asahan: a native cloth 

H. A large plate or dish ; Kedah and Ht. 
Hamza, 51 : (sigala asahan dan mangkok ping- 

asta. Better hasta^ q. v. 

asut. [Arab, asad : causing discord.] Incite- 
ment ; egging on ; persuasion to evil. 

Asutan: incitement; urging on. Tambahan 
pula dingan asutan tuwan puUri Khati/ah itu : 
especially as the Princess Khatifah was egging 
him on : Ht. Koris. 

Mengasut : to egg on ; to urge by evil coun- 
sels; Sh, Ul, II ; Ht. Koris; Ht. Abd., 172. 

Also hasut. 

ustsldz. Pers. Lord, master. 

astaka. A temporary throne used at a 
coronation, Cr., Pijn. ; a portico, a porch, Kl. 

The word occurs, Sej. MaL, 98, but the 
meaning is not clear from the context. 

astana or istana. [Skr. asihana, a residence.] 
A prince's residence ; a palace. 

Beristana: to reside — of a prince ; cf. bBrsema' 
yam. Tiyada patek bBri biristana lain : I 

will not permit you to reside elsewhere ; Ht. 
Koris, 42. 

Isi istana : the inmates of a palace generally; 
the women, children and servants, resident in 
a palace. 

2^\^ istibahat. Arab. Permission, license. 

S/cJs istibr&. Arab. Purification, healing, affran- 
chisement ; Majm. al-Ahk., 299. 

t yi istibrak. Silk, satin ; Ht. Muhd, Hanaf., 63 ; 
Mith, Sar., 71. 

Uix^^ istithn§,. Arab. Exception, distinction; 
Majm, al-Ahk., 108. 

M^ngistithndkan ; to make an exception, to 
distinguish between (Majm. al-Ahk., 418, 
422) ; to treat with distinction. 

The word isiina is a corruption of the above. 

h\i^ istijftbat. Arab. Hearing of a prayer; 
answer to prayer. 


[ 14 ] 



istihlaf. Arab. Imposition of an oath. 

oj\}i^ istikh&rat. Arab, Moral weakness. 

Simbahyang i, : a prayer to be delivered from 
besetting sins. 

^y^ istiMlMf. Arab. To appoint as one's succes- 
sor ; to declare Caliph. 

4>*\/u*\ istirllhat. Arab. Repose; rest; peace; tran- 
quillity ; Ht. Zaly., 16. 

t^/Ui\ istSri. [ Skr. sM, ] Wife ; the wife of a man 
of rank or distinction ; wife ( in a more res- 
pectful sense than bint), Datang-lah tuwan R» 
Ha-Melakasertad^nganisUri-nya: Mr. R. came 
to Malacca with his lady. 

Ahlt isieri-nya : his connections by marriage. 

Biristiri : to be married- — of a man ; to have 
a wife. Beranak beristeri disana : to have 
children and wife there; to have a family 
there ; to be settled in that place. 

Biristerikan : to take to wife ; to be married 
to — of a man. 

Kestriyan ( ke-isteri-an ) : appertaining to 
women, reserved for women, private; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. 

MemperkUrikan : to arrange a man's mar- 
riage to any woman ; to get a man married. 

j5^^CIm»\ istislSjn. Arab. Submission to Islam ; the 
^ acceptance of the Muhammadan religion. 

APVJbXw*!* istitS,*at. Arab. Power; ability to do a thing. 

4j UalA*!^ Arab. To be long ; to be tall ; 
superiority, ascendancy. 

j\2ktJ\ istitlaMr. Arab. Declaration; assurance; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 407, 409. 

Sumpah i, : an oath to reveal the truth ; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 392. 

S^W*-\ isti'&dat. Arab. Custom; customary insti- 
tutions. M^m^rentahkan isti'ddat takhta kera- 
jaan : to control the customary observance of 
the Court; Sej. Mai., 87. 

Sctmbut sural d^ngan hti'ddat kerajaan : to 
receive a letter with the honours due to a 
royal message; Sej. MaL, 36; see also Marsd. 
Gr., 139. 

eiW**.\ isti*adzat. Arab. Refuge; taking refuge 
in God by pronouncing the formula: 

ash'Shaitdni rajimi. 
0SjcJ\ isti*itrat. Arab. Quotation; metaphor. 






isti'Sjiat. Arab. Request for assistance. 
isti'dSid. Arab. Capacity, fitness, suitability. 

istil&. Arab. Being at its zenith, or near it 
(of the sun). 

isti^m§»l. Arab. Use, employment, service ; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 141. 

istighrS^k. Arab. Exaggeration. 

istighfilr. Arab. Asking forgiveness. 

Isiighfdru' llah: the deprecation of God*s 
wrath ; ** May God forgive me," a common 
exclamation; Ht. Gul. Bak., 19; Ht. Ism. 
Yat., 165. Menguchap istighfdr : to exclaim: 
" May God pardon me; " Sh. Sh.'Al., 13. 

istinggar. [Port, espingarda,] A flint-lock; 
an early firearm ; Ht. Ind. Nata. The word 

is also written ^^\ 

istanggi. [Skf. astangga,] Incense. Also 
setanggiy which is the more common colloquial 



Arab. Becoming known (of 

istifhgim. Arab. Enquiry (with a view to 
increasing one's knowledge) ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 
36, 77- 

istikamah. Arab. Honesty of intention; 
absence of prejudice. 

istikrar. Arab, Confirmation; the condition 
of being settled. 

astakona. [Skr. ashtakona: octagonal.] 
Octagonal ; eight-cornered ; the name given to 
a peculiar polygonal pattern. Nasi berastakona : 
rice arranged in a heap with a base of this 
pattern — a dish much used at festivals; 
Sh. Abd. Mk., 11; Ht. Sg. Samb.; Ht. Raj. 
Don., 67. 

Bajti berastakona melayang : a pattern of 
garment mentioned in the Ht. Sh. Kubad. 

Astakona is a name also given to an octago- 
nal diadem or tiara. 

Also pronounced (Kedah) istakona. 

5)Lu«\ istilfi,m. Arab. Pacification, peace-making. 


istimewa. (Arab, istiwd': being equal, 
parallel ?) Istimewa pula : even more so ; much 
more so; especially; Sh. Panj. Sg. ; Ht.Abd., 
105. *Alim besar dalam behasa Melayu istimewa 
dalam behasa ^A rab : he was very learned in 
Malay and even more so in Arabic; Ht.Abd., 52. 


[ 15 ] 


yji^ istinjd.'. Arab. Ablutions prescribed by 
Muhammadan law ; cleansing from defilement ; 
the washing of the abaimana; Sh. UL, 26. 
Membuwang istinjd' kechil : to perform the pre- 
scribed ablutions after passing urine; Ht. 
Jay. Asm. 
e^XyJ\ Sstu. See setu. 

\y:iJ\ istiwa'. Arab. Being parallel. KhatUiH- 


istiwd': the Equator. 

iSjy^ istori. See sctori, 

^jy^J^^^ istihlal. Arab. The beginning of light (as 
after the new moon); the exordium of a speech. 

^ycJ\ astina. (Skr. An abbreviation of Hastina- 
pura.) Hastinapura; the name of an ancient 
Indian State celebrated in the Mahabharata. 

^ycJS istiixa. A colloquial corruption of the Arabic 
istithnd, q. v.; exception, drawing a dis- 

iW^ ishak. Arab. Isaac; a proper name often 
met with, and usually pronounced /sa/tfl^ft or 
abbreviated to Sahdk, 
Nabi Allah Ishdk: the Isaac of the Old 
Testament; Ht.* Hamza, 20. 

Ju^\ asad. Arab. A lion— but sometimes used by 
Malays in the sense of tiger. Asad pahalawan: 
(Sh. Lail. Mejn., 3.) the lion champion— a 
name applied to Ali, the son-in-law of Muham- 
mad. Asad erti-nya harimau: an asad by 
which is meant a tiger; Hay. Haiw. 

A^\ israr. Arab. To hide. 

;\ \ israf. Arab. To squander. 

^, \ asrafil. Arab. The name of the greatest 
"^ -^ of the Archangels. Mala'ikat yang memegang 
urat burnt Asrafil nama-nya: the angel who 
guards the sinews of the earth, Asrafil by 
name; Ht. Muhd. Hanaf., 46. Asrafil is 
represented as the angel whose duty it will be 
to blow the Last Trump on the Day of 
Judgment; Ht. Raj. Kh., 6; Mith. Sar., 39. 
In the Bustanu's-salatin he is represented as 
having been created before the other archan- 
gels (Gabriel, Michael and Azrael) though not 
before Light or the Heavens. 


iyj^jj\ asrafln. Arab. Seraphim. 

,\ istambAl. [Arab, and Turkish ; a corruption 
of the Greek eis tin polin ; modern Greek : 'stim- 
boli,] Istambul, Constantinople; Ht. Nap., 23. 


asing. Separate character or existence ; 

severance ; other; other than; distinct; 

foreign. Orang asing: another person; a 
different person altogether. 

Asingkan and mengasingkan : to discriminate 
between ; to treat as different ; to separate a 
person or thing from others and so create a 
distinction. Di-asinghan diya di-suroh tinggal 
di'Bandar Hilir : they separated him from the 
others and ordered him to live at Bandar 
Hilir; Ht. Abd., 105. Tiyada-lah di-asingkan- 
nya orang kaya dan orang miskin : he made no 
distinction between rich and poor; Ht. Abd., 
290. Cf. masing. 

i^\ dsang. (Onom.) Mengesang: to blow the nose 
^ (in the native way); Kl. Also (Kedah) sing, 
(Riau-Johor) se^ and ngeh. 

In Brunai esang means the gills of a fish;= 
isang or ingsang. 


asfaL Arab. Low, abject, inferior. Asfalu's- 
sdfilin: ** the lowest of the low, " a name given 
to the inmates of the lowest hell and some- 
times to that hell itself; Ht. Raj. Sul., 2. 

kJ\ asap. Smoke; vapour; steam. Asap api: 
smoke. A . kemennyen : incense ; the fumes of 
incense. Kapal a, : a steam-boat; = kapal api, 
which is the more common form. Kereia ^.=: 
keretaapi: a steam locomotive. 

Asapi: to burn anything for the sake of the 
smoke; to burn (incense); Ht. Gul. Bak., 44,54. 

Asapkan: to fumigate; Muj., 20. 

Berasap : to be smoking — as embers ; to be 
covered with vapour — as a mountain summit; 
Sej. Mai., 25. Bintang berasap: a comet; also 
bintang berekor, 

Perasap dSiA perasapan : a censer; Cr. Gr., 43; 
J. I. A., Vol. I., 321. 

V>\jtw-\ ispanyol. [Spanish: EspaUoL] Spanish. 

- \ asak. Insertion by pressure; pressing in — as 
additional articles are pressed into a box when 
packing; stamped down upon; anything so 
inserted. Tanah di-asak: earth pressed upon 
any surface to fill up interstices; Ht. Abd., 64; 
Pel. Abd., 85; Ht. 'AL, 31. 
Also esak; cf. desak, 

L^\ asek. Unregulated and inconstant behaviour, 
unmethodical manner of life — such as that of 
a man who has no interests beyond the pre- 
sent, and who acts as the humour takes him. 

r^\ asok. (Kedah.) Masked dancers; the dancers 
better known by their Javanese name topeng, 

sJj^\ iskandar. [Pers. and Arab.] Alexander. 
^ Iskandar dzu'l'karnain: Alexander the Great. 

Hikdyat Iskandar dzuH-karnain: the story of 
Alexander the Great (literally the two-horned); 
an ancient Malay work containing the legends 
connected with the name of Alexander the 
Great. Alexander the Greatis believed to have 
been the ancestor of the royal line of Sang 
Seperba; see the first chapter of the Sejarah 


[ i6 ] 


4i )J^;5w»\ iskandariyyah. [Pers. and Arab.] Alexandria ; 
'-^ Ht. Best., 3. 

4^w<\ iskolah. [Port, escola.] School. 

A)^\ isl&m. Arab. Submission to the will of 
» God ; recognition of God ; belief in God ; the 

world of believers. Maka kata Indera J ay a: 
hamba bertanya pula apa erti-nya isldm? 
Maka sahut maWihat itu ya-itu mHjunjong 
s^gala Utah Allah subhdna-hu wa4a*ala: then 
said Indra Jaya: "I would further enquire 
the meaning of the word Islam.** The angel 
replied: '*It is obedience to all the decrees of 
God, (praise be to Him), the Most High*'; 
Ht. Sh. Hard. 

Igama isldm: Muhammadanism. Jin isldm: 
spirits who admit the law of God, as distinct 
from evil spirits in open revolt against the 
Deity. Hukum isldm : Muhammadan law. 

Isldmkan (Sej. Mai., 67) and mengisldmkan 
(Ht, Jaya Lengg.; Ht. Mar. Mah,): to 
bring into submission to God ; to convert to 

^jL*»\ islijtni. Arab. Faithful; orthodox; Muham- 
madan ; Sh. I. M, P., 18. 

-^\ asam. Acidity ; sourness ; a generic name 
I given to a number of acid fruits or prepara- 

A. akar : a plant, roureafulgens, 
A , gelugor : an orange acid fruit, garcinia 
A* jawa : the tamarind, tamarindus indicus. 

A, jawa antan : a common tree, pithecolobium 

A , kelubi : a thorny palm with a very acid 
fruit, zalacca conferta. Also called a, paya. 

A . lokan puteh : an epiphytic plant, medinilla 
A . paya : = a. kBlubi. 

A . susor : a herbaceous hibiscus, hibiscus sural- 

A. tebing darat: a common cHmbing aroid, 
anadendron montanum. 

A • Ubing paya : a climbing aroid, raphido- 
phora lobbii. 

A . tikus : a small terrestrial aroid, chamcB- 
cladon griffithii. 

Akar asam riyang : a common wild vine, 
cissus hastatus, 

Pekasam : a preserve of fish. 

Masam: sour — especially when referring to 
sourness of look. 

Laksana asam dengan garam : like acids and 
salt ; an appropriate combination ; e.g. : — 

Berkuda lagi berlembu 

Orang belayar takut karam ; 

Orang muda beharu bertemu, 
Laksana asam dingan garam : 


when young people ( of opposite sexes) meet, 
it is like acidity mixing with salt (they 
become friendly at once) ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

ism. Arab. Name. 

Bismi'llahi : in the name of God. Bismi'llahi 
'r-rahmdni 'r-rahtmi : a common exordium for 
books, '* in the name of God, the merciful, the 


\^\ asmS.'. [Arab. The plural of ism.] Names — 
with special reference to the names by which 
Allah is glorified; Ht. Ind. Nata; Muj,, 71. 

,\^\ asmara. I. [Skr. smara.] Love ; the passion 
of one sex for another; the God of Love, 
Kama. Badan-nya kurus rupa asmara: his 
frame was slender like that of Love ; Sh. 
Laili Mejn., 32. Edan asmara : madly in love, 
Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 4; = edan kesmaran, 
which is grammatically more correct. 

Asmara is also used in the sense of sexual 
intercourse; e.g., orang yang asmara di-dalam 
peraduwan ; Ht. Perb. Jay. 

Kesmaran : being in love ; the Javanese form 
of ke-asmara-an. Edan kesmaran : madly in 
love, — in Javanese- Malay romances; = gila 
berahi in pure Malay romances, Mabok kes- 
maran : id., Sh. Sh.*Al. 14. 

II. [Skr. sumridanta?] Gigi asmara danta : 
fair white teeth ; Ht. Mas. Edan. 


A asin 

Masin : salt. Ayer masin : salt as opposed 
to fresh water. 
Cf. tasek and terasi. 

jAxJ\ asnM. Arab. Props; supports; authorities 
in support of a contention. 


,\ isn^n. Better ithnain, 

q, V. 

\ asu. Gigi asu : the canine teeth ; also gigi 
^ siyong and gigi anjing. 

Asu is a common Indonesian word for dog 
and is so understood in some Malay dialects 
such as that of Sarawak, but not in those of 
the Peninsula. 

A^^ asah. Grinding down, sharpening or whetting, 
Berasah gigi : with teeth filed. 

A . repang : of teeth, to be filed down to the 
level of the gum. 

A . papan : of teeth, to be filed to a common 

A . sayap kumbang : of teeth, to be filed across 
the centre in front, so as to give them a con- 
cave appearance, and to be then stained black. 

Batu a. : a whetstone ; also batu pBngasah. 

Asahkan: to whet; to grind down medi- 
cines ; (in a few cases) to polish. 

II. Kain asahan : a kind of native cambric; 
see asahan I. 

III. Pinggan asahan : a large platter; see 
asahan II. 


[ 17 ] 






asoh. I. Nursing; attendance on a child or 
young girl. 

Mengasoh : to nurse. 

Pengasoh: a nurse; an attendant. Inangp,: 
a lady in waiting on a princess. Pmghulu p, : 
a duenna ; a nurse ; the principal lady in 
waiting ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Maka muntBri hulu- 
balang yang ada beranak laki-laki dan perempu- 
wan keseniuwa-nya di-bawa persembahkan anak- 
nya itu kapada baginda akan jadi pengasoh Pu- 
tira Jaya Pati : all the civil and military 
officers who had sons and daughters entrusted 
them to the king to serve as attendants on the 
prince Jaya Pati ; Ht. P. J. P. 

Di-asoh shetan, or di-asoh hantu : spirit posses- 
sion, causing a person to be unconscious of 
his surroundings but not otherwise harming 
him : cf. rasok. 

II. Asoh-asoh: an 
lethrinus nebulosus. 

edible saltwater fish ; 


USaha. [ Skr. titsdha.] Diligence ; persever- 
ance ; assiduity. Belajar dengan usaha : 
diligent study. 

Usahakan and mengusahakan : to do (anything) 
diligently. Usahakan dirt : to diligently apply 
oneself to anything ; to set oneself to anything. 

Beriisaha : 
and \^y . 

industrious; diligent. Also o\^\ 

^\ asai. A fruit weevil ; = kasai, q. v. 

\^\ usiya. [Skr. dyusha,] The period of life; 
the period through which one has lived ; the 
age of a man. Lima betas tahun usiya-nya: he 
was fifteen years of age. 

" Xi\ isMrat. Arab. Sign, signal. 

Ishdratkan and memberi ishdrat : to signal ; to 
make a sign. Di-ishdratkan-nya kapada kuching 
itu : she made a sign to the cat ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 
19; cf. also Sej. Mai., 8; Ht. Abd., 253. 

l\ixi.\ ishtighgtl. Arab. Occupation, employment, 


ishr&k. Arab. The rising of the sun. 

ishrak. Arab. To take as a partner in 
business; Majm. al-Ahk., 31, 

isha'dir. Arab. The marks of a sacrificial 
animal ; to inform, announce. 

ishm§.m. Arab. Whispering. 

ishahadd. Arab. To pronounce^the Muham- 
madan confession of faith, the shahadat; 
Arabian Nights, 383. 

\ asah. Arab. Genuine, legitimate. 




asfar. Arab. Yellow, cream-coloured ; 
term applied by Arabs to the colour 



In the Ht. Isk. Dz., the word occurs in the 
sense of '* black ; " duwa ratus orang zanggi 
asfar yang hitam: two hundred black 
Ethiopians. Kuda zanggi asfar: a black 
African horse; Ht. Raj. Bdk., 31. 

asal. [Arab. asL] Root ; origin ; material ; 
ancestry; the very beginning of anything. 
The word is also sometimes used in the sense 
of a proviso upon which a statement depends. 
Asal-nya iya orang Kedah : he is a Kedah man 
by descent. Ada-ptm gereja itu asal-nya gereja 
Perttigis : the church in question was originally 
a Portuguese church. S^rti-nya perkataan dan 
asal-nya : the meaning of words and their 

Asal kapas menjadi benang ; 

Asal benang menjadi kain: 
Stidah lepas jangan di-kenang, 

Siidah menjadi orang lain : 

originally cotton, it is turned into thread; 
originally thread, it is turned into cloth : your 
lover has left you ; — do not regret him, he is 
no longer the man that you loved (literally, 
he is changed into a different person ) ; Prov. 

Raja berasal : a sovereign by birth ; a prince 
by descent — in contradistinction to one by 
creation or conquest. Hilang asal dengan 
muliya: the loss of ancestral dignity and 
eminence; Ht. Raj. Haji, 182. 

Asal ustll: the beginning of anything; its 
history. Asal usul Penghtdu Naning: the 
history of the chiefs of Naning. 

Asal is also used in the sense: "if," "provided 
that." Asal nyawa-nya terlepas : provided his 
life is spared. Jikalau hina dan bodoh sakalipun 
ctsal ada berherta neschaya ini-lah pandai dan ter- 
niidiya : be he mean and dull, he will be called 
learned and eminent provided he has money. 
Biyar lambat asal selamat : be slow if you will, 
provided you arrive safely;— t. ^., slow and 
sure; Prov. 

Anak berok di4epi pantai 

Masok ka-bendang makan padi; 

Biyar bur ok kain di-pakai, 
Asal pandai mengambil hati: 

let him wear worn clothes, if he will, provided 
he has skill in winning affection. Us4l menun- 
jok'kan asal: manners show descent; v. us4L 

Asalkan: provided that. 

asali. [Arab, aslt,] Well born; = berasal, 

Rajaasali: a prince by birth; Sh, Bid., 17; 
Sh. Sg. Kanch., 24; Ht. Gul. Bak., 82. 

asam. Arab. Deaf. 


[ i8 ] 




UsM. [Arab. Plural of J^^ , q. v.] Begin- 
nings ; origin ; the early causes which ulti- 
mately led to anything, Usui is also used to 
describe a man's air, manner or behaviour. 

Asal usul : early history; ancestry; origin. 

A sal usMPenghulu Naning : the early history 
of the chiefs of Naning. 

Usui jijak : a man's gait or manner of bear- 
ing himself as he walks. Usui sifat : a man's 
look. Us4l menunjokkan asal : a man's ap- 
pearance betrays his origin ; manners show 
the man ; Prov. Pakaiyan-nya saperti darwhh 
akan tetapi usM-nya itu haniba lihai saperti 
orang besar-besar : he is dressed as a beggar, 
but his manners resemble those of a dis- 
tinguished man ; Ht. Gul. Bak. 

asil. Arab. Rooted, of noble birth, of noble 
race (as a horse). 

idl^fat. Arab. To join, add, connect. 

idlbS«t. Arab. The vowelling of a word, the 
adding of vowel points. 

idlr&b. Arab. To recant, revoke. 
idlld.1. Arab. To seduce ; to lead astray. 

S)a^ idltirHr. Arab. Compulsion. 

Iui^\ atbslk. Arab. Caskets; the plural of jjJ^*, q. v. 

r\Jb\ itbslk. Arab. To cover. 
J * • • 

ij^ itlS^k. Arab. Generalization; being fre- 
quently accepted; Majm. al-Ahk., 33. 
Mengitlakkan : to generalize ; Majm. al-Ahk., 
34, 114, 415. 

atlas. Arab. Satin ; Ht. Abd., 85, 354. 
Usually kain entelas. 

.\fli5)\ itlhSJ!'. Arab. To reveal 

itahnr. Arab. Purification. 



i'tib&r. Arab. To take as model or pattern ; 

iHibdrkan: id. ; Majm. al-Ahk., 17. 

i'tbS»r. Arab. Reflexion, consideration. 

i'tidal. Arab. In proportion, proportionately. 

i'tizdl. Arab. Abdication from the throne. 

>\i:sA i'tik&d. Arab. Confidence, trust, faith. 
BhdHihddkan: to propose to do; Arabian 
Nights, 306. 
rtikddkan: to will ; Muj., 64. 

i'tik^f. Arab. To proceed to do carefully 
and with constant application. 

i'timM. Arab. To trust in ; to rely upon. 

i'tiy&d. Arab. Custom. 

a'dad. Arab. Numbers, enumeration ; the 
plural of ^At-. 

i'dad. Arab. Included in (a number). 

i'dzar. Arab. Circumcision, 

i'rab. Arab. To speak (Arabic) idiomatically. 

a'raf. Arab. The Muhammadan purgatory. 

i*S&r. Arab. To dun for payment. 

JaS^\ a'tlam. Arab. Great, strong, powerful, 
r mighty. 

_i\ip\ i'fj^f. Arab. To abstain from unchastity; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 258. 

^jy^\ alan. Arab. Advertisement ; to give notice. 

a'lam. Arab. Knowing more. 

Wa-'llahu'-Ham : God knoweth more ; God 
knows best ; a common termination to Malay 
speculative passages. 


ala. Arab. Higher, nobler. 

a'am. Arab. Universal ; general. 

a'ftdzu. Arab. I take my refuge. Nd^- 
Mzu : we take our refuge. NdHMzu biHlahi : 
we take our refuge in God. 

a'Ar. Arab. One-eyed. 

ighSithat. Arab. Help, assistance, aid. 

ighashiyyat. Arab. Covering. 

aghlM. Arab. The uncircumcised; plur, of 
-Jc. , [Mai. hulup] . 

ang. I. A titular prefix to the names of 
men ; better hang, q. v. 

II. (Menangkabau.) You, thou; = (Riau, 
Johor) engkau and ( Kedah ) hang. 


[ 19 ] 



y\ ing. Jav. A prefix having the sense of '' of," 
or '*for. " Radin galoh ing Bali : the princess 
of BaH ; Ht. Sh. 

Putera ing Kuripan : the prince of Kuripan ; 
Ht. Perb. Jay, 

When the preceding word ends with 
a vowel, ing is changed into ning ; but this 
rule would not be strictly adhered to by 
Malays ignorant of Javanese. 

ong. The Sanskrit and Buddhist Om, a word 
of mysterious import sometimes used by Malay 
pawangs in their incantations ; v. hong, which 
is the more usual form. 

angat. Hot. Better hangat, q. v. 
angit. Better hangit, q. v, 

Sngut. Mouthing one's words ; indistinct, 
though loud, speech. 

Also nguUngut; cf. sungut. 

^^-^^ angut. Day dreaming — as a man under the 
influence of opium. 

j^' angor. Jav. Better; rather; it were better 
= remake Also anggor, q. v. 

jp\ fingor. £ngor-engor : a saltwater fish ; macro- 
nes bleekeri. 

03lr^ angrawan, A name given to several trees, 
hopea mengarawan, h, pierrei and h, inter- 
media. Also merawan and anggerawan, 

fjJ^\ angsa. [Skr. hansa,] A goose; Ht. P. J. P., 
Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 10. 

jjmPi angus. Burning, scorching; better hangus, 
q. V. 

^JU^P-^ angsana. The name of a tree, pterocarpus 
indicus ; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; Sh. Sri Bun. Also 
sena, q. v. 

ij:^^\ engSUt. Gradual pushing ; quietly thrusting 
off; gentle propulsion — such as that given to 
a boat by a light breeze. Cf. kesut, esut and 

j"*^^ angsar. Better angsur, q. v. 

j«w«p\ angsur. Progress by short stages ; payment 
by small instalments ; mounting up a little 
at a time, as a bill ; Sh. Peng., 9. Cf. kesut, 
engsut and esut, 

k^\ ingsang. The gills of a fish ; = isang, q. v., 
^ and (Brunai) esang, 

\j^\ engsel. [Dutch, hengseL] A hinge. Also 





mgsun. Jav. I; the royal **we*'; the pro- 
noun of the first person when used by a 
prince. This word is also found in Malay as 
an abbreviation oi ariningsun, q. v., and is so 
used as a term of endearment without limita- 
tion to its exact meaning {i,e, = adinda). 
Adohi anak'hi ingsun: oh, my child, my 

angsoka. [Skr. asdka,] The name of a tree ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 37 ; Ht. Ind. Jaya; Ht. Sg. 
Ranch., 8. the pavetta indica (according to 
Klinkert) ; jonesia asoka, Roxb. 

J^' angek. (Kedah.) Ungak-angek : bobbing up 
and down ; = ungkang-ankit. 






angka. I. Skr. A numerical symbol. Ang- 
ka duwa : the figure two ; the symbol show- 
ing that a word is repeated. 

II. Notice, thought, imagination, guessing. 
Tiyada-lah iya angka kaluwar darah itu : she 
did not notice the bleeding; Ht. Mar. Mah. 
Cf. sangka. 

ingka. ( Onom. ; Kedah and Penang. ) 
Laughter. Gelak ingka-ingka : id. ; also gelak 

ongka, or ungka. The name of a monkey ; 
the wah'Wah; hylobates concolor. Ht. Abd., 
77; Ht. P. J. P. ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 17. 

angkara. [ Skr. ahangkdra, ] Violence ; 
brutality; gross disrespect; offences against 
propriety or morals; attempted adultery or 
seduction. Ada sa-orang berbuwat angkara 
akan anak orang yang di-dusim : a man has 
made improper advances to a girl on that 
plantation ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 381. Orang 
angkara : a man lost to sense of shame ; a 
profligate; Sh. Peng., 16. Gajah angkara: 
an elephant that has not yet learnt its duties ; 
Sh. Sg. Kanch., 29. 

Hina angkara : a low scoundrel ; a 
depreciatory way of describing oneself; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. 

A. Maharaja tela: offences of disrespect to 
the sovereign ; Newbold, British Settlements 
in Malacca, Vol. II., p. 148. 

Satwa a, : ~ satwa anggara; Ht. Koris. 

K^\ angkasa. [Skr. dkdsa,] The atmosphere; 
^ the regions of the air ; the heavens. 

Dewa a, : a deity of heaven ; Ht. Koris. 

Unggas a.: a bird of the air; Sh. Ungg. 
Bers., 3. 


[ 20 ] 






angkat. Lifting up on high ; elevation ; 
raising; bringing up. Di-angkat menjadi 
Sultan: raised to the dignity of Sultan. 
Di-angkaUnya tangan-nya : he lifted up his 
hand. Angkat kaki : (vulgar) to abscond. 
Anak angkat: an adopted child. 

Angkat-angkat : the carriage, shape or gait 
of a person or animal ; cf. bangun. 

Angkatan : an expedition; the entire party 
making up an expedition ; a squadron of 
ships; a caravan. A, raja diraja : the hearse 
used at the funeral of a reigning sovereign. 

Angkatkan : to lift (anything) up. 

B&r angkat : to go on a journey — of a prince ; 
to be borne anywhere; to go (in the Court 
language). Genderang be r angkat : the drum 
beaten to announce a raja's departure ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz. 

M angkat : to die (of rajas). 

Mengangkat : to bear aloft ; to raise ; to lift. 
Mengangkat duwa puloh kati : to lift twenty 
catties. M. sembah : to raise one's hands in 
respectful salutation. 

Pangkat : rank ; dignity. 

Cf. angkit, and angkut. 

angMt. Raising ; lifting ; = angkat, but limited 
to the lifting of objects of light weight or to 
movements (such as raising the eyebrows) 
which are not intended to be of long duration. 

Belat angkit-angkit : 
5. V. belat. 

chicks; = bidai ; see 

angkut. Moving, raising or lifting when the 
action is piecemeal or gradual. Mengangkut 
sarang : to build a nest (the materials for which 
are brought together by degrees). M. ayar : 
to carry up water from a well one or two 
bucketfuls at a time. M. dagangan : to load 
or unload cargo. 

Angkut-angkiit : the mason bee. 

Angkut is also used of removing or pricking 
an ulcer or blister ( Pijn., s. v. angkot); see, 
however, angkup, 

ungkit. Coming back to a position one has 
previously left, raising a question already 
settled, applying for the return of something 
given away {e.g,, for the return of a present), 
bringing up old grievances again, harping 
on an old subject. 

Kursi ungkang-ungkit : a rocking chair. 
Cf. unggit. 

angkar. Jav. Haunted. 

ingkar. [Arab.^^\.] Breaking a pledge; 

violating a promise ; falsifying what one has 
previously said ; Sh. Ul., 14. Cf. mungkir, 

izngkor. Berungkor-ungkoran : retreating in 
various directions ; scattering. 

cjfs\ angkfiroh. Hastily, hurriedly; also gopoh- 
gapah ; v. gopoh^ Kl. 

^j«SsP\ ungkas. A bird ; usually tmggas, q. v. 


ongkos. [Dutch, onkosten,] Expenses; charges; 
outlay — an expression used by Javanese in 
the Straits in the special sense of the cost 
of a passage to their homes. 

angkang. Raising, lifting ; == angkat ; Kl. 

engkang. Holding the feet wide apart : 
Kl. = kangkang; q. v. 

Cf. also kengkang. 

ungkang. Ungkang-ungkit : see-saw motion. 
Kursi ungkang-ungkit : a rocking chair. 

Cf. chunggang-chunggit ; ungkit; etc. 

angkap. I. To alight, — as a bird ; cf. hinggap. 

n. Berangkap-rangkapan : in turns, in a 
dance ; v. anggap, 

angkup. Forceps ; pincers ; nippers ; the act 
of catching anything with a pair of forceps 
or pincers. Angkup besi : steel pincers for 
pulling out hair. M engangkupkan jari : to 
nip with the fore-finger and thumb. Terang- 
kup-angkup : opening and shutting like a pair 
of pincers ; opening and shutting the mouth ; 
V. ungkap, 

Cf. angkut, 

Sngkap. Sngkap-engkip : Jifting and lower- 
ing, rising and falling. Mngkap-engkip bagai 
rumput tengah jalan : up and down like grass 
in the middle of the road (trodden under 
foot and then springing up again) — of an 
invalid who will neither die nor get well; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., HI., 20. Also (Province 
Wellesley) ungkok-ungkap saperti rumput tengah 
jalan ; and (Kedah) entak-entek saperti sambau 
di'pintu kandang, 

dxigkip. See engkap. 

ungkap. I. Gaping, exposing a large orifice ; 
the cover placed over a furnace to turn back 
the flames and increase the heat ; opening 
and shutting the mouth. 

Ungkap'Ungkap : the gasping or hard breath- 
ing of a dying man ; the gasping of fish out 
of water. 

Mengungkap : to open and shut the mouth 
without utterance; to make unsuccessful 
attempts to speak — as a man in a state of 
collapse in illness. 

Terungkap'Ungkap : gasping, panting. 

n. (Kedah.) Ungkok-ungkap : up and down, 
rising and falling ; = engkap-engkip. 


[ 21 ] 





I. A kind of tart or sweetmeat; 

II. A collar; C. and S. 

IIL (Kedah.) Terengkak-engkak : ridiculous 
familiarities; foolish play, as when two 
children make faces at one another. 



The figure-head of a native canoe 

ongkak. The name given to two posts in the 
bows of a boat to which the cable is secured. 

ungkil. The application of slight leverage in 
order to move a heavy thing a little way; 
cf. chungkil, 

angkSlong. Jav. A musical instrument ; 
v. Cr. Hist. Ind. Arch., L, 334. 

6ngkau. You ; thou ; the pronoun of the 
second person when addressing persons of 
little importance. Berengkan : to make use 
of the word engkati ; to speak as one would 
speak to inferiors. Orang yang berkhabar 
itupun bukan-nya si-engkau si-aku (Ht. Abd., 
433) • the man who gave the news was no 
person whom you could address without cere- 
mony (lit., using words like engkau and aku). 

The word engkau is almost universal in the 
above sense in literature, but is rare in collo- 
quial language. The form kau is in use in 
Southern Malay States, the word hang in 
Kedah, Penang and parts of Perak, and the 
word ang among Menangkabau Malays. 
Many paraphrases are also in use ; cf. awak, 
dikaUf kamUj kau, hang, etc. 

Sngku. A Malay title, applied [Riau] to 
the children of princes of the highest rank 
(tengku) by wives of inferior position ; the 
second grade of royalty ; the title given to a 
raja di-gelar or high officer of State not of 
royal birth but of princely rank, and to his 

In Kedah the title is not used. In the Ht. 
Sri Rama, the title is given to Laksamana^ 
Rama's younger brother, presumably by con- 
fusion between his name and the title to 
which his name is now applied. 

angkusa. [Skr. angkosa.] The **ankus''; 
the goad carried by the mahout on an 
elephant; v. kosa. 



Proud; haughty; Ht. Kal. Dam. 

Sngkah. I. Glue, gum. Kl. 

11. £ngkah'^ngkah : half ripe; insufficiently 
done; KL 




ungkai. Mengungkai: to unloose; to un- 
bind; Kl,,=: (Kedsh) merungkai. 

angga. I. The tine of a deer. Merangga 
tandok : with branching horns ; cf. also che- 
ranggah and cheragah, 

II. (Selangor.) Hope, expectation, thought, 
suspicion ; = angka, q. v. 

III. An elephant; KL 

ingga. As far as, boundary, limitation ; = 
hingga, q. v. Cf. perenggan (per-hingga-an) 
and enggat, 

anggara. [Skr. ahangkdra.] Setuwa anggara 
or (etymologically better) satwa anggara: 
"wild beast," a fabulous monster often men- 
tioned in romances as the kendaraan or steed 
of a hero ; v. Ht. Koris, Ht. Ind. Meng., Ht. 
Sh. Kub., Ht. Par. Ptg. The form satwa 
angkara also occurs: Ht. Sg. Samb., Ht. 
Koris, etc. 

Karn a, : wild uproar ; 

^~ haru angkara; 



anggit. Fastening ; joining together. Rotan 
penganggit atap : a piece of rattan used for 
joining ataps together. Rotan anggit : the 
rattan binding outside the drum — in contra- 
distinction to the rattan ring (rotan sedak 
rebana) which is inside the drum. 

,j^^^\ anggut. Rocking ; dipping — of the bows of 
a boat ; = anggok, q. v. Also pronounced 
hinggut and enggiit. 


-^ finggat. Limit, boundary; as far as. Mnggat 
ini : as far as this. Cf. ingga, and hingga. 

^^^^^\ unggat. Rising to a stiffly erect position. 

Terunggat: stiffly erect; also terchugat and 

^^^<^\ unggit. Unggang-unggit : Rocking or see-saw 
motion as that of a rocking chair ; = ungkang- 
ungkit, or chunggang-chunggit ; cf. anggut, 
anggok and anggoL 

<^\ anggar. Reckoning, calculation. 

A. pelayaran: the navigation of a vessel; 
Arabian Nights, 310. Patek nan sudah tahu ang' 
garan : I can make calculations : I can mea- 
sure, survey, or navigate ; Sh. Sh. AL, 27. 
Membuwat anggaran : to take one's bearings, 
to find out one's position ; Ht. Jay. Asm. 

Anggaran hurang : the stand quarters of a 
bird ; a branch or twig on which a bird is cal- 
culated to be likely to set ; a good place for a 
snare or bird-lime. 


[ 22 ] 



p\ anggor. I. Transplanting. Di-anjak layu 
di-anggor matt : move it and it withers, 
transplant it and it perishes; a hopeless case. 

II. Pers. The vine; appertaining to the 
vine; grapes (Ht. Ism. Yat., 31); shot (of a 
gun) in contradistinction to bullets. Ayer 
buwah anggor: wine; Muj., 57. Ayer a,: id. ; 
Ht. Abd., 304. Buwah a, : grapes. Pokok a. : 
the vine. Tarok a. : a vine shoot ; Ht. Sg. 

III. Better; rather; it were better ; = 
remak, Jikalau beta hindak di-berikan kapada 
hantu itu anggor-lah beta mati : if it is desired 
to bestow me upon that evil spirit, rather let 
me die ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Daripada sa-laku sa-dendam ini 
Anggor 'lah hilang sa-kali kali : 

rather than (linger on in) this plight and 
with these longings, it were better to die for 
good and all; Ht. Koris. Anggor 4ah bujang 
sampat ka-mati : may I remain unmarried till 
death; Sh. Sh. Al. 

IV. Menganggor: to do nothing; 
Sh. Bid. (Leyden edition), 333. 

to loiter ; 

r^P^\ anggSrana. To trade ; = beniyaga, Kl. 

inggSris. English. Orang inggeris < 
English. Negeri inggeris : England.^ 


anggSrek or inggSrek. A generic name for 

epiphytic orchids ; Sh. B. A. M., 2 ; Sh. Ch. 
Ber., 11; Ht. Koris; Ht. Sh, Mard. 

A . beiul : the scorpion flower ; cymbidium 
bicolor, Cr. 

A . laina : cymbidium cuspidatum, Cr. 

A . merpati : the pigeon orchid ; dendrobium 
cnmientatum, Sw. 

viS Ssp\ angg§rka. Baju anggerka : a long overcoat 
or surtout ; Ht. Abd., 419. 

I fSs\ unggas. I. A bird (in literary language); 

^^ Sh. Ch. Ben, 3, Sh. B. A. M., 12, Sh. Bid., 2, 

Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 10, Ht. Sh. Kub., Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 34, 62, 117 ; etc. Burong is the 
word usually employed in colloquial language 
with the meaning of bird except in the 
Menangkabau States, where unggas is used 
to avoid the double meaning attaching to the 
word burong. 

I In the oldest MSS. the word inglitir is found as 
an equivalent for England. The word inggeris occurs in 
the Ht. Koris in the following context : 

Kama kuma chita kesturi 

Hendak berjamu raja inggeris; 

Sangat-lah cherdek rupa-nya dirt 
Sanda di-semu di-tengah majlis. 

At the present time inggeris is always used in the sense of 
"English," but "inggelan'' is sometimes heard in the 
sense of " England." 




(7. dewata : the bird of paradise ; Sh. B. A. 
M., 6, Sh. Bur. Pungg., 14. Also burong 
dewata, and manok dewata. 

II. (Kedah.) Running as fast as one can; 
bolting; tearing away; cf. runggas and r^ntas. 

The form hunggas also occurs. 

anggis. Mengunggis : to gnaw ; to nibble at 

anggong. Menganggong : to lift up ; to raise 
up; KL, P. 



The hornbill ; the rhinoceros bird. 

E. papan : a species of buceros ; buceros 

Unggang lalu ranting patah : the hornbill flies 
past and the branch is broken ; Prov., J. S. 
A. S., I., 88, describing a coincidence which 
is set down to design. 

Enggang apa kapada enggang ? What is one 
hornbill to another ? — a proverbial equivalent 
for orang apa kapada orang : what is one man 
to another ? What does it matter what hap- 
pens to strangers ? — See s. v. orang. 

unggang. Unggang-unggit : see-saw motion ; 
V. unggit. 

anggap. A challenge at any game; an 
invitation to anyone to join in a game or 
take it up in his turn ; the passing on of 
the duty of performing — as when a singer, 
having finished his song, calls upon one 
of his audience to sing. Satelah sudah anak 
raja keduwa menari maka lalu di-anggapkan-nya 
kapada A uzerang Perdana Johan : when the 
two princes had finished dancing, they called 
upon Auzerang Perdana Johan (to dance); 
Ht. Koris. 

Beranggap-anggapan: by challenges, by turns; 
Arabian Nights, 346. See s. v. angkap. 

II. The name of a bird (unidentified). 

anggok or (Kedah) gnggok. A nod ; a rapid 
inclination of the head and neck without bow- 
ing the shoulders. The word is also applied 
to the movement of a boat's bows in a heavy 
sea (Ht. Jah., 40), but anggol and ambol are 
more correctly used in this sense. Maka iya- 
pun mimberi tabek kiri kanan di-anggok-nya 
kepala : he greeted them in his turn, nodding 
his head to the right and to the left; Ht. 
Abd., 109. 

Anggok bukan guling ya : a nod means no, 
and a turn of the head means yes — a reversal 
of the ordinary meaning of these signs. 
Prov. ; cf. J. S. A. S., XXIV., 89. 

Menganggok : to nod ; Ht. Sh. 

Teranggok-anggok : labouring heavily, — of 
the bows of a ship ; pitching, in contra- 
distinction to rolHng (lenggang). 

Cf. angguty anggol^ ambol, etc. 


[ 23 ] 


gnggak. (Kedah.) A sort of basket for hold- 
ing emping (a preparation of rice) . 

fenggek. Mengenggek : to part ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 
24. See engeh. 

Snggok. ( Kedah. ) Enggok-enggal : swaying 
heavily ; v. anggok, and onggok, 

onggok. I. The name of an animal (un- 

II. Beronggok-onggok : in groups; in scat- 
tered parties — used of a crowd divided over 
an open space. 

III. Onggok-onggal : swaying forwards slight- 
ly to one side and then slightly to the other, 
as the gait of an old man or of a tiger. Also 
(Kedah) enggok-enggal ; cf. anggok, 

anggal. Lightly laden — of a ship with light 
cargo or in ballast ; light in weight, light (of 

A nggalkan perahu or menganggalkan perahu : 
to lighten the cargo of a ship. 

anggol. Lifting at the bows ; lifting up the 
bowed head ; an upward motion of the head ; 
the raising of the horns by a bull which has 
been standing with lowered head. Cf. anggok 
and amboL 

gnggal. ( Kedah. ) Enggok-enggal : swaying, 
rolling from side to side ; v. enggok and anggok, 

Snggil. Enggil'berenggil : uneven, jagged, 
saw-edged, as a piece of timber badly planed 
or as land covered with small boulders. 
Tulang rusok berenggilan : his ribs protruded. 
Cf. ringgit. 

onggaL (Riau, Johor.) Onggok-onggal : sway- 
ing; = (Kedah) enggok-enggal; see last word. 

unggal. Sole, single, unity ; = tunggal. Pak 
unggal : an only brother of one's father or 
mother ; an only uncle. 

inggSlan. Negeri Inggelan : England ; Ht. 
Abd., 356. See s. v. tnggeris, 

anggun. Fastidious ; affected in one's man- 
ner or dress; dandified; dudish ; Ht. Jah., 
28, 45. 

Kachak a. : (Kedah) id. 

gnggan. I. Objection; dislike; refusal of 
permission; hindrance; unwillingness. Sng- 
gan bercherai dengan gusti : unwillingness to 
leave his lady; inability to withdraw from 






her side; Sh. Sri Bun., 92. Enggan4ah ini 
memperlanjutkan kesah : I am unwilling to spin 
out this story; Ht. Gul. Bak,, 81. Hamba 
pun enggan-lah serta anakanda itu bcrmain: I 
am unwilling to play with the princess ; Ht. 
Hamza, 15. 

11. Terenggan : (Kedah) stopped; limited; 
from hingga ? 

unggun. Banking (a fire) ; the material put 
on a fire to bank it; Ht. Abd., 386. 

Unggunan: soft wood or pith, or any 
material used in banking fires. 

anggau. Grasping or clutching at anything 
by stretching out the hand and moving for- 
ward the body — in contradistinction to chapai, 
which is Hmited to grasping by arm extension 
only. Also (Kedah) hanggau. 

inggu. [Skr, hinggu,] Asafcetida; Muj., 23. 
Also inggu, Ikan inggu : a fish ; Sh, Ik, 
Trub., 19. 

The name is applied to at least two species 
of fish, pempheris mangula and pomacentrus 

anggota. [ Skr. angga-utha or anggotha, ] 
Divisions of the human body; members; 
limbs, Segal a anggota or sakaliyan anggota : 
all the divisions of the body ; the whole body 
— the seat of sensations such as terror or 
weariness which seem to affect the whole 
body, in contradistinction to others, like malice 
and suspicion, which influence thought alone. 
Cf. hati, 

J^\ gnggah. (Batavia.) No ; not. Cf. enggan, 
j^\ inggih. Jav. Yes. 

anggai. I, A sign ; = ishdrat, but used in 
high-flown language only. 

II. Interwoven silk and gold thread; C, 
and S. 

anglong. [Chin, dngldng,] 

At\ anglo, [Chin. hang4d,] A brazier 

A pavilion ; a 

angan. Usually angan-angan ; thoughts ; 
ideas ; the mind as the seat of sensations — 
such as hope, intention, or desire. Tiyada 
lain yang di-angan-angan-nya hanya-lah paras 
Bahram itu : she thought of nothing (lit. there 
was nothing in her thoughts) but the beauty 
of Bahram ; Ht. Gul. Bak. 140. Chita dan 
angan-angan-ku sangat-lah tama* hendak menda- 
pat lebeh daripada yang sa-patut-nya : = my 
wishes and hopes were eagerly centred upon 
obtaining more than what was fair ; Ht. Abd., 
281. Sitijuga di-angan-angan : you, my lady, 
are always in my thoughts; Sh. Kumb. 
Chumb., 8. 

Nights, 453. 

hati : conscience ; Arabian 


[ 24 ] 


^yiA angin. Wind ; breeze ; current of air ; ( by 
metaphor) emptiness, windiness, nonsense. 
Biftiyup'lah angin yang lemah Umbut : a gentle 
breeze was blowing. Barang dimana di4iyup 
angin di-sana-lah iya chondong : in whatever 
direction the wind may be blowing, in that 
direction will he bow; Ht. Abd., 262. 

Ta'sebab kerana angin pokok kayu mahu-kah 

if there is no wind will the trees 
there is no smoke without fire : 

bergoyang , 
quiver ? — 

A . angin : a kind of Jew's harp. 

A, barat : a westerly wind. 

A , bidai : a steady wind. 

A . darat : a breeze from the shore. 

A. ekor duyong : a variable wind; a wind 
that seems to blow from two quarters. 

A, gila : a very uncertain wind. 

A, gunong-gunongan : a violent squall. 

A. haluwan : a head wind. 

A, kelambu menunggul : a north wind. 

A. kUambu sa-belah : a N.E. wind, 

A. kinchang kelat : a good breeze, steady 
and strong. Also called a. chekang kelat and 
a, tBgang kelat, 

A . membakat or a. menebing : a gathering 
A, menimba ruwang : = a, timba ruwang, 
A, puting beliyong : a whirlwind. 
A . sakal : a contrary breeze. 
A. salah : an unfavourable wind. 

A . selembubu : an eddying wind which whirls 
about the dust. 

A . sendalu : a moderate breeze. 

A, sorong buritan : a wind right abaft. 

A . temberang buritan : a wind on the quarter. 

A . temberang haluwan : a wind before the 

A, tenggara mandi: a strong N.E, wind 
which blows spray about. 

A , tihis : the change of monsoon ; the 
variable winds at the change of monsoon. 

A . timba ruwang : a wind abeam, 

A . tumbok kuYong : a wind not quite abaft. 

Ambila.: to go for an airing or constitu- 

Chakap a, : empty vapourings ; nonsense ; 
mere talk. Also tahi angin. 

Daun baleh a, : the name of a plant, mallotus 

Di-atas a. ; a geographical expression inclu- 
ding all the countries from which trading 
ships were borne to Malaya in the South- West 
monsoon (i.e., from India, Arabia, Africa and 
the Persian Gulf) in the days when ships 
sailed in one monsoon and returned with the 

Di-bawah a. : the converse of di-atas a. : 
Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, the East 
coast of the Bay of Bengal and the countries 
to the East of Malaya. 

Kayu kepiyalu a. : the name of a tree (un- 

Kepala a. : a flighty person ; flight iness. 

Kereta a. : ( Straits ) a switchback railway. 

Makan a. : to catch the breeze ; to draw 
well — of a sail ; ( Straits ) to go for a walk or 
on a pleasure excursion. 

Mata a. : the quarter from which the wind 
is blowing. 

Menjaring a. : waste of time; ** fishing and 
catching wind." 

Perchaya a. : vain expectations or hope. 

Penyakit a. : a generic name for diseases 
which are hard to diagnose or describe. 

Pohon a.y pohon a. ribut and pokok a. : a black 
squall-bearing cloud ; a storm-cloud; a squall. 
Anginkan : to air. 

Balai perangin or balai peranginan : a 
kiosque; a pavilion in a breezy spot. Per- 
angin is also used of a weather-cock. 

Tempat perangin or peranginan : a verandah 
or any place for enjoying fresh air ( Ht. Ism. 
Yat., 30); the organs of respiration. 

4p\ Sngah. I. (Onom.) Short sharp breathing ; 
panting, puffing. Mengengah-engah or men- 
gah : to pant. 

Also ngah. 

1 1 . Intermediate, half (in certain expressions 
only ) ; = ngah, q. v. 

4P1 engeh. (Onom.) Short quick breathing; 
shorter, quicker and less loud breathing 
than that translated by engah ; the sound of a 
nose being blown, 

\x::J>\ iftit^h. Arab. To begin, to commence. 

iftir&S. Arab. To expand, to spread (intran- 

ufti. [Skr. utpatti.] Tribute, — a common 
mispronunciation for upeti, q. v. 

afrak. Arab. White (as the colour of a 

afsir. Eur, Officer, military officer ; Ht. 
Nap., 24, 

afstin. Pers. Sorcery, witchcraft, evil by 

afdlal. Arab. Beautiful. T^rafdlal: super- 
latively beautiful; Ht. Jah., 41. 

\l»3\ af'&l- Arab, Manners, ways, character; 
Ht. Ism. Yat,, 66 ; the plural of J*i q. v. 

i\ afik. 

Arab. Territory, estate. 

^^Si^\ aflatftn. Arab. Plato. 

^^JcS\ effendi. Turk. An honorific expression used 
in addressing Turkish gentlemen of good 
social position but destitute of any official 


^Jj^\ afyfiin. Arab. Opium ; v. ^;j^\ 

^' apa. An idiomatic word giving a sense of 
doubt, indefiniteness or interrogation to the 
expression in which it occurs ; how ; why ; 
somehow; whatever; somewhat. Diya orang 
apa? What is he? What is he a man of? 
Apa-apa : whatever ; any .... what- 
ever ; anything ; any. Jikalau ada apa-apa 
gadoh : if there is any disturbance. 

Apa-bila : when, whenever. 

Apa-lagi : how much more ; what then ? 

Apa-lah : in some degree, small or great ; — an 
idiomatic expression corresponding in some 
respects to our ** please," ''as you please," 
"if you please," '*to any extent that may 
please you." Halaukan apa4ah anak bedebah 
ini daripada tanah ayer beta : please drive 
away this ill-starred child of mine from 
my dominions. Khabari apa-lah : tell me 
something, if possible. 

Apa-tah : what. 

Barang-apa : whatever. Barang-apa belanja : 
whatever expenses may arise. 

Berapa or beberapa : how much ; how many ; 
some quantity ; some. Berapa orang : (i) 
how many people ? (2) people in (indefinite) 
numbers; a number of people. Sa-berapa : as 
much as ; as many as. 

Mengapa : why ; wherefore ; the reason why. 
Tiyada mBngapa : no matter. 

Si-apa : who. 

Pengapakan : to make something of ; to pay 
attention to. 

f\s\ upama. [ Skr. tipdma,] Example ; also 
' umpamaf q. v. 

Also written \}y 

^U\ upaya. [ Skr. updya.] Means ; the means 
by which anything is done ; resources for 
doing anything; Ht. Ism. Yat., 80. Daya 
upaya : stratagem or means ; means of all 
sorts ; skill or resource ; any way whatever 
for effecting an object; Ht. Abd., 5, 219; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 30. Tiyada daya upaya : resource- 
less ; moneyless ; helpless. 

V^\ apabila. When, whenever ; v. apa and bila. 

C-^\ apit. Pressure between two surfaces; being 
caught, wedged, pressed or squeezed between 
two separate objects, as a sheet of paper in a 
printing press. Cf. sepit and kepit, which 
refer to pressure between two connected 
objects, as between the arm and the side, or 
as in the hinges of a door. 

Apit-apit : a snare for mice ; Ht. Abd., 207. 

Apit lempang : (i) the planks (one on each 
side) nearest the keel in a Malay boat ; (2) a 
trusted friend or supporter. 

Pulut apit : (Johor) a cake of pressed pulut 

Apitan : a printing press ; Ht. Abd., 167, 

Berapit : forming a press ; pressed up one 
against another. Bukit berapit: two con- 
nected hills ; the point of junction between 
two hills which serves as a pass between 
them. Kajang berapit : two kajang mats set 
in position next to one another. Payong 
berapit : state umbrellas borne along side by 
side so as to form a sort of double umbrella ; 
Sej. Mai., 93,122. Bintang berapit : double 

Mengapit : to press between two surfaces ; to 
squeeze; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 12. Mengapitkan: 

Pengapit : a supporter (when two supporters 
are employed, one on each side of the person 
they assist) ; one of the two supporters of a 
bridegroom (cf. sir eh genggam) or bride 
(Ht. Jay. Asm.) ; one of the two seconds of a 
warrior-champion ( Ht. Sri Rama ) ; a sugar- 

Terapit : pressed in between ; wedged in 
between ; intercalary. 

^\ upSti. [ Skr. utpatti.] Tribute ; the fixed 
^^ contribution paid by a subject State to the 
ruling power, as distinct from mere ceremonial 
presents admitting inferiority of power but not 
vassalage. Bahwa negeri Makkah itu memberi 
upeti ka-negeri Yaman : Mecca sent tribute to 
Yemen ; Ht. Hamza, 25. Di-pinta-nya upeti 
negeri : he asked for tribute ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 
Menerima upeti : to receive tribute ; Ht. Sh. 
Kub. Mempersembahkan upeti: to pay 
tribute ; Ht. Koris. 

\Ji\ upachara. [ Skr. upachdra.] Token of 
J t honour ; symbol of rank or respect. Pancha 
upachara : a golden sprig presented by the 
bridegroom to the bride ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

J^aJ^\ upaduta. Skr. The second member of an 
-^ embassy; a secretary of legation. Also paduta 

and penduta. 

^\ apas. Handsome ; well or effectively dressed ; 
^■"^ presenting a consistently favourable appear- 
ance. Also hapas. 


[ 26 ] 


^^j>S\ apus. I. Obliteration; effacement ; expun- 
ging or blotting out. Jika banyak hujan habis 
a^us tanaman-nya : if there is much rain, all 
that he planted will be washed away; 
Ht. Best,, 26. 

A, luwat: (Kedah) the removal of defile- 
ment ; satisfaction. 

Apuskan and mengapuskan : to efface ; to 
wash out; to wash away. Apuskan apa-lah 
arang dt-muka kita ini : wash away in some 
measure the ignominy which has been put 
upon me (Ht., the soot on my face) ; Ht. Hg, 
Tuw., 51. 

Also hapus, Cf. mampus ? 

II. Ayer apus : water beyond one's depth. 

ii3\ apong. Drifting ; floating ; being borne along 
^ by tides, waves or currents; driftwood; 

flotsam. Laksana apong di~permain gelom- 

bang : like driftwood, the sport of the waves ; 

a creature of circumstance ; Prov. Sh. Laili 

Mejn., 18. 

Tanjong Katong jatih ka-laut 
Tampak dart Belakang Mati ; 

Laksana apong di-tengah laut 
Di'puktd ombak jatoh ka-Upi : 

like driftwood on the sea, which the force of 
the waves drives ashore ; a proverbial pantun 
with the same meaning. (A creature of 

Apong-apong perahu : another name for the 
amban, q. v. 

Terapong-apong : drifting or floating about 
(frequentative) ; Sh. Lamp., g. 

Cf. atong, ampong and telampong. 
^^ apak. Jav. Foul (of odour) ; fetid. 

jj3i apek. I. Neat, spruce, smart ; Cr., Kl., Pijn. 
The form hapek occurs ; Ht. Nakh. Muda, 36. 
II. Opak-apek or upak-apek : backwards and 
forwards, in the expression chakap opak-apek : 
(Kedah) tale-bearing, mischief-making by 
repeating to a person uncomplimentary 
remarks made about him by another; 
(Selangor) inconsistent talk; the talk of 
dotage ; the talk of a man who is all praise 
one day and all blame the next, 

Cf. dolak'dalek and lopak-lapek* 
MUs3\ apakala. When, whenever; v. apa and kala. 

U\ apil. Apilan: a bulwark or protection for 
^ the gun detachment on a piratical Malay 
perahu; a moveable wooden shield with a 
hole through the centre through which the 
muzjzle of the gun projected. This gun-shield 
was only put on when the ship went into 
action, Dingan tiga buwak perahu menjunjong 
apilan : with three ships carrying gun-shields ; 
Ht. Raj. Don,, 71. See also Pel. Abd., 47. 
Sunting apilan : the name given to two lelas 
or light guns standing on the gun-shield of 
a heavy gun. 

3\ apam. Tam. A thin cake made of dough ; 
I a ** hopper," in Anglo-Indian language: Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 36; Ht. Ism. Yat., 36. 

Penjaja a. ; a cake hawker ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 

A . jambul and a. batch : varieties of this cake. 

i\ apum. A cake of dough somewhat resembling 
r an apam, but not prepared in the same way. 

Beli ielor m^mbuwat apum 
Champor dengan sakar putts ; 

Khia terchekek betul halkum, 
Kalau td'-lepas nyawa habis : 

buy eggs to make an apum and mix them 
with white sugar. Putts is only a Penang 
(occasional) pronunciation of puteh, 

^\ apai. I. A Malay curried dish ; KL, Pijn. 

11. Tevapai-rapai : v. r apai, and kapai^ and 
cf. chapai^ sampai, ampai, etc. 

^1 api. Fire, a light. Membawa a, : to carry a 
light. Tampak api di-Tanjong Tuwan : the 
light is seen on Cape Rachado. Bakar ta'- 
berapi : to burn without fire ; to feign love 
with a view to exciting it ; Prov, Api di-dalam 
sekam : fire in chaff; hidden fires working 
though unseen ; still waters that run deep ; 
Prov. Api kechil baik padam : put out a fire 
while it is yet small (when big it may master 
you); nip dangers in the bud; Prov. See Ht. 
Hamza, 36, 37. 

Api-api: (i) a firefly, Cr. ; (2) a generic 
name for many trees such as lumnitzera 
coccinea and avicennia, and for some mistle- 
toes, e.g», loranthus and viscum. Api-api 
hutan : memecylon cceruleum, Api-api j ant an : 
loranthus ampidlaceus, Daun ara api : a 
medicinal plant (unidentified). 

A sap a. : smoke. 

Bara a, : glowing embers. 

Batu a. : a flint ; (b}'- metaphor) a mischief- 

Benalu a.; kemendalu a.; mendalu a, and 
dedalu a, : various local names for some para- 
sitic creepers with red flowers, loranthus 
crassus and loranthus ferrugineus. 

Bunga a. : sparks ; fireworks, 

Kapal a, : a steamer. 

Kayu a, : firewood. 

Kereta a. ; a steam locomotive; a railway or 
steam tramway. 

Laut a. : the sea of fire ; hell. 

Periyok a, : a bomb ; a shell. 

Puntong a. : the charred end of a torch ; a 
half-burnt torch or piece of stick. 

Berapi : fiery ; flaming ; fiery red. Gunong 
berapi : a volcano. The word merapi, a 
variant of berapi, is also used in this last 
sense. Marah-nya berapi-api : flaming with 
anger ; (literally) in flaming wrath. 


[ 27 ] 

^J^\ apyun. [Arab, afyun,] Opium. 
Peti a. : a chest of opium. 

<a\3i ikS,mat. Arab. The second (and last) call 
to prayer. 

yXji\ iktibas. Arab. Quotation, quoting the words 
of others. 

^j^\ akrS,b. Arab. Near, intimate ; Panch., 


J\J>\ ikrS.r. Arab. Confirmation, affirmation, 

acknowledgment of a deed, promise or 
agreement ; promise, confession ; Arabian 
Nights, 77. 

Ikrdvkan : to avow, to acknowledge ; Ht. 
Raj. SuL, 16. 

The form ikrdl is occasionally found ; Ht. 
Sri Rama ; Sh. Sri Bun., 8g. 

\^\ aksara. [Skr. aksMra,] Letter, alphabetical 

A<a3\ aksa. Arab. Far distant ; Mahk. Raj., 33. 

Masjid aksa : the further temple, i.e,^ Jeru- 

^^'^\ ikl^b. Arab. To turn about, 

Jl3\ ikllm. Arab. Climate, region, zone. 

c.\;3\ ikna'. Arab. To satisfy. 
^\ iknfim. Arab, Person of the Holy Trinity. 

s^ aku. I, the first person singular; see Xf. 

^ akasa. [Skr. dkdsa.] The air, the atmos- 
^ phere ; also angkasa, q. v. 

J^\ akbar. Arab. Greatest ; greater ; extremely 
great. Allahu akbar : God is greatest; God 
is most great. 

-j^ akat. (Arab, jop , to conclude a bargain.) 

The transaction or putting through of any 
business. A kai nikdh : to arrange a marriage ; 
to put through preliminary negotiations. 

Akat barang: to deal in goods; to trade. 


O^ ^ akit. Better j^ , q. v. 

Vw \ iktifa. Arab. To be settled, done or satisfied. 

S\ akar. A root ; the fibres of a root ; a generic 
name for scandent or creeping plants. Tiyada 
rotan akar pan berguna : if you cannot get a 
rattan, any creeper will do; you must put up 
with what you can get ; half a loaf is better 
than no bread ; Prov., Ht. Abd,, 378, 

Akal akar : the cunning of the creeper (which 
adapts itself to circumstances) ; Prov. 

A . bahar : (literally) the sea-root ; the name 
given to a marine animal which is dried and 
used as a talisman. 

A. bain : a climber, byttneria maingayi, 

A , china : limacia oblonga and tceniochlcena 

A . chirit mtirai : glycosmis sapindoides. 

A. nyior : a sweetmeat. 

A . wangi : the kiiskus grass, andropogon 

Harimau akar : the largest species of wild 
cat found in the Peninsula. 

Musang a, : a species of polecat. 

Berakar : to take root- Berakar-lah perka- 
taan itu dalam hati : those words became 
rooted in my mind; Ht. Abd., 84. Maka 
kenibang kiimhima itupun berakar-lah di4apak 
tangan tuwait piiteri itu : the crocus flower took 
root in the palm of the princess's hand ; Ht. 
Jay. Lengg. 

^y \ ikram. Arab. Honouring ; respect ; rever- 

fS\ akram. Arab. Generous; large-hearted. 

S\ akas. L Full of life; nimbleness; grace; 
*-^ Sej. Mai., 260; Sh. Bid. (Leyden), 413; Ht. 
Ism. Yat., 45. 
Balek a, : (Kedah) to come to life again. 

See also s. v. agus, 

n, [Skr. dkdsa.] The air, the atmosphere : 
Bint. Tim., 16 Jan., 1895. 


'i akus. [ Skr. angkosa,] The '' ankus " or goad 
used by a mahout ; better angkusa and kosa. 
Also best hiwasa. 

^ akek. [Arab, j^.] Agate, cornelian, coral. 
Sipiit a. : a shell ; helix richmondiana. 

WT akmal. Arab. Most perfect. Tuhan yang 
^ akmal : God most perfect ; Sh, Bur. Pungg., 9. 


[ 28 ] 



1 akan. Approach to ; motion towards ; to ; in 
the direction of. Budak yang akan mengaji : 
a boy who is going to begin to study. Stirat 
yang akan di-kirimkan : a letter which is going 
to be sent. Tanam lalang ta'-akan tumbohpadi : 
if you plant weeds you won't get padi ; you 
can't get figs from thistles ; Prov. 

A kandaku : me ; to me. Akandiya : him ; 
to him. 

A kan-akan : approach to ( especially in the 
sense of resemblance ) ; approximate resem- 
blance. Tahi^at-nya akan-akan manusiya: his 
ways resembled those of a man. Sa-akan and 
sa-akan-akan : almost exactly like; close 

Birakan : alike. Jiwa keduwa sudah berakan : 
the two lives were as one ; cf. beragan^ s. v. 

Mingakan: to treat in the same way; Sej. 
Mai., 29. 

^' aku. The pronoun of the first person in 
familiar language ; I; me; myself; acknow- 
ledgment ; admission ; recognition as one's 
own ; taking the responsibility for anything 
upon oneself. Orang yang berkhabar itupun 
bukan-nya si-engkau si-aku : the man who 
brought the news was not a person who could 
be treated with scant ceremony ( i> e.^ with 
whom such expressions as ahu and Bngkau 
could be used) ; Ht. Abd., 433. Cf, sehaya, 
hamba, gowa, beta, kita, kami^ senda, timan, 
bayu, dengan and dan* 

A ku semuwa or aku sakaliyan : we all. 

A kandaku : to me. 

Akuwi and mengaku : to admit ; to acknow- 
ledge ; to recognize or accept as one's own ; 
to admit or accept responsibility for. Dart- 
pada hari ini hamba akuwi anak4ah akan orang 
muda : henceforward I accept (adopt) this 
young man as my son. Di-mana-lah buleh 
sihaya dapat orang mengaku : where can I get 
a person to stand security ? Ht. Abd., 244. 
Tiyada aku mengaku akan diri-ku pandai : I do 
not pose as a learned man ; I do not admit 
myself to be learned. Beraku-akuwan hendak 
menangkap Jay a Asmara : all undertaking to 
capture Jaya Asmara; Ht, Jay. Asm. 

Also kuy q. V. 


\ aki. To' aki : (Perak) grandfather; (Kedah) 
to ' wan. 

JS\ igama and Ugama. [Skr. dgama.] The 
r service of God ; religion ; Masok igama Islam : 

admission to the Muhammadan religion. 

Guru dalam igama : a teacher of religion. 

^*5V ftg^t- Burong agut or burong agut-agut or 
burong gut-gut: the name of a sea-bird 

^ agar. L [Pers. and Hind.] In order that ; 
so that ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 109. 

Agarjangan: lest; Bint. Tim., i6/afi., 1895. 

II. A gar -agar : a kind of sea- weed (gracilaria 
lichenoides), used for making jelly. The name 
is also given to the jelly so made and ( im- 
properly) to another kind of jelly somewhat 
resembling it. 

^JS\ agas. I. A sandfly; Ht. Gul. Bak., 8. 
Di'ketip agas : bitten by a sandfly. 

II. Tali agas : a rope suspended over the 
bed of a woman in labour ; after labour the 
rope is put to various uses. 

III. Lively, vivacious; = akas, q. v. 


\ agUS. I. Jav. Fair, handsome ;=bagus. 

In many cases, owing to the conditions 
of Malay orthography, it is difficult to say 
whether agus or agas III. is meant; see 
Sh. Sg. Ranch,, 6 ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 8. 

II. Eng. August; the month of August. 

&\ agong. Jav. Great ; mighty ; powerful ; 

^ dignified, stately. The word is also used of 
ladies, apparently with the mere meaning of 
beautiful. Bukan-nya orang negeri agong 
tiyada-lah tahu akan chara behasa *adat orang 
ccgong-agong : he is not a native of a great 
city, he does not understand the ways and 
manners of the great ; Ht. Sh. 

Agong-agongan : beautiful, fair ; Ht. Mar. 
Mah., Ht. Koris, Ht. Mas. Ed. 

Agong 'alam : a ruler of the world ; a prince 
of the earth; Ht. Koris. 

A. negeri: the lord of the country; the 

Balairong agong : the great hall of audience ; 
Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Delima yang agong : lit., the great pome- 
granate—a simile for a woman's breast ; Sh. 
Peng., 2. 

Layar a. : the mainsail. 

Membawa a. : to attain the full bloom of 
beauty — of a girl. 

Meriyam a, : a double cannon ; guns mounted 
in pairs. 

Pasiban a. : the great gangway of a palace ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tiyang a. : the mainmast ; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 6. 

Tukang a, : the chief petty officer in a native 
perahu; J.S.A.S., III., 64. 

Tupang a. : the standing jib. 

io\ Sgong. (Onom.) A gong ; better g^ow^, q. V. 


[ 29 1 



agak. Conjecture ; the making of statements 
which are intended to approximate to the 
truth as far as possible ; estimating ; judging. 
The word is also applied to feints which look 
like blows but are not really so. 

Agak-agak or agak-nya : approximately; so 
far as one can guess ; presumably ; perhaps. 

Penjelemaan dewa agak-nya datang kamari : 
the incarnation of some deity has presumably 
come here ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 14. 

Agak gemngan : by any chance; apparently; 
= agak-agak-nya, 

Menaroh agak-agak : to believe in rumours ; 
Arabian Nights, 121. 

agok. A necklet or neck ornament worn by 
women and children; Sh. Bid., 78, 79; Ht. 
Mar. Mah.; Ht. Gul. Bak., 112; Ht. Best., 43. 

agal. (Kedah.) The name given to a species 
of tortoise (unidentified). 

agam. (Achin. ) Male, masculine, manly; 
in the Straits the word is sometimes used 
with the meaning ** tall. " 

Terlahi agam tuboh-nya : he was a man of 
very lofty stature ; Ht. Best., 33. 

Besar agam tinggi sa-pcnmjong 
Rupa laksana sa-macham patong : 

big, tall, some seven feet high, and looking 
like a carved image. 

igama or ugama. [Skr. dgama.] Religion, 
faith; v. X\, 

agan. Matt beragan: death without sign of 
death ; death which resembles life. Cf. akan, 

A pa puieh di4engah laut? 

Vbor-ubor matt beragan : 

What is that patch of white in the sea ? It is a 

large jellyfish, dead, but in appearance alive. 

Biyar di-sini matt beragan: here may I lay me 

down and die (of grief); Sh. Lail. Mejn., 29. 

J^ agah. Crowing of a baby; chuckling; teas- 
ing by mimicking sounds rather than actions ; 
the chuckling of a child in its sleep (said to 
be due to the influence of the uri spirits). 

j^ ageh. A share by calculation or agreement ; 
the arrangement of shares ; the share agreed 
to — in contradistinction to the act of sub- 
dividing (behagi) and to the share actually 
paid out after allotment ( untok ). 

VXT Ugahari. Fairness ; evenness ; equality ; 
^J^ moderation, hlso gahari, Sahdbat yang uga- 
hari : a friend of rank the same as your own ; 
Sh. Nas., 10, Sh. I, M. P., 6, Ht. Isk. Dz. 
Nuracha timbangan biyar4ah ugahari : let your 
balance be true, i.^., of even weight. Malik 
ugahari: the prince of princely birth; Sh. 
Sh. *A1., 22. 

The form ugaharU occurs; Bint. Tim., 16 
Jan., 1895. 


al. Arab. "The ''; the definite article. Al- 

marhum : the late, the late deceased. 

The alif is often elided in pronunciation by 
coalescence with the final vowel of the 
preceding word, while the lam is often given 
a sound in harmony with the initial consonant 
of the following word. Thus bustdnu-aU 
kdtibin would be pronounced bustdnu-Ukatihiny 
and bustdnu-al'Salatm becomes bustdnu-'s-sala- 
tin; see notes on Arabic orthography and 
grammar in the Appendices. 


ala. Direction ; 


q. v. 

alat. Arab. Appurtenances ; the plural of 

alat^ q. v, 

alamang. A kind of sword; also called 
halamang and lamang. 

alaman. A lawn or open space in front of a 
house or palace ; also halaman and laman, 

ilanun. The name of a piratical people from 
Mindanao. Also lanun. 

o^\ ilfi,h. Arab. A god. 



ilahat. Arab. Godhead, divinity, divine 

J!5viJ\ alabangka. [Port, 
bar; Ht. Abd., 63. 

alavanca. ] A crow- 

dJ 1 alat. [ Arab. ^\ ; plural ^\ .] Instruments 5 

appurtenances. Alat keraja-an: regalia; the 
appurtenances of royalty. A, perang and a, 
scnjata : military equipment. 

A latan and kealatan : furniture ; stores. 

Alati: to deck; to furnish; to provide the 
necessary stores, fittings or articles of adorn- 
ment for anything. 

Mengalatkan : to fit out. Maka baginda pun 
mengalatkan kapal duwa btcwah : the prince 
fitted out two ships ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

,^\ alit. Colouring the edge of anything — used 
especially of women touching up the eyelids 
with a black cosmetic preparation (gerang) 
with a view to giving greater lustre to the 
white of the eye ; Sh. Put, Ak., 15 ; Ht. Sh. 

Tali a. : a rattan cord used in pegging tops, 
one end of this cord being fastened to the 
top w^hich is to be pegged at and the other 
end being held under the foot of the player. 

^^\ Slat. (Singapore.) Alternate, intervening. 
&lat sa-pintu : a door off; with one door inter- 
vening ; at intervals of one intervening door ; 
every alternate door; = selang sa-pintu. 
Usually lat. 


[ 30 ] 


C^ 1 Slut. Penetration. Tiyada elut : it did not 
penetrate (of a weapon). Usually hit, q. v. 




iltima'. Arab. Lightness, brightness of 

a)\ alti. Clever, smart ; Sh, Si. Lem., 23. 

y\ alar. Sprawling on the ground in a careless 
or disrespectful way; KL, Pijn. 

J\ alir. Flowing; a floating crocodile-line, v. 
infra. MBngalir : to flow. Darah pun mengalir 
saperti ayer sebak : blood flowed like an 

Mengalirkan : to set flowing ; to set to float 
on the current. Kalau ttiwan mengalirkan 
kapal jangan di-rosakkan muwatan sehaya : if 
you, sir, launch this vessel on the stream, do 
not injure the cargo I have put into her ; Sh. 
Peng., 5. 

Alir is also used of a rattan line used for 
catching crocodiles. This line is not fastened 
to the bank, but when the crocodile has taken 
the bait the line floats, and the fisherman is 
so enabled to trace it. Tali alir is the line 
itself; umpan a., the bait; and kail a,, the 
hook ; the name alir describing the whole 
apparatus and process. Bnwaya matt di-alir : 
a crocodile destroyed in this way. 

alor. I. (Riau, Johor, Malacca.) The deep 
channel of a stream ; the channel where the 
river is deepest and the current swiftest ; 
( Kedah ) a hollow ; a pool or backwater 
scooped out on the bank of a stream, but not 
the main channel. 

A. bibir : the dimple between the centre of 
the upper lip and the nostril ; also lorah hidong. 

A.Ungkok: (Riau, Johor) the cavity at the 
back of the neck ; (Kedah) lobang tengkoL 

Lomba-lomba alor : v. lomba-lomba, 

II. Alor-alor : a tree {sualda indica, Pijn.) ; 
a species of fish, Cr. 

alas. I. Foundation; basis; framework; 
lining ; pedestal ; the stand, frame or 
background upon which anything is set. 

A, -alas : a bird (unidentified) ; J. I. A., Vol. 
L, 108. 

A, baju : the lining of a coat. 

A . chap : a present made by a chief to the 
raja who brings his letter of authority; 
C. and S. 

A, chawan : a saucer. 

A. kahi : a foot-stool. 

A , kata : a preface ; the premises or intro- 
duction to a speech. 

A . muwatan : the lowest tier of cargo-boxes. 

A, pelana : the saddle-cloth. 

A. perut : the first mouthful at a meal. 

A . rumah : the foundations of a house. 

A . surat : a present accompanying a letter. 


Alaskan and mengalas : to line; to supply a 
basis or foundation for anything; Ht. Abd., 
283 ; Sh. Bid., 6, 64 ; Ht. Bakht., 48. 

Dulang a. : a wooden platter something like 
a bread-plate. 

Pengalas : (occasionally) an anvil. 

II. Jav. Forest; jungle; Sh. Panj. Sg. 
:=zhutan. Si-cheleng alas: a wild boar;=si- 
babi hutan; Ht. Sh. Orang hiitan alasan : a 
wild man of the jungle ; Ht. Sh. Orang kidol 
alasan : a man of the southern jungles ; Ht. 
Perb. Jay. 

III. Jav, Pengalasan : the name given to 
certain court officials. KL, Pijn, 

alls. Jav. The eyebrow. Alis-nya yang ba- 
gai taji di-bentok : her eyebrow, which is curved 
Hke the spur blade of a fighting cock; Ht. 
GuL Bak., 122 ; Ht. Jay. Asm. 

^J\ alus. Delicate, refined ; better halus, q. v. 

dlis. Eng. 

List. Also lis. 

alang. I. Position at right angles to any- 
thing ; cross ; across. 

A. balai : the crossbeams over a public 
reception hall; Ht. Koris. A. mahaligai : 
id., over a palace ; Ht. Ind. Meng. A . rumah : 
id.; over a house. 

A . muka : a gangway or space across the 
ship in front of the nakhoda's cabin in a native 
perahu; J. S. A. S., III., 70. 

Alangan : a bank across the mouth of a 
river ; a river-bar ; shallows or obstructions 
generally (in nautical language) . 

Buntut a. : a kind of scimetar with a point 
turning out at right angles to the blade. 

Mengalang-ngalang : to obstruct ; to worry ; 
to cross; to injure by interference; Ht. Mar. 

Cf. palang, malang and galang. 

II. Of little extent or account; in slight 
degree ; in small measure. Bijaksana-nya 
bukan alang-alang : his wisdom was by no 
means to be despised. 

Alang'kah: ''is it a small thing that''; '*is 
it to a small extent that" — a semi-sarcastic 
interrogative which enhances the force of a 
statement. Api dengan ayer alang-kah beda- 
nya : between fire and water is there but little 
difference? Ht. Kal. Dam., 87. Alang-kah 
besar hati-mu : are you but slightly puffed up 
with self-importance ? 

A,kepalang: an intensitiye of alang ;= alang- 
alang : contemptible ; of little account. 

Alang-alang is also used sometimes idiomat- 
ically in the sense of '*at all." Alang-alang 
berdawat baik hitani sakali : if it is to be inked 
at all let it be blacked thoroughly — if you do 
a thing at all, do it well ; Prov., Ht. Koris. 


[ 31 ] 





Alang-alang menyelok pekasam biyar sampai 
ka-pangkal lengan : when you are dipping into 
the fish-tub, you may as well thrust your arm 
in up to the elbow ; when you are doing any- 
thing, do it thoroughly; Prov. J. S. A. S., 
IIL, 41. 

Alang-alangan : half-heartedness. Benchipun 
alang-alangan rupa-nya : he seemed half- 
hearted about his hatreds ; Ht. Koris. 
Kalau kaseh alang-alangan 
Biyar ta'-usah sa-kali-kali : 

if you are to be half-hearted in love, you had 
better not be in love at all. 

Bingong alang : thunderstruck ; confused. 

Keris a, : a short straight dagger. 

III. A common Malay familiar appellation 
(tiniang-timangan) applied usually to the third 
child in a family. 

Probably derived from IL 

IV. Alang-alang. Jav. Lalang, grass; 
v. I alang, 

V. (Riau, Johor) si-alang and (Kedah) to'- 
alang: the names given to large trees where 
the wild bees build their nests ; v. siyalang and 

aling. I. To narrowly scan anything held 
in the hand ; cf. tatap. 

II. Ulang-aling : backwards and forwards; 
to and fro. Maka Tim Omar pun pergi-lah 
dengan sa-btiwah perahu-nya idang -aling : Tun 
Omar sailed backwards and forwards with his 
one ship: Sej. Mai., 115. 

Also pronounced olang ; cf. pnlang and paling. 

IIL Jav. To shield, to cover. 

along. Alongan : a pool, a mere, a tank. 
Lain berangkat ber-siram ka-alongan : then he 
went and bathed in the tank : Ht. Sh. 


7^» Slang. A generic name for a number of birds 
of prey ; see s. v. lang. 

ii\ glong. A curve, an arc. Pengelong : a hoop ; 
CI cf. lok, teloky gelong, etc. 

alif. The name of the first letter of the alpha- 
bet. Di'tukar-nya alif itu dengan fathah : he 
substituted the letter alif for the vowel point 
fathah; Ht. Abd., 145. Alif-bd-td : the ABC; 
the alphabet. 

v«ji\ alap. I. Slow, quiet, sedate, unassuming in 
manner. Leniah lembnt alap santtmj sweet 
and quiet, modest and unassuming in man- 
ner; Ht. Koris. 

II. Alap-alap: (Kedah) a green bird (species 

III. Mengalap: to pick fruit by cutting the 
stalks with a knife fastened at the end of a 
long pole. 

u-a1^ alpa. [ Skr. alpa : little, mean.] Careless- 
ness, negligence, treating as of little account. 
Jangan-lah alpa kapada barang suwatii : do not 
be negligent in any respect ; do not neglect 
anything : Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Also lepa, 

alperes. [ Port, alferes. ] A petty officer ; 
a constable. A . batn and a. jawa : names of 

alek. Olak-alek : backwards and forwards, 
one way and the other. Chakap olak-alek: 
inconsistent talk ; self-contradictory stories. 
Cf. holak-balek, idang -aling ^ dolak-dalek, etc. 

61ok. The curves or windings in the blades of 
some varieties of the keris ; also lok, q. v. Cf. 
elong, teloky gelong, etc. 

L>juO\ alkari. [Port, lucre.] Seahng-wax; also 
called (Kedah) malau gari ; v. embalau. 

Xj\ aleku. A pimp; a " pinang muda'' ; see Ht. 
^ Kal. Dam., 55 ; Pel. Abd., 81. 

i <!5\ alkonya. [ Port, alcimha. ] A surname. 
r-^\ algoja. [ Port, algoz. ] An executioner. 

:^\ alilintar. • A thunderbolt; also halilintar 
and halintar, q. v. 


4i\ Allah. (Arab. : from -^^j God; with the article 

J\ prefixed: ** the one true God.") The name 
of God ; Allah. Bi'smi'llahi : in the name of 
Allah. Dengan takdir Allah: by the decree of 


alim. The name of a medicinal drug. 

fC .\i\ almari. Port. A wardrobe ; a cupboard ; 
"■^ Ht. Abd., 125, 283. 


,\i\ alfimas. [Arab, a^mis.] Diamond; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 147. 

*^\ alan. Alan-alan: a jester; a buffoon; a 

r}\ alin. Medicinal rubbing; rubbing the body 
with a round stone, egg, or ball of rice over 
the affected part. The theorerical object of 
this medicinal massage in many cases is to 
extract a foreign body (which may be doing 
the injury) by means of the attraction of ^ the 
ball of egg or rice, and in some cases a hair or 
other small object is afterwards picked out of 
the ball of rice and shown to the patient as 
proof positive of the success of the treatment. 


[ 32 ] 



alun. I. Ground-swell ; a long low rolling of 
the sea, as distinct from waves covered with 
foam ( ombak ) or waves immediately after the 
cessation of the wind ( gelombang ) , 

Maka lattt itupun beralun-lah saperti gtmong : 
the sea w^as covered w^ith rolling waves moun- 
tains high; Ht. Par. Put. 

Mengalun : to roll, of the sea. Saperti tnenga- 
lun bunyi rayat : the sound of his army was 
as the roar of the swelling sea ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

II. Ahm-ahm: (Jav.) an open space, in 
front of a Javanese palace, used for parades, 
processions and military exercises; the en- 
closure in which the palace buildings are con- 
tained. The word is confined to tales from 
the Javanese ; Sh. Panj. Sg., Ht. Sh., etc. 
In Borneo ( Brunai ) the word is used of a 




Ahm-ahm : ( Onom. ) the booming of a 

I. Burong alau: a bird (unidentified). 
Driving away ; also halau, q. v. 

alu. I. Mengalu-ngalukan : to come out to 
meet, to actively welcome, in contradistinction 
to the mere passive reception of a guest ; Ht. 
Abd., iig; Ht. Gul. Bak., 119. 

IL A pestle, in pounding rice ; also, in 
pounding areca-nut for the tender gums of an 
old man, the iron chisel-shaped pounder 
which cuts the areca-nut into small pieces 
under repeated blows. . JJhi alu : the handle 
of the areca-nut chisel. Lesong menchari alu : 
the mortar seeks the pestle: a proverbial 
expression used to describe the conduct of 
a woman who makes love to a man, or any 
similar reversal of the usual order of things ; 
also telaga menchari titnba. 

Ikan alu-ahi : the name of a large fish ; Sej . 
MaL, 100, Sh. Ik. Trub., 19, Sh. Pant. ShL, 9. 

\ j\ alwa. [ Arab. \^. ] A sweetmeat ; a gene- 
ric name for fruits preserved in sugar ; see 

alwah. Pers. Calamus root. 

alwat. Arab. Aloes. 

alah. Being w^orsted ; getting the worst of a 
conflict or competition ; being defeated. 
A lah-lah raja Kidahindi itu uleh raja Iskandar : 
King Kidahindi was defeated by King Alex- 
ander ; Sej. MaL, 6. 

Alah bisa uleh biyasa : theory is beaten by 
practice ; Prov. Allah sabong menang sorak : 
beaten in the fight, but beating the victor in 
crowing over it ; Prov. 

Malu alah : unwillingness to seem afraid of 
anyone ; the feeling which prompts an inferior 
to vindicate his independence by unnecessarily 
doing things which are distasteful to his 



Alahan or peralahan : a dried-up river-bed. 

Alahkan, mengalah and mengalahkan : to van- 
quish ; to conquer ; to bring to submission ; 
to overcome the resistance of (anything). 

Beralahan : to be getting the worst of a fight. 
Berpanah'panahan keduwa-nya suwatu pun iiya- 
da beralahan : they kept shooting arrows at 
one another without either side getting the 
worst of the encounter in any respect ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. 

Alah is used of loss in gambling. Jangan 
bagai orang berjudi, alah hendak membalas, 
menang hendak lagi : don't be like the gambler 
who, if he loses, wants his revenge, and, if he 
wins, longs for more ; do not start in any 
evil course in which reformation is difficult ; 
Prov., J.S.A.S., III., 33. But tewas is often 
used in speaking of games, and alah of war ; 
main yang mana kami tewas dan peperangan 
yang mana kita alah : in what game were we 
ever beaten, in what war were we ever 
defeated? Ht. Mar, Mahaw. 

aleh. Change of position, alteration of place; 
moving, shifting. Di-aleh-nya hubongan-nya : 
he altered the connection between them ; Ht. 
Abd., 185. 

Naik bukitj turun bukit, 

Jumpa papan sa-keping, 
Hendak aleh tiyada teraleh : 

we go uphill and downhill and come to a 
plank, but when we want to move it it will not 
be moved ( the tongue) ; riddle. 

Aleh-aleh : suddenly; all of a sudden ;=f^&a- 

Aleh haluwan, or a. luwan : to turn from one 
tack to another. 

Beraleh : to move ; to change position. Bin- 
tang beraleh : a meteor ; Ht. Koris. Beraleh 
hari : the day moved on ; i,e,y it became late. 
Timor beraleh sa-belah barat : when the East 
shifts to the west ; the Greek Calends ; Prov. 

Mengaleh: to shift, to move. M, sila: to 
shift one's sitting position ; to move one's 
seat ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 7. 

eleh. Mengeleh , 
See keleh. 

to observe, to notice ; Kl. 

Ilhdmkan . 

f\jy\ ilham. Arab. Divine inspiration. Ilhd 
» to inspire (of God) ; Sh. Ibl., i. 

^^ ilahumma. Arab. Oh God ! My God ! 

^^\ ilahl. Arab. Divine, Ya ilaht : oh God ! 
oh divine One ! 

4^\ ilahiyyat. Arab. Divinity, divine nature, 

4>\ alai. I. A tree (parkia sumatrana; Pijn.) 
II. Confusion ; better halai^ q. v. 


[ 33 ] 


(3\ ali. Ali-ali: a sling. Batu alt-alt : the stone 
thrown from a sHng: Ht. Mar. Mah., Ht. 
Hamz., 43; also anak ali-ali; C. and S. 
Rajut ali-ali : the socket of a sling. 

The word ali-ali is used of (i) the usual sling 
(as the word is understood in Europe) ; (2) a 
peculiar native weapon partly made of wood ; 
(3) a stone to which a string is attached, the 
string and stone being cast away together. 
This last weapon is also known as ali-ali 

(3^ ila. Arab. To ; up to ; as far as. 

(3\ aliya. Ginger ; better haliya, q. v. 

^U\ Aliyas. Arab. Elijah; Ht. Gul. Bak., 117. 

J\ aleja. A kind of cloth ; also haleja, q. v. 

O^^ alipan. A centipede ; also lipan and halipan, 
q. V. 

^yf^\ alimun. Invisibility ; O. 

f^ um. Generalization, including all ; also awimt, 
q. V. 

V^ umm. Arab. Mother. Ummu'l-bulddn : 
'* mother of the provinces" ; the chief town or 
capital. Ummti'l-kurdn : the '' mother of 
the Koran " ; the name of the first chapter of 
the Koran. 

>\ ama. A very small insect ; a sort of flea. 
^ Ama melayang: a gnat; (Kedah) a symbol 

for the smallest imaginable atom. Also hama. 

Pronounced amma. 

U\ amma. [ Arab. : concerning. J A word used 
by Malays as an Arabic equivalent for ada-pun 
in the expression amma ha'adu for ada-pun 
kemudiyan daripada itti, 

\a\ §ma\ Mother; \.mak, 

<>\a\ imatah. Arab. Killing, slaughter. 

i\J\ imarat. Arab. Command, rule, government. 

\A 6marah. Anger, wrath ; usually niarah, q. v. 


dS\J\ imaiat. Arab. The joining of two letters or 
words in pronunciation, as when hi ismi 
A Haiti is pronounced bismillahi. 

s\J\ imam. Arab. An '' Imam " or president of 
' a Malay mosque ; a religious leader. 

i*l4i imamat. Arab. The position of an Imam ; 
the presidency of a mosque. 



aman. Arab. Security, protection ; Pel. 
Abd., 118 (Government edition). Minta amdn: 
to pray for mercy, to ask for quarter ( of a 
beaten army); Ht. Hamz., 71. Berjalan 
dmgan amdn dan sejahtera : to walk in peace 
and safety; Muj., 29. 

amanat. Arab. Security, safety, protection 
of life and property; Pel. Abd., 122. 

jo-X^} fimbachang. A fruit, the horse-mango, 
C3 ' mangifera fcetida ; also called bachangy mem- 
bachang, and machang. 

jr^^ umbara. Mmgumhava : to wander ; v. kum- 

f. ,\^\ gmbarang or gmbarong. An artificial 
embankment. Also embaru. 

embaru. An artificial embankment ; Ht. 
Abd,, 58. Also embavang and embarong, 

Pokok embaru : a plant ; hibiscus tiliaceus ; 
also called baru-baru and be bar u. 


6mbalau. Lac, ( sometimes ) solder, sealing- 
wax ; the material used for making fast the 
haft of a blade in the handle. Mhnhalau : 
the process of so fixing the haft in the handle. 

Also ( Kedah ) malau. 

Malau gari : ( Kedah ) sealing-wax; v. alkari. 

^\ ambat. 1. To pursue ; better Aam6a^, q. v. 

II. The breadth of a sail as measured by 
the bolt-rope. 

^\ gmbat. A long, swishing stroke; striking 
with a long, flexible switch or any similar 
instrument. Kena embat : to be whipped. 

^\ fembut. I. Mengembut: (Kedah) to swim 
with a peculiar swishing side-stroke ; cf. embat, 

11. Mengembut-embut : the throbbing of the 
fontanel; d. imbok, II. 

umbut. 1. The soft heart of the upper 
portion of a palm tree. This heart is eaten 
as a vegetable; see Ht. Abd., 415; Ht. Si. 
Misk., 6. Mengumbtit : to take out the marrow 
of the palm cabbage ; ( by metaphor ) to get 
at the bottom of anything; M. nyawa : to 
scoop out the life-spirit ; to kill. Chart umbut 
kena buku : to look for the soft heart and come 
across a gnarled knot ; to be taken in; Prov. 

11. Ihan umhut-umbut : an edible salt water 
fish; Sh. Ik. Trub., 10, J.S.A.S., VIIL, log. 


[ 34 ] 


jy\ ambar. I. [Arab. 

y^ : ambergris.] A 

generic name given to a number of viscous 
substances used in the Malay pharmacopoeia. 

A , bunga : a white gutta-like substance 
found in ponds and believed to be emitted 
by fish. A. darah and a, tahi : similar sub- 
stances. The food consumed by the fish is 
believed to be responsible for the varieties in 
these substances. 

A , ikan : a viscous substance found floating 
in the sea and believed to be the product of 
fish which have consumed the sap of the pauh 
junggi. This material is supposed to nave 
strong medicinal properties. 

A , orang : mucus from the mouth of a dead 

11. Insipidity; 
loss of savour. 

tastelessness ; flat ; vapid ; 



ambor. Strewing, scattering; also (better) 
hambor, q. v. 

iJJ^ 6mbgrak. A species of sea-gull. 





ambus. Running away. Ambuskan : to chase 
away. Mengambus : to run away. 

Also hambus, Cf. timbas. 

dmbas. Likeness, close resemblance. 
tupai : like a squirrel. 




3mbus. Blowing, making a current of air. 
Mmbtisan : bellows. Pengembus berdiri : the 
bellows of a large furnace used by copper- 

Better hembus, q. v. 

imbas. The air round or appertaining to 
anything ; circumambient atmosphere ; the 
air round a sick man which he is supposed to 
infect, and within the limits of such infection ; 
the current of air caused by a passing object. 

Kina imbasan hantu : to be infected by a 
passing spirit of disease without being actually 
attacked by the spirit itself. 

umbas. FHght; a hasty or precipitate re- 
treat from any place. Mengumbas : to ** make 
oneself scarce ^* ; to abscond. 

ambang. The cross-beam over a door; the 
lintel ; lying or resting in mid-air or between 
two supports. 

Pintti a, : a light door (consisting of a wooden 
framework with cloth panels) such as is found 
in European houses in the East. If this door 
does not touch the ground it is a pintu a, ; if 
it does, it is called pintu kambi, 

Ambang-ambangan : the soaring of the sun 
just above the horizon ; the moment the 
whole body of the sun comes into view; 
** wishing" at this moment (which is believed 
to be very propitious) ; formulae uttered by 
pawangs to the rising sun. Chinta ambang- 
ambangan : longing wishes ; Sh. Ik. Trub., ii. 






Ambanghan : (of a boat) to moor a boat in 
mid-stream or away from the shore; cf. 

Mengambang : to rest upon its pinions, of a 
bird ; to float in the air above the horizon, 
of the sun or moon. Menentang bagi bulan 
mengambang : to gaze at the moon as it hangs 
suspended in space ; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 2. 

ambong, I. A kind of knapsack; a basket 
held on the back by four strings, one passing 
over the head (tali kepala), one over each 
shoulder (tali bahu) and one attached to the 
bottom of the basket (tali emban), 

II. The lifting of the waves, surging up. 
Mhigambong : to swell or surge up ; to rise 
up in the air, of a heavy body ; to throw itself 
up preparatory to diving, of an alligator ; (by 
metaphor) to boast. 

III. Ambong-ambong : a sea-shore shrub, 
sccBVola koenigi ; Ht. Abd., 203. 

A mbong-ambong laid : a shrub, premna 

Ambong-ambong puteh : a tree, callicarpa 

Ambong bukit : a small herb, ebermaiera 

The pith of the ambong-ambong is used for 
making lamp-wicks and artificial flowers. 

IV. Ambong-ambong : blocks of wood form- 
ing part of the framework of the battery in a 
Malay piratical perahu. These blocks sup- 
port the base of the benteng, q. v. 



( Kedah. ) Kayn perembang : a 
a crossbeam ;=rembat, q. v. Cf. 

Smbong. A familiar appellation (timang- 
timangan) sometimes given to the eldest of a 
Mala}^ family. 

embang and imbang. Embang-embang or 
imbang'imbang : hovering about, haunting, 
'* hanging about " a house, as a thief who 
wishes to study it preparatory to an attempt 
upon it. Di'imbang hantu: to be intermit- 
tently attacked by a spirit of disease, to have 
a spirit of disease hovering about one ; to be 
subject to relapses of a complaint. 

embeng. MBngembeng : to sway the body 
slightly to the side ; also (better) mengebeng ; 
V. ebeng, 

ombong. Boasting. Chakap mcngombong : 
boastful talk ; cf. ambong, II., and sombong, 

umbang. I. Colossal, imposing. Naga u. : 
a dragon figure-head to a ship ; a huge sea- 
dragon ; V. naga. 

II. Mengumbang : ( of a ship ) to lie moored 
between two cables, one attached to the shore, 
the other to an anchored buoy ; cf. ambang. 


[ 35 ] 








ambik. A colloquial form of the word ambil, 
to take. 

6mbak. An idiomatic word expressing the 
number of occasions on which a thing is 
done; case; instance; time. Sa-embak: once. 
Duwa emhak : on two occasions ; in two 
cases ; twice. 

gmbek. I. (Onom.) The bleating of a 
sheep or goat. Mengembek : to bleat. Masok 
ka-dalam handang kambing mengembek masok 
ha-dalam kandang kerbau menguwak : to bleat 
on entering a sheep-fold, to bellow on entering 
a buffalo-pen — to adapt oneself to one's sur- 
roundings ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 77. 
Also bek and debek, 

II. Mengembek: to give slightly— as a floor; 
to bend downwards : Kl. 

6mbok. I. Jav. Mother; a respectful 
designation for aged ladies. Di-sambuf cmbok 
lalu di-riba-nya : his mother picked him up 
and placed him on her lap: Ht. A. R. S. J., 14. 
Kapada segala kakang dan embok : ( literally ) 
to all elder sisters and mothers ; to all ladies, 
whether slightly or much older than oneself; 
Sh. Tab. Mimp., 18. £mbok ayu : ''Fair 
mother," a very respectful way of addressing 
an old lady ; Ht. Sh. 

II. £mbok-embok: the throbbing of the 
fontanel or of a boil when *' ripe. " 

Mengembok : to throb ; also mengembut, 
\ embek. A tent-flap ; a sun-sail on a verandah. 

Ombak. A wave, a billow. Ombak-ombak : 
the name given to the eaves of a Malay 
deck when carved into a wavy pattern and 
extending down over the side of a ship. 

Berombak : to roll in waves ; to surge. Ra- 
yat berombak bagai segara : the troops surged 
on like an ocean ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

O, bersabong : waves which strike each 
other ; choppy seas. 

0. bunga lepang : ** white horses"; waves 
crested with foam. 

Bawa' ombak : the last gasp of a dying man. 
Menguwap bagai orang ombak : gasping like a 
man at the point of death ( a proverbial 
description of a man to whom all movement 
seems a painful exertion ); J. S. A. S., II., 159. 

Mabok 0, : sea-sick; Ht. Ganj. Mara., 23, 

ambal. I. Troop, column, procession. 

Ambalan: a procession. Ambal-ambalan or 
berambal-ambalan : in procession ; Sh. Ch. 
Ber., 3 ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 26. 

Also hambal, q, v. 

II. A thick plain rug used as a mattress ; 
cf. permadani, hamparan, and lembek. 









ambil. I. Taking over; receiving into one's 
possession ; taking and retaining — as distinct 
from merely moving or lifting up. 

A . angin : taking the air ; going for a walk 
for pleasure. 

A . pedoman : to make a course ( for a certain 
point of the compass). 

Mengambil : to take and keep ; to receive and 
harbour ; to take over. Inggeris pun datang- 
lah mengambil negeri Melaka dart tangan 
Holanda : the English came to receive posses- 
sion of Malacca from the hands of the Dutch. 
M. akan menantu : to receive as a son-in-law; 
to marry one's daughter to. M, siput: to 
gather shells. M. di-hati : to take to heart 
(of a grudge); to harbour feelings of resent- 
ment ( against anyone ). 

Salah ambilan : misunderstanding. 
Cf. sambil and sembilan. 

1 1 . Tanah 
drift; J.S. A. 

ambil : 
S., XVI. 

( Perak ) 


ambul. Rebounding, bounding back by the 
force of elasticity. 

Mengambul : to spring back, as the side of an 
india-rubber ball when pressed ; to rebound. 
Maka lembing itu mengambul jatoh ka-tanah : 
the spear bounded back and fell to earth; Sej. 
MaL, 128. Mengambiil-ambul : to keep on 
rebounding ; to keep bubbling ( used of the 
bubbles continuously coming to the surface 
after some object has been immersed in water). 

6mbaL Not quite dry, still damp { of an 
object having been wet and not yet being 
quite dry ) ; cf. lembap. 

imbal. Roundish, but not globular ( as the 
turned leg of a table ). 

VJ\ umbel. Jav. Mucus, phlegm. 

amban. A contrivance to increase the carry- 
ing power of a boat ; bundles of bamboos 
lashed to the side of a boat to increase its 
buoyancy. Also telampong perahu and gandong, 

aixibin. A scarf worn swung over the shoulder 
to support a burden on the back ; carrying 
a child in this manner; Sh. Panj. Sg. Am- 
binan : a sort of light knapsack for carrying 
food. Mengambin : to carry in a scarf swung 
over the back. 

Q\^ ambon. Amboyna. 

^\ Smban. A rope or band enabling a porter to 
secure a heavy burden borne on the back, 
several bands being so used ; cf. ambin, which 
is a simpler contrivance for a light weight 
borne simply slung over the shoulder; 
also ambong. 



[ 36 ] 


Oy^ Smbun. Dew. Embun di-Imjong rumpat : a 
dew-drop at the extremity of a blade of 
grass — a symbol of transience. 

Permata jatoh di-rumput, 

Jatoh di-nmiput gilang ; 
Kaseh empama embun di-htijong nmiput, 

Datang matahari neschaya hilang : 

a gem fallen on the grass, though fallen on the 
grass retains its lustre ; but love is like dew 
on a blade of grass, which dies aw^ay on the 
rising of the sun. 

E. asap : haze. 

iS. betina : slight dewy moisture or damp — 
in contradistinction to dew in large drops. 

E.jantan: dew in large drops — such as the 
dew that collects on the leaves of certain 

Berembiin : to be falling — of dew ; to be 
covered with dew. 

Kering e, : when the dew dries up, i,e,, at 
about 8 a.m., a primitive method of reckoning 

Mestika e.: a tahsman believed to be solidified 
dew; Sh. Sh. AL, 2. 

Embim is sometimes used of vapour generally. 
jBrangkan atas apt sampai embun : dry it o^^er 
the fire till it steams — as a wet cloth; Muj., 
49. Mengembtm : to fall in thin drops, of 

^yij\ Umban. Umban tali : a kind of sling. Also 

y^ ambu. Ambu-ambu : the name of a large 
deep-sea fish. When preserved, this fish is 
known as ikan kembal mas. 

4ia^\ Smbolong. The name of a plant (Ht. Ind. 
^ * Nata.). Also membolong, 

J>A-^\ ambohi. An exclamation of astonishment. 
^=^^ Pegang adohi, buka ambohi : you grasp it with 
a cry of pain, you open it with one of as- 
tonishment ; — a riddle descriptive of a durian, 
the thorns of which make it difficult to hold, 
and the smell of which startles the opener. 

^-^\ Smbuwai. A maid of honour ; a damsel in 
-"^ waiting at a Court. 

4.^\ Smbeh. I. A pet name ( timang-timangan J 
for girls. i 

II. Appearance, looks, features. 

A^\ dmboh. Willingness (in certain expressions \ 
only). Ta'-imboh : unwillingness, an expres- 
sion equivalent to a refusal ; *'no"; ''I won't." 
Hidop segan rnati ta' -emboli : taking no pains 
to live but declining to die; a proverbial 
expression describing a very idle man. \ 

Emboh'imbohan : although ; admitting that \ 
, . yet ; an equivalent of sunggoh-pun. 

\a\ imboh. A small sum or contribution to com- 
plete the amount required ; making up the 
required amount ; adding the balance ; Majm. 
Al-Ahk., 37- 

A^\ omboh. The piston of a Malay bellows, 
especially the lower plate of it. 

^\ ambai. I. A fish-trap Hke a j^m;m/. 

11. Ambai-ambai : a plant ( unidentified). 

^\ umbi. That portion of the root of a tree 
which is buried in the ground ; the buried or 
hidden portion of anything — such as a stake 
or tooth. Terchabut dengan umbi akar-nya : 
torn out, root, fibres and all; Sej. MaL, 57. 
A ku dapai akar umbi behasa Melayu : I got hold 
of the very root of the Malay language ; Ht. 
Abd., 49. 

Umbi buwah suroh ambilkan : order the roots 
and the fruit to be taken ; Sh. Bid., 135. 

Umbi is, however, apparently used of the 
visible root of a tree in one passage of the 
Ht. Koris ; 

Konang-konang terbang sa-kawan, 
Hinggap di-umbi kayu chendana; 

Kenang-kenang untong-mu tuwan, 
Baik'lah pergi ka-mana-mana : 

a swarm of fire-flies flew and perched on the 
root of the sandal-wood tree. 

^\ umbai. Dangling; hanging down loosely. 
-* Papan umbai-umbai : the eaves of a Malay 

deck-house when carved in a wavy pattern ; 

cf. ombak. 

Tali umbai : a rope, one end of which is 
intended to be thrown to people on shore 
when a boat or launch comes up to a jetty. 

Berumbai tangan : to swing the arm. 

Berumbai'Tumbaiyan : (frequentative) hanging 
down loosely ; Sh, Ch. Ber., 5. 

Berumbai-rumbaikan mutiyara : with a hang- 
ing fringe of pearls; Ht. Jaya Lengg. ; Sh. 
Bid., 13; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Berumbai'Tumbai is also used of falling 
tears; Sh. Sing. Terb., 48. 

Cf. jerumbai. 

^^2^ amat. Very ; exceedingly ; surpassingly ; 
exceptional character. Kesukaan yang amat 
sangat : exceptionally great rejoicings ; ex- 
treme pleasure. Tuhan yang amat melihat dan 
amat meningar : God who is all-seeing and 
all-hearing; Ht. Abd., 411. 

Amati, amat-amati and memperamat-amati : 

' to devote extreme attention to anything ; to 

look extremely closely and long at anything. 

Di-peramat-amati-nya perbuwatan balai itu : 
he carefully examined the construction of the 
hall ; Ht, Sg. Samb. 

Teramat : surpassing — an intensitive of amat. 


[ 2.1 ] 


\ gmat. [Pers. ma/.] Mate, checkmate; also 
(better) mat, q. v. 

4>\ ummat. Arab. Multitude, people. 

Banyak'lali ummat berharu-biru : great was 
the uproar made by the crowd ; Sh. Lamp., 5. 

SapMi nabt kasehkan ummat : as the Prophet 
loved the multitude ; as Muhammad loved 
mankind ; a proverbial expression betokening 
passionate affection. 


imtithS.!. Arab. Obedience, servility. 

. \^^ imtihan. Arab. To examine, to test. 

MUai amthal. Arab. Instances, examples, illustra- 
tions ; the plural of j^ , q. v. 


\ amar. 

Arab, Order, command, edict ; de- 
cree, especially a decree of God. Amar dan 
nahi : God's commands and his prohibitions ; 
Ht. Isk. Dz. Wajib mengihitkan amar, wajib 
meninggalkan nahi : it is right to obey the law ; 
it is right to discard the illegal ; Sh. I.M.P., 2. 

Dato' seri amar diraja : a Johor title given 
to the Sultan's secretary ; cf. jadi amar akan 
segala isi tstana : it became a law for all the 
inmates of the palace ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 109. 

\ H»\ amra, 


Hind. A fruit ; the hog-plum, spon- 
dias mangifera, Amra jangan sangka kedun- 
dong : do not mistake a hog-plum for a 
kedundong; do not take the wild hog-plum for 
its cultivated variety ; all is not gold that 
glitters ; Prov. 


^y\ amris. [Arab. ^ : 

to walk with head 

erect ? ] Urat amris : the muscles at the side 
of the neck ; also merih. A lah malm bertimbang 
enggan chungkil amris akan pembayar-nya : he 
will accept defeat in a matter of business (lit., 
weighing), but will not offer his neck to be 
pierced ( in satisfaction of the debt) ; he 
admits a debt but will not pay it ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., III., 21. 

A amis. Fish-scented ; also hamis, 

j«*^\ 6mas. I. Gold, golden; a term of endear- 

E. berbuku: gold in nuggets. A nugget is 
ketul emas dind jongkong emas. 

E, kahwtn : marriage-settlements. 

E, kartcis : gold paper ; gold leaf. 

&, merah : red gold ; a term of endearment ; 
cf. emas tempawan, 

£. mtida : pale gold ; inferior gold ; gold with 
two or three tenths of alloy. 

£. piiteh : platina. 

£. sa-ptdoh mntu : 24-carat gold, pure gold. 

jfi. tempawan: hammered gold, the colour 
of which is a simile for a much admired 
complexion ; a term of endearment meaning 
'' my fair one.'' 

£. tiiwa : deep yellow gold ; gold of superior 
quality ; gold with not more than one-tenth 
of alloy. 

E.ttdi: gold thread. Kain emas ttdi : cloih. 
interwoven with threads of gold. 

E. urai : gold dust. 

Anak e. : a born slave. 

Ayer e. : gilding ; gold paint ; Ht. Zaly., 18. 

Benang e, : gold thread. 

Burong ^. : a bird, pericrocoliis ardem, 

Dawat L : gold paint. 

Galiyan e. : a gold mine. 

Keliyan e. : a gold mine ; also galiyan e, 

Melanda e. and meriyau e, : to wash for gold 
in alluvial deposits. 

Pandai e, : a goldsmith. 

Telerang e. : a gold reef, 

Tukang e. : a goldsmith. Also pandai e. 

Ke-emasan or kemasan : golden. 

Also mas, which is the more common form 
in colloquial language. 

II. A weight ; one-sixteenth of a bongkal or 

III. A Javanese title. 

i^\ amang. I. Tourmaline, wolfram. 

II. Mengamang : to menace ; to threaten. 

>\ju\ umpama, or gmpama. [Skr. npama,] Like- 
• ness, similarity, resemblance ; a similar case ; 

an example or instance. Umpama-nya : for 

instance. Saperti umpama : as for example. 

Sa-umpama tanah yang tiyada berbaja lagi : like 

worn-out soil. 

Umpamaan : a proverb ; a parable ; a meta- 
phorical example or story to. illustrate any 
point ; also perumpamaan. Terkenangkan 
benar4ah umpamaan Melayu : recollecting the 
truth of the Malay proverb . . . . ; Ht. 
Abd., 115. 

Umpamakan : to compare ; to institute a 
comparison. Ku umpamakan dengan sa-pohun 
kayu yang amat rendang di4engah padang : I 
compare him to a very umbrageous tree in 
the midst of an open plain ; Ht. Abd., 295, 

•^\ ampit. Anak ampit: (Kedah) a iish ; better 
known as ikan pSlaga. 

\ amput. (Coarse.) The coupling of animals, 
sexual connection ; also hamput. 


[ 38 ] 


:.Ju\ 6mpat. Four. Hart empat: (Straits Settle- 
ments) the fourth day of the week (commen- 
cing with Monday) ; Thursday. £mpat persagi 
or e, pesegi : square. Bulan empat sa-nama : a 
name given to the four months : jumdduH- 
awwal, jurndduH-akhir^ rabVu'l-awwal and 

Berempat : to make a fourth ; to have three 
companions. Pergi berempat pulang bertiga: 
he went with three companions and returned 
with two ; (or) they were four when they left 
and three when they returned. 

Ki-empat : the four ; the group of four. Ber- 
muwdfakat ke-empat-nya : the four came to an 

Ke-^mpat'empat : all four. 

Yang ke-empat : the fourth. Langit yang 
ke-empat : the fourth heaven. 

JU\ impit. Wedging or squeezing in between ; 
better himptty q. v. 

\ umpat. Abuse, evil-speaking, cursing; also 
tcpat, Di'Unipati uleh marika-itu akandaku 
sebab baik dengan orang puieh : they abused me 
because I was on good terms with Europeans. 

Umpati (Sh. Panj. Sg.), mengumpat (Ht. 
Abd., 183), and mengumpatkan (Sh. Dag., 12): 
to abuse, to revile, to curse. 

\jgu\ fimpSdal. The gizzard ; also pedal and 
Mmpedaly q. v. 

Aji^\ SmpSdu. Gall, bile, the gall-bladder ; Muj., 
'^ 46 ; also hempBdu, q. v. 

AJ\ ampar. (Of carpets, rugs, etc.) Spreading, 
'^ expansion, the act of spreading out ; v, hampar, 

AJ\ ampir. Near, nearly, almost ; v. hampir, 

jj^ emper. Jav. A pent-house, a shed. 

i^\ ampas. Refuse, dregs, trash. A . sagu : sago 
LT' refuse, used by Chinese for feeding pigs, A . 

tebu : megass, crushed cane. Also hampas. 


^\ ampis or 6mpis. 

^ (i) the name gi'' 

A . musang or e, musang : 
given to concurrent rows of 
stakes placed so as to guide a polecat into 
a trap ; (ii) the name of a plant (unidentified). 


\ dmpas. Dashing or flinging down ; better 
Mmpas, q. v. 

j^ ampang. Easy, light ; usually gampang, q. v. 

iti\ ampong. Drifting, driftwood, an equivalent 

CT of apong, q. v, Terampong-ampong Sultan 

Yahyd di-dalam bahar itu : Sultan Yahya was 

drifting about in the sea ; Ht. Best., 13. Cf. 



3mpang. Barring, damming ; constructing 
a barrier to check the flow of a stream ; (rare) 
an alluvial mine. Di-suroh-nya Ampang sungai 
itu : he ordered the river to be dammed ; Ht. 
Abd., 241. Ta'-empang pUuru di'lalang : the 
course of a bullet will not be stopped by 
grass; the wealthy will not be successfully 
resisted by the poor; Prov,, J. S. A. S., I., 

Layar tupang sehaya balekkan, 
Laju-nya tidak dapat di-empang : 

I will back the sprit-sail, the (boat's) speed 
cannot (otherwise) be checked ; Pel. Abd., 114. 

gmping. Crushed rice, a preparation of rice 
plucked, crushed and cooked before it is quite 
ripe. Maka ya-itu-lah yang di-santap uleh ba- 
ginda saperti emping : the things the king ate, 
such as crushed rice ; Ht. Sri Rama. Emping 
dan helapa dan gula : crushed rice, coco-nut 
and sugar; Ht. Abd., in. 

Pengemping, or lesong pengemping : a mortar 
for pounding young rice with a view to 
making imping. Masak peremping : ripe 
enough to make emping : an expression des- 
criptive of a certain stage of ripeness in the 

ompaug. Ompang-ompang : miscellaneous 
articles carried about by a trader and intend- 
ed for use as gifts to rajas and others whom 
it might be important to conciliate. 

fimpap. Onom. Striking or laying a broad 
flat surface on another surface of the same 
character ; the noise made by striking water 
with the flat of a paddle or any other similar 
flat object. 

Mengempap and mengempapkan : to lay a 
flat object on another; to lay one's open 
hand, for instance, on one's breast or on 
a table. 

Sa-pelempapy sa4empap or sa4elempap : the 
breadth of the hand when laid on the table ; 
the breadth of the palm of the hand ; a hand's 

Smpok. A soft spot in fruit ; softness in fruit 

as the result of a slight over-ripeness; the 
softness of a well-boiled potato. 

Batu pun empok jangankan hati manusiya : a 
stone even would be softened, much more then 
the heart of a man ; you know the appeal to 
be irresistible, and only hold out to show 
what you imagine your ** firmness " ; Prov. 

^ma\ ompok. I. Chap ompok : a method of print- 
ing designs on cloth ; cf. telepok. 

n. Sewing a border on a piece of cloth ; 
the border so sewn on. Kain ber ompok 
dengan sikhalat : cloth bordered with scarlet. 

^ju\ timpak. Umpak-umpak : a species of lizard ; 
Kl. ( better sumpah sumpah, q. v. ). 





[ 39 ] 


ampul. Mengampul . 
oneself out. 

to swell out ; to blow 

Smpul. Mengempul: to beat about without 
making any real headway — as a ship in an 
unfavourable wind. 

umpil. Mengumpil: to apply leverage by 
putting the point of a stick under anything 
and then pressing up that point ; to lever up. 

^jJliui SmpSlas. A generic name for a number of 
plants ; see s. v. mempelas, 

Juu\ 6mp61am. [Skr. phalam.] The Indian 
1 mango, mangifera indica ; also mempelam, q. v. 






ampun. Forgiveness ; pardon. Meniinta a, : 
to beg for forgiveness. Ampun tuwanku, 
beribu-rtbu ampun : pardon, my lord, a 
thousand pardons ! — a common exordium to 
a petition to a raja by way of deprecating 
any possible cause of annoyance, 

Ampuni (Sej. Mai., i6o; Sh. Bid., log), 
ampunkan, (Sh. B. A. M., 9), andmengamptmi 
( Ht. Sg. Samb. ) : to forgive. Jika saperti 
Bukit Kdf sakali'pun besar dosa-nya kita ampuni : 
we would forgive his offences were they as 
great as Mount Kaf. 

umpan. Bait, fodder, food to attract animals. 
Di'tabor-nya umpan padi di-dalam jaring itu : 
he scattered padi within the snares to serve as 
bait; Ht. Kal. Dam., 166. Umpan habis,ikan 
ta'-dapat : his bait was eaten and the fish was 
not caught ; he miscalculated, he was " sold,'* — 
a proverb, of which another version is : pelabor 
habisy PHembang ta'-alah, the (besiegers') 
stores were exhausted and Palembang was 
still uncaptured. 

Mati ikan karena umpan : fish perish through 
bait (and men are tempted by women to 
ruin ) ; Prov. e.g. : — 

Kapal belay ar dari A rakan^ 

A mbil gaji jadi jemudi ; 
Mati ikan karena umpan, 

Mati sehaya karma budi : 

fish perish through bait, I perish by her 

[/. pisau : **bait for the knife," cattle for 
slaughter ; a man who must be killed to satisfy 
a vendetta; see Ht. Jah., 5. 

C7. tekak : an appetizer. 
^mpanda. The name of a tree (unidentified). 

ampu. upholding; supporting; sustaining; 
holding up by pressure from below. Men- 
gampu susu : to hold up the breasts. Pen- 
gampu susu : the name given to a kind of 
corset worn by dancing girls. 






The word perempuwan ( a woman ) has been 
derived, according to Von de Wall, from ampu, 
Klinkert, who discards this derivation, gives, 
however, tengku ampuwan ( the title of a raja's 
principal wife ) as a derivative of ampu. Both 
these etymologies seem doubtful. The word 
puwan ( an oval bowl of metal for betel-chew- 
ing requisites) has also been derived from 
ampu, the full form being given as ampuwan ; 
cf. puwan. 

Ampu is also used of a man drinking by 
catching in his mouth water falling from a 
pipe or conduit. 

Smpu. I. A head-dress worn as a symbol of 

II. A Javanese title. 
gmpuru. A bird ( unidentified ) . 

Smpulor. A plant, better known as mem- 
pulor, q. v. 

ampuwan. Tengku ampuwan : the designa- 
tion of a raja's principal wife if of royal birth. 
To' puwan : the principal wife of a Malay 

Smpuwan. An oval tray for carrying betel- 
chewing requisites; usually /ww^n, q. v. 

6mpoyan. A fishing-reel (not used with a 
rod ) ; also lempoyan. 

fempunya. Possession ; also punya. Yang 
empunya: the possessor, Mempunyat : to 

Yang empunya cheritera ini : the author of 
this tale — the usual expression by which a 
Malay writer speaks of himself. 

In the Straits Settlements the word punya is 
often used in forming a genitive, e.g., aku 
punya, my ; diya punya, his. It is also used to 
connect an adjective with the substantive to 
which it refers, e.g., baik punya orang : a 
good man. These forms are literal translations 
of Chinese idioms and are not good Malay. 

§mpoh. Overflowing. Rebus ia'-empoh : boil- 
ing but not spilling, a proverbial expression 
descriptive of a man who can run into danger 
without suffering for it ; going near the fire 
without being singed. 

limpohan : a flood caused by the swelling of 
a river till it overflows its banks. 

ampai. Hanging and waving loosely; sus- 
pended loosely ; a waving motion of the arms 
as when a man is treading water ; extension, 
withdrawal, and extension again ; cf. chapai^ 
apai, sampai, selampai, etc. 

Ampai-ampat: the stinging jellyfish, so called 
because of its long waving feelers. 

Ampaiyan kain: a clothes-hne or clothes-rail. 

Ampaikan: to hang out (clothes or similar 
objects ) ; to lay grass over a batas. 


[ 40 ] 


(Ji-X*) Smpenak. MBngSmpenak ; to bring up a child 

kindly and carefully; to treat a child well. 
Also penak. Kl., Pijn. 


amok. A violent or furious attack ; charging; 

recklessly engaging the enemy; running 
amuck. Biyar4ah patek amok segala raksasa 
itu : let me charge those evil spirits ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. Tiyada tertahan lagi amok Maharaja 
Johan Shah Peri itu: the onslaught of 
Maharaja Johan Shah Peri vi^as no longer 
resistible ; Ht. Ind. Jay., 48. 

Beramok-amokan : charging each other ; 
furiously attacking each other — as two armies. 

Mingamok : to charge ; to attack ; to run 
amuck. Mengamok saperti singa yang tiyada 
membilangkan lawan-nya : to charge like a lion 
which takes no count of its foes ; Cr. Gr., 78. 
Ada bichara orang mengamok di-Kampong 
Gelam : there was a case of a man running 
amuck in Kampong Glam ; Ht, Abd*, 261. 

Laksamana mengamok : the name of a Malay 

dish ; 


\ 6mak. Mother; v. mak. 

imkan. Arab. The bestowal of a fief. 
amil. [ Arab. L\^ . ] Pregnant ; v. J^\s>. . 

iml^\ Arab, Dictation ; to dictate, 

amlas. Arab. Soft. 

amansari. The name of a Malay sweetmeat 
made of kachang hijau and coco-nut. 

imhan. Arab. To humiliate. 

ummi. Arab. Illiterate. 

amir. Arab. Leader; prince; chief; 
commander ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 14, 18 ; Sh. Abd. 
Mk., 24. AmtruH-mumimn : Commander of 
the Faithful — a title given to a Caliph of 

^y\J\ amin. Arab. Amen ! Be it so ! Pada 
salama-lama-nya amin amin : for ever and ever, 
Amen ; Ht. Abd., 16. 

Mengaminkan : to utter or repeat the word 
Amen ; Sh, UL, 34 ; to attest ; Arabian 
Nights, 188. 

Uj\ anbiy&'. Arab. Prophets; the plural of 
nabi, q. V. BBrkat nabt saiyidu'l-anbiyd^- by 
the blessing of the Prophet who is Chief 
among the Prophets ; Sh. Abd. Mk,, 53. Ber- 
kat di4olong segala anbiyd' : by the blessing of 
being helped by all the Prophets ; Sh. Sri 
Bun., 93. 

A ailta. I. Skr. Existence; entity; nature. 
Beranta indera : of Godlike nature ; divine. 
Beranta loka : of an earthly character. 

Anta kesoma : flowery ; the name given to a 
Malay dish, a preparation of ubi keledek, Baju 
anta kesoma : a coat of many colours ; Ht. 
Sh. Kub. 

II. [Skr. bhdrata.] Beranta Yuda : the 
name by which the Bharata Yuddha is known 
to educated Malays. 

III. [Kawi ananta bhoga, from Skr. ] Naga 
anta-boga : the great serpent ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 
See boga. 





onta. Hind. A camel. Gombala onta : a 
camel driver ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 428. Saperti 
onta menyerahkan diri : to yield oneself up as 
a camel (which kneels to let its rider mount); 
implicit obedience; Prov., Sh. Raj. Haji, 
183, J.S.A.S., XL, sS. 

Burong 0, : an ostrich. 

antara. [Skr. antdra.] Space between ; in- 
termediate ; position between ; lapse of time 
between ; interval. Di-dalam antara sadikit 
hart : in the space of a few days. Di-antara 
marika-itu tiga behagiyan orang Islam : three- 
quarters of them (lit. in the interval of them, 
among them ) were Muhammadans. Ingat 
antara belum kena : think before you encounter 
— f.^., look before you leap ; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
III., 21. 

Kaseh sayang yang tiyada berantara lagi : love 
that is not between boundaries ; love that is 
boundless ; Ht. Koris. 

Belantara is sometimes confused by Malays 
with birantara ; see Sh. Bid., 318. (Leyd.) 

Perantaran : the interval between, the space 
between ; Bust. Sal. 

Samantara : while ; from sama and antara ; 
V. sementara. 

untut. Elephantiasis, a swelling of one or 
both of the lower limbs accompanied by ulcer- 
ation at the ankle. Sa-orang tuwa lagi untut 
kcduwa kaki-nya : an old man with both legs 
swollen by elephantiasis; Sej. Mai., 128. 
Harapkan si-untut menggamit kain koyak di- 
upahkan : trust the man who has elephantiasis 
( to do anything ) ; you must pay him even 
to put his fingers through a torn garment ; 
lazy as a sufferer from elephantiasis ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., Ill,, 19. Kaki untut di-pakaikan 
gelang : putting an anklet on a swollen leg ; 
to increase a disfigurement by attracting 
attention to it; J. S. A. S., HL, 32. Lain 
yang bengkak maka yang bernanah lain ; yang 
untut lain yang mengesut lain : the gathering is 
in one place, the oozing of matter from 
another ; the elephantiasis is on one leg and 
the shrivelled flesh on the other; one man 
commits the offence and another is punished 
for it ; Prov., Ht, Koris. 


[ 41 ] 


J^\ antar. I. Sending, transmission ; usually 
hantar, q. v. 

II. Antar-antar : a pestle, a pounder of any 
sort, a ramrod; cL pelantaL 

^U*Jj\ intisab. Arab. Family connection, descent, 

jLiJo\ intishar. Arab. Propaganda, dissemination 
of doctrine. 

il!\ antang. The pestle of a mortar ; Cr. 

^1 anting. Pendent, hanging down and swing- 
^ ing. A biting-anting : ear pendants ; Ht. Hamz., 
11; Ht. Sh. 

Ontang-anting or tmtang-anting : loosely hang- 
ing, pendulous — of many objects of unequal 

Burong anting-anting : a bird with long tail 
feathers ; a sort of small racquet-tailed crow. 

ix;\ Sntang. I. Facing towards ; also tang and 
L tentangy q. v. 

II. Setting down ; to put down ; = letak. 

III. Ta'-entang : carelessness, indifferencie 
to one's surroundings ; shamelessness ; reck- 
lessness in a warrior; an equivalent of ta'-endah. 

k^\ enteng. Light, easy; 
^ Javanese equivalent of r 

Kam. Kech., 8 ; a 

iCi\ ontang and untang. Pendulous, swaying; 
^ v. anting, 

jCj\ unting. A small skein of thread, string or 

^ silk ; a single tassel ; a bunch of padi stalks 

taken from the nursery with a view to 

manuring and transplanting; the unit of 

measurement for string, tape, thread, etc. 

Tali unting'Unting : a string stretched across 
any surface in order to make a straight line ; 
a line such as labourers use in cutting a ditch 
or drain; a string between two pegs — such 
as is used to assist in marking out the lines of 
a tennis-court. 

i;o\ untong. Profit ; advantage ; gain — especially 
cr gain as the result of ordinary foresight and 
not of mere good luck ; the lot awarded to 
men ; fate ; natural destiny. Untong sabut 
timbul, untong batu tenggelam : it is the natural 
destiny of coco-nut husk to float and of stone 
to go to the bottom; J.S.A.S., XL, 35; Ht. 
Raj. Don., 12; Prov. (meaning that it is 

useless to strive against fate). Untong ada 
tuwah tidak : he makes a profit but has no 
lnck---t.e,, he gets only ordinary returns for 
his investments; Prov. Apa buleh buwat, 
sudah untong nasib, dhnikiyan-lah sudah takdir 
Allah melakukan atas hamba-nya : what can we 
do? It is fate and destiny: thus has God 
worked His will upon us, his slaves ; Marsd. 
Gn, 144. 

Bay an Lepas, Telok Jelutong 
Tiga dengan Batu Lanchang ; 

Tarek napas terkenangkan untong 
Untong tidak sa-rupa orang : 

breathe a sigh lamenting your fate; the ways 
of fate are not those of a man ; Prov, 

Mendapat untong : to derive profit ( from a 
commercial transaction) ; to get a return on 
money laid out ; Ht. Abd., 91. 

Keuntongan : fate, destiny, profit ; Sh. B. A. 
M., II. 

;\ antap. Heavy for its size ; closely compres- 
sed ; specific gravity ; compactness. Also 

;\ antup. Jav. The sting of an insect; cf. 

£lj\ intip. Jav. Peering ; spying out ; cf. hintai, 
J^ antak. Tapping the ground with the front 


part of the foot, the heel remaining stationary ; 
cf. geretak, geretam, etc. 

z^\ antok. I. Mengantok : to be sleepy; to be 

drowsy. Mata mengantok: id. Orang 
mengantok di-sorongkan bantal : to push a 
pillow under a drowsy man ; to increase 
inclination in a man already yielding to it ; 
Prov., Ht. Abd., 4. 

