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VOL. 1. 










VOL. I. 























A.FTER an interval of eighteen years, the learned 
Author of this Grammar published a new edition of his 
work, of which the first volume appeared in 1825, and 
the second in 1827. The knowledge of the Greek Ian- 


guage, especially of the Syntax, had made a greater pro- 
gress in that time than in the preceding half-century ; 
and the Author was enabled from his own continued 
study and the labours of other critics, to correct and en- 
large his original work so materially, that hardly a single 
section remained the same. In its present state it ex- 
hibits by far the most complete system of grammatical 
roles and examples that has yet been given to the world, 
embodying the latest results of those subtle investigations 
of Greek and especially of Attic construction, which cha- 
racterize the scholarship of the present age. 

The present Editor furnished to the Fourth Edition a 


translation of that part of the new German Edition which 
treats of Conjunctions and Adverbs, and no further use 
was made of it. But the sole superintendence of the 
Fifth Edition having been committed to him, he deter- 
mined to revise it thoroughly, and make it throughout 
conformable to the original in its enlarged and altered 
state. Much inconvenience must no doubt result from 
such extensive changes in a work so widely difiused» 
If, however, the convenience of present possessors pleads 
against a change, that of future purchasers pleads as 
strongly for it, and justice to the Author may be allowed 
to decide between their opposing interests. It would 
have been most injurious to his reputation to have per- 
mitted a work still to circulate under his name, exhibit- 
ing errors which he had rectified, and deficiencies which 
he had supplied. 

It was necessary to avoid any great increase of the 
bulk of these volumes, since their magnitude has been 
already felt as an inconvenience. A more economical 
mode of printing has been adopted, and a small part of 
the Syntax has been included in the first volume. The 
quotations have sometimes been shortened, by omitting 
clauses not essential to the exemplification of the rule ; 
and still more frequently a reference only has been made 
to passages which are quoted in the original, when they 


contained nothing essentially different from others which 
had already been given at iiill length. This is the only 
kind of abridgement which has been practised : not a 
single grammatical remark or criticism has been inten- 
tionally omitted. 

The former Editions were accompanied by an Index of 
the passages of Greek authors quoted in the Syntax, 
drawn up by Mr. Walker, of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
The numerous changes which have been made rendered 
this Index inapplicable to the present Edition ; and in- 
stead of it one furnished by the Author himself, and com- 
prehending the quotations of both volumes, will soon 
be published in a separate form, with such a type and 

arrangement as greatly to facilitate its use. 

J. K. 

Manchester College, York, 
January 183S. 




The Greek Grammar, of which a translation is here 
presented to the public, enjoys a high and deserved re- 
putation amongst the Scholars of the Continent. In 
perspicuity of arrangement, in fulness of exemplification, 
and in philosophical views of general grammar, it is far 
superior to all publications of the same nature which had 
preceded it. More especially in the Second Part, which 
treats of Syntax, the deficiencies of former treatises are 
supplied in the most learned and satisfactory manner. 
Indeed, the Second Vol\mie forms a complete manual of 
Greek philology, which will be found eminently service- 
able to the learner who has made some progress in the 
study of this noble language, and not without its use 
even to the finished scholar. The various lights which 
the erudition and sagacity of modem philologists have 
scattered upon the difficulties or the beauties of the 
Greek tongue, are there concentrated and brought to 
bear with their united force upon the illustration of its 
syntax. I am far from believing that the genius of this 
noble and copious language is even yet perfectly imder- 
stood. We are still obUged to have recourse, in the way 
of explanation, to many gratuitous suppositions and un- 
philosophical shifts, for which grammarians have in- 

xii editor's preface. 

vented fine names, that serve as circumlocutions to ex- 
press our ignorance of the real causes and reasons of the 
peculiarities which we would explain. We meet with a 
dative case where the laws of construction require a 
genitive ; and it is considered to be a sufficient account 
of the matter, if we say that it is per schema Colophonivm. 
A word is used in a way which violates the analogy of 
language ; we satisfy ourselves with remarking a cata- 
chresis. For unaccountable changes in the forms of 
words, metaplasmua is the panacea. It is scarcely pos- 
sible to calculate the mischief which has been done to 
knowledge of all kinds, by the invention of technical 
terms. In the first instance, they facilitate the acqui- 
sition of a science ; but afterwards they have a natural 
tendency to stop the progress of research and improve- 
ment ; because men are generally disposed to acquiesce 
in an estabUshed nomenclature, without considering the 
principles upon which it was originally formed. Thus 
even the necessary terms of grammar, which we imbibe 
almost with our mother's milk, become so famiUar to 
our ears, that we are seldom led .to investigate, by the 
philosophy of language, their precise signification, or the 
justice of that classification of which they are the generic 
expressions. In this respect, however, a great improve- 
ment has taken place during the last hundred years. 
Philosophy, in that period, has taken rapid strides. The 
operations of the human mind have been examined with 
an accuracy as great, perhaps, as the present state of 
our faculties permits. And consequently the principles 
of language, which are intimately connected with meta- 
physical researches, have been laid down with a degree 


oi precision altogether unknown to the ancients. As to 
the grammarians, the further we go back the more un- 
reasonable and absurd we find them to be. They had 
no fixed principles to guide them ; and they are in con- 
sequence perpetually difiering from one another, and 
from themselves. The oldest complete Grammar is that 
of Dionysius, called the Thracian ; and that is contained 
in twenty-five short sections, occupying no more than 
fourteen octavo pages ; unless, indeed, that which Mr. 
Bekker has published from the MS. be only the epitome 
of a much larger work. Small as it is, however, it 
abounds with minute and perplexing distinctions. The 
Scholia upon this treatise occupy more than 300 pages ; 
and are a precious specimen of grammatical trifling, in- 
terspersed here and there with useful remarks. The re- 
mains which we have of Apollonius Dyscolus, the most 
subtle and learned of the old grammarians, of Choero- 
boscus, Joannes Philoponus, Moschopulus, and others, 
are all, in a greater or less degree, of the same character. 
The Grammar of Constantinus Lascaris is a collection 
of bare rules. The first persons who made any material 
improvement in the mode of treating the subject, were 
Henry Stephens, and his pupil F. Sylburgius, whose re- 
marks on the Greek Grammar of Clenardus are full of 
learning, especially his Syntaxetos Compendium. But al- 
though Sylburgius did much towards the classification of 
the language, he did not materially simplify the grammar. 
Angelus Caninius, in his Hellenismus a. 1 555, gave the 
first accurate accoxmt of the dialects. It was Laurentius 
Rhodomannus who first reduced all Greek nouns under 
three declensions. This improvement, which is men- 

xiv editor's preface. 

tioned, says Morhof, in the Philomusus of Rhodomannus» 
was afterwards claimed by Weller, who introduced it in 
his Grammar, first published in 1630, as also the re- 
duction of all the conjugations into one. The merit of 
havingTfirst simplified the declensions was likewise ar- 
rogated by Claude Lancelot, the author of the Greek 
Granunar commonly called The Port Royal. He bor- 
rowed it, no doubt, from Weller's book, which had been 
published but a few years before. The Port Royal Gram- 
mar is divided into nine books, and these books into a 
multiplicity of detached rules, abounding in mistakes, 
and illustrated by examples taken from writers of in- 
ferior authority. Weller and Verwey made considerable 
progress towards simplification ; but much remained to 
be done. A great accession was made to grammatical 
knowledge in the remarks of Fischer upon Weller's 
treatise, in three volumes octavo ; in which the author 
has collected, with great industry, a vast variety of ex- 
amples, adding many new observations of his own. 
Much light was thrown upon the structure and origin of 
the language by the sagacity and erudition of Hemster- 
huys, who supposed that the primary verbs consisted of 
two or three letters, from which all the other forms and 
inflexions were derived. So much, indeed, was he thought 
by some to have eflected in this way, that his pupil 
Ruhnken says of him, denique tenebras lingtuB per tot 
8(BCula offusaa ita discussit^ ut^ qua lingua nulla est neque 
verbis, neque farmiSy copiosior, eadem jam nulla reperiatur 
ad discendum faalior^ . That there is considerable truth 

* Elog, T, Hemsterhusii, p. 41. 

editor's preface. XV 

in the etymological theory of Hemsterhuys, it is impos* 
sible to deny. But that it has been pursued to too great 
an extent, is no less certain. One obvious and unan- 
swerable objection to its universality is the undoubted 
fact, that much of the Greek language, together with its ^ 
written characters, was borrowed from some Asiatic na- 
tion. This theory, the first intimations of which had 
been given long before by ScaUger and Is. Vossius*, 
(and of which the old grammarians seem to have had 
some notion,) was never explained by Hemsterhuys in a 
distinct work ; but it was generally received by that tribe 
of eminent scholars, of whom the most distinguished 
were Valckenaer, Ruhnken, Lennep : and it was appUed 
to the Hebrew language by the celebrated Albert Schul- 
tens. The principles of the theory were laid down by 
Valckenaer in his Observationes ad Origines GracaSy a 
treatise which, like the Analogia of Lennep, was for . 
many years well known in manuscript before its publi- 
cation, which did not take place till after his death in 
the year 1 790. Valckenaer was the scholar of Hemster- 
huys, and the tutor of John Daniel von Lennep, who 
prosecuted the notions of his illustrious predecessors, in 
his Pralectiones Acddemiccd de Analogia Lingua Graca^ 
and in his Observationes ad Origines Lingv/e Grteccs. In 
the last-mentioned work his notions are often very fan- 
ciful, and afford an example of the abuse of a useful in- ' 
strument. He is, however, far outdone by his editor, 
Everard Scheide, whose absurdities are only matched by 
the senseless trifling of the ancient etymologists. The 

* De Natura Rhythmi, p. 44. See Morhof's Polyhistor, I. p. 775. 


xvi editor's preface. 

plausibility of this theory has also misled the present 
learned and excellent Bishop of St. David's, who, in his 
Appendix to the Miscellanea Critica of Dawes, has pushed 
the simplification of etymology much too far. In fact, 
there can be no doubt that the theory of Hemsterhuys 
has been perverted in a manner which he never dreamt 
of. Lord Bacon observes ; " Prhno autem minime pro- 
bamus curiosam illam inquisitionem, quam tamen Plato, 
vir eximius, non contempsit; nimirum de impositione 
et originaU etymologia nominum ; supponendo ac si ilia 
jam a principio ad placitum indita minime fiiissent, eed 
ratione quadam et significanter derivata et deducta : ma- 
teriam certe elegantem, et quasi ceream, quae apte fingi 
et flecti possit; quoniam vero antiquitatum penetralia 
perscrutari videtur, etiam quodammodo venerabilem; 
sed nihilo minus parce veram, et finictu cassam*.** This 
remark is in great measure true of the etymological 
systems above mentioned. 

A philosophical view of Greek Grammar was taken 
by the celebrated Godfrey Hermann, in his treatise de 
emendanda ratione Oraca Grammatics, in which, how- 
ever, he may be thought to have trusted too much to 
metaphysical principles, and the universa sermOnis natura. 
For it is to be remembered that the Greek language grew 
up by degrees, and was drawn from various sources ; 
and that it had acquired a high degree of consistency 
and polish, before any attention was paid to the lan- 
guage itself, as a language. In how great a degree of 

* De Augm, Scient. VI. 1. 

editor's prsfacb. xvii 

uncertainty the Greeks themselves were, about the origin 
and genius of their own tongue, we may percdve from 
the Oraiylw of Plato. The natural consequenoe of this 
order of proceeding was» that many anomaUes continued 
to subsist in that language, for which it is very difficult 
to accoimt upon any principles of universal grammar. 
Still less are they to be explained according to the esta- 
blished rules of Greek Grammar, which have themselves 
been drawn from the national usage, as it is to be col- 
lected from the surviving works of the authors who wrote 
in it. The following is a sensible observation of the 
Scholiast on Dionysius Thrax ; ^* The producing cause 
of grammar is indistinctness. For men, meeting with 
poems and prose compositions, themselves no longer 
preserving the ancient and polished language, sought for 
some art which might explain this language to them*.'' 

There are two kinds of Grammar, according to the 
distinction laid down by Lord Bacon, — the literary, and 
the philosophical ; the former treating of the analogy of 
words to one another ; the latter of the analogy between 
words and things. Now if we set out in our researches 
by lajring down a certain number of general principles, 
drawn from a consideration of philosophical grammar 
alone, and then proceed to explain any individual lan- 
guage by them, we soon find that we must either desert 

* Alrioy ovv rrjs γραμματικής ^ ασάφεια, καϊ γαρ οι άνθρωττοι iy» 
τυγχάνοντ€9 ποιήμασι κάί πεζοϊχ συγγράμμασι^ rijy άρχα/αν και άπε^ε- 
σμένην ψωνην (Λκ άποσώζοντα, ενεζίιτησαν τέχνην rijv σαψηνίσαι ταύτην 
Ινναμέκην, ρ. 656, 15. ed. Bekker. 

VOL. I. b 

xviii editor's prbfacb. 

our guide, or have recourse to very unnatural expedients 
to make the literaria agree with the phUosophica. Some 
devices of this nature have been resorted to, even by the 
learned author of this Grammar ; but rarely, and always 
with ingenuity. That the generaUzing processes of phi- 
lo«,phiL grLn». ™ui «.ey be !„Ued ^ gL 
judgement and caution, serve rather to obscure and per- 
plex than to clear up and simplify, is a truth which the 
reader has seen exemplified in Harris's Hermes. It ap- 
pears to me that several anomalies subsist in the Greek 
language, of which no good account can be given, ex- 
cept that they are the remains' of an age in which the 
poets, for the sake of euphony, or from inattention, 
neglected the laws of analogy which ought to regulate 
the construction of words. This was very likely to 
happen amongst a people who had no written works ; if 
indeed it be true, which after all is very doubtful, that 
writing was not in use till after Homer's time. 

In order that the yoimg student may not be perplexed 
by some expressions which he will meet with in the pre- 
sent work, it seems necessary to premise a few obser- 
vations. Every complex idea which admits of definition, 
consists of three parts ; the subject, the predicate, and 
that which connects them : e. g. man is mortal. Man is 
the subject, mOrtal that which is predicated of him, is 
the connecting link. Every proposition, apparently bi- 
partite, may be resolved into a triple enunciation ; as 
m4in breathesy i. e. man is breathing. These three parts 
are called subject, predicate, and copula. And hence 

bditoe's prsfacs. xix 

words, which are the symbols of ideas» should be re- 
ducible to three classes, coiresponding to the triple di- 
vision of ideas. 

Some of the andents, and amongst them Theodectes*, 
taught that there were three parts of speech, nounsy verbs, 
and connecting particles, which last Quintilian calls can^ 
vinctiones. I miderstand them to have meant by this 
last term, those particles of condition which must neces- 
sarily be coupled with some subject ; and if so, their ac- 
count of the matter will coincide with that of Hermann f, 
viz. that th^ parts of speech are three : first the noun, 
which is the symbol of the subject ; secondly the par- 
ticle, or sign of the predicate, which expresses a con-* 
dition that exists not independently, but only as belong- 
ing to a thing ; and thirdly the verb, which denotes the 
copula, and connects the predicate with the subject. Ac- 
cording to this accoxmt adjectives belong to the noun, 
or sign of the subject : adverbs, interjections, preposi- 
tions and conjunctions, belong to the particle, or sign 
of the predicate. Adjectives properly serve for definitions 
of the subject, and do not, strictly speaking, enter into 
the predicate. Thus, when we say the man is good, it is 
a short expression for the man is a good m4in, where two 
subjects are coupled together by the verb substantive : 

* Quintilian 1. 4. says Aristotle ; but in his Poetic, c. 20. (34. ed. 
Tyrwfaitt,) he seems to make four parts of speech ; unless, as I am in- 
clined to think, the σννΐ€σμ6$ and the άρθρον may both be included 
under the συμΊτλοκή ^wYnch he speaks of in the Categories as connecting 
subject and predicate. See Harris's Hermes, p. 34. 

t De Em. Gr. Gr. p. 127. 


XX editor's preface. 

but if we say the man is welly we have a complete pro- 
position, man the subject, well the predicate, is the co- 
pula. This is a different account from that given in the 
common books of logic and grammar. Hermann is of 
opinion that we must attribute it to a defect of language, 
that an adjective so frequently occurs in the predicate. 
Our own language furnishes us with several instances 
where the predicate is expressed by an adverb. He is 
finely. The Iwrse is well enough. So in Greek KarvwepOe 
yeveaOaiy &c. See §. 309. p. 527. This division, however, 
is not followed in the present Grammar. 

I have now only to give a short account of the trans- 
lation here offered to the public. It was nearly finished 
^bout three years ago by the Rev. E. V. Blomfield, M.A. 
Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Had he lived 
to carry it through the press, it might have been in some 
respects a work of more finished execution than it may 
now, perhaps, be found to be : I mean with regard to 
the language of the translation. But he was called away 
from his career of promise at an early age ; and those 
who knew him well, can estimate the loss which classical 
literature has suffered by his death. To an extensive 
familiarity with the languages of modem Europe, he 
joined a critical knowledge of those of Greece and Rome. 
The distinguished success which attended his classical 
studies at the University, was a sufficient attestation of 
his scholarship as a young man: and the Greek and 
EngUsh Lexicon, which he was preparing for the press, 
would, if he had lived to complete his undertaking, have 

editor's preface. xxi 

established his reputation at a maturer age. The reader 
wiU forgive the affectionate regret which prompts this 
tribute to the memory of a brother, whose intellectual 
attainments, although eminent, were yet surpassed by 
the excellent quaUties of his heart ; in whom the accom- 
plishments of the scholar and the artist were heightened 
and improved by all the gentler feelings of humanity, 
and by the gifts and graces of a Christian life. 

mmquam ego te, vita firater amabiUor, 
Aspiciam posthac ? at certe semper amabo. 

He did not live to revise his translation, which had been 
chiefly performed in the spring of 1816, and which he 
intended to complete and correct after his return from 
the Continent in the autumn of that year. But he was 
seized, inmiediately upon his return, with a fever, which 
carried him off in a few days. If he had been permitted 
to resimie his task, the work would have been more per- 
fect than I have been able to make it with a slender 
knowledge of the original language. Any inaccuracies 
which may be found in the Indexes, Notes, and Ad- 
denda, which last I have incorporated in their proper 
places, are to be attributed to me. I have subjoined to 
the Preface such remarks as I judged it expedient to 
make upon several points in this Grammar ; for some of 
which I am indebted to a Review published in a foreign 
journal, and written, as I suppose, by Professor Her- 

C. J. B^ 

April 1819. 



I HAVE been requested to insert in the Second Part 
an English translation of all the examples. I have not 
done it, because it would have increased the bulk of a 
work already too voluminous. The more remarkable 
idioms are in most instances already translated. 

October, 1823. 


AT a period when philosophy aspires to approach the standard 
of Plato, and the literature of Germany is emulating the mo- 
dels which Greece has left to us ; when too the knowledge of 
the Greek language has been so materially advanced by the 
efforts of the Scholars of Holland, England, and Germany, I 
conceived that a Grammar of Greek, more copious, and more 
adapted to practice than any that have yet appeared, would 
be a work of no small utility ; and that such a Grammar wotdd 
be calculated to effect, for the Greek language, what the Gram- 
mar of Scheller has done for the Latin. We have not, indeed, 
of late years been deficient in Greek Grammars ; but they are 
chieBy employed in treating of the elementary parts. More 
especially, since the method of Lennep has found followers in 
Germany, and every one has laid claim to the praise of a phi- 
losophical genius, in proportion as he deviated from the old 
method and attached himself to the new one, the department 
of Syntax has been neglected, and confined entirely to the 
common rules! Even the Grammar of Buttman, which un- 
doubtedly claims the first rank amongst those which have ap- 
peared more recently, is but meagre in the department of 
Syntax ; and although it contains many excellent observations 
upon the common rules, and many philosophical views, yet it 
embraces too small a proportion of those philological remarks, 
which are necessary to a grammatical acquaintance even with 
the authors who are commonly read in schools. The Grammar 
of Weckherlin is more complete in this respect ; but the rules 
are given confusedly, without any regard to their natural con- 
nexion, and delivered without sufficient precision, and very 
rarely proceed from an acquaintance with the spirit of the lan- 
guage : the elementary part also is treated of in a very un- 
satisfactory manner. 


I intended this Grammar not eo much for beginners in Greek 
(for whom, as well as for the use of schools in general, a smaller 
Grammar, being an abridgement of the greater one, will shortly 
be published*), as for those who study the classical Greek 
authors critically and grammatically, and are desirous of gain- 
ing a more intimate knowledge of the several parts, together 
with a general view of the language. It was intended to be a 
manual, which should contain the result of philological re- 
searches up to the present time, in a manner as complete as 
my abilities might permit, and as precise and clear as possible. 
Hence it was my endeavour to render both parts of the Grammar 
equally perfect, and hence both have the same degree of ful- 
ness : but in the second part I was obliged to add considerably 
more of my own observations than in the first, in which so much 
had already been effected by others. In a Greek Grammar 
the same things are requisite, in my opinion, as in a Latin one : 
that it should contain, on the one hand, full directions for the 
explanation of the authors in that language, as far as this de- 
pends upon the knowledge of the structure of the language ; 
and on the other hand also, an introduction to writing Greek ; 
an exercise, which, in modem times, has been so often recom- 
mended as useful for every learner of Greek, and as indispen- 
sable for the Philologist, that I think it cannot be necessary 
for me to add any observation on the subject. My first object 
was, therefore, to render the remarks on the language as per- 
fect as possible : as well those which belong to the gramma- 
tical rules, as those which concern the Syntax : and of this at 
least I am certain, that I have brought together more than has 
been done in any other grammatical work whatever; although 
I fear that here and there much has b^en omitted which would 
be required for absolute perfection. However, the chapters on 
the particles I have compressed into a shorter space than the 
rest, because I thought that in a Grammar it was only necessary 
to treat in detail what concerns construction ; although in the 
mean time I could not resist the temptation of adding much 
that properly belongs to distinct treatises on the particles, but 
which lay directly in my way, 

* This Grammar has already* appeared. 



The rales of the language can be rendered clear only by 
euitable examples to each rule, taken from classical authors. 
Such examples in the Grammars which have hitherto appeared, 
have generally been wanting ; or the collection has been de- 
ficient, scanty, or partial. This deficiency may, indeed, be 
supplied in some respects by Fischer's very valuable Ammad- 
versiones ad Welleri Gr. But even this estimable \i^ork is 
neither complete in the department of Syntax, nor convenient 
for the use even of the real Scholar. I perused» therefore, the 
classical Greek authors again» and formed for myself a collec- 
tion of examples, from which I made a selection for the pur- 
poses of this Grammar. By these means many observations 
occurred to me during the perusal, which I had not seen be- 
fore, or which at least were not anywhere distinctly stated ; 
together with combinations, which threw light upon a whole 
class of rules, or confirmed individual, doubtful, or suspicious 
cases. It was only when I found, in the compilation of the 
Grammar itself, that I had overlooked a peculiarity of Ian- ' 
guage or expression, or, because it was a well-known form or 
turn, had neglected to mention an instance of it, that I per- 
mitted myself to supply the requisite examples from Fischer's 
work, or from the remarks of the editors of single authors. 
But I made a selection of the authors themselves. As in a 
Latin Grammar it is not usual to accompany each observation 
with quotations from every author indiscriminately, but from 
the Classics only, so I judged that this Grammar ought to be 
made an illustration of the usage of Greek, in the period of 
its vigour and purity, before the time of Alexander : I there- 
fore thought it right to depart from the custom of most edi- 
tors, who are too ready to take their instances from the later 
Sophists and Poets, from Philostratus, Themistius, Libanius, 
Alciphron, Aristaenetus ; from the Antholo^a, &c. although 
these examples can only bear the stamp of genuineness when 
they are drawn from the models which those authors copied. 
The circle of writers whom I read and collected from for this 
purpose, closes with the age of Alexander*. In the Syntax I 

* The learned author, however, quotes the πμ6$ Αημόνικον Uapatveais, 
vrfaich is commonly attributed to Isocratcs the elder ; but which, in my 



have designedly avoided quoting an example from even Ari- 
Btotle^ or from Apolloniua Rhodius, CallimachuB, Lacian, 8cc• 
except when it could be illustrated by being placed in juxta- 
position v^ith a passage in a more ancient writer. Theocritua, 
however, as the model of the Doric dialect, and as an original 
author, and ApoUonius Rhodius, afforded many remains of 
Epic forms, which were of importance to the elementary parL 
In a manual like, this, together with the examples from the 
authors themselves, there ought to be found references to those 
passages in the works or remarks of later philologists, where 
single rules are explained, and sometimes more in detail. Such 
passages often contain the ground, or the confirmation of my 
views. Frequently, however, I thought it necessary to dissent 
fix)m the representation of other philologists. The reason of 
such dei^iation is, for the most part, easily discovered in the 
instances which are subjoined. I seldom thought it expedient 
to discuss at full length the several reasons which determined 
me, or to refute the various modes of explanation pursued by 
others, wishing to avoid the reproach of having indulged too 
much in controversy. 

In delivering the rules themselves, I have endeavoured to 
be as precise as possible ; taking as my standard the wants of 
the very earliest beginners. From my practice during many 
years of explaining the chief rules of Greek Syntax, not merely 
in the occasional illustration of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xe- 
nophon, and other authors, but in the exercises of my scholars 
in Greek composition, I succeeded by degrees in comprising 
the rules in such terms, that for the most part no doubt should 
remain about the application of them. 

One principal object was to detail all these remarks on the 
Greek language in their natural connexion, and according to 
fundamental and leading principles ; as far as these may be 

opinion, Muretus (V. L. 1. 1.) has rightly considered to be the production 
of a much later iivriter. Ruhnken, upon the authority of Harpocratio and 
Suidas, assigns it to Isocrates of ApoUonia, the disciple and successor of 
Isocrates of Athens. It seems to me, both in style and construction, to bear 
the marks of a more recent age. C. J. B. 


settled and esiablisbed by a general view of the language, a• 
matter of historical fact, not as a matter of speculation detached 
from practice ; at the same time paying regard to the gradual 
dcTelopment of the language. The simplification of yariety is 
not merely a product of philosophizing reason, but is the foun- 
dation of all the operations of the understanding, even in the 
Tolgar and unscientific of mankind ; an endeavour after sim- 
plicity is the original and innate tendency of the understanding, 
although the way by which this simplicity is sought, and the 
specific .mode of simplifying this variety depend upon the de- 
termining causes which pioceed from the nature of the civili- 
sation and culture, and the peculiar disposition of a nation ; 
and hence they are not always consonant with a pure philo- 
sophical mode of tracing to one principle the variety which 
actually exists. In no nation does this endeavour after sim- 
plification appear more evident than in the Greek, because no 
nation was more free and independent of foreign influence, or 
more favourably situated for improvement, with regard to ex- 
ternal circumstances, in its constitution, religious sentiments^ 
and the universal cultivation of knowledge ; in which latter 
respect, especially, it attained to a just equilibrium of all the 
powers of the mind, no one being allowed by exclusive culture 
to predominate over the rest. In the study of Greek it is par- 
ticularly incumbent on the philological inquirer, to arrange the 
di€Gerent individual appearances themselves, with reference to 
the leading principles which are their common foundation ; and 
to simplify them, without permitting to himself any other as- 
sumptions than such as are to be deduced from facts, and which 
derive confirmation from facts• 

This, therefore, was my object; as it is more or less that of 
every author of a Grammar. I have aimed at an analogy per- 
vading the whole language» as exhibited especially in what is 
called the etymological part, by Hemsterhuys and Valckenaer, 
with a philosophical mind, of which scarcely a trace is to be 
found in the more extended works of Lennep and his German 
followers. Whether I have been true to this idea generally 
and throughout, and how far I have succeeded in thus reducing 
the several peculiarities of the language to this principle, and ia 


explaining and deducing them from each other, must be left to 
the judgement of those who possess an accurate knowledge of 
the several parts, and are able to take a comprehensive view of 
the whole language, and of its genius. This explanation and 
deduction could not be drawn from principles, which the man 
of science, or the philosopher who sets about inventing a lan- 
guage, would lay down ; but it was to be accomplished in a 
language already existing, which gradually developed itself 
from the genius of the Greeks, and from their mutual inter- 
course, under all the external relations and circumstances of 
several nations belonging to one stock ; and this could only be 
effected by comparing together the several peculiarities, both 
of forms and modes of construction ; and either reducing them 
to a common original (e. g. in the dative plural of the third 
declension §. 76. in the double fut. §. 173. in the genitive 
§§. 316. 322. &c. in the use of the relatives instead of various 
conjunctions §. 479. in the distinction of the infinitive and 
participle §. 630. 8cc.), or in finding in one a cause, often 
merely accidental, of the others. The Attic dialect exhibited 
the Greek language in its finest bloom and highest perfection ; 
and hence, as well as from the greater number and value of 
authors in it, this dialect demands the chief consideration : 
this dialect, however, itself arose from the Ionic, and took from 
others many forms and inflexions, which can hardly be illus- 
trated without reference to their source or their cause in other 
dialects. I have therefore endeavoured to conceive the lan- 
guage as a whole, which is determined within itself, and whose 
several parts again mutually determine each other. The va- 
rious forms of the words, and their inflexions, as well as the 
various modes of construction, were to be considered, in their 
relation with the oldest forms and inflexions which occur in 
the oldest authors ; and if any of them appeared to be different 
branches of one root, this common root was to be investigated. 
This indeed, for the most part, can be supplied only by hypo- 
thesis : for instance, in the case of Valckenaer's enumeration 
of the radical forms, the deviation of the various forms of verbs 
from the original §. 217 — 221. and in Hermann's illustration 
of the origin oFthe two futures, which I have adopted entire, 
§. 173. Hypotheses, however, are sufficient for our purpose. 


if they serve to fix any point upon certain data, without any 
other assumption ; especially if they assist simplification. Thus 
it is not an erroneous mode of proceeding, if, in aid of deriva- 
tion, we make use of forms which never occur, which perhaps 
were never in use, but which yet are in perfect analogy with 
other acknowledged forms ; if, as I have carefully done, we 
state accurately what was really in use, and what is merely 
assumed. Thus many comparatives are explained §• 131. Obs. 
and forms of verbs ; for instance, in the derivations from σκάλλω, 
σκηΧω, p. 436. Frequently the Greeks appear merely to have 
assumed a form, in order to derive from it another, from an ana* 
logy which it bore to others ; without giving any reason to con- 
clude that the imaginary form was ever in actual use at all. I 
have attempted many explanations on this plan : in most cases 
I have thus considered the fut. 2. as merely an imaginary basis 
for the aorist 2. and perfect 2. in common use ; and thus the 
verbals άφ€κτ€0€, or others from εκτέοα, necessarily suppose a 
form eucrai (perfect, p. from εχω), although I am far from 
supposing that such a form was ever in use. Frequently also 
a form, or an idiomatic usage, appears to have an accidental or 
arbitrary origin. Thus Hermann has explained the forms εχω, 
εσχομ, <τχ€ΐν, είΓΟ/και, σπέσθαι (see §. 221. IV. 3, 6. §§. 234. 
235.) : and in the same manner I have endeavoured to explain 
the forms ei/oifica, ερρεθην, ρητωρ (§. 232. under ειττεΐμ), the 
imperatives τίθναθι, εσταθι, and others (§. 221. IV. 3, a.), 
and some in the Syntax. I have, however, throughout gone 
upon the principle, that all peculiarities of the Greek language 
have their origin only in the language itself, and are to be 
illustrated from it, without suffering a comparison with any 
other language (the Latin for instance) to have any influence 
in this respect. The preponderance which the Latin has main- 
tained over the Greek, among the learned of modem Europe, 
has not been without a disadvantageous influence upon the 
elucidation of both languages : on the one hand it was thought 
necessary to bring the Greek Syntax nearer to, that of the 
Latin ; and hence modes of illustration were invented for the 
one, which at best were suited only to the other ; hence the 
adoption of so many, and for the most part groundless, ellipses 
and other aids : but on the other hand, the Latin was- con^ 


sidered as an original language ; and as those who laboured at 
the Grammar of it seldom possessed a fundamental and com- 
prehensive knowledge of Greek, in endeavouring to illustrate 
the various peculiarities of Latin composition they had recourse 
to the strangest expedients, instead of seeking for the cause of 
them in the Greek. I cannot expect that my method of illustra- 
tion will meet with equal approbation from every one, or in all 
its several parts : where anything depends upon the combina- 
tion of individual parts under one point of view, and on their 
reduction to one uniform system, each of which parts is first to 
be found by successive observations, and not to be grounded 
on the original principles of reason, it must happen that dif- 
ferent individuals will take different views of the subject. In- 
deed, on various points I am myself yet doubtful; and on 
others, as in the disposition of the manifold relations which 
the genitive expresses, I am still distant from the most general 
point of view, which should unite the four principal classes 
under which I have comprehended those relations. But still 
I preferred reducing the different remarks to some degree of 
uniformity, imperfect and incorrectly founded as it might be, 
to producing them in a random and promiscuous manner, as 
has hitherto been the case in most instances. 

In consequence of this notion of a perpetual analogy of the 
Greek, in both its parts, which I intended to pursue in this 
Grammar, and which I have here endeavoured to illustrate, I 
could not follow the analogy, as it is called, of Lennep or 
Trendelenburg,— a theory which is neither founded on philo- 
sophical views, nor facilitates in any degree the learning of the 
Greek language. I at least cannot possibly consider it as a 
philosophical mode of proceeding, when, for instance, the va- 
rious tenses of the verb τύπτω are derived, not from one, but 
from nine roots, as they are called, without its being even con- 
jectured that all these forms have to each other a certain ana- 
logy and relation ; and without showing how, for instance, 
τνφθέω, τυφθημι, τετυττω, are derived from the simplest form 
τνπω. Had this been tried, it would have been found that the 
method by which we would derive these various forms of pre- 
M&kt tenses from one radical form, entirely coincides with that 


by which all the tensee of the verb (without eupposing these 
fonns of present tensee) are derived from one root; and that 
diis method renders unnecessary several other round-about con- 
trivances. Nor can it be called an assistance to the learner, 
if he is to keep before him a number of forms whose relation- 
ship to each other is not pointed out to him : especially if to 
this is added another difficulty, that the derivation is frequently 
at Tariance with the signification of the tenses ; not to mention 
the superficial and shallow method which is by these means 
introduced into the study of Greek. It is, however, superfiuous 
to say more upon this method, after what Primisser, Hermann, 
and Buttmann have remarked upon it ; its greatest merit, per- 
haps, consists in having produced such researches and works 
ae Hermann's treatise De Emendanda Ratione Gneca Gram-- 
muitic^. I have, however, departed still further from this me- 
thod, and approached nearer to the ancients than Buttmann. 
When Buttmann derives the aor. 1. pass, immediately from the 
present (rvirrc», ίτνφθην), and Hermann from the future in -έσω 
(τννεσω, ετυπίθην, ίτυφθηνΐ), I can find no substantial reason 
for preferring this to the ancient method, which derives the 
tense from the third person perf. pass., especially as Buttmann 
p. 137. himself allows that the aor. 1. pass, is chiefly regu- 
lated by the perf. pass., and p. 115. derives the fut. 3. from 
the second person perf. pass. Doubtless a society of philo- 
sophical philologists in our times, who should meet to decide 
upon the mechanical composition of a language, would hardly 
adopt this method ; but our views differ also materially in other 
grammatical and etymological questions from those of the an• 
cients, and even of the Grecian philosophers ; and who can 
blame the Greeks, if they, with whom the objects chiefly aimed 
at were euphony, and the most expressive and significant forms, 
thought that they could not mark the idea of a time completely 
past more clearly and determinately by the very form itself, 
than by taking the perf. pass, as the basis of it ? Thus I have 
considered the second aorist and the second perfect in the same 
manner as the authors of older Grammars ; as if the second 
form of the fut. was the basis of their formation §. 187. with- 
out, however, assuming this second form of the fut. or all the 
aorists to have been ever actually in use. 


In a work of this compass it was unavoidable, that even 
during the printing many additions, corrections, and alterations 
should appear necessary. Other corrections and additions I 
hope to receive from those who are acquainted with the Greek 
language, who will find opportunities to impart their remarks 
t^ me by public criticism. Every admonition will be welcome 
to me, as tending to bring this Grammar nearer to that point 
which I proposed to myself in the composition of it. Perhaps 
I may one day be able to produce this Grammar under the title 
of a complete one ; which will then take an unbroken view not 
merely of the writers of the age before Alexander, but of all, 
even of die latest, and those who are called the Hellenistic 
writers, as well as the remarks of the old grammarians, and will 
contain a complete history of the language in its mechanical 
construction, its Syntax, and grammatical inflexions, of which 
this Grammar contains only the foundation. 

May 26, 1807. 

On occasion of this new Edition, I have nothing to add, ex- 
cept that I give it to the public with less confidence than the 
first. Both during the execution of it, and since it was finished, 
so many additions have occurred to me, as already to convince 
me how far I have been from attaining that completeness at 
which I aimed. ** Quin aliquando vel inter scribendum occurrit, 
quod modo non meminisse doleas/' says Hermann Prof. Electr. 
ed. 2. The number of corrections and additions, however, will 
be found considerable enough to entitle this edition to be re- 
garded as a re-composition of the first. I did not receive the 
second part of Buttmann's Larger Grammar till the greater 
part of my own was already printed ofi*. I have availed myself 
of it as far as I could, without encroaching on the propeity of 
another, in the correction of the proofs, but still more in the 
Additions and Corrections. 

May 1825. 



In laying before the public the Second Part of my Grammar, 
I am desirous of premising a few observations on the method 
which I have thought it right to pursue in treating of Greek 
Grammar generally, and the Syntax in particular. 

In former times those who treated either of separate parts or 
of the whole, considered themselves as having fulfilled every 
reasonable requisition, when they had illustrated the construc- 
tion under consideration by similar passages of the same or 
other authors, without troubling themselves to inquire why the 
Greeks had adopted this construction, or under what limitations 
it was used. When, for example, a participle was found after 
a verb, they contented themselves with the general remark that 
die Greeks were φιλυμίτογοι, without being aware that there 
is a diifereuce of meaning between the construction with the 
participle and with the infinitive. Even then, indeed, some 
particular constructions, as the difference between the subjunc- 
tive and the optative^ had been, generally speaking, satisfac•*• 
torily explained by Dawes and others : but we have only to 
read Heyne's notes to Homer and Pindar, in order to be con- 
vinced how fluctuating and indefinite the notions even of the 
most learned and acute scholars then were ; and hence we so 
often find that constructions which have only an apparent re- 
semblance, but are essentially different, are placed side by side, 
and each explained from the other. It is only in later times, 
that after the example of F. A. Wolf and Hermann in Germany, 
and of Porson in England, it has been regarded as essential to 
establish the limitations under which each construction may be 
used, — a thing impracticable without examining its reason ; and 
thus a philosophical treatment of grammar became necessary. 

VOL. I. C 



In following up this object, however, men went into the oppo- 
site extreme. In the writings of recent philologists we not un- 
frequently meet with expressions of dissatisfaction at the col- 
lection and accumulation of examples, and with such remarks 
as this, ** that thousands of examples would be insufficient to 
prove that it was never allowed to depart from a rule." Many 
even appear inclined to infer the want of a philosophical method 
from a large collection of examples, especially if the author 
does not himself repeatedly remind his readers that he takes 
the philosophical view of his subject. 

The only secure and solid foundation of a system of rules 
for expression in any language must, according to my con^ 
victiou, be the accurate observation of its usage and idiom, as 
exemplified in the best writers of the nation : it is not sufficient 
to prove from the structure and genius of a language, that a 
particular phrase or construction may have been used, unless it 
be also shown that it has been used. It will be difficult, I 
think, to give any other satisfactory reason why the Latins said 
only plurisfacere, but not majorisfacere, though they said both 
magnifacere and maximi/acere, than that such was their usage. 
This usage can be established in no other way than by passages 
from authors admitted to be classical, and hence a complete 
collection of examples is an indispensable requisite in a syste- 
matic grammar of any language. By such a collection only 
can the rules laid down by scholars be brought to a proper test: 
the universality of Dawes' canon^ *' that οπωο and ov μη are 
joined not with the subjunctive aor. 1. but with the ftiture,'* 
has been disproved by unquestionable examples of the contrary. 
Brunck had the ratio only in view, when he wrote Soph. Phil. 
36. avSpoc τ€)(¥ημα for τ€\ν{ιματ avSpoQ : but absurd as it 
may seem to us to place a plural noun in apposition to the name 
of a single object, it has been shown by examples that such 
was the usage of the Greeks. Other remarkable constructions, 
which would hardly have been thought correct had they not 
been confirmed by sufficient examples, will be fDund p. 703. 
and elsewhere. 

It is true that these quotations and examples are only a life^ 


lees mass, till they are animated by intelligent criliciBm, whieh 
separates modes of expression resembling each other in their 
external form, according to the relations and conditions under 
which they are respectively admissible. It would be absurd, 
for example, to teach, that either the infinitive or the participle 
may follow aSivai, μα^θάνειν, γγνωσκαν, and illustrate each by 
a multitude of examples, without examining in what case each 
was used. This investigation has often great difficulties: we 
are often obliged to content ourselves with conjectures or hy•- 
potheses ; as, for example, none of the reasons which have 
been alleged to explain the omission of av (see p. 870.) has 
properiy been proved. Yet even such conjectures are better 
than the inconsiderate haste with which two or more modes of 
expression are sometimes regarded as synonymous. There is 
danger here, too, lest in his anxiety to make distinctions, the 
grammarian should lose himself in empty subtilties, forgetting 
that in the expression of the same thought different views may 
be taken, so that constructions externally and grammatically 
different, essentially coincide. The Romans said, without any 
essential difference» si potero ad te veniam, and si potuero; in 
the former case considering the ability as continuing, in the 
latter as having necessarily existed before the action ; gaudeo 
quod bene vales as the cause of gaudere, and gaudeo te valere as 
the object. Similar instances from the Greek grammar have 
been given in various parts of this work. 

This discrimination of constructions apparently similar ne» 
cessarily leads to the endeavour to investigate the reasons of 
construction, and it is this investigation which is properly 
called a philosophical method. Here also hypotheses are un•- 
avoidable (see Pref. to 1st edit. p. xxviii.), which can only 
be drawn from collected examples, and which become valid in 
proportion to the number of passages and constructions, which 
they explain in a natural and easy manner. It will readily be 
admitted that reasons a priori^ deductions from the laws of 
thought, are inapplicable to grammar, the materials of which 
are real and historical. Language, it is true» is founded on the 
laws of thought, from which man can never depart without 
being in contradiction to himself; but in every language much 



is also determined by the mode of perception and habitual 
train of thought which characterize the nation; and in the 
Greek language much is derived from the vivid imagination of 
the people, from their astonishing power of lively representation, 
their propensity to lay hold of slight and sometimes mere extern 
nal resemblances, and their desire to exhibit the finest distinc- 
tions and shades of meaning. I have endeavoured to establish 
the peculiarities of the Greek language agreeably to these views, 
and not merely to the rules of logic• It is for this reason that 
I have explained so much by analogy and by similarity with 
other constructions, especially in the whole doctrine of the 
Cases. On this rests the whole arrangement of this doctrine, 
which contains also the ground of each particular rule, as the 
reader may convince himself by reading the paragraphs on the 
Genitive, for example, not detached but in their connexion. 
He will then see how* I have commonly deduced one thing from 
another, according to their internal affinity or external resem- 
blance. Comp. §. 411. Obs. 1 • Arrangement, therefore, is 
by no means an unimportant point in a Grammar, as some 
one has recently maintained. The arrangement which I have 
adopted may make it more difficult to find what is wanted 
without having recourse to the Index ;— but is it unreasonable 
to expect that he who wishes to use a book will make himself 
generally acquainted with its contents, and read a part at least 
connectedly, not contenting himself with merely referring to the 
passage which he wants ? Single rules would, indeed, be more 
readily found if the doctrine of the cases were divided accord- 
ing to the parts of speech ; Genitive with Substantives, with 
Adjectives, with Verbs, &c• ; but this is at best only a logical 
arrangement, grounded on external characteristics, not a philo- 
sophical, which regards the intrinsic nature of the object to 
be treated of, and seeks in this the foundation of the special 
rule. According to a merely logical arrangement, the con- 
struction Kpareiif tiioc must be placed under the head of Geni- 
tive with Verbs, ey/cparijc tiioc of Genitive with Adjectives, 
and eyKpareia ήδοι/ηι; of Genitive with Substantives. The phi- 
losophical arrangement considers them according to their es- 
sence, and comprehends them under one point of view, because 
one and the same reason is applicable to them all. 


Finally, criticism must be applied to the passages which are 
quoted : it is not enough that the reading which is suitable to 
our purpose be found in the edition which we commonly use ; 
we must see whether it be confirmed by MS. authority as ori- 
ginal and genuine. I confess that I sometimes fell into this 
error in the first edition ; as, for example, where I maintained 
that eivexa occurs in the Attic poets. Passages in which the 
MSS. Tary prove nothing; though in Latin such uncertain evi* 
dence is deemed sufficient to prove the correctness of the con- 
struction hand scio an ullus, or the use of ac before a vowel, &c• 

The quotations in the notes below the text were intended 
partly to serve as a repertory of all that has been hitherto 
done for Greek grammar, partly to enable the reader to judge 
without trouble which of the remarks here made belong to 
myself, and which to my predecessors. The grammarian Vho 
never refers to the works of others seems to many to wish to 
make the reader believe that he has discovered everything him- 
self. Should any one be disposed to infer from the citation of 
other grammatical works that the rule, as here laid down, con- 
tains nothing but what has been taught before, the references 
will enable him to decide on the truth or falsehood of this sup- 

January 1827. 



XHE Author observes, that in early times there were but two dialects. 
He should have said that originally there was but one common language, 
and this was the Doric; not indeed the Doric of later times, but a lan- 
guage spoken by the Dorians, from which were derived the £olic and 
Ionic varieties, after the colonization of the coasts of Asia Minor. — 
Perhaps I should say the JEolo-Ionic variety ; for it is reasonable to 
believe that the ^olians and lonians, for some time after that settle- 
ment, spoke the same language. The following brief historical account 
may be acceptable to the student. HeUen, the son of Deucalion, reigned 
Wk Phthia, between the Peneus and the Asopus. His younger sons went 
to seek for settlements elsewhere. Dorus fixed himself near Parnassus; 
Xuthus went to Attica, and married the daughter of Ereohtheus, by whom 
he had two sons, Achseus and Ion. Achseus, having committed an acci- 
dental homicide, passed into Laconia ; and the inhabitants of that country 
were called, from him, Achcet^ till the return of the HeraclidsB. Ion 
led an Attic colony into the Peloponnese, where they settled, between 
Elis and Sicyonia. He was afterwards recalled to Attica, routed the 
Thracians under Eumolpus, was invested with a part of the government, 
and gave his name to the Athenians. He did not, however, succeed 
Erechtheus, whose crown devolved upon Cecrops. The lonians from 
the Peloponnese returned to Attica in the reign of Melanthus ; and afler 
the death of Codrus, Nileus led them into Asia Minor*. At that period, 
therefore, it seems probable that the Doric and Ionic were the same as 
the Hellenic, and as the ^olic ; for ^olus was a son of Hellen. 

It was not till the Greeks colonized Asia Minor that their language 
began to assume both consistency and polish. The lonians were the 
first who softened its asperities, and, by attention to euphony, laid aside 
by degrees the broadness and harshness, which were retained by their 
JEolian neighbours on one hand, and the Dorians on the other. The 
rich soil of Ionia, and the harmonious temperature of its climate, com« 

^ See Larcher on Herodotu• I. p. 432. 


bined with the more proximate causes of its vicinity to Lydia, and its 
commercial prosperity, will account for this change of language*. And 
it was from the colonies that the mother country first adopted any im- 
provements in her own dialects. I observed, that at first all the Greek 
colonists in Asia Minor probably spoke a common language, and that 
the lonians began first to change. They were the first to lay aside the 
digamma, which the Dorians disused at a later period, and the Cohans 
not at all. The Cohans deviated less from the original language than 
the lonians ; perhaps even less than the Dorians themselves. 

. The first change which the inhabitants of Attica naturally made, was 
to modify their old Doric to the more elegant dialect of their richer and 
more polished colonists. So that, if we recur to the date of about 1000 
years B.C., we may conclude that the language of Attica was nearly 
the same as that in which the Iliad was composed ; that is to say, a 
dialect more sofl and copious than the early Doric, but yet comprising 
most of its peculiarities, or rather of those forms and inflexions which 
in after times became peculiarities. Subsequently, however, as the 
people of Attica embarked in a more extended commerce, the form of 
their dialect was materially altered, and many changes were introduced 
from foreign idioms f. 

P. 5. 1. 24. The diflTerences between the Doric and ^olic dialects 
are by no means trifling ; and what the author calls the chief distinction 
was no distinction at all, originally : moreover, the digamma was not a 
breathings but a letter. 

P. 6. 1. 16. Simonides of Ceos in all probability used the Doric 
dialect only when he was writing for Doric employers. 

P. 7. 1. 4. With regard to the three models of the New Ionic, the 
student will take notice, 1st, that he is to attribute to Anacreon only 
the fragments which were collected by F. Ursinus, and a few additional 
ones ; and not those poems which commonly go under his name, a few 
only excepted ; and that as Anacreon lived more than a hundred years 
before Herodotus, his dialect was probably different. 2ndly, that He- 
rodotus adopted the Ionic dialect for his History, being himself a Dorian ; 
consequently he is not always consistent in his usages ; and perhaps he 
is more Ionic tlian a real Ionian would have been. His dialect is cer- 
tainly different from that of Hippocrates. 

* See Hermann's Obtervationes de Graca Lingua Dialectis, p. v. 
. . f R. P. Knight Prolegom. in Homer. {. 69. Xenoph. de Rep. Ath. 696 C. icai ol 
μ€ν "ΕΧΧηνβί ίδίφ μάλλον και φωνγ καΐ διαίτυ Kai σχήματι χρώνται. Αθηναίοι 
Sk κ€κραμ€νγ έξ απάντων των ΈλΧηνων icat βαρβάρων. See Pierson on Moerii, 
p. 349. 


P. 10. 1. 20. In Jristophanes^ &e. This observation is not very 
accurate. He should have said, that Aristophanes, writing comedy, 
used the familiar phraseology of common life, and consequently the 
most idiomatic form of his native dialect. Plato wrote in easy dialogue, 
and has more of idiom tlian Xenophon, who lived a considerable part 
of his life away from Athens, and had formed his style to the standard 
of simple narrative. Aristotle's writings, being purely philosophical, 
had of course still less of idiomatic peculiarity ; for the idioms of a 
dialect are for the most part confined to the language of common life. 

P. 17. 1.-2 from bottom, γράμματα Φοινικικά, A very curious enu* 
meration of the fanciful speculations of tlie old grammarians on this 
appellation is given by the Scholiast on Dionysius Thrax p. 782. ed. 
Bekker. It may perhaps be advisable to set before the reader the 
oldest form of the Greek characters with which we are acquainted. 


* CE 























Ρ. 18. Note ^. See Diomedes Schol. ad Dionys. Thrac. p. 780. ed• 
Bekker. Villoison. Anecd. Gr. II. p. 122, Prolegora. p. v. not. Valcken. 
ad Iliad. X. p. 65. 

P. SO, 1. 15. ^ν(/ΐ€κή(, &c. This is merely an arbitrary improve- 
ment of the German scholars, which is perhaps not very material. The 
distinction is not observed in the oldest MSS., nor in any of the early 
editions ; nor have I followed it in printing this translation, — ^partly, I 
confess, from inattention. 

P. 22. §. 3. L 8. The dispute about pronunciation is interminable. 
The student may consult Havercamp*s Sylloge Scriptorum qui de linguce 
Grcecce vera et recta pronuntiatione commentarios reliquerunt^ et Job. 
Rodolf. Wetstenii Oraiumes Apologeticce^ Amsteloed. 1681. Morhof. 

■ * Ptolem. Hepbaettio in Photii BibL L• v. fin. relates that Apollonius the Mathema- 
Udan, who lived under Ptolemy Philopator, was called '£ψιλον, because the figure of 
that letter resembled that of the Moon, whose motions had been his particular study. 
Μ ontfiuicon thinks, that Ε and C were both later forms than Σ, having been invented 
raxvypa^ioi χάριν. But see Ruhnken on Longinus {. 3. Pacciolati Lex. v. Sigma, 
pbotium V. * Ορχήστρα, Lex. Seguier. v. Έ,ατατομίΐ. p. 270, 21. On the ancient 
form of the Greek letters see J. Lascaris EpUtola ad Petrum Medici. Maittair. AnaL 
Ttfpogr. I. p. 277. Scaliger de Litteris lonicis ad Euteb. p. 11 0. Bouherii Dissert, ad 
Jhu MoniJoMiam. Pakeogr. Fischer, ad Weller. L p. 239. Auctores citatoi a Belin de 
Ballu ad Oppian. L 172. ρ 

t Auson. Id. p. 202. Maandrum fiexusque vagos imitata vagm• 9 . 


Xlii BBMARK8. 

Polyh'uttw. I. p. 767. Scaliger. Opuic. p. ISO. Baro a Locella ad 
Xenoph, Ephes. Index, v. lotacismus. 

P. 27. §. 8. Tlie spiritus lenis was an invention of the grammarians. 
It denotes nothing more than the absence of the spiritus asper. The 
ancients used this latter, but not the former. In the Sigean marble, 
which is as old as the Peloponnesian war, we have HCPMOKPATOC 
and ΗΟΙΔΕ. When the Ionic letters came into use at Athens, the Η 
was divided, and the first half (I-) was used to denote the rough breath- 
ing. The other half was adopted at a later period, by the grammarians, 
to denote the spiritus lerUs, The mark h was prefixed by the Dorians 
to words which do not usually take the rough breathing, as hOKTil. 
(See Taylor. Marm. Sandv• p. 45.) 

P. 29, & SO. In the first edition of his Grammar, the learned author 
had written inaccurately on the subject of the Digamma ; the use of 
which in the poems of Homer is ascertained beyond all doubt• As to 
the assertion that the old grammarians knew nothing of the use of it by 
the lonians, Trypho {Mus, Crii, Cantab, I.) expressly asserts, προστί^ 
θ9ται dk TO Ζίγημμα παρά re Λιολενσι, κάΙ "Ιωσι, καΐ Αάκωσιν, The 
digamma is found in the Delian marble, and on the coins of Velia ; now 
Delos and Velia were both colonized firom Ionia• Mr. Knight, in his 
leftrned Prolegoftnena in Homerum, §. lxxxiv. thinks that Bentley has 
done wrong in attempting to restore the digamma to Homer, without 
endeavouring to bring the whole orthography of his poems to the ori- 
giaal form, without which, he observes, the digamma, replaced only at 
the beginning of words, will corrupt more passages than it will cure• 
A singular assertion ; and no less singular is that which follows, — that 
although the language of Homer's poems has been changed, yet the 
numbers and measures of the verses remain uninjured ; than which 
nothing can be further firom the real matter of fact. There are many 
anomalies in the Homeric metre, which the insertion of the digamma 
removes. It helps us to get rid of numberless unmeaning particles, ye, 
de, re, which the grammarians foisted into the verse to stop a chasm. 
The reader will find some excellent information on this subject, together 
with a copious list of those words which received the digamma in the 
older poets, in Mr. Kidd's valuable notes on Dawes's Misc• Crit• 
pp. 1884 seqq. 

P. 34. 1. 9. 6pfir€t 6p^ are not contracted from opderff opde^ but from 
opiere, opieu 

Ibid, Obs, There is no interchange at all in these instances, which 
are not dialectic variations, but parts of distinct verbs. 


P. 85. 1. 8. £, H, £1 were Λ anciently expressed by ooe cha^ 
racier, as were O, O, OY. See Kidd on Dawes's Misc. Grit. p. 32« and 
hence Homer varied the quanti^ of these yowels, according as the 
ictus fell upon them or not, e. g. IL I. 406. A€iCTOI M€N ΓΑΡ 


for dpriwcvs 11• I. 505. 

P. 41. L 4 from bottom, In the common editions of Herodotus we 
have ων printed as though it were not a diphthong. The two points 
put over the ν are owing to the MSS• where ν and ϊ are usually so 
marked. It is most probable that they pronounced θωνμα much as 
we should pronounce thooma, 

P. 47. 1. 5. The student will distinguish ^a with the last syllable 
short, from Baca widi the last syllable long, which is for Βκα κα (j&re kc) 
Theocr. IV• 68. ου η ra/ici^O*, Βκκα χάλιν dBe ψύητοίΐ. 

P. 54. I. 5 from bottom, pixpos has the first syllable long in all the 
Greek poets. The ι is long by nature ; and in all probability the word 
was a n ci e ntl y written ^ucpds, from fici^, whence μείων. The diminu- 
tive /luocvXoc should be written fMo^^os^ with a single κ, 

P. 84. §. 43. The question which relates to the use of ibe apostrO' 
fhu in prose writers, is a very doubtful one ; and no general rule can 
be given. The Attic writers used it more than the Ionic, and the later 
Attic more fi«quent3y than die old ; all of them chiefly in the mono- 
syllable particles ^, ye, re, in the adverbs nore, Toret &c. in oXXci, 
αΜκα^ &c. and always in the prepositions which end with α or ο ; more 
rarely in other words. In Thucydides II. 71. we find oire ν/ιών, but 
Dionysius of Halicamassus cites the passage ονθ* νμών. The Monu- 
mentum Adulitanum has ΥΦβΝ, Μ6ΘΑ. An ancient treaty in die 
Oxfi>rd NburUes has ΑΦΟΥ and ΑΦΑ2, without any distinction betivieen 
the words. An ancient Cyeioene tnaoription has ΥΦβΛΥΊΏ. Many 
other instances are given by Wasse, in his note on the passage of Thu- 
cydides : not diat any examples are wanting to prove that the ancients 
did use the apostrophus in prose ; for it was scarcely possible for them 
not to do so in many instances ; the question is, whether there was the 
same uniformity of usage amongst them as amongst the poets. And 
this quesdon must be answered in the negative. 

I. It depends in some measure upon the sense of a passage, whether 
the apostrophus is to be used or not : if the sense requires that any 
pause, however dunt, ^ould be made after a word «kUng in a diort 


vowel, and preceding another which begms with a vowel, the first vowel 
b not dropped, e. g. ahrUa, ίψη^ βισρ. So in Plato Phsedr. p. 293. ed. 
Heind. we should read λέγβΓοι ίέ, iSs ποτ ήσαν. 

II. A short vowel is not cut off before another, when such elision 
would injure the harmony of the sentence. 

III. Nor when the particle is emphatic, as in Plato Charmid. p. 1 54 B. 
oh yap roi <pavkos oh^k γ6τ€ fjvf Phaedr. p. 254 A. 

IV. Spa is apostrophized before oh and oJy, but not before other 

V. The elision of nouns is rarer, as φίλ' arra Plato Lys. p. 221 C. 
αντόματ* οΐόμ^νοι Demosth. 01. 1. 

VI. If a particle closely adheres in sense to a preceding word, it 
does not generally suffer apostrophus ; for apostrophus connects two 
words together, which here cannot happen, e.g. oH ye Ικαν6$ — ^cXoc 
li ye ουκ hv tlev — Αρα ye o\f. Plato Lys. p. 215 B. But we have 
παyyέλo(oV y av βίη Phaedr. p. 260 C. because y' ay may be*taken as 
one word. 

VII. τούτο and ravra are commonly apostrophized. Demosth. 01. 1. 
τουθ'' ovTws ^ei, τουΘ\ 6 Βνσμαγωτατον, ταντ* oSy ; yet in the same page 
we have μ€τα ταύτα αν. It is to be observed, in general, that the 
apostrophus is very frequent in Demosthenes, whose orations were 
written to be spoken, and a leading feature of whose style is rapidity• 
Upon the whole, it seems reasonable to say, respecting the prose 
writers, tliat, within certain limits, they used or neglected the apostro- 
phus, as they judged it most conducive to harmony : and this must 
generally be the guide by which an experienced editor will determine 
himself, where the MSS. differ ; for the authority of the MSS. on these 
points is, in itself, very small. 

P. 95. 1. 1 from bottom, vc — ηληθνι is a dyssyUable in Π. χ', 458. 
But in this and in other cases, where υ seems to coalesce with a vowel 
ibllowing, as in yeyvwv Pindar Pyth. IV. 401. 'Ερινυών in Euripides, 
&c it may be supposed to have taken the power of a consonant, like 
our V. 

P. 111. 1. 10. See this derivation of the genders pursued more at 
large in Harris's Hermes, ch. IV. 

Ibid. 1. 7 from bottom. Cases. Πrώσeu λέγονται, iwei^ ή ψωνή άχ* 
άλλου els άλλον μ€ταπίχτ€ΐ, Schol. in Dion. Thrac. p. 8C0, 25. 

P. 1 1 2. §. 64. ι subscr. We are not to conclude that the ι was wanting 


m the dative case in the old Greek because it is omitted in several in^ 
Bcriptions. In the case of those words where it was not pronounced 
separately, it was omitted by the Dorians and ^olians ; and by the 
stone-cutters in all dialects. It is consonant with analogy to suppose 
that the termination of the dative case was originally uniform. The 
very ancient datives οίκοι, ire^oc, were retained even in the Doric dialect. 
Adverbs in ι were also compounded of datives, &/ιαχ/, άνοικτί, and the 
like : ίκτανΟοΊ and woi are old datives. Upon the whole I cannot but 
think, in opposition to Fabricius, Koen, and others, that the ι was the 
most ancient termination of this case. 

P. 139. 1. 7. αιγάΐ' is only a wrong reading. 

P. 158. 1. 17. The Attics made κέραβ, κέρατος, as they did φρέαρ 
fpiUTos. See Maltby's Thesaurus Gracce Poeseos v. ψρέαρ. and Observ. 
p. Ixxx. but from fpeiap came fpeiaros. In a verse of Eratosthenes 
ap. Valcken. Diatr. p. 218. »/ σφόν, $ κοίΧον φρέατος evpv kvtos, read 
fpeiaros. Where κέραοί and Ktpdiav occur in Homer, we should pro- 
bably read κέρ€ο$ and κ€ρέων, 

P. 158. last line. The lonians did not decline κέρα$, Kipeos, but took 
the oblique cases from κέρο$. This appears the compounds re/oo- 
rvxcci», κ€ροβάτη%, and the like. See Porson Prcef, ad Hecuh. p. viii. 

P. 160. 1. 8. from bottom, hopi, Also^opec. Etymol. M. p. 284,31. 
Seidler. de Vers, Dockm, p. 24. 

P. IGl. §. 87. The datives Ιιμϊρ, υμίν have the Ν t0eXicv<m*:oy, for 
they are contracted from ίιμέτιν, νμέσιν. 

P. 165. 1. 15. oveiparos was formed from o^etpap, not from oveipas. 
See my notes on Callimachus £pig. L. ] • 

P. 182. 1. 10. ijf. These feminines in τρία were sometimes, but 
rarely, formed from masculines in τηρ, as Ιητρια^ Alexis ap. JEl. Dionys. 
in Eustath. ad II. Δ. p. 859, 51. π^νθήτρια Eurip. Hipp. 816. νρομνίι* 
στρια Aristoph. Nub. 42. 

Jbid, 1. 16. So Kpiis, Κρησσα, 

P. 196. 'ΐμοί. Of the two sorts of adjectives with this termination, 
one in Ίμο$ from nouns, the other in •σιμο5 from verbs ; — the last have 
sometimes an active, sometimes a passive signification ; e. g. άρώσιμο$, 
urabiUs, βρώσιμος, edibilis : φυζιμος qui fu git, Soph. Antig. 788. άλώ- 
σιμος, ad capturam pertinens, iEsch. Agam. 9. ubi vide. 

P. 197• The reader will observe that the terminations in iros and 


ctrof are in fact one, formed from the genitives of the nouns ; {vA-tiO% 

P. 205. §. 117. But it is to be observed, that of adjectives, which 
commonly have only the masculine and neuter terminations, we find 
the feminine form only in the poets. Yet καφίη occurs in Herodotus ; 
and this termination was no doubt general in the ancient language. 

P. 218. 1. 11. Eustathius and the Etymol. M. say that veairepoy is 
very Attic ; yet Thucydides I. 7. has yeatrara. We have also ireiro/- 
repos Theocr. VII. 120. άσμεναίτατα Phrynieh. App. Soph. p. 12, 11. 
ιτρονργιαίτερα Aristoph. Lys. 20. Thucyd. III. 109. vpwiairepoy, {repO' 
nendum in Theophr. H• P, III, 2. vid, Vakken, Nott. in Thorn• Mag. 
p. 174.) orpiairepoy Plato Cratyl. p. 433 A. 

P. 228. 1. 16. We find this hiatus in much older poets, e. g. Hip• 
ponax ap. Stob. XXIX. p. 129. Grot, -^povos le ψ€υγέτω σ€ μηί^ ett 
άργόί. Epicharmus ibid. XXX VHI. p. 151. τνψλον ήλέηί^ il•ώy ris, 
ίψΘόνησ€ S* ov^k els, 

P. 234. 1. 2. rpiroy ημιτάλανταν * two talents and a half', i. e. the 
first a talent, the second a talent, the third a half-talent. So in Latin 
Sestertius^ two asses and a half, is shortened from Semistertius : the 
first an As, the second an As, the third a half As (tertius semis). See 
Schweighseuser on Herodot. I. 50. 

lb, §. 144. Dr. Buraey {Monthly Review, 1799. p. 89.) thinks that 
tliese terminations in alos arose from aec, compounded with numerals : 
a notion which is contrary to the analogy of the Greek language. From 
δευτέρα, τρίτη, &c. are formed ^evrepaios, rpiralos, as from αμοιβή 
comes άμοιβάιο$. These adjectives are not so much numeral as tem- 
poral, implying the time when : and akin to them are σκοταΐοί (Xenoph• 
Anab. IV. 1.) icyefaws (Euphorio ap. Hephsest. XVI. p. 105. i£lian. ap. 
Suid. V. Ύίμωpoΰyτos), signifying 'in the dark*. Koiraios (Polyb. V. 17.) 
' he who comes at bed-time'. 

P. 235. 1. 17. -irXovs, He should have instanced dfxXovf 'single'• 
The Etymologist, p. 123, 1. derives these forms from πέλω* but I ap- 
prehend that they are compounded of an old verb πλέω or πλόω^ 
(whence τλέκω) to fold, as in Latin -p/ex. Hence &w\ovs, {sine plica) 
simplex, ^ivXovs, duplex, &c. and in English two-fold, three-fold, &c• 
In Latin also the Greek termination remained, in the forms duplus, &c. 
The forms οιπ\άσιο$, &c. I conceive, were compounded of the numerals, 
and π\ησιο$, equal, side by side, iiirXdaios, twice equal, &c. This sense 
of πλήσιοΜ is preserved in ταρατλήσαη^. 


P. 237. 4. Tttv occurs in a very ancient inscription mentioned by 
Herodotus V. 60. Both in έ/ι/ν and rlr, the ι is long ; and neither of 
these is enclitic ; for /lo/ and τοί are used as enclitics, even in Doric 
writers. This is Hermann's remark, who also observes that the case 
is the same virith the accusative rv, which is an enclitic, whereas τέ and 
Tty are emphatic. 

P. 244. 1. 1 1 . OS for ios occurs several times in the tragedians ; see 
my note on £schyl. Agam. 519. 

P. 248. §.152. τΐη is not used by the tragedians. 

P. 268. To the instances of a double reduplication the Reviewer 
adds μ€μ€\οπ€ΨΓοιημίνοί Athen. X. p. 453. D. 

P. 269. tnhfin. It is not true that the ancients always wrote άΐ'άλι^σα, 
although this is asserted by the grammarians. In the Choiseul Marble, 
Μέι». at Γ Acad, des Inscript. XLVII I. p. 337. we find ΑΘΕΝΑΙΟΙ 

P. 270. 1. 15. The Author seems to adopt the theory of Hemster- 
huys, viz, that the Greek language, in its earliest state, consisted of mo- 
nosyllable and dissyllable words. To this supposition there are two in- 
superable objections: 1st, that it contains a gratuitous, or ill-grounded 
assumption, that the Greek language was original and indigenous; 
2ndly, that it is at variance with what we know historically of the lan- 
guage itself. It is manifest, from indubitable traces which still subsist, 
that the old Greek, like the old Latin, was rough, hard, and heavy. 
The safest and most probable mode of accounting for the various 
forms of Greek verbs, is to attribute them to the constant endeavour ' 
of the Greeks after euphony. Generally speaking, the heavier forms 
seem to have been the most ancient ; in these they first shortened the 
long vowel, and then added additional consonants or syllables. Thus 
Χ^βω was changed into λα/3ω, which the Ionics made λάμβω, and then 
Χαμβάνν• So νωμω was changed into νίμω^ and this into νεμέω, of 
which the future only was retained in use. So ^(λω with the first syl- 
lable long (of which the aorist ψιλατο occurs in Homer) was made φιλέω. 
Again, 6χν (whence οιτωχή, σννο\ωκ6τ€^) became ίχω. This account 
deserves a more detailed explanation than is consistent with the limits 
of a note. 

P• 274. last line. The 2nd future which is here spoken of, is an 
imaginary tense, invented by the grammarians, and ought to be ex- 
punged from the common school grammars. 

Xlviii REMARKS. 

P. 305, 1. 4. According to analogy we should proceed thus, rvm€' 
μέναι, τνντέμεν, rvirr^cv, ruirreiv, Dorice rvwrty, 

P. 342, The perfectum imperatives, which are inserted in the table, 
have no existence. 

P. 359, 1. 3, eUy is the third person of ela, an ancient optative of Im. 
Both were used as interjections• 

P. 861. 1. 9. Ισούμαι, I doubt whether the Dorians ever used this 
form with a single σ. In Thucydides the genuine reading Ισσουνται is 
in some of the MSS. 

P. 364. 1. 3. ^a may always be construed as an aorist, and in my 
opinion was actually the first aorist from €ίω or cT/ic, eo. φσα, con- 
tracted into ^a, as ίχενσα into Ιχενα, ίκησα (from κέω) into ίκηα, 

P. S72. 1. 12. ίστ(ικ€ΐν, II. χ', 86. whence a^etrrfiKw, the future of 
which, ά0εστή£€ΐν, occurs in Xenophon, Anab. II. 4. 5, See the notes 
on Callim. H. ApoU. 15. χεττλήβω, Callim. fr. 492. Μυκω, Theocr. L 
1 02. ΊΓ€ΊΓ\ήγω, II. o\ 113. fiefiiiKci, II. χ', 2 1 . ήκω piunm. (Μτώιτα», 
Theocr. IV. 7. See Hermann; ante Sophocl, ed, Schaefer, p. ix. 

P. 403. 1. 9. *tt loses c, as if it had been an augment,* The e is an 
augment, Ισπόμην is the aor. 2. from eiro/iat, as ίσγρν is from Ιχω' the 
old present forms having been σπω, σχω. 

P. 412. 1. 22. In £ur. Or. 114. Ale. 33. Mr. Elmsley has restored 

ονχ άζομαι, 

P. 4^5, penult, ovra and iicra are not aor. 2. but anomalous forms : 
so τΓέΓΐ'α, p. 429. 

P. 427. 1. 5, τένθω was not another form of π//θω, but an entirely 
different verb, and of a different signification. 

P. 429. irirraoi does not occur in Hesiod,''Epy. 510. but irtXv^. 

P. 430. πίμνΧημι is from νΧέω rather than from πλάω. 

P. 448, 3. 9rai'^77/iei, &C, All these adverbs should be written with 
a simple i. See Glossar. in £sch. Prometh. 216. Other terminations 
of adverbs might have been noticed ; as Θα — ()ηθα^ μίννιθα, ένταΰθα, 
ίνθα, -lys, as e^ai^iijs, which is properly r£ α'ίψνης, as ex tempore, -2ά, 
as καναχη^ά, κρυβ^ά, which are properly neuter adjectives. Some no- 
tice also should be taken of the adverbial usage of neuter adjectives, 
either in the singular or plural, with or without the article ; as κάμνοντι 
TO Kaprepoy, τα μάλιστα, τα πρώτα, &c. Tlie student is recommended 
to consult the treatise of Apollonius Dyscolus dc Adoerbiis, where he 
will find many curious observations. 


P. 451. 1. 11. xov, ir^, iroi, 4τον, &e. are all oblique cases from the 
obsolete pronouns xoc, Bros. Hence also woOeyf πόσ€, πόθι^ as Ίλι oder, 
*ΙλιΌσ€, *IAio6c. 

P. 453. 1. 11. 01. So ire^oi, ^sch. Prom. 280. which Mr. Elmsley 
objects to ; but which is distinctly recognised by the Scholiast on Dio- 
nysius Thrax, p. 945. who, however, writes xe^i, ivioi^ μέσοι. 

Syktax. p. 460, 5. roy Χρύσηρ is, himj Chryses^ and so in the other 
instances, τα τενχεα καλά is a solecism, if τα be an article. 

P. 461. last line, σοψοί γαρ 6 α^ίφ would not be accurately rendered 
* be is a wise man', but ' the man is wise'. 

P. 46d^l. 6. ToiovTos is ' such an one', 6 toiovtos, * such as he is*. 

P. 467. 1. 7. £urip. Iph. A. 122. els Tat &XXas dpas γαρ ^η vai^os 
Ιαίσομ€ν υμ€ναίου$. We must omit τά% with MS. A. The verse is a 
paroemiacus spondeiacus. 

P. 486. %. 1?81. The article has no feminine form of the dual nomi- 
native and accusative, at least in the Attic of the tragedians (we have 
τα Bta in Plato Symp. p. 180 D.) ; although it has in the genitive. 
Soph. CEd. T. 1472. 

P. 494. 1. 22. But η in. this example has nothing to do with ra: it 
refers to μαχόμενοι. 

P. 516. 1. 8. Sometimes^ though seldom^ the dual of the verb is put 
wUh the plural of the subject. Never, I apprehend, unless when speak- 
ing of two subjects. In the first instance quoted, we may combine 
tBiardt re καΐ συ ΪΙό^αργβ and Αίθων Αάμπε re ^e, into two pairs, or 
lets. II. e', 487. is manifestly corrupt. II. i, 1 82. is not an example. 
In the first quotation from the H. in Apoll. 277. we should perhaps 
read ^σθαι, and in the second καθέμεν for κάΘετον, as γαρυέμεν is the 
true reading in Pindar 01. II• 158. and not γαρνετον. See Kidd on 
Dawes's M. C. p. 85. In Plato Theaet. p. 70. Heindorf justly prefers 
the reading of Stobseus. In Aratus Dios. 291. the true reading is κάί 
οψέ βοών re koKolos. That the singular number is more appropriate 
will appear from the whole passage ; Χειμωνοί μέγα σήμα και έννεάγηρα 
άφωνη Νϋκτερον άεί^νσα, καΐ οψέ βοών re koXoios, καΐ σπιινε ήώα 
στιζων. ν. 286. "Η work καΐ κρωζαντε βηρείτ} ^ίσσακι φων^ Μακρόν 
Ινφροιζενσι τιναζάμενοι πτερά νοκνά. Buhle has edited κρω^αν re 
without explanation. " κρωζαντε ad rem facere vidctur, nisi forsan 
sermo sit de duobus generibus, corvis scil. ct graculis." Dalzcl. in 
Analect. Major. Nott. p. 37. 

VOL. I. d 



P. 529* 1. 9. The noinnuitive is put for the vocative in the question 
(tiivs, Ti irocctf ; which is to be explained thus, τί συ iroceu, ovros cJv ; 
The vocative is used with an article in £schyl. Pers. 161. μητ€ρ ^ 
Χέρζον yepaia^ X^'P^) Δαρείου γυναι, where two constructions are con- 
founded, ω μητ€ρ ISip^ov, and 4 μ^Ι^ηρ οΰσα ISep^ov. 

P. 539. Obs. This is called by Lesbonax σχήμα Άττικάν. Eurip. 
Hec. 1167. ττολλαΐ yap ημών, at μ^ν είσ επίφθονοι^ where see Porson. 
Thucyd> II. 4. ol μέν^ nves αϊτών — Xenoph. Anab. I. 2. 1 5, ούτοι μ^ν 
6l\Kos 6XKa λέγει. See Schaefer in Dionys, Halic, p. 421. Comp. 
Herodot. II. 55, 2. and passim. So in Latin, Virgil. JEn, XII. 161. 
Inter ea reges, ingenti mole, Latinus Quadnjugo vehitur curru — Hinc 
pater ^neas, 

P. 545. Obs. 1. and 2. belong to one idiom. 

P• 552. 1. 18. In the passage of Herodotus IX. S3, we should 
perhaps read μετίεσαν ras 'χρησμοσύνα$, ' laid aside their entreaties'. 
This is probably the sense of 'χρησμοσύνη, although Matthias says it 
certainly is not. -χρησμοσυνη is opposed to icopos (see Wesseling's note), 
and signifies want (so H. Stephens in Tkesauro); it is formed from 

P. 557, 1. 1. In the passage of Tyrtaeus we should supply iyexa, 

P. 560. 1. 15. πρόσω mesins forwards i. e. to the fore part, and hence 
naturally takes a genitive, like other adverbs of place, πον eorc Trjs 
άρετηί ; — πρόσω. At what point of valour is he ? — at an advanced point» 

P. 562. 1. 2. rrjs μητροε ήκω τηί εμΐμ ψράσων' this answers to the 
English phrase, / am come to tell of my mother, A remarkable usage 
of the genitive occurs in Eurip. Med. 286. ΙυμβάΚΚεται Ik πολλά rovZe 
Ζείματοι, i. e. πολλά ζνμβολά είσι rov^e ^ei^aros. 

P. 607. Obs, 1. But in these cases a regard is paid to the prepo- 
sition ; the expression being elliptical, άποστρέφεσθαί τι {ε μου), Eurip. 
Troad. 393. ΆχαιοΓί ι5ν &πησαν //^οΐ'αι, * the joys of which were absent 
to the Greeks', i, e. * in the case of the Greeks', where αυτών may be 
supplied. In the examples from Homer we are to understand yvyaltcos 
and γυναικών, 

P. 736. 1. 7. θαυμαστϊ)ν οσην Plato Alcib. II. p. 137. Etwall. ουρά- 
viov δσον Auctor ap. Suid. v. ^Απηλγησαν, Pierson ad Afoer, p. 3. as 
in Latin immane quantum, Comp. Schaefer. ad Dionys, Halic, p. 1 84. 

P. 769. 1.7. InSoph. PWloct. 316. Person's correction is οΓ Όλιί/ι- 
πιοι Bto\ Αο7έν ποτ avrols. 


P. 793. 1. 10 firom bottom. In Eurip. Hec. IS. Porson explains S 
qtue res. sc το elvac vecmiroK. Wakefield ad LucreU V. 1116. taket 
it for καθ* ^. Thncyd. VI. 33. ^irep και ^ΑΒηναιοί. — ηυζήθησαν. 

P. 823. Perfect passive used in a middle sense. άτ€ώσθαι Thucyd• 
II. 39. άψψριινται Thucyd. VII. 13. Μέηται Plato Apol. Socr. 23. 
€ίργα^Θ€ Thucyd. III. 66. Ικκ^κομισμίνοι ήσαν Thucyd. II. 78. cfy/X* 
Xwcrai Soph. Aj. 207• ubiErfurdt. εσκεμμένοι Demosth. 01. II. p. 1 14. 
ed. Mounten. έξηρτασμένοι Soph. (£d. Col. 1016. έσπασμένοι Xen. 
Anab. VII. 4. 16. εφευσμένοι ibid. V« 6. 35. ^κισμένη Eurip. Med. 
1127. ήιφωτηριασμένοι Demosth. de Coron. 91. κατ€σκ€νασμένοι Id. 
Ol. II. 10. ι:αΓέ#ΓραιιτοΜ Id. Phil. I. 3. ιτειτυσμένη iEsch. Agara. 263. 
w€p^€tpγaσμaι Demo«th. de Coron. 22. ττετα^ρησίασμαι Id. Phil. I. 17. 
irewoirp-ai Id. de Coron. p. 102. ed. Harlee. πειραγμένοι Eurip. Or. 
1411. See Valckenaer. SchoL m Act. JposU p. 436. 

2. It appears to me that the aor. 1. pass, has properly a middle 
sense in the foUowing instances : il•έpχθηs ^sch. Prom. 5G2. προσ- 
^χθρ ibid. 53. Ιέργβη Soph. Aj. 425. κατα^ερ^β^ναι Soph. Trach. 
1017. ενρεβηναι Herodot. II• p. 161. έιτετάχθψισαν Thucyd. II. 7. 
ΙμέρΘη Herodot• VIL 44. ψρασθεΐί ibid. 45. πεφαθέ^τεε Thucyd. II. 5. 
«γκηιβν/ι^ Id. V. 17. VIII. 1. 

P. 830. L 5 from bottom. There seems to be an ellipsis of cavrov, 
&c. In Msclu Pers. 197. the active ρηγννσιν is used, because the 
words &μψι σάματι define the person. In N^ 7. p. 831. all the examples 
will be found, upon examination» to have a middle sense — ' you released 
him ybr yourself, &c. 

P. 850, 3. el/it. See Kidd on Dawes*s M. C. p. 125. seq. who has 
learnedly illustrated this peculiarity of εΙμι. 

P. 862, 3. Antiatticista Sahg^ p. 107, 30. Mi) νόμισον.άντι του μ^ 
ro/i/0i|s. Σοψοκληί ΤΙηΧεΊ. ΚαΙ μή ψβν(Π7ν. Vid. Porson. ad Eurip. 
Hec. 1174. 

P. 917. 1. 17. II. *', 442. τουνεκά με προέηκε ^ιίασκεμέναι τάΒε πάντα. 
So in Latin, Virgil, ^n. I. 527. 

P. 925. 1. 13 from bottom. A more remarkable phrase is βητον 
ahcάσΘai ^sch. Prom. 791. ου ψατον λέγειν Aristoph. Αν. 1713. 
(Comp. Orph. Argon. 926.) ε^ίΕρακηβ Χευσσειν Soph. Philoct. 847. 
where see Schaefer. 




P. 938. ]. 8. Hermann (ad Soph. Aj. 114.) observes that this 
account of the use of the article before the infinitive is not suffi- 
ciently distinct. For it is not the same thing, whether the article be 
used or omitted. An infinitive wiih an article (except where it is put 
simply for a substantive) is used in two ways. 1 he first is explanatory, 
where it is referred to τουτο^ expressed or understood, as το Ipq^v^ τούτο 
λέγω or TOVTO λέγω το ^pq,v. Soph. Antig. 79. το γαρ fiiff. πολιτών Ιρζ^ν 
^ψυν Αμίιχανο$, This is stronger than it would be without the article. 
It is equivalent to το γαρ βί^, πολιτών ^pfy^ τοντο ά/ι//χαν<$$ ei/it. Phi- 
loct. 1241. cuTiy rti, εστίν y os σβ κωλύσει το hpq.v. The second usage 
is, when an article is joined with the infinitive, with the same power as 
in other cases ώστε. But this differs from the former only in appear- 
ance. Here also we may recur to the explanation τουτο^ το Ipq^v^ but 
in the absolute sense of, as to what concerns. Soph. Antig. 2C4. ημεν 
2* (ίτοιμοι κα\ μΰΙρου$ aipecv χεροιν, και πυρ hipweir, καΐ Oeovs ορκω^ 
μοτειν^ Ύο μίιτε ^ράσαι, μητ€ τφ {vvecBeiOc, &c. Pliiloct. 118. /iaO^y 
γαρ ουκ hv άρνοίμην το Βρ^ι\ 

The infinitive by itself, without an article, is of\en used for a noun. 
Aristoph. Nub. 482. ίνεστι Ζητά σοι λέγειν Ιν τζ φύσει, ' eloquence*, 
^sch. Pers. 72G. πώχ ίέ καΐ στρατοί τοσόσοε πεζοί ήνυσεν περψ', * ef- 
fected a passage*. Agam. 180. και παρ* άκονταε ήλθε σωψρονεΊν• Ibid, 
250. άίκα hk ToU μίν παθοΰσι μαθεΊν επιτρέπει. With a negation, 
Soph. Antig. 1051. μή φρονεϊν πλείστη βλάβη. The infinitive is some- 
times, but rarely, used for a noun in Latin. Hor. Ep. VII. 27. Reddes 
dulcc loqui ; reddes ridere decorum, Pers. Scire tuum nihil est, nisi te 
scire hoc sciat alter ? 

P. 9i4. 1. 15. This idiom was common in Ionic; see especially the 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates. An infinitive and imperative sometimes 
are coupled together in the same sentence, as in the prayer cited by 
Plato Alcib. II. Zew )3α0'ίλεί;, τα μkv έσθλα και ε^τχομένοΐί και άΐ'ενκτοι$ 
"Αμμι ciloV τα ίέ λυγρα κα\ ευχόμενων άπάλέξειν. See Bast and 
Schaefer ad Gregor. p. 424. 

P. 956. 1. 3. This appears to me to be a wrong explanation. The 
interrogation has no place in either of these passages. The true mean- 
ing of oi/fc av φθάνοι$ ποιών τούτο, is, 'you cannot be too quick in doing 
this'. φΟάνειν is * to be sooner'. Hippocr. de A» et A. p. 98. ov γαρ 
φθάνούσι παρά άνΖρα άπικνεύμεναι, και έν γαστρι ίσχουσι, they no 
sooner — than they, &c. properly, coming to — they are not before-hand 
with what I am going to mention, viz. titey conceive. Comp. paragr. c. 

REMARKS. liii 

p. 959. 1. 4 from bottom, ruyxdyeiv• Phrynichus EcL p. 121. ob« 
serves that, according to ancient usage, τνγχάν€ΐν in the sense of * to 
be' requires a participle to be joined with it. And so Porson ad Hecub, 
788. whose opinion is called in question by Erfurdt, in his Epistle to 
Schaefer. Schaefer himself ad L, Bos, p. 785. Elmsley Mtts. Crit. 
Cantab, 1. p. 351. Hermann, ad Soph, Ajac, 9. 

P. 964. 1. 10 from bottom. A singular instance of this disagi 
ent is ^sch. ^am. 544. Ιρόσοι — riQivres, 

P. 969. 1. 7 from bottom, φέρων in these instances denotes nothing 
more than ' tending to*, ' having a bearing towards'. Thucyd. I. 79. ai 
yvw^ac ίψ€ρον £sch. Suppl. 607. ^ipet φρήν, fert animus. Something 
of the same sense belongs to the imperative in the phrase ψέρ* eiirit 
* come tell me*, ^epo/ici'os in the middle or passive is clearly a different 

P. 992. 1. 9. Some instances deserve particular notice : e. g. Thucyd. 
III. 10. iy rf ίιάΚλάσσοντι rrjs γνωμηί. II. 61. τψ τψωμένψ rfjs iroXews 
aro τον άρχρίρ, ' the honour which the city has by meaiis of her com- 
mand'. VII. 83. ro ^ισνχάζον τψ vvktos, Eurip. Hec. 303. το Θυμοί!' 
μ€νον 'anger'• In general the participle thus employed conveys a kind 
of indefinite meaning. 

P. 1001. §. 576. Many of the adverbs, which are joined with a 
genitive case, were originally nouns, which will account for this con- 
struction. Thus άγχι is the dative of &yi^ the lend of the arm ; which 
etymology was suggested to me by the present learned Master of Gon- 
ville and Caius College, έγγνβ is contracted from kv γνι;, in the hand^ 
or perhaps from iy and yviys, as ίμιτοΐων from iv and noiuy. So /ιεσ- 
avryvs from μέσση γνη$. Of the adverbs in 6e and Bey some are mani- 
festly genitive cases of nouns, and the others follow their analogy. 

P. 1010. 1. 3. Sometimes with αριθμοί, Sophocl. Acris. fr. 11. elr 
αριθμόν ίζήκοντα his. See Glossar. in ^sch. Pers. 345. So Theocrit. 
I. 26. ποταμέλζεται els hvo πέλλαν, not ' into two pails', but * as much 
as two pails'. 

Ibid. 1. 6. Especially with the names of deities, lepoy being under- 
stood, as eis *Αρτ€μ1^οί, So in Latin, ventum est ad Ceteris, 

P. 1013. e, lia τρίτον ctovs, &c. In general ha expresses an interval, 
as in Ζιίστασθαι^ * to stand at certain distances', diafiaiveiv, * to stand 




with the legs asunder'» tih iraymt^ Oertrios in Herodotus, hngo nUer^ 
vaUo spcctatu dignissimus• Hence ^ιά τρίτον hovSf 'at intervals of 
every third year*• 

P. 1041. j3. Trpos ταυτα^ ' this being the case'. See the Glossary to 
^sch. Prometh. 1065. Theb. 56. 

P. 1102. §.617,5. eir'ovi^— €ΪΓ€ Soph. GEd.T. 1050. circ— eirc ica/ 
^sch. Agam. 844. Suppl. 185. Comp. Elmsl. ad Soph, (Ed. T. 92. 
txT^ is omitted £sch. Agam. 1405. Odyss. Δ. 109. oxlk τι fi^ty 
Zkt€t oy 1/ τ€βνηκ€ν• 




Of the Greek Language generally. 

As no language ever developed itself under more favourable 
circumstances than the Greek, so none has ever united more 
advantages and excellences for the expression of thought. It 
received its first formation, in the strict sense of the word, in 
the colonies of Asia Minor and the islands of the iiEgean, 
among a people who were awakened to cheerfulness and social 
intercoiirse by the mildness of their climate and the facihty 
with which their wants were supplied by a productive soil, 
and who early derived versatility of mind from the political 
activity of their governments, chiefly democratic, from war, and 
from commerce. Their religion and mythology clearly show 
that fancy was the predominant faculty of their minds ; even in 
their earliest constitutions there are as yet no remarkable traces 
of the calculating understanding. The language, thus already 
become copious in expressive designation, and flexible to the 
perfect representation of objects, as they appear to the senses, 
received its first artificial formation by means of epic poetry 
and hexameter verse, among the lonians, afterwards by lyric 
poetry among the graver .3Eolo-Doric tribes. Even this its first 
application to poetry multiplied the number of its forms, in* 
creased its capacity for vivid and distinct representation, and 

VOL. I. Β 

2 Introduction. 

made euphony its primary law ; but these eiFects must have be- 
come much greater, when it wis employed by poets of such ge- 
nius as Homer. In Homer's poetry we find the whole scheme 
and ground-plan of the Greek language, both in the forms of 
single words, and especially in their combination and the con- 
nection of propositions; though in regard to the former, the 
gradual separation of the dialects made many changes subse- 
quently necessary. For nearly five hundred years poetry was the 
only form of speech employed in intellectual productions ; and 
though writing by degrees became more common in this period 
than in Homer's days, still living oral commimication was the 
most congenial to the lively character of the Greeks; and 
therefore it became necessary for every one who sought fame 
by an intellectual work, to make an impression on the sense, 
the fancy, and the feeling of his hearers, by harmony of lan- 
guage and pleasing expression, by vivid representation and 
clearness acceptable to all. 

These circumstances continued nearly the same in those 
countries in which literature subsequently flourished. The 
same animation and cheerfulness, the same love of social 
communication, sometimes running into loquacity, prevailed in 
Athens and the colonies of Lower Italy: free constitutions 
gave each citizen a share in the administration of the state, 
and the unrestrained communication of ideas in society exer- 
cised and formed all the powers of the mind. Fancy conti- 
nued to find its nourishment in religion: from this source 
dramatic poetry was derived, first among the Dorian tribes, 
afterwards more perfectly at Athens ; this gave the language 
of the Athenians a dignity which holds a middle place be- 
tween the serious gravity of the Doric and the light cheerful- 
ness of the Ionic. Judicial and political eloquence produced 
rotundity, prosaic numerus, Strength and emphasis in the lan- 
guage ; from the school of Socrates were derived flexibility and 
copiousness in the expression of philosophical and especially 
moral ideas and relations. The intercourse of the different 
tribes which had formed their dialects independently of each 
other by peculiar modes of 8peefi&§^increased the variety of 
forms and the aptitude of the language for composition and 

Of the Greek Language generally. 3 

deriyation. Still oral communication was what was chiefly 
required ; social actiirity and civil equality seemed to demand 
an approach to the inartificial language of conversation, and 
philosophers themselves were accustomed to impart their doc- 
trines by this method. 

Thus adaptation to represent with vividness sensible objects, 
distinctness for the senses and the fancy, and only as a remoter 
purpose for the understanding, became the leading principle of 
the Greek language throughout : the constant reference to eu- 
phony, both in the form of single words and the structure of 
periods and connexion of propositions, is only one aspect of this 
principle ; even the derivation of the tenses of the verb seems to 
have been determined by the feeling, that one or the other form 
would give the meaning of the tense in the manner most graphic 
and distinct to the imagination. Hence the construction of many 
words and the use of the different cases appears to be decided 
not so much by a philosophical view, as by the feeling of an ex- 
ternal sensible resemblance, which, however, is often only sub- 
jective, and confined to the individual writer. The love of vivid 
representation produced the extraordinary facility which the 
Crreek language has of expressing those fine shades of meaning 
which cannot be fully rendered in any other, and can even be ap- 
prehended only by a feeling formed by diligent reading. Hence 
the pleonasms which are found even in Thucydides, the most 
concise of all Greek writers, and the opposite quality of com- 
pression or brachylogia, where, though the expression may seem 
imperfect, the condensation of thought produces a stronger im- 
pression on the sense than completeness could have done : 
hence, finally, those anacolutha and frequent mingling of differ- 
ent forms of speech which, sometimes bordering on pleonasm, 
sometimes on brachylogia and ellipsis, by their pregnant sense 
make the fancy feel more than the words seem to imply. 

We also perceive in the Greek language, more than any 
other, even the Latin, a simplicity and absence of pretence in 
style, and a certain indifference to the demands of a language 
formed by and for the understanding, amounting to what we 
might call incorrectness or carelessness. This simplicity was 
to be expected in a people which in all its relations remained 

Β 2 


4 Introduction. 

faithful to nature, and had no occasion, in its intellectual pro- 
ductions, to seek to surpass the earlier models of another na- 
tion, by new and unusual modes of expression : it was che- 
rished by the approximation of all classes to one another, by 
the people's influence in the administration of the state, and 
that civil equality with which it did not accord, that any thing 
should by solitary study become the exclusive portion of a few : 
hence, too, originated the custom of expressing as a conjecture 
or opinion, what was meant as unconditionally true — a custom 
common also to the Latin. The neglect of grammatical rules 
in the cases already mentioned, which is incomparably more 
frequent in Greek than in Latin writers, and above all in Plato, 
who, while he ennobled, closely imitated, the style of conver- 
sation, seems to be the immediate result of an unconscious en- 
deavour to come to the level of all classes, by copying the lan- 
guage of common life. It was in no small degree cherished 
by the circumstance that till the Alexandrian period there was 
no separate order of literary men, and that till that time no 
technical grammarian arose, to cramp language by submitting 
it to the rules of the understanding. 

Of the Dialects generally. 

The Greek language, like every modem one, was not in an- 
cient times spoken in the same manner in all parts of Greece ; 
but almost every place had its peculiarities of dialect, both in 
the use of single letters and of single words, in the forms 
of words, inflexions, and expressions, in the whole style, in 
the species of verse and in the quantity. But the Greeks 
were accustomed to express the peculiarities of their dialects in 
writing also ; they wiOte as they spoke ; and if, for instance, 
the Dorians pronounced the ου difierently from the rest of 
the Greeks, they expressed this also in writing, as δωλοα for 
SovXoc : instead of which we (notwithstanding the very various 
pronunciation, and the different expressions and modes of 
speaking, used in particular districts,) yet have in general one 
orthography, and one form of language in writing. Of these 
dialects the four principal are, the ^olic, the Doric, the Ionic, 

Of the Dialects generally. 5 

the Atticy because these alone were cidtivated and rendered 
classic by writers. Each of these dialects had, according to 
the different places where it was used, different deviations, 
which were called local dialects, ScaXefcroc τοπικαί. In the 
Ionic, for instance, were reckoned four peculiar dialects*. The 
Spartans, the Messenians, Argives, Cretans, Syracusans, Ta- 
rentines, all spoke the Doric dialect ; but each nation with cer- 
tain variations ^. Each of the principal dialects also in time 
underwent some changes and modifications in its general cha- 
racter, according as it was further improved by writing, or as 
the people which spoke it became connected with others. 

The MoYxc dialect prevailed on the northern side of the 
Isthmus, except in Megara, Attica, and Doris, as well as in the 
^olic colonies in Asia Minor, and in some northern islands 
of the -ilgean Sea ; it was chiefly cultivated by the lyric poets 
in Lesbos, as Alcaeus and Sappho, and in Boeotia, by Corinna. 
It retained the most numerous traces of the ancient Greek ; 
hence the Latin coincides more with this than with the other 
Greek dialects^. It is distinguished from the Doric by trifling 
differences, some of which will be mentioned hereafter ; chiefly, 
however, by the breathing before vowels at the beginning and 
in the middle of words, and before some consonants, as /o, 
called the -^lic digamma (r). The grammarians remarked 
three principal changes in this dialect, which, however, cannot 
now be ascertained for want of information. Alcaeus is con- 
sidered as the model of it^. 

The Doric dialect, which was spoken in Peloponnesus, in 
the Dorica Tetrapolis, in the Doric colonies of Lower Italy 
(Tarentum for instance), and Sicily, as in Syracuse, and Agri- 
gentum, and in Asia Minor, was, like the language of primitive 
mountaineers generally, hard, rough, and broad, particularly 
from the frequent use of α for ri and ω ; for instance, a λάθα, 

* Herod. 1, 149. ^ Burgess ad Daw. Misc. Crit. 

^ Ling. Hellenist. ρ.4βΟ. Prsef. p. 3. and p. 397 sqq. 

Of the Ionic and Doric dialects see (r) This letter refers to the Re- 

Sext £nip. p. 336. ed. Fabric. Ore- marks which are subjoined to the 

gor. p. (136) 394. ed. Schsef. Fisch. Preface. 

1,ρ.3β. ^ Gregor. p.(i) 6. Fi8ch.l,p.438qq. 




rav κοραν, for η Χτιθη, των κορων^\ and from the use of two 
consonants, where the other Greeks employed the double con- 
sonant ; for instance, aS for ty as fteXcaSerac, &c. It was the 
most rude among the Spartans» the enemies of all change, but 
was spoken in the greatest purity by the Messenians^ The 
grammarians notice two epochs in it, according to which they 
divide it into the old and new Doric dialects. In the old, the 
comic writer Epicharmus, and Sophron, author of the Mimes, 
were tlie principal authors ; the latter, however, chiefly adopted 
the peculiarities of the Syracusan dialect. In the new, which 
approached nearer to the softness of the Ionic ^, Theocritus is 
the chief writer. Besides these, the first Pythagorean philo- 
sophers wrote Doric, fragments of whose works are still re- 
maining; for instance, Timaeus, Archytas, who is considered 
as the standard {canon) of this dialect, and Archimedes. Pin- 
dar, Stesichorus, Simonides of Ceos (r), in his lyric poems, 
not in his elegies and epigrams, and Bacchylides, use in general 
the Doric, but softened it by an approximation to the others, 
and to the common dialect. Many instances of the dialect 
of the Lacedaemonians and Megarensians occur in Aristo- 
phanes'*: of the former, the Decretum in Timotheum (Boethius 
de Musical. 1. and Salm. de Ling. Hellenist, p. 82.) is a re- 
markable example. Besides these, the Doric dialect is found 
in decrees and treaties in the historians and orators, and in 

The Ionic was the softest of the dialects, on account of the 
frequent meeting of vowels and the deficiency of aspirate let- 
ters. It was spoken chiefly in the colonies of Asia Minor, and 
in the islands of the Archipelago. It was divided into old and 
new. In the former, generally speaking. Homer and Hesiod * 

* π\ατ€ΐασμόί, Koen ad Gregor. 
p. Γ152) 329. 

■ Paus. 4, 27. p. 846 sq. 

β Koen ad Gregor. p. (165) 359. 

^ A collection of Laconian expres- 
sions is given by Valck. ad Theocr. 
Adoniaz. p. 257 — 300. Ruhnk. £p. 
Crit. p. 214 sqq. 

' Though Homer has varied and 

ennobled the language of his people 
according to the necessities of har- 
mony and rhythm, it cannot be de- 
nied that the old Ionic is the basis of 
the Homeric or epic language. This 
is evident from the close resemblance 
which, notwithstanding all their dif- 
ferences, is found between the lan- 
guage of Homer and Herodotus. We 

Of the Dialects getierady. 7 

y/rrote, and it was ori^airy very little or not at all different 
from the old Attic. The new arose when the lonians began 
to mix with other nations in commerce, and to send out colo- 
nies^. The writers in this were (r) Anacreon, Herodotus, and 
Hippocrates ^ 

The Attic dialect underwent three changes• The old Attic 
was scarcely different from the Ionic °^, for the lonians had in- 
habited Attica; and in Homer the Attics are still called 'laovec; 
and hence we find in Homer many forms of words which were 
otherwise pecidiar to the Attics. In this dialect Solon wrote 
his laws. Through the proximity of the ^olic and Doric tribes 
in Boeotia and Megara, the frequent intercourse with the Do- 
rians in Peloponnesus, and with other Greek and foreign na- 
tions, it was constantly more intermixed with words which were 
not Ionian*^; and as Attica afibrded a less luxurious and effe- 
minate life to its inhabitants than Ionia, their language de- 
parted further from the Ionic, particularly in usii^ the long α 
where the lonians employed the η after a vowel, or the letter 
ρ ; in avoiding the collision of several vowels even in two differ- 
ent words, by contracting them into a diphthong or long vowel®; 
in preferring the consonants with an aspirate, whilst the lonians 
used the tenues, &cP. Thus arose the middle Attic, in which 
Gorgias of Leontini was the first who wrote. The writers in 
this dialect are Thucydides, the tragedians 4, Aristophanes, 
and others. The new Attic is dated from Demosthenes and 
.£schines, although Plato, Xenophon, Aristophanes'', Lysias, 
Isocrates,^ have many of its peculiarities. It differed chiefly 

can speak of an epic language only 
in times subsequent to Homer, when 
bis diction had become the standing 
model for the epos, while the living 
Ionic dialect continued deviating 
more and more from it. 

* Gregor. p. (233) 490 ed. Koen. 

* Of the difference of the Ionic 
dialect in Homer and in Herodotus, 
see Ueyne Obss. ad Iliad. 8, 226 sqq. 
and Fisch. 1, p. 38. 

"* Bentl. Opusc. Philol. p. 375 sqq. 
Koen ad Gregor. p. (176) 383. 

'^ Xenoph. R. A. S, 8. Piers, ad 
Moer. p. 349. 

** Piers, ad Moer. p. 274. Gregor. 
p. (72) 168 sq. 

Ρ Valck.adPhoen. 1422. Piers, ad 
Moer. p. 245. 361. Koen. ad Gregor. 
p. (185) 398. Fbch. p. 153. 176. 218. 

*» Nicephor. ad Synes. p. 411. vid. 
Bern, ad Thom. M. p. 579. Hence 
oi μέσοι Moer. p. 404. ubi vid. Piers. 

' e. g. βάλαττα Hemsterh. ad 
Plutv. 396. μν^ρίνη Id. ad Lucian. 1, 
p. 317. 

8 Introduction. 

from the foregoing, in preferring the softer forms ; for instance, 
the aor. 2. avWeyeic, avaWayelCf instead of the old Attic and 
Ionic σνλλεχθεία, airaWayiiw^f the double pp instead of the 
old ρσ, which the old Attic had in common with the Ionic» 
Doric, and -ilolic*; the double ττ instead of the hissing σσ". 
The new Attic said also πΧ^υμων^ yvaijievc^ for πνευμων, κνα- 
φευα*, and συν, instead of the older ζύν^. 

It is evident that the date of these changes in particular 
dialects cannot be determined with sufficient accuracy; but 
that they were introduced gradually, and especially by the ex- 
ample of the most eminent writers, orators, &c. as Pericles is 
said to have introduced the use of the ττ instead of the σσ• 
It was only in process of time too that these four principal dia- 
lects departed from one another in such a manner that their 
differences could be determined, in the way in which it has 
been done by the grammarians. In old times they differed 
from each other far less. In Homer and Hesiod forms of words 
and expressions occur, which are considered by the gramma- 
rians as -^olic, Doric, Attic, or merely as peculiarities of a 
local dialect. But they could hardly have been such in the 
age of those poets, who would no more allow themselves such 
a mixture, than a poet of these days would adopt the provin- 
cial dialects of his own country. It is much more probable 
that the language of Homer was, generally speaking, that of 
the lonians of his time, although his fine perception of somid 
and harmony, and the polish and richness of his expression as 
to phrases and inflexions, might lead one to suppose, that he re- 
tained words, forms and modes of speech already become obso- 
lete, when they seemed to him appropriate, and preferred that 
which appeared to him the most harmonious, and which was re- 
ceived in the language of the most polished amongst his coun- 
trymen. Of these forms of words used in Homer, all did not 

* Valck. ad Phoen. p. 356 sq. £u• sq. 31S. Valcken. ad Phoen. p. t49. 

stath. ad Hum. p. 519, 41. Fisch. 1, p. 203. 

' Fisch. 1, p. 194. Valcken. ad * Hemsterh. adLucian.t.l,p.301. 

Phoen. p. 29. Hemsterh. ad Lucian. Bninck. ad Aristoph. Plut. 166. 

t.1, p.317.adThom. M. App. p.535. ' Hemsterh. ad Lucian. t.l, p. 317. 

Koen ad Gregor. p. (66) 153. Koen ad Gregor. p. 10. Fisch. 1, 

" Hemsterh. ad Lucian. 1. 1, p. 309 p. 199. 

Ctfthe Dialects generally. 9 

remain in the Ionic dialect; but some were retained only in 
the .£olo*I>oric : and of these, some only among single tribes, 
as the Cretans, Tarentines, &c. ; others only in the Attic*. The 
grammarians, in speaking of Homer, call that Attic, .£oUc, 
Doric, Cretan, 8tc. which had become so in their time*. So, 
previous to the Ionic migration 1130 B. C. the old Ionic and 
old Attic dialects were so nearly allied, that they may be con- 
sidered as one dialect, which was afterwards divided into two : 
the JEoUc and Doric were originally nearly allied, and had a 
common basis, till the language of the Dorians was improved 
by poetry and writing and the extended intercourse of the 

* Thus many words formerly in 
general use in the ancient language of 
Germany, are now lef^ only in a few 
single dialects; for instance, the 
Upper- German, or rather Swiss word 
higen, i. e. to tee, which must have 
beeu used also in Low-German, 
since it remains in English in to look, 

* On the Homeric dialect see Bur- 
gess Pnef. ad Dawes. Misc. Crit. p.xix. 
Heyne Obss. ad Hom. t. 7, p. 712 sq. 

^ It has become a prevalent opi- 
nion in modem times, that we must 
assume a primitive old Greek Ian- 
gMoge as the mother of all the dia- 
lects. If this be meant of a single 
common language, in which as yet 
there were no dialects, it is a mere 
hypothesis, which may be admitted 
as a philosophical view of the matter ; 
since the understanding naturally 
seeks a common root, for that which 
exhibits diversity combined with affi- 
nity; but which cannot be histori- 
cally established, unless we admit the 
deduction of Mr. Blomfield in his 
Remarks on the former edition of my 
Grammar, p. xxxvii. Engl. ed. to be 
historically founded; according to 
which, Dorus and £olus, as sons of 
one father Ilellen, and Ion and 
Achxus, as his grandsons, the sup- 
posed patriarchs of the Dorians, /Eo- 

lians, lonians and Achaeans, would 
naturally speak one language. But 
such a supposition contradicts all 
history; for no nation was ever found, 
or can ever exist even in the lowest 
stage of civilization, at all extensively 
diffused and yet speaking a language 
free from all dialectic variety ; differ- 
ence of soil and climate, of diet and 
occupation, exercises an unperceived 
influence on the organs of speech, 
and through them on language itself. 
The only case in which the ances- 
tors of the Greeks can have spoken 
a language without dialects, is if we 
suppose their four original tribes to 
have formed four small families in 
Phthia according to the mythic tra- 
dition; and tliese must have changed 
their language when the family of 
Ion removed to Attica, and that of 
Achaeus to the Peloponnesus, even if 
they did not adopt the speech of the 
inhabitants whofti they found there. 
Nor have I as yet been able to dis- 
cover any proof of Hermann's posi- 
tion (de Gr. Ling. Dial. p. v.), that the 
lonians in Attica once spoke Doric. 
On the other hand, we are often in- 
clined and even compelled in our in« 
vestigations to assume one root for 
various forms of the same word, which 
root may have existed in the language 



The writers in any dialect, however, seem not to have taken 
the language of their own nation, with all ita peculiarities ; but 
to have selected, in a greater or less degree, the general lan- 
guage of the people, abstracted from all peculiaritieB of single 
subdivisions. If Sophron wrote in the popular dialect of the 
Syracusans, and Connna in that of the Thebans, Theocritus, 
on the contrary, and Pindar, chose that which was not found 
merely in the local language of one single nation, but in the 
general Doric dialect of that age, the latter with an intenniz- 
ture of epic forms'^. Hence, perhaps, may be explained what is 
said of Pindar, that he wrote in the dialectus communis, Kotvn ', 
en expression, however, which was adopted by the grammarians 
not' from this view of the subject, but because all the forms 
are not found in him which occur in other Doric writers. The 
comic writers used the popular dialect of Athens, the trage- 
dians otlen use in the dialogue epic forms, as μοννος, ίσω, etc. 
Each writer modi6ed bis language as seemed acceptable to 
the public, for whom he destined it, or according to his par- 
ticular kind of writing and hie own taste and habit. In Aristo- 
phanes (s) many more peculiarities of the Attic dialect are 
found, than in Plato; in Plato, more than in Xenophon; and 
in him, more than in Aristotle: and hence it appears hazardous 
systematically to introduce into a writer in a certain dialect, 
forms which occur in other writers in the same dialect, or only 
in the remarks of the grammarians. These, however, call that 
only pure Attic, which was peculiar to the Attic dialect alone: 

berore any written documents : e. gr. 
-00 for the tno forms of the genitive 
•0(0 and -ov; a form in -m for the 
third persona Όνσι, -ασι, -tiai, -ay, 
-oyrat, -eyrai, -ανται; -eirt> for the 
two futures au and ω, and numerous 
forms of verbs of which only parti- 
cular parts occur in authors. These 
are indeed hypotheses; but they do 
not contradict history and the natu- 
ral development of language, and 
they are supported by the analogy of 
several cases; the derivation of 
ίμΐΰ and ίμοΰ from ΐμίο. There is 
uo objection to calling the language 

in which these forms were current a 
primitive language, except the vague- 
ness of the eipression ; but there is 
Still a wide distance between the as- 
sumption of such a language and the 
denial of all dialectic difiereaces. 

' Hermann de Dial. Pind. p. (iv.) 
333. thinks on the contrary that the 
epic language is the groundwork of 
the Pindaric. 

* κοιί'ή ti, ijTrayrts χρύμΐθα καΙ 
ρ &χρίΐσατο lltySapot, fiyovv ή ίκ 
run S avyctrruaa. Gregor.p.(5)la, 
ubiv.Koen. Hellen.p.SS. 
sqq. KoenadGregor.p.(171)373 

Of the Dialects generally. 1 1 

common (κοιν6ν\ and Hellenic, on the contrary, that which 
was found in other dialects also, although it was equally re- 
ceived in the Attic ^; and they regarded as the principal mo- 
dels of the Attic language, Aristophanes and the poets of the 
old comedy ^ Thucydides and Demosthenes^; Herodotus and 
Hippocrates are the standards of the Ionic, not Anacreon; of 
the Doric, Archytas and Theocritus, not Pindar. 

Now as each dialect in this respect, as we observe it in the 
writings of the ancients, is not so much a faithful copy of the 
popular speech, as a species of book-language, the choice also 
of his dialect would, in each writer, be regulated by the mo 
dels which had used it in an earlier period. Because Homer 
had written his poems in the old Ionic dialect, all succeeding 
epic poets chose it for their compositions, even at a time when 
the Ionic dialect had long ceased to be current as a book-lan- 
guage. The lyric choruses in the tragedies of the Athenians 
approached the Doric, in the use of α for η^ and a few forms, 
e. g. viv, OcSiTToSa, genit. for OiSiTroSov^, because the most 
eminent lyric poets had written in this dialect. In the lyric 
parts, the Doric dialect predominates where strong emotion is 
to be expressed, the Attic where the tone is more calm^ In 
prose, the Ionic dialect was used for a long time, because prose 
had first been composed in it : in this too Herodotus and Hip- 
pocrates, wrote, although both were of Doric origin. After- 
wards, however, it was in a great measure supplanted in all 
kinds of prose by the Attic dialect, in which the principal 
models of prose composition were written. As Athens was 
long the seat of literature, and especially of philosophy and 
rhetoric, its language maintained its superiority, became that 
of the Macedonian kings and grandees, and diffused itself by 
their means over the conquered provinces of Asia and ^gypt. 

Thus from the Attic was gradually formed, especially at 
Alexandria, a book-language, which adopted those expressions, 
forms of words, and phrases, which were not peculiar to one 
dialect, but in use amongst all the Greek nations, and intelli- 

• Piers. Praf. ad Mcerid. ** Dorv. ad Charit. p. 240. 

' Hemsterh. ad Thom. M. p. 179. * Matthisead Eur. Ilec. 96. Hipp. 

p Gregor. p. (2) 6. 263. Elms, ad Eur. Med. 95. 


12 Introduction. 

gible to them ; and approximated in the form of its words 
chiefly to the Attic language of composition (^ κοινή SiaXeKroc, 
ΈΧΧηνικγι ^), although expressions escaped from many writers, 
which were rather provincial^ or colloquial, and on that account 
are frequently condemned by the grammarians. In Alexandria 
(the resort not only of Greeks of all tribes, but also of fo- 
reigners), a dialect arose, which was composed of several dia- 
lects, and of phrases from foreign languages ; but this was 
used in writing only by some individuals, as by the Greek 
translators of the Old Testament, and by the writers of the 
New. This is called the Alexandrian dialect, and, as a Hebrew 
or Syrian speaking Greek was called 'ΈΑΧηνισττις, in modem 
times has been named the Hellenistic Greek. On the other 
hand, writers appeared, especially from the age of the Anto- 
nines and Adrian, who employed their chief care upon acqui- 
ring a fine flowery style, and to this purpose imitated the Attic 
writers, sometimes even in their faults and solecisms™. Of this 
school are Dio Chrysostom, Aristides, Libanius, Philostratus, 
Heliodorus, Longus, iiElian, &c. also Themistius and Lucian : 
the two latter, however, were very advantageously conspicuous 
among them. These artificial writers are called Sophists in 
reference to the manner in which they treated subjects of every 
kind, and Atticistae on account of their style ( Αττιι«σταί, Άτ- 

The modem Greek appears to be derived chiefly from the 
language of the country people, which contained most traces of 
the iEolo-Doric®. 

Obs. 1. The principal ancient work on the dialects is Gregorius, 
Corinthi Metropolita, de Dialecds, published by Koen, Lugd. Bat. 1 766, 
8vo, and by Schaefer, with the notes of Koen, Bast, Boissonade and his 
own, Lips. 1811, 8vo. An extract of the work of an old grammarian, 
Joannes Gramm. on the dialects, is found in θησαυροί, Kipas *Αμα\β€ία$, 
Venet. ap. Aid. 1496, fol. 2S5 — 245. Much diligence in collecting, but 

*^ Salmasius de Hellenist, p. 152. " H. Steph. App. de Dial. p.241 — 

Bentley Opusc. Philol. p. 380. 847. Koen ad Gregor. p. (27) 67. 

* e. g. ιτέψρικαν, ίσχάζοσαν, in not. 5. 

Lycophron. " BcBckh's Public Economy of 

" 01 σο\οικίζοντ€$ *Ατηκώ$, Lu- Athens, 2, p. 394. (Germ.) Coray ad 

cian. Pseudos. t. 9, p. 224. Bip. Isocr. p. 61. 
Bentley Opusc. Philol, p. 326 sq. 

History of Greek Grammar. 13 

little judgement, is shown in Mich. Maittaire Grsecee Ling. Dialectic 
1706, republished by J. F. Reitzius, Hag. Com. 1738, 8νο ; and by F. W. 
Sturs, Lips. 1807, 8νο. To this subject belongs F. W. Sturz de Dial. 
Maced« et Alexandr. Lib. Lips. 1808, 8vo• A useful work is iBmilii 
Porti Atiimv *1ωνικ6ν 'ΈΧΚηνορωμάίκύν^ and his Ae£. ^ωμικον 'ΈΧΚηνορ. 
Francof. 1603, 8vo ; the former repr. Oxon. 1817, 8vo. Hermann Progr. 
de Dialectis, Lips. 1807, 4to, and De Dialecto Pindari, ib. 1809, 4to. 
Several ancient grammarians who have written on the dialects are quoted 
in Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 6, 164, ed. Harks, and Koen Praef. Greg. Cor. p. xv. 
iqq. ed. Schasfer. 

O&f. 2. The origin of a systematic Greek Grammar belongs to the 
Alexandrian period. We find, indeed, earlier traces of inquiries into 
the elements of speech : Plato's Cratylus contains many etymologies, 
generally childish, and makes mention of men who devoted themselves 
to such investigations p. 407. A. oi νυν irepl "Ομηρον ^eivoi, p. 424. C. 
(where he is speaking of the division of the φωνίΐ€ντα, άφωνα καΐ άφθογ^ 
γα) OC irepl τοντων ieivoi. Among them the Sophists, Prodicus, Protago- 
ras and Hippias are particularly mentioned >*. To them also appears to 
have belonged Antimachus, who occupied himself chiefly in correct- 
ii^ the text of Homer^. Aristotle was regarded as the founder of 
grammar and criticism', but the observations on language which are 
found in all his writings, especially trepi 'Έφμην€ΐαί and Poet. c. 20. SI. 
22, belong more to philosophical grammar, as do those of the Stoics 
who, after Aristotle and the Peripatetics, bestowed most care on this 
department*. The study of Homer and other ancient poets at Alex- 
andria, gave birth to inquiries respecting various parts of the Greek 
language, the origin and nature of letters, words, their etymology and 
flexion, the dialects, accent and quantity. The Commentaries of £u- 
stathius, the Venetian Scholia and the Etymologicon, are rich in such 
remarks, chiefly proceeding from Zenodotus, Aristarchus, Aristophanes, 
Apollonius Dyscolus, and his son Herodian, and Apion. Dionysius 
Thrax, who lived in the time of Pompey and Caesar, was the first who 
established a system of Grammar, confined however to the etymological 
part. His Τέχνη Γραμματική is lost ; for the little treatise which hae 
reached us under his name was considered by many even of the an- 
cients as spurious S and is probably a compilation made by the gram- 

' Wolf Proleg. ad Horn. p. clxvi. ■ Dionys. Hal. ττ. συν^. c. 2. with 

sqq. Upton's and Hudson's notes. Quint. 

« Scbellenberg Antim. rel. p. 33 1. 4. 18 sqq. and respecting the Stoics, 

sqq. Diog. L. 4, 44. especially 56—59. 

' Dio Chiys. 1. 3, p. 553. C. ed. Menag. p. 288 sq. 

Morell. * Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 6, p. 310. 



marians of Constantinople ". Tryphofif a contemporary of Augustus, 
treated of the Πάθΐ| τηκ A^eus (affectiones dictionum), of the dialects, 
flexions of nouns and verbs, and almost every part of the accidence. 
Apollonius Dyscolus^ who lived under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, a 
man not only of learning but of an acute and philosophic mind, left 
instructive works on Syntax (irepl Σvyτάζ€ωsy Lib. iv.) on the pronouns» 
conjunctions and adverbs, which we still possess, and others (which 
have been lost) on derivative nouns (ταρώνν^α, denominativa), on the 
verb, participle, &c. ' which united, would have embraced the whole 
of elementary grammar. Of his son Herodian are quoted works either 
on parts of grammar, as prosody, nouns, and their declension, ortho- 
graphy, &c, or τέχναι γραμματικαί and lexicographical writings'. 
These are the most valuable of the grammarians who were called Τεχ- 
νικοί by the ancients : there was a much larger number who cultivated 
the same science without much advancing it. Aurelian's devastations 
drove the learned men from Alexandria; Constantine the Great af- 
forded them a refuge in his new capital, and opened an academy in his 
palace, after the model of the Brucheum at Alexandria, called oi oajcov- 
^eviico/, at whose head was the οικονμ€ηκό$ ^i^aaKfiXos, Here probably 
originated the grammar attributed to Dionysius Thrax; it was orally 
expounded by Theodosius of Alexandria, one of the most eminent 
grammarians of his time, who composed a classical work on the eight 
parts of speech, ΈΙσαγωγικοΙ Kavoyes, of which an extract has been pre- 
served*. On these Canones a commentary was again written in the fifth 
century by George Choeroboscus, one of the most esteemed gramma- 
rians, of whose numerous writings several have been published, but 
still more remain in MS. ^ All these grammarians are valuable to us 
by preserving words and forms from the ancient classics which facili- 
tate etymology, but we desiderate in them that correct and compre- 
hensive view, guided by philosophical acuteness, which belonged ex- 
clusively to Apollonius Dyscolus. The more the language degenerated» 

" Goettling Praef. ad Theod. p. v. 

* Fabr. Bibl. Or. 6, p. 271—276. 
Comp. p. 319, 320, 381. 

r Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 6, p. 278 — 285. 
Villoison Proleg. Horn. p. xxxi. Phil. 
Lex. ed. Osann. p. 305 sqq. Other 
Fragments in Bekk. Anecd.3, p.l086. 
sqq. 1142. 

■ θ€θΕοσΙον Γρ. wepl Γραμματι- 
κής. £ Codd. MSS. ed. et notas adj. 

C.G.Goettling,L!ps.l822.8vo. Geo^. 
Kayoves vepl RXcVeois *Ονομάτ*αν 
in Bekk. Anecd. 3, p. 975 ; and περί 
Κλ. 'νημάτων, ib. p. 1008. 

• Fabr. Bibl. Gr. 6, p. 338 sqq. 
Comp. ib. p. 294. 309. 320. 335. 
Villois. Anecd. Gr. 2, p. 103 not. 2. 
Goettl. praef. ad Theod. p. xiii. Frag- 
ments uf his Commentary on Thecd. 
Bekk. Anecd. 3, p. 1180. sqq. p. 1209 
& Ind. 

History of Greek Grammar. 1 5 

the more they occupied themeelves with the comparatively unimport* 
ant subjects of pronunciation and accent. 

The Greeks who alarmed at the growing power of the Turks took 
refuge in Italy and taught their language there, pursued the path 
which the Alexandrians and Byzantines had opened. The most con- 
siderable of them are Emanuel Chrysohras in the 14th and beginning 
of the 15th centuries (^Έφωτίιματα του ΧρυσοΧωρά^) which Reuchlin in 
Germany, and Erasmus at Cambridge, made the text-book of their pre- 
lections• Theodore Gaza of Thessalonica, about 1430, Τραμματικη% £<σ- 
ay^yris Βιβλία ^/ Manuel Moschopulus of Byzantium, nephew of the 
Cretan Moschopulus about 1453. Tlepl τη$ 'Ονομάτων καΓΡημάτων Συν^ 
rdle^Sf w€fH Όροσψ^Ια$^ irepl Σ^ε^ών, irepl Τραμμ, Τυμνασίακ^, Con^ 
siantme Lascaris of Byzantium, about 1460, lived chiefly at Milan, and 
was the author of a Greek Grammar, Mediol. 1476, 4to, oilen reprinted 
and with improvements, under the title 'Ερωτήματα, Venet. 1495, 4to.* 
&c. Demetriui Chalcondylas at Milan, died 1510. Erotemata Synop- 
tica Octo Pardum Orationis, sine loco et anno (Mediol. 1493,) Gramm. 
Gr. Paris 1525. 4to.' George Lecapenus Uepl Σνντ€ίζ€ω$ των 'Ρημάτων in 
the Chr. Gramm. of Aldus, Venet. 1525, 8vo, p. 171—216. These 
grammarians made no improvements, but they are valuable from having 
extracted and combined the doctrines of the older writers, as Apollo- 
nius and Herodian. 

The first native of the West who wrote a Greek grammar was Ur- 
bonus of Belluno, a Franciscan monk and teacher of Leo X., who is said 
to have heard Constantine Lascaris lecture at Messina ; died at Venice 
1526. Urbani Bellunensis Institutt. in Ling. Gr. Gramm. lib. ii. Venet. 
1512, and several times at Basil. Then followed Aldi Manutii Gramm. 
Institutt. Gr. Ven. 1515, 4to, wholly in Greek'. Phil. Melanchthonis 
Institutt. Gr. Gramm. Hagense, 1518, 4to, studio Jo. Camerarii, Lips. 
1552, 8vo, 1571, 8vo. Aug. Caninii ΈΧΧηνισμόε, Parisl555, 8vo. ed. Th. 
Crenius, 1700, 8vo, executed with great care, especially in what relates 
to the dialects. — Nicol. Clenardi Institutt. ac Meditatt. in Gr. Ling. Co- 
lon. 1530, 1541, 8vo, c. scholiis et praxi P. Antesignani, Paris 1572, 4to, 
Francof. 1580, Lugd. Bat. 1594, 4to, was rendered of value by the ad- 
dition of Sylburgius's notce, Francof. 1583, 4to. — Jo. Verwey Nova Via 

b See the editions in Fabr. Bill. ^ Fabr. I.e. p. 322 sqq. Man. Mos- 

Gr. 6, p. 327 sqq. where, however, chopuli Cret. Opera Gramm, e cod. 

that which I have used, Paris ap. nuper in Bohemia reperto nunc pri- 

An. Wecbelium^ 1559, 4to, is not mum cd. gr. F. N. Iltze. Lips, et 

mentioned. Pragsl822, Bvo. 

' Fabr. B. Gr. 1. c. p. 333. not. • Fabr. 1. c. p. 329. 

also Basil* ex offic. Valderiana 1541. ' Ibid. 1. c. p. 334. 
4to. ' Ibid. 1. c. p. 382. 

16 Introduction. 

Docendi Grseca, Gouda 1684. Ultraj. 1735, 8vo. without any thing new• 
— Geo. Henr. Ursini Gramm. et Electa Grseca, Noriberg. 1691, Svo, 
which Hemsterhuis recommended to his hearers. See Scheid. ad Len- 
nep. de Anal. p. 247. The Grammar of MM. de Port Royal contains 
many good remarks in luminous order, Paris 1655. Eng. London 1746. 
vol. 2. Svo. The doctrine of the declensions, of which the old grammarians 
reckoned ten, was simplified by Jac. Wellen Gramm. Gr. Lips. 1635, 
8vo, and by J. F. Fischer, Leipz. 175G, 1780, 8 vo; to which also belong 
J. F. Fischeri Anim. in Jac. Velleri Gramm. Gr. Spec. i. Lips. 1798 ; 
'>•^ spec. ii. ib. 1799. spec. iii. 1. ed. C. T. Kuinoel, ib. 1800. spec. iii. 2. 
1801. But the men who made an epoch in this department were Tib. 
Hemsterhuis and L. C. Valckenaer ; their prelections on the analogy 
of the Greek language appeared together, under the title L. C. Valck- 
enaerii Obss. Academ. quibus viamimitur ad Origines Gr. investigandas 
Lexicorumque defectus resarciendos et Jo. Dan. a Lennep. Prsel. Acad, 
de Analogia Ling. Gr. — rec. Ever. Scheidius Traj. ad Rh. 1790, 8vo ; to 
which also belongs, Jo. D. a Lennep Etymologicum Ling. Gr. cur. £v. 
Scheidius, ib. eod. vol. 2. By the methodical arrangement of the primi- 
tive roots and the development of their gradual formation, the doc- 
trine of the verb in particular received a degree of clearness and sim- 
plicity which has greatly facilitated the study of the whole language, 
though much that is hazarded without sufficient ground occurs in the 
details, especially in the prelections of Lennep, and still more of Scheid. 
J. G. Trendelenburg's Elements of the Greek Language (Anfangsgriinde 
der Gr. Sprache) Leipz. 1782. 88. 8vo, is an excrescence of this me- 
thod ; but we owe to these inquiries also Buttmann*s short Gr. Gram- 
mar (Kurzgefasste Griech. Grammat.) Berlin, 1782, 10th ed. 1822. 
the first which erected a system of the language on an historical 
foundation with philosophical criticism. Another leading work is 
Godofr. Hermanni de Emendanda Ratione Grsecse Grammat. Pars i. 
Lips. 1801, 8vo. Of great utility for the Homeric language is Fr. 
Thiersch*s Grammar (Gr. Grammatik, vorzuglich des Homerischen 
Dialects) 2d ed. Leipz. 1818, 8vo. 

In all these works the etymological part is treated with especial care, 
the syntactical very scantily and almost as an appendix. This deside- 
ratum may be in some measure supplied from Jo. Posselii Syntaxis Gr. 
Witeb. 1561, oflen repr.,andCalligraphiaOratoriaL. Gr. Hanov. 1605, 
8 vo : still more from Franc. Vigeri de Prsecipuis L. Gr. Idiotismis, espe- 
cially with the notes of Hoogeveen and Hermann. 2d ed. Leipz. 1813, 
8vo. Most instructive of all, however, are the notes of the editors of 
the classics, Hemsterhuis, Valckenaer, Ruhnken, Brunck, F. A. Wolf, 
Hermann, Schsefer, and very recently P. Elmsley. 


Of the Letters, and their Proimnciation. 

TiTE Greek Language has the following 24 Letters (στοιχεία, §. j 
-γράμματα). (lO) 





Rcuchlin. Erum. 

Rmchlin. Erum. 












bita, beta 
Γ e \pCKov 
\ epsTlon'" 
ζ zita, zeta 

i, e, ors *ita, eta 


Ν » 





Ο ο 

Π 1Γ 


ΣΟ» C 


Reuchlin. Eraiin. 



Reuchlin. £nupn. 








• • 









ο μικρόν 




Γ y φι\6ν 
\ ypsTlon'' 



thita, theta 






Ob*. V. The old Greek alphabet consisted of 16 letters only, a β γ 
^€ΐκ\μνοΐΓρστν, which, according to tradition, were brought by 
Cadmus from Phoemcia, and hence were called γράμματα Κα^/ι//ϊα (He" 
rodoi• 5, 59.)» Φοινιιτ^ια (id. 5Β.\ Φοινίκια, or Φοινικικά (r). In fact they 
agree in form and order with the Samaritan or Phoenician letters, with 


ο /ΐ€γα 

^ € φιΚόν and ν ψ. (smoodi, not 
aspiratisd) appear to have ' received 
this appdlation, to distinguish them 
from Η (which was anciently the mark 
of theiptrihisiupfr, and was expressed 
also as a vowel by e), and from the v, 
as the ancient sign of the digamma, 
another species of aspirate, since 
otherwise oc was put for v. [Salmas. 
ad laser. Herod, p. 30.] The Greeks 
called the e el, and the ο ov. £ust. ad 
IL e'. p. 61 1 . ed. Rom. Respecting oh 
see Dawes Misc. Grit. p. 19. 

* The reader will observe, that in 
this account of the pronunciation the 
t and β are to be sounded as in the 
French word Uite, 

' These letters were originally dis- 

tinguished only by their size, ο Ο ; 
afterwards two cross strokes below 
were added to ω μέγα, Ω. Mazochi ad 
Tab. Heracl. p. 124 scq. 

^ I'he figure G and £ for the older 
Σ is first found on coins and monu- 
ments of the Augustan age. Μ ontf« 
Palaeogr. Gr. p. 153; but Ruhnken 
ad Longin. s. 3, shows that the use 
of G is older. The lontans called this 
letter sigma^ the Dorians tan, 

' An Analytical Essay on the Greek 
Alphabet, by R. P. Knight, London, 
1791, 4to, is chiefly a hypothetical ap^ 
plication of the doctrine of the di- 
gamma to determine the quantity of 


Of the Letters. 

which they are compared by Scaliger, Euseb. p. 110. Montfaucon Pa- 
laeographia Gr. p. 122. (Fischer ad Well. 1. p. 13.) To these Simonides 
of Ceos and Epicharmus of Sicily, about the time of the Persian war, 
(instead of Epicharmus some mentionPalamedes, in the time of the Trojan 
war,) are said to have added ^ ( or £) ?y ψ ω and θ { (or ^) χ, or rather 
to have brought them from Asia Minor and the Islands to European 
Greece. (Piin. H. N. 7, 5G. Schol. ad Dion. Thr. Gr. p. 780 seq. Fischer 
ad Well. 1. p. 5.) But θ ^ χ occur on the oldest inscriptions, e. g. the 
Sigean and the Delian, in Montf. Pal. p. 134, and Tnscr. 1. in Boeckh's 
Public Economy of Athens (German ed.). See Payne Knight, p. 18• 
seq. We find ζ also in the form χ Boeckh. PI. 1. No. 2. 1. 3. Κνζικηνο^ 
and PL 2. No. 3. 1. 11, fcrcffavrci, i. e. ζηΓί/σαντ€$, For ξ they wrote 
ΧΣ, e. gr. ΧΣΥΝ ΕΧΣ, PI. 1. No. 1. 1. 2, for ξνν, Ιξ, even when another 
σ follows ; χ for ic, ΕΧΣΑΜΟ for lie Σάμου, PL 1. No. 1. L 20, 34 ; for 
ψ ΦΣ, e. g. Φ2ΕΦΙΣΑΜΕΝ0 AN ΑΓΡΑΦΣ ANTON, PL 1. No. 1. 1. 3, 
for φηψισαμένον, αναγραφάντων. Η was the spirittts asper ; for η e was 
used, €vi T€s βό\€$ for Μ rrjs βονΧψ, PL 1. No. 1. 1. 1 ; or in the da- 
tive, for ji EI, στ€\€ΐ for στήΧρ, PL 1. No. 1. L 18 ; HEI for ^, PL 1. 
No. 1. 1. 1 ; El for y, PL i. No. 3. 1. 30; as 01 for ψ, ey τοι πόλεμοι, 
for iy τψ ποΧέμψ, We find also €€ for ij, as MATEEP, Villois. Anecd. 
Gr. t. 2. p. 124. Proleg. in 11. p. v. not., whence BieXos for BfjXos, 
11. κ , 466. For ω was written Ο (ό) or oo, Vill. ibid. The lonians first 
adopted all the 24 letters, and of them first the Samians, firom whom 
they were received by the Athenians ; but it was not till after the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, in the archonship of Euclides {OL 94, 2. B. C. 403.), 
that they were used in public acts ; whence ra γράμματα ra άττ' Εύ- 
KXeldov &pxoyros. This new character is found in the Sandwich Marble, 
Ol. 100, 4-101, 3 •». The 24 letters are called "Ιωνικά γράμματα, and 
the 16 'Arnica γράμματα. The ^olians retained the ancient mode, and 
wrote κσένο5 for ^iyos, TUXows for ΠΑοψ^. 

Obs, 2. The most ancient Greeks had three other letters, which dis- 

* According to the grammarians, 
e. gr. Schol. Dion. Thr. Gr. p. 780, 
in Bekker Anecd. Theodos. p. 1 1, 26, 
the ancient Greeks wrote TH, ΠΙΙ, 
KH, for θ χ ; but this is found only 
on the Columna Naniana (the Ve- 
netian Votive Tablet in Payne Knight, 
pi. 1. fig. 8.), ΕΚΠΗΑΝΤΟ, ΕΠΕΥ- 
RH0MEN02, on another and pro- 
bably older inscription Κ and Π for χ 
and φ. Villois. Anecd. Gr. t. 2. p. 120. 

»» Fisch. ad Well. Gr. i. p. 4-14. 
Wolf Prolegom. ad Horn. p. Li. sqq. 
impr.p.LXii.sqq. Valcken. ad Eurip. 
Phoen. p. 260. 688. Fisch. 1. p. 25. 
I^nnep. de Anal. p. 33 sqq. Maitt. 
p. 164. (r) It is evident from the 
Fragm. of Euripides in Athenxus x. 
p. 454y that η was in use in his time, 
though not in public documents. 

•^ Greg. p. (288) 613, § 39. 

Of the Letters. 1 9 

appeared firom the alphabet in later times, and were called Μσημα, nu- 
meral marks. 1. Βαϋ, Vau, 6th in place, answering to the Hebrew Van, 
Ft W, and C ; whence, from its accidental resemblance, 7 is still used 
as the numeral for 6'. This is probably the character for thedigamma. 
2. KOTKOt 9 between χ and p, used on the coins of Crotona for jc, the 
Hebrew Koph and• Latin Q. At Athens horses were branded on the 
hips with this letter, whence KOTrwarias ίππο$\ S• Σαμπί, also Σαν ^ 
afker w, the Hebrew Shin. This was also used in branding horses, whence 
σαμψ6ρα$ ^ These letters ceased to be written in early times. See Obs, 4>. 

Ohs, S. In all the monuments of antiquity, and in the passages in 
which the forms of the letters are described (A then. x. p. 454.) the capital, 
or as it is called uneialf writing is found ; and this predominates even 
in MSS. till the 8th century \ and is retained in the editions of the 
Greek authors by Janus Lascaris at Florence (Wolf Anal. i. 2S7 seq.). It 
is doubtful whether the Greeks in common life used an easier character; 
but it is probable that they did, as the cursive character is found in an 
Egyptian conveyance on papyrus of the year 104 B. C. (See Boeckh's 
Explanation of an Eg. Papyrus. Berlin. 18S1. 4to.) The cursive cha- 
racter is not found in MSS. till the 8th and 9th centuries. 

Obs» 4. The Greeks used the letters as numerals. On old monuments 
only the uncial letters occur ; I or I- for unity, (from the old Ια for μία ?), 
II 2 (or H- ), III 3 (or hV h), IIII 4 (or l-hH- ), Π 5 (the initial of 
friyre), Δ 10 (Uxa), Η 100 (HEKATON), X 1000 (χ(\ια), Μ 10,000 
(jjLvpuiy As many units were added to Π, as the number up to ten re- 
quired ΠΙ 6, nil 7, mil 8, mill 9. The rest of the numbers were re- 
peated as often as the sum required ; ΔΔ 20, ΔΔΔ 30, &c. ; HH 200, Sec, ; 
XX 2000, &c. ; but when the number amounted to 50, 500, 5000, the 
letters for 10, 100, 1000, were placed within a Π; thus, p 50>, |RI or 
Ρ 500, F 5000, for ireyraKis ^έκα, ίκατόν, χίλια, pi 51, &c., ΡΔ 60^ 
&c^. It is evident, however, from the denotement of the 10 Athenian 
courts by the 10 letters of the alphabet, from α to ic, (Schol. Aristoph. 
Plut. 277. comp. Eccles. 683. seq.) that at least as far as ic, i. e. 10, the 

' Mazochi ad Tab. Heracl. p. 128 ^ Montfaucon Palseogr. Gr. p. 269. 

seq. * Ρ ^ stand for 60, ]0 talents, 

* Schol. Comp. Η 100 talents. £useb.Chr.ada. mdcxvii. k Ήρω^ανονΐΓ€ρ\ τών&ριθμών, in 

Salmas. Exerc. Plin. p. 626. Ma- H. Steph.Thes.L.Gr. Append, p. 205 

zochi 1. c. p. 221 seq. seq. and an abstract in Scapula. Not» 

'Aristoph. Nub. 122. 1300. Eq.603. GraBconim. coll. rec. explic. Ed. 

s Boeckh's Public Economy of Corsinus. Florent. 1702. foL Prol. 

Athens, 2, 385. (Germ.) p. xix. seq. 



20 Of the Letters. 

order of the alpliabet was used in numeration. This became the more 
common method under the Ptolemies» and Aristarchus used all the 24 
letters to number the Rhapsodies of Homer, κ being 10, λ' 11, » 24 ; 
and so the books of Herodotus were numbered. To these in the time 
of Claudius the Vau was added (FC Cc) ^'^ ^» ^^ Koppa 9 q Ρ VCJ 
for 90. Both these are ΐοχχαά on coins and marbles ; the Sampi ^ for 
900 only in MSS. * The small letters have a stroke above when used 
as numerals, ά /S' y 2' έ ?' (^ i| θ' /, 1 2 3 4, &c. The thousands a stroke 
beneath, ^ 1000, β, 2000 ; κά stands for 21, νβ 52, &c. 

Obs. 5. The different characters for the same sound are used indis- 
criminately, except σ and s. σ is used at the beginning and in the middle, 
s only at the end of words. In later times F. A. Wolf, following the 
example of H. Stephanus, has introduced the practice of using s at the 
end of syllables also, when they make an entire word, with which an- 
other is compounded, (a) e. g. Ιυψ^νίμ^ €ΐ$φέρω, nposetvov. But this 
practice, which has not even the authority of MSS., cannot be syste- 
matically introduced without inconvenience to orthc^aphy, (e. g. 3vs- 
σ€βη$, Xaosaoosj) and is not agreeable to the genius of the ancients, who 
were not accustomed to separate by the understanding the different 
parts of discourse ^. 

Obs, 6. In the most ancient times, according to Pans. 5, 25, p. 444, 
the Greeks, like the Orientals, wrote from right to left. They soon 
began, however, to write in the first b'ne from the left to the right, in 
the second from the right to the left, βονστροφη^όν, as the ox turns with 
the plough. So the laws of Solon were written, Harpocr. 6 κάτωΘ€ν ν6μο$, 
and so is the Sigean Inscription, (ed. £dm• ChishuU. Lond. 1721-8. 
Lugd. B. 1727-8, and Rich. Chandler in Inscriptt• Ant Lond. 1774. 
fol.) as well as some others, Fisch. ad Well. 1, p. 22^. But as early as 
the time of Herodotus it was the established custom to write from left 
to right. Herod. 2, 36. 

§. 2. Of these 24 letters, 17 are consonants {συμφωνά), and 7 
(i3) vowels {φωνήεντα), a e η ι ο υ ω. 

Ι. The Consonants are distinguished as follows : 

1 . According to the pronunciation, 

a. Ήfιίφωvα {semivocales), \μν ρσΖ^φ, to which some 

* Corsini, 1. c. p. xxix. seq. « According to Mazochi ad Tab. 

*» Wolf. Praf. ad Horn. Odyss. a. Her. p. 281 not, the first line went 
1794, p. VIII. sq. from right to left. 

Of the Letters. 21 

added Θ, φ, χ^. Of these the 4 first are called by the 
Latins liquids {liquicUt), on account of the facility with 
which they connect themselves with other letters. 
b. Mutes {muta, ai^va)y and these again are subdi- 
vided into, 

a. Aspirated {aspirata, haaea), ψ χ θ• 

β. Smooth (tenues, φίλα), π κ τ, 

γ. Middle (media, μίσα), β γ 8*. 

