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Full text of "Diesel Injection System-Section 23C"

DIESEL IMJECTION SYSTEM 



Index 

General Description and Principle 
of Operation 



Service Adjustments and Checks 
Special Service Tool Recognition 
Diesel Fuel System Diagnosis . 



Service 


and 


23 


172 


23 


174 


23 


184 


23 


410 


23 


411 


23 


413 


23 


414 


23 


455 


23 


458 


23 


483 


23 


485 


23 


534 


23 


545 


23 


546 


23 


548 


23 


766 


23 


826 


23 


828 



Repair Operations 



Contained in 
Operation 



Air Cleaner - Check Operation 

Air Cleaner Assembly 

Element Air Cleaner - Replace 
Injection Pump - Check Timing 

Injection Pump - Adjust Timing 

4 Engine Idle Speed - Adjust . 

Injection Pump - Remove and Install 

Injectors - Remove and Install 
Injectors - Overhaul 

Pipes - Injector Delivery - Remove and Install 

Pipe - Injector - Leak Off - Remove and Install 23 455 

Fuel Pump - Remove and Install 
Fuel Filter - Remove and Install 

Element - Fuel Filter - Replace 

Fuel Reservoir - Remove and Install 
Element - Thermostart Heater - Remove and Install .. 
Cable - Accelerator - Remove and Install (includes: adjust) 
Cable - Idle Speed Control - Remove and Install 



Page 

2 
15 

16 
17 



Page 

27 
28 
28 
29 
30 
32 
33 
38 
39 
45 

46 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 



Fig. 1 

2,5 Di Diesel 

Injection System 




Technical Data 



53 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-1 



D I 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



The fuel injection system fitted to the Transit 2,5 litre Di 
CAV or Bosch design. 

The fuel system consists of a fuel injection pump (CAV or Bo 
air cleaner (thermostatically controlled air cleaner Bosch o 
device (- 20 "C engines). 

The only adjustments which may be made without the use of sp 
speed and injection pump timing. These adjustments are desc 
Section. 




Fig.l. 2,5 DI Injection System. 

TR-23C-60 



October 1984 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP (CAV) 

The CAV fuel injection pump 1s of the rotary type and Is mounted on the right hand rear face of the 
cast aiurmmum front housing. 

The fuel Injection pump pulley Is bolted to the drive flange and 'driven at half engine speed bv a 
toothed belt. ^ r- ^ 

Thepump consists of a solid, one piece driveshaft supported on bearings housed in a machined aluminium 
casing. Four centrifugal governor weights are retained in a carrier fitted to the driveshaft and the 
mechanical governor linkage Is located in a housing mounted above the four high pressure pumping 
elements and cam ring. ^ r- k r » 

During operation the injection pump is completely filled with diesel fuel under pressure. Diesel fuel 
is constantly drawn into the Injection pump via the fuel filter providing lubrication for the Injection 
pumpjnternal components. Excess fuel Is returned to the fuel tank by a separate fuel line. This 
eliminates the necessity to bleed the fuel system. 




Fig. 2. CAV fuel Injection system. 

A - Fast flame start reservoir F - Fuel filter 

(~20°C option) G - Shut-off solenoid 

B - Solenoid valve (-20''C option} H - Transfer pump 

C - Element (-20°C option) J - Regulating valve Q 



D - Fuel tank 
E - Hand primer 



K - Advance unit 

L - Cold advance lever S - Vent valve 



M - Latch valve 

N - Fuel injector 
P - Hydraulic head 

Rotor 
R - Governor valve 



T - Governor weights 
U - Driveshaft 

V - Governor lever 

W - Idle shaft assembly 
X - Throttle shaft 

Y - Pressure valve 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 01: SECTION 23C-3 




DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



Hydraulic Head 

Bolted to the rear of the casing 1s the 'hydraulic 
head' which houses a vane type pump, pressure 
regulating valve and stop control solenoid. 

When the Ignition Is switched on and the engine 1s 
running, fuel will be drawn into the vane type 
pump where its pressure will be raised and 
controlled by a regulating valve. The regulating 
valve controls the fuel pressure {known as 
'transfer pressure') to the metering valve which 
is operated by the throttle lever, and regulates 
the flow of fuel to the filling ports of the 
distribution rotor. 



Distribution Rotor 

The rotor carries four opposed high pressure - 
pumping plungers which, under the action of fuel 
at filling pressure, push the rollers Into contact 
with the internal lobes of the cam ring. 




Fig. 3. The transfer pump. 

A - Fuel inlet C - Regulating piston 

B - Transfer pressure D - Transfer pump 
adjuster 



Torque Control Device 

Maximum fuelling Is preset by a sealed torque 
control device which controls two scroll plates 
located concentrically with, and either side of, 
the cam ring. The plates limit the outward 
movement of the rollers in contact with the 
pumping plungers thus adjusting maximum fuelling. 

The scroll plate mechanism also gives automatic 
excess fuel for easier starting. At cranking 
speed, the scroll plates are rotated to a point 
which allows the pumping elements to move further 
apart, admitting fuel in excess of the normal 
maximum. 



As soon as the engine runs, excess fuel is 
terminated by the action of the excess fuel 
piston, acting on the scroll plates, reducing fuel 
delivery. 



Automatic Advance/Retard 

The advance/retard unit automatically adjusts the 
cam ring to control the Injection timing. As 
engine speed increases, fuel pressure rises and 
acts upon the hydraulic piston within the unit and 
opposes spring pressure. This pressure moves the 
piston and cam ring against the direction of 
rotation thus advancing the timing as pump speed 
increases. 



For part throttle advance and retard an external 
lever adjusts the amount of pre-tenslon on the 
advance servo-piston. The position of this lever 
Is controlled by a cam on the throttle lever. 




Fig.4. Auto advance and start retard unit. 
A - Drive shaft 
B - Roller and plunger 
C - Cam ring 

D - Transfer pressure chamber 
E - Advance screw 
F - Advance spring 
G - Manual advance lever 



October 1984 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



The unit also incorporates a cold idle advance 
lever which 1s operated by a temperature sensitive 
waxstat element via a control cable. During 
cold starting the control cable moves the idle 
lever to the fast idle position and simultaneously 
advances the timing by switching hydraulic 
pressure to the auxiliary advance piston thereby 
Improving engine combustion and eliminating light 
load misfire until waxstat operating temperature 
has been reached. 



Mechanical Governor 

The two speed governor is of the mechanical 
flyweight type giving accurate control of the 
engine at idling and maximum speeds. The governor 
flyweight assembly is mounted on the driveshaft 
and Is entirely contained within the pump body. 

Movement of the governor flyweights, which pivot 
outwards from centrifugal force set up by 
driveshaft rotation, actuates a thrust sleeve. 
The sleeve, sliding along the driveshaft causes 
the governor arm to pivot about a fulcrum on the 
control bracket. This movement is transmitted by 
the governor link to the metering valve which 
rotates to change. the quantity of fuel entering 
the filling ports. Rotating the metering valve 
changes the flow area between the groove In the 
valve and the metering port. The amount of fuel 
that enters the filling ports is therefore changed 
by varying the effective area of the metering 
orifice. 




Fig. 5. 'Waxstat' element and control cable. 
A - Cable securing clip 
B - Waxstat 



The governor link arm and spring is located In the 
upper part of the pump enclosed by the control 
cover which houses the throttle shaft and idling 
shaft. 



At idling speeds, the position of the metering 
valve Is controlled by the centrifugal force of 
the governor weights which compress the idling 
leaf spring against the Idle actuator until a 
state of equilibrium is achieved. 



At intermediate speeds, a preloaded main governor 
spring provides a direct link between the vehicle 
throttle pedal and the metering valve so that the 
amount by which the metering valve rotates is 
entirely a function of the throttle lever 
position. 



At a predetermined speed approaching the maximum 
speed of the engine, the resulting centrifugal 
force of the governor flyweights exceeds the 
preload of the main governor spring and the 
metering valve is rotated to reduce the amount of 
fuel delivered. 




Fig. 6. Two speed mechanical governor. 
A - Centrifugal weght assembly 
B - Main governor spring 
C - Governor linkage 
D - Metering valve 
E - Governor arm 
F - Thrust sleeve 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-5 



wm£ 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



FUEL INJECTION PUMP (BOSCH; 



The Bosch fuel Injection pump is of the rotary type and 1s mounted to the engine In a similar fashion 
to the CAV type Injection pump. 

A centrally mounted Injection plunger operates fn a bore supported in a cast iron body. The cast Iron 
body is bolted to the main housing of the pump which contains the driveshaft, transfer pump, advance 
device, cam plate and rollers and the gear driven governor assembly. 

As the driveshaft rotates, fuel is drawn Into the injection pump by a transfer pump located in the 
front section of the Injection pump body. The transfer pump supplies a constant quantity of fuel per 
revolution, and produces an Injection pump body pressure via a regulating valve. The majority of fuel 
conveyed flows through the pressure regulating valve back again to the transfer pump supply in a closed 
loop. The remainder of the fuel flows through the pump interior Into the high pressure chamber of the 
hydraulic head. A small quantity of excess fuel flows through the fuel outlet restrlctor back to the 
fuel tank for cooling and acting as a constant air bleed. 

The fuel return outlet adaptor fitted to the fuel Injection pump is of a unique design providing a fuel 
restriction to ensure injection pump transfer pressure is constantly maintained. The banjo bolt unlike 
previous designs is the same as the inlet banjo bolt and does not Incorporate a fuel restrlctor. 




Fig, 7. Bosch Fuel Injection Pump. 

A - Drive flange 

B - Governor cover 

C - Throttle lever 

D - Shut off solenoid 

E - Inlet port 

F - Plunger 



G - Delivery valve 

H - Hydraulic head 

I - Governor collar 

J - Plunger return spring 

K - Advance unit 

L - Cam plate 



M - Roller 

N - Governor drive gear 

- Transfer pump 

P - Governor weight assembly 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di : SECTION 23C-6 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



Transfer Pump 

The transfer pump 1s of the displacement type and 
consists of a rotor, eccentric ring and has four 
free floating vanes. As the Injection pump shaft 
rotates fuel enters the lower section of the 
transfer pump and is trapped between the free 
floating vanes and rotor. Further rotation of the 
Injection pump shaft causes fuel to be trapped 
between vanes and rotor and moved to the upper 
section of the transfer pump, where it Is 
compressed and supplied at pressure Into the 
Injection pump body (filling the pumping element). 
Pressurised fuel Is also transferred via an 
external pipe to the advance unit located at the 
base of the injection pump. This pressure is 
controlled by means of a pressure regulating 
valve. 



Pressure Regulating Valve 

The pressure regulating valve controls the fuel 
pressure to the distribution rotor from the 
transfer pump according to engine speed. 



During normal operation the valve piston will be 
held up against spring pressure controlling the 
amount of fuel being returned to the supply pump. 
As output pressure Increases with engine/pump 
speed, the piston will be forced further up 
allowing more fuel to return to the inlet side of 
the vaned transfer pump. 



Automatic/Cold Start Advance Unit 

The automatic advance device ensures that the fuel 
delivered Is synchronised with engine speed and 
load to give the best possible conditions for 
starting and performance. It Is located below the 
distribution rotor and consists of a hydraulic 
piston, cam ring and peg. The unit Is operated bv 
fuel pressure from the transfer pump. As engine " 
speed Increases, a pressure increase will occur at 
the transfer pump. This rise In fuel pressure 
will act upon the piston face and force the cam 
ring to rotate against the direction of rotation 
of the rotor, thus advancing the Injection timing. 
As the engine speed decreases pressure in the 
transfer pump will fall allowing the cam ring to 
return to Its normal position. 



The advance and retard mechanism 1s fitted with a 
temperature sensitive starting aid. During 
starting with a cylinder block temperature below 
50°C (and thus an injection pump temperature of 
less than 50°C), and subsequent engine warm-up, 
the Injection timing Is automatically 
hydraulically advanced. 



The valve controlling the cold start timing 
advance Is bolted to the right hand side of the 
injection pump housing. The valve assembly 
consists of a temperature sensitive expansion 
element, pin and spring loaded ball valve, housed 
in an aluminium case. 




Fig. 8. Transfer pump. 




Fig. 9. Pressure regulating valve. 




Fig. 10. Cold start advance system (schematic). 