IL Collision ; the forcible contact of two 
bodies. Berantok : in collision ; to be in col- 
lision ; to collide or knock against. Adayang 
berantok kepala sama sendiri-nya: some kept 
knocking their heads against each other ; Ht. 
Sh. Kub. Maka berantok-lah lunas kapal ittc 
dengan karang : the keel of the ship struck 
against the reef; Ht. Isk. Dz. 

Saperti pinggan dengan mangkok 
Salah sadikit hendak berantok : 

like a cup and saucer which, on the slightest 
shake, knock against each other; readiness 
to quarrel among near relations; Prov. 
J. S. A. S., XL, 64. 

Gigi berantok : chattering teeth. 

Terantok : having collided- Sudah terantok 
beharu tengadah : to look up after the collision 
(to lock the stable door after the horse has 
been stolen) ; Prov. 


[ 42 ] 





Jk^4«l,i^X> I 




§ntak. Holding and ramming down, as when 

pounding with a heavy mortar ; beating down 
(the earth) with a pounder, as a coolie engaged 
in the construction of a road ; cf. antak, 

Entak anti : unconscious movements ; con- 
vulsive struggles. 

Entak anti lala belaleh, 
Bag at chaching kepanasan^ 
Bagai rmnput di4mgah jalan^ 
Bagai sambau di-pintu kandang : 

convulsive movements, meaningless cries, (the 
life of) a worm that is scalded, the (life of) 
grass in a thoroughfare, the life of sambau 
grass at the gate of a cattle-pen ; Prov. 

The forms hentak-hanti and imtak-anti are 
sometimes heard. 

entek. Mengentek : to winnow rice, giving a 
little side jerk every now and then to separate 
the light from the heavy grains or the chaff 
from the grain ; to shake the bustle in walk- 
ing — of women. 

j;j\ untak. 

Untak-anti : convulsive movement : 

V. entak. 

untok. A share, an allotted share, a dividend, 

a share by actual division ; cf. ageh, and 

antakSsoma. [Skr. ; see anta and kesoma,] 
Flowery ; the name given to a Malay dish 
of tibi keledek. Baju antakesoma : a coat of 
many colours ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Ui\ antil. Untal-antil : swaying loosely ; v. tintal. 

Uj\ antul. Mengantul : to be driven back, to fall 
to the ground after striking against a solid 
surface, as when a stone is hurled against a 

untal. I. Sweeping in with both arms; as 
much as a man can cover in his embrace ; an 

11. Untal-antil: swaying loosely of short 
pendant objects ; cf. untang-anting and kuntal- 

until. I. A small quantity; as much as one 
can roll up between the finger and thumb or 
in the palm of the hand; a small ball or pill. 
Di-ambil-nya tanah liyat sadikit, di-until-until- 
nya : he took a little clay and rolled it up into 
a ball. 

11. Mingimtil: to sway about, of a short 
pendant object : cf, untal and antil, of which 
this word is a variant. 

SntSlas. [Arab. \]^\ .] Kain entelas : satin ; 
Sh. Bid., 26, Ht. Koris, etc. 

Cr^\ antan. 


the pounding-stick be broken, the mortar" will 

be lost ; Prov 









The pestle or pounding-stick of a 
mortar. Antan patah lesong hilang : if 

antun. Attentiveness to clothing; care in 
dressing; coxcombry. Sadikit kerja banyak 
berantun : he devotes little time to work and 
much to dressing. 

intan. A diamond ; a term of endearment as 
being a precious thing. Intan dan berliyan : 
diamonds and brilliants. Bertatahkan intan : 
set with diamonds. 

antui. A tree-name ; drepananthus. 
A . hit am : drepananthus pruniferus, 
A . puteh : drepananthus cauliflorus, 

antah. The husk ; the outer skin of grain ; 
the sheath in which the edible portion of 
grain is enclosed. Beras basah, di-tampi to*- 
berlayang, di-indang ta' -berantah, hujong-nya 
tiyada di-siidu uleh itek : if you winnow wet 
rice the chaff won't fly ; if you sift it, grain 
and husk won't separate ; last of all, even 
ducks will not touch it ; — utterly useless or 
worthless; Prov. J. S. A. S., XL, 133. Lak- 
Sana antah demukut, lapar sangat beharu ber- 
guna : like husk and rice dust, which is only 
useful when one is very hungry ; Prov. 

anteh. Menganteh : to spin, to make thread. 
Rahat menganteh benang : a distaff. 

§ntah. A word expressive of doubt, interro- 
gation or ignorance ; perhaps ; I do not know ; 
how can I tell ? Jawdb-ku : entah-lah, tuwan : 
I replied : I do not know, sir. 

Entah bertemu entahkan tidak : perhaps we 
shall meet, perhaps not ; Ht. Koris. Entah- 
kan kulit, entahkan isi : perhaps the skin, per- 
haps the flesh ; Sh. Ik, Trub., 19. Entahkan 
salah, entahkan kena : whether perhaps we 
miss or whether we hit ; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 8. 

See also tah. 

Snteh. An equivalent for puteh when used as 
3i name ( timang-timangan); more usually teh. 

intiha. Arab. 
581 ; Muj., 7. 

End, termination ; Put. Sh., 
Intiha 'Ukalam : finis. 

anti. Entak-anti or untak-anti : convulsive 
tapping or movement ; v. entak. 

inti. A name given to several Malay culinary 
preparations ; for instance, scraped coco-nut 
mixed with sugar and fried in a pan. /. 
hudang : inti of prawns ; scraped coco-nut and 

Puchok patch berulam pauh, 

Petang petang kachau inti; 
Sayang sehaya berkaseh jauh 
Petang petang hanchor hati : 
a shoot of the pauh with the cooked pauh fruit 
stirred up in the evening to make inti ; alas, 
I love the absent : evening by evening my 
heart is oppressed. 


[ 43 ] 


^\ intai. Peering, peeping ; better hintai, q. v. 

^^^ untai. Hanging down loosely; dangling; cf. 
jxmtai^ runtai, umbai, etc. 

jj-!r^' antero, {Port, enteiw,) Complete; entire — 
used to describe the whole of a district 
administered from any place. A. Kelang : 
the Klang district ( as distinguished from the 
village of Klang). 

cJ^*' Sntimun. A generic name for gourds and 
cucumbers ; see timtm and menttmun. 

ij anja. A nautical term ; the halyards ; the 
C name given to several ropes in the rigging of 
a ship. 

^^ inja. Sawan inja : the name of a disease, also 
C known ( Kedah ) as sawan lenja, 

sjz^^ Snjut. Mengenjtit : to tug as a fish tugs at a 
line ; cf. dennyut and nyut, 

j^ anjar. Arab. An anchor. 
J^ anjir. Pers. The common fig. 






anjor^ or anjur. Menganjor: to project; to 
stretch out. Beting-nya menganjor ka-tengah 
laid : its banks stretched out seawards ; Pel. 
Abd., 13. 

Penganjor : a projection ; the leader of a 
procession ; the officer who bears the sword 
of state before a raja ; the leading man of a 
marching army ; Ht. Isk. Dz. Tanah p, : a 
promontory. Bintang p. : the morning star 
as the forerunner of the day. 

Cf. unjor, tanjong, anj ong dnid (perhaps) ^ora?^. 

unjor. Stretching out, projection. 

Unjorkan : to project. Unjorkan kaki : to 
stretch out the leg. 

Belum dudok belunjor dahtilu : to stretch out 
one's legs before sitting down ; to show undue 
familiarity or impertinence ; Prov. 

Also hunjor; saperti batangpisang berhunjoran; 
like projecting />isa^g' stems; Ht, Sh. Mard. 

anjSrah. ( Kawi. ) Dissemination ; spread ; 
pervading — as an odour pervades the air ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed. 
Also jerah. 

anjang. I. Also panjang, q. v., and jang. 
A familiar name ( timang-timangan ) often 
given to the fourth or fifth child in a family. 

II. Anjang-anjang : the name of an edible 
salt-water fish. Ketam anjang-anjang: the 
name of a crab. 


anjing. A dog; dog, as a term of abuse; in 
proverbs, a dog as a type of an unclean beast. 

Saperti anjing dengan ktiching : like cat and 
dog ; quarrelsome ; Prov. Saperti anjing 
gonggong bangkai : like a dog with a dead 
body in his mouth; snarling and ill-tempered; 
Prov. Anjing tilang bangkai: a dog going 
back to his carcase ; a man returning to his 
filthy habits; Prov. Anjing menyalak bukit 
malm-kah nmtoh : if a dog barks at a hill, will 
the hill crumble ? If a pauper threatens a 
prince will the prince tremble? Prov. Sa- 
puloh jong datangy anjing berchawat ekor juga : 
even if ten ships come, the dogs use no loin 
cloth but their tails; a great event to the 
great may be of no importance to their 
inferiors; Prov. Anjing tiyada chawat ekor: 
the dogs will not trouble to lower their tails ; 
even the dogs will not look at her (an 
uncomplimentary remark about a lady's 
charms); Prov. Pnktil anjing ta' -pandang mata 
tuwan-nya : to hit a dog without watching his 
master's eye; a rash act; Prov. Bangsa 
anjing kalan biyasa makan tahi, ta'-niakan pun 
chiyum ada juga : dogs that eat filth smell of 
filth even when they have not just eaten it ; 

Anjing-anjing : the muscle of the calf of the 
leg. A njing-anjing perahu : small nooses at 
the bottom of a boat's stays ; also the stick 
at the end of the rope opposite the chachi, 

A . ayer : an otter, Intra vulgaris ; better 
berang'berang or memberang, 

A . bertinggong : a peculiar shape of hook so 
called from its straight shaft and the sharp 
angle at its base when it twists up towards 
the barb. 

A. hutan : the wild dog; canis rutilam. 

A . perburuwan : a hunting-dog. 

A. tanah: an insect. 

Anak a, : (i) the lower end of the muscle of 
the calf; the part of the back of the leg 
between the calf and the tendon achillis ; (2) a 

Gigi a, : the canine teeth ; also gigi siyong 
and gigi asu. 

Gombala a. : a dog keeper. Also peran a, 

Kiitti a. : a tick. 

Peran a, : see gombala a, 

Puki a, : a plant ; cynometra catdiflora. 

anjong. A native balcony ; a kind of upper 
chamber projecting from the main apartments 
and used as a sitting and reception room. 
The word is also used of a cabin in a Malay 
vessel. Silakan naik ka-anjong : please step 
upstairs (to the verandah) ; Sh. Abd. Mk. 
The word also occurs : Ht. Gul. Bak,, 147, 
Ht. Koris; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 9; Sh. Si 
Lemb. ; etc. 

ij^ unjang. 

Better runjang^ q. v. 


[ 44 ] 


m^ unjong. L Ceremonial calling; visiting— 
^ used especially of visits of condolence after a 
death. Kita hendak mengtmjongi paduka aya- 
handa itu : we desire to pay a visit of respect 
to your royal father; Ht. Ind. Nata, 69. 
Hendak mingunjong baginda rasul Allah: to 
visit the Prophet of God; Ht. Md. Hanaf., 77. 

11. Sa-penrnjong : a measure of depth; a 
depth such that a man's fingers when held 
high above his head can just reach the surface, 
his feet being on the bottom ; cf. sa-pengunjok 
tangan : as high as a man can reach with his 
fingers. See also runjong. 

Galah penmjong : a long pole for use in deep 

v-J;^^ injap. The spikes (turning inwards) at the 
mouth of a fish-trap {hubu). These spikes 
allow a fish to enter but make it difficult for 
the fish to get out. Also (Kedah) unjap, 

Biilan terang angin pun sedap, 
Bunga kedudok di-dalam bendang ; 

Tuwan sudah terkena injap, 
Bubu dudok, jiwa-kau hilang : 

you, sir, have been caught in a snare; the 
trap remains there and your life will be lost. 

uJ:^^ mijap. V. injap. 

1^ ailjak. Slight alteration in position ; shifting 

(anything) from one place to another close by. 
Fetuwd guru-mtc jangan di-anjak : do not 
depart from the counsels of your teachers ; 
Sh. Jub. Mai., 15. Cf. inchut and anggor. 

^y^ unjok. Pushing forward anything ; handing 

anything ; giving out anything ; cf. anjor and 
unjor, which are used of a long body being 
projected forward (as when a man stretches 
out an arm or leg), while tmjok is used of any 
object being picked up and held out — as when 
a man takes a coin from his pocket and holds 
it out. 

Unjokkan and mengunjokkan : to lift up ; to 
hold out; to thrust out. Ku unjokkan sahi 
rupiyah ka-tangan-nya : I thrust a rupee into his 
hand. Sa-orang ptm tiyada berani mengunjok- 
kan tangan kapada-nya : not a soul dared raise 
a hand against him. 

Also pronounced (Kedah) enjuk ; cf. tunjok 
and telunjok. See also unjong, II. 

^^' Snjak. Mengenjak : to tread down ; cf. jijak 
and pijak, Pingenjak : the sole of a shoe. 

\^^ anjal. Menganjal : to spring back to its for- 
^■^ mer shape — of an elastic or flexible material 
when tension is suddenly removed. 

W.^ dnjal. The act of sitting back suddenly ; 

*^' coming down violently on one's seat ; forced 

down on one's chair — as a restless child is 

made to sit down by an angry mother. Also 





injil. I. A hair pin, a hair ornament. Di- 
buboh-nya injil-injil intan di-karang : she placed 
(in her hair) ornaments set with diamonds ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed. 

II, [Arab. anjtL] The Gospels; the New 

Testament ; v. J^^ 

■^ SnjSlai. A plant, coix lachryma jobi ; also 
jilai, q. V. 




unjam. Thrusting anything perpendicularly 
into the earth : thrusting or forcing down 
anything with a rush and not by mere pres- 
sure. Maka Maharaja Antaboga pun meng- 
unjamkan ekor-nya ka-tengah padang itu : the 
Maharaja Antaboga (the great Serpent) drove 
his tail into the plain ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Also hunjam, henjam and hunyam. 

a steam engine ; 

(J^ enjin. Eng. Engine; 
machinery generally. 

^y^ unjun. I. A short sharp tug ; a sudden pull 
at anything. 

II. Mengunjun: to keep slowly lifting and 
lowering a live bait (in fishing with a rod) 
in order to attract and deceive the fish. Cf. 

J^ enjSnir. Eng. An engineer — usually of a 
mechanical or civil engineer, but applied in 
the Hikayat Abdullah to the Royal Engineer 
Officer in charge of the Public Works Depart- 

A:^ injeh. An expression used as a pronoun of 
the second person in respectfully addressing 
one's elders ; Kl. 




anjU or illjlL (Arab, anjil.) The Gospel. 
Kitdb injil: the New Testament. Injil Lukas: 
the Gospel according to St. Luke ; Ht, Abd., 
137, 164, 188. 

anjiman. Eng. An East Indiaman ; a large 
transport or trading vessel belonging to the 
East India Company. Also angjiman, 

Kapal anjiman dan Eropah 
Lalu singgah ka-Surabaya; 

Jangan abang sangat bersutnpah, 
Bukan-nya sehaya tidak perchaya : 

an Indiaman from Europe sailed on and 
touched at Surabaya ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 4. 


C-c^ finchut. ^nchang-enchut : awry ; see enchang. 

inchit. Departure; exit; to quit; to clear 
out — generally used as a somewhat rude 
imperative to an intruder or enemy. Orang 
muda inchit'inchit takut kena semu : young man, 
depart, depart ; beware lest you be deceived ; 
Ht. Ahm. Md., 64. Suroh raja kamu itu inchit 
dari n^geri ini : order that king of yours to 
quit this country; Ht. Ind. Meng. Also 


[ 45 ] 







inchut. A slight change of position— as when 
a book is turned over and twisted round while 
still generally retaining its place relative to 
surrounding objects; a change of attitude 
rather than of situation ; a slight movement — 
as when a number of people on a bench 
make room for another; a readjustment or 
rearrangement rather than a complete 
redistribution of places. 

Inchang 'inchut : awry. V, enchmig, III. 

unchat. Lifting and lowering. 

Mengunchat-unchat : to raise and lower a 
dead bait in fishing with a rod, cf. tmjun ; to 
raise and lower a nipah leaf so as to frighten 
fish and drive them in a certain direction ; 
cf. oja, 

unchit. Unchang-unchit : by fits and starts; 
driblets; instalments; small quantities at a 
time; at intervals, 

Bayar u, : payment by instalments. 

anchar. Jav. The upas or poison tree of 
Java ; antiaris toxicaria. 

encher. Watery ; containing a large propor- 
tion of liquid — used of viscous substances. 
Cf. chayev and lecher. 


ji-" inchar. A drill bore. 

anchong. A glazed earthenware pot or jar 
with an overlapping cover. 

Snchang. I. Mengmchang: to weld or 
fasten tightly together ; to hammer together. 
Cf. kenchang. 

Also henchang. 

II. Snchang-enchang : continuous jumping 
up and down — an expression applied espe- 
cially to a punishment for naughty children 
who are made to hold the right ear with the 
left hand and the left ear with the right hand 
and then jump up and down till permitted to 

Also henchang and enchal, 

III. £nchang-enchok and enchang-enchut : 
crooked; awry; C. and S. ; = inchang-inchui. 

inchang. Imhang-inchnt . 
and enchang III. 

awry ; 



imchang. L A kind of money-bag or 
travelling-bag for valuables; a purse rather 
larger than a kekandi; a case for the spurs of 
a fighting-cock. 

IL Unchang-unchit: by instalments ; by fits 
and starts ; by driblets ; see unchit. 




anchak. A basket for offerings to evil spirits. 
It is generally a shallow, loosely-plaited 
basket, and is either hung from a tree (anchak 
bingkas) if the offerings are intended for wood 
demons, or buried in the ground (anchak 
lunas ) if the hantu tanah are to be conciliated. 
C. and S. give anchak pelunus, which may be 
an equivalent of the second term given above. 
The word anchak is Dayak for basket ; but the 
practice of making these offerings is in force 
among the Siamese of the north of the Malay 
Peninsula, and both the forms a, bingkas and 
a. lunas have Siamese equivalents. The offer- 
ings are of the nature of food. 

Buwangkan anchak perjamu hantu^ 

Serba jinis makanan-nya itu : 
give away an anchak to propitiate the spirits ; 
let all sorts of food be included in it ; ( from 
a Pantun). 

anchok. The pairing of animals. The word 

is also used (coarsely) of sexual connection 
generally ; cf. ayoL 

Snchek. An honorific appellation for men of 
respectable birth ; see i^^^* . 

anchal. To pretend ; C. and S. 

SnchaL I. jUmhal-enchal : jumping a 
naughty child up and down by pulling his ears ; 
also enchang-enchang and henchaUhenchal ; 
v. enchang , II, 

II. ( Selangor. ) ^nchal-enchal : of little 
account or importance ; an equivalent of alang 

inchil or encheL Hair ornaments; KL, Ht. 
Sh. ; also injily q. v. 

anchu. I. A large navigable raft of bamboo ; 
also lanchor, q. v. 

II. The crossbeams to which the loose 
strips of nibong forming a Malay flooring are 

unchui. [Chin, hun-chhui.] A tobacco pipe. 

anchai. I. Letting go; loosening the hold. 
A nchai-anchaikan : to let go. 

II. Broken, shivered to pieces ; irreparably 
smashed; KL, Pijn. 

finche'. A word used as a respectful mode of 
address for Malays of good birth but not 
entitled to any distinctive title. It is also 
used as a honorific before the names of such 
persons. The form che' is more commonly 
used in this latter sense. Birbehasa dengan 
orang, enche' dengan enche\ tuwan dengan 
tuwan: he observed the rules of politeness, 
addressing as inche' those who had a claim to 
be so addressed and as tuwan those who had 
a right to the title; Ht. Abd., 86. 


[ 46 ] 



inchi. Eng. An inch ; Ht. Ahm. Md., 70. 

anakhoda. [ Pers. U^-l; .] a captain of a 

Persian or Arab trading ship; more usually 
nakhoda, q. v. 

anda. Skr. The musk glands or receptacles 
of musk in the civet cat ; musk. A, miisang : 
id. ; but the word is also applied to a rough 
coop for keeping civet cats ; cf. sangkar mii- 
sang, which is a rather more elaborate coop. 

Anda seturi : a sweetmeat ; an equivalent of 
anda kestnri. 

JcA onda. Mother ; a variant of bonda, q. 




Sndala. A tree (unidentified). Ada berdiri 
di'bawah endala biiwah-nya sedang inerekah : he 
was standing below an endala tree, the fruit 
of which was bursting with ripeness; Ht. 
Perb. Jay. 

andar. [Arab, j^ .] Matt andar : (Riau, 

Johor) death without outward and visible 
cause ; death by murder when the murderers 
are never found or brought to justice ; also 
(Selangor) matt modar, 

J"^^ andor. A buffalo sleigh ; also anor. 

j-^»5 indar. Movement round ; better idar, q. v. 




undor. Motion backwards ; retreat ; with- 
drawal. UndoT'lah aku : I withdrew. 

Undor kan and mengundorkan : to cause to 
recede or retire ; to force to withdraw ; to send 
away ; to dismiss. 

Mengtmdor and mtmdor (Sh. Panj. Sg.) : to 
withdraw ; to retreat. Bertmdor : id. 

Kain puteh koyak di-tengah 

Pakaiyan anak dato' Penghuhi; 

Kalau berkaseh jadi fitnah, 

Baik'lah sehaya bertmdor dahulu : 

if to love is to incur betrayal, it were well 
that I withdraw in time. 

indfira. I. [Skr. indra.] The name of a 
great Indian divinity ; Indra ; the god of the 
clouds and rain — whence the name of a class 
of inferior divinities, inhabitants of Indra's 
heaven ; a royal title ; lordship ; royal. Be- 
tar a Indera : the god Indra. Dewa mambang 
indira chendera : dewas, mambangs, indras 
and chandras — classes of inferior divinities; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 24. The name indera chendera 
is also applied to pages about a Malay palace. 
Saperti Ranjtma indera keyangan : like Arjuna, 
a lord of heaven ; Ht. Sh. SapMi Betara 
Mahabisnu indera keyangan : like the Batara, 
the great Vishnu, king of heaven; Ht. Sh. 
Tuwan puteri p^rmaisuri indera : the queen ; 
Ht. Ism. Yat., 25. Mahkota indera : the royal 
crown ; the crown of sovereignty — a figure of 






speech for the king ; Sh. Put. Ak., 33 ; Sh, A. 
R. S. J., 8. Jempana indera: a royal litter; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. Kapitan Portugal indera : the 
royal commissioner administering government 
over the Portuguese ; Ht. Koris. 

/. bayu : a strong wind ; a gale. 

/. bongsu : the title of a minister next in rank 
to the temenggong ; Kl. 

/. girt: the name of an important Malay 
state in Sumatra (East coast). 

/. laksana : the name of a shrub. 

/. piira : the name of a town on the West 
coast of Sumatra. 

Keinderaan (Cr. Gr., 33 ; Ht. Sg, Samb.) and 
keyangan i, (Bint. Tim., 16 Jan,, 1895) : the 
heaven of Indra. 

Mengindera : royal; Sh. A. R. S. J., 9. 

Pidau i, : a name for Riau ; Sh. Nasih., 18. 

Seri indera pur a : a name for Siak. 

II. Pancha indera: the five senses — sight, 
smell, touch, hearing and taste ; see the Ht. 
Ism. Yat., 160, et. seq. 

III. Keindera and keinderaan: a steed; a 
.mount. Common corrupted forms of the 
words kendara and kendaraan, respectively. 

Mengindera'i : to ride ; = mengendarai, v. 

3j-^^ anddrak or andSrik. A pitfall for catching 
elephants; Ht. Raj, Pas. 

j^-^1 andas. A block with a flat surface, used to 




increase the effect of a blow. Cf. landas, 

6ndas. Jav. The head. Mengendas : to 
dash (somebody's) head against a stone. Cf. 

andaseturi. [Skr, v. aitda and kesturi,] The 
name of a sweet made by enfolding in pastry 
the scraped pulp of a coco-nut mixed with 
sugar and fried in a pan. Also called (Kedah) 

andang. I. A kind of torch of dry leaves. 

IL A spot; a birth-mark; C. and S. 

III. Andang-andang : the yards of a ship 
or boat. Menghinggap di-atas andang-andang 
kapal : to perch upon the yards of a ship, — 
of a bird ; Pel. Abd., 126. 

andoixg. The draccena of gardens, cordyline 
terminalis. A . hijau and a, merah : varieties of 
this flower. 

p Ju\ Sndong. Commiseration ; consolation — used 

^ only of soothing children. 

PJJi endong. The cocoon of a silk-worm; C.andS. 

^ [indong ? ] 


[ 47 ] 







indaxig. A sidelong shake or jerk in win- 
nowing padi or in working with a small pestle 
and mortar, the objectof this jerk (in conjunc- 
tion with the winnowing motion ) being to 
separate light and heavy particles or grains. 

indong. Mother; Ht, Hg. Tuw., 15. The 
word is somewhat rare in this literal sense, 
but is common in the figurative expression : 
indong mutiyara : mother-of-pearl ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 100 ; cf. also endong. 

inding. Watching anything ; keeping an eye 
on anything, as an inquisitive child. 

9'JJ\ undang. I. Undang-imdang : laws, ordi- 
^ nances ; written or codified as distinct from 

customary law ; Ht. Abd., 86. 

n. Undang-undang : the window (tingkap) 
of the sleeping chamber. 

v-3-XA 6ndap. I. Crouching — especially for spy- 
ing ; the attitude of a man who watches others 
while keeping his body concealed by crouching 
down ; lurking. Mengendap : to spy, to lurk. 
Terlihat uleh isteri-nya kaki suwami-nya men- 
gendap diya itn : the wife noticed her husband's 
feet as he crouched watching her ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 224. Terendap-endap dan mengmtai- 
ngintai : crouching and peeping; Ht. Gh, 

II. Endap-endap : a hantti jadi-jadtyan, (v. 
jadi) i,e,, a spirit, man or animal, into which 
some other being has been supernaturally 

: Jj\ andak. I. A name often given to one of the 
younger children (fourth or fifth) in a family ; 
an equivalent of pandak, short. 

Mengandakkan layar : to reef a sail. 

II. Andak-andak , 
kadang; Kl. 

sometimes ; = kadang- 

; Jj\ andok. Support by means of a sling ; better 
andoh, q. v. 

j3^^ Sndak. Wish, will; usually hendak, q. v. 

ix\ gndok. A pet name or familiar appellation 
applied by the mistress of a house to children 
and dependents other than paid servants; 
also (Kedah) indok, q. v. 

;jj\ indek. Leverage by pressure with the foot; 
usually hindek, q. v. 

jjAA indok. Mother, cf. indong, I. kerbau : a 

milch-buffalo; Pel. Abd., 6g. /. kunyet, a 
variant of ibu ktmyet, a medicinal drug. 

Perindo^an or perindnn : all one mother's 
children ; family ; a brood ; a hatch ; cf. endok. 

3"^*^ undak. Mmgundak : not to make headway, 

as a ship trying to beat against a contrary 
wind. Pengimdak : obstructive ; laut pengim- 
dak : a choppy sea with contrary winds. 

:Jo\ undok. I. Undok-undok: the "sea horse"; 
a kind of fish. 

II. Undok-andal : in swift succession — of 

\jj\ andal. I. Undok-andal: in swift succession 
^ — of work. 

n. Trusty, reliable; v. handal, 

\jj\ andul. (Kawi.) A flowering creeper; Kl. 

j)-XJ\ gndal. 1. Crushing in, stuffing in ; an equi- 
valent of asak, q. v. 

1 1 . Mengendal : to walk with head and 
shoulders back and breast and stomach 



endel. A peculiar gesture in dancing ; a sweep 
of the right arm suggesting that something 
is being thrown away. Membuwang endel : to 
give this sweep of the arm. 

Also hendel. Cf. limbai, lambai and tari. 

§ndul. A sling support ; a hammock, a cradle 
swung from the roof; a sling for an injured 
arm. Kain endul tangan : a sling (in the last 
sense). Di-gantong atas endul-nya ya^m buwai- 
nya : to be hung on the hammock, that is to 
say, the swinging-cradle; Muj., 78. lya pun 
imdor-lah berselindong di-balek endul : he with- 
drew and hid himself behind the cradle ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. 

Naik endul jangan di-ayun, 
Takut putus tali pengubong ; 

Lembu dogol jangan di-balun, 

Kalau di-tandok jatoh terjerongkong : 

when you get into the hammock do not swing 
it for fear its fastenings break ; when a bullock 
is hornless do not whip it ; should it butt you, 
you will be flung on your back. 

\ Ju\ undil. A money-box ; also pBH niati. 
Jjj\ gndSlas. A harmless snake (unidentified). 


[ 48 ] 


andaxn. Pers, Dressing the hair above the 
forehead; shaving the edge of the hair or 
beard so as to make it follow a regular curve 
or line. The word is especially applied to the 
peculiar arrangement of the bride's hair over 
her forehead. Bagai anak dara mabok andam : • 
like a maiden overcome by the dressing of her 
hair; a proverbial expression which may be 
interpreted as a maiden suffused in blushes, 
or, in an uncomplimentary sense, as a maiden 
too eager to be married. Ambil penyukor yang 
tajam andam janggut saudagar itii : take a sharp 
razor and dress the beard of that merchant ; 
Ht, Mar. Mah. Dahi-nya rata bagai berandam : 
her eyebrows were as regular as if their edges 
had been shaved ; Sh. Jur. Bud., 17. 

Berandam sural : shaved (along the edge) and 
dressed (of the toilet of a bride or bridegroom). 
Simggoh-pun iya beristeri banyak belmn pivnah 
berandam surai iya beristerikan adinda baginda 
permaisuri indera itu beharu-lah iya hendak 
berandam surai karena siidah sampai saperti 
k^hendak-nya : although he has been often 
married his hair has never been dressed 
as that of a bridegroom, but now that he is 
marrying Her Majesty the principal queen he 
wishes his hair formally dressed, since he has 
attained the fulfilment of his wishes ; Ht. 

mJo\ andom. The name 
Panch., 35. 

of a bird ; also f^ , 

% Jj\ andan. Albino w^hite ; see balar and sabtm, 

,jjj\ andon. Jav. Mengandon perang : to go to 
war ; better mengadu perang, v. adti, 

jjJui undan. I. Burong imdan: a large white 
bird, pelecanus malaccensis ; Sh. A. R. S. J., 
14; Sh. B. A. M., 10, 12. 

II. Berundan : to protract anything, to 
linger long over anything. Berundan dalam 
ayer : to be long in the water, as a boy who 
remains in the water for pleasure after he has 
been in long enough for cleanliness. 

Berundan is also used of things forming a 
long chain or being drawn one after the other, 
as a procession of lighters in tow of a steam 
tug ; cf. tunda. 

III. Undan-undan : a sort of projecting post 
against which a coppersmith presses a brazen 
pot when working at it. 

aX\ indu. Hindoo, Indian. 
A\aJJ\ andawali. A plant, cissus capillosa. 
jVaJj\ andoman. V. hanoman and doman. 

oJj\ andoh. Support by means of a sling; sus- 
pension or restraint by a cord passing under 
or behind the object to be guarded. A, 
Mrbau : the cords fastening a buffalo to a 
heavy block of wood so as to prevent its 
running away. Andohan sekochi: the ropes 
suspending a boat from the davits. 

Tali andoh : the ropes securing a gun-carriage. 

Andohkan kajang : to support a kajang roof 
or awning by passing a string under its ridge 
in lieu of a ridge-pole. 

Andoh is sometimes used (Riau, Johor) of 
carrying in a sarong slung over the back so 
as to form a sort of sling or support. 

oJj\ endah. Beauty; worth; fairness; attractive- 
ness ; importance. Pakaiyan yang endah 
endah : beautiful clothes. Endah khabar dart 
rupa : its description is fairer than its appear- 
ance ; things do not come up to expectations ; 
Prov., Ht. Abd., 114, 432. 

Kalau tuwan pergi ka-Kedah 
Singgah mandi dalam pay a ; 

Berapa kuwat berapa gagah 
Apa endah kapada sehaya : 

whatever his strength, whatever his valour, 
of what importance are they to me ? 

Endahkan, mengendah and mengendahkan : to 
consider ( anything ) important ; to attach 
importance to ; to care about. Tiyada juga 
adinda itu endahkan diya melainkan tuwanku 
juga di-mata-mata-nya : the princess, your love, 
cares nought for him (her husband); it is 
Your Highness who is ever before her eyes ; 
Ht. Sg, Samb. Sakaliyan itu tiyada ku endah- 
kan : I paid no attention to any of those 
things ; Ht. Abd., 146. 

45Jj\ andai. I. Andai-ny a : possibly 



ondeh. Ondeh-ondeh: a 

sweetmeat ; see s. v. 

II. A ndai-andai : a plant ; grewia oblongifolia, 

III. (Nautical.) The hook to which the 
sheet is attached. 

IV. Friend ; better handai, q. v. 

onde. Jav. Onde-onde or ondeh-ondeh ; a 
sweetmeat; sweetened lumps of dough (tepong 
pulut ) rolled in coco-nut scrapings. 

Onde-oftde, buwah melaka^ 
Luwar tepong, dalam gula : 

the onde-onde and the buwah melaka (names 
of sweets) are dough outside and sugar 
within (from a Pantun). 

Uildi. Lot. Jikalau undi iya membunoh orang : 
if it fell to his lot to kill a man ; Ht. Abd., 

Bunga u, : lot, die to determine chances. 

Buwah u. : die, dice. 


[ 49 ] 



AJ\ andeka or andika. Descent, hereditary 
dignity. Sa-andika: of similar birth, of equal 
rank. Kena andika Dato' Penglmlu : to incur 
the divine vengeance attendant on any out- 
rage to hereditary rank. Cf. di-timpa daidat ; 
datdat used of rajas only, and andika of orang 

Andika is also used as a mere title, its special 
significance being lost, and as a form of 
address to the nobly born. A . maharaja : the 
title of the head of a sukti or tribe in Malacca ; 
Ht. Abd., 399. Singa raja andika: the lion, 
the noble king ; Sh. Sg. Kanch., 7. Mana 
Utah andika penera patek junjong : what our 
lord tells us, we will carry out ; what you 
command, we, your servants, obey ; Ht. 
Perb. Jaya. 

\ anor. A buffalo sleigh ; a light framework 
(without wheels) drawn by a buffalo and used 
for conveying grain over the padi fields. Also 

«i\ anang. A vocative form of the word ancik, 
^ q. V, ; my child. 


i^\ insang. The gills of a fish ; also ingsang 
CI isang^ q. v. 


/^UMi\ msan. Arab. Man ; mortal man, when 
spoken of in contradistinction to a jin or peri 
or other being of a less perishable order. Hai 
insdn : Oh, mortal ! ( used by a raksasa to a 
man); Ht. Sh. Mard. Hanya-lah insdn elok 
di-mata : only a mortal man is pleasing in her 
(a fairy's) eyes; Ht. Gul. Bak., 75. Hai 
raksasa f bnkakan pinttt ; insdn hendak lain : Oh, 
spirit of evil, open thou the gate, a man 
wishes to enter, (from an incantation). 
Beharu-lah insdn menjadi jatihar : then first is 
man formed in the embryo; Sh. I.M.P., 3. 

juj\ insani. Arab. Human, relating to man. 
- ^Ilmti insdni : the doctrine regarding genera- 

tion ; embryology; Sh. I.M.P., 15. 

j^\ ansor. Progress by short stages ; better 
angsor^ q. v. 

YJ\ ensel. [ Dutch : hengsel. ] A hinge ; also 
^ engseL 

\jj\ insha. Arab. InshdHlah: if God wills; God i 
willing; please God; Ht. Abd., 146. I 

^uai\ ansar. [Arab. ; plural of ^^wzi. J Helpers; 
the Prophet's principal friends and disciples. 

^Ua>\ insaf. Arab. Justice, equity, sympathy. 

* Adil insaf: justice and equity. Insdf4ah 
hati'ku sebab melihatkan Ml demikiyan iUi : my 
heart bled to see such a state of things; Ht. 
Abd., 90. 

Insdfkan : to meditate ; to think upon ; Ht. 
Abd., 96; Sh. Sing. Terb., 4. 

j6\ aning. Aning-aning: a large kind of wasp, 
^ green, very venomous and bigger than a 
hornet. Cf. naning, which is not identical. 


\ni\ in*§jn. Arab. Favour, benefit. 

^\ fining. Clearness, limpidity ; more commonly 
^ hening, q. v. 

^\ enong. I. A title ; a low grade of princely 
^ rank ; usually nong, q. v. 

H. A variant of anang : '' my child." 
(j*^^ anfas. Arab. Valuable, precious. 

^\ anak. Offspring ; issue ; a child ; the young 
— of an animal ; the natives — of a place ; the 
relationship of a component part to the whole, 
or of an accessory to the principal object. 

Kechil'kechil anak harimau : though small, 
yet the cub of a tiger ; though young, he will 
grow into something great; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
n., 149. Kechek anak Melaka ; buwal anak 
Menangkahau; tipii anak Rembau ; bida^ah anak 
Terengganu ; sombong anak Pahang : wheedlers 
are the men of Malacca, exaggerators those of 
Menangkabau ; cheats those of Rembau ; liars 
those of Trengganu ; arrogant those of 
Pahang; Prov., J.S.A.S., XXIV., 115. 

A nak kunchi jahat, peti dcrhaka : if the key is 
bad, the box turns traitor ; if the husband is 
bad the wife is unfaithful ; Prov., C. and S. 
Tatang di-anak lidah : to support on the 
uvula ; a practical impossibility, Prov. Say- 
ang anak badak tampong chuchu knnnn badak 
raya : it is unfortunate that the child should 
be a tapir, and tlie grandchild a royal rhino- 
ceros ; a proverbial expression reflecting on 
any one's paternity. 

A . kuda bidu kasap : literally, a colt with a 
rough coat, but really an equivalent for the 
expression : modal laba semnwa resap : capital, 
profits, all is lost. 

A. anakan : a puppet ; an image. 

A, angkat : a child by adoption. 

A , anjing : ( i ) a puppy ; ( 2 ) the lower part 
of the muscle of the calf. 

A , ayam : ( i ) a musical instrument ; ( 2 ) 
a chicken. 

A . ayer : a brook ; a rivulet. 

A. banderek : ( Jav. ) a bastard. 

A . bini : family ; wife and family. 

A . buwah : the people under the charge of a 
Malay chief when spoken of in relation to him ; 
also children in general. 

A, buwangan : a foundling; a child aban- 
doned by his parents ; a term of reproach ; 
Sh. Panj. Sg. 

A, chuchu: descendants. 

A . dagang : a foreigner. 

A . dara : a maiden. 


[ 50 ] 

A.dayong: a rower; an oarsman. 

A. galoh : ( Jav. ) a princess. 

A.gampang: an illegitimate child of doubt- 
ful paternity. 

A . gara or a, gehara : a legitimate child ; 
Sej. MaL, 69, Ht. Ind. Meng. 

A . genta : the clapper of a bell. 

A . gobek : a betel-nut pounder. 

A, gugor : a miscarriage ; the issue of a mis- 

A . gtda : syrup. 

A . gundek : a son by a secondary wife. 

A, haram : an illegitimate child. | 

A . inang : a foster-child ; Cr. 

A . jari : a finger. 

A , keliyan : miners paying a royalty or tax 
on their profits to the mine-owner and not in 
his direct employ. 

A. kembar : twins; a twin. 

A, keti : a kind of ball used in Malay games ; 
Ht. Raj. Kh., 18. 

A . kunchi : a key. 

A,lidah: the uvula; Muj., 86, Ht. Ind. 
Jaya, Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 14. A. lidah tim- 
bangan : the tongue of a balance. Cf. a, tekak. 

A . mas : a child born in slavery ; a slave by 

A . mata : the image reflected in the pupil of 
the eye. 

A . meja : a drawer in a table ; also lachi. 

A. murid : a pupil; Ht. Abd., ig. 

A, negeri : a native, a countryman — in con- 
tradistinction to a foreigner (a, dagang), 

A.orang: other people's children — in con- 
tradistinction to one's own ; a girl other than 
a relation. 

Pura ptira menchari ayani^ 
Ekor mata-nya di-anak orang : 

he pretends to be looking for fowls, but the 
corner of his eye is on the girls. 

A . panah : an arrow. 

A.perahti: a sailor; Ht. Si Misk., 55. 

A . pinak : descendants, family. 

A . pimgut : a foundling. 

A, raja : a prince. 

A , rambut : the hair over the forehead ; the 
fringe ; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Sh. Bid., 20. See also 
infra ; rambut a. kundai, 

A . roda : a spoke of a wheel. 

A.sulong: the first-born. 

A . sumbang : a child of incest. 

A, stingai : a small tributary stream. 

A , tangga : the step of a ladder or stair. 

A . tekak : the uvula. 

A , telinga : the external gristly part of the 

A. terona: an unmarried youth. V. terona. 

A , tiri : a step-child. 


A . tunggal : an only child. 
Membtiwang a, : to procure abortion. 
Pagar a, : the palissading leading up to a 
keddah or elephant corral. 

Rambut a. kundai : a fringe of short hair over 
the forehead. 

Beranak : to be possessed of a child ; to bear 
a child. Upah beranak (also ti^pah bidan) : the 
midwife's fee for a confinement. 

Beranak berbini di-Melaka : to settle at 
Malacca ; to marry and found a family there. 

Beranakkan : = beranak akan, 

Memperanakkan : to beget. Lain orang yang 
memperanakkan maka lain orang di-panggil bapa : 
one man begets him, another is called his 

Penganak : a sort of drum. 

Peranakkan : native-born. Peranakkan 

Pahang : native of Pahang. Peranak : id. ; 
Sh. Dag., 14. 

J ami peranakkan : Malay by place of birth (as 
distinct from Malays by race) — the name by 
which Indian Muhammadans born in the 
Straits speak of themselves ; v. also jawi pekan. 

Pinak, piyanak, and nianakan (Sh. Pang. Sg.) : 

Cf. anangj anakda, anakanda, ananda, kanak, 
sanak, tiyan and pontiyanak, 

Jii\ anakda. A respectful form of the word anak, 

q. V. ; one who is well born ; a noble child ; 
Cr. Gr., 32. 

Also anakanda and ananda. 

fu\ anakanda. A respectful (and sometimes 
endearing) form of the word anak, q. v., one 
who is well born, a noble child. 

Anakanda tuwan puteri : your Highness's 
daughter, the princess. Cf. anakda, adinda, 
ayahanda, kakanda, etc. 

inkiyad. Arab. Subjection, allegiance. 

inkar. Arab. Denial, to deny ; Panch., 29 ; 
Sh. Nasih., 14. 

inkar and inMr. [ Arab, ^^\ . ] Denial ; v. 

J^\^ Also^\. 

anugSraha, and anugSrah. [ Skr. anu- 
grahd, ] Favour ; kindness — applied to a gift 
made by a raja to a subject, or by a superior 
to an inferior, or to the mercies of God. 
Dengan anugeraha Allah: by the mercy of 

A nugerahakan or menugerahakan : to bestow 
a gift on (anyone); Ht. Abd., 373, 465, Sej. 
MaL, 9, 10, Ht. Ind. Nata, Ht. Ism. Yat., etc. 

Also nugirahd. 
\A final. [ Dutch : knah ] A wad. Also naL 


[ 51 ] 






Ht. Koris. 

[ Kawi ? ] A flag or ensign ; 

Anam. Annam, the Annamite country; Ht. 
Abd., 226. 

Snam. Six. Ke-enam : all six. Yang ke- 
enam : the sixth. Berenam : with five others ; 
making six in all. 

Bintang tujoh tinggal enam : of the seven 
stars but six remain. 

6nom. Jav. Young, youthful; a compli- 
mentary epithet in romances and poetry. 
Bagus enom : handsome and young ; Ht. Sh. 
£nom hijangga : young and unmarried ; Ht. 
Koris. Di'iringkan anak niunUri yang enom- 
enom sama sa-baya : followed by sons of high 
officers of state, all young and similar in 
build ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

c>' anun. (Kedah.) So-and-so; v. ami, 

•Axil ananda. A respectful and endearing form of 
the word anak, son ; a variant of anakanday q. v. 

J\ anu. Such-and-such ; so-and-so ; certain, in 
the expression: a** certain" person. Si-ami 
di-kampong ami: so-and-so, of such-and-such 
a village ; Ht. Abd., 157. 

In formulae where the name of the person 
has to be filled in by the person using the 
formula anu or si-anu is used where we should 
leave a blank space; tiyada buleh si-anu ini 
sir berahi pada laki-laki yang lain : nor shall it 
be possible for [so-and-so] to fall in love 
with any other man — ( from a do^d pengaseh or 
love charm). 

In Penang and Kedah, anun, denu, and deni 
are used with the meaning '* so-and-so," 

J\ enau. A palm, arenga saccharifera. Also nau. 

A anai. Anai-anai: the white ant; termes. 

- Busut jtiga di4imbun anai-anai : a hillock even 
can be heaped up by white ants — persever- 
ance can effect great things; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
III., 25. 

A ani. A technical term used in weaving ; the 

- arrangement of threads upon which the 
pattern depends. Anak a., belera a. and tapak 
a. : the pegs, the lath, and the blocks, 
respectively, used in the arrangement of the 
pattern. Mengani : to arrange the pattern. 

j\j\ aniyaya. [ Skr. anydya, ] Oppression ; 
* * tyranny ; injustice ; cruelty from the strong 
to the weak. Kena aniyaya : to be wronged. 

Aniyayakan, menganiyaya, menganiyayai and 
menganiyayakan : to injure ; to oppress. 

l\ Snibong. The nibong palm ; see nibong. 

aneka, [ Skr. aneka, ] Kinds, species. Ber- 
bagai aneka : of various kinds. Serba aneka : 
of all sorts; — often pronounced serba neka. 
The form anega also occurs. 




inikan. A contraction or variant of ini akan ; 
V. ini and akan. 

anega. [ Skr. aneka. ] Kinds, species, Ht. 
Best., 67 ; see s. v. aneka. 

finnyak. Stamping dow^n with the feet; 

pounding down. Also hennyak and rennyak, 
q. V. 

finnyah. Moving off; quitting; rapid depar- 
ture; *'beoff!" '^go!" Also nyah. 

an. An exclamation. 

jr av/a. I. Ava, the capital of Burma. 

II. Pinang awa : betel- nut prepared by 
having the top sliced off and tne rest split 
into four portions and dried in the sun ; v. 


y uwa. A form of tuwa sometimes occurring in 
titles and terms of relationship. Pa* wa : an 


,\ uba. A sago vat. 


ubat. A drug, a medicine, a chemical com- 
pound ; a magical potion, philtre or mixture 
of drugs. C7. chaching : a remedy for intestinal 
worms. U. sakit kepala: a remedy for head- 
ache; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 12. 

U. bedil: gunpowder. U. basah: wet gun- 
powder, Hes that won't go off ; a story that 
will not go down ; Prov. U. guna : a love 
potion ; a philtre. 

Tukang u. : a vendor of magical simples ; a 

Ubat-nbatan: drugs generally; all kinds of 

Ubati: to apply medicine; to bring a remedy, 
to treat. 

Jika lambat tuwan ubati, 
Tentu-lah adinda fand dan mati : 

if you are slow about bringing the remedy, 
then surely I, your love, will fade away and 
perish; Ht. Gul. Bak., 76. 

Mengubat: to treat; Ht. Abd., 303. Mengu- 
bati: id. ; Ht. Abd., 157, 211, 296; Ht., Jay. 
Lengg. ; Sh. May., 2; Sh. Dag., 12. 

Pengubat: a cure, a remedy. 

Nobat berbunyi dinihari 

A kan penguin Maharaja peri ; 

Sharbat di-minum bukan-nya khiyalt 
Sa-hingga pengubat hati berahi: 

the royal drums beat at break of day to 
soothe the slumbers of the prince of the fairies ; 
the wine that you drink is not intoxicating 
and will go far to cure the love sorrows of 
your heart: Ht. P. J. P. [but a nearly similar 
Pantun taken from the Ht. Isma Yatim is 
given by Crawfurd] . 


[ 52 ] 



i\ obor. 

Jav. A torch. 


j^y ubar. Becoming loose spontaneously — as j 

when a roll of cloth slightly opens out on the • 

retaining pressure being removed ; looseness, j 

laxity in coils or folds. I 

Benibar haii : to open one's heart ; to speak i 

from the heart ; Arabian Nights, 330, i 

j'.y ubor. A descriptive epithet given to objects 
with a hanging fringe round the edge. Ubor- 
ubor : a large jelly-fish with a domed head and 
a short fringe (of feelers ? ) round the side of 
this dome-shaped head, Bajti iibor : a Malay 
baju or jacket with a sort of collar or neck- 
piece hanging over it from the neck aperture ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. Payong ubor-ubor : a state 
umbrella with a short hanging fringe of tas- 
sels all round it ; Ht. Sh. Kub., Ht. Gh., Ht. 
Bakht., 14. 

Burong tiyongy bulu bertabor, 

Hinggap di jtintat kemiming berdahan ; 

Ttiwan hnpama pciyong ubor-tibor 
Bertimbai-nnnbai iram kekimingan : 

you, sir, are like a state umbrella, (gorgeous) 
with its fringe of yellow tassels. 

jOy Ubang. Mengubang: to cut a rough curved 
^ groove in a log at a point where another log is 
to lie across it, the cutting being intended to 
allow the two logs to be fitted together. If 
the cutting is angular, it is called takok ; cf. 
also kukti bajang, 

jOa\ ubong. Union, conjunction ; more usually 
^ htibongy q. v. 

\jA obel. Meat stewed so long that the liquid 
^^"^ is lost by evaporation. 

*^ft\ uban» Grey — of the hair of the head; the 
*^ loss of colour in the hair through age. Ram- 
but-nya sudah puteh uleh uban: his hair was 
white with years; Ht. Si Misk., 84. U, tahi 
harimau : the colour of the hair when there 
is a large preponderance of either white or 
black. Menahankan u, : to prevent the hair 
turning grey ; Muj., 50. Pipit u, or chiyak u.: 
the white-headed munia, amadina maja, 

Beruban : grey ; old and grey — applied to a 
man. Dari muda sampai beruban : from youth 
to grey hairs; from youth to age; Ht. Ind. 
Nata. Sampai beruban, serta bong k ok : till one 
is grey and bent with years; Sh. Ungg. 
Bers., 4. 

,\ Ubin. I. Batu ti, : a floor-tile ; also (in the 
Straits ) hard granitic stone used in metalling 
roads. Cf. jubin and rubin. 

II. A screw-driver, Kl. 

jVj\ ubun. Ubun-ubim : the crown of the head ; 
the fontanel. Datang4ah membawa ayer ma- 
war dan narawastu ka-pada ubun-ubun Indera 
Lana keduwa laki isteri : they came bringing 
rosewater and spikenard to anoint the heads 
of Indra Lana and his queen ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 
Ada snwatn ^aldmat ka-pada ubun-ubun-nya 
saperti kandtl yang terpasang : there was a mark 
on the crown of his head resembling a lighted 
torch ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

^,jr ubah. Change by alteration rather than by 
substitution; modification; cf. iukar. Tiya- 
da-lah di-ubah-ubah lagi uleh tuwan F., akan ^ddat 
dan undang-undang : Mr. F. made no further 
alterations in the Common or in the Statute 

Berubah : (intransitive) to change; to alter. 

Tiyada berubah warena-nya : its colour did not 
alter. Hati berubah : change of feeling. 

Keubahan and perubahan : change; alteration. 

Mengubah and mengubahkan : ( transitive ) to 
change ; to alter. 

Lpty ubi. A generic name for yams and tuberous 

U. benggala : the common potato, solanum 

U. karu : tapioca, manihot utilissima. 

U, keladi : v. keladi, 

U. keledek : v. keledek. 

U. nasi : the commonest yam, dioscorea 

U. pasir : dioscorea pentaphylla, 

'A kal u, : a potato-like intelligence ; an 
intelligence which developes unremarked ; 
feelings that grow profounder with years. 
Ada ubi ada batas : where yams are grown, 
banks will be made ; a metaphorical equivalent 
for ada hari btdeh balaSy a day will come when 
you can pay him out. 

"^y awat. ( Kedah, Penang and P. W. ) A com- 
mon colloquial interrogative ; why, wherefore, 

^^^ uwet. 


The use of a paddle as a lever to bring 
a boat's head round ; to turn a boat by press- 
ing the blade of the paddle outwards ; cf. 
kabir. Uwet is also used of a shield being used 
to push aside a blow. 

[ Hind. ? ] False, lying. 

\Zjy auta. 

J^y Otar or utar. Otar-otar or utar-utar : a round 
buckler of wood or of wickerwork covered with 
buffalo-hide. It differs from a perisai in that 
it is hung with bells. It is often mentioned 
in literature ; Ht. Mar. Mah., Ht. Isk. Dz., 
Ht. Si Misk., 12, etc. 


[ 53 ] 




Utas. I. A coil ; a skein ; a measure for 
string, thread, netting, etc. ; a numerical 
coefficient in speaking of quantities of thread ; 
a single thread. Di-buka-nya sa-utas manek- 
manek daripada leher-nya : he removed a string 
of corals from his neck ; Ht. Gh. 

II. Skilled labour; craftsmanship; a crafts- 
man. Segala pandai dan tiias : all the smiths 
and craftsmen ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 78. Utasperigi : 
a well-digger; Ht. Best., 80. Di-rapat tileh 
segala utas -utas saperti rapatan perahu : it was 
put together by the artificers as a vessel is 
built ; Ht. Isk. DzuL Hikdyat utas menengar 
kata isteri-nya : the story of the craftsman who 
listened to the words of his wife ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 222. 

Lihat-lah uleh padtika adinda pandai -utas orang 
Jawa ; ada-kah di-Singapura titas yang pandai 
demikiyan ini : behold, my royal brother, the 
skill and craftsmanship of the men of Java ; 
is there at Singapore any such skill as this ? 
Sej. Mai., 52. 

Utasan : labour; craftsmen generally; Ht. 
Best., 16, 81. 

Utus. The sending of an embassy. Utusan : 
an embassy ; an envoy. Mengutns : to send 
an embassy ; to send on an embassy. Raja 

China mengutus ka-Pelembajig saptdoh 

biiwah pilau : the Emperor of China sent ten 
ships on an embassy to Palembang ; Sej, Mai., 

Utang. Debt; usually hutang, q. v. 

Otak. Brains; the brain — considered anato- 
mically and not as the seat of intelligence. 
Terpanchor otak-nya : his brains were dashed 
out ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 422. 

O. ttdang : the marrow. 

Otak'Otak: the name of a Malay dish; fish 
and vegetables cooked in nipah-leaf. 

^S Otek, An edible salt-water fish, arius sp. | 


^31 Utan. Forest, jungle ; usually ImtaUy q. v. j 

^y Uteh. Also puteh and teh. A familiar name I 

(timang'timangan) given to younger members i 

of a family, I 

Ma'-uteh : an aunt (other than one's eldest or } 

youngest aunt) ]=zma'-ngah. I 

7;'a\ oja. Mengoja : to excite cocks to attack each I 

^ other ; to set a cock on another. Mengajak \ 

oja : id. ; Ht. Raj. Don., 62. | 

;:^.\ ujat. A variant of (Arab.) ^gr , q. v. 



ujud. [Arab, j^^ ] Person ; individuaHty ; 

substance ; one's self or one's body ; the trunk 
of one's body — in contradistinction to the 
limbs. Ujud anggota : trunk and limbs ; one's 
whole body; Ht. Gul. Bak., 45, 50. Ujud 
pada tuwan sa-orang : my body {i.e., myself) 
is yours alone ; I am yours alone ; Marsd. Gr., 

ujar. Utterance; speech; saying. Maka 
ujar-nya : he (or they) said; Ht. Kal, Dam., 
15, Maka ujar orang kapal itu kami pergi 
dengan sabeda rasiiliCUah : the men in the ship 
answered: ''We go in accordance with the 
Prophet's words" ; Sej. Mai., 66. 

UJOHg. Point, extremity ; usually hujongf q. v. 

ujul. A lofty jungle climber, willoughbeia 

ujail. Rain ; usually hujan, q. v. 

ujah. Repeated questioning, enquiry, cross- 

uji. Test examination. Bawa-lah kita uji : 
come, let us test it. Batu n. : a touchstone; 
Ht. Abd., 4. 

Btinga mempelas di-tapi perigi, 

Mart di-pungut Data' Penghtdu ; 
Jangan chakap keras sa-kali, 
Kalau ta'-ujiy buleh-kah tahu : 
do not be over strong in your language: if 
you have not tested it, how can you tell ? 

u-A?*-^^ uchap. Utterance; speech — used especially 
of prayers, thanks, or utterances of grief or 
joy, and not of ordinary conversational speech. 
Menguchap: to utter; Ht. Abd., 217, 281. 






OChok. Mischief-making; the exciting of 
enmity by tale-bearing; teasing or exciting 
by words. 

Tarck dayong biyav perlahaUy 

Takut piitus tali tajok ; 
Orang ber'akal segan berlawan, 
Jangan-lah achum, jangan-lah ochok : 
when you row, do it slowly, for fear that the 
thole-strap may give way ; men who are wise 
are slow to excite enmity; never tease by 
gesture, never tease by words. 

\p^tS UChul. Jav. Loose ; let loose ; liberated- 

^<}\ uda. A familiar name (timang4imangan) given 
to the fourth or iifth child in a family ;z=muda. 
The form da also occurs. 


}\^J^ udara. [Skr. adhara.] The atmosphere; v. ^j^^ 

CJ:>i^ udut. Mengudut : to smoke tobacco or chandn ; 
^ =zisap. 


[ 54 ] 


P^y udang. A generic name for lobsters, prawns 
^ and shrimps ; v. hudang. 

u3 Jul udap. ( Daik.) Udap-udapan : ingredients of 
all sorts that go to make up a salad ; a kind of 
salad of miscellaneous fruits and vegetables ; 
zurojak (when made up only). 

I 5*^a\ udip. The name of a fish; a small parang- 










udek. (Rare.) The upper w^aters of a river. 

Mudek : to make one's way up-stream ; to go 
up-stream. Cf. udi, kemudi, kemtidiyan, uri, 
btirit, etc. 

udam. Dulled ; faded (of colouring) ; dimmed 
(in brilliancy). Akan chehaya pelita ptm tidam- 
lah karena sinar mtika PiiUra J ay a Pati : the 
brilliancy of the lamps was dimmed by the 
glow on the face of the Prince Jaya Pati ; Ht. 
P. J. P. Also (Kedah) hudam, Cf. mtiram. 

Udoh. Foul ; ugly ; hideous ; objectionable ; 
obscene ; a name sometimes given to a child 
to avert ill-luck. 

Anak berok di-kayu rendang, 
Tiwun niandi di-dalam paya ; 

Udoh burok di-mata orang, 

Chantek manis di-mata sehaya : 

ugly and worn, in the eyes of others, she is 
fair and gentle in my eyes. 

Also (Kedah) hudoh, 

udi. Jav. Hind, posterior, subsequent ; cf. 
miidekj udek, kemudi, kemudiyan, uri, hiirit, etc. 

udai. Orang udai or orang hudai : the name 
of an aboriginal tribe in the Malay Peninsula. 

awar. A pestilence ; an epidemic ; a murrain. 
Also (Kedah) hawar. 

aur. A generic name given to a number of 
bamboos ; a bamboo. Bagai aur di4arek song- 
sang : like pulling bamboos the wrong way 
(against the branches); want of tact and 
management ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 57. Pada 
tetekala rebong tiyada di-patah, kutika sndah 
menjadi aur apa guna-nya : if you do not break 
it while it is a shoot, of what use will it be 
for food when it is a grown bamboo ; education 
must be begun young; Prov., Ht. Abd., 477, 
J. S. A. S., XL, 69. 

A, gading : bambusa vulgaris. 

Rumput a. 

a common weed, commelina 

j*\ Ora. Jav. No; not. 

uwar. Uwar-uwar : public announcement ; 
proclaiming **from the house-tops " — used of 
informal announcements such as those of men 
who stand in the middle of a frequented place 
and shout out their wishes or grievances for 
the information of the public. Also war-war. 







ura. Benira-ura : to discuss a proposal ; to 
talk over a plan ; to consider the arguments 
for and against any action before any decision 
is arrived at. Ura-ura akan bertunang : the 
discussions relating to a betrothal; Sh. UL, 8. 
Sa4elah sudah berura-ura : when the discussion 
was over; Sh. Abd. Mk., 87. Jangan kamu 
berura-ura akan mendatangi diya : do not 
discuss the question of attacking him ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz, 

urat. L A nerve; a vein ; a sinew; a root- 
fibre ; a measure for thread and string ; Ht. 
Abd., 103, 382. MaWikai yang memegang urat 
burnt, Asrdftl nama-nya: the angel who guards 
the sinews of the earth is named Asrafll ; Ht. 
Muhd. Hanaf., 46. 

U. amris, or u, mereh, or u, meris : the 
muscles of the neck ; v. amris. 

U. bedennyut, u. berdennyut^ and u. nadi : the 

U, belikat: the dorsal muscles. U, belikat 
panjang : a man with long dorsal muscles ; a 
man who is fond of being on his back ; a 

U. gatal : a medicinal drug (unidentified). 

t/. tanah : a large worm ; typhlops, 

(7. tutup bumi : a plant, better known as daun 
tutup bumi. 

Salah u. : a strained sinew ; Pel. Abd., 92. 

Sireh temu urat : a drug or simple ( un- 
identified ). 

n. [ Arab. 5*^ • ] The pudendum mulie- 
bre ; Ht. -Zaly., 21. 
Gila urat : lasciviously inclined ; also gatal. 

vJ->j>^\ urit. Mata-urit : ( Penang ) sleepiness. Also 

( Kedah) mata urip ; cf. urip and arip. 

urut. Massage ; rubbing the hands over a 
sinew or limb ; rubbing the chest and breast. 
Ekor anjing beberapa pun di-urut akandiya 
tiyada juga betul : you may rub a dog's tail 
as much as you like, but you won't make it 
straight ; Prov., Ht. Kal. Dam., 77. 

Mengurut or ( frequentative ) mengurut- 
ngurut : to rub with the hands ; to massage 
— either medicinally as one rubs a lotion on 
the body ( Muj., 87 ), or to give a pleasurable 
sensation ( Ht. Koris., Ht. Mas. Ed., Ht. 
Ind. Meng., Sh. Lail. Mejn., 20), or to give 
suppleness to a warrior's limbs ( Ht. Hg. 
Tuah., 71 ). 

Janggut di'Urut : a forked beard ; a sign of 
courage affected by Malay warriors who can 
succeed in growing a beard. 

Urut is also used of removing the grains of 
padi by pulling the stalk through the hands. 

The form hurut is common. 

urus. L 

and urut. 

( Kedah. ) Rubbing ; = gosok, in 
but more refined in use. Cf. urap 

H. Jav. Urus-urus : a purgative. 


[ 55 ] 


9^y orang. A human being ; a man or woman ; 
people generally, especially in the sense of 
other people; a numerical coefficient for 
human beings. 0, Melayu: a Malay. O. 
China ; a Chinaman. Kata o. : people say ; 
it is said. 

0. banyak : the multitude ; the people. 

0. besar : the notables of a place. 

O.hutan: a wild tribesman ; ajungle-dw^eller. 

0. liyar : id. — with special reference to the 
wild aboriginal tribes of Pahang. 

0. kaya : (i) a rich man ; (2) a title borne by 
certain Malay chiefs ; v. kaya. 

,'Orangan mata : the pupil of the eye; Sh. 
Lail. Mejn., 33. 

O. tuwa : an old man ; the headmen of a 
Malay village; the head of a family; the 
parents. Orang tuwa bnjang dan orang tuwa 
gadis: the parents of the bridegroom and 
bride ; ( Laws of Palembang. ) 

Anak 0. : other people's children, especially 
their daughters. Apa kehendak perbuwat-lah, 
anak orang ku ambil juga : do what you will, 
I will carry off the girl just the same: Sh. 
Pant. Shi., 12. 

Jalan-jalan sa-panjang jalan, 

Singgah nienyinggah di-pagar orang ; 

Pura-puj^a menchari ay am, 

Ekor mata-nya di-anak orang : 

travelling, travelling the length of the road, 
stopping and stopping at every man's com- 
pound, he pretends to be looking for a fowl, 
but he keeps the corner of his eye on the girls. 

Negeri 0. : foreign countries — in contradis- 
tinction to one's own land. Hujan mas perak 
di-negeri orang, hujan keris lembeng di-negeri 
sendiri : it rains silver and gold abroad, it 
rains daggers and spears at home: better 
poverty at home than wealth in exile ; Prov. 

Sa-orang : one (person). Sa-orang anak 
raja : a prince. Dengan sa-orang diri : by 
oneself; alone. Sa-orang demi sa-orang : one 
( person ) after another. Sa-orangan ( Ht. 
Mar. Mah. ), or sa-orang-orangan ( Sh. UL, 
36), (often pronounced sorangan and sorang- 
orangan ) loneliness ; solitude ; solitary. 

Kesa'orangan : loneliness ; Ht. Best., g. 

& .^\ orong, I. A little bag of coco-nut leaves 

w-^ used in cooking rice, Kl. ; cf. ketupat, 

11. Crowding; also urong and hurong, q. v. 

c .^\ urang. Daun urang-aring : a medicinal plant 

vj/"^ (unidentified). 

o ^\ uring. The little projection or curve at the 

C/^ centre of the upper lip. 

9'jy urong. Crowding ; also hurong, q. v. 




urap. The rubbing of medicine or cosmetics 
against the body — as distinct from mere 
smearing or anointing, Urapan : cosmetics 
intended to be so used. Berurap-iirap ( Ht. 
Ind. Nata.), berurapan (Sh. Put. Ak., 15), 
and berurap-urapan ( Ht. Sh.; Ht. Perb. Jay.; 
Ht. Mas. Ed.; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 9) ; perfumed; 

urip. L Jav. Alive, living; Sh. Bid., 6. 
H . Sleepy ; Ht. Perb. Jay. Cf. arip, and arit. 






nrup. Mhigurup : to change money. 
untp-nrup : a money-changer's shop. 


orak. Unloosing : unwinding ; undoing. 
Mengorak : to unfasten a knot ; to unloose ; to 
disentangle ; to unfold ; to unwind coils — as a 
snake ; to roll away from the vicinity of any- 
thing — as a restless sleeper ; (by metaphor) to 
gradually withdraw from a contract or busi- 
ness ; to '* wriggle out of an agreement." 
Saperti sav^a mengorak lengkar : as the python 
unwinds its coils (i. c, very slowly) — a pro- 
verbial metaphor for idleness or sluggishness. 
Segan mengorak lengkar : extreme sluggishness. 
Cf. rongkal and urai, 

oro. Oro-oro : a peculiar kind of a rattle ; a 
number of perforated objects strung on a 
stick so as to rattle when the stick is shaken, 

urai. Loosing; unwinding; opening; disen- 
tangling ; clearing up what was previously 
obscure or involved. Mas urai : gold dust ; 
particles of gold separated from the substance 
in which they w^ere imbedded. Jala urai : the 
name of a Malay dish. 

Uraikan and menguraikan : to undo ; to 
unfasten ; to unloose ; to explain. Mari-lah 
uraikan ikat tangan-ku ini : come and unfasten 
these manacles; Ht. Kal. Dam.f 57, Aku 
uraikan hertinya : I (will) explain its meaning, 
Menguraikan dirham : to get out money 
fastened up in a belt ; Ht. Muhd, Hanaf., y2. 
Menguraikan kehendak kitdb itu : to explain the 
meaning of the book; Ht, Hamz., 3. 

Mengurai: (intransitive) to open out; to un- 
fold — in poetical expressions like padi meng- 
urai, the opening grain (a pattern for a 
bracelet), Ht. Sh. ; or mayang mengurai: the 
bud unfolding itself, a simile for beautiful 
hair; Ht. Sg. Samb., Ht. Jay. Lengg., Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 122. 

Terurai and ferurai-urai : undone, dishevelled 
— of hair; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

mi. L The afterbirth; the umbiHcal cord; 
(etymologically) that which comes after or 
behind ; cf. udi^ burit, etc. 
Uriyan : a brazier's mould after use. 

H. Swift rotation — especially the rotation 
of a top. Tarek uri : a contest between two 
or more persons, the winner being the person 
whose top rotates the longest. 


[ 56 ] 


t^y aus. L Worn out by friction ; reduction by 
wear and tear — used, for instance, of a knife 
worn down by continual grinding. Maka mata 
tombak itu-ptm habis aus saperti chungkil gigi : 
the head of the spear was worn away till it 
was like a toothpick ; Ht. Hamz., 58, Also 

II. Mengam : to refine (metals); Cr. ; v. 
d. W. 

III. Thirst; 


q. V. 


i^y awas. I. Sharp sight; keen sight — used 
especially of the sight of a medium put under 
mesmeric influence by a Malay sorcerer in 
order to discover the whereabouts of stolen 
goods or of the thief. 

Mengawasi : to look sharply and carefully at 
anything; Ht. Zaly., 29. 

Cf. lawaSy awah and lawah. 

II. (Kedah.) Culinary mixing ; the making 
of a sort of olla podrida or hotch-potch of 
many ingredients ; the preparation of a fresh 
dish by cooking up the fragments left over 
at previous meals. 

\ USat. A salt-water (ish ( unidentified ). 

Ular tedong u. : a snake, simotes octolineatus. 


USir. Pursuit; following up; coming up to 
the attack. Di-usir-nya hantu ttu lalu di- 
tangkap-nya : he pursued the evil spirit and 
captured it; Sej. Mai., 56. 

Bernsiran and berusir-tisiran : pressing on to 
the fight ; pushing on the contest. 

Mengusir : to press on ; to pursue ; to rush 
on to contest after contest. 

^^*\ ^USOr. Movement alongside of anything, 
^ * pressing past ; better stisory q. v. 

ji^i^ usang. Withered ; dried up ; shrivelled up 
C-^ internally — as grain which has been kept too 
long. The word is used of articles of which 
the outer husk or covering remains and the 
inner portion, though existent, is worthless ; 
cf. kosong, Rumah usang ; an abandoned 
house, the contents of which are in ruins, as 
distinct from a house which is merely empty. 

- \ USOng. Carrying between two or more by 
C^ the use of a pole, as a litter is carried. 

Shamsu' d-din di-usong kombali : Shamsuddin 

was carried back in a litter; Sh. Abd. Mk., 66. 

Usongan : a litter ; Ht. Sg. Samb., Ht. Abd., 

422 ; Sej. Mai., 95, 

Kasihankan raja di-atas usongan : to pity the 
prince in his litter ; misplaced compassion ; 
Prov., V. J.S.A.S., XXIV,, 113. 

Mengusong : to carry in a litter. 

Pengusong : a litter; Ht. Sh. Mard. Kayu 
p, : the pole of a litter. 

rfft\ usap. Plating; covering with any adhesive 
substance by smearing that substance on the 
thing to be plated, in contradistinction to 
plating an article by dipping it into the 
composition with which it is intended to be 
covered ; cf. chelup. The word is also used 
of drying up by superimposing a dry body on 
a wet surface. Di-usap-nya ayer mata dengan 
sapu-tangan : she dried her tears with her 
handkerchief; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Cf. also Ht. Raj. Don., 18. 


S usek. Teasing, worrying ; annoying ; vexing 

by unpleasant questions. Datang orang 
mengusek kita : people came and bothered us ; 
Pel. Abd., 72. 

A^^i USah. I. Need; necessity; advantage. 
Ta'-usah: it is unnecessary; there is no need; 
needless; a polite way of saying ** don't. " 
Ta'-usah surat kita memberi : we need give no 

xAnak berok besar lengan 

Masok ka-bendang makan padi ; 

Kalau kaseh alang-alangan 
Biyar ta'-usah sa-kalt-kali. 

If your love is love in moderation, I would 
rather you did not love me at all. 

Usahkan : so far from......; = jangankan. 

V. jangan, Makin lama usahkan makin pandai 
makin ptda bodoh ada-nya: as time went on, 
so far from becoming wiser he became more 
and more of a fool ; Ht. Abd., 475, 

II. Rumput usah : a medicinal herb. 



USaha. [ Skr. utsdha. ] Diligence ; v. L \ , 

^a\ usai. I. Arrangement, settling. Sudah 
- usai-kah : has the thing been settled ; is it 

done ; cf. asi, achi and selesai. 

Usaikan : to arrange ; to put in order ; to 
bind up, of the hair. 

II. [Chin, o'-sdi: black dirt,] Opium 
dross ; better taht chandu, 

\ awang. I. A youth; a young fellow; a 
familiar name ftimang-timangan) often given 
to an elder son ; a common mode of address- 
ing a young man whose name is unknown to 
the speaker, Awang dan dayang : youths and 
maidens — a common way of addressing a 
youthful audience, corresponding to the 
** virginibus puerisque " of Horace ; see Sh. 
May., 2, Sh. Dag., 2, 4. 

Among the Mantras, the use of awang and 
dayang in speaking in the third person of 
youths and maidens is still in existence, but 
among the Malays the word awang has become 
obsolete, except as a name and as a vocative. 

Ma' -awang dind pa' -awang : names by which 
a husband and wife address each other with 
endearing reference to their eldest boy; 
'' mother of my child," ** father of my child. " 


[ 57 ] 


A wang is also the name often given to the 
comic man or clown of a ma'-yong perform- 

11. Awang-awang or awang-awangan : the 
lower heavens; the airy regions intermediate 
between the earth and the sky, but not actual- 
ly touching either. Berjalan di-awang-awang 
or mengawang : to tread the upper air ; Ht. 
Sh. ; Ht, Sh. Kub. 

Pergi ka-hutan tebang berangan ; 

Anak kumbang lalu sa-kawan ; 
Ttiwan di-afas awang-awangan, 

Sihap sa-bagai mambang di-awan : 

my lord is exalted above the regions of the 
air, and his form is as that of a spirit of the 
clouds. Cf. rawang, kerawang, etc. 

^' Swang. Money; usually wang, q. v. 






ungar. An edible salt-water fish ; lutianus 
argentiniactdattis . 

ungap. Gasping for breath— as a dying fish ; 
catching at one's breath ; panting. Cf. ngap 
and uwap, 

ungum. (Kedah.) MumbHng to oneself; 
muttering ; talking to oneself. 

ungu. Purple; deep brown-red; Ht. Abd., 
36; Ht. Jay. Lengg. ; Sej. Mai., 94; Sh. Bid., 
26 ; Kam. Kech., 9. 

ungah. Mengungah-angeh : shaking ; loose, 
but not absolutely severed — as a shaking 
tooth or loose paling. Also (Kedah) ngok-ngek; 
cf. onyak-anyek, 

uwap. Vapour ; steam ; the breath from the 
mouth in cool weather. 

upat. Vituperation; abuse; iiho ump at, q.v. 

3a\ opor. The cooking of meat without using 
vegetables or condiments to flavour it ; plain 
roasting ; the dishes so prepared ; Ht. Gh., 
Ht. Ind. Nat. 

3a\ upar. Rolling between the palms of the 

hands; rolling into a ball. 


/H*J^ opis. [Eng. office,] An office, a place where 
clerical work is carried on. 


\ upas. I. Jav. Blood-poison, especially the 
vegetable poison used for darts ; cf. anchar 
and ipoh. Upas benilarn racJmn : venom 
flavoured with poison; injury on injury; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 38. Rachtm dan upas 
distiroh-nya chart : she bade them seek poison 
and venom; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 23. Lengkap 
dengan damak dan upas-nya : fitted with darts 
and venom ; Ht. Koris. 

n. [ Dutch oppasser, ] 
police or postal peon in 
Sh. Lamp., 34, 40. 

A watchman ; a 
Dutch territories; 






upak. L Mengupak : to stir up a smoulder- 
ing heap of chaff or dry grass, in order to pre- 
vent the inner portion remaining unconsumed 
when the outer portion burns itself out. In 
the case of a wood fire, the expression bongkar 
is used. 

IL A kind of thin crisp cake. 

HL Upak-apek : inconsistent and immoder- 
ate in praise and blame, as a man who is all 
compliment regarding any person on one day 
and launches into violent abuse of the same 
person on the next day. 

upam. Polishing ; burnishing ; bringing out 
the lustre of anything. The word is used 
especially of gems and precious metals. 
Ternpam: polished; burnished; Ht, Sh, Kub.; 
Sej. Mai., 28. 

upau. [Chin, ho' -pan,] A small satchel or 
purse. Also hopau and opau, 

upah. Payment for service rendered ; fee ; 
wage; bribe — as distinct from rent, interest 
or payment for articles received. Di-bayar 
upah sa-orang sa-rupiyah : he paid them a rupee 
each for their services. Makan u. : to take 
bribes ; Ht. Hamz., 59. 

L^ beranak or ti. bidan : the fee paid to a 
midwife for her services. 

Upahkan, mengupah and mengupahkan : to 
engage (a man) on payment of a fee or of 

Berupah : in, or on, receipt of payment for 
service. Ada yang tiyada berupah menolong 
sehaja : some gave their services as unpaid 
assistants ; Ht. Abd., 423. 

upeh. The tough flower-sheaths of the pinang 
and iiibong palms, often prepared for use as 
temporary buckets or coverings of a temporary 
character; a sheath or covering; Sh. Pr. 
Ach., 12. Keris silam upeh: a variety of the 
her is ; v. keris, Luroh tipeh per gam datang : 
when the flower sheaths fall the pigeons 
come ; a proverbial equivalent for the cor- 
responding rhyme, suroh puteh hitam datang, 
when you ask for white, black turns up ; to 
get, not what one bargained for, but still 
something almost equally good ; to ask for a 
blonde and get a brunette; Prov., see s. v. 
It lam, 

awak. Body; person; self; contents; cargo; 
an expression used as a respectful pronoun of 
the second person, especially by the Malays 
of Johore. Betul juga awak bersabeda : truly, 
indeed, have you spoken; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 
24. Awak perahu: the contents of a ship, 
whether (according to the context) with refer- 
ence to the sailors or to the cargo. 

Akhbar-nya laksana sa-buwah bahtera 
Di-awak-nya sarat intan mutiyara : 
Its news-sheets are like a vessel loaded to the 
full with diamonds and pearls; Bint. Timor, 
16 Jan,, 1895. 


[ 58 ] 









uwak. I. (Onom.) Menguwak : to bellow; 

to low. Used of a buffalo or crocodile. 
Masok ka-dalam kandang kambing m^ng^mbek, 
masok ha-dalam kandang kerbau menguwak : 
to bleat when one enters a sheep-fold and 
bellow when one enters a buffalo-pen ; to do 
at Rome as the Romans do ; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
XL, 77 ; of. also Ht. Raj. Don., 14. 

The word is pronounced with a nasal in- 
tonation, mengu^wak^ imitative of the sound 
it defines. 

II. Old, elder; better uwa and tuwa, q. v. 

III. Uwak'tiwak: 3. monkey, the ^'wah-wah,'' 
hylobates lar and leuciscus. 

UWek. (Onom.) Menguwek: to make a gurg- 
ling noise in the throat, as a man about to be 

UWOk. A familiar name (timang-timangan) 
occasionally used when addressing children. 

ukir. Adornment by cutting figures in wood 
or metal ; incised patterns ; the making of 
such patterns. 

Siidah di'tebang, mart di-tikir, 
Di'tikir dengan pisau wait; 

A bang sa-orang tiyada4ah mungkir^ 
Tinggal'lah tuwan, abang kombali : 

when you have felled the log cut patterns in 
it, cut the patterns with a small jack-knife ; 
your lover, when alone, will not be false to his 
word; await him, my lady, your lover will 
return ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 16. 

Ukiran : pattern incision ; the pattern incised ; 
Sh. Sri Bun., 84. 

UMri : to incise a pattern; Sh. Put. Ak., 22. 
Mengukir: id. 

ukor. Measurement ; linear measurement. 
Mengukor: to measure (the length of anything). 
^Ilmu mengukor barang apa-apa yang jauh-jauh : 
the art of measuring distant objects ; the 
surveyor's art ; Ht. Abd., 360. 

Ukas. A name given to several shells, double, 
shallow and peculiar in shape. U. keris : a 
variety of this shell shaped exactly like a 
keris sheath ; malleus. 

Main u. : (Kedah) a game played with two 
balls and three holes in the ground. 

xxkup. Perfuming (garments) by laying them 
over a dome-shaped framework of rattan, 
incense or fragrant wood being burnt inside 
the frame. Cf. sirekup, tangkup, etc. 

Ayer u, and minyak ukupan ( Sh. Panj. Sg. ) ; 
perfume ; perfumed liquids. 

Pinang ukup : betel-nut dried and perfumed. 

Pengukup : the framework used in this pro- 
cess of perfuming. Perukupan : id. ; Ht. Nakh. 
Mud., 36. 






Ukup is sometimes used of burning incense 
or perfuming without using the special process 
referred to above ; e, g, : 

B^rahmana dewa sakti. 

Matt di-ukup dengan dupa : 

Brahma is a mighty god ; come and burn 
incense before him ; — from a Pantun, 

ukah or okah. [Arab. ^>..] A hookah; a 
hubble-bubble. Also ogah. 

Ugut. The inspiration of awe or alarm ; the 
rousing of terror ; cowing ; frightening ; 

Punggok berperang unggas dewata 
Perang dengan si-rajawali ; 

Best burok di-buwat senjata, 
Ugut sehaja ta'-apa jadi : 

rotten iron, when worked into weapons, may 
rouse terror but can do no more ; Prov. 

Ogak. Ogak-ogak : a jester, a wit, a practical 

joker; the name given to a sea-bird. Cf. 
olok'olok, which also means a jester and is 
a name given to another bird. 

Olok'Olok burong di-laut, 
Ogak-ogak burong di-bukit ; 

Riipa elok bagai di-raut, 

A kan penawar haii yang sakii : 

the *' jester " is a sea-bird, the '* joker *' a bird 
of the hills. 

Ogok. I. Extreme niggardliness; avarice; 

n. (Kedah.) A plan (such as that of a 
house); a design submitted for approval 
before a work is begun. 

Ogam. Pengogam mayang : a pointed instru- 
ment used in getting nipah spirit (nira). Also 
( Klinkert) a dance (of spirit mediums) from 
which certain omens are drawn. 

Pengogam satnpah 
coco-nut leaves. 

a kind of broom made of 

Ogah. I. Mengogah : to shake a loose object 
( such as a loose stake or tooth ) with a view 
to its ultimate extraction ; Kl.=^honggar, q. v, 

II. (Arab, ^j;^ through the Hindustani?) 

A hookah; a hubble-bubble; Sh. Abd. Mk., 
25. Also ukah. 

awal. [ArBh. awwal.] First; foremost; begin- 
ning. Daripada awal-nya datang kapada akhir- 
nya : from the beginning to the end. Pada 
awal-nya: at first. Awal ntusim : the begin- 
ning of the monsoon. A, piyama : (Kedah) 
the commencement of the wet season. Ju- 
mdda'l-awwal : the name of a month, so called 
from its having been the beginning of the dry 
season. RabVu'l-awwal : the first spring 
month ; the name of a Muhammadan month. 


[ 59 ] 





ulat. A generic name for a number of worms. 

J7. btdu : a hairy caterpillar. 

U, pinang : a ''betel-nut worm"; a small 
maggot whose mode of locomotion is a series 
of leaps. Terlonchat'lonchat bagai ulat pinang : 
hopping about like a betel-nut worm ; a 
restless person ; Prov. 

U. sentadti : another species of caterpillar. 

U, sutera : the silk worm, 

Tahi u, : a variant of tulat, the day after the 
day after to-morrow; the third day hence; the 
day on which maggots begin to appear in filth. 

Jengkau u, : the form taken by fingers when 
so shaped that they appear to turn up at the 
tips and down at the centre, 

Korek lohang ulat : to dig up worm holes ; 
to seek a quarrel ; Prov. 

The form hiilat also occurs. 

ulit. Lulling, crooning or singing to sleep. 
Di-pangkn dan di-uliUnya : holding her on his 
lap and singing her to sleep; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Uliti: (intransitive) to be singing with a 
view to sending anyone to sleep ; to be 
singing a lullaby ; Sh. Lail. Mejn., lo ; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 87. Menguliti : id. ; Sh. Lail. 
Mejn., 23. Bemlit : id. ; Arabian Nights, 71. 

Ulitkan : (transitive) to lull to sleep ; Ht. 
P. J. P. M engulit 3ind mengnlitkan : id. Ber- 
mimpi akan Sang Samba mengiditkan diya : she 
dreamed that Sang Samba was lulling her to 
sleep ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Lagi mengtdit Si-Jebat 
tidor : still singing Si-Jebat to sleep ; Ht. Hg. 
Tuw., 79. 

Pengidit : a lullaby; Ht. Sg. Samb.; Ht. 


A snake, a generic name for snakes; 
u, sawa : a python ; n. tedong sendok : a 



cobra ; tt, tedong abn : a hamadryad ; ti, lidi 
a very thin small snake, a type of the insigni- 
ficant. Biyar tdar mati dan kaytt tiyada patah : 
let the snake perish and the stick remain un- 
broken ; destroy the evil without injuring 
yourself; Prov., Ht. Gul. Bak., 67. Saperti 
ular kena palu rupa-nya : like a snake after 
being struck (writhing in impotent pain and 
wrath) ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 204. Laksana tdar 
kena bedal : id. Jtkalau tdar menyusor akar, 
buleh'kah hilang bisa-nya : if a snake pushes 
under a creeper will it lose its venom ? Will a 
po^verful man lose his power if he does a 
humble act ? Prov., Ht. Abd., 79. Gajah di- 
telan ular lidi : an elephant swallowed by the 
most insignificant of snakes ; the great over- 
come by the mean or the weak ; Prov., Ht. 
Ahm, Md., 70. Perempuwan itu langkah ular 
tiyada lepas : if that woman treads on a snake 
she will not escape, i. e. her beauty will not 
save her ; a very ugly woman ; Prov. 

[/. danu : (i) (Kedah) a horse-headed spirit 
snake; (2) (Kedah and Perak) a rainbow ; = 
( Riau, Johor ) pelangi. 

U, naga : a dragon. 

U.'Ular : a pennon, a streamer. 






Buloh u. : a bamboo (unidentified). 

Ttdang w. : a species of rattan. 

Two snakes, the tdar itek and tdar chintamani, 
are also symbolical of good fortune (the former 
in riches, the latter in love) and are lucky 
finds ; v. chintamani. 


q. V. 

Letting go, slacking ; better htdor, 

ulas. Covering ; wrapping — as the ornamen- 
tal covering of a cushion; the folds (of 
ornamental cloth) used for hiding woodwork 
in the decorations used at a wedding; the 
duriyan or nangka stones covered with the 
edible flesh of the fruit. 

Ulasan : 
Mai., 91. 

the covering (of a cushion) ; Sej. 

oleng. The rocking of a boat as caused by 
people moving in it from side to side, and not 
by the force of the waves ; cf. guling. 

Oleng-oleng : a sort of roller round which are 
entwined the rudder-ropes or tiller-ropes of 
a Malay sailing ship. The ropes being wound 
in opposite directions, the turning of this 
roller winds up one rope and lets out the 
other, thereby turning the helm. 

JtU\ olong. Baidtiri olong : the yellow opal. 

ulang. L Repetition ; frequency. 

[7. aling : repeatedly going and returning ; 
repeatedly doing and undoing. Tun Omar 
pun pergt'lah dengan sa-buwah pBrahu-nya ulang 
aling: Tun Omar kept continually going 
backwards and forwards (patrolling) with his 
one ship; Sej. Mai., 115. 

Ulang-tdangi : to repeat (of visits) ; to go 
frequently; to keep going to any spot. Ku 
ulang-tdangi ktibor-nya pada tiyap4iyap hart : 
I visited her grave regularly every day; Ht. 
Abd., 437. 

Ulangkan : to repeat (any act). 

Berulang and birtdang-ulang : frequently ; 
repeatedly ; to go again ; to continue any 
course of conduct. Adapun anjing itu jikalau 
di'pukul sa-kali-pun berulang-ulang juga itu 
kapada tempat yang banyak tulang itu : even if 
you beat a dog for it, he will continue to 
frequent the spot where there are plenty of 
bones to be found ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 32. 
A njing berulang bangkai : a dog returning to 
the carcase ; a man relapsing into filthy 
tastes ; Prov. 

H. Ulang'tdang : an ornament of flowers 
in a woman's head-dress. 

ulong. Jav. 

cf. lang. 

Ulong-tdong : the sparrow-hawk ; 

ulap. Ulap'tdap : keladi broth — a preparation 
made of coco-nut milk and keladi (colocasia 
antiquorum) . 


60 ] 







olak. An eddy, ripple or agitation on the 

surface of the water, such agitation not being 
caused by the movement of any body on that 
surface ; a round whirling movement ; a 
wooden revolving reel used in spinning; a 
deceptive movement. 

Bagai ikan lanipam di-olak jamban^ or bagai 
kangkong di-olak jamban : a proverb descriptive 
of a person swollen out with dirty pride or 
flourishing on filth. 

Dart Perlak langsong Kelantan 
Mengadap raja tinggi berdaulat ; 

Berolak ayer, kti-sangka ikan, 
Pukat kit labohf ikan t a' -dap at : 

the water was agitated, I suspected a lish, I 
cast down my net and caught nothing at all. 

Olak-alek : backwards and forwards ; whirl- 
ing first in one direction and then in another. 
Chakap berolak-alek : inconsistent talk. 

Sadikit chakap berolak-alek ; 
Fusing putar tut or kata-nya : 

however brief his talk, it is equivocating ; all 
that he says only wriggles round the truth. 

Mengolak : to equivocate ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 
olek. Lulling to sleep ; a variant of ulit, q. v. 

olok. I. Joking: jesting. Mengolok-olok : to 

jest at any person's expense ; to hold a 
man up to ridicule. Hamba ta'-stika di-olok- 
olok : I am not fond of jests at my expense ; 
Sh. UL, 14. 

Olok-olok : a jester ; the name of a bird ; see 
s. V. ogak. 

II. A form of chain-stitch. 


ulam. Vegetable condiments eaten with rice ; 
vegetable accessories to a dish. Piichok dt- 
chinta (or di-chita), ulam rnendataiig : just as 
you want young bamboo shoots (to eat) the 
vegetables turn up ; to get not exactly what 
one wants or what one bargained for, but still 
something which will meet the case ; Prov., 
Sh. Lail. Mejn., 17; J. S. A. S., II., 148; cf. 
s. V. upeh. Upas benilam rachtm : (one poison 
eaten with another poison for flavouring), or 
gadong kechubong berulanikan ganja (intoxicant 
drugs flavoured with Indian hemp) ; piling 
Pelion upon Ossa; injury upon injury ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., XL, 43, 38, and Ht. Mas, Ed. 
Ulam menchari sambal : the vegetables go after 
the pickles, an inversion of the usual order of 
things, as vegetables are taken first and pickles 
added to flavour them ; see sambal (which is 
not literally pickle) ; Prov. 

The word ulam is applied to fruits (petai^ 
machang, jering, etc.) eaten with sambals ; see 
J. S. A. S., IL, 148; Pel. Abd., 37. 

The form hulam often occurs. 

ulan, I. Ulan tampala : a circular ornament 
worn in the hair of a bride ; Kl. 

IL (Kedah.) Delightful ; pleasant or enjoy- 
able in the extreme. 



olon or ulun. I. Servant; also used (cf. 
hamba and sehaya) as a pronoun of the first 
person, Pikulun : id, 

II. A name given to some conical shells 
from Celebes ; co7tiis miles and conns lithoglyphus. 

ulu. The ancient Indonesian word for ''head," 
a word which has been superseded in ordinary 
use by the Sanskrit kepala but which still 
survives in respectful language when speaking 
of a raja's head, and in a number of idiomatic 
expressions ; the handle of a weapon or tool ; 
the upper watershed of a river. Also hnln, 

Ulu-nya di-riba uleh-nya puteri : the princess 
laid his head on her lap; Sh. A. R. S. J., 7. 
Memmdok'kan tilu: to bow the head — of a raja; 
Sh. Dag., 13. Pening ulu : giddiness ; Ht. 
Mas. Ed.; Sh. B. A. M., 3. Gering ulu: head- 
ache ; = sakit kepala, but confined to Court 
language ; Ht. Koris. Bulang ulu : the fillet 
on a raja's head ; v. bnlangy a term of endear- 
ment ; Sh. Bid., 5. Junjongan ulu : " that 
which is borne on the head," i. e.y the sovereign- 
ty of another; a term of endearment; Sh, 
Kumb. Chumb., 4 ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 6. 

U. balang : a warrior ; an officer ; v. «L1a. 

[/. hati : (literally) the highest portion of the 
heart and liver ; tne liver. Sakit idn hati : pain 
under the shoulder blades ; liver complaint. 
Tulang tUu hati, and tulang sudu hati : the 
xiphoid process. 

U, kepala : the upper portion of the head. 

C7. keris : the handle of a keris, U. pedang : 
the handle of a sword ; Ht. Hamz., 27. 
U, pahat : the handle of a chisel. [/. alu : the 
upper portion of a betel-nut crusher. Keris 
berhulu chula : a keris with a handle of dragon- 
horn ; Sej. Mai., 134. 

Buwah u. : a cake ; v. baulu. 

Gula u, : kabong juice boiled for several hours. 

Dahulu : before, previous, prior ; v. J ybj . 

Penghulu or penguin : a chief ; head ; the head 
of a body of men ; the director — as distinct 
from the person who carries out the directions; 
(penglima, v. lima), A distinction is some- 
times drawn by using penghulu of the Prophet 
Muhammad alone, and penguin of a native 
headman or chief, but this distinction is not 
invariably observed. 

olah. Manner ; way of doing things ; explan- 
ation of the way things are done ; excuse ; 
attitude taken up. Banyak olah : changeful, 
capricious and vacillating, an equivalent of 
banyak ragam ; also duplicity ; treacherous. 

Olah elah : duplicity. 

Perolah : fastidious. 

Sa-olah-olah : about the same in manner or 
appearance as ; similar to. 


[ 6i ] 


a)j\ uleh. By means of; through the medium of ; 
owing to. Jatoh ka-dalam sungai uleh mabok- 
nya : fell into the river owing to his being 
drunk. Uleh-nya : by him. Dupcrbuwat uleh- 
nya : made by him ; it was made by him. 
Benileh: to obtain. Ada-pun akan tihat 
baginda itu sukar4ah benileh diya : the medicine 
for His Majesty is most difficult to obtain ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 5. 

Pendeh : to have obtained ; to own or possess. 

Pemlehan : that which has been obtained ; 
one's acquisition. 

Biileh : (to be able to) is a derivative of uleh ; 
V. biileh, 

(J^y aula. Arab. Cleverer, wiser. 

d»y ulai. The name of an edible salt-water 

Lpj^ uli. I. Kneading; squeezing down— as dis- 
tinct from merely stirring dough. Ulian : 
a kind of cake. 

Also ( Kedah ) huli. 

II. Uli'Uli : the loading of a ( muzzle load- 
ing ) cannon ; ramming down the charge. 
Also ( Kedah ) huli. 





auliya'. Arab. Saints ; friends of God ; the 
plural of wall, q. v. The word is, however, 
often used in Malay as a singular ; a saint ; a 
friend of God. 

Datang'lah aiiliyd'' dart Maghrabi, 
Berhenti di-ntmah Siti ^Arabi : 

there came a holy man from Morocco, w^ho 
stayed at the Arabian lady's house ; Sh. UL, 3. 

aum. ( Onom. ) A sound such as that made 
by a crowd of people ; a low deep sound such 
as the moaning of a mourner when the first 
paroxysm of weeping is over ; the growling of 
a tiger, or of a lion ( singa ) ; Ht. Jay. Asm. 
Ttman laksana rimau garang, mengaum sehaja \ 
ta'-tnakan orang : you. Sir, resemble a fierce I 
tiger which only growls and does not eat men ; | 
your bark is worse than your bite ; Prov. I 

omong. I. A mark placed by a man at a | 
spot where he proposes to erect fishing-stakes ; | 
Sh. Lamp., 6. " I 

II. M^w^owo;!^ : to meet or crowd together, i 

III. Idle, empty, (of talk); idle gossip. | 
Mengomong : to gossip. j 

umang. Umang-umang or umang-timang bang- 
kai : a hermit-crab ; a kind of small crab which 
takes up its quarters in shells; a term of 
derision applied to a man decked out in 
borrowed plumes. 

Kalau tuwan tidor dt-bantal (bantai^ Pg.J 

Rasa tiyada mahii Una; 
Tuwan laksana umang-umang bangkai, 
Kulit orang kata sendiri punya : 


you, Sir, are like a hermit crab, claiming- 
another man's skin as your own. Sarang 
unam di-masoki ketam menjadi umang-umang : a 
shell with a crab in it is called an umang- 
umang : the same thing in different circum- 
stances has different names ; Prov. 

Vj\ umum. Obscure, complicated. Pekerjai 
1 Lela terlalu umum : this lady's business is mc 


involved ; Sh. UL, 18. Umum lagi surat ini : 
this letter is very difficult to understand ; Ht. 
Best., 30. 

Cy'y uman. Menguman : to protract any story ; 
to keep harping on the same string ; to keep 
repeating oneself. Uman-uman : a bore ; 
monotonous repetition. 

^jy awan. A cloud ; the clouds generally ; tracery 
or design ; patterns of a cloud-like or wavy 
appearance. Berbaju sutera awan-nya jingga : 
wearing a coat of silk with an orange-coloured 
pattern on it ; Sh. Bid., 26. 

The principal art patterns described as awan 
are as follows : — 

A , bclanda : pictorial foliage ; foliation in art. 

A . berjentera : the circle in art ; Ht. P. J. P. 

A . berlapis : work in folds of material, one 
showing through the cuttings in the other. 

A . bevsilap : interwoven tracery in art. 

A. biji timun: the lozenge pattern. 

A . china : the Greek fret. 

A . dendan : plaited ornament ; the plait in art. 

A, jawa : a mixed treatment; foliation com- 
bined with other forms of decorative art. 

A, puchok rebong : chevrons, in art. 

A. selimpat : scroll fret ; Sh. Pant. ShL, 2 ; 
Ht. Koris. 

A . telepok : marquetry ( in geometrical pat- 
terns only). 

A, larat or a, melarat : a pattern (unidenti- 
fied) ; Ht. Sh. Kub.; Sh. Pant. ShL, 3. 

The following terms are applied to the nature 
of the work : — 

A.kerawang: fretwork; cutting through the 
material ; Sh. Pant. ShL, 10. 

A . tenggelam : incised work. 

A . fimbul : carving in relief. 

The following terms are applied to clouds and 
sometimes to patterns imitating cloud forms : — 

A . bakat kiming : clouds tinged with yellow, 

A . bakat merah : clouds tinged with red. 

A . mega berarak : fleecy clouds. 

A . mengandong hujan : a black rain -cloud. 

A . pengarak angin : white clouds driving 
across the sky and presaging wind. 

A . pengarak hujan : black gathering clouds 
presaging a storm of rain, 

Blrawan ; ( i ) having a pattern ( in contra- 
distinction to plain ) ; ( 2 ) rising to the clouds ; 
in the clouds; see m^rawan and mengawan, 


[ 62 ] 





Di-awan : ( literally ) in the clouds ; apper- 
taining to the clouds; exalted. Barang di- 
awan : a heavenly thing, a noble thing ; Ht. 
Koris. Nuri di-awan : oh, noble lory ; Sh. 
Bur. Nuri., 12. Puteri di-awan : a princess 
of the clouds; Ht. GuL Bak., 156. 

Mambang di-awan : the name of a peculiar 
race of spirits — the personification of natural 
phenomena such as certain forms of the even- 
ing glow or patches of luminous haze. These 
spirits are believed to adversely affect the 
fortunes of people who see them. 

Mengawan : to soar. Gunong itu jikalau di- 
pandang mengawan-awan tinggi-nya gunong itu : 
if one looked at the mountain, it seemed to 
soar into the very clouds; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 
Bunga di-bawa mengawan : the flower was 
borne aloft ; Ht. GuL Bak., 50. 

Mari di-bunoh Indcra bangsawan, 
Di-main anak dewa udara ; 

Tinggal-lah tuwan, abang mengawan, 
Tinggal-lah jangan berhati lara : 

stay, lady, your lover will be soaring away 
from you ; sta)^ and do not be depressed ( at 
his absence) ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 16. 

Merawan : in the clouds. Tinggi merawan 
or tinggi berawan : rising to the clouds. 

Q*\ UWan. A Malay title in common use in the 
Northern Malay States. It is borne by the 
immediate descendants of Malay titled digni- 
taries (orang bergelar) if those descendants 
have no right to any higher title. The title 
itself is cognate to the word tuwan. Cf. tengku 
and engku; see also inegat. 

This word is usually shortened to wan. 

^y Onar. [ Pers. J^ .] Shame, ; disgrace ; see 

Onis. Pallor, want of colour in the face. 
Muka-nya puchat mtis : his face was extremely 
pale; Ht. Perb. Wij. Sayang muka yang 
manis jadi onis : it were a pity that that sweet 
face should lose its colour; Ht. Perb. Jay. 

^jaJa\ unus. Unsheathing; better hunus, q, v. 

oneilg. Remote descendants, descendants in 
the fifth, sixth, or seventh generation. Ma- 
shhur-lah warta ka-oneng-oneng : its fame will 
endure for generations ; the news of it will be 
known to our remote descendants; Sh. Panj. 

The exact sequence and number of the names 
of the generations is a point on which it is 
impossible to find consistency. The follow- 
ing are given : (i) anak, (2) chuchu, (3) chichit, 
{^) piyut, (5) oneng-oneng; or (i) anak, (2) chu- 
chu, (3) chichit, (4) piyut, (5) piyat, (6) oneng- 
oneng ; or (i) anak, (2) chuchu, (3) chichit^ (4) 
chuwit, (5) gamit, (6) piyut, {7) oneng-oneng. 
Some of these are probably fanciful variants 
of others. 

w— i!j\ unap. Mengunap : to go alone or unaccom- 
panied ; Kl. 

^^y onak. Barb-like thorns ; thorns which do not 

project at right angles to the twig on which 
they are found ; the long thorny trailers of the 
rattan ; thorns which turn back at the point 
and from which it is hard to extricate oneself; 
cf. duri (thorns projecting at right angles); 
and sonak ( the hard barb-like projections on 
the back of certain fish of the ray type). Onak 
dan akar mengait sakaliyan : the thorns and 
climbers kept catching them all ( and imped- 
ing progress) ; Sh. Lamp., 37. Mati terkapan 
onak dan duri : dead and enshrouded in thorns 
and prickles; dead, — lost in the forest; Ht. 
GuL Bak., 30. Kechil anak; besar onak : 
when young, your child ; when old, a thorn in 
your side; Prov., cf. J. S. A. S., H., 149. 

ra\ onam or unam. An edible shell-fish, a species 
' of murex. Sarang unam di-masoki ketam men- 

jadi umang-umang : when a crab gets into an 
unam's shell the result is the animal known as 
the umang-umang : the same thing in different 
circumstances has different names ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., XL, 54. 

The name unam is also given to the onyx. 
^a\ one. One-one : a Malay sweetmeat. 

f^y UHai. Soft, moist and odorous. Minyak unai : 
a perfumed grease smeared behind the ear. 
Unai is also applied to the droppings of fowls. 

toy awah. Clear, of the vision; clear-sighted; 
KL Cf. awas, lawas and lawah. 

^y UWeh. A word used as a familiar pronoun 
of the second person between husband and 
wife and between intimate friends. Also weh, 

iSy ui. [Chin, hui.] Earthenware. 

joA uyong. Shaking, swaying ; see huyong. 

^^y onyak. Shaking as a tooth or loose paling. 
Onyak-anyek : id. (frequentative) ; dawdling or 
loitering over one's work ; cf. ungah-angeh. 

\^ly onyok. Mengonyok : to press forward ; to push 
on; KL 

to\ ah. An exclamation of pain ; an interjection 
expressive of anguish. 

ib\ ah. An exclamation of wonderment and 
sometimes of dissent ; ** what ! '* 

fb\ oh. An interjection expressive of sudden re- 
collection ; ** oh ! I have it." 


[ 63 ] 









ahl. Arab. Family ; people ; men who do, 
or are experienced in, anything. Ahlu'n-nu- 
jmn : people versed in astrology ; astrologers. 
Ahlu'l-Kurdn : a man versed in the Koran. 
Ahlu'S'Sha'ir : poets. AhluH-makav : a trick- 

Cf. ahlt. 

ahli. [ Arab. adj. of ahl, q. v. ] Versed in ; 
experienced in ; an adept in. Ahlt dalam pen- 
gajiyan Kurdn : versed in the reading of the 

This word is sometimes used in Malay where 
Ja\ only would be used in Arabic. Ahli 
isteri-nya : his wife's relatives. 

ihmal. Arab. To omit, to neglect. 
aho. An interjection of summons. 

ai, or e. An interjection expressive of eager- 
ness, especially of eager approval. Ai kelagi- 
lagi, saperti Belanda minta tanah : yes, more, 
more, as a Dutchman says when applying for 
land ; '' the fault of the Dutch is giving too 
little and asking too much ; '' Prov., J.S.A.S., 
III., 20. 

iya. The pronoun of the third person ; he ; 
she ; it ; they ; them ; him ; it is so ; yes. 
Datang-lah iya : he, she, it, or they came. 
lya-kah atau tidak : yes or no. 

Mengiyakan : to say yes ; to admit ; Ht. 
Abd., 123. 

ayapan. Dressed meat ; cooked victuals ; 
food — in refined language only and confined in 
use to the food prepared for a raja, 

ayyam. [Arab. plur. ofyanm, day.] Days. 

iba. [Arab. ,...,.^, hibba, love.] Yearning; 

love, regret, passionate longing. 

Puchok paku di'perbtiwat timba; 

Terbang bangau dari sa-berang ; 
Tidak kuwasa menanggong iba, 

Diidok termangau sa-orang-orang : 

I am powerless to restrain my passion; I 
sit day-dreaming in loneliness ; Sh. Kumb. 
Chumb., 6. 

^/\j\ ibar. Ibar-ibar : a small river dug out with 
very little freeboard, 

j'\j\ ibor. Consolation ; usually hibor, q. v. 

A ibus. A species of palm (unidentified but 
not the equivalent oiibul). 

Kerat ibus berbtiwat karong ; 
Sayang karong berisi padi : 
split the ibus palm to work into karongs ( sacks 
of matting) ; alas for the karongs that are filled 
with padi ! ( from a Pantun. ) 


ebeng. Mmgebeng : to sway the body back- 
wards or to the side — as a dancing girl ; to 
move slightly to the side so as to permit a 
person to pass by. 

Also embeng. 

ebek. A sun-sail ; a sloping blind attached to 
the top of a door and held out by poles so as 
not to impede the air-circulation while shad- 
ing the entrance against the sun. 

^j ibul. A palm (unidentified) ; Sej, MaL, 165. 
The word is also applied to define a peculiar 
way of dressing the hair. 

^\ ebam. A cylindrical covered cup of porcelain. 

^\ ebom. (Kedah.) Broad and long ; larg« 
r* every respect. 


e in 

ijy] eban. The act of casting anything to one 
side or the other ; throwing aside ; flinging out 
of the way. Also heban. 

i\ ibau. An edible salt-water mussel. 

[\ ibu. Mother; dam, of animals; source, mat- 
rix ; the elemental or primary portion of anj^- 
thing. Saudara sa-ibu : a brother by the same 
mother ; a uterine brother. Ibu-bapa : mother 
and father; parents, Anak ayam kehilangan 
ibu : chickens which have lost their mother ; 
people who have lost their heads ; Prov. Jika 
tidak di-sembahkan mati ibu, dan hendak di-shn- 
bahkan mati bapa : if we tell him ( the Raja ) it 
will mean death to our mothers ; and if we 
don't tell him, our fathers will die ; — a choice 
of evils ; Hobson's choice ; Prov., Sri Rama 
( Maxw, ), 23, 50. IbU'Suri : princely mother ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed. 

/. gajah-gajah: (Riau) the whimbrel, nuntenius 
phceopus ; (Daik) the grey plover, squatarola 

L jari : the thumb ; see infra. 

I. kaki : the big toe. 

7. pasir : gravel. 

7. pembengisan : the mother of cruelty ; the 
source of cruel deeds. 

7. tangan : the thumb ; also i. jari, 

Tiyang ibu rumah and tingkap ibu rumah : see 
s. V. tiyang and tingkap. 

\ ayat. ( Arab. ^\. ) A text from the Koran ; 
Muj., 5. 

Baju a, : a coat worn in war-time ; a coat 
embroidered with texts. 

Ayat is used by Abdullah to define a *' verse " 
in the Bible. Fasal yang pertama ayat yang 
keduwa: first chapter, second verse (of St. 
Matthew's Gospel) ; Ht. Abd., 182. 


[ 64 ] 




ayut. ( Coarse. ) Sexual intercourse ; also 
ayok ; an equivalent of ampiit, 

Aytd-ayutan or ayok-ayotan : a priapus. Main 
ayok-ayotan : a form of ainoj' lesbictis. 

itu. That. This word is often used merely 
as a definite pronoun, ''the." Situ: that 
place. Dart situ : thence. Di-situ : there. 
Bagitu: thus. 






itong or etong. 


Calculation, reckoning; see 

\ itu. That; v. ^\ 

^ eja. [Arab. \^.] SpelHng. 

Ejaan: spelhng ; orthography; the correct 
spelling. Mengeja : to spell ; also, to read 
slowly, spelling out the words. 

ejit. Mockery. Ejit-ejitan: teasing, mocking; 
Arabian Nights, 176. 

Also ejek, Cf. jijeL 

ejong. The name of a Malayan tribe in the 
Riau Archipelago. 

ejek. Mengejek : to tease. Mcinperejekkan : 
id., Sh. Sh. 'Al., 16. Also ejit, q. v. 

ijok. The name of a fibrous vegetable sub- 
stance resembling horse-hair which envelopes 
the stem of certain palms. It is used in 
making ropes, matting, coarse sacking, etc. ; 
Ht. Ind. Nata ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 9. 

Tali i. : rope made of this fibre ; Ht. Si. 
Misk., 52. 

^^' ijin. [Arab. ^^\ . ] Permission ; v. ^\^\ ^ 
^^ ijau. Green ; better hijau, q. v. 

itek. Duck; the duck. Itek di-ajar berenang : 
to teach a duck how to swam — to teach a man 
what he already knows; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
XL, 39. The form huwaya di-ajar herenang 
also occurs. 

7. ayer^ i, laut and i. hulii : varieties of the 
wild duck. /. stirati and /'. menila : varieties 
of the domestic duck. 

Peler i., sAso p elite k : an auger. 

Sudu i, : the upper portion of the plank next 
the rudder. 

Ulari,: a snake (unidentified), the finding 
of which is believed to presage the acquisition 
of wealth ; see ular. 

In pantuns, itek often stands for the lover, 
and ayam for the mistress. 

itam. Black ; better hitam, q, v. 





Ht. Gul. 

idar or edar. Change of position ; revolu- 
tion ; circulation ; rotation ; movement. 

Idari and mengidari : to wander round or 
about any place ; to travel about. 
di'idari berpuloh-puloh negeri : he 
over scores (lit. tens) of states; 
Bak., 51. 

Idarkan, memperidarkan and mengidarkan : 
to send round; to pass round; to hand about. 
Maka baginda pun mengidarkan puwan-nya 
seraya bertitah makan-lah sireh saudagar : the 
prince passed round his sireh-txdcy, saying : 
** Take some sireh, merchant ; " Ht. Bakht., 20. 

Beridar : revolving; to be in movement or 

Peridaran : revolution 
the chances and changes of mortal life ; the 
changes brought about by time. Sa-lama ada 
peridaran chakerawala ya-itu mata-hari dan 
bulan : so long as the revolution of the firma- 
ment continues, that is, as long as the sun 

Bintang b. 

a wandering star ; a 
change. P, dunya : 

expression for 
of epistolary 

and moon revolve — a favourite 
eternity in the language 

The form iitdar also occurs; Ht. Ism. Yat., 
65 ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. 

idong. Nose ; better hidong, q. v, 

idap. The protraction of illness, sorrow or 
pining ; lingering on in sickness. Idapan : id. 

Mengidap and mengidapkan : to linger on un- 
healed — of a sick or sorrowing man. Mengi- 
dap penyakit luka hati-ku : protracting the 
misery of that wound to my heart ; Ht. Abd., 
448. Mengidapkan rayu : to prolong sorrow or 
love; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 14. 

idam. The longings of a pregnant woman. 
I daman and idam4daman : the nature of those 
longings ; the things longed for ; Ht. Koris ; 
Ht. Ind. Nata; Sh. Put. Ak., 27. 

Idamkan and mengidamkan : to long for ( any- 
thing) — of a pregnant woman; Ht. Koris; 
Ht. Si. Misk., 8. 

edan. Jav. Mad ; madness ; = gila. In 
Malay, however, the word is purely literary 
and is almost always confined to the meaning 
of love-madness. 

Edan kesmaran : madness in love. Menang- 
gong edan kesmaran : to be madly in love ; 
Ht. Sh. Memberi edan kesmaran : to rouse 
passionate love in others ; Ht. Mas. Ed. ; Ht. 

The form edan asmara also occurs ; Sh. Kumb. 
Chumb,, 4. 

edah. Speaking from a distance ; conversing 
when separated by a fairly considerable gap ; 
the talk of persons who are not close to one 
another — as when a person at the window of 
a house talks to a man in the street, or as 
when a man in a ship accosts a passing boat. 


[ 65 ] 


jA ayer or ayar. Water ; a liquid ; juice ; sap ; 
liquid ; secretions of all sorts. Ada ayer ada- 
lah ikan : where water is there will fish also be 
found; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 90. 

Saperti orang mentiwangkan sa-chawan ayer 
tawar ka-dalam laut : like a man pouring a cup 
of fresh water into the sea ( with a view to 
making it drinkable ) — a hopelessly inadequate 
performance ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 357. 

Ayer ptm ada pasang surut : even water has its 
high and low tides ; if the sea level changes, 
how much more must a man's circumstances 
change ; Prov. Mandi ombak, mandi angin ; 
keroh ayer, ayer laut : when the sea is break- 
ing in waves and is stirred up by wind, it seems 
to be made of dirty water ; when a wife wastes 
in folly the money which her husband works 
hard to obtain it seems to others that he is 
working for a foolish end ; Prov. Bakar-lah 
ayer ambil abu-nya : burn water and collect its 
ashes ; do the impossible ; Prov. 

A. anggor or a. buwah anggor : wine. 

A.anjing: (Johor) a plant, homalmm 

A . atas : water power when used to throw 
earth into the sluicing races. 

A . ayer : a plant, Cr. ; a fish, C. and S. 

A . bah : a flood ; water flowing into the padi 

A , bakat : a whirlpool. 

A. balek daun : tide beginning to turn. 

A . basoh tangan : water for washing one's 
hands in — a metaphorical expression signifying 
that anything is absolutely in one's power; 
V. basoh. 

A . batu and a. beku : ice. 

A. bekal : water taken for use on a journey ; 
a store of water. 

A . bena : a tidal bore. 

A . berolak : an eddy. 

A . emas : gold paint. 

A,gtda: syrup; eaii sucree ; cf. a. seterup. 

A . hendayong : water taken from the roof of 
the mouth (used in incantations). 

A . hidong : water from the nostrils. 

A . Mras : strong spirits. 

A . laut : sea-water. 

A. lebah and a, madu : honey. 

A, liyor : saliva. 

A . lolok : ( Selangor ) eddying water ; also a. 

A . madu : honey. 

A. mam : semen. 

A. masin : salt water. 

A . mata : tears. 

A . matt : dead low water. 

A* mawar : rose-water. Bunga a. mawar: 
the rose. 

A, mengorang: tide beginning to fall. 

A , minum : drinking-water* 

A . muka : the general look of the face. A ku 
binasakan ayer muka-nya : I will spoil his happy 
look ; Ht. Hamz., 44. 

A . pasang ; the rising tide. A . pasang keling : 
the highest tide in the year. 

A.peloh: perspiration; sweat. 

A . perekat : gum ; glue. 

A . rabong : the tide at its highest. 

A. sebak : a flood ; v. sebak, 

A . sembahyang : water used in a mosque. 

A. seni : urine; Ht. Hamz., 2. 

A . simbar : rough water caused by tides 

A . sopi : liqueur. 

A. sorong buih : tide on the turn. 

A . surut : a falling tide ; the ebb. 

A. susu : milk. 

A , tawar : fresh water. 

A . teh : tea. 

A . tengah tunipah : half ebb. 

A, terjun : a waterfall. 

A . ukup : perfumed water, 

Anak a. : a small stream or spring. 

Batang a. : a river. 

Bunga a. : the name of a fish. Cr. 

Biiwang a. : to ease oneself. Buwang a. 
kechil or buwang^ a, sent : to make water. 
Penyakit buwang a, : diarrhoea. Phiyakit 
buwang a, darah : dysentery. 

Gayong a. ; a spoon. 

Juling a, : a slight cast in the eye. 

Limbangan a, : a tidal race. 

Mata a. ; a spring. 

Ptntn a, : a water-gate. 

Sawah a, : surf or breakers on a sunken rock. 

Tali a. : a stream for irrigating padt-fields. 

Tanah a, : territories. 

Tikas a, : high-water mark. 

Berayer : ( i ) to be covered with water ; e, g., 
tanah b, : land suitable for padi cultivation ; a 
padi swamp; (2) to make water— used of 
sufferers from incontinence of urine ; ( 3 ) to 
be possessed of water; to have water; to 
secrete any fluid ; e, g., ibu-ku itu tiyada berayer 
susu : my mother had no milk ( to suckle her 
child); Ht. Abd., 18. 

Keayeran: to admit water; to leak — of a 
vessel. Kenaikan itu-pun keayeran : the ship 
leaked ; Sej. Mai., 46. 

^\ ira. Ira-ira: a fish (unidentified). 

jiu\ irama. I. A measure in music; Kl. 

n. Payong irama: a state umbrella; v. 


[ 66 ] 








eret. Pulling back; drawing back. Biuret 
uleh Tiran Shah : Tiran Shah pulled him back ; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. Nakhoda pun di-eret orang Ur- 
jun : the captain was pulled back by the 
people going down ; Sh. Peng., ig. 

Mengeretkan : to draw back. M.perisai: to 
draw back a shield ; Ht. Sh, Kub. 

The form herd occurs. 

erut. Twisted ; bent ; turned ; awry. Erut 
hujong hidong'fiya ka-kiri : the point of his 
nose turned towards the left ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 

Erang-emt : twisted ; crooked ; awry. 

Also (Kedah) herot and herut ; Sh. Dag., 16. 

iras. Resemblance, connection, family like- 
ness. Sadikit tidak iras-nya baginda : the king 
had no relatives ; Sh. Put. Ak., 30. 

Keris ganja iras : a keris, the blade proper of 
which is in one piece with the aring ; Ht. Raj. 
Don., 13, Perahu ganja iras : a boat, of which 
the parts known as the Uitup niuka and the 
huwaya-biiwaya are in one piece. 

Also (Kedah) ara$, 

iris. Cutting into strips, slicing ; better hiris^ 
q. V. 

erang. I. Jav. Black, dark blue, dark red; 
Kl., Pijn. 

IL Erang-enit: twisted, crooked, awry; see 

erong. I. A small Chinese porcelain cup ; 
also called a chawan garam, 

n. Erong-erong : the holes through which 
water is discharged into the sea from the 
scuppers of a ship. 

HI. To move a thing so as to leave it in a 
slanting or irregular position, as compared 
with other objects in the same row. 

Pahat erong : a chisel with a blade which is 
set so as to cut objects somewhat at an angle. 

Cf. erangf erut and serong. 

iring. Succession in space, not in time; 
following one behind another ; continuous 
following ; procession behind, 

Iringan : following in succession ; the space 
immediately behind anything; the people 
immediately following anyone in a procession. 
Di-bawa-nya dudok ka-sa-belak iringan kanan- 
nya : he ( the raja ) conducted him to a place 
on the right-hand side of the procession im- 
mediately behind the raja ; Ht, Mar. Mah. 
BSriring'iringan : in long procession. 

Iringkan and mengiringkan : to follow ( any- 
one ) in procession. 

Mengiring and mengiringi : to walk in pro- 
cession ; to be in a line with. Adayang men- 
giring jalan : some ( houses ) were parallel to 
the road; Pel. Abd., 34. 





Pengiring : an attendant ; a follower ; one 
of the suite of a raja, Duwa bilas kechi pen- 
giring baginda : twelve schooners formed the 
raja's suite (when he went on a naval 
expedition ) ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 19. 

erap or irap. Resemblance ; similarity. 
Banyak irap saudara hamba : my brothers are 
very much alike ; Ht. Best., 70. Irap-irap : 
very much alike ;= sa-akan-akan. 

imp. (Onom.) Swallowing by applying the 
lips to the edge of a bowl or spoon and suck- 
ing up its contents ; the noise of so doing. 

Also hirup. 

erak. Edging away slightly ; moving quietly 
from the vicinity of anything. 

erek, and irek. The process of stamping on 

padi when the tuwi (or tuwai) has been used and 
the stalks are, therefore, too short for threshing. 

Irekkan and mengirek : to stamp on padi in 
this way instead of threshing it. 

Bakul irek : a sort of sieve with broad bands 
and narrow interstices. 

Also ( Kedah) hirek. 

ayerloji. Eur. 
and horloji. 

A watch, a clock ; also orloji 


f^ji} iram. I. Change of colour — such as that on 
the face of a man who is put to shame. 

n. Iranty iram-iram and irama : the fringe 
of tassels hanging round the edge of a state 
umbrella (payong ubor-ubor ) ; v. ubor, 

TBrkembang4ah payong iram-iram kuning : the 
yellow fringed umbrellas of state were all 
opened out ; Ht. Koris, 

Bunga iram or bunga iram-iram : a flowering 
aquatic plant; Ht. Ism. Yat., 186. 

JL/- erau and irau. Condolence; visits of sym- 
pathy and proffers of assistance in laying out 
the body on the occasion of a death. 

Also ( Kedah ) herau, 
43j^\ Eropah. Europe; European. 

iSjv in. I^'i hati : spite, malice ; better Am, q. v. 

C-.!-^! esut. Gentle propulsion ; quietly pushing 
away. Also engsut, q. v. 

iwi isang. The gills of a fish. Also ingsang and 
^ insang, 

Pokok isang : the name of a tree ( uniden- 

Rumput isang kHi : the name of a grass 


[ 67 ] 


j\ isap. (Onom. ?) Sucking ; drawing in one's 
breath ; sucking at a pipe ; smoking. Isap 
chandu : opium smoking. 

M^ngisap : to suck ; to smoke. Dudok men- 
gisap jari : to sit sucking one's thumbs; Ht. 

^J-^\ isak and esak. ( Onom. ? ) Sobbing ; the 

sound of a sob ; sneezing ; asthma. Menghi- 
langkan isak atau batok : to cure asthma or 
colds; Muj., 69, 

Terisak-isakan : continuous sobbing ; Cr. Gr., 
43; Sh. Abd. Mk., 73, 114. 

L%fcj\ esek, A disease causing the skin to become 
dry and scaly. 

r^\ esok. To-morrow ; the following day. Esok 
lusa : to-morrow or the day after. 
Keesokan hart : the morrow. 
Also ( Kedah ) isok ; (S.S.) besok and bisok. 

\ isin. Jav. Shame ; = main. 

^^\ isi. Contents; that which is contained in 
anything ; that which goes to fill anything ; 
the act of filling, stuffing or loading. Di-isi- 
nya senapang : he loaded the gun. /. negeri : 
the inhabitants of a town. /. dunya : the 
world ; the people who inhabit the earth. 
/. hutan : wild animals in general. /. istana : 
the people who have quarters in the palace ; 
the Court. /. surat : the contents of a letter. 
/. kahwin : the settlements on a bride. 

Bagai kuku dengan isi : like the nail and 
the quick — so attached that separation is 
extremely painful; Prov., Ht. Sh. Mard., 
J. S. A. S., II., 141. Isi lemah dapat ka-orang, 
tulang btilu pulang ka-kita : the flesh and the 
fat go to others; the bones and feathers to 
us; we get all the kicks and others get the 
half-pence; Prov. 

Isikan, mengisi and mengisikan : to fill ; to 
load; to fill up; to stuff— as one stuffs a bird. 

Berisi : having or acquiring contents; full, 
as distinct from empty ; ( by metaphor ) 
intelligence, as distinct from empty-headed- 
ness. Bukan-nya diyam penggali berkarat, 
milainkan diyam ubi ada-nya berisi: his was 
not the silence of a pick which gets rusty 
(from disuse) but the silence of a potato 
which gets fuller of meal (as time goes on); 
Ht. Abd., 263. 

^\ ayang. Ayang-ayang : the name of a medicinal 
Q shrub. 

io\ iyang. Divinity ; v. yang. 

*^\ iyong. A colloquial term used in driving 
C buffaloes into a pen, fowls into a fowl-house, 

etc, ; to so drive animals into a confined 


yJ\ inga. Inga-inga: abstracted; absent-minded- 
^ ness. Also ( Kedah ) ingau-ingau. 

C^\ ingat. Attention ; recollection ; the concen- 
tration of one's thoughts upon any circum- 
stance. Sa4elah ingat-lah iya akan diri-nya : 
when he recalled his own existence ( when he 
became conscious after a swoon ) ; Ht. Sg. 

Ingat-ingat : attention ; attention ! 

Ingatan : presence of mind ; attention to 
one's surroundings — the converse of careless- 
ness, inattentiveness and absent-mindedness. 
Menaroh ingatan : to pay attention ; to bear 
in mind. Ingatan is sometimes used in the 
sense of '' opinion,'* **idea"; Arabian Nights, 

Ingati: to remember; to be attentive; Sh. 
Abd. Mk., 16. Mengingaii : id.; Sh. Ungg. 
Bers., 4. 

Ingatkan : to call to mind (anything); Ht. 
Abd., 171. Mengingatkan : id.; Ht. Abd., 
188 ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Peringatan : a reminder ; a cause or source 
of recollection ; Ht. Abd,, 105. Pengingat : 
id.; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 11. 

^\ engar and ingar. Brawling; the creation 
-^^ of noisy disturbance. Jangan kita ingar- 
ingar ; kalau geniala naga besar gerangan itu : 
let us make- no noise ; it may be the talisman 
of some great dragon; Sej. Mai., 28. Jika 
barang sidpa tertawa dan ingar di-suroh-nya 
Jmkumkan pada orang itu : he ordered any one 
who laughed or made a noise to be punished ; 
Ht., P. J. P., II. 

Ingar-bangar : a general disturbance ; mixed 
clamour; an intensitive of ingar; Sh. UL, 20; 
Ht. Best. 

Mengingari : to disturb a person by making 
a noise; Ht. Kal. Dam., 359. 

Also hingar and hengar. 

.yj^\ engUS and ingUS. Mucus, matter running 
^"^ from the nose ; better heftgus and hingus, q. v. 

•Jij\ ingin. Intense or passionate desire for any- 

^"^^ thing; lust; longing. Ingin henda^ bilajar : 

the lust of learning. Jangan kamu ingin akan 

isteri ora7tg: lust not after the wives of others; 

Sej. Mai., 71. 

Bukan kendi sa-barang khidiy 

Kendi berisi jarom wilanda ; 
Biikan ingin sa-barang ingin, 
Ingin dari darah wilanda: 
my passion is no common passion ; it is the 
passion that runs in the blood of a Dutchman. 
Keinginan : the sensation of intense desire ; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 36. 

>i)\ ingau. Semi-consciousness of one's surround- 
ings ; the mental condition of a man who is 
dozing. TBringaU'ingau : half awake, half 
asleep. Cf. inga. 


[ 68 ] 


^\ ingu. Asafoetida ; better inggu, q. v. 

ayap. Ayapan, victuals ; v. A\^\ 

ji^ ipar. Brothership or sistership by marriage ; 
the relationship of a man to his brother-in-law 
or sister-in-law. 




ipong. The name of a short green snake ; 
J. I. A., I., 257. 

epek. A stick used in the construction of a 

epok. A small bag or receptacle for the 
various utensils required for betel-chewing, 
Epok-epok : a small cake or tart. 

ipil. The name of a tree (unidentified). 

epeh. ( Penang. ) Chattering ; inability to 
hold one's tongue. Orang e. : a chatterbox. 

ipoh. The poison tree, anchar-tree or upas-tree 
of Java, antiaris toxicaria ; vegetable poison 
in general; the poison used by Sakais for their 
darts ; see Ht. Abd., 382, 387, 388, 390. 

A kar i. : a large climber, strychnos tiente, 

A kar ipoh ptiteh : a common climber, ran- 
cheria griffithii, 

Getah i, : the juice of the poison tree ; 
vegetable poison ready for use. 

ayak. I. Sifting; the process of passing 

through a sieve. 

Ayakan : a sieve. 

M^ngayak : to sift ; to pass ( anything ) 
through a sieve. 

II. Ayak-ayak : a species of spider. 

ayok. (Coarse.) Sexual connection ;=zanchok 
and ayutj q. v. 

ikat. Binding; fastening; tying together; 
connecting by winding round bonds of any 
sort ; bonds or fastenings. 

/. perang : the line of battle ; the formation 
in which troops are drawn up; Ht. Ind. 
Meng. A number of fanciful names are given 
in romances to these formations. 

/. perigi: the wall round a well; the parapet. 

/. pinggang : a belt or girdle. 

Ikatan : the fastening ; the bonds ; the 
method of girdling ; the union of words in a 
sentence or verse ; metrical or other literary 

Ikatkan, mengikai and mengikatkan : to tie or 
fasten together; to tie up; to compose; to 
build round; to draw up in line of battle. 
Di-ikatkan ka-tiyang : (they) tied (him) to 
the wall. Mengihat perang: to make one's 
tactical dispositions ; Ht. Koris. Mengikatkan 
pantun: to compose apantun ; Ht. P. J. P. 

Pengikat : that which ties up or girdles. 



TBrikat: bound; tied; fastened up; girt 
with. Kolam terikat dengan batu marmar : 
a tank built round with marble; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 117. Terikat kaki tangan : bound hand 
and foot ; Prov. 

ikut. Following (in point of space, not time) ; 
succeeding ; coming after. 

Ikut puyoh: literally, "the pursuit of the 
quail " ; hide and seek. 

Ikutkan and mengi^ut : to follow. Mengikut 
jalan : to follow al6ng a road ; to pursue any 

Maka di'perikut uleh Bindahara Paduka Raja 
sampai ka-Singapura : he was followed by the 
Bendahara Paduka Raja as far as Singapore ; 
Sej. Mai., 116. 

Cf. ekor^ siku, bMiku, etc. 

ekor. The tail, point or end of anything ; a 
numeral coefficient used^ with the names of 
living creatures — such as fish, birds, animals, 
and ( rarely and contemptuously ) human be- 
ings. Ekor burong : a bird's tail. Sa-ekor 
burong : a bird. 

E. angin : the common plantain, plantago 

E, belangkas : (i) the tail of the king-crab 
(a cross-section of which is triangular and 
serves as a simile for many similarly shaped 
objects) ; (2) a small shrub, gnetum brunonia- 
num ; (3) a descriptive metaphor for hairpins 
(chuchok sanggul). 

E, kuching : the name given to two small 
plants with close spikes of flowers suggesting 
a cat's tail, dysophylla auricularia and uraria 
crinita, Rumput e, kuching : a brush-like grass, 
perotis latifolia, 

E. kuda : a common weed, vernonia cinerea. 

E.kudi: the last (or worst) of the lot; 
C. and S. 