2. According to their power, into simple and double : The 

double are, •. 

a. iforaS. (Dionys. p• 167. Sext. Emp. p. 239.) 

b. ζ for ya κσ χσ. 

c. }p for βσ πσ φσ, 

Ohs. These double letters are universally used instead of their cor• 
responding simple letters, except where the two simple letters belong to 
two dififerent parts of the compound ; e. g. €κ-σ€ϋω, not l£evw. Yet 
*ΑΟήι/α(€ is used instead of 'AO^vas^e• 

3. According to the organ with which they are pronounced, 

labials β μ π ψφ, palatics y κ ζ χ» and unguals S ζθ 
\ ν ρ σ ύ; the application of which is explained § 67 
Obs. I. 

II. The Vowels are η and ω long, e and ο short, and a ι υ 
doubtful, ancipites, δίχρονα {αμφιβοΧα Sext. Emp. adv. 
Math. 1. § 100). 

When two vowels are pronounced with one sound, they con- 
stitute a diphthong, £ίφθογγοα• Diphthongs are, 

1 . Propria, Kvpiwc ϋφθ. αι αυ ei ev οι ov. 

2. Impropria, καταχρηστικώο Βιφθ, f -g ηυ ψ ωυ^. 

* Sext. Emp. adv. Math. 1. § 109. 'The ι tubxcriptum is written by 
These seem to be the ψων^εντα μ^ν the ancients, who used capital letters, 
ov, oh μέντοι ye άψθογγα. Plat, as a regular letter, ΤΩΙ ΛΙΠΣΤΙ1Ι, 
Cratyl. p. 4£4. C. τ^λι/στρ. Herm. de em. Gr. Granim. 

* Dion. Hal. de Comp. i. 14. p. 154. p. 49 sqq. divides the diphthongs into, 
ed. Schxf. Sext. £mp. adv. Math. i. 1. those in which both vowels are 
5, 100. p. 238. Dion. Thr. Or. p. 631. short, propria ac αν ei cv oi ου vi ; 
Bekk. The mutes may be divided 2. those in which the first vowel is 
with lliiersch into P-sounds, φ π β, long, impropria ^ αν ji ηυ vt ψ ωυ. 
Κ -sounds, χ κ γ, and T-sounds, Ο wasusedforovevenailer Euclidcs. 
r ^. (Boeckh Inscr. PI. 3. No. 7. a.) 

22 Of PronunciatioK. 

Of Pronunciation. 

\ {. 3. Ii^ instituting an inquiry into the pronunciation of the Greek, 
■ v^d) our object is not to ascertain local peculiarities, but the pro- 
nunciation of the Athenians and of the well educated in general» 
after the Attic language became predominant. The best ex- 
\ pedient is to observe how the Romans expressed Greek, and 
the Greeks Roman names. 

In Germany there are two modes of pronouncing the vowels 
and diphthongs in Greek (r). One was introduced by Reuch- 
lin, and coincides with the pronunciation of the modern Greeks, 
according to which η ei oi are pronounced like i% αυ like of, 
ai like a^, ev like ef. The other was introduced by Erasmus, 
and gives to η the sound of e long, nearly that of a^, and to the 
diphthongs a double sound, so that ec is pronounced like ei, oi 
like oij αυ like au^, ev like eu^. The latter is preferable on 
account of its perspicuity. 

Η had certainly in some periods and dialects the sound of 
i (e), as Plato (Cratylus, p. 418. B. C.) expressly says of η/ιερα 
that it was anciently pronounced Ιμερα ; but it is evident from 
the following considerations that η was generally pronounced 
a {ay). 1. Cratinus ap. Eust. ad II. p. 1721, 16. Etym. M. 
p. 196, 7, expressed the bleating of a sheep by βη j3i). 2. Di- 
onys. Hal. p. 164, says the sound of η is formed at the root of 
the tongue, ι about the teeth, just as e and i are actually 
formed. 3. In Latin η is always expressed by a long e. Scc- 
Xi}voc Silenus, Άθηι^αι Athena, as in Greek the long e of the 
Romans is expressed by i?, e. g. Pint. Rom. 21. το στβ/οεσθαι 
οι 'Ρω/ια?οι καρηρ€ (carere) ονομαζουσιν. Numa 19, μαίωρηα 
(majores), Numa 2 1 . priyac (reges),' SnlL 34, φηΧιξ {felix). The 
Greeks indeed wrote ^κηπιων for Scipio; but they probably 
formed this word according to the analogy of σκηττων, with 
which scipio coincides in sense. 

}. 4. The pronunciation of the diphthongs ai ei and oc is more 
(ie) dubious. Not only do the Latins express ai by a, e. g. Μοί/σαι 

' In English pronunciation e. ^ In Engl. ou. 

^ in English a in ale. ^ In Engl. eye. 

Of Pronmiciation.' 23 

Musa, as the Greeks write AiXioc for the Latin ^lius ; but 
in an Epigram of Callimachus, n. 30, Echo answers the word 
ναιγί by tx^h &i^d it might hence appear that at was sounded 
like ae^. But 1. ac must have been sounded as in Kaiser • 
(nearly as the English t) in those words in which ai were di- 
vided into two syllables, and ai arose from this diaeresis ; as 
^eiaιyμevoi^ Find. Pyth. 8, 125. from SeSa'cyftevoc, £α(ζω, Msch. 
Ag, 216, from Βαίξω. To this head belong naic in Homer, 
waic, άισσω, in the Attics αϊσσω ^σσω, ypaiBiov from ypatSiop, 
2. If the Greeks had pronounced ac like a (the English ay), 
it is difBcult to conceive how from κλαίω, καίω, a'lel, could have 
arisen κΧάω, καω, ael, or from και εγώ, καγω, &c. 3. Eusta- 
ihius, p. 365, 28, says the Boeotians expressed the ai in the 
partic. pres, pass, λεγο^ιεναι, ποιουμ€ναι by η, Χε-γομενη, ττο*- 
ουμενη. In describing the Bceotian pronunciation thus, he 
wished to show the difference between it and the common 
Greek ; whence it follows that ac was indeed pronounced by 
the Boeotians as η, or a, but not by all the Greeks ^ The same 
remark applies to the ^olic pronunciation θναισκω, μιμναίσκω, 
for θνησκω, μιμνησκω ; and the Ionic pronunciation 0ep c for Oealc, 
arose chiefly from the preference which the lonians gave to the 
If over the a. Hence we may conclude, that in αϊ, α had the 
principal sound, and that it was sounded also like αϊ, but in 
one syllable. The ancient Latin mode of writing was Ailius, 
Caisar, aulai; it was only in later times that a was used for ai^. 

The Latins express ec sometimes by e long, as M^Seca Medea, §. 5. 
Μονσεΐομ Museum ; sometimes by i long, as Ίφιγέι^βια, εικων, 
Iphigenia, icon. By the ancient Greeks it was pronounced 
separately, which mode is retained by Poets and lonians, opei, 
'ArpeiSac (see §. 13.)• These deviations, as well as the dif- 
ferences in the dialects, become clear, if we assume that ei was 
pronounced like ec separately, yet in one syllable, so that ac- 
cording to the different dialects, sometimes e, sometimes i had 
the predominant sound. 

Of might seem to have the same sound as i, from the inter- (tr) 

* In £Dgl. ay. ' Traces of the genuine pronun- 

' Hermann draws different con- ciation of ai are still found in Aias, 
elusions, de em. Gr. Or. p. 52. Maia, Aiax, Maia. 

24 Of Pronunciation. 

change of Xoc/ioc and λιμοα in Thucydides 2, 54. But this 
interchange appears to have arisen not so much from the similar 
sound of 04 and i, as from the resemblance of the two words in 
other respects, by which also one was easily substituted for the 
other in the tradition. Had oi been pronounced like c, the two 
words which occur in Hesiod'^Rpy. 24 1^ λοιμόμ όμου και Χιμον 
could not have been distinguished, at least so long as the poems 
did not exist in writings but only in recitation. Oc was mostly 
formed from οϊ^ as oic, oiaroc, from oic, oiaroc, and the Latins 
expressed oc by a. 

Av and εν probably had the sound of ou and ey in oitt and 
eye, both because they• are often separated, and because the 
pronunciation ef and af would produce a harshness, of which 
there is not another instance in Greek, e. g. wfl/s, Orphejs, 
pepaidevntai, for vavQ, Ό/οφενβ, nenaiBevvrai, and because in 
Latiuy where the two diphthongs when followed by a vowel are 
written av, ev, the a and e are always long, e. g. Evander Εναμ- 
Spocj Agave Ά-γαυη, which could not happen had αν and ev not 
been diphthongs. 

Ov is always represented in Latin by u ; but it appears from 
the censure of Quintilian xii. 10, 27, that the Greeks had not 
the sound of the Latin u. 

In respect to the pronunciation of the improper diphthongs, 
we have no information. We know not whether the i subscript 
turn was audibly pronounced or not: vi was probably pro- 
nounced like the French ui in pluie. The Latins in some words 
express i^ by a;, as tragadus, in others by o, as rhapsodus. The 
diphthong ων is exclusively Ionic, as we now write avroc, not 
ώντό( in Attic authors. Nothing can be determined respecting 
the pronunciation of the vowels in crasis, eyw ov, rj eiBoroc, 
€γω €ΐμι, η ovceiQ, oCC. 

I is merely a vowel, never the consonant j, although in 
Latin, when between two vowels, it becomes sometimes (not 
always, as Alaicoc, AioXoq) a j. 

The following is the order of the vowels and diphthongs, pro- 
ceeding gradually from the greatest opening of the mouth to 
the smallest. 






at 01 


αν VI 


€1 ου 


€v and i?i; 

ο ω 



Here follow some remarks on the pronmiciation of the con- $. 7. 
sonants. (^^) 

1 . The modem Greeks pronounce β like b with an aspirate 
bhf or rather like a ν with a hissing through the teeth, 
which was probably the pronunciation of the ancients, 
since they expressed the Latin υ either by β or ου, e. g. 
Servius Έβρβιοο, Βάρρων and Ουάρρων Varro : the Do- 
rians expressed the digamma by β, and many interchanged 
φ and β. But the Romans always wrote the Greek β b, 
and the Greeks the Roman b β. 

2. y before another y, and before the rest of the consonants, 
was pronoimced with a nasal sound like η or iig, e. g. 
ayyeXoc, eyKaprepeiv, eyyjpiw, as is evident from the 
Latin Anchises (oτΆyγ^iσηc. See §. 218. f. 3. 

3. 8 and θ are pronounced by the modem Greeks with a 
hissing, yet so that it is less in S, and more strong in Θ, 
which latter is exactly expressed by the pronunciation of 
th in English. That the ancients pronounced θ in this 
manner, is evinced by the substitution of σ for it in the 
-Slolo-Doric dialect, e. g. aioc for Oeoc. Probably also 
they pronounced S like the modem Greeks, with a slight 
hissing, whence it came, that S of the present tense was 
changed into σ in the future. 

4. 2^ had the sound of a soft s, being compounded of σ£, 
like s in the French words aise. Muse. 

5. κ always had the sound of k, e. g. Κικβρων, τ that of t. 

6. It appears that the ancients pronounced v, not only in 
compound words, but also at the end, before labials like μ, 
before palatics like γ, and before λ and σ, like these letters, 
e. g. in the beginning of the Hecuba^ oc την άρίστην Xep- 

26 Of ProHUHciatiott. 

σονησίαμ πΧάχΛ ^weipei φίΧαηηλ λαόν ΐυθνννν ΒορΙ. Soph. 
ΔηίΛ266,ξνμμΟργ. e/I1Γόλ(σμα,iDtwoMSS.of/fer.l,98. 
At letiBt this mode of writing is found commonly, though 
not always, in inscriptioiiB, e. gr. Ύϋμμιιτίρα, τογ χμόνον, 
κατά πόλ(γ καί in the Parian luecription ; ΥΠΛΡΧΕΙΝ ΔΕ 
in Koen ad Greg. p. (83) 192. ΗΙΕΡΟΓΧΡΗΜΑΤΟΝ, 
Boeckh. Pi. 1. No. 1. 1. 2. εςςαμοι, ibid. 1. 35, for h 
Σάμψ. Traces of this mode of writing are occasionally 
found in MSS. e. g. Eur. Pkan. 603. ούμμίσαι, Dem. in 
Boot. p. 995, 27, ταμμίσψ ; and thus Theocr. 9, 5, some 
take εμτΓοβεν for ίμιτροαθΐΎ, others for cc irofl" (wpoc) iv. 
Greg. p. (121) 263 ei seq. This is less wonderful when 
we rememher that there were no intervals in the ancient 
writing. On the other hand we find σκνκλητον, σννχω^ιη- 
νωβι, Χανγανόντων, εντυνχάμωσι Marm. Οχ. ιν. 1, 10, 
CLXXIV. 1. 3. III. 1. 54. clvi. 1. 7. Comp. Dorvill. ad 
CAflr. p. 317*. 

7. σχ was pronounced like tc, since σκ Ία sometimes sub- 
stituted for it, αγινΒάΧαμικ, νκο^άλαμοβ. 

8. ψ and ν are called by Quintilian Inst. Or. xii, 10, 27, 
" the most pleasing of all the Greek letters, instead of 
which the Romans used the dull, barbarous, harsh letters 
y and u." Comp. i, 4, 14. Hence it is evident that we 

have not the correct pronunciation of φ, which is but little 
illustrated by the remark of Priscian (I. p. 543.), that ψ 
must be pronounced with the lips more closed thany*. The 
Latins always expressed φ by pk, except in words which 
had been naturalized, asjuge,fama,jur : the Greeks, on 
the other hand, always use ψ for the Latiny. 

Priscian (p. 544) says, " .£oles — 9ονγάτ)ΐ/ι dicunt pro dv- 
yarnpf ου corripieates, vel magis υ sono u soliti sunt pro- 
nunciare, ideoque ascribunt o, non ut diphthongum foctant 

* risch. p. ISO, 184. Herm. de Dionys. de Comp. 319, 31β. 
Emend. Rat p. 10 scq- Schcf. ad 

Of Spirits. 27 

ibi, sedut sonum υ .Solicumoetendant." Comp. Quint, τ, 
4, 16. 
9« Whether we correctly pronounce ξ and yp bb χ and ps, is 
rendered doubtful by the circumstance that before the in- 
troduction of the double letters they were expressed by 
γσ and φα, not κσ and πσ. This finer pronunciation, 
however^ cannot have been universal, as the .£olians con- 
tinued to write κσενοα, Πέλοπα (§ 1•), and in process of 
time must have disappeared from common speech, as Dion. 
Hal. de Comp. p. 167. ed. Scheef. and Sextus Emp. ady. 
Math, say without qualification that ξ and φ originated 
from κσ and πσ. 

Spirits^ or Breathings. 

To the written characters belong also the spirits, spiritus, or §• 8. 
breathings, of which there are two, the lene (spiritus lenis, (^^) 
πνεύμα ^ιλομ) and the rough (spiritus asper, πνεύμα Βασν, or A). 
All words which begin with a vowel, but are not pronounced 
with the rough breathing, have the spiritus lenis over their 
initial letter, because every word that begins with a vowel can 
be distinguished in the pronunciation by no other means from 
the preceding letters, than by drawing the breath from the 
lungs with a moderate effort. (The same is the case in German, 
in compound words, e. g. ent—erben, which sounds very dif- 
ferently from en—terben.) In old inscriptions the sp. asper alone 
occurs in the figure H, e. g. ΗΕΡΜΟΚΡΑΤΟΣ, ΗΕΘΜΟΝ 
for Έρμοκρίταυ^ -ηθμορ, in the Sigean Inscription, and in the 
inscriptions in Boeckh. PL i. 1. 1, 2, though often omitted. 
The omission appears to have become the rule after the time of 
Euclides, when Η was taken as the sign of η ; thus we have 
ΟΣΟΝΕΚΑΣΤΟΣ, ΟΙΣ for υσον, eicaaroc, oU. Backh. PI. in. 
No. 7 a. 1. 4*•. The spiritus lenis is never written; for HAI- 
ΣΟΠΟΣ ΗΑΔΕΛΦΟΙ on the Sigean Marble is for h Α/σωττοβ, 
οι αίελφοι^. Thus the spirits gradually fell into disuse, till 
Aristophanes, the Byzantine grammarian, about 200 B. C. in- 

^ In the inscriptions of Hcrodes « Of ΗΕΛΠΙΔ for έλπ/ί' in the 

Atticus the old mode of writing b Potidasan Inscription see Thiersch 
pedantically imitated. Act. Monac. t. 2. p. 431. 


Of Spirits. 

troduced them again, divided the Η and made Η the asper, 
Η the lenis\ Η is sometimes found on monuments, never H, 
both in MSS• not earlier than the 7th or 9th century ^ They 
occur in the above form in the earliest editions in small capitals, 
whence by degrees were formed L J and in the cursive cha- 
racter • and •. 

Ohs. 1. The investigations of die old grammariane respecting these 
spirits may be found collected in Αεζικ^ν περί Πνευμάτων in Valckenaer*s 
Ammonius, p. 207 seq. Comp. Fabr. Bibl. Gr. ed. Harlci, U G. p. S20. 
We may remark a) that in diphthongs the spirits, like the accents, are 
placed over the second vowel, except when t is adscribed after a capital 
letter, e. g. "Ai^i^s, "CIikovv. b) that v, beginning a word, has always the 
sp. asper ; and also every ρ beginning a word, because every ρ standing 
by itself is uttered with a similar breathing or effort^. If two ρ come 
together in the middle of a word, the first has the sp, tuper, the second 
the sp. lenis, e. g. &^ητο9^ Uvppos, Lat• rhetor^ Pyrrhus. The gram- 
marians except only the words Ράριον, paposS giving the first ρ the sp. 
lenis f perhaps because another ρ follows in the next syllable ; in which 
case we should write ρερνπωμένα, not ρερνπωμένα, Od, e', 59. 

Ohs. 2. The grammarians gave the spiritus to ρ in the middle of 
words and afler otlier consonants ; the sp. asper when the preceding 
consonant was an aspirate, as xpovos, the lenis if it were a tenuis, 'Arpevs* : 
also in the middle of words to syllables beginning with a vowel, as trpfos, 
vios ^ and in compound words ζυν^ηκε, προσίλέιν. Proper names took 
the lenis before that part of the compound which in its simple state had 
the asper, ΦΙΧΙπποί, *Οκυ&\ο$ (to distinguish it from the adjective '). So 
in the Tab. Heracl. iropt-efofrai, i. 59. 72, avhewoBai, i. 105, avtre- 
\ομ€νο$, I. 120. 128. This is not followed in MSS. and editions. The 
Lacedasmonians are said in some words to have used the sp. asper for 
σ, e. g. Μώά, va&. See § SO. 

Obs. 3. The £olians had not the sp. asper, but pronounced words 

* ViIloison-£pist. Vinar. p. 115 
scq. Pro!, ad Hom. p. v. Fisch. 1. c. 
Priscian. p. 560. Comp. Quint, i. 4, 9. 

*» Montf. Pal. Gr. p. 234, S93. 
Fisch. 1. c. Mazochi Tab. Her^ p. 137 
seq. Pa)rne Knight £ss. p. 9. 

« This ' is never found over ρ in 
ancient inscriptions. Payne Knight, 
p. 15. 

** Schol. Ven. ad IJ. ά. 56. Comp. 

Fisch. ad Waller. 1. p. 844. Gottl. ad 
Theod. p. 213. 

* Fisch.'^p. 244 seq. Vill. Anecd. 
Or. 2. p. 114. 

' Fisch. p. 242 seq. 

β Vill. Pro], ad II. p. ii. Burgess 
Praef. ad Dawes Misc. Cr. p.^xiv. 
Brunck. ad Aristoph. Lys. 551. Fisch. 
1. c. Sch weigh, ad A then. t. 5, 
p. 195 scq. 

Of SpiriU. 29 

beginning with a vowel with the digamma^ : in the Homeric dialect it 
is often wanting, as in άλτο from άΧλομαι, ίψενοί from Ικνέομαι^ ήέλω^ 
for ifktos* It was still more lost as the Ionic dialect became gradually 
softer ; in Herodotus and Hippocrates we always find lir' ^re, ίπίστημι^ 
&C.9 for Ιψ* frtf ^φίστημι, which we have in Homer; so that it is doubt- 
ful whether the later lonians did not wholly suppress the sp. asper, like 
the French and Italians. The Attics, on the contrary, loved aspiration, 
and said Hyvaay\ ffdijf} eipyw, aSos\ which were usually not aspirated'"• 

The most ancient Greeks pronounced every word which began $• 9. 
with a vowel, with an aspirate, which had the sound of ου or the \*^) 
English w^. This was the 6th letter, Βαν, the Latin F (§ 1. 
Obs. 2.), having the figure of a double Γ, F, whence the name 
digamma, which was called iBolic, because the .£oliana, of all 
the tribes, retained the greatest traces of their original language. 
Thus the iBolians wrote or pronounced Foivoc, vinum, FeXea, 
velia, (for the Latins expressed this digamma often by a υ, often 
too by Sj $exy septem, ΡΙξ, Fiwra). It was also placed between 
two vowels, as vavc, vaFoc, naviSf oFic, ovis, aiFwv, avum, aFop- 
voc, avemuip^oFoc, bovis. This digamma is found in inscriptions, 
as in those of Orchomenus and Heraclea. In other dialects 
the letter became obsolete, but not always the sound, and it 
was expressed by β, γ® and υ, and later still by ov. Hence the 
^£olic forms arose vavoc, ονηρ, avoic, for vaoc, αηρ, αωα, i. e. 
i|«ic, χ^ω, \€Fw, χβνω (hence fut• χβύσω), βεω, BeFw, Bevia 
(futur. θβνσο/ιαι), and from the original form ελαω came iXaFw, 
ελανω, and βΧαυνω, Thus also κίω, ιcαFω, καυω, whence futur. 
κανσω ; λάω, Hym. in Merc, 360. λέω, §21. 1 . XeFci», λενω, fut. 
λενσαι, and new present λενσσω ; πλέω, nXcFw, πλένω, futur• 
πλενσωΡ. Hence in the Homeric language καναζαιο, ενα^ε, in 

>> Gotd. ad Theod. p. 213. " That this is the old Greek pro• 

The grammarians alleged as the nunciation is asserted by Dionysius 

rule for this that α is not aspirated Halic. Antiq. R. t. i. p. 52 seq. Reisk. 

before λ, when λ or a lingual or pa- p. (16. 22. Wech.) 
latic letter followed. Eust. ad II. "* See Interp. ad Hesych. t. 1. 

p. t45, 10. 766, 41. ' P• 81 8, 26. 

^ Matthis ad £ur. Hec. 1 143. ■'See Dawes Misc. Grit. Prsf. 

'Thiersch in Act. Monac.' 2. p. xxii.&c. Keen ad Greg. p. (162) 

p. 422. 354. Heyne Obss. ad llom. t. 7. 

*" Fisch. p. 153. 246. Brunck ad 708 sqq. Fiscb. p. 239 sqq. 
iEsch. Prom. 438, maintains without 
ground, that the sp. as|)er lengthens 
the preceding vowel. 


30 Of Spirits. 

I^udar αΰατα. Amongst the Dorians a β supplied the place of 
the F, as in θάβακος for θάακοί, Oaicoc, ' the seat,' βαδνο, βεδοΐ, 
φαβοΐ, for «Sue, ISoc, ψαΜ*; hence βρόδον, βρυτίιρ, βράκοα, 
Theocr. 28, 1. (Ρρόίο»-, Ρρντήρ, Fpoicoe,) have been noticed 
as £olic and Laconic for ρό&ον, ρντίιρ, paKoc • It ie found 
as γ in yei^o, §. 227. -yaSerai, yoivoc, yevrep, Hesych. for 
qSerat, oTvoc, Ζντΐρα ; as spiritus asper io Ιλετο, η$€ται, and 
words beginning with /ϊ. Among the lonians and the Attics, on 
the contrary, the mark as well as the sound was lost. 

Obt. In Homer and Hesiod, and some Homeric hymns, wordi occur 
beginning widi a vowel, wtiicti others ending with a short vowel pre- 
cede, without tlie short final vowel being cut off by the apostrophus, or 
the long vowel losing its original quantity, e. g. xark i' άρματα &ξω, flie 
o'lvoKt, or before which abort syllables ending in β consonant or a di- 
phthong, e. g. 01 Of 01 at, become long, as if by position, even when they 
do not form the first syllable of a new foot (do not stand in the arnt), 
e. g. 'Ait6\\t\t'os "Ejcaroio,. Λ ri'(]oi yaiimv, μtγeψos Kal|eISoi ίμοίη. 
This is most striking in the case of the pronoun oi, ol, ί, before which 
the V J^XcvoTico»' is not found in the oldest MSS. e. g. It. e, i. iaU ol 
ίκκύρ. though vers. 7, we have rolof (o! irip Saltv &π& κρατό* rt καΐ 
Upuv^ This led Bentley to the conjecture, which Dawes and Heyne 
have since followed out, that these words were pronounced in Homer's 
time with a digaroma, which had the power of a consonant. This con- 
jecture cannot be supported by direct evidence, as the poems of Homer 
were not written down till long after they were composed ; but in 
αΐιι'αχοι for αίαχοί, ykyro (see Defective Verba), ttaZe, ίονπΐαιί, the 

: of the digamma has long been recognized, and the hypo- 
thesis is not opposed by any evidence, and solves the phsenomena in 
question. This digamma then must be considered as a relic of the old 
harsh pronunciation, which afibrded the accidental advantage of pre- 
venting the hiatus from the collision of a vowel at the end with one 
at the beginning of a word, which Homer usually avoids. This harsh 
pronunciation was softened down first by the lonians, who with the Attics 

' See Uemsterh. ad Uesych. 1 1. 
p. 1670. 

» Gregor. p. (STO) 579, et Koen 
Apollon. in Bekk. Anecd. 3. p. S73. 
99. Valck. ad Theocr. Adon.p.3ir. 

' Such words are chiefly iyu or 
iyvtipi, &ka, aXwvai, Αναΐ, ΐ&να, 
el&u (as lltiv, cwaro, oUa), ίοικα, 
(Ιμα, (γννμι, itai, 'B<arot, ίκαστοί, 

εκών, (λτομαι, ίλσαι ^it\μivos), 
ίΚύνΐΛ, ίο, οΐ, ί, COI, eiiteiy, trot, 
ipyov, tpyu or ΐίργίύ (Od. f, 511. 
rar piy άρα ίρζαν), tptiv itrwrpas, 
(rat, liyu, ΐειτθαι, 'Ιλιοι, !or, (but 
Dot Ιάί,)ϊφι,οίκαι, olrot. Respecting 
the whole doctrine of the Digamma, 
see Heyne Exc ii. tii. iv, lul II. r'. 
t. vii, p. T08 seq. 

Variations of the Diakcts in Single Letters. 3 1 

ceased to uee the ugn, though they eometimes suhstituted /3 y ν for 
it ; the Ionic dialect grew constantly soiler, and was chaxUcterized hy 
fondness for the hiatus, as the y k^eXx, is generally wanting in Herodotus 
and Hippocrates. But the use of the digamma could not cease all at 
once ; there must have heen an intermediate state in which the practice 
fluctuated, and it was omitted with some words and forms, hut pro- 
nounced with others, perhaps more sofUy. This state of transition ap- 
pears to have existed in the age of Homer, and hence perhaps the fluc- 
tuation observahle in his works, words ending in a consonant preceded 
by a short vowel oflen remaining short before digammated words, and 
the apostrophus taking place with others*. Much of this is perhaps to 
be attributed to the ignorance of those by whom the Homeric poems 
were handed down, orally or in writing. If the use of the digamma in 
Homer be highly probable, it is yet more so in Pindar, in whose native 
dialect it was still existing, and who is too independent as a poet to 
have allowed hiatus before certain words merely from imitation of 
Homer J. The later poets merely followed the practice of Homer, al- 
lowed themselves hiatus and lengthened short syllables before words 
where he had done so, without having had any idea of the reason. 

Variations of the Dialects in Single Letters. 

Preliminary Remark.-^It is the usual method to exhibit 
the peculiarities of each dialect separately ; they were not, how- 
ever, anciently kept so rigidly distinct, but that many, things are 
common to more than one of them. The same changes of con- 
sonants, as 5vell as vowels and diphthongs, occur in several dia- 
lects, though in different words; all are more closely connected 
by a common leaning to the same changes than they seem to be 
when each dialect is treated independently, and they thus prove 

^ It b a just remark of Buttmann 
(Larger Gr. p. 28.), that as Homer 
sometimes says γαϊα and sometimes 
αία, sometimes Xelfiero and some- 
times eifierOf so be may have used the 
same word with or without the di- 
gamma, according to the exigence of 
die metre; and that the position with 
tlie digamma, which was a very faint 
sound, may sometimes have seemed 
so weak to the ear, as to allow the 
preceding short vowel to be beard-as 

short ; as the Romans were not con- 
scious of any position before gu. 
Perhaps we may compare with this 
the passage of Priscian : '' F di- 
gamma iEU)les est quando pro nihilo 
accipiebant, ut &μμ€$ ^* feipaivay 
ro^,** &c. 1. p. 546. ed. Putsch. 

* Boeckh's Publ. Ec. of Athens, 9. 
p. 388; and in Wolf's Mus. 2. p. 195 
seq. On the other side Dial. 
Pind. p. 253 seq. 



32 Variations of the Dialects 

themselves to have a common root. Their juxtaposition, ac- 
cording to the method which I have adopted, has also the 
advantage of throwing light upon many things which occur in 
the common formation, as the derivation of the forms ίτρίπην, 
τετροφα, ίσταλην, Ιστολα §.21. 22. 

It must be particularly observed in regard to the following 
statements, that the changes of the letters do not extend 
throughout the language^ but are confined to particular words. 

I. Changes of the Vowels : 

1. The vowels α and e are frequently changed, e. g. the 
lonians said τέσσβ/ο€< and βρσην, the Attics reaaapec and αρσην^ 
the Dorians πιαΐ,ω for πιεΖω, whence πιαξαο Theocr. 4, 35. 
The Ionic and Doric dialects were particularly fond of e before 
and after λ and p, where other dialects had a, e. g. Ion. Dor. 
veXoc, Att. vaXoc^. The same is the case with the Attic dialect 
in many instances, e. g. in λβώο, Ionic Herodot, 1, 22. (in Pitid. 
01. 9, 100. Pyth. 8, 76. Xaoc is now the reading) and Attic, 
which is commonly \aoc^, veic for vaoc, Μενέλβωα for -Xaoc, 
where, as the short e takes place of the long a, the quantity of 
the last syllable changes. Instead of the verbal termination αω, 
the lonians and Dorians, in many cases, had έω, e. g. ό/οέω, 
φοιτέω, θηεομαι, which in Attic were οραω, ψοιταω, θεάομαι^. 
Again, the lonians and Dorians, in many cases/ put α where 
the Attic dialect had e, e. g. ταμνω, /ιέγαθοα (which, according 
to analogy, is more proper as from filyac), Attic τέμνω (but 
2d aorist εταμον)^ μέγεθοο. The Dorians used γα for the Attic 
γε, and κα with a long α for the Ionic ice, whence Doric οκα for 
ore Kev, and οκκα, κηκα for και ει κεν, και ίάν^ αίκα in Theocr. 
But οκα is for ore, as τόκα for rόrε, in which forms the ^olians 
retained r, and said era, ποτά, αλλοτα*. So the ^olians said 
λεγο/ιεθεί', τυπτομεθεν, instead of λεγομεθα, τνπτομεθα, but 

* Herosterh. ad Thorn. M. p. 862. 

»» Koen ad Greg. p. (17.) 42. 

^ Fisch. p. 56 sq. JKoen ad Greg, 
p. (183, 7.) 397, 69. So χρέβσθαι in 
Herod. xp€((/ieOa in Hipp. έκτέ€το, 
iicinihieiVy €ΐΓ€φωτ€ον in Herod, and 
many other forms. Hence γβλενσα in 
Theocr. ycXcvvrc, 1, 90, where others 

read γελώντι, kaopevaa. This how- 
ever must not he so understood as if 
the lonians never said οράω, γελάω, 
etc. Herod, has ivop^v, kveupa, 
γρασβαι, γράται, επεφωταχ^ and 
Theocr. γελάοισα, 1, 95. 

* Fisch. p. 71. Koen ad Greg, 
p. (138.) 304. 

in Single Letters. 33 

evepOa, υτίσθα^ πρόσθα, for evepOev^, &c• ; and the Lsitin pellex 
is formed from the Molic pronunciation of the word παλλαξ, 
Φρασί is found now in Pindar, 01. 7, 44, and elsewhere, though 
he says φρνν, not φράν, and σκιαρόα for aKiepoQ. 

A and i/. It has been already observed, that the Doric dia- (ββ.) 
lect is chiefly distinguished from the Ionic and Attic by the fre- 
quent use of a, where the other dialects had 17. Yet this is not 
to be understood as if the Dorians had used α for 17 universally. 
They said ίσταμι, ϊσαμι, φαμί, but not τίθαμι or ίαμι^. The 
older Dorians at least seem to have preferred η in derivatives 
from verbs in εω, as ποιιισω*, οικήσω, κιιτησω, euacvifroc, κρατήσω, 
υμνίΐσω, in which α is never found, but α in those from verbs 
in αω, (as αν^ασομεν, ετίμασαν, σνλαθβ/έ;, βοασαα, where in Pin- 
dar If is never found,) though there is no uniformity in the edi- 
tions and the MSS. which have been hitherto compared β. Η re- . 
mains unchanged in verbals in ηρ ; in those in ηc it is changed 
into ac ; so also in Hpa, ήρωα, κρητηρ, πημα, \ημα, &c. They 
left also unchanged η in the second person of the conjunctives 
pass., therefore also ^υνηται, not Svvarai^, &c. The Ionic, on 
the contrary, generally used 1? where the syllable was long ; i? is 
for the short α in βιττΑτ^σιοα» Apollon. in Bekk, Anecd. p. 494, 
10. 600, 17; and when the preceding syllable is shortened, 
evpeia, ευρεη, άΧηθεια, αΧηθηιη. The Attics observed a mean 
between the two ; where a vowel or ρ preceded the Ionic ij they 
used α (with few exceptions, as αϊθρη, άθάρη, ^εωμετρηο) ; in- 
stead of the diphthong r\v they had the diphthong αυ, except 
in case of the augment, e. g. Ionic σοφιη, 'Ήρι?, ττρήσσω, iijt/ooc, 
Ki|vc, ypViVQy Att. σοφία, "Ήρα, πρασσω, ναυς• So the Attics 
used the forms OTraSoc, KvvayoQ (but jcuviiyeriyc), ττοδαγόί;, λο- 
\ayoef ^evayoc (but not στ/οαταγόί;, as the Dorians said Fr. 
Pyth. p. 304, 15. Koen ad Greg. p. (292) 618,) from the Do- 
rian dialect ^ for οπι^δόο, Jcvviiyoc, Άθάνα (but Αθηναία), Sapov, 

* Apollon. ap. Bekker Anecd. Pind.has only, Pyth. 1, 25. Nem.4, 

p. 563, 20. 604, 25. 606, 29. 607, 17. 74. 5, 82. 7, 129. 

Bast, ad Greg. p. 187. *> Schol.Theocr. 1, 112. and Valck. 

' Koen iid Gregor. p.(l0l)223seq. Comp. Eust. ad II. β', p. 287, 18. 

• Herm. de Dial. Pind. p. 265. * Valck. ad Eiirip. Phoen. p. 8. ad 

Boeckh de Metris P. p. 294. llieocr. Hippol. p. 282. Dorvill. ad Char, 

has from ψιλέω always -ύσω, which p. 240. Pors. ad Eur. Or. 26. 

VOL. I. D 

34 Variations of the Dialects 

hcari, for Άθηνα, ^ηρον, ίκητι, apape for αρηρ€, Saioc ' unfor- 
tunate,' which in the sense of * hostile' is Sfi'ioa in Iambics \ On 
the other hand they retained in the aor. 1 . of verbs in αινώ the 
Ionic η, ίσημηνα, εμ'ιηνα, ίρρυπηνα^, where the Doric dialect has 
always a, eaavav, eicvSavev, ανεφανεν, €φavac in Pindar. So in 
the verbs in \ μ ν p, e. g. εσφηΧβ, Dor. Ισψαλε in Pindar. In 
other cases the Ionic and Doric dialects coincided where the 
Attic deviated, as in the contraction of αε and aei into η and y, 
e. g. ορητ€, opy, for opare, op^, and this the Attics retained in 
Si\f/yVf tyv, weivyv, γβησθαι^ §.49. Obs. 2. The lonians also 
occasionally used a for η, e. g. μ€σαμβριη Herod. 1, 6. 142; 
2, 8. 26 ; but λαξια Herod. 4, 2 1, is derived from the old word 
λάχω, as λελασμέΐΌΟ from λαθω. 

A and o. The iEolians said, instead of στρατοί;, Trace, πραυρ, 
στ /ooTOC, ποϊρ (puer), irpovQ (wpoFvt;, probus), βρογβωο Fr. 
Sapph, for βράγβως. So the Dorians said rerTopec for τέτ- 
rapeCf which occurs also in Hesiod, "Έ/ογ. 696. jcoOapoc, γε- 
γ/οοψα. Tab. Her. 1, 56. 36, and vice versa, ^ίακίτιοι, &c. for 
διακόσιοι, Mazoch. p. 168. £ίκατι(Χ»ικατι, Tab. Her.) for είκοσι. 
In some words the Attics did the same, e. g. όσταψί< for ασ- 
ταψία% opptuieiv for the Ionic apptaieiv. 

Obs. This interchange of α and ο remained also, in some forms, com- 
mon to all the dialects, e. g. λτε/κω, fut. icrevcJ, aor. ^κτανον, perf. iKrova. 
στέλλω, οτελω, aor. Ισταλον, έστάλην^ perf. ίστοΧα, whence στόΧοί (r). 

A and υ are interchanged in γλαφω and γλύψω. Thus in- 
stead of Teaaapec, by changing the τ into π, the .£olians said 
πέσσν/οεα and niavpec, which occurs also in Homer, Od. e, 70*. 

(23.) A and ω. Instead of τ/οώγω there was a form τ/οάγω, whence 
aor. 2. cTpayov. Instead of κράζω the Attics said κρωζω, and 
OSkoq for the Ionic θωκοα^. The use of α instead of ω in the 
gen. plur. of subst. of the fem. gender, e. g. ταν Μοισαν and 
Μωσαΐ', instead of των Μουσών, belongs to contraction ^ Thus 

* Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 771. Comp. * Fisch. p. 64. 

Aristoph. Ran. 1022, • Thom. Mag. p. 430. Br. ad Arbt. 

* Fisch. 1. p. 61. Ran. 1522. 

* Fisch. p. 62 sq. Keen ad Greg. ' Fisch. p. 106. Koen ad Greg, 
p. (216) 455. (283) 600. p. (85, 40) 196. 

in Singk Letters. 35 

also, φνσα vrecy &απ€ΐ i^/ueCy wparoc, instead of ψνσω vrec> Sia* 
ΊΓ€ΐνί2μ€ν, ir/ocuToc. βαμ€0 for^eli/uev, Theocr. Adon, 22. Oeapoc 
for OetapoCj Archyt. whence Oeapiov in PtW- Niem. 3, 122. 
Hence ιτ/^αμ for πρωαν, πρώην in Theocr, 2,115; and on the other 
hand τετρώκοντα for τ€τταρακοντα Tabb. HeracL The lonians 
changed αυ into ων in θώυμα, τρώνμα (Herod. 5, 180. also 
τρωμα), έωυτοΰ, εμεωυτοΰ, τωυτοΰ for του αύτου. 

Ε and η (η). Instead of βασιλέοα, or βασιλέως βασιΧίϊ, 
βασιΧίβα, and the same terminations in similar forms, the lonians 
and Dorians said βασιΧηοο, βασιληί, βασιΧηβα, τοκηβα, which 
last the Attics retained, but with the rejection of the 6, βασιΧης, 
τοκηο^. On the other hand the lonians said εσσων, where the 
other Greeks used ησσων, and eaav for ησαν^. Hence ζ€ρ6ν for 
ζηρό^ Od. € , 402. apyeri Βημψ ib. These changes were the 
easier as there was only one letter, Ε for ε ij and ec, and only 
Ο for ο ου and ω^ 

Ε and c. ίστία Att. ιστίΐ} Ion. Hence the old forms ισχ^ω, (94.) 
itfirci», for εχω, εττω. The enclitics δε, γε, which were affixed 
to the article and pronoun, were in Attic δι, γι, e. g. ό8/, rail, 
ravrayiy τούτο γι J. This use of the t for ε remained particu- 
larly in the .£olic dialects, in some of which iv was said instead 
of €K, Lat. tn; so έιητόο, intus^. This took place particularly 
before vowels, e. g. σιοο Lac. for θεοο, Bloc Baot. according to 
Apollonius, Cret. according to Hesychius'. The Dorians, parti- 
cularly the Lacedeemonians, and the Sicilian and Italian Greeks, 
changed the ε in verbs in εω into c : thus they used ιω con- 
tracted from ιάω instead of έω. Hence ετταινιώ Aristoph. Ly- 
sistr. 198. μογιωμεο, λυχίΌφο/οιώντεο, ιδ. 1001, 2. for μο- 
γεο/ιεν, λυχνοφο/οεοντεα. Hence also the forms which occur in 
other dialects, κατηφιώ, ακηΒιω, γειτοκιω, instead of κατηφβω, 
άκηΒέω, γειτονεω", and probably ΕΓΕΗΑΗΘΙΩΝΤΙ Tab. Her. 
1, 104, which Mazochi compares with velites. 

' Bninck ad Soph. O. T. 18. ^ Voss. ad Catull. p. 331. Fisch. 

Fisch. p. 111. p. 73sq. 

* Fisch. p. 84. * Bceckh's Public Econumy, i, 

I Blomfield quoted by Kidd, Dawes p. 396, 5. (Germ.) 
Misc. p. 39. "" Keen ad Greg. p. (104 sq.) 

i Koen ad Greg« p. (65. 95) 134. S99. 


36 Variations of the Dialects 

Ε and ο (as in the old Latin vorsus and vortex, for versus and 
vertex). The Cohans and Dorians said opnerov for έρπετον, 
π pec for προα*, eSovrac, eSuvac, for oSovrac, oSvvac» The Bce- 
otians 'Έtp^oμ€v6c for Ό/οχ.''. So the Latins formed from yow 
genu^. ''Ei^recis for oi^rec Tab. Her. 1. 69. 130, whence abs^ 
ens, pras-ens. Έχυ/οόο and όχ^υρόέ; were both in common use. 

Ohs. This interchange of e and ο appears most common in derivation, 
e. g. from λέγα» come λέλογα and \6yoSi from Ιχω, the compounds 
alyi(rj(ps^ άστνοχο$. 

(35.) Η and ι. Instead of ημβρα the ancients said Ιμερα, according 
to Plato, Cratyl. 3 1 . Thus ifSe in Homer has another form ίδέ. 

Η and ω. The lake Meeotis, Μαιώτι<, is called by Herodotus 
after the Ionic form Maiinc. So πτώσσαι and τΓτίισσω^• 

Η and ai were interchanged by the iEolians, who said 
θναΐσκω, μιμναίσκω, for θνησκω, μιμνησκω ^, and the Boeotians 
κη for icac (though alsoicac in Tnscr, Backh 2. p. 399.), SeSo^9i|, 
evepyeritc for -ai, -aic. 

H, €c and ev. The Boeotians, a branch of the iEolians, used 
ec instead of i|, where the Dorians did not change this into α 
{Bekk. Anecd. indd. p. 1366.), e. g. τίθεψί, ίστειμι, aSi- 
> κειμενοα, θεΤβαι, instead of τΙΒ'ημι, ίστημι, α8ικημ€νο(;, θηβαι, 

whence also the perfect, τέθβικα from riOij^c for τέθηκα, ειμί 
for ημ'ι (whence also the imperf. ην) are received in the common 
dialect, and on the contrary for κεΊνοα (εκεΊνοο), JEol. κηνοο, 
Dor. tJvoc^, τηνεΐ in Theocritus for τηνγ, i. e. εκείιτρ, §. 29. 
reTSe for τρδε^, and in the same manner the Doric-^Eolic forms 
είΓοεισεί', ΒεεΙσγ, for εποίησεν, δβησρ**. The ^olians changed 
the termination ijc in proper names into eve, as TηpvovευG^. 

Ο and u, είκατι for είκοσι. Έ,ικατι Tab. Her. 

Ο and υ, e. g. ν/^οίωο Theocr. 29, 20. ed. Valck. Brunck. 
σrvμaτoG ib. 26. ονυμα JEol. for όνομα, whence the compounds 

• Koen ad Greg. p. (274) 585. • Fisch. p. 85. 

* Kocn ad Greg. p. (281 ) 597, 'Apoll. ir. οιτων. p. 333. B. 
Bceckh 2, 383. (Germ.) f Valck. Ep. ad Roev. p. 30 seq. 

« Fisch. p. 75. 97. * Koen ad Greg. p. (30) 75. 

' Fisch. p. 85. Wess. Herod. 9, 51. * Fisch. p. 87. 

in Single Letters. 37 

ein^vv/ioCy συνωνυμία J. So ayvpic in Homer and others is another 
form for αγο/οα. Hence the .£olian forms rvtSe, μίσυϊ, for tolScy 
μίσοί, i. e. r^8e (cuSe), μεσ*^ ^• 

Among the lonians the prefixing and inserting of vowels was $• 1 1• 
very common. Ε especially was prefixed to another e in the 
Homeric language, e. g. eeSva, ίεικοσι, eeinov, -ec (-ac) -e, ee/- 
σατο, eeXSwp, eepyeiv, €€στο. As most of these words probably 
began with a digamma in ancient times, FeSva, Feucoei, Felnov, 
Felpyeiv, Ρέστο, € appears to have been prefixed to it for fa- 
cility of pronmiciation. Ε is also prefixed to words which began 
with a consonant, as eKe^voc and Keivoc, εθέλω in Homer (un- 
less the original form has been shortened into θέλω), evepOe and 
vepOe, eveprepoi {IL ο , 22δ.)> &nd veprepoif both in Homer; 
what was in the epic poets xOec, xOitoQf the Attics pronounced 
Ijfikcf €)^9eacvoc ; the lonians, on the contrary, rejected the e 
in ofyrfi for ioprri. An old form έβουλομαι is therefore assumed 
to explain the Attic forms γΐβονΧόμην, η^υράμην, τιμεΧλον. Η 
is also prefixed in r|\υyη for λνγιι', ηβαιόν for βαιόν; so we 
find αμαυροΰν and μαύρου ν , αστραιτταν and στραπτ€ΐν, &c.| 
οδύρομαι and ίύρΌμαί, ομοργυμι and μορ^νυμι^. 

The Doric and Ionic prose writers interposed an e before the 
long vowel, both before the contraction and where there was no 
contraction, as in Herodotus, τιμίωσι for ημώσι, from τιμαονσι, 
•χρεωμένος, $ιαχ/>εώμ€νοα, γρεωνται, μτ^γανεωμενοι^ ορμεωμενοι. 
Without contraction in Herodotus, βιαφυγέβιν, συλλβχθέωσι, ο/ο- 
μηθεώσι; in Archimedes, αττοτ/ιι^θέωνη, λαφθέωντι, έγγρα- 
ψέωντι, for αποτμηθωσι, &C. So also in Homer and Hesiod, 
irieeci^ for wielv. These poets also lengthen this interposed e 
into the diphthong ei, e. g. ^αμείω for ^αμβω, Sa/ucJ, Od. σ, 54. 
βείω 11. ty 113. for βέω, βω. θείω for θω«* //. π, 83. In 
the plur. and pass, the following syllable is then shortened, 

J Koen ad Greg. p. (374) 585. "BceckhadPind.P. 13,24. Reisig 

Fisch. p. 98. ad (Ed. Col. Exeg. 1508. Pore, ad 

* Valck. Ep. ad Roev. p. 32. Eur. Hec. 73*. Med. 160. 
Keen ad Greg. p. (169) 368. Arist. Ach. 714. 

* BoBckh ad Plat. Min. p. 148 seq. » Maittaire, p. 1 22. Fisch. 1 . p. 76. 
A poll. Dysc. ap. Bekk. Anecd. 2. 9. p. 423. Comp. ^mil. Porti Lex. 
P• 524. Ionic, under e, eeiv, έω, έωμαι. 

38 Variations of the Dialects 

καταβείομεν IL κ\ 97. β^Ιομαι IL γ^, 431. θ€ίομ€ν 11. a, 
143. Sa/ueiWe //. ΐϊ', 72. 

Ohs, 1 . With this must not be confounded the e in the future of verbs 
m\ μ V p, e. g. μηκυνίων Herod. 2, 35, for μηκυνών, Βιακρινέει II. β, 
387. in which e belonged to the original form, and was lost by contrac- 
tion in the Attic, which does not seem to have been the case with the 
forms above given. 

Obs. 2. Similar to the forms mentioned above are the Ionic ήέ, ήέΧιοε 
for 4, ^Xtos in Homer and Hesiod ; adeX^eos in Homer, Pindar, Hero- 
dotus, which Homer alters into aSeXipeios ; Kcyeos for Kcyos in Homer, 
Pindar, and other poets ; ahri^f τοντέφ, &c. in Herodotus and Hip- 
pocrates, in the latter also ίωντέην. 

In the Homeric language, 

a.) The long vowel which has arisen from contraction is further 
lengthened either by its own repetition or the insertion of the 
corresponding short vowel, according as the metre requires*; 
γβλώων Od. υ', 347, (γελο/ωνιΛ. 347, and ye\oίωvτιec 390, are 
doubtful,) ίιβώωσα for ηβώσα^ ηβάουσα, μι^άασθαι, μενοινωω, 
/uevoivofi, and with a short vowel οροω, opaac, ea^ , βοόωσι, 
dtrco^o, rpvyot^evy ο/οοωσα, instead of ορω, &c. A is prefixed 
instead of ο only in ναιετάω, e. g. ναιεταώσΐ)θ, ναιεταώσρ, 8cc• 
//. γ', 367. where, however, readings difier. So ψόωο from 
φώc (ψάος), θ6ωκο(; from θώκοο, Κόω<, γαλόωο for Κωα, γάλωα• 

Obs. In prose, only κομόωσι and ήγορόωντο are found, Herod. 4, 191. 
6) 11• BiUtmann, p. 498. 

b.) The same thing takes place where there has been no con- 
traction, as ίμβηγ II. π , 94. φήρ, φθήρ for β/ιβρ, 8cc. 

The short vowel also follows the kindred long one, as in 
οώο/^ει^ //. ij , 299. /ινώοντο, παρστηετον, for 8ώμ€ν (^ώωμβν), 
e/uvoii'To, παρστητον. The pure form of the optative even fol- 
lows the ω, which has arisen from the contraction of ao in 
ήβώοι /ui //. I,', 167. 8ρώοιμι Od. o, 317\ 

§.12. 2. Instead of short vowels the lonians, ^olians, and Do- 
(26.) rians used diphthongs, e. g. 

• TEustalh. ad II. a. p. 30 extr. *» Jen. Litt. Zeitung. 1809. No. 244. 

81• p. 134 seq. and No. 245. 

in Single Letten. 39 

Ac for a used by the ^olians, in the termination άς, in the 
accus. plur. and where it is formed from ava, e. g. race, τψαίο, 
Ka\a7c, filXacc^ raXaic, TvxpaiQj for τά<;> τιμαα, KaXac, μ^Χα^ 
TaXac, Tvxijac, but not ποΐί;, παισα, for Trie, ιτασα^. So the 
lonians said aieroCf aiel, the Attics aeroc, aei with long a^• 
The Dorians and .Cohans, on the other hand, said erapoc for 
eToipoc, in Homer it appears to be a prosodial shortening. The 
.Solians especially rejected c from at followed by a vowel, as 
αργαος, *AXicaoc. The Attics did the same in κάω, κΧαω, eXaa 
with a long a, for καίω, κΧαίω, eXaia, 

Αν for α, iElol. in ανώα {aFωc), φavoc (φάΡοο), §• 9, whence 
φαυσίμβροτο^ πιφανσκω in Homer, ύπόφαυσια Herod, 7, 36®. 

El for 6. ζεινος, KCivoc, είλισσω, ειρωτάω, for ^ei^oc, Kevoc, 
€ ρωτάω, of which l^eivac and εϊΧΙσσω^ are also used in the tra- 
gedians ; eivcKa, eivcKev^ in Homer and Herodotus ; eiv, υττεί/ο, 
veipat; occur only in the epic poets. In many other words, how- 
ever, e. g. reXoCf βέλοο, μίνος, 8cc., the ec is not found. Έ,ίσω 
is used even among the Attics, and Ευξείνου novroc in the 
common dialect**; the Ionic poets, on the contrary, said άγέ- 
ρεσβαι Od. β', 385. χβ/οόα for yeipoc. Several tribes threw 
away the ι in ei, e. g. the Dorians in ΆΧφβον Pind. 01. 6, 42. 
KXcovc, id. Nem, 3, 145 ; the lonians in adject, paroxyt. and 
proparoxyt. in ecoc, and the fem. properispom. of those in vc, as 
TeXeoc in Herodotus (also Attic Arist. Thesm. 353. Eur. Ion. 
1439.) ewirrfSeoCf eTrereoc, ιθεη, βαθίη, evpki\ {Herod. 1, 178. 
βαθία, eifpea, in Homer, ωκεα Ipic), for reXeioc, &c., but aXij- 
θηιη, not αΧηθεη, for α λ^θεια. Dor. αΧάθεα '. But ερ-γω, μεζων, 
eSe^a, αποΒεζις, are the original forms, lengthened by the Attics 
into €?/ογω, &c. So the iEol. and Dor. inf. in -εν for -eiv, βόσκεν, 
εΧκεν, (see §. 192 e.) appear to have been the original forms. 

Ev for €. ευκηΧοα, Γεύομαι, in the Ionic dialect, for εκηΧοο, 

* Koen ad Gregor. p. (94) 21^. most always ovyexa as a various 
(38«) 599 seq. Fisch. p. 92. reading; but ovyeica is often found 

^ Heyne aid Horn. vol. 6. p. 638. without any variety, and is therefore 

Bast, ad Greg. Cor. p. 347. now universally adopted. 

• Boeckh ad Find. Pyth. 9, 76. *» Elms. Eur. Med. p. 94 seq. 
/Pors. Eur. Phoen. 1. » Greg. p. (205) 440. (284) 473. 
> Ei^era in the tragedians has al- c. n. Kocn. Fisch. 1. p. 94. 


Variations of the Dialects 

Βεομαί, but only in poetry, probably from the digamma eFejci/• 
XoGy SeFo/uai*. 

Ov for o. vovaoG, ftouvoc, ουνομα, ονδόα, ovpoQ, in Homer, 
Herodotus, Pindar, 8cc. for νόσοο, μόνοο, όνομα, oSoc, opoc ; 
juowoc, ουνομα, γούνατα in the tragedians. But this took place 
only in nouns which are not derived from verbs, not in πόνοο, 
dTovoc, φόνοα, aroXoc^. The later Dorians changed this ου 
into 01, as ωνομα, Theocr. but μωνα for μονν?} is found only 
Theocr. 20, 45. The Dorians^ on the other hand, said ο for ου^ 
e. g. βολλά for βουλή, toc Oeia for τουα Oeovc Grut, Inscr. 
p. 505. rac a/uTrlXoc Theocr. The poets said ^oXo^uac (Od.a', 
234), rpinoQ, noXvnoc, for βουΧομαι, &c.*^ 

Ου for V was peculiar to the iBolians and Dorians, particu- 
larly the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians : μουσισ^εν for μυθι}!,€ΐν, 
KoSvec, κοΰμα, λιγονρο^, θουρί (whence αμπίθουρο^ in Hesy- 
cfaius), witliout the syllable being thereby made long^. Hence 
αττεσσούα for ατΓ€σσύη in the epistle of the Lacedeemonian ge- 
neral Xenoph. Hist. Gr. 1, 23®. In Homer, είληλονθα foreXi^- 
\υθα, however, is probably to accommodate the verse. 

Gi for o, e. g. ποιΐ), ροιη, χροιη, for ποα, poa, \poa. The 
same took place in the Attic dialect in poia^, yjpoii (Aristoph. 
Nub. 718. 1012. Eur. Med. 1177.), στοιά {Aristoph. Eccl. 
672. 680 β). The Cohans and Dorians, on the other hand, 
used ο for oc, e. g. ποώ, άνόα "^ for ποιώ, εύνοια. This mode 
of lengthening the syllable was used by the Ionic poets espe- 
cially, on account of the metre, in many other cases, e. g. ejueco, 
σβΐο, for 6^lo, &€0, ηγνοίησε for η-γνόησβ, akoi^v for aXoav\ The 
poets also repeated the ι after oi, oftouoc, in the dual -ouV for 


For 01 and ψ the Boeotians used v, as εμυ, κάΧυ, τυ ^αμυ. 

* Buttmann Lexil. p. 145. 

* Gregor. p. (179) 390. 

* Fisch. 1. p, 105. 

* Koen ad Gregor. p. (179) 390. 
Inlerpr. ad Hesych. v. Τέλουτρον, 
Κα/>οννα. em. Gr. Gr. p. 7. 

* V'alck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 265. 

' Oudend. ad Thorn. M. p. 786. 

' Piers, ad Muer. p. 338, and on 
the other side Brunck ad Aristoph. 
Eccl. 676. 

^ Gregor. p. (30) 75. 

* Koen ad Gregor. p. (135, 29) 
294, 32. 

in Single Letters, 41 

Tvc aWvQy εχν, Backh 2. p. 398. (Germ.) So in the Orchom. 
Jnscr, κωμάΡυ^οα, TpayiFvSoc, for κωμαοιΒόα, κωμψ^ού, ib• 
p. 397. Comp. §• 10 ad fin. ο and v. 

The .£olians pronounced each vowel of the diphthongs se- {.13. 
parately, as the Italians of this day, waicy Saic, otBa, 'ArpetSac, (^^0 
Find, Pyth. 11, 47 J. So from Fpaloc, Γράϊος, the Latin 
Grains. Probably this was originally a feature of the Ionic 
dialect, and of the ancient Greek in general. At least with the 
lonians the dative of the substantives in oc, eoc, ends in εϊ, not 
ei, and the Ionic poets have οιομαι, οιω, τταϊο, yet only when a 
short syllable precedes, which must be followed by another short 
syllable in order to complete the dactyl, e. g. των ί/οχ' 'AyKaioio 
irau; Kpeiwv Άγαιτήναι/ο, //. β*, 609. (also Herodot. 6, ,127. 
136.), and in the same circumstances ευ for ευ, when ν is fol- 
lowed by two consonants, which make it long, e. g. ovc Kev εν 
-γνοίην, IL y, 235. ίίθρονοα^. The loniansin particular separated 
the diphthong ει, originally εϊ, into i/i', e. g. στρατηιη, μνημίιϊον for 
στροτεία, μνημεϊον; ΤΙηΧηι^ηα for Πΐ|λε/8ι;α^ The Attics™ re- 
tained this, but put the c underneath, KXySec, κΧγθρα, for κλεΐδεα, 
κΧεΊθρα. The Dorians in some words retained the Ionic pro- 
nunciation, but said a for η, e. g. κΧάιΒας and κΧαιστρον 
Find, Pyth. 8, 4. 9, 69. whence κΧαζ in the common Doric. 
The Attics, on the other hand, contracted all separate vowels 
into diphthongs. 

The diphthongs also were interchanged with simple vowels, J. 14. 
and with one another. 

A or ft and ει, by the Dorians, e. g. κΧαζ^ αποκΧαΙ^ον, for 
κλεία, ανοκΧ^ισον^. 

Αν and ω by the lonians and Dorians, e. g. ΖΧκα for ανΧακα. 
So also Θωμά, τ ρω μα. 

Ec and ε, η or p. Of the Doric infinitives in ει^ see §.202. 11. 
The .£olians changed ει before X μ ν ρ σ into ε, and doubled 

^ Koen ad Gregor. p. (973) 583. ' Koen ad Gregor. p. (173) 577. 

Fiscb. p. 108. Herin. de Dial. Find. ^ Koen ad Gregor. p. (42) 10. 

p. (uii) 374. Matthis ad Eur. Phcen. 64. 

* Wolf. Praef. ad II. ed. 1804. " Valck. ad Theocr. Id. 6, «2. 
p. Ixv. £mesti ad II. y. 612. 

42 Variatiom of the Dialects 

the following consonant, e. g. ώτελλά, e/f/i4c, e/ifia, (hence ye/ii- 
ματα^ i. e. Ρβμματα, in Hesychius,) κτίννω, φθέρρω, σπβρρω, 
(not φθίρρω), for ώτ€ΐλ^, etfii, el/ua, κτε/νω, φθαρώ, σπείρω*• 
Hence yeppac, Theocr. 28, 9. for yjiipac. In other cases also 
the Cohans and Dorians used ij for et, e. g. icSvoc (Dor. t?voc) 
for Keivoc, \rip€c for '^eipec, reXSoc, oiic?oc, θίοί; for reXeioc, 
o'lKeioc, edoCf σαμηα for σημβια, Fragm. Pythag. ed. OrelL 
p. 310, 1. )Jc, πλήων, for etc, πΧείων^, Hence ij/uei' for είναι in 
Thucj/d. 5, 77. Tuft. Herflc/. 1, 68. 101. 104. instead of which 
€ΐμ€ν is written by Timaeus ; the third person was εσσ^ται for εσ- 
σεΐταί, εσεται. §.217. Of ελθ5vfor έλβεΐν, 8cc. see §. 202, 1 1. 

El and c in the BcBOtian pronunciation, Kipevac, απέχει, ap\i, 
for κ€ψ€νας, &c., as the modem Greeks pronounce ec^. 

El and ai in Ionic and Doric, αί, αίθε, for ει, είθε, in Homer 
and Theocritus. So the Doric forms φθαίρω, «cXaTc, for φθβΊρω, 
kXcic, Μώσα λιγαΐα for λιγεια, Alcm.^ 

Ου and ω in Doric and Ionic, ων, ουκων in Herodotus and 
Theocritus, for ouv, ονκουν; βωΧα, τωο νομωα, τω ίφάβω, 
Μωσα (whence in Archytas μωσικα, φiλ6μωσoc Theocr. 14, 
61.), and the Lac. παιΖ^ωαν, in Doric writers, for βουΧη, tovq 
vofiovc, του εψιίβον, Μούσα, 7Γαι2[ονσων^• So SctiXoc, βωλα, 
βωκόΧοα, βωο, βωσιν in Theocritus, βωvin Homer, //. i>', 238. 
α'^ωσαν, ρ€ωσαν Tab, Her, for ayovaav, &c• Ovac with the 
Attics is cue, with the Dorians ωα, both making in the gen. ώτόι;. 
The Cohans retained the o, which alone was used in old times, 
e. g. βολα or βολλα, opavoQ, Ύειμεν ο Ζεύο, εν δ ορανω peyac 
γειμων. Ale, 

Ου and οι, e. g. ντταΐίοισον for υπάκουσαν Theocr. 7, 95, and 
elsewhere. λιττοΤσα, κατθανοΐσα, διδοι for δίδου β. 

§.15. 3. Consonants also were interchanged, especially those 


• Koen ad Gregor. p. (275) 587, * Koen ad Gregor. p. (115) 250. 

(280) 597. Bast ad Greg. p. 279. • Fisch. p. 115 sq. 

*» Koen ad Gregor. p. (129) 278. ' Koen ad Gregor. p. (82 sq.) 191. 

(1S7) 302,40. Fisch. p. Ill sq. » Fisch. p.l 17 sq. Gregor. p. (94 sq.) 

^ Boeckh's Public Economy, 2. 212. 
p. 395, 3. (Germ.) 

in Smgle Xj^iters, 43 

which belong to one organ, or in different organs have a si- 
milar pronunciation, (vid. §. 2.) 

Β and γ. What was called by the rest of the Greeks γλή- 
χων, was in Attic βΧη'χων. The ^olians and Dorians instead 
of βΧεφαρον said yXe^apov^, which is used by Pindar. So 
yaXavoc, whence the Latin glans, for βάΧανο^. 

Γ and S. Instead of γ? the Cohans said Sa, Theocr. 4, 17. 
ου Sav, i. e. ου μα rriv γιν, Msch. Prom. 570. Eur. Phan. 1332. 
αλεν' J ^cif φευ Sa, as an exclamation ; whence also in the 
Attic dialect Αημητηρ is said to be derived. So the Lacedae- 
monians said ^ιφοΰρα for '^φυραΚ 

Γ and jc, as κναφευο and ^ναφάα. See Hetmterh. ad Lucian, 
t. 1, p. 301. Brunck and Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 1010. 

Γ and X. μόΧιο and Att. μοψ^, Hemsi. ib. p. 302. 

Δ and β. The .£olians said instead of ^εΧφίν, Δελφοί, 
βεΧφίν, Βελψολ. So arose the Latin bis from Siai. The Dorians 
said oBeXoQ for οβεΧόα, Arist. Ach. 796. Greg. p. (109) 236. 

Δ and t• 21 was .£olic, but Ionic also, e. g. ZopKaSeQ for So/o- 
icaSec, in Herodotus : for &ά the ancients said ta, which the 
.Solians retained. Hence the compoimds of ζά, e. g. t^KopoCy 
2^o7rXouToc, in Ionic ^. So from Zevc, Mo\. Aevc, Hesych. in y. 
might have arisen the genitive Διοα, and from ί^ω the substant. 
eSoc• In other cases the Cohans used σ£ for ζ^, as also the Do- 
rians, /ιελισδεται in Theocritus but not in Pindar, nor in the Py- 
thagorean Fragm. ζ is also found in Theocr. airlterai 3, 26. &c., 
generally changed by Brunck into σδ. The Lacedeemonians used 
SS for t, e. g. Ύυμνα^^ομαι, μαΒ^α, oSSec, παιδ^ωαν, for γυμνα2^ο- 
μαι, μάζα, otei, παιζουσών™ ; the Boeotians ττ, κατασκευάττη 
Backh 2, 398. Instead of συρίζειν some of the ^oUan tribes 
said συρισσβίν; the Boeotians and Attics συρΊττειν. So ά/ο- 

•* Koen ad Gregor. p. (16) 140. was Dear, they seem to have retained 

Fisch. p. 155. ζ^ καθίζευ, ίρεθίζα, Spohn Lect. 

' Hesych. i. p. 1010. Theocr. 1. p. 12. 
^ Fisch. p. 163. " Fisch. p. 169. Valck. Epist. ad 

^ Fisch. p. 164 sqq. Rover, p. 72 sq. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 

* Greg. p. (281) 598 et K. If Θ ρ: 289. Maitt. p. 21θ. 


Variations of the Dialects 

μοΖαν, Att. αρμ6ττ€ΐν^ οιτΧιζω, Boeot. οπλιττω^• So ελίσσω, 
βλελιττω and ελεΧΊζω are different forms of one word. 

Δ and τ. The Lacedsmonians changed the termination iSoc 
into iToc^. 

θ and σ. Instead of Θ, when followed by a vowel, the Do- 
rians, and particularly the Lacedaemonians, used σ, e. g. σιο<; 
for 0eoc, μουσί^Βαν for μνθ'ιζειν, ΆσαναΙα for 'Αθηναία^. The 
lonians also often used σσ for Θ, e. g. βυσσόο for /3u0oc ^• Hence 
the Doric and Ionic form εσλοο for eaOXoc• 

θ and T. κατερωτα for jcai έτερώθεν, i. e. icac άλλοτε, Sapph, 
Fr. 2. J5a5i. ad Greg. p. 187. 

θ and ψ, e. g. ψ^/ο in the JBolic dialect for θτιρ ; also in 
Homer, as also φΧίφεται Od.p', 221. ουφαρ (uber) ίοτουθαρ; 
also in Doric and Attic φΧαν for ΘΧαν, Find. Nem, 10, 128. 
Theocr. 6, 148 ^ 

θ and χ, in the Doric forms εξβχα, εξευχω, «x/i«7 fo'' εξωθεί', 
εξέλθω, ίθμα ^. 'Ό/ονιχοα comes from ορνιξ. There was an older 
form ίεκομαι (for Βεγομαι) in Herodotus, whence the Attic ξε- 
voioKelov, wavSoKeiov. 

Κ and )^. The Attics said Χισφοα, σγJLviaXμoi;, for λ/σΐΓ0<ι 

Κ and τ. tJioc Dor. for kyivog, i. e. κεΤνοί. 

A and v. The Dorians put ν for λ before r and θ^, and said 
ilvOoVf φιvτaτoGf ]3έντιστο€, for ηΧθον, φίXτaτoc, βέλτιστοα**. 
This is not found in Pindar. Hence probably yevro for ελετο 
in Homer. The Attics said πΧευμων, Χίτρον, which others 
pronounced πνευμων, virpov^. 

• Fisch. p. 169 sq. Gregor. p. (67) 
164. ubi V. Koen. Hemst. ad Luc. 1. 
p. 312. 

^ Koen ad Gregor. p. (l41 b.)307. 

«Greg. p. (136) 300. et Koen. 
Wyttenb. ad Plut. 234, makes it ap- 
pear probable that σ was» also changed 

* Fisch. p. 171. Valck. Epist. ad 

Rover, p. 73. Koen ad Gregor. 
p. (136, 83) 300, 40. 

• Fisch. p. 179. Greg. p. (389) 
514. et Koen. Valck. ad Theocr. 
Adoniaz. p. 371. 

' Hemsterh. ad Hes. v. e^exipeyai. 

' Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 413. 

*• Fisch. p. 178. 

' Fisch. p. IBS. 

in Single Letters. .45 

Μ and ττ• οππατα, ireSa, were iBolic forme for όμματα, 
fieraJ. So the Lacedaemonians said αμαναν, αμ αρκαρ, for 

> » 

απηνην, απ αρ'χηςΚ 

Ν and σ. The -^Eolians used σ in the first person of the plur. 
indie, act. rvTrro/uec for τύτΓτο/ιει/, and in some other words, e. g. 
alec for aiev (aei), μr|G Tab. Her. Brit, for μτιν ; and vice versa 
evri for εστί*. Whether γελάϊα (γέλαια) and 'χρυσοίο (χ/>ύ- 
σοιο) are inf. for γελάειν, or 2nd pers. for yeXac, (the former 
according to Greg. C. p. (294) 619, the latter according to 
Gramm. Meerm. p• 661. xi, and Gramm. Vatic, p. 690.) is 
doubtful, the reading of Sappho ap. Long, being uncertain. 

Π and K. The .dilolians and lonians put κ for π in words of 
interrogation and relatives, e. g. icore, iccoc, koioq, dcore/oocj 
ό«:όσοι, for ιτότβ, πωο^ noioCf oiroTe/ooc, οποσοι^. 

Πτ and σσ. Instead of οτττω (οπτομαί), πέπτω, πίπτω, in 
the JBolic and Ionic dialect οσσω {οσσομαι), πεσσω, πίσσω\ 

Ρ and κ. μiκκόc Dor. for μικρός^. 

The Lacedaemonians and others changed σ into the following 
consonant, unless it was a liquid ; e. g. errcu for έστω, ^ι^άκκη 
for ^ι^ασκ€ΐ, εττον, εττοί', for εα ταν, ec τον, Decret. Laced, c. 
Timoth. in Salmas. de Hell. />. 82 P. When between two vowels, 
the Lacedaemonians and other Dorian tribes frequently rejected 
σ, putting instead of it the spiritus asper, παα or παα Arist. 
Lysistr. 994. μώα for μώσα ib. 1297. παι^^ωαν for 7Γαι2[ονσων 
ib. 13131. 

^ Fisch. p. 180 sq. 

^ Koen ad Greg. p. (130) 282. 

1 Fisch. p. 184 sq. 199. 

«» Fisch. p. 190. Greg.p. (193)414. 

" Greg. p.(290) 615. Maitt. p. 212 
sq. Fisch. p. 214. Herodot. 
685, 99. ad Tbom. M. p. 311. 

^ Valck. ad Theocr. Adon. p. 350. 
Koen ad Greg. p. (130) 282. 

9 Valcken. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 
p. 287. ad Phoen. p. 561. Koen ad 
Greg. p. (214) 454. This decree is 
preserved by Boetbius de Music. 1. 
c. 1. (p. 1372. ed. Basil 1570. fol.) 

and has been corrected by Salm. de 
L. Hell. p. 82. Scalig. ad Manii. p.385. 
ed. Bcecl. Gron. Thes. Ant. Gr. t. v. 
Prsf. and since in the Oxford edition 
from MSS. Payne Knight \An. £ss. 
131 seq. Comp. ChishuU Ant. Asiat. 
p. 128. Pors. Mus. Grit. 4. p. 489. 
Kidd Misc. Tr. p. 108. Tlie authen- 
ticity of this decree has lately been 
called in question, not without reason. 
Miiller die Dorier, 2, 322. 

** V. ad Hesych. t. ii. p. 1294, 19. 
Valck. ad Theocr. Adon. p. 274. 
Koen ad Gregor. p. (137) 300 seq. 

40 Variations of the Dialects 

Σ was often changed into S ; e.g. ο^μη for οσμν, iceicaS/ueyov 
Pind. OL 1« 42. for Κ€κασμ€νον; bo, according to some, ίίμεν 
in Homer and Herodotus is instead οΐίσμεν^, 

Σ and p. The -Slolo-Doric tribes were fond of /o, as the 
Lacedeemonians^ who said ίππορ, wop, σιορ, for iwwoc, irovc, 
Oeoc, TToip for iraTc (hence the Latin puer). Hence in the 
Deer, Laced, c. Timoth. Ύιμοσεορ ο Μιλησιορ Ίταρα^ινομενορ, 
rap ακόαρ, τύρ vewp. So also in Latin honor and honos^. 
The Eretrians said σκληροτνρ for σκληρότηα Plat. CratyL 
p. 434. C. In the new Attic, σ after ρ was changed into p, 
αρρην for the Ion. and old Att. αρσην. 

Σ and ζ; in ζυν for συν in Homer and the older Attic 
writers^. Hence the Doric κλάζ from kX^c, κΧαίο, and ζ in the 
fut. where other dialects have σ. § 178. 

Σ and τ. The -ilolians and Dorians said cijti, φατί, δίδωτι, 
€7Γ€τομ (this is found in Pindar), Ώοτα^άν, for ίησι, φησί, Si- 
Οωσι, επβσον, Ποσειδών, πΧατΙον for πΧησΙον Theocr. τυ, re, 
for συ, ok. The new Attic had τημερον, μεταυΧοα, for σημβρον, 
μίσαυΧοα^, So also προτι, ποτΐ, for irpoc, in Homer and the 
Dorians®, and vice versa aarec, σΐ, Doric for τητ€€, τί^ 

Σσ, ti ζ' For the double σσ the ^olic dialect often used C; 
e.g. vXat^, vit^, for πλάσσω, νίσσω, i. e. νίτττω^. The Ionic 
ζ; e. g. ίιζόο, τρίζοα, for δισσο^ τρισσοο **. 

Σσ and τ. Χίσσομαι and XcVo/iai both occur in Homer. 

, Σφ and \p; e. g. i/^e for σφΙ, Theocr, 4, 3. Apoll, π. άντων• 
382. C. The Lacedaemonians omitted the σ entirely \ and the 
Boeotians said Φί^ for Σφ/γξ, whence το Φίκων οροα^. 

■ Koen ad Gregor. p. (276) 589. 
Fisch. p. 196. 

^ Interpr. ad Hesych. v. σιορ. Fisch. 
p. SCO sq. Casaub. ad Athen. 8. 
p. 353. 

^ Koen ad Greg. p. (lO) 27. Hem&t. 
ad Lucian. 1. 1. p. 317. Bip. 
. ^ Piers, ad Moer. p. 256. Fisch. 
pu SOi. Hemst. ad Lucian. t. 1. 
p. 313. 

• Koen ad Gregor. p. (83 sqq.) 193. 
' Koen ad Gregor. p. (109) 236. 

« Gregor. p. (288) 613. et Koen 
Hemsterh. ad Lucian. 1. 1. p. 312. 

•» Koen ad Greg. p. (203) 435. 
Fisch. p. 203 sq. 

* Koen ad Greg. p. (116) 253. 

^ Fur. Phoen. 813. Gr«v. 
et Wolf, ad Hes. Theog. 326. Heyne 
ad Apoll. 3, 5, 8. 

ill Single Letters. 47 

The Attics introduced τ in ανυτω, αρντω, for ανυω, αρύω ^. 
In other cases the insertion of τ after a consonant served also 
to lengthen the present tense of the verb, e. g. τνιττω for τνττω. 

Τ and κ. For πότβ and wore, ore, rare, the Dorians said 
νοκα, ποκά, οκα {οκκα) (η), τόκα ; the ^olians only ιτοτα, οτα. 


Τ and ΐΓ• e. g. σπϋιον, airaXeic Doric and j£olic for στα- 
Siov, σταλεύ;• Hence also (Fπόλαc in the Attic dialect for στο- 
Xac™, nerrapa and verrapaKovra, for τέσσαρα fnscr. Orch. 
Bijcckh, PL IX• 1• 38, 51. and ττέσσνρεα and πισνρεα among the 

Φ, /3 and If. For ψ the Dorians used π, e. g. αμπίθουρο^, 
αμΊΓίστατηρ, for αμφιθυρος, αμφιστατηρ, (hence the Latin α/τι- 
bidexter, and Ρ anus from ΦοΤνιξ,) whence αμπε-χειν, αμπεγονον^ 
αμπίσχειν, &c. remained in the rest of the dialects ° ; the Ma- 
cedonians β, e. g. BpyyeCy Βίλιπττοο, Be/oe^cicf}, for Φpυy€Qy 
ΦίΧιπποο, ΦερενΙκη^. So also in the ancient Latin Bruges for 
Phrygest Quint, i. 4, 15. 

X and ic. μονκορ Doric for fiv^oc^ Seico/uac, κιθών, in Doric $.16. 
and Ionic for Se^o/uae, χιτώΐ'Ρ. On the other hand arpeyka (^^•/ 
Doric for arpeKkcX 

Besides these, 1) the iBolians, Dorians and lonians, fre- 
quently doubled tlie consonants in the middle of words, e. g, 
τοσσοί', οσσον, μεσσον, for τοσοί', δσοί', μεσον^. This was prin- 
cipally done by the Dorian and Ionian poets, and the trage- 
dians in lyric passages, seldom in iambics, as μεσσγ Soph. Ant. 
1223, 1236. Thyest. Fr. 6. ίσσυθη Aj. 294. iweweiv ib. 12. 
ίσσομ EL 818. (Herm. on v. 808.) and indeed in narrative 
passages as if they had designedly approached the Ionic tone 

* Greg. p. (38) 70. ρ Koen ad Greg. p. (l58) 343. 

I KoenadGregor. p.(80 9q.)l8e. i Koen ad Greg. p. (167 a) 

Fisch. p. 213 sq. 363. 

- Koen ad Gregor. p. (167) 364. ' Koen ad Greg. p. (88) 300. (136) 

* adHesych.t 1. ρ•384. Koen ad 399. Respecting what follows see 
Gregor. p. (159) 344. Jenaische Allg. Lit. Zeit. 1809. No. 

* Valck. ad Herod, p. 457, 99. ad 343. p. 137. 
Callim. Fr. p. 39. 

48 Variations of the Dialects 

of narrative*. The aspirates were doubled by prefixing the 
lenes, e. g. oιcχoc> oK'^eetv in Pindar, though the consonants 
appear rather to have been pronounced than written doubled, 
οφιν IL μ, 208. as οπφιν^ βρογον Theogn. 1057 Br. as 
/3ρόκχον^. Yet this reduplication takes place only in cer^ 
tain words ; e. g. not in ίπει^η, though the first syllable is 
often pronounced long, εττειδι? νηάο re και Έλλήσττομτομ ίκοντο. 
It is usual to write, however, eSSeiae, nepiSSeiaaaa IL o\ 123• 
aSSi/icorec when the first syllable is used as long, though we also 
find μ€'γα τε δεινόν τε, //. λ , 10. aWa Seoc, ζ , 387, ετΙ δήν, 
tf 139. μάλα ίην, ο', 416. The most frequent is the redupli- 
cation of σ λ |o, that of ρ is constant whenever in formation or 
composition a simple vowel precedes ; or even in two words, 
opp oi νττερθε for ο ρ ol υπερθ. τοσσουτον, Od, ζ , 99. &c. Π is 
seldom doubled, only indeed in ότπτότβ, όπνοΊοα, Sac. in which 
the ο is to be considered as a prefix syllable to ττότε, &c. In 
other cases σ was inserted, as έσιτομενοα IL μ', 395. ν, 570• 
εσττετε from έπω jS', 484. Hence σ as an augment in εττω, εχω. 
Κ is redoubled by the -Slolians in οκκα, τ only by poets in δττι 
and o, TTC, μ in the ^olo-Doric forms αμμβ^ υμμβα, αμμι, νμμι, 
and in φιΧομμαΒηο, eυμμ€XιηQ, €μμαθ€ν, but for νωνυμμοα, ύττε/ιι- 
μημυκ€, they rather wrote νώνυμνος (comp. ΒίΒυμνοο Pind, OL 3, 
37, Backh. and απαΧαμνοο), υπ€μνημυκ€, ν in ευννητοο Od. η, 
97. The middle mutes β y B, besides the cases already men- 
tioned, are doubled only when a preposition rejects its final 
vowel, and the remaining consonants are assimilated to the 
initial consonant of the following word, ι:α/3βαλε, καββαο {κάμ- 
/3αλε and καμβαο are also foimd in MSS.), Kay γόι^ν. 

2) a. The aspirates are often transposed, e. g. the lonians 
said κίθών, evOaSra, evOevTev, the Attics χιτώι^, ενταύθα, εν- 
τεύθεν. So ΧαΧκηίων and ΚαΧ'^^ηΒών were both used ^. 

b. The Cohans transposed πσ and κσ, and are said to have 
pronounced σττέλλιοι^ for πσεΧΧιον (xpeXXiou), σκίφο<; for κσιφοί; 

• LobeckandErfurdtadSoph.Aj. « Greg. p. (193) 414. Fisch. 1. 

184. Mouk. ad Eur. Ale. 934. Ck)inp. p. 154. Schw. ad Ath. t. 2. p. 181. 

Blorof. ad iEsch. Pers. 871. ^ Greg. p. (281) 598. et Koen. 

^ Schaeferad Br. Gnom. p. 71. 187. 

lit Single Letters. 49 

c. Similar transpositions (as the Dor. πάρτι for vpori, vpoc in 
Inscriptions) are found in all the dialects; in Homer εττ/οαθο^ from 
π€ρΟω, eSpaOoif from ^αρθανω, eSpaKov from ίίρκω (see §. 193• 
Obs. 4.), rerpaToa for reraproQ, &c., and vice versa, arapwoQ 
for ατραττός. To this is to be added the insertion of β in ημ- 
βροτον for τίμρατον, ημαρτον (§. 42.), βμβραμίνη Dor. for ei- 
μαρμίνη. These are probably not mere poetic licences, but 
relics of old forms, as is most plainly seen in Kaproc and κρα- 
Toc, Kaprepoc and ic/oare/ooc» which both occur in Homer. From 
KapToc we have κάρτα in Homer, Herodotus, and the trage- 
dians, KapriaroQ in Horn. //. a\ 266. 8cc. and the Dor. κάρρων 
for κάρσων, for which the Ionic dialect had κρέσσων, and the 
Attic KpeiaatuVy and the common and Attic Kaprepeiv, from 
Kparoe, Kpareiv, which was alone used : the Attic Kparvveiv, 
in Horn, καρτυναν. Bα/oScστoc in Horn, and Theocr. is from 
fiapSvc for β /oaSvc• The tragedians, as suits the metre, use 
Oapaoc, θαρσννω or Opaaoc, θρασυνω (but always θρασνα) ; the 
latter, which remained in common speech, is exactly the same 
in meaning as the former % as the new Attic used the softer 
dappeiv for the harsher θαρσεΊν. KpiKOQ for KipKOQ, and the old 
Attic irvKvoc for irvvKoc, are examples of similar transposition'! 

d. Two consonants sometimes came together in the old 
language, of which the second was afterwards dropped, but 
still retained by poets for the sake of the metre ; as TrroXe^ioc» 
irroXic, 'χθαμαΧος from γαμαΐ, afterwards ^afii/Xoc. Something 
similar took place in σμικρόο (Ion. and old Att.)> σκβ^ίννυμι, 
σμίΧαξ, for which in new Attic μικρός and μίλαζ were used ; 
and Homer has iceSaaOecc. The final c was dropped in μακαρς, 
which Alcman used. The initial consonant was omitted in γαία, 
ala. Xeifieiv, είβεΐΜ. φη^ η. Apoll. ir, αντωνυμ. p. 334. Λ• 

Γ is prefixed to S in Sovwoc, £ονπέω, e. g. εγ^οντη/σβ, βαρυγ- 
Savwoc Horn. μ€\^ySoυwoc Find. Nem. 11, 23• Is this the 
digamma (§. 35.) and the cause of the lengthening of the 
short syllable before SelSw, Set i^oc ? 

* £lms. ad Eur. Med. 456. Many transpositions of the ρ are 

'Fiscb. 1. p. 151. Kiisterad Arist. quoted by Koen ad Greg. p. (1^6) 
The8ni.e65. Pors. ad Arist Eq.ll05. 337. Comp. ib. p. (239) 488. 

VOL. I. Ε 

[ 50 ] 
Of Quantity and Accents. 

$17. The pronunciation of Greek words is regulated, independently 
of the pronunciation of single letters, by two considerations ; the 
quantity of the syllables, and the accent. The former is founded 
on the length or shortness of the syllables, or on the time which 
is employed in the pronunciation of a syllable ; for partre, obey, 
undoubtedly requires a longer time for its pronunciation than 
partre, bring forth. In a short syllable one portion of time 
{mora) is employed ; in a long syllable two, and two short syl- 
lables are exactly equal to one long one. The accent, on the 
contrary, marks the rising and sinking of the voice, i. e. de- 
termines which syllable is to be uttered with a higher, and 
which with a lower tone. The higher tone is marked by the 
acute ^ a stroke from the right to the left. All the remaining 
syllables, besides that with the acute, have the lower tone, al- 
though the grave * is not placed over them. These two con- 
siderations must be combined in the pronunciation, and it is 
equally incorrect to pronounce merely according to accent, e. g. 
ανθρωττοα, 'Όμηροο, as anthropos, Homeros, or merely according 
to quantity. 

In German the pronunciation is nearly the same as in Greek, 
combining accent with qtiantity. If the long syllable be denoted 

by \ $ and the short by ^, the sounds may be thus expressed: (r) 


€ - τυ-πτ€ 



σω - μα 

1 1 ΠΓί Ξ^ 

ιτα-λοα e-voc Xo-Xoc TV-irTO-/i€-w)C 

τυ-ΐΓτο-^€ - vri 

αυ^ταρ'Κηα αυ-τα /D-icec 

Ohs. The grammarians gave the name ιτροσψϋϋα to the marks of 

OfQuanlitif. 51 

qomcity md aiscent, and also to the spirits, and reckoned seven of them, 
die three accents, acute \ grave \ and circumflex " (τ6νου$) ; the marks 
of time (xp6vovt)f the long -> (κ€|Μΐ/α), the short \j (v ψιλ^ν), and the 
qpirks * *• They also reckoned as improper τροσψίΐία, the apostrophus, 
the hyphen, the ^astole (or hypodiastole). See Sext. Emp. p. 240• 
^113. rUloU. Anecd.Gr. 2.^.103. 105. 107.119. Bekk. Anecd. 
p. 676. 678. 683, 80. 696, 26. Fink, ad Well. 1. 247 seq. 

I• <y Quantity. 

We learn the quantity of syllables from the poets ; but every §. 18• 
syllable was either long or short in ordinary pronunciation by 
nature (ψυσβι), long also by position (θέσει). 

1 . By nature iy and ω are long, c and σ short ; α t ν in some 
words long, in others short, or have a different measure in dif- 
ferent dialects, and are therefore called iiyjpovoi or αμφίβολοι 
{ancipite$)\ All diphthongs are also long by nature, as well 
as all contraGted vowels, as άκων from ϋκων ; and erases, as 
TO» for τα ei', rav for toc ov, but τ αν (re αν) short. 

O&ff. 1. In the Homeric hexameter» and thence alpo in the dactylic 
verses of the poets who followed him, the quantity o£ several syllables 
is really uncertain : at the beginning '^Apes/''Ap£s IL e^Sl. ψΓ\€ κα• 
ψίγνψ'€, c , 359. '€ΐΓ€ί^η v^osre, ψ', 2. ίίηιβόλου *Άτ<$λλ»νοβ, α', 14. ^ά 
μ^ν&στίία, γ\ 557. ical 2Τά θώρηκο9 ib. $5S^. in the middle, especially 
of compound wordsi άτβ Wfovro, κ\ 672. ^ca/ieXeiVri Od. i', 29 1 • σ » 338. 
μηyιy airocixwv //. r, 35. ίρΐίήσασΘαι, ψ, 792", which is not a com- 
pound« This is very common with short final syllables, not only when 
one word ends with a vowel and the other begins with a consonant, as 
above, JL c', 359 ; and aiioiof τέ μοι €σσΙ, ψΙΧ» εκνρε', ^eiyos re, γ\ 172. 
wtiid Χωτβΰντα^ p^^ ft33^ d, 745. 6^, 389. ft', 459. χ, 225 : but also 
when the short syllable ends with a consonant, and the following word 
begins with a vowel, //. V, 77. ei μίν Key ε/ιέ. λ, 442. α', 474. μέλ-^ 

* Κ(Μνί)σνλλο/34 is something dif« syllable, which may be lengthened 

ferent, one which may be used long by the arsis or otherwise. See Ue- 

or short, e. g. a long vowel or di- phsest. p. 3 seq. ed. Pauw. p. 6 seq. 

pbtbong at the end of a word, wheti ed. Gaisf. Draco Str. p. 5^ 9. Bekk. 

the following begins with a vowel, as An. Gr. p. 825 seq. 
ovrc μύΙ αίτίή Ισσί ; or a short vowel, ^ Spitzner de Vers. Her. p. 79 seq. 

which may bis short or long before a Thiersch Gr. p. t76 seq. 
SMite with a liφιid; or a short final * Spitzn. p. 79. 


52 Of Quantity. 

Toyr€s Έκάεργον, σ\ 288. μίροπίε άνθρωττοιΚ The cases are rare in 
which a vowel at the end is followed by one at the beginning» as in φίλί. 
iicvpi'f and probably only when the second word had originally the di- 
gamma, φίλε Fiicvpi, The short α and ο is changed at the end of some 
prepositions into at^ as νπαί, 2ια/, ταραΐ, the two former in Ijrrical pas- 
sages of the tragedians (Seidl, Vers, Dochm, 94). Hermann, Soph, 
Phil. 134, reckons μ€ταί among them. 

§.19. This lengthening of short syllables, however, does not take place in 
all circumstances indiscriminately, but chiefly a) in the ArsiSf i. e. the 
first long syllable of a foot, which is naturally pronounced with a 
stronger intonation, from the nature of the rhythm. This is the case 
with all the above examples. It takes place, however, in the Thesis 
also, i. e. the other syllables of the foot, e. g. //. λ', 36• fi\oerv\p(airls 
Ιστ€ψάνωτο• v\ 172. vait Zk \ir\tai\pv ττρΓν eXdeTv vlas 'Αχαιών, ο', 66, 
and frequently Ίλ/|ον 7rpo7ra/>oiOev. ο\ 554>. /7, 731. and especially in 
nouns in -tiy, e. g. //. a', 205, js υ7Γ€ρ|ο7Γλ%σί. Od. y, 142, ά\r^μΓ\J^σty 
(άλλεο', 8cc. " 

b.) This power of the arsis is strengthened when a consonant follows 
easily doubled in pronunciation, especially \ μ y p σ, e. g. //. (Ϊ, 44» 
ΐΓοσσϊ S* v|?ro' Χιπαροϊσιρ. {',171. έ'χρίσατο | Bk' \1π ίΧαίφ. e', 748. ir', 774• 
voXXa Ζ^\χ€ρμάΖι\ά μ€γά\α. \\476. Ιφάπο' yevprjs. δΊ 274. &C. Τμ€ναι 
v\365. afxT/Lievac HeSn^Epy. 22. ζ€υγνν'μ€ν, w\ 145. afler the analogy 
of rcO^juevac, ψ', 88. 247. also frequently before δ, μέγα | re" δ€ΐ\νόρ re, 
and especially before p, Od. p\ 198. ιτυκνα ρωγαΧέην. II. ω\ 755*^. In 
our editions of Homer and Hesiod the orthography varies, the consonant 
being sometimes doubled, according to the example of the grammarians, 
e. g. ^ΧΧαβ€, ^^^€i(re, sometimes not, as αιτίνίζοντο II. κ, 572. ίκηβόΧοί^ 
'^πόΧλωνος, &c. Theogn. 1057. Br. II. μ\ 208. That this redupli- 
cation had the power to lengthen the syllable, independently of the 
arsis, appears from the instances, though confessedly rare, in which a 
syllable is lengthened in the thesis, as //. c', SSS. ΐΓοΧΧα\Χίσσομένη. Hes. 
op. Ath. p. 498. B. irX^e'as l•* hpyvp^v 9κυ\^ν (^σκί/ΐτφον) φέρ€^ - - - • 

• Spitzn. p. 26. 39. 47. 60. 67. 

^ Spitzn. p. 81 seq. Erfurdt,Soph. 
Ant. 134, maintains that the trage- 
dians allowed themselves thus to 
lengthen a syllable in the arsis of 

dactylic v^rse; but this is the only 
passage which can be quoted for it. 
In Eur. Hipp. 11 54, the more correct 
reading would probably be νυμφιΐία 
- - - άμιΚΚα. 

* That the short syllable is length- 
ened chiefly before 3c/^w, and words 

connected with it, Mos, ZeiXoi, Ζειμόί, 
Betvos and d// (Herm. Disq. de Orph. 
p. 705.), is probably accidental. See, 
however, Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 1 65. 1 68. 
Buttm. L. Or. p. 41. and §. 16 ad fin. 
^ Brunck ad Gnom. p. 314. (134 
Schaef.) ad ^Isch. S. c. Th. p. 490. 
Scbsef. ad Gnom. p. 71. 187. But 
when Br. supposes θαΧερωτέρψ S. c. 
Th. 709. to have θα long, this is an 
error, the verse being dochmiac, 
w w w — w — -Oot θαΧ€ρωτέρψ» 

Of Quantity. 53 

In Pindar and in Attic prosody this power of lengthening the foregoing 
syllable remained only in the case of p at the beginning of a word, and 
then only in the arsis, Pind. P. 1, 86. τολλά Ik' ^ίφαΐί. Soph. Ant. 818. 
li ^; βνθμίζειχ r^y έ/ιήν λύπην Sirov, Eur. Ion. 534*. but not in the 
thesis, ^sch. Prom. 991. vpos ravra ριπτέσθω μ^ν αΙΟαΧουσσα ψΧόζ. 

Camp. ιό. 711. Soph. (Ed. Τ. 72. Comp. 1289. Eur. Β. 1338'. 


c.) A third cause why the poets (only the older epic) lengthened a 
short syllable, was, that without this certain words could not have been 
accommodated to the metre. In words therefore which, having three 
or more successive short syllables, could not have been brought into 
dactylic verse^ one was lengthened, as iTdayaTos in Homer, and also 
the tragedians'. So ayipt, ofvepa, ai^epe^ (also in Pind. 01. 1, 106. 
Pyth. 5, 27. Nan. 6, 50.), otherwise av//p (ά'νήρ 01. 14, 10.)i βΰγα- 
Ti(t€s II. β, 492. and Θύγατί^ρ. So Κρανίων in Homer has a long, Kpo- 
yiωya and Κρονίωνι a short c^ ; in Pindar ι is sometiines long in Kpo- 
Wmv, Pyth. 1, 136. sometimes short, Pyth. 3, 101. 4, 102. Nem. 1, 23. 
The lengthened syllable in this case also generally falls in the arsis. 
On the same principle nouns in Ίη have their penult lengthened, as 
wepcwrXij/ai //. o', 205. νΊτο^ζίη, i\ 7 3, 8cc. {Herm.El. D.Metr.p.36.) 
their natural quantity — w * rendering them inadmissible in an hexameter. 
This lengthening was unavoidable with proper names, as Ώριαμί^ηί, and 
hence perhaps the lengthening of the penult in Ιλίου, 'Ασκληπιού, 
άν€φίον, the quantity of the three last syllables — w « being repugnant 
to the dactyl. In AicTXov Od. κ\ 36, there is besides the doubling of 
the λ, and in these cases even the tragedians aUowed themselves this 
license, e. g. *Ιππδμέ^οντο$ jEsch. S. c. Th. 494. HapQivonaios %h. 553. 
Te'XevraiTos Soph. Aj. 210• and Άλψεσίβοιαν in a fragment of Sopho* 
cles, in which the Homeric reduplication o£ μνλ σ aids Κ 

As it is scarcely credible tliat poetic license should have extended to §. 20. 
the arbitrary lengthening of syllables to suit the metre, among a people 
possessed of so fine a sense for harmony and rhythm, as is manifest even 
in the Homeric poems, it is not improbable that in the oldest times the 

* Dawes, p. 160 seq. Markl. ad 
£ur. Suppl.94. Br. ad £ur.Hipp.4G^. 
Ms€h, Prom. 1031. Arist. Plot. 51. 
1065. Schsf. ad Theocr. S4, 49. 
Gaisf. ad Heph. p. 319 seq. £rf. ad 
Soph. C£d. T. 840. Boeckh ad Pind. 
Ol. 8, 33. Pyth. i, 45. 

' This remark was first made by 
Mr. Tate in a note to Dalzel Coll. Gr. 

See Quarterly Rev. No. 9. p. 225. 
No. 14. p. 463 not. Monk ad £ur. 
Hipp. 461. 

■ Pors. ad Eur. Med. 139. Gaisf. 
ad Heph. p. 219. On what follows, 
see Thiersch Gr. p. 176. 

* Spitzn. de Vers. Her. p. 92. 

* Brunck ad Msch, S. c. Th. 490. 
Herm. £1. D. Metr. p. 43. 

54 Cf Quantity. 

quantity of the vowels, not only α c v, but aleo the £ and Ο βόύχΛ 
(e and 17, ο and ω), was still indetenninate in ordinary pronunciation; 
go that there was nothing r^narkable in the poet's using the same 
syllable sometinies as long and sometimes as short. This is the more 
conceivable in an age like that of Homer, when the use of wrhiiig 
was very confinedi aiid before the short and long £ and Ο sounds had 
been denoted by separate letters. That the £ and Ο sounds, however, 
were really used by the old poets long or short, as the verse required, 
is most clearly seen from the forms which are written with an e or o, 
and therefore apparently resemble the present or future indicative, yet 
never occur elsewhere as unquestionable forms of the indicative, and 
where the whole connection and even the Homeric usage requires the 
subjunctive, e. g. to/Liey, et^ofiev, ore/o/Liey, &:c. (§. 195, 7•) el /Lcev yap κέ 
at vvy άττόΚΌσομεν ή^ μ€θώμ€ν II, ι/, 449. οψρα βάσομ€ν ίκωμαΐ re Pind, 
01, 6, 40. So in old Latin prosody the middle syllable in accedo was used 
as short, as in the Cretic verse of Ennius, quo accMam, quo applicem^ 
and in Plautus. What according to the later mode of writing is Ιωί in 
Homer, forms in one place an iambus Od, β, 78, in another a spondee 
Od. μ\ 327, and in others it is used as one syllable //. p', 727. Od, β, 148. 
e', 123. r , 530. But in all other passages of the Iliad a short syllable 
follows, so that Ιίω$ must have been considered as a trochee, ifos or elor, 
Ιωϊ 6 τύίνθ* iSip/Liacve, Ιωί έγώ trepi κείνα, ?ω* Ιπηλθον, &c. •. The dif- 
ference of quantity according to dialects, e. g. koXos, Taos lonico-Ho- 
meric, κάλόε, Yaos Attic, points also to an indeterminateness once exist- 
ing in the length of these syllables. Even in the Attic prosody, usually so 
^Uterminate, there were some syllables common, e. g. &ίω with long α 
Eur. Hec. 1 74. short ib. 1 77. {Blomf, ad JEsch, Pers, 639.) ίημι with long 
and short ι Hec. 900. Comp. 338. Iph. T. 295. Comp. 299. (Br, Soph, 
ad El. 131. MalthyadMor, Thes. 2. p. 938. No. 3.) ^apos with long α 
Eur.ELiHd, short α t&. 546. {Br. Lex. Soph. v. φάροΒ. Draco Strat. 
p. 35. 92.) avfa {Pors, ad Eur. Phcen, 1334.) It is therefore not im- 
probable that in the Homeric, old Ionic, language all the vowels in 
many words were of indeterminate quantity, so that the poets might 
use them as short or long, the latter especially when supported by the 
arsis, or the doubling of the consonant. This is not true of all, for 
μικροί, ημίι, and others, have invariably c long in Homer, xaXos a long. 

§.21. Note. It appears very doubtful whether the acute accent could 
lengthen a short syllable, as ancient and modem grammarians have 
maintained (Jierm. El. D, Metr. p. 36 seq.). The Greek language 
had accent unquestionably in Homer's time, since no language can be 

* Metr. p. 86 seq. £lem. D. Metr. p. 58 seq. 

0/ Quantity. 55 

tetitule of it ; hoi accent and quantity were independent, quantity in- 
deed often determining accent, but never accent quantity. The raieing 
of tlie tone, in which accent consisted can no more lengthen a syllable 
tban a quaver ( ^) becomes equivalent to a crotchet ( f ) by being sharp- 
ened, u e. raised a semitone or a tone^. The passages in which the 
accent is supposed to have this force are few, compared with those in 
which it has no influence on quantity (as in iws, used in four different 
ways, the accent remaining the same), or opposes it ; and in all, the 
lengthening of the short syllable may be accounted for on the principles 
^ready laid down• Still less can quantity have been influenced by 
punctuation (which was unknown to the Greeks before the Alexandrian 
period), since it could not even prevent synizesis and apostrophus. 
See f . 47. Obt. 

Oftf. 2. There ate differences in quantity, according to the dialects ^22, 
or kinds of poetry ; καλ09 in Homer and the other epic and elegiac 
poets has α long, in Pindar and the Attics α short. Theocr, 6, 19. has 
both, πα ftj) icdXa κόλα τέψανται, "Ισοί has ϊ in the epic poets, Tin the At^ 
tics and Pindar ^ Κορύνη and τΧημμυρΙε have ν in the epic poets, ΰ 
generally in the Attics **. 

Oh»• 3. Quantity varies according to the case, irvp, is, avs have v^ 
but in the oblique cases v, trvpeSf, v'<$s, avos*. The grammarians remark 
die aame thing of κηρνί^ ^Τνιζ, χοινι4 νέρΐιϊ,^ τέττιζ, which mcrease 
loi^ in the gen•' So λέλϋκα, λέλν/ιαι, ΙλιΤθην, τέθυκα^ τέθνμαι, έτίτθην 
from λ^Μ, Χύ'σω. θιΤω, θυ'σω. Hence θυσία and θΰμα. The ι and ν are 
short in Βιατρίβίι^ napaylnrxii, because they are derived from the 2nd 
aorist, in which the penult, is short, though long in τρΓβω, ψύ'χω*. 

Obs. 4. Sometimes adjacent syllables interchange their quantity, as 
XaaSf raos-^^f and λβώί, vews w— . Τοχβία, ώκεια, ά\ήθ€ΐα — v^ in the 
common dialect, were in Ionic ταχέη^ ώκέη (in Homer ώκέα as a dactyl), 
άΧη&τξίη w— , So in Homer νέφϋκα, but π€φϋ'ασί, πε^ννια, ΚρονΓδνοί, 
and KporCtivoef βίίσιλέως and βασιΚήοί, The same thing takes place 
when a word is lengthened, as κν'ρω, κνρώ, ά'νω, ανύω. 

Note. The principal work on Quantity is Th, Morelli Thesaurus Gr. 

^ The arsis is something different, * Draco, p. 75, 11. 91, 15. Comp. 

being not merely a raising but also 47, 15. 94, 4. 

a stronger intonatiun of the syllable. ' Draco, p. 27, 44. 56. 93, 8. £rf. 

« Pors. ad Eur. Or. 9. Interpr. ad Soph. (Ed. Γ. 746. Sch. Soph. Phil. 

Greg. p. (137) 902. Of Pindar see 569. ad Gnum. p. 215 seq. Gottling 

BcDckh ad Ol. 9. in. ad Tlieodos. p. 238. 

* Buttm. L. Gr. p. 39. • Pors. ad Eur. Or. 62. 

56 Of Quantity. 

Poeseos, Eton, 1761^• 4to. especially in the improved edition of Maltby, 
Camb. 1815. 2. t. 4to. (Lond. 1824. 4to.) Among the works of the an- 
cient grampiarians, Kayoyes vepl συλλαβών ίκτάσεωί καΐ συστολής, ap• 
Herm. de Ένα. Rat. Gr. Gr. p. 422 seq. and Draconis Strat. Liber de 
Metris Poeticis — ed. Godfr. Hermannus, Lips. 1812. 8vo. 

§.23. Long vowels and diphthongs of every kind are shortened by 
the epic and lyric writers^ and by the tragedians in lyric pas- 

a.) At the end of words, when the following word begins 
with a vowel, e. g. αζω ίλών, ο δέ Kev κβ'χοΧωσεταΐ , ον Κ€ν 
ίκωμαι II, α, 139. καΓ εγώ Find, 01. 7, 12. Comp. 5, 5δ• 
9, 35. 10, 20. Σωστ/οάτου vioc 01. 6, 14. Comp. p. 2,71. η 
i>c 01. 13, 162. p. 11, 38*. Where, however, the long vowel 
is in the arsis, or before a digammated word, it remains long, 
e. g. η ου /lefivp, ore τ εκρβμω νψουεν, icoAAei τ€ στιλρων Kfu 
Γβίμασιν II. y, 392. ζ, 478. ι, 393, even in the fourth foot of 
an hexameter^. The cases are more rare in which such a syl- 
lable remains long anywhere but in the arsis, e. g. //. e, 685. 
κεΐσθαϊ, αλλ €παμυνον. λ', 35. ΧευκοΓ, ev Se μίσοισιν, where it 
is explained by the pause after the diphthong; Od. v, 109. al 
μεν ap' αλλαι evSo^^. The passages in which a diphthong was 
short before a consonant, have been corrected from MSS.^ and 
in Hes. Theog. 48. αρ-χομεναιθ' νμνευσι θεαί λήγουσαί τ * aoiStyc, 
αοί undergoes a synizesis, and is pronounced as one syllable• 

b.) In the middle of words β€]3λίαι II. λ', 380. οΓοο, p\ 275. 
σ, 105. δίίοιο, β', 415. t, 331, 8cc. νΓοο, δ', 473. ί, 130. 
Od. λ', 269. eweiri II. α', 156. and elsewhere universally ; e/n- 
νάίον Od. ν, 379. yepaiovc in TyrtsBus, in Pindar fipaiac 
Pyth. 1, 103. 4, 102. το?αί;το Pyth. 8, 78. νΤεων Nem. 6, 37. 
ΓοΓαόχ^ 01. 13, 114•. The same takes place in the trage- 
dians and in Aristophanes, but in the former more frequently in 
lyric passages than in iambic trimeters, e. g. Soph. (Ed. CHS. 
ricap ην^ wovvaiei; vovicvpel. antistr. 150. αΧαώνομμ&των 
apa και . Eur. Here. F. 115. yepaie, Comp. ib. 902. 

• Examples of this shortening in * Spitznerde Vers. Her. p. 107 seq. 

anapaestic and dochmiac verse, see in ^ Bentl. ad Callim. t. 2. p. 5. ed. 

Seidl. de Vers. Dochm. p. 95 seq. Ern. Dorv. Vann. Crit. p. 384 seq. 

*» Herm. Disq. de Orph. p. 727 seq. • Boeckli de Metr. Find. p. 289. 

Of Quantity. 57 

Iff J. 134. i€ikaiaE.SuppL2%Q. (PA. 1320. inadochin.dim. 
the second syllable maybe long or short) Trarp^oc Eur. Hec. 7 8. 
Ale. 266. T/oyaSoc Troad. 527. Iph. T. 442. Ύρωίκων Rhes. 44 1 . 
In iambics the following shortenings have been observed ; ποΓω 
Soph. (Ed. T. 9 1 8. and frequently in Sophocles and Aristophanes» 
not in Euripides, rotovrov JEsch. ap. Heph. p. 7. ed. Gaisf. 
Soph. Trach. 1076. Med. 631. ArUt. Nub. 341. τοΓάσβε Eur. 
Andr. 1077. (but rolaSi Arist. Lys. 407.) βρώσβια Msch. ap. 
Strab. 4. p. 183. βάλλων Spώσecc /of&W Alyvv στρατόν Eur. 
Heracl., where some MSS. have &ώσαα; παλαιός is found only 
JSur. El. 600. £€ίλαΓο€ ^rtsf . P/uf. 850. So in Aristophanes, 
mvnfif τουτουί, rovrift, ταυτψ, ούτοιι, αύτοιι, always have the 
penult short. Fe^. 807. £9^.731.3. Lys. 616. Equ. 271. 
Lys. 1087. Ach. 194. iceevoui Pac. 547. τοιουτοιί Xys. 1087^ 

II. A vowel short by nature becomes, as in Latin, long by $.24. 
position, θέσει, i. e. by two consonants, or a double consqnant 
following it, and that either in the same word or the beginning 
of another. But even in Homer a mute followed by ρ allows 
the preceding syllable to be short, e. g. νυζ αβροτ-η 11. ξ', 78. 
βϋβροτωμίνα Od, λ , 41 . σήμα βρακών //. β , 808, &c• Od. λ , 
18. κ, 106. ν, 266, 9. Hes. Sc. Herc.2. So in Pindar, βα/^ά" 
TpiweZay 01. 1, 25. 1, 63. 111. Comp. 136. 7. 140. That 
in the Homeric verse ρ had not the power to make a position, 
is evident from the interpolation of μ in αμβροτοα, repi/^ifi- 
/3poroc, &c. A syllable seldom remains short before κ\, πλ, 
τλ, e. g. //. y, 414. μίι μ' epeOe, σχετλ/ΐϊ, and before χλ 
Od. K, 324. 'ζy 529. never before a mute with μ or v, except 
in Hes.^Epy. 567. Theogn. 319«. In Ήλβκτρνων Hes. Sc. 
Here, 3. 16. 36. νω appears to be melted down into one long 
syllable. The shortening of the syllable is more frequent in 
Pindar, ΚΛ. Ιξελ? Κλωβώ 01. 1, 40. ib. 98. 8, 19. 10, 87. 
Homer and Hesiod have only 'Ηρακλ^α, but Pindaralso ΉρακΧης 
01. 2, 5. 3, 20. 79. 10, 3 1, &c. as in the Homeric Hymn, 14. 
Ήρίκλία, and Hes. Sc. Here. 448. Theog. 318, 527. Πα- 
τρο'κλου Find. 01. 9, 114. 10, 22. ΓΛ. αλλοτ/οίαισΓ γλώσ- 
σαις Pyth. 11, 43. εΐΓτά^'γλωσσοί' Nem. 6,43. 7, 77. ΘΑ. 

'Gaisf. ad Heph. p. 916. Monk ' llerm. Orph. p. 766 8eq. 

ad Hipp. 170. Jacobs ad Athen. p. 1 IS. Spitzner de Vers. £p. p. 88 seq. Jen. 

Ofwarpfos see Matthiae Eur. Uec.78. Allg. Lit. Zeit. 1809. No. SiS. p. 126. 
of TowvTot Brunck ad Arist Lys. 128. 

58 Of Quantity. 

ie6\oiQ 01. 2, 78. 3, 27. 7, 14^. 8, 1. 84. ΠΑ. αι^^ματαΐσΐ 
τλίκων 01. 6, 146. 176. 7, 56. ΧΑ. κ?χλαδώ€ Ο/. 9, 3. (but 
liiyXaiovrac Pyth. 4,319.) ΦΑ., α ποψλανριζαι σα Pyth. 3,21. 
even €"<rX Jv 01. 2, 35. ΔΜ, KM, &c. Κάδμου Pyth. 8, 67. 
τ€κμαφ€ί 01. 6, 123. Nem. 10, 14. Comp. OL 7, 83. (long 
Pyi A. 10,98.) eper/uJv FyiA. 4, 3 1 . Comp. O/. 8, 26. στίθ- 
fraro (W. 10, 53. Comp. 110. τα^υποτμον Ol. 1, 106. Comp. 
2,66.8,19. a'^ic/ii 0/.2,114. PyM. 4,114. ΔΝ,ΘΝ,&ο. 
KeSvav Pyth. 10, 111. eOvoa Ol. 10, 118. νήμα θνάσκ€ΐ 
01. 2, 36. Pyth. 1,72. 0/. 2, 130. Comp. 146. Kevea wvev- 
aaiQ OL 10, 111. Pyth. 9, 44. 8, 133. 01. 2, 75. 10, 33. 
τε'χναίσι 01. 7, 65. Pyth. 1, 67. The rule of Attic prosody, 
on the contrary, is, that a mute with ρ leaves the preceding 
vowel short, even with v, (in Aristophanes and the other comic 
writers, probably without an exception,) e. g. Eur. Or. 213. 
ω to'^ti'iIo \rfiri των κακών - - - Comp. Arist• Lys. 833. 
Thesm. 130. Eur. El. 1147. μη σ αίθ«λώ(σρ ποΧύκαπνο^ 
areyoc irewXovQ. Bacch. 318. vpoQ φα rvan; - - - (troch.). So 
ίϋΓφνη Eur. Med. 1222. ττίκνοα Eur. Phan. 1200. 1140. 
Sa^Kvei Eur. Hipp. 703. Arist. Lys. \ 029. aypvwviaiaiib.76l. 
reuvSat Eur. Med. 391. ατβ-^^νως Arist. Ran. 106. as τε'χηι 
Eur. Ph. 982. Ale. 798. and frequently in tckvov, and with μ, 
Eur. Bacch. 216. νβοίχ/ια {Br. ad Soph. Ant. 156). Eur. 
Suppl. 96. ρυβμ6v,B,spυθμit/ωSoph.Ant.3l8. Eur. Phixn. 556. 
καριθμόν^ &c. Arist. Ran. 1365. σταθμόν, Comp. 1397. 1407. 
This shortening is less common before μν. Hepheestion, p. 5. 
(14 seq. Gaisf.) quotes only three examples^ ίιηλησμοσί μνη- 
μονικοΊσι from Cratinus, ευυ'μνίκ from Epicharmus, probably in 
an iambic verse ; τώο μεν ο* Μ νιισά/οχειοα ίφη ^ei^oc from Callima- 
chus, and υμνοα with short penult, occurs only in lyric passages. 
JEsch. Ag. 999. Eur. Bacch. 72. But Ovy ατρΐ* μνηστήρων oc- 
curs Eur. Iph. il. 68. and τΓεποι^α Seivo'* μνηστ€υω γα /Liovc ib. 
852^. Before κΧ a short syllable is found in trimeters in 
α'κΧεία Arist. Lys. 863. ε'κΧίνηα ib. 906. 910. in ^HpaKXijc 
Blwdiysm Soph. dLnd Arist, and JBt/r. Supp. 1205. Her. 88.458. 
{^ΗρακΧββι Her. 3. cf. Herc.f. 3.) 2o<^oicX5c(2o<^o'icXe6c Epig. 

* Brunck ad Eur. Bacch. 11^3. ad Bacch. 71. Pors. ad Τουρ. £m. 4. 

Soph. Aj. 1077, denies the admissi- p. 442. Erf. ad Soph. Aj. 619 seq. 

bility of a short syllable before μν. Gaisf. ad lleph. p. 218. 
On the other side see Musgr. ad 

Of Quantity. 6Θ 

Sim. Anal. 1. p. 147. CV.) universally in Aristophanes. So 
before πλ, very seldom before βλ, Soph. El. 440. (Ed. T.717. 
Ant. 296. and γλ, JEsch. Ag. 1638. andPhotius v. όι:τώ7Γονν• 
κέντημα γλώσσ^α σκορπίσυ jSeXoc λέγω. Eur. El. 1021. (which 
Porson, Hec. 302. considers corrupt, and Elmsley, Med. 288. 
and others, have endeavoured to correct) : frequently before 
φλ, rX, e. g. Eur. Pkan. 1659. τίίφλου. Comp. Arist. Thesm. 
97. σγβ'τΚίοο Arist. Ijys.A9%. iZan. 116. and elsewhere, but 
o" τλΐ}/ιων Plut. 777. Before /3/i, βν, γ /i, yv, 8/4, Su, a short syl- 
lable probably never occurs, for ομ^α γωσεται. Soph. Tr. 616, 
is derived from Brunck^. It must further be remarked, that 
a mute with a liquid allows the foregoing syllable to be short 
only in the same word, or when they stand together at the be- 
ginning of a new word, not when the mute is at the end and 
the liquid at the beginning, or when they belong to different 
parts of a compoimd, as eicyevei. 

Obs. 1. Frequent exceptions to this rule are found even in the Attic §.25, 
poets. Long syllables, before a mute with p, partly in the same word 
(e.g. tlpaSoph. (Ed. T. 2. irape'ipos Eur. Hec. 616. HeL 888. i<l>e'^pos 
Phcen. 1130. προσε'^ία Or. 93. 304. Comp. 403. πάτρόί (Ed. C. 721. 
1401. 1441. Eur. Or. 1081. 83. φάρε'τρα Eur. Here. F. 971. la κρύα 
Iph. A. 497, 8. BvycLTp6% ib. 432. 459. κατακε'κριμίνον Andr. 497. rc'ic- 
yoy MarkL ad Eur. Supp. 293. Κνιτρογέναα Arist, Lys, 551. Ι'ψρεω» 
ρνχ€ΐ and Ιακρνον ib. 1033. but the former in anapassts, the latter in 
the Laconian dialect), partly in compound words, e. g. Soph. El. 1193. 
wpOTphr€t. Eur. Iph. T. 51. έπΖκρανων. Hel. 412. ίπΐ^ρομάί. Troad. 1002. 
κατάκλυσαν^. Porson 1. c. maintains that a short final syllable in iambic 
verse is never lengthened before a mute with a liquid in the following 
word. It is true that a short final syllable seems to require greater 
force for lengthening it, than a mute with a liquid can give: in some 
places the reading is doubtful, but in most the rule can only be esta-• 
blished by conjectural emendation. To establish a rule, however, by 
altering passages conjecturally, against which nothing can be alleged 
but that they do not agree with the rule, is a petitio principii. In jEsch. 
Pers. 779, we might indeed write, ΐΒίέρξηχ δ* c/ios na7s ων rios ψρονει νέα, 
but this change for νέα φρονεί, as the passage is not only found in the 

* Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 196 seq. «04 « Pors. ad Eur. Or. 64. Erf. ad 

scq. Arist. Lys. 381. Soph.Aj. Soph. (Ed. T. 1039. Vers. 

1077. 13^9. Pors. ad Toup. Em. 4. Dochm. p. 22. 
p. 475. Eur. Hec. 302. 

00 Of Quantity. 

MSS. but quoted by the grammarians, will appear inadmissible to one 
who knows that when words are repeated they are generally placed 
close to each other*. 

Syllables in the same word are used both long and short in close con* 
nection. Soph. El. 320 seq. o~icvc7v and ο κνψ. Eur. Or. 749. ό'κνίισ^ικ 
and o^Kvoi. Soph. (Ed, C. 883. νβρι$ and υ'βρα. Ant, 1240. νίκρό^ 
and veicpf. Comp. Eur. Phoen, 909. Soph, (Ed, C. 442. varpos and 
irdrpi, ^ράχμή$ ArUt, Plut, 884. Ipdyjids ib, 1019. 

Obs. 2, In the following passages, 11, i, 382. Αίγνπτίαε, δθι πλείστα 
Βομοίί cy κτήματα Keirat, Comp. Od, ζ, 263. 286. //• β', 587. πολνστά- 
φνλόμ Θ* Ίστίαιαν, the syllable which precedes πτ and στ does not seem 
to be used as short, but the c to be melted into one sound with the fol- 
lowing vowel, as it were ^gyptyas, Histyaian. But the short final 
syllable does appear to have remained occasionally short in Homer and 
Hesiod before ζ and σκ, II, /?, 824, οι Zk Ζέλειαν ίναιον - - - Comp. 
^',103. 123. //. β, 634. οι re Zdicvvdov €χον, Comp. Hymn, inApoU,^29, 
II, β t 465, cs nediov προχέοντό ΣκaμdyZρtoy, Comp. φ\ 223. 305. Od, e', 
237. Βώκ€ δ' έπειτα σκέπαρνον kv^oov - - - Hes, "Epy. 589. €Ίη ιτετραΐη 
τ€ σκιή - - -^. As in all these passages the short syllable stands at 
the end of one word, and the two consonants at the beginning of an- 
other, the rule that in such a position the vowel must be long, appears 
not to have been firmly established in Homer *s time, any more than in 
old Latin poetry^. But this seems even then to have been allowed only 
as an exception in the case of words whose first syllable was short and 
second long, and which otherwise would not have suited hexameter 
verse. In the Attic poets it is very rare both in the lyric and iambic 
parts, and for that reason very doubtful"* ; ννμψα appears an iambus, 
Soph, Trach. 857. & rare θοαν ννμψαν, on account of the strophic verse 
η του όλοά στέκει. But it is probably a dochmiac with a long syllable 
prefixed like Eur, Ph. 333, η voQeivos φίλοι!, and Andr, 140. ω τταντα- 
λαινα ννμφα, antistr, 146. σοί μ* ev φρονούσαν <^|7, should on other 
grounds be read et^p". 

» Erfiirdt, Soph. Aj. 1109, endea- 
vours to correct the passages in the 
tragedians according to Porson's rule, 
on which attempt Seidler ad £ur. £1. 
1053. passesavery rationaljudgement. 
Comp. Dindorf sid Arist. Ach. 545. 

^ Dawes Misc.Cr. p. 92 seq. Herm. 
Disq. dc Orph. p. 755 seq. £lem. D. 
Mctr. p. 46 seq. Spitzn. de Vers. Her. 
p. 99. Jacobs ad Anthol. Pal. p. 89 

^ Gaisf. ad Heph. p. 208 seq. 

^ The passages in which it appeared 
to take place have been corrected by 
Brunck ad Soph. Aj. 1077. Erf. ib. 
p. 619. Lob. ad Aj. 1066. Gaisf. ad 
Heph. p. 218. 

• Seidl. de V. Dochm. p. 85. Of 
άηλακειρ^ as is written for ά/ιχλα- 
Kciy, where the first syllable is short, 
see £lmsl. ad Med. 115. Monk ad 
Hipp. 143. 

Of the Accents. 61 

11. i^iAe Accents. 

The acute, o^vc rivoc or όζβΐα sc. νροσψίΐα (' ), and the §.j{6• 
circumflex» νεριαπωμενοα {*^), only are here considered ; since 
the grave, βαρυα tovoq, ( ^ ) is not expressed in writing ; for 
the stroke similar to it on the last syllable of words in a con- 
tinned discourse, is properly the acute, which resumes its place 
when one of these words is at the end of a proposition, or of a 
sentence before a period or a colon (according to Reiz, before 
a comma alsoO^ e. g. ίση Oeoc, but Oeoc yap τιμίν προυστιμτ/νε. 
But the circumflex also is properly founded on the acute, since 
it consists of the union of the acute and the grave, ( ' ^ ) not 
( * ' ) on a syllable composed of two vowels. In accentuation 
words are called in Greek : 

Oxytona, which have the acute on the last syllable, e. g. 
0coc, Τ€τυφωο, 

Paraxytona, which have it on the penult, as Terv/i/ievoc. 

Proparoxytona, which have it on the antepenult, ανθρωποο, 

Perispomena, περισπώμενα^ which have the circumflex on 
the last syllable, as φιλώ, τιμώ, ttovc. 

Properispomena, which have the circumflex on the penult, 

Batytana, are all words which have no accent on the last 
syllable, because, according to the language of grammarians, 
the syllable which is marked neither with the acute, nor the 
circumflex, has the grave : thus the Paroxytona τύτττω, τετυ/ιι- 
μίνος, Proparoxytona ανθρωποα, ayyeXoc, and the Properispo- 
mena πράγμα, φιλονμαι, are Barytones, 

The following are words without any accent, or rather barytone 
monosyllables : ού (oiic, ούχ, but ούχί)> ^c, el (but ωσεί), ev (but 
evi), elc (ec), €κ (ef), and the nominative of the article o, -η, οι, 

' Reiz. de Inclin. Ace. p. 46. but rity than the use of s in the middle 
this is founded on our modem pro- of words. §. 1. Obs. 5. 
nunciation, and has no mons autho- 

62 0/tke Accents. 

α! . Ου, however, at the conclusion of a proposition, receives 
the acute, ου, and so the other words which have been men- 
tioned, when they stand after the word which depends upon 
them, Oeoc wc, κακών ?ξ. The article is made acute by many, 
when it stands as a pronoun, or ο for οτι^ ο yap ηλβε θοα^ km 
νηα(; Αχαιών*. 

Ohs* ώ$ in the sense of ' thus', receives the acute, e. g. &s ειπών. 
In oIkovv, according to its two senses, that syllable which has the pre- 
dominant sense, receives the accent, ohicovyf * therefore*, συν, ουκονν^ 
* not therefore', ουκ. (a) 

$.27. 2. With respect to the place of the accent, it is to be ob- 
served generally : 

a. The acute can stand only over the last, the penult, or 
antepenult ; if the last syllable is long by nature, the acute 
must be put over the penult. For a long syllable is equal to 
two short ones (has two mora) ; if therefore it be expressed 
by two short vowels, the penult may be considered as the an- 
tepenult, beyond which the accent cannot be thrown back, e. g. 
Βηρα, Oeepa* 

b. The circumflex unites the acute and grave in one syllable 
(P not^'), which is therefore formed by contraction, or considered 
as a contraction, e. g. φιλώ from φιλεω, θαΰμα from θαύμα Ion. 
θωυμα» μαΧΧον, πράγμα, as from paaWov, νρααγμα* Hence 
arise the following rules : 

a. The circumflex stands only over a syllable long by nature, 
not by position, which may be considered as foimed by the 
confluence of two consonants, e. g. in πράγμα the a is long of 
itself, not through γμ, as is seen in ττέττ/οοχα, πεπραγα. On 
the other hand, τάγμα has the acute, and not the circumflex, 
from τίταχα. Thus likewise άρχε, but ηρ\ον (capyov), 

β. The circumflex can only stand over a syllable made long 
by contraction, where, in the resolution of it into two syllables, 
the former would have the acute : thus φιλεω, φιλώ. φιλέουσι, 
φιΧουσι. but φίλεε, φίλει. Only in words compounded with 

> Reiz. de Inclin. Aoc. p. 5. 

Of the Accents. 63 

noons in -ooc^ confr. -ovc^ the contracted syllable receives 
no circumflex, when the first of the resolved syllables has the 
acute, as avooc, av&ov, contr• avovc$ upov• αγχίνον for αγχ^ϋ'όον. 
Also the accusative of the feminine in -ώ -ώι; in the third 
declension retains the acute, as ιγχοα» ^χ<^^ τ^οί νχω• On the 
contrary, the adjectives in -coc, contr. -ovc, receive the cir- 
cumflex on the final syllable, as χ/ονσεοο, χ/ονσου<• 

.γ. Since the acute must stand over the penult, when the 
last syllable is long, e. g. νμίρα, θήρα (except in words in 
which the last has the tone), it follows from j3, that the long 
penult can never receive the circumflex, when the last is long; 
for otherwise it would be formed of the grave and acute, Oeepa. 
On the other hand, the circumflex must stand over the long 
penult, when the last syllable is short, or long only by position ; 
for in this case, in the resolution, the acute stands over the an- 
tepenult, and the circumflex is formed from the union of the 
acute of the antepenult, with the grave of the penult, e• g• 

μίαΧλον, μαΧλον. Thus likewise, ανΧαζ, αυΧακοο. 

S. The circumflex can stand only over the penult and last 
syllable, but never over the antepenult ; for in the resolution 
of the antepenult into two syllables, the first of which has the 
acute, the acute woidd fall upon the fourth syllable from the end, 
which is contrary to 2. a. ; thus πράγμα (ττράαγ/Λα), πράγματος, 
not πpaγμaroQ (ττράαγματοί). 

Ohs. Exceptions are, — 1. to Z. a. and h. γ. the terminations ai and 
Of, which in accentuation are considered as short, and therefore, in these, 
the acute may fall on the antepenult, and the circumflex on the 
penult, e. g. avBpwiroi^ ίχι^ναι, πωΚοι, ηροφηται, ΐΓΟίησαι Inf. Yet the 
optative terminations at and oi always have the acute on the penult, 
e. g. ιπΜ^σαι, άμϋνοι^ as well as the adverb οίκοι, to distinguish it from 
oi ohcou — 2. to 2. b, y. the Attic terminations ω$ w in the second and 
third declensions. Μβνέλεω^ , xoXevf , 6.ρώγ€ων, and the Ionic genitive 
in ew, in the first declension, ν€ηνί€ω, ^ee^rdreo), because here ews cw 
by Synizesis make hut one syllable. Also adjectives compounded of 
γέ\ω£ and xipas, e. g. ^ιλογελω^, βούκ€ρω$, in which probably the e be- 
fore the hquid was pronounced so rapidly that the two last syllables 
reckoned but as one. 

3. The proper place of the accent, according to which the 


64 Of the Accents. 

words are oxytona, paroxytona, proparoxytona, or perispomenaf 
properispomena, is best learnt by careful observation, or from a 
good Lexicon. But the alteration of a word by the declension, 
conjugation, or composition, causes an alteration also, or trans- 
position of the accent, according to the following rules : 

a• The principal alterations arise from the nature of the ac- 
cent as explained under 2. e. g• Μούσα, Movoi^c» εχιδνα, €χίδ* 
vt;c, ανθρωτΓος, άνθρωπου, 8fc. σώμα, σώματος and 2. a. and 
2. b. γ. 

b. In words of the first and second declension, which are 
oxytona, the circumflex takes place of the acute in the genitive 
and dative singular, dual, and plural, τιμη,.τιμηα, Tf/uy, τι/^ώι/, 
τιμαια, TTOiijric ττοιι/του, ττοιι/τρ, 7Γ0ΐι?τώΐ', πoιητaiG• JcaXoc, 
κάλου, καΧω, κάλων, καΧοΊο, The Attic forms in ωα in the 
second declension are excepted, λβώο, λεώ. νεως, vei». 

c. The genitive plural of the first declension has always the 
circumflex on the last syllable, in whatever place the accent 
may stand in the rest of the cases, e. g. Μουσαι, Μουσωΐ' (from 
Μουσβωΐ')• οι αρόται, των αροτων. εχιδμαι, ε'^ι^νών. Except 
only the feminine parojy^o;ia of adjectives in oc, if the gen. fem. 
pi. is written with the same letters as the masc. ; but not in the 
Doric dialect, where they differ : rav aXXSv, νυ-χιαν, Att. των 
άλλων, νυχιών*, e. g. άγια, αγίων, ζενη, ξένων, and the words 
χ/οτ/στι/ς, γρηστων, χλούν?;€, χλούνων, ετησίαι, ετησίων» 

d. In the third declension, dissyllable and polysyllable nouns 
retain the accent throughout, upon the syllable on which it is 
in the nominative, except when the nature of the accent re- 
quires a transposition, e. g. κοραζ, κόρακεα, κοραζι, but κορά- 
κων• εΧπία, εΧπΙΒοο. Hence oxytone adjectives and participles 
in the feminine have the circumflex on the penult, e. g. nSvc, 
nSeia. τ€τυφώ€, τβτυφυΐα. Monosyllables, on the contrary, 
in the genitive and dative of all the numbers have it on the 
termination of the case, e. g. μην, μηνοα, μηνι, μηνοΊν, μηνών, 
μησι. ττΰρ, πυροα, πυρ ι. But the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative, retain it on the same syllable, μήνα, μηνεα» χ^ίρ, YCipoc, 

* £lms. ad £ur. Med. ISSO. Herm. ad Find. Pyth. 5, 8. 

Of the Accents. G5 

χ€ΐρΙ, χείρα, x<eip€f. The same takes place in words which 
suiTer syncope, as πατηρ^ πατέροα^ but warpoQ. avripj avepoc, 
avSpoc : likewise in yvvri, yvvaiKoc, yvvatKi, γυναίκα, θυγατηρ 
has the accent of the nom. sing, on the penult throughout, 
OvyarepoCf OvyaTCpi, Ovyarepa, but by syncope on the last 
syllable» BvyarpoQ, Ovyarpl, only in the genitive and dative, 
except θυγατρασι, but in the rest of the cases on the ante- 
penult, θυγατρα, θυγατρεα, except in the gen. plur. θνγατρών. 
See §. 75• Obs. 

Participles are excepted, as Oeic» Oevroc, ών, oi^qc• Sovc, 
Somroc. Again, vale, waiSoc, Scc. but genit• plur. παίδων• S/u^c» 
ίμωόα, but ίμωων. ovc, ωτ6α, has ωτων from ουάτωι^. 

e. Nouns in ηρ, which have ep in the vocative, are then 
paroxytona, or proparoxytona, when they were previously oxy^ 
tona or paroxytona, as ανηρ, avep, πατήρ, warep. θυγατηρ, 
Ovyarep. In €υ^αιμων neuter and vocat. ευΒαιμον, αυταρκηο, 
avrapKcc, Έωκρατηα, Έωκρατβο, the accent stood in the no- 
minative masc. and fem. on the penult, on account of the long 
final syllable. 

f. When a word receives a prefix, as in composition, or by 
tbe augment, the accent is commonly thrown back upon the 
antepenult, if the nature of the final syllable admits of it, as 
oSoc, avvoSoc, προσο^οα. \6yoQ, aXoyoQ. σοψόι;, ψιλόσοψοο. 
Thus also τύτΓτω, ετυτττον, τετυφα. 

g. On the contrary, the rule is, that verbals in toc and ij, 
adjectives in itc, in the third declension, the compounds of 
νοιέω, αγω, φέ/οω, ovpOQ, epyop, adjectives in ικος, and dimi- 
nutives, patronymics, and other derivative substantives in cc, 
have the accent on the last syllable, as ποιητόα, έπιμοιηι, γραφή, 
€7Γΐγραψη, οληθηο, ασφαλτ/ς. αγαΧματοποιοα, λοχαγΟ€, κυνα- 
yoc, παιδαγωγός• επιφορα, διάφορα, wXovpoc or πνλω /ooc. 
οβρίβΛοεργοα (but πάρεργος, περίεργος), ηγε/ιιομικός, νο/^οβετι- 
«ός. icepa/Liic, νησία, Αητωιο, βασιλίς. Thus likewise substan- 
tives in μόο, which come from the perf. pass, σπασμός. Verbal 
adjectives in reoc are ^ways paroxytona, as εύρετέοο, πρακτέος, 
from evpiirai, πέπρακται. 

h. In verbs this rule obtains chiefly, that in disyllables the §.29. 

VOL. I. F 


G6 Of the Accents. 

accent is regularly on the penult, in trisyllable and polysyllable 
verbs or forms, on the antepenult, when the nature of the final 
syllable does not prevent this ; thus τύπτο /iiev, τνπτονσι, τυ- 
πτοι /Lii, τυτΓτοιτορ (but tvtttoitijv), τίτνφο, τετύφα^ιεν. In 
compounds of monosyllable or disyllable verbs or forms, with 
prepositions, the accent is usually thrown back upon the pre- 
position, e. g. apaye (aye), πρόσφερε, εισφρεο, ετΓίσχεβ. The 
principal exceptions are as follows : 

a. The temporal augment retains the accent, as αναπτω, 
ανηπτον. π/οοσΙχω, προσεΐχον. 

β. The circumflexed futures §. 181. 182. 193. 

γ. The aor. 2. in the infin. and participle act. and in the 
sing, imperat. middle has the tone on the last syllable, e'lirelv, 
€vpe7v, eiiraiv, εύρων, yevov, Χαθόυ (but ττροσγένου, επιΧαθον). 
Thus also the imperatives etire, eXOe, evpe, and in Attic Xa/3e, 
iSe. The infinitive aor. 2. mid. has the accent on the penult, 
Χαβίσθαι, λαθέσθαι. 

δ. The conjunctives of aor• 1, and 2. pass• have the cir- 
cumflex on the termination» τνψθω• 

6. All infinitives in ναι have the accent on the penult, rerv- 
ψβναι, τνψθηναί, eaytivai, τιθεναι, Ισταναι, SiSovai, but not the 
old or Ionic infinitive in εμεναι, εΧθβμεναι, ττινεμεναι, 

ζ. The infinitive and participle of the perfi pass, have the 
accent always on the penult» τβτύφβαι, rervfi/ievoc. Only 
when in the participle an abbreviation precedes, or a letter is 
left out, the accent is drawn back, as εΧηΧάμενσς, S€yμ€voc, 
φθίμενος, for ίΧηΧασμενος, SeSey/ilvoc, εψθιμενοο. Thorn, Μ, 
p. 294. 

η. Participles in ώα and eic have the accent always on the 
last syllable. 

ξ. 30. 4. Besides the case mentioned 3. f. the accent is also 
thrown back, when an oxytone loses the last accented vowel 
by apostrophus» in which case the last syllable which is left 
receives the acute, except in prepositions, and the conjunction 
άλλα• Thus τα Seiv επη for το Sec να επη. των πόνων πω- 

Of the Accents. G7 

Aouffcv ημ7ν πάντα ταγαθ οι Qeol, forr αγαθά, ι? των εμών α^ηο 
τ// ίμ€ρον τ€κνων — €<τχβ; Soph. Aj, 642. φ?ι/χ €γώ. κωφά 
καΙ waXai eirit «SopA. (£^. Τ. 298. Only in the case adduced 
§. 38. Obs. 1• §• 44. Obs. 2. the accent of the preposition is 
thrown back» παρ Zaivi. Kay yow. καπ φαΧαρα. αμ φορον, αν 


In prepositions also, on account of an abbreviation» the acute 
is thrown back from the last syllable to the penult, when they 
are put instead of verbs compounded of them and the verb 
€ίμι, e. g. ου Toi επι Seoc» for επβστι. παρ eμQιye και aWoi, 
€vff €vi μ€ν φιλότηο, for πάρασιν, eveari. apa for ανάστηθι^. 

On the contrary, when a verb loses its first syllable» the 
acute is removed from the syllable dropt» to the next following. 
ίφασαν, ίφαν, φαν. εβαν, βάν. If the syllable remaining is long 
by nature, then it receives the circumflex» ββη, εφη, βη, φη. 


5. The following words: the pron. indefinite tic» ti, /any §.31 
one» any thing'» through all its cases, as well as του» τ^» for 
Tftvoc» Tivi ; the oblique cases of the personal pronouns» μου, 
μοί, με, σου» σοι» σε» ου» οι» e» μιν, νιν, σφεων, σφίσι, σφεαα, 
σφε ; the pres. indie, of ειμί and φημι, except in the second 
person sing. ; the indefinite adverbs πώο, πη, ποί, που, ποθί, 
πόθεν, ποτέ (to distinguish them from the interrogative adverbs 
πωc, ' how* ? πη, ποΐ, ττου, πόθι» πόθεν, ττοτβ) ; and finally the 
particles πώ, τέ» τοί, θην, yk, κε {κεν), νυ or νυν (for ουν), περ, 
ρά, are commonly considered» when they have no emphasis upon 
them» nor are separated by the sense from the preceding word, 
in the same light as if they were united with this preceding word» 
and formed a part of it (ομαλισμόζ), and thus they lose their 
own proper accent. If this word preceding be an oxytonum, or 
paroxytonum, οτ perispomenon, its accent serves at the same time 
for that of these words ; only the acute on the last syllable does 
not take the form of the grave» e. g. ανηρ tic, φιλώ σε» avSpa 

* Reiz. dc Incl. Ace. p. 40. Herm. ^ Reiz. p. 38. J2G. 

de Emend. Rat. Gr. Or. p. 67. 

68 Of the Accents 

μου\ The disyllables only of these words, as σψίσι,, irore, 
TToOev, e&ri, retain their accent after a paroxytonum. If, how- 
ever, the preceding word be a proparoxytonum or properispo^ 
menon, these words throw back their accent as an acute on the 
last syllable of that word, except when the last syllable of such 
Λ proparoxyt, or properUp. is long by position, e. g. ανθρωπόα 
re, έσωσα σε, σώμα μου : but κατηλιφ μου, ό/ιι^λιζ εστί, κηρυζ 
βστί . Thus unaccented words also receive an accent before 
these words, lie tivoc, ei no : but not ου and ei before eifii, εστί. 
This is called inclinatio toni, εγκΧισια, and hence these words 
are called Enclitica, Yet the personal pronouns when they are 
governed by a preposition are not ' inclined', e. g. πάρα σφίσιν, 
ire pi σοΰ^. Hence when several enclitics succeed each other, 
the preceding always takes the accent of the following, e. g. 
einep nc σε με φησί irore, oikoc t/c €στί μοί που. Thus many 
enclitics occur also in composition with other words before 
them, ούτε, μήτε, owtic, τοινυν : δε and Oe only in composition, 
δδε, είθε**. 

Obs. 1. Enclitics never stand at the beginning of a proposition where 
only tliose words can be placed which have an emphasis on them, e. g. 
σον γαρ κράτοί Ιστι μέγιστον, and are therefore acuted or circumflexed. 
But in continuing an interrupted discourse, where we should place a 
comma, enclitics oflen stand, e. g. eiwep "ιστ^^ μοι σημίινατ€ Eur, Hipp» 
1168, where the ancients used no mark of punctuation*. 

Obs. 2. Some enclitics are in writing annexed to the preceding word, 
without the accent's being changed, as ovrtvosf ύντινων. When ^e is 
annexed to a demonstrative, to add to its force, the accent of the prin- 
cipal word is thrown on the last syllable, e. g. τόσο$, τοσόσΐε^ τη\Ικο%^ 
7η\ικ6σΐ€, rocos, τΌΐόσ^€ (according to others τοιοσίε), τοισι, roioile (or 

Obs. 3. Among the enclitics are also reckoned the personal pronouns 
plural, in the oblique cases, ίίμων, ίιμιν^ ifias, νμων, νμιν^ υμα$, where 
in the sing, μου, μοΙ, μέ would be used. They do not, however, throw 

• Some grammarians marked the * Herm. n. s. p. 74 seq. Heind. ad 

preceding word with a double accent Plat.Gorg. p. 34. Jacobs Praef. Anth. 

when it formed a trochee, or when Palat. p. xxxii. On ihe other side, 

the enclitic began with σφ, as αν^ρά Reisig. Conj. in Arist. p. 66. 
μοι. Herm. de Emend. Rat. Gr. Or. ** Herm. de Emend. Rat. Or. Or. 

p. 70. p. 67 sqq. 