A - Pump body E - Pressure regulating 
B - Vane pump valve 
C - Ball valve F - Advance piston 
D - Thermal valve 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di: SECTION 23C-7 



i/brd 



DIESEL INJECTIO 



SYSTEM 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



During cold starting, fuel flows through a 
restricted bore 1n the pressure regulating valve 
to the inlet port of the cold start advancement 
valve. At cylinder block temperatures below SO'C, 
the expansion element pin lifts away from the ball 
valve allowing the ball to close and fuel pressure 
alone mist overcome the force of the spring. This 
causes a slight rise In pressure In the fuel on 
the spring side of the pressure regulating valve 
piston, which results in a correspondingly higher 
pressure on the advance and retard piston giving 
increased movement in the advance direction. 

When the engine block temperature rises above 
50°C, an electrical feed will be directed to the 
expansion element, via a thermo-switch, which 
forces the pin to open the ball valve causing the 
fuel pressure on the spring side of the pressure 
regulating valve to drop. Therefore, allowing the 
advance and retard to operate normally. 




-.b. ^ 



TR84-21B-043 



Fig. 11. Cold start timing control valve. 

A - Fuel supply E ■* Expansion element 

B - Regulating valve F - Electrical 

connection 
C - Fuel return G - Pin 

D - Restricted bore H - Ball 



rXL 





®©i 



C 1 



TR84-21B-049/N 




Fig. 12. Bosch Fuel System Schematic. 

A - Fuel filter G - Pivoting lever 

B - Thermal valve H - Guide pin 

C - Pressure regulating valve J - Control cone 

D - Governor weight assembly K - Shut-off solenoid 

E - Throttle lever L - Fast flame start aid 

F - Governor spring assembly reservoir {-20°C option) 



M - Soleno1d{-20**C option) 

N - Element [-20°C option) 

P - Injector 

- Delivery valve assembly 

R - Injector plunger 

S - Governor collar 

T - Camplate 



V - Advance 

piston 
W - Governor 

drive gear 
X ~ Drive shaft 

Y - Vane pump 
Z - Fuel tank 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di: SECTION 23C-8 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



Mechanical Governor 

The mechanical governor is driven by a toothed 
gear arrangement within the main injection pump 
body. The gear assembly drives a centrifugal 
flyweight assembly. As the governor rotates, 
centrifugal force causes the flyweights to move 
outward and press on a sliding sleeve against the 
governor spring pressure via a fulcrum lever. The 
preload force of the governor springs is adjusted 
by the position of the throttle lever. 



With increasing speed the centrifugal force 
overcomes the governor springs and, via the 
fulcrum lever, alters the position of the control 
collar. The control edge of the collar uncovers 
the spill port allowing fuel to escape from the 
delivery plunger. This effectively controls the 
quantity of fuel delivered thus limiting the speed 
of the engine under given load conditions. 




n:^ 



le 




y^ 



Xc) 



TR84-21B-064 



Fig. 13. Two speed mechanical governor. 

A - Throttle lever D - Collar 
B - Governor spring E - Plunger 
assembly p - Weight 
C - Fulcrum lever assembly 



Torque Control Device 

The torque control device is contained in an 
aluminium housing which forms the governor top 
cover. 



The unit consists of a spring loaded piston, pin 
and lever and its function is to control fuel 
delivery to produce the optimum torque 
characteristics over the engine speed range. 



Fuel pressure within the pump body acts upon the 
bottom of the spring loaded piston forcing it to 
rise. As the piston rises, a pin follows the 
contour of a taper machined on the side of the 
piston. The movement of the pin is transmitted to 
the governor and sleeve assembly via the pivoting 
lever mounted on a spindle in the housing. 




o 



Fig. 14. Maximum governor setting. 




Fig. 15. Torque control device. 

A - Top cover E - Control cone 

B -'Adjuting screw F - Governor cover 

C - Spring G - Stop lever 

D - Piston H - Guide pin 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Df: SECTION 23C-9 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



STOP CONTROL SOLENOID 

The stop control solenoid is located at the rear 
on both CAV and Bosch injection pumps. The design 
and operation of both types are similar. The 
valve consists of an electrically operated 
solenoid, plunger and return spring. The plunger 
locates into the main fuel gallery and when the 
ignition is switched off the plunger will block 
the fuel supply. 



When the ignition is switched on the solenoid 
becomes energised and pulls the plunger back, 
against spring pressure, to clear the fuel 
gallery. 



INJECTORS 



The CAV and Bosch injectors are very similar 1n 
design and the following description applies to 
both. 



Each of the four fuel injectors is retained in the 
cylinder head by a pressed steel plate secured by 
two diametrically opposed studs and nuts. A steel 
body houses a spring loaded needle valve and 
filter. The bottom part of the body is externally 
threaded and the jointing face between the nozzle 
and body is accurately machined and lapped square 
to the centre line of the body. Two small dowels 
protrude from this face to locate the injector 
nozzle which is retained by the nozzle cap nut. 




Fig. 16. Stop control solenoid. 




Fig.l7. Injector assembly. 

A - Retainer D - Spring H - Nozzle 

plate E - Spring seat J - Needle 

B - Body F - Adaptor 

C - Shim G - Retainer 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-10 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



The nozzle is circular with a shoulder machined on 
the outside and a central drilling (into which 
fits the Injector needle) down from the top which 
stops just short of the nozzle end. An angled 
drilling which carries fuel enters the central 
drilling on the lower half of the nozzle. The 
bottom end of the nozzle is machined to form a 
shallow cone with a 'pip' in the centre. Four 
very small diameter spray holes are drilled In the 
side of the 'pip' and break through into a small 
internal drilling below the conical seat. The top 
half of the drilling Is slightly larger than the 
bottom half and Is very accurately machined to 
accept the needle. 



The top half of the injector needle is slightly 
larger In diameter than the bottom half to allow 
fuel to flow freely to the needle seat and spray 
holes. The needle 1s hardened and ground to a 
very accurate finish. The bottom end of the 
needle has a conical seat which matches the seat 
In the nozzle. The needle and nozzle are matched 
and the conical seat Is ground and lapped to give 
a very close and accurate fuel tight fit. 



Spring pressure is transmitted to the needle via a 
spring seat which locates on a spigot machined on 
the top of the needle. Spring and, consequently, 
Injector burst pressure are adjusted by the 
fitment of different thickness shims between the 
top of the spring and the top of the central bore 
in the body. 



FUEL FILTER 

The fuel filter assembly is bolted to the Inlet 
manifold on the right hand side of the engine just 
behind the fuel Injection pump. A thermoplastic 
pipe connects the inlet port (Identified by an 
arrow on the cast aluminium filter head) to the 
fuel tank. Fuel drawn from the tank, passes 
through the filter (where any contaminating 
particles are trapped) and out through the hand 
primer (where fitted) to the fuel injection pump. 



HAND PRIMER 

On engines equipped with CAV fuel Injection 
systems, a hand primer will be fitted to the 
outlet port of the fuel filter to assist in 
priming the fuel system. 

To prime the fuel system (after changing a fuel 
filter or running out of fuel) pump the plunger 
slowly for approximately 35 strokes. Start the 
engine and run engine at fast idle to ensure 
all air is purged from the system. 




TR-23C-49 



Fig. 18. Injector location, 




Fig. 19. Fuel filter assembly. 




Fig. 20. Hand primer assembly. 
A - Fuel inlet pipe 
B - Hand primer 
C - Banjo bolt 



D - Sealing washers 
E - Fuel filter 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 DiT SECTION 23C-U 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



COLD START AID (where fitted) 

When specified a -20°C option is fitted to the 
fuel system. This assists engine starting in low 
ambient temperatures by preheating the air in the 
inlet manifold. The system consists of a remote 
reservoir and solenoid val.ve fitted to the engine 
compartment bulkhead. This supplies fuel to a 
'fast flame start' heating element fitted in the 
inlet manifold below the air cleaner assembly. 



The reservoir is connected by thermoplastic tubing 
into the leak off return fuel line so that it is 
constantly supplied with fuel when the engine is 
running. The top of the reservoir incorporates an 
atmospheric vent valve which is protected by a 
gauze and breather tube. The valve closes when 
the reservoir is full so that surplus fuel flows 
back to the tank via an over-flow pipe. At the 
bottom of the reservoir an outlet pipe connects to 
the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve remains 
closed and the reservoir full during normal engine 
running and shut down. 



Both solenoid valve and heating element are 
operated via a control box assembly which in turn 
is actuated by the ignition switch. The control 
box is designed to sense ambient temperatures 
within the engine compartment and at temperatures 
below -lO'C it supplies current to the heater 
element and solenoid valve as well as activating a 
'pre heat' warning light on the vehicle instrument 
panel. Fuel then flows under the action of 
gravity from the reservoir to the heater .where it 
IS ignited. After 5 seconds the warning light is 
extinguished. The system continues to operate for 
approximately 8 seconds after cessation of 
cranking. 




Fig. 21. Heater/igniter assembly. 




Fig. 22, Fast flame reservoir purge. 
A - Disconnect fuel feed 
B - Bridge solenoid connection 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-12 



DIESEL INJECTIO 



SYSTEM 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 

AIR CLEANERS 

Two types of a1r cleaner are currently used on the 2.5 D1 engined variants. 

Vehicles fitted with the CAV type fuel injection system use a fixed spout, replaceable paper element 
type air cleaner. On engines fitted with this type of air clearer there is no service requirement to 
adjust th air cleaner spout for summer or winter use. 

Bosch fuel injection system utilise a thermostatically controlled air cleaner. This type of air 
cleaner has the ability to automatically control air intake temperature at a constant pre-determined 
figure during normal driving conditions. The purpose of this type of air cleaner is to assist in 
meeting emmision regulations by providing air at the correct temperature for optimum fuel combustion. 




Fig. 23. A - Thermostatically controled air cleaner (Bosch injection system) 
B - Standard air cleaner (CAV injection system) 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Oil SECTION 23C-13 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTE 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 



AIR CLEANERS (cont'd; 



The thermostatically controlled air cleaner has two sources of air supply, one from a cool 'air intake 
[ducted from the front grille panel) and a second source from a heat box mounted around the exhaust 
manifold. Air supply through the air cleaner is controlled by a flap valve mounted on the air spout. 
The flap valve blends cool air and hot air to achieve the required air intake temperature. 

The flap valve is operated by a vacuum diaphragm which holds it fully open as long as vacuum is 
maintained above 65 rrni of mercury. Under these conditions only hot air from the exhaust manifold is 
allowed to enter the air cleaner. Vacuum feed for the diaphragm unit is supplied from an unique 'T' 
piece located in the brake/servo vacuum hose. 

The heat sensor unit is located inside the air cleaner and senses the temperature of the air actually 

entering the air cleaner. The unit consists of a vacuum take off pointy a bi-metal strip and a valve. 

When the air flow past the sensor is cold the valve in the sensor unit will be closed allowing full 
vacuum to be available at the diaphragm unit. 

The combined effect of the heat sensor, vacuum diaphragm unit, and flap valve, is to control the blend 
of hot and cold air under engine load, thereby maintaining a constant air intake temperature. 




TR/23C/75 



Fig, 24. Heat sensor / diaphragm flap operation. 



1 - Sensor COLD 

A - Open to atmosphere 

B - Servo vacuum 



2 - Sensor HOT 

A - Open to atmosphere 

C - Vacuum reduced by air bled through valve 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-U 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



SERVICE ADJUSTMENTS AND CHECKS 

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AND OBSERVATIONS 

« Fuel Injection equipment is manufactured to extremely fine tolerances. It is therefore essential 
hnwpll^rt-i^nht t^^,f;°st-care IS taken when servicing/repairing fuel Injection components. Damage, 
however slight, will have an adverse effect on vehicle performance. 

' n?n2f ^^'"L^K^^ '^f^'J component Is removed, all open fuel connections. Including injector delivery 
pipes, should be protected against dirt Ingress by fitting dust caps or plugs. 

e When cleaning and testing fuel system components, an odourless kerosene or a special substitute test 
rue I oil should be used. 

e Always use a _ good quality barrier cream when handling fuel system components, as a certain amount 
ot fuel oil IS likely to be present In components which have been in use. 

8 Men allow spray from injectors under test to come Into contact with the skin, since the working 
pressure can be sufficient to penetrate the skin. ^ 

t-^A^^^^G : OBSERVE STRICT HEALTH, SAFETY AND FIRE PRECAUTIONS. DO NOT SMOKE OR USE NAKED LIGHTS AVOID 
INHALING FUMES FROM CLEANING AGENTS OR FUEL OIL. 