E. Upas : (lit.) cockroaches' tails ; the name 
given to little tufts of hair on the neck. 

jB. lotong : a kind of swivel gun. 

E, mata : the corner of the eye. 

E, pari : a ray's tail — resembling the ekor 
belangkas^ q. v. 

E, pipi : the lower portion of the cheek. 

E, pipit : small tufts of hair hanging down in 
front of the ear ; love-locks. 

E. pulau : the point of a riverine island which 
is furthest downstream. Also buntut pulau, 

E, sunting : the stalk of a flower, when the 
flower is worn on the ear and the stalk is 
hidden behind the ear. 

£. tikus : a rat's tail. Kikir e, tikus : a file 
shaped like a rat's tail^ — round, narrow and 

E, tupai : :=z e, kuching, 

Berekor-ekor : following, one holding on 
behind the other — as children in some games. 
Bintang berekor : a comet. 
Cf. ikut. 


[ 69 ] 





ikal. Waviness of the hair, curly. RmnbiiU 
nya ikal: his (or her) hair was wavy (as a 
mark of beauty) ; Ht. Sri Rama ; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 142 ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 38; Sh. 
Bid., 20. 

ikan. Fish ; a generic name for lish — e,g,, 
i. todak ; the saw-fish ; i. belalang : the flying- 
fish ; i, pans : the whale ; i, hitam : the black- 
fish, stromateus niger; etc. Memanching i,, 
mengail i,, menangkap i. : to catch fish ; to fish 
(according to the method adopted). 

Ada ayer ada-lah ikan : where water is there 
will fish also be ; there is no smoke without fire ; 
Prov. Udang hendak kata ka-ikan : the lobster 
wanted to abuse the fish for being dirty ; the 
pot wished to call the kettle black; Prov. 
Sinar ikan di-dalam ayer, aku tahu jantan bet- 
ina-nya : let a fish but flash (its scales) in the 
water and I shall know its sex ; I know you 
so well that I can read your motives in any- 
thing you do ; Prov. Laksana terong bertunang 
ikan keying : like the brinjal's betrothal to the 
dried fish (the two first coming across each 
other in the saucepan) ; companions in misery ; 
Prov. Ikan gantong kuching Umggu : the fish 
hanging and the cat watching; unsatisfied 
craving ; a tantalizing sight ; Prov. 

Ikan her gar am : fish preserved in brine with- 
out their scales or entrails. 

Ikan-ikan : the log. Membuwang ikan-ikan : 
to heave the log. 

Nyawa-nyawa ikan : the life of a fish out of 
water ; gasping for breath and nearly dead ; 
Ht, Abd., 66; Sh. Lamp., 12. 

iga. Jav. Rib ; = rusok. 

igal. Spreading the tail — of a peacock ; the 
display of its beauty by the male bird when 
showing off to the female before mating. 
Used of turkeys, peacocks, pheasants, pigeons, 
etc. Merak mengigal : the peacock spreading 
its tail ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. ; Ht. Ism. Yat. ; 
Sh. Sri Bun., 86; etc.; a favourite design in 
ancient jewellery ; Ht. Koris. 

Merak mengigal di-hutan : a peacock spread- 
ing its tail in the jungle — displaying its beauties 
where there is no one to admire them ; 
*' wasting its sweetness on the desert air " ; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., L, 89. 

igau. Wanderings in sleep or delirium ; move- 
ments under the influence of dreams ; night- 
mare; somnambulism. 

Igau-igaiiwan ; ravings ; delirium ; Sh. Bur. 
Pungg., 6 ; Ht. Ghul. 

Mengigau : to rave ; to be delirious. 

TBrigaU'igau : delirious. 

^\ igu. The yoke ; a yoke for oxen ; see gu 

egah. To walk 
gait ; Bust. Sal. 

with a waddling or affected 
also (Penang) egeh. 

^\ ela. I. To draw ; to pull ; better hela, q. v. 
n. Eur. An ell, a yard. 

^^} elat. [Arab. ^.] Expedient, device, strata- 
gem ; see elah. 


ilir. Progress down stream ; better hilir, q. v. 
ilang. Loss ; better hilang, q. v. 

i^} eling. Jav, Remembrance; = ingat. 

^\ elak. L The avoidance of a blow by moving 
out of the way; evasion; dodging. Maka 
sigera di-parangkan uleh raja bersiyong di-elak- 
nya tiy ada-lah kena : the tusked raja cut at 
him but he dodged the blow and escaped; 
Ht. Mar. Mah. Tidak ayahanda elak : I will 
not budge an inch to avoid it ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Berelak : to evade ; to avoid ; to dodge ; to 
shirk ; Sh. Panj. Sg. Mengelak : id. ; Ht. 
Mar. Mah. Elakkan : id. ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

n. Ikan elak : the name of an edible marine 

^yj\ elok. Beauty; excellence; charm, Orang 

yang elok rupa-nya; a man of handsome 
appearance ; a good-looking man. Hikdyat 
yang elok : a beautiful story. Khabar yang 
elok : pleasing news. Elok-lah : it is well ; 

Keelokan : the beauty or excellence of any- 

Maha-elok : very fair; Ht. Hamz., 82. 

ii\ ilam. Ilam4lam : appearing and disappear- 
r ing ; dimly or intermittently visible. 

Datm ilam-ilam : the name of a plant (un- 

Aa ilau. Flickering, as the light of the sun upon 
" water ; cf . kilau, 

^\ elah. [ Arab. ^ . ] Expedient, device, 

stratagem. Chari4ah dBngan snwatu elah : 
seek craftily; seek, using stratagems; Sh. Bid., 
89. Habis daya tipu elah : at an end of his 
wiles, tricks and dodges; at an end of his 

Olah-elah : extreme duplicity ; dodges of all 
sorts ; the intensitive or frequentative of elah. 

ilai. Loud laughter — an expression stronger 
than gelak^ q. v. 

Mengilai : to roar or shake with. laughter; 
Sh. Bid., 23 ; Sh. Put. Ak., 23 ; Ht. Koris. 

Mengilai-ngilai : to laugh loudly and con- 
tinuously ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Also hilai. 


[ 70 ] 


f\ ayam. A generic name for fowls ; a cock, a 
* hen. In Pantuns ayam stands for the mis- 
tress in contradistinction to iteky the lover. 

A . ta*-beribu or anak ayam kehilangan ibu : a 
motherless chicken; a chicken that has lost 
its mother — a metaphorical description of a 
man who has lost his head. A , hitam terbang 
malam: a black fowl flying at night — not 
easily visible ; a proverbial expression for a 
fact that is not easily grasped. A . pideh ter- 
bang siyang : a white fowl flying by daylight ; 
a self-evident fact ; Pro v. Baik4ah jadi ayam 
b^tina supaya selamat : play the hen for once 
for the sake of peace ; Prov. Ayam puteh 
lompat pagar : a white fowl jumping a fence ; 
a metaphor for spitting. Bagai ayam kena 
tungau : like a fowl worried by insects ; a 
symbol for restlessness ; also bagai tebuwan 
dalam tukil, and bagai keli kena katok ; Prov. 

Ayam-ayam: (i) a water-hen; rallina fasciata ; 
(2) a musical instrument used at a ma'yong. 

A . bandong : two chickens from one egg ; 
C. and S. 

A . bangkas : a white fowl with some black 
feathers ; C. and S. A . bangkas kubong : a fowl 
with yellow feathers and feet. 

A, belanda: a turkey; Ht. Sh. Kub. Also 
a, wolanday Ht. Si Misk., 45. 

A . belorong or a, belorang : a fowl with white 

A, beroga : a jungle fowl. Also (Pahang) 
a. burga and (Kedah) a, htdan. 

A . biring : a fowl with a yellow beak and 
yellow legs, reputed invincible in cock-fight- 
ing ; V. biring, A . biring tuwah and a, biring 
sangka naning : varieties of this fowl. 

A, bogil : a tailless fowl. Also a, togil (Ht. 
Raj. Don., 49), and a. dogil (Ht. Raj. Don., 61). 

A . bulu ara : a fowl with red and black 

A . bulu balek 
ruffled feathers. 

A . burga : = a. beroga, 

A. denak : (properly) a decoy fowl. Also 
(sometimes) a jungle fowl ; = a. beroga, 
A . dogil : :=■- a, bogil. 
A . hitam sBlaseh : a fowl black to the bones. 

A, hutan : the jungle fowl ; (Ht. Perb. Jaya) ; 
= a. beroga, 

A,'itek : poultry generally. 

A . jalak : a black fowl. A . jalak buwah 
keras : a black fowl with white spots ; C. and S. 
A, jalak rendang : a black fowl with white feet, 

A, kasi : a capon, 

A, katek : a diminutive species of fowl; a 
kind of bantam. 

A . khnbiri : a capon ; ~ a, kasi, 

A. kenantan : a white fowl ; C. and S. 

A. kochi : a Cochin China fowl. 

A . mandul : a fowl which does not lay, 

A, meluroh : a moulting fowl. 

A, mengeram : a fowl sitting on eggs. 

a fowl with unnaturally 

A, mutiyara : a guinea-fowl. 

A . pBmikat : a decoy fowl. Also a, pimikat 

A . naik sarang : a descriptive equivalent for 
6 p.m. Also mengantok ayam and rabun 

A, panggang : a spatch-cock roasted. A, 
pcinggang p^renggi and a, peranggang : a fowl 
of the right age for eating ; C. and S. 

A . papak : a cock with feathers like a hen. 

A . rinting batu : a speckled white and red 
fowl ; C. and S. 

A . rinting chempaka : a fowl with black flesh. 

A . sabongan : a fighting-cock. 

A , selaseh : a fowl black to the bones ; also 
a. hitam selaseh, 

A . tedong : a big black fowl. 

A . terona : a young cock ; a cock at a good 
age for cooking. 

A. togil : = a. bogil, 

Balong a, : the comb of a cock. 

Binchang a, : fastening a knot (in coils). 

Bnta a.: indistinctness of vision at night. 

Chakar a, : (i) the scratchings of fowls — a 
simile for bad hand-writing ; (2) a dish of ubi 
keledek, tepong jawi, etc. 

Chenonot a, and penchonot a. : that part of the 
fowl known as the pope's nose. 

Gelanggang a. : a cock-pit, 

Gembala a, : a man who looks after fowls ; 
a poultry-rearer. 

Jangkir a, : the hind claw of a fowl ; C. and S. 

Juwara a. : the trainer of a fighting-cock. 

Laii a, : ( Kedah ) a hen-house. 

Layar btdu a, : a peculiar sail intermediate 
between a lug and a latteen sail. 

Piyal a, : the gills of a cock; C. and S. 

Pupoh a, : cock-fighting without artificial 

Reban a, : (Riau, Johor) a hen-house ; = lau a, 

Sangkak a, : a single fowl's nest. 

Sangkar a, : a coop. 

Stisoh a, : the natural spurs of a fighting-cock. 

^\ ayum. Mengaymn : to lend money at interest 
r for gambling or any other bad object, Pijn. ; 
to keep bad company, Kl. 

/^u\ im&n. Arab. Creed; beHef; religion; the 
True Faith (unless otherwise specified), /. 
orang China : the Chinese religion. 

Membawa i, : to accept the True Faith ; to 
become a Muhammadan ; Ht. Isk. Dz. Maka 
Raja Kidahindi'pun membawa tmdn4ah jadi 
Islam: King Kidahindi accepted the faith and 
became a Moslem ; Sej. MaL, 6. Bawa imdn 
kapada Allah: place your belief in God; Ht. 
Jay. Lengg. 

Birimdn : believing ; possessed of belief. 
Hati yang b, : a believing heart. 





imat. [ Arab. ^ . ] Solicitude ; 

emul. Officious intrusion or questioning; 
importuning. Mengemtd : to officiously beg 
for anything day after day ; to pay continual 
visits where one's company is not desired ; to 

Also ( Kedah ) hermiL 

CX' ayan. [ Eng. iron,^ Corrugated iron; gal- 
vanized tinned iron, as used for roofing. 

Cjir ayun. Swaying; swinging; rocking. Lak- 
sana bahtera di-ayim gelombang : like a vessel 
tossed by the waves; Sh. Bur. Nuri., ii. 

Aytm-ayunan : a cradle ; a swing ; a ham- 

Beraytm and mengayim : (intransitive) to 
swing ; to rock. Matahari berayim : the sun 
is beginning to swing down, i.^., at about 
4 p.m., when the shadows begin to rapidly 
lengthen ; Ht. Sri Rama. Aytm temayim : 
(Selangor) id.; the sun hovering on the verge 
of decline ; about 4 p.m. 

Orang menanggok ikan sepaty 
Dapat sa-ekor di-sawak padi ; 

Terlepas kiri kanan ta' -dapat; 
Tolak iangga berayun kaki : 

he gave up the left, and failed to get the right ; 
he kicked away the ladder and was left 
dangling in the air — a proverb applied to a 
man who falls between two stools or gets 
nothing by aiming at too much. 

Mengayun lenggang : swaying about ; reeling 
as a drunken man ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

ini. This. /. juga : this very. /. piUa : this 
also ; this as well, 

Sini {= sa-mi): this place; here. Di-mii : 
in this place. 

Ini is sometimes used to give more precision 
to any expression. Aku ini: I myself. 
Sekarang ini : this very time. 

inas. I. Pekong inas : a malignant ulcer on 
the shoulders ; a carbuncle ; = pepah and 
penyakit raja, 

1 1. A bamboo contrivance to make a kite 
give out a humming sound when flown. 

Inas is also the name of a lofty mountain in 
Perak and of a State in the Negri Sembilan. 

inang. Female attendant on a young prin- 
cess; nurse; chamber- woman. Mak inang: 
id. Penghulu inang : the principal duenna to 
a young princess ; the lady controller of her 

Inangda : = inang, but in more respectful 
language; Ht. Jay. Lengg., Ht. Jay. Asm. 

Inang or mak inang is also the descriptive 
epithet given to one of the four players at a 
ma'yong, i.e.: ma'yong, pa'yong, mek seni^ and 
peran, or rnayong, pa'yong, inang and pengasoh, 
the inang being the attendant on the princess 
(ma'yong) and the pengasoh on the prince 

^j inangda. See inang, 

l3^' enak. Pleasantness ; the giving of enjoyment 
to the senses, Daging di-makan enak : 
delicious meat ; Sh. Tab. Mimp., 13 ; cf. Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 185, 301. Tidor enak: pleasant 
sleep ; Sh. Dag., 6. Jika tnwan sudikan kami 
sunggoh enak kita berdtma: if my lord is 
pleased with me the pleasure will truly be 
shared by both ; Ht. Ind. Nat. 



mm = ini, V. ,\ 




Jav. Princely; — a word confined in use 
to Javanese titles and names. Raden Inu 
Keriapati : the name of the hero known as 
Seri Panji or Siva Panji, 

inai. [ Arab. \^j^ . ] Henna ; the name of a 

shrub yielding a red dye ; lawsonia alba. The 
name is applied to the dye as well as to the 
plant. Tcrpandang-lah tdch ptiteri akan jari 
tang an dan kaki baginda itic merah dengan inai: 
the princess saw that the fingers and toes of 
the monarch were red with henna ; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 127. 

/. bain : a pink balsam, impaticus griffithii, 

L paya : the water balsam, hydrocera triflora. 

Malum i. : the first night of the proper 
wedding festivities among Malays : the night 
on which the hands of the bride are dyed with 

Sipid i. : the name of a shell, mitra episcopalis. 
iC'} ini. This; see .^\ 

ji} ayo. Jav. An interjection of welcome; a 
salutation ; oh. 

J\ ayu. Jav. Fair, handsome; a complimentary 
descriptive epithet applied to Javanese heroes 
and heroines. Raden a, : the queen ; 
(literally) the fair princess. Saphii suwara 
orang yang ayu mom nihnujok isUri-nya : like 
the voice of a fair young man making love to 
his wife ; Ht. Sh. &mbok a, or mak ayu : a 
complimentary form of address when address- 
ing aged ladies ; '* fair mother." 

Mak ayu, baik mimpi-nya; 

Mimpi menggunting tangan baju; 
Pokok kayu sama tinggi-nya 

Ikut mana angin nak lain: 

the good old lady is enjoying pleasant dreams; 
she dreams she is cutting out a sleeve. 


[ 72 ] 


jA iyau. (Onom.) Mengiyau ; to mew, of a cat. 

jV iyu. A dog-fish, a shark; also hiyu and 
yUf q. V. 

(y^\ aiwan. Pers. A palace ; a court of justice. 

^J^} aylib. Arab, The patriarch Job. 

J>ji\ ayuta. Million ; v. juta. 

*H^ ayah. Father ; sire ; uncle — a more respect- 
ful expression than bapa^ and one invariably 
used when speaking of the father of a prince. 
A . bonda : father and mother ; parents. 

Ayahanda: an even more respectful equi- 
valent of bapa, 

^ ayoh. An interjection expressive of distress 
or sorrow. 

Ayoh Allah! apa-kan jadi ; 

Malam berjaga siyang berkubu : 

woe is me, oh God ! how can it end ? — this 
watching all night and manning forts all day ; 
Sh. Raj. Haj., 182. 

-Xx^i ayahanda. Father, sire; a very respectful 
variant of ayah, q. v. 

CUM anyut. Drifting ; better hanyut, q. v. 

ji^ anyir. Fishy, of odour ; better hanyir, q. v. 





anyang. Sweeping up rubbish into heaps. 
Kayti anyang : the name of a medicinal drug. 

anyek. Onyak-anyek : shaking continually ; 

dawdling over work ; uncertain though fre- 
quent in movement ; see onyak, 

anyam. Twisting; plaiting; basket or wicker- 
work ; working in mengknwang and wicker 

Menganyam : to work in wicker ; to make 
matting or basket-work ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

Teranyam : plaited ; worked — of wicker-work ; 
Ht. GuL Bak., 138. 

Snyah. To disappear ; to vanish ; see ennyah 
and nyah. 

s^ ba. The letter ba ; the symbol for the number 
2 in the A bjad, q. v. 

i bi. An Arabic prefix signifying "in/' ** with.*' 
Bi^smi'llahi : in the name of God. 
Bi'hi : with him. 

u bi.. The name of the letter ^^ . 

J\j b&b. Arab. Gate, entrance ; the opening up 
of entirely new subject matter in a book ; 
hence : a main subdivision of a work ; Ht. 
Abd., 473 ; Sh. Tab. Mimp., i ; a chapter of 
a Code of Law as distinct from a section 
(fasal); Laws of Palembang, p. 13. 

->« baba. A Straits-born European, Eurasian or 
Chinese ; v. babah, 

*}-i babat. A match, one of a pair or set. Sa- 
babat: exactly similar to; forming a match 
or set. 

Also babak and babap, 

Hindak benahdbat 
Chart sama babat: 

when you make a friend, seek one of your 
own class ; Prov. 






babit. The introduction of third parties into 
a dispute in which they are not directly con- 
cerned; dragging in the names of innocent 
persons into a case, or the involving of a 
family in the fault of one of its members. 

A chronicle ; a history ; a 

babad. L Jav. 
historical record. 

n. Jav. To fell. 

babar. Expansion ; the opening out or un- 
furling of any article with a large surface ; 
the spreading out of a sail. Keluwang di-babar : 
a bat with its wings stretched to their full 
expansion ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 29. Ikan di-kolam 
sudah-lah babar: the fish in the pond have 
scattered in all directions, t.e., from being a 
compact shoal they have spread over a large 
surface in their flight ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 8. Karang 
terbabar : widespread reefs; Pel. Abd., no. 

Babar is also used of a play being long 
dragged out, ** dragging its weary length 
along." Cf. babor, 

babor. Expansion in the centre, broad bodied ; 
broad bladed, of a weapon. Si-babor : the 
name given to a fe^m the blade of which is 
narrow near the handle and then broadens 
out. Tajak babor: a broad bladed grass- 
cutting knife. Cf. babar. 


[ 73 ] 


{j^S^. babas. Driven right out of one's course, 
whether by wind or by tides and currents 
when becalmed ; cf. biyas (which means that 
the course is merely deflected). Hujan babas : 
a threatening rainstorm which is dispersed or 
driven in another direction by a change of 
wind ; (also) the rainy intervals between the 



babang. Increase in size; enlargement, es- 
pecially of wounds ; widening. Lagi kechil 
ta'-mahu dt-ubat, sudah ter babang beharu mahu 
di-ubat : while the wound was small, they 
would not apply medicine to it ; now that it 
is gaping wide, they want to apply remedies ; 
— of a person allowed to grow up vicious ; 

babap. See babak I., and babat. 

^u babak- I. One of a set or series. Sa-babak: 

forming one of a set or series ; similarity. 
Also babat and babap, 

11. To staunch; to prevent the free flow 
of any liquid. 

\^M babok. Dull, dense, thick-headed ; also dimgu. 

JjVi babal. Stupid ; Ht. Perb. Jay. Better bebal, 
q. V. 

\\\ babil. Wrangling, altercation, dispute; a 
wordy war. Orang yang hamba lawan berbabil 
sekarang tadi Penghulu Iblis : he with whom I 
had that dispute a moment ago was the 
Penghulu Iblis (a prince of the devils) ; Ht. 
Mar, Mah. Perbabilan : an altercation ; Ht. 
Mar. Mah. 

Ck V baban and babun. A burden ; better beban, 
q. V. 

^y babu. I. Jav, A nurse; a Javanese ayah. 

II. Hind. A generic name given to Indians 
from Lower Bengal or Bombay. 

4jU babah. A **baba"; a name of uncertain 
derivation applied to Europeans and Eurasians 
when born in the Straits, and especially used 
to distinguish between Straits-born and im- 
migrant Chinese males. In Java the word 
appears to be sometimes honorific. Maka 
kata-ku : babah, di-mana-kah Umpat-nya orang- 
orang itu diyam : then said I, ** Baba, where 
do those people live ? " Ht. Abd., 306. Segala 
raja-raja dan nyonyah-nyonyah dan babah-babah 
dan nonah-nonah sakaliyan dudok-lah : then the 
rajas and the ladies, gentlemen and girls all 
took their seats ; Ht. Ind. Nat. 

i^\j babi. The generic name of the hog ; '*pig," 
as a term of abuse ; '* pig," as an emblem of 
all that is filthy. Anjing galak, babi berani : 
the dogs are the challengers but the pigs have 
the courage ; one side is ** bluffing " but the 
other means business ; Prov. Jangan4ah babi 
rasa gulai : do not let a pig have cooked meats 
to eat ; do not let the mean acquire a taste 
for what is too good for them ; Prov. 

B, bar an : a wild pig infesting low, swampy 

B.buta: recklessness, blind daring, Mem- 
babi buta : to act recklessly ; to behave in a 
foolishly headstrong way. 

B. duyong : a dugong, 

B.hutan: a jungle pig; sus vittatus or sus 

B.kunis: a tree ( trigonochlamys griffithit) 
also known qls pauh kijang. 

B, nangul or 6. nangui : a wild pig of small 
size and gregarious habits. Muntah b. nangul: 
an earthworm. 

B. rantai or b, berantai : a fabulous boar, the 
tushes of which are believed to be connected 
by a chain of two or three links, rendering the 
animal invulnerable, Bcsi rantai babi: iron 
obtained from such a chain ; iron of magic 

B. rusa : the name of an animal peculiar to 
the fauna of Celebes and its adjacent islands ; 
babirusa alfnrus, 

B, tanah : a species of wild pig ; sm vittatus, 

B, tunggal : a solitary boar of savage habits. 

Berangan b. : a generic name for oaktrees ; 
V, berangan. 

Bintang b. : the planet Venus, as an evening 

Bulu b. : ( I ) the bristles of a pig; (2) a sea- 
urchin with poisonous spikes. 

Biirong b. : the adjutant bird ; leptoptilus java- 

Buwah b. : a fruit { cryptomeria paniculata or 
cryptomeria pubescens ) . 

Chanar b. : a plant. 

Gila b. : epilepsy : also saw an b. 

Kachang b. : a bean. 

Ktitu b. : a bug. 

Rotan bulu b. : a kind of rattan. 

Rumput tahi b. : a small flowering shrub (also 
called daun susu babi). 
Sawan b. : epilepsy ; also gila 6. 
Siput b. : a large white shell. 

Tapak b. : ( Singapore ) the plant known as 
'* tapak Sulaimdn " ; ( Riau ) a creeper. 

j^Vi bata. I. A tile, a brick; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 13, 
Atapbata: a tiled roof. Batu bata: bricks; 
Sh. Sing. Terb., 21. 

II. Bata-bata: hesitating; in doubt. Ki^- 
bata-bataan : perplexity. 


[ 74 ] 




batir. Batir-batir : golden decoration on the 
tuli-tuli of a keris, KL ; the golden band used 
for fastening the keris scabbard to the belt, 
C. and S. 

bator. A passage, a corridor ; C, and S. 

batas. A little dyke separating padi fields or 
vegetable beds ; a partition of heaped-up earth 
which serves as a pathway when the fields are 
inundated. Batasan : ( Singapore ) a bound- 

Ada ubi ada batas : where you have potatoes, 
you have also dykes; a rhyming equivalent 
for ada hari btdeh balas ; see balas. 

batang. A stem ; a tree trunk ; a handle ; a 
descriptive prefix or numeral coefficient of long, 
narrow, cylindrical objects such as trees, logs, 
spears, cigars, fingers, torches, pens, pencils, 
blow-pipes, etc. ; a dead body (v* infra). 

J3. hidong : the bridge of the nose. Ludah 
ka4angit timpa batang hidong sendiri : to spit 
at the sky and get the saliva falling back on 
one's own nose ; Prov. 

B,joran: a fishing-rod. 

B. kaki : the leg. 

B, kayu : a tree-trunk. 

J5. leher : the neck. 

B. lengan : the arm. 

B. pengayoh : the handle of a paddle ; the 
cylindrical ( as opposed to the flat ) end. 

B, tuboh : the body. 

Barah b, : a long glandular abscess. 

Tenggiri b, : a species of fish with a long 
and somewhat cylindrical body. 

Sa-batang sumpitan : one sumpitan. Jari-nya 
duwa batang : two of his fingers. Damar ber- 
puloh'puloh batang : tens of torches. 

Sudah menjadi batang: a polite way of saying 

Apa batang-nya: what is its stem? An 
idiomatic way of enquiring after the origin 
or cause of anything. 

Batangan : or b. mUintang : a tree-trunk fallen 
or laid across a stream. 

Berbatang : with a handle or stem. Kayu 
bh'batang : a tree with a long trunk. Ber- 
batangkan tembaga snwasa: with stems of 
bronze (of padi) ; Sej. MaL, 30. 

Membatang : (i) to obstruct by lying across 
a channel (e, g., oi a sandbank) ; (2) to read 
the Koran without stopping to spell out the 
words (cf, mengeja from eja) ; to read fluently. 
Also mengaji batang. 

i3u batong, 1. (Bugis.) Tondrobatong:2LW3iist- 
^ * belt for carrying a keris ; better tali liyong, 

11. Batong-batong, or bebatong : a species 
of shell-fish (unidentified) ; Pijn. 




iUli batak. I. The name of an Indonesian race 
inhabiting the central portion of the northern 
part of Sumatra. Membatak : to rob, to 

II. Membatak : to wander about from place 
to place as a vagabond; to wander about 
doing odd jobs and not keeping constantly 
to any one form of work; to keep staying 
away from its proper abode, of a fowl that 
will not stick to its roost but keeps going 

III. Millet ; better menjelai ^ndjelai, 

batek. [Jav. batik, painting.] A descriptive 
name given to certain Javanese cloth fabrics, 
the patterns of which are painted on the 
cloth. Kain 6. ; a Javanese painted sarong. 
Sapu-tangan b, : a kerchief of Javanese painted 
cloth. Pinggan 6. : crockery of painted design. 
Bertenun b, : to weave cloth with a view to 
making these painted fabrics ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

The principal varieties of these fabrics are : 
b, keresek, b, lasum, b, betawi, b, Surabaya, b, 
sutera, 6. padang, and 6. bang, Empama batek 
lasum, makin basoh bertambah bau : like the 
fabric batek lasum, the more you wash it the 
rnore fragrant it becomes; improving with 
time; Prov. 

batok. I. Jav. A coco-nut shell ; the skull. 

B. kepala : the skull ; often written batu kepala, 

11. A cold; a cough. Batok dan bersin : 
coughing and sneezing; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 18; 
Ht. Gh, 

B. barah : a cough accompanied by loss of 
voice. B, barah angin : a dry cough ; a cough 
without phlegm. 

B. bertahun-tahun : a chronic cough. 

B, darah : a cough accompanied by spitting 
of blood. 

B. kering : a dry phthisical cough ; con- 
sumption ; Ht. Abd., 179. 

B. lelah : whooping cough, in adults. 

jB. sisek : whooping cough, in children, 

B, terok : a cough accompanied by much loss 
of phlegm. 

bb batel. A fruit, mangifera fcetida ; KL, Pijn., 

C. and S. 

J^\ batil. A metallic cup or small bowl, usually 
resting on a saucer (cheper) made of the same 
material; Sej. MaL, 125; Ht. Mash., 37. B, 
belanja : an ornamental or presentation bowl 
containing valuables. B. lauk : the larger 
kind of batil. Sampan batil ; a short and very 
beamy sampan ; Sej. MaL, 50. 

Pungkor b,: the ring at the bottom of a 
metal bowl or cup. Kaki b, : the saucer on 
which a batil rests. Laksana batil gangsa, 
retak ta'-buleh di-hubong tampong : like a vessel 
of brass, the cracks in which are not to be 
patched over ; a proverbial expression used of 
men who bear grudges persistently. 


[ 75 ] 


^\> batin. A native headman ; a chief of higher 
rank than a penghulu but not equal to an 
Orang Kaya : the chief of a tribe of aborigines 
or Orang Laut. B. Singapura : the head 
of the Orang Laut in Singapore; Ht. Hg. 
Tuw., 6. Berhimpun-lah batin sembilan suku : 
the headmen of the nine tribes assembled; 
Pel. Abd., III. CL jenang, 

Ikan b. : a large marine fish (unidentified). 

J^H batu. Stone ; a rock ; a massive solid object 
like a stone ; a pebble ; a gem ; a milestone ; 
a mile ; an anchor ; a numeral co-efficient for 

Untong sabut timbiily tmtong batu tenggelam : 
it is the lot of coco-nut husk to float ; it is 
the lot of stones to sink to the bottom ; men 
are constituted differently : why fight against 
fate ? Prov. Batu hitam ta' -bersanding : a 
black stone without angles ; a thing difficult 
to injure ; Prov. 

Batu besar berguling turun, 
Batu kechil berguling naik : 

the rocks come rolling down, the pebbles go 
rolling up ; the rich fall and the poor rise ; — 
a reversal of the usual order of things ; Prov. 
j5. ^akal : see tawakkul. 

B, ambar : a viscous substance which floats 
on the sea and is much sought after by fish ; 
better b, ^anbar, 

J5. api : a flint used for striking a light ; by 
metaphor, a scandal-monger, a talebearer, 
a fomenter of strife. 

B, arang : coal. Also arang b, 

B. asah : a stone on which medicines are 
pounded or ground down ; cf. b. pengasah and 
b. chanai, 

B. bata : a brick. 

J5. belanda : crystal. 

B. berani : also besi berani : the load-stone ; 
the magnet. 

B, bersarang : perforated limestone rocks in 
the orifices of which edible bird's nests are 

B, bisi : granite rock ; any hard rock. 

J5. bulang : a kind of dull diamond of little 
value ; cf. 6. johor. 

B. buyong : coins used by a pawang in an 

B. chanai: a round grindstone for sharpen- 
ing knives. 

B. cheremin : mica. 

B. daching : the weight used in a daching 

B. dapor : the stones on which a saucepan 
rests ; cf. also tumang and batu tungku. 

B.duga: a plummet; a sounding lead. Also 
penduga and peluga, 

B, geliga : a bezoar-stone. 

B. gemala: a talismanic stone; a gem 
possessing magical properties. 

B. giling : a stone roller for crushing curry 

B. jangka : a short sounding-Hne for boats. 

B. jemala : == 6, kepala, q. v. 

B. johor : [ Arab, jauhar ] a kind of dull 
diamond like, but not identical with, 6. bulang, 

B, kail: the lead of a fishing line; the 
weight to make a line sink. Also b. ladong, 

B, karang : coral rock; reef-formations; 
( also ) galena ore. 

B. kawi: manganese; (also) cinnabar. 

B, kelikir : coarse sand. 

B, kepala : the crown of the head ; the 
cranium ; see batoL This word is often used 
as a term of endearment. 

B, kepala tiyang : the rest in which the foot 
of a mast is placed. 

B, kerikil : crushed metal for roads. 

J5. lada : gravel. 

B. ladong : = b. kail, 

B, las: the stone (in its rough state) from 
which whetstones are made ; emery. 

B.lichin: smooth pebbles; stones smoothed 
by the action of water. 

B, lintar : fossil stone implements ; also b, 
halintar, and b. petir, 

B, marmar : marble. 

jB. mas hurong : iron pyrites. 

B, melaka : diamonds (the suit in playing 
cards ) ; floor tiles, paving stones. 

B, merah : laterite rock. 

B. nilam : sapphire. 

B. pasir : sandstone. 

B. pengasah : a smooth whetstone. 

JB. perak : silver ore. 

B.peti: a cubical foundation stone. 

B, petir : v. 6. lintar, 

B, puwalam : alabaster. 

B, roboh: debris, masses of broken rock after 
a landslip or cataclysm ; see also infra, 

jB. sauh : a native anchor : the stone in a 
native anchor. 

B. sempadan : a boundary stone. 

B, tagar : a meteoric stone ; also ( according 
to Malay belief) a stone which shoots up 
through the ground as by volcanic action. 

B. telerang: gold-reef; quartz. 

B, timbangan : weights used in a balance. 

jB. timbul : pumice-stone. 

B. ubin : dlso jubin and rubin; floor tiles. 

B. uji : touchstone. 

B. ular : (i) the bezoar stone believed by 
Malays to be used by a snake and to possess 
luminous quahties; (2) a black stone which is 
said to have talismanic properties antidotal 
to snake bite. 

A kar b. : a climbing plant ; byttneria maingayi. 

Ayer b. : ice. 


t 76 ] 


Barah b, : a hard round abscess or tumour. 

Champak 6. : to throw a stone at anything — 
a Malay expression corresponding to our 
** shaking the dust off our feet.'* 

Chap b. : lithography. 

Gula 6. : loaf sugar. 

Ikan b. : a fish, crenidens sarissophorus, 

Juru b, : the petty officer in charge of the 
anchor and moorings of a ship. 

Kayu b, : a very hard wood ; blumea lacera. 

Kepala b. : massive rocks at the end of a 
promontory ; (also) stones placed on anything 
to prevent it being blown away. 

Landak b, : an animal of the hedgehog type ; 
atherura fasciculata. 

Murai 6. ; a bird ; see murai, 

Rumah b. : a stone or brick, as opposed to a 
wooden or attap house. 

Sa-buwah 6. : a stone. 

Gigi duwa b. : two teeth. Cf. suwatu = 
sa-batUy by etymology. 

Membatu : to remain hard when cooked, as 
very old beans; to be stony. M. roboh, or 
b. roboh : an expression used of any exceptional 
celebration, such as a double wedding or 
festivities on an event of very rare occurrence, 
such as a jubilee. Batu roboh semuwa-nya 
hita kahwtnkan: let us make an exceptional 
festival of it by holding all these weddings 
simultaneously ; Ht. Mas. Ed. Tertawa mem- 
batu roboh, or Urtawa sapMi batii roboh : roars 
of laughter; Ht. Best. 

45\i batoh. A gambler. 

ijri bati. Indissoluble blending or union. Sehaya 
dengan diya sa-bati : he and I are one in 
interest — you cannot injure one without affect- 
ing the other. 


baja. I. [ Skr. wajra. ] Steel ; also the 
process of making steel ; tempering ; improv- 
ing; manuring. 

Anak raja mudek ka-Daik, 

Masok ka-taman mandi di-kolam; 
Kalau ami baja yang baik, 

Sadikit di-chanai menjadi tajam : 
if the tempering is well done from the first, 
a little whetting will restore its sharpness. 

Tuwan laksana barang bBrbaja, 
Sakaliyan bhi menjadi guna : 
you, Sir, are like good tempering which 
renders all iron valuable ; " whatever you 
touch turns into gold '* ; Prov. 

Tanah yang tiyada birbaja lagi : unmanured 
land; Ht. Abd., 475, Kadok khia baja: 
coarse sireh when manured; ill weeds grow 
apace; Prov. 

Bajakan : to manure padi shoots by dip- 
ping them in manure on taking them out of the 
nursery and keeping them in the manure for 
two days before transplanting them. 


II. An oily preparation made by burning 
coco-nut shell and used for staining the teeth. 
MSmbakar b, : to burn coco-nut shell for 
making this stuff; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

III. A plough; better bajak^ q. v. 

^H bajang. An evil spirit generated by the blood 
shed in childbirth. This spirit can be used 
as a familiar spirit. M^naroh b, : to keep 
such a familiar spirit in one's service. Gelang 
b, : an armlet worn by a child as a protection 
against the influence of these evil spirits. 

Tapak bajang and kuku bajang: a peculiar 
pattern ; a trapeze, the base of which is shorter 
than the opposite side ; projecting pieces of 
wood in this shape which are intended to fit 
into corresponding notches in another plank 
and so join the two planks together more 
firmly. Baju b. : a sort of swallow-tailed baju 
or coat; Sej. Mai., 390. 

bajing. Jav. A squirrel; properly tupat, q. v. 

bajak. I. (Riau, Johor) A plough ; = 
( Kedah ) tenggala. 
Mata b. : the ploughshare. 
Tiyang b. : the shank. 
Sungkal 6. : the board of a ploughshare. 

II. Jav. A pirate; Ht. Koris. Better 

^3>-\.» bajik. [Jav. bechik = baik, ] Kebajikan : 
kindness, goodness, advantage. Chap kebaji- 
kan atas kedtiwa pehak : the seal of mutual good 
will; Ht. Abd., 472. Mendatangkan kebajikan 
dan fd'idah : to bring profit and advantage ; 
Ht. Abd., 105. 

^^\ bajan. [Skr. bhdjana,] A basin. Ambil 
darah jantong-nya itu, buboh pada suwatu bajan 
yang besar : take his heart's blood and place it 
in a large basin ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 329. Better 
bejana^ q. v. 

j>-u bajau. I. The name of an Indonesian race 
of sea-gipsies ; a semi-piratical race residing 
on the E. and N. coast of Borneo and W. 
coast of Celebes. 

Kurong b, : a cabin with an entrance from 
above, and not, as is often the case with Malay 
ships, opening into the well of the ship. 

II. (Singapore) Speed, rapidity of work. 

j>-\j baju. An outer garment for the upper part of 
the body ; a coat, 

B, anggerka : a long overcoat or surtout ; Ht. 
Abd., 419. 

B,-baju: a fern (unidentified) ; T. S. A. S., 
III., 108. 

B, bajang: a kind of swallow-tailed coat; 
Sej. Mai., 390. 

J5. belah or b. belah dada: a baju which is 
open in front. 


[ n ] 



B, best : a steel coat ; Ht. Hamz., 6i ; Ht. Sh. 
Mard. Orang tuwa bongkok memakaz baju 
best: a humpback in a breastplate; a tortoise. 

B. hujan : a mackintosh ; a rain-coat. 

B.jubbah: v. jubbah, 

B. kanji pSrak : a singlet of foreign make. 

B. kafak : a kind of native-made singlet. 

B.kot: (Eng. coat) an English-made coat. 

B. kotong : a sleeveless 6. kurong, q. v. Also 
6. katong; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

B. kurong : the ordinary Malay upper gar- 
ment, a baju closed up in front with only a 
small opening below^ the neck to permit of the 
head passing through; Kam. Kech., ii. 

B. meskat: a coat with an ornamental collar, 
worn at weddings. 

jB. panas : an overcoat. 

B. pesak sa-belah : a double-breasted baju, 

B. pesak enam : a coat made with six seams 
running down its body. 

B, pokok : a kind of b, kotong worn in war. 

B, rantai : a coat of chain mail. Penikam b. 
rantai : a long heavy pike intended to pierce 
through a coat of mail. 

B, seroja : a coat with a quilted collar; Sej. 
MaL, 390. 

B. sika: a Bugis baju with tight sleeves slit 
at the ends. 
B. tanggong : a buttonless baju, 

B. tekwa: a long, tight, sleeveless coat, said 
to be of Bugis origin ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

B.teratai: a coat similar to b, seroja) Ht. 
Sh. Kub. 

B. top : a loose baju with very loose sleeves ; 
a bajti^ worn by women only. 

B, ubor : a coat with a hanging collar; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. 

Kain 6. : sarong and baju ; clothes generally. 
Ranching b, : a native button. 

Kekek b, : a piece of cloth let in under the 

Pesak b, : the pieces of cloth let into the side 
of a Malay baju to allow it to hang properly. 

Saku b, : the pocket of a coat. 

Tangan b. : the sleeve of a coat ; also len- 
gan b, 

baji. A small thin wedge; a wedge-shaped 
piece of wood thrust into a gap to prevent 
anything shaking, e.g., as when a mast-rest is 
too wide for a mast and anything is driven in 
to keep it tight. Baji dahan membelah dahan : 
a wedge made of a branch splits a tree branch ; 
an inferior profiting at his superior's cost ; an 
inferior being employed to ruin his master ; 

Pokok ara ada di-ulu, 

Tibang orang membuwat rakit ; 
Kera b^rmain baji kayu, 
Baji t^rchabut ekor tersSpit : 



when a monkey plays with a wooden wedge, 
the wedge gets pulled out and his tail gets 
jammed in ; don't meddle with what you do 
not understand ; Prov. 

Baji'baji : a saltwater fish shaped something 
like a wedge ; platycephalus rnacracanthus, 

B, belah : a wedge for splitting open any- 

B, rapat : a wedge for filling up an interstice 
and so tightening anything 

bacha. Reading; the recitation of prayers or 
of set formulae ; the utterance of incantations. 

Bachaan : reading, the process or art of read- 
ing. Tanda b, : the diacritical marks used 
with the Arabic alphabet; Ht. Abd., 149. 

Bachakan, membacha, and membachakan : to 
read ; to have read ; to get anything read or 
uttered. Membacha-bacha : to keep reading. 
M. Hlmu : to utter magical formulae ; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya. M. didalam hati : to read silently ; to 
repeat mentally. 

Pembacha : a reader, a reciter ; Sh. Jub. MaL 

ysAj bachar. Eagerness to put in a word; the 
" ' talkativeness of a man who does not wait to 
be asked before giving his opinion ; leaky, of 
the mouth ; cf. bochor and bachir. 






bachir. Bochor -bachir : very leaky, very 
watery ; an intensitive of bochor y q. v. Bochor 
bachir pida tahi-nya : he suffered from bad 
diarrhoea; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

bachang. A coarse mango or jack-fruit; 
mangifera fcetida ; Ht. Raj. Haji, 183. Also 
embachang, membachang and machang. The 
word is also applied to a bubo, from its shape. 

bachak. The name of a palm bush, the 

leaves of which are used as ci garette- wrappers ; 
C. and S. 

bachok. Bamboo vessels for carrying milk, 
water, etc. ; C. and S. 

bachul. Timid, spiritless. Ayam 6. : a cock 
that won't fight. 

bachin. Foul, fetid, stinking; the smell of 
decayed fish. 

b^khil. Arab. Covetous, avaricious; Sh. 
Abd. Mk., 89. 

bdd. Pers. The wind ; = angin, Bala bdd : 
= di-atas angin. Zir bad : = di-bawah angin. 
See angin. 

bada. Plantain fritters; C. and S. 
badut. [ Jav. bodud. ] A jester ; a buffoon- 


[ 78 ] 


j^V) badar. A species of edible freshwater fish ; 










( Penang. ) A pimp ; more usually 

^V badong. I. A fish ( unidentified) 


badang. A large round bamboo tray or sieve 
used either for sifting grain or for supporting 
objects put out to dry ; cf. nytru. 

11. Jav. A sort of gorget or breastplate 
worn by a child. 

badak. A generic name for the rhinoceros. 

B, apt : a savage legendary rhinoceros, some- 
times described as being hairy and red, some- 
times as having a luminous horn. 

B.gajah: the one-horned (Javan) rhino- 
ceros ; rhinoceros jav aniens . 

B.himpit: (Kedah) a small tapir. 

J5. kerbau : the two horned (Sumatran) 
rhinoceros ; rhinoceros snmatranus, 

B. raya : a large rhinoceros ; a rhinoceros 
of the largest type. 

B.tampong: (Kedah) a tapir; = ( Riau, 
Johor) tenok, 

B. tumang : the rhinoceros, so called from its 
three toes. 
B. ubi: another name for the b, gajah, 
Lidah b, : a climbing aroid : pothus latifolins, 
Sumbu b. : the horn of a rhinoceros. 
Sayang anak badak tampong, 
Chuchu kumm badak raya; 
Kanak'kanak yang di-dukong 
Si-apa ptda bapa diya ? 

it is sad that the son should be a tapir, and 
the grandson a royal rhinoceros ; who then is 
the father of the child that you hold in your 
arms ? It is a wise child that knows its own 
father; Prov. 

badek. A kind of small knife sharpened on 
one side only. 

badok. I. Shapeless; of uncertain size 
C. and S. 

IL A fish (unidentified), the ear of which is 
said to bear some resemblance to that of a 

badam. L Bunga b, : patches on the skin 
explained as the symptoms of incipient leprosy. 

11 . Pers. An almond. 
badan. The body ; see ^ j^ 

badai. I. Behaviour, carriage, deportment ; 
C. and S. 

II. Drifting together ; adhering, of drift- 
wood, which collects in masses on the surface 
of the water ; C. and S. 

III. A squall, a sudden gust of wind attri- 
buted to the agency of the spirits of the sea ; 
cf. badi. 

(S^\ badi. L A nervous fit; sudden and inex- 
plicable fits of trembling, attributed by Malays 
to supernatural agency ; the sense of being 
haunted; the infection of a disease; panic fear; 
the ill-luck of a place. Kena b, : to be seized 
with sudden fear. Membuwang b. : to drive 
away the evil influences which haunt a spot. 

Also bahadi; cf. J. I. A., L, 316, 321, 

IL (Penang and Kedah.) A small knife or 
sickle used in padi harvesting. 

j\ bara. I. Live coals; red-hot cinders. jB. 
apt : id. Jangan di-genggam bara, rasa hangat 
di'lepaskan : do not grasp live embers : you will 
drop them on feeling the heat ; do not fight 
against the inevitable ; you will only suffer 
for it ; Prov., Marsd. Gr., 210 ; Bint. Tim., 16 
Jan,, 1895.; Ht. Sg. Samb. Genggatn bara apt 
biyar jadi arang : if you grasp live coals, grasp 
them till they become mere charcoal ; if you 
undertake a desperate enterprise, throw your- 
self desperately into it ; half measures are use- 
less in a great crisis ; Prov. 

Lipan 6. : a very venomous red centipede. 

IL Tolakbara: ballast, Ht. Abd., 65; see 

III. Sara-bara : io-gsy -tuTvy, helter-skelter; 
Sh. Sing. Terb., 9, 49 ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 2 ; 
Ht. Abd., 64, 135. Chakar b. : scratched all 
over ; better chakar balar. 

IV. [Hind, bard.] Great, large (in nautical 
terms only used by lascars on European types 
of ships). 

\) barat. West; the West. J5. laut : the N. 
W. B» tepat : due west. B. daya : S. W. 

Sokong b, : to move a house so as to make it 
face west (towards Mecca). 

Sesatb.: confused; muddled; Sh. K. G. T. 
9; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Ikan barat'barat : the name of an edible sea- 
water fish, triacanthus strigilifer ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 

7» 19- 

Timor beraleh sa-belah barat : the East turn- 
ing West ; topsy-turvidom ; the reversal of 
nature's rules ; the Greek calends ; Prov. 

A> barut. The act of bandaging ; a wrapper, a 
bandage. Di-ambil-nya kain lain di-barut-nya 
pada mala luka : he took a piece of cloth and 
wrapped it round the mouth of the wound ; 
Ht. Hg. Tuw., 95. 

Barut is also used for a kind of bodice worn by 
a child when he is some months old ; cf. 
bedong. B. kereta and 6. gantong : children's 
clothes. B. panjang : a bandage worn by a 
woman after childbirth. 

Budak berlampin kena bedong 
Besar sa-dikit memakai barut: 

a child in swaddling clothes wears the bedong^ 
but when a little bigger he puts on the barut ; 
(from a Pantun). 




[ 79 ] 


^^^u baris. I. Aline; a row; a file of soldiers; 
a diacritical mark. 

B, bujor : formation in column (of men). 

B, di-atas, b, di-bawah, and b, di-hadapan : 
the Malay names for the Arabic vowel marks, 
fathah, kasr and dlammah; Ht. Abd., 145. 

J5. laksamana: the double triangle (in art). 

B. mati : the diacritical mark, known in 
Arabic as jazm, 

B, sipahi : a line of soldiers. Bartsan ser- 
dadu : id., Sh. Panj. Sg. Di-ajar-nya baris: 
he taught them drill. Membaris : to drill. 
Berjalan berbaris-baris : to walk side by side — 
as opposed to berjalan berbuntut-btmtut, to 
walk in Indian file. 

II. Baris-baris: small flying insects; = bari- 
bari, q. v. 

{^J^{ barus. The name of a Sumatran port. Ka- 
por b, : camphor. 

Pokok 6. ; a tree ; garcinia, sp. 

P\J^, barang. Indefiniteness ; anything of an in- 
definite character ; things in general ; articles 
with the idea of indefiniteness attaching to 
them ; anything ; any, 

B.apa: anything whatever; anything that. 
JB. kata-mti : anything that you may say ; any 
words of yours. 

B. di~mana : anywhere ; in any place. 

J5. bila : whenever. B. ka-mana : anywhere; 
to any place. Barang enam tujoh puloh orang : 
some 60 or 70 men. B, kala : whenever, Ht. 
Par. Ptg. ; = b, bila, B, kali', perhaps. 

B, -barang: (i) goods; property in general ; 
(2) ordinary ; common. Bukan barang-barang 
elok-nya: her beauty was no ordinary beauty. 

Barang y at the beginning of a long sentence, 
gives to that sentence the meaning of the 
expression of a hope or wish. Barang di-peli- 
harakan A llah daripada segala marabehaya : 
may God preserve it ( my city of Malacca) 
from all perils ! Ht. Abd., 6. 

Sa-barang : whatever. 

Potong kayu di4epi paya, 

Budak-budak memotong rotan; 

Tuwan ta^-tahu, di-hati sehaya, 

Sa-barang kehendak sehaya turutkan : 

you do not know that I yield to every incli- 
nation which may arise in my heart. 

p J u baring. Extended horizontally at full length ; 
^ * the attitude of a man lying down. 

Berbaring : to lie down ; to stretch oneself 
on the ground or on a couch. 

Baringkan : to lay down (anyone, e,g,^ a 
wounded man) in a horizontal position; to 
put a man to bed ; Ht. Abd., 247 ; Ht. Mar. 
Mah. Membaringkan : id, ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tirbaring : lying down stretched out at full 
length; Sh. Pr. Ach., 11. 


jV; barong. I. A booth; a stall; Sej. Mai., 
i4i» 33; a building of a less temporary 
character than a pondok, but not intended for 
permanent residence ; a term used (as being 
more poHte than pondok) for a temporary 
house occupied by a raja, or, in affected 
humility, by a raja when speaking of his 

Barong is also used of the sheds erected 
by strolling players or dancers. Sana-lah 
orang main barongan : there are people 
giving a performance in those booths; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. 

Pokok b, : a tree, eleocarpus robusttis. 

II. With, together with ; Cr. 

III. (Dutch.) Baron. B. laksamana: the 
lord admiral ; Pijn. 

IV. A dent in a chain of hills allowing of 
a pass ; a road between hills as distinct from 
a road on the flat (lorong), Berbarong : 
dented, of a range of hills. 

^j\i barek. Veined; variegated in shade; marks 
of the same colour but of a different shade 
visible in paper or cloth under certain con- 
ditions of light, — as the water mark in paper 
or as certain patterns in silk. 

Pokok b, : a shrub ; antidesma leucoclades. 
iSj barok. The name of a tribe of Orang Laut. 


\i baran. I. Low swampy jungle. Babi b. : 
the wild pigs infesting marshes. 

II. Baran-baran : also bebaran : a shell 


\j barau. 1. Barau-barau: a, singing bird; Ht. 
Raj. Sul., I ; (unidentified). 

II. Ikan baraii'barau : a fish, priacanthus 
blochii. Also sebarau, and bebarau. 

^Xi bam. I. A sea-shore tree, the wood of 
which is used for various small articles and 
the bast as fibre; hibiscus tiliaceiis; Sh. Lamp., 


J5. China : the common wormwood ; artemisia 

B, gimong : a tree (paritium simile, according 
to Crauford). 

B. landak : an ornamental shrub ; hibiscus 

B, laut : the common baru ; hibiscus tiliaceus ; 
also guettarda speciosa. 

Ikan bunga b., or ikan daun b. : an edible 
saltwater fish (unidentified). 

11. l^ew ] see beharu. 


[ 80 ] 





barah. Boil ; abscess ; ulcer ; tumour. 
B. batang : a long glandular tumour. 

jB. batti: a hard roundish boil or tumour 
which does not break. 
B. impang : a large internal abscess. 

B. gajah : an eruption of small internal abs- 
J5. kelawar : an abscess under the armpit. 

JB. kepala beruwang : an abscess on the shoulder 
or knee. 

J5. kepala harnnau : an abscess or gathering 
under the ankle bone. 

B. ktmdor burok : an abscess above the knee, 
the inflammation of which extends past the 
knee to the calf. 

B. nangka : an abscess on the calf. 

jB. raja : a malignant tumour. 

B. sisek : a kind of boil resulting in a scaly 

B, skip : a liver abscess bursting into the lung. 

B. ular : a long bubonic inflammation. 

baroh. Land low-lying as compared with 
the position of the speaker ; land below one ; 
relatively low-lying land; the sea, the sea- 
coast, relative to people living a little inland ; 
the lower slopes of a hill relative to the upper. 

barai. An edible saltwater shell-fish (un- 

bari. I. Bari'bari : small flies which are 
very fond of fruit. Tuboh-nya kechil saperti 
bari'bari : a body small as that of a fruit-fly ; 
Sh. Sg. Ranch., 28, 

II. Arab. The Creator, God. Firman 
ban : the Creator's command ; Sh. Lail. 

Mejn., 51. Yd ban: Oh God, the Creator! 
Muj., 16. 

III. Pers. A complimentary epithet ; excel- 
lent, noble ; see behari. 

IV. A moveable hatch or planking in a 
Malay boat. 

bfi.Z. Arab. Hawk. 


jj^, bd*zar. Pers. Bazaar ; usually pasar. 

basong. I. Pointed excrescences from the 
roots of certain trees like the berembang and 
perepat. Also bangsong. 

II. A cylindrical envelope of bark for raw 
sago ; cf. tampin, q. v. Also bangsong. 

III. Half seasoned; hard outside and soft 
within, of wood, 

IV. Buwal basong: empty chatter; C. and S. 

V. A set of twenty-four ; a double dozen ; 
a collective equal to two dozen. 

basal. A kind of yellowish swelling following 
certain diseases; jaundice. This word is 

used as an equivalent of the Arabic ^\s, 

(jaundice) in the Hay. Haiw. 
B. apt : erysipelas. 





basau. I. Hard to the teeth when, to be 
good, it should be soft (as an underdone 

II. Anaemic; C. and S. = basal? 

basah. L Wet, steeped in water, saturated 
with moisture. Ta'-payah basah kaki tangan : 
it is not difficult to get one's hands and feet 
wet; it is not difficult to be generous with 
the money of others; Prov. Sadikit hujan 
banyak yang basah : a little rain but many 
wetted ; much cry and little wool ; Prov. 
Karam b^rduwa basah sa-orang : two men are 
wrecked, but only one gets wet ; two men 
embark on an enterprise and one monopolizes 
the results ; Prov. Beras basah : wet rice ; 
rice that will fetch nothing; worthless talk; 
Prov. Ubat basah : wet gunpowder ; powder 
that will not go off"; a story that ** won't 
wash''; Prov. Rendam ta' -basah : steeped in 
water, it will not get wet ; you may try to get 
blood out of a stone but you will get none ; a 
description of a miser ; Prov. 

B. kuyup : wringing wet; Pel. Abd., 128. 

Basahan, kain basah, or kain basahan : bathing 
clothes; cheap or old garments fit only for 
wear in the bath. Kain basah keying di- 
pinggang: bathing garments allowed to dry 
on the person ; the poverty of a man who has 
to use the same clothes in and out of the 
bath ; Prov. Kain jadi basahan : clothes 
reduced to use at the bathing place; a descent 
in the social scale ; Prov. 

Di-atur pula dengan kursi, 

Tempat makan buwah buwahan; 

Laksana bunga jadi peraksi^ 
Sa-untpama kain jadi basahan : 

as flowers reduced to making scent, as clothes 
reduced to use in the bath ; with beauty gone 
and utility alone remaining ; Prov., Sh. Pant. 
Shl„ 2. 
Basahkan : to wet, 

II. An expression used in cockfighting when 
a cock has wounded another, or of a winner 
in gambhng when he has **bled" his opponent 
freely. Basah-lah aku sa-kali ini : I have won 
all I wanted this time. 

III. Gently, lightly; see behasa II. 

basoh. Washing, cleansing with water, 
rinsing. SapMi ayer basoh tangan : like water 
used for washing the hands; a symbol of 
abundance; Prov., Ht. Abd., 10, 406. Akan 
membasoh kaki tangan : for washing one's 
hands and feet; for one's absolute use; Prov., 
Ht. Abd., 397. Linchin bagai basoh perahu : 
smooth, as when a ship is washed; cleaned 
out, as a washed down deck ( of a man who 
has lost all his money). 
Basohkan: to wash off; to remove by wash- 
ing ; Ht. Abd., 248, 396. 

Membasoh : to wash ; to clean by washing. 

Membasohkan : = membasoh akan; Ht. Abd., 

Ayer pMbasoh kaki : water for washing the 
feet; Ht. Ind. Nata; Ht. Sh. Kub. 


[ 8i ] 



basi. I. An allowance over and above the 
calculated amount ; a small extra allowance 
to allow for contingencies or to. keep on the 
safe side in matters of expenditure. 

II. Mustiness, staleness, as the result of 
anything being kept too long. Ayer liyor basi: 
the dried matter about the mouth on rising 
in the morning. Nasi gulai pun hendak basi : 
the curry and the rice are spoiling ; Ht. Best. 
Ketupat yang sudah basi : a keUipat ( Malay 
dish) kept too long; Ht. Si. Misk., 5. 

bashah. [ Pers, badshah, through Turkish. ] 
A Turkish pasha; Pel. Abd., 149. 

batal. Arab. Idle; vain, useless; Sh. Ul., 
6;' Ht. Gh, 

batin. Arab. Hidden; secret; esoteric — the 
converse of dldhir : obvious. Tuhan yang 
mengetahuwi dldhir dan bdtin : God who 
knoweth the revealed and the concealed ; Ht. 
Abd., 279. Adapun segala yang budiman itii 
apabila iya melihat yang dldhir itu maka di- 
ketahuwi-nya4ah yang bdtin : the wise, when 
they perceive the revealed, know the concealed 
(by inference); Ht. Kal. Dam., ^y. Cf. also 
Sh. Peng., 10; Muj., 28. 

^li baghi. Arab. Tyrant, rebel. 

bangat. Speed ; rapidity ; extreme speed ; 
stronger than lekas . Meranchong kalam jangan- 
lah bangat : do not be too quick over sharpen- 
ing your pen ; Sh. Nasih., 5. Jika tuwanku 
hendak bangat-bangat semboh: if you, my Lord, 
desire to be healed with the maximum of 
speed ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

Bangat amat suchi : extreme cleanliness ; the 
maximum of cleanliness ; Sej. Mai., 57. 

Bangat-bangat : very extreme rapidity ; an 
intensitive of bangat; Ht. Isk. Dz. 

J^^. bangar. I. Putrid, of long stagnant water; 
foul, in the extreme, of the smell of decaying 

11. Ingar bangar: great uproar; Sh. UL, 
20. Also engar 6. and hengar 6.; Ht. Best. 
See ingar, of which it is a variant for inten- 
sitive formation. 

(J^V* bangun. I. The act of rising to an upright 
position ; the position risen to ; the form of 
anything rising or sloping upwards, such as 
the shape of a skull ( Ht. Mash., 20), or 
house, or as the formation of written 
characters ; the carriage or bearing of a man. 
Terlalu takut bangun-nya : he bears himself 
like a man in great fear; Ht. Best. Akan 
orang muda ini bukan sa-barang orang bangun- 
nya : as for this young man his bearing is not 
that of an ordinary man ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. 
Jatohb.: falHng and rising; stumbhng along. 


B. -bangun: shape, form; the carriage of a 
person ; Ht. Abd., 237. 

B. bangunan .' ( i ) a fortified turret, battle- 
ments; (sometimes membangun) a crow's nest 
in a stockade; Sej. MaL, 15; Pel. Abd., 56; 
Ht. Ind. Jaya; Ht. Koris; (2) a scaffolding of 
any sort; a grand stand; Ht. Nakh. Muda, 58. 

Bangunkan : to raise ; to make a person rise 
(from a couch); to erect a house. Mem- 
bangunkan : id., Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

Membangun: (i) to rise, to get up; (2) a 
crow's nest ; (3) an indemnity for a murder ; 
pecuniary damages or blood money, supposed 
to bring the murdered man to life again so far 
as his relatives are concerned ; cf. diyat. 

II. Bangun-bangun : 

shrub rather like a 

i\j bangau, I. A large white bird like a stork ; 
[ ciconia capellata^ Cr. ; bubulcus coromandus, 
C. and S. ] Berapa-kah tinggi-nya terbang, 
bangau itu akhir-nya iya hinggap di-belakang 
kerbaii juga : however high the bangau may 
fly, it ends by alighting on the buffalo's back ; 
if a man's tastes are low he will end by 
returning to them; Prov,, Ht. Abd., 115. 
Bangau melengong di-tepi kolani, tut-tut ayer 
kering : while the stork dozes by the brink of 
the pool, the water suddenly dries up (a riddle 
descriptive of a lamp). Mak bangau^ mak 
bangaUy mengapa kau kurus ? Bagaimana ta- 
kurus, ikan ta'-timbtd : mother stork, mother 
stork, how come you to be so thin ? How can 
I help being thin when the fish will not rise 
to the surface ? 

II. The curved piece of wood fixed to the 
bow of a Malay sailing boat on which the 
spars rest when not in use, C. and S. ; possi- 
bly from I. Cf. tentayu. 

_pV) bangai. The abandonment of a work 

•* ' begun ; the leaving undone of a work that 

should be done. Akan pekerjaan sudah ter- 

bangai : as for the work, it has been left 

undone ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 20. 

J\^ bapa. Father ( familiar and less respectful 
than ayah). 

Kechil jangan di-sangka anak, besar jangan di- 
sangka bapa : don't imagine him your child 
when he is young, nor fancy him a father 
when he grows old ; don't bring up a tiger- 
cub or adopt a son of vicious parents ; your 
kindly feelings will not be reciprocated ; Prov. 
Saudara sa-ibu sa-bapa : a full brother. 

B, angkat : an adoptive father. 

B, bongsu: one's youngest uncle; usually 
pak su. 

B. mentuwa or 6. mertuwa : father-in-law. 

B, muda : an uncle junior in age to one's 
father ; usually pak uda. 


[ 82 ] 


B, randok: (Kedah) a nickname for the tiger. 

B, saudara: an uncle. 

B, tengah: an uncle intermediate in age 
between two others ; usually pak ngah. 

B. tiri : stepfather. 

B, ttmggal : an only uncle. 

B. tiiwa : an eldest uncle ; usually pak uwa 

or pak wa, 

Berbapakan : to take or treat as a father. 
Jika hiwan sudi berbapakan aku : if you, Sir, 
will allow me to replace your father, to act 
** in loco parentis'' ; Sh. Bid., 102. 

Emak 6., or ibu b. : father and mother; 

Bapa is also used before the names of animals 
to signify that they are adult males. B. 
kambing : an old he-goat. 

Cf. bapak, bapang, and pak, 

J^M bapang. Father, my father ; a form of bapa 
confined to literature and only used when 
speaking of, or to, one's own father. 

^u bapak. Father ; see bapa. 

j\ b&ki. 



Arab. Eternal ; abiding ; what remains 
the balance left over. Bdkt yang 

or survives 

ketiga ptdoh ribu dinar itii : 

thirty thousand dinars ; Ht 

that balance of 
Kal. Dam., 361. 

baka. Hereditary qualities; character in so 
far as it is influenced by heredity. Tiyada 
engkau membuwang baka : you have not wasted 
your hereditary qualities; you are '* a chip of 
the old block"; Pel. Abd., 49. Membuwang 
baka ratu hertawan : to discredit his wealthy 
royal ancestors; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Bebaka : coupling; sexual connection, of 

Penyakit baka : scrofula. 

bakat. The eddies or tide rips marking the 
point of contact of two currents ; the traces 
left in the form of seaweed and driftwood 
which mark the highest point attained by the 
last tide ; the traces of an inundation ; the 
marks of a past disease by which we may to a 
certain extent judge of its severity. Bakat- 
bakat : slight markings of small-pox ; much 
marked being bertapok. B^rombak-ombak 
bakat : a choppy sea; tide rips in bad weather; 
Ht. Best. Sap Mi ombak di4aut di-sorong 
bakat mengampar ka-darat : as waves at sea 
push on the driftwood and cast it ashore; 
Ht. Sh. Mard. Sampai sekarang ada-lah 
bakat : the traces ( of the inundation ) remain 
to this day; Sh. Bah. Sing., 5, 






bakar. Burning; exposure to the direct 
action of fire; roasting, cooking over a fire. 
Sakar ta'-berapi : burning without flame ; 
simulating love without feeling it ; Prov. 
Bakar tiyada hangus : burnt without being 
consumed; punished without being reformed; 
not learning wisdom from experience ; Prov. 
Bakar ta'-berbau: burning without smell; 
telling the truth but not being believed; Prov. 

Bakarkan, and membakar : to burn ; to roast. 

Terbakar : burnt. Orang t^rbakaran : men 
whose houses have been burnt ; men burnt 
out (of their homes). Hati terbakar: deeply 
moved by anger. 

Cf. tunu and hangtcs. 

bakir. I. Turned (of milk and other liquids). 

n. To settle in a place and seek a peaceful 
existence ; C. and S. 

bakong. A large white flowered lily-like plant, 
crinnni asiaticuni ; Ht. Sri Rama (Maxw.), 7. 

B, ayer, b, pantai, or bunga rasau 6., or b, 
suwasa: a common jungle-plant; susum antheU 
micum. The name 6. ayer is also applied to a 
small aroid ; chamoecladon angustifolititn, 

bakap. A fish (unidentified) resembling the 
ikan bujok or ikan haruwan, but of a darker 

bakup. Swollen up, as the eyes or lips after 
a fight ; closed by inflammation ; swollen with 
weeping, of the eye. 

Orang itu kena tumbok 

Bengkak bakup bibir mata : 

that man has received a heavy blow ; his eye- 
lids are swollen and closed up. Mata b, : an 
eye closed by inflammation ; a black eye. 

bakak. Kain b. : a kind of cloth used for 
women's head dresses. 

bakek. A pepper ; piper chaba. 

bakok. Stupid, inattentive, senseless, 
aware of danger. Orang 6. ; a half-witted or 
stupid fellow. Burong b, : a nickname or 
descriptive name of a species of wood-pigeon 
which is easily snared. Ikan b, : 



bakal. I. Descent; hereditary social posi- 
tion as opposed to hereditary qualities; cf. 
baka, Bakal laksamana : descendants of a 
laksamana; a family which has supplied a 
laksamana to the State. Sanak-nya dan sanak 
yang bakal laki-nya : her family and her hus- 
band's family; Laws of Palembang; Simb. 
Ch., 13. Melihat bakal menantu-nya : seeing 
his son-in-law's relatives ; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

n. [Jav. a word giving a future sense to 
its context.] Intended for; about to be 
turned into. B. rumah: material collected 
for house building. 


[ 83 ] 


bakul. A basket ; a hamper. Duwa buwah b, : 
two baskets. Menjunjong b,: to carry a basket 
on the head; Ht. Ind. Meng. Bakul berisi 
duri : a basket full of thorns ; Sh. Raj. Haji. 
Bakul beramin : a basket of open network. 

Cf. tembakul, the name of a fish which swims 
about with its head above water. 

bakam. A ruby ; 
and dalima. 

KL, C. and S. Cf. nakam 

bakau. A name applied to mangrove trees, i 
chiefly rhizophorece ; mangrove swamps ; | 
swampy mangrove-covered coast. 1 

Tampak api di-Tanjong Tuwan 

Ktiwala Linggi bakau-nya rendah : 

we see the light on Cape Rachado and the 
low-lying mangrove swamps at the mouth 
of the Linggi river. Pohtm kayu b. : ?l man- 
grove tree; Sej. MaL, 116. 

B. ptiteh : bruguiera caryopkylloides, 

Huian b, : a mangrove swamp. 

Ular b. : a very venomous snake. 

bakai. Mandi 6. ; ( Kedah ) washing in fresh 
water after first washing in salt ; the washing 
of a dead body from the waist downwards. 

bagor. I. Big; of exceptional height and 
breadth ; tall for his age, as a boy. 

II. To scrape the sand on a river sandbank 
into an enclosure with a low surrounding 
embankment in which small fish are held 
captive ; C. and S. 

{j^\ bagas. Continuous, as a gale of wind 


bagUS. I. Handsome, pretty, line ; whether 
of a man's appearance or of that of an inani- 
mate object. Rumah b. : fine house. Kota 
sa-bagus ini : so fine a fort. Bukan-nya dart 
sebab bagus rupa-nya : not because his presence 
was handsome; Ht. Abd., 271. 
II. Jav. A title of distinction. Also agns, 

bagong. Clumsy, awkward, especially of 
the build of a boat ; cf. bagor and bagal, 

bagok. I. A medium-sized marine fish (un- 
II. The name of a monkey ; v. bangkok. 

bagal. I. Awkward, too tall, too big. Ay am 
b. : a fighting-cock which is too strong for 
another and which is therefore not to be pitted 
against it ; a cock not permitted to fight 
because of its known strength. Cf. bagong 
and bagor. 
II. The peduncle of a coco-nut ; R. v. E. 

bagan. A platform raised on posts ; anything 
of the nature of such a platform, whether a 
landing-stage, or a watch-house, or a mere 
scaffolding for drying fish ; the framework in 
the early stages of housebuilding. In Kedah 
and P. W. bagan is the most common name 
for a landing-place; zn pangkalan, elsewhere. 




bagau. A plant, xyris indica ; a herb with 
grassy leaves and yellow flowers. 

bagU. A plant ( gnetum gnemon ? ) 

BagU'bagu : a partition of a fruit ; a slice or 
natural sub-division of a fruit ; cf. ulas. 

bagai. Kind, variety, species; {better sa-bagai) 
identical with, forming one species with, simi- 
lar to. Permata sembilan bagai : gems of nine 
varieties. Bagai chaching kepanasan : like a 
scalded worm ; writhing in helpless agony ; = 
saperti chaching kepanasan. In Kedah and 
Penang bagai is colloquially used where saperti 
would be used in Malacca and Singapore. 

Bagai-bagai : sorts, kinds, species. 

Bagaikan : as if to ; = bagai akan, Rasa-nya 
arwdh-kii bagaikan hilang : feeling as if con- 
sciousness was about to leave me ; Ht. Abd., 

Bagaimana : in what way, how ( as an inter- 
rogative) . Sa-bagaimana : in whatsoever 
way, in whatever way. Pronounced bagimana, 

Berbagai : in various ways. Berbagai bagai : 
id. Berbagai-bagai muslihat : in all sorts of 
ways, by all sorts of means. Tiyada berbagai 
lagi : indescribable, incomparable, peerless. 
Terlalu baik paras-nya tiyada berbagai lagi: 
great and incomparable was her beauty. 

PeUbagai: sorts, kinds, species ; = bagai-bagai. 

Sa-bagai : see above. Sa-bagaiyan : thus, so, 
in this manner; Panch., 53. 

Bagini and bagitu, which are sometimes given 
as abbreviations of bagai ini and bagai itu^ are 
probably only variants of ba'-ini and ba'-itu. 

bagi. Giving, allotment ; division ; see behagi. 
Ikan b. b, : a fish, platycephalus tuberctUatus. 

bala. I. [Skr. bdla.] Soldiery, an army. 
Bala tentara: an army, troops considered 
collectively; (pronounced bala-tenfra). 

II. Pers. Above, — in the expression bala- 
bad, the Persian equivalent of the Malay di- 
atasangin; see angin, 

III. [Arab. %.] Misfortune, injury. Banyak 
bala besar akan datang : many great calamities 
are approaching; Ht. Jay. Lengg. ^eharii 
jnwa terlepas daripada suwatu bala maka di-sam- 
bat ptda uleh chelaka yang lain: barely had he 
escaped from one calamity when he fell into the 
clutches of another curse ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 89. 

Bala dan aniyaya : misfortune and oppression ; 
Ht. Abd., 12. 

Bala benchana : misfortune and disaster. 

Tolak bala : a sacrifice or other offering to 
remove a calamity by propitiating the evil 
spirits causing it. Bukan-kah tuwan puteri 
raja hendak buwat tolak bala melepaskan daripada 
behaya negeri : is not the king going to make 
of the princess a propitiatory offenng to 
remove the calamities of the nation? Ht. 
Best. Ayer tolak b. : sacrificial water, holy 
water, water to drive away evil influence ; Sh. 
Jur. Bud., 43» 


[ 84 ] 





balut. L Swollen, of the eyes; inflamed 
with weeping. Sayang mata yang manis men- 
jadi balut : it were a pity that those sweet eyes 
should be dulled with weeping ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 
Mata-nya balut bekas menangis : her eyes were 
inflamed — the sign that she had been weeping ; 
Sh. Abd. Mk., 15 ; Sh. Bid., 87. 

Membalutkan : to give a dull inflamed appear- 
ance to the eye ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 18, 79. 

II . Enveloping in an outer cover; coating 
anything ; covering anything in an outer wrap- 
per of a different material. Di-balut-nya sural 
dengan kain kuning : he wrapped up the letter 
in yellow cloth ; Ht. Abd., 129. 

B. rokok : to roll up a cigarette, 
the wrapper of the h^tupat, 

Cf. palut and band. 

B. ketupat : 

bil-hakk. Arab. In truth, verily ; v. 

balar. I. Albino whiteness; unnatural 
whiteness ; white patches on the skin of a 
naturally dark man ; the whiteness of a buffalo, 
Kerbau b, : a white or pink buffalo ; Ht. Mar. 

Balar puteh atau hitam : whit^ or black patchy 
discoloration of the skin ; Hay. Haiw. Balar 
is used of the colour of the skin, pasak of the 

II. Chakar 

balar : scratched all over ; see 

balor. I. Hard skin ; dry and stiff flesh of 
any sort whether in the form of jerked meat 
or untanned hide or hard leathery portions of 
the skin rendered so by continual friction ; = 
bBlulang. Bangsa balor liyat : a slippery 
thick-skinned race ; a lazy customer whom 
stirring up will not render industrious ; Prov. 

II. [ Pers. X . ] Crystal ; see habelor and 

balas. I. Sending back anything in the 
nature of a return, requital or reply ; avenging 
an injury ; recompensing a good deed ; 
answering a letter. 

Ada hujan, ada panas, 
A da hart buleh balas : 

rain there is ; there is also fine weather ; a day 
will come when retribution is possible ; bide 
your time ; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 88. 

Jangan bagai orang berjudi, 

Alah hendak mimbalas, menang hen- 
dak lagi : 

do not be like a gambler who, when he loses, 
wants his revenge, and when he wins wants to 
go on ; be moderate, do not become a slave to 
your pursuits ; Prov., J. S. A. S., III., 33. 



Tahu balas guna-nya : he knows how to bide 
his time and avenge an injury ; Prov. 

Kaseh bunga Bmpelas 

Tumboh di-kolam di-sisi-nya; 

Kaseh sahdbat tiyada terbalas 

Sa-timbang ^alam dengan isi-nya : 

the love of my friend is beyond requital were 
you even to set in the balance against it the 
world and all that therein is ; Bint. Tim., 
27 Feb., 1895. 

Balasan : a reply, a requital ; Ht. Abd., 36, 
211, 410, 412. Pembalasan : id., Sh. Jub. 
Mai., 16. 

Balasi : to requite, to reply to, to repay an 
injury ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 25, 26. 

Membalas : to send back ; to give (something) 
in reply, repayment, or requital. M. tabek : 
to return a salutation, M, surat : to reply to 
a letter. M. kaseh : to return or requite 

Membalaskan : to give back (something) in 
return ; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 4 ; 
Cr. Gr., 37; Ht. Gul. Bak., 126. 

II. Eur, Ballast. 

bSfligh. Arab. Adult; marriageable; come 
to years of discretion. 'Akal bdligh : the 
knowledge that comes with sexual maturity. 
Hiijdtii'l'bdlighah : mature desires; Sej. MaL, 
150. Ada yang tengah naik ada yang sudah 
sampai 'umur-nya bdligh : some were half- 
grown, some were adults ; Ht. Abd., 268. 

balang, I. A flask or bottle with a thick body 
and a long narrow neck; a kind of ewer. 
Ayer mawar sa-balang : a flask of rose-water ; 
Sh. Pr. Ach., 10. Laksana ayer di-dalam-nya 
balang : like water in its ewer ; Sh, Bur. Nuri, 
15. Pechah balang di4impa balang : the ewer 
broke when struck by another ; Ht. Koris. 

II. Perahu balang or sampan balang : a vessel 
with a high freeboard, two masts and four 
oars, — used by pirates. 

III. A missile; the act of throwing. Di- 
lempar-nya dingan-nya balang: pelting him 
with missiles ; Sh. Pr. Turki, 12. Thialu 
deras datang-nya saperti balang-balang : his 
onset was most rapid, like the rush of a pro- 
jectile; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 85. Cf. Mmbalang. 

IV. Balang-balang: a grasshopper; 
equivalent of belalang, q. v. 


V. Balang-balang : the mesh of a net, if 
medium-sized. Cf. torang. 

VI. [Jav. walang,] Mournfulness, melan- 
choly ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Vri. Membalang-balang : to paddle with 
short quick strokes. Also m^mbalam-balam. 


[ 85 ] 


i)u baling. Revolution ; moving round a centre ; j 
^ hurling with a tw^ist. | 

Bolang h. : chain shot ; a missile consisting | 
of two bullets united by a chain. 

Berbolang-baling: turning over and over; Sh. 
Bur. Pungg., 17. 

Balingkan: to hurl down, e, g., from a 
throne ; Ht. Mash., 54 ; to hurl with a rotary 
movement ; cf. balang. Owing to the absence 
of vowel points it is not always easy to see 
whether this word or balang III is meant ; cf. 
Ht. Hamz., 88. 


balong. The comb of a cock. B, ay am : id ; 
(also) the name of a shrub or small tree ; anti- 
desma ghoesembilla, in Penang, and xerospermum 
wallichianum^ in Pahang. 

B, ay am batu : the name of a herb; penta- 
phragma begonicefolhim . 

B. batu : a hard small stiff comb without 

B. hijau : a large tree ; epiprimis malayafttis, 

B. kerang : a comb with three gills. 

B. kulit : patches of bark not adhering very 
closely to the main trunk of a tree ; folds of 
bark — a feature believed to be most unlucky, 
and to attract the lightning. Bagaimana pohun 
ta'4unibang di-panah halilintar sebab balong 
kulit ada di-batang-nya : how can the tree 
avoid falling under the thunderbolt since it 
has folds of bark upon its trunk ; how can a 
man born unlucky escape misfortunes ; Prov. 

B. Itmausa-ulas : a curved comb without gills, 

B. merga : a rose comb ; C. and S. 

B, sa4apis : a long thin single comb. 

B. seraga : a full comb. 

B, sireh sa-kapor : a comb in three separate 
folds, side by side, the central being the 

B. sisir : a comb something like the b. batu, 
but with short gills. 

Buwang b. : (Johor) circumcision. 

11. Balong bidai : an evil spirit supposed 
to live in rivers and to have the form of an 
open mat in which it envelopes and drowns 
its victims, C. and S, ; the name of a long, thin, 
very venomous sea-snake, also known as ular 
gulong bidai and ular balam bidai, see bidai, 

^\ balak. I. The short hair of an animal. 

II. [Arab. ^, . ] Misfortune, calamity; 
see bala, 

III. [ Dutch balk, ] A beam, a joist, a 
rafter ; Ht. Abd., 28, 93. 

^\ balek. The reverse of anything ; the hinder 

portion of anything; position at the back; 
movement back in the direction from which 
one came. Di-balek bukit itu: behind that hill. 
Dudok'lah nakhoda itu mBnanti-nanti sampai 
tengah hari lalu iya pulang4ah makan kemudiyan 

iya balek : the captain sat waiting there till 
midday, then he went home for his dinner 
and returned again afterwards ; Ht. Abd., 43. 
Pulang means return to one's starting-point, 
home or place of origin, balek return to a 
place already visited but not a point of original 

B, adab : disrespect ; ill-mannered ; the re- 
verse of adab, respect. 

B, adap : a climbing shrub ; ausscenda 
variolosa, Akar b. adap: a raspberry; rubus 

B, angin : a common tree; mallotus cochin- 
chinensis, B, angiii bukit : a shrub ; croton 
sublyratus, B. angin laut : a shrub ; callicarpa 
lanata, B, angin puteh : a large tree ; maca- 
ranga populifolia, 

B, belah : upside down ; the lower above. 

B, daun : a plant (unidentified). Ayer b, 
daun : dead low water the day before the new 

B, juru : the ceremony of shaving a child's 
head at the purification of the mother. 

B. kerak : to return to the dregs ; to remarry 
a fully divorced wife. 

B, kuning : a shrub ; mallotus macrostachytis, 

B. ktiwang : to hang head downwards, as an 
acrobat from a trapeze. 

B. mata: conjuring. Orang b, mata: a 
conjuror. Also silap mata, 

B, sakit : a relapse. 

Bolak b, : going and returning ; backwards 
and forwards. 

Bulu b, : the description given of a fowl which 
appears to have its feathers turned the wrong 

Chakap berbalek-balek : transposition of the 
syllables in speech. 

Tonggang b, : heels over head ; standing on 
one's head. 

Balekkan : to turn anything round, back or 
upside down. Membalekkan : id. Tiyang 
rumah-nya di-balekkan ka-atas : the pillars of 
his house were turned upside down; Ht. Abd., 
251. Maka iya-pun membalekkan kepala-nya ka- 
belakang : he turned his head to the rear ; Ht. 
Ind. J ay a. 

Ber balek : ( i ) to return ; hujan birbalek ka- 
langit: the rain returning to the sky; raining 
from earth to sky ; a fabulous or impossible 
contingency; Prov.; (2) to make a return, to 
requite; Ht. Abd., 15. 

Terbalek : reversed, returned. 

^ U balok. 1. [ Port, felucca ? ] A small sailing 
craft, a felucca. 

IL [Dutch balk.] A beam, a joist; see 
balak, III. 

III. MBmbalok : to '* string" for choice of 
positions at the game called '^ main buwah 
keras ; C. and S. 


[ 86 ] 


4iil; billahi. Arab. By God, in the name of God. 

/ivi balam. I. Burong balam : a bird of the dove 
or pigeon type; Ht. Koris, Ht. Sri Rama 
(Maxw.) I ; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 4 ; Sh. I. M. P., 
15; Sh. K. G. T., 23. 

II. Daun 5. : a weed, pouzolzia peniandra. 

III. Ular 6. bidai: a very venomous sea- 
snake, better tdar balong bidai or tdar gulong 

IV. Dimly visible. Tampak balam balam : 
visible as a distant haze ; hazy as distant 

V. Membalam-balam : to paddle with short 
quick strokes, as men in a Malay boat race ; 
see also balang, VL 

^V> balan. I. Harimau balan daun: (Kedah)a 
tree tiger-cat. 

II. The large pieces of timber sunk as piles 
to form the framework of a dam ; C. and S. 


balun. I. To beat with a rattan. Kena 
bahm : to be thrashed. 

Lembu dogol jangan di-balun, 

Kalati di'tandok jatoh terjerongkong : 

do not thrash a bullock because it is hornless, 
if it butts you you will fall sprawling down. 

Naga b, : a fabulous species of dragon be- 
lieved by Malays to kill its enemies by striking 
them with its tail. Naga b. is also the name 
given to a disease of the stomach. 

II. Returning to a consciousness of one's 
terrestrial surroundings after inspired raptures 
or spirit possession. 

III, J5. hijau : a name given to a number 
of meliaceous trees ; e.g. dysoxylon cauliflorum ; 
and aglaia minutiflora. 

^w balau. I. A large tree producing a good 
timber much in use. Also efnbalau, 

B. betina : a large tree ; swintonia schwenkii. 

B, baiu; 6. bunga ; and b, telor : unidentified 

11. Membalau : to pare oif the thorns from 
a durian. 

JVi balu. Widowed ; a widower, a widow ; left 
desolate, as an orphan. 

(j:^\j balni. To draw the game; stalemate; cf. 

4iu balah. Disputing : quarrelling ; wordy war ; 
cf, bant ah, 

4ju baloh. The wooden frame of a drum or of 
any native instrument of the drum type. 

Balohan : the frame of the howdah; Sej, 
MaL, 18. 

(3u balaL I. An open building; a hall with a 
roof but open at the sides ; a public hall, as 
opposed to a residential building ; a pavilion : 
a marquee or temporary structure for the 
entertainment of guests at a wedding ; (some- 
times ) a caravanserai ; ( Penang ) a police- 

Balai'balai : a model of a house ; a spirit- 
house used as an anchak or receptacle for 
offerings to spirits. 

B, bandong : a double balai ; a building con- 
taining two halls or courts of justice com- 
municating with each other; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

B, bayu: a kiosk; Ht. Koris; also b. perangin, 

B, derma : a hall of charity ; a kind of alms- 
house; Ht. Mash. 

B, gambang : a floating pleasure-house ; a 
sort of flower-boat. 

B, gendang : a sort of bandstand; a place 
reserved for the court musicians. 

B, kembang : a raja's pleasure-house; Sh. 
Bid., 84; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Ht. Par. Ptg. 

B, limas : a balai-balai with a roof of the 
shape known as limas ^ q. v. 

B, lintang : or 6. melintang : a hall facing the 
fort ; Sh. Bid., 89. 

B. madat : a sort of watchhouse. 

jB. mentera or 6. mentor a : a hall of audience ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed., Ht. Ind. Meng. 

B, pandan and 6. tengah : halls (exact charac- 
ter unknown); Ht. Mas. Ed. 
B, penghadapan : a hall of audience. 
B, perangin : an open summer-house. 

B, rang or 6. ruwang : the hall of general 
assembly in a palace. 

^Adat b.: the observances at state recep- 

Gantong di -balai : the ceremonial hanging of 
curtains round the seri balai ; C. and S. 

Pebalaiyan : (i) = balai-balai; (2) a seat; 
Ht. Koris. 

Penghtdu b. : the master of ceremonies at a 
general audience. 

Seri b, : the raised platform in the centre of 
the raja's audience hall ; a place reserved for 
the very highest officers of state ; Sej. Mai., 92. 

II. Caressing, fondling; better belai, q. v. 

III. Halai-balai : utter confusion; confus- 
ing ; an intensitive of halai. 'Ilmu dan ^akal 
di'halai'balai : mixing up knowledge and wis- 
dom ; of confused intellect ; an inaccurate 
habit of mind; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 2, 

^Ilrnu dan *akal di-halai-balai 
ItU'lah tanda orang yang lalai : 

inaccuracy of knowledge and unsteadiness of 
thought are the signs of a man having an 
idle disposition ; Prov. 

Pekerjaan raja di-halai-balai : allowing state 
business to be confused by neglect ; Sh. Nas., 6. 

IV. Ikan b,: a fish (unidentified). 

V. Pokok b, : a large shrub ; aralidium 


[ 87 ] 


(j\i ball. L The name of an important island 
of the Sunda group. 

11. (Chin, bd'li,) The cabin of a junk, 
Bilek perbali: a small cabin-like room; Sh. 
Peng., I. 

^M bami. [Chin, bah-mt^.] A dish of vermicelli, 
pork, and prawns. 

^M banat. I. Membanat: to strike; to beat; 
to drub. 

IL Wild, forest-covered; thick, of a forest. 
Rimba yang b, : the wilds of the limitless 
forest ; Ht. Sri Rama (Maxw.), 27 ; =- rimba 
belentara, ( Kawi ) wanantara. 

III. See ^\^, . 

Af banar. Sinar hanar : shining, brilliant, bright ; 
an intensitive of sinar ^ q. v. 

jV* banir. I. The buttress-like projections at 
the base of the trunks of certain trees ; these 
projections, if large, serve on an emergency 
as a shelter from driving rain. 

Chelah 6. : the space between two of these 

hang b, : the highest point at which one of 
these projections joins the tree. 

II. A division of a net, — twelve of these 
making up one iitaSj q. v. 

fo\ banang. Large (of its kind); a word limited 
^ * in use to certain expressions : diiku banang 
(the large duku fruit), sipnt b, (a shell, un- 
identified), puput 6. (the large puput fish), 
and jolong'jolong b, (the large jolong-jolong or 

iilj bailing. The tortoise known as teshido eniys. 

•Vi ban. Smell, odour, scent. Jauh ban bunga; 
' dekat ban tahi : at a distance it smells like a 
flower, at close quarters it stinks hke night- 
soil ; a thing that is fair to look at but 
becomes repulsive on closer acquaintance; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 48. Berbau dtiwa : 
smelling of two things ; an appearance which 
though innocent enough in itself suggests 
that its wearer has been up to mischief; 
Prov. Bakar ta' -berbau: burning without 
odour; telling the truth without being be- 
lieved; Prov. Harum bau-nya: it smells 
sweet. Busok bau-nya : it stinks. Tiyada ber- 
bau : scentless. Mendapat b. : to get wind of 
anything ; to scent, as a wild animal scents 
its prey. 

BaU'bauwan : perfumes ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 13 ; 
Ht. Abd., 38, 178, 467; Ht. Jay. Lengg., etc. 

ftV; bawa. Conveyance in one*s possession or 
charge; conducting, conveying, bringing — but 
not, properly speaking, carrying. Also bawa\ 

Membawa : to bring with one ; to conduct or 
convey ; to take ; to bring about. Sokong 
membawa rebah : the buttress leads to the fall ; 
trusting to a friend who betrays you ; Prov. 

B. diri : to run away, to betake oneself off; 
Ht. Sg. Samb., Ht. Ind. Nata. 

B, Ml : to trust to oneself alone ; to be 
thrown on one's own resources; Ht. Abd., 


B. hati : to follow the bent of one's inclina- 
tions; Ht. Abd., 197. 

B. widn: to embrace the Faith; to become 
a Muhammadan ; Sej. MaL, 6 ; Ht. Isk. Dz, ; 
Ht. Muhd. Hanaf. 

B. jalan : to lead the way ; Pel. Abd., 56. 

B. kapal : to manage a ship ; to navigate a 
ship anywhere; Marsd. Gr., 139. 

B. lari: to force to fly; to bear off in one's 

B, mati : to carry through life — e.g., as a 
wound, or as a feeling of gratitude. 

M. mtdut : to go about tale-bearing or 

B, nasib : to seek one's fortune ; to wander 
in search of employment ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 13 ; 
Ht. Abd., 215. 

B. nyawa : to save one's life by flight ; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 88. 

M, orang : to gain the affections of people ; 
Sej. Mai., 245. 

M. perut : to ** cadge " for a meal. 

Membawakan : — membawa akan, 

Pembawa: a bearer; Sh. Ik. Trub., 6; a 
thing borne; Ht. Mash., 65. 

Pembawaan: (i) a personal idiosyncracy ; a 
mannerism; (2) anything brought or borne; 
e.g., a gift ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

w1)a\j bawat. L Inclination downwards, droop- 
' ing. Mata b. : drooping eyelids ; sleepiness. 
Tali b. : the braces of a ship, Pijn., C. and S. 

IL Payong b. : (Jav.) an umbrella used as a 
symbol of rank by Javanese princes, and 
members of the highest nobility; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

The form payong pawat also occurs. 


\t bawur or baur. The indiscriminate mixing 
up of things which should be kept in order; 
confusion. Champor b. : hopelessly mixed up 
or confused; Ht. Ind. Nata; Ht. Sh. Kub. 
Also champor gauL 

?'X baung. L A freshwater lish ( bagrus sp. ). 
Rumput janggut b. : a common sedge, mariscus 

II. Curved like a plantain or chairback; i.e., 
concave on one side, convex on the other. 


[ 88 ] 













bawang. An onion or leek ; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 
82 ; Muj., 23, 27, 

jB. benggalUf or b, bombe : imported onions. 
B, china : garlic ; allium sativum. 
B, hutan : a plant; crinum asiaticum ; (in 
Borneo) scorodocarpus borneensis. 

B. kochi : a leek ; allium porum, 

B, merah : the local onion ; allium cepa, 

B.puteh: = b. china, 

Karang daun b. : a species of coral. 

Rmnput b, : a sedge ; timbristylis asperrifna. 

Siput 6. ; a shell ; bidla ampulla, 

bauk. Covered with hair, of the part of the 

head under the chin and jawbone ; bearded 
under the chin and behind the jaw ; a tuft 
of feathers under the beak, in a bird. 

Chambang b, : a full beard ; bearded on the 
face and neck. 

bawal. The pomfret, stromateus sp. ; Sh. Ik. 
Trub., 19. The natives recognize several 
varieties, notably : b. cheremin, b, hitam^ b. 
ketewaSy or b, kedewas ; and 6. kuning, 

baulu. (Port, bolo.) Sponge-cake. B, ikan, 
6. kemoja, etc. : names given to these cakes 
according to the shape of the mould in which 
they are baked. 

Also buwah ulu and bolu. 

Oyi ba'un. Smell, odour, = bau, q. v. 

bawah. Position under ; below ; the lower 
side or portion of anything. Ka-bawah : 
downwards ; moving to a position below any- 
thing. Di'bawah : below. 

Di' bawah angin : v. an gin, 

Di'bawah duli; di-bawah kaus ; or di-bawah 
cherepu (or ka-bawah ; etc.); humble ex- 
pressions which really signify that a subject's 
position is on a level with the dust below 
his sovereign's foot, but which have come to 
mean '* Majesty," as a royal title. 

Baris di-bawah : the vow^el point known as 

Yang terkabawah : the lowest, Nuraka yang 
terkabawah : the lowest Hell; Ht. Raj. Sul., 2. 

bahat. A league ; a pact ; a conspiracy — in 
a bad sense. 

Sa-bahat: united in league. Sabahatkan: to 
conspire. Bersabahat: id.; Arabian Nights, 

bahar. I. A weight ; V. behara. 
II. [ Arab v: .] The sea; v.^ 

bahas. I. To knock up against, to be brought 
to a stop by. Terbahas ka-atas apongan : he 
fell up against some driftwood. 

II. [Arab 

.] Debate, discussion. 








bahaxig. I. Division, apportioning ; C. and S. 
II. The hot glow of fire; Sh. K. G. T., 9. 

Tiyada tertahan panas bahang api : unable to 
withstand the heat and glow of the fire ; Ht. 
Koris ; Ht. Ind. Meng, 

baham. Chewing or masticating in the 
closed mouth as a tiger is believed to chew 
earth ( Ht. Abd,, 216); chewing powdery 
substances which would not remain in the 
mouth unless closed ; (coarse) to eat, to gorge. 

Babi t'unggal masok ka-huma, 
Makan padi habis di - baham ; 

Senjata di-bawa bukan-nya choma, 
Gigi-nya mampal^ siyong-nya tajam : 

the lone boar enters the padi-field and eats 
the padi after chewing it well ; the weapons 
it wears are no empty show, its teeth are 
smooth and its tusks are sharp. Empama 
puchok dan umbut^ tiyada lauk beharu di-baham : 
like the young shoots and the soft heart of 
trees which are only eaten when curry is 
not available ; things which are only accept- 
able to the poor and starving ; Prov. 

bahan. A lump of wood chopped off a log 
or plank (if sawn off, the word reja is used); 
the act of splitting a tree into boards ; striking 
heavily with both hands (Arabian Nights, 57) 
or right and left ; giving a sound thrashing 
or drubbing. Besar kayu^ besar bahan-nya : 
when a tree is great, its pieces are great ; 
when a large property is shared, each share is 
a large property in itself; if a man is great, his 
dependents are great personages also ; Prov. 

Di-palu di-bahan sa-hari-hari : getting thrashed 
and beaten daily; Sh. Bid., 36. Di-pegang- 
nya tangan lain di-bahan : seizing his hand 
and giving him a thrashing; Sh. Peng., 16. 

Ikan bahan-bahan : a freshweiter fish ( un- 
identified ). 

bahu. L The shoulder. Berapa berat mata 
memandang, berat lagi bahu memiktd : however 
heavy a weight may seem to the eye, it is 
heavier still to the shoulder ; a sympathizer's 
sorrow is less than the sufferer's pain ; Prov. 
Tangan menetak, bahu memikul : while the 
hand hacks, the shoulder carries; fully 
occupied, taking full advantage of every 
resource ; Prov. Lengan-nya kena luka dari 
siku-nya sampai ka-bahu-nya : his arm was 
wounded from elbow to shoulder; Bint. Tim., 
23 Feb,^ 1895. Di-gantong-nya di-bahu-nya : 
he hung it from his shoulder. Terchabut-lah 
sendi bahu-nya : he strained the muscles of his 
shoulder ; Ht. Abd., 253, 

B, bidang: broad shoulders; Ht. Raj. Sul., 8. 
B, wayang : sloping shoulders; Sh, Bid., 21. 
Layar b, : a topsail. 

Sa-bahu : belonging to the same coop, set or 
brood. Sa-bahuwan: id. 

IL Ranjuna sutera bahu: the Arjuna Sastra 
Bahu, a famous Kawi and Javanese romance ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed. 

II L A Dutch bouw : a measure of super- 
ficies in use in the Netherlands Indies. 


[ 89 ] 







baya. I. Size; form. Sa-baya : equality in 
size and shape ; resemblance in figure and 
build. Anak raja-raja mtmieri yang sama sa- 
baya dengan anakanda; sons of princes and 
ministers about the same size as this prince, 
my son — to be his playmates; Ht. Koris. 

Dt'panggil-nya dayang empat sa-baya : she 
summoned four maids of honour like herself 
in age and size; Sh. Bid., 13. Ke4ima-nya 
sa-baya sama muda : all five were of one size 
and shape and of the same age ; Ht. Best. 

II. [Skr. bhayd.] Danger ; better behaya, q. v. 

bayar. Payment ; the act of paying. Hutang 
emas dapat di- bayar hutang bucli di-bawa matt : 
a debt of money may be paid, a debt of kind- 
ness is a debt through life; Prov., Ht. Abd., 

Membayar : to pay ; Ht. Abd., 57 ; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 10, etc. 

Pembayar : payment; Majm. al-Ahk., 82. 
Pembayaran : id. ; Laws of Palembang, Simb. 
Ch., 13. 

bay or. A medium or large tree with small 
leaves buff-coloured beneath ; pterospermtmt 

jB. betina : a small tree, stercidia jackiana. 

B. jantan : a large tree, pterospernimn 

B. laut : a seashore tree, heritiera littoralis. 

resembling the 
jungle palm; 

bayas. A common palm, 
nibong ; oncosperma horrtda. 

B, betina : a small erect 
pinanga scortechinii, 

bayang. Vague outline or shadow ; vaguely 
defined, — as an image reflected on glass ( Ht. 
Abd., 402 ), or on a photographic negative 
( Ht. Abd., 451 ), or even as outHned on an 
intervening surface, as a woman's figure is 
traceable against her dress ( Ht. Ind. Jaya ), 
or as the passage of a piece of food can be 
followed by the expansion of the throat, Ht. 
Gul. Bak. 

Kunis kering saperti bayang, 
Si-apa pun tidak menaroh sayang : 

thin and dried up like a shadow, not a soul 
will feel the slightest love for her ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., IL, 151. 

Buntar bayang-bayang: rounded; round with 
quivering edge; Ht. Raj. Don., 8; Ht. Sri 
Rama ( Maxw. ), 12. 

Berbayang : in shadowy form or outline. 

Tanjong Padang tanipak berbayang : Tanjong 
Padang appears outlined in shadow ; Sh. Ik. 
Trub., 7. Berbayang di-mata: to have always 
before the mind's eye ; Arabian Nights, 398. 

Terbayang : imaged vaguely, shadowed forth. 
Terbayang di-hati : imaged in the heart. Tu- 
wan terbayang di-hati beta : your image is 
always in my heart; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 20. 
Terbayang-bayang kapada-nya mata : pictured 
before the mind's eye; Sh. Pant. ShL, 12. 

iiU bayong. I. (Johor.) A tree (unidentified). 

II. Bayong-bayong : a scarecrow. 

III. To throw; C. and S., Favre, — through 
Sej. Mai., 211 ? 

ly. Pisau bayong: a kind of knife, Kl. ; 
said to be a. pisau wait, 

^JjU bayak. Bulkiness which' extends to inter- 
ference with locomotion ; extreme corpulence ; 
obesity in a man, unwieldy fat in an animal. 

Perahu b. : a boat of unwieldy beam. 

viSou baik. Goodness ; excellence ; of a satisfactory 
character ; in a proper or fitting way. Yang 
baik : good. Budi yang baik : a good disposi- 
tion ; graciousness, kindness. Baik budi : 
kindness of character, 
news ; it is well. 

Khabar baik : good 

Baik'lah : good ; very well ; all right ; that 
is as it should be. 

Baik'baik : carefully, well. Jaga baik-baik : 
keep a careful look-out ; take care ; beware. 

Baik baik : both... and; equally... and. 

Baik dalam negeri Melaka baik dalani negeri 
Singapura : both in Malacca and Singapore. 
Baik jantan baik betina : both men and women. 

Sa-baik-baik : as well as possible ; however 
well. Sa-baik-baik-nya : just as good as ; 
Arabian Nights, 30. 

Baikiy membaiki and perbaiki : to repair, to 
revise, to restore to a satisfactory condition, 
to improve. 

Berbaik-baikan : reconciled; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 

Tiyada akan terbaiki : beyond repair. 
Ta'-baik : not good ; bad. 

Xu bayam. A name given to several plants used 
' * as spinach. 

B. badak : a low jungle shrub : psychotria 

B, betul: a plant, amaranthus retroflexus. 

B, duri : a good spinach ; amaranthus spinosus. 

B, ekor kuching : the cockscomb of gardens ; 
celosia cristata, 

B, hutan : ■=• b, duri. 

B. merah : the red-leaved spinach ; amaran- 
thus gangeticus, 

B.monyet: white spinach ; amaranthus viridis, 

B, pasir : a spinach ; amaranthus sessilis. 

B, puteh : = b. monyet, 

B, rusa : an amaranth : cyathula prostrata. 

B. selaseh : an amaranth : a. caudatus. 


[ 90 ] 


qX> bayan. L A parrakeet, a small parrot-like 
bird ipsittacus osbeckii, Cr.) which, from its 
power to speak, plays a great part in Malay 
romances. Di-permain-nya saperti duwa ekor 
bayan tahu berkata-kata : she made them play 
together as if they were two parrots that could 
speak ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 43. See also the 
story of Darmadewa and Darmadewi in the 
Ht. Sg. Samba (Malay Fourth Reader, p, 20). 

Hikdyat bayan btidiman : the story of the wise 
Bayan ; the name of a collection of tales 
adapted from the Persian tuti-nameh or 
Hindustani tota-kahani, 

Ikan bayan-bayan : a fish (unidentified). 

II. [Arab. . \^ .] Clear, plain, obvious ; v. 

III. Jav. A waiting-maid in a palace, a 
maid of honour, = dayang-dayang ; an expres- 
sion sometimes used for the first person 
singular, like hamba and sehaya. Nenek keba- 
yan : a sort of old granny or fairy godmother 
who plays a great part in Malay tales. 

Ken bayan and bayan songket : names given 
to Court damsels ; Ht. Sh. ; Ht. Mas. Ed. ; 
Sh. Panj. Sg. 

J\j bayu. I. [Skr. wayu.] The wind ; the god 
of the winds. Betara bayu : the great god 
Vayu, or the wind ; the Sanskrit Aeolus ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. Bayuyang lemah lembut dan sepuih : 
a gentle softly-breathing wind ; a zephyr ; 
Bint, Tim., 4 Aprils 1895. 

Angin inderabayu : a tempest. 

Balai b. : a breezy kiosk ; Ht. Koris. 

Di'pupiit bayu : swayed by the breeze ; Sh, 
Ik. Trub., 20 ; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 12 ; Cr. Gr., 

Bayu is also used as an adjective merely 
expressing divinity or divine origin after the 
names of fabulous monsters, e.g. gBroda b, 
( Ht. Sh. KMh.), petala b. (Ht. Koris), etc. 

II. A humble expression of submission or 
service ; a slave ; an equivalent of hamba. Hen- 
dak minta perhamba ka~bawah dull tuwanku akan 
jadi bayu kapada paduka anakanda tuwan puteri : 
I wish to submit myself to Your Majesty that 
I may become the humble servant of Her 
Highness, the Princess your daughter ; — a 
proposal of marriage; Ht. Koris. Orang 
istana menjadi bayu, orang balai menjadi pengha- 
dapan orang : courtiers becoming slaves, 
magnates of the audience halls becoming the 
retainers of others ; Ht. Sh. Kub. Dengar- 
kanjuga sembah-nya bayu: listen, nevertheless, 
to the words of your slave (to my words), Ht. 
Ind. Meng. See also Sh, Pant, Shi., i, 

III. Half stale ; between staleness and 

IV. (Johor.) A tree (unidentified). 

4jili bayoh. Plurality of wives ; the possession of 
more than one wife (not necessarily illegal) ; 
also sexual intercourse, Majm. al-Ahk,, 274. 

jXi banyar. I, Evil odour; unpleasant in smell ; 
^ ' cf. bachin and bangar, which express worse 

II. A squall ; C. and S. 

^v banyak. Quantity; abundance ; much, many. 
B any ah orang : a number of persons. Orang b, : 
many persons ; the majority of men. 

Sadikit 6. : more or less ; something. DapaU 
lah ahi sadikit banyak pelajaran itu : I learnt 
something of what he taught ; Ht. Abd., 35. 

Maha-banyak : very many ; Ht. Hamz., 24. 

Sa-banyak : as many, so many, so much. Ada- 
kah sa-banyak btdu ay am j ant an itu : are they as 
many as the feathers on that cock ? Ht. 
Abd., 272. 

Kebanyakan : the majority ; most. K, manu- 
siya : most men. Timah k. : common tin. 

Membanyakkan: to increase the number of; 
to augment; Ht. Ind. Nata; Ht. Abd., 97, 316. 

Banyak'banyaki : to overcome by force of 
numbers ; to crush by numerical advantage ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. Membanyak-banyaki : id. 

*^\.i banyu. Fermented coconut water, used in 
* the process of dyeing silk. 

/)A^ bfibaran. A shell (unidentified); see baran. 

ajUj bSbarau. A fish, priacanthus blochii ; also 
baraU'barau and sebarau. 

(Sj\i bebari. The fruit fly; better bari-bari ; see 

,i5Ui b6baka. See baka. 

bfibat. Wrapping round ; enfolding in cloth ; 

Bebatkan : to gird, to enfold or enwind. Be- 
batkan pinggang choba4ah engkau : try to gird 
up your loins; Sh. Lail Mejn., 6. 

Perbebat : enfolded, engirdled, girt round. 
Di-dalam rahmat Tuhan perbebat : wrapped up 
in the mercy of God ; Sh. Lail Mejn., 56. 

Bebat is also used of a road being closed to 
traffic by a trench or barricade ; Pel. Abd., 60. 

bdbSram. (Kedah.) A kind of fish-trap, 
used for catching small freshwater fish in 
swamped padi-fields and little streams. 


ptf bSbang. A stoppage of the anus or uterus ; in- 
^ ability to get through anything, as when a man 

tries to get his arm through too tight a sleeve. 

Anak kebebangan: (by metaphor) a child 

cursed from his birth ; a child whose very 

birth was attended with trouble. 


[ 91 ] 



bSbal. Stupid, doltish, slow of apprehension. 
Orang yang bebal yang Hyada berbatu uji di-tan- 
gan-nya : men of dull intellect who have not 
the touchstone (of good judgment) in their 
possession ; Ht. Abd., 4. 

O^ bSban. A burden ; a load. Menchari beban : 
to go in search of ( other people's ) burdens ; 
to put oneself to needless trouble ; Prov. 
Tiyada beban batu di-galas : having no burden 
he shoulders a stone ; needless trouble ; going 
out of one's way to make work ; Prov. 

w>^ bebuta. A plant, cerbera dollam^ or c. lac- 
tar ia. Also but a -but a ; see bttta. 

0^^ beboreh. A yellow ointment for the body ; 
Sh. Panj. Sg. ; Ht. Ind. Nata ; also boreh-boreh, 
see boreh, 

(3jt{ bSbuli. A flask. Also buli-buli, 

/kr:^^ bSberek. A bird; a species of flycatcher. 
Orang jawa saperti beberek makan tuma : the 
Javanese are like flycatchers, they eat insects ; 
Prov., J.S.A.S., III., 46. 

Also berek-berek, 

iS/^, bSbiri. Kambing bebiri : a sheep, better biri 
biri ; v. biri. 

vJUj bot. I. Eng. Boat. 

II. Eng. Boot. Sepatu bot : boots. 

J w bStara. [ Skr. bhattdra, ] Holy ; a title given 
to the greater Hindu divinities worshipped by 
the Javanese ; the title assumed by the rulers 
of Majapahit. B, Guru : Siva, as the supreme 
Teacher. B, Kala : Kala. B. Besnu: Vishnu. 
B, Berhamma : Brahma. B. Teri : the Hindu 

B, Majapahit : the Prince of Majapahit. 
Baginda Seri Betara : His Majesty the King; 
Sh. A. R. S. J., 3 ; Sh. Sh. AL, 25. Seri betara 
indera : id., Ht. Mas. Ed. Di-iringkan segala 
bini aji gundek betara : followed by all the 
queens and mistresses of the king ; Ht. Sh. 

Cf. sangyang, 

^jUi bfetari. A grass sometimes cultivated for its 
grain ; sorghum saccharatum, 

^-^^ bStapa. How; in what manner. B.bichara- 
mu : what is your opinion. Betapa iuwan ber- 
Utah demikiyan : why do you say so; Ht. Best. ; 
cf. apa. 



[Skr. bh4tdld. ] The earth. Also 

iSy^, bfitawi, Batavia. 

Belat b. : a variety of the belat fish-trap ; see 

bfitut. The name of an edible saltwater fish. 

^j^ betas. Ripped open; split open under a 
strain ; yielding to pressure, of a seam. Cf. 
tetas, retasj gmtas, etc. 

jj*Jb bStis. The leg; that portion of a lower limb 
which lies between the knee and ankle. Di- 
behagi betis hendak paha : give them a leg and 
they will want the thigh ; give them an inch 
and they will want an ell ; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
XXIV., 99. Betis bagai bunting padi : a leg 
like padi in the ear ; the Malay idea of a beauti- 
ful leg; Ht. Sg. Samb., Ht. Jay. Lengg,, etc. 
Jantong 6. : the calf of the leg. 
Tulang b, : the shin bone. 

Betis is also used of the flank of an army ; 
Ht, Put. Sh., 159. 

iij bSting. I. A long narrow stretch of sand- 
^* bank or mudbank near the bar of a river. Di- 
tulis-nya batu-batu dan beting-beting dan alor-alor 
itu : they marked on it ( the chart ) the rocks 
and banks and channels; Ht. Abd., 359. 
B. belunjor: a long bank. 
Cf. tebing. 

II. Membeting : to dart along the surface of 
the water (without leaping), of a swarm of fish. 

iXi betong. I. Large (in certain expressions 
^ only). 

Belah b. : a long rent down the centre of a 
piece of cloth or paper. 

Bulohb,: the largest variety of bamboo ; Ht. 
Mar. Mah. See buloh, 

Rumput b. : a kind of grass used as a medi- 
cinal herb. Katak b. and kodok b, : a frog with 
a deep note. Tebn b. : the largest variety of 
sugar-cane cultivated in Malaya. 

Bagai-mana hari ta'-hujan katak betong di-dalam 
telaga berteriyak selalu : how can the day be 
anything but rainy when the bull frogs keep 
continually croaking ? Prov. 

II. The floodgates of a dam; C. and S. 

bStap. ( Kedah. ) To move without progress ; 
to beat about against a wind without making 
any real headway ; to change one's attitude 
without moving one's seat. Cf. empuL 

bfitak. I. Betak-betak : a skin disease. Also 

II. Jtiru bStak : a caretaker ; Pijn. 


IX, bStek. The papaya fruit ; carica papaya ; Ht. 
Koris ; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 8. 
B. belulang : a hard variety. 
B, bubor : a soft variety. 
B. rambai : a hemaphrodite variety. 
Betek'betek : a skin disease ; also betak-bUak, 


[ 92 ] 


^3^ bStok. I. Burnt by acids or chemicals ; Kl. 

II. The name of a fish ; Pel. Abd., 49, 132 ; 
J. S. A. S., VIII., 131. 

^j^, bStul. Accuracy ; correctness ; directness ; 
the true or direct way of doing anything ; 
straight ; erect ; right ; as it should be ; rightly. 
Menulis Kurdn dengan hetul-nya : to write the 

Koran accurately. Bongkok beharu betul : a 
humpbacked man just become erect ; a beggar 
on horseback; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 92. 

Betulkan and membetulkan : to put right ; 
to straighten. 

Bh'betulan : in proper condition ; with 

yjri bStutU. I. An edible freshwater fish. 

li. (Malacca.) A small tree; eurya acu- 

^ bStah. I. Recovered from an illness, restored 
to health. Hati di-dalam duka ta^-betah : to 
be unable to recover from one's sorrow ; to 
be broken-hearted and get no better ; Sh, Sh. 
AL, 20. 

II , The name of a tree ; Kl. 

4^ bSti. Beti'beti : a tree ; eugenia zeylanica. 

wwi bSteka. [Arab. ^, .] A plant, citrullus 

Cf^, bStina. Female, of animals, and sometimes 
(colloquially) of human beings. Sa-pasang, 
sa-ekor jantan sa-ekor betina : a pair, one male 
and one female ; Ht. Abd., 90. 

BBrkilat ikan di-dalam ayer aku tahu jantan 
betina-nya: let a fish but flash its scales in 
the water and I will tell you whether it is a 
male or a female ; I know the man (or matter) 
so well that the least clue reveals the rest ; 
Prov. See J. S. A. S., I., 93, and Ht. Koris. 

Bah b. : a heavy freshet succeeding a first 
and slighter flood; C. and S. 

Kasau b, : the larger rafters. 
Ketam b, : a plane. 

^y^ bSjana. [Skr. bhdjanaJ] A vat ; a large basin 
or bowl used for mixing or working up ingre- 
dients.; a basin to work in, as distinct from 
a mere receptacle for a liquid; Muj., 4, 18; 
Sh. Dag., 2 ; Ht. Mar. Mah. ; Cr. Gr., 79 ; 
Ht. Best. 

Also bajan and bejanah, 
4jW bSjanah. See bBjana. 


blljangga. I. [Skr. bhujangga*] A dweller 
in solitary places ; a hermit ; a solitary being, 
half dragon, half man. Maka berapa lama-nya 
Shah Kubdd pun bMemu dengan lima orang 

bujangga.,.Maka bujangga kelima itu-pun mela- 
yang berambang-rambang di-tengah tasek itu : 
some time afterwards Shah Kubad came 
across five bujanggas ; and the five bujanggas 
flew soaring about the centre of the lake.^ 
Jogi berhamman perbujangga : Yogis, Brahmins, 
and hermits ; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

II. Celibate; solitary; = bujang. Raja- 
raja yang bujangga: unmarried kings; Ht. 
Ism. Yat., 177. Cf. bujangga, I. 

III. A kind of puff made of ptdut rice and 
eaten with syrup. 

^jUJL^ bijaksana. [ Skr. wichaksana, ] Common 

sense ; practical wisdom ; sensible, sound in 
one's views; prudent, often with a sense of 
chastity; (less commonly) skilful, having a 
mastery of any art. Terlalu bijaksana kapada 
Ml memanah : a master of the archer's art ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Also bijak laksana, 

J \^ bichara. [ Skr. wichdra, ] Consultation ; 
* deliberation ; discussion ; the facts of a case ; 
the history of any business ; talk ; discourse ; 
conversation, speech or language ; ( Straits 
Settlements) a legal proceeding; a case in 
the civil or criminal courts. Hilang budi 
bichara : loss of prudence and reflection — as 
in the case of a man inflamed by love or 
passion. Ma'alum-lah tuwan bichara mimpi 
itu : you. Sir, know the story of that dream ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 113. Makafikir raja itu benar- 
lah bichara laksamana : and the king reflected : 
'* what the laksamana says is true ; " Ht. Ind, 
Nat a. Bagaimana bichara anak-ku: what is 
your opinion, my son? Ht, Sh.Kub. Rumah 
polis ya-itu tempat bichara : a police-court, that 
is to say, a court of justice ; Ht. Abd., 226. 

Sa-bichara : similarity of terms or conditions. 
Jikalau nienang hamba sa-bichara hamba-lah : if 
I win let it be the same with me; let me 
have the same terms if I am successful ; Ht. 
Isk. Dzul. 

BBrbichara : engaged in the discussion of any 

Membicharakan : to discuss, to thrash out by 

Ter bichara : argued out. 

^35" bSchak. I. Indistinct in colouring. 

II. Slush, muddiness; better bechak, q. v. 

I Ht. Sh. Kub., 175 ; note the use of orang as the numeral 
coefficient of the word, these bujanggas being the children 
of the king of the mountains, raja gunong haginda raja mega 
indera di-awan. In the same passage they are spoken of as 


[ 93 ] 



r^ bfichok. An edible saltwater fish, julis lunaris, 

K±^ bahath. Arab. Debate, discussion ; == bahas, 
II ; q. V. 

J^ bahar. Arab. The sea ; - ~ laid, Bahar mas 
dan perak : an ocean of gold and silver ; Ht. 
Hamz., 6i. Saperti laut bahar rupa-nya : like 
the great sea ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

Akar b. : a marine animal ; v. akar. 
Laid baharu'llah : (i) God's ocean ; the ocean 
of God's kindnesses to man ; (2) the Great 
Ocean believed to lie at the foot of Mt. Kaf; 
Ht. Sh. Hard. 

BaharuH-*dshikm : the ocean of lovers ; love ; 
Ht. Best. 

Lobok bahar : the cavities of the sea ; a name 
for cannon in the language of sorcerers. 

iSj^ bahari. Arab. Sea-faring ; appertaining to 
the sea; Sej. Mai., 399. 

ijzJs^ bakht. Pers. Fortune. Bad-bakht : evil for- 
tune ; ill-starred ; usually corrupted to the 
form bedebahy q. v. 

V43I bakhtiyar. Pers. Fortunate. Hikdyat b. : 
the name of a well-known Malay classic. 

^jLjiJsi- bakhshish. Pers. A gift 


bakhil. Arab. Covetous ; Ht. Fut. Sh., 25, 

bakhiyah. Pers. Embroidery ; to embroider ; 
see bektya. 

bad. Pers. Evil ; bad. Bad-bakht : ill- 
starred, unlucky ; v. bakht, and bedebah. 

i-^ bada*. Arab. Commencement, beginning. 




bSdara. [ Skr. badara. ] A name given to 
several trees with plum-like fruits ; Sh. Ch, 
Ber., 5; Ht. Gh. ; Ht. Koris; Sej, MaL, 19; 
Kam. Kech., 8, etc. 

B, china ; the jujube ; zizyphtis jujuba. 

B. htUan: a climbing shrub; strychnos sp. 
near pubescem. 

B. laut : a sea-shore shrub ; ximenia ameri- 
cana. Akar b, laut: a thorny seashore shrub; 
randia fasciculata, 

B, pahit : a shrub with bitter bark ; eurycoma 

Buwah b, : is also the name given to a sweet- 
meat made of tepong pulut and eggs, and served 
up with sugar. 

bgdawi. [ Arab, baduwu ] A nomad ; a 
Bedouin ; Ht. Fut. Sh., 21 ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 
149; cf. badwt. 



4j Jj bfedSbah. [ Pers. bad-bakht. ] Ill-omened ; 
accursed ; ill-starred ; unlucky ; = chelaka, 
Anakb,: this accursed child ; this child born 
to bring misfortune on others ; Ht. Gul. Bak,, 
5, 82. Si'bedebah: this accursed individual; 
Ht. Ism. Yat., 108. Hai perempuwan simdal 
bedebah tiyada tahu nialu : you profligate 
rascally woman to whom shame is unknown ; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 59. 

bidadari. [ Skr. widyadari, ] A celestial 
nymph, a nymph of Indra's heaven. These 
nymphs were the attendants upon Indra and 
ministered to his pleasures ( Ht. Gul. Bak. ); 
they were also the presiding genii at the union 
of lovers (Sh. Bid., ei pass,). The best known 
of these nymphs were Nila Utama, and 

The name bidadari is also given to the 
houris of the Muhammadan heaven ; Ht. Fut. 
Sh. ; Bust. Sal. 

The form bidiyadari also occurs. 

badar. Arab. The full moon. Chehaya kamar 
lailatu'l'badar: the brightness of the moon on a 
bright moonlight night; Ht. Md, Hanaf., 35. 
Laksana punggok berahikan badar: like the 
owl in love with the moon ; Sh. Sh. AL, 35. 

Badar is also the name of a plain in Arabia 
where a great victory was won by Muhammad. 

Batu b. : a stone from this field of battle 
polished and set as a gem. 

^^•^ bida'ah. [ Arab. 6trf'afe. ] Heretical; lying; 
deceiving; Sh. IbL, 3, 10; Sh. Dag., 16; Ht. 
Raj. Sul., 8. Bida'ah anak Terengganu : the 
people of Trengganu are liars ; Prov. 




bgdong. Swathing, swaddling (Ht, Gh., Ht. 
Best.); a swaddling cloth; a swathing band 
for a newly-born or extremely young infant ; 
a wrapper worn round the waist during the 
first few months of a child's life, the barut 
being worn afterwards. 

B, lilit : a swaddhng cloth with a long tape 
or string at the end to fasten it with. 

B. lipat : along swaddling cloth without a 
tape, worn like a cummerbund. Tali b. : id. ; 
Sh, Panj. Sg. 

bSdak. A Malay cosmetic or toilet-powder 

made of rice-meal perfumed with flowers or 

Berbedak: powdered with this cosmetic ; Ht. 
Bakht., 73 ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Bedaki : to powder any surface; Sej, Mai., 
135 ; Ht. Bakht., 75. 

Bedakkan: to cover (anything) with this 
cosmetic powder; to use any powdery sub- 
stance as a cosmetic; Sh. UL, 13. 

MembHak : to use powder. 

B. muntah belut; b. sampu; b. saw an ; b. sejok; 
b, wangi: powders used as cosmetics for 

B. pembuwang daki : a face powder used 


[ 94 1 




bSdok. A kind of big drum made out of a 

hollowed section of a tree trunk and used to 
beat the watches on, to call people to prayer, 
to give a warning or alarm, and for other 
similar but non-musical purposes. 

Sometimes known as gendang raya, and 
( Province Wellesley ) gedok. 

bddal. A blow with a smooth rod or rattan, 
a blow which leaves a mark but does not cut 
the flesh. Laksana nlar kena bedal : like a 
switched snake (with its back broken); a 
proverbial description of impotent struggling. 

Terangkak-rangkak kanan kiri 
Laksana iilar kena bedal ( bedai ); 

Hajai gagak nak jadi nuri 

Ta'-sedar diri-nya makan bangkai : 

writhing about to the right and left like a snake 
when struck with a switch ; the crow would 
like to be a parrot but does not realize that 
it is only fit to eat carrion. Bedal in Kedah 
would be pronounced bedai; hence the ap- 
parently faulty rhyme. 

Ovang jahat kena bedal, 

Lebam sehaja tiyada pechah : 

the wicked man has had his beating; he is 
black and blue, but his skin is unbroken. 

Membedal : to switch, to administer such 

bSdil. The use of firearms; a firearm. 
Ubat b, : gunpowder. Memasang 6. / to let off 
firearms; Ht. Abd., 73. Layar dt-pasang, bedil 
gemuroh : the sails have been set, the parting 
shots have thundered; Cr. Gr., 60. 


j^ badan. Arab. The human body ; the body 
in contradistinction to the soul. 

Bercherai'lah nyawa daripada badan : the soul 
has been severed from the body; Ht. Abd., 
23. Rosak badan karena penyakit, rosak bangsa 
karena laku : disease ruins the body, conduct 
ruins inherited virtues ; Prov., Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

bSdan. Reddish itchy spots on the body ; a 
minute pustule not as large as a pimple or 
mosquito bite, nor as the result of prickly 
heat ; cf. bintat and roman panas or tahi panas. 

45jaJj bfiduri. I. [ Skr. vaidmya. ] A precious 
" "^ * stone, an opal ; better baiduri, q. v. 

II. A war- vessel; one of the various types 
of piratical craft used by Malays; Ht. Raj, 
Don., II. 

iS^ J^ bgdukang. A freshwater fish ; (unidentified) ; 
^ Ht. Abd., no. Also belukang. 

,Jb biduwan. I [Skr. widwdn,] A singer; a 
musician ; a dancer. Maka biduwan yang baik 
suwara-nya pun menyanyi-lah : a singer with a 
sweet voice then sang ; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; Ht. 
Ism. Yat., 169. Rebab di-tarek tdeh biduwan 
akan pengulit raja beradu ; the viol was played 
by the singer to lull the raja to sleep ; Ht. 

P.J. p. 

In Kedah the word is pronounced bedwan. 
The word is also applied to the singers at the 
berhantu ceremonies and (Penang) to a dance 
of eight performers in costume. 


biduwanda. I. A royal messenger; an 
orderly ; a poursuivant under the control of 
the bentara. Biduwanda kechil atau suroh-suroh- 
kan raja: pages or royal messengers; Sej. 
Mai., 87. Baginda-pun bertitah kapada sa-orang 
biduwanda menitahkan demikiyan: the sove- 
reign gave the following order to one of his 
messengers; Ht. Bakht., 23; cf. biduwan, 

IL The name of certain tribes {suku) in the 
Peninsula ; Ht. Abd., 396. 

^jJu badwi or baduwi. Arab. A Bedouin ; a 
wandering nomad of the desert ; a bad 
character, a scoundrel, Ht. Mash, Also 
bedawi, q. v. 

(5-^ bediya. A spangle ; Cr. ; C. and S. 

^^\Jj»J^ bidiyadari. [Skr. widyddari,] A heavenly 
nymph ; v. bidadari. 



budiman. [Skr. Adj. oi btiddhi.] Possessed 
of wisdom ; wise ; prudent ; sagacious ; the 
adjective of budi ; Ht. Abd., i5, 454. Hikdyat 

Bayan Budiman: the Malay version of the 
Tuti-nameh or parrot tales ; v. bayan, Hikdyat 

Raja Budiman ; the story of the Wise Raja ; 
a Malay penglipor lara tale. 

bor. I. [Dutch boor,] A bore; a common 

II. (Onom.) The sound of anything falling 
into water ; cf. chebor, debar, and lebor. Also 

\j.^ bera. 

Flushed, swollen in the face, whether 
shame or from pain ; a face-ache, 

neuralgia; slightly spoilt (of food). Also 


cJ)t*^ bSrata. [Skr ?] An idol ; = berhala. Tempat 
memuja berata : an idolatrous temple ; Ht. 
Sh. ; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

I This word is often confused with the next ( biduwanda 
I.) ; e. g. di-suYoh-nya sa-orang biduwan pergi mendapatkan 
Indra Nata; Ht. Ind. Nata. Biduwanda yang baik suwara- 
nya pun (bernyanyi-lah ; Ht. Ind. Jaya; Ht. Sh. Mard.) 
bangkit-lah m^nari; Ht. Gul. Bak., 11. Sa-orang biduwanda 
memetek dandi ; Ht. Sri Rama. 


[ 95 ] 


(^)j^, bSrangan. I. Realgar. 

B, ptdeh : white arsenical oxyde. 

II. The chestnut ; castanopsis, 

B. antan : quercus otdocarpa, 

B. bahi: oaks generally, but more particularly 
applied to quercus lamponga, and q, rassa, 

B. habi hutan : quercus. encleisocarpa, 

B.duri: a chestnut ; castanopsis javanica, 

J5. gajah : a chestnut ; castanopsis sp. ? 

B. padi : an oak ; quercus spiccata. 

B, papan : castanopsis hulletti. 







bdrangai. Perahu b. : A Malay piratical craft 
with a peculiar boarding-bridge and grappling- 
irons in the bows. 

bSrapa. In some quantity ; to some indefi- 
nite but appreciable extent ; (with a certain 
interrogative intonation) how much. Maka 
berapa lama-nya : after some time. See apa. 

burak. Arab. The legendary animal on 
which Muhammad is believed to have ridden 

to heaven ; see ^^Jy. . 

berakah. Proud, haughty, self-important ; 
Kl. V. akah. 

b^ragan. Matt beragan : death without trace 
of injury or of the change from life to death ; 
dead, but exactly retaining the look of life, as 
insects destroyed by chemical exhalations ; 
V. akaft, 

bSragi. Burong b, : the name of a bright- 
plumaged bird, the painted snipe ; Muj., 60. 
Also burong meragi ; see ragi. 

birama. An elephant ; Ht. Koris (where the 
word is made to rhyme with lama ); = biram^ 
q. V. 

Cr]j\ bSramin. Bakul b, : a peculiar globular 
basket or coop hung from the roof to protect 
its contents from rats. 

bSrani. Boldness ; pluck ; bravery ; daring 
and impetuous courage. Tiyada berani iya 
pulang : he had not the courage to return. 
'Aldmat berani; or tanda b.: a sign of courage. 
Malu beraniy mati takut : ready to risk shame 
but not life; a coward, Prov. Orang yang 
berani'berani : a very daring man. Di-berani- 
beranikan hati-nya: he mustered up his 
courage; he nerved himself up; Sej. Mai, 56. 

Buhan di-pandang besar dan tinggi^ 
Daripada hati juga bBrani : 

it is not to be seen in build and in height, 
courage comes from the heart alone ; Sh. Pr. 
Ach., 15. 


Batu b, ; or besi b. : the loadstone; magnetic 
iron. Also batu besemherani, 

jB. Mat: Parthian courage; the pluck of 
a man who flees but is ever ready to turn on 
his foe. Also lari lalat. 