^ Herm. de Emend. Rat. Gr. Gr. ' Matthias Enr. Hec. 69. 

p. 71. ' Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 126*2. 

Of the Accents. 69 

their accent on the preceding word, but, if the hut 8yllable"remains long, 
receive the acute on the first syllable ; or if the last syllable is short- 
ened, the circumflex, ίμιν, τίμαχ. Indisputable examples of this prac- 
tice, however, are found only in Sophocles >^. So the grammarians teach 
that ahroy when it is a pronoun of the third person, and does not mean 
kimselft must be inclined, e. g. κόφ€ γάρ aWov ίχοντα II. μ, 5ί04^• 

6. The third person εση is accented according to its dif- { 82. 
ferent senses as it constitutes either the copula, and a part of 
the predicate, or has an independent signification in the sense 
of ' to exist'. In the first case it is an enclitic, and is written 
according to the rules above mentioned, e. g. Oeic εστίν ό πάντα 
κυβερνών, ανθρωποα εστί 2^ώον ΒΙπσυν. But in the other case, 
it receives the accent on the first syllable εστί, e. g. εστί Oeoc, 
* there exists a God*. This is always the case where εστί be- 
gins the proposition, or when it is immediately after άλλα, ec, 
jcof, μέν, μη, οίκ, ifc, τούτο, oTf, τΓον. In questions both cases 
may happen, e. g. τί δ' εστίν ; ' but what is it' ? and ria ovt6q 

εστίν ■ 


7. When a preposition i^ placed after a word which it 
governs, and before which it ought therefore to stand, the 
acute of the preposition is removed from the last syllable to 
the penult, e. g. ελοο κατά βοσκομεναων. ttJc εμ?ο ^pvytic 
πίρι, του Beod πάρα. fcoxp cvi κυ^ιανβίρτ/. οφθα\μών απο. τψ 
evi πόλλ' εμό-γησα. The grammarians except ανά and Sea, al- 
though the reason which they assign, viz. that otherwise ava 
would be confounded with the vocative of αναζ, or with ava, 
* arise', and Sia with Δία the accusative of Zevc, does not seem 
to have much weight. There is no better foundation for the 
rule, that the anastrophe does not take place when another word, 
e. g. δε, comes between the case of the preposition and the 
preposition itself, Ty 8' επι Τυδείδι?ς ωρτο. If the preposition 
stands between a substantive and the adjective belonging to it, 
the anastrophe only takes place when the substantive stands 
before the preposition, e. g. viyoc eirt y\aψυpηc, but not wheu 

« Ilerm. de Emend. Rat. Gr. Gr. π. άντων. p. 293. A. 301. C. 837. C. 
p. 78 5cq. ' Herni. de £meiid. Rat. Gr. Gr. 

** lierm. ib. p. 82. Comp. Apoll. p. 84 seq. 

70 Of the Accents. 

the adjective precedes ; e. g• e/iocc βπ! yovvaai, γλαφυρηα ewl 
νηόο. For, properly speaking, the substantive only is go- 
verned by the preposition ; the adjective agrees with the sub- 

§•33. Obs, 1. The dialects differed also in regard to accent. The lonians 
and old Attics said, for example, yeXoios, ομοιο$, ΙτοΊμο$, €ρημο$, rpo" 
Ίταΐον ; the other Greeks yeXoios, ^/loios, ίτοιμο$, ^ημο$, τροπαιον ^ : 
the Dorians also said ομοιο%^. The Dorians said καΚω$^ σόψωί, κομ}Ι/ωί9 
Απ\ω$, for καλώχ, σοφω!, κομψών, &ir\ws ; and on the contrary, otmJr, 
wavriSs^ αίττοματώκ^ as rovriJv, τηνών^ παι^ών, τταντών^ Τρωών, παντά, for 
ovTws - - - πάντςι''• Further, ίστάσαν, ίψάσαν, έλύσαι/, cZeipav, for €σ• 
τασαν, &C• ; and ίΚάβον^ ίφάγον, €\έγον9 ίτρέχον, for ίλαβον, &c. * The 
^olians, ίγω^ ^drc, icaXos, πόταμοΒ, βούλη, for έγω, φατί, &C. ψίλην^ 
κάλην, φρόνην, for ^tXciv, &c. ' Hence the ^olians are called by the 
grammarians βαρυντικοί• 

Ohs. 2. The Greek language had undoubtedly accent in the earliest 
times, but it was not marked while it was preserved uncorrupted as a 
living language in the mouth of the people ^. When language and pro- 
nunciation became impure by mixture of foreigners, the grammarians, 
especially Aristophanes of Byzantium, about two hundred years B. C. 
invented the accents^, which are therefore not to be regarded as arbi- 
trary, but as an attempt to fix the pronunciation preserved in correct 
usage to that time• It is at least probable that this accentuation is, 
generally speaking, that of the older Greeks, especially of Athens in its 
flourishing times ; but it is doubtful whether it also prevailed in the 
Homeric age. All must here rest on authority and tradition ; to de- 
cide according to principles of reason is a hazardous thing, since in 
every language there is so much, the reason or cause of which it is 
difficult, if not impossible, at a later period to ascertain. The accents 
ought not to be neglected in modem times *, since they belong essen- 
tially to the Greek language ; and it would be absurd to despise the 
traces of the ancient pronunciation which they have preserved, though 

* Reiz. de Inclin. Ace. p. 122 sqq. 
Herm. de Em. Rat. Gr. Or. p. 101 sqq. 

* Greg. p. (8) 21. and Keen (9) 23. 
« Greg. p. (147) 318 seq. 

* Apoll. π. άντ. p. 293. Β. 301. Α. 
Greg. p. (95 seq.) 213 seq. (144)312. 

•Greg. p. (146)316. 
' Koen ad Greg. p. (114) 249 seq. 
(282)601.(293 seq.) 619. 

* The principal passages proving 
the antiquity of accent are Plat. 
Cratyl. 35. p. 399. A. B. Arist. Soph. 
Blench. 4, 8. Poet. 25. 

^ VilloisonEpist. Vinar. p. 115 seq. 
Proleg. ad II. p. zii. 

' Of the controversy on this sub- 
ject sec Fischer Anim. ad Well, 
p. 249 seq. 

Of the Change and Omission of Letters. 71 

iinperiecdy• Accent and quantity may very well be united, when the 
latter is expressed by the time of pronunciation, the former by the 
raising or sinking of the voice. The accents are also useful to discri- 
minate words which are written with the same letters ; and in reading 
MSS., by their means alone can a character sometimes be deciphered, 
or an error explained, by a mistake in the accents. It is, however, 
not to be denied that the doctrine of the accents may be well under- 
stood without adequate knowledge of the language, as the language 
may be well understood without a thorough knowledge of the accents. 

The ancient grammarians bestowed great pains on the doctrine of 
the accents, which forms a principal part of their extant works^• A 
special treatise on this subject is 'Αρκαδίου irepl Toywy, e Codd. Paris, 
primum edidit £. H. Barker, Lips. 1820. The topic is very copiously 
treated in the following work ; Die Lehre von dem Accent der Griech- 
ischen Sprache, von K. F. C. Wagner. Helmst. 1807, 8vo. And a part 
of the doctrine has been handled with his usual accuracy by F. Wolfg. 
Reiz de Prosodise Gr. Accentus Inclinatione, Cur. F. A. Wolf. Lips. 
1791, 8vo. 

Of the Change and Omission of Letters for the sake of 


The Greeks in the formation of their words had particular {,34. 
regard to euphony, and endeavoured to avoid the concurrence 
of consonants, which were difficult to be pronounced together, 
or of different kinds, as well as the meeting of two vowels of 
separate pronunciation. 

In the concurrence of two or more consonants the rule was 
observed : *' that of the consonants, those only which belonged 
to one class were put together.'' Hence an aspirated consonant 
is joined to an aspirate, a lene to a lene, a middle to a middle ; 
if also two dissimilar consonants come together, the first as- 
sumes the properties of the second. So from γέγραΐΓται comes 
€ypa<f>9riVf from τέτυτΓται ετνψθην, in επτά and οκτώ, if in- 
stead of the lene r the middle S is put, w and κ are changed 
into the middle consonants β and γ, in εβ^ομοα, oySooc. So 
€ΊΓΐΎραβ^ην from eviyeypawrai, κρυβΒην from κρύψω, κρύπτω. 

^ See Fischer ad Well. p. 247 seq. 

72 Of the Change and Ommion 

§.35. The spiritut asper has the same effect in composition, since 
it changes the preceding lene into an aspirate ; e. g. from etri 
and -ημίρα after rejecting i in the preposition comes eφημ€poCf 
from SeKa and ripe pa , Se^fipepoc, from «ca τα and ενδω, καθβύδω. 
If a lene precedes the aspirate, that also is changed into an 
aspirate, e. g. ίφθημβροα from ετττα and -ήμερα. But the same 
aspirate is not used twice together ; therefore Άτβ /c, Ματί/αΐοο, 
Ba/c^oc, Σαττφώ, not 'AOfl/c, Μαβθα loc, Βάχχοο, Έ,αψψώ. Hence 
instead of οκκα epweic Theocr, 4, 56, comp. 13, 11, we have 
οκγ^ epweic, not δχχ. But €κ remains unchanged, e. g. εκ- 
θλίβω, not εχθλ/βω ; only before a vowel it is changed into εξ, 
e. g. e^aipcToc from εκ and αιρεω. In inscriptions we find κ 
in εκ changed into γ before δ, e. g. ε•γ^ικαξάμενοι Tab. Her. 1, 
1, 81. and before the digamma ΕΓΕΗΛΗΘΙΩΝΤΙ, 1, 104. 

Ohs. 1. The same takes place, if two words stand together, the se- 
cond of which begins with an aspirated vowel and the first ends with a 
lene, or if the final vowel of the first word is rejected, and the second 
begins with an aspirated vowel ; e. g. ονχ ίνα, ονχ οπω$, αφ* οί, ανθ* Jr. 
§. 43. Also in the crasis Θοιμάτιον for το Ιμάτιον, Oarepov for το Prepay. 
Hence also the lene before the aspirate thus introduced becomes an 
aspirate, e. g. ννχθ* υπο τίινΖ* οΚόην for νύκτα νπό, 

Ohs. 2. Sometimes also in words contracted together before p, the 
lene of the first (perhaps on account of the aspirated p) is changed into 
an aspirate, e. g. φροίμιον for Ίτροοίμιον from ο^ίμη, Θράσσω Att. for 
ταράσσω, φρουΐοϊ from wpo and oihos^ TiOptwiros from τέτταρα and Iwiros. 

Ohs. 3. This change of the consonants occurs in Homer and all the 
old poets, without exception ; in Herodotus, on the contrary, and the 
other Ionic prose authors, it occurs indeed in the formation of words, 
c* £Γ• ^ΎΡ^φΒην, άπηλλάχθην, but not in composition ; and they write άπΐ" 
κόμην, €Τϊΐμ€ρο£^ Μστημι (whence Ιπίσταμαι in the common language), 
κατ€υίω, οίκ 6μοίω$, ουκ olas re ei/x/, &c. Έπιάλτη$ for Έ^ιάλη^^^ pro- 
bably because the old Homeric pronunciation was that of the lonians, 
who had just then emigrated from Attica, and afterwards, in a softer 
climate, abandoned the aspiration. Yet pedes is found without variation, 
Herod. 1, 37• 39. καθηστο, 45 : and on the other hand, there are many 
examples of neglect of aspiration even in the old poets. See §. 8. Ohs. 2. 
e. g. Hes. Th. 865. υπ Ηφαίστου, ih. 829. Horn. Hymn. 27 9 18, ow* 

• Fisch. i. p. 163. Ruhnk. ad II. in Ccrer. 88. Koen ad Greg. p. (185) 399. 

of Letters. 73 

i€i9€u \ Ήψαίστον and ύισαι cannot here be pronounced with the spiritui 
aspetf because τ with an aspiration afler it of itself produces ^, and this 
e£Fect cannot be removed by the mode of writing. £ven in the Attic 
dialect several deviations from the foregoing rules occur in XevKurwoSf 
KparimroSf dvr^Xcos, which words compounded of ιπποί, ήλιο$ should be 
properly λενχιπποβ, KpaSimros, άνθηλωί^. On the other hand the words 
compounded with άμμο$, once probably &μμο$^ have the aspirate, e. g. 
νψαμμοΒ, καθαμμίζω. Buttm. p. 76. 

If two syllables immediately following one another would J. 36. 
each begin with an aspirate, a lene is substituted for one of 
them, generally for the first. This is done regularly 

1. in the reduplication, when the initial consonant is re- 
peated and with a vowel prefixed to the word^ e. g. πεφιληκα, 
Κ€γβυσωκα, τεθέαμαι, τίθν^μι (from θέω). 

2. before the Oiii^of the aor. 1. pass, of the verbs τιθημι 
(θβω), and θυω (τέβειται), ετβθην, not eOeOiyv, (τίθυται) ίτνθην, 
not ίθυθην. Yet we write ορθωθεία, αφβθην, ε-χυθην, αμψι-^ 
')^υθ€ΐθρ εθρίψθην, εθαλφθην, εθέλχθι^ι^, ορνιθοΟηραο, ανθκ^' 

The aspirate also often changes its place with another which 
is introduced in flexion, according to the remark §. 1 6, chiefly 
however confined to β τ. So θρίζ, gen. τ/οιχόο, not θ/οιχόα, 
nom. plnr. rplyeQ, dat. θ/οιζί. τρέχω, τρέφω, fut. θρεξω, θρέφω, 
θρεπτηριον, θρέμμα, but τροφή, θατττω, aor. 2. εταφην, τάφοα. 
θρίπτω, aor. 2. Βιατρυφέν. So Hesychius quotes the aorists 
θύφαί, Oinpavra, and the perf. τεθυμμενον, as from τύφω. Hence 
ravtM; makes its comp. θάσσων. It is commonly assumed that 
the aspirate is part of the root of the verb, and has been changed 
into the corresponding lene on account of the aspirate, accord* 

^ ApoU. X. Ιπι^ρ. in Bekk. Anecd. •* Gottling ad Theod. p. 214, takes 

t. 3. p. 562, 28. a diiTcrent view of this word, and 

« Schafer ad Greg. p. 399. writes Ικ€χ€ΐρία. 

74 Of the Change and Omission 

ing to the rules 1^2, 3 ^ The spiritus asper has the same effect 
in €χω, where ia the fiit. after the change of χ into ξ the as- 
piration is removed to the beginning of the word. 

In these cases the first aspirate passes into a lene, but in the 
. imperatives in θι (τύτη/βι, Ίσταθι, δίδοβι) the θ is changed into 
τ, τυφθητι, τίθετι, but τέθναβι, not τέβνατι. 

§. 37. Besides the above-mentioned cases, if one or more conso- 
nants come together, which by their collision would be difficult 
to pronounce; changes take place in one of them. In the case 
of three, independently of composition, the rule obtains, that 
so many cannot stand together except the first or last be a 
liquid, or γ arising from v, e. g. σκληρ6c, πβμφθβία. In all 
other cases, a letter is either changed or rejected. 

I. The following are changed : 


• Ρ ^ > before σ into -< if except eic. ξ. 2. p. 21. 

a. before the labials β μ π φ φ into /li, e. g. εμβάλλω, συμ- 
μίγνυμι, εμπίκΎω, ίμφυω, εμφνγοα> Thus the ,£oHans 
said for irlvre, changing τ into ττ, πε/^ττε^. 

b. before γ "f ? χ into γ, e. g. εγγίνομαι, συγιτότττω, σΰγ- 
Τ^αίνω, σνγχω/οέω. 

C. before λ ρ σ into those letters, e. g. συλλέγω, συρρέω, 
συσσκευαζω, παλίρροος, except in πεψανσαι, βλμιν^, we-• 
Ίτανσια. But the preposition ei^ before ρ σ and ζ remains 
unchanged, li^pvO/uoc, ενριΖ^ω, ενσειω, ενζεομαι, and in συν, 
when a single σ follows, the ν is changed into σ, as σνσ- 
airoc, when σ with another consonant or a 21 follows, the ν 
is thrown out, e. g. σύστημα, συστρατη^όα, συζην; in 
πάλιν in the same case the ν is retained, παλίνσκιοο, but 
also παλίσκιοα. 

* The more correct view of the roeric τηΧ^άων, instead of which 
matter is derived from Biittm. Larger BaXiBidv is found elsewhere. 
Gr. p. 77, who also compares the Ho- ^ Fisch. p. 183 sq. 

of Letters. 75 ^ 

4. before μ the labials β μπ φ\Ρ are changed into μ, e. g. 
ΧίΧεμψαί for XeXenr/iuu, τίτνμμαι for τέτνπμαι ; ir, χ^ into 
γ, e. g. λέλεγ/ιιαι for λελεχ/ιαι, SeSoy/iai for SeSojc/uat; 
the lingual letters S θ r 2[ into σ• Except the following : 
ακμίι, αν'χμος, ί^ιχων, Κ€κορνθμίνοα, ttot/uoc 

Ohs. 1 . In composition with prepositions the last vowel is often re- {. 38• 
jected, and the consonant which remains at the end is changed according 
to the above rules, e. g. άμβαίνειν for άναβαίν^ιν^ άμμένω for αναμένω^ 
αμπαν€σ9αι^ άμψνω, &γκρισ», aXXveiv for draXveiy• In this case r is 
always changed into the following consonant ; or if this be an aspirate, 
into the corresponding lene, e. g. καββάλΚαν for καταβάλλων, jcar- 
Oavity. So υββαλλειν for viro/3. //. r , 80. άππέμφει Od. o, 83. κασ•* 
rof>rv<ra for καταστορννσα Od• p\ 32. The lonians use these abbreviations 
also in prose, e• g. άμβολάΐην, άμβώσα$, άμπανομαι in Herodotus. See 
jEm. Porti Lex. Ion• In the Attic writers this seems not to have been 
done in the ordinary language, at least it is not done in prose• The 
Attic poets, however, do it even in iambic verse, e. g. έιταγχέασα Msch, 
Ag. 1147. άμβίιση Eur. Hec. 1263*; especially κατθανέϊν, κατΘανών, 
for which καταθ. is never found• So some conjecture that in Eur, 
Suppt. 987. Rhes. 378. EL 1308. in lyric verse καταψθιμένος should be 
read for καταψθίμ€νο$\ It is very rarely that the last consonant of the 
preposition is also rejected, as in καβαίνων Alcm, Hephcesi• p. (4i) 7β• 
ed, GaUf. καπετάν Pind. OL 3, 50, for καταβαίνων, κατέπεσον*. Similar 
to this is κάσχ€θ€ for κατίσχεΘε II. λ', 702. κάκτανε II. ζ, 164. Comp• 
Hes. Sc. 453. άββάλλειν for άποβάλΚειν Theodos. p. 64, 25 ^ 

In the same manner the poets reject the final vowel, where there is no 
composition, e. g. παρ Ζηνί II. ^, 1. παρ ποσί Pind, 01. 1, 118. Comp. 
£sch. Eum. 824• and then contract the preposition with its case into 
one word, e. g. άμψόνον, dvviKva$ II. a/, 298• κα^^ύναμιν for κατά ^ν• 
ναμιν, καπψάΧαρα for κατά ψάλαρα, κακκεψαληΒ for κατά κεψαΧψ, which 
however is rather oflener written as two words, αμ φόνον, καπ φάλαραψ 
a μ βωμόισι^. This is done by the Dorians particularly. Hence Kar- 
roo, πσττωί, καττά, Thuc. 5, 77. 79 ^. Similar to diis is καμ μ^ν - - - 
στόρεσε Od. ν', 2. καμ μ^ν άροτρον άζειαν Hes. "Έ^γ• 439• 

Obs. 2. According to the same rules, the ancients changed also the 

« MatthisB £ur. Phcen. 1410. • Wolf. Prsf. ad Odyss. ed. 1794, 

* Class. Joum. 17. p. 59. Blomf. p. xxxi. 
ad iEsch. S. c. Theb. 740. ^ Duker ad Th. 5. p. 363, 46. 

« Ilerm. de Dial. Pind. p. 267. Keen ad Greg. p. (107) 233. 
' See Bast, ad Greg. Cor. p. 187. 

76 Of the Change and Omission 

final consonants of words and wrote, e• g. τι^μ μψ-έρα, τ6γ xpovoyf κατά 
ττόλιγ Kalf for τήν μ.. Toy χ/9•, Kara woXiv καί, in the Parian Inscription. 
See §. 6• 

5.39. II. The following letters are rejected : 

1. δ θ r t before σ, e. g. ττόδεσι, πο^σί, ττοσι; πΧτιθω^ 
πΧηθσω, ττΧησω ; σωματ€σι, σωματσι, σώμασι. So also 
αρπασω for αρπαζβσω. 

2. ν before 21 σ in declension, and in thcf preposition συν, 
e. g. /i5v€C> /ιιηνεσι, μησί ; avtyv for συνζγρ, in which case 
the syllable is long before t σ ; ayaaOevric for ά-γανσθεντις. 
Heuce from μην, μ€ν, μ^να, came /le/c. 

Ohs. 1. kv remains unchanged, as was observed, §. S7. 

06f . 2. If after the rejection of ν before σ, only e or ο is lefl, in order 
that the syllable may remain long, es is changed into eir, os into ovs, and 
the short α becomes long. Hence the partic. aor. 1 . act. rvt/zaf , στά$• 
That they are properly however Tvyifavs^ στάν$^ is shown by this, that 
the syllable as is long, and the genitive ends in avros. The partic. pres. 
from τίθημί is properly τιθέν^^ which the ^olians retained, and from 
which comes the genitive τιθέντο$*^ (hence the partic. in Latin dbcen^, &c.). 
Hence came TiQtis, as well as from olovst ohovTos, olovs^ from licoiref, 
eicovrcai, ίκονσι. Similarly from σττέν^ω the fut. σπείσω^. Thus the 
Julians and Dorians said instead οίτνφανε, ποιήσακ^, having rejected 
the y, η/ψαα, 7Γ0ίήσαί$ ; and from ivs came Is, eis, in ^olic έν with 
the accus. 

§.40. Ill, Sometimes also between two consonants, which cannot 
be pronounced without difficulty, other softening consonants 
are inserted. This takes place before λ and p, to which 1) 
after μ, β is prefixed, e. g. μ€σημβρια from μέσοο and ίιμέρα, 
μβμβληκα ; 2) after ν on the other hand a S, e. g. a'vSpoc. β 
and S stand in the place of e, which is lost in the rapid pro- 
nunciation, μβσημερΊα, μ€μ6ληκα, avepoQ, 

ρ in the beginning of a word is doubled, whenever it is pre- 
ceded by a vowel, in composition or declension, e. g. ίρρίθην 
from ρ€ω, αρρητοα, wepippooc» Poets only use the single ρ for 

Kocn ad Greg. p. (163) 355. ''Herm.deEra.Rat.Gr.Gr.p.294. 

of Letters, 77 

the sake of the metre, e. g. άμψιρυτη always in Homer, a/oe/c- 
Tov II, τ ρ 150. γβυσορυτονα Soph, Ant, 950. χρυσοροον Eur, 
Bacch. 1 54. ωκυροαν ib, 569. Siapixpop Arist, Thesm, 665. 
yjpvaopairiQ Find, Pyth, 4, 316. anepixpev id. Pyth, 6, 37. 
After a diphthong the single ρ remains, cv/oooc (in Homer ενρ- 
pooc), €υρυθμοο. Sometimes also μ is inserted in composition, 
without a Yowel having been omitted, e. g. αμβροτο^ φαεσίμ- 
βροΎΟΟ, ομβριμοα, αμπΧακ€ΐν^, for αβροτοα, &c. In καμβαίνειν 
{Pind, Nem. 6, 87. one MS. has καμβάς for καββάς), καμβο- 
Xla, Hes, for καταβαΐνειν, καταβοΧία (some Μ SS. have wapa- 
κάμβαλ€ II, ψ, 683.), μ is interpolated for the double β. 

This interpolated /u is ν changed into μ before the labial let- §.41. 
ters. Ν was appended to some final syllables, partly to avoid 
hiatus with a vowel, partly to give a fuller sound to the final 
syllable. This is called ν paragogicum, and as far as it serves to 
prevent hiatus, y ίφεΧκυστικόν, i. e. that which as it were 
draws the initial consonant of the following word to the pre- 
ceding. It is annexed 1) to datives plural m σι (μησί, λόγοισι) 
(β), and consequently in ξι and φι ; to the poetic termination 
of the oblique cases in φι ; and to σι in adverbs of place, as 
Άθηνησιν, θηβησιν ; 2) to the third persons of verbs which end 
in € or I (eTVTTTev, τίθησιν), and in the older Ionic and the 
Attic writers also to the third pers. imp. and plusq. perf. act• 
in ei, e. g. ησκειν II, y, 388. εστηκειν IL φ, 691 : probably 
also βεβΧηκειν II, e', 661. Ze^enrvriKeiv Od, p\ 359. rivwyeiv 
II, ξ', 170, where it is recommended hy hiatus and arsis, often 
by a decided incision in the verse or division in the sense ^; 
3) and the adverbs πέρυσι, πανταπασι, νοσψι, πρόσθε, οττισθε, 
jce, νυ, and the word eiicoai (twenty) ^ Sometimes also the 1 which 

• Ilerm. de Era. Gr. Gr. p. 18 sqq. 

* Jen. A. L. Z. 1809. No. 243. 
p. 122. Schol. Ven. ad II. e, 661. 
Sdiol. Harlei. ad Od. e, 1 1 2. Pors. ad 
Od. χ', 469. Of the Attic usage see 
VaJck. ad 11. χ, 280. llippol. 405. 
Piers, ad Mcer. p. 173. Koen ad Greg. 
p. (50) 121. Ilemst. Ar. Plut. 696. 
Bniock. ib. ad Nub. 329. Dawes 
Misc. Cr. p. 230 seq. According to 

Elmsley Arist. Ach. 35. in Aristo- 
phanes' time the third person ended 
in ην, e. g. ήσκην. According to 
Heracridcs(Eust. ad Od. ν , 1892, 34.) 
the Dorians also said €ρρην and ίπλην 
for ippeey, εττλεεί'. 

• A grammarian in BekkcrAnecd. 
Gr. p. 1347, adds αυθιν^ παλιΐ', πέ- 
ρυσι ν, aiivf vvrtv. Comp. Eust. ad 
11. π, p. 1081. 

78 Of the Change and Omission 

is appended to the demonstrative pronouns, receives v^ but only 
if σ precedes : ούτοσίι^, €Κ€ΐνοσΙν^ ούτωσί, but not τουτοι^ιν*. 

On account of the fulness of sound which this ν gives to the 
syllable to which it is appended, it is also used to lengthen a 
syllable naturally short, and not only in the 2nd syllable of the 
foot (in the thesis), but also in the arsis, in order to strengthen 
the rising which this produces, e. g. παρτ€σ\σιν ΐΓθλέ|σιν Se καί 
άλλοι Iffci' KCLKov εσται Od» β\ 166. also before a mute with a 
liquid» which in Homer commonly lengthens the short syllable. 
//. jS', 672, Nc/oevc αν Σν/ιγ^θεν ayev rpelc prjac etaac, though 
the grammarians here erase the ν which they allow to remain in 
other similar places. There is a still stronger reason for this 
in Attic poetry, which generally leaves the short syllable short 
before the mute with a liquid^. Probably in prose it was also 
used at the end of a sentence, before a pause, just as in poetry ; 
and this is the practice in the best MSS.^ 

The V which is added to a privative in composition w^ith 
a word which begins with a vowel, is probably of the same 
origin, e. g. avairioc, as appears from some old forms in which 

V is omitted, e. g. aairroc, aepyoc, aoci/oc. Others consider it 
as the first half of avev. 

Obs, 1 . In Ionic prose, e. g. in Herodotus, this ν is usually omitted 
even before vowels^. Some grammarians maintain (Behk. Anecd, Gr. 
p. 1400.) that the Attics used this ν before consonants as well as vowels, 
and tliat the poets introduced the common limitation. In the best MSS. 

V is generally found before consonants. SeePoppo^s Thuc. l.p. 444 seq. 

Obs. 2. In the case of πρόσθεν, όπισθεν, and other adverbs in 0ev, 
the omission of the y is considered a metrical license, not found in prose. 
From the Doro-^olic form πρόσθα (§. 10.), &c., it might be inferred 
that the original ending was in e, and that the ν is an appendage*. 
Elmsley, Eur, Med, 393, (Comp. Buttm, Lexil. p. 60, 14.) doubts 
whether the Attics even said σ^ι for σψιν, as Lobechy Phryn, p. 284 seq. 
doubts whether they pronounced πρόσθε, οττισθβ, ^i^eice, vKcpOe, See 
Matthice ad Eur, Andr, p. 181. Add. But σ^ι is of unquestionable au- 
thority in Homer as well as σ^/σι. Apoll. π, άντων, p. 874. C. 385. A. B. 

* ApoUon. π. άντων. p. 335. C. * Herm. de Era. Rat. Gr. Gr. 

Draco, p. 106, 19. p. 13 seq. ' Fisch. 1. p. 143. 

»• Pors. ad Eur. Or. 64. • Fisch. 1. p. 189. 

of Letters, 79 

So also vpooStf SrivOe, &c. Ύαντό and ταΐτορ were both in use among 
the Attics, the hitter more common. Πάλικ is also πάλι in Homer ; but 
wipay and wipa are of different meaning. Eltrul, ad Soph. (EdL T. 734. 

O&f. 3. The use or omission of the ν being so variable, it may be 
inferred that it did not originally belong to the termination, but was 
added or omitted for the sake of euphony, as άμψασία and άψασία, άμ- 
irXouxiy and άκΧακείν^ Ιμπίπρημι and ίν€πίμκμην were used• This was 
the opinicm of ApoUonius Ilepi Zvr^. Bekker Anecd. Gr» p. 520 seq. 
Comp. 574, 8. 60d, 31. And if we regard euphony and not the removal 
of hiatus as the main purpose of the v, the statement of other gram- 
marians (O&f• 1.), that the Attics used it before consonants as well as 
vowels, win not be inconsistent with this hypothesis. That many other 
forma in e and c, as 2 pers. plur. imper. pres. sing. dat. do not at all 
assume this v, can hardly be admitted as a proof that when it is used 
it belongs to the original form, as maintained by Buttm, Larg. Gram. 
p. 98. Ohs. 2. 

In a similar way other letters are also appended and omitted. 

1 ) c in ovraic, which before a consonant is written οντω, 
in μίγρι and άχρι, in which the loniaiis and some Attics, but 
not Thncydides, assume a final c^ So in the epic dialect in 
Homer we have αντίκρυ and avrcic/ovc, ιθυ and iOvq, αμφι and 
αμφΊο (though the latter is more frequently used as an ad- 
verb^); and in the poets generally ατρβμα and άτρίμαο, έμπα 
and ίμπαα. But evOu and cv0t;c, αυθι and avOic, are different 
in sense ''• 

2) ic in WK, which the lonians prolonged into ουκί, ονχ^^ 
before the spiritus asper^ and lengthened ovyi. That ου has 
not arisen from ουκ by abrasion, is clear from the circumstance 
that at the end of a proposition, even when a vowel follows, ov 
is written, not wk. Xen. Mem. 4, 7, 7. ύττο Se του πυρός 

^Mcer/p.S4. Herod. Piers, p. 451. iSios, but οΰτω afler the analogy of 

Thorn. M. p. 135 seq. Heind. ad άνω, icarai, ά<|>yω, for which άψνωΒ 

Plat. Gorg. §. 93. Phxdon. §. 14. is also found Apoll. Rhod. 4, 580. 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 14. According to β Jen. Allg. L• Z. 1809. No. 243. 

Apc^lontus ir. σννΖ. p. 578, ovrais is p. 1S3. 
the older form; and from the com- ^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 144. 
parison of MSS. this appears pro- ' The grammarians apostrophized 

bable. SeeSchaefer App.Dero. p. 207. οι/χ*, as if it came from οιίχί, Vil- 

It may be also supposed that ovrws lois. Anecd. 2. p. 115 seq. 
is fonned from oJrof, as liiws from 

80 Of the Hiatus. 

ου. vyyoei Se και Plat. Criton. p. 46. C. Prot. p. 327. B. 

So μηκετι, formed like ουκετι, though there is no μηκ, shows 
that jc is a foreign letter added for the sake of the sound. 

Of the Hiatus. 

§.42. If a word which ends with a vowel is followed by another 
^^ ^^ which begins with a vowel, this is called hiatus (χασ/ιωδ/α, not 
γασμψ^ία), because the lips cannot then be closed at the end 
of the first word. This hiatus is of two kinds, — proper and im- 
proper. The proper hiatus takes place when the final vowel is 
short, or if long, the vowel is not shortened, e. g. καθβζετο ewi 
yricy SrjXov^Se €καστψ, τ€νζ€ΐ^^άσκησαο II. ξ, 240. The twi- 
proper, when the final long vowel is shortened, e. g. φοίτα ανά 
προμαγουα^ ot 8 ev reiyei eaav βεβλημενοι οίβταμβνοι re, μίΧΧω 
end II. /, 760. 64. 77. The improper hiatus is very common 
' in Homer and the other epic and elegiac, as well as lyric poets ; 
the tragedians admit it in the lyric parts of their tragedies, es- 
pecially in dactyUc, anapsestic, choriambic, and Ionic verses ; 
in antispastic and dochmiac only in the two first long syllables 
(the first and second arsis), μονοΓ εμων φίλων, είθε /ioc' ομμά- 
των)^, but never in iambic, trochaic and cretic verses. Ari- 
stophanes has it in dactylic, anapsestic and cretic verses : ^ 
wapSaXeif η Χί/κψ Nub, 347. Χνκοι eζ\aιφvηc ib. 352. Comp. 
365. 375. evlry ττόλεΓ εΐ'τετοι:υιον Fesp. 663. οι 8e | fifi- 
μα'χοι | ώα τ/σθοντο ye ib. 673. Χαιρέοϋ vloc ib. 687. 

The proper hiatus has been in most cases removed from the 
Homeric poems and Pindar by the doctrine of the digamma, 
yet it frequently occurs in the arsis, e. g. Πΐ}λγ;£α{§εω *Αχιλί?ο«, 
IXcoi' €κτησ\θαί €νναιομ€νον irroXieBpov II. ι , 402. φαιν€τ 
αριπρ€π€\α, ore τ επλετο νην€μοο αίθηρ II. & , 556. after ^, δν 
K€V eyu} ir\aac αγαγω, •η αλλοα Αχαιών //. /3 , 231. in ο (δ), 
for ovTOC, e. g. αυταρ ο €μμ€μαώα 11. e, 142. Often the two 
principal csesurse of the heroic verse appear to admit the hiatus 
on account of the longer or shorter pause which occurs there 

*SeidlerdeVers.Dochm.p.95seq. p. 720 scq. £lem. Doctr. Metr. 
Comp. licrm. Disquis. dc Orph. p. 48. 

Of the Hiatus. 81 

in the utterance ; one after the first short syllable of the third 
foot {κατά τρίτων τ/οοχοΐον), e. g• //. β', 625. η, 63. ff, 479. 
τ', 73. ω', 318• 7 17. (where the termination is -oio), β', 283* 
κ, 285. υ, 385. \f/, 278. 747. (where is a dative of the 3rd 
declension) y β', 211. άλλοι μέν ρ' Stovro, βρητυθεν Se Koff 
eSpac, comp. e, 637. if, 501. i, 127. also a, 565, αλλ' 
ακέουσα καθησο, €μψ S* επιπειθεο μνθψ, comp. ίί, 412. ν, 20. 
The other caesura is after the fourth foot (τβτρατΓοδ/α βουκολική), 
of which see Herm. Disq. de Orpheo, p. 726, comp. //. a', 578. 
/, 238. e', 50. (and elsewhere with εγχβϊ οξυόεκτι at the end 
of an hexameter), υ, 22. (where are datives of the 3rd de- 
clension), //. ff, 66. (and elsewhere with the form και aefero 
lepov νμαρ), \f/, 195. ω', 100. 508. with the termination -το. 
The hiatus is often removed also by the division which the 
sense makes, where we now commonly place a semicolon, 
//. €, 896. ff, 105. V, 76. xff, 278^ After all, many ex- 
amples of hiatus remain in Homer, not to be explained or vin- 
dicated by the reasons now given, generally in the case of short 
vowels over which the voice glides easily. 

The tragedians avoid the hiatus in iambics. The following 
combinations are doubtful: τί ουν Msch, S. c, Th. 210^ 706. 
Pers. 784. SuppL 319. Soph. Phil. 100. τ/ εστίν Soph. 
Phil. 733. 753. defended by Brunck, Phil. 733 ; where, how- 
ever, Blomf. adMsch. S. c. Th. 193. Monk ad Eur. Hipp. 975, 
following Pors. ad Eur. Phan. 892, insert a μ and S'. Comp. 
Herm. Elem. d. Metr. p. 50. ad Soph. Phil. 905. These pas- 
sages are so very few in comparison with those where the hiatus 
is avoided, that they are suspicious from this very circumstance. 
It is often, too, impossible to perceive any reason why the poet 
should have committed an hiatus, when he might easily have 
avoided it: why, for example. Soph. Phil. 100, he should 
rather have said tc ow μ avwyac, than η μ ow avwyac, as 
Monk proposes. Perhaps these hiatus should be allowed in 
\£schylus, in whom they are the most frequent, and whose lan- 

^ On the hiatus in Homer, see seq. On the hiatus in Pindar, see 

Heyne £zc. ad U. &, (t. 7. p. 130.) Herm. de Metr. P. p. 198. Boeckh 

Hermann Disq. de Orph. p. 7^0 seq. de Metr. P. p. 101 . 
Spitzner de Vers. Or. lleroic. p. 106 

VOL. I. - G 

82 Of the Hiatus. 

guage is not eo much raised as that of Sophocles above the level 
of common life. In the comic writers at least, who keep more 
closely to the language of society, hiatus is frequent, as, ri 
αυ Arist. Thesm. 852. τί αν Plut. 464. δ,τι αν Eq. 63. 
τ/ βΤτταα Thesm. 902. τι en Plut. 1161. τί εστίν Ban. 1220. 
τί ην Lys. 350. τί ου Lys. 1103. τί όφβιλω Nub. 7. 21. 
τί ω i»ys. 891. ΟΤΙ άχθέσεται Αν. 84. οτι ου Ach. 516. 
πβρι eipiivna Ach. 39. 60. Thesm. 377. 577. ouSe etc, /iiySe etc 
P/i/i. 3 7 . Buw. 927. J 'H/aajcXeic P/wi . 374; while the trage- 
dians, on the contrary, did not allow ττβρί to stand before a vowel 
even in composition, Pors. ad Med. 284. In the lyric parts of 
tragedy proper hiatus often occur, but only in certain cases, 
as in the arsis. Soph. EL 148. α 'Ίτυν, acev ϊτυν ολοφν/ο€ται, 
and where there is a pause in the utterance, therefore with inter- 
jections, SophwAntig* 1276. φευ, φευ, ω πόvoc(dochm.)• Eur. 
Hel. 1161. 1178. J Έλένα. JEsch. Ag. 1530. ίώ γί γα, eW 
€μ €$έξω (anap.). Soph. Ant. 1328. ίτω, ίτω. Aj. 1 92. αλλ' 
ova €ζ eSpavwv. Eur• El. 1 13. ω €μβα, εμβα ; in addresses, con- 
sequently with the vocative case, Eur. Or. 1564. ίώ Ίύ τύχο, 
έτερον eU ayiSv (dochm,); with imperatives. Soph. (Ed. C. 188. 
iraT, iv av {Rets. Com. Crit. p. 21 1.) Eur. Andr. 844. airoSoc, 
ω φίλη, airoSoc άι/ταίαν (dochm.) ; with emphatic repetitions of 
the same word, Eur. Ph. 1535• αίματι ίεινψ^ αίματι Xvypt^; 
generally where the sense requires a pause, JEsch. Choeph. 923. 
fiapvSiKoc 7Γ0£ΐ/α* εμολε S* ec ^όμον, and in the antistr. 937. 
ίοΧιόφρων ποινά* iOiye δ* ei; μά^γ. Eur. Iph. Γ. 197. Musgr. 
φονοα ετΓΐ φονψ, αχεα τ αχεσι •. 

In the prose writers there is no certain rule by which to di-^ 
stinguish when they allowed or avoided hiatus. The MSS. vary, 
and there is hardly an instance of apostrophus where the word 
is not written at length in other MSS., and vice versa^. The 
ancients blamed the excessive care with which Isocrates and 
his scholars avoided the collision of vowels, while Thucydides 
and Pluto readily admitted it, and by this means gave their 
discourse something sonorous and full. 

* Seidler de Vers. Dochm. p. 79 seq. ^ Poppo Thucyd. 1. 1. p. 418 seq. 
349 seq. 

[ 83 ] 

Of the ApostrophtiSj or Elision 

When two vowels at the end of one and at the beginning of §.43. 
another word come together^ the final vowel of the first word (^^*) 
is rejected (by the poets), in the place of which the apostro^ 
phus ( ' ) is put over the consonant which is left, e. g. πάντ 
ikeyev. Si ων, and thus the two words are in pronunciation united 
into one. If the first vowel of the second word be aspirated, the 
lene which remains in the first word is changed into an aspirate, 
and in that case the lene also which precedes this aspirate in the 
first word must become an aspirate. Vid. §. 35. Obs. 1. 

I• Of the short vowels, α e and ο are most frequently cut off. 
A, however, is not cut off in ava when it stands for άι^αστι^θι^ 
and in apa for αναΐζ only once, Homer, Hymn, in ApolL 526. 
where Hermann would read ω ava, el Sn τ^λε 8cc. E, according 
to Elmsley, ad Eur. Med. p. 150 not., is not cut off in the 3rd 
person before ov (comp. Herm. Prof, ad Soph. El. p. xiv. seq.) ; 
and the MSS. are at variance with this doctrine only in a 
single passage, Eur. Ion. 353. In other cases this e is often 
cut off by the poets'. Ο is not cut off in πρ6, and for that 
very reason is not used by the poets before a vowel ; but in com 
position, as npoerviffcv, wpoel^eveic, πρόοπτος, oe and oo are 
contracted into ov even by prose writers, wpovrvxpev, wpov^eveiCp 
wpovirroc^, where ' is neither the apostrophus nor the spiritus 
lenis, but the coronis. This contraction however is very rare, 
except with the augment, and we do not find wpoiSpoc for 
wpoeipoQ, or νρουργομαι for ττροίργομαι. Ο is also not cut 
off in the gen. in -oco and -ao, where it would have been as 
absurd to choose the longer form and then shorten it by elision, 
as it would have been to write αμφοτέργσ ev yepaiv, when the 
forms αμφοτίρτ/^ or αμψστίραιο existed • 

* Herm. a4 Orph. p. 724. (Jen. All. Lit. Zeit. 1809. No. S44. 
^ Matthis ad £ur. Ale. 923. p. 139.) proposes, wherever two forms 

* Piers, ad Moer. p. 302. Koen ad are in use, a longer and a shorter, to 
Greg. p. (47) 1 16. employ the shorter in all cases where 

' Uerodian. ap. Schol. Venet. ad the longer can be brought into the 

Horn. II. λ', 35. Dorville Vann. Crit. verse only by elision, e. g. for eis 

p. 417. Herro. ad Oq)h. p. 722. Πι^λ^ ικέτενσε, IL w, 674, to read 

Bekker in the Review of Wolf's Ilias els ΏηΧή ικέτ. and so systematically 

G 2 


Of the Apostrophus, or Elision. 

Ohs. In the Attic prose writers we find the prepositions άκά, ίιά, 
cara, μ€τά^ ναρά, df /ια, άμφί, άκτ/, άπό, υπό, the particles άλλα, &ρα 
and άρα, clra, tya, ίη, ore, νοτέ^ rare, ίέ (ph^i, Sde), τέ, ye, ι2ίσΓ€, most 
commonly suffering elision in MSS. ; also ircivra, oUa in ol^ έίη, and es- 
pecially a € before άν, Dumys, Hal. de Comp, c. 6. p. 96. Schsefer 
remarks eiex* in Demosth. in Aristocr, in, as something unusual : and 
ψ^/1* έγώ, €στ\ except in ^σθ* 6τ€ (Plato, however, has €σ& ίιμών Leg, 7• 
p. 794 D. έσθ* αΰτη ib, p. 796 D.), are very rare. Generally the elision 
is not found with terminations which admit ν paragog., and νύχβ* δλην 
will hardly be found in a prose writer• 

§.44. The vowel ι is not cut oiF 1) in veply except in the Jik)lic 
dialect, ravrac wep' άτλατου vaOac Find, 01, 6, 65. and in 
compound words, as περάτττων id, Pyth, 3, 94. περρεθηκατο, 
v€ppky€iv in Hesychius•. 2) in τι and on, except in the Ho- 
meric dialect, although in most of the passages from Homer οτ€^ 
quandoquidem (see Conjunctions), would be equally suitable^• 
8) In the dative plur. of the third declension we find, //. 2Γ, 22 1. 
TOP μεν εγω κατεΧειπον ιων ev ^ώμασ ε^ιοισιι^. Od, ρ ,103, 
τ, 596, ^ακρυσ €μο7σι. Hes, Epy,34, κτημασ ew aXXoTploic. 
ib, 202. βασιΧευσ ερεω, ib, 559. βουσ επΙ, comp. 658• 
Scut, Here, 373. των 8 υπο σενομενων icava^c2^e πόσ είρεΊα 
χθων* and with double σ, //. η, 273. και νυ κε Sij ζιφεεσσ 
ούτοσνεδόν ούταζοντο• ν, 407. γ, 367. comp. κ, 529. 
0<ί. τ,355. φ', 379. f/es. "Έργ. 658. Theog, 3, πόσσ απα- 
λοΐσ(• In the Attic poets this is without example. The ι in 

in all similar cases; πανεν, ^α l^ 
χόλον IL ι', 260, for fcnv€\ &c. But 
such adherence to system is not the 
characteristic of a language not yet 
fixed hy rule, and rather delighting 
in a multiplicity of forms, from which 
the poet might select what pleased 
the ear. Numerous passages must 
be changed in order to carry the rule 
dirough; and it does not follow that 
no ear could ever distinguish an 
apostrophus between two vowels, be- 
cause ours cannot. Do we know how 
the ancients made the apostrophus 
audible after a consonant in the well 
known line of £uripides ? €κ κυμάτων 
γαρ ανθίί ay γαΧήν ορώ. 

* Bentl. £ρ. post Ruhnk. £log. 
Hemst. p. 65. Interpr. ad lies. t. 3. 
p. 943. 7. Herm. de Dial. Pind. 
p. 274. £lem. Doctr. Metr. p. 51. 
Boeckh ad Pind. 01. 6, 38. Comp. 
Schneid. ad Dem. Phal. p. 156. 

"» Schol. Λ^βη. ad II. a, «44. That 
ore is not elided in Aristophanes is 
shown by Bnmck ad Lysistr. 611. 
Ran. 668. Pors. ad Hec. 112. and 
even in Ach. 401. J τρισ μακάρι £v- 
pt7riB% *ΌΘ* 6 ^ovXos ουτωσϊ σοφώε 
dvcKplyaro, o6* seems to be ore 
* since', not on, just as Lysistr. 1 138. 
1150. {ohK \σ& 6ff) ore is used for Sri 
by a common idiom. 

Of the Apostrophus, or Elision^ 85 

lat. sing, is elided, //. S^, 259. ev Salff, oreire/o. e, 505. 
ροπωρινψ. w, 385. κ, 277. ρ, 324. ω, 26. Od. κ\ 
, Od.e, 398. ν', 35. e', 157. Όδυσ?', which the gram- 
ans compared with ηρψ AaopeSovri H• ν\ 453. {Schol, 
f. aci Oci. o\) and therefore pronounced y;i in one syllable 
Ό we write p^• The grammarians wrote these datives at 
engthf αστέρι οπωρινω, ορνιθι OSuaevc» 8cc. and said that c 
pronounced in one syllable with ο η ι (συναΧοιφη, σννίζησιο)^, 
ΛΤ has ev Salff 01. 9, 166. In the Attic writers this elision 
!0, though very rarely, found. Soph. (Ed. C. 1435. ταδ' 
λβΐτέ μοι θαροντ, evei, &c. the words cannot properly be 
qposed, ταδ' ei θανόντι μοι Τελεΐτ' {Lob. ad Aj. p. 341•), 
use, as Schsefer remarks, θανοντι is closely connected with 
following words. Trach. 675. αργητ oioc eveipov ποκψ^ 
\p. JEoL Fr. vi. α μ^ yap eari τψ πενηθ , ο πλούσιοι: δίδωσι, 
Ό the emendation which would remove the article before 
Nrcocis awkward®. M$ch. Pers. 852. vwavriateiv παίΒ' εμψ 
ίσομαι. Blomfield (855.), with Lobeck, reads τταιδ' εμόν, 
her writer iracSc μου. The elision of ι in the third person, 
le other hand, is very frequent, e. g. Eur. Hec. 1239. ei/- 
9. Iph. A. 707. Hec. 900. Or. 525. Hipp. 321. The 
irk of Dorville {Vann. Crit. p. 247. 249.), that the poets 
ys preferred the apostrophus, where it could ]>e used, to 
f εψελκ., is true only when the full form with ν would in- 
re with the verse, e. g. produce an anapaest instead of an 
»US| as in Eur. Iph. il. 68. SiSoiacv έλεσθαι. 

is. A long vowel cannot be elided ; where this appears to take 
, the two long vowels, or the long and short, run into one syllable 

lie reading Ό^νσεΐ would pro- 
an hiatus; but instead of ^έπα 
', 316. γίφα' Od. V, 130. Uv^ 
f^pg, are probably more correct, 
s ^ is both times shortened, 
kist. ad II. p. 514, 17. 803, 18. 
I. Gaisford ad Hephsst. p. 221. 
ITakefield Diatr. p. 3 1 . first main- 
1 that c in the dative could not 
ded,and was followed by £lmsl. 
sracl. Add. 693. Lob. ad Ajac. 
> seq. and Spitzner de V. Her. 

p. 171. Porson Praef. Hec. xxiv. 
Herm. ad Hec• p. 150. maintain that 
it can. llie emendations and ex- 
planations proposed are suspicious 
from their violence, particularly those 
of £Imsley. Herm. Doctr. Metr. 
p. 55. Soph. Trach. i. c. thinks that 
I was melted into one with the follow- 
ing vowel, though no certain example 
of such a coalescence, or of any two 
short vowels into one short vowel, is 
found among the Attic writers. 

86 Of the Aposirophui, or ElisioH. 

in the verse, as IL• ρ\ 89• ά,σβέστψ' oifV viov XaOev 'ArpioSf in the dose 
of the Ijne Έη/αλ/^ dv^petfovrn IL β^, βδΐ. η, 166. ff, 264. ρ, 259. 
etXair/s'i} ι}έ γάμο£ Od. ο', 226. ο, ^77. So in the ode of Sappho in 
Longinus, άπ' ώρανώ diOepos, where ω at are pronou nced as one syllahle• 
ArisU Thesm. 536, el ^e μή ημείε. Fesp. 1224• ίγύ είσομαι* 

§.45. Π. The diphthong ac is elided in Homer in the 1. and 3. 
pers. pree•, and in the inf. pres. and aor. 2. middle, but not in 
the third pers. opt. or inf. aor. 1 . active, nor in the nominative 
of the first declension, e. g. IL a', 117. βονλομ' εγώ — . γ',395• 

epyeaff ytie KaOiCeiv, ij' , 3 . μαγίισοντ ecao/ce. 410. ylyver , 

iirei K€ θάνωσι. σ, 294. kvSoq apkaff επί νηνσι. The only pas- 
sage in which ac of the infin. aor. 1 • act. is elided, is //. ώ\ 323. 
ουδέ τι μιν χ/οβώ εσται τνμβο'χοησ, ore μιν θαπτωσιν Αχαιοί, 
and the only passage in which ai in the nom. plur. is elided, 
is //. λ', 272• <Lc o^et* oSwac Suvov ^evoc 'ArpeiSao, In the 
former place the grammarian Crates proposed to read τνμ^ 
/3οχοΐ7ο; and the reading οξεΤ oSvvai Svi/ov, is perhaps re- 
peated from v. 268. for οξεΤ οΒυνη Svvev, The elision of ac was 
the more admissible in the cases first mentioned, as it was 
reckoned short, though we cannot infer that all diphthongs 
which were so might be elided,. e• g. enXev apiaroc• 

It is very doubtful whether the tragedians elided ai in the 
1. and 3. pers. and in the inf. pass, in iambics. In many places 
the reading is uncertain, as M$cL• Prom. 841. 6\ c. TA. 975• 
Choeph. 96 1. Soph. EL 8 11. JEg. Fr. 6. Eur. Iph. A. 380, 
407. 1142. HeracL 335. 689. In others the common reading 
is inconsistent with the metre, as Soph. (Ed. T. 678. Eur. 
Ale, 90. Med. 975. 984; or the idiom of the language, as 
Χηφωμ Eur. Bacch. 1380. οφωμ EL 485. ακουσ Andr. 1 086. 
for ακουσαι: in other places τ', θ' stand for -το, -re, -βε, 
not -ται, -θαι, as Eur. Here. 418. Troad. 933. Antiop. 
Fr. 11. If we consider that the elisions in Mseh. Choeph. 961• 
Soph. Traeh. 216• Eur. Here. F. 416. Ion. 1082. occur in 
lyrical passages in which the old epical language is often re* 
tained, and that Soph. PhiL 1071• Eur. Iph. A. 380. 1150• 
HeracL 690. 1007. may be altered, without any violence and 
with great probability, so as to remove the elision, there will 
remain only Eur. Iph. T. 685• irpoSovc ae σω^εσθ αυτός etc 

Of the ApoMtrophus, or Eliaoni 87 

oUoue ^voc, which has not yet been succesefuUy corrected \ 
We have therefore every reason to believe that the tragedians 
did not elide ai. 

In Aristophanes, on the contrary, this elision is frequently 
found (see Brunck ad Thesm. 916.)» where the metre requires a 
short syllable. Nub» 7 8 r πριν την εμην \ καΧεισθ' απα-^ζαίμην - - -. 
comp. 988. 1181. Thesm. 916. But in other places he con- 
tracts the final oi by crasis into one syllable with the following 

vowely e. g. Lysist. 115. Souvac av €fiav|r9c παρατεμουσα θημισυ. 
Itan. 509. Eq. 1175. (comp. Heph. p. 222.), while 
in the tragedians no one passage is found in which the metre. 
requires this crasis, unless Eur. Iph. A. 1406. ^^ν^σομαι γώ 
(Aid. Ύ€νησομ' €γώ) belongs to this class. At may be regarded 
as coalescing wiUi the following short or long vowel ^, Lys. 758. 
Thesm. 768. 1178. Ran. 692. comp. At?. 1340. Flat. 113. 
384. Nub. 7. 42. (in both which ai in the inf. aor. 1 . is elided, 
as 523. 550. επεμπηίησ αυτψ) 1140. 1341. Αν. 976. 
Feep. 319.537.825. 941. 1426. Ey. 886. 1175. ilcA. 325. 
Pac. 102.253. 324. 1175. 

Of the elision of the diphthong oc no example is found in 
Homer and the epic poets. The Attics elided it only in οίμ 
for οίμοι before ω, e. g. Soph. Aj. 587.^ but not in μοι, σοι. 
In Iph. il. 819. μ is for με, and belongs to λεγονσι, according 
to §. 410 b. Eur. Bacch. 820. Hermann (on ver. 811) 
considers σ' ou as a crasis for σοι ου. In rot and μεντοι, οι 
forms a long α with the following a, as ω with oc in ψζ,υρα 
Arist. Lys. 948. ωζυρβ Nub. 655. 

When the first word ends with a long vowel or diphthong §.46. 

and the second begins with a short vowel, this latter is elided 

in the Attic poets, (not in Homer or Pindar, for instead of Si) 

%Γ€ΐτα, δή €π€*τα is more correctly written,) e. g. irov 'στιν. 

Ερμη pvoXaie, η ξει/ογασ/ίΐένΐ), του 'Xarripoc Arist. Ach. 246. 

* £lfnsley*s correction is very pro- elision : on the other side, Burgess 

bable, wpoiovs σ€σώσΘαΙ σ airros. ad Dawes, p. 471. 
On the whole section see especially ^ Dawes 1. c. and Koen ad Greg. 

Erfurdt ad Soph. Aj. 190. Comp. p. (73) 171. £hnsl. ad Soph. (£d.T. 

Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 966. who, with 1S37. Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 113. 
Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1S38. denies the ^ Koen ad Greg. p. (73) 17 U 


Of the Apostrophus, or Elision* 

and in prose writers ω 'γαβέ^. This elision is most common 
with C; but sometimes takes place after μη, with α in the 
prepositions από, ava, αντί, in composition : Soph, EL 1 1 69• 
Eur. Med. 35. μη 'ποΧειπεσθαι (Ed. Γ. 1 388• μη 'ττοιτλιτΐσαι 
Eur. Bacch. 1072• μη \aycnrlaeie viv Heracl. 885• μη 'πα• 
^εζηταί Hel. 84t] . €i μη 'πολώσω ib. 1020, μη wo^aeic Arist. 
Nub. 1278.. μη' woSiStf Av. 1620. μη "φαίρα Pac. 772. μη 
ι/τίδουλεύει Eur. Supp. 364• After the diphthong ου, Eur. 
Suppl. 64 1 . μακρού 'ποπαύσω. Soph. Phil. 033. μη μου φβλγς, 
where the editions before Brunck have μη μου <^IXpc (Elmsley, 
ad Eur. Med. 66. p. 88. not. 2, considers both as a crasis,) 
ου 'ktIvci Eur. Andr. 53 in MSS. του Vcoptoc Soph. (Ed. T. 
393. €μου 'πάκουσον (Ed. Γ. 708. Ε after ei very rarely, Eur^ 
Suppl. 523. ei 'πιταζομεσθα; after ω if the reading is correct, 
Eur. El. 887. βοστρνγ^ 'να^ηματα. Iph. Τ. 962. κα^ω 'fe- 
λεγξαι, where the Aldine reading Kaywy efeXey^ac destroys 
the metre. Rhes. 157. ηζω ττι toOtoic. αποκτενω γώ Iph. Α. 
397. μένω 'vlih. 818. Arist. Ran. 199. ίζω 'πίκωπην. £sch^ 
Prom. 747. μη^επω V Trpooi/icoic'' ; after ot, Soph. Phil. 812• 
€μοι 'στιν. In other words also α is elided at the beginning of 
a word, but generally only after η, μη or the fem. art. η : η 'λή- 
θαα Soph. Ant. 1 174. (Synt. Cr. p. 23. more correctly ac- 
cording to Reisig, ά'λήθβι'). μη 'SiKciv Eur. Hec. 1249• ry 
*/©€τρ Andr. 226. μη 'ντί ib. 792. μη 'μάθει Heracl. 460. 
after ω Arist. Nub. 1372. Corap. 1380. Most frequently the 
augment e is elided; Soph. Aj. 308. waiaac κάρα 'θωΰξεν. 
(Ed. C. 1608. πεσοΰσαι^'κλαιον. Trach. 905. Phil. 360. (Ed. 
C. 1602. JEsch. S. c. Th. 761. 601. Pers. 308. νικώμενοι 
*κυρίσσον. Whether these are real elisions or not, depends on 
the question of the omission of the augment in the Attic dra- 
matists. §. 160. According to Reisig, /. c. p. 21• and Pors. ad 
Arist. Eccl. 410. this elision of e does not take place after ου. 

* Valck. ad Ph(£n.408. Markl. ad 
Eur. Iph. T. 1010. Koen ad Greg, 
p. (103) «27. So we ought to write 
€\ίψημία *στω Arist. Αν. 959. ^ovXeia 
'στιν Vesp. 682. Ζιοσημία ^στιν Ach. 
171. Pac. 873. η Wepa Ran. 64. 

^ Reisig 1. c. will not allow this in 

the case of cs, ίκ, ey, except when 
the preceding word is monosyllabic^ 
or if polysyllabic has the accent on 
the last syllable; eyw *i•, effXcJ V 
rrjs oiKiaSf but not ^ήσω Vy τούτον 
V, eWiupai V. 

Of the Apostrophus, or Elision, 89 

The absorption of a short vowel under these circumstances is 
now regarded as a crasis (Reis. /. c. Herm. Prof. Bacch. xiv.), 
in which case we should write the words at full length, or 
unite the two in one, ή αληθει, or ήληθει'; and so in Arist. 
Av. 1079. του οβοΧου, or τονβόλου, not του '/3όλου*^. 

Of diphthongs also the first short vowel is cut off after a 
long vowel in the preceding word, chiefly after η ; ή Ισίββια 
Eur. Iph. Γ. 1210. El. 1104. μη 'υρω Arist. Ran. 169. 
εα 'υτον ib. 1243. (see however Reis. Soph. (Ed. C. p. 344.) 
ω υρινί^η Thesm. 4. Theocr. 2, 66. a τω υβούΧοιο for a τω 
ΕυβούΧοιο* These are probably erases. 

Vowels maybe elided even though preceded by a vowel; 5,47. 
so that notwithstanding the elision several vowels still come 
together, e.g. ταχεΤ απέρχεται Soph. Phil. 809. μι ούσα Eur. 
Or. 264. ScLKpv απ Iph. Ant. 653. and in many other places, 
confinning the orthography, Βακρυ αναπρ-ησας Π. ι', 433. (Jd. 
β', 81. It is remarkable that e in -ece, 3. pers. opt. aor. 1. act. 
is never elided in Sophocles and Aristophanes, nor in ^schylus 
(for in Choeph. 851. we should read icXei^eiav) ; in Euripides 
only once. Or. 700. tσωc av ίκπνεύσβί ' όταν δ' avg nvoacy and 
in a verse of Diphilus, Athen. 6, 9. p. 239. A. In Homer, 
on the contrary, this elision is common. The ancients probably 
prevented the hiatus by pronouncing both words as one, as in 
Sucaioc, μιαίνω^. Hence when a dactylic verse ends with an 
apostrophized word, the remaining consonant is placed at the 
beginning of the following verse, e. g. //. β', 206. ξ', 265. 
This, however, is a rare occurrence, which does not take place 
in iambic* or trochaic verse, but only in anapaestic, dochmiac, 

« Eur. Ileracl. 460. The 
difference between crasit and elition 
I conceive to be this: crasis takes 
place only when the diphthong or 
Towel at the end of a word so coa- 
lesces with the initial vowel of the 
next, that the sound or quantity is 
changed, as in μοΰστι for μοι Ιση, 
or μεντ&ν for μίντοι ά'ν, Crasis tod 
can only take place in words and syl- 
lables which, from their being un- 

emphatic, readily coalesce with the 
following word, especially enclitics, 

but not in νικωμ€νοι έκυρισσον, or 
in ίμοί ίστιν Soph. Phil. 812. where 
therefore I should not write with 
Hermann εμουατι, but c/ioi *στι. 

^ Villois. Anecd. t. 2. p. 115. 

* In iambic verse, when a line be- 
gins with a verb without augment 
and the preceding line ends with a 
long vowel or diphthong, the omitted 

90 Of Contraction. 

glyconian, and generally those in which the rhythm goes on 

Oht, The apostrophus is used in poetry, where a pause in discourse 
occurs between a word ending and a word beginning with a vowel» as 
where another person begins to speak, and where in our punctuation a 
point or colon is used, e. g. Eur. Hec. 514. (518. Pars.) seq. ^/lecs ^ 
arcKvoi roM σ' ύ τάΚαιν έγώ. Or. \95\.*Έ»ρμι.6νη. σω&τβ όσον γβ 
τοντΓ* έμ\ Η λ. J κατά arkyas - - - though the hiatus is commonly al- 
lowed in dochmiac and other verses, where such a pause takes place• 
So in Homer two long vowels coalesce into one sound, though sepa- 
rated by such a pause. II, p\ 89. φλογΐ eciceXof Ή^αιστοιο Άσβεστη* 
01/3* vioy XciOev, &c. The same thing takes place where there is an 
elision of the initial vowel. Soph. Phil. 591. λέγω* Vi τούτον --- 
jirisL Nub, 1354. εγώ ψράσω* Vei^i) γαρ. 

Of Contraction. 

J. 48. A third method of avoiding the concurrence of several vowels, 
(45.) which is used, as well as the preceding, chiefly by the Attics, 
is the contraction of two or more vowels of separate pronun- 
ciation into one sound. This is proper, when two single vowels 
are contracted, without change, into one diphthong, e. g. τβίχβί 
τβίχβι, acSoc αίδοΐ : improper, when, in the contraction, a vowel 
or a diphthong of different sound is substituted, e. g. η for ea, 
ω for oo and οη. In general, the following mles are observed : 

1 • The long vowels η and ω absorb all the rest of the simple 

2. α absorbs all vowels following it, except ο and ω. 

8. e coalesces into the diphthong ei, or the long vowel η, 
with all vowels following it, except ο and ω. 

4. c and υ absorb all vowels following, and are contracted 

augment is usually marked by an These are cases fftitgeyrer», since com- 

apostrophus, e. g. Soph. CEd. C. 1605. monly the iambic rhythmus is so far 

KovK ην ίτ dpyov odhky iv έψί€το from going on to the next line, that 

(or -/erai) 'KrvViyae μ^ν Zeis hiatus is allowed between the end of 

xBoviott al it παρθένοι 'Ρίγησαν, one and the beginning of another. 

Of Contraction. 91 

into one syllable with a vowel preceding, ι is generally 
subscribed under α (long), 17, ω, and unites in one syl- 
lable with e and o, e. g. κεραϊ κεργ, opei o/oec, oic oic. 
When c makes a diphthong with a vowel, and this is 
to be contracted with another vowel, the two other 
vowels are to be contracted according to the preceding 
rules, and the c is subscribed, when from the contrac* 
tion arises a long a, η, ω, e. g. rvwreai τνπτί), τι- 
μίοίμι TC/Liyfu, ri/iaei ημγ. 

6• ο coalesces with all vowels, preceding or following, in 
the diphthong ου, or, if an c be under them, in oc or 
the long vowel ω. 

The following paragraphs contain the more exact distinctions 
of these general rules. 

Aa becomes a. But the accus. plur. of ναυς is i^a?c instead §.4f). 
of vaac. So also τας ypavc^. i^^) 

Ae becomes a, e. g. yeXaere γβλατβ, eyeXae εγέλα• 

Aec becomes a, e. g. yeXaeic γβλ^α, aecSoi α£ω. 

Obs. 1 . Μ ^σβαι ( Toup. ad Suid. 1. 1 . p. 462. Heind. ad Plat. Cralyl. 
p. 77.) is not a contraction from μάεσθαι, but from /ζώεσθαι, whence 
μ•ί€ο in £pichannu8, μώται in Hesychius. 

Ohs, 2. The Dorians made 17 from ac, e. g. Ισορητ€ Theocr. 5, 3• 
Ιψοίτη for ifoirat 2, 155, woOop^ for προσοράει^προσορ^, Ιφϋσση^ ίτρύπη, 
νίκη, €p^f τολμ^ί, νπ€ρΐΓαΙητ€ for υπερπηδάτε, in the same author ; yev» 
νηται Ft. Pyth, p. 248. ed. Orell.^ The Attics did the same iu the four 
verbs : ζ^ν for ζάειν, ζ^ν, πει^-ζν for πεινάειρ, πειν^ν, ίιφ^ν for ii\j/a• 
eiy, ^(ψ^ν, ^(ρησθαι for γράεσθαι, χρασθαι*; also in χράω, χ/ορ Soph, 
EL 35. φάω, φρ Track. 678. περιφην Arist. Eq. 909. ίπισμη Tkesm. 
389. κτησθαι*. The lonians said γράσθαι and χρέεσθαι, which was 
also Doric. Fr. Pyth. p. 296. ed. Orell. 

Obs. S, In the word yavs the Alexandrians contracted the nom. plur. 

• Piers, ad Moerid. p. 1 12. « Fisch. p. 61. 127. Keen ad Greg. 

^ Keen ad Greg. p. (79) 185. (I2l) p. (104 sq.) 328. 
266. Fisch. p. 60. Heyne ad Find. ^ Buttm. ad Plat Gorg. p. 521. cd, 

Nem. 5, 9. Boeckh ib. 5. Herro. de Hcind. 
Dial. Find. p. 12. 

92 Of Contraction. 

which was v^es in Ionic and Atticy into vavf ^ In one single instancet 
the composition of the numeral τριάκοντα with iroSf the Attics also 
contracted ae into ov, τριακοίΎοντη$. In the same composition with 
another numeral in α the α is rejected, ^πτέτηχ, ^εκέτη^^, though many 
variations are found in the editions. 

Obs, 4. The c is suhscrihed when it comes last amongst the single 
vowels. See below. In the inf. in -dv -ήν it was not used according 
to the older grammarians. 

(47.) Ao, aov, αω become ω, e. g. βοαουσι βοωσι, οραω ορώ, Πο- 
σειδών for Ποσ€(δάων• The Dorians^ on the contrary, contract 
ao αω into a, as τάων rav, κοραων Kopavy ΤΙοσεάαν and Πο- 
aecSaVy Άμυθαν for Άμυθάων Pind. Pyth, 4, 223. and 'Αλκμάν 
for ΆΧκμαΙων Pind. Pj/th. 8, 66. 80. φυσαντβΰ, χαλασι, in 
Alcseus, γβλαν, for φυσάοντβί, χαλάουσι, γελαων*^. 

The Dorians also changed the termination of the nouns in 
aoCf into ac, e. g. 'ApiceaiXoc -a -^ Pind. Pyth, 4, 3. 116. 
444. 531. Nem. 11, 13. Ίόλ^ Nfwi. 3, 62. MeveXa, gen. 
from MevlXac Pind. Nem. 7, 41. Μενελ^ Eurip. Troad. 212. 
Ni/co'Xac Herod. 7, 137. is called in TAmc. 2, 67. Νικόλαοο. 
So Aristophanes JBjm. 164. has apyeXac for α/οχέλαοα, to 
create an ambiguity, as if it came from \ac, a stone. 

Obs, iiyairevv Tlieocr. Epigr. 19. 4•. opevaa for όράονσα ί(ί. /</. 11. 
69. are not from αγαπάω, οράω, but from the form άγαττέω, ορέω. §. 10. 

Aoi becomes ψ. οράοι, opaoiro, ορψ, o/oyro, aocS^, ^δή. 

Αι? becomes α. γελαιιτε, γελάτε. 

Αρ becomes <f. 

§.50. Εο becomes, 1. α, if a vowel or ρ precedes, e. g• evKkea, 
(48.) Πειραιά for Πεί/οαιέα, apyvpea, apyvpa. 

2. η, when a consonant precedes, e. g. αληθία, αληθη^. Yet 
in contracted substantives of the second declension ea becomes 
a, e. g. οστεο οστά. So from eapt ηρι, from γαΤα yea γί. 

*Fisch.p. 127sq. Piers, ad Moerid. ad Gregor. p. (86) 196. (93) 209• 

p. 266. LoDcck ad Phryn. p. 406 seq. - Bceckh ad Pind. Pyth. 3, 28. 

*• Piers, ad Moerid. p. 128. ** Fisch. p. 129. Valck. ad Phcen. 

« Valck. ad Eurip. Ph. p. 65. Koen 1297. Drunck. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 161, 

Of Contraction. 93 

ΙΒλι becomes y, e. g. τντττεο* τύιττ^. 
Eac becomes eic^ aXi|06ac αλήθεια* nc in the Doric, ic/o?c for 

Ee becomes, 1. ει, e. g. aXiiOeec αλι^θεκ^ eirocee εποιει. 2. i| 
in nouns, if no consonant follows ee, e• g. akn^ke αΚηθη, wept" 
κα\\η for -icaXXee Arist. Thesm. 282. a very rare form. See 
§.78. Obs.4. 

Obs. The Attic nom. plur. βασιΧήί appears not to be a contraction 
from βασι\έ€$ fiaaiXeiSf hut to arise from the Ionic fiaaiKijes, See §. 89. 
Obs, 4. Homer has the above contraction in aiSeto, /ii/Oeco, veiat, for 
οι7έ€0, &c. //. ω, 503. V. Em. Od. i', 269. θ', 180. V, 114. ev^/jceo» 
for €v^i€0Sf evKXeias ΐοτ evVXeeas //. ic', 281 . while he contracts aicX^eer, 
ayuKKieos into aicXi/ecs //. /u', 318. (but άκ\€ΐώ5 Od. a, 241.) άγακληοί 
IL ir', 571. 

Eo and eov in Attic, make ov, e. g. φιλβον φιλούν y φιλεο* 
/levoc φιλονμεμοα. In Ionic and Doric ευ, e, g. KaXevvrec Od. 
K, 255. nXevv, πλευνεο for πλέον, ττλέομεο in Herodotus' 
φιλεν/Αενοο, χε/λευα for χείλεος Theocr. 7, 20. γέΐ'ευα Fr. 
Pyth, p. 296. ττοιευσ* for ττοιέονσι, υμνευσαι for υμνοΰσαι, even 
βείν Callim. Η, in Cerer. for βεόμ, θει;κυ$ί§ΐ}0 for OovjcvSiStic^• 
The tragedians sometimes use this Dorian contraction, πολεύ- 
/Αεναι Msch. Prom, v. 650. (Blomf. 666. ττολου/χεμαι) in iamb, 
trim, ^sch, ib. 122. είσοιχι^ευσιν. -Εμγ. Λ/είί. 427. υμρ€υσαί. 
Hipp. 167. άυτευν\ 

Obs. In Attic eo is sometimes changed into ec, e. g. ττλεΐν, ^eiv, for 
χλέον, ΙέυνΚ The grammarian, αρ. Greg, ed» Schcef, p. 078. xii. adds 
ZoKelyy having probably taken it for a participle in ZokcIv ίμοί, 

Eoc becomes oc, e. g. ποιέοι ποιοι. 

Εω becomes ω, e. g. Tleipaiewc Tleipaitoc, but only when a 
vowel precedes εω, thus they do not say βασιλώί; for βασιλέωο*'. 

• Grcgor. p. (108) 235. et Koen. ^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 413. 

^Fisch. p. 117. 138 sq. Koen ad * Koen ad Gregor. p. (59) 140. 

Greg. (76) 178. (222) 469. Comp. Pierson ad Mocrid. p. 294. 

(136) 298. J Pierson ad Moerid. p. 314 sq. 

» Koen ad Greg. p. (76) 178. (164) 


Of Contraction. 

Ohs. In ditsyllable verbs, which become monoiyllabic by contraotiont 
€ω, €17, €0» €0Vf are not contracted, but only ee and eei, e. g. πλέω, irXeu « 
irXec, χλέο /Lcev, ιτΧέουσι• So also fii^, χέ^, 2^»• Yet we find ^vy, Sovyrip 
for iioVf ^ioyrif in Plat Cratyl, p• 419 D. 4121 C. 2ονσακ for ^έονσαχ 
Dinarck, ap. PoUuc. 8, 72. ^v, ^ovac, for ^^wv, ^έονσι in Hesychius, 
Moeris, and in composition, ava^Jv Ari$U Plut, 589. ava^ov/iev, aya• 
Ζονσι, τ€ρΐ€Μμ€Θα Plat. Leg. 8. p. 8S0 B. M^ovr Plat. Tim. 329. 
itva^vvrai Rep. 5. p. 465 D. ovvdovyTa Eur. Iph. A. 110. But 2ω, 
Z^y 2ον/ζαι, will hardly be found, and the tragedians always say θρέομαι^ 
never Θροΰμαι*. ξυν^ Plat. Rep. 5. 462. D. should probably be Ivyhtl. 

I, preceded by another vowel, suffers only the proper con- 
traction §. 48. e. g. ορεϊ opet, aiBoi aiSoT. In α long and η and 
ω, it is subscribed, e. g. Kepai Kep<f. 

Ohs. In this manner the Attics contracted the dissyllable and trisyl- 
lable words oVf, οιζυ$, οίστό$, Όϊκλ^ s, βοίΐιον, tfarairpoifcrat, and the like, 
into the monosyllables and dissyllables oh, oifvs, olaros, OIkXqs, βοίΐων ^• 
A and ι also are thus contracted ; so that both make either a proper or 
an improper diphthong; ypailiov for ypac^covS jf^iys &ίΙη$, αίσσν, ^σω, 
ψττψί for αίσσω. (Yet άίσσω is found as a dissyllable. Eur. Hee. 81. 
Troad. 157. Elmsl.adEur. Bacch, 147.) Sop^'^iosfrom (^ηι^ο$. From 
i^cOeos, θρηίκιο$9 Tapiyc^cf, NiTpiyc^ef, KXifiOpa came ^Oeof, QpyKioSf τα• 
f>p^es, Ni7f)p^e£, κΚ^Θρα\ In ri/iijs for τιμήαε the e is not subscribed, 
because ecf is formed from ey$ (§. 89.). Instead of irpoif, σ^ώϊν, kwiV, 
λώϊοτοί , they wrote and said π/?^, σ^ψν, νψν, \φστο$ *. ifpy for ^pw'i oc• 
curs in Homer //. η\ 453. Oci. &, 483 ^ 


^ > become ω^ as |3οαω βοω. 

Οη becomes also ω, yet only in Ionic and Doric ; e. g. βωσαι 
for /3ο?σαι (βωσαρτι II. μ, 337. επιβωσομαι Od. a', 378.), 
ίβωθββ for εβοήθεε, όγ^ώκοντα //. j3', 652. for oyBofiKovra^, 
νώσαι for νοησαι, all in Herodotus^. So αγνώσασκε 0(2. ^', 95. 

• Lob. ad Phryn. p. 820 seq. Of 
the uncontracted ee, eei, see §. 58. 

^ See PJerson ad Moerid. p. 275 sq. 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 86 seq. Arist 
Pac. 930. of; --- άλλα τοΰτό γ' 
c0t' 'IwyiKoy το ρήμα* 

^ Hemsterh. ad Aristoph. Plut. 674. 
Valck. ad Phoen. p. 467. Pierson ad 

Moerid. 1. c. et p. 301. Person ad 
£unp. Ilec. 31. 

* Valck. ad Phoen. p. 95. 348. 

* Pierson ad Moerid. p. 300 sq. 

' Hermann de Emend. Gr. Gr. 
p. 36 sqq. ' Fisch. p. 134 sq. 

* Wessel. ad Herod. 9, 53. p. 717. 
47. J£m, Porti Lex. Ion. under οη• 

Of Contraction. 95 

for αγψοίισασκ€. But of becomes oc, as SηXo7Cf δηλοΐ, for Si?^ 
Aopc, SifXop, but Βη\ωτ€ from Si|Xo}|re. 

O&f. θα becomes ov in ^<Sas βοΰ$^ μείζονα^ μ€ΐζον$• In adjectives όα 
is contracted into a, 6η into ^^ άπλόα άπλα, άιτλόη άπΧή» 

Oc 1 become ου, e. g. πτε/οουσσα for ιττε/οόεσσα, ϊτ/οουπτοβ 
Oo J for ir/oooTTTOC, and in composition wpoitrperpev for 
νροέτρεφεν, KcucoSpyoc for KOKoepyoc• aOpooc, avri^ooc, and 
other words compounded with fooc, are not generally con- 
tracted. Yet Aristophanes Pac. 1213. has ίορυξου. 

Obi. 1 • In words compounded with ομού, when ν is omitted, oe remains 
unchanged, e. g• δμοεθ^ίμ. If ο follows, it is contracted into ω : δμω^ 
ρ6ψιο$ from 6μοορ6ψω$• 

Ohs, 2, In the verbs in -ow in the Ionic writers we oflen find -ev 
where the common dialect has ov from oe, oo, e. g. avrcev/xeOa Herod. 
9, 26. άν^ρ€υμένψ 1, 128. c^cjcacevv 9, 26. and elsewhere. oiVeccvi^ae 
1, 4. which is written oin^Vovyrac 1, 94. but οικηΐ€ύμ€νο$ 4, 148. This 
seems to imply the existence of forms in -εω, of which, however, no 
trace is found. 

Oei 1 become oc, e. g. evvoi, κακόνοι, for evi^ooi, jcojcovooc, /51 \ 
Ooc J SiyXoTc, Si|Xoi, for SiyXoecc, SijXoei, φροιμιον for irpo- 

In words compounded with eiSijc oei remains unchanged, 
e. g. KeparoeiSric, μovo€ιBr|c ; yet from 0€O6iS^c is made OeovS^c, 
by throwing out the i*. 

Obs, ΑηΧουν, χρνσονν, do not come from ^i/Xoecv, γρυσόειν, but from 
2η\0€ν9 'xpvaoey, the old inf. See below of the Verb. The Dorians said 
WF, e. g. ριγών for βιγουν^. In vXaKOeis πΧακοΰ$ the ι is omitted, either 
because the old form was frXaicoevs, or to preserve the diphthong of the 
other cases in the nom. 

Οη becomes 01 in the second and third pers. pres• conj. 
where -η has the iota $ubscriptum ; e. g. StjXopc, ^ηΧότ/, ίηΧοΊ^ 
Si|Xoc; otherwise ω, e. g. ^ηΧοητον ΒηΧωτον. 

Yc is not contracted, if these vowels are in two syllables, 
βοτρυϊ. Yet vejcvi' is used as a dissyllable. //. π , 526. 665. 
ω, 108 (β). 

As a general remark it is true that the lonians are fond of §.5^• 
' Fisch. p. 13^. ^ Brunck ad Aristoph. Ay. 9d^« 


Of Contraction. 



the concurrence, the Attics of the contraction of vowels. Yet 
many examples are found of contraction in the Ionic wiiters, 
and disBresis (separation) in the Attics. Thus we have in Homer 
€πί πλατεΐ Έλλιισποντ^ //. η , 86. auSa for av^e ξ*, 195. 
ίαμν^ ib. 199. for ίαμνασαι, and generally in the verbs in -άω. 
In the Attic poets the uncontracted forms are chiefly found in 
the lyric passages of tragedy, especially in anapaestic verse ; also 
Arist. Nub. 994. KOKoepyeiv^. This is very rarely done in the 
iambic trimeter, as JEscA. Pers. 495. peeQpov. id. Choeph. 738. 
voov. Soph. Phil. 491. evpoov. αισσω has been already noticed. 
There is no such form as αστοω for αϊστόω. Κηρ is always used 
in Homer ; κεαρ in the tragedians. In prose writers, especially 
the later, the forms 8eei, Seeroi, εχβεν, enXeev, &c. are most 
common. vpoaSeerai Xen. Mem. 3, 6, 13. SeeaOac Anab. 7, 
7, 31^ 

Crasis is that kind of contraction in which two words coa- 
lesce into one, and are accented as one without elision. Thus 
KoXeyov is a crasis, καΙ 'Άβγοι^ would be an elision. The c is 
not subscribed to the long vowel which arises from contraction, 
except when it is the last of the coalescing vowels, e. g. jc^ra 
from fCQi είτα : if it is not the last it is rejected {ΘΧιφιο), and 
Kayu) from και εγώ is more correct than κα-γώ. Over the con- 
tracted syllable is placed the mark ', then called coronis, both 
after aspirated consonants and lenes, χώ, χι);ιέτε/οοβ, θώπλα, 
θοι/ιιάτέοΐ'. Some also write the sp, asper χω*, γη'μ€τ€ροο^, &c. 
The sp. asper is retained only when the word begins with an as- 
pirated vowel ; some join the coronis, ονμόα or ov/uoc, ου'πισθβν 
for δτΓίσθεν. But no one writes ου'νεκα, though this has been 
formed from ου ένεκα. 

In Homer and Hesiod, and also Herodotus, crasis is very 
rare, and confined to particular words, as ωριστοα in Homer. 
θωμισυ for το ήμισυ Hes. *Έ/©γ. 559. In Pindar we find καν 

■ Lob. ad Soph. Aj.427. Erf. ib. 418. 

•» Lob. ad Phryn. p. 2?0. Schaef. 
ad Greg. p. 431. 

« Sec Seidler Exc. ad Troad. Wolf. 
Anal. 2. p. 439. O0oui'€jca (ge- 
nerally written 6& oiiyeKo), appa- 
rently formed from δτου ίνεκα, as 
oi^cita from oJ irtxa (Buttm. L. G. 

p. 121.), should be written orovyeKOf 
as the sp, α$ικτ can only influence 
the tenuis which immediately precedes 
the vowel that has suffered crasis, not 
as here, one separated by ov. This 
appears from τοΰι•€κα^ not Oovrcjca, 
being formed from rovcFcifa. Matth. 
ad Eur. Ale. p. 607. 

Of Contraction. 97 

for jcai €¥, κασοφοί^ χωταν, χώπότον, χωτι, γωποθεν^. It is 
yeiy frequent in the Attic writers, both in prose and verse, 
chiefly with the article, and with km, 

I. In the case of the article all Anal vowels, ο ου ω, coalesce 
in the Attic writers into a long α when α follows, e. g. ravSpoQ 
tor του ανο /ooc » rayaOov lor του ayauov, ταυτο tor το αυτό, 
rawoWtuvoc Ar, Av• 982. παι^ι ταγαμεμνονοο for τ<^ Αγα|λ• 
Eur. Iph• Τ. 776. but not when the following a is long by na- 
ture, as in ταθλα Eur. Phan, 1296'. As in the Sigean in- 
scription Η stands for the spiritus asper, and ΗΑΙΣΩΠΟΣ ΚΑΙ 
ΗΑΔΈΛΦΟΙ occurs for ό Aίσωπoc και ol αδελφοί, Dawes, 
Misc. Crit. p. 123. 238. 263, recommended to write ανηρ, 
aywv, a νθρωποϋ, αύ roc, for ο ανηρ, 8cc. and this orthography 
is strongly confirmed by the fact that in the MSS. and older 
editions ανηρ, αγών, ανθρωποο, avroc are often found, where 
either the metre requires a long syllable or Attic usage the 
article. To this is added the authority of ApoUonius, Bekker 
Anecd. Gr. 2. p. 495, 24. ωα ο ανηρ ανηρ, ο avθρωπoc αν- 
θρωπος, ουτωα το irepov θάτερόν εστί. The same thing takes 
place with oc, e. g. arepoi for οι erepoi Eur. Iph. T. 326. (Ad.) 
avSpcQ, αδελφοί, ανθρακβα Arist. Ach. 348 S. The lonians and 
Dorians, on the contrary, contracted ωνηρ, τωγαλμα Herod. 
2, 46. τώίΓΟ τούτου id. 1, 199. ωvSp€Cf ω λλοι, ώ ΧΧιρροθίου 
for ο Άλι/οοθίου, ταιυτό and τωύτου in Pindar . τώ/ιιττεχομον 
Theocr. ω'πολοι for οι αί πόλοι Theocr. 1, 80*. So τωλγεοα 
Theocr. 20, 16. τωύτω Arist. Ach. 790. On the contrary, 
from TO amov ταίτιον Arist. Thesm. 649. Ran. 1385. το 
αίμα θαιμα Lysistr. 206. 

When 6 follows, the ο ου ω oi of the article is contracted into 
a long α in arepoc Soph. Aj, 1 109. θατ€ρορ, βοτέρου, θατερψ, 

' Bceckh de Metr. Pind. p. 290. Reisig Synt. Crit. p. 23 seq. Elms. 

• Valck. ad Phcen. 896. Brunck. Praef. (Ed. T. p. 11. Matth. ad Eur. 

ad Arist Nub. extr. 7. p. 502. We should probably write 

' Valck. ad Phoen. 1277. Pore. ib. αγαθοί or ά*γαθοΙ Eur. Hec. 1216. 

and 1638. Pore. 

'Pore, ad £ur. Or. 851. Lob. ad *> Boeckh ad 01. 11, 73. p. 413. 

Soph. Aj. 9. And on the other side, * Greg. C. p. (86) 199. (123) 268. 

Wolf. Anal. 3. p. 457. Porson recom- (195) 417 seq. Fisch. p. 65. 133 seq. 

mends the orthography a*X46eca, Comp. Sehol. Ap. Rhod. 1, 1081. 

ii peril, instead of JSf 'X/yOeca, 4 V^r^. Wessel. ad Herod, p. 110. 

VOL. 1. Η 

98 Of Contraction. 

clrepocj, for ο ejepoa, το erepov^ &c. * Ια other cases ο and ov 
with 6 are contracted in the usual way ; ονμο^, rovfioy, roSi^- 
ZiKov, θουρμαιον Soph. Ant. 397• ούν μίσφ or ου μμίσφ Eur. 
Phan, 603. for ο ev μ€σψ, οίζ for ο εζ, τον/ιφα)^έ<; Soph. Aj. 753. 
τωμι^ for τω e/uy (plur. ταιτι?, τοργα**)• The Dorians here too 
often used ω, e. g. ώ'ξ for ό εξ Theocr. 1, 65. ωτεροα for ο 
erepoc id. 7, 36. γωμόα for jcac ο εμός 15« 18. In θοι/ιιάτιον for 
TO Ιματων, the vowels are merely pronounced in one syllable. 

A with α and e becomes a long, as ταξικά for τα aSiKa. 
θάμαρτια JSsch. Ag. 584. for τα αμαρτία, θαίωλια Eur. Cycl. 
238. for τα εδώλια• τάμα (Dor. τιι^ιά) for τα βμα. ταρια for 
τα ερια Arist. Ran. 1387. Eccl. 215. 

A with ι is contracted into a diphthong, as θαιματια for τα 

A with at becomes at, or more correctly γ, because when 
the two α are contracted into one long α the ι must be sub- 
scribed, ταισχρά (τ^σχρά), ταιτια (τ^τια)^. 

Ac with ε becomes α, as ατεραι for α! ετεραι Thorn. Μ. p. 121. 

(54.) A with becomes ω, as θωπΧα for τα όπλα Ar. Lys. 211 . 
TUipvea for τα opvea. 

Η with € becomes f|, as TiJ/up for τρ εμ^, but θατερ^ for τ^ 
ετέρ^ ; η with a, long α iir. £^ti. 1258. Tayopf, τάγαθρ in 
many MSS. Nub. 61. So also aperv for η αρ€ττ\, or 19 
'ρετή, &c. 

Ot with α used to be written ώ*, now commonly a\ as avSpec, 
&c• See above. 

Oi with ε. According to the grammarians, in this case^ c is 
rejected, and ο and ε contracted as usual into ου, as ού'μοί 
for o! ipoi Eur. Hec. 334. (in Brunck and Person 01 'μοί). 
ουν μεσψ λόγοι Eur. Med. 824. (οί V μεσψ Aid.), ού'πιχώ- 
ριοι iirtsf. 

• Thom. Μ. p. 120. Valck. ad Hipp. ^ Greg. p. (64) 115 seq. (82) 190. 

349. Piers, ad Moer. p. 432. Brunck (123) 268. Fisch. p. 132 seq. 
ad Eur. Hipp. 905. ad Arist Veep. < Seidler £xc. ad £ur. Troad. 

841. The Dorians said arepos for ^re- ^ Greg. p. (64) 148 et Koen. 

pot. Greg. p. (138) 302 seq. etKoen. 

Of Contraction. 99 

The same thing takes place in the pronouns μοί, σοι, used as 
enclitics (Lo6. adAj. 191.)^e. g. (^στέον μοί'γκώμιονΑή8ί. Nub, 
1207. μουγβησεν Ve$p. 159. μουστί Soph. Aj. 1204. ed. 
Henn. for /aoc ί-γκωμιον, See. μεν τουφασκεν for μεντοι εφ. 
Arist. Eccl. 410. See Elmsl. ad Ach. 611. Med. 56. not. 2.* 

Ο with ο becomes ov, e. g. ovSvaaeuc Soph. Phil. 572. 
ov'yoc forooiOC Arist. Ran. 27. θουμόφυΧον Eur. Iph. T. 347. 
ovpvtc Av. 284. 

Ο with oi becomes ψ, e. g. (oVoc for ο ocvoc, r^iciScov for ru 
oiiccScov Aristoph, Nub. 92. <^Vo)^ooc for ο oivo^^ooc Eurip. 
Cycl. 557. ψ'κότριφ Arist. Thesm. 426. 

Ο with i| is written ω in θωμισυ Hes.'^Epy. 557. elsewhere η, 
e. g. θηρωον Arist. Vesp. 819. θημετερον Lys. 592. So also 
ου If, e. g. θημετερου id. Vesp. 526. θημεργ forrp νμεργ Soph. 
(Ed.T. 1283. Aj. 756. 778. 1362. is doubtful ^ and if cor- 
rect, this and θημετερου are the only instances in which the 
long final and long initial vowel coalesce. But rySe Oripepif 
Arist. Av. 1072. has not been called in question. Both were 
probably in use in the common language of Athens, copied by 
the comic writers, while the tragedians retained only Oripeptff 
which was owing to the double η. 

Ο with υ makes long υ, e. g. θυ^ωρ Crates ap. Athen. 
p. 268. A. OvSaroc Arist. Lys. 370. others write θουδω/ο^. 

Ου with ο makes ου, as τονΧνμπιου Arist. Av. 130. τονό 
poTTvyiov Nub. 162. τουβολου Equ. 649. 662. 945. 

The crasis τουπιγρά/ι/^ατβ for τώ επι-γραμματε Plat. Hip^ 
parch, p. 228. extr. should probably be written τώ 'τη-γράμματε, 
as in Bekker^s MSS. But ω with ο becomes ω, as τωγΧψ Arist. 
Ach. 257. τωνοματ ---o/uoi'a> Nub. 393. As ω before voca- 

• Valckenaer (ad Phoen. 635.\ defend the doctrine of the gramma- 

Briinck (ad Hec. 1. c. Med. 818.), rians. 

and Person, declared against this ' Lobeck ad Aj. 755. Schaef. ib. 

crasis. Elmslcy ad Eur. Med. p. 88. and (Ed. T. 1. c. On the other side 

not. 3. V. 801. Praef. Soph. CEd. T. Herm. ad Aj. T43. 

p. viii. Buttmann Gr. Gram. p. 115. ' Elmsl. ad Ecfr. Med. 56 not. 9. 

η 2 

100 Of Contraction. 

tives is exactly like the article, we should write with Wolf 
ωφίιμερε Arista Nub. 224. ωυρινί^η, not ω' φημ€ρ€, ω 'υριπϋη• 

§.55• 2. The neut. sing, of the pron. rel. δ, when followed by e, 
is contracted into ov, the neut. plur. into a long α ; ουφ6ρ€ΐ 
for ο εψο/οει Soph. El. 421. ουζ€ρώ for ο εζερω (Ed. Τ. 936. 
ακρατησαα (Ed. Τ. 1523. for α ίκρατησαο, α με for α ίμβ Eur. 
Hipp. 348. αν for α αμ iSopA. Aj. 1085 seq. 

3. Και with α becomes ica, with αι ic^ , e• g. icaVo for και 
απο, καν for κα\ αν. So icavroc for κα\ avroQ Soph. (Ed. T. 921 . 
But with αεί it forms no crasis*. 

Καί with € makes κα, as καγώ for κα\ εγώ, icon for και en, 
καστι for icai εστί, κακ for icai eic. So also Kac for και ec in 
Aristoph. Av. 949^. (not icec), for which the tragedians said 
K€iQ. So with the augment, Soph. (Ed. T. 1052. καματευεο. 

Obs. 1. In Homer this crasis occurs only //. φ\ 108. κ&γώ (where 
κάί έγώ might also be written) H. in Merc. 173. It is not imcommon 
in Pindar^. 

Obs. 2. The Dorians contracted καί and e into 17, e. g. κήγώ^ κήκ for 
καΐ ixf κήψα for καΐ ίφη \ 

Και with ει makes κα, e. g. κατά for icai είτα ; but και el 
and jcai eic become κει, jceic ^. 

Kai with ευ becomes k€v, κευσταΧηα Soph. Phil. 780. κεύ- 
τνχουσα JEi/r. Androm. 889. ΐΓεύΐΓλεω« ii/c. 299. and in the 
compounds, but not κευ for κα\ εν^. 

Καί with 17 becomes ici;, e. g. κτϊΧΒον JEsch, S. c. Th. 812. 
and yji if the second word has the spiritus asper, e. g. χι} for 
'f^* ίί χτ/γχουσα for και ri ayyovaa Arist. Lys. 48. 

Kai with ι becomes (ici) χΐ, χίκετευετε jEi/r. Hel. 1024. 

' Καί with ο becomes κω, KtoXiyovc Eur. Hipp. 1000. κωρ' 

ψανην EL 919• κωργηστρΙΒεα Arist. Ran. 514. and with an 
aspirated vowel χω, χώο Theocr. 7, 74. χώσα, χώστιο, χωτε 

• Person ad Eur. Phcen. 1422. • Valck/ad Phcen. 217 seq. Comp. 

* Valck. ad Phcen. 677. Bekk. Anecd. Gr. 2. p. 496. 
« Bceckh ad Find. 01. 3, 33. ' Pors. ad Eur. Ph. 1422. 
^ Greg. p. 88. (200) 108 (234). 

Of Contraction. 101 

.£scA. Eum, 723. for κάι ο, &c. So χωίωνιο for και ο '^ASoikcc 
TAeocr. 1, 109. ytarepoQ for icai ό Ire/ooc• 

Καί with 01 becomes icr^, χ^ ^ e. g. Kifvov for icai oci'ov, ια^κιαρ 
for ica! oiiciay ilr. The$m. 349. χ^ ^ujuirorai for και οι ^ν^ττ* 
χω ξνννανβαται Soph, Phil. 665. Yet χοί is written for 
jcac oc, ^oloc for και oioc. 

Koi with ao becomes κον, e. g. κουτβ, icovirore. 

Καί with V becomes χν, e. g. χΰιτο Eur. Iph, A. 1124• 
Ion. 1289. χνιτοχείριον Andr. 737. •χυνβρορρω^οΰσ SuppL• 
346. yiirnpeaiav Ar. Vesp. 602. 

4. The following erases are also found : roi coalesces with 
ar into ταν with long a, μεμταν for μεντοι av^, τάρα for roi 
apa Soph. El. 404. 'χωρησομαι ταρ* ovwep ίστάΧην oSou βέί. 

EycJ with oc, e^^Sa for εγώ olSa, ε-γψμαι Plat. Crat. p. 386 C. 

5. Other words are written at full length, but the concurring ^.56. 
Towels form only one syllable, which is called avvlinaic, συνεκ- 
φωνησι^ especially the syllables ei ov, ν a, η ei, v^y V ου, ι; οι, 

II ω, ωα, ω ου, ω ει. II. ν , 777. μβΧΧω eJTrei ovS' €μ€ \ παμπαν 
α\ναΧκι^α\γίνατο μτιτηρ. Soph. Phil. 948. eiXev μ' ewei ουδ'Ι 
avJS* εχοντ'*". Arist.Ach. 458. μη άΧΧα. Eur. Iph, Τ. 1055. 
•η ciSoToc. R/ies. 685. ου σε yjpfi €iSe\vai. Msch. S. c. Th. 
210. /ii) «c. {ed. Bl. v. 193.)* Od. a', 226. *H οΰ, μη οΰ, as 
one syllable, is very common. //. ε', 349. 5 ουχ oXiq. Eur. 
Hec. 1094. ri ov^eicK Od. ω\ 247. οχνιι οΰ. Hes. "Έ/ογ. 
640. apyaXeTg ουδέ. Soph. Trach. 84. η οί|χο^ιεσθ' αμα. 
Msch. Prom. 634. 5 ώο, where, however, the reading is 
doubtful. Thus in Arist. Ach. 860, the words *Ίττω 'H/oajcX?c, 
formed in the mouth of a Boeotian an iambic dipodia. Arist. 
Eq. 340. εγω ου^ . Soph. Phil. 585. εγώ εί^ι'. Ar. Fesp. 1224. 
εγώ είσομαι. From this passage it is doubtful whether a 

r Pora. ad £ur. Med. 869. Blomf. > Monk ad £ur. Hipp. 1331. 

ad £sch. S. c. Tb. 1 79. And on the Blomf. ad S. c. Th. 1 93. 

other side Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 534. ^ Brunck ad £ur. Bacch. 638. 

^ Clark ad Od. λ'» 248. Brunck ad £sch. Prom. 100. 204. 

Arist. Lys. 273. £qu. 340. Of syni- ^ Brunck ad Ar. 1. c. ad Soph. 

lesis in Pindar see Bceckb, p. 289 seq. CEd. T. 332. 

102 Of Contraction. 

nynizesis is not to be assumed even where the short initial vowel 
is elided after the lo;ig final. 

Similar synizeses are found in the middle of words, e. g. 
έωρακα, generally a trisyllable in Attic writers (quadrisyllable 
Plut. 98.)> άve(ι)yμ€vac Eur. Iph. A. 66. veoyjAOv Eur. Troad. 
233. veavlav Eur. Hel. 212. and elsewhere, τεθνεώτος Ar. 
Λαη. 1028. 1140. Nub.7H2.838. This is common in Homer, 
especially in genitives in εω of the Ist decl. e. g. Πι^λπΙοδεω 
Άχιλίοο, and in the genitives plur. in εων of the 1st and 3rd 
decl. //. a', 495. εψετμεων. II. κ, 195. στηθεων. So in 
verbs ; //. β', 294. εϊλεωσιν. Ε before α forms a synizesisjn 
the ace. sing. 3rd decl. and in neut. plur. //. y, 27. eeojecSea. 
λ', 282. αφρεον\^έ στη\θεα ; also νμεαα, νμεαα^ σψεας, which 
last remains short. //. e', 567. μεγα\Βε σψεac α|ποσφί)|λ€ΐ€ 
πόνοιο. Comp. Od. θ*, 416. εσσεαι is a dissyllable Od. 2Γ, 33. 
θεόα is a monosyllable in two passages in Homer, //. a, 18• 
Od. ξ', 451. and generally so in the Attic writers*. So //. a, 
14. "χρυσεψ, Od. X, 568. γβίσεον. Hes.*'Rpy. 33. νεί\κεα. 

II. ψ, 114. πεXε\κεac. Jies. *Έ/ογ. 263. βaσιXηεc. That the 
contracted syllable is long is the consequence of the arsis, for 
//. a, 14. εψ in γρνσίφ is short. //. ε', 266. ουκ e^, as Soph. 
(Ed. T. 1451. αλλ' ca, and frequently elsewhere^. So εως in 
the genitive is frequently a monosyllable, e. g. £sch. S. c. 
Th. 2. Ag. 1423. Eum. 614. 695. 698. Soph. (Ed. C. 47. 
Od. V , 194. τουνεκ ap |αλλθ€ΐ|$€α φαινεσκετο πάντα ανακτι. 
ξ', 287. δη ογίδοομ. φ', 178. στ€^ο€. So Hes. Theog. 48. 
aocS^c was pronounced as a dissyllable, whence ψ^ηο was after- 
Avards formed^. I seems also to have coalesced with a short 
vowel following into one long syllable, both when a long vowel 
precedes and with another short vowel. //. S', 416. Tpwac] 

δι^ιώσονσιΐ'. β', 811. woXioQ. ψ', 567. Od. ff, 560. πολιάς 
//. ι, 382. Αίγυπ|τία€, δβι. | Comp. §. 25. Obs. 2. The same 
thing seems to take place in the tragedians in lyric verses ; 
Eur, Here. F, 880. μανιαισινιη a dochmiac verse. Baceh. 996. 

• Pors. ad Eur. Or. 393. « Arnaud Anim. Cr. p. 29 seq. 

^ Brunck ad Arist. lian. 1243. 
£rf. ad Soph. Ant. 1. 95. Pii^f. ix. 

Diviiion of Syllables» 


opjyca. (dochm. σι answeringin the atrophe to για.) Hipp. 770. 
Μονη/χίον S' aic| (troch. in the antistr. -σθεΐσα tap r βυ|) also 
in iambics, Here. F. 1307. Όλυ/Αίττίου ; perhaps also Phan. 
1680. επιον|σαν ημεραν. Msch. Prom. 685. αυτόν αί|ψνί$ιο<;> 
where Porson would read αίφνίδκχ; αύτοί'. JEwr. Phan. 700. 
oi/iaroc δ* elSewre yaiavy \ a viv €υη\\ίοισι Sel^ev - - - (troch.), is 
the reading of all the MSS. laya frequently occurs where only 
two syllables are required^. The synizesis of ν is much more 
rare, perhaps is found only in Pindar, Pyth. 4, 401. γβνυων. 
and Soph. (Ed. T. 640. δυοΐν; for in Od. σ, 173. δακ/ου may 
be considered as two short syllables; and Eur. Iph, T. 938. 
977. 1468, it would be better to write 'Έ,ρινυων with one v. 
The rarity of this synizesis makes both the above-quoted pas- 
sages suspicious. 

Two short syllables coalesce by synizesis into one short, only 
in //. € , 667. peyalSe a(f>€ac α\ποσψΎΐλ€ΐ€ πονοιο. The gram- 
marians quote, however, a verse of Praxilla ; αλλά reov \ ου- 
ΐΓοτ€ I θυμον evi στηθεσσιν eneiOov^. But a short and a long 
before a vowel often make one short. Π. y, 162. SevSply 


Of the Division of Syllables. 

In the division of syllables, the following fundamental rules §.57. 
are observed : 

1. A syllable cannot, in division, end with a consonant 
with which no complete word ends, e. g. no word ends with β 
y δ ; generally with no consonant, except κ ^ ρ c, therefore 

* See Seidler de Vers. Dochm. p. 46. 
Henn. £1. D. Metr. p. 53 seq. Mat- 
thias ad £ur. Phoen. 1637. Hipp. 581. 
Dobree on Arist. Vesp. 1020. quotes 
υπεριων as a trisyllable. On the other 
side Boeckh ad Find. 01. 14. v. 1. 13. 
p. 430. It would be illogical to alter 
the readings in order to make them 
accord with an assumed rule; and 
some of the alterations proposed are 
objectionable on other grounds, as 

Porson's τήν ίοΰσαν ^ιμέραν Eur. 
Phoen. 1680. 

* The rarity of this case makes 
the synizesis doubtful in αστέρι 
ό\τΓωρινψ, X^ipe dk | τψ 6p\y ιθι Όίν|• 

^ The passages of the grammarians 
relative to synizesis are collected by 
Gaisford ad Heph. p. 220. Comp. 
Spitzner de Vers. Heroic, p. 179. 
Thiersch Gram. p. 180 seq. 

104 Division of Syllables, 

the words l/SSo/uoc^ όγδοος are not divided €/3-So/uoc> oy-Sooc^ 
but ε-'β^ομοϋ, o-ySooc. 

Exceptions : a) When a consonant is doubled, the first be- 
longs to the preceding, the second to the following syl- 
lable, e. g. αλ-λθ€, ay-yeXoc, ο/ι-μοι;. 

b) The lene which precedes an aspirate, is annexed to the 

preceding syllable, e. g. Έ,απ-ψω, KarOave, 

c) The liquid which precedes another consonant, belongs 

always to the preceding, not to the following syllable, 
except μ followed by v. Thus ά\-κη, αμ-πυζ, αν^Οινω, 
αρ^μα, but α-μνοα. 

2. Regard is had in the division to the composition, e. g. 
συν-€Κ-8έχο^ιαι, εζ-ηΧθον, Κυ-νόσ-ου/οα. So also ε-στρεφον 
from στρέφω, νρο-στατεω; but ωσ -Te, προσ^ηθημι, προσ^ 


Exception, When in composition the last vowel of the first 
word is omitted, on account of a vowel following, the 
last remaining consonant is annexed to the following 
syllable ; e. g. ττα-ρε-γω, ά-φορ-μγι, β-μαυ-τόν. This 
takes place independently of composition, when the 
last vowel of the first word is omitted, on account of a 
vowel following, e. g. ύ-π' 'Ί-Χιον, α-φ' ου, not υπ'-^Ιλ, 
άφ'-Όυ. For the apostrophus contracts two words 
into one*. 

(58.) 3• AH the consonants which may stand together at the be- 
ginning of a word, remain also together in the middle, and are 
not divided between the preceding and following syllables, ex- 
cept when the composition requires it. The following con- 
sonants may stand together at the beginning of a word : (β8, 
/3λ, βρ, γλ, yv, yp, δ /u, Sv, δ/ο, βλ, θν, θρ, κλ, κμ, κν, κρ, κτ, 
μν, v\y πν, πρ, πτ, σβ, σδ, σθ, σκ, σκΧ, σμ, σπ, στ, στλ, στρ, 
σφ, σφρ, σχ, τλ, t/u, τρ, φβ, φλ, φρ, χβ, χλ, χν, yjp), 
Κα-8 /uoc, εχι-δΐΌ, t-QvoCy α-κμη, ε-κτοζ, τύ-πτω, yvω'σθεicf^ 
Se-a^oc, &C. are thus divided. 

^ Porphyr. ap. Villois. Anecd. 2. p. 115. Comp, Theodos. Gr. p. 63, S9. 



O&ff. 1. Whatever is usual in some letters of an organ ($. 2. i, d.) 
is made the rule also for the other kindred letters, although no word 
begins with them, e• g. y r χ are related to each other, as paladc let- 
ters ; as some words begin with σχ and σκ, and these are left together, 
so try are left together, although no word begins with σγ. In the same 
way the following remain undivided : 













> because 

*θι/ and Sy 




Βμ and τμ 
^κτ and χθ 

> remain undivided. 

Ohs. ft. Three consonants, although they never begin a word, may /^q \ 
yet stand at the beginning of a syllable, if the middle one of them may 
be preceded and followed by these letters, e. g. 6 may have σ before it 
{adiyta\ and λ after it (Θλίβω) ; therefore σθλ may stand together at the 
beginning of a syllable. Hence we divide i-aOXos. For the same reason 
α^σθμα^ "Α^σκρα, οίστρων, Ι^σχνόί, αι-σχ/οό(, Aev-jcrpa, κάτο-Ίττρον^ 
€-χθ^φ, ΰ-σττΧηξ, but also νσ-πΧηξ, 

Obs, 3* These niles are laid down by P. Antesignanus in his Scholia 
to Clenardi Gram. p. 4. (ed. Franc. 1580. Paris, 1572.). Theodosius, 
Gram. p. 62, 29, is the only one of the older grammarians in whom I 
have found anything on this subject. 


The Greeks before the Alexandrian period had no punc- ^.5S. 
tuation ; the words were written with uncial^ i. e. capital let- 
ters, and in uninterrupted succession ; and it was left to the 
reader to distinguish the sense by pauses of the voice. Ια 
Aristot. Rhet, 3, 6, 6. ίιαστιζαι seems to denote divisions 
made in the delivery or by the voice. The ancients could 
therefore allow themselves positions of words which are incon- 
8i3tent with our punctuation, e. g. Eurip, Hec. 406. αΧλ' ω 
φίλη μοι. μητ€ρ Ίι^ίστην χ^ρα Soc, where /ioi does not belong 
to φίλη but to Soc, and therefore no comma should be placed 
afler μητ€ρ, though the genius of our language seems to re- 

IM DmMM of Syllebla. 

tbe vottb i^iofMc, «t^ooc, ue oot dirided έ/ϊ^ομος, όγ -jooc, 

b>t J^Jmp^ ΐ -yAwc 

£in^iiMf : &) When a consonant is doubled, tlie first be- 
kng! to the precedii^, the second to the following syt- 
Uble, e. g. aX-Xoc, «γ-^λκ, άμ-μοβ. 

b TV /cH which precedes an aspirate, is annexed to the 
pRCcdinz syllable, e. g. Σα^^-ψύ, κάτ-θον€. 

c TV %aii/ «hich precedes another consonant, belonge 
always ti> the precediss, not to the following syllable, 
4Χ»ΐϊ m followed hs r. Thus αΚ-κτ), αμ-τηίζ, kv-^avu, 
ί»-*Λ, bet α 

Ke-^:t^i 3 ΐΐιιί in the din^ion to the composition, e. g, 

:-^-iaiBi. ίξ-ίΧίον, Kv-tiv-oxpo. So also ίιττρΐφοι' 

i— *i-f•, T*o-«TWTi£w: but we-re, κροβ-τΊΟημι, irpoa- 

. rf'Jtit. Wi.T=. -— c-^Oiposition the last vowel of the first 
win Λ ;iii;i:ei. cq account of a vowel following, the 
iiiS -^Tt-.i — -^ ,-i-is'r"-nt is annexed to the following 
^•■•"•■1 T-V f. ;. T*-ii-\v. e-^>op-uir, e-μaw-τov, This 
~iii* -ikTi ■j£ir*sce-Uy u-f compc-sition, when the 
iiaC Ϊ .■»ϊΙ :£ ΪΪ* CiK woTO is omitted, on account of a 
-■«ΐ^ ■i.C'w^. i-;, r-T "^Ι-λιοτ, ά-φ' ou, not ύιτ'-'Ίλ. 
( Ο ~tm F.-f tie tp«.-w:n.'phus contracts two words 

ί ΛΙ •ήκ ?--Tfi--<r.i7T- wix'h :zay ;".a:;d toirether at the be- 
ζΜΐιας. :( t w:c:. -"π"-*" aJso t.-^*ther in the middle, and are 
;i r r-Tr>-; Sf-r^T^c li^ TPfc^i-.r^ and foll-'wing syllables, ex- 
Λί'Γί- 9^.1 zm .-.-iE.rce.-t»:c r«;-.zres it. The following con- 
-..irj,!•:* luT -L-i ■■• ^-«:iKie: a: the bei:inning of a word : (/3S, 
Λ•. Λί- -sV. ■*», ^^, (A. e*. M. iX. t^. t*i>. κλ, κμ, κν, κρ, κτ, 
"" *"' *"■- T-t^ τ—, r-S. nc, •#. •«. ffeX. eu, ffx, βτ, στλ, ιττρ, 
Γ*. »»iV- ί-^. —V. — *. ϊ-*, ϋΦ, φΧ. φρ. \9, yX, y^v, χρ), 
Kt-nm^i, T'^.-^JMc. ί fc o: . «-«κν. ^«roc, ri-wrtt, yma-aeelcp 

*•.ι-^.- w. -i iWs. Λκιηϊ. ;. ^t Hi, C^imp. Thcotke. Gr. p. 63, Sa. 

1 06 Punctuation. 

quire it. So Soph, TracA• 164. \jp6vop προτάζαα ύα τρΊμιΐ¥θ¥ 
ilviK αν yijpac aireiiy κανιανσιον βεβωο. Tor 17 θαΡ€ΐν σφε Xpcin 

, where the construction is προτάζαο, ωο, νν'ικ αν βζβωο 

ατΓβίΐ} ^^paQ yjpovov τριμηνον κανιαυσιορ^ τοτβ χρ^ιΐ}. Hence 
enclitics are oflen found before which we should place a comma, 
• e. g. Eur. Hec. /. c, and Hipp. 1144. eiirep ίστβ, μοι σιι /uf- 
vare, which would be more correct without a comma after ίστε. 
Many mistakes of transcribers arose from the mode of writing 
without interruption. See Fisch. ad WelL 1. p. 229. 

It was not till the conflux of strangers at Alexandria began 
to impair the purity of the Greek language, and it became the 
object of learned investigations, that Aristophanes, the gram- 
marian of Byzantium, invented three marks, by which to de- 
note the divisions of discourse. These were : fi reXela στιγ/ιιή, 
a point placed at the top of the last letter of a word to denote 
the complete close of the sense ; η μίση στιγμή, a point in the 
middle of the last letter, marking a proposition only partly 
finished, to be completed by another member beginning with 
a pronoun or a conjunction; and ννοσηγμη, a point at the 
lower end of the last letter, to denote a proposition whose sense 
is entirely incomplete and suspended *. 

These marks, however, appear not to have come into general 
use till a later period, and their form and place were changed. 
The TcXeia στ. was placed like our full stop under the last 
letter at the close of a proposition : a line like our comma took 
the place of the ύίΓοστ., and the point at the top remained as 
μέση στ. a colon. This system of pointing is found in the 
oldest MSS., and in those of the ninth century the interrogation 
is added ( ; ). The parenthesis ( ) and dash — , and very lately 
the note of admiration, have been added in modem times. 

§.59. It would be absurd to refuse to avail ourselves of this help for 
making reading intelligible, merely because it was unknown to Sophocles 
and Plato, to whom the notes of interrogation and admiration would 

■ Dionys. Thr. Gram, in Villois. Fisch. ad Well. 1. p. 228. Nicanor 

Anecd. Or. 2. p. 138 seq. Bekk. made eight points, others four. See 

Anecd. Gr. 2. p. 630. with the Scho- Villois. 1. c. p. 138. 140. 142. Bekk. 

lia, p. 758. and respecting the pas- p. 760 seq. 763 seq. 
sage Villois. p. 142. Bekk. p. 760. 

Piaictuaiion. ] 07 

not have been more strange than the comma and the colon. But it 
must be confessed that it has been much abused ; the subject has been 
separated in punctuation from the predicate by a comma, the case 
governed from the verb that governs it« Punctuation should conform 
itself to the genius of each tongue ; but in the Greek, that intermixture 
of propositions which is characteristic of the language has been often 
overlooked. In my opinion, in pointing Greek writings this rule should 
especially be observed : Never to separate the governed word or words 
by a comma from the governing word, when the latter without the 
former would yield no complete sense. It would be only an apparent 
exception to this principle, if the governed or governing word should 
receive an addition, which though it contributes to make them more 
perspicuous or definite, might yet be omitted without destroying the 
sense. Hence the following niles may be deduced. 

1. The predicate should never be separated from its subject, nor the 
case governed from the verb which governs it, except when a paren• 
thetical proposition comes in after one of these words. Therefore we 
should not point δέσποινα ^, Ij Ιυστηνοί, Ί^α/αισιν riv γυναιξί as in Eutm 

Hec, 354. ed, Br, nor hv π€ρΙ iraL^os έμοΰ αμφΐ Πο\νζ€(νη£ re ψίΧηί 

&vyarp6$f ^i όνύρων elBoy ib. 73 seq. ; nor yrei ^k y^pas, των ποΧυ- 
μ&χβων τίνα ΎρώίαΖων ib, 92. but rightly ψανησομαι yap, ώ( τάφου 
τΧϊίμων τύχω, Ζού\η$ ποιών πάροιθ€ν έν κΧυΕωνίφ ib. 47. 

2. The participle and tlie infinitive, which serves to complete the 
sense of the governing verb, ought not to be separated from it : e. g. 
we should not point, eBeiro μου, 7rp6$ αντον έλθέϊν, παραινώ σοι, tovs 
yovia$ aifieiv ; nor γέροντι ΒηΧώσω πατρί, μή roi ψνσιν y* &σπΧαγχνο$ 
€κ κείνου γεγώί Soph. Aj. 471, Br. So a participle, when it sub- 
joins a defining circumstance to the verb which it accompanies, should 
not be separated from the verb by a comma ; therefore not, Zeiaas, 
νπεζέπεμ^ε ΎρωΊκηε χθονόί Eur. Hec. 6. Br. ; nor πιτνέι, σφαγ€ί$ ib, 
23 seq. ; nor ο ΤΙηΧέωε γαρ τται^, υπ^ρ τύμβου ^aveis, κατ€σ\ Άχιλλεν^ 
πάν στράτευμ* *ΈΧΧηνικόν ib, 37. for φανηναι is the means by which 
κατέχειν is accomplished, as σψαγηναι the manner of πιτνείν, Bediivcu 
the cause of υπεκπέμπειν : and no one would point, υπό ^έουε, υπεζ•• 
erc/it/'e, rp <r^ay^, πιτνέι, τψ ^αν^ναι, κατέσχε. So ib, 1. 140. άφέΧξων 
ought not to be separated from //fet, as it contains the purpose and 
even the principal idea. 

3. On the same principle every subjoined circumstance which de- 
fines more exactly the sense of a proposition, should remain unsepa- 
rated. We ought not therefore to point, /i^ rbv άριστον Ααναών πάν 
των, hiifXwv σφαγίων ουνεκ, άπωθεΊν Eur. Hec, 133 seq. nor should 

108 Punctuation. 

Ιίκω λιπών in the opening of the Hecuba and Troades he separated 
from each other by a comma, since the verb and participle jointly make 
up one principal idea» * I come from the realms of the dead•' 

4. Two nounsy verbs or propositions, which stand in a similar re- 
lation to another verb or proposition, and are joined by ro/, re should 
not be separated by punctuation. Thus Eur, Hec, ititS. the comma 
after Ιιτιστάτηε should be removed, and we should unite βνματο^ ^ 
Ιιηστάτη% iepevs τ ίπέστη rovde iroTs Άχιλλέωβ. Comp, 227. The 
same is the case with μη^έ — μηΐέ, ovre — ovref H — ί, when these par- 
ticles do not represent different things, but give an option of several ; 
e. g. Eur, Hec, 285. not μή λυπρα, μη^^ xapdlas ^ηκΓίιρια έξιστορησαι^ 
nor πον irore Oeiay 'ΈΧένου ψνχαν, η Kaaay^pas Ισίΐω ib. 85. but 
without a comma after λυνρά and ψνχάν. 

5. All clauses which begin with the relative or with conjunctions 
are rightly separated by commas from the clause to which they belong, 
as they commonly contain defining circumstances, in the absence of 
which the remaining part of the sentence would still yield a complete 
sense : e. g. νττβζ^πβ/ιψέ /le ϊίοΧυμ{ιστορο$ vpos ^ώμα Opyxlov {έκον, hs 
TTly άρίστην ΧερσονησΙαν πΧάκα tnrelpei. If, however, attraction takes 
place, if a word of the main proposition is governed by the relative or 
the conjunction of the subordinate proposition, or if the relative with 
its verb supplies the place of a case governed by the verb of the main 
proposition, there should be no comma : e. g. Eur, Hec, 864. οΰκ itrri 
θνητών 6στι% έστ' ελευθέρου, there should be no comma after Βντιτων., 
Herod, 2, 172. άγάΚμα Ιαίμονο^ iBpvae τη$ voXujs 6κου ην €πιτη^€ωτατονψ 
not Trjs woXwSf Skov. Soph, Aj. 691. v/ieU ^ & φράζω ^pdre^ not νμέϊί 
^, & φράζω, ^pare ; and when the relative stands in the case of the pre- 
cedii^ or omitted demonstrative, e. g. Soph, (Ed, T, 862. ovBkv γαρ 
hv νράζαιμ* αν ύν ov σοι φ[\ον, 

§. 60. Besides these the grammarians had other marks, which are 
mostly become obsolete. 1 . The hyphen, ύφέΐ' (from υφ' ev) - , 
which was placed under compounded words : e. g. α/οχιστρα- 

τηγο^ <l>iX6Xoyoc; or >-^, φιλόθeoc9 Xeip/ao^oc; also when 

two words are to be pointed out as one in sense, e. g. το^ό- 
ra Χωβητηρ, i, e. δια των τόζων \ωβωμ€ν€, νυκα ιγο«|Το?ο*, 

See. 2. The υπο^ίαστοΧη, or διαστολή, a mark like our comma 

■ Villois. Anecd. 3. p. 107 seq. dern times a transverse stroke ( - ) 
p. 199. Scholia in Dionys. Thr. Gr. has been generally used in the latter 
in Bekk. Anecd. p. 701 seq. In mo• case, e. g. η oMiaXvais. 

Parts of Speech and their Inflexion. 109 

( ^ ) to separate t^^o words which might be erroneously joined 
together^ e. g. ίστι», oSc» to distinguish it from ion voSc, εσην, 
al^ioc, from earc Na^ioc. It is still used to distinguish o, re 
(from ο and re, as o, re Πλάτων) from ore when, το, τ€, ο, τι 
(neuter of δστια) from τότβ then, on that or because^. Many 
persons instead of this mark only leave a space between the 
words, as is often done in MSS. and old editions^ ο Te, το re, 


Of the Parts of Speech and their Irtflexion. 

The parts of speech in Greek are : 

I. Words which indicate ideas of objects of every kind, $.61. 
ovofia, nomen. Noun. These are : 

1) Either substantive, inasmuch as they convey a complete 
substantial idea; N, substantive. They express things 
or persons : 

a. Either certain individual things and persons : (proper 

names, κυρία) ; 

b. Or merely in general, with respect to kind or 

species (Substantives, ιτροσηγορικά), 

2) Or unsubstantive, which convey no complete substantial 
idea, but must always be considered in connection with a 
substantive thing with which they are found ; N. adjec- 
tive, emOera. They express properties and qualities of 
things or persons. 

To these belong, as auxiliary or substituted words : 

3) The Article, άρθρον, a word which of itself expresses no 
idea, but serves to determine more accurately, or to render 
substantive, the noun with which it stands. 

4) The Pronoun, avrwwfAia, a word which is used instead 
of the substantive. 

II. Words which express a relation capable of being de- (eg.) 
termined in respect to time, or an action ; Verbs, pημara. 

^ ViUots. 1. c. Both these marks ψ^Ιαι, but κατίτχρηστικώί, Porphyr. 
and the apostrophusVere called 9Γροσ- and Cboeroboscus apud Villois. 1. c. 

110 Paris of Speech and their Infiexion. 

III. Words which express the reciprocal relations of the 
aboye-mentioned principal parts of speech, and 

1 ) Words which express the peculiar quality or an accessory 
modification of verbs ; Adverbs, επιρρήματα^ These stand 
in the same relation to verbs, as adjectives to substan- 
tives. Interjections may be reckoned with them. 

2) Words which indicate the relation between two words 
standing together; Prepositions, wpoOeaeic. 

3) Words which serve to connect two or more words or pro- 
positions, or to determine the relation between two pro- 
positions ; ConjunctionSy σύνδεσμοι, 

Ohs, The ancients, as Aristode, reckoned only three parts of speech, 
όνομα, ρήμα, and avy^eapos. The Stoics distinguished the article, and 
subsequent writers added the other partes orationis (μέρη τον Χάγον, 
μόρια τηε Χέζεωί), 8ο that the number amounted to eight, viz. those 
enumerated above, and μβτοχή (the Participle), See Dionys, Hal, de 
Camp. 2, p. 18 seq. ed, Schcef, and from him Quint, i. 4, 18 seq. 
Dion, Thr, Gr, p. 634. in Bekk. Anecd, and p. 840 seq. Theodos, Chr, 
p. 80 seq. 

§.62. The words of the first and second class may be inflected in 
(®^v their terminations, to show the diflferent modifications of which 
the ideas conveyed by them are capable (συ^υγίαι). The in- 
flexion of words of the first class is called Declension (κΧίσις) ; 
that of the second. Conjugation (συ2[υγία in the strict sense). 
Besides this, every word of the first class has a gender, genus, 
according to which it is either masculine {apaevucov) or femi- 
nine (θηΧυκόν), or belonging to neither of the two genders, 
neuter {μέσον or ovSerepoi'). 

Generally, every substantive has its determinate gender. 
The adjectives, the article and the pronouns are capable of 
marking all the three genders. This determination of the 
gender of a substantive is founded probably in accidental re- 
semblances, which certain ideas seem to bear to one of the two 
sexes in nature. Thus, the circumstance of the earth producing 
plants and fruits was thought to aflbrd a resemblance between 
it and female animals, and in consequence the feminine gender 
was assigned to the earth. So, in German, the masculine 

OfDecUnsion. Ill 

gender was assigned to trees^ on account of their independent 
strength : in Latin, on account of their bearing and producing 
fruit, or the power of rendering themselves fruitful, both gen- 
ders were attributed to them ; so that they do not belong en- 
tirely either to the masculine or feminine gender, as in Greek 
TO Sei^pov, although some subspecies are feminine, e. g. -η 
wirvc, ν €\ατη. That which seemed to unite in itself the pro- 
perties of both sexes, or could be compared with neither sex in 
nature, was reckoned with the substantiyes of the neuter gen- 
der (b). See further of Gender, ξ. 93 seq. 

Of Declension. 

Tliere are three principal kinds of inflexion in Greek, ac- §.63• 
cording as a noun is to signify either a single thing or person, (^^*) 
or two of this kind or more. These kinds of inflexion are called 
numbers {αριθμοί), and a word may be used in the singular ηχιτΩτ 
her {ο evucoc), dual {ό8νίκ6ο), or plural {6 πΧηθυντικόο). Each . 
of these kinds of inflexion has five cases (πτωσαο), which have 
the following arbitrary denominations: Nominative (η ορθή, 
ehOela, ονομαστική), which serves chiefly to give the name of a 
thing without its relation ; Genitive (ή yeviKv), which shows 
the relation of mutual reference and subordination ; Dative (η 
δοτική), by which the relation is expressed which a substan- 
tive has to an action ; Accusative (τ? αιτιατική), which shows 
that a substantive undergoes a change in consequence of an 
action ; and Vocative (ή κλητική), which is used in addressing. 
The nominative and vocative are called also casus recti (ενθεΐαι 
πτώσ€ΐο). For the ablative of the Latins the Greeks have no 
distinct form, but its relation is expressed by the dative or 
genitive, or by prepositions (r). 

Obs, 1. In the oldest state of the Greek language there was no dual ; 
nor had the lEohc dialect this number any more than the Latin, which 
was derived from it*. It is used most frequently by the Attics, who, 
however, oflen employ the plural instead of it. The dual is probably 
only an abbreviated form of the plural \ 

Obs. 2, The Attics in particular of^en put the article, the pronouns» 

* Koen. ad Greg. p. (285) 606. ^ Buttm. L. Gr. p. 135. 

Gottl. ad Theod. p. 910. 

102 Of Contraction. 

nynizesis is not to be assumed even where the short initial vowel 
is elided afler the lo;ig final. 

Similar synizeses are found in the middle of words, e. g• 
έωρακα, generally a trisyllable in Attic writers (quadrisyllable 
Plut. 98. )> aVeyy/ieMoc Eur» Iph. A. 66. veoyjAov Eur, Troad. 
233. veaviav Eur. Hel. 212. and elsewhere. reOvefSroQ Ar. 
Λαη. 1028. 1140. Nwi. 782. 838. This is common in Homer, 
especially in genitives in βω of the 1st decl. e. g. UiyXijiaSeai 
Άχιλίοο, and in the genitives plur. in βων of the 1st and 3rd 
decl. //. a'y 495. ίφετμβων. IL κ\ 195. στηθεων. So in 
verbs ; //. β', 294. είλέωσιν. Ε before α forms a synizesis in 

the ace. sing. 3rd decl. and in neut. plur. //. y, 27. ecojecSea• 
λ , 282. αφρ€ον\ Se στη\θ€α ; also ημεαο, v/u€ac> σφεαο, which 
last remains short. //. e, 567. /ueyajSe σψ€ac α\ποσψη\\€ΐ€ 
πόνοιο. Comp. Od, ff, 415. εσσεαι is a dissyllable Od. 2Γ, 33. 
Oeoc is a monosyllable in two passages in Homer, //. a, 18. 
Od. ξ', 451. and generally so in the Attic writers*. So //• a, 
14. χρυσές. Od. X, 568. yjpweov. Η€8.*ΈρΎ. 33. vei\K€a. 

II. φ\ 114. n€\€\K€^c. Hes.^Epy. 263. jSaaiXSec. That the 
contracted syllable is long is the consequence of the arsis, for 
//. α , 14. e<^ in γρνσεψ is short. //. e', 256. ουκ e^, as Soph• 
(Ed. T. 1451. αλλ' ca, and frequently else where ^. So εως in 
the genitive is frequently a monosyllable, e. g. ^sch. S. c. 
Th. 2. Ag. 1423. Eum. 614. 695. 698. Soph. (Ed. C. 47. 
Od. V , 194. TOvveK ap |άλλθ€ΐ|$6α ψαινίσκετο πάντα ανακτι. 
ξ\ 287. δη ογίδοοι^. φ', 178. στέ^οο. So Hes, Theog. 48. 
aoiSiic was pronounced as a dissyllable, whence ψ^ης was after- 
wards formed^. I seems also to have coalesced with a short 
vowel following into one long syllable, both when a long vowel 
precedes and with another short vowel. //. 8', 416. Ύρώαο\ 
ίηιωσουσιν. β', 811. 7Γόλioc. ψ', 567. Od. ff, 560. πόλιαα. 
//. ι, 382. Αίγυπ|τία€, δθι. | Comp. §. 25. Obs. 2. The same 
thing seems to take place in the tragedians in lyric verses ; 
Eur. Here. F. 880. μαριαισινΊη a dochmiac verse. Bacch, 996. 

■ Pors. ad Eur. Or. 393. ^ Arnaud Anim. Cr. p. 29 seq. 

^ Brunck ad Arist. lian. 1243. 
Erf. ad Soph. Ant. 1. 95. Pii^f. ix. 

Dimnon of Syllables. 


ορίγια. (dochm. σι answering in the strophe to για.) Hipp. 770. 
tAovwyloO S* ajcj (troch. in the antistr. 'oOeiaa tav τ ev\) also 
in iambics. Here, JF. 1307. ΌΧυμ\πιου ; perhaps also Phan. 
1680. €7ηου|σαν ημίραν• £sch. Prom, 685. αύτον αι|ψμί$ιοΰ, 
where Porson would read ai^^vi^ioQ αυτόν. Eur, Phan, 700. 

αίματος 8* ejSeuae yaiav, \ a viv €υη\\Ιοίσι 8e?^ev (troch.), is 

the reading of all the MSS. laya frequently occurs where only 
two syllables are required*. The synizesis of υ is much more 
rare, perhaps is found only in Pindar, Pyth, 4, 401. γβνυωμ. 
and Soph. (Ed, T, 640. δυοΤι/; for in Od. σ, 173. Ιακρν may 
be considered as two short syllables ; and Eur, Iph. T. 938. 
977. 1468, it would be better to write Έ/^ινί/ων with one v. 
The rarity of this synizesis makes both the above-quoted pas- 
sages suspicious. 

Two short syllables coalesce by synizesis into one short, only 
in //. € , 567. /ιέγα | Se σψβαα α\ποσφη\€ΐ€ πονοιο. The gram- 
marians quote, however, a verse of Praxilla ; άλλα reov | ου- 
irorej θυμον evl στηθεσσιν έπειθαν^. But a short and a long 
before a vowel often make one short. II. y, 152. SevS/oey 

Of the Division of Syllables. 

In the division of syllables, the following fundamental rules §.57. 
are observed : 

1. A syllable cannot, in division, end with a consonant 
with which no complete word ends, e. g. no word ends with β 
y S ; generally with no consonant, except κ ^ ρ c, therefore 

* See Seidler de Vers. Dochm. p. 46. 
Herm. £1. D. Metr. p. 53 seq. Mat- 
thise ad £ur. Phoen. 1637. Hipp. 581. 
Dobree on Arist. Vesp. 1020. quotes 
hvepiwv as a trisyllable. On the other 
side Boeckh ad Pind. 01. 14. v. 1. 13. 
p. 430. It would be illogical to alter 
the readings in order to make them 
accord with an assumed rule; and 
some of the alterations proposed are 
objectionable on other grounds, as 

Porson's ri)v lovaay ^ιμέραν Eur. 
Phoen. 1680. 

* The rarity of this case makes 
the synizesis doubtful in άστέμι 
ό\πωρινψ, χαίρε dk \ τψ 6ρ\νιΘί Όίν]* 

^ The passages of the grammarians 
relative to synizesis are collected by 
Gaisford ad Heph. p. 220. Comp. 
Spitzner de Vers. Heroic, p. 179. 
Thiersch Gram. p. 180 seq. 

104 Division of Syllables, 

the words ίβΒομοζ^ oySooc, are not divided ββ-ίομοί;, oySooc, 
but β'βΒομοο, o-ySooc. 

Exceptions : a) When a consonant is doubled^ the first be* 
longs to the preceding, the second to the following syl- 
lable, e. g. aX-Xoc, ay-yeXoc, αμ^μο^;, 

b) The lene which precedes an aspirate, is annexed to the 

preceding syllable, e. g. Σαιτ-φώ^ κάτ-θανε. 

c) The liquid which precedes another consonant^ belongs 

always to the preceding, not to the following syllable, 
except μ followed by v. Thus α\-κη, αμ-Ίτυζ, αν^ανω, 
αρ^μα, but α-μρο^ 

2. Regard is had in the division to the composition, e. g• 
συν-€Κ-^6γομαι, βζ-ηΧθον, Κυ-νόσ-ου/οα. So also ε-στρ€ψον 
from στρέφω, τΓρο-στατΙω ; but ωσ-τ€, προσ^τίθημι, νροσ^ 


Exception. When in composition the last vowel of the first 
word is omitted, on account of a vowel following, the 
last remaining consonant is annexed to the following 
syllable ; e. g. ττα-^σέ-χω, α-φορ-μη, €-/χαυ-τόν. This 
takes place independently of composition, when the 
last vowel of the first word is omitted, on account of a 
vowel following, e. g, ύ-π "Ί-λιον, α-φ' ου, not ύπ-'Ίλ. 
άφ'-ου. For the apostrophus contracts two words 
into one*. 

(58.) 3* All the consonants which may stand together at the be- 
ginning of a word, remain also together in the middle, and are 
not divided between the preceding and following syllables, ex- 
cept when the composition requires it. The following con- 
sonants may stand together at the beginning of a word : (β8, 
βΚ βρ, γλ, yv, yp, Sp, Sv, Sp, θλ, θν, θρ, κΧ, κμ, κν, κρ, κτ, 
μν, ττλ, ττν, πρ, πτ, σβ, σΒ, σθ, σκ, σκΧ, σμ, σιτ, στ, στλ, ατρ, 
σφ, σφρ, σχ, τλ, τμ, τ/>, ψθ, φΧ, φρ, χθ, χλ, χν, χρ\ 
Κα'^μοα, eyjL-iva, l-Ovoc, ά-κμτι, e-icToc, τύ-τττω, yvω'σθ€icf^ 
Se-a/Aoc, &c. are thus divided. 

^ Porphyr. ap. Villois. Anecd. 2. p. 115. Comp. Thcodos. Gr. p. 62, S2. 



Ohg, 1. Whatever is usual in some letters of an organ (§. ^. i. 3.) 
is made the rule also for the other kindred letters, although no word 
begins with them, e• g. y r χ are related to each other, as palatic let- 
ters ; as some words begin with σχ and σκ, and these are left together, 
so σγ are left together, although no word begins with σγ. In the same 
way the following remain undivided : 


γμ άμυ^μό$ 

χμ λί'χμάζω 

θμ άρι-θμόε 

γδ 6-ydoos 

Γθν and δν Ί 

> because < 




δμ and τμ 
^κτ and χθ 

> remain undivided. 

Ohs, 2. Three consonants, although they never begin a word, may /^q \ 
yet stand at the beginning of a syllable, if the middle one of them may 
be preceded and followed by these letters, e. g. θ may have σ before it 
(σβένω\ and λ after it (θλίβω) ; therefore σθλ may stand together at the 
beginning of a syllable. Hence we divide e-aOXos, For the same reason 
α-σθ/χα, "Α-σιτρα, ο^σΊτρων^ ι-σχν<5ί, aUaypos^ Αευ-κτρα, κάτο^πτρον^ 
i^xBpos^ ν-ίπτλίϊξ, but also νσ-ττληζ, 

Ohs, S, These rules are laid down by P. Antesignanus in his Scholia 
to CUnardi Gram. p. 4. (ed. Franc. 1580. Paris, 1572.). Theodosius, 
Gram. p. 62, 29, is the only one of the older grammarians in whom I 
have found anything on this subject. 


The Greeks before the Alexandrian period had no punc- j, ^^^ 
tuation ; the words were written with uncial^ i. e. capital let- 
ters, and in uninterrupted succession ; and it was left to the 
reader to distinguish the sense by pauses of the voice. In 
Aristot. Rhet. 3, 5, 6. ^ιαστίζαι seems to denote divisions 
made in the delivery or by the voice• The ancients could 
therefore allow themselves positions of words which are incon- 
sistent with our punctuation, e. g. Eurip. Hec. 406. αΧλ' ω 
φίλη μοί μητβρ {ιΒιστηρ \<ερα Soc, where ftoc does not belong* 
to φίλη but to Soci and therefore no comma should be placed 
after μητερ, though the genius of our language seems to re- 

1 06 Punctuation. 

quire it. So Soph. Track. 164. γρορορ προταζα€ wc τριμψινορ 
riviK a¥ yitpaa oTreiif κανιαυσιον β^βωα^ Tor 17 θανβΐν σψε χρβ /ir 
- - -, where the construction is ιτροταξα^ι i»Cy ηνίκ αν βεβωα 
ατΓβίιι yitpati yjpovov τριμηνον κανιαυσιον, rore \ρ€ΐη. Hence 
enclitics are often found before which we should place a comma, 
• e. g. Eur. Hec. I. c. and Hipp. 1144. eiwep ίστβ, μσι <ηι/ιρ- 
varCf which would be more correct without a comma after ίστ€. 
Many mistakes of transcribers arose from the mode of writing 
without interruption. See Fisch. ad Well. 1. p. 229. 

It was not till the conflux of strangers at Alexandria began 
to impair the purity of the Greek language^ and it became the 
object of learned investigations, that Aristophanes^ the gram- 
marian of Byzantium, invented three marks, by which to de- 
note the divisions of discourse. These were : ή reXela any μη, 
a point placed at the top of the last letter of a word to denote 
the complete close of the sense ; η μέση στιγμή* a point in the 
middle of the last letter, marking a proposition only partly 
finished, to be completed by another member beginning with 
a pronoun or a conjunction ; and υποστί'^μη^ a point at the 
lower end of the last letter, to denote a proposition whose sense 
is entirely incomplete and suspended*. 

These marks, however, appear not to have come into general 
use till a later period, and their form and place were changed. 
The τελεία στ. was placed like our full stop under the last 
letter at the close of a proposition : a line like our comma took 
the place of the ύποστ., and the point at the top remained as 
/ueaif στ. a colon. This system of pointing is found in the 
oldest MSS., and in those of the ninth century the interrogation 
is added ( ; ). The parenthesis ( ) and dash — , and very lately 
the note of admiration, have been added in modem times. 

§.59. It would be absurd to refuse to avail ourselves of this help for 
making reading intelligible, merely because it was unknown to Sophocles 
and Plato, to whom the notes of interrogation and admiration would 

• Dionys. Thr. Gram, in Villois. Fisch. ad Well. 1. p. 228. Nicanor 

Anecd. Gr. 2. p. 138 seq. Bekk. marie eight points, others four. See 

Aiiecd. Gr. 2. p. 630. with the Scho- Villois. 1. c. p. 138. 140. 142. Bekk. 

lia, p. 758. and respecting the pas- p. 760 seq. 763 seq. 
sage Villois. p. 142. Bekk. p. 760. 

Punctuation. ] 07 

not have been more strange than the comma and the colon. But it 
must be confessed that it has been much abused ; the subject has been 
separated in punctuation from the predicate by a comma, the case 
governed from the verb that governs it. Punctuation should conform 
itself to the genius of each tongue ; but in the Greek, that intermixture 
of propositions which is characteristic of the language has been oflen 
overlooked. In my opinion, in pointing Greek writings this rule should 
especially be observed : Never to separate the governed word or words 
by a comma from the governing word, when the latter without the 
former would yield no complete sense. It would be only an apparent 
exception to this principle, if the governed or governing word should 
receive an addition, which though it contributes to make them more 
perspicuous or definite, might yet be omitted without destroying the 
sense. Hence tlie following rules may be deduced. 