SERVICE ADJUSTMENTS AND CHECKS 

At the specified service Intervals the following operations should be checked: 

- Check/Adjust slow idle speed - Renew fuel filter 

- Check/Adjust for diesel fuel leaks - Check diesel exhaust smoke 

For further details refer to Section 54 of this Manuual {P.D.I, and maintenance procedures) 



During vehicle operation it may become necessary to purge the thermostart cold start system to prevent 
waxing during the change period from summer to winter grade fuels. Should this become necessary the 
following procedure must be carried out: (refer to Section 54 of this Workshop Manual Operation 54 738 

1. Remove supplypipe from solenoid valve to fast flame heater element at element connection. 

2. Place end of pipe in a suitable container. 

3. Bridge test circuit connection using suitable two 'bullet' connectors with wire link connection 
Fig. 24. 

4. Turn the ignition on for 25 seconds then turn off Ignition. Then repeat to ensure system Is 
free from any summer grade fuels during winter sub-zero conditions. 

NOTE: The dash board warning light will operate for the first 5 seconds. THIS SHOULD BE IGNORED. 

5. Remove bridge connection. 

NOTE: DO NOT leave bridge connector connected to the circuit. Failure to remove will result In the 
cold start circuit operating every time ignition is switched on. 

9 Refer to Section 54 {P.D.I, and maintenance procedures} for further details of this operation. 

6. Reconnect fuel supply pipe to the heater element. 



October 1984 FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Dl1 SECTION 23C-15 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOL RECOGNITION 



Tool 


Tool Name 




Engine Timing Peg (Camshaft) 


ti , , -^ 


21 123 O 




Engine Timing Peg [Fuel Pump) 


^ ^ 

23 019 y 




Engine Timing Peg (Flywheel) 




23 020 \^ 



NOTE: When carrying out some repair operations it will be necessary to use specialist equipment these 
suggested equipments are detailed below: 

@ Injector dismantling jig. 

@ Nozzle nut socket. 

@ Nozzle cleaning kit. 

6 Hartridge multiclean. 

© Hartridge light probe. 

e Hartridge nozzle viewer. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2_R Hi- <;FrTTnM ??r-lfi 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS 

I!!^S^J°''i■^''''°''^T^^^^^''^ ^^^" "^^"'^^"^ *° '■^^'^^ ^'^ ^"^^^'"9 ^^^ '"°st accurate diagnosis of any fuel 
system condnion. The diagnosis procedures detail the sequence of items to be checked and where 
necessary the appropriate corrective action when investigating complaint conditions which may be 
encountered in service. 

It is not intended to incorporate all repair methods within the text. Whenever necessary reference 
should be made to the appropriate Workshop Manual section to establish the method of carrying out each 
repair and the correct technical data. 

The condition diagnosis procedures are divided into ten categories which represent the most common 
categories of concern, these are: 

Condition 1 Engine will not start or is difficult to start (HOT or COLD) 

2 Erratic idling when engine is warm 

3 Engine hunts when idling 

4 Engine misfire during vehicle operation 

5 Unsatisfactory performance 

6 Excessive fuel consumption 

7 Lack of power 

8 Engine cannot be switched off 

9 Incorrect engine speeds 

10 Engine will not rev up when cold 

11 Bosch injection system 

To make the most effective use of these condition diagnosis procedures, first test the vehicle to 
establish which category or categories the symptoms fall in. 

Having established which of the conditions listed above is most appropriate, refer to the relevant 
condition diagnosis chart or charts. 



Before carrying out any test procedure the following preliminary checks should be carried out as they 
may identify the need for remedial action before carrying out more time consuming diagnosis. 

e Ensure that the correct starting procedure has been carried out. (see Page 17 for full details of 
starting procedure) 

Ensure vehicle has adequate fuel in the tank, of correct type: DIESEL FUEL - NOT PETROL 

If petrol has been added to the tank, it will float on the top of the diesel and can be smelt. 

If petrol has been added to the diesel, the system must be drained and flushed out using CLEAN 
diesel fuel. The fuel filter must also be changed and the vehicle refilled with new DIESEL fuel. 

e Check that the fuel system does not contain water. 

9 In sub-zero temperatures it is possible for wax crystals to separate out from the fuel and cause a 
blockage in the fuel system. 

Check battery/starter condition. 

e Ensure there is no obvious signs of fuel leaks from fuel system. Joints which leak can draw air 
into the fuel system causing poor engine performance. 

NOTE: Do not overtighten rubber olive low pressure connections. 

e Remove degas coolant filler tank cap and check for any oil/coolant contamination. 



October 1984 FORD TRANSIT 2,5 d'C: SECTION 23C-17 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS 

9 Remove oil level dipstick and check for any diesel or coolant contamination. 

@ Check vehicle history of service Intervals. Failure to comply with correct service Intervals may 
have an added effect on vehicle performance. 

NOTE: The fuel injection pump is preset during manufacture. The maximum 'No load' speed, maximum fuel 
screw and pressure regulating valve are sealed and must not be tampered with. A visual check should 
be made of these before any complaint condition is investigated. 

When Investigating any complaint condition the exhaust gases should be observed for colour and density. 
Smoke emitted from the exhaust may assist In investigation and identification of possible corrective 
actions required. 

The correct exhaust emission (if the vehicle 1s correctly maintained and Is at Its normal operating 
temperature) should emit no more than a faint haze from the exhaust pipe. 

Smoke is generated when combustion is unsatisfactory and therefore a proportion of the fuel Is not 
doing useful work. 

In the following notes It is assumed that the engine is In good condition and is therefore not burning 
excessive amounts of lubricating oil. 



Black Smoke: 



Hue Smoke: 



White Smoke: 



This consists of a large number of carbon particles which are produced when fuel is heated 
in oxygen lean regions' of the combustion chamber. 



This consists of large numbers of fuel oil particles of about 0,5 microns diameter or 
less. 

These particles are condensed droplets of partially burnt or unburnt fuel which have 
passed through 'low temperature regions' of the combustion chamber, and may also be caused 
by burning lubricating oil caused by some mechanical defects. 



This consists of a large number of condensed droplets of partially burnt or unburnt fuel 
larger than about 1,0 micron diameter. To produce white smoke the fuel will have had more 
time to condense than for blue smoke, e.g. a cold engine running at light load and low 
speed could produce white smoke. Retarded injection timing would not give the fuel 
suitable conditions to burn correctly, and this can also produce white smoke. 

It is Important to realise that the majority of the Items listed would not arise If the 
correct maintenance operations were carried out at the specified Intervals. 

Before any part of the fuel supply system Is dismantled the surrounding area must be 
thoroughly cleaned. When the fuel system has been reassembled and all nuts tightened to 
the specified torque. It will be advisable to bleed the system to assist the self purge 
system. 



October 1984 POPD jr^NSIT 2.5 Di : SECTION ?.ln-lfl 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTE 



COLD STARTING: 



tpriJln^J'^^h'^ ""'l^l \''*"'^ '^''^^'"9 ^'^ °^ ^^^^^ fi'^ed with standard equipment (cold climate 

e^w rm u^'lh s rSSe'tolheTnl!?r- '^'°" ~'X'-^' l'''^' ''''' ^'^ '^ more no?icl Me during 
eng ne/veMcle'DerformanrP Jh.f thi ^''•'°"-P"'"^?."^l"^ ^"^"^ automatically advanced to ensure smooth 
nf norma? oJer^?1ngposn; on ''" '''''' '' sufficiently warm, the automatic advance will return to 



Starting Procedure 



1. Turn Ignition switch to position II. 

3. If cold start aid warning light 1s NOT illuminated proceed to sub-operation 4. 

4. Fully depress clutch and accelerator pedals, crank engine by turning ignition key to position III. 
"°Ibove°procIdSres^ '"^'"' '°"^^"""°"^^^ ^'' "^^^ ^^'^ 20 seconds. If engine falls to start repeat 

^' trpoiftUn IT. '"^'"' '^''*' ''^'''' ^^' accelerator pedal and allow the ignition switch to retu 
NOTE: Should the engine still fall to start refer to the Fuel System Diagnosis Procedures. 



rn 






^ 





TR-23C-50 



Fig. 25. Starting decal : A - Starting procedure when cold 

B - Starting procedure when hot 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di :-'SECTION 23C-19 




DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS CHARTS 



Condition 



Possible Causes 



Remedy 



Condition 1 



Engine will not start 
or is difficult to 
start HOT or COLD 



Fuel tank vent blocked 



Fuel shut off (stop) 
solenoid not operating 



Faulty cold start 
device 



Injection timing 
incorrect 



Fuel starvation 



Remove filler cap slowly and listen for 'Hiss' 
fl Clean fuel tank filler cap. 



Remove stop solenoid wire connection and check 
solenoid operation: 

e Turn ignition on and touch wire onto solenoid 
connection. A click sound should be heard. 



e If no click check voltage supply to solenoid 
with (12 volts/battery voltage) ignition on. 



Check fast flame system: 

e Disconnect fuel supply pipe from fast flame 
heater, activate system and check fuel flow 
to the heater. 



Check voltage supply to fast flame heater. 



Remove timing belt cover, check and adjust 
Injection pump timing, (see Operation No. 23 414) 



Check fuel system for unrestricted fuel flow: 

Q Slacken injector pipe at injectors, crank engine 
and observe fuel discharge whilst cranking 
engine. 



e Remove fuel return connection from injection 
pump crank engine and observe fuel being 
returned to the fuel tank. 



NOTE: If engine starts investigate restriction 
In fuel return. 



e If no fuel is being returned to the fuel tank 
remove fuel supply pipe to Injection pump and 
connect an auxiliary fuel supply. Repeat above 
test. 



NOTE: Auxiliary tank must be below the line of the 
Injection pump inlet. 



e If fuel flow is evident this indicates that the 
fuel supply pipe, fuel filter or fuel tank is 
restricted or leaking (air in). Rectify as 
necessary. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Oi: SECTION 230-20 



DIESEL IWJECTION SYSTEM 



DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM DIA GNOSIS CHARTS 



Condition 



Condition 2 



Erratic idling when 
engine is warm 



Condition 3 



Engine hunts when 
i d1 1 ng 



Condition 4 



Engine misfires during 
vehicle operation 



Possible Causes 



Air in fuel system 



Idle speed incorrect 



Faulty Injector(s) 

Injection timing 
incorrect 



Remedy 



Fuel tank vent 
blocked 



Severely choked fuel 
filter 

Fuel starvation 



Check all pipe unions and joints in fuel system 
for tightness and effective sealing. Do not 
overtighten. 

Using a tachometer, check and adjust idle speed 
(see specification). 

Remove injectors and test (see specification). 

Remove timing belt cover, check and adjust 
injection pump timing, (see Operation Mo. 23 414 



Faulty injector(s 



Severely choked fuel 
filter 

Check engine 
condition 



Remove filler cap slowly and listen for 'Hiss'. 
e Clean fuel tank filler cap. 
Fit new filter element 

Check fuel system for unrestricted fuel flow. 

s Slacken injector pipe at injector and injection 
pump, observe fuel discharge whilst cranking 
engine. 

© Remove fuel return connection from injection 
pump crank engine and observe fuel being 
returned to the fuel tank. 

© If no fuel is being returned to the fuel tank 
remove fuel supply pipe to injection pump and 
connect an auxiliary fuel supply. Repeat above 
test. 

NOTE: Auxiliary tank must be below the line of the 
injection pump inlet. 

© If fuel flow is evident this indicates that the 
fuel supply pipe, fuel filter or fuel tank is 
restricted or leaktng(air in). Rectify as 
necessary. 



Remove injector(s), test and rectify as necessary. 
Check injector seatings in cylinder head are gas- 
tight. Do not bend high pressure pipes. 

© Fit new filter element. 



Remove degas tank cap, check for gas leaks through 
coolant. 

Remove high pressure pipes and injectors. Check 
compressions. 

Check valve clearances are adjusted correctly. 
Ensure engine valve gear is operating correctly. 

Check for damaged cylinder head gasket. 

Check for valve seat damage, worn piston/bore, 
sticking rings etc. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Dir SECTION 23C-21 



L/dr</ 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



Condition 



Possible Causes 



Remedy 



Condition 5 



Unsatisfactory 
performance 



Condition No. 6 



Fuel tank vent 
blocked 



Severely choked fuel 

filter 

Fuel starvation 



Fuel return blocked 



Air 1n fuel 
system 



Injection timing 
incorrect 



Fuel Injector(s) 

malfunctioning 



Excessive fuel consumption 



Faulty fuel 
connections 



Air starvation 



Fuel Injector(s) 
malfunctioning 



Injection timing 
incorrect 



Remove fuel filler cap slowly and listen for 
'Hiss'. 

e Clean fuel filler cap 

e Fit new fuel filter element 

Check fuel system for unrestricted fuel flow. 