Cf. semberani. 

bfirahi. Love; in love, 'Ashik b. : the pas- 
sion of love. Chinta b, and dendam b. : the 
longings of love ; desire. Maka baginda pun 
berahi akan sa-orang dayang-dayang : the prince 
fell in love with a Court damsel ; Sej. Mai., 76. 
Berahikan : (i) = berahi akan : to be in love 
with another, Ht. Gul. Bak., loi, 116; (2) to 
cause another to love you. 
See also rahi. 

vl)V/l bfirbana. A tabor or tambourine ; usually 
rebana, q. v. 

ij", bSrSbat. A tree, sonneratia acida; better 
known as perepat, q. v. 



bfirat. Heaviness; weight; the sensation of 
weight as an impediment to motion ; crushed 
down by weight ; heavy ; ( by metaphor ) 
difficult, troublesome, interfering with pro- 
gress. Ringa^i ttdang berat perut : light bones 
make a heavy stomach ; activity leads to a 
good meal ; energy leads to success, Prov. 
Berapa berat mata memandang berat lagi bahti 
memikul: however heavy a weight may seem 
to the eye, it is heavier still to the shoulder ; 
a sympathizer's sorrow is less than a sufferer's 
pain ; Prov. 

Kepala-nya berat : he was dull-witted or slow- 
witted. Hukuman-nya berat kapada orang mis- 

kin, dan ringan kapada orang kaya : his sen- 
tences were heavy for the poor and light for 
the rich ; H-t. Abd., 291. 

Keberatan : pregnancy ; Sh. Bid., 3 ; Sh. Abd. 
Mk., 74; Ht. Sh., 203. Also burden; the 
burden of royalty; Mahk. Raj., 81, 

Memberati: to charge (in court) ; Majm. al- 
Ahk., 123. 

Memheratkan : to burden ; to hinder ; to 
interfere with the progress of anything; Ht. 
Abd., 23. 

Pemblrat : anything that interferes with or 
prevents ; a hindrance ; a preventive talisman. 
Tuwan puiBri Khatifah membubohkan tuwan 
puieri Seri Udara p ember at supaya jangan jadi 
bersuwamikan Koris Mengindera : the Princess 
Khatifah had laid a preventive charm upon 
the Princess Sri Udara to prevent her marry- 
ing Koris Mengindra; Ht. Koris. 

bSrtam. A kind of palm ; eugeissona tristis. 

a3^. bSrteh 

A way of toasting rice. Beras b, : 
rice toasted in the husk ; Ht. Abd., 113 ; Ht. 
Mar. Mah., 7 ; Ht. Sh. Kub., 16. See riteh. 


[ 96 ] 



bmj. Arab. Castle, turret; Ht. Isk. Dz. ; a 

station of the Zodiac. BurpiH-asad : Leo, as 
a sign of the Zodiac. 

The signs of the Zodiac play a considerable 
part in Malayo-Arabic divination and are 
popularly known as the bintang duwa bUas 
or *' twelve stars," though properly constella- 
tions ; see bintang. 

?>: bgrchat. A fish (unidentified) ; C. and S. 

i^^j'. b6rdus. Breadth round the waist ; prominence 
of the stomach ;— stronger than bimchii, q. v. 

^"V- bordu. [Port, bordo.l Gunwale (of a ship) ; 
(sometimes) the hatches over a ship's hold. 

^3i/, barzak. Arab, 
world ; Hades. 


^A lam barzak : the other 

bdras. (i) Rice, husked but uncooked; cf. 
padi, and nasi; (2) a measure for diamonds, 
(the weight of a grain of rice?)i Tikus jatoh 
ka-dalam gedong beras : a mouse fallen into a 
granary; great good luck; Prov., Ht. Abd., 10. 
Taroh beras didalam padi : put your rice in 
padi; an injunction to secrecy; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
I., 88. Beras basah : wet rice ; worthless rice ; 
a symbol for useless lies or a story that will 
not *' go down " ; Prov. 

B. berteh : toasted rice ; v, reteh and berteh, 

J5. btmga nyior : the grain contained in the 
flower of the coconut. 

B. bunga pinang : the grain in the flower of 
the areca-nut ; also 6. mayang pinang. Used 
at a raja's funeral. 

B, kunyet : rice stained with saffron — much 
used in wedding and other ceremonies. 

B.petas: (coll.) all kinds of rice and stores 
of grain. Cf. latik-patik, 

Belalang b. : a species of grasshopper (un- 
identified); Ht. Raj. Don., 56. 

c/1/. bdris. Eng. The bridge of a ship. 

i^j*, bfirus. Eng. Brush. 

y* b§rsat. Gone astray — of food which gets 
into the wind-pipe. Cf. sisat. 

'""^J*^ b§rsit. Sudden appearance, sudden projec- 
tion into view ; = bersil, q. v. 

y» bdrsut. A sudden scowl, as the result of an 
unpleasant thought rising in the mind. 

I Cf . the following Pantuns : 

Che' AH pergi ka-Lingga 
KSna angin gelomhang barat; 

Kalau tuwan biyasa berniyaga, 
Berapa b^ras satu herat? 

Kayoh perahu dart pangkalan, 
SSrta sampai beharu di4kat; 

Kalau 'nak fahu timbangan intan 
Lapan beras satu h^rat. 

\^j>^ b6rsil. Sudden appearance ; suddenly issuing 
into full view, as a snake emerging from a 
hole or as a ship from behind a cape. Cf. 

rr^¥ bSrsin. Sneezing : to sneeze. Bersin dan 
batok : sneezing and coughing ; Sh. Ungg. 
Bers., 18. Lah iya bersin-lah serta membuka 
mata-nya : then he sneezed and opened his 
eyes; Ht. Sg. Samb. 


bSrSseh or bgrseh. Clean; free from im- 
purities ; cleanliness, the state of being clean. 

M ember esehkan : to cleanse ; to rid of impuri- 
ties; Sh. Lamp., 15. 

^J^J^, baras. Arab. Leprosy. 

&^ bSrang. L (Daik.) Berang-berang:3.n otter , 
Ultra vulgaris. Also (Riau) bemberang, and 
(Kedah) member ang or niemerang, 

11. Btiloh berang : a bamboo, dendrocalamus 

9y^ bereng. Bereng-bereng : (Onom.) A species 
^ of gong ; a Chinese musical instrument ; Ht- 
Abd., 313. 

^j', berenga. Larvae of insects to be found in or 
on decayed animal matter. Maka berenga-pun 
puteh memuteh sa-genap badan-nya : maggot- 
larvae shewed up white over all his body ; Ht. 
Raj. Don., 53. See also renga, 

^•^^'^j'. bSrangta. Jav. Love, passion ; -^ berahi, 
q. V. Gila b. : the madness of love, madly 
in love; Ht. Raj. Don., 50. Taman b, : the 
Garden of Love; Sh. Panj. Sg. Penglipor 6. ; 
the consoler of love sorrows; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

i^j", bSrangtl. Love, = berahi and berangta, Gila 
b, : madly in love; Ht. Mas. Ed. 'Ashtk b, : 
id., Sh. Panj. Sg. 

{J^j". bSrengOS. Jav. Moustache ; = misai, q. v. 

^j bSrangsang. To excite or rouse to courage ; 
to hearten up with heating food or strong 
liquor or martial music ; see rangsang. 

^y*^j*, b6rengseL [Dutch hengseL] A hinge, e,g,, 
of a door; a joint — as between bones; hinged; 
see engsel. 


y bSrgnggiL 

V. enggil. 

Cf. ringgit. 

knobby, crenelated ; 

jp;. bSrfingU or berSngau. A musical instru- 
ment, a wind instrument. Di-tiyup orang-lah 
najtri dan berengu : the state clarions and 
bugles were blown ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 


[ 97 ] 


,_^, bSrak. I. The suction of mud and similar 
substances. TSrberak : sucked under, as a 
man in a quicksand. 







II. Facial inflammation ; see bera. 


bSrek. (Kedah.) Beberek: to chatter, to 
talk long-windedly and nonsensically. 

bfirok. The Malayan baboon, macacus neme- 

strtnus; Ht. Abd., 77; Sej, MaL, 118; Ht. 
Bakht., 53 ; Ht. Sh. Kub., etc. 

Serah b, ; or 6. menghantar hdsil : figurative 
expressions for the mumps. 

Tabong b. : a plant (nepenthes, sp. ). 

bfiraksa or buraksa. I. [Skr. wreksa.] 

Pohtm kayu b. : a large tree ; cassia fistula ; Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 66; Ht. Sh. Kub., 40; Ht. Nakh. 
Muda, 19 ; Ht. Sh. Mard. 

n. Kuda b, : a sort of legendary Pegasus or 
supernatural steed; Ht. P. J. P.; Ht. Jaya 
Lengg. ; Ht. Ism. Yat. Btirong b. : id., Ht. 
Jay. Asm. 

b■tlrka^ Arab. A veil worn by women on 

and after the pilgrimage to Mecca. Often cor- 
rupted to bergok or berkok or mergok, 

barkandsin. Pers. The festivities preceding 
the fast of Ramazan. 

berik. Eur. A brig. 

b6rkat. [ Arab, barkat. ] The blessing of 
God ; blessedness ; blessing — in the sense that 
the favour of God rests on anything, making it 
a source of happiness to others. Di-taroh-nya 
nama anak-nya itu Shaikh ^A bduH-kadir dari se- 
bab mengambil berkat nama bapa-nya : he gave 
his son the name of Shaikh Abdulkader that 
the boy might receive the blessing of God 
which rested on his father's name ; Ht. 
Abd., 7. Dengan kasihan Allah serta dmgan 
berkat guru-ku : by the favour of God and his 
blessing on my teacher ; Ht. Abd., 52. 
Dengan berkat is also used with the meaning 
of in virtue of" 

The word berkat is also used of the presents 
of food to be taken home given by a host to 
his departing guests at a funeral or wedding 
feast. If the host is of royal rank, however, 
the word tdbak is used. 

bdrkas. A tied bundle ; a number of articles 
united into a parcel by having a cord passed 
round them ; tying up. Saperti tandok di- 
bh'kas: like horns tied together in a 
bundle ; a story the details of which will not 
hold together ; Prov. Telah terberkas itu lalu 
jatoh terguling'guling : after they had been tied 
up, they kept rolling out; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Di'tebas-nya sa-orang sa-berkas : they cut 
down a bundle each (of undergrowth); Ht. 
Abd., 107. 

bSrkong. Sampan berkong : a boat divided 
into watertight compartments by planking 
stretching across the boat up to or near the 
gunwale ; see kong. 

bdrkek. Burong berkek : (Riau, Johor) the 
common snipe. Also ( Kedah) burong tetirok, 

bdrkok. I. 



.] A veil worn by 

female hajis ; also bergok and mergok. 
II. (Malacca.) A large wild pigeon. 

borga or burga. Ay am b. : the jungle fowl ; 
also ay am beroga and ay am hutan. 

bgrgok. [ Arab ^ .] A veil worn by women 

on and after the pilgrimage to Mecca; also 
berkok and mergok. 



bgrliyan. Eng. A brilliant; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Intan dan berliyan : diamonds and brilliants. 

bdram. I. The generic name for fermented 
liquors made from rice or other grain ; rice- 
spirit ; Ht. Ind. Meng., 139. 

II. A fish-trap for use in the flooded padi- 
fields and small country streams; also beberam, 

bSrma. [Skr. brahma,] L The god Brahma. 
Betara Berma dewa : id., Ht. Pg. Ptg. Berma 
sakti: a mighty God, said by Dr. Van der 
Tuuk to be distinct from Brahma; see his 
notes on the Hikayat Maharaja Boma [Hikd- 
yat Sang Samba); Tijd. N. I., XXL, pp. 91-101. 

Kutika b. : one of the Kutika Lima or Five 
Ominous Times ; the period of the day pre- 
sided over by the god Brahma. 

II. Redness — associated with the colour of 
blood. Tanda 6. ; redness caused by suffusion 
of blood. Orang b, : a tattooed person ; (from 
berma III ? ) 

III. Burma. Orang b. : a Burmese. 

bSrSmbang. A tree growing on the seashore 
bearing a sour round fruit ; sonneratia acida. 
This tree is constantly alluded to in pantuns, 
e.g., Sh. Pant. ShL, 5; Ht. Sh. Kub. (in five 
places), etc. 
jB. bukit : a large tree, duabanga sonneratioides. 
B, jantan : a tree, randia densiflora, 
Akar b. : a climbing plant, toeniochlcBna griffi- 

f^j*, bSrombong. Globular expansion ; conical 
^ * shaped ; funnel shaped ; v. rombong. 

Oyji bSrfimban. Cross-laths in a fence; KL, Pijn.; 
see rimban. 




[ 98 ] 







* ft 

b6rSmi. A small scented herb, the native 
*' water-cress *' ; herpestes monniera. 

B. hutan : limnophila conferta, 

bSranta. I. A river boat rowed by means 
of long sweeps or oars. 

II. [ Skr. anta. ] BBranta indira : of divine 
nature, divine; beranta loka: earthly; see 

III. [Skr. bhdrata,] Beranta yuda: the 
name by which the Bharata Yuddha is known 
to educated Malays. 

bSranda. [ Port, veranda. ] A balcony, a 
verandah, Ht. Abd., 273, 296; an open gallery 
on a ship, Ht. Mar. Mah.; Sh. Abd. Mk., 26; 
the captain's bridge, Sej. Mah, 329, 

bSrinda. The sum total; the full number; 
the entire household ; Kl., Pijn. 

bgrandang. I. To light up, at night; to 
throw light on the scene ; to extemporize a 
torch to light the way; cf. andang, 

II. Bare, exposed, C. and S; plain, visible, 

xj^j*. bSrandal. I. Jav. A robber ; a brigand. 

II. A heavy curved sword of Banjermasin 

bgrendi or bSrandi. 

Abd., 88. 

Eng. Brandy ; Ht. 

bSrfinas. Promising fine growth or develop- 
ment; growing up finely as young shoots; 
rapidly developing, as an eruption of small- 
pox pustules ; inflated to the utmost extent, 
as a bladder, or as the cheeks. 

bamis. Eng, Varnish ; European or Chinese 
varnish ; cf. sampang. 

Sapu bamis : varnishing, 
bSrSnang, To swim ; v. renang. 



[ Skr. bdmjya, ] To trade ; v. 

bSroti. Laths, in a lattice or in any similar 
construction ; laths constituting a framework 
on which anything is nailed. Also beloti, 

blirty. Arab. Castles, signs of the Zodiac, 
Mahk. Raj., 161; Ht. Put. Sh., 59; the plural 

of ^ , q. V. 

^^jjl, bSrochi. The adjectival form of Broach, the 
' * name of a town in India from which a certain 
cloth fabric is exported. Sarwdl 6, : trowsers 
made of this cloth ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

J-^jL/i bSrudu. A tadpole ; also rimudu, 

\j^^X bfiruwas. I. A strong scented shrub or 
tree ; premna cordifolta. Also b^buwas and 

II. Ikan b, : a fish ( unidentified ). 
bSruwang. The Malayan bear, ursus ma- 









layanus : Ht. Ind, Nata., 24. 

bSruga, bSroga or biruga. Ayam b.: the 
jungle-fowl. Also ayam borga; ayam hutan; 
and ayam denaL Ayam beruga itu kalau di-bh'i 
makan di-pinggan mas sahali-pun ka-kutan juga 
pergi-nya : even if you offer a jungle-cock food 
from a golden plate he will fly off to the 
jungle; irreclaimable; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 


bSrugU, A small side verandah or balcony in 
a Malay house ; Kl. 

O^j*, baruna. [ Skr. waruna. ] The Hindoo 
Varuna, the God of the sea ; cf, ( etymologi- 
cally ) Uranus, 

L^IJL/ bfironok. A marine worm or animal. Lak- 
Sana beronok berminyak-minyak : oily as a 
beronok; a descriptive epithet applied to a 
very fat man. 

B, pisang : colochinis anceps. 

B, landar : haplodactyla molpadisides, 

(Jjj", bSrunai. Brunei ; Borneo. Perahu b, : a 
Brunei ship. Orang b, : a native of Brunei. 

c^JL/» bfirohi or bgrov^i. ( Riau. ) Arrowroot. 

\Vft^^ bgrhala. [ Skr. ? ] An idol ; an image of a 
Chinese or Hindoo divinity; Ht. Mar. Mah. 
Sa-buwah rumah berhala : an idolatrous temple ; 
Ht, Gul. Bak., 118. 

rXfi^f burMn 

I. M. P., 4, II. 

Demonstration, proof; Sh. 

bSrhamma or bSrahma. [ Skr. Brahma. ] 
Brahma, the great Indian divinity, who, 
however, plays a subordinate part in Malay 
romances as compared with Siva. Betara 
berhamma : the great God Brahma ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. ; also betara berma. See b^rma. 

^y^j^ bgrahmana, bSrahman or bSrhamman. 
[ Skr. brahmana. ] A Brahmin ; an ascetic ; 
a priest of a heathen divinity ; Sh. Bur. 
Pungg., 15; Ht. Gul. Bak., iig; etc. 

Berahman Jakeniy berahman Jaketun^ 
Bertapa k^ras di-puchok apt; 

Chukup hart bilangan tahun^ 
BUah dada-nya beharu mati: 


[ 99 ] 



the Brahmin Jakeni, the Brahmin Jaketun 
underwent severe penance in the darting 
points of flame, and when the days and years 
( of his penance ) were accompHshed, his 
heart broke and then only he died. 

In some cases the name Berahmaria is given 
to the God Brahma or even to a great divinity 
( betara ) generally. 

bSrai, Cherai-berai : Scattered in small 
parties; broken into small detachments, as 
a defeated army ; see cherai. 

bSsut. I . A sudden contraction of the brows ; 
=:bersuty q. v. 

II. To strike; J. S. A. S., VIII., 127. 

^ bSri. I. Bestowal; the act of granting or 
--^* giving ; letting, allowing. Di-beri-nya-lah idzin : 
he gave them permission. Di-beri tahu : he 
let (them) know ; he gave information. Di- 
b^ri'ftya orang masok : he allowed people to 
come in. 

Beriyan : gift, dowry ; see infra. 

Memberi: to give, to grant, to allow, to 
bestow. M. tabek : to give greeting ; to 
salute. M. sumpah : to administer an oath. 

Berikan and memberikan : to give, to grant. 

Pemberiyan: gift; Ht. Abd., 264, 265, 274, 
etc.; dowry in the sense of the sum paid by 
the bridegroom to the wife's parents; Ht. 
Zaly.; marriage settlements. Also beriyan. 

II. Beri'beri: fruit-flies; better bari-bari; 
see bari. 


b6rita. [Skr. wdrtta,] Tidings ; news. Sam- 
pat sekarang tiyada khabar-nya dan berita-nya : 
up to the present time there are no news or 
tidings of him; Ht. Ind. Jaya. Apa berita 
segala anak isteri kita: what news of our 
famines ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 87. Dengarkan b. : 
listen to my tale; Sh. Lail. Mejn., i. 

Pemberita: a news-giver; '*news" as the 
title of a newspaper. P. betawi : The Batavian 
News; —the name of a vernacular paper. 
Cf. warta. 

Ju« barid. Arab. Messenger. 


Jo*. b§rida. [Skr. wreddha.] Old; veteran; 
experienced. Munteri berida: experienced 

h/, bfiriyang. Daun beriyang : a plant, archytea 
^ * vahlii ; better daun riyang-riyang ; see riyang. 

jjij- bSringin. The waringin tree; ficus benja- 
mina; Ht. Jaya. Lengg.; Ht. Sg. Samb., etc. 
Akar b : ficus pisifera. 

4^^ boriah. [ Hind l^y. . ] A topical song ; v. 


iSjjj*. bizurai. [Port, vice-rey.] Viceroy. 

A^ busana. [Skr. bhusana.] Raiment, cloth- 
* ing ; ornamental dress. 


c5^^^ bSstari. Well-bred; mannerly; polite; 
accomplished. Muda bestari: young and well- 
bred ; Cr. Gr., 50 ; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 18. 

/;\i*^i bost&n or bustS.n. Pers.^ A pleasure garden ; 
= taman. BustdnuH-'arijin: the garden of the 
learned — the name of a book. Bustdnu' l- 
kdtibm : the garden of scribes — the name of a 
treatise on letter- writing. Bustdnu ' s-sdlatin : 
the name of a well-known Malay classic. The 
above-mentioned names are hybrid, bostdn, 
though Persian, being admitted into the 
Arabic language and pronounced bustan, Di- 
biiwat bostdn tentpat bersuka : he made a 
garden, a place for enjoying himself; Sh. Sh. 
AL, 38. 

X^ buste. Eng. Bow-stay ; a nautical term. 

j,^ bSsar. Large; great in size; bulky; great- 
ness without reference to moral qualities. 

Orang 6. : a headman ; a chief. Tuwan b, : 
the head of an office ; v. iuwan, Bapa-ku itu 
besar-lah dalam negeri Melaka : my father grew 
up (spent his boyhood) at Malacca; Ht. 
Abd., 8. Maha besar: most great; very great ; 
Cr. Gr., 64; Ht. Abd., 12, 465. 

B. hati: presumption; pride of place or 
purse; Ht. Abd., 39 ; Cr. Gr., 63; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 149. 

Kebesaran : (i) greatness of station, rank or 
position; (Ht. Abd., 400); a distinguished 
honour; (Ht. Abd., 461); the emblems of rank, 
such as the regalia of a king or the insignia 
of a sorcerer (pawang). Bintang L: the star 
of a knightly order. (2) Pride, presumption ; 
Ht. Abd., 115, 259, 270. 

Membesarkan : to exalt ; to aggrandize ; to 
augment; to enlarge. M. diri : to talk big; 
to boast ; Ht. Abd., 96, 114, 143, etc. 

Pembesar : an enlarger ; Muj., 71. 

i^ bgsing. I. (Onom.) The sound of a pro- 
CP jectile whizzing through the air; to hurl a 
stone from a sling. 

II. Full of food, having eaten one's fill ; Pijn. 
ii)jLui buspgrit. Eng. Bowsprit. 
y2.^i^ bSskat. Eng. Baju L : a vest, a waistcoat. 

<^ biskut. A biscuit. Sa-biji b.: one biscuit; 
»^^-^^ Ht. Abd., 364. 

^ bismL Arab. In the name of; by the name 

1 of ; V. bi. 

Bi'smiHlahi: in the name of God. Bi'smi- 
HlahiW-rahmdni W-raUmi : in the name of God, 
the Merciful, the Compassionate; the com- 
mon exordium to a Malay written document 
or story. 


[ xoo ] 



.K?n 'iiiiit 

bismil. Arab. Kurdn bismil: a Koran so 
copied that every juz covers the same amount 
of space. 

bFsmillahi. In the name of God ; v. bismi. 

busanda. Old ; stricken in years. 

bisnu. [Skr. wishnu,] The great Hindu 
divinity Vishnu, the Preserver. Sang Yang 
Bisnu, Betara Bisnu, Dewa Yang Maha-Bisnu, 
and Betara Yang Maha-Bisnu : id. 

Kutika Bisnu: one of the divisions of the 
Kutika Lima, 

bas&ta. A silken fabric of Surat. 

bSsi. Iron. 

B. batang : bar iron. 

B, birani : magnetic iron. Also batu berani, 

B, chabang : a Chinese pronged weapon. 

B. kawi : manganese. 

B. khersdni : Khorassan iron ; fabulous iron 
deemed to possess almost magic powers. 

B, lantai : plate iron ; iron planking. 

B. lintang : iron in long thin strips. 

B, mawas : rude iron used by wild aboriginal 

J5, rantai babi : v. babi. 

B. tunggal : = 6. khersdni, 

Batu b, : granite, or any similar hard rock. 

Pandai b, : a blacksmith. 

Tahi 6. : rust. 

Tukang b. : a blacksmith ; = pandai b. 

boseta. Port. A basket ; Pel. Abd., 150. 

bastt. Arab. Homogeneous throughout ; 
consisting of one element only. 

4Jau.aU basltah. Arab. Element, surface 

bfisikor. An edible saltwater fish (besiko, 
Kl. ; besikau, Pijn.). 

bisMrat. Arab. Good news. 

basar. Arab. The sense of seeing, conspicu- 

^/wa* baslr. Arab. Clear-sighted, bright, sharp. 

usu batal. Arab. Vain, useless. 

MBmbatalkan : to nullify, to render useless ; 
to futili^e. 

"^ vkj bat&Iah. Arab. Vanity, uselessness. 

j^^^pa* batxlk* Arab. Patrician, patriarch ; Ht. 
Fut. Sh., 14. 

jQj butum. Arab. The terebinth tree. 
^_>«J batan. Arab. Belly, interior, hidden. 
ba'th. Arab. MembaHhkan : to send. 

jji) ba'd. Arab. After. Wa ba^da-hu : and after 
that; = kemudiyan daripada itu, Ba*d hajj : 
after the pilgrimage to Mecca; Pel. Abd., 154. 

O^ ba'dl. Arab. Certain (in the expression : 
a certain person); some one. 

i bald. Arab. Distant. Karib dan ba'id: 
those near and far ; Sh. Lamp., 23. 

U) baghal. Arab. A mule; Ht. Mar. Mah. ; 
*-^* Ht. Fut. Sh., 57. 

Ai> bughah. Arab. Rebel ; Majm. al-Ahk., 357. 

J^M> bighair. Arab. Separate, different from, 
solitary; Ht. Ism. Yat., 62. 

%} bang. I. [Pers. vi^jl .] Also ebang. The 

call to prayer by means of the big drum 
(bedok); Sh. Ibl., 5 ; Sh. Lamp., 5 ; Sh. Abd. 
Mk., 77 ; Ht. Md. Hanaf., 77. 

II. Red. Batek b, : a pattern of sarong in 
which red predominates; Pel. Abd., 59, 71. 
Cf. bangbang, mamhang, ebang, etc, 

i) bung and bong. Onom. A deep booming 




sound ; cf. debung and lebung. 

bangbang. Red ; cf. bang and ebang, Ber- 
payong kartds bangbang mas : with a red 
umbrella embroidered with gold; Ht. Sh., 
148, Ketara bangbang wetan : the Eastern 
glow was seen ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

bSngis. Cruelty ; heartlessness ; cruel ; callous ; 
indifferent to the sufferings of others. Ter- 
lalu bengis laku-nya dengan tiyada menaroh 
kasihan : their behaviour was most heartless, 
and they had not the least pity; Ht. Abd., 268. 

Kebengisan and pembengisan : callous cruelty; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 14, 27. 

bangsa. [Skr. wansa,] Racial, as distinct 
from political, national distinctions ; distinc- 
tions of blood ; descent, especially in the sense 
of noble descent. B. hindu: the Hindu race. 
B. China: the Chinese, whether Straits or 
China-born. Rosak bangsa karena laku: bad 
habits destroy inherited virtues; Prov., Ht. 
Ind. Jaya. Behasa m^nunjokkan bangsa : 
manners reveal descent; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
XI., 54- 


[ loi ] 


Berbangsa : well born . Orang yang berbangsa ; 
a member of a good family ; Marsd, Gr., 210. 
Also bangsawan, 

Membangsakan : to classify with regard to 
nationality; Majm. al-Ahk., 109. 

JaU^ bangsawan. [Skr., the adjective of wansa; 
V. bangsa,] Of good birth ; of noble descent 
(Sej. MaL, 36); a term of endearment (Ht. 
Ind. Meng.); a kind of native comic opera; 
a theatrical performance by natives on the 
lines of a European opera; descended from 
(Sej. MaL, 57). 

C^"***- * ! bangsat. The position of a rogue or vaga- 
bond ; a tramp, a pauper; without visible 
means of sustenance. 

Anak raja berjalan sesat. 
Matt ikan di-atas karang ; 

Sehaya misMn lagi pun bangsat 
Tidak layak kapada orang: 

I am poor and a vagabond; I am no fit 
companion for others. 


bangsong. Pointed excrescences from the 
roots of certain trees, such as the berembang or 
perepat. Also basong. 

bangsal. A shed; an easily erected and 
easily removable structure of wood or atap, 
intended for use as a shop or as a stable, or 
as a residence for a gang of coolies, or for any 
similar purpose; Ht. Abd., 311. 

bungsil. A very 3^oung coco-nut used as a 
plaything for small children. 

bongSU. Youngest born ; the youngest mem- 
ber of a family whether male (Ht. Abd., 14) 
or female (Sej. MaL, gg). Hujan b. : a very 
local shower. Gerham b, : a wisdom tooth. 
Pak b. ; and mak b. : (youngest uncle and 
aunt respectively) are usually contracted to 
pak su, and mak su. 

BongSU, as a name given to the youngest 
member of a family, is often transformed to 

^jjd bangsai. Much decayed; barely holding 
together — of wood, as in the case of an old 
fallen tree trunk in the forest or of a stranded 
and abandoned hulk on a reef. 

Padi b, : padi of which the husk is not 
entirely removed. 

bangsL The name of a Malay musical instru- 
ment; a kind of flute or flageolet of bamboo; 
Sej. MaL, 144; Ht. Ind. Meng.; Ht. Raja 
SuL, 6; Sh. Sri Bun., 3, 74; Sh. Kumb. 
Chumb., 5; Sh. Abd. Mk., 86; Sh. May., 14; 

Buloh b. : id. ; Ht. Raj. Don., 8. 











ji) bgngang. I. (Onom.) Singing or humming 
"^ noises in the ear. Cf. bengal and bBngap. 

n. Too small, too tight, of clothes which 
have been outgrown. 

«) bgngong. Confused ; absence of mind ; loss 
^ of presence of mind under excitement. B. 
alang : id. 

bgngap. Artificial and temporary dullness 
of hearing, as when a piece of cotton-wool is 
put in the ear; dull, of the ring of a coin 
when the metal is bad. 

bgngek. A catch in one's breath ; a constant 
break in respiration as the result of illness or 
weakness but not of physical exertion ; asthma. 

bSngok. I. Terbengok: with head bent and 
shoulders contracted, as a man in extreme 
mental depression ; dejected in mien. 

n. Goitre, swollen neck ; an equivalent of 
begok, C. and S. 

bingka. Kimeh b. : a Malay cake made of 
flour, coconut milk, eggs and palm sugar. 
B. ktikus, b. piihit, and temping b, : varieties of 
this cake. 

bfingkara. Hudang bengkara : a large species 
of prawn. Also hudang mengkara 2Lnd hudang 

bdngkarak. L A skeleton ; cf. rangka. 

n. Left unfinished; abandoned while still 
unfinished ; a vulgar variant of bengkalai. 

bSngkarong. A generic name for skinks; 
the common skink, mabuia multifasciata. Also 

Patahan b. : cramp ; an attack of cramp, 

bgngkasa. A kind of fish ; KL, Pijn., C. 

and S. [ mengkasar ? ] 

IL A trap; KL, Pijn., C. and S. [jerat 
bingkas ?] 

bgngkalis. An edible freshwater fish. 
Also mengkalis, 

bSngkalai. The abandonment of a work 
while it is still unfinished. Tinggal b. : to 
remain unfinished ; Ht. Koris. 

Sa-berang Perai tanah yang rata, 
Buleh berjalan sa-kehendak kaki; 

Bengkalai tertinggal janggal di-mata 
Pantang tukang pesudahkan bahagi : 

it has remained unfinished, offending the eye, 
the maker being forbidden to complete and 
deliver it. 

Also mengkalai. 


[ 102 ] 





bSngkawang. A fern; gleichenia linearis; 
also gleichenia hermanni. 

bSngkawan. A kind of lath used in 
thatching; the lath used as a measure or 
numeral coefficient for counting ataps, TMak 
buloh akan bengkawan : cut down bamboo to 
make atap laths; Ht. P. J. P. Atap sa-beng- 
kawan : a strip of thatching. Naik di-bumbong 
atas bengkawan : to climb to the ridge pole 
over the ataps; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 5. Also 



Glutted with food ; gorged ; 

bangMt. Rising; the act of rising, either 
literally or metaphorically, as of a man rising 
from the dead or of feelings surging up in the 
heart. B, berdiri : to rise to an erect posi- 
tion. Berbangkit-lah ketakutan: a panic arose. 
Di'bangkitkan Allah daripada-nya maii : may 
God raise him from the dead; Sh. May., 18. 

Hantu 6. : a sheeted ghost ; = haniu bungkus, 
q. V. 

Kuweh b, : a cake made of arrow-root, flour, 
eggs, white sugar, and suet, cooked in a 

bangkut. Stunted in growth ; insufficiently 
developed in some respect. Tandok b, : with 
a stunted horn, — used to describe a buffalo 
one of whose horns is stunted as compared 
with the other. Semambu b, : a Malacca cane 
one of the joints of which is dwarfed as 
compared with the others ; a stick with two 
joints very close together ( a peculiarity 
believed to bring good luck). Nyior 6.; a 
coco-nut tree part of which is stunted. 

bangkar. Toughness, hardness — applied to 
durians and jack-fruits, the flesh of which will 
not ripen into softness ; stiff, of a dead body ; 
the rigor mortis. 
Also mangkar. 

bangkir. Bongkar bangkir 
ing, heaping one thing over 
frequentative of bongkar, q. v. 

continually rais- 
another ; a 

bSngkar. Spontaneous opening, usually by 
the force of elasticity when pressure is 
removed, as in the case of a spring uncoiling 
itself; or as the folds of a parcel sometimes 
rise on the string being cut ; or, again, under 
the influence of heat, as grain does when 

bongkar. Heaving up, raising anything 
heavy from a lower to a higher level ; digging 
up; the turning up of soil in />a^i-planting, 
B. kota : the digging up of a tort, the des- 
truction of a fort; Sh. Panj. Sg. B. kubu: 
id., e.g., by blowing up the foundations ; Ht. 
Abd., 67, 470. Bongkar dari dalam tapa-nya : 
to rise from a state of complete mental 


abstraction; Ht. Ind. Meng. B, /^n: (slang) 
to get up and run ; to make a bolt of it ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz. 

Mari di-tarek dengan-nya akar, 
Akar berikat di-tepi-nya bukit ; 

Di'dalam hati chinta berlengkar, 
Jika di'bongkar terlalu sakit : 

come and tear it out root and all, though its 
root be fixed to the edge of the hill ; love is 
coiled around my heart and painful indeed 
would it be to root it up ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 12. 

Membongkar : to haul up or heave up. M . 
sauh: to haul up the anchor. M. bukit: to 
dig up a hillock, 

Bongkarkan: to have anything pulled up and 
Terbongkar : heaved away ; hauled up. 

Bongkar-bangkir : (i) turning everything in 
a room topsy-turvy ; (2) the recalling of past 
favours by way of a reproach to a faithless 

jB. karang: the name of a fabulous skate 
which could carry away reefs in its mouth. 

bSngkerang. A tree (a species oi garcinia?); 
also called mengkerang, 

Rumput lidah bengkerang : (Sungai Ujong) a 
grass ; fuirena glomerata, 

bangkas. A certain pattern (yellow flecked 
with black ) of plumage in a fighting-cock. 

bingkas. 1. Springing up, rising up; 
recovery ; elasticity ; rapidity of recovery. 
Jerat b. : a snare that has been sprung but has 
caught nothing. Tiyada b. : he has no 
recuperative power, of a man who is always 
getting relapses of illness. B. bangun : to 
spring up. 

Yang hendak ka-darat lalu berbingkas, 
Hendak berjalan sigera lekas : 

those who wished to go ashore sprang past, 
wishing to proceed with as much speed as 
possible ; Sh. Lamp., 42. 

n. A technical term used in weaving; the 
exhibition of the pattern on a stick with the 
silk threads in various colours rolled round it. 

bingkis. I. A present accompanying a letter; 
a complimentary gift or offering sent by one 
raja to another; a present sent — as distinct 
from one presented by the giver in person ; 
Sej. MaL, 52, 150; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 72. 

Bingkisan: id.; Sej, MaL, 49; Ht. Kal. Dam., 
436; Ht. Koris; Ht. Best.; Ht. Isk. Dz.; Ht. 
Mar. Mah.; Sh. Panj. Sg.; Sh. Sri Bun., 75; 
Sh. Bid., 88, 120. 

II. BungkuS'bingkis : all kinds of parcels — 
an alliterative collective of bungkus, q. v. 


[ 103 ] 




bongkas or bungkas. The rise of the lower 
portion of anything from a nearly horizontal 
to a vertical position ; e.g,, the rise of the root 
fibres on a tree being blown down, or the rise 
of the buried end of a stake on the stake being 
borne over by the current. 

bungkus. The rolling up or folding up of any- 
thing into a parcel, package or bale ; a packet, 
a bundle. 

Bimghisan : a package. Membungkus : to 
make up a parcel. 

Bungktcs bingkis : all kinds of parcels. 

Hantu b. : a ghost which returns in its cor- 
poreal form, and wearing grave-clothes, to 
revisit its old home or haunts ; Ht. Abd., 154. 
This ghost is so called because it is believed 
to be fettered by the bands round the grave 
clothes, and to progress by rolling along the 
ground like a bundle of bones. Also called 
hantti bangkit, hantu golek, and hantu kochong, 

Tepong b. : a cake made of tepong jawi, coco- 
nut milk and inti. 

bangkang. I. Wide apart; stretching out 
in opposite directions. 

Kala b. : the large black forest scorpion. 

Ketam b. : a species of crab. 

Tandok 6. : horns which do not curve in 
towards each other ; horns the points of which 
are very wide apart. 

II. Jav. Contradiction; verbal opposition ; 
unwillingness to acquiesce in what others say. 

III. Left unfinished ; neglected before com- 
pletion — of a work. Bangkang is less refined 
than bengkalai but less coarse than bengkarak, 

bangkeng. A kind of large round lacquered 
box for holding clothes and other valuable 
property ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 41 ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

bangkiXLg. To fall, as a spear that has missed 
its mark ; C. and S. 

bangkong. Parang b, : a Bugis parang ; a 
short, broad-bladed knife. 

bengkang. I . B . bengkok ; zigzagging ; crook- 
ed; Ht. Abd., 4, 204, 336. B. bengkong : id. 

II. Too small for the purpose for which it 
was constructed — of an aperture. 

III. A cake or sw^eetmeat made of tepong 
jawi, coco- nut milk, sugar, etc. Also bingkang 
and bekang, 

bengkeng. Peevishness ; irritability ; snap- 
pish ness. Anak sendiri di-sayang ; anak tiri di- 
bengkeng : one's own child is loved ; one's step- 
child is snapped at ; Prov. 

Bengkengi : to be angry or peevish with ; to 
snap out angrily at a person ; Ht. Si Misk., 80. 





bengkong. I. The tissue between the leaves 
and stem of the sago palm. 

II. Crooked. Bengkang b. : v. bengkang 
and bengkok. Cf. parang bangkong. Yu b. : a 
species of dog-fish; Ht. Raj. Don., 46. 

III. A girdle ; a kind of long cummerbund ; 
Sh. Laili Mejn., 26 ; J. S. A. S., VIII., 114. 

iSii bingkang, A cake ; = bengkang III, q. v. 

bongkang. Stretched out to its full length 
and breadth ; spread out to its full extent, as 
distinct from being huddled up — of a corpse. 
Cf. bongkeng, 

bongkeng. Lying forward, face downwards, 
with knees drawn up — of a dead body, especial- 
ly of a floating corpse. Cf. bongkang. 

bongkong. I. B, kayu : a large parasitic 
growth on the trunk of a tree. 

II. A soft cake wrapped in plantain leaves ; 
Bint. Tim., 6 March, 1895. 

bSngkongkong. A saltwater fish, chrysophrys 
calamara. Also bekukong, 

bSngkak. Inflammation ; a swelling ; swollen. 

Lain bengkak lain menanah : the abscess was 
one thing, the running quite another; he 
aimed at one thing and got something quite 
different ; Prov., Ht. Si Misk., 141. 

B, bakup : swollen — of the eyelids ; a black 

B. bengkil : swollen all over ; covered with 
contusions and swellings, as a boy's face after a 
fight; Ht. Abd., 25, 342 ; Pel. Abd., 43 ; Ht. 
Mar. Mah., 56. 

bengkok. Crooked ; bent ; not straight. Jang- 
an-lah tuwan-tuwan pikir kalau tebu itu bengkok 
manisan iiu-pun bengkok jtiga: don't imagine, 
gentlemen, because a sugar-cane is crooked 
that sweets must also be crooked in shape ; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 97. 

Bengkang b. : zig-zag ; not in a straight line ; 
Ht. Abd,, 4, 336- 

bongkak. Arrogance ; pride ; self-assertive- 

ness ; overbearing behaviour. Perkataan b, : 
overbearing language; Sh. Bid., 115. Terlalu 
bongkak pelandok jenaka : this tricky mousedeer 
is too arrogant altogether ; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 18. 

B. pungah : very arrogant ; an intensitive 
of bongkak; Ht. Jur. Bud., 6; Ht. Fut. 
Sh., 163. 


[ 104 ] 








bongkok. Bent; bowed, as an old man; 

humpbacked; curvature of the spine; a stoop, 
either as the result of age or of excessive sed- 
entary work. Beruban serta bongkok : grey and 
bowed with years ; Sh, Ungg, Bers., 4. Bang- 
kok beharu bitul: a humpback who has just 
become erect ; a beggar on horseback ; a man 
who is suddenly raised to a high position for 
which he is entirely unprepared; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., L, 92. Di-mana kayti bongkok di- 
Sana lah hendak meniti : wherever a branch is 
conveniently crooked, there will the travers- 
ing be ; a pigeon is made to be plucked ; Prov. 
Orang tuwa bongkok bawa tombak rambu : an 
old humpback with a tasselled lance; a lobster. 
Orang tuwa bongkok pakai baju best: an old 
humpback with a coat of mail ; a tortoise. 

B, udang : a slight stoop in a young man ; 
the scholar's stoop. 

B.kedek; or b, terkedek : a stoop, accom- 
panied by a prominent stomach. 

Timtin 6. : a kind of pumpkin. 

Membongkok : to stoop; (by metaphor) to 
humble oneself. 

bangkal. I. A large tree; cenolophon parvi- 
folius; [nauclea orientalisy Pijn.] Also b, pay a. 

B. bukit : a tree with greenish white flowers ; 
mastixia junghuhniana, 

II. Pembangkal : a village headman; an 
inferior Javanese title; Ht. Sh.; also pembakaL 

bdngkil. Projecting above the natural surface, 
as a boil or swelling. 

Bengkak b, : covered with bumps of all sorts 
and sizes ; v. bengkak. 

Cf. b^njol, benjil, bongkol, enggil, ringgit, etc, 

bongkol. A dome-shaped protuberance ; the 
hump on a camel or on an Indian bullock ; a 
swelling of larger size than that described by 
bengkil^ q. v. Also bonggol. 

bungkal or bongkal. I. A measure of 
weight (832 grains) ; especially for precious 
metals ; a tahil or 16 mayam, or, approximately, 
I J oz. Berbungkal'bungkal emas : bungkals of 
gold, i. c, comparatively large quantities of 
gold; Sh, Kamp. Boy., 11, 

II. A common jungle tree ; randia ariso- 

bongkam or bungkam. A drug or talisman 
to silence a hostile witness by making him 
tongue-tied when he tries to give evidence 
against one. 'Azimat pembongkam : id. Also 

The 'Azimat pembongkam consists of four 
talismans tied together by an arrangement of 
strings so that one is worn on the chest, one on 
the back and one at each side. The strings 
pass over the shoulder and form a St. Andrew's 
cross over the chest and back. 



bangku. [Port, banco.] A bench; a stool 
(Sej. Mai., 109) ; a seat or stool without arms 
or back. The word is also used of the long 
chair or couch of an European (Ht. Abd., 124, 
296), and of the rack in a torture chamber (Ht. 
Abd., 61). Sa-buwah b, : a bench. 

Pokok b, : a tree, eugenia maingayi, 

bSngkudu. A generic name for a number of 
trees, esp. morinda tinctoria; Ht. Ind. Meng. 
See mengkudu. 

bfingkuwang. The common screw-pine, pan- 
danus atrocarpns. See m^ngkuwang, 

baugkulun. [ Jav. western, from kulun, 
west.] Bencoolen. Corrupted usually to 
(Riau) bangkulu, (Johor) bmgkuln, and 
(Singapore) bangkahulu. 

bangkulu or bSngkulu. 

kulun, q. V. 

Bencoolen ;=zbang' 

bgngkunang. The largest variety of dwarf 
deer ; tragulus napo ; Ht. Abd., 88. 

bangkah. A single black mark put on the 
forehead of a young child to protect it from 
evil spirits ; the caste mark on a Hindoo. Cf. 


bengkah. A vigorous blow with a stick or 
anything of the same character, which is 
relinquished as the blow is struck ; to strike 
and let go your weapon ; to strike one top 
with another. 

bungkah. A piece ; a block. 

bangkahulu. (Singapore.) A corruption by 
erroneous etymology of bangkulun, q. v. 

bangkai. A carcase; the dead body of an 
animal. Anjtng ulang bangkai : the dog going 
back to (the consumption of) his carcase; a 
man relapsing into filthy tastes; Prov. 
Umang'Umang bangkai : a hermit crab; a small 
crab taking up its quarters in the shell of a 
dead shellfish; a man decked out in bor- 
rowed plumes ; Prov. See umang, 

Anjtng beruleh bangkai : a dog that has got 
hold of a dead body ; a snarling and jealous 
person ; Prov. Anjing gunggong bangkai : 

Bangkai is used, contemptuously and 
coarsely i, of the dead body of a man. Takut- 
kan hantu pelokkan bangkai : to hug the corpse 
for fear of a ghost ; out of the frying-pan into 
the fire ; Prov. 

Kembang 6, : 

SHggugut b. : 

a flower ; amorphophallus varia- 
a disease of women ; v. senggu- 

I Thus, in the Hikdyat Sang Samba, the dead bodies of 
Arjuna and his comrades are spoken of by his friends as 
mayat, while the term bangkai is appHed to the corpses of 
their foes. 


[ 105 ] 





bingkai. Rim, border ; the highest hoop of 
a barrel ; the rim of a shield ; a rattan laid 
along the gunwale of a boat or on the edge of 
a cover, tray or vessel by way of removing its 
asperity and sharpness; Pel. Abd., 113. 

bSnggala. Lower Bengal ; — but often loosely 
applied to the whole of the Calcutta Presi- 
dency ; Ht, Abd., 387. Tiiwan besar jenderal 
Benggala : the Governor-General of India. 

Ubi b, : imported potatoes. Pisang b, : a 
kind of banana. 

bSuggali. Bengalee ; appertaining to Bengal ; 
the adjective of Benggala, q. v. ; Ht. Abd., 103. 

benggal. Knobby, protuberant, dome-shaped. 

Benggal-benggol : id., (intensified). Benggal- 
benggil : id., but with smaller bumps or pro- 

b6nggil. A slight bump or protuberance on 
the forehead or elsewhere. Benggal-benggil : 
covered with small bumps and swellings, as a 
boy after a fight. 

benggol. A large swelling, bump or protu- 
berance ; cf. benggal and benggil, 

bonggol. A dome-shaped protuberance such 
as the hump on a camel's back ; see bongkoL 

banggi. I. Jav. Treason ; treachery ;= dtir- 

II. [Chin, bdn-jt.] A kind of lattice work or 
balustrading of glazed earthenware on win- 
dows, doors, balconies, etc. Also banji. 

bengal. Temporary dullness of hearing, as 
when water gets into the ears. Cf. bengap, 
and bengang L 

y\jd bangfila. Eng. Rumah bangela; or rumah 
bangelo : a bungalow ; a one-storied building 
with a verandah. 

\i) bangSlas. Unpartitioned — of an interior; 
^-^ empty, as a house the interior of which is not 

divided into rooms ; giving an open unobstruc- 
ted view. 

Aj^ bangSlo. Rumah bangelo: a bungalow; 
-^^ = bangela, q. v. 

JAj biingglai or bongfilai. A ginger, used in 
medicine ; zingiber cassumunaar. 

4i) bSngah. I. Stretching one's body to its full 
height when sitting, so as to look over an 
intervening obstacle ; holding one's head up ; 
(by metaphor) stuck up, conceited. 

II. [Penang.] Short of breath, as the result 
of exercise ; also mengah, q. v. 

4A bfingeh. (Kedah.) To hiss, of a cat. 
^ bafta. Pers. A kind of calico. 

bap, (Onom.) A dull sound, such as that of 
a man falling on sand or mud. Cf. dBbap, 
lebap, gelebap. 

(ivAi bupati. [Jav. from Skr,] A very exalted 
Javanese distinction ; (literally) a '* lord of the 
land " ; a great noble. 

vj^ bupala. [Skr. bhupdla.] Prince. Ariya bupa- 
la and indera btipala : legendary ministers of 
Sang Nila Utama in the Sejarah Malayu, 

L>^ bak. L (Onom.) A dull sound such as that 
of a slap on the shoulder. 

II. An abnormal rise of water-level caused 
by a river in flood meeting a strong tide and 
heavy sea ; a periodical drift in the sea caused 
by the monsoon. Cf. bah and sebak. 

v^ bok. I. Jav. Ahobokayu: a title given to 

an old lady when addressing her ; = embok, 

II. (Kedah.) A fishing-rod. 

III. A kind of carpet. 

^1} buk. I. (Onom.) A dull sound such as that 
of a coco-nut falling on soft or muddy ground. 

11. Eur. Book. Also buku, 

Uj baka. Arab. Eternal, eternity. Dart 

negeri yang fand ka-negeri yang bakd : from a 
perishable to an eternal kingdom ; — a polite 
way of describing the change at death; 
Ht. Abd., 12, Marsd. Gr., 143. Ddru H-bakd: 
the Everlasting Habitations. 

Bakd itu herti-nya juwa, 
Herti-nya kekal keadaan-nya : 

as for the meaning of bakd, it means eternal 
existence; Sh. I. M. P., 12. 

,3t^ bukbak. (Onom.) The sound of a heavy fall 
broken from time to time; the sound of a 
loudly beating heart; going "pit-a-pat." 
Also buk bap, and duk bap. 

fjH bakti. [Skr. bhakti,] Loyalty,— especially 
to God ; the reverence and love of a man for 
his Creator, or of a subject for the person of 
his sovereign. Berbuwat bakti : to act loyally. 

Berbakti : loyal, devout ; Ht. Abd., 440. 
Kebaktiyan; loyalty; Sej. Mai., 133; Ht. 
Abd., '15, 33^f 374- 



[ io6 ] 


\^ bokcha. [Turk, bukchd.] A bag, scrip, or 

wallet; Ht. Jay. Asm.; Ht. Jah., 49; a satchel 
such as the satchel of a school-boy; Ht. 
Hamz., 19. Birhala semuwa-nya di-masokkan 
ka-dalam bokcha-nya : he put all the idols into 
his wallet; Ht. Hamz., 15. Bokcha kesakti- 
yan : a magical wallet, a sort of Fortunatus' 
purse ; Ht. Ahm. Md., 52. 

Bawa Mluwam, bersama bokcha, 
Bertandang desa sa-belah barat : 

take up your bag, take up your wallet, and 
set out wandering towards the West. 

\jgu bakdul. [Hind. ?] A bearing-rein. 

Ojh bakarah. Arab. One head of cattle; one 

\jL bakal. Arab. Greens ; vegetables. 
^ baM. Arab. Balance, surplus ; = ^^ 
^^ baMyah. Arab, Balance; surplus. 



bSkatul. A kind of broth, Kl. ; (Riau and 
Kedah) bubor katuL 

bakS»rat. Arab. Virginity, maidenhood. 

bgkakak. A bird (unidentified); Sh. Ch. 
Ber., 10. 

b§kahak. The ejection of phlegm from the 
throat ; v. kahak, 

bSkat. Tightly filled up ; closed up so as 
almost to exclude air ; stuffed up, as a box 
which contains as much as good packing can 
compress into it. Penoh bekat : full to tight- 
ness, as the neck of a bottle into which a cork 
has been pressed. Also pikat, 

bikir. [ Arab. bih\ ] A maiden ; virgin ; 
maidenhood. Baik janda ataw pun bikir : 
whether formerly married or still virgin ; Sh. 
Lail. Mejn., 48. Orang yang beharu kahwm 
sama bikir : a man newly wedded to a maiden ; 
Muj., 45. Yang tiyada Urbuwang bikir -ny a : 
who had not yet lost their virginity; Ht. Sh, 

bSkaS. The impression left by any body or 
action ; the trace or mark of anything ; the 
vessel or wrapper in which anything has been 
or is usually placed. Mata-nya balut bekas 
mBnangis: her eyes were inflamed — the sign 
that she had been weeping; Sh. Bid., 87. 
Di'pinta suwatu bBkas hendak di-buboh ayer: 
asked for a vessel to put water in ; Ht. Best. 

B, baU'bauwan : a scent-bottle ; a vessel for 
perfumes ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 161, 

B. pinang : the bowl containing the requisites 
for betel-chewing. 

B. tangan: (i) handwriting; (2) the effect of 
a blow with the hand. Jurutulis yang baik 
b^kas tangan-nya m^nulis : a writer whose hand- 
writing was good ; Ht. Abd., 85. Tahan-lah 
bikas tangan-ku baik-baik : do your best to 
resist the force of my blow ; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 
60 ; cf. also Ht. Hamz., 52. 

B. tapak gajah : the footprints of an elephant ; 
Ht. Ind.' Nata. 

B. tuboh : a garment, — garments being often 
exchanged as keepsakes by Malay lovers ; Ht. 

Dari pekan, lalu bMaboh, 
Lalu berhenti di-kedai Jawa; 

M^mohunkan kain yang bekas tuboh 
Ganti tuwan dengan-nya nyawa : 

I ask for a garment which you have worn that 
it may take the place of my lover and my life ; 
Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 16. 

Bekas is used in Netherlands India in the 
sense of *' formerly," "late," **ex-"; bekas 
penghulu : formerly dipenghulu. Tempai bekas 
mahaligai : the old site of the palace ; the site 
where the palace had stood; Ht. Al., 40. 

Kebekasan : the (painful) results of something ; 
the traces left by a foolish act. 

bSkang. Unbent ; opened out — as a hook 
made of bad steel which gives and allows the 
fish to escape ; cf. bangkang, 

bSkak. The pairing or coupling of animals ; 
V. bebaka and baka, 

bSkal. I. Materials for consumption or use 
on a journey, whether actual food ( Ht. Abd., 
292 ; Sh. A. R. S. J., 3 ; Sh. Lamp., 28 ; Ht. 
Hg. Tuw., 3 ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 49 ; Sh. Put. 
Akal., 19) or money (Ht. Abd., 12; Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 407) or clothes (Ht. Kal. Dam., 
407) or weapons (Sh. Lail. Mejn., 26) or 
even ( rarely ) the actual steed or conveyance 
(Ht. Gul. Bak,, 46). 

Bekalan : id. ; Sh. Bid., 53 ; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 
8 ; Ht. Abd., 102. 

Perbekalan : id. ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 142 ; Ht. 
Abd., 292. 

Bekalkan : to provide (anything ) by way of 
stores for a journey ; Ht. Koris. Membekalkan : 
id. ; Ht. Abd., 12. 

II. Perbikal or pembekal : ( Jav. ) a village 
official. 'Adatp, : village law ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 

bSkil. An edible saltwater fish. 

bSkam. A light red discoloration as the 
result of a blow, cf. biram ; the mark left by 
the pressure of a fairly sharp instrument upon 
the flesh, provided the skin is not broken ; 
cupping; blood-letting; theopeningof a vein. 


[ 107 ] 




bSku. Congealed, frozen — as water ; coagu- 
lated, as blood. Ayer b, : ice. Hampir-lah 
stidah beku gBrangan ayer mata patek : my tears 
are nearly coagulated ; Ht. Sh. The word is 
also used of the traditional Nile turning to 
blood or coagulating ; Mith. Sar., 52. 

Beku didalam hati : an unpleasant sensation ; 
an anxious feeling ; one's blood running cold ; 
one's heart standing still ; Ht. Abd., 184 ; Ht. 

Hujan b,: hail; Tarn. Perm., 27. 

bSkukong. A saltwater fish ; chrysophrys cala- 
mar a; also bengkongkong. 



Jahit b, : a kind of double-stitch ; v. 

bakim. Arab. Dumb. 

bfigawan. [Skr. bagdwan,] Blessed; for- 
tunate — a title given to certain minor divini- 
ties or major heroes of Hindu mythology ; 
a title inferior to Betara but greater than Sang, 
and used rather with reference to power than 
to merits 

Seri Begawan : the title given in ancient Java 
to an abdicated prince; Sh. Panj. Sg. 




A fish (unidentified) ; J. S. A. S., 


bggar. [Arab. j/V-] Hardness owing to 

being plucked too early — of a fruit ; hard, as 
a bad potato that won't soften when boiled, as 
certain leaves that do not lose their stiffness 
when exposed to the action of hot water. Cf. 

In Kedah the word is used, by metaphor, in 
the sense of a hard proud man. 

bSgok. A swelling on the neck 


a kind of 

How ; in what way ; v. bagai. 

baginda. [ Skr. bahagyanda : the fortunate ; 
cf. behagiya, ] A title given in romantic 
literature to princes, whether reigning them- 
selves or merely members of reigning families, 
and in religious literature to the first four 
caliphs, especially AH, the Prophet's son-in- 
law. Colloquially, the title is usually given 
to a ruler by conquest as distinct from a ruler 
by right of birth. The title is also given to 
the Gods of the old Hindu mythology, and to 
the Prophet. Baginda rasul Allah : the Pro- 
phet of God, Muhammad; Ht. Raj. Kh., 4. 

bagi. To ; giving to ; see J^. . 

I E.g., in the Ht. Sg. Samba the title of Begawan is 
given to certain evil spirits (Raksasas) in the service of 
Bhauma, as well as to celestial divinities like Narada. 


bagitu. Thus ; so ; in that way ; = ba'4tu. 

qSj bagini. Thus; so; in this way; = ba'-ini. 

bol. I. Eng. A bowl, 

Mangkok b. : a large 

n. The globular masses of water bubbling 
up from a geyser, spring or fountain ; globular 
masses of steam shooting up from a chimney ; 
the agitation on the surface of a stream mark- 
ing the existence of a spring underneath. 
Cf. buwal, 

III. Jambu b. : a fruit-tree; eugenia ma- 

y\j bela. I. Support; sustenance. B.pelihara: 
bringing up, nurturing — of bringing up 
children, looking after anyone in disease, etc. 

Membela : to bring up ; to nurture ; to 

Terbela : nurtured, brought up. 

II. [Skr. M/a. ] Soldiery, army; see jV . 

III. Arab. A plague; a general calamity; 

V. bala. 

"^ bila. [Arab, bi : = dengan ; and Id: = the 
negative ta.^ Without ; = dengan iiyada. 

C-^>j bSlabat. Single-stick ; see belebat. 

^j^^ bSlata. Ikan b. : a fish ; better known as ikan 
pelata, q. v. 

S^ belatek. The Java spdirrow; fringilla oryzi- 

vora; Cr., padda oryztvora, C. and S. Also 
jelatek, and gUatek. 




bdlatok. The Malayan wood-pecker; Sh. 

Ungg. Bers., 4. Also (Kedah) pHatok ; cf. 
patok. Punggor rebah belatok m^numpang matt: 
the dead tree falls and the wood-pecker that 
lives on it is killed ; the fall of a prince means 
the ruin of his courtiers; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
XL, 69. 

B. batu: picus tristis ; Horsf., Cr.; meiglyp- 
tes tristis y C. and S. 

B,bawang: picus bengalensis, Cr. ; brachyp- 
termus aurafttius, C. and S. 

B. lalat: picus analis ; Cr. 

B, riniba: niuelleripicus pulverulentuSy C. and S. 

Jalan h. : to walk along bowed as an old 
man whether from age or as a mark of respect. 

bSlati. [Hind, from Skr. vilayati.] Foreign ; 
European ; imported (from distant countries — 
as distinct from Indian or Malay made goods. 
Tali 6. : hempen rope. Tembakau 6. : to- 
bacco prepared in the European way, as 
distinct from iSmbakauJawa, 


[ io8 ] 


^ beiachak. L 


fish (unidentified). J5. minyak 
this fish. 

Ikan hUachak : a 
a variety of 

IL Common, because plentiful ; C. and S. 

^j>*j^* bSlachan. A kind of preserve made of dried 
prawns and fish; Ht. P. J. P., Muj., 65. 

Saperti Mra k^na bHachan : like a monkey 
smeared with shrimp-paste ; fidgety ; Prov. 







bSlaohu. Unbleached cotton cloth ; also kain 
mentah, B. kelarai, and 6, minyak : varieties 
of unbleached cloth. 

bSladau. A broad dagger ; a short sword of a 
Turkish type. Pedang b, : id., Sej. MaL, 
188, 234. 

According to C. and S. the term would seem 
to be also applied to a small dagger which 
can be secreted in the hair. 

aSjo b^ladu. (Kedah.) Burong beladu : a bird 
(unidentified); = (Riau, Johor) burong beledu: 

q. V. 

S)^ bSlaram. [ Arab, balgham, ] ( Kedah. ) 

Phlegm, mucus ; v. jJj , 

4^^ bSlasah, L Repeated blows with a rattan ; 
the bastinado. 

II. A river fish-trap used in Kedah. 
ic.^ balaghat. Arab. Eloquence, rhetoric. 

b§langa. A large unglazed earthenware 
cooking vessel; a chatty; Ht. Koris, Ht. 
Abd., 104, 132, etc. 

Dayong tudong 6. : long sweeps with round 
blades such as are occasionally used by 
Tamil tongkang men. 

bulangan. A thorny shrub; gmelina villosa 
and canthium horridum ; v. bulang. 

bSlaka. Quite ; thoroughly ; altogether ; to the 
bitter end. Muda belaka: quite young. Bo- 
hong dan bodoh belaka : altogether lying and 
foolish ; Ht. Abd., 72. Genap belaka dalam 
behasa Melayu : thoroughly versed in Malay; 
Ht. Abd., 50. 

the posterior ; the 
(by metaphor) the 

bfilakang. The back ; 
rear ; the hinder portion 
future ; posterity. 

B. tangan : the back of the hand. 

Buwang b. : to run away ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

Di-belakang : behind, on the back, in future. 
Orang orang yang di-belakang : future genera- 
tions; Ht. Abd., 89. Hinggap di-bilakang 
kerbau : alighting on a buffalo's back. 

MBmbelakang: to have one's back turned 
towards anything ; to turn the back on any- 
thing ; Pel. Abd., 34. Membelakangi: id. ; Sh. 
Ungg. Bers., 26. MSmbHakangkan : id. ; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. 

Tulang belakang: the backbone ; the dorsal 

jSy^ bSlaking. Eng. Blacking ; tar ; coal tar ; 
^ * Muj., 35. Also ( Riau ) bUangkin, and belakin, 





bSlakin. Eng. Blacking ; = bilaking, q. v. 

bil§,l. Arab. A muezzin, a caller to prayer — 
so called from the name of the first man who 
performed this duty in the days of the Prophet. 

In Java, the word modin (properly 


,) is 

bSlalang. A generic name for crickets, grass- 
hoppers, locusts, et hoc genus omne. The follow- 
ing varieties are recognised : b. bSras (Ht. Raj. 
Don., 56), b. chengkadok, 6. daun, b, gambar, 6. 
gokf 6. hantUy b, janiban, b, jarom, b. jongkong, 
b, kemahang, b. kunyei, b, menerong, b. mupoi% 
b, padi, b, patong, b. pikat, b, polong, b, ranting 
(phasnia gigas), b, sakachong, b. sireh, and many 

Belalang telah menjadi tang : grasshoppers 
have become kites; the mean have become 
great ; Prov. Di-tempat tiyada lang kata bela- 
lang aku~lah lang : in a place where no hawk 
is, the grasshopper will say : '* I am a hawk ; " 
a triton among minnows ; Prov. 

Gigi b, : black teeth. 

Ikan 6. : a fish, exoccetus mento. 

Mata b. : prominent eyes. 

Paha 6. ; the thigh of a grasshopper, a simile 
for a much admired curve of a thigh. 

Pak 6. ; a mythical personage famed for the 
good luck which saved him from the scrapes 
his folly kept getting him into. Mujor pak 
b, : the devil's own luck. 

Petai b, : trees with red curled pods ; pitheco- 
lobium microcarpum^ and pithecolobium angula- 

bSlalak. To have the peculiar staring look 

common to people with diseases of the eye ; 
to have a fixed gaze or look about the eyes. 

bSlalah. Given up to gluttony. Stronger 
than pilahap, q. v. 

bSlalai. The trunk or proboscis of an elephant. 
Belalai-nya saperti kepala ular Mndak memagut : 
its trunk was as the head of a snake when 
about to strike ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 


[ 109 ] 


^J^i bglanak. A saltwater fish, mugil cannesius, of 
which the following are names of varieties : 
6. angin, b. bakau, b. jumptd, b. kamok, b. kBde- 
ra, 6. puteh, and b, rapang, 

Mata b. : the core of a pattern of lines on the 
cushion of a finger. Pusat b, : id. 

Pasir 6. : good holding-ground for anchors. 
^ b61awa. A kind of large sword ; V. d. W. 




bglahak. To make a noise in one's throat 

when eating; to cough up but not eject from 
the mouth, 

bdlSbat, I. A cake made of tapioca and 
rolled in banana leaf. Also kuweh lepat and 
huweh belepat, 

IL Striking (in contradistinction to thrust- 
ing in fencing) ; single-stick play as opposed 
to fencing with foils. Also belabat 

bglSbas. A small smooth lath laid horizon- 
tally across the frame of an atap wall to serve 
as a support for the atap ; the horizontal as 
opposed to the perpendicular portions of a 
framework, cf. jerejak ; a portion of a Malay 
loom used to connect pieces of cloth ; a ruler, 
an instrument for ruling lines. 

belSbau. The administration of a switching 
by a man standing up to a man lying down 
flat on the ground ; belabouring. 

bulbul. Pers. 
Bost. Sal. 

The Indian nightingale ; 

In Kedah this name is given to an imaginary 
bird believed to reside in the stomach of a 

bdlat. Any sort of net with long narrow inter- 
stices formed by tying together rattans or 
long laths; chicks; the pecuhar nets used 
with fishing stakes; (by extension) fishing 
stakes or traps for fish, generally consisting of a 
framework forming a series of enclosures (kur- 
ong) into which the fish wander, being led or 
driven from one into another by means of rows 
of stakes leading to the trap until they are 
practically confined in the last enclosure and 
are caught by raising a net {daun) lying on 
the bottom of the enclosure. The belat or 
net proper is placed round the framevv^ork. 
Saperti ikan dalafn belat : like a fish in a trap ; 
'' in a hole,'* ** up a tree " ; Prov. 

B, angkit-angkit : chicks ; = btdai. 

B, betawi: a fish-trap with three or five 
enclosures (ktirong), the netting being strong 
and intended for large fish, while the trap 
itself is an outshore one. 

B.jeremal: (Kedah) a fish-trap in the shape 
of a square, one side being left open to face 
the ebb tide. Fish are attracted into it by 
expanding rows of stakes which direct the 
course of the fish into the trap. In Riau and 
Johor this trap is known by the name tuwas. 

B. kangkang : a small river fish-trap some- 
thing on the lines of the b. hUah or b. bUawi, 
but of miniature size and delicate framework. 

5. kembang: an outshore fish-trap on the 
lines of the b. betawi and b. klddh, but not as 
large as the b, betawi, 

B. kedah : an inshore fish-trap on the lines 
of the b, bitawi and b, kembang. 

B.langai: a bag net running up and down 
six bamboo posts. 

B, lengkong : a fish-trap (unidentified). 

Tongkang b, : the boat used for constructing 
the framework of a fish-trap and for convey- 
ing and driving in the necessary piles (turns b.). 

Belat is also used of a splint for a wounded 
arm formed by fastening rattans or laths 
to one another, so as to form a framework 
relatively rigid in its length but which can be 
rolled round the arm as regards its breadth. 

'-^ bglit. Formation into coils; the coil of a 
snake (Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Cr. Gr., 78; Ht. 
Koris), or of an elephant's trunk (Ht. Abd., 
75 ; Ht. Ind. Jaya), or of anything of a sinuous 
and flexible character, as a necklace (Ht. 
Koris, Ht. Ind. Nata) or as a shawl wrapped 
round the neck (Sh. IbL, 12), or as a lasso 
enfolding an enemy (Ht. Sg. Samb.), or as 
the winding appearance of some rivers (Ht. 
Mar. Mah.). Sa-belit : a coil. Berantai tujoh 
belit: in a chain of seven coils, Ht. Ind, Nata. 
Saperti idar berbelit-belit laku-nya: like a snake 
when coiled up; a simile for an angry man. 

Mem belit : to coil round. 

C-^ bdiut. An eel. Ikan 6. ; id; Sh. Ik. Trub., 7. 
Saperti belut ptdang ka-lumpor : like an eel 
returning to his mud ; a man who goes out to 
seek his fortune and returns home as poor 
as when he started; Prov., J. S. A. S., II., 
141. Belut jatoh ka-lumpor: an eel dropped 
into mud ; a man who has been dropped on 
his feet ; a lucky drop into one's own element ; 
Prov. Bagai bekit di-ketil ekor : like an eel 
when its tail has been nipped ; off Hke light- 
ning; Prov. Ht. Raj. Don., 10. 

Jahit ttdang b.: herring-boning (in sewing). 

L^. balchi. Negeri balchi : Beluchistan ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 338. 

^, balakh. Arab. Haughty ; supercilious. 
*-XL bald. Arab. A city, a town. 

\JL bSISda. A sweet broth ; a sweet gruel. 

^\«Uj buldan. Arab. Cities, towns ; the plural of 
bald, a city. 


[ no ] 




bSlidu. I. [Port, veludo.] Velvet. Also 
beludu, and (Kedah) kain baldn, 

IL Burong bUedu: a bird (unidentified); 
Sh. Bur. Pungg., 6; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 3; Sh. 
Bid., 49. 

Also (Kedah) burong biladu. 

bSlfidoh. Tebeledoh: (Kedah) presenting a 
large appearance ; filling up the landscape ; 
looming large; = (Riau, jfohor) Urbeludoh, 

baldi. A bucket with a handle; a horse- 

baladewa. Skr. The name of the father of 
Krishna (in the Ht. Sg. Samba). 

baldewa. Negeri b. : the Maldives; Ht. Mar. 

b61ar. I. Mischievous — of children ; con- 
stantly playing truant ; uncertain ; unreliable. 

II. Membelar : to creep everywhere in great 
numbers, as ants, 

bSlor. I. Hardened, of skin; preserved by 
drying, as dried fish or dried meat ; v. balor. 

II. [Pers. j^, .] Crystal ; see habelor and 

bSlaS. I. Pity, mercy, sympathy; b.hati: 
softening of the heart ; kindly sentiments. 
B. kasihan : pity. 

Mimbelaskan hati: to allay hard-heartedness; 
to arouse feelings of pity; to sympathize. 
Bagai'bagai chumbuwan yang membelaskan 
hati : varied endearments to arouse sympathy ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

II. A word used in the formation of the 
numerals from eleven to nineteen inclusive ; 
e,g,, sa-bUas : eleven; duwa betas: twelve; 
tiga bilas : thirteen ; etc. 

b31us. Free to go in and out; unobstructed; 
loose, of the base of a pillar or mast. 

bolsa. Port, A clothes-bag. Also bolsak, 

balasan. Arab. Balm; especially ** balm 
of Judah "; balsam. Also ^ 

bSlSsit. (Onom.) The sound of a switching ; 
to switch ; a switching described by its sound. 
Cf. belebau, and belasah. 

bolsak. (Port, bolsa,) A clothes-bag. Also 

balsam. Arab. Balm, especially *' balm of 
Judah '%• balsam; see o^ • 



balagh. Arab. To reach a certain point ; a 
mark in a book where one stops reading. 

balgham. Arab. Phlegm, mucus ; Muj., 50. 
Also (Kedah) belaranu 

bfilang. Spotted ; variegated ; mottled ; pie- 
bald ; striped ; alternation of colour. Harimau 
mBmmjokkan belang-nya: a tiger showing his 
stripes ; a man revealing his true character ; 
J. S. A. S., XL, 66. 

Kuda b. : (Singapore) a piebald horse ; (Pen- 
ang) a zebra, as known through travelling 

B, berintek : spotted as a leopard ; spotted in 
very small spots. 

B, chechak : spotted, as the greyish-coloured 
wild cat. Siput belang chechak : a kind of shell 
covered with spots ; terebra mascaria, 

B, kasau : striped, as a tiger. 

B, tebuwan : marked by rings, as the skin of 
certain leopards. 

Sakit 6. : a disease in which white blotches 
are produced on the skin. 
Cf. belak and pelang, 

belong. I. (Kedah.) Tall for his age, of a 
boy ; over-rapidly developed, of a tree or fruit. 
Also melong, 

II. (Kedah.) Belah belong: the name given 
to a bird (unidentified) or insect (C. and S.) 
the note of which is heard at night and is 
believed to be supernatural ; v. belah. 

ill bSleng. Jav. Broken pottery ; an equivalent 
^' of tenihekar, n. v. 

of tembekar, q. v. 

{j*^. bSlSngas. L Insipid; that has lost its taste. 

II. Sticky, of the body after bathing in 
salt water. 

bSlengset. Exposure of the inside of the 
lower eyelid — as the result of ophthalmic 
disease. Also belenset, a.nd pelenset. 

bdlongsong. A fabric of mixed silk and 
cotton ; a kind of cloth made at Palembang. 
Also longsin. 

bSlengket. Inseparably attached; fastened; 
joined ; linked together. 

j lLru V u'^ lf 



** bSlungkor. The name of an edible salt- 
water fish (unidentified). B. pasir ; b.paya; 

6. pisang : varieties of this fish. 


[ I" ] 





bSlangkas. I. The king-crab ; limulus moluc- 
canus. Bagai keroncho dengan belangkas : like 
the king-crab and its mate; a symbol for 
affection ; Prov. 

Buntut b,: a nickname given to the lower 
portion of the head-dress of Malay and Baba 

Ekor b, : the tail of the king-crab ; a des- 
criptive name given to three-sided blades or 
pins. Di-mana-kah dapat ekor belangkas : where 
did you get those hairpins ? (chuchok sanggul). 
Daun ekor b. : a herb ; gnettim bnmonianum, 
Pedang ekor b, : a three-sided rapier. 

Telor b. : the eggs of the king-crab. Bunga 
telor b, : a plant, sida carpinifolia and mcesa 

Yu belangkas : a shark, so called from the 
shape of its tail. 

bfilengkong. Pedang b, : a sword of very 
flexible steel ; a sword that will bend till point 
and handle meet ; v. lengkong, 

bSlongkang. I. A large river boat much 
used at Pontianak. 

II. Harness for draft cattle. 

iSsJiL bSlongkeng. A kind of small edible snail. 

^y^^ bSlangkin. Eng. Blacking, tar; = bela- 
king, q. V. 

yJiL bSlSnggU. Fetters; shackles; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

i]b b§lak. Mottled, as the grain of certain woods ; 
spotted (with large spots), as opposed to 
merely dotted with points of a different colour 
(barek, q. v.); white spots on the human body, 
= sopak, q. V. Cf. belang, 

^ bfilek. The act of turning up the upper eye- 
lid or turning down the lower eyelid with the 
finger ; cf. belek, and belengset. 

ri, bSlok. Eng. A large pulley ; a block. 

,yiMj balkis. Arab. The legendary name of the 
Queen of Sheba. PuUri b. : id. 

ill, bdlSlang. To give a sidelong and upward 
CT^ glance; to look to the side with the eye 
slightly raised ; cf. jeling, 

L bSlam. L Belam apt: a piece of wood kept 
\ burning (where matches are not available) to 
supply a light whenever required. 

II. (Onom. ) ChBlum belam: tramping in 
and out; familiarity; making oneself at home 
in a house. 

III. BUam-belam : dusky ; gloom ; twilight. 




bfilum. I. Not yet. Bilumkan: id.; Sh. 
Yat. Nast., i6o. Belum lagi : not yet, not 
even yet. Belum pernah : never yet. BSlum 
sampai : not yet arrived. Ingat antara belum 
kena jimat antara belum habis : think before 
the event ; take thought before all is spent ; 
look before you leap ; Prov. Sa-belum : until ; 
so long as . . . not. Sa4agi bHum : id. 

Belum is often used as a mere negative, 
especially in reply to a question. Belum 
chukup : insufficient. 

II. Belah belum: a stick insect, C. and S.; 
V. belah. 

balmara. A certain tool used by a brazier 
when turning the pot on a sort of lathe. 



Whenever, at whatever time ; v. 

bfilambang or (Kedah) b618mbaiig. A 
truss ; a soft cord for binding up a sheaf of 
anything ; a rough lath or unplaned plank. 

bSlimbing. Ridged longitudinally ; the shape 
of an object which has long ridges running 
from one end to the other; a name given 
(owing to their appearance) to a well known 
fruit, averrhoa bilimbi, and to the leathery 
turtle, dermochelys coriacea, 

B, buloh: another name for the fruit, averrhoa 

B. besi, 6. bulat, b, hutan, b, kiris^ b. kera, b, 
penjuru, b. pipit : names for a tree with dark 
red acid fruits ; connaropsis monophylla, 

B. kembola, b, manis, b, batu : names for the 
fruit, averrhoa carambola. 

Akar b, : a climbing plant with lilac flowers 
and scarlet and black peas. 

Aji bdlSmak 

b61ombang. The swell of the sea ; = gUom- 
bang, q. v. 

bfilumpai. Not yet, not yet arrived; an 
abbreviation of belum sampai. 

A kind of owl with a mournful 
note. Suwara-nya mSnangis saperti kukok bSlB- 
mak : her voice was plaintive like the owFs 
note ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

j^ bfilin. A species of very small edible eel. 


^\;uL bSlantara. [Kawi: wanantara.] The jungle. 
Hutan b. : a boundless waste of forest ; the 
jungle; Ht. Sg. Samb,; Ht. Gul. Bak., 6, 8, 
30. Rimba b. : id. 

(j-^ b61untas. A sea-shore shrub with lilac 
flowers ; pluchea indica, or conyza indica. Also 
b, paya. 

B. bukit : a large tree with small deep green 
leaves ; erythroxylon burmanicum. 

B. padi: (Malacca) a small shrub with 
large pale violet or white flowers; cUtoria 


[ 112 ] 


bSlSnting. Stretched or expanded to break- 
ing or bursting point ; v. lUing, 

b^lantek. A kind of spring-gun or trap for 

large animals ; also ( Kedah ) pUantek, 

B, embat : (Johor) a spring seizing the 
victim by the leg. 

B. pangkong: a spring-trap striking an animal 
on the head. 

B, parap ; or 6. parak : a spring-trap with an 
arrow or javelin. 

B. pant : another form of trap using a javelin 
or arrow. 

J5. sembat: a spring-trap like the b. embat, but 
violently upsetting an animal besides seizing 
its leg. 

Bintang b. : a constellation — the Hyades. 

bSlontok. An edible sea-water fish, gobius 
viridipunctattis . 

bSluntok. Orang ttiwa beluntok : an old man 

with young ways. Also orang tuwa suntok 
and orang tuwa luntok. 

bdlantan. A club, baton, or cudgel ; a 
shillelagh ; a stick increasing in thickness the 
further it extends from the handle ; cf. anta^t, 

bdlintan. (Kedah.) A tree (unidentified). 

bSlantah. Rice half cooked, half raw; = 
jelantah or biji limau, 

bSlanja. Cost of sustenance; allowance for 
expenditure; salary; expenses. Belanja pada 
sa-bulan sa-ribu tiga ratus ringgit : an allowance 
of $1,300 per mensem ; Ht. Abd., 330. 

Belanjakan and membelanjakan : to expend, 
to disburse. 

bfilunjor. To stretch oneself, to extend the 
limbs ; v. tmjor, 

bdlinjau. (Kedah.) A tree yielding an edible 
fruit (unidentified). 

bSlanda. Dutch. Belanda minta tanah: a 
Dutchman asking for land ; a hard bargainer ; 

Awan b, : pictorial or carved foliage; folia- 
tion in art. 

Ayam b, : a turkey ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Ayer 6. : mineral water. 

Batu b, : crystal ; paste ( for artificial 
diamonds.) Dahulu intan sekarang jadi batu 
belanda : formerly diamond, now paste ; a fall 
in the social scale ; Prov. 

Dtmyan b. : the soursop, anona muricata, 

Kartds 6. : European-made paper. 

Kuching b, : a rabbit. 

Negeri b. : Holland. 

Orang b. : a Dutchman. 

Also holandUf wilanda^ wolanda and belan- 


fUUi bglandong. I. A bird (unidentified). 

II. Too big; loosely hanging on the body 
— of clothes. 

bSlenset. Exposure of the inner portion of 
the eyelid ; also bUengset, q. v. 

bSlau. I. An edible saltwater fish ( uniden- 

II. BelaU'belau : blinking — as the eyes 
when affected by too great brilliancy ; trying 
to the eyes — of certain wavy patterns of 
ribbed silk. Cf. kilau and telau. 

III. [Dutch blaatiw,] Blue. 

b§lu. I. Jav. Belu'belai : to chatter; to 

II. BerbelU'belu : with reddish or bluish 
spots on the body, from sudden cold or after 
immersion in very cold water. 

belubor. A place partitioned off from the 
rest of a room for use as a rice bin or store ; 
a locker in the bows of a boat ; the Malay 
equivalent for a gabion ; a kind of limekiln ; 
a large earthenware jar used as a measure of 
capacity or for storing padi, 

Cf. lubor. 



(ji^ bgloti. A lath ; v. blroti. 


bSlodok. Projecting, prominent — of the eyes. 

Ikan b, : the name given to a fish with very 
prominent eyes ; platyglossus sp. 

biludak. A venomous snake (unidentified), 
Kl., Pijn. 

bSludal. A sweetmeat ; a kind of apam made 
without eggs ; v. apam. 

jjj, bSludu. Velvet = beledu, I., q. v. 

b^Jli bfiludoh. (Riau, Johor.) Terbeludoh : loom- 
-^^ ing large before the eye, prominent, filling up 
the landscape ; = (Kedah) tebeledoh. 

balt!Lr. Pers. Rock crystal. Also habelur 
and abelur, q. v. 

baluwarti. [ Port, baluarte. ] Bulwark ; 
rampart, fortified wall; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

^JL bSluwas. A fish (unidentified), Kl. 

- Jj bSlusok. A snake-like fish (unidentified). 

WL bulAgh. Arab. Full age, majority, being 
^ * of age. 


[ 113 ] 


^jL b61ukar. L Secondary jungle; scrub; Ht. 
Abd., 78 ; Ht. Sg. Samba. 

B. muda: scrub of from 3 to 10 years' 

B, tuwa : scrub of over 10 years' growth. 
11. A kind of fish-trap used in rivers. 

bSlukang. An edible saltwater fish (unidenti- 
fied); Sh. Ik. Trub., 11. 

w«jD Jli bfilukap. A mangrove ; rhizophora nmcronata 

bfilulut. I. A sweet made of young kabong 
fruit and sugar. 

II. Burdened with fruit ; thickly covered 
with fruit — of a tree. 

iiyj b61ulang. A skin, a pelt dried in the sun but 
^ not preserved in any more careful way; 

patches of hardened skin on a bullock's neck 
as the result of the pressure of the yoke, — or 
on the shoulders of a carrier who uses a 
carrying pole. Belulang kering : a dry hide ; 
a synonym for a miser; Prov. Pimidang 
belulang: the frame on which a skin is 
stretched for drying. 

^Jyj bilolang. A ship used by Macassar traders. 


bSIuluk or b61olok. Fallen in quantities (of 
fruit) C. and S.; v. belulut. 

bfiluwam. A kind of scrip or wallet used by 
Buddhist priests ; a large sack of leather or 
cloth such as is carried by a Buddhist priest 
to stow away offerings of food made him by 
his co-religionists. 

Tuwam di-layov di-puchok apt, 
Hendak tuwam betul pusat ; 

Bawa beluwaMf menjadt sanii, 
Pakaiyan kuntng, masok di-wai : 

take a bag for offerings, make yourself a 
Buddhist priest, and in your yellow robe enter 
the Watt (Siamese temple), 

bglohan or balohan. (Properly) the frame 
of the howdah ; v. baloh. Tali bilohan : the 
strap passing under the neck of the elephant 
and securing the howdah against sHpping 
back, tali renut being the belly-band and tali 
rengga, the crupper. 

Drawn, of a game, KL, Pijn. Cf. 

I. Splitting, cleaving; division into 
two portions; cloven; divided. Bagai pinang 
di'belah duwa : like an areca-nut split in two ; 
as like as two peas ; Prov. BBlah dada lihat 
hati : ( ironically ) cleave my breast and look 
at my heart ; I can do no more to convince 
you; Prov. 

B. belong : a long rent down the centre of a 
piece of cloth. 






B. limang : ( Kedah and Perak) the name of 
a feast in connection with the semangat padi 

Baji b. : a wedge for severance, in contra- 
distinction to a wedge for filling up an 
interstice (baji rapat). 

Baju belah dada : a jacket opening in front 
the whole way down and not at the neck 
piece only. 

Sa-belah : one side of this division ; one of 
the two portions. Keduwa bilah : both sides, 
both portions. Keduwa b^lah tangan: the 
hands on both sides ; both hands. Sa-bBlak 
menyebelah ; on one side and on the other ; on 
both sides; Pel. Abd., 65 ; Ht. Abd., 323. 

Sa-belah is also used to express that the 
situation of a place is indefinite in every 
respect except in that of approximate 
direction. Sa-belah tanah Jawa : somewhere in 
the direction of Jawa. Pergi Bombe sa-bBlah 
Sana negeri : he went to Bombay or to some 
place in that direction ; t.^., he was trans- 

Membelah : to split. Saperti halilintar mem- 
belah burnt : like the thunderbolt cleaving the 
earth, a common symbol in romances for the 
sound of a stentorian voice. 

II. Belah belong: (Kedah) a bird said to be 
a species of owl, the note of which is supposed 
to give warning of supernatural visitation. 
According to C. and S., b^lah bUum is a 
species of stick-insect. 

Belah belong bunyi malam, 

Bunyi di-atas bumbong pinghulu; 

Allah beliim di-jadikan 'dlam 
Schaya sudah berjanji dahulu : 

the belah'belong is crying at night, crying from 
the roof of the penghulu's dwellings; before 
God ever created the earth, my promise was 
plighted awaiting thee. 

bfilai. Dalliance; fondling; caressing. Pujok 
6. : flattering and caressing. Chumbu dan belai : 
id. Pangku 6. ; taking on one's knees and 
fondling. Also balai (Sh. Bid., 71 ; Ht. Sh. 
Kub., etc. ); but belai is the form in colloquial 

b61i. Purchase; buying. Birjuwal bili: 
selling and buying ; trade ; business. 

Membeli : to purchase ; Ht. Abd., 354. 

Pembeli: a thing to buy another with: a 
thing to be given in exchange for another; 
Ht. Md. Hanaf., 72. 

PembUiyan: the purchase; the thing bought. 
Herga pembeliyan : the purchase-money. 

U, b^liya or baliya. [Skr. bdlya,] Fresh; 
young and fresh; in the bloom of youth. 
Muda b. : young and blooming. Elok b. : 
handsome and youthful; Sh. Pant. Shi., 13. 

• ^ bfilibat. A double-bladed paddle; a paddle 
•• • with a blade at either end. Also gUibat, 





[ 114 ] 


j\X bfilebar. An 
Also belewar. 

edible fruit (unidentified). 

«%-%*JL> bSlibis. The Malayan teal, anas arcuata; Ht. 
^ *"' Abd., 286. 

Ikan b, : a fish, tetithis oranmm. 

O^-i*^ bSliban. L The ropes which swing round 
the davits on a ship. 

II. (Penang.) A thick woollen comforter 
worn round the neck ; a neck-cloth. 

C-*ii bgliyat and bgliyut. Twisting ; v. liyat and 

>tii bSleter. ( Kedah. ) To chatter; to talk long 
and nonsensically. 

«JLj belitong. Siput b.: a kind of shell-fish. 
^ * Ptdau b, : the island of Billiton. 

JuL b31ida. A saltwater fish; notopterus kapirat, 
Apa kinang pada bUida ; sisek pun ada, tulang 
pun ada : what is the use of envying the belida 
fish because it has both scales and bones; 
what is the use of imitating the wealthy who 
have resources which you do not possess ; Prov. 

pJuL bSlidang. A saltwater fish shaped like an 
^ * eel (unidentified); C. and S. 

I JuL bSledok. ( Penang. ) Chengkoh-beledok : 

crooked, zigzag; = bengkang-bengkok and cheng- 

bSlera. A weaver's shuttle ; a bar connecting 
two pillars so as to strengthen them by 
mutual support. 

beierang. I. Sulphur. 

B. bang: realgar; sulphate of arsenic, 

Akar b. : a creeper (unidentified); J. S. A. 
S., III., 96. 

A sap 6. ; sulphur fumes, believed to be a 
great specific for diseases. 

Ular b. : a very venomous sea-snake. 

Lobok dalam jangan di-selok 
Takut Urpaiok tdar belerang : 

do not go groping about deep pools in the 
water lest you may be bitten by the ular 

IL A kind of ceremonial shaking given to a 
woman in the seventh month of pregnancy ; 
= lenggang pirut, 

balerong. A raja's hall of general audience ; 
the great hall in which general assemblies are 
held, ambassadors are publicly received, and 
investitures are made ; see balai and ruwang, 

B. besar and 6. agong : id.; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 








bSlisah. Fidget; restlessness; continual 
moyement — of a man who cannot keep still 
even when seated. 

bSliyong. A hatchet; a kind of axe the 
blade of which is fastened to the handle in a 
peculiar way. The handle is curved and 
bends back near the blade, while the tang of 
the blade rests in a cleft of the handle to 
which it is tied by a number of string wrap- 
pings. Bawa-lah uleh-mu bUiyong ini ka- 
Majapahit persembahkan kapada saudara kita : 
take this hatchet to Majapahit and present it 
to our brother (the Sovereign); Sej. Mah, 53. 
Habis kapak berganti beliyong : when the axe is 
worn out, a hatchet appears to replace it ; a 
thing arriving in the nick of time; Prov., 
Ht. Ind. Meng. Kapak menyelam beliyong: 
the axe diving after the hatchet (both remain- 
ing at the bottom) ; throwing good money 
after bad; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 61. 

Puling b, : the tang of a hatchet, Ht. Sh. ; 
a descriptive name given to a number of 
conical or spiral objects. Angin puling b, (or 
often simply puling b, ; Sh. Tab. Mimpi): a 
waterspout. Sipul puling b.: a spiral shell. 

bSliyak. Turning up or exposing the whites 

of the eyes — as a man in the agonies of being 
choked; fixed in direction but starting out 
of the head, of the eyes. Mala-nya pun di- 
beliyak-beliyakkan-nya : he made his eyes star- 
ing and prominent ; Ht. Hamza, 47. Maka 
Dewa Perkasa pun lerbeliyak mala-nya dan 
terjulor lidah-nya : Dewa Perkasa's eyes started 
out of his head and his tongue out of his 
mouth (as he was throttled ) ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

bSlikat. The scapula ; the shoulder blade ; 
Ht. Abd., 407 ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Di-ambil nyawa uleh malaikal, 
Kaluwar daripada pehak belikal : 

when the soul is taken by the angels, it leaves 
(the body) by the way of the shoulder blade ; 
Sh. May., 3. 

Ural b, : the dorsal 
jang : a lazy man. 

muscles. Ural b, pan- 

bfilikas. A roll of silk or cotton thread. 

bSIeko. [Chin, beh-li-ko,] A sort of glutinous 
inspissated syrup. 

bSliku. A sharp bend in a river's course. Cf. 
bikUf sikuy biledoky etc. 

bSlekeh. (Kedah.) Smeared, dirty— of the 
face after eating; = ( Riau, Johor), berselekeh. 

bSligU, Jav» The wax gourd, benincasa cert- 
/era. Also kimdor. 


[ 115 ] 


CrUi bfiliyan. I. The '^Billian^' tree; the well- 
known Borneo iron wood ; eusideroxylon schwa- 

B. wangi : a tree ; dichopsts obovata, 

II. The name given to a class of women 
who exorcise evil spirits by dancing and 
incantations ; female shamans, 

HanUi b, ; (or simply beliyan) : the spirits 
exorcised by these females, especially the 
** tiger-spirit/' These spirits are probably 
Sakai spirits. 

III. A brilliant ; also berliyan, q. v. 

jJj bSliyau. An appellation given to persons 
whom one does not wish to name for fear of 
the name attracting attention to what is being 
said, — e,g. when one is speaking of a tiger in 
the jungle or of a prince in his own dominions. 

jjifi bSlewar. A tree (unidentified); also belebar. 

4JL1 baliyah. 


Arab. Proof, trial, hardship. 

^ bam. L Arab. Bass ; a bass voice ; the 
' deeper sounding side of a drum. Also ebam, 

II. Cross-tree ; the cross-beam of a rudder 
or of some oars; a '*knee" used in ship 
building; the bar of a bullock-cart; the thwart 
which supports the masts ; the hole through 
that thwart. 

Patah kemudi dengan bam-nya : the rudder is 
gone and so is its cross-piece ; the game is 
up; Prov., Ht. Ism. Yat., 79. 

III. To sleep — in the language of the 
nursery. Pergi bam: go to bed — said to a 

^ bem. To puff out the cheeks. 

bum. Eng. A boom (of a vessel). 

Jib bum: the jib boom. Pelanjib bum : the 
flying jib boom. 

The boom at the base of the mainsail of a 
cutter or sailing boat is properly pehaki layar, 

C bomba. Port. A pump ; the hose of a fire- 
engine; afire-engine; Ht. Abd., 459, 

Juru bomba kain : a laundry man ; a 
**dhoby;" Muj., 46. 

^Uc bSmbaran. A kind of litter or sedan ; Kl. 

ij\^ bSmbayang. Buntar bembayang: rounde 

Q * • roundish with quivering or wavy edge ; I 

Raj. Don., 22 ; better buntar bayang-bayang, 

bembet, or bimbit. The act of carrying, 
with the hand and arm hanging down, as one 
carries a hand bag ; carrying a bag ; carrying 
a pig by the tail ; Sh. Jub. MaL, 9. 

j^ bambang. Flat and broad as a mirror, or as 
^ the full moon appears to be ; cf. ambang. 

Ikan bambangan: a fish (unidentified); Pel. 
Abd., 127. 

i^ bembeng. The act of lifting a bowl on one 
^ hand ; lifting any large globular object, using 
one hand, not two. 

J2? bimbang. I. Anxiety; solicitude; the cares 
and troubles of love. Menaroh b. : to be 
troubled with love; Marsd. Gr., 208. Berhati 
b. : anxious ; Sej. MaL, 97. 

Kalau tuwan pergi Pelembang, 
Langsong masok ka-dalam kota; 

Tuwan jangan berhati bimbang^ 
A dinda tiyada berubah kata : 

my lord, do not be anxious about me, your 
love will never be false to her word, 

Bimbangan: a liaison; Cr., C. and S., (s. v. 

bembangan) ; Kl. (s. v. bambang), 

Bimbangkan : to have a liking for any one ; 
Sh. Bur. Nuri, 11 ; Sh. Ul., 12. 

Membimbang : to cause solicitude or anxiety ; 
Muj., 36. 

II. (Singapore.) To marry; = kahwin. 

^ bombong and bumbong. Swelling up; 
^ rising in conical mass ; a roof, the ridge of a 

roof; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 3, 5, 13; J. S. A. S., 

II., 147. 

Binding ada bumbong tidak : walled but not 
roofed ; coated but hatless. 

Bumbongan: a roof; Ht. Abd., 251; Ht. Hg. 
Tuw., 79 ; Sej. MaL, 33 ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 5. 

Ttdang bumbong: the ridge pole. Tulang 
bumbongan: id. Ay er di4ulang bumbongan ka- 
mana turun kalau tidak di-chtichoran atap : 
where is the water on the ridge of a roof to 
descend to, if it does not run to the eaves ; 
natural laws and tendencies are naturally 
followed; Prov. J. S. A. S., XL, 73. 

B^rbumbong and membumbong: to rise in 
swelling mass; to swell up. Ayer-nya naik 
membumbong'bumbong : the water kept swell- 
ing up; Ht. Raj. Don., 71. 

CLjerumbong and mumbong, 

II. A water vessel made from a joint of 
bamboo; Cr., cf. tabong. 

^ bSmbam. I. The process of roasting in hot 
r** ashes. Di-bembam bukan throng : not a brinjal 

which you can roast in ashes ; you cannot do 

anything; powerless; Prov. 

II. A tree; mangifera taipan, C. and S. 

III . A freshwater fish ; = pinaram, C. and S. 


[ Ii6 ] 




bSmban. A tree ; clinogyne grandis ; Sh. Bur, 
Nuri, i8; Ht. Ind. Nata, 134; J. I. A., II., 
182. Also 6. gajah, 

B. ayer : (Selangor) a tree ; clinogyne dicho- 

B, Mlichap : (Selangor) a name given to a 
few shrubby plants including clinogyne grandis, 
and clinogyne dichotoma. 

Baku b. : the knots of the bemban tree, a 
descriptive name given to the knots which 
serve as buttons on a Chinese garment. 

Buwah b. : the berries of the bemban. Saperti 
buwah bemban masak : like the ripe berries of 
the bemban ; a simile for tears ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. ; 
Ht. Sh. ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

II. A freshwater fish; = benibam, III. 

III. A conical shaped fish-trap; C. and S. 

bambun. A small animal ( unidentified ) said 
to be something like a weasel or ferret; a 
name sometimes given to the (imported) 

bumbun. A hut of twigs in which a hunter 
or trapper hides himself while decoying game 
by whistling. 

bambu. The bamboo ; the Malacca cane ; 
better buloh semambu (si-bambu) ; Ht. Abd., 
268, 316, 317, 382 ; Sh. Lamp., 17. Senapang 
bambu : a bamboo gun barrel ; a threat which 
frightens no one ; Prov. 

bumbu. Jav. Mixed drugs or spices ; Pel. 
Abd., 44 ; = rempah. 

bombe. Bombay ; — a place associated in the 
native mind with penal transportation. Mem- 
buwang ka-negeri Bombe : to transport ; to 
criminally banish; Ht. Abd., 369. Mem- 
buwangkan ka-negeri Bombe: id., Ht. Abd., 
461. Pergi Bombe sa-belah sana negBri : he 
went to Bombay or to some place in that 
direction ; he was banished (to the Seychelles.) 

Bawang Bombe : large imported onions. 



bomantara. ( Kawi . 
vault of heaven. 

The firmament ; the 

c>l ben. I. Eng. Band; a band of musicians. 

II. To' ben: (Kedah) an old humbug or 
joker ; an old man who is always playing the 

biB. Arab. Abbreviation of ibn, son. Mat 
Salleh bin Mat Tahar : Mat Salleh, the son of 
Mat Tahar. 'Abdullah bin * Abdulkddir : 
Abdullah, the son of Abdulkader. 

bun. I. Dutch. A large metal pail, with a 
cover, for sireh leaves. 

IL Arab. The coffee bean. 

III. ' Pantun sa-tali bun : a string of pantuns. 
Tali bun : a sort of ode of which all the lines 
rhyme together. 

w bSna. A tidal bore ; a tidal wave. 

\xi bina'. Arab. Building, edifice; Majm. al- 
Ahk., 74. 

jj\;j banat. L Hind. Woollen cloth ; broad 
cloth. 'Ainu' I banat: a hybrid expression; the 
name of a very valuable cloth in romances ; 
Ht. Jay. Lengg., Ht. Gul. Bak., 69, etc. ; — 
often corrupted in colloquial form to indal 

II. [ Arab. Plur. of bint, ] Daughters. 

iiuj binatang. An animal ; living beings general- 
^ ' ly, exclusive of men ; a term of abuse, when 
applied to men. Binatang yang liyar, or b. 
yang biiwas: wild beasts; Bost. Sal. Binatang- 
binatang liyar saperti burong ayam hutan dan 
rusa : wild animals like jungle fowl and deer ; 
Ht. Abd., 88. Binatang yang jinak : domestic 
animals ; Bost. Sal. 

Cf. banat and belantara. 



,Ui bSnara. I. A laundry man ; a washerman ; 
a dhoby. Tempat benara membasok kain : a 
place where washermen clean clothes; a 
dhoby ghaut ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 275. 

Membenara : to wash ( clothes ) ; Majm. al- 
Ahk., 141, 142. 

II. [Arab.mandrah,] A minaret. 

\xi binasa. [Skr. winasa.] Ruin ; destruction ; 
bringing to naught; — whether of physical 
deterioration, moral fall, or financial ruin. 
I hit hati mati, ikut rasa binasa : to give way to 
one's desires is death, to give way to one's 
passions is destruction ; Prov. Kota Melaka 
habis'lah binasa : the Fort of Malacca was 
utterly destroyed ; Ht. Abd., 67. 

Binasakan: to destroy; Sh. Raj. Haji ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Abd., 65, 216. Membinasa- 
kan : id. 

Kebinasaan : ruin, destruction. 


bSnalu. A common half-climbing shrub with 
red berries, occurring usually on the sea- 
coast ; henslowia lobbiana. 

B.api: loranthus crassus ; a mistletoe believed 
to consume the plant on which it grows. 

Also dalUf mendalu, nalu (Ht. Koris), kemin- 
dalu, and bendalu. 

bint. Arab. Daughter, Bintu H-bahr : a 
mermaid. Binti : daughter of. Halimah 
binti Mat : Halimah, daughter of Mat. 

u:j bdnta. Ulceration on the upper lip ; a small 
pimple or boil on the upper lip. 


[ 117 ] 


j<^^ bantara or bSntara. [Skr. awanidva?^ A 

herald ; a marshal of the court ; a bearer of 
the state weapons. 

jB. kanan; b, kiri ; b. dalam ; b. luwar : mar- 
shals of the court with certain specified duties. 

Bentara empat puloh berdiri di-ketapakan balai 
akan menjunjong Utah raja dan menyampaikan 
sembah sakaliyan orang ka-bawah duli baginda : 
forty bentaras stood on the threshold of the 
court ready to carry out the sovereign's behests 
and to convey the petitions of all to His 
Majesty; Sej. Mai., 87. 

IX; bdntangor. The name given to a number of 
medium or large trees of the calophyllum class. 

B, bain; or b, besar : calophyllum pulcherri- 

B, bunga : c. inophyllum. 

B, bunut : c, spectabile, 

B, merah : c, wallichiammt, 

B. rimba : c, macrocarpum. 

Jl:Ui bgntala. [ Skr. bhutald, ] The earth. 
^^ ' identified). 

^ bSntawas. Akar b. : a climbing plant (un- 

bantat. The posterior, the anus; usually 
pantat, q. v. 

bantut. Prevention ; frustration ; rendering 
abortive ; the nipping of anything in the bud ; 
preventing a boil coming to a head or driving 
in an eruption; stopping any disease before 
it has run its regular course. Supaya bantut 
pekerjaan puteri : this matter relating to the 
princess has been brought to nothing; Sh. 
UI., 32. 

Memba^itutkan : 

to frustrate; Arabian Nights, 

bintat or bintit. A small swelling, pimple or 
pustule, such as the result of a mosquito or 
gnat bite. Cf. bintiL 

buntat. The petrification of animal or vege- 
table substances ; stones found in the bodies 
of animals and (sometimes but not always) 
deemed to be possessed of talismanic proper- 
ties. Buntat gemala : a bezoar stone of this 
character when possessed of talismanic 
properties. Buntat hendak jadi gBmala: the 
bezoar wants to become a talisman ; legitimate 
and praiseworthy ambition ; Prov- 

Tuwan empama buntat gemala, 
Jatoh di-mana tiyada chela : 

you, Sir, are like a lucky bezoar which escapes 
injury wherever it falls ; Prov. 

buntut. The posterior— of men and animals, 
Sej. MaL, 93 ; ( rarer) the stern of a ship. 

B, keris : the small ferrule at the bottom of 
a keris sheath. 

Berjalan berbuntut-buntut : to walk in Indian 
file ; Pel. Abd., 43, 76. 

J^ bSntar. Sa-bmtar: a moment; an instant; a 
very short period of time. Dengan sa-bentar : 
in a moment; Ht. Abd., 13. Sa-bMar di- 
Melaka sa-bentar di-Singapura : one moment at 
Malacca, the next in Singapore. 

J^ bSntor. I. Bowing, bending, giving; also 
lentor, q. v. 

II. A small trap or net for catching crabs. 

j\:^ blintar. Dome shaped, or ( more correctly ) 
the shape of a very oblate hemispheroid ; also 


Buntar-binchut : prominent, projecting — of 
the forehead. 

Buntar bayang-bayang or buntar bembayang : 
roughly elliptical or rounded with wavy edges ; 
Ht. Sri Rama (Maxw.), 12; Ht. Raj. Don., 8, 

Buntar is also used of a beard being clipped 
into roundness, Mahk. Raj., 167; and of 
roundness generally. Adapun sebab matahari 
itu sentiyasa buntar kerana iya sentiyasa sujud : 
the cause of the sun's roundness is that he is 
eternally bowing (before the Throne of God), 
Bost. Sal. 

>U> buntor. Sated, glutted with food. 

^j*^ bSntas. Tearing up and dashing down ; cf. 

Di'bmtas-nya sa-buwah bukit kapada hulu- 
balang dewa : he dashed down a hill upon the 
soldiers of the God ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Bentasi : to tear up and dash down ; Ht, Sh. 

i^j^ bentes. Tripping up an opponent in wrestling. 
Berbentes : to lock shins ; to wrestle leg 
against leg; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 36. Also benteh. 

iix» bantang. Bunting b, : very heavy with child ; 
^ in the last month of pregnancy ; v. bunting. 
Also bunting sarat. 

jfcUi banteng. A wild ox, bos sondaicus ; Sh. Jub. 
^ ' MaL, 15. 


[ 1x8 3 


m:sX{ banting. I. MBmbanting : to take up and 
^ dash down ; to knock two things one against 
the other. Maka tertawa-lah Nyayi Ramidah 
sambil mBmbanting-banting kaki sBraya bSr- 
pantun: Nyai Ramidah laughed and struck 
her feet together, and then uttered a pantun ; 
Ht. Ind. Nata. SapMi ombak mBmbanting 
diri-nya: as waves beating against one an- 
other ; useless or ineffectual rage ; Prov. 

Banting is also used to describe the process 
of threshing padi by beating the grain against 
the sides of a box. 

II. A native sailing-vessel with two masts. 

III. Assistance to complete anything; co- 
operation ; taking in hand for another, under- 
taking for another; — a stronger expression 
than bantu, 

IV. A dock. 

ilXi bSntang. Extension; spreading out over 
^ ' anything. 

Meja bBrattir di-tBngah majlis 

Majlis di-bentang hamparan sakhlat : 

the table is spread in the midst of the hall 
of meeting, the hall that is covered with 
carpets of rich thick cloth ; Sh. Pant. Shi. 

Biniangi: to spread (a carpet); Sej. Mai., 
51. MBmbMang: id.; Sej. Mai., 96; Ht. Sh. 
Kub. Membentangkan: id.; Ht. Abd., 5. 
Membentang khaimah : to pitch a tent ; Ht. 
Koris ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Terbentang : spread out. Saperti tikar sudah 
terbentang : like a mat which has been spread 
out ; Sh. May., 17. 

^ benteng. A fort ; a battery ; a redoubt ; Sh. 
^ Pr. Turki, 8. 

B, sasaran : a target. 

Benteng is also used of the permanent breast- 
work over which a cannon is fired on a ship, 
the moveable gun -shield being apilan. 


JJ^ bintang. A star; a heavenly body; a con- 
stellation ; the star of an order of knighthood. 

J5. babi : Venus. 

B, barat : Venus, as an evening star. 

B, bUantek : the Hyades. 

B, berapii : a double star. 

J5. berasap : a comet ; also 6, b^rekor, 

B, bBridar : a planet ; a wandering star. 

J5. duwa bSlas : the signs of the Zodiac. 

B. kala : Scorpio. 

B. kebesaran : the star of an order of knight- 
hood ; Sh. Pr. Ach., 7. 

B. ketika : the Pleiads. 

B. mayang : Virgo. 

B. siyang : the morning star. 

B. temabor : the Milky Way. 

B, timor : Venus as the morning star. 

B. tujoh : the Pleiads. 

Bintang tujoh tinggal Bnam, 
Jatoh sa-biji di-Manjapahit : 

of the seven stars but six remain, a star is 
fallen in Majapahit ; the lost Pleiad. 

Bintang is also used as a descriptive prefix 
to the Arabic names of planets, stars, and 
constellations; e,g,, bintang mushtari : Jupiter; 
bintang aUasad : the constellation Leo. 

Harimau b. : the common leopard ; felis 

Raja b. : the ruling heavenly bodies ; i.e., the 
sun, the moon, and the five planets known 
to the ancients (exclusive of the earth). 

Siput 6. ; a species of shell. 

Berbintang'bintang : (applied to a roof) full 
of holes, cracks and crevices which let in day- 
light, giving the roof the appearance of a 
starry sky ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Bintang biniangan : id. 

Bintang merah or bintang kuning is the name 
given to a climber with red star-like flowers, 
miissoenda variabilis. 

^ bintong. 

^ bark. 

A tree (unidentified) with a useful 

^^ buntang. I. Staring, starting out of the 
head, as the eyes of a dying or choking man. 
Maka raksasa itu-pun terbuntang4ah mata-nya 
ka-atas saperti orang hendak mampus : the rak- 
sasa's eyes turned up and grew fixed like the 
look of a man about to die ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 
Mata-nya terbuntang tiyada terkelip : his eyes 
grew fixed; they did not blink at all ; Ht. Sh., 

II. A putrid carcase floating in the sea. 

III. A weaver's rod. 

IV. The red long-nosed monkey of Borneo, 
as distinct from the white [khaldsi] . 

itx:^ bunting. Pregnant ; with child : — an expres- 
^ ' sion applied to animals and women of the 

lower ranks, but not as polite as hamil or 


B. bantang : advanced pregnancy. 

B. kerbau : a long pregnancy; a ten months* 

B. padi : the early stages of the grain in ear, 
— the delicate curve of the ears of padi at 
this time being a simile for an extremely 
beautiful calf (of the leg) ; Ht. Sg. Samba ; 
Ht. Jay. Lengg., etc. 

JB. pelandok : the appearance of the mouse 
deer in pregnancy — a descriptive expression 
for the moon at its ninth day. 


[ 119 ] 


B. sarat : pregnancy in its most advanced 
stage ; Ht. Abd., 267. Also 6. bantang, 

B. telinga : a swelling in the ear. 

Mandi b, : to ceremonially wash the abdomen 
in pregnancy; Ht. Raj. Don., 6. Also mandi 

Bunting is also used in the sense of fceius, 
Majm. al-Ahk., 418, or unborn child, Majm. 
al-Ahk., 205. 

Membuntinghan : to be pregnant with. TaU 
kala aku membuntinghan engkan : when I was 
pregnant with you (a mother speaking to her 
child); Ht. Ind. Nata. 

^3^ bSntok. Curving; curved — of a long hard 
substance ; a numeral coefficient of curved 
objects such as rings, spurs, fish-hooks, etc. 
Saperti taji di-bentok : like the curved artificial 
spur (of the fighting-cock), — a simile for a 
beautiful eyebrow; Ht. Sg. Samb. Sa-puloh 
bBntok chinchin: ten rings; Sej. Mai., 153. 
Chinchin sa-bentok : a ring ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 


^iXo bintak. Perahu b, : the name of a type of 
vessel used by pirates. Kl. 

^i;^ bintek. Bintek-bintek hdit : very small dark 
heat spots ; see bintat and bintiL 

liXj buntak. Short, stumpy, — of things broad in 

proportion to their height or length ; beamy, 
of a ship. 

Cf. bimtal and buntar. 

\x:j bantal. A cushion ; a native pillow. 

J5. seraga; 6. susu art or b. siiwari; b, susun; 
b. kopek; b. pelok; b. guling ; b, k^mbong ; b. 
sandar : varieties of pillows. 

Berbantal lengan or berbantalkan lengan : to 
use the arm as a pillow, — an expression 
applied either with a meaning of extreme 
confidence or affection, to lovers sleeping on 
each other's arms (Ht. Koris), or, ironically, 
to extreme poverty and destitution when a 
man has nothing but his arm to use as a 
pillow (Cr. Gr., 80; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 8; Sh, 
Ul., 36). Bertikarkan apt berbantalkan tdar : 
with fire for a sleeping mat and snakes for a 
pillow, — an expression descriptive of the 
condition of the wicked in a future life ; Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 77, 

Bantal is also used as a measure for thread ; 
V. tukaL 

Bantal'bantal : a patch of rainbow when that 
patch is near the apex of the arch and looks 
like a horizontal band of light ; cf. tunggul- 

Salah b. : a wry neck ; a stiff neck in the 

Ji:^ bintal, bintil and bintul. A stye in the eye ; 
a pustule ; a pimple. 

Cf. bintek and bintit, 

y:^ btmtal. Ball like ; blown up ; expanded like 
^"^ * a bladder ; shaped like a sphere or spheroid. 

Ikan b. : the name of a fish ; ostracium 
cubicum, Cf. buntar, Bagai buntal kBmbong: 
like a blown out buntal-dsh ; big outside but 
empty inside ; a metaphor for showy empti- 
ness ; Prov. 

\x<t buntiL A clothes-bag ; cf. bolsak. 
^^y^, buntuL The ring on a kh'is sheath. 

O^, bantan, Terendak banian : a conical sun hat ; 
V. terendak. 

Q^:^ bantun. I. Uprooting; tearing up founda- 
tions and all; extracting anything violently 
without severing it from any substances that 
may adhere to it and have to be torn away, 
Di-banttm-nya anak panah : he plucked out the 
arrow ( from his breast ) ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 
Di'bantun-nya sa-pohim kayu: he uprooted a 
tree ; Ht. Sh. Kub. Rasa-nya hati bagai di- 
bantun : she (the chempaka flower) felt as if 
her heart had been torn out ; Sh. Bur, 
Nuri, 24. 

H. The name of a large shrub with bright 
green leaves and white flowers ; symplocos 

B, hitam : epipritms malaccensis, 

Bantunan: a small tree; aporosa nigricans , 

Q^ b§ntan. A relapse; a return of sickness 
when a convalescent is guilty of some act of 
imprudence. Maka pengsan-lah aku sebab 
bentan terlalu keras : I fainted, as the returning 
pain was very severe ; Ht. Abd., 446. 

i>Uj bentan and bintan. A tree; cerbem odoUam, 
* Pulau b. : the island on which Riau is situated. 

Alii bantu. Help, assistance, succour. Raja-raja 
"^ pun banyak datang akan bantu baginda itu: 
many princes came to the aid of the sovereign ; 
Ht. Sg, Samb. 

Membantu : to aid, to assist ; Ht. Ind, Jaya. 

Cf. bantang, 

j^Ui buntu. Stopped, blocked,-— of a road, river, 
or watercourse; the closing of anything by 
filling it up ; full up, as a man after a heavy 




A kind of weasel, arctitis 


[ 120 ] 


AX^ bantah. Altercation ; the interchange of 
quarrelsome language ; angry words. 

Bantahan : quarrelsome. Bantahan sangat 
engkau ini: you are exceptionally quarrel- 
some; Ht. Bakht., 85. 

Bantahi : to raise objections ; to find fault ; 
Ht. Abd., 150, 181. 

Berbantah'bantah : engaged in disputes, con- 
stantly arguing; Ht. Abd., 257, 440. 

Perbantahan: an altercation; Ht. Abd., 151, 
161, 182. Apa4ah pBrbantahan tadi dengan 
naga itu : what were you quarrelling about just 
now with the dragon ? Ht. Pg. Ptg. 

^^^ benteh. Tripping up an opponent in wrest- 
ling ; locking shins. Also bentes. 

BBrbenteh : to lock shins. 

Pembentehan : the lower portion of the leg ; 
the part of the leg just above the ankle. 

XXi bante. Lying; resting; at rest — as a man 
- ' outstretched on a couch, or as a boat drawn 
up on the beach. 


bantai. The cutting up or quartering of an 
animal after it has been slaughtered. Bantai 
goreng : a dish ; a preparation of beef and 

Membantai : to cut up a slaughtered animal. 

Phnbantai : a butcher. 

Xjj binti. I. [Hind, beti,'] Female slave; female 
- ' servant ; your servant ; I (when used by a 
woman). Better beti^ q. v. 

II. [Arab. vi^. .] Daughter of ; v. c>^ . 

J^ banjar. A row, a rank, a file. Also banjir, 

B^rbanjar: in a row or rank; in file, as 
soldiers. Sa-puloh berbanjar : ten deep ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. Sa-ribu berbanjar: a thousand 
deep ; Ht. Ind. Meng. Gunong yang berban- 
jar : a range of mountains. 

Sa-banjar : in a row, in a line; Sh. Put. Ak., 

Banjarkan : to arrange in rows. Kamu ban- 
jarkan empat lima banjar : do you arrange them 
in rows, say four or five rows ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 

Taman banjar an sari : a Javanese garden of 
the Hesperides ; the abode of nymphs, and 
pleasure house of Batara Guru; Sh. Kumb. 
Chumb., 14. 

^ banjir. I. Jav. A flood; cf. the name 
^^' Banjir niasin, 

11. A row, a line ; an equivalent of banjar, 
q. V. 

ji{ bSm'or. Smooth and straight ; also kinjor 
and g^njar. 

^j^^ benjil. Bumpy, of the forehead ; covered with 
small inflamed bruises and bumps. 

Cf. benjol ^bujaly binchul, bingkak, tonjol, and 

\^ benjol. A single slight swelling on the fore- 
*-^' head, more severe than binchul, but not as 
serious as tonjol or jojoL 

Cf. also bBngkak, bujal, and benjiL 

\^ boiljol. Projection outward. Cf. benjol, bujal, 
' etc. 

^ banji. [Chin, bdn-jt.] A kind of lattice- work 
- * * or balustrading of porcelain on windows, 
doors, balconies, etc. 

Also banggi, 
ii binjai. A common fruit-tree ; mangifera ccesa. 

,^ui- bSnchana. [Skr. wancMna,] Mischief- 
making, trouble, — especially in the sense of 
trouble caused by tale-bearing or slander ; Ht. 
Abd., 6, 36, 78, etc. Diya-lah puncha benchana 
ini : he is the fag end of this trouble ; he it is 
who has got us into this mess; Bint. Tim., 
22 Feb,, 1895. 

Sayang nuri, burong nuri, 
Matt di-panah raja dew ana ; 

Kita bermain sama sendiri, 

Orang yang mana bawa benchana : 

we were jesting one with another ; who then, 
has spread this slander about us ? 

Membenchanakan : to slander ; to get ( a per- 
son) into trouble; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Pembenchanaan : trouble created by slander ; 
Ht. Ind. Nata. 

C-:^^ banchut. I. (Batav, ) Futilizing, render- 
* ' ing abortive ; = bantui, q. v. 

II. Hind. An Indian term of abuse [known 
in Singapore]. 

III. (Penang.) Projecting, caused to pro- 
ject, gouged out, pulled out. 

Terbanchut mata : with his eye stuck out (of a 
lizard on a wall). 

C-*:i? binchut. A slight swelling on the face as the 
* ' result of a blow ; = binchul, and benjol, 

C;^ bnnchit. Swollen, blown out, distended, — 
* " of the stomach. Perut bunchit lama-lama men- 
jadi busong : a swollen stomach which will 
ultimately become a dropsical one; a little 
neglect which will ultimately lead to serious 
results : Prov. 

Laksana buntal kBmbong 

Pirut bunchit dalam-nya kosong : 

like the blown out buntal fish, with a distend- 
ed stomach but nothing inside; Dead Sea 
fruit; fair promise but little performance; 
empty show ; Prov, 


[ 121 ] 


IP * 



bunchis. [ Dutch boontjes, ] Lentils, pease ; 
used of French beans; Malay Phys., 165. 

banchang. I. Membanchang: to hinder; to 
prevent ; Kl. 

II. To chatter; to prattle; KL, = meran- 

chang ? 

benchang. To scull. 

binchang. Binchang ay am: the name of a 
peculiar knot or fastening of great strength ; 
the string is wrapped in coils round the object 
it is secured to. 

binchul. A slight inflammation on the fore- 
head ; see benjol. 

bonchol. A knob-like protuberance. Cf. 
bonjol, bnjal, benjol and benjiL 

banchau. (Singapore.) Mixing, kneading ; 
cf. banchoh and kachau. 

banchoh. Mixing; kneading. 

benchah. Very moist or damp; damp or 
slushy ground ; a morass. Cf. bechah. 

banchi. I. A toll; a census ; an enumera- 
tion per capita ; a poll-tax. 

II. (Tamil.) A species of adze. 

III. Jav. A hermaphrodite. 

bSnchi. Hatred ; to hate. Benchi dan niarah 
dan dengki : hatred and anger and spite. 

Benchtkan ; and membenchikan : to hate ; 
(more rarely) to make some one else hate. 
Orang yang di-benchikan-nya dt-beratkan-nya : 
he was oppressive to those whom he hated ; 
Ht. Abd., 476. Benchikan sianu pada segala 
per^nipuwan yang lain: make So-and-so hate 
all women but myself ; cf. pembenchi, infra. 

Kebenchiyan : a cause or source of hatred, a 
thing detested. 

Pcmbenchi : a drug or charm to excite hatred 
in the breast of anyone against a third party. 
Di'beri-nya santap sir eh pembenchi stipaya Koris 
Mengindra benchikan tunangan-nya : she gave 
him ( Koris Mengindra ) charmed sireh to eat, 
so that he might hate his betrothed ; Ht. 

b^uda. [Skr. banda,] A thing, — especially 
an article of value. Tiyap tiyap benda yang 
morah herga-nya itu dapatiyada ada-lah 'aib-nya ; 
any article that is being sold cheap is sure to 
have some fault in it ; Ht. Abd,, 38. 

Mata benda : article of vertu, gems, valuable 
property in small compass. Herta bBnda : 
property generally. 

Benda is also sometimes used as a euphemism 
for the female organs ; Ht. Gul. Bak,, 60, 
87. Cf. hakL 


bonda. L Mother (in polite and Court 
diction ) ; = ibu'nda. Ayah bonda : parents. 
Ayahanda bonda : id. 

Bonda Sultan: the Sultan's mother; Sej, 
MaL, 102. 




II. The name of 
pubescens, P. 

a tree ; artocarpus 
bfindari. [Hind, bhdnddri.] A sea-cook. 

bSndala. [Port, bandala,] A bandolier. 

bSndalu. A shrub, henslowia lobhiana. See 

bSndawat. A stay of cordage ; lashings; Ht. 
Raj. Don., 16, 

bandut. To bind ; to fasten ; to bind up 
anything tha^t is cracked or split ; the piece of 
metal which fastens the base of a blade to the 
blade itself in certain Malay weapons; C. 
and S. Cf. bendawat. 

JCm bandar. I. Pers. A trading town; an 
emporium ; a port on a sea or river. Shah- 
bandar : a harbour master ; an officer of high 
rank who acts as a sort of superintendent of 
trade s,nd prcetor peregrimis, 

Kawan b. : the officers under the Shah-bandar. 

II. A watercourse. Gunong padang tasek 
bandaran : mountains and plains ; lakes and 
watercourses ; Ht. Ind. Meng. Bandar a. : 
(Malacca) the little watercourses through the 

jJUj bSndir. A kind of gong used by criers to 

call attention ; Ht. Sh. Also bende. 

JCj bundar. Rounded, roundish, globular ; a 
common description of a beautiful breast; Sh. 
Panj. Sg., Ht. Ind. Jaya. This word is a 
Javanese variant of buntar^ q. v. 

bandarsah. [Arab. A corruption, through 
the intermediate form mandarsah, of the word 
fnadrasah,] A private chapel or mosque; Ht. 
Abd., 229; Ht. Sh. Mard. The word is also 
used of a religious school attached to such a 

Jui bandSring. Jav. A sling ; Kl. 

bendSrang. I. Tombak 6.; or Umbeng b.: 
a spear with a tuft of horsehair attached to it ; 
a spear of state. 

B. kanan, and 6. kiri : the appellations of 
the officers (subordinate to the bentara) who 
bear these spears of state; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 31. 

Pembawa 6.; a state spear-bearer ; Sh. Ik. 
Trub., 19. 

II. All-pervading, — of brilliant light. 

Terang benderang : all-pervading brightness ; 
light that reveals all ; Ht. Abd., 363 ; Sh. Pr. 
Turki, 14. 



[ 122 ] 







bdndSrong. The passages connecting one 
hall of state with another, Balairong 
benderong sa-ribu : a group of a thousand 
audience halls — a figure of speech for a huge 
palace ; Hi, Koris., 3 ; Ht. Ind. Meng., 132. 

Also bandong. 

bandang. Ikan bandang. 
fied); Sk. Ik. Trub., 19. 

a fish (unidenti- 

banding. Match; comparison; the com- 
parison of two similar objects ; cf. landing, 
Tidak sa4anding, tidak sa-banding: not com- 
parable in shape nor comparable in quality. 

Tiyada banding-nya : incomparable; peerless; 
matchless; Sh. Bid., 10. Tiyada tolok banding- 
nya : id. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 75. Tiyada tara 
banding-nya: id.; Bint. Tim.,- 13 March, 1895. 
Tiyada berbandingan : id. ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Bandingkan : to place side by side for com- 
parison ; to compare two similar objects with 
a view to discovering differences ; Ht. Abd., 
151. Membandingkan: id.; Ht. Abd., 152. 

bandong. I. A pair ; a couple ; a connect- 
ing link constituting two objects a pair. 
Sapirii ielor duwa sa-bandong, pechah satu pechah 
keduwa: like two yolks in one shell; break 
one, and both are broken ; Prov, 

Balai 6. ; a double hall in a palace ; two 
connected halls; Sh. Panj. Sg. Cf. balai 

Perahu 6. : a boat for river travelling. 
Rumah sa-bandong : connected houses. 

II. A cock; Ht. Koris., Ht. Ind. Meng; = 


bSndang. An irrigated rice-field. In Malacca 
the term is applied to a stretch of many 
holdings or sawahs; v. sawah. In Kedah 
the word sawah is practically unknown and 
bendang is used in all cases. Tanah 6. : 
(Kedah) padi land. Kerja 6. : padi planting. 
B. bakau : the padi-fmlds nearest the fringe of 
mangrove by the sea. 

bfindong. A dam ; a dyke. 

bundong. A form of cattle disease, Kl ; = 

gondong ? 

bandok. Nervous or self-conscious. 

b6ndok. A chopper ; C. and S. 

bondok. A goitre ; better bigoL 

bandul. Eng. The pendulum of a clock. 

bSnduL A cross-beam between the pillars 
upon which the flooring of a Malay house 
rests ; the threshold. Masok ka-bHdul : to 
cross the threshold; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 19. 

J5. madu mamhong : a cross-beam which has 
its corner cut off at an angle of 45 degrees so 
as to enable it to join on to another cross- 
beam similarly shaped, but at right angles to 
it in general direction. 

Pak si-bendul : a fool ; Kl, 

^J^^ bandfila or bSndSla. Eur. A bale ; a bundle ; 
Ht. Abd., 343; the largest measure in estimat- 
ing amounts of thread, cf. tukal; apiece of 
cloth used for making a bundle ; a wrapper. 

ijOj bSndSlam. (Daik. ) A vessel made of a 
' ' coco-nut shell cut into two (unequal) parts, 
the smaller serving as a cover or lid. 

jj-i^ bandan. I. Metallic taste ; Kl. 

II. The island of Banda in the Moluccas. 

III. Ikan bandan : a fish ; chrysophrys hasta. 


panion ; 

[Skr. bandhu,] 
an associate. 

A friend; a com- 

j-^ bindu. I. A turning-lathe. Chinchin 6. : 
(i) a ring with a machine- worked design on it 
(J. I. A., Vol. III., p. 448); (2) the ring placed 
on wood which is being turned. 

II. (Penang.) Passionate feeling ; = rindu. 
(3^*-^ bundtik. Arab. ^Bastard. 


bSnduwan. (Singapore.) [Hind, bandhwan,] 
A convict — applied to the old Indian convicts 





bende ? 

( Singapore. ) To sell ; from Jav. 



bendahara. [Skr. bandahdraJ] The title of 
a very high official in a Malay state — usually 
the highest in power outside the royal family ; 
theoretically, the Treasurer. 

Datok Bendahara memerentah negeri, 
Laksamana memerentah lant : 

the Dato Bendahara rules the land, and the 
Laksamana rules the sea; J. I. A., Vol. I., 
p. 150. 

Datok Bendahara Pahang : the Bendahara of 
Pahang ; — the old title of the ruler of Pahang 
who was theoretically bendahara to the old 
line of Malay Sultans who ruled in the Lingga 
Archipelago; Ht. Abd., 456. 

Perbendaharan : a treasury; Sej. Mai., 10. 
Cf. bendahari. 

The Queen (of a pack of cards) is sometimes 
called the bendahara by Malays; see also 


bSndahari. [ Skr. bandahdri, ] Treasury 
officers; Sej. Mai., 95, 96. Penghuln b. : a 
principal Treasury officer under the bendahara, 

Cf. bendahara. 


bSnde. Jav. 

Also bendir. 

A small gong, Ht. Sg. Samb. 


[ 123 ] 






bSndi. [Hind, bandi.] A kind of chaise or 
carriage on two wheels, KL Kereta b. : 
(Johor) any two-wheeled vehicle ; ( in India ) 
a*' bandy." 

bendi. [Hind, bhindi.] Sayor bendi: the 
okm or beni fruit ; ** ladies' fingers.'' Hibiscus 
esculenUis. Also kachang 6., and kachang lender. 

bandeya. Port. A presentation tray. 

bandera. Port. A flag. B. ular-ular : a 
pennant, a streamer. B. kapak : a square or 
oblong flag. Tiyang b : a flagstaff. Ada satu 
bandera inggeris terdiri di-haUiwan-nya : there 
was an English flag flying at her bows ; Ht. 
Abd., 113. 

bfindika. The influence of somebody's 
thoughts or words on another in his absence, 
either prejudicially or beneficially ; the curse 
or blessing of the absent. 

benar. True; good; just; right; accurate. 
Benar-lah Bmpamaan Melayu : the Malay pro- 
verb is true ; Ht. Abd. 

Benarkan : to confirm ; to acknowledge the 
accuracy or correctness of. Membenarkan: id, 
Maka kita pim benarkan-lah suroh masok ka- 
dalam sungai : we confirmed it, instructing 
him to enter the river ; Marsd. Gr., 139. 

Kebenaran : truth, verification, accuracy. 

bSnang. Thread; a thread-like line. Men- 
dirikan beitang basah : to make a wet thread 
stand on end ; a proverbial impossibility. 
Putus benang buleh di-hubong, patah arang 
stidah sa-kali : a broken thread may be united ; 
a broken piece of charcoal is broken per- 
manently ; there are some offences which can 
be forgotten, and others which rankle for 
ever; Pro v. Sudah terkachakkan benang arang 
hitam4ah tapak : step on a line of charcoal and 
it will blacken your foot ; you cannot touch 
pitch without being defiled ; Prov., J.S. A. S., 

n., 145. 

jB. arang : a line drawn by carpenters to 
guide their work. 

B, mas : gold thread. 

JB. raja : a rainbow. 

Kain benang bola : a cloth resembling the 
kain pelekat. 


^ bSning. Clear, limpid ; = , 

IX) bSnak. I. Dull ; slow of apprehension. 
n. Marrow; brains. 

bSnam. (Riau, Johor, Kedah.) Buried in 
sand or mud; suffocated by immersion in 
sand or mud ; (Pahang) immersion in water. 
Hantu orang matt terbenam: the ghost of a 
drowned man. 
Benam is also used in the sense of implanting 
in the heart ; Panch., 106. 

^ banti. Arab. Children of, sons of. Cf. J^. 

*X» bSnuwa. A large expanse of territory; an 
empire; a continent; the mainland, as 
opposed to islands. 

Bhmwa China : China. 