1. The predicate shoidd never be separated from its subject, nor the 
case governed from the verb which governs it, except when a paren• 
thetical proposition comes in after one of these words. Therefore we 
should not point δέσποινα ^*, fj ^ύστηνοί, Ί^α/αισιν ην γυναιξί as in Eur• 

Hec, 354. ed. Br, nor Slv irepi wados έμοΰ άμψΐ Πολυζ€ίνη$ re φί\η$ 

θνγατροε, ^i ονείρων tiZov ib, 7S seq. ; nor prce 3έ y^pas, των πολν- 
μόχθων τίνα Ύρω'ίά^ων ib, 92. but rightly ψανήσομαι γαρ, ws τά<^υ 
τΧ^ιμων τνχω, ^ου\η$ ποίων πάροιθεν kv κΧυίωνίψ ib, 47• 

2. The participle and tlie infinitive, which serves to complete the 
sense of the governing verb, ought not to be separated from it : e. g. 
we should not point, e^elrc^ μον, vpos avrov eXOeiv, παραινώ σοι, rovs 
yovias aifieiv ; nor ykpovri ΒηΧώσω πατρι, /ιή roi φυσιν y* &σπ\αγ\νο$ 
€κ κείνου γεγώί Soph, ^j, 471. Br, So a participle, when it sub- 
joins a defining circumstance to the verb which it accompanies, should 
not be separated from the verb by a comma ; therefore not, ieiaas, 
νχεζέχε/Λψε ΎρωΊκηε \Θαν6ί Eur, Hec, G. Br, ; nor πιτνεΐ, σψαγείδ ib, 
23 seq. ; nor ό Πι/λέω^ γαρ παΐ5, νπερ τύμβου Ravels, κατέσχ ^ΑχιΚΚεύε 
πάν στράτευμ 'ΈΧΚηνικόν ib, 37. for φανηναι is the means by which 
κατέχειν is accomplished, as σφαγηναι the manner of πιτνεΐν, iehivai 
the cause of υπεκπέμπειν : and no one would point, υπο ίέους, υπεζ- 
έπεμ\Ι/€, rp σφαγ^, πιτνέϊ, τψ ψαν^ναι, κατέσχε. So ib. 1. 140. άφέΧζων 
ought not to be separated from ΐΊ^ει, as it contains the purpose and 
even the principal idea. 

3. On the same principle every subjoined circumstance which de- 
fines more exactly the sense of a proposition, should remain unsepa- 
rated. We ought not therefore to point, μι) τον άριστον ύίαναών πάν- 
των, ίοϋΧων σψαγίων ουνεκ, άπωθεϊν Eur, Hec. 133 seq. nor should 


108 Punctuation. 

IJKm XiT^y in the opening of the Hecuba and Troades be separated 
from each other by a comma, since the verb and participle jointly make 
up one principal idea, ' I come from the realms of the dead.' 

4. Two nouns, verbs or propositions, which stand in a similar re- 
lation to another verb or proposition, and are joined by ra/, re should 
not be separated by punctuation. Thus Eur. Hec, 223, the comma 
after έτιστάτης should be removed, and we should unite θυματοχ ^ 
έπίστάΓη$ iepevs r €τέστη Tovhe παΐί Άχιλλέωί. Comp. 227- The 
same is the case with μηΗ — μη^έ, ovre — ovre, ή — ί, when these par- 
ticles do not represent different things, but give an option of several ; 
e• g. Eur, Hec. 235. not μή λνιτρα, μη^^ Kap^ias ^ηκτήρια ίζιστορησΜ^ 
nor νου ποτ€ Oeiay 'ΈΧένου ψι^αν, η Kaaav^pas ΙσΙ^ω ib, 85. but 
without a comma after λνχρά and ψνχάν. 

5. All clauses which begin with the relative or with conjunctions 
are rightly separated by commas from the clause to which they belong, 
as they commonly contain defining circumstances, in the absence of 
which the remaining part of the sentence woidd still yield a complete 
sense : e. g. ν^ε^έπβ/χψέ /le Ώο\νμ{ιστορο£ npos ^ώμα θρ^κίου ζένον^ hs 
T^y dpltrrny ^€pσoyησiay πλάκα tnrelpei. If, however, attraction takes 
place, if a word of the main proposition is governed by the relative or 
the conjunction of the subordinate proposition, or if the relative with 
its verb supplies the place of a case governed by the verb of the main 
proposition, there should be no comma : e. g. Eur, Hec, 864. οΰκ ίστι 
dyrirwy Svris eor' eXevOepos^ there should be no conmia after dyrtnay^ 
Herod, 2, 1 72. άγάΚμα ^αί μονοί tdpvae rrjs TOXios 6κου ην €πΐΓηΒ€ωτατονψ 
not rrjs voXws, 6κου, Soph, Aj, 691. νμ€ΐ$ ^ a φράζω ^pare, not νμ€ΐε 
^, & φράζω, 3pare ; and when the relative stands in the case of the pre- 
ceding or omitted demonstrative, e. g. Soph, (Ed, T, 862. ovSky γαρ 
hy νράζαιμ* ay tSy ου σοι φ[Χον, 

§.60f Besides these the grammarians had other marks, which are 
mostly become obsolete. 1 . The hyphen, ύφεν (from νφ' ev) - , 
which was placed under compounded words : e. g. αργιστρα- 

Tiyyoc, ψιλολογο€; or >-^, φιλόθεοι;, Χβι/οισοψος; also when 

two words are to be pointed out as one in sense, e. g. rofo- 
To Χωβητγιρ, i. e. 8ia των το^ων Χωβωμίνβ, πυκα ιγοιι^τοΤο*, 

8ιο. 2. The νίΓοδιαστολή» or διαστολή, a mark like our comma 

• Villois. Anecd. 3. p. 107 seq. dern times a transverse stroke ( - ) 
p. 139. Scholia in Dionys. Thr. Or. has been generally used in the latter 
in Bekk. Anecd. p. 701 seq. In mo- case, e. g. η ού^ΒιάΧυσα. 

Parts of Speech and their Inflexion. 109 

( , ) to separate %ψο words which might be erroneously joined 
together, e. g. eari», oSc, to distinguish it from €στι νου<> eariv^ 
a^ioc, from €στι Na^toc. It is still used to distinguish o, re 
(fW>m ο and re, as o, re Πλάτων) from ore when^ το, re, o, rt 
(neuter of oaric) from rore then, on that or because^. Many 
persons instead of this mark only leave a space between the 
words, as is often done in MSS. and old editions, δ re, το re, 


Of the Parts of Speech and their Inflexion. 

The parts of speech in Greek are : 

I. Words which indicate ideas of objects of every kind, §.6L 
ovo/ia, nomen. Noun, These are : 

1 ) Either substantive, inasmuch as they convey a complete 
substantial idea; N. substantive. They express things 
or persons : 

a. Either certain individual things and persons : (proper 
names, κυρία) ; 

b. Or merely in general, with respect to kind or 
species (Substantives, irpotrnyopiKa). 

2) Or unsubstantive, which convey no complete substantial 
idea, but must always be considered in connection with a 
substantive thing with which they are found ; N. adjec'- 

^ tive, ewiOera. They express properties and qualities of 

things or persons. 

To these belong, as auxiliary or substituted words : 

3) The Article, άρθρον, a word which of itself expresses no 
idea, but serves to determine more accurately, or to render 
substantive, the noun with which it stands. 

4) The Pronoun, αντωνυ[Αΐα, a word which is used instead 
of the substantive. 

II• Words which express a relation capable of being de- (62.) 
termined in respect to time, or an action ; Verbs, ρήματα. 

^ Villois. 1. c. Both diese marks ψίίαι, but κατνίχρηστικώί, Porphyr. 
and the apostrophusVere called ττροσ- and Chceroboscus apud Villois. 1. c. 


110 PaVU of Speech and their Liflexion. 

III. Words which express the reciprocal relations of the 
above-mentioned principal parts of speech, and 

1 ) Words which express the peculiar quality or an accessory 
modification of verbs ; Adverbs, επιρρήματα. These stand 
in the same relation to verbs, as adjectives to substan- 
tives. Interjections may be reckoned with them. 

2) Words which indicate the relation between two words 
standing together; Prepositions, προθέσβιο. 

3) Words which serve to connect two or more words or pro- 
positions^ or to determine the relation between two pro- 
positions ; Conjunctions, σύνδεσμοι. 

Ohs, The ancients, as Aristotle, reckoned only three parts of speech, 
6νομα, ρήμα, and σννΒεσμοί. The Stoics distinguished the article, and 
subsequent writers added the other partes orationis (μέρη του λόγου, 
μόρια rrjs λέξεων), so that the number amounted to eight, viz. those 
enumerated above, and μ€το^φ (the Participle), See Dionys, Hal. de 
Camp, %, p. 18 seq. ed. Schcef. and from him Quint, i. 4, 18 seq. 
Dion. Thr. Gr, p. 634. in Bekk. Anecd. and p. 840 seq. Theodos. Gr. 
p. 80 seq. 

§.62. The words of the first and second class may be inflected in 
(^3.) their terminations, to show the different modifications of which 
the ideas conveyed by them are capable (συζυγίαι). The in- 
flexion of words of the first class is called Declension {κ\ισιο) ; 
that of the second, Conjugation (συζυγία in the strict sense). 
Besides this, every word of the first class has a gender, genus, 
according to which it is either masculine {apaeviKov) or femi- 
nine (βτιΧυκόν), or belonging to neither of the two genders, 
neuter (μέσον or oifSerepov). 

Generally, every substantive has its determinate gender. 
The adjectives, the article and the pronouns are capable of 
marking all the three genders. This determination of the 
gender of a substantive is founded probably in accidental re- 
semblances, which certain ideas seem to bear to one of the two 
sexes in nature. Thus, the circumstance of the earth producing 
plants and fruits was thought to aflbrd a resemblance between 
it and female animals, and in consequence the feminine gender 
was assigned to the earth. So, in German, the masculine 

Of Declension• 111 

gender was aesigned to trees^ on account of their independent 
strength : in Latin, on account of their bearing and producing 
fruit, or the power of rendering themselves fruitful, both gen- 
ders were attributed to them; so that they do not belong en- 
tirely either to the mascuUne or feminine gender, as in Grcsek 
TO SevSpoy, although some subspecies are feminine, e* g. η 
wiTvc, 11 ίΧατη. That which seemed to unite in itself the pro- 
perties of both sexes, or could be compared with neither sex in 
nature, was reckoned with the substantives of the neuter gen- 
der (k). See further of Gender, §. 93 seq. 

Of Declension. 

There are three principal kinds of inflexion in Greek, ac- §.63. 
cording as a noun is to signify either a single thing or person, (^^0 
or two of this kind or more. These kinds of inflexion are called 
numbers (αριθμοί), and a word may be used in the singular num- 
ber (o evucoQ)^ dual (oSvucoc), or plural (o πΧηθυντικόο). Each . 
of these kinds of inflexion has five cases (τττώσβιο), which have 
the following arbitrary denominations : Nominative (η ορθή, 
cvOeia, ονομαστική), which serves chiefly to give the name of a 
thing without its relation ; Genitive (ή yeviKrt), which shows 
the relation of mutual reference and subordination ; Dative (η 
SoTiKTi), by which the relation is expressed which a substan- 
tive has to an action ; Accusative (17 αιτιατική), which shows 
that a substantive undergoes a change in consequence of an 
action ; and Vocative (J) κλητική), which is used in addressing. 
The nominative and vocative are called also casus recti (βυθεΐαι 
πτώσεις). For the ablative of the Latins the Greeks have no 
distinct form, but its relation is expressed by the dative or 
genitive, or by prepositions (r). 

Obs. I. In the oldest state of the Greek language there was no dual ; 
nor had the £olic dialect this number any more than the Latin, which 
was derived from it*. It is used most frequently by the Attics, who, 
however, oflen employ the plural instead of it. The dual is probably 
only an abbreviated form of the plural \ 

Ohs, 2. The Attics in particular oflen put the article, the pronouns, 

* Koen. ad Greg. p. (285) 606. ** Buttm. L. Gr. p. 135. 

Gottl. ad Theod. p. 910. 


Of Decknsion. 

and participlee, in the masculine^ before yemmtfie noiins of the dual 
number (v. Syntax, §. 4d6.) ; whence we may conclude, that the dual 
of those parts of speech, and of the adjective, had once only one form, 
the masculine. 

General Remarks, 

§•64• 1. In all declensions, the dative singular ends in c, which is either 
expressed as in the 3rd declension, or subscribed as in the 1st and 
2nd• The ^olians, however, and others, do not use the t suhscriptum^ 
whence it is concluded that it was not admitted in the old Greek ^ (r). 
The dative plural also in the old language ended in i, which, however, 
in the more modem dialects was omitted, except in the 3rd declension. 
2. The accus. sing, has always ν in the 1st and 2nd declension ; in the 
3rd in some words v, in others a. See §. 7^, 3. The genitive plural 
is in ων throughout ; the more ancient form was έων and άων ; but not 
in all words. 4. In the dual, the nominative and accusative, and the 
genitive and dative, are exactly alike. 5, Neuter nouns have three 
cases alike in the singular and plural, the nominative, the accusative, 
and the vocative ; in the plural ending all in a. 

§•65• Declension of the Article. 


fi (Dor. a) 
rrjc (Dor. raq) 

Nom. ο 

(Jen. Toi? (Dor. τω 
Ion. TO?o) 
Dativ. τψ 
Accus. τον 

Ν. A. τώ 
G. D. Toiv 



του (τω, toco) 

τρ (Dor. τα) 
την (Dor. τάν) 





τα IV 





Dat. TOic (old & Ion. 

Accus. τούα (^ol. & 

Dor. Toq, τώο) 

των (Ion. ταων 
Dor. τον) 

ταΐα (old & Ion. 
τρσι, ταΤσι) 

το IV 


ToTc (τοΤσι) 



' Keen ad Greg. p. (S85) 606. Strabo 14. p. 648 C. ed. Casaub. 

Deeknsion of the Article. 113 

Noie• — ^HietoricaUy speaking the article was a pronoun, both de- 
monstratiTe and rdative, $. 286 seq. 291, but in the later Ionic and 
Attic dialect became a means of defining nouns. As grammar takes 
for its basis the usage which prevails in the flourishing state of a lan- 
guage, it was necessary here to speak of it as an article, and refer to 
the Obseirations for the history of its use. 

Obs. 1. There is no form of the article for the vocative, for J is an 

Ohs. 2. If the particles ye and 3e are annexed to the article, it has 
the signification of the pronoun * this'"'. The declension remains the 
ssme: e. g. o^ (Att. όί*), i^e (ήί/), τό^€ (τοίί), rovie, rrjs^e, TovBe, &c. 
Vid. Pronoun. 

Ohs. 3. In the old language the article was ros, rfi, τό^; hence the 
plural no/, rai, in Doric' and Ionic, and the r in the neuter and the 
oblique cases. The same form served to indicate the article, or rather 
the pronoun oSros ' this*, and the relative pronoun * which', for which 
the form 6sf arising from rO£, by the rejection of r throughout, was 
afterwards used. Hence in the Doric and Ionic writers, the article 
often occurs with the signification of the relative pronoun. 

The form τοϊο is found only as the gen, of the pronoun ; the form 
Tof ro/, for oi ai, served as an article among the Dorians, e. g. in 
Theocritus and also in Pindar in the passages produced by Bceckh, 
Nem• 7, 12 : in Homer, who was not acquainted with the use of the 
article, generally only as a pron. dem. or relat., for //. ω\ 687. values 
vol μ€τάπισθ€ XeXec/i/bt^voc, rol is for oi. In Herodotus roi is only once 
used as an article, 1, 186. (2, 48. the best MSS. omit ταΐ). In the 
Attic poets Toi is found only once in a trimeter jEsch, Pers» 424?. and 
once in anapaests Soph, Aj. 1404. (where Suidas has τόν 6* νφίβατον), 
in both cases as a pronoun. Τοισι is found Plat, Leg, 3. p. 690 E. 
T6s for Tovs is quoted by Maittaire, p. 2S5. only from Marm, Oxon, 
I, 17. and GrtU, Inscr. p. dv. The Lacedaemonians said τώρ, rap, 
and in the gen. fem. τάρ, 

^ Fisch. i. p. 317 seq. de Synt. 1. 20. p. 49. Bekk. 

Tisch. p.318. •Gregor. p. (110.) ?38 Maitt. 

* Eustath. ad Od. a. Apollon. p. (172) 234. 

VOL. I. 


Declension of Substantivei. 


Declension ς/* Substantives. 
1. View of the Three Declensions. 

First Declension, 

Nom. a η ας ηc 

Gen. ας ης 

Dat. ft ρ 
Ace. αν ην 

Ν. Α. α 
G. Ό• αιν 


αν ην 



Second DecL 



oQ Neut. ov 

a ι υ ω 






α ν 













σι, €σι 

Obs. 1. In the two first declensions the termination only of the no- 
minative case is changed in the remaining cases, so that the number of 
syllables remains the same. In the third, on the contrary, the termi- 
nations of the other cases are affixed to the nominative, yet with some 
changes. The two first are called ΙσοσϋλΚαβοι (parisyllabic), the other 
nepiTToavXkafios (imparisyllabic). 

Obs» '2. The old grammarians reckoned ten declensions, five simple, 
and five contracted. According to this division, the I. declension was 
aSf η$ ; II. α, η ; III. of, ov ; IV. ofs, ων ; these four are parisyllabic, 
the following imparisyllabic ; V. α ι ν ν ξ ρ σ ψ ; Deal, contractue^ 
I. ηί^ €s, OS netU, ; II. «ί, ι ; III. evs ; IV. ω, ω$ ; V. as. The new di- 
vision originated with Jac. Weller, or, according to others, with Lau- 
rentius Rhodomannus. 

First DecUiuian. 115 

2. First Declension. 5.67, 

First Termin. Second Term. Third Term. Fourth Term. 

Nom. α 


nc ας 



*• • 







ac) ου (old εω and aop 

JRol. Dor. a) 





?) ? ? 





ομ) ΐϊν αν 




a (Ion. i|) 

Nom. Ace. 


Gen. Dat. 






ων (old €ων, άων. Dor. αν) 


ate (old acaty fac, pc^) 


ac (-3Εο1. ακ^). 

of the First Termination. 


Nom. -η Μούσα η eS/^a 

Gen. Tiic λούσης της IS/oac 

Dat. τρ Μουσρ τρ eS/oa 

Accus. Tij»' Μουσαν την eS/oav 

Voc. Μονσα iS^a 


Nom. Ace. τα Μούσα τα eS /οα 

Gen. Dat. ταΐν Μούσα iv ταΐν eSpaip 

Koen ad Greg. p. 175. ^ Koen ad Greg. p. 95. 

I 2 



First Declension* 


Nom. αί Μονσαι 
Gen. των Μουσών 
Dat. τα7ς Μούσαι« 
Accue. τας Μονσαο 
Voc. Μουσαι. 

αι eS/oai 
των ϋρων 
Toic eSpaic 
rac €0/oac 

Second Term. Third Term. Fourth Term. 







η τιμή 
t5c Ti/ijq 
rp Ti/up 
την τιμίιν 

ο apoTfiQ 
του αροτου 
Ty apoTy 
τον αροτην 

ο veaviac 
του ν€ανιου 
τ^ veavif 
τον νεανίαν 

Nom. Ace. τα τίμα 
Gen. Dat. ταΐν τιμαιν 


τω αροτα 
τοΐν αροταιν 

τω νεανια 
τοΐν νεανιαιν 







α ι TC/Liai 
των τιμών 
ToiQ τιμαΐ,ο 
Tac τιμαα 

01 αροται 
των αροτών 
Toiq apoTOiQ 
ToOc apOTOQ 

οι veaviac 
των νεανιων 
Tocq veaviaiQ 
TOVQ veaviac 


AQ^^ 1• As words in η$ are declined pardy according to the first de- 
clension, and partly according to the third, the following ndes serve to 
distinguish them : 

1) All names in ίηχ^ which are derived from the names of the 
father (Patronymics), follow the first declension, e. g. 'Arpei- 

First Declension. 117 

^ψ^ ni|Xe/2i|f. Even those which have merely the form 
without the eignification, as MiXrcaSi^f^ *Αριστ€ίΙη$^ ΣιμωνΙΙψ^ 

2) Substantivea which are derived from the third person of the perf. 
pass, and end in τη$ or ori/r, iarns ' the giver' (firom iiZorai)^ 
ΊΓοιητήε * the poet* (ircxo/j^rai), &e• 

S) Words compoimded with derivatives from verbs, ψαρμακακω\η$ 
• apothecary', βιβ\ίθΊΓω\η$ • bookseller*• 

4) Words which are compounded with derivatives from words of the 
first declension, *0\νμΐΓίονΙκη$ *a conqueror in the Olympic 
games' (firom yimj) \ 

2, The rule of the Attic dialect is to retain α after a vowel (a pure) 
and afler p, e. g» σοψία, &X40e»a, 4/χέρα, opviQodiipas» In ^schylus 
Prom. 20 L some MSS. and editions have ίΖρη$^ others &pa%. In some 
proper names also α is retained, Λ//2α, Φιλο/χήλα, *ΑνΖρομΛα, The 
words in a pure and pa, as well as the proper names just mentioned, 
keep α throughout the singular ; the rest change α ίη the gen. and dat. 
into i^f, ^f but keep av in the ace. ftyjZva^ -ηε, -ρ, -αν, μέλισσα^ -σι/ν, 
-σρ, -σαν. Yet we must read τρΰμνην for the sake of the metre, in 
Soph. Phil. 481. Anst. Vesp. 899. See Elmsl. Mus. Cnt. No. 6. 
p. 278. 

Note. A few words have in the Attic dialect 17 in the nominative 
afler p, as άθάρη, -ijt^ ' husked wheat', α'ίθρη * fair weather' 
κόρη (jcopa or κωρα in Doric) : γ€ωμέτρηί^ and other words 
compounded of μ€τρέω. In others η was the Attic, α the 
common termination, as in βίνη, θοίνη, π€ίνη, θέρμ% νάρκη, 
ομίχλη, κίχλη, ζεύγλη, α'ίγλη, φυτλη, γβνέθλη*. So the 
Attics said σιτνι^, όξύη, kyyini, &c. but the common Greek 
had σιπύα, όζυα, iyyva*. 

3. Quantity. The termination α is sometimes long, sometimes short• 
The α pure is generally long (also -at) and after p, but with the fol- 
lowing exceptions. 

a. Feminines in -rpia from masculines in -n^t have a short a, e. g. 

^ Fisch. 1. p. 355. Fragm. Lex. Valck. ad Theocr. Aden. p. S05. 
Gr. ap. Herm. p. 3S0, 70. * Pierson ttd Moerid. p. 184. 

^ Bninck ad Aristoph. Plut. 673. ** Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 301 seq. 

118 Fir$t Deeletuian. 

φάΚνρια^ woiitrpiaf ορχήστρια *. Of adjectives, only 2io, xcJryio, μία (ία 
//• 3'y 497. - - • ohl•!' ία γηρνε); also ΙΙοΧνμνια, ομννια, ΑάμιαΚ 

b. Feminines in -eta and -^oia, derived from substantives or adjectives 
in evf, 17s, ovs {oos)^ as /3ασ/λ€£α ' queen', ιέρεια, αλήθεια» ευσέβεια^ 
cvvoca, evirXoca, ενχροια. But βασιλεία * royalty', from |3ασλλ€ν«ι, οτρα- 
re/a from στρατεύω, παι^ε/α from τται^ενω, have a long a. 

i^oie. According to the grammarians*' the Attics pronounced such 
words with a long a, so that they were paroxytones, άΧηθεία^ 
Ιερεία, &c. Homer, it is true, has άναι^είην, ένκλεΐη, κατή• 
φείη; and Theognis 1227. άληθεΐη, ayola with long a is 
found in a trimeter JEsch. S. c. Th. 404. (Bl. Ivvoiif, nvi 
for ή "yoia Tivi\ Eur, Andr, 521. in anapaests, kyvoia 
Soph. Philoct. 129. But ασέβεια, ευσέβεια, have imiversally 
a short a, e. g. -Ewr. ^αοοΛ. 476. Iphig. T. 1210. comp. 
Hipp, Fragm, 4, 1 . also αλήθεια, of which the α is elided 
Phoen. 950. Bacch. 1288• whence ασέβεια μεγάλη Or. 823. 
is very suspicious. The Attics, however, gave to many 
nouns in cia {— ^) the form ta (y — ), as προμηθία, ανθαίία^ 
είσεβία, εύγενία, Ιερία (Valck, ad Phoen, 1475. Elmsl, ad 
Bacch. 1112.), which perhaps gave rise to this remark of 
the grammarians. 

c. Feminines in -eia from adjectives in vs have a short a, as ώκεια 
{ώκέα in Homer), the proper name Θάλεια //. σ, 39. Hes, Th. 77. and 
therefore probably the adj. also, in εΐί ^αιτα Θάλειαν, the close of an 
hexameter in Homer. On the contrary, the adjective terminations 
(-atoi) -α/α (-αιον), {-ειο$) -εια (-ειοκ), have a long α. Only one excep- 
tion exists to the last, Eur, Rhes, 762. ΈκτορεΙά χε(ρ. 

To this class belong also in some measure the lengthened forms of 
compound adjectives, as Καλλιόπεια for Καλλκ^ι;, άριστοτόκεια, ε^ττα- 
τέρεια. According to the accent, κράνεια, πέλεια, and some proper 
names, as Καλανρεια, Πίμνλεια, Σκάν^εια, Κορώνεια, belong to the 
same class. Words derived from substantives of the neuter gender 
have also a short a, as Μήδεια (μη^οε), νπωρεια (^opos), ήριγένεια, Κν- 
προγέν€ΐα {γένο$), μισγάγκεια (ayicoi). 

" Draco, p. SO, 14, Reg. Pros. ap. Prosed, p. 438, 77. 78. 
Herm. de Rm.RatGr.Gr.p.438,77. * Dionys. ap. Eust. ad Od. η, 

A list of such words in -rpca may be p. 284, 27. £tym. M. p. 313, 23. 

seen in Bast, ad Greg. Cor. p. 259 seq. Moer. p. 191. Choerob. ap. Bekk. 

•» Draco, p. 20, 24. 79, 14. Reg. Anecd. p. 1814, 6. 

Fmt Deckimon. 119 

d. Dissyllables in ^aia have α short, yaia (αία), γραία, /χαΤα, and 
several polysyllabic names of places, Ίστ/αια, 'Ρι^ι^αια^ IlXaraia. 

e. ΑΠ words in ^ta, which are therefore properispomena or pro^ 
foroxfUma; but μητρνία has α long j^tir. ^^. 316. άγνια is found 
with α short //. v', 254. The grammarians, however, assign α long to 
αγυία and dpyWa, Eust. ad Od. t, 32^. Etytn. M. p. d05, 39. 

f. -a is short in words in pa, in the penult of which are the diphthongs 
m, oc, ety oi; or a long v: σψάιρα, μά\αφα, μοϊρα, ^orecpa, άρονρα^ 
γέψυρα^ άγκνρα. (All words in -νρα have ν long). Exceptions : έτα/ρα, 
ταλαίστρα, Αίθρα, Φα/^ρα, πλημμύρα^ and feminines of adjectives in 
vpof, as Ισχνρά, οίζνρά. But those which have i} ω αν or a short vowel 
in the penult, have α long. Ώρώρα has d Jl^ur. Or. 362. and elsewhere. 
Moipiy, μοίρην, is found in Herodotus, generally with the various read- 
ing μόφα^ μοφαν^ yet also without variation, 1. 91. 204. 

All other words have α long afler a vowel or ρ ; but α is short afler 
other consonants, except in Λ//^α, ^Αν^ρομίΙα^ φιλομήλα, ΚισσαΙθα 
Tkeocr. 1, 151. Σιμαίθα ib. 2, 101. άλαλα in the verse Κλνθ' *Αλαλά, 
τοΧέμον θύγατ€ρ^ ίγχέων νροοίμιον αρ. Eust. ad 11. p. 990, 3. and ac- 
cording to the accent Δ^ιοτΙμα and σκαι^^άλα. The accus. has always 
the quantity of the nom. 

g. -as in the gen. sing., 9 in the dat. sing., α in the voc. of nouns in 
OS (as Aiveia), a in the dual, and as in the accus. plur., are invariably 
long. The accus. in Hesiod and the more modem Doric poets is found 
short Hes. "Εργ. 564. rpovas ijeXloio, Theogn. 60. xovpas. ib, 267. 
'Apwrnas. 533. 652. fiovXas, Theocr. 4, 3. πάσα: ά/zέλγ€ιs, comp. 5, 
146. 21, 1. τέχνάε. Also from words in η$; Hes. Theog. 401. /iera- 
vaterds. TyrU Fr. 8. ^ημ6τά5. Fr. 6. leaworas'^. So the Dorians 
pronounced the accus. plur. 2nd decl. tos Xvkos. 

4. The accent of the nominative is determined by the quantity. 

a. If α is long, it either has itself the acute or gives it to the pre- 
ceding syllable, by §. 27. a. If α is short, the acute is on the ante- 
penult, as Ιχι^ι^α ; or if the penult is long by nature the circumflex is 
on it, by §. 27. b. γ. In the same way the quantity of α is known by 
the accent, e. g. the accent on α (in oxytones) or on the penult (in 
paroxytones), shows that α is long, except in μία (ρΙΒεμία, μη^εμίά), 
Πν^α, Κ/($ρα ; and from the circumflex on the penult, or the acute on 
the antepenult, it is known that α is short. 

'WolfadHes.Th.60. Schxf. adBion.p.^31. Comp.£ust.adIl.c'.p.558,22. 


First Declension. 

b. Oxytones change the acute of the nom. and accus. in the gen. 
and dat. of the sing, dual and plur. into the circumflex, τιμ^ -fiifs ^μψ 
-μαιν 'μών -μαϊί §. 28. b. μία has in the gen. and dat. μιά$, μιψ• 

c. The gen. plur. has always the circumflex on the termination ων^ 
wherever the accent of the nom. may be ; Μονσαι Μουσών, ^i^roi 
ΙίχιΙνών, See Ohs* The following are excepted ; χ/ιήση/ί, ^τησίαι, άψνη 
(and χ\οννη$), which make ^(ρήστων (for distinction from 'χρηστών gen. 
of χρηστό$\ ετησίων, άψύων (for distinction from άφυών gen. of 6, ^ 
a^viys), χΧοννων Hes. Scut. 168. 177. See §. 28, c. 

5. The lonians changed the long α into 17, e. g. σοφίη, ///χέρι?» νεηνίηε^ 
'Λρχ /f/s; but Homer has Aivelas, 'Ερμείας, Ahyelas, and θεά Oeas, not 
θεή. The short a, on the contrary, is commonly not changed into η• 
Yet we find άληθείη, άναιΒείη, eincXcci?, κατηφεΐη Obs» 2, b. not. fi/179 
κνίσση II, a\ 317. &, 548. also ννμψα in Homer, as voc. of νύμφη 
11. γ, ISO. Od. B\ 743. Even among the Attics η and α short are 
both found in the same word, as in ΘοΙνη, &c. Obs, 1. not. 

6. In respect to the dialects the form in brackets is the older, pre- 
served in the Doric and Ionic. Of the gen. plur. both forms evv and 
άων after consonants occur. in Homer^ whence it is evident that they 
were then both in use in Ionia, Μουσέων and Μουσάων\ The former 
remained in the Ionic, the latter in the £olo-Doric : from the former 
came by contraction the Attic ών (therefore circumflexed), from the 
latter the Doric av, e. g. Λαιτιθακ Pind. Pyth, 9, 24. kraipdv ib. 36^. 

7. The termination of the dat. plur. is found variously in Homer 
and the epic poets in our present editions, αισι, ps, ρσι. Good editions, 
however, no longer contain πνοι^σ, &c. with elided i*. Even in Plato 
αισι still frequently occurs **. In the editions of the tragedians and 
Aristophanes, αισι, ι^σι and ys are found ; but as the MSS. vary greatly, 
as |/σι and ys never occur without αισι and ais as a various reading, 
whUe the latter are often found without any variety, as Eur, Or, 558• 
it is probable that αισι, air is every where the more correct, except in 
lyric passages*. 

» Fisch. p. 67. 76. 362. Koen ad 
Greg. p. (174) 379 seq. (271) 577. 

*» Fiscii. 1. p. 362. 

^ According to Herm. ad Orph. 
Arg. 700. the dative in the epic poets 
is always ι^σι not αισι, or ais not 

^ Ast. ad Plat. Leg. p. 11. Dorvill. 

ad Charit. p. 343. ed. Lips. Heind. 
ad Plat. Phaedr. §. 37. 

* Elmsley ad Eur. Med. 466. Comp. 
Ed. Rev. 29. p. 156. A different 
opinion is maintained by Valck. ad 
Hipp. 1432. Phcsn. 62. Koen ad 
Greg. p. (175) 382. Bninckad Arist. 
Ran. 1211. Comp. Fisch. 1. p. 363. 

First Declension, 121 

8. The teriniiiatione i}s and as became among the Cohans d, as in 
Homer, θυέστά IL β^ 107• μψΊέτά, νεψεληγερέτα, thpyowa^ iinrora 
ΙΙηλευχ, &c. but not in patronymics. Ehnsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 94. The 
accent remains the same as in the forms in -n}s^ Hence the Latin 
ccmeta, planeta, poeta, from κομήτης^ ΊτΧανίιτηί, χοιιττήι» and hence the 
Latins ordinarily changed the Greek names in as into a ; the Greeks^ 
on tlie contrary, turned the Roman names in a into as, e. g. SvXXaf» 

9. The forms ew and ao from words in ψ after consonants occur in 
Homer, e. g. //. f\ 85. Θνγάτηρ'ΆΚΓαο γέροντο$^'Ά\τ€ω, ts ΑέΧέγεσσι 
ψίΧοΊΓΓοΧέμοίσιν άνάσσει. //• ο\ 519. Φνλ€/^€ω, but 528. Φνλε/^ο. 
Here too we see the inversion of the quantity v/ — and — ^* ao remained 
in Doric, αίχματάο Find. Pyth, 4, 21. εω in Ionic. So Γνγεω, ν€η» 
vUvf in Herodotus^. In Attic also, θάλ€ω in Plato Rep, 10. p. 600 A. 
T^pet from Tr/pijs Thuc, 2, 29. This form is always monosyllabic, 
e. g. ΠηληΊά^εω Άχιληοί. But Simonides in the Epig» 52. ep, Gaisford^ 
has Σμ€ρ^ί€ω as a quadrisyllable. Formerly it was written eo, and 
hence, by contraction, the Attic form ov, as well as the £olic ev §. 50. 
(as Α€ντνχί^η5 for Α€ωτνχ1^ηί in Herodotus 8, 114.•) If a vowel pre- 
cedes this termination e is omitted, e. g. ένμμελίω for ένμμελ/εω, '£p- 
μ€ΐω for *£p/xe/eftf, and after ρ in Βόρεω IL ψ', 692. {', 895. for Bopitv. 
From the form ao arose the Doric genitive cc, e. g. οϋχμητήχ, αΐχ* 
μτ/τάο, αίχμψ-ά. ehpvfila Find. Fyth, 9, 23. and in the Doric of tra- 
gedy, tfiivairaTa Eur, Med, 1403. veavia Hel, 674^ but never αο• 
In proper names, and some other nouns, this form is retained by the 
Attics, e. g. όρνιθοθίφα^ Τωβρύα Xen, Cyrop, 5, 2, 6. Αεύττνχίία Xen» 
Ages, 1,5. Καλλ/α, to. Thus also τον Σουί^α^ του Σκόττα, τον TpiavOf 
του Φιλώτα, τον Θωμά, Πλειοτόλα Thuc, 5, 25. *Ορόντα Anah, 3, 4, 13. 
ubi V. Zeun, ΟΙΒιπό^α ^sch. Sept, c, TM, 731. Eunp, Fhoen, 364. 
from ΟιΙνπόΙαο Hes, "Epy. 1 62 *. According to a rule of the old gramma- 
rians \ dissyllables in as and pas have α in the genitive ; polysyllables ov. 

10. The vocative in words of the third and fourth termination 37s 
and cu, is formed by rejecting 1, as αίναρέτη II, π, 31. 1Ιη\€ί^η, Τν- 
3e/3i7, &c• The following, however, in 17s have the vocative in of. 
1• Those which have r before the termination ijs, e. g, wpo<piirns xpo- 

' Schaefer ad Greg. p. 97. seq * Greg. p. (287) 611. 

Comp. £ust ad Od. β\ p. 1457. 18. ^ Valck. ad £ur. Ph. p. S06. Herm. 

' Bentl. £p. ad Mill. p. 517 sqq. Disq. de Orph. p. 725. 

ed. Lips. Koen ad Greg. p. (40) 96. ^ Fisch. t. p. 115. 361. 

Maitt. p. 173. ' Thorn. M. p. 832. Fustath. ad 

^ Fisch. p. 117. Keen ad Greg. Od.a,p.27. IIerodian.Herm.p.303. 

p. (170) 383 seq. Piers, p. 455 sq. 


Second DecUuskm. 


^ifTOf epyanis Ipyara, σνκοψάντα^ OepairOf Όρέστα, Ύίθρανστα {Xenopk, 
Ages, 4, 6*)• 2. Words compounded with μ€τρέω, πωΧέω^ τρίβω^ ye«• 
μέτρης γ€ωμέτρα, βιβΧιοτωΧηί βφΧωπώΧα, ται^οτρΙβη5 ναι^οτρίβα. So 
also ψιΧοϊψα Theocr, 4ι, extr. 8, Those ending in iri^s, κυνωτηε κννύποψ 
χαρθενοίΓίττα, ei^pvofra, prohably verbals from the old word οπτω, drt- 
ΤΤ€υω, 4. Names of nations, e. g. Σιώθη$ Ιίκνθα, ϊίέρσηί Πέρσα, but 
ΧΙέρση in Hesiod, from Πέρσης a man's name. Also some proper 
names, Aa^vijs Λά)ςνα, ΤΙνραίχμη$ Πνρα7χ/ια• Those in as have α long 
μι the vocative, those in 37s, short. 

11• In the accusative singular and plural of words in ηβ, the latter 
Ionic dialect had ca eas, for ην as, e. g. ^σπότ€α SeaworeaSf §. 91, 1• 

Note, Koen ad Greg. p. (94) 211. quotes from inscriptions raU 
ημάΐς for ras ri/ias, &c. But as no other trace of this is 
found (for raU avraiKXelais in Frag, Alcm, ap, Athen, 4. 
p. 140. C. is the dative), and the Dorians change none but 
the form as from avs into au, e. g. τνψαι^, these are probably 
errors of the stonecutter. 

\Z, This declension has also some contracted words, e. g. y$ (from 
γέα, yecJv gen. pi. in Herod. 4, 198 ed. Gaisf, hence γ€ωμέτρη$)^ 
Xeoyrij from Χεοντέη (αΧωπεκη, παρ^αΧη\ γαΧ% σνκη; μνά, Αθηνά 
(from μνάα, Άθι^ι^άα Theocr. 28, 1. Ion. *Αθηναίη). *Εφμη5 (from *Ερ• 
μέα$). They are declined exactly like the foregoing examples : those 
in ά like the pure nouns. To this class belong some Attic names of 
birds ; 6 άτταγάε (τψ άτταγ^, οι άτταγαι, roits arrayds), 6 eXeds, /3ασ- 
Kas, έΧασάε Arist, Αν, 885^. But πελεκά; has TreXenavres Αν, \\55. 
xeXcfcavrc ih, 882. In words in 6η the η absorbs the vowel preceding, 

Second Declension. 


Fir$t Termination, 
Nom. oc 

VoC. € 

Second Termination, 


ου (epic oio, Dor. ω^) 



* FiHch. p. 358. 

»» Lob. ad Phryn. p. 118. Wolfs 
Analect. 3. p. 47. 

^ Fisch. 1. p. 355. Fragm. Lex. 
Gr. ap. Herm. p. 320,70. 
•* Fisch. p. 375. Maitt. 177. 

Second DeckmioH, 123 

Fint Termination. Second Termination. 


Nom. Ace. 



Gen. Dat. 











(old & Dor. oc & ωα*) 




1. The form of the geniuve oio for ov for the most part occurs in the 
poets only, chiefly the epic ; more rarely, and only in lyric passages, in 
the tragedians ^ Yet in Herodotus 3, 97. two MSS. have Κανκάσοιο, 
The original form of the gen. seems to have been -oo (analogous to ao 
in the first declension, and ωο {. 70. Obs. 1.), whence came oto, and by 
contraction ov. The termination oio is said by some to have been re- 
tained in the Boeotian, by others in the Thessalian dialect. Eust. ad II. 
p. 140, 40. The Doric gen. in ω has been banished by recent critics 
firom Pindar'. 

2. The JBolians are said to have written rj σόψω without i. Chceroh. 
m Bekk. A need, p. 1187. 

3. Instead of the vocative in e the nominative is used, particularly 
in Attic, e. g. ^i\o% ω MeyiKae II. ^, 189. ω ^\of AHst. Nub. 1167. 

4. In the genitive and dative of the dual, the epic poets insert an i, 
e.g. cinrouV, ώμοϋν^ σταθμοΤιν Od, ζ, 19\ The original form was 
probably -otV. 

5. The genitive of nouns feminine in os is formed also by Callimachus 
in owv, νησάων, yl /ηψάων^] but τάν άοι^άν Eur. Hipp, 738. is suspicious. 
Of genitives in αων from adj. in o(, see §. 118. Obs. 2. 

• Koen ad Gregor. p. (147) 319 sq. ' Herm. de Dial. Find. p. (xi.) ?60. 

Fisch. 1. p. 376 sq. Comp. Boeckh de Metr. P. p. 991. 

' Harm. Disq. de Orph. p. 724. ^ Fisch. p. 376, 

Comp. ad Soph. A). 209. Blonif. ad ' £rnest. ad Callim. in Del. 66. 

JEsch. Prom. 542. The elision of ο Suid. v. κοΧωνάων. So ανλα ν stood 

before a vowel is justly rejected, formerly for αίΧών Pind. Pyth. 12, 

Herm. de Orph. p. 722. 34. 



Second Declension. 

6. The genitives plur. in e^v, of substandves in os, which are found 
in Herodotus (νεσσέων I, 94. wvpiwy 2, 36.), are not supported by the 
best MSS. The analogical forms αΐτέων, τοντέων, έκ€ΐρέων in He- 
rodotus and Hippocrates (§. 146. 150. Ohs, 1.) seem to rest on better 
authority; though Apollonius x. άντων. p. 888. A. appears to con- 
sider ahriwy only as a feminine. 

7. The old form of the dative occurs also in Attic, e. g. κακοισιν 
Plat. Gorg. p. 497. D. τούτοισι ib. p. 28. οΊκοισιν Soph. (Ed. T. 249. 
τοισιν καινοίσι Bedis Aristoph. Av. 847 ^ 

8. The ^olians are said to have inserted an ι after the ο in the 
accus. plur. e. g. Karrois νόμοα for κατά rovs νόμονί^. See §.68, note. 
The poets use os when a short syllable is necessary, Theocr. 5, 112. 
τώ£ Βασνκέρκοί &\ώΐΓ€κα£. 114. rits κανθάμο$. 4,11. τώ$ \vkos. In 
Hesiod once. Scut. H. 302. ωκύκοΖα% Xayos. 









Ο ayyeXoc * the messenger*, το ζύΧον * the wood*. 

του ζνΧον 
• τψ ζϋΧγ 
το ^νλοί' 

του αγγελ 

τψ αγγεΧψ 




Nom. Ace. τώ αγγελω 
Gen. Dat. ro7v άγγελοιι^ 


01 ayyeXoi 
των αγγέλων 



Dat. Toic αγγίλοκ 

Accus. TovQ ayyeXovQ 

Voc. άγγελοι 

Obs. When c or ο precedes the termination os or ov, both vowels are 
contracted in all the cases {οΧοπαθη), but so that -έα and -όα become 
ά, as yaoSf vovs, (^vs, irXovf, a^eX^i&»vf, άΐ'βψια&>ν(, θνγατριΜκ, &C. 

τώ ^ύλω 
τοιΐ' f ύλοιΐ' 

τα ^ύλα 
τωΐ' f ύλων 
TOIC ζυΧοια. 
τα ^ύλα 

•Fisch. 1. ρ.376. Dorv.adCharit. 
ρ. 343. 

Keen ad Gregor. p. (999) 617 seq. 

Second Declension. 



Nom• vooc, 
Gen. voov, 
Dat. νόψ, 
Accas. vooVf 





Nom. Ace. νοω, νω 
Gen. Dat. vooiVf νοΊν 




νοών. νων 



Dat. νοοίς, yoTc 





TO οστεον, 
του οστέον, 
τφ οστΙ^, 
το oareov, 
οστέοΐ', ' 

τώ οστίω, 
Toiy οστίοιν, 

τα οστεα, 
των οστίων, 
To7c οστέοια, 
τα οστεα, 










> ^ 

0&1. 1. So Πβφιθοον Πεφ/θον^, Πβφ/θον Πεφ/Θ^ Isocr, ρ. 211. Ε. 
212. Α. Xen• Cyrop. 5, 2, 8. has the uncontracted form τψ νόψ. 
οστέα titc. 9. ed Meineke• όστέων Eurip. Or. 403. Piers, 
ad Maer. p. 284. The dual and plur. are very rare ; oi voi was found 
in Philemon according to the Etym. M. p. 603, 23^• ol πλοΐ Soph. 
Phil. 304. προχοϊσιν Arist. Nub. ^72. ed Herm. or πρόχοισιν^ as Porson 
would ready where ιτρόχονσιν is found in the editions. See §. 91. 2. 
The voc. sing, does not occur ; ίορυξέ Arist. Pac. 1260. is from lopv^s 
for Zopvioos. From Panthu^ JEn. 2, 322. we may, however, infer the 
existence of UavOoe from ΪΙάνθοο$ 'Bovs. 

Obs. 2. In regard to the accent we have only to remark, that the 
contracted dual νω^ &c. is not circumflexed according to the rule of 
the grammarians Etym, M. p. 609, 52. but acuted, probably according 
to the analogy of the other duals, re^ καλώ, τώ (τοφω. Kaveov ' a basket' 
is circumflexed on the last syllable, κάνουν like the adj. See §.118. 
Proper names compounded with voos oflen, but not always, shorten the 
termination into vos, and lengthen the preceding syllable, *Apylvo% for 
*Apj(ivooSf KparXvos fi)r Kparlvoos, &c, ^ 

To this declension also is assigned what is called the Attic $.70. 
form in ως and ων, in those words which have an equal num1>er 

« [In the £Qrm. M. it is voL] 
'Ruhnk. Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr. 

prefixed to Rutil. Lup. p. xlii. 



Second Declenmn. 

of syllables in all cases (partsyllabica), e. g. 'ΆΟω«» Tewd 
Kcuc, λαγώα, αΧω^, in which case the α long and i| before ως 
IS changed into e^ e. g. Xewc, νεωα, MeveXewc, ίΧεωα, avwyetov, 
for XaoQf paoc, MeveXaoQ, iXaoc^ αι^ώγαιον, ewe for tiwq. The 
α short remains unchanged, e. g. raitc, k&Xwc, Xaywc, or is 
contracted with ο into wc, e. g. αγηρωα for ayftpaoQ. This form 
occurs, however, in Ionic writers, as Herodotus ; in the Do- 
rians, as Pindar, it has been changed in recent editions into the 
common form in aoQ, ac — ^The following is the declension : 

Nom. ο veiiQ 
Gen. TOW v^Cb 
Dat. ry I'ey 
Ace. TQv veiiv 

N. A. τώ ν€ω 
G. D. Toiy ν€ψν 


01 νεψ 
των vetSv 
TOIQ ν€ψα 


ο Xayic 
του λαγώ 
τψ Χλύψ 
τον λαγωΐ' 


τω λαγω 
τοΤΐ' λαγών 


οι λαγ^ 
των λαγών 
ToTc XaywQ 
TOVC λαγωο 

\ » 

το ανωγβων 
τον ανωγεω 
Ty ανωγ€^ 
το ανώγεων 

τω ανωγεω 
τοΤν avwyetffp 

τα ανωγεω 
των ανώγεων 
ToTc ανωγε<]^α 
τα ανωγεω. 


1. The genitive llcrccJo in Homer, //. β>, 652. OijvcXcwo f, 489* 
according to the opinion of some grammarians, arose from the form 
Ilerefais for llerew, analogous to Χόγοιο/ΑΧταο §. 69. Obs. 1 ; according 
to others from IlereoTo, Uerefo^, 

2. In the accusative the Attics often omit the r, e. g. λαγοί (Χαγώ 
Schcef. ad Greg. p. 165.) Xenoph. Cyrap. 1, 6, 19. veto Lucian. T. 5. 
p. 77. Γήν 2ω Xenoph. Cyrop. 1, 1, 5. Tliis is the rule in proper 
names, as K« (but Κόων in Homer. See 06*. 4.), Κέω, Tέw,'ΆΘ«^ In 

» Fisch. p. 372. 

»» Heyne ad 11. β, 552. Fisch. 1. 
p. 100 sq. Payne Knight considers 

the form as corrupted from IlercoFo. 
*= ad Ί hue. 5, 3. Graev. ad Lucian. 
Sol. p. 451. 453. 

Second Declension. 127 

other Bubetantnree the form in ων often occurs, e. g. Xayuiy Athen. 9, 14« 
from Aristophanes'. 

The neuter also of some adjectives of this form has often ω mstead 
of w, e. g. ίίγίιρω for άγ//ρων. 

d. The Attics often declined, after this form, words which other- 
wise belong to the third declension, e. g. Μινω Herod. 1, 171. from 
MiVwf, MiVtfos for Μίνωα Plat. Min. 321. A. (where other MSS. have 
Wvwy). Also in the genit. Μ/νω, to. p. 318 D. £. 320 B. Xen.Mem. 4, 
2, dd. instead οΐΝίΙνωο$*. γέΧωνΕητ. Ion. 1191. from γέλωι, γέλωτο^, 
for γ4Χωτα*9 Ύνψων for Τνψώνα^, 4p^^» ^ Sophron ap. Priscian. 6• 
p. 197. and Herod. 1, 167. ^ρω, Plat. Min. p. 319. B. On the other 
hand ταώ$^ raoi, ταψ^ ταώ, &c., and ταώνι occurs in Arutoph. Av% 884• 
ταωσι Ach. 63. See, however, Elmsley on the last-quoted passage• 
The later Greeks declined words in ω(, which belong to the second, 
according to the third declension, e. g. &\ωα in a fragment of Cal- 
limachus, iV. 51. from «StXais for ά\ω\ Thus were declined ιταλών, ra- 
\ωο% ApoUon. Rh. 2, 727. and κάΚω Thuc. 4, 25. γά\ω$ γάΚωο$ and 

4. The epic poets lengthen ω in γάλω$^ "Αθωί, Κώ(, into οω, e. g. 
γαλ<^ι //. χ , 473. γαλόων ζ, 378. "Αβ6ω$ Horn. Η. ΑροΙΙ. SS. Gen. 
*ΑΘ<^ //. ζ, 229. Κ6ω$ Η. ιηΑροΙΙ. 42. Ace. Κόΐι»ι^ //. ξ, 255. oV28. 

5. The grammarians reckon in this declension το γρέω$ ' debt,' of 
which the gen. and according to tlie grammarians {Etym. M. p. 814, 
29.) the ace. and voc. were χρέωβ, and the gen. is ofVen so written in 
MSS. as well as the nom. and ace. plur. See Buttm. L. Or. p. 241 seq. 
The editions have chiefly χρέοί, which alone is in use by the tragedians^, 
from which χρέει in the dat. {Etym. M. L c), and in the plur. χρέα, 
were used. 

6. In regard to the accent it is to be remarked, that in words in εω(, 
ewv, if the final syllable has not itself the accent, the acute, though the 
last syllable is long, is always placed upon the antepenult, even in com- 
pound words whose simples have tlie accent on the termination ω£, Me- 
νέ\€ω$ (from XeiJs), Tvydapews, ίλεως, άπΰγεων. The reason is, that 
the e before ως ων is only a prefix syllable, so that εως €ων are nearly 

* Fisch. 1. p. 378 sq. Keen, ad *" Fisch. 1. p. 400 seq. 
Greg. p. (71) 164 seq. • Fisch. 1. p. 400 seq. 

• Pierson ad Mcer. p. 439. Wyt- JSchweigh.adAth.t.7.p.316. Lob. 
tenb. ad Plut. de S. N. V. p. 24. ad Phryn. p. 39 J . Reisig. Comm. in 

' Mceris, p. 108. et Piers. Soph. CEd. C. v. 1286. Similar to 

« £lmsl. ad Arist. Ach. 1095. &μα this is του ^λέω( or oXews in the 

ίψ Thuc. 1, 48. is regular for the later writers, for whii^ Arist. Ran. 

Ionic &/a' ^7. 346. has ^λέω. Phryn. p. 294. 

128 Third Declension. 

Λ monosyllable. Hence cwr is often treated by the poets as one syl- 
lable, at times as two, e. g. Eur. Or. 18. compared with t6. 5S. So 
compomid adjectives in ω(, which have an e in the preceding syllable, 
have the accent on the antepenult, €ΰκ€ρω$^ φίΚόγελωε, probably because 
the e was pronounced so rapidly as hardly to appear a syllable. On 
the contrary it is άγίφωί, not &γηρω$. In words which have the accent 
on the last syllable the gen. retains the acute, though in the form in os 
it is circumflexed, e. g. XecJr, Xcoi, but Xaos, λάου. See §. 27. Obs. 

7• In the Dorian dialect proper names in \aos are contracted into 
\aSf e. g. MeviXaos Μενέλαε, ^iKOXaos ^iKOkas, See above, §• 49. 

8. In a similar way, according to the grammarians*, are the circimi- 
flexed proper names in as, ψ, vs, declined, e. g. Μηνάς, Miyva, -v^, -vav' 
Κομητάε, -τα, -rf, -ray* Ajofs, Δρί* Atovvs, -νύ, -vv. So gen. θαμου 
ace. θαμϋΰν Plat. PJuedr. p. 274. D. £. from θα /iovs ; and so the 
Jewish and Christian writers inflected Oriental names, Μωνσης, Μωνση* 
*Ιησοϋ5, Ίι^σον, *1ησουν. This declension of names in a$ resembles the 
Doric declens. 1 . of names in as, Ko/xaras , gen. Κομάτα, dat. Κομάτψ 
in Theocritus. 

§.7l. 27i€ Third Declension. 

The third declension is distinguished from the two pre- 
ceding, in making the rest of the cases, except the nominative, 
longer by one syllable. Thence it is called imparisyllabic. 


Nom. a, 

1, V, ω, V, 


< (X, ^) 






a and 


Voc. as Nom. 


Nom. Accus. 


Gen. Dat. 














* Choerob. ap. Bekk. Anecd. p. 1180. 1188. 1195. 1196. 

Third Declension. 129 

The inflexion of words of this declension depends chiefly 
upon the consonants which precede the termination oc of the 
genitive, and are retained through all the other cases, except 
some deviations in the accus• sing. ^ In general the termi- 
nations of the third declension are on, i, a, &c. 

1) either annexed immediately to the termination of the 
nominatiye, as chiefly in words in ν and p, e. ξ•'μήν μη^^ί^ 
Ελλιιν "ΈλλιιΐΜΜ;, "φαρ xpap^oc, σωτηρ σωτηρ -oc. In the 
greater part also the long vowel of the termination of the no- 
minative is changed into the corresponding short vowel, e. g« 
λιμην Xffi€i^-0Cy μητηρ /i4i|T€/£>-oc, χβλιδων χελιδον-οέ;. In the 
same manner words in ω, ν'χω ΐ7χό-οα> πείθω o-oc, and this 
termination is contracted, especially by the Attics, into ovc, 

Oh$. 1• In some the e which comes firom η is rejected in the geni- 
tive and dative (syncope), e. g. kpfiv hpivos &pv6s**, κυων κν6νο$ ΚΌνό$% 
τατήρ waripos warpoSf θυγάτηρ Θνγατέροε θνγατρό$, 

Obs. 2. Many words, particularly monosyllables, retain the long 
vowel, e. g. μήν, «πτλήν, χ//ν, κΧων, αΐών^ χειμ(όν, fteXe^iJv, Ποσειδών, 
*Απ6λλων^ Mapadtiy, κωίων^ κωθων^ πάγων, ahXwy, γλ^χων, μήκωκ, 
Ιχιίρ\ &C. In Homer the forms ωνο£ and ovos are interchanged in the 
same word. The word which is otherwise Kpovi^wvos is in //. ζ, 247• 
Od. \\ 619. KpoyCovos. So *ΑκταΙωνοί and Άκταίονοε Eur, Bacch. 

or 2) when the nominative already has a c, this in the genitive 
is changed into oc ; in whieh case the long vowel in the termi- 
nation of the nominative case is also changed into its corre- 
sponding short one, e. g. τριήρης rpivpeoQ. 

When the nominative ends in a double consonant ξ (ya, kq, 
γο), or φ ()3c, TTQ, φο), this is separated, and q changed into oc; 
ζ is changed into -yoc, icoc, xoc, φ into ^oc, ttoc, φοα, e. g. αίζ 
aiyoc, άΧωπηζ α\ωπ€Κος, βρί? rpiyoc, φλέψ φλεβoc, ω^ 
wiroc, κατηλιφ κατηλιφοο. Thus also φakayζ φάλαγγoc, 

» Markland de Grxc. Decl. Quinta, ^ Fisch. 1. p. 382. 

p. 379. (ed. 1775.) assumes that the * Fisch. 1. p. 384. 

nominative always ended in s, pre- ' Eustath. ad II. \\ p. 859, 18. 

ceded by the consonant which now * See Matthis ad Eur. Ale. 856. 
precedes ο in the genitive. 

VOL• 1• Κ 

130 Third Declension. 

λάρυγζ Xapvyyoc : yet instead of these, which were the re• 
gular forms, Uiey were sometimes written with one γ ; ψαρνγικ 
Od. ι, 373. τ, 480. Eur. Cycl. 592. Xapvyoc Schweigh. ad 
Ath. t. 4. p. 645. Except : Χίτγξ * the lynx^ XvyKoc and 
λυγγοι;. Τϋυξ also and αναξ, make vujcroc and ayaicroc. From 
the regular declension of the latter comes ''AvoKec, the name of 
the Dioscuri. 

3. The nominatives in ac, eic, oυc are» for the most part, 
formed from the terminations avc, eve, o^c, in which the ν be- 
fore the c is rejected» and the preceding short yowel becomes 
long, or is changed into a diphthong, according to §• 39• 
Obs. 2 ; and the genitive is formed in avroc, eyroc, ovroc. 

§.72. There are, however, many deviations from these general 
rules» which chiefly consist in this» that the terminations &>c, 
6oCf TOQ are used instead of the termination oc, if it would 
immediately follow a vowel» in order to retain the length of 
the termination of the nominative in the rest of the cases. 
Which of these terminations a word receives, is best learned 
from the Lexicon, and from reading. The following examples, 
however, may serve as a standard : 

1 ) Words which end in a, c, ν add the syllable roc in the 

genitive, to the termination of the nominative ; and 
besides this» those in υ change υ before roc into a, 
e. g. σώμα σωματοί;, μίΧι /licXctoc, γονυ yovaroQf Sopv 
SoparoQ. But the two latter are commonly derived 
from the obsolete nominatives γοναα, Sopat;, 

Exceptions, 1. γάλα makes yaXoKToc, as from γαλαζ. 
2. σίνηπι makes» according to the general rule, §.71, 
1. ffii^Trcoc, and in Attic σινηπβωο, 3. άστυ makes ασ- 
reoc (-Xe/i. Hellen. 2, 4, 7. and elsewhere) aareoic 
(Thtic. 8» 92. Sic.) So also ΐΓωϋ» whence ττωεα, in 
Homer and Hesiod, &c. 

2) Words in ap make a) aroc, e. g. oueiap -ecaroc, αΧζίφαρ 

-φατοα, fl^ap -ττατοβ, νμ^^ρ "paroc, φρεαρ 'Caroc, 
στεαρ •€ατοα (dissyllable Od. φ', 178. 182.)» κτεαρ 
--ίατοο, SeXeap -earoc {Luc. D. Μ. 8.). b) according 
to §. 7 1 , 1 . those chiefly whose penult in the nomi- 

Third Declemion. 131 

natiye is short, make a/ooc, e. g. eap eapacy Oevap Oe 
vapoti^: ^άμαρ, however, makes Sa/ua/oroc^. 

3) Masculines in ac make a) avroc §. 71, 3. So also the 

Attic weXcKac -avroc, instead of which other dialects 
say ireXcKav -avoc^• b) τάλαο and /ueXac make τα- 
Xavoc, μίΧανοϋ. c) Neuters^ with α short, make partly 
aroc» e. g. Kpeac Kpearoc, Kepac jclparoc, partly, and 
indeed more commonly, aoc, e. g. κ^ίφαοο Od. σ\ 369. 
γιραίκ ; in which case the Attics contract the termi- 
nation aoc into ωο, KepwQ, κρίωα, yripwc^. d) Femi- 
nines, with ac short, make ^oc, e. g. η τΓαστάα πασ- 

4) avc makes aoc and ?;oc, e. g. vavc vaoc and viyoc. ypavc 

only ypaoc• 

5) €fc makes a) evroc in masculines, §.71, 3. riprien; 

'€VToc, ac/uaroecc -cvroc. b) evoa, in icrecc KrevoQ, cic 
evoQ. c) €cSoc, in η icXeTc icXeiSoc. 

6) eve makes έως. Ion. ?oc, e. g. βασιΧβνς βασιλεωο. Ion. 


7) ivc makes cvdoc in ΙΧ/αικ -cvOoi;» n-eipcvOoc Od. o, 131. 

So TipvvQ has -υνθοβ. 

β) ic makes a) loc §. 71» 1. particularly in substantives de- 
rived from verbs. The Attics change these terminations 
into βως, e. g. o<f>iQ οφιοα, οψεωα. b) cSoc, e. g. eXmc 
eXmSoCf ασπία ασπιίοα, θέτιι; -cSoc, Apre/tiic -/uSoc• 
c) cOoc with i long, e. g• o/ovic ορνίθοϋ, μβρμιο μέρ^ 
/ulOoc• d) iTOC, e. g. xa/9fc χάριτοά, which is con- 
sidered as Doric for yaf^Q, as 'A/ore/mroc for Ά/οτέ- 
/uiSoc, but was the only form used in all the dialects. 
Hence the Homeric θέ/κιστοβ Od. β', 68. θέ/^ιση 
J/, ο', 87. and θβ/ιισταβ, which is very frequent*, 
e) cvoc, e. g. ίρμινοα Od. yf! j 198. /i/c pivocj atcrlc 
aKTivoCf 'EXevaic, ΣαΧαμις, of which the nom. in iv 
occurs not at all, or only in later writers. Buttm. L. 

• Fischer 1. p. 388. * Fisch. 1. p. 39^. 

* Fischer 1. p. 408. * Suid. s. v. « Fisch. 1. p. 394 seq. 410. 

κ 2 

132 Third Declension. 

Gr. p. 164. Obs. 4. The old nom. was probably in 
I'C, e. g. pivQ. 

Obs. I. In the Homeric, and the Ionic dialect generally, and also in the 
Doric, the form tos for i^s often occurs, e. g. μήνιοβ Od. y\ 135. for 
μίΐνι^£ Plat. Rep. S. p. 890 £. Θέμιοε Herod. 2, 50. Kvvpios Theoc. 11, 
16. UapiosPind. P. 6, S3. So Άνάχαρσιε Άναχ&ρσιίο$ Aristot. t• 1. 
p. 485. Bip. and *Αναχάρσιο£ Plat. Rep. 10. p. 600. A. On the con- 
trary, the form iros was peculiar to the Doric, as has been just observed, 
e. g. θέμιτο$ Pind. 01. 10, 29. 

Obs. Z. Adjectives compounded with substantives in », have, in the 
genitive, cSos, although the substantive have eoi^, e. g. &irokis airoKilos. 

9) r^c makes a) in masculines eoc^ Attic ovc §. 71, 2. Δ17- 

μοσθβνης -σθένβοο "aOevovc; also in adjectives, αλΐ|- 
θηο -06oc• b) ητoCf e. g. φιΧότηο φι\oτητoc, KpriQ 
Κρητοο, πενηο πένΐϊτος, αβΧηο αβΧητοα. ο) ηθοα in 

ΤΙάρνηο ΤΙαρνηθοο, a mountain on the confines of At- 

Obs. The later Greeks declined the Roman names in ens, ηί eyros^ 
as Κλήμηε ΕΧήμεντοί. 

10) Neuters in oc make eoc, and according to the Attic 
contraction ovc, e. g• τβιχος τε/χβοα τβιχουι;• 

11) Words in ovc make a) ooc, e. g. βοΰς βοοο, \povc 
ypooc, \ovQ χοοο*. b) ovroc, when ovc arises from ovc, 
e. g. SiSovc 8180 vToc §. 71, 3, c) ovvtoc» when ovc 
arises, by contraction» from oeic, oevroc §. 71, 6. e. g. 

Ottovc, Άνθεμοΰο, Tpawetovc, /tieXirovc. 

Obs. The genitive o^ovros is derived from οΒών Herod. 6, 107• 
(o^ovs dens)^. irovs makes in the genitive irohis ; words, however, com- 
pounded with πονί, make in Attic also τον, and in the accus. πονν, as 
woKinrovs -πον, Ol^lwovSf rplirovs. The genitive plural πουΧνπων is also 
quoted. These forms point to a nominative not, as rpiiroSf aeXAoror, 
to which also the £olic accus. ποΧνπον^ is to be attributed. oSs ώτ6$ 
is contracted from ovas ovaros, 

12) vv has woe only in μοσυν ιιοσυνοο, Φο /oicvvoc; vi^c has 
vv0oc in TipvuQ 'wOoc• 

■ Fisch. 1. p. 399. « Athen.7.316. Schw. Anim. t. 4. 

^ Fisch. 1. p. 400. p. 360 sqq. Fisch. 1. p. 411. S. p. 189. 


Third Declension. 133 

13) υξ has νχ(Η; in Βιωρυζ, κατωρυζ (as in the adj. Soph. 
Ant. 1100.)^n later writers διωρνγοέ; Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 230. So the derivatives of ow^^ σαρΖοννζ^ μωνυ\€^ 
ririroc, ιττύχβα, from πτνξ which is not in use. Others 
have -vyoc, as ΐΓο/ιιφόλυζ, Στυζ. 

14) vc makes 1. voc, as οσψύο oa(f>voc, οφρύο οφρύος Bpvc 
BpvoCf &c. 2. vBoQ, particularly feminines with a short 
termination, γ\aμvc γ\aμvSoc. 3. vOoq, Kopvc κορυθοο, 
κωμνο κωμϋθος Theocr. A, 18^. 4. vvoc in Φόρκυ^ί 

15) ωο makes 1. ωοα, e. g. ίμωα ίμωόο, θως θωοο» Ύρωο 
Ύρωοϋ, κάΧωα κίΧωοο, vp^Q ηρωοα, Μινωο Mivwoq. 

2. ωτοο» as φωc φωτόί;, ίρως eρωτoc, χ/οωα )^ciiroc• 

3. the feminines make ooc contr. ova, ν αι^ωα -ooc 
-owe. 4. The partic. perf. act. makes otoc, tctv- 
φωο r€τυφ6τoG. 

Oht. 1. In some substantives the genitive is formed from an obsolete 
form of the nominative, as γάλα yaXaicros from γάΧαζ, γννίι γνναικόί 
from yvi^acf, νίωρ vharos from itas, σκωρ σκατό% from σκά«*, Zevs Aiof 
from Δ /s, Ζηνοί from Ζήν. 

06«. 2. The following remarks serve to assist in finding the form of 
the nominative, the form of the genitive or of another case being given. 

In general the genitive in 
0OC > comes from the nominative in c 


- 5 

vroQ — — . — < with the last syllable long. 

•* Fisch. 1. p. 398. • Fisch. 1. p. 391. 

134 Third Declension. 

In particular : 
avoQ '^ 

ao<; > comes from the nom. in ac, av 

avroc J avc, e. g. ναού, ypaic, from 

vavQ, ypavQ, 

cpoc Ί (ην 

evTOc J \ e«c 

co<; — - — — evQ, ηG, oc, υ, vc 

epoQ — • — — ηρ 

βωβ — — — «, υ, υα, βυα 

COC — — — ^ C, υ, «C 

ITOC — — — C 

CVOC — — ^ — IQ 

VOC — — — ν 

OVOC — — — ων 

oyTOC — — — ων, ovc 

ooc — — — ω, ωβ, owe 

0|»oc — — — ωρ, op 

OQ ' — — — c, Ύρωόα TpifQ, aXoc oAc 

ovc — — — ^c, DC, wc 

poC ρ 

TpOQ — — — τηρ 

VOQ ι 

vSoQ C 
v9oQ J 

ωμός 1 
ωο€ί 1 
ωroQ } 




Obs, 1. In regard to quantity the following forms of the genitive 
have the penult long : 

1) Of those in ayos, fi ράζ^ payos\ hut στάξ ordyos, άρπαξ, ίιασψάξ 

alos from as has α short. 

^) Those in ακο$ in masculine monosyllables /3λά£ β\ακ6$^ (βΡ9ί 

■ Draco, p. 80, 18. 

Third Declemion. 135 

Op^osy on account of the diphthong 9, from Θρηίζ Ίκοε,) in <epa{, ψαίίΐξ, 
οίαξ, θωρ€ίζ, πόρπαξ, -aicos, Ionic ί€ρηξ (^φηζ) '^pηκoSf ψαίηκοί, οίηκο^^ 
Θωρηξ^ ^ηκο$, ιτόρίΓηκοί. So also ψένάκοί^ ττάσσάκοί ArisU Ach, 763. 
firom ^έκα{, πάσσαζ. On the contrary, τλάζ, ανλαξ, ir /δαξ, χάρα{, 
Xci/tio^ Θ/Μ^αξ, ra/ia{, ιτλΤ/ιαζ, κόραξ, άνθραί, ψυλαξ, ^νηξ^ κ6\αζ\ all 
make -djcos. 

3) Those in ayos, as ταιάν waiavos, Ύιτάν Tiravos (Tirfjyes Horn.), , 
Uav Uayos, Aivtdy -avos Soph. El. 714. {Horn. 'Evirjves''). 

4) Monosyllables in apoSf φάρ φάρόί {φηραί II. π\ 5S3.\ Kdp Kapos. 
Of Kipas KiparoSf see §. 84. Obs. S. 

5) Those in lyof, τέττιζ -lyoSf μάστιζ •Σγο£, ττέμφιζ -ϊγοί. 

6) Those in i^ from dissyllable oxytones in cs, σφραγίί (Ion. σ^ρι?- 
yis), κρημίς, κηΧΙί, άψύ, βαλβίχ, νησίί, κρηιτίί, κηκί$, χ€ΐρί$ Od. ω\ 230. 
σχρινίί Theocr. 23, 51. σψραγϊ^5, 8cc. : κ\ηι$ (Ion. for icXecs) κ\ηι^$. 
Of polysyllables, βλεψαρίχ, κεραμίε, ιτλοκαμίε, pa^ayis, make gen. iBos in 
Attic Greek, l^os in Ionic and the common dialect. Aristophanes, how- 
ever, PhU. 544. has pa^ayitwy with ι long. The following have also 
ι short ; βο\ί$, ^ayis, aayU, BvpUy alyls, μηΧ^, κιγκΧΙί Arist. Fesp. 124• 
775. Αωρίί, ^μωΐ5, ^poics, μηyιSf Aacf, Nacs, XoXic/s, patronymics in is, 
as Θησηίί, ϊϊαγασηίί, feminine derivatives στρατηγίχ, α^\ητρ[$, and the 
parozytones and proparoxytones άσττΓδοί, ip'Qos, ΘέμίΒοε, rvpayyi^^s, 
&c. Kapi^os and piinlos had i long in the common dialect, in Attic ι 
short*", yefipilos, βαΒμίΙο$, have ι short in the older poets, e. g. Eur. 
Bacch. 696. Pind. Nem. 5, 3. in the later * long, e. g. Dionys. Perieg. 
946. 703. 

7) Those in ίθο$, as opyis -c0os, μέρμι$ Od, κ, 23. SyXts, ^eXXcs*. 

8) Those in ikos, φρίζ, βέμβιζ, πέρΕιζ^ σκάν^ιζ, 0οΐνί£, gen. <ρρΊκ6$, 
β€μβϊκο$, &C. On the contrary, θρίμκο$ (in Homer, but in the later 
poets, e. g. ApolL Rhod. 1, 24. θρή'Γκι^), χοίν^κοί, and where λ pre- 
cedes the termination, ijXiKes, iXlKos, kvXIkos', 

9) Those in cvos from nominatives in is or cv, θινό$, piyos, aicrlyos, 
yX^ryJiyos, Tpayjiyos, from Ois, pis or piy, aicrls, yXitrxiyy Ύραχίν. In 

»» Draco, p. 18,10, 19,12.47, 3. 51,6. M. p. 184,4. 518, 15. 
76,7. Etym. M. p. 109,45. 460, 55. • Draco, p. 10, 11. 34, 1. 

« Draco, p. 88, 13. ' Buttm. p. 169, note. 

** Draco, p. 23, 8 seq. 45, 11. 47, 8 Draco, p. 27, 1 seq. 44, 5 seq. 

12. Comp. p. 15,24. 96, 14. Etym. 93, 5 seq. 


136 Third Declension 

σταμΓν€σσιν Od• e\ 252. the ι is probably shortened on account of the 

10) Those in inos, as Iires Od. φ\ 395. plvos Od. e, 256. from ^/i^. 
On the contrary, vujtos Hes/Epy. 535. λιβός^ χέρνιβοί, xariiXi^s ArisU 
Ran, 5QQ. from ν/ψ, λ/ψ, χέ^>νίψ, κατ^λιψ, have ι short. 

11) Those in ιχο(, ψ/ξ ψϊχ<$«• to which belongs the Doric ορνίχοκ^ 
'from of>Fc£, for opy'SoSf opvis. 

Of those in vyor, icoicicvyof from κόκκυξ, alone has ν long. Of those 
in vdosf ^ayv^s from layvs alone occurs in Theocr, 2, 110. Of those 
in v0os, i:b»/Lii;( κωμΰθοε alone has ν long Τλ^οοτ. 4, 16. Kopvs KopuBoSf 
V short**. 

12) Those in vkos, as ioiivKos, KiipvKos, K//vicos, βόμβνκο^, from &>/$«{» 
ic$f>v£, Κήί/ξ, βόμβυξ ; but άμπνκοί, κάΚύκοί^ "B^vkos, from &/Liirv(, raXv£, 
"£/>»{. In Βέβρυκ€$ ν is chiefly long, but short in Theocr. 22, 29. 77. 
91. 110. and ^|)o//. Rhod. 2, 98 «. 

13) Those in vvos^ from vv or vs, e. g. ψόρκϋνο^, μ6σσννο$• 

14) Those in viros in the monosyllable yvi// To^c^r, with which ypv 
v6s may also be reckoned, according to Virg, EcL 8. 27. Jungentur 
jam gryphes equis. 

Ob$, 2. The quantity of the vowel in the gen. is usually the same 
as in the nom. as opvls, 6ρνιΘο$. According to this analogy perhaps 
Οψιν Msch. Choeph, 925. kovis and κόνιν SuppL 796, 195. are used 
with long final syllables'. But even in this respect there are varieties. 
Monosyllables have a long vowel in the nominative, but shorten it in 
the genitive, as πνρ πϋρόί, avs, σύοί. So from \U (or \is according to 
Aristarchus) Callimachus had λ /es, λ/εσι with ι short Ε ίψη,Μ. p. 567, 9. 
The words whose genitive i^os has ι long, have i short in the nom. as 
κνημΤί, κρηττΓε, βα\βί"{, &c, ' The termination vos has ν short, but the 
nominatives in vs are generally long. Of φοίνιξ, κηρνξ see §. 22. Obs. 3. 

§.73. 1. In the dative case the i, which» after the rejection of S 
or T, is preceded by a vowel, is often written under the pre- 
ceding vowel, or contracted with it, e. g. /ια^τι for /ΐΑητιϊ //. φ', 
316. θέτι //. σ, 407. "Ισι for "Ισιδι or "Ισα Herodot. 2, 69. 
Δί for Διΐ PiW. OL 13, 149. yfipf for γιραϊ, γηρατι^. 

• Draco, p. 81, 4. •* Blomfield ad 5isch. Prom. 11 20. 
•* Draco, p. 33, 22. 40, 11. Etym. • Draco, p. 47, 14. 

M. p. 532, 4. 'Fisch. 1. p. 410. Herman, de 

* Draco, p. 27, 23 seq. 56, 1 seq. Em. Gr. Gr. p. 49. 

Third Declension. 137 

2. In the accusativei words in cci vc, avc and ovc» when a 
vowel precedes oc, the termination of the genitive takes ν instead 
of a, at least in Attic, e. g. πολιν, fiivv, ναΰν, βουν. The ter- 
minations vc and 7q have always ν ν 7v, μΰc μνν, SpSv, συν, υν, 
Χΐν. In the Ionic writers, evpea also occurs U. β', 159. aSea 
Theocr. 20, 44• ιχθνα idr, 21, 45. and frequently vea Od. i, 
283. \ρόα, from χ /oooc xpovc, is more commonly used than 
γροΰν. Other words which have a consonant befoire the ter- 
mination of the genitive, have^ 1) if the last syllable is not ac- 
cented, α and v, the latter particularly in the Attic dialect, e. g. 
opvu; όρνιθα Eur, Iph, A, 609. Att. opviv; also icXecc icXecSa 
Att. kXcIv^, χίριο χίριτα Herod. 9, 107. Eur. EL 61. 
HeL 1398. Att. χάριν, epic epiSa (iZ. γ', 7.) and epiv^. γέλωι;, 
commonly γέλωτα, poet, γέλων Eur. Ion. 1 199. Άναχίρσιία 
and Αναχαρσιν Lucian. Scytha. So the compounds of irovc, 
βοα^ύπουα βραίυποία, Att. βροΒνπουν, OHiwovQ O'lHwoSa, 
Att. OlSlwovv^ ouSo Theocr. 1, 9. olV ib. 11. 2) If the 
accent is on the last syllable of the nominative, they always 
have a, e. g. eXiriQ eXwiSoc eXmSa, πατρϋα, w6Sa. Later 
poets said also vaiv, SacV, the .^Solians κΧάϊν, κναμιν, σφραγίν, 
or more correctly κναμιν, σφράγιν, Charob. in Bekk. Anecd. 
p. 1207. For Αύλ/δο Eur. Iph. A. 121. 350. has Αυλιν, for 
aifnSa Hes.''Epy. 424. αφιν. Adjectives compounded with eXwlc, 
warpicj which draw back the accent, as AeXviCf φιΧόττατριο, 
have V, although the radical words make in the accusative 
φροντίδα, νατρίία, ελπίδα. 

Oht. Sometimes in the accusative of words in v, the syllable ya is 
omitted, e. g. 'Air($XXw for 'Απόλλωνα Xen. Anab. 3, 1, 6^. Ιίοσ€ΐΙω 
for Ποσβέ^ωνσ, as the Attics and Dorians said^. Homer, Od. κ\ 290. 
316. has jcviceJ for κυκεώνα, which Thorn. M. recommends as pure Attic, 
p. 557. «5t V. Interpr. ; also ι^ρώ for ΙΙρώτα II. λ\ 620. which remained 
Attic S particularly in έλοσσω for ελάσσονα, and all comparatives in ων. 
JEschylus said αιώ for αΐωνα^. Ίχω for ιχωρ is found IL e, 416. 

3. In the vocative the c is rejected a) from words in eve, m {. 74. 

«Thom. M. p. 536. Herodian. J Thorn. M. p. 96. Fisch. 9. p. 194. 
Pierson, p. 467. Moeris, p. S30. Koen ad Gregor. p. (70 seq.) 164. 

^ Fisch. 1. p. 411. ^ Gregor. p. (71) 165. (149)308. 

Fiscb. 1. p. 411. 9. p. 182. > Moeris, p. 302. 

" Koen ad Greg. p. (142) 308. 

138 Third Declension. 

and vc, and from those in (ovc and) aic, e. g. βασιλβν, Π ape, v6\i 
§. 80. Obs. 4. ΊαΒυ, πρεσβυ Aristoph. Ach. 1226. yew Eur. 
ilfic/r. 1184. va7, ywai {τοχη γυναιξ. So y ραΰ Arist. Ly 8. 7 97. 
αναξ has in the vocative ava, yet only in addressing a deity• 
ΟΐΒίτΓου is found Soph. (Ed. T. 405. Col. 550. Eur. Phm. 
1628. for OiSlwovQ, which is more common^. IlXaicou and 
βου are also mentioned^ but without authority. 

b) Words also in ac and €CC| which arise from avQ and ei^, 
and have optoc and evroc in the genitive, throw away c and 
resume v, Alav, Qoav, τάλαν. Εν/ουβάμαν from Alceeus, Bekk. 
Anecd. p. 1 183. Yet we find ΤΙουΧυίάμα II. v. 751 . Λαοδα /ua 
Od.ff, 141. 153. as'^ArXac, "Άτλα. The participles in ac, 
and some others, have the termination of the nom. in the voc., 
and generally the Attics make the voc. like the nom. 

c) Words which have ω or i| in the termination of the no- 
minative, and are not oxytones, take in the vocative instead of 
the long vowel of the nominative, the corresponding short one, 
particularly if it enter also into the genitive, e. g. μητβρ, κνον, 
τΧημον, Ιασον, κτίστορ, αυτόκρατορ, Tlo\vveiK€Ci Σώκρατ€«• 
Participles in ων keep ω, Etym. Μ. ρ. 226, 43. Oxytones 
keep the long vowel : χβλιδόν, Πόσβιδον is given by Greg. 
p. (93) 209. (279) 595. as iBolic firom χελίίων, Ποσβϋων 
according to the iBolic accentuation. Σα/οττηδον //. e', 633. 
seems to come from Έ,αρπηίων *ovtoc. Some throw back the 
accent at the same time, e. g. avep, Saep, πάτερ, from ανηρ, 
Safip, ττατηρ. A few also have the short vowel, although the 
genitive has the long vowel, e. g. σωτηρ σωτηροα, voc. σώτβ/ο. 
"^ΑίΓολλον, from ΆίΓολλωι/ 'wvoc. Proper names in jcX^c make 
icXeic in the vocative ; for the nominative was properly -icXefic, 
consequently the vocative -jcXeec, contracted -jcXecc, e. g. Ήρσ- 
ifXeic, Nc/co/cXecc. 

Obs. The iEolians reject s in the vocative, e. g. Σωκρατ€, *Αριστ6ψαν€^ 

d) Words in ω and ωc make oc, e. g. Ai^roi, Σαπφοΐ, aiSoc^. 

* Reisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. (£d. ^ Fisch. 1. p. 413 sq. 

C. 550. Elmsl. ad CEd. T. 405. CEd. « Fisch. 1. p. 414. 

C. 557. 

Third Declension. 139 

4. In the genit. dual the poets use oiiv for ocv, e. g. Σειρη- 
vom Od. μ, 62. ir^Souv Hes» Sc. H. 168. 

6• The Ionic gemtive plural often ends in ewv, μυριαίέων 
Herod. 8• 71. θεμιστίων Hes. Th^ 235. χιινέων, aifSpewv, 
ΈϋΧωτεων, χιλιαβέωμ in Herodotus, where the e is interpolated^ 
as in €Κ€ΐν€ων §• 69. Obs. δ. But for Sv, e. g. αίγα ν Theocr. 
δ. 148 (β), κρανιαίαν Id. I, 22. θηραν Find. Isthm. 4, 78. 
Eurip. Hel. 386• we now read κρανιάΐων, θηρύν. 

The dative plural appears to have been formed originally $.75. 
from the nominative plural, by annexing the syllable σι, or the 
vowel i ; so that in the neuter, instead of a, ec was considered 
the termination. This form occurs with a single a, ανάκτβσι 
Ckl. ο, 656. xeipeaill.v, 468. π, 704. ίρ€σι II. φ\ΐ91. 
SaiTv/iove^i Her. 6, 57. without various reading (4^ 43. 8» 61. 
ξΚΟΒ MS. has μηνβσι; 7, 224. two τλβόκεσι) παντεσι Bacchyh 
αψ• Stob. 98. Grot, Fr. vi. Were the form even more rare, we 
might assume it, as is often done in grammar^ to explain the 
common origin of various forms. To this form that with m 
9tande in the same relation as οσσον to όσον, &c. • The double 
β lemained in use among the lonians, Dorians .and .£k>Uans^, 
e• g• κοων lAvec jcv^ev-tfiy //• a, 4. θνγατέρεσ-σιι^ //. ο , 197. 
«aiSetf-ffi, yeipea^ai, ανδ/οεβ'-σι, πολίεσ-σι, ίιπΓηεσ-σί*. Niipeir 
8e<r-9i Find. Isthm. 6, 8. comp. 8, 93. 1, 27. nrepvyea^i id. 
Isthm. 1, 90. αγκώνεσ-σι id. Nem, 5, 76. HaveXXfive^-ai 
Isthm. 4, 49. παΧαισμάτεσ-σι Fyth. 8,48. σω/ιάτεσ-σι ib. 118. 
When two e came together there arose three forms, in €€σσι, 
€σσι and eai, e. g. βέλεα (βέλεεο) βελέεσσι //. ε', 622, 8cc. 
ββλεσ-σι //. α, 42, 8cc. βέλεσι Od. τγ', 277. επεα (eneec) 
eirccwt Π. δ', 137,&c. Theocr. 1, 35. ειτεσσι Od. 8', 597, &c. 
evreot II. a , 77, &c• εσι remained in the later dialects. 

In the form with a single σ the e preceding the σ was omitted, 
e. g. δειταεσσ»^ δεπαεσιν δέιτασιι/, θηρεσσι Οηρεσι θηρσί, σω- 
τίιρσι, yaarripai, except in words in ηc and oq (vid. Obs.), and 
the consonant immediately before σι was changed, according to 
the rules of euphony, viz. 8 θ τ ν ΐ'τ were omitted before σ, 

' Koen ad Gregor. p. (154) 335. * Fisch. 1. p. 416 seq. 

V. Koen (387) 610. 


140 Third Declensiofi. 

ιτόίεσσι 11. e, 599. {Find. Nem. 10, 1 1$. comp. Isthm. 1, 27.) 
πο^€σι ποσΐ, ορνιθβσσι Π. ρ, 757• (ορνίθεσι ορνιθσι) ορνΊσι 
IL η, 59. with C long, φρένεσσι Find, Isthm. 3, 9. {φρίνβσι 
φρενσί) ψρεσι. ιταντεσσι (τταντβσι ιταντσι) ττασι. icvvcaai 
II. α\ 4. {κυνεσι κυνσί) κυσι II. μ, 303. τ^μεν^σσι Find. Nem. 
5. 138. ^αιμόν€σσι Isthm. S, 49. &c. commonly τ€μ€ν€σι, Sai- 
μοσι. Even after the shortening the poets use the double σ, 
^βπασσιν H. ο , 86. ν€κν€σσι in Homer, νβκυσιν in the Attics, 
ν€κυσσιν Od. λ', 568. χ', 401. Ι,ρισσι Π. λ', 27. θέ/χισσιι^ 
Find. Fyth. 4, 96. (Χα/οίτ6σσ& Fyth. 9, 3.) Χα/οισσιμ Nem. 6 
extr. The quantity in the dative plur. was regulated by the 
quantity in tlie rest of the oblique cases, and the nominative 
plural. Hence jcreic, in the dative plur. does not make Kreurc, 
but κτβσι, from nomin. plur. icrei^ec; irouc, not πονσι, but νοσΐ, 
from iroSec; δαίμων δαίμονες ^αίμοσι, Spvc Spvec ίρυσί. If there- 
fore, after the rejection of the consonants yr before σι, the fore- 
going syllable is short, the doubtful vowels a, i, and v, become 
long, e. g. ΊΓασι^ Γιγασι, ΖΙευγ^νσι, or αέ is changed in words in 
avc into αν, ypaec ypavc ypavai, νανσί, and from ε and ο are made 
the diphthongs ei {ev in words in eve) and ov, e. g. τυφθεντεα 
(τνφθέντβσσι τυφθέντεσι τνφθεντσι) τυφθΛσι, iwireec Ιππίεσι 
Imreai ίππενσι, Awpieec Αωριεεσσι Theocr. 15, 93. Awpieai 
Δωριενσι, εκόντεσι €«:όντσι εκονσι. χ^ρ<^ί for yeipeaai has 
originated from the Ionic-Attic form χβί/ο χβ/οοο, v. §. 106^. 

When β π φ or y κ \ precede the termination σι, they are 
contracted with the σ which follows, into the double consonants 
}p and ξ, e. g. ''Apafiec Άράβεσι Αραφι, aiyec aiyeai αιξ'ι, 
fie/oorec μεροπεσι μεροφι, KopaKcc κορακ€σι κοραζι, rpiyec 
τρίχεσι θριζι. 

Of those which do not reject e before σι, some change the faint 
€ into the more sonorous a, e. g. warepec (πατέ/οεσι, per syncopen 
varpeai) πατράσι, avSpec ανίρεσσι {avSpeai) ανίρασι. γασ- 
τηρσι Hipp, de Morb. 4, 27. γαστρασι Dio Cass. 54, 22. So 
also μητράσι, Bvyarpaai, αστρασι, υΐασι II. ε , 463. and else- 
where. Soph. Antig. 571. from vie, vloc, for υιίσι, not from νιενο. 

* Herodian. Herm. S06. xv. There regularly in the grammariaDS. See 
is an exception in ψωνη€σι from φω- Apollon. ir. συντ. p. 6. 7. 8. Schaef. 
yficyrcs Plat. Crat. p. 393. D. and adGreg.p.678.andinfr.§. 121.0bs.l. 

Third Declension. 141 

Obs. 1 . The Dorians declined the dative plural of substantives in 
evs in ivi, e. g. βασιλέσι, Αωριέσί^, In the common language also 
ίρομ€ν£ makes ^μέσι, not δρομενσι. 

Obs, 2, Words in η£ and os, which have in the nominative plural ee^, 
or its equivalent in declension ea, reject only an e, e. g• aXiyOeef άλΐ|- 
diaif T€i\€a τ€ΐ•χέ€σσι (-έβσι) Γβ/χβσι. 

Obs, 3. In regard to the accent it is to be observed, 

1) Dissyllable and polysyllable nouns keep the accent upon the syl- 
lable on which the nominative had it, unless the nature of the accent 
requires a transposition, e. g. jcopo^ icopojcof , but κοράκων ; iXwU έλπ/5οί. 
The long vowel then receives the circumflex, κνημίχ κνημ'ιΒο$ κνημΊΒας; 
and so the adjectives and participles oxytone in the feminine receive 
the circumflex upon the penult, ^Svs ή^εΓα, rerv^ws rerv^vTa. 

Exceptions : a) γνκή (yviOiQ, γνναικό$, γνναικί, γννάικα, γνναΐκ€ε^ 
γυναικών, b) oh^eU, ohSevoSf ov^eW, ohdiva, c) In paroxytones in -lyp 
-epos the full form has the accent on the e, μητέρο$^ θνγατέροί, ^ημη•- 
TipoSf but the syncopated follows the rule 2. 

2) Monosyllables in the gen. and dat• of all numbers throw the ac- 
cent on the termination of case, μίιν μηνό$ μηνί, θήρ Θηρ6$ Θηρί^ φλέφ 
ψΧββόβ f\efii, but in the ace. sing. nom. and ace. dual, and plur. μήνα 
μην€ μην€$ μηνα$, θήρα θηρ€ Θήρ€£ Θηραε, ψλέβα φ\έβ€ ifXifieff 
φΚέβαε. The terminations -οιν and -ων receive Uie circumflex, μηνοϊν 
μηνών^ ΟηροΙν θηρών, ψλεβών, except πά$ παντόβ παντί, but gen. pi. 
τακτών, dat• ιτασι. 

So words in ^ηρ, when syncopated, take the accent in the gen. and 
dat• sing, on the last syllable, aviip avipos avSpoSf πατήρ iraripos 
warpoSf μητρόί, θυγατρόβ. άνήρ and θνγάτηρ in the ace. sing, and nom• 
ace plur. on the penult and antepenult, avBpa, av^pes, av^pas. θύγατρα, 
diryarpes ; in the gen. plur. in ων, άντρων, θυγατρών, πατρών ; in the 
dat• plur. in a, πατράσι, άν^ράσι (but άν^ρεσσι), μητράσι, θυγατράσι (but 
θυγατέρ€σσι). ^ημήτηρ throws the accent back not only like θνγάτηρ in 
the syncopated ace. voc. sing., but also in the gen. and dat. Αήμητροί, 
ά,ήμητρι, Αήμητ€ρ, 

Exceptions : a) Monosyllabic participles which keep the accent on 
the same syllable throughout, 6e/s θέντοί, trras στάντοϊ, Ιου% ^ovtos, 
Αν ovtou b) Some of diose which have become monosyllabic by con- 
traction, e. g. ηρ (from lap) ηρο$, κηρ (from ιτέαρ) κηρο$, but Οργί^ 
Θρ4ζ, OpfjjKOs from Θρή'ικο$, στηρ στητοί from στέατοε, and others. 

^ Gregor. p. (154 seq.) 3SS. 


Third Declenrion. 

c) The gen. plur. of irais, θώ$, 6 ίμω^, 6 TpJc» το ψωκ, ii φ^$, ^ S^*» ^ 
vSsf and iroc πάσα πάν, which are paroxytones, consequcaitly νΐΐί^ων, 
θίίωρ, Ζμύων^ Τρ Jwv> ψ*ίτων, ψ^ων, l•^^^, &των, πάντων, probably to 
dbtinguish them from ^μωών (βμνίι\ Τρωών (Τρώα/), or because several 
of them have become monosyUabic by contraction, as frais, taUf φψ£ 
from iraU, ^atsf ψωΐί, τ6 ψωε from ψάο$, o3s from ovot• The Dorians, 
however, accented παι^ών, Ύρωών^ παντών\ d) In the full datives 
plur. in eat and €σσι the accent is placed on the antepenult ; e. g. &v- 
^ρ€σσι, θνγατέρ€σσι^ άνάκτ€σι, waiStaif &c• 

5-76. EXAMPLE. 

1. Simplest Declension. 


Norn, ο θηρ * the wild beast \ 
Gen. τον Oiyp— oc 
Dat. τψ θηρ — i 
Ace. TOM Ofip^^a 
Voc. θηρ 

Nom. Ace. τώ θηρ — e 
Gen• Dat. τοΐν θηρ — oiv 

Nom. οί θηρ — cc 
Gen. των θηρ — ων 
Dat. TOic (θηρεσσι, θηρ — eai) θηρσι 
Ace. τούίϊ θηρ — ac• 
Voc. θηρ — ec. 

2. Declensions with the rejection of the consonant before σι 
in the dative plural. 

a) termination α i v. 


Nom. TO σώμα * the body*. 
Gen. του σω/ϋα•— toc 
Dat. τω σωμα^—Ύΐ 
Ace. TO σώμα 
Voc. σώμα 

* Greg. p. (146) 317. c. n. Schaefer. 
Comp. Koen. ib. p.(144seq.) 314. 

TO /leXi * the honey*, 
του /tieXi— Toc 
τψ μέλι — Ti 
TO μάλι 

Bekk. Anecd. p. 581, 81. 99. 

Third Declension. 143 

Nom. Ace. τώ σώ /ua— T€ τω fieXi— τ€ 

Gen. Dat. τοΐν σωμά — tcmv to?v /ιβλί — τοιν 


Nom. TO σώμα— τα τα fieXi— τα 

Gen. των <τω/4α— των των μ€\ί — των 

Dat. TOIC σώμα — σι ToTc μεΧι — σι 

(from σωματ€σι, σωματσι) 

Ace. τα σώμα — τα τα /licXi— το 
Voc. σώμα — τα. fieXc— — τα. 

Nom. το γονυ 
Gen. του γον — otoc 

Ace. το γόνυ 
Voc. γονυ 

τψ γον — ατι 

Nom. Ace. τω γον — ατ€ 
Gen. Dat. τοϊν γον — ατοιν 




TO γον — ατα 


των γον — ο των 
TOIC γον — οσι " 
τα γον — ατα 
γον— ατα. 


b) termination ν ρ ς(ξ\Ρ) 



ο μην * the month'. ο ιτοιμ^ν 


του μην — 0C του ποι /ti — evoc 


Ty μην — ι τφ ποι/4 — evi 


τον /ijv— α τον TToi/i — Ινα 


μην ποιμην 



Ace, τω μην — € τώ iroif* — eve 


Dat. τοΐν μην — οΐν τοϊν iroifi — ένοιν 

^ γονάΓ€9σι Theocr. 16. 11. Of γο^ασι see §. Μ. Obs. 3. 


Third Declension. 


Nom. ol μην — €c 

Gen. των μην — ων 

Dat• Tocc (jATiveai) μη — σι 

Acc• Tovc μην — aQ 
Voc. fiii^— €C. 

Of iroi/i — ev€Q 
των ΊΓΟίμ — ίνων 
Toic ΤΓΟίμ — €σι 
TOVQ ποι /i — evoc 
woifi — evec 


Nom. fi yj£ip * the hand '. 

Gen. ric yeipoQ. 

Dat. TV χβψί (χε/ο/ II. ff, 289, &c. Eur. Or. 271.) 

Acc. την y/ipa {ykpa Eurip. Ion. 132.) 

Voc. χε/ρ 

Nom. Acc. τα χειρε 

Gen. Dat. ταιν (χ€ΐρο7ν Soph. El. 1394. Solon. El. v. 60.) 


Nom. ac ^€c/oec 
Gen. TcJy γ^ιρων 
Dat. Taic (χβί/οβσσι //. γ, 271, &c. So;)A. iln/. 1297. -Et/r. 

Ale. 772. doubtfiil. χβί/οεσι //. υ, 468. Od. ο', 461. 

yepeaai Hesiod. Th. 247.) χβ/οσι 
Acc. Tac 'χείρας 
Voc. χειρβί. 

yepoCf xepif yepa, γέρων, ykpac, are quite as common in the 
tragic writers as ^ec/ooc, 8cc. After the model of yelp χειρός, 
is declined φθείρ, only that this has φθειρσί in the dat. plur., 
not φθερσί. 


ο γ/γαο ' the giant*, 
του γιγ — αντος 
τω yiy — αντί 
τον yiy — αΐ'τα 
Nom. Acc. τώ Xeoy τε τω yiy — αντ€ 

Gen. Dat. τοϊν Χεον—τοιν τοιν γιγ — άντο»'. 

Nom. ο λέων ' the lion'. 
Gen. του Χεον — toc 
Dat. τφ Χεον — τι 
Acc. τόμ λέον— τα 
Voc. λεομ 

Third Declensian, 


Cen. των λεοντών 

Dat. TOiQ Xe — ουσι 

Ace. rove λέ — ovrac 
Λ^οο. λέομτεο. 

Norn, ό παΐι; ' the boy*. 

Gen. του τται — Soc 

Dat. ry πα* — Si 

Ace. Tuv irot — Sa 
Voc. irai 

Nom« Ace. τω τταΐ — Se 
Gen. Dat. τοΐΐ' ira/ — Soiv 


Oi γίγ— avrec 
TcITi/ γιγ— αΐ'τωι/ 
ToTc (γιγ — avTcai, γ/γ- 
αντσι) yty — ασι 
rove γ/γ — avroc 
γιγ — avrei;. 



Nom. Of iracSec 
Gen. των iral — δω ν 
Dat. Tocc (παι^€σσι, iralSeai) παισι 
Ace. Tovc irai — Sac 
πα7 — Sec 


Nom. ο κόράξ 
Gen. τοί? κόρα — koc 
Dat. τω κόρα — κι 
Ace. τον κόρα — κα 
Voc. κόραξ 



Nom. Acc• τω κόρο — ice 
Gen. Dat. roiv κόρα — ^icocv 


Nom. oi Kopa — icec 
Gen• των κόρα- — κων 
Dat• To?c Kopa — ξι 
Acc• Touc Kopa — Kac 
Voc. κόρα — icec. 

VOL. I. 

146 I%ird Deckmion. 

δ•77• 3. Declension^ in which the € originating from f| is rejected» 

Nom. ό ψτατηρ 

Gen. του irarepoi; (Od, λ , 500.) warpoc 
Dat. τψ varepi {TL e', 156.) varpi 
Ace. τον πατέρα 
Voc. warep 

Nom. Ace. τώ varkpe 
(Jen. Dat. τοΐν varepoiv 

Nom. ol varepec 

Gren• τωμ πατΙ/οων (rarely πατρων Od* δ', 687. β', 245.) 
Dat. τοις (ιτατέ/οεσσι) πατράσι §. 75. 
Ace• Tovc varkpaQ 
Voc. warepec• 


Nom. ό ανηρ 

Gen. του avepoc (iZ. γ', 61, &c.) avS/ooc §. 72. 

Dat. T^ ai/e/oc (//• π , 516, &c.) ai^Spc 

Ace. τον avepa (/?. v, 131.) avSpa 

Voc. avep 


Nom. Ace. τώ avepe {IL λ , 328.) avSpe 
Gen. Dat. τοΐν ανίροιν, avSpoTv 


Nom. oc av€p€Q {IL €, 861, See.) avSpec 

Gen. των ανερων^ ανδρών 

Dat. Tocc (ανερεσσι ανδ/οβσσι //• e, 874, &x;. αν^Μΐσ#ι 

//. ρ', 308.) avSpiun 
Ace. Totic avepac {II• a, 262, &c.) avSpac 
Voc• avepec, avSpec• 

After πατίιρ are declined ^ μντηρ, ν γαστηρ (which in the 
dative plural makes γαστ^ρσι and yaarpiun §. 76.), Διι^ι^τιτρ, 
θυγατηρ, , The two latter often occur syncopated throughoul;, 
e. g. Arιμητpoc for Αημητέροα Π. β, 696, &c. ϋκη^. il/c. 369. 

Third Declension, 


Suppl. 173, &€. /^τιμητρα Hymn. "Horn, in Cer. Eurip, SuppL 
362. This accuealive afterwards served for a new form of 
the nominative Δίτιμητρα, Δ^ημητρα^ Δ^τιμητραν Plat. CratyL 
21. Apollod. 1, 5, 1. 2*. Bvyarpa for Ovyarepa II. a, 13. 
96. 372. &c. Ovyarpec II. 2Γ, 238. i', 144. 286. χ, 155. 
OvyarpSv II. β^, 7 16. γ,124. ίΤ, 252. v,366,&c. Tothis 
head belong also the forms apvic, apvi, plur. apvec» αρνάσι 
{apveamv II. v\ 352.) from APHN, apevoc. So vliat dat. 
plur. §. 89. 

4. Contracted declension. 

a. The termination ^Q and oc. 


Nom. -η τρήιρηα 
Gen. t5c rpiripeoc 
τρ τρίΎίρα 
την rpiripea 







TO τβίχοο 

του τβίχβοι;, reiypva 
τψ τειχεϊ, τβ/χβι 
το τβϊχοο 

τώ τείχββ, τβίχιι 
τοΤΐ' τ€ΐχ€οιν, τβιχοΐν 

τα τε/χεα, τείχη 
των τειχέων, τβίχών 
TOic τείχεσι 
τα τείχεα, τείχη. 


Ν. Α• το rpifipee τριήρη 
G. D. ταΐΐ' τριηρβοιν τρνηροΐν 


Nom. α! Tpifipeec rpiripeiQ 

Gen. τΛ τριηρβων τριηρών 
Dat. Tacc Tpiripeai 

Acc. Tac Tpiripeac τριηρ^ια. 

Obi. 1. Like τριίιρη$ are declined also proper names which are not 
patronymics, e. g. 6 Swicpanjc, Αημοσθένη$. Yet these have sometimes 
the accusative according to the first declension, roy Σωκράτην^ τ6ν 
^ΑκησΘένην, τον Άριστοψάνην Elmsl, ad Soph. (Ed. C, 875. 

Ohs. 2. The dative of σνέοί is σπηι IL σ\ 4 ; the dative plural 
9τέσ9ΐ Od. a\ 15. 73. &c. and σιτήεσσι Od. i\ 141. the gen. sing. 
aweiovs Od, i\ 141. from the form mreios Od, e', 194. The η has 
iriaen firom the double e, as Ήρακληο». 

* VaQ,Staveren ad Hygin. f. 147. Dind. Scbaef. App. Dem. p. 308. 
Dohree ad Arisl. Plut. p. 61. ed. 

L 2 


148 Third Declension• 

Obs, 8, The Dorians and lonians, in the genitive, use the contraction 
€vs for ovs; from θάρσο$ Homer has IL p\ 57 S. θάρσενχ for Oapaeos, 
θάρσουί Od, ω, 394. θάμβ€υ% for 6a|i/3eos, yivevs Od, ο\ 5SS, σάιτενν 
Hes. Sc. 334. 460. So "Αριστοφάν€ν$ Pind. Nem. 3, 35. Εύμή^υε 
Theocr. δ, 134. χείλενε 7, 20. opevs tb. 46. eipevs 9, IS. 

0&«. 4. The £olians in the genitive and vocative omit s, e. g. Σω- 
κράτους Σωκρατ€, Hence in Latin Pericles Cic. Off. 1, 40, 8. with 
Heusinger's note. 

Obs. δ. The contraction in the dual ee into η is found in Arista 
Thesm, 24. Peic. 820. τώ σκέλη. Thesm, 28£. ω vepiKoXKfj Βίσμο^ 
ψόρω^ and so it must be for the sake of the metre Av, 368. ζνγγέ^η 
for ίνγγένεβ. Plat. PoUt. p. 258 C. Rep. 9. p. 572 A. δνο €ΐ^η. 
Rep. 8. p. 547 B. ίκατέρω τώ γένη. This is acknowledged also as a 
regular contraction by Choeroboscus, Bekk. Anecd. p. 1190, 8. On 
the contrary, PoUt. p. 260. A. we find τούτω τω γένββ (MS, αρ. Bekk. 
p. 313. γένε), and in an inscription published by Chandler, ii. 4. 
(Bceckh Publ. Econ. Inscr. No. 12. a.) κατωρ€^€ δνο, τω σκεΚε^ τω fci/yc, 
which are more probably for σκέλεε, fevyec, than for σκέλει, ζεϋγει. 
Comp. Choerob. ap. Bekk. Anecd. p. 1130. 1190. 8. 1205. Buttmann 
Larger Gr. p. 187. Bceckh Publ. Econ. 2, 293. 

Obs. 6. If a vowel precedes ea, it is contracted only into a, not into 
17, e. g. ro γρέα Plat, Rep. 7. p. δ 55 D. from χρέοε, κΧέα (κλεΐα Hes. 
Th. 100.) firom icX^os*, for χρέεα, κΧέεα. In tKe Attics this a, as 
originating in contraction, appears to be long, as Arist. Nub. AiAiZ. in 
the epic poets who rejected one e, short, as Apollon. Rh. 1,1. 4, 36• 
Analogous in all respects are the abbreviations ^νσκλέα, άκΚέα §. 113. 
Obs. 1. £α is made one syllable Hes.''Epy. 150. 

Obs. 7. The contracted form is Attic : yet the Attics frequently do 
not use the contraction in the genitive plural. Thus τριηρεων Xen. H. 
Gr. 1, 4, 11. but τριηρών Thuc. 6, 46. ορέων Xen. Anab. 4, 3, 1. 
Cyrop. 3, 2, 1. ορών Plat. Leg. 8. p. 833 B. In particular they did not 
say ανθών firom avBos^ but ανθέων^ because ανθών might easily have 
been confounded with tlie participle from άνθέω, or with avff ύν^. 

Obs. 8. Like τριηρη$ are also declined the proper names compoimded 
with κ\έη%, Ίίρακ\έη$ Ήραιτλ^ί, θεμιστοκΧηχ^ TlepucKfjSf ΝεοκΧηε. κΧέηχ 
is the Ionic, KXijs the Attic form. We find, however, 'ΗρακΧέηχ Eur. 
Here. F. 924. Ion. 1144. and elsewhere. 

* Thom. M. p. 864. p. 456. Koen ad Greg. p. (175) S80. 

^ Herodian. Herm. p. 304. Piers. Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 399. 

Third Declemion. i49 

Nona. — KkknCf icX5c. 

Gen. — icXeoc Ion. ('H/oaicXeoc Herod. 7, 200• 204. θε/αιστο- 
jcAeoc id. Ί, 143. The terminatioii icXeoc in the tra- 
gedians should probably always be changed into icXe- 
ouc*. Ήροκλ^οα always in Homer; also Eur• HeracL 
542. but doubtful, θ€μ^στoκ\ηoc Herod. 8, 63.) 
Attic KXeovQ (from icXeeoc Orph. Arg, 224. θβ^ιστο• 
KkeovQ Herod, 8, 61.). 

Dat. — κλβϊ Ion. (θβ/ιιστοκλέϊ Herod. 7, 144. ΉρακΧηϊ 
Od. ff, 224.) Att. kXcI and kXcci, as it should always 
be in the tragedians instead of -κλέϊ. See Pors. L c. 

Ace. — icXeo (Ion. κληα, as θ€/ιιστοκλ5α Herod. 8, 67. 61. 
79. rarely κλη, e. g. Ήρακλη Soph. Track. 476. 
Ρ/αΛ Phadon. p. 89 C.) TAeocr. 13, 73. has Ηρά- 
κλειων. The form 'κ\ηρ occurs only in later writers**. 

Voc. — icXeec (θεμιστόκΧεεο Herod. 8, 59. 'H/oaicXeec Eur. 
Herc.F. 175.) — icX€ic*,inlater prose writers "HpaicXec 
as an exclamation. 

The genitive -icXouc which is found in the common grammars, 
does not occur, yet ChoBroboscus quotes Σωκλονο» ITpofcXovc, 
Bekk. Anecd. p. 1188. Plato Theat. p. 169 B. has Ήρά- 
xXeec, nom. plur. 

The accusative -icXea has a long a, as 'EreoicXea Soph. 
Ant. 23. 194'. 

b. The termination ω and ωο, gen. ooc. The singular only $•79. 
of this is used ; the dual and plural are taken from the form v^v 
oc, according to the second declension ; e. g. toc eiKovQ Arist. 
Nub. 559. but for the most part these substantives, from their 
signification, admit of no plural. 

Nom. fi aiSwc * shame'. ^ ι?\ώ 

Gen. t5c aiSooc, aiSouc t5c riyooCy ηχουα 

Juat. rp aiooc, acooc rp ηχοι^ nyoi 

Ace. την acSoa, αιδώ τϊίν ιιχόα, ΐ|χώ 

Voc. acSoi. ίχο?. 

1. In the same manner are declined 17 ιγώο ' the davni', ^ 
Τ6ΐθώ ' persuasion', and the proper names Αι^τώ, ^airt^. The 
uncontracted form seldom occurs even in the Ionic writers. 

' Pors. ad Eur. Med. 675. * Porson ad £υήρ. Med. p. 449. 

^ Thom. M. p. 433. Phryn. p. 156. ' Valck. ad Eur. Ph. 1358. 


150 Third Declension. 

2. The lonians made the accusative in ouv, e. g. r^v 'lovv 
Herod. 2, 41. Αΐ|τοί;μ id. 2, 166. κακ€στοΰν, οβιβστουν in 
Hesychius^• The .Soliane said Λατών (not Αοτων) Chctrob. 
Hort. Adon. p• 268. and Αότω according to the same author 
Bekk. Anecd. p. 1203. 

3. In the genitive, Pindar, Pyth. 4, 182, has Xapuckoic for 
Xa/oiKXovc(inBoeckhXap(jcXovc). Compare§.27. The-Eolians 
are said to have used wc for ovq, thus Α'χωα Mosch. 6. 1**. 

4. in the same manner are declined the Attic forms in ώ for 
ων, ovoCf 6. g. Topytu TopyovCf αηίω aiySouc Soph. AJ, 636. 
χελιδώ (χελιδο? voc• Anacr. Fr, Heph. p. 22.), άκω, for Γορ- 
yiiv, αηίων, χελιδών, €ΐκων, -ovoc^• See §• 89• 

δ. The accus. of nouns in ώ, though derived from όα, has 
not the circumflex but the acute, τήν ηχώ, την Αητώ^. 

c. The termination cc and c. 


ή iroXcc ' the city*. 


Gen. της iroXcoc, iroXeoc 
Dat. rg ΐΓολιϊ (iroAi), πόλεϊ 
Ace. την TToXcv 


Nom. Ace. TO iroXte, woXee 
Gen. Dat. raiv iroXiocv, ποΧίοιν 




Nom. at iroXcec, iroXeec 

Gen. των ττοΧίων, ποΧεων 

Dat. Taic ΐΓοΧισι, iroXeai 

Ace. ταα iroXcac, πoXεαc 




* Valck. ad Herod, p. 181. 8. 
Gregor. p. (200) 427. c. n. Sch. Fisch. 
1. p. 41 i. Schaef. Melet. in Dion. p.,9d. 

^ Dorville Vann. Cr. p. 461. 588. 
Τουρ. ad Longin. p. 391 seq. (945.) 

Bekk. Anecd. p. 1201. 

* Va]ck. ad £urip. Ph. p. 168. 
Fijch. 2. p. 174. 

<* Schol. ad 11. /3',262. Choerob. 
in Bekk. Anecd. p. 1203 seq. 

Third DeclensioH. 151 

Ion. Ait. 

Nom. TO σίνηπι * mustard'^. 

^""7 1 — T"" — ^ 

Gen. τον aivhwioc, acv^ireoc σινηπεωο 

Dat. T^ auniwu, σξνηπεϊ aii^irci 

Ace. TO σίνιιιη 


Nom• Ace. τώ σίνηπί€, σινηηεβ 

Gen. Pat. τοΐμ σινΐ|ΐτίο«Μ, σ(ΐ/ΐ}ΐΓ€οιν σιι^ηπε^^ 

Nom. τα σινηΊτια, aivfivea 

Gen. των σινηπίων, σινηπίωρ σινηπεων 

Dat. TOic συήιπισι, 9ΐνην€σί 
Ace. τα σινητηα, (τινή^βα• 

06«. 1. In the same manner are declined 6 μάντίί^ 6 i^is, fi Ιυναμι$^ 
4 στάσα» j^ ^νσα, ^ ^j3pU| 4 πράξιχ, &c. According to the old gram- 
marians ^ πόΧίοε froXii is the common dialect {koiv6v\ but voXeos voXel, 
with e Ionic. But in the Ionic and Doric writers the declension in i' 
in the genitive, nominative, accusative plural, is almost exclusively 
found ; rarely in e, e. g. π6Χ€ων II, e , 744. In the dative ei, ei or t 
is more frequent. The termination ηο$ also occurs in the genitive, and 
other cases, e. g. πόλΐ}ο« 0(i. C') 40. o',185. //. /3', 811. xiJXiy'i //. y, 50. 
In the Attic writers the form eos is found, though seldom ; as vfipeos 
ArUioph. Plut. 1045. woXeos Eurip. Hec 860. o^eos Suppl. 703. 1329*". 
KOyeos Eur. CtfoL 641. which the neuter requires instead of KOyews. 
From €os comes the Doric evs, voXevs Theogn. 754. Br. The form 
roXewc is frequently a dissyllable in the Attic poets, w — , and so //. β^ 
811. φ', 567. where some read ιτόΧηο^^ others ΐΓ6Χ€ω$ or voXeoSi or νάΧιο^ 
(as iroXcas Od. ff, 560.). 

Ohs. 2. The dative very frequently occurs in Ionic writers with a 
single i, long because contracted from ι c, e. g. θέτι II, σ , 407. μγιτι 
for fi^ru //. i//, 315. π<5λι flerod. 1, 105. 2, 30. Δ/ PtW. O/. 13, 149. 
Ιυνάμι Herod, 2, 102. δφι Herod. 2, 141. στάσι Herod. 7, 153. 
άνακρίσι 8, 69. Homer has always πόσεϊ II, e'^ 71. and πόσβι Od. Χ\ 
430. but in the gen. only νόσιοχ, and so ai^pei II. y\ 219'. We find 
in Herod, στάσζι 1, 150. 173. orpoirAec 1, 154. Ιννάμ^ι 1, 192. 

* Lobeck. ad Phryn. p. 288. ^ Fisch. 1. p. 405 seq. 

' Gregor. p. (186) 401 seq. ' Eust. II. y , p. 407, 38. Schol 

I Fisoh. 1. p. 406. Ven. II. y , 919. 

152 Third Declension. 

Obs. S. Instead of the accusative in ly, the fonn α also occors, e. g. 
Ίτόληα Hes. Sc, 105. 

Obs, 4. The vocative in 7 is required by the metre //• a\ 106. 
Msch. Eumen. 164. /iavri. Soph. (Ed. T. SSO.Tvpavyi. ib. 151. ^ri. 
Eur. Andr. 1179. Arist. Ach. 971. xiJXc. So ω yeavi is found without 
various reading Eur. Andr. 192. π^σι Eur. Ale. 330. χρύσαατι Pmd. 
Isthm. 1.1. In other places the MSS. vary between this form and 
that in -c^ as Soph. El. 785. Eur. Ph. 190. ArUt. Ran. 920. 

Obs. 5. In the dual φύση occurs Plat. Rep. 3. p. 410 E. (with the 
var. reading ^νσβι) and τα πόλη Isocr. de Pac, p. 183 C. in a MS. αρ. 
Bekk. (p. 246. Oxon.) So τώ iroXec §• 78. Obs. 4. In the genitive is 
found Toiy γενεσέοιν Plat. Phuedon. p. 71 £• τοΊν κινησέοιν Legg. 10. 
p. 898 A. and raiy πολέοιν Isocr. Paneg. p. 55 C. ed, Steph. (c. 21.) 

Obs. 6. In the plur. in Herodotus we find nom. -ces, αέ συμβάσΐ€$ 
1, 74. accus. rat άποκρίσια^ 1, 90. So troXias Eur. 484. in a chorus, and 
dissyllable Od. ff, 560. In the accusative άκοίτι$ for άκοίτιας Od. κ\ 7. 
and in the common close of an hexameter, βοΰ£ ijvts ε^ρυμεΓωιτονί. 
So also πoλcsfor woXias Herod. 2, 41. 7, 109. Σάρ^ι$ id. 1, 15. 6^u 
id. 2,75. πίστίί id. 3, 7. πανηγύρια id. 2, 58*. The dative πολ/εσι 
is found in Pindar, P. 7, 8. and in a treaty of the Argives and Lace- 
daemonians Thuc. 5, 77. where others read 1roλ/εσσ£^ as in Od. ψ\ 252. 
π^λισι is found in Herod. 1, 151. otherwise πόλεσι is more common, 
even in the Ionic writers. 

Obs, 7. The Ionic 6'ist otos (ace. sing, oii^a Theocr. 1, 9. and oip 
ib. 11. dat. plur. οΐεσσι in Homer, οιεσι Od. o\ 385. and οεσσκ //. ζ^ 
85. V, 106. Od. ι', 418. ace. oit for oia% Od. i, 244. Theocr. 9, 17.) 
is contracted throughout by the Attics, ols, oios, oit, olr^ PI. oh, οΐών^ 
oiaif olaSf and ols^, 

Obs, 8. Words which generally have i^or, ιθο$, iros in the gen., are 
sometimes inflected in this way. Θέμιοί Herod. Κύπριος Theocr. 11, 16. 
(in most MSS. -i^os). μίινιο£ in Homer, μίινιΒοί Plat. Rep. 3. p. 390 E. 
Άναχάρσιο£ Plat, ^ilos Aristot. Qirios Pind. 01. 9, 115. Isthm. 8, 60. 
104. napios II. y , 325. Pind. Pyth. 6, 33**. rovs φθοΊ$ like ras oU fof 
Toi/s <l>eoUas Arist. Plut. 677*. τού$ άνω κλάζοντας opvis Soph. (Ed. T. 
966. for opyidas, comp. Eur. Hipp. 1072. Arist. Av. 1250. 1609. and 
opveis Athen, 9. p. 373 D. E. opveoiv Arist. Ach, 291. 305. 

• Keen ad Greg. p. (225) 475. *^ Piers, ad Moer. p. 274. 

* Boeckh ad Pind. p. 486. Buttm. •* Gregor. p. (144) 311. 

L. Gr. p. 182, note. • Suid. s. v. Piers, ad Moer. p. 386. 

Third Declension. 1 53 

d. The termination vc and υ, gen. eoc^ €ωc, and voc. 



vc, eoc. 


του πήχ€0€ 

Att. πήχβωα 


τψ Ίτηγβϊ 
τον πίχυν 



Nom. Ace. τώ mtyee 
Gen. Dat. τοΤν ττι^χέοιν 

Nom. οι ττήχεεα 
G^n. των ιπιχέων 
Dat. TOiC ιτίχβσι 
Ace. ToifC πήχ€α€ 
Voc• ιτήχεεα 


το άστυ 

τοίι αστ€0<;, άστεως 
τ^ αστ€ΐ, αστβι 
το άστυ 

τω αστ€€ 
τοιν αστέοιν 

τα αστβα, αστγ^ 
των αστίωμ 

ToTc αστεσι 

\ if tf 

τα αστ€α; αστι^ 

αστ6α; άστη. 


Only πeλeιcυc, πρεσβνα, and the plur. of εγχελυς, are de- 
clined after this model. 

Obs. 1. Both forms of the genitive of άστυ occur in Attic, άστ€ο^ 
Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 4, 7. Plat. Leg. 5. p. 746 A. Eurip. Or. 729. 801. 
and passim. &στ€ωί Eunp. Or. 761. Phcen. 870. JAtfc. 8, 92. See 
Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 762. 

Ohs. 2. The accus. plur. of nouns in vs is not always contracted hy 
the Attics: ιτήχβα^ occurs in Aristoph. Ran. 811. The genitive plur. 
also is not contracted in Attica άστη is found Eur. Suppl. 954. On 
the contrary -eat forms only one syllable, ireXaKeas Od. r, 573. φ\ 120. 
as -€ων in ireXiKewy ib r , 578. 

2. υα^ voc• ^ 

Nom. ο ίχθύέ; ' the fish'. 
Gen. του i-^Ovoc 
Dat. T^ κχβνϊ 

Ace. τον ιχβυν 
Voc. ίχβυ 

' Voerisy p. 327. ubi v. Pierson. Phryn. p. 245. c. n. Lob. 




Third DeclensioH. 


Norn. Ace. τω ivOue 
Gen. Dat. τοϊν ΐ'χθυοΐ¥ 







oi i^Ovec 

των ιχθύων 
roiQ ίχθυσι 
τούα ιχθυαα, ιχθν€ 

06«. 1• The terminations -vf -ν ν of substaiitiTee are generally long, 
e. g. Eur. Ion. 1024. 1<τχΐ/ν Ιχοιτ* Ιίν - - - Instances occur, however, 
in which they are short, as Soph. Ant. 1144. κ\ίτύν. Eur. CycL 574. 
vifivvt and elsewhere *• Barytones, on the contrary, have a short t»- 
mination, except Eur. Here. F. 5. στάχνί, of which corrections have 
heen proposed. 

Obs. 2. The ace. in να lor w occurs only in later writers, e. g• 
Theoer. 26, 17\ 

Obs. 3. The vocative in ν is very rare ; ιχΟν with long ν occurs in a 
fragment of Crates A then, 6. p. 267 F • γένν with short ν Eur. An- 
drom. 1184. 

Obs. 4. The ν often coalesces into one syllahle with the fidlowiog 
vowel, as in //• π , 526. νέκυι. Od, η\ 270. ^ίζυϊ, ff, 258. ejPXVrvL 
ο', 105. πληθνϊ. Hes. Theog, 5SS. Φόρκνι» In the gen. pi. this seems 
to take place in 'Ερινννων Iph. T. 938. 977. 1468. unless we should 
there write 'Epiyvwy; in Eur. Troad. 461. *Έ^νννν (not '£f>tyvvv for 
Έριννύων) is die accusative. In Find. Fyth. 4, 401. yevvtav is perhaps 
a dissyllable ^. Νειτνεσσι, as a trisyllable, was formerly found Od. \\ 568• 
where now νέκυσσιν stands, like γέννσσιν 11. λ', 416. νίτνσσιν Od. i\ 
186''. In the accus. yayvas Od. \\ 320. Ιχθυχ Od. e, 53. κ\ 124, Sec 
^pdsll. V, 494. νέκν$ Od. ω\ 417. hvs Herod. 7, 89*. The contracted 
nom. plur. αϊ άρκυ$ is found in Xenoph. de Venat, 2, 5» 6, 2. 10, 2. 

• Spitzo. de Prod. Brev. Syll. p. 67. 
Matthias ad Eur. Hipp. 236. 

*» Schsf. ad Theoer. 1. c. 

*^ Boeckh ad Find. Ol. 13, 82. 
llerm. £lem. D. M. p. 53. 

' Herro. de £m. RaU Gr. Gr. p. 46. 
Jacobs ad Anthol. Palat. 1. p. 93. 

• Maittaire,'p. 336. Fisch. 1 . p. 364. 
Heyne Obs. ad U. t. 5. p. 522 seq. 

Third Declension. 165 


The termination eve 




ο βασίλευα 




του βασιΧίοα, βασιΧηο^ 
τψ βασιΧέϊ, βασιΧηι 
τοΜ βασιλέα, βασιλέα 

βασιλέα & -σιλ^ 


Nom. Ace. τω βασιλέε, βασιληε 
Qen. Dat. τοιι^ βασιλίοιν 


Nom• οι βασιλεεα, βασιληεί; βασιλεία & -σιλης 

Gen. των βασιλέων 

Dat. roic (βασιλ^εσσι) βασιλευσι 

Ace. TOVC βασιλεαα, βaσiληaQ βασιλεία 8c -σιλέα^ 

Voc. βασιλεεα» 

Obi• 1. Words which have a vowel before the termination ew, in 
the genitive contract έω$ into ώ$^ and in the ace. sing, and plur. ia 
into Oy e. g. UeipaieifSf OeipaUws {Plat, Rep, 4. p. 4f39 £.) UeipauSt 
(Xen. Hist, G. ft^ H^ d. T^tic. S, 93.) Aceus. Πεφαια. xoevs, gen. 
jfDMf (Ariitoph. Thesm, S47.)i accus. χοα {Aristoph, Equ. 95.) aXiJs 
ia Pkerecr, ap. Bekk. Anecd. p. 383, 30. Μι^λια ^£<οΛ. Pers, 484'• 
AyviOf for άτΐΗέαι» χοαι ^mf. £cc/• 44. and elsewhere• *£σηα?α( 
Tkuc. h 114'. 

Oftf . 2. The gen. -cos occurs even in the Attic poets. Bησio$ Eur. 
Supp. 986. άριστέο$ Iph. A. 27. ^ηρέο£ Jon. 1101. in anapaests, viios 
(which, however, does not come from vievs) is the only correct form, 
and is fomid Plat. Rep. 2. p. 387 E. without various reading, and 
often as a various reading to νιέω$, e. g. Thuc. 1, 13^• So according 
to Thorn. Mag. we should write Ιρομέοχ, not -ωί. This termination is 
often monosyllabic, //. β\ 566. ^ηκιστέοί. α , 489. Ώηλέοί, as π , 21, 

' Etym. Μ. ρ. 189, 50. Pierson Mcer. p. 6. Duk. ad Thuc. 1, 107. 

ad Mcerin, p. 6. 314 seq. 412. Koen Hemst. ad Luc. 1• p. 472. Bip. not. x. 

ad Gregor. p. (70) 163. Fisch. 1. •» Thorn. Mag. p. 865. Bekk.Anecd. 

p. 129. 409. p. 68, 12. Lobeck. ad Phryn. p. 68. 

» HarpocT. V. 'Ayvidi. Piers, ad Of -tot see Greg. p. (28) 67. 



Third Declension. 

203. Od. \\ 477. (On the contrary, ΊΙη\έο$ is a dactyl //• σ, 18. ν, 2. 
φ\ 139. χ\ 8. 250. Od. ω, 36.) Ό^υσεΰε is found only once, Od. ω\ 
397. ailer the analogy of Θάμβενς, Bapuevt^ yiv€v%. The form -i^c was 
in use in the old Attic dialect in Solon's time. See Lysias, p. 361. ed. R. 
In the Attic poets it occurs only once, Eur. Iph. A. 1063. The MSS. 
of Herodotus vary between βασι\έο£ and -^s. Even in the epic writers 
-170s is not universally used ; Άτρήος, Ύυ^ήοί are never found : ΙΙηΧέω^ 
is pronounced as a monosyllable, Eur. Iph. A. 951. 

Ohs. 3. In the accus. sing, -a in the Ionic form (after 17) is short, in 
the Attic (after e) is long, according to the change of quantity already 
noticed '. Examples, however, are found of the short a, as Eur. Hec. 
883. i^ovia, Comp. El. 603. 768 ^. I know no instance of the length- 
ening of the accus. plur. -ea sometimes makes only one*syllable ; IV 
pvovia Hes. Th. 981. Eur. Iph. A. 1351. Άχ*λλέα. Arist. Ran. 76. 
Σοφοκλέα. See Brunck's note*. This is always the case at the end of 
an heroic versed For <-έα η is written, but not at the end of an heroic 
verse. Τυδί 7^^,384. ΜηκιστηΙΙ,ο, 339. *0^ση Od.r\l36. βασιΧη 
Herod. 7, 220. ιερή Eur. Ale. 25. Ό^σση Rhes. 708. Άχιλλ^ El. 439. 
ξνγγραψη Arist, A eh. 1150*. 

Obs. 4. The Attic nom. plur. -ijf appears to have originated from 
the Ionic -TJes or -έβί (as τριίφη from rpifipee §. 79. Obs. 4.) not from 
-eu'. The grammarians found this form {Choeroh. I. e, Draco, p. 115, 
18.) only in Soph. Aj, 390. βασιΧψ {Br. Erf. Herm. βασιλείς), and 
Xenophon tovs νομη^ (probably Cyr• 1, 1, 2. where the editions have 
νομ€ΐ£ and νομέαί). It is, however, found also in Thuc. 2,76. rovs 
Ώλαταφ, with the various reading nXaraieis Xen. Hell. 3, 4, 14. 
linrfis, where Wolf reads iirvias. The form -eis is found once in Homer 
//. λ', 151. iinrets, and once in Hes. "Εργ. 246. once -i^cs is pronounced 
in one syllable Hes.^Epy. 261. βασιΧηε^. See Herm. Horn. Hym. in Cer. 

• Drac. p. 26, 7. 115, 6. Pierson 
ad Mcerid. p. 102. £tym. M. p. 189, 5. 

^ Markl. ad Suppl. 37. Valcl;. ad 
PhcBO. 1258. Piers. 1. c. Person ad 
Eur. Hec. 876. Monk, ad Hipp. 

^Monkad Eur. Hipp. 1148. Alc.25. 

' Herm. in Add. ad Greg. Cor. 
p. 879 seq. 

* Fisch. 1. p. 121. 129 seq. Schsef. 
ad Greg. p. 162. Matthias ad Eur. 
Ale. 25. Eust. ad II. ^, 487, 10. as- 

sumes an apocope from ΤυΙηα. Etym. 
M. p. 670, 7. calls the H Doric. 

' This is maintained by Eustathius 
ad II. α , p. 60, 18. and Brunck ad 
Soph. (Ed. T. 18. Erf. ad Soph. Aj. 
186. The other opinion by Choero- 
bosc. in Bekk. Aneod. p. 1195. (comp. 
Etym. M. p. 473, 37.^ Dawes Misc. 
Cr. p. 128. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 1. c. 
Comp. Markl. ad Eur. Suppl. 666. 
Schaef. ad Greg. p. 101, Comp. Int. 
ad Thuc. 1, 67. 

Third Declension. 157 

1 87. Plaio TheuBt. p. 169 B. has the Ionic fonn -eer, QnoUs^ and Eu- 
ripides -ifcs EL• 882. βασι\ηα$ Phcen, 857. but in anapeBStics. 

Obs. 5. ^ωρΐ€υ$ makes Δωριέεσσι in Theocr, 15, 93. νιέσι belongs 
to a different declension ; Ιρομέσι is quoted by Choeroboscus from Cal- 
limachus, but Plato, Legg, 7. p. 822 B. has Ιρομ^υσι '. 

Ohs, 6. The accus. plur. according to the observations of the old 
grammarians ", was in the genuine Attic dialect -^as, not -e7s. Yet the 
form -cif also in the accus. is very frequent, e. g. fiauCKeis Xen, Mem. 
S. S, 9, 10. Plat. Alcih. 1. p. 120 A. imceis Xen. Ages. 2, IS. (but 
t6. 3. hnria%). Plat. Legg. 12. p. 943 A. B. we read ΙιτπίαΒ dk eU 
T09S twweUf but some MSS. ap. Bekk. have els rovs linrias. Once only 
-cos is found as a single syllable Eur. Rhes. 480. apiariast where two 
MSS. read £φιστ€Ϊί. 

f. The termination ac> arot^. 83 t. 



Nom• TO icepac ' the horn'. το ic/oeac ' the flesh'. 

Gen. τον Keparoc, xepaoc, Kepwc τον Kpearoc, KpeaoCt κρεως 

Dat. τψ Keparif Kepai, icepif τψ κρεατι, κρεαϊ, fcpe^ 

Ace. το KepaQ το κρβας 
Voc. Kcpac Kpkac 


N. A. τω Kepae, κέρα 

G. D. τοΊν KepaoWy κερψν 


Nom. τα κέρατα, κέραα, κέρα τα κρέατα, κρεαα, κρεα 

Gen. των κέρατων, κεραων^, ice- των κρεάτων, κρείων,κρε- 

ρων . ων 

Dat. TOCC κεραεσσι^, κερασσι, toiq κρεασι, &C. 
Ace. τα κέρατα, κεραα, κέρα 
Voc. κέρατα, κεραα, κέρα. 

> Lob. ad Phryn. p. 69. Thom. Μ. 414 seq. Bekk. Anecd. 87, 14. 

p. 866. Choerob. in Bekk. Anecd. p. 1191. 

p. 1185. «Il.p,521. Od. y , 439. r , 566. 

* Thom. M. p. 354. Fisch.l.p.lSi. ^ II. y , 705. Od. r, 563. 

158 T%ird Declension. 

Ohs. 1. Tipas and oJas (loiu for ου$) are declined like κέρα$. Ovaros 
ovara is at common in Homer as the Attic ώτό^^ Jra, which aroee out 
of it. From this flexion in r came the adjectives νφικέρατα ArtsU Nub. 
597. See Pind, Fr. ed. Heyn. p. 139. ^τνργοκέρατα inBacchylides» Koen 
ad Greg, p• (208) 443. κεράτινοε, τ€ρατοσκ&κο$^ τερατώΐηί. But the forms 
without r are more in use, as in Homer icipas is always declined without 
it ; κέρα^ κίρ^ κεράε^σι κέρασι. κεράων 04• ^% ^^^• rkpaxa is £>and 
Od. μ^ 594. but ripa Apoll. Rhod. 4, 1410». repawi^ //. μ\ 229. repd- 
€#σι //• ^f 398, &c. The grammarimMj Mseris p. 366. 369. v. Piers. 
Tkom. M. p. 840. call rkpa^ repQw^ Attic. Ovara is never {bond with- 
out r. The α in icipa is naturally long, and in //• i', 109. is shortened 
on account of the following vowels The fonn in r has perhaps α long 
cm account of the preceding ρ in Anacr. 2. (^v^a ιτέρατα ro-^poui) and 
Eur.Bacch. 919. The later poets, Aratus, Oppian, Dionysius Perieg•, 
Q. Calaber, lengthened these forms after the analogy of xparos ιφά- 
aroSf into Ktpaaros^ 8cc. 

Φρέαρ is declined in a similar way, only that it keeps the r through- 
out, ^piaroSf ψρέατι with short a H. in Cer. 99. with long α Arist. 
Pac. 578. as ^pea'rwy id. Eccl. 1004. ^p^ora Thuc. 2, 38. Instead €Λ 
fp^arof, 3rc. the grammarians {Choeroh. inBekk, Anecd. p. 1221. 1265. 
9nd Etym. M. p. 800, 14.) quote the contraction ψρητόί, φρητώ^^ in 
accent like Kptiros. 

§#84. Obs. 2. Like κρέα$ are declined yrjpaSf Senast yipas^ and others which 
never take r, e. g. liwai II. ψ', 196. yiipaosy γήραϊ in Homer, σέλαο^ 
Ham. H. in Cer. 189. rv^^aor Od. er', 370. In the dative Homer has 

often γ4ρ99 l^sl• (^ ^^^9 ^^• ^'> ^^^* ^'^^ ^^ ^® probably ought to write 
where we now read y^pa', ^έπα Od. κ, 316. λ', 136.) σέλ^ , which forms 
were alone in use among the Attics, jcve^ Xen. Cyrop. 4, 2, 15. /T»^• 
(jr. 7, 1, 15. In the plural only the form with one α is found, sometimes 
short, as *:ρέα Od. c', 162. and elsewhere ; Eur. Cycl. 126. Arist. Nub. 
339. as a monosyUable Od. i', 347• σκέπα Hes. "Έργ. 550. sometimes 
long, especiaUy in the Attic writers, Soph. El. 443. Eur. Phcen. 902. 
γέρα^. κρεάων Horn. ff. in Merc. 130. γεράων Hes. Theog. 393. H. in 
Cer. 311. xpeiwy Od. ξ, 28. 

Obs. 3. The lonians declined το jcepas, Kipeos Herod. 6, 111. Kcpea 
id. 2, 38. 4, 191. Kepiwy id. 4, 183 (r). rip€o$ and repea 8, 37. in 

■ Ruhnk. ad H. in Cerer. 12. « Buttm. L. Gr. p. 200. Brunck 

■"Drac. p. 116, 16. Heph. p. 6. ad £ur. Bacch. 921. ad Soph. £1. 
ed. Gaisf. 443. 

Tkird Deckmion. 159 

Homer re^ica• So abo topita^i id, 1, 47. in an onde. yipea 6, 56. 
From Kmu and oviot, kJco» ic^eacF, oCSeov» ov^i• Hence το βρέτοΛ^ of 
^Hiieh the dadTe βρέτάί occiurg in Hesychius, has fipireos jEsch, Suppl. 
898. βρέηι id. Etim. 253. βρέτ^α Bum. 167. Stippl. 479. /βρβτένν 
TM. 96. 98. Α<|)ρί. 443. From κνέφαβ, ιοέψουε ArisU Bed. 290. 

Smne declensions have the general character of the third, §.85. 
but vary in some particulars. (^8.) 


Ionic. Attic. 

Norn. 11 yf|uc ναυα 

(Sen. r^c νηοίί (veoc H. o, 423, 8cc•) ι^ςώα^ 
Dat.^ τρ νψ, 

Ace. T^y v?a (νέα Od. i\ 283. as one syllable) ναΰν 

Voc• w|v νου 


Norn. Ace. wanting 

Gen. Dat. raiv veoiv• 7%tic. 


Nom. at v?ec 

Ion. also veec //• β^ 509. and elsewhere. 
Gten. T(f ρ νΐ}ων (v^v) νέων 

Dat. raTc νντνσι (νέεσσιν Π. ο\ 409. 414. ναυσι 

ρηβσσι often in Homer) 
Ace. τας v^oc (viae J/, α , 487. and often) vavQ. 

O&f. 1. The form here considered as Attic is the only one which 
occurs in the prose writers of that dialect. The poets sometimes use 
also the proper Ionic, e. g. νηό$ Msch. S. c. Th. 62. Eurip. Med. 523. 
In the dative sing, and nominat. plur. the lonians and Attics have a 
common form ρηί^ nyes (yavs only in later writers). On the contrary^ 
in the aceus. plur. vays. yijas only Eurip. Iph. A. 254. in a diorus*. 

The Doric form was vS^^^ the oblique cases of which occur in the 
Attic poets also, and not only in the choruses, e. g. vtk6% Soph. Ant. 715. 

' Gregor. p. (27) ^7. Phryn. p. 170. & Lob. Osann. ad 

* Wesseling ad Diod. Sic. 1, 130. Fhilem. p. 80. Fisch. 1. p. 187. 
Moeris, p. 110. 966. c. n. Piers. ** Koen ad Gregor. p. (145) 315. 

160 Third Declension, 

Eurip. Hecn 1253. as it probably should always be*, vai Iphig. T. 891. 
in the chorus, αϊ vdes Iphig, A. 242. in the chorus. The accus. rdas 
occurs in Theocr. 7, 152. StZ^ 17^. The Hellenistic writers use vaa in 
the accus. sing., and vdas accus. plur. A rare Ionic form of the ac- 
cusative is νηυν Apollon, Rh. 1, 1358. 

Obs, 2. In the same manner is declined ^ ypavs (Ion. ypriv$\ τηβ 
γραόί Plat. Gorg, p. 527 A. rjj γραί and γρηι, τήν γρανν, γραΰ (Ion. 
ypi^v)» al ypaes and γρη€$ (not ai ypavs^), των γραών^ ταα γρανσΐ^ ras 
ypavs. Yet of this in general only the nom. sing, accus. sing, and 
plur. and the genitive plur. PkU, TheceU p. 276 B. occur ; in the rest 
of the cases γραία is more common. 

So also ^ βοΰ{, Ttjs βοό$, ry βοί, τήν βονν, ai βΟ€9 (not /3ovs^), rmv 
βοών^ rait βονσΐ, rat βονί, not βόαί. The Dorians said βω$, accus. βων* 
This ace. is also found //. η, 288. in the sense of ' a hide', and Her. 6, 
67. with the various reading in the latter case of βονν, and 2, 40. A 
gen. βοΰ (like rov) is quoted by Choeroboscus (Bekk, Anecd, p. 1196.) 
from the Inachus of Sophocles and from ^schylus, and βόα ace. from 
the Athenian Pherecydes. Like βον% is declined χονι, Dor. χω^, but 
without contraction, plur. ace. tub χ6α$• See §. 91, 2. 