9 Slacken injector pipe at injector and Injection 
pump, observe fuel discharge whilst cranking 

engine. 

e Remove fuel return connection from injection 
pump crank engine and observe fuel being 
returned to the fuel tank. 

e If no fuel is being returned to the fuel tank 
remove fuel supply pipe to Injection pump and 
connect a auxiliary fuel supply. Repeat above 
test. 

NOTE: Auxiliary tank must be below the line of the 
Injection pump inlet. 

© Eliminate cause of blockage. 

© If fuel flow is evident this indicates that the 
fuel supply pipe, fuel filter or fuel tank is 
restricted or leaking (air in). Rectify as 
necessary. 

Check all pipe unions and joints in the fuel 
system for tightness and effective sealing. 
Do not overtighten. 



Remove timing belt cover, check and adjust 
Injection pump timing, [see Operation No. 23 414} 



Remove injectorCs) and test (see specification). 
Do not bend high pressure pipes. 



Check all pipe unions and joints in the fuel 
system for tightness and effective sealing. 
Do not overtighten. 



Check and, if necessary, replace air cleaner 
element, check air supply hose for deterioration, 

kinks and splits. 



Remove Injector(s) and test (see specification). 
Do not bend high pressure pipes. 



Remove timing belt cover check and adjust 
injection pump timing, (see Operation No. 23 414) 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 D1 : SECTION 23C-22 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



Condition 



Condition No.7 



Lack of power 



Possible Causes 



Remedy 



Before checking the following possible causes ensure that: 

Vehicle is not overloaded 

Tyre pressures are correct for load carried 

Clutch is not slipping 

Brakes are not binding 

Engine reaches maximum No-Load speed 

The fuel injection pump has not been tampered with and seals are 
unbroken 

Check that maximum/full throttle can be obtained 

The density of exhaust smoke is checked with engine warm and under 
load 



Possible Causes 



Air starvation 



Severely choked 
fuel filter 

Fuel starvation 



Remedy 



Fuel injector(s) 
malfunctioning 



Injection timing 
incorrect 



Low engine 
compressions 



Check and, if necessary, replace air cleaner 

element. 

Check air supply hose for deterioration, kinks 

or splits. 

a Fit new fuel filter element 



Check fuel system for unrestricted fuel flow: 

© Slacken injector pipe at injector and injection 
pump, observe fuel discharge whilst cranking 
engine. 

® Remove fuel return connection from injection 
pump crank engine and observe fuel being 
returned to the fuel tank. 

6 If no fuel is being returned to the fuel tank 
remove fuel supply pipe to injection pump and 
connect an auxiliary fuel supply. Repeat above 
test. 

NOTE: Auxiliary tank must be below the line of the 
injection pump inlet. 

@ If fuel flow is evident this indicates that the 
fuel supply pipe, fuel filter or fuel tank is 
restricted or leaking (air in). Rectify as 
necessary. 

Remove and test injector(s) (see specification. 
Do not bend high pressure pipes. 



Remove timing belt cover, and crankshaft sealing 
plugs and check injection pump timing. 



Remove injectors and check compressions of each 
cylinder. Rectify as necessary. 

Do not bend high pressure pipes. 



October 19184 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Df: SECTION 23C-23 



W^ml 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



Condition 



Condition No.8 



Engine cannot be switched 

off 



Condition No. 9 



Incorrect engine speeds 



Possible Causes 



Fuel shut off 
(stop) solenoid not 
operating 



Remedy 



Severely choked fuel 
filter 

Fuel starvation 



Idle speed 
incorrect 



Maximum no load 
speed incorrect 



October 1984 



Remove stop solenoid wire connection and check 
solenoid operation: 



d Turn ignition on and touch wire onto solenoid 
connection, a click sound should be heard. 



e If no click check voltage supply to solenoid 
(12 volts/battery voltage) ignition on. 



Fit new fuel filter element. 



Check fuel system for unrestricted fuel flow: 



6 Slacken injector pipe at injector and injection 
pump, observe fuel discharge whilst cranking 
engine. 



e Remove fuel return connection from injection 
pump crank engine and observe fuel being 
returned to the fuel tank. 



© If no fuel is being returned to the fuel tank 
remove fuel supply pipe to injection pump and 
connect an auxiliary fuel supply. Repeat above 
test. 



NOTE: Auxiliary tank must be below the line of the 
injection pump inlet. 

e If fuel flow is evident this indicates that the 
fuel supply pipe, fuel filter or fuel tank is 
restricted or leaking (air in). Rectify as 
necessary. 

Using tachometer, check and adjust idle speed (see 
specification). 



Do not adjust , consult Bosch or CAV agents. 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di : SECTION 23C-24 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



Condition 



Condition No. 10 



Engine will not rev up 
when cold 



Possible Cause 



Insufficient fuel 
In tank 



Fuel tank vent 
blocked 



Fuel shut off 
solenoid defective 



Fuel waxing 



Severely choked fuel 
filter 



Fuel starvation 



Waxstat failure (CAV) 



Injection timing 
incorrect 



Poor engine 
performance 



Remedy 



Fill tank with adequate fuel 



Clean fuel tank filler cap. 



Check solenoid operation, 



Check fuel filter and fuel lines (see Page 15) 



Fit new fuel filter element 



Check fuel system for unrestricted fuel flow: 

9 Slacken Injector pipe at injector and injection 
pump, observe fuel discharge whilst cranking 
engine. 

Remove fuel return connection from injection 
pump crank engine and observe fuel being 
returned to the fuel tank. 

@ If no fuel is being returned to the fuel tank 
remove fuel supply pipe to injection pump and 
connect an auxiliary fuel supply. Repeat above 
test. 

NOTE: Auxiliary tank must be below the line of the 
injection pump Inlet. 

If fuel flow is evident this indicates that the 
fuel supply pipe, fuel filter or fuel tank Is 
restricted or leaking (air in). Rectify as 
necessary 

Check position of pump levers (cold position) 
Replace waxstat. 



Remove timing belt cover, check and adjust 

injection pump timing. 



Remove Injectors and check cylinder 

compressions. 

Do not bend high pressure pipes. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 01: SECTION 23C-25 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 174 AIR CLEANER - REMOVE AND INSTALL 
SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 
To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 

battery. 

2. Disconnect air cleaner intake hose from air 
cleaner spout. 

Thenriostatically controlled air cleaner 

Disconnect a1r cleaner diaphragm vacuum pipe 
from brake servo supply pipe 'T' piece 
connector. 

Disconnect hose from exhaust manifold heater 
box, 

3. Remove mounting stay bolt/s and centre wing 
bolt. Lift off air cleaner assembly. 

To Install 



4. Position air cleaner onto inlet manifold and 
secure with wing bolt and mounting stay bolts. 

5. Reconnect air cleaner intake hose to air 
cleaner spout. 

9 Reconnect air cleaner vacuum pipe to brake 
servo supply pipe 'T' piece connection and 
clip pipe into position. 

@ Reconnect hose to exhaust manifold heater 
box. 

e Reconnect battery, remove fender covers and 
close hood. 



23 184 ELEMENT -.AIR CLEANER - REPLACE 
SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 
To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 
battery. 

2. Remove air cleaner assembly as detailed in 
Operation No. 23 174 of this section.. 

3. Remove three bolts from upper section of air 
cleaner and split air cleaner in two 
sections. 

4. Remove element. 
To Install 

5. Using new element, reassemble air cleaner and 
secure the two sections with the three bolts. 

6. Refit air cleaner assembly as described in 
Operation No. 23 174 of this section. 

7. Reconnect battery. 

8. Remove fender covers and close hood. 




Fig. 28. Air cleaner assembly (CAV). 



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Fig. 29. Thermostatically controled air cleaner 
assembly mountings (Bosch). 
A - Vacuum connection 
B - Warm air heat box connection 



TR-23C-24 




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Fig. 30. Separate the two sections and remove 
the air cleaner element. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di : SECTION 23C-28 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 410 INJECTION PUMP - CHECK TIMING 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: 

Injection pump timing peg .. ., 23-019 
Crankshaft timing peg .. .. .. 23-021 

To Check 

1. Open the hood, fit fender covers, disconnect 
the battery and the wire fitted to the stop 
control solenoid on the fuel Injection pump. 

2. Remove the bolts and detach the air cleaner 

assembly from the inlet manifold as described 
in Operation 23 174. 

3. Remove rocker cover. Remove and discard the 
old rocker cover gasket. 

4. Remove the plastic plug from the timing peg 
hole in the rear of the cylinder block 
adjacent to the engine identification plate. 

5. Remove the rubber plug from the front of the 
engine timing belt cover and crankshaft pulley 
assembly. 

6. Rotate engine using socket and ratchet on 
front crankshaft pulley centre nut. 

7. Continue to turn engine so that No.l piston 
begins to rise onto compression stroke, number 
7 valve starts to rise (valves 7 and 8 
rocking). 

8. Insert the engine timing peg (Special Tool 23- 
020) into the hole in the rear of the cylinder 
block and apply light pressure so that as the 
flywheel 1s turned, the peg will drop fully 
into the hole in the flywheel as the 
crankshaft reaches 11° BTDC. 

9. With the crankshaft now set to IT BTDC, check 
the injection pump timing by inserting the 
pump timing peg (Special Tool No. 23-019) 
through the access hole in the timing belt 
cover and into position in the fuel injection 
pump and pulley flange timing holes. 

NOTE: The timing peg should slide easily through 
the hole in the fuel injection pump pulley 
flange and locate fully and squarely into the 
hole in the Injection pump body. 

If the peg will not locate due to the holes 
being out of alignment. Refer to Operation 
No. 23 411 Injection Pump - Adjust Timing. 

10. Remove the timing pegs from the engine -and 
refit rubber and plastic plugs to timing belt, 
crankshaft and flywheel holes. 

11. Refit rocker cover and new gasket and tighten 
the retaining screws to specified torque in 
correct sequence (see F1g.29). Immediately 
retorque screws in same sequence. 

12. Refit air cleaner as described in 0pp. 23 174 

13. Reconnect stop control solenoid and battery. 
Remove fender covers and close hood. 




Fig. 31. Crankshaft timing peg location, 




Fig. 32. Insert pump timing peg through access hole 
in timing cover. 




Fig. 33. Rocker cover screw tightening sequence. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Oil SECTION 23C-29 



i/brd 



DIESEL INJECTIO 



SYSTEM 



23 411 INJECTION PUMP - ADJUST TIMING 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: 
Camshaft timing peg 
Injection pump timing peg 
Crankshaft timing peg .. 



21-123 

23-019 
23 020 



To Adjust 

IMPORTANT: BEFORE TURNING THE ENGINE, ENSURE THAT 
ALL THE TIMING PEGS HAVE BEEN REMOVED FROM THE 
ENGINE. 

1. Remove the grille as detailed In Operation 43 
232. 

2. Remove the radiator as detailed in Operation 
24 254. 

3. Slacken the nut and remove the viscous fan 
assembly from the threaded water pump shaft. 

4. Remove the four bolts and detach the water 
pump drive pulley from the water pump flange. 

5. Loosen the vacuum pump drive belt tensioner 
and remove the belt. 

6. Loosen the alternator adjuster/mounting bolts 
and remove the fan/alternator drive belt. 

7. Remove the six screws and detach the timing 
belt cover assembly. 

8. Ensure that the crankshaft Is still set at 11° 
BTDC by Inserting the timing peg (23-020) into 
the flywheel. If the flywheel has moved, 
refer to Operation No. 23 410 sub-operations 6 
to 8 for alignment procedure. 

9. Using the 8,0 mm timing peg (Special Tool No. 
21-123) lock the camshaft pulley in position. 

10. Slacken the three bolts securing the drive 
belt pulley to the fuel injection pump flange. 

11. Align the hole In the fuel Injection pump 
pulley with the hole in the pump body by 
rotating the drive hub relative to the 

pulley. 

NOTE: To rotate the Injection pump drive shaft 
carefully tap the side of the pulley bolts 
clockwise or anti -clockwise as required 
until timing peg can be fitted, see Fig. 31. 

12. Insert timing peg Special Tool 23-019 through 
Injection pump pulley. 

NOTE: If the adjustment cannot be obtained by 
rotating the pulley, remove timing belt and 
adjust injection pump so that bolts are 
central to the slots In the pulley. Refit 
timing belt, refer to Operation No. 23 414 for 
correct timing belt replacement. 

13. Tighten the three pump driveshaft pulley 
bolts. 




Fig. 34. Slacken driveshaft pulley to fuel 
injection pump flange bolts. 