Orang 6. ; aboriginal races ; Ht. Abd., 388. 

g^ bSnuwang. I. A tree (unidentified). 

II. (Riau, Johor) Rusa benuwang : dL deer 
with straight horns ; also (Kedah) rusa genu- 

4;j bfinah. An insect pest ; a blight upon trees. 


b^neh. Seed — especially of plants. Jika 
beneh yang baik jatoh ka4aut menjadi pulau : if 
the seed is good, when it falls into the sea an 
island will spring up; blood will tell; 
J.S.A.S., III., 32. Jikalau kitdb di-chap ada- 
lah bBneh-nya : if a book is printed, there will 
also be seed for a new crop ; ix,^ there will 
always be copies for a new edition ; Ht. Abd., 

*, bani. Arab. Sons, i,e,, bant Adam: the 
^' descendants of Adam. Cf. bami, 

,^5Uj baniyaga or bSniyaga. [Skr. bMijya.] 
Trade; commercial business. Usually written 
berniyaga as if from a root ftiyaga. 

{J\Xj bSnitan. A plant; goniothalamiis prainianus. 

B, merah : schoutenia mastersi. 
vfSvLu boneka. Port. A puppet. 

^■^ baniyan or bfeniyan. I. Hind. A Hindu 
trader or merchant. 

II. A coffer; Ht. Raj. Don., 12. Sha'ir 
Seri beniyan : the name of a poem, also known 
as the Shamir SUendang Delima, in which the 
heroine is placed in a coffer and thrown into 
the sea. 

III. A banyan; an under garment; a sin- 
glet ; Sej. MaL, 231. 

^y^ buniyan. (Riau, Johor.) Elves or fairies 
of the forest ; from buni. Cf. lemboyan. 


b6nnyai. Insipidity; the insipid taste of rice 
or other food cooked over a poor fire. 

Bersunting bunga inai^ 

Pergi ka-hutan memikat tekukor ; 
Nasi di-masak sudah b^nnyai 

Waktu menideh lupa di-gembor : 

the rice cooked has turned out insipid ; when 
the water was boiling we forgot to stir it up. 

j\j> buwara. 
jj\j} baw^sir. 

A plant (unidentified) ; Kl. 
Arab. Piles; haemorrhoids. 


[ 124 ] 


j\j) buwana. [Skr. bhUwdna,} The world ; the 
universe. Jagat b. : id ; Ht. Sh., Ht. Sri 
Rama. SSri Teri-buwana : the glory of the 
three worlds — a title assumed by the founder 
of Singapore ; Sej. Mai. 







buwaya. (Riau, Johor.) A crocodile. Ajar 
buwaya berenang : to teach a crocodile how to 
swim ; to instruct those already wiser than 
oneself; Prov. Ta^-akan buwaya menolakkan 
bangkai: a crocodile will not push away a 
carcase ; a man does not lose an opportunity 
of gratifying a favourite vice ; Prov., cf. 
J.S.A.S., I., 8g. Bawa lari dari mulut buwaya 
masok ka-mulut harimau : to escape from the 
jaws of the crocodile only to fall into those of 
the tiger ; Prov. In Kedah the word is pro- 
nounced boya. 

Buwaya-buwaya : the hole in which a mast 
is set ; the truck of a mast. 

B . jolong'jolong : (Riau, Johor) the gavial. 
tornistoma schlegeli ; also (Perak) b. jenjulong, 
and (Kedah) b. nyenyulong, 

B. katak : the marsh crocodile, crocodilus 

B. labu and 6, tembaga : names given to the 
ordinary crocodile, crocodilus porosuSy according 
to its shape or colour. 

Burong b. : a bird of the king-fisher type ; 
alcedo leucocephala, 

Lidah b, : an aloe ; the aloeferox. 

The crocodile itself is believed by Malays to 
have no tongue. 

In the Northern states certain tin currency 
tokens are also known by the name *' boya.^' 

bubut. I. Bubut: throat halyards; Pel. 
Abd., 108. Bubutan: id.; Sej. MaL, 127. 

II. A bird, a kind of coucal, centropm eury- 
cercus or centropus philippensis, 

bubor. Broth ; porridge; soup; pulpy matter. 

B. susu : rice boiled in milk. Korang-korang 
bubor, sudu yang lebeh: the less broth, the 
more spoons ; the less business, the more noise 
over it ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 74. 

bobos. Leaky through having a big hole in 
the bottom ( stronger than bochor, q. v. ) ; — 
used of a vessel, but also (coarsely) of a man 
suffering from looseness of the bowels. 

bubus. I . Absolutely hairless — through 
disease ; temporary and unnatural hairlessness. 
Cf. botak, 

11. To fly in swarms — as flying ants; C. 
and S. 

bubong. Swelling up, rising up in the form 
of a ridge or cone ; usually bumbong, q. v* 

^liji bubok. I. A wood-maggot ; a weevil. 

Di-makan b, : worm-eaten, of wood or padi ; 
Ht. Koris, Sh. Ik. Trub., 3. 

Berisi b, : full of weevils, of a dead tree ; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. 

B. beras ; b, kayu : weevils which consume 
rice and wood respectively. 

Bubul b. : a skin disease affecting the feet. 

Puru b. : a skin disease affecting the whole 

11. Boiling, the water being boiled with the 
food (in contradistinction to boiling by immer- 
sion in boiling water as an egg is boiled ) ; = 
rebus, q. v. Di-bubok ya*m di-rebus : cooked 
by the process called bubok or, in other words, 
boiled ; Muj., 48. 

\j> bubul. I. The repairing of nets. 

Membubuljala: to repair a net. 

Pukat terbubul: patched nets; Sh. Ik. Ter., 

11. A skin disease on the feet. B.sarang; 
b, malai; b, susu ay am; and 6. bubok: varieties 
of this disease. 

bubu. A large conical rattan fish-trap ; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. Saperti bujok lepas dari bubu : like 
a bujok fish just escaped from a trap (off in a 
moment) ; Prov. 

Bubu dudok jiwa-kau hilang : the trap remains 
as before and your life is lost ; if you attack 
one much stronger than yourself, you do him 
no injury and you suffer yourself; Prov. 

B. chatok : a trap entered from the side. 

B, diyam : a trap with leaves inside it. 

J5. dudok : the bubu when used in flooded 

B, kelong 
B. tidor : 


: a bubu for very small fish, 
a bubu for use in rivers. 

A> A> buboh. The act of putting or depositing any- 
thing in a position in which it is intended to 
remain permanently, as paint is laid on a wall, 
or as a signature is affixed to a document. 

Membuboh and mSmbubohkan : to attach ; to 
affix ; to permanently set down. Membuboh 
chap : to affix a seal. 

wl^, buta. I. Bhndness; blind. 

Harapkan anak, mata' buta sa-belah ; 

Harapkan orang lain, mata buta ki- 
duwa-nya : 

to trust one's child is blindness in one eye, to 
trust a stranger is blindness in both ; Prov. 

Buta beharu chelek : a blind man who has just 
opened his eyes ; a man suddenly promoted to 
a position for which he is, unfit. Orang buta 
dapat tongkat, di-pukul buta tuli : a blind man 
given a stick hits right and left with it ; don't 
entrust dangerous weapons to people who do 
not understand using them ; Prov. 


[ 125 ] 


B, biilar : blindness, there being a white film 
over the eye. 

B. ayam : difficulty of sight at dusk ; myopia 
confined to periods of gloom. 

B, chelek : blindness when the eyes are open 
and handsome. 

B, chemer : blindness accompanied by partial 
closing of the eye-lids. 

B, kesep ; = b. pechah. 

B. larangan : permanent myopia. 

B. pechah : blindness when the eyeball is des- 

B, rabim : extreme myopia, when objects look 
like vague shadows. 

B. ragi : washed out, of a pattern. 

B, sepet : blindness when the eyelids are kept 
permanently closed. 

B, Urbelemet : blindness, with the eye injured 
and projecting. 

B. tuli : blind and deaf. Membtiwat buta 
tuli : to behave recklessly. Membabi buta : 
id. ; also blind man's buff. Memukul buta tuli : 
to hit out blindly right and left. Pukul b. 
also means to stumble accidentally on good 

Malam b. : a pitch-dark night ; Ht. Koris ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Perigi b. : a well without water. ^ 

Wang b, : wasted money. 

Butahan : to blind, Sh. Ibl., 9. Membutakan : 
id.; Ht. Kal. Dam., 375; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 33. 

Membuta : (i) to blind, Ht. Gul. Bak., 105 ; 
(2) to sleep, expressed coarsely. 

Merbuta : (or simply buta) silent of the letter 
«>, t, e, A instead of I. But this expression 
is sometimes used of a letter having the central 
portion filled up instead of being left open. 
£mpat puloh huruf mint dengan tiyada buta 
huruf-nya : forty minis written so as not to 
cover the centre of the initial loop of the letter ; 
Muj., 25. 

n. Skr. An ogre; a goblin; a man-eating 
demon ; — practically identical with a raksasa ; 
Ht. Abd., 154 ; Ht. Koris ; Ht. Sg. Samb.' ; Sh. 
A. R. S. J., 9 ; Cr. Gr., 55, etc. Sometimes 
pronounced bota, 

ni. Buta-buta: a tree, cerbera odollam ; 
Ht. Abd., 203; Ht. Koris, 438; Ind. Nata, 246. 
Also bebuta. 

Buta-buta darat ; alstonia macrophylla. 

IV. China buta : [Skr. — but fancifully con- 
nected with buta I. by indecently minded 
Malays.] The name given to the muhalliU a 
temporary or intermediate husband, married 
to a fully divorced woman whom her former 
spouse wishes to remarry — such a remarriage 
being only permissible after an intermediate 
marriage with a third party ; Ht. Sg. Samba, 

Oj? buwat. Performance; doing; making; con- 

Buwat-buwat : make-beheve ; pretence ; to 
pretend ; Ht. Fut. Sh., 158. Bukan^nya latah 
di 'buwat-buwat : it is not hysteria, it is only 

Buwatan; Rtid perbuwatan : make, construc- 
tion. Pedang per buwatan Siyam : a sword of 
Siamese make. Bukan buwatan : confusedly ; 
= ta'-ketahuwan, 

Buwatkan : berbuwat ; membuwat ; membuwat- 
kan ; d.nd perbuwatkan : to make, to construct. 

J^j> butala. [Skr. bhutdld.] The earth. 

J^j) butir. A grain; a particle; an idiomatic 
numeral coefficient for small round objects 
such as gems (Bint. Tim., 23 Jan., 1895); 
slugs, (Ht. Abd., 69), etc. 

Jj) butor. Kachang 6. ; a cultivated bean with 
winged pods ; psophocarpus tetragonolobus ; Ht. 
Sh, Also kachang botol, and kachang kotor, 

^ butang. Eur. A button ; a knot used as a 
^ button ; = kanching baju» 

Sa-perangguwan b, : a set of buttons or studs. 

Rumput b, : a name given to two plants : 
eriocaulon sexangulare, and rhyncospora walli- 

A kar butang bunga : a climber ; lettsoma 

^jj^ botak. I. Baldness at the back of the head; 

a bald patch on the crown of the head. Cf. 

Hela rabut tarek sentak, 
Rambut panjang mBnjadi botak : 

pull and clutch, tug and pluck, and the long- 
haired one will soon be bald. 

n. Jav. Extremely turbid, of water; cf. 

keroh and bukat. 

b^ botol. I. Eng. Bottle; flask; Ht. Abd., 88, 
^-^' 284, 292. 

H. Kachang botol: a cultivated bean, 
psophocarpus tetragonolobus ; also kachang kotor 
and kachans^ botol. 

^jJ^ botan. The rose peony. 
•J*) butlin. A plant ; barringtonia^ sp. 


butu. (Coarse.) The penis ; also butoh, q. v. 

«C^ butih. A grain, a particle ; Muj., 89 ; better 
butir, q. v, 

aJ^ butoh. (Coarse.) The penis. 


[ 126 ] 





bojot. Entangled, knotted — of a piece of 
string ; beyond disentanglement. Cf, kusut. 

Bojot (in Pahang) is also used of the slipping 
of the string on a top ; C, and S. 

bujor. I. Extension of length relative to 
breadth — in curved figures. Bujor lalu lin- 
tang paiah : the straight get through, those 
which fall athwart it are broken (and get 
through in pieces) ; all is fish that comes to 
his net. Bujor btdat : elliptical. B. telor : 
oval. Lintang 6. ; diagonal ; Cr. Gr., 63 ; Pel. 
Abd., 127; Sh. Sri Bun., 4. B.songsang: 
a figure something like two ellipses with their 
major axes at right angles to each other. 
Muka 6. ; oval, as opposed to round faced ; 
Ht. Ind, Meng. Rtipa b. : id. Ht, Sh. Kub. 

B. sireh : a plant something like the sireh 
vine ; shaped like the leaf of this plant. 

Palas 6, : (i) a kind of tree ; (2) the fore-mast 

Berbujor jari : to spread out the hands, the 
finger of one resting against the corresponding 
finger in the other; Sh. Peng., 23. 

11. Unlucky; see mnjor. 

bujang. [Skr. bhijdngga,] The single, as 
opposed to the married, state ; a person not 
actually in the state of matrimony; an un- 
married, divorced or widowed person. Mm- 
gapa tiyada kahwtn, korang baik tinggal bujang : 
why don't you marry ? It is not well to remain 
a bachelor; Ht. Abd., 175. Bukan-kahhilang 
kerajaan-mu dan bim-niu tinggal bujang : will 
not your empire perish and your wife be 
widowed ? Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Kalau ta'-dapat bagai di-hatiy 
Biyar bnjang sampai ka-mati : 

if one cannot win one's heart's desire it were 
well to remain unmarried till death ; Prov. 

B, bela anak : a widower with a daughter. 

J5. serong : a bachelor in name only. 

jB. talang : a childless widower ; a lonely 

Balai perbujangan : a caravanserai or rest- 
house for passing strangers (according to Pijn- 
appel). Pebujangan : a bridal bed, a state bed 
(according to Klinkert.) Neither translation 
meets all cases and the expression is not in 
colloquial use. It occurs: (balai pebujangan,) 
Ht. Koris; (thnpaUnya pebujangan raja) Ht. 
Jay. Lengg. ; ( lanchang mas pebujangan) Sej. 
Mai., 38 ; ( bermain pebujangan) Ht. Ism. Yat., 


f^ji bujing. A tree (unidentified). 

^^yt bujok. I. Coaxing; wheedling; calming; 
allaying annoyance or irritation with tender 
language ; soothing ; — of a lover assuring his 
mistress of his affection (Ht. Sg. Samb.)-, or 
of a person calming a crying child ( Ht. Abd., 
15), or of an old nurse soothing an excited girl 
(Ht. Sg. Samb.). 

Membujok : to calm, to soothe, to allay vexa- 
tion or distress; Marsd. Gr., 209; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 129, 130. 

Also pujok, 

II. A large aruwan fish; a mudfish of rela- 
tively large size, Sh. Ik. Trub., 11 ; = scolopsis 

ciliatm ? 

Saperti bujok lepas dart bubu : like a bujok fish 
escaped from a fish-trap ; making off at full 
speed; J. S. A. S., II., 145. 





bujal. Projection outwards (of the navel). 
Cf. bonjol and benjoL 

bujam. A pouch of mengkuwang leaves ; a 
sack something like a karong but of very small 

bochor. Leakiness ; leaking through several 
small crevices ; leaky, as a boat ; not water- 
tight, of a roof. Cf. bobos (which refers to 
one big hole or leak), and tiris. 

Bochor-bachir : very leaky, always running 
(used of a person suffering from looseness of 
the bowels) ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Membunoh b.: to stop a leak. Mulut 6. : a 
babbler ; a man who cannot keep anything to 

bochong. An earthenware vessel shaped 
something like an hour-glass, i,e, narrow in 
the centre. 

B, telor buwaya : a variety of this vessel ; a 
bottle with a rounded bottom, so that it does 
not easily stand erect. 

bochak. Mouldy, decayed, rotten ; Kl. 

bochok. A sort of awning suspended over a 
child's cradle ; Pijn. 

buchuk. I. A protuberance or knot on an 
old tree trunk ; cf. buku. 

II. Ikan buchuk : a fish, scolopsis ciliatus, 

buchu. A slight projection or projecting 
point ; a corner or angle. Pada tiyap4iyap 
satu buchu satu papan : a plank at each corner ; 
Muj., 18. 

bochah. Jav. A boy or girl ; = budak^ q. v. 
bodok. Eng. A gaff, a boat-hook. 


[ 127 ] 


^j^j> budak. A boy ; a young lad or girl ; — more 
than a mere child but not yet marriageable. 
Budak- budak perimpuwan : girls. Engkau bu- 
dak'hudak : you are only a boy, Akubukan 
budak'hudak makanpisang : I am not a banana- 
eating boy ; I am not to be taken in ; Prov. 

Budak raja : (Pahang) the retinue of a raja. 

Kebudak-budakan : sexual immaturity; sexual 
ignorance; — e, g. of an immature boy, 
Ht. Sh., or of a girl who, though married, 
takes no pleasure in her husband's caresses, 
Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Ht. Mas. Ed. ; Ht. Perb. 


^J^J> budok. Tertiary syphilis ; advanced stages of 

ft^y^ budu. Small fish pickled in brine with their 
^ scales and entrails. Kalau ku buka tempayan 

budUy biharu di-tahu : if I open the pickle jar 
people will know its contents ; if I reveal this 
secret, people will know your character (used 
of unsavoury revelations) ; Prov. 

o^aJ bodoh. Stupid ; dullwitted ; dull in intelli- 
■^* gence or understanding. 

Yu b. : a species of shark which allows itself 
to be caught very easily. 
Kebodohan : dullness of wit ; stupidity. 

^^a> bodi. [Skr. bodhi,] Daun bodi : the leaves of 

" the Peepul tree (ficus religiosa ) ; a pattern 

much used in fringes and ornamental flowers ; 

Ht. Koris., Ht. Ind. Meng.; Ht. Sh. Kub.; Ht. 

Pg. Ptg. Also btidi, 

i<^0j budi. I. [Skr. biiddhi,] Wisdom ; under- 
- -^ standing; disposition; turn of mind; discre- 
tion. ^Akal b. or b, bichara: id. Hilang b, : the 
loss of discretion ; the throwing of prudence 
to the winds under the influence of overmaster- 
ing passion. Hutang mas buleh di-bayar, hutang 
btidi di'bawa mati : a debt of money may be 
paid, a debt of kindness endures till death ; 
Prov. Mati ikan kerana umpan, mati sehaya 
kerana budi : fish perish through bait ; I 
perish through your graciousness. 

Korang b, : want of discretion. 

Berbudi : discreet ; prudent. 

n. See bodif supra. 

^ bora or bura. Forcibly spitting out, eject- 
^^ ing, or throwing. Tersilap sadikit terkena 
biira : make a slight mistake and you will be 
pilloried for it; Bint. Tim., 16 Jan., 1895. 
Sudah bura : (Singapore) he has been kicked 
out ; he has absconded. Membura : to bom- 
bard, to pelt. 

Ular naga bora : (Kedah) a snake believed to 
poison by spitting out its venom on its as- 
sailants; = (Riau, Johor) ular mura. This 
snake may be naia sputairix, but was identified 
by Malays in my presence as lachesis 
purpureomaculaius . 

tJljjJ burit. The posterior of men and animals ; the 
stern ; the fundament. Tidak ketahuwan kepala 
dan burit : he could not make out head from 
tail; he could not tell the top from the 
bottom; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Buritan : the stern of a ship. B^rgilir ka- 
buritan : to wear ship; J. S. A. S., XL, 41. 

Memburit : to commit an unnatural offence. 

Shnburit : sodomy. 

Cjjj> burnt. Hydrocele; Muj., 65, 70. 


boros. I. A tree with edible fruit ; Kl. ; = 

alstonia macrophylla ? 

n. A fragrant cosmetic ; the process of rub- 
bing this cosmetic on the body ; = boreh ? 

HI. Giving out, letting go, playing out 
rope ; (by metaphor) profuse, prodigal, extra- 
vagant. Orang yang boros tiyada mlmikh, yang 
niana terlintas semuwa di-beli : a prodigal knows 
no discrimination; he buys everything he 
comes across ; (from a Pantun.) Cf. borong. 

burus. Withered ; dried up — of trees. 

c. .J borang. Jav. A caltrop; = ranjauy q. v. 

oreng. Pinang boreng : a palm, 
Malay ana. 
Pinang boreng padi : pi7tanga disticha. 

9- J J boreng. Pinang boreng: a palm, pinanga 
^ Malay ana. 

t ^ borong. Wholesale ; by the gross. 

Memborong ; or membeli borong : to buy up 
wholesale, to create a *' corner"; to buy for 
a monopoly ; to make a bargain by hiring or 
renting a boat or any other property for any 
length of time. 

t »^ burong. The generic name for birds ; cf. 
^ unggas. 

B. dewata : the bird of paradise. B, gereja : 
the house sparrow. B. hantu : an owl. 

Burong is used for the penis in the Naning 
districts of Malacca and in the Negri 
Sembilan, and its use in those states should 
be abandoned and unggas employed. 

Ringgit b. : the Mexican dollar, 

J[2?^ borak. I. Inadhesive, loose — of tobacco. 
Also bcborak. 

H. [Ar. j\/ : the animal upon which Mu- 
hammad made his journey to heaven.] A 
mysterious flying animal endowed with 
supernatural powers. BirUndavaan di-atas 
borak jenggala : riding upon wild bovaks; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. Ada yang di-atas borak paksi 
melayang: some were riding upon winged 
bird-6omfts; Ht. Koris. MakaGantasuramen- 
jadikan diri-nya borak : Gantasura turned 
himself into a borak; Ht. Sh. Kub. 


[ laS ] 




Minaiki borak : to get on the back of the 
animal al-burdk ; Ht. Md, Hanaf., 38. 

The animal al-burdk proper, of Muhamma- 
dan tradition, is believed by Malays to have 
had the face of a man, the body of a horse, 
and the tail and wings of a bird, while the 
Muhammadan confession of faith was marked 
in the colouring on its side. 

borek. Spotted ; speckled with fairly large 

spots; cf. rintek, Ayam 6,: a speckled fowl. 
Bapa borek anak-nya tentu berintek : given that 
the father is spotted, the son will at least be 
speckled ; like father like son ; a son will have 
his father's qualities in some slight degree at 
the very least; Prov., J. S. A, S., I., 93. 

burok. Rottenness ; old, w^orn out, decayed, 

worthless, bad — of vegetable substances and 
manufactured goods, but not of decomposing 
animal matter; cf. busok. Rumah sudah bu- 
rok : the house is in a ruinous state ; Ht. 
Abd., 176. Pada siyang hari-nya di-dirikan 
orang kota itu, serta malam burok : in the day 
time men built the fort, and at night it fell 
into decay; Sej. Mai., 86. 

Burok siku : rottenness of the elbow ; a des- 
cription of a man who gives a thing and then 
always reverts to the subject of his generosity. 

Nama 6. ; a bad name; Ht. Abd., 151. Ber- 
buwat b. : to behave badly ; to bring disgrace 
or discredit upon any one ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Burokkan : to wear out, to cause to become 
worn or rotten, 

Di'tanah Riyau baju di-pakai, 
Di-tanah Jawa baju di-bttrokkan : 

in Riau the coat was worn, and Java saw the 
coat worn out. 

Burok is used also of a bad pronunciation ; 
Pel. Abd., 76. 

Ui.^ buraksa. V. Ui^ 

p soJ buram. A rough sketch or draft of anything ; 

r-^ Ki. 

jjj^ buran. A species of sea-anemone eaten by 
the Chinese. 

\jjji burin. Karang burin : a species of coral. 

/*ja) burun. Dense jungle; thick forest; Kl. 
* Kambing b. : a wdld goat ; = kambing gerun. 
Cf. bar an. 

•ijftj buru. Hunting ; the pursuit of game ; driving 
' away ; driving before one. 

Memburu : to hunt. 

Perburuwan : game ; the thing hunted down ; 
hunting, sport. Anjing p, : dogs kept for 
hunting; Sej. MaL, 86. Menchari p. : to go 
in pursuit of game; Sh. Bid., 53. Hantu 
pentburu (Sh. Kamp. Boy., 11) or perburu: (Sh. 
Sri. Bun., 94) an evil spirit of the jungle the 
wild huntsman who chases men in the forest 
with his dogs; see J. I. A., Vol. I., p. 307. 

boreh. A yellow ointment for the body ; 
boreh-boreh and beboreh. 


bxiruh. Jav. A day-labourer ; a coolie. Bu- 

ruhan : wages ; hire. 

burai. Protruding, gushing out, forced out — 
as the entrails from a wound, or as the end of 
a garment hanging out when it should be 
tucked in ; Sh, Panj. Sg. Cf. berai and urai, 

buri, I. A trumpet. KL; Pijn. 

n. Jav. The back, the rear, behind, after, 
the hinderpart. Dudok di-buri : sitting in the 
stern; Sh. Panj. Sg. Paduka Mahadewi men- 
giring di-buri : the princess Mahadewi brought 
up the rear; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Cf. uri, burit, udi, mudek, etc. 

bona. Hind. A topical song; a favourite 
form of entertainment during the Muharram 
at Penang. 

buwas. Wild ; ferocious — of animals. Bin- 
atangyang buwas: wild ( in contradistinction 
to domestic) animals; Ht. Abd., 206. Singa 
yang maha-buwas : a most ferocious lion ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. 

bosa. Tali 6. ; 
cable to stop 
Also tali kap. 

a rope attached to a ship*s 
it when sufficiently run out. 

busa. Foam, froth ; better buweh. 

busut. A heap of earth ; an anthill, B, jan- 
tan : a small pointed anthill. B. betina : a 
large rounded anthill. B, duwa tiga iimbunan : 
two or three anthills; Sej. MaL, 9. 

Busut juga di'timbun anai-anai : even mounds 
are piled up by white ants ; great things may 
be achieved by perseverance ; J. S. A. S., HI., 
25. Cf. pongsu, 

bosor. Greed, gluttony. 

busar or busor. A bow ; the curve of a bow ; 
the bow-like instrument for cleaning cotton ; 
a portion of a Malay kite. Menarek b, : to 
draw a bow; Ht. Mar. Mah. MBngenahan 
anak panah kapada busar : to fit the arrow to 
the bow; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Bagai busar Ranjuna : like the bow of Arjuna 
— a simile for a delicately rounded arm ; Ht. 
Koris. Saperti kapas di-busor : like cotton after 
cleaning ; pure white ; Ht. Sh. 

Busor dengong : a humming-piece in a kite. 


[ 129 ] 


B, darah : an 

aneurism. Si-bttsong : Mr. Sufferer from 

^j> busong. A swelling of the abdomen from 
^ disease ; a dropsical inflammation ; ascites, 

dropsy. Sakit b, : dropsy 

aneurism. Si-bttsong : M 

dropsy; Ht. Sh.; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

B. luwat : a large sandbank, — more con- 
siderable than beting; Ht. Abd., 266. 

^j-**ja) busok. I. The spontaneous decomposition 

of organic matter ; organic decay ; fetid, 
stinking, foul ; (by metaphor) low, vile, mean, 
— of a man's actions, thoughts or reputation. 
Memeliharakan daripada busok : to preserve 
(anything) from organic decay, e.g- by placing 
it in spirits of wine; Ht. Abd., 284. Bau 
yang b, : a foul smell ; Ht. Abd., 370. Hati 
6. ; low principles ; bad character. 

Jangat jangaf daun mengkuwang, 
Jangan jangat batang ijok ; 

Ingat ingat zamdn sekarang 

Mulut-nya manis hati-nya busok : 

take care, take care, the present age has a 
tongue of sweetness and a heart of corruption, 

Berbiisok : to be guilty of vile conduct towards 
any one; Ht. Gul. Bak., 65. 

Kebusokan: foulness; Sh. Peng,, ig. 

H. A weight for gold ; [ = 2 candareens ?] 

L>^ bosan. Satiety which goes to the point of 
loathing; nauseated with anything. 

(S^ji busi. [Hind, bhusi.] Rice bran ; chaff. 

py buwang. The act of discarding, throwing or 
flinging away ; casting away ; rejecting al- 
together ; dismissing or repudiating ; banish- 
ment ; putting to death; getting rid of 
altogether. Buwang bunga ka-jirat : to waste 
flowers on a tomb ; Prov. 

B. arang di-muka : wiping away an insult ; 
removing a disgrace. 

B.ayer: easing oneself; Ht. Abd., 20,90. 
Penyakit buwang ayer : diarrhoea. 

B. ayer darah-' dysentery; Ht. Abd., 20. 
B. ayer nanah : id. 

JB. baka : wasting one's heritage of good 
qualities ; showing oneself unworthy of one's 
descent; Sh. Panj. Sg. ; Pel. Abd., 49. 

jB. belakang : turning one's back on anyone 
or anything ; Ht. Mar. Mah. ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 

B, bidak : giving the odds of a pawn at chess. 

B, diri : (i) suicide; (2) emigrating in search 
of a livelihood ; self-banishment; Sej. Mai., 
100 ; Sh. Bid., 19 ; Ht. Koris. 

jB. nyawa : the sacrifice of one's life in any 
cause ; readiness to so sacrifice one's life ; Sh. 
Bur. Nuri, 21, 22; Ht. Abd., 320. 

jB. endel or b, hendel : to give an outward 
sweep of the arm. 

B. limbai : to sweep the arm towards one, 
to wave towards oneself. 

B, miyang : to w^ork off restlessness by 

B. pal'pal: tacking; Pel. Abd., 116. 

B. pantun : to extemporize a pantun. 

B,tari: dancing with abandon; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., no. 

B, undi : to cast lots, to throw dice. 

Champakb.: a kind of javelin ; Pel. Abd., 31. 
Lembing buwang-buwangan: id., Ht. Mar. Mah. 

Para b, : a peculiar kind of window used for 
emptying out slops, etc. ; a sort of raised sink. 

Buwangan : wasted ; cast away ; exiled ; 
abandoned ; Sh. Dag., 18. Terbuwang : id. ; 
Ht. Abd., 25, 62, 83, etc. Anak buwangan : a 
foundhng, a term of abuse; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Biiwangkan ; membuwang ; and membuwang- 
kan : to throw away ; to abandon ; to kill. 
Buwangkan ka-negeri Bombe : to transport 
(penally) ; Ht. Abd., 461. Ahc hendak mem- 
btnvangkan orang muda keduwa ini : I wish to 
put these two young men to death; Ht. 
Bakht., 83. 

Pji bunga. A generic name for flowers and objects 
of a gay or variegated appearance ; the pattern 
on anything ; the product of money ; in pan- 
tuns, the mistress, the love of the humming- 
bee ( hmibang) for the flower corresponding 
to the Persian fable of the nightingale and the 

Kumbang tidak sa-ckor, bunga tidak sa-kaki : 
there is more than one humming-bee, and 
more than one flower; there are lots of good 
fish in the sea (from the point of view of an 
otherwise disappointed one ) ; Prov. 

Bunga yang harurn itu ada juga duri-nya: 
even that fair flower has thorns ; even a king 
has enemies; Prov.; Ht. Ham^:., 9. Buwang 
bunga ka-jtrat : to cast flowers on a grave ; to 
waste good material; Prov. Bunga yang layu 
balek kembang : a faded flower in bloom again ; 
an old man playing the dude ; Prov. Laksana 
kera dapat bunga : like a monkey that has got 
hold of a flower ; pearls before swine ; Prov. 
Bunga disunting perdu di sepak buwang: the 
flower is worn, the stem is cast away; the 
daughter is favoured, the mother treated with 
contempt ; Prov. 

Banyak'lah bunga kembang di-kebun, 
Sa4angkai sehaja membawa gila : 

many are the flowers which blossom in the 
garden, but one flower alone maddens my 
heart with love ; a sentiment often occurring 
in this or a similar form in Malay love pan- 

B. apt : fireworks; sparks. 

B. ayer : the name of fish. 

JS. ayer mawar: the rose; Sh. B. A. M., i. 
Also bunga mawar. 
B, karang: a coralline sponge; Sej. Mai., 45. 



[ 130 ] 


B. kuku : the lighter portion of the finger- 
nail ; the base of the nail. Also kidit adam, 

B, lalang : the blossom on lalang grass ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. 

B. lawang : the clove spice ; Muj., 87. 

B. mas : the tribute of golden leaves and 
flowers sent to Bangkok triennially by certain 
Malay Rajas. 

B. mawar : the rose; Ht. Gul. Bak., 82. 
Also bunga ayer mawar, 

B. pasang : the first of the tidal flood. 

B,rampai: mixed flowers; a collection of 
fragrant flower petals, often artificially scent- 
ed, for scattering about at festivals ; Ht. Abd., 

J3. selaseh : drunk, and rollicking. 

B. telor : red eggs given to guests at wed- 

B, wang : interest on capital ; Ht. Abd., 406, 

B. apt -apt ; b. seroja ; 6. kunyet ; and b, nanas : 
patterns of artificial flowers of gold and silver 
leaf scattered at festivals ; v. ambor-ambor, 

Senggugtit b, : a disease of women. 

Berbungakan : to bear flowers ; to bear a 

bongor. A tree, lagerstrcemia regina. 

bungar. I. Prime; the earliest of anything ; 
the first born ; the first fruits. Bungaran : id., 
Sh. Panj. Sg. Btcwah bungaran : the first crop 
of fruit on a young tree. 

n. (Johor.) Pride; v. btmgak. 

bongak or bungak. Pride, superciliousness, 

haughtiness; Sh. Panj. Sg. ; = bongkak. Also 

boixgok. Heavy build ; a clumsy look about 

bupati. [ Skr. through Javanese.] A lord of 
the land; a very exalted dignitary, Sh. Panj. 

Sg.; also J\i,, 



\J^^y. bupala. [Skr. bhiipdla,] Prince ; v. J\a* . 
45aJ bopeng. Pockmarked. Also mopeng, 

^ji buwak, I. Bubbling up, as water in a spring ; 

coming out in drops, as blood on a scratch ; 
shooting up all round, as fire round a sauce- 
pan. Cf. buwal, 

n. A kind of frog; J. S. A. S,, viii., 108. 

buka. Opening; opening up or opening 
out ; the removal of a veil or covering ; expo- 
sure by such removal. 

Membtika : to open ; to reveal ; to remove a 
covering. B. rahasiya : to reveal a secret. 
jB. chapiyu : to remove one's cap ; to take a 
cap off. B, layar : to open out the sails. J5. 
peti : to open a box. B. tirai : to draw aside 
a curtain. 

Mimbuhahan : = membuka, 

Terbuka : opened ; exposed ; revealed. Tan- 
gan b, : open-handed. Makin jauh makin ter- 
buka : the further you went the more it opened 
out, t.e, the wider it became. 

bokot and btlkut. Membokot : to enshroud ; 
to cover up everything ; to veil ; = berselubong, 

bukat. Troubled; disturbed (of water). 

bukit. A hill ; a mountain of moderate 
elevation (a lofty mountain being gunong). 
Orang bukit : aboriginal tribes. Bukit pekan : 
wild tribes of the market ; a nickname given 
to Tamils in Pahang owing to the limited 
costume of the coolie. Anjing menyalak, bukit 
mahu'kah runtoh : if dogs bark at a mountain, 
will the mountain crumble to pieces ; the 
great can neglect the menaces of the insignifi- 
cant ; Prov. Bukit jadi paya, pay a jadi bukit : 
hills become marshes, marshes hills; the 
great reduced to poverty, the poor exalted to 
wealth; Prov. 

B. berapit : two peaks connected at their 

Anak b, : a hillock. 

Kaki 6. : the foot of a hill. 

Kemonchak b. : the summit of a hill. 

Peminggang b. : the side of a hill. 

Penara b. : the level ridge sometimes met 
with at the top of a range of hills. 

bokor. A metal bowl or bason with a broad 
flat brim like a soup-plate ; Ht. Jaya Lengg., 
15; Ht. Ind. Meng., 60; Sh. Pant. Shi., 11. 

bokong. Worn the wrong way; front and 
behind interchanged. Baju b. : a child's baju 
opening and fastening at the back. 

bokop. Swollen up, as the eye after a fight ; 
closed, by inflammation. Also bakup^ q. v. 

bukak. To open ;=:buka, q. v. 

^^ji bukal, [Arab. J$^» .] Mixed, of two colours ; 
matted, as a beard; Mahk. Raj., 167. 


^jl bukam. To silence a hostile witness by a 
drug or talisman. Also bongham^ q. v. 


[ 131 ] 



A> bukan. Negation ; non-existence ; no, not. 
Bukan barang barang pSr^mpMwan : no ordinary 
woman. Hubongan huruf yang htikan-bukan : 
impossible combinations of letters ; Ht. Abd., 


Che Dolah niudek menyabong 

Singgah ka-hulu ka-Bandar Pekan; 

Ay oh Allah I tiyada tertanggong^ 
Masok Nuraka tenipat yang bukan : 

Oh God, it is not to be borne, the thought 
of entering Hell, the place of annihilation. 

Sa> buku. I. Knotted; intertwined; interlacing; 

'^^^ a knot ; the joint where two bodies or sections 
of a body meet ; a measure for lumpy bodies ; 
(by metaphor) the sting of any remark, or the 
worthless or objectionable part of anything. 
Chart umbut kena buku : to look for a soft 
sprout and come across a hard knot ; to look 
out for easy success and meet disaster; Prov. 
Jangan sangat pileh-nya takut tuwan kena bukti 
bidoh : do not pick and choose too carefully 
or you may chance to get a knotty bit ; le 
mieuxest Vennemi du bien: Prov., J.S.A.S., L, 
97. Pileh-pileh ruwas, terpileh pada buku : to 
pick and choose over the space between the 
joints and be ultimately forced to take the 
worthless bamboo joint itself; do not be too 
particular; Prov. Berjumpa buku dengan 
ruwas : you may come across the hard joints 
while studying the soft spaces between ; id. ; 
Prov. Orang bertemu buku : men who do not 
hit it off; men who cannot meet together 
without stumbling upon something to quarrel 
about ; Prov. Buku di-dalam hati, or buku di- 
dalam perut : a knotty point in the feelings ; a 
thorn in the side. Saperti si-buku geharu : 
like a knot of fragrant wood ( which is only 
fragrant when burnt), like a man who only 
shows his good qualities in times of adversity; 

B. bemban : a knot used by Chinese as a 
button ; a knot of many strands. 

B. jari : the knuckles of the fingers. 

B, kaki : the knuckles of the toes. 

J5. lalt: the outer projecting portion of the 
ankle bone. 

JB. lima : the knuckles of the hand. 

Garam sa-buku : a hard lump of salt, ( by 
metaphor) a diamond ear-pendant in one large 
piece. Nasi sa-buku : a clotted lump of rice, 
the grains sticking to one another ; Sh. A. R. 

Berbuku : clotted, in lumps. Dunya empama 
bayang'bayang berbuku: the world is like a 
nebula of many nuclei ; Sh. Nas., 17- 

Terbuku : hardened with knots, saddened by 
unfortunate experiences ; Sh. Put. Ak., 38. 

11. Also buk. A book. 

vf5^ boga. L [Skr. bhoga: pleasure.] Semp^ 
per gam boga: a pleasure boat. 


11. [Kawi: ananta bhoga, from Skr.] Naga 
anta-boga : the great serpent ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 
The form nanta-boga also occurs, M. S., 2., 
R. A. S. collection. 

ni. The name of a plant ; cycas rtmiphii. 

c:Sc^^ bogot. Horrid, ugly. Hitam b. : horridly 
■^ black — applied to Papuans. 

^^ bugis. The name of a bold and enterprising 
^-^-^^ race in Celebes; Ht. Abd., 12, 60, 267. 

Kain b, : a peculiar glistening silk cloth made 
in Celebes; Ht. Abd., 431. 


>-) bogang. Telanjang bogang: stark naked; Sh. 
-^* Panj. Sg. ; also telanjang bugil and telanjang 

r5^ bogok. A large black caterpillar. 


bogel or bugil. Telanjang b, : stark naked. 
Also telanjang bogang and telanjang bulat, 

Ayam b, : a fowl without feathers. 

<^ bogam. I. Pieces of gold or silver leaf on 
P^ a 

II. Great ; = besar. 

<T) bogi. Eng. A buggy ; a hooded vehicle ; Ht, 
^■^ Abd., 234. 




buwal. Bubbling up, as water, when gaseous 
particles rise to the surface; cf. buwak ; (by 
metaphor) exaggerated language. Buwal 
anak Menangkabau : the men of Menangkabau 
are 'great at talking; Prov. Cf. J, S. A. S., 
XXIV., 115. 

bola. Port. A ball ; a billiard ball ; a tennis 
or cricket ball; any balls used in games. 
Main b. : (literally) to play at ball, used of 
tennis, billiards, cricket and football. Kain 
benang b. : a kind of kain pelekat : a cloth 

bolot or bulut. A hasty and careless wrap> 
ping up or rolling up of a parcel ; to cover a 
thing hastily in a roll of cloth or paper. Maka 
anak-nya itu di-bolot-bolot-nya dengan daun kayu 
atau kuliUkulit kayu: their children they 
carelessly wrap up in leaves or bark (for 
swaddling clothes); Ht. Abd., 386. 


[ 132 ] 







bulat. Roundness ; circular shape ; a smooth 
rounded surface without angularities or ex- 
crescences; bare, naked, of smooth surfaces 
which are often or usually covered with hair, 
feathers, or clothes. 

B, bujor; or b. panjang : elliptical. 

B. hati : openness of heart ; with nothing to 
conceal the feelings; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

B, pipeh : flat and round. 

B, torak : cylindrical. 

'Ilmu bulat dtmya : physiography ; Ht. Abd., 

Kayu 6. ; round logs, stripped of leaves and 

Masak b. : cooking whole — i, e., without 
plucking off feathers or skinning. 

Pusat 6. : the centre of a circle. 
Seluwar b, : pyjama trowsers. 
Sa-bulaUbulat : altogether. Sa-bulaUbulat 
hati : with all my heart. 
Telanjang b. : stark naked. 

bular. Whitish discoloration of the iris of 
the eye ; blue grey, of the eye. 

Btita b. : blindness, there being a white film 
over the eye. 

^^ bulir. I. Anak b. : an illegitimate child. 

11. Ear (of padi, etc.), cluster. Membulir 
kain : to twirl or twist a piece of cloth so as 
to roll it to a point. 

bulor. Excessive hunger ; overpowering 
hunger ; — also kebulor, kebtdoran, and gelojoh 

Matt bulor : to die of hunger. 

Di'dalam bilek permaisuri^ 

Yu di-pulau Inderagiri ; 
Membawa fa^al saperti penchuri 

Mati bulor diya sendtri : 

they adopted the ways of robbers only to die 
of hunger themselves; Sh. Raj. Haji. 

bolos or bulus. I. Slipped off, fallen off, 
— as a roll of string from the stick round 
which it is wound; stripped of hair or 
feathers; stripped of leaves of a tree; left with- 
out children or heirs, of a man ; thoroughly, 
through and through. Kena tikmn b. : to be 
run through the body, Sampai 6. : right 

II. A tortoise (unidentified). 

III. Ikan buluS'bulus : a species of mullet, 
sill ago maculata. 

bolong. Black; blue black; dark blue; paint- 
ing in black paint ; tarring ; blackening ; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. 


> bulang. I. The process of en winding or 
enwrapping ; binding the spurs on a fighting 
cock by enwinding the artificial on the 
natural spur with string; binding the hand 
to the sword handle; wrapping the head in 
a kerchief; the kerchief so worn. 

J5. idu : the head-cloth of a raja, often used 
as a term of endearment ; Sh. Bid., 5 ; Ht. 
Koris, etc. 

Berbtdang: enwrapping, binding up. Tempat 
b^rbulang : the place where the spurs are 
bound on the fighting cock ; Sh. Pr. Turki, 9. 

Mhnbtdang : to enwrap. Membulang taji : 
to fasten the spurs on a fighting cock; Sh. 
Lail. Mejn., 25 ; Ht. Nakh. Muda, 33. 

II , A generic name for a number of thorny 
shrubs ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 30. 

jB. gajah : gmelina villosa, and canthium 
horridum. Also b, kechiL 

B. hitam : canthium horridum. Also b, tikus. 

B. pelandok : canthium oliganthtim. Also bu- 
langan; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; Ht. Abd., 203, 255. 

III. Bulang'baling : rolling over and over; 
a name given to a couple of projectiles 
when fastened together, to chain shot, and to 
a stone hurled by means of a string fastened 
to it. 

j3i^. bolak. Backwards and forwards; incon- 
sistency ; prevarication, falsehood. Bolak-kah 
kata patek: am I lying ? Ht. Hg. Tuw., 51, 58. 
Bolak-lah chakap kapada tuwanku Shah Kubad : 
you have been false in your promises to my 
master Shah Kubad ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Bolak'balek : there and back ; see balek. 

^^ aJ bulan. The moon ; a month ; the menses ; 
the period of gestation. Saperti bulan dengan 
matahari : like the moon and the sun, a com- 
bination of similarities ; a common metaphor 
for a king and queen, or a lover and his mis- 
tress. Bidan di-pagar bintang : the moon en- 
circled with stars ; a queen surrounded by her 
maidens; an appropriate combination gener- 
ally; Prov. Saperti kejatohan bulan: as if 
the moon had fallen (into one's lap), a meta- 
phor describing great and most unexpected 
good fortune ; Ht. Bakht., 52. Bulan turun 
ka-ribaan : id. ; Ht. Md. Hanaf., 33. Sa-telah 
genap-lah bulan-nya : when her time (for 
delivery) was come; Sej. Mai., 11. Perut- 
nya pun sudah sampai bulan : id. ; Ht. Best. 
Saperti bulan kesiyangan : like the moon 
dulled by daylight ; a poetical simile for 
pallor ; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Gul. Bak,, 106. 
Saperti bulan di-makan rahu : like the moon 
in eclipse ; like a beauty hidden in her lover's 
embrace; Ht. Ism. Yat. 

B, baju : a piece of cloth cut to form part 
of the neck piece of a baju, 

B. bunting pelandok : the moon when it 
resembles the curve of pregnancy in a mouse- 
deer ; the moon on the 8th day of the lunar 


[ 133 ] 




B. gelap : the period when the moon is not 
visible ; Ht. Abd., 248. 

J5. pBrnama : the full moon ; Ht. Abd,, 222. 

B, sa-belah kendor : half moon. 

B. timbul: the new moon; Ht. Ind. Jaya; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Bintang kapit b, : a bright star when nearly 
occulted by the moon. 

£mpat betas hari b. : the moon at its full ; a 
simile for a beautiful face ; the 14th day of the 
month ; Ht. Abd., 222. 

'Gerhana b. : an eclipse of the moon ; also 
btdan di-makan rahii, 

Nyior di-makan b. : a coco-nut without or 
with little flesh and water. 

Sa-hari bulan : the first day of the month ; 
the one-day old moon, a simile for a beautiful 
eyebrow ; Ht. Gul. Bak. 

Siput b, : a shell, natica petiveriana, or helix 

The following names are colloquially used in 
connection with the months, the cumbrous 
Arabic names being practically confined to 
writings : — 

jB. enipat sa-nama : the four months rabiH'l- 
awwal, rabiH'l-akhir, jimtddi'Uawwal and 
jumddiH-akhir , 

B, hari raya besar : the month dzu'l-hijjah, 

B, hari raya kechil : the month shawwal. 

B. maulud : properly the month rabiHH-aw- 
wal, but often a name given to all the four 
months '* btdan empat sa-nama.'' 

B. me'erat: the month rajab, 

B, nahas : the month safar. 

B, puwasa : the fasting month ramadldn. 

B. ruwah (arwdh) : the month sha'ban, 

B. sura : the month muharram ; also called 
pencheraiyan tahun. 
B, terapit : the month dzu'l-kaidah. 

bolu. [ Port, bolo, ] A kind of cake ; sponge- 
cake. B. koja (or kemoja) ; b. lapis; b. ren- 
dang; and b, perenggi : varieties of this cake. 
Also buwah tdu, and batdu. 

bulu. Hair ; plumage ; the hairy, woolly, or 
feathery tegument of animals ; the hair on the 
human body, but not that on the head. Isi 
lemah dapat ka-orang, tulang btdupulang ka-kita : 
the flesh and fat (of the fowl) go to others, 
the bones and feathers come to us ; we get the 
kicks and others the half-pence ; Prov. Bulu 
ekor sa4ai pun tiyada terchabut : not one hair of 
his tail was pulled out ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

jB. ayam: the feathers of a fowl; Ht. Abd., 
272. Ikan bulu ayam : a fish, coilia dussumieri. 
Layar bulu ayam : a sail intermediate between 
a lug-sail and a latteen-sail. 

B. ayer laut : blue feathers on a fowl. 

Bulu bulu : a plant ; diospyros argentea. 



B. kechong : (Riau, Johor) neck feathers 
on a fighting cock, rather above the neck 
feathers known as bulu suwa ; see infra. 

B. kening : the eyebrows; Sej. Mai., 114. 

B. landak : the quills on a porcupine. 

B. lawi : (Riau, Johor) the long tail feathers 
of a cock ; the coarser feathers in a duck's tail ; 
= (Kedah) b. tela. 

B. lela : ( Kedah ) the long tail feathers; = 
(Riau, Johor) 6. lawi, 

B, liyang rorna : the fine hairs on the body ; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. 

B. mata: the eyelashes; Sej. Mai., 114. 

B. pahat : the down on a boy*s face precedent 
to the growth of the beard. 

B, pelipis : the thin hair on the right and left 
of the neck. 

B. rainbai : the feathers on the right and left 
of a cock's tail ; the finer feathers on the tail 
of a duck or fowl. 

B. roma : the delicate hairs on the skin of 
the human body; Ht. Ind. Jaya. Also i. 

liyang roma, 

B, sembong : (Kedah) neck feathers ; = (Riau, 
Johor) b. suwa. 

B. suwa: (Riau, Johor) the feathers on a 
fighting cock's neck ; the feathers which seem 
to stand on end when a cock gets excited ; = 

(Kedah) b, sembong, 

B, tengkok : the mane. 

B. idat : a small hairy herb; sonerila sp. 

Ayam btdu balek : a fowl, the feathers of which 
are turned the wrong way and give a woolly 
look to the bird. 

Chapiyu berbidu : a plumed hat or helmet ; 
Ht. Abd., 223. 

Halt berbidu i rising wrath. 

Kachang b, : a bean ; tephrosia hookeriana, 

Kerang b, : a kind of shell. 

Ulat b, : a hairy caterpillar known to cause 
ulcers wherever it touches the human body. 

buleh. To have anything in one's power; to 
be able ; can, may. 

Sa-btdeh-bideh-nya : to the best of his ability. 
sa-btdeh-btdehan : id. ; Ht. Abd., 138. 

Cf. beruleh; v. tdeh, 

buloh. The generic name for the bamboo ; 

B. balai : bambusa tuldoides, 
B, batu : dendrocalamus stricius, 
B, bersmnpitan : bambusa lorayi, 
B, berang : dendrocalamus stricius. 
B, belong: dendrocalamus flagellifer, 
B, china : bambusa nana, 
B. duri : bambusa blumeana, 
B. kasap : ochlandra ridleyi, 
B. mata rusa : gigantochloa kurzii. 



BULAI [ 134 ] 

J5. minyak : oxytenanthera sinuata, 

B. padi: schizostachyum aciculare, 

B, pelang : gigantochloa wrayi. 

B, raya : gigantochloa scortechinii, 

J5. Uherau : v. Uberau* 

B, temiyang : bambusa wrayi. 

JB. tempat : dendrocalamus strictus. 

B. telang : gigantochloa heterostachya. 

B. telang minyak : gigantochloa latispictdata. 

B. tBlor : schizostachyum zollingeri. 

The word buloh is also used to describe instru- 
ments the frame of which is made out of a 
tube of bamboo. B. bangsi : the Malay flute ; 
Ht. Raj, Don., 8; see bangsi, B, perindu : the 
Malay iEolian harp, an instrument made of a 
tube of bamboo open throughout but. with a 
string drawn across one end of it. There are, 
however, other varieties of this instrument; 
see Favre, Vol. IL, p. 230. Saperti buloh per- 
indu di'tiyup angin tatkala dinihari : like the 
^olian harp when the breeze of sunrise 
blows ; a simile for a sweet plaintive voice ; 
Cr. Gr., 78; but see also Ht. Gul. Bak., 11 ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb.; Sh. Ik. Trub., 11, etc. 

Sa-perdu buloh : a clump of bamboo. Tebas 
buloh sa-perdu : to cut down a clump of bam- 
boos ; to destroy a whole family ; Prov. 

(J^ji bulai. L Albino. 

II, The trunk of an elephant; J. I. A., i., 
313 ; = belalai. 

bull. Buli-buli: a bottle, a flask, a small 
glass receptacle, e,g, for ink. 

Nyawa sa-buli : one and the same flask of 
life, a name taken from the native traditions 
regarding the origin of the Northern Princi- 
palities of the Peninsula. 

bum. L Arab. 
II. See ^ 



^^ Domor. ii sorcerer; a 
-^* wizard. Also bomo, q. v. 

witch-doctor ; a 

g^oJ bomo. A person who practises the healing 
-^-^ art by utilizing sorcery ; a witch-doctor ; a 
wizard generally, a man who claims to be 
able to discover stolen property for the 
rightful owner, etc. The word is very com- 
mon in Penang and Kedah, and is used 
especially of Siamese, Chinese and Tamil 
doctors, but not usually of Malays. Bomo 
tabibf or tabib bomo : doctors generally ; 
doctors of all sorts ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 5; Muj., 9. 
Patut-patut orang sakit m^nchari bomo, ini-kan 
pula bomo menchari orang sakit: it is right 
enough that a sick man should send for a 
doctor, but here we have a doctor sending for 
a sick man ; a proverbial description of impro- 
per conduct as when a woman runs after a 
man ; or of a dependent who does not wait to 
be asked before he volunteers a suggestion. 


^jfj^ bumi. [Skr. bhumi.l The earth. Bumi dan 
" ' langit : heaven and earth. Mengelilingi b, : 
to circumnavigate the earth. Kejadiyan yang 
di'Udara dan dari bumi atau dari laut : crea- 
tures in the air above or from the earth 
beneath or from the sea ; Ht. Abd., 88. 
Bagai bumi dengan langit : as (remote as) the 
earth from the sky ; as wide apart as heaven 
and earth. Laut mana ta'-berombak bumi yang 
mana ta'4impa hujan : what sea has no waves, 
where is the land where rain never falls ; it is 
a long lane that has no turning; Prov. 
Biyar pechah pBrtit bumi merikah : though my 
body be rent, and the earth split open (I will 
not do it ) ; a strong expression of determi- 
nation. Sa-besar-besar bumi aku tampar ta'- 
kena : however big the world may be I always 
seem to miss it when I try to strike it ; how- 
ever easy a thing may seem, I always seem 
to make a mess of it ; Prov. Nikdh maharaja 
bumi : to wed the Earth-prince ; to die ; Prov, 

MangkU'bumi : a regent : a prime minister ; 
Cr. Gr., 64, 

Daim tutup b, : a weed ; elephantopus scaber. 

Tujoh petala 6. : the seven folds of the earth. 
These are described in the Bustdnu' s-salattn, 
Bk. I. 

^j^ buna. A saltwater fish ; Kl. 

j J bunut or bonot. I, Bunut pay a : a plant ; 
pternandra coerulescens. 

IL Hujan b. : very heavy rain. 

4j^ bunoh. Slaying ; killing ; the destruction of 
life ; (by metaphor) ending anything. Hantu 
matt di' bunoh : the ghost of " a murdered 
man, — a vindictive spirit; Ht. Abd., 86. 
Mati di'bunoh is also used as a term of abuse. 
Merak mati di-bunoh ini : this peacock destined 
to come to a bad end ; this gallows-bird of a 
peacock ; Ht. Ism. Yat., 160. 

Membunoh : to kill ; to murder ; to execute ; 
to put an end to. J5. ph'kataan orang : to put 
an end to a heated argument, to stop angry 
words ; Ht. Abd., 86. 

Berbimoh-bunohan : engaged in mutual 
slaughter, as two batthng armies; Ht. Abd., 
193, 202. 

Pembunoh : a slayer ; Sh. Ibl., 12. 

Pembunohan : slaughter; Sej. Mai., 81, 

j^ buni. I. Concealment; hiding; v.sembunyi, 
- * and buniyan. 

II. A tree with small acid red fruits; anti- 
desma buni. 


[ 135 ] 


cj> buwah. A generic name for fruits ; a spherical 
or nearly spherical object; a descriptive prefix 
to the names of objects of a more or less 
spherical appearance ; a numerical coefficient 
prefixed to words signifying towns^ countries^, 
lakes 3, ships 4, bowls 5, fruits 6, eggs 7, 
baskets 8, shields 9, buildings ^o, mountains ^^ 
books 12^ watches ^3, doors H, boxes ^5, teeth ^^^ 
carriages 17, cavities ^^^ stones ^9, plates 20, etc. 

B, bedara : (i) A name given to a number 
of fruits, see s. v. bedara ; (2) a sweetmeat 
made of tepong pulut and eggs, and served up 
with sugar. 

B. beras : a plant ; chasalia ciirviflora, 

B, bitis : the calf of the leg ; cf. jantong betis. 

B, butang : a shrub ; morinda imibellata, 

B, chator : the pieces, at chess. 

B.chiiki: draughts. 

J5. hati : the heart, — either literally (Muj., 
61 ); or as a term of endearment ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

B, keras : a kind of nut ; aleurites mohwcanus. 

B. keras laut : a large sea-shore tree; her- 
nandia sonora. 

B, khtildi : Adam's apple (in the throat); 
( literally ) the fruit of Paradise. 

B,melaka: (i) a fruit (phyllanthus pectinattis); 

(2) used as a simile for a bullet, C. and S. ; 

( 3 ) a sweetmeat made of tepoitg pulut and 
coco-nut sugar. 

jB. molong : a sweetmeat. 

B. pala : nutmeg. 

B. pantat : the buttocks. 

jB. peler : the testiculi. 

B, pinggang : the kidneys. 

B. semangat : special ^a^2--stalks cut with 
great ceremony so as to pacify and retain the 
semangat padi ; see semangat, 

B. suldi : Adam's apple. Also b, khnldi 
and halkum. 

B. timbangan : weights. 

Several Malay games being played by 
children using the hard fruit of various plants, 
the word buwah has often the special sense of 
' ball ' in such games. Main buwah keras : to 
play a game in which the buwah keras fruit is 
used as a ball. Main buwah gorah, main 
buwah sintok, etc. : similar games. 

Anak b. : an expression denoting the persons 
to whom a chief stands in loco parentis ; his 
vassals; the people whom he represents or 
looks after ; Ht, Abd., 60, 228. 

Buwah-buwahan : fruits generally, 

I Ht. Abd., 229. 2 Ht. Gul. Bak., 32, 53; Ht. Abd.. 368. 
3 Sej. Mai., 25. 4 Sej. Mai., 19, 52; Ht. Abd., 13, 14. 
5 Sej., 75; Ht. Ind. Jaya; Ht. Sg. Samb. 6 Ht. Sg. Samb; 
Ht. Abd., 413. 7 Ht. Abd., 210. 8 Ht. Abd., 88. 9 Ht. 
Abd., 310. 10 Ht. Abd., 224; Sej. Mai, 10. " Ht. Sg. 
Samb. 12 Ht. Abd., 88. 13 Ht. Abd., 361. ^4 Ht. Abd., 
431. 15 Ht. Abd., 220, 284, 303. 16 Muj., 61. 17 Ht. Abd., 
462. 18 Ht. Abd., 64; Ht. Sg. Samb. 19 Ht. Abd., 204. 
20 Ht. Hamz., 51. 

Berbuwah : to bear fruit. Tiyada akan pisang 
berbuwah duwa kali : a banana tree does not 
bear fruit twice; if you sacrifice an extra- 
ordinary piece of good fortune, do not expect 
a second stroke of luck to set things right; 

Berbuwahkan : to be bearing fruit. Ber- 
buwahkan mas: bearing golden fruit; Sej. 
Mai., 20. 

Pebuwah : a globular vessel resting on a flat 
base and used for holding the areca-nut in a 
case of sireh'chewing requisites; the special 
receptacle for the areca-nut. In some cases 
chunam is kept in it. 

^ji buweh or bueh. Foam; surf; scum; froth; 
spume. Hanyut buweh dari hulu sungai 
Pelembang itu ierlalu besar : a huge mass of 
foam came drifting down from the upper 
waters of the Palembang river; Sej. Mai., 35. 

pAj; bohong. Lying ; a lie ; fiction ; untruth. 

^ Sakaliyan itu bohong sa-mata-mata : all that is 

altogether false. Budak-budak terlalu bohong : 
boys much given to lying. Surat bohong : a 
forged letter; Ht. Abd., 271. 

Membohongkan : to represent a man as a liar, 
or a thing as a lie ; Ht. Abd., 355. 

Pembohong , 
Ul., 16. 

a liar; Ht. Abd., 131, 314; Sh. 

(3^ bohok. (Penang.) A muddy pool; a puddle. 

c5^ buwai. Swaying ; swinging ; the motion of a 
pendulum. Buwaiyan: a cradle; a kind of 
hammock for a child; Sh. Lamp., 47; a 
pendulum, Phys., 39. Buwaiyan pun di-gon- 
chang, anak pun di-chubit : to rock the cradle 
and pinch the child ; to do an ill turn under 
cover of a good action; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
XL, 43. 

Berbuwai : to swing, to swing from, to swing 
under; Sh. Pant. Shi., 14; Sh. Put. Ak., 30. 

c5^ boya. L Loose; inadhesive — as tobacco, 
Kl. ; cf. boyakf borak, and beborak, 

n. (Kedah) (i) a crocodile ; {2) an old tin 
coin: = (Riau, Johor) btmayay q. v. 

HL Eur. A buoy. 

Jo) boyot or buyut. L Flabbiness, of flesh. 
^* Perut boyot : flabby obesity ; a stomach which 
shakes or quivers as a man moves. 

n. A remote ancestor ; an ancestor in the 
fifth or sixth generation. Also moyot. 

LTO^ boyas. Extreme obesity ; KL Cf. boyot, I. 


[ X36 ] 


jfcU) buyong. I. A water vessel; a pitcher with 
^ a wide mouth and narrow neck; Ht. Abd,, 
292 ; Ht. Sh. ; Ht. Best. 

Tulang kilek buyong : the crest of the ilium. 

IL A boy, a youth, a servant — when it is 
desired to avoid mentioning their names. 

Si'buyong : the boy ; that boy. 

III. Tonggeng-buyong : aslant; sloping; 
leaning to one side ; askew. 

^Jiy, boyak, I. Tasteless, odourless, weak — as 
spoilt tobacco, Kl. 

1 1. Very much opened out, as the ribs of a 
beamy shallow boat. 

Cfi^. boyaB. The Island of Bawean. Orang 6. : a 

j>j> bonyor. Soft, sappy, — of fruit: tender — of 

C5t>^ bunyi. L The impression made by words 
or sounds upon the ear or mind; sound, 
meaning, accent ; intonation. Suwara-nya 
garu lagi hebat bunyi-nya : he had a hoarse 
voice and harsh intonation ; Ht. Abd., 328. 
Sa-ptwhok surat demikiyan bunyi-nya : a letter 
to the following effect ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 36. 

Koyak ta' -berbunyi : being torn without a 
sound; telling the truth without being be- 
lieved; Prov. 

B, keridek : when the mole-cricket is heard ; 
about 5 p.m. or 5.30 p.m. 

Bunyi-bunyiyan : strains of music. 

Berbunyi: to sound, to sing (of birds). 

'Membunyikan : to pronounce, to enunciate ; 
Ht. Abd., ig, 

II, See sembimyi, 

4j bah. A flood; an inundation; the flow of 
water into the padi fields during the rains. 
Sha%r bah Singapura: the poem of the 
Singapore floods— a poem describing an 
inundation of Collyer Quay. 

Cf. sebak. The word bah refers to water in 
motion, sebak to still water. 

^ boh. (Singapore.) Ornamental cuttings of 
paper or cloth ; paper decorations. 

<; bihi. Arab. In or upon him ; v. bi k^j 

(Sj^^^si bahaduri. Pers. Knightly ; brave ; warrior- 
like. Bintang b. : the star of a knightly order. 

iS'^^fi bShadi. Panic, sudden fits of fear, the evil 
influences which haunt a spot; Ht, Raj. 
Don., 3. See badi, 

jl^ bah^r. Arab. Beauty, sunrise; Sh. Kamp. 
Boy., 4. 

jV^ bShara. [Skr. bhara,] Load, weight, bur- 
den ; a somewhat indefinite measure of weight 
varying from 400 to 600 lbs. avoirdupois. 
Tolak behara: ballast. See Cr. Hist. Ind. 
Arch., Vol. I., p. 276 (396 — 560 lbs.), and cf. 
with Sej. Mai., 301, 302, where the word is 
used of only ten catties or about 14 ibs, 

JJ^* bShani. New, newly. Pulau Pinang pekan- 
nya b^haru : the Island of Penang has a new 
mart. Tahun bBharu : the new year. 

BeharU'lah iya datang : he has just come; 
then only he came. 

Also baru. 

lJ^Ht* behari. [Pers. bahari.'] Excellent; noble; 
ancient, appertaining to the good old times. 
Shah ^alam behari: the noble lord of the 
world; Sh. Sg. Kanch., 35. Menjadi hina 
nama yang behari : an illustrious name will be 
brought to discredit; Ht. Gul, Bak., 157. 
Taman orang yang behari: the garden of a 
noble; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 5. Zamdn behari: 
the past ; Sh. Panj. Sg. Berlainan juga dari- 
pada behari or tidak saperti behari : not as in 
the past; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

U^\' bdhasa. I. [Skr. bhdsha,] Language; the 
use of proper forms of address; courtesy, 
civility, manners. B, melaytt^: the Malay 
language. jB. inggeris: the English language. 
B, dalam : the court language. 

Anak China bertimbang madat, 

Dari Mengkasar langsong ka-Deli ; 
Hidop di'dunya kita ber*ddat^ 
Behasa tidak berjuwal bUi : 
as long as we live let us be courteous ; man- 
ners are not for purchase or sale. Behasa 
menimjokkan bangsa : manners reveal descent ; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 54. Ttiwan-mu itu 
tiyada tahu behasa : your master has no breed- 
ing; Ht. Sh. Mard. Guru daripada behasa: 
a teacher of language. Apa behasa anak galoh 
ini? What means the behaviour of this 
princess ? Why does the princess behave in 
this way ? Ht. Mas. Ed. 

Budi behasa : good taste and courtesy ; tact 
and breeding. 

Jalan 6. : idiom. 

Juru 6. : an interpreter, 

Korang 6. ; discourteous, lacking in manners. 

Berbehasa : polite. 

Membehasakan : to prescribe a formal method 
of address ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 24. 

Perbehasaan : way, manner of speaking ; 
Arabian Nights, 402. 

II. Skr.? Softly, lightly, slightly,— an 
attenuative which softens or tones down the 
force of the preceding word. Sepuhi-sepuhi 
b, : softly blowing — of the wind. Matahari 
pun suram behasa (Ht. Sh. Kub.), or redup- 
rHup behasa (Ht. Sh. Kub.) : the sun was 
slightly overcast. Mengantok-ngantok behasa : 
gently nodding; Ht. Sh. Kub. Gila behasa: 
slightly mad, eccentric; Sej. Mai. Rambut- 
nya kusut-kusut behasa : his hair was some- 
what matted; Ht. Mas. Ed., 61. 


[ 137 ] 




bShagi. Division ; apportionment. B^hagi- 
yan : a share ; Ht. Sh. Mard. 

bShala. [Arab. %, .] Calamity ; Sh. Lamp., 
I, 14. Better bala, q. v. 

bShana. Noise, especially the confused mur- 
mur of many voices. 

Bunyi bihana anak panah : the whizzing of 
arrov^s ; Ht. Hg. Samb. Gemuroh-lah behana 
bala berjalan : the sound of the army marching 
was like that of thunder ; Cr. Gr., 13. 

Menghambori b, : (lit. : to allow one's cries to 
flow forth) to weep-— expressed in very courtly 
language; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 32. Mingambor 
b, : id., Sh. Sh. Ah, 2. 

b§haya. [Skr. bMya,] Danger. Mara 
bihaya : id. Suwatu pun tiyada behaya-nya : 
there is no danger, Behaya bcrsalin : the dan- 
gers of childbirth. Behaya dunya akhirat : the 
dangers of the world to come; the risk of 
hell-fire ; Ht. Abd., 280. 

Berbehaya: dangerous. 

bahtera. [ Skr. vdhUra, ] A ship — more 
poetic than perahit, Perahu bahtera raja : the 
king's vessel ; Sh. Sri Bun., 2. Laksana bah- 
tera di-ayim gelombang : like a vessel tossed by 
the waves; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 11. 

Akhbar nan laksana sa-buwah bahtera 
Di-awak-nya sarat intan mutiyara: 

a newspaper is like a vessel deep-laden with 
diamonds and gems; Bint. Tim., 16 Jan., 1895. 

BahtBra is also used with special reference 
to Noah's Ark. 

j^^ bahar. Arab. 


(3^ bahak. Arab. Scabby, leprous. 

^y^^ bahkan or behkan. A strong affirmative ; 
= yea, yes, what is more, besides ; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 17; Ht. Md. Hanaf., 20, 73; Ht. 
Hamz., 86. 

iS^ bShagiya. [Skr. bhdgya,] Fortune; 
blessed ; a blessing. Mendapat bihagiya itu : 
to obtain that blessing; Ht. Abd., 468. Ber- 
behagiya-lah saiyidi : blessed be my Lord ! Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 62. Behagiya-nda : the blessed 
one,= baginda, q. v. Hamba Allah yang beha- 
^iya : the blessed servants of God ; the saved, 
in contradistinction to the lost subjects of 
God (hamba Allah yang chelaka); Bost. Sal. 

U.^* bahwa. [Skr. bhdwa: the existence of any- 
' thing.] A word used at the opening of a 
sentence in the same way as adapun, and al- 
kisah, with the meaning: '* the story is," '*the 
facts are." Bahwa sa-sunggoh-nya : in very 
truth ; verily, verily. 

j^ bahi, Arab. Beautiful, grand, glorious, rich. 




bShina. [Pers. : best.] Good, excellent ; Sh. 
Yat. Nast., 158; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 294. Ti- 
yada behina : not to trouble oneself, not to care 
or take to heart. 


to pay attention to, to care 
Also bina and bena. 

C^ be'. Turk. A bey ; a minor Turkish dignitary. 

i^, beya or biya. I. Tolls; duties; taxes — 
especially Customs dues; Ht. Ism. Yat., 99; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 395. Biyan-biyan ; bebiyan; 
or pebiyan : a Custom house. 

n. The cowrie shell. 

IH. Datm biya : a plant, mitragyne speciosa. 


biadab or biyadab. [ Pers. privative be, 
and adab; Arab, and Pers.: respect.] Dis- 
respect ; wanting in respect ; unmannerly. 
Biyadab sa-kali : most disrespectful ; Ht. 
Hamz,, 42. Hendak di-katakita biyadab: they 
will say we are unmannerly ; Ht. Best. 

biyasa. [Skr. abhydsa.] Acquaintance with 
a person, object, or process; knowing any 
one ; accustomed to doing anything. Saiyid 
Yasin tHah biyasa dengan aku : Said Yasin had 
made my acquaintance. Menjadi biyasa-lah 
iangan-ku memBgang kalam : my hand became 
accustomed to holding a pen. Alah bisa uleh 
biyasa : mere theoretical knowledge yields to 
actual experience ; Prov, 

Biyasakan : to accustom (oneself) to anything ; 
to practise, to exercise. Jangan engkau biya- 
sakan mBnulis malam : do not get into the habit 
of writing at night ; Ht. Abd., 39. Membiya- 
sakan : id., Ht. Abd., 164. 

biyapfiri. Pers. A trader; a merchant; Sh. 
Bid., 12, 94; Ht. Kal. Dam., 28; Ht. Koris; 
Ht. Ham^., 5, etc. Dagang biyaperi : strangers 
and merchants ; traders from foreign parts. 

In Kedah this word is pronounced bay apart. 

/;U bayan, Arab. Clear, plain, visible, obvious. 

MBmbaydnkan : to make clear, to explain, to 
elucidate, to render obvious. 

Terbaydn4ah nyata : quite clear, obvious, 




jambu biji. 

Jambu biyawas : the guava ; = 



[ 138 ] 




The ** iguana" or monitor, Sej. 
Also (Kedah) bewak. In proverbs 


Mai., 86. 

the monitor is a typical unclean beast. Men 
dukong biyawak hidop : to fondle a live monitor ; 
to take an unclean beast into one's arms; Prov. 
Niyat hati nak pUok gunong, 
Sudah berpUok bewak chUaka : 

it was my wish to embrace a mountain and I 
found a dirty monitor in my arms ; I expected 
honour and only found disgrace ; Prov. Be- 
wak kudong masok kampong : a short monitor 
entering a village ; a man falling among ene- 
mies ; Prov. Lidah b. : a monitor's (forked) 
tongue ; deceptive, double-faced ; Prov. 

B, pasir : a species of monitor ; hydrosaurus 

B. punggor : a short, thick, monitor-lizard ; 
hydrosaurus salvator. 

Other varieties recognized by Malays are 
6. puru, b, gabok, b. tikus, b, tembaga and 
6. kudong, 

Puru b. : a jungle fruit (unidentified). 

Membiyawak : to lie on the stomach ; to crawl 
as a lizard. 



An edible freshwater fish (un- 

biyaya. [Skr. vydyd,] Cost ; expense ; pro- 
perty for expending ; capital. Bilek iiu berisi 
herta akan biyaya patek : the room is full of 
property to meet my expenses; Ht. Mash., 
53« /^^« berlebeh-lebehan pun herta-nya tiyada 
di-biyayakan-nya pada diri-nya dan pada akhi- 
rat : even if the wealth was greater it could 
not be expended both on selfish interests and 
in the interests of eternity; Ht. Kal. Dam., 

bebet or bibit. Carriage in the hand; the 
lifting of light objects with the fingers; Sej. 
Mai., 153. Also bimhit, 

bibir. The lip, or lip-like edge of anything. 

Bibir-nya nipis : he had thin lips. Bibir-nya 
yang di-atas itu menongkat hidong-nya: his 
upper lip served as a prop to his nose. Bibir- 
nya tebal : he was thick-lipped. 

B. chawan : the edge of a tea-cup. 

B, juweh : a hanging lower lip. 

B. mata : the fringe of the eyelid. 

B, meleweh : a very open lower lip, a lower 
lip which exposes the teeth when the mouth 
is at rest. 

B. mulut: the lips. Tanani tebu di-bibir 
mulut: to plant sugar-cane on the lips; to 
cultivate a plausible manner concealing a false 
heart; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 94. 

B, tangan : the side of the hand ; the further 
side from the thumb. Also tembiring tangan, 

Bibiran : a talkative person ; a babbler. 

A lor bibir: the hollow between the nostril 
and the centre of the upper lip. Also lorah 


bebas. Freedom ; liberty from restraint, free- 
dom to be familiar; license. Bebas sapBrti 
orang dalam rumah-nya : as free as if he was 
in his own house. Orang China Tien-te-hoe 
itu tBrlalu bebas-nya: the Chinese of the 
Heaven and Earth Society took great liberties 
(i, e, violated the law in the most daring 
way); Ht. Abd., 325. Bebas-lah iya masok 
kaluwar istana raja : he was free to go in and 
out of the raja's palace; Ht. Gh. MHjadi 
bebas4ah hamba raja di-dalam nBgiri: the 
raja's followers did what they pleased in the 
State; Pel. Abd., 22. Kebebasan: liberty from 
restraint ; Ht. Abd., 258. 

tjt^ bebek. Jav. A duck ; Kam. Kech., 5. 
Chakar b. : a plant ; cotyledon laniata ? 



beban. Wicked, 

disobedient ; obstinately 

Budak nakal sangat beban, 

Tiyada sa-kali menengar chakap : 

the stupid boy is most disobedient ; he pays 
no attention to anything that is said to him. 

bibi. Hind. Mistress, lady, — a title given to 
Hindoo females by Malays; an aunt, especially 
a younger sister of a parent ; (by euphemism) 
a mistress of a brothel ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 62. 

bait. I. Arab. House, seat, dwelling. 
Baitu Hlah : the House of God. BaituH-mdl : 
literally, the Exchequer, the Treasury, but 
used more frequently in the sense of an 
Escheat, or of property reverting to the 

Baitu'l-mukaddas : Jerusalem, Mith. Sar., 56; 
Ht. Md. Hanaf., 86. BaituHhardm : the 
great temple at Mecca or any great central 



Hind. A rhyming couplet; Ht. Ism. 

biynt. Biyang-biyut : 
different directions. 

zigzag, extending in 

beta. Hind. Slave, servant; an expression 
used as a pronoun of the first person by rajas 
and people of rank when addressing equals; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 239. Sahdbat beta : my 
friend ; — an expression used by West Coast 
rajas to describe an equal when addressing 
him ; = sahdbat kita, on the East Coast. 

Membeta : to use the word beta in one's 
speech. See also beti. 

,3^ betek. Betek-betek: a bird something like a 
long-tailed swallow. 

Ikan betek'betek : a fish (unidentified). 


[ 139 ] 


jj<j beti. I. [Hind. Feminine of beta, q. v.] 
Female slaves; maids in attendance on a 
princess; female servants in a court. Beti- 
beti p^rwara ; a retinue of attendant damsels. 
Sometimes corrupted to binti. 

II. [Skr. vitti,'] Tanda beti ::=icorpus delicti, 
j^ bejar. [Pers. be-zar,'] Out of humour. 

,3?^. bijak. [Skr. An abbreviation of o^'**^ bijak- 
Sana, q. v.] Wisdom ; prudence ; sage, cau- 
tious, learned. 

Sunggoh-pun bijak orang sekarang^ 
'Ilmu-nya banyak paham-nya korang : 

although the present generation is learned, 
it knows very much and understands very 
little; Marsd. Gr., 211. 

Bijak laksana : a corruption of bijaksana, 
q.v. ; *Ht. kaj. Bdk., 32. 

^j^. bijil. (]rw, wijil.) Bijil pasiban : galleries in 
a Javanese palace or hall of audience ; Ht. 
Mas. Ed. 

-n5^ bijan. Jav. The name of a plant; sesamum 
indicum ; = (Malay) lenga. Menabor bijan ka- 
tasek : to sow sesamum-seed on a lake ; to 
waste sweetness on the desert-air ; Prov. 

^c^ bijeh. Tin dust ; tin obtained by washing ; 
alluvial tin. 

B. bay am : fine light-coloured tin dust. 

B, kachang: coarse gravel-like particles of tin. 

B, selaseh : deep black fine tin dust. 

Baiu b, : galena. 

Siput bijeh laut : a small marine shell (un- 

^^^^ biji. A seed ; a grain ; a pip ; a particle ; a 
descriptive prefix or numeral coefficient used 
with the names of small objects, — sometimes 
interchangeable with buwah, or butir, Sa-biji 
dtiriyan: = sa-buwah duriyan; a durian; Ht. 
Abd., 413. Duwa biji peluru ; Ht. Abd., 69 ; 
or duwa butir peluru : two pellets or slugs. 
Sabiji anak panah ; an arrow; Ht. Sg. Samb. 
Duwa bijijari: two fingers; Ht. Hamz., 54. 
Duwa bijinesan : two tombstones ; Sh. May., 6. 

B, kelBnjar : (Riau, Johor) the lymphatic 
glands ; also (Kedah) b, kelenjer. 

B, limaUy or limau berbiji : an expression 
used to describe bad rice, many grains of 
which remain hard in a dish of boiled rice. 

B, mata : eye-ball (Ht. Abd., 30, 77) ;— used 
sometimes as a term of endearment ; the apple 
of one's eye ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 43. 

B, nangka : (i) pips of the jack-fruit ; (2) a 
small gimlet. Ikan biji nangka : the name of 
a fish. Tikus biji nangka: a kind of field- 

B. ratap : tears, lamentations; Ht. Sh. Also 
b. sabok and b. sabak. 


B, timun: pips of gourds and melons; a 
symbol descriptive of the lozenge pattern. 
Retak 6. timun : the peculiar lozenge-shaped 
pattern sometimes formed by the lines on the 
inner side of the joints of the finger. 

Biji is sometimes used with the meaning 

bechang. Bechang-bechok : the sound of angry 
voices in altercation. 

^J^, bechak. Muddy, soft, sloppy, slushy, — of the 

ground ; a swampy place ; the muddy part of 
the road ; Ht. Abd., 237, 336, 410 ; Pel. Abd,, 
33; Sh. Sing. Terb., 49. Tidak hujan lagi 
bechak inikan pula hujan : muddy enough even 
when it is not raining, and now we have it 
raining as well ; bad enough at any time, but 
now worse than ever ; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 95. 

^3^. bechek. Jav. Slushy, muddy, a puddle ; 
used in Johor with the meaning of pounding, 
mincing, mixing or otherwise softening food 
for an infant to eat. 

^J^, bechok. L Bechang-bechok : the sound of 
angry voices in altercation. 

II. Ikan bechok : a fish, novacula rufa, 

j^^ bichu. A screw jack. 

Juj beda. Skr. Distinction; difference. Siha- 
rang ini beda terlalu : things are very different 
now; Marsd, Gr., 211. Beda-nya per^mpuwan 
dengan laki-laki juga : women are different to 
men ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Membedakan : to distinguish, to differentiate 
between. M. benar dan salah : to distinguish 
truth from falsehood ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 

Perbedaan : difference, distinction ; Pel. Abd. 

Ju; bida. I. An abbreviation of the proper name 
Bidasari; Sh. Bid., 31. 

II. An abbreviation of the word bidadariy a 
nymph of Indra's heaven; Ht. Ind. Meng., 8. 

III. A damsel about the court (pengasoh, 
inangy dan bida) ; Sh. Sh. AL, 30. 

jJui bedar. A one-masted ship used as a state 

jXj bidor. A slab of tin weighing about 2f lbs. ; 
'a rough mass of smelted tin. 


bidas. A blow given by an elastic or flexible 
body when tension is suddenly removed. 
J^rat bidas: a snare, in which the victini's 
movements release a spring which, in its 
turn, tightens a noose. 

Kayu pembidas : the stakes used to close up 
the entrance to an elephant trap. 


[ 140 ] 



rjj bidang. I. Spacious ; spreading ; broad ; ex- 
tensive; covering a wide surface; a descriptive 
prefix or numeral coefficient before the names 
of objects such as sails, mats, awnings, etc., 
which cover a large surface when spread out. 
Dada-nya bidang : broad-chested; Ht. Abd., 
86,328; Ht. Sg. Samb. Kub. ; Sh. Bid., 21. 
Sh. Ik. Ter., 2; Ht. Sh. Bahu-nya bidang: 
broad-shouldered; Ht. Raj. SuL, 8. Sa-bidang 
kajang: a kajangy or awning of mBngkuwang 
leaf; Pel. Abd., 8. 

Pembidang or (more usually) pimidang : a 
frame on which cloth is stretched for 

n. A palm cabbage; palm shoots; coco-nut 

^J^i bedak. Division into shares; partition into 
equal parts. 

jJuj bedek. 

Membedek : to look at anything 

through one eye only, the other being closed, 
as when a man aims a gun or looks through 
a telescope ; to aim. Kita berkelip sama sama 
bedek : we blinked, closing our eyes together ; 
Sh. Panj. Sg. 

^J^ bidak. [Arab. 3A5. . ] A pawn at chess. 
Buwang 6. : giving the odds of a pawn. 

^Xj bidok, 

I. A small fishing boat able to carry 

five or six men ; Sh. Si Lemb. 

Kutu 6. : the small beetles that infest the 
lockers and lower timbers of ill-kept boats. 

II. A protuberance of skin on the necks or 
under the ears or eyes of animals, if such a 
protuberance is not the result of disease but 
is congenital. 

JJuj bidal. I. [Port. dedaL] A thimble. Also 
didal, lidal and sarong jari. In Kedah sarong 
jari only. In Selangor lidal. 

II. A proverbial saying; a dictum of some 
wise man of the past which has been handed 
down from generation to generation. 

^Juj bidan. [Skr. widwdnS\ A midwife; Sej. 
MaL, 64. Jikalau beranak ikut kata bidan : in 
a confinement it is well to obey the midwife ; 
when in difficulties, listen to the voice of 
experience; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 103. 
Beranak tiyada berbidan : to be confined with- 
out a midwife ; painful folly ; Prov., Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 30. 

Balas b. : a festival or reception held forty 
days after the birth of a child. 

PBnempah b. : the retaining fee given to a 
midwife to secure the use of her services 
when required. 

Upah b, : the fee paid to a midwife for her 
services. Also upah beranak. 

^aJui baiduri» [Skr. vaidurya.] A generic name 
for cat's-eyes, opals and other gems of 
secondary value ; Cr. Gr., 83 ; Ht. Ind. Nata ; 
Ht. Jay. Lengg. ; Ht. Ism. Yat., etc. 

B. bUid: an opal the lustre of which varies 
in intensity and colour as the position of the 
gem is changed. 

B. bulan: an opal of which the centre of 
lustre seems fixed. 

B. olong : a yellow opal. 

JS. pandan : a sea-green stone. 

Chongkak 6. ; a shell ; cyprcea caput serpentis. 

iS^. bidai. I. A long narrow strip of rattan such 
as is used in making mats or native blinds ; 
"chicks," blinds. Permaisuri pun membuka- 
kan bidai : the queen lifted up the blinds ; Ht. 
Koris. Bidai panchalogam : blinds where 
beads and narrow cylinders of many-coloured 
glass take the place of strips of rattan ; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. 

Balong b. : an evil spirit supposed to live in 
rivers and to have the form of an open mat 
in which it envelopes and drowns its victims ; 
C. and S. 

Ular 6., ular balong 6., ular balam 6., or ular 
gulong b. : the name of a very venomous thin 
and long sea-snake. Ular bidai datang mem- 
belit dayong segala raja-raja : the sea-snakes 
came and wound round the oars of the 
princes; Ht. Koris. 

BBrbidai'bidai : in long thin stripes, as the 
livid marks on a boy's back after a severe 

II, A hurricane, = badai ; Pijn. 

III. The goal or '* house" in some games 
played by Malay children. 

Jui bedza. [Skr. beda.'] Differentiation, distin- 
guishing between ; v. beda, 

j^ bira. A name given to a number of aroids ; 
better birah, q. v. 

^ biyar. L Permitting; allowing; letting; not 
hindering. The word is also used idiomatically 
in the sense of **may," *'no matter if." 
Biyar puteh iulang jangan puteh mata: no 
matter though you die, do not allow yourself 
to be put to shame ; Prov. Biyar burok kain 
di'pakai asal pandai mengambil hati: let him 
wear old clothes if he chooses, so long as he is 
skilful in winning the hearts of men ; Prov. 

Biyarkan : to permit, to allow. Di-biyarkan- 
nya barang kBhendak-nya : anything he wished 
was allowed him ; Ht. Abd., 477. 

II. C hacking biyar-biyar : intestinal worms. 
Biyar-biyar naik ka-mata : the worms get at 
last to the eyes ; a play on the word biyar, to 
allow; i. e. allow one thing and allow another 
and you are ruined in the end; Prov., see 
J. S. A. S., XXIV., 100. 


[ 141 ] 


w^ beret. Cheret-beret : protracted, dragging on 
unfinished — of work ; constant of the flow of 
anything, seemingly interminable; Sh. Panj. 
Sg. 191 (ayer kenching-nya cheret-beret). 

*-"4^ birat. A scar, on the mouth ; traces of itch 
or eczema round the mouth ; cf. parut, 

[Jtr^, beras or biras. The connection between 
men who have married sisters or between 
women who have married brothers ; — a con- 
nection by marriage only. 

^^ berang. L Anger; wrath; incensed; 
angered ; furious; the rise of passion. Hati b. : 
angry feelings ; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 16; Sh, Sg. 
Ranch., 14; Ht. Koris, 

Kalau ku ttiriit hati yang berang, 
Nama yang baik jadi binasa: 

if I give way to my angry feelings, my good 
name will perish for ever. 

Berbangkit b. : to get excited ; to get angry ; 
Sh. Bur. Pungg. Naik b, : id. Memberang : 
id.; Sh, Abd. Mk., 55; Sh, Peng,, 11; Sh. 
Sg, Ranch., 15. 

II. Ular b, : a dangerous snake mentioned 
in romances. Dengan sa-kutika itu juga men- 
jadi ular berang : he became a berang snake in 
a moment ; Ht. Roris. 

P/i; biring. L A disease of the eyes ; a running 
^ of matter or blood sometimes involving loss of 
hair on the lower eyelid. 

II. Light red or yellowish, as a fighting- 
cock of this colour. 

Hendak piichok, puchok-lah jering, 
Jering ta'-biyasa puchok di-dahan; 

Hendak kukok, kukok-lah biring, 
Biring ta'-biyasa kalak di-medan : 

if you wish to crow, crow then, my fighting- 
cock, my fighting-cock that knows not defeat 
on the plain (pit.) 

Biring sangka naning : a variety of this colour 
in a fighting-cock. 

^— V!^ bairup. [Eng. buoy-rope,] 
belt : a watermark. 

A buoy or life 

^3/iJ berak. (Coarse.) To ease oneself; = buwang 

ayer besar, Ht. Sg. Samb ; Sh. Lamp., 26; 
Ht. Abd., 269; J. S. A, S., iii., 30. 

OJ^* berek. Berek-berek, or beberek : a species of 
fly-catcher, a bird associated in Malay super- 
stition with the Wild Huntsman of the forests 
(Hantu Pemburu) ; J. I. A., i., 307. 


beram. A dark colour ; black, or dark red, 
Sh. Bid., 36 ; — the colour of the old Malacca 
fort, according to the Hikdyat Koris, 

p/i* biram. An elephant, — a word used only in 
romance and poetry, gajah being the word in 
colloquial use. Berjuwang b, : to fight on 
elephants; Ht. Roris, Ht. Ind. Meng. Ber- 
juwangkan b. : to make one's elephant fight ; 
Ht. Roris. B. berjuwang: a war elephant; 
Ht. Roris. Baginda pun naik biram yang 
menta : the king mounted a rutting elephant ; 
Sh. Bid., 122. 

J^-^ biramani. A string of corals ; Rl. 


birau. Kachau-birau : an intensitive of kachau, 
(confusion) ; extreme complication or confu- 
sion ; topsy-turvy ; higgledy-piggledy. 

j^ biru. I. Blue, light blue, azure. Bunga 
biru : a flower ; clitorea ternatea, 

Bunga chempaka b, : the Frangipani, plumiera 
acutifolia; C. and S. 

Seroja b. : the blue lotus ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 79, 
126. Tunjongb,: id. 

Burong biru laut : the name of a bird of the 
snipe family : limosa melamira, Cr. ; liniosa 
cegocephala, C. and S. 

jB. lebam : deep purple — as the weals on a 
boy's body after a thrashing ; Ht. Abd., 158. 

Kebirti-biruwan : bluishness ; Ht. Abd., 126. 

II. Hartc biru: uproar; confused noise, 
meaningless noise, words without sense. 
Besar-lah haru-biru : great was the uproar ; 
Ht. Abd., 248; Sej. Mai., 90. Bukan-lah dari- 
pada orang haru-biru : he is not one of the 
noisy class of individuals ; Ht. Best. 

Mengharu biru : to make a confused babel of 
words — as a number of people all talking at 

Also hiru-biru; Sh. Lamp., 5. 

III. Biru-biru : artificial folds in clothing ; 
Sej. Mai., 95. 

oj\a birah. A name applied to various aroids, 
chiefly wild. 

B, ayer : aglaonenta mavantifolium. 

J5. hutan : cyrtosperma lasioides. 

B. kechil : typhonium divaricatum, 

B, keladi : colocasia antiquorum. 

c/b bireh. A fence, an enclosure, the parapet round 
a palace roof, the gunwale of a ship; Sej. 
Mai., 163, 164. Also birai, Ht. Hg. Tuw, 92. 

lSJ^. birai. See bireh. 

fC^ biri. Hind. I. Biri-biri : sheep. Saperti 

~ "* kelakuwan biri-biri yang amat galak : like 

threatening rams ; Ht. Isk. Dz. Kambing 

biri-biri: a sheep, in contradistinction to a 

goat ; Sh. Jur. Bud., 6. 

II. Penyakit biri-biri : beri-beri. This word 
is, however, only known through the English, 
and only understood in the Settlements. 


[ 142 ] 


fSj^jii bizurai. [Port, vice-rey,] Viceroy. 

. -mj biyas. Blown somewhat out of one's course ; 

^^ borne by stress of weather, tides, or currents, 
to a place above or below the point intended 
to be gained. Tun Talani pun biyas ka-Beru- 
nai: Tun Talani was borne (by stress of 
weather) to Brunei; Sej. Mai., 155. 

Hujan 6. : a shower which is blown past one, 
to one's right or left, — as opposed to a storm 
blown back or dispersed. 

(j**^ biyus. [Pers. {J>j^. .] Loss of consciousness ; 

unconscious ; in a swoon. Ubat i. ; a stupe- 
fying drug; Ht. Ganj. Mara, 7; Ht. Hamz., 
24. Sedar daripada biyus : to come to oneself 
again after unconsciousness ; Ht. Hamz., 55. 


*— «*-«*** 


bisa. I. [Skr. visha.] Venom ; blood poison ; 
venom such as that of a snake, scorpion, 
hornet or bee ; blood poison, as the ipoh on an 
arrow ; the poison from a suppurating wound 
or boil which causes pain in its vicinity. Ular 
minyusor akar buleh-kah hilang bisa-nya : if a 
snake pushes under a creeper will he lose his 
venom ? Does a great man lose his power by 
assuming humility to serve his selfish ends ? 
Prov,, Ht. Abd., 79. Pisau senjata tiyada 
bisa, bisa lagi mulut manusiya : knives and 
weapons are not venomous as the mouth of a 
man can be ; Prov. 

Kebisaan : the existence of venom, poisonous 
or venomous qualities. Maka uleh kebisaan 
jari-nya itu tiyada-lah dapat baginda beradu : 
owing to the pain of blood poison in his 
finger, the King was unable to sleep ; Ht. Gul, 
Bak., II. 

II. (Batavia.) Ability to do anything; = 
buleh. This word is only known in the 
Peninsula through the proverb : alah bisa tdeh 
biyasa : mere knowledge how to do a thing 
cannot compete with practice in doing it ; 
practice is better than theory. 

bisat. (Penang.) 

= tiyada endah. 

Tiyada bisat : not to care ; 

beser. Incontinence, consequent on disease, 
of any urinary or other secretion ; incontinence 
of urine ; spermatorrhoea. 

bising. Incessant chatter ; babbUng, worry- 
ing with continual talk. 

Mimbisinghan : to drive a person distracted 
with chatter, to take (any subject) as a subject 
of chatter; Sh. UL, 32. 

besok and bisok. To-morrow ; v. esok. 

bisek. Whispering, speaking in a low tone of 
voice. Berbisek : to whisper. 

Daun lenggundi di-dalam jerami 
Mart di'petek di-dalam perahu ; 

Apa di'SBmbunyikan kapada kami, 
M^ski berbisek sehaya ptm tahu : 





why are you trying to keep it secret from me ? 
Though you talk in whispers, I will come to 
know; Sh. B. A. M., 5. 

Birbisek'bisek : to carry on a conversation in 
whispers; Sh. Sing. Terb., 44; Ht. Abd., 317. 
BBrkata berbisek-bisek : id.; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 5. 

Bisekkan: to whisper (anything) ; Ht. Abd., 
190; Ht. Bakht., 22. 

bisul. A boil, a superficial abscess ; Muj., 65 ; 
Sh. Pant. Shi., 10. 

J5, lada : a small boil. 

B. mengangkut nanah : a boil coming to a 

B, sebun : a blind boil. 

B, selinap : an eruption of boils. 

jB. siisu kubong : a boil under the armpit. 

B. ttmggal : a large boil. 

besan. The relationship between persons 
whose children have intermarried. Berbesan : 
to establish or enjoy such a relationship. 
Mari4ah kita berbesan, anak-mu akan bini anak- 
ku : come, let us establish a family connection, 
let your child marry my son ; Ht. Hamz., 13. 
Sangat hendak berbesan : very anxious to 
establish a family connection ; Ht. Koris. 
Beruleh besan : to obtain a family connection ; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. 

bisu. Dumbness ; dumb, mute. Di-buwat-nya 
diri bisu tiyada tahu berkata-kata : he pretended 
to be dumb and unable to speak ; Ht. Abd., 
321. Bisu saperti guntor membelah bumi : dumb 
like the noise of thunder crashing through the 
earth ; (by metaphor) the noise made by a 
dumb man trying in vain to speak. 

Sengau 6. : very indistinct utterance ; talking 
through the nose and almost unintelligibly; 
Sej. Mai., 134. 

bisai. Well dressed or got up in every detail ; 
everything appropriate ; consistent excellence 
in appearance. 'Ulamd bisai: the dandified 
old priest ; Sh. UL, 6. Saperti bisai makan sa- 
pinggan : like dandies eating out of the same 
plate; a highly appropriate and successful 
combination ; Prov. 

bisi. [Hind, bishi, (fem.); cf. Skr. visha, 
poisonous, syphilitic] Improper behaviour or 
bearing : immodest ( though not necessarily 
unchaste ) conduct ; a term of abuse applied to 

Bisi chelaka : a wretched strumpet ; Ht. Best. 

Anak iteky anak angsa, 

Bagi padi hendak ka-dedak ; 
Bisi kutok bisi chelaka 

Bagi laki hendak ka-kBndak: 

give rice to ducklings or goslings and they 
will be wanting bran ; give a husband to a 
wretched strumpet and she will be want- 
ing a paramour ; Prov. 

Berbisikan : to accuse of immodesty ; to 
represent (anyone) as unchaste ; Sh. Peng., g. 


[ 143 ] 


(jO-j baidl. Arab. Whiteness, albumen, 


^. bai'. Arab. Trade, traffic ; Majm. al-Ahk., 
12, 21, 40. 


biyang, I. Mother; dam — of animals. B, 
iangan : the thumb. 

II. Lascivious, erotic; sexually excited. 
TirjBrit'jerit bagai kuching biyang : screeching 
Hke a lascivious cat ; Prov., J. S. A. S., III., 
28. Usually giyang and miyang. 

III. Ikan biyang'biyang : a fish (unidenti- 
fied); Sh. Ik. Ten, 7, 12. 

IV. Biyang'biyut : zigzag. Also piyang- 

bengut. Tw^isted, awry. 

ijj bingit. A feeling of ill-defined uneasiness ; a 
sensation of impending illness ; to be out of 
sorts, to be not quite oneself. 

J^ bingar. I. Siputb,: a shell; voluta diadema. 
II. Growling; = bingas, q. v. 

^Jui bingas. Menacing, growling, working itself 
^ up to spring or charge — of a wild animal ; cf. 




bingong. Dullness; confusion of mind; not 
to have one's wits about one, — the converse 
of cherdek ; temporary dullness of intellect, as 
when one is dazed by unexpected occurrences 
and loses one's presence of mind. Bingong 
ta'-dapatdi-ajar, cherdek ta'-dapat di-ikut : in his 
dullness he is not to be taught, in his shrewd- 
ness he is not to be followed; incorrigible 
when dull, and an unsafe guide when shrewd ; 
Prov. Cherdek makan si-bingong : the wise 
devour the dull; the fittest survive; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., III., 34. Bingong saperti budak : 
taken aback like a child; Sh. Dag., 11. 
Bingong tiyada ber^akal : dullness from want 
of intelligence; Sh. Ik. Trub., 5. 

bepa. Chin. 
Also bepang. 

A cake made of rice and sugar. 

biyak. I. Increase of numbers as the result 

of reproduction ; fruitful, prolific — of animals. 
Sakaliyan-nya menjadi biyak : they all multi- 
plied ; Pel. Abd., 93. 

Daun 6., or pokok b, : (Kedah and Perak) a 
plant, mitragyne speciosa. 

Memamah b. : to chew the cud. 

v3v-4 beka. I. Berbeka : to talk over anything ; to 
discuss any subject ; to gossip. Sa-hari-hari 
dtidok berbeka : sitting and gossiping day after 
day; Sh. Pant. ShL, i. Telah stcdah berbeka: 
when they had discussed it ; Ht. Best. 

II. Kuweh beka: a native-made pastry ; = 
kuweh bingka. Also bika, 

III. Pokok beka: (Kedah) a tree, parkia 
roxburghii, Keris buwah 6. : a kerisy the point 
of which is rounded off like a table knife, — so 
called from its resemblance to the lower end 
of the fruit of this tree, elsewhere known as 

^ bikir. [Arab. ^ ] Virginity ; v, ^ . 

iXj bekang, or bikang. A cake; a small pie, 
^ Sej. Mai., 82 ; = bingka and beka, II ? 

biken. [Singapore and Penang.] 
make; = buwat ; Ht. Abd., 346. 

To do ; to 


biku. I. [Pali bhikku,] A mendicant Budd- 
hist priest ; an ascetic. Segala ajar-ajaran biku 
berhamman : all the disciples, mendicants and 
priests; Ht. Sh. ; Ht. Raj. Bdk., 49. Biyar- 
lah iya menjadi biku kesoma sakti: let him 
become a mendicant (in the service) of the 
mighty God of love; Ht. Koris. Biku ber- 
tapa di-nmka pintu : the mendicant is doing 
penance before the gate ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

11. A zigzag pattern; carved with a toothed 
edge like a saw ; cf. bengkok^ ikut, siku, etc. 
Peti h, : a box with a carved edge; Ht. Sh. 

bega. Aiming by pointing a javelin or spear 
at another and swaying it backwards and 
forwards before hurling it ; holding a fighting- 
cock, moving it towards its antagonist and 
then drawing it back by way of exciting it ; 
Ht. Raj. Don., 62. 

Buwah rembega di-bawah dtdang 
Rama rama terbang ka-Jawa; 

Adek membega, abang membtdang, 
Sama-mma membuwang nyawa : 

the younger holds the bird, the elder fastens 
the spurs on it, and together they risk their 

Bega is also used of holding an animal's 
throat to the knife. 

v«a5w begap. Robust ; firm set ; strongly built ; KI. 

rSco begak. Foppish; dressed up to the nines. 
Membegak : to play the dandy or dude. 


[ 144 ] 





begal. Highway robbery, 
commit highway robbery 
way robber. 

M^mbegal : to 
P^mbegal : a high- 

bela. Atonement by blood; blood-offering; 
sacrifice (especially suicide) by way of pro- 
pitiation or revenge; suttee. Kalau orang 
membunoh hamba raja tujoh orang akan beta- 
nya : if a man kills a retainer of the prince, 
seven lives are taken in return ; Pel. Abd., 22. 
Jangan-lah tuwan mengikut bela karena tiyada 
*ddat orang p^rawan bela: do not commit 
suttee; it is not customary for maidens to 
sacrifice themselves in that way; Ht. Sh. 

Bela suduk : (in Bali) suttee by the kBris, B. 
keterjunan : suttee by merely burning without 

Membeldi : to follow to the grave by self- 
immolation. MahU'kah ttiwan membelat kima- 
tiyan kakanda : do you wish to follow your 
lover in death; Ht. Perb, Wij. 

^ bila. I. Time; a period of time. Apa b, : 
at what time; when (interrogative). 

Barang 6. : at whatever time ; whenever. 

Bila-bila : the times when ; the dates of; Ht. 
Abd., 880. 

Bila-kala : when ; at the time at which ; Ht. 
Ind. Jaya. 

Bila-mana : whenever ; Ht. Zaly., 52. 

n. Orang 6. : the name of an aboriginal 
tribe of the Malay Peninsula; Ht. Mar. Mah. 
Also wila. 

C-JUi belut. Desertion to the enemy. Hamba ada 
belut dart dalam kota : I am working in your 
interests from within the fort (in a traitor's 
letter to the enemy) ; Sej. Mai., 84, 

Takut kapitan China itu belut : fear lest the 
headman of the Chinese should go over to 
the enemy ; Pel. Abd., 64. 

Keris 6. : a bent crooked keris, 
Cf. belok, 

Jui bUar. The infirmity of a man who cannot 
"^^ see things as well if ahead of him as by a 
sidelong glance ; a form of bad sight. 

JLi bilor. A blue streak or stripe on the flesh; 
a weal ; the result of a blow from a rattan ; 
Ht. Abd., 24. 

(j**Lj bilas. I. A sort of second washing; washing 
in fresh or scented water after a thorough 
bath in inferior water. Sa4Blah sudah bBrsiram 
maka di-bilas-nya pula dengan ayer mawar : 
when he had washed himself, he bathed him- 
self afresh in rose water ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 


bilk, n., q. V. 

jjJLj bills. I. Ikan bilis, A fish (unidentified). 

II. Blear-eyed; watery-eyed; a running in 
the eyes. 

IIL To take up a good position in a game ; 
to find a good foothold for striking at a ball. 



IV. Rtimput bilis jantan : a sedge, cypertis 

bilang. Reckoning; numbering; telling; enu- 
meration ; recounting. Bintang di-langit dapat 
di-bilang: they can number the stars in the 
sky; Marsd. Gr., 211, 

Sa-bilang : each, every. Sa-bilang hart : every 
day; Sh. Abd. Mk., 71; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 2. 
Sa-bilang tnalani : every night ; Sh. Kumb. 
Chumb., II. Sa-bilang nimah : every house; 
Ht. Sh. Sa-bilang wakUi : all times; always. 

Bilangan : (x) enumeration, method of reckon- 
ing (Ht. Abd., 384) ; (2) a complete period or 
term ; the allotted span of life. Also, ajal 
bilangan, Belum sampai kapada bilangan-nya 
akan mati : the fated term had not yet been 
arrived at for his death; Ht. Sg. Samb. Yang 
bilangan : one who must be reckoned with ; a 
person of importance ; = terbilang, Ht. Sh. 

Bilangi : to make a count ; to hold a census ; 
to work out a total ; to number ; Ht. Sh. 
Membilangi : id. 

Bilangkan : to take account of; to consider; 
Ht. Abd. Mefnbilangkan : id. Tiyada mem- 
bilangkan lawan-nya : (literally) to take no 
account of enemies ; recklessness ; a spirit of 
recklessness; Ht. Sg. Samb; Cr. Gr., 78. 

Membilang : to count ; to enumerate ; to 

Membilang-bilang : to keep continually count- 
ing, as a devotee fumbles the beads of his 
rosary or as an astrologer keeps working out 
his calculations; Ht. Gul. Bak., 3. 

Perbilangan : enumeration; Ht. Raj. Sul., 25. 

Terbilang : famous ; of account ; well known ; 
Ht. Abd., 47, 52, 153. 

JLi belak. To open out folds or creases, to hold 

them open — so that they would close again if 
the hold was removed — as distinct from 
smoothing them out. 

^ belek. The close ocular examination of any- 
thing held in the hand near the eye — as a 
watchmaker looks at the works of a watch. 
Cf. tilek, which refers to careful survey from 
a greater distance. 

Belek-belek lihat: to look carefully at any- 
thing; Ht.Abd., 137. 


[ 145 ] 



belok. To luff, luffing up ; (by metaphor) to 

turn, to go off in another direction, (some- 
times) to desert. Di-belokkan perahu-nya : they 
luffed up; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 4. Belokkan kapal 
itu ka-kiri : turn the vessel to the left ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz. 

Kalau belay ar jangan berbelok, 
Kalau berbelok patah tiyang-nya; 

Orang muda jangan di-pelok, 

Kalau di'pelok patah pinggang-nya: 

when you sail do not go luffing up, if you 
luff up the mast may give way; if she is young 
do not embrace her, if you embrace her her 
waist may give way. 

Bagaimana tidak ku belok , 

Batu berendam sa-bilah kiri ; 
Bagaimana tidak-ku pBlok, 

Sudah'ku dendam sa-lama ini : 

how can I avoid luffing when a sunken rock 
lies there on my left ; how can I help embrac- 
ing her when I have been pining for her for 
so long. 
Belok is used of a boat or native perahu luff- 
ing; the word in use among lascars is gos. 
To give a boat way is ttirut. To desert is 
properly belut, but belok is used in the Sh. Raj. 
Haji, the two words being probably connected. 

bilak. A tree, cegle 7narmelos, 

bilek. A chamber; a room. Bilek duwa 

buwah: two rooms; Ht. Mash., 49. Bilek 
p^raduwan; abed-room; Ht. Gul. Bak,, 106. 
Piiteri duwa sa-bilek : two princesses in a 
room ; a descriptive equivalent for tepong 
bungkuSy a Malay cake. 

belen. A wooden roller used in making 
pastry. Cf. chanai, 

bilau. KachaU'bilau: topsy-turvy, higgledy- 
piggledy; an intensitive of kachau, q. v. Also 
kachau birau. 

aJUi beloh. (Riau.) Stupid; = bodoh, 

^^, bilah. A thin strip of bamboo ; a large splint ; 
a descriptive prefix or numeral coefficient of 
narrow blade-like objects such as knives, ^ 
chisels, 2 swords, 3 daggers, 4 hatchets, 5 
needles, ^ teeth, 7 etc. 

bllai. A weal ; usually bilor, q. v. 

bima. [Skr. bhima,] Sang-Bima: Bhima, 
the name of one of the Pandawas or heroes 
of the Mahabharata; the brother of Arjuna 
and Darmawangsa; the Sanskrit Hercules; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. Bima sakti : the Milky Way ; Cr. 

1 Ht. Abd., 300, 308; 2 Ht Mash., 49; 3 Ht. Abd., 106, 
397 ; 4 Ht. Abd.. 396; 5 Ht. Gul. Bafc.. 90 ; 6 Sej. Mai., 19 ; 
7 Sh. Ch. Bir., 4. 




bena or bina. [Pers. behina : best,] Membena- 
kan: to care or trouble oneself about any- 
thing; to take to hediVt ;=endahkan. See (j^yi . 
Tiyada betapa bena kapadaku : it is of no im- 
portance to me ; Ht. Sri Rama. Tiyada iya 
perbena kata tuwan puteri : he paid no attention 
to the princess's words; Ht. Sri Rama. 
Rindu-ku sangat terlalu bena : my longing was 
very intense ; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 12. 

Bunga chempaka jembangan china, 
Mart di'bungkus dengan kartds ; 
Sunggoh inwan bina ta'-bina, 
Tuwan di-hati hardm ta'4epas : 
whether you care or whether you do not care, 
your image can never leave my heart; Sh. 
Pant. Shi., 3. 

bini. Wife — less respectful than istSri. Anak 
bini: children and wife; wife and family; 

Berbini : to be possessed of a wife ; to be 
married — of a man. 

Apa guna berbini chantek 

Kalau tidak dengan budi-nya : 
of what use is it to have a pretty wife if there 
is no virtue in her? Ht. Abd., 97. 'AbduHkadir 
itu ada berbini : Abdulkader was married. 

Berbinikan : to be married to. Bh'binikan 
bidadari : to be married to a nymph of heaven ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. Berbinikan anak perdana 
munteri : to marry a daughter of the Prime 
Minister ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 84. 

beyo. [Batav.] A kind of bird with certain 
limited powers of speech ; gracula religiosa; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. In Peninsular Malay: tiyong, 

bewak. ( Kedah. ) The monitor lizard ; = 
(Riau, Johor) biyawaky q. v. 

biyuku. A species of tortoise; J- S. A. S., 
viii., 120, 130. Mata b, : (by metaphor) long- 
ing loving looks, sheep's eyes. 

biyola. [Port, viola.] A viol, a violin, a 
fiddle; Ht. Abd., 293, 462. 
Apa lauk nasi rendam? 
Sayor petola dinihari, 
Apa-lah ubat hati yang dendam ? 
Gesek biyola tarekkan nyanyi : 
what is the cure for despairing love? The 
music of the viol and the notes of a song ; 
Prov., Ht. Gh, 
Haluwan kepala biyola : fiddle-bows in a ship. 

behaush or bihaush. Pers. Unconscious; 
in a swoon. 

Ubat b. : a stupefying drug. Usually biyuSy 
q. V. 

^,,.^ benyut. See bengut. 
^Iw benyek. Soft by overboiling, of rice. 
^ benyai. See bennyai. 



[ 146 ] 


vi* The letter id: the alphabetical symbol for 
the number 400 in the Abjad, q. v. 

J ta. A negative prefix; v. td L 

\3 ta. I. Also ta\ a particle expressive of nega- 
tion ; no, not (when used in combination with 
other words. Cf. tidak. 

Mahu ta'-mahu : willy-nilly. 

Ta'-usah : there is no need ; it is unnecessary. 

Ta' 'dapat'tiyada, or tadapatiyada : there is no 
alternative ; it is unavoidable ; must. 

Ta is often used as an inseparable negative 
prefix ; V. o . 

II. The name of the letter Cj . 

zJ<^ tabut. [Arab, oy t .] The Ark of the Cove- 
nant; a Kling idol; see wJ>y.\j 

j*y tabir. Wall hangings ; curtains hung against 
a wall for ornamental purposes; Sej. Mai., gi, 
96; Sh. Sri Bun., 15; Sh, Ul., 30; Ht. 
Abd., 177, etc. 


tabor. I. The act of distributing or spread- 
ing small particles or objects over a surface ; 
scattered, as seed when sown on the ground, 
(Muj., gi), or as flowers cast upon a passing 
hero, (Ht. Sg. Samb.), or as the stars are 
scattered over the sky, (Ht. Abd., 295), 
Tabor bijan ka4asek : to sow sesamum seed on 
a lake ; to waste sweetness on the desert air ; 
Prov. Naik kuda tabor bunga : to mount and 
horse and scatter flowers ; to scrape a coco- 
nut (kukor nyior), 

Tanah puteh bench hitamy 
Tabor dengan tangan, 
Kutib dengan mulut : 

on a white ground, using black seed, to sow 
with the hand and to harvest with the mouth ; 
to write a letter. 

Taborkan : to have anything scattered ; to 
scatter. Menaborkan : id. 

Menabor :, to scatter ; to perform the act of 
scattering ; to sow. 

Bertaboran: scattered, spread over. Da- 
gangan bertaboran di4mgah jalan : goods were 
scattered in the middle of the road; Ht. 
Abd., 115, 

Temabor : scattered, dispersed. Bintang 
timabor : a constellation ; the Milky Way. 

Cf. hambor^ chamor, etc. 







IT The name of a square-sail ; the second 
sail (measuring from the top of the mast) ; 
the sail under the top-gallant sail. Bara 
tabor : this sail, if on the mainmast of a full- 
rigged ship. Tabor dot : this sail, if on the 
foremast. Kelemi tabor : this sail, if on the 

tabong. I. A vessel made out of a single 
joint of bamboo and used for carrying water 
or any other liquid ; a carved cup of bamboo. 

11. Tabong biinga : a shrub, ixora pendula. 

tabak. [Arab. z,\^ .] A box, a casket ( Ht. 

Ind. Jaya; Ht. Sri Rama; Ht. Koris; Ht. 
Sh. Kub. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 67, etc.) ; the name 
given to presents of food given to departing 
guests at a wedding or funeral feast when the 
host is a raja. Cf. berkat, q. v. 

tabek. Greeting, salutation. Memberi tabek : 

to greet, to courteously salute or recognize. 
Minta tabek : to respectfully excuse oneself, to 
apologize in advance for any offence that may 
be committed in ignorance, or for any un- 
intentional breach of etiquette. 

j-jb tabok. 

Ikan tabok : a fish (unidentified). 

^y tabal. I. A native game, something like the 
English game of draughts. 

II. [Arab. AjUd •] A kettledrum used at 

coronations and other great state ceremonies ; 
V. J.\i,. 

^y\^ tabail. I. A tree yielding a variety of gutta, 
dichopsts gutta, 

T. merah : id. Getah t, : gutta percha. 

11. Tempayan taban : a large jar for storing 
drinking water for household use. 

u tabun 

Menahm ; 
smoke: Kl. 

to rise in columns, of 

t&bftt. Arab. The Ark of the Covenant ; 
(Penang only) a Hindu image or processional 
emblem, == (Singapore) kudu* Bagai tdbut 
keling; di-luwar kilat, di-dalam bSrongga : Hke 
a KHng idol, shining without but empty inside ; 
a whited sepulchre ; all is not gold that glit- 
ters; Prov, 


[ 147 ] 


Aju tabah. I. A hand's breadth — used as a 
linear measure. T. empat jari ; the hand's 
breadth minus the thumb. 

Cf. tempap, telempap, and pelhnpap, 

II. Firm, steadfast ; Kl. 

III. (Sungei Ujong.) A small tree, ^two- 
nitis jambosella. 

A^v taboh. I. A long cylindrical drum, so 
placed that both ends can be beaten simul- 
taneously, Ht. Raj. SuL, 11; the act of 
drumming with a stick on each side of the 
drum. Tabohkan : to beat (a drum); Ht. 

II, Tahuhan or tabohan : a hornet. Pasir 
itii-pun menjadi taboh-tabohan : the sand was 
turned into hornets ; Ht. Sh. Kub. The 
same form occurs in the Sh. Panj. Sg., Ht. 
Ahm. Md., 61, and Ht. Koris, but tebtiwan is 

more usual in colloquial language; v. ^ t. | 

III. Ken tabohan: the name of the heroine ! 
of the Shair Ken Tabohan or Shair Raden I 
Munteri, a poem based upon a Panji Tale 
The forms tabuhan and tambohan also occur. 

-X^iVl ta'abid. Arab. Eternal, 
perpetual ; eternity. 

At-td'abtd: the 

ijb tatang. The act of carrying or supporting 
^ anything on the upturned palm of one's hand 
or on any similar flat or slightly concave sur- 
face. Tatang di-anak lidah : carrying on the 
tongue ; a practical impossibility ; Prov. 

Menatang : to carry or support in this way. 
Saperti menatang minyak yang penoh : like 
carrying a palm-full of oil (a process neces- 
sitating great care to avoid loss by spilling ) ; 
a proverbial description of assiduous attention 
paid by a husband to a wife ; Ht. Abd., 18 ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb.; Ht. Koris; Sh, Abd. Mk.,22, 
etc. Di-tatang permaisuri siyang dan malam: 
he watched over his Queen day and night ; 
Ht. Best., 18. 

VJu tataL A shaving ; the long paper-like strips 
of wood removed by a plane. T. halus : id. 
Sa-keping t, : a single shaving; Sej. Mai., 52. 

^ V tatu. Jav. Wounding ; a flesh-wound, espe- 
cially on the head. 

4.1u tatah. [Jav, tatah=M3lay pahat.] The pro- 
cess of sinking foreign bodies into any sub- 
stance ; inlaying (on metal) ; sticking almonds 
into a cake, or raisins into a heap of rice. 
Bertatah or betatahkan : inlaid. Best bertatah- 
kan emas permata : iron inlaid with gold and 
gems, Sej. MaL, 25. Cf. also Sej. Mai., g, 10; 
Ht. Koris; Cr. Gr., 42; Ht. Gul. Bak., 40, 
41 ; Sh. Pant. ShL, 13, etc. 

*^ V tateh. Tottering ; weakness of gait ; the 
stumbling walk of a very young child. Ber- 
jalan dengan bertateh4ateh : to walk imsteadily, 
as a child ; to toddle along. 

T'u taj. Arab. Crown. 
^ Diadem of Emperors, 

Tdjti's-saldtin : the 
the name of a Malay 
book, also known as the Mahkota Segala Raja- 
raja. Tdjii H-ninluk : the Diadem of Kings, 
the name given to a book on Divination, 
Medicine, and other kindred subjects. 

j5»-b tajor. Extension in horizontal direction and 
conical shape ; stretching out as a long reef 
which tapers away to a point, or as two long 
lines of fishing-stakes which converge towards 
the trap. 

Penajor : converging rows of fishing-stakes ; 
a row of fishing-stakes if forming one of a 
pair arranged on the principle of a funnel. Cf. 
anjor, tanjong, taj ok, etc. 

i>.\3 tajang. Forcing down the foot or heel ; 
O stamping (but not a mere stamp of anger or 

vexation) ; better terajang, q. v. 

ijb tateng. The act of carrying or supporting 
C anything at the end of the outstretched arm. 

i>.\3 tajong. A silk cloth of Bugis make ; KL(=to'« 
^' Jong ?) 

;\5 tatap. I. Careful visual examination ; the ! 
act of looking over anything with a view to | 
finding flaws or deficiencies, if any ; watching, | 
looking out. 1 

Bertatap or menatap : to watch, to gaze atten- | 
tively at anything, to keep a look-out. Seha- \ 
ya lihat orang di-atas kubu itn bertatap : I saw 
men on the look-out on the fort ; Pel. Abd., 
56. Tempat menatap : a watch-tower ; Sh. 
Sri Bun., 84. 

11. (Kedah,) Menatap: to intone a story 
usually to the accompaniment of a musical 
instrument as is done by Malay rhapsodists. 
Penatap : a professional reader of stories. 

a>-\!j tajak. A long sharp scythe used for clearing 
the ground of weeds prior to />ai^'-planting; 
the process of cutting away the weeds. 

T. babor : a very heavy broad-bladed scythe. 

T. giling, t, kechar, and t, kaut : three differ- 
ent processes of preparing land for padi- 
planting in Kedah. In the first, the grass is 
left on the ground and is mixed up with the 
earth by passing a sort of roller {pHggiling) 
over it. In the second, the grass is collected 
in heaps and allowed to rot. In the third, 
the grass is spread on the dyke or baias round 
the field. 


[ 148 ] 






tajok. Anything sticking up ; anything of the 

nature or appearance of an aigrette ; a tuft of 
flowers contained in a sheath which is fixed 
in the head-dress. Sunggoh-nya tajok itu di 
dastar juga tempat-nya : surely the turban is 
the proper place for the aigrette; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 133. 

T. mahkota : the aigrette or apex of a crown, 
a term of endearment, " brightest jewel in my 
crown " ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 13. Cf. also Sh. 
Bur. Nuri, 29. 

T. perahu : sticks something like elongated 
thole-pins stuck in the sides of a Malay boat 
and used for many purposes, e. g, to support 
a native awning or a temporary bulwark or 
freeboard (mbing) ; the prop of a thole-pin, 

Kong t. : a thole-pin proper. 

Tali t. : the strap of the thole. 

Cf. tajor, fanjongy anjor^ etc. 

tajam. I. Sharp, as a bladed or pointed in- 
strument; mentally acute; sharp as the tongue 
or intellect. ' Akal-nya tajam: his intellect 
was acute ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 97. Keris lembmg 
tiyada tajam, tajam lagi lidah manmiya : daggers 
and spears are not sharp when compared to 
the sharpness of the tongue ; Prov. Ada-kah 
duri di-pertajam : does one sharpen thorns ? 
Does one gild refined gold ? Prov., Ht. Ahm. 
Md., 40. 

Tajamkan : to have (anything) sharpened ; 
Ht. Abd., 312. 

Maha4ajam : extremely sharp, very sharp. 

Menajam : to sharpen ; Sh. Sri Bun., 9. 

II. Tajam molek: a plant, haccaiirea brevipes. 

OPr^ tajin. Starch ; Muj., 47. 

tajau. A large earthenware jar with a narrow 
mouth. M^ssa-^'^i*: a jar of gold; Ht. Ism. 
Yat., 102. 

taji. The artificial spur of a fighting-cock. 
Taji di'bentok : the curved artificial spur-blade, 
a favourite simile for a beautiful eye-brow; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 122. Taji 
golok : a straight spur. Mimbulang taji : to 
fasten on the spurs of a fighting-cock; Sh. 
Lail. Mejn., 25. 

In the Hikdyat Indra J ay a this word is also 
used of the spur of a walimana, 

tada. A common contraction for tiyada, q. v. 

tadong. Stumbling against anything ; knock- 
ing the foot against anything. 

tadah. The act of intercepting the fall of 
anything; to catch (e.g., the f;dling rain) in 
an open vessel of any sort; to stretch out 
one's arms to catch a descending object. 



T, ayer pinang : intercepting the fall of betel- 
juice — an expression used to describe teeth 
that curve outwards at the point; Ht. Sg. 

T. embun : intercepting the falling dew — a 
name given to the top row of a comb of 
bananas and also to the loftiest portion of a 

Tadahkan tangan : to raise one's hands in 
supplication; Sh. Ul., 15. Minadahkan 
tangan: id,; Ht. Abd., 211, 448; Muj., 41; 
Sh. Sg. Kanch., g. Kechil tapak tangan nyiru 
di-tadahkan : his hand proving too small to 
catch it (the falling rain), he uses a tray; he 
tries to get as much as he can; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
II., 149. 

Bertadah tangan : with hands turned up to 
heaven — descriptive of the suppliant to God ; 
Ht. Abus., 21. 

Menadah : to intercept (a falling object). 

M. akan ayer hujan : to catch falling rain. 

tadi. Lately; just a moment ago; imme- 
diately precedent or past — of an occurrence. 

Beharu tadi : a moment ago. Sa-malam tadi : 
only last night; Ht. Gul. Bak,, 113. Pada 
malam tadi : id. ; Ht. Bakht., 73. 

Ttiwan-tuwan yang tersebut nama-nama-nya 
di-atas tadi : the gentlemen whose names have 
been just above mentioned ; Ht. Abd., 47. 

Also tehadi. 

tara. I . Equality of altitude ; evenness, giving 
a level surface ; ( by metaphor ) equality of 

Sa4ara : on a level with, on an equality with. 
Dudok sa-tara Seri Nara diraja : to sit (in the 
hall of audience) on a level with Sri Nara 
Diraja (a high officer of state) ; Sej. Mai., 112. 
Chinchin intan duwa sa4ara : a ring set with 
two diamonds which match each other; 
Sh. Peng., 3. 

Tiyada tara-nya : matchless, unequalled, peer- 
less — especially of beauty in romance ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz. ; Sej. Mai., 6. Tiyada bertara : id. ; 
Sej. Mai., 40, 139; Sh. Put. Ak., 28. Tiyada 
tara banding-nya : id, ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 10. 
Tiyada banding tara-nya : id. ; Bint. Tim., 
13 March, 1895. Tiyada dapat di4arakan : 
id. ; Ht. Koris. 

Phiara bukit : the ridge of a hill ; the level or 
comparatively level crown of a range of hills. 

IL Jav. Clear, visible ; v.kUara, 

III. Tara para: soot; Muj., 86; usually 
arang para. 

|U talis. Fastening ; = ikat, MSnaris : to fasten. 
Di4aris dengan benang : fastened with thread ; 
Muj., 94. 



tamng. Nest (used of birds 
rangan : a fowl's laying-place. 

only). Pato- 
Cf. sarang. 


[ 149 ] 







taring. That portion of the tusk of an ani- 
mal (other than an elephant) which is visible 
by its projection out of the mouth — as distinct 
from the entire tusk (siyong^ q, v.) ; visible 
tusks, as distinct from mere long teeth ; tusks 
on the lower jaw. 

Di'chuchok hidong dengan taring-nya ; he (the 
boar) pierced the (lion's) nose with his tusks ; 
Sh. Sg. Ranch., 22. Taring-nya daripada 
khirsani : his tusks were of Khorasan iron ; Ht. 
Sh. Kub. Panjang siyongtampak taring: with 
long canines appearing like tusks. Jadi-lah 
sa~ekor babi tunggal terlalu besar panjang-lah 
maka iya bertaring duwa bersiyongan : he became 
a lone boar of great size and length, tusked 
with two long canine teeth ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 
Taring and siyong are often used indiscrimin- 
ately ; V. siyong, 

T, pelandok : a plant, diospyros hirusta, 

Gigi t. : the canine teeth. Also gigi siyong 
and gigi asu, 

Misai bertaring: a moustache curled up 
ferociously on each side. 

Misai bertaring bagai penglima^ 
Sa-bulan sa-kali ta^ -bunch orang : 

his moustache curls up like that of a chieftain, 
but not once in a month does he ever kill a 
man ; fierce-looking but harmless ; Prov. 

tarong. (Onom.) Resounding deep ; reson- 
ance ; the sound of thunder or of many bands. 
Tarong menarong bimyi gemUan : the sound 
of the gamelan was heard booming (in the 
distance); Sh. Panj. Sg. 

tarek. The act of drawing towards oneself, 
or of pulling anything after oneself. Tarek 
muka duwa belas : to pull a long face. 

Menarek: to draw, to pull, to draw in. Men- 
arek napas panjang : to draw in a long breath ; 
to sigh. M, nyanyi : to prolong a note ; to 

Menarekkan : to cause a thing to be drawn 
towards oneself, i,e, to attract. M. kebajikan 
atau menolakkan kejahatan : to attract good or 
ward off evil; Muj., 3. 

Penarek : a drawer, a puller. Kuda penarek 
rata itu : the horse that draws that chariot ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

tarok. Young sprouts, young shoots of any- 
thing. Tarok anggor : vine shoots ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. Memakan tarok kayu : to live on young 
shoots — as an outcast of the jungle ; Ht. Abd., 
201. Telinga saperti tarok angsoka : an ear like 
the young shoot of the angsoka — a mark of 
beauty; Sh. Ik. Trub., 2. Dan tarok sigala 
hayu'kayuwan yang muda muda itu-pun terlam- 
pai saperti orang mingUu-ngelukan Sang Samba 
laku-nya: the young shoots on the trees swayed 
downwards as though they were people wel- 
coming Sang Samba ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 


>jb taram. Gloomy, of a night when there is a 
moon but when the sky is overcast ; gloom as 
opposed to deep darkness ; obscured, of the 
light of the moon and stars. Taram temaram : 
id. ; also tlrang thnaram and th'ang temarang, 

pvJ tarum. The indigo plant {indigofera tinctoria, 
L.). T, daun halus Rnd t. daun lebar : varie- 
ties of this plant. 

A kar t, : a climbing plant {marsdenia tincio- 
ria, Br.). 

Harimau t. : a large black panther. 

Rusat. : a deer, when darker than usual. 

Ular t. : an edible snake (unidentified). 

I v! tarn. (Onom ?) Bertaru : to sound, of the 
nafirt ; Ht. Best. Cf. tarong. 

OjVj tarah. Rough-hewing ; chopping a log or any 
other block into a rough semblance of what is 
intended to be its final shape, Bukan papan 
hendak tarah : it is not a plank to be rough 
hewn, a proverbial equivalent for the expres- 
sion bukan makan muntahkan darah : it is not 
eating, it is over-eating. 

Menarah : to rough-hew. Maka di-titahkan 
uleh baginda pandai itu mhiarah rambut budak 
itu : the king ordered the carpenter to hew off 
the hair of the boy (as an exhibition of his 
skill) ; Sej. Mai., 53. 

o^u taroh. Retaining in one's possession ; depo- 
siting, receiving, keeping, or setting down in 
a place of safety ; harbouring ; staking, stakes 
in gambling. Di-taroh-nya akandiya di-dalam 
istana : he kept him as an inmate of the 
palace. Membesarkan taroh-nya : to increase 
one's stakes ; Ht. Koris. 

Bertaroh: having stakes on deposit; to stake. 
Mari-lah kita bMaroh^ siapa alah ambil subang- 
nya : come, let us stake ; let the earrings of 
the loser be taken in forfeit; Ht. Ism. Yat., 


Tarohkan : to put aside a thing for a certain 
purpose ; to keep a thing anywhere. Menarah* 
kan: id.; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Menaroh : to preserve, keep, entertain, or 
retain ; to harbour feelings of rancour or 
affection. M, perahu: to keep a boat. M. 
e^npat orang mata-mata : to have four police- 
men in one's service. M. kasihan : to enter- 
tain sentiments of pity ; to be merciful. M. 
dhigki : to bear a grudge. M. rahasiya : to 
keep a secret. Tempat menaroh arak : a place 
for keeping spirits. 