κ 3β, The lonians and the Attic poets declined also the substantives yc^ w and 
26pv, gen. του γοννατο$ {IL ψ', 591.) and γοννόε (II. λ', 546. Od, τ\ 450.) 
dat. τψ γοϋναη, plur. nom. τα γούνατα {IL €, 176. and frequently also 
in the tragedians Soph. (Ed. C. 1607.), or γούνα {IL C 511, &c. 
Eurip. Plicen. 866. but only in Porson), γοννάτων(ΕΗτ. Andr. 898. and 
frequently*) γουνών {IL a', 407. and frequently, Eurip. Med. 325. ed• 
Porson), γovvασίand γουνασσι {IL v', 484. p', 451. 5 69.) ^ Δ($ρν, gen• 
Ιουρόί {IL y , 61, &c.), lopos {Eur. Hec. 699. Or. 1603, &c. never 
UpaTos) dat. Ιουρί {IL α , 303, &c.) lopi {Eurip. Hec. 5. 9. 18, &c.) (a) 
dual Bodpe {IL κ\ 76, &c.) plur. nom. δονρα (//. λ', 570.) gen. λούρων 
{IL χ', 243.) dat. Μρασι and Ιουρ^σσι {IL μ\ 303. Od. β', 528.)»• 
The Etym. M. and Cheerohosc. ap. Behk. Anecd. p. 1364. adduce also 
a dative lopei^ from Aristophanes, as from το Bopos^ which modem 
criticism has adopted in the tragedians {Herm. ap. Erf. ad Soph. Aj. 
p. 627 seq.). Hence ^όρη Eur. Rhes. 274. adopted by Musgr. Soph. 
(Ed. C. 620. and perhaps ίορών in Hesychius. 

* Elms, ad Eur. Med. 510. ^ Thom. M. p. 169 scq. B6<u 

** Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. p. 123 however is found Ηββ.'Έργ. 452. 

seq. • Porson Advers. p. 231. 

« Piers, ad Moer. p. 110. Heindorf. ' Fisch. 2. 195. 

ad Plat. Gorg. p. 276. On the other ' Fisch. 2. 194 scq. 

sidci Thom. M. p. 195. 

Third Declension. 161 

In the same manner is declined \aas ' a stone', gen. Xaoof, contr. 
Xaos (Jl. μ, 462.) dat. λάαϊ, conir, \ai (II. π, 739.) ace. May (Jl. β\ 
319, &c.) plur. nom. Xaaes, \aesf gen. Χαάων, λάωτ^ dat. λάβσσι (//. γ\ 
80.). Sophocles has also the gen. λάου (Ed. C. 196. as if from Xaos» 

In the genitive and dative sing, and plur. the epic poets annex {.87. 
the syllable φι, or, with ν €φeλιcυστcιcov, φιν (φι paragogicum), 
to the principal vowel of the word, after rejection of the charac- 
teristic consonants c v, in which case, in substantives in η the c 
of the genitive is omitted, in those in og,op, and the genitive in 
-oc of the 3rd decl. ο only remains before φι, and in those in oq 
gen. €oc, ovc, in (he gen. ec (or eve the Ionic contraction from 
€oc §. 78. Obs. 3.) enters ; e. g. εξ άνηφι Od. β', 2. for €ζ 
evyric' κατά ΊΧιοφι for Ίλέου //. φ, 295. dat. φρητρίξίφιν 
11. Ρ J 363. βίπο στρατοφιν II. κ ,347. dat. θεοφιν //. ΐ} , 366. 
€ζ βρεβευσψιν //. c, 568. αττο στηθβσφι //. λ, 374. plur. 
απ 6στ€6φιν Od. ξ, 134. dat. κΧισ'ι^φι (otherwise κΧισιγσφι) 
II. ν y 168. συν οχ^εσφι //. S', 297. πα/οά ναυφιρ II, β', 474. 
eir' εσγαροφ^ Od. e , 59. Also in the accus. cttc δεξιοφιν, 
εΐΓ* άριστ€ρόφιν II. μ', 308 seq. εία ίννηφιν Hes. Εργ. 408.*" 

ApoUonius π. ίπιρρημ. in Bekk. Anecd. p. 275, 29. quotes 
as a vocative ουρανίαφιν from Alcman, Μωσα Aioc Ovyarep ού- 
ρανίαφι Xiy άείσομαι Schol. //. ν', 588, which, however, is more 
correctly a dative, ovpavltf άεισομαι, as ^αιμονί^ γεγα/αεν Find. 
01. 9, 164. So ετέρρφι Ues.'^Epy. 214. is a dative. This 
termination therefore is used in all the senses of the gen. and dat. 
not only with prepositions, even doubled, ρφι βιρφι //. χ', 107. 
κρατ€ρ^φι βίτζίφιν II. φ , 501. as ovSe δο/ιονδε §. 259. Obs. 2. 
but nowhere as an adverbial termination of local reference ^ 

Oev appears to be an appendage of a similar nature, but is 
found only in the genitive, e. g. εξ Αισύμηθ€ν II. (/^ 304. εζ 
αΧόθεν II. ω', 492. εξ ovpavoQev II. β*, 19. αττο κρηθεν Hes. 
Sc. IL 7. and κατά κρηθεν Horn. Η. in Cerer. 182. εξ Άργο- 
θεν Soph. Antig. 106. without ν, aVo Ύροίηθβ II. ω , 492. In 
the same manner the syllable θεν is annexed to the genitive of 
the pronouns εγώ, σιί, ου, ίμεθεν (from εμεο), σεθεν, εθεν (εο). 
Afterwards those forms of nouns were used as adverbs, Άθή- 

^He^neOb8s.adIl.t.5. p.522seq. the υ in ίρέββνσψι. According to 

Maittp. 336. Fisch. 1. p. 364. Herm. ad Viger. p. 886. φι is th^ 

' See Buttm. L• Gr. p. S04, 905. same as 6c dif^rently pronounced, 
who jusdy omits the t subscr. and 

VOL. I. Μ 

160 Third Declension. 

Eurip* Hec. 1253. a$ it probably should always be*, vat Iphig. T. 89Ϊ. 
in the chorus, αϊ rdes Iphig, A, 242. in the chorus. The accus. rda$ 
occurs in Theocr. 7, 152. 22, 17^. The Hellenistic writers use yaa in 
the accus. sing., and rdas accus. plur. A rare Ionic form of the ac- 
cusative is νηυν Apollon. Rh, 1, 1358. 

Obs, 2. In the same manner is declined fg ypavs (Ion. ypnvs\ τη$ 
γραΟ£ Plat. Gorg. p. 527 A. rp γραί and ypiyt, r^v γραΰν, γραΰ (Ion. 
γρηυ), ai ypaet and yprjcs (not ai ypavs ^), των ypaiay^ rali ypavel^ ras 
ypavs. Yet of this in general only the nom. sing, accus. sing, and 
plur. and the genitive plur. Plat. Thecet. p. 276 B. occiir ; in the rest 
of the cases γραία is more common. 

So also fi fiovSf rfis βοό$, ry /3of, T^y fiovy, ai fioes (not /3ovs^), τύν 
fiowy^ raU βουσΐ, ras fiovs^ not βόα$. The Dorians said fiws, accus. βύν• 
This ace. is also found //. η, 288. in the sense of ' a hide', and Her. 6, 
67. with the various reading in the latter case of /3ovv, and 2, 40. A 
gen. βον (like yov) is quoted by Choeroboscus (JBekh. Anecd. p. 1196.) 
from the Inachus of Sophocles and from ^schylus, and βόα ace. from 
the Athenian Pherecydes. Like βovs is declined χονν. Dor. χώ^, but 
without contraction, plur. ace. ras x6as. See §. 91, 2. 

S. 86. ^^^ lonians and the Attic poets declined also the substantives yoyv and 
2(5pv, gen. τον yovyaros (//. ψ*, 591.) and yovyos (II. λ', 546. Od, r', 450.) 
dat. τψ yovyarif plur. nom. rh yovyara {II. e', 176. and frequently also 
in the tragedians Soph. (Ed. C. 1607.), or yovya {II. C 511, &c. 
Eurip. Phcen. 666. but only in Porson), yovyartay {Eur. Andr. 898. and 
frequently*) yovywv {II. a', 407. and frequently, Eurip. Med. 825. ed. 
Porson), yovyaσι and γοννασσι {II. v\ 484. p\ 451. 569.) ^ Δήον, gen. 
iovpos {II. y , 61, &c.), iopos {Eur. Hec. 699. Or. 1603, &c. never 
Uparos) dat. ^pi {II. α , 303, &c.) lopi {Eurip. Hec. 5. 9. 18, &c.) (a) 
dual Bovpe {II. r , 76, &c.) plur. nom. Bovpa {II. \\ 570.) gen. ^ovpwy 
{II. χ, 243.) dat. Ιονρασι and Ιονρ^σσι {II. μ\ 303. Od. β', 528.) t. 
The Etym. M. and Cheerobosc. ap. Bekk. Anecd. p. 1864. adduce also 
a dative ^opei^ from Aristophanes, as from το ^opos, which modem 
criticism has adopted in the tragedians {Herm. ap. Erf. ad Soph. Aj. 
p. 627 seq.)• Hence ίόρη Eur. Rhe$. 274. adopted by Musgr. Soph. 
(Ed. C. 620. and perhaps lopQy in Hesychius. 

* £lms. ad Eur. Med. 510. ^ Thorn. M. p. 169 scq. Baas 
^ Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. p. 183 however is found Hes/Epy. 452. 

seq. • Porson Advers. p. 231. 

* Piers, ad Mcer. p. 110. Heindorf. ' Fisch. 2. 195. 

ad Plat. Gorg. p. 276. On the other ' Fisch. 2. 194 seq. 

side^ Thorn. M. p. 195. 

Third Decletmon. 161 

In the same manner is declined \das * a stone*, gen. Xaoor, contr. 
Xaos {II. μ\ 462.) dat. λάοϊ, contr. \ai {II. π, 739.) ace. λάαν {II. β\ 
819, &c.) plur. nom. Xaaes, Xaes^ gen. λαάω^, Xawy, dat. λά€σσί (//. γ\ 
80.). Sophocles has also the gen. λάου (Ed. C. 196. as if from Xaos» 

In the genitive and dative sing, and plur. the epic poets annex §.87. 
the syllable φι, or, with ν εφ€λιcυσrcιcov, φιν (φι paragogicum), 
to the principal vowel of the word, after rejection of the charac- 
teristic consonants c v, in which case, in substantives in η the c 
of the genitive is omitted, in those in oc,o^, and the genitive in 
-oc of the 3rd decl. ο only remains before φι, and in those in oq 
gen. coc, cue, in (he gen. ec (or eve the Ionic contraction from 
eoc §. 78. Obs, 3.) enters ; e. g. εξ €υνηφι Od. β', 2. for €ζ 
euviic. κατά ΙΧιοφι for Ιλίου //. φ, 295. dat. φρητρ^φιν 
//.β*, 363. άτΓο στρατόφιν II. κ ,347. dat. θεοφιν Ι1.η^366. 
εζ ερεβευσφιν II. ι, 568. αττο στηθβσφι II. \, 374. plur. 
άπ οστ€οφιν Od. ζ y 134. dat. κ\ισιτ/φι (otherwise κΧισΊτ^σφι) 
II. ν\ 168. συν οχεσφι //. δ', 297. τταρα ναυφιν II. β', 474• 
€ιγ' Ισγαροφιν Od. e , 59. Also in the accus. eiri ^βζιοφιν, 
€ΊΓ αριστερόφιν II. v\ 308 seq. eic ίννηφιν Hes. Εργ. 408.'' 

Apollonius π. ίπφρημ. in Bekk. Anecd. p. 275, 29. quotes 
as a vocative ονρανιαφιν from Alcman, Μωσα Aioc θυγατε/ο ού- 
ρανίαφι Xly άείσομαι Schol. //. ν', 588, which, however, is more 
correctly a dative, ohpavlt^ άβισομαι, as ^αιμονίί} γεγα/αεν Find. 
01. 9, 164. So ετερτ/φι Hes.'^Epy. 214. is a dative. This 
termination therefore is used in all the senses of the gen. and dat. 
not only with prepositions, even doubled, ρφι βιρφι //. χ', 107. 
κρατ€ρ^φι βi'gφιv II. φ', 501. as ovSe δο/ιονδε §. 259. Obs. 2. 
but nowhere as an adverbial termination of local reference *. 

Oev appears to be an appendage of a similar nature, but is 
found only in the genitive, e. g. εξ Αισύμηθεν II. ff^ 304. Ιζ 
αΧόθεν II. ω', 492. εξ ουρανόθεν II. (/, \9. άπο κρηθεν Hes. 
Sc. Η. 7. and κατά. κρηθεν Horn. Η. in Cerer. 182. εξ Άργο- 
θερ Soph. Antig. 106. without ν, ατΓο Ύροιηθε II. ω, 492. In 
the same manner the syllable θεν is annexed to the genitive of 
the pronouns εγώ, συ, ου, εμεθεν (from εμεο), σεθεν, εθεν (εο). 
Afterwards those forms of nouns were used as adverbs, Άβή- 

bH6^]l.t.5. p.523seq. the ν in ίρέββνσφι. According to 

Maitt. p. 336. Fisch. 1. p. 364. Herm. ad Viger. p. 886. φι is th^ 

< See Buttm. L. Gr. p. S04, 905. same as di dif^rently pronounced, 
who jusdy omits the ι subscr. and 

VOL. I. Μ 

162 Anomalous and Defective Nouns. 

νηθ€ν, θ{ιβηθ€^^. The termination θι is similar to this, but is 
almost always used in an adverbial signification, except in nwOi 
προ, Ίλ(όθ( προ. See §• 257 a. 

§. 88. The terminations of the cases often vary from the nomina- 
tive, which is alone in use, so that to explain their formation 
it is necessary at least to assume obsolete nominatives ; these 
are called ανώμαλα, anomalous or irregular nouns. Of others 
only particular cases are found {defectives), of which also, if 
an explanation is required, the cases which are wanting must 
be presumed to exist, formed according to analogy. Of others, 
double forms of some cases are found, sometimes even in the 
nominative (abundantia), occasionally further distinguished by 
difference of gender. The line of separation between the anomala 
and the abundantia cannot always be drawn with certainty. 


To this class belong 

γάλα, gen. yakaKroc, &o. as if from γάλαξ §. 72, 15. 
Obs. I . γόνυ and δόρυ, gen, yovaroc, Soparoc, as if from yovac, 
Sipac As the lonians decline yovvic, Bovpoc, the Attics Sopoc 
§. 76, both words belong to the abundantia. 

yvvfi, gen. yvvaiKoc, "vaixi, -vaiica, voc. γυΐ'αι, &c. Phe- 
recrates used also the accus. sing, and plur. την yviniv and 
rac γυι /ac, and Philippides ai yvvai\ In this respect it might 
also be considered as an abundans. 

Sefiac only in the nom. and ace. {defectivum) in Homer in 
the sense of the Latin instar. 

Zevc, gen. Διός, dat. Διί {Find. Δ/ §. 8. Obs. 2.), ace. Δία, 
voc. Zev. A nom. Δ/α is assumed for Διόα, but Rhinthon, 
who used it, probably formed it from Διός, Δα. A more pro- 
bable etymology is from Δεύς, which remained in the Boeotian 
dialect (§. 15. p. 43.) gen. Διός for Δέος (p. 35 ^). iEschrion 
{Brunck. Anal. t. 1. p. 189.) used the accus. Zevv^. Another 
form (Ζήν?) Ζηνόα, Dor. Ζόν Ζανός, is declined regularly. 

* £ustath. ad II. α , p. 1 IS, 33. ^ Chcerobosc. io Bekk. Anecd. 

Od. λ', p. 1680, 43. Etym. M. p. 1194. £tym. M. p. 409, 18. 
p. 343, 24. Bekk. Anecd. p. 86, 10. « Schweigh. ad Athen. 1 4. p. 504. 

Fisch. 2. p. irr. 

Anomalous and Defective Nouns. 163 

vSwp, gen. vSaroc, as if from vBac. This inflected in the 
Ionic manner (§. 84. Obs. 3.) gives in the dat. vBei (as ovSaCf 
ovSec), which is found Hes. ''Epy. 61. From this tfSei Cal- 
limachus probably first formed a nominative» εστίν vBoc και 
γαία icoi owr^pa καμινοα Charob. in Bekk. p. 1209. 


To this class belong especially gen. σηγβα, plur. στίγμα -«<;, 
as a femin. of the same meaning as arlypc ' the row' ; λιτι, 
λΐτα masc. which some regard as singular, on account of 
Od. a, 130 seq. viro λΐτα ττετάσσαα, KaXoy iaiiakeov, others 
as neuter plur. See Wolf, Anal. 4. p. 501 seq. οσσε §.91. 
also Xic» ace. Xiv, i. e. λέων, to which later writers, as Cal- 
limachus and others, added the plural cases Xiec, Xleat, λίβσσι'. 
iXoQ, aXi, aXa has no nomiu. in the sense of * sea', but in the 
sense of * salt', ο aXc Herod. 4, 185. Commonly, however, 
only the plural ol aXec is used. 


These are often found in the nominative, e. g. ο ταώα ' the 
peacock' and ταών (Athen. 13. p. 606 C), raiSvoc, whence 
ταωσι Aristoph. Ach. 63. (The^ Attics circumflexed and aspi- 
rated the last syllable. Athen. 9. p. 397 E.)*. The plural 
nom. o! ταοί is quoted by Athen. 1 4. p. 655. from a later 
writer. In the same manner Xayoc, in Sophocles ap. Athen. 9. 
p. 400 C. λαγωόέ; Ion. and λαγώα Attic'. So vaoc and νεώα, 
Xaic and Xetoc, and with a different gender ο aUXoc, Attic το 
σΙαΧον^. So also SaKpvov and Βακρυ, both in Homer; from 
the former SoKpvoiQ Eurip. Iphig. A. 1175; from the latter 
ϋκρνσι id. Troad. 315*". Of €pωQ -ωτοα, γβλωα -ωτοα, there 
was another .£olic form epoc epov (also in Homer //. ξ^ 315.) 
and γελοι; -cv^. So also Ion. ηώα, but Attic eoic, α^εΧψόο and 
oSeA^ecoc in Homer. The lonians and Dorians lengthened the 
terminations α and η of the first declension into -^ιη, ^aia^ -eca, 
e. g. ακαγκαιΐ7, σβλ^ναια, ΆθηναΙη, which the Attic poets pro- 

' Cbcerob. in Bekk. Anecd. p. 1 1 04. p. 186. 

Btym. M. p. 567, 9. i Moeris, p. 347. Thorn. M. p. 70 1 . 

* Fisch. 9. p. 189. ^ Thom. M. p. 198. 

' Lex. Gr. Henn. p. 390, 9. Thom. > Greg. p. (386) 608. v. K^ 
M. p. 564. et Interpr. Lob. ad Phryn. 

Μ 2 


164 Anomalous and Defective Nouns, 

nounced 'Αθηναία ; Πβρσεψόνεια, Ώην€\6π€ΐα, φαμάθ€ία Pind, 
Nem. 6y 23 ; and on the other hand Ίφΐ'γβνη for 'l(fHyev€ia\ 
Substantives derived from verbs have often a form in oc and 
in evc> e. g. πο/ίΑποα ττομνευα (whence 7rofiiri|€c in Homer), 
ήν/οχοί; and ήνιοχβνο (ήΐΊοχηβα in Homer). Ύpoφoc is com- 
monly fern. ' the nurse', τροφεία masc. ' he who nourishes*. Yet 
Euripides Here. JF. 45. El. 412. has τροφόν masc. for τροφία. 

The Attics particularly declined nouns in ων, ovocy in ώ, ovcy 
e. g. χβλιδώ -oJc, for γεΧι^ων -oi^oc. αι/δώ, Γοργώ, βίκώ'^. 
This was done even in the Ionic dialect ; €ΐκω occurs in Hero- 
dotus 7, 69. Comp. §• 79, 4. 

Frequently a new form of the nominative arises from an ob- 
lique case of the old form, e. g. φυΧαζ φυΧακοα, and φύλακας 
•qv II. ω', 566. φυΧακουα Her. 9, 93. μάρτυς {μαρτυρ) 
μαρτνροα, and μαρτυροα μαρτυρον Π. α, 338. Od. ir,423. 
^ιακτωρ -opoc, and Scaicropoc -όρον, £μώα ^μωο^ and Βμωοο 
S /χωου^. θυΧαζ OvXaKOC, and θύλακος θυλάκου, γβρνιβον 
II. ω, 304. So from the accus. Αημητίρα Αημητρα, a new 
nominative Αημητρα -ac, has arisen. §.77. 

In Bekk. Anecd. p. 382, 30. the accus. αΧάστορον is quoted 
from iBschylus as if from άλάστοροα, which is elsewhere the gen. 
of αλάστωρ; and so in αλαστοροισιν ομμασιν Soph. Ant. 974. 
So Sophocles has λάου as if from ό Xaoc §. 86. So πρβσβντηο, 
the common form in prose, but also common in the poets, appears 
to have been lengthened from ό πρβσβυο, which is common in the 
tragedians in the nom., ace, and voc. ; of ττρέσβυα, a gen. is also 
found πρεσβεωα Aristoph. Ach. 93. Ώρεσβευτηο is ' an am- 
bassador', in which sense πρίσβυα also occurs in the singular, 
but only in the poets, e. g. ^sch. Suppl. 741. In the plural, 
however, ol πρεσβεία is used in this sense (like πηχειο). Thu- 
cydides has ττρέσβεα;, but also πρεσβευτα/ 8, 77. 86. Πρεσ- 
βηεο, or ττρέσβηεα appears to have originated like βασιληεα^ 
from metaplasmus^. 

• Schafer ad Greg. 393 seq. p. 527. Brunck acl Soph. Antig. 974. 

»' Valck. ad Phcen. p. 168. Thorn. ^ Thorn. M. p. 734. Amraon. 

M. p. 194. Fisch. 2. p. 174. p. 120. Valck. ad Theocr. Aden. 

«^ KoenadGregor. p.(278)592seq. p. 319. Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 638. 

Fisch. 2. p. 197 seq. Riihnk. ad Lon- Of the dative npcofievai see Lob. ad 

gin. p. 264. Ilemsterh.adLucian. 1. 1. Phryn. p. 69, note. 

Anomalous and Defective Nouns. 165 

The following appear to be old forms subsequently lengthened : 
ίω, κ pi, αΧφι, ipi, y\a<f>v, βρ7, ργ, lengthened into 8ωμα, κριθή, 
αΧψιτον, epiOVf -γΧαφυρον, βριθυ, ραΒιαν^. 

Others have only one form of nominative in use^ but in other ^• 90. 
cases, other forms, which presuppose a form different from the (^^') 
usual form of the nominative, e. g. vi6q is regularly declined 
νιου, υΐψ, υ16ν, plur. νίοί, &c. ; but in the genitive and dative 
sing, and the nom., gen., dat. and accus. plur. amongst the 
Attics the forms vieoc, met, vceTc, υιέων, υιεσι (in the epic 
writers νΐάσι), vieac, mcic'. In Homer, besides these, viea oc- 
curs i?. v\ 2δ0. In Homer also we find the forms vloc, vTi, 
via, dual vTc, plur. vTec, νΐάσι, viae, as if from vTc. So in the 
Attic dialect, σέων, aeac, from the obsolete aevc, which in other 
dialects was σηο, σι^τοα^. Thus also ro oveipov, rov ovelpov 
and ove/paroc, from oveipac (r); whence oveipara Od. v, 87. 
Soph. EL 460. Eur. Or. 618. oveipaoi Eur. Ale. 361. Iph. 
T. 453. iveipa: in Quint. Cal. 12, 106. 

There are various forms of the declension of 'Άρηα, of which 
the old nominative, retained in the ^olic dialect, was "Ά/οευα 
(in Alcaus ap. Eustath. p. 618. 36. Valcken. ad T/ieocr. 
Adoniaz. p. 303.) *Άρηα and "Άρευο were interchanged, as 
Ίηρης and Tijpevc. From "^Apevc, used by Alceeus (East, 
p. 618, 36.), comes gen. "Άρεοα and*'Api|oq //. δ', 441. Attic 
''kpewQj dat. "Άρβϊ and "Άρΐ!*! //. j3', 479. Att. "Άρει, ace. "Άρηα. 
From "Άριιο, on the other hand, comes the Attic accus. "Ά,ρη, 
''Apea Soph. (Ed. T. 190. and^'Apny, {Hemsterh. ad Aristoph. 
Plut. p. 103. Valck. ad Phan. 1013. Porsonad Phan. 134. 
960.) as Σωι:ράτΐ| and Σωιτράτιιν §.91, 1 . of which the latter 
form occurs in Homer ; also the vocative "Άρεα, never ''Apev, 
and the old genitive "Άρεω, in Archilochus. The patronymic 
'Apf|rcaSi|c {Hes. Sc. Here. 67.) presupposes a genitive 'Άρητοο 
Eust. 11. cc. and //. σ\ p. 1133, 13. Xooc χοΰα has pro- 
perly γόου χου, but it was also declined after the third, \ovc, 
Xooc, χοι Athen. 2. p. 1 3 1 B. χουν in a fragment of Menander 

* This view has been very ably ad Phryn. p. 68 seq. 

maintuned by Buttmann, L. Or. i Thorn. M. p. 790. et iDterpr. 

p. 917 seq. Moeris, p. 339. 

' Thom. M. p. 866 seq. Lobeck 


166 Heterocliies. 

Athen. 10. p. 426 C. χοές Plat. Theat. p. 173 D. as j3wc 
fiooc; but also \οωα (from χοεω«), χο€ί, χοα. accus. plur. 
XoaCf as if from \o€vc. Th^ latter form is considered mmie 
Attic. On the contrary, του vooc, voi, wa, τον irXooCy xot? 
pooC| pot, like βουα, instead of του νου, νψ^ νουν, του πλου, του 
ρου, pfff are found only in later writers*. 

Under this class may be reckoned το κίρη, Att. κάρα, which 
in the other cases makes κίίpητoc Od. 2Γ, 230. φ', 157. ca- 
p^oToc IL Ψ', 44. Kpaaroc IL ί', 177. and jcpaToc (the latter 
also in the tragic writers), καρητι IL o, 75. καρηατι 2Z. τ, 
405. χ', 205. κραατι Od. χ, 218. and κρατί (the latter also 
in the tragic writers) in the accus. in Homer only κ&ρη, in 
the Attics το κάρα and το κράτα, e. g. Soph, Phil. 1001. 
κρατ €μον τόδ'. CEd, Τ. 262. ία το Kcivov κράτα. Comp. 
Eur. Bacch, 1139 seq. also as masc. τον σον κρίτα Eur. 
Archel.Fr.3. Soph. Phil. 1207. See Schol. Eur. ΡΑολ. 1159. 
ed. Matthia. This is even the nominative Soph. Phil. 1456. 
In the plural is found καρηατα (κρίατα II. τ, 93.) in Homer, 
and κάρα Η. in Cer. 12. like xepa, τίρα, κρατών Od. χ, 309. 
in Eur. Phctn. 1184. Here. F. 527. an accus. κραταο, con- 
sequently masculine. Of κάρα only the dative jcapf occurs^• 


are words which have only one form of the nominative, but are 
declined according to two different declensions, or different kinds 
of one declension. In this manner are declined, 

1 ) after the first and third declension substantives in ηα, yet 
only in the accus. and vocative, e. g. Έωκρίτηα (third de- 
clension) makes Έωκρατίΐν after the first, Xen. Mem. 1.1,1. 
2, 18, &c. and Σωκράτη after the third. Plat. Symp. p. 200 B. 
So Άριστοψάνην Plato, ib. p. 185 C. 189 A. 'Αριστοφάνη 
ib. p. 189 B. and in the vocative Άριστόφανεο ib. p. 188 E. 
Στρ€ψία$€(; Arist. Nub. 1208. after the third, elsewhere al- 
ways after the first. See §. 68. Obs. 1.* The lonians espe- 

^ Schsf. ad Dionys. Hal. p. 113 Moeris, p. 134. et Picrson. Fisch. 9. 

seq. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 687. Lobeck p. 183 seq. £lmsley, Quart. Rev. 14. 

ad Phiyn. p. 453 seq. p. 453. following Bninck ad Soph. 

^ Valck. ad SchoL Phoen. p. 744. CEd. C. 375. has expressed doubts 

* VVesseling ad Herod, p. 239, 21. whether the Attics formed the accus. 



cially declined various nouns of the first declension after the 
third, e. g. Seomrea ietnroTeac, Aevrvyi^ea Herod, 8, 114. 
icv/SepyJrrea 8^ 118. Πέρσεα 8, 3. for ββσττότιιν Seairorac, 
Αβυτνχιδιιιτ (Αεωτ.), κυββρνίιτην, Ώερσην. Tvyea 1, 10. 11. 
Tvyfiv 1,8. 16. Όρβστ^α 1, 68. 'Ορεστ€ω 1, 67.** So QaXiic, 
after the third declension, θάλιιτοο, Θαλήτα {Diog. L, 1, 39, 
34•), and in Attic particularly after the first, θάλεω (Herod, 
1,170. P/a/.jR«p. 10. p. 600 Α.), θολοί; (Diog.L. 1,40, &c.), 
ΟαΧην (Aristoph. Nub, 180.), as μυκης, μνκου (μυκ€ω Archil,) 
and μνκητοα^. vrvyac II, λ , .77. ΐΓτύχα Eur, Supp, 982. as 
if from πτύξ, elsewhere πτυχαΤα, as if from πτυχή. But neither 
ιτνχιι, πτυζ nor ιττυξ/ is found. 

2) after the first and second. From Ώασιστρατοο, Κροίσος 
Herodotus has 6, 102. 8, 122. Πβισιστ/οάτεω, Κροισεω, 

3) after the second and third, ri πρόχοο^ Od, σ, 397. and 
χρογοψ Od, a, 1 36. plur. πρό'χονσιν in Aristoph. and Eurip. 
See §. 69. Obs, Μβλάμθιοα and MeXavOcvc Od. χ, 162. 159. 
voc. Μελανθευ Od, φ', 1 75 seq. 

'Όσσ€ in Homer is considered by the grammarians as the 
dual of TO οσσοο oaaeoc, for οσσββ, of which Eustathius ad 
II, y, p. 68, 27. produces the dative οσσβι, according to whom 
it followed the third declension. But we have οσσων, οσσοιο, 
οσσοισι, in //. ξ*, 94. Hes, Scut, Here, 426. JEsch, Prom, 
1 44, 8cc. as from oσσoCf οσσον. So from ro o\oq -coCi comes 
οχβα //. e', 746. οχβσι, όχέεσσι tft. 722 ; but the dat. sing. 
οχ^ is found JEsch. Prom, 136. Herod, 8, 124. οχον £tir. 
JBiiccA. 1333. plur. οχοα: JSscA. lA. 716. Soph. EL 727. 
o^ovc £iir. Suppl, 678. as from o^oc, ογον. 

OcSiVovc, and all words compounded with ιτοΰα have -ποδοο. 

of the Srd decl. in -ijv, on the ground 
that DO verse occurs in the poets in 
which a hiatus would arise from the 
removal of the y, though there are 
some in which the addition of ν 
would injure it, e. g. Arist. Nuh. 355. 
Comp. £Imsl. ad (£d. C. 375. The 
MSS. vary. Instead of Σωιφάτη in 
Plato some have -i^v, and vice versa, 

ίοτ*ΑριστοφάνηνΆριστοφάνη, Chos- 
rohosc. Bekk. Anecd. p. 1190. quotes 
έίημοσθένην^ ^Αριστοψάκην, ω Δΐ|- 
μοσθέ^η, ω * Αριστοφάνη, as Attic. 

' Wessel. ad Herod, p. 56, 46. 
Fisch. 1. p. 84. 361. Maitt. p. 106. 

* Moeris, p. 183. et Pierson. Me- 
nag. ad Diog. L. 1, 34. Fisch. 3. 
p. 179. 

IG8 iicleroditc^. 

ace. -ποέίΐ, but also, and especially in Attic, -ττυι;, -πουν*. 
Compare §. 72, 1 1 . 06s. Another form of tlie genitive is Οίδι- 
ποδαο //. ψ', 679. (whence OiSimSa, a common form in the 
tragic writers^) and Οιβιποδεω Herod. 4, 149. from Oi&iroSiK• 

Nouns in ωα are declined partly after the second declension, 
particularly by the Attics, in wc, gen. ω, and partly after the 
thirds wCf ωοο^ e. g. Μίνωα, Mivoioc Od. ρ , 523. and Μίι^ω 
Herod. 1, 171. Thuc. 1, 8. Isocr. Panath. p. 241 C. ed. 
Steph.^ In the same manner γαλωο^ yaXwoc and -ω, jcaXiuc, 
-ωο<; and -ω, dat. plur. κάΧψα Eur. Herc.f, 478. αλω(;> -ωο<; 
and -ω^ τ)ρω and ^/οωο for Ιιρωα and τζ/οωαο^ ^ρωα once in 
Aristoph. on account of the metre. Compare §.70. Obs. 3. 
So probably we ought to write in Homer ace. η/οω, ^μω e/uov, 
not Ύ\ρω Εν/ονττνλ. ίμω €μ6ν ; and in the dative νρψ IL ri , 453• 
Nouns in •ωα -ωτοο are also declined after the 2nd ; ΙΒρώ άπε- 
ψύχοντο //. λ , 621, 8cc. for ίδρωτα, γΙλων ετευχεν Od, σ, 
350. for γέλωτα, and γέλω Od. ν\ 8. 346. whence dat. γελγ 
Od. σ, 100. c8/oy //. /)', 385. Ipy Od. σ\ 212. may be from 
εροΰ. From Φλεγυαα Euripides had a genitive Φλεγύαι^τοο 
(Bekk. Anecd. p. 1 185. Schaf. ad SchoL Apoll. Rh. p. 224.) 
for Φλεγυου. Hence Φλεγυαντ /c. 

4. Sometimes a noun is decUned after different forms of the 
same declension, of which opvic, plur. opveic and opviOec, has 
been already quoted as an example. §. 80. Obs. 8. 

*Έγχελυ<; was declined by the Attics, in the singular like 
ίχθυα, in the plural like ττίχυο, e. g. εγχελέων Arist. Nub. 559. 
Toc εγχελεια id. Equ. 864. The dative εγχελεση^ is quoted by 
Atheneeus from Aristoph. Vesp. 510. where now, however, εγ- 
χελυσιν is read*. Χρώ(; makes gen. χρωτόα {Eurip. Ale. 172. 
Androm. 148.) and χ /oooc (iZ. δ', 130. Eurip. Hec. 548.) 
dat. yjptuTi {Eurip. Or. 42. Androm. 258. ien. Symp. 4, 55.) 
and χροί (Horn. Eurip. Med. 787. 1175.) ace. χ/οωτα (Eurip. 

a Moeris, p. 282. Fisch. 2. p. 181 sq. seq. et Lob. 

t» Valck. ad Eur. Ph. p. 306. • Athen. 7. p. 299 seq. Eustath. 

^'Hcrodian. Piers.p.4d9. Fisch.2. ad U. ψ', p. 1231. Fragm. Lex. Or. 

p. 180. Herm. p. 321. Bninck ad Aristoph. 

•* Thorn. M. p. 424, et Tnterpr. Nub. 1. c. Hemsterh. ad Lucian. 

Mceris, p. 176. et Piers. Phryn. p. 158 t. 1". p. 393. 

Metaplasmus. 1 69 

Bee. 406.) and χ/>όα {Horn. Eurip. Hec. 718. 1 126*.). The 
dative has yet a third form \ρω, in the phrase ev χ/><^ iccc- 
Ι^σθαι. From Σαρτπιδών Homer has Έ>αρπη^6νοα -vi, and Σαρ- 
irijiovTOc -oin-i. From Φόριπ;(; or Φορκυν Homer has Φορ- 
«rvFoc, Od, V y 96. Hesiod this gen. and in the dat. Φό/οιτυι Th. 
270. 333. and accus. Φο/οκυμ 7%. 237. Adjectives com- 
poanded with χ /oovc have usually , amongst the Attics^ the ter- 
mination yjp^Qy λενκοχρω(;. 

Metaplasmus. {.92. 

In other words the proper termination of case appears to 
have been changed for the sake of the metre, or of euphony, or 
iix>m external resemblance into the termination of another de- 
clension, which might easily take place in a language not com- 
pletely fixed. This change is called μεταπΧασμοο κΧισεωα 
(transformation of the termination of case). The following are 
the principal kinds of metaplasm. 

1. Proper names in -kXoc are often declined like those in 
'KXrjCf and again, those in -kXtJc, like those in -icXoc• From 
ΤΙατροκΧοα comes gen. ΪΙατροκΧηοι; IL p\ 670. Od. λ', 467. 
for ΤΙατρόκΧον II. π', 478. accus. Πατ/οοκληα //. λ', 601. 
τ, 121. 818. for ΥΙατροκΧον II. ι, 201. voc. ΏατρόκΧεις 
II. π, 7. 693. 754. as from TTar/ooicXic^, which Theocritus 
has 15, 140. From 'ΊφικXoc ap. Hes. Scut. Here. 54. Ίφι- 
κΧηα and ib. 111. the patronymic ΊψιιcλeίSι|c, as in Horn. Od. 
V, 289. 295. βίΐϊ ΊφικΧηβίη. 

In a similar manner Άντιφάτηα Od. o, 243. has Άντι- 
φατηα ic , 1 14. as if from Άι^τιψατευο. Τηρυων -ovoc, Γηρυονηο 
-οκου, Τηρυονηα -ί|ΐ in Hesiod. 

2. Some nouns of the first and second declension have; par- 
ticularly in the dative and accus. sing, and in the genitive also, 
the termination of the third declension, e. g. 

a'lSoc aiSi in Homer (as from ai'c, for which, however, only 
aiSiic or f Stvc occurs), for atSov (αιδεω) acSp. 

' Herodian. Piers, p. 459. Suid. Fisch. 3. p. 184. Ruhnk. ad II. in 

ν.Ιν'χρψκ€Κ€φμένην. Alcxus Mess. Cer. 153. Wyttenb. ad Plut. de s. 

£pigr. 19. has Iv yjtoi Keip. num. vind. 

' Valck. ad Theocr . Adoniaz. p. 4 1 1 . 

1 70 Metaplasmus. 

αλκΐ II. t, 299. as from α\ξ oXkoc, for όλκρ. 

θίραπεο Eur, SuppL 764. Ion. 94. for eepiwovrec* 

Ιωκα IL V, 600. from [ωκή Π. c , 740•. 

κλαδί in the Scolion Anal. 1. p. 16δ. 7. ArUtoph. LysUir. 
632. and icXaSeac Aristoph. Av. 239. as from jcXac, icXaSoc, 
for icXaS^y JcXaSocc• So κρΙν€σι Aristoph. Nub. 908. of which 
no other nominative than κρίνον occurs, is probably analogous 
to SevSpoVf SevSpeai. 

κρόκα ΗβΒ.^Έργ. 536. for κροκην. 

λιτί, λϊτα η. ff, 441. σ, 352. φ', 354. for Xiry, Xiror•'. 

νίψα {την) Hes. "Έργ. 633. for τον νιφ€τ6ν. 

νσμινι in Homer for νσ /ucvf ^• 

3. In the same manner the plural of different neuters in 
ovy particularly in the dative, is formed after the third declen- 
sion, e. g. 

αι^δραττόδβσσι //. ri\ AT 5. for av^pavoioiCy from αν^ρανοΖον^ 
is formed like irovc, and the rest of its compounds, π-ό^εσσι, 


ποσι . 

προσωπατα, προσώττασι II. η ^ 212. as from προσωπαα^ for 
πρόσωπα, προσωποια. 

προβασι for προβίτοια, from πρόβατον^, seems to have been 
in use only in the vulgar language. Whether ε-γκασι be for 
eyjcarofc is doubtful, as only ejKara is found, not eyKaroc, nor 
eyKarov. In ApoUonius λίβα occurs for XijSaSa, στάγεο for 

The ^tolians, an .£olic tribe, are said to have formed the 
nouns of the third declension in the plural, after the second, 
e. g. γερόντοιι;, παθηματοι^ for γέρονσι, παθτιμασι, as the La- 

• Fisch. 2. p. 183. ** Fisch. 2. p. 188. 

** Fisch. 2. p. 187. « IJerodiaii. Ilenii. p. 308. xxi. 

' Fisch. 2. p. 186. 


Gender of Subetantivei. 171 

tins alio said epigrammatiSf dilemmatis, for epigrammaiibus, 

Obs. Buttmann conjectures (L, Gram• p,Zl7 seq.) that most of these 
forms are derived from simpler nominatives which had fallen into disuse 
from their cacophony, or hecause the language always tended to the use 
of fuller forms. Thus οι μάστι, μάστιν IL φ\ 500, Od. ο, 182. the old 
Dom. μάστίί is found in Hesychius *. Of ^ivlpet, ^ivdpta, liviptiav^ 
l€¥Zp€9if the old nom. το lkvlpo% is found Herod, 6, 79. But with a 
various reading iir\ liv^pov^ and of κοίνών€9 ^as found in Xenophon, we 
have the dat. sing, απνωνι {κοινάη) Pind, Pyth, 3, 50**; and in the 
same way we might suppose old nominatives for the others, so that the 
only example of metaplasmus would he 6,νΙραπ6ΐ€σσι, But as they no 
where occur, it is safer to consider these forms as the results of roeta- 
plasm, lest we should fall into the error of the grammarians who in- 
vented KaXKiyhvaiif €υπάτηρ, to explain icaXXiyvvaica, ciirar^peia. Otlier 
examples of metaplasm see helow §. 124, 2. 

There are also Indeclinahles^ or words which keep the same form in 
all cases, as most of the cardinal numbers, the names of the letters 
6\ψα^ βήτα, &c.' Of genuine Greek substantives the only one of this 
kind is ro χρ€ων ' fate' Eur. Hipp, 1270. Comp. Here, F. 21. θέ /iif 
seems to have remained unchanged in the forifiula Oc/iir eari with an 
infinitive. Plat, Gorg, p. 505 C. D. *Αλλ' ohH rovs μί/θον$ ψασί /lerofu 
θέμα eJyai caroXe/xeiv. So Buttmann {L, Gr, p. 232.) explains Soph» 
(Ed, C 1191. where we must not be misled by die repetition of σέ• 

Of the Gender of Substantives. 

The gender of substantives is determined partly by the 
signification, and partly by the termination. Frequently the 
termination and the signification accord. 

The following are determined by their significations : 

Masculine 1 . All names of male persons or animals. 

2. The names of the months, as ο μην, * the month' itself, 
is masculine. 

' Fisch. 2. p. 190. Zumpt's Latin ^ Zeune and Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 

Gr. §. 13. 8. 7, 5, 35. 

' Heyne Obss. ad II. 8. p. 468. * Of σίγμα see Pors. ad Eur. Med. 

Fisch. 2. p. 193. 476. Schaef. Mclet. p. 90. 


172 Gender of Substantives. 

3. The names of rivers, except some, in which the termi- 
nation prevails, e. g. η Αηθη ' the river Lethe'. 

Feminine 1. All names of female persons or animals, e. g. 
fl Ασπασία, η Λεόντίοΐ', except diminutives, e. g. το κορασιαν 
' the little girl'. 

2. Names of trees, which mostly end in η and a. But the 
names also of trees in oc are feminine, except ό epiveoc * the 
wild fig-tree', ό φελλός * the cork-tree', ό jce/oaaoc * the cherry- 
tree', ο λωτός * the lotus-tree', ο κυτισοο. 

Some are both masculine duxd feminine (generis communis), 
o, fl vawvpoQ * the papyrus', o, ή jcOtii^oc * the wild olive-tree', 
Arist. Av. 619. Theocr. 6, 100. 

3. The names of countries, islands, and towns, e. g. η Αί- 
yvwTOQ (ό ΑϊγυτΓτοο in Homer is the name of the river Nile) *, 
fl Σά /uoq, fl PoSoc, fl Αάμασκοα, fl TpoitflVj fl Tlpvvc; also 
"Ίσθμον Αωρίαν Pind, Nem. 5, 69. Isthm. 1, 45. elsewhere ό 

Ισθ /xoc• 


1. The following are excepted : a) Names of towns in ovs, 6 SeXi- 
voUsf 6 Σκιλλον$, 6 '£Xeot;s, 6 Πεσσινονε, ^c. b) Names of towns in cay, 
ο Me^ecuv, 6 Μαραθών, except ή Βα/3νλών. Μαραθώ ν is masculine in 
Herod, 6, 107. 111. ^c, feminine in Pind. 01. 13, 157*•. In like manner 
Ί^ικυων is masculine and feminine^, c) Those in η$ ητοί, 6 Μάση$, 
Straho 7, 376. d) Names of towns which have only the plural, are 
masculine when they end in oc, feminine when in at ; neuter when in a, 
rci Acvicrpa. e) Names of towns in as, e g. ό 'Aicpoyaf * the city of 
Agrigentum' Thuc. 7, 46. 50. also ή Άκρ. Pind. Pyth. 6, 6. ο Tapas 
• the city of Tarentum* Thuc. 6, 10 i. also ή Tapas Dionys. Perieg. 376. 
V. Steph. Byz. s, v. "Ερυξ is both masc. and fem.** "Apyos -eof, is of 
the neuter gender. 

2. Many names of islands and cities are of both genders, νλήεσσα 
ZaKvyOos Od. &, 24. έν vXiievri Zaicvi^O)» Od. a, 246. r, 123. '£ir/- 
^avpos occurs in Homer, //. jS', 561. as mascuUne^ ό/ιπελόοτ* *£π/- 
Ιαυρον : in other writers, e. g. Strabo, it is feminine. *€1ρωπυ$ occurs 
as masculine in Thuc. 8, 60. 95. and QvXos Od. a, 93. The usual 

' Eustath. ad Od. y , 30. « Schweigh. ad Ath. t. 7. p. 425. 

** Thom. M. p. 597. et Interpr• ** Valck. ad Theocr. Aden. p. 392. 
Wessel. ad Herod, p. 485, 73. 

Gender of Substantives, 173 

name το "IXcoy is in Homer // "IXios, except in the suspected passage, 
//. o', 71. 

3. Names of animals, which are of the common gender, are frequently 
used in Greek in the feminine^ when nothing depends on the determi- 
nation of the sex» hut the name of the animal is given generally. 

The following rules are observed in the terminations : $.94. 

Words in a, which have a vowel or i, δ, θ, λ, ν, ρ, σ before 
the termination^ are feminine^ and follow the first declension ; 
e. g. ή Tpairetifi ' the table', ή διφθέρα ' the parchment', 
ή άμιλλα * the contest*, ή εχιδμα * the viper*, &c. Those 
which have μ before their termination are neuter ^ and follow 
the third declension ; e. g. το σώμα, το Χημα ' the will', το 
Χημμα * the gain*. They are mostly derived from verbs, and 
from the first person perf. pass. Also το γάλα, γάλακτοα. 

QIC. Of these ttoTc is common, ο and fi παΐα, δαΐα Jeminine, 
and σταΐα neuter. They all follow the third declension. 

αν are all masculine, exceipt that this is also the termination of - 
the neuter of adjectives in ac, 

ap mostly neuter, το ημαρ ' the day', το εΤδαρ ' the victuals', 
TO φρίαρ * the well', &c. But fi δά/ιιαρ and -η oap ' the 
wife', take their gender from their signification, ο φάρ is masc. 

ac 1) partly masculine, which have the genitive in avToc, e. g. 
ο ιμαο ιμαντοο, ο avSpiac avSpiavroc, So also ο Tapac 
ai'Toc * the city of Tarentum', and 'Axpayac ' the city of 
Agrigentum', are masculine, §.93. ο,ηά feminine, 

2) partly feminine, which have the genitive in aSoc, e. g. 
ή Xaμπac aSoQ, η neXeiac, π άστα c φυ-γας -aBoc * the fugi- 
tive', is of the common gender, 

3) neuter, only dissyllables^, which make otoc in the geni- 
tive, TO yripac, το Kpeac, το Kcpac, 

avQ in the genitive aoc, ^ve feminine, η ypavc ypaoc, vaSq. 

eip. Concerning φθβΐρ see §. 95. χειρ is feminine, but the 
compounds άντι'χβιρ, &c. are masculine^, 

• Etym. M. p. 491. ' Fisch. 1. p. 388. 

174 Gender of Substantives. 

eic mostiy feminine, except ο ncrec'c /crevoc ' the comb*. In 
adjectives etc is the masculine termination. 

euc genitive ewe, are all masculine. 

η genitive tiroc, to καρη. 

ην genitive ηνοα and evoc are masculine, e. g. ο Χιμην, ο αυγίιν, 
ο σπΧην, ο ττοιμην ; except η ^ιρην, η φ/>ήν * the intellect'^ 
and ό, η χ^ν ' the goose', common. 

ηρ are chiefly masculine, except fi γοστηρ ' the belly', ή i4p 
' fate'y and those which from their signification ^ve feminine, 
e.g. 1/ μητηρ, fi Ονγάτηρ. Άηρ * the mist* and ' the air', 
is masc. and femin.^ So also o, η αιθηρ^, e. g. Soph. (Ed. 
T. 866. κηρ for κβαρ ' the heart', η ρ for eo/i * the spring*, 
στηρ for στβαρ ' the tallow*, are neuter. 

t|C in the first declension masculine, e. g. ο αιαι^α/αια, ό Seavornc, 
&c. In the third declension also, mostly masculine, except 
those in ηα nroc, as fi eσθrιc, and substantives in ottvc and 
υτηζ, which are feminine. In adjectives this is the termi- 
nation of the masculine 2uid feminine. 

ι are all neuter, e. g. σίνηπι, μίλι. 

IV are mostly feminine, e. g. fi plv, h ώδ/ν, ή ακτίν, ή θίν (or 
die) * the shore', (filv ^ the heap*, is masculine KnAfeminitie^,) 
δελφίμ is masculine. 

cc feminine, except ο jc/c ' the weevil', ό Xcc ' the lion*, ό ββλψίο• 
Others, from their signification, are masculine ^xia feminine, 
6• g• ^f ^ οψιο, ο, η προμαντίο, ο, η o/ovcc^• 

ζ are, Ι ) masculine, ο νιναΤ^, ο μυρμηζ, ο ιίραζ, ο θωραζ, ο 
φοίνιξ ' the palm*tree'*. 2) feminine, as ή νύξ, η βώΧα^, 
Ίι ^ιασφαζ, fi ίιωρνζ, ή θρι^αξ, ή icciXu^, ή ι:λαζ, ή ι:λί/χαξ, 
ή κυλίξ, fi Χαρναξ, η πηληξ, ή πτέρυξ, fi ντυξ, ή σήραγξ, 
ή φλοξ, η λύγ^ , η σμω^ιξ, fi α\ωπη)ζ, ή φόρμιη/ξ, fl σύριγξ, 
ή χοΐνιξ, fl θριξ, ν φάρα-γξ, ή αντυξ, ή στ/ξ, ή κάμαξ, 

• Fisch. 1. ρ. 389. * Fisch. 1. ρ. 394 seq. 397. 

*» Fisch. 1. p. 390. • Bninck ad Poet. Gnom. p. 275. 

' Fisch. 1. p. 383. Fisch. 1. p. 385. 

Gttider of Substantives. 1 75 

η μύστί)^, η νροΐζ^. 3) Others are common, a) names of 
men and animals, o, η αίζ^ ό, ri θρ^ζ^ ο, η ϋλφαζ, ο, ν 
μ€ΐραζ, ο, τι φύΧα<ζ, ο, ή σκυλαξ^ ό, η πΐρδιξ. b) ο, ή αυ- 
λα? , ό, η βηξ, ο, η φίρυγξ, ο, η λάρυγξ, ο, ή στυραξ, 
ο, ή φάλογξβ. 

0¥ are neuter , except the names of women, η Αόρκιον, η Γλν- 
KEpioVf η AcovTiov §.93. 

\ w 

op are neuter, as to αορ. 

oc are mostly masculine. The following are feminine, 1 ) the 
names of islands and cities, like fi vijaoc ^ the island'. 2) the 
names of trees, plants, flowers, ri jceSpoc, ri <t>fiyoc, fi jcv- 
ναρισσοο, fi αμμοα and φάμμοα ' the sand', ασαμιρθος ' the 
bathing-tub', ασβολος * the soot', άσφαλτος ' asphaltus', 
ατραπό^: or αταρττόα ' the way', βαΧανοα ' the acorn', βά- 
σανος ' the touchstone, the proof, βΙβΧοο, γνάβος ' the jaw- 
bone', γυφοα ' the gypsum', ScXtoc ' the writing-tablet', 
BoKoc * the beam', δρόσος 'the dew', κάμπος 'the oven', ica- 
9Γ€τος ' the pit', καρδοττος ' the kneading-trough', κέλβυθος 
' the path', κίρκοα ' the tail', κιβωτός ' the chest', κόπρος 
' the manure', λειτιθος ' the yolk of an egg', Χήκυθος ' the 
oil-flask', μΙΧτος ' a red colour*, ή νόσος ' the disease', 
ή οδός ' the way', and its compounds ; πλίνθος ' the tile', 
νρόγρος -χους ' the water-pot', πύελος ' the trough*, ράβ- 
δος ' the stafl*', σορός ' the coffin', σποδός ' the ashes, dust', 
τάφρος 'the trench' ElmsL ad Soph. (Ed. C. 1596. ύαλος 
' amber, glass', χιιλός ' the chest', φηφος ' the pebble* **• 

The following are common : 1 ) denominations of persons, 
which may be either male or female, e. g. άγγελος ' the 
messenger', male or female ; αμφίποΧος ' the servant, the 
maid-servant'. 2) Names of animals, e. g. o, η γερανός, 
ο, ri apKToc. Again, o, ή άτρακτος ' the spindle', o, η βαρ^ 
βιτος ' the lyre', ο, ή θάμνος ' the bush', ο, ή βεός ' the god, 
the goddess', ό, ή Χίθος 'the stone', &c. The greater 
number are adjectives of two terminations ^ 

' Fisch. 1 . p. 386 seq. ^ Fisch. 1 . p. 365. 

' Fisch. 1. p. 386 seq. * Fisch. 1. p. 367 seq. 

176 Gender of Substantives. 

Subsiantives in oc, which follow the third declension, are 
all neuter, 

ouc are masculine, except το ovc, which comes from ovac• βουζ 
is common, since it signifies ' a bull* and ' a cow'. 

V are neuter, πών, ραττυ, yovv, Sopv, άστυ, 

vv are masculine, 

vp are masculine, except το πυρ, ο, ή μαρτυρ. Find. Nem. 3, 

vG are feminine, except ο βοτ/ουο * the bunch of grapes', 
ό epiiwc ^ the stool', ο ίχθύ« ' the fish', ο μΰ^ ^ the mouse', 
ο νβκυα * the corpse', ο στάχυα ' the ear of com', ο 1Γηγyc 

* the ell', * the arm' ; vc and avc are common, 

φ are masculine, except η \αί\αφ ' the storm', η ψλέ^ * the 
vein', fi γβρνιφ ' the water for washing', η 6φ * the voice', 
ri καΧαυροφ ' the shepherd's crook'. 

ω zxe feminine, e. g. η ττβιθώ, η ιίχω• 

ων are masculine. 1 ) those which make ovtoc in the genitive, 
e. g. βρακών, S/oaicovTOC. 2) the greater part of those which 
have wvoc in the genitive : except ή αΧων ' the threshing- 
floor', ή -γΧηγων * penny-royal', ή μήκων * the poppy', [ή 
τρηρων * the shy dove']. Those which have ovor, in the 
genitive are feminine, e. g. ή χελιδώμ * the swallow' ; ex- 
cept ό ακμών * the anvil'. Many are common, as o, ή η-γεμών 
' the guide', male or female ; o, ή αΧβκτρυών ' the cock*, 

* the hen'% o, η αηΒών * the nightingale'**, o, ή δαίμων * the 
god, the goddess', o, η κνων^. So also o, ri κώίων, ο, ii 

The Attic termination ων for ov in the second declension 
is of the neuter gender, e. g. το ανώσεων, του -γβω. 

ώρ are masculine, except η αΧεκτωρ * the consort', ' the un- 
married virgin', ο άΧβκτωρ ' the cock', η αωρ ' the bride', 
and the neuter το ελω/ο * the capture, game, spoil', το 
ίΧ^ωρ or εελδωρ ' the wish', το υδω/ο * the water', 8cc. 

■ Athen. 9. p. 373 seq. « Fisch. 1. p. 883 seq. 

»» Schaef. Melet. p. 65. «» Fisch. 1. p. 384 seq. 


Gender of Substantives. 177 

vQ are, in the third declension, 1) ic, ioc feminine , e. g. fi αί- 
HiCf ii Ύΐωα, 2) laCt ^toc and cuoc masculine, e. g. ο e/oiiic 
'IoTe% ό γέλωι:, -wroc ^laughter', ο ψώ^ ψωτόα * the man% 
xpifc, γβωτοο 'the skin^, ο ιτάλω^ -ohm; 'the rope% 
OcuCy θωόα ' the. jackal', ο £/ιώο, -oioc ' the slave', ο ήρωα, 
-wcK. Except TO φωο, φωτός ' the light'. 3) In the second 
declension the Attic termination ως, ω, is of the masculine 
gender. The following are feminine^ ν γαλωο, γαλω and 
γαλωος, and η aXoic, αλω* and aXwoc yjpetaQ, gen. τον 
χ/9€ω«, is neuter* 

The dialect varies also the gender of the substantives, e. g. §.95. 

ά^/9, in the epic writers feminine, in the later writers mas- 

οίων, commonly masculine, in Homer, Pindar, and the tra- 
gedians, but also feminine //. χ^ δ8. Eur. Ph. 1 522 ^ 

βάηκ is masculine in Attic, otherwiseyemintne^ « 
βιίλος is feminine in Attic, in the others masculine^. 

Ιρΰς, which otherwise is fem., was used as masc. by the 

κΙω¥ ' the column', is masc. in the Attic dialect, but fem. 
inlonic (in Homer only Od. a, 1 27. Herod. 1 , 92, 8cc.) 
and Doric* Pind. Pyth. 1, 36. fem. 

\ψ6α, which otherwise is masc, ψ^λ feminine^ in Doric. It is 
used so by the Megarensian in Aristoph. Acham. 743• 

Ιμφαζ ' an unripe grape', vizsfem. in Attic ; otherwise niiMC.^ 

οχο« masc. and neut. See §.91. 

ajcoToc also masculine in Attic ; in other dialects neuter} 

* Valck. ad Phoen^ 1490. Boeckh ' Porphyr. Qusst. Hofn« p. sdO. 
ad Find. Pyth. 1, 15. Fisch. J . p. 383. 

' Thom. M. p. 148. Mcerisy p. 99. ^ Fisch. 1. p. 368. 

• Thom. M. p. 176. Moeru», p. 96. ^ Phrynich. p. 54. c. n. Lobeck. 
Phrynich. p. 54. Uemsterh. ad Lii- Eustath. ad Od. a, p. 1390. lin. 5 
ctan.Tim. l.p. 400. ed. Bip. Fisch. 1. ed. Rom. 

p. 368. * Schol. £urip. Hec. 1. ad Moer. 

^Schol. Aristoph. Nub. 401. p. 354 seq. Fisch. 2. p. 173, 

VOL. 1. Ν 

178 (jenclcr of Substa?ifives. 

GKvcpoQ as inasculine and neuter in Euripides and others. 

στaμvoQ * a wine veesel'; used as fern, by the Attics, aa masc, 
by the Peloponnesians*• Yet Arietophanee used it 
as masc. Phit. 545. See the Scholiast. 

τά/οιχοα ' salted meat', was used as masc. by the Dorians, 
lonians, and others ; by the Attics alone as neuter 

T&prapoQ feminine, Pind. Ρ^Λ. 1, 29. Nicosia. Ther. 204 ^ 

vaXoc, or veXoc, was also fern, in Attic ; in other dialects 
only masc.^ 

f^apvy^ feminine in the older writers ; masculine also in later 

φθεί/ο ' the louseV was used as masculine by the Attics ; by 
the others only b.8 feminine^. 

Substantives were often used by later writers in a different 
gender froih that in which they had been used by the older 
writers and by the Attics, a practice frequently coademned by 
the Atticists. Of this class are το έΧΧεβορον (Thorn. Μ, 
p. 296.)y TO pvwoQ (Lobeck. ad Phryn. p. 150 seq.)i and others. 
When the gender was thus changed, the form was frequently 
changed too, as for αίνος 'praise', (Ittgcioc Od. φ', 110.) i 
oivii was used, in the phrases so common in Herodotus (3, 74. 
8, 112. 9, 16.) ev aivg elvac, L• αίνγ fieycWp ecvai 'to be in 
respect and honour'. See §.97. Ό βΙοτ<κ was also i? /3c9r^, 
iu Horn, only Od. ^, 665. (even the accus. βιότητα Hom. H. 
in Mart. 10.)* Pindar, Herodotus (only 7, 47.), and the tragic 
writers β, only however in lyric passages. Thus η κοίτη and 
ο icoiToc are both used Od. ξ', 456. τ', 510. Herod. I, 9. 
ifoiTOi', ib. 10. κοίτην, also Eur. Rhes. 740. 'Oveipoa and 
oveipov sing, and plur. in Hom. and the tragedians, to which 
in the plural is added the form oveipara §• 89. irXovoc and 

^ Sext. £mpir. adv. Gr. p. 847. 256. Moen p. 373 seq. 

»» i>(Alux 6, 48. Thorn. M. p. 834. • Lob. ad Phryn. p. 05. 

Moeris» p. 369. et Interpr. Fisch. 3. ^ Thorn. M. p. 894. Moer. p, 309. 

p. 174. Pbiynich. p. 307. Fisch. I. p. 388w 

« BoBckh ad Find. p. 434. ■ Hemst. ad Luc. 1. 1. p. 376. 

* Eusfath. ad Od, a', p. 19. ad 

Heteroge^em. 179 

τΧίαηι both in the Attics^ ; ο ιτάβο^ and η ιτοβι? both in Homer, 

φθόγγος and fi φθογγίι both in Homer and the tragedians• 

The nouns in -a/uoc and -σ /ua, denved from the first per s. of the 

perf. pass, are used both as masc• and neut., as ό ασπασμοα 

and TO ασττασμα in Euripides ; also fi βλάβη, and in Herodotus 

and the tragedians το βΧαβος. οι θβμεΧιοι Thuc. 1,93. more 

commonly τα θεμέλια^ (elsewhere ο θεμίΧιος, sc. λίθος 'the 

foundation stone') ; το νώτον in the Attics^ ό veS^Toc in the 

common dialect and in later authors J. Feminines have very 

commonly also a neuter form. Instead of the common -η 

γωμη the tragedians had also το γνωμα JEsch. Ag. 1361. 

SopL Track. 595. Eur. Heracl. 408. which in Herod. 7, 52. 

means ' knowledge'• fi Slxfja and το Sixpoc are both equally in 

use^, as Plat. Rep. 4. p. 437 D. comp. with p. 438 seq. 

TO νίπος and if ν&τη both in the tragedians^ the latter aho in 

Homer and the other Attics ; το πίθος and η woBtij the bttei 

in Herodotus, Pindar, and the tragedians {MscK Sopk.)^ in the 

sense of ' misfortune', η ττλευρα had also a plural τα πλευρά, 

as firom ro πλενρορ, along with the form ai πλβυρα'ιΚ 

Heterogenea. §.9β. 

Several substantives have, in the plural, a different gentler 
and termination from the singular. This is called μεταπλασμος 
-γένους (transformation of the gender), and the words theim- 
selves ετερογενή. This metaplasmus is founded probably on 
different forms of the same substantive, of wMch one remains 
in use in the singular, the other in the plural™. The following 
are of this nature : 

ο βόστρυχος, plur. τα βόστρυχο, only however in later 
writers instead of ol βοστρυγοι °. 

^ Thorn. M. p. 717. Moeris, p. 315. JEsch. Pers. 490. 

c. n. Ittterp. ' Pors. ad Eur. Hec. 8ίΟ. Or. S17.^ 

' Thorn. M. p. 437. Mcer. p. 185. Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 1389. 

^ Thorn. M. p.6S7. Moer. p. 2(S7. ** Thes^ words are treated of fay 

Phrynich. p. S90. c. n. Lobeck. Eustath. ad U. a, p. 108, 17. Etym. 

Rsch. 8. p. 17a Sdiweigh. ad Atiien. M. v. ic^XcvOqs, p. 502. Sehol. Yen. 

t 7. p. 1S5. ad II. ci, 319. 

^ Hensterh. ad Luc. t. S. p. 497. " Schef. ad Dkm. ds Coin|K) 

Duker ad Thuc. 7, 87. Blomf. ad p. 407. 

Ν 2 

1Θ£Ι Heterogenea• 

, ο Βεσμος, in the plural τα ίεσμα, which was ased chiefly in 
the Attic dialect; the plural Sea/ioi was the common Greek. Yel 
we find ^€σμούο also Od. θ\ 724. and MschyL Prom. 624*. 
There is also the form τα δέσποτα Od. a, 204. ff, 278. 

ρ δίφρος, in the plural τα Si<f>pa Callim. H. in IHan. 136. 

ο θ€σμ6ο * the decree', plur. το θβσμα Soph. Fragm. p. 696, 
ed, Brunck.^ 

ri jceXevdoc * the way', plur. τα ιτέλβνθα, as iypa iceXevda is 

ό kvk\oq 'the circle', plur. τα κνκΚα 'the wheels^; alsc 
κύκλοι II. ν', 280. 

ό Xi^yoc 'the lamp', plur. τα λυχνα Herod. 2, 62. 133 
Eurψ. Cyd. 612^ 

9 rs 

6 airoQ ' com', plur. το σΐτο^ 

ό σταθμός, plur. τα σταθμά Soph. OEd. Τ. 1 1 39. Demosth. 1 
p. 784, &c. also σταθμοί/α Eur. Or. 1492. Andr. 281. Ir 
the sense of ' balance' the neut. form is alone in use in th( 

ο ταρσόα, plur. τα ταρσα in later authors i>. 

ο TaprapoCf plur. τα Τάρταρα. 


Of these substantives the singular does not occur as neuter 
But the following, which are considered as belonging to thii 
class, are found neuter in the singular : τά νώτα from το νωτον 
See §.96. τά ίρετμα from τό ερετμον Od. λ , 77. /i, 16 
\f/, 268. τά Zvya from το tvyov Plat. Cratyl. 31•». 

The following neuters in the plural are more rare, and an 
chiefly found in later authors ; τά Βρυμά from ό S/ov/ioc //. λ' 

*Fisch.2.p.l69. Thoni.M.p.904. • Wess. ad Herod, p. 13«, «5 

^ Porson ad Eur'ip. Med. 494. Porson 1. c. Fiscb. 9. p. 17t. 
^ Bekker in Jen. lit. Zeit. 1809. ' Musgr. ad Eurip. Uel. p. 498. 

No. 849. p. 171. calls in question the * Schaef. ad Mosch. 2, 60. p. 835 

correctDess of the form κέλβνθοι. ^ Valck. ad Ammon. p. 65. 

*' Fie*. 3. p. iro. 

Heterogenea. 181 

1 18. 8cc. τα SajcTvXa from ό SOktvXoc Theocr, 19, 3. τα τρα- 
χηλα from ό τράχιιλού Callim. Fr. 98. τα pvwa from ο ρύπος 
Od. iCf 93'• τα yakiva from ό γαΧινος. 

The difference in the meaning of a word has also sometimes §•97• 
an influence in varying the gender• ^ '' 

ό aivoti means only ' discourse', * narrative', ' praise* ; h 
αίνη occurs only in the kindred sense of 'good 
reputation'. See §. 95. 

Sea/uoc ' bond', ' fetter' ; ^ Βίσμη * bundle'. 

iiryoc ' the yoke' ; το ζυγον * the balance'-^• 

i OoXoc ' dirt' ; η OoXoc ' the sweating-bath', * the coved 
roof '^ ; (according to Sext. Empir. p. 248. η doXoc 
is Attic, ό OoXoc Doric.) 

oiiroc 'the press', 'the mouse-trap' Arist. Plut. 815. 
Pollux, p. 1317. filiroQ Find. 0/. 4, 1 1. ' burden', 
' load'. 

ό iinroc ' the horse* ; η cmroc ' the mare', ' cavalry'. 

XeKiOoQ * pottage made of pulse' ; η XeiccOoc ' the yolk of an 

ό XiBoc ' the stone' ; η Xidoc ' the precious stone' ^ 

μηρός f μηροί ' the thighs', τα μηρίο, or μηρα ' the thighbones'". 

ο στνραξ ' the shaft of the javelin' ; η στνραξ ' the storax'". 

ο χάραζ ' the palisade' ; fi χάραξ ' the stake to which the 
vine is fastened'®. 

In some substantives, which are not common, the femtpiine j.98. 


* Hsch. 8. p. 171. and on the other side Schneid. 

J Valck. ad Anim. p. 65. Lexicon, s. v. μηρίον, 

^ Steph. Thes. L• Gr. 1. 1. p. 1571 ° Ammon. p. 132. et Valck. Thorn, 

eqq. M. p. 811. Mceris, p. 357• 

» Steph. Thes. L. Gr. t. 2. p. 705. <> Thom. M. p. 911. Phryn. p. 61. 
" Voss. Mytl). Br. 3. p. 303 seq. 


1 82 Heterogenea. 

gender ie indicated by a peculiar termination, so that eith< 
termination fc ie annexed to the masculine, as'^EXXifv^ *EX 
or the termination of the masculine is changed. In the 
caee the following are changed : 

""into ic, e. g. δβσποτίϊα Scottotic, ποΧΙτηο ττολΐτια, 
πωΧης αρτόπωλιο^, Ικ€τηο ικβτια, ^ραπ€τψ 
vertc, &C• 

into τρία, ττοιιιτηα ποιήτρια, κιΟαριστΎ\α κιθαρΙ<η 
This takes place in substantives which are f( 
from the third person perf. pass, of verbs ( 

into rptc, as aXertic aXerpU, ορ\'ηστηα opyflarpu 
XifT^C αυΧητρίζ?, 

Obi• The form rpis was more frequently used 
Attics in some words than τρία*. 

From irei^c and θηο come the forms ire 
and θησσα^ (r)• 

'into a, when a vowel or a /f> precedes the termini 
e. g. eKvpoQ έκνρα in Attic. 

into η, in all other cases, e. g. SovXoc ΒουΧη. 

into tc, e. g. arparriyoc Grparriylc, aiyjiaXwroc a 
oc^ λωτ /c, icaTPfAoc κατπ{Χια, ζύμμα'^οα ζνμμαγ 

an adjective, Tvpavvoc τυραννία, &c.^ 

into aiva only in some, e. g. Oeoc θίαινα, Xvkoc Xvi 
In the Alexandrian dialect the form ισσα 
used, SiaKovoc διακόνισσα. 

αζ and αφ into ασσα, e. g. ανα^ ανασσα, φαφ φίσσα : i 
others -koq of the gen. is changed into ^kic, as 
KoXa^f κοΧακΙα, from φύΧαζ, φυΧακΙα^. 

* Fiscb. β. p. 68. Valck. ad £urip. * Lob. ad Pbryn. p. 256. 

Hippol. p. 285. b. A. •* Moeris, p. 279. et Piers. 

^ Fisch. 2. p. 69. Valck. ad £ur. ad II. χ', p. 61 seq. 

Hipp. 589. £lins. ad Med. 156. ' Tiscb. 2. p.70. 

Monk ad Hipp. 585. Bast, ad Greg. ^ Fisch. 2. p. 71. 

C. p. 259. > Lob. ad Phryn. p. 452. 

€VC^ . 


Clas$€i of SubUamiives. 1 83 

J into etup e. g. icpeuc iepeia, /SaotXeui; βασίλ€*α^ 

into CO and ισσα, βαλανευα βαΧανία, βασίΧενϊ; |3ασιλ/^ 
and βασίλισσα; the latter, however, rarely in 
Attic". So also βαλανισσα, ΐΓανδόιασσα, Αίθισ- 
ΐΓίσσα^ Aristophanes has even said ri Ύραμμα^ 
reCc Thesm. 432. but in jest. 

The Doric or Macedonic dialect had, besides, 
the form βασίΧινρα, which Menander once usedJ. 

vp into cipUf e. g. σωττιρ σώτεΐ/οα, iorfip Soreipa^• σημαν 
Tplc as an adjective, e. g. 4ΐημαντρ^ γ?, comes from 

ιξ into ισσα, e. g. Φοινιζ ΦοΙνισσα, ΚΙΧιζ Κ/λισσα. So θ/ορ |^ 

VC into υσσα, e. g, Αιβνΰ Αίβυσσα. 

ωρ into eipa, e. g. πανΖαμίτωρ τταν^αματειρα. The yem. of 
σνλλ^πτωρ is συΧΧηιττρια, Yet probably the basis of 
these is in the obsolete forms παρΒαματηρ (as οΧβτηρ 
IL σ y 114. oXeTeipa) and σνλλτ^τΓτι^α (as συμιταίστωρ 
and σνμπαΐστηο, σνμπαιστρια), 

ων into aci^a, e. g. λέων Xeaiva^ Βρακών Βρακαινα, Αάκων Αά- 
καινα, θεράπων θεραπαινα, αΧβκτρυών αΧβκτρναινα^, 
Note, For θεράχαιι^α also occurs θ€ράπνη "^, 

r^into wiCf ωινη, e. g. Βμώα Βμωις, ήρωα fipwiQ and ηρωίνη or 

J ηρψνη, Αΐ8θηρωϊσσα(ΑροΙΙ. Rh. 4,1309. Anal. 

**M -Br. 1 . |). 4 1 6. Fa/cA. ad Theoc. Adon. p. 321.), 

Linto wac, e. g. Τρώα Τρωάς. 

Classes ς/* Substantives. * 9^ 

Besides the common substantives, there are some which 
change their form, and hence receive a new meaning. Of 

^ MoeriSy p. 96. Thorn. M. p. 144. ^ Hemsterh. 1. c. 
Hemsterh. ad Lucian. t. 1. p. SIS. ^ Fisch. 3. p. 72. 
Bip. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 471. ed. L. * Fisch. S. p. 73. 
Valck. ad Adon. p.S21. ""See Matthis Animadv. in H. 

' Hemsterh. Add. ad llioin. M. Hom. p. t41. £unp. Hec. 482. 
p. 144. Brunck. ad Arist. Eccl. 870. 

\ 84 Clasies of Substantives. 

this nature are Patronymica, Qentilia, Dimimitipai and 

I. Patronymics 

are substantives, which signify a son or a daughter. They are 
derived from the proper names of the father, and sometimes 
also of the mother, viz. 

1. From nouns in oc of the second declension come the 
forms of patronymics in iSvic and Ιων, e. g. from Kpoi^oc comes 
ΚρονΙίηο and Κρονίων * the son of Kronos', Jupiter. So also 
KoSpiSijc, TavraXiSiyc, Aiaic/8i|C, &c. So Πανθοί$ΐ|< for -ocSiic, 
from nai/0ooc -Oouc. The form ίων is said to have been pe- 
culiar to the lonians. 

From nouns in coc comes the form caSiyc^ e. g. "^HXcoc Ήλια- 
iηCf "Άγνιος 'AyvcaSnCy Άσκλ^τΓίοα * ΑσκΚητηϋίΐο, So also 
Ααερηαίηο from Aaepnoc, for Aalpriyc (in Ans^opA. Ρ/ιιΛ 3 1 2. 
So;?A. PAiVoci. 401. ilj. I.)*. 

005. *Α\κ€ί$ψ (from 'AXjcatos) comes from the form 'Λλκβν^, men- 
tioned by Eust. ad 11. p. 128, 37. Pindar has Άλκάι^ης 01, 6, 115. 
from *Αλκάο£, see § 12. or as Iletpat^ijs from ue/patos //. 3^ 228. but 
*0'ί\ιάίη% implies a form 'OtXcos EtisU p. 13, 37. 

2. From nouns in lyc and ac of the first declension come 
the patronymics in oS^Cy e, g. Ίππότΐϊα Ίπττοτοδιίί;, Bourne 
BouraSiyc, 'AXevac 'AXevaSijc^. θυεστέσδηδ Od. o, 518. 
Άγχισιοδίϊα //. ρ', 754, 8tc. are formed on a different analogy. 
See Obs. 1 . From those in oc the iEolians formed patronymics 
in aScoc, e. g. Ύ/9 /odSioc from*'Y/5/ooc*^. 

3. In nouns of the third declension the genitive serves as 
the basis of the derivation. If the penult of the genitive be 
short, the patronymic form oc is formed in Αίηα, e. g. Άγα- 
μβμνονίίηο, AισovίBηCf θβστορίΒηα, Αητοϋη^ from Αγαμέμνων 
-ovoc, Αίσωρ -ovoc, θεστωρ -o/t>oc, Λι/τώ AiitOoc. If it is long, 
in -caSnCy e. g. ' AμφιτpυωvιάBηc, Ύ€\αμωνια8ηο, from Αμφΐ" 
τρυων ~τρυωνοο, Τβλα^ιών -ώι /oc^. Hence from nouns in eve, 

• KocD. ad Greg. p. (231) 487. ** Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 173. Koen 
** Fisch. 2. p. 5. ad Grcgor. 1. c. Vid. Valck. Diatr. 

* Eust. ad II. p. 13, 46. Fisch. 2. p. 287 C. 
p. 4. 

Ckui^ of Substantives. 185 

which in Ionic have the genitiye in ijoc, the patronymics are 
formed in "ψαίη^ e. g• TlfiXevc Πΐ|λ?ο«^ ΤΙηληΜ^ης. So also 
Ile/oaevc Πβρσ5θ€, Πβ/οσι?ϊο8ΐ|α (//. τ, 116.), NifXevc Ni|X5oc, 
Ni|Xi|uiSf|c. But since these have also the termination ewe in 
the genitiye^ which continued the prevailing one in the Attic, 
and in the common dialect, hence arose Περσεωα, ΤΙερσέι^ηα, 
Πβρσβ/^ιΐΰ) 'Arpe/Siic (not * Ατρψά^ηο, from Άτρβως, not 
Άτρηοα), 'HpaxXelSnc, &c• In Pindar the patronymics in 
eiSirc have the diuresis, e. g. Κρηθέιίας Pyth, 4, 27 1. Instead 
of the form -caSifC the form -/Sifc also is used, particularly in 
Attic, e. g. AiavriSaif ΆΧκμαιωνι^αι, Aeoi^rcSac, ΑφαρητΙΒοΛ^ψ 
Find. Nem. 10. 121. 

06f. 1. The origin of the different forms "Ι^ψ and 'ΐάΐηί was pro• 
bahly in the cultiTation.of the Greek language by means of the hexa- 
meter verse, since neither θ e^rdpYaJilf nor ΊελαμώνίΒηί could enter 
into that measure. (See Eust. ad II, p. 13, 10. dl.) The Attics, on the 
contrary, to whom the iambic verse was native, said for a similar reason 
AiafTi^i^s, &C• ΆσκΧψΓίίαί Soph. Phil. l$$$, 

Ohs, 2. Αυγηιά^ης in Theocritus 25, 193. is from Airye/as, Airyci- 100• 
ahis by diivresis, and the form Ίίέλοπηίά^ηί for ΠεΧοπί^ηε, in Pindar, 
Nem, 8, 21. Theocr. 15, 142. is probably formed from the obsolete 
nominative UeXonevs (as in Homer //. α , 422, AWiovrjas from Αίθιο- 
revs, for AiOioKas from ΑΙΘίοφ '). 

Obs, 8. The forms -/^i^s, ΊονίΙη$, and ιωνιάΖψ, are oflen interchanged. 
Instead of Taxer/^i^s from Ί,αττετός, we find ΛανετωνίΖηκ Η€ΐ,'Έργ.54, 
Theog. 528. for 'ΕΧατΙ^ης from^'EXarof, *ΈΧατιονί^ηί Hymn, Ham, 2, 32. 
iror ΎαΧάίίηε from TaXaos, ΎαλάίοίΊ^ηϊ II, β\ 566. ψ', 678. Pind. 01. 
C, 24. Instead of *Ανθ€μιωνιά^η£ from 'AvOe/i/oiy, we find in Homer, 
11. ^, 488. *Ανθ€μί^ης ; for *Η€τιωνίάΒη$, in Herod. 5, 92, 5. 'Her/^ijs ; 
for AevicaXtcayca^ijf, έί€υκαΧΙ^η$ II, μ, 117.' For *Ύπ€ρωνίΙη% Od, μ\ 
176. is often found "Xirepiiuv ^. We find even Ααμπετί^ηε II, ο', u2Q. 
for ΑαμιτΙΙηί from Αάμποε, The adjective form is joined with a sub- 
stantive as a patronymic, του Qearopetov μάντεωε Soph. Aj, 801. 

Obs. 4. A Doric form of patronymics was -ών^α^, e.g. *ΈaΓaμivωvias\ 

* Fisch. 3. p. 6. Of theform'AXiiH p. 625. ad Herod, p. 421. 
olai for 'AAci^ec^ai from 'AXaicvs, ** Ueyne ad II. ff^ 480. 

see Uemst. ad Luc. t. 3. p. 379. ' Hemsterh. ad Callim. p. 590. 

' Valcken. ad Adoniaz. p. 414. ed. Ernest. Valcken.adSchol. Eurip. 

* Hemsterh. ad Ari&toph. Plut. Phoen. p. 764. 
p. 207. Valck. ad Schol. Eurip. Phcen. 

1 86 CUttUi of Substantioei. 

Obs. 5. In Homer perhaps the only example of a name formed from 
the mother's name is Μολ /ovc //. \\ 709• 750. 'sons of Molione' : but 
see Heyne. In the Homeric hymns we have Αητοί^ηε^ in Hes, Sc• Here, 
329* άαναί^ηε^ Theog. 1031. ΦίΚνρΙΙη$ Xelpwyp which occurs also in 
Find. Pyth. 3, 1. 9, 50.» 

101. Patronymics of the female sex have the following termi* 
nations: 1) tic and /c• hnrfaiic Callim. in Dian, 83. and 
Λιιτωίέ; ib, 46. Β/οισηία, ^ηρηις, from the genitives Βρίσψκ, 
Diripiioc, from hpiaevcy Ίίηρενς, Άτλαντ /c from ''AtXoc -arroc. 
For the forms in -^fc are found also in Pindar those in -ecc, as 
KprfieiG jVem. 5^ 4Θ. 'Νηρέβων ib. 65. The Attics contracted 
r(i into ρ in the oblique cases, e. g. Qria^^oQ Mtch. Eum. 1024. 
HvpySwvEur. Troad. 2. See §. 60. Obs. p. 93. 2) iniviiancl 
ίωνη ; the latter, when the primitive has ι or υ before the ter- 
mination -oc or -ων, e. g. 'Aicpcacoc Άκρισιώρίΐ, ^HXeicrpinuv 
Ίίλ€κτρυωνη ; the former, when the primitive has a consonant 
before the termination oc, e. g. 'Άχρηστος ΆίρηστΙνη, Niypevc 
ΐίηρίνη, Όκ€αν6α Όκζανινη^^ Bopeac ' daughter of Boreas', is 
found Soph. Ant. 985. 

Obs. 1. A kind of patronymics are the names of the young of animals 
in -ώενί, e. g. άηίονι^εύς 'a young nightingale ', Theocr. 15, 121. Xvjci- 
ievs, id, 5, 38.^ 

Obs. %. Some names have the form only of patronymics, without the 
signification, e. g. MiXrca^i^c, 'Apiere/^iys, £{rf>ix<^i}s, ^ιμωνίΙη£. Par 
ironymics also are often interchanged with their primitives. Thus some- 
times *Αλ€ζαν^ρΙίη$ for *Α\έξαν^ρο5, Σιμωνίδης for Σίμων^ Άμψντρνων 
for *Αμφιτρυωνιά^η$ ^. Ύνερίων for 'Ywepioyi^qs may be referred to this 

102; II. Diminutives. 

Diminutives (υποκοριστικά) are words which express an ab- 
solute diminishing or lessening of the primitive. They do not 
occur in Homer and the old poets. Their terminations are as 
follows : 

• Valck. ad Herod, p. 82, 62. 
*» Fisch. 2. p. 7. 

* Valck. ad Theocr. Adon!az.p.401. 
ad Herod, p. 252, 87. Fisch. 2. p. 26, 

^ Hemsterh. ad Luc. Tim. p. 414. 

Bip. ad Aristoph. Plut. p. 325. Toup. 
£mend. in Suid. t. 2. Prxf. p. 10 sq. 
Ruhnken Hist. Crit. Or. p. 90. 100. 
Schapf. ad Mosch. J, 3. Lob. ad 
Soph. Aj. 879. KoenadGreg.p.(lS3) 

Clastei of Substaniwes^ 187 

1 • -tidcoy firom enbfltantivee in ac,, e. g. λαμπάίιοψ, Kpeiiiov, 
9τφαΒιθ¥, from Χαμπαα, Kpeac, στιβας• 

2. -ocov from substantives in η, e. g. γνναιον from γυνή. 

3. -οζ from substantives in oc, e. g. λ/θαξ, βωΧαξ, βωμαξ^• 
from λίβοο> βωΧοϋ, βωμοα^. From substantives in o^^ as 
rcyolf, ββλφα^^ θωραζ, come ircyaiciovy δελφάκιον^ θωραιαον,, 
with which may be reckoned 'Epidaiccc 7%eoer. 3, 35. a proper 
name fem. gen. 

Obs. The Dorians had the form «as, which became very common in 
later limes '• 

4. -άριον from substantives of all terminations, e• g. Βοξά- 
pio¥, \f/vj^apiov, from So^a, Φ^χπ• ανθρωπάριου, ιτηταριον, from 
ανΟ/οωίΓΟ^, iinroc• )^ιτωνα/ί>ιον, κυναριον Plat. Euthyd• p. 298 
D. E. yvvaiKapiovj avSpapiov, naiSapiov, from the genitive of 
the substantives χιτών, κνων, yvvfif ^νηρ, waic This form is 
often in use along with that which next follows. 

06f. The form -άσιον, e. g. κοράσιον, was only used in the language 
of common life >. 

6. -&OV and -cSiop from substantives of all terminations, 
e. g. yfiSioVf SuclSiovy oikISiov, νησί^ιον, icvviSiov Plat. Euthyd, 
p. 298 D. σαρκί^ιον^ βόιΒιον, Έιωκρατί^ιον (icop/Scoi^ in the lan- 
guage of common Ufe), from yrj, ^ικη, οίκος, νήσος, κνων, σαρζ, 
βοΰο, Έωκρατης• When the genitive of a word after the rejec- 
tion of the termination ends in e, e is contracted with -iSiov into 
-eiSiov, e. g. αμφορ€ΐ^ιον (from αμφορείς άμφορεως), βασιΧβ'ΐ" 
Βιον. The same takes place often after o, e. g. βοιΒιον, poiSiov\ 
When the primitive has a long vowel before its termination in 
the nominative or genitive case, the ι in -iSiov is either entirely 
rejected, or subscribed, as yriSiov, XayitSiov, which are also 
written yifSiov, XaywSiov. With ν and ι the c in -ISiov coalesces, 
and the antepenult becomes long, e. g. ίχθν^ιοι^, βοτρν^ιον, 
for Ιχβϋίδιον, βοτρνίίιον, ΙματιΒιον for ΙματηΒιον^, 

* Fisch. 2. p. 95. Schweigh. Anim. > Lob. ad Phryn. p. 74. 

ad Athen. t.7. p. 35. ^ Fisch. ad Anacr. £pigr. 5, Q. ad 

' Lob. in Woirs Analect. 3. p. 53. Well. 2. p. 38. 
and ad Phryn. p. 434 seq. ' Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 213 sq. 

1 88 Clasui of Substaniiva. 

Obi. To thete belong alto the diminutiTei omiK^iwr, irpomt^aXfiMr» 
έλςί^ωκ, from σπίιΧαιον, irpoffice^Xcuov, ίΚαωγ^ for σπηλαΟίΟν^ &C• 
which elsewhere are without the ι iubscriptum, 

6. -iov from all termiDations. Words of the third declension 
annex the termination -coi^ to the last consonant of the genitive 
case. Bvpiovj μαγαίριον, επιστόλιον, ανθρωνιον, BevSpiw, Εν- 
pimSiOVj avSploVy ορνιθιον, πρα'γματων^ wtvaKtov, from θύρα, 
μαγαιρα, ewiaroXri, άνθρωποι, SevSpov, ^vpimSnc, oimpf ofnuc, 
πράγμα, νίναζ. 

7. -cc from all terminations, e. g. a/bia^cc» κβραμια, νησίζ, 
αΧωπεκίο, πινάκια, from αμαΐ^α, κεραμοα, viicoQ, αΧώττηζ, πί^οζ. 

8. "Ισκοα, Ισκη. (The latter termination is used where the 
primitive \8 feminine,) e. g. veavlaKoc, ανθρωπισκοα, στεφανίσκοφ, 
σατυρίσκοϋ, κορ'ισκη, μειρακίσκη, μαζισκη, 

9* -{χνΐ| and -ιχριον, e. g. πολίχνιι and πολίχνιον. 

10. 'vSpiov, e. g. νησυίριον, ^evv^piov. 

11. -ύλλιον, e.g. }ζ€νυΧΧιον, μειρακυΧΧιον, envXXiov, eiSvX- 

12. -vXXic» e. g. άκανθυΧΧια, θρυαΧΧΙα, from άκανθα, θρνον, 

13. -iiXoc and -υλλο«, e. g. θρασυΧΧοο and θρασυΧοα» Ιτν- 
Xoc in Horn. Od. τ, 522. from^'lTuc. So also Aίσχύλoc, Ήδν- 
Xoc, ΧρεμυΧοα, which as proper names lost the force of diminu- 
tives. They are said to be derived from names in -icXic, as 
from θρασυκΧηα θράσυΧΧοα, ΈαθυκΧηα BaOvXXoc, 'HpaicX^C 
''HpvXXoc• The Dorians also made a similar change in adjec- 
tives, /icjcicvXoc from μικκόα for μικρόα (also a proper name), 
epwTvXoc Theocr, 3, 7. The feminines of those in -vXoc end 
in -vXic, and (more rarely) in -υΧη ; of those in -vXXoc in -vXXa, 
also -uXXcCi as ΆμαρυλΧια^. 

Obs. 1. From many diminutives new diminutives are formed, e. g. 
ρηματίσκίον from ρημάτων^ χιτωνισκίφιον from \νΓωνΙσκο%^ tro\l\vii wo• 
λ/χκιον, %'ησί$ νησίΒιον. 

* Hemst. ad Arist Plut. p. G. tiqiie, p. $01 seq. 
Fisch. 2. p. 33, 33. Bast. Lettre Cri- 

Cla9$t$ of Substantives. 1 89 

O&f. f • The £oliaiui una Dorians had a peculiar form of diminatives 
in ixogf e. g. ww^ixos from mtppos^ κάΒΒιχοχ from kAZos, particularly in 
proper names, *Αμννηχο$^ θν«ικ€χο(, Α,€6ντιχο$^», 

Ohs• 5. Less common forms are those in -iXXos and -«Xos, as Xoip/Xof , 
TpmtK^s^ and in the fem• -/λλα, as Πραζίλλα, Τβλβσ/λλα (comp. 13.); 
those in -ti^s, as ^iKivos^ fem. Φιλίνι;, or -ifvo, Kc^pcwa, "Hpci^va, Do- 
rian proper names ; those in -ιωκ, Αισχριωκ, 'Ηβτίων ; fem. in -ω, e• g. 
•Υψώ, £ia^ (perhaps J^iir. iiTi?/. 11.), from Ύφιπύλη, ΕΐΒοθέα. These 
are almost all proper names. Aristophanes in jest forms, on the analogy 
of those in iW, ZeiXaxpiwy Pac. 192. Άττικίων to. 213. μαλακίων Ε ccL 

Ohs. 4• Many diminutives are formed hy ahhreviations, which were 
used only in common life, and almost exclusively of slaves, as 'AXe^as 
(or *Αλέζανίρο£, 'Αρτοκραι for Άρποκράτηχ, Αημάς for Αη μητριοί f Έιτα- 
fpas for '£τα^<$3(Γ0(, *Ερμάί for 'ΕρμόΒωροί^ Qevdas for θεό^ωρο^, Mij- 
Tpas for MijrpiiSafpof , Φιλαί for Φιλ<$^ΐ7/Α0£ **, ''I^cs for Ί^ιάνασσο. Simi- 
lar to these are the forms Aiovvs for Aiowcfos, &πφΰί in Theocritus from 
raira*. Such words were afterwards formed in jest hy the comic 
writers from other nouns, adjectives, and verbs, e. g. ^aici^as, rpeaasf 
ΟΜηΦψαγάΜ in Aristophanes. 

Obs. 5, With this class are also reckoned the words in which, by a 
peculiar termination, it is signified that the sense of the primitive belongs 
in a very high degpree to a person or thing, as its property or quality, 
and which would be more properly called amplificativeSi e. g. γαστρών^ 
χε(Χων9 Κ€ψάλων9 Πλάτων * a person who has a gpreat belly, lips, head ', 
' a broad forehead' ; ττλούταζ ' who is very rich', μετωπίαί * with a broad 
forehead'• These are therefore properly adjectives.' 

III. Gentilia (εθνικά) f^ 103. 

gignify the country or place of residence. If the name of the 
place ends in -a, -ac, -ty preceded by a consonant, the genttlia 
commonly end in -aioc, as KepKvpaloc, Άθηνα7(κ, θηβa7oc, 
KvμaioG, Kυpηva7oG. Exceptions are, KXa2^o^€vcoc, Σνραιτον- 
σιο«, from ΚλαζομεναΙ, Έ,υρακοΰσαι, M€σσr|vιoc. If a vowel 

* Keen ad Greg. p. (188 sqq.) 290. p. 278. Lob. ad Phryn, ρ 434. 

« Fisch. 2. p. 29. 32. ' Fisch. 2. p. 38. 

^ Casaub. ad Pers. 5, 76. Bentl. ' Fisch. 2. p. 37 seq. 

Epist. ad Mill. p. 521. ed. Lips. s Fisch. 2. p. 10 — 23. 
Fttch. 2. p. 26. Dorv. ad Charit. 

1 90 Classes of Substaniwis. 

precedes, e. g. -πα, it commonly formg ήκ, as Avcioc from Av- 
κΐα ; or -oc> as Boc<i»tOc> AvSoc, from Βοκατία, AvSia* 

-oc in the nom. of nouns of the second declension, or in the 
genitiye of the third , is changed into -coc, e. g. Κορίνθιος 
TIapioc, AvSptoG, from KoptvOoc, Tlapoc, ''Avipoc. 'ΑράβίΟζ, 
Αακείαιμονιοο, Kap-^riSoPtoc. Hence also Xcoc from Xccoc, 
Apyeloc, Kyoc, from Apyeioc, Kmoc, root "ApyoQ -eoc, Κύζ 
Κωοα. So the Attic termination -ως in the second declension 
passes into -coc, e• g. Τέως (Τέιος, Tecoc, and), according to the 
Ionic pronunciation T^coc, Κβως (Kecoc), Kecoc, and Ion. Κ^Γος. 
θ before the termination was changed into σ, e. g. Ώαρνησιοα 
Arist, Ach. 356. from YlipvriQj ΤΙάρνηθοο (a hill in Attica), 
TpiKopvaioQ from TpucopvOoc. The feminines end partly in 
-cac, e. g. EXiKwviicj AtyXcac, Aty^i^cac ; partly in -cc, e. g. 
Σονσίς, Ώΐ€ρίϋ, -iSec• -oc has also its fem. in -cc, Αιτωλός -cc• 

-ovc is chiefly changed into -aacoc, as Φλιασιο^ 'Apayvpi^ 
aioc, from Φλιουα, 'Avayvpovc. 

These forms of derivation, however, are by no means regular 
with all the classes of nouns specified. Thus from MiXifToc, 
Ίθακη, the gentilia are ΜιΧησιοο^ 'lOaic^aioc. Others end in 
'avoc, 'ti^OGj -?voc> e. g. 'Έ^μ€σηv6c from Έ,μ€σα, Bcucrpia^oc 
from Βακτρα. Άβνίηροα, KvJ^ciciyvoc, from Αβν^ο^ Ki;2^iicoc• 
TpaXAiavoc, SapSiiyi^oc, SapScavoc, from TpaXXetc, SapScK. 
-ivoc is the usual termination of those gentilia whose primitives- 
have a long syllable before the termination, e. g. 'PifycMoc, 
AKpayavTivoQy TapavrivoQy from 'Ρήγιον, 'AKpayac, 'Ακράγακ- 
Toc, Tapac Tapavroc 

Other gentilia have the termination -eve, fem* -ic, e. g. Alo-. 
XevCf Δίωρΐ€υα, Ιστιαιενα, MeyapevC) fem. Μεγαρ /c, Maj/rivevc, 
nXaraievc, fem. Πλαταίς and Πλαταια;% Φωΐίαιενι; and -αενι;, 
as Νυααιενο, and -aevc• θεσπιενι;, AXucapvaaaevCj XaXiccSev^ 
from larcaca, . Μέγαρα, Μαντίι^εαι, Πλαταια/, θ^σττιαί, 'AXi* 
Kapvaaoocj \.α\κίίί^ -cSoc. 

Others end in -arifc, -ι?τ»Κι -ώτηα, often with c prefixed, e. g. 
IToTcSataTfjc, Σιταρτιοτίία (Ion. -^rtic), Teycarijc, Aiyiy^riyc, 

' Lob. ad Phryn. p. 41. 

CUmu vf SubatantivM$• IQI 

A/iir/Mucu^mc (Ion• -"^ni c)i KpστωvιάτηQ, from Σιταρτο^ Teyia, 
Alywuj *Aμπpaκiay Κρότων^ -ωκο<• From 'Ιταλία, Σικελία, 
are derived Ίταλιώηκ and Σίκελιώτιιι;, to denote the Greek 
residents in those comitries, 'Ιταλός and Scιceλόc for the primi- 
tire barbarian population^• -trvc is the usual form of gentilia 
fiom nouns in •ΐ4, e. g. Σνβαρίτιι c> ^avκρaτirηc, ϋουσιρίτηο ; 
and also from others, as 'ΑβΒηριτηα from'^A^Siipa. Feminines 
have the termination -cc, e. g. Άσιατια, Σνβαρΐτκ, Σπαρτιαηα• 

GentiKa are often formed by abbreviation of the proper names 
of countries or cities, e. g. *Κκαρναν^ Kip (fern. Kaeipa), from 
Ακαρνανία, Kapta. Ιων (fern. lac), Παφλαγωι^, from Ιωνία, 
Παφλαγονία. Similar in form, but differently derived, are 
Έλλιιν fern. Έλλι}vίc, Αακων fem. Αακαινα, where the pro- 
per names of the countries are Έλλαα, Αακείαίμων. The geit- 
HNa frequently end in -c« and the letters which include σ, viz. 
( when the name of the country has γ one in the termination, 
φ when π is part of it^ e. g. Tpitc (fem• Ύρωάζ) from Τ/οοία, 
Αίβνς (fem. Αίβυσσα) from Λιβνα, 'ApKac from Άρκά^ια, θ/ο^ζ 
(Ion• θρήζ) fem. Opfrra (Ion• θρρσσα), K/o^c fem. Κμ^σσα, 
Ma^vifc fem. Mayv^rcc, Φοίνιξ fem. Φοίνατσα, Φ/>υζ, from 
θρ^Κ'ία, Κρήτη, ΦοίνικΊα, Φρνγ-ία, Αρύοφ^ Αίθίοφ, from 
ΔρνοίΓία, Αιθιοπία. 

There are, besides, peculiar terminations in Greek, by which 104• 
the place of residence of a man or a deity, and others by which 
feasts, are signified (πβρι^κηκά). They are mostly in -ων, -αιον, 
-eiov, and -cov. 

-ων, e. g. avSpwv (also avSpwv7rtc) * chamber for the men \ 
γυναικών (and γυναικωνΐτια) * chamber for the women*, πα /a- 
βενών 'chamber for the young women', and the temple of 
Minerva at Athens. So also ελαιών, Βαφνων, μβΧισσων, ιττ- 
πών 'olive-grove', 'laurel-grove', 'bee-hive', * stable for horses'. 
In others the termination is -βών, as ττβ/οιστβρεών Plat. Theat, 
p. 197 C. K€y\p€iov Dem. p. 974, 16. The terminations avr 
ίρεων, ίππεών, and others, are considered unauthorized^• 

The names which denote temples and places consecrated to 
the gods (re^eviica) properly belong to the class of possessive 

^ Ammon. v/IraXoc. Diod. Sic. 5, 6. ^ I^b. ad Phiyn. p. 1^ 

192 Classes of SubstatUives. 

adjectives {κτητικά). Their common termination is -coy. 
names of the first declension this termination is annexed 
the a of the nom. *Ήραων, 'Αθήναιον, from 'Ή/οα, 'AOqi 
In those in -17» two forms are found in -atov and -ecov, e• 
Νν/ιφαιον and ^υμφβιον, Κκαταιον and Έ»κατ€ΐον, '^^χ^ 
and Tv^ecov» Those in "rjc have -aiov, as 'Έ/ομαιον. In nan 
of the second and third declension, the termination -oc of 1 
nom. and gen. is changed into hov, e. g. Αιονύσιον, Αιοσκόρί 
Αεωκοριον, θεσμοφοριον. Απολλώνιοι^, Ποσειδώνιον, Δΐ|/ 
τρων. The S of the gen. is changed into σ in ΆρτεμΙσων fb 
ΆρτβμιΒοα ; and in the same way from Αφροδίτη is form 
Αφρο^Ισιον. So ΉραΐίλεΤον, θησβΐον, from 'HpaKXe-oc, θη 
ω^ Ion. Ή/οακληιον ifer. 6, 116. from ΉρακΧηος. In t 
way Φερρεφάττιον Demosth. p. 1259, 5. is formed from Φ< 
ρβφαττα. A temple of Cybele was called Μητρψον from /c 
Ti|jE> (θέων), as the adjective is μητρψος. 

If c or α precedes -oc in the termination of the proper na^ 
and of the possessive adjective derived from it, the terminati 
becomes -ecov, e. g. 'Aσκ\ηwι6c Άσκ\ηπΐ€ΐον, ΌΧνμπ 
Ολν^ιπιεΐον, Ιολοεΐον, Αμφιαραειον. 

Other words in -oc also take this termination, e. g. Avjcei 
from the hero Avjcoc, ΉφαιστβΤον, 'Avaiceiov, Μανσώλειον, ( 
TcSecov, as the adjectives derived from "Ιίφαιστοο, &c. have 1 
termination -eioc. In later times, other names quoted abc 
obtained the termination -εων, e. g. Ποσειδώνειον, Δωννσει 
Δπ^ητ/οειον, a practice condemned by the Atticists and gra 
marians• TloaeiSavelov, on the contrary, is quoted as Dori< 

From names in -tc, -iBoc, sometimes is found Setov, as R 
Slieiov (from BevSic BeviiSoc), θετίδειον, and so probably a 
Σεραπίδειον, Ίσίδεων. Sometimes S is rejected, and the t 
mination -eiov chosen, as Nε/uεσεΐov (Nέ/uεσcc), Ίσεΐον, Σε/ί 
πεΤον, of which however only late examples are found. Άσκ) 
πεΐον, Ποσίδειον or Ποσιβεΐον, which occur only in later autho 
appear to be similar abbreviations. An Ionic form ΤΙοσιΒηϊοι 
found even in Homer, //. β', 606.^ 

• Lob. ad Phryn. p. 367 seq. who Greg. p. 650 seq. Bekk. Anc 
quotes other instances. Bast, ad p. 1343. 

Terminations of Adjectives. 193 

Obi. Worda in -cov and -elov are formed from other substantives to 
denote the pUoe in which the person or thing described by the radical 
x^oon is found, e. g. χαλχεΐόκ ' the smithy', from \a\K€v$f ΒιΙασκαΧέϊο^ 
* the school '9 άπτανειον and oirrayioy 'the oven', 'the kitchen', apro^ 
'arwXiov ' the bread-market' ^ To this class belongs also rpo^cioy^ in the 
^Mnnpounds opfayorpo^eioVf TTUxorpo^eioy \ by itself it denotes 'the 
price or recompense of maintenance and education' ; in which sense 
C|p €» T ^ pioy (plur. also Bpimpa in Homer) and iitaicrpoy are also used *• 


Adjectives, or words by which the property of a substantive 
is signified, are either derivatives or compounds in Greek. The 
modes of derivation and composition will be explained after- 
wards. Our present concern is only with the meaning of the 
different terminations. 

I. Adjectives in -αΐος. 

1 . With I before aioc. These denote magnitude or value, 
and are derived from the names of measures, weights, coins, 
and denominations of money, e. g. ττη'χυίαΐοα ' an ell long', πο^ι- 
alocPlat. Theat, p. 147 D. (opymaioc, araSiaioc, 8cc. have the 
c in the root) ταΧαντιαΊοα ' costing a talent', S/oa^/icaToc, ό/3ο- 
Xmcoc (but οβοΧιμαίοα 'worth no more than an obelus', i. e. 'of 
little value'). The regular derivative from μνα would be μναϊ- 
acoc (not μvaίaioCf as it is written in the works of Xenophon and 
Aristotle), but μνααϊοα seems to have been preferred ; μνα7οο is 
probably false. In the adjectives compounded with cardinal 
numbers the root was more closely adhered to, e. g. SiraXavroc, 
SlSpayjAOC, frevra^payjioQ, δίπι^χυα, &c. (comp• Plat, Theat. 
1. c.) ; except when the fundamental word had already an c, e. g. 
ιίμιωβοΧιαΊοο from ημιωβοΧιορ. The forms StraXavTiaioc, Sc- 
ipayjuaioc were brought into use by the poets of the new co- 
medy. From μνα, Ion. μρέα (Herod. 1,51. 8cc.), was formed 
SipvewQ (as from γ? yea evyewc), less correctly written Β'ιμνω^ and 
80 είκοσίμνω^ Sejca/ivmc• L•iμvaυCf rerpa/uvovc &c. are later forms. 

^ Valck. ad Phoen. 658. ' Valck. ad Phoen. 44. 

VOL. I. Ο 

1 94 Terminations of AJ^ecttOis. 

In composition with ημι however, ίίμψναιο» is used. Cottip• 
§. 143. and Obs. Other adjectives in -caToc denote that which 
belongs to apart of the body, are derived from substantives, and 
are not compounded with prepositions, as voiriacoc from νωτον^ 
e. g. ό νωηαίοαί μυελοί * the spinal marrow', differing from m^ 
raioc. Adjectives thus compounded have also the termination 
-cScoc, as inive(f>piSioc and v€(f>piaioq. So from ανεμοί; is derived 
the simple ai^e/uiaioc, but the compound vπηv€μ^oc• 

2. Without i before aioc• These generally denote the place 
where something has originated or to which it belongs, e. g. 
ΐΓΥίγαΐοο» κηναίο^ κpηva^0Cf yepaaioCf ayopaioc* Similar to 
this is /3ovc αγελα/ΐ} ' a cow from the herd% OvpaioQ * what is 
on the outside', Kopv(f>aioc ' one who is at the head'• Hence 
the gentilia 'Seμea7oc §. 103. Others denote a quality, as 
aeXvvaioQ ' moon-shaped', €Ίρηναιοα ' peaceable'. The ι is ad- 
mitted only when it exists in the root, as fiXiaia from nXtoc, 
θαλαμιαίοο from θαλάμια. The words in -c/mcoc have originated 
from a prolongation of the termination Ίμος, as υποβο\ιμα7οζ, 
αποβολιμαίο^ eπ^σro\ιμatoQ \ 

II• Adjectives in -aXeoc 

express mostly a fulness, e. g. θαρραλέος Sei^aXeoc, ταρβά' 
Xeoc, ^fopaXeoc, KepiaXeoa, pwyiXeoQ * full of courage*, 'fear', 
' itch', * craft', ' full of chinks or crevices'. In others, as ap- 
yakeoQ ' hard, difficult', this signification is not perceptible. 

IQQ^ III. Adjectives in -apo< 

signify mostly the possession of the quality which the primitive 
expresses, e. g. ireviceSai/oc, i. q. kyevevicSi^ [ bitter', ριγεδονοα 
from piyoQ * that which causes shuddering'^. 

TV. Adjectives in -8ioc (-oSioc, -I'&oc) 

generally express locality, and are chiefly synonymous with 
those in -coc. They are most commonly found in composition 

^ Lobeck. Progr. i. ii. de adjectivis his edition of Phiyniduis, p. 541 
Grsecorum ponderalibus et mensura- seq. 
libus. Regimont. 1818. reprinted in ^ Wyttenb. ad Plut. p. 106 seq. 

Tjerfmmaiiom cf Adjectives, 195 

with prepoeitioBs» e.g. emvei^pc&oc in Horn. ewi^aXarriBioc 
«aoXfc Plat* Leg. 4. p. 704 B» which ib. D. is €τιθαλαττία 
wmkic, ίιημαστΆίθ¥ βρeif>oc Eur. fyk. Γ. 23 1 • alsQ cTrc/tAacrrioc, 
ί99ίτυμβΆίθ€, more rarely i^nrυμβιωc•^ So also νυμφί^ωα, fioc- 

> . V• Adjectiyee in -ecvoc• 
Vid. §. 109. 

VI. Adjectives in *eioc 

express commonly an origm or source, e. g. OfipeiOQ, ^^vetocy 
fioeioc, cinrecoc, ^/bicoi/eioc> μνΧειοα, μεΧΙσσειοί;, 8cc. ' consisting 
of, or derived from^ geesci cattle, horses, mules, sheep, bees', 
e. g. Kpeac Ofipeiov 'game', 'venison' ; xowpoc lirweia, ημιονάα, 
μυΧ€ία 'horse-dung', &c• So also adjectives derived from 
proper names, *Oμ{φuoCf Evpciri^ecoc, Άναξαγόρβιος• 

Others express rtfther an agreement with, or resemblance to, 
e.g. avSpeioCf yvvaucetoc 'becoming a manV'& woman'; 
* manly', ' womaidy or effeminate'. 

Instead of -eioc the lonians said -^'loc, as ανθρωπηίοί;^ φοινί" 

Vll. Adjectives in -eoc contr. ovc 107, 

express the material, e. g. χ/ονσεοο ovc, apyvpeoc -ovi;, Xlveoc 
-aw€, epieoc -ovc, (also ei/DcVeoc Ion.) 'golden', 'silver', 'linen', 
' woollen' : ai^d afjber the analogy of epeovc also κ€ραμ€ουα ; χυ- 
Tpeovcy as if from ice/oa^eeoc, ^vrpeeoc, though such words as 
Κ€ραμ£θο^ yvrpea are nowhere to be found. So φοινικοΰί: from 
φοί¥ίΚ€ο^ not φοινικιοΰα. Hence the subst. ναρ^αΧεη -η, λεοι/- 
τ€ΐ| "fi, ' the panther's or lion's hide'. 

Xcoi^eoc means rather 'snow-white'; φλόγεοι; II. β', 746, 
' shining like fire', Theocr. 22, 21 1. ' fiery, of fire'. 

VIII. Adjectives in -cpoc and -ηροα 

signify quality generptUy, e. g. SoXe/ooc, τρυφβ/οόα, aiccepoc, 
αίματίΐράς, καματηροι;, Xvvvpoc * crafty', 'luxurious', 'shady', 

^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 555 seq. 
ο 2 

196 Terminalions of Adjectives. 

* bloody', ' wearisome^ ^ painfur. Some exprees a propensity, 
oivtipoQ ^ given to wine', καματηροα ' laborious', ' prone to la- 
bour', which sense belongs to all adjectives which come from 
substantives expressing a suffering or affection. Others have 
an active signification, as voaepoc or νοσηρός ογ\ηρ6(;, καμοτ^ 
rnpoCf TTovnpoCy ύ-γιηροο, ' causing sickness, unhealthy % of a 
district ; 'causing disquiet, fatigue, burden'; ' contributing to 
health, healthy'. 

108. IX• Adjectives in -^6cc 

signify fulness, as SevSpfieic, iroirieii;, vX^ecc^ 'full of trees', 

* grass', 'wood'. 

X. Adjectives in '^η\6c 

signify a propensity to, and capability or fitness for^ any thing, 
e. g. σιγπλόο, σιωττηλόο, aπarη\6cf aca^wriyXoc, υιτνηΧόι; * prone 
to silence, deceit, shame, sleep'. To this the idea of fulness 
is nearly allied : hence vS/^nXoc ' watery'. 

XI. Adjectives in -cicoc 

signify, 1) belonging to any thing, as σωματικοα^ φνχικοα, 'cor- 
poreal', 'spiritual'. 2) qualified for anything, ηγΈμονικοα, Sc- 
SaaKaXiKoCf ^Scicoc> Ύραφικόα, κυβερνηηκοϋ^. 3) coming from 
any thing, as narpiKoCy βοικοα. 4) becoming to any thing, 
adapted to or fit for any thing, as ivSpucoc, φιλuc6c ' becoming 
a man', ' a friend'. From substantives in -eve come adjectives 
in -eiicoc; e. g. κεραμβικόι;, opeiKoc, from κεραμευα^ opevc• 

109. ΧΠ. Adjectives in -i/uoc (e) 

express chiefly fitness, passive and active, e. g. ε£ώ$ι/40€, ao/Sc- 
^oc, μaγιμoCf ττΧωϊμοα^ ποτί^ο< ' eatable', ' adapted to song', 
' warlike', * navigable', ' potable' ^. Others, however, exprees 
merely a quality, as πένθιμος^ Soki^oc, ir/ooaSoicc/uoc, k&XX^oc 
' mournful', * celebrated', ' expected', ' beautiful'. Many are 
derived from futures, as laac/uoc, περίσιμο^ αροσιμοα ^. 

> Piers, ad Moer. p. 949. comp. ^ Ad Herod, p. 533, 11. 

p. S73. Thorn. M. p. 147. ^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 237. 

Terminations of Adjectives. 197 

XIII. Adjectives in -ci^oc and -eci^oc (r) 

signify, 1) a material of which any thing is made, e. g. yriivoc, 
κakiμιvoQp wXivOwoQ, ζύλινο<, XacVoc> &c. ' made of earth, of 
reeds, of tiles, wood, stone'. 2) a quality, which arises from 
the magnitude or quantity of the thing expressed by the deri- 
vation, ireSivoc, opeivoc, σκοτ€ΐν6ο, eXeetvoQ * level \ * moun- 
tainous*, 'dark', ' pitiable*. 3) they serve to derive adjectives 
from adverbs or substantives of time, e. g. yB^vivocy BepivoCj 
omfpivoCy eapivoc• 

XIV. Adjectives in -IOC 110. 

express a quality generally, as eawepiocj vespertintis, 'of or be- 
longing to evening', θαΧασσιοα *' marine*, ^evcoc ' belonging to 
the guest*, σωτηρυοα ' saving, or contributing to safety*. If 
two adjectives are derived from one substantive, one in oc and 
the other in toe, the latter generally signifies a proneness, a 
tendency to any thing which the first expresses generally as a 
quality, e. g• καθαρός 'pure', καθάριος 'loving purity*^. 

XV. Adjectives in -oeic and ώβις 

signify a fulness, e. g. /ai}ti06cc * full of prudent counsels', ret- 
χιόεις» a/ATreXoeic» ημαθοας^ riepoeic, νιφοαα^ ov0e^oecc• The 
termination -wecc is used when the penult is long, e. g. κι^τώ- 
eiCy ώτώειι; ^. 

XVI. Adjectives In -oXiyc, 

confined to the older poets, express an inclination to the action 
denoted by the verb from which they are derived, as μαΐΡοΧης^ 
fern. paiyoXic, οΙφοΧης^ fem. οιφολ/α in Hesychius, oirvfoXY^c 
(also όίΓυίώληΰ) in the same writer ; or simply a custom, φαι- 
woXicf νωα Horn. H. in Cer. δ1• 

XVII. Adjectives in -ώ§ΐ70 HI, 

express sometimes, 1 ) a fulness, e. g. ποιώδι^ΰ, ανθεμωΒης^ πε- 
rputSnOy ι-χθυώ^ηα, 2) a resemblance, σφηκω^ηα Arist. Plut. 

* Valcken. ad Xenoph. M.S. 3, 1, ' £ustath. ad II. ^, p. 642, 53. 
32. 11. Ψ', p. 1299, 33. 

198 Adjectives of One Termbuiiwn. 

561. ^ wasp4ike^ ^Xo^^Siic 'like fire» shinkig Hkefire^ Av^m- 
Si7C 'manly' \ In this sense these adjectives coincide with 
those in -oeiS^c, and probably are formed from th^m» as k&re- 
pociific ovpavoc signifies also ' the starry heaven*^ and θρόμβο-' 
ciSfic is distinguished from θρομβωίη^ only ih form^. Ev^9i|C 
is different, from δ2Ιω. 

XVIII. Adjectives in -wX^c 

signify a propensity, a tendency to any thing, e. g. αμαρτωΧσ^^ 
^pevSwXoCf φ€iSωλόc> ' prone to sin', 'lying', 'penuriousness'. 

XIX. Adjectives in -^oc, properly ωϊος^ and -oeec 

signify origin, e. g• iturptSoQ^j μψΓρψ(Η:^ in Homer πατρώακ, 
' springing from the father or mother' ; ηψοο, in Homer ^οΐοι:, 
' what happens in the morning'. Different are 'Αργωοί; * relating 
to the ship Argo', \ητωύc ' derived from Latona', which are 
written with ι subscr. only from being confounded with those 
in -^oc and moc^. 

112. As adjectives serve to denote the properties attributed to 
substantives, they can also be inflected so as to denote the 
three genders of substantives. All adjectives, however» have 
not the three geilders. Some are not capable of this modifi- 
cation, on account of their termination, but express the three 
genders under one foim only : others have one form only for 
the masculine and feminine, and another for the neuter ; others 
again have three terminations• 

I. Adjectives of one termination, which express the mascu- 
line, feminine, and neuter, by one termination, are the cardinal 
numbers from five, nevre, upwards. Others have, indeed» only 
one termination, but for the masculine and feminine only, since 
they are not used, with substantives of the neuter gender, at 

^ Salmas. Exerc. Plin. p. 795. b. Grsev. ad Lucian. t ix. p. 460. Matth. 

^ Schsef.adApol1.Rb.Schol.p.l90. ad £ur. Hec. 78. Uerm. ad Batch. 

Lob. ad Phryn. p. 9^8. 1362. 

« Of the true distinction between ** Schaef. ad A poll. Ilh. Schol. 

warpiKOtf §. 108. xi. and πατρψο$, see p. 335. 

l^iit in the nom.' acctuu siug* plur. They are properly of the 
common gender, wanting the neuter. Such are 

1. Adjectives compouaded with eubstantives which remaixi 
unchanged, aa μακρο\€ΐρ^ wroyeip, evpiv (euancrci'), μάκραιναν ^ 
ρΛκρανγτν^^ from xecp, piv, aKrivy αίών^ ανχ^ν, except those 
compounded with irovc and iroXcc, which have two terminations. 

2. Those in ^ωρ, which are partly derived from νατηρ and 
μητηρ, as awarwpj αμ^τφρ^ ομομητωρ ; partly from v^rbs, as 
lOiSoAernip, opfiiy^vknapj μιίστωρ^ 

3. Adjectives in -i^c ^roCf and -ωο -ωτοα^ as aS/i^c> fιμ^θvηGf 
^pyfic, αγωο, ωμοβρω^. 

4• Adjectives in -iniCy -rnc according to the first decl. €νώ- 
niCy ^fleXoyrnc. 

6. Adjectives iq ξ and ^, ηλιξ, φοίνιξ (OoThki irvofi £iir. 
Troeii• 821.) ένιτεζ Zfer• 1, 111. /ιώΐφζ, aiyiXixpy αίθίοι/^. 

6. Adjectives ia -ec -aSpCi -«ς -iSoc, e• g. p, ή φνγα^ ό, ii 

0&#• 1• Some of these are also use4 as neuters, but only in the gen• 
and dat. sing, and plur. iv piaois βοτοΐί σι^ηροκμήσιν Soph, Aj, 324. 
άμψιπληγι ψασγάνψ id» Track, 9dO. άμφιτρητοχ αίλίου id, Phil. 1 9. iy 
Wi^yrft σώματι Eur, El. 375, άπτησιν τέκ€σί Euen, Epigr. 13. and 
according to this analogy Nic^nder says Ther, 105. 631. άργήτοϊ cXaiov^ 
άργητι &νΘ€ί : especially the adj. in -as, which are commonly only found 
with feminines, ψοντάσι wrtpoii Eur. Ph. 1052, /ιοκιάσιν λνσσ^/ιασιν 
Or, 264. Βρομάσι βλεφάροα ib. β??, ^ρομά^ κώλψ Hel, 1321.* So also 
kriikvla iOvea Herod. 8, 73. from Ιτι^λνι, commonly joined only with 
mate• and fem. In other words the neuter, which is deficient, is sup- 
jdied when necessary by derivative or kindred forms, e. g. βλακικόν^ 
i^waKTUcoVf μώννχρν^ όμομήτριον, άγνωστον^ μαινόμενον, ^ρομάιον^ &C• 
kwarmp is used with a neut. accus. plur. Eur, Here, F. 1 14. 

Ohs, 2. Many of these adjectives are also commonly used only in one 
gender. Those under No. %. are generally found only with substantives 
of the masculine gender ; yet, Mseh, Prom. 309. we have σιίηρομίιτωρ 
ata. Soph. jint. 1282. γνν^ παμμήτωρ. Eurip, Or. 1311. ray Χητοττάτορα. 

• Bninck ad /Esch. Sep. c. Th. 8!^. Pors. ad £ur. Or. 264. 

200 Adjectives of Ttoo TemUnoHam. 

Inc. Rhe$. 550• ιταιΒολέτωρ άη^ονί$ ; and Eur. Med• 1404. Jason caUe 
Medea παι^όΧέτορ. Id, Phcen• 691. 6,μάτορο$ Παλλά&«• Id• Or. 1617. 
r^v μιάστορα. Statin, ap. Schol, II, α\ 5, ταμβίηορα yaiav^ for which 
Soph, Phil, Sdl, says ιταμβωτι γα, Thue, 4,1 27. αίη-οκμάτωρ μ&χψ Else- 
where forms are used in the fern, which have no corresponding masc•, 
e. g. παμμήτεφα Hym, Horn, 30, 1. like ταιΖοΚέτεφα^ σνγγ€νέτ€ψα^ 
^hvaripcia No. 2. For ιτένηί Hesychius quotes a fem. τένησσα. 6Ζμίρ 
occurs only in the phrase napQivos άΒμίι$ in Horn. άν^ροκμ^$ and others 
occur as masc. JEsch, Suppl, 692. Eum, 242. Choeph, 362. as fem. in 
aydpody^s ψθορά JEsch, Ag. 823. aywWoi άν^ροκμητ€ί Eur. Suppl. 527. 
Εύώττα Soph, (Ed, T, 1 90. is prohahly the ace. to αΚκάν from β&^ψ, not 
the voc. of evo^s. Similar to this is αίθίοφ ψωνίι, which Eustathius 
p. 1484, 48. quotes from ^schylus, as R/Xc£ χωρά. Sophocles, Traeh• 
1125. has rfjs irarpo^oyrov μητρόί^ and to. 1074. \ωβητηρ€9 'Epiyyves. 
In Pind. Nem, 9, 37. ^νΖροΜμαν 'Ερι^νλαν is probably from kvipMi' 
μαί, not άν^ρό^αμοί. Of the adjectives in -cir, eOas, μιγα$^ ψνγά$^ &c• 
occur oflen as common. So also al SiropcfSes and σπορά^α βίον Inc. 
Rhes. 702. ^ρομάΒα Oca/ Eur, Or, 317. ^po/ici^es Φρϋγ€$ ib, 1424. 
γνμνάΐα στόΧον Eur. Fr, jilop, 4, 6. but in yv/ivci&ts tmrovs Ηψρ. 
1148. it appears to be a fem. According to the Lex, Sang, Bekk 
Anecd, p. 97, 4. Sophocles used *£λλα« (Jb &yiip)f and so probably 
is '£XXas to be taken Eur, Ph. 1547. Of μάκ<φ the fem. is μάκαφα^ 
but Eur, Iph. 652. we find rv^cu μάκζψοί, Hel, 381. J μάκαρ ταρΘέν€. 
Comp. EhnsL ad Bacch, 565• In a similar way substantives of the 
masc. gen. are used adjectively with substantives of the fem. gen• See 
§• 429, 4. 

11^3^ II. Adjectives of two terminations are 

1. Those in i?c> gen. eoc contr• ovc, neut• ec 


M. N. 

Nom. o, η αΧηθηο, το αλι^θέο 

Gen. του, τηο, του αλι^θεοΰ -oic 

Dat. τψ, τ^, τψ αΧηθεϊ -et 

Acc. τον, τήν αΧηθεα -?, το αΧηθέί;• 


Ν.Α.ν. τω, το, τω αΧηθεε -5 

G. D. το ι ν, ταΊν, τοΐν αΧηθίοιν -οΐΐ'. 

Adfectives of Two Terminations. 201 


Nom* Of, a! a\ηθe€C -€?<;> τα αληθεα -η 

Oen. των αΧτιθίων ^ων 

Dat TO?c, Ta?C| Tocc άλΐϊθέσι 

Ace. rovcy rac aXifOeac ~€CC) τα αλιιθέα -?. 


1. Those which have a vowel hefore the tennination in Attic con- 
tract -ea into -a, not -ij. e. g. άκλεέα άκλεά, νγιέα νγιά. §.81.* Ύγι^» 
Kowever, is also found in Plat. Phced. p. 89 D. and elsewhere : vyia 
Charm, p. 156 B. ^c^vi; Soph. Trach. 1095. Plat. Crat. p. 408 B. 
άψνη Soph. Phil. 1014. In Ionic and Doric the termination is often 
not contracted, but e which precedes the termination -ea is omitted; 
e. g. Pind. 01. 2, 165. elxXias oitrrovs, for evKXeias. Soph. (Ed. 
7. 161. eirxXeo. Hence ^νσιτλέα, //. /^, 115. Oc/. a', 728. is probably 
not shortened by the following vowel. Comp. Quint. Sm. 3, S63. IL 
p'f 330. So €ϋκΚέων for eincXeioiy Pind. Isthtn. 3, 11. Elsewhere ee 
is contracted into one long syllable, ei or η, as ivppeios in Horn, from 
ipppeiisf or ehpetoi Hesiod. ap. Strah. 8. p. 526. evKXeias //. κ\ 281. 
Odl ^'y 331. On the contrary hyaK\rio$ for -icX^eos //• ir', 738. Even the 
simple e is lengthened into 17, and -έ€« contracted into els, in the read- 
ing of Aristarchus, ajcXi;ecs //. /i'» 318. Boeckh, Pind. Netn. 6, 50. reads 

2. From fiovvoyei^s comes the feminine μοννογένεια in the poets, 
e. g. OrpA. Hym• 28, 2. So also iipcyέvecα, an epithet of Aurora ; Kv- 
«ρογέκεαι, Venus ; Tpiroyiyeia, Minerva. 'Hpiyey^s, as feminine, oc- 
curs in ApoUon. Khod. 2, 450. 

3. Adjectives compounded with ίτο% have, in the feminine, often a 
peculiar form in ins, e. g. έτιτέη^ Aristoph. ThesmA87. τριακονταίτια$ 
awoyZAs Herod. 7, 149. mrovhaX τριακοντουτιΖ€$ Aristoph, Acharn, 193. 
Tkuc. 1, 87. which is in Thuc. 1, 23. 2, 2. αϊ rptaKovrovrecs σπονΖαΙ. 
iifgiris Theocr. 14, 33. /lera roy ίζέτη καΐ T^y έζέτιν Plat. Leg. 7, 
p. 333. Bip. Cheerob. ap. Bekk. Anecd. p. 1375. s. v. iros. 

4. The other compound adjectives in ^ης, particularly those in -n;s, 
have only one termination, and follow the first declension, ye^eλl}γepέ- 
n|f, άκ€ρσ€κόμη$, &κακίιτη%, ώκυΐΓ€τήί. In the old language, and in 
JEolic and Doric, the termination ra was used, e. g. ίππότα, ve^eXijye- 
pira, άκακήτα in Homer, βαθυμητα in Pmdar, Nem. 3, 92. Ιϋκτά 

' Koen. ad Gregor. p. (70) 163. Dorv'ill. ad Charit. p.418. ed.Lips. 
Thorn. M. p. 864. Moer. p. 375. 

202 Adjectives of Two Ter?mnaiioiis, 

TJieocr. 8, 30. Vid. §. 67, 5. In the gen. they had -w, as ΙμιβρυχεΛ^ 
Hes. Th. 831. έριβρ€μέτ€ω 11. v\ 61Β4. ^ίίμμέΚίω for έυμμ€\ί€ω (§. 68, 
9.) IL y, 47. 

5. The terminations -ea, -eof, -ees are found in Horner tometiinef 
used as monosyllables, where otherwise -19 •€?« are written : wp^ivw^r 
yea II. ω\ %Q7. hoiviat Od. \\ 110. άσκηθέ€$ Od. ξ, 255. 

114. 2. Those in -lyi^, gen. -^PWi, in the neuter -ev, e.g. αρσην or 
αρρην, neuter appev (fern. Eur. Bacch. 626 seq.), entirely of 
the third declension. Except repnv^ ripeiva, rep&f\ 

3. Those in -ic^ neuter c. The genitive of the simples ha?e 
the form -ioc> as tBpic tSpioc. aiSpec //. γ , 2 1 9. vqarcac iZ. r^, 
156. But Soph. ap. SchoU Yen. ad II. y^ 219. had cSpi&ii 
and JEsch. Ag. 201. t^rcSec, X06. a4 PAry;i. p. 326. Tlie 
compound adjectives of this termination are mostly decline^ 
like the substantives from which they QQm^, e. g• χά/αις χάρι- 
τος» therefore eu^apcc evj^&piTOc, neut. pl« ayjipira Herod• l, 
207. But the compounds of ttoXic have in the gen. eSoc, a• 
avokid airokiZoc. In the accus. they have α and v, αιτολιδα 
and αίΓολιν. Μ eyaXoiroXiec Άθα ναι occurs Pfud. Pyth. 7, 1 1 
and the dative απόλι for airoXcSi Herod. 8, 61. wherefore pei^ 
haps 1,41. ayaptj the reading of several MSB., may be correct. 

4. The compounds in -ovc» as evi^ovc, neut. evvov¥^ and 
others compounded with vooc vov<« also αττλοο^ απλανή neut. 
ανΧουν from πλόος πλονο» πολι/πους, and all compounded with 
irouc The latter have in the gen. partly -iroSoc, partly in the 
Attics του πολντΓον, τον πολύιτονν, tovq ποΧυπουο^ as OiScVovCi 
ace. OiSiTrovv Soph. (Ed. Col. 3.^ In the neut. they have -ττοι/ν, 
e. g. €στι Sin-ovv eiri yn^. The epic poets shortened -irovc into 
-roC) e. g. in the same verse τβτραπον and rpiirov. aeXXoiroc 
//. β', 409. and elsewhere, rpiwoc II. χ, 164. Καρχα^όβουν 
Arist. de Part. Anim. 3, 1 . is perhaps formed after this analogy. 
The contracted form evvcv occurs in the gen. Eur. Ion. 732. 
accus. ΚΛΚΟΡουν Xen. Mem. S. 2, 2, 9. evvoi (eSvoi), κaκ6vo^ 
often in the nom. plur. βυι^ων gen. pi. Thuc. 6, 64. Bekk. βυ- 
νών. In Xen. Ap. 5. §. 27. we have evvocc dat. pi. but κα- 

, jcovoocc Cyrop. 8, 2, 1. In the ace. pi. the contracted form is 

• Fisch. «. p. 57. * Athen. T. p. 316 B. 


Adfeciiv€9 of Two TermhuUioni. 203 

common. In the dat. sing. Demosthenes uses έτ€ροιτ\6ψ, not 
ίτ€ροπ\ψ^ adv. Pharm. p. 9 1 6 R.^ In the neat. plur. irepo- 
tkoa ib. p. 909. 25. 914. 4. ed. Reiske. (In the older editions 
it is erepowXoia.) The contraction oa into a, and of the gen. 
owy into ωκ, does not seem to be used. Yet some derive the 
plur. τα ewiirXa from eiriirXooc, for which Herodot. l^ 94. has 
itiwXoa ; the sing. ίιηνΧον^ however, occurred in Isaeus, ac- 
cording to Harpocration s. v•^ The plur. evyovci in Lysias, 
^.315. ed» R. is probably from the same metaplasm, whence 
came wpoj^poQ -ου^ πρό-χονσιν. Vid. ξ. 6 1, 3. Compare §. 1 24• 
lihose compounded with j^ovq or χρώι; are also common, which 
in the old poets have -ooc in the gen. απαλόχ^οοο Hes.''Epy. 
519• ταμεσ'ν^οα 11. ψ, 803. κυαρ6\ροα Eur. HeL 1522. in 
the Attics -ωτο««. Eur. Or. 321. μ€λα'γ\ρώτ€α Phan. 321• 
K¥mif»j(jp£ra. δοΜΐι:όχλοα Eur. Iph. T. 401. is according to 
the analogy of the former. 

5. The compounds in -vc, neuter -v, e. g. o, η iiaKpvc, nent. 
SUucpv, and the rest of the compounds of SaKpv. Except the 
nom. however, these occur only in the ace. sing. οΒακρυν Eur. 
Med. 861. ποΧυ^ακρυν II. γ', 1 32. In the rest of the cases the 
form "^fTOii is used, e. g. aSaicpvrov, aSoicpvry, ποΧυΒακρυτον. 

6. Those in -ων, neut. -ov, gen. -oi/oc, e. g. σώφρων^ σώφρον, 115. 
σώφρονοο» €λ€ΐ9/ΐΑων, eXeiyftov, «Xeiijuovoc• evSaiftoiy, evSai/uov, 
cvSac/Aoroc• To these belong also comparatives in -ων, which 

are distinguished from the rest of the adjectives in ων, as they 
presuppose a form -oec -oac -όα in the nom. ace. plur. and 
ace. sing., which is then contracted. 

Declension of Comparatives in -ων. 

M. 8c F. N. 

Nom. /ιβίζων, μεΰ^ον 

Gen. μ€ιCovoQ 

Dat. μειζιονι 

Acc• /tiecJ^ova, [j-oa^ -ω, μείζον. 

Nom. Acc. ft€t2[ove 
Oen• Dat. μ^ιίόνοιν. 

* Interpr. ad Poll. x. 1, 10. Koen. ad Gregor. p. (245) 516. 

204 Adjectives of Two Termifiaiians. 


Nom. μeitov€Qy [o€c] ovc, /ιε/ζονα, [pa] ω 

Gen. μ€ΐΖ6νων 

Dat. μειζοσι 

Ace. μ€ΐζονας^ [pac] ovCy μ€ΐζονα, [οά] ω. 

Obs. The contraction of the accus. nuuc. hndfem. sing, is not always 
noticed by the grammarians \ Yet Plat, Leg. 2. p. 659 C. has Sioy yjiiy 
ahrovs fieXriu των αυτών ηθών axovoyras β€\τίω r^y fi^yily ter^eo'y ywP 
— πάν rohyavTloy σνμβαΙν€ΐ• μείζω ^ϋναμιν, μείζω "Ηραν, ofpyy^ Ewnp• 
Hec. S$Q. HerqcL 1039. Otherwise the Attics used the uncontncted 
form as frequently as the contracted. Plat, Leg, 1. p. 631 B. ra μβί•• 
ζονα καΐ τα eXarroya. ib, ρ, 656 Έ• ovre KaXKioya ουτ άισχίω• Eunp, 
Iphig. Α. 1272. Hel. 1676. ήσσονβί. Id. Suppl. 1 102. μ€(ζον€9. HeraeL 
2S3, κακά μείζονα. Aristoph. Thesmoph. 807. fleXrioyes. Id. Plut. 558• 
jSeXr/oFOf, for which v. 576. /3eXr/ovf is used. Thuc. 2, 11. ιγΧ^φμ». 
4, 82. vXioya ^vXanr^v. The contracted form occurs also frequently m 
Homer, e. g. Od. β^ 277. ol irXeoi^es kokIovs, παΰροι ^i re irarpds ίφ€ίο^• 

116. 7. Compound adjectives in -oc> as o, η αθάνατος ό, ιΊ ακσ- 
\aστoGy ο, η evSo^oc, ο, τι ενφωΐΌ^ ο, η e^JCVJcXcoCy &c. ey&k 
those which are compounded with adjectives of three tenninm- 
tions, e. g. o, η wayKoXoc from Ka\6c, ν, 6v. o, fi naXXevKoc firom 
XevKOQ, riy 6v. The genuine Attics used αργόο (from aepyoc) afl 
common, and only the later writers said γί apyfi ^. Yet Plato, 
Leg. 4. p. 704 D. has ίπιθαΧαττία 7roXic> which t6. B. is ein- 
eaXarrlSioc* Those, however, which are from compound verbe 
have three terminations, as eiriSeiicTdcoc, η, 6v from errcSecicyv/tu, 
κατασκεναστόα, avcjcroc• Διαφο/οοο, e^a/peroc, viroTrroc, v«^ 
jcooc, See. are common. 

0&«. The grammarians call this an Attic usage. Nevertheless if 
occurs in Homer. But several adjectives also are found in Homer, 
which, according to the foregoing observations, should be οσηιτηοη^ yef 
are declined with the three genders, e. g. άθανάτη II. α , 447. κ\ 404. 
ρ', 78. Pi 447. andjpo^^m. Hesiod. Theog. 747. not merely on account 
of the metre, άμψφντη Od. a, 50. 198. V, 324. μ\ 283. So "Aprcfu 
θηροφόνη Theogn. init. πόΧυζέναν Αίγιναν Pind. Nem. 3, 3. See Boeckk 
Netn. 5, 8. άβάταν &Xa ib. 36. The Attics rarely practised this. An- 
staph, Pac. πόΧντψήτη Αημήτηρ. Id. Lysistr. 21 7. άτανρώτη. Eurip, 

" Thom. M. p. 427. Gregor. p. (69) •» Kiister. ad Arist. Nub. 53. Phryn 

159. p. 104. c. n. Lobeck. 

Adfectives of Two Terminations. 205 

Ion. 216. iy ίκηβόλτβσι χερσίν^. Soph, Aniig, 338. yav ίκαμάταν. 
fur. Phcen, 246. kBavdras Oeov, with the various reading kBavdrov. 
&6ayorat τριχ6% JSsch. Choeph. 617• Comp. Arist. Nub. 288. TJiesm. 
1052. All these passages occur only in the lyrical poets, except Lysistr, 
217. where probahly Elmsley's conjecture {Med• 807•) άτανρωτεί is the 
right reading. Soph. (Ed. C. 1821. ά^μίιτη$, borrowed from the epic 
dialect. This form therefore appears foreign to the Attic dialect, and 
to haye been allowed only where they imitated the language of the 
Lyiic poets. On the other hand the Attics use many adjectives as 
cummon^ which otherwise have three terminations. Vid. §.118. Obs. 3. 

8• Most adjectives in -co<; and -eioc^ which are derived from 117. 
eobetantives, as o, fi atSioc, αΐωνιοο, βασιΧαοί;, SoXioc, ελευθέ- 
pm, Kaipioc, oXeOpioi;, κόσμιοα, πάτριος σκότιος σωτf|pιoQ, 
iwoj^eipioc, yj>6vioc, φίλιος &ο• 

Obi, Usage is in this respect very fluctuating, μέτριος has always 
three terminations ; αλλότριοι, ayrioss εναντία, atriof, &ξιο$, and avd^ 
iwsf ίημ04ηο$, Kuptos, μακίίριοί^ irapaXcof, will hardly be found used as 
common ; and fg ^iXios is very rare ^. Some of the compounds of these 
words, however, are used with two terminations, e. g. Soph. Trach. 
12SS. μότη μ€ταίτω$. Plat. PoUt. p. 281 D. Έ. where avvalTios is 
used as common, and αίτωε as of three terminations, id. Crat, p. 414B. 
iinufyidia oi{e» but 6, fi alfvihos. "Οσωί has always three terminations, 
^τοσωβ is generally common in Euripides. 

The adjectives in -aios are used as often with three terminations as 
common even in prose writers. Of those in -eios I have found only 
όθνέίοί Eur. Ah. 543. οΐκέϊοί Eur. Heracl. 635. (in prose writers always 
of three terminations,) used as common. For the usual avXeios θύρα^ 
Arist. Pac, 982. has τη$ ^tvXelas, as Herod, 6, 69. Pind. Nem, 1, 29. 
Tkeocr. 15, 43. 

9. Most adjectives in -cfcoc, Sojcijuoc, eScuSi/uoc, ίρ^ίσιμοα, θα- 
vaai/uoc, Xoycfioc, 8ic. in which the usage above mentioned takes 
place, e.g. ΧογΙμη v6\ic Herod. 2, 98. Plat. Prot.p. 321 D. 

10. The Attic adjectives in -ωο, as ίλεωα, ττλεωο. These 
sometimes reject ρ in the accus. sing. e. g. αγηρω for αγίψων, 
which, according to some, must be the feminine ^. 

Obs. Πλέω» has &femin. and neut. pi, πλέαι, πλέα {Eurip, Med. 263. 
903. Ion. 601. Hel. 751.), which may come from the old word irXios, 

* Porson ad £urip. Med. 822. Dorvill. ad Charit. p.41d. 
Vakkeo. ad £urip. Ph. 1440. « Steph. Thes. 1. p. 847. 

* Thoin. Mag. Duk. ad Thuc. 5, 44. 

206 a^tctive$ of Tkree Terminmtiomi. 

wlienoe came w\io¥ Emip» Ale. 7βΟ. and in^ead of «rUch Honer «id 
Hesiod have irXeiof. Od. ^, 819. μ\ 92. IL 6^, 162. 

II. Compound adjectives in •huc, -caroc> e; g. itjiapfiic, 
βουκ€ρωα, βουκίρωτοο. Ait. βσυκίρω, Msch. Prom. 592. φιλά- 
γελωα -γέλωτοα, Att. -γελώ*. 

02»f. The comparativea and superlatives have three terminatioii^ 
except in very rare cases, as όΚοωτατοε όΒμ{ι Od. Vt 442. awopmnfm 
Tluic• δ| 110. ίυ9€σβο\ώτατοί id. 3» 101. with fenunine nouns ^ 

118. III. Adjectives of three terminations. 

1. Uncompounded adjectives in oc, v^hich are not compre- 
hended under the preceding rules, and which end in Kocy Xec» 
yoC) poCf roQ (especially verbals), eoc» aioc, as Xacrucoc ή ov, ' 
SetXoc fi 6v, oiynXoc, Seivoc» icXeivoc» ψαι'βpoC| jcXvtoCi ανυστό^ι 
ypvtreoCf aworeoc, Siicaioc, KpviJHnoc. Their terminatiotta are 
oc, V (a), ov, of which the masculine and neuter follow Ae 
second, the feminine the first declension. The termination α 
of the feminine is used in those which have a vowel or ρ before 
the final syllable, e. g. ayioc, ayia, ayiov. lepoc, cepa, cepoy, 
except in Ionic. But some in -ooc and -eoc have η, e. g. όγδοος, 
oySoi}, except when ρ precedes the final syllable -eoc. 



Μ. F. 

Nom. σοφοο, σοψ^, 

cepoc, ^cpOf 
Gen. σοφοΰ Γσοφη^ 

Dat. σοφψ ί σοφρ, 

Ace. σόψον^ fσόφr|VJ σοφόν 

( σοφή, σοφον 



Μ. F. Ν. 