Fig. 35. Rotate injection pump driveshaft until 
timing peg can be fitted. 




Fig. 36. Insert timing peg through camshaft pulley. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di : SECTION 23C-30 



23 411 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



14, Remove all three timing pegs and rotate the 
engine clockwise through two revolutions and 
align timing peg holes as detailed in 
Operation 23 410, sub-operations 6 to 8. 
Re-insert the three timing pegs to check that 
the injection pump timing is still correct. 



NOTE: If the holes of the fuel injection pump 
pulley and body do not align, repeat sub- 
operations 9 to 14. 



To Reassemble 

15. Remove the flywheel timing peg and refit the 
plastic blanking plug. 




Fig. 37. Refit and adjust alternator belt. 



16. Remove both the camshaft and fuel injection 
pump timing pegs from the pulleys. 



17. Fit the rocker cover and a new gasket and 
tighten the retaining screws to the specified 
torque in the correct sequence, Fig. 29. 



18. Position the timing cover assembly on the 
engine front housing and secure with the six 
screws. Tighten the screws to the specified 
torque. Refit the rubber plug into the timing 
peg hole. 



19. Refit the water pump pulley assembly onto the 
water pump drive flange and secure. Tighten 
the bolts to the specified torque. 



20. Refit the viscous fan to the threaded water 
pump shaft. 




Fig, 38. Refit vacuum pump drive belt and adjust 
to correct tension. 



21. Fit the fan/alternator drive belt over the 
pulleys, tension the belt and tighten the 
alternator adjusting/mounting bolts to the 
correct specification. 



22, Fit the vacuum pump drive belt over the 
pulleys, tension the belt and tighten the 
tensioner bolts to the specified torque. 



23. Refit the radiator as detailed in Operation 24 
254. 



24. Refit the grille as detailed In Operation 43 
232. 



25. Position the air cleaner assembly onto the 
inlet manifold, tighten mounting bolts and 
refit air intake hose. 




Fig. 39. Refit air cleaner assembly. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Dil SECTION 23C-31 



FORD TRANSIT DIESEL FUEL SYSTEM 



23 411 



26. Reconnect the battery and the stop control 
solenoid wire. 

27. Replace crankshaft damper pulley rubber plug. 

28. Start the engine and check for fuel, oil and 
water leaks. 

29. Remove the fender covers and close the hood. 



23 413 4 ENGINE IDLE SPEED - ADJUST 



NOTE: All the following adjustments must be made 
with the engine at normal operating 
temperature. 

Do not adjust speed settings unless the tachometer 
1s known to be accurate. 

Where an optical or pulse type of tachometer Is to 
be used, apply reflective tape or connect as 
directed by the manufacturer's Instructions. 

Check that the throttle lever on the injection 
pump has full and free movement and that the lever 
Is 'solid' on the Idle stop before adjusting the 
idle speed. 

Rectify any loose, excessively worn or maladjusted 
throttle linkage before proceeding further. 

1. Open hood and fit fender covers. 



To Adjust Idle Speed 

2. Start the engine. Using a suitable portable 
tachometer, measure and record the engine Idle 
speed (rev/min). 

3. If necessary, slacken the locknut and adjust 
the idle speed stop screw until a smooth Idle 
within the specified range is obtained. 
Tighten the locknut to the specified torque. 

4. Check the setting by lightly depressing and 
quickly releasing the throttle pedal two or 
three times to ensure a consistent return to 
the specified speed. Readjust If necessary. 

NOTE: On Bosch fuel Injection pumps when the 

engine Is hot a gap of 2,5 to 3,5 rm (0,10 to 
0,14 in) should exist between the throttle 
lever and the knurled end fitting on the 
waxstat control cable. If the gap is not to 
specification, slacken the locknut and rotate 
the knurled fitting as required. When the gap 
has been reset, tighten the locknut. 




Fig. 40. Idle speed adjustment screw (CAV). 




Fig. 41. Idle speed adjustment screw (Bosch) 




F1g.42. Adjust knurled screw on 'waxstat' control 
cable to obtain 2,5 to 3,5 rim clearance. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Oi: SECTION 23C-32 



23 413 4 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



NOTE: Vehicles fitted with CAV type injection 
pump: 

If, after carrying out idle speed check or 
adjustment, the engine continues to stall /cut 
out, the following action must be carried 
out; 

e Ensure engine is at operating temperature. 

9 Remove tamper proofing by cutting off with 
knife. (B in Fi'g.43.) 

9 Hold screw and undo locknut. 

e Screw in anti-stall screw quarter turn. 
Repeat test and adjust until stall 
condition is overcome. 

9 Tighten locknut and reseal screw with lead 
seal and wire. 

5. Remove the fender covers and close hood. Road 
test the vehicle and check for satisfactory 

performance. 




Fig. 43. Anti-stall screw (CAV), 
A - Idle speed screw 
B - Anti-stall screw 



23 414 INJECTION PUMP - REMOVE AND INSTALL 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: 

Camshaft timing peg 21-123 

Injection pump timing peg .. .. 23-019 

Crankshaft timing peg 23-020 

CAUTION: DO NOT ALLOW DIESEL FUEL TO SPILL ONTO 
THE STARTER MOTOR. 

To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 
battery. 

2. Remove the bolts and detach the air cleaner 
assembly from the inlet manifold. 

3. Remove the grille as detailed in Operation 43 
232. 



4. Remove the radiator as detailed in Operation 
24 254. 

5. Loosen the vacuum pump drive belt tensioner 
pulley and remove the belt. 

6. Loosen the alternator adjusting/mounting bolts 
and remove the fan/alternator drive belt. 

7. Slacken the nut and remove the viscous fan 
assembly from the threaded water pump shaft. 

8. Remove the four bolts and detach the fan and 
water pump pulley assembly. 

9. Remove the six screws and detach the timing 
belt covers assembly. 

10. Slacken the fuel pump pulley bolts. 




Fig. 44. Slacken fuel pump pulley bolts, 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 DiT SECTION 23C-33 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 414 



11. Remove the screws and detach the rocker cover. 

12. Continue to turn engine so that No.l piston 
begins to rise onto compression stroke, number 
7 valve starting to rise. 

13. Remove the plug from the timing peg hole In 
the rear of the cylinder block adjacent to the 
engine Identification plate. 

14. Insert the engine timing peg [Special Tool 23- 
020) into the hole In the rear of the cylinder 
block and apply light pressure so that as the 
flywheel is turned clockwise approximately 45° 
the peg will drop fully into the hole in the 
flywheel as the crankshaft reaches 11° BTDC, 



NOTE: To allow the camshaft pulley to move freely, 
the rocker shaft must be removed In order to 
relieve the spring tension through the 
pushrods and cam followers on the camshaft, 

15. Remove the bolts and detach the rocker shaft 
assembly from the cylinder head. 

16. Slacken the timing belt tensioner adjusting 
pulley bolts, push the tensioner back against 
spring pressure (away from the camshaft 
pulley) and temporarily tighten the pulley 
bolts to retain the tensioner in this 
position. 

17. Slide the toothed timing belt off the fuel 
injection pump drive pulley. Remove injection 
pump pulley. 

18. Remove the three bolts securing the fuel 
injection pump pulley to the drive flange and 
detach the pulley. 

19. Disconnect and remove the four Injection high 
pressure fuel feed pipes and leak, off pipe. 
Fit dust caps to the injectors, fuel Injection 
pump, and pipe connection points immediately. 

20. Disconnect the throttle and 'Waxstat' fuel 
control cables from the fuel Injection pump. 

21. Disconnect the fuel shut off solenoid wire, 
and Bosch start advance wire from the fuel 
injection pump. 

22. Disconnect the low pressure fuel feed pipe 
from the filter to the fuel injection pump. 
Seal the connection points with suitable dust 
caps. 

23. Remove the four retaining bolts and detach the 
fuel Injection pump rear support bracket from 
the engine. 

24. Remove the three nuts and bolts securing the 
fuel injection pump to the adaptor plate and 
carefully lift out the fuel injection pump 
assembly. 

NOTE: Support the fuel Injection pump during this 
operation to prevent damage. 




Fig. 45. Set engine to No.l piston on TDC, 
No. 7 valve rising. 




Fig. 46. Remove rocker shaft assembly from the 
cylinder head. 




Fig. 47. Slacken timing belt tensioner adjuster. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-34 



23 414 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



To Install 

25. Carefully 11ft the fuel injection pump into 
position on the rear face of the adaptor 
plate. Locate the three mounting nuts and 
bolts and tighten evenly to the specified 
torque. 

26. Fit the rear support bracket to the fuel 
injection pump and cylinder block. 



CAUTION: TIGHTEN THE BOLTS EVENLY AND ENSURE THAT 
THE BRACKET DOES NOT FORCE THE PUMP AWAY FROM 
ITS NATURAL ALIGNMENT WITH THE FRONT ADAPTOR 
PLATE HOUSING. 



27. Tighten the rear support bracket bolts to the 
specified torque. 




TR-23C-30 



Fig. 48. Fit rear support bracket to fuel injection 
pump and cylinder block. 



28. Fit the fuel injection pump pulley to the 

flange and loosely fit the retaining plate and 
bolts. Ensure that the pulley bolts are in 
the centre of the elongated slots. 



To Set the Fuel Injection Pump Timing 

29. Fit the three timing pegs. Special Tool 
Numbers 21-123, 23-019 and 23-020, to the 
flywheel, camshaft pulley and fuel injection 
pump pulley, 

30. Fit the toothed timing belt over the 
crankshaft, camshaft and finally the fuel 
Injection pump pulley. 

NOTE: It may be necessary to slightly rotate the 
fuel Injection pump pulley to correctly align 
the teeth of the belt and the pulley. 

31. Slacken the timing belt tensloner bolts, 
depress and release the timing belt on its 
longest span to activate the tensioner. 
Tighten tensioner securing bolts. 

32. Remove the three timing pegs and tighten the 
three fuel Injection pump pulley bolts to the 
specified torque. 

33. Rotate the engine clockwise through two 
revolutions. Re-insert the Special Tool 
23-020 and peg the flywheel as 1t approaches 
W BTDC. 

34. Check the timing by inserting the timing pegs 
into the camshaft and injection pump pulleys. 

NOTE: If the holes of the fuel injection pump 
pulley and body do not align, refer to 
Operation No. 23 411, sub-operations 9 to 14. 

35. Remove the three timing pegs and rotate the 
engine a further 130°. Slacken the tensioner 
bolts, depress and release the belt on the 
longest span to activate the tensioner. 
Tighten the tensioner bolts to the specified 
torque. 




Fig. 49. Fit timing peg to camshaft and Injection 
pump. 

A - Injection pump pulley timing peg 
B - Camshaft pulley timing peg 




Fig. 50. Depress and release the timing belt on 
the belt's longest span. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 D1 : SECTION 23C-35 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 414 



36. Turn the engine clockwise to 11° BTDC and make 
a final check on the timing by Inserting the 
three timing pegs In the respective holes. 

NOTE: The engine will need to be rotated through 
approximately 1.1/2 revolutions. 

37. Remove the flywheel timing peg and refit the 
plastic blanking plug. 

38. Remove both the camshaft and fuel Injection 
pump timing pegs from the pulleys. 

39. Inspect sealing washers and olives, replace as 
necessary. Refit the high and low pressure 
fuel feed pipes and leak off pipe to the fuel 
Injection pump and the fuel filter. 

40. Refit the rocker shaft assembly and tighten 
the retaining bolts to the specified torque. 

41. Adjust the valve clearances as detailed in 
Section 21 of this Workshop Manual. 

42. Fit the rocker cover and a new gasket. 
Tighten the retaining screws to the specified 
torque in the correct sequence. 

43. Position the timing cover assembly on the 
engine front housing and secure with the six 
screws. Tighten the screws to the specified 
torque. 

44. Place the pulley assembly onto the water pump 
drive flange and secure with the four bolts. 
Tighten the bolts to the specified torque. 

45. Fit the viscous fan to the threaded water pump 
shaft. 

46. Fit the fan/alternator drive belt over the 
pulleys, tension the belt and tighten the 
alternator adjusting/mounting bolts to the 
specified torque. 

47. Fit the vacuum pump drive belt over the 
pulleys, tension the belt and tighten the 
tensloner bolts to the specified torque. 