Petaroh: an object entrusted to a person 
to keep ; any duty or commission confided to 
him ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 44, 136 ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 
Penarohan : id. ; Sh. Put. Ak., 19 ; Ht. Si 
Misk., 80. Petarohan: stakes in gambling; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 13, 23. 

Petarohkan : to entrust, to confide ; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya; — especially in the expression petaroh- 
kan diri : to entrust one's fortunes to another's 
keeping ; to put oneself into another person^s 
hands; Sh. Abd. Mk., 41. PBnarohkan: id.; 
Ht. Koris. 


[ 150 ] 













tari. Dancing — often used generically, but 
sometimes confined to dancing by men only, 
especially at the berhinai feasts, and some- 
times to dancing in the sense of swaying the 
arms and not to dancing by leaping about on 
one's feet (to which the term tandak is ap- 
plied) ; cf. joget, ronggeng, gamboh, tandak, and 
topeng. Bagaimana bunyi gendang bagiiU'lah 
iari-nya : as the drumming goes, so goes the 
dancing ; as a man sows so shall he reap ; 

Mhnbuwang tari : to dance with abandon. 

Menari : to dance. Tart menari ; 
and collective dancing. 


Tdrikh masthi : 
Sahingga kapada 
up to the date of 

tarikh. Arab. Date, era. 
the Christian era; A.D. 
tdrikh penghabisan kitdb ini : 
the completion of this book. 

Bertdrikh : dated. 

Tdrikhkan : to write the annals of ; Ht. Z^Xy.y 

Mentdrikhkan : to date ; Majm. al-Ahk., 414. 

tasak. A drug for stopping bleeding; the 

process of stopping bleeding. Menasak : to 
stop bleeding ; Phys., 37. 

tasek, A lake, a mere — but probably original- 
ly the sea, and still used with that meaning in 
the expression pusat tasek : the navel, or centre 
of the ocean (Ht. Raj. t)on., 31), and possibly 
in the proverb menabor bijan ka-tasek : to sow 
sesamum on the sea (or lake) ; to cast pearls 
before swine. Tasek htjati tempai datok-nya : 
his (the dragon's) ancestors came from the 
Green Ocean; Ht. Pg. Ptg. Ada sa-buwah 
tasek terlahi Uiwas saperti laiit rupa-nya : there 
was a lake of great size, looking like the sea ; 
Sej. MaL, 25. 

Tasek'tasek : a plant, adenosma capitatnm. 
>v tasai. (Malacca.) A tree, cupania lessertiana. 

i\- tangir. A tree (unidentified) ; K\.{=:tengar?) 

tangas. The process of forcing perspiration 
by the use of a vapour or hot air bath ; fumi- 
gation, steaming, heating; Muj., 59. 

tangis. Weeping, crying. Ratap dan tangis 
dan dukachita : lamentation, weeping and 

Tangisi : to weep ; to shed tears. Menangis : 

Tangiskan and menangiskan : to weep for 
(anyone), to mourn for (anyone) with tears, 

Kasehkan anak tangts4angiskan ; 
Kasehkan bint tinggal-tinggalkan : 

to love one's children one must sometimes 
weep for them ; to love one's wife one must 
leave her now and then ; Prov,, J. S. A. S., 

n., 153- 



BirtangiS'tangisan : mutual and continuous 
weeping ; the general shedding of tears ; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 99, 120 ; Sh. Sri Bun., 90. 

PimBnangis : a weeper, a mourner ; Cr. Gr., 

Minyak tangis dtiyong : the tears of the dugong, 
a liquid obtained or believed to be obtained 
from the eyes of the dugong and to work as a 
very potent charm; Sh. Panj. Sg., 422. 

Tulang rimau menangis : the manubrium. 

tangan. The hand ; the cushion of the hand 
at the base of the thumb ; the forearm and 
hand ; the fore-foot of an animal ; the handle 
of certain instruments; a sleeve; (by meta- 
phor) possession. 

Tiyada-kah gajah yang bagitn besar dapat ka- 
tangan manusiya : does not even so huge an 
animal as the elephant fall into the hands of 
men ? Prov. Saperti ayer basoh t, : ( as 
common) as water for washing the hands ; a 
metahpor for abundance ; Ht. Abd., 406. 

T. bajn : the sleeve of a coat. 

T. keniudi : the handle of a rudder. 

T. terbuka : openhandedness, generosity. 

Bekas t, : handiwork, sign manual. 

Belakang t, : the back of the hand. 

Berpegang t, : with joined hands ; hand-in- 

Bibir t. : the side of the hand, the further 
side from the thumb. Also tembiring t, 

Gergaji t, : a small hand-saw. 

Hati t. : the hollow at the centre of the palm 
of the hand, the palm generally. 

Ibu t, : the thumb. 

Jantong t. : the triceps : 
the fore-arm. 

the fleshy portion of 

Kaki t, : feet and hands, hands and feet. 
Membasoh kaki t, : to wash one's hands and 
feet with — used of anything which we can do 
what we please with ; Ht. Abd., 397. Terikat 
kaki t, : bound hand and foot, tied up ; (by 
metaphor) allowed very little liberty, as the 
wife of a jealous husband. 

Keduwa belah t, : both hands. 

Pergelang t, or penggelang t, : the arm at the 

Retak t, : the lines on the hand. 

Sapu t, : a kerchief, a scarf. 

Tanda t, : signature. Surat tanda t, : a signed 
document, a bond. 

Tapak t. : the palm ; the upper portion of 
the palm near the fingers ; a signature. 

Tembiring t, : the side of the hand ; = bibir t, 

Tembukii t. : the hard bony projection at 
the wrist. 

Tumit t, : the centre at the base of the palm 
of the hand; the part of the hand immediately 
above the centre of the wrist. 


[ 151 ] 


Ajib t&fatah. Pers. Taffeta; KL 

^^ tapa. I. Ascetic devotion; the lonely and 
severe physical penance and mental concen- 
tration practised by Hindu ascetics to win 
supernatural power. TMalu keras tapa-nya: 
the austerities undergone by him were exceed- 
ingly severe ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Sa4ahun sa-kali 
bongkar dart dalam tapa-nya : once a year only 
did he suspend his austerities; Ht. Ind. Meng. 
Berbuwat t, : to practise penance ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 305. Bertapa: id,, Ht. Jay. Lengg. ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb., etc. 

Pertapa: austere, ascetic; Ht. Sg. Samb. 
Baginda pun menjadi fakir sangat pertapa ha- 
pada Allah : the king became a mendicant and 
an extreme ascetic in the sight of God ; Ht. 
Raj. Sul., 13. 

Pertapaan : the practice of asceticism ; the 
penance undergone; Ht. Gul. Bak., 68; Ht. 
Sg. Samb., etc. 

n. Ikan tapa: a fish (unidentified); also 
tapah, q. v. 

HI. Tapa-tapa : pieces of fish dried and 
salted in the sun. 


i\} tapis. I. Filtration; the process of passing 
a liquid through a cloth or other medium for 
removing particles of matter; Muj., 63. 

n. (Johor.) A kind of tree; the Ceylon 
iron-wood, mesiia ferrea, 

ni. Warding off; = tepis, q. v. 

43 u tapang, I. A tree, artocarpus gomeziana ; 
^ also known as tampang, q. v. 

n. (Ked^ih.) Winding coloured ribbons 
round a garment (especially the wedding 
garments of a bride) so as to give a great 
variety to the pattern ; a form of adornment. 

^V; tapong. (Bugis.) Baju t, : a long close-fitting 
^^ baju worn on state occasions. 

^jJu tapak. The palm (of the hand) ; the sole (of 
the foot). Bekas tapak gajah : an elephant's 
footprints; Ht. Ind. Nata, 35. Sudah ter- 
kachakkan benang arang hitam-lah tapak : you 
cannot tread on a carpenter's line (drawn 
with a piece of charcoal) without getting the 
sole of your foot black; you cannot touch 
pitch without being defiled ; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
II., 145. Sa4apak pun abang tiyada undor : 
I will not retreat one single step ; Ht. Ind. 

T. babi : = t, lenian, q. v. 

r. burong : a name given to some kinds of 
weeds, e, g,, aneilema nudiflorum, and mollugo 

T. harimau, or t, rimau : a kind of shrub, 
trevelia sundaica. 

r. itek : a herb, fioscopa scandem. 

T. kadanty or t. kaki : the sole of the foot ; 
a footstep. 

a kind of shrub, clerodendron 

T. kerbau 

r. kuda : the goat's foot convolvulus, ipomea 

T, leman, or t, Sulaiman: the seal of Solomon; 
the pentacle; a star fish with five points, a 
creeper with leaves something like a pentacle. 
Tapak babi : id., (in last sense only). 

T, rusa: a climbing plant, lettsomia pegiiensis, 

T. tangan : the palm of the hand ; that por- 
tion of the palm at the base of the fingers ; 
a signature. 

Telapak and telapakan : the sole of the foot. 
Dull telapakan: (literally) the dust beneath 
the sole of a Sultan's foot ; a royal title, by a 
figure of speech, implying that the subject is 
only fit to address the dust below a Sultan's 
feet; cf. ka-bawah dnli, etc. 

^V; tapok. I. (Trengganu.) To hide. 

II. The scab of a healing sore or boil; the 
shutter over the mouths of some kinds of 
shells; the remains of the pistil in some fruits 
as in mangosteens, pumpkins, etc. Cf. tampok, 

Bertapok'tapok : much pitted with small-pox, 
in contradistinction to being lightly marked 

In Penang beriapok is used as a term of 
abuse meaning very filthy, covered with many 
coats of dirt, without special reference to 
small -pox. 

43u tapah, Ikan tapah : a fish (unidentified) ; Sh. 
Ik. Trub., 14. Also tapa, q. v. 

^^ tapeh. Drawers worn by Javanese women ; 
Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 293; Ht. Perb. Jay.; Ht. 
Sh. The system of folding the sarong follow- 
ed by Malay women, not men. Bertapek : 
to fold the sarong in this way. 

iU tapai. I. A preparation of steamed pnlut 
rice fermented with ragiy q. v. 

Rosak tapai karena ragi : the cake may be 
spoilt by the yeast ; an honourable name may 
be lost by a trifling act of misconduct ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., XL, 53. 

Arak t. : an intoxicating liquor prepared from 
tapai with which water has been mixed and 
allowed to settle for a few days, Beram /. ; 
id. ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Tapai is also used of the earth mould em- 
ployed by braziers in their work. 

II. (Riau.) Kriching tapai : a rabbit. 

^u tapi, [Skr. tathdpi,] But; on the other hand; 
better tetapi, q. v. 

C-5\j takat. I. A slight scar or trace of an old 
wound ; cf. bakat, 

II. As far as, up to. Takat pinggang; up 
to the waist. Takat lutut : up to the knee. 


[ 152 ] 


C-Su takut. Fear. Taktit hantu pelok bangkai: 
to hug a corpse for fear of its ghost ; out of 
the frying-pan into the fire ; Prov. 

Takuii : to fear ; Sh. Lamp., 15 ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. ; Ht. Abd., 119, 227. Menakuti : id,, 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 92. Pertakuti : id. ; Ht. Kai. 
Dam., 197. Menakut : to be in dread ; Sh. 
Kamp. Boy., 13, 

Takutkan : to hold (anything) in dread ; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 92 ; Ht. Abd., 67, 336. Menakut- 
kan: id., Muj., 19. Pertakutkan : id.; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 92. 

Ketakutan : fear, panic, alarm ; a source of 
fear ; Ht. Abd., 4, 62, 82, 119, etc. 

Penakut : a coward ; cowardice. TabP at 
marika-itu penakut : their manner was that of 
cowards ; Ht. Abd., 227. Menaroh penakut : 
to harbour feelings of cowardice ; Ht. Sh. 
Mard., 119. 


u takar. A kind of earthenware vessel with a 
narrow neck (J. S. A. S., H., 146; Ht, Abd., 
292, 303) ; sometimes used as a measure of 
capacity, Sh. Jur. Bud., 10. 

Pantat t, : the bottom of this vessel. 

^v takor. A bird, the Malayan barbet, mega- 
Icema versicolor. 


vJ takong. Keeping any liquid so as to allow 
it to ferment ; exposing anything to fermenta- 
tion. Minyak takong: crude oil ; oil fermented 
but not refined. Susii di-takong : milk kept to 
be curdled. 

Takong is also used of driftwood in a stream 
collecting in some bay or backwater, or of 
rain water and refuse washed down by it 
collecting in a puddle. 

lS\3 takak. I. Kain takak, or kain bertakak : a 

sarong made up of two pieces to be sewn 
together, as opposed to a sarong consisting 
of a single piece of cloth (kain sa-lerang), 

n. Takak'takok : jagged, uneven ; v. takok. 

J^\i takek. 


A cleft ; the dent left by a single cut 

from an axe or chopper, no material being 
lost ; a chip, a slight cut. 

\j takok. A notch ; notched ; a kind of foot-rest 

cut into a coco-nut tree to facilitate climbing ; 
(in carpentering) the cutting of a groove into 
which something else is to fit ; (in tree-felling) 
preparation for felling by making two cuttings, 
one being higher than the other and on the 
opposite side of the tree. 

r. takok : uneven ; in notches or ridges, as 
hair badly cut ; v. also takoh and takah, 

Kepala penakok : the cleft at the head of a 



\j takal. (Eng. : tackle.) A small pulley. 

^\J takan. A future negative, ** there will not 

be " ; = ta'-akan. 

S \j takah. (Kedah.) A notch cut into a tree to 
facilitate climbing ; = (Riau, Johor) takok q. v. 

Takoh-takah : notched, jagged ; =takok4akak. 
«5 \j takoh. See takah, 

^ \j takai. Berteku-takai : (Kedah) to stick assidu- 
ously to anything ; to diligently do. 

^\j taki. Menaki : to dispute; Kl. ; (Penang) to 
agree upon anything ; = berjanji. 

S\5 tagar. I. A peal of thunder. Saperti tagar 
bunyi-nya : its sound was like that of thunder 
— a common simile for the shouting of an 
army; Ht. Ind. Jaya ; Ht. Sg. Samb.; Sh. 
Jub. Mai., II, etc. Bagai tagar di Pulau Sem- 
bilan : like thunder off the Pulau Sembilan 
(islands) ; a metaphor for a terrific noise. 

Bertagar: to peal, to sound like thunder; 
Ht. Best.; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

n. Stiffness; hardness of heart ; usually 
Jo q. V. 


\3 tagor. A deep muffled sound ; a sound such 
as that of distant thunder, or of thunder when 
one*s ears are closed with wool. 

iSb tagak. (Kedah.) Kerja tertagak-tagak : work 

that is being continually left oif on one pretext 
or another; = (Riau, Johor) kerja teragak-agak, 

Tirbang sa-ekor burong gagak, 
Hinggap di-kampong pohun rumiyah; 

Kerja jangan tertagak-tagak, 

Putus harap tManggong aniyaya: 

never procrastinate in your work or your hopes 
will be lost under the weight of misfortunes. 


\; tagal. Stones driven on the beach after a 
violent storm ; Kl. 

\5\3 tagil. The natural spur of a cock, Kl. Also 
^-^ tegil 

."SSj tagan. The stakes in a sweep ; the amount 
contributed by each staker to make up a 
pool, as distinct from an individual bet. 

Kapitan dhtgan juragan^ 

Batang selaseh abang panggalkan ; 

Pirmata intan di-jadikan tagan, 
K^kaseh tidak abang tinggalkan : 

pearls and diamonds have been staked away, 
but my love I will never abandon ; Sh. Pant. 
ShL, 14. 


[ 153 ] 




tageh. Dunning, pressing ; the pressure put on 
a man by a craving such as that for opium or 
drink. Ketageh : the craving of a man for 
some indulgence to which he has long given 
way. Ketageh madat : the craving for opium ; 
Ht. Mar. Mah. 

Chandu chelaka jangan di4ubt, 

Tulang rusok bagai seligi, 
Sahdbat renggang, saudara benchi, 
Datang ketageh, hendak menchuri : 
do not give yourself up to the curse of opium 
or your ribs will stand out like wooden stakes, 
your friends will leave you, your brothers 
detest you, and when the craving seizes you 
you will become a thief ( to gratify it ). 

tagai. ( Kedah.) Tertagai-tagai : continually 
putting off (a creditor). 

tala. I. In harmony, in harmonious response 
one to another, as a band taking up a tune 
begun by another ; at intervals, of a melody 
rising and dying away in harmonious regu- 
larity. Cf. talu. Keduwa pehak bertala-tala : 
each side replying to the other ( of the bands 
of opposing armies ) ; Sh. Pr. Turk., 5. 

II. A padlock. 

talar. ( Riau.) Permitting ; letting ; allow- 
ing, =6^)/ar; ( Kedah ) throwing open to the 
public, allowing unobstructed passage to all. 

talang. I. A kind of freshwater fish. 

II. (Jav, and Sund.) A water-pipe; a 
gutter ;=saloran, q. v. 

III. Orang talang : ( Indragiri ) a name 
given to certain wild tribes of Sumatra. 

IV. A bawd, Kl. ; cf. jalang. 

V. Bujang talang : a bachelor or childless 
widower : a man living alone in a state of 

talak. (Arab, j^), 
divorce ; a deed of 

Divorce ; letters of 

separation . Bercherai 
tidak bertalak, bernikdh tidak berkddli : divorced 
without formality, married without a registrar ; 
a casual liaison; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 99. 

Menalak ; to give a woman her second and 
third talak so as to complete the divorce and 
make it practically irrevocable ; (by metaphor) 
to give way and give all, to let a child eat its 
fill after giving way to the child a little at a 

talek. Menalek . 

to take light refreshment, 

talam. A wooden or brazen tray or platter 
without feet; Sej. Mai., 159; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 
86, etc. Talam duwa muka : a tray with two 
faces to it ; a tray which can be used upside 
down as well as otherwise; treacherous, 
double-faced ; Prov. Saga di-atas talam : a pea 
on a platter ; uncertain or wavering conduct. 

fj^M talan. The name of a shrub, saraca triafidra, 
T, kimyet : a small tree, saraca cautiflora, 
Rtimptit t. : a kind of weed, adenosma capitaUim, 

(JJv! talun. I. Resounding; replying; re-echo- 
ing ; returning sound for sound ; cf. talu and 

II. Pisang talun : a large kind of banana. 




talu. Bertalu or bertalu-talu : continuous ; 
uninterrupted ; in unbroken succession. 
Mengata bertalu-talu : to pour out a stream of 
continuous abuse ; Sh. Sg. Kanch., 29. Ayer 
mata-nya jatoh bertalu-talu : a continuous flood 
of tears ; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 34. 

talai. Negligence or forgetfulness in work ; 
dawdling; careless labour; cf. lalai. 

tali. A rope ; a cord ; anything of a cordlike 
character or appearance ; a money value 
representing about an eighth of a riyal or 
aucient dollar of 60 cents ; 3 wangs being one 
taliy 2 tali one su^ku^ 2 stcku one jampal, 2 
jampalf one riyal, Sa-tali tiga wang juga : a 
tali is three wang all the same ; six of one, 
half a dozen of the other; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
XL, 55. Bergantong tidak bertali : suspended 
with no rope to support one, a description of 
the magic power of a divinity, and used ironi- 
cally of a woman who has no visible means of 

T, ayer : a groove in a column or pillar ; a 
channel or canal for conveying away accumu- 
lated water. Membetulkan tali ayer sungai 
besar : to repair the (irrigation) canals con- 
nected with the main river ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

T. belohan : the strap passing under the neck 
of an elephant and preventing the howdah 
from slipping back. 

T, duga : a sounding line. 

T, hams : the thin line of driftwood which 
sometimes marks the flow of a current. 

T, kang : the reins ; also t, torn. 

T, kanjang: a nickname for a man who is 
soft-spoken but hopelessly unreliable. 

T. kulit : a strap. 

T, leher : a necklace, a string of beads round 
the neck. 

T, liyong : a sort of sash for carrying a kMs; 
= (Bugis) tondro batong, 

T, perampat : the rope attaching the rudder 
to the tiyang goyang, 

T. pinggang : a girdle, a waistband. 

T. pisang : dried strips of pisang skin. 


[ 154 ] 


r. pusat : the umbilical cord. 

T. r^ngga : the belly-band in an elephant's 

T, renut: the crupper in an elephant's 

T,4ali: a plant (unidentified). 

T,4emali : cordage. 

T. torn : the reins. 

T. tunda^ or t. umbai : a tow-rope. 

BertaU4ali : in a long line, as a string of 
carriages; J. I. A., Vol. L, p. 82. 

Suku dan tali: fourths and eighths; small coin 
generally; Sh, Ungg. Bers., 4. 

Pantun sa-tali bim : (i) a string of pantuns; 
(2) a species of metrical composition, the 
rhyme of which is the same throughout, 

jMj tamar. [Arab.^ ] Tamar hindi : tamarind ; 
V. ^ . 

iib tameng. Jav. 
^ used by Javanej 


A small shield or buckler 
v^anese heroes; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Ht. 
Sh.; Ht.'Sh. Kub.; Ht. Perb. Jay.; Ht. Mas. 
Ed. ; Sh. Panj. Sg., etc. 

<3^^ tamok. An edible saltwater fish (unidenti- 


•j-ib taman. A garden ; a pleasaunce ; a park. 
T, muhabbat : the garden of love, T. penga- 
sihan : id. Sakaliyan beriring-iringan saperti 
bunga kembang sa4aman : one following behind 
the other in succession like a garden of 
flowers in full bloom ; Cr. Gr., 78. 

Chinchin konang-konang sa4aman : a ring with 
a large stone set in a circlet of small gems ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed. ; also chinchin konang-konang 

Naga sa4aman : the name of a pattern in 
embroidery ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Rumput taman : a small sedge ; cyperus 

y^\i tamu. The entertainment of guests ;=yfl;mi^; 
but sometimes (Riau) limited to the enter- 
tainment of a single guest, as distinct to that 
of many. 

4-AU tamah. Affability ; courteous address ;=ra- 
mahf q. v. Ramah dan tamah : geniality and 

\; tanar. Noise, disturbance, clamour \=tHar, 

q. V. 

4j\j tanang. Supporting on the palm of the hand ; 
C =ztatang, q. v. 

^u tanak. The process of boiling rice and other 
cereals. Saperti bBras kumbah, di-juwal ta'- 
laku, di4anak ta'-miiwal : like spoilt rice, which 
will fetch nothing when sold and will not 
swell if boiled ; utter worthlessness ; Prov., 
J, S. A. S., HI., 36. 
Bertanak : to cook ; (literally) to boil rice ; 
Sej. Mai., III. Bertanak nasi : id. ; Ht. Ind. 
Meng, Menanak : id. ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. ; Ht, Mar. 
Mah. Menanakkan : id. ; Ht. Gh. 

Sa-petanak nasi : the time that it takes to boil 
rice ; — a primitive measure of time ; cf. sa- 
kabns sir eh and sa-peludah, 

A kar tanak rimati : a kind of plant, spheno- 
desma pentandra. 

f\> tanam. The act of burying; planting by 
^ burying in the earth. Di4anam'nya pokok 

sena : he planted sena trees. 

Tanaman : plants ; things planted. Tanam- 
tanaman : id., in a collective or general sense. 
Tetanaman : id. 

Bertanam : to be engaged in planting ; to 
bury. Temp at bertanam orang mati : a place 
where the dead are interred ; a cemetery, 

Menanam : to plant ; to bury. M. ketum- 
bohan: to vaccinate. Menanamkan: to have 
(anything) buried or planted. Menanam budi: 
to graft wisdom on a man ; to instil common- 
sense into him. 

4ju tanah. Earth ; ground ; land ; a country ; 
Tanah Jawa : Java. Tanah Naning : the Na- 
ning territory. Di4abor'nya tanah : he scatter- 
ed earth. Sa-potong tanah : a piece of land, 

Bukan tanah menjadi padiy 
Kalau jadi hempa layang ; 

Btikan bangsa menanam btidi, 
Kalau tanam choma terbnwang : 

it is not earth that padi can be grown from ; 
if you grow padi it will be worthless 
chaff: he is not the kind of man in whom 
wisdom can be planted ; if you plant wisdom, 
it w^ill only be wasted on him ; a proverbial 
pantun, the first line of which is often quoted 
by itself with the meaning of the four, 

Tetak bnloh mhnbnwat panah, 
Hendak panah ktida berlari ; 

Minta laiit menjadi tanah, 
Behani sehaya pergi mari : 

pray that the sea may be turned into land 
that I may be able to cross backwards and 
forwards ; a proverbial expression signifying 
that the natural obstacles to anything are 

T. ayer : territories ; districts ; the whole ex- 
tent of land and water forming a geographical 
unit. Dalam negeri asing dan tanah ayer lain : 
in a foreign country and with different sur- 
roundings, i.e., in exile; Ht. Abd., 345. 

r. liyat : clay. 


[ 155 ] 




T, n^gara : countries and towns ; territories. 

r. rang : fallow land ; padi land with the 
dykes and irrigation canals ready, but un- 
cleared of weeds, and therefore not ready for 
planting ; v. ra7tg, 

T. rap : land ready for />arf/-planting; land 
cleared of weeds and ploughed ; earth pressed 
down or pounded down so as to fill a hole 
tightly or to form a road ; powder for drying 

Ikan t, : a kind of edible freshwater fish. 

Sukat t, : land-measuring ; surveying, 

Urat t. : a large worm, typhlops, 

Tanah, as a measure of length, is approxi- 
mately five or six feet (1 depa); Ht. Abd,, 

Jb tani. L To lower (the sail). 

II. [ Tam. tent, a porch or tannic water? ] 
Pintu tani: the outer gate of a palace; Sej. 
Mai., 196. 

TIL Jav. To plant; Kl. 

y^ tawa. Tertawa : laughing ; laughter. Ter- 
kadang di-jadikan tertawa uleh rnarika-itu sebab 
satu perkataan aku pergi bagitu jauh : it often 
raised laughter among them to see me travel 
such distances for the sake of a single word ; 
Ht. Abd., 49. Tertawa gelak-gelak : peals of 
laughter ; roars of laughter. Tertawaan : 
laughter; the cause of laughter; the thing 
laughed at. Tertawa4awa : continuous laugh- 
ter. Tertawakan : to laugh at (anything) ; to 
make (anything) a cause of laughter. 

Also tawak. 

iu taut. (Kedah.) Kayti taut : the rod (fixed on 
the bank of a stream) to which a night-line is 
attached. Menaut : to gather in, to draw in ; 
J. I. A., I., 317- 

,u tawar. I. Tastelessness ; flavourlessness ; 
the absence of any distinctive characteristics ; 
insipidity ; characterless, as a poisonous sub- 
stance deprived of its injurious properties, or 
as a disease when the virus has gone and only 
the weakness remains. Orang yang kennyang 
kalaii di'jamu lank yang sedap di-kata tawar : 
feed a full man and he will pronounce your 
best dishes flavourless ; Prov. 

Hart selasa kakanda belayar, 

Haluwan menuju ka-bandar Acheh; 

Bisa dan mabok habislah tawar, 
Menengar chumbu dari kekaseh: 

I, your lover, sail on Tuesday, and my prow 
will be heading for the port of Acheen ; but 
the poison and sickness ( of parting ) are strip- 
ped of their sting as I listen to my beloved's 
endearments ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 8. 

r. hati : nausea, disgust ; Pel. Abd., 9. 

Tawar mawar, and t. ambar : the intensitive 
of tawar. 



T. selusoh : a charm to expedite delivery and 
remove the pains of child-birth. 

Ayer t, : fresh (as opposed to salt) water. 
Memiwangkan sa-chawan ayer tawar ka-dalam 
laut : to pour a cup of fresh water into the sea 
(to make it fresh) ; ridiculously inadequate 
effort ; Prov. 

Ikan t, : a fish (unidentified). 

Tepong t. : a preparation of rice flour and 
(sometimes scented) water; a yellow flour 
used at incantations. 

Tawari : to meet a charm with a counter-charm 
or poison with an antidote ; to futilize ; Ht. 
Gul. Bak,, 122. Menawarkan : id. ; Muj., 57. 

Menawari : id., Ht. Koris ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 

Penawar : an antidote; a protective talis- 
man; Sh. Kumb. Chumb,, 16; Ht. Gul. Bak., 

Daun setawar : a name given to several shrubs, 
costus speciosiiSy L., and torrestia, spp. Seta- 
war gajahy or setawar betina : forrestia mollis, 
Setawar hntan or setawar jantan : forrestia 

II. Bargaining; the beating down of a 
price. Tawar-menawar : haggling over a price ; 
Sh. Pant. Shi., 8. Di-tawar-nya pula pada sa- 
ekor lima dnwit : he made a further offer of 
five cents a-piece for them ; Ht. Abd., 207. 
Lagi morah lagi di-tawar : the more the price 
is lowered, the more does bargaining go on ; 
give in an inch and the other side will want 
an ell ; Prov. 

\j tawas. I. Alum. r. kubu : a plant (uniden- 

II. Tawasan: (Riau) the general appear- 
ance of a man ; the general effect produced by 
his looks and bearing. 

iU tawang. Penat tawang : useless labour ; 
efforts that end in nothing ; wasted energy. 

^ \; taung, A whirlwind on shore ; a dust eddy ; 
*y — as distinct from a waterspout at sea (puting 
beliyong, q. v.). 

;a\j tawak. I. Tawak-tawak : a kind of small 
gong-like instrument used for summonmg 
people to a meeting, or for signalling at sea. 


II. Laughter; v. tawa. 

taul. The attaching of an oar to the side of 
the boat by means of a loose cord which 
prevents the oar drifting away altogether in 
the event of its falling into the sea; the 
securing of the anchor by putting one of its 
blades over the gunwale of a vessel. 


[ 156 ] 




tawan. Capture by war or robbery ; enslave- 
ment by capture. 

Tawanan : a captive ; Ht. Abd., 410; Sh. Ik. 
Trub., 6; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 34; Ht. Mar. 
Mah., etc. 

Menawan and menawankan : to take (anyone) 
captive ; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 20, Sakaliyan kdfir 
iya menawan : he took all the infidels captive ; 
Sh. Lail. Mejn., 3. 

Tertawan : led captive ; taken prisoner ; 
enslaved. Stiwami hamba sudah tertawan : my 
husband has been taken in war; Sh. Abd, 
Mk., 76. 

Vl tawon. Jav, The honey-bee ;=/^6a/^. 

tahar. (Nautical.) Keeping to a course in 
spite of contrary winds ; not returning to one's 
anchorage when the weather is bad. 

tahang. I. A ravine; a gorge; a gully; Kl. 
II. (Chin.) A tub; abath-tub; Kl. 

tallil. A measure of weight ; a tael ; a six- 
teenth part of a kati, or, approximately, 1^ 02. 

tahan. L Restraint; resistance; holding 
out against ; an opposing force. Jika di4ahan 
ptm patek jalani juga : even if you resist me, I 
shall go just the same. 

T. golek : wasted effort, wasted energy. 

T. tampong : supporting on a sheet or plank 
resting underneath. 

r. tuwak : wearing the sarong in so negligent 
a manner as to allow too much exposure. 

Tahani and menahani : to put a check upon ; 
to keep (anything) back ; to keep at a thing ; 
to restrain, resist, or hold out against. Mena- 
hani pain : to bear up under a blow ; to survive 
a blow ; Ht, Sg. Samb. Tahani kehendak : to 
prevent the gratification of a wish ; to restrain 
a person's desires ; Sej. MaL, 75. Ayer mata- 
nya tiyada dapat di-tahani-nya lagi : he could 
no longer keep back his tears ; Cr. Gr., 78. 

Tahankan and menahankan : to put ( any 
person or thing) into a position of restraint ; 
to prevent the occurrence of anything. Mena- 
hankan hati yang mnrka : to curb feelings of 
anger ; Sh. Put. Ak., 37. 

Tertahan : restrained ; put under restraint ; 
curbed ; resisted ; Ht. Abd., 253, 282. Ter- 
tahani: id.; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 23; Sh. Ik. Trub., 
g. Tertahankan : id. ; Ht. Abd., 207. 

Bertahan-tahan : retardation ; to retard. 

Nyior tahan kukor : a young coco-nut at the 
stage immediately preceding the period when, 
on shaking the coco-nut, the liquid may be 
heard inside. 

IL The setting of traps for fish, birds, etc. 
Menahan : to set (such a trap); Sej. MaL, 55, 


Tahan rachek burong ta'-masok; 
Burong biyasa makan di-tangan : 






you may set your snare but the bird will not 
enter it, the bird is accustomed to be fed from 
the hand ; love is to be won by kindness, not 
by cunning or force ; Prov. 

tahun. A year. Pada tahun masthi : in the 
year of our Lord; A. D. Bertahun-tahun : 
for years ; year after year. Batok bertahun- 
tahtm : a chronic cough. Jejamu menahun : 
a plant (unidentified). 
T. beharu : the new year. 

Bulan pencheraiyan tahtm : a popular name 
for the Muharram. 

Usually pronounced taun. 

tahu. Knowledge ; the possession of informa- 
tion regarding anything. Dengan sa4ahu-ku : 
with my knowledge. Banyak-lah tahu dari- 
pada ta'4ahu : he knew rather more than he 
did not know. 

Tahtckan : {i)=ztahu akan : to know of. 
Menchari orang yang tahukan nbat-nya : to look 
for a man who knows the remedy for it ; Ht. 
Abd., 146. (2) To make known. Akuhendak 
tahukan herti-nya Jaya Lenggaraitu: I propose 
to explain (make known) the meaning of the 
words Jaya Lenggara; Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

Ketahuwan : knowledge; sense; capacity for 
understanding. Berketahuwan : possessed of 
sense ; sensible. Tiyada ketahuwan or tiyada 
berketahuwan : indescribable ; insoluble ; in 
utter confusion ; ridiculous. 

Ketahuwi (akan) and mengetahuwi : to know. 
Di-ketahiiwi-nya : it was known to him ; he 
knew. Berketahuwi : to be possessed of 
knowledge ; to know. 

Pengetahuwan : knowledge. 

tahi. Filth; mucus; dirt; ordure. Di-lempar 
bunga di-balas lempar tahi : to throw a flower 
and get filth thrown back in return ; dis- 
gusting ingratitude ; Prov. ' Bangsa anjing 
kalau biyasa makan tahi, diya ta' -makan pun 
chiyum ada juga : beasts of the dog type which 
are accustomed to feed on filth, smell of it 
even when they have given up eating it ; a 
foul brute will continually give evidence of 
his former vile life even when he tries to give 
it up ; Prov. Ay am terlepas tangan bawa tahi : 
the fowl has escaped and all that is left in the 
hand is its dirt ; a man seeks credit in an 
enterprise and often only gets disgrace out of 
it ; Prov, Tahi hidong masin : a metaphor for 
a miser. Lawak-lawak main bunga tahi: a 
metaphor for an interchange of jests ending 
in a quarrel. 

T. angin : light clouds driven by the wind ; 
also a metaphor for idle words; nonsense. 
Runiput tahi angin : a kind of moss. 

T. ay am : (also t. anjing and t, asu [Mantra]); 
a name given to several kinds of weeds, 
lantana mixta, vinca rosea, and ageratum cory- 

T. ayer 

refuse floating on the surface of 


[ 157 ] 


T, babi, or rumptit t, babi : a kind of weed, 
vernonea cinerea. 

T. best : rust. 

r. bintang : small caterpillars. 

T. burong : a kind of plant. 

T. gergaji : sawdust. 

T. hams : driftwood borne by the current. 

T, kahwah : coffee dregs. 

T, kerbau^ or rumput t. kerbau : a plant, 
fimbristilis miliacea, 

r. ketam : bits of shavings. 

T, lalat : a mole; Ht. Hamza, 11; Ht.Ganj. 
Mara, 9. 

r. mat a : mucus about the eye. 

T, minyak : refuse in making oil. 

T, panas : prickly heat. 

T. penyakit : an eruption consequent on 

T, telinga : wax in the ear. 

T. tikus : a kind of cake. 

r. udang'tidang : the discharges in dysentery 

T. ular : the rough ends of silk threads on 
the surface of silk cloth of native make. 

T, uli : a term of abuse. 

Buwat t, : a metaphor for getting into debt. 

Uban t, harimau : grey hair where either the 
white or the black hairs have a great pre- 
ponderance in numbers. 

Ular t. kerbau: a snake (unidentified). 

Tahi is often pronounced tai, colloquially, 
and te in compounds, e. g., te-angin, te-uli, 

^U tanya. Enquiry ; questioning. 

Bertanya : to enquire. Bertanyakan : = ber- 
tanya akan : to enquire after. 

Bertanya'i : to make an enquiry ; to put a 

Menanyai and menanyakan: to ask about 

Sewa pertanya : to obtain from a person a 
revelation of what he desires to hide; Muj., 

'-^jV tabaraka. Arab. May (he) be blessed. 
TabdrakaHlah : blessed be God. 

jS\Z tfibakang. A fish ; also Umbakang, q. v. 

C^-J tSbat. Drawing a barrier across anything; 
damming a river ; closing a thoroughfare to 
traffic ; barricading. M^nebat : to dam. 

\jC tSbSra. (Johor.) A kind of fish ; v. tembera 
and kedera. 


tSbfirau, A name given to several of the 
larger grasses, chiefly sachartim arundinaceum, 
sachanim ridleyi, and thysanolo^na acarifera. 

^4/^» tabariyyat. Arab. A receipt ; a quittance. 

^j*w tebas. (Onom.) The felling of undergrowth 
or of low secondary jungle, as distinct from 
the cutting down of large trees {tebang, q. v.) 
Tebas buloh sa-perdtc : to cut down a clump of 
bamboos ; to destroy a whole family, or to 
marry several sisters ; Prov. 

Di'tebas-nya semak'Samwi : he cleared the 
ground of undergrowth. 

Tebashan : to have secondary growth cleared 
away ; to remove undergrowth. Menebas : 
to cut down undergrowth. M. jalan yang 
semak-semak : to clear roads that have become 

Menebas rnenebang : to clear land of all forest 
growths ; to prepare land for planting ; Sej. 
MaL, 55. Menebang menebas : id. ; Ht. Abd., 

^jw tSbus. Redemption from slavery, from mort- 
gage, or from a pawnbroker's possession; re- 
lease from the power of another person. 
Gedong Urgadai sa-hingga tiyada dapat di-tebus 
jadi di-lelong : stores so heavily mortgaged 
that they could not be redeemed and had to 
be sold by auction; Bint. Tim., 23 Feb,, 1895. 

Menebiis : to redeem, Menebus hamba : to 
buy a slave; Ht. Pg. Ptg., 27; Ht. Best., 
16. Menebus kaus: to redeem a pair of shoes 
from pawn ; Ht. Hamz., 19. 

«J taba* or tabi'. Arab. Follower, disciple ; 
C: Ht. Zaly., 5. 

ij tSbang. (Onom.) The clearing of virgin 
CT forest ; the cutting down of large trees as 
distinct from undergrowth ( v. tebas ). Di-i^- 
bang dan di-belah-belah akan menjadi kayu apt : 
felled and cut up to be used as firewood ; Ht. 
Abd., 295. 
Menebang : to fell ( heavy timber ). 
Penebang : a hatchet ; an axe ; any instru- 
ment for feUing large trees ; Sh. Sri Bun., 8. 

iJ tSbeng. ( Kedah.) Teasing; irritation; 
^ worrying. Jangan di4ebeng=jangan di-amati. 

jui tSbing. The raised bank of a river ; the dyke 
^ raised at the side of a cutting by the earth 
thrown out in excavation ; a sand bank 
Di-tebing parit itu berkeliling di-tanam-nya 
pokok sena : senna trees were planted round 
the banks of the moat ; Ht. Abd., 58. Tebing 
runtoh : the sunken bank upon which the 
pauh janggi grows. 


[ 158 ] 






t6bok. Boring ; the making of a cylindrical 

hole in any substance ; sinking the shaft of a 
mine ; digging a well ; making a hole in the 
earth, as a rat or mole. Nyior di-tebok hipai or 
mumbang di-Ubok tupai : a coco-nut bored by 
a squirrel ; a metaphor for a ruined girl ; Prov. 

r. lesong : the groove of the lesong hindek. 

Bertebok : bored, with a hole or perforation 
through it. 

T^bok is also used of the joints on a dragon's 
tail. Ttijoh'belas tebok ekor-nya daripada per- 
mata : seventeen joints in his tail each of gems ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. Gemerlapan tebok-tebok ekor- 
nya : the joints in his tail glittered ; Ht. Sh. 

tSbal. Comparative thickness ; relative depth ; 
— of materials such as paper, cloth, or planks, 
or as the skin, or as a wall. 

Mtika Ubal : brazen-faced. 

T, hati : hard-heartedness. 

Daun seUbal: the name of a plant, fugrce 
racemosa, or marlea nobilis. 

Akar setebal : a wax flower, hoya coronaria. 
tabligh. Arab. To come to maturity. 

Oy tdban. A plant ; see taban. 

yf tSbu. I. The sugar-cane (saccharum officina- 
rum) — of which the Malays recognize many 
varieties, e. g,, t. batang bayam^ t, belong, t, 
gading, t, gagak, t, kapor, t. lanjong, t, rnadu, 
t. tanjong hitam, t, tebu and t. telor, Dapat 
tebu rebah : to find a fallen sugar-cane ; to find 
a sugar-cane ready cut for you ; extreme good 
luck, Prov. Tebu masok mulut gajah : sugar- 
cane entering the elephant's mouth (and not 
at all likely to come out again) ; running to 
certain destruction ; Prov. Tanam tebu di- 
bibir mulut: to plant sugar-cane on the lips 
(of an elephant); to place anything in a 
position very dangerous to its continued 
existence ; Prov. 

Ular katang t^bu : the banded viper, bungarus 
fasciatm. Ular tuntong tebu: id. Ular tuntong 
tebu laut : a name sometimes given to the 
many families of fasciate sea-snakes (e, g., 
distira stokesii) which haunt the Malayan seas. 


11. V. ojr ' 

t6buwan. A hornet. Also tabohan; v. taboh; 
but tebuwan is the common colloquial form. 
Sarang tebuwan jangan di-jolok : do not poke 
up a hornet's nest ; let sleeping dogs lie ; Prov. 
Tebuwan meminang anak lelaba: the hornet 
is asking for the daughter of the spider in 
marriage; an inappropriate alliance; Prov. 
Bagai tebuwan dalam tukil : like a hornet in a 
bamboo vessel for liquid; buzzing about in 
impotent efforts to get out ; frantic struggling ; 

tabohan or tSbuhan. See taboh and tebuwan. 


tSbah. Beating (on a flat surface); beating 
the breast in grief or anger ; striking the sur- 
face of the water to frighten fish into going 
in a certain direction ; beating carpets to get 
out the dust, or mosquito curtains to drive 
away mosquitoes. Tebah dada: to beat the 
breast in vexation or anger; Sh. Bid., 3; Sh. 
Sri Bun., 3; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 24; Sh. Panj. 


tut, Tut'tut: an interjection of alarm or 
astonishment used by children. 

Bangau melengong di-tepi kolam; 
Tut'tut ayer kering : 

a stork dozing by the pond banks, hullo, hullo, 
the water is dried up ! — a riddle descriptive 
of a lamp going out by consuming the oil. 

,j*g\i; tetabas. A bridal ornament ; 


|Vi; tStapi. [Skr. tathdpi,] But, however, still, 
- nevertheless. 


t^tas. Broken, cut open or slit open from 
within ; forced open from the inner side as 
when the point of a knife is inserted into 
anything and the blade is then forced up. 
Maka Indera Lana itwpun kaluwar-lah dari- 
pada perut raksasa itu di-tetas-nya dengan keris- 
nya : then Indra Lana issued forth from the 
stomach of the evil spirit, having cut his way 
out with his keris ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Menetas : to force open from within ; to be 
hatched, of an egg; Sh. Pant. Shi., g; Sh. 
B. A. M., 2. Cf. retas, gentas^ betas, etc. 

tStap. I. Permanency; fixity {e.g,, of tenure 
or residence) ; the feeling of security or con- 
fidence ; firmly established ; definitely decided. 
Satelah tetap bichara itu : when that matter 
was settled. Supaya ku tinggal tetap di- 
Singapura : that I might take up my residence 
permanently at Singapore. Ku banding- 
bandingkan sa-hingga tetap-lah pada pikiran-ku : 
I made comparison after comparison until I 
arrived at a definite conclusion. 

Ketetapan: security, certainty, permanence, 
confidence ; Sh, Abd. Mk., 97. 

Menetapkan : to ensure permanency ; to give 
definiteness or security; Sh. Abd. Mk., 112; 
Sej. Mai,, 68. Pertetapkan: id.; Ht. Abus., 

Pertetap : confident, assured ; Ht, Sg. Samb. 

n. The removal of moisture or dampness 
from a surface by the application of cloth, 
blotting-paper or any other substance which 
sucks it up. 

Kain tetap tuboh : a towel to suck up moisture 
and so dry the body ; a towel applied to and 
not rubbed over the body. 


[ 159 ] 





t6tak. Hewing ; hacking ; slashing ; a blow 

with a cutting instrument such as a sword. 
Beberapa kami tetak kami tikam tiyada juga iya 
matt : slash at him, stab him as we might, he 
would not die ; Sej. MaL, 43. Tetak ayer 
mahu'kah putus : if you hew water, will you 
cut it to pieces ? Prov. 

Laksana golok kayti 
Tetak ta'-makaitf jtiwal ta'-laku : 

like a wooden chopper which makes no im- 
pression if you hew with it and fetches nothing 
if you try to sell it ; worthless ; Prov. 

Tetakkan and nienetakkan : to use (any sharp 
instrument) for cutting ; to cut with (any- 
thing); Ht. Abd., 106; Sh. Pr. Ach., 11 ; Sh. 
Abd. Mk., 51. Bertetakkan : id., Sej. Mai., 
17 ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Menetak : to give a cutting blow ; Sej. MaL, 
83 ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Tetak-menetak : to slash 
at each other ; to interchange cuts as men 
fighting with cutlasses ; Sh. Pr. Ach., 13. 
Tangan menetak balm memikul : while the hand 
hews the shoulder carries ; energy, wasting 
no time; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 94. 

tetgkala, tatkala or tetkala. [Skr. tat- 
kala,] The time that ; at the time that ; 
when. Pada tetkala itu : at that time; v. 

t6t6gok. A bird, the ptmggok, q. v. ; a name 

given to the punggok in Patani and occasionally 
in Kedah and Perak. Saperti tetegok di-rumah 



tinggal : like a 


in a deserted 

house ; absolute soHtude or loneliness ; Prov., 

J.S.A.S., n., 141. 

tStal. Close together, of threads or thread- 
like parallel objects ; without wide interstices ; 
close as the pattern of a cloth ; — the converse 
of jarang, q. v. 

Ktiweh tetal (Riau) a kind of cake ;=:(Johor) 
pulut apit, and (Kedah) pulut tetal. It is made 
of cooked pulut with coco-nut milk, sugar and 

tStampan. A napkin or kerchief of silk cloth 
worn over the left shoulder in the presence of 
a prince by certain court officials ; see tampan. 

i tgtuban. See tuban. 

tStungap. (Kedah.) A preparation of salted 

yfjcjj tStuka. A small ray-like fish ; see tuka. 
^2,^ tithlith. Arab, The Trinity. 


tajalll. Arab. Revealed, clear, revelation, 
vision; Sh. I.M.P., s;=nyata. 

tajuhan. A small copper shield, Kl. 

^^i^ tajwid. Arab. Saying or doing what is 
right ; grammatical. Hukum tajwid : the laws 
of correct enunciation (in reading Arabic) ; 
Ht. Abd., 51, 150. 

44^ tahrlf. Arab. An anagram. 

]^i^ tahaflfudl. Arab. Liihu't-tahaffudl: the Tab- 
let of Fate ; Bust. Sal. 

4ji^ tuhfat. Arab. Present ; favour ; tribute ; any- 
thing rare or beautiful, and so worthy of pre- 
sentation. TuhfatuH ajnas : a gift of miscel- 
lanies — a favourite expression in epistolary 
Malay for describing a letter, and (perhaps) the 
gifts {bingkisan) which used to accompany a 


tahallil. Arab. To legalize the re-marriage 

of fully divorced persons by using the indivi- 
dual colloquially called the china buta, i.e., a 
person who marries a divorced woman only to 
divorce her the next morning and so to supply 
the legal requirement of an intermediate mar- 
riage to enable her to re-marry her original 
husband ; to legalize generally ; to render law- 

^ takhta. [Pers. takht.] A throne, Takhta 
kerajaan : a royal throne ; the throne of 
sovereignty. Bertakhta : properly, to sit en- 
throned, but also used of residence in a gene- 
ral sense when speaking of a prince ; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 117. 
Sa-genap negeri dan takhta : every state and 
throne ; every country (by metaphor) ; Sh. 
Nas., 10. 


takhayyuL Arab. To imagine, to fancy. 

jKiJH tadbir. Arab. Government. Mentadbirkan 
perentah : to administer the Government, to 
command ; Sej. MaL, 351. 

wJJ tSdas. A small projecting ring round a 
column or pillar as distinct from a groove 
let into a pillar (tali ayer). 

9- J3 tSdong. A swelling at the back of the neck 
^ in contradistinction to a goitre or swelling un- 
der the chin or on the throat. Ulav t. : a 
generic name for snakes with expanding hoods 
or (occasionally) of hoodless snakes which 
resemble hooded ones in some particular. 

Ular tedong abu : (Malacca, Riau and Johor) 
the hamadryad : = (Kedah) tdar tedong sela. 

Ular tedong Hyar : a rat-snake with a long thin 
tail with which it lashes furiously at assailants. 
This snake is therefore believed to sting with 
its tail. 

Ular tidong matahari : a name given some- 
times (Singapore) to the yellow cobra and 
sometimes to a snake with a bright red tip to 
its tail. 


[ i6o ] 





Ular tUong sela : (Kedah) the hamadryad or 
king cobra, ophiophagus elaps or naia bungarus; 
Ht. Mar. Mah. ; (Riau, Johor) ular Udong abu, 

Ular tedong sendok : the common black cobra, 
naia tripudians or naia sputatrix. 

Ular tedong terbang : a generic name for co- 
bras and hamadryads owing to their alleged 
ability to fly through the air, a belief created 
by the fear which these snakes, especially the 
hamadryad, rouse among Malays. 

Ular tedong usat : a short snake with longitu- 
dinal markings, simotes octolineatus, 

Akar tedong sendok : lit. the ** cobra root" — a 
kind of drug used by Malay medicinemen. 

Ayam tedong : a big black fighting-cock so 
called from the appearance of the feathers at 
the back of its neck when it gets excited. 

tSdoh. The stilling of storm and rain ; lulled, 
calmed, quieted, stilled — of atmospheric dis- 
turbances but not of the waves. Tedoh-lah 
hujan : the rain ceased ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 21. 
Ribut itU'pun tedoh-lah : the storm abated ; 
Sej. Mai., 46. Beberapa besar angin pun disitu 
tedohjuga: however violently the wind may 
be blowing anywhere, it will abate at that 
very spot ; there is an end to everything ; 

Bertedoh : to take shelter (e, g. under a tree) ; 
Ht. Sri Rama; Ht. Abd., 197; Arabian 
Nights, 66. 

Kumbang bertedoh : the name given to a 
mole on the neck under the chin — believed 
to be a sign of good luck. 

^ \ - 



Arab. A licence ; a permit ; a 

J! tar. 1. Eur. Tar; also ^/r. 

n. Kuweh tar : a cake, made of sugar, suet, 
flour, eggs and coco-nut, and baked in a 

tir. I. Eur. Tar; Ht. Jah., 43. 
id. ; Pemb. Bet. 

n. The rook or castle in chess. 

Minyak t. : 

t§ra. The royal seal, stamp, or impression. 
Metera'i : to stamp, to seal. Di-palukan 
miterai tdeh Raja Iskandar : they struck (the 
coin) with the seal of King Alexander ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz. Belum bertera : it is still unstamped 
as a letter still lacking an official seal, or as a 
block of tin before it has received the ** chop" 
which enables it to pass as coin [in Treng- 
ganu] . 

tSrabar. (Kedah.) A tree (unidentified). 

tSrabong, The ruffling of feathers customary 
with turkeys, etc. 

tSrabu. Ikan t^rabu : a freshwater fish (un- 




tSratak. A lean-to ; a temporary shelter 

erected by travellers in the jungle; the abode 
of a night ; a depreciatory expression used 
when alluding to one's own house in the 
presence of a raja. T^ratak patek : my humble 
home ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 429 ; Ht. Koris. 

V tgratu. 

teratii . 

[Port, trato,] 
a torture-chamber. 

Torture. Tempat 

tSratai. The lotus, nelumbium speciosum, T. 
kechil: the common water-lily, nymphcea 

T. china, t, gunong, and t. siyam : varieties of 
the lotus. 

The lotus also appears in romances as the 
name of an ancient pattern of cloth or of a 
garment: baju teratai, Ht. Sh. Kub. (3 places); 
kain sungkit bunga teratai, Ht. Koris ; etc. 

Batang t. : the stem of the lotus, Ht. Mar. 

tgrajang. The act of raising the foot slightly 
and then forcing it down violently on the 
ground; stamping down one's foot for any 
purpose — as distinct from a mere aimless 
stamp of rage or vexation (enfak, q. v.). Di- 
terajang-nya batang leher dengan kaki-nya : he 
stamped his foot upon the neck (of his enemy) ; 
Ht. Hamz., 63. 

T, ttwiit : driving one's heel into the ground ; 
forcing down one's heel. 

Tendang t, : kicking out and stamping down ; 
kicking about in all directions; Ht. Sh. Kub.; 
Sh. Abd., Mk,, 144. 

Terajangkan : to kick down, to stamp on ; 
Sh. Sri Bun., 29. 

Berterajang : to kick downwards; Ht. Sri 
Rama (Maxw.), 61. 

Cf. rejang, tajang, tendang, sepak, kidang, en- 
tak, tandak, etc. 

tSrajam. A tree (unidentified) ; Kl. 

tdraju. [ Pers. tardzu. ] Scales ; the name 
given to the string joining (loosely) the two 
extremities of the body of a kite ; the string 
to which the line of a kite is attached. 

y\j! terada. ( Batav. ) Is not ; not to be ; = 


^JJ* "tarazu. See teraju. 

\^)/ tarasul. Letter-writing; epistolary corres- 
pondence. *Ilmu tarasul : the art of letter- 


tSrasi. (Batav.) A peculiar preserve of dried 
prawns, better known in the Straits as belachan, 
Sambal terasi pula di-bawakan : they brought 
sambals and belachan; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

T. manis : a sea-shore shrub, glochidion insu- 


[ i6i ] 


^2/ tSrapang. A metal covering for the lower 
^ portion of the sheath of a keris ; a keris fur- 

nished with a sheath of this description ; Sh. 
Peng., 3; Sh. Jur. Bud., 43; Sh. Put. Ak., 
4; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 360. 

Ikan t,: (Kedah) a fish (unidentified). 


W tfiragil. 








A plant (unidentified) ; J. I. A., I. 



tSraling. I. A bird something Hke a parrot ; 
also known as shindit gajah. 

II. A wood used in house-building, tarrietia 

tdranas. Firm sea-bottom ; good holding- 
ground for anchors; good anchorage (sand 
and rock mixed ) ; — also known (Kedah) as 
pasir helanak, 

tSrawaiXg. Reaching neither to the top nor 
to the bottom ; suspended in mid-air like the 
baitiiH-miikaddas or legendary Jerusalem ; with 
bare patches ; interspersed with open spaces, 
as a jungle of unequal density ; a pattern in 

Cf. awang and kerawang. 

tarsiwlh. Arab. Sembahyang tardwih : the 

twenty-two genuflections after the last prayer 
of Ramadan. 

tSrbit or t§rbet. Issue ; exit from ; motion 
out of ; appearance after concealment ; rise 
into prominence. Matahari terbit : the rising 
sun; Sej. Mai., 5. Terbit-lah btilan pernama : 
the full moon rose; Ht. Abd., 222. Angin 
yang terbit dari dalam taman muhabbat: a 
breeze which takes its rise in the garden of 
love ; Ht. Abd., 222. Dada-nya memolai ter- 
bit saperti ktmtum melati : her breast began to 
swell like the blossom of the melati; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 87. Masok htitan terbit rimba, masok 
padang terbit padang : entering the forest, then 
issuing from the jungle ; entering on plains 
and leaving them again, — of a traveller ; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. 

; tSrbut. A heavy wooden bolt or nail used in 


tSrSbis. Fallen away at the side or along 
part of its surface, as a sandbank part of which 
has fallen into the stream ; slipping away 
dow^n a slope, as a man who loses his footing. 

Also cher^bis. 

^j^j; tgrbus. 

[ Arab, iarbush,] A fez. 

tgrbang. I. Flying ; flight ; to fly. 

T. arwdh : the flight of the spirit of animal 
life; the loss of consciousness; Ht. Abd., 282, 
288; Marsd. Gr., 144. Terbang semangat: 
id. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 49, 81. 

Pagi belum terbang lalat: in the morning 
before the flies are astir, ix,, before sunrise. 

Beterbangan: flying about as birds (Ht. Sg. 
Samb.), or as stones after an explosion (Ht. 
Abd., 64, 66, 470). 

Terbangkan : to carry off (any one) by flight ; 
to fly away with any person or thing; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 109, 118; Panch., 35. 

II. A tambourine ; = rebana, q. v. 

\jj: tarbil. A kind of cross-bow throwing a stone 
instead of an arrow; a species of catapult 
based upon the principle of the bow. 

L J tSrbuL An edible freshwater fish ; Pel. Abd., 

Cx'^ax.j: tarbantin. Arab. Turpentine, 
j^ - tgrat. (Kedah.) A boundary. 
aUJ tSrtawa. To laugh ; v. tawa. 

c-^" tdrtib or tartlb. Arab. Order; rank; fit- 
ness of precedence. Mengajar daripada adab 
dan tartlb : to teach proper respect and be- 
haviour ; to teach a child to show respect to 
his elders and to keep his proper place ; Ht. 
Abd., 477. Tartlb sembahyang : the order of 
prayer; ritual; Sej. MaL, 90. 

»-J tSrdjang. V. terajang, and rijang, 

i;>. J t6r6jing. A kind of long curved knife ;*[,Pijn. 

Wy tdrSjal. The flapping of a kite consequent on 
an unsatisfactory adjustment of the string 
joining the extremities of its body {terajtt, q.v.). 

\j^J tarjaman. Arab. A dragoman; an inter- 



4^ J tarjamah. Arab. Translation. Mintarjamah- 



kan : to translate ; Panch., 3. 

tSrjun. Rapid and almost precipitate des- 
cent ; leaping down ; jumping down. Terjun 
dari atas kuda: to leap off a horse. Terjun 
dari janela: to let oneself drop from a window. 
Terjun ka-dalam stmgai : to leap into a river, 
as a diver or as a fugitive. 

Terjimkan: to let anything down; to drop 
(transitive). Menerjimkan anjing ka-dalam 
stmgai : to let a dog drop into the water ; Ht. 
Hg. Tuw., 27. 

M^nirjun : to let oneself drop down anything; 
to drop (intransitive). 


[ i62 ] 






t§ras. The heart or core of trees ; the hard- 
est part of a tree. Pesti iya berteras dalam-nya : 
it must have a solid heart ; it must have a 
core ; Ht. Abd., 4. Di-mana-kah berteras kaytt 
mahang: where will you find a mahang tree 
with a hard core ; do not expect impossibilities ; 
Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 104. TSras iirun- 
jam gubal melayang : the core is fixed firmly 
in the ground, the light wood which surrounds 
it is blown away; the rich are difficult to 
move, the poor are ruined by the first breath 
of ill-fortune; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 102. 
Peteras : (Kedah) pride, arrogance. 

tSrus. Right through; in a direct line through 
or across any space. Ada satu pintu, dart situ 
buleh berjalan terns sampai ka-sungai : there is 
a gate through which one can go straight 
through to the river. Baju sakldt ttu-ptm 
terns : the coat of broadcloth was also pierced 
right through. Terus mata : eyesight that can 
pierce through solid objects, Ht. Ind. Meng ; 
second sight, Ht. Best. 

Terus-metertis tiyada chawang-nya: perfectly 
straight, without branching off; Sh. Sri Bun., 

Terusan : a canal or channel forming a short 
cut between two reaches of a river or between 
a reach of a river and the sea. 

Menertisi: to penetrate straight through to 
anything, as an arrow piercing to the heart ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 146. 

^ tSrsu. 

^^ fied) ; 

An edible saltwater fish (unidenti- 


• tSrisula. [Skr. trisiUa,] A trident; Ht. 
^^ Koris; Ht, Ind. Meng.; Ht. Sg. Samb, Cf. 
t^ri and snla. 

^ J tarsal. A kind of acacia, the gum of which 

^tr-^ is used for blackening the teeth. 

^ J tursi. (Tamil.) Vitriol ; sulphate of copper. 

^^ Also terusi. 

tSrang. Clearness ; brightness ; offering no 
obstacle to the sight of the eye or of the mind, 
r. hati : clearsightedness, intelligence, quick- 
ness of apprehension. 

T. benderang : shining brightness ; unusual 
brightness ; illumination. 

r. chuwacha : clear brightness as that of an 
unclouded day. 

T. tanah : the clearing of land. 

Menyamun di-tengah-tengah terang : to rob 
in broad daylight ; to plunder without any 
attempt at concealment. 

Terangkan ; to clear, e. g*., to clear land for 
a building site ; Ht. Abd., 255. 

Keterangan : clearness ; obviousness ; bril- 
liancy. Dengan A. : clearly ; obviously — or 
brilliantly, as lightning flashing in the sky; 
Sh., A.R. S.J., 6. 


i-T-J^P P 



Menerangkan : to light up ; to brighten, as 
the sun illumines the mountains; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya. Menerangi : id., Ht. Jay. Lengg. ; Sh. 
Bid., 83, 128. 

Penerang : anything that brightens or clears. 

^Azimat pinerang hati: a charm to brighten 
the intellect ; Muj., 89. Also siva^ly penerang 
hati ; Muj., 37. 

throng. I. A kind of vegetable; the brinjal 
or solamim. Bagai terong bertunang ikan 
keying : like the brinjal's engagement to the 
dry fish (which it first meets in the saucepan); 
involuntary association in misfortune ; Prov. 

T. asam ; t, belanda ; t, perat : names given 
to the solamim actdeatissimum. 

T, human : (Langkawi) the name of a climb- 
ing plant, cyclea arnotti, 

T, meranti : solanum nigrum. 

T. pipit : the name given to two shrubs, 
solanum torvum and solanum verbascifolium. 
The latter is also sometimes called terong 
raya and terong rimhang, T. pipit is also the 
name of a Kedah hero. 

T. pungah : a name sometimes given to 

T. tikus : solanum sarmentosmn. 

Other species unidentified : t, birti, t. dada 
ruwangy t. hijau, t. kemau, t, pahit, and t, ungu. 

II. Harimau terong kasau : (Kedah) the 
royal tiger ; also torang kasau or turang kasau, 

III. The word of command to make an 
elephant kneel ; also derum and terum. 

teringket. The name given by lascars to 
certain square sails between the lowest yard 
and the deck. T. dul : the lowest square- 
sail on the foremast. T. suwai : the foresail. 

terongko. [Port, tronco,'] A prison ; a lock- 
up ; a cell. 

Terongkokan : to incarcerate ; Ht. Jah., 13. 

tfirangkera. [Port, tranqueira,] A stockade ; 
a palissade ; the name given to a part of the 
town of Malacca. 

terap. I. A hollow moulding or formation ; 
a cutting on a keris ; the actual use of type 
in printing ; impression with type. 

Keris teterapan : a keris with a hollow running 
up its blade; Ht. Mar. Mah.; Ht. Mas. Ed.; 
Sej. Mai., 91 ; Sh. Bid., 86. 

II. A kind of tree, artocarpus kunstleri^ the 
bark of which is used by Sakais for clothing ; 
Ht. Abd., 382. Daun terap : a leaf of this 
tree; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 5, 7; Ht. Gh. 

3j tfirup, I. Main terup : a card game, played 
with European cards. 

II. [Eng. troop.] A trooper, a cavalry 
soldier. Kuda terup : a troop horse ; a war 
horse ; a charger. 



[ t63 ] 


U^* tSrpa ortSrfipa. A leap forward; a hasty 
movement forward, as when an angry man 
moves impulsively to strike. Di4erepa-nya 
akan pengeran itu : he sprang at the Chief; Ht. 
Abd., 125. Sa-mata duwa mata anak iangga 
di-terepa-nya tileh Hang KesUiri : Hang Kasturi 
sprang up one or two steps of the ladder ; 
Sej. Mai., 159. 

The form mengherpa occurs for menerpa ; 
Ht. Isk. Bz, 

\ij! tSrpal. [Eng. tarpatdin,] The apron on a 
coach-box ; the tarpaulin on a ship. 

\3^ tSrpul. I. The coach-box ; the driver's seat 
in a carriage, Kl.=terpal ? 

n. (Riau.) A large single jet of smoke; 
the rise of such a jet; — e. g,, after a cannon 
has been fired. Cf. keptd. 







tarpin. [Arab, tarbanttn ; Eng, turpentine.'] 
Turpentine. Minyak tarpin : id. Adapimmin- 
yak tarpin itu diya-nya datang dari Eropah^ bau- 
nya terlalu keras, guna-nya orang huwat champor- 
champor chat supaya bideh lekas kering : 
turpentine comes from Europe, its smell is 
strong, and it is used to mix with paint to cause 
the paint to dry quickly. 

tSrak. I. A kind of nest made by a fowl to 
lay her eggs in — as distinct from a spot 
merely selected for the purpose {petarangan, 
from tarang, q. v.). 

n. Tin refuse, after smelting. 



Penoh terak : absolutely full, full to the 
Elok terak : perfectly beautiful. 

terek. I. Extreme ; excessive ; to the full ; to 

the uttermost. Panas terek : extreme heat ; 
Ht. Koris;=:^an^s keras. Di-isi-nya meriyam 
terlalu terek : he loaded the cannon with a 
very heavy charge ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 23. 

Tengah hari terek : a hot midday, Ht. Sh. 
Di4erek-nya uleh segala mimteri : he was pressed 
by all the ministers; Ht. Best. \:=^di'kera$'nya 
uleh segala munteri, 

n. Burong terek chanai : a bird, the Indian 
oriole, oriolus indicus, 

t^rok. I. (Onom.) The sound of tearing 
linen or breaking rope. 

II. Severe, e, g,, of illness, or of a beating. 

tSrka. [Skr. tarka.] Guess-work. Terka 
terki, or (more commonly) teka'-teki : riddle, 
conundrum. Also (Kedah) keteki, 

Menerka : to guess. 

tarkash. Pers. A quiver. Lalu hilang-lah 
komhali kapada tarkash-nya : then it ( the magic 
arrow) disappeared, returning to its quiver; 
Ht. Mar. Mah. Anak panah daripada tarkash- 
nya: an arrow from his quiver; Ht. Md. 
Hanaf., 93, 






tSrkap or tfirgkap. (Onom.) Catching by 
putting a convex body over anything, e> g., 
catching a fly by putting a glass over it ; cf. 
serkap, tekap, serkup and terktip. 

tSrkup or tfirgkup, (Onom.) = terkap, q. v,, 
(when the sound of the catching is duller). 

Terekup is also used of the batting of rams. 
Saperti biri-biri yang amatgalak beterekup : like 
threatening rams when they butt; Ht. Isk. Dj2. 

tSrkul. A carbine, of Turkish make, with a 
barrel which is rifled inside and octagonal out- 
side; a rifle generally; Ht. Koris; Ht. Gh. 
Senapang t. : a rifle ; Pel. Abd., 58. 

tSrkam. The act of springing ; the leap of a 
wild animal upon its prey ; also used, by meta- 
phor, to describe the rush of a lover to meet his 
mistress after a long separation ; Ht, Gul. 
Bak., 99. Saperti singa hendak menerkam : 
like a lion about to spring; a simile for an 
eager warrior; Ht. Sg. Samb. Demi terpan- 
dang ideh kuchingy di-terkam-nya akan tikus itu : 
when the cat saw it she sprang on the mouse ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 12. 

t6rki. Terka-terki , 

riddle, conundrum; v. 

turki. Turkish. Orang t. : a Turk. Negeri 
t. : Turkey. Raja t. : the ruler of the Turks ; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 437. Sha'ir pBrang turki : the 
Poem of the Turkish War, — the title of a poem 
dealing with the last Russo-Turkish War. 
Bunga t. : the pink or carnation. 

tSral. Insistence ; verbal pressure ; to impor- 
tune ; to urge on labourers to work (by words, 
not by blows). 

t§rum. I. A parcel of gunpowder put into a 
cannon ; a sort of cartridge. Cf. peterum. 

II. (Kedah.) A word of command given to 
elephants to make them sit down. Also 
(Trengganu) terong ; and derum, Gajah terum 
tengah rumah : an elephant sitting down in the 
middle of a room ; a mosquito curtain. 

tfirmasa. [Pers. tamasha,] A show ; a spec- 
tacular festival ; the sights of a place ; any 
event worth seeing; Ht. Sg. Samb.; Ht. Ind. 

Also (Kedah) teinasa. 

*/ tgrumba or tgromba. 


A pedigree ; a family 

j^y tSrumbu. A reef or rock, visible at low tide 
but covered at high water. 

C-Ju^ tdrompet. Eng. A trumpet. Adasatuterom- 
pet di'tangan-nya : he had a trumpet in his 
hand ; Ht. Abd., 106. 

Sipuf t. : a shell, triton variegatus. 


[ i64 ] 


• A 

^j^y tSrompak. Wooden clogs, with a knob or 

handle to be caught between the big toe and 
the toe next to it ; Kam. Kech., ii. 

Also terompah. 

AaaJ tdrompah. Clogs ; v. terompaL 

Ikan t, : a fish (unidentified) ; KL 

\^ tSrfimal. A plant, myristka colletiana. 

^jp tSran. I. Straining, in easing oneself; the 
motions in childbirth. 

II. To make a cake so that the raisins will 
be found at or near the top. 

f^jp t6r§ntang. A large forest tree, campnosperma 
^ auriculata, T, bukit : a shrub, allophylhis cobbe. 

Other unidentified varieties : t, batu, t, baya, 
t. burong, t. dayang and t, tangan. 

i; r tSruntum. A sea-shore shrub, cegiceras majus; 
\^ a small tree ? 

T^nmtunif batang tmmtum, 

Pohun'7iya rendang lariyan kera ; 

Bukan-nya ktmttmi sa-barang kuntum, 
Kimttitn itti datang dari udava: 

the teruntum, the trunk of the terunUmi, a tree 
with low branches about which the monkeys 
run ; this blossom is no common blossom, it 
is a blossom which has descended from the 
heavens ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

A^ tSrau. Spinning. Menerau : to spin thread. 

ijj J tgrendak 


A kind of sun-hat of conical shape 

worn by both Chinese and Malays ; Ht. Koris ; 
Sh. Raj. Haji, 182; Sh. Sri Bun., 29. 

T, bent an, f. bant an or t, melayu : a sun-hat of 
a perfectly conical shape, the slope of which is 
in a straight line. 

T, china : a sun-hat the slope of which curves 

Siput t, : a shell, phonis Solaris, 

tSrSnang. A water vessel, usually of earthen- 
ware, but sometimes adorned with silver ; a 
kind of decanter ; Pel. Abd., 69 ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Sapu tangan t. : a kind of cloth or doyley upon 
which the terenang is placed. 

Saperti ayer dalam terenang : like water in a 
decanter, i. ^., settled down ; Prov., Ht. Gh., 
J. S. A. S., XL, 48. 

rj jr t6r6nak. Continuous residence in one place. 
Orang t, : aborigines. 

4j- tSrSnah. I. Unprecedented ; unusual ; phe- 
^ nomenal ; an expression applied derisively to a 
man or woman tricked out in unusual finery. 

Si-termah : a fool, a vain fool ; a term of 
abuse ; Sh. Peng., 9. 

II. The name of a parasitic insect infesting 


tfirubong. (Penang.) A padi-store ; a 

tfirubok. A fish, cltipea kanagurta; Kam. 

Kech., 6 ; Ht. Koris, etc. Ikan t. : id. Sha 'tr 
ikan t, : the name of a poem descriptive of a 
fishes' conference. 

Telor t. : the roe of the tenibok, a kind of 

T. sa-kampoh : (i) a piece of caviare ; (2) a 
descriptive name given to a Malay weapon. 

L/iJ/ terubuL A tree, ixora grandifolia. 

t§rusi. [Tamil.] Vitriol ; sulphuric acid. 
Also titrsi. 

tSrawangsa. A Javanese musical instrument 
something like the Malay kechapi. 

^Ji/ tSropong. A tube: any tubular instrument; 
the tube containing the lens of a camera ; Ht. 
Abd., 452; a telescope ; Sh. Put. Ak., 13. 
A khbar nan laksana teropong negara : a news- 
paper is a national telescope ; Bint. Tim., 16 
Jan,, 1895. 

T, apt : (Riau, Johor) a kind of bellows; = 
(Bencoolen) semponong apt ; also (Johor) siyong 
apt, and (Kedah) simply teropong, 

T, tuma : a microscope ; KL 

Meneropong : to look through a telescope ; to 
search (the horizon) with a telescope ; Sh. Pr. 
Ach., 17 ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 25. 

^jaJ terona. [Skr. tanma,] Arrived at sexual ma- 
turity but not having had sexual connection 
(of the male) ; (sometimes) a bachelor general- 


Anak terona : an unpolluted youth. Di- 
mana banyak anak terona, anak perawan pun ada 
di'Sana : wherever our youths may be gathered 
together, there, too, our maidens will also be 
found; Marsd. Or., 211. 

Ay am t.: r cockerel. 

Muda t, : a mere youth ; a youth barely 
arrived at maturity ; a stripling. 

Banyak Belanda matt dan /and, 
Di'bimoh uleh rmida terona : 

many Dutchmen died and perished, slain by 
the merest striplings of soldiers ; Sh. Pr. 
Ach., 17. 

Terona is used once of a woman, the Princess 
Chandra Kirana (in the Shair Panji Samerang) 
who is described as ptiteri terona, but this 
probably refers to her disguise as a young 

JbA J tSruwilu. [Port, coellio.] Teruwilu China : 
^^^ a rabbit; Muj., 50. 


tSrai. A tree (unidentified). 


[ 165 ] 


[Sy t6ri. I. [Skr. ^n.] Three. Betara teri: the 
Hindu Trinity. Teri-sula: a trident; Ht. 
Koris; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Teri- 
ujong: id. ; Cr. Gr., 64. Sen teri-buwana : the 
light of the three worlds — a name taken by Sang 
Nila Utama after the founding of Singapore. 

n. (Johor)=/em, q. v. Chap di-terikan : 
sealed, of the Sultan's letters. Meteri : to seal. 

ni. (Johor.) Ikan teri : a fish resembling 
the selangat. Also ikan iiram. 

»jt teriba. A kar teriba : a medicinal root, rhina- 
canthus communis ; KL 

v^JL^bJ tSritip, A small sea-slug which eats into piles 
and ships' bottoms. 

^Jpjp t§ritek. I. A wood used for making oars; 

II.' Continual dropping; dripping; the fre- 
quentative of titeky q. V. 

X>j: tSriti. I. Eng. Treaty. 

IL Continuous passage or traffic over a 
narrow plank bridge, or log; the frequenta- 
tive of titi, q. V. 

iijj tfiripang. Beche-de-mer, holothuria edulis ; 
^* a kind of sea-worm much prized as a delicacy. 
Cf. gamat and labi-labi. 

T, butoh keling and t, kolong : varieties of 
this sea-worm. 

Ikan t. : a fish, sanrus indiciis. 

IjJ tSriyak. A cry ; a shout ; an exclamation in 

a very loud tone of voice. 

Berteriyak : to cry ; to call out to a man at a 
distance ; to shout out a word of command. 

Berteriyakkan : = berteriyak akan. 
Sou t6rigu. [Port, trigo.l Flour, wheaten flour. 


tSrima. Reception ; acceptance ; receipt into 
one's possession. 

r. kaseh : the acknowledgement of the re- 
ceipt of a favour; thank you; thanks. T. 
shtckur : id. 
Menerima : to receive; to obtain ; to acquire 
by acceptance. 
Penerifuaan or peterimaan : receipt ; the thing 
received ; the act of reception. 

Terima is also sometimes used in the sense 
of contact. Kaki sa-belah ta' -terima bumi : one 
foot does not touch the ground. 
Bagini bajn, bagiiu baju, 

Baju sehaya panjang lima; 
Bagini main, bagitu malu, 
Apa datang sehaya terima : 
this means shame and that means shame; 
whatever comes, it is I who must bear it. 

^j{/ tgriyujong. A trident ; Cr. Gr., 64. V. t^ri 
^ and ujong or hujong, 

^jU/ tgrihujong. A trident ; also ^^J , q. v. 

(j-^ tas. I. (Onom.) A rusthngsound; cf. ^^te. 

II. A tree, kurrimia panniculata. The kayu 
tas is believed by Malays to frighten away 

^j^ tis. I. (Onom.) A rustling sound rather 
sharper to the ear than that of tas, q. v. 

IL A condiment used like belachan. 

III. Slightly, — when speaking of heat and 
cold. Panas tis : a little warmth. Sejok tis : 
a slight sensation of cold. Cf, teh. 

jjJ tUS. (Onom.) A sound like that of a small 
pistol or revolver shot or of crackers. 



tasblh. Arab. A rosary ; a string of prayer- 
beads; Sh. Ul., 11; Sh. Lamp., 23. Buwah 
t. : prayer-beads. Menguchap t, : to utter 
prayers while telling one's beads; Ht. Kai. 
Dam., 427; Bust. Sal. 

Daun t, : a plant ; canna indica, Pijn. 

tasllm. Arab. Salvation, self-abandonment 
to God, resting in the peace of God. Maka 
kata Indera Jaya: ya tuwankti, cheriterai-lah 
hamba-mu daripada taslim iiu, Maka kata 
marika-itu : hai insdn yang budiman, adapun 
akan erti-nya taslim itu menyerahkan nyawa-nya 
kapada Allah: Indrajaya said: '*Oh, my mas- 
ters, tell me about that word taslim,*' And 
they (the angels) answered : **Man of wisdom, 
the meaning of taslim is the surrender of one's 
life to God" (martyrdom) ; Ht. Sh. Mard. 

JoJtdJ tashdid. Arab. The diacritical mark indi- 
cating that the letter over which it is placed 
is doubled. 

^ Jlj tashrikh. Arab. 'Ilmu tashrikh : the 
^ Science of Anatomy. 

. L>cJl> tashwish. Arab. Confusion ; Ht. Kal. 
^^"^ Dam., 83. 

I> JuoJ tasdik. Arab. To receive or accept as true. 
Tasdt'kkan: id., Ht. Ism. Yat., 51. Mentas- 
dtkkan : id., Ht. Raj. Sul., 10. 

}uj^ tasrif. Arab. To be at the disposal of. 
Mentasrifkan : to dispose of ; Majm. al-Ahk., 

A\ji ta'ala. Arab. He is lifted up on high; he 
is exalted. Allah ta'dla: God Most High; 
Ht. Abd., 5, etc. 


[ i66 ] 


J"^ ta*btr. Arab. Elucidation ; explanation ; 
interpretation — especially of dreams ; Sh. Sri 
Bnn., 24; Ht. GuL Bak., 113, 114; Sh. Tab. 
Mimpi, 6. Baginda itu tahu akan ta'btr mimpi- 
nya : the king knew the interpretation of nis 
dream ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

ShaHr ta^bir mimpi: the name of a poem 
published in Singapore dealing with the 
meaning of dreams. 

Ta^birkan and menta'bir-kan : to interpret ; 
to give the meaning of a dream ; Sh. Tab. 
Mimpi, I, 6; Ht. KaL Dam., 327. 

i..^ ta*ajtlb. Arab. To wonder; Ht. Abd., iig; 
Arabian Nights, 15. 







Difficult, impossible ; Majm. 

ta'ziyah. Arab. Lamentation (for Ali). 
Memberi ta'ziyah : to lament at a funeral. 

ta'tlim. Arab. To respect, to have a high 
regard for ( stronger than hurmat ) ; great 
respect; Arabian Nights, 5. 

TaHlhnkan : to revere ; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 383. 

ta^aluk. Arab, Dependence ; subjection ; 

Ht. Abd., 441. 

Yang ta'aliik : subject to ; in subjection to ; 
Sej. Mai., 5. 

Mena^alukkan : to bring into subjection ; to 
conquer and annex ; Sej. Mai., ir, 24; Ht. 
Ind. Jaya. 

Pronounced ta^alok, 

ta'allk. L Arab. To give nourishment to 

animals, to feed, to fatten ; Arabian Nights, 
42. Ta'altkkan : id. 

n. Arab. To be attached to (Majm. al- 
Ahk., 13 ), to be enamoured with, to be 
** taken " with ; to be interested by a story 
(Arabian Nights, 162). Mena'alikkan : to 
imagine ; Arabian Nights, 237. 



Arab. Resolution, reliance ; Ht. 

jj tang. I. (Onom.) A clinking sound or ring- 
C- ing sound such as that made by the fall of a 

coin on the ground, Cf. letang, keletang, 

lentang and kelentang, 

11. = tentangf q. v. Tang mana (collo- 
quially) whither; in what direction, how 

far ; = tentang mana. 

ka teng. I. [Chin, teng,'] A Chinese lantern ; a 
V— paper lantern. Satu jinis teng yang buleh mSm- 
bawa beberapa orang Urbang ka udara : a kind 
of paper lantern which can lift several persons 
to the sky — a Montgolfler fire balloon ; Ht. 
Abd., 355. 

H. A tree (unidentified). 

is ting. (Onom.) A chinking sound ; a ringing 
^ sound rather clearer than that expressed by 
tang, Cf. tang, leting, ditingy etc. 

ij tong. I. [Dutch ton,] A tun; a wooden 
C tub; a barrel; Ht. Abd., 115. 

n. (Onom.) Deep metallic resonance, e. g,, 
such as the sound of a gong, Cf. ketong, 
kentong, letong, lentongy kelentong, tang, etc. 




tSngadah. Upward ; facing, pointing or 
looking upwards. Ttmdok tengadah : looking 
first down and then up, as a poet in difficulties 
about a rhyme, or a writer in search of a happy 
turn of expression. Sudah terantok beharu 
tengadah : to look up after a collision ; to close 
the stable door after the horse has been 
stolen ; Prov. 

Mengadah : to turn up ; to lift up ; to give 
an upward motion or direction to anything, 
Maka Abusamah mengadah ka-langit serta 
kata-nya : then Abusamah looked up to heaven 
and said ; Ht. Kal. Dam,, 388. 

ting ting. I. Hopping. Chiyak tingting : 
the name of a Malay tune. 

II. Taut, tightly stretched. 

tongtong. I. A kind of hollow wooden tube, 
struck with a knocker and sounding a deep 
note — used to give an alarm ; cf. tong, 

II. A turtle better known as tuntong, q. v. 

III. Buwah tongtongan : a fruit (unidentified, 
but apparently resembling that of the berangan 
padi) . 

A kit pikir biiwah tongtongan, 
Tiyada ku tahu berangan padi; 

A kit pikir anak junjongan, 

Tiyada kii tahu anak anjing babi : 
I thought it the tongtongan fruit and it was 
the fruit of the berangan padi (querent spiccata); 
— a proverbial equivalent for the last two lines 
of the pantun : I thought him a dear son of 
mine and he proved the son of the vilest 
parents (dogs and pigs). 

tengar. A kind of tree (mangrove); ceriops 
candolleana, T, hutan : a tree with very con- 
spicuous fruits, ternstroemia penangiana* T. 
behikar : a tree, elceocarpus paniculatus. 

The tengar tree is constantly mentioned in 
pantuns, especially as a rhyme for dengar; Ht. 
P. J. P., Ht. Koris., etc. 

A barrack canteen 

tangsi. I. (Riau.) 
barracks generally. 

II. [Chin. thdng'Si, '* worm-silk, " ] A 
strong gut made from the caterpillar (called 
png-thdng in Chinese) and used for fastening 
the fish-hook to the line. Tali tangsi : id. 

t§ngsi. [Chin. thng'Si,] A soup spoon. 

tgngek. Rancid, of oil. 


[ 167 ] 






tSngkada, I. A kind of worm or caterpillar, 
which hangs from the roof suspended by a 
thread, like a spider. 

tSngkarap. Deposed, of a prince, Kl. ; (Riau, 
Johor) bengkarap, (Eng. bankrupt), 

tfingkalang. A small rice-store or granary 
on posts, Kl. 

tgngkalong. I. A variant of the word 
tenggalojig, q. v. ; a species of nmsang or 
civet-cat; Sh. Pant. Shi., 12. 

II. To hurl a heavy mass with violence. 

tfingkalak. I. A pyramidal fish-trap, nar- 
rower but longer than the lukah, 

IL (Johor.) Abandoned, left unfinished 
{of work) ; = bengkalat, q. v. 

tSngkalok. Unripe but edible, of fruit. 

tengkawang. A tree yielding ininyak kawang; 
diplocnemia sebifera, Pierre. It is a Borneo tree. 

Also sengkawang. 

tengkayong. ( Kedah. ) A tree ( unidenti- 
fied). Also (Riau, Johor) i^^igg^yong. 

tingkat. A level deck or flooring; floors 
taken as a measure of the height of a house, 
or decks as a measure of the size of a ship ; a 
** standard " at a school. Tingkat peradtiw an : 
the raised boarding on which a Malay sleep- 
ing-mat is laid; Ht. Koris. Sampai-lahkapada 
tingkat yang ketujoh : he reached the seventh 
storey ; Ht. Ind. Meng. Kapal tiga tingkat : 
a three-decker ; Kl. Bertingkat-tingkat : 
(built) in storeys or in several rows one above 
the other as the parts of a dovecote are built ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Sh. Pant. ShL, 14. 

tongkat. Propping; supporting; sustaining; 
a prop ; a crutch ; a walking-stick. Yang 
tempang bertongkat, yang bnta berpimpin : the 
halt propped on crutches, the blind led by the 
hand. Saperti orang buta kehilangan tongkat : 
like a Wind man who has lost his stick, r. e., 
in difficulties. Prov, 

T. baginda : a shrub, eurycoma latifolia. 

T. ketiyak : a crutch. 

T. lutut : the attitude of a man stooping and 
resting his hands on his knees. 

T, 'tongkat kajang : the wooden supports 
which raise the kajang awning in a boat to 
the required height. 

Pokok t. ali : a tree, grewia umbellata, 

Rumput t. ali : a grass, panicnm sarmentosum. 

Bertongkatkan : to rest on, to be supported 
by ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 







Menongkat : to sustain, prop, support. Bi- 
bir-nya yang di-atas menongkat hidong-nya: his 
upper lip supported his nose; Ht. Gul. Bak., 


Tongkat is used of a prop from underneath, 
as distinct from a buttress ; cf. sokong, sagang, 

tangkir, L A cup; also changkir, q. v, 

II. To sew a piece of cloth on another; to 
sew a patch on. 

tengkar. Altercation ; quarrelling. Berteng- 
kar : to have a dispute; Ht. Raj. SuL, 12. 

Tengkari : to stir up to a dispute ; to excite 
to anger ; Sh, Kumb. Chumb., 19. 

Pertengkaran : an altercation, a dispute. 

tingkir. Squatting, perched ( of a bird ) ; = 
tengger, q. v, 

tangkas. Agility ; nimbleness ; swiftness of 
movement. Kuda yang antat tangkas : a swift 
steed; Ht. Gul. Bak., 9. Sa-ekor binatang 
mahatangkas laku-nya : an animal seemingly 
very swift in its movements; Sej. Mai., 47. 
Sa-orang tnunteri yang tangkas berjalan dan yang 
pantas belayar : a minister who pressed on by 
land and hurried on by sea; Ht, Jay. Lengg. 


tangkis. Parrying; warding off a blow by 
interposing a weapon. Tiyada dapat di-tang- 
kis-nya : he could not manage to parry it (the 
blow) ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Menangkis : to guard ; to parry ; to stand on 
the defensive when fencing. Maka Sang Bayu 
Nafiri jangankan menangkis berubah pirn tiyada 
daripada tempat dudok-nya : Sang Bayu Nafiri, 
so far from guarding, actually did not even 
stir from the position which he had taken up; 
Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Tangkiskan : to get (a blow) parried ; to 
guard against a blow ; Ht. Ind. Jaya ; Ht. Sg, 
Samb. Menangkiskan : id. ; Ht. Ind. Jaya ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb.; Ht. Ind. Nata; Sh. Abd. 
Mk., 64, etc. 

Bertangkis'tangkisan : fencing ; guarding (of 
more than one combatant) ; Ht, Sg. Samb. 

y^Ji tengkis. Unequal in size to its fellow; 
^'^ shrunken ; insufficiently developed, of a leg. 

«$s5 tingkas. Nasi tingkas : a dish of white rice 
^^ surrounded by coloured rice. 


. j*Sv£ tingkis, I. An edible saltwater fish, 

II. Sad, sorrowful. Tingkis hati : id., Ht. 
Pg. Ptg. 

X^ tongkes. A tree used for firewood ; J.S.A.S., 
^^ VOL, 131. 


[ i68 ] 






tongkis. (Johor.) A kind of two-handled 
basket used for carrying rubbish ; = pongkis 

tungkns. I. Fallen deep into anything; 
embedded in anything, as a man who has fallen 
into deep mud ; also, by metaphor, of a person 
** over head and ears" in work. Tungkus hi- 
must id., ( intensitive ) ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 7. 

In Kedah tongkos lomos and tongkas lomos, 

11. A kind of cake, Kl. (t^pong bungktis?) 

tSngkang. The space between the eyes. 

tSngkmg or tSngkeng. An angry tone of 
voice ; snarling. Menengking : to speak in an 
angry tone of voice; Ht. Abd,, 24, 329. In 
Kedah : tongkcng, 

tongkang. I. A kind of lighter or 
cargo 'boat ; Ht. Abd., 284; Sej, Mai., 54. 

r. belat : the large boat used by the construc- 
tors of fishing-stakes for driving in the piles 
(turns) of a fish-trap. 

11. &mas tongkang: a mixture of gold and 

tongkeng. I. The rump. Tidang t. : the 
lower extremity of the backbone. 

II. Tonkin. Bunga t. : a climbing plant ; 
the Tonkin creeper, pergularia minor. Also 
known as btmga siyam. 

Main t, : a card-game. 

III. (Kedah.) Altercation ; = tengkeng ; q. v. 

tongkong. A rectangular lump of wood cut 
off from the main block in carpentering ; cf. 

tangkap. Seizure ; capture ; arrest ; getting 
possession of; gripping; clasping in the closed 

Tangkapan: toils; captivity; arrest. Saperti 
harimati lepas tangkapan : like a tiger escaped 
from the toils, — a simile for a fierce and 
eager warrior; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Abd. Mk. 
Tangkapkan and menangkapkan : to effect the 
capture of anything. 

Menangkap : to seize ; to grip ; to capture. 

Tertangkap : captured. 

Sa-penangkap : a measure of length ; a cubit 
(hesta) less the difference in length between 
the open outstretched hand and the closed fist. 

tangkup. Capture in the mouth or in a hol- 
low between the hands ; capture by dropping 
the hand on any flat surface — as a fly may 
sometimes be caught on a table ; closure or 
confinement under a cover. 

T. belakang : a portion of the planking in a 
boat, the plank to which the rudder is attached. 






r. haluwan : the prow-piece of a boat, the 
plank running up the stem. 

Blrtangkup : to close, to fold up — of one flat 
object falling on another. Tangan bMangkup : 
a malformation in the hand caused by the 
existence on it of two thumbs adhering to each 
other, giving it the appearance of a folded pair 
of hands. 

tingkap. The long low horizontal barred 
window usual in Malay houses ; Sej. Mai., 81 ; 
Sh. Pant. Shi., 2 ; Sh. Bah. Sing., 4. 

r. ibu rumah : a long side window. 

r. niagon : a lofty ventilating air-passage or 
window in a royal dwelling or house of some 

T, panjang : the long window on the front 
verandah (serambi jatoh) of a Malay house; Sh. 
Ul., 28. 

r. penanggah : the window of the kitchen in 
a large house. 

T, plrangin : a lofty window (for ventilation 
only) in any house, near the ridge-pole. 

r. tela : the window of the tela, q. v. 

tungkap. I. Tongue-tied, dumbfoundered 
— as a man whose nerve abandons him when 
about to speak; silent through nervousness, 
as a false witness who is afraid to utter his 
prepared story and does not know what 
else to say ; moving the lips but uttering no 
sound, as a camel ; gasping, as a fish out of 
water. Cf. nngkap, 

II. A peep-hole. 

tengkok. The neck ; the back of the neck, 

Tertanam hingga tengkok : buried neck-deep ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

A lor t, : (Riau, Johor) the hollow at the back 
of the neck ; also (Kedah) lobang t, 

Mata punai tengkok : the part of the neck just 
under the hair. 

T. bewak : a creeper, fagrcea racemosa, 

r. bewak hitam : a climbing fig, ficus auran- 

tengkok. A peculiar way of notching a tree 

(previous to felling) so as to determine the way 
it will fall ; cutting two notches on opposite 
sides, one of these cuttings penetrating direct- 
ly towards the heart of the tree, the other and 
higher one sloping downwards so that the 
two lines of penetration may meet at one 
point. Menengkok : to fell a tree in this way ; 
to cut the higher of these notches. 

toixgkok. Penongkok : (Kedah) a moveable 

fastening or ferrule (temin) on a keris sheath, 
knife, or spear. 

1SJ5 tungkak. Jav. The heel ;=ztmnit. 


[ 169 ] 


ASili tangkal. Protective, of a spell or charm ; a 
protective charm. * Aztmat tangkal : a protec- 
tive talisman of any sort ; Sh. Put. Ak., 27. 
'Aztmat tangkal sawan kanak-kanak : a talis- 
man against convulsions; Muj., 75. 

^y^>^ tangkil. The adaptation of two surfaces to 
one another ; to put one surface on another 
with a view to their being united, e, g,, as a 
stamp-collector arranges a stamp on its allot- 
ted space. If the two surfaces are of equal 
size, the word used is tengkel. 

Also sangkil. 


tangkul. A large net spread horizontally on 
the bottom and raised by a winch so as to 
catch fish that may be passing over it. 

VXiS tengkel. L The superposition of an equal 
surface on another, as when a stamp is gum- 
med on the space allotted to it ; v, tangktl, 

A small round projectile ; a slug. 





tingkal. [Skr. tangka.'] Borax, solder. 

tingkil. I. (Kedah.) A bunch, a cluster, 
the point round which a cluster of fruit is 

Biiwah kehibi, asam pay a, 

Kalau berbuwah bertingkil-tingkil ; 

Orang ta'-sudi, apa-kan daya ? 
Jangan di-buwat inuka gedubil : 

the kehibi and asam pay a (plants), when they 
bear fruit, bear fruit in clusters. 

II. A grudge ; ill-feeling, anger, hostility. 
Bertingkil hati : to harbour resentment. 

tongkol. A round or knob-like (as distinct 
from a rectangular ) lump of wood hewn off 
the main block in carpentering; a mass or 
lump of any material. 

Emas t, : nugget gold ; gold in nuggets. 

Ikan t. : a fish (unidentified); Sh. Ik. Trub., 
18 ; Kam. Kech., 6. 

Sampan t, : a short beamy Chinese sampan. 

Cf. rongkolj which is applied to a composite 
mass or bundle of separate articles, while tong- 
kol refers to a homogeneous and united mass. 

tSngkam. I. A weight ;=6 kupang. Kl. 

11. (Johor. ) The loops attaching at short 
intervals a cord to a sail when that cord is 
used as a trimming to the sail. 

Also chengkam, 

tongkan. (Singapore.) A movable hatch 
in the bows of a Malay boat ; == ( Kedah ) 
tangktip hahiwan. 


tSngku. Prince ; a title given ( at Riau) only 
to persons of full royal rank, both on the 
father^s and mother^s side; cf. engku, raja 
and nong, 

Tengku besar, and t. mtida : titles sometimes 
given to the heir apparent. 

SJi tungku. Three stones supplying a sort of rest 
for a saucepan ; hearth -stones in native 
methods of cookery. 

^;yv.£ tSngkorak. The skull ; the cranium; a skull; 
Ht. Hamz., 17. Ada4ah bei'giilingan beratus- 
ratus fengkorak manusiya : there were hundreds 
of human skulls rolling about; Ht. Abd., 204. 

Ringgit t. : (Riau) the 2J guilder piece ; also 
(Singapore) ringgit kepala. 

^J>^ tengkolok. A peculiar form of head-dress; 

a kerchief fastened in a certain way upon the 
head; ahead wrapper; Muj., 38; Sej. Mai., 
97; Ht. Md. Hanaf., ^y, 

•JAia tengkulun. A tree with edible fruit (uniden- 
^ tified). 

joS& tengkuyong. I. A shell, cypraa, sp. 
II. Sago-bark. 

^S tengkoh. [Chin. ?] A form of prepared 
opium ; opium dross prepared for re-smoking. 

tingkah. Modes ; tones in music ; conduct ; 
manner ; behaviour. 

T. lakti : general behaviour ; conduct. T. 
laku-nya saperti orang China: his ways were 
those of a Chinaman. Di-palti-nya bertingkah- 
kan ragam manusiya : he struck up a tune in 
the style of earthly music; Ht. Gul. Bak., 112. 

tongkah. I. Passage over mud or over 
swampy ground by using planks or by any 
similar means, Papa7t tongkah : the name 
given to a peculiar sledge-like arrangement 
or plank with which a shell -gatherer makes 
his way over a mud-flat. 

Menongkah : to make one's way over muddy 
ground by stepping on planks, palm-branches, 
etc., laid down as a path. 

II. The lengthening of a garment by sew- 
ing on an additional piece, at the top. Salu- 
war di-tongkah : trowsers to which a piece has 
been added at the top causing them to reach 
well up the body. Laksana kain sa-lerang, 
snkat di-tongkah beharu di-pakai : like a single 
piece of cloth which can only be used if a 
second is added to it ; incomplete ; v. lerang, 

III. (Singapore.) Argument; obstinate 
denial ; cantankerousness. 

IV. The Chinese name of the principal 
town in the island of Junk Ceylon, the centre 
of a great tin-mining industry. Relau tong- 
kah : a furnace for tin-smelting. 



[ 170 ] 





tangkai. The stem of a flower or fruit ; the 
haulm or stalk. T, hati : stalk of the heart ; a 
term of endearment ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 13; 
also (in its literal sense) the connection of the 
heart with the arterial system ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. 
In the case of composite flowers, tangkai is 
used of the stalk at the base of each portion, 
and kaki of the stalk on which all rest. Tiga 
tangkai sa-kaki : three on a stalk; Ht. Jay. 

tangM. Eng. The water tanks on a ship. 

Also tanggi, 

tSngkerong. A fish (unidentified). Also 
known as kerong-kerong. 

tSngkelang. (Johor.) A mill-wheel; a mill; 
usually kelang, q, v. 

tangga. A ladder ; a staircase. Tolak tangga 
berayun kaki: to push away the ladder (by 
which one has risen) and to be left with one's 
feet dangling in the air ; to fall between two 
stools; Prov. 

T. pengait : a light portable ladder used for 
tree climbing. 

r. sigai : a bamboo ladder used for climbing 
very lofty trees. 

T, sulor batang : a kind of ladder permanently 
attached to a tree. 

Anak t, : a step, a rung of the ladder. Tiga 
mata anak t, : three rungs of the ladder; Sej. 
Mai., 141. Cf. also Ht. Bakht., 49. 

Retak tangga mas : the lines running across 
the fingers at the joints. 

Rumah t. : a homestead ; a home ; Ht. Abd., 

BBrtangga-tangga : at fifth or sixth hand ; 
passing from one individual to another through 
a whole chain of intermediate owners. 

tSnggara. South-East ; the South-East. 
Angin t. : a S. E. wind. T. mandi : a strong 
wind from the S, E. ; Ht. Abd., 126; Pel. 
Abd., 115. r. tSpat: exactly S. E. 

Timor minenggara : E. S. E. Selatan meneng- 
gara: S. S. E. ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 

,j^jiSJ5 tSnggarun. A silk kain Upas. Also tekarun 


and i^garun 

tSnggala. [Skr. langgdla.] A plough. 

Toleh t, : the forenoon ; Ht. Sri Rama (Maxw.), 
14. Toleh t, nmda : 8 or 9 a.m. Toleh tenggala 
tuha: 10 or 11 a.m. 

MMinggala : to plough; Ht. Jah., 5. 

-" tSnggalong. (Riau, Johor.) A kind of civet- 
cat; viverra tangalunga; also (Kedah) ting- 
halong and musang tinggalong, 

Pagar tinggalong: the rail round the stern 
gallery (dandan, q. v.) of a ship. 









tgnggayong. (Riau, Johor.) 
identified) ; see tengkayong. 

A tree (un- 

tSnggajnin. A tree (unidentified), KL; also 
(Riau, Johor) tenggayong and (Kedah) iHg- 

t6nggat. I. To hinder; to obstruct; Kl. 

n. Limit. Dari tenggat ini ka tenggat itu : 
from this Hmit to that. Also singgat, 

Cf. hingga. 

tonggit or tunggit. Moving the posterior 
parts backwards, thrusting them out; the 
motion of thrusting them out — as distinct 
from their being merely prominent (tonggek^ 
q. v.). 

Tonggang t. : v. tonggang. 

tanggar. Undertaking (a duty) successfully; 
putting it through ; managing it. Buleh tang- 
gar atau tidak : can you manage this or not ? 

tengger. Squatting ; sitting with bent lower 
limbs on a confined spot, like a bird on a twig. 
Bertengger : to be squatted; to squat, like a 
frog upon a pillow (Ht. Ind. Jaya) ; or like a 
monkey on its bearer's shoulders (Ht. Ind. 
Jaya) ; to be perched, as a bird on the roof- 
tree of a palace (Ht. Kal. Dam., 294). 


porting; = 

Propping up, 
sagang, q. v. 

buttressing, sup- 

taixggong. Supporting on the shoulders, 
bearing up a heavy weight by supporting it 
from below; bearing up under difficulty or 

Tanggongan : a burden ; a weight ; the thing 

Tanggongkan and menanggongkan : to hold 
a thing up ; to support a burden. Menang- 
gong : id. Menanggong kemaluwan : to reach 
the age of knowledge (of a girl) ; Ht. Best. 

Tertanggong : borne ; supported ; Sh. Pant. 
Shi., 4. 

tenggang. I. Equally divided, of a burden ; 
share and share alike. 

II. Tenggang'tanggoh : limited in time; a 
time limit for the performance of any work. 

tingging. A fish (unidentified). 

tinggong. Squatted; a squatting attitude, 
sitting on one's heels. Tertinggong sapMi 
kodok dalam lobang : squatting like a toad in 
a hole. Tinggong is not used of birds sitting 
on a branch, but is confined to squatting on 
a flat surface without any lack of room. 

Anjing bMinggong : the name given to a 
peculiar form of fish-hook, the shaft of which 
is very straight at first and turns away at the 
base at a very sharp angle instead of by a 
gradual curve. 


[ 171 ] 




tonggang or tunggang. I. Riding. Me- 
nonggang: (transitive) to ride ; Ht. Ind, Nata. 
Tonggangi : to ride (intransitive) ; Sh. IbL, 4. 

Tonggang is used by metaphor of the sun 
topping the mountains ; Ht. Sh. 

II. Upside down; turned upside down ; 
turning upside down. 

T. balek : upside down ; standing on its 

T. langgang : sprawling head over heels. 

T, tonggit : bowing in front and sticking out 
behind, as a man bowing in prayer. 

Cf. also tuwang, for which tonggang is some- 
times used. Tonggang arak ; the pouring out 
of spirit, the bottle having to be turned down 
for the purpose. 

Orang lemas baik di-tonggang, 
Ayer kaluwar ikut mulut : 

when a man is half drowned, hold him up 
by the heels and the water will run out of his 

tonggeng or tnngging. I. Lifting the 
posterior, raising the posterior, as in leap-frog. 
T. buyo7ig : turning the posterior towards one 
side or the other ; cf. tonggeng and tenggeL 

II. The fourth day hence; the day after 
that known as ttdat. 

TuJi tonggong. Heaped up, distribution in heaps ; 
^ more usually tonggok, q. v. 


'" tanggak. Bertanggak-tanggak : being con- 
tinually put off, of a work; subject to con- 
tinual interruptions. Also bertagak-tagak, 

^3^*^ tanggok. A dome-shaped rattan basket used 
as a trap for small fish and shrimps ; a shrimp- 
trap shaped something like a hen-coop. 
Saperti hudang dalam tanggok : like prawns in 
a trap ; in difficulties ; Prov., J.S.A.S,, XXIV., 
94. Hendak bertanggok kapada ikan, sndah 
tertanggok kapada batang : to put the trap down 
on a fish and to find oneself catching a tree 
trunk ; to be sold ; Prov. 

7\ ayer : a curious kind of water-wheel used 
in irrigating padi-Helds. 

Menanggok: to catch fish or prawns by 
means of the tanggok. 

^SJS tSnggak. (Kedah.) Certain, sure, definite; 

,3^ tSnggek. I. Tossing rice on a badang or on 
the hand. 

II. To shake the posterior; to move the 
buttocks from' side to side ; cf, tonggit and 






tenggek, I. Squatting; perched; sitting as 

a bird on a tree or as an ape on a branch ; = 
tengger, q. v. Bertenggek : to be perched, as 
a bird; Ht. Ind, Meng.; Ht. Koris; Ht. Sh. 
Kub. Berdiri kaki tunggal bertenggek kapada 
tangkai bunga chempaka itu : standing on one 
foot and resting that foot on the stalk of a 
chempaka Rower ; Ht. Sh. Kub. Sa-ekor gajah 
bertenggek di-atas hidong-nya tiyada di-sedar- 
nya: they ignore an elephant's perching on 
their noses ; swallowing a camel after strain- 
ing at a gnat ; Pel. Abd., 106. 

II. Wearing the head-dress at a rakish 
slant. Hang ta'-korang sanggul, aku ta'-korang 
tenggek : you don't spare your hair-dressing 
and I do not spare my head-dress ; six of one 
and half-a-dozen of the other ; Prov. 

tonggak. I. A hidden snag. 

1 1 . Menonggak : to sweep powdery sub- 
stances into the mouth with the hand. 

in. Roots such as those of the banyan tree. 

tonggek. I. Prominence or natural projec- 
tion of the posterior parts, as distinct from 
the act or motion of their projection ; cf. 
tonggit, q. v. 

II. Turned upside down ; hanging head- 
downwards ; Arabian Nights, 489. Tonggek- 
kan : to turn upside down ; Arabian Nights, 

."») tonggok. Distribution in heaps, e. g,, as road 

metal is stored on a road. Sa-tonggok: a pile; 
a small mound or heap, rather more than 
sa4ornpok, q. v. 

tanggal. Loosening; spontaneous (or appa- 
rently spontaneous) severance or fall, as the 
fall of leaves on the approach of winter, or the 
loss of teeth with advancing age. Orang tuwa 
yang sudak tanggal gigi-nya : an old man whose 
teeth had fallen out ; Sej. Mai., 19. Kulit 
tilar yang sudah tanggal daripada-nya itu : the 
skin cast by a snake ; Hay. Haiw. 

Tanggalkan : to remove, to take off. 
Menanggalkan : id. Tanggalkan pakaiyan, or 
menanggalkan pakaiyan : to take off one*s 
clothing; Ht. Hg. Tuw. ; Ht. Sg. Samb.; Ht. 
Gul. Bak., 40. 

Penanggalan: (Riau, Johor) an evil spirit; 
a flying head with entrails hanging from it. 
This evil spirit is said to be of the male sex 
and to be created by the art of the magician 
only. In Kedah, t^nggelong. 

tanggol. Bobbing up and down, as the bows 
of a boat in choppy weather, or as a man 
climbing a hill ; cf. mggoL 


[ 172 ] 



tinggal. Remaining over; remaining behind; 
remaining or surviving when other persons or 
things have gone; left behind; abandoned; 
continuous residence. Paderi itu tinggal sa- 
orang tiyada berkawan : the missionary was 
left alone without a companion; Ht. Abd., 
319. Banyak yang matt sadikit yang tinggal : 
many died, few only survived ; Sh. Pr. Ach., 
21. Biyasa tinggal di-atas pohtm kayti : accus- 
tomed to living on trees; Ht. Abd,, 388. 

Tinggal nadi : with one's pulse only left ; 
stripped of all except life; Prov. Tinggal 
kelopak salak : with the sheath of the salak 
fruit only left; left with nothing but the 
clothing one is wearing ; Prov. 

Tinggali : to leave behind ; to abandon; Sh. 
Bid., 48; Sh. Sri Bun., 5, 12, 55. Tinggalkan: 
id.; Sej. Mai., 9; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 30; Ht. 
Abd., 43, 118, 225, 386, etc. Meninggalkan : 
id. ; Ht. Abd., 67, 116, 292, 359, etc. 

Ketinggalan : severance by absence ; aban- 
donment; Sh. Lamp., 43. 

Peninggal and peninggalan : the act of leav- 
ing ; abandonment. Dalam peninggal : in the 
absence of; Ht. Bakht., 66. Sa-peninggal : 
id,; Ht. Abd., 103, 191, etc. Sa-peninggalan : 
id. ; Ht. Abd., 287. 

Tertinggal : left behind; abandoned; Ht. 
Abd., 182. Tertinggali: id.; Sh. Bid., 78. 

tinggil. Jav. A gallery, a sort of balcony. 
Peninggil : id. ; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

tunggal. Unity ; sole ; single ; unique ; soli- 
tary ; the one. Anak t, : an only child. Babi 
t. : a solitary boar ; Ht. Sg, Samb. Gajah t. : 
a rogue elephant. 

Bersauh t. : moored on one cable only ; Sh. 
Bur. Nuri, 40. 

Berdiri kaki t, : standing on one leg ; Ht. 
Sh. Kub. 

Sangyang t. : the one and only God ; the 
Supreme Divine Essence; an equivalent for 
Allah in Javanese attempts to reconcile 
Muhammadan and Hindu religious ideas ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. 

Besi t, : a kind of iron endowed with unique 
qualities. Shaitdn Si-Itam Ttmggal : the name 
of an evil spirit. Hikmat Siyamang Ttmggal : 
the name of a wonder-working charm. 

Pa'tunggal : an only uncle. MaHunggal : an 
only aunt. 

Berjalan tunggal -tnnggal : to travel in single 
file; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 


~* tunggil. Tunggil'langgang : (Kedah) sprawl- 
ing head over heels ; also tonggang langgang. 


tunggul. 1. A stump of a tree ; the part left 
standing after the trunk has been sawn 
through ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 27 ; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; 
Ht. Best. Ttmggid terbakar di4ingah huma : 
a black tree stump in a field of standing ^ai^ ; 
a black man in gorgeous garments, Prov. 
Tunggul kayu kalan tar ah pelinchin di-elok juga, 
jangankan mamisiya : even a tree stump can 
be beautified if you plane and smooth it ; how 
much more then can a man be beautified (by 
apparel) ; Prov. 

Ttmggul'tnnggul or (colloquially) tetunggul : 
an upstanding stump of a rainbow, deemed by 
Malays to be portentous of evil; Ht. Nakh. 
Muda, II ; Sh. Si Lemb., 38. 

Ttinggul'ttmggul angin : a weathercock or vane. 

Ttmggid is also used as a numeral coefficient 
for boat-planks, and for standards, and (by 
extension) means a standard, flag, or banner, 
r. panji-panji : the flags and pennons of an 
army ; Sej. Mai., 17 ; Ht. Ind. Jaya, etc. T, 
berttdis si-raja wali : a banner bearing the 
image of a falcon on it ; Sh. Sri Bun., 14. 

III. Pemmggid : a massive but movable 
block of wood to which elephants and buffa- 
loes are sometimes tethered to interfere with 
the rapidity of their movements and so prevent 
their escaping. Denak penunggtd : a decoy 
bird attached to anything with a string. 

IV. The making of an indemnity or propi- 
tiatory offering by the vanquished to the 
victor. Pemmggid : a propitiatory offering. 

Kalau tidak penunggtd di-beri-nya, 
Langgardah negeri bongkar kota-nya : 

if he gives no propitiatory offering, attack his 
city and overthrow his citadel ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 
Maka Betara Indera memberi penunggtd Nila 
Utama dan Sakarba dengan sa-pidoh orang bida- 
dari : Indra gave as a peace offering (to Boma) 
Nila Utama and Sakarba with ten other 
nymphs of heaven ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Memmggid : to give such an offering ; Ht. Sh. ; 
Ht. Sh. Kub.; = memberi penunggtd, 

Memmggtdkan : to give (anything) by way of 
propitiation; Sh, Panj. Sg. 

V. Pemmggul : a sentry ; a watchman at a 
palace gate ; a care-taker ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

tSnggelong. (Kedah.) An evil spirit of the 
male sex represented as having only a head 
with entrails hanging from it, and as flying 
through the air;=:(Riau, Johor) penanggalan 
(from tanggal, q. v.). 

iSJS tfinggelam. Submersion ; sinking ; disap- 
r pearance from the surface. Untong batu teng- 

gelam : it is the lot of a stone to sink ; it is 
no use fighting against natural laws; Prov. 
Suratan-nya timbid tenggelam : the written 
characters on it were partly visible, partly 
effaced ; Ht. Abd., 237, 238. Matahari teng- 
gelam : sunset; Bint. Tim., 6 March, 1895. 
Leher-nya tenggelam uleh sebab tambun-nya : his 
neck was lost to view because of his corpu- 
lency ; Ht. Abd., 328. 

Tenggelamkan : to submerge ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 


[ 173 ] 







tanggam. A groove at the end of a beam or 
plank cut to allow of its being more firmly 
joined on to another beam. Takok tanggam : 

Tanggam : is also used metaphorically of 
uniting by friendship or by any other bond. 

Tertanggam : bound, fastened, stuck. Ter- 
tanggam paroh ka-tanah : its beak got stuck in 
the earth; Ht. Raj. Don., 40. 

tenggan. Rolls of fat; folds of flesh, for 
instance, in the arms of a fat child ; also 

tunggU. Watching ; custodianship ; the 
duties of a watchman. 

Tungguwi : to watch over, to keep a watch 
on (anything); Ht. Abd., 325. Menungguwi : 
id.; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Sh. Sri Bun., 32. 
Memmggu : id. ; Ht. Abd., 180, 279. 

Bertunggii : to be on the watch ; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya ; Sh. Sri Bun., 30. 

Penunggtc : a watchman ; a care-taker. 
Pemmggu pintti : a porter ; a guardian of the 
gate; Sej. Mai., gi. 

tSnggulong. A kind of millipede which rolls 
itself up into a ball when touched. Also 

tengguli. A tree, cassia fistula ; Kl. 

tanggah. I. Pers. A small tin coin. Kl. 

n. Penanggah : a kitchen in a royal palace; 
Sh. Bid., 28. Penanggahan : id. 

tanggoh. Postponement ; putting off. Sehaya 
ta'-buleh beri tanggoh : I can allow no further 
postponement; Ht. Abd., 243. 

Bertanggoh : to postpone; to grant an exten- 
sion of time ; Ht. Bakht., 34. 

Pertanggohan : a postponement, an extension 
of time; Ht. Kal. Dam., 344; Ht. Zaly., 23. 

tanggi. Eng. Tank, the water-tanks on a 
ship. Also tangki. 

^Si5 tinggi. Height ; altitude ; lofty, as a hill ; 
tall, as a man. Also (by metaphor) exalted 
in position or rank; lofty in manner; advanced 
in learning or skill. Mahatinggi : very lofty ; 
exalted ; the Most High. 

T. hati : pride ; enlarged ideas of one's own 
importance and of the respect due to one. 

Jiirn t, : (i) the captain of the fore-top ; the 
petty officer in charge of the sails and rigging; 
(2) the professional climber after edible bird's 

Tinggikan: to raise; to exalt. 
Petinggi : a collector of customs dues. 

tfinggiri. Ikan t, : an edible marine fish with 
a long narrow shining-white body ; Ht. Abd., 
202, 229 ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 4 ; Kam, Kech,, 6. 

T. batang (Pel. Abd., 28), t, tohok, and t. 
tunda or t. timdan : varieties of this fish. 

tSnggiling. The name of a kind of ant-eater ; 
manis javanica. 

A tap batti sisek tenggiling : tile roofing. 

tanglong and tenglong. [Chin. teng-Uong.] 
A large Chinese lantern ; Sh. Sri Bun., 14, 
29; Sh. Bid., 8; Ht. Koris ; Ht. Ind. Nata; 
Ht. Abd., 245, 247 ; Cr. Gr., 46, 78, etc. 

T. berjentera : a revolving Chinese lantern. 

tengah. Midst; middle; the half; the centre 
(in position); during (in point of time). T. 
mengajar : whilst teaching. T,hari: midday. 
Piikitl duwa tengah malam : at 2 a.m. Tengah 
empat ribu piktd : three thousand five hundred 
pikuls. Tengah naik : (of age) = approaching 
adolescence; half-grown. Sa-tengah : a half; 
a fair portion of; a quantity of; some. Kata 
sa4engah orang : some people say. 

Pertengahan: middle size, average ; Ht. Abd., 
59; centre, half-way; middle; Ht. Abd., 424; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 47, Pertengahan jalan : on the 
way; Sh. Lamp., 2'^)=.tengah jalan, 

Ajd tengoh. Menengoh : ( Onom. ) to low, of 





gj tafahus. Arab. Examination ; to carefully 

examine; Sej. Mai., 124; Ht. Kal. Dam., 
312; Ht. Sri Rama; Ht. Best. 

j^.^ tafsir. Arab. Explanation, commentary 
(especially of the Koran); Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

Tafstrkan : to comment on, to give a running 
explanation of the text ; Ht. Abus., 10. 


tafakkur. Arab. To think deeply, to medi- 
tate; Ht. Abd., 115, 124, 409, 474; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 333. Dudok tafakkur: 
sitting pondering. 
Often pronounced tefekor. 

»— i-J top. L (Onom.) A sound such as that of 
two books falling one on another ; cf. letup, 

II. Main top : a Chinese game ; Kl. 

III. A vessel with very bluff bows; Pel. 
Abd., 118; (Province Wellesley) a sugar-cane 
boat with angular instead of curved bows. 

Top kochi and top gelemat : varieties of native 

IV. Ikan top-top: (Riau) a fish (unidentified). 

V. An exclamation equivalent to the 
English expression *'Talk of the devil,*'— used 
when the person spoken of unexpectedly 

VI. Eng. Top'Sel : topsail. 

VII. Layar top : a native lug-sail with a 
long yard. 


[ 174 ] 





A band worn round the forehead ; 



1 ...ft * 

tSpayan. (Kedah.) A large jar such as a 
Siamese or Shanghai jar; better tempayan, 

tSpat. Exactly ; full ; due (in expressions like 
'* due "North). 

Barat t, : due West. 

Penoh t, : exactly full. 

Beriepat janji : to carry out one's promise. 

Kata tidak di-pegang-nya, 
Janji tidak di-iepat-nya : 

he does not keep to his word or carry out his 
promises; J. S. A. S., II., 152. 

Perahu bertambatan dagang bertepatan : 

where the ships are moored and the goods in 

safety, a proverbial definition of a good 
commercial emporium. 

Menepati : to assure, to secure ; Ht. Ind. 

tSptibau. A bird (unidentified); Ht. Sri 
Rama (Maxw.), i. 

tepSrling, A bird, calomis chalyheins ; also 
chemperling and perlingy q. v. 

tSpas. L Brimful ; full up, of the hold of a 
ship, but not overfull ; cf. $arat and tipat. 

II. Empat tepas dunya : the four quarters of 
the Earth; ™ empat penjuru ^dlam; Kl. 

tSpis. Striking aside ; pushing aside with the 
hand; warding off by striking aside; cf. tang- 

Tepis menepis tangkis menangkis : to fence, 
both guarding and striking aside. 

Tepiskan : to strike anything aside ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. ; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 8. Menepiskan : 
id. ; Ht. Koris ; Ht. Sh. Mard. Di4episkan- 
nya muka siiwami-nya menchiytmi diya : she 
pushed away her husband's face as he tried 
to kiss her ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

tSpus. A name given to a number of wild 

topsil or tapsil. Eng. Topsail ; Pel. Abd., 

tSpang. (Riau.) A tree (unidentified). 

tSpong. Flour; meal; floury; mealy; any 
substance of the character or appearance of 
flour ; a generic name for a large number of 
cakes somewhat resembling shortbread. 

T. beras : rice-meal. 

T, bungkus : a cake made of tepongjawi^ coco- 
nut milk and inti, 

T, gandom : wheaten flour. 

T. jag07tg : maize flour. 

T. jawi : flour oijawi rice. 

T. pasong : a cake made of jawi flour, sugar 
and coco-nut milk, the whole being wrapped 
in a pisang leaf. 

T.pukit: Homy of puhd vice, 

r. tawar : a yellow powder used in magical 

r. badak, t. bawang, t, bunga : cakes of the 
shortbread type, so called after their shapes. 

Menjadi tepong : lit., to become flour, i. e., to 
be crushed to powder, as an enemy under the 
stroke of a hero's mace ; Ht. Koris. 

IjLS tfipak. (Onom.) A slight blow ; a sharp slap 

or pat ; pushing aside, as distinct from striking 
aside; v. tepis, Cf. tepek and tepok. 




tSpek. (Onom.) A slap or slight blow with 

the back of the hand ; cf. tepak, tepok^ tampar, 
tempeleng and sepak. 

tSpok. I. (Onom.) A heavy blow with the 

flat of the hand ; a slap ; a pat with the open 
hand ; a sounding blow or clap to keep time 
to music, Anjing di4epok kepala menjengkit 
ekor : pat a dog on the head and he will cock 
up his tail ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 35. Bagai- 
mana tepok bagitu-lah tari-nya : as the time is 
beaten so will the rhythm of the dancing be ; 
like cause, like effect; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 92. 
Di4epok ayer di-dulang memerechek muka sendiri 
juga : slap water and it only splashes your face ; 
vent your anger on natural forces and you 
will only suffer for your folly; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
XL, 52. Bagai bertepok tangan sa-belah : like 
clapping with one hand only (useless eff'ort 
since no noise results) ; it takes two to make 
a quarrel or a love affair. 

Alang'kah sakit berdendam sa-orang, 
Bagai bertepok tangan sa-belah : 

is not one-sided love a misery ; it is like try- 
ing to clap with one hand (useless repining). 

Tepoki: to slap; Ht. Sh. Kub. Bertepok: id.; 
Ht. Mar. Mah. Menepok: id. Men^pok dada: 
to beat the breast ; Sh. Bid., 25 ; Sh. Jub. 
Mai., 8; Ht. Gul. Bak., 49, 64. 

Bertepok4epok : to keep knocking up against, 
as waves knocking against a boat. 

Cf. tepak, tepek, tampar, sepak and tempeleng, 

II. Menepok. 

to caulk; to tar; Kl. Cf. 

tSpam. Laying the palm of the hand on 
anything or passing over anything with the 
hand in order to discover its form by the 
sense of touch, as when children play blind- 
man's buff and the name of any one caught 
has to be guessed ; lying down flat on one's 
stomach ; stretched out face downwards ; cf. 


[ 175 ] 




t6pu. Full to the brim; full, as the sails of a 
boat ; under full sail, of a boat. 

tSpi. Edge ; border ; margin ; brink. T, laut : 
the sea-shore. Kain ta'-bertepi : a cloth with- 
out border ; a seamless garment ; a man who 
tells the truth but cannot get believed ; Prov. 
Bertepikan : seamed ; Arabian Nights, 378. 
Menepi : to step to the edge, to move aside 
{e. g.y to avoid a shot) ; Pel. Abd., 53, 

tapekong. [Chin, toa-pe-kong: great pater- 
nal ancestor ?] A Chinese joss ; the picture 
of the Earth-spirit in the entrance hall of a 
Chinese house ; a keramat spirit. Rumah t. : a 
joss-house; a Chinese temple to the Earth- 

Also to' pekong and dato' pekong. 

^ tak. (Onom.) A sound such as that of a rap, 

or of a cracking piece of wood ; cf. ketak and 

Jj^ tek or tik. I. (Onom.) A sound such as 

that of the trickling of water or of the ticking 
of a clock. Cf. titek and tak. 

II. (Penang.) 

An exclamation of peevish 

J3 tok or tuk. 

but duller. 

(Onom.) A sound ; = tak, q, v., 

J^' takbir. Arab. To bury. 



tokchan. (Penang.) Blind-man's buff ; also 
main china buta, 

Budak budak bermain tokchan, 
A mbil kain tntup mata : 

the children are playing blind-man's buff; they 
have taken a cloth and bandaged the eyes (of 
one of their number). 

takdir. Arab. Will ; decree — especially of 

the decrees of Providence. Dengan takdir 
A llah ; or dengan takdir ildhi : by the decree 
of God. 

Tanglong hanyut dart hulu, 
Lantai balai di-belah-belah ; 

Menanggong sakit tidak bermalu, 
Sudah dengan takdir A llah : 

there is no shame in suffering from illness ; 
illness comes by God's decree ; Sh. Sri Bun., 

T, kemalangan : misfortune. 

Takdirkan (Sh. Abd. Mk., 85) and mentakdir- 
kan : (used in speaking of God only) to decree 
the existence of. Tuhan yang mentakdirkan 
igama islam dan igama masihi itu : God who 
willed the existence of the religion of Muham- 
mad and of that of Christ ; Ht. Abd., 466. 

i««iJuti takdis. Arab. To sanctify; sanctification. 

j^jZ takrtr. Arab. Settling down; establishment. 

>^V^^* taksir. L Arab. Negligence; carelessness; 

Htlsk. Dz.; Ht. Sh. Mard., 19; Majm. al- 
Ahk., 22. 

II. (Dutch.) To tax ; to assess ; to esti- 
mate. Sakaliyan kerugiyan di-taksir belaka 
enampuloh lapan ribu hisdb mareka: the damage 
done was estimated by them to mount up to 
$68,000, in all ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 9. 

^> tekpi. [Chin. ?] A kind of three-pointed pike 
or trident. 

"^4^^ taklid. Arab. Investing with an office or 

^jZ takwim. Arab. Calendar, almanac. 

^ tSka. [Skr. tarka.] Teka4eki : riddles, 
comindrnms ;= terka-terki and kitiki ; see 
ferka. Also teka\ 

Sural teka-teki terbang : a book of puzzles ; 
a first reader. 

Tekaan : guess-work. 

J^OJ tekarun. A silk kain lepas; Ht. Koris. 
Also tcganm and tenggarun. 

jj^ tSkaru. A plant (unidentified); J. I. A., L, 330. 

J'S^ takabbur. Arab. Pride ; haughtiness ; arro- 
gance ; Sh. Nas., 9 ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 17 ; 
Ht. Abd., 270 ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 75. Usually 
pronounced tekebtir. 

Takabburkan : to render arrogant. Perkataan 
tttwan jangan takabburkan : do not put pride 
into your language ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 19. 

takbir. Arab. To assert the greatness of 
God; to say: ''Allahti Akbar,'' 

tSkat. Embroidery in the precious metals or 
with pearls ; gold lace ; silver thread work. 

r. tinibul : massive embroidery in gold lace 
rising above its ground-work of cloth. 

Bertekat mas: embroidered in gold; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. Bertekat permata: embroidered 
in gems ; Ht. Koris. Bertekat ungu : em- 
broidered in purple ; Sh. Bid., 26. 

toktok. (Onom.) A wooden or bamboo 

sounding-board ; a tube of bamboo struck as 
a signal. 

takrim. Arab. To revere, to highly honour; 
Ht. Ind. Nata. Sembah takrim : a reverential 
obeisance ; Sh. Tab. Mimp., 18. 

tdkis. Working (with the needle) as close to 
the edge as possible. 


[ 176 ] 




tSkang. The wooden barriers or walls placed 
inside a well to prevent the earth falling in ; 
cross-beams in a Malay boat to strengthen 
the structure, of. chekang; the poles which 
keep the mouth of a net (pukat) open. 

tSkap. Resting the inside of the hand on 
anything; slight pressure with the flat of 
the hand, the thumb being lowered slightly 
so as to allow of a slight hollow between the 
centre of the hand and the surface on which 
the hand rests. Di4ekap-nya mulut kakanda : 
she put her hand upon her lover's mouth ; Ht. 
Koris. Bertekap muka dengan sapti-tangan : 
covering the face with her kerchief; Sh. Panj. 
Kartds t. : blotting-paper. 


|5j tSkup. Covering with the hand, catching by 
covering with the hand ; cf. chekup, tangkup, 



t6kak. I. The space between the palate 
and the tongue ; the hollow in the fore part 
of the mouth. 

Anak tekak : the uvula. 

II. Obstinacy. 

III. See teka. 

o tfikek. I. A drug used in dyeing. 

II. Obstinacy; argumentativeness; unwill- 
ingness to accept statements made by others. 

III. (Onom.) A lizard, the gecko; platy- 
dactyhis guttatus or gecko monarchus. Better 

rSj tfikok. I. A fish (unidentified). 

II. (Singapore.) Guess ! v. teka and agak. 

u-xISj taklif. Arab. To burden with. 


tfikam. A tree (unidentified) ; Kl. 

tSkan. Pressure with the flat of the hand or 
leg — more forcible than tekap, q. v. ; pressure 
to test strength (Sej. Mai., 61) or to obtain 
a moulding or impression. Yang ada mem- 
bawa tepong lembek4embek di-tekankan-nya di- 
batu itu : some brought soft dough and pressed 
it upon the stone (to obtain an impression 
of the characters carved on it) ; Ht. Abd., 237. 

tSkun. Assiduity ; perseverance ; keeping to 
anything. Maka ada4ah kira-kira dulapan 
sembilan bulan aku birtektm mhigaji : I kept to 
my studies for some eight or nine months; 
Ht. Abd., 30. 
Also (Kedah) teku. 


J tdku. ( Kedah, ) Assiduity, perseverance ; = 
tBktm^ q. V. Teku4akai : (intensitive) keeping 
assiduously at any work. 

\J>^ tfikuwa or tSkwa. Baju tekuwa : a kind of 
long sleeveless baju worn by women ; Ht. Sh. 

^J>^ tdkukor. A dove, turttir tigrina; Sh. Ung. 
Bers., 3; Ht. Sh. Kub. Padang t, : a plain 
for wild doves, e,g,j a desolate uncultivated 
spot abandoned to wild doves; Ht. Gul. Bak., 

^ tSkah. A species of long-tailed monkey, Sw.; 
(Riau, Johor) kekah. 

^Od tekoll. (Kedah.) Time, period ; = masa. 
Tekoh mana : when. Tekoh4ekoh : at times ; 
= kadang'kadang. 




teki. I. Riwtptit t. : a grass, kyllinga mono- 

II. Teka4eki, or teka''4ekif or keteki : a 
riddle, a conundrum ; guessing. 

Oj^^ tegarun. A kind of silk kain Upas, Also 
tekarun and tenggarmn, 

tegar. Stiffness ; inflexibility of temper ; un- 
bending ; unswerving, either of a man or of a 
road which does not avoid difficulties. 