Nom. σοφοίρ σοφαί, σοφά 
Gen. σοφών 

Dat. σοψοΐ€, σοφαΐ€, σοφοΐς 
Ace. σoφσvCf σοφαα^ σοφά 
Voc. σοφοί, σοφαι, σοφά. 

Voc. σοφέ, 


Nom. Ace. σοφω, σοφά, σοφω 
Gen. Dat. σοφοί ν, σοφαϊν, σοφοιν. 

* Moeris, ρ. 385. Thom. Μ. ρ. 199. 897. ^ Fisch. 2. ρ.60. 

Adjeciioes of Three TermimUiom. 207 

Oht, 1. Many of these adjectives of three tenninations occur in Homer 

and the Attic writers, as commonf e. g. kXvtos 'Iirxo^/ueia //. β^ 742. 

9T€^s φύσιχ for στ^^ Eurip, Hec, 300• uyayKOios τροψή Thuc. 1, %. 

^ vios te• γη Xen• (Econ• 16, IS. 15. μ^χρι μ^νον ίιμίραί Herod. 

8, 23. Thic. 3, 80. ίρημο$ as common was considered more Attic. 

Ew. Ale* 946. Koiras ίρήμονε. Bacch, 842. oMs ep^/iovs. Thuc, 4, 3. 

igpas Ιρίιμον». Demosth. p. 1272, 8. has SIkos Ιρίιμον$^ comp. p. 542, 4. 

UKmgh ^fi^/ii? iUfi is always found elsewhere• So in Pindar (in whom 

οιΒίφ is fern.) αίθϊ^ρ ίρημο$ and ^p^/io are hoth found, OL 1,10. 13, 126. 
upoF άκΗΐΡ Ηα.''Έργ, 597• ^/«ca ^avepos Eur. Bacch. 1017. βάρβαροΜ 
k never found with three terminations. Ttrepwros βροντίι Soph, CEd. C. 
1460. 6σμιιά oirc Aveicro/ 7Auc. 7, 87• μ€θύση κνων Arist, Vetp. 1393*^ 
as μέ&ν€θ9 and μ^Βυση γννή were hoth said, ^^os caraoTaffis j^tfr. 
JfacL lfi[>6• favXos ούσα Eur. Hipp. 440. ^evucby €ΐσβο\άν Ion. 734• 
{lyovr yvvauNu /$Ίΐ|ΐρ. 93. jcoci^df νλατ^γα Soph, Trach, 207. xayjco/rov 
Ϊϊμ¥α9 id. El. 138. ^eviro^vovf ainjK^f Eta: Hec. 101• IXttU ίατανοι 
2%ιΐϋ• 5, 103. ίνστηνο9 is entirely common, wcn-pfos ΟΙχαλΙα Soph. 
Tmch. 478. at λοιπαΐ yrjesy and afterwards vepiXoinoi Tkuc. 7, 72. is 
agreeable to the rule §• 116, 7.* 

, O&f. 2. The form of the gen. plur, fern, ^άων is sometimes, in the 
ddeat poets, joined with substantives of the neuter gender, II. ω\ 528. 
liipmr kamv^ from k6%, 1^, k6v for kvs. Hes. *Αστ• 7. β\€φάρων κυα- 
vcawr• Of the Doric accentuation άλλων from άλλαωι^, see §. 28. c. 

Some in -eo« and -ooc are contracted : eo, oa are changed 119a. 
into a, Oil into n. 



M• F. N. 

N. χρνσ€θ€, ypxMrea, yjpvaeov 

ovQ fi oSv 

Ο.χ/ονσέον, yjpvaeac, yfivaeov 

m ^ Μ 

ov ηα ου 

*S Λ *> 

Α. yfivaeov, yjpvaeav, γρυσ€ον 

ουν ην ουν 

V. yjpvaee, γρυσία, γρυσβον 

t| ονν 



F. Ν. 

yjpvacoij yjpvaeaiy χ/ονσεα 

Λ *i\ ^ 

0C αι α 



yjpvakoia, yjpvakaiQ, yjpvaeoiQ 

occ aic o7c 

χ/£)υσέου€, yjpvaka^, yjpvaka 

^s ^s ^ 

ουα ae a 

χρνσβοι. Sec. 


^ Fisch. S. p. 62. Dorv. ad Char. p. 413. Monk, ad Hipp. 437. 


Adjectives of Three Termitmtions. 


Nom. Ace. γρνσεω, yjpvaea, γβυσίω 




Gen. Dat. yjpvaeoiVy γρυσεαιν, γβυσβοιρ 

οϊν atv oiv. 

Ohs. 1 . In the same manner is declined iLirXoos ovs, kirXon "η, awXoow^ 
-ovi'i in the neut. plur. άιτλ^α •α, and so hiirXooSf rpiirXooSf ace. pi. awXaSp 
BiirXas Eur. Iph. T. 688. also oydoos -η •ον, not contracted. ^Opoor» 
confertuSt fern, αθρόα Thuc. 2, 59. 87. 3, 114. is not contracted» to di- 
stinguish it from AOpovs 'noiseless', which is common like KcucoOpovtt 
^νσθρόον φωράί Pind. Pyth, 4, 111.* *Air\ovs is used by Euripides as 
common, Here. P, 865. άνλουν fiiordy. 

Obs. %, The uncontracted feminine has universally α in the Attic 
poets, in whom it is used without contraction. See Ind. Eurip. But if a 
vowel or ρ precedes the termination -eof , -έα is contracted into α not ^ 
e. g. άργνρέα -pa. So some adjectives in ovs and 'Cos are dech'ned, e. g. 
ip€ovs * woollen' (properly epceos from έρεα 'wool'), fem. έρεα (ef>e^a). 

From adjectives in -eof probably originated the substantives in -99 
αλωπεκή, Xeoyrrjf &c. See §. 107. To this class also belong other ad- 
jectives in -eof, which however are not contracted, xep^aXia (rep^oXif 
only in a fragm. of Archil, in Brunck. Anal, t 1 . p. 46. xxxx.), άργα* 
λέα, ΧνσσαΧέα ^. 

2. Simple adjectives in vc, which in the feminine and neuter 
have eiOy v, e. g. fiSvc, vSeia, riSv. OriXvc, θηΧεια, βηΧυ, 8cc. 















r 5» Λ 











« 5»/•• 



1 5»/•• 













Nom. Ace. τιδέε, γγδβία, ήδεε 
Gen. Dat. ι^δέοιν, fi^elaiv, ήδέοιν. 

^ Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 78. 

* Thorn, p. 16. Moeris, p. 19. 
Brunck ad Aristoph. Ach. 26. 

Adjectives of Three Terminations^ 209 


1• The tennination of the/eminme is in Ionic fre4uently -έα [-€];] for 

-<<a, e. g. ώκέα ^Iptt in Homer» θι^λέα cmros, θι^λέι;», θι^λ^ρ, gen. pL 

^\eiv Herod. 3, 85. 86. 109. 4, 2. r^^pos /3a0ca re icat ευρέα 1, 178. /3α- 

V 1, 75. comp. //. π, 766. ^θέι;* //. e', 142. /3αθ€/ι?ί //. ^, 92. &c. 

bat fiadeiay. Maittaire p. 112 A. quotes from Hippocrates ενρέι;, 

<?έ7, &c. Δ9έα Tip^is Theocr. S, 20. 27, 4. comp. ^r. Pyth.p. 256, 24. 

ojo^a λάρναζ 7, 78. Γαχβώΐ' Άριτνιωκ Theog. 535. 5r. 715. Bekker.^ 

lie gen. όζέω$, βαρέωδ, in the Fr. of Theages, p. 320, 26. 28. ed. Orell. 

can hardly be genuine, though later writers have βμαχέωχ, θηλεωχ, γλν- 

«έΐΜ, Lob. ad Phryn. p. 247. ίιμίσ€ω$ is even more common than ημί" 

9ms. όζέια Hes. Scut. Here. 348. is neut. pf^r. (sec Etym. M. p. 814, 

45.), and so οξεία, βϋφέΐα Fr. Arch. p. 266. Orell.^ 

2. Some adjectives of this termination have, in the accus. sing, -ea 
(or -vv» e. g. ευθέα Scot, in Brunch Anal. 1. p. 157. 14. εήοέα «-((vroy 
/iL Γι ^91. €ypia κυκλον άγώνοβ y<po//. Rh. 4, 1604. 

3. In the accus. plur• the uncontracted form -ear is as much used in 
Attic as the contracted, e. g. rovs ίιμίσεαί Xen. Cyrop. 2, 1, 2," Later 
Greek writers contract the genitive also, e. g. Dio Chrysost. 7. p. 99. 
U ^μΙσον$. The neuter plural is very rarely contracted ; only in Theo* 
fktast. Charact. ii. ΙιμΙση ^ 

4. These adjectives also are sometimes used as common^ e. g. θη\ν$ 
Upni Od. e, 467. θηλνν oiy Od. κ\ 527. yeyeay eijXvy Eur. Med. 
1092. lyr. fi^vs άϋτμίι Od. μ\ 369. ras ημίσεα^ (or ήμίσ€ΐ$) rQy yeQy 
Thic. 8, 8. 64. ημίσ€ο$ ημέραί id, 4, 104. where, ιίημίσεοί were from 
$/U0V, it would be ήμίσεοχ r^s ήμέραχ, as ημισεοδ r^s rpo<prjs. id. 4, 83. 

3. Adjectives and participles in -ac* Adjectives have -ac 
-tuva -ay, e. g. μeXaQ μίλαινα μεΧαν, τάλαα ταλαινα τάλαν, **^• 
which appears to have arisen from the iEolic termination -ace 
for -ac, e. g. raXaic for raXac• Participles have -ac -ασο -ov. 

Declension of 


N, M. F. N. 

μεΧαν Ν. rvxpaCf τυφασα, τύφαν 

μίΧα- G. rvypavTOCf τνι/'οσιιο, τν- 


' Herod. Herm. p. 302. Piers, 
p. 455. Thorn. M. p. 420 sq. Fbch. 
1. p. 122 sqq. 


M. F. 

N. μeXaCf μίΧαινα, 
6* μίΧανο^ μβΧαΙνηα, 


* Koen ad Greg. p. (205) 440. 

* Ilerm. ad Soph. Trach. 122. 

* Thorn. M. p. 421. Bekk. Anecd. 
P• 41, SI. V. ad Thuc. 8, 64. 

VOL. I. 



Adjectives of Three Terminations• 

M. F. M• 

D• μεΚανί^ μ€\αΙνΊ/, filXavi 
A. μίΧανα, ^μ€\^ιν^ν, μελαν. 


Ν•Α• μ€λαν€, μεΧαΙνα^ μέΧανβ 

Ο.Ό,μεΧανοιν, μeXaίpa^Vf μβ 


Ν• ^eXa^eC) μβΧαιναι, μβΧανα 

0• μβΧανων^ μβΧαινων,μβΧανων 

D. μίΧασι, μ€Xaivatc, μβΧασι 
Α• μίΧαναίί, μβΧαινα^, μ^Χανα. 


Obs. μέγα$ μεγάλη μέγα is irregularly declined; see §. 123. Chce^ 
rob, in Bekk, Anecd, p, 1421 seq. quotes raKayros gen. of rakas from 
Hipponax and Antimachus, and αΐνοτάλαντα in the ace, and from tlie 
comp. μ€\άντ€ρο$ rightly infers that μέλαι^τοί was the gen. of /ιέλατ. 
iras πάσα πάν is declined like the participles. The α is naturally long, 
as the circumflex shows, and continues so in συμπαχ, Soph. Phii, 
1243, &c• awavf Ίταράιταν, &c. have the final syllable short in epic and 
l3rric poetry, long in iambic and trochaic *. 

iSl• 4. Adjectives and participles in -^ic. Adjectives make -cic 
-εσσα -ev. Participles -ei'c -βΤσο •€ν. 

Declension of 

M. . F. N. 

D. τνφαντι^ τν^σρι τνφι 

Α. Tinf/avray τυφασαν, TV^^t»^ 


N.A. Tv\lfavT€f Tvrpaca, τν• 

G.D. τυφαντοιν, τυφασαιν, rv- 



N. τν^ντβι;, τνφασοί, τν* 

G• τν^ντωμ, τνφασων, τν- 

D. τνφασι, rυφaσaιCf τυφασι 
Α. τυφανταα, τνφασαο, τν- 


Μ. F. Ν. 

Ν. X^pieidp yapieoaoy yaplev 
G. yapievroQy yapikoariCj χα- 

D. yapievTi, χβρ*έσσρ, χο- 

A. yapievra, yapievoaVy χο- 



M. F. N. 

N. τυφθζΐς, τνφθβϊσα, τυφθεν 
G. τνφθεντο^ τυφθείσηο, τυ^ 

D. τυφβέντι, τυφβεΤσρ, τυ* 

Α• τυφθζψτα^ τυφθ^ισαν, τν- 


* Ahlwardt ad Find. 01. 2, 81. 

Adjectives of Three Terminations. 
Dual. I Dual. 







•χαρΐ€ντ€, 'χαριεσσα, χα- 


G.D. χαριίντοιν, γαράσσαιν^ 



Λχβ /wevTec, \apie^aai, χο- 

G. yfpiiyrwv, 'χαρί€9σων, χα- 

D• ^apieet, yapaaitmcy χα- 

Α. y^aplevracy γαριίσσαα^ ya-^ 


Μ. . F. Ν. 

N.A. τυφθ£ντ€, τνφθείσα, τυ* 

G.D. τνφθέντοιν^ τυφθε'ισαιν, 



Ν. τνφθέμτβΟ) τ^φββΤσαι, τυ- 

G. τυφθίντων, τυφθεισων, τυ- 

D• τυφθβΊσι, τυφθεΐσαια, τυ- 

Α. τνφθέΐ'ταα» τvφθeiσacy τυ- 


OSr. Ι. The grammarians doubted (Chcerob, in Belek, Anecd, p. 1 1 93.) 
nheCher the dative plural were χαρίασιν, χαρ/εσοΊν, or -χαρίεσι ; a suf- 
Bdent proof that this form nowhere occurred. ψων{ΐ€σι, however, is 
fimndy of which see $. 75. note a. 

Ohs. SL Most of the adjectives of this termination have in the penult 
the vowels η^ ο» ω, e. g. ημίΐ€ίε, aifAaroeiSf κητώ€ΐ5. Even \apieis 
is said to have arisen firom χαριτΟ€ΐ$^. The terminations *4ecs and 
-dcu are also contracted, viz. "iieis "ήεσσα "TJevy into ys ησσα ην^ e. g. 
Γίμιιντα //. (/, 475. (by the Dorians into ds, κνισσάντι Pind, Isthm, 4, 
112. alyXdvra tc^. PyfA. 2, 19. <1>ωνάντι id, 01. S, 152. &\κάντα$ id• 
llO). -<kcff ^oeaaa "oep into ^vs •ovo'O'a -ovv, e. g. μελιτοΰί, μ€\ι» 
τονσσα (in the new Attic μεΧιτοΰττα), μέΧιτοΰν, for /leXirdeis, /ieXtr<5- 
€σσα {Herod. 8, 41.). So ντερονσσα Eurip. Phcen. 1026. αΐβαλονσσα 
ΐΧόξ JEich. Prom. 1000.« 

O&f. 3• The neuter -^v is sometimes, on account of the metrOf -c^i v, 
as 9KU$€iy ^poU. Rh. 2, 406. iajcpvf^eii^ 4, 1291.^ 

*" £tym. M. p. 84. 
* V^ck. ad Phoen. I.e. Obss. Misc. 
ή. p. 500. Bnuidc ad Soph. Trach. 

808. ad Aristoph. Nub. 507. 
* Herm. Disqu. de Orph. pi 705. 


212 Anomalies of Adjectives. 

122. δ. The terminations of participles in •ων and -«c. 


M• F• N• 

N. τντΓτων, τυΐΓτονσα, τντττον 
G. TviTToyroc, TvnTOVinic, rv- 


D. TVTTToyTi, τυτΓΤονσρ, τύ- 


Α• τνίΓτοι^α, τνπτονσαμ, τν- 


Μ• F• Ν• 

Ν. τετυφώο) τ€τνφυϊσ, re- 

G• τ€τυφότοβ, τβτυφνία€, re- 

D. τβτνφότι, τ€τνφνί^, τβ- 

Α. τετνφότα, τβτνφυιαν, ^€- 



Ν. Α. τύτΓτοντε, τυτττούσα, 

G. D• τνίΓΤομτοιΐ', τνιττού- 

σαιν, τυπτοντοιν 

Ν. Α. τβτνφοτε, τ€τνφνία, 

G• D. τ€τυφότοιν, τετυφνί- 

αιμ, τβτνφοτοιν 


Ν. τυπτομτεα, τντττονσαι, τν- 

G. τνίΓΓοντων, τυΐΓτουσωμ, 

D. τυπτουσι, rvnrovaaiCf τυ- 

Α. TvwTOVTaQf τυπτουσαο, τυ- 


Ν. τ€τυφοτ€€, τβτνφνΤοι, 

G• τ€τυφοτων, τ€τνφυιων, 

Ώ, τ€τνφόσ£, τ€τνφυΊαΐ€, τ€- 

Α. τ€τυφοτα€| τ€τυφνΙας, tc- 


Οό«. In the syncopated form of the perf. act. ίστώ$, fiefiifSf &e. the 
ω remains also in the neut. .Soph. (Ed. T. 632. το vapeariits v€ikos. 
They have in the fern, -ωσα, -woiys» &c. and in the gen. and dat• masc• 
neut. 'WTOSf -ωη, &c. 


IftS. Originally some adjectives had two forms, of both which 
certain cases have been retained in usci so that the cases which 

Anomalies of Adfectives. 213 

are wanting in one form are supplied by those of the other. Of 
tliis kind are /ueyac or /ueyaXoc and iroXva or iroXXoc. 

From μ€ya\oς yj9e find ω /ιεγάλε Zev, in ^schylus Sept. c. 
Tk, 824. The feminine of this, μ€yi\n, has remained in use 
tbroaghout, as well as the entire dual and plural, and the ge- 
nitire and dative masc. and neut. in the singular. The re- 
maining cases, the nom• and ace. sing, masc• and neut. are 
taken from /ιέγα^^. 

From iroXvc n. iroXv besides the nominative the following 
cases occur: gen. sing. m. and n. iroXeoc //. ^, 244. e, 597. 
Accus. sing. m. and n. throughout. Nom. pi. m. ττολέεα //• β', 
610, 8tc. and iroXeTc //• λ', 707. Gen. pi. πόλεων //. ε', 691. 
ο, 680, &c. Eurip. Hel. 1362. Dat. πολέσιν //. δ', 388. 
Eurip. Iphig. T. 1272. in a choral song; also ΐΓολέσσιν ILp', 
236. 308. and πολέεσσι //. /, 73. Ace. noXeac IL a, 659. 
also jToXeic H. o', 66. ττολεα neut. ^sch. Ag. 732. The fe- 
minine, the dual and plural numbers are entirely taken from 
voXXoc. The nominative iroXXoc occurs in //. η, 156. &c. 
Herod. 1, 76. 102. iroXXov //. a', 91. e, 636, &c. Herod. 
1, 8. Sophocl. Antig. 86. Track. 1196. Ace. iroXXov //. κ, 
.572. The form TroXvc n. iroXv is used only in the nom. and 
accns. sing. In the epic poets πovλt;c n. πονλν^ is found, and 
they also used voXvc as common (comp. §. 1 196. 4.) //. κ\ 27. 
Od. S', 709.*^ — The following is the declension of both adjec- 
tives used by the Attics. 


M. F. N. 

IT. fieyac, /«εγάλι?, μέγα 
,0. μεγάΧον, μεγάλl7C, μεγαΧον 
D• μ€γα\ψ, /ιεγάλρ, /ιεγαΧ^ 
Α. /ιέγαν, μεγάλι^ν, μeya. 

Μ. F. Ν. 

Ν. iroXvc, τΓολλ^, ποΧϋ 
Q. τΓολΧον, iroXX^c, τΓολΧον 
D. iroXXy, ΐΓοΧλρ, iroXXy 
Α. τΓοΧύι/, ποΧΧην, πολύ. 


Ν. Α. μεγαΧω, μεγάλα, μεγάΧω 
Ο. D. /ieyoXocv, μεγάλαιν, μεγάλοιν. 

• Fisch. 3. ρ. 177. • Wolf ad lies. Theog. p. β3. 

^Meinekc Quest. Menandr.l.p.Sl. 


Aaamaiies of A^ectives. 


M. F. N. 

N. μβ'^αΧοι, μβ'^αΧαι^ μεγάλα 
G. μεγάλων 

D. μ€yaXotc, μ€ya\aιCf /uεγαλocc 
Α. /ιεγαλονο^ μεγαλα^^ μεγάλα. 

Μ. F• Ν• 

Ν. πολλοί, ΐΓολλαί, ιτολλα 
Q. πολλών 

D. πολλοΐα, πολλαΐο, πολλβΐ^ 
Α. ΐΓθλλονΰ|7Γθλλα<;; νολλά• 

ολλοο is anomalous only in this^ that it has άλλο in the 
neuter, instead of άλλον. 

124. To these may be added σωο, of which the form σοο< occurs 
(125) ia Ionic writers 11. a, 344, &c. Herod. 2, 181. 5, 96. 8, 39. 
and in some cases σωοο. The comp. σαώτερο<;, however, and 
the words σαόψμων, σαοψροσυνη, and σαω or σαον, εσαώ0ΐ|ν 
Od. y, 185. lead us to conjecture that there existed also a 
form σάοο. Hence by contraction aJc, and from this again, 
see §. 11. p. 38, aJoc, and shortened σοοο^. Thus σωα and 
σωοα mutually supply each others deficiencies. 

Σωο remained in use in the nom. as masc. and fem. Aristoph. 
Yl πόλια σωοαν είη in Brunck, t. 3. p. 288. n. 127. Eurip. Cycl. 
293.^ as ίλεωο, ayiipwc §. 1 17, 10. Theneut. sing, σων, Arist. 
Lys. 688. Thesmoph. 821. Soph . Philoct. 2 1 . Plat. Phed. 
p, 106 £. Demosth. p. 500, 20. the accus. sing, σων Thuc. 
3, 34. may be derived by contraction from σωον. In the nom. 
plur. Suidas read σ^ in Thucydides, like ίλε^. σώεα after the 
third declension is read in a MS. of Arrian, Indie, p. 351. 
ed. Gronov. whence appears to have come the nom. pi. masc. 
σω<;, in Demosth. p, 61, 13. and the accus. pi. masc. σωο ib. 
p. 93, 24. 364, 25. 500, 20. from σωαο. σωα in the accus. 
was the most in use, both masc. and fem. The grammarians 
quote σα, fem. and neut. from Aristoph. and the Hypsipyle 
of Euripides, which stands in the same relation to σως as ίλεα 
§.117. ll.toeλεωc^ 

' Phavorin. p. 413 seq. ed. Dind. 

*» Gottling ad Theod. p. 2ii8. con- 
siders σώ$ in the first passage as the 
adverb. See Wess. ad Herod. 1, 194. 
Ruhnk. ct Valck. Epist. cd. Tittm. 

p. 177. 

^ Thorn. M. p. 830. Mceris, p. 347. 
ad Ilesych. 2. p. 1 133. Philem. p. 147. 
comp. Phavorin. p. 413 seq. 

Λ notnalies of Adjectives. 215 

Of awoc the nom. pL maec. σωοι^ and the neut. pi. σώα re- 
mained in use. The accus. σώον« also occurs in Lucian» t, 1. 
j>. 714. σώοο, σώον were not used• 

A similar word is 2!wcy which however occurs only in Homer 
and in the nom., and whence is derived ζωόο, which does not 
perhaps occur in the Attics, but is elsewhere very common. 
From the form ζοη, Zoi^ elsewhere Ζωα^, it is probable that tooc 
also existed. The grammarian ap, Bekker Anecd, p. 347, 16. 
quotes αβίΖως yevea^ αβίζων eXicoi;» from Sophocles, and τηι^ 
αεΰ^ων πόαν from iEschylus ; from the latter also αειζώον πόας. 
So were aeivwa and aelvaoc {Herod. 1, 93.) formed, αείνων is 
the reading of the MSS. Mar. p. 23. and γλωτταν aeivwv is 
quoted by the grammarian ti. s. from a poet who is not named. 
Hence we should read, with Elmsley Ed. Rev. no. 37. p. 73. 
and Buttmann, σκωρ αείνων Arist. Ran. 146. 

Feminines are frequently found to which no corresponding 1)^5. 
masc. is in use. Tlleipa belongs as fem. to πιων, neut. πΐον, 
but was deduced by the grammarians (Eust. ad II. τ, p. 1178, 
63.) from the obsolete viiip, with which are connected mepa 
and νιήρη in Hesychius, πιαρ ovSac in Homer®. Πέπεί/αα 
Soph. Track. 728. belongs as fem. to ττέττωι/, with which com- 
mon adj. weweipoc agrees, unless we should accent it rrewelpa 
as from wewetpoc. To πρίσβυο belongs the poetical πρίσβειρα, 
abbreviated into πρίσβα, but only in the sense of ' venerable', 
as in the form ovSev πρ€σβυτ€ρ6ν earc, nihil antiquius est. 
Πρεσβεία is only assumed to explain πρίσβα from it. Μά- 
καιρα is formed in the same way from μακαρ, as μίΧαίρα from 
/Αελαο• Θάλεια in Homer in Satra Θάλεια v, ev Sacri θαλειρ, 
has no corresponding masc. which must have been θάλνο, from 
which indeed probably θαλέων //. χ', 504. is derived. So 
ελάχεια stands alone, for which, as well as for ελάχιστοο, 
§. 131. Obs. eXa^yc is merely assumed. Ώρόφρασσα'ι^ found 
in Homer as fem. to πρόφρων. 

The poets often form feminines for the sake of euphony or 
metre, to which in strict grammatical analogy no masculine 
corresponds, as A/Dre/iiic loyeaipa, Ελλάδα KaWiyvvaiKOf of 

•* Elmsl. ad Med. 946. • Fisch. 2. p. 58. 

216 Anomalies of Adjectives. 

which there is not even a nom. any more than of νφικίρατα 
πίτραν in Aristophanes, irvpyoKepara in Bacchylides, which 
seem therefore to have been formed immediately from yvvaiKa, 
κέρατα. In evwarepeia the adjective termination is aflBzed im- 
mediately to the gen. πατερ-ο^ the masc. being άπατωρ, in 
οβριμοπατρη to the form warpoc. nSveneta, θεσπιεττεια Soph. 
(Ed, T, 463. are derived from Ittoc, after the analogy of λίγεια, 
θ}/λ€ΐα (see §.113. Obs, 2.) ; though the mascuUnes do not end 
in -vc but in -^c, as i\^veiniCj and so ο/ιιογειΊτειρα, avyyevereipa, 
παν^αματεψα, παμμητ€ΐρα, cannot strictly be derived from the 
masculines, which all end in -ωρ. From Opewretpa Nonnas 
appears to have formed θριεπτηρ. To this class belongs perhaps 
woXvSevSpeaaiv Eur* Bacch, 660. formed from the dative of 
Tp SevSpoCf and εττήλυγα nerpav Eurip, CycL 680. 

These cases have much similarity to metaplasmus, but differ 
from it inasmuch as by that figure forms already in use are in- 
flected according to another declension than that to which the 
adjective belongs. Such are εριηρεα iralpoi in Homer, e. g. 
//. y, 378. although in the nominative ερίηροα only occurs. 
ερυσαρματεα ίπποι //. π, 370. vεoθayι σιΒηρψ Soph, Epigr, in 
Br. Anal, I. p, 55, 3. ιτυαμοχαϊτι Antim, ap. Charob, in Bekk, 
Anecd, p, 1187. πολυπάταγα Pratinas Ath, />. 6 1 7 C. αρίγ- 
νωτεα Pind, Nem, 5, 21. So SovaKoyXoa for ΒονακόγΧοον 
Eur, Iph, T, 401. probably also ct/i/ovc for eivoc §. 114, 4.• 

A difficulty arises from the forms eiioc, which in some pas- 
sages is still incorrectly written irjoc and είων. All the places 
where the former occurs demand or admit the derivation from 
evQ ^ good, honest, valiant', although no other example is 
known of an adjective in -vc which in the gen. changes -uc into 
-ioc We must therefore have recourse to the analogy of the 
epic TToXcc, πόλΐ|θ€ §. 80. Obs. 1. Of eάωμsee §• 118. Obs, 2.^ 

'KoenetSchaBf.adGregor.p.(207) ^ Heyne ad II. a, 393. Buttmann 

443 seq. On λΐη, Xira see lleyne Lexilog. p. 85. Jen. L. Z. 1809. 

ad II. &y 441. On ^ιχό/^ι^νι Fisch. 2. No. 247. p. 160. 
p. 187. 

Degrees of Comparison. 217 

Of the Degrees of Comparison. 

Since adjectives indicate the properties or qualities of ob* 126. 
jects, they may also be so changed as to exhibit, by their in- 
flexion, a higher, or the highest degree in which an object 
poBseeses those properties. These inflexions are called degrees 
of comparison, of which there are two, the comparative and 
the superlative. The positive is the proper termination of the 
adjective, and cannot strictly be considered as a degree of 
comparison, since it expresses no comparison. 

I• The most usual forms of comparison are the termination 
-re/ooc for the comparative, and -raroc for the superlative. 

1. Adjectives in oc reject c before these terminations. If 
the penult of the positive be long, ο remains unchanged, e. g. 
arifiore/MM;, ατιμότατο£, Seivore/Doc, μανοτ^ροο. But if the 
penult be short, ο becomes ω, e. g. σοψοι; σοψώτε/αοα• 

Noie. This diflerence was probably caused by the conditions of the 
hexameter verse, by means of which the Greek language was 
first formed, since neither a comparative in oriposf with the 
preceding syllable short, consequently www, nor in wripos with 
the preceding syllable long (except where another long syl- 
lable preceded), consequently w——w, would have been admis- 
sible into the hexameter. For the same reason Homer was com- 
pelled to say Od. V , 366. KaKoieiyafrepos, and Od. β, 350. λάρω^ 
raroSf and οίζϋρώτ€ρο$ II, p\ 446. Od. c', 105. The iambic metre 
produced in some respects opposite effects among the Attics, 
who said ^υσίΓοτμώτεροί, evrcjcvwraros, &c. because among 
them a mute with a liquid leaves the preceding syllable short, 
but also πΙκράτατοΒ Eur. Hec, 772. Bacch. 634. « In other 
cases this combination of a mute with a hquid makes the syl- 
lable long, and they wrote σφο^ρστ€ρο$, nvicyorepos, e. g. Isocr. 
p. 241 A. It is singpilar that they formed the comp. and 
superl. of m-tyos, Kevos in -orepos -oraros, which was retained 
perhaps from the Ionic forms areivos, Kciyot^. 

' Pors. ad Phcen. 1367. Schaef. Heind. ad Phxd. p. 337. Of the ge- 

Ind. Od. p. 165. neral rule £ust. ad II. p. 68, 18. 

'' Of areyoreposf ice. sec Bekk. Od. e, p. 1526, 10. Schaef. ad Ap. 

Anccd. p. 1286. Etym. M. p. 375. Rh. p. 213. ♦♦• 

218 Degrees of Compamon. 

127. Obs. 1. In some adjectives ο or «# b rejected before the terminatioii 
of the comparative, e• g. ^Xrtpos^ ψίΧτατοΒ^ for ^cX^repof Xen, Mem• S, 
dy 11• extr. which is rare. γ€μαΙτ€ρο$, waXalrepoSf σχολα /rcpoff, for 
yepoi^repof AtUiphon. p. 687 R• waXaiartpcs Tyrt. EL 2, 19. Pi$id. 
Nem, 6, 91. σχο\αιάτ€ρο9\ After cu had been introduced in such ad- 
jectives before the termination^ it was extended in the Ionic, Attic, and 
Doric dialects to others also of which there hardly existed a finrm ^^uosf 
ψιΚαίτατοβ Xen. Hist. Or. 7, 3, 7. Theocr. 7, 98. latUrtpos Tkue. 8, 89. 
μ€σαΙτατο$ Herod. 4, 17. ίισνχαίτ€μοί Tkuc. 8, 82. for which ίισνχύτ€μο9 
occurs in Soph. Antig. 1089• (see Schsefer.) ΊτλησιαίτατοίΧεη* Anah. 7» 
8, 29.^ (a). €\)liaif€pos Xen. Hell. 1,6, 89. UpwiaiT€po$ Plat. Phcedon. 
p. 59 D. Rep. St. p. 858 B.* o^iairepos. 

128. 2. Adjectives in vc only reject c, e. g. eitpvc evpirepoc, 
θρασυίί OpacvrepoQ^ πρίσβνο νρ€σβυτ€ροι;; vSvc riivTepoc, 
more commonly η^ίων^. 

8. Adjectives in ac and lyc annex -repoc and -τατο<; to the 
termination of the neuter, e. g. peXac peXavrepoc, raXac τα- 
XavraroCf aη^ηc afiSearepOQ, avaiSfic avaiSearepoCf vyiric νγι- 
earepoQf a\ηθr|G αλι^θεστερο^;®• According to the same analogy, 
weveorepoc Lysias, p. 709. Demosth. p. 66B. Isocr. Areop. 
p. 146 A. Plutarch. 8. p. 86. ποδωιτγιεστατοο Apollon. Rh. 
1, 180. is irregular, υπ€poπ\η€στaτoc 2, 4. from ποδώκιια, 
virepoirXoCi as if from πο^ωκηεια &c. a sort of metaplasmus. 

1. This termination "ktrrtpos "έστατοί was regpilarly used in adjec- 
tives in 00$ contr. ods for Owrepos, So ehroiarepos Herod. 5, 24. cofttr. 
ehyovtnepos -ovcrraros Aristoph. Pac. 601. and similarly προνονστ€ρο$ 
Soph, Aj. 119. KaKovovtrrcpos, &n\ovtrrepos, adpovtrrepos. 

ft. By the same analogy other adjectives also in the Attic, Ionic, and 
Doric dialects, ending in -of, made the comp. and superl. in 'itrrepos 
"itrraToSf for 'wrepos "ώτατοί^ e. g. σπουίαιέστατα Herod, 1, 133. from 
ξΠΓον^αϊοί. άμορψέστατο$ Herod. 1, 196. from άμορφοί. ΙΙψωμ€νίστ€ρο$ 
Herod. 9, 70. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 3, 3 1 . άψθονέστερος Plat. Rep. 5 . p. 460,B• 

* Fisch. 9. p. 89. 101. with the various reading irpw'i- 

^ Fisch. 3. p. 87. Pors. et Dobree airtpov. Comp. Ruhnk. ad Tim. 

ad Arist. Equ. 1162. p. ?27. Fisch. 2. p. 88. 

*^ Duk. ad Thuc. 7, 19. 8, 101. •» Fisch. 2. p. 76. 

Thorn. M. p. 763. recommends • Fisch. 2. p. 75. 

vpwhepoy, as is also found Thuc. 8, 

Degrea of Campariion» 219 

Pmd. (H. 2, 172. ά^τμ^νάστατΛ PkU. Rep. 10. J9. 616 A. airoyiarepoy 
βίφρ PmL Of. 11, 111. ' iiuvxiar9pov Ηψρ. J9. 338, 12. 50, jiq^Stianpoy 
BkroiiM JiU p. β7. ed. ReUk. L 8. Pokfb. t. 3. p. 64. Mken. 10. 
p, 4M D. fvom Hyperides for fiqiun-epos in Pollux 5, 107. ^irpari^cpot 
for άκματΜΓ€μ(η is noticed by Moeris as Attic 

$• As adjectives in ό$ take the form of comparison of those in -i^s , 
sometimes adjectives in -lyt assmne the fonns of those in -os, e. g. 
9βΐΗσΓ6τ€ρο9 Herod• S, 81. ArisU Vesp. 1294. Xen, Cyrop. 5, 5, 41. 
Anahn 5f 8, 3. 22. from νβριστίΐΐ. vyuirepos in Sophron for vyiitrreposK 
So Herodotns uses both νγιηράΓατο9 4, 187. and ίβγιηρέστατο$ 2, 77. 

4. Adjectivee in -etc change -eic into -earepoc -Ιστατοέ;; 129. 
e. g. '^apieic yapiearepoa^ ripfieiQ riprikarepoa. 

5. Adjectives in -ων annex eare/ooc έστατοα to the neuter 
tennination ov^ e. g. σώφρων σωφρον€στ€ρο(;, evBaipwv εύδαι- 
μονέστβρος, τΧίιμων τΧημονέστβροαΚ πίπων makes in the 
comparative «reiracrepoc Theocr. 7, 120. πΐων, πιοτβροο 
Horn. Hymn. 1^ 48. Xenoph. Epist. 2. eci. Z. ircoraroc J/, i, 
673. from the old word irioc^ which still remains in Orph. 
Arg. 404. Epicharm. in Pollux 9, 79. So eπί\ησμ6τaτoc 
Arisi• Nub, 788. from ίπιΧησμων. 

β. Of the adjectivee in -u;^ α-^^αρίζ Od. ν\ 392. has ayapi- 
erepoc, but ίπιγαρις has €πΐ'χαριτωτ€ροα from the gen. επι- 

7. Adjectives in ζ make "iorepoc -ίστατοί, e. g. αρπαζ 
(αρπαγο) άρπαγιστερος, βΧάζ φΧίκς) βΧακίστ€ρο<;• But 
Xen. Μ. S. 3, 13, 4. 4, 2, 40. has βΧακώτεροα, as if from 
the genitive βΧακόα a new adjective had been formed. The 
true reading is probably βΧακικωτεροα, see Butttn. L. Gr. 
266 not. αψηΧίζ makes αψι/λικέστβροα^ μακαρ makes in 
the superiative μακάρτατο^ 

Obi. This was the reason why, especially among the Attics, the form 
AvTtpot 'itnraTOS was used of other adjectives in os, e. g. from \a\os 
oemes only the form XaX/^repos, not XaXwrepos. ό}ΐΗ)φαγΙστατο$ Xen, 
M. S. 3, 13, 4. ΊΓτωχίστεροί Aristoph, Acham. 4e24i. for όφοφαγω» 

' Fisch. S. p. 86. Pierson ad Mcerid. ^ Fbch. 3. p. 76. Wesseling ad 

p. W. Valck. ad Herod, p. 142, 29. licrod. 239, 53. 
305,79. Eustathius Od. β,γ. 1441,10. »• Fisch. 2. p. 77 seq. 

quotes other examples. Comp.Athen. ^ Thorn. M. p. 42. 

1. c Schaef. ad ApuU. Rh. p. 155. 

220 Degrees of Comparison. 

raros, πτωχότ€ρο$» So also some adjectives in i^f, e. g. τλεονεκτίστατω 
Xen. M, S. 1, ftp 12. jcXenr/oraros, ^evBitrraroSf from π\€ονέκηι$^ xKiw 
τη$, ypev^s, το\μΙστατο$ Soph, Phil, 984. is according to this analogy 
formed from Γο\μρ$ for τοΚμίΐ€ΐ$ (see §• 121• Obs,\ or is incorrectly 
written for (το\μηέστατο$) το\μίι<ηατο$. 

ISO. Π. Another form of the comparative is Ιων neut. lov, superl. 
taroc "fi *oi^ (r). These forms are used commonly of the adj. 
in -vc and -/ooc• 

1 . Of the adjectives in -vC| fi^vc only has regularly this form 
γΐΒΙων, riBiaroG, rarely ^Svrepoc• Of ταχνο is found in the 
superl. only τάχιστοα^ in the comp. θασσων (§. 131. Obs, \.), 
and ταγίων, τάχιστοα Od. a, 85. Xen. Cyrop. δ. 4, 3. and 
ταχύτερος Herod. 4, 1 27. 9,101. ταγιον only in later writers. 
Of j3/9a)^vcis found βράγιστος Arist, Lys, 716. Soph. Ant. 1436. 
fipa^yraroc Thuc. 3, 46. but βραγυτεροα only Herod. 7, 2 1 1 . 
not βρα-χίων. Of aXyiwv, ββλτίων, καΧΧιων, KcpStwv, κυϋωρ, 
Χωων see §. 133. 134. Of the other adjectives in -t/c the 
forms in -vrepoc -vtotoc are more common, but these are 
rare, γλυκίων //. ο', 249. Od. ι, 34. Theocr. 14, 37. j3a- 
ϋιωνιύ. Epigr. 43. βάθιστοο Tyrt. 3, 6. //. ff, 14. βραδιών 
Hes.^Epy. 628. βάpS^στoc for βραδιστος //. i/.', 630. TA^ocr. 
16, 104. παγίων Arat. 63. τΓαχιστοέ; //. π, 314. From 
ώκνα, Ίτρεσβυο only oiJcvTepoc, πρ^αβυτεροα occur in the com- 
parative; but in the superlative ωκιστοα IL ψ, 253. JEsch. S. 
c. Th. 66. πρ€σβιστος JEsch. S, c. Th. 396. Horn. Hymn. 
30, 2. (πρ€σβυστα Tim. L. p. 13. 28. ed. Bip.^ is an erro- 
neous orthography.) "Έγγιον for eyyvrepov is found only in 
Hippocrates and in later writers, Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 296. 

.^. 2. In some ending in -/doc, in which case ρ is left out, e. g. 
α'κτχροο, αίσχίωΐ' (less frequently αισχρότερος)^, αίσχιστος. 
€χθ/90ς, εχθ/ων, εχθιστος (also €γ0ρ6τατοα Find. Nem. 1, 98. 
Soph. (Ed. Τ. 1246. Demosth. p. 237.), #cv8poc, κύδιον £t£r. 
Ale. 981. ilncir. 640. jcvSiaToc. μακρόο {μακρότ^ροα Mschin. 
ρ, 490. never μaκιωv)y μηκίστο€ for /laiccaTOc; also o'lKTpoc, 
οίκτιστοα^. Here the form -ιστοα is more usual than that in 

• Fisch. 3. p. 78-80. "" Piers, ad Moer. p. 135. Fisch. 2. 

^ Thom. M. p. 19. p. 108-105. 

Degrees of Comparison. 22 1 

3. In some also ending in -oc> -^c, and -ac, e. g. jcojcoc, Jca- 
κΐων (also κακωτεροα Π. χ', 106. τ, 321. )> κάκιστοι XaXoc, 
λαλιστοο• ψιλοΟ) ψιλιωμ Οίί. τ', 351. ω\ 268. φίλιστος 
SopA. 4;. 842.^ ολιγιστοο //. τ, 223. Aristoph. Ran. 116. 
P/u/. 628.• /leyacy μεγστοα. βλβγχης (whence /Ζ. ^, 242. 
w', 239. €λ€γχ€€€), βλέγχισί-οα' From re/oiryoc Callim. αρ. 
Etym. Μ. p. 763, 19. τερηνιστοί;. 

Obs. In some ι is changed, together with the foregoing consonant or 
consonants, into σ^, in the new Attic dialect into ττ^ as ίλαχύι (whence 
Eiym. M, p, S25, 80. ίλαχύν Ιόμον is quoted, and Hymn. Horn. 2, 19. 
the femih. ^λάχβια occurs) [Ιλαχ /wv], Αάσσων, έλ^χιστοί . rayys [τα^^ 
χ/ϋΐ}'], βάσσνν, raxi^rof*. Rarer forms are βράσσων IL x^, 226. fpr 
βραχέων^ from βραχνέ, βάσσων in Epicharmus, in Etym. Μ . p. 191, 8. 
for βαθίων, γΚνσσων in Aristophanes in Etym. M. for γλνιτ/ων• τάσ'» 
ffMK for iraxvrcpos Ocf. ^, 230. &c. So μέγαί, [μεγίων] μέσσων and 
(according to the £oIic dialect, vid. §. 15. p. 46.) μέζωy in Herodotus, 
and μείζων^ in Attic, μέγιστοε. dX/yos, {όλιγίων^ όλίσσων) όΧΙζων^ άΧί" 
yuTTOf•' μακρο$ \βακίων (vid. 2.)] μάσσων (βάσσον for μακροτέρω 
Od. &, 203. i. q. μείζον jEsch. Prom. 634. comp. Pers. 438. Agam, 
609•^) μίικιστο$. Μάσσων, however, may be related to the old word 
/ιάσι in Hesychius. Vid. Schneider's Lexicon, xparvs II. ir', 181. 8rc• 
[κρανίων, κράσσων, whence in £ohc and Ionic] κρέσσων in Hero- 
dotus and Att. κρείσσων {κρείττων), κράηστοε. (Dor. κνφρων Timaus Ζ. 
ψ. 5. 10. for κ&ρσων\ as κάρτιστοί II. Ο', 17• Γ» 98. &c. for κράτίστοε)\ 
*Έίσσων or τ^ττων is said to have been formed from ίιμισίων from ^/u^vs ">• 
Yet the superlative ί^κιστα seems to indicate that it was properly ηκίων, 
fiom an unknown positive (a) connected with ηκα. See §. 135. 

Ohs. 2. In the termination -/ων, ι is short in the epic poets, but long 
io the Attics; for Eur, Suppl, 1104. πατρί δ* oh^ky ^Stov Tiporrt 6v- 
yarp6$ is probably corrupt". 

Comparatives also are formed from adverbs and prepositions, 132. 

' Valck. £p. ad Rcever. p. 59. ^ Valck.adTheocr. Adoniaz.p.S03. 

laterpr. ad Hesych. t. 2. p. 1508, 20. Bust. Od. χ', p. 1930, 43. Bast et 

* Fisch. 3. p. 105. Schsf. ad Gregor. p. 193. not. 

' Fiach. 3. p. lOT. ' Fisch. 3. p. 95. 

' Fisch. 3. p. 80. Grxv. ad Lucian. *" Fisch. 3. p. 80 seq. 

t 9. p. 483. Bip. " Markland ad Eur. Suppl. 1101. 

^ Fisch. 3. p. 83. 101. and Burney's remark in the Monthly 

' Fisch. 3. p. 105. Review quoted in the Oxford ed. of 

J Blomf. Gloss. Pers. 444. Brunck Markl. Supplices. Ck>mp.Schsf. Me- 
ad Soph. C£d. T. 1301 . let. p. 101. 

222 Degrees of Comparison• 

of which eome ^re in fact aJjectiyes, e. g. αμω, αν^τβρω, «y*»- 
τάτω Herod. I, 190. 7, 23. Aristoph. Pac. 206; also with 
the form of adjectivesi ανώτατα Herod, 2, 1 25. κάτω, fcar«#» 
τ€ρω, κατωτατω and κατώτατα• €σω, ίσωτέρω. ίζω, βζωτίρω• 
οΊτισω, οπίστατοϋ in Homer• αφάρτεροι 11, xf/, 31\^ of whidi 
the ροβίϋτβ αφαρ occurs as an adjective in Theogn• 536. Br» 
των αφαρ eiai (not lac) iroSec• νορρω, πορρωτίρω, ττορρωτηχω. 
The comparative νόρσων occurs in Pindar, OL 1, 183. firom 
the Doric ττόρσω, and the superlative πόρσιστα Nem• 9, 70» 
From πρόσω, which differs from the former only in dialect 
oome the comparative προσωτίρω and the superlative τροΦ- 
crraTo»! both very frequent ; π/αοσώτατοο as an adjective also 
Soph, Aj. 743• απο, απωτίρω, απωτατω, eyyuc, ίγγττίρω 
and eyyvTcpoVf εγγντατω, and the less Attic forms Syywr, 
eyyioTa, which, however, is found in Isocr. JEgin, p. 393 A. 
ed, Steph. Dem, de Cor» p, 282, 28. αγχοΰ, αγχοτέρω and 
[ayyjiov] ασσον, αγχιστα (ασσιστα in JBschylus. vid. Hesych, 
t, 1. p. 580.) and άγχοτάτω; also the adjective ay^oTepoc 
Herod, 7, 175. αγγιστοα Soph, (Ed, Γ. 919. eKac, έκαστερω^ 
€καστατω. μίΧα, μαΧλον, μάλιστα• irpo, npoTCpoc, [τροτατος] 
πρωτοϋ• νπερ, vwepTcpoc, νιτερτατοα and νττατοα• napoe, ιτα- 
polTepoc\ We find also comparatives from adverbs in the 
form -oiTepoc §• 127. Ohs, e. g. ir /οωί, ΐΓ/οωϊαιτερον• οφί, 
οφιαίτερον and οφίτερον, 

IBS, Other comparatives and superlatives have no positive ad- 
jective from which they can be regularly derived, but appear 
to be formed after the substantives which correspond to those 
positive adjectives. Thus κβρΒΙων, neut. KcpSiov, jcepScaToc» in 
the poets, from KepSoQ, βασιλεντβροα //. /, 160. Od. o', 532. 
/3ασιλευτατο<; IL 1 1 69• from βασιΧευο, aXyiov, aXyicrrtK, in 
Homer and Attic writers, from το akyoc, καΧΧιων, κάλλιστοο, 
from TO icaXXoc. αρείων, άριστος from ο "Αρης, Again, pιyiωv, 
neut. piyiov, p^yιστa, kiiSuttoq II, i', 638. Od, κ, 225• icv- 
&aTOc. αοιδοτατος Theocr, 12,7. Eurip, Hel, 1115. from 
TO piyoc, TO KiiSoQ, το jcvSoc, ο aocSoc. κυντεροα ' more dog- 
like, i. e. impudent', in Homer, ύετώτατος from veToc Herod, 
2, 25. /4υχοίτατο€ Od. φ', 1 46. (/ιινχαίτατοα Aristot, de 

•Fisch.f. p. 113-120. 

Degrees of Comparison. 323 

Mundp 3. doubtful) and μυ')^aτoc Apollon. Rh. 1, 170. from 
fcv)(oc• νβριστοτεροα and υβριστοτατοο, Aristoph. Vesp. 1294. 
from υβριστίια^. vxpirepoc Theocr, 8, 46. υφιστoc and υφο- 
τίτω in Bacchylides may be derived from the adverbs υφι 
and ύφον, or το v^oc^• yjpvmrepoQ from χ/ΐηισοι; Sapph. Fr. 
53. Gaisf. wpoipyialrepoQ cannot be derived either from a 
substantive or an adjective ; but is formed after a word com- 
pounded of a preposition and the case of a substantivei προνρ- 
γον for vpo epyov. 


1• Op^fff€pot» ayporepotf Θη\υτ€μοί appear not to be comparatives, 
but simple adjectives, as they have not the sense of comparatives. So 
ΙιΐμΟΓ€ρο$ ApoU. Rh. 1, 783. 

2• Some forms of comparison are produced by syncope, as ^CKrtpost 
fcc. §• 127• Obs. In others a whole syllable has dropt out, e. g. Ιπέρ- 
raroSf viraros. πράτατο^, πρωτοί §. 132. So μέσσατο$ II. ff, 223. for 
μ€σαΙτατο$ Herod. 4, 17. μνχατοε for μνχωτατοε. §• 133. 

3• Some, amongst whom is Fischer, derive these comparatives and 
superlatives §§• 131, 132. not from prepositions, or adverbs, or sub- 
stantives ; but from obsolete adjectives, e. g. firom iv^s, οτισοί^ άγχόε^ 
iwepoSf Kcp^vs, &\γν$ or aXyijs, koSXvs or ιταλλήί. But not a trace of 
such adjectives is to be found, either in the Grreek writers themselves, 
or in the old grammarians ; and as prepositions, with their case, and 
adverbs, by prefixing the article, are made to assume the signification 
of adjectives, there is no contradiction in supposing that forms of com- 
parison are derived from these adverbs and prepositions, which are 
used as adjectives. And as in many verbs tenses occur, although those 
tenses from which they would have been immediately derived never 
existed, so comparatives and superlatives, of which the positive had no 
existence, were formed afler the analogy of the substantive. In Latin 
also superlatives of substantives occur, as oculissimus^ Plaut. Cure. 
1, 2, 28. 

4. Comparatives and superlatives of substantives, which are taken 
in an adjective sense, and which, for the most part, are properly ad- 
jectives, are more common, as κνριωτ€ρο{, κυριώτατοε. airuirepos^ αΐτΐ" 
mraros. lovXorepos Herod. 7, 7. Ιΐΐΐβο\ιατατο$ Aristoph. Equ. 45. h-ai" 

^ Jensius ad Lucian. 1. 1. p. 214. * Fisch. 2. p. 106-1 ία 

224 Degrees of Comparison, 

paraTos Plat. Gorg. p. 487 D. Pficed. p. 89 D. E.• βαρβαρώτάτοβ Art- 
staph, Av, 1572. 

5. There is a superlative also of μ6νο$^ μονώτατοί Lycurg, m Leocr• 
jp. 197. ΓΛβοοτ. 15, 137. A ristoph. Plut. IS2. Ε φι. 951.^ of ain^ 
* self, the comp. adrorepos in Epicharmus, and avroraTos in Aristoph• 
Plut. 83. the latter in a comic Bense. άαναώτατο$ is quoted fi^om 
Aristophanes ®. 

134• As adjectives are very frequently derived from verbs, so also 
are comparatives and superlatives, whose positive is only ima- 
ginary, and never actually existed ; as they said afΓη\\ayηy, 
weirpaya^ πίφράδα, ελιτΓοι/, and merely imagined according to 
analogy, the tenses from which they are immediately derived, 
without ever employing them• Such comparatives and super- 
latives are : 

λωιων λ^ωι^ Soph. (Ed. T. 1513. λ^στοα Plat. Phitdan• 
p. 116 D. Χωϊστα Χωστά 'more desirable', 'better', from the 
verb λω ' I will*, ' I wish'. This comparative, however, may 
have been formed from Xcucoc, which occurs in Theocritus 26, 
32. 29, 11. Ep. 13, 4. for λωϊιων, whence also comes λωι- 
Tcpoc Od. β f 1 4 1 . for Χωϊωτερο^ ^. 

f^kprepoQ φερτατοα from φίρω, in the sense which otherwise 
belongs to προφέρω ' to excel' (whence προφερήο *' preferable')* 
τω προφ€ρτατω 'the eldest'. Soph. (Ed, C. 1531. τον προ- 
φερτβρου id. Niob, ap, Schol. Yen. II, e', 533• in which sense 
the epic poets have προφερβστατο^ e. g. Hes, Th, 79. 361. 
777. If we imagine a positive ψe/^ηc analogous to this, the 
comparative from it would be: 1) φερίστεροο φερεστατο^ 
and by syncope φερτεροο φερτατο^, 2) [ψβρίων] φεριστοίί^, 
Fischer derives the former from φερτός (Eur, Hec, 159.) for 
φερτοτερος φερτοτατος, 

ίεντεροο δεντατος Od, α, 286. ψ, 342. Find, 01, 1, 80. 
is said to come from Sevoftai ' to come after'^, ' to fall short of; 
and it is true that it has, like ύστερος and νστατοα, not merely 

• Thorn. M. p. 377. p. 207. Fisch. 8. p. 110 sq. 
i> VaIck.adTheocr.Adoniaz.p.410. * Fisch. 2. p. 94. 

* Apollon. π. (ίντων. p. 340 Β. • Fisch. 2. p. 112 sq. 
341 A. Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. ' Fisch. 2. p. Ill sq. 

Degrees of Comparison. 225 

the form; but also the construction of a comparative. So ιθυν^ 
τατα IL σ'ρ 508. appears to have been formed according to 
the analogy of ίθννω for ιΒντατα (see Eust. ad II. p. 1 1 58^ 42.) ; 
φααvrαroc Od. ν j 93. appears to be formed like έφαάνθην for 
φα€ΐν6τατο(; or φανοτατο^ 

There are yet some comparatives and superlatives^ of which 135. 
no positive exists in the actual remains of the language, and 
which, on account of their signification, are assigned to positives 
entirely different. Such are : 

αμ€ΐνων, ο, fi^ without a superlative. It belongs, from its signifi- 
cation, to ayaOoc ; according to some ^ it is for αμενίωι^, 
from αμενοα i. q. amoenns. 

βεΧτβρ^κ, superl. ββλτατοα Ί according to the signification 

βελτίων, βέλτιστος J from ayaOOQ, 

βεΧτΙων and βέλτιστου (Dor. βεντιστοο) are the usual 
and also Attic forms, βίλτβρος is found //. ξ\ 81. 
ο',δΐΐ. Msch. SuppLlOn . 5.c.rAe6.343. (^schy- 
lus never uses βe\τιωv)y and in the poets passim. )3έλ- 
τατοα JEsch. Suppl. 1062. Bum. 490. It is properly 
' more sagacious'**. The unknown positive appears to 
be allied to βάλλω. 

The proper compar. and superl. of άγαθοα, αγαθώ- 
repoc and αγαθώτατοα, occur only in later writers, 
and such as are not Attic, e. g. Diod. Sic. 16, 85.^ 

ησσων neut. ησσον, new Attic ίιττων, Ion. εσσων, superl. ηκισ- 
roc II. \l/f5Z\, (ηκιστα is used as an adverb,) is assigned 
to μικp6c, and is used in the sense of ' less' Hes. Sc. 
Here. 258. elsewhere it means ' weaker'J, and is pro- 
bably allied to the adverb ηκα. Comp. §.131. Obs. 1. 

μείων neut. ftecov, superl. μεΐστοο, assigned to μικροο. The 
superl. μεΐστοο occurs only in Bion. Id. 5, 1 0. Dor. 
μ^gωVfFr. Pythagor. Gal. p. 18. According to aniQogy 
it must come from /liIoc, as πλείων πλείστος from 

» Fisch. 2. p. 93. * Fisch. 2. p. 95 sq. 

*> Ad Markl. Suppl. (Oxon. 1811.) * Fisch. 2. p. 80. 100. 
p. 207 not. 

VOL. I. Q 

226 Degrees of Comparison. 

w\€oc\ The regular compar. μικρότερος occurs in 
Aristoph. Equ. 786. Soph. 4;. 1 6 1 . 

onXoTcpoQ * younger', superl. οπΧοτατοα, appears to come from 
the obsolete word oirXoc, which still remains in uttc/do- 
wXoQf vwepowXia^. 

rrXeiwv neat. irXeoif, euperl. ιτλεΐστοο, assigned to iroXvc, ap- 
pears to come from nXkoc, comp. πΧείων or πΧειων. 
The Attics say πΧίωρ, irXlovoc, wXeovi Eurip. Phocn. 
539. vXkovea Thuc. 4, 85. neut. πλέον; but also 
wXeiwv Plat. Phadr. p. 231 D. 232 D. irXeiovoc Plat, 
ibid. Xen. M. S. 4, 2, 7. πλειόνων ib. 3, 13, 4. Cy- 
rop. 8, 1, 1. πλειοσιν (Bekker πΧίοσιν) Isocr. w. άν- 
τιδ. §. 300. wXelovac Thuc. 2, 37. and nXeiova. The 
neut. πλέον is the most common ; but πλειον also oc- 
curs Plat. Euthyd. p. 280 E. Thuc. 7, 63. Aristoph. 
Eccl. 1 132. Lysias, p. 296 R. in the contracted cases 
generally irXeiovc, πΧείω, more rarely πλέovc Soph. 
Trach. 944. πλέω Herod. 8, 66.* The lonians con- 
tracted eo into ev, e. g• πλευν, wXevvec, πλεννων, πλβί- 
vac• The Attics said πλειν^ for πλειον §.50. Obs. but 
only in the phrase πλεΐν η μύριοι. Instead of πλέονεΰ 
we have πλέεο //• λ', 395. and instead of πλέονα<;, 
πλέαα //• β\ 129. The Dorians said πλρων^ 

ό^ων neut. pfov, superl. pfaroc, assigned to paSioc, appears 
to have come from the old word ρηϊοί; (in Hesychius v. 
ρηια Ion. for peioc, whence ρεΐο //. β', 475. and 
passim, and pea II. e, 304. Sec), of which the Ionic 
pviSioc, Dor• paiSioCf Att. pfSioQ, is only a lengthened 
form. From pfitoc comes [ptiioTepo^] ρηιτερος II. σ , 
258. ω\ 243. Dor. pairepoc, pairepoc Pind. Ol. 8, 
78. and according to the other form §. 129. [ρ»ιϊίων, 
ρηίων] ραιων in Hesych. Att. /of ων, superl. ρΐ}ΐτα- 
Toc Od. τ , 577. \f/, 75. priiaroc, Dor. pawroc 
Theocr. 11, 7. Att. p^aroc^. 

■ Fisch. 3. p. 98 sq. •* Piers, ad Moer. p. 294. 

•► Fisch. S. p. 109. Schneider's • Fisch. 2. p. 102. 

Greek Lex. hwiporXos, ' Fisch. 2. p. 104 sq. 
^ Reisig Conj. in Aristoph. p. 43. 

Numerah. 227 

Of ^eprepoc, (f^epiaroc, see ξ. 134. 

j^eipwv neut• yeipov, euperl. ^elpiaroc, appears to be altered 
from ^epeiwv. From the old positive χεριιο (probably 
originally equivalent to χ^ρνηα), which has itself the 
Muse of a comparative //. a, 80. χ^ρηϊ IL Si, 400. χε- 
ρψί, ykpiiec Od. o, 323. σ, 228. , a comparative \ep€i^ 
wv was derived^ //.a', 114. 676. &c. Don ^epywv 
Titimus X• p. 18. superL χέριστος, as from apηCf ipei 
ων, apiaroc- From this, by transposition, 'χειρών, χβί- 
ptvroc• From χερείωι/ and 'χειρών again, new com- 
paratives arose, γε/>€ΐότ€ροο //. β', 248. μ, 270. and 
\eip6repoc IL ο , 613. υ, 43 6.* κακωτεροο -τατοα is 
found in Homer, and elsewhere. 

Sometimes, particulaiiy in the poets, new comparatives and 186, 
lapertfttives are derived from comparatives and superlatives 
ah'eady in use, e. g. ^epeiorepoc, \eip6repoQ §• 135. καλΧιώ* 
repoq Thuc. 4, 1 1 8. in a treaty, apeiorepoc Theogn. 648. σσσο- 
repu Od, ρ , 672. μειότεροο ApoU. Rhod. 2, 368. Similarly, 
ίσχατώτατο Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 49.^ αμεινότβροζ Mimn. Fr. 
1 1 • 9. Gaisf. To the same class belongs ΐΓ/οώτιστοα in the 
epic, tragic, and comic writers, Lob. ad Phryn. p. 419. προ- 
repairepon Arist. Equ. 1166. is used in jest. 

(y Numerals. 

Numbers are either cardinal, which answer to the question 137. 
^how many 7' or ordinal, answering to the question * which of 
the number ? ' The cardinal numbers are, 

1. etc (εειβ Hes. Th. 146.), μΙα, iv gen. ivoc, μιας, evoc 
dat evl, /iiif , ivi Sac., * one'• 

μία, μίαν have α short, gen. μιης• Hippocrates and Hero- 
dotus have μίη, μιην. In the epic writers is also found ta with 

' Fisch. S. p. 97 sq. Heyne ad p. 873. Fisch. 8, 89 sqq. Grsv. ad 
n. ^, 400. Lucian. Soloec. (t. 9.) p. 468. Valck. 

^ Phiynich. ρ•(54) 135. Thorn. M. ad Adonias. p. 285. 





α fihort, ijc, ly, ίαν, e. g. //. 8*, 437. and elsewhere, and only 
once ίω for evi 11. t, 422. 

From the composition of this word with ouSe and μη^€ arise 
the negative adjectives ouSeic and μη^βία, which are declined in 
the same manner, olSeic, ουδεμία (in Herodotus ovSeju/if, /tiv^Se- 
μιη), ουδέν, &c. The later Greek writers, e• g. Aristotle, vnrite 
oiOeUf μηθειο, from ovre, ju^re, which, however, is not con- 
sidered genuine Attic ^. In the ^olic dialect it was old^. 

MijSeec and oiSe/c are often separated, and this separation 
increases the negative signification, e. g. Xenoph. Hellen. 5, 4, 
1 . of the Lacedaemonians ovS υφ ei'oc των πώίΓοτε ανθρώπων 
κρατηθίντβ^ 'not by one, by no single one'. Plat. Rep, 1. 
P.353D. 2./>.359 B. Symp.p.\92E. Xen.Cyrop.4,1,14. 
μεΧετατβ μΐϊδε π /ooc μίαν η^ονην aπλrιστωc ίιακ€ΐσθαι^. Later, 
as in the P/t/f us of Aristophanes, 01. 92, 4. ούδε etc and μηϋ eic, 
not separated, and with the hiatus, came into use^. 

elc, μία, ev from their nature can have no plural ; but ovSe/c 
and /uijSe/c have ovSei^ec^ (r), e.g. Isocr. π,αντ. §.300. Bekk. 
and μηS€V€C in the sense of ' insignificant, of no value\ 

2. δύο and δύω (nom. ace), δυεΐν and δυοΐν (gen. dat.), 'two'. 

δύο is the Attic mode of writing ^ In Homer and Herodotus it 
is often indeclinable. Od. κ, 515. II. ν , 407. κ, 253. Herod. 2, 
122. 1, 64. and in Thucyd. 1, 82. 3, 89. Xen. Mem. 2, 5, 2. 
Damox. ap. Ath. 3. p. 1 02 A. Δυοΐν is the form for the gen. and 
dat. (monosyllabic Soph. (Ed. T. 648. see Herm. ad. V. 639.) 
e. g. J^lat. Rep. 9. 587 B. τριών ηδονών, ώα eoiKcv, ουσών, 
ptac μεν yvnaiac, δυοΐι/ δε νοθοιν. Comp. Symp. p. 192 Ε. 
JEschin, Socr, 2, 3. aypoc a^ioc δυο?μ ταλάΐ'τοιΐ', the reading 
of all the MSS. Thuc. 8, 25. ναυσι δνοΐι^ δεούσαιο πενττικοντα. 

» Thorn. Μ. p. 661. Phrynich. 
p. (76) 1 81. The case is quite different 
with 01/6* elsy ovre dvo in Ammon. 
p. 105, where ovre makes a word hy 
itself. In Thuc. 6, 60. 66. many 
MSS. have ovBeis for ov0€/f . 

*» Bocckh Publ. Econ. 2. p. 381. 

' Koen ad Greg. p. (32 seq.) 55 seq. 

Wasse ad Thuc. 2, 13. 

* Pors. Praef. Hec. p. xxxiv. 

• Thorn. M. p. 662. 

' Dawes's Misc. Crit. p. 347. 
Valcken. ad Eurip. Phcen. p. 220. 
Brunck ad Aristoph. Ran. 1405. Pors. 
Adv. p. 35. On the other side, Fisch. 
2. p. 156. 

Numerals. 229 

Comp. 7, 63. Xen. Hell. ], 1, 5. Δνειμ is more rare, and is 
used only in the genitive. Eurip. HeL 652. Sueii/ γαρ oi/rocv 
ούχ ο /i€y τλη/^ων, ό S' ov^. δυεΐμ is in the dative Thucyd, λ, 
20. 22. where, however, other MSS. give δυοΤν, Hegesipp. 
ap. Athen. 7. p. 290 B. ev ετεσιν Sveiv. 

The dative δυσί is found only in Thucyd. 8, 101. but no- 
where else in the old Attic writers. For δυοιν the lonians said 
Ιυψν Herod. 1, 14. 94. 130. 3, 131. 4, 1. 89. 90. 

Other old forms were Svoc, of which δυω apparently is merely 
the dual, and ioioQ, the same as Scaaoc, which were also used 
io the plural. Herod, 1, 32. ο μίγι irXovaioc δυοΐσι irpokyei 
του βύτυχέοο /ιιαύνοισι. Comp. 7, 104. Socoi //. /i , 455. 
Find. P. 4, 306. δοιώ //. γ, 236. σ, 604. Od. δ', 18. 
SocoTc, δοιοΐσι //. ψ', 194. ir', 326. e, 206. λ', 431. Soiovc 
//. Vy 1 26. Hence the substantive ioiii ' doubt', δοιά2^ω, Βοαζω, 

Oh$. "Αμφια accords in great measure with ίύω. In the old poets it 
is frequently indeclinable. Hymn. Horn, in Cer. 15. χερσίν &μ άμψω 
καλόν άθυρμα Xafieiv, So also Apollcn. Rh. 1, 165. των άμψω yt'wrds 
tpoyepitrrepot» Ctes, Exc. Pers• 58. p. 823. ed. Wess. Συένν€σΐ8 άμψω 
συν€μάχ€ΐ Κνρψ re και 'Αρτοξέρζ^ \ Otherwise, άμψοϊν is used in the 
genitive and dative, through the three genders, e. g. χερσί Si άμψοϊν 
Pind, Pyth. 3, 102. άμψόϊν κο^ϊν Aristoph. Αν. S5. άμφόιν ταϊν γνά" 
9oiy id, Pae. 1307. άμψοίν τοιν Keparoiy Polyh. 3, 73. 

3. T/oeTc (masc. and fem.) rpia (neut.) * three', gen. τριών^ 139. 
dat. τρισί, ace. as the nom. 

4. reaaapec (masc. and fem.) τέσσαρα (neut.) * four*, gen. 
τεσσάρων or τβτταρων, dat. τίσσαρσι τίττορσι, ace. τεσσάρας 
neut• -α. 

Ohs. Instead of Tiaaapes the Ionic dialect has riaaepes ; the ^olo< 
Doric rirropes. Theocr. 14, 16. Tim^Bus L. p. 96 B. 99 B. 101 C. 
{ed, H. Steph, in Plato) τ€τόρων Pliocyl. in Brunck. Anal. i. \. p. 77. 4. 
χιλιά^€£ T€Top€s Stmontd, Epigr. 23. to. Hesiod uses the dual τέτορε 

• Phrynich. p. 210. et Lobeck. Heindorf. adPlat.Crat p.ll7. Eust. 

Lennep. ad Phal. p. 42 (48 Lips.). II. κ, p. 802, 26. The MSS. of the 

Duker. ad Thucyd. 4, 8, 23. Keitz. tragedians vary between Svoiy and 

ad Lucian. t. 6. p. 395. Dorv. ad ^v€7y. 
Charit. p. 527. Fiscb. 2. p. 159. ^'Brunck. ad ApoU. Rh. 1, 1169. 

230 NumeraL•. 

"Εργ. 698. ί/ U γννη τέτορ ίβψη for rkr^pa ccU ΙΗ•> Polkus h ^8. An- 
other form which occurs in the poets is wiavpes IL ψ', 171• *»' » 233. 
Od. €f 70. it', 249. Moh πέσσνρ€Β in Hesychius• 

For τέσσαρσι or τέτταρσι in the dative, τέτρασι occurs in the poets, 
e. g. Pind. OL 10, 83. Nem. 8, 117. 

The rest of the simple numbers up to ten, and the decimal 
numbera to a hundred, are indeclinable. 

6. irevre (.£ol• irl/iire). 6. If. 7. eirro• 8. οκτί»• 9. ei^ea. 
10. Se/ca. 

20. eiKovi. 30. τριάκοντα. 40. τ€σσαρίκοντα. 50. ιτβντη• 
κοντά. 60. ef^icovra. 70. έβ^σμηκοντα. 80. oySo^icorra. 
90. ei'i^ei'^ico^ra. 100. εκατόν. 

Ohs. 1. rpcaicovra declined occurs in Hesiod "Εργ. 696. τριηκόκτων 
έτέων. Callim. Ft. 67. kx τριηκόντων. Anal. Br, t. 2. f. 86. 14. rpca- 


Ohs. 2. The lonians say rpc^icon-a, reaaepfiKoyra, oy^^Korra. 

140. In the composition of two numbers, either the smaller pre- 
cedes, and the two are joined by και ; or the greater, in which 
case the conjunction is omitted, e.g. Herod. 2, 121. wevTe 
και €ίκοσι. Demostk. p. 936. είκοσι π€ντ€. Yet custom ad- 
mitted many deviations. 

11. euScKa. 12. SifSeKa. The first appears to be derived 
from the neut. eu, or from an abbreviation of ei^oc, as the Latins 
also said duumviri and triumviri\ It belongs to all three gen- 
ders. For SvjSeKa Homer and Herodotus «aid also SvojcaiScjca 
//. Γ, 93. Herod. 8, 1. and δυώδεκα Herod. 1, 16. 61. 2, 
109. 145. 

13. τρισκαί^€κα {τρ€ΐσκαί^€κα Thuc. 6, 74. Bekk.), and 
ScKaTpeicTpia -τριωι/ Ctei. Exc. Pen. 49. 14. Teaaapea- 
KaiBeKa, in the neut. τ€σσαρακαιΒ€Κα, also €Τ€α τβσσβ/οεσιαιι- 
Se/ca και τ€σσ€ρ€σκαι^κα ^/le/oac Herod. 1, 86. where τέσσβρει; 
is indeclinable, as τίσσαρα in τ^σσαρακαιΒ^κα eXevdepovc Xen. 
Mem. 2, 7, 2• 15. irevreicaiSeica. 16. eicicaiSeico (e^ficacSeica in 
Hippocrates and later writers. See §.141. Obsn 3.). 17. έιττα» 
κα cSe/ca . 18. όκτωιτοιβε^ο . 19. evveaKa iSeKa . 

• Ix>beck ad Phryn. p. 414 not. 

NumeraL•. 231 

NUe• These numbers are written in one word, but often also separatei 
asrpeis re κα,Ι lixaPind. 01. 1, 128. τρία καΐ Ιέκα Herod. 1, 119. 
AniU Plui. 194. 846. Pac. 990. comp. Thuc. 8, 108. rerrk^ 
pmy καΧ ^έκα liocr. in Call. p. 381 C. τέσσϋφσι καΐ ^έτα Thuc. 
f, 21. Xen. Hell. I, 1. comp. Thuc. 2, 2. and so 1rέ>τt καΐ 
BuKOt especially els καΐ βιιτοσι, &c•^ 

Deyiations from the above rule are : eucom και iirra Herod. 
i, 1. έβίομηκορτα καΐ μια id, β, 2. έβΒομηκοντα και οκτώ 
id. 8, 48. When three numbers are reckoned together, the 
greatest comes first, and so on in succession, with the conjunc- 
tion KaL Herod. 8, 1 . i/eac έκατον και eiKoai και βτΓτά (where 
two MSS. have the contraiy order), ib. 48. vijec τριηκόσιαι καΐ 
ίβ^ομηκοιττα και οκτώ. 

The round numbers from 200 are declined regularly, like 
the adjectives. The termination -όσιοι indicates the hundreds, 
e. g. διακόσιοι -αι -α (Ion διΐ|κοσιοι) 200, τριακόσιοι (τριηκό^ 
σιοι) 300, &C. χίλιοι 1000. βισχίλιοι 2000, &c. μύριοι 

Obt. 1. Instead of the numbers compounded with 8 and 9, more 141. 
firequent use is made of the circumlocution Ms (jads) tiorres iiovatu 
Hoyrti^ ^vcfiy iiovres Ηουσαι Hoyra^ in which the latter word is the 
participle from Βέω * I want', which verb governs the genitive. Thus 
vfjes Bvoiy (^veiv), μιά$ Βέονσαι €Ίκοσι * twenty ships, wanting two, one', 
i• e• 18, 19 ships. The participle is governed in gender and case by 
the substantive, to which the principal number belongs ; the lesser 
number in gendft by this. Usually, but not always, that part of speech 
stands first, and has the principal number after it. Herod. 1, 94. irea 
Zvfy Βέοντα eiKoai 'eighteen years'. 4, 1. ^rea ^vfy lioyra rpiiiKoyra 
'eight and twenty years'. 4, 90. πηγαΐ ivfy Βέουσαι τ€σσ€ρίικοντα 
' eight and thirty springs'. T^tic. 8, 7. v^es μιά$ ίέονσαι τεσσαράκοντα 
'nine and thirty ships'. Id, 8, 25. yaval ^voiy ieovaais rcevriiKoyTa. 
Id. ft, IS. TpiaKoai^y airo^ioyra μνρία. So also the ordinal number8« 
Tkuc. 8, 6. iyos 2έοκ eicoorov iro$ ' the nineteenth year'• 

The participle is referred also to the number which is to be sub- 
tracted, so that it is the genitive absolute. Thuc. 4, 102. Ms Hoyros 
τριακοστψ Irei. Demosth. in Lept. p. 480. weyriiKoyTa μιοΜ ί€ονση9 
ίλ€ίβ€ rpifiptiSf where, however, Reiske and Wolf read ^€ουσα$^. Xen• 
Hist. Gr. ], 1, 5. ΆΧκιβιάίηί iweitnrXel ^voiy ^eoiaaiy είκοσι ναυσίν. 

^ Wasse m Duk. Prsf. ad Thuc. ^ Wolf, ad Dem. Lept. p. 894. 

p. 935, 38. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 408 seq. 

232 Numerals. 

Oh». 2. These cardinal numbers, compounded with σνκ, express : 

1. * Together', e. g. * two or three together', 'along with', e.g. //. κ\ 
224. συν re Ιϋ έρχομέ^ω, * two going together'. Od. ξ', 98. Mk ivreei^ 
κοσι φωτών Ιστ' άφ€νοΒ τοσούτον ' twenty men together do not possess 
so much wealth*. Plat. Hippias maj. p. 282 £. καΐ σχεδόν η οίμαι lμk 
πλείω χρήματα €ΐργάσθαί, η &\\ovs σνν^νο, οΰστινα$ βοϋ\€ΐ των σοφι- 
στών 'as any two other sophists together'. Eur. Troad. 1083• συν^ω- 
^€κα. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 260, 27• 261,24. συν€κκαί^€κα\ 

2. The signification of the Latin distributives• Od. c', 429. (jois άκίων 
συνέεργον) - - - σύντρείί αΙνυμ€νο5 ' whilst I took three at a time'. Hymn. 
Horn. 4, 74. oi S' άρα (βηρα) wavres Σύν^ο κοιμήσαντο * lay two to- 
gether*. Herod. 4, 66. 6σοι B^ αϊτών και κάρτα voWovs &vdpai άναψη' 
k6t€s Ιωσί, ο Jroi Zk συ vivo κυ\ικα$ ίχοντ€ί νίνουσι ομού * each having 
two cups'. Demosth, in Mid. p. 564. σύν^υο η μεν oi τριηραρχουντεε 
* we were two together, by twos'. Xen. Anah. 6, 3, 2. σννΖνο \ι6γρν% 
^yov ol στρατηγοί * each two divisions' **. 

Ohs. 3. In the composition of the cardinal numbers with nouns, the 
ancients preserved the simple cardinal number unaltered, e. g. ^(irovs, 
ίζμέΒίμνο$9 ^ζμετροί^ iicirXedpos, ίκμηνοί^ ν€ντέμηνο8, 7Γ€ντ€σνριγγο$, όκ" 
τώπουΒ; while the later writers said ίζάνουΒ, i^axXeepos, έζάμ€Γρο$, 
πεντάμηνοΒ, όκτάκου$ °. In composition with τέτταρα^ however, it was 
shortened into τετρα, e. g. TCTpanovs, 8rc. 

142. The ordinal numbers are : 

1. npwTOQ (properly a superlative, §. 132.). lu speaking 

of two irporepoc is used ^. 

2. Sevrepoc. 

3. TplTOQ. 

4• rerapTOCf also TeTparoc II- φ' 9 616. Od. β , 107. 

5. frlfiTTToc from the ^olic πίμπβ for vevre^. 

6. eicTOC. 

7. efiSopoc, anciently also έβδόματοο Od. κ\ 81. 

8. oySooc, anciently oySoaroc Od. y, 306. Hesiod. Εργ• 


• Reiz. de Ace. Inclin. p. 103. Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 407. 419 seq. 

*» Valck. ad Herod, p. 311, 36. Al- In Plat. Menon. p. 83. Bekker has 

berti ad Hesych. v. συντραδ acvv- admitted όκτωπονν for όκτάπουν 

μενοε, Fisch. 2. p. 162. from the majority of MSS. 

Plat. Parm. p. 239. Boisson. ad Phi- ^ Thorn, p. 764. Ammon. p. 1 19- 

lostr. p. 419. " Fisch. 2. p. 162. 

« Blomf. ad ^Lsch. Prom. 878. 

Numerals. 233 

9. ivaroc (II. β*, 313. Soph. El. 707. ewaroc in later 

MSS.f). Hence eivaroc II. β, 296. ff, 266. 
10. Scjcaroc• 
11• ei^Seicaroc. 

12. SftfSe/caroc^ anciently SuoiSeicaroc He$/Epy. 774. and 


13. τρισκαιδεκατο^^ from rpetCy not rptc^ ; also rpiroc και 

SeKaroc Thuc. 5, 56. 

14. τeσσapaκaιBeκaroCf and reraproQ jcai Sejcoroc 7%tic. 

5, 81. Herodotus 1, 84. has τεσσβρβσκαιδειτάτ??. 

The rest, as far as 20, are compounded with Se/caroc 
and the cardinal numbers by means of καΐ. Two ordinal 
numbers also, connected by καΐ, are used, e. g. π€μπτoc καΐ δέκα- 
τος Thuc• 5, 83. Iicroc και SeKaroc Id. 6, 7. o^Sooc και Seica- 
TOQ Id. 7, 18. In composition tlie rule §. 140. obtains. 

20. εικοστοί;. 21. elc και €iκoστ6cf μια και εικοστή, also εί- 
JCooToc νρωτοο Scc. 30. τριακοστοί. 40. τεσσαρακοστοί;. 
60. πεντηκοστός. 60, έξΐ}Κοστόα• 70. εβδομηκοστός. 80. ογ- 
δοιικοστός• 90. εννενηκοστος. 100. εκατοστόβ» &c• 

The smaller ordinal number is also prefixed to the greater 
«cardinal or ordinal with και and a preposition. Dem. p. 261, 
13• rp εκττ/ επι Sl/ca, viz. ημεραις, * on the sixth in addition to 
'ten days', 'the 16th'. p. 265, 5. τρ Ικτρ μετ είκαζα *the 
26th\ p. 279 y 18. τρ e/cry επι δεκατν- Mschin. p. 458. Bets*• 
*rp ογοορ jccu ενατφ εττι οεκα. 

The Greeks, in order to express half, or fractional numbers 143. 
in money, measures, and weights, used words compounded of 
the name of the weight, e. g. μνα, ojSoXoc, τάλαντου, with the 
adjective termination ov, lov^ a7ov, and ημι 'half, and placed 
before them the ordinal number of which the half is taken. 
τέταρτον ημιτίΧαντον * 3^ talents ', ' half a fourth talent', 
Herod. 1, 60. εβ^ομον ημιταλαντον ' 6^ talents' ib.; ενατον 
ημιταλαντον ' 8§ talents', τρίτον ημί^ρα-χμον in Dinarchus; 
αϊ Svo και ήμισυ Βρα'χμαί * 2|• drachmae' Pollux 9, 62. Har- 

' Wasse in Duker. Prajf. ad Thuc. Comp. Eust. ad II. p. 253, 15. 712, 17. 
p. 310, 18. and ad Thuc. 1, 117. i Fisch. 3. p. 163. 

234 Numerals. 

pact. i. V. rpirov ΙμαμναΙον ; Byo καΐ i(/ucaeta μ¥Λ ' two minso 
and a half id. 9, 66 (r). 

From this must be distinguished another phrase, when those 
words are in the plural, and joined with the caixiinal number ; 
e. g. τρία ημιταΧαντα Herod. 1, 50. does not mean 2^ talents, 
but three half-talents, one talent and a half; Demosth. in An" 
drot. p. 698, 23. pro Phorm. 966, 18• trevre ή/ιατάλαττο 
' five half-talents', i. e. 2^ talents ; id. in Nicostr. p. 1246, 7. 
nhre ημίμνα7α '2^min»'; id. in Theocr. p. 1333, 11. τρία 
νμιμραΊα ' 1^ mina'; Aristot. Hist. Anim. 9, 40. /3λίττ€τα« 
Se σμίινοο χοα, ii τρία τιμιχοα ( 1 ^), τα Se εΐ/θηνουντα Βύο χοαβ 
5 irevfl' Ύίμιχοα (2^), Tpeic δέ χοαα ολίγα*. 

Obs. Other combinations are when the names of coins with the ter- 
mination "oy are annexed to cardinal numbers, as ^ίΐρα'χμον^ τμίΖραχμον^ 
τετρά^ραχμον, &c. ' a coin of 2, 3, 4 drachms*. As adjectives they de- 
note the value of a thing, as τριτά\αντο$ oIkos ' a house of 3 talents In 
value', llpyews, έξάμν€ωί, ^€κάμν€ω£ (jivd) ' of 2, G, 10 minse in value'• 
Of unity the forms raXavriaXoSf ^ραχμιαϊοί, μναιαΊοί * worth 1 talent, 
1 drachm, 1 mina', are used. With plurals these adjectives denote that 
each of the objects named is in itself of the value assigned, e. g. Herod. 
6, 89. oi Κορίνθιοι ίιΐοΰσι τοΊσι Άβηναίοισι €Ίκοσι rias frevraZpaypovt 
atroSopevoi ' each ship for 5 drachms', δ, 77. ίΚνσάν «r^eas Βίμν€ω$ ' each 
for 2 minse'• wivre $ραχμών would have meant that the 20 ships were 
sold collectively for δ drachms. So Demosth. in Jphoh. p. 833, 23. 
oXkoi τοΧαντιαΙοι καΐ ΙιτάΧαντοι^. 

144, From the ordinal numbers are derived, 


1. Numerals in aioc (n), which commonly answer to the 
question ' on what day V and in other languages can only be 
rendered by several words. Herod. 6, 106. ο Φ€ΐΒιπΐΓΐΒηζ 
SevTepaloc e/c τον ΑΒηναιων αστβος i|y ey Σπαρτρ ' on the 
second day'. So also τριταίος αψίκετο Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 
30. 'on the third day'. Xenoph. Cyrop. 6, 3, 1. τ€το/οταιοι 
βπί To7c oploiQ eyepovTo ' on the fourth day*. Od. ξ', 267. 
ire/iiTTaiOi B' Δίγνιττον Ικομβσθα ' on the fifth day'• So also 

* Casaub. ad Theophr. Char. C. e. p. 330. (344. Heiml.) Valck. ad 
Wesseling ad Herod. 1, 50. Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 313. 

** Toup. Epist. de Theocr. Syrac. 

Pronouns. 236 

cKTaToe, iβ$oμQio€f o'yioalon, ivaraioa, BeKoraioii» TAiic.2,49• 
Sie^OeipovTO oi πλείστοι evaraioi και εβίομαιοι, Comp. Plat• 
Rep, 10• p. 614 B. Sefcara7oc> SwSeKaTotoc, See• eucoaraioa^ 

Ohs• 1. There is no such numeral from frpw-oSf as instead of it αύθ^ 
fiop may be used for ' on the first day'. From wporepos comes TporepaioSf 
which, however, is not referred to the person, but joined with hfJ^ipa^ 
e. g. rj wporepai^ 4μ^Ρ?ι &s rp harepalq, sc• ^μέρ^ postridie^. iyiava^ 
oloffy μηνιάίΟΜ are similar• As they said rj nporepal^f ry itrrepai^ sc, 
ipip^ so Euripides says, HippoL t75. rpiralay ίιμέραν for τρίτην^ and 
Hee• $ft• TpiToioy φέγγο$ for τρίτον. For the rest, these numerals 
answer to the interrogative votrraios ' on what day?' 

O&f . 2. Adjectives derived from the names of coins have the same 
termination, e. g. ToXaynaios §• 143. O&f. 

2. Adverbs, Bic from Svo, rpU from rpeTc• In the rest the 
termination -/cic -amc -raiccc is annexed to the cardinal number, 
ησσαρακί^, e^accc, Ικατοντίκια. 

3. Multiple numbers, a) in -πλοος -irXovc (b) ; SittXovc 
' double', rf>4irXovc ' triple', τετραπλούς, b) in -φασιοβ ; it- 
φάσιος, τριφασιοο. 

4. Proportionals, showing a relation or proportion, answering 
to the question ' how much more 7' Their termination is -πλά- 
aioc, which is annexed to the adverbs No. 2. after rejecting -^ 
-iccc, &c• διπλάσιος, τριπλάσιος, τετραπλάσιος, ' twice, thrice, 
four times as much'. 

There is no peculiar form in Greek for distributives» To 
express their meaning, sometimes the cardinal numbers com- 
pounded with σνν are used (see §• 141. Obs. 2•); sometimes 
the prepositions κατά, ανά, 8cc. 

(y Pronouns. 

The pronouns, or words which are put for the proper sub- 145. 
stantives, are : 

1. Pronouns personal, εγώ, συ, to which belong also the 
rt/lective pronoun ov, and the indefinite pronoun τις. From 

« Fisch. a. p. 164 seq. * ad Thuc. 5, 75. 

236 Pronouns. 

these the possessive pronouns are derived^ €μ6cf ^oc, eoc, fif^e- 

TEpOCy &c. 

2. Pronouns demomtrative, ovtog, o8e, eKelvoc, αυτο^;. 

3. The pronoun relative, oc, 3, 8• 

4. The pronoun interrogative, tIq. 

I. Pronouns personal. 

1 . For the first person. 


Nom. εγώ, I 
Gen. €μ€0, εμού, μου 
Dat• €μοί, μοί 
Acc. €μ€, jue 


Ν. Α. νωϊ, νψ 
G. D. ρώίν, νψν. 


Nom. ί)μ^ίθ, we 

Gen. ημεων, ημώρ 

Dat. νμ7ν 

Acc. ημεαϋ, νμα€. 

3. For the second person. 

Nom. συ, thou 

Gen. σεο, σου 

Dat• σοι 

Acc. σβ. 


Ν• Α. σψωι, σψψ 
G. D. σψωιν, σφγν• 


Nom. νμ€7ς, you 

Gen. υμβων, υμών 

Dat. v/iiy 

Acc. υμίας, ύμαο. 


1. μου, /ΙΟΙ, /ie are enclitics, which the ohlique cases of συ may alsc? 
he. The grammarians (e. g. Apoll. π. ά,ντων, p. 312 C.) say that no 
enclitic can he placed afler a preposition \ The enclitic pronouns, how- 
ever, are sometimes found where for the sake of contrast the accented 
should have heen used, e. g. //. 0', 226. i) κέν /le Ιαμάσσ€ται, ^ wv 
έγώ TOy^. Enclitics are also prefixed. See §. 58. 

2. The £olo-Doric had lywV, the Mo\. ίγων^ in the nominative, 
which Homer also uses, but only before vowels, //. y', 188. &c• In 
Aristoph. Lysistr. 982. Acham, 748. it is used by the Lacedcemonians 
and Megarensians ; the Boeotians said Ιών ' : in the Doric dialect also 

• See §.31. note c. * Apoll. ir. άντωμ. p. 334 B. 

*» Ilerm. ad Soph. Phil. 47. 520. Schaf. ad Greg. p. 249. 
Matthiaf ad Eur. Heracl. 64. ^ Apoll. 1. c. p. 323 B. C. 324 B. C. 

Pronoum. 237 

lywr, with the accent transposed. Instead of σν the £olians and Do- 
rians said rv, and changed generally σ into r, the Boeotians roii and 
rovv*. Comp. p. 40 seq. 

In order to give more expression to the pronouns, the Dorians and 
£olians annex -i; in both to the termination through all the cases, as 
in Latin -me/, e. g. egomety or -vi/, e. g. ίγων% ίμεύν^ Ιμίνη or ίμίννη'. 
So also τυνη (Lacon. τοϋνη), which occurs also in the Homeric dialect 
//. e, 4-85. He*. "Epy. 10. τίνη for β-οί•. The Attics annexed -ye, 
throwing back the accent, lya»ye, <rvye ; instead of which the Dorians 
used -ya, ίγώνγα ArisU Lys. 986. 990. 'loiya and ίωνγα, Boeotian 
for ^ywye, occur in a fragment of Corinna^, and τύγα Theocr. 5, 69• (72.) 
τονγα for συ ye ApolL τ, ayrwy, p. 329 Ό. 

3, In the genitive only έμέο is found, not μβο, and in the lyric and 
epic poets έ /ieio and <reTo; also €μέθ€ν and σέθει^ (§. 87.)', the latter 
9Ϊ80 in the tragic dialect, e. g. Eur, Ale. 52. 291. in Homer always 
acnted. ίμον in Homer is merely the gen. of ίμόεΚ As the Attic 
dialect contracted -έο into ov, the Ionic, ^olic, and Doric contracted 
the same into "cv, e/iev, σev {Herod. 1, 45.), Dor. τέο, rev^• The Doric 
dialect had also other forms, revs Theocr. 2, 126• 5, 89• 11, 52•' and 
ΤΈονί Theocr. 11, 25. ubi v. Valch. 18, 41.™ also έ/^έο^, e/xei/s, e/ie/ci», 
^μ€£ω$^ €μω$• rioSf rlos, rlovSf reov, τΐω, τΙω$ quoted by Apollonius L c. 
p. 355 seq. from Epicharmus, Sophron and Rhinthon• Teoio, gen. of 
fruf occurs also in Homer, //. θ', 87. 468. which appears not to be a 
fuse orthography for reeio, but to have originated in the great resem- 
blance which exists in other respects between the gen. of the personal 
and the possessive pronouns. 

4• In the dative the ^olians and Dorians said also ΙμΙν (ίμίνγα. 
Ohs. 2."), rh (Thcocr. 2, 11.), but only acuted, not enclitic, whence 
Ηνη and the Tarentine ίμίνη arose; the ι is long in Theocr. 15, 89. 
8, 88• short in Pindar^ ; also reiy (acute), which Homer uses Od. λ', 
559. //. λ', 201• For the enclitic σοι the epic poets and Herodotus, 
e• g. ly 9• 88• use rot, which, however //. o', 428. seems to be em- 

* Apoll. X. avτωy. p. 324 B. 829 C. ^ ApoU. 1. c. p. 856 B. 

'Ad Hesych. t. 1. p. 1290, 15. * Apoll. 1. c. p. 856 A. ad Gregor. 

Koen ad Greg. p. (124) 268, 98. p. 249. 

* Koen ad Greg. p. (123) 267. " Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. p. 62. 
Valck. ad Adoniaz. p. 385. See other Doric forms in Valck. ad 

* Fisch. 2. p. 203. Apollon. 1. c. Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 301 seq. 

p. 325 A. " Koen ad Greg. p. (122 seq.) 

* Apoll. 1. c. p. 343 B. C. who 266 seq. Fisch. 2. p. 205. 209. 
quotes μ€θέν from Sophron. ^ Herm. de Dial. Find. p. 263. 

J Apoll. 1. c. p. 357 B. 



ployed to express a contrast (see Ob$. l.)i cu^ Od. o\ %!• we liaye 
ro/ye*• The Dorians accented Iftoc, and the Boeotians said ΙμΙβ^. 

In the accus. the Dorians said also rv for σέ, but only enclitic; 
otherwise rk and τίν\ Odier forms are ifiety rei ApolL ir. άντων. ρ• 866 
Β. C. 380 C. 

5. In the dual the form v^ r^y, σφψ (τψψν, is Attic. Others omit 
the 1 subscriptum^ because ι is cut off by apocope \ In the dative σψψρ 
and σψών are written, as i^^cA. Prom, 12. i^tcr. PAom. 474. Ion. 1579. 
where the Aldine edition has σψώ σ^ν without t subscripium^. 

6. In the plural j^/ici^ and vftecs appear to have come from Ιιμέ€$ and 
Ιμέβί. Instead of ΐιμεΐί the iEolians and Dorians said &μ€9 or &μ€$, 
and &μμ€$, which is also Homeric //. ψ, 482. &c. and for v/ie», ν^ιέι 
and v/i/xeff. The latter occurs also //. a\ 276.' 

7. The genitive plural is lengthened by the poets into ίιμ^Ιων^ νμείων. 
The ^olians and Dorians changed as usual the ή into a, ^.μέων^ άμων 
and άμμων ^• 

8. In the dative plural they used also ίιμίν and νμΐ^^ as eoclitics, and 
when the last syllable is short ^μιν^ j/icv, e. g. //. ^, 415. Oci• v\ 272. 
iSbpA. (E<i. Γ. 921, 1088. ^ntig. 808.* In the old dialect, and in 
JEolic and Doric, it was also άμιν, ίμιν^ ^μίν% άμμι (JL α , 384. and 
elsewhere ; Od, α , 128.), v/icv, ^μμι and {//χρ, and with ν ίφ€λκυσηκόψ 
ft/i/EUK, ίμμιν IL ν\ 879. and elsewhere ; Od, α', 876.^ 

9. In the accus. plur. the Dorians said lLμk (ApolL L c, p. 887 Α.χ 
6/i€, and A/ifie, &μμ€ : the last, which ApolUm, I. e, calls JSolic, occurs 
II, α 1 59. f|', 292. 8ic. Byzani, Deer, in Demosth. pro Cor, p. 256, 8. 

* άι^Γοιν. p. 364 C. Herm. 
L c Comp. Schol. Ven. ad II. α , 76. 

» Apoll. 1. c. p. 364 B. 865 B. C. 
Oirivri see Valck. adTheocr. Aden, 
p. 985. 

* Apull.l.c.p.3t8.366C. Gregor. 
p. (290) 615. also quotes re. Toup's 
note on Theocr. Adon. p. 389. (365. 
Heind.) therefore needs correction. 

** Piers, ad Moer. p. 265 seq. Beck, 
ad Aristoph. Av. 15. Fisch. 2. p. 201. 

* Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 238. Valck. 
ad Phoen. 463. Pierson ad Mcer. 
p. 300. 

'Fisch. p. 206. 210. Schweigh. 
ad A then. 2. p. 72. Apoll. 1. c. p. 378 
seq. who also quotes the Boeotian 

ο^μέ$ p. 379 C. £ustath. ad II. p', 
p. 1112, 39. Greg. p. (110) 238. 

β Fisch. 2. p. 206. Apoll. 1. c 
p. 381 A. B. 382. who quotes the 
Boeotian forms Ιΐμίων and οΰμίων^ 
and the J£olic ημμάων^ ύμμέ«0ν, 

** Brunck ad Eur. Phoen. 777. 

> V^alck. ad £urip. Phoen. 773. 
Herm. de £m. Gr. Gr. p. 78 seq. ad 
Hec. 109. Fisch. 2. p. 207. In Eu- 
ripides there is no certain example 

of ^μιν, νμιν. 

J ApolL IT. άντων. p. 380. 383 seq. 
who quotes the .£olic άμμέσιν from 
Alc8Bus. Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 
p. 236. Fisch. 8. p. 207. 210. 



Theocr. 11, 4d. For &μμ€$ Tkeocr. 29, 2. Brunck more correctly gives 
&/i/ic \ So the Dorians said v/ic, the ^olians v/if > according to jipol" 
km* L c. B. v/i/ie is also found «S'opA• Antig, 846. in a chorus, 

2• Avroc^ ^, ο was used for the third person ; yet it has the 146. 
proper signification of a pronoun, and of the English ' he, she, 
it', only in the oblique cases : in the nominative it signifies not 
simply ' he', but ' he himself, ipse. If the article precedes, 
aSnoc (h). If αυτή, το αυτό, it signifies 'the same', idem. This 
is frequently contracted bycrasis, airroc §. 64, 1•^ (Ion. ώντόο), 
τοντου, ταυτψ, τούτον, ταυτό (Ion. τωυτου, ταιυτ^, τώντόν), 
for ο αυτός, του αυτοΰ, τψ αυτψ, το αυτόν, το αύτο. For τούτο 
neut we find more frequently τούτον Eur. Hec. 299. &c.™ The 
lonians, in the oblique cases, insert in the last syllable an e 
before the termination, e. g. αυτεψ, αυτβην, αντέων, αύτέοισι''. 

Instead of the accus. sing, we find also, particularly in the 
poets, /iiy (only enclitic il/)o//. π. αντων. p. 367 C), from iv, in 
all three genders, e.g. for ούτόν Iha', 100. &c. Herod. 1, 10. 
2, 102. {οταυτνν Π. a, 29. &c. Herod. 2, 100. for ούτό 
Herod* 1, 93.*^ βύτόν juiv for εαυτόν Od. δ', 244. Another 
form is viv, which occurs in Pindar, and is the only one used 
by the tragedians. Eur. Phan. 39. 41. £$ch. Prom. 333. 
ferevToi/. £un>. Troorf. 435. il/c.834. Hec. 619. Theocr. A, 
30. 64. for αύτηι/, Theocr. 1, 150. for αύτο. Also for αύτούο, 
άτας, airra Soph. (Ed. T. 878. Col. 42. Eurip. Iphig. T. 
330. 333. JEscA. Prom. 65. In Homer μιν only occurs!^. 

Obs. Ncr appears to stand for αΐτψ Orph. Argon. 776. Theocr. 6, 29."^ 
and so perhaps the passages c^ Pindar, Pyth. 4, 63. Nem. 1, 99. may 
be defiended, according to Buttmann, L. Qr. p. 296 not. ***. 

' Vakk. ad Herod, p. 662, 79. 
Keen ad Greg. p. (llO) 237. Fisch. 9. 
p. 900. S07. 

' The objectioD that &ντ6$ is never 
found in MSS. is now also removed 
by Bekker's note on Dem. p. 11 
not e. p. 299 not. b. on Plat. 1, 1. 
p. 62, 1. Matthia notes on Eurip. 
L 7. p. 502. 

" Tbom. M. p. 834. Maitt. p. 37. 
ElmsL ad Soph. <£d. T. 734. ad 
Med. 530. The forms τaύτηst raJ< 

ray, ravriiy for τψ αιίτήδ. Toy αύ^ 
TOy, Tilv aUrfiy are indefensible. 
See Schaef. ad Greg. p. 803. Herm. 
ad Soph. Phil. 84a. 

» Fisch. 1. p. 77. 

^ Apoll. 9Γ. άyτωy^ p. 268. explains 
correctly those passages in Homer, in 
which μιy appears to refer to a neuter. 

ρ Heyne ad 11. S, 480. 

4 Fisch. 2. p. 212. 214. Valck. ad 
Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 212. 



147• The Pronoun reflective ου, ol, ?. 



60, ου 




Ν. A. 
G. D. 


σφωέ, σφώ 


a(f>€€Cf σψεία 
σφεων^ σφών 
σψ((ν)| σψισι 

Neut. σφεο. 
Of ϊ or ί, a supposed form, see Obs, 4. note. 


Obs. 1. This pronoun is generally reflective in the Attic prose 
writers, i. e, it refers to the subject of the proposition in which it 
stands, or of the foregoing, if the second be closely connected with it. 
ov Plat. Rep. 10. 614 B. 617 E. Symp. p, 174 D. Soph. (Ed. T. 1257. 
ol Thuc. 2, IS. 4, 28. Soph. El. 929. c Plat. Rep. 10. p. 617 E. o^' 
Id. Euthyd. p. 273 E. σφωίν ib. p. 10. σ^βΤ* Id. Rep, 10. p. 600 D. 
Thuc. 5, 46. σφών Thuc. 2, 72. Xen. R. A. 1,16. σψίσι Thuc. 1, 44. 
Xen. ib. 4. Hist. Gr. 5, 4, 11. σψι or σψιν Soph. (Ed. C. 421. Eur. 
Med. 404. σ^αβ Ρ/α^ Symp. p. 174 D. 175 C. Xen. R. A.t.l. In 
Homer and Herodotus, on the contrary, it is more frequently the pro- 
noun of the third person in all three genders for avros. So also in the 
Attic poets, e. g. ^sch. Prom. 453. 457. Soph. Aj. 906. Eur. Bacch. 
231. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 2, 26. Anab. 5, 4, 33. 

2. This pronoun was pronounced in the singular with the digamma, 
in Homer also. See §• 9. Obs. 

S. The lonians and Dorians contracted io into ev //. v', 464. ω', 293. 
Herod. 3, 135. enclitic //. f, 427. o', 165. (comp. ib. 181.) Tlie poets 
lengthened also the first syllable elo //. ^, 400. as ίμέιο, σέϊο. They 
also used iOeVf as έ/χ^θεν, σέθεν. But oTo II. y\ %ZZ% is the genitive of 

Pronoum. 241 

tbe jNtMOMi• passeMsive 6s for ios^ as iolo from ias^ whence 6v also comei, 
e. g. 5y ^'λον νιόν. The ^olians said ioiis and eov, as reovs and reov*. 

4. For oi Homer says also eol //. ν , 495. Od, ^, 66. for έ, ee //. ω\ 
154. V, 171. So also ^eco for do, i. e. eo, ου ApolUm. Rh. 1, 1032. 
«ύί D. j&r. Apollonius, p, 366 A. quotes another form, Xy ox ι ν from 
Hesiod analogous to riv §. 145. Ohs, 4. and etv (as rctv) from Antima- 
cbnsaod Corinna^. 

n^iy never rejects ν A poll, ir. άντων. |}. 374 C. 

5. σψέων in the same manner as ίιμέων, υμέων, is lengthened hy 
the poets into σφείων II. e', 626. which was also £olic and Doric. 

6. σψι occurs in Homer ; σψιν appears to have heen alone used by 
the tragedians for the dative^. It is found in the poets very rarely as 
a dative sing. also. Horn. H, in Pan. 19, 19. (not 30, 9.) ^sch. 
Pen. 756. Soph. (Ed. Col. 1490. perhaps also Pind. Pyth. 9, 206.*" 

7. For a^ias Homer has a^eias Od. v\ 213.* and σψί% end. lU e, 
567. as well as σφέων and trfeas e, g. //. σ, 311. βι, 96. The neut• 
9^a is in Herodotus 1, 89. 3, 111. 4, 25. 8, 36. probably also 3, 53. 
Comp. Euseh. Prcep. Ev. 9, 41. p. 457 C. 

8. In the poets too the form σ^έ (abbreviated from σ-^ωέ) occurs, which 
is sometimes used as the accus. plur. in all genders for ain-ovs, avras^ 
αΙτά, //. V, 111. jEsch. Ag. 1277. Soph. (Ed. C. 1123. Eur.Andr. 19. 
Theocr» 4, 3. ; sometimes as the accus. sing, instead of ahroy, αΙΗιν^ 
ahro, jEsch. Prom. 9. Sept. ad Th. 647. Soph. (Ed. R. 780. Aj. 51. 74. 
Antig. 44. Eurip. Phcen. 1671. Med. 33. also as a pronoun reflective 
for iavroy ASsch. Sept. ad Th. 619. Falck. ad Eur. Hipp. 1253. 
Bnmck ad Soph. (Ed. C. 48. 

9. The following are dialectic varieties ; the Syracusan ψίν, ψέ, the 
latter in Theocr. 4, 3.' The Lacedaemonians and Boeotians said ^/i^, which 
is also found in Callitn. H. Dian. 125. 213. άσψι and &σψ€ were iEolian'• 

The genitive ίμβο, aeo, eo of the pronouns eyw, σν, ου is 148. 

* Apoll. π. άντων. p. 358 Β. Maitt £lmsl. ad £ur. Med. 393. Comp. §.41. 

p. 425. Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. Obs. 2. 
p. 279 c. * Thorn. M. p. 825 seq. Reisig 

k Ruhnk. £p. Crit. 114. ad Greg. Comm. £xeg. in C£d. Col. 1484. 
Cor. p. 84. ed. Schaef. A nomin. c * Apoll. 1. c. p. 387 B. shows that 

or i is quoted by Apoll. 1. c. p. 330 B. o-^as is also used enclitically, which 

(Gold, ad Theod. p. 233.) from the £lmsley ad £ur. Med. 1345. denies. 
(Enomaus of Sophocles^ but the pas- ^ Apoll. 1. c. p. 382 C. 386 B. 

sage is comipt. 388 A. Greg. p. (116) 253 seq. 

« Apoll. 1. c. p. 374 C. 385 A. B. > Apoll. 1. c. p. 386 B. 388 B. 

VOL. I. Β 

242 Pronouns. 

eompoimded irith the pronoun ovroc in all the cages ezc^t 
the nominative. 

e/xavTOv, ?c, ου σβαυτου, ίίο, ου έαυτοΰ, ricf ου 

€μαυτψ, ρ, ψ σεαυτφ', ρ, ψ ίαυτψ, ρ, w 

€μαυτ6ν, ήν, ό σεαντον, ην, ο εαυτοί'^ ΐξν, 6, 

for €μβ αύτον &C. in the sense of ' myself, thyself, himselT. 
For σεαυτου, εαυτόν 8cc. they say also σαυτου ης, σαυτψ ρ Scc. 
αυτού ηο, αυτψ ρ• In the plural the two first are declined 
as two words, each by itself: 

η/ΐ€Ϊ<;, νμεΐϋ αυτοί '^i, ημ^ν, νμων αυτών, 
ημίν, νμΊν αυτοΐι; -ακ, ημαο, νμας αύτούο -ac• 

The third is declined throughout as one word : εαυτών, έαυτοΐβ, 
εαυτονο, *ac, e. g. Herod. 1, 93. Plat. Phad. c. 26. Yet 
they say also σφών αυτών, σφίσυβ aipTolc -ace, σφας αυτούς 
«aCy where σφων εαυτώι/ would be wrong ^. ημαα εαυτούς (r) 
Herod. 6, 12. should be changed on the authority of several 
MSS. into ημαα αυτούς and Plat. Phad. p.lS'B. δει ημac aye- 
ρίσθαι εαυτούς, ημaG is the accus. of the subject, and εαυτούς 
governed by avepi^Bai. 

Obs. 1. Properly» according to the composition^ only the genitive of 
this pronoun should have been in use ; and it is owing to an arbitrary 
usage, that ίμέο is compounded with the dative also, and accus. sing, 
and the plur. ofaMs. See Apoll, ir. άντων. jd. 851. From Ιμίο αΐηνυ 
came, by crasts of the oa^ the later Ionic ΙμεωνΓον, as cemrrov^ iitnrrov 
Herod. 1, S5. 42. 45. 87. 108. 2, 17. 8, 86. &c. ίμ€ωυτόν id. 1, 42. 
ftf 148. The points placed over the ν in the common editions owe their 
origin to the practice of transcribers to place such points over every v. 

Obs. 2. Among the Attics these pronouns are reflective only, re- 
ferring to the person implied in the verb, without any particular emphasis 
derived from ahros ; irvypa ίμαντόν * I struck myself, irvypas σ€αντόν, 
irwpey iavroy (as in English ' I wash myself). In Homer, on the 
contrary, ahros has usually an emphasis, as //. ^, 490. ra if αντη% (ra 
σα αύ.) Ifpya κόμιζ€, tita ipsius opera aura, II. a, 27 1, ical μαχόμην icar* 
l/[i* wJroy έγώ, per me ipse, ξ, 162. cv eyrvyaaa l• avrfiv herself^ not 
another. Hence he uses it even when the verb has another person, 
11. i', S24. KcuciSs ^ &pa oi πέλει avrp (instead of avry simply, because 
in him oi, oi, I is the pron. of the 8rd pers.), Od. li, 667, άλλα oT αύτψ 

• Thom. M. p. 826 seq* 

Pronouru. 243 

-Ztit οΚέσ€ί€ βίην kkmelff while he teemed to aim at the deetruction 
<)f others. For this reason these pronouns are often written separately 
in Homer, ίμ αύτόν^ l• αυτήν ; and die pronouns themselves are some- 
times separated, έ /icv ττΛρώωσομαί αύτη* ; or aMv placed before the 
personal pronoun, as Od. ^, 244. αυτόν μιν like aih-f μοι Herod. Z, 10. 
comp. 4, 134• 7» 88.^ The Attics do the same when aMs^ ipsCf is 
emphatic, in which case the pronouns often refer to a different person 
firom the person of the verb, as Soph. (Ed. C. 951 seq. el μή μοι (μ^^ 
*μοί) xucpas αυτψ / apas ήράτο καΐ τ^μψ γέν€ΐ. Lyiias, ρ. 7. τούε naiSas 
TOVS ίμού$ ρσχννε καϊ έ/ιέ αντον νβρισ€ ; transposed Soph. Phil, 1314 seq. 
ayrov r' ίμέ {αυτόν τέ /le). Akib. 1. ρ» 105 A. wpbs aWov σβ. Comp. 
CratyLp. 384 A. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 1, 9. Demosth.p. 1291 ; and separated 
JEich. Choeph, 273 seq. aMv 9 ίφασκ€ Ty fiXy ψνχρ ra^e Tiaeiv μ* 
ίχοντα woXka SvoTcpirri κακά. In none of diese cases do έ /ie aMv &c. 
stand for έμαΜν Sec. If the pronoun pers. is placed after, it is always 
enditic, αντψ μοι^ not αντψ εμοί^ ; but ίμοί^ σοι with the acute accent 
also precede, e. g. //. π , 12. o\ 231. Od. r , 288. 

Ohs. 3. We often find, especially in older editions, aMv^ αντψ, at^ 
rovf where we should have expected αντον for ίαντον ; the MSS. often 
vary. Most frequently of all, aWov is found in old editions, especially 
ihe Aldine, where the word is emphatic, in which case the reflective 
pronouns of the first and second person would have been used ; aiJrov, 
αντγ9 on the contrary, where there is no emphasis, e. g. Soph. Aj. 967. 
αντψ $k Tepwvos. ib. 1366. El. 803. τα θ* αΐτηε καϊ τα των φίλων 
Kcuca 'her own sufferings'. On the contrary, (Ed, Col, 1396. waial 
rots aMv γέρα * his children', not * his own children', as Eur. Ale. 85. 
wooty els αύτψ*. 

From the oblique cases of the personal pronouns εγω^ σν, ο ν, 149. 
and the nominative of the plur. and dual, ^ficcc, νμίί^ σφεϊς, 
νωί, σφωι, σφ€, the pronouns possessive are derived, which cor^ 
respond in their signification to the genitive of the personal pro- 
noun. They are declined exactly like adjectives in oc of three 
terminations : 

ίμός, fi, 6v, * mine' ; 

o'oc, v, ovy ^ thine'. 

^ ApoU. de Synt. S, 19. p. 140 seq. ^ Heind. ad Plat. Phaedon. p. 154. 

ed. Bekk. ττΛντ. p. 315 C. Reiz. ap. Comp. ApoU. ir. ίιντων, p. 313 B. 

Wolf. ad Hes.Theog. 470. That ai^r^, ' Matthias ad £ur. Iph. A. 800. 

murav are redundant in oT αντψ, μιν Addend, t. 7. p. 508. on p. 368. v. 10. 

αντόν (Greg. Cor. p. 84. 86 not. ed. a fin. Comp. Buttmann Etc. ad 

Scbaef.) appears to me very doubtfiil. Dem. Mid• p. 140. 

R 2 



Ohs, From the Doric rv, ace. τέ, comei reof» re^, rtov Od• y » 122• 
//. f, 249. r/itfocr. 2, 116. Mschyl. Prom. 162. in thedialogue» else- 
where in the chorus Soph. Ant. 604. Eur. Heracl. 914. TheBoeotiani 
said Ti6$t and there was also a contracted form revs\ 

€oc, eij, eoi; (Feoc Apoll. π. άντων. ;>. 396 Β. C.) ' his' in the 
singular, only in the Ionic and Doric writers, and in 
the poets. 

Ohs. 1. Instead of this is used the ahhreviated form ^s II. y\ 353. 
f, 170. Herod. 1, 205. Eurvp. EL 1206. Neither is ever used hy 
the Attic prose writers (& δάκρυα Plat. Rep. 3. p. 894 A. is imitated 
from IL a, 42.), rarely hy the Attic poets (a), e. g. in the dialogue ων 
jEsck. Th. 643. Soph. Aj. 442. (Ed. C. 1639. Tr. 266. toy By in λ 
chorus ib. 525. ίων Eur. El. 1215. suspicious. 

Obs. 2. As ovy ol, ^, so €0s, 8s is the pron. refl. and pron. of the 3rd 
pers. sing. Hesiod^Epy. 57 seq. uses ioy as a pron• plur. for afirepoy. 
See Apoll. π. άντων. ρ, 403 Β. C. 

a(pwiT€poG, a, ou * both yours, of ypu both' only once II. a , 
216. χρτ} /Liev σφωιτ€ρ6ρ ye, Beit, enoc €ΐρυσασθαι• 

Note. In ApoUonius Rhodius this is used as the pronoun possessive 
of the third person in the sing, and plur. ; probably after the ex- 
ample of older poets, 1, 643. σφωίτέροιο roicijos 'of his (^thalides) 
father'. Comp. 2, 543. 3, 335. 600. Also for aos 3, 395.* 

νωιτ epoG, pa, pov ' both ours, of us both' only in the Ionic 
poets, //. o', 39. Od. μ, 185. 

rtpkrepocy pa, pov ' ours*. 

Note. Instead of this, &pos also was used in the Doric dialect //. f, 
414. Θ', 178. π', 830. Pind. 01. ID, 10. Theocr. 5, 108. ^scK 
S. c. Th. 656. Eurip. Androm. 582. El. 588. Soph. El. 279. 5SS. 
in the dialogue. It was used also for epos, as {ιμεις for ^yw 
Pind. P, 3, 72.^ The Cohans said also appos and άμμέτ€ρο$, 

vperepoc, pa, pov ' yours'. 

* Apoll. 1Γ. άντων» p. 394 seq. 

^ Brunck ad Apoll. Rh. 1, 643. 
Heyne ad II. α , 816. £ichstadt de 
Carm. Theocr. Ind. p. 44. 

^Brunck ad Eur. Andr. 1175. 
distingubhes &μ09 for tipirepos, from 

aposfor ip6$. Comp. Fisch. 8. p. 387. 
The above view is that of Apolkmius 
IT. άντων. p. 402 C. Comp. Markl. 
ad £ur. Iph. A. 1465. Blomf. Olosa. 
.Slsch. Theb. 413. 

Pronouns. 246 

NoU. Also Ιμόε, //, όν II e', 489. Od. a, 375. Find. Pyth. 7, 15. 
Theocr. ^2, 173. only in the Ionic and Doric poets. 

σφόc, i, 6v, and 1 * your' in the plural ; the first //. a^ 534. 
a^€T€/E>oc, pa, pov, J δ', 162. λ', 90. ξ', 202. 303. Orf. α', 34. 

(y, 237. Σφβτερα; is also Attic TAmc. 1, 5. 2, 12. 

7, 75. It is also used by later Alexandrian poets for 

the pronoun possessive of the 1st and 2nd person plur. 

and by the author of the poem Theocr. 25, 163. even 

for e/ioc^. 

II. Pronouns demonstrative. 

The demonstrative pronouns in Greek , are oie, ^Se, roSe, and 150. 
ouTOC, αυτί}, τούτο, ' this', hie ; and eiceTiOC, εκβίνη, cKeluo, 
* that', tVfe. 

1 . oSe is declined like the article, to which the enclitic Se 
is annexed in all the cases only to give greater force. Instead 
of this Se the Attics (in prose and comedy, but not in tragedy, 
Musgr. ad Eur. Ion. 703.) also annex the syllable Si; oSi, nSi, 
ToSc, which is analogous to the Latin hicce^. 

Obs. 1. Homer annexes the termination of the case to the ^e, τοισ" 
Seal Od. φ\ 93. τοϊσ^εσσι II. κ\ 462. Od. ff. Ail. 165. κ\ 268. v\ 258. 
For T^lt * here', * hither', the iEolians said wile Sapph. Fr. p. 7. and 
tame Dorian tribes reiSe (recv^e), as cl, wei for ^, π^. So many MSS. 
Theocr. 5, 3fi. 67. 8, 40.^ 

Obs. 2. Instead of roia^t, τοισί^ε is common in the tragedians, with 
the accent on the penult, because the end. h draws the accent of the 
principal word to itself, roiai roc^/^e, as rolos τοιόσοε, roaos Γοσόσ^ε*. 

2. ovToc is declined in the following manner : 

Sing. Plur. 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

N. OVTOC αυτί?, τούτο Ν. ούτοι, αύται, ταντο 

0• τοντον, ταύτηο, τούτου G. τούτωΐ' 

D. τούτ^, ταύτρ, τούτοι D. toutocc, ταυταιο, τούτοις 

Α. τοίίτοι^ ταντην, τούτο. Α. τούτους, ταύτας, ταύτα. 

* Thorn. Μ. ρ. 827. Brunck ad • Fisch. 1. p. 345. 2. p. 217. 

JEsch. Prom. 9. £ichstaiit de Carra. ' Valck. £p. ad Rover, p. 32 

Theocr. Ind. p. 43 seq. β Elmsl. ad Med. 1263. 






Μ• F• Ν• 

Ν. Α. τοντω, ταντα, 

G. D, τοντοιν, ταυταιν, 

Obs, 1. Ovros has originated by elongation jfrom 6, as rocovroc from 
roTos, &c. Hence this declension has throughout an analogy to that of 
the article, inasmuch as both have the spintua asper and the r in the 
same place ; and m the pronoun the ου in the firet eyUtfUle stands 
where the article has ο or ω, and αν where in the other i^ ά or:^» e. g. 
0, oSros. TOy TovTo, τον, τούτον, τψ, τουτψ, οί, oSroi, &c• and agam 
17, αύτη, TrjSf ταύτη$. αί, a^rcu• raif, ravraa. 

Oof. 2. Ovros is used as ai^ cn^hatic compellation» and therefore as 
a votfatiye, * thou there', like the Latin heus, as ArisU Vesp. 1• J ovros 
Alias Soph, Aj, 89. αύτη is rarely so used AnsU Thesm. 610. 

Obs. 3. The Dorians said τοντοι τανται for οίτοι avrai, for τανταβ 
roirras, and for ταντγ τοντ^, or tovtcI as an adverb in the oblique cases^ 
Theocr, 5, 193. The lonians in the final syllable frequently inserted t 
before the termination of the case, as in avr<$f, e• g. τοντέψ^ rovrimt^ 
Herod. 9, 4. τοντέου$ in Hippocrates^• 

Obs. 4. The Attics annex c to this pronoun in all cases and genders 
to give a stronger emphasis, in which case it receives an accent ; as 
they said for ^^e 0^/, so οντοϋΐ^ ανημ^ τοντονίψ ταντψτΐ Plai^ Cred* 
ρ, 396 C. τανττμ, οντοΛ Plat. Lack. p. 178 extr. ® In the neuter this 1 
takes the place of ο and a. τοντί Aristoph. Vesp, 1 83. ταντί id. Lys. OOf • 
or yi from yc was annexed, as τοντογί. See below. For the same teak 
sons the Latins annexed -met, -fe, '■pte, -ce, e. g. egomet, tntef meapUy 
hicce*. Hence οντοσί is used only as an absolute designation ; ojms 
with reference also to a pronoun relative following it*. 

Instead of i, γί and di are annexed to the cases which end in a short 
vowel, for the same purpose, e. g. τοντογί Arist. Lys. 147. 941. rav- 
ταγί Id. Av. 171. 445. τοντοΐί Id. Pac. 330.^ Neithet form occurs in 
the tragedians'^. From this we must distinguish the t, which the Attics 
and tonians frequently annex to the dative plural, rovrocai, ταίηταβη. 

Obs. 5. Some adjectives compounded with oi^ros follow its dedensioDi 

» Keen ad Greg. p.(l67) 366. Fisch. 
2. p. 2J4. Apoli. π. άντων, p. 332 Β. 
and in Bekk. Anecd. p. 592, 7. 9. 

»»Fisch. i.p.rr. 

« Schxf. ad Greg. p. 72. Apoll. 1. c. 
p. 335 B. 338 B. οντοσίν^ τουτοισίν. 

&€. are suspicious. 

* Fisch. 1. p. 93. 2. p. 216. 

* Ammon. p. 106. 

'Koen ad Greg. p. (56) 134. 
Fisch. 1. p. 93. 2. p. 217. 
> Porson ad £urip. Med. 157. 

Pronoum. 247 

but rejeet tiie r UurouglKmt, e• g. τοσοντοε, τοσαντη^ τοσούτο from τόσο•• 
rotovrosf roia^nif Toutvro from Toios. τηΚικουτο$ from τη\Ικο$. In the 
tragedians and Aristophanes τοιούτον, τοσούτον alone are found ; so also 
in Plato **. ι paragogicum is annexe^ to these also, e. g. τοιοντονί 
Artsioph. Fesp. 831. Demosth, p. 885. τοιοντοιί Arist. Lys. 1089. 
ToiavTau jEschin, p. 278. τοιαντί AnsU Fesp, 668.* 

3• 'E«c€fvoc is declined like avroc, eKcivoc, ίκβίνη, €Κ€ίνο, 
and receives aide ι paragogicum, e. g. εκβινοσί ArUtoph. Av• 
297• Demosth. p. 129. eKeivavt Arist. Pac. 546. eKeiwwi Id. 
Pae. 544. Hub. 1096. 

Note. For Utivot the lonians and epic writers said ktivos (a), the 
tragedianA also reivos, the Dorian» r^vos, a, 0, the iBoliims ΐίηνο$Κ 

III. Pronouns indefinite, 

That is, pronouns, by which no particular person is designated; 151. 
but only a person or thing generally. These are in Greek o, 
η, TO Se7va * a certain person^ when one does not wish to name 
one, or does not know his appellation ; and ric * any one, some 
one, one', Fr. on. 

1. o, fi, TO Sec να. Gen. του, t5c, toi? Secvoc Demosth. 
p. 38, 20. Dat. τφ, τρ, τφ iem Id. p. 488, 23. Aeons, τον, 
την, το δείνα Id. p. 167. Plur. Norn. 01 Seivec Id. p. 616, 4. 
Gen. των ίβίνων Id. p. 489, 11. 

It is sometimes also indeclinable, Aristoph. Thesm. 622. τον 
oeiva, τον τον cecva. 

2. TIC neut• tc. Gen. tcvoc, Dat. tivc, Acc• τινά neut. τι. 

Dual. N. A. Tive, G. D. τινσΐν. 

Plur. N. Tivic neut. τινά. Gen. τίνων, D. τισ/, Acc. Tivac 
neut. τινά. 

This pronoun is always, as such, enclitic, but in the phrases 
φαίνομαι tic eivai, Soicei tic εΐναι, where it means ' a man of 
importance' (see §. 487, δ.), it should perhaps be acuted. No 

^ Valck. ad Hipp. 1950. Schaef. Some wrote it in one word, with 

ad Dion. Hal. p. 399. Elmsley ad double accent, rovSciros. τον Selvor 

Soph. (£d. T. 734. το$ is probably a fiction of the gram- 

' Fisch. 2. p. 317. marians. 

^ ApolLir.&vrwv. p. 333 B. 335 A. 




passage is found where it begins a proposition, when it is clearly 
a pron. indef. but often stands before the substantive and after 
a comma, according to our punctuation^. 

Ohs. 1. The lonians said for rivos^ nvi &c. rio Od. ir', S05. and 
contracted rev Herod, 1, 19. 39. Dat. τίψ Herod. 1, 181. 2, 129. 
Plural Gen. τίων Herod, 2, 175. Dat. rioisy τέοισι Herod. 8, US. 
9, 21.^ all enclitic. The Attics contracted του, τφ, in all the genders, 
Eur. Ion. 836. Andr. 568. which is also enclitic. In the plural they 
use only τινών, τισί. The grammarians say that from tiv6% a new nomi- 
native rios, rlov, τίψ was formed ; and that from this came tw, by the 
lonians resolved into rio and τέψ ^. 

Obs. 2. Instead of the neut. pi. τινά the Attics said in certain com- 
binationSi particularly with adjectives, arra, e. g. &\X* arra, Irep* άττα, 
Toiavr arra. In the Odyssey &σσα occurs thus Od. r', 218. Pro- 
bably this has arisen from the old word &σσα for &τινα {& from 6s and 
the old Doric σά for τινά (see §. 153. Obs. 2.) by an arbitrary usage, 
and distinguished by the spintus, on account of the different use of it^. 

Like the indeterminate pronoun rlc is declined also, 

IV. The Pronoun interrogative 

rU n. Tt, Gen. rlvoc, 8cc. except that here the accent is on the 
i in the dissyllable cases, and in the nominative is the acute ( ' )• 
In the neuter the poets say also τί»? (r) for τ/, to which Sri is 
sometimes added. 

Obs. 1. This is also declined by lonians in the Gen. rio 11. β, 225. 
contr. T€v Callin, Ε leg. v. 1. Herod. 3, 82. Att. τον Soph. (Ed. T. 
1435. Dat. τίψ in all genders Herod. 4, 155. &rc. Att. τ^ Soph, El. 
680. In the plural, where the Attics use only rives, τίνων, the lonians 
have also τίων, monosyllable Od, v, 200. dissyllable 11. ω, 387. Od. 
V, 192. Dat. τέοισι Herod. 1, 37.• τοΊσι Od. i, 110. Soph. Trach. 984. 
From the old word rios, whence these forms are said to have arisen by 
changing ι into e, the dative τιοΊσιν is found in a poem of Sappho 
Etym. M. p. 759, 35 ' 

* Hermann de£mcnd. Rat. Gr.Gr. 
maintained that the indef. tis might 
stand at the beginning ofa proposition. 
See Matthias ad Eur. Suppl. 1187. 

* Gronov. ad Herod, p. 63. n. 21. 
31. ed. Wessel. 

*Fiscb. l.p.261. 2. p. S20. 

* Fisch. 3. p. 223. Auct. Em. ad 
Hesych. t. 1. p. 006, 23. Burgess ad 
Dawes Misc. p. 478. Hemsterh. ad 
Thorn. M. p. 122. Ilerm. ad Vig. 
p. 711,87. 

• Wessel. ad Herod, p. ID, 5. 
' Fisch. 2. p. 220 scq. 

Protiouns. 249 

O&f . 2. Instead of τΐ the Dorians are said to have used ra and σά• 
Hence σά μάν in the Megarensian dialect for τί μην Aristoph. Acham. 
757. 784.» 

The Pronoun relative 153. 

» η ft 

oc, 1), Ο 

18 declined like the article, with the omission of r. oc, n, o. 
Gten. ov, i}Cy ov. Dat. y, p, ω, &c. In the masc. Homer often 
puts δ for oc, e. g. Od. ξ', 3. δ οι•", particularly with the en- 
clitic re, δ T€ * and this' for * who*. Od. γ', 73. Xrilarripec 
roiT* αΚόωνται for oi αλ.^ He uses also, as well as the Ionic 
writers in general, the article for this pronoun. Originally there 
was but one form for the article and the pronoun relative ο as 
demonstrative, which in the progressive formation of the lan- 
guage were divided into two. In the genitive he has δον for 
ov II. β', 325. and in the fem. Iijc //. π, 208. 

This pronoun, when it does not refer to any particular per- 
son, but is used as a general designation, quisquis, quicunque 
(see §. 483.), is compounded with the indefinite pronoun tic. 
Each part of the compound is then declined separately: oaric, 
ifTCc, δ τι (or δ, tc to distinguish it from δτι * that'), Gen. ov- 
Tcyoc, fiarivoc, ovrivoc. Dat. ^τιι^ι, yrivi, ^τιι^ι, &c. 

Obs. 1. Homer says ο rif, e. g. //. γ\ 279. where ο is a prefix syl- 
lable*, as in (nrcitos, οιτόσοί, &c. and retains, with the rest of the Ionic 
writers, the ο unchanged in all the cases, e. g. Brev Od» p, 424. and 
SrreOf orrtv Od* a', 124. χ', S77* p\ 121. for oirivos^ ηστίνο$. 6τ€ψ 
II. ο', 664. οτινα Od. &, 204. Nom. plur. οτινα II. χ , 450. Gen. 6τ€ων 
Od• κ, 39. οτέοισι (trisyllahle) //. ο, 491. in the feminine οτέ^σι in 
Herodotus. The Attics retained this in the gen. and dat. sing, ότου, 
ίτψ for ovTivosy ψτινι, and οτων Xen. Anah, 7, 6, 24. Sophocles Antig, 
1S95. and Aristophanes Equ, 758. have also δτοισι. The full form is 
very rare in the Attic poets, rjariyos jEsch, Ag, 1367. οίστισι Arist. 
Fac. 1278. ^rtvi Eur. Hipp. 916. is suspicious for other reasons^. 
Gaisford has adopted τόν nva for 6y riya Herod. 1, 98. 

Ohs. 2. Instead of the neut. plur. an να, Homer //. a', 554. κ\ 206. 
v,127. and elsewhere, and Herodotusl, 138.197. &:c. have άσσα^ firom the 
Doric σά for riva. See §. 151. Obs. The Attics instead of this say arra. 

* Gregor. p. (94) 912. et Koen. the author means one which is not a 
Brunck ad Aristoph. 1. c. significant part of the compound, but ' 

^ Heyne ad II. a, 73. employed to facilitate pronunciation. 

• Fisch. 2. p. 318. — K.] 

•[By prefix syllable (wrffA/flgfy/*e) J Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 1673. 


250 TAe Verb. 

154. The Pronoun reciprocaL 

Gen. άλλίλωι^ 

Dat. αλλτ}λοίθ; ολλτ)λαια '•^. 

Ace. aXXijXovCy αλληλαΰ^ αλλι^λα 
Dual. Gen. Dat. άλλ^λοιν, -αιι^ 

Ace. αλλτ)λω^ άλληλα ' one another*, ^6• g. ervipav αλ- 
λ^λουα. It is derived from άλλος. 

The genitive in Homer and other poets is also αλλ^λοιιν IL κ, 
65. V, 708. π, 765. &c. 

0/ Me Verb. 

155. ipj^g Greek verb is much more varied and rich in its fbrms 
than the Latin, or the verb of any other language. Not only 
can it express one relation more, by means of the middle; bnt 
it has also in the other two voices, the active and passive, twd 
forms differing in signification for the perfectum of the Latin : 
viz. what is called the prseteritum perfectum and the aorist ; 
two forms of the futurum, prseteritum perfectum, plusquam 
perfectum, and the aorist : lastly, not only all the moods for 
each tense, which are complete only in the present tense of 
Latin, but also two distinct forms, differing in signification, for 
the conjunctive in Latin ; and in every mood a dual, besides 
the singular and plural, as in nouns. On the other hand it is 
true there is only one principal conjugation, and its tenses 
stand in close analogy to each other ; so that one may be de- 
rived from another, according to certain rules ; but from the 
different dialects which at first formed themselves together^ 
though without mutual influence, and from the constant en- 
deavour of the Greeks after harmony, several forms were in- 
vented for one verb, or for one notion of a verb, which were 
not all carried through the whole of the tenses, and which 
mutually supply the deficiencies of each other. 

Division of Verbs and Tenses. 

156. With regard to the signification, the most general division of 
verbs is that, according to which they designate either an action. 

DMnan of Virh$ and Tenuu 251 

lapable of detemunately expresemg the diffneat rdatkm» whicii 
the snbject, to whom the action belongs^ has to an object or 
person ; Or such as merely designate a certain condition of the 
snbject. In the former the relation is either active, which 
consists in the effect of an action upon another person or object 
{active or traftsitive, ρήμα evepynriKov) ; or passive, by which 
(he subject of an action is under the influence of an object in- 
dependent of himselff or of a different person (passive, p, waOtr 
rcKov) ; or reflective, when the subject of the action inflicts it 
on himself; and thus, at the same time, is active and passive 
from himself, e« g. Ί struck another, I was struck, I struck 
myself % ετυφα, βτνφθην, βτυφ&μηρ (middle, ρ. μβσον). Verbs 
of the second kind designate only a general condition of the 
subject, which neither passes on to an object, nor is affected by 
any thing extrinsic to the subject : these are called verbs neuter, 
e. g. Ί stand, I go% 8cc• This division finds its proper appli•* 
cation in the Syntax. We may also reckon amongst these thcr 
verbs deponent, which have the form of passive, but the signi-% 
fication of active verbs, and which are likewise treated of in 
the Syntax. 

With regard to the form, verbs are divided into two classes, 157. 
verbs in -ω, and verbs in ψί. The latter, however, differ from 
the former only in the present, and some in the formation of 
the aorist and perfectum. Verbs in -ω are either such as have 
a consonant before ω, or such as have a vowel a, e, o, before ω. 
The first are called verba barytona, barytone verbs ; because 
they have the accent (acute) on the penult, and the last syl- 
lable necessarily has the grave accent, not expressed in writing 
(o βαρύζ toihh;) : the second are called verba pura, contracta, 
because ω is contracted by the Attics into one syllable with 
the vowel preceding ; also circumflexa (περισπώμενα), because, 
afler contraction, the ω receives a circumflex, φιλεω, φιλώ• 
These, however, are not at all different from the first| since it 
is merely required to contract according to the foregoing rules 
in the present and imperfect• 

Verbs in -μι are commonly derived from verbs pure in -αω, 
-€ω, -οω, and in reference to grammar not without reason, since 
they stand in a regular analogy to these verbs, which may be most 


Division of Verbs and Tenses• 


conveniently represented as a derivation from them; most of them 
also coincide with the conjugation in -o>, in the perf. aor. and 
fut. Historically considered, however, they are at least of equal 
antiquity. This is clear not only from their use in those dia- 
lects which retained the largest share of the ancient language, 
the ^olo-Doric (§. 207.)^ but also from the several forms of 
conjugation which occur most frequently of all in Homer, and 
were partly in use in the Attic dialect ; as the imperf. απβιλΐί- 
την (§• 200, 6.)> the conjunctives ίκωμι (§. 200, 8.) and λα- 
βγσί, the inf. φιΧημεναι (§. 201, 12.), and the syncopated 
perfects τέΟνα/ιιεν, τεθναθι, τ€θναίην (§. 198, 3.). The conju- 
gation of the aor. pass, in verbs in -ω also entirely corresponds 
with the conjugation in -/uc. 

Obs. The older grammarians, and the eariier modern ones, reckoned 
fourteen conjugations, seven of barytone verbs, according to the charac- 
teristic consonant of the present tense, and the formation of the future ; 
three of verbs circun^ex, and four of verbs in -μι. I. Barytone verbs^ 

1 . in β 7Γ φ irr, Fut. ψ. 2, in γ κ χ κτ. Fut. ξ. 3. in ^ θ r. Fut. σ. 
4. in ζ σσ ττ. Fut. ζοτ σ. 5, ϊη\ μ ν ρ. Fut. ω. 6. ω purum, e. g. 
ανω. Fut. σ. 7. in ζ and ψ. Fut. ήσω. Π. Verbs circumflex, 1. in itt. 

2. in aw. 3. in όω. III. Verbs in -/xi, 1. in -17/11 -ris. Inf. evac. 2. in 
"Τίμι ~ηί• Inf. άναι• 3. in -ω /ic. Inf. oyai, 4. in -v/xi. Inf. vrai. The 
modern and more simple division takes its origin from Verwey {Nova 
Via docendi Grceca) and Weller *. 

Since in determining an action two things are to be regarded, 
first the time in which it takes place, and secondly its relation 
to the thoughts and purpose of the speaker, each verb is capable 
of two principal variations in its form, of which the first serves 
to determine the time (hence the name tempora, tenses)» and 
the second expresses this subjective relation {modi, moods)*. 

* Fisch. 2. p. 444 sq. 

* The distinction between «ii;ecin?e 
and objecUveyVfhxch is familiar to Ger- 
man logicians, may require some ex- 
planation to tlie English student In 
every operation of the mind, the sub' 
ject is the mind itself, the ol^ect that 
to which the operation refers. The 
effect produced on the mind by con- 
templating the qualities of an exter- 
nal object is suhjectvot ; while the qua- 

lities themselves are objecthe. Thus 
those difficulties in a divine revelatioa 
which arise from the imperfection of 
our faculties, or the corruption of our 
heart, and not from any intrinsic im- 
probability in the revelation itself, are 
subjective ai^cuiues ; but those which 
arise from seeming discrepancies in 
the records of revelation^ are ob^cttoe 
difficulties. See §. 963 ad fin. 

Division of Verbs and Tenses. 253 

1. The time in which an action can take place is either 
present, past, or future. There are thus in Greek, as in every 
language, three principal tenses, the present (ό ένεστωα), the 
prsBterite, and the future (o μβΧΧων)^. Of the present there is 
only one simple form in Greek ; but for the prseterite there are 
more than in any other language. An action, for instance, is 
represented as either in itself and absolutely passed, or as rela- 
tively passed, in respect to another time expressed or conceived. 
The aorist serves to designate the time entirely passed ; the im- 
perfectum, the praeteritum perfectum, and the plusquam perfec- 
tum, the relative time. The imperfectum (o παραταηκόο) re- 
presents a past action as continuing during another past action 
and accompanjang it; the perfectum {yjpovoc παρακβίμξνοι; r^ 
παρόντι) and plusquam perfectum (o ύπερσυντελικόο) designate 
an action completed, but continuing in its immediate conse- 
quences to another time ; the perfectum to the present, the 
plusquam perfectum to a time past. — In the same way the 
future is conceived under three modifications, either as simply 
future without any reference to another action (Fat. 1.2. Act. 
and Fat. Med.), or as future and complete {Fut. 1. 2. Pass.), 
or as future and with reference to an action to take place in a 
still more remote futurity (Fut. 3. Pass.) 

In another view the tenses are divided into two classes, 
1. Principal tenses ; present, imperfect, future. 2. Historical 
tenses ; imperfect, plusquam perfectum, aorist. 

An action is considered with reference to the Subject of the 159, 
speaker, 1. either as subsisting by itself, determined by no re- 
lation (infinitive, fi απαρεμφατοα sc. eyKXiaic). 2. or as a gene- 
ral quality and condition of an object or person (participle, fi 
μβτοχτ}). 3. or as a determinate proposition ; and in this 
respect, a) as actual (indicative, i| οριστική), h) as potential 
and intentional (optative 19 ευκτική, and conjunctive*^ -η ύπο- 
τακτικη). c) as necessary, at least subjectively for the speaker 
(imperative, ή προστακτική). 

The following is a table of the Tenses and Moods : 

^ Comp. Plat Parmen. p. 141 D. ' Of the more exact difference of 
^' tliese two moods, see Syntax. 


Division of Verbs and Tenses. 






0) Λ 






to V 






Augment. 255 

These different tensee in the regular verbs are all derived^ 160. 
by a constant analogy, from each other ; and ultimately from 
the present• First, however, we must notice the distinction 
which obtains between the present and the future» and the 
past tenses : the latter of which are lengthened by a syllable 
prefixed to the initial consonant, or change the initial short 
vowel into a long one. In both cases the lengthening syllable 
is called 

The Augment. 

In Homer, Hesiod, and other old poets, the use of the aug- 
ment is as yet very fluctuating• The same word occurs some- 
times with the augment, and sometimes without it, e• g. e^- 
ijpepev Od. ff, 439. l/c^eoev Od. o, 469. eXa)3e and λάβε. 
ayev //. β^, 667. 8cc. and lyye J7. i\ 89. &c• Others have the 
augment regularly, as ίίΧυθον and ^λνθβ, &c• This diversity 
does not appear to have been caused by the revisers (diasceu" 
asta), the grammarians, or transcribers, since the restoration 
of consistency in this respect would, in most places, entirely 
destroy the measure and rhythm of the verse \ In Herodotus 
and other prose writers the temporal augment is frequently 
omitted» e. g. ορμεατο Herod. 1, 158. εξεγέρθη ib. 209. and 
with other words Λ. 17. 7, 143. 1, 19. 37. 88. 66. 166. 
68. 70. 96. 80. 86. 102. &c. wpoaeXaae 7, 208. comp. 210. 
but awriXawov ib. 211. βπιστίοτο 8, 97. but ΐϊΐτιστέατο ib, 88. 
αγον 1, 70. but nyov 3, 47. The omission of the syllabic aug- 
ment is more rare, e. g. voee 1, 156. (other MSS. ei/oee). εζα- 
¥ny£jpee ib, 208. παρασκεναΖοντο 7, 209. The Attics, on the 
other hand, observed it regularly, except in poetical passages, 
whose language was formed upon the model of the ancient lan- 
guage, e. g. in choruses. Yet in the species of augment they 
retained much of the Ionic dialect. 