48. Refit the radiator as detailed in Operation 
No. 23 254. 

49. Refit the grille as detailed In Operation No, 
43 232. 

50. Prime the fuel system (CAV only). 

51. Fit the throttle cable to the fuel pump 
throttle lever as described In Operation 23- 
826. 

52. Reconnect waxstat fast idle control cable as 
described below: 



CAV Injection Pump (engine temp, below 36°C 97°F) 

Fit the waxstat fast idle control cable nipple 
to the cold idle/advance lever. Fit the end 
adjuster to the bracket with the M6 locknuts 
either side. 




TR/23C/15 



Fig. 51. Tighten rocker cover bolts In correct 
sequence, then retorque Inmiedlately. 




Fig. 52. Refit alternator/vacuum drive belts and 
adjust belt tension. 




Fig. 53. Reconnect waxstat cable to injection pump. 
(C.A.V. Pump Illustrated) 



October 1984 



FHRfl TRflM<:;TT 9 t; n-i • crmnM o-ir^-ic 



23 414 



DIESEL IMJECTION SYSTEM 



To Adjust the Cable 

NOTE: Vehicles built before June 1984 may be 
fitted with a -aO'C waxstat and can be 
identified by the lettering CIC stamped on the 
outer body of the waxstat. Vehicles with 
this type of waxstat the outer cable will need 
to be pulled towards the rear of the engine 
(to fully tension the inner cable) when 
adjusting. 

8 Unscrew the outer cable and tighten other 
locknut against the fuel injection pump 
adjustment bracket to give a 2 to 3 mm gap 
between the inner cable ferrule and adjuster 
end. Tighten locknut. 

Check that a gap of 2 to 3 mm exists between 
the Inner cable ferrule and adjuster, and that 
the cold idle lever is hard against the cold 
stop, 

NOTE: At engine temperatures ABOVE 36'C with the 
inner cable pulled hard towards the adjuster 
the cold idle/advance lever should be hard 
against the cold operation stop, with a gap of 
2 to 3 mm between inner cable ferrule and 
adjuster end. 

Bosch Injection Pump (engine temp, below Se'C 
97"F) 

9 Fit the waxstat fast idle cable adjuster into 
pump bracket, the inner nut having been 
screwed onto the adjuster as far as possible, 
and the outer nut finger tight against the 
bracket. 




Fig. 54. Adjust cable until a 2 to 3 mm gap 

between the ferrule and end of adjuster 
(CAV). 



9 Feed inner cable through the fuel injection 
pump spring loaded fast Idle sleeve to adjust 
the cable. 

s Rotate the fuel Injection pump throttle lever 
forward into the open position and temporarily 
retain 1n this position. 

Push the spring loaded fast idle sleeve fully 
home against the fast idle stop, and tighten 
the cable clamping screw (exposed inner cable 
should be kept as straight as possible during 
this operation}. 

© Unscrew outer adjusting nut and tighten Inner 
locknut against the bracket until a 2 to 3 mm 
gap exists between inner cable ferrule and 
adjuster end is obtained. Tighten locknuts 
against bracket. Release throttle lever. 

e Check that a 2 to 3 mn gap exists between the 
inner cable ferrule and adjuster end whew the 
fast idle sleeve is hard against the fast idle 
stop. 

53. Position the air cleaner assembly onto the 
Inlet manifold, fit the bolts and securely 
tighten. 

54. Reconnect the battery and refit the stop 
control solenoid and cold start advance wires. 

55. Refit the crankshaft pulley rubber plug. 




Fig. 55 Adjust cable until a gap of 2 to 3 mm 

between ferrule and cable end adjuster Is 
maintained (Bosch). 
A - Inner locknut C - Cable clamp screw 
B - Outer locknut D - Fast Idle sleeve 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Dil SECTION 23C-37 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 414 



55. Start the engine and check for fuel, oil and 
water leaks. 

NOTE: If the engine fails to start, slacken No.l 
and 2 injector high pressure fuel feed pipes 
and crank the engine until fuel is pumped out 
of the pipes. Tighten the connections once 
engine starts. 

56. Remove fender covers and close hood. 



23 455 INJECTORS - REMOVE AND INSTALL 



To Remove 

1. Open the bonnet, fit fender covers and 
disconnect battery. 

2. Remove the bolts and detach the air cleaner 
assembly from the inlet manifold. 

3. Remove the banjo bolts and washers, detach the 
leak off pipe from the injectors. Fit dust 
caps. 

4. Remove the four high pressure fuel feed pipes 
at the injectors. Fit dust caps. 

5. Remove the eight retaining nuts, lift off the 
retaining plates and remove the four Injectors 
from the cylinder head. 

6. Remove and discard the old injector sealing 
washers from either the injector nozzle or the 
injector bore in the cylinder head. Fit 
protective caps to the injector nozzles. 

NOTE: Ensure all FOUR injector sealing washers are 
removed frcm either injector bore or injector 
nozzle. 




J;ig.56. Disconnect banjo bolts and remove leak 
off pipe. 

A - Securing nuts C - Sealing washers 

B - Injector clamp D - Banjo bolt 




Fig. 57. Lift out injectors and sealing washers. 



To Install 

7. Remove the protective caps from the injectors 
and fit new sealing washers to injector 
nozzles. 

8. Locate the injectors into the bores in the 
cylinder head ensuring that the leak off 
connection faces the rocker cover. 

9. Fit the four injector retaining clamps 
ensuring that the tab faces the inlet manifold 
and that the arrow shape formed by the 
retaining plate points towards the front of 
the engine. 

10. Fit the eight injector clamp nuts to the studs 
and tighten evenly to the specified torque. 

11. Remove the dust caps and fit the injector leak 
off pipe. Using new sealing washers, tighten 
the banjo bolts to the specified torque. 







TR-23C-49 



Fig. 58. Refit injector retaining clamps ensure 
that the arrow shape points towards the 
front of the engine. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 01: SFCTTnN P-^C-I^R 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 455 



12. Remove the dust caps and fit the high pressure 
fuel pipes to the injectors and Injection 
pump. Tighten to correct specification. 

13. Fit the air cleaner assembly to the Inlet 
manifold and tighten the retaining bolts. 

14. Reconnect the battery, start engine and check 
for fuel and compression leaks. 

15. Remove the fender covers and close hood. 



23 454 8 INJECTOR - OVERHAUL 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: 

Dismantling Jig HH-112 

Nozzle Nut Socket CT-9009 

Nozzle Cleaning Kit CT-9014 

Nozzle Multlclean Machine .. HH-013 

Probe Light Kit ANR-6 

Nozzle Viewer HH-103 



To Dismantle 

CAUTION: THE NOZZLE AND THE NEEDLE FROM ANY ONE 
INJECTOR ARE A MATCHED PAIR AND MUST BE KEPT 
TOGETHER. 

1. Place the injector on the dismantling jig 
(Special Tool No. HH-ll?) and remove the 
nozzle nut using the special socket (Special 
Tool No. CT-9009). Remove the nozzle and 
needle valve, the spacer, the spring seat and 
the spring. Remove the pressure adjustment 
shim from the top of the spring recess, this 
may be held in by suction. 



Cleaning and Inspection 

2. The cleaning of injectors is best achieved by 
the use of special tools (Special Tool No. 
CT~9014). All the injector components must 
have all the carbon completely removed, 
injector spray holes should be cleaned using 
wire probes. Hold the probes in the hand 
chuck provided and to avoid bending or 
breaking the wire ensure that only 1,0 mm 
(0,04 In) protrudes frcmi the chuck. The probe 
wire diameter must be 0,01 mm (0,004 in) less 
than the specified spray hole diameter. 



(j) > 




H) > 




=^==J 



-^ — ( B 



G 



TR84-21B-054 




Fig. 59. Injector assembly. 

A - Retainer plate F - Adjuster 

B - Body G - Retainer 

C - Shim H - Nozzle 

D - Spring J - Needle 
E - Spring seat 




Fig. 60. Injector cleaning tools. 
A - Recess scraper 
B - Seat scraper 
C - Tip scraper 
D - Nozzle hole probe and chuck 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-39 



^mml 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 454 8 

WARNING: ADEQUATE EYE PROTECTION AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MUST BE WORN WHEN HANDLING THE FOLLOWING 
SUBSTANCES: 

e Liquid ACETONE and Us accompanying vapour are HIGHLY FLAMMABLE. It should not be used near a 
naked flame or near electrical equipment. The working area must be well ventilated. No smoking. 
No static discharges. Avoid prolonged skin contact. 

If splashed in the eye, open eyelids fully, wash eye continuously with water for 10 minutes. 
Obtain medical advice without delay. 

e CAUSTIC SODA is CORROSIVE and will cause skin burns. Skin contact must be avoided at all times. 

If skin contact occurs rinse thoroughly with water immediately and continue for a few minutes. 
Then wash with soap and water and pat dry. Contaminated clothing must be quickly removed. 

If swallowed, take immediately to hospital. A cupful of water or milk may be given slowly if able 
to swallow. 

If splashed in the eye, open eyelids fully, wash eye continuously with water for 10 minutes. 

Obtain medical advice without delay. 

NOTE: When there is a hard carbon deposit which cannot be readily removed by using the tools, one of 
the following two solvents may be used. 

a) Acetone - Immerse the nozzle in acetone for up to half an hour which will normally be sufficient 
to soften the deposit. On removing the nozzle from the acetone It is important immediately to 
rinse it in clean test oil to prevent corrosion occurring on the highly finished surfaces. 

b) Caustic Soda - Dissolve 55g (2 oz) of caustic soda in 0,5 litre [1 pint) of water (11% 
concentration by weight), and add 15g (0,5 oz) of non-foaming detergent. Place the nozzle in 
the solution and boil for at least one hour but not for more than one and a half hours. 

CAUTION: A CONCENTRATION OF CAUSTIC SODA OF MORE THAN 15% MAY CAUSE ROUGHENING OF IMPORTANT SURFACES OF 
ItlLDS^Jt^ ^"^ "^"^"^^ ^^^^ ™ INJECTOR UNSERVICEABLE. TO PREVENT THIS OCCURRING. AS A RESULT OF 

^y?^n5;^r2^ ^°^ '^^'^^^ ^"^^^^ ^^ ^"^^^^ PERIODICALLY TO THE BOILING SOLUTION TO MAINTAIN, OR 
SLIGHTLY EXCEED, ITS ORIGINAL LEVEL. 

3. After treatment, remove the nozzle from the solution and wash it in running water to remove all 
traces of caustic soda. After washing, immerse the nozzle in a de-watering oil and remove the 
surplus by draining. 



October 1984 pOf^D TRANSIT 2.5 Di: SECTION ?.lr-.4n 



23 454 8 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



4. If 1t was necessary to use one of the 
solvents, 1t may still be necessary to remove 
particles of softened carbon lodging in 
recesses or corners with the appropriate tool, 

5. An additional aid to cleaning the nozzle 
interior is the injector testing machine and 
the self-contained nozzle 'muHl clean' machine 
(Special Tool No. HH-013). 

6. Using the 'Probelight' kit (Special Tool No. 
ANR-6) and the Nozzle Viewer (Special Tool No. 
HH-103), carefully examine the nozzle and 
needle seat. If the seats are ridged, pitted 
or discoloured due to overheating, a new 
nozzle assembly must be fitted. 

7. Check the spring for breakage or cracks in the 
wire. Inspect all the remaining parts for 
excessive wear and damage and replace with new 
parts as necessary. 

8. With the nozzle held at 45° from the vertical, 
lift the needle valve 7 mm (0,28 in) from its 
seat. Check that it is free to fall back to 
its seat, under Its own weight, when It Is wet 
with test oil. After having been pressed home 
by hand in any position, the needle must also 
be free to fall from its seat when the nozzle 
is Inverted and still inclined at the same 
angle from the vertical. 



® — -F 


rv 




^--<D 


TR84-21B-060 


; I 


1 
^ 


^-"^ 


^ ~ce) 

M 



Fig. 61. Nozzle viewer. 

A - Needle microscope 
B - Nozzle viewer 
C - Nozzle holder 
D - Light projector 
E - Needle holder 



To Reassemble 

NOTE: Rinse all the injector parts in clean test 
oil before reassembly. Do not dry the parts, 
all the parts must remain wet during 
reassembly. On no account must rag or 
absorbent paper be allowed to come into 
contact with the internal injector parts. 



9. Place the injector holder on the dismantling 
jig and place a pressure adjusting sh1m (see 
note below) In the spring recess in the holder 
followed by the spring. Place the spring 
seat, the spacer and the nozzle assembly in 
position (ensuring that the dowels engage 
correctly), screw on the retaining nut and 
tighten to the specified torque using the 
special socket (Special Tool No. CT-9009). 

NOTE: If Injector pressure shim Is replaced, the 
new shim must be of the original shim 
thickness. 