T. haii : inflexibility of disposition. 

Ketegaran : hardness of heart ; Arabian 
Nights, 54. 

tegor. Address ; greeting ; salutation. Maka 
sigera4ah di4egor tileh baginda mart4ah anak-ku 
tiiwan dudok : he was promptly greeted by the 
king (with the words) : '* Come, my son, be 
seated, Sir " ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

T. sapa : courtesy of address ; tact in open- 
ing a conversation ; Ht. Abd., 134, 294 ; Ht. 
Bakht., 14. 

Tegorkan : to address any one regarding any 
point ; to draw a man's attention to anything. 
Barang siapa menengar salah bachaan-mti itu 
dapatiyada di4egor'nya : if any one hears you 
make a mistake in your reading he will cer- 
tainly draw your attention to it ; Ht. Abd., 
32. Menegorkan : id; Ht. Abd., 417. 

Tegori : to address; Ht. Gul. Bak., 41, 71. 
Menegori: id.; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Ketegoran : addressing; accosting; the act 
of speaking to. Kena ketegoran hantu : to be 
plagued by a ghost ; to be haunted. 

^Jj^^ tagerak. 

Pers. Hail; hailstorm. 

tSgang. Tautness ; stretched to the full ; at 
its full span or stretch, as a sail ; cf. regang, 
chekang, tekang, etc. Kmdor berletmg4eting, 
tegang berjela-jela : the loose vibrates with a 
twang, the tight hangs loose ; black is white 
and white black; Prov., J. S. A. S., 11. , 151. 

v_iSj tfigap. Stiffly erect, bolt upright ; tegak, q. v. 


[ 177 ] 


,^jSJ tfigak. Stiff; upright, of the body. B^rdiri 
tegak: bolt upright; Sh. Pr. Ach., 8. Ter- 
tegak : drawn up erect ; stiffly erect ; Ht. Raj. 
Sul.; 7. 
Hahiwan t. : square bows, in a ship. 

v3^ tSgok. I. Gulping; a gulp. Sa-tegok : as 
much as a man can swallow at a gulp; a 
mouthful ; Bost. Sal. ; Ht. Si Misk., 42 ; Ht. 
Hamz., 72. 

n. Unwilling, hostile; objection to. Men- 
egok : to object ; Ht. Zaly., 7. 

tSgal. Cause; = karena or sebab. Tegal apa: 
why ; wherefore. 

tSgil. Jav. The natural spur of a fighting- 
cock; also tagiL 

tSgun. I. A tree from the wood of which 
oars are made ; Kl. 

II. The attitude of expectation struck by a 
pawang when he awaits the spirit's descent ; 
stark, immovable; cf. temegun, 

Bidii t, : (Kedah) the mane of a horse ; the 
bristles on the neck of a wild pig, etc. 

OC> tegah. Hindrance ; prohibition. 

Tegahkan or menegahkan : to prohibit ; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Abd., 162, 259, etc. ; to 
hinder; Arabian Nights, 69. Di-tegahkan ber- 
senjata : the wearing of arms was prohibited ; 
Ht. Abd., 440. ItU'lah di-stiroh tegahkan : he 
ordered it to be prohibited ; Ht. P. J. P. 

r. larang: prohibitions generally. Meme- 
rentahkan tegah larang segala jin pert : to rule 
and control all the jins and fairies ; Ht. Best. 

Tegah is also used of the thing prohibited, 
the unlawful. Menjaiihkan tegah : keep all 
that is unlawful away from yourself; Sh. I. 
M. P., 2. 

oS tggoh. Stiff; firm; fast; tight, as a knot; 
strongly built, as a fort ; well kept or rigidly 
adhered to, as a promise. Tiyada tegoh satiya- 
nya : he is not very firm in his loyalty. Di- 
ikat-nya tegoh-tegoh : he tied it very tightly. 

Bertegoh'tegohkan janji : to make a mutual 
promise or agreement ; Ht. Abd., 100, 129. 

Menegohkan : to confirm ; to strengthen ; to 
encourage ; to bear up ; to reassure. 

jf> tol or tul. Eur. A thole pin. 

"^ t61a. A portion of a Malay house, the part 
between the front building and the kitchen ; 
a space (sometimes open above) connecting 
the constituent parts of a Malay house. 
Tingkap t. : the window of this portion. 

dij^ tglatah. Manner, behaviour, ways. 

(jS% tfiladan or tuladan. Model; examples- 
copy ; representation to be imitated. 



telapak. Dull telapakan : (beneath) the dust 

under the soles of your feet, — a humble way 
of describing one's own position to a raja, 
and often used as a mode of address to princes. 
Ka-bawah duli telapakan tuwan-kii : id. — less 
elliptically expressed. 

A derivative of tapak, q. v. 

tSlaga. [Skr. taldka, tddaga.] A mere; a 
pool; a well; Ht. Gh. ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 31. 
Ada-kah pernah telaga yang keroh itu mengalir 
ayer-nya jirneh : does a dirty pool ever give a 
flow of clean water? Prov., Ht. Abd., 442. 
Telaga menchari timba : the well goes in search 
of the bucket ; a woman making love to a 
man ; Prov. 

Perigi di-kata telaga 

Tempat biidak bendang mandi ; 

Mas perak ada berherga, 
Budi behasa sukar di-chari : 

a well is called ** telaga, " a place where 
children go and bathe ; gold and silver have 
their price, but kindness and courtesy are 
hard to find. 

0^ tilawat. Arab. The reading of the Koran. 

ij^ telayan. A fish-seller; Ht. Kal. Dam., 68, 
87, 401. Also nalayan, 

,j»_^lc telut. I. Knee; = Ititut, Bertelut: on one's 
knees; kneeling; to kneel; Ht. Best.; Ht. 
Ham^a, 20. Sarnbil bertelut di-tikam-nya : as 
he knelt down he was stabbed; Ht. Abd., 246. 
Jalan bertelut : to walk on one's shins and 
knees. Maka segala munteri dan hidubalang 
itnpun bertelut menjunjong duli : all the minis- 
ters and captains bent the knee and did 
homage; Ht. Bakht., 14. 

II. Penetration, = terlut; v. lut, Ta'-tBlut: 
it does not (or did not) penetrate— of a 
weapon. Jikalau sa-tahun pun turun hujan 
tiyada akan telut ka-dalam-nya : were it to rain 
for a year the rain would not soak into it ; 
Ht. Abd., 94. 

Jg tglor. Egg; an egg; fish roe. Telor di-hujong 
tandok : an egg balanced on the tip of a horn ; 
a man or thing in a very critical position; 

T, asin : salted eggs ; preserved eggs. 

T. ayam : a fowl's egg, 

T. belangkas : a plant, sida carpinifolia, and 
mcesa ramentacea, 

T. buwaya : a crocodile's egg ; v. bochong. 

T, ikan : a grass, panicum radicans, L. 

r. merah: (by reference to the red eggs given 
to guests at weddings) virginity. Kutib t. : 
(Penang) to collect wedding eggs,— used to 
describe a man who lives on his daughter's 
earnings by prostitution. 



[ 178 ] 






T. terubok : a kind of caviare or sambal made 
of the roe of the terubok, 

Buloh t, : a bamboo ; schizostachyum zollingeri. 

Btmga t, : the red eggs given to guests at 

Kuweh t. : a cake made of ptdut^ rice and 
eggs, baked in a mould and soaked in oil. 

Pulut t. : a kind oi padi, 

A kar t. bujok : a plant, agelcea vestita, 

Sa-biji f.: a single egg; Ht. Abd., 215. Sa- 
btmah t, : id. ; Ht. Abd., no. 

tdlang. A design in long patches. Bertelang- 
Ulang: marked by patches of (proportionately) 
great length and unequal width. Btiloh t, : 
a bamboo, gigantochloa heterostachya. Buloh 
t, minyak : gigantochloa latispictdata, 

tdlangkup. Upside down ; turned upside 
down, of a cup or bowl ; v. tangkup. 

tSlengkah, Diversity of character ; inequality 
of size; possessed of different peculiarities; 
cf. tingkah. 

tSlangkai. The middleman or mutual friend 
who acts as a go-between in arranging a 

tSlap. I. Penetration; incision ; wounding, 
of a w^eapon. Senjata ta'-telap : the weapon 
has failed to wound. Tiyada telap pada tuboh 
raja Petukal : it did not wound the body of Raja 
Petukal: Ht. Raj. Don., 29. 
Cf. hit and iekit. 

n. A small insect or animal of the bubok 

HI. Harimau telap: (Kedah) a spotted tree 

tfilepa. A small receptacle for cosmetics or 
sireh; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 42; Ht. Hamz., 94. 

Also chelBpa. 

tfilepok. Figured ; adorned with an impressed 

pattern, Sapu tangan t, : a figured kerchief; 
Ht. Abd., 419. Kain t.: a figured sarong. 
As a pattern telepok is used of emblemata or 
marquetry (in geometrical figures only). 

Telepokkan : to figure ; to impress a pattern on 
thick cloth or paper ; Ht. Koris. Menelepok : 

t§lok. I. A bay; a bight; a curve in the 
coast line forming a bay. T. rantau : wind- 
ings and reaches in a river — an expression 
used to signify territory generally; Sej. Mai., 
109 ; Ht. Abd., 224. 

n. Bert^lok : to kneel. Laksamana bertelok 
menyhnbah : the Laksamana knelt and bowed ; 
Ht. Hg. Tuw., 78. The form also occurs : Ht, 
P.J. P.; Ht. Ind. Meng.; Sh. Sg. Kanch., 
23, etc. 

Usually t^lut, q. v. 

^ tolk. [Dutch folk.] An interpreter ; v. jjy. 




talki. Arab. To meet on the road, to go to 

talkin. Arab. ** Instruction " — the name 

given to a prayer or formula recited at a 
burial ; Ht. Abd., 424 ; Sh. May., 6. 

t§16kong. A praying veil used by Muhamma- 
dan women; Sh. Panj. Sg. ; Sh. Ul,, 6. 

tSlfikap. To brush away a fly or any similar 
approaching object ; cf. tekap. 

t§16kan. The posture of a man, either sitting 
or standing, who leans upon his outstretched 
arm ; resting one*s body upon one's arm ; Sh. 
Sri Bun., 13; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 26, 28; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. Bertelekan di-ribaan Radin Galoh : 
resting his arms on the princess's lap; Ht, 
Mas. Ed- 

Cf, tekan and telekii. 

teleku. The posture of a man who sits or 
stands with his elbows forward and at rest on 
anything, Berteleku di-atas ribaan isteri-nya : 
resting his elbows upon his wife's lap; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. 

tSlampong. Driftw^ood; cf. pelampong and 

t§lSmpap. Laying the hand flat on anything; 
a hand's breadth ; a hand's breadth used as a 
standard of measurement. Also pelempap. 

In Johor, pelempap is used of a hand's breadth 
exclusive of the thumb. 

tSlan. The act or process of swallowing. 
Btdan itu di4elan ular : the moon has been 
swallowed by a snake. Sa-ekor chaching 
menelan naga : a worm has swallowed a 
dragon ; an improper conquest of the great by 
the mean ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 408. 

Telankan : to get a thing swallowed ; to 
swallow (anything); Muj., 26. 

Pert elan : a draught ; a potion ; a thing to 
swallow; Muj., 63. 

Ikan tUan rumput : a fish, pimelepterus cineras, 

Ular penelan : (Borneo) a name given to the 


v. hantar. 

Stretched, extended ; = terhantar ; 

Jff^ tSlanjor. Projecting; cf. anjor. 


[ 179 ] 




t§lailjang. Nude ; naked ; stripped. Telan- 
jangi: to strip naked; Sej. Mai., 159. 

T. bugil, t. bogel or t. bulat : stark naked. 

Bertelanjang : in a state of nudity; naked, 
bare. Keris bertelanjang : a naked keris ; Ht. 
Hg. Tuw., 12. Pedang bertelanjang : a naked 
sword; Ht. Isk. Dz. Kechil kechilpakai kain, 
besar besar bertelanjang : when young, clothed; 
when grown up, naked ; a riddle descriptive 
of the bamboo. 

t61unjok. Jari telunjok : (or simply telimjok): 

the index finger, Hujong t, : the tip of the 
finger. Teltmjok merosok mata ; telunjok men- 
chuchok mata ; or telunjok inenikam mata sendiri : 
one's finger digging into one's eye ; hoist with 
one's own petard ; Prov. 

Cf. unjory unjok, tunjok, etc. 

t§lSnan. The cleaning-frame used by a native 

t61au. Patchy, of light or colouring. Ber- 
telau-telau saperti panas di-belukar : in patches, 
like light shining through secondary jungle; 

tSlu. I. Three (in certain expressions only). 
Buwah keras telu : a kind of fruit with three 
stones. Buwah salak telu : another kind of 
fruit also with three stones. 

II. (Riau.) A hermaphrodite. 

V— a3^ telukup. Turned upside down ; = telangkup, 
q. V. 

tfilah. I. A preterite; a word giving a past 
tense to the expression in which it occurs. 
Maka telah di-lihat uleh Sang Bayu Nafiri 
panah-nya tewas maka iya-pun terlalii marah : 
when Sang Bayu Nafiri saw that his arrow 
had failed to reach its mark, he became very 
angry ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Sa4elah : being past or over ; after. Sa- 
telah beberapa lama-nya : after some time ; 
some time having elapsed. 

II. Menelah: to predict. 

jJC tdledor. (Riau.) Sleepy, sleepy-head, lazy- 
bones ; a term of abuse applied to idle and 
careless house-servants. 



tfilerang. Ema% televang : reef-gold ; gold 
bearing reefs ; out -cropping gold ; cf. lerang. 

Batu t. : quartz. 

tSlinga. The ear of a man or of an animal ; 
the handle of a vessel. Telinga-nya lebar 
^aldmat banyakpenengaran : his ear was broad — 
a sign of acute hearing ; Ht. Abd., 86. Mabok 
tahi telinga : excited by endearing words. 
Yang telinga lembut ya-itu-lah orang hhidak 
pulas : the man with a soft ear is the nian 
whose ear will be twisted ; a fool invites 
plundering; Prov. 






T, bedil : the pan of a gun. 

r. gajah : the name of a fish. 

T, kera : a plant, henslowia lobbiana, 

T. kerbau bukit : an orchid, vanilla griffithii. 

Anak t, : the tympanum; Panch., 11. 

Chuping i, : the lobe of the ear, 

Daun t, : the frame of the ear ; the visible 
outer portion of the ear as distinct from the 
organs of hearing inside the aperture. 

PoJmn t. : the ear where it joins the head ; 
Ht. Hamz., 8g. 

Lobang t. : the aperture of the ear. 

A kar f. tikus : a plant, desmodium heterophyl- 

Korek t, buwaya : a small animal (unidenti- 

telepok or telipok. The lotus; also teratai, 

q. V. 

Telinga-nya bagai telepok layu : her ear was 
like a shrunken lotus flower ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. ; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. 

tarn. I. Pers, Cataract; a disease of the 

II. (Onom.) A droning sound ; ci, dentam, 

III. A proper name; an abbreviation of 

tim. [Chin. ttm.~\ Cooked soft by stewing in 
a covered pot placed in boiling water, 

Petiman : a saucepan for stewing. 

torn. [ Dutch ^oom.] The bridle; the reins. 
Tali torn: id; Ht. Abd., 106. 

f tum. (Onom.) Boom ! — a sound like the 
r roar of a cannon. 

tdmabor. Scattered, dispersed, scattered 
about in large numbers, as the stars; cf. tabor^ 
of which it is a frequentative or intensive. 

Bintang t. : a constellation ; the Milky Way. 

,\i temarang. Terang4emarang : half light, a 
sort of twilight ; the light of a night when a 
full moon is clouded over; Ht. Si Misk., 10. 
Also terang temarani, 

tfimaram. Half-gloom ; obscurity, such as 

exists when a full moon is overcast. 

Bulan terangf terang temaram, 

Hantu berjalan laki bini : 

when the moon is bright, but the sky overcast, 

the ghosts go about in family parties. 

Bintang t, : the stars being obscured by 
haze; Ht. Ism. Yat., 73. Bulan pun aram 
temaram saperti bUas akan orang yang bir- 
cherai : the moon was overcast as though in 
sorrow for those about to part ; Ht. Perb. Jay. 


[ i8o ] 




tamSiSha. Pers. A show ; a spectacular 
festival ; the ** sights " or ** lions " of a place • 
Melihat tamdsha itu : to see that sight (th^ 
blowing up of the Malacca fort) ; Ht. Abd.> 
66. Melihat tamdsha keyangan: to see the 
sights of heaven ; Ht. GuL Bak., 144. 

tSmali. Tali temali : cordage of all sorts ; v. 

tamstm. Arab. End, finished. 

timba. A small light bucket, usually of upeh, 
used to pour water over a bather or to bale 
out water. Telaga menchari timba : the well 
goes in search of the bucket; the woman 
makes love to the man ; a reversal of the 
regular order of things ; Prov. 

Karam di4aut buleh di4imha ; 
Karam di-hati sudah sa-kali : 
if you are swamped at sea, you can bale 
out the boat ; if you founder in your affections, 
your heart is wrecked for ever; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
11. , 153. Ptitus timba, tinggal tali : the bucket 
breaks off, leaving only the cord ; losing the 
useful and being left with the useless ; Pro v., 
Marsd. Gr., 209. 

r. ruwang : the bucket for baling out a 
boat ; (less correctly) the well from which a 
boat or ship is baled out. 

Menimba : to bale water. Menimba ruwang : 
to bale out a boat. Angin menimba ruwang : 
a side wind which causes a boat to heel over 
and so empties the well. 

Tertimba : baled out ; emptied out by baling. 
Maka di'pertimba 07'ang tiyada tertimba ayer 
ruwang lagi : the men baled away but the 
water in the boat's well could not be emptied 
out; Sej. Mai., 46. 

Datm timba tasek : a plant (unidentified). 

yVi tSmbatar. A wmm (unidentified) ; Kl. 

jSli tSmbatu. I. The {mit of the nipah. Saperti 
tembatu di-Mmpas rupa-nya : (disintegrating) 
like the fruit of the nipah when dashed on the 
ground; falling into pieces; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; 
Ht. Koris. 

H. A tree, parinarium nitidum. 

jJ>UX tSmbadau. A small wild ox, found in Borneo. 

j5^M tSmbangau. (Selangor.) A forest tree (un- 

iS \J tdmbakang. A 

^ * called tebakang. 

fish (unidentified); also 


Li tfimbakul. A species of saltwater fish, 
which swims with its head above water. 
The size of its head and its peculiar motion 
give it the appearance of a man carrying a 
basket ; cf. bakuL 


tSmbakau. [Port, tabaco.] Tobacco; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. ; Ht. Abd., 203. Thnbakau jawa : 
native grown tobacco; Ht. Abd., 381. T. 
belati : imported tobacco, or tobacco prepared 
by European methods. 

tSmbaki. A flying lizard (unidentified); Kl. 

tSmbaga. [Skr. tdmraka.] Copper; brass; 
a name given to pure copper and to a number 
of its alloys. 

r, kuning : brass polished to shine like gold. 

T. merah : dull red brass. 

T. penmggu : gun metal. 

T. ptiteh : nickel. 

T, suwasa : copper mixed with gold. 

Btmga t. : a kind of flower, crinum asiaticum. 
Also called btmga t, suwasa. 

Buwaya t, : a kind of crocodile with copper 
coloured scales. 

Kupang t, : copper ten-cent pieces — a col- 
loquial expression to describe empty boasts 
that deceive no one. 

Rumput t, : a kind of grass, ischcemum mutictmi. 

Ketembagaan : brazen character. Supaya 
jangan ketembagaan uji : so that it should not 
turn out to be brass (false) on its being tested 
with the touchstone ; Sh. Jub. Mai., 16. 

tambat. Tying up ; fastening up ; tethering. 
Saperti rusa kena tambat : like a tethered deer ; 
helpless; Prov., J. S. A. S., H., 142. Di- 
tambat tidak bertali : united, yet without a 
bond ; living together, yet not married ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., XXIV., 105. 

Tambati : to fasten; Sej. Mai., 116. 

Tambatkan : to have (an animal or thing) 
fastened or tied up; Ht. Abd., 30,75, 296; 
Sej. Mai., 63, 149, etc. Menambatkan: id.; 
Sej. Mai., 149; Ht. Ism. Yat., 185. 

Bertambatan : able to be tied up, having 
fastenings. Perahu bertambatan dagang ber- 
tepatan : where vessels can be moored and 
goods enjoy security; a proverbial descrip- 
tion of a good trading resort. 

Penambat: a tether, a fastening; Sh. Dag., 
12 ; Arabian Nights, 83. 

Pertambatan : the act or process of tying or 
tethering. Tali pertambatan hati manusiya : a 
cord for attaching to oneself the hearts of 
men ; Ht. Abd., 79. 

Tertambat : fastened ; tied up ; tethered ; 
hobbled ; Ht. Abd., 357. 

tambar. Black, inferior in quality, e, g., of 
rice; KL 

tambor or tambur. Eur. Drum; drum- 
ming; Sh. Si Lemb., 53; Ht. Fut. Sh., 37; 
Bint. Tim., 13 March^ 1895, etc. 

tambSra or tfimbgra. (Batav.) A large 
carp = (Johor) tebera. Also kedera, q.-v. 


[ i8i ] 


c/}i tgmbereh. A large edible saltwater fish, 
otolithus punctatus. 

h^ tgmbgreng. (Onom.) A musical instrument ; 
a small ringing gong. Also bereng-bereng, 

U**^ tambus. Orang tambus : a tribe of the orang 
laid of the Riau Archipelago. 

^j>^ tgmbus. Right through; penetrated: per- 
forated through and through. Gowa itupim 
ternbuS'lah ka-hmar : the cave extended right 
through to the other side; Ht. Jay. Lengg. 
Tembtis menembus : through and through. 
Bagai kayu lempong di-tebok kumbang tembm- 
menembus : like light wood which the beetles 
bore through and through; lacking in firm- 
ness ; Prov. 

LT^ timbus. The filling up of a hole ; the cover- 
ing up of anything so as to cause it to disap- 
pear from view, Sungai t, : a river the mouth 
of which is blocked up by sand-dunes. 
Timbusi: to fill up, e, g,, a grave ; Ht. Gh. 

(J^ tumbas. To the very uttermost ; to the last 
morsel ; to the bitter end. Stronger than 
habis^ q. v. 

jr^ tembesu. A tree, fagroea fragrans, 

T. jantan : id., polyosma rmitabile, 

T. pay a : id., alstonia macrophylla, 

Teras t. : the heart of the tembesu (by meta- 
phor) hard-hearted. 

Also tembusti, 

yuX. tambang. I. The fare on a boat or vessel ; 
^ ferrying for money ; a ferry-boat. Pevahu t. : 
a passenger-boat. 

Tambangan : a regular trip. Di-perbuwat' 
nya tambangan pergi datang : they made a 
regular run of it, going backwards and for- 
wards; Ht. Abd., 368. 

Penambang : a ferryman ; Sh. Sing. Terb., 
25 ; a passenger ferried ; Sh. Sing. Terb., 38. 
Perahu p, : a ferry-boat, a passenger-boat ; 
Pel. Abd., 8. 

n. Setting; placing — in a few expressions 
only. T. layar : setting sail. 

HI. The exposure of medicine (usually for 
a night) prior to its being taken, a practice 
which is believed to improve its efficacy. 

%S tambong. Haughty : 
^ tombong, q. v. 

overbearing, usually 

^ tSmbang. Jav. A class of songs ; a kind of 
poetry sung by dancing girls (joget) as an 
accompaniment to dancing. Lain bertandak 
sambil mengidong dan menembang : they 
danced, chaunting and singing ; Ht. Mas. Ed. 

»^ tgmbong. I. A kind of quarter-staff about 

^ six feet long. T, kemboja : a shorter variety. 

Tombak tembong saperti chemnclmp ttimboh di- 

tengah padang : the spears and staves were 

like love-grass growing in a field ; Ht. Sh. 

n. Bh'tembong: to obstruct the passage of, 
to get in the way of. 

*^ timbang. Weighing; estimating the weight 

^ of anything ; considering the pros and cons 

of a question ; the weighing of the good and 

evil in the soul's account on the Day of 


Batu timbangan : weights; measures of weight. 

Timbangkan and menimbangkan : to have the 
weight of anything taken; Ht. Abd., 369. 
Menimbang: to weigh ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 105; 
to balance himself gracefully, of a man's walk; 
Ht. Sh. 

Penimbang : the weigher. Penimbang nyawa : 
a term of endearment ; Sh. Lail. Mejn., 20. 

Timhang-timbangan is used for timang- 
timangan; Ht. Pg. Put.; v. timang. 

^ tombong. I. (i) The seed-bud in a coco- 
nut shell. T. nyior : id. ; (2) a disease in the 
course of which clotted matter is ejected 
through the vagina ; (3) the moveable bottom 
of the gobek tube. 

T. damar : damar embers, Ikan t. damar : 
a fish (unidentified). 

Also (Kedah) tumbong. 

H. Arrogance, pride, superciliousness. 

Tombong laku-nya : of arrogant bearing; Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 369; Ht. Mcis. Ed.; Ht. Sh. 
Berbtiwat tombong: to behave with objection- 
able freedom; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Also tambong and sombong. 

i-X tumbang. Falling over ; tumbling down — of 
^ heavy massive objects only. Punggor tumbang 
belatok menumpang matt : the dead tree falls, 
and the wood-peckers living on it perish in 
the fall ; the fall of a great man ruins his 
dependents; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 69. 

Mennmbangkan : to knock over ; to fell ; 
M. kerbau lenibti : to fell cattle, to have cattle 
slaughtered for a feast; Ht. Koris. 

— i*^ tembop. (Kedah.) An incantation inflicting 
an enemy with disease (dropsy), 

jj^ tambak. Reclamation (of land) by filling or 

banking ; levelling land by filling up hollows 
with earth brought from without. Gunong 
mas tambak permata : a mountain of gold 
banked up with gems ; Ht. Koris ; Ht. Ind. 

Jalan t, : a made road ; a raised causeway 
running through padi-fields. 

Menambak : to reclaim low-lying land by 
filling it up; Ht. Abd., 235; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 

T. bukit : a plant, vernoma cinerea. 


[ 182 ] 


^J^ tembak. Shooting ; firing shots ; letting off 
firearms. Klna t, : to be shot. 

Menembak : to shoot ; to fire shots. M. ber- 
Uirut'turut tiga kali : to fire three volleys in 
succession ; a fete de joie, 

r. gawar or t, kawar : to fire into the air at 
night by way of firightening away thieves and 
bad characters from the house ; v. kawar. 

^jJ, tembek. A close shot ; near the bull's-eye in 

shooting ; striking the edge of the hole in 
playing marbles. 

^3t^ tSmbok. 1. Perforated; rent; torn, of 

clothes; rotten or hollow, of the teeth; eaten 
through in places, of a floor at which the 
white ants have been at work ; corroded by 
rust; Arabian Nights, 102. 

IL Big, of the mons veneris; v. tembam. 

^3t^ tembok. L A stone or brick wall; a solid 

wall of masonry as distinct from a mere 
screen or partition. 

Kaki t. : the foundations of a house. Saperti 
ktwhing di-atas tembok : like a cat on a wall ; 
uncertain or hesitating in one's movements; 

II. Menembok : to prevent hot water boiling 
over by stirring it up and destroying the 
bubbles; to cool a liquid by pouring it from 
one cup into another. 

^3t^ timbok. (Riau, Johor.) A downward blow 
with the flat of the fist such as would be given 
by a woman or an unskilful boxer ;=(Kedah) 
rimbok ; cf. ttmibok and tinju. 

^-X tombak. A heavy lance or spear ; a pike ; 

as a measure of length, the equivalent of two 
depa, Orang tuwa bongkok pakai tombak 
rambu : an old humpback with a fringed lance; 
a riddling description of the lobster. 

r. kh'ajaan : the spears of state borne before 
a Malay prince; Sej. Mai., 126. 

T. pengawinan : another kind of state spear ; 
a halberd. 

T. rambu : a state spear with a hanging 
fringe under the spear head- 

T. sayang : a kind of gaff used to closehaul 
the sail of a boat when required. 

r. senangin : a kind of harpoon for spearing 
the senangin fish. 

Tombaki and menombaki - 
MaL, 142. 

to spear; Sej. 

^JJC tumbok. I. A heavy pounding blow with 

the side of the fist ; the giving of such a blow. 

Di-tnmbok-nya arang : he pounded down 
charcoal to dust ; Sh. Sri Bun., 28. 

T. lada : a small dagger or knife, 

T. rtisok : (literally) pounding in the ribs ; 
(by metaphor) a quiet bribe. 

Memmibok : to give a pounding blow ; to 
pound. M. dada : to beat one's breasts with 
one's fists; Sh. Bid., 40; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

Penumbok tembaga : a knuckle-duster. 

1 1. Ikan tumbok : an edible marine fish 
(unidentified). T. banir: a variety of this fish. 

V-X tambal. Jav. Plastering, pdiSting ;=tampal, 
q. V. 

Li tambul. I. Refreshments^, especially (but 
not necessarily) drinks. Mengeluwarkan tarn- 
bid lalu di-niinum : refreshments were brought 
out and were partaken of; Sh. UL, 18. 

II. Behasa tambul: Tamil, the Tamil 
language ; Ht. Abd., 166. 

III. Bertambid : to act. Menambtdkan : to 
perform, as an actor. Penambtd : an actor or 

^J^ tembel. A stye in the eye. 



timbal. Equilibrium, balancing. 

Bertimbalan : in rank and file; Sh. Jub. 
Mai.; in equipoise; in unison (of shouts) Sh. 
Panj. Sg. Saw ami yang tiyada bertimbalan 
dengan diya : a husband who was not in har- 
mony with her; Ht. Kal. Dam., 280. 

timbul. The act of rising to the surface ; 
emerging after submersion ; appearance or 
re-appearance after concealment. Untong 
sabut timbul, untong batu tenggelam : it is the 
lot of a husk to float, it is the lot of a stone 
to sink; men are not born the same, and 
grumbling at one's lot is useless; Prov. 
Dapat Karun timbul : to find Korah ( famous 
among Muhammadans for his wealth) floating 
on the water ; to stumble on extreme good 
luck ; Prov. 

T. tenggelam : floating and sinking ; appear- 
ing and disappearing, as the half effaced letter- 
ing on an ancient inscription. 

Btdan t, : the new moon ; Ht. Ind. Jaya ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Gambar t. : a statue ; Ht. Abd., 59. 

I Used of meat, chickens, etc. : Ht. Mas, Ed. ; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya. 0( cakes (penganan halwa) . Sh. Ul,, 16. Of arrack: 
Sh. Bid., 95. Oi arrack and other drinks: Ht. Koris ; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. Of sherbet : Ht. Koris (two places). Unspe- 
cified; Sh. Abd. Mk., lo, 39; Sh. Pet. Akal. 11; Ht. 
Hamz., 70; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 14. 


[ 183 ] 


Timbtdkan : to cause to emerge, to bring out 
in evidence. Timbtdkan benar salah patek : to 
bring out my innocence or guilt in this 
matter; Ht. Best. 

Bertimbidan : floating on the surface here 
and there as fish poisoned by tuba root. 

Menimbtdkan : to bring to eminence or pro- 
minence. Anak'hi sa-orangdah kelak yang 
menimbulkan nama ayahanda : my only son, 
who might have brought lustre on his father's 
name ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Penimbtd : that which causes rise or emer- 
gence. P. raksa : that which causes quick- 
silver to rush to a point ; the name of a magic 
art which is believed to have the effect of 
causing mercury (when injected under the 
skin) to rush to any point where a weapon 
may afterwards strike the skin, — the mercury 
stopping the force of a blow and so giving 
invulnerability; Muj., 66. Kebal p,: invul- 
nerability, caused by this charm ; Sh. Abd. 
Mk., 4. Do'a p, : the charms the recitation 
of which produces this invulnerability. 

^^j^ tomboL The knob on a door or gong ; Kl. : 
V. tonjoL 

Ikan tombol mas : a fish, thyrnnus thtinnina. 

itXS tembelang. Rottenness — of an egg, the un- 
^ soundness of an egg which won't hatch when 

its companion eggs do, but applied by meta- 
phor to unsoundness of character. Nampak 
tembelang-nya : he has shown himself a bad 
egg ; he displays the cloven hoof. 

jtjJ, tembeliyong. A shell ; better known as 
^ ptding heliyong, q. v. 

ysX tembam. Prominent (of the mon veneris): 
\ cf. tembok. 

^yd tamban. A generic name given to a number 
of fish of the sardine type. 

(>U tambun. Plump; sleek. Ttiboh-nya makin 
sa-hari makin tambun : he became plumper as 
days went on ; Ht. Abd., 328. Jika hendak 
akan tambun badan kita : if we desire to put on 
flesh ; Muj., 65. 

In Kedah tambun is used in the sense of 
piling up (see timbun), and tembun in the sense 
of plumpness. 

^Mc t§mban. Puffy, prominent and soft — of the 
cheeks; dilso= tembam, q. v. 

^J^^X tembun. Plumpness ; v. tafnbun. 

CrjX timbun. I. Heaped up; a heap; heaping 
or piling up. Pasir sadimbun : a heap of 

Bustd juga didimbun anai-anai : mounds are 
heaped up by ants ; perseverance effects great 
results; Prov. 

Timbunan : construction by heaping up or 
piling up. Titiyan timbunan kayu : a narrow 
pathway formed by piling up timber; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. 

BusiU duwa tiga timbunan : two or three ant- 
hills; Sej, Mai., 9. 

Timbuni ; iimbunkan ; and menimbunkan : to 
heap up ; to pile up (anything) ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 149 ; Ht. Si Misk., 5. 

Bertimbun : in a heap. Bertimbundimbun : 
in heaps or piles, as merchandise on a wharf, 
Ht. Abd., 266; or as bodies on a battlefield, 
Sej. MaL, 83 ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tertimbun : arranged in a heap; heaped up ; 
Sej. MaL, 9. Di-pertimbun : having been so 
heaped ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 10. 

See also tambun. 

yS. timbau. Addition to length or height ; 
lengthening, e. g., as the lengthening of a 
pair of trowsers by the addition of a patch of 
cloth at the extremities, or as an increase, by 
building, to the freeboard of a boat. 

Papan t, : (Penan g) one of the loftier planks 
placed horizontally in the construction of a 
boat, = (Singapore) papan terapit, 

Pcrahu t. : a boat to which additional free- 
board has been given. 

^jr^ tembosa. (Pers ?) folding up. Lipat t. : id. 
Kuweh lipat t, : a kind of native made puff; 
pastry with meat inside, the pastry being 
folded over the meat. 

y^yX tSmbUSU. A 

tembesu, q. v. 

tree, fragrcea fmgrans ; also 


tembokor. A metal bowl. Also bokor, q. v. 

yJ> tdmbuku. A knob, a hard projection ; those 
portions of the ribs of a perahu jalor which are 
allowed to project above the gunwale so as to 
allow of planking being afterwards added if 
more freeboard is found necessary. 

1\ tangan : the hard knuckle-like projection 
at the wrist joint. 

Cf. buku, 

llLjX tSmbolok. The crop of a bird; the first 
stomach of a ruminant. A sal berisi tembolok 
senang hati : only fill his crop and he is quite 
happy ; Prov. 

J^ tSmbuni, The caul ; the covering of a child 
- when born. T. kechil : the placenta. 


[ 184 ] 


*UC tambah. Addition ; continuation ; increase 
by continuation. Nasi tambah : a second help- 
ing of rice — rice passed round in the middle 
of a meal, to allow persons who have begun 
by not taking enough to replenish their plates. 
Buwat nasi tambah : (by metaphor) to have 
concubines as well as wives : J.S.A.S., IIL, 26. 

Tambahan ptda and bertambah pula : further- 
more ; the more. 

Irndni khdtih lagi berdosa, 

Bertambah piila kita yang jahil : 

when even priests and deacons sin, much 
more then must we, the ignorant laity. Prov. 

Tambahi : to make an addition to anything ; 
Ht. Abd., 45, 209. Menambahi : id,; Ht. 
Abd., 232 ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 6. 

Menambah : to increase ; Ht. Abd., 183, 186. 
Menambahkan: id. Menambahkan pengata- 
huwan: to increase knowledge; Ht. Abd., 261. 

Penambahan : an addition ; a continuation ; 
an appendix. Sha*ir penambahan : a poem 
added as a sort of postscript ; a poetic address 
not read with the rest but added afterwards ; 
Sh. Jub. MaL, 15. 

4^ tamboh or tambuh. Ken Tambohan, or Ken 
Tambuhan : the name of the heroine of the 
poem known as the Sha%r ken Tabohan (or 
Tambtihan), or ShaHr Raden Mtmteri, 

4Jc tumboh. Sprouting up; growing up; spring- 
ing up — of plants ; bursting out — of eruptive 
diseases. Ta' -tumboh, mahn-kah rnelata : if ( a 
plant) does not grow will it creep along the 
ground ; if a thing is not true will it be 
repeated ( ta'-stmggoh, orang ta'-kata ) : there 
is no smoke without fire ; Prov. 

Tumbohan : young plants ; sprouts, Ttimboh- 
tumbohan : (i) plants generally ; vegetable 
growths of all sorts; Ht. Abd., 104; (2) = 
ketumbohany q. v, infra. 

Bertumboh: (i) to sprout up; (2) to be 
vaccinated. Barang di-mana di-tanam nes- 
chaya berttwiboh-lah iya : wherever the plant 
is planted, there too will it certainly grow 
up ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 377. 

Penyakit kettimbohan ( Ht. Abd., 358 ); 
or tnmboh4umbohan (Muj., 70): small-pox. 
Tanam ketumbohan : vaccination ; Ht. 
Abd., 358. 

The small-pox eruption has different descrip- 
tive names according to the appearance of the 
pustules. The principal names are : ketum- 
bohan jintan, k. kettimbar, k. jagong^ (all light 
eruptions), and k, lakom, k, tapak kuching, k, 
ekor musang, k, kacha ptUeh, k, kacha merah, 
k. kacha kilat, k. buwah berembang^ and k, diiri 
nangka (severer forms). The last is believed 
to work mainly under the surface and to be 
almost invariably fatal. 

iS^ tambi. (Tamil =younger brother.) A form 
of address often used in speaking to young 
Klings ; (Straits Settlements) an errand boy ; 
a messenger ; a Kling generally. 




Bapa-nm orang tiyada berteniu, 
Tambi dan China di-pasar batu : 

your father cannot be named with certainty, 
he must have been some Kling or Chinaman 
from the markets ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

tSmbi. An elbow thrust, an outward dig at 
a man or object by one's side in contra- 
distinction to a backward thrust with the 
elbow at some one behind (sigong), 

tSmberang. The stays or ropes which keep 
the mast of a boat firmly in position ; Sh. Sri 
Bun., 9, 22, 46, 47. T, lenggang : stays from 
the mast to the nearest points of the gunwale. 
T, tiirut: stays fastened to the gunwale behind 
the mast so as to protect it against a forward 
strain. Kapal mas sa-buwah dengan sakaliyan 
perkakas-nya saperti teniberang dan tiyang dan 
kemtidi : a golden ship with all its fittings such 
as stays and masts and rudder ; Ht. Bakht., 
39. Putus-lah temberang di-tengah laut : the 
stays gave way while we wxre at sea; Pel. 
Abd., 10. 

Langit bertemberang, bumi berkelikir : (the 
skies as stays with the earth as their mast- 
ring) or langit berkelikir bumi bertemberang : 
(the heavens as the mast-ring and the earth 
as its stays) : an equivalent for the correspond- 
ing expression : salah-salah pikir menjadi 
hamba orang : confusion of thought makes 
one the slave of others; Prov., Sh. LaiL Mejn., 
48; J. S. A. S., XL, 75. 

tembereng or tdmbiring. A bit; a section 
of anything; a curved or sharp edge. T, 
tajam : a sector (in geometry). T, panjang : 
a zone. 

T, tangan : the outer edge of the hand, the 
side further from the thumb. T. kaki : the 
corresponding portion of the foot. 

temberak. A tree (unidentified) ; Kl. 

temberek. Potsherds, broken earthenware; 
usually tembekar, q. v. 

tembekar or tembikar. Glazed earthen- 
ware, porcelain, potsherds ; bits of glazed 
earthenware ; fragments of pottery ware ; 
broken crockery. Di-snrat 'azimat ini kapada 
tembekar periyok yang beharu behani pechah : 
this charm is to be written on a fragment of 
a newly-broken cooking-pot; Muj., 72. Dari- 
pada tembekar juga perbuwatan-nya : made of 
porcelain ; Ht. Mar. Mah. Di-mana pinggan 
pechah di-situ-lah tembekar tinggal : where the 
plates are broken, there the broken fragments 
remain, Prov. Di-titek belah di-palu belah, 
tembekar juga akanjadi-nya: split when tapped, 
and split when struck, it must become broken 
potter}^ in any case ; defeat must be accepted 
when it is inevitable; Prov., J. S. A. S., HI., 


T. mangkok : pieces of broken cups ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 61. 


[ 185 ] 



tdmbikai. A water melon, citruUus edulis. 

Also (Kedah) temikai ; (Riau, Johor) men- 
dikai, k^mendikaiy and mendelikai and (Patani) 
timun tembikai. 

tSmbilang. A kind of spade ; KL, (quoting 
from Abdullah's dictionary). 

,jLjC tfimbelok and tSmbilok. A kind of edible 

marine worm which eats into wood exposed 
to the action of sea water. Kulit tembelok : 
the shell of this worm. Aku memegang kapak 
dan beliyong sa-bilang hart membelah tembelok 
sa-panjang bakau: I take a hatchet and 
chopper daily to break the shells of the tem- 
belok worms along the mangroves ; Ht. Koris. 
Terlahi' sangat nyaman rasa-nya thnbelok bakau 
kunun nama-nya : its taste is very delicious 
and it is known as the tembelok bakau; Ht. 

tammat. [Arab. <i, ] End; termination. 

Maka tammat'lah kitdb itu kemtidiyan di-molai 
pula mengaji kitdb : one book finished, the 
study of another commenced ; Ht. Abd., 53. 
TammatiCl-kalam : the end of writing ; an ex- 
pression corresponding to our*' finis" at the 
end of a book ; Marsd. Gr., 141. 

Tammatkan : to bring to an end ; to ter- 
minate; Sh. Bur. Nuri, ^y; Sh. Bah. Sing., 8. 

tSmot, or tfimut. Temot-mot: quivering, 
shaking, used of the throbbing on the head 
of a very young child and of the unsteady 
gait of extreme age. 

j^ temStu. A tree (unidentified) ; Kl. 

Uc tamthil. Arab. Likeness ; example ; simile ; 
^ Sh. Abd. Mk., 21 ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 17 ; 
Ht. Ind. Nata, etc. 

j^ tamjid. Arab. Glorification, praise. 

jl tamar. Arab. Tamar hindi : tamarind ; 
Muj., 49, 57. 

-jmX tSmas. I. (Johor.) Alarm, panic; = cAemas, 
q. v. 

n. (Riau.) A form of poulticing, by apply- 
ing hot ashes to the affected part; — rather 
less forcible than dimahy q. v. 

jSsji tSmdnggong. The title of an exalted Malay 
^ official ranking next to the bendahara at Riau ; 

Ht. Abd., 197, 421 ; Ht. Sh., etc. 

r. melela, or t, di4engah kampong : (Kedah) 
a name given to a plant, the gandarusa. 


tSmpa. Fabrication by hammering ; working 
in metal by means of the hammer. Puteh 
kuning saperti emas tenipawan : light yellow 
like beaten gold ; (light yellow being the com- 
plexion most admired by Malay poets) ; Cr. 
Gr., 79. Slmas tempawan : a term of endear- 
ment ; an equivalent of ptiteh kuning : my fair 
one ; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 28 ; Cr. Gr., 43. 

Tempaan: worked, wrought (of a garment), 
Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 284. 

timpa. Dropping down upon ; falling down 
upon, of substances falling through space and 
not merely stumbling or falling over. Ada 
lima empat orang telah mail di4impa batu kota 
itu : four or five men perished struck by fall- 
ing fragments of the fort; Ht. Abd., 66, 
Latit mana ta'-berombak, bumi rnana ta' -timpa 
hujan : what sea has no waves, on what part 
of the earth does rain never fall ; it is a long 
lane that has no turning; Prov. Ludah ka- 
langit timpa batang hidong sendiri : if you spit 
at heaven the saliva will fall on your own 
nose; a dirty action often injures its per- 
petrator more than any one else ; Prov. Lagi 
jatoh di-timpa tangga : he falls and the ladder 
falls on him as well ; misfortune on misfor- 
tune; Prov. 

T. rasa or t, perasan : to bear the brunt, to 
incur the evil consequences (where another 
gets the pleasure). Mata memandang apa 
hendak sakit; bahu yang memiktd timpa perasan : 
what does it matter to the eye that sees it, 
it is the shoulder that carries it which has 
to bear the burden ; Prov. Permaisuri raja 
berurap-urapaUf Upas di-dinding timpa perasan : 
when a queen perfumes herself at her toilet, 
it is the poor cockroaches on the wall who 
suffer the consequences (by being killed); 

Menimpa: to strike in one's fall; to fall upon. 
KayUf kaytc, mengapa kau basah ? — Bagaimana 
ta^-basah, hujan menimpa aku ? Wood, wood, 
how comes it that you are wet ? — How can I 
avoid being wet when the rain keeps dropping 
on me? 

Di-timpa datdat : crushed by the royal power 
(of dead kings) — used of the curse which a 
prince's ancestors are believed still to keep 
hanging over a degenerate descendant. Di- 
timpa keramat: crushed by the curse of a 
saint, e, g,, as a man who is punished by the 
unseen powers for sacrilege ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 

tSmpala. A sudden hop or spring made by a 
pelandok before it fights — allowing Malays to 
bet which of two pelandok will be first to hop. 

Ikan t. : a fish (unidentified), Kl. 


,\jtc tSmpaus. Ikan tempaus : a whale. Also pans, 

Pokok t. : (Kedah) a tree yielding a white 
sap (unidentified). 



[ i86 ] 


fJtyM tfimpawan. Hammered, beaten ; v. tempa. 



t^mpayak. The larvae of bees, wasps or ants. 

Ot^**" tSmpayan, (Riau, Johor.) A large earthen- 
ware jar, such as a Siamese or Shanghai 
jar. Sa-biji t, : one of these jars ; Ht. Mar. 
Mah. Minyak babi sa4empayan : a jar of lard ; 
Sej. MaL, 153. Kalau ku buka tempayan budu 
beharu tahu : if I open the jar of pickled fish 
every one will then know its contents (by 
their vile smell) ; if I reveal these facts, every 
one will know your bad character; Prov. 
Jangan di-dBngar guroh di4angit, ayer Umpa- 
yan adinda churahkan : do not empty out 
the water-jars on hearing the thunder roll ; 
do not count on rain till it comes or on your 
chickens till they are hatched; Prov., Sh. 
Kumb. Chumb., 20. Pechah buyong tempayan 
ada : if the buyong (a jar) is broken, the tempa- 
yan (another kind of jar) remains ; if one girl 
leaves you, many remain to be wooed ; Prov. 

1\ tapak gajah : a tempayan jar, if cylindrical 
in shape, and even in width throughout. 

T. telor buwaya : such a jar if it bulks out 
in the centre and is narrower at the top and 

Also (Kedah) tcpayan. 

v.1^ tSmpat. Place ; the place where anything is 
stored, or is to be found, or is habitually 
occurring. T, mengaji : a school. T. dawat : 
an inkstand. T, sireh : a sireh box. T. ke- 
diidokan Temenggong : the Temenggong's 

<^1-*^ tSmpit. (Kedah.) A cheer, cheering; 
Berm. Shahd. Better tempek, q. v. 


^ ■*^ ^ tumpat. Stopped up ; filled up — usually of a 
hollow. Penoh tumpat serambi : the verandah 
was choked up (with people) ; Sh. Peng., 14. 
Tumpat tiyada bersila lagi : full without a gap 
anyw^here; Sej. Mai., 152. Tumpat4ah pa- 
dang: the plain was covered (with them); Ht. 
Sh. Kub. 

r. tumpul: quite full, choked up, an intensi- 
tive of tumpat, Penoh t, : id. ; Ht. Koris. 

Menumpat: to fill up; to stop a gap^ — ^* g'> 
as a man stops up a hole in the wall by filling 
it with clay or plaster; Ht. KaL Dam., 377, 

jix, tampar. A slap ; a forcible blow with the 
flat of the hand — stronger than tepok (which 
is not a blow given with intent to hurt). 

Tamparan: the giving of a slap; Sh. Lail. 
Mejn., 36; Ht. Gul. Bak., 142. 

1\ nyamok : the place where one slaps at 
mosquitoes, the shoulder blade; Ht. Abd., 61, 

Tampan: to give a slap ; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 
13 ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 47. Mlnampar : id. ; Ht. 
Abd., 170, 355. 

yiJi tompor. Scattered, lost through leakage; 
Sh. Panj. Sg. Also temperas, and tempuras. 

i^^ tSmpdras. Spread or scattered about by 
leakage; lost through a hole or crack, as 
when rice is carried in a leaky sack. Also 
tempuras, and tompor. 

aJi tfimperau. Angry replies; surly answers; Kl. 

U*Jx tampas. I. The lopping off of a slight pro- 
jection, as one cuts off the stumps of old 
branches from a stick, or chops off the side of 
a coco-nut preparatory to drinking its con- 

n. Blowing in, of wind entering a house. 

^j^ timpas. Ebb-tide ; the withdrawal of water 
by a tide. T. perbani : the stage of the tide at 
which it is nearly but not quite run out. 
T. pernama : low tide at full moon ; extreme 
low tide. Saperti pasir dt4epi pantai, ayer tim- 
pas buleh di-behagikan : like the beach, which 
can be divided at low tide only ; decision 
requires prolonged observation ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., XL, 63. 

Surut refers to the tidal outflow, timpas to 
the state of low water. 

jj^ timpus. Disproportionate narrowness in 
some particular, as in the case of a boat with 
little beam though great draught, or of a man 
with broad chest and narrow hips. 

^jA*AX tumpas. Through ; utterly ; head over heels, 
of a fall. Jatoh t. : falling over and over, as 
a man struck down by a massive object, Sh. 
Raj. Haji., 185 ; come hopelessly to grief, as a 
business house that has failed with no assets 
and «:reat liabilities. 

iic tampang. I. Flat. Penampang: the flat 
^ side of anything; Sej. MaL, 189. 

n. A tree, artocarpus gomeziana, 
T, burong : id. ^jficus vasculosa, 

HI. Cutting and fastening up, as Malay 
doctors cut and fasten the umbilical cord, or 
as the arteries are fastened up after an ampu- 
tation, or of a small bunch of padi being 
fastened up for manuring after it is taken from 
the nursery. 

IV. A coin or tin token. Sa-tampang jong- 
kong : a hollow tin token used as a coin in 
Trengganu and other East Coast States. 5^^- 
tampang roman : a block of similar shape but 
not hollow. £nam betas tampang sa-ringgit: 
sixteen tampang go to a dollar ; Pel. Abd., 17. 


[ 187 ] 


JAS tampong. I. Patching — when an old suit 
^" is patched with new cloth so that the patch 
is very visible ; replacing part of the plank- 
ing of the floor with new wood ; a patch of 
unusual colouring on the face due to a burn 
or any similar cause ; cf. tampal and tampoL 
Tujoh gudang yang ada tampong: seven 
godowns which had patches on them (had 
been patched up). 

T. best : a plant, callicarpa longifolia, 

r. besi puteh : a plant, callicarpa cana. 

T, hart : the name of a venomous snake. 

Akar t, hart: a climbing shrub, erycibe 

Badakt.: (Kedah) a tapir ;= ( Riau, Johor) 
tenok. Sayang anak badak tampong, chuchu 
kunun badak raya : it is a pity that the child 
should be a tapir and the grandchild a royal 
rhinoceros ; — a reflection upon a man's pater- 
nity; Prov. 

Ikan t, : a kind offish with piebald markings ; 
Sh. Bur. Pungg., 9. 

Lembu t, : an ox with a large patch of colour 
on it other than its usual tint. 

Bertampong : marked with a patch of darker 
or lighter colouring, as the skin after an 
eruption or other similar cause ; Sh. Jur. 
Bud., 43. 

11. Catching anything before it falls to 
earth, as boys playing try to catch a ball 
thrown from hand to hand, or as one might 
try to catch a falling fruit to prevent its being 
injured by the fall. Tahan t. : id. 

Luroh biiwah di-tahan tampong^ 
Jatoh terletak tiyada merekah: 

when a fruit falls intercept its fall ; it will fall 
gently and will not be split in its fall. 

4a£ tempang or timpang. Chronic lameness; 

^ permanently maimed in the lower limbs ; halt ; 
limping. Tempang4empang berjalan : to go 
limping; Ht. Abd., 67, 353, 462, etc. 
Tempang sa-belah : lame in one foot ; Sh, Bur. 
Nuri, 24. Orang buta dan chapek dan herut 
tempang : the blind, the halt and the twisted ; 
Ht. Pg. Ptg. Orang tempang jangan di-jajat, 
ingat'ingat hart belakang : do not mimic the 
man who is lame ; remember the future before 
you ; Prov. 

%ii tgmpong. 


Kerang tempong : the mushroom 

«AJC tlimpong. I. Throwing at a mark, as dis- 

^ tinct from merely throwing away or throwing 

for the sake of seeing how far a thing will go. 

Sapeiii tempong menuju jih : like throwing at 
a target (of a man who goes straight to the 
point); Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 59. 

11. A push at right angles; pushing off, as 
one pushes off a boat from the bank when it 
approaches too near it when poling up or 
down stream. 

tiunpang. Lodging ; temporary residence ; 
attaching oneself temporarily to anything for 
shelter or protection ; living. £mpama burong 
tumpang beramai kawan yang banyak : like birds 
which live in numbers and travel in flocks ; 

Tumpangan : temporary lodging or shelter ; 
Sh. Lamp., 29. Kapal t, : a passenger ship; 
Pel. Abd., 133. Orang t, or orang menumpang: 
passengers; J. S. A. S., IIL, 64. 

Menumpang : to lodge ; to take a passage 
by; to shelter under; to attach oneself to 
(temporarily). Menumpang ka-selat : to take 
a passage to Singapore; Ht. Abd., 217. 
Menumpang dengan kafilah : to attach oneself 
to a caravan ; to join a caravan for the journey; 
Ht. Kal. Dam., 231. 

Tuwan empama payong negeri, 
Buleh menumpang panas pagi : 

you, Sir, are like the sun-shade of the town, 
under whom we may take shelter from the 
heat of the morning, 

Tuwan laksaita permata intan^ 

Sehaya menumpang akan chehaya-nya: 

you are like the diamond ; I dwell in its light. 

tSmpap. The bringing down of the flat of 
the hand on anything ; — stronger than telempap 
or pelempapy which mean the mere laying of 
the flat of the hand. See also hempap. 

,^yd tsimpak. Visibility ; vision ; visible ; cf. 

nampak, Tampak-nya sa-rupa mas : its look 
was like that of gold; Bint. Tim., 22 Feb.y 
1895. Payong puteh itu tampak dari jauh : the 
white umbrella can be seen from a distance ; 
Sej. MaL, 91. 

Tampakkan : to see ; Ht. Koris. Mempertam- 
pakkan : id. ; Ht. Best. 

,3^ tampek. Faultfinding; abusing for any fault. 

^iiC tampok. The little Ieaf4ike formation be- 
tween the fruit and the stalk ; the remains of 
the leaf that once enfolded the budding fruit ; 
the button at the top of a cap ; the central 
point of converging lines ; cf. tapok, 

T. tabu : the small piece of stalk on a pump- 
kin ; the point of connection between a gourd 
and its stalk ; (by metaphor) a name given to 
false hermaphroditism through enlargement 
of the clitoris. Main tampok labu : (Riau, 
Johor) amor lesbicus ; = (Kedah) main abau. 

r. pelita : the ornamental circle in the ceiling 
from the centre of which a hanging lamp is 

T. susu : the dark circle round the teat. 

Ikan tampok'tampok : a fish ; gerres oblongus. 


[ i88 ] 









tdmpek. A cheer ; a loud shout ; a shout of 

menace ; the cries of an army on achieving 
some success. T. sorak: id., Sej. Mai., 15; 
Ht. Sg. Samb., etc. Harimau bMempek, ta'- 
makan orang : a tiger that menaces but does not 
eat men; his bark is worse than his bite; Pro v. 

tompek. A kind of thick cake of sago ; Kl. 

In Kedah, sa4ompek is used for a small quan- 
tity ; = sa-dikit, 

tompok. A small heap ; distribution in small 

heaps ; cf, timhun and tonggok, 

Sa-tompok : a small heap. Sa4ompok di-sini sa- 
tompok di'Sana: a heap here, a heap there; Pel. 
Abd., 15. Bertompok-tompok : in small heaps. 

tampal. Plastering ; pasting ; posting up ; 
sticking adhesive material on anything as 
plaster is put on a sore, (Muj., 81) ; or as a 
notice is posted up on a wall, (Ht. Abd., 276) ; 
or as caulking is put into the leaking seams of 
an old boat. 

Daun t, best: a medicinal herb. Also daun 

Tampalkan : to stick on ; to paste on ; to 
make a plaster of; Ht. Abd., 226. 

Tampal is also used of patching, (Sh. Jur. 
Bud., 26) when a new piece of cloth is sewn 
over an old perforated one, the piece not being 
removed ; superimposition, not substitution ; 
cf, tampong, 

taxnpil. Advance — especially in the sense of 
one or more warriors leaving the ranks and 
charging the enemy; Ht, Sg. Samb., Sej. 
Mai., 15; or of one man coming forward out 
of a group; Ht. Gul. Bak., 104. 

tempel. Close approach ; joining ; close asso- 
ciation. Jangan beriempel dengan diya: don't 
go near him. D aging menempel : strawberry 
growth, warts. 

tumpuL Bluntness ; loss of sharpness ; blunt 
as the blade of any instrument or weapon 
such as a knife or chopper ; (by metaphor) 
dull, silly, Ht. Jah., 10 ; Arabian Nights, 54. 
Usahkan tajam makin tumpul : so far from get- 
ting sharp, it became blunter ; Ht. Abd,, 483. 
Parang ta'-tahti di-ttimpul-nya : the chopper 
does not know its own bluntness ; that man 
does not known his own deficiencies; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., XL, 54. 

tSmpSlak. Twitting a person with opinions 

or conduct which the issue has shown to be 
mistaken ; teasing a person after the event. 

MenempUak : to twit in this way. 

Thus, when Abdullah learnt EngHsh, 
expecting the knowledge to be profitable, and 
the English left Malacca, his friends twitted 
him (UmpHak) with his mistake ; Ht. Abd., 
191. But when the English resumed posses- 
sion of Malacca, it was Abdullah's turn to 
twit his friends ; Ht. Abd., 272. TBmpelak 
does not refer to teasing in any other sense. 


tampan. I. Handsome; appropriate; pros- 
perous, fortunate (Sh. Si. Lemb., 6); 
brilliantly effective; gorgeous in appearance 
as an officer in dress uniform (Ht. Abd., 223) ; 
or as a king in his royal robes (Sh. Lail. 
Mejn., 9 ). Tiyada4ah tampan menjadi padh'i : 
he did not seem to suit his holy office ; Ht. 
Abd., 371. 

Memakai pedang sangat tampan: wearing a 
sword in an imposing way ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 26. 

Tampan4ampan : (Riau) a napkin or shoul- 
der cloth usually of yellow silk, worn by court 
officials at a state audience ; usually ietampan, 
q. V. 

n. The act of stopping a rolling ball with 
one's foot ; barring the passage to a rolling or 
moving object. Kubu di-hadapan menjadikan 
tampan : the stockade in front serves to bar 
the passage (to the cannon-balls). 

tampin. A kind of parcel made of leaves and 
used for holding sago. Saga t. : pearl sago ; 
Pel. Abd., 78. 

tampxin. (Pahang) Folding together, coming 
together in a bunch ; cf. chantum. 

Taniptm is used of a handkerchief being folded 
so that its corners meet in a point. Chantum 
or chentiim of its being folded and tied below 
the corners, the corners being then allowed 
to hang loose. 

tampu. The breadth of the hand used as a 
measure of length, Kl. ; v. peUmpap, telempap 
and tempap. 

tempo. Port. Time, especially in the sense 
of a further allowance of time for a payment 
or for the performance of any work. Minta i. : 
to ask for an extension of time. 

Tempokan : to postpone, to allow time ; 
Majm. al-Ahk., 13. 

tumpu. Pressure on some particular spot; 
the centre of effort ; a firm footing on any- 
thing. Melompat bersatumpu : to jump with 
one effort (used of standing jumps only, not 
of a running jump). Bodoh orang Menang- 
kabauyang tiyada menumpu laut : stupid are 
the men of Menangkabau who have no footing 
on the sea ; Prov. 

Beiiumpu : to have a footing or fixed rest 
anywhere with a view to making an effort. 
Bertumpu4ah gunong yang besar besar : he 
firmly propped himself against some mighty 
mountains ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Bertumpu is also 
used of the midwife resting her feet against 
the patient's body while performing her 
duties, cf. Sej. Mai., 64. 

Tempat tnmptman : the place for ** taking off" 
in jumping ; Ht. Sri Rama ( Maxw.), 58. 

Tump%i4umpuwan : a boundary. 

tSmpuwa. The weaver bird ; Pel. Abd., 94. 
Ikan t. : a freshwater fish, barbus apogon. 


[ 189 ] 


^JJ^ tSmpiiras. Lost or scattered about by 
leakage ; see temperas. 

P\JJ^ tSmporong or tSmpurong. A piece of coco- 
nut shell with the fibrous husk adhering to it ; 
a shell like covering such as the cranium ; 
(rarely) to rub with a fibrous bit of coco-nut 
shell. Katak di-bawah tempurong : a frog 
beneath a coco-nut shell — i.e,, in a world of 
its own in which it is the most important 
figure; narrow-nfinded conceit; Prov., Ht. 
Abd., 469, 486, Pel. Abd., 24 ; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; 
J.S.A.S, XXIV., no. Suroh tempurong mulut : 
order his mouth to be rubbed with coco-nut 
husk ; Ht. Best. 

T. kepala : the skull and scalp, 

r. luttit : the knee cap ; the fore part of the 

r. rabdb : the body of a viol ; the hollow 
drum-like portion of musical instrument of the 
guitar and violin type ; Ht. Sri Rama. 

Sisek t, : the logger head turtle ; thalassochelys 

3j>*^ tSmporok. A piece of a coco-nut used in 

playing certain children's games ; better porok^ 
q. V. 

Cf. tempurong, 
4JC tSmpolong. A spittoon ; Kl. 

tfimpuling. A sort of trident for spearing 
certain fish as the tenibok. The three points 
are barbed, the inner being rather shorter 
than the outer and being barbed on both 
sides, while the outer points are barbed on 
the outer side only. 

Terubok kena tempulingf 

Siyakap datang bertanya ; 
Didalam telok ayer-nya hening, 

Siapa chakap mandi di-sana: 

the terubok fish was speared, and the siyakap 
came to make enquiries after it. 

^jiaic tdmponek. A plant ; the monkey -jack, arto- 
carpus rigida. Also tempunai. 

^j|^ tempunai. A plant, artocarpus rigida ; J . I . A. , 
I., 330 ; V. temponek. 

iSj^ tSmpuwi. A tree yielding an edible fruit 
much prized by natives ; baccaurea malayana ; 
J.S.A.S., VHL, 131, Ht. Abd., 385, 387; Ht. 
Sh. Mard. 

iajl t§mpoyong. A plant (unidentified). 

XjJJ tSmpoyak. A preserve made of salted 
durian; Pel. Abd., 37. 

4ix tfimpah. Engagement in advance ; the se- 
curing of any person's services by the payment 
of an advance — more especially applied to 
securing the services of a midwife, but also 
applied to the engagement of a dancing girl 
or to a contract for making a keris. 
Penempah bidan : the fee paid in advance to 
a midwife. 

AaC tSmpoh. A charge ; a violent onslaught ; the 
collision of a rapidly moving body with a 
relatively stationary one, Menempoh : to charge, 
to assault, to storm. Raja Chulan menempoh 
dengan gajah-nya ka-dalam raHyyat raja Suran : 
Raja Chulan charged on his elephant into the 
midst of the troops of Raja Suran; Sej. Mai., 
18. Bertempoh-tempohan sama sendiri-nya : 
charging each other alternately; Ht, Sh. 

Aix timpoh. The attitude of sitting on the ground 
with the two legs turned to the right and bent 
back under the body while the left hand rests 
on the floor ; sitting as a Malay woman sits. 

Bertimpoh : in this attitude ; to sit in this 
attitude ; J. I. A., I., 330 ; Ht. Koris. Bertim- 
poh rapat: id., with the feet brought close in ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 10 ; Sh. UL, 8. 
Bertinipohan : id., frequentative — of many 
people sitting in this way ; Sh. Sri Bun., 30. 
Makan bertimpoh luttit terdiri : to eat when sit- 
ting in an attitude having the knee of one leg 
raised and the other leg stretched out ; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. 

Axk tumpah. Spilling ; spilt ; poured out — not 
necessarily in any great quantity but rather 
more than the spilling expressed by titek. 
Biyar titek jangan tumpah : let a little drop, 
don't go pouring it out ; do things gradually ; 
violence often defeats its own ends; Prov., 
J.S.A.S. III., 25. Sadikit tidak di-beri tumpah: 
he did not allow any of it to be spilt ; Sh. 
Abd. Mk., 22. 

T. ruwah: poured out in masses; thrown 
out ; jerked out carelessly anywhere, as dis- 
tinct from a careful discharge or removal ; Pel. 
Abd., 155. 

Tempat aku t, darah : my birth-place ; Ht. 
Abd., 12. 

^ tampi. The process of winnowing by tossing 
up and down ; separating the chaff and rice 
by a jerky upward motion ; cf. tinting and 

Menampi: to winnow; J. S. A. S., XL, 50, 
57. M, dada : heaving, of the breasts ; Sh, 
Lail. Mejn,, 6. Jikalau menampi jangan tum- 
pah padi-nya : when you are winnowing do 
not spill the padi ; when you do anything, do 
it with care; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 50. 

Kalau padi kata padi; 

Jangan sehaya tertampi-tampi ; 
Kalau jadi, kata jadi; 

Jangan sehaya ternanti-nanii : 

if it is padi, say it is padi; do not let me 
continue winnowing ; if it is so, say it is so, 
do not keep me waiting and waiting. 


[ 190 ] 


^ tempe. Jav. A kind of dish ; beans pre- 
pared in a certain way. 

jXiE tSmpedak, (A term of abuse.) Filthy, loath- 

J^ tempiyar. Bertempiyar : scattering in all 
directions, as a flock of chickens or a crowd 
of men on the aproach of danger; Fut. Sh., 
85. Bertempiyaran iya di-dalam hutan : 
scattered about the forest ; Sh. Sh. AL, 38. 

j,i/*^ tSmperas. A kind of black insect or bug, 
" found in the jungle, and the bite of which 
causes a slight swelling ; cf. iungau, 

Mj'^Jis. tfimpiyas. Beating in, of rain ; coming in 
through an open window or other aperture ; 
cf. biyas ov piyas. 

tSmpeleng. A box on the ears ; a violent 
blow with the open hand ; cf. sepak^ lepak and 

i^ j^^ tfimpinis. L The name of a tree yielding 
a hard durable wood, sloetia sideroxylon. 
Slight variations or states of the plant are 
known as t, merah, t, kerong, t, puteh and f, 

This wood is a proverbial simile for hardness. 
Sa-kechil-kechil kayu tetnpinis, teras-nya tahan 
berpuloh tahun : however small a tempinis tree 
may be, its body lasts for tens of years. 

In Kedah the word is pronounced tampenis. 
IL Ikan tempinis : an edible salt-water fish. 

4;^ tSmpinah. The water-balsam, hydrocera tri- 

j%>i tSmSgun. An expectant attitude; Sh. Pr, 
Ach., 18 ; cf. tegtm. 

qX t6man. The accompaniment of a superior; 
attendance on one higher in position or rank 
— in contradistinction to kawan, which means 
attendance on an equal. Teman-nya sa-orang : 
one of his attendants ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. Usah- 
lah teman di-mandi pagi : you need not attend 
me to my morning bath (to a man who over- 
does his flattery) ; Prov., J.S.A.S., III., 22, 

Temani : to attend on anyone as a mark of 
respect ; to escort him part of his journey ; 
Ht. Koris; Sh. Bid., 58. Menemani : id., Ht. 
Hg. Tuw., 59 ; Ht. Koris. 


tdmin. An immovable iron joint, ferrule or 
fastening uniting a knife blade to its handle or 
a spear-head to its shaft ; also a ferrule at the 
base of the sheath. 

If this fastening is of rattan, simpai is used ; 
if it is movable, penongkoL 

Pokok L : (Kedah) a thorny shrub, balanostre- 
blus ilicifoHus, 

f'JiS. tSmandang. Appearance, garb; get-up, 
^ make up. Sikap pendekar temandang munUri : 

with the look of a warrior and the garb of a 


jCS, tSmSnong. An edible salt-water fish. 

Panching t, : to fish with an unbaited pol- 
ished hook ; to fish for the temenong. 

Niyat hati nak panching temenong^ 
Sudah terpanching ikan setoka ; 

Niyat hati nak pelok gunong, 
Sudah terpelok bewak chelaka : 

I hoped to catch a temenong and only caught 
a setoka ; I hoped to wed a mountain (of gold) 
and found a dirty lizard in my arms. 

Jc t6mu. I. Meeting; uniting or joining in the 
same spot — more exact than jumpa, q. v. 
Bertenm: to meet; to come against. Barang 
perkataan yang beham yang ada bertemu dalam 
kitdb'kitdb : every new word which I met with 
in my books ; Ht. Abd., 49. 

Menemukan : to bring into contact ; Sh. 
Peng., 6. 

Pertemuwan : meeting ; a meeting between 
persons; Sh. Sri Bun., 45; Ht. Gul. Bak., 81, 

Pertemukan or mempertemukan : to bring 
about a meeting; to unite or reunite, e. g., to 
unite a lover with his beloved, (Ht. Gul. Bak., 
118), or to restore a head to the body from 
which it was cut off (Sej. Mai., 79). 

II. The name given to many wild gingers, 
scitaminecB ', Sh. Bur. Nuri, 32; Ht. Ind. 
Meng. ; Ht. Koris. 

r. kunchi : a small cultivated ginger, kcemp- 
feria pandtdata ; Muj., 47. 

r. ktmyei : turmeric, curcuma longa, 

T. lawak : the zedoary, a white turmeric 
used in curries, curcuma zedoaria, 

T. lampUj t. giring, t, padang, t. puteh, t, pauh, 
t, kuning and t. urat : other unidentified varie- 

1^>^ tfimuchut. ( Penang. ) Love-grass ; burrs ; 
also chhnuchup and kemimchup, q. v, 

^JJ^ tSmurat. A wild ginger ; better temu urat ; 
V. temu. 

(jjy> t§murun. Turun temurun : descent, pedigree 
or lineage — of persons; traditional character 
— of customs. Sultan yang berasal lagi turun 
temurun daripada asal : a sultan by birth and 
the descendant of a line of born sultans ; Ht. 
Abd., 409. Raja China turun temurun datang 
sekarang ini : a Chinese emperor whose des- 
cendants are Chinese emperors to this day ; 
Sej, Mai., 37. Turun temurun asal bernobat : 
descended from ancestors who were entitled 
to the nobat (the kettle drum of royalty) from 
the first; Sh. A. R. S.J., 6. 


[ 191 ] 




tgmukut. (Kedah.) Fine rice dust; dust 
obtained when the rice is winnowed. Also 
demukutf lemtikuty and melukui, 

tSmukus. Cubebs. Also kemtiktis, and lada 

tSmolok. (Kedah.) The crop of a bird, the 

first stomach of a ruminant. Better tembolok, 
q. V. 

4JaX tSmoleh. A fresh-water fish (unidentified). 

tSmah. The application of a poultice of hot 
ashes; better demah. See also temas, 

tSmidak. A fruit (unidentified), J. I. A., I,, 

tSmiyang. A liana, lettsomia peguensis ; J. I. A., 

Im 313- 

Orang temiyang : a tribe of orang laut^ 
tamyil. Arab. To be undecided, to hesitate. 

tSmilang. A plant, aglaia odoratissima. 

tan. [Hind, than.'] A place for tying up an 
animal. T. kiida : a stable ; = bangsal kuda. 

tun. A title of distinction which seems to 
have been of general use formerly but is now 
(Riau) only applied to a princess's foster child, 

tanbur. Port. A drum ; Ht. Abd., 192, 193, 
313. Also tambtir, q. v. 

tanbiyyat. Arab. Prophecy : the position 
of a prophet. Cf. nabi, 

tSnat. Desperate; dangerous, of a wound 
or illness ; dead-tired, of weariness ; cf. penat. 

tinta. Port. Ink'. Also datf^at. 

tgntapan. (Kedah.) A shoulder cloth. Also 
tentampan, tetmnpan, and tampan-tampan. 

tSntawan. A kar t. .- a water-producing vine, 
conocephalus stiaveolens, 

tSntayu. [Skr. jatayu^ a mythical bird.] 
The name given in Kedah to a peculiar bird- 
shaped boat's figurehead, and (by extension) 
to a special variety of three-masted perahu. 
Cf. jentayu. 

tuntut. Following on any one's steps; fol- 
lowing up keenly; demanding, intently seeking 
after. T. Hlmu : the pursuit of knowledge. 
r. kemaluwan : to sue for damages for slander. 

Memmiiii: to follow up; Ht. Abd., 25. 
Tuntuti: id.; Sh. Panj. Sg.; Sh. I. M. P. i¥. 
beta : to avenge. 




tantSra. [Skr. tantra,] Army ; infantry ; rank 
and file. Bala t, : id. Ht. Ind. Jaya; Ht. 
Koris; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Abd., 193; 
Muj., 5, etc. 

tentang. Position opposite to, vis-a-vis^ or 
in full view of anything ; in face of. T. TMok 
Belanga : opposite Telok Belanga, Tiyada-lah 
dapat di'tentang nyata : that cannot be looked 
full in the face, — a description of dazzling 
beauty or terrifying strength ; Ht. Bakht., 9. 
Bertentangan : vis-a-vis; opposite; Sh. Bur. 
Pungg., 8 ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 11. B. dengan : 
facing; opposite to; Ht. Abd., 239, 357, 377; 

Menentang : to face. Tiyada-lah siapa dapat 
menentang baginda: no one could bring 
himself to face the prince; Ht. GuL Bak., 68. 
Berapa sakit mat a menentang y sakit lagi bahu 
memikul : however painful it may seem to the 
eye that sees it, the shoulder that has to bear 
it feels it more ; Prov. 

tentang. A window, the hinges of the 
shutters of which are fastened horizontally ; 
Sh. Si Lemb. 

tinting. Winnowing with a swaying motion 
so as to separate the wheat from the chaff; 
(by metaphor) purifying by any process of 
selection. Laksana mas beharu di-tinting : 
like newly purified gold, i, c, like gold dust 
shaken (on a rebana) to separate the good 
from the bad ; a simile for purity and 

tuntong. I. The extreme point of anything, 

e. g., of a keris. 

II. Penyn tuntong or ttmtong : a turtle, 
callagur picta ; J. S. A. S., VIII., 120. 

III, Rapping a thing on the ground after 
turning it upside down so as to knock out 
anything that may be adhering to the side, 
as a man raps a tobacco-pipe bowl to get rid 
of the ashes ; holding a child by the feet and 
shaking him head downwards, by way of a 

tSntampan. (Kedah.) A shoulder-cloth; 
also t^tampan, ientapan, and tampan-tampan. 

tantan. Btmga t. 

a wild ginger, amomtim 

tuntun, I. Leading; conducting ; guidance 
by means of some connecting link, as when 
a horse is led by a halter and a child by the 
hand. Orang buta bMuntun tongkat : a blind 
man led by his stick, Batu t. : the lead on a 
fishing line ; also batu ladong, 
Menunttm : to lead ; to conduct — literally 
with a rope or by the hand, but also figura- 
tively in a wider sense, e, g., mHimtun 
dengan baik paras-nya : to lead by the powder 
of beauty ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. MHuntun tali : 
to lead (goats) with a string ; Ht. Hamz., 4. 


[ 192 ] 


IL Memmtun : to flock in crowds to see 
a wayang or joget or other show. Ramai4ah 
orang memmtun kechil besar tuwa muda : many 
were the people who flocked there, small and 
great, old and young ; Ht. Ind. Nata, cf. also 
Sh. Abd. Mk., 41 ; Ht. Abd., 113. 

Rumah UmUman: a museum, an exhibition, 
a show of any sort. 

jXii tfintu. Definiteness ; positiveness ; certainty ; 
certain as opposed to doubtful ; definite as 
opposed to vague. Khabar yang tentti ; 
definite news ; certain intelligence, as opposed 
to vague rumour. 

Tentiikan and menentukan ; to define ; to lay 
down clearly; to fix, ^. g-., to appoint a day 
for any work, (Ht. Abd., 462) ; or to fix the 
amount of an allowance or salary, (Ht. Abd., 
225, 232) ; or to define the terms of an agree- 
ment, (Ht. Ind. Jaya) ; or to find out defi- 
nitely in what language an inscription is 
written, (Ht. Abd., 237). 

Teniuwan and ketentuwan : certainty, 
Tiyada teniuwan confusion ; uncertainty ; 
disorder ; Sh. UL, 29, Tiyada berketentuwan: 
id. ; Ht, Gul. Bak., 135. 

Tertentu : absolutely certain ; accepted as 
certain ; unquestioned ; Ht. Abd., 119. 

Cty^ tSntuban. See tuban. 

OjJ^ tSnturun. (Riau.) A small animal, like a 
civet cat ; arctictts binturong. Also benturong, 

^>^ tentulang. T. merah : a plant, garcinia 


tanti. *' Wait a moment," an expression 
used by a slow walker to one ahead of him. 
The forms nanti and menanti are in more 
general use, v. nanti. 

tanjong. A cape; 
tory. Bunga t 

a head-land, a promon- 
a flower, ammnum xuntho- 

tunjang. (Riau, Johor, Kedah.) The tap 
root ; that portion of the root which goes 
straight down into the ground, as distinct 
from branching roots such as those of the 
mangrove (jangkar, q. vj ; (Malacca) raised 
above the surface ; exposed as the roots of the 
bakau or as hoof-marks, J.S.A.S., VHI., 128. 

i^ timjong. L The water-lily. T. biru, t, mas: 
Cj varieties of it, Sh. Bur. Nuri., 23 ; Ht. Sg. 
Samb., etc. 

n. (Johor.) A sireh or pepper vine prop ; 
(Riau) junjong q. v. 


tanjak. Projection upwards ; point upwards ; 

sticking up as the point of a Bugis head-dress. 
Layar t, : a triangular sail, the base of which 
runs along the deck and the vertex of which 
is aloft. 

Lobang t, : the orifice through which molten 
metal is poured into a mould, the word tanjak 
being used of the small projection or tag 
formed by the metal in the orifice itself. 

Bertanjak kaki : standing on tiptoe. 

Tanjak is also used of the vertex of a trian- 
gular sail rising as the wind drops, the swell- 
ing of the sail tending to lower it ; and of the 
raising of the pecular rattan net (daun) at the 
bottom of a fish trap. Layar tertanjak, angin- 
nya matt : the sail is sticking up, and the wind 
filling it has died away; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Cf. anjor, anjong^ tanjong, tajok, unjok, 
tun j ok, etc. 

r-ii tunjok. Indication; pointing out. 

Tiinjokkan : to point out ; to indicate ; Ht. 
Abd., 274. Memmjoki : id. ; Sh. Ibl., 5. 
Menunjokkan : id. Itu-lah menunjokkan bodoh- 
nya : that shows his folly ; Ht. Abd., 259. 

Perttmjok : an indicator, an indication ; Ht. 
Abd., 132; Ht. Raj. Sul., 18. Pertunjokan : 
an indication; Ht. Raj. Sul., 17. Pemmjok : 
an indication, a warning; Ht. Best. 

Tehmjokf and jari telunjok : the index finger. 

Cf. anjoVy anjong, tajok, unjok, behmjor, 
tanjak, tonjol, etc. 

\j^ tanjol. A contrivance something like a fish- 
'^^ ing rod and line, but with a noose instead of 
a hook at the end of the line. When a snake 
(or whatever else it is desired to catch) is 
passing through the noose, a sudden jerk of 
the rod tightens the noose and secures the 
animal, at the same time keeping him at a 

\fi> tonjol. A considerable protuberance or bump 
^* on the forehead (such as would be caused by 
a carbuncle), as distinct from a slight swelling 
such as would be caused by a blow ( v. benjol ) 
or from a naturally prominent conformation 
of the forehead. 

yft tunjal A thrust downwards to give impetus 
*^* to an upward motion, as in the case of a diver 
stamping on the bottom of the sea to 
accelerate his rise to the surface, or of a horse 
pressing the ground with his hind feet when 
leaping forward. Tunjal is also used of a dig 
in the ribs or any thrust intended to be felt 
but not intended to hurt or leave a mark. 

♦r . . * . 

^^^ tailjan. A tree (unidentified) resembling the 

keranjif q, v. ; KL 

ji^ tanju. A bracket-lamp; a wall-lamp; a street 
lamp on a bracket projecting from a wall, as 
distinct from a street standard lamp; Ht. 
Koris.; Ht, Ind. Meng. 


[ 193 ] 


^ tinjau. Stretching out the neck and gazing 
intently ; on the look-out. 

Mininjau : to keep a look-out ; to watch. 

P^ninjau : a look-out, a spy. 

TertinjaU'tinjau : looking about, spying out 
the land, as a thief examining a house which 
he hopes to enter. 


tinju. Boxing ; a blow with the knuckles of 
the closed fist. Di-kaluwarkan-nya duwa- 
duwa budak itu di-adu-nya birtinju : he brought 
out the boys in pairs and set them on to box 
with each other ; Ht. Abd., 80. Cf. ttmtbok 
and timbok. 

tanda. I. Token ; emblem ; a mark em- 
blematic of anything, as distinct from a mark 
consequent on anything (bekaSj q. v.). 

r. bachaan: the vowel points; also 6am, 
q. V. 

T. bander a : a flag signal. 

T. matt : (i) a souvenir ; (2) the diacritical 
mark jazm. 

T, tangan : a signature ; an acknowledgment 
by signature. Surat tanda tangan orang ber- 
hutang piyutang : a promissory note. Surat 
tanda iya ada belajar daripada-nya : a letter to 
show that that gentleman had taken lessons 
from him, i. e,, a certificate or testimonial 
given to a teacher. T, memberi hurmat : a 
mark of respect, as when soldiers present 

Ikan tanda-tanda : a fish, lutianus sillaoo, 

11. Pertanda: (Riau, Johor) an executioner. 

JjJ tenda. Port. Awning ;=cA^^^n, q. v. 

Jcj tunda. Towing; a tender; a boat drawn 
behind a ship; a bait drawn after a boat. 
Sampan t. : a kind of small dinghy towed 
behind a sailing vessel. Menarek t, or ber- 
tunda: to have (a boat) in tow; Sh. Abd. Mk., 
27. Tunda-lah pada perahu hamba : put it in 
tow of my boat; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 8. Kapal 
besar di-tunda jongkong : a large ship in tow of 
a dinghy ; a great man in tow of parasites ; 

Panching t. : a drag-line drawn after a sailing 
boat and used for catching the alu-alu. Alu- 
alu memakan-nya tunda : the alu-alu (fish) has 
swallowed the bait ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 9 ; see 
also Pel. Abd., 30, 

jXi tandur. I. Jav. Minandur: to plant; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. 

II. Holding up or supporting with props, 
buttresses or ropes. Tali t. : a string for 
pulling up chicks (bidai), 

ji-JcS tandas. I. A privy; Bost. Sal. 

II. (Kedah.) The trunk of a decapitated 
man ; the mutilated body of a murdered man ; 
see tandus and tindas. 

y^-^ tandus. Barrenness; treelessness, of land; 
waste, abandoned. 

^«U> tfindas. [Jav. endas: head.] Decapitation. 
Supaya ku tendas leher-mu: that I may cut 
your throat; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 96. Neschaya 
patek keduwa tendas kepala-nya persembahkan 
ka-bawah duli : we two will certainly cut oif 
their heads for a gift to your Majesty; Ht, Sh. 
Kub. Cf. also Ht. Hamz., 26. 


tindas. The cracking of a flea on the thumb- 

Menindas : to kill a small insect such as a 
tuma (Pel. Abd., 32) or a flea (Ht. Si Misk., 
51) on the thumb-nail. 

Cf. tendas. 

tandang. Wandering about in search of any 
person or thing ; visiting ; travelling, Orang 
tandang desa: a wanderer; a vagrant; a vaga- 
bond; a man who has left his country to 
wander in search of a livelihood; Ht. Sg. 
Samb., Ht. Ind. Jaya. Bertandang desa : to 
wander about as a vagrant ; Sh. Sri Bun., 34. 

Tikam t. : death by a javelin or thrown spear 
— a form of execution considered degrading as 
being the death of a hunted beast. 

Bertandang: to go visiting. Orang Upas 
nikdh jangan di-tandang : don*t go visiting a 
man just married, Prov., J. S. A. S., III., 40. 

Tandang is also used in the extended sense of 
visiting and associating with or competing 
with. Tiyada4ah pernah orang ke-inderaan 
pergi ka-dalam dunya bertandang-tandang dengan 
orang dunya : the Sons of Heaven have never 
yet descended to earth to compete with the 
Sons of Earth; Ht. Pg. Ptg. The word is 
also used of a football team visiting another 
club to play a match; Bint. Tim. 

5- Jo3 tanding. A subdivision ; one of several equal 
^ portions; a " lot," of land; apportion," of 

food ; measuring out equal sides or portions. 
Tidak sa-tandingj tidak sa-banding : not equal 
in size, nor equal in quality. Gamboh sama 
tandingan: dancing girls perfectly matched; 
Sh. Panj. Sg. Sa4elah bertanding-nya dart- 
pada keduwa pehak : when two equal sides had 
been selected; Ht. Sh. Mard. 

9JSi tSndang. Kicking out ; drawing up the foot 
C as far as it will go and kicking out. Bunga 

di'peiek pBrdu di4endang : the flower is pluck- 
ed, the stalk thrown away; the daughter is 
cherished, the mother left to starve ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., I., 92. Cf. terajangy sepak, singkor, 
kidang and Bntak, 

r. ka-belakang: kicking out behind, as a 
horse. T. tumtt : stamping down violently 
with the heel. 

BMumbok bertendang : with cuffs and kicks ; 
Ht. Abd., 94. 



[ 194 ] 


Minendang : to kick; Hi. Abd., 28. Menen- 
dangkan : id. Jikalau patch laki-laki neschaya 
patek sendiri menendangkan muka-nya munteri 
itu : if I were a man I would assuredly kick 
that minister's face; Ht. Bakht., 74. Menen- 
dangkan keduwa belah kaki : to kick out with 
both feet ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

PBnBndang : a stretcher in a Malay boat. 

"Jci tondong. Banishment; driving away with 

■" ignominy ; hounding out. Cf. tandang in the 

expression tikam tandang, Di4ondong uleh 

segala martka-itu akan raja : they all drove the 

prince out of the country ; Ht. Gh. 

)"^** tandak. Dancing by movements of the lower 
limbs in contradistinction to dancing by 
swaying the body and arms (tart) ; Javanese 
dancing; Sh. Put. Akal, 11; Sh. Abd. Mk., 9; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Bertandak: to dance; Ht. Koris. Bertandak- 
tandak : id. ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

J*-^ tandok. Horn ; the horn of an animal — except 

in cases where it is endowed with magical 
properties, cf. chtda and sumbu ; goring with 
the horns; butting. Mati di-tandok ulehkerbau 
jalang itu : he died gored by the wild buffalo ; 
Ht. Ind. Jaya. Bagai tandok bersendi gading : 
like horn in ivory mountings; a worthless 
thing in a valuable frame ; Prov. Telor di- 
hujong tandok : an egg at the point of a horn ; 
in a critical position ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 422. 
Bagai tandok di-bh'kas : like horns tied up 
in a bale (which will not hold together owing 
to the peculiar shape of the horns) ; a story 
the details of which will not harmonize; Prov. 
Jangan buwat kerbati tandok panjang : do not 
play the long-horned buifalo; do not be 
quarrelsome ; Prov. 

r. batmg : (Kedah) props used in shallow 
water to keep a boat from rolling; ==^(Riau, 
Johor) sembeta, q. v. 

Tandok-tandok : a climber with curiously 
shaped flowers, strophanthus dichotomtis. 

Bertandok : horned. Ktiching bertandok : when 
cats have horns ; the Greek calends ; Prov. 

Menandok : to gore ; to butt. Saperti kerbau 
menandok anak : as a buffalo butts its calf, i. e., 
with the flat of the horn so as not to hurt it ; 
a mother's severity; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 
108. Lembii tandok panjang tiyada menandok 
pun di'kata orang juga iya menandok : when 
an ox has long horns he may not butt, but 
everyone will say that he butts ; appearances 
often hang a man ; Prov., J. S. A. S., II., 135. 

Tandok is also used to describe the act or 
result of tying a growing branch to its parent 
bough so as to prevent its breaking under its 
own weight. 

jJc5 tindek. Pricking through (a thin surface) ; 

making a hole through, used of boring the 
ears, etc. 






tundok. The bowing of the head ; a down- 
cast, respectful, or submissive attitude. T. 
menyembah : to bow in salutation. T. diyam : 
to look down and be silent, e. g., after a re- 
buke. T. tengadah : looking down and then 
looking up; the attitude of a man in the 
throes of composition. T, khidmat : bowing 
in subjection ; Arabian Nights, 16. 

Menundokkan kepala : to bow the head ; Ht. 
Abd., 6, 47, 116, 221 ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. Me- 
nundokkan ulu : id. ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 131. 

Penundok or Hlmu penundok : a charm for 
procuring submissiveness in others; Ht. Abd., 
154; J. I. A., I., 311; in Riau, confined to 
obtaining the submission of one's wife, but 
this limitation is not universal. 'Aztmat 
penundok musoh : a talisman to reduce one's 
enemies to submission. 

tandil. Tam. A tindal ; the head-man of a 
gang of road-coolies or field-labourers; a 
petty officer on a ship receiving his orders 
from the serang, Tandil ph'gi berkerah : the 
head labourer went to call the people to 
work; Ht. Sri Rama (Maxw.), 9. 

tandam. (Johor.) The solder used in work- 
ing in gold or brass ; better (Riau) pandam. 

tandan. A cluster (Ht. Koris) ; the stalk 
common to a cluster of fruit such as bananas 
which grow together — the stalk joining each 
separate banana to the tandan being tangkai, 
q. V. 

tandun. Zamdn tandmi : the immemorial 
past ; the beginnings of time ; when the 
world was young. 

tindan. Lying loosely one on the other, as 
a pile of books or other articles of a similar 
character. Sa4indan : a number of articles 
so piled up but not sorted relative to one 
another ; cf. susun and tindeh. 

tundun. The mons veneris; (sometimes) the 
mom veneris and labia major a, 

tandu. A kind of hammock-litter borne by 
two persons. Tuwan puteri itu di-usong di- 
dalam tandu-nya : the princess was borne in 
her litter; Ht. Gh. 

tindeh. Lying one over the other; placing a 
limb over another; position over. Maka uleh 
Bender ang di-tindeh-nya paha Badang dengan 
paha-nya : Benderang laid his thigh under Ba- 
dang's — to see whether he could throw him, at 
wrestling; Sej. Mai., 61. Tindeh-menindeh : to 
press by crowding ; to fall one over the other 
in confusion or disarray ; Pel. Abd., 32. Di- 
tindeh yang berat, di-lilit yang panjang : borne 
down by the heavy, enfolded in the coils of 
the long, — illustrative of the powerlessness of 
the poor; Prov., J. S. A. S., III., 35. Yang 
tegah di'Sokong, yang ribah di-tindeh : what is 
firm is propped up, what is fallen is pressed 
down; money begets money, and poverty 
pauperism; Prov., J. S. A. S., III., 41. 


[ 195 ] 


Tindehkan : to superimpose a weight ; to 
crush under a superincumbent mass. Di- 
tindehkan-nya dengan bukit Menggerda itu : he 
crushed him under the weight of Mount 
Menggerda; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Bertindeh : one lying on the other, as bodies 
on a battle field. Bertindeh4mdeh : id., fre- 
quentative; Ht. Abd., 373. Bertindeh bang- 
kai: body lying on body, as after a fight, 
(Sh. Raj. Haji, 185), but especially used by 
lovers promising to die with each other ; Sh. 
Pant. Shi., 7, 12. 

Bertindeh is also used in a coarse sense, e, g., 
ambil katak yctng berbini sedang bertindeh- 

J^ tfiixar. A row that all can hear ; bawling a 
thing from the house-tops; washing one's 
dirty linen in public. 

Hendak di-pulangkan segala mahar ; 
Jangan4ah lagi membuwat tenar : 

all your money will be returned to you ; but 
don't go on proclaiming your grievances to 
the world at large ; Sh. Peng., 22. Cf. also 
Sh. Peng., 6; Sh. Pr. Turki, 12. 




tanztl. Arab. Sending down ; revelation ; 
the revelation made by God to man in the 

tSnang. Calm ; smooth ; still, of the surface 
of the water; cf. tedoh and senang. Jikalau 
ayer tenang jangan di-sangka tiyada buwaya : 
if the water is still do not think that there 
are necessarily no alligators ; Prov., J.S.A.S., 
XI., 34- 

tSnong. Abstraction ; being plunged in 
thought ; cf. menong, and renong, 

Petenong : (Singapore) a fortune teller. 

jCj tanaffus. Arab. Jauhar tanaffus : the essence 
of breathing life ; the spirit of animal life ; 
Sh. I. M. P., 15. 


tSnok. (Johor, Malacca.) The tapir, tapirus 
indicus; also (Kedah) badak tampong. 

b3 tSnol. A small tree, myristica laurina. 

tSnun. Weaving^ the art or process of 

Tenunan : method or style of weaving ; Ht. 
Koris. Salah tenunan : a fault in the fabric. 

Bertenun : to weave ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

tanniir. Arab. Furnace ; oven ; bakery. 

tSniring. A tree (unidentified) ; Kl. 

tSnnyeh. (Penang.) To touch or poke with 
the finger. 

J tu. A colloquial abbreviation for tY^/; v. 


jJ to*. A colloquial abbreviation for datok, q. v. ; 
grandfather, old man. 

To' aki : (Perak) grandfather. 

To' alang : v. tuwalang. 

To' nek : great-grandfather. 

To' nyang : great-great-grandfather. 

To' wan : (Kedah) grandfather. 

j3 tuwa. Old ; matured ; age ; seniority. 

Orang t. : (i) an old man, (2) the head of the 
family ; the father ; a village patriarch ; an 
adult, in contradistinction to a child, or one 
of the older as opposed to the younger gene- 
ration. Orang tuwa bongkok pakai baju best : 
a humpbacked old man in a coat of mail ; 
a tortoise. 

Orang tuwa chatok : an old man in his 

Orang tuwa datok : an old man of position 
and rank. 

Orang tuwa kutok : an old rascal ; Ht. Best. 

Orang tuwa luntok : a broken down old man. 

Orang tuwa suntok : an old man who apes 
youthful ways. 

Toleh tenggala tuwa : v. toleh. 

Ketuwa : a village headman. K. kampong or 
tuwa kampong : id. Pertuwa and pengetuwa : 
id. Paratuwa : the elders of a village con- 
sidered collectively. Ketuwa-tuwaan : id. 
Ketuwakan : to have or appoint as headman ; 
Sh. Jub. Mai., 10. 

Pak tuwa : an uncle older than one's father ; 
Sh. Sri Bun., 57. Also pak uwa and pak wa, 
Bapa tuwa : id., Sej. Mai., 90. 

Mertuwa and mentuwa : father-in-law, 

Tuwa after the names of colours gives the 
meaning of ** deep," " dark," to those colours. 
Merah t, : deep dark red. Hitam-nya tuwa : 
it was of a deep black ; Ht. Sh. Kub. After 
the names of minerals, tuwa means purity from 

The form tuha also occurs. 

3yJ tawarud. Arab. Correspondence, 

i Ay tuwarang. A drought (lasting longer than a 
^^ kemarau), 

^Ay tawarikh. Arab. Dates, epochs ; the plural 
w ^ of tdrikh, q. v. 

i\a3 tawafi. Arab. Being gathered home by God 
^■^ (of the slain in a Holy War). 


\J towakang. [Chin, toa-khang.] A person 
-^ puffed up with self-conceit ; arrogance, vanity, 

J\ J tuwala. [Port, toalha.] A serviette ; a nap- 
kin ; a towel. T. mandi : a towel. 


[ 196 ] 





tuwalang. (Perak and Kedah Malay.) A 
name given generically to large trees on which 
the wild bees make their nests; Ht. Sri Rama 
(Maxw.), 6 ; (Riau, Johor) siyalang. 

Bertuwalang : to swarm; (of bees). Also 
to* alang. 

tuba. The name of a plant with a root pos- 
sessing stupefying qualities, and much used 
in fishing, derris elliptica, Maka sakaliyan than 
itu bertimbulan sapMi than kina tuba : then all 
the fish came floating to the surface like fish 
affected by the tuba root ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. 
Mati di'tuba : poisoned by tuba; Sh. Pant. 
ShL, 12. Tuba binasa ikan ta'-dapat : the tuba 
was spoilt and no fish were got ; a proverbial 
description of money spent uselessly. 

tobat. Arab. Repentance by abandonment 
of any evil practice ; the abandonment of any 
harmful thing. Bertobat daripada mandi : 
giving up bathing (in a magic wood when 
bathing resulted in unpleasant transforma- 
tions) ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 90. Tobat daripada 
dosa-nya yang telah lalu itu : repentance for 
past sins ; the abandonment of his old vices ; 
Ht. Raj. Sul., 2. 

j*^ tubir. The edge of the sea or of a river ; the 
margin of a lake ; the brink, provided the 
gradient into the sea or river be great, though 
not perpendicular. 

i-jy tubing. ( Singapore. ) Aslant ; = ( Riau, 
^ Johor, Kedah) iuding, q, v. 

^J^ tobak. (Riau, Johor.) Cut square; cutting 

the nail so as to give it a straight instead of 
the usual curved edge ; also (Kedah) tekobak. 

^3f?^ tubok. A wooden lance for spearing teripang. 

^ Uoi tubul. A freshwater fish (unidentified) ; Sh. 
^^ Ik. Trub., 12. 

Cxy tuban. Tuban-tuban: (Johor) the discharge 
immediately preceding delivery at child-birth ; 
also (Riau) tetuban, (Singapore) k^tuban, and 
(Kedah) tentuban. 

0\y tubin. I. Four days Kence ; the fourth day 
from this ; Kl. 

II. Ikan tubin: a freshwater fish (uniden- 

^J^ tobah. Menobah : to tear out plants by the 
roots; KL 

Ajy tuboh. The body — in the anatomical sense 
only and not as considered in contradistinc- 
tion to the soul (v. badan), nor yet in the 
sense of a dead body (v. bangkai); the seat of 
physical sensations. Tuboh-nya sedBrhana: he 
was of medium build. Tuboh-nya makin sa- 
hari makin4ah tambun : he became fatter daily. 





B^kas t. : a garment that has been in actual 
use — often given by Malays as a pledge of 

Mimilok t, : to cross the arms over the 

Sa-tuboh : sexual connection ; carnal know- 

Tuboh is sometimes used in the sense of ** in 
person.*' Tuwan tuboh datang: come in person. 

tubi. Devotion to anything; putting one's 
heart and soul into any work ; doing anything 
with all one's might. Chandu chelaka jangan 
di'tubi : do not give yourself up to accursed 
opium. Maka uleh Hang Jebat di-pertubi-tubi- 
nya tikam : Hang Jebat worked himself up to 
strike; Ht. Hg. Tuw., 84. 

tuwat. I. (Kedah.) A fishing mark; a stake 
or bamboo used as a mark to indicate a good 
spot for line-fishing. 

IL Ketuwat: a pimple; a small excrescence 
or wart of the same colour as the surrounding 

ttlt. Arab. A mulberry tree. 

tutut. (Johor.) 
bling a merebok. 

A bird (unidentified) resem- 

tutor. I. Utterance; pronunciation; a 
formula for utterance ; actual speech ; spoken 
— (as distinct from written) language. Tutor 
dan kata haru-biru : his utterance and his 
language were confused; Sh. Nasih., 9. Tutor 
sa-patah: a word, a saying. 

Bertutor : to speak. Bertutor behasa Melayu: 
to speak Malay; Ht. Abd., 346. 

II. Tutor an atap, petutoran atap, or penu- 
toran atap : the lowest row of atap in a roof, 
the eaves. Also chuchoran atap. 

tutup. Covering ; a cover ; the closing up or 
filling up of a hollow body, as distinct from 
the enclosing of a body in a hollow (v. tudong), 
Laksana chembul dengan tutup-nya: like a 
casket and its cover; exactly fitting each 
other; Prov., Sh. Pant. ShL, 14. Lobang 
yang tersebut itu di-suroh-nya tutup : he ordered 
the aperture in question to be closed; Ht. 
Abd., 64. Sa-tahun tutup : a whole year, a 

full year. 

r. bumi : 
burnt paya : 
bumi rimba : 

a weed, elephantopus scaber, T. 
a weed, blainvillea latifolia, T, 
a herb, allomorphia griffithii. 

Tutupkan: to close; to shut; Ht. Abd., 94. 
Mlnutup : id. ; Ht. Abd., 53, 81 ; Muj., 14. 

P^nutup : anything that closes ; a cover. P. 
mating: a charm for shutting out thieves; 
Muj., 79. P. malu: a thing to close up or 
hide one's shame; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 14. P. 
nafsu : a charm to remove lust. 

TMutup : closed ; shut ; Ht. Abd., 73. 


[ 197 ] 


^y totok. I. (Jav.) A species of shell-fish ; KL 

II. Full-blooded; pure-blooded, Belanda 
t. : a Dutchman pur sang, China t, : a China- 
born Chinese in contradistinction to a Baba. 
The expression also occurs without any 
special meaning in a proverbial rhyme descrip- 
tive of a passionately jealous man : 

China totok, lawang lawi, 
Chabut goloky tikam bini, 

III. (Onom.) A bamboo sounding-block. 
Also toHok, 

jj3y tutok. I. Breaking a piece of bamboo or 

rattan without cutting it into two separate 
pieces; crushing or beating a rattan into a 
soft fibrous pulp ; Ht. Zaly., 69, 70. 

II. A tree, hibiscus macrophyllus. Its bark 
is used for fibre. 

III. Tutok ketampi : the name given to a 
school punishment, the boy being forced to 
hold his right ear in his left hand and vice 
versa, and to continually rise and stoop. 


tutul. Jav. Spot ; spotted. Machan t. : the 
leopard; (in pure Malay) harimau bintang, 
Buloh t. (Kedah) : the spotted bamboo, a kind 
of bamboo obtained from Java and used in the 
construction of musical instruments; (Riau, 
Johor) btiloh karah. 

^^ tutu. Dengong t, : the sound made by a 
humming kite (simbang). 

^y tutoh. Lopping off the branches of a tree 
from the main trunk after felling, or in some 
cases preparatory to felling. Menutoh : to lop 
off branches from a tree; Ht. Gh., 75; Sh. 
Pant. Shi., 5 ; Sh. Ch. Ber., 7. 

^y tojang. I. Menojang : to squat with the 
heels close together and the toes turned out ; 

II. A temporary support or prop, as distinct 
from a permanent buttress {sokong, q. v.). 

Penojang kaki : a foot-rest ; a foot-stool. 

y^y tuju. Heading for; making for; aiming at; 
pointing towards ; a form of sorcery in which 
the attention of evil spirits is directed towards 
any person so that they may bring him to an 
untimely end. Sa-tuju : moving in the same 
direction ; in harmony ; in unison. Sa4uju 
saperti raja dengan munteri dan saperti chinchin 
dengan permata : in harmony, as a king and 
his minister, or as a gem and the ring in 
which it is set; Ht. Abd., 96. Ber-sa-tujuwan: 
:=zsa4uju; Ht. Abd., 379. 

Tujuwi: to aim at, to make for; Sh. Sri 
Bun., 21 ; Sh. B. A. M., 11. 

Menuju : to point towards ; to make for ; to 
practise the form of sorcery described above. 
Menuju orang sampai mati : to inflict ^'tuju'*- 
spells on a. man till he dies; Ht. Abd., 390. 
Bahwa tiyap4iyap pBrkataan itu menuju iya 
kapada tujuwan-nya : every word of his went 
straight to its mark; Bint. Tim., 4 April, 

Penuju: a row of fishing-stakes leading 
directly to a fish-trap (used in the belat kern- 
bang) ; cf. penajor (s. v. tajor) a row of stakes 
similarly stretching out from a fish-trap but 
not at right angles to its entrance (used in the 
belat betawi). 

A5»-y tujah. Thrusting, stabbing, when the weapon 
is held in both hands, the hands being raised, 
arms bent, and elbows lowered. 

<>^ tujoh. Seven. 

Bintang t, : the Seven Stars, the Pleiads. 

Kutika t. : the Seven Ominous Times, the 
week or division of time presided over (as in 
the Latin calendar) by the great heavenly 
bodies: viz., the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, 
Jupiter, Venus and Saturn. 

^^J^ tauchang. [Chin. thau4sdng,] A queue; a 
pigtail (as worn by Chinese only); cf. jambuL 

^^^y tauhid. Arab. The avowal of the Unity of 
God. Herti-nya tauhid mengesakan Tuhan : 
the meaning of tauhid is to declare God One ; 
Sh. Ung. Bers., 14. 

Menauhidkan: to recognize as One (Arabian 
Nights, 384 ) ; to recognize as one's duty 
(Arabian Nights, 47); to decide upon a course 
(Arabian Nights, 58, 323). 

?^y tudong. A veil, a hollow cover, the veiling, 
enclosing, or shutting in of a solid object with 
a surrounding cover of any sort, as distinct 
from the closing of an aperture. Cf. tutup, 
Bagai chepu dengan tudong-nya : like a box and 
its cover; a symbol for perfect harmony; 
Pro v. 

7\ hidang : a plate cover, a small dish-cover. 

r. saji : a large dish -cover. Tudongan saji : 
id.; Sh. Sri Ben., 5. 

Dayong tudong bUanga : long sweeps with 
round blades. 

Siput tudong : a shell, trochus pyramis, 

Tudongan : a veil or covering of any sort ; a 
shroud over a dead body ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tudongi : to enshroud. Bunga pun sHang 
kembang berlurohan di-atas mayat Sang Ranjuna 
saperti di4udongi dengan kain yang puteh rupa- 
nya : flowers in full bloom were falling over 
the body of Arjuna to enshroud it as it were 
with a white garment ; Ht. Sg, Samb. 


[ 198 ] 







tuding. Indirectness ; indirect ; at an angle — 
the converse of tepat ; q. v. ; a ** pulling " stroke 
or blow, as distinct from a straight drive. Me- 
nuju t, : (in playing with coins) to aim at the 
edge instead of the centre — so as to drive 
your opponent's coin into the hole while keep- 
ing your own outside, Asah t. : whetting the 
edge of a knife at an angle — and so spoiling 
its fineness. Tudingkan satih : to bring a ship 
over its anchor — so as to haul up the anchor 
the more easily. 

todak. (Riau, Johor). A fish with a sword- 
like projection under the mouth ; a kind of 
small saw-fish or sword-fish ; belone strongylu- 
rus. This fish, according to legend, once took 
the offensive against mankind and was only 
defeated by a child's stratagem ; v. Sej. Mai., 

Also (Kedah) chenchodak. 

todoh or tudoh. Accusation (especially but 
not necessarily false accusation). Tiyada ber- 
salahan todoh-nya : his accusation was fully 
borne out ; Ht. Best. Menodoh : to bring a 
charge against (a person); to accuse, to 
slander ; Ht. Abd., 402 ; Ht. Gh. ; Sh. Abd. 
Mk., 145. 

jj3 tuwar. I. A signal -light ; the lifting of a 
torch or lamp by way of a signal ; signalling 
by means of lights. 

II. A fish-trap for the ikan aruwan. Bagai 
aruwan di-dalam tuwar : like the aruwan fish in 
a fish-trap; a symbol for hopeless struggling; 
Prov., J.S.A.S., XXIV., 94. 

taurat. [ Arab. oj>y . ] The Law of Moses ; 

the **Thora" of the Jews; the Pentateuch; 
the Old Testament. Kitdb t, : the Jewish 
scriptures. Ahlu* t-taurat : the Jews. Kartds 
yang sudah tersurat daripada taurat : a piece of 
paper with a text from the Pentateuch ; Ht. 
Isk. Dz. 

tUTUt. Following — in the sense of succession 
or imitation, but not in the sense of literally 
pursuing a person walking in front ; sequence, 
in point of time ; following advice or instruc- 
tions ; following the bent of one's inclinations ; 
giving a boat way in contradistinction to luff- 
ing ; to follow suit. Orang memberi tahu pun 
iya tiyada mau turut : even if people let him 
know he will not follow their advice ; Ht. Abd., 
262. Berpesan bMurut, harap ada perchaya 
tidak : to commission a man and yet accom- 
pany him, to expect something of him and yet 
not trust him ; Prov. 

Main t, : a card-game. 

Turutan : an example ; a thing to be followed 
or imitated ; Ht. Abd., 96. 

Turuti : to follow ; to follow up ; to imitate ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 128, 157 ; Sh. Bur. Pung., 2. 
Menurut: id. Memiruti : id. Ada-pun berj a- 
Ian itu tiyada menurut bikas yang di-jalani 
orang : on that walk we did not follow any 
well trodden track; Ht. Abd., 308. Menurut 
pelajaran : to give ear to instruction ; Sh. 
Nas., g. Memiruti hati : to follow one's incli- 
nations ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Turuikan, and menurutkan : to take anything 
as an example to be followed ; to give way to. 
Menurutkan hati mati, menurutkan rasa binasa : 
to give way to one's inclinations means death ; 
to give way to one's passions means ruin ; 
Prov. Menurutkan kapal : to steer a ship ; 
Ht, Jah., 43. 

Berturut-turut : successively ; in sequence ; 
Cr. Gr., 57; Ht. Abd., 109, 205. Sa4urut: 
in concord. 

Cf. ikut and tuntut. 

turas. Filtration; Sh. Bid. (Leyd.), 276. 
Penuras : a kind of rough filter used in the 
native dyeing processes. 

turis. To scratch a line (intentionally) along 
anything, as one draws a line on the sand. 
A mbil ay am itu di-turis paha-nya : take the fowl 
and scratch a line along its thigh ; Muj., 62, 

turns. Erect ; straight ; straight and strong 
— as a tree or pillar ; anything that is firmly 
erect such as the main piles of an ampang, the 
heavy piles of a fish-trap, or the columns which 
support a building. Turns negeri : a pillar of 
the state ; Sh. Bid., 73 ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 26 ; 
Sej. Mai., 135, Choba choba menanam mum- 
bang jika hidop turns negeri : try, try to plant 
a young coco-nut, should it grow up it may be 
a pillar of the state ; a difficult task may often 
fail, but when it succeeds the results are pro- 
portionately great ; Prov., J.S.A.S., III., 34, 
Saperti turns di-tengah padang rupa-nya : like a 
pillar on a plain ; a conspicuous and noble 
looking object ; Ht. Sh. Mard. 

Menurus : to rise in pillar-form, as smoke on 
a still day. 

Pjl^ toraug. I. The knot at the corner of a mesh. 

II. Harimau torang kasau : (Kedah) a royal 
tiger, a tiger of the largest size; Ht. Mar. 
Mah. ; also harimau terong kasau, 

V— ^2^ turap. Covering ; plastering ; lining ; giving 
a surface (of a different material) to anything — 
as a coat is lined, or as a table is covered 
with green baize. 

C^y torak. I. That portion of the rahat through 

which the threads pass in the process of 
weaving. Anak t, : the spool in weaving. 
Batang t, : the rod of the spool. 

II, A kind of trident, somewhat larger than 
the ser ampang ; Kl. 

III. Ubi t. : a kind of potato. Kuweh t. : a 
cake. Ikan gUama t. : a variety of the gelama 
fish, q. V. 


[ 199 ] 


^jy torek. A disease of the ears ; a running at 
the ears. 

jy tawarrak. Arab. Leaning on one side to 
rest oneself; lying on the side; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

^JJy turun. Descent; passage from a higher 
position to a lower, whether literal, as in the 
case of rainfall, or figurative, as in the case 
of loss of rank ; descent from generation to 
generation ; travelling to the sea from a place 
situated inland, or sailing from a place which 
is situated '' di-atas angin'' to a place situated 
*' di-hawah angin.'' V, angin. 

Turunan and keturunan : descent; origin. 
Keturunan orang Biirgis : a Bugis by descent. 
Turun temurun : descent — but used fre- 
quentatively in the sense of a line of ances- 
tors ; a pedigree ; v, temurun, 

Turunkan and menurunkan : to lower, in 
point of position ; to abase, in point of rank. 
Turunkan senapang or menurunkan senapang : 
to lower arms, i, e,, to bring muskets to the 
third position in presenting arms ; Ht. Abd., 
109. Turunkan bandera : to haul down a flag. 
Menurunkan raja-raja dari atas kerajaan-nya : 
to remove sovereigns from their thrones ; to 
abase the mighty from their seat. 

A vaJ turau. A fencing for the protection of plants ; 
^^-^ Kl. 

3jy toro. ( Batavia. ) Baju toro : a long baju 
reaching to the foot, worn by male servants. 

jjy turn. Jav. To sleep. 

- ^jy torah. A kind of harpoon, Kl. ; v. torak. 

OvJ torih, A deep indentation or scratch (deeper 
than turis, q. v.). 

lSjj^ turi. I. An ornamental tree, agati gran- 
diflora, Pohun t. : id., Cr. Gr., 83. Rimtput 
turi : a grass, clitoria cajanifolia. Daun t, : 
id. ; Ht. Koris. 

II. ( Skr. kasttiri, ) Musk. Tikus turi : 
the musk rat ; v. kesturi, 

^y»^ tuwas. The application of leverage whether 
in house building to raise heavy weights, or 
as a form of torture for nearly breaking a 
man's limbs, or in a large fish-trap for raising 
the net at the bottom; (Riau, Johor — by 
extension) a large deep-water fish-trap, the 
Kedah jeremal. In Kedah the word is also 
used as a slang expression meaning to run 
away, to bolt, to abscond. 

^^ji tuwis. To separate two hard bodies with a 
lever, Kl. ; v. tuwas. 

^^y tusuk. Penetration with a thin instrument, 
e,g,, the driving in of a nail ; v. also chuchok. 


tuwang. I. Pouring out ; emptying through 
a spout or in any regular way, Menuwang 
^nd menuwangkan : to pour out ; to serve out 
liquids. Saperti orang menuwangkan sa-cha- 
wan ayer iawar ka-dalam laut : like a man 
emptying a glass of fresh water into the sea, 
i. e,, wasted effort ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 357, 5a- 
telah sudah maka Putera Jaya Pati pun menu- 
wangkan pula minuman : when it was over, the 
Prince Jaya Pati poured out drinks ae:ain ; 
Ht. P. J. P. 

II. Tuwang4uwang : a thick hollow bam- 
boo or horn blown into by way of signal at 
sea, or to rouse a newly-born child which does 
not at first show any signs of life, or, again, 
as used by Chinese pork-hawkers. 

tongong. Stupidity (but not so strong an 
expression as dengu, q. v.) ; dullness. 

tungap. I. (Kedah.) To die, to give up the 
ghost. The word is somewhat vulgar. 

II. Tetungap 
salted fish. 

(Kedah) a preparation of 

tungol. A kind of padi (unidentified), J. I. 
A., I., 331- 

tungau. A louse ; a kind of tick. Bagai 
ayam kena tungau : like a fowl worried by 
insects, a symbol for a fidgety person ; Prov. 

taufik. x\rab. Divine aid ; the help of the 
Almighty; Muj., 12, 17, Memohunkan taufik : 
praying for the help of the Almighty ; Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 385. 

tuwap. A splint of rattans when fastened 
together in the manner known as simpuU q« v. 

tupis or topes. A very steeply graded bank 
by the edge ; precipitous slope or fall ; cf. 
tuhir and tepi. 

topang or tupang. The forked supports of a 
kajang in a native boat ; a forked stick used 
for keeping a criminaPs head under water 
when condemned to death by drowning. 

Layar t. : the foresail in a Malay boat ; Pel. 
Abd., 114. 

topeng. Jav. Masked dancers — the masks 
representing the faces of ancient heroes of 
Javanese history, and the dances and events 
from that history ; Ht, Sg. Samb. ; Ht. 
Jay. Lengg. ; Sh. Abd. Mk., 9. 

Bertopeng : to plaster the face with cosmetics 

jt^y topong. A small bag made of mengkuwang or 

^ handanuR leaves 


and used for carrying 

T. belachan : (i) a belachan bag, as above ; 
(2) a descriptive name for a peculiar way of 
fastening the kerchief (sapu4angan) on the 



[ 2<K> ] 


^y topek. Slicing into thin slices ; the slicing of 
meat for drying. 

j3aI tupai. I. A generic name for a number of 
small insectivorous animals either squirrels or 
resembling squirrels. Nyior di-Ubok tupai, or 
nyior di-keribok tupai : a coco-nut tapped by 
a squirrel, a metaphor for an unmarried girl 
who has been seduced. Kera lotong tMalu 
makan, tupai di-julai timpa perasan : when the 
monkeys eat too much, the squirrels on the 
lower branches have to suifer for it ; the ex- 
cesses of the great fall on their dependents ; 

T. jinjing : a small animal, scitirus bicolor, 

T, kerawah : a small animal, sciurtis rafflesii, 

T. melompat : a creeper (unidentified). 

T, nandong : a small animal, the Javanese 

T, tanah : a small animal, tamias lysteri or 
tupaia lysteri, 

T. -tupai : small pegs in the side of a pole to 
allow of its being climbed. 

Pokok t. : a tree, polyosma mutabilis, 

II. A native cooking place. Orang ber- 
tupai : the cooks — on a ship ; v. Malay Mari- 
time Law, J. S. A. S., III., 72. 

^J topi. Hind. A hat, especially a solah topee 
- or sun-hat. Orang bertopi : Europeans gener- 



tuwak. Palm wine; fermented spirit made 

from palm-juice. 

T. kabong : the fermented juice of the enau 

r. kelapa : fermented coco-nut juice. 

Gula t. : coco-nut juice which has been 
boiled for two or three hours. 

toka or tuka. 

a small ray; J. I. 
and (Riau, Johor) 

Tuka-tuka : (Kedah) a fish, 
A., III., 448. Also tUuka, 

tukar. Change by substitution ; the taking 
and replacing of one thing by another. 

Tukaran : an exchange ; a thing given or 
received in exchange ; Ht. Abd., 350. 

Tukarkan: to exchange; to effect an ex- 
change. Di'tukarkan-nya-lah akhirat yang 
kekal itu dengan kemuliyaan dunya yang fand 
ini : they exchanged the future life, which is 
eternal, for the glories of this perishable 
world; Ht. Abd., 291. 

Bertukar : to exchange ; to give and receive 
in exchange. Bertukar chinchin : to exchange 
rings — in token of betrothal. BMukar-lah 
duka chita-nya itu dengan suka chita: sorrow 
was exchanged for joy. 

Menukar: to exchange. Minukar 'ddat: to 
give up old customs for new. 

{j^J^ tukas. I. The bringing of a charge of adul- 
tery or fornication against a person, whether 
that charge be true or false. 

Manukas : to bring such a charge ; Sh. Peng., 8. 

II. Palm (unidentified) the soft pith of 
which is used as tinder. Rabok t, : the tinder 
so obtained. 


^ tukus. Angin ^^Aws ; the name given to the 
first squalls from the N. E. after the cessation 
of the S. W. monsoon ; Kl. = angin tikus ? 


» J tokong. I. A large treeless rock or small 
treeless rocky island, as opposed to an island 
with vegetation. Tokong pulau : rocks and 
islands; islands generally; Ht. Abd., 198; Ht. 

Layang'layang t, : the swallow or martin 
which constructs the well-known edible bird's 
nest. Also burong tokong, 

II. The shaving of a woman's head either 
in disease or as a mark of disgrace. 

III. (Chin.) A Chinese temple; cf. tope- 
kong, which, however, is the *'joss" itself, as 
distinct from the joss-house (tokong), though 
etymologically the same. 

IV. r. bulu: a weed with small lilac 
flowers, hedyotis vestita. 


*jJ tukang. A skilled workman ; a mechanic ; an 
artificer ; cf. pandai and juru. 

T, agong : the chief petty officer in 3.perahu. 

T, besi : a blacksmith. 

T, chap : a printer, 

T. kayu : a carpenter. 

T. kukus nasi: a cook; Ht. Ind. Nata. Also 
t. masak, and juru masak. 

T, mas : a goldsmith. 

T. petak : the officer in charge of the hold 
and of the loading of a native perahu, 

T. roti: a baker; Ht. Hamz., 2. 

T, sepatu : a cobbler. 

T, tembaga : a coppersmith. 

T, tilek : a fortune-teller. 

r. ubat: a preparer of magical simples; a 
philtre maker. 

Menjadi tukang : to become a skilled work- 
man; Ht. Abd., 140. 

Minunjokkan ketukang-nya : to display his 
skill as a craftsman, Ht. Koris. 

Menukangi : to construct ; to make anything 
requiring mechanical skill; Sej. Mai., 34. 


y tokak. I. A kind of ulcer on the shin, 

rather more serious than kudis, q. v., but less 
serious than p^kong, q. v. 

IL The name of an edible salt-water fish. 


[ 201 ] 






III. Patches of hair left on the head after 
shaving, either left unintentionally owing to 
the bluntness of parts of the razor or inten- 
tionally because of any skin disease. T. 
takek: uneven, of hair-cutting, or of grass- 

IV. Biting, — used of dogs, sharks, croco- 
diles, tigers, and other animals which use 
their teeth as a weapon of offence. Bertokak- 
tokak : to fight with their teeth (of two lions); 
Ht. Pg. Ptg. 

to'kek. [Onom., from the animal's cry.] The 

gecko, gecko monarchus or platydadylus guttatus. 
Also t^kek, 

tokek. Pinang iokek : an areca-nut peeled for 

consumption. Kepala t. : a head with many 
bald patches on it ; cf. tokak. 

tokok. I. 

and above 
increase it a little ? 

A small increase ; something over 
Choba tokok sadikit : cannot you 

11. [Chin, tho-khd,] A large warehouse, 
a godown. Better toko. 

tawakkul. Arab. Surrender to God's 
will ; trust in God. Maka tawakkuUlah aku 
kapada Allah: I resigned myself to God's will ; 
Ht. Abd., 308. 

Tawakkul kapada ildhi rabbi : trusting in the 
Lord God ; Sh. Sri Ben., 7. 

Untong t. : at a risk, at a venture. 

Bertawakkul : resigned, resignation ; often 
corrupted in form to batu ^akaL 

tukal. I. A measure for thread; about 16 
riyan, a riyan being a small parcel of skeins 
(unting) ; a parcel of some 16 or 20 tukal 
constitutes a bantal ; while about 40 bantal 
make up a bandela or bale. Benang sa4ukal : 
a parcel of skeins ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

II. The mark left on the skin by the pres- 
sure of a comparatively blunt point which does 
not actually break the skin. 

III. A pointed stick used in ladang culti- 
vation ; better tugal, q. v. 

I, A plant (unidentified) ; J. I. A., I. 


II. (Kedah.) A vessel for carrying liquid ; 
a vessel made of a joint of bamboo and used 
as a receptacle for nira or milk ; a sort of 
bamboo money box made of a joint of bamboo 
closed at each extremity but slit at the centre 
so as to allow of money being dropped into it. 
Cf. (Riau, Johor) tabong, Bagai tebuwan dalam 
tukil: (buzzing) like a hornet in a bamboo 
vessel (from which it cannot get out), a simile 
for a man with a nasal intonation or for fussy 
and useless effort ; Prov. 


tukul. I. A small hammer; hammering; 
striking with a hammer. T. best: an iron 
hammer; Ht. Si Misk., 50. Duwa kalitukuly 
empat lekor paku lekat : with every two blows 
of the hammer, twenty-four nails were ham- 
mered in; Ht. Raj. Don., 28. 

II. A shoot or sprout ; also tunas and 
gagang; Cr., I., 68. 

ij3 tukam, A stick ; a club ; a knuckle-duster ; Kl. 

^ y tuklin, (Kedah.) A sunken rock as a danger 
to navigation. Kapal belay ar, terlanggar tukun^ 
pechah berlobang sudah tenggelam : the ship 
when sailing struck a hidden rock, it sprung a 
leak and sank, 

Kalati tuwan pergi ka-kebtm, 
Lihat bunga kembang pagi ; 

Tuwan empama beting dan tukun^ 
Dudok di-dalam lindongkan dirt : 

you, Sir, are like a mud-bank or a sunken 
rock, you keep in the background and conceal 
your presence. 

toko. [Chin, tho-khd,] A large warehouse ; 
a godown; Kam. Kech., 11. 

J>y tuku. Jav. To buy. 

y tokoh. I. Form; character ; quahty ; type; 
of goods ; good make. Sa-tokoh ini : of make 
such as this ; of this make. 

II. r. kemudi : a portion of the rudder; Kl. 

III. The tightening of a knot by the sus- 
pension of a heavy weight at the end of the 
string or by any other way of bringing a 
strain to bear upon it. 


tauke. [Chin, thau-ke.] An employer of 
labour ; a capitalist ; a " towkay" ; a Chinese 
merchant ; the head of a Chinese firm. 

tauMl. Arab. The position of a wakU, q. v. ; 

tugar. A pointed stick used in ladang culti- 
vation ; better tugal ^ q. v. 

tugas. Continuous and strong, of a wind ; 
steady, of a gale ; continuously-hard, of work, 

togok. A mutilated limbless body; a body 
with stumps for arms and legs ; ugly, mal- 
formed or deformed. Belayar t. : to sail with 
only a storm sail set. 

Si'togok, or setogok : the long-nosed clown in 
B.wayang; Sh. Panj. Sg. ; the long-nosed 
monkey of Borneo. 



[ 202 ] 





togel. Tailless; stumpy behind, as a horse 
whose tail has been docked, or as a fowl whose 
tail-feathers have been pulled out. Ayam 
togel sa-ekor : a tailless fowl ; Ht. Raj. Don., 

tugal. A pointed stick used for making holes 
in the ground to receive the seed in ladang or 
dry padi cultivation ; the process of making 
such holes. A sal engkau tugal ^ ada-lah bBneh : 
if you make holes for planting, the seed will 
be there for you to plant ; if you give cause 
for offence, others will be ready to be offend- 
ed ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 89. 

togan. I. To break a contract of service, 
as a sailor before the expiry of the term of 
engagement; Kl. 

II. To aim at something (as in certain 

tauge. [Chin, tail'ge.] A vegetable; bean 

Anting-anting tauge : ear-pendants worn by 
Chinese and Malay maidens. 

tuwal. A short stump of wood cut off from 
the main piece. 

tUWiL A lever for slightly moving or raising 
a heavy mass. If for lifting the mass into the 
air, tuwas, q. v. 

taulat. [Arab. ^ j .] Injury, calamity, a 
calamity brought on by a malediction ; v. tulah. 

tulat. The third day hence ; the day after 
the day after to-morrow. 

tulis. Writing ; painting ; the representation 
of characters, figures or patterns upon any 
surface by means of paint, dye or ink — as 
distinct from carving, inlaying or engraving. 
Laksana gambar beharu di4ulis : like a newly 
painted picture; Cr. Gr., 31. 

Jurti t. : a writer ; a scribe ; a clerk. 

Ttdisan : writing ; handwriting ; anything 
written. Rupa tulisan-mu sapMi chakar ayam : 
your handwriting resembles the scratching of 
a fowl ; Ht. Abd., 39. 

Tuliskan : to write down (anything) ; to paint, 
Ht. Abd., 21. MBnuliskan : id. 

Berttdis : inscribed with painted characters 
or figures, Tunggul bertulis si-rajawali : a 
banner with the device of a falcon painted on 
it; Sh. Sri Ben., 14. 

Menulis : to write (intransitive). Tulis m. : 
writing generally; the art of writing. 

tulus. Sincerity; genuineness; earnestness; 
straightforward and friendly feeling. Tulus 
ikhlds : sincerity and candour — a favourite 
expression to describe the feelings inspiring a 
Malay letter ; Ht. Abd., 199, 222, 466. 



tolong or tulong. Help; assistance; aid. 
Sometimes [ in the Straits Settlements ] with 
the additional meaning of favour or mercy. 
Tolong anjing di-sepit : to help a dog that has 
got jammed ; to nurse a viper ; Prov. 

Tolongan : assistdLVice ; Ht. Abd., 179, 261, 
Ketolongan: id; Ht. Abd., 51. Pertolong: id.; 
Sh. Bid., 49. Pertolongan : id. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 
29 ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 18. 

Tolongi and menolongi : to bring assistance 
to ; to aid. M, Maharaja Boma : to come up 
to the aid of Maharaja Boma ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 
Di'tolongi Tuhan : to receive Divine assistance, 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 25. 

Menolong : to aid ; to assist ; Ht. Abd., 458. 

Penolong : a helper; Ht. Abd., 96, 

tulang. A bone ; a portion of the framework 
of anything. Ringan tulang berat pBrut : light 
bones make a heavy belly ; industry leads to 
good feeding ; Prov. Lidah-nya tidak beriu- 
lang : his tongue has no bone in it ; he speaks 
without thinking, no attention should be paid 
to his words ; Prov. Tinggal tulang dengan 
kulit : skin and bone only were left ; Ht, Isk. 
Dz. I si lemak dapat ka-orang, tulang bulu 
pulang ka-kita : the flesh and fat go to others, 
the bones and feathers come to us ; others get 
the half-pence and we get the kicks ; Prov. 
Biyar puteh tulang, jangan puteh mata : let 
your bones whiten but not your eyes ; better 
death than shame ; Prov. 

T. ayer : a groove in a column ; a runnel. 
Also tali ayer, 

T. belakang : the dorsal vertebrse. 

T. belikat: the shoulder-bone. 

T. belut : a cross-stitch, any cross-woven 

T. bukit : a scandent shrub, derris thyrsiflora. 

T. bumbong : the ridge-pole in a house. 

T, chaping : the xiphoid process. Also tulang 
ulu hati, and ttdang sudii hati, 

T, daim: the line running down the centre of 
a leaf. 

T. daing : a tree, milletia abupurpurea. 

T. dayong : the scapula or shoulder-blade. 

T. hutan : a scandent shrub, mcesa ramentacea, 

T. hiring : the tibia or shin-bone. 

T, kilek buyong : the crest of the ilium. 

T. nt'Uda : a rib. Also t, rusok, 

r. padang : a climbing shrub, connarus gib- 
bosus and c. grandis, 

T. papan : the lumnar vertebrae. 

T, papan dada : the sternum or breast-bone. 

T, perahu : the ribs of a boat. 

r. pungkor or t, punggor : the pubic bones. 

T. rawan : the breast-bone in an animal. 

T. rimau niHangis : the manubrium. 

r. rusok : the ribs. Also t, muda, 

r, sHangka : the collar-bone. 


[ 203 ] 




T. som : a pubic-bone in a woman. 

7\ sudu hati : the xiphoid process ; v. supra. 

T. sulbi : the coccyx. Also t, tongkeng or t. 

T.-Udang : a plant, garcinia nigrolineata, or 
psychotria malayanci. 