Ohs. That the Attic poets omitted the augment in iambics, has been 
iaaeahyFoT8on,Praf.Hec.p.5.adMed. 1138. Ehns. ad Bacch.ll32. 
maintained by MarkL ad SuppL 728. Brunck ad Eur. Androm. 955. 

* The old grammarians consider but only that their dialect permitted 

the omission of the augment as a them to leave it out. Vid. Keen ad 

peculiarity of the Ionic dialect, by Gregor. p. (189) 406 seq. Fisch. 2. 

whidi they could hardly mean that p. 313 sq. Heyne Obss. ad Π. t. viii. 

the lonians never used uke augment; p. 2S6 sq. 

256 Augment. 

Soph. (Ed. C. 1624. Herm. Elem. DocU Met. p. 5ft. Iftl. ad ScpL 
Aj. 301. Prof. Bacch. p. II seq. Reisig. Conj. in Arist. p. 78 — 8i 
Comm. Cnt. ad Soph. (Ed. C. p. 376. It is admitted on all hands that 
these poets regularly omit it in some words, as έκαιγα, καθεζόμιιψ, 
καθήμην, καθεν^ον, and in χρην when it suits the verse. Pors, Prof, ai 
Hec. p. 17• The temporal augment is omitted only in two, and those 
suspicious passages, Soph. Aniig. 404. τανττιν y c^v θάιττουσαν (a 
form which occurs nowhere else in iamhic trimeters, and has therefove 
heen rightly changed into ΙΙων) ; and Eur. Iph. T. 53 seq. where £br 
vlpan'oy we should prohahly read v^paivety, as infinitives precede. 
Comp. Matth. ad he. Herm. Praf. Baceh. p. 23. In the passages 
where the syllahic augment is wanting, a word with a long final vowel 
or diphthong generally precedes, asjEsch. Pers. 6S9. (BL 698.), where, 
however, for τάχυνα Bl. has τάχνν€. Comp. 695 seq. Soph. Aj• 308. 
TLaiaas κάρα θώνζεν. ib. 1 304. ^ώρημ* eicecVy ^ώκεν• Trach, 381 . Ί<^λΐ| κα- 
XetTo. ib. 772. ενταύθα δή βόησ€. ib. 905. 5ri γένοιτ* €ρήμη, κΧαίε 5*---• 
Here an elision prohably takes place, as in κάρα Vi^ecioiv Eur. El. 861. 
κ&γώ *πακονσα£ Soph. (Ed. T. 794. comp. 820. as also where a di- 
phthong precedes, ^«cA.Per^. 308. νικωμ€νοι*κυρισσον^. t6. 488. Soph• 
(Ed. C. 1C02. Γαχ€ΐ 'πόρενσαν. t&. 1608. irtoov σαι" κΚαιον. PhiL 360, 
cTTcl ^Ιάκρνσα. This elision would become certain if passages could be 
pointed out in which e is elided in other words, as eir/, ^n, έγώ, έκ, 
after oc ai, as after ου in €κ -ποταμού *πανέρχομαι Anaer. Fr. 24. Fitch. 
Soph. (Ed. T. 708. It would be more bold to assume an ehsion where 
one verse ends with a long vowel or diphthong, and the following begins 
with a word which is commonly augmented, e. g. Soph. El. 750. κάνα 
^ άνω Φορείθ* {^φορεΧΘ* Brunch)' δμοΰ ίέ vavres αναμεμιγμένοι Φεί^ντο 
(*φ€ΐ^οντο Br.) κέντρων ονΰέν. (Ed. C. 1605. ρίγησαν (where with the 
elision it should be *ρρίγησαν). Trach. 906. βρυχάτο (^βρυχάτο Br.), 
ib. 917. φρουρούν {^φρουρούν Br.). Eur, Hec. 1153. θάκουν{*θάκονν). For 
as w^ords are generally written at full length at the end of a line, even 
when an augment follows in the next verse, as εγώ "Έλουσα Soph. Antig. 
900. Phil, 875. El. 728. and only U (and that very rarely) apostro* 
phized (Soph. El. 1017. (Ed. T. 29. 785. 791. Antig. 1031. (Ed. 
C. 17.), never in ^schylus or Euripides, although they often have U 
at full length at the end of a verse, before a vowel in the following 
verse ; even when a vowel in the next line follows a long vowel or 
diphthong at the close of the preceding (e. g. Soph. Aj. 916. Ivel Ov- 
leis . to. 992. έμοί "ΑΧγιστον - - -. El. 560. σοι 'ils ): the 

* I do not consider thb as a crasis, in ουμοι §. 54. οι α into α §. 55. 
because in this oi and e coalesce^ as 

Augment. 267 

Λαοα of the augment after a long vowel in the preceding veree, or a 
ensia of the two, can scarcely be justified ; least of all such an elision 

la ίμ^ Ik ^IUvkKovvto jEscL Pers. 455. or — ^λογι 'Hivroy th. 

M)4. ed. SchiUz^ 

We must therefore consider the passages just quoted as examples of 
he omission of the augment. So the augment is omitted Msch. Pers, 

U4. εμβόλου χαΧκοστόμοΐί Πα/οντ' (where the conjecture τταίσθέντ' 

fflpavoi' destroys the emphatic expression of mutual destruction so 
xequent in narrations, not to mention that παιόμενον would then liave 

leen more correct. See Herm, Prcef. Bacch, p, 34.). ib, 504. πίπτον 

Τ hr άλλήλοισι, where ίνιτνον would as an aorist represent that as 
in action rapidly passing, which from its nature must be durable or 

repeated {Herm. Prcef. Bacch. p. 34.). Soph. (Ed. C. 1624. nvos 

Bw^tv - - -, where the conjecture of Porson, - - - rivos Θεών εθώνΓ, 
lessens the solemnity of the passage, by specifying on whom (Edipus 
Calls. Comp. Herm. Prof, Bacch. p. 47. Eur. Bacch. 767. vlypavro. 
ί6. 1084. σίγησε ^ αίθίφ. The attempts which have been made to 
eonrect these passages involve a petUio principii; namely, that the 
Atdcs never omitted the augment : and when we appeal to the fa- 
cility of the emendation to confirm the assumed necessity of making 
it, we fall into a vicious circle of reasoning. It would be very easy to 
prefix an augment to the words whose first syllable is short, and thus 
to change the iambus into an anapaest, e. g. jEsch, Pers. 454. *£i:v- 
tkovvTO for κυκλουντο. ib. 375. ετροπουτο for τροττουτο. Soph. (Ed, T. 
1249. iyoaro for γοάτο. Eur. Bacch, 1066. ίκυκΧοϋτο for κυκλουΓο, 
Bat easy as these corrections are, they are improbable, while the other 
passages remain unshaken ; and it would be extraordinary that the 
transcribers, who usually insert the augment, should here have con- 
φired to leave it out. The following appear to be the conditions under 
vfaich the poets omitted the augment : 

1. It is omitted in imperfects and aorists, with few exceptions, only 
Ji narratives of messengers (ρήσειί άγγεΧικαί) ; so that it seems as if 
he poets had in this respect imitated the epic style, as that of the ear- 
nest narrative poetry '. The only exceptions are, jEsch, Choeph. 927. 
ocLves γ* Sv ov χρην. Soph. Phil. 371. ηΧησΙον γαρ ων κνρει, Eur, 
Hec, 580. Χέγον. Ale. 851. γείνατ. These four passages can of 
themselves decide nothing against the twenty-nine others, in which the 

^Instead of imperfects without has rcvei. Bacch. 728. κυρέΐ, as a 

augment, at the beginning uf a verse^ MS. ap. £lmsl. has, instead of κνρει. 
editors have long substituted presents, ^ What I have said against this 

e.g. £ur. Med. 1150. κυνεϊίοτ κύνει view on £urip. Med. 1131. Bacch. 

Ale. 181. where the Copenhagen MS. 793. is without foundation. 

VOL. I. S 

258 Augment. 

augment is omitted in the narratives of messengers. The passage in 
the Hecuba is suspicious for other reasons ; see Herm, ad loc. : and we 
should probably read λέγων with two MSS• or λέγ», as Brunck, Poi- 
son and Hermann recommend. In the Ale, one MS. has 'HXecrpv 
oyoSf a less common form ; and we should probably read with Blomfl 
*U\eKrpvoyos ίγ€ΐνατ\ the passage being suspicious in another view 
(Jmf, 2.). In Soph, PhiL 371• Brunck's conjecture ην κνρών is very 
probable, which a transcriber explained by Mpei^ whence another made 

€Kvp€tf and a third ων icvpei. In the fourth passage, iicavis y ov oi 

γρην, ixayei τον oiJ χρ• ίκαν€$ ^v ού χρ. κανοΰσ* 6vf have all been pro- 

2. In all the passages except those above quoted, and Mtch. Pen. 
311. oilt vabs Ik μια$ χέσον, the word which is without the augment 
stands at the beginning of a trimeter, though in a continued discourse ; 
once indeed in the middle of the speech, but at the beginning of a pro- 
position, Eur, Bacch, 1134. γνμνονντο. The passage in iEschylus is 
generally considered as corrupt. In many passages the verb which is 
without augment expresses an action, which the poet wished to render 
emphatic by the use of an uncommon form ; as jEsch, Pen, 414• 004• 
Soph, (Ed, C. 1604. 1624. Trach, 906. Eur, Bacch. 1084., though 
an equal or perhaps greater number of passages is found in which 
words equally emphatic have the augment, or unemphatic words are 
without it ; as, Aisch, Pen. 374. Soph, El 715. Trach. 917. Eur. 
Bacch. 767. 

On the whole, the omission of the syllabic augment appears to have 
been a poetic licence in the Attics, like the use of the Ionic forms μουνοκ 
for μ6νο£, Reives for ζένος, iceivos for cfccTyos, of the anapaest in proper 
names in the second and fourth places, and the lengthening of short 
syllables, as Ίππδμέ^ντα, &c. §. 19. p. 53. The poets, however, seem 
to have availed themselves of this licence only in the narratives of mes- 
sengers and at the beginning of a trimeter, or if in the middle of a tri- 
meter, at the beginning of a proposition ; and the cases are rare and 
almost entirely confined to the Persie of £schylus, the (Ed. Col, of 
Sophocles, and the Bacchce of Euripides. 

161. The augment appears origiDally to have consisted^ in all 
cases, in the prefix e, as well in words beginning vrith a vowel, 
as in those which began with a consonant. Thus we still find 
in the old Ionic poets έαψθη II, |f, 419. v\ 643. for ^φ9ΐ|• 
εβστο for είστο. (βίλπετο belongs to the Ionic pres. form eeX- 
ir€Tac//./c', 105. /,813. εελποί/ϋΐίν/Ζ.β', 196. />', 488.) This 

Augment, 259 

kind of aagment occurs more rarely in Herodotus^ and only in 
certain words, e. g. eavSave 9, 5. laSe 1, 151. 4, 146. 153. 
eaX«i»jca 1, 191. eopyee I, 127. On the other hand we find in 
Herodotus, oTjca, ocιcώc for the Homeric eocica, eocicwc. The Attics 
also retained it in some words, e. g. εαζβ, είγη, εαγώο, to distin- 
guish them from ηζα, ηχα from αγω ' I carry' \ εαλωκα, βάλω 
(also ^λ» Herod. 7, 137. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 286 A. Xen. 
Anab. 4, 4, 21. τίΚωκα Xen. Anab. 4, 2, 13.^), εοικα^ Ιολπα, 
€οργα, in which the characteristic of the perf. 2. oi and ο could 
not be effaced *i particularly in verbs which begin with a vowel 
not capable of being lengthened, ίωθουν^ εωσ^ιαι, εωνουμην, 
θίγομαι, kovpovp^i 

Obs. Homer sometimes makes the e long, when the verse requires 
it» e. g. tioiKviai IL σ\ 418. eva^ev II, ξ, 340. &c. which latter pro- 
bably arose from the digamma anciently in use, iFaSey *. 

Afterwards the usage was thus determined, that e was 162. 
only prefixed to verbs that began with a consonant ; but in 
others, beginning with a vowel, it coalesced with it either into 
a long vowel or a diphthong. The prefixing of e is called the 
syllabic augment {αυξησιο συλλαβική), because the verb is 
thereby lengthened one syllable ; the lengthening of the short 
vowel, the temporal augment (αυζ. γρονικη), because the time 
(χρόνοα, tempus) or quantity of the initial vowel is thereby in- 

1. The Syllabic Augment. 

In verbs beginning with p, after the augment ρ is doubled, 
e. g. ρίπτω eppiiTTOVj pew eppeov, 

Obs, 1. The poets, on account of the verse, ofben retained the single 
p, e. g. Ip€(af //. Ψ', 570. Ipcfe //. /?, 400. έράΐΓτο/*€ν Od. ir', 379. 
ipaxj/ev Horn. H. in Merc. 79.' 

Obs. 2. In the editions of the Ionic and Doric poets, when this aug- 
ment is meant to make a syllable long, the initial consonant of the verb 
b doubled after it, e. g, lXXaj3e //. e', 83. (see §.19 6.), always in l^« 

• Fisch. S a. p. 17. Maitt. p. 53. * ITiom. M. p. 403. 

^ Piers, ad Moer. p. 178. Fisch. 3 a. * Fisch. 3 a. p. 31 . 

p. 97 sq. ' FJsch. 9. p. 990. 
^ Fisch. 2. p. 285. 3 a. p. 88. 


2G0 Augment, 

Obs. 3. The Attics prefix the teinpord instead of the syllabic aug• 
raeut to βούλομαι, ΙΟναμαι, μέλλω, as ήβουΧόμηρ, ^ίυνάμην, ff/ieXXoi^, 
where a form ίβούΚομαι, έ^νναμαι^ ίμέΧΚω is assumed, like θέλω and 
ίθέλω, ρύομαι and έρνομαι '. Herodotus also has y^vyaro 1 , 20. Hesiod 
Th. 478. 887. i/iieXXe.* 

163• In the perfect^ plusquam perf., and the fut. 3. pafts. the 
first consonant of the verb is repeated before the syllabic aug* 
ment. This is called the 



Thus τύτΓτω has in the perfect, τέτυφα, τέτυττα* λβ/πω, λε- 
XocTTo, Sec. The plusquam perf. receives the syllabic augment 
also before the reduplication, ετετύφειι/, eXeXoiVecv. In which 
the following rules are observed : 

1 . If the verb begins with an aspirated consonant, in the 
reduplication the corresponding lene is put, ξ. 36• θάπτω τΙ- 
θαπται, γβυσοω KeyjpvawKOy φιλεω πεφίληκα• 

2. Verbs which begin with ρ retain only the augment ep, 
§. 162.^ Homer, however, has ρβρυπωμενα Od. iCj 69. and 
Choeroboscus Bekk. Anecd. p. 1287. quotes ρερΊψθαι from 
Pindar and from Anacreon (comp. SchoL Od. 2Γ, 69.) pepa- 
πισμενω or ρερυπασμίνψ. So in Homer from σενω (σνω) and 
μ€ΐρω were formed εσσυτο, εμμορε, for σέσυτο, μίμορε. 

3. Verbs which begin with a double consonant 2^, ξ, \py or 
with two consonants the latter of which is not a liquid» do not 
receive the reduplication, but only the augment, e. g. eChrnKa^ 
€κτισμαι, εζεσ^ιαι, εφαΧκα, εσπο/οα, εψθορα, εσταλκα ; and γν^ 
€γνωκα, eyviopiKa, On the other hand, μεμνημαι (but ε/ιηρ- 
μ6ν€νκα\ τεθνηκα. 

The following are excepted : 1 • The syncopated forms which 
begin with πτ, πεπταμαι (for πεπέτα/ιιαι), πβπτηωα, regularly 
in Homer and Herodotus πετττωκα, &c. originally from πέτω. 
Again, from πτεροω is regularly formed επτερωκα ανεπτερω- 

» Buttm. L. Gr. p. 324. Fisch. 2. p. 299 Rqq. 

^ Thom. p. 258. Maitt. p. 58. * Fisch. 2. p. 289 sq. 

Augment. 261 

/bteycu;; from πτύσσω είΓΓνγμαι Eurip. EL 357.; from πτησσω 
επτη-χα, πτοέω ίπτοημαι ^. 2. The verb κταομαι, of which the 
perfect, κεκτημαι is more used by the Attics, and ίκτημαι by 
the lonians and older Attics ^ Thuc, 2, 61. Plat. Rep. 5. 
p. 464 D. 469 C. 

In verbs which begin with a mute and a liquid, or two liquids, 164. 
in some cases the reduplication is regular ; in others it is not 
admitted. Me/uvvi/uac, however, has no other form ίμνημαι. 
Besides these, verbs whose second initial consonant is ρ re- 
ceive the reduplication regularly, e. g. ^ί^ρομα ^ε^ράμηκα from 
^ρίμω, τεθραυσται from θραύω, τετραμμαι τεθραμμαι from 
τρίπω, τρεψω^ πβπρωται, all which forms occur in Homer ; 
also γβίομαι yjp'^tf^f κεγ^ρηται Κ€\ρησμ€νο(;. On the other 
hand, the reduplication is generally wanting in verbs which 
begin with γλ, and others whose second initial consonant is λ. 
Hence κατ€γλωττισ/ιΐ€νο€ ^ eyXvnrai K, εβΧαστηκα Eurip. 
Jphig. A. 594.'*, but βββλαμμαι (βφληκα is a syncope), γτέ- 

It is very doubtful, however, whether the Attics omitted the 
reduplication in other verbs beginning with a single consonant. 
In Aristoph. Vesp. 1475. is now read εΙσκεκυκΧηκβν^. 

Ohs, 1. That the epic poets omitted the reduplication in the plusquam 
perf. and moods of the perf., e. g. ε^εκτο or ^έκτο, delo for ehiSeKTo, ^έ^εζο^ 
is probable from the circumstance that along with ^έκτο, ^έζο, λεγμένος, 
σντο, χντΌ, β\Ιιμ€νοί^ /δλ^σθαι, are found oflen in the very same sense 
^i^€KTOf 2έ3εζο, ^€^€y/i€i'os //. ^, 107. &c. εσσντο^ ιτέχυτο, βεβλημένος, 
β€β\ησϋαι. The later poets would hardly have used such forms as 
yevpeOa Theocr. 14, 51. ελειπτο A poll. Rh. 1, 45. 824. without the 
example of their predecessors. It will be shown, §. 505. that the plusq. 
perf. in Homer and Herodotus has very oflen the sense of the aorist : as 
however these forms scarcely ever occur in the strict sense of the plusq. 
perf. but almost always as aorists {π\ητο is a plusq. perf. //. ^', 300. 
He$. Sc. 146. 'had been filled', elsewhere as an aorist ' filled itself, 

* Taylor ad Lycurg. p. 166. ed. Schw.) 

Reiske t. 4. ^ Hemsterh. in Obss. Misc. 4. 

* Moeris p. 225. Wessel. ad Herod, p. 289 sqq. DorviJle ad Chant, 
p. 3d, 46. Fisch. 2. p. 287 sq. Ileind. p. 553. Lips. Brunck. ad Aristoph. 
ad Plat Prot. p. 572. Lysistr. 291 . Fisch. 2. p. 287 sqq. 306. 

' Kiister ad Aristoph. £qu. 351. ' Brunck. Dorv. II. cc. 

'Casaub. ad Athcn. 2, 1 5. (1 . p. 375. 

262 Augment. 

and ^σσν/ιαι, ίσσυται may he regarded as a perf. 2L ρ\ 79. Od, κ\ 484. 
like άνεΒέγμεθα Od, p, 563.), and since the reduplication is no where 
else omitted in the plusq. perf. than in these dubious forms, it is more 
correct to consider them as syncopated imperfects, in the sense οΓ 
aorists. See §. 193. Obs. 8. 

165. Obs. St, The second augment in the plusquam perf. is sometimea 
omitted by the Attics, e. g. πεπόν^εψεν Plat. Phcedon, p, 89 A. ire* 
νόνθεσαν Mschln, in Cies. p. 534. κατα^^αμίικεσαν Thuc, 8, 92. 
Xen. Cyrop, 7, 2, 5. teSiei Plat. PJuedr. p. 25 1 A . yeyivifro Thuc. 5, 1 4. 
{Ι'^εγ^νητο ib. 16. in one MS. yeyiv^o). Ιιαττ^κόμιρει Xen. Cyrop. 8, 
4, 7. rereXevr^icei Anab. 6, 4, 11. airo^e^pajcei 6, 4, 13. ^ιαβεβήκει 7, 
d, 20. ^ιαβ€βΧίικ€ί 7, 5, 8. vapayeyovei Plat. Symp. p. 173 B.* 

Obs. 3. In verbs beginning with λ and /i, the lonians, Attics, and 
others, are accustomed to put ei for Xe, ^e, e. g. ecXi^^a, €(λι;χα (ei- 
λαχα Theocr, 16, 84.), εΐλοχα, eiXeyfcai, et/iap/iac, which the gram- 
marians call lengthening e afler rejecting the reduplication of the con- 
sonant^. Buttmann {L. Gr. p. 323. not.) more correctly considers it as 
similar to the reduplication in ε/ίριμμαι^ ίσσνμαι, ίμμορ€. This, how- 
ever, does not take place in all words ; it is always, for instance, λέ- 
Χειμμαι'^ηοί ειΧει/ιμαι, μεμάθηκα not εΐμάθηκα ; and on the other hand 
we find XeX4/x/ie6a, λέλι/ψαι, \e\ημμέyos Eur. Ion. 1132. Iph. A. 363. 
Cycl.^SZ. ξυΧΧβΧβγ/ιένα* Arist.Eccl. 58. XeXey/x^vov jEsck. S. c. Th. 

Obi. 4. The Ionic and Doric poets sometimes lengthen the redupli- 
cation as well as the augment, e. g. ^e/^e*To //. i', 224. Βει^έχαται 
Od. η\ 72. from ^έκω^ ^ε/κτω for ^^2eicro, ^ε^έχαται (a). ^e/Sia, SeiioiKa 
for 3έ^ια, ίέ^οικα. (See ίείκννμι under the defective verbs.) 

0&«. 5. Besides the perfect, derivative verbs also receive a species 
of reduplication, e. g. τίθημι, ^ίίωμι, ϊστημι. (See Verbs in /ii.) More• 
over, in Homer and Hesiod 2nd aorists also ofVen receive the redu- 
plication. Aorist 2. Κ€κάμω II. α, 168. Κ€κάμωσιν II. η\ 5• ΧεΧάχίΛσι 
II. ν> 80. f , 76. \€\αβίσΒαι Od. V, 388. λεΧαθέσΟαι, XekaBorro IL ^, 
127. γ', 136. irirXiyyov, ireirXZ/ycro, xeirXiyy^^cv II. μ\ 162. &c. flreir/- 
θοι/Μκ, xeiriOet ν //. α , 1 00. ι', 112.1 84. άμκεναλών, πέφραί€ II. ξ^ 500. 
and as an imperative Od. α , 273• τ€^α2έ€«ν, πεψρα^ίμ^ Od• 9, 49• 

* Hemsterh. 1. c. ad Lucian. t. 1. ^ Fisch. 2. p. 304 seq. Scluef. ad 

p. 308. Fisch. 2. p. 317. Jungerm. Soph. (Ed. T. 1082. attacks the sp. 

ad Polluc. 5. 109. n. 27. Boeckh in asperin είμαρμαι; Buttmann p. 323. 

Plat. Min. p. 60. Valck. in Nov. note, defends it. 
Test. p. 299. Fisch. 2. p. 317. 

Augment. 263 

Γ, 477• Ηη.*Έφγ. 764. rerviceiv, rtrvwrro^ rcrvri«Oat /2i a\ 467. &c• 
M. o'y 77• &C• rcroprtroy Τ€ταμπ6μ€νο9 //. w» 518. Od. a', dlO• ice- 
χάμοτΓΟ^ KexafMTO 11. v» 600. Od. β^ 249. reicaSwVy ικιοάίοιτο //• λ', 
334. «έβλνθι, daewbere also κλνΟι, and by syncope κέκλοντο from lice- 
K^oyro from κίΚομαι^ and in Pindar ireiropc«v Pyth* %, 105. ^γαγον re- 
mained in the common language. (κ€κορ€σσάμ€βα IL χ\ 427. and κ€κο^ 
ρ9σσάμ€νοί HtM, "Έμγ. 93. are now read κ€ κορ€σσ. since the sense also 
rapirea re, i. e. ar.) In other passages these forms have the sense of 
the imperfect, e. g• πέπληγον Od, ff^ 264, rerif κοντό Od. fff6l. μ\ 307. 
(ε), because from such redoubled aorists new presents were formed» 
whence weitdd^tw^ κ€καΖήσω. (See §• 221. nr. 1. *) The fritures 2e2^$ofiac 
IL €\ tSS. rere^Ceroc //. μ\ 345. μβ/χ/ζβται ΗβΜ.'Έργ. 177. are regu- 
larly formed fut. 8. pass, from Οχομαι αί€γμαι SiSe^aif τβνχω τέ- 
Tfvyyiot τέΓ€υζαΐφ fi/yw μέμιγμαι μέμίξαι. 

The Temporal Augment. 

By the contraction of the augment e with the initial vowel of 166. 
the verby according to §. 60 eeq., ea becomes -η, ee -ec and -ΐ|. 
As in this case^ by means of the augment, the short vowel was 
changed into its corresponding long one, it soon became a rule, 
that the short vowel in the contraction was always changed 
into its corresponding long one, without regard to the practice 
otherwise observed. Thus, 

1. α was changed into η (ea) by the augment, e. g. ανυτω 
H^vTOVf αν^ανω rivSavov, ακούω ηκουον τικουσα. The original 
augment is still used in εαψθη IL ν , 643. and in the common 
language in εάγιιν, έάλων. §. 161. 

Obs. 1 • In άηίίζομαι * 1 have an unpleasant sensation', and the poetic 
word άηθέσσω * I am unaccustomed', άίω * I hear', άω * I blow', this 
chai^ does not take place ; the reason assigned for which is, that 
ήη^ιζόμην^ ^iiQtaaov would have had too inharmonious a sound, and 
that fftev, ^e might have been easily confounded with fflfev ' he went', 
and fey 'he was". We must, however, seek for the reason in the 
Ionic dialect, to which these words are peculiar, where the omission of 
the augment was customary, as Herodotus has 9, 93. έτήϊσβ, Apoll. 
Rh. 1, 1023. ewii'iaay from hraiv * they have perceived'. 

' Fisch. 2. p. 314. Koen ad Greg. ^ Fisch. 2. p. 284 seq. 

p. (202) 433 seq. 

264 Augment. 

Ohs, St. The long α also remains unchanged in the old Attic in Λνα- 
\6ω^ commonly ίινάΚίσκω^ άνάλονκ, άκάλωιτα» άνάλν/ιαι, ανάλυσα, ibt 
which, in later Attic, we find άνήλυιτα, ίιναΚΜκα^ ^i^Xw^a*. IxiEur» 
Phcsn. 602. Andr. 456. El. 685. Λι^άλ<ϊ>τα<, άναλύΟι^, ανάλ«#σαι are 
found without various reading ; elsewhere the MSS. vary• The in* 
scriptions (e. g. the Sandwich marble, in which we find, for example, 
hv€Koaay for ανάλωσαν,) show that άνήλωσα was also said at Athens ; 
and as they are usually composed in the common language of the people, 
the augment in this word appears to have belonged to common liiK?, 
while in the higher style, as in the tragedians and Thucydides, the 
augment is not particularly marked. It is doubtful whether the long α 
has caused this omission ; as in other words, e. g. ήθλι^σα Soph. (Ed. 
C. 564. this long α admits the augment. So Ζιηκόνουν is found Eur. 
Cycl, 406. though α in Sicucoyost &c. is long, as is clear from the Ionic 
^iflKovoSf in which also η seems to have belonged to the common, α to 
the higher language. 

167. 2. ai into p, e. g. αιτέω yreov ρτΐ}σα. 

3. αυ into ι^υ, e. g. αίΒάω ηυΒων, ανχ^εω ηνχουν. 

4. c becomes a) ei in εάω * I suffer or permit* ; εθω * I ac- 
custom', είωθα; ίθιζω, Ιλω * I take', βίλον; ελ/ττω ' I twirl'; 
έλκω, ελκύω ^ I draw' (ελκέω has ηΧκησε Od. λ , 580.) ; 
έπομαι * I follow' ; έρπω, ερπυζω ' I creep' ; έστιαω * I enter- 
tain' ; ερΎαζομαι * I make, or do' ; εχω ' I have' ; εω (com- 
monly ε^ω, ενννμι) ' I seat, I put on', b) η in all other 
verbs : εγε/ρω, tiyeipov. ερωτάω, -ηρωτων. ειρωτα in Herodo- 
tus 1, 11. 88. has not the augment, but comes from the Ionic 
form ειρωτάω, -εω, whence the participle ειρωτεωμενουζ, eirei- 
ρωτώσι and the infin. ειρωτεεσθαι Herod. 2, 32. 6, 3. 7, 148. 

In the forms of the pres. and perf. in εο, the ο receives the 
augment, εορτάζω εωρταζον, εολπα εώλπειν, topya εώργειν, 
εοικα εψκειν^, either because the original forms were ορτάζω, 
&c. and received the syllabic augment as wel\ as the temporal 
§. 168. Obs. \. or because, as νεως was said for i^aoc §. 10. 1» 
so έωρταΖον for ηορταΖον, 

• Valck. ad Phcen. p. 222. Thorn. Demosth. p. 497. Of ^ακορέω see 

M. p. 55. Fisch. ad Well. 2. p. 316. Valck. Diatr. p. 278. Piers, ad Moer. 

3 a. p. 32 sqq. On the other side p. 122. Brunck Arist. Ach. 1170. 
Elmsl. ad Soph. Aj. 1049. Conip. *» Fisch. 2. p. 284 seq. 

Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 1028. Schsef.ap. 

Augment. 265 

6. ei appears not to have been changed into y, at least in 
the old and middle Attic. They said^ for example, only eTjcov 
€ΐξα from βιιτω, eipyov from ε?/9γω ; only we find sometimes 
TfKaCov τ^κασα from eiKatto. Yet we find also είκαζον βίκασα, 
e. g. Plat. Symp. p. 216 C, and the MSS. vary in the same 
place*• In the perf. and plusquam perf. οΐείκω in Homer the 
€1 is resolved^ ^ucro ηϊξαι ηϊκται^ as ωϊζε from οιγω //. ζ', 298. 

6. €Ό is often changed into ηυ in the editions, e. g. KaOevSe, 
KaOnSSe in Bekker's MSS, Plat. Symp. p. 217 Έ. 220 D. 
The Aldine edition of Euripides has ηυ eighteen times (Elmsl. 
ad E. HeracL 305.) where many or most of the MSS. have ev. 
Thucydides has almost always ev. The grammarians vary from 
one another ; Herodian, Eustathius, Suidas, approve ev, Moeris 
and the Etym. M. ΐ}ύ^• ev appears to have been the older, ifv 
the more recent orthography; evpov remained from the former, 
and €νρηκα, which alone prevailed even in later writers^. 

7. ο into ω, and 168. 

oi into ψ, e. g. ωνομαζον, ψκονν, from ονομαΖ^ο, οικίω, 

Ohs, Some verbs beginning with oi seldom or never receive the aug• 
ment. Such are οΐνόω οϊνωμένοε Soph, Track, 271. Plat. Leg, 6. 
p, 775 C. 7. p. 815 C. (Bekker has from MSS. ^νωμένο$) Pollux 6, 21, 
Yet Homer has II, V, 3. ίψνοχΟ€ΐ, and a, 598. Od, o', 141. ^νοχόα), 

and words compounded with oiuyos and οίαζ ; οιωνοσκοπώ πολω, 

οιακονομω, οίακοστροψώ. This seems to have originated from the old 
orthography, in which ω was as yet unknown. So also οιχω«:α Msch, 
Pers. 13. Soph. Aj, 896. Others, as οΐόω, οΐμέω, occur only in Ionic 
writers, and on that account have no augment ^ Homer divides ώ'ίζβ 
Od. a\ 486. as ίί'ίκτο §. 167. 5. 

The rest of the initial vowels remain unchanged ; ι and ν 
short become long. 

< Valck.adPh(Bn.p.54.b. Pierson £urip. Hec. 18. Aristoph. Thesro. 

ad Moer. p. 182. Fisch. d. p. 279. 479. Av. 495. Matthiae ad Eur. 

Matthix ad Eur. Ph. 169. £d. Rev. Hec. 18. 
V. 19. p. 501. • Elmsley writes ηίρον. See his 

^ Herodian. Herm. p. 314. 38. note on Eur. Med. 191. ad CEd. T. 

Eust ap. Nunues. ad Phryn. p. 456. Prsef. p. x. On the other side 

Lobeck. Suid. v. €ΐ\όγησα, Etym. M. Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 140. 
p. 400, 39. Fisch. ad Well. 8. p. 280. ' Fisch. 9. p. 285. Etym. M. 

ad Theophr. p. 20 b. Brunck ad p. 617, 45. 

266 Augment. 

Obs. 1. It has been before remarked, §• 161. that the Attics in some 
words prefix e instead of the temporal augment, e. g. Iii{a for ifSa, 
iaXwica for HXuxa, particularly in verbs which begin with an immutsiUe 
vowel, e. g. έώθονν, νροσεουρονν• They also prefix the syllabic ail- 
ment to the temporal, e. g. ίύρων i^pcuca firom έράν, instead of whidi 
the Ionic ύρων ώρακα hardly occurs in their works• In the same 
manner the compound Ανοίγω άνέψζα άνέψγμαι άνέ^γα^ not άιγ(α» 
which is only Ionic ; Herod. 1, 68. άνγγμαι*. 

Obs. Si* In verbs also which begin with a vowel, the lonians, and 
still more the Attics, use a sort of reduplication, repeating the two first 
letters, but instead of the long vowel taking the corresponding short 
one, e. g. &γτιγέρατο for ήγβρμένοι ήσαν /ί• 2', 21 1• firom kyelp^f ^γ^ρκΛ 
hyfiyefuca• άκίικοα firom άκουω. ά\η\€σμένοί Herod. 7, fiS. Thuc. 4, 26. 
from &\έω, [fjXeKa &\ίι\€κα], άλ^ιΧιμμαι from άΧεΙ^ω. άρηρα firom Apm. 
άρηρομένοί II. σ, 54S• from &ρ6ω^ fjpoKa άρίιροκα. ίγηγ€ρμένο9 Thte• 
7, 51• firom ίγείρω. ε^^Ιοκα, ί^ηία from ίΖω. if λάκα, ^Χαμαι^ έλ^λαικα 
Herod. 8, 126. Arut.Nub. 828. έλ^λα /uii from έλά«• k\{iK€yμaι firom 
Ιλέ/χν. έλ^λνθα for ^\νθα from Ιλβνθν. €μίιμ€κα from ίμέω. ίνίινοχα 
fcomeveyiceiv. o^wha from οζω, oXiaXeKa and ολνλα from 6\ω, ολΧνμι. 
ώμοκα όμωμοκα from όμόω. οηωπα from διττω. ορωρα firom 6 ρ ω. 
ώρνγμαι όρωρνγμαι from όρυσσω. These are all words of two, or at most 
three syllables, which in the fiit. and perf• or in the perf. only take the 
short vowels α and e for the long i}, as όλέ«, αλέσω, ίλάω, ίλάσω. 
6μ6ω^ όμόσω. άκίικοα. ίλίιλνθα. For ecX^XovOa is a poetic lengthenings 
and νττεμνίιμνκε is only poetic. Hence also the diphthong ei is shortened 
in the penult, as άλήλιχται (^Xeinrai in later writers), ipipiirro in Homer 
from iptiwv {kpiip€iwro is quoted by Buttmann only from Herodian 8, 2•), 
and έρτφέίαται from ipeliu. (IpiiptiKa I have not found ; Ιρηρ^ισμέηχ 
occurs in Herod. 4, 152. and later authors ap. Lobeck•) All these verbs 
are used without reduplication only by later authors. So probably is 
kypiiyopa to be explained from εγείρω, ifyopo, kyfiyopa^ the ρ being re- 
tained from the syncopated ίγρομαι. The foUowing are purely epic 
forms, ακηχεμένοβ II. e', 864. άχη^έ^αται p\ 637. from &χι#, άγομαι^ 
for which άκάχημαι was said with a permutation of quantity (§. 10, 1.), 
eptipiSarai from ίρείίω^ ίνήνοθα from ΜΘω. kpipimo II. ξ, 15• ip^' 
ρισται Hes. Fr. 163. (Gauf. n, 58.) όίΜυσται Od. e\ 448. from oSva' 
σασθαι. όρωρέχαται II. ir\ 884. from ορέγομαι. The epic poets also 
shorten the second syllable or omit the augment in άΧάλημοΑ from 
άΚ&ομαι for άΧίιΧημαι, and άΧαλνκτημαι from άΧνκτέω, which are both 

' Fisch. 2. p. 285. 302. S a. p. 36. sd Phryn. p. 157 seq. 
Maitt. p. 53. Thorn. M. p. 71. Lob. 

Augnnent. 267 

uted only as presents ; abo in apdpvia //. y\ Sdl. &c. which however 
may also be explained aooc»rding to §• 194. Ohs. 3. In υΐΓ€μν(ιμνκΜ IL 
χ, 491• μ^ is uaed instead ο£μμ$ to lengthen the second syllable• Conip• 
)• 16. 1. These are merely Ionic, ίφαίριηκα^ άραίρημαι^ ίίτίφαφησθαι in 
Herod, for ^ρηκα^ γρημαι^ άψΐβμησθαί. ΙφνψασμΜ is found only in the 
grammariana^• In the plusquam perf. the vowel in the reduplication is 
regnlarly lei^^thened ήαικόειν^ never in Ιληλύθειν, The grammarians 
lay it down as a rule that tlie vowel should be lengthened in the 
reduplication in the other words also, but this is not confirmed by the 
MSS. The epic poets used or omitted this augment as the metre 
required, e. g. IX^Xoro //. 2^ 135. ήλ^λατο e, 400. 

A similar reduplication (as §. 165, 4.) is found in some verbs in the 
second aorist, only that here the vowel in the reduplication is lengthened, 
and that in the root of the verb is shortened, in the Homeric forms 
^fiapoy (3. pers. plur. //. w, 314.) &ρ€φόντ€ Od. π, 169. iSpopev, with 
which Buttmann, p. .339. reckons ^καχρν, ^παψον^ Ιίλαλκον, άλολκβίν, 
from &x»y &φ^9 6λκω, ήγαγον άγαγείν are remains of this practice 
in the οοηαηοη language. 

The Augment in Compound Verbs. 

All yerbs compounded with a preposition^ if they are not 169, 
derived from compound adjectives or substantives, receive the 
augment after the preposition immediately before the verb, 
e, g. ίηβη, &c. 

The prepositions, with the exception of ^epi (sec §. 44.), 
throw away the final vowel before the syllabic augment, e. g. 
0»• — eSaiice, eir— -efljiice, αμφ — εβαλλεμ (which, however, is di- 
vided α — ireSwice, &c. §. 57, 2); but π€ρΐ€θηκα, not π€ρ€θηκα. 
In προ the ο is usually contracted with β, e. g. νρονβη, π/οον- 
Οηκα, npOvrpetpev, νρονμνατο Xen. Anab. 7, 3, 18.^ 

The prepositions σνμ and ev, whose final consonant is 
changed according to §. 37. I, 3. into γ, λ, μ, ρ, σ, take ν 
again before the syllabic augment, e. g. εγγιγι^ο/ΐΑοι, συγγίγ- 
¥ομαι, σνγκβράννν/ιι, συλλέγω, ίμμίνω, eppavruf, σνσκευαζιιο, 
make ίνεγιγνόμην, σννεγιγνό/ϋΐκ, οννεκραθην, avveXeyov, ei^e- 
μ€νθ¥, €¥€ρραΊΓτον, συΐβ€σκ€υαΖον» 

Ob$. Verbs compounded with the particle tvi receive the augment 

^ See Lob. ad Phryn. p. 31 5eq. p. 405 seq. 
Buttm. L. Or. p. 333 seq. Fisch. t. * Piers, ad Moer. p. 302. 

268 Augment. 

after it, if the simple verbs begin with a vowel, and receive the tem- 
poral, not the syllabic augment, e• g. ίνσψίστουν. On the other hand 
έ^νστνχι/σεν, ΙεΖυστνχηκα^ ίίυσχέραι퀕 The same takes place with e¥ 
in eircpyereo» €υηργέτησ€νψ but €ϋίοκίμέω ηϋ^οκίμουν. See, however, 
§. 167, 9. ehiropovv is found PlaU Symp. p. 219 D. 

170. The rest, however, of the compound verbs, and those which 
are derived from compound adjectives, take the augment at "the 
beginning, e. g. εθαΧασσοκρατουν, evavTrrtyqaarOy i|vro/LioXec, 
e/icXoirocov^, ηΐΓίστβι, ησεβηκασιν, ίσι^ηροφόρει Thuc, 1, 6. 
which are derived from the compound adjectives and substan- 
tives θαλασσοκραττια, vavtniyoQf αυτομοΧοα, /ieXoTTOcoc, άπιστου, 
ασεβηα, σι^ηροφόροο, and are not compounded with verbs which 
separately, and by themselves, would constitute a distinct word ^ 
The same takes place in verbs which are compounded with pre- 
positions, but have either the signification of simple verbs, or 
do not exist without prepositions, or are obsolete• These also 
are partly derived from nouns already compounded. Thus 
αμψιβννυμι has -ημφιεσμαι, αμφισβητέω ημφισβητουν, εΐΓίστα- 
μαι ηπισταμην, βναντιοΰμαι ηναντιονμην from evavrcoc. In 
this, however, usage is not invariable, since many verbs of this 
kind in some writers receive the augment in the beginning, 
in others in the middle ; others ordinarily take it in the middle, 
others at the beginning; and some have a double augment. 
Thus καθβν^ω in the imperf. is regularly καθηΰ^ον Plat. Symp. 
/>. 217 Έ. 220 D. or KaBeviov as always in the tragedians, 
sometimes εκίΟευ^ον. κάθημαι in the imperf. καθημην Oem. 
p. 285. 300. and €καθημην Mschin. p. 267 R. Xenoph. 
Cyrop, 7, 3, 5. καΟίΐ,ομαι^ καθεζομην and βκαθβΖομνν Xen. 
Cyr. 5, 3, 25.'* προθυμοΰμαι makes usually προνθνμονμην, 
but Xen. Ages. 2, 1 . has επροθυμειτο, and επι^ημεω, ίτηθυμβω, 
εγχβιρέω, νροψητευω^ προ^ενέω, €γκω/ιιά2^ω, ύποπτεύω, eiri- 
τη^ευω make only εττε^ημονν, επεθνμονν, eveyclpovvj ττροβφή- 
τβυσα, npov^kvovVf βνβκωμιαΐ,ον, ύπωπτ€νον, βπετηδευον, though 
there are no such verbs as 8ημ€ω, &c. Άντιβολέω makes ijvri- 
βόλει Lys. p. 94. Ed. II. Steph. In Homer the various reading 
αντιβολησα is perhaps more correct than αντεβολησα. So Pindar 
01. 13,42. αντεβοΧησε. Απολαύω makes aneXavov, απβΧαυσα, 

• Sylburc. ad Clenard. p. 200 seq. *" Briinck ad Arisloph. Thesm. 5, 

cd. Franco/. 1Λ91. 479. Pors. Praf. Hec. p. xvii. 

Augment, 26& 

iwoXeXavKa exclusively. From έκκλησιαζο» Lysias, p. 430. 
has €κκ\ησιάΐ,€τ€ in the imperf. ae Dem. pro Cor. p. 315, 9, 
but Thuc. 8, 93. ίξβκλησιασαν, with the various reading cfeic- 
κ\ησιασα¥, as Dem. in Mid. 577^ 4. The imperf. οίαφιημι is 
generally ηφίουμ Thuc.2, 49. because ι admits of no increase^ 
and Herodotus in a similar manner prefixes the reduplication 
to the perfect, of μεθίημι, μεμβτιμβνοα 5, 108. 6> 1. 7, 229. 
for fAeOei/ilvoc. The usage in regard to eyyvav is more remark- 
able. Its regular forms ηγγνων, &c. are often founds but also 
ίγγβ'γυτιμην Dem. in Apat. p. 901. 25. Belck. eveyva Isatis, 
p. 48 (69 R.). eveyvaro p. 48 (60.). ^νβ-γνησεν Is. p. 42(47.) 
Demosth. in Near. p. 1366. 11. €yy€yυημevoQ Plat. Leg. 
\\. p. 923 D. and eyyeyv^Kevai Demosth. in Near. p. 1363^ 
12. (as if the word were compounded of ev and yv^v)^. In Sc- 
ίιι/τηκα, εξβδεδιρτιιτο, είιγτησα (v. infr.), δια was considered 
B8 a preposition^ and αναινομαι has always avyvaro (ηνγνατο), 
88 if compounded with αμά and αϊνομαι. παρηνόμουν Thuc. 3, 
67. JEschin. in Ctesiph. p. 469. Dem. p. 217^ 26. has been 
changed by Bekker from MSS. into ναρενόμονν. αττηλαυβ Isocr. 
ad Demon, p. 3 E. into aneXave. *1πτΓ0Τ€τ ρόφηκεν Lycurg• 
ρ• 167, 31. is rightly explained by Buttmann^ p. 346• from 
the impossibility of rendering an augment audible at the be- 

The following verbs in particular receive a double augment ; 
ανορθοω, ηνωρθονν, επηνωρθωται Dem. p. 329, 2. ενογΧεω, 
^νωχλουν Isocr. ad Phil. p. 92 E. Demosth. p. 242, 16. 
^X^9 ννεΐ'χόμην Thuc. 5, 45. and -ηνεσ'χομην Id. 3, 28. 
Herod. 7, 159.^ παροινεω, ίπαρψρπίτεν Xen. Anab. 5, 8, 4. 
ίπαρψνηθην, πεπαρψνηκα^. So we find ^ε^ιτ/τηκα, βξεδεδιρτιιτο 
Thuc. 1, 132. ε^ιτ/τησα from διαιταω, SeScyiCYiica ε^ιψκησα 
from Scociceai, and in later writers ι^ι^λωσα from αναλίσκω, and 
ίείιηκόνηκα from ίιακονεω. ημττεσ'χετο is suspicious^. In Plato 
the best MSS. have r^μφeyv6oυv, and the much rarer form 
ημφεσβητουν, where the augment is interposed before σ, in- 
serted for the sake of euphony, or derived from αμφιο. 

* Fisch. 2. p. 282. 478. Prfcf. ad Hec. p. xvii. 

* Lobeck. aid Phryn. p. 155. ' Piers, ad Mcer. p. 332. 

* Piers, ad Moer. p. 176. Pors. ' Elmsl. ad £ur. Med. 1128. 

270 Characteriitic of the Tenses. 

Of the Characteristie of the Tenses. 

171• The characteristic of the verb is the letter which precedes -^ 
in the present. Thus in λίγω, γ is the characteristic ; in rifiaw, 
φιΧίω^ a and e. This is changed in the different tenses of the 
verb^ and thus each tense has its distinct characteristic^ which 
is found in the consonant before the termination, e. g. the perf. 
κ ^ yj the fut. L and aor. 1. act. σ, the perf. pass• -μαΐ| 
aor. 1. pass, -diiy• 

The present tense in use, however, does not appear to be al- 
ways the foundation of the formation ; but frequently the more 
simple one, from which that in use was subsequently formed 
for the sake of euphony. Thus the forms ίβΧάβην, έβαψαν, 
πράξω ireir /οαγα, φρασω νέφραία, appear to come from the 
obsolete present tenses βΧάβω (11. τ, 82. 166•), βάψω, 
ν ράγα f φραΒω, instead of which only βΧαντω, βατττω, κράσσω, 
φράζω have remained in use. Generally speaking, the primi- 
tive forms of the Greek verbs are probably very simple. At a 
very early period of the language, however, the propensity to 
lengthen the form of the present appeared, either by changing 
the short vowel of the radical syllable into the long one, as 
may be inferred from the aor. 2., or by inserting a consonant, 
or taking a double consonant instead of the simple one, e. g. 
φράζω, /Βλάπτω, ατττω, for φρίίω, βλάβω, αψω, or by 
lengthening the termination ω into άω, έω, οω, €ΐνω, άμω, 8ic• 
Sometimes by prefixing a syllable, ΒιΒ&σκω from 2άω, Saco», 
and frequently by combining several modes of this extension. 
Thus from λάβω, Χηβω (hence ΧηχΙ/ομαι), Χάμβω (hence Ion. 
ίΧάμφθην) and Χαμβανω. Many of these new forms were used 
only in the present and imperf., whilst the rest of the tenses 
were taken from the radical verb, and from verbs quite dif- 
ferent, agreeing only in signification, as φίρω, fut. οισω, perf. 
ίνηνο'χα, aor. riveyKa and riveyKov, Such are properly the de- 
fective or anomalous verbs. Others, although their futures 
cannot be derived from the present in use, yet agree with many 
others in the characteristic of the future, and in its relation to 
the present, and in the formation of the rest of the tenses ; so 

Characteristic of the Tenses. 271 

that this agreement or analogy Beems to constitute a rale. 
Thus, e. g. all verbs in -σσω or -2^ω, which have in the fut. L 
'ξω, in the aor. 2. have γ; again, in the aor. 2. S, when the 
(ut. 1 • has σ• These, therefore, as well as the above-mentioned 
βλάπτω, βάπτω, π/οάσσω, φράζω are assigned to the regular 

Such primitive but obsolete verbs, however, must be as- 
sumed only when the formation of certain tenses cannot be 
otherwise explained, as is the case in the above-mentioned 
verbs, and some others, particularly those in -σσω (-ττω) and 
•^ω. We should, for instance, misapply the observation, if 
we derived such futures as τυφω, κτ€ρώ, βάλω, or aorists as 
erajntv, eXivov, ελαθον, from obsolete forms τυττω, φάνω, 
ΐΓτβι^ω, βάλω, τακω, λίπω, λαθω. For φάνω, κτενω, βάλω 
are derived according to the regular formation of verbs with 
\ μ V p. The fut. τνφω could have no other form, even if it 
came immediately from τντττω, not τνιτω. For the r is always 
omitted before σ in the future. The aorists Ιτακην, tKncov, 
ίΧαθον are formed according to the general rule, that the aor. 2. 
as it is called, always makes the radical syllable short ; and, 
where this mode of shortening is not practicable, abbreviates 
the form by another method, as in verbs in -μι imperf. ertOtyv, 
aor. 2. ίθην. The supposition of obsolete forms is therefore 
necessary only in verbs in -σσω (-ττω) and -2[ω, and in some 
in -πτω, of which we shall speak in the fut. 1. and 2. 

The tenses of the Greek verb are divided into two classes, 
of which one comprehends besides the pres. and imperf« the 
perf. 1. act. and pass., the aor. 1. act. pass, and mid•, the 
fat. 1 . act. pass, and mid., and the fut. 3. pass. ; the other, the 
perf. 2., aor. 2. act. pass, and mid., and fut. 2. act. pass, and 
mid. The tenses of the second class are derived exclusively from 
the simple primitive forms of the pres. as τνπω, κόπω (τντττω, 
κόπτω), μηθω, ληβω, λ^χω, &c. forms which no where occur, 
and are recognized only from the aor. 2. The tenses of the 
first class often indeed presuppose these primitive forms, as 
αλλάσσω, 8cc• but they are also formed from the derivative 
verbs, namely, those in -άω, -εω, -οω, -αίμω, -ά2^ω• Both 
cheees are branches of a common stem, the simple present, 

272 Formation of the Temet. 

and can be deduced from it by an analogy capable of being 
represented in rules. Scarcely any verb has all its tenses in 
use. See §• 194• Obs. 

The change of the characteristic letter in the formation of 
the tenses is as follows. Those which have 

. ,, ^ have in the fut. ^ , 

m the presenti , , perf. aor. 1 . pass. 

β V φ (πτ) φ φ φθη} 

Obs, If κ is accompanied by another consonant, both consonants are 
considered only as a simple κ. Verbs in ^σκω have therefore in 
the fut• "ζω, e. g. Θνήσκω, ίι^άσκω, άΧίσκω^ fut. Θνίιζωψ ίιίάζι^, 
άλύζω. ^νίινοχα from Μγκω is similar. 

S θ τ σ κ σθην 



ι - - {Ι ί} 

verba pur α kwy αω, οω σ κ θην, σθιΐ¥ 

Χ μ ν ρ ω κ θην. 

Formation of the Tenses. 

172. The characteristic of the present is retained without change 

The Imperfect, 

which is formed by changing the active termination -ω into -ov, 
and the passive -o/iac into -^μην, and prefixing the augment• 
τυΐΓτω τυτΓτομαι, €τυπτον ετυπτομην* τίκτω -o/iai^ eTUcror 

The Future. 

178. The termination of the future appears originally to have 
been the same throughout, -εσω from -ω. Thus we still find 
ολεσω from ο\ω, αρέσω from αρω\ If we were to derive 

* άρέσαι II. ι, 120. r, 138. ape- 402. signifies * to make a friend of 
σομαι, and on account of the verse any one, to conciliate^ Again, apm 
&ρέσσομαίΙΙ'Ιΐ9^0^' ζ^Β^Ο, Od.O", 'to adapt, to join together*, makes 

Formation of the Tenses^ 


these futures from verbs in -Ιω^ όλέω, αρίω, we must at the 
same time assume that these more extended forms of the 
present tenses were afterwards brought into disuse by the 
shorter forms αρω, ο\ω, which is contrary to analogy^ as the 
forms in -έω arose from those in -ω, and gradually sup- 
planted the shorter ones. So στβρεσαι Od, v\ 262. is from 
στερώ (στερήσω, on the other hand, from στβρέω), κηίεσαι 
Msch. S, c. Th. 138. from κηΒομαι, There is, indeed, another 
form of μίγομαι, viz. μαγβομαι IL a , 272. 344. But μαγβ" 
σομαι is probably from μίγομαι, as αι^εσομαι from αίρομαι IL 
a, 331. €, 631. κ, 234. not from the more recent word 

This primitive form -έσω underwent a double change, in 
some words e being rejected, in others σ ; partly on account 
of euphony, and partly to distinguish, by different forms, two 
senses of a word. In words whose characteristic is p, Homer 
usually observes the first form, αρσω, αρσαι IL a, 136. Sca- 
φθίρσει IL V , 625. (but Herod. 8, 108. ^ιαφθαρέβται), κερσε 
from κεΊρω IL κ, 456. ορσω IL S', 16. t^', 38. ψ', 335. 
κυρσω, κνρσαι IL y, 23. except ερω, είρω * to join together', 
afterwards ' to say', as sermonem serere, fut. ίρεω in Homer and 
Herodotus, e.g. 6, 43• 7, 32. But eppkvoQ or εερμίνοα Od. 
σ, 295. and evepoiQ in Thucydides, belong to the other form 
€ρσω, in the sense ' to join together'. So different senses are 
discriminated by the form in αρω §. 225. 

Verbs whose characteristic is λ have partly the former, partly 174, 
the latter form of the future ; the first, as €λσαι //. a , 409. 
λ', 413. (from ελω, see §. 233.) κέλσσι Od. /c', 51 1. i', 149. 
The other, as στελεω Od. /3', 287. βαλεω //. θ', 403. ayye- 
λέϋΐ //. ff, 409. Horn. Epigr. 3, 6. Herod. 7, 147. The 
fut. όλέσω, όλέσσω in Homer ( //• μ, 250. Od, β', 49. hence 
απώλεσα, ολεσε Od. ν , 43 1 . όλέσειε, όλέσαι, οΧεσαο) is also 

ίφσω^ Αρσαι. But diat the two are 
only different forms of the same 
word, is shown not only by their kin- 
dred sense, but by the word &ρΘμ05, 
derived from άρω and αρέσω, as also 
Μ lipa ψέρ€ίν ην/. The theory 
which u here exhibited, and which 

VOL. I. 

was proposed by Payne Knight, Ana* 
lyt. £ss. (p. 21. noten.), p. 107. is in- 
deed an hypothesis, but is not altoge- 
ther destitute of historical evidence,^ 
and affords the means of explaining 
the two forms of the future, though 
not indeed of the same verb. 

274 Formation of the Tenses. 

us^ by him and Herodotus under another form όλέω Herod, 
8, 138. 9, 18• particularly in the middle όλέομαι //. ο\ 700. 
φ', 133. 278. and contracted, as in Attic, oXecroc //. β', 325. 
ii', 9 1 . Od, ω', 1 9 5. In the same manner yafuii (γ^μω) makes 
in the future γαμεσσεται //. c , 394. for ^ο,μίσ^ται^ and γσ^ιΙ- 
eaOat Od. a, 275. as in the active γα^ειν Od. o\ 521. in 
Attic γα/ΐ6Ϊσθαι• See Ind. Eurip. 

Of verbs whose characteristic is μ ν, on\y κενσαι Π. φ\ 337. 
has the first form % the rest the second, which in later times 
remained exclusively among the lonians, /ιβι^έω, νεμεω, whence 
αναν€μ€€ται Herod. 1, 173. 

175. The first form remained peculiar to the .^olians, and hence 
the grammarians call αρσαι, κυρσαι, even in Homer, .£oIic; 
the second, which, rejects the σ, was chiefly peculiar to the 
lonians and Attics, both of whom, the latter regularly, contract 
€ω into ω. The Attics do this exclusively in verbs whose cha- 
racteristic is λ fc V ρ ; in the rest they have for the most part 
σ, but even in the futures in έσω, άσω, όσω, ίσω, they very fre- 
quently reject σ and contract the remainder, e. g. καλώ, ελωσι, 
ομοΰμαι, οικτιω, for καλέσω, ελάσουσι, ομοσομαι, οικτισω. See 
§«181. In the last form -ca> for -ίσω, the contraction could 
not take place if the future had not originally been ιέσω ; but 
oiKrit^, οίι:τι2^έσω, after rejecting the σ, and contracting εω 
into ω, the accent falls too strongly upon the end to allow the 
f to remain long before ζ : the 2 therefore was rejected, οΊκτάω^ 
οικτιώ. In the same manner μαγομαι makes in the fut. /ι^αχέ- 
σομαι and {μαγβομαι) μαγρνμαι. The change of the original 
form -έσω is yet more evident in α/ιψιέσω, αμφιώ Aristoph. 
Equ. 891. 

In this manner, from the original form of the future -έσω, 
which remained only in some verbs, two new forms in -σω and 
-έω, ω, arose ; the latter of which was used chiefly in verbs 
whose characteristic was λ μ ν p^ the former in the rest. The 
former is generally denominated Uiefutur. 1. the other also is 
theyW^ 1. in verbs whose characteristic is λ μ ν /o, in the rest 
ihefutur. 2, (b.) 

* Β^ρμάνσ^ί, which in the first tes, is the dat. of θέρμανσΐί. Lob. ad 
edition I had quoted from Hippocra- Phryn. p. 115 not. 

Formation of the Tenses. 275 

The First Future. 

In chaaging the termiDation of the fut. -έσω into -σω, the 176. 
consonants immediately preceding are changed according to (^^^) 
the common rules : viz. 

S r 2[ are omitted before σ according to §. 39. and the re- 
maining c<m8onants β ν φ y κ \ are united with the σ follow- 
ing in the double consonants φ and ζ, e. g. κρύπτω Kpwrrecm 
κρυφω, αγω αζω, πΧεκω πΧίζω. γγ makes 'γζ, e. g. λiyyω 
λιγξω. If μ precedes 8 θ τ ί, it is thrown out ; but that the 
syllable may remain long, c is inserted after β (§. 39. Obs, 2,), 
e. g. σπίνδω σπεισω, πενθώ (hence πεπονθα), πείσω -ομαι. In 
this, however, particularly when the characteristic is t, σσ, ττ, 
vmtLge must be attended to ; since many verbs of this kind are 
roimed in a different manner in the future. 

ζ becomes a) ζ in αιαίω, αΧαλάΖω, αλαπαΖω^ ]3ά2[ω φεβακ- 
rat Od. ff, 408.), βριίω, -γρυζω, ίάιζω 11, β', 416. €γγυο- 
Χίζω, εναριίω IL α , 191. κράζω, μαστίζω, οιμωΖω, οΧοΧυζω, 
πσΧ€μιζω, στά^^ω, στενάζω, στηρίζω, στίζω, στυφεΧίζω, σφύζω, 

The original form of many of these verbs was probably -γω, 
HCCi», "X*^> ^• 6• ί^ρβγω, οιμώγω, ολολυγω, στάγω, as we may 
conclude from the aor. 2. εκρα^ον, and from the derivative 
forms οιμωγή, ολολνγτ), στάλων. Of στενάζω another form 
occurs, στενάγω IL ω', 639. Arisioph. AcA, 549. In others, 
[nobably -ξω is the Doric, or rather the old Greek form, which 
Etflerwards was softened into -σω in some verbs only ; for the 
nee of (ω for σω remained peculiar to the Doric dialect• See 
I. 178. 

b) ί and σ: αρπάζω, in Honier αρπαΐζων IL χ', 310. in the 177. 
BOr. νρπαξα IL y, 444. &c. but also ηρπασα IL v, 528. 8cc. 
in Attic αρπασω. For αρπαξητε Soph. Antig. 311. Hermann 
reads from a MS. αρπάζητε, but aρπayμaτa is the reading of 
bU the MSS. jEschin. in Ctes. |>. 614. In the formation of the 
rest of the tenses of αρπάζω, sometimes one form, sometimes 
the other, is the basis, e. g. perf. τιρπακα τιρπασμαι, aor. 1 . ηρ- 
πασθην more rarely τιρπαγβην^, fut. αρπα'χθίισομαι more rarely 

^ Moeris, p. 183. Thorn. M. p. 424. et Hemst. 


276 Formation of the Tenses. 

αρπασθησομαί, aor. 2. p. ηρπαγι?^ but rarely in Attic. ΏαΙίω 
bad in Doric έπαιξα, in Attic ίπαισα, perf. pass, πειταισμαι Plat. 
Leg. 6. p. 769 A. yet Xen, Symp. 9, 2. has fut. τταιζουνται^ 
and Cyrop. I, 3, 14. συμπαίκτωρ^. συρίίω or συρίττω make8 
συρισω in Lucian Harmon, p. 140. commonly συρϊζω. evapiZ» 
has -ηνάρισε Anacr. Epigr. 13. iln^r/. J5r. 1. p. 118. in Homer 
always εναριξω ενάριξα. From αν^άζομαι Herodotus 2, 65. has 


iVo/e. Many forms in ζω are probably only those in άω^ έν, 6m 
lengthened ; . e. g. /3ιά^ω from βιάω^ of which fiiiiaerai, βιίισατο 
occur in Homer, βιηθεΐί in Herodotus 7, 88. σώ^'ω from σ««, 
σαόω in Homer. 

c) The following have γζ : πλαΖ^ω, κλα2^ω, σάλπί^^ω, which 
last, however, has more frequently σαλπίσω. In these ζ is put 
instead of γγ (i. e. νγ, see £ι/$Λ ad //. p. 40.), which again is 
a lengthening of the simple y, as appears from the aor. 2. of 
κΧαζω, eKXayop Eurip. Iphig. A. 1062. Theocr. 17, 71. 

178« 2. σσ and rr are considered a) as γ «c χ, and have usually 
(175) ^ in ^he future. The greater number are derived from verbs in 
'Κω or -χω, e. g. φρίσσω from φρίκω, whence φρίκη, σφάττω 
or σφάζω, aor. 2. εσφαγην. ταράσσω from ταραγω. 

b) σσ and ττ are considered merely as lengthened forms of 
verbs pure, and hence verbs in -σσω (-ττω) make in the fut. -σω, 
e. g. αρμόττω or αρμόζω, αρμόσω, πλάσσω, πΧασω, aor. l•• 
imp. πλασοι^, perf. p. πέπλσσται Plat. Rep. 9. p. 688 D. 
!)αασσω, ιμασω, πασσω, πασω• πησσω, τττισω. From νασσω, 
ναξαι Od. φ', 122. comes ναστοο (which supposes a fut. νάσω) 
(vevaarai Theocr. 9, 9. is probably for νίνησται). αφυσσω has 
in Horn. fut. αφνζω IL a , 171. but in the aor. ηφυσα IL v, 
608. &c. or αφνσσα. βΧυττω (βλ/ττω) Plat. Rep. 8. 
p. 664 E. has ibid. fut. or aor. βλνσβι, βΧυσαεν Bekk. (βλί- 
σ€ί€ν). Thus ίρεσσω appears to come from β/οέω, €ρω (whence 
ερέθω, ίρεθίζω), and has in the fut. ερίσω Od.ii , 444.** λισσο- 
μαι comes from λίτο/ιαι Horn. H. 16, 5. and has also in the fut• 
Χισομαι Od. κ, 626. λευσω, eXevaa, from λεύσσω, occurs only 

• I^b. ad Phryn. p. 240 seq. Ti- *» Fisch. ?. p. 329 sq. 

nwi Lex. Plat. p. 222. 

Formation of the Tenses. 277 

η the grammarians^, like νισομαι, fut. of νίσσομαι^ ; and 
φράσσω, βράττω has also a fonn βράΖω. 

3. Verbs pure, whose final syllable -ω is preceded by a 1 79. 
liphthong, undergo no change in the future, except the as- (^^^) 
sumption of σ, ακούω ακούσω, σείω σείσω, παύω παύσω. 
The rule is, that the short vowel of the present becomes long 
l>efore the σ, ^ακρυω B€ucpvσω, βυω βυσω Arist. Plut, 379. 
{νω λ ν σω, η ω τι σω : and hence those in -έω, -α ω, -όω, νω, 
baye the long vowel before σ, as φιλεω φιλήσω, ημαω τιμήσω, 
)(ρνσόω 'χρυσώσω. The following, however, are exceptions : 

I. έω makes a) έσω in τβλεω, αρκεω, ζέω, ακβομαι, αλέω, 
ε/Αβω, νεικέω, fut. τελέσω, αρκέσω, ζέσω, ακ€σομαι, αλέσω, 
Ιμίσω, νεικέσω. Some, which are comprehended under this 
bead, come from verbs in -ω, as όλέσω, αρέσω, α'ι^βσομαι, from 
ίΧω, αρω, αίρομαι. See §. 173. And probably these futures 
ire from the primitive forms τέλω, αρκώ (from the perf. act• 
f/Djca of the verb αρω), ακομαι, αλω, €μω, νβίκω, instead of 
Bphich the long forms afterwards came into use. 

b) Some have -έσω and -ήσω, probably because there were two 
forms in the present tense, each of which had its future ; one of 
the forms, however, is always more used than the other, icαλέω 
in Attic has commonly καλέσω, aor. εicάλεσα, but perf. κέκΧηκα, 
κέκΧημαι, aor. p. €κΧηθην, αινέω (ετΓαινέω) has αινέσω, aor. 1. 
a• ρνεσα, perf. act. yvcKa, aor. I . p. τ/νέθην, but perf. p. ι/νημαι. 
In Homer, however, it retains the η in the fut. and aor. as also 
in Hes. "Έργ. 1 2. Many Μ SS. and Eustathius have ίπαινησβιβ. 
Pindar has commonly αίνεσω in the fut. except Nem. 1 , 112.. 
αινησειν, in the aorist always αινησα, γνησα. ποθέω has ποθέσω 
Π. ο, 219. Herod. 9, 22. Theocr. 10, 8. In Lysias, p. 314 R. 
the MSS. vary, ποθβσομαι and ποθησομαι ^. επάθησα is more 
common in the Attics, μαγομαι has μαγβσομαι and μαγτισομαι. 
See §. 173. £έω, δ^σω, ε^ι^σα, recovers the ε in the perf. act. and 
pass, and aor. 1 . pass. ; so αΧρέω in the aor. 1 • pass, πονέσω from 
ΐΓοι^έω exists only in the theory of the grammarians, ησω is ge- 
nerally the Attic form of futures from -ω. See §. 181. Obs. 3. 

* (£<1.C. 120. Buttm. L. Or. p. 384 not. **. 

' Boeckh ad Find. 01. 3, 10. ^ Heind. ad Plat. Phsdon. p. 180. 

278 Formation of the Tenses» 

c) Some in -έω have in the future -ενσω. θεω * I run% wem 
* I swim', πλέω ' I sail', πνέω * I blow*, ρέω * I flow', \w * I 
pour*, fut. θβυσομαι Od. v', 245, 8cc. νενσομαι (ίξένευσαρ Thuc, 
2, 90. whence νευστέον in Plato), πλενσομαι Od, μ, 2δ. πνενσο- 
μαι Eur, Andr, 555. ρεύσομαι Eur, Fr, Thes. 1, 3. Of )^eu- 
σομαι 1 have hitherto found no example. These futures are 
probably from the ^olo-Doric dialect, in which the digamma 
was often expressed by v. χευω was used in the present for 
χέω, e. g. ι:οταχ€ύ€τοι Hes, Ε/ογ. 581• 

180. II• άω has a) -άσω in verbs whose final syllable is preceded 

(177) by the vowels e and c, or the consonants λ and p, which rule was 
laid down also for substantives of the first declension, §. 68^ 
partly with a long α after e, t, p, as ακροα σομαι, ανιασω (Horn. 
ανιίισω), έασω, ^ρασω, θεασομαι (Ion. θεησομαι), θυμιάσω (εθν- 
μ'ιησε Herod. 6, 97.), περάσω (intrans. Eur. Ph. 1008. Iph. 
A, 1542. Ion. περησω), Ίασομαι (Ion. ίησομαι), firom tucffuao' 
μαι, 8cc. ; partly with a short a after λ, as γελάσω, ^ρασω^ 
θλάσω, κλάσω, κρεμάσω, περάσω (transit, 'transport*)^. 

The following are excepted : συλαω -ήσω, \ράω γβαομαι, 
\ρησω -ο/ιαι. Verbs which have ο before the final -αω are 
generally formed in -ησω, as βοήσω, αλοησω in the sense of 
' strike', but aXofv ' thresh* has άλοασω ^. Dem. in Ph<enipp* 
p. 1040, 22. however has απι^λοι^/ΐλέι^ι;. 

b) καίω, κλαίω, Att. καω, κΧαω, have -αύσω. 

III. όω makes όσω in verbs which are not derivative, ομοω 
(o/Livu/u) ομόσω, αρ6ω αρόσω, ονόω (οι^ότω ομοτα2^ω) ονοσίι» 

Note, άσ«, ίσω, ύσω, from verbs in άζω^ ίζω^ υζω^ are short. The 
poets, in order to make a, c, ν long, double the σ, έγέλασσβ• 

1^1^ 1. The Dorians regularly made the vowel long before the final -σ», 

(178) but instead of σσ they put ζ. The poets, if the metre required it, also 
used σ. έγέλαξβ Tfteocr. 20, 1. ί<ρΘαζ€ id. 2, 115. where 114. ί^θάσ€ 
used to be read, έκνιζε Pind*P, 10, 94. instead of which we find ib. II, 

■ Draco, p. 14, 20 seq. Etyra. M. ** Thorn. ,M. p. 35. Bekk. Aoecd. 
p. SOS, 8 seq. Of ntpaaw Clark ad p. 379, £8. 
U. a, 67. * FJsch. 2. p. 3««. 

Formation of the Tenses, 


36, ^κνίσ€, ονυμαίεν Pmd. Pyth, 11» 10. νπαντιάζαισα ib, 8, 13. but 
Pyth, 4, 241. 5, 59. νπαντιάσαι, ίκόμιζαν ib. 2, 31.* Where the vowel 
is already long by natiire, this does not take place. Homer has always 
το\€μίζΜν, in Hesiod, Άσπ, ZOZ, ^e have κιθάρίξεν^ JEsch. SuppL 39. 
^φ€Τ€ριξάμ€νοι, Soph, Aj, 715. ψατίξεαμι, 

2. The loniansy and especially the Attics, contract the futures in -άσ« 
with α short, έσω, ίσω, όσω, by throwing out σ» and making the vowek 
which meet U^ether coalesce. 

a) -άσω. έξέλώ for Ι^ελασω Aristoph. Nub, 123. k\^ Eurip. Bacch, 
1332. Med, Site. Ιλ^ Soph, Aj. 505. έλώσι for έλάσονσι Herod. 1, 207. 
Eurip, Ale, 951. έξελών for ίζελάσων Herod. 4, 148. Thus axe^f 
JEsch. Prom. 25. 124. comp. Soph. Ant. ^^1 . ^lacKedfs Herod, 8, 68, 
βιβύψ for βιβάσων Xen. Anab. 5, 7, 8. Soph. (Ed, C. 381. ι:ατασι:έ»σ(κ 
ib, 406. for ιταταοΊΓίασονσιν *• πβλώσι for weXdaovai Soph. (Ed, C, 1060• 
vtXdre PhU. 1150. weXfy El, 497. 'κρεμωμεν for κρ€μάσομ€ν Arist, 
PhU, 312. This, however, was not done in enrciw, γβλάω, Αγοράζω^ 
hprdCt^f iτoiμdζωf ιτλαω, whose futures have always οίσω. SiK^y for dc- 
aiaeiv b found in Herod. 1, 97. never in the Attics, ιτελιΐ'σω is found 
Eur, Or. 1717. £/. 1341. 

Homer inserts a short vowel in the contracted form Αντιόω II. μ\ 
368. &c. Αντίόωσα Od. y , 436. κρεμάω II. η\ 83. ίλά^ν Π. ρ\ 496. 
ΙΧόωσι Od. η\ 319. ^αμά^ //. χ, 271. 

b) 'ίσω. καλώ for καλέσω ^tfr. Or. 1146. Aristoph. Ach. 968. 
Hence παρακαλονι^Γαι for -καλέσονΓα5 Xen. Hist, Gr. 6, 3, 2. μαχέι^ 
σβαι for μαχέσεσθαι Thuc, 5^ 66. eicreXeiK JEsch, S. c. Τ^Λ. 35. Soph, 
Trach, 1187. άμψιώ for άμφίέσω Arist, Eq. 887. άτολώ, -oXeit, -oXe?, 
-oλovflαi^ In the rest (see §. 179. 1, a.) the Attics appear not to have 
used this form, όλέσαε is found Arist, Av. 1506. απολύσω Plat, Com, 
ap. Eust, ad II. a, p, 66, 31. Comp. Koen ad Greg. p. 19 seq. — 48. 
{Ζιόλέσω Eur. Hel. 897. is conj. aor. 1. so is καλέσω Arist. Lys, 851. 
864. Plut, 964.) ^ιατελέσονσι Plat. Rep. 4. p, 425 £. έιηκαλέσ^ταί 
Lye, in Leocr, p, 149. ed. Jieisk. t. 4. 

* Valck. Ep. ad Rov. p. 61—71. 
Koen ad Greg. p. (l5l) 327. Maitt 
p.2158q. Fisch.l.p.f0O. 8. p. 326. 

* Bruock ad Arist Ran. 308. 
Sq>b. (£d. T. isa Piers, ad Moer. 
p. 124 sq. Maitt. p. 47 sq. Thorn. 
If. p. 293. Fisch. Q. p. 357 sq. and 
ofweXti £lrosl. ad Soph. (£d. C. 1060. 
To this head Person and Buttmann 

refer κολωμένουί Arist. Vesp. 244. 
the latter also έκκλησιώσα £ccl. 161. 
See on the other side Reisig Comni. 
£jLeg. in C£d. C 373. περώ b coiy. 


' Bmnck ad Arist. Ran. 


Dawes*s Misc. Cr. p. 77. Piers, ad 
Moer. p. 17. 2J6. 376. Fisch. 1. c. 

280 Formation of the Tcfises. 

Homer merely omits the σ, e. g. rtXata&iu Od. y\ 236. Ik y\ 881. 

c) -/σν• jcofuevficOo Herod, 8, 62• άτρ€μί€Ϊ¥ ib. 68. carairXovrtefv 
iJ. 6, 182. €ηι^ηνίώ ^sck. Prom, 227. yeωr€(Hovyτωy Thae* 8, 4. 11. 
ayroiKriovvras, χαριέΐσθε id, 8, 40• άγωνωύμ€νοι id. 8, 104. Kuramr• 
Tiei Herod, 9, 17. μακαριβϊν ib, 98. ιτ^κιλοχιονιτα^ 7*Atic. 8, 110• wpo* 
Ίτηλακιών id, 6, 54. vapayppiieis Arist. Eccl, 295.* 

d) -όσω, όμοΰμαι, probably only in -cI, -elroi, for ομόσομϋα. On die 
other hand the Attics said only ^€στ($σω, αρμόσω^ άρόσω. "ώσω seems 
also to be contracted in a similar manner in iXevdepovai Tkuc, 2, 8. 
iXeveepovvres id, 4, 85. €ρημοντ€ id, 8, 58. OlKeiovyr<is id. 6, 28. should 
be oiKiovrras, as Bekker reads from MSS. 

This shortening seems almost regular in the verbs in •[ζω^ fut -ΐ4#, 
in Herodotus and the Attic writers ; yet the full form is also found 
without various reading J^ur. Troad, 1242. ^povrlaei (Arist, Νίώ, 125. 
ψρονηώ), Eur, Heracl, 153. Karoiicriffetv, Arist, Thesm, 989. χαρί• 
σομαι (Br. χάρων μαι); elsewhere the reading varies. Homer has 
νρμίσσομεν II, Γ» 77. κοπρίσσοντ€% Od. p\ 299. These forms are con- 
fined to the indie, inf. and part• 

3. Many barytone verbs are frequently formed t>y the Attics and 
lonians, like contracted verbs, by changing -ω into ίισω. βaSX{|σoμ€y 
Aristoph, Vesp, 222. βοσκησ€ί^ Od, p\ 559. ^βίι^ομαι fiOm ^έομαΐψ in 
Homer with the^igamma ^€υήσ€σβαι II, v\ 786. Od, i, 540. ^ιίασκηνη 
Hesiod,''Epy. 64. Horn. H,in Cer, 143. Pind.Pyth, 4, 886. βνέήσονη 
JEsch,Ag, 347. καΒ€υΙ(ισομ€ν Xen, Cyrop, 5, 8, 35. «Λαιήσβλ, κ\aίifσ€^y 
Demosih. p, 440. 546. 980. ιταθήσ» Plat. Rep, 1. p, 347 C. ιταιήσ^ 
Arist, Nub, 1125. so also οΐχίισομαι, Ίταρακαβίζησόμ^νο^ Plat, Lye. 
p. 207 B. Euthyd, p. 278 C. rvmiiaiu Arist, Plut, 21. χαφησω II. v\ 868• 
Arist, Plut, 64. Plat, Phil, p, 21 C.^ The usual forms are ά\€ξήσω^ 
βουΧίισομαι^, είρησομένονί Herod, I, 67. ^βήσο/ιαι, θελήσω, ixj/ijtnif 
μψΧΧησω, μελήσει, όζίισω {Arist. Fesp, I059,)j οΐήσομαι. In others this 
change is not seen till the derived tenses, rέΘyηκa (θήνω θαν^σω), /lic- 
μάθηκα (μίιΘω μαΘτισω\ ίτυχησα, Γ€Γνχΐ|«α (τεύχω τυγχάνω Γνχ^σΜ), 
μεμένηκα from μένω, τέτμηκα from τέμνω τέμω. Probably this form 
w^ occasioned by the custom of the lonians, of lengthening many 
verbs in ω, by substituting the termination έω. They, for instance, 
said μαχέομαι, σνμβαΧΧέομαί, βαττέω (which remained also in the Attic 
dialect), πιβζέω (whence νΐ€ζ€ύμ€νοι. See ad Herod. 8, 142.)• What 
ipight regularly take place in some verbs was afterwards transferred by 

■ Piers, ad Moer. p. 106. Fisch. 1. ' Herm. de Em. Gr. Gr. p. 267 sq. 

p. (208. 2. p. 354. Maitt. p. 46 sq. 272. Herod. Ilerm. p. 315 sq. Bek-p 
*» Qrunck ad Arist. Lysislr. 459. ker. Anccd. p. HB9. 

Formation of the Tenses. 28 1 

custom to others also, without implying the necessity or utility of con- 
sidering every future in "ίι^ω as having for its hasis a present in -έ«α. 
In the same manner there are many aorists and perfects in "ήθην ^ηκα 
from verhs whose future is in 'έσω or -iJ'• 

In verbs whose characteristic ι^λ μν p, the lonians gene- 18!2• 
rally^ and the Attics exclusively, use the other form έω contr. ω• (179) 
In this case, however, the penult, which was long in the present^ 
is always made short, probably because the tone then rested 
chiefly on the last syllable : thus η was changed into a ; at, 
€t, ου into a, e, ο ; ευ into v. If the penult be long by position^ 
i. e. by two consonants following the short vowel, the latter of 
them is rejected. Thus στέλλω, ψάλλω, fut. στελεω, ψαλέω, 
στελω, φαΧω, τέμνω, τ€μω. αίρω, αρω• κτείνω, κτβνω, σπεί- 
ρω, σπε/οώ. κ€ΐρω, κβρω, κ€ρουσι Plat. Rep. δ. |>. 471 Α. In 
the same manner the doubtful vowels, which were long in the 
present, become short in the future, κρίνω, κρίνω, αμυνω, 

Ohs, 1. The fut. of verbs in -λω and -ρω are sometimes foui^ in the 
Attic poets with σ, e.g. κέΧσω Eur. Hec. 1057. €ΐσ€κέ\σαμ€ν Arist. 
Thesm. 877. άντίκυρσα Soph. (Ed. C. 99. (in a lyric verse 225.) ομ^ 
reu id. Antig. 1060. hrtSpaev Eur. Suppl. 715. Cycl. 12. In some 
pure verbs, on the other hand, the fut. appears to have been formed 
after the second form (§. 173), of which Chcerob. Bekk. Anecd. p. 1290. 
quotes εΐΓχβώ, and from Eupolis κατακλιεί from jcarcucXe/ii». Perhaps 
συγχέω Eur. Fr. Thes. 1. έπιχεΊί Arist. Pac. 169. are this fut 

Ohs• 2. The e which thus arises from the abbreviation is oflen changed 
into α in dissyllables, because e in the rapidity of pronunciation becomes 
more indistinct, and approaches nearer in sound to α or o. Thus κτείνω 
besides κτ€νώ makes also κτανέω -ώ //. σ, S09. but not in Attic writers^ 
τέμνω, re μώ Plat, Cratyl. p. 387 A. Ion. ταμω. ίιαφθείρω makes ^ια• 
ψΘερώ Eurip. Med. 1051. &c. and ίιαψθαρέω Herod. 8, 108. 9, 42. 
This is commonly called thefuturum secundum. Comp• §. 193, 2. 

Obs. 3• The Dorians used the circumflex in the future in -σω {-ζω, 183. 
-ψ») in the active and middle, άσώ Theocr. 1, 145. καρνξώ Aristoph. (180) 
Ach. 748. ψασω ih. 739. πεφασβίσθβ 743. ypvXXc^cTre 746. iiatire 
747.* That this circumflexed termination implies a contraction, is 
probable from the other form κ€ΐσ€υμαι Theocr. 3, 53. ^σεν/ιαι ib. 38. 

* Priraisser p. 37 eeq. Gregor. p. (109) 235. (120) 261. c. n. 

• Maitt. p. 219 sq. Fisch. 2. p. 360. Koen. (127) 277. 


Formation of the Tenses^ 

and etill more from the Ionic χβσέο/Αα&, ιησ€€ται, χβσέβσβα& //. λ', St^• 
Kf 235. μ\ 107. Herod. 7, 163. 8, ISO. &c Tliis Doric form more- 
over ig used by the Attica in some verba, but only in tlie fut. mid• ai 
π€σ€ΐσβαί JEsch. A gam. 334. Choeph. 884. Sopk.'Aj. 641. Eurip. Mei. 
986. BaccK 611. ν\€υσουμαι Demosth, p. \ZZ%. πλευσουμένονί Time• 
4, 13. 7, 64. Plat. Hipp. Min. p. 370 D. 371 B. χεσοΰμαι from χέζ^, 
ν€Όσουμαι from vita Xenoph. Anah. 4, 3, 12. κΧαυσίτυμεθα fh>m κλιι/«# 
Ariii. Pac. 1081. ^evfeiroc ^n^. Phtt. 496.* ^£ei9(^at ΡίαΙ. Αρ. 4, 
p. 432 D. Zeg. 1. p. 635 B. C. 6. p. 762 B. On the other hand, the 
Attica aaid ί^σμαι^ τίομαι^ instead of ϋονμαι^ from ϋω^Ι eat', iirMv/Mu 
from x/ 4i^ x/f'cii ' I drink'. But these are more probably present tense^ 
which were used in a future sense, like el/ic, since the first syllable of 
πίομαι is usually long^. Under this head may also be reckoned ψάγα* 
fcai, used by later writers. 

184. From the future active is derived immediately 


1. The Future Middle % 

by changing the termination -ω into Όμαι -ώ into -οΰμαι, e. g. 
τνφω τίίφομαι, νέμω νεμοΰμαι. 

Obs. This form of the future in -o/lcoc and -ov/iai is used by the Attica 
in some verba instead of the fut. act., as άγνοίισομαι^ άείσομαι and jfeo* 
fiat {&€ίσω Eur. Here. F. 683. is suspicious; see Matth. not. v. 669. 
^σουη Plat. Leg. 2. p. 666 D. should perhaps be ijf^ovcrc. aeiam ia 
found Theog. 4. Tkeocr. 7, 72. &c.) άκονσομαι^, ϋζομαι, άταντήσομαι^ 
άwo\aύσoμalf άσομαι, βοήσομαι^ γ^Χάσομαι, ζραμονμαι Xen. Anah. 7» 
3, 45. θαυμάσομαι, θ€ϋσομαι from Θέω, Θηράσομαι, κΧαύσομαι or κλαν- 
σονμαι, οιμώζομαι, ομονμαι^ &C. ιτν^νσομαι or ηνενσοΰμαι, σιγήσομαι 
Soph. (Ed. C. 113. σιωπίισομαι, the fut. act. of which words seldom 

* Brunck ad £unp. Hipp. 1104. 
Arist. Ran. 1321. Fisch. 2. p. 428. 
φ€νξβνμαι b suspected by Elms), ad 
Bacch. 797. The Attics appear to 
have said ^v^ov/LtcOa, not -€σθα, 
but φ€υζόμ€σβα, Matth. ad £ur. 
Hipp. 1091. 

* Herm. de Em. Or. Gr. p. 276. 
Schweigii. ad Athen. 5. p. 497. cf. 
McBf. p. 392. Thorn. M. p. 965. 
716. Bmnck ad Arbt. Eccl. 595. 
Valck. ad Theocr. 3, 53. Buttm. L. 
Gr. l.p. 408. 

* More correctly called by Schsf. 
A pp. Dero. 1. p. 500.yitftirtiii• $ηιφ^χ 

^ Jacobs ad Anth. Pal. Prsf. p. L. 
Instead of ντακούσοντ€$ Thuc. 1, 
140. ντακουσαντ€ί should be read 
according to several MSS. Corop. 
Schsf. Ind. Greg. p. 1063 a. 

*Matthiffi ad £ur. Suppl. 774. 
Moer. p. 106. 184. Stallb. ad Plat. 
Phileb. p. 175. Elmsl. ad Med. 263. 
ad Arist. Ach. 994. 

Fwrmation of the Tenses. 283 

never occurs in good authors ^ Almost all these verbs are wholly 
amsitive, or at least occur frequently in the intransitive sense» 
^κουοΌμΛί. Of others both forms occur, as &ίω and Αξ/ομαι, ^ιώξ^ 
d ίιωξ/ομαι Thuc. 7, 85. ίχαινέσω Soph, EL 1044. and εχαινέσο/ιαι 
SbI. Rep. 2. p. 379 E.' θίξω Eur. Heracl. 652. (but £lmsl. wpooBlUi) 
A Oiierai id. Hipp. 1086« ζήσω and especially in later writers ^'^^ο/ιαι» 
νβτολ^ισ» Eur. Hec. 634. and νανβτολ^σο/χοι id. Troad. 1055. both 
transitive, τ^νίιΐω and r€θyήξoμcu, as ίστίιΐω and έστίιξομαι f . 188 a• 
Ιβ• r^ Arist. Thesm. 18. &c. and τ^Αμαι^ φροττιώ and ψρονπιουμαί^ 
λαψκίισω transit. Thuc. 4, 8. 26. ιτοΧίορκίισομαι intransit. id. 8, 109•^ 

It is frequently used also by the Attics for the fiit pass. e. g. τιμή' 
ΤΛΐ Ibr ημηθήσεται. See Syntax. 

From the future active is also derived 11^5^ 

2. The First Aorist Active, 

f changing ω into a, and prefixing the augment, e. g. τνφω 

In verbs in -λω, -/«ω, -νω, -ρω the short vowel of the pen- 
.t is again made long, by changing ε into the diphthong 
, as στελω έστειλα, ν£μΛ evci/ua, μ€νω ε/»εινα, στερώ £σ- 
ΐΐρα. αι and α of the present, which are made short in the 
iure, are changed into η, φαλλω φαΧω ίφηΧα, φάνω ίφηνα, 
ccept αίρω, which makes ηρα (on account of the augment). 
Mil, apac. I and ν also are again made long in the aorist, 
-Ζλα, νμϋναΚ 

Verbs in -αίνω for the most part receive in the aorist η instead 
Γ the α of the future, in the Ionic and Attic dialect, e. g. όνο* 
tM» //. β>, 488. μιηνγ 11. S", 141. ίκάθηρε Herod. 1, 36. 
ri^nvaf eppviriiva, 8cc.J a, however, is sometimes found also 
I Attic, e. g. ejcoiXavav Thuc. 4, 100. earipave Xenoph. Hist. 
fi*. 2, 1, 28. If ρ or c goes before -α/μω, the a is retained 
at is also lengthened, e. g, άφράναιμί Soph. Aj. 469. eSva- 

' Thom. M. p. 7. Moeris, p. 184. Elmsl. ad Eur. Tph. T. 349. 

mau 9. p. 391 . ' Fisch. 9. p. 375. 

« Ehnsl. ad £ur. Iph. T. 342. ad ^ Thom. Mag. p. 367. Moeris, 

aoch. 1193. SchaBf. Appar. Crit. p. 137. Phrynich. p. 10. Fisch. 2. 

ι Dein. p. 373. p. 376. 
^ Ueind. ad Plat. Phxdon. p. 181.. 


284 Formation of the Tenses. 

\€paifa Plat. Epist. 7. p. 325 A. Isocr. p. 27 δ A. Stevepivaro 
Plat. Phadr.p. 263 E. Prot. p. 314 C* vypavaaa Eur. Ion. 
252. eniavev Msch. Ag. 286. μιαναιμι Eur. Hel. 1009. (but 
more frequendy μιηναι). Also amongst the lonians^ e. g. ξ^- 
pavy 11. (f>,347. €μίραν€ Η. in Merc. 140 ; but these have 
also frequently the η, as κρνηνον, rkrpnve Π. γ^, 396. (this 
latter also in tibe Attics) ^ίφρηνβ II. ω^^ 102. α is retained by 
the Attics in ίκερΒανα^ ϊσ'χνανα Arist. Ran. 941. opyayeiac 
Soph. (Ed. T. 336. 

Note. This i; is more correctly written without the 4 stΛscrψtmmt 
because it comes from α in the future, not from ai in the pre- 
sent tense. 

Obt. Some verbs» which had σ in the future, lose it in the aor. 1. 
e. g. χέω, χεύσω, Ιχενα//. γ\ 270. t, 314. &, 50. and ίχεα II. ζ^ 419. 
σ\ 347. particularly in Attic (perhaps from the fut χεώ §, 182. Ohs. 1.). 
To this we must refer ίσευα in Homer //. e', 208. λ', 147. i(Xevaro 
//• v\ 184. 404. &c. from ήλέο/χαι, aXevo/iac II. ir', 711. νιτεζαλέοσβαι 
//. o\ 180. Od. V^ 774.^ and in Homer and the Attics ίκηα from jca/«#» 
κ&ω (fut. καω, as well as κανσω ?). 

186. From the aorist 1. act. is derived 

The First Aorist Middle^ 
by adding -μη^, evec/ua ίνβιμάμην, erwf/a €τυφαμην. 
(183) From the future is derived 

3. The First Perfect, or Perfect Active, 

which receives the reduplication, and the proper termination of 
which is -κα from -σω, e. g. όλέσω, όλώλβκα ; this termination 
remains in all verbs which have άσω, εσω, ησω, ωσω and οσω 
in the future, e. g. σεσωκα Xen. Anab. δ, 6, 18. weireuca ib. 
6, 4, 14. Ίτέφρακα Isocr. ad Phil. p. 101 A. also for the 
most part in verbs in λω and ρω. 

If, however, the future ends in -ζω or -χ^ω, the perfect 
ends in -χα and -ψα (properly γκ and βτ of the present, afler 
rejection of the σ inserted in the fut., are changed into the cor- 

» Valck. ad Hipp. 850. * Fisch. «. p. 377. 

** £Im8l. ad Soph. (£d. C. 72. 


! Fortnation of the Tenses. 285 

iTeeponding aspiratee). Homer has not these aspirated perfects^ 
bat the forms κ€κρνφαταί &c. contain the groundwork of them» 

Verbs in -μ» and -νω in forming the perf. presuppose either 
a fut. in -ησω and make -ηκα, or change the ν before κ, or reject 
(tbr ' it. The following are more precise rules : 

I 1• Dissyllable verbs in -λω and -ρω change ω into κα, and 

e of the fut• into α• στέλλω στβλω (εσταΧκα^ σπείρω σπερω 
eawapKa, welpm we ρω τίπαρκα. Polysyllables on the con- 
trary retain e, e. g• αγγελλω ayyeXtS ^γγελκα. 

2. Verbs in Ίνω, -υνω and -ecVoi throw away ν before κ, and 
retain the short vowel of the fut•, which, however, in verbs in 
-civw is changed into a. κρίνω κρίνω κίκρικα, τείνω reviS re- 
TOKUf κτείνω κτενω εκτακά, πλύνω π\υνω πέπλνκα". Later 
authors have also αποτετρά'χνκεν Dion* Hal. de Camp. p. 310. 
ed* Schaf. frequently with γ, yo^yyKa, ώζνγκα, as analogy 
requires. See ξξ. 188• 191• 2. Obs. and so also τεθβ/ο/ιακε from 
θερμαίνω, υφαγκα, eKrayKa^. 

3• Verbs in "αίνω change ν before jc into γ. φαίνω, φάνω, 
πεφατ^κα Dinarch. p. 40. 44• Reisk* μιαίνω, μιάνω, μεμίαγκά 
Plutarch. Τ. Gracch. 21. 


4• In some verbs the ε is changed into o, as in ενηνοχα from 
ενεγκω, ένεγ^ω (Λνεγγα and ηνεχα) Isocr. Arch. p. 128 D• 
132 E.' So again κλέπτω, κλεφω, κεκλοφα. τρέπω, τρέφω, 
τετροφα Arist. Nub. 858• Demosth. pro Cor. p. 324, 27. 
JEscAin. in Tim. p. 17 9. Ciesiph. p. 545. (τετροφα {rom τρέφω 
Od. φ/, 237. in a middle sense.) λβγω, λέξω, λέλοχα or 
είΧοχα Demosth. p. 328, 11. 522, 12.K and even before two 
consonants, πέμπω, πεμφω, πεπομφα . Hence from S ε ί ω, ΒειΒω, 
perf. SeSouca. Thus also εΒω, εΒεσω, ν^εκα, εΒηΒεκα (pass. 
είηΒ€σμαι, see §. 189. 1.) and εΒηΒοκα^. 

Λ Fisch. 3. p. 367. ' Fisch. 3 a. p. 69. 190. Henn. 

• Lob• ad Phiyn. p. 34. Of ^ic- de Em. Gr. Gr. p. «75. 

rayca Schef. ad Apoll. Rh. Schol. < Thoin.M.p.saS.etibiHerosterh. 

p. 146 seq. comp. Bekk. Anecd. Fisch. S. p. 368 seq. 

p. 499, 27. Of υ^γκ€ Schaef. ad ^ Piers, ad Moerid. p. 2St. Fisch• 

Dion. II. p. 215. 3 a. p. 78. 

286 Formation of the Tenses. 

Ohs. 1• For rkrpo^ from τρέκω we find alio rerfta^ Dinarck, m 
Demosth. p. £3. 73. 93Λ and with the rarious reading τέτροψα Dem* 
pro Cor. p. 324, 27. jEsMn. m Tim, p. 179. Ctesiph. p. 545. 

Ohs. 2. In this way we may explain the form αΎηοχα^ Ayca, άγέσω 
(J&iv), HyeKa^ άγήγειτα, and after changing κ into the aspirate χ, &yif- 
γοχα, Dor. άγάγοχα. plusq. p. σνψαγαγάχ^ια in the inscription in 
Gruter cczvi. coL 2. /• 9. ccxvii. coL 1. /• 12. Hence the form άγ^οχα 
Demosth. pro Coron. p. 238 ult. 249, 18. for which ^χα is the more 
common Attic form**. 

Obs. 3. In some partly obsolete forms € in the radical syllable of 
the verbs is changed into ο and ω, e. g. from ίχω comes οχβν^, οχ4, 
and instead of this with the Attic reduplication (§. 168. Ohs, 2.) όκι#χιί, 
which refers to the form of the perf. οκωχα from Ιχω, e(«, Ιχα, σχα^ 
ύχα, oicuxa. Hence apparently is derived συνοκωχάτ€ or συμοχ(^κάτ€ 
in Homer II, β ^ 218. for συνέχοντ€^, Comp. &ωρτο §. 189. Obs, and 
Ι/$ρα»γα, €%ωθα §. 194. Obs, 4. 

A similar change appears to have taken place in the lono- 
Doric λέλογχο from (λήχω) λαγχω (λαγχαμω), analogous to 
\ηβω, Χαμβω, Χαμβάνω, Thus TCTrocr^e for πετασχε in 
Etym. M. p. 662, 11. from Epicharmus. In the same manner 
erpairov and τροπή, βσταΧηρ and otoXoq, e^papov and SpopoCf 
are related to one another. 

5. In some the diphthong is made short, e. g. άλ^λιψα 
from αλείφω (pass. αΧηΧιαμαι), Karepfipiwa IL ζ, 66. from 
κατ€ρ€ΐπω, plusq. perf. pass, epepurro IL 1ζ , 1 5. 

187» 6. As the perfect in some verbs appears to presuppose a 
fut• in -€σω, so verbs in -μω and -νω particularly presuppose a 
fnt. -^σω, and take η before -ica, e. g. νέμω νενέμϊΐκα, μένω f»e* 
μίνηκα, S /οα/ϋω Herod, 8, 65. ίεΒραμηκα id. 8, 102. to which 
the grammarians add also βρεμω βεβρβμηκα, τρέμω τετρεμηκα. 
So from ΒαΙω or Βάω comes the perf. ΒεΒάηκα, as from the fut. 
Βαησω (see §. 181. Obs, 3.) ; from ρυω (another form for ρεύω, 
as σενω, σνω) ερρνηκα Pint, Rep, 6. ρ, 485 D.^ from 'χαίρω, 

* On τέτροψα and τέτραψα from ^ Thorn. M. p. 974. Moeris, p. 147. 

τρέπω see Toup. ad Longin. p. 339. Fisch. 2. p. 311. 
Comp. Sluiter Lect. Andoc. p. 157. * Valck. ad Ammon. p. 83. 

who is not acquainted with these ' Fisch. 3 a. p. 166. 

Formation of the Temes. 287 

ΐζ€γαρψία IL η, 312. Κ€'χαρημ€ΐΚΗ, Κ€'χαρητό He$. Sent, 65. 
Some suffer syncope, as βαΧω, βεβΧηκα for β€βά\ηκα. δε/ϋω, 
Β€ίμνΐκα, α^μιιμαί IL tf 245. (which must not be confounded 
with ^ϋμιιμαι from ^αμάω or Βαμνω) καμνω^ καμώ, κίκμψικα 
(κ€καμηκα). τέμνω, τ€μώ, τετμηκα^. In these perfects the 
futures in -riow, βαΧήσω, Βραμησω, μερτισω are presupposed, 
which, however, were hardly in use, any more than the forms 
of the present μενίω, Βραμβω, which some assume. 

Generally, η and e in the fut. and perf. are frequently inter- 
changed. Seen has in the fut. Βησω, aor. 1 . eStyaa, but perf• 
SeSeica^. On the other hand, καλεω has commonly in the fut. 
καλέσω ; but in the perf. κ€κ\ηκα by syncope for κ€κά\ηκα. In 
the same manner αιμέω, αιμέσω, pveica, perf. pass, ^νημαι, and 
/icvereoc Thuc. 2, 88. from /uefteKi/rac. eipeStiv from ευρηται. 

7. Some verbs take ω before κ, instead of i|, e. g. μεμβ\ωκ€ 
for μ€μοΧηκ€, where β is put between μ and λ, as in μεσημβρία 
§. 40. Οίχωκα in Herodotus and Soph. Aj» 896. from οιχο* 
μαι, ot)^^ofiac, for οίγτμία, ττβπτωκα for πίπτηκα from πίτω 
νίπτω. In the same manner ίρρωγα in the perf. 2. §. 194. 
Obs. 4. 

Of the syncopated forms τεθνάναι, Ιστάναι, &c. see §. 198, 6. 
From the perf« act. is derived 188. 


a) The Pluperfect Active, 

which takes the syllabic augment before the reduplication, and 
changes the termination α into eiv. τβτνφα ίτετνφειν, ομω-* 
juoica ωμωμ6κ€ΐν. 

Oht. 1. The origrinal termination appears to have been ea, which 

OCCQT8 in Homer and Herodotus, e. g. in the perf. med. η-βττο/θβα 

Cd. t\ 44. jf^co Orf. y, 745. avryUaTc Herod, 9, 58. heQiiirea Od. 

Cf 167.» IreOZ/ireoi, a quadrisyllable Od, ω\ 90. μ€Τ€στηκ€€ Herod. 

8, 81. κarappωίf|K€e ib. 103. This ea was changed, as in the augment, 

* Fisch. 1. p. 8?. S. p. 306. Herm. Bast Lettre Crit. p. SOO.) 
de £m. Gr. Gr. p. S74. 375. S90. Of ' Thom. M. p. 800. 
the same kind b γ€γράφηκα, (See ' Wessel. ad Herod. 1. p. 59, 80. 

288 Formation of the Tenses. 

sometimee into η^ (whence the Attic and Doric fonn 4^, κ€χί(ιπ|,)* 
sometimes into ec, with the addition of i^• Corop. §• 198| S. 

Obs. 2. From τέθνηκα^ ίστηκα, were formed also the futures re6>^ 
-o/LtaC| ^στήζω •ομαι^ which are also fuU 3, act.^ κ€χαρ{ισ€μ€ν II. o\ 98. 
is formed from the perf• p. but has passed into the active form• 

b) The Perfect Passive. 

1. -ica is changed into a) -/uac^ when a long vowel, e. g. α 
pure or pa, precedes the final syllable^, σπειράσω βσπβίρακα 
€σπ€Ίραμαι, ίρασω BeSpaxa ΒεΒραμαι. ρτ/αμαι Thuc. 3, 61• 
«Γεφίλΐ}κα πεφιΧημαι, βσφαΧκα ίσφαλμαι. So also ίώρακο, 
έωραμαι, as if from ορασω. 

b) -σ /uac; when a lingual S θ ζ r has been omitted before the 
^rmination of the future -σω, or when a short vowel precedes 
it• f Scii; γσμαι, πείθω, πεττεισμαι, τταΐΖω, πέπαισμαι Plat. Leg. 6. 
p. 769 Α. φράζω, πίφρασμαι, xpifo, κέγρισμαι, τβΧεω, τετέ- 
Χεσμαι. This takes place also in some, whose characteristic is 
a diphthong, since diphthongs have arisen from the short vowel 
made long, in those in «αίω, -ανω (from -αω), *€ίω, -ενω (from 
έω), -ονω (from οω) ; as πταίω εττταισμαι, θ ράνω τεθρανσμαι, 
κΧειω κβκΧεισμαι, κεΧευω κεκεΧευσμαι, ακονω -ηκουσμαι. Here, 
however, we must pay attention to usage. Seoi makes ΖεΖεμω, 
αρόω τιρομαι, Χυω ΧεΧυμαι, εΧάω εΧηΧαμαι, &C. For Κ€κΧει~ 
σμαι we find κεκΧειμαι Herod. 2, 121, 2. for which κεκΧγμϋα is 
more Attic^ Evr. Andr. 503. Hel. 986. σώζω has σεσωσμαι, 
but also σεσωμαι, whence εσώθημ. πάνω has πεπαυμαι, λούω 
ΧεΧονμαι, γνώω (yιyvώσκω) εγνωσμαι Xen. Cyr. 8, 8, 3.® For 
ίε^ραμενος we find Thuc. 3, 54. Ξεβρασμένος, and 6, 53. δρασ- 

Of γβάομαι the perf. ^p. is κεγβησμενοο Her. 7, 141. (aor. 
εγβτισθην) κε-χρημενος Eur. Med. 351. On the other band 
the perf. p. of Xpyti^ is always κεγβγμενος. From ονταω or 

• Fisch. 2. p. 371 seq. 

^ Oudend. ad T. M. v. r€θy(|ξeraι. 
Graev. ad Luc. Soloec. t. 9. p. 477 seq. 
Bip. £lmsL ad Ach. 597. p. 161. ea. 

« Thorn. M. p. «95. 

* SchaBf. App. Dem. 1. p. 355. 
Comp. Thuc. 5, 7. 60. Bekk. cjcXecae 
is found without various reading 
Thuc. 1, 109. 2, 4. 

• Fisch. 2. p. 402 sqq. 

Formation of tlie Tenses. 289 

ovra^oi Homer has οντασται //. λ , 660. π^ 26. ουτασμ^νο^ 
Od. χ', 535. more commonly owrafiei/oc. 

Ohs. In the old epic language 3 and θ remain before μ, as in κεκαΒ» 
μ€νο$^ 7Γροπ€ψρα^μέ¥θ£ Hes, "Έργ• 653, κεκορυθμένοί. So also i^jucfi 
at a later time softened down into ίσμεν. 

Verbs also in "οίνω, which made -jKa in the perf. act.^ make, 
after rejecting γ, -σ /uac• πέφαγιτα 'Λ'έφασμαι, ΧβΧνμασμβνοο 
from Χυμαίνομαι, μ^μιασμ^νοα from μιαίνω^ νφασμαι from 
υφαίνω αποίζηρασμβνου Herod, ), 186. σeσrιμaσμaιid. 2, 38. 
Plat. Leg» 11. p. 937 Β. καταπεπίασ/λέμ^ Ρ/αί. Leg. 7. 
p. 807 Α. Later writers said εζηραμ€νο€, or with double μ, 

Of the verbs in -υνω are found the forms παρωζυνται, πα- 
ρωζύνθαι, λεΧάμπρυνται §. 196. 3. and in the participle πάρω- 
ζυμμένος Demosth, p. 182, 11. JEschin. in Tim. p, 68. ed. R» 
and ρσχ,ν/ιμέμοο //. σ', 180. whence it may be inferred that the 
perf. act. was -v^ica, though this form occurs only in later writers 
§. 186, 2. The γ (that is v) of the perf. act. would then have 
been changed not into σ but into μ, which would justify the 
orthography γσ'χνμμβνοϋ for ρσχυ /uevoc. Later writers wrote 
sometimes πεπαχυσ/ιαι, sometimes τετ/οα^^νμένοα^ παρωζυμβνος. 
ηδυσ/4€κοο is found Plat, Rep. 10. p, 607 A. 

2. ψα is changed into -μμαι, and γα into -γ/ιιαι. ακαγμενος 
from ακάΖω is confined to the epic language ''. 

If before these terminations another consonant of the same 
kind should occur, it is omitted, e. g. from γχα should be 
formed -γγ /iac, from μφα -μμαι ; but they say ελ^λεγμαι, κε- 
καμμαι from iXriXey-^a, κεκσμφα. However, γ and μ again 
appear in the other persons, as εΧηλβΎμαι, ελήλεγξαι, cXtj- 
XeyKTai. κεκαμφαι, κεκαμπται^. 

Ohs, In some the quantity is changed, as πέπωκα^ νέττομαι from πίνω. 
ίέ^ωκα, ΒέΙομαι, So also βέβηκα, ^3έ/3α/ιαι. Opposite examples see 
(. 187, 6. 

' Fisch. 2. p. 406. ^ Herm. de Em. Gr. Gr. p. ^67. 

f Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 34 seq. * Jens, ad Lucian. 1. 1. p. 334. 

Schsf. ad ApoU. Rhod. Schol. p. 23d. 

VOL. 1. U 

290 Formation of the Tenses. 

189. Beeides the termination, th^ vowels €, cv, ο in the peaidt 
(^^) of the perf. act. are also changed. 

1. ο in the perf. act. which was derived from e, §. 186, 4. 
is again changed into e: e. ^• eSriBoKa, eS^Se^/iac Platan, 
Phad, 59. but eS^Sorai Od, χ , 56. βνηκοχα, cv^i^eyfiac Df- 
mosth. p, 565* (the Ionic βνιινεΐχθαι, ei^tj^etyfievoc in Herodotus 
comes from the form eveUw, τ^νβιγα) κ€κ\οφα, κ€κ:\€μμαι 
Aristoph, Vesp, 57. πβπομψα, newepwrat Msch. Sept. c. Theb, 
475. είλοχα, ειλεγ/ιιαι, 

Οό«. "Αωρτο or ^ίορτο //• γ', 272. r , 253. frcpn ac/f>«», for fcpro (perf. 
pass, ^ep/xacy &€ρμαί^ hence ι}έ/>θ?;ν, όέ/>θΐ}ν), is a pecuHar deviation. From 
this form come flop, άορτίφ, αίωρέω^ μ€τέωρο$ or μ€τήορο£, ττβφήοροβ. So 
€ is changed into ω in συνοκωχότε §. 186. Obs. 3. ειωθα §. 193. Obt.4, 

But if ρ with another consonant precede the o, which is 
derived frpm e, e and ο become α in the perf. pass. e. g. στρίψω^ 
εστροφα, βστραμμαί» τ/οέττω, τέτ/οοφα, τβτραμμαι. τρβφω, 
τετ ροφά, τεθραμμαι. βεβρβ'γμίνος from βρεγω is excepted• 

2• α of the perf. act. which was formed from e of the future, 
§. 186, 1. remains also in the passive, βσταλκα, εσταλ^ιαι, 
εφθαρκα, ίφθαρμαι. These perfects pass, are excepted, Ιελ^Αοι, 
€€ρμαι, in Homer, from e λ ω βιλω, ερω είρω. The ^olians used 
. ο for α, from whose dialect EustatL• ad II. i, p. 790, 8• pror 
duces εφθορθαι, μεμορθαι, τετορθαι (τοχη φθείρω, μειρω, τείρω. 
With this some grammarians compared iyptiyopOai in Homer• 
§ee§. 198,6. 

3. ευ before -γ/Λαι and -σμαι is mostly changed into v, e. g. 
τετευχο τετνγμαι, πεττυσμαί πεφνγμαι, πεπνυμαι, from ν€υθω, 
φεύγω, ννεω, fut. πνευσω. Except εΖενγμαι. 

4. As some verbs which have η in the fut. receive e in the 
perf. act. §. 187. some again which had ε in the fut. and perf. 
act. take η in the perf. pass. e. g. τ/νημαι from γνεκα, αιρεσω. 
The case is reversed in /3άω, βαίνω, which makes βεβηκα in 
the perf. act. ; but in the perf. pass, βεβαμαι for βεβημαι 
Xenoph, Ilipparch. 3, 4. 1, 4. Thuc. 1, 123. 


Obs. In order to assist the formation of the perf. pass, an analogous 
perf. act. is often assumed, although it never occurs, e. g. in XAcc/ifioc 
the perf. act. λέλ€<0α is invented, as an intermediate link between 

Formation of th^ Tenses, 291 

\^kmμμm% and- X^l^u : in τ^πυσμα^^ νέψί^γμαι the perf. τέπ^νκα, πέ- 
^€νχα ; in ΐΓ€π6ρ€ΐψξαψ wewopevKa, 

From the perf. pass, comee, 190. 


a) The Pluperfect Passive, 

bychai^ng the termination -fcac of the first person of the perf. 
into ^μην, and prefixing a new augment, τ^τνμμαι, €Τ€τυμμην, 

β) The Third Future Passive, 

which is formed by changing the termination of the second 
person of the perf. -σαι into Όομαι, and retaining. the redupli- 
cation• λέλε^αλ ΧεΧεζομαι, τ€τυφαι τ€τνφομαι, reri/iiyem 

y) The First Aorist Passive, 191. 

by changing the termination of the third person of the perf. 
-Ttti into -Οην, and therefore the preceding lene into an aspirate, 
and prefixing the simple augment, without repeating the initial 
consonant, τέτιηΤΓβι βτδφβΐίν, λέλεκται βλέχθι^ι^' τετιμηται 
eri/i^df|y, yriarai γτι&Θην Thnc, 8, 68. ττίφανται ίφανθήί^^ 
With respect, however, to the termination, the following rule 
is to be observed : 

1. Some few verbs take σ before the termination -θην in 
the aor. 1. pass, although it is not in the third person perf. 
pass, μίμνηται €μνησθην, κβγ^ηται ^\ρησθην, ερρωται €ρρω~ 
σθην. (See, however, §. 188, b. b.) On the contrary, σώζω 
makes εσώθην, in the perf. σέσωσται. But here the form σώω 
Od. i, 430. (from σαόω, whence βσαωθην Od, y, 185.) is the 
basis of the aor. according to which σεσωμαι is sometimes used. 
Suid. v. Σέσωσται. §. 188, b. b. So Herod. 8, 124. has 
εβωσθίΐ, in Attic and in the common dialect ίβοηθην. The best 
MSS. have often eXaoOeic in Herodotus. (See Gaisf. 1, 168• 
note d. 54. note b. 145. note c. Comp. Pierson ad Mar. 
p• 13 seq.) but έζελι^λα/ιέΐΗκ; 1, 35. κατενανΘη is found in 
Herod. 1, 130. comp. 6, 71. but βττονσθίϊ 5, 93. For irav- 
σθηναι &c. Bekker has παυθηναι Thuc. 5, 100. comp. 1, 81. 
6, 9 1 • but πβιτανσθαι 5, 1 6. 

2. Some which have t| in the perf. pass, receive an e in the 


292 Formation of the Tem^s, 

aor• 1 . e. g. evpijrai €υρέθην, eirpviirac ίπγνεθην, αφγρηται αφ^- 
ρεθην. From είρηται (ερέω) the aor. is ίρρηθην and eppeOiiv^ 

Obs. Some verbs in νω, which reject y in the perf• (§. 186, 2.) 
receive it again in the aor• 1. in the older poets, e. g. ^αιφινβητ€, 
€κ\ΙρΘη Bk μάχη. This form is suspicious in the Attic writers, as κλικ- 
eels Eur. Here. F. 958. See Lob. ad Phryn. p. 37. The aor. 1. of 
ΙΒρϋω in Attic is ί^ρύθη and Ι^ρύνθη, as in Homer JL y', 78. η, 56. e. g. 
Xen. Cyrop. 8, 4, 10.*» as in several MSS. Herod. 1, 172. 2, 44. though 
tliere is no ν in the present. So άμττνυνθη II. Γι 486. from πέκνυται. 
For the sake of the metre the y was omitted even in the epic writers, as 
KXidnyai Od. σ, 218. r , 470. Of the following the y was already found 
in the perf. wcφωίύyΘηy, ψrχυyθημ€v Plat. Phadon. p. 117 £• έιqfNl!- 
rvyen Herod. 7, 18. evOvyen Thuc. 1, 95. βcφvyθ€is Soph. kfj. 41. 
xpavydy Plat. Rep. 4. p. 440 D. άvaμβ\vyθf|σ€τaι is .found JEsch. 
Prom. 865. (891. Blomf.) with the various reading έπαμβΧηθησεται. 

With regard to the penult, it is only to be observed, 
that verbs which change e of the fut. into ο in the perf. act 
(§. 186, 4.) and into α in the perf. pass. (§. 189, I.) take e 
again in the aor. 1. e. g. εστραπται εστρεφθην, τετραπται 
ετρβφθην, τεθραπται εθρεφθην^. We find, however, in Herod. 
1, 130. κατεστραφθησαν with the various reading -άφησαν, 
as Theocr. 7, 132. στραφΒεντείί. τραφθεντεα 1, 7. 9, 67. 
probably from the form στραφώ^ τραφώ used in other dialects, 
whence the α remained also in the perf. pass. 

Obs. It will be readily understood that the Dorians, who made the 
fut. in -ζω instead of -σω (§. 181, 1.), formed the tenses which were 
derived from the future accordingly : -ξω, -χα, -γ/ιαι, -jcrac, -χθι^ν, for 
-σαι, -ica, -σ/ιαι, -σται {μαι, rdt), ^σθην (Θηy\ e. g. αρμόζω, 1\ρμοχα, ^ρ- 
μογμαι, ήρμοκται, ίφμόχθην Diog. Laert. 8, 85. Thus έλνγίχθιι from 
Κνγίζω for έλυγίσθη Theocr. 28, 54.*^ In the Pythagorean fragments, 
on the contrary, we find only συνάρμοσμαι, not -γ μαι, though συνορ- 
μοζάμ€νο£ρρ. 802. 812. Orell. and Theocr. 4, 59. 7, 84. Ικνίσβη$, κατ^- 
κλάσθηε (Valck. Brunch, 'κλάχθηί)* Hence the substantives derived 
from the third person perf. pass, of verbs in -ζω, which usually end in 
-0Tf}f , are formed by the Dorians in -κτη5 '. Even in the common Ian• 
guage βαστάζω has fut. βαστάσω, but aor. 1. pass. €βαστάχΘην, 

• Fisch. 2. p. 411. Heiod. ad Plat. • Fisch. 1. c. 

Gorg. p. 46. Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 447. . •* Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. p. 144 a. 

•» rhom. M. p. 469. Fisch. 3 a. • Valck. Ep. ad Rov. p. 59. 66. 

p. 108 seq. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 37. Koen ad Greg. p. (163) 328. 

Formation of the Tenses* 293 

From the aor. 1 , pass, is derived 

The First Future Passive, 

by rejecting the augment, and changing -θην into -θησομαι^ 
ζτνφθιιν τυφθησομαί. 

Besides the tenses thus derived, there are yet some others, 192. 
which agree completely with one another, but differ essentially (^^Ό 
from the foregoing. It follows hence, that one common form 
most be the basis of them all, which is essentially diflFerent 
from the radical form of the above-mentioned tenses, viz. the 
fiit. 1. but which at the same time, since they belong to the 
same verb with this fut. 1., have a determinate and regular 
analogy to this verb and its fut. 1 . 

Some of the tenses which have not yet been derived, may 
be formed immediately from the common present tense of the 
verb, e. g. eXeyiji^ from λέγω : the greater part, however, agree 
only with the primitive form of the verb, which no longer exists, 
and is only recognised by means of the tenses which are now 
to be derived ; so that it can afford no convenient standard 
for the derivation of these tenses : others have in the penult 
vowels or a collection of letters, which could hardly have 
existed in the original form of the verb. 

If, GQ the other hand, we change the terminations of the 
aor. 2. act. pass. mid. ov, ijv, 6μηvy into ω, and reject the 
augment, we obtain forms which quite agree with the second 
form of the fut. given above, §. 173. Although this form of 
the fut. occurs only in verbs in λ μ ν p, it is allowable to pre- 
suppose it in aid of the derivation in other verbs also, as some 
peif• pass, occur to which there is no perf. act., but for which 
we use an imaginary one. See §. 182. Obs. 1. In this manner 
the two principal classes of tenses, the aor. 1 . act. perf. I . or 
act• perf• pass, and aor. 1 • pass, on the one hand, and on the 
other the aor. 2. act. pass. mid. perf. 2. or mid. are derived 
from two different forms of the future ', which, however, have 
a regular analogy to each other, and to the present tense of the 

' Eustathius acknowledged the ana- II. p. 179, SS seq. and ζ, p. 065, 51. 
logj of the fut. 8. and aor. 3., but on derived the fut. 2. from the aor. 9. 

294 Formation of the Ten$es. 

verb ; and by these means the different tenses of the verb are 
reduced to uniformity^ and a systematic connection. From ο\ω 
according to §. 173. comes the fut. ολίσω and ολέω, όλώ. 
The first form gives ωΧεσα and oX^Xefra, the second ωΧόμψ, 
ολωλα. This second form^ however, i&.a]|iioist always only 
assumed, very rarely in use. The fut. 2. aor. 2. perf. 2. are 
formed only from simple and primitive verbs, not derivative 
verbs in -άω, -έω, -όαι, -αζω, -ίζω, -ύζω. See §. Τ 39. Obs. 5. 

Since thie three second aorists agree with pne another ia the 
penult, and this, according .to analogy, is the eame in the second 
form of the fat., the second form of the future fWill be exhibited 
here at the same time with the aor. 2. act. pass, and middle• 

The Second Aorist Active, Passive, and Middle. 

198. The second form of the future is made by rejecting σ in the 
C^^) termination -έσω, and contracting -έω into -ω, §§. 173. 182. 
As the tone rests upon the last syllable, 

1. the penult, when long, is made short, by changing η 
and ω into a, rejecting ι from the diphthong ai, and e from ec 
and eu, resolving the double consonants, and omitting the latter 
of them, as well as the latter of two consonants. Thus λ^θω, 
fut. 1. [λΐϊθέσω] λ^σω. fut. 2, [Χηθβω, λαθω] ελαθον, €λαθό- 
μην. τρώγω, fut. 1 . [τ/οωγέσω] τρωζω. fut. 2. [τρωγέω, τ/οα- 
γω] ετ/οαγομ. καίω [ι:αΐ€ω, καώ]^ ίκάην. μαίνομαι {jiavov- 
juai], €μανην. λειττω, fut. 1. [Χαπεσω^Χειφω, fut. 2. [λειττέω, 
λλττω] ελιτΓον. κβύθω {κευθέσω, κευθί-ω, κνθω^, εκυθον Od. y , 
16. κόπτω f fut. 1. [κοπτβσω] κσφω, fut. 2. [κοιττίω, κοπω^ 
εκόττην. Verbs with \ μ ν ρ (οτ the characteristic, have only 
one form of the future, the second ; the derivation of the aor. l. 
perf. &c. from this takes place with many changes, according 
to the preceding rules ; in the aor. 2. .act. pass. mid. -ω is only 
changed into -ov, *iyy, -o/iip/. κάμνω, κάμω, εκαμον, βκαμψ^, 
ίκαμόμην. So ίπιθον, -ομην in Homer and the tragic writers, 
€τυπ€ν Eur. Ion. 779. 

Except εττληγίίν from πΧησσω, which, however, in compounds 
signifying ' to frighten', makes €π\α'γην, εξεπλάγι^ι^, κοτβιτλά- 
γΐΐν, in Homer also η IL γ', 31. σ, 225.* 

* Comp. Bekk. Anccd. p. 1411 b. 

Formation of the Ten^ei. 295 

2. e in the short penult, receives from this change a lower 
or duller tone, and is therefore in dissyllable verbs often 
changed into a. §• 182. Obs. 2» In the aor. 2. act. pass, and 
mid. this form alone^ which takes a instead of e, is the basis^ 
whilst in verbs with \ μ ν ρ the aor. 1 • is taken from the form 
with e. σπ€ίρω, 1. σιτερω ecireipa. 2. [σπαρω] €σπαρηρ, 
στίΧλω, 1. στελω εστβιλσ. 2. [στίΐλώ] βσταΧην. ιττβ/νω, 
1. κτόβίΣ eKreivOf 2. [Λταΐ'ώ]^ €Κτανον, φθείρω, 1. φθερώ 
έφθειρα, 2. [φθαρώ"] ίφθάρην. So avaveipac Herod, 4, 103. 
and avanapeic from αναπειρω ib. 94. 

Note, Polysyllabic words, and λέγω, φλέγω, do not change the c ; 
ίλέγην, σνλλεγε/ί, ^Xeye/s. Also τέκω (τίκτω) retains ^τ€κον• 
Of τέμνω, not only ίταμον but also ίτ€μορ is in use, as oilen in 
Euripides, Thuc. e. g. 6, 7. (but 1, 81. τάμωμ€ν without v. r.) 
PM. P/usedon. p. 86 A. Menex. p. 242 C. Χετί. Anab. 5, 4, 17. 
in the pass, and mid. only έτάμην and έταμόμην• άποτεμόμενον 
Tkuc. 7, 46. 

This change of e into α takes place also in verbs which have 
already β bhort in the present, e. g. τρέψω, {hpafoy,) έτρΑφην. 
Ιρέπω, ^ραιτων Pind. Ρ, 4, 231. ^ρέμω, ί^ραμον. So from rep- 
πω, τάρπησαν Od. γ, 70. In several of these verbs the α exists 
in the present in some dialects, as έττιτράπειν Herod. 3, 81. 

Obs, 1. Verbs, which in die present have σσ, ττ, or ζ, receive, 
according to $§. 176. 177. in the first form of tlie future, either -(» 
(because the old form of the pres. was -γω, -κω or -χω) or σ• Hence 
when the fhrst form of the fut. is -ξω from -γέσω, y enters into the 
second form after rejecting σ, e. g. νράσσω, πράζω [πραγέσω, ιτρα- 
γέω, ττραγω]^ πέπραγα, άλλάσσω, Αλλάζω [άλλαγώ], Ακ^ηλλάγην. 
^(ΐσσω, ρ^ζω [βαγώ], έι^άγην Soph, Ant, 476. κράζω, κράξω [κραγέσω, 
κραγέω, κραγω], ίκμαγον, κλάζω, ίκλαγον §. 177. C. όρνσσω, όρυγήναι 
Xenoph. Anab, 5, 8, 11. τρίζω, τέτριγα II, ψ', 101. Od, ω', 6. 9. φρίσσω, 
Ρρίζω [φρικέσω, ψρικέω, φρίκω'], πέψρικα. 

If, on the other hand, the first form of the fut. has -σω, in verbs in 
"4^9 where σ has rejected the liiiguiil d, as d in λήθω, λήσω, 2 necessa- 
rOy enters again into the second form, φράζω, φράσω [(φραίέσω, φραίέω, 
^ραΒω], πέφραΒα, οζω [ο^έσω, ο^έω, οδω], οίωία, καθέζομαι, καθε^ουμαι, 

Obs, 2. Of φύχω we find aor. 2. έ^υγην, -ffischylus ap, Hesych, 

* Person (see ad Or. 929.) and the fut. with e, (the MSS. always vary 
subsequent editors always write the between c and a,) and the aor. with a. 

296 Formation of the Tenses. 

has, however, &ν€'φυχη, and Aristoph, Nub. 151. one MS. has φυχήβι^^ 
which is confirmed by άναφνχη, ιταραψνχή, and is preferred by the 
grammarians, Moens, p. 421. Thorn. M» p. 63. comp. 929. to ψυγ^και. 
Later writers, however, formed Ιφύγην after the analogy of ώρύγην^ and 
hence ^vyevf in the fragments of the middle and new comedy *• 

Obs. 3, Some verbs change τγγ of the present into φ, others into /3• 
The following change it into ψ : θάπτω [ταψω], ίτάψην^ ταψ€ΐην XtM» 
Anab. 5, 7, 20. ταψ{ισ€ΐ Eur* Troad. 450. ei^ra^e/f [Irafoy^f ra^v 
from Θηπω, ρίπτω [ρι^ω], ί^ρίψην. ράπτω, €^άψη Eurip, Bacch. 245. 
θρύπτω, ίτρνφην^ whence ^ιατρυψέν Π. γ , 363. from which have been 
imagined old radical forms τάψω, ρίψω, ράφω, τρνφω. Yet these appear 
themselves to have been derivative forms, instead of τάπω, ρίπω (whence 
ριπτι), 8cc, and the aspirate φ to have been selected on account of the 
preceding aspirate ^. κρύπτω makes frequently in aor. 2. pass. ιφυβ€ί$, 
fut. 2. pass, κρυβησονται Eurip. Suppl. 543. But the derivatives have f» 
κρνψη, κρύφιοί, κρυφαϊοί (in κρύβ^α the φ was necessarily changed into β 
on account of the adverbial ending ^a), and Soph, Aj. 1145. the Al- 
dine ed. and most of the MSS. have Kpvfels. Eur, Bacch. 955• the 
Cod, Pal, has κρυφηναι. Later writers had a present κρύβω, whence ίκρύ- 
βην\ βλάπτω makes έβλάβην from βλάβω 11. r, 82. 166. Od. v\ 84. 

Obs, 4. From the necessity of a short penult, it frequently happens, 
that when two consonants come together which lengthen the vowel, 
they are transposed, e. g. ΐ^ρακονΙΙ, ζ, 344. ω', 223. JEsch, Ag. 614. 
dpaKcts Find, Pyih, 2, 38. for ίΖαρκον from Ζίρκω ^έρκομαι. ίπρα&ον 
II, σ, 454. from πέρΘω, l^padey Od. ν', 143. from ^άρΘω hapBav^ 
See §. 16, 3. c. Thus ^ιμβροτον is formed by transposition from ίίμαρ* 
Tovy in which case β is introduced. §. 40. p. 76. These forms, how* 
ever, occur only in the Ionic and other old poets. 

Obs, 5. Verbs pure have not these tenses (aor. 2. perf. 2.), and the 
forms which do occur come from barytone verbs, which are sometimes 
met with in the present, e. g. orcpcvra Eurip, Ale, 622. from irripu 
στέρομαι Xenoph. A nab. 3, 2, 2. not στερέω^, ί^ουπον, iiioinra II. ψ, 
679. from ζούπω. ίλακον, Χέληκα, Χελακυΐα Od. μ\ 85. from Χ^ικω. μα^ 
κωρ II. π', 469. μ^μαχνίαι II. h\ 435. from μίικω. ίμυκ€ and μ€μνκώ$ 
11. σ, 580. from μΰκω, whence afterwards μυκάομαι, as from μίικω, μψ 

* £lmsl. in Class. Joum. No. 16. ^ £lmsl. 1. c. Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 

p. 439. Comp. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 318. 1124. Matthis ad Eur. Suppl. 543. 

^ In the common Grammars άπτω. Of κρύβω see Lob. ad Phryn. p. 317 

βάπτω, σκάπτω, Κρύπτω, are also seq. 

added, of which I have never found ^ Brunck. ad Eur. Hec. 693. calls 

any undoubted aor. 9• it a syncope for crepffiiyra. 

Formation of the Tenses. 297 

Γοομαι. Others, as ^κτνπεν, ίχραισμε, may be also imperfects //. a\ 
IB. y , 54. V, 887. o', 82. 

Obs. 6. In many verbs only the aor. 2, pass, occurs, if the aor. 2. 
ict. and the imperf. would have had the same form, e. g. l•ypάψηyf 

Obs. 7. It seldom happens that a tense formed entirely by this ana- 
ogy has the termination of the aor. 1. act. -a, e. g. είττα in Herodotus, 
ilso Eur. Cycl. 101. more frequently 2nd pers. eliras Xenoph. Cffrop» 
>, S, 20. JEschyl. Suppl. 353. jEschin. in Ctes.p. 551. (Ed. Col. 1513• 
requently eiirare. (a.) Thus in Plato and Aristophanes the imperat• 
throyf είπάτω occurs for elve, from ^ω *. (while elvor is considered as 
lie Dor. imp. aor. 2.^) So ^veyica from €yέγκω {ψέρω) for fireyicoy 
Soph. El. 13. Xen. Cyrop. 7, 1, 1.' Under this head, however, 
hose cases are not to be reckoned in which the fut. has merely σ. 
f. 182. Obs. 1. 

So in the Attic language ίπτατο^ ντάμενοΒ, ιττάσΟαι, are found as well 
IS im-erOf xro^evof, πτέσθαι. ήράμην and ήρόμ^ν. But such forms as 
Ιιτεσα {Eur. Troctd. 293. many MSS. have προσέιτεσον^ and Ak. 471. 
riaoi for ττέσειβ), ενράμην, €iλάμηy, ΐ}λθαν, e^vyav, ^aj3av, Ιλιιταν, 
!2α, belong only to the later and Alexandrian period ^. 

0&5. 8. In the Homeric language many aorists are found which are 
brmed in a different way by syncope, as ivXero from πέλω, πέλομαι 
or εχέλεΓο, 2nd pers. lirXeo, Ιτλεν : so ίπτόμην, which is also admitted 
Qto the Attic language from ττέτομαι (see the list of verbs), and with 
lision of the diphthong eypero, άγρόμενοί for iyelperOf άy€φ6μ€yos. 
it least these forms always occur as aorists : and so also &γp6μeyoι 
persons collected together' is distinguished from άγ€φ6μ€yot * persons 
ollecting themselves'. Such syncopated forms sometimes also take the 
eduplication, §• 165. 06^. 4. as, irifye from φέyω for i^eye, jclicXero, 
erXoftcKos from κέλομαι. Elsewhere the vowel of the termination is 
aerely elided, as in iyeyro for eyiyero Hes. Theog. 288. 704. Theocr. 
, 88. (different from γέντο * he seized'), and probably the forms oXro, 

• Valck. ad Herod, p. 649, 91. Find. Athen. 13. p. 573 £., Boeckh 

iregor. p. (^98) 481. Fisch. 3 a. p. 89. p. 608. reads €υp6μ€yoy. ayeiparo is 

' ix>b. ad Phryn. 348. not. found Timocl. ap. Athen. 6. p. 333 B. 

i Gregor. p. (65) 149 seq. Fisch. £ust. ad Od. i'. p. 1637,39. says, τον 

I a. p. 188. €υpάμηy καΐ του tipaaOai ohic ίστι 

^ Of €υράμηy see Fisch. 2. p. 435. xpfjaiy evpeiy. Comp. ad II. σ. 

ia.p.95. Wolf.adDem.Lept.p.216. p. 1144, 22. Of €ι\άμηy see Dorv. 

job. ad Phryn. p. 139. In Hesiod ad Char. p. 402 seq. Lips. Lob. ad 

'r. 8. (ap. Ruhnk. Ep. Crit. p. 108.) Phryn. p. 183. Fisch. 3 a. p. 24. 

'Iscber reads ευρομένο^^ as in Fr. Valck. 1. c. 

2Θ8 Formation of the Tenses• 

iixTOf iBeKTo^ Icro Hes, Theogn 481. μίιπ-ο, λέ{ο, λ^κτο, iraXro, ι!|9Ιό, ire 
to be regarded, as Buttmann has suggested, as syncopated imperfeeti 
for fjXeTo or iJXaro, &c. and so σννάίιίτην Hes. Sc. H. 189. from -αϊσ- 
σέτηρ (-αϊγέτΊ|κ) in usage as «orists, not plusq. perf. with omission of 
the reduplication. The consonant which preceded the rejected vowd, 
and consequently is followed by ^ σ r, is changed as the nature of these 
consonants requires §. 84. therefore ϋέγμην ihicrOf ί\έγμηy tKeKTo, 
for ί^€χόμην ^ίέχετο. The ο is rejected in λνμην IL ψ\ 80. aor. from 
Ιλυόμηρ. Χντο has commonly v, but sometimes v, as //. a»', 1. as fyvn 
for €pv€To imperf. //. ^, 188. and elsewhere. The other moods were 
formed according to the analogy by which σο in the impcr. θαι in the 
infm. answer to μαι and μην in the indie, ίέξο (^έγ-σο), λέ{ο, ορ^ 
inf. ίέχθαι, ορθαι IL &, 47Λ. 

Of the syncopated perf. τέθνατε &e• sec §. 198, 6. 

The Second Future Passive 

is derived from aor. 2. pass, by changing the termination -lyy 
into -ησο /uai and rejecting the augment, e. g. έκρυβην, κρυβψ 

194. I^y ^6 eame analogy is formed 

The Second Perfect or Middle*, 

whieh is always formefl from the unchanged and commonly flic 
original root, by changing only ω into a, and prefixing the redu- 
plication, e.g. ανω -ya, βίβονΧα (7Γ/)οβεβουλα //. ο , 1 13.), βέ- 
βριθα, γέγι^θα, γεγωνα, SeSm (from δίω), SeSourra (//. \f/ , 679.), 
eaya (α γ ω, α'^νυμι), Ιαδα (^ δω, avSavot), Ιδί^δα from εοω, εσθιω, 
lippiya, κεκη^α, κίκευθα, κεκραγα, κεκοπώα {ΙΙ.ν , 60.), κέχ^ομδσ, 
ΧίΧαμτΓ^, λελειχ /uOTOc Hes, Th, 826. XeXtfia^ μίμαρττα, οδωδα, 
ολ«Αα, £ΐΓΦϋΐτα, ορωρα, πέπιιγα, we<l>€vyaf nenpaya, σέσηπα, 
T€Ti?jca, τέηριγα, τββι/πα, πέψρικα, τ€Τ€υγω€, 8cc. With re- 
gard to the penult, the following rules are observed : 

1. α arising from e or ei, and e of the aor. 2. become o, 
e. g. Gtrelpiuy ίσπαρην, εστορα. στέλλω [σταλώ], εσταλι^ν, 
Ιστολο. Kreivio [κτανω, εκτάι^τ^ν], eKTOva* τίμνω [ταμω], era- 
μον, τετομα, λέγω, eXeyfiv, \e\oya. μέμω, μένω, μίμονα, 

• Perhaps more correctly Perfcclvm inaccuracy of the name Per/, MiddL•, 
Primumf being more simple in form see Buttmana L. Gr. p. 370. 
and uldcr in point of time. Of the 


FormatioH of the TeuHs. 299 

lyxelta [χεδω], ίγκέχο^ Arist. Ran. 482. Vesp. 624. irepSw, 
παρΒω, veiropSa Arist. Pac. 334. στ€/>γω, earopjUBC• SepKWf 
SeSopjcfarc. €pyw, eopya, €\ΊΓω, €θ*λπα . πέπονΘα from ιτένθω 
or πάσγω ; in the same manner as ' break, brake, broken'. In 
polysyllabic verbs also, as ίγ^ρω {eyepWf nyepov), nyopa and 
Byptiyopa (for iyffyopa §. 1Θ8.)• 

2. In the reet of the verbs ihe «long vowel is put in the 
penult for the shoil one, either ae it stood in -the 'pressnt, or 

a) 41, which came from oi or 9, or was long by position in 
the present, is changed into η, e. g. μαίνομαι^ ipatniv, μβμηνα. 
δα/ω, ί^άηΡψ SeStyo. βάλλ«α .(θαλω), τέθι^λα. kXoCw {K\ay£)y 
exXayav, κεκΧηγα. Χίιθω (λαθω), ίλαθαν^ ΧεΧηθα, πλήττω 
(νλαγώ), ewXayn», irewXtiya. φαίνω, -ifHivw, ντεφηνα^, χαίνω, 
Xaw, Μ€χηνα. 

Except : κράζω, eKpayov, Kocpaya. π/οασσω, π€π/>αγα, φρα- 
2ΐι», Ίτεφραίέ^. αδω, caSa, αγω {ayvυμ^)f eaya. (In the aor. 
eaSov, ίαγη.) ΧίΧάκα comes from the old Χακω, Ion. Χηκέω. 

b) I, Which came from ci, is changed into 01 (combination of 
tin the fut. with Rule 1.). πείθω (πιβω), ίττιθον, ιτέττοιθα. 
λeίtΓω (λινω), λβλοιττα. βϊιτω, eoiKa. βϊδω, οιδα^. 

Instead of ίοικα a more Attic form was elica, which occurs 
even in Hesiod Sc. 206.^ like the common word είδώα from οΐδα. 

c) To this lengthening of the short vowel belongs also fie- 
μ»ΐΧα from μ€Χ€ΐ. 

Ohs. 1• In some verbs the penult remains short, e. g. Ad/icoa from 
&«ούω, €λ//λν6α from tXevOoi. (ειλΖ/λονθα is a mere poetic lengthening of 
the V ; yet the same analogy exists here as between σπευΐω and onrov^^.) 
On the other hand icif^evya from ^evyw, κέκ€νθα^ τέτευχα. 

Ohs, It. The poets frequently make the penult short again, particu- 
larly in the feminine of the participle, because the proper form would 
be inadmissible in a verse, e. g. άράρυΊα IL y , 831. and elsewhere 

^ Fiach. 2. p. 432. from tlie fut. 

• The orthography of ir^0jjva can- •* Fisch. 2. p. 430 seq. 

not be justified, whether the tense be * Fisch. 2. p. 433. 

derived from the pres. of which the ' Pierson adMoer. p. 148. Brunck 

original form was probably φάνω, or ad Aristoph. Nub. 185. 

300 Formation of the Tenses» 

(apcipviay Hes* Theog. 608.). μεμακυιαι II, ^, 4S5. from μ€μηκώ$ IL κ 
362. τ€θάΚυϊα II. c', 208. &c. from redi^Xws Od. μ, lOS. XeXokvTa 
μ^ 85. from λβλι^κώ^ //. χ\ 141. σβσαρνια Hesiod. Sc, Η, 268. froi 
σέσηρα, σ€σηρώ$. Similarly πειταθν/ρ 0(2. ρ', 555. from ιτήθω (καθύ] 
ίτταθον, πέπηθα• 

Obs, 3. From α (fut. 2.) aor. 2. originates ω in H^j^a Soph, Trach^=» 
852. P^<. Phsdon. p. 86 A.^ from ^ήσσω as όρωτ^ is connected wit^9 
apiiyia. Comp. §. 187» 7. In βιωβα the characteristic ο in the peril 2 
is changed into ω, perhaps for the sake of euphony, or in order to giv^s 
to a tense which has the signification of the present, the character ofll 
duration hy means of the form itself (§. 171.), ίωΒα^ as the lonian^a 
{Herod. 2, 91. 1, 133. 4, 134. 3, 27. 31.) and Dorians also, accoi 
to Suidas and Thucydides (6, 58.) wrote, and then lengthened int 
ciiifOa. Comp. οκωγα §. 186. Ohs, 3. &ωρτο §. 189. 1, Ohs. 