10. After assembly. If the Injector Is not 'to be 
tested and adjusted immediately, the union 
connectors and the nozzle must have dust caps 
fitted. 




Fig. 62, Dismantling jig. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 DISSECTION 23C-41 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 454 8 



Testing and Adjustment 

SPECIAL TOOLS REQUIRED: 

Testing Machine Bosch 240A or Hartridge HH 601 

WARNING : GREAT CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN WHEN TESTING 
INJECTORS TO ENSURE THAT THE ATOMISED SPRAY FROM 
THE NOZZLE DOES NOT COME IN CONTACT WITH HANDS OR 
ANY OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY. THE HIGH PRESSURES 
INVOLVED WITH THE ATOMISATION OF THE TEST OIL MAY 
CAUSE IT TO PENETRATE THE SKIN CAUSING POSSIBLE 
BLOOD POISONING. GOGGLES, GLOVES AND SUITABLE 
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SHOULD BE WORN DURING 
TESTING. 

NOTE: 

a) New or reconditioned Injectors that have 
previously been tested and adjusted and have 
subsequently been stored, must always be 
tested for opening pressure and spray 
condition, irrespective of their shelf Hfe, 
before fitting to an engine. 

b) The test machine must be maintained in line 
with the manufacturer's operating manual. 

c) Before testing injectors for opening pressure 
or back leak, close the pressure gauge 
isolating valve and then open it one quarter 
of a turn (90"). This will act as a damper 
and prevent the gauge needle from oscillating 
too violently thus obtaining a more accurate 
pressure reading. However, even with this 
dampening effect, it Is still difficult to 
make an accurate reading as to when the nozzle 
actually bursts. The best method is to 
depress the machine handle to build up 
pressure slowly, watch the gauge carefully and 
note the highest pressure on the gauge just 
before the Injector bursts. 

d) When flushing and settling the injector needle 
and spring or when testing the Injector spray 
condition and pattern, always close the 
pressure gauge isolating valve to: 

i) Protect and prolong the life of the 
gauge. 

11) Prevent the oscillating gauge affecting 
the spray pattern. 



e) If the Injector does not pass one or more of 
the following tests, it must be dismantled, 
checked, reassembled and retested. If the 
Injector fails one or more of the tests for a 
second time, it must be scrapped. 



Pressure Setting 

11. Remove the blanking cap, if fitted, from the 
injector high pressure union and the nozzle 
and place the Injector on the test machine 
mounting bracket. Connect the high pressure 
pipe and tighten the union nut securely. Open 
the test oil flow control valve on the machine 
one full turn. Switch on the spray chamber 
light and extractor fan. 




TR/23C/41 



Fig. 63. Bosch 240A nozzle tester. 




Fig. 64. Testing back leakage time. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-42 



23 454 8 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



12. Quickly operate the pump handle several times 
to flush the injector and to settle the sorinq 
and needle. ^ 

13. Pump the machine handle and slowly turn the 
test 01*1 flow control valve on the machine 
towards the closed position until the flow is 
just sufficient to produce a well atomised 
spray. 

14. Pump the machine handle and note the opening 
pressure registered on the gauge. If the 
injector is not opening at the specified 
pressure, remove the injector from the test 
machine. 

15. Dismantle the injector and change the pressure 
adjusting shim. A thicker shim will increase 
the opening pressure, a thinner shim will 
reduce the pressure. Reassemble the injector 
and retest. Repeat this procedure on a 'trial 
and error' basis until the nozzle opening 
pressure Is within the specified tolerance. 



Spray Pattern 

NOTE: The pumping rate on the test machine handle 
IS very important when testing spray pattern. 
The handle should be pumped at a rate of 1 to 
2 down strokes per second. 

16. Pump the machine handle and observe the spray 
from the Injector. For correct functioning it 
Is essential that the Injector 'chatters' 
throughout the entire period of spraying. 

17. The spray from the holes In the nozzle must be 
equal in shape, size and intensity. The spray 
must be free from 'hosing', streaks and 
'softness'. 



Back Leak Test 

18. Press down on the pumping handle slowly until 
the specified back leak test upper pressure is 
obtained. Take the hand off the pumping 
handle and start the timer while the gauge is 
still registering the upper pressure. Measure 
the time taken for the pressure to fall to the 
specified lower pressure. The time taken for 
this fall In pressure should be within the 
specified tolerance. 

NOTE: If the back leak time is greater than the 
specified value, this could indicate that the 
needle to nozzle clearance is too tight and 
the needle may seize if this nozzle assembly 
Is used In an engine, change for another 
nozzle assembly and retest. 

19. If the back leak Is less than the specified 
value, first check for external leaks, such as 
at the pipe union connection and the nozzle to 
holder sealing face, also check the nozzle 
retaining nut torque. Next carry out the 
nozzle seat leakage test. If this test proves 
negative, then the cause Is probably too much 
clearance between the needle and nozzle, 
change for another nozzle assembly and 
retest. 




Fig. 65. Nozzle pop test. 
A - Oil supply 
B - Pressure gauge 
C - Pump handle 
D - Injector 





G/1/3069/A 



Fig. 66. Spray pattern. 

A - Correct - hard spray no tracking 
B - Incorrect - soft spray 
C - Incorrect - tracking 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 DlT' SECTION 23C-43 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 454 8 



Nozzle Seat Leakage Test 

20. Ensure that the spray chamber extractor is 
switched off. 

21. Wipe the nozzle tip with absorbent paper or 
non-fluffy cloth to ensure that the nozzle is 
completely dry. Push down on the pump handle 
slowly to raise the pressure to 10 bar (10,2 
kg/crn^, 145 lb/in') below the specified 
nozzle opening pressure and continue to push 
down on the handle sufficient to maintain the 
pressure steady at this value for 6 seconds. 
After this time, nozzle dampness is 
permissible but if any droplet falls the 
injector has failed this particular test. 



NOTE: Failure in the test indicates poor sealing 
between the needle and nozzle seat. This 
could be caused by, foreign matter trapped on 
the seat, incorrect seat angles, non- 
concentric seats or damaged seat faces. 

22. Remove the Injector from the test machine. If 
the injector has passed all the tests 
satisfactorily and is not to be fitted to an 
engine Immediately, replace the dust caps on 
the high pressure union connection and on the 
nozzle. 



October 1984 POrD TRANSIT 2,5 Di : SECTION 23C-44 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 483 PIPES - INJECTOR DELIVERY - REMOVE AND 
INSTALL 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 



To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 
battery. 



2. Remove air cleaner assembly as described in 

Operation No. 23 174. 



3. Remove anti-vibraticn clamps from injector 
pipes. 



4. Remove injector pipes from injectors and 
injection pump, fit blanking plugs to both 
injectors and injection pump to prevent dirty 
entry. 



5. Fit blanking- plugs to injector pipes and 
remove pipes from engine, carefully feeding 
through inlet manifold. 



NOTE: DO NOT bend or reshape injector pipes 
otherwise damage will result. 




Fig. 67. Remove injector pipe anti-vibration 
clamps. 




To Install 

6. Guide injector pipes between inlet manifold 
and cylinder head. Remove blanking plugs from Fig. 68. Refit injector pipes to injection pump. 
injectors, injection pump and injection high A - No.l cylinder injector pipe 
pressure pipes. B - No. 2 cylinder injector pipe 

C - No. 3 cylinder injector pipe 
D - No. 4 cylinder injector pipe 

7. Refit injector pipes to injectors and 
injection pump. Care must be taken not to 
apply any strain on pipes when securing. 



NOTE: Hand tighten both ends before fully 
tightening to correct torque. 



8. Refit anti-vibration clamps to injector 
pipes. 



NOTE: Failure to fit anti-vibration clamps will 
result in injector pipe fatigue. 



9. Refit air cleaner assembly as described in 
Operation No. 23 174. 



10. Reconnect battery, remove fender covers and 
close hood. 




Fig. 69. Reconnect air cleaner assembly. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di": SECTION 23C-45 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 534 FUEL PUMP - REMOVE AN D INSTALL 
SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 



NOTE: Fuel pump (hand primer) is only fitted to 
vehicles equipped with a CAV fuel system. 



To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 
battery. 



2. Place a protective cover over starter motor 
assembly. Disconnect injection pump supply 
pipe from fuel pump. 



3. Remove banjo bolt and two sealing washers from 
fuel filter/fuel pump housing. 




Fig. 70. Remove banjo bolt and sealing washers. 



4. Lift out fuel pump assembly. 



To Install 



NOTE: Inspect all rubber sealing ferrule on high 
and low pressure pipes and replace as 
necessary. 

5. Locate fuel pump assembly to fuel filter, set 
vertical and secure with banjo bolt and new 
sealing washers. 



6. Reconnect injection pump supply pipe to fuel 
pump. 



7. Remove protective cover from starter motor. 




Fig. 71.- Locate fuel pump assembly to fuel filter 
and prime pump by depressing plunger. 



8. Reconnect battery, remove fender covers and 
close hood. 



23 545 FUEL FILTER - REMOVE AND INSTALL 
SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 



To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 
battery. 



2. Place a protective tray over starter motor 
assembly. 




Fig. 72. Disconnect fuel supply pipes from fuel 
filter and lift pump. 
A - Sealing rubber ferrule 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 D1: SECTION 23C-46 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 545 



3. Disconnect fuel supply and outlet pipes from 
fuel filter (fuel pump) assembly. 

4. Remove fuel pump if fitted. 

5. Remove filter assembly mounting bolts, lift 
out fuel filter assembly. 

6. Drain unit. Refer to Section 05 - Health and 
Safety Precautions of this Manual for fuel 
safety. 



To Install 



NOTE: Inspect all rubber sealing olives on low 
pressure pipes, replace as necessary. 

7. Refit fuel filter assembly and secure to 
inlet manifold. 

8. Refit fuel pump to filter (if fitted). 

9. Reconnect fuel filter inlet pipe and injection 
pump supply pipe. 

10. Remove protective cover from starter motor 
assembly. 

11. Reconnect battery and start engine. Run 
engine until fuel system purges Itself of 
air. 



NOTE: On engines fitted with a CAV fuel system, 
the fuel system should be primed using the' 
fuel hand primer pump before attempting to 
start the engine. 

Remove fender covers and close hood. 



23 546 ELEMENT - FUEL FILTER - REPLACE 




Fig. 73. Fuel filter to manifold securing bolts. 




Fig. 74. Slacken fuel filter band clamp securing 
wing nut fully before removing filter 
element. 



SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 



To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers and disconnect 
battery . 

2. Place a protective cover over starter motor. 

3. Slacken off fully fuel filter element 
retaining clamp wing nut. 

4. Carefully pull fuel filter element sideways 
and down towards starter motor In order to 
remove from filter body. 

5. Drain fuel from filter into suitable 
container. Refer to Section 05 - Health and 
Safety Precautions of this Manual for the 
disposal of the waste fuel. 




Fig. 75. Carefully pull down fuel filter. Care 
must be taken not to spill fuel over 
starter motor. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-47 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 546 



To Ilistall 

6. Insert new fuel filter element Into filter 
body, push element up until it dips into 
position. 

7. Tighten filter element retaining clamp wing 
nut fully (by hand). 

8. Pull down on element to ensure it is correctly 
locked in position. 

9. Remove protective cover from starter motor 
assembly. 



10. Reconnect battery and start engine. Run 
engine until fuel system purges itself of 
air. 




Flg.76, Priming fuel filter using primer pump 
assembly (CAV fuel system only). 



NOTE: For engines equipped with a CAV fuel system 
the fuel filter system should be primed using 
the fuel hand primer pump before attemtping to 
start the engine. 

11. Remove fender covers and close hood. 



23 548 FUEL RESERVOIR - REMOVE AND INSTALL 
SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 



To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers, disconnect 
battery. 



2. Place suitable drain tray below reservoir. 



3. Disconnect breather pipe. 



4. Disconnect fuel supply and outlet pipes, 



5. Remove two bolts and detach reservoir. 



To Install 



6. Locate reservoir in position and secure. 



7. Reconnect fuel supply and outlet pipes to 
reservoir. 



8. Reconnect breather pipe. 




Fig. 77. Cold start reservoir. 