T, ulu hati : the xiphoid process ; v. supra. 

Uhi t. : whalebone. 

Akar keras t. : a medicinal herb (unidenti- 

tolak. The act of repelling or pushing back ; 

keeping anything at a distance ; pushing away. 
Tolak tangga berayun kaki : push away the 
ladder and your feet remain dangling in the 
air ; don't despise the means by which you 
have risen, and do not abandon them too 
soon ; Prov. Mar ah jangan di-pukatj razki jan- 
gan di'tolak : do not net anger, do not repel 
your daily bread ; do not quarrel with your 
best interests ; Prov, 

T. bara or t, behara : ballast. 

T. beta or t, bald : a propitiatory offering against 
evil ; a system of insurance by sacrifice to evil 
spirits. Tuwan ptiteri itu raja hendak buwat 
tolak bald melepaskan daripada behaya negeri : 
the King wished to use his daughter as a pro- 
pitiatory offering to save the land from cala- 
mity; Ht. Best. Ayer tolak bald : sacrificial 
or holy water; Sh. Jur. Bud., 43. 

Tolakkan : menolak ; and menolakkan : to 
push away from one ; to keep anything off. 
Menarekkan kebajikan atau menolakkan k^jaha- 
tan : to draw prosperity towards one or keep 
reverses off one; Muj., 3. Ada-kah buwaya 
menolakkan bangkai : does a crocodile keep a 
carcase at a distance? Prov., J.S.A.S., I., 8g. 

Rimau kena penjara 

PBlandok kechil menolakkan mara : 

the tiger was in captivity when a little mouse- 
deer removed the danger to him ; a small helper 
may often be of vital assistance to a great 
man ; Prov. Saperti selodang menolakkan may- 
ang : as the palm sheath shoots forth its 
flower; self-revelation ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XL, 


Penolak : a thing which serves to keep some- 
thing else off. ^Aztmat penolak kejahatan 
orang : a charm to keep off the evil of any 
sorcery that may be brought into action 
against one; Muj., 81. 

tolok. I. Matching; a peer; a match; a 
pair. Manis-nya tidak dapat di-tolok : her 
sweetness was beyond comparison; Sh. Sri 
Ben., 50. Tiyada tMolok : incomparable, un- 
equalled. Tolok banding: an equal, a peer, 
one to be compared with ; Sh. Bur. Nuri, 32. 
Sa4olok : comparable; Sh. Sg. Kanch., i. 

Menolok : to equal, to compare with, to be a 
match for ; Ht. Koris. 

Pinolok : a match or peer. Yang penolok 
segala nabi itu : the equal of all those Prophets ; 
Ht. Md. Hanaf., 4. 



II. [Dutch tolk.] An interpreter. 

III. A tree with edible fruit, — the Javanese 
gayam ; inocarpm edulis, 

taulan. (Tamil.) A friend ; a comrade. Sa- 
orang taulan hamba : a friend of mine. Han- 
dai taulan : friends and comrades; Ht. Abd., 

tulen. Jav. Genuine; pure; unalloyed — 
especially of metals. Mas t, : pure gold. 
Belanda t. : a Holland-born Dutchman. Sa- 
t, : of equal genuineness ; of similar refine- 

aJaJ tolo, I. Impulsiveness and inconstancy ; the 
character of a man who for the moment 
believes and acts upon anything said to him. 

II. The (Chinese) headman of a gambier 

III. Tali sa4olo or any am sa4olo : a quad- 
ruple strand; a rope made up of four plaits. 



toleh or tuleh. A side-look, a backward or 
sidelong momentary glance, — by turning the 
head without moving the body. Menoleh : to 
give such a look. Menoleh ka-bBlakang : to 
look back ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Pertolehan : turning. Pertolehan hari : the 
turning-points of the sun's course, the period 
at which the sun appears to descend vertically 
(about 3 or 4 p.m.) or to desist from ascend- 
ing vertically (about 8 or g a.m.) ; Ht. Isk. 
Dz. Toleh tenggala : id. ; Ht. Sri Rama 
(Maxw.), 14. Toleh tenggala muda: 7 or 8 a.m. 
Toleh tenggala tuwa : 9 or 10 a.m. 

tulah. [Arab. ^j. ] Injury; misfortune; a 

calamity consequent upon a curse or sacrilege. 
Tuwan-ku ini tulah uleh Raja Melaka berkirim 
sembah itu: this curse has fallen on your 
Majesty because of the King of Malacca's sub- 
missive letter; Sej. Mai., 157. Tulah patek 
menjadi batu : the curse on me has taken the 
form of my being turned to stone; Sh. Sri 
Ben,, 56. 

T. papa : the calamity of poverty ; the curse 
of being poor; a curse generally; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya; Sh. Sri Ben., 57; Ht. Mas. Ed. ; Ht. 
Perb. Jay. 

tuli. I. Deafness; deaf. Butat.: blind and 
deaf. Memukul orang buta tuli : (i) to afflict a 
man with blindness and deafness; (2) to hit 
blindly right and left. Orang buta dapat long- 
kat di'pukul buta tuli : when a blind man gets 
a stick he hits right and left; do not give 
weapons to those unfit to use them; Prov. 
Tuli pekak telinga segala yang men^ngarkan : 
the ears of all who heard it were deafened ; 
Ht. Mar. Mah. 

MBnulikan: to deafen ; Sh. Panj. Sg. Also 
tulikan; Ht. Raj. Kh., 25. 

Pipit t. : the common sparrow; J. S. A. S., 
XL, 148. 


[ 204 ] 


II. Tuli'tuli : the threads attaching a cer- 
tain kind of ftM's-sheath to the belt. Mas 
tuli : gold thread. Mas tuli : a heavy cloth 
woven with lines of gold thread. 

^^ tuwam. The application of a hot dry poul- 
tice — such as a heated stone or a bag of hot 
ashes — to a diseased part ; Ht. Abd., 20. 



tuma. A parasitic insect ; a parasite of the 
fowl ; a kind of louse that does not bite like 
a flea. Kerana pijat matt tuma: the tuma 
suffers on account of the flea; avoid bad com- 
pany~~the flea and this louse being friends, 
the agile flea does the mischief and escapes, 
leaving the tuma to bear the consequences ; 
Prov. Orang jawa beberek makan tuma : the 
Javanese are like insectivorous birds; they 
eat lice; Prov., J.S.A.S., III., 46. Takutkan 
tuma di'buwangkan kain dari hadan : to strip 
ojff one's clothes for fear of the fleas ; to sub- 
mit to a great evil for fear of a lesser ; Prov., 
J.S.A.S., XL, 45. Saperti ayam kena tuma: 
like a flea-pestered fowl ; a symbol for a fidgety 
person ; Prov. Minindas tuma : to kill lice ; 
Pel. Abd., 32. 

Di-manakan tuma hidop-nya pula, 
Jika ta' -makan di-atas kepala : 

how is a louse to live if it is not to forage on 
our heads? Prov., Sh. Panj. Sg. 

a descriptive epithet to objects 
roof) the angle of which is very 
the curvature of which is very 

Dada t, : 
( such as a 
obtuse or 

tmnit. The heel of the foot. Tumit-nya ha- 
gat telor-nya burong : her heel was like a bird's 
egg — a shape much admired (Sh. Ik. Trub., 
3); other admired shapes being: tumit-nya 
sapBrti pauh di4arek : like a rounded pauh fruit 
(Ht. Jay. Lengg.) ; and tumit-nya bagai ling- 
kuwas muda : like the young lengkuwas fruit 
(Ht. Koris). 

J. tangan : the portion of the hand nearest 
the centre of the wrist. 

r. tiyang : the truck of a mast. 

trnnis. Cooking by frying in oil with onions ; 
seasoning a dish. 

tumus or tomos. Falling forwards on the 
face, as distinct from falling on the face and 
chest, (jerumus). Rebah teHomos : to fall 
sprawling forward. 

tomong. A sort of short thick cannon mount- 
ed like a lela; a native mortar or howitzer. 

tmnang. A short peg or stake driven into the 
ground like a tent-peg and used to fasten a 
buffalo to, or for any similar purpose ; a wooden 
rest for a saucepan ; Sej. Mai., iii. 

Menumangkan: to tie up; to expose a fettered 
man to die ; Ht. Perb, Jay. 

^y^y toman or tuman. A freshwater fish, 
ophiocephalus striatus ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 14; Sh. 
Pant. Shi., 10 ; Pel. Abd., 49. Bagai toman 
makan anak-nya : like the toman which eats its 
young ; used in speaking of a woman whose 
children for some reason or another do not 
live long ; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 95. 

tumu. A kind of tree which grows by the sea 
side, didymocarpus crinitus; Sej. MaL, 116. 

tuna. [Skr. tuna.] A wound, a poetical equi- 
valent for luka, Hati-nya tuna : his feelings 
were wounded ; Sh. Panj. Sg. Untong yang 
tuna: evil fortune; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

tuwan. Master ; lord ; lady — an honorific 
title applied to Europeans (men only) 
generally, to Malay men and women of a 
certain rank, to saiyids and shanfahs and to 
hajis of either sex. 

T. besar : the chief — a term used in speaking 
of the head of a department or firm in which 
more than one European is employed. 

T, puteri : the princess. 

Bertuwan : to have a master ; to be em- 
ployed under some one. Bertuwankan : to 
serve ; to accept service under ; to enter the 
service of. Maka sa-orang lagi berkata dan- 
pada aku bertuwankan Maharaja Boma itu sa- 
ribu kali mahu aku bertuwankan Sang Samba 
ini : then said another : rather than accept 
the Maharaja Boma as my Lord, I would a 
thousand times be the servant of Sang 
Samba; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tuwan-ku : My Lord ; a title usually con- 
fined to the sovereign. Yang di-pertuwan or 
yamtuwan : the ruler ; the king or prince of a 
Malay State. 

Pertuwanan : the rank of a tuwan ; distin- 
guished or honourable birth. Anak pertu- 
wanan: children of rank; Ht. Pg. Ptg, 

tunas. A young shoot or sprout from a tree- 
trunk ; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Cr. Gr., 68. Bertunas : 
to sprout. Hendak bertunas sudah di-petek^ 
lama-lama mati-lah pokok : if you keep con- 
tinually breaking off growing twigs to get fresh 
sprouts, you will end by kilHng the tree; 
over-eagerness often defeats its own ends; 

T, padi : blades that shoot up in the stubble 
after the padi has been harvested. 

iJy tunang. Troth; betrothal. Tunangan : the 
^ betrothed ; Ht. Abd., 410 ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 
Tunangan-nya tuwan puteri : the princess, his 
betrothed. Bertunangan : engaged to be 
married; Ht. Abd.; Ht. Koris.; Ht. Ind. Nata. 
Peluru tunang : magic shot which never fails 
to hit the mark; Pel. Abd., iii, 114. Also 
peluru jampi penunang, 

Tunangkan : to betroth one person to 
another; Ht. P. J. P. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 59. 

Pertunangan: betrothal, the betrothed; Ht. 
Ind. Nata. 



[ 205 ] 


^y tunak. Steadily attached; firmly fixed to a 
place. Hamba dan s^haya semuwa-nya tunak : 
his slaves and dependents were all attached 
to him ; Sh. Tab. Mimp., 12. 


tunam. The match applied to a cannon to 
fire it off. Di'pegang tunam di4angan : he 
had the match in his hand ; Pel. Abd., 45. 
Sudah di-isi di-bakar tunam : when it was 
loaded they lit the fuse; Sh. Abd. Mk., 23. 
Membakar tunam : to light a fuse ; Ht. Best. 

In Riau and Johor the word is also used of 
any torch which gives light when well shaken ; 
cf. andang. 

Cry tunun. Burning up, consumption by fire ; 
usually tunu, q. v. 

» «» 
J^J^ tunu. The consumption or destruction of 
anything by fire — as distinct from burning in 
the sense of merely being on fire ; the burning 
of incense ; the final burning of jungle, the 
burning which consumes the charred sticks 
and stumps left over from previous burnings. 
Di-tunu apt dinding rumah-nya : the walls of his 
house were destroyed by fire ; Sh, Kamp. 
Boy., 3. 

Tunukan : to destroy by fire, to burn up ; Ht. 
Kal. Dam., 113. Menunu : id.; Ht. Sg. 
Samb. ; Ht. Koris. Menunukan : id. ; Ht. 
Ind. Nata ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tertunu : burnt up, consumed by fire. Sang 
Kenchana pun tiyada-lah sempat lagi lari lalu 
tertunu ka-dalam apt itu: Sang Kenchana could 
not succeed in escaping from it and was burnt 
to ashes in its flames ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

<j^ tunai. Reality ; real ; ready — in the sense of 
ready money. Wang tunai : ready money ; 
cash down. Bayar dengan tunai : payment 
in ready money ; Sh. Abd., Mk., 5. Tiyada- 
lah tunai herga-nya : the price was not paid in 
ready money; Ht. Ism. Yat., 15. 

Tunaikan hajat or mBmmaikan hajat : to 
accomplish or realize one's desires ; Muj., 3, 
12, 30. Menunaikan hurmat : to give 
guarantees of respect (by a valuable present) ; 
Ht. Raj. Sul., 18. 

^j^ tuni. [Skr. tuna.] Wound, wounded ; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. ; — a variant for tuna, q. v. 

^ tuha. Age, old ; better tuwa, q. v. 

oy tuwah. Luck ; good fortune — in that things 
left to chance turn out well. Bertuwah : 
lucky; luck-bringing — as an amulet is sup- 
posed to bring luck, or as certain coins are 
believed to be lucky coins ; Ht. Abd., 58, 78, 
486. Sudah dapat gading bertuwah, tandok 
tiyada b^rguna lagi : now that he has got luck- 
bringing ivory, common horn is of no use to 
him ; now that he is wealthy, the simple joys 
of his poverty please him no more ; Prov., v. 

i. S. A. S., XL, 56, Untong ada tuwah tidak : 
e gets profit but makes no lucky strokes ; 

jtbji tohor. Shallowness — as opposed to depth. 
Ayer sungai-nya tohor : the river was shallow ; 
Sej. Mai., 118. Tohorkan ayer laut: to make 
the sea shallow ; to dry up the sea ; Ht. Kal, 
Dam., 114. Bagai anak sepat ka4ohor : like a 
sepat fish in the shallows; a simile for vain 
struggles for freedom; Prov., J. S. A. S., 
' XXIV., 94. 

Kapor t. : lime used in building — as opposed 
to lime used in s^V^A-chewing. 

^j^y tohok. I. The name of a fish; a kind of 

medium-sized tenggiri. Pari t. : a kind of 
ray. Bintang t, or bintang pari: the con- 
stellation of the Southern Cross. 

II. A barbed javelin with a rope attached 
to it ; a harpoon used for catching the dugong. 
Tikam t. : a downward cast with a spear or 

^J^ tohol. An iron hammer, KL ; cf. tukuL 

^y tuhan. God; the Lord. Tuhan Allah: the 
Lord God. Tuhan yang esa: the One God. 
Tuhan-ku: my Lord God. Allah ta^ala sa- 
benar-nya Tuhan, Nabt Muhammad p^nghulu 
kami : Allah most High is verily God, the 
Prophet Muhammad is the chief of us all. 

Pertiihankan . 
Ht. Isk. Dz. 

to accept as God ; to worship ; 

t5y tuwai. The reaping of padi with a small 
knife instead of with a reaping-hook ; the 
peculiar knife used for this purpose. Padi 
itu di-tuwai tdeh Wan Empok dan Wan Melini : 
the padi was harvested by Wan Empok and 
Wan Melini; Sej. Mai., 30. 

Tuwai'lah padi antara masak, 
Esok jangan layu4ayuwan ; 

Intai4ah kami antara tampak, 
Esok jangan rindu-rinduwan : 

harvest the padi while it is ripe, let it not 
wither by your waiting till the morrow; 
look well on me while I can be seen, let 
me not be longed for on the morrow; — a 
proverbial pantun advising people to make 
hay while the sun shines. 

(Sy tuwi. L A shell-fish (unidentified) ; Kl. 

II. The name of a tree, ixonanthes icosandra. 
T. karas: id,, aquilaria malaccemis. 

III. Keeping the feet in hot water by way 
of medical treatment. 

IV. A Chinese game ; Kl. 

V. = IV? The holding of a sweej), or 
making of a pool at any game — the winner 
to take all. 

VI. A false start in a race; a misdeal or 
anything which causes a stake to be again 
played for. 


[ 206 ] 


t5y toya. Physical weakness; the converse of 

A0) toyah. A thrusting-pole used in fighting; 
a spear without a point. 

<l^ toyoh. (Singapore.) A large shrub, gonio- 
caryum longiracemosum* 

^j^ tonyoh. Thrusting or once rubbing any 
material held in the hand at or over another's 
face, as a boy might take mud in his hand 
and dirty another boy's face with it; thrusting 
with the fingers held out and pressed one 
against the other. 

^ tah. An interrogative suffix. Ini4ah gam- 
baran-nya : is this his portrait ? Cf. entah. 

^ teh. I. [Chin. ^^,] Tea. Dawn ^eA : the pre- 
pared tea-leaf. Ayer t. : tea in liquid form. 
Pokok t. : ^ an ornamental shrub, panax fru- 
ticosum. Teh Makao : an introduced weed, 
scoparia dulcis, 

II. Panas t, : comfortable warmth; rather 
warm than cold. 

III. A proper name; an abbreviation of 
ptiteh, q. V. 

(5*314^ tShadi. Lately, just a moment ago ; usually 
tadif q. v. 

^— i^ v^S tiharap. The posture of a man lying on his 
stomach ; see tiyarap. 

r\j^ tahana. (Skr. ?) Greatness, awe, majesty, 
grandeur, dignity. Bertahana: to sit in 
greatness, to be present — of a raja* 

A bang pergi tidak-kan lama; 
Ada untong datang bMahana: 

your lover goes, but not for long ; if for- 
tunate he will soon rejoin you again; Sh. Bur. 
Nuri, 31. 

Tilah surat sampai ka-sana^ 
SMa di-bacha Sultan yang ghdna : 
Raja Hindi 'akal semperna 
MahU'lah iya sama bertahana : 

a letter came there (to Constantinople), and 
the mighty Sultan read it ; an Indian prince 
of sound wisdom wished also to join (the 
Sultan) ; Sh. Pr. Turk., 7. 

BSrbuwat tahana: to threaten; Ht. Best. 
Tutor kata-nya pun tBrlalu tahana dahashat hati : 
his words were very terrible, striking the 
heart with panic ; Ht. Best. 


tahlil. Arab. The repetition of the La 
ilaha as a form of praising God ; praise. 

^U tiada or tiyada. Not to be ; is not. The 
form ''tada'' is often used colloquially. Cf. 




tiyarap. The posture of a man lying flat on 
the ground on his face, chest and stomach ; 
the position of a boat when laid on the shore, 
bottom upwards, for caulking or repairs. 
Biyar tersenget jangan tertiyarap : let it heel 
over but do not let it be overturned ; do not 
over do things ; Prov. Terlentang berisi ayer, 
tertiyarap berisi tanah: turned up, filled with 
water; turned down, filled with earth; — the 
fate of a piece of coco-nut shell (tempurong) 
and, by metaphor, of a man under a curse ; 
J. S. A. S., XL, 46. 

Tiyarapkan : to turn upside down ; to lay ( a 
man) face downwards. Di4iyarapkan budak 
itu di'Sesah pantat-nya : they laid the boy on 
his stomach and whipped him behind ; Ht. 
Abd., 30. 

MBniyarap : to assume such a position ; to 
lie down on one's face. Maka Soma raksasa 
pun sigera-lah meniyarap pada kaki ayahanda 
itu : Boma, the Evil Spirit, promptly prostrated 
himself at his father's feet ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Tertiyarap : lying or laid down in this posi- 
tion ; prostrate. 

Also tiharapy and (Kedah) terap, 

tiyaram. Peniyaram : a cooling lotion ; Ht. 
Raj. Pasai, 79, 80; better penjaram from 
jar am ^ q^ y- 

tiba. I. Sudden arrival or occurrence ; newly 
arrived ; an unexpected development ; the 
arrival of a ship at an unexpected time ; the 
sudden ** landing" of a blow on any part of 
the body; Ht. Abd., 5, 44, 55. Tiba-tiba : 
suddenly; unexpectedly. Sama tiba keduwa- 
nya itu : both simultaneously fell to blows ; 
Ht. Sh. 

II. Tiba layar : a portion of a Malay house, 
Kl. ; V. tibar layar, 

III. Petiban sampir : (in Javanese tales) a 
present ; a gift. Membawa petiban sampir : to 
bring offerings to a raja; Ht. Mas. Ed. See 
also tiban. 

tebar or tibar. The act of scattering or 
dispersing any substance such as grain or 
dust by throwing it away with a sweeping 
round-arm motion — as distinct from dropping 
it particle by particle (ambor), or letting it 
fall a little at a time (tabor) ^ or dispersing it 
by throwing it up into the air with an under- 
hand jerk to disperse it ; to cast a net so as 
to cause its folds to spread out and envelope 
fish. Champak tebar sa-panjang jalan : scattered 
all along the road ; Sh. Kumb. Chumb., 25. 
Bertabor tebar : scattered about helter-skelter 
in confusion ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 6. 

Tibar layar or tebar layar : that portion of 
the wall at each end of a Malay house which 
shuts in the space between the two slopes of 
the roof ; the triangular pieces of wall which 
have the ends of the ridge-pole as their 

Minebar : to scatter (as above described) ; 
Sh. Dag., II. 


[ 207 ] 







tebeng. Vertically spread out as a protection 
against sun or rain, of mats, kajang, etc. ; 
holding out, as a shopkeeper holds out a 
cloth to display its pattern. Menebengkan: 
to spread out. Menebengkan dada : to expose 
the breast in fighting; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

tebak. A heavy cutting or chopping blow. 
Sa-tebak : a piece of wood or other material 
chopped off by a couple of blows struck at 
such angles as to cut into one. another. 

tebok. A heavy thrusting blow with the flat 

of the fist ; a thrust aimed low down ; a blow 
below the belt. 

tiban or teban. Stakes in gambling, the 
actual money deposited; Ht. Raj. Don., 63. 
Ta'-bertepat janji, ta'-bertiban tar oh : he who 
does not keep his appointment and who does 
not deposit his stakes; J. S. A. S., III., 30. 

Tiban sampir : offerings to a ro/'a ; Sh. Panj. 
Sg. ; 2ilso petiban sampir, v. tiba. III. 

A swift rapping movement 
a man beating a drum. Me- 

titar and titir. 
,such as that of 

nitir gendang : to beat a drum ; Sej. Mai., 102 
Tertitir nobat : the royal kettle-drum was 
beaten ; Ht. Best. 

Mata ketitir : the name given to a small 
gathering under the base of the nail or any- 
where near the spot where rapping with the 
back of the finger would be likely to effect 
the skin. 

titis. A drop ; dripping ; rather smaller drops 
or less frequently falling than those expressed 
by the word titek, q. v. ; the dripping of sticky 
substances. Bagaikan titis madu segara : like 
the dropping of an ocean of sweetness ; Sh. 
Panj. Sg. 

Ilo tetek. The breast of a suckHng woman ( Sh. 
A. R. S. J., 5), or of an animal suckling its 

Memberi t. 

to suckle. 

titek, I. A drop; a liquid particle ; a dot. 

Sa4itek embun : a drop of dew. Takut titek 
lain tumpah : he feared it would drip and he 
spilt it all ; he destroyed all in guarding 
against a small danger; Prov. Sebab nila 
sa4itek rosak susu sa-belanga : a single drop of 
indigo spoils a saucepan of milk ; a small 
injury defaces an object of great value ; Prov., 
Ht. Abd., 132. 

Telor itek dari Senggora, 
Pandan terletak di-langkahi ; 

Darah-nya titek di-Singapura, 

Badan-nya terhantar di-Langkawi : 

his blood was shed at Singapore but his body 
lies at Langkawi; Sej. MaL, 82. 
Titekkan : to drop ; to let fall in drops ; Sej. 
MaL, 131. 






Minitek : to fall in drops. 

Titek is also used of the falling of ashes at 
the Krakatoa eruption; Sh. Lamp., 36. 

II. A blow; a heavy racking blow in the 
torture chamber; Ht. Abd., 61, 117; the 
beating of gold. 

tetel. Remains of meat ( such as the sinews, 
soft cartilage, etc.), consumed by poor people 
who can afford no better. 

titah. A prince's word; a prince's saying 
( which has the force of a command) ; the 
instructions of a ruler. Titah Sultan baik-lah 
tuwan: the Sultan said: "Very well, Sir" ; Ht* 
Abd., 330. Memberi t, : (in speaking of 
sultans) to give instructions ; Ht. Abd., 71. 
Bertitah : ( of a raja ) with words ; in words ; 
to say. B. menyuroh : to give verbal orders ; 
Ht. GuL Bak., 48. 

Titahkan: to instruct; to order; Sej. MaL, 
6 ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

In Johor and Riau the use of the word titah 
is confined to the utterances of a raja bergelar. 

tete. Watching for a favourable opportunity 
to begin the fight ; watching his chance, as a 
wrestler or as a fighting-cock, 

titi. Passage along a narrow footway, such 
as the trunk of a fallen tree or the branch of 
a living one. In Penang it is incorrectly used 
for jambatan^ a bridge. 

Titiyan : a small and narrow footway ; a 
plank laid across a ditch or a log across a 
river. T. siratu H-mistakin : the razor-edged 
bridge over which the true believer passes 
into heaven; Sh. Tab. Mimp., 2. Titiyan is 
also used in the Mahk. Raj. for the steed on 
the back of which a river is crossed. 

Meniti : to make one's way over such a 
passage. Saperti lotong meniti dahan kayu: 
like a monkey moving along a branch ; a pro- 
verbial simile for a narrow-minded man whose 
attention is confined to his immediate sur- 
roundings. Di-mana kayu bongkok di-sitn-lah 
hendak meniti : where the wood is knotted, 
there will people place their feet ; a fool 
invites plunder ; Prov. 

Tertiti'titi : in Indian file; in a long row, 
one behind the other. 

teja. [Skr. = glow.] Rain clouds glowing in 
the sun's rays; the glow of a stormy sunset. 
r. kuning : such a sunset when it gives a yellow 
tinge to men and natural objects — a portent be- 
lieved to be extremely unlucky ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Pokok teja : the name of a tree the foliage of 
which seems to stretch in horizontal patches, 
and which, therefore, is believed to resemble 
sunset clouds. 

r^ tijak. Stepping, setting down the foot ; more 
usually />ya^, q.v. 


[ 208 ] 


^ tijah. A woman's name ; an abbreviation of 
Khaiijahf q. v. 

^ teji, [Pers. i^J^ .] Ktida teji : a Pegasus, a 

winged horse ; Ht. Si Misk., 95. Also techi 
and tezi. 

^ tachi. [Pers. (ir>? .] Kuda techi: a Pegasus, 

•* a winged horse ; Ht. Koris. Also teji and 

tidor. Sleep. T, lUap : deep sleep. Tern- 
pat t, : a bed. Tikar t. : a sleeping-mat. Si- 
tidor di'fuakan si-jaga : the slumberers are the 
prey of the wakeful ; Prov. 

Tidoran : sleep. Tempat tidoran : a sleeping 
place ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 4. Sa-tidoran : shar- 
ing a sleeping-place ; sleeping with ; Ht. Sh. 

Tidorkan: to put to sleep; Sh. Bid., 5; Ht. 
Koris. MSnidorkan : id. ; Ht. Abd., 18 ; Ht. 

Kitidoran: sleep; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Penidor and teledor : *' sleepy-head," a term 
of abuse to lazy servants. Ubat penidor : a 
sleeping-draught ; Ht. Al., 44. 

Tertidor : asleep; Ht. Abd,, 281 ; Ht. Jay. 





tidak. No ; not. Colloquially usually in the 

sense of ** no " ; in literature often in the sense 
of ** not," ** there is not " ; = tiyada. In the 
common talk of the people it is often abbrevi- 
ated to '* 'dak:' 

Daripada chempedak baik nangka, daripada ti- 
dak baik ada : a nangka is better than a chem- 
pedak; something is better than nothing at 
all ; half a loaf is better than no bread ; Prov. 

Tidakkan : to deny the existence of anything ; 
Ht. Abd., 65. Menidakkan: id., Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 20. 

Ketidakan : non-existence ; absence. K, pen- 
gUahuwan : absence of knowledge ; ignorance ; 
Ht. Abd., 483. 

Di'pMidak : denied. Maka titah baginda di- 
pBrtidak-nya laki-laki kita uleh Betara Maja- 
pahit : then said the king: '* The existence of 
manliness in us is denied by the Ruler of 
Majapahit"; Sej. Mai., 53. 

tir. The rook or castle in chess. 

tiras. I. (Johor.) A pillow border. 

n. A frayed piece of cloth ; ravelled thread ; 

tiris. Oozing out; dripping — as a saturated 
cloth on which moisture collects in drops and 
falls. Ayer di-genggam tiyada tiris : water 
grasped by him never escapes through his 
fingers ; an incredibly avaricious man ; Prov. 
J. S. A. S., XL, 37. 


Hujan turun letup-lBtap, 
Habis tiris segala atap : 

the rain is falling, tapping, tapping, and all 
the roof is leaking and dripping. 

tirus. Thin and tapering to a point. 

Padi menirus : the ear of padi in its first stage 
of growth when the grain is still enwrapped in 

w— i^ terap. Prostration ; a variant of tiyarap, q. v. 

^jZ tirok. ( Kedah, Province Wellesley and 

Penang.) Burong t, : the snipe ; ( Riau, Johor, 
Malacca) burong berkek. Also (Kedah) burong 
tetirok. Tirok is also (Kedah) the name given 
to a lance for spearing fish. Menirok : to 





tiram. I. An oyster; Ht. Abd., 88; Ht. 
Koris; Sh. Bur. Pungg., 2. Varieties: t. 
bakau, t, batu, t. kera. 

n. Ikan t. : a fish resembling the selangat. 

tiru. The following of a model or copy ; 
imitation ; copying. 

Tirtiwan : a model or example for imitation ; 
Ht. Abd., 48, 341. 

Meniru: to copy; to imitate; Ht. Abd., 51, 

tairu. Tam. Curdled — as milk kept for a 
night ; curds ; cf. dadeh, 

tirai. Tam. A curtain. Maka dewata Shamsu 
pun masok-lah ka-tirai maghrtb : and now the 
Sun God had passed behind his curtain of the 
West ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 9. 

tiri. '* Step " — in the expressions : bapa t, : 
step-father ; emak t. : step-mother ; anak t, : 

Apa sakit berbini janda ? 
Anak tiri buleh suroh : 

what is the objection to marrying a widow ? 
You will have a step-child to run on your 
errands; Prov. 

tezi. Pers. Kuda tezi : a Pegasus ; a winged 
steed ; Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Ht. Sh. Kub. ; Ht. 
Ism, Yat., 113. Also teji and techi. 

tais. Arab. An old and rank he-goat ; = 
kambing randok. 

tisek. (Johor.) To sew up a rent. 

^^-^ tesi. [Chin, test.] A teaspoon of porcelain. 

%Z tiyang. A pillar ; a mast ; a post ; a vertical 
^ support. Lancharan bMiyang tiga : a three- 
masted vessel. Layar timpa tiyang : the sail 
knocks down the mast ; one's friends bring 
about one's downfall ; Prov. 


[ 209 ] 





r. agong : the mainmast. 

r. bandera : a flagstaff. 

T, daka : supports for the plank which closes 
the niche in which the body rests in a Malay 

T. goyang : a projecting post at the stern of 
a boat, the post being used for securing a 
peculiar kind of rudder (kemudi sepak). 

T. ibu rumah : the pillars at the junction of 
a Malay verandah (serambi jatoh) with the 
main building. 

T. pagar : the posts of a fence. 

T. serambi jatoh ; the outer pillars or posts 
supporting a Malay verandah. 

T. seri : the central pillars of a Malay house. 

Tumit t, : the truck of the mast. 

tiyong. The Javanese minah, eulales javanen- 
sis : a black bird with yellow wings which has 
some power of imitating speech, and so plays 
a considerable part in Malay stories ; Ht. Ind. 
Jaya ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 85, etc. 

The principal varieties are : t, batUy t. beta- 
chaUy and t, emas, 

tengok. Peering at, looking at, seeing. In 
** Bazaar*' Malay this word is used for lihat. 
Menengok : to peer at, to see. 

tiyap. I. Tiyap-tiyap : every. Pada tiyap- 
tiyap hart : every day ; Ht. Abd., 32, 38. 
Tiyap-tiyap marika-itu : they all. 

Sa-tiyap : all, every. Tuwan bersukaan sa- 
tiyap waktu : you are seeking pleasure at all 
times ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 128. 

n. [Chin?] A small bundle of Chinese 
drugs ; a dose made up in paper. 

tiyup. Blowing ; the action of a current of 
air upon anything. Saperti sa-pohun kayu 
barang di-mana di-tiyup angin di-sana-lah iya 
chondong : like a tree which sways in whatever 
direction the wind may blow ; Ht. Abd., 262. 
Di4iyup-nya terompit : he blew a trumpet ; 
Ht. Abd., 106. Bagai buntal di4iyup : like a 
blown out buntal fish; a simile for a man 
swelling with self-importance ; Prov. 

Tiyup-tiyup : a small tree, adinandra dumosa, 

Bertiyup : to be blowing — as a sea-breeze. 

Tiyupkan : to blow (with the mouth) upon or 
into anything ; Muj., 9, 68. Meniyup and 
meniyupkan : id. 

teper. A metal saucer; Ht. Koris ; a variant 
of the more usual form cheper, q. v. 

tipis. Thin ; delicate ; 
Usually nipis^ q. v. 

Sh, Sri Ben., 87. 

tepak. A long rectangular casket or box ; a 

receptacle for sireh ; a state betel casket ; Sej. 
Mai., 127, 147. These boxes are now made 
at Palembang. 

Pembawa t, : a betel-box carrier ; Sh. Ik. 
Trub., 6 ; Ht. Gh. 




tepek. Plastering ; the laying on of any soft 
clammy material. Rambut-nya bertepek-tepek 
dengan tanah dan getah kayu : his hair was 
plastered with mud and tree sap ; Ht. Abd., 

tepok. Lameness due to malformation or 
chronic disease of the leg, and not to its loss 
by amputation or to a temporary injury. 

tipu. Deception; fraud; swindling by false 
pretences. Bohong dan tipu: lies and mis- 
representations. Tipu anak Rembau : swindlers 
are the men of Rembau'; Prov., T. S. A. S., 
XXIV., 115, 

Menipu: to deceive; Ht. Abd., 223, 309. 
Menipukan : id. ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Penipu: deceptive — of things; Ht. Abd., 159; 
a swindler — of a man ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 48. 

tepeh. An edible salt-water shell-fish; Sh. 
A. R. S. J., 4. 

tepoh. [ Chin, teh p6?] A game of chance. 

tika. A reel of thread ; winding thread. 

tikar. Matting; a mat of delicate workman- 
ship. Duwa helai tikar : two mats. Bentang- 
kan tikar : to spread a mat ; Ht. Si Misk., 4. 

r. herapit : a mat with turned down em- 
broidered borders. 

T. puchnk : a mat made of the young shoots 
of the nipah, 

T. sila : a mat with a gold-embroidered 

T. tidor : a sleeping-mat. 

Birtikarkan : to use as a mat, to lie or sleep 
on. Bertikarkan api: to sleep on fire (descrip- 
tive of the fate of the wicked) ; Ht. Kal. 
Dam., 77. Bertikarkan bumi, berselimutkan 
langit, bersulohkan bulan: to have the earth 
for a sleeping-mat, the sky for a sheet and 
the moon for a torch ; homeless ; the fate of 
a poor wanderer ; Ht. Sh. 



tikas. I. Traces left by water after its with- 
drawal ; the line of seaweed and driftwood 
left on the beach showing the extreme limit 
reached by the preceding tide. 

II. The roar of a lion ; Kl. 

tikus. A generic name for rats and mice. 
Tikus jatoh ka-dalam gedong beras, or (Kedah) 
tikus jatoh ka-dalam jelapang : a mouse that 
has fallen into a barn ; a man that has fallen 
into his element; Prov. Rumah terbakar, 
tikus habis kaluwar : the house was burnt and 
all the rats escaped; the money was spent 
and the object was not attained ; Prov. Labu 
di'ker^bok tikus : a pumpkin bored by a rat ; 
a girl who has been seduced and is no longer 
sought in marriage ; Prov, 



[ 210 ] 


T. ambang hulan : a large rat, believed only 
to come out on moonlight nights. 

T, busokf t. turi and t. kesturi : the musk-rat, 
corsira vulgaris; also (in Java) chenchorot. 

T, tanah: the field mouse, mus decumanus. 
T, mondok : a large variety of the field mouse. 

Angin t. : uncertain winds at the change of 

Gigi t, : small regular front teeth. 

Kikir ekor t, : a round file. 

Kuweh t. ; also tahi t. : a kind of cake ; Ht. 
Abd., 10, 207. Tahi t, is also sometimes a 
nickname given to mustard. 

Lobang t, : the cavity or niche in which a 
body is laid in a Malay grave. 

tikal. I. A kind of cake; Kl. 

II. A weight serving as a unit of coinage 
in Siam; a 'HicaL " 

tikam. Stabbing ; wounding with the point, 
as opposed to wounding with the blade of a 
weapon; penetration by a splinter or any- 
thing with a sharp point. Di4ikam duri : 
pierced with thorns. Mati kena t. : death 
from a stab or spear thrust. Tikam baju 
rantai : the name given to a long heavy pike 
against a thrust from which a coat of mail is 
not proof. 

Tikamkan : to drive (a pointed weapon) into 
anything. Yang berlembeng bertikamkan lent- 
beng-nya : those who were armed with spears 
drove their spears (into the enemy) ; Ht. 
Ind. Jaya; Sej. Mai., 17. 

Menikam : to stab ; to pierce. T. menikam 
(Cr. Gr,, 57) ; and bertikam-tikaman (Ht. Sg. 
Samb.) : fighting spear with spear, thrust with 
thrust — reciprocal and frequentative, 

Penikam : a pointed weapon; Sh. I. M. P., 

RaHyyat pertikaman: soldiers under arms; 
Pel. Abd. 

Tikam is also used (Straits Settlements) to 
describe the drawing of a wahweh lottery. 
T, kaki hong : id. 

tekoh. A warehouseman ; 

Sh. Sing. Terb. 

tike. A ball of opium prepared for a pipe, 
enough for one pipeful. 

tiga. Three. Tiga buwah negeri : the three 
Settlements, the Straits Settlements. Ketiga : 
all three. Yang ketiga : the third. Sa-per- 
tigaan : one in three. Pada sa-pertigaan 
malam : on every third night. 

Akar tiga chabang : a wild pumpkin with 
trifoliate leaves, trichosanthes wawrcei. 

Bintang tiga beradek : a constellation of three 
stars in a row as in Orion. 




Kayu tiga sa-kambu : a kind of Malay three- 
card-trick played by professional gamblers. 

Rumput tiga sari : a common sedge, cyperus 

tigi. A plant, a kind of rhododendron. Also 
mentigi, q. v. 

14 tela. The pan of a fire-arm. 

telor. Lisping; inability to correctly pro- 
nounce one or more letters ; Pel. Abd., 39, 79. 
Cf. pelat. 

teleng. Cocked on one side — of the head ; 
Sh. Si Lemb., 2, 12, 44. 

ftio tilek. Observation ; careful ocular examina- 
tion or notice — as distinct from a mere casual 
look ; looking at anything with a purpose, 
usually with the idea of prophecy or second 
sight. Maka di -tilek uleh Tun Jan Khatib 
belah duwa pohun pinang itu : Tun Jan Khatib 
observed the splitting of the pinang trees; Sej. 
Mai., 81. Sa-telah sudah habis di4ilek-nya 
maka di-tulis-nya : when they had completed 
their observations they noted them down in 
writing; Cr. Gr., 50. Maka di-tilek uleh 
Amir Mahmud akan raja Bahazadah itu terlalu 
baik rupa-nya dan laku-nya : Amir Mahmud 
noticed that the prince Bahazadah was very 
handsome and well-mannered; Ht. Kal. Dam., 

Menilek : to notice ; to observe ; to examine 
with the eyes. M. nujum : to take a horo- 
scope ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. M. kutika : to take 
the omens (regarding lucky and unlucky days); 
Ht. Jay. Lengg. 

Tukang tilek : ( Singapore ) a professional 

tilam, A sleeping mattrass; Sej. Mai., 91, 
120. Tilaman : id.; Sh. Sri Ben., 11. Jaioh 
di-atas tilam : to fall on a mattrass ; to get a 
rich wife ; Prov. 

Susor t, : the name given to a rich coverlet 
on a bridal bed. Also susor gerai. 

tilan or telan. I. A small river fish some- 
thing like an eel ; Sh. Ik. Trub., g. 

To' Pulau Lidi, 

Gulai ikan telan : 
Dato' tidak gigi, 

Gonyeh'gonyeh telan : 

the chief of Pulau Lidi cooked a tilan fish ; 
the old man had no teeth, so he mouthed and 
swallowed it ; — a proverbial rhyme ridiculing 
the toothless. 

11. A disease in very young children. 
JU tilu. An insect like a bug, but winged. 


[ 211 ] 


y^ timor. The East. r. laui: North-East. 
T. tenggara, or menenggara: East-South-East. 
T. padang : South- East. Bintang t, : the Star 
of the East ; Lucifer ; Venus as a Morning 


timang. To throw a child up in the air and 
catch him as he falls — gently, by way of 
amusing him, Timang -timangan : a nurse- 
ling ; a pet name given to a child in his baby- 
hood ; a nursery name which often clings to 
him in future years ; a title by which a prince 
or princess is familiarly known as distinct 
from his or her full official designation. Wah 
anak-ku dan buwah hati-ku, timang -timangan- 
ku : oh, my child, the apple of my heart, the 
nurseling I have played with ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 
Maka anakanda baginda pun di-naniai uleh 
baginda Putera Jaya Pati timang -timangan Pu- 
tera Jaya Indera : the king named the prince 
his son Putera Jaya Pati but called him 
familiarly Putera Jaya Indera ; Ht. P. J. P. 

Menimang : to balance in the air, as a warrior 
balances a spear before hurling it or a club 
before striking with it; Sh, Panj. Sg. 

The most common pet-names or nursery 
designations known as timang -timangan are: 
Long, Awangj Alang, Ngah, Panjangj Anjang 
or Jang, Pandak or Andak, Puteh or Teh, 
Hitam or Tarn, Kechil or Chi, Bongsu, etc. 

j*4jC^ timun. A gourd; a pumpkin; a cucumber. 
Ikan timun4imun : a fish, hdianus lineolatus, 

T, China : the cucumber, T. dendang : a 
pdission l^ower, passiflorafcetida; Ht. Best. 

T. dendang lunjong : a wild pumpkin, tricho- 
santhes celebica, T. hutan : the grenadilla. 

Bagai timun dendang, di-luwar merah di-dalam 
pahit : like the wild pumpkin, red outside and 
bitter inside ; fair seeming but disappointing 
on closer acquaintance ; Prov. 

Biji t, : pumpkin seeds, a simile for a lozenge- 
shaped or nearly lozenge-shaped pattern. 
Retak biji t. : the lines on the hand at the 
finger joints. 

j^ timu. By right ; by justice ; de jure, Timu- 
timu : id. 

T. puteh : tinned 
sari : zinc, Bijeh 

4^ timah. Tin; lead; zinc, 
iron. r. hitam : lead. T 
t, : alluvial tin-grains. 

Timah-t, : a small tree, ilex cymosa, 

Ikan timah-t, : a long shining white fish. 

Timah-t, bulan, also t. gading : a small tree, 
ilex macrophylla, 

A kar timah ketam : a climber, streptocaulon 

iyG tin. Arab. Fig. 

jj^ teyan. Chin, To make up a subscription ; 
to get up a subscription list, Mengutib t, : 
to collect subscriptions. 

^yG tiyan. (Jav.) The lower abdomen in a preg- 
nant woman. 

jyksXjj tinas. ( Kedah.) To kill lice ; ( Riau, Johor) 
tindas, q. v. 

ixJ tenong. A flat-topped circular box of Java- 
C." nese make. 

-^oJ tewas. Failure to attain an object ; ill suc- 
^^^■^ cess. Tewas perang-nya : the battle was going 
against him ; Ht. Sg. Samb. Tewas marika- 
itu dan lari : they were worsted and fled ; 
Ht. Gul. Bak., 94. Sa4elah melihat anak pa- 
nah-nya tewas : when he saw that his arrow 
had missed its mark ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Tewaskan : to cause to fail ; to bring about 
the failure of anything; Sh. Sri Ben., 85. 
Menewaskan : id. ; Ht. Kal, Dam., 297, 

Ketewasan : failure; Sh. Abd. Mk., 59. 

Cj^tJ^ tiyuman. The name of an island off the 
"^ East coast of the Peninsula. 

^ tiyah. Arab. The desert of Arabia. Padang 

t, : id. 

Jij The letter tha; the fourth letter of the 
Malay alphabet ; the symbol for 500 in the 
Abjad, q. v. 

\j th§,. The name of the letter dj , 

tMbit. Arab. Constant, persevering, 
established, certain, sure. 

4:j\J thSibitah. Arab. A fixed star. 
JU th§,ni. Arab. Second (numeral). 

Iju thikl. Arab. Load, weight, sorrow; Sh. 
Bid. ( Leyd.), 294. 

^"^ thalS/tha. Arab. The third day of the 
week, Tuesday. Usually hari selasa, 

^^ thuluth. Arab. Third ; Majm. al-Ahk., 416. 
]j thalj. Arab. Snow. 

thumma. Arab. Afterwards, moreover. 



[ 212 ] 





The letter jim ; the fifth letter of the Malay 
alphabet ; the symbol for the number 3 in the 
Abjadf q. v. 

jabat. The act of grasping, taking or holding 
in the hand. 

Jabatan : (i) the sense of touch ; (2) duty, 
occupation ; profession. Masing-masing den- 
gan jabatan berbuwat kerja : each laboured at 
his own line of work; Sh. Bah. Sing., 6. Cf, 
also Sh. Nas., 6, and Ht. Best, for this form, 
but jawatan is more common, see s. v. jawat, 

Berjabat tangan and menjabat tangan : to 
clasp the hand (of another man, in salutation) 
whether applied to the European practice of 
shaking hands (Ht, Abd., 197); or to the 
native form of greeting; (Ht. Ind. Nata; Ht. 
Ind. Jaya; Ht. Gul. Bak., 134). Berjabat 
salam is also used — in the former sense only. 

Menjabat pekerjaan : to carry out one's work ; 
to perform one's duties ; Sh. Nas., 6. Cf. 
jawat and janibat. 

jX^ jabor. (Riau.) Utter mixture ; extreme con - 
^' ' fusion ; very much mixed up ; cf. jabu and 

ft^V>- jabu. (Kedah.) Rising in clouds ; pouring 
forth in quantities — of dust and light particles 
of matter, e, g,, when the wind blows down a 
dusty street, or when carpets are beaten, or 
clothes brushed. Peluru berjabu : gunpowder 
smoke rising in volumes, as after continuous 
volley firing ; cf. abu and champor. 

43\>- jatoh. Accidental falling ; to fall ; to befall ; 
to occur ; to descend by chance upon a place. 
Jatoh bangtm : falling and rising ; stumbling 
along, /. sakit : falling ill. /. dalam perni- 
yagaan : failure in business. Sa-ekor tikus 
yang jatoh ka-dalam gedong beras : a mouse that 
has stumbled into a rice-store ; in one's ele- 
ment ; in luck ; Prov., Ht. Abd., 44. Belayar 
dart Ruku jatoh ka-hujong tanah Balang : sail- 
ing from Ruku, he was borne over to Cape 
Balang; Sej. Mai., 41. Jatoh hatiakanpirlm- 
puwan : to fall in love with a woman ; Ht. 
Zaly., 27. Jatoh di-atas tilam: to fall on a 
mattrass; to be fortunate enough to get a 
rich wife ; Prov. 

Jatohkan and menjatohkan : to let anything 
fall ; to drop anything. Menjatohkan dirt : to 
let oneself sink down anywhere, e. g^., on the 
floor (Ht. P. J. P.), or on a person's lap; Ht. 
Sg. Samb. ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 126. 




Kejatohan bulan : the falling of the moon 
(into one's lap) — an expression signifying great 
and unexpected good fortune; Ht. Bakht., 92; 
Sh. A. R. S. J., 29; Cr. Gr., 79; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., II ; Ht. Sh. Mard. ; Ht. Perb. Jay. 

Serambi jatoh : a sort of verandah attached to 
a Malay house, so called because the floor of 
this verandah is rather lower than the flooring 
of the main portion of the house. Tiyang 
serambi jatoh : the pillars supporting this 
verandah on its outer side. 

jati. True ; real ; exact ; pure. Orang 
Melayu jati : a real Malay ; a man of pure 
Malay descent. Timor j. : due East. Raja 
yang j, : a true king ; a sovereign of truly 
royal descent and dignity ; Sh. A. R. S. J., 
10; Sh. Jub. Mai., 7. Lanang j, : a true 
man ; a man of courage ; Ht. Sh. Hamba 
yang j. : a born slave ; Sh. Bur. Pung., 14. 
*Amal yang j. : true service to God; Sh. 
I. M. P., 9. 

Kambingj,: a goat, in contradistinction to 
kambing biri-biri^ a sheep ; Sh. Si Lemb., 27. 

Kii sangkakan daging yang jati, 

Rupa-nya daging berchampor hardm : 

I thought it true (lawful) meat, it seems to be 
meat mixed up with unclean food ; Ht. Koris. 

Sa-jati : quite pure, altogether real. Bukan 
laki-laki sa-jati : he is no true man in all 
respects; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

Kayti jati: teak, tectonia grandis ; Ht. Ind. 
Meng. ; Sh. B. A. M., 12 ; Sh. Ch. Ber., 7. 

jaja. Hawking goods for sale ; offering them 
for sale from door to door, as distinct from 
selling them in a regular shop. Berjaja : to 
be a hawker. Orang yang berkedai dan berjaja : 
shop-keepers and hawkers; Pel. Abd., 36. 
Yang bBrjaja menjunjong bakul-nya : the 
hawkers carried their baskets on their heads ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. 

Menjaja : to hawk goods about. M. berteri- 
yak : to hawk goods about, crying out their 
character so as to inform housewives; Ht. 
Abd., 434. 

Penjaja : a hawker, 
cake-seller ; Ht. Gul. 

Also jajah. 

P. apam : 
Bak., 122. 

an itinerant 


[ 213 ] 





jajat. Imitation ; mimicry ; teasing or annoy- 
ance by mimicking some defect, cf. chachat; 
(rare) the counterfeiting of coin. 

Orang tempang jangan di-jajat, 
Ingat ingat hari bilakang ; 

Rumah burok di-sapu chat^ 
Bunga layti sa-mola kembang : 

do not mimic the man who limps ; remember, 
remember the days that are coming ; he is a 
new house that is painted afresh, he is a faded 
bud which is blooming again ; — the last two 
lines describing an old dandy. 

jajar. A row or line ; drawn up in a row or 
line — of articles like staves, palings, posts 
and masts, or of ships drawn up so that their 
masts suggest a fence. Karang terjajar : a 
reef; a row of jagged rocks ; a line of breakers ; 
Pel. Abd., no. Cf. janjar and banjar. 

jajas. Abrasion, scratching ; usually jejas, 
q. V. 

jajah. I. Hawking about, selling from door 
to door; usually y^/a, q. v. 

II. Jajahan or jejahan : district; out-lying 
territories. Negri Johor dengan segala da'irati 
jajahan-nya : the state of Johor with all its 
territories and dependencies. 

,\>. jahi. Ginger; Muj., 54. Better J&W q. 

jada. [Pers. zadah.] Born, son of, — but al- 
ways used in a bad sense either as an abbre- 
viation of hardni'Zadah (bastard) or as a 
descriptive epithet for evil spirits, the children 
of evil. Hai raksasa bukakan pintu, hat jada 
bukakan kunchi-mu, insdn hendak lalu : Spirit of 
Evil, open the gate; oh, misbegotten one, open 
your lock ; a man wishes to pass the portals ; 
(from an invocation). 

jadam. A kind of extract of aloes used in 
native medicine ; a very bitter draught. 

jadi. Generation ; coming into existence ; 
becoming. A ku-pun jadi-lah : I came into 
being; I was born; Ht. Abd., 15. Saudara 
sa-jalan sa-jadi : twin brothers ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 
Ayer madu judi daripada lebah : honey is 
created by bees ; Ht. Abd., 25. 

Jadi is also used idiomatically of a thing 
turning out satisfactorily or leading to any- 
thing or being sufficient to effect the desired 
object. Jikalau buleh membacha Kurdn sehaja 

jadi'lah : if he could only read the Koran it 
was all that was wanted ; Ht. Abd., 26. 
Kalau tiyada padi sa-barang kerja ta'-jadi : if 
you have no rice, all you try will lead to 
nothing ; if you are weak, it is best to put up 
with an injury ; J. S. A. S., III., 37* 

Jadi'jadiyan : supernatural creation ; gene- 
rated by magic art ; a ghostly being, ' Ilmu 
jadi-jadiyan : the Black Art ; Ht. Mar. Mah. 








Adapun perasaan patek bukan ular isi hutan, 
wa^a jadi-jadiyan rupa tuwanku : in my humble 
opinion, it is no common snake of the jungle, 
it is a dragon of supernatural origin, Your 
Highness ! Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Jadikan and menjadikan : to create ; to 
make, Di-jadikan akandiya khdtib : they 
appointed him khdtib (of their mosque). 
Perempuwan di-jadikan-nya laki-laki : he turned 
women into men ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 58. 

Kejadiyan ; creation ; birth ; origin of exist- 
ence ; Ht. Abd., 88, 410, 450 ; condition, 
state ; Ht. Zaly., 41. 

jara. An instrument for cleaning coarse 
cotton wool ; a piece of bamboo the end of 
which is divided by two slits cut at right 
angles to each other, and in which short pegs 
are inserted. The word jara is also used of 
a kind of auger, and of an instrument for 
churning milk. 

Kepala j. : butter ; the result of churning 

jaras. I. A creel ; a kind of basket of 
coarsely plaited bamboo for carrying rice. 
Jaras kata-nya raga jarang : the creel says that 
the basket (raga) is coarsely plaited ; the pot 
called the kettle black ; Prov., J. S. A. S., I., 

II. A bunch or handful of any objects when 
the objects themselves are not held in the 
hand, but their stalks or loose ends are. 
Orang China sa-jaras : a bunch of Chinese — as 
when a Malay policeman holds a number of 
Chinese by the pigtail. Btdu-nya endah bagai 
di'jaras : its plumage was as lovely as if it had 
been specially arranged ; Sh. Bur. Pung,, 5. 

jarang. Scarcity ; scarce ; in small quantity ; 
occurring at rare intervals ; separated by wide 
intervals of time, or by wide interstices of 
space. Jarang'jarang'lah kita menengar khabar- 
khabar perompak itu hampir kamari : it was 
only on very rare occasions that we heard 
reports of pirates being in our vicinity ; Ht. 
Abd., 464. Ayakan jarang : a sieve or sifter 
plaited with wide interstices. Cf. jaras. 

Jarang gigi : the name of a fish. 

jaring. A large net ; network ; nets for catch- 
ing relatively large fish such as the tenggiri, 
tamban, rapang and kedera, or for catching 
animals and birds on land. Jaring-jaring : 
trellis-work ; timbers carried lengthwise on 
the bottom of a boat, cf. jala-jala and mata 
punai. Jaring-jaring payong : the spikes hold- 
ing an umbrella open. 

Minjaring : to fish with these nets ; Ht. Gh. 
Menjaring angin : to catch air in one's net ; 
to waste one's time and trouble ; Prov. 

Penjaring : a fisherman ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 157. 


[ 214 ] 


3J' JStrak. I. Intervening space; the existence 
of an interstice or separation; the distance 
between two objects, whether considerable 
— as between two ships at sea two miles 
apart; Pel. Abd., 140; — or slight — as between 
two stakes in a fence ; Ht. Abd., 72. BBr- 
jarak : at a distance ; to move away to a 
distance ; Sh. Bur. Pung., 2. Jarak daripada 
naga : to keep at a distance from a dragon ; 
Ht. Pg. Ptg. 

II. The name of a number of plants, but 
especially applied to the castor oil plant, 
ricinus communis, 

/. belanda : the purging nut, jatropha curcas. 

J' g^j(^h : a small tree, mallotus subpeltatus. 
Also called j. htdan, 

J, latit : a bush, leea sambricina, 

/. pipit : a plant, cleistanthus Icevis. 

Minyak j. : castor oil ; Muj., 48. 

Padang j. : a desolate place ; a place where 
the castor oil plant grows to the detriment 
of other vegetation, Padang jarak padang 
iekukor : id. 

^^\>- jaram. I. A cooUng lotion for the head; 
the washing of the head in order to cool it 
during an attack of fever or of any other 

Menjaram : to feel cool ; to cool. Rasa-nya 
hati piln menjaram : her heart felt sad and 
cold; Sh. Panj. Sg. The form peniyaram, a 
cooling lotion, also occurs; Ht. Raj. Pasai; 
V. tiyaram. ^ 

II. A waterfall ; rapids in a stream ; Ht. 
Ind. Meng, Better jer am, 

AjW jarum. A needle; any needle-like instrument. 

/. galah : a long needle of the ordinary 

/. jam : the hands of a watch. 

J. -jarum : the needle of a balance. 

/. jelujor : a coarsely made needle for sew- 
ing canvas or other rough work. /. jait goni : 
id., if bent. 

/. kait and j, merenda : a knitting needle ; a 
needle for embroidery. 

/. layar : a coarse needle ; = /. jelujor. 

/. penekat : the largest kind of needle of the 
ordinary pattern. 

/. pengiya : a needle used for hemming. 

/. peniti : a pin ; Ht. Abd., 88. 

J, perak panjang: a surgical probe; Ht. Abd., 

Lobangj,: the eye of the needle; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 63. 

T^iga bilah j.: three needles; cf. Sej. Mai., 

Menjarum : finely sprouting up — of the first 
shoots of padi; assuming a needle-like form ; 
to insinuate oneself into anything. 

Cf. (Jav.) dom : a needle ; (Malay) pedoman : 
a compass. 

AjW jam. Ikan jarU'jaru : a fish, carause boops. 

OvW- jarah. I. Prowling about as a plunderer in 

' search of booty. Menjarah : to roam about 

on the look out, as a thief at a fire; Sh. 

Kamp. Boy., 10; or as a robber in the forest ; 

Ht. Sh., 209. 

Jarahan : a slave carried off by prowling 
bands of robbers or plunderers ; Ht. Sh. ; Ht. 
Ism. Yat., 87. Gundek j. : a slave girl taken 
as an inferior wife ; Ht. Koris. 

II. [Arab. 53 .] A mite; an atom; the 
smallest quantity ; Sh. Jur. Bud., 36. 

III. [Arab. sXj •] Pilgrimage; visit of 

devotion. Jarah di-kubor : the payment of 
vows at the tomb of a saint. 

IV. Half- ripe ; cf. mangkaL 

(Sy^ jari. Finger ; digit ; the breadth of a finger 
used as a linear measure. 

/. hantu : the middle finger. 

/. kaki : the toes. 

/. kelingking : the little finger. 

/. manis : the ring finger ; v. manis. 

/. tUunjok : the index finger. 

Anak j, : a finger; the fingers ; Muj., 5. 

Buku j. : the knuckles. 

Chelalij. : the cleft between two fingers. 

Ibuj. : the thumb. 

Meny'embah sa-puloh jari : to lay both hands 
together in worship or greeting; Sh. Bid. 
(Leyd.), 288. 

Sa-batang j, : a finger. Also sa-biji jari : cf. 
Ht. Hamz., 54. 

Sarong j, : a thimble. 

Berjari'jari : in long, narrow, projecting and 
moving tongues or branches, as a fire shoot- 
ing out in tongues of flame ; Sh. K. G. T., 19 ; 
or as the long roots of the kiyambang swaying 
in the water. 

Ai^W jariyah. I. Arab. A slave girl; a bought 



concubine ; cf. gundek, 

II. Arab. Ever-flowing. 'Amal jariyah: 
ever-flowing grace — the deserts of a man 
who has done a charitable work of a lasting 
character, such as the endowment of a school 
or mosque — as distinct from an act of kind- 
ness with transient results ; Pel. Abd., 137. 

,\>. jasa. Skr. Deserving work ; deserts ; duty 

in the best sense; faithful service in the 
interests of another. 

Berjasa : to do one's duty loyally, to deserve 
well of one's lord ; Ht. Si Misk., 45 ; Ht. Gul. 
Bak., 35 ; Cr. Gr,, ^7, Berbuwatj, : id. ; Sh. 
Ik. Trub., 6. Membuwat j, : id. ; Ht. Ind. 
Meng. Lupakan j, : to be remiss in one's 
duty; Ht. Gul. Bak., 25. 


[ 215 ] 


Menchari j. : to seek to accumulate merit ; 
to earn credit with God. Dunya nan tempat 
menchari jasa : the world is the place where 
God's favour is won ; Sh. Nas., 5. 

'W jasat. [Arab, j,.^^ .] Body; the material 

and visible body in contradistinction to the 
soul; see j,^^^ . 


jangat. I. The process of splitting rattans, 
etc., by transfixing them with a knife (point- 
ing in the same direction as the rattan) and 
then drawing the rattan away so that the 
edge of the knife, following the grain of the 
wood, splits it. 

Pisau penjangat: the knife used in this 

11. Perekat j.: glue. Keruput j.: bits of 
skin (beef) thoroughly boiled and dried, and 
fried with oil. 

^^W jangak. Indiscriminate in sexual connection; 
coarse immorality; low profligacy. Pen- 




jangak: (Kedah) an incorrigible thief. 

jangan. A word expressive of prohibition or 
prevention ; a prohibitive. Jangan-lah : do 
not. Supaya jangan : that it may not ; that 
it might not ; lest. 

Jangan-kan : so far from ; not to mention. 
Jangan-kan hendak di-beli orang jikalati di- 
pinta-nya sehaja ku berikan choma-choma : so 
far from wanting men to buy it, I would give 
it gratis on appHcation ; Ht. Abd., 38. 
Jangan is sometimes used in the sense of 
jangan-kan ; Or. Gr., 55. 

jaka. I. The exact moment. Also pejaka, 
Cf. jangka, 

IL Jav. Young and unmarried. Also 
jangka and jangga, 

III. (Kedah.) A peculiar way of hitting 
or shooting hard fruit (buwah keras) in 
certain games ; pressing with the cushion of 
the forefinger. 

jakas. A kind of mengkuwang from which 
coarse mats are made; J. S. A. S., VIII., 130. 

jakun. A Jacoon ; a member of one of the 
aboriginal tribes of the Peninsula; a wild 
man of the jungle ; Ht. Abd., 381, 388. 

jaga. Skr. Wakefulness ; the act of watching ; 
the condition of being awake. Jaga danpada 
tidor : awaking from sleep ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 
181 ; Ht. Gul, Bak., 49, Orang j, : a watch- 
man. Di-jaga-nya sehaja dalam Selat Kokop : 
a watch was kept in the Kokop Straits only ; 
Ht. Abd., 214. Si'tidor di-makan si-jaga : 
the sleepy are the prey of the wide-awake; 


Jagakan : to awake (any one) ; to rouse to 

B a jaga : to be awake. Tidor siyang berjaga 
malam : to sleep by day and be awake at 
night ; descriptive of a bad character ; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., IL, 156. 

Berjaga-jaga : to keep open house day and 
night — an expression serving to describe the 
round of festivities which precede a great 
event such as a marriage or coronation ; Sej. 
MaL, 135, etc. 

Menjaga : to keep watch ; to do sentry duty, 
Ht. Abd,, 57, 69. 

Menjagai : to look out for ; Ht, Zaly., 25. 
Menjagakan : to awaken ; Ht. Ind. Jaya; to 
be on one's guard in fencing ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

Penjagaan : watching ; a place at or under 
watch or guard ; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

jagat. I. Skr. The world; the Universe, 
' Alam jagat (Ht. Sg. Samb.) ; or jagat 
biiwana : the Universe — an expression often 
occurring in Javanese titles. Tiyada berla- 
wan sa-lnr ah jagat buwana (Ht. Sh.) ; or tiyada 
bersama di-dalam jagat buwana (Ht. Sri 
Rama) ; there was not his match in the entire 
Universe. Sa-lurah jagat Jawa : all Java ; 
Ht. Mas. Ed. Mengindari j, : to travel round 
the world, of the God Kala; Ht, Pg. Ptg. 

IL Dark spots on the skin of the hands, 
the result of old age and exposure. 

III. [Achinese, but occasionally met with 
in panttms,] Pale white ; dirty white — used of 
the colour of oxen only. Lemhi j, : a white 

jagut. [Bal. chagtit,] The chin ; cf. dagti and 
janggnt, Jagnt-nya saperti sendok terdiri : her 
chin was shaped as a spoon raised on end ; 
Ht. Sg. Samb. 

SW- jagor. Massively built — of the body ;=bagor. 

io\^ jagong. I. Maize ; Indian corn, tea mays. 

^ Saperti pipit menelan jagong : like a sparrow 

trying to swallow a grain of maize (and chok- 
ing); do not attempt the unsuitable; Prov., 
J. S. A. S., III., 36. 

Dari bukit turun ka-kampong, 
Orang pintal tali sabut; 

Pipit hendak menelan jagong, 
Telan ta'-lepas mati tersanghit : 

the sparrow tried to swallow the maize grain ; 
it could not get it down its throat, and died 

Baik berjagong-jagong antara padi masak : it 
is well to put up with maize until the padi is 
ripe ; half a loaf is better than no bread ; 
Prov., J.S.A.S., III., 27. Saperti jagong jatoh 
ka-bidai : like maize falling on mats or chicks ; 
a proverbial description of a continuous 
rattling or clattering sound ; Ht. Raj. Don., 



[ 216 ] 




Rambut j. : the hair-like appendage at the 
end of the maize ; Muj., 53. 

II. Menjagong : to appear ; to rise above the 
surface — used of the first appearance of any 
growth or eruption, e. g., of the first sprouts 
of a crop of padi ; the first pustules in small- 
pox ; the development of the breasts in a 
woman, etc. 

jago. Jav. A cock. 

Jala. A casting-net. /. balang-balang, j. juni- 
pulf j, rambang^ j, tamban, j, tidang : varieties 
of the casting-net. 

Jala-jala {also jaring-jaring) : trellis-work. 
/. urai, also rotij. a.ndjelurai : a kind of cake. 

Menjala : to fish with a casting-net ; Ht. 
Abd., 220; Sej. MaL, 120; Ht. Gh.; Sh. 
B. A. M., 12, etc. 

PBnjala : a fisherman ; Sh. A. R. S. J., 12. 

Berjala-j, : scattered like a net -work over 
anything, as stars over the sky ; Ht. Koris ; 
scattered in all directions — as the pellets from 
a bell-mouthed blunderbuss, 

Papanjala : trellis- work ; also jala-jala. 
Tebar jala : to cast a casting-net. 

jalar. Creeping motion ; motion like that of 
a snake, or growth like that of a creeper. 
Menjalar : to creep along the ground— of a 
long body ; cf. merayap from rayap, q. v. Ular 
itU'pun menjalar ka-bawah kakiperaduwan tuwan 
puth'i : the snake crept underneath the feet of 
the princess's couch ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. Maka 
berjalaran-lah ular kala dan halipan dan kola 
jengking : the snakes, scorpions, and centi- 
pedes came creeping over the ground ; Ht. 
Si Misk., 50. Lidah-nya panjang Urjalar- 
jalar dan Urjulor-julor : its tongue was long 
coiling out and then shooting out ; Ht. Mar. 
Mah. Cf. julor, 
Ubi jalar : the name of a creeping plant. 

jalor. A broad stripe of colour ; broad stripes 
of the same colour separated by narrow lines 
— as in the patterns of some club-colours; 
a strip of padi-field as marked by the rows of 
stalks ; a descriptive name given to a peculiar 
long ribbed river-boat ; Ht. Abd., 482 ; Pel. 
Abd., 112. Berjalor-jalor : in stripes, striped. 
Cf. lajor. 
Jalor serempu : a peculiar smoothed dug-out. 

jSilis. Arab. Sitting; a comrade, a com- 
panion. Sa-jdlis : in company ; Sh. IbL, i. 

jalang. Wildness ; irregular, disorderly and 
unrestrained conduct. 

Kirbauj,: a wild buffalo; Sej. MaL, 120; 
Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Kuching j, : a cat that prowls about the tiles 
by night. 

Perempuwanj. : a harlot ; a prostitute; Ht* 
Abd., 23. 

Rumah orang j, : a brothel ; Sh. IbL, 11. 

iJW jaling. I. A large net; better jaring, q, v. 




II. Jolang-jaling : in confusion ; in a tangle ; 
better cholang-chaling, 

jalak. I. A black fighting-cock with white 

II. Wanton, licentious; Sh. Si Lemb., 9. 
Cf. jalang, 

III. Jalak pahang : a plain built boat with 
a deck completely covering it but for a narrow 
slit across the deck amidships. 

jalan. Motion ; movement in a definite direc- 
tion or course ; the course taken ; a road ; a 
way; the proper way or method. Lorong dan 
jalan : lanes and roads. Sa-panjang j, : 
throughout the journey ; all along the road. 
Di'jalan : on the way. Menangkap ikan 

(tiyada) dengan jalan yang lain melainkan di- 
tikam-nya : they had no way of catching fish 
except that of spearing them ; Ht. Abd., 202. 
Saudara sa-jalan sa-jadi : twin brothers ; Ht. 
Mas Ed. ; Ht. Sh. Kub. 

/. behasa : idiom ; the art of idiomatic speech. 

/. igama : theology ; things connected with 
the science of religion. 

Mataj.: an outpost. 

Membawa j, : to lead the way. 

Berjalan : to be on a walk or journey ; to 
be in movement ; to walk. B. kaki : to walk. 
Berjalan rebah : to stumble along, of a very 
young child's first attempts at walking ; Ht. 
Ganj. Mara, 16. 

Jalani: to travel over; Sh. Bid., 20; Ht. 
Abd., 56, 308. 

Menjalani and menjalankan : (lit.) to cause to 
move on its regular course ; to keep in motion ; 
to keep (a thing) going. M, segala pekerjaan 
scndiri'diri : to look after one's business one- 
self; to keep things going by oneself; Ht. 
Abd., 442. 

Perjalanan: course; way; journeying; the 
proper way or conduct of anything ; Ht. Abd., 
94, 113, 473, etc. Sa-jam perjalanan : an 
hour's journey. Duwa hart perjalanan : two 
days' journey. Hikmat perjalanan-nya sama 
juga saperti hikmat Siyamang tunggal : a charm, 
the working of which is similar to that of the 
charm of the Lone Siamang. The form pen- 
jalanan is also found ; Muj., 40. 

jalin. Tied one to another (by a connecting 
tape, cord or string) — of laths or long strips 
of rattan or wood. Tikar j, : a kind of rattan 
matting made by tying together strips of 
rattan instead of interweaving them. 

Berjalin : fastened in parallel strips ; (by 
metaphor) in parallel fines, of the wales left 
on a boy's back after a caning. 

MHjalin : to fasten together long strips of 
wood or rattan — as Venetian blinds are con- 
nected by tape, or as chicks are kept together 
by string. 


[ 217 ] 


JW jalu. I. The natural spur of a fighting-cock; 
cf. stisoh (the word in more general use), and 
taji (the artificial spur). 

Ikanjalu: a fish, lutianus, sp. 

(>W jalai. An edible salt-water fish ; K\.=zjelai? 

j3\>- jali. I. [AvBh. tajalli,] Terjali : bright; 
* * evident ; clear ; obvious ; v. tajalli, 

11. Eng. **Jolly," in the expression jali- 
buty jolly-boat ; Pel. Abd., 132. 

^j*jj\p- jalinus. Arab. Galenus. 





jamar. Burong jamar : a common species of 
sea-bird ; Sh. Ungg. Bers., 28 ; Sh. A. R. S. J., 

14. Also jemar, cftemar, chamar and chemha- 

jama' or jami'. Arab. General, chief; es- 
pecially used of mosques. 

jamang. I. Jav. A gold or silver ornamen- 
tal plate worn on the forehead. Di-letakkan- 
nya jamang k a- at as ulu adinda baginda : he set 
this ornament upon the head of her Majesty 
his Queen ; Ht. Sh. The word also occurs ; 
Ht. Ind. Nata, Ht. Mas Ed., and Ht. Perb. 
The form jejamang also occurs in the Ht. 
Mas Edan. 

n. (Kedah.) Whiskers, hair extending past 
the ears ; also chambang, q. v. 

jamong. (Kedah.) A rough kind of impro- 
vised torch made of dry palm-leaves fastened 
together ; = (Riau, Johor) andang, q. v. 

•fc^W jaman. Age, period ; a colloquial corruption 



of (Arab.) ^Uj » q- v. 

^v>- jamin 

Bail ; security 

[Arab. ^^Vj> y through Hindustani.] 

guarantee. Orang j. ; a 

^^\^^ jamu. I. The act of entertainment ; the 
reception and entertainment of a guest : a 
guest. Tuwan-hamba jamu hamba : you, Sir, 
are my guest ; Ht. Kal. Dam.., 234. 

Orang yang kennyang kalau dt-jamu, 
Lank yang sedap di-kata tawar : 

entertain a full man and he will call your best 
dishes tasteless; Prov. Kerana dagang itu 
jamu pada negeri orang: for a stranger is a 
guest in the land of others; Ht. Ism. Yat., 13. 

Hantu jamuwan : a kept ghost, a familiar 

Mhijamu : to entertain ; Ht. Abd., 177 ; 
Ht. Jay. Lengg. Jamu menjamu : the inter- 
change of hospitalities. 




Perjamu and perjamuwan : food offered to 
a guest ; entertainment. Perjamu hantu : 
offerings to an evil spirit. Perjamuwan yang 
amat ladzat ini : this excellent dinner ; Ht. 
Qui. Bak., 31. 

II. Jamu-jamu : a plant, aporosa microcalyx. 
Also jejamu, 

jamah. Physical contact or handling ; actual 
even though temporary possession, especially 
in the sense of the ownership and use of 
property; Ht. Abd., 364; Sh. K. G. T., 17; 
or of sexual connection with a woman ; Sej. 
Mai., 31 ; Ht. Sg. Samb., etc. 

Jamah'jamahan : an occasional concubine of 
a prince. 

Menjamah wadon : to have carnal knowledge 
of a woman ; Ht. Sh. 

jana. I. Skr, 
Ht. Raj. Pasai. 

Jana bijana : birth-place ; 

II. J urn jana : (Kedah) treachery, wicked- 
ness, scoundrelism ; a colloquial variant of 
diirjana (Skr. durjdna), q. v. 

j\2>. janab, Arab. Side. 

W janas. 


(Johor.) A celestial being ; a kind of 


janek. Radiation from a common centre ; 

rays or lines departing from a common cen- 
tre, as the lines on the Japanese naval flag : 
a sea-urchin. Ringgit j, : the Mexican dollar, 
so called from its representation of the rising 

^W jani. Numbness ; partial or total insensibility 
in disease. 

jW jau. Penjau : a sort of coop used for scoop- 
ing up fish from a trap. 

jv>- jawa. Java ; Javanese. Tanah j. : Java. 
Chabai j. : a kind of pepper, piper longum. 
Asam j. : tamarind. Randa j. : millet. T^m- 
bakau j* : Javanese-grown tobacco, much 
used by natives. Awanj, : the name given 
to a mixed art pattern, showing a treatment 
of flowers; foliation, etc. /. sejok : a name 
sometimes given to a keris handle. 

w^aW jawab. 


Answer, response ; more correctly 
jawdb ^U>. > q- V. 

4W jawat. The act of grasping, taking or holding 
in the hand ; tenure, hold ;=jabat, q. v. Jabat 
is, however, more common in the sense of 
physical grasp and jawat in the sense of 
tenure of office. 

Jawatan : an office, a duty, a position held 
by any one; Ht. Abd,, 3; Sej. Mai., 95. 
Penjawatan : id. ; Ht. Koris. 



[ 218 ] 









Birjawatan : holding office ; Ht. Koris ; Sh. 
Ik. Trub., II. 

Menjawat : to hold. Mhtjawat lembtng : to 
hold a spear ; Ht. Isk. Dz. 

Penjawat : an office holder, an official ; Ht. 
Abd., 220; Ht. Gh. ; Ht. Bakht., 21, 67. 
Dayang penjawat puUri : servants employed to 
wait on the princess ; Ht. AL, 23. 

jaur. Turk. A giaour, an infidel, an un- 
believer ; Ht. Bin. Horn. 

jauk. A small tortoise; J. S. A. S., VIH., 120. 

jauh. Distance ; distant ; far. Dart jauh : 
from afar. Jauh-lah malam : the night was 
far spent ; Ht. Gul. Bak., 11. 

Jauhi : to put a distance between two 
objects ; to remove to a distance ; Ht. Raj. 
Sul., 3 ; Ht. Kal. Dam., 30. Jauhkan : id. ; 
Ht. Abd., 97. Menjauhi : id. ; Sh. Ungg. 
Bers., 13. Menjauhkan: id.; Sh. I. M. P., 2. 
Perjauhkan : id. ; Ht. Mashh., 14. Menjauhi 
diri : to abstain ; Ht. Sh. Mard. 

Pejauh : anything to serve to keep any par- 
ticular object at a distance, e. g., ^azhnat pejauh 
jin dan shaitdn : a talisman to keep off evil 
spirits; Muj., 78. 

jawi. I. [The Arabic adjectival form of 
Jawa.] Malayan ; appertaining to the Malayan 
peoples and countries. Huruf jawi: the 
Malayo- Arabic written characters. 

/. pekan : a name (of disputed origin) applied 
to a class of people of mixed Malay and 
Indian descent, but born in the Straits and 
speaking the Malay language. 

II. Jawi'j, : a large fig tree with small 
leaves, ficus rhododendrifolia; Ht. Abd., 241 ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Sh. Sg. Ranch., 44. Also 
known a^sjejawi and arajejawi. 

III. Jav. An ox or cow; Panch., 63. 

IV. Padi jawi : dikind oi padi, 
Tuwan ketam padi pulut, 

Sehaya ketam padi jawi; 
Tuwan berkata sedap mtdut, 
Sehaya menengar sakit hati : 

you are reaping pulut rice, I am reaping jawi 
rice ; you are speaking in soft words, I listen 
with rising anger. 

Pers. Greatness, worthiness, 

jahat. Wickedness; evil; immorality; wicked. 

Dengan jahat : with evil intent. Kejahatan : 
evil; injury as the result of ill-will. Jahatkan: 
to libel ; to defame ; to represent as immoral ; 
Sh. Peng,, 9. Menjahatkan : id.; Ht. Best. 

jahit. Sewing; the act or art of sewing. 
Menjahit: to sew; Ht. Abd., 77; Sh. Ul., 28. 
Tukang jahit : (Straits Settlements) a tailor. 
Jahit pusat : the tying of the umbilical cord. 

Orang pinjahit : a tailor; Ht. AL, 2. 

iiaW jahang. I. Violent abuse ; abusive language 
^ such as that indulged in by an angry woman. 




II. Deep dark redness; a deep red appear- 

j^hil. Arab. Ignorant — especially in the 
sense of ignorance of religion ; cf. jdhiliyyah. 
Jdhil basit : extensively ignorant ; crass ignor- 
ance. Jahil murakkab : ignorance mounted 
on ignorance; compound ignorance ; the blind 
leading the Wind ; Ht. Abd., 262. Jdhilkan : 
to misinterpret religion; Sh. I. M. P., 22. 

Teritip di-tepi kota ; 

Mari di-kayoh sampan pengail ; 
Imam Khdtib lagi berdosa 

Bertambah pula kita yang jdhil: 

even Imams and Khatibs fall into sin, how 
much more then must we, the ignorant laity ? 

j&hiliyyah. Arab. The state of religious 
ignorance ; the condition of the Muhammadan 
world before its conversion — as distinct from 
obstinate refusal to accept the tenets of 
Muhammadanism. Ayy ami jdhiliyyah : the age 
before Muhammad ; Bost. Sal. 

jahan. An edible salt-water fish (unidentified) . 
Also ikan ajahan. 

^\j>- jahi. Jav. Ginger; Muj., 54 (where it is in- 
correctly spelt ^W )• 

t5v>* jaya. Skr. Superiority in strength ; actual 
success or the causes that command it ; vic- 
tory ; predominance of force ; a common 
name or title of heroes of romance. Bagai- 
mana pekerjaan perang kita iiti ada-kah jaya : 
how stand our prospects of battle ? Have we 
the advantage (in strength) ? Ht. Sh. Kub. 
Tahu'lah iya peperangan-nya itu tiyada akan 
jaya : he knew that he would not be victorious 
in the battle ; Ht. Sh. Kub. Tahu4ah iya 
akan perang-nya tiyada jaya : id. ; Ht. Sh. 
Utusan sudah balek dengan tiyada jaya : the 
envoys returned unsuccessful ; Bint. Tim., 22 
February, 1895. Lima puloh tahun sudah-lah 
jaya : for fifty years has she reigned trium- 
phant; Sh. Jub. MaL, 3. 

Jaya kesoma : victorious in love — a compli- 
mentciry designation. 

Kama jaya : the victorious God of love ; 
often incorrectly spoken of as Kerma Wijaya, 

Pandawa jaya : the victorious sons of Pandu, 
the heroes of the Mahabharata ; the name of 
a pattern ; Ht. Ind. Nata. Hikdyat Pandawa 
Jaya : a Malay version of a part of the Mahab- 

Perbu jaya : the conquering prince (Raden 
Inu Kartapati, better known as Panji). 
Hikdyat Perbu Jaya^ or Hikdyat Perba Wijaya : 
a collection of Panji tales. 

Menjaya : to succeed ; to ** come off." 

jAiR [ 219 ] 

kW j&ir. Arab. Tyrannical, lawless. 
yy^ j&iz. Arab. Legal, proper. 

K^ jayeng. [J^-v* jaya-ing : the victor.] Jciyeng 
^ seteru : ability to conquer enemies ; Cr. Gr., 

47; Sh. Panj. Sg. Menchoba jayeng seteru: to 
test one's conquering skill ; Ht. Sh. Memm- 
jokkan jayeng seteru : to display one's conquer- 
ing skill; Ht. Sh. 

Gagah perawira jayeng seteru, 

Tiyada makan perambut senjata ; 
Sa-lurah tanah J aw a, sa-dairah tanah 
Mnsoh ta'-herani bertentang mata : 
valiant, heroic, superior to all foes, no weapon 
can wound his charmed body; throughout 
the divisions of Java, through all the terri- 
tories of Malaya, no enemy dares meet him 
face to face. 

Jayeng seteru is also used as the name of an 
ornament or ornamental pattern; Ht. Mas 

,_c>- jib. Eng. The jib; the foresail. Jib-bunt: 
the jib-boom. Palan-jib : the flying-jib ; Pel. 
Abd., 105. Jib tap-sil : a jib in the air above 
the jib proper. Jib gosi : the foresail in a 
schooner; Pel. Abd., 48. Palan-jib-btmi : the 
flying jib-boom. 

\^ jabMr. Arab. Mighty; omnipotent ; al- 

* * mighty. MdlihiH-jabbdr : the Almighty King; 

the King of Kings ; Sh. Dag., 7. Khdliku'l- 

jabbdr : the Almighty Creator; Sh. Pant. 

Shi,, I. 

0-%»p- j6bat. [Pers. and Arab, zabdd or zubdd : 
civet.] The perfume known as civet ; Ht. 
Sh. Kub. ; Ht. Jay. Lengg. Musang jebaf : 
the civet-cat. Anak anjing itu buleh-kah jadi 
anak musang jebat : can a puppy become a 
young civet-cat; can a leopard change his 
spots; Prov., J, S. A. S., I., 89. 
Ikanj, : (Kedah) a fish (unidentified). 

j\^ jabr. Arab. Al-jabrawa'Umiikabala: algebra. 

U;^ jabr£i,'il. Arab. The Archangel Gabriel. 

ju^ jgbang. A long oblong-shaped shield, the 
cr* frame of which is of wood covered with a 
surface of leather ; Sej. Mai., 158. 


jgbong. An edible salt-water fish, batistes, sp. 

r^,. jSbak. A snare for birds. 

Budak-budak tahan jehak, 

Dapat sa-ekor merebah jambul: 
the boys set a snare and caught a tufted 
merebah bird. 


Vp- jabal. Arab. A mountain. JabalKdf: Mount 
^* ' Qaf ; Ht. Raj. Kh., 52. 

4JL5J- jibillah. Arab. Character, nature, disposition. 

4^j>- jSbah. I. Broad and full of the countenance. 

II. Anak jebah : a name sometimes given 
to the small vessels (pekapor) for sireh-lime 
kept in a sireh-hox. 

<U;>- jSboh. A kind of fish, like a tamban, but 
without scales. 

4^ jubbah. Arab. A kind of long outer vest, 
something like a shirt, worn by male Hajis ; 
Sh. Ul., 27; Sh. Pr. Ach., 5. Sudah berjang- 
gut tiyada berjtibbah : he has the beard but 
not the robe (of a pious man) ; he is not all 
that he professes to be ; Prov. 

jL*\^ j§jamang. A gold or silver frontlet ; Ht. 
cr ' ' Mas Ed. ; usually /aman^, q, v. 


usually jaman^, q, 
V^ jfijamu. A plant, aporosa microcalyx ; also 


fcA^ JSjawL Pohun jejawi: a large fig- 
- -^ * * rhododendrifolia. Also jawi-jawi. 

tree, fie us 

yb\^ jajahan or jejahan. District, outlying 
*"^ * ' territories ; v. jajah. 

Y^ jejas. Abrasion; grazing; scratching; the 
**^* * lightest form of wound or actual injury; cf. 
chachat, which refers to similar flaws in ap- 
pearance only. Jangankan terbelah jejas-ptm 
tidak : so far from being split, it was not even 
scratched (of a tree-trunk) ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 

jgjak. Step, tread. Better jijak, q. v. 

jgjal. The closing of an interstice ; the filling 
up of a crack by the insertion of a knife-blade 
or any similar temporary measure. 
Menjejal : to close a crack ; to force food into 
a child's mouth by way of punishment when 
the child will not finish the food set before it. 

jdjintek. (Kedah.) The larvae of the mos- 
quito ;"(Riau, Johor) jintek-jinteL 

^^^ jgjenang. (Kedah.) A petty officer 
LT^* dinate to the batin ; see jenang. 


j^ jahad. Arab. Denying, recanting (religion), 
breaking one's word. 

^^ jahim. Arab. Fiercely-burning fire; hell 
r fire. Nuraka jahim: the Lowest Hell ; Mith. 

Sar., 63. 


[ 220 ] 


^-^ jSda. [Arab. J\j^ .] Pause, break, inter- 
mission. Also jedi. 

AJc>- jid&r. Arab. The ** walls" within which 
type is confined; the lines which appear 
round a page of printed matter in some 

books ; lines ruled round a letter. Also ^j^ 

JLjc>- jadwal or jidwal. Arab. A schedule, a 
statement in tabular form ; a table — in the 
sense of mathematical, astronomical or statis- 
tical tables. Sarat jadwal : id. ; Muj., 23. 

oJc>' juddah. Arab. Jeddahj the port of Mecca. 
Also called pangkalan juddah. 

JuiJ>* jadid. Arab. New, unused. 


jir. (Riau, Johor.) Aim, target, butt. Also jih. 

u>* jSra. Warned by experience; frightened off 
(anything). Tiyada jera : he has not yet 
learnt by experience ; he has not taken his 
lessons to heart, — used of a man who again 
commits a blunder for which he has paid 
heavily before. 

{y}j>' jSrabun. (Kedah.) Heaped up together in 
great swelling masses, as coal under a shed ; 
also (Riau, Johor) jerembtm. 

^U>- jSrabai. Hanging down in tatters ; cf jerani' 

^•>\c> jdradek. The name of a cake; Kl. 

A\p. j6rangau. A plant much used by native 
medicine-men, acorus calamus. 

J, laut : id., enhalas acoroides, 
/. padang : id., xyris indica. 


\p- jgragan or juragan. (From juru agong ? ) : 
the skipper of a native perahu, as distinct from 
the captain of an Arab trading ship {nakhoda, 
q. v.), or of a European-built vessel (kapitan, 
q. v.); Sh. Lamp., 9; Sh. Pant. ShL, 4. Sha'tr 
Juragan Budinian : the name of a poem. 

<0W- jSragah. (Kedah) Spiky, antlered, branching 
out in all directions ; also (Riau, Johor) 

^\p^ jgrageh. A plant also known as selaseh 
-^ padang; Kl. 

^\rr jSramah. Seizure; grip with claws and 
teeth — as a tiger seizes its prey, or as Malay 
women when fighting scratch and bite each 
other ; seizure with both hands or in every 
possible way. Di-jeramah-nya akan dayang itu 
rebah terlentang : she clawed hold of the girl 
and rolled over on the ground with her ; Ht. 
Menjeramah : to seize in this way ; Ht. Best. 

c?W jSrami. The dry stubble left in the field after 
harvest ; the dried stumps of the crop ; an 
expression of constant occurrence in erotic 
pantuns, e. g., Hi. Sh. Kub. ; Ht. Koris; Sh. 
Peng., 5; Sh. Ch. Ber., 11; Sh. B. A, M., 
5; etc. 

Jerami is also used to describe the uneatable 
parts of the nangha and chempedak fruit 
between the edible pods, 

^ \^ jgrawat. Pimples on the face. /. nasek : 
^^^ small pimples in no way affecting health or 
comfort. /. baiu : ulcerating pimples. 

r^\rr jSl^aus. Quick in one's movements ; sprightly. 


jSrahap. To fall to the ground on one's face 
and with outstretched arms. 

yb\»>- jSrahak. Definitely and permanently aban- 
doned while still incomplete — as a work ; 
given up as a bad job. 

C.*>\ •>■ jfirait. Interlinked ; joined together perma- 

nently as the links of a chain — in contradis- 
tinction to being merely hooked or coupled 
together when the coupling need simply be 
undone ; cf. kait, 

^J>' jarb. Arab. Itch ; scabies, 

uj5f- j6r6ba. Menjereba : to lay a ship on its side, 
e, g.^ for caulking or painting ; Kl. 

Li y>- jer6bak. Mmjerebak : to permeate (a house) 
— of a smell ; to pervade everything. Also 

oJ ^ jSrebu. Lautj, : the open sea ; the sea out 
^-^^ of sight of land. 

Orang belayar laut jerebu, 

Putus tali sampan tunda-nya ; 
Niyat di-hati hendak bertemu ; 
A dek di-kawal ayah bonda-nya, 

a man was sailing on the open sea, when 
the painter of his dinghy gave way ; it is my 
heartfelt wish that we may meet, but my 
love is watched by her father and mother, 

^Pr jSrat. A running-noose ; a snare based on 
the principle of the running-noose. Tahan 
jerat sorong kepala : to set a noose trap and 
then stick one's head into it ; to be hoist with 
one's own petard; Prov., J. S. A. S., XXIV., 
loi. PBlandok'lah melupakakan jerat tetapi 
jerat tiyada melupakan pelandok : the dwarf- 
deer may forget the snare but the snare will 
not forget the dwarf-deer ; a man may neglect 
natural laws but they will not spare him ; 
Prov., Ht. Abd., 451. JBrat sa-rentang : a 
running-noose set as a snare ; a snare ; Sh. 
Lail. Mejn., 17. 

/. bidas : a snare for birds. 


[ 221 ] 






/. embat : a snare which combines the prin- 
ciple of the noose and spring ; a wire spring 

/. kawat:=zj, embat; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

/. fanjol : a noose-snare for crabs, 

Memasang j, or menahanj, : to set snares. 

Menjerat : to catch with a noose, to trap by 
means of noose-snares ; Sej. MaL, 25. 

Jerat is also used to describe the lasso used 
in war by heroes of romance ; Ht. Hamz., 64. 

jerit. I. Shrieking; the utterance of loud 
piercing cries ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 4. Menjerit : 
to utter such shrieks as a person in great fear 
or pain. Maka Dewi Januwati pim menjerit 
seraya menyebut-nyebut Betara Kesna : the 
Goddess Yajnawati shrieked and kept calling 
on the Great Divinity Krishna ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

Berjeritan : crying out ; shrieking — of many 
persons; Sh. K. G. T., 3, 5. 

n. The painful sensation caused by a morsel 
of food getting into the windpipe. 

j6rut. Drawing a slip-knot or noose ; closing 
a bag the mouth of which is closed by a string 
being drawn through an aperture. 

jirjir. Arab, Olives ; Ht. Pg. Ptg. 

jSrSjak. Thin perpendicular laths holding 

together the atap or kajang portions of a wall 
in a native house of the poorest type ; plain 
wooden bars in a window. Iron bars are 
known (Straits Settlements) as r^/ (rail) jerejak. 

jerang. The act or process of warming any- 
thing at a fire. Jerangkan: to do this act; 
Ht. Koris. ; Ht. Mar. Mah. ; Sh. Lamp., 17; 
Muj., 47, 49. 




tree with 

241; Pel. 

jering. A medium-sized 
curled pods exhaling a nauseous 
pithecolobium lobattmi; Ht. Abd., 
Abd., 37. 

/. balai : pithecolobium fasciculatum, 

/. monyet : pithecolobium clypearia, 

/. ttipai : pithecolobium microcarpum, 

Bertangkai jiring : (Kedah) to play the fool. 

jferong. A kind of large man-eating shark ; 
the largest shark known to the Malays ; the 
ground shark ; Sh. Ik. Trub., 4. Sha'ir anak 
raja di-sambar jirong : the title of a Malay 
poem relating the adventures of a Malay 
prince who was swallowed by a shark and 
afterwards escaped out of its dead body. 

jSrongMs. Aslant; gradually becoming up- 
rooted — of the buried end of a pile or stake 
not sufficiently imbedded into the ground to 
resist the leverage pressure exercised by the 
current on the upper portion of the stake. 






jSrangkang. The attitude of an animal lying 
on its back with its paws in the air. Lalu 
jatoh terjerangkang kaki empat : then it fell 
over, paws in the air; Ht. Sg. Samb.; cf. 

cheranggah, chcranchang, jeragah, jerangkah, etc . 

j§rongkong. I, Knocked over; knocked on 
one's back; knocked into the position des- 
cribed by the word jerangkang, q. v. 

II. Stumbling along; falling and rising. 

III. Hantu jerongkong : an evil spirit pos- 
sibly identical with the hantu bungkus (a spirit 
of a man which moves about stumbling and 
falling or rolling along in its grave-clothes), 
but according to many the spirit of a man in 
the form of a dog. 

jSrungkau. Curving downwards, hanging in 
a curve as branches hanging over a river or as 
hair hanging over the face. Menmgkau and 
menjerungkau: to hang in this way. 

jSrangkah. Projecting upwards; sticking 
up into the air as the spikes of a caltrop ; 
Ht. P. J. P. 

jSrengkah. Pendulous and large with milk, 
of the breasts or udders. Merengkah and 
menjerengkah : to be in this condition. 

jgrongkah. Irregular, uneven, jagged, of a 
mouthful of teeth. Cf. jongkah, jerangkah^ 
jerangkang, etc. 

jerap. Filtration or permeation through any 
substance ; saturation till drops collect and 

Sorong kayu nasi di4anakf 

Mari tanak, tepi kuwala ; 
Rendam suinbu dalam minyak, 

Sudah menjerap beharii menyala : 

steep a wick in oil; when saturated it will 
begin to burn. 

r^-^ jSrfipak. (Riau, Johor.) Menjerepak : to fall 
over; also (Kedah) menjerempak. 








jerok, A generic name for fruits of the citron 

class (usually limau) ; a kind of pickle made 
by salting these acid fruits — ^but not using 
vinegar (see achar) ; pickling in salt and water ; 
the name given to the conduct of a man who 
keeps his wife locked up in his house; Ht. 

/. china : Chinese pickles; Kam. Kech., 8. 

,^P^ J6r6kat. (Riau, Johor.) 
-^ (Kedah) pinang kachat, 

«0 ^ jdrSkah. Angry or threatening movements 
or gestures ; menace by gesture rather than 

Unripe betel-nut 

by words ; 

(by metaphor) severe cross-exami- 


[ 222 ] 


jgrfilok. (Kedah.) Mangkok jerelok : a deep 
cup; also (Riau, Johor) mangkok jelok, 

jfiram. L Rapids in a stream ; Ht. Ind. 

II. Jermn-jeram : an oil-cake ; Kl. 

J6r6mba. A sudden and unexpected encoun- 
ter ; suddenly coming face to face with a wild 
animal or anything of a similar character. 

jSrembet. United, interlinked; cL jerait and 

jdrambang. A kind of marine will-o'-the- 
wisp ; an ignis fatuns on the sea, believed by 
Malays to be an evil spirit. 

jSrumbong. A sort of permanent awning or 
deckhouse in a native sailing boat ; seejerubong. 

jdrSmbap. Menjerembap: to fall to the 
ground into a sitting posture, the legs being 
stretched out their full length. 

jgrSmbtUl. (Riau, Johor.) Heaped up al- 
together; collected into one great heap, as 
coal in a shed ; also (Kedah) jerabtin, 

jgrumbun. (Riau, Johor.) The lair of a wild 
boar. Also (Kedah) jerumun. 

jSrambah. A kind of scaffolding or unrailed 
verandah outside a Malay house and used for 
keeping jars of water, washing plates, and 
similar purposes ; (sometimes) a scaffolding 
projecting beyond the deck of a ship; cf. 

^j5j- j§rambai. Dangling ; see jemmbaiy but with 
- * the sense of ugliness, as in the case of tatters 

danghng from a garment. 

^^P^ jdriimbai. The dangling of a fringe of long 
- ' ' tassels — the frequentative ofjumbai, q. v. ; cf. 
rumbai, jerambai and j era bat. 

jSrSmang. Support by short props or 
buttresses (sagang), short thick pieces of 
wood placed so as to keep a boat in an 
upright position when drawn up on the beach. 
Patah tongkat berjeremang : when the prop 
goes, to use buttresses ; when one line of 
defence is gone, to fall back on another ; to 
never give in ; Prov.; cf. J.S.A.S., XXIV., in. 
Tongkat refers only to props rising vertically 
from below ; jeremang, like sokong and sagang, 
to angular side supports or buttresses. 

Berjeremang is also used by metaphor in the 
sense of walking on all fours, and can be so 
translated in the proverb quoted above. 

J6r6mal. A palissading of bamboos used as 
a fish-trap ; Ht. Abd., 72, 229. Belatf. : a 
deep-sea fish-trap, an out-shore belat. 








\ D A>.>" 

jfirman or J6r6man. (Eng.) German; Ht. 
Abd., 148. Negeri J erman : Germany . Orang 
jBnnan : a German. 

jfirSnang. The vegetable product known as 
'' dragon's blood " ; Ht. Abd., 354. 

jdrneh or jgrSneh. Clearness ; limpidity of 
water ; transparency ; purity ; (used by 
metaphor) sincerity of heart ; frankness. 
Ayer-nya terlalu jereneh : its water was ex- 
tremely limpid ; Ht. P. J. P. Btiwang-kaft ayer 
yang keroh mengambil ayer yang jereneh : to 
throw away dirty water and take clean ; to 
turn over a new leaf; Prov. Muka yang 
jereneh : a placid, contented face. 

j6r§ni. Pintu jereni or pintu dereni : half- 
doors, small screen-like doors not entirely 
closing a passage but permitting ventilation 
while ensuring privacy. 

jerau. Deep dark red. 

jerubong or jgrobong. An awning of mat- 
ting which covers goods which cannot be 
stowed away in the hold. 

/. bajati : fixed awnings on each side of a 
vessel but not extending across the centre; 
ci, jiibongjjerumbong, bumbong, etc. 

jdrojol. Half issuing forth through an aper- 
ture ; emerging as a bird's head from between 
the bars of a cage, or as a snake's head from 
a hole. Also merojol and berojoL 

jeruju. A shrub with white or blue flowers 
and holly-like leaves, acanthus ebracteatas ; Ht. 
Abd., 155, 203, 286. 

jerupeh. Mmjerupeh : (Kedah) to add to the 
height of anything, to increase height, to add 
a patch or layer to the top of anything. 

jdrukup. Joining boughs ; over arching — 
as trees which form an avenue ; cf. rungkup, 

jerumat. The process of closing a rent by 

jSrumus. A sprawling posture after a fall 
on one's face. Jatoh terjerumns : to fall sprawl- 
ing into this attitude; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Sej. 
Mai., 16. 

jSrumxin. (Kedah.) The lair of a wild boar; 
also (Riau, Johor) jertmibtm. The word is 
also applied to describe a peculiar hiding- 
place used by trappers or hunters to conceal 
themselves from their prey. 

jdrohok. Stumbling into a hole concealed 
by deep grass. 

jSrah. Plentiful — of a crop; numerous — of 
cases of illness during an epidemic. 


[ 223 ] 




jSreh. I. Worn out and dispirited; mental 
depression consequent on physical fatigue. 
Lihat'lah hamba ini berdiri dengan suwatti kaki 
memberi naungi kapada sakaliyan yang lelah 
jereh : look at me (a tree) standing on one leg 
to give shade to all who are weary and worn 
out; Ht. Gul. Bak., 26. 

II. Pain caused by a piece of food remain- 
ing in the windpipe. Stronger than jerit, q, v. 

III. Brought to reason ; taught to obey, of 
an obstinate man. 

jfiroh. Very steep and sloping, of a declivity, 
and especially of the slope of a roof. 

^JT jfirehak. Complete abandonment— of any 
work. Terjerehak: given up as a bad job; 
altogether abandoned ; cf. bengkalat. 

fjjp^ jSrai. Gunongjerai: Kedah Peak, the name 
of a mountain visible from Penang and said 
to be called jerai because of its height (gtmong 
jerai, kerana sebab tinggi-nya ; Ht. Mar. Mah.) 

C.^u^ j6riyat. A contrivance like a stick with long 
trailers hanging from it — used to frighten 
shrimps and make them leap into a boat; 
cf. jari. 

^J^ j^ringing. Grinning. Also jeringai. 

j^^j>- j^ringau. A plant, acoms calamus; better 
jerangau, q. v. 

(J*i/r jSringai. Grinning. Also jeringing. 

jgrepet. United ; interlinked or adhering one 
to another, of two long objects which are so 
joined together that one can move more or 
less freely independently of the other, e, g,, 
as two links of a chain ; cf. jereket and jerait, 

jSreket. United ; adhering one to another — 
of two long objects which are so connected 
that they cannot move except together ; cf. 
jerepet and jerait. 

This word is also used to describe a peculiar 
dish made of slices oi the pisang cooked and 
stuck together with syrup. 

jSriyau. Laths of split m6o;i^ ; Kl. 

jgriyah. I. A slave girl; better (Arab.) 
jdriyah, I., q. v. 

II. Ever-flowing grace, charity; better 
(Araih.) jdriyah^ 11. , q, v. 

i5>- JUZ. Arab. A section of the Koran; Ht. 
Abd., 21, 22. 

«)>■ JQ'Za'. Arab. Reward, recompense. 



p^r jazm. Arab. Cutting off; amputation; the 
name given to a diacritical mark signifying 
that the consonant ends abruptly, i, e., that 
it is not followed by a vowel. 


jazirah. Arab. An island. 

justa. [Skr. dusta,] Falsehood, false; better 
dtista, q. V. 

jastar. [Pers. 
dastaVf q. V. 

dastar.] A turban; better 

^,,;Xw^ justisiya. [Port.;//s//cm.] 
^ " * justice; Ht. Abd., 34. 

Justice ; court of 

jasad. Arab. Body; the material visible 
body in contradistinction to the soul or spirit 
of life. Bercherai4ah nyawa dengan-nya jasad : 
the soul is severed from its body; Sh. May,, 
3. Jasad-nya tidak kehendakan makan : his 
body has lost all desire of food ; Sh. Lail. 
Mejn., 29. 

(j-JuuP- jasadi. Arab. Bodily. 

jism. Arab. Body; substance; bulk; mass. 

jismani. Arab. Body, bodily. Tuna4ah 
'akal, Umah jismani : with tired ( wounded ) 
thought and weary body ; Sh. Panj. Sg. Sa- 
lengkap jismani : the whole body ; Sh, Panj. 

jing. A native game ; Kl. 

jong. I. Junk; a large Chinese or native 
sea-going sailing ship. Sa-ratus bnwah jong : 
a hundred junks. Jong pechah yu yang km- 
nyang : when the junk is wrecked, the sharks 
get their fill ; it's an ill wind that blows 
nobody any good ; Sh. Kamp. Boy., 5 ; cf. 
J. S. A. S., I., 98. 

II. A land measure in use in Java. 

III. Kain jong sarat : the name of a broad- 
cloth heavily embroidered with gold, so called 
either from the pattern or as an abbreviation 
of hiijong sarat. 





(Kedah.) Shameless (of women 

jSngok. Watching or seeing anything by 

looking through a lattice, crevice or keyhole, 
keeping oneself unseen all the time; spying 
upon anything. Kn jengok-lah ka-dalam bang- 
sal itu : I peered into the shed ; Ht. Abd., 311. 

Menjengok : to peer ; to peep ; to spy through 
anything; Ht. Gul. Bak., 121. K^pala itu 
iimbul menjengok'jengok di-ayer itu : his head 
came to the surface and kept peering along 
the water ; Ht. Jay. Asm. 


[ 224 ] 




jaxigka. I. A pair of compasses (for measur- 
ing) ; the exact measurement ; the exact 
quantity of space allowed for any purpose 
after verification by actual measurement. 
£nam puloh koyan imiwat di-jangka : sixty ko- 
yans capacity by actual measurement — of a 
ship; Sh. Peng., 13. Sa-Ulah sampai-lah 
jangka-nya : when the exact limits measured 
off (for excavation purposes) had been 
reached ; Ht. Abd., 64. Bagai di-jangka : as 
if it had been exactly measured off; Ht. Raj. 
Don., 44. Korang dart jangka : below^ the 

Jangka is used of any instrument or method 
of exact measurement ; for instance, in slitting 
mingkuwang the jangka is a piece of wood 
with 4 or 5 points according to the number 
of strips required. 

II. (Probably identical with I.) The time; 
the proper time ; the fixed or appointed time. 
Apa-bila malam sampai-lah jangka : when it 
was night and the time had come ; Sh. Put. 
Ak., 26. 

III. Youthful, unmarried. 

Also jaka and 

jangkat. A shallow, a mud-bank; usually 
changkat, q. v. 

jangMt. I. Dissemination without visible 
and tangible connection ; spreading as an 
epidemic disease or as a fire which spreads by 
unseen channels. Sopak kedal chelaka ini, 
entahkan jangkit akan aku pula : this miserable 
skin-diseased wretch, who knows, — perhaps he 
may infect me too ; Ht. Best. Sakit berjang- 
kit : infectious sickness. 

Menjangkit : to spread by leaps and boutids ; 
to burst out in different and apparently uncon- 
nected spots. 

Orang China berkata api datang dari langit^ 
Sebab itu4ah iya ber jangkit- jangkit : 

the Chinese said that the fire had come down 
from heaven, and that it thus came to pass 
that it broke out here and there ; Sh. K. G. T., 

11. Pierced by a barbed point or thorn, but 
not necessarily held back by it. 

Padi ptdut di-dalam bendang, 

Banyak rumput dengan jerami ; 
Mtdut kita di-suwap pisang^ 
Buntut kita di-jangkit duri : 

bananas are thrust into our mouths, and 
thorns into our backs ; to do a bad turn under 
cover of a good one ; Prov. Jangkit is also 
used to describe the process of attaching the 
bait to the hook. 

jSngket. Walking on one's heels ; motion or 
action on one end only, the other end being 
raised aloft ; cf. jongkit. Menjengket : to walk 
on one's heels. Menjingket jari : to eat using 
one's index finger and thumb only, the other 
three fingers being affectedly extended to invite 




attention to their beauty. Rambut menjengket : 
hair that insists on rising ; a fringe {andam, 
q. V.) that will not be waxed down to adhere 
to the forehead — a sign believed unfavourable 
to a girl's past chastity ; Sh. Peng., 4. 

jengket. Walking on tiptoe by preference 
and without pain, as a Malay whose heel has 
got dirty and who wishes to avoid soiling a 
mat over which he is walking. 

jengkot or jingkat. Walking painfully on 
tiptoe or on the side of one's foot, as the 
result of a wound in the foot. 

jongkat. Jongkat-jongkit . 
ing; y.jongkit. 

unsteady, see-saw- 



jongkit. The rise of the tail, point or hinder 
extremity of anything by a sort of see-saw 
motion ; tilted up at the tip. Anjing di-tepok 
kipala menjongkit ekor : pat a dog on the head 
and up goes his tail ; show attention to a brute 
and he will requite you with an insult ; Prov. 
Lantai pechah tir jongkit : a floor of loose planks 
which rise and fall when trodden on ; Sh. 
Kamp. Boy., 10. 

J ongkang- jongkit : swaying, unsteady, see- 
sawing (as the planks in a loose or bad floor) ; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. Jongkang-jongkitan : id. ; Pel. 
Abd., 89. Jongkat-jongkit : id. 

jangkar. I. [Dutch: anker?] Jangkar 
dewi : a cat-head. Sauh j, : a grapnel. 

II. Spreading above ground, of the roots of 
a tree ; exposed altogether as the roots of the 
mangrove, as opposed to the form taken by 
roots such as those of some trees which run 
half buried along the surface of the soil, or as 
others such as those of the areca-nut palm 
which, though exposed, grow in a solid cluster 
and enclose no air space. 

jingkir. A platform on which a recently- 
confined woman is laid by Malay midwives 
in order that she may be warmed by a fire lit 
underneath ; v. diyang, 

jongkar. Projecting ; sticking out ; causing 
a prominence, as a keris in a bundle of 
shorter objects. 

/. jongkir : sticking out in various directions 
— as a number of swords and daggers stuck in 
a man's belt. 

jongkir. Jongkar -jongkir : bristling with 
points, sticking out in different directions (of 
points) ; v. jongkar. 

jangkarayu. A bird (unidentified). Jangka- 
rayu kunun mengatnr sarang : the jangkarayu 
is said to be building its nest ; Sh. Bur. 
Pung., 4. 

j^ngkSring. A malignant eruptive disease. 


[ 225 ] 


jfingkSrek. A species of cricket ; usually 
chhtgkerek, q. v. 


kang ? 

I. A kind of crab, KL ; = bang- 

II. Wide open, of the arms; wide apart, 
of the legs ; cf. kangkang, Jatoh ka-bunii pula 
terjangkang : he fell to earth with his legs 
gaping apart ; Sh. Panj. Sg. 

III. A generic name given to a number of 

Jangkang ; j, pay a ; j. betina ; or j. merah : 
xylopia ferruginea or (Penang) hopea intermedia, 

J, bukit : a wild nutmeg, myristica poly- 

J. hutan : a small tree with large green 
flowers, polyalthia scortechinii. 

J. paya : a large tree with lavender coloured 
flowers, vernonia arborea, 

A kar j, : a creeper, melodormn rnannbriaUmt. 

jtSj^ jangking. Jongkang-jangking : the irregular 
CT * projection and withdrawal of points in all 
directions ; the rise and fall of picks where 
coolies are working without keeping time. 

i5v^ jSngkang. The position of a body extended 
CT * on its back with limbs projecting upwards — 
especially of dead insects. 

«5sx>- jengkang. The extension of a leg, as when 
CT * a mother takes the foot of a sitting child and 

makes the child stretch out the limb (to be 


jSngkeng or jSngking. Kala jengkeng : the 
common house scorpion, so called from the 
way it strikes at its foes. 

jengkeng. L Moving about quietly on tip- 

II. A large Patani junk. 

jongkang. The lifting of a pick or of any 
similar instrument over the shoulder point 
upwards, preparatory to striking. 

/. jangking : the irregular rise and fall of picks 
— as when a number of labourers are work- 
ing together. 

jongkong. I. A small boat; a short ja/or; 
a sort of dinghy towed behind a ship; Sej. 
Mai., 54. Sampan j, : id. ; Sh. Pant. Shi., 6. 

Besar ulat di-pokok kayti, 

A nak bUanda main teropong ; 

Besar daulat raja Melayu, 
Kapal di'lant di4unda jongkong : 

dignified indeed are our Malay princes, sea- 
going ships towed along by dinghies; a 
sarcasm on a Malay Prince who, when inde- 
pendent, is the slave of parasites, and when 
protected is powerless before the British 
Resident ; Prov. 


II. Sa-tampang jongkong : a peculiar token 
of exchange made of tin, and so called if 
hollowed out ; v. tampang, 

iSJcj- jongkok. I. The act of stooping forward to 
pick up anything. 

II. Jav. To squat; KL 
\5^«>. jangkil. Morose ; ill-tempered ; Kam. Kech., 8. 

\5v5c>- jfengkal. The span between the extremity of 
the thumb and that of the middle finger, 
when held apart as widely as possible, and 
used as a measure of distance ; Ht. Abd., 28, 
387, 451 ; Sh. Peng., 14 ; to grasp between 
the finger and thumb. Di-jengkalkan tdeh 
Amir Hamza riisok Kushtam dengan diiwa biji 
jari-nya : the Amir Hamza seized the side of 
Kushtam between his fingers ; Ht. Hamz., 54. 
Chakapan sa-jengkal di-bawa satti hesta: give 
him three inches of words and he will carry off 
a cubit ; give him the least opportunity for 
scandalous talk and he will take your whole 
character away ; Prov. 

/. telunjok : the span between the extremities 
of the thumb and index finger. 

/. kelengkeng and j. jari manis : the span 
between the extremities of the thumb and of 
the little finger, and finger next to it, res- 

Sa-jengkal menyisip ka-sa-belah : the span 
between the tips of two adjoining fingers held 
as far apart as possible ; Sej. Mai., 18. 

/. ketok : a measure of length ; the span 
between the tip of the thumb and the central 
joint of the finger when the finger is bent 
for rapping. 

Menjengkal muka : (literally) to measure one's 
face ; (by metaphor) to pass the time, to get 
rid of ennui by watching other people's work 
without taking part in it. Also membuwang 
gatal or membuwang miyang. 

\5^i>. jSngkol. I. A tree (unidentified) ; Kl. 

II. A measure of length ; the span between 
the tip of the outstretched thumb and that of 
the bent finger ; cf. jengkal and jengkal ketok, 

Ky^ jongkol. A tin coin used in Trengganu. It 
O"^^ is coined by individual officers who enjoy the 
profit on the coinage as a reward or in 
payment of service. 

<^*^ j angku. The chin ; a Javanese variant of dagUy 
y^^ continually occurring in the Sh. Panj. Sg, 

^sjc^ jgngkau. The act of picking or plucking 
-^ ' anything over one's head — in contradistinc- 
tion to snatching or pulling down ; rising or 
raising the hand to grasp something above; 
the peculiar action of a leech (pachat) when 
it rises to grasp the passer-by. 
/, ulat : a descriptive name given to fingers 
which, when outstretched, rise slightly at 
the tips. 



[ 226 ] 




A singing bird (unidentified) ; 




jSngkolet. Tilted over to one's side, as a 
man^s head when he falls asleep on a chair ; 
falling over sideways, as a man who loses his 
balance, or as a boat thrown on her beam- 
ends by a squalL 

jangkah. The act of stepping over a small 
obstruction such as a log or ditch ; motion 
over anything that cannot be crossed in 
one's stride or without an effort (langkah), 
but not high or broad enough to necessitate 
actual jumping (lompat), 

jangkeh. Jangkeh mangkeh : spread irregular- 
ly, helter-skelter; Pel. Abd., 32. 

jongkah. Projecting; sticking out at the 
point, of a tooth. Jerongkah : irregular ; un- 
even ; jagged, of a mouthful of teeth, 

jangki. L A kind of basket or wicker 
knapsack used in the jungle for carrying 

II. [Pers. Jviij] African, Ethiopian ; more 
commonly ^'aw^^^' or zanggi, q, v. 

jangga. I. [Skr, jagat.] The world. Latit 
janggawari : the Great Ocean of the Ancients. 
. Cf. jcigat. 






Youthful, unmarried ; Ht. Koris. Also 

jingga. Dark yellow ; yellow mixed with red. 
Kartds j,: paper of this colour; Ht. Sh. 
kainj,: cloth of this colour ; Ht, Ind. Nata. 
Warna j.: a deep yellow; Sh. Bid., 8; Ht. 
Ind. Meng. Dalima j,: ruby red; Ht. Ind. 
Nata. /. kuning : a dark shade of yellow; 
Ht. Sh. Kub. 

j6nggala. [Skx. janggdla,] Wild; appertain- 
ing to the jungle. Borak j,: a fabulous 
monster; Ht. Ind. Meng. Hantu j. : (Johor) a 
wood-demon. Also jengela. 

janggut. Hair along the edge of the lower 
jawbone, but not under the chin and jaw- 
bone (cf. batik) f nor immediately under the 
lower lip (cf. kumis) ; a beard, in a limited 
sense. Sudah b^rjanggut tiyada birjubbah : 
he has the beard but not the robe (of a 
priest) ; he is not all that he professes to be ; 

i. S. A. S., XL, 56. Lagi lebai lagi herjanggut : 
e is not only a priest, he wears the beard of 

/. 'ali : a grass, panicum sarmentosum. 

J, batik : a full beard. 

/. baung : a common sedge, marisms tmi- 

/. bBramus : a matted beard. 

/. di'hunU : a beard worked into one or 
more points ; a forked or pointed beard. 

/. duyong : an edible sea-slug. 

/. keli : a tree, gynotroches axillaris, 

/. monyet : a kind of fine seaweed. 

/. rimau : a small plant, polygonum pedun- 
cular e, 

/. tali tudong : a long narrow beard run- 
ning along the edge of the lower jaw, 

Ikan kurau janggut : a fish, polycnemus tetra- 

C^>- je^gget To hop; Kl. 

SA>- jengger. I. Jav. The comb of a cock; 
-^ ^ Muj., 48. 

II. (Kedah.) A sleeping platform; = gerai, 

S.i>- jonggar. Projecting; usually jo/^g-^^r, q. v. 

^^>. janggus. (Kedah.) The cashew, anacardium 
^""^^ ' occidentale. Also (Singapore) gajus, (Malacca) 
jambti golok, and (Acheen) jambti bersin and 
jambu biji, 

jinggang. Slender ; the equivalent of ram- 
ping in meaning, but less refined in use. 

Ki>- janggaL Inharmonious ; unsuitable ; jarring 
^^ ' upon the ear as a bad rhyme or false note ; 
offending the sight as an inappropriate com- 
bination of colours ; Ht. Sg. Samb. ; Sh. 
Nas., 18; Sh. Sg. Kanch., i, 

J^>. jenggal. /. jenggol : uneven ; all ups and 
* downs ; all notches — as a piece of wood ; 
knotty ; gnarled — as a tree trunk. 

Jpsi>- jgnggol. See jenggal 


jenggela. [Skr. janggdld.] Wild, savage, 
pertaining to the jungle. Berkendaraan j, : on 
a wild steed ; Ht. Koris. Also jenggala and 

janggawari. [Skr. jagatwari,] The Great 
Ocean; see jangga. 

janggi, I. [Pers. zangi,] African ; Ethio- 
pian ; negro ; connected with the East coast 
of Africa ; an adjective expressive of remote 
or fabulous origin. 

Pauh j. : a tree believed to grow on a sunken 
bank (tebing runtoh) in the centre of the ocean 
(pumt tasek) and to be guarded by dragons, 
possibly a tradition of the cocos maldiva ; Ht. 
Raj. Don., 31. Buwah pauh j.: a fruit, the 
shell of which is used as a beggar's bowl by 
Hindu mendicants and which, from its shape, 
is sometimes quoted as a simile for a young 
girl's breasts ; Ht. Ind. Jaya. 

Chendana j, : red, as opposed to yellow, 


[ 227 ] JELADAN 

Penawar j. : a kind of vegetable with a hairy 
shell used as a medicine. Also zanggi, 

II. [Pers. and Hind.] Warlike ; warrior- 

Melihat angkatan pelandok jdnggi, 
Ramai ta'-hdeh b^rkata lagi : 
to see the army of the warrior mouse-deer, 
in number exceeding all description; Sh. Sg. 
Kanch., 32. 

^ji>- jgngol. The projection above water of any- 
thing that is usually hidden under the surface, 
as, for instance, the sudden emerging of a 
crocodile's snout. 



jikalau. If; a compound of jika^ if, and the 
Arabic lau, which also means '* if." Often 
contracted to kalmi. 

jS^ jakSni. See J^^ . 

vi>p- juga. See ^j>' . 

C-Sc>- jSgat. (Kedah.) Terjegat: bolt upright, stifHy 
erect. Also (Riau, Johor) cMgat. 

jengfila. [Skr. janggdld.] Wild ; untamed ; 
see jenggala and jenggela. 

jap. United — of many items necessary to 
make up a whole ; come together ; collected 
together. Sudah jap : it has come together ; 
= sudah jadi, when applied to a meeting 
where a large attendance of people is neces- 

Sa-jap'jap : everywhere ; in every direction 
or in every place. 

jupara. A port of Java, 

j6pit. Menjepit: to nip, to catch between 
pincers ; better menyepit from sepit, q. v, 

j6put. The grip between the finger and 
thumb; better jemptit, q. v. 

4i>. jdpang. Sea-weed jelly ; the jelly made from 
^ ' agar -agar or jang gut duyong. 

j%i>- j6pun. [Chin, jit-pun,} Japan. 

Uui>- jaksa. [Skr. adiaksa.] A local headman in 

certain districts of South-East Sumatra ; Sh. 
Lamp., 32 ; a minor dignitary in the train of 
a Javanese prince — in Panji romances, e, g,, 
Sh. Panj. Sg. The form rijaksa also occurs in 
MSS., but is obsolete colloquially, 

vf5s>- jika. If; also w>^, and, in old MSS, Jaka, 

ps.-?- jggong. I. The lockers in the stern of a 
boat ; a kind of sail-room or store-room in the 
stern of a native peralin, 

II. (Johor.) An indentation in a range of 
hills ; a valley or gorge, 

J^ j6geL Projecting ; prominent, of the ball of 
the eye. 

jS^ jaguni. [Hind, jogni:] Spirits governing 
periods of good and evil fortune; Sh. Rej., 
4, 5, etc. Also chagtmt, and ^ j^ jg ^^^^^ 

however, clear whether this word is the Sans- 
krit yogmi, the beneficent Fates, or another 
word, the name of a great serpent mentioned 
in the Hikdyat Seri Rama, and possibly identi- 
cal with the great serpent which is believed 
by Malays to affect their fortunes. 

^ jel. Eng, Gaol; prison. 

^y^- jalla. Arab. Great ; illustrious, 

^^ jgla. I. A plant (unidentified), T. S. A. S., 
* III., 69. ^ 

11. Always going out; *' gadding about"; 
an expression used of a woman of easy 

jSlabat. Mainjelahat : a kind of single-stick ; 
Sh, Panj. Sg. 

jelabas. ( Kedah. ) Mulut jelabas : foolish 
talkativeness ; silly mouth — an expression 
applied to a chatterer who is always asking 
silly questions and making foolish remarks. 

jfilata. Menjelata: to creep; better melaia, 
from lata, q. v. 

j61atang. The tree nettle, laportica crenulata; 
Ht. Ind. Meng. ; Muj., 94, 

/. ayatn: a common little nettle in waste 
ground, flcurya inter rupta, 

J. badak : a stinging climber, cnesmom 
java7iica. Also/, rusa, 

jfilatek. The Java sparrow; Sh. Ungg, 
Bers., 5. Also jelantek, bilatek ^nd gHatek. 

jallM. Arab. An executioner ; Ht. Hamz., 

S)s^ j§lad6ri. [Skr. jaladri,] Sea, ocean 


jSladan. A bird (unidentified). 
JBlatek, burong jBladan^ 

Tekukor tBrbang tinggi ; 
Sania chantek, sama padan^ 
Mart di'Ukor, sama tinggi: 

the Java sparrow, the jeladan bird ; the 
ringdove flies aloft ; their beauty is equal, 
their position is equal, and (come and mea- 
sure it) equal is their height ; an appropriate 
union ; Prov. 


[ 228 ] 


^^y^ jSlangak. Holding one's head aloft or 

thrown back, as a man watching a bird. Also 

il"^^ jSlapang. ( Kedah. ) A small padi-sioxe or 
w * granary raised on posts. 

siSy^ jfilaga. (Kedah.) Soot ; smoke-stains ; fine 
cinders adhering to a torch. Also (Riau, 
Johor) chelaga. 

Tingah telaga, keliling pagar, 
Dalam kolam pohun bunga ; 

Sehaya empama jUaga damar, 

Hendak di-tuwam beharu berguna : 

I am like the cinders of a resinous torch, 
only useful when people are ill (literally : for 
fomentation) ; see tuwam. 

ij^i^- jalal. Arab. Greatness; majesty. 

^y^^ jalalah. Arab. La/orf/ jaW/^A ; the recitation 
of the titles or attributes of the Almighty; 
Sh. I. M. P.; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

li"*^)^ jfilanak. Advancing under cover ; wriggling 
through long grass, as a hunter who wishes to 
approach his prey unobserved ; surreptitious 
progress, as that of a swimmer who ducks or 
dives when he thinks he is otherwise likely to 
be observed. 

cuJ>- j616but. I. A fez-rest. 

II. Eng. A jolly-boat ; better j alt- but. 

\^ jSlebu, I. (Onom.) The sound of a heavy 
-^^"^ body falhng into the sea; Sh. Pr. Turk., 9. 

II. The name of a State in the Negeri 

j^ jilid. Arab. A volume ; a bound portion of 
a book ; book-binding. Tukang j. t a book- 
binder. Berjilid: bound; in volumes by 
themselves; Ht. Abd., 12, 283. 

J^ j61ar. Stretched out at full length ; extended, 
-^^ of a long bodied animal, such as a snake ; cf. 

JO- j61ir. MenjBlir: to project (the tongue) ; Ht. 
* Sh. Kub. Cf. julor 'dud jalar. 

(5,^UW j61aradi. Lapis lazuli; Ht. Sh. Kub.; better 
- ^ ' lazuwardi or lajuwardi, 

(jJb* j^las. Clearing up ; elucidation ; settlement 
(especially the settlement of accounts) ; clear ; 
plain ; obvious. Jelas iidak buleh di-sembtmyi : 
the obvious cannot be concealed ; Prov. 
Dalam sa-hari buleh jilas ini pekerjaan: in a 
day this business can be settled ; Pel. Abd., 
83. Memandang jelas: to see plainly; Sh. 
Sg. Kanch., 36. 


Ber jelas : to clear up ; to settle or wind up ; 
to elucidate ; Ht. Abd., 243. JUashan : id. ; 
Ht. Abd., 282. 

jSling. A long languishing look ; a sideglance 
over the shoulder ; the language of the eyes. 
Di-jeling-nya dengan ekor mata Sang Samba : 
she gave Sang Samba a look out of the corner 
of her eye ; Ht. Sg. Samb. 

MinjHing : to cast a side glance at any one ; 
to give any one a significant look. Apa-kah 
herti engkau ntenj cling aku : what is the 
meaning of the glance which you have given 
me? Ht. Sg. Samb. 

^^^J^sM^ jfilungkap. Menjelungkap : to spring up, of 
anything let loose suddenly after being 
fastened down. 

ijU>. jSldpang. Slashing across the face with a 
CT * sword ; cross cuts. 






j§16pak. I. (Onom.) The sound of a flat 

object such as a book falling on its flat sur- 
face. Jelepok'jelepak : falling backwards in a 
sitting posture ; Arabian Nights, 103. 

II. Puteh menjelepak : (Riau) snow-white. 
Also ptiteh melepak, 

j§16pok. (Onom.) A dull deadened sound 

such as that of the fall of a heavy body on a 
soft surface ; v. jelepak, 

j61ak. Satiety; having had too much of a 

good thing ; glutted ; tired of food or flattery. 
Jemii-jelak: id. Jemu-jelak mendengarkan 
pujok chumbuwan raja-raja sakaliyan itu : 
weary of listening to the flattery and soft 
speeches of all those princes; Ht. Koris. 
Laksana makanan sudah terjelak : like food 
when satiety has been reached; Sh. Put. Ak., 

jSIek. (Batav.) Fair; soft; pleasant; agree- 
able; Ht. Ind. Nata. 

jSlok. Deep, of anything of the shape of a 

bowl. Mangkok j. : (Riau, Johor) a deep cup, 
such as a coffee cup — as opposed to a cup 
with a broad surface and little depth, such as 
is often used for tea ; also (Kedah) mangkok 

II. Menjelok: (Riau) to surprise in war- 
fare ; to spy out one's opportunity for a 
sudden and unexpected attack. 

jSlum. The act of wetting, washing or 
moistening, by dropping or pouring water 
upon anything, as opposed to wetting by 
immersion in water ; washing the arms or 
body (but not the head), as distinct from 


[ 229 ] 


vi^ j616ma. (Skr. janma.) Incarnation ; the as- 
sumption of human form ; a man. Menjelema : 
to be incarnated, of a divinity assuming human 
form, as when Vishnu in the Hikdyat Sang 
Samba becomes incarnate in Krishna ; to 
be born again, according to the doctrine of 
metempsychosis, as when Darmadewi becomes 
re-incarnated in Yajnawati, (Ht. Sg. Samb.) ; 
(less correctly) to be transformed into a man, 
as when Chandra Kirana under the curse of 
Kala is turned into a male warrior for seven 
years and wanders over the earth as Panji 

Dewa sakti bulan pernama, 

Berperang dengan mambang di-awan ; 

Jikalau matt halek menjelema, 
Tuwan-ku jtiga patek pertnwan : 

were I to die and be re-incarnated, I would | 
again take thee for my Lord ; Ht, Koris. 

Laksamana bertanam selaseh, 

Buwah berdnri jatoh ka-hiima ; 
Bagai-mana tidak-kan kaseh, 

Sama sa-bangsa, sama menjelema : 
how could they do aught but love each other, : 
they come of the same race and were re-incar- ^ 
nated together ; Ht. Ind. Meng. 1 

Penjelemaan : an incarnation or re-incarna- i 
tion ; the form assumed^by anyone after death i 
or transformation. Entah-pnn penjelemaan 
dewa-dewa gerangan : can this then be the form 
of some divinity incarnate? Ht. Gul. Bak., 

<ZM^ jSlimpat. A digression or break on one's j 
journey. Menjelimpat : to break one's journey, i 

AjLp* jelSmpah. Menjelempah: to rot in large I 
quantity — of fruit on a tree. ; 

f^j^ jfilan. (Kedah.) Terjelan : darting out, slip- | 
ping out, of the tongue ; = jelir. 

jSluntong. I. A large tree; better jelutong, 
q. V. 

n. A black monkey; usually loiong and 
jekitong, q. v. 

ni. A skin eruption; measles or chicken- 
pox. Also chachar jeluntong, 

jSlantek. The Java sparrow; more usually 

jdlantah. Unequally and insufficiently cook- 
ed, as food which is underdone on one side. 
Cf. mentah. 


Jb>- jSlau. Looking at anything. Jengok jelau : id. 

1^ Jl>- jSluwat. A significant look out of the corner 
-^^ of the eye (jUing) if accompanied by other 
signs or motions ; an intensive of jeling. 




jSlutong. L A big tree which yields an 
inferior india rubber, dyera maingayi and