Obs. 4. inctKroyfiKare Xenoph, Hiero 3, 8. appears to be a lengthenin| 
of the perf. 2. if the reading be correct. {Plat. Apol, Socr. p. 88 C• 
Bekker reads from MSS. aveicrovare,) It seems to have originated in. 
the custom of forming new verbs from a perf. 2. either actually in iiae> 
or at least imagined according to analogy, e. g. from ίγρήγορα a present 
tense €γρηγορόων is found Od. v', 6. {ίγρηγόρονν Aristoph. EccL 32. 
was introduced by Brunck), and for ^γρηγόρησαν Xenoph, Anah. 4, 6, 22. 
and €γρ{ιγορον jEsch, Ag, 356. ίγρηγόρ€σαν and €γρηγορ6$ are now read. 

Obs, 5. The Attic el£a, ειζασι from eιicω, for είκα or ^ocra, is quite 
irregular ; in which £ instead of «: is said to be taken from the Boeotian 
dialect ^, 

Obs. 6. Some perfects appear to be formed immediately from the 
present, by changing -a» into -a, and prefixing the reduplication, e. g• 
SέL•υπaf ^e^ca, from ^νπω, ^ίω. Thus also άνωγα for Ιίνωγα, 

Verbs which have this perf. 2. form from it also a plusquam- 
perf. 2. after the same rules as those by which the plusquam- 
perf. 1. was formed from the perf. 1. ολωλα, ώλώλβιι». oSwSa, 

Obs, There is scarcely a single verb, which has all these tenses^ that 
can regularly be derived from it. It is very seldom that a verb has both 
aor. 1. and aor. 2. pass, as άπηγγέΧθην and άπηγγέλην % or perf. 1• and 
2. at the same time, (r.) When it has these tenses, they commonly 
belong to two different dialects, or two different ages of a dialect, as 
imdov only in the old Ionic, εΐΓ€ΐσα in Attic and the rest, άηηΧΚαχΘην^ 

» Valck. ad Hipp. 1338. Eurip. Iphig. A. 853. Fisch. 1. 

^ Kuhnk. ad Timsei Lex. PI. p. 98. p. 175. 
Piers, ad Mcer. p. 147. Musgr. ad ' Passow ad Parthen. 21. p. 70. 

Conjugation• 301 

τυν€\έχθην in the older Attic dialect, άτηΧλάγην, σννεΚέγην in the new, 
ir they have different significations, as πέπραχα in an active sense, Art•' 
ioph. Equ. 68d. Xenoph. H. Gr, 5, 2, 32. Cyrop. 7, 5, 42. Anab, 5, 
\ 29. πέτραγα in a neuter sense. Some of these double forms are 
ίατοΰμαι and φανίισομαι, both in the tragedians'; iicretya and ίκτανον 
Q Homer and the tragedians. Instead of irvrf/ey, Eur. Ian. 779. has 
rvirev,and Soph. (Ed. 2*. 811. Aj. 255. Artst.Ach, lldS. rwrels, κατα- 
Xu^eis 13 found Nub. 694, for καταχλιθείί, and KaraKXiyiyres Plat. Rep. 
I. p. 372 B. 

Many forms occur only in single authors, and are not used by others, 
u g• ίσέφΟην ϋτοχη σέβω, -ομαι, in Sophocles ap, Hesych. s. v. and Plat. 
Ph^r.'p. 254t B. and perhaps many tenses occurred in the lost works of 
Greeks, which we now consider as never having been in use. 


The proper conjugation caii only be learnt completely from 195. 
the paradigm which is given below ; at the same time, how- (^^0 
sver, all these different tenses have something amongst them 
in common, which may be comprehended under the following 
^eral heads : 

I • There are in the active and passive voices two principal 
:lasses with reference to the termination ; one of which we shall 
call the class of the Principal tenses (the present, future, and 
perfect), the other the class of the Historical tenses (im* 
perfect, plusquam perf. and the aorists). The tenses of each 
i^lass agree with one another in certain points, as the following 
table shows : 

1. P. 
ύ fSing.— 
-g < D. wantmg 

< t PI. -μ^ρ 

ι ernes. 

2. P. 

3. P. 













Historical Tenses. 

ι. P. 

α3 rSing. — 
vs < D. wanting 

< tPl -/^€V 

S. -μην 
D. ^μεθον 
PI. -μέθα 

2. P. 












This table serves also for the verbs in /uc, and on that ac- 
count the first person is left undefined. The third person sing. 

302 CoujugatioH. 

act. is et in the present and' future of verbs in ω, in the perf. 
e; in verbs in μι it is σι. 

Obs. 1. In the old (epic) and old Attic language, the distinction be- 
tween the 2nd and Srd.pers• dual appears not to have been firmly 
established ; in the former both persons appear to have been -or» in 
the latter -i^v. Thus we find asdrd pers. dual &4jieroy, imperf• IL c, 
364. erevxeray IL v\ 346. \αψνσσ€τον σ , ό83. iror Hes. "Έργ. 197. 
but with the v. r. ίτην. On the other hand we find in the it pers; Soph. 
(Ed. r. 1511. είχέτην^ where €ΐχ€τον would be against the metre, Eur. 
Ale. 672. ηΧΚαϊ,άτην in all MSS. ; and Zenodotus wrote IL κ\ 545. 
λαβέτην for Xafieroy, \\ 7S2, σψω ίέ /laV ήθ€\έτην. Inmost of these 
passages, however, the MSS. have unanimously 2 pers. -ov, 3 pers. -lyr, 
and the metre allows either a long or a short syllable*. 

Obs, S. If we assume that the termination of the 3rd pers. plur. of 
the principal tenses in Doric -yn for -σι was the primitive form, and 
that the Doric r was afterwards changed into σ, the ν before σ rejected 
(§. 39.), and then the short vowel changed into a diphthong, or made 
long (rvTiTOvrc, τνπτονσι^ τΟπτουσι, rerv^ayri, τετύψανσι, Τ€τϋφασι, 
τιθέντι, ridiyai, ηθεϊσι and τιθέασι), the agreement becomes still clearer, 
not only between all kinds of verbs in -<<i, as well as in -/lcc, but also be- 
tween the principal and historical tenses. For 

1 . The third pers. plur. of verbs in -ω, and of those in »μι, "ουσι^ 
-βΐσί, -ασ(, -ονσι, -^ΰσι have one principle, since tliey are derived ac- 
cording to the common rule §• 39. from Ovn, -eyri, -ayri, -on-i, "vvri• 

2. The active and passive voices accord in the third person of the 
present and future, -oiri, -ovrai, -evrt, -evrai, ^avri, -α»ται, &c. rinrrom 
(-ονσι), rvTToyrai, Tidiyri (ηθείσι), r/Oeyrat, &c. 

3. It becomes clear how in verbs in -/lu the terminations -έανι, -oocrt, 
-ύασι could come from -ctac, -οΰσι^ -νσι ; viz. the α before the termi- 
nation comes from v, according to the Ionic dialect, as irc^cX^arai, 
ηθέαται for xe^/Xi/vrar, τίθενται. See §. 198. 

4. The reason appears why α before the termination -λ of the per- 
fect is long ; viz. because the syllable in which ν before σ is omitted, 
remains long. §• 39, 

5. In the same manner the analogy between -oi^ri and -or, -α»τι and 
-ay is shown. In some dialects, much of which afterwards remained 
in the dialect of the Alexandrian writers, the perf. in the third pers. 
plur. had also -ay for -ασι. See §. 200, 4. Obs, 

• Scheef. ad Apoll. Rhofl. Sch. ad Eur. Med. 1041. Comp. Uerm. 
p. 146. £lmsl. ad Arist Ach. 733. ad Soph. (£d. Cul. 1381. 

ConJ^gaiion. 803 

The conjugatioD of the perf; pasa. deejQn^ea ^ separate men» 196. 
tion here• It has properly the paesive^terminations given in the 
above tables, Sing, -μαι,.'^α^^ τται,; Dual*/Li€0Qi^ -σθοι% -σθομ) 
Plor. -μ^α, -σθ«, -νται ; and these terminations remam unr 
changed in the pure verba* But in . the bai^one verbs the 
consonant which precedes the termination, must be changed in 
various ways according to the rules in.§« 37, 4. 

1• If the termination is -μμαι, the first μ is regarded as 
originating from ir, and therefore the ^ verb is conjugated 
τετυφαι (τΙτιιΐΓ-σο*) τέτνπται, τέτίυφθον (from rervitSov). 

2. In -γ/ιαι, γσ is changed into ξ, y before τ into jc, before 
β into χ (§. 34.), βϊλβγ/ιαι, βίλεζαι, elXeKrat, eiXeyOov, 8cc. 

3• In -σμαι, which has originated from -γκα, e. g. ιτεψασμαι 
from n€(j>ayKa, the ν from which the γ of the perf• act. has been 
derived, where it is practicable, resumes its place, as ττεφα^μΜ, 
ΐΓεφανσαι, πίφανται, πίψαρθον, πεφανθαι //. β , 122. e, 531• 
Soph. Antig. 62 1 . and elsewhere. Χελυμανται Dem, p. 570, 20• 
So -avrai is always the termination of the 3rd pers. sing, not 
plur. \l/ri<f>oc κίκρανται Eur. Andr. 1276. comp• Ion. 1029. 
πεπείραρται τάδε Soph. Trach. 851. κεγείμανται ψ/οένβο Pind. 
Pyth. 9, 57. according to the schema Pindaricum %. 303, 2. 
So the verbs in -ύνω, e. g. Χζλάμπρννται Arist. Plut. 635. 
παρωξννται Dem. p. 70, 14. παρωξυνθαι Plat. Ρ rot. p. 383 E.^ 

With the same termination before the 2nd pers. -σαι the first 
σ is again dropped, as πέπεισαι, πέττυσαι Plat. Prot. p. 310 B. 
Homer has for the sake of the metre πέττνσσαι Od. λ', 494• 
κέκασσαι Od. τ , 82. 

4. In -/u/uac and -γι^αι, which have arisen from -μφα and 
-γχα, the μ and γ which had been dropped in the first person 
resume their place in the other persons, as ελτ^λεγμαι (for ελ//- 
λεγ-γ/ιιαι from ελέγχω), εληλεγξαι (from εληλεγ-γσαι), ελ^ 
λεγκται. κίκαμμαι, κεκαμφαι (from κεκαμπ^πσαι), κεκαμιτται. 
See§. 188, 2. 

Of the third pers, plur. see §. 198. b. 

2. With respect to the Moods it is to be observed that 197. 

fi) In the imperative, except the second person, the dual of v^^^^ 

^ Schaef. ad Dionys. H. p. 355. ad Apoil. Rh. Schol. p. 208. 

304 Conjugation. 

the indicative is throughout the basis. Act. sing, third pers• 
dual -τον, -των; plur. -τ€, -τωσαν. Pass. sing, third pers. 
-σθω ; dual -σβον, -σβων ; plur. -σθβ, -σβωσβν. Only in the 
pres. and perf. pass, the 2nd pers. imp. is throughout in analogy 
with the 2nd pers. indie, the imper. having -σο where the indie, 
has ^σαι. If an e precedes the σ, the σ is rejected» and eai 
which remains is contracted into p, eo into ov. See §• 202, 1. 
The proper imper. perf. act. does not occur, for γεγωνε JBiir. 
Or. 1226. is present, and τέθναθι Sec. are derivative forms. 

b). In the optative t is always added to the principal vowel, 
either short or made short, of the same tense in the indicative. 
τντΓτω TVTTTOf/ii, crvxpa τύφαιμι. In the perfect it is added to 
the principal vowel of the present indie• τετυψα, τετυφοιμι. 
If the long vowel be the characteristic, as in the perf. pass, of 
verbs pure, ι is subscribed, τ€τΙμημαι τ€τιμγμην, νι^ρίβωμαι 
ηκριβωμην. If the principal vowel is υ, this vowel becomes 
long, e. g. λελυτο Od. σ, 238. δαινυτο //. ω, 665. forXe- 
Χύϊτο, Saivviro, perhaps more correctly λελυιτο, δαινυΐτο^. 

c) The conjugation of the optative is always analogous with 
that of the historical tenses, that of the conjunctive with the 
conjugation of the principal tenses. The optative has therefore 
in the third person dual "την, -σθι^ν ; in the third person plur. 
-V, -ντο. The conjunctive in the dual third pers. -τον, -σβον; 
plur. third pers. -σι, -νται. 

d) The conjunctive has throughout the long vowel instead 
of the short of the indicative, ω, η, y, for o, 6, ei. In the 
perfect it is again determined by the present, πεψνκι/ Eur. 
Ion. 453. ωφΧηκτ/ Arist. Av. 1457. καθεστη^^ρ Soph. Ant. 
1074. τεΒνίικωσι Thuc. 8, 74. 

e) If we might venture to assume as a principle, that those 
forms which occur in the old Ionic and Doric dialects are in 
general the primitive forms, the infinitive act. must have ori- 
ginally ended in ^μεναι, abbreviated into -/uev. From this at 
least many forms of infinitives in use may be derived. 

From the form -μεναι, -τιθέ^ιεναι, τετυφ€/uεvαc, τυφθήμεναι, 
came, by omitting the syllable /ue, τίθίναι, τετυφέναί, τυφθη^ 
ναι. In some the vowel preceding the omitted /uε was made 

* Jen. Litt. Zeit. 1009. No. 247. p. 154. 

Conjugation. 305 

long, as in στηναι, Oeipat, Sovvai, for σταμεναι, θίμβναι, So* 

From the form -μβν, τνπτεμβν, came, in the same manner,- 
tvittIv and τύτΓτβιμ made long (R.)• 

f ) The perfect retains its reduplication through all the moods, 
τ€τυφα, τετυφβ, τετνψοι^ιι, τ€τύφω, τετυφωο. 

06«. 1. The old grammarians reckoned thirteen conjugations {σνζν 
γΐαχ) ; six of barytones, three of circumflexed verbs, four of verbs in «fti• 
Theodore Gaza reduced them to five : 1 • Those which have ψ in the fut 
2. Those which have ξ. 3. Those which have σ. 4. Those in λ, μ, v, ρ• 
5. Those in ^μι. The modem division originated with Verwey^. 

Obs. 2. Of the circumflexed verbs only those in "έω occur frequently 
in the Ionic writers uncontracted, but often also contracted• Those in 
-<w never occur uncontracted in Herodotus, seldom in Homer, as &oi- 
^ιάουσα Od. €, 61. κ, 227. βριάει Iles.'^Epy. δ. Theog. 447. yoaoi/iei^, 
yoaoiey 11. ω, 664. Od. ω, 190. ίλάων Od. κ\ 89. Η. in Merc. 342. 
lyBvaoyrts Hes. Sc. 210. κατ€9κίαον Od. μ\ 436. κ(κΛάων II, η\ 213. 
Od. r , 438. \άων Od. r , 229 seq. Η. in Merc, 360. raieraoOnr Od. ζ^ 
153. 245. yaet Od. ζ^ 292. ovrac Od. χ, 356. ιτίμαον IL κ\ 367. 
ν\Λον Od. π, 5. ν, 15. ΙχράβΓο Od. ^', 69. all with α short; with α 
long li^afav Od. V, 584. πεινάωκ //. y\ 25. ir', 758. σ 162. Ιιμά^ιν 
Hes.^^E^Tf. 392. They are commonly contracted in Homer and Hesiod,/ 
or lengthened, avriaaf, ίινηόωσιν. See §. 11. p. 38. It is remarkable 
that along with γοάοι/ιεν, έλάων, Ιχθι/άοντεί, — γο<$ωσα, k\6ωσί^ Ιχθνάψ 
are found as the only forms*. The inf. -aecv is found only in ApolL 
Rh. 1, 828. 903. 3, 680. 1134. in vaccraecv, elsewhere always iXa^r^ 
ircpa^v. Those in »6ω are no where found uncontracted. 

Ohs. 3• Whether the inf. of verbs in •άω should have the ι suhscr, or 
not, must be decided by a more complete investigation of inscriptions• 
Herodian (A.D« 180.) and the subsequent old grammarians decide 
against it on trifling grounds. A more important reason is, that the 
original form of the inf. was not -eiv but cv, whence yeXa»', not yeXfy. 
For though orthography and speech do not always conform exactly to 
etymology, the inf. of the verbs in "όω {hikovy from hη\6€y, not ^ηλοΐ¥ 
as it must have been if derived from hη\όeιy) shows that in tliis case 
regard was paid to the original form \ 

^ Fisch. 1 a. p. 244 seq. Comp. p.QSS. Jen.L.Z.1809.No.245.p.138. 
Dion. Thr. p. 638. in Bekk. Anecd. <* Elmsl. ad Soph. CEd. T. Prsf. 

Ilieodos. Granim. p. 149. p. 8. Wolf Litter. Anal. 1. p. 419. 

* Herm. in Wolf.Mus. Antiq. Stud. Gotthng ad Theod. p. 926 seq. 

VOL. I. X 




Barytone Verb 




Sing, τνπτω^ * I strike* 

-01, -€lf, -€l 

Dual. 'erovf ^eroy 
Plur. 'θμ€ν, -€Γ€, -ουσι (ν) 

Sing, nnrrc, «strike' 

τνπΓέτω, Met him (her, 
it) strike' 

Dual. rwrreTovy * strike ye 
• (both)' 

τυπτέτων^ *they (both) 
may or must strike' 

Plur. rvirrere, ' strike ye* 

τνιττέτωσαν (l), ' they 
may, must, should strike' 


Sing, ίτνιττον^ * I did strike* 
-ov, -€i, -€ (ev) 
Dual. -crov, -έη^ν 
Plur. 'Ομεν^ -ere, -or 

Perf. 1. 

Sing, τέτυφα, * I have struck* 
-a, -Oi, -e (cv) 
Dual. -arov, -arov 
Plur. -αμεν^ -'are^ -όσι (ν) 

[τέτνψε^ like other imper. 
perf. act., b not in use.] 

Plusq. 1. 

Sing, ererv^cv 

-€iv, -€tf, -ei (5) 
Dual. -cirov, -ecriyv 
Plur. •€ψ€ν^ 'Cire, ^eiaav 

(-εσαν) (6) 

Perf. 8. 


as the perf. 1. in all the moods. 

Plusq. S. 


as in the plusquam perf. 1. 

Aor. 1. 

Sing. irv\l/a 

-a, -af, -e (ev) 
Dual. •αΓθν, ^άτην 
Plur. -αμβν, -ore, -αν 

Sing. TvyiKtv 

-ov, -ar« 
Dual.-arov, "άτων 
Plur. -arc, -όηασακ (l) 

Aor. 2. 

Sing, ίτυνον 

as the imperfect. 

as the present. 

Put. 1. 

Sing, τ-νψω 

as the present. 


Put, 8. 

Sing, τνπώ 

-ώ, -eii, -€t 
Dual. -cirov, •cTrov 
Plur. -οΰμεν, -cire, -ονσι (ν) 


Note, The numbers refer to the following Observations, §. 198. 








ΊΊηττοιμι, * I might strike, τνπτω * (that) [ may strike' 
I would strike' 

'^ιμι^ -CIS, -Of 

-oirov, 'οίτην 
-ocfiCKy -ocre, -oicf (2) 


-ωσι (y) 


τντΓτων^ Όνσα^ -of 
(Gen. -o»TOfy 


as the present. 

as the present• 


"oroSf &c.) 


-oiroK, -a/nji' 




-«σι (y) 

(G. -aiTOft 
-άσΐ|£ , &c.) 

as the present. 

as the present 


ηητών^ -ονσα, -(Sv 
(G. rvircSiTOffy&c.) 


as the present 



τύφων, -ονσα, -ov 


-OifU, -OC^i -Oi 

-otrof, Όίτην 

-oifiey, -Oire, -otci' 


X 2 


ruiruiF, -ονσα, -ovy 
(G. "OvyroSf ficc.) 



1. in 





^cX-coi, ' 

Ι love' 






-€t£, -€t 







-είΓον, -6ΙΓ0Ι' 
-έ€Γ€, •Ιονσι 
-βΐΓ€, -οίσι (r) 





-βίΓωσαν (ΐ) 



-€€ί -€€ 



-€if, -et 
-έετοκ, -€έΓΐ?ν 
-etrov, '€ίτηy 
-έ€Γ€, -€ον 

-etre, -ονν 


2. ία 



rc/i -άω, 

' Ι honour' 
'α€ίί, -act * 

-aerov, ^aeroy 






^aroy, -arov 
-acre, 'άονσι 
-arc, -«fft (v) 



-ΟΓωσακ (ΐ) 



Μμ-αον, -aef, -αβ 
"wy -α£, -α 

D. ^acToy, ^aimjy 

3. ίο 



* I show* 






-o«, -ot 
"otTOVy 'oerov 


. -derov, 




-oi/roy, -ovrov 
-(ierc, -(ίουσι 
-ovre, -ονσι (ν) 





-οντίιίσαν (ΐ) 



-ονν, -ovf, -ον 

D. -όβτοί', -οέη|ν 

* ίο'ω, wetra'ai, ^ιψα», χράομαι, contract ae and aec into 






-έοιμι, 'ioiSf -coc 

-01/11, -OCf, -ot 


-oirov, 'οίτην 
-έοι /Lic•', -€o«re, ^ioiev 
-oi/iev, -oirc, -οΤβΐ'ζδ) 




-έαι, -έ^ί, -έ^ί 

«% ^« ^ 

-ω, -^ί, -ρ 

-eiyrov, -iiyroi' 
'TJroVf 'TJroy 

-ώμ€κ, -^Γβ, -ώσι (ν) 

-έαι ν,-έονσα, -έον 
(G. 0ιλ-έοι^ο£ 

-oi/ITOS &ο.) 


-«ν, -ωσα, -ων 
(G. -άοιτοί 


^άοιμι, "aoiSf -άοι 


'άοιμ€ν^•άοιτ€^ -aoiey 


-άω, -apt, -άρ 
*• Λ ^» 

-ω, "ί^ι "ί^ 

-drov, 'aroy 
'άωμ€yf'uηref -άωσι 
-eJ/iev, -arc, -ώσι (ν) 


Ρ, -άομ€νρ -^erCf -aoy 
'Μμεν^ '^irtf -ων 


-oT^c, -Olf, -01 

-οίΓον, 'Ό^τηy 
-(Soc/icKi^tre, -t^iev 
'6ιμ€ν^ -oire, -o7ev(2) 


hW, -Oif, -01 

-oiyror, -oiyroi' 
-wroF, 'WToy 
'όιαμεν^ 'όητ€, -όωσι 
-ώ/ΐ€ν, -Jre, -ώσι (y) 


-civ, OvaOf 'ovy 

P. '•&ίμ€ν^ '0€T€f "ooy 
'•€νμ€ν^ -^re^ "ovy 

9 a&d jy. See §. 200. '2. 




198. 1 . In the third person plur. of the imperative in Attic the tenninadon 
(193) m^yrwy is more usual than -έΓοισαν. The former occurs even in the Ionic 
writers. άγγ€\Κ6ντων IL ff, 517, τινόντων Od, a, 340. Xeyomv 
Herod. 1, 89. σωζόντων Soph. Aj. 660. μ€Τ€χ6ντων Plat. Protag. 
p. S2fi D. φερόντων Xen. Symp. 5, 8. In the contracted verhs alio 
κνρούντων JEschyl. Choeph. 712. λντοϋντων Xenoph. Cyr. 3, 3, 50. 
€κί€ΐματονντων Plat. Rep. St. p. 381 £. γβλώιτϋΐν Soph, Aj, 961. In 
the aor. 1. kκκo^άvτωv Aristoph, Av, 583. πεμφάντων Xen, Cyrop, 4, 
5, 17. The other form, however, ^τωσαν^ is also found in the older 
Attics, e. g. Thuc. 1, 34•. μαθέτωσαν. Plat. Leg. 6. p. 759 Ό, ψερίτωσαν. 
ib, 762 A. ντεχέτωσα»", and various examples, probahly from an old 
law, in JEschin. c. Tim. p. 614. ίστωσαν and "ιτωσαν are even more 
common than ίστων and Ιόντων\ 

The same form was also used by the Dorians, e. g. κοιναν€Οντων in 
the treaty of alliance between the Argives and Lacedaemonians Tkuc, 
5, 79. according to Valckenaer's emendation ad Eurip, Phosn• p. 75, 
for κοινωνούντων, i. e. κοινωνείτωσαν. Some Doric tribes omitted the ν 
in this form, e. g. ποιοϋντω^ άποστ€ΐΚάντω^, Hence the Latin imperative 
in the third person amanto^ docento'. 

2. The optative in -oi/ic, particularly in the contracted verbs, has 
also' in Attic the termination -o/ijk, ποιοίην, φιΧοίην, Ιΐ€μωτγην^ ψρονοίηΐ^ 
^αΓ€\οΙη$ Isocr. ad Phil, ρ, 96 Β. C. άποστ€ροΙη Jsocr, Enc, HeL 
p. 216 A. €πίτψψημ€ν Jsocr. Areop, p. 149 £. ίιτερωτψη Xenoph• 
M. S, 1, 1, 9. άγαπ^ην Plat, Cratyl, p, 391 C. Lys. p, 215 B. 
νικψη Demosth, Phil. 1. extr. τολμψη Isocr, w, avriS. p, 310 B. 2ca- 
κνβερν^η Plat, Rep. 9. p. 573 D. ^ρψηε Soph. Antig. 70. The third 
person plur. is, as in the common form, φΐΚοΪ€ν, τιμψ€ν. Yet the Attica 
often use the form οϊμι, ψμι\ as άτοροι PUU, Rep. p, 557 D. 

This form οίην is found also in Ionic and Doric writers, e. g. ivopfif 
Herod. 1, 89. ο\κοίψ€ Theocr, Id. 12, 28. As verbs in -άω were by 
the lonians conjugated in -eo» (§, 10.), we find in their writers ΙιαπηίοΙι^» 
€ρωτοίη for "ΐτη^ψη^ ίρωτψη. 

* £lmsl. Mus. Crit. No. 6. p. 306. 
maintains, but erroneously, that 
-τάισαν first occurs in Archestratus, 
about the time of Anstotlc. 

^ Maitt. p. 397. 

^ Pierson ad Mcerid. p. 15. Koen 

ad Greg. p. (74) 175. Thorn. M. 
p. 922. Maitt. p. 66 seq. Fisdi. 9. 
p. 343. 

^^Valck.adUippol. 6,469. Fisch.9. 
p. 346. 385. Dindorf ad Xen. Anab. 
f, 1, 10. 

Conjugation^ 311 

The optative aleo of barytone verbs is gometimes, though rarely, con•» 
jugated in the same manner» not merely in the present, but also in the 
perfect, aor. 2. and future, e. g. ΙιαβαΚοίην PlaU Epist. 7. p. 339 D. 
ίίη^κοίη Cratin, ap. Athen. 7. p• 305 B• according to Porson Ado. 
98. έκΐΓ€φ€νγοίην Soph. (Ed. T. 840. wtiroiBoin Arisioph. Acham. 940. 
προ€Χη\υΘοίη9 Xen. Cyrop. 2, 4, 17. futur. ψανοίην Soph. Aj. 313. vid. 
Herm• v. 306. έρο(η Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 14. where Schneider reads cpoi•. 
ϋχοίην id. Cyr. 7, 1, 35. PUt. Rep. 7. p. 516 E. Phadon. p. 72 B. is 
the regular form, but not in the compounds, in which, for example, only 
παράσχοιμι is used. 

The forms &\ψην, βιψην^ ίι^ψην, ίψην$ yv^ijK, which are common 
in later authors, instead of &\οίην, jSio/i^v, ίοίην, γνοίην, are unknown 
to the genuine Attics ^ 

The Etym. M. p. 764, 52. cites rpi^oiy for τρέψοιμι from Euripides, 
and 80 we should read in Suidas Άμάμτοιν (not άμαρτέιν) €Ίρηκ€ τ6 
άμάρτοψί Kparivos Δρατβτ/σι. Comp. §. 211, II. 1.8 

5. In some perfects in -ι^κα the lonians, even Homer, rejected the 
letters ηκ in the dual and plur. not in the sing. e. g. τέΘνατον, τέΒναμεν^ 
riOrare, redvaai. ίσταμενΡΙαί. Gorg. p.468 B. Thuc. 6, 18. Arist. Ach. 
683. for ^στήκαμεν. itrrare Demosth. p. 99. instead of which Herod. 5, 
49. has itrriare. Besides r€θyηιca and ίστηκα, βέβηκα is also syncopated 
in this way in the Attic writers, βέβαμ€ν, βεβάσι (^e^e/xva/xev, -άναι, 
ήρΙσταμ€ν, 'άναι in Aristophanes and other comic writers Athen. 10. 
p. 422 E. seq. are probably derived from the dialect of common life) in 
Horn. H. in Cer. 148. τέΓ\αμ€ν fox τ€τ\{ικαμ€ν9 to which class probably 
μέματον, μ4ματ€ belongs. Homer rejects only κ in ττε^νασι, the ν be<« 
coming short, only α in ^e/^i/iev //. η, 196. for ^ei^/a/iev, &νωγμ€ν Η. 
m Apoll. 528• for ήνώγαμ€ν. With these forms may be compared e<X4- 
Χονθμεν II. c', 49. Od. y', 81. for «Ιλι^λονΟαμεκ, k\ηKΰQaμ€v (with re- 
jection of θ also, which the Attic language did not tolerate before fi, 
Cratinus and Achseus Heph. p. 17 seq. ed. Gaisf. used έλήλν/χεν, 
Α//λντβ), ίοιγμ€ν Soph. Aj. 1239. Eur. Heracl. 429. for ίοίκαμεν, 
as ΖέΖοι•γμ€ν for $€^οΙκαμ€ν Etym. M. p. 350, 54. Zonar, 1. p. 7SQ. 
and, with the shortening of the diphthong in the penult, *ίΙμ€ν in 
Homer and Herodotus from oi^a/iev, which Attic pronunciation sofl- 

* Maitt. p. 60. 6 1 . Piers, ad Mcerid. defended, as by Buttmann Mus. An- 

p. 325 seq. Fisch. %, p. 345 seq. 384. tiq. St. p. 936. by the circumstance 

'Lob. ad Phryn. p. 343. 345 seq. that the indie. and imper. throughout 

Blorafield ad .£sch. Ag. 331. main- retain ω. 

tains the correctness of these forms, ' Dobree ad Arist. £ccl. 607 Add. 

and aXfiiyv, βιψην^ Ύ^ψ^^» ™^y h^ Buttm. L. Gr. p. 302 seq. 

312 Conjugation. 

ened into tdyicv» and in the pliuq. perf. hrawiBfuv II, β!^ Ml• V^ 1(9. 
ξ^ 5δ• for Ιτ€ποΙβ€ψ€ν. So the Attics nid for lictftcr, jficirf» 
ytfftev, ι^στβ• See εί^ω, §• 2dl. The remaining personsy dnal aai 
plur. indie, were formed according to the analogy of the first, e. g• 
ίστασι^ τβθκάσι, j3c/3dacy like iffra/icv, Ιστασι, έστέασι HtrodL I9 200. 
3, 62. Further, ailer the analogy of loiyfcev (as τον *την t« answer 
in the other persons to -ficy in the first) were formed Ιΐκτον^ Ifcnyik 
Od. i^f 27. //. a\ 104. (not from l^iicecrov, έ^κε/ηιν)» and even a pasnve 
form perf. and plusq. perf. //. ψ\ 107. ϋκτο^ or Od, d', 796. (Src. fpcro. 
i?ur. i^fe. 1084. προσή'ίζαί, and in Hesych. π/οοοιίϊκται. Of wiwo^B• 
see below, b). ^(mjre is used for Ιίστατ€ II, l•), 243. 246. from the exi- 
gency of the metre, as ^Ι^ωθι^ ri0///ievai, fevyvv/iev §. 212, 11. 

From these syncopated forms, as they resembled the persons of 
ιΐστημι, other moods and tenses again were derived, as if they were 

a) Plusq. perf. τέθνασαν, ^στασαρ Herod, 8, 74. Thuc, 4, 56. 7, 
28. &c. ]3έ^3ασακ //. ρ, 286. μέμασαν II, β, 863. &c. which have the 
same relation to τέθναμ€ν^ ^arCf -άσι, as ίστασαν imperf. to Ισταμ^ν^ 
^ατ€, -ασ«• 

b) Imper. τέθναθι^ -arw, Ισταβι, -άπα, /le/iarirf, as ισταθι, -άπα, is 
related to ίσταμ^ν. Hence the imperatives τντΧαβί^ -aroi, after τΜ^Λμ^ψ^ 
ieiSiOi II. e , 827. &c. and plur. ^ci^ire //. ν , 366. after ί€ί^ιμ€τ^ rl- 
κραγβί in Aristophanes, as if after κέκραγμεν for Κ€κράγαμ€ν, In others 
the 6 is retained in the rest of the persons, as άνωχθι after άνωγμ€νψ 
^νίιχθω II, λ', 189. &νωχΒ€ Od, χ', 437. and so probably kypiiyope^ 
ΙΙ,η\Ζ7\, σ', 299. is to be explained, ίγρηγόραμεν, ίγρ{ιγορμ€ν9 whence 
iypiiyopdi. This again gave occasion to the form in the 3rd pers. plur. 
iypnyopeaai II. jc', 419. So πέποσθ€ II. γ, 99. Od. κ\ 465. ψ', 53. 
appears to have been derived from xeiroi^Oare, y being rejected after 
the syncopation and θ changed into σ. 

c) Optative τεθναίην^ Ισταίηγ^ τ€τ\αίην^ as larairiv from ίσταμ€ν^ 

d) Subjunctive ίστώμεν Plat. Gorg. p. 468 B. ίμβεβώσι id. Phsdr, 
p. 252 £. 2e2i|7 Xen, Rep. Ath. 1,11. Itlituvi Isocr, Paneg. p. 73 C. 
ad Phil. p. 96 B. contr. Euthyn. p. 401 C. 

e) Infinitive τεΒνάναι^ εστάναι, βεβάναι Herod. 5, 86. Eurip, Heracl, 
611. rerXavac, in the older language τεθνάμεναι and τ€θνάμ€ν II, ο\ 
497. &c. Ιστάμ€ναι and ίστάμεν II. κ, 480. h\ 342. βεβάμεν IL p\ 
359. 510. τ€τ\άμ€ναι and τετλάμεν Od, ν, 307. γ , 209. &c• So 2ci- 
ΙΙμεν Od. i', 274. 

Conftigation. 313 

f) The pnrticiple in Homer has -i^r, as έση|6ι, τίβνηώ^^ κ€κμηώί, or 
«oJf, as ifrraaresf /3e/3aMf, in the Ionic prose writers and tlie Attics 
fenenuly -e6f and -^f, ivrc^s Herod, 1, 1012. 5, 92. and έστώβ 7*Auc• 
8» 9. 4, 10. Soph. (Ed. T. 639. /3ej3«ff (never fitfitwt), reBvtits (never 
ree^wf» but rcOvcMrof, &c.). The fern, of this participle is in Homer 
-via and ωσα^ as fiefiavla Horn. H. 48, 9• and β^βώσα Od. vV14• 
κατατ€θνψ>1νξ% Od• λ', 84• 140. τ€τ\ψηα Od. v\ Z3. μεμαυΐα^ τε^ννΐα 
//. ξ, 288. in the Ionic prose writers and Attics always -ωσα, in He- 
rodotus with prefixed e, σνν€στ€ώση$ 1, 74. 94. In the oblique cases 
Homer has ^otos and cJrof, e. g• τεθνηότοε II. p\ 435. comp. o\ 401• 
Od. Ψ', 84. and τ^θνηώτοί (τ^θνειώτοή II. ι', 629. comp, Γ. 71. 464. 
and elsewhere μ€μαότ€$ II. β ^ SIS. and frequently μ€μαώτο9. ve^vwras 
Od. e , 477. From έσταώ$ he uses only iaraaros. The Attics in the 
syncopated form have only "wroSf TtQveQiTos, kareQros or ίστώτοί, jSc- 
/SJrof. The participle πίττωκα was syncopated in this way by them, 
verrtiros Soph. Aj. 840. for vettridK&ros. See Anomalous Verbs under 
verw. The neut. keeps ω unchanged, as it originated by contraction 
from -a<Js Thuc. 8, 9. 4, 10. with the v. r. -€<rr<Ji. See §. 122. The 
best MSB. however have o, not ω, which Bekker has universally 
adopted in Plato and Thucydides. 

4. The primitive form of the plusquam perf., which occurs in Homer 
and Herodotus, was -ea, in the third person -ee, e. g. lyeyovee, hiro• 
β€βήκ€€9 see ξ. 188. Obs. Hence arose, on the one hand, the Doric 
form •€ΐα, e. g. σνναγαγόχεια, ένιτετελέκαα « ; on the other, by con- 
traction, the Attic form ^η in the first person, e. g. Ιιτβχήκι^ Aristoph. 
Ach. 10. for ^KEXviveiy. ξίη Aristoph. A v. 511. Soph. Antig. 448. 
Eurip. Hippol. 405. ^ΐΓ€η'όνΘη Arist. Eccl. 650. ^κηκόη id. Pac. 616. 
in the second person -ηί for eis in Homer //. χ', 280. ώψ€\{ικη Plat 
ApoL S. p. 31 D. E. ίΐ€ίΙψ Aristoph. Nub. 329. Soph. Antig. 447. 
ήίη$ for jdeis Arist. Eccl. 551. Od. r, 93. ρ^ησθα\ iXeXiidns Arist. 
Equ. 822. 1044. Dor. tct^ovdns Theocr. 7, 83. 10, 1.* in the third per- 
son ci, in the old Attic, however, chiefly with the r ίφελκνστ. -etv, e. g• 
ήκηκ6€ΐν PL•t. Cratyl. p. 231. ^leiv Aristoph. Fespi 635. πβττοίβειν id. 
Nub. 1347. as //. ψ', 691• Od. σ, 342. έστήκειν and probably also jSc- 
β\ίΐκ€ΐν II. €, 661. B\ 270. f, 412. &c. as //. y, 388. ^σκακ 3rd 
pers. imperf.* v, however, is only used when a vowel follows. The 

• Gruter Inscr. p. 216. 1, 25. 87. ^ Schol. Ven. ad II. f, 41 a. Valck. 
Koen ad Greg. p. (50) 122. ad II. χ', 280. ad Hippol. 5, 405. 1338. 

• Heind. ad Plat. Euthyd. p. 821. ad N. T. p. 899. Piers, ad Mcerid. 

• Gregor. p. (117) 256. et Koen. p. 173 seq. Kocn ad Gregor. p. (50) 
Bast et Schaef. ad Greg. p. 122 seq. 122. Hemsterh. ad Arist. Plut 6,696. 
Valck. in N.T. p. 399. Brunck. ibid, et ad Aristoph. Nub. 

314 Cotijugation. 

fonn ξίη δτά pen. instead of pSei IL a, 70. Od. ir\ 189. is derived 
from Aristarchus Etym^ M. p, 419, 24, It is said to have been used 
also in the new Attic according to Etym. M. L c. It is more certain that 
it was Doric, as όπώττη Theocr, 4, 7• π€τοίθη 5, 28• &c. See note c 
p. did. 

5. Instead of the termination -ci^av, the form -βσακ is ahnost univer- 
sal in Ionic and Attic, e. g. άκηκΟ€σαν Herod. 2, 52, kyeyov^vuv 1, 67. 
ίγρηγόρεσαν Artst, Plut, 744• eiXii^eaay Xen, Cyrop, 8, 4, 80• iwt' 
ν\€ύκ€σαν Thuc. 8, 99.• (See note*, p. 818.) 

6. Instead of the form -ai/ii in the optat. aor. 1. the Attics chiefly 
use the primitive £olic form eta, eias, eie, after the example of the 
lonians and Dorians, but only in the second and third pers. sing• and 
the third plur. ayafiXiyj/etas Artst Plut, 95, /ieiVcias //. γ\ 52. άιτο- 
στ{ισ€ΐ€ Thuc. 8, 6. γηθήσαεν Od, μ\ 88. ψανσ€ΐ€ Pind, Pyth, 9, 218. 
nyyc/Xetey Theocr, 12, 19. φθάσ€ΐαν, €ξayaγκάσeιay Thuc, 8, 95• Acov- 
aeiay II. /?, 98. Herod, 4, 129. The ^olians also use the first person \ 
But the form -ais -ai also occurs in Homer and the Attic writers, e. g• 
άκούσαι II. η\ 129 seq. Od. r, 297. So άρπαλίσαι JEsch, Eum. 981. 
λέζαι Ag. 178. o\yv»'ais Soph, (Ed. T, 446. άκούσαι$ Plat. Rep. 8. 
p. 562 B. φήσαΐί id. Gorg, p. 477 B. Ζικάσαι%, ίκκομίσαΐί, welecut 
Artst. Vesp. 725, 815. Pac, 404. oxoicrc/Fatev id, Symp, p. 190 C. 
^θάσαιεν Thuc, 8, 49.*' 

7. In some verbs in ^όω the lonians and Attics contracted oe and tto 
not into ov but into w, 6ri not into oi but into ψ, e. g. ptywy Artst. Vesp• 
446. Av. 935. part, ριγώντι Artst. Ach. 1145. ρίγωσα Simon, de MuL 
26. opt. pcy^'i? Hippocr, p. 837, 33. subj. piyf Plat, Gorg. p. 517 D. 
So Ι^ρώσαι for ί^ρόουσαι II. \\ 597, on account of the other form iSpm^ 
ούσα II. λ', 119. Buttmann remarks that Hippocrates has always 
ϋρψην, ιΒρώσι, iBpiSyTes *, 

329. £ccl. 650. ad Soph. (£d. T. 433. 
Dawes's Misc. Cr. p. 230 seq. Fisch.2. 
p. 373. That the Attics in the time of 
Aristophanes said only-i^v in the 3rd 
pers. as pf^t^v, is an assertion of 
Elnisley's ad Ach. 35. The same 
writer maintains, ib. 323. ad £ur. 
Bacch. 1343. that the plural in the 
Attic authors was ^ίεμεν, yhere, in 
favour of which only Eur. Bacch. 
1345. and the analogy of the 3rd 
plur. ρ2εσαι/ can be alleged. 

*■ Fisch. 2. p. 373. Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 149. 

*• Gregor. p. (284) 604. Fisch. S. 
p. 386. 

« Flmsl. ad Med. 319. £rf. ad 
Soph. Ant. 410. ed. min. Schsf. 
Melet. p. 85. 

* Moer. p. 336. 339 c. n. Piers. 
Buttm. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 527 seq. ed. 
Heind. Mus. Antiq. Stud• p. 835. 
L* Gr. p. 506. 

CoHJugation* Dialects. 315 


1 . It is a peculiarity of the old Homeric and generally of the 199. 
Ionic and Doric dialects^ that in the act. pass, and mid. in the 
historical tenses and only in the indie, -σκομ is annexed. In bary- 
tones and those whose characteristic is e, ec^ or 17, this termina- 
tion precedes e in the imperf. and aor. 2. as αν€μορμυρ€σκ€ Od. 
μ, 238. νέμπεσκβ Herod. 7, 106. μ€Τ€κβαιν€σκ€ ib. 41. See 
also Herod. 1, 100. Od. υ, 7. //. τ, 135. Od. χ, 358. 
xf/, 9. ξ', 521. φ', 41. Hes. Fr. 61. (v. 187. Loesn.) aor. 2. 
Χαβεσκβν ibid, φανεσκη, i. e. εφανη Od. μ', 241 seq. Hes• 
Fr. 22, 3. (v. 65.) Where two e come together, one is often 
rejected, e. g. ir<yXeajc€TO //. o', 490. c', 788. KaXeaKero IL 
o\ 338. {Hes. Th. 207. jcoXeeaicev.) See also e', 790. o', 640. 
Find Nem. 3, 30.^ If α is the radical vowel, and even though 
it is changed into η, as in σταω, ιστι^μι, and in aor. 1., α comes 
before the termination, as νικασκομεν Od. ζ', 512. ίασκβ or 
€ίασκβ II. Χ, 330. ν', 408. ^ίμνασκβ from ^αμνημι Horn. Η. 
in Ven. 25 1• See also Od. ν, 290. Hes. Sc. 480. Some- 
times with double a, vateraaaKov Π. β\ 539. λ', 272. See 
also Od. \p', 353.^ Hes. Fr, 2. (v. 6.) aor. α1^ησασκ€ II. e', 
786. 788. 790. €ίξασκ€ Od. e', 332. See also ib. V, 587. 
597. 599. Od. χ, 95. αγι^ώσασκε for ηγ^οησε §.51. στο- 
σκ€ν for €στη Π. γ', 217. ναρεβασκβ II. Α, 104. This α is 
sometimes found in the imperf. of barytone verbs, as κρνντασκ€ 
IL ff, 272. Hes. Th. 157. ρίπτασκβ Od. ff, 374. λ', 592. 
r, 575. ροΙζασκ€ Hes. Th. 834. ανασσειασκε Fiom. H. in 
ΛροΙΙ. 403.S So ο precedes the termination when this is the 
radical vowel, ί6σκ€ν IL σ, 546. ^υσκεν IL θ', 271. These 
forms are never mere imperfects or aorists, but have always the 
force of an action repeated in past time. The frequentatives in 
-σκω are probably derived from this form. The augment is 
usually but not always wanting, as may be seen in the examples 
given . 

* Schaefer ad Schol. Apoll. Rhod. down from ροι^ήσασκβ, άνασε/• 

p. 175. σασκ€, 

^ Schsefer ad Tbeocr. 84, 56. ^ Schsf. ad Schol. Apoll. Rh. 

I Buttmann L. Gf. p. 395. con- p. 175. On this whole subject, see 

liders both the last forms as softened Fisch. 2. p. 340. 

316 Conjugation, Dialects. 

Even the Attic poets gometimes use this fonn in lyncd 
passages^ as Soph. Autig. 963. τταυβσκ^ 

200. 2. The termination -eic (2. pers. sing, pres.) and -€tv(infin.) 
(194) yf2L9> in Doric sometimes ec, ev, as σνρίσδβα Theocr. 1, 3. (r.) 
ajueXyec id. 4, 3.•; sometimes tic, and in the 3rd person η, as 
τυπτη, ^^ακκη (StSaaicec) in the Decret. Laced, c. Tim. p. 82. 
ίθβλησθα for eOlXecc Theocr. 29, 4. In Doric, particularly, 
verbs pure in -αω have after contraction y for ^, e. g. φοιτ^ζ 
Theocr. 11, 22. and the third person epy for epa Theocr. 7, 97. 
opy Timaus L. p. 10. νίκη Find. Nem. 5, 9. Theocr. 6. extr. 
is from ρΐκημι. Hence also the Attic contraction of -αβ, -aet into η, 
ρ in the words ζάω (tyc, ty, ίρτε, Ζψ' imperf. etf^v, etric, εζη), 
ΊΓ€ΐναω ireivyVy iopiiu Siipyv, γρησθαι γ^ρηται. See §.49. Obs. 2• 

The lengthening of c before ω, as οκν€ΐω Π. e', 265. 

In verbs pure in άω the ^olians are said to have pronounced 
separately the ι subscr. in the second and third pers. sing. pres. 
e. g. βοάϊ^ γβλάϊ, for βο^ c, γέλα, &.c.^ Theodosius {Bekk. 
Anecd. p. 1046, 8.) says that the iBolians conjugated γέλαι^ΐι 
yekaic, ykXai. 

3. The Dorians conjugate the first pers. plur. of all tenses 
in -/lec instead of -/uey, e. g. e/ocaSo/ucc Theocr. 6, 67. aScjcov/uec 
Aristoph. Lys. 1150. veivapeaArist.Ach. 7 51. See §.49. p• 91. 
imperf. εϊρπομβα Theocr. 7, 2. perf. SeSoiKapec Theocr. 1, 16. 
nenovOapeti Aristoph. Lysistr. 1307. aor. βυρομβς Theocr. 7, 
12. ^I'Oouec 2, 143. fut. ipxf/ovpec id. 18, 40. conj. φρου• 
pwpec id. 7, 122. καλέσω/ιβς 8, 26.^ 

4. The third person plur. in -σι in Doric ends in -τι, and 
before this final syllable, instead of the long vowel or diphthong 
in the barytones, the short vowel with ν is placed, in a manner 
analogous to the dat. plur. of the third declension, and to the 
participles in -ac §. 39. 75. e. g. αναπλεκοντι Find. 01. 2, 136. 
/κοχθ/ζο VTi Theocr. 1,38. τηρίωντι Find. Fyth, 2,161. εχωντι, 
είκωντι in the Dorian treaty Thuc. 5, 77. ψ^ηκαντι Theocr. 1, 

• Fisch. 2. p. 350. Λ poll. w. άν- it appear very probable that tlie true 

των. p. 379 A. quotes ποιέ$ for noiels reading in the Ode of Sappho is κάί 

as Doric. yeXaiaas Ιμ€ρΟ€ν. 

■* Grcgor. p. (277) 590. iibi v. K. *^ Maitt ρ.2ί2 sq. Gregor. p. (77) 

Buttniann L. Or. p. 503. has made 179. Fisch. 3. p. 350. 

Corrugation. Dialects. 317 

42. €στάκαντι id. 16, 82. SecirvnaetiyTi Callini. in Lav. Pall. 
115. ^evevvTi ib. 120.*" Comp. §. 1»5. Obs. 2. 

06f . From this termination came the Latin tennination in -nt. In 
the common dialect» afterwards in the Alexandrian, from ^avrt in the 
perf. arose the termination -αν, e. g. lopyav Batrachom. 178• νέψμικαν 
Lycaphr. Z5%.* 

Instead of -Όνσι the Doric dialect has -οισι also, e. g. ^ιλέοισι Find. 
P. 3, $\. ψυλάσσοισι Nem. 11, 6. Pyth. 9, 110. ψορέοι,σι Theocr. 28» 
11.' (r.) 

The α of the Srd pers. plur. is long, but was made short by £m- 
pedocles and Antimachus {Draco, p. d3.), and in the text of Od. λ', 304. 
before the edition of Barnes, ημήν ik \€λόγχάσιν Ισα 9eo7(fiv>• 

Note. In contraction the Dorians make ev from eo, έον, e. g. rcXevvrc 
Theocr. 7, 37. lμy€υσι Hes, Th. 48. reXcvai t6. 89. άνθενσιν 
"Εργ. 227. veticcvffc //. ν , 254. See $. AO. p. 93. also in the 
verbs in -a'w, which in Ionic ended in -έω §. 10, 1. and in 
those in ^όω §.51. Ohs. 2. and from ev circumflexed, /ievevvri. 
From ao, αω, αον comes α, e. g. χαλασι in Alcseus for χα- 
Χάονσι 1 . 49. p. 92. 

5. In the imperf. the Dorians instead of ae, a, in the third 20I. 
pers. sing, use the contraction 17» as Theocr. 2, 155. εφοίτη (196) 
δ, 42. ίτρνττη 19, 3. ίφυση^ for εομ 1. pers. sing. 3. pers. 
plur. with the lonians evi^, only that they use this kind of cou- 
traction also in verbs in -αω, which, however, they formed in 
-έω, e. g. ανηρωτευν Theocr. 1, 81. riyavevv id. Epigr. 19. 
from αν€ρωτ€ω, αγαπέω, for -αω. -ω for -αον is found Od. σ', 
176• τιρώ from αραομαι. 

The termination -ov of the third pers. imperf. and aor. 2. 
was in some of the common dialects -οσαν, and remained also 
m the Alexandrian dialect, as ίσγα^οσαν Lycophr, 21. par- 
ticularly in the Greek Old Testament, and in the New Testa- 
ment. Analogous to this are ε^οσαν and eSov Hesiod. Theog. 30.^ 

' Maitt p. 923 seq. Gregor. p. (90) ' Boeckh ad Find. 01. 9, 78. 

904.(96)217.(147)318.(150)334. * Uerm. £lem. D. M. p. 58. 

et K. Fisch. 2. p. 333. 336. 339. BuUm. L. Gr. p. 352. Obs. 4. 
asi. *• Lob. ad Phryn. p, 349, Fisch. 9. 

* Seit Empir. p. 961. Fisch. 9. p. 336 seq. Maitt p. 996. 
p. 370. Maitt p. 997. 

318 Conjugation. Dialects. 

6. The 3rd pers. dual imperf. in verbs in -αω and -eei» was 
formed by Homer in -τιτην, e. g. προσαυ^ητην IL λ', 136. 
ομαρτητηρ IL v\ 684. 8cc• where ae, ee are contracted into η, 
which shows a transition to the form in -juc. ετραφίττιν IL e , 
556. is not for ετραψητην, but belongs to τραφε, τ/Μίψεματ, 
&c• used passively. 

7. The imperative present of verbs in -άω is in Doric con- 
tracted into η instead of a, e. g. ορη Theocr. 7, 60. 15, 2• 12. 
έρωτη Aristoph. Ach. 800•^ 

The imperative in -e, particularly in the aor. 2. had, in the 
Doric, and afterwards in the Alexandrian dialect also, the ter• 
mination of the aor. 1. -ov, e. g. eciroy Theocr. 14, 11. aeipw 
id. 22, 65.^ The form ecirov is the foundation of the Attic 
eivarw. See §. 193. Obs. 7. 

Note. The Alexandrian dialect had in the optative -oi^ay, •αισαν fiv 
-oiev, -accK*. 

8. The second person in -17c, both in the conjunctive and 
indicative of verbs in -/ui, and the Doric form of verbs in -w, 
was often lengthened in the old language by the addition of 
the syllable -θα, which has remained in the iEolic, Doric, 
Ionic, and in some words in the Attic dialect. eOeXyaOa IL α , 
554. in the conjunctive Theocr. 29, 4. in the indicative ειιτρ^τβα 
Ώ. υ, 250. ποθόρησθα Theocr. 6, 8. ι/^ησθα Od. τ, 93. 
We also find κλαίοισθα IL ω', 619. βάλοισθα 17. ο', 57 1. but 
with the var. reading βαλτ/σθα. In Attic particularly occur ησθα 
for riQ from ec^ii. ίφησθα for εφηα from φημί, ρδν^σβα^, and 
especially οΐσθα, instead of which the proper form olSac is very 
rarely found in Attic writers*. 

The third person sing, of the conjunctive in Ionic, received 
the addition of the syllable -σι, e. g. ελθρσι, λά|3ρσι, φέ/ορσι, &c. 

^ Koen ad Gregor. p. (79) 189. * Piers, ad Moerid. 1. c and p. 175. 

BruDck ad Aristoph. Lys. 990. S83. Koen ad Gregor. p. (373) 581. 

*• Koen ad Gregor. p. (157) 340. Fisch. 8. p. 339. Thom. M. p. 397. 

Fisch. S. p. 382. Buttm. L. Gr. p. 351« considers-^Oa 

^ Maitt. p. 336. Fisch. 3. p. 337. as the original termiDation, which 

' Piers, ad Moerid. p. 171. was afterwards worn down into f. 

Conjugation. Dialects• 319 

in Homer and Hesiod, which the Dorians pronounced -ri, iOe- 
XifTc Theocr. 6, 28. Hence in the dialect of the inhabitants of 
Rhegium φίΧησι, λίγιισι, φέρησι, from φίΧημι, Χεγημι, φβρημΓ• 

On account of the similarity produced with the verbs in ^μι, 
by annexing this syllable σι to the 3rd pers, conj. the older 
poets fonned the first pers. of the conj. in ^ωμι. The Etym. M. 
quotes (p. 54, 43.) from //• ω , 716. iiniv ί'γί'γωμι voXivSe for 
αγάγοι/κι, which Wolf has adopted. See Eust. in 11. p, 1 279, 48. 
Apollon. de Conj. p. 616. Wolf has introduced this form in 
several passages of Homer, and it should probably be adopted 
in others, as ίϋίΧωμι II. a, 549. τνχ^ω /u U. e, 279.^ 

9• In the old poets the conjunctive act., if the penult be long, 
has for the most part in the first and second persons plur. the 
short vowel instead of the long one, ο for αι. //• o\ 297. crrei- 
Ofiev, CI K€v πρώτον ίρνζομεν αντιασαντ€ς. β', 18. Od. ι, 7• ci- 
8έτβ• Find. 01. 6, 40. οφρα βίσομεν, ίκωμα'ι τβ. Od. κ , 435. 
Π. 71 , 333. κατακ€ίομ€ν from κατακαίω, aor. εκηα and εκεα, 
lengthened κ€ω|Η€Ρ, jceioficp. ib. 336, 7. λ', 191 seq• Find. 01. 
1, 11 seq. In lo^iev for loijuev, however, the first syllable is 
short //. i, 526. κ\ 126. 251. 8cc. as in φβ/βται Π. υ, 173. 
Many of these might be taken for futures, as //. β', 72. 9ω- 
ρηξομεν, 8cc., Homer using the fut, often as equivalent to the 
conj. and such constructions being found in his works as οφρα 
μ€ μήτηρ orperai Od. ρ', 6.7. αί k€V ίθεΧησει II. ο', 215. But 
of the forms eiSojuev, ίομεν, στειομεν, θείομεν, &c. no indie• 
pres. eiSoi, ίαι, 8cc. is found ; and it is therefore probable that 
the other forms with shortened η and ω are conjunctives, es- 
pecially when they alternate with proper conjunctives, as U. κ, 
449. These foims arose probably from the exigencies of the 
metre, before the language was settled by writing, as the com- 
parative and superlative in ώτερος and orepoc^. 

10. In the infinitive instead of the form -eiv and -cTy, the ter- (196) 
mination -fievai and shortened -jucy was frequently used in the 

' Fisch. S. p. 347. Heyne Obss. ^ Herm. de Metris, p. 85. Heyne 

9άΙ\.€,6. Obss. ad II. a, p. 174. Buttmann 

' Herm. de Em. Rat. Gr. Gr. L• Gr. p. 369 seq. 
1. S63. ad Horn. H. in Cer. ISd. 

320 Conjugation. Dialects. 

old language (in Homer and Hesiod) and in the JEolic and Doric 
dialect, e. g. εΧθίμεναι II. α , 161. and eXfle/ney //. 8', 247. tu. 
νινέμεναί II. δ', 346. and irive/uev 0(i. β', 306. icTeii«|iewii 
Hesiod. Sc. H. 414. and of the verbs pure οίτάμεν e, 132. 
from ουταω. αρόμμεναι in Hesiod "Εργ. 22. with the var. read- 
ing αρωμεναι. Elsewhere these verbs take η before the termi- 
nation, which seems to have originated by contraction from oe, 
€6, as §. 200, 6. αρημ€ναι Od. χ, 322. -γοημεναι II. f, 602. 
for ap^Vj yoav. πβινημεναι Od. v, 137. for ireivyv. κα\ήμ€ναί 
IL κ , 126. for καλεΊν. φορημεναι II. ο', 310. shortened into 
φορηναι II. j3', 1 07. for φορείν. In the perf. this form is com- 
mon only in τεθναμεναι and reOva/iev, τετΧαμεναι and τ€τλά^ΐ€κ, 
εσταμεναι and έσταμεν. So also ^ει^Ίμεν Od. /, 274. βεβαμεν. 
In the aor. 2. βλθέμβραι II. α, 161. and eXfle^ievS', 247. and 
elsewhere; είπέ/ιιεί'αι and eiire/uev, '^νωμεναι II. β j 349. δβίί- 
μεναι^ βημβναί, ίομεναι and ^μ€ν^ 8cc. ε$^«ναι 18 syncopated for 
ε^εμεναι, eSeiv and ίδ/ιβναι (after ίδ^ιβν) for eiSeyei*. 

20£. 1 1 . Hence arose the form -ev, which continued among the 
Dorians in barytone verbs, the contracted or merely circum- 
flexed infinitive being formed in -?v. In Pindar we find only 
yapvev 01. 1, 6. τρίφεν Pj/th. 4, 205.*» βόσκεν Theocr. 4, 2• 
aeiSev 8, 4. aμε\yεv 6, 27. κοσμην Theocr. 16, 24. oiic?r 
24, 80. ενρην 11, 4. κυβερνην Crit. αρ. Gale, p. 698. κινην 
Hippod. ap. Orell. p. 296, 13. The -Solians, besides this, 
accentuated these infinitives like the infinitives of the barytone 
verbs, e. g, φιΧην, κα\ην, φρόνην^. 

Obs, 1. Sometimes infinitives of barytone verbs also are found in -^y, 
e. g. χαίρην Theocr. 14, I. and circumflexed infinitives in -ck, e. g• 
τυχέν^ ευΒαιμονέν Euryph. αρ. Gale, p. 667. ποιέν Archyt. ih. p. 680. 
kv€yKkv ibid, ίικαιοπραγέν, ivireXiy Theag, ib. p. 6S3. Θ€ωρέν, κρατέν 
Metop. ib, p. 685. 699. ii^ixiv Clin. ib. p. 687. κακο^αιμονέν Arch. ib. 
p. 695. ομονοέν Crit. ib. p. 699. έξβυρέν, λαθέν Arch. ib. p. 702.* 

06*. 2. Kparevv, ahicevv Theag» ap. Stab. Gesn. p. 11, 1. Sc IS. 

■ Greg. p. (148) 309. et Kocn. Maitt. p. S80. Valck. ad Theocr. 10. 

*» Bceckh ad Find. P. 4, 55. Id. 11, 2. 

* Gregor. p. (136) 299. (142) 308. ^ Valck. ad Theocr. 10, 48. 1 1, 71. 

et Keen (293 seq.) 619. Fisch. 2. 15, 28. &c. 
p. 392 seq. 

Conjugation. Dialects. 321 

Galtf p. 6Sfi seq. is a suspicious Doric form of the infinitive. Orell. 
p. Sie. has κρατέΐν and a^ueir, but retains Trotevy p. 252 ^ 16• 

Only the grammarians mention another form of the infinitive, pe• 
ciiliar to the ^olians, in the contracted verbs in -αω and -όω, in which 
the final y was changed into s, and the improper diphthongs 9 into 
the proper oi, oei into 0£, e. g. γέλαα, iretVais, vyl^oiSf ορθοα^ if this be 
not confounded with the 2nd pers. indie. §. 199, 2.* 

The Dorians changed the contracted infinitive -ovv of verbs in όω^ 
into ων, e. g. hwy^y Arist. Lys. 148. liidy Theocr. 29, 9. for λ2ονκ, 
i• e. dtioyai. 

Note. The Doric infinitives in -17 ν with the reduplioation, as w€φϋιcηyt 
are either infinitives from the new present form π€φύκω, or from 
the old form w€^|^υκέμeyalf ΐΓ€ψυκίμ€ν, which does not occur, as 
from άpιθμηθήμ€ya^ first came άpιθμηθημέyf and then άριθμη^ 
eTJy §. 2O69 6. 

12. In the participle, the Dorians used in the feminine 
instead of -ονσα a) -ocaa (as -οισι for -ονσι no. 3.) not only in 
the present, e. g. καγΧίζοισαν Find. 01. 7, 3. εχοισα Theocr. 
6, 30. wraloiaa 7, 26. but also in aor. 2. as λαβοΊσα, λι- 
ΐΓοΐσα, where there is no contraction ^ b) -ενσα in verbs pure for 
'iovaa (-άουσα), e. g. Ζατευσαι (Χητουσαι) Theocr. 1, 85. γβ- 
λενσα foryeXwoa I, 36. ποθορενσα (προσορωσα) 3, 18. δ, 8δ• 
icopevaa 6,31. wapeXevvra δ, 89. In verbs in -έω this form 
was used also by the lonians, νμνευσαι Hesiod. Theog. 11. So 
Eur. Med. 427. νμνευσαι, and, if the reading be correct, even 
μνθ€υσαι fvova μυθβω {μυθέομαί)! for μυθενονσαι Iph• Λ. 495. 
c) The ^olians and some Dorians used for the circumflexed 
«ονσα also -ωσα, λιπωσαι^. Hence arose the Laconic form -ωσ, 
e. g. παιδδωαν for ναύϋουσων. See ξ. 16. p. 43• 

Obs. ao and άω are contracted by ^e Dorians into a, e. g. weiydyri 
Theocr. 15, 148. omdyres Epicharm. ap. Athen. 7. p. dlO £. and 
yeXttK, σιγακ, έλα ν for γ€λών ^. Comp. §.49. 

The iBolians formed the terminations of the participles -ων, 

*Gregor. p. (^94) 619. Fisch. 1. this point. Fisch. 2. p. 395. Buttm. 
p. J 85. 9. p. 393 seq. L. Gr. p. 502. note f. 

' Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 105. « Greg. p. (274) 584. Fisch. 2. 

p. 593 seq. who appears (ad Theocr. p. 396. 
l,85.)not yet to have been decided on *> Gregor. p. (145) 315. 

VOL. 1. γ 

322 Conjugation, Dialects, 

-ων in -eicf because they fonned the verbs in ^em, -iua in -q^, 
e. g. opeic, στοιχεί c, from ορημι, στο{χη/»ι•. 

Instead of the termination -ώα -υια -oc^ the .Soliane used that 
of the present -ων -ούσα -ov**, e. g. μβμενακουσα (μεμενηκυια) 
Archim.p, 47. αν€στακουσα id. p. 53. (likeβ€j3ώσα, γεγωσα)^ 
With these some reckon τβταγών //. ο', 691. JceicX^yovrec 
//. μ, 12δ. Od. ξ', 30. πεφρίκΓονταα PtW. PyM. 4, 325, 
κβχλάδονταα PiVid. PyM. 4, 319.; but 01. 9, 3. κβχλαδώα. 
Probably, however, these are participles of the present tenses 
formed from the perfect: τβτάγω, κεκληγω, πεφρίκω. See 
§. 221 , IV, 1.* The termination -ωτοα &c., which is generally 
found only with syncopated forms, occurs once in Homer in a 
word not syncopated, τβτριγωταα //. β', 314. 

The termination of the aor. 1. act. -ac -^σα -αν, was in 
Doric -aic "αισα, e. g. ταννσαια Pind. 01. 2, 65. ρίφακ; id. 
Pyth. 1,86. τελέσαια to. 1 54. αποφλαυρίξαισα id. Pyth. 3, 23. 
θρεφαισα id, Pyth, 8, 37. ι:αρύξαισα id. Isihm. 4, 43. Sia- 
πλέξαισα id. Pyth. 12, 14. Comp. §. 39. Obs. 2.^ 

Note. Of the extension of the contracted termination» e. g. opa^ for 
6paf see §. II. p» SB, 

Passive Voice. See Tables C. D.,pp. 324. 326. 


20$. The original termination of the second person sii^. pres. in the indie. 

(^^7) imperat. and conjunct, and of the imperf. appears to have been -βσαι, 
-έσο, ^ησαι from the analogy of the perf. pass, and of verhs in -/ic, in 
which the termination -σαι in the second person always corresponds 
with those of -/lac, -rat in the first and third. This primitive form, 
however, occurs only in the New Testament, as many old forms were 
retained in the popular language, and unformed dialects. In the same 
manner in the common Greek language the second person οΐάκροάομαι 
was άκροάσαι (for άκροάεσαι), which in Attic was άκρο^^. From this, 

• Keen ad Greg. p. (171 a.) 372. • Maitt. p. 339. Keen ad Greg. 

(994. n. 60) 619 seq. Fisch.2.p.396. p. (91) 210. Fisch. 1. p.92. 2.p.S97. 

»» Gregor. p. (294) 621. Boeckh ad Pind. Pyth. 8, 35. 

« Maitt. p. 239. ' Moerjs, p. 1β/ Lob. ad Phryn. 

*• Keen ad Greg. p. (81) 189. p. 360. Buttm. L. Gr. p. 354. 
Fisch. 1. p. 198 seq. 

Conjugation. Dialects. 323 

by rejecting σ, came «eai, "Co, "ηαι, which is the regular form in the 
Ionic and Doric writers, particularly the poets ; and hence by con- 
traction y, ου in Homer, and regularly in Attic. So from μέμνησαι in 
the perf. (//. ψ', 648.), μίμνηαι 11, φ\ 442. and /x^/i»^ //. ο', 18. 
ν, 188. &c.' The Attics, however, contracted also -eai (but not -1701) 
into ei instead of j^, which arose from the old mode of writing e for η. 
This form remained unchanged in the poets particularly, or was intro- 
duced again, e. g. μάχει Atistoph, Av, 758. XotZopei Plut, 456. στρέφ€ΐ 
Acham, 384. Thesm. 237. κατάγει Eurip. Ale. 836. It remained alone 
in coDunon use in βούλει, oUiy o^ec, but only in the indicative**. 

2. In the 3rd pers. sing, the Dorians used ^ηται for -ecrai and 'dratf 
as Archytas {OrelL p. 248.) yorjraif hprjraty γεννηται, 

S. The first pers. dual -e6ov is rare, //. *<//', 485. περι^ώμεθον. Soph. 
EL 950. Χελείμμεθον, Phil. 1079. ορμώμεθονΚ The first person plur. 
-eOa was -βσθα in the Doric and Ionic, and often also in the Attic poets» 
e. g. ίΐινεόμεσθα Od. i, 153. τεημίιμεσθα 11. μ', 310. &c. πεΧόμεσθα 
Theocr. 13, 4. Χασενμεσθα (Χησόμεθα) id. 4, 39. άργωμεσθα id. 17, 1. 
^ζόμεσθα Atistoph. Plut. 101. βουΧόμεσθα Equ. 562. εΐσόμεσθα Soph. 
(Ed. C. 1037. άρχόμεσθα id. Antig. 63.^ 

4. Instead of -ωσάν in the third pers. plur. imperf. -oiv is very much 
used in Ionic, Doric, and particularly Attic, hrkuBiav II. i', 170. ΧεζάσΘων 
//. i',67. μαχέσβων Herod.9, ^S. κτεινέσθωνΊ,ΙΟ^Β. χ / p i y cfl irf y A ristoph. 
Nub. 438. Thuc. 5, 18. instead of which χράσθων occurs in Herodotus 
3,81. άφαιρείσθων Soph. Aj. 100. ετταιρέσθων Lucian. T.S.p. 5\.Bip. 
Also in the perf. παρακεκΧίισθων Pled. Leg. 10. 893 B. εζτιρήσΘων, εβ" 
ρωσθων in Philostratus, άπε^ρίφθων Ludan. D. M. 10, 2.^ in the aor. 
πεμψΘέντων Plat. Leg. 9. p. 856 D. and ^ιανεμηΘ^των ib. 5. p. 737 £. 
according to some MSS. For αΐτιαθήτων Leg. 10. p. 886 D. αΐηαθήτω 
is now read firom MSS. The full form, however, is also very common 
in the old Attic writers. 

« Koen. ad Greg. p. (191) 409 seq. 
Fiach. 2. p. 399. 

* Valck. ad Phoen. p. 216 seq. 
Maitt p. 63. Fisch. 1. p. 119. 2. 
p. 399. Bninck ad Soph. (£d. C. 336. 
Aj. 195. Buttmann L• Gr. Corr. p. v. 
thinks the tragedians formed the 2nd 
pers. pass, in -p. Reisig appears to 
me to have treated the question most 
satisfactorily, Comm. in Soph. (£d. 
Col. Prsf. p. TOM seq. 

' Elmsley Mus. Grit. 6. p. 293. ad 

Ach. 733. maintains that thb form is 
an invention of the grammarians, 
and that all the above passages should 
be corrected. On the other side see 
Harm, ad Soph. £1. 938. 

ί Fisch. 1. p. 206. 2. p. 400. 

^ Tbora. M. p. 922. Hemsterh. ad 
Lucian. 1. 1. p. 445. Bip. Valck. ad 
Herod, p. 514. Koen ad Gregor. 
p. (73, 27) 1T2, 49. Fisch. 2. p. 344. 
Bninck ad Aristoph. Nub. 439. 

Υ 2 








Aor. 1. 
Aor. S. 

Put 1. 
Put. S. 


τυπτομαί, * I am struck*. 
S. -o/iai, ("€«') 'Hi (*) -crai 
D. -($/ie0oV| -CffOov, -€σθον 
P. -(5/χββο('), -eoOcy -οιπΌ* 

Ιτνίττόμην^ * I was struck'. 
S. 'όμην, (-€o) -ov, -ero 
D. »όμ€θον9 "toBoVi "έσθην 
P. -ύμ^α^ -€ff6ei -οιτο(^) 

a) τίτνμμαι^ -vi/^c» •νιιται 

-v/ifie0a, -v^Ocf -'νμμένοι €ΐσί(ν) 

b) S. -/loi, •σοι, -rai (*) 
D. -fieOoi", -βοϊ^σβον),-θοΐ' (^θον) 
P. -/ιββα, -θ€(σθ£),-ιτα4(•) 

€Τ€τνμμην9''νφθ9 "Virro 
'νμμεθον, ^νφΘον^ -ϋψθην 
-v/x/ieOa, -v09ei Τ€τνμμένοιησαν 

S. -/ιι?>', -σο, -ΓΟ 

D. "μ^θον^ 'θον(^σΘον\ "θην^σθην) 

Ρ. -^ιββο, -θ€ (σθ€),-ντο (•) 


8. -lyv, 


Ρ. -ly/iev, 



τυψθίισομαι Ί 

ι-ντήσο^ιαι >as the present 

Τ€τ{ηΐΗ)μαι J 



S. (-€0) -OV (0 

D. "CoBoVf 
P. -eoOe, 

έσθωσαν («) 

τέτνφορ τετνψθω 
τέτνψθοΡψ Τ€τνψΘων 
τέτυ<Ιίθ€9 Τ€ΓνφΘωσαν (^) 
S. -σο -θ« (-σ6•#) 

Soy {σΒον^'θων {σϋωρ) 
"Be (oOe), -^ωσαν^σθ^Φσαν) 

S. -lyri (1761), 






b. Paesive. 






(μην^ "OWf Oiro 

ίμβθον, "Οίσθον^Όίσθην 

S. ^ωμαι(τιαι) -j|(*) -i|rai 

-«Of ,-έΐΊ|, "tror• 


ιην^ eci|r» €117 
ψμένω, »o« -1^ 

iil/iey» eiiyret Αησαν 

τ€τνμμίν(Λ9 •ι;ι -or 
Τ€τνμμίνω^ «α» -w 
τ€τνμμένοΐ9 -ac» -α 



-Οί, -ly, -OF 

ητ, '^nh -t/i| 


D. 'ijiTOVf •ητον 
Ρ.-ωμβν, -^β, -ώσι(κ) 


rvw J «iy. 

o//ii|y >a8 the present 
Όίμην J 



Γ«τ«ψ 3-^' -^• 



1. in 




S. φιλ -έομαι, "^> C) -^€Γαι 
οΰμαι, y, eirai 

Ο.φιλ "βόμεθον^ -έεσθοκ, -έεσθον 
ουμ€Θον^ εΐσθοκ, εΐσθον 

Ρ.φιλ -ε($/ιεθα,(^)-έεσθβ, -έονται 
ονμεθα, είσθε, . ονιται 

S. -έον, (0 -έεσθω 

ον, ε/σθω 
D. -έεσβο»', 'βέσθων 

έισθον, είσθωρ 
Ρ. -έεσθε, -βέσθωσαν (*) 

είσθε, είσθωσαν 


Sing, έφιλ -εόμην, -έον, -^ετο 
ούμην, ον, είΓΟ 

Dual έ^ιλ -εόμ^Οον^ 


S. rifi -άο/ια«, -άι;,(*) -άεΓαι 
ώ /iac, ^, arai 

D.rcfi -α^/ιεθοκ, -άεσθον, -άεσθον 
ώμεθοκ,. ασθοκ, άσθον 

Ρ.τιμ -αίί^ιεθα,Ο-άεσθε, -aon*oc 
ώμεθα, ασθε. ώιται 

2. in 

S. -άον,(») -αέσθ» 

(J, άσθω 
D. -άεσθοκ, -αέσθνι^ 

άσθοκ, άσθνν 
Ρ. -άεσθε, -αέσθβ#σα>' (^) 

ασθε, άσθωσαν 


S. εΓί/ι -αάμην^ -άον, -άετο 
ώμην, ώ, aro 

D. Ircfi -ao/xeOoFy 


S. χρυσ -όομαι^ -ίίρ, (*) -(5εΓαι 
ov/iac. Of, ouroi 

ϋ.χρυσ -οόμεθον, -όεσθον, -όεσθορ 
οϋμεθον, ονσθον, οΰσβον 

Ρ. χρνσ -οι$/ιιεθα,(')-(5εσθε, -<5οκΓαι 
ονμ€θα, ονσθε, οννται 

3. in 

S. -όον, (>) -οέσθω 

ον, ονσθω 
D. -όεσθοκ, -οέσθων 

οϋσθον, ονσΘων 
Ρ. -ίίεσθε, -^έσθωσαν 

ονσθε, ονσΘωσαν (^) 


S. ^χρνσ Όομην^ -<5ον, -(5εΓ0 
ονμην, ον, ovro 

D. έχρνσ -οό/ιεΟοκι 


πεφ/λ 1 / 
τεΓί/ι / "'''*°*' '^^^''*' "*^''"* 
S. -ημαΐί -ι;σαι, -i;rai 

-ωμαι, -ωσα<, -wrac (•) 
D. -ήμεθον, -ησθον, ^ησθον 
-ώ/ιεθον, -ωσθον, -ωσθον 
Ρ. -ήμεθα, -ϊ^σθε, -lyvrai 
-ώ/ιεθα, -ωσθε, -ωνται (*) 

πεφ/λΊ / 
rer//x J "''*^®' ^€χρνσ -«σο 

S. -γ^σο, -ήσθω 

-ωσο, -ώσθω 
D. -ι/σθον, -ήσθωι^ 

-ωσθον, 'ώσθων 
Ρ. -ι;σθε, -ήσθωσα*' 

-ωσθε, -ώσθωσα»' (*) 


έπεφιλ 'ίΐμην, ίτ€ημ -ή /iiyv, 
S. -ή/ιι^ν, -ϊ^σο, -ι;γο. 
"ώμην, &C. 

1κε\ρυσ ^ωμην 

D. "(ιμίθον^ 


. ^ιλ-€<5/Χ€>Όί,-εομένη,-εόμεκον. η^ 
ούμ€νθί^ ουμένη,ονμενον. 

4»\λ^νο«^ ^yAvtv^ 4fC€>t»i^• 



Verbs, Passive. 



S. -€oc/ii}y, -eoco, -έοίΓΟ 
οίμην^ oioy οϊτο 

οίμεθον, οϊσθον, οίσΒην 

Ρ. •εο//ϋΐ6θα, -έοισθε, -έοιιτο 


S. 'έωμαι, -έ]/, (') 

ώμ€θον^ ησθον^ 
Ρ.-εώμεθα, -έι^σΟβ, 





^«λ -έεσθαι 

-εεσθον, -εέσθι^ν 

Plur. έ^ιλ -εό^ιεθα, -έεσθε, -έοκτο (') 
ον/ιεθα, είσθε, ονκτο 


S. --αοίμην^ -ccotOy -άοίΓΟ 

γμ€βον^ ψσθον, ψσθην 

Ρ. -αο(/ιεθα, -άοισ9ε, -άοιι^ο 
ψμεθα, ^σθε, ^ντο (') 

8. -άω^ιαι, -άι/, (*) -άι/ται 
J/xac, ^ arai 

D. -αώμεθον, -άι/σθον, -άι^σθον 
ώμ€θον, άσβον, άσΒον 

Ρ. ->αώ/χεθα,(')-άΐ}σθε, -άωι^αί 
ώμ€θα, ασθε, 


rifi -άεσβαι 

ασθο»', άσθην 

Ρ. Irifi -α<5/ιεθα, -άεσθε, -άοκτο (') 
ώμεθα, ασθε, ώκΓΟ 


S• -οοίμην^ ~6ow^ -όοιτο 
οΐμην, diOf oiro 

Ό.-οο/μεθον,-($θί9θοκ, -οο/σθι^ν 
οΙμ€θον^ οισθον» οίσθην 

Ρ. 'θοίμ€θα, -ooioBef -όοιντο 
ο//ιεθα, οΐσθε, oTvro(') 

S. 'όωμαι, -ojj, (') -(5iyroi 

ώμαι, otf ώται 

ϋ.-οώμεθοΜ, -((ι^σθοκ, 'όησΒον 

ωμ^βον^ ύσθον^ ώσΒον 

Ρ. "ούμεΒα^ "όησθβ^ -όωρτίξΐ 

Μ/ιεθα, ώσθε, Jvrai 

χρνσ -((εσθαι 

-ι^ειτβον, 'οίσΒην 
ουσΒον^ ούσΒην 

Ρ. €•χρυσ -ο<5/χεθα, -(^εσθε, -όοκτο (') 
οι/μεθα, ονσθε, ovvro 

πεφιλ Ί / / 

S. -{(^ifv, -ρο, -pro 

Ό.-ρ/ιεβονι -^σβον, -ρσθΐϊ>' 
"ψμ^θα, -foBoVy "ψσθην 
-ρσθβ, -^fro 

Ρ. 'yueBaf 

ΊΓ€φΐ\ 1 - 

^ > -ω /xac, Κ€χρυσ -ωμαι 
S. •ώ/χα£, -ρ, -ρτ"»* 

D. -βιί/χεθο)', -ίσβον, -^σβον 

Ρ. -ώ/χεθα, -^σθε, -«ιτοι 


•ησΒον, ^ΙισΒην 

Ρ. -///ιεθα, -ϊ?βτε, -ι^κγο (*) 

Xpv9 •ο^/ιενο£, -οο^έη;, -οό/ιε^ον. Perf. πε^ιλ-Ί λ ^^^ -ημ4νη> 
€νμ€νοί, 'Ουμένη, Όνμ€νον, τετιμ- J '^ "^ 

328 Conjugation. Dialects. 

δ. Of the conjugation of the perf. pass, see §. 196. 
. In the optative the terminations are the same as in the present optat. 
'μην -0 'TO, &c. which are annexed to the characteristic vowel if or «#. 
The I, which is also a characteristic in this tense, is subscribed under 
the η or ω, e. g. τ€τιμ^μην Τ€τψ^ο Τ€ημγτο, &C. μεμνγμην H. « » 745. 
μεμν^το Aristoph. Plut. 992. Plat. Rep. 7. jp. 517 E. κ€κ\ψ> Soph. 
Phil. 119. κ€κ\^μ€θα Aristoph. Lys. 253. Thus also Xekvro as optat 
Od. σ , 237. (more correctly XcXviro), μεμνέψτο II. ψ', 861. and μβμνγτο 
Xen. Cyrop. 1, 6, 8.* μεμνφμεθα Soph. (Ed. T. 49. κεκτ^μ^Βα Eur. 
Heracl. 282. Instead of μεμν^μην, κεκτγμην, &c. there was another 
form with ψ. It seems therefore as if to the root /le/xi^- κβκτη^ the 
form of the opt. pres. had been appended, μεμνήοιτο, Ketcriioiro, whence 
came μεμνέψτο and Κ€ΐ:τέψτο, contr. μεμνψτο**. So μέμνοιο {μ€μνψο) 
is found without var. r. Xen. Anab. 1, 7, 5. μέμν€ο Herod. 6, 105. 
μ€μν6μ€νο% Archil. Fr. 1. Gaisf. 

The conjunctive is exactly like the conj. pres. -ω/ιοι -^ ^ηται, «>e^- 
λώ/ιαι ire^iX^ ire^i\i7rai : yet it seldom occurs, e. g. P^t. PoUi.p. 285 C. 
μ€μνωμ€θα. id. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. Ικτ€τμησβον. Isocr. ad Nicocl. p. 87 A. 
ivo — κ€κτησθ€. Xen. Symp, 1, 8. ^v κέκτηται {vulg. κέκτηται): instead 
of it the circumlocution ν€ψι\ημένο$ ω is used. 

In the optative and conjunctive of these verbs, the circumlocutory 
form is used, which consists of the participle perf. pass, with the optat. 
and conj. pres. of the verb εΙμΙ. It is used also in these verbs in the 
third pers. perf. and plusquam perf. in the common dialect, which in 
verbs piure are in -lyvrai -i^vro, ^ωνται -ωντο, τ€τυμμ€νοι -αι -α tlvi 
and ήσαν. πεψίληνται, ίπεψΙΧηντο. κεχρύσωνται, ίκεχρνσωκτο. The 
reason of this is, that in barytone verbs a third consonant would enter 
before the termination -yrai -vrOf τέτν^ιταΐι Χέλεγνται. See, however, 
no. 6. 

6. In the third pers. plur. perf. and plusquam perf. the lonians and 
Dorians change the ν before rat and το into a, in which case the original 
aspirated consonant again enters before the a, e. g. τεθάψαται from τέ- 
θαμμαι, Θάιττω, for τεθαμμένοι βίσ/, Herod, 6, 108. κεκρύψατΜ Hesiod. 
Theog. 780. Ιττιτ^τμα^αται for ίνιτετραμμένοι είσΐ II. β, 25. 62. (τέ- 
θα^νται, κέκρνφνται, ίτητέτραφνται,) κατ€ΐ\ί\ατο for κατειλιγμένοι ιίσαν 
Herod. 7, 76. (βίλ/χατο) 90. ίσβσάχατο for σ€σαγμένοι ήσαν fiN>m σάττω 

■ Heyne ad II. ψ', 361. Fisch. 3. ** Herm. and Buttm. in Mus. An- 

p.419seq. Bninck ad Soph. Phil. I.e. tiq.Stud. p. 231.238. Herm. ad Soph. 

Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 992. Ast ad (£d. T. 49. Buttm. L. Or. p. 442 leq. 
Plat. Leg. p. 307. comp. 634. 567. 

Conjugation. Dialects. 329 

μ/. 7» 86. ά1Γotet^aτaιΐorάfΓO^€ί€ιγμέyoι είσΐ id. %^ 48. ίστάΚατο Hesiod. 
Sc. Η. 288• Herod. 7, 89. from στέλλω, for ίσταλμένοι ^σαν. Instead 
of the aspirate the lene remains in άπικαται and άττίκατο Herod. 1,2. 4, 
800. 6, 118. 7, 158. 157.• 

If a 9 arising firom the Unguals t θ τ ζ precedes the termination of 
the perf. pass, -μαι -σαι -rai, it is changed into ^ hefore the termi- 
nation {-rrai -rro) -arai -aro, e. g. iaxeva^aro Herod. 7» 62. 67. for 
ίσκ€νασμέγοι ifffay from σκ€νάζω. έστολί^το Herod. 7| 89. with the 
note of Valckenaer» from στολίζω, άγωνί^αται Herod. 9, 26. 49. from 
kγωyiζω. ίρηρέίαται II. ψ, 284. 829. from ίρεί^ω. ip^aiarai Od. v\ 
854. kp^alaro II. μ', 481. from /ίάζω (βα(νω) ί^ασνται. έληλάΐατο 
Od. η, 86. for ίλήλακΓο, is quite anomalous, ^ heing inserted apparently 
to avoid the collision of two a. άκηχέ^αται is similar, which is found 
IL p\ 687. in some editions. The third persons also of verhs pure are 
formed in this manner, e. g. irefofifiaro for πεφόβηην II. φ\ 206. In 
diis case the long vowel or diphthong η and ei is usually changed into 
the short e, e. g. iyewewopTriaro Herod. 7» 77. from ίμπομιτάω. έκ€κοσ» 
μέατο Herod. 9, 181. ορμέατο id. 2, 218. 8, 25. &ποκ€κλέατο id. 9, 50. 
for άπ€κέκλ€ΐνΓθ from αποκλείω, οΐκέαται for ψκηνται. είρέαται Herod. 
7» 81. for €ίρηyraι. Thus άκηχέαται II. ρ\ 687. (where others read 
Ιικη[χίΖατ)\ and with e made long, άκαχε/αΓΟ II. μ\ 179. for άκά" 

In ύ similar way the termination 'oyrat of the perf. is changed into 
•^arac, e. g. ayairewTiarai Herod, 9, 9. for ayairiwrayrai from araire- 
τάω. €π€ΐΓ€φέατο id. 7, 125. for hrerreipayro from ττειράομαι^ νεπείραμαι. 

Ohs. 1. This form is also found in some Attic writers, e. g. rera^ 
χοΓαι Thuc. 8, 18. which Moeris notices as Attic, p. 154. ίτετάχατο 
id. 7» 4. ^€τ€τάχατο id. 4, 81. Ιψθάραται id. 8, 18. τετράφαται Plat. 
RepM. 7. p. 5S3 B. άντιτετάχαται Xenoph. Anab. 4, 8, 5.^ 

Obs. 2. In some places this form is found where the sing, is re• 
quired, e. g. νιφεσκενάΖατο Herod. 9| 100 : but these passages are 
doubtful «. 

7. In the same manner ν in the third person of the pres. and aor. 
opt. pass, and middle, of the imperf. pass, and middle, and even of the 
present, in some words, is changed into a. 

a) In the optative this is very frequent, even in the Attic poets, e. g. 

* Wessel. ad Herod, p. 843. 53. p. 407 sqq. Maitt. p. 188 sqq. 

' Greg. p. (399) 483. Fisch. 2. * Wessel. ad Herod, p. 438. 45. 

330 Conjugation. Diakcis. 

π€υθοίατοΟά.α!,157. a?ro^€poiaro//erodi.7, 15)i• αίσβανοίατο ArUtopk. 
Pac. IS09. Ewrip^ HeL 159. L•yτιZωμf|σfιίaτo*'• 

b) In the imperf. Ιπεφώατο for ίττεφώντο Ilerod, 1, 68. <3pvaro uL 
2, 182. π(φ€τιθέατο id. 1, 119. The termination -έατυ in this case is 
used in those verbs which have otherwise H)yro, -arro, e. g. aweypa^ 
φίατο Herod. 5, 29. ίσιρέατο id, 7, 147. kyiviaro 1, 67. Thus in the 
aor. ft, also άτηκέατο id. 1, 152. {άπίκατο 4, 140. &c. is the plusquam 
perf. for aircrvro, i. e. άψιγμένοι ησαν^ see no. 5.) $ΐ€ψθ€φέατο 8, 90. 
for iie^dapoyro. Again, έ^νκέατο ύΙ. 9, 103. ^πιστίατο 8» 5. 25. κατ- 
ιστέατο 8, 12. for έ^νναι^ο, &c. έιτέατο for liceiiro 8, 25. 

' c) In the present κέαται, ^ννέαται in Herodotus^. 

8. The plur. of the optative of the aorists has commonly in the 
Attic poets, and even in the prose writers, the form -er/xey -cTre -eicr, 
which is used even by Homer, π€φηθ€ψ€γ Od. π\ 305. haKpiyBtirt 
II. y , 102. iKatSe^ey Eurip. Iphig. T. 1025. Hel. 821. Xtnnfieiiuy 
Eurtp. Hel. 77. hvvaBCiev Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 19. Comp. §. 206, 5. 
The most rare is the drd pers. pliur. -^Ιησαψ, as Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 4, 28. 
αΊΓθκ\€ΐσθ€ίησαν. Cyr. 8, 1,2. σωθ€ΐησαν. Thuc. 1, 88. ίκΐΓ€μψθ€ίησαν. 
id. 2, 48. σψίίλείησαν. id, 8, 43. πεισθΰ/ι^σαν. id. 6, 84. γνωσΘ€ΐησαν^. 


205. I• In the pure verbs an e is inserted before -eac^ which the 
Ionic prose writers preserved unchanged, e. g. Siaipeeai Herod. 
7, 47. ψοβέεαι 7^ 62. άφρανββαι 4, 9. αποθανίβαι 4, 63. 
The Attics contract -έεαι as well as -eai into ρ or €Ϊ. Homer 
contracts the two e into ei, as /uvOecai Oei• θ', 180. νεΐαι 0<ί. 
λ', 113. μ, 141. 

2. So Herodotus rejects in the termination -eo, imperat. and 
imperf• the additional e in the pure verbs, e. g. acreo for ol- 
Teeo 1, 90. efi/yeo 3, 72.^ &c. So //. ω, 202. εκΧβ ew 
ανθρωττουα for εκλεβο. Od. S'^ 8 1 seq. ούτι nipot; ye Πωλέ , 
enei, 8cc• for επωλέεο from πωλέομαι. 

» Fisch. 2. p. 418. (£d. T. 1046. ad Arist. Ran. 1448. 

** Maitt. p. 128 sqq. Fisch. 2. p. 401. Toup. ad Suid. 1. 1. p. 68. Thorn. M. 

^ Dawes's Misc. Grit. p. 243 seq. p. 163. Fisch. 3. p. 422. 

who did wrong in rejecting altogether ^ Of the accent see Buttm. L• Gr. 

the other form. Bninck ad Soph. p. 501. 

ConftigMtion. Dialecii. 331 

The termination -co, which in the Attic dialect was con- (199) 
tracted into -ov, is in Doric, and sometiaie» in Ionic, contracted 
into -ev, e. g. Ιπλευ W. g\ 64. w', 29. 8ic. μίχ^υ Theocr» 1, 
113. eiceXev 3, 11.^ The poets sometimes lengthen e by 
adding c in the imperat. e. g. epeco //• λ', 610. σπειο //• κ, 
285. for cnreo, i. e. eirov'. 

3. Instead of the termination of the first person plur. -/xeOa, 
the .£olians said -/ledei^, e. g. τνπτο/ιεθεν. 

4. In the 2nd pers. perf. Homer omits the σ, as βέβληαι 
//. €, 284. μίμνηαι II. φ', 442. See §. 203, 1. 

δ. Instead of -ην 1st pers. sing. aor. 2. -av is found, ίτυπαν 
Theocr. A, 53. In the 1st pers. plur. of the aorists, the Do- 
rians said -i|/uec for -n/ncv, e. g. eicXivOii/iec Theocr. 7, 133. 
Comp. §. 199, 3. 

6. In the third pers. plur. of the aorists the ^olians and 
Dorians said -ev for -ήσαν, as was the case also in the old Ionic. 
€4)ίλΐ|θ€ν//.β', 668. TAeocr. 7, 60. φάνενΡιΐΜί. O/. 10, 101. 
eKopeadeif Aristoph. Pac. 1283. in a Homeric hexameter^, and 
Eurip. Hipp. 126 1. βκρυφθεν, which form nowhere else occurs 
in Attic **, and which is perhaps an imitation of the Ionic dialect 
in narrative. Of the same kind is the Attic termination -e7ev for 
-€ΐΐ|σαν, in the optat. of the aorist. §. 204, 8. In a single pas- 
sage of the Iliad, the long vowel μιανΒην for εμιίνθησαν is 
found. The Schol. Ven. considers it as syncopated from μιαν- 

7. The infinitive of the aorists is in Doric -ημβν for -ηναι, ab- 
breviated from the old form in -^ιμεναι, which form is frequent, 
particularly in Homer, as α/οιθ/ιΐ}θ^μεναι 11. β', 124. (αριθμημεναι 
Tim. L, p. 8. from αρίθμημι.) ομοιωθίιμεναι Π. a , 187. μιγτΐ' 
μεναι II. tf 161. αναβημεναι Od. a, 210. αεικισθημεναι Od. 
σ\ 221.* Hence λασθ^μεν for λασθ^ναι Theocr. 2, 46. δια- 
κριθημεν in the treaty of the Lacedaemonians and Argives in 

* Fisch. 1. p. 116. 2. p. 416. ** Valck. ad Έ. Hipp. 1. c. 

' Brunck ad Apoll. 3, 1035. ' Koen ad Greg. p. (143) 310. 

? Fisch. 9. p. 337 seq. 413. Fisch. 2. p. 348 seq. 

332 Conjugation. Dialects. 

Thucydides 5, 79. αιτολειφθ^μεν Tim. L. p. 7. αφανισθημ^ν 
id. p. 11. αντίκατα'χθημ€ν id. p. 22. ευρβθημει^ Archyt. ap. 
Diog. L. 8, 80. αποτραπημ€ν Eutyph. ap. Gale, p. 666. 
βονληθημβν ib. p. 668. γεναθ^/ιεν Archyt. ib. p. 674.• And 
Btill more abbreviated -?v for ^ηναι, e. g. στβφανωθην for '^pai\ 
as Tvirrc/Lievai, Tvirre/uev, τνπτβιν. -ifi€v and -ii^ are found 
in inscriptions in the inf. perf. act. e• g. ίπιτ€θ€ωρηκηρ. See 
§. 201. 

Note. Of the lengthening of contracted or circumflexed termination• 
eee§• 11• p. S7. 

The Middle Voice. 

StOQ. In the middle voice, the aor. 1• and fiit. 2. alone have a 
(201) peculiar conjugation ; the present and imperf. are the same as 
the present and imperf. pass. The fut• 1. is conjugated like 
the present, and the aor. 2. like the imperf., and what are called 
the perf. and plusquam perf. mid. have already occurred in the 
active voice. The fut• 1 • however, and the aor. 2. have some- 
what peculiar in the rest of the moods, on which account they 
are given fully with the aor. 1. and fut. 2. 



Aor. 1. 

S. 'άμην, (-ασθ| -αο) -«, (') -oro 

P. ^άμεθα, ^ασ^Βψ -αντο 

S. -aiy "άσθω 

D. -ασβονι 'άσθωρ 

P. -ασθβ, -άσθωσαν (•) 

Aor. 8. 


it proceeds exactly like the imperf. pass. 


('€σθ9 -έο) as pres. pass. 

Fut. 1. 


like the pres. pass. 

Fut 2. 


S. -ovftaiy -p ("**)» (*) 'elrai 

D.-ov/Aedovy -εΐβτθον, -βΤσβον 

P. -ονμεθα, -εΤσθβ, "Ovyrai 



• Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. p. 4β. 310. 
Maitt. p. SSS. Koen ad Greg. p. (143) ^ Koen 1. c. 

Conjugation» Dialects. 


1. The fonn •αο of the second person sing. aor. 1. mid. occurs fre- 
quently in the Ionic and Doric writers, e. g. iyeiyao IL e', 880. inre- 
λνσαο //. a\ 401. ^θ^καο Theocr, 29, 18. Thus in some editions Μσαο 
IL if 641. is given, whilst others have the contracted form €€ίσω, 
as ίκρέμ^Φ IL ο\ 18. for ίκρέμασο. 

Hence arose in the Syracusan dialect the form -a, ο being omitted, as 
ψυσάντ€$ for ^νσάο¥Τ€% §.201, 9. Ohs. But there is no instance of this, 
except in the doubtful passage Theocr, 4, 28. and the Scholiast on 
the passage*. 

Instead of the termination -άμην the Ionic dialect had also the form 
^ασκόμην^ e• g. ίασσάσκττο IL c', dSd. 

2. The termination "άσβιασα^ was also •άσθων, e. g. Χ^ζάσβων IL i\ 
67. Comp. §• 203, 3. 

3. In the third person opt. aor. 1. mid. -a/aro for -αικτο is very fre- 
quent in the Ionic and Attic poets, e• g. άρησαίατο Od, a, 164. άνα- 
κτησαίατο^ τισαίατο Herod. 3, 75. ίκσωσ€Uaro JEschyL Pers. 360. 
ZeialoTo Soph, (Ed. CoL 44. kpyaaalaro Arist, Lys. 42• Thus also in 
the opt. aor• 2. mid. yeyolaro IL ff, 340. νυθοίατο Soph. (Ed. CoL 962• 
in the iiit• ^ψοια7ο, γν^σοίατο id. (Ed. T. 1274. Comp. §• 204, 7, a•'. 






aifiriVf •οιο, -airo 


Ό.'ώμεθον, "ησθον, "ησθον 
Ρ•-ωμβ6ο, 'ησθ€f ^ωνται 



ποίμην, &C (•) 


as pres. pass. 



φοίμην, kc. (•) 

as the opt. pres. pass. 





•οίμην» 'Oto, '^iro 

•οίμ^βα^ -οΐσΟβ, -ocvro 





^ Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. p. 84. ' Fisch. 9. p. 418 seq. 

Buttm. L• Gr. p. 355. 10. 

334 Verbs in ^μι. 

4. The third pers. dual aor. ft. mid. is sometimes in the Doric writers 
-αν for -17 V, as κτησάσθα^ Pind, 01. 9, 70• ίξικέσθαν Nem. 10, 119. 

The third person plur• aor. 2. mid. is frequently in Ionic -έατο for 
'orro, as in the imperf. §. 20^, b. e. g. vepiefiaKaaro Herod. 6, 25. eirv- 
θέατο 7, 172. iyeviaro 1, 214. 2, 166.» 

5. It has been before observed, that this form of the ftit. arises from 
contraction. Herodotus has also in the second person airoeayieat, 
th^pavieai. See §. 205, 1. The Dorians instead of -ovftai said -evftac, 
e. g. /xaOev/xai Theocr. 2, 60. Λ/ι^«/3αλ€ν/ιαί Οίί. χ', 103. In the third 
person they also used η for ec, e. g. «copirevo^rai, έργα^ι^Γαι, ίσσηται. 
Comp. §. 202, 2.*» 

(y Verbs m -/ii. 

207. The number of verbs in -μι in the Attic and common dialect 
(SOS) is very small, and among these few there are only four which 
have a complete conjugation peculiar to themselves, τίΟαιμι^ 
ίημι, ίστΐ}/ιι {φημί), ϋίωμι. Others again have a pecuUar 
inflexion, in many points differing from the conjugation of 
the verbs in the examples, as ec/uc, el/ii ; and others again, as 
all verbs in -v/l», occur only in the present and imperfect, de- 
riving the rest of their tenses from the radical form. There are 
thus, in this conjugation, more anomalous verbs than in that 
of verbs in -ω, -έω, besides the verbs which are improperly 
chyssed under verbs in -/ic, as ημαι (perf. pass, from Ιω), oTSa, Sec. 

These verbs were chiefly used in the iBolo-Doric dialect, 
and in the writers of that dialect verbs very frequently occur 
in the form -μι, which are otherwise in -Ιω, -αω, e. g. νίκημι 
Theocr. 6, 46. 7, 40. ποθόρημι id. 6, 22. ορημεθα Tim. L. p.7. 
ψΙΧημι Sappho in Athen. p. 697. φορημεθα from φορημι Al- 
caeus in Heraclid. Ponticus, p. 13. ed. Schow. καλημμι in the 
Ode of Sappho in Dion. Hal.^ In the old Ionic poets also 
similar forms occur, as αίνημι Hesiod. 'Έργ. 683. ίίμνημι IL e', 
893. 746. &c. whence Scίμvησιib. 746. at least in single tenses, 
as γηράντβσσι from ytipacy 'ριρημι Hes. E/oy. 188. IJ. ρ ,\97, 
where otherwise the words in common use are αίνεω, γηρίω. 

• Fisch. S. p. 4S6. 276 scq. Fisch. 2. p. 4?8. 

^ Koen a(l Gregor. p. (127 seq.) ^ Fisch. 2. p. 440. 

Verbs in -μι. 335 

Hence also comes the form of the third person -ΐ|σι for -ei, e. g. 
ιταμφαίνησι for •φαί¥€ΐ II. e'f 6. from φαίνημι (which cannot 
there be the conj. as it refers to a definite subject, though other 
forms, as oc τ €κταμνΊ/σι II. y, 62. refer to various subjects 
of the same kind). θαΧπησι Bacchyl. in Anal. T, 1. p. 151 «XL 
So α퀕)^ησι, φίρησι, βρίθησι Od. τ , 111. appear to be 3rd 
persons formed after the manner of the verbs in -μι, on account 
of Tijcrei and irapkyei which follow ; they may, however, pos- 
sibly be conjunctives, as οστε v. 109. does not refer to any 
definite king. Other parts also of the barytone and circum- 
flexed verbs are formed like the verbs in -/lu, as the imperf. 
air6iX^Ti|v §. 199, 6. the conjunctive ίκωμι %. 200, 8. the inf. 
φΐλημεναι 8cc. §. 201. the syncopated perfects τίθναμεν, 
τέθναθι §. 198, 3. and the participles in -etc, instead of in -ων, 
ξ. 201, 9. In the old Attic dialect, too, several such forms 
in -/u are found, as ίκκλήγνυσθαι, άπεφράγνυσαν Thuc. 4, 125. 
7, 74. 

The 2nd aorists of many verbs take in the older language the 
form in -fii, as eicra. Όντα, βιονα, €πιπ\ώα, καταβρωα, φθάο, 
whose presents are only κτεινω (εκτανον), ουταω, βιοω, πλέω 
Ion. ΐΓλώω, βιβρωσκω, φθάνω, especially after the syncope, as 
ίβΧίιμην from βάλλω, βτττην (also Attic) from νέτομαι, and 
thus there are not only in the older but in the Attic dialect 
several passive forms of verbs in -fic, as βραμαι after, ίρημι, 
αγαμαι, μάρναμαι, ^υναμαι^. These forms in -/ui are thus pro- 
perly of .£olic origin, or rather they existed already in the old 
Greek language, which was used by Homer and Hesiod, and 
in which the dialects were as yet mingled together. The Ionic 
and Attic dialects, which only at a later period assumed a de- 
terminate form, retained some of these verbs in -fcc, namely 
those above given and those in -vfu, instead of which they very 
seldom use the forms in -νω. The iBolic, however, which re- 
tained the most of the ancient language, continued to use the 
greater part of them. 

Historically considered, then, the verbs in -/if must have been 
at least as old as those in -ω, and of more extensive use than 
appears in the works which have come down to us. Grammar, 

' £iiatatli. ad II. p. 805, 30. 1969, 7. Jen. Litt Z. 1809. n. S45. p. 139. 

336 Verbs in -μι. Formation of the Tenses. 

however^ regards only their analogy to those in -ω, and de- 
duces them from these. The simple form of riOii/bu appears to 
be found //• a\ 291• Ίτροθέουσι for ιρροτιθεασι• 

1) -ω in verbs pure is changed into -fu, and the short vowels 
^f ^f Of preceding, are changed into the long ones η, ω : 

2) they generally receive a prefix also, the redu{>lication. 
This consists in prefixing c, before which, in verbs beginning 
with a consonant, this consonant, or one which answers to it, 
is repeated, e. g. θέω, fut. θίγσω, τίθΐ|/ιι (not θίθημι, §• 36.)i 
2όω, fut. ίώσω, perf. SeSwKa, ScSoi/if. This reduplication, how- 
ever, is not used in verbs whose radical form is already more 
than a dissyllable, e. g. Seucw/uc from Sencvuen, ζευγη^μι from 
ZevyvvWf ονημι from όνέω, and various others, e. g. φημί from 

If the verb begins with a vowel, or with irr, στ, ι only is 
prefixed with a spiritus asper, e. g. Ιω, fut. τισω, ίημι. πτάω, 
ιπτΐ7/Α{. σταω, (fut. στίισω, aor. έστησα,) ίσηι/Αΐ. 

Some verbs, which begin with vowels, repeat the first syl- 
lable, as in what is called the Attic reduplication (§. 168. 
Obs. 2.), e. g. αΧάΧημαι, ακά'χημι, from αΧαομαι, αχέω. 

In some the initial vowels e and ι are made long by changing 
them into the diphthong ei, as εω ec/uf, ίω εΐ/ιι. In ει/ιί, how- 
ever, ει appears to have arisen from the old mode of using εε 
for If, or the interchange of ει and η, as in τέθεικο, and εί/ιί 
from ημί, whence too ην. 

Formation of the Tenses. 

203, 1. In the present tense pass, anct mid. the termination of 
(203) the pres. act. -μι is changed into -μαι, and the long vowel pre- 
ceding, into the short vowel of the radical form, τίθιι^ιι τίθε/ΐΜΐ 
(from θέω), ιστΐ}/ιι ίσταμαι (from σταω), ϋίωμι ϋ^ομαι (firom 

2. In the imperf. act. the termination -/ui of the present is 
changed into -v, e. g. τίθημι ετιθιιν, ίημι ίην, ίσττιμι titrrifv, 
φημί ίφην, Βίίωμί eSiSwv, Ββίκνυμι eSeiiCVvv, άμι {νμί) ην. 

Verbi in */uc• Formation of Tenses. 337 

The impeif. pass• and mid. take 'μην for -v^ as the impeif. 
pass, and mid. of verbs in -ω, and change the long vowel of 
the penult into the corresponding short vowel of the radical ; 
so that the pres. pass, and mid. appears to be the basis -μαι 
into 'μην. ίτίθην τίθε/ιιαι έτιθβμην, ϊστην ίστα/ιιαι Ισταμην, 
ζΒί8ων ScSo/iai ίΒιΒόμην» 

3. As the second aorist of verbs in -ω in the act. and mid. has 
the same termination as the imperf. but with the radical vowel 
made shorty the second aorist of verbs in -/uc in the act. and 
mid. accords entirely in its termination with the imperf. act. 
md mid. except that the shortening is produced by omitting 
the reduplication. Verbs beginning with consonants, and those 
nrhose reduplication consists in ι aspirated, receive here the 
lyllabic augment. Imperf. A. ετίθην. Aor. 2. A. εθην. Im- 
perf. P. Mid. ίτιθέμην. Aor. 2. M. εθέμην. Imperf. A. eSi- 
ίων. Aor. 2. A. ε£ων. Imperf. P. M. eScSo/uirv. Aor..2. M. eSo* 
ii|v. Imperf. A. ίστΐ|ν• Aor. 2. A. ίστην, Imperf. P. Μ • ισταμην, 
lor. 2• Μ. Ισταμην. 

4. The future is only of one kind, and is regularly derived 
Tom the radical form of the verb, e. g. τίθημι from θεω, θησω. 
ατημι from στάω, στήσω, ίίΒωμι from Soa>, βώσω. Ιημι from 
ιω, •ησω, εννυμι from Ιω, εσω. φημί from φάω, φησω. The 
at. mid. is formed from this, as in verbs in -ω. θησομαι, στη* 
foμat, δώσο/ιαι, ησομαι, Scc, 

δ. The aor. 1. act. in most verbs differs essentially from the 
brmation of the aor. 1. of verbs in -ω. For instead of retaining 
he σ of the fut., the verbs in -/« generally change it into κ, 
ί. g. θησω €θηκα, ησω ηκα, Βώσω ί^κα. T/ieocr, 27, 21. we 
hould read for δώσρ (from εβωσα for ίΒωκα) Βωσει, according 
ο the conjecture of Fischer 2. p. 253. adopted by Schaefer; 
is Herod. 6 f 133. okwq — βώσουσι for δώσωσι. Ίστημι only, and 
|>]|μ{, deviate from this, and make ίστησα, εφησα. Perhaps 
hese forms in -ica were originally peifects, but afterwards were 
ised as aorists, when a peculiar form was introduced for the 
)erfect*. The forms also of the aorists in -κα have not the 
est of the moods, but only those in -σα. From this aorist, 

* Herm. de.£in. Rat Gr. Gr. p. 938. 
VOL. I. ζ 

338 Verbs in -μι• Conjugation. 

however^ is formed die aor. 1. mid. by annexing the syllable 

-μΐ}ν• εθηκαμην, τικαμην, είωκαμην• 

6. The perfect is formed regularly, as in verbs in -ω, except 
that verbs whose perfects would have been similar in sound to 
the aor. 1 . take ei instead of η^ δώσω ίβίωκα, but θτισω TeOeuca, 
ησω εΤκα. This use of ει for η is said to have been Boeotian. 
In cari}/if it must be observed that in the perf. the augment e, 
which takes the place of the reduplication i, h aspirated, and 
further takes an i in the plusq• perf. εστηκα, ecoriiicetv• The 
plusquam perf., however, frequently has the simple augment, 
as συν€στηκ€ΐ Xen. Cyr. 6, 1, 54. vepceerriiicei Thuc. 6, 61. 
avetrntKei Arisi. Plut. 738. &c. See §. 164. Obs. 1. 

The perf. pass, is derived fn)m the perf. act. according to 
the same rules as in verbs in -ω, except that ίστημι and ίϋωμι 
take the short vowel instead of the long one, l^nyjca ίσταμαί, 
ίίίωκα SlSo/uai, which in τίθτ^μι and ίημί takes place first in 
the aor. 1. τέβειται, eTrai, aor. 1. ereBtiv, αφίθην. 

From the perf. act. and pass, comes the plusq. perf. act. and 
pass, as in verbs in -ω. τέθεικα ereOeiKeiv, τεθβψαι ίτεθειμην, 

7. The aor. 1. pass, of verbs in -μι stands in the same 
relation to the perf. as in verbs in -w. Thus from Icrro/cm 
Ισταται comes aor. 1. εστάθι^μ, SeSo/iai SeSoraf, eSo0i|v. In 
τίθημι and ίίίμι the diphthong ei of the perf. is changed into 
the short vowel e. τέθβι/ιιαι τίθειται, erednv (foi^ εβέθιμτ ac- 
cording to §• 37,) ιαψβΐ/ιαι αφεΐται, αφεθην. 

From the 2nd pers. perf. pass, comes the fut. 3. pass. TeOewai 
τεθεισο^ιαι, εστασαι έστίσομαι, 8cc• and from the aor.- 1 . pass, the 
fut. 1 . ετεθην τεθήσο/ιιαι, αφβθην αφεθησομαι, εΒόθψ^ ίοθίισομαι. 


209. 1, The principal difference between the conjugation of these 
^ ^ verbs and that of the preceding, consists in the final syllable 

-μι in the 1 . pers. sing. pres. 
-σι in the third pers. sing. pres. 
-01 in the second pers. sing, imperf. 
-σαν in the third pers. plur. imperf. 

Verbs in */ui• Conjugation. 339 

Noi€m The tenaination -6i of the imperat. aor. 2. is usually changed 
into s. 

2• Here it must be observed further, that in all persons of the 
dual and piur. in the pres•, imperf., and aor. 2• in the indicative, 
but not in the c<mjunctivey the short vowel of the radical form 
appears, whilst in the sing, the long vowel is used ; thus e in 
rf#i|fu, α in ίστημι and φημι, ο in ίϋωμι. The aor. 2. of ίστημι 
oioifis excepted, cmnip, which retains η throughout ; and some 
particular verbs, as αημι^ pass. αΐ|ται, imp. airro, ακά'χημΜ, 
ϋζίΐμαί, &c. Before the final syllable of the third pers. plur. 
-σι, which appears to have arisen from -n (§. 195• Obs.), either 
the short vowel is lengthened after rejecting the ρ before the 
termination, so that e becomes ei, ο ov, α and ν short become 
α and υ long, riOevri ηθεΐσι, SfSovri SiSovai, ισταντί ιστασι, 
ζευγνυντι ζβνγνΰσι ; or the ρ before the termination is changed, 
in a manner hereafter to be explained, into a, τιθεασι, ScSoaai, 

In these verbs the terminations -σαι and -σο of the pres. pass•, 
imperf. pass., and imperat. pass, are very much used, which 
before also were made the basis of the common forms in verbs 
in -ω, e. g. τιθεσαι Plat. CratyL p. 386 B. riOeao Aristoph. 
Pac. 1039. ιστασαι 11. κ, 279\ ίστασο Eurip. Ale. 1122. 
Ph(tn. 40. ιεσο Aristoph. Vesp. 421. 

3. The optative in the tenses in -tjfic, -ην, ends always, like 
the aor. pass, of verbs in -ω, in -ijy, which is preceded by the 
radical vowel with f ; thus τίθεΐην θεΐην, Ισταιην στα/ηι/, δί- 
8ο(ΐ|ΐ' Sofi|i^• In the passive and middle the termination is 
-/uf}v, with the same diphthongs preceding it, riOeifiiiy θείμην, 
Ισταιμην, ίι^οιμην Βοιμην. The verbs in -υμι have commonly 
no optative of their own, but only of the radical form, e. g. 
Scfio^oc, ^etryvvoc. Yet we find in Plat. Phadon. p. 1 1 8 A. on 
ψυχοιτο τ€ και vr\ywTO {πη^γνυτο, iniyvmTo) analogous to Xe- 
λυτό Od. σ', 237. Thus Saivvro II. ω', 665. appears to be 
the optative οί^αΐνυμι (whence SaiVu //. i\ 70. Od, y, 309).* 

4. The conjunctive has the long vowel of the pres. indie, in 
all persons where the common conjugation makes η, e. g. τιθω 

* Comp. Clarke ad Od. σ, 937. Buttm. L. Gr. p. 539 seq. 

ζ 2 

340 Verbs in -/ιαι. Conjugation. 

r* • ^«t ^t Μ c• 

τιθρ c τιθρ, τιθητομ τιθητε. ιστίϊ carpc tffTp, ιστητον ^ιστΐ|Τ6. 
δίδίΙΓ SiScoc δίδίί, διδωτομ δίδώτε, &C. The form -νμι also ap- 
pears to have a conjunctive. Plat. Phadon. />. 77 B. oiro^c μη 
^ιασκ€^αννυται η φυγτι, και — τούτο tIXoc ρ (where oiaaice- 
Savvvrai should be written). Thus also ibid. p. 77 E. 'δ0- 
Sievaty μ•η ο ανεμοα αύτηι/ δcασιcεδάμμυσιt^• In this case too the 
reading of the 2nd Basil, edit, in Plat. Gorg.p.47, airoiCTcV 
νυμεν, όταν αττοκτίννυμεν (^κτιννυμζν) would not be false ; it is 
at least more supported by syntax than ec riva αποκτ. 

5. The infinitive is a) in the active always -pai in the pre- 
sent tense, with the short radical vowel, rcOci^ac, ίέι^αι, Ιστίναι, 
φαναι^ διδόΐΌΐ, ζενγννναί, in the aor. 2. with a diphthong, or 
the long vowel, εΐ for e, η for o, ου for o, Oeivai, elvai, στηι^αι, 
Sovvai. b) in the passive and middle -σθαι, with the short vowelj 
τιθεσθαι θεσθαι, ιστασθαι, διδοσθαι δόσθαι. ^ 

6. In the participles a) in the active the form -vc is the 
basis, TiOevQy n. τιθέν. Gen. τίθέντοα. δίδόΐ'α, η. διδόμ, as απο- 
διδομ Plat. Rep. 6. p. δ08 D. Gen. διδόι/τοα, &c. The final 
syllable was made long after rejecting μ, according to §. 39. by 
changing ε into ec, ο into ου, α and υ short into α and υ long. 

eiQ Tiueiaa, οιοουο οιοουσα, στα c στασα, ceiicvv c οεικνυσα• 

b) The termination of the participle in the pass, and mid. is 
-/^ειΌc with the preceding short vowel, τιθε/ιει^οα θ€μ€νος, ίστά- 
fievoc, SιS6μ€voc. See Table F. p. 342. 


210. 1* In Ionic and Doric the forms -έω, -άω, -όω often occur in the 
(305) present and imperf. sing, with the reduplication, e. g. TiOeU Find. P. 
8, 14. €7ΓΐΓΐθ€ί£ Herod. 5, 95. wpoTiueU id. 1, 153. en-iriOei id. 7, 35. 
ίστ^ ii/. 4, 103. it^oFs //. i', 164. h^lHesiod. epy. 279. //erorf. 4, 163. 
Ptwif. P. 4, 472. Imperf. eridei Od. c', 196. Herod. 6, 69. Jten. Cyrop. 
4, 1, 24. 8, 2, 26. άιιστ»; /ieroif. 1, 196. klilom Demosth. p. 914. 
i^i^ov Herod. 1, 163. 3, 50. Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 35. 8, 2, 17. c^i^f 
8 Hesiod. "Εργ. 138. ict Herod. 4^, 28. /i€0i€i Eur.Bacch. 1071.' 
ίστημι is commonly conjugated like verbs in -^e, the rest, according to 
the contracted form, oiily in the sing. Verbs in -vfic are conjugated in 

• Fisch. 2. p. 44i. 478. 

Verbs in -/ii. Conjugation. 341 

the pres. and imperf. chiefly according to the fonn -^«i by the Attics, 
rarely as if from -vw, e. g. Thuc. 5, 19. 24. ύμνουν^. 

Obs. Whether the contracted form in the present was used by the 
A^ttics also, is a matter of dispute. Brunck has received riOels, lels in 
many places, e. g. Soph, Phil. 992. Antig. 403. Aristoph, Lysistr. 
$95. &c.• and calls τιθη$, ίηε the common form. On the other hand 
Person asserts, ad Eurip, Or. 141. that τίβηχ, Ίηί alone are Attic, and 
-cOels, ieis barbarisms. One of the grounds on which Porson rests his 
issertion, viz. that the Attics could not have said rideis because they 
iid not say ηθουμ€ν, ridetre, proves too much, and therefore nothing ; 
once, on the same groimds, we might reject ηθεΐί from the Ionic dia- 
ect, which did not admit τώονμεν^ τιθειτε• But a more decisive proof 
is, that in Attic writers τίθησι always occurs, and never τιθέι (except 
CycL 526. where the syntax requires that it should be rtdp), because 
the transcribers could not alter this, at least in the poets, on account of 
the measure of -the verse. It might be added, that if they had said 
rideU riOei, they would also have said Ιστάχ Ιστξ^ h^oU hdcii, since 
Euialogy was always carefully attended to in the verbs in -μι. As these 
never occur, those in -cts -cT are the more doubtful. In most of the 
passages too of Attic writers, in which the contracted form occurs, the 
accent is so placed in the old editions and MSS. as it must have stood 
over τίΘηε^ and not over τίθέϊε^ viz. WOetr, Uis, and hence ei appears to 
have arisen from the later pronunciation of 17 **. 

2. In the third pers. pi. the form -ασι (with α long, see Arist. EccL 
843. Fesp. 715.) is used by the Attics, which occurs frequently in 
Ionic, and hence is called Ionic, e. g. ηθέασι Herod. 4, 23. 5, 8. Thuc, 
2, 34. Aristoph. Vesp. 564. ίιίόασι Herod. I, 93. Thuc. 1, 42. &c. In 
verbs in -v/it, -νοσι is given as the new Attic, -νσι (as ^ικνυσιν Plat, 
Rep. 7 in. άττόλλυσι Leg. 4. p. 706 C.) as the old Attic form*. The 
majority of MSS., however, has άποκτιννυασι in Plat. Gorg. p. 466 B. C. 
Ιάσι id. Rep. 8. p. 560 C. Thuc. 6, 86. Xenoph. Memor. S. 2, 1, 33. 
[contracted from Ιέασι^ a contraction which occurs only when a vowel, 
and not a consonant, precedes, as in Ilcfpata, but not in βασιΚέα.) ' 
The other form, -εΐσι, is found in Hes, Theog. 875. άέΐσι from άημι. 
Herodotus also has Ιστέασι 5, 71. 

^ Brunck ad Arist Av. 520. Fisch. T. 628. Aristoph. 1. c. Musgr. ad 

8. p. 458. Pors. ad Eur. Med. 744. £urip. Here. F. 710. 

c n. Schsf. £lmsl. ad Med. 729. For * Comp. Herm. ad Soph. Phil. 980. 

&ιτολλνονσ& Thuc. 4, 25. -ύασι should * Moeris, p. 127. 17 1. 

probably be read, as 8, 10. 42. ' Thom. M. p. 225. 406. Moeris, 

« Brunck ad Soph. Ph. 1. c. (£d. p. 281. 406. Fisch. 2. p. 450. 


Verbs in ^μι. Conjugation. 

I. Ac- 







Γΐθ-€Γΐ, ϊστ-αθι, ί/δ-οβι, 


-ly*, -ί?ο'*(0 S• -€Γΐ(€θιΧ*)ι -er« 



-aroi', -arov 
"OToy^ -Ότον 
'ϋτον^ '•ντον 
P.-e/iCv, -ere, -eiai, 
-a/xev, -are, -άσι 
-o/xev, -ore, Όνσι, 
-iJ/iev, -vre, -νσι, 

βτ/θ-ΐί ν, i<rr-j|v, e^i^ -ων, 



P. -ere, 

-or «a 









S. -etiyv, -e/i|€, -c/ij 

-OIJ|V, -o/i|f, -oiiy 

D, -€iijrov,-€i4riyi' 


-oiifrov, -Oiiinii' 

P.-e/iy/iCFj-c/iyre, -e/iyffoy 

-a/i7^e»',-aii|re, -αίησαγ 

-oii;/ievy -oiiiret -οίησαϊ 










-arov, -ariyv 

-orov, -iinjv 

-vrov, -vrijv 

P. e/iev, -ere, -e^ai 

'•αμ€ν, -are, -ασαν 

•ομ€ν^ ^OTCf •οσαν 

-vftev, -vre, -νσαν 




Idi/ic-a Ί 

Ιοη^σ-α >-a«,-e,&c.(*) 

ί^ωκ-α J 


c -αΊ 

-α >-a«,-e,&c. (^) 

-α J 

^στηκ€ Vas Terwpe 
ζέ^ωκ€ J 




only of ίστησα §. 208, 5. 


- ^^ I as imperf. ex- 
^^''^^ f cept εστιών 


'tfTOVi "ήτην 
-i|/iev, -lyre, -ι^σαν 

ΜΙστήσω >as τυ^ω. 


^στηκ >-Oi/ii,as rerv^i/ii 
^eScaic J 


only of έστησα 
στίισαιμί^ as τυ^αιμι 

[6eri] βέί, στίθι, [δ<^βί] 

8.[-έη]-έί, -έΓω 

ηβι 'ίιτω 

\6θι] -6s, -άτω 

D. "eroVf -έτβαν,&ο. 

Ρ. -ere, -έΓβασαν. 

*'^'"' las in the 

ζ,:ί «»^(•) 



l^oU, N& τν,^ην^^ ^i^ Vi^V»^^ 

Verbt in -μι. Conjugation. 


Conjunctive. ' 



-iJrov, 'iSroy 
μ€ν^ 'ήτε, -ώσι 

ί^βΐΊ lire, -ώσι 


Tid-eiSf -εΤσο, -έν. 
ίβτ-άί, -ασα, -άν. 

ίενγΐ'-νί, -νσα, -ύκ. 

>-ω, as τ€τν<ρω 

redeiK ^ 
ίστηκ Y'iyai 

reOeuc '\ 

^στηκ >-(Jf, -νιο, -of. 

af έστησα 

if 'fis, as Γνψ<α 


στήσαε, -ασα, -αν. 

►as in the present. 





OelSf -εισα, -έν. 
oraSy ->aact| -άν. 
iovf, -ονσοι -iJi/. 


ψίΒΟψημί. f ^ii, /i. 

344 Verbs in ψι. Confugaiion. 

. The origin of the tennination -ασ& has not yet been sufficiently ex• 
plained. Perhaps the α arose from y^ τιθένσι τιθέαβη^ as §. 203, 6. ; 
but on account of the similarity which this present form -ασι has with 
the third person perf. even in its derivation, the α was lengthened. 

S, The form εστακα, which is found in the common Grammars, oc- 
curs in later writers only (e. g. JEschin. Axioch. 18.*), and in a transitive 
sense. The Doric form ίστακα with α long is distinct from this, e. g. 
Find. P. 8, 100. τταρέστάκε. 0£ ^σταμεν &c. see §. 198, 3. 

Besides this, a present formed from the perf. was taken as a basis, 
and a fut. έστηζω and ΙσΗιξομαι Plat, Rep, 9. p. 587 B. Symp, p. 220 D. 
Enrip, Iph. A, 675. formed from it. Comp. §. 188. Ohs, 

4. The aor. 1 . in -κα occurs in good authors almost exclusively in 
the sing, and third pers. pi. Euripides Cycl, 296. has €^ώκαμ€ν, Xenoph, 
Mem. S, 4, 2, 15. eO^jca/iev. In the rest of the persons the aor. 2. is 
more used, which again hardly ever occurs in the sing. On the other 
hand έστησα and ^στην are equally used, but in different senses• See 
§. 211. 

5. In the imperative pres. 2nd pers. sing, the contracted form also is 
very frequent in τίθημι^ Ίημι, ΙίΙωμι. τίθα jEschyL Agam. 931. 
Th. 203, Arist. Ran.lSie. Thuc.e,l4. Xen,Cyrop.b,S,%\. UiArUt, 
Pac. 158. Ran. 1462. li^v Herod, 3, 140. Plat. Phcedr. p. 257 A. 
Xen, Cyrop. 1, 4, 10. Instead of which Pindar has hBoi 01. 1, 136. 
6, 178. 7, 164. according to the Doric dialect. For ΧσταΒι we find more 
commonly "ιστη II. ^', 313. Aristoph. Eccl. 738. Eurip. Suppl. 1229. 
Hel, 1264. Ion. 1129. In the same manner πίμπρη Eurip. Ion. 527. 
974. ίμπίπΧη Arist. Av. 1310. ζή Eurip. Iph. T. 699. for ττι/ΐίτροθι, 
ίμπίπλαθι, ζηθι^. Similarly σάω for σάωθι Od. ν, 230. ρ, 595. ^eUw 
for hlKvvdi Aristoph. Av. 665. Plat. Rep. 7. p. 523 A. ομνν Soph, 
Trach. 1185. Eur. Med, 751.* On the contrary ^άθι alone is in use. 

In the imperative aor. 2. the 2nd person sing, is always 6es, Z6s^ not 
θέη, l6Qi. But the latter occurs in Nicand. Ther, 562. For ποτίθει 
Tlieocr. 14, 45. four MSS. apud Gaisf, have "Q^s. In compound verbs, 
for -στήθι is frequently found -στα, e. g. άνστα Theocr, 24, 36. (or &va 
Soph. Aj. 194. Eurip. Troad. 98.) Thus also πρόβα for προβηβι Arist. 
Ach. 262. παράστα Menand, p. 46. Cler, 

The third person plur. of the imperat. pres. and aor. 2. is, as in verbs 

* Schaef. ad Dion. Hal. p. 331. '^ Brunck ad Arist. Lys. 733. 

^ Piers, ad Moerid. p. 308 seq. 

Remarks on some Verbs in -μι• 345 

in -Wy §. 198» 1. frequently -ντων for -τωσαν^ e. g. τ€φαΒ€ντων Arist. 
Nub» 455. ΙΜντων Thuc. 5, 18. ηθέτωσαν, &c. I have not yet met 

6. The optative pres. and aor. 2., as in the aor. pass, of verhs in -ai| 
have in die plural, in the poets as well as prose writers, more commonly 
-et/xeF -eire -ctcv, -oi/icv -oire -αϊβν, -oi/iev -oTre -oiev, for -e/iy/tiev, &c. 
e. g. β€ΐ|ΐ€ϊ• Oii. /i', 347. Demosth, p. 323. 1251. ίστΛίεκ Xen. Cyr. V, 
4,15. ΓΛ«ο.1,18. άτΓοίιίοι/ιεκ ΡίαΛ Λίρ. 3. jp. 387 Ε. 403 D. δοί/ιεν, 
ioTcv Orf. /y, 336. ΓΛαο. 2, 12. Plat. RepubL 10. p. 007 P. (δοιησον 
Damoxen, ap. Athen, 3. p. 401. ect. Schrv.) xapei/iev P^^ /?€|p. 6. 
p. 503 £. μ€θ€ϊτ€ ArisU Ran. 1384. 1393. (Optat. for imper. as in 
Plato Eutkyd. p. 273 E. ϊλεψ eiriroy for έστόν.) Find. P. 5, 1 60. δι- 
2ocre, if this does not belong to the Pindaric form di^i, no. 5, and 
§. 212, 7. Porson ad Eur. Or. 141. considers μ€θ€ίτ€ as the contracted 
imperative for /leOf ere (in which case it ought to be /ied/eire), and cor- 
rects /iέθeσOe. According to Buttmann, L. Gr. p. 526. 5 SO. the forms 
Ιοίημ^ν^ ^οιη[Γ€ are more common. 

An optative of the aor. 2. of the verb in -v/ii is found, li:3v/iev (έι:- 
Ιυψ€ν) II. π, 99. with which may be compared ^νΐη Theocr. 15, 94. 

Obs. 1. For ΖίΙοΙην^ ΙοΊην &c. some later authors said also Ζι^^ην^ 
Ιψην^ which, however, is censured by the old grammarians**. 

- Obs. 2. In compounded words the accent is generally drawn back, 
as KaraiTfiohiloiTe Plat. Apol. p. 29 D. ^^toire, with var. r. at^Ure, 
πρόσθητ€ for ιτροσΘητε Eurip. Heracl. 476. i^arlji Soph. Phil. 705• 
άφίψί Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 6. with var. r. a^eci;, and so Plat.Phcedon. p. 90 E. : 
twelve MSS. ap. Bekk. have ιταρίωμ^ν for -ιώμεν. Comp. §. 213, 2. 3. 

Remarks upon particular Verbs. 

I. ιστη/ιιι. 

1. The perfect^ plusquam perf. and aor. 2. act. have an in- «m^ 
transitive signification, ' to stand' ; the rest of the tenses a (206) 
transitive one, * to place'. The perfect has also the signification 
of the present, and consequently the plusquam perf. that of thq 
imperf. Thus Ιστηκα signifies ' I stand', e. g. Od. ω, 298. 

* Phrynich. p. 152. MoBris, p. 117. Piers, ad McEr. 1. c. 
Comp. Thoni. M. p. 995 seq. See 

346 Remarki on some Verbi im •μί» 

irotf S' ή ynSc ίσι^κ€ θο^ ; ' where stands the ship V ccornteti^i 
*l was standing', as in continuance. Arista Plut. 738. ό 
Πλούτος avearr^Kei βΧίπων. ίστην, * I 8tood% as a transient 
action• Homer, however, //. μ, 56. Od. y, 182. σ, 307. and 
Euripides HeracL 940. have Ιστασον, i. e. άστήκασαν, in a 
transitive sense. In the passages from Homer, however, it is 
not used as an imperf. but as an aorist, and therefore it is pro- 
bable that it is a shortening for €στΐ7σαν, as on the contrary 
Ιστητε is for ear are, τιθημβναι for rtde/i€vat*. In this case it 
would be more correctly written βστασαν. 

2. lariifct is the only complete verb in -/ui which keeps the 
long vowel in the aor. 2. through the whole of the dual and 
plural, as well as in the imperative. The same thing, howeveri 
takes place in some aorists of which no present in ^μι is in use, 
and whose radical vowel is a, ίβην, ββημεν, -iire, -ιισαν, Ιφβιι- 
/u€v, of those whose radical vowel is e, only eici^iire. So also 
aveSpav, -eS/cm/icy. Those whose radical vowel is ν keep it 
long, ίίυτην 11. 2Γ, 19. eSvre Od. ω, 106. έδυσαν, βφυτε, and 
several in -ων, ββίων, βιώτω. Ιγνων, γνώθι, εσλων, εαλωμβν^• 
On the other hand, other aorists whose radical vowel is a, have 
this short, as ουτα II. e, 376. and infin. ουταμβν. ίκτα Od. λ', 
610. Iicriv Oii. τ , 276.* 

II. ίημί. 

ι. The compound αφίημι has frequently the augment at the 
beginning, e. g. -ηφίει Thuc. 2, 49. Demosth. p. 70. 301. 
ηφίβσαν id. p. 540. In the first pers. npoieiv Od. t, 88. κ, 100. 
μ, 9. ηφίβιν in the best MSS. Plat. Euthyd. p. 293 A. 
Perhaps the Greeks themselves were misled by a false analogy, 
and considered the 3rd pers. in -ei to answer to a 1st pers. in 
-eiv, to which the plusq. perf. had accustomed them, comp. 
§. 200, 8. So τρέψοιν after the analogy of τρέφοι §. 198, 2. 
or there may have been an old form αφΐ€α, like eriOca §• 212, 
6. of similar sound with the plusq. perf. §. 198, 3. and as in 
the plusq. perf. -ea become -ecv, so in the imperf. 

• Buttm. L. Gr. 2. p. 159. * Schol. Ven. ad II. ^, 319 Heyne, 

^ Gottllng. ad Theod. p. 296. - ib. 

Remarh <m some VerbM in -/u. 347 

2• Iq the perfect of this verb» besides the proper form elxa, 
there occurs^ but only in the New Testament, Ιωκα, αφβωκα 
(pass, αφβωμαι), which is said to be Doric, but which is fakely 
given as Attic in the common Grammars^• 

3. In the plur. of the aor. 2. the Attics for αφ€μ€¥ αφ€Τ€ 
αφ€σαν, more commonly say αφ^ιμεν αφ€ΐτ€ αφεΐσαν, e. g. 
ανείμα^ Aristoph. Vesp. 672. Thucyd. 1, 76. (not the-optat• as 
Fischer 2. p. 481. thinks,) καθβιμεν Εητφ. fyhig. Λ. 423. 
itveire Soph. (Ed. T. 1405. αφ€ΐ(ίαν Thuc. 6, 81. (ndt the 
participle» as Valckenaer ad Herod, p. 261, 58. thinks) 7, 53. 
Demosth. /». 217, 17. Xenoph. Hellen. 1,5, 19. in the edition 
of Aldus and the 2nd of Stephanus. aveiaav Thue. 6, 32. Plat. 
Symp. p. 1 79 C. Topeiaav Eurip. Troad. 694. καθ€ΐσαν Iph. T. 
334. 1 189.® The ec is regarded as the augment. Odtveaap see 
Obs. 2.' 

Ohs. 1. In Herodot. 8, 126. 6, 103. occurs also a participle β?σα#, 
hreltftut vTrtiffavreSf which Valckenaer, p. 261, 58• derives from νψίημι, 
as in aik>tlier place vircls Χόχον occurs. But this appears rather to come 
from ί <#, ^ζω. See the list of defective verbs under ίω. From this if w, ^ζω^ 
appears also to come //• r, 657. is ^Ιψροτ ^ ityiaavres. But//, ξ^ 209. 
&νέσαψΐ9 II. ψ\ 537. Ayeaap^ and Od* σ\ 265. ayiaei^ are used entirely 
in the sense of aytiym^ so that they seem to be formed regularly from 
Ιίω, whence ?i}/u. 

Obs. 2. Another form of the aorist sometimes occurs, ^ησα^ e. g. ό^^- 
σαν Xen. Hell. 1, 6, 19. in some editions ; ayijaay Eurip. Ion. 1170• 
μ€Θίΐ(ηι$ Arist. Vesp. 437. a^fitrys Plat. Symp.p, 179 C. But in the 
better editions o^et^av (ά^^ιταν), άκβΐσαν, /ιεθήσε», are read ; and in 
Plato it must be καΧ μή a^^^eis, or καϊ μή &f^s '. Thus in Isocrates 
Areopag. p. 145 D. προσθήσωσιν is falsely read, where the Milan edi• 
tion gives correctly προσθήσουσιν. 

III. φ η μι. 

See§. 214, IL 

' Fisch. 1. p. 107. Maitt. p. 51. Fisch. S. p. 479. 
Buttm. L. Gr. p. 541. has made 'Of the inf. elyai in compounds, 

it appear probable that in Herod. 3, see Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 485. Ileind. 

165. άνέωνται (Cod.Flor.) is the true ad Plat. Crat. p. 105. 
reading. ■ Fisch. 9. p. 481. 

* Bninck ad Soph. CEd. T. 1405. 

348 Verbs in -/«. Dialects. 


212. In many cases the dialectic variations of this conjugation 
(207) agree with those of the first : e. gr. 

1. -σκον in the imperf. and aor. 2. for -ην, where the short 
vowel is always used, e. gr. τιθεσκεν Hesiod. Fragm, 77. ed. 
Cler, 61. Gaisf, avleaKeid, Theog, 157. μβθιβσκεν ApolL Rh, 
3, 274. goaicov Od. τ, 76. 11. i\ 331. σ, 546. for ^δων. 
στασκε IL γ, 217. for εστη, 

2. ^μ€ναι and ^μεν in the infin. for -ναι, in which case 
the short vowel generally precedes this termination also, e. g. 
τιθίμεναι Clin. ap. Gale,p, 687 ; but τιθημεναι IL \f/, 83. 247. 
νπερτιθίμεν Find. Fyth, 5, 33. θίμεναι //. βι, 285. and θέμ^ν 
Oii.V,314. Find. 01. 2, 33. 6,5.* βστάμβναι Herod. 1, 17. as 
απισταμεναι 1,76. εστάμεν for έσταναι (έστηκεναι) Od. a', 120. 
φ', 261. σταμεν Find. Fyth. 4, 2. Ζ&ομεν Find. Isthm. 8, 
1 32. ίάμεναι II. α , 1 16. Find. Nem. 8, 34. δό/ιεμ //. δ', 379. 
Find. 01. 6, 54. 8, 111. Deer. Byzant. in Demosth. p. 256. 
€/iev in the compounds, μεθεμεν II. α', 283. συνεμεν Find. P. 
3, 141. for μεθεΐναι, συνεΐ^αι, from μεΟιτ/ιμι^ συνίημι. The long 
vowel remains in βαμεν for βη^αι Find. F. 4, 69. βτιμεναι OJ. 
©*, 518. ^', 327. νποσταμεν Euryph. ap. Gale, p. 668• στή- 
^εναι //. ρ', 167. στα μεν Find. Fyth. 4, 2.^ 

The Dorians use a for η in verbs whose radical form was in 
-αω, e. g. Ίσταμι from σταω ; but not τίθαμι for τιθιι/ιιι^. 

The Dorians circumflex the last syllable of the fut. θησω 
Theocr. 8, 14. 17. 20. στασω 6, 53. δώσω 1, 25. 3, 36. 
Hence in the mid. θησευμεσθα id. 8, 13. 

3. In the second person τιθησθα Od. i, 404. for τίθηο. δ/- 
δοισθα //. τ , 270. for διδοΐ^, δίδωα, as κλαίοισθα §. 200, 8. 

4. In the third person sing. pres. the Dorians say -τ* for -σι, 
e. g. εφίητι Find. Isthm. 2, 15. τιθητι Theocr. 3, 48. ύφίητι 
id. 4, 4. δϊ'δωτι Simon, ap. Athen. II. p. 490 F. αποδιδωτι 

* Fisch. 2. p. 259. In Theocr. 1, 50. for όνασ€?ν is now 
^ Maitt. p. 236. read with Valck. άνησ€ΐν or &νίισ€ΐν 

* Koen. ad Greg. p. (lOl) 223 seq. as most of the MSS. have. 

Verbs in ψι. Dialects. 349 

Tinums Locr.p. 11. 12. 16.^ In the conjunctive we find in 
one passage Tkeocr. 16, 28. εθέλρτι. 

6. In the third person plur. -vri is'Doric, τίθβντι, ίξισταντι 
Timisus Locr.p. 19. φαντί Theocr. 3, 45. ίσαντιίά. 15,64.® 

6. In the imperative Pindar says, e. g. 01. 1, 136. 6, 178. 
7, 164. and in other places, ScSoi for SiSou, SiSoOi, as he says 
ναιοισι, βαλοΊσι, and perhaps XapixXoiQ Pyth. 4, 182.^ 

7. The imperf. in Ionic ended in -eac -ea -ee, as in the 
plnsquam perf. §. 198, 5. e. g. vire/oercdea Herod. 3, 155. 
wpoeridee 8, 49. aviee 4, 125. which, however, may be derived 
from the radical form ανάω. 

Of ιημι there seems to have been, besides ceoi, a form <ω, 
«whence imperf. l^vviov II. ay 273.S(imperat. l^vvie Theogn. 1 240. 
Bekk. is doubtful.) So /ti60c6cc //. t!> δ 23. /tie0cei //• κ, 121. 
wpotei II, β', 752. (/tiedceTr, -le? was introduced by Heyne, see 
dn II. K, 121.) of the same sound with the imperf. //. o', 716. 
w, 762. Φ', 72. εξ/ε* Herod. 2, 17. and elsewhere for βξίησι. 
met trf. 3, 109. 4, 28• 152. air/ei 4, 157. The difference, 
bowever, rests only on the accent or the similar pronunciation 
of If and ei*". 

8. The third person pi. imperf. and aor. 2. is often abbre- 
nated, but o