Reconnect battery, remove fender covers and 
close hood. 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di: SECTION 23r.-48 



°JI'"- ^^^^CTIO, srSTEM 




SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: 
To Remove 
I. Open^hood. m fender 



the fue, P^^Tflt^t^Xltiroon^llZ:'"' 



'■ "-?.o:^2rfr:.ir^:^,?^„--,ed .„ 



1 IR/23C/64 

"'■''■ e°;iSr* ^-^^^Pe fro™ heater 



4. Disconnect the elertrirai ^ 

'■met .an,-foId f,Tf]l^ IZl'r'lZZ^ ''' 



'■ llnrfZ:''' "^"" "-*- ^^»ent fr™ ,-„,et 



Io_Instan_ 




^■^■g-79. Remove fast fl 



manffoTd "" ^^""^"* f^^°^ ^"nlet 



7. Reconnect fuel supply pfpe to heater 



element. 



8. Reconnect electrical connectfon to heater 



'■ Ope"at,t' 23'l7T '"^^^^ '^ ''"crtbed In 



"• c^o^rd"^"^-^' -«- ^-''er 



covers and 




Fnpn TDflitt'T-r rt ,- - . 



D I E 



SE L INJECTION SYSTEM 




jTm CABLE - ACCELERATOR - RiiwlSlNSTALL 

(includes: adjust) 

SPECIAL SERVICE TOOLS REQUIRED: NONE 

To Remove 

1. Open hood, fit fender covers, disconnect 
battery. 

2. From inside vehicle, disconnect accelerator 
cable from pedal shaft. 

^ Frnm under hood disconnect outer cable 
'• crplete with retaining 9r«t fro. bulkhead 
outer cable support bracket, ^^^ing 
screwdriver, prise grommet out of bulkhead 
bracket. 

4. Remove outer cable grommet and discard the 
grommet (a new grommet must be used if cable 
is to be refitted). Unclip cable from top 
edge of radiator. 

5 Using a spare cable bracket (Part Number 
72GB9677UA) make up a special^ tool for 
disconnecting cable from eng-'"%^^f ^f ,3 
described in Section 23A, Operation No. 23 

826. 

6 Disconnect Inner cable from Injection pump 
throttle lever. 

7 Pull nut steel clip and use special tool to 

'• relove adjufter fr» engine bracket and detach 
cable assembly. 

NOTE- On LHD vehicles it is necessary to remove 
plastic tie clip from radiator top hose. 

To Install 

8. Position cable through engine b^^ckei: and 
reconnect inner cable to injection pump 
throttle lever. 

9 Push outer cable adjuster into engine bracket 
and ensure steel clip is pushed fully home, 

in ^llde retaining grommet into bulkhead outer 
^ caile suppirl brlcket. Slide cable through 

grommefand bracket and push cable until it 

clicks into position. 

11. From inside vehicle reconnect inner cable to 
throttle pedal. 

12. Reclip throttle cable to top edge of radiator 
or secure to top hose (LHD). 

13 With the assistance of a second technician, 
hild throttle pedal fully down until it stops 
on the support bracket, then adjust cable 
until full throttle is obtained on the 
injection pump lever. 

U, Release throttle pedal and check that 
injection pump lever returns to its idle 
position. 

15. Reconnect battery, remove fender covers and 
close hood. 




Flg.80. Disconnect throttle cable from bulkhead 
bracket. 
A - Grommet 
B - Insert screwdriver 




Fiq 81. Accelerator cable remover tool. 
A - 25 nrn (1,0 in) 
B - 4 dot holes 




Fig. 82. Adjust throttle cable tension. 
A - Adjuster 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 01: SECTION 23C-50 



Ill''' '^'J^CTIO, SrsTEH 




1. Open^hood, nt fence, cove.s. disconnect 

'■ Z^TtlolVo'.lrur^'^' - •'^^-•'ed ,-n 
3- Drain coolant, refer to Section 24. 

'• Sr^st^al h^°3r^«*^* -™"-"3 "oHs fro™ 

'■ cabM^?.o:ractJ^ \^f?rL7 ™t= -^ re^o^e 
cable assembly *^* ""^ ^''st" and 

'■ cte i::„^nf--°Mnner cable fro™ 
cable assembly. ' ^^^* °"t waxstat and 

Iojnstal_l_ 

'■ h™sf„rr„Itcte"'''* "«^*^* *° ^^ermostat 

'■"Uadv;^^^^^.-*-' cable to the 

9. Reconnect the outer cablp tn k , 

nut either side. *° ^^^'^'^^t with one 

10. Adjust cable as described below: 

^^^^-^^^^^^iH2» (engine temp, below 36«c 97"F) 

' n^'pple%:ih?Jo[rL;;^;%-"trol cable 
the end adTuturitl/u'^'T^ ^^^^^- FTt 
^ocknuts either sfde ''^^^ ""'^^ ^^' M6 

identified bv the i»S ■ * ^"'' "" be 

outer body o^ thl v^altl"' vL'\"°''' °" 'he 
this type of waxstat thf ^"'^icles with 
to be pfiied ZlrZ t e earo?1h' "'" "''" 
adjust]:; *^"--°" '"^ -ne?cXf:,-3'- 

' &t a\':i„°:t*T,r?Lv"^-*'-^"- o*"- 

adJust.en?"rac\:M"g v^J'T/™" 
between the inner raMa^J ? ^ "im.gap 

end. Tighten ?ocknut!' "''"^^ ^"' ^^j""^te 

® Check that a gap of ? tn ^ ™. 
the inner cable ferrule Jri^^-'\'^' ^^*^^e" 
that the cold idle leve, ?s h.rd'^''^ '"^ 
cold stop. ^^ "3"^^ against the 

NOTE: At engine temperatures ARnVF ?fiV -.. 

inner cable pulled hard frZ.l L^ ^''^^ the 

the cold Idle/advance ?ever^hn ,^5\^^J^ster 

against the cold ooeratinn ?°"^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

2 to 3 mm between inneJ?abl.°?' ^\*^ ^ 9^P °^ 
adjuster end. "''^^ ferrule and 



"''■''■ ^st^Zs^^'^-^^-^^^ro. 




F19.84. Reconnect cable to cold start advance 




fi"g-85. Adjust until a 2 tn ^ mm 

ferrule and end'of*°eabr IVsllT" 




FOPn TDrtMPT- 



w<^^ 



BiESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



23 828 

BoschlnjectiorLP^ (engine temp, below se'C 

grrrf 



Fit the waxstat fast idle cable adjuster 
nto pump bracket the inner nut having been 
screwed onto the adjuster as far as 
possible! and the outer nut finger tight 
against the bracket. 

, Feed inner cable through the fuel injection 
pump spring loaded fast idle sleeve to 
adjust the cable. 

a Rotate the fuel injection pump throttle 
" lever forward into the open position and 
temporarily return in this position. 

« P,i<;h the spring loaded fast idle sleeve 
fully home against the fast idle stop, and 
tighte the cable clamping screw (exposed 
inner cable should be kept as straight as 
possible during this operation). 

e Unscrew outer adjusting nut and tighten 
inneMocknut against the bracket until a 2 
to 3 mm gap exists between inner cable 
ferruTe and adjuster end is obtained. 

Tighten locknuts against bracket. 



Release throttle lever. 

Check that a 2 to 3 mm gap exists between 
the inner cable ferrule and adjuster end 
when tHe fast idle sleeve is hard against 
the fast idle stop. 




Fig.B6. Reconnect cable to the spring loaded fast 
idle sleeve. 




leeve fully home against 



Fia 87 Push fast idle sleeve tuny num^ ay 
^'^' itfstop in the fast idle position. 



11. Refill coolant to correct level. 

12. Refit air cleaner assembly as described in 
Operation 23 174. 

13. Reconnect battery, remove fender covers and 
close hood. 




Fiq 88. Pull outer cable towards rear 0^/^31 ne. 
^ A - 2 to 3 mm gap between the end of 

cable adjuster and ferrule must exist. 



FORD TRANSIT 2,5 Di: SECTION 23C-52 



DIESEL INJECTIOW SYSTEM 



TECHNICAL DATA 



GENERAL 

Injection Pump Timing 

Timing Belt Tension ,. 

Engine Idle Speed 

Engine Maximum Full Load Speed 

Engine Maximum No Load Speed 

Fuel Tank Capacity .. 

Injector burst pressure settings 

Back Leak Time: 



Bosch - Pressure Fall 
240 to 190 Bar 



CAV - Pressure Fall 
172 to 142 Bar 



Ambient Temperature/Back Leak Time Correction chart 



Ambient 
Temp. 



'C 
10 
16 
21 
27 
32 



°F 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



Corrected Time 
in Seconds 



7 to 34,5 
6 to 30 

5,5 to 27 
5 to 24 

4,5 to 21 



Nominal 



11° before top dead centre 
220 - 345 N (50 - 78 Ibf) 
800 - 850 RPM 

4000 RPM 

4320 - 4480 RPM 

68 litres (15 Imp. galls.) 

CAV 260 atmospheres 
Bosch 250 atmospheres 



5 to 40 seconds 



5 to 40 seconds 



October 1984 



FORD TRANSIT 2.5 Di : SECTION 23C-53 



DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM 



TECHNICAL DATA 



Tightening Torques 

(Clean threads slightly oiled) 

Alternator: 

Adjusting strap MS .. .. .. .. 12 

Support bracket M8 18 

Crankshaft: 

Pulley centre bolt .. .. .. .. 312 

Flywheel to crankshaft 59 

Fuel filter to inlet manifold 15 

Hand primer banjo bolt 26 

Leak-off pipe connections 

Side fitting 6 

Pump top fitting 15 

Low pressure fuel pipe unions (rubber olive 

type) .. .. 9 

Injection pump: 

Pump to mounting plate 21 

Mounting plate to front housing .. .. 24 

Rear support bracket bDlts .. ., .. 21 

Pulley bolts 22 

C.A.V. stop solenoid .. .. .. .. 15 

Bosch stop solenoid 20 

Bosch advance expansion element .. ,. ,. 15 

Bosch advance unit banjo bolts (M6) .. .. 8 

Injectors 

Injector clamp nuts .. .. .. .. 12 

Feed pipe nuts .. ., .. .. .. 18 

Feed pipe clamps .. 7 

Manifolds 

Exhaust to head .. .. .. .. 40 

Inlet to head 20 

Oil Pump: 

Pump to front housing 17 

Cover to front housing 20 

Rocker cover 1st stage 

Tighten screws In sequence .. .. .. 6 

2nd stage 6 

IMMEDIATELY retorque In same sequence 

Rocker shaft: 

Locating bolts - M6 8 

Pedestal bolts - M8 26 

- MIO 63 

Timing belt: 

Cover to front housing 5 

Tensloner plate .. .. .. .. .. 20 

Idler pulley centre bolt 51 

Vacuum Pump: 

Pump to front housing 31 

Pump pulley nut .. .. ,. .. .. 70 

Water Pump: 

Pump to front housing - M8 .. .. 11 

- MIO .. ..40 

Pulley bolts 7 



Nm 

to 15 
to 23 



to 345 
to 67 
to 21 
to 34 



to 8 
to 21 



to 11 



to 26 
to 30 
to 26 
to 27 

to 20 
to 25 
to 20 
to 12 



to 15 
to 20 
to 9 



to 50 
to 25 



to 21 
to 25 



to 8 
to 8 



to 11 
to 32 

to 70 



to 9 
to 25 
to 64 



to 39 

to 90 



to 15 
to 51 

to 10 



31 
6 
1 
2 



kgm 

2 to 1,5 
8 to 2,3 

8 to 35,3 
to 6, 



5 to 2 

6 to 3 



6 to 
5 to 2 



9 to 1 



1 to 2 

4 to 3 

1 to 2 

2 to 2 

5 to 2 
to 2 
5 to 2 
8 to 1 



2 to 1 
8 to 2 

7 to 



5 to 5 
to 2 



7 to 2 
to 2 



6 to 
6 to 



8 to 1 

6 to 3 
4 to 7 



5 to 
to 2 
2 to 6 



2 to 4 
1 to 9 



1 to 1 
1 to 5 



0,7 to 1,0 



Ibf.ft 

9 to 11 
13 to 17 



230 to 256 
44 to 49 
11 to 15 
19 to 25 



4 to 6 
11 to 15 



7 to 8 



15 to 19 
18 to 22 

15 to 19 

16 to 20 

11 to 15 

15 to 18 

11 to 15 

4 to 9 



9 to 11 

13 to 15 

5 to 7 



32 to 37 
15 to 18 



12 to 15 
15 to 18 



4 to 6 
4 to 6 



6 to 8 
19 to 24 
46 to 51 



4 to 7 
15 to 18 
38 to 47 



23 to 29 
52 to 66 



8 to 11 
30 to 38 

5 to 7 



October 1984 



Ffipn TOflM<;TT 9 ^ nn- <;rrTTnM q-^c^c